Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The effect of physical conditioning on the motor fitness and cardiovascular condition of college freshmen. Scott, Harvey Alexander 1964

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1964_A7_5 S3.pdf [ 6.21MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0077207.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0077207-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0077207-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0077207-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0077207-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0077207-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0077207-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0077207-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0077207.ris

Full Text

THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL CONDITIONING ON.THE MOTOR FITNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR CONDITION"OF COLLEGE FRESHMEN by HARVEY ALEXANDER SCOTT B.A. University of Western Ontario, 1962 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF-PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1964 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree that p e r -m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s unders tood that , c o p y i n g or p u b l i -c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d without my w r i t t e n permission*, Department of . P h y s i c a l Education The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver 8, Canada Date ^ ! » 1964. ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was t o evaluate the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a twice-weekly t h i r t y - m i n u t e ' p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g 1 c l a s s i n improving the C a r d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n and Motor F i t n e s s of male c o l l e g e freshmen at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. I t was hypothesized t h a t s e l e c t e d measurements of the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of the sample would be improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y by the programme. F i f t e e n s u b j e c t s , s e l e c t e d randomly from a l a r g e r number i n the c o n d i t i o n i n g c l a s s , were given, a f i t n e s s t e s t b a t t e r y p r i o r t o and at the end of the e i g h t week c o n d i t i o n i n g programme. The gains i n f i t n e s s measured were evaluated i n terms of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and. i n terms of standard scores p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r normal young c o l l e g e men. A s t a t i s t i c a l comparison of the experimental group and a l a r g e sample of f i r s t year students t e s t e d i n 1962 was made f o r the v a r i a b l e s h e i g h t , weight and motor performance. The two groups were found t o be s u f f i c i e n t l y a l i k e t o c o n s i d e r the experimental group as reasonably r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of male c o l l e g e freshmen e n r o l l e d i n the Required Programme at the U n i v e r s i t y . In almost a l l of the v a r i a b l e s s t u d i e d , approximately t w o - t h i r d s of the subjects showed changes which were i n the d i r e c t i o n of increased p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . A l l but one of the twenty-two v a r i a b l e s used showed small mean changes i n the d i r e c t i o n of i n c r e a s e d p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s although only twelve of these were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Most of the mean gains were too small t o be considered b i o l o g i c a l l y or p r a c t i c a l l y important. In the c a r d i o v a s c u l a r items, s e v e r a l subjects w i t h r e l a t i v e l y h i g h scores on t h e i r f i r s t t e s t s had lower scores when they were r e t e s t e d and s e v e r a l subjects who had r e l a t i v e l y low scores on t h e i r f i r s t t e s t had higher scores when they were r e t e s t e d . Most of the other s u b j e c t s i n -creased some of t h e i r scores s l i g h t l y when they were r e -t e s t e d but a l s o some of t h e i r scores decreased s l i g h t l y . The f o l l o w i n g conclusions were made. For improvement of C a r d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n , the t r a i n i n g programme was too easy f o r the i n i t i a l l y f i t students, reasonably adequate f o r the i n i t i a l l y u n f i t students and only s l i g h t stimulus f o r the m a j o r i t y . For improvement of. Motor F i t n e s s t he t r a i n i n g programme was not s u f f i c i e n t e i t h e r i n d u r a t i o n or i n t e n s i t y (or both) t o produce p r a c t i c a l o r b i o l o g i c a l l y important changes. