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UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Comparison of the ice skating starting styles used in ice hockey Jones, Brian Edgar 1969

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COMPARISON OP THE ICE SKATING STARTING STYLES USED IN ICE HOCKEY by BRIAN EDGAR JONES B . P . H . E . , The U n i v e r s i t y o f To ron to , 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OP THE REQUIREMENTS POR THE. DEGREE OP MASTER OP PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the S choo l o f PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION We accept t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f i r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d staxvtjard; THE UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and S t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my De p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Physical Education and Recreation The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada D a t e A p r i l , 1969 ABSTRACT The purpose o f t h i s s tudy was to determine the d i f f e r e n c e between the f r o n t s t y l e and the s i d e s t y l e o f s t a r t i n g i n i c e hockey w i th regards to t ime , speed , and a c c e l e r a t i o n * S i x t e e n p l a y e r s o f the V a r s i t y and J u n i o r V a r s i t y I ce Hockey Teams at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia v o l u n t e e r e d as s u b j e c t s . Age , h e i g h t , we igh t , years o f s k a t i n g exper i ence and p r e f e r r e d s t y l e o f s t a r t i n g were o b t a i n e d f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . U s i ng s topwatches , the t ime f o r the f i r s t t h i r t y f e e t and the t o t a l s i x t y f e e t was r e c o r d e d f o r t en t r i a l s f o r each s t y l e o f s t a r t i n g f o r a l l subjects<> The s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d on o n l y one s t a r t i n g s t y l e pe r s e s s i o n - ten t r i a l s - and were randomly a s s i gned to the s t y l e u s e d i n the f i r s t s e s s i o n . The speed and a c c e l e r a t i o n were c a l c u l a t e d f o r the f i r s t t h i r t y f e e t and the t o t a l s i x t y f e e t and the t ime , speed , and a c c e l e r a t i o n were c a l c u l a t e d f o r the second t h i r t y f e e t . T - r a t i o ' s were computed to t e s t the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i f f e r e n c e between the group means f o r t ime, speed , and a c c e l -e r a t i o n f o r the f i r s t t h i r t y f e e t , the second t h i r t y f e e t , and the t o t a l s i x t y f e e t . S i g n i f i c a n t t - r a t i o ' s were found f a v o u r i n g the f r o n t s t a r t i n g s t y l e f o r t i m e , speed , and a c c e l e r a t i o n f o r the f i r s t t h i r t y f e e t and the t o t a l s i x t y f e e t . TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I STATEMENT OP THE PROBLEM . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n . 1 The Problem 2 N u l l Hypothesis 2 Assumptions 2 L i m i t a t i o n s 3 D e f i n i t i o n s 3 References 5 I I REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE 6 References * • 8 I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURE 9 IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 13 Results 13 D i s c u s s i o n 20 References 21j. V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 25 BIBLIOGRAPHY 27 APPENDICES • - 29 A STATISTICAL TREATMENT 30 B SAMPLE DATA SHEET „ 33 C RAW SCORES 35 LIST OP TABLES TABLE PAGE I Comparison of Times Between Front and Side Sta r t i n g Styles f o r F i r s t Thirty Peet 11+ II Comparison of Times Between Front and Side Starting Styles f o r Second Thirty Feet . . 1 5 I I I Comparison of Times Between Front and Side Starting Styles for Total Sixty Feet 16 IV Comparison of Speed Between Front and Side S t a r t i n g Styles f o r F i r s t Thirty Feet 16 V Comparison of Speed Between Front and Side Sta r t i n g Styles f o r Second Thi r t y Feet 17 VI Comparison of Speed Between Front and Side Starting Styles for Total Sixty Feet 18 VII Comparison of Acceleration Between Front and Side S t a r t i n g Styles for F i r s t Thirty Feet 19 VIII Comparison of Acceleration Between Front and Side Sta r t i n g Styles for Second Thirty Feet 19 IX Comparison of Acceleration Between Front and Side - Sta r t i n g Styles for Total Sixty Feet 20 LIST OP FIGURES FIGURE I S t a r t i n g and Testing S t a t i o n s CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  INTRODUCTION In ioe hookey, when starting from a stationary position, there are two starting styles used by most players. They are the front style and the side style* Most players use both methods but with a preference for one or the other© It appears to be a matter of opinion at the moment which is the better method of starting with respeot to time, speed, and acceleration. There has been only one study done i n this area and Claude St. Denis (l) found that i n relation to time only, the side style, or "running method" as he referred to i t , was the faster. Beside St. Denis 1 study there has been no other evidence supporting either method of starting. In the film "Instructional Hockey Series" (2) on skating, both styles of starting are described but there is no mention of which is the superior i n relation to time, speed, or acceleration. This study is an attempt to determine which is the better start of the two styles with respect to time, speed, and acceleration. 