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A case study of children participating in a perceptual-motor program Lendvoy, Harry F. 1970

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A CASE STUDY OF CHILDREN PARTICIPATING IN A PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR PROGRAM by HARRY F. LENDVOY B.P.E., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of Physical Education and Recreation We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1970 In presenting t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Physical Education and Recreation The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada D a t e flncm-Ht^ 1070 ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was to provide a description of the physical performance of a group of slow learning children who participated i n a perceptual-motor program and to observe the effects of sp e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n motor s k i l l s on the vi s u a l perception and motor capacity of each c h i l d . Eight subjects, ranging i n age from s i x to nine years, were selected to par t i c i p a t e i n the study. Each subject was1 referred to the program because of a diagnosis of retarded perceptual-motor development. The subjects were given pre-training standardized tests i n General Motor Capacity and Visual Perception. They then received approximately f i f t y minutes of d a i l y i n s t r u c t i o n i n motor s k i l l s f o r a t o t a l of s i x t y - f i v e days. At the conclusion of the spe c i a l t r a i n i n g period, the subjects were once again tested i n general motor capacity and v i s u a l perception. The scores on the i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s ts in motor capacity and perceptual a b i l i t y were compared and the differences were recorded. A case study was conducted on each subject i n order to obtain as much information as possible on each i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i n g in the program. Information was obtained from medical and school records, psychologist and teacher reports, and the detailed observations of the investigator. The results indicated that d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d i f f e r -e n t i a t i o n , balance and coordination appeared to be character-i s t i c of the c h i l d having inadequate perceptual-motor development. A comparison of pre- and post-training test r e s u l t s showed that an improvement i n motor capacity and v i s u a l perception occurred i n a l l the subjects. Marked improvements were also observed i n the children's behavior and a t t i t u d e . From the findings of t h i s study i t appears that a s p e c i a l motor t r a i n i n g program i s a major contributor to the o v e r a l l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the perceptually-motor handicapped c h i l d . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my appreciation to my advisor, Dr. H. D'. Whittle, f o r his guidance, counsel, and a s s i s t -ance i n preparing t h i s report. I am grateful to Dr. D. Kendall, Dr. R. Marteniuk, and Miss A. T i l l e y f o r serving as members of my Advisory Committee. Mrs. E. Sharpe, the spe c i a l education i n s t r u c t o r of S i r Richard McBride Elementary School deserves s p e c i a l thanks f o r her patience and i n t e r e s t . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE; I . STATEMENT: OF THE PROBLEM 1 I I " . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 5 P e r c e p t u a l Development 5 The F r o s t i g Developmental Test o f V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n 11 . Motor Development 1.2 The C a r p e n t e r G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y T e s t . 21 I I I . METHODS AND PROCEDURES 23; The C a r p e n t e r G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y Test . 25 The Motor Q u o t i e n t (M.Q.) 26 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e C a r p e n t e r G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y T e s t 26 Case Study R e p o r t s 28" K e p h a r t ' s O b s e r v a t i o n s o f B a s i c Motor Movements 29 I V . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3)2 R e s u l t s o f F r o s t i g and C a r p e n t e r T e s t s .... J>2 Case Study R e p o r t s 36 Douglas B: 36 Kenneth C 39 Lynne F 42 N e i l H 45 James J1 4$ S t u a r t M 51 Deborah W 56 CHAPTER PAGE Randy I 60) D i s c u s s i o n 64 V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 71 Summary 71 C o n c l u s i o n s 72 BIBLIOGRAPHY 74 APPENDIX A. Motor Tasks and Equipment Used t o • D e t e c t and R e c t i f y P e r c e p t u a l -Motor Problems SO Sample o f a Lesson P l a n Used i n t h e Motor A b i l i t y S k i l l s T r a i n i n g Program 83 APPENDIX B. G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y T e s t Scores £4 F r o s t i g V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n Test Scores .. 92 TABLES I . D i f f e r e n c e s Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l P e r c e p t u a l Q u o t i e n t S c o r e s ... 33 2. D i f f e r e n c e s Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Motor Q u o t i e n t S c o r e s 34 3. I n i t i a l and F i n a l F r o s t i g S u b t e s t Age E q u i v a l e n t s (Year-Month) 35 CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM During the past decade a great deal of concern has been shown about children, who, f o r a variety of reasons, are unable to function e f f i c i e n t l y i n the mainstream of education and require a special program to meet t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r needs. Psychologists, physicians, and educators have i d e n t i f i e d one of the major problem areas as d e f i c i e n t perceptual-motor development. Inadequate v i s u a l perception and motor a b i l i t y have been shown to be two i n t e r r e l a t e d factors which make learning very d i f f i c u l t i f not impossible (49)'. Programs to aid the perceptual-motor handicapped c h i l d must consider the complex perceptual-motor responses which occur concom-i t a n t l y i n the c h i l d . "Inadequate motor responses may be obstructing perceptual learning, and perceptual t r a i n i n g may be d i f f i c u l t or impossible i n the face of such motor inadequacy" (49:III)• The perceptual-motor process includes both input (sensory or perceptual a c t i v i t i e s ) : and output (motor or muscular a c t i v i t i e s ) . "A d i v i s i o n of the two i s impossible, fo r anything that happens to one area automatically affects the other. Any t o t a l a c t i v i t y includes input, integration, 2 output, and feedback" (49:136). Many children of average or near average i n t e l l i g e n c e are handicapped i n t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l , emotional, and physical development because of inadequate perceptual-motor development. Children having a perceptual-motor disturbance have a gross tendency to interpret s t i m u l i i n c o r r e c t l y and to perform physical a c t i v i t i e s i n an i n e f f i c i e n t manner. The causes of inadequate perceptual-motor development can be c l a s s i f i e d as genetic, trauma, or lack of environmental opportunity. It has been estimated that inadequate perceptual-motor learning experiences accounts f o r sixty per cent of perceptual-motor problems (23). Leaders i n the perceptual-motor area such as Kephart (4#) and F r o s t i g (.32)? indicate that many children enter our school systems lacking necessary perceptual-motor development. F r o s t i g (32) estimates that approximately ten to f i f t e e n per cent of a l l children display learning d i f f i c u l t i e s of some kind, without showing a lack of i n t e l l i g e n c e . Both Kephart (4#) and F r o s t i g (32) maintain that the most frequent cause of these learning d i f f i c u l t i e s , and perhaps the lea s t recognized, i s a disturbance of the child's v i s u a l perception. Without adequate perception the c h i l d i s isola t e d from his environment. Accompanying a disturbance i n perceptual development as a major cause of learning d i f f i c u l t y , i s inadequate motor coordination. Children who exhibit learning problems i n the lower grades may often have retarded motor development. 3 Kephart and Radler (61) have based t h e i r remedial and school readiness programs upon the development of motor coordination and eye movements. Without adequate motor coordination, a c h i l d i s handicapped not only on the playground but may also be retarded i n a l l his learning. Getman (37) indicates that the foundation of every i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y of the human being i s the attainment of motor control and coordination. Numerous studies have indicated that perceptual-motor d i f f i c u l t i e s are related to problems of school achievement (54)* (68)) (72). The educational implications of perceptual-motor t r a i n i n g imply that the c h i l d often l a b e l l e d as the slow learner, immature, or emotionally disturbed, may be returned to a normal class s i t u a t i o n a f t e r he has attained adequate perceptual-motor development. In t h e i r remedial programs, Kephart (48") and F r o s t i g (32) stress the importance of "gross motor bases" i n the development of the c h i l d . It i s believed that the young c h i l d proceeds along a d e f i n i t e sequence of perceptual-motor learning, and that a l l subsequent learning i s b u i l t on these early experiences. The purpose of t h i s study was to observe the ef f e c t s of s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n motor s k i l l s on the v i s u a l perception and motor a b i l i t y of young children. It was anticipated that a f t e r having participated i n the program the subjects would be able to return to a normal class s i t u a t i o n . A case study approach was adopted so as to provide a detailed 4 account of each subject. Information on the subjects was obtained from school and medical records, teachers' and parents' comments, and the investigator's observations. The case study findings are subject to possible l i m i t a t i o n s . Certain factors which l i m i t the interpretation of the r e s u l t s are: 1. absence of a control group, 2. possible e f f e c t of extraneous influences such as home environment and special motivation, and 3. no control for the Hawthorne e f f e c t . CHAPTER II REVIEW.OF THE LITERATURE Perceptual Development A l l learning may be considered as the adjustment of responses to st i m u l i or to stimulus s i t u a t i o n s . However, before one can make the appropriate response, he must perceive (recognize) the stimulus. Even though these recognitions may be subliminal at times, there must be f a m i l i a r i t y with the stimulus i n order f o r an appropriate response to be made. This recognition of stimulus or stimulus situations i s ca l l e d "perception". Motor learning has often been referred to as perceptual-motor learning because before an in d i v i d u a l can respond appropriately he must recognize the s t i m u l i . The recognition as well as the adaptive action has to be learned. Lawther (52:42) ' indicates that the recognition of the "stimulus pattern" constitutes a great part of our learning, and seems to increase i n importance as we progress up the h i e r a r c h i a l scale of learning complexity and maturity: "Early i n childhood we learned to recognize sensations of s l i g h t loss of balance and to respond appropriately. Perceptions, onee learned, are automatic responses to s p e c i f i c types of s t i m u l i . They are the synthesis of the incoming st i m u l i and the associated experiential 6 background already programmed into one's nervous system. The response may be merely a f e e l i n g of f a m i l i a r i t y , our awareness of meaning, or even a subliminal but completely adapted motor response." Perception has primarily been investigated as a sense-orientated phenomenon with studies divided into compartments c a l l e d v i s u a l perception, auditory perception, t a c t u a l perception and so on (,52). However, most emphasis has been placed on the investigation of v i s u a l perception. F r o s t i g ( 3 3 : 4 6 3 ) indicates that disturbances i n v i s u a l perception were by f a r the most frequent symptoms observed i n children who were referred to the Marianne F r o s t i g School of Educational Therapy. Barsch ( 6 : 1 6 9 ) supports Frostig's findings on the high incidence of retarded v i s u a l perception among children and stresses that researchers often misinterpret perceptual disturbances: "Much of the l i t e r a t u r e on "perceptual disturbances" has resulted from the study of single performances or even a series of performances r e s u l t i n g i n a conclusion that the i n d i v i d u a l subject suffered from a generalized perceptual i n e f f i c i e n c y . Unfortunately t h i s type of investigation has led to wholesale generalizations about the i n d i v i d u a l ' s perception. Failures i n v i s u a l perception i n no way permit a generalization about the t o t a l i t y of an individual's perceptual e f f i c i e n c y . S i m i l a r l y , f a i l u r e s on any given perceptual task do not warrant summary conclusions about his t o t a l performance." The e f f e c t of a perceptual disturbance upon the t o t a l i t y of performances i n an individual's d a i l y experience has not yet been detailed. What i s usually meant by the term "perceptual disturbance" i s the gross tendency of the performer to perceive i n ways other than those appropriate. 