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM .................. 1 I I JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM 5 I I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 8 IV METHODS AND PROCEDURE ... 40 V RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ...... 53 ,VI SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .. 93 BIBLIOGRAPHY . 98 APPENDICES A. STATISTICAL TREATMENT .... 103 , B. TIME TABLE FOR PROCEDURE 107 G. INDIVIDUAL SCORE SHEET ... 108 D. HEALTH - HABIT QUESTIONNAIRE 109 E. RAW SCORES FOR INITIAL TEST CARDIOVASCULAR CONDITION ITEMS 112 F. RAW SCORES FOR FINAL TEST CARDIOVASCULAR CONDITION ITEMS 113 . G. RAW SCORES FOR INITIAL TEST MOTOR FITNESS ITEMS". 114 H. RAW SCORES.FOR FINAL TEST MOTOR FITNESS ITEMS .. -115 LIST OF TABLES 1 S i g n i f i c a n c e of D i f f e r e n c e Between Sample and Population Means ...... 54 2 R e l i a b i l i t y of Mean Gains i n H a b i t u a l Autonomic Tone 59 3 Standard Scores f o r Ha b i t u a l Autonomic Tone Items .... ....... 60 4 C a r d i o v a s c u l a r Component I - Increases, No Changes and Regressions 60 5 R e l i a b i l i t y of Mean Gains i n Splanchnic Tone ... 64 o Cardiovascular Component I I - Increases, No Changes and Regressions 64 LIST OF TABLES (Cont'd) PAGE 7 R e l i a b i l i t y of Mean Gains i n C i r c u l a t o r y Adjustment to Hard A t h l e t i c Work 65 8 Standard Scores f o r 600 Yard Run-Walk 65 9 C a r d i o v a s c u l a r Component IV - Increases, No Changes and Regressions 66 10 R e l i a b i l i t y of Mean Gains i n F i v e Minute Step Test - Sum of 3 Recovery Counts 68 11 Standard Scores f o r F i v e Minute Step Test 68 12 Cardiovascular Component V - Increases, No Changes and Regressions 69 13 R e l i a b i l i t y of Mean Gains i n the A g i l i t y Item .... 72 14 Standard Scores f o r the A g i l i t y Item ............. 72 15 Motor F i t n e s s Component I - Increases, No Changes and Regressions 73 16 R e l i a b i l i t y of Mean Gains i n the Speed Item ...... 74 17 Standard Scores f o r the Speed Item 74 18 Motor F i t n e s s Component I I - Increases, No Changes and Regressions 75 19 R e l i a b i l i t y of Mean Gains i n the Power Item ....... 75 20 Standard Scores f o r the Power Item 76 21 Motor F i t n e s s Component I I I - Increases, No Changes and Regressions 76 22 R e l i a b i l i t y of Mean Gains i n the F l e x i b i l i t y Items 77 23 Standard Scores f o r the F l e x i b i l i t y Items 78 24 Motor F i t n e s s Component IV - Increases, No Changes and Regressions 78 25 R e l i a b i l i t y of Mean Gains i n the Dynamic Strength and Muscular Endurance Items • 80 26 Standard Scores f o r the Dynamic Strength and v Muscular Endurance Items 80 27 Motor F i t n e s s Component V - Increases, No Changes and Regressions S i 2# R e l i a b i l i t y of Mean Gains i n the S t a t i c Strength Items 82 29 Standard Scores f o r the S t a t i c Strength Items .... 83 30 Motor F i t n e s s Component VI - Increases, No Changes and Regressions S3 CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM One of the main objectives of the physical education programme i s the development of a s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l of physical f i t n e s s i n the participants (1)^ In order to s a t i s f y the objective of physical f i t n e s s i t i s the p o l i c y of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and many other i n s t i t u -t i o n s to include compulsory p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a * f i t n e s s -a c t i v i t y * i n the physical education requirement. , 'Physical conditioning* i s one of several ' f i t n e s s - a c t i v i t i e s * offered at the University. Problem: The problem i s t o evaluate the degree to which a p a r t i c u l a r »physical conditioning* programme i s successful i n improving c e r t a i n measures of physical f i t n e s s . S p e c i f i -c a l l y , the purpose i s twofold^ F i r s t l y , the study i s designed to measure