UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Comparison of the ice skating starting styles used in ice hockey Jones, Brian Edgar 1969

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COMPARISON OP THE I C E SKATING STARTING STYLES USED IN I C E HOCKEY  by  BRIAN EDGAR JONES B.P.H.E.,  The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o ,  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N THE REQUIREMENTS  PARTIAL  1968  FULFILMENT OP  POR THE. DEGREE OP  MASTER OP PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the S c h o o l of PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION  We a c c e p t t h i s  thesis  as c o n f i r m i n g to  r e q u i r e d staxvtjard;  THE UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL,  1969  the  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e I further agree that permission  for extensive  I agree and  copying o f this  for that  Study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  It is understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l written  g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  D e p a r t m e n t o f Physical Education and The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a Date  April,  1969  Columbia  Recreation  ABSTRACT  The p u r p o s e o f difference starting  between t h e  this  front  s t u d y was style  to  and t h e  i n i c e hockey with regards  to  determine  the  side style  time,  speed,  of  and  acceleration* Sixteen players Ice  H o c k e y Teams a t  of  the V a r s i t y  the U n i v e r s i t y  v o l u n t e e r e d as s u b j e c t s .  the f i r s t for  all  Age, h e i g h t , weight,  subjects.  thirty  ten t r i a l s  feet  for  of  and t h e t o t a l  years  starting  Using stopwatches,  each s t y l e  Varsity  o f B r i t i s h Columbia  s k a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e and p r e f e r r e d s t y l e obtained for  and J u n i o r  sixty  were  the time  f e e t was  of starting  for all  used i n the f i r s t  for  recorded subjects<>  The s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d o n o n l y one s t a r t i n g s t y l e s e s s i o n -ten t r i a l s -  of  a n d were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o  per the  style  session.  The s p e e d a n d a c c e l e r a t i o n w e r e c a l c u l a t e d f o r first  thirty  feet  and t h e t o t a l  sixty feet  and a c c e l e r a t i o n were c a l c u l a t e d f o r T - r a t i o ' s were c o m p u t e d t o difference  the f i r s t  sixty  thirty  feet  feet,  the  time,  speed,  second t h i r t y  speed,  feet.  the and a c c e l feet,  and  feet.  Significant starting style  thirty  second t h i r t y  the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f  between t h e g r o u p means f o r  eration for the t o t a l  test  the  and t h e t i m e ,  the  for  t-ratio's  time,  and t h e t o t a l  speed, sixty  were f o u n d f a v o u r i n g t h e  front  and a c c e l e r a t i o n f o r  first  feet.  the  TABLE OP CONTENTS  CHAPTER I  PAGE STATEMENT OP THE PROBLEM Introduction  II  1 1  .  The P r o b l e m  2  N u l l Hypothesis  2  Assumptions  2  Limitations  3  Definitions  3  References  5 6  REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE References  III  METHODS AND PROCEDURE  IV  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  V  .  *  •  8 9 13  Results  13  Discussion  20  References  21j. 25  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION  27  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES  •  -  29  A  STATISTICAL TREATMENT  30  B  SAMPLE DATA SHEET „  33  C  RAW SCORES  35  LIST OP TABLES  TABLE I  PAGE Comparison o f Times Between Front and S i d e Starting Styles  II  for First  T h i r t y Peet  Comparison o f Times Between Front and Side S t a r t i n g S t y l e s f o r Second T h i r t y Feet  III  f o r T o t a l S i x t y Feet  f o r T o t a l S i x t y Feet  for First  Comparison o f A c c e l e r a t i o n Starting Styles  IX  f o r Second T h i r t y Feet  Comparison o f A c c e l e r a t i o n Starting Styles  VIII  16  17  Comparison o f Speed Between Front and Side Starting Styles  VII  T h i r t y Feet  Comparison o f Speed Between Front and S i d e Starting Styles  VI  16  Comparison o f Speed Between Front and Side Starting Styles f o r First  V  ..15  Comparison o f Times Between Front and Side Starting Styles  IV  11+  -  Starting Styles  Between F r o n t and S i d e T h i r t y Feet  19  Between F r o n t and S i d e  f o r Second T h i r t y Feet  Comparison o f A c c e l e r a t i o n  18  19  Between Front and S i d e  f o r T o t a l S i x t y Feet  20  LIST OP FIGURES  FIGURE I  S t a r t i n g and T e s t i n g S t a t i o n s  CHAPTER I  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  INTRODUCTION  In ioe hookey, when s t a r t i n g from a stationary position, there are two s t a r t i n g styles used by most players. They are the front s t y l e and the side s t y l e *  Most players  use both methods but with a preference f o r one or the other© I t appears to be a matter of opinion at the moment which i s the better method of s t a r t i n g with respeot to time, speed, and acceleration.  There has been only one study done  i n this area and Claude S t . Denis ( l ) found that i n r e l a t i o n to time only, the side s t y l e , or "running method" as he r e f e r r e d to i t , was the f a s t e r .  Beside S t . Denis  1  study  there has been no other evidence supporting either method of s t a r t i n g .  In the f i l m "Instructional Hockey Series" (2)  on skating, both styles o f s t a r t i n g are described but there is no mention of which i s the superior i n r e l a t i o n to time, speed, or acceleration. This study i s an attempt to determine which i s the better s t a r t of the two styles with respect to time, speed, and acceleration.  