2 THE PROBLEM The purpose of th i s study was to determine the difference between two st y l e s of starts i n skating, the side s t a r t and the front s t a r t , with regards to time, speed, and acceleration* NULL HYPOTHESIS There was no difference between the front and side styles of s t a r t i n g with respect to time, speed, and acceleration. Ho J up = us ASSUMPTIONS Por the purpose of th i s study, the following assumptions were applied; 1. There was no difference i n the sample population and the general population with respect to time, speed, and acceleration r e s u l t i n g from the d i f f e r e n t s t a r t i n g styles i n skating methods used i n i c e hockey. 2* The skating a b i l i t y l e v e l of the sample population used i n this study was of a superior l e v e l so that no learning would 3 occur during tiae testing procedure. LIMITATIONS The sample population was not randomly selected. The Varsity and Junior Varsity ice hockey teams at the University of British Columbia were selected as the sample population. DEFINITIONS For the purpose of this study, the following definitions were appliedj 1. The University of British Columbia Varsity Ice Hockey Team was classifi e d as the highest calibre ice hockey team at the University of British Columbia. 2. The University of British Columbia Junior Varsity Ice Hockey Team was classified as the second highest calibre ice hockey team at the University of British Columbia. 3. The Front Start is a method of starting i n ice hockey. The front of the body is facing i n the direction in which the player is going. The skates are shoulder width apart, knees are flexed, and the body is bent well over the s k a t e s . The skates are p i v o t e d outward and, when s t a r t i n g , the d r i v e l e g u n c o i l s l i k e a s p r i n g . Sho r t chopping s t r i d e s are u s e d . The knee o f the f r o n t l e g i s w e l l ben t . The f r o n t ska te en te rs w i t h l i t t l e o r no g l i d e and the t h r u s t comes f rom the toe o f the skate b l a d e . The S i de S t a r t Is a method o f s t a r t i n g i n i c e hockey . The s i d e o f the body i s f a c i n g i n the d i r e c t i o n i n which the p l a y e r i s g o i n g . The skates are shou lde r w id th a p a r t , the knees are f l e x e d , and the body i s u p r i g h t . The skates are p i v o t e d s l i g h t l y outward i n the same d i r e c t i o n . When s t a r t i n g , the body l eans i n the d i r e c t i o n o f t r a v e l and the p l a y e r takes th ree o r f o u r s h o r t , choppy runn ing s t r i d e s sideways w i t h the l e g s c r o s s i n g over one ano the r . The t h r u s t i s f rom the toe o f the r e a r ska te b lade and the normal s k a t i n g p o s i t i o n i s o b t a i n e d i n two or three s t r i d e s . 5 REFERENCES 1, S t . Denis, Claude, "A Study to Determine the Fastest Method of Starting From a Stopped P o s i t i o n i n Ice Hockey", Unpublished Master's Thesis, S p r i n g f i e l d College, 1956. 2. Chetwynd Films, Instructional Hookey Films, Toronto, 1968. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The importance of a f a s t s t a r t i n i c e hookey was emphasized by Lloyd Per c i v a l (1:17) when he stated: Too much attention oannot be placed on the importance of a quiok break because even a f r a c t i o n of a seoond's edge over the player' oheoking you can mean your s t i c k on the puck f i r s t , and this may. mean a goal or the s t a r t of an important breaking out or clearing play* William L'Heureux (2:15>) also pointed out the importance of a fast s t a r t , i n d i c a t i n g ; "... to get into high gear i n the shortest possible time i s a tremendous asset i n hockey." Although the importance of a f a s t s t a r t i n i c e hockey has been recognized, very l i t t l e has been written describing or explaining the methods or styles of s t a r t i n g f a s t * Eddie Jeremiah (3:11) when describing how to s t a r t , stated; "For a quick breakaway, a few short, choppy, fas t strides are necessary." Andy Bathgate (1J.:1J.8) also mentioned; "In getting under way, I use three or four short choppy strides at the s t a r t and then gradually s h i f t to longer ones." I t should be noted that the above references are opinions based on personal experience, not s c i e n t i f i c experimentation* Another reference i s the Instructional Hookey Films (£) on skating, In which both styles of s t a r t i n g , the side s t a r t and the front s t a r t , were demonstrated and described, but there was no mention of whether one method was f a s t e r 7 than the other or i f they were equal with respect to time, speed, and acceleration. Claude St. Denis (6) when deter-mining the fastest method of starting found that the side style or "running method" was faster i n relation to time than the front style or "skating method". St. Denis (6) measured the time i t took for each of the seventeen members of a high school ice hockey team to skate a distance of 2ij. feet using the different methods of starting. Each player was given nine tria l s over a three week period with nine of the players using the front style six times and the side style three times and the other eight players used the side style six times and the front style three times* The times for the different styles were averaged out and the difference was calculated i n favour of the side style or "running method" as St. Denis (6) referred to i t (t-ratio = i|..ii-j.9). This study of St. Denis 1 (6) has been the only experimental study reported i n the literature on ice hockey fundamentals, i n d i -cating a need for further investigation. 