i n i t i a l l e v e l s of f i t n e s s of the sample and to r e l a t e these l e v e l s to those of a large number of normal college menl Secondly, the study i s designed to determine the changes i n physical f i t n e s s made during the 'conditioning* programme and to evaluate these changes i n terms of standard scales established f o r large samples at other i n s t i t u t i o n s . Hypothesis: It i s hypothesized that selected measure-ments of the physical f i t n e s s of the sample w i l l be improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y by the 'physical conditioning* programme. D e l i m i t a t i o n s : The study i s d e l i m i t e d t o f i f t e e n male c o l l e g e freshmen e n r o l l e d i n the r e q u i r e d programme at the University.' The s u b j e c t s , s e l e c t e d randomly from a c l a s s of f o r t y - f i v e , had chosen ' p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g 1 from a l i m i t e d number of ' f i t n e s s - a c t i v i t i e s ' o f f e r e d . The programme c o n s i s t e d of e i g h t weeks of twice-weekly, t h i r t y - m i n u t e periods of c o n d i t i o n i n g e x e r c i s e s and a c t i v e games. The s e l e c t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s and i n t e n s i t y of a c t i v i t y was e n t i r e l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h e student i n s t r u c t o r -a customary arrangement of c l a s s e s of t h i s k i n d i n the r e q u i r e d programme at the, U n i v e r s i t y . D e f i n i t i o n s and Assumptions: P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s i s d e f i n e d as, "the nature and degree of adjustment (or adaptation) i n a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r i n g muscular e f f o r t . " ( 2 ) . I t i s assumed t h a t p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , a p a r t of the t o t a l f i t n e s s , may be comprehensively appraised by measuring i n d i v i d u a l s ' motor f i t n e s s and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n . Motor f i t n e s s may be d e f i n e d as, "A l i m i t e d phase of motor a b i l i t y which emphasizes c a p a c i t y f o r vigorous work o r a t h l e t i c e f f o r t . " ( 3 ) . C a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n i s t h e e f f i c i e n c y w i t h which the heart and blood v e s s e l s move the blood around the body. I t i s assumed t h a t motor f i t n e s s may be evaluated adequately by v a l i d t e s t s of the f a c t o r s - a g i l i t y , speed, power, f l e x i b i l i t y , muscular endurance, dynamic s t r e n g t h and s t a t i c s t r e n g t h . C a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n may be adequately measured by v a r i a b l e s subsumed under f o u r of i t s main components -H a b i t u a l Autonomic Tone i n the Quiet S t a t e , Splanchnic Tone, C i r c u l a t o r y Adjustment to Hard A t h l e t i c Work During the Time of the Work, and Pulse Rate Recovery A f t e r a Hard Work Task. ( 5 ) . I t i s assumed t h a t the t e n t e s t items i n the motor f i t n e s s - c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n t e s t b a t t e r y are v a l i d and r e l i a b l e c r i t e r i a of these b a s i c components of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and t h a t a reasonably comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s i s presented by these t e s t s . L i m i t a t i o n s : The study i s l i m i t e d by s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l apprehension had a n o t i c e a b l e e f f e c t on the readings of a few subjects on the Cameron Heartometer -B r a c h i a l Sphygmograph, causing s l i g h t u n r e l i a b i l i t y of r e s u l t s . The t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s had had l i t t l e previous experience i n Dynamometrical Strength t e s t i n g . The environmental and personal-habit v a r i a b l e s ( r e s t , n u t r i t i o n , disease and a c t i v i t y . ) were not c o n t r o l l e d . . Changes i n these f a c t o r s d u r i n g the experimental p e r i o d were, however, taken i n t o account i n e v a l u a t i n g the progress of the s u b j e c t s . REFERENCES Bucher, C.A.. .' Foundations of Physical Education. St. Louis, C.V. Mosby, 1950, p. 2b. Larson, L.A.j Yocum, R.D., Measurement and Evaluation  in Physical Health and Recreation Education. St. Louis, C.V. Mosby, 