2 THE PROBLEM  The purpose o f t h i s study was to determine the d i f f e r e n c e between two s t y l e s o f s t a r t s i n s k a t i n g , the s i d e s t a r t and the f r o n t s t a r t , w i t h regards t o time, speed, and  acceleration*  NULL HYPOTHESIS  There was no d i f f e r e n c e between the f r o n t and side s t y l e s o f s t a r t i n g with respect  to time, speed, and  acceleration. Ho J up = us  ASSUMPTIONS  Por the purpose o f t h i s study, the f o l l o w i n g assumptions were 1.  applied;  There was no d i f f e r e n c e i n the sample p o p u l a t i o n and the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n w i t h respect  to time, speed, and a c c e l e r a t i o n  r e s u l t i n g from the d i f f e r e n t s t a r t i n g s t y l e s i n s k a t i n g methods used i n i c e hockey. 2*  The s k a t i n g  a b i l i t y l e v e l o f the sample  p o p u l a t i o n used i n t h i s study was o f a superior  l e v e l so t h a t no l e a r n i n g would  3 occur during tiae testing procedure.  LIMITATIONS  The sample population was not randomly selected. The Varsity and Junior Varsity i c e hockey teams at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia were selected as the sample population.  DEFINITIONS  For the purpose of this study, the following definitions were appliedj 1.  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Varsity Ice Hockey Team was c l a s s i f i e d as the highest c a l i b r e i c e hockey team at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia.  2.  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Junior Varsity Ice Hockey Team was c l a s s i f i e d as the second highest  calibre i c e hockey team  at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. 3.  The Front Start i s a method o f s t a r t i n g i n ice hockey.  The front of the body i s facing  i n the d i r e c t i o n i n which the player i s going. The skates are shoulder width apart, knees are flexed, and the body i s bent well over the  skates.  The s k a t e s  are p i v o t e d outward  when s t a r t i n g ,  the d r i v e  spring.  chopping s t r i d e s  Short  leg uncoils  The knee o f  the f r o n t  front  enters with l i t t l e  skate  and the skate  thrust  are  and,  like used.  l e g is w e l l bent. o r no  The  glide  comes f r o m t h e  toe o f  the  Is  starting  blade.  The S i d e  Start  hockey.  The s i d e o f  a method o f  d i r e c t i o n i n which skates  are  flexed,  the  body i s  the p l a y e r  shoulder width  is  apart,  a n d t h e body i s u p r i g h t .  in  going.  the knees The  leans  three  or four short,  travel  w i t h the l e g s  another.  The t h r u s t  is  skate  blade  and t h e p l a y e r  choppy r u n n i n g  sideways  rear  t h e body  is  c r o s s i n g over from the  one  toe o f  strides.  takes  strides  and t h e n o r m a l s k a t i n g  o b t a i n e d i n two o r t h r e e  are  skates  direction.  the d i r e c t i o n o f  the  The  same  When s t a r t i n g ,  ice  facing i n  are p i v o t e d s l i g h t l y outward i n the  in  a  the position  5 REFERENCES  1,  S t . Denis, Claude, "A Study to Determine the F a s t e s t Method o f S t a r t i n g From a Stopped P o s i t i o n i n Ice Hockey", Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , S p r i n g f i e l d C o l l e g e , 1956.  2.  Chetwynd F i l m s , I n s t r u c t i o n a l Hookey F i l m s , Toronto,  1968.  CHAPTER I I  REVIEW OF THE  The  LITERATURE  importance o f a f a s t s t a r t i n i c e hookey  emphasized by L l o y d P e r c i v a l  was  (1:17) when he s t a t e d :  Too much a t t e n t i o n oannot be p l a c e d on the importance o f a quiok break because even a f r a c t i o n o f a seoond's edge over the player' oheoking you can mean your s t i c k on the puck f i r s t , and t h i s may. mean a g o a l or the s t a r t o f an important breaking out o r clearing play* W i l l i a m L'Heureux (2:15>) a l s o p o i n t e d out the importance o f a f a s t s t a r t , i n d i c a t i n g ; "... to get i n t o h i g h gear i n the s h o r t e s t p o s s i b l e time i s a tremendous asset i n hockey." Although hockey has  the importance o f a f a s t s t a r t i n i c e  been r e c o g n i z e d , very l i t t l e has  been w r i t t e n  d e s c r i b i n g o r e x p l a i n i n g the methods or s t y l e s o f s t a r t i n g fast*  Eddie Jeremiah (3:11) when d e s c r i b i n g how  s t a t e d ; "For a q u i c k breakaway, a few strides  are necessary."  " I n g e t t i n g under way, strides  to s t a r t ,  s h o r t , choppy, f a s t  Andy Bathgate (1J.:1J.8) a l s o mentioned; I use  three o r f o u r s h o r t choppy  at the s t a r t and then g r a d u a l l y s h i f t to l o n g e r ones."  I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t the above r e f e r e n c e s are opinions based on p e r s o n a l experience,  not s c i e n t i f i c  experimentation*  Another r e f e r e n c e i s the I n s t r u c t i o n a l Hookey Films (£) on s k a t i n g , I n which both s t y l e s o f s t a r t i n g , the s i d e s t a r t and the f r o n t s t a r t , were demonstrated and but there was  described,  no mention o f whether one method was  faster  7  than the other or i f they were equal with respect to time, speed, and acceleration.  Claude S t . Denis (6) when deter-  mining the f a s t e s t method o f s t a r t i n g found that the side style or "running method" was faster i n r e l a t i o n to time than the front s t y l e or "skating method".  