8 REFERENCES Percival, Lloyd, The Hookey Handbook, Revised Edition, New York: A.S. Barnes and Company, 1961, Page 17• L'Heureux, B i l l , Hookey For Boys, Chicago: Follett Publishing Company, 1962, Page 15 . Jeremiah, Ed., Ice Hockey, Revised Edition, New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1958, Page 11. Bathgate, Andy, Wolff, B., Andy Bathgate's Hockey Secrets, Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1963, Page Ifi. Chetwynd Films, Instructional Hockey Films, Skating, Toronto, IfLW* St. Denis, Claude, "A Study to Determine the Fastest Method of Starting From a Stopped Position i n Ioe Hockey", Unpublished Master's Thesis, Spring-f i e l d College, 1956. CHAPTER I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURE . The subjects were sixteen players of the Var s i t y and the Junior Varsity Ice Hockey Teams at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, The subjects were not randomly selected. Die groups were equated since each subject was tested on both experimental conditions; one i n which the front s t a r t was used, the other i n which the side s t a r t was used, Por each of the experimental t r i a l s , each subject had ten t r i a l s and the mean f o r the ten t r i a l s was used as the subject's time fo r that s t y l e of s t a r t i n g . A p i l o t study was run to deter-mine i f any learning e f f e c t would r e s u l t over the ten t r i a l s . The r e s u l t s showed that no learning occurred over the ten t r i a l s . The subjects were given a minute re s t between t r i a l s and did only one s t y l e of s t a r t i n g at a testing session. Thus, i t required two sessions to t e s t a l l the subjects. The subjects were tested during their regular practice session which was £ s 0 0 P.M. to 7 « 0 0 P.M. The subjects had completed f i v e months of competitive hockey and were considered i n good condition. The subjects were randomly ranked from one to s i x -teen and i f they were ranked with an odd number, then they used the side s t y l e at the f i r s t testing session and i f they were ranked with an even number, they used the front s t y l e at the f i r s t session. At the second session, a l l the subjeots used the alternative s t y l e of s t a r t i n g . 10 The subjects reoeived i n s t r u c t i o n on how to s t a r t and were given one praotice t r i a l per session. They were allowed f i v e minutes of warm-up skating, skating at t h e i r own speed. They were tested i n f u l l hockey equipment, which included s h i n pads, elbow pads, shoulder pads, hookey pants, a helmet, gloves and a hockey s t i c k , so that the testing s i t u a t i o n was s i m i l a r to normal game conditions* There were three t e s t i n g s t a t i o n s ; one s t a r t i n g and two timing s t a t i o n s * The two blue l i n e s and the centre red l i n e of a standard s i z e ioe hookey surface were used as the testing s t a t i o n s * (See f i g u r e 1) The reg u l a t i o n distance between each blue l i n e and the centre r e d l i n e was t h i r t y feet, TIMING STATION TIMING STATION STARTING STATION p o s i t i o n on whioh timers judge f o r stoppage o f watohes p o s i t i o n on whioh timers judge f o r stoppage of watches s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n v BLUE LINE CO CENTRE RED LINE 30' BLUB LINE FIGURE 1. STARTING AND TESTING STATIONS 11 Thus, the total testing distanoe was sixty feet. These dis-tances were measured with a hundred foot steel measuring tape to check the actual distance and the distances were found to be of regulation length. Each subject on the com-mand of "Ready, go.", started at the edge of one blue line and skated i n a straight line past the centre red line and the other blue li n e trying to oontinue accelerating as they go. The time to skate the f i r s t thirty feet and the total sixty feet was recorded. Thus, the speed and acceleration for the f i r s t thirty feet and the total sixty feet was calculated and the time, speed, and acceleration for the second thirty feet was calculated. Stopwatches recording tenths of seconds were the instruments used to measure the times for the various dis-tances. There were three experienced timers, each with one watch, at each testing station. The mean of the three times per t r i a l recorded at each station was used as the subjeot's time for that t r i a l . The same timers and starter were used for a l l tests. The ice surface conditions were relatively the same for a l l tests also. Por each of the three sections, the mean, the stan-dard deviation, and the standard error of the mean was calculated. Then the difference between the means, the standard error of the difference and the " t " ratio were computed. The five percent level of confidence was used to determine i f there were any significant differences. 12 Also, for each subject, their age, their height, their weight, their preferred style of starting, and the number of years of skating experience was recorded. CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  RESULTS S i x t e e n p l a y e r s o f the V a r s i t y and J u n i o r V a r s i t y I ce Hockey Teams at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia were t e s t e d on two d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s o f s t a r t i n g , the f r o n t s t a r t and the s i d e s t a r t . The t imes were r e c o r d e d f o r the f i r s t t h i r t y f e e t and the t o t a l s i x t y f e e t . The speed and a c c e l e r a -t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d f o r the f i r s t t h i r t y f e e t and t o t a l s i x t y f e e t and the t ime, speed and a c c e l e r a t i o n were c a l c u l a t e d f o r the second t h i r t y f e e t . The average age o f the sub j ec t s was 20.9 + 2.8 y e a r s , the average h e i g h t was 70.1 + 1 . 