1951, p. 156. Cureton, T.K., "An Inventory and Screen Test of Motor Fitness for High School and College Menn,:  Physical Educator. January, 1943. Cureton, T.K., "The Nature of Cardiovascular Condition i n Man,1' Journal of the American Medical Association, vol.' 17 (November, 1956), pp. 139-155. Loc. c i t . CHAPTER I I JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM The wide acceptance of r e q u i r e d p h y s i c a l education i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s of North America i s based on the p r i n c i p l e t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n o f p h y s i c a l education o b j e c t i v e s i s a v a l u a b l e complement t o academic education. In order t o j u s t i f y t h i s p o s i t i o n i t i s important t h a t p h y s i c a l educators have a v a i l a b l e o b j e c t i v e data t o show the s i g n i f i c a n c e of progress made i n s a t i s f y i n g these aims. One of the main o b j e c t i v e s of p h y s i c a l education i s t h a t of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . A d m i n i s t r a t o r s emphasize t h i s aim by i n c l u d i n g compulsory p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a ' f i t n e s s - a c t i v i t y ' i n the p h y s i c a l education requirement. I t i s important t o know the degree t o which ' f i t n e s s - a c t i v i t i e s ' such as ' p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g ' are s u c c e s s f u l i n meeting the f i t -ness o b j e c t i v e . Very l i t t l e i s known regarding the d u r a t i o n and i n t e n s i t i e s of e x e r c i s e necessary t o promote c o n s i s t e n t progress i n f i t n e s s . Experimental s t u d i e s have been done u s i n g c o n d i t i o n i n g c l a s s e s both a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and at other u n i v e r s i t i e s . Studies done on t h i s a c t i v i t y at other i n s t i t u t i o n s have shown b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s of v a r y i n g degrees. (1,2,3K At the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia s t u d i e s done by Johnson and Kubeck (4), and Bannister (5)f i l l u s t r a t e the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s of ' c o n d i t i o n i n g c l a s s e s ' . - 6 -However, i n g e n e r a l , these s t u d i e s have examined the e f f e c t o f these programmes on a very l i m i t e d number of parameters of f i t n e s s . There e x i s t s a d e f i n i t e need t o determine the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of Canadian students attending the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia by u s i n g a broad b a t t e r y of t e s t s and t o evaluate the e f f e c t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the r e q u i r e d programme c l a s s e s on p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . Since ' p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g * i s one of the more vigorous a c t i v i t i e s which should have marked b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s on the f i t n e s s o f freshmen students, i t i s important t o know what e f f e c t s can a c t u a l l y be obtained and the extent of these e f f e c t s . I n view of the l a c k of comprehensive o b j e c t i v e evidence of t h i s k i n d , i t would seem worthwhile t o conduct a study of t h i s nature. The i n f o r m a t i o n obtained from t h i s study w i l l serve as a b a s i s f o r r e p l a n n i n g f u t u r e programmes w i t h respect t o such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as d u r a t i o n , and i n t e n s i t y of e x e r c i s e , and s p e c i f i c areas of weakness i n the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of freshmen at the U n i v e r s i t y . REFERENCES' K i s t l e r , J . j MA Study of the R e s u l t s of E i g h t Weeks of P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a U n i v e r s i t y P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Program f o r Men," Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 15, (March, 1944), p. 23. Jordan, C.S., "A Comparative Study of t h e P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of a Group of Boys from S i r Richard McBride School P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Regular P h y s i c a l Education Program With Another Group P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n