7 The perceptually handicapped i n d i v i d u a l d i s t o r t s what he sees and acts i n accord with t h i s mis-interpretation. Gibson and Olum (6:346)! reviewed experimental studies and methods of studying perception i n children. They suggested that the description of perceptual development i n children has not received the same careful attention as the area of v i s i o n or motor patterns. They stated that most perceptual t h e o r i s t s have concentrated on adult populations, occasionally applying the same techniques to the study of children i n an attempt to give some developmental perspective to t h e i r theories. Gibson and Olum (3&) i d e n t i f y Piaget as one of the few investigators who has provided landmarks to guide researchers in b u i l d i n g an integrated picture of perception. Piaget (60) described three types of s p a t i a l stages which occur f o r the c h i l d . During the f i r s t two years of l i f e , usually defined as the sensory-motor period, events occur i n space which have r e l a t i v e l y minor perceptual value to the inf a n t . They serve the primary purpose of stimulating the child' s touch, kinesthesia, v i s i o n , audition, smell, and taste. In the i n i t i a l stage which Piaget terms " p r a c t i c a l space", there i s a one-to-one r e l a t i o n s h i p to objects. One object i s associated with one look, one sound, one touch, and one e f f o r t . Any object out of reach i s s p a t i a l l y "gone". This i s followed by searching, groping e f f o r t s to "follow" an object out of reach with hands i n i t i a l l y undirected 8" by eyes but eventually coming under v i s u a l c o n t r o l . This second stage i s a t r a i l - a n d - e r r o r or "empirical space" i n which any form of hiding s t i l l causes the object to disappear ' from the infant's space world. The c u r i o s i t y here gradually brings the infant to the "container period" of putting i n and taking out. By the end of the f i r s t two years, he has acquired the primitive fundamentals of the "objective" world of space and i s beginning to understand the s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s of up, down, i n , out, and i n front of. Barsch (6:141) relates Piaget fs observations of perceptual development to the perceptually impaired c h i l d . This child's r e l a t i o n s h i p to space i s unorganized and defined only i n terms of "action". He i s i n " p r a c t i c a l space" - engaged i n meaningless action whether he i s two years of age or twelve. The perceptually handicapped c h i l d remains i n " p r a c t i c a l space" where objects are present only to s a t i s f y a c t i v i t y . The objects bear no r e l a t i o n s h i p to one another. Each i s there only f o r the c h i l d to act upon, without concern f o r the inter-relatedness which e x i s t s . Ayres (s:742) states that increasing the handicapped ch i l d ' s v i s u a l perception i s the basis f o r his r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . "In order to respond to the environment purposefully and motor plan e f f e c t i v e l y i n r e l a t i o n to i t , one must f i r s t be able to interpret i t . " After having gathered information on numerous studies concerned with the implications of v i s u a l perception to the 9 adaptive program, Smith (69 :30) referred to the h i s t o r i c a l background of perception and indicated how previous theories have been incorporated into many of the p r i n c i p l e s of devel-opmental programs: "The foregoing outline of a few selected and pertinent psychological theories about perception and i t s i n t e r -relationships with sensorimotor exje rience serves to i l l u s t r a t e that the t h e o r e t i c a l constructs which have: acted as a basis f o r the motor programs currently being employed i n a l l e v i a t i n g learning d i s a b i l i t i e s are not e n t i r e l y new. Rather these theories make use of several philosophical positions." Numerous investigators have conducted programs which prepared the c h i l d f o r l a t e r , more highly complex learning, by providing the perceptual and motor development which i s a necessary prerequisite f o r future learning (4&)1 (32) (23 ) ( 7 1 K It has been indicated by these researchers that through t r a i n i n g i n perceptual-motor development, many of our slow learners w i l l be able to achieve greater success i n t h e i r school experiences. Research has shown that the "figure-ground" component of v i s u a l perception i s the area i n which sp e c i a l attention usually must be given i n remedial programs. Cratty (17 :95) states that "one of the central factors which influences perception relates to the manner i n which we select central objects from t h e i r background and our r e l a t i v e dependency upon the central f i g u r e , or i t s surroundings when making perceptual judgments". Differences i n figure-ground perception were found between three groups of children seven to ten years of age 10 i n a study conducted by Werner and Strauss (76)). These three groups were: normally, i n t e l l i g e n t , endogenously retarded, and exogenously retarded. The exogenously retarded group) was markedly more ground-orientated than both the other groups. Studies by F r o s t i g and Home (.32) have i d e n t i f i e d inadequate figure-ground perception to be the most frequent perceptual disturbance among children. By showing that v i s u a l perception was composed of not one, but several a b i l i t i e s , they pointed out that a c h i l d may have disturbances of v i s u a l perception but possess excellent figure-ground d i s c r i -mination. Conversely, he may be severely handicapped by poor figure-ground discrimination but perform well i n other areas of v i s u a l perception. In a recent study, Gallahue (34) randomly selected eighty kindergarten children ranging i n age from f i v e years, f i v e months, to s i x years, f i v e months, and administered the Figure-Ground subtest of the F r o s t i g Test and a gross motor task which involved walking i n a l a t e r a l d i r e c t i o n between the rungs of a ladder placed i n a horizontal position over a f l o o r pattern. The r e s u l t s indicated that as the f i g u r e blends more with the background, and as the figure and ground patterns become more d i s t r a c t i n g , adequate performance of the locomotor movement task diminishes. Gallahue (34:952)) concludes that "figure-ground, perceptual a b i l i t y i s an important aspect of a kindergarten child's 11 a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m a g r o s s motor t a s k a c c u r a t e l y " . The F r o s t i g D evelopmental T e s t o f V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n S e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s have s t a t e d t h a t t h e F r o s t i g D e velopmental T e s t o f V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n i s t h e most a c c u r a t e measure o f a c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t u a l development ( 2 4 ) ( 3 3 ). The purpose o f the t e s t , as d e s c r i b e d by F r o s t i g ( 3 3 ) , i s t o d e t e c t t h o s e c h i l d r e n whose p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t i e s are r e t a r d e d i n comparison w i t h t h e norm. The f i v e s u b t e s t s o f t h i s b a t t e r y were d e s i g n e d t o e v a l u a t e f i v e r e l a t i v e l y independent ar e a s o f development. These a r e a s a r e d e s c r i b e d by F r o s t i g a s : (a) eye-motor c o o r d i n a t i o n t o i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n who have d i f f i c u l t y w r i t i n g ; (b) ; f i g u r e - g r o u n d p e r c e p t i o n t o i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n who have d i f f i c u l t y i n i d e n t i f y i n g words; ( c ) form c o n s t a n c y t o i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n who are u n a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e a l e t t e r o r word when i t i s w r i t t e n i n d i f f e r e n t s i z e s o r c o l o u r s ; (d)) p o s i t i o n i n space t o i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n who r e v e r s e o r r o t a t e l e t t e r s o r words i n " m i r r o r w r i t i n g " ; (e) s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n who i n t e r c h a n g e t h e o r d e r o f l e t t e r s i n a word. D e f i c i e n c i e s i n one o r more a r e a s of v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n d u r i n g t h e p r i m a r y grades can make l e a r n i n g a v e r y d i f f i c u l t , i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e t a s k . The .441 c o r r e l a t i o n f o u n d between t e a c h e r r a t i n g s o f c l a s s r o o m adjustment and s c o r e s on t h e F r o s t i g Test s u g g e s t s t h e c o r r e c t n e s s o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t d i s t u r b a n c e s i n v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n d u r i n g t h e e a r l y s c h o o l 12 years are l i k e l y t o be r e f l e c t e d i n d i s t u r b a n c e s i n classroom behavior ( 3 3 : 4 9 2 ) . The c u r r e n t ( t h i r d ) : e d i t i o n of the F r o s t i g Test ( 3 3 : 4 9 3 ) was s t a n d a r d i z e d on more than 2,100 c h i l d r e n . The t e s t -r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y was .SO. V a l i d i t y was determined by c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d i e s ( 7 0 ) . F r o s t i g ' s d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t between the ages of three and one^half and seven and o n e - h a l f y e a r s , v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n i s a major developmental t a s k f o r the c h i l d ( 3 3 : 4 9 2 ) . A f t e r seven years of age, the c h i l d becomes more independent of immediate p e r c e p t i o n s as he l e a r n s to l i n k events of the past w i t h the present and f u t u r e and t o develop c a u s a l t h i n k i n g . However, c l i n i c a l s t u d i e s show t h a t c h i l d r e n with severe p e r c e p t u a l d i s t u r b a n c e s are o f t e n unable t o overcome t h e i r p e r c e p t u a l handicaps. These c h i l d r e n o f t e n continue t o r e q u i r e r e m e d i a l a t t e n t i o n i f academic progress i s to be maintained. Motor Development For many years, workers i n the f i e l d of c h i l d develop-ment have i d e n t i f i e d stages i n the growth and development of c h i l d r e n . I t i s customary t o t a l k of sequences of development i n many areas of the c h i l d ' s a c t i v i t y . E l a b o r a t e normative s t u d i e s have r e v e a l e d the age at which s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s can normally be expected t o appear (49:3)'. During the l a s t decade a great d e a l of emphasis has been giv e n to what i s probably the most b a s i c of a l l the areas of 13 development i n the child--perceptual-motor development. Research has indicated that numerous physiological and psychological problems may occur during the developmental period which i n t e r f e r e with the establishment of a stable perceptual-motor world ( 3 1 : 4 0 5 ) . Leaders i n the perceptual-motor f i e l d such as Kephart (.48)'' and F r o s t i g ( 3 2 ) have recognized that a s i g n i f i c a n t number of children enter our school systems lacking the fundamental assumptions which underlie so much of the material which i s presented. For these children, classroom learning may cause d i f f i c u l t y , "not because of the content, but because of i n a b i l i t y to deal with the perceptual-motor mechanics of the presentation" ( 3 1 : 4 0 6 ) . The influence of motor development on learning has been substantiated by numerous studies i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Kephart ( 4 8 ) has provided a vast amount of information i n t h i s area during the l a s t twenty-five years. Kephart emphasizes the dependence of a l l learning on the early motor learning stage of development: "The child's f i r s t interactions with his environment are motor. His f i r s t learnings are motor learnings. His f i r s t attempts to organize the environment are based upon these motor inter a c t i o n s . For a very large number of children, the learning d i f f i c u l t y begins at t h i s early motor stage. He learned to use his motor responses to accomplish certain ends, but he f a i l e d to expand or generalize these motor responses so that they formed the basis of information gathering. He has learned a motor response f o r a s p e c i f i c end, but has not developed a motor in t e r a c t i o n with his environment."1 ( . 3 1 : 4 0 6 ) 14 Kephart's ra t i o n a l e , which i s based l a r g e l y upon c l i n i c a l observation, forms the basis of numerous therapy programs. According to Kephart (31) the c h i l d must maintain a consistent, uninterrupted interaction with his environment and t h i s can only be achieved through locomotor patterns. The motor patterns which are e s s e n t i a l for information gathering at t h i s basic early stage i n the development of the world of the c h i l d are four i n number: 1. Balance and Maintenance of Posture -by maintaining the r e l a t i o n s h i p of his body to the force of gravity, the c h i l d i d e n t i f i e s the d i r e c t i o n of the l i n e of gravity and maintains t h i s constant throughout his interactions with the environment. 2. Locomotion - i t i s within the pattern of locomotion that the c h i l d investigates the r e l a t i o n s h i p within the space around him. By moving his body from one point to another, he learns to appreciate the properties of t h i s surrounding space and the relationships between the objects i n i t . 3. Contact - i t i s with the contact s k i l l s that the c h i l d investigates through manipulation the r e l a t i o n -ships within objects. In order to obtain t h i s information he must be able to reach out and 15 make c o n t a c t w i t h t h e o b j e c t s ; he must be a b l e t o m a i n t a i n t h i s c o n t a c t t h r o u g h g r a s p u n t i l he has o b t a i n e d t h e n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n , and he must be a b l e t o t e r m i n a t e t h i s c o n t a c t t h r o u g h r e l e a s e and move on t o t h e next o b j e c t . From the knowledge so g a i n e d , f orm p e r c e p t i o n and f i g u r e - g r o u n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l d e v e l o p . 4 . R e c e i p t and P r o p u l s i o n - i t i s w i t h the s k i l l s o f r e c e i p t and p r o p u l s i o n ' t h a t t h e c h i l d i n v e s t i g a t e s movements i n space. R e c e i p t s k i l l s i n v o l v e t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s by which th e c h i l d makes c o n t a c t w i t h a moving o b j e c t . The s k i l l s of p r o p u l s i o n i n v o l v e t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s by w h i c h t h e c h i l d i m p a r t s movement t o an o b j e c t . I n summarizing t h e needs of t h e p e r c e p t u a l l y - m o t o r h a ndicapped c h i l d , K e p h a r t (31:409)' i n d i c a t e s t h e main o b j e c t i v e o f t h e p e r c e p t u a l - m o t o r program: "Many c h i l d r e n f i n d t he motor l e a r n i n g r e q u i r e d f o r a l e a r n i n g p a t t e r n d i f f i c u l t . As a r e s u l t , t h e y s t o p w i t h a motor s k i l l . They r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l h e l p and a d d i t i o n a l l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s t o c o n t i n u e t h i s motor l e a r n i n g u n t i l a l e v e l i s re a c h e d which w i l l p e r m i t t h e use o f movement, not o n l y f o r s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e s , but f o r t h e more g e n e r a l i z e d purpose o f i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g . I t becomes t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s t o o f f e r t h i s a i d and t o h e l p t h e c h i l d expand h i s motor l e a r n i n g . " Many o b s e r v a t i o n a l s t u d i e s o f c h i l d r e n r e p o r t t h a t i n a d e q u a t e s t i m u l a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e h i n d e r t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s (52:23). A p p a r e n t l y a c o n s i d e r a b l e q u a n t i t y o f v a r i e d e x p e r i e n c e s i s e s s e n t i a l t o many k i n d s o f l e a r n i n g . 