6 i n c h e s , the average we ight was 171*3 + 9.i+ pounds, and the average number o f years o f s k a t i n g expe r i ence o f the sub jeo ts was 10.2 + 3*7 y e a r s . A l s o , e i g h t o f the s u b j e c t s , o r f i f t y p e r c e n t , p r e f e r r e d the f r o n t s t a r t and the o the r e i g h t s u b j e c t s , o r o t h e r f i f t y p e r -c e n t , p r e f e r r e d the s i d e s t a r t . The means, the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , the s t anda rd e r r o r o f the means, the d i f f e r e n c e between the means, the s t anda rd e r r o r o f the d i f f e r e n c e between the means, and the t - r a t i o ' s f o r the f i r s t t h i r t y f e e t , the second t h i r t y f e e t , and the t o t a l s i x t y f e e t were c a l c u l a t e d f o r compar ison o f 14 the front s t a r t and the side s t a r t i n regards to time, speed, and acceleration. In Table I, when comparing the times of the two methods of s t a r t i n g f o r the f i r s t t h i r t y feet, means of 2.100 seconds and 2.144 seconds were found respectively f or the front and the side s t a r t s . The mean difference of 0.044 seconds i n favour of the front s t a r t , was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.05 l e v e l of confidence ( t - r a t i o = 2.588). In Table I I , i t may be noted that i n regards to the time of the two methods of s t a r t i n g f o r the second t h i r t y feet, means of 1.173 seconds and 1.181 seoonds were found respectively for the front and the side s t a r t s . The mean difference of 0.008 seconds, i n favour of the front s t a r t , was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.05 l e v e l o f con-fidence ( t - r a t i o = 0 . 3 9 0 ) , TABLE I Comparison o f Times* Between Front and Side Starting Styles For F i r s t T h i r t y Feet STYLE MEAN S.D. S.E. m DIFF. S ' E ' d i f f t-RATIO FRONT 2.100 .0728 .0182 .0bj+ «017 2.588 SIDE 2.1^4 «08l9 . 0205 *& time measured i n seconds A t - r a t i o of 2.130 denotes a s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i -cance at the 0.05 l e v e l of confidence for the sixteen oases. 15 TABLE I I Compar ison o f Times# Between F r o n t and S i d e S t a r t i n g S t y l e s For Second T h i r t y Feet STYLE MEAN S . D . S . E . m D IFF . s •?'•«___•_» *-RATIO FRONT 1.173 »0656 .0164 .008 .0205 .390 SIDE 1.181 .0775 .0191*. # t ime measured i n seconds A t - r a t i o o f 2.130 denotes a s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i -cance at the 0.05 l e v e l o f con f i dence f o r the s i x t e e n c a s e s . Table I I I showed tha t the means o f the t imes o f the two methods o f s t a r t i n g f o r the t o t a l s i x t y f e e t were 3*273 seconds and 3-325 seconds r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r the f r o n t and the s i d e s t a r t s . The mean d i f f e r e n c e o f 0.052 seconds i n f a v o u r o f the f r o n t s t a r t was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0.05 l e v e l o f con f idence ( t - r a t i o = 2*488)• I n Tab le IV , compar ison o f the speed between the two methods o f s t a r t i n g f o r the f i r s t t h i r t y f e e t , showed tha t f o r the f r o n t and the s i d e s t a r t s , means o f II4..3O6 f e e t per second and 13.976 f e e t per second r e s p e c t i v e l y were f o u n d . The d i f f e r e n c e between the means o f 0.330 f e e t per second i n f a vou r o f the f r o n t s t a r t was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.05 l e v e l o f con f i dence ( t - r a t i o = 2.946). 16 TABLE III Comparison of Times* Between Front and Side Starting Styles For Total S i x t y Feet STYLE MEAN S.D. S.E. m DIFF. S * E * d i f f t""RATIO FRONT 3.273 .0860 .0215 .0520 .0209 2.1^88 SIDE 3.225 .1086 .0272 * time measured i n seconds A t - r a t i o of 2.130 denotes a s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i -cance at the 0.05 l e v e l of confidence f o r the sixteen cases. TABLE IV Comparison of Speed* Between Front and Side Starting Styles For F i r s t Thirty Feet STYLE MEAN S.D. S.E., FRONT 14.306 .502 .126 SIDE 13.976 .514 .129 DIFF. S.E. t-RATIO d i f f .330 »112 2.946 # speed measured i n feet per second A t - r a t i o of 2.130 denotes a s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i -cance at the 0.05 l e v e l of confidence f o r the sixteen cases 17 Tab le V i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n r e l a t i o n to the speed o f the two methods o f s t a r t i n g f o r the second t h i r t y f e e t , means o f 25*737 f e e t pe r second and 25*508 f e e t pe r second were found r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r the f r o n t and the s i d e s t a r t s . The mean d i f f e r e n c e o f 0.229 f e e t per second i n f a v o u r o f the f r o n t s t a r t was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.05 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e ( t - r a t i o = 0.512). Table VI i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t i n regards to the speed o f the two methods o f s t a r t i n g f o r the t o t a l s i x t y f e e t , means o f 18.325 f e e t per second and 18.063 f e e t pe r second were found r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r the f r o n t and s i d e s t a r t s . The d i f f e r e n c e between the means o f 0 . 