A d d i t i o n a l C o n d i t i o n i n g A c t i v i t i e s , " Unpublished Graduating Essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963. L a n d i s s , C.W., "Influence of P h y s i c a l Education A c t i v i t i e s on Motor A b i l i t y and P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of Male Freshmen," Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 26 (October, 1955), pp. ^ - W . Johnson, G.C.y Kubeck. E.P.. "A Comparison of the E f f e c t s of C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g , Weight T r a i n i n g ! and P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n i n g upon T o t a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s as Measured by Muscular Strength and Muscular Endurance," Unpublished Graduating Essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962. B a n n i s t e r , E.W.. "The R e l a t i v e E f f e c t i v e n e s s of I n t e r v a l C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g Compared w i t h Three Other Methods of F i t n e s s T r a i n i n g i n a School P h y s i c a l Education Program," Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I960. CHAPTER I I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Although t h e r e appear t o be many c o n f l i c t i n g o p i n i o n s as t o the o b j e c t i v e s of p h y s i c a l education, " a c t u a l l y , p h y s i c a l educators b a s i c a l l y agree on o b j e c t i v e s even though as authors they may s t a t e them i n somewhat d i f f e r e n t forms." (!.)• , Brownell and Hagman (2) l i s t the o b j e c t i v e s i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: 1. P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s 2. S o c i a l and motor s k i l l s 3. Knowledges and understandings 4. H a b i t s , a t t i t u d e s , and a p p r e c i a t i o n s Cowell andiHazelton, (3) f e e l t h a t the o b j e c t i v e s i n order of importance are: 1. Organic power, the a b i l i t y t o maintain adaptive e f f o r t • • • 2. Neuromuscular development . . . 3. P e r s o n a l - s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s and adjustment ., • ... 4» I n t e r p r e t i v e and i n t e l l e c t u a l development . . • 5. Emotional responsiveness • . _. P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s : Most p h y s i c a l educators place the o b j e c t i v e of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s at or near the t o p of t h e i r l i s t s . , T h i s p o i n t i s made by Shrecker (4) who f e e l s , " P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , t h e r e f o r e , should be acknowledged as t h e permanent aim of P h y s i c a l Education . . . " P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s as a c l e a r concise concept i s somewhat d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e . Cureton (5) s t a t e s : P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s i s one phase of t o t a l f i t n e s s . I t does not i n c l u d e a l l of the aspects of emotional f i t n e s s , o r s o c i a l f i t n e s s . . . P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s i s related to these other phases of f i t n e s s i n addition to being important f o r i t s e l f . • . P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s means a great deal more than freedom from sickness or passing a medical inspection . . • physical f i t n e s s means a b i l i t y to handle the body well and the capacity to work hard over a long period of time without diminished e f f i c i e n c y . In order to ascertain how the leading a u t h o r i t i e s i n medicine as well as physical.education defined physical f i t n e s s Mathews (6) analyzed a number of d e f i n i t i o n s made during a sixteen year period. In revealing h i s findings he states: This analysis revealed that the term " f i t n e s s " was most generally interpreted i n i t s broadest concept, that of t o t a l f i t n e s s , and includes the following four components: 1. Psychological f i t n e s s : (a) The emotional s t a b i l i t y necessary to meet everyday problems character-i s t i c of one 1s environment, and (b) S u f f i c i e n t psychological reserve t o handle a sudden emotional trauma. 2. Health, or normal phy s i o l o g i c a l function 3» Body mechanics, or e f f i c i e n t performance i n s k i l l s from the common everyday s k i l l s of standing, walking and s i t t i n g to the most complex . . . 