16 Deprivation studies i n which subjects are r e s t r i c t e d greatly in stimulation have been found to produce rapid deterioration of physical and i n t e l l e c t u r a l performance (52)'. Anderson (52:23) has hypothesized that the chil d ' s learning i s due c h i e f l y to "a high input and a high outgo", a flow of stimulation and response i n which "...single experiences or elements occupy r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t parts". According to Anderson, learning i s determined by the r e l a t i v e proportions of d i f f e r e n t types of stimulation and the amount of reinforce-ment that occurs. Within recent years research has been increasingly concerned with a more comprehensive approach to understanding motor performance (66) (.17). Cratty (17:26) indicates that "while the motor output seemed to be the f i r s t aspect of performance drawing the attention of researchers, within the past several years the types of sensory cues influencing performance, as well as the formation of meanings from sensory experience (the process of perception) have been studied i n greater d e t a i l " . Thus the term "perceptual-motor" has been coined, i n d i c a t i n g the important influence the sensory cues and the perceptual process have upon the motor act. Lawther (52) supports Cratty's views on the r e l a t i o n -ship between perception and motor a c t i v i t y . He indicates that the learning of perceptual-motor patterns such as running, jumping and throwing involve adjustments i n terms 17 of perception. Any s k i l l demanding steadiness and fineness of control such as a balancing a c t i v i t y , requires much i n h i b i t i o n of movement. Precision i n perception and constant feedback of perceived information are esse n t i a l f o r "chese types of a c t i v i t i e s . Perceptuai-motor a c t i v i t i e s form the basis of many remedial programs designed for slow learning child r e n . Radler and Kephart (61:24) emphasize the importance of basic motor s k i l l s i n the i n t e l l e c t u r a l development of the c h i l d : "Each movement made by a developing c h i l d i s i n i t s e l f an experience which contributes to the basic store of information held by the brain. In other words, movements are not only output; they are input as w e l l . What a c h i l d does today affects what he will, be able to do tomorrow. A l l behavior i s movement of one kind or another and that the movements made by a developing c h i l d constitute learning units that contribute to his t o t a l store of knowledge." Through his early motor explorations, the c h i l d begins to f i n d out about himself and the world around him. His motor experimentation and his motor learnings become the foundation upon which such knowledge i s b u i l t . From his studies of c h i l d development and learning, J e r s i l d (48:35) has indicated that i n early childhood, mental and physical a c t i v i t i e s are closely r e l a t e d . He maintains that motor a c t i v i t i e s play a major role i n i n t e l l e c t u r a l development. Kephart (48:35) supports J e r s i l d , stating, "To a large extent, so-called higher forms of behavior develop out of and have t h e i r roots i n motor learning." Several studies have indicated a re l a t i o n s h i p between IB achievement i n reading and achievement i n selected motor s k i l l s among children (59)1 (54) (72). Plack (59) administered the Iowa Test of Basic Reading Achievement and the Johnson Motor Achievement Battery to one hundred seventy-two subjects selected from grades ones, three and f i v e . The conclusions of her study indicated high positive relationships between achievement i n selected reading evaluations and selected motor s k i l l s . Mean motor s k i l l s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t among high, middle and low reading achievement groups. Highly s i g n i f i c a n t correlations were found to exist between achievement i n reading and the throw and catch test and achievement i n reading and the zig-zag run t e s t . Welch (75) investigated the eff e c t s of a special program i n motor a c t i v i t y (based on Kephart) on the reading a b i l i t y of a group of grade one children who were a l l poor readers. After sixteen weeks, the.group receivingpspecial motor t r a i n i n g was shown to be superior to a control group which received no special t r a i n i n g . Improvements were also observed i n general motor capacity. T r u s s e l l (72) studied the relationship between performance scores i n reading achievement, v i s u a l perception, two perceptual-motor tasks and eye-hand dominance i n seventy-f i v e f i r s t and second grade children. Correlations among many variables were s i g n i f i c a n t although none were high enough f o r r e l i a b l e prediction of one variable from another. Investigation of the influence of l a t e r a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y on reading a b i l i t y has produced c o n f l i c t i n g 19 r e s u l t s . Kephart (48:49) maintains that l a t e r a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y , the two major "coordinates of the child's motor learning", must be developed before the c h i l d i s able to a t t a i n orientation in space and to observe the r e l a t i o n s h i p between objects i n space. L a t e r a l i t y may be defined as the sense of one's symmetry, of leftness and T i g h t n e s s . D i r e c t i o n a l i t y i s l a t e r a l i t y projected into space, which i s obtained through and experienced i n motor s k i l l s . Several researchers ( 2 3 ) ( 3 2 ) support Kephart's findings that many poor readers lack basic motor s k i l l s which can be made up i f they are taught. Delacato's ( 2 3 ) concept of "neurological organization" attempts to explain d e f i c i t s i n reading readiness and to show how a c h i l d f i r s t develops ph y s i c a l l y and then i n t e l l e c t u a l l y . Contrary to Kephart's views, Delacato states that the most important element fo r successful reading i s c o r t i c a l hemispheric dominance, or one-sidedness. He believes that lack of complete and constant l a t e r a l i t y r esults i n reading and language problems. From his observations, Delacato states that s i x t y to eighty per cent of the superior readers are completely one-sided. Delacato's theories and findings have received heavy c r i t i c i s m from researchers i n various f i e l d s . Singer (66:141) indicates that a number of recent studies have not found any difference i n reading a b i l i t y between established and non-established l a t e r a l i t y groups. 20 Capobianco ( 1 1 ) , f o r example, administered f i v e tests of handedness and four tests of eyedness to subjects with sp e c i a l learning d i s a b i l i t i e s . The test scores were then correlated with reading a b i l i t y measures. Results indicated that l a t e r a l dominance did not f a c i l i t a t e reading achieve-ment; i n f a c t , incomplete dominance, i n certain cases, accompanied better reading performance. A great deal of interest i s currently being shown towards the re l a t i o n s h i p of motor a b i l i t y and i n t e l l e c t u a l achievement ( 6 6 ) . Recent e f f o r t s by Ismail ( 4 5 ) suggest that motor coordination items are highly related to academic achievement. He has obtained success i n u t i l i z i n g coordination tasks and balance tasks as predictors of i n t e l l e c t u r a l achievement. Interestingly enough, the subjects have been as old as pre-adolescents. By providing a c t i v i t i e s which encourage the development of motor a b i l i t i e s such as coordination and balance, many remedial programs aid i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the slow learner. A study recently conducted by Fretz, Johnson and Johnson (30) measured the perceptual-motor development of children p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a remedial program. Standardized tests of perceptual and motor a b i l i t y were administered to f i f t y - t h r e e children enrolled i n an eight week physical developmental c l i n i c and to thirty-one applicants who were waiting to e n r o l l when space was av a i l a b l e . The children studied were referred f o r reasons of poor coordination and emotional and s o c i a l maladjustment. A comparison of pre- and 21 p o s t - c l i n i c test performance of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g children, compared to the t e s t - r e t e s t performance of the " w a i t - l i s t " controls indicated that participants made s i g n i f i c a n t improvements i n a l l perceptual and motor measures and i n performance I.Q. The Carpenter General Motor Capacity Test The Carpenter General Motor Capacity Test i s one.of the few motor tests available f o r young children. Designed by Dr. Carpenter s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r children i n the lower elementary grades, the t o t a l score (GMCS) obtained, may be used as a measure of the child' s motor capacity. According to McCloy (15:271), motor capacity depicts innate or inherent motor p o t e n t i a l i t i e s — t h e l e v e l which an in d i v i d u a l may be expected to a t t a i n . In t h i s respect, the General Motor Capacity Test may be compared to an i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t as i t i s not designed to measure present developed a b i l i t y i n any one a c t i v i t y . In l i g h t of recent findings on the interp r e t i v e and predictive values of i n t e l l i g e n c e test scores, the i n v e s t i -gator suggests that caution must be taken when attempting to employ capacity tests f o r predictive purposes. General Motor Capacity Scores, l i k e i n t e l l i g e n c e scores, are not constant and s i g n i f i c a n t improvements can occur as a re s u l t of special t r a i n i n g . Since the o r i g i n a l General Motor Capacity Test proved to be very successful as a useful measure of general motor 22 capacity i n the upper grades and high school, Carpenter developed comparable standards f o r the f i r s t three grades. After two preliminary studies, she completed the f i n a l General Motor Capacity Test which has r e l i a b i l i t y of .7281 for g i r l s and .7396* f o r boys (33). Although interest and investigation i n the area of perceptual-motor development has increased during the l a s t two decades, many unanswered questions remain. It must be emphasized that more knowledge and research are required about the neural basis of movement behavior and the i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p of motor a c t i v i t y and perception. The i n v e s t i -gator was unable to locate any studies i n the l i t e r a t u r e which provided a detailed description of the physical performance ofchildren p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a perceptual-motor program. It was with the b e l i e f that the perceptual-motor t r a i n i n g i s a very important contributing factor i n the improvement of both physical and academic performance of the slow learning c h i l d , that t h i s research was conducted. CHAPTER III METHODS AND PROCEDURES During the month of November, 1969, eight children displaying obvious learning d i s a b i l i t i e s within the normal school si t u a t i o n were referred to Dr. E. N. E l l i s , Assistant Director of Research and Testing f o r the Vancouver School Board, f o r in d i v i d u a l assessments. The children, a l l attending S i r Alexander MacKenzie Elementary School, ranged i n age from s i x to nine years. Although d i f f e r i n g i n age,, a l l were similar i n that t h e i r o v e r a l l academic achievement was at least one year behind t h e i r age l e v e l . Because inadequate perceptual-motor development was i d e n t i f i e d as the major factor i n t h e i r learning d i s a b i l i t y , i t was recommended that the children be placed i n a perceptual-motor program. In consultation with Mr. C. W. McLachlan, p r i n c i p a l of S i r Richard McBride Elementary School, and Mrs. E. Sharpe, the remedial teacher, i t was decided that the f a c i l i t i e s of the Perceptual-Motor room of McBride School would be u t i l i z e d i n the program. The F r o s t i g Developmental Test of Vis u a l Perception ( 3 2 ) was administered to each subject by Miss J. Moody, a 24 psychologist f o r the Vancouver School Board. Scoring on the t e s t i s objective. The chil d ' s raw scores for each sub-test were converted to a perceptual age equivalent, representing the age at which the average c h i l d achieves t h i s score. The f i v e perceptual age lev e l s and the f i v e scale scores (one f o r each of the sub-tests) indicate the child ' s development i n each v i s u a l perception a b i l i t y . The t o t a l perceptual quotient (P.Q.) was derived f o r each subject. The perceptual quotient i s a deviation score obtained from the sum of sub-test scale scores a f t e r correcting for age v a r i a t i o n . On January 4, 1970-, the s i x male subjects and two female subjects selected f o r t h i s study, became participants i n the perceptual-motor program. The children received fourteen weeks of sp e c i a l t r a i n i n g in gross motor and f i n e motor a c t i v i t i e s f o r approximately one hour a day, f i v e days a week. A b r i e f description of the types: o f a c t i v i t i e s and equipment used i n the program i s outlined in Appendix A of t h i s report. A l l of the special t r a i n i n g periods were conducted i n the Perceptual-Motor room at McBride School. The subjects were transported to the program from S i r Alexander MacKenzie, a neighbouring elementary school. The writer alternated the days of i n s t r u c t i o n with Mr. D. Miscisco, a graduate student i n Physical Education at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Remedial work i n reading was given to the children 25 by t h e i r classroom teacher. The only remedial work i n motor t r a i n i n g was provided by the investigator. The Carpenter General Motor Capacity Test During December, 1969, before the program of special t r a i n i n g began, the Carpenter General Motor Capacity Test was administered to each subject. The t e s t was not designed to measure present developed a b i l i t y i n any one a c t i v i t y , but to predict potential l e v e l s that the i n d i v i d u a l may be expected to a t t a i n . The following test items, together with the elements they purport to measure, compose t h i s test (53:271): (i) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index (age x 20 t height x 6 + weight) - general size and maturity ( i i ) Sargent Jump (the distance i n centimetres between the top of the reach mark and the top of the highest jump mark) - "explosive" power of the large muscles ( i i i ) Squat-Thrust ( t o t a l number completed i n ten seconds) - a g i l i t y , the a b i l i t y to change the d i r e c t i o n of the body very r a p i d l y (iv) Iowa-Brace Test (consisting of six stunts suitable f o r children of the f i r s t three grades) -inherent motor s k i l l Following are the Regression Equations f o r computing the general motor capacity (GMC) of children i n the f i r s t three grades of elementary school. 26 Boys GMC « O.lSl ( C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index) + 0.769 (Sargent Jump i n cms.)1 + 0.510 (Brace Test score) + 2.18*7 (Squat-thrust) - 62. G i r l s GMC • 3.576 (Sargent Jump in cms.) • 2.20 (Brace Test score) + 19.12 (Squat-thrust) + 29'. The c o r r e l a t i o n of the f i n a l weighted batteries with the ratings made by experienced instructors was .51 f o r boys and .73 f o r g i r l s (15:271). The Motor Quotient (M.Q.) The GMCS, when divided by the norm f o r the subject, expresses his capacity as a percentage of the norm or M.Q. This quotient i s the motor analogue of the I.Q. score used i n the measure of i n t e l l i g e n c e . Administration of the Carpenter General Motor Capacity Test The Carpenter General Motor Capacity Test was administered i n the following manner: 1. Each subject, was weighed and measured f o r height, using the equipment i n the Health Room at the McBride School. Weights (to the nearest one-half pound) and heights (to the nearest one-half inch) were recorded. The subjects were barefooted and wore gym clothing. 2. Each subject was tested i n d i v i d u a l l y i n the Sargent Jump t e s t , the Squat-thrust t e s t , and the Iowa-Brace t e s t . The other members of the group were not permitted 2 7 to witness t h i s phase of the t e s t i n g before p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the t e s t s . Each part of the Carpenter Test was demonstrated to the subject. The subject was then permitted two practice t r i a l s to be certain that he understood the test and how to perform i t . These practice t r i a l s also served as a warm-up f o r the subject. The subject was allowed three o f f i c i a l t r i a l s i n the Sargent Jump t e s t . The highest jump mark attained i n the three t r i a l s was then recorded. For the Squat-thrust t e s t , only one o f f i c i a l t r i a l was allowed. A stop-watch was used to time the t r i a l . The t o t a l number of squat-thrusts was recorded. The Iowa-Brace test consists of six motor a b i l i t y stunts. Each stunt was demonstrated to the subject by the i n s t r u c t o r . The subject was then allowed one practice t r y . Two o f f i c i a l t r i a l s were allowed. The s i x stunts included i n t h i s test are as follows: ( i ) Grapevine - consists of standing on both feet i n a f u l l squat position, placing arms between the legs and around the knees so that fingers touch i n f r o n t . Position must be held f o r a minimum of f i v e seconds. ( i i ) One-Knee Balance - subject balances on one knee with other leg held straight back and off the f l o o r ; arms held out to sides; position must be held f o r f i v e seconds. 