289 f e e t per second was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.05 l e v e l o f con f i dence ( t - r a t i o = 2.331). TABLE V Compar ison o f Speed*- Between F r o n t and S i d e S t a r t i n g S t y l e s Fo r Second T h i r t y Feet STYLE MEAN FRONT 25.737 SIDE 25.508 # speed measured i n f e e t per second A t - r a t i o o f 2.130 denotes a s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i -cance at the 0.05 l e v e l o f con f i dence f o r the s i x t e e n cases© S . D . S . E . m DIFF. s ' E ' d i f f t " ^ 1 0 1.396 .349 .229 *kk7 0.512 1.613 *if 03 18 • TABLE: VI Compar ison o f Speed Between F ron t and S i d e S t a r t i n g S t y l e s For T o t a l S i x t y Feet MEAN S . D . S . E . DIFF. S . E . , 4 _ _ t-RATIO m d i f f 18.352 .1^ 80 .120 .289 .124 2.331 18.063 .586 .147 # speed measured i n f e e t per second A t - r a t i o o f 2.130 denotes a s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i -cance at the 0.05 l e v e l o f con f i dence f o r the s i x t e e n c a s e s . I n Tab le V I I , when c a l c u l a t i n g the a c c e l e r a t i o n o f the two methods o f s t a r t i n g f o r the f i r s t t h i r t y f e e t , means o f 6.830 f e e t per second per second and 6.534 f e e t per second per second were found r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r the f r o n t and the s i de s t a r t s . The d i f f e r e n c e between the means o f 0.296 f e e t per second per second i n f a vou r o f the f r o n t s t a r t was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0.05 l e v e l o f con f idence ( t - r a t i o = 2.819). I n Tab le V I I I , the a c c e l e r a t i o n o f the two methods o f s t a r t i n g f o r the second t h i r t y f e e t was examined. Means o f 3.481 f e e t per second per second and 3.494 f e e t per second per second were found r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r the f r o n t and the s i d e s t a r t s . The mean d i f f e r e n c e o f 0.013 f e e t per second per second i n f a vou r of the s i d e s t a r t , was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.05 l e v e l o f con f i dence ( t - r a t i o = 0.081). STYLE FRONT SIDE 19 TABLE VII Compar ison o f Acce le ra t ions- Between F ron t and S i d e S t a r t i n g S t y l e s For F i r s t T h i r t y Feet STYLE! MEAN S . D . S . E . m DIFF. S . E . d i f f t-RATIO FRONT 6.830 .478 .120 .296 .105 2.819 SIDE 6.534 .472 .118 # a c c e l e r a t i o n measured i n f e e t pe r second per second A t - r a t i o of 2.130 denotes a s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i -cance at the 0.05 l e v e l o f con f i dence f o r the s i x t e e n c a s e s . TABLE VI I I Compar ison o f A c c e l e r a t i o n ^ Between F ron t and S i d e S t a r t i n g S t y l e s For Second T h i r t y Feet STYLE MEAN S . D . FRONT 3.481 .541 SIDE 3.494 .567 a c c e l e r a t i o n measured i n f e e t per second per seoond A t - r a t i o of 2.130 denotes a s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i -cance at the 0.05 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e f o r the s i x t e e n c a s e s . S . E . m DIFF. s ' E ' c i i f f t " R A T I 0 .135 .013 .160 0.081 .142 20 Table IX shows tha t f o r the a c c e l e r a t i o n o f the two methods of s t a r t i n g f o r the t o t a l s i x t y f e e t , means o f 5«6l4 f e e t per second per second and 5»kk-2. f e e t per second pe r second were found r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r the f r o n t and the s i d e s t a r t s . The d i f f e r e n c e between the means o f 0.172 f e e t pe r second per second was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.05 l e v e l o f con f i dence ( t - r a t i o = 2.293) • TABLE IX Compar ison o f A c c e l e r a t i o n * Between F ront and S i d e S t a r t i n g S t y l e s For T o t a l S i x t y Feet STYLE MEAN S . D . S . E . m DIFF. S . E . d i f f t-RATIO FRONT 5.614 .294 .074 .075 .172 2.293 SIDE 5.442 .357 .089 * a c c e l e r a t i o n measured i n f e e t pe r second per second A t - r a t i o of 2.130 denotes a s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i -cance at the 0.05 l e v e l o f con f i dence f o r the s i x t e e n c a s e s . DISCUSSION The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the d i f f e r e n t means o f the two methods o f s t a r t i n g , the f r o n t s t y l e and the s i d e s t y l e , i n r e g a r d to t i m e , speed, and a c c e l e r a t i o n f o r the f i r s t t h i r t y f e e t 21 and t o t a l s i x t y f e e t o n l y . These f i n d i n g s , f a v o u r i n g the f r o n t s t a r t , are i n c o n t r a s t to the r e s u l t s f ound by S t « Denis ( 1 ) . S t . Denis conc luded , i n r e g a r d to t ime o n l y , he d i d not examine the speed and a c c e l e r a t i o n r e s u l t i n g f rom the d i f f e r e n t method, t h a t the s ide s t a r t or r unn ing method was b e t t e r . H i s r e s u l t s were h i g h l y s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -cant at the 0 . 