4. Physical anthropometry, a type of f i t n e s s r e f l e c t e d i n body contour as a r e s u l t of good muscular tones as well as proper body weight. In contrast to t h i s broad concept of t o t a l physical f i t n e s s Karpovich (7) f e e l s that f i t n e s s i s very s p e c i f i c to the task at hand. . Confusion regarding the d e f i n i t i o n of physical f i t n e s s stems from an understandable desire to make a d e f i n i t i o n apply to everything under the sun . . . - 10 S t r i c t l y speaking p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s means tha t a person possessing i t meets c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l r e q u i r e -ments. These requirements may be anatomical ( s t r u c t u r a l ) o r p h y s i o l o g i c a l ( f u n c t i o n a l ) , or both . . . P h y s i o l o g i c a l f i t n e s s may r e q u i r e a person t o be able . . . t o perform s p e c i f i c p h y s i c a l t a s k s i n v o l v i n g muscular e f f o r t . A compromise of both the ' t o t a l 1 and s p e c i f i c p o i n t s of view i s presented by Larson and Yocum (8) who s t a t e t h a t p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s may be defined i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner: The nature and degree of adjustment (or adaptation) i n a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r i n g muscular e f f o r t . A l l a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e muscular e f f o r t ; t h e r e f o r e p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s i n c l u d e s a l l l i f e a c t i v i t i e s . The amount of e f f o r t , however, v a r i e s from s l i g h t demands (dart throwing) to demands which are great (marathon r u n n i n g ) . The 'nature 1 of the adjustment r e f e r s t o the ease or s t r a i n w i t h which the adjustment i s made. The 'degree' of adjustment r e f e r s t o the f a c t t h a t adjustment i s continuous and not dichotomous. 'Adjustment' or adaptation r e f e r s t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n d i v i d u a l s t a t u s and the requirements of l i f e a c t i v i t i e s , whatever they might be. The nature and degree of adjustment made by the i n d i v i d u a l i n l i f e a c t i v i t i e s i s determined by the i n d i v i d u a l ' s morphologic, p s y c h o l o g i c , and p h y s i o l o g i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d w i t h d e f i n i n g p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s are a l s o manifest i n attempting t o i s o l a t e the component p a r t s of i t . I n order to accomplish t h i s s e p a r a t i o n of f i t n e s s components, s e v e r a l assumptions or promises must be made rega r d i n g the nature and scope of the f i t n e s s i n v o l v e d . , Larson and Yocum s t a t e : P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s i s one phase of t o t a l f i t n e s s ^ and may be used interchangeably w i t h motor f i t n e s s . Other phases of t o t a l f i t n e s s i n c l u d e s o c i a l , " emotional and i n t e l l e c t u a l components . . . The d e f i n i t i o n (of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s ) i s of l i t t l e value - 11 unless the composition of physical f i t n e s s i s known. These components have been l i s t e d , i n numerous papers,' Pa r t i c u l a r l y during the war period (1941-1945)• The i s t i n g s are l a r g e l y empirical; however, they are supported by enough evidence t o y i e l d a rather f i r m experimental basis f o r t h e i r s c i e n t i f i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , Factor analysis studies have aided i n t h i s ident-i f i c a t i o n . The components of physical f i t n e s s are l i s t e d below: 1. Resistance to Disease . . . 