28 ( i i i ) Cross-Leg Squat - from cross-leg s i t t i n g position, arms folded across chest, subject r i s e s to standing position on sides of feet without l o s i n g balance or moving f e e t . (iv) Hop Backward - the subject balances on one foot, closes eyes, takes f i v e hops (on the same foot)) backward; subject must hold position of balance (with eyes closed), a f t e r completing f i n a l hop, f o r f i v e seconds; f a i l u r e r esults i f subject opens eyes too soon or touches other foot to f l o o r or f a l l s over before completion of t e s t , (v) Half-turn Jump) - balanced on one foot, subject i s required to jump off the balance foot, complete a 18"0 degree turn, and land on the same foot; l o s i n g balance, touching other foot to f l o o r , or f a i l i n g to execute a complete turn constitutes a f a i l u r e on t h i s t e s t . (vi) Kneel-Jump to Feet - from a kneeling position, toes pointed straight behind, and arms held out to side (subject was permitted to swing the arms), the subject was required to jump to a standing position without moving the feet or "rocking" back on the b a l l s of the f e e t . Case Study Reports In order to provide as much information as possible on each subject, the investigator studied the school and medical 29 records of each c h i l d . Pertinent information received from these sources as well as from parents' and teachers' comments was recorded and included i n the case study reports. A detailed record was kept showing each child's physical performance throughout the program. This record indicated the s p e c i f i c motor c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each subject. Kephart's Observations of Basic Motor Movements Kephart Ts "Observations of Basic Motor Movements" formed the basis for the case study information of the child's motor performance. In order to better assess the p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l perceptual-motor a b i l i t i e s and needs of each subject,, each c h i l d was given a series of motor performance tasks to perform at the beginning and throughout the program. These tasks, devised by Kephart ( 4 9 ) , permitted an informative observation of the chil d ' s perceptual-motor behavior. They were designed to e l i c i t behavior i n d i c a t i v e of a b i l i t y i n the areas of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , balance, and coordination. Tasks involving d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , indicated the child's a b i l i t y to sort out and use independently, i n a controlled manner, d i f f e r e n t parts of his body. D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n movements involving the head, trunk, and limbs were performed while the subject was l y i n g on his back or stomach. As an example, arm d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n would be observed by having the subject l i e on his back and move his arm as directed. The r e s u l t i n g movements showed the child's a b i l i t y to innervate the muscles of one arm without innervating i n a s i m i l a r 30 fashion, the muscles of the other arm or any of the parts of the body not required by the task. Balance and coordination was assessed by the subject's performance of tasks involving various movements and positions of the body. Observations were based on the manner i n which each c h i l d sat, stood, crawled, walked, ran, and changed from one type of movement to another. By observing the movements required f o r a c h i l d to change from a standing to a l y i n g down posi t i o n , information was obtained regarding the child's balance and coordination. Also postural f a u l t s became obvious. An informing balancing task required the subject to stand s t i l l f o r t h i r t y to s i x t y seconds. Obser-vations were made regarding swaying from side to side and s h i f t i n g the weight from one foot to another. Information concerning each subject's coordination was obtained by observing the c h i l d as he ran or walked on command. After asking the c h i l d to walk sideways backwards, the investigator observed f a u l t s such as d i f f i c u l t y i n i n i t i a t i n g f o r stopping the movement, d i f f i c u l t y maintaining the movement or d i r e c t i o n , and being unable to maintain the lead with one foot. The nature of the tasks permitted observation and assessment of the c h i l d i n a r e l a t i v e l y short period of time and without the use of complicated devices and apparatus. The r e s u l t s obtained from the "Observations of Basic: Motor Movements" aided the investigator i n se l e c t i n g appropriate 31 t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s which could correct or improve the s p e c i f i c inadequacies of each subject. They also provided important information f o r the case studies. The investigator recorded the differences which occurred i n each child's performance of Kephart's tasks from the beginning to the end of the program, thus noting any improvements. At the completion of fourteen weeks, the subjects were given the f i n a l F r o s t i g Developmental Test of Visual Perception and the Carpenter General Motor Capacity Test. The r e s u l t s of these two tests were tabulated and compared with the r e s u l t s of the tests that were conducted at the beginning of the study. A summary of these r e s u l t s may be found i n Chapter IV of t h i s report. CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The r e s u l t s of t h i s study are provided i n the form of tables and case study reports. As the data did not lend i t s e l f to s t a t i s t i c a l analysis, i t was decided to present the i n i t i a l and f i n a l Perceptual Quotient (P.Q.) and Motor Quotient (M.Q.) scores. A comparison of res u l t s between each subject's i n i t i a l and f i n a l scores may serve as an indi c a t i o n of changes which have occurred i n his a b i l i t y . Following the tables are case study reports on each subject. These reports provide a detailed description of each child ' s motor a b i l i t y throughout the program. By following Kephart's (49) "Observations of Basic Motor Movements", the investigator was able to objectively observe and note the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each subject's motor performance. A b r i e f mention has also been made of the causative factors of each c h i l d ' s problems. Medical diagnosis as well as psychological and teacher reports provided t h i s information. Results of F r o s t i g and Carpenter Tests The Perceptual Quotient (P.Q.) and Motor Quotient (M.Q.) scores l i s t e d i n the following tables can be interpreted i n 33 the same manner as Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.) scores. For each age group, the P.Q. and M.Q. have a median of 100, a lower quartile of 90, and other percentile points consistent with the I.Q. values of intelligence tests. A discussion of the P.Q. and M.Q. scores follows the case study reports. An explanation of the purpose and interpretation of Frostig Age Equivalents is also provided. TABLE I RESULTS OF FROSTIG TEST  DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INITIAL AND FINAL PERCEPTUAL QUOTIENT SCORES SUBJECT INITIAL P.Q, SCORE FINAL P.Q. SCORE DIFF. Douglas B. 66 70 * 4 Kenneth C. 80 88 • 8 Lynne F. 70 75 + 5 Neil H. 89 94 * 5 James J. 90 100 +10 Stuart M. 66 94 •28 Deborah W. 75 80 * 5 Randy Y. 80 92 • 12 Group Mean 7$. 09 86.62 • 9.62 34 TABLE 2 RESULTS OF CARPENTER TEST DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INITIAL AND FINAL MOTOR QUOTIENT SCORES SUBJECT INITIAL M.Q. SCORE FINAL M.Q. SCORE DIFF. Douglas B. 67.03 94.04 + 7.01 Kenneth C. 89.59 97.00 + 7.41 Lynn© F. 93.04 106.21 *13.17 Neil H. S2.39 93.00 •10.61 James J. 96.00 106 .32 •10 .32 Stuart M. 101.SO 104.24 • 2.44 Deborah W. 90.13 99.54 *- 9.41 Randy 1. SO. 71 S3.51 • 2. SO Group Mean 90.09 97.9S * 7.S9 35 TABLE 3 INITIAL AND FINAL FROSTIG SUBTEST AGE EQUIVALENTS (YEAR-MONTH} Key to Abbreviations: E. M.: Eye-Motor Coordination F.G.: Figure-Ground F. C : Form Constancy P.S.: Position in Space S.R.: Spatial Relations SUBJECT CHRON. AGE E..M. F.G. F.C. P.S. S.R Douglas F. 9-2 6-9 6-3 6-9 6-3 6-0 9-6 7-0 6-6 8-3 7-0 6-6 Kenneth C. 9-5 5-3 8-3 7-0 8-9 7-6 9-10 1.0* 8-3, 9-0 7-0 8-3 Lynne F. 7-6 7-3 4-6 4-0 7-0 6-0 7-11 6-9 6-6 5-0 7-0 7-6 Neil H. 8-6 8-6 7-0 8-3 8-9 7-6 8-11 10+ 8-3 9-0 7-0 8-3 James J. 8-8 7-0 8-3 9-0 7-0 8-3 9-1 9-6 8-3 9-0 8-9 8-3 Stuart M. 9-1 6-9 8-3 7-0 5-6 4-0 9-6 10+ 8-3 8-3 8-9 8-3 Deborah W. 6-7 5-0 4-9 4-6, 6-3 5-0 7-0 5-0 5-9 5-6 6-3 6-0 Randy Y. 8-7 9-6 6-6 7-6 5-6 7-6 9-0 9-6 8-3 9-0 7-0 8-3 36 CASE STUDY REPORTS SUBJECT: Douglas B. AGE: 9 years, 6 months HEIGHT: 5 0 | " WEIGHT: 58 lbs. I.Q.: 118 Although above average in intelligence, Doug was referred to the program because of poor visual-motor s k i l l s and emotional problems. Doug's school record indicated that he had an extremely short span of concentration and often occupied himself in _a "dream world". An investigation of his family showed that he received no encouragement or stimulation to attempt any form of physical activity or game. Doug's mother was noticeably-overprotective and yet demanding. At the beginning of the program i t was observed that Doug was very inconsistent in his motor performance. Some days he was able to perform stunts which were impossible other days. This appeared to be related to emotional factors. On days when Doug did not apply himself he was very depressed and spent most of the time sulking or crying. When the program began Doug had a very limited awareness of the parts of his body and the movements that were possible from each part. When asked to move a part of his body in a specific manner, Doug usually moved in a manner other than that which was required. As an example, when Doug was lying on his back with his arms stretched out to the sides, he was asked to try and touch his arm with his leg, keeping 37 the heel on the ground. Doug was unable to follow this direction and would move both legs, his arm, and sometimes arms and legs together. Doug had great d i f f i c u l t y performing movements which required concentration and control. He was unable to walk heel-to-toe along a balance beam and could not crawl under low objects. When balancing Doug would become excited and look around, thus losing his balance. Although Doug could stand on one foot for several seconds with his eyes open he would lose his balance as soon as he closed his eyes. When given a task, Doug could only perform i t one way. He was unable to modify or improvise his movements. When asked to move along a bench in a different way than usual, Doug had d i f f i c u l t y imagining other ways of performing this task. Unless Doug was able to perform an activity well he refused to apply himself. If he failed on his f i r s t attempt he would say he could not do i t or did not enjoy the activity. Also, Doug often became annoyed when the investi-gator asked him to perform an activity in a specific way. At a glance Doug appeared to be doing what was asked, but i f one observed carefully one usually noticed that he was not performing as he was instructed. Throughout the program Doug was encouraged to perform the motor tasks in a more careful and slower manner. Doug's emotional problem was taken into consideration and he was 3 d praised for a l l his efforts. Towards the end of the program he was performing stunts more eff i c i e n t l y largely because he was concentrating and trying harder. The investigator found that as long as Doug was rewarded for his efforts he would continue to apply himself. An improvement was observed in Doug's motor s k i l l s , especially those involving balance and a g i l i t y . This improvement was reflected in a 7.01 increase in his Motor Quotient (M.Q.). Doug's i n i t i a l Frostig scores were below his age level in a l l five areas. Although nine years of age, his perceptual a b i l i t i e s were below those of an average seven year old. Doug's f i n a l Perceptual Quotient score (P.Q.); showed an increase of four points, however a l l areas were s t i l l below average. Mrs. E.. Sharpe, who administered the f i n a l Frostig test, suggested that emotional factors played a significant part in Doug's poor perceptual test performance. She indi-cated that his fear and frustration of doing something incorrectly hindered his achievement. This factor also appeared to interfere with his reading a b i l i t y . His teacher noticed that Doug became very anxious when asked to read aloud. When the program ended Doug's reading a b i l i t y had shown some improvement and he no longer displayed the same amount of nervousness when asked to speak aloud. 39 SUBJECT: Ken C. AGE: 9 years,ADi©:months HEIGHT: 50" WEIGHT: 6 9'lbs. This was Ken's f i r s t year in a Vancouver school. He was repeating grade two because his academic achievement was not up to standard. Ken appeared to have d i f f i c u l t y in following class discussions and required a longer time than the other children to complete an assignment. His teacher indicated that part of Ken's problem was his poor attention. He was very easily distracted and often, when asked a question, was apparently not even aware of the topic being discussed. Although Ken needed frequent direction he was a pleasant and responsive boy. At the beginning of the training period, Ken would attempt every motor task in a rapid and careless manner, showing l i t t l e concern about the quality of his performance. When asked to walk slowly, heel-to-toe along the walking board, he would run and often lose his balance. If the investigator stood beside him and emphasized that the task must be performed in a careful manner Ken would display many faulty movements, such as poor foot placement and swaying from side to side. It appeared that Ken attempted to avoid making faults in the various tasks by rushing through them as quickly as possible. When observed performing tasks indicating limb differentiation, Ken displayed a preference for the right side of his body. His right arm movements were much more 40' controlled than nis l e f t . When lying on his back, Ken ' could not cross the "midline" of his body using his l e f t arm, without moving his head or trunk. Ken's a b i l i t y to stand on one foot was also observed to be much superior on his right side. When askedtfc© change his body direction Ken had to hesitate and sometimes stop before moving to the l e f t side. Me also became confused and hesitant i f he was asked to perform a movement leading with his l e f t foot. Because: Ken was encouraged to slow down, his s k i l l in many activities increased. This was mcs t obvious when he was asked to crawl across the floor on his stomach using only his limbs to propel his body. When the program began he could not keep his stomach on the floor because i t slowed him down. However, as Ken was encouraged to slow down and concentrate on his movement, he became able to crawl in the proper manner. Ken improved 7 points in his M.Q. which was near average at- the end of the program. His greatest improvement was observed in stunts requiring a g i l i t y . His Sargent Jump increased by five inches and his Iowa-Brace score was 4.36 points higher when the program ended. Ken's i n i t i a l Frostig test scores indicated below average visual-motor development. Deficiencies were noted in Eye-Motor Coordination, Form Constancy, and Spatial Relations. At the conclusion of the program, Ken's P.Q. 4 1 increased 6* points to 97, almost average, and improvements were noted in the three areas which were previously below average. The area of visual perception in which Ken improved most was Eye-Motor Coordination. His perceptual age equivalent had increased from five years, three months to ten years. Both the classroom teacher and the investigator observed an improvement in Ken's behavior. Although he s t i l l was easily distracted, Ken appeared to be capable of greater concentration in the classroom. His teacher mentioned that his participation in discussion and reading a b i l i t y have shown recent signs of improvement. The investigator also noted that Ken's attitude towards physical activity had improved as he appeared to have more pride and concern in his motor performance. 