S t . Denis (6)  measured the time i t took f o r each of the seventeen members of  a high school i c e hockey team to skate a distance of 2ij.  feet using the different methods of s t a r t i n g .  Each player  was given nine t r i a l s over a three week period with nine of the players using the front s t y l e s i x times and the side s t y l e three times and the other eight players used the side style six  times and the front s t y l e three times*  The times f o r the  d i f f e r e n t styles were averaged out and the difference was calculated i n favour o f the side s t y l e or "running method" as S t . Denis (6) referred to i t ( t - r a t i o = study of S t . Denis  1  i|..ii-j.9).  This  (6) has been the only experimental study  reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e on i c e hockey fundamentals, cating a need f o r further investigation.  indi-  8  REFERENCES  P e r c i v a l , Lloyd, The Hookey Handbook, Revised E d i t i o n , New York: A.S. Barnes and Company, 1961, Page 17• L'Heureux, B i l l , Hookey For Boys, Chicago: Publishing Company, 1962, Page 1 5 .  Follett  Jeremiah, Ed., Ice Hockey, Revised E d i t i o n , New The Ronald Press Company, 1958, Page 11.  York:  Bathgate, Andy, Wolff, B., Andy Bathgate's Hockey Secrets, Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1963, Page Ifi. Chetwynd Films, Instructional Hockey Films, Skating, Toronto, IfLW* St.  Denis, Claude, "A Study to Determine the Fastest Method of S t a r t i n g From a Stopped P o s i t i o n i n Ioe Hockey", Unpublished Master's Thesis, Springf i e l d College, 1956.  CHAPTER I I I  METHODS AND PROCEDURE .  The  s u b j e c t s were s i x t e e n p l a y e r s o f the V a r s i t y  and the J u n i o r V a r s i t y Ice Hockey Teams at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  The s u b j e c t s were not randomly s e l e c t e d .  Die groups were equated s i n c e each s u b j e c t was  t e s t e d on both  experimental c o n d i t i o n s ; one i n which the f r o n t s t a r t was used, the other  i n which the s i d e s t a r t was used,  Por each  o f the experimental t r i a l s ,  each s u b j e c t had t e n t r i a l s  the mean f o r the t e n t r i a l s  was used as the s u b j e c t ' s  for  that s t y l e o f s t a r t i n g .  and  time  A p i l o t study was r u n to d e t e r -  mine i f any l e a r n i n g e f f e c t would r e s u l t over the t e n t r i a l s . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t no l e a r n i n g o c c u r r e d trials.  over the t e n  The s u b j e c t s were g i v e n a minute r e s t between t r i a l s  and d i d o n l y one s t y l e o f s t a r t i n g a t a t e s t i n g s e s s i o n . i t r e q u i r e d two s e s s i o n s to t e s t a l l the s u b j e c t s .  The  s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d during  their regular practice session  which was  P.M.  £s00  P.M.  to  7«00  f i v e months o f competitive condition.  Thus,  The subjects had completed  hockey and were c o n s i d e r e d  i n good  The s u b j e c t s were randomly ranked from one to s i x -  t e e n and i f they were ranked w i t h an odd number, then they used the s i d e s t y l e at the f i r s t t e s t i n g s e s s i o n and i f they were ranked w i t h an even number, they used the f r o n t s t y l e at the f i r s t s e s s i o n .  At the second s e s s i o n , a l l the subjeots  used the a l t e r n a t i v e s t y l e o f s t a r t i n g .  10 The s u b j e c t s r e o e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n o n how t o s t a r t and were g i v e n one p r a o t i c e  trial  per s e s s i o n .  They were  a l l o w e d f i v e minutes o f warm-up s k a t i n g , s k a t i n g a t t h e i r own speed.  They were t e s t e d  i n f u l l hockey equipment, which  i n c l u d e d s h i n pads, elbow pads, s h o u l d e r pads, hookey p a n t s , a helmet, g l o v e s and a hockey s t i c k , so that t h e t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n was s i m i l a r to normal game  conditions*  There were three t e s t i n g s t a t i o n s ; and  two t i m i n g s t a t i o n s *  one s t a r t i n g  The two blue l i n e s and t h e c e n t r e  r e d l i n e o f a s t a n d a r d s i z e i o e hookey s u r f a c e were u s e d as the  (See f i g u r e 1)  testing stations*  The r e g u l a t i o n  distance  between each blue l i n e and t h e c e n t r e r e d l i n e was t h i r t y f e e t ,  TIMING STATION  TIMING STATION  position on whioh timers judge f o r stoppage o f watohes  STARTING STATION  position on whioh timers judge f o r stoppage o f watches  v  starting position  30'  CO BLUE LINE  FIGURE 1.  CENTRE RED LINE  BLUB LINE  STARTING AND TESTING STATIONS  11 Thus, the t o t a l t e s t i n g distanoe was s i x t y f e e t .  These d i s -  tances were measured with a hundred foot s t e e l measuring tape to check the actual distance and the distances were found to be o f regulation length.  Each subject on the com-  mand of "Ready, go.", started at the edge o f one blue l i n e and skated i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e past the centre red l i n e and the other blue l i n e trying to oontinue accelerating as they go.  The time to skate the f i r s t t h i r t y feet and the t o t a l  sixty feet was recorded.  Thus, the speed and acceleration  for the f i r s t t h i r t y feet and the t o t a l s i x t y f e e t was calculated and the time, speed, and acceleration for the second t h i r t y feet was calculated. Stopwatches recording tenths of seconds were the instruments used to measure the times f o r the various d i s tances.  There were three experienced timers, each with one  watch, at each testing s t a t i o n .  The mean of the three times  per t r i a l recorded at each s t a t i o n was used as the subjeot's time f o r that t r i a l . for  a l l tests.  