2. Muscular Strength and Muscular Endurance: Muscular Strength and Muscular Endurance r e f e r t o the a b i l i t y of, the i n d i v i d u a l t o continue successive exertions under conditions where a load i s placed on the muscle groups being used. A l l motor move-ments are made i n proportion to the number and i n t e n s i t y of contractions. In t h i s instance (chinning f o r example), muscular strength becomes an important component of physical f i t n e s s , since the degree of adjustment made i s i n proportion to the amount and q u a l i t y of muscular t i s s u e . Physical f i t n e s s i n terms of muscular strength requires: (a) S u f f i c i e n t amount and q u a l i t y of muscle f i b e r s . (b) A b i l i t y to innervate the necessary number of muscle f i b e r s . (c) E f f i c i e n t system of i n t e r n a l and .. external leverages. (d) A rhythm of, work i n proportion to the work load. (e) A low i n t e r n a l resistance. (f) An e f f i c i e n t pattern of coordination. An i n d i v i d u a l who possesses a high degree of a l l of these factors w i l l be able to make any adaptation concerning muscular strength with ease. 3. Endurance (Cardiovascular-Respiratory): Cardiovascular-respiratory endurance represents the a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l to sustain long-continued contractions (submaslmum)where a number of muscle groups are used, with a s u f f i c i e n t duration and i n t e n s i t y to put a demand on the functions of c i r c u l a t i o n and r e s p i r a t i o n . The e f f i c i e n c y of the cardiovascular-respiratory system i s an important component i n l i f e and i n physical f i t n e s s f o r two reasons: (1) muscles cannot continue t o contract - 12 -unless they are furnished with f u e l and oxygen; and (2) f u e l and oxygen are c a r r i e d to the muscle c e l l s by the c i r c u l a t o r y - r e s p i r a t o r y systems. The degree of adaptation i n a c t i v i t i e s of long duration i s l a r g e l y due to the degree of development of these systems, because the more highly developed c i r c u l a t o r y -r e s p i r a t o r y systems y i e l d a basis f o r a longer period of muscular work (muscular contractions). Mile runners, f o r example, can c i r c u l a t e four or f i v e times more blood per minute than the in d i v i d u a l s who have had only average t r a i n i n g . Fitness, f o r endurance a c t i v i t i e s i s l a r g e l y determined by the r a t i o of the amount of blood c i r c u l a t e d per minute to the oxygen requirements of the body . . . S u f f i c i e n t physiologic evidence i s a v a i l a b l e to show that the p h y s i c a l l y f i t i n d i v i d u a l , with respect to c i r c u l a t o r y - r e s p i r a t o r y endurance, has: (a) A l a r g e r minute volume; therefore more f u e l and oxygen can be c a r r i e d to muscle c e l l s and the removal of waste i s more adequate. (b) A slower pulse r a t e . This gives addi t i o n a l time f o r the v e n t r i c l e s to relax and f i l l . (c) Lower blood pressure, which reduces the time when.pressures reach the physiologic l i m i t . (d) A l a r g e r surface area i n the lungs. This allows more oxygen to be assimilated by the blood. (e) A l a r g e r number of red corpuscles and hemoglobin, which increases the amount of oxygen brought to the . t i s s u e s . (f) A greater buffering capacity of the blood, and muscle. This delays f a t i g u e . 4. Muscular Power: Muscular power i s the a b i l i t y to. release maximum force i n the shortest period, of time. Power s Force x V e l o c i t y . Speed and force must, i n t h i s instance be combined f o r e f f e c t i v e performance • • • 5. F l e x i b i l i t y : The effectiveness of i n d i v i d u a l adjustments i n many physical a c t i v i t i e s i s determined by the degree of t o t a l body or s p e c i f i c j o i n t f l e x i b i l i t y . Good f l e x i b i l i t y , or a wide range of movement, i s s i g n i f i c a n t p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y and mechanically . . . - 13 -6, Speed: Speed i s t h e a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l t o make successive movements of the same k i n d i n the s h o r t e s t period of time. Speed i s the number of movements per u n i t of time • • • 7. A g i l i t y : A g i l i t y i s the a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l t o change p o s i t i o n s i n space • • .'• 6 V Coordination: Coordination i s the a b i l i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l t o i n t e g r a t e movements of d i f f e r e n t k i nds i n t o one s i n g l e p a t t e r n . There are d i f f e r e n t requirements f o r each a c t i v i t y • • • 9» Balance: Balance i s the a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l t o c o n t r o l organic equipment neuro-muscularly . . . 