42 SUBJECT: Lynne F. AGE: 7 years, 11 months HEIGHT: 49" WEIGHT: 49 lbs. I.Q.: 81 Lynne was a small, thin, shy g i r l who was in a special ungraded class for slow learners. Although she tried hard in school, she had great d i f f i c u l t y in grasping anything new and needed individual assistance. Her school record indicated that besides having below average intelligence she also had serious mixed dominance problems. It was noted that Lynne used her l e f t hand and le f t foot for most acti v i t i e s , yet appeared to favour the use of her right eye. Lynne's reading d i f f i c u l t i e s were attributed to a lack of established l a t e r a l i t y . Her teacher mentioned that Lynne made a number of reversals, often being unable to distinguish "b'"s from "d"'s or "p"'s from "q"'s. When the program began Lynne was unable to differentiate parts of her body. When lying on her back she could not innervate and move a shoul der or hip without involving other parts of the body. When she moved one arm at the shoulder, the other shoulder, the head, and the leg became involved in the movement. At the beginning of the program.Lynne also showed an obvious deficiency in balance and coordination. She was unable to s i t erect with her legs extended. Her usual si t t i n g position was to fold her legs back at the knees and si t between her legs for balance. Lynne's performance of balancing stunts such as standing or hopping on one foot 43 was very poor on her right side. Because Lynne had no awareness of the right and l e f t sides of her body she displayed an obvious directionality problem. Faulty movement patterns were also observed when Lynne performed stunts using a b a l l . Lynne's arm movements when throwing a b a l l were extremely r i g i d , jerky, and uncontrolled. When bouncing a b a l l , she held her elbow to her side and used a jerky arm movement to release the b a l l . Throughout the program an attempt was made to provide Lynne with experiences from which the two sides of the body could be compared. As a result of practicing tasks which required the use of one side, both sides or alternating sides of her body, Lynne became aware of the differences between these experiences. When the program ended, a great improvement was noted in Lynne's awareness of the right and l e f t sides of her body. Her improvement in la t e r a l i t y was observed in balancing tasks, as she could now determine which side of her body had to move, and how i t had to move in order to maintain balance. As a result of frequent instruction and practice in identification of body parts and imitation of movements, Lynne showed a significant improvement in her awareness and control of body parts when the program ended. During the i n i t i a l Carpenter test Lynne found i t extremely d i f f i c u l t to understand and execute the movements required for the Squat-Thrust test. She was only able to complete two and 4 4 one-half squat-thrusts in the allotted time. When the program ended, Lynne performed the task much more effi c i e n t l y and was able to complete five and one-half squat-thrusts. Lynne's parents have indicated that they have observed an improvement in Lynne's performance of physical a c t i v i t i e s . She recently learned to ride a bicycle, a task she was unable to perform previously. When tested by a psychologist before the commencement of the training period, Lynne showed ill-defined spatial concepts and had considerable d i f f i c u l t y with Block tests, where the relationships of various parts had to be organized in an "abstract spatial" sequence. The psychologist believed that Lynne's mixed dominance problems were a major contri-butor to her perceptual d i f f i c u l t i e s . When administering the Frostig test the psychologist noticed that Lynne's pencil control was f a i r but her eye-hand coordination tended to be slow on coding items. Lynne's i n i t i a l Frostig test showed an obvious deficiency in her ab i l i t y to identify certain geometric figures when they were presented with other similar figures. She also experienced d i f f i c u l t y with Spatial Relations and Figure-Ground. At the end of the program, Lynne's P.Q. had increased five points to 75, s t i l l well below average. Although improvements were observed in her deficient areas, Lynne s t i l l required further remedial attention. Her f i n a l Form Constancy score was at the five years age equivalent, almost three years behind her chronological age. 4 5 SUBJECT': Neil H . AGE: 9 years HEIGHT: 5 1 " WEIGHT: 5 8 lbs. Neil was a quiet, shy boy who was extremely cooperative and attentive. He was referred to the program on the recommendation of his family physician and Dr. E l l i s of the Vancouver School Board. He was diagnosed as a very poorly coordinated boy who had a serious visual d i s a b i l i t y . Prior to the program, Neil had a corrective operation on his l e f t eye and was required to wear a patch during the summer. Because he was learning to see objects in a new way, Neil moved very cautiously at the beginning of the program. Neil also exhibited mixed dominance problems. His school report indicated that he was left-handed, right-eyed, and right-footed. At the start of the training period, Neil always remained alone and very seldom interacted with the other subjects. Neil often was unable to understand the investi-gator's directions and would usually wait u n t i l the other children.had begun ahtask so he could see what was expected of him. When Neil was addressed he would bend his head to the l e f t and close his l e f t eye. He wore glasses throughout the program as a corrective measure for his vision problem. < Several interesting observations were made from Neil's performance of the "Basic Motor Movements". When asked to pull himsglf up to a sit t i n g position, Neil showed poor head 46 control. His head appeared "tied into" his shoulders and a l l were l i f t e d as a unit. In order to l i f t his head while lying on his back Neil had to tense his whole body. Problems were also observed when Neil was required to change his body position. When asked to move from a sitting to standing, or standing to lying position, Neil had to stop and think of the movement required to attain the requested position. Neil also displayed d i f f i c u l t i e s on stunts demanding balance or controlled movement. When he attempted tasks requiring balance i t was necessary for the investigator to hold Neil's hand. Neil would hesitate and tremble before making any movement; often he appeared to "freeze up" and became unable to take the f i r s t step. After a month of practice, however, Neil exhibited a remarkable improvement in his balancing a b i l i t y . This was largely due to an increasing confidence in himself. By the end of the pro-gram Neil was performing many activities which he would not dare attempt earlier. This was most evident in tasks involving elevation, such as walking along an inclined bench without any assistance. Another obvious improvement in Neil's motor performance was observed on the trampoline. When the program began the investigator had to hold Neil's hands to have him stand on the trampoline. At the end of the training period Neil would take his glasses off, r o l l onto the trampoline, and perform knee, seat and front drops without any hesitation. 47 Neil's M.Q. increased from 8 2 . 3 9 to 9 3 . 0 0 with improve-ments noted i n r a l l areas of the Carpenter Test. His Iowa-Brace score showed that Neil could perform four stunts at the end of the program as compared to two at the beginning. An improvement of six inches was also observed in his Sargent Jump. Neil's P.Q. increased from 8 9 to 9 4 during the program with improvements noted in Figure-Ground and Spatial Relations, the two areas of perception in which he required remedial attention. When administering the f i n a l Frostig Test, Mrs. Sharpe indicated that Neil's vision problem was the major factor in his distortion of images. An improvement was also observed in Neil's social development, both by his classroom teacher and the investi-gator-. The investigator was pleased to note that as Neil became more skilled and confident in himself he began to interact with the other children. This was most obvious in his enthusiastic participation in relay a c t i v i t i e s , where he displayed great excitement and concern about his team's performance. His classroom teacher indicated that although Neil was s t i l l quiet and timid he no longer was as reluctant to make an attempt at a new experience and contributed much more to groip discussions! 4S SUBJECT': James J. AGE: 9 years, 1 month HEIGHT: 5 1 " WEIGHT: 75 lbs. I.Q.: 90 Although having average intelligence, Jamie's school performance was poor and he was placed in a special class for slow learners. His teacher described him;-as very immature, inattentive, and restless in class. Because he sought attention, Jamie would continually disrupt the class by whistling or throwing objects. Jamie's school report indicated that he had poor coordination and showed some direction confusion. When examined by a psychiatrist, i t was suggested that part of Jamie's troubles were due to family problems. His mother appeared,to be unable to cope with the daily demands placed upon her. It was also suggested that Jamie be enrolled in a supervised play situation such as a day camp, during the summer. A special remedial program was recommended in which Jamie could receive perceptual-motor training. At the beginning of the program Jamie performed activities in a careless and clumsy manner. When running or skipping he often ran into the wall or another child. His frequent accidents seemed to be caused by a combination of not following directions and poor coordination. When running, Jamie showed d i f f i c u l t y in starting and stopping. He was also observed to have great d i f f i c u l t y crawling in a controlled manner. He was unable to coordinate the movement of his legs and arms to propel him along the floor. 49 Instead of a single movement pattern there was a series of uncoordinated movements. Jamie also displayed poor body control on the trampoline when the program began. He was unable to change his body direction in the air after completing a bounce. When in the air, Jamie appeared to have no control over the movements of his arms and legs. As an example, when doing a seat-drop, Jamie showed d i f f i c u l t y in moving his legs out i n front of him. Jamie's motor s k i l l s had improved greatly by the end of the program, largely because he became more attentive and involved. His performance of tasks requiring coordination improved significantly as was readily observed in his trampo-line performance. When the program ended, Jamie became quite proficient on the trampoline and could perform a l l the stunts shown to the group. Jamie was able to perform five stunts of the Iowa-Brace Test at the end of the program as compared to two at the beginning. This improvement in motor a b i l i t y was reflected in his M.Q. increase from 9 6 . 0 0 to 1 0 6 . 3 2 (above average). Jamie's P.Q. also reached the average at the end of the program. An improvement was noted in four of the five areas of visual perception. His Eye-Motor Coordination and Position in Space age equivalents improved by two years, six months, and one year, nine months respectively. Jamie was the only subject to attain average scores in a l l five: 50 areas of the Frostig Test. Toward the end of the program an improvement was also observed in Jamie's attitude. Although he remained excitable and restless, Jamie no longer disrupted the group as often as he did earlier. He also required less individual attention as he became more attentive. Jamie's i n i t i a l apathy towards the program disappeared to the extent where he was usually the f i r s t subject to arrive and the last one to leave. A similar improvement was observed by the classroom teacher. When the program ended, Jamie appeared more interested and became more involved in class a c t i v i t i e s . 51 SUBJECT: Stuart M. AGE: 9 years, 6 months HEIGHT: 52" WEIGHT: 68 lbs. I.Q.: 75 Stuart was a very outspoken and aggressive boy. He was placed in a special ungraded class because of his below average school achievement and poor behavior. Stuart had to repeat grade one because of three bouts of abdominal surgery. The psychologist's report indicated that Stuart's family background was a major factor in his perceptual-motor problems. His parents were separated and he was placed in the custody of his mother. The'; psychologist reported an inconsistency in the mother's treatment of Stuart which created a hostile and confusing atmosphere in the home. In school, Stuarrt showed a disinterested attitude and continually disrupted the class. His teacher reported that Stuart constantly annoyed the other children by throwing objects at them or hitting them. His school principal indicated that Stuart was performing much less than expected even when his recorded assessment of ab i l i t y was taken into consideration. On the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Stuart had trouble arranging a series of pictures in logical order, showing left-right reversal or starting in the middle. His eye-motor coordination was also noted as being very poor. Throughout the program Stuart dominated most group games and ac t i v i t i e s . His aggressiveness and superiority at most gross motor act i v i t i e s involving strength, enabled 52 him to become the group leader. More timid members such as Neil and Lynne were afraid of Stuart as he often would push or t r i p them. Although not popular with the other children, Stuart seemed to impress some of the other boys with his mischievous behavior and "smart-aleck" comments. On sever a l pieces of apparatus such as the gym set and trampoline, Stuart was able to perform stunts which no other children were able to do. It was noticed that i f a task was presented in which Stuart was unable to excel, he would substitute another activity; one in which he could receive recognition. This often was a reckless "daredevil" stunt which resulted in an accident. The observations of Stuart's performance of the "Basic Motor Movements" provided very interesting and valuable information to the investigator. It was noticed that when Stuart was asked to perform a specific and controlled movement, especially a fine motor activity, he often had great d i f f i c u l t y i n i t i a t i n g the movement. If a modification or change in his spatial surroundings occurred, Stuart often was unable to make a movement he had performed earlier. This was illuminated in a task demanding that Stuart jump over a beanbag, tied to the end of a rope, as i t was rotated in a circle by the investigator. As long as the