The same timers and s t a r t e r were used  The i c e surface conditions were r e l a t i v e l y  the same f o r a l l tests also. Por each of the three sections, the mean, the standard deviation, and the standard error of the mean was calculated.  Then the difference between the means, the standard  error o f the difference and the " t " r a t i o were computed. The f i v e percent l e v e l o f confidence was used to determine i f there were any s i g n i f i c a n t differences.  12 Also, f o r each subject, t h e i r age,  their height,  their weight, their preferred style of starting, and the number of years of skating experience was  recorded.  CHAPTER  IV  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  RESULTS  Sixteen players Ice  H o c k e y Teams a t  thirty  feet  t i o n was feet the  start.  total  calculated for time,  second t h i r t y  e i g h t o f the  front start cent,  age o f 70.1  thirty  feet  the s u b j e c t s was inches,  +1.6  and t h e  average  subjects, or f i f t y  the means,  and t h e t o t a l  the  first  and t o t a l  sixty for  the  weight of  years.  preferred  the  or other f i f t y  per-  start.  difference  the  standard  b e t w e e n t h e means,  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e means,  first  sixty  + 3*7  percent,  years,  2 0 . 9 + 2.8  the a v e r a g e  the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s ,  standard e r r o r o f the for  the  start  number o f y e a r s  and the o t h e r e i g h t s u b j e c t s ,  The means,  t-ratio's  the f r o n t  The s p e e d and a c c e l e r a -  t h e s u b j e o t s was 10.2  p r e f e r r e d the s i d e  error of  sixty feet.  the f i r s t  + 9.i+ p o u n d s ,  skating experience of Also,  of starting,  C o l u m b i a were  feet.  a v e r a g e h e i g h t was  was 171*3  of British  Varsity  s p e e d and a c c e l e r a t i o n were c a l c u l a t e d  The a v e r a g e the  styles  and J u n i o r  The t i m e s were r e c o r d e d f o r  and t h e  and the  the V a r s i t y  the U n i v e r s i t y  t e s t e d o n two d i f f e r e n t and t h e s i d e  of  thirty  feet,  and t h e  the s e c o n d t h i r t y  f e e t were c a l c u l a t e d f o r  the  feet,  comparison o f  14 the  front  s t a r t and the s i d e s t a r t i n regards to time, speed,  and a c c e l e r a t i o n . I n Table I , when comparing the times o f the two methods o f s t a r t i n g  f o r the f i r s t  t h i r t y f e e t , means o f 2.100  seconds and 2.144 seconds were found r e s p e c t i v e l y front  and the s i d e s t a r t s .  f o r the  The mean d i f f e r e n c e o f 0.044  seconds i n f a v o u r o f the f r o n t s t a r t , was s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant  a t the 0 . 0 5 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e ( t - r a t i o = 2 . 5 8 8 ) .  I n Table I I , i t may be noted t h a t i n regards to the  time o f the two methods o f s t a r t i n g f o r the second t h i r t y  f e e t , means o f 1.173 respectively  seconds and 1.181 seoonds were found  f o r the f r o n t  and the s i d e s t a r t s .  The mean  d i f f e r e n c e o f 0.008 seconds, i n favour o f the f r o n t  start,  was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0 . 0 5 l e v e l o f confidence ( t - r a t i o = 0.390),  TABLE I Comparison o f Times* Between Front and Side S t a r t i n g  S t y l e s For F i r s t T h i r t y Feet  STYLE  MEAN  S.D.  S.E.  FRONT  2.100  .0728  .0182  SIDE  2.1^4  «08l9  . 0205  m  DIFF. .0bj+  S  ' ' E  d i f f  «017  t-RATIO 2.588  *& time measured i n seconds A t - r a t i o o f 2.130 denotes a s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i cance a t the 0.05 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e f o r the s i x t e e n oases.  15 TABLE Comparison o f Side Starting  II  Times# B e t w e e n F r o n t  Styles  For Second T h i r t y  STYLE  MEAN  S.D.  S.E.  FRONT  1.173  »0656  .0164  1.181  .0775  .0191*.  SIDE  and  DIFF.  m  s  .008  Feet  •?'•«___•_» *-RATIO  .0205  .390  # time measured i n seconds A t-ratio cance  at  t h e 0.05  o f 2.130  level  Table III  denotes  of confidence f o r  showed t h a t  t h e two methods o f s t a r t i n g f o r  3*273  3-325  s e c o n d s and  and t h e  side  starts.  the  0.05 In  level  of  for  the  Table IV,  front  the t o t a l  the f i r s t  between t h e means o f  0.05  level  the  0.052  front  seconds  significant  2*488)•  thirty  and t h e s i d e s t a r t s ,  The d i f f e r e n c e  the  for  feet  feet,  means o f  front start  feet  was s t a t i s t i c a l l y  o f confidence  (t-ratio  =  the  showed  II4..3O6 f e e t  p e r s e c o n d r e s p e c t i v e l y were  0.330  of  were  c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e s p e e d between  13.976  at  times  sixty feet  (t-ratio =  p e r s e c o n d and  i n f a v o u r o f the  the  was s t a t i s t i c a l l y  confidence  two methods o f s t a r t i n g f o r that  t h e means o f  seconds r e s p e c t i v e l y  start  signifi-  the s i x t e e n c a s e s .  The mean d i f f e r e n c e o f  i n f a v o u r o f the f r o n t at  a statistical  found.  per second significant  2.946).  16 TABLE I I I Comparison o f Times* Between F r o n t and Side Starting Styles  STYLE  MEAN  S.D.  FRONT  3.273  .0860  F o r T o t a l S i x t y Feet  S.E.  DIFF.  m  S  3.225  E  t  R  .0215 .0520  SIDE  * * d i f f "" ATIO  .1086  .0209  2.1^88  .0272  * time measured i n seconds A t - r a t i o o f 2.130  denotes a s t a t i s t i c a l  signifi-  cance a t the 0.05 l e v e l of confidence f o r the s i x t e e n  cases.  TABLE I V Comparison o f Speed* Between Front and Side S t a r t i n g Styles  For F i r s t  STYLE  MEAN  S.D.  