0 1 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e ( t - r a t i o = k.iflj.9). The r e a s o n f o r t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s u n e x p l a i n a b l e exoept f o r the f a c t t h a t S t . Den i s d i d not use equated g r o u p s . He had two g r o u p s ; one group wh i ch was t e s t e d on the f r o n t s t a r t o r s k a t i n g method s i x t imes and the s i d e s t a r t or runn ing method th ree t imes , and the o the r group whioh was t e s t e d on the s i d e s t a r t o r r unn ing method s i x times and the f r o n t s t a r t o r s k a t i n g method three t i m e s . Th i s method o f g roup ing c o u l d have l e d to the r e s u l t s f a v o u r i n g the s i d e s t a r t o r r unn ing method. Fu r the rmore , S t . Denis used o n l y one stopwatch to r e c o r d the time o f each s u b j e c t per i n d i v i d u a l t r i a l ; whereas , i n t h i s s t u d y , the mean t ime f rom three d i f f e r e n t s topwatches was u s e d as the t ime f o r each s u b j e c t on an i n d i v i d u a l t r i a l . This i s another p o s s i b l e source o f e r r o r t h a t c o u l d have l e d to S t . D e n i s ' r e s u l t s f a v o u r i n g the s i d e s t a r t o r runn ing method. A l s o S t . Den i s ( 1 ) s t a t e d t ha t the f r o n t s t a r t o r s k a t i n g method was w i d e l y known and the more popu l a r and tha t the s i d e s t a r t or r unn ing method was not as w e l l known and no t u s e d as much. H i s r e s u l t s do not seem to back t h i s 22 statement* The f a c t t h a t the r e s u l t s o f t h i s s tudy i n d i c a t e d no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the means o f the d i f f e r e n t methods o f s t a r t i n g f o r the second t h i r t y f e e t was e x p l a i n a b l e . Because the same sub j e c t s were used f o r t e s t i n g both methods o f s t a r t i n g and because o n l y the s t a r t i n g s t y l e s were d i f f e r e n t on the d i f f e r e n t t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s , i t can be assumed tha t the d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s o f s t a r t i n g had no e f f e c t on the t ime , s p e e d , and a c c e l e r a t i o n , o f the s u b j e c t s f o r the second t h i r t y f e e t . Thus, i t can a l s o be assumed tha t the sub j ec t s had a t t a i n e d the normal s k a t i n g s t r i d e and s t y l e by the end o f the f i r s t t h i r t y f e e t . Even though the r e s u l t s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -cant i n r e l a t i o n to t i m e , speed , and a c c e l e r a t i o n , the d i f f e r e n c e i n d i s t a n c e between two p l a y e r s o f equa l s k a t i n g speed , but u s i n g the d i f f e r e n t s t a r t i n g s t y l e s , was 7.80 i n ches as the p l a y e r who u s e d the f r o n t s t a r t r eached the f i r s t t h i r t y f e e t . As the p l a y e r who u s e d the f r o n t s t a r t r eached the t o t a l s i x t y f e e t , the d i s t a n c e between the two p l a y e r s was 10.^6 i n c h e s . The author b e l i e v e s t h a t i f two p l a y e r s o f equa l body s i z e i n r e l a t i o n to arm l e n g t h and l e g l e n g t h and equa l s k a t i n g s t r i d e a d i s t a n c e o f 7.80 i n ches i s no t q u i t e l a r g e enough to g i v e one p l a y e r an advantage over another p l a y e r when r a c i n g f o r the puck f o r a breakaway. However a d i s t a n c e o f 10*56 i nches g i v e s a p l a y e r a s l i g h t advantage over another i n tha t the f a s t e r p l a y e r would be ab l e to move 23 h i s body i n f r o n t o f the o the r p l a ye r i n a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n . But i f the two p l a y e r s were r a c i n g j u s t to touch the puck f o r i c i n g o r f o r a d e f e c t i o n , both d i s t a n c e s wou ld be advanta geous to the f a s t e s t p l a y e r . The r e s u l t s f rom t h i s exper iment i n d i c a t e d that the f r o n t s t a r t was s t a t i s t i c a l l y be t t e r than the s i d e s t a r t i n r e l a t i o n to t ime , speed , and a c c e l e r a t i o n f o r the f i r s t t h i r t y f e e t and the t o t a l s i x t y f e e t . There was no s t a t i s -t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e between the two methods f o r the second t h i r t y f e e t i n r e g a r d to t i m e , speed , and a c c e l e r a t i o n . 2k REFERENCES 1. S t . D e n i s , C l aude , "A S tudy to Determine the F a s t e s t Method o f S t a r t i n g From a S topped P o s i t i o n i n I ce Hookey " , Unpub l i shed M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , S p r i n g f i e l d C o l l e g e , 1956. 25 CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The purpose o f t h i s s tudy was to determine whether t he r e were any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the f r o n t and the s i d e methods o f s t a r t i n g f rom a s t a t i o n a r y p o s i t i o n i n i i c e hockey i n r e l a t i o n to t ime, speed , and a c c e l e r a t i o n . The l a c k o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n the s p o r t o f i c e hockey and s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the a rea o f s t a r t i n g fundamenta ls i n d i c a t e d a need f o r t h i s type o f s t u d y . S i x t e e n p l a y e r s f rom the V a r s i t y and J u n i o r V a r s i t y I ce Hockey Teams at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia se r ved as s u b j e c t s . The sub j e c t s were not randomly chosen . A l l the sub j ec t s were t e s t e d on both s t a r t i n g s t y l e s , the f r o n t method and the s i d e method, but o n l y on one method per t e s t -i n g s e s s i o n . The s u b j e c t s were randomly a s s i gned to the p a r t i c u l a r method per t e s t i n g s e s s i o n . Each s u b j e c t was g i v e n ten t r i a l s per t e s t i n g s e s -s i o n du r i ng which he had to ska t e s i x t y f e e t c o n t i n u o u s l y i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e t r y i n g to a c c e l e r a t e ove r the t o t a l s i x t y f e e t . Three e x p e r i e n c e d t imers r e c o r d e d the time to t r a v e l the f i r s t t h i r t y f e e t on each t r i a l and th ree more expe r i enced t imers r e c o r d e d the t ime to t r a v e l the t o t a l s i x t y f e e t on each t r i a l . 