beanbag came from the same direction, Stuart had no trouble in jumping over i t . However, when i t came from the opposite direction, Stuart was unable to perform the necessary jumping 53 movement. This same observation was made when Stuart and the other subjects formed a circle around the investigator and were told to catch a b a l l when i t was thrown to them. Stuart would catch i t i f i t came from the same direction and in the same order. However, i f the sequence was broken, he had great d i f f i c u l t y adjusting to the new situation and would frequently miss the b a l l . When performing the movements designed to indicate limb differentiation, Stuart often was unable to move his l e f t arm or leg as he had just- moved his right arm or leg. He usually had to pause and think of what movement was required to move his opposite limb and often he would make many faulty movements before performing the correct one. This problem was demonstrated when Stuart was asked to make circles which slowly increased in circumference, with alternating arms. As a point of interest, Stuart was unable to pat the top of his head with one hand while making a ci r c l i n g motion on his stomach with the opposite hand, unt i l the ninth week of the program. At the end of the program an improvement was observed in Stuart's performance of activities requiring eye-hand coordination. This was most obvious in his increased a b i l i t y to bounce, throw, and catch a b a l l . When the program began Stuart was unable to bounce a ball and catch i t five consecutive times. At the end of the training period Stuart could walk forwards or backwards along the 54 balance beam while bouncing and catching a b a l l . A significant improvement was also noted in Stuart's a b i l i t y to perform movements with alternating sides of his body. He appeared to developr.isome understanding and anti c i -pation of what movements were required to perform the same activity from different positions or situations. When the program ended i t was almost impossible for Stuart to error in the "jump-over-the-beanbag" activity. Stuart's M.Q., which was above average at the beginning of the program, increased by 2.44 points. Stuart's i n i t i a l Frostig Test showed a l l scores well below average. His abi l i t y to see the relation of one object to another in space was practically n i l , as was his a b i l i t y to discriminate the positioning of objects one from another. Stuart's i n i t i a l Position in Space score was at the five year, six month age equivalent and his Spatial Relations score was at the four year age equivalent. His fi n a l scores in Position in Space and Spatial Relations had reached the respective age equivalents of eight years, nine months and eight years, three months. At the end of the program, Stuart's P.Q. had increased 28 points, from 66 to 9 4—the largest gain of a l l the subjects. Although some improvement was observed in Stuart's behavior in the classroom and in the training periods, he s t i l l , had emotional problems which required further attention. It appeared that Stuart's problems originated in the home 55 as he would arrive at school some days in a very aggressive and bitter mood. The investigator believed that had the program continued longer more improvement would have occurred in Stuart's behavior. 56 SUBJECT: Deborah W. AGE: 7 years HEIGHT: 50" WEIGHT: 54 lbs. I.Q.: 97 Debbie, the youngest subject in the study, was referred to the program because of her clumsiness and hyperactivity. Because she was unable to function normally in school, Debbie was interviewed by a psychiatrist who diagnosed her problem as "minimal cerebral dysfunction with particular d i f f i c u l t i e s in spatial orientation, especially in trans-lating visual stimuli into appropriate motor patterns such as those required in copying and printing". Debbie's home l i f e seemed to be a contributing factor to her problems, as her mother had admitted having d i f f i c u l t y with her children and her father was very authoritarian, lacking understanding of Debbie's problems. In addition, both parents treated Debbie in an inconsistent manner. In the classroom Debbie isolated herself from the other children and showed l i t t l e desire to participate in class a c t i v i t i e s . Her school record indicated that she required firm direction, frequent encouragement and re-direction. Debbie's classroom teacher described her as "transient, with an extremely short attention span". Although seldom contributing to class discussions she was a talkative g i r l who appeared to "chatter impulsively". Patience was required in handling Debbie as she was quite spontaneous and seemed inclined to take liberties and be manipulative. This was most evident in her "saying aloud" whatever came 5 7 into her mind. Without showing any concern about the subject being discussed by the teacher, Debbie would ask an irrelevant question and expect an answer. When the program began Debbie appeared very restless and exhibited awkward body movements. Faults were observed in almost a l l "basic motor movements". Debbie showed very poor head control as was indicated by her movement when pulling herself up from a back lying position to a s i t t i n g position. Her shoulders would tense and l i f t f i r s t with her head lagging behind in a ri g i d position. In order for Debbie to move any single part of her body i t was necessary for the remainder of her body to become tense. When observing limb differentiation i t was noticed that Debbie could move her hands into tasks only i f the upper arms were kept close to the body and a l l movement originated from her elbows. Obvious d i f f i c u l t i e s were also observed in Debbie's motor coordination and vision. Although she wore corrective glasses, Debbie bent her head to one side and squinted when she attempted to observe an object in motion. Inadequate visual-motor coordination was indicated by Debbie's inability to follow a moving target with her eyes and hand. Her pointed finger and eyes never seemed to be in exactly the same place at the same time. Debbie's poor coordination was most obvious in tasks of locomotion. When crawling or running, there was no evidence 53 of a motor pattern. Instead, there were a series of awkward, uncoordinated movements. Debbie seemed to be unable to relax as her arms and legs became rigid as soon as she began a movement. Debbie showed a slow but steady improvement in motor s k i l l s during the training program. Her coordination of body parts, especially eye-hand coordination, improved greatly. When the program began, Debbie was unable to catch a bal l which was gently thrown to her. She also was unable to bounce and catch a bal l by herself. Debbie's improvement in this s k i l l was one of the most significant changes observed in the program. Although her wrist and fingers were s t i l l too rigi d and her arm movement jerky, Debbie was able to perform many tasks with a ball when the program ended. She could now catch a thrown ball while bouncing on the trampoline. Also, she no longer complained that her eyes hurt her after practicing b a l l s k i l l s . Debbie's M.Q. increased 9.41 points, from 90.13 to 99.54. Debbie's i n i t i a l Frostig score showed a P.Q. Of 75, with deficiencies in four areas. Her Figure-Ground and Form Constancy scores were a t the four year, nine month and four year, six month age equivalents. The f i n a l Frostig score showed a P.Q. increase of five points, with improve-ments noted in three of the four problem areas. However, further remediation was s t i l l required in her Eye-Motor, Figure-Ground, and Form Constancy s k i l l s . 59 An improvement was also observed in Debbie's behavior by her parents, her teacher, and the investigator. At a special meeting, held to evaluate her progress, (attended by her remedial teacher, school nurse, a psychologist and a psychiatrist) i t was determinedthat Debbie could remain in her present school as a definite improvement had occurred in her behavior and perceptual-motor development. It was reported that Debbie no longer separated from the other children as readily as"she did earlier. Her parents and teacher indicated that she did not cry as much as she did earlier and that she appeared to have more confidence in herself. Debbie also was no longer in need of the same amount of medical attention and drug medication. 60 SUBJECT: Randy I. AGE: 9 years HEIGHT: 57" WEIGHT: 118 lbs. I.Q.: 87 Randy was a member of a special ungraded class for slow learners. His teacher described him as a boy who required individual attention as he had d i f f i c u l t y in under-standing the material presented in the classroom. Randy's school record indicated that he was unable to understand the relationship of things he saw. Because of his i n a b i l i t y to follow or participate in class discussions Randy often occupied himself doing things other than those he was asked to do. Obvious motor problems were also evident in Randy. One factor contributing to his d i f f i c u l t i e s was his obesity. Randy was extremely overweight and every movement required a great effort. I n i t i a l observations of Randy's motor performance showed him to be very awkward and slow in his movement. When asked to move from a sitting to a standing position he had to place his hands on the floor and push, in order to l i f t himself. In movements requiring changes in body position, Randy was much slower than the other subjects. When lying on his back, he had great d i f f i c u l t y in l i f t i n g himself to a standing position; he had to r o l l over on his stomach, push up with his arms, and support his weight on his hands and knees. Faulty movements were also observed when Randy attempted locomotor a c t i v i t i e s . When running, he took short steps 61 pointing his feet outwards. His head was projected forward and his eyes were looking downwards rather than in front of him. When walking or running Randy shuffled his feet rather than l i f t i n g them. Because of his obesity, he tired very quickly during locomotor activities and often he was forced to rest while the others continued a strenuous task. Randy also displayed d i f f i c u l t i e s in his performance of a ctivities requiring balance. When asked to stand s t i l l on a spot for thirty seconds he would rock backwards and forwards and sometimes lose his balance, causing him to move his feet. Randy was also unable to hop on one foot along a line without losing his balance. Because of his size Randy was often laughed at and ridiculed by the other children when he f e l l while attempting a balancing activity. Thus, he was rather self-conscious and tried to avoid activities in which he would be embarrassed. Randy's poor attitude toward physical activity at the beginning of the program improved as he became more involved. As the training sessions progressed, Randy became quite proficient on the trampoline and by the end of the program he could perform most of the stunts shown to the group. Randy was very proud of his efforts on the trampoline and seemed to develop more confidence in himself after achieving this success. Randy's increased confidence was reflected in an improvement in his attitude when attempting a task in which he had great d i f f i c u l t y . Although he s t i l l , could 6 2 not walk along a balance board without f a l l i n g , Randy would make a determined attempt at the task. As a result of daily reminding, Randy*s posture showed signs of improvement at the end of the program. When moving he now would hold his head up and his shoulders back. In spite of improvements in certain s k i l l s such as those required on the trampoline and in hopping, Randy's movement was s t i l l adversely affected by his obesity. An increase from 80,71 to 83.51 was noted in Randy's M.Q. His f i n a l M.Q. suggests that more instruction and practice is necessary. Randy's i n i t i a l Frostig Test identified his main perceptual problem as an in a b i l i t y to identify the position of an object in space. The psychologist who administered the test indicated that Randy's a b i l i t y in this area was comparable to that of the average child aged five and one-half years. Some d i f f i c u l t y was also observed in his Figure-Ground, Form Constancy, and Spatial Relations. Randy's f i n a l Frostig Test showed an increase of twelve points and an improvement in the four areas in which he needed remedial attention. His scores in Figure-Ground and Form Constancy improved significantly from well below average to average. Although an improvement was noted in his Position in Space score, further remediation was required in this area. Improvements were also observed in Randy's behavior and school performance. When the program ended his classroom teacher indicated that although Randy s t i l l required individual 63 attention, he appeared to have a better understanding of class discussions. She attributed this improvement to an increase in Randy's interest and involvement in group ac t i v i t i e s . The investigator supports this suggestion and maintains that a significant part of Randy's improvement in motor performance was due to his increased a b i l i t y to follow directions and apply himself to a task. 64 Discussion The case study findings indicate that children having perceptual-motor problems often exhibit similar faults in their performance of physical tasks. Poor differentiation, balance and coordination were readily observed in the subjects, some displaying greater weakness than others. Usually accompanying the physical handicap of the child was an emotional problem of some sort. In the case study subjects this problem manifested i t s e l f as fear,, a negative attitude, or aggressive hyperactive behavior. The i n i t i a l and f i n a l Perceptual Quotient (P.Q.) and Motor Quotient (M.Q.) scores provided important information to the investigator. M.Q. and P.Q. scores, like an I.Q. score, serve to indicate the a b i l i t y of an individual child as compared to the average child. The M.Q. and P.Q. are not to be regarded as measures of fixed a b i l i t y . Rather, a low M.Q. or P.Q. indicates that remedial attention i s required. Scores below ninety on either the M.Q. or P.Q. suggests that the individual has an equivalent percentile rank of twenty-five or less (33:478)). The results of this study show that at the beginning of the program only one subject (Stuart) had a M.Q. of over 100. The others ranged from Si to 96. After fourteen weeks of special training, four children had a M.Q. of 100 or more. Improvements in M.Q. ranged from 2.44 points to 13.17 points. As mentioned in the case studies, significant 6 5 improvements were observed in the motor capa city of each subject. The investigator considered the improvements in motor performance to be quite satisfactory. Although further improvements are required for most of the children, the investigator believes that a l l of the subjects would now be able to function in a normal school gymnasium situation. An improvement was also observed in the visual perception of the subjects. Increases in the P.Q. ranged from four points to twenty-eight points. Because the five areas of visual perception are relatively independent i t i s necessary to examine each area separately when discussing the results. As mentioned by several investigators (17) ( 3 3 ) , Figure-Ground appears to be the area of greatest concern when trying to rehabilitate the slow learner. The results of this study indicate that six of the eight children required remedial attention in Figure-Ground. A raw scale score of eight or below in any area of the Frostig Test indicates the need for special training ( 3 3 : 4 7 8 ) . When the program ended, an improvement was noted in the Figure-Ground score of a l l the subjects. Five of the children had scaled