S.E.,  FRONT  14.306  .502  .126  SIDE  13.976  .514  .129  T h i r t y Feet  DIFF.  S.E. t-RATIO diff  .330  »112  2.946  # speed measured i n f e e t p e r second A t - r a t i o o f 2.130  denotes a s t a t i s t i c a l  signifi-  cance a t the 0.05 l e v e l o f confidence f o r the s i x t e e n cases  17 Table V i n d i c a t e d that of  t h e two methods o f  means o f  25*737 f e e t  starting for  the f r o n t  The mean d i f f e r e n c e o f 0.229 s t a r t was  0.05 l e v e l  of  means o f  18.325 f e e t  starting  (t-ratio =  and the s i d e  significant  i n regards  f o r the t o t a l  for  the f r o n t  second starts.  at  of  the  to  significant  at  the  sixty per  speed  feet, second  and s i d e s t a r t s .  between t h e means o f 0 . 289 f e e t  statistically  per  p e r s e c o n d and 18.063 f e e t  were f o u n d r e s p e c t i v e l y difference  feet  feet,  ( t - r a t i o = 0.512).  i l l u s t r a t e d that  the two methods o f  speed  per second i n favour  not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  of confidence T a b l e VI  feet  to t h e  the s e c o n d t h i r t y  p e r s e c o n d a n d 25*508  were f o u n d r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r  the f r o n t  in relation  The  p e r s e c o n d was  t h e 0.05 l e v e l  of confidence  2.331).  TABLE V C o m p a r i s o n o f Speed*- Between F r o n t Side Starting  Styles  For Second T h i r t y  STYLE  MEAN  S.D.  S.E.  FRONT  25.737  1.396  .349  SIDE  25.508  m  1.613  A t-ratio at  DIFF.  Feet  s  .229  o f 2.130  t h e 0.05 l e v e l  '  E  ' d i f f  *kk7  t " ^  1  0.512  *if 03  # speed measured i n f e e t  cance  and  per second  denotes a s t a t i s t i c a l  of confidence f o r  signifi-  the s i x t e e n c a s e s ©  0  18  •  TABLE: VI C o m p a r i s o n o f S p e e d Between F r o n t Side Starting  Styles  For  STYLE  MEAN  S.D.  S.E.  FRONT  18.352  .1^80  .120  SIDE  18.063  .586  .147  Total Sixty  m  cance  at  Table VII,  t h e two methods o f  means o f 6.830 f e e t per second per and t h e  S.E., __  t-RATIO  .289  .124  2.331  4  diff  per second  denotes  a statistical  when c a l c u l a t i n g t h e starting for  acceleration  the f i r s t  thirty  feet,  p e r s e c o n d p e r s e c o n d and 6.534  feet  f o r the  front  The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e means  per second per second i n favour of  statistically  signifi-  o f confidence f o r the s i x t e e n c a s e s .  s e c o n d were f o u n d r e s p e c t i v e l y  side s t a r t s .  0.296 f e e t was  2.130  t h e 0.05 l e v e l  In of  of  Feet  DIFF.  # speed measured i n f e e t A t-ratio  and  s i g n i f i c a n t at  of  the f r o n t  the 0.05 l e v e l  of  start  confidence  ( t - r a t i o = 2.819). In of  Table VIII,  the  a c c e l e r a t i o n o f the  s t a r t i n g f o r the second t h i r t y  o f 3.481  feet  per  f e e t was  starts.  The mean d i f f e r e n c e  per second i n favour of significant  at  examined.  s e c o n d p e r s e c o n d and 3.494 f e e t  p e r s e c o n d were f o u n d r e s p e c t i v e l y side  two methods  the s i d e  t h e 0.05 l e v e l  of  for  the f r o n t  o f 0.013 start,  was  confidence  feet not  Means  per second  and  the  per second statistically  ( t - r a t i o = 0.081).  19 TABLE  VII  C o m p a r i s o n o f A c c e l e r a t i o n s - Between F r o n t Side  Starting  Styles  For F i r s t  STYLE!  MEAN  S.D.  S.E.  FRONT  6.830  .478  .120  6.534  .472  .118  SIDE  m  Thirty  cance  at  of  2.130  t h e 0.05 l e v e l  of  Feet  DIFF.  S.E.  .296  .105  # a c c e l e r a t i o n measured i n f e e t A t-ratio  and  denotes  d  i  t-RATIO  f  2.819  per second per second  a statistical  confidence f o r  f  the  signifi-  sixteen cases.  TABLE V I I I Comparison o f A c c e l e r a t i o n ^ Between F r o n t Side Starting  Styles  For Second T h i r t y  STYLE  MEAN  S.D.  S.E.  FRONT  3.481  .541  .135  SIDE  3.494  .567  .142  m  DIFF.  .013  a c c e l e r a t i o n measured i n f e e t A t-ratio cance at  of  t h e 0.05 l e v e l  2.130  s  and  Feet  ' 'ciiff E  .160  "  R  A  T  I  0  0.081  per second per seoond  denotes a s t a t i s t i c a l  of confidence f o r  t  signifi-  the s i x t e e n c a s e s .  20 Table IX  shows  two methods o f s t a r t i n g  that for for the  the  total  acceleration of sixty feet,  means o f  p e r s e c o n d p e r s e c o n d and 5»kk-2. f e e t  5«6l4 f e e t  p e r s e c o n d were f o u n d r e s p e c t i v e l y side s t a r t s .  The d i f f e r e n c e  f o r the f r o n t  the  per second and t h e  between t h e means o f 0.172  p e r s e c o n d p e r s e c o n d was s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  at  feet the  0.05 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e ( t - r a t i o = 2.293) •  TABLE  IX  C o m p a r i s o n o f A c c e l e r a t i o n * Between F r o n t Side Starting  Styles  For  Total Sixty  STYLE  MEAN  S.D.  S.E.  FRONT  5.614  .294  .074  SIDE  5.442  .357  .089  *  at  o f 2.130  t h e 0.05 l e v e l  Feet  DIFF.  S.E.  .172  .075  a c c e l e r a t i o n measured i n f e e t  A t-ratio cance  m  and  d  i  f  2.293  per second per second  denotes a s t a t i s t i c a l  of confidence f o r  t-RATIO  f  signifi-  the s i x t e e n  cases.  DISCUSSION The r e s u l t s differences of starting, to t i m e ,  indicated statistically  significant  b e t w e e n t h e d i f f e r e n t means o f t h e two methods the f r o n t  speed,  style  and t h e  and a c c e l e r a t i o n f o r  side s t y l e , the f i r s t  in  regard  thirty  feet  21  and t o t a l  sixty  front  start,  Denis  (1).  