26 The group means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s and s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f the means were c a l c u l a t e d f o r the f i r s t t h i r t y f e e t , the second t h i r t y f e e t and the t o t a l s i x t y f e e t i n r ega rds to t i m e , speed , and a c c e l e r a t i o n . Then the d i f f e r e n c e between the means, the s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f d i f f e r e n c e between the means, and the t - r a t i o ' s were computed to compare the two methods o f s t a r t i n g f o r the f i r s t t h i r t y f e e t , the second t h i r t y f e e t , and the t o t a l s i x t y f e e t i n r e l a t i o n to t ime , s p e e d , and a c c e l e r a t i o n . On the bas i s o f the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d , the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s were j u s t i f i a b l e : 1 . For the f i r s t t h i r t y f e e t and the t o t a l s i x t y f e e t , the f r o n t s t a r t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than the s i d e s t a r t i n r e l a t i o n to t i m e , speed , and a c c e l e r a t i o n . 2. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the f r o n t s t a r t and the s i d e s t a r t i n regards to t ime, speed , and a c c e l e r a t i o n f o r the second t h i r t y f e e t . 27 BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Ange l l , K . , Hockey for the Beginner, Burl ington , Ontario: A n g e l l , 196U.. : Bathgate, A . , Wolf f , B . , Andy Bathgate's Hookey Secrets , Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1963. Garre t , H . E . , S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education, F i f t h E d i t i o n , New York* David McKay Company I n c . , 1965. Jeremiah, E d . , Ice Hockey, Revised E d i t i o n , New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1953. L'Heureux, W i l l i a m , Hockey f o r Boys, Chicago: F o l l e t Publ i sh ing Company, lybiJ. Mahovlich, F . , Ice Hockey - How to Play i t and Enjoy i t , London, England: Pelham Books, 19bij.. Mouly, G .Jo, The Science of Educat ional Research, New York: Americ an Book Company, 1963. P a t r i c k , L . , Monoham, L . , Le t ' s Play Hockey, Toronto: MacMil lan , 1957. P e r c i v a l , L l o y d , The Hockey Handbook, Revised E d i t i o n , New York: A . S . Barnes and Company, 1961. R i l e y , J . , Ice Hockey, New York: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1962. Watson, W. , A Text-Book of Phys ics , Seventh E d i t i o n , Revised by Herbert Moss, London: Longmans, Green and Company, 1920 UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL S t . Denis , Claude, "A Study to Determine the Fastest Method o f S tar t ing From a Stopped P o s i t i o n i n Ice Hookey", Unpublished Master's Thes is , S p r i n g f i e l d Col lege , 1956. FILMS Chetwynd Fi lms, I n s t r u c t i o n a l Hookey F i lms , Skat ing , Toronto, 19"EB 28 PERSONAL COMMON! CAT! ON Hindmarch, R.G,, Personal Interview, 8 A p r i l , 1969« APPENDIX A S TATIS T I C A L TREATMENT 30 STATISTICAL TREATMENT Speed and A c c e l e r a t i o n . The speed and a c c e l e r a t i o n r a t e s were c a l c u l a t e d f rom the time scores f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . The formulae u s e d were? d 1 . Speed, s = ^ where s = r a t e o f speed d = d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d t = t ime taken 2. A c c e l e r a t i o n , v = u + a t where v = f i n a l v e l o c i t y u = i n i t i a l v e l o c i t y a = a c c e l e r a t i o n t = t ime C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s . C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d between the two s t a r t i n g s t y l e s . Spearman's Rho was u s e d to c a l c u l a t e the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t . The f o rmu l a used was: P = 1 - 6 D 2 where P = c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t N (N2-1) D = d i f f e r e n c e between ranks N = number of sub j e c t s = summation s i g n 31 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the D i f f e r e n c e . A " t " t e s t f o r c o r r e l a t e d samples was u s e d tb determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i f f e r e n c e between the two s t a r t i n g methods i n th i s s t u d y . The formulae f o r c a l c u l a t i o n were? 1. Group Mean, u s i n g s u b j e c t ' s mean s c o r e s , = s where X Q = group mean X " S = s u b j e c t ' s mean N = number o f s u b j e c t s 2. The S t anda rd D e v i a t i o n o f s u b j e c t ' s mean around group mean, S . D . = / D 2 where S . D . = s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n N - l D. = d e v i a t i o n between s u b j e c t ' s mean and group mean N. = number o f sub j ec t s = summation