scores of nine or ten, indicating that their Figure-Ground a b i l i t y was now near average. Similar improvements were noted in the remaining four areas of visual perception. Because a subtest scale score is rather limited in i t s interpretation the investigator believed i t would be of value to include the perceptual age equivalent of each subject's 66 scaled scores. It seemed more informing to t e l l a teacher that "Eight-year-old Johnny cannot differentiate position in space as well as a six year old boy is expected to do", than to s ay a subtest scale score of eight indicates the need for special training. The experimenter and Mrs. E. Sharpe, who administered the f i n a l Frostig Test, were pleased and in some cases amazed at the observed increases in perceptual age equivalents. Stuart's Frostig scores showed subtest age equivalent increases of three years, three months and four years, three months. Although having an I.Q. of 75, the lowest of a l l the subjects, Stuart displayed the greatest improvement in visual perception. This finding suggests that further research be conducted in an attempt to determine whether a relationship exists between intelligence and improvement in perceptual a b i l i t i e s of children participating in a motor training program. In addition to improved perceptual and motor a b i l i t i e s i t was also observed that positive changes occurred in the child's attitudes and behavior. Although subjective, the comments of the parents and teachers indicated that the children appeared to be behaving in a more mature and controlled manner. It i s strongly believed by the investi-gator that a program of longer duration would encourage more significant results in terms of behavioral changes. It i s also believed that the academic performance of the slow learner could be greatly enhanced by a special perceptual-67 motor training period which was provided for the entire school year. The results of this study support the findings of previous investigators who conducted similar perceptual-motor programs. Although the case study technique does not permit generalization, the investigator believes that the descriptive results of this type of study provide a more detailed and informative account of the perceptually-motor handicapped child. The subjects observed in this study were similar in perceptual and motor a b i l i t y to the slow learners described by Frostig (3.<?) and Kephart (48). Frostig (33:464)' indicated that many children placed in special classes for slow learners are handicapped by poor eye-motor coordination and by disturbances in figure-ground perception. The results of the i n i t i a l Frostig Test scores in this study indicated that a l l of the subjects required remedial attention in one or both of these areas. The improvements in visual perception noted in the present study are similar to those attained by Berkov and Waxman (33:496). In their study, a control group and an experimental group were selected from a groupi of kindergarten children who were given the Frostig Test. I n i t i a l Frostig scores for the twenty training children ranged from 6 2 to 124, with eight children scoring below 90; the range for the twenty-two control children was 50 to 128, with six children scoring below 90 and two receiving a score of 90. 68 An experienced teacher met the training group for a total of eighteen sessions of eighty-five minutes each, in which the motor activities designed by Frostig and Home ( 3 2 ) were provided (activities involving differentiation, body awareness, coordination). The children in the control group remained with their regular teacher and followed the prescribed school curriculum. Upon retesting, both groups gained on the Frostig Test, but the trained group gained significantly more. Using the median gain of fifteen points as the cut-off, a two-by-two table produced a chi-square value of 9-9 (p * . 0 0 5 ) . It was noted that a l l the children in the trained group received a retest score of 9 0 or above (one g i r l received 9 0 ) ; four children in the control group f e l l below 9 0 . In the present study, the subject's performance and ab i l i t y to learn new motor patterns improved significantly as a result of the child's motor experiences which increased his a b i l i t y to identify, differentiate, and coordinate his body movements. When the training period had ended the main objective of the perceptual-motor program had been f u l f i l l e d . This objective, stated by Kephart ( 4 9 ) and supported by the investigator, was to provide motor learning experiences which permitted the use of movement, not only for specific purposes, but for the more generalized purpose of information gathering. Through these motor explorations, each subject achieved an improved knowledge of himself and 6 9 the world around him. The results obtained in the present study are in accord with those of similar studies in which Kephart's views have been adapted as the basis for the remedial program. Duggan's (24) study also conducted at the McBride School, with the assistance of Mrs. E. Sharpe, indicated that special motor training, similar to that employed in this study, was the most significant factor in the improvement of General Motor Abil i t y and Visual Perception among a group of grade two children. Fretz, Johnson, and Johnson (30) recently conducted a similar motor training program which supports the findings of the present study. Standardized tests of perceptual-motor development (Frostig Test and Johnson Motor Achievement Battery) were administered to fifty-three children enrolled in an eight week remedial program and thirty-one applicants who were waiting to enroll when space was available. A comparison of pre- and post-program test performance of the participating children, compared to the controls indicated that the participants made significant improvements in a l l perceptual-motor measures and in performance I.Q. Although the results obtained in the present study are definitely favourable, certain limitations deter one from making generalizations. Because there was no control of external factors such as home environment, other special training, etc. i t is not possible to consider the program 70 soley responsible for the observed improvements in the children. Also, no attempt was made to control other possible influencing factors such as having two instructors with different personalities and the effect of receiving individual attention and motivation. However, the investi-gator, after having observed the children throughout the program, would not hesitate to suggest that the special motor training given to the subjects was the major factor contributing to their improved perceptual and motor a b i l i t y . Admitting the limitation of being without a control group, the investigator believes that the information provided in the case study reports indicates the value of the program. The results, described as objectively as possible, reveal that the slow learner can be aided by special perceptual-motor training. CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary The purpose of this study was to provide a description of the physical performance of a group of slow learning children who participated in a perceptual-motor program and to observe the effects of special training in motor s k i l l s on the visual perception and motor capacity of each child. A case study approach was adapted in order to provide as much information as possible on each subject. Eight subjects ranging from six years to nine years of age, were selected to participate in the study. The subjects, a l l having learning d i f f i c u l t i e s , were referred to the program because of a diagnosis of retarded perceptual-motor development. The pre-training and post-training tests were standard-ized for a l l the subjects. Each child was given the Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception and the Carpenter General Motor Capacity Test at the beginning of the program. The subjects then received approximately f i f t y minutes of daily instruction in motor s k i l l s for a total of sixty-five 7 2 days. A l l the special training in motor s k i l l s took place in the Perceptual-Motor room at Sir Richard McBride School in Vancouver, British Columbia. At the conclusion of the special training period, the subjects were again tested in visual perception and general motor capacity. The scores on the i n i t i a l and f i n a l tests in motor capacity and perceptual a b i l i t i e s were compared and the differences were recorded. Information for the case study description of each subject was based largely on Kephart's "Observations of Basic Motor Movements". The observations permitted an i n i t i a l assessment of each child and also provided an indication of improvements i n motor performance throughout the program. Conclusions The case study findings of this report indicate that children, having deficient perceptual-motor development, often exhibit similar faults in their performance of physical tasks. D i f f i c u l t i e s in differentiation, balance and coordi-nation were readily observed in the subjects as was some form of behavioral problem. The results of the study indicate that children having regarded perceptual-motor development, are able to improve significantly in both their motor and perceptual a b i l i t y by participating in a special motor training program. The finding, i s , however, subject to limited interpretation, 73: since other factors may have contributed to the observed improvements. Possible limitations in the study were: 1 . Hawthorne effect, 2. Possible effect of extraneous influences, such as home environment, private tutoring, and the l i k e , 3. Absence of a control group, and 4. Effect of having two instructors with different personalities. In spite of these possible limitations, a. significant improvement occurred in the motor and perceptual a b i l i t y of the subjects. The results showed that the Motor Quotient and Perceptual Quotient improved in a l l the children and in some cases were average when the program ended. Teacher's and parents' remarks indicatted. that the children also showed marked improvement in their behavior attitude. These findings support the investigator in his firm belief that a special motor training program is a major contributor to the overall rehabilitation of the perceptually-motor handi-capped child. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 . Ames, L. Bi., "Individuality of Motor Development", Physical Therapy, vol. 46 (July, 1966)), pp. 121-128. 2. Ayres, A. J., "Interrelation of Perception, Function, and Treatment", Physical Therapy, vol. 46 (July, 1966), pp. 741-744. 3'. Ayres, A. J1., "Interrelationships Among Perceptual-Motor Functions in Children", American Journal of Occu-pational Therapy, vol. 20 (January, 1966), pp. 68-71. 4. Ayres, A. J., "Patterns of Perceptual-Motor Dysfunction in Children: A Factor Analytic Study", Perceptual  Motor S k i l l s , vol. 20 (January, 1966), pp. 334-5. 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Carpenter, A., "The Measurement of General Motor Capacity and General Motor Ability in the First Three Grades", Research Quarterly, vol. 13 (December, 1942), pp. 444-465• 75 13. Carpenter, A., "Tests of Motor Educability for the First Three Grades", Child Development, vol. II (1940), pp. 293-299. 14. Ghansky, N. M., "Perceptual Training with Elementary School Underachievers", Journal of School Psychology, vol. I (January, 1963)', pp. 33-41. 15. Clarke, H. H., Application of Measurement to Health and Phys ic a1 Educ at i on, Englewood C l i f f s : Prentice-Hall, 1967. 16. Clarke, H. H., Harrison, J. C., "Differences in Physical Motor Traits Between Boys of Advanced, Normal and Retarded Maturity", Research Quarterly, vol. 33 (March, 1962), pp. 13-25. 17. Gratty, B. J., Movement Behavior and Motor Learning, Philadelphia: Lea and Ferbiger, 1964. 18. Cratty, B. J., Social Dimensions of Physical Activity. Englewood C l i f f s : Prentice-Hall, 1967. 19. Critchley, M., Developmental Dyslexia, London: Heineman, 1964. 20. Crow, L. D., Child Development and Adjustment, New York: The Macmillan Co., 1962. 21. Cruickshank, W. M., Education of Exceptional Children and'-'Youth, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1967. 22. Gruickshank, W. M., The Teacher of Brain Injured Children, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1966. 23. Delacato, C:. H., Neurological Organization and Reading, Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Pub., 1966. 24. Duggan, A. E., "The Effect of Special Training in Motor Skil l s on the Reading Ability of Grade Two Pupils with Specific Reading Disability", Unpublished Master's Thesis, The University of British Columbia, "Vancouver, 1967. 25. Dunn., L. M. L., Exceptional Children in the Schools, New York: Holt, Rhinehart, Winston, 1963. 26. Elkind, D., Weiss, J., "Studies in Perceptual Development III: Perceptual Exploration", Child Development, vol. 38 (June, 1967), pp. 553-56TT 7 6 27- Espenschade, A., "Development of Motor Coordination in Boys and Girls", Research Quarterly, vol. 18 (March, 1947), pp. 31 - 4 4 . 28. Espenschade, A., Eckert, H. M., Motor Development, Ohio: Charles E, Merrill Books, Inc., 1967. 29. Fitzhugh, L. C , Reitan, R. M., "Sensorimotor Deficits of Brain Damaged Subjects in Relation to Intellectual Level", Perceptual and Motor S k i l l s , vol. 15 (December, 1962), pp. 603-608. 30. Fretz, B. R., Johnson, ¥. R,, Johnson, J. A., "Intellectual and Perceptual Motor Development as a Function of Therapeutic Play",. Research Quarterly, vol. 40 (December, 1969), pp. 687-691. 31. Frierson, E. C., Barbe, W. B., Educating Children with Learning Di s a b i l i t i e s : Selected Readings, New York: Appleton-Century-C'rof ts, 1967. 32. Frostig, M., Horne, D., The Frostig Program for the Development of Visual .Perception, Chicago: Follett Publishing Co., 1964. 3 3 . Frostig, M., "Frostig Test Standardization", Perceptual and Motor S k i l l s , vol. 19 (December, 1964), pp>. 463-499. 3 4 . Gallahue, D. L., "The Relationship Between Perceptual and Motor A b i l i t i e s " , Research Quarterly, vol. 39 (December, 1968), pp. 948-952. 3 5 . Garrett, M. E,, Statistics in Psychology and Education, New York: David McKay Co., 1965. 3 6 . Gesell, A., Studies in Child Development, New York: larper and Brothers, 1940. 3 7 . Getman, G. N., How to Develop Your Child's Intelligence, Luverne: The Announcer Press, 1962. 38. Gibson, E., Olum, V., Experimental Methods of Studying Perception in Children, Paul H. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of Research Methods in Child Development, New York: John Wiley and Sons, I960, pp. 311 - 3 7 3 . 391 Baring, N. G., Stables, J. M., "The Effect of Gross Motor Development on Visual Perception and Eye-Hand Coordination", Physical Therapy, vol. 46 (February, 1966), pp. 129 - 1 3 5 . 40. Hawkes, G. R., Pease, D., Behavior and Development from  Five to Twelve, New York: Harper and Row Pub., I96TT 77 41. Held, R., Hein, A., "Movement Produced Stimulation in the Development of Visually Guided Behavior", Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, vol. 566 11963), pp. 722-723. 42. Hildreth, G., "The Development and Training of Hand Dominance, Characteristics of Handedness", Journal  of Genetic Psychology, vol. 75 ( 1 9 4 9 ) , pp. 197-220. 43« Hurlock, E. B., Child Development, New York: McGraw-H i l l Book Company, 1964. 44. Huxley, A. L., The Door of Perception, New York: Harper and Row Publishing, 1 9 5 4 . 45. Ismail, A. H., Gruber, A. H., The Predictive Power of Coordination and Balance Items in Estimating  Intellectual Achievements, paper read at 69th annual meeting of the National College Physical Education Association for Men, Philadelphia, 1 9 6 5 . 