feet  are St.  in  was  better.  cant  at  Denis  the f a c t  His  this  to  the r e s u l t s  speed and a c c e l e r a t i o n r e s u l t i n g the  side s t a r t  level  (t-ratio  of confidence  contradiction is  from  signifi-  = k.iflj.9).  u n e x p l a i n a b l e exoept  Denis d i d not use equated g r o u p s .  two g r o u p s ; one g r o u p w h i c h was times  tested on the f r o n t  and the  three  times,  start  o r r u n n i n g method s i x  side  start  and t h e o t h e r g r o u p w h i o h was  s k a t i n g method t h r e e  times.  the r e s u l t s  times  he  o r r u n n i n g method  statistically  s k a t i n g method s i x  the  f o u n d by S t «  r e s u l t s were h i g h l y  that St.  have l e d to  favouring  c o n c l u d e d , i n r e g a r d to time o n l y ,  method, t h a t  the 0.01  reason for  These f i n d i n g s ,  contrast  d i d n o t examine t h e the d i f f e r e n t  only.  or  The for  He h a d start  or  r u n n i n g method  t e s t e d on the  and t h e f r o n t  start  side  or  T h i s method o f g r o u p i n g c o u l d  favouring  the  side  start  or  running  method. Furthermore, record the whereas,  time o f  i n this  stopwatches individual  St.  each subject  study,  This  is  trial;  each s u b j e c t  different o n an  another p o s s i b l e source o f Denis'  results  to  favouring  error  the  side  o r running method. Also St.  Denis(1)  s k a t i n g m e t h o d was w i d e l y that  individual  the time f o r  t h a t c o u l d have l e d to S t . start  per  t h e mean t i m e f r o m t h r e e  was u s e d as trial.  D e n i s u s e d o n l y one s t o p w a t c h  the  side  start  stated that  the  His  start  known and t h e more p o p u l a r  o r r u n n i n g method was  and n o t u s e d as m u c h .  front  results  not  and  as w e l l  do n o t seem t o  or  back  known this  22 statement* The f a c t no s t a t i s t i c a l l y of  t h a t the r e s u l t s  significant  t h e d i f f e r e n t methods o f  f e e t was  explainable.  of  sessions,  it  t h e same s u b j e c t s  were d i f f e r e n t o n t h e d i f f e r e n t  for  on the t i m e , s p e e d ,  the second t h i r t y  a l s o be assumed t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s skating stride  and s t y l e  thirty  were u s e d  and because o n l y  can be assumed t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n t  the s u b j e c t s  indicated  s t a r t i n g f o r the second  Because  s t a r t i n g h a d no e f f e c t of  study  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e means  f o r t e s t i n g b o t h methods o f s t a r t i n g starting styles  this  testing styles  Thus,  it  speed, as  but u s i n g the  the f i r s t  thirty  starting  t h e p l a y e r who u s e d t h e f r o n t  feet.  As  sixty  10.^6  inches.  feet,  The a u t h o r b e l i e v e s  equal s k a t i n g s t r i d e  enough t o g i v e one p l a y e r  of  10*56  another i n  reached the  the f a s t e r  if  signifi-  skating 7.80  inches  first  thirty  reached  the  two p l a y e r s  was  two p l a y e r s  of  arm l e n g t h and l e g l e n g t h inches  is  a n advantage o v e r  the puck f o r  inches gives  that  that  a d i s t a n c e o f 7.80  p l a y e r when r a c i n g f o r  over  s t y l e s , was  t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e  e q u a l body s i z e i n r e l a t i o n t o  distance  start  feet.  the  of equal  t h e p l a y e r who u s e d t h e f r o n t s t a r t  total  large  and a c c e l e r a t i o n ,  between two p l a y e r s  different  can  had a t t a i n e d the normal  E v e n t h o u g h t h e r e s u l t s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y  difference i n distance  of  and a c c e l e r a t i o n ,  feet.  by t h e e n d o f  cant i n r e l a t i o n to time, speed,  the  a breakaway.  a player  a slight  not  and  quite  another However  a  advantage  p l a y e r w o u l d be a b l e t o move  23 his  body i n f r o n t  But i f for  the  to  the o t h e r  a defection,  the f a s t e s t  start  was  to t i m e ,  thirty  and the  thirty  feet  speed,  touch the  puck advanta  total  experiment i n d i c a t e d that  better  than the s i d e  and a c c e l e r a t i o n f o r  sixty feet.  s i g n i f i c a n c e between t h e feet  to  situation.  b o t h d i s t a n c e s w o u l d be  from t h i s  statistically  in relation  tical  in a similar  player.  The r e s u l t s front  player  two p l a y e r s were r a c i n g j u s t  i c i n g or for  geous  of  i n regard to time,  T h e r e was  two methods f o r speed,  start  the no  the  the  first statis-  second  and a c c e l e r a t i o n .  2k REFERENCES  1.  St.  Denis,  Claude,  "A Study  Method o f S t a r t i n g Ice  to Determine  Fastest  From a S t o p p e d P o s i t i o n  Hookey", Unpublished Master's  Springfield  the  College,  1956.  Thesis,  in  25 CHAPTER V  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e r e were any s i g n i f i c a n t the  s t u d y was  differences  s i d e methods o f s t a r t i n g  to  determine  between t h e  from a s t a t i o n a r y  whether  front  position  and in  i  i c e hockey i n r e l a t i o n to lack of s c i e n t i f i c and s p e c i f i c a l l y a need f o r  this  time,  experimentation in  in  the  type  of  Hockey  Teams a t  as s u b j e c t s . subjects  ing session. particular  the U n i v e r s i t y  The s u b j e c t s  each  of B r i t i s h  Varsity  Columbia served  styles,  the  All  testing  trying  feet  r e c o r d e d the  sixty feet  accelerate  Three experienced timers thirty  over  r e c o r d e d the  on each t r i a l  time  test-  the  session.  