s i g n 3. The S t anda rd E r r o r o f the Mean, S . E . m = S . D . where S . E . m = s t anda rd e r r o r ~°BBBSa' Qf mean S . D . = s t anda rd d e v i a t i o n N. = number o f s u b j e c t s 32 The D i f f e r e n c e between group means, D i f f . = 1QF - XQS where XQF = f r o n t s t a r t group mean Xgg = s i d e s t a r t group mean The S tandard E r r o r o f the D i f f e r e n c e between group means, S . E . d l f f > = ^ / ( S . E . m f ) 2 + ( S . E . m s ) 2 - 2r (S . E . m f ) ( S . E . ^ ) where S . E . d i f f S * E . mf S * E . ms s t anda rd e r r o r of d i f f e r e n c e between group means s t anda rd e r r o r o f group mean f o r f r o n t method s t anda rd e r r o r o f group mean f o r s i d e method c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t between d i f f e r e n t s t a r t i n g methods The a p p r o p r i a t e t - r a t i o , t = DIFF . S * E . d i f f . where DIFF. S « E . d i f f d i f f e r e n c e between the mean s t anda rd e r r o r o f the d i f f e r e n c e between the means APPENDIX B SAMPLE DATA SHEET SAMPLE DATA SHEET Name Age H e i g h t Years o f Expe r i ence P r e f e r r e d S t y l e s S i de Rank F i r s t S t y l e T e s t e d : S i de F i r s t S t a t i o n Weight F ront , F ron t Second S t a t i o n TIMES FRONT STYLE' T r i a l s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 F i r s t Timer j Second Timers T h i r d T imer : S IDE STYLE T r i a l s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 F i r s t T imer : Second T imer : T h i r d T imer : APPENDIX C RAW SCORES 36 MEAN TIME IN SECONDS FOR FRONT STYLE FIRST SECOND TOTAL THIRTY THIRTY SIXTY SUBJECT FEET FEET FEET 1. M.D. 2.092 1.178 3.270 2. M.M. 2.1i|.0 1.233 3.373 3. J . P - 1.993 1.164 3.157 4 . w.s. 2.030 1.080 3.110 5 . B.W. 2.077 1.173 3.250 6, L . V . 2.093 1.147 3.240 7. D.Bo 2.060 1.247 3.307 8 . O.K. 2.023 1.320 3.343 9, T.W. 2.163 1.224 3.387 10. S . F . 2.170 1.112 3.282 11. J . M . 2.144 . 1.100 3.247 12. G.W. 2.037 1.180 2.217 13. F . L . 2.157 1.180 3.337 li+. R . M . 2.003 1.180 3.183 15. L.W. 2.180 1.062 3.242 16. T . L . 2.240 1.183 3.423 37 MEAN TIME IN SECONDS PGR SIDE STYLE FIRST SECOND TOTAL THIRTY THIRTY SIXTY SUBJECT FEET FEET FEET le M.D. 2.218 1.3i+2 3.560 2. M.M. 2.087 1.170 3.257 3« J.P. 2.130 1.167 3.297 1+. W.S. 2.023 1.120 3.143 5. B.W. 2.093 1.174 3.267 6. L.V. 2.077 1.196 3.273 7. D.B. •2.157 1.206 ' 3.363 8. C.E. 2.077 1.240 3.317 9* T..W. 2.120 1.323 3*443 10. S.F. 2o250 1.050 3.300 11. J.M. 2.170 1.193 3.363 12. G.W. 2.127 1.118 3.245 13. P.L. 2.303 1.087 3.390 14. R.M. 2.030 1.133 3.163 15. L.W. 2.190 1.150 3.340 16. T.L. 2.253 1.224 3.477 38 SUBJECT SPEED IN FEET PER SECOND FOR FRONT STYLE FIRST THIRTY FEET SECOND THIRTY FEET TOTAL SIXTY FEET 1. M.D. 2. M.M. 3 • J . P . 4« W.S. 5 . B.W. 6. L .V . 7. D.B. 8 . O.K. 9. T.W. 10 e S . F . 11. J . M . 12. G.W. 13. F . L . 14. R.M. 15. L.W. 16. T . L . 14.354 14.019 15.075 14.778 14.493 14.354 14-563 14.851 13.889 13.825 13.953 14.706 13.889 15.000 13.761 13.393 25.424 24.390 25.862 27.778 25.641 26.087 24.000 22.727 25.590 27.027 27.272 25.424 25.424 25.424 28.301 25.424 18.349 17.804 18.987 19.292 18.462 18.519 18.182 17.964 17.699 18.293 18.462 18.634 17.964 18.868 18.619 17 . 514 39 SPEED IN FEET PER SECOND POR S IDE STYLE FIRST SECOND TOTAL THIRTY THIRTY SIXTY SUBJECT FEET FEET FEET 1. M.D. 13.514 22.388 16.854 2. M.M. 14.354 25.6i|JL 18.405 3. J . P . 14.085 25.641 18.182 4* w.s. 14.851 26.786 19.108 5. B.W. 14.354 25;641 18.349 6. L . V . 13.889 25.000 18.349 7. D.B. 14.423 24.793 17.857 8. C .K . 13.889 24.194 18.072 9. T.W.. 14.151 22.727 17o442 10* S . P . 13.334 28.571 18.182 11. J.Mo 13.825 25.210 17.857 12. G.W. 14.085 26.786 18.462 13. P .L . 13.043 27.523 17.699 14. R.M. 14.778 26.549 18.987 15. L.W. 13.699 26.087 17.964 16. T . L . 13*334 24.590 12.241 ACCELERATION IN FEET PER SECOND PER SECOND FOR FRONT STYLE SUBJECT FIRST THIRTY FEET SECOND THIRTY FEET TOTAL SIXTY FEET 1. M.D. 6.868 3.386 5.611 2. M.Me 6.551 3.077 5.283 3. J.P. 7.575 3.372 6.009 4* W.S. " 7.280 4.180 6.203 5o B.W, 7.001 3-392 5.681 6. L . V . 6.868 3.622 5.716 7. D.B . 7.069 2.895 5.493 8. O .K . 7.352 2.358 5.378 9. T.W. 6.430 3.123 5.221 10. S . F . 6.371 4.025 5.577 11. J . M . 6.490 4.099 5.681 12. a.w. 7.209 3.329 5.787 13 . P .L . 6.430 3.453 5.378 14. R.M. 7.500 3.278 5.933 15. L.W. 6.312 4.583 5.747 16. T . L . 5.979 3.519 5.130 kl ACCELERATION IN FEET PER SECOND PER SECOND FOR SIDE STYLE FIRST SECOND TOTAL THIRTY THIRTY SIXTY SUBJECT FEET FEET FEET 1. M.D. 6.087 2.i|92 4.734 2. M.M. 6.868 3.462 5.646 3 . J . P 'o 6.613 3.502 5.510 4 . W.S. 7.359 3.801 '6.085 5 . B.W. 6.868 3.415 5.611 6. L . V . 6.677 3.717 5 .6II 7. D.B. 6.677 2.838 5.316 8 . C .K . 6.677 3.373 5.443 9. T.W. 6.675 2.493 5.070 10. S . F . 6.926 4.617 : 5.510 11. J . M . 6.371 3.388 5.315 12. G.W. 6.613 3.908 5.681 13. F . L . 5.671 4.272 5.206 14. R.M. 7.280 3.725 6.009 15« L.W. 6.255 3.709 5.378 16. T . L . 5.926 3.202 4.954 42 WEIGHT AGE IN HEIGHT YEARS OP PREFERRED SUBJECT IN POUNDS YEARS IN INCHES EXPERIENCE STYLE 1. M.D. 175 21.5 71 12 F 2. M.M. 185 28.8 70 16 S 3. J . P . 165 a . 5 69 9 S 4- W.S. 165 20.3 70 8 F 5. B.W. 180 20.7 73 9 S 6. L . V . 185 17.6 72 10 F 7. D.B. 175 18.8 69 10 S 8- C . E . 175 25.3 69 17 S 9. T.W. 180 21.5 69 8 s 10. S . P . 180 22.0 71 18 s 11. J . M . 165 18.3 69 5 F 12. G.W. 155 18.5 73 12 F 13. P .L . 170 21.3 70 8 S 14. R.M. 160 18.9 68 12 F 15. L.W. 165 19.2 68 7 F 16. T . L . 160 20.8 70 14 F 

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