46. Isom, J. B., "Perceptual Development: Visual and Kinesthetic - A Brief Review", Physical Therapy, vol. 46 (July, 1 9 6 6 ) , pp. 734-740. 47. Johnson, W. R., Fretz, B. R., Johnson, J. A., "Changes in Self-Concepts During a Physical Development Program", Research Quarterly, vol. 39 (October, 1 9 6 8 ) , pp.. 5 6 0 - 5 6 5 . 48. Kephart, N. C , The Slow Learner in the Classroom, Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Books Inc., I 9 6 0 . 49. Kephart, M. C , Chaney, C. M., Motoric Aids to Perceptual Training, Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Pub. Co., 1 9 6 8 . 50. Kephart, N. C , Ebersole, M.. J., Steps to Achievement for the Slow Learner, Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Pub. Co., 1 9 6 8 . 51. Kephart, N. C , "Perceptual Motor Aspects of Learning Disabilities", Frierson, E. C , Barhe, W. B., (editors), Educating Children with Learning Disa-b i l i t i e s , New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1 9 6 7 , pp. 405-413. 52. Lawther, J. D., The Learning of Physical S k i l l s , Englewood C l i f f s : Prentice-Hall Inc., 1 9 6 8 . 53. McCloy, C. H., Young, N. D., Tests and Measurements in Health and Physical Education, New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1954i 54. McCormick, C. C., Poetker, B>., "Improvement in Reading Achievement Through Perceptual Motor Training", Research Quarterly, vol. 39 (1967), pp. 6 2 7 - 6 3 3 . 55. Maslow, A., Motivation and Personality, New York: Harper and Row, 1954. 56. Myklebust, H. R., Johnson, D. J., Learning Disabilities, New York: Grune and Stratton, Inc., 1967. 57. Olson, A. V., "Relation of Achievement Test Scores and Specific Reading Abilities to the Frostig Devel-opmental Test of Visual Perception", Perceptual  and Motor S k i l l s , vol. 22 (February, 1966), pp. 179-184. 58. Painter, G., "The Effects of a Rhythmic and Sensory-Motor Activity Program on Perceptual Motor Spatial Abilities of Kindergarten Children", Exceptional  Children, vol. 33 (1966), pp. 113-116. 59. Plack, J. J., "Relationship Between Achievement in Reading and Achievement in Selected Motor S k i l l s in Elementary School Children", Research Quarterly, vol. 39 (December, 1968), pp. 1063-1068. 60. Piaget, J., The Origins of Intelligence in Children, New York": International University Press, 1966. 61. Radler,,D. H., Kephart, N. C , Success Through Play, New York: The MacMillan Co., I960. 62. Rosen, C. L., "An Experimental Study of Visual Perceptual Training and Reading Achievement in First Grade". Perceptual and Motor S k i l l s , vol. 22 (June, 1966), PP. 979-986. 6 3 . Sherbon, F. B., The Child, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1941. 6 4 . Shirley, M. M., Fi r s t Two Years, University of Minnesota Press, 1931. 6 5 . Silver, A. A., Hagin, R. A. Hersh, M. F., "Reading Disability: Teaching Through Stimulation of Deficit Perceptual Areas", American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, vol. 37 (January, 1967), pp. 7 4 4 - 7 5 2 . 79 6 6 . Singer, R, N., Motor Learning and Human. Performance, New York: The Macmillan Co., 1968. 67. Singer, R. N., Brunk, J., "Relation of Perceptual Motor Ability and Intellectual Ability in Elementary School Children", Perceptual and Motor S k i l l s , vol. 24 ( 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 967-970. 68. Slobodian, J., Campbell, P., "Do Children's Perceptions Influence Beginning Reading Achievement?", Elementary School Journal, vol. 67 (May, 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 423-427. 6 9 . Smith, H. M., "Motor Activity and Perceptual Development", Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, vol. 39 (February, 1968), pp. 28-36. 70. Sprague, R., Learning Di f f i c u l t i e s of First Grade Children Diagnosed by the Frostig Visual Perceptual Tests: A Factor Analytic Study, Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Wayne University, 1963. 7 1 . Sutphin, F. E., A Perceptual Testing and Training Handbook for First Grade Teachers, Winter Haven: Winter Haven Lions Research Foundation, 1967• 7 2 . Trussell, E. M., "Relation of Performance of Selected Physical Sk i l l s to Perceptual Aspects of Reading Readiness in Elementary School Children", Research  Quarterly, vol. 40 (May, 1 9 6 9 ) , pp. 383-390. 73. Vernon, M. D., "Ten More Important Sources of Information on Visual Perception in Relation to Reading", The  Reading Teacher, vol. 20 ( 1 9 6 6 ) , pp. 134-135. 74. Vernon, M. D., The Psychology of Perception, Middlesex: Penguin Books Ltd., 1962. 7 5 . Welch, D. E., "The Effect of Training in Motor S k i l l s on Reading Improvement in Grade One Students", Unpublished Master's Thesis, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1968. 76. Werner, H., Strauss, A. A., "Pathology of Figure-Background Relationships in the Child", Journal  of Abnormal Social Psychology, vol. 36 ( 1 9 4 1 ) , pp. 236-248. 77. Wolinsky, G. F., "Piaget's Theory of Perception: Insights for Educational Practices with Children Who Have Perceptual D i f f i c u l t i e s " , Training School  Bulletin, vol. 62 ( 1 9 6 5 ) , pp. 1 2 - 2 6 . APPENDIX APPENDIX A MOTOR TASKS AND EQUIPMENT USED TO DETECT AND RECTIFY PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR PROBLEMS This section presents a brief mention of the motor tasks and equipment which permitted an assessment of the child's perceptual-motor behavior and also formed the basis for the training program. The tasks have been designed for and c l i n c i a l l y investigated with children six to nine years of age. Further information concerning the selection of motor tasks for this age range and older can be obtained by referring to Kephart (,4#);. WALKING BOARD (OR BEAM) The walking board i s a modification of the childhood activity of walking a r a i l fence or along the r a i l s of a railroad track. Techniques similar to this have been used extensively in kindergarten and elementary school grades. The primary function to be observed with the walking board i s that of balance. Postural f l e x i b i l i t y can also be observed since the balance problem also creates a situation in which movements which cannot be predicted far ahead of time must be performed without losing basic postural adjust-ment. Laterality is involved in maintaining balance and is developed when the child is asked to walk the board in the sidewise directions. Spatial orientation and spatial projections are required when the backward direction is introduced. 8 1 JUMPING Further information concerning the child's a b i l i t y to maintain balance and posture can be obtained when he i s required to perform against the p u l l of gravity. The easiest method of observing such a c t i v i t i e s i s through the use of hopping, skipping, and jumping performances. The a c t i v i t i e s selected are designed to indicate how well the c h i l d can maintain control of his body when he i s required to move symmetrically, to move with each side alone, and to move alternately between sides. The tasks are also designed to develop b i l a t e r a l movement, u n i l a t e r a l movement, and alternating movements. In order to perform at an acceptable l e v e l , the c h i l d must demonstrate l a t e r a l i t y , body., image, rhythm, and the neurological controls related to each of these f a c t o r s . TRAMPOLINE The trampoline offers the instructor an e f f e c t i v e way to develop general postural adjustment and balance. The c h i l d who experiences d i f f i c u l t y i n moving i n the backward d i r e c t i o n and who cannot perform balancing a c t i v i t i e s without watching his feet can be greatly aided by the trampoline. In order to control his gross musculature i t i s e s s e n t i a l that the c h i l d develop a sense of rhythm i n his movement. The c h i l d who shows a weakness i n t h i s area can be expected to p r o f i t from rhythm t r a i n i n g and from B2 trampoline training where special attention is paid to the establishment of a rhythm in body movement which i s matched to an outside rhythm, the movement of the bed of the trampoline. Apart from i t s contribution to the motor development of the child, the trampoline exerts a strong motivational force and i s a source of enjoyment to the child. IDENTIFICATION OF BODY PARTS Body image i s determined by the child's a b i l i t y to identify parts of his body. Two general areas of knowledge are involved. The f i r s t is an awareness of the existence of the parts of the body and their names. The second area is awareness of the precise location of parts. Di f f i c u l t y in this area is shown by the child who can start in the general direction of the part but must experiment or "feel around" to make f i n a l contact. He is not aware of the exact location in space of the part. Such a child may be aided by training techniques designed to c a l l attention to the parts of his body and their location or control. Such activities as "Angels-In-The-Snow" w i l l be found helpful. 83 SAMPLE OF A LESSON PLAN USED IN THE MOTOR ABILITY SKILLS TRAINING PROGRAM Motor S k i l l s Training Program WEEK OF: March 9-13 DATE: Friday, March 13, 1970. INSTRUCTOR: H. Lendvoy Body Exercises (5 minutes) 1. Sitting to standing. 2. Lie on floor on stomach and get up by putting hands on floor and jumping up. 3. Obstacle run. 4. "Angels-in-the-Snow". Balance Exercises and Trampoline (20 minutes)' 1. Forward, sidewise, backward on walking board. 2. Ball bounce and catch on the balance board. 3. Trampoline: (a)! bounce on one foot; (b): bounce and turn 180 degrees in ai r . Games (10 minutes) 1. Relay using walking boards, gym set, ladders, and mats. APPENDIX B RAW SCORES GENERAL MOTOR CAPACITY TEST SCORES SUBJECT: Douglas B. SCORES MADE ON INITIAL TEST: AGE: 9 - 4 HEIGHT: 4 9 - i " ' RAW SCORE McCloy Classification Index: 5 4 0 . 6 Sargent Jump Test: 1 6 . 0 Squat-Thrust Test: 4 . 0 Iowa Brace Test: 3 . 0 ' General Motor Capacity Score (GMCS): Norm for General Motor Capacity: Motor Quotient: SCORES MADE ON FINAL TEST: AGE: 9 - 8 HEIGHT: 5 0 - | " RAW SCORE McCloy Classification Index: 5 5 4 . 2 Sargent Jump Test: 1 9 . 0 Squat-Thrust Test: 5 . 5 Iowa-Brace Test: 5 . 0 General Motor Capacity Score (GMCS): Norm for General Motor Capacity: Motor Quotient: WEIGHT: 5 7 lbs- . CONVERTED SCORE 1 0 3 . 7 4 2 1 . 7 2 2 0 . 0 0 2 . 6 2 1 4 8 . 0 8 1 7 0 . 1 4 8 7 . 0 3 WEIGHT: 5 8 lbs. CONVERTED SCORE 1 0 7 . 2 9 2 5 . 8 0 2 7 . 5 0 4 . 3 7 1 6 4 . 9 6 1 7 5 . 4 1 9 4 . 0 4 SUBJECT: Kenneth C. SCORES MADE ON INITIAL TEST: AGE: 9-6 HEIGHT: 49" RAW SCORE McCloy Classification Index: 551.5 Sargent Jump Test: 18.0 Squat-Thrust Test: 4.0 Iowa-Brace Test: 6.0 General Motor Capacity Score (GMCS): Norm for General Motor Capacity: Motor Quotient: SCORES MADE ON FINAL TEST: AGE: 9-10 HEIGHT: 52" RAW SCORE McCloy Classification Index: 583.0 Sargent Jump Test: 23.0 Squat-Thrust Test: 5.0 Iowa-Brace Test: 11.0 General Motor Capacity Score (GMCS): Norm for General Motor Capacity: Motor Capacity: WEIGHT: 67-ilbs. CONVERTED SCOORE 106.75 24.44 20.00 5.24 156.43 174.60 89.59 WEIGHT: 75 lbs. CONVERTED SCORE 115.21 31.23 25.00 9.60 181.04 I 8 7 . 1 7 97.00 86 SUBJECT: Lynn F. SCORES MADE QN INITIAL TEST: AGE: 7-7 HEIGHT: 49" RAW SCORE McCloy Classification Index: 493.6 Sargent Jump Test: 25.0 Squat-Thrust Test: 2.5 Iowa-Brace Test: 5.0 General Motor Capacity Score (GMCS): Norm for General Motor Capacity: Motor Quotient: SCORES MADE ON FINAL TEST: AGE: 7-11 HEIGHT: 49" RAW SCORE McCloy Classification Index: 501.0 Sargent Jump Test: 25.0 Squat-Thrust Test: 5.5 Iowa-Brace Test: 11.0 General Motor Capacity Score (GMCS): Norm for General Motor Capacity: Motor Quotient: WEIGHT: 48 lbs. CONVERTED SCORE 38.33: 2.65 2.47 12.53 55.98 59.09 93.04 WEIGHT: 49 lbs. CONVERTED SCORE 38.88 2.65 5.42 16.22 63.47 59;77 106.21 87 SUBJECT: Meil H. SCORES MADE ON INITIAL TEST: A G E : 8-8 HEIGHT: 50" WEIGHT: 57 lbs. RAW7.SC0RE.T C O N ¥ E H T E D A S C O R E McCloy Classification Index: 530.2 100:.74 Sargent Jump Test: 14.0 19.01 Squat-Thrust Test: 3.0 15.00^ Iowa-Brace Test: 2.0 1.75 General Motor Capacity Score (GMCS): 136.50 Norm for General Motor Capacity: 165.68 Motor Quotient: 82.39 SCORES MADE ON FINAL TEST: AGE: 9 HEIGHT: 51" McCloy Classification Index: Sargent Jump Test:' Squat-Thrust Test: Iowa-Brace Test: General Motor Capacity Score (GMCS): Norm for General Motor Capacity: Motor Quotient: RAW SCORE 544.0 20.0 4.5 6.0 WEIGHT: 58 lbs. CONVERTED SCORE 104.56 27.15 22.50 5.24 159.45 171.35 93.00 88 SUBJECT: James J. SCORES MADE ON INITIAL TEST: ACE: 8-9 HEIGHT: 50" RAW SCORE McCloy Classification Index: 549.5 Sargent Jump Test: 28.0 Squat-Thrust Test: 4.0 Iowa-Brace Test: 3.0 General Motor Capacity Score (GMCS): Norm for General Motor Capacity: Motor Quotient: SCORES MADE ON FINAL TEST: AGE: 9-1 HEIGHT: 51" RAW SCORE McCloy Classification Index: 562.6 Sargent Jump Test: 30.0 Squat-Thrust Test: 6.0 Iowa-Brace Test: 10.0 General Motor Capacity Score (GMCS): Norm for General Motor Capacity: Motor Quotient: WEIGHT: 74i lbs. CONVERTED SCORE 106.20 38.02 20.00 2.62 166.84 173.79 96.00 WEIGHT: 75 lbs. CONVERTED SCORE 109". 75 40.73 30.00 10.00 190.48 179.06 106.32 89 SUBJECT: Stuart M. SCORES MADE ON INITIAL TEST: AGE: 9-2 HEIGHT: 53-1" RAW SCORE McCloy Classification Index: 558.4 Sargent Jump Test: 30.0 Squat-Thrust Test: 5.0 Iowa-Brace Test: 7.0 General Motor Capacity Score (GMCS): Norm for General Motor Capacity: Motor Quotient: SCORES MADE ON FINAL TEST: AGE: 9-6 HEIGHT: 52" RAW SCORE McCloy Classification Index: 570.0 Sargent Jump Test: 30.0 Squat-Thrust Test: 6.0 Iowa-Brace Test: 10.0 General Motor Capacity Score (GMCS): Norm for General Motor Capacity: Motor Quotient: WEIGHT: 66 lbs. CONVERTED SCORE-108.38 40.73 25.00 6.11 180.22 177.03 101.80 WEIGHT: 68 lbs. CONVERTED SCORE 111.16 40.73 30.00 8.73 190.62 181.90 104.24 90 SUBJECT: Deborah W. SCORES MADE ON INITIAL TEST: AGE: 6-8 HEIGHT: 4 8 i " RAW SCORE McCloy Classification Index: 4 7 6 . 2 Sargent Jump Test: 14*0 Squat-Thrust Test: 2.0 Iowa-Brace Test: 3.0 General Motor Capacity Score (GMCS ): Norm for General Motor Capacity: Motor Quotient: SCORES MADE ON FINAL TEST: AGE: 7 HEIGHT: 50" RAW SCORE McCloy Classification Index 4 9 4 . 0 Sargent Jump Test: 1 7 . 0 Squat-Thrust Test: 5.0 Iowa-Brace Test: 7.0 General Motor Capacity Score (GMCS): Norm for General Motor Capacity: Motor Quotient: WEIGHT: 52 lbs. CONVERTED SCORE 36.94 1.48 1.97 1 1 . 3 0 5 1 . 6 9 57.35 90.13 WEIGHT: 54 lbs. CONVERTED SCORE 38.33 1.80 4.93 13.76 58.82 59.09 99.54 9 1 SUBJECT: Randy Y. SCORES MADE ON-INITIAL TEST: AGE: 8-8 HEIGHT: 55i" RAW SCORE McCloy Classification Index: 619.2 Sargent Jump Test: 18.0 Squat-Thrust Test: 2.5 Iowa-Brace Test: 1.0 General Motor Capacity Score (GMCS): Norm for General Motor Capacity: Motor Quotient: SCORES MADE ON FINAL TEST: AGE: 9 HEIGHT: 57" RAW SCORE McCloy Classification Index: 640.0 Sargent Jump Test: 20.0 Squat-Thrust Test: 3.0 Iowa-Brace Test: 3.0 General Motor Capacity Score (GMCS): Norm for General Motor Capacity: Motor Quotient: WEIGHT: 116 lbs. CONVERTED SCORE 125.04 24.44 12.50 .6*7 162.85 201.76 80.71 WEIGHT: 118 lbs. CONVERTED SCORE 130.50 27.15 15.00 2.62 175.27 209.87 83.51 92 FROSTIG VISUAL PERCEPTION TEST SCORES Key to Abbreviation: E. M.: Eye-Motor Coordination F.C: Figure-Ground F. C : Form Constancy P.S.: Position in Space S.R.: Spatial Relations P.Q.: Perceptual Quotient I n i t i a l Test Scores: SUBJECTS E.M. F.G. F.C P.S. S.R. P.Q. Douglas B. 7 5 7 6 6 ' 66 Kenneth C. 6 9 ••s 9 8 80 Lynne F. 10 5 5 9 8 70 Neil H.. 10 7 9' 10 8 89 James J. 8 9 11 8 9 90 Stuart M. 7 8 8 5 5 66 Deborah ¥. 7 7 7 9 8 75 Randy I. 11 7 8 6 8 80 Final Test Scores: SUBJECTS E.M. F.G. F.C. P.S. S.R. P.Q. Douglas B. 7 6 8 7 7 70 Kenneth C 10 10 9' 7 8 88 Lynne F. 7 8 6 9 10 75 Neil H=. 10 10 IO 8 9 94 James J. 10 10 10 10 10 100 Stuart M. 10 9 9 10 9 94 Deborah W. 7 8 8 9 9 80 Randy Y. 10 10 10 7 9 92 

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