g i v e n ten t r i a l s  to  the  front  The s u b j e c t s were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o  method p e r  trial.  and J u n i o r  s i d e m e t h o d , b u t o n l y o n one method p e r  in a straight line  timers  hockey indicated  were n o t r a n d o m l y c h o s e n .  s i o n d u r i n g w h i c h he h a d to s k a t e  the f i r s t  ice  fundamentals  f r o m the V a r s i t y  E a c h s u b j e c t was  feet.  the s p o r t o f  The  study.  were t e s t e d o n b o t h s t a r t i n g  m e t h o d and t h e  and a c c e l e r a t i o n .  area of s t a r t i n g  Sixteen players Ice  speed,  to t r a v e l  per t e s t i n g  continuously the  total  time t o  a n d t h r e e more the t o t a l  ses-  sixty  sixty  travel  experienced feet  on  26 The g r o u p m e a n s , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s t h e means were c a l c u l a t e d f o r second t h i r t y time,  speed,  feet  the f i r s t  and t h e t o t a l  and a c c e l e r a t i o n .  sixty  and t h e  t-ratio's  methods o f s t a r t i n g f o r feet,  speed,  and a c c e l e r a t i o n .  results 1.  For  basis  difference  thirty  sixty feet  the  in relation  o f the s t a t i s t i c a l  the f i r s t  thirty  feet  was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  i n r e l a t i o n to time,  speed,  better  to  sixty  and the s i d e s t a r t  a c c e l e r a t i o n f o r the  two  time,  of  the  justifiable: feet,  than the s i d e  the start  and a c c e l e r a t i o n .  T h e r e was n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e start  the  second  analysis  and the t o t a l  to  between  between  feet,  of  the  i n regards  o b t a i n e d , t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s were  front start  2.  feet,  were c o m p u t e d t o compare t h e  and the t o t a l  On t h e  feet  difference  the f i r s t  thirty  thirty  Then t h e  t h e means, the s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f means,  and s t a n d a r d e r r o r  i n regards  second t h i r t y  to  time,  feet.  front  speed,  and  27  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BOOKS A n g e l l , K . , Hockey f o r A n g e l l , 196U..  the Beginner, :  Burlington,  Ontario:  Bathgate, A . , W o l f f , B . , Andy Bathgate's Hookey S e c r e t s , Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1963. G a r r e t , H . E . , S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and E d u c a t i o n , F i f t h E d i t i o n , New York* David McKay Company I n c . , 1965. Jeremiah, E d . , Ice Hockey, Revised E d i t i o n , New Y o r k : The Ronald Press Company, 1953. L'Heureux, W i l l i a m , Hockey f o r Boys, Chicago: P u b l i s h i n g Company, l y b i J .  Follet  M a h o v l i c h , F . , Ice Hockey - How to P l a y i t and Enjoy i t , London, E n g l a n d : Pelham Books, 19bij.. Mouly, G . J o , The Science o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research, Americ an Book Company, 1963. P a t r i c k , L . , Monoham, L . , L e t ' s P l a y Hockey, M a c M i l l a n , 1957.  New Y o r k :  Toronto:  P e r c i v a l , L l o y d , The Hockey Handbook, Revised E d i t i o n , New York: A . S . Barnes and Company, 1961. Riley,  J . , Ice Hockey, New York:  Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1962.  Watson, W . , A Text-Book o f P h y s i c s , Seventh E d i t i o n , R e v i s e d by H e r b e r t Moss, London: Longmans, Green and Company, 1920 UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL St.  D e n i s , Claude, "A Study to Determine the F a s t e s t Method o f S t a r t i n g From a Stopped P o s i t i o n i n Ice Hookey", Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , S p r i n g f i e l d C o l l e g e , 1956.  FILMS Chetwynd F i l m s , I n s t r u c t i o n a l T o r o n t o , 19"EB  Hookey F i l m s ,  Skating,  28 PERSONAL COMMON! CAT! ON Hindmarch, R.G,,  P e r s o n a l I n t e r v i e w , 8 A p r i l , 1969«  APPENDIX S TATIS T I C A L  A  TREATMENT  30  STATISTICAL  TREATMENT  Speed and A c c e l e r a t i o n . The s p e e d a n d a c c e l e r a t i o n r a t e s f r o m the  time s c o r e s  for  all  subjects.  were  calculated  The f o r m u l a e u s e d  were? d 1.  Speed,  s = ^  where  s = rate of  speed  d = distance t = time 2.  Acceleration,  v = u + a t  where  v = final  travelled  taken velocity  u = initial  velocity  a = acceleration t = time Correlation Coefficients. C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d the  two s t a r t i n g s t y l e s .  calculate  the  Spearman's  Rho was u s e d t o  correlation coefficient.  P = 1  - 6 D  2  N(N2-1)  where  between  The f o r m u l a u s e d w a s : P = correlation  coefficient  D = difference  between  N = number of  subjects  = summation s i g n  ranks  31 Significance  o f the  A "t"  Difference.  test  f o r c o r r e l a t e d s a m p l e s was u s e d tb  determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f two s t a r t i n g methods i n  this  the  difference  study.  between  The f o r m u l a e  the  for  c a l c u l a t i o n were? 1.  Group Mean, u s i n g s u b j e c t ' s mean s c o r e s ,  =  where X Q  s  X" N 2.  The S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n o f s u b j e c t ' s  = g r o u p mean S  = subject's = number o f  mean subjects  mean a r o u n d g r o u p  mean, S.D.  =  /  D N - l  2  where S . D .  = standard  deviation  D. = d e v i a t i o n between s u b j e c t ' s mean a n d g r o u p mean N. = number o f  subjects  = summation s i g n 3.  The S t a n d a r d E r r o r S.E.  m  =  of  S.D.  ~° ' BBBSa  t h e Mean, where S . E . S.D. N.  m  = standard error mean Qf = standard  deviation  = number o f  subjects  32 The D i f f e r e n c e Diff.  between g r o u p means,  = 1Q  -  F  where  XQ  S  = front  XQ  F  start  group  mean Xgg = s i d e s t a r t mean The S t a n d a r d  S.E.  d  Error  l  f  f  >  o f the D i f f e r e n c e  =^/(S.E.  m f  )  2  +  (S.E.  where  group  b e t w e e n g r o u p means,  m s  )  S.E.  2  - 2 r (S . E .  diff  m f  ) (S.E.^ )  standard error of d i f f e r e n c e between g r o u p means  S *E. mf  standard error o f g r o u p mean f o r f r o n t method  S *E. ms  standard error o f g r o u p mean f o r s i d e method correlation coefficient between d i f f e r e n t s t a r t i n g methods  The a p p r o p r i a t e t =  t-ratio,  DIFF. S *E.d i f f .  where  DIFF.  difference between t h e mean  S «E.  standard error o f the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e means  diff  APPENDIX SAMPLE  DATA  B SHEET  SAMPLE DATA SHEET Name  Age  Height  Weight  Years o f Experience Preferred Styles  Front  Side  Rank First  Style  Tested:  First  Station  ,  Side Second  Front  Station  TIMES  FRONT STYLE'  1  Trials  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  First Timer j Second Timers Third Timer:  SIDE STYLE Trials First Timer: Second Timer: Third Timer:  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  APPENDIX RAW  C  SCORES  36  MEAN TIME IN SECONDS FOR FRONT STYLE  SUBJECT  FIRST THIRTY FEET  SECOND THIRTY FEET  TOTAL SIXTY FEET  1.  M.D.  2.092  1.178  3.270  2. M.M.  2.1i|.0  1.233  3.373  3.  J.P-  1.993  1.164  3.157  4.  w.s.  2.030  1.080  3.110  5.  B.W.  2.077  1.173  3.250  6, L . V .  2.093  1.147  3.240  7.  D.Bo  2.060  1.247  3.307  8.  O.K.  2.023  1.320  3.343  9,  T.W.  2.163  1.224  3.387  10. S . F .  2.170  1.112  3.282  11. J . M .  2.144  1.100  3.247  12. G.W.  2.037  1.180  2.217  13. F . L .  2.157  1.180  3.337  li+. R . M .  2.003  1.180  3.183  15. L . W .  2.180  1.062  3.242  16. T . L .  2.240  1.183  3.423  .  37  MEAN TIME IN SECONDS PGR SIDE STYLE  SUBJECT  FIRST THIRTY FEET  SECOND THIRTY FEET  TOTAL SIXTY FEET  le  M.D.  2.218  1.3i+2  3.560  2.  M.M.  2.087  1.170  3.257  3« J.P.  2.130  1.167  3.297  1+.  W.S.  2.023  1.120  3.143  5.  B.W.  2.093  1.174  3.267  6.  L.V.  2.077  1.196  3.273  7.  D.B.  •2.157  1.206 '  3.363  8. C.E.  2.077  1.240  3.317  9*  T..W.  2.120  1.323  3*443  10. S.F.  2o250  1.050  3.300  11. J.M.  2.170  1.193  3.363  12. G.W.  2.127  1.118  3.245  13. P.L.  2.303  1.087  3.390  1 4 . R.M.  2.030  1.133  3.163  1 5 . L.W.  2.190  1.150  3.340  16. T.L.  2.253  1.224  3.477  38  SPEED I N FEET PER SECOND FOR FRONT S T Y L E  SUBJECT  FIRST THIRTY FEET  SECOND THIRTY FEET  TOTAL SIXTY FEET  1.  M.D.  14.354  25.424  18.349  2.  M.M.  14.019  24.390  17.804  3•  J.P.  15.075  25.862  18.987  4«  W.S.  14.778  27.778  19.292  5.  B.W.  14.493  25.641  18.462  6.  L.V.  14.354  26.087  18.519  7.  D.B.  14-563  24.000  18.182  8.  O.K.  14.851  22.727  17.964  9.  T.W.  13.889  25.590  17.699  S.F.  13.825  27.027  18.293  11. J . M .  13.953  27.272  18.462  12. G.W.  14.706  25.424  18.634  13. F . L .  13.889  25.424  17.964  14. R . M .  15.000  25.424  18.868  L.W.  13.761  28.301  18.619  16. T . L .  13.393  25.424  17.514  10  e  15.  39  SPEED  IN F E E T POR S I D E  PER  SECOND  STYLE  SUBJECT  FIRST THIRTY FEET  SECOND THIRTY FEET  TOTAL SIXTY FEET  1.  M.D.  13.514  22.388  16.854  2.  M.M.  14.354  25.6i|JL  18.405  3.  J.P.  14.085  25.641  18.182  4*  w.s.  14.851  26.786  19.108  5.  B.W.  14.354  25;641  18.349  6.  L.V.  13.889  25.000  18.349  7.  D.B.  14.423  24.793  17.857  8.  C.K.  13.889  24.194  18.072  9.  T.W..  14.151  22.727  17o442  10*  S.P.  13.334  28.571  18.182  11.  J.Mo  13.825  25.210  17.857  12.  G.W.  14.085  26.786  18.462  13.  P.L.  13.043  27.523  17.699  14.  R.M.  14.778  26.549  18.987  15. L.W.  13.699  26.087  17.964  16.  13*334  24.590  12.241  T.L.  ACCELERATION IN  FEET PER SECOND  PER SECOND FOR FRONT S T Y L E  THIRTY  SECOND THIRTY FEET  TOTAL SIXTY FEET  FIRST  SUBJECT  FEET  1.  M.D.  6.868  3.386  5.611  2.  M.Me  6.551  3.077  5.283  3.  J.P.  7.575  3.372  6.009  4*  W.S.  7.280  4.180  6.203  "  5o  B.W,  7.001  3-392  5.681  6.  L.V.  6.868  3.622  5.716  7.  D.B.  7.069  2.895  5.493  8.  O.K.  7.352  2.358  5.378  9.  T.W.  6.430  3.123  5.221  10.  S.F.  6.371  4.025  5.577  11.  J.M.  6.490  4.099  5.681  12.  a.w.  7.209  3.329  5.787  13.  P.L.  6.430  3.453  5.378  14.  R.M.  7.500  3.278  5.933  15.  L.W.  6.312  4.583  5.747  16.  T.L.  5.979  3.519  5.130  kl  ACCELERATION IN FEET PER SECOND PER SECOND FOR S I D E  SUBJECT  STYLE  FIRST THIRTY FEET  SECOND THIRTY FEET  TOTAL SIXTY FEET  1.  M.D.  6.087  2.i|92  4.734  2.  M.M.  6.868  3.462  5.646  3.  J . P 'o  6.613  3.502  5.510  4.  W.S.  7.359  3.801  '6.085  5.  B.W.  6.868  3.415  5.611  6.  L.V.  6.677  3.717  5.6II  7.  D.B.  6.677  2.838  5.316  8.  C.K.  6.677  3.373  5.443  9.  T.W.  6.675  2.493  5.070  10.  S.F.  6.926  4.617  11.  J.M.  6.371  3.388  5.315  12.  G.W.  6.613  3.908  5.681  13.  F.L.  5.671  4.272  5.206  14. R.M.  7.280  3.725  6.009  L.W.  6.255  3.709  5.378  16. T . L .  5.926  3.202  4.954  15«  :  5.510  42  SUBJECT  WEIGHT I N POUNDS  AGE I N YEARS  HEIGHT I N INCHES  YEARS OP EXPERIENCE  PREFERRED STYLE  1.  M.D.  175  21.5  71  12  F  2.  M.M.  185  28.8  70  16  S  3.  J.P.  165  a.5  69  9  S  4-  W.S.  165  20.3  70  8  F  5.  B.W.  180  20.7  73  9  S  6.  L.V.  185  17.6  72  10  F  7.  D.B.  175  18.8  69  10  S  8-  C.E.  175  25.3  69  17  S  9.  T.W.  180  21.5  69  8  s  10. S . P .  180  22.0  71  18  s  J.M.  165  18.3  69  5  F  12. G.W.  155  18.5  73  12  F  13. P . L .  170  21.3  70  8  S  14. R . M .  160  18.9  68  12  F  15. L.W.  165  19.2  68  7  F  16. T . L .  160  20.8  70  14  F  11.  

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