10. Accuracy: Accuracy i s the a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l t o c o n t r o l v o l u n t a r y movements toward an o b j e c t . . . A review of the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s s t u d i e s done up t o I960 was made by, Nicks and Fleishman ( 9 ) . A number of c o n s i s t e n t l y d e f i n e d areas were i d e n t i f i e d as f o l l o w s : Strength Areaf F l e x i b i l i t y - S p e e d Area, Balance Area and Endurance Area. Strength was found t o be composed of t h r e e separate f a c t o r s . 1. E x p l o s i v e Strength: This f a c t o r appears to emphasize the a b i l i t y t o e x e r t maximum energy i n one e x p l o s i v e a c t . , I t has been c a l l e d Energy M o b i l i z a t i o n or Power or V e l o c i t y i n some s t u d i e s . 2. Dynamic.Strength: Dynamic Strength seems t o i n v o l v e the s t r e n g t h of muscles i n the limbs i n moving or supporting the weight of the body repeatedly over a g i v e n p e r i o d of t i m e . 3. . S t a t i c Strength: This f a c t o r i n v o l v e s an e x e r t i o n of a maximum f o r c e f o r a b r i e f p e r i o d o f time against a f a i r l y immovable o b j e c t . - 14 -The Flexibility-Speed Area defined by Nicks and Fleishman seems to be composed of a number of overlapping factors. Two f l e x i b i l i t y factors were established; 'Extent F l e x i b i l i t y * which i s the a b i l i t y to move or stretch the body as far as possible, and*Dynamic F l e x i b i l i t y * which involves the a b i l i t y to make repeated flexing or stretching movements. This type of f l e x i b i l i t y i s involved in such items as;Speed of Change of Direction (Agility),,Running Speed and Speed of. Limb Movement, The Balance, Area was found to be composed of three types of balance, namely, Static, Balance, Dynamic Balance, and Balancing Objects, Nicks and Fleishman found that the Coordination Area was composed of a number of interacting factors such as Multiple Limb Coordination and Gross Body Coordination. Gross Body Coordination may be same factor otherwise known as> 'Agility', The. Endurance Area was found to be highly correlated with the strength factors, Cureton (10) contends that physical fitness may be divided into three main components. He states: Three principal approaches for objective testing of physical fitness (apart from diagnosis of disease) are: . ,' 1, Appraisal of physique , 2. Appraisal of organic efficiency 3» Appraisal of motor fitness Physique i s concerned with the appearance, development and proportion of body components. Organic efficiency refers to the level of function of the body systems. Motor fitness - 15 -or dynamic fitness deals with the a b i l i t y of an individual to perform motor tasks fundamental to l i v i n g , such as running, jumping and throwing. Gureton (10) defines motor fitness as a "limited phase of motor a b i l i t y which emphasizes; (1) endurance, (2) power, (3) strength, (4) a g i l i t y , (5) f l e x i b i l i t y , (6) balance. It emphasizes the fundamental or gross big muscle movements that are dominated by muscular energy, kinesthetic sense, and the suppleness of major tissues and joints . . ." Cardiovascular condition, the state of efficiency of the heart and blood vessels i s , according to Cureton (11) dependent on five main factors. I Habitual Autonomic Tone or Circulation as Indicated  by Cardiovascular Test i n the Quiet Lying. Sitting and Standing  States: Gureton contends that a high rating i n this component indicates a number of beneficial phenomena. Foremost among these i s the presence of low peripheral resistance due to good dilation of capilleries and good circulation through the heart and lungs rather than relative vasoconstriction. This may be Interpreted as Vascular Relaxation. This condition i s depend-ent to a large degree upon the state of Autonomic Tone. II Splanchnic Tone or Ability to Maintain the Circulation  and Make Adjustment to the Quiet Standing Posture Within One  Minute: Negatively, this factor may be termed Circulatory > Ptosis, the i n a b i l i t y to hold up the blood column against the force of gravity, resulting in pooling of blood i n the - 16 -lower body l e a v i n g an inadequate supply t o the r e g i o n s above the h e a r t , III E f f i c i e n c y i n a Long Sub-Maximum Work Task o r Quick  Pulse Rate Recovery A f t e r a Moderate.Exertion; Measurement of t h i s f a c t o r may be done t o l o c a t e the t r a n s i t i o n p o i n t between sub-maximal and maximal work f o r an i n d i v i d u a l , IV C i r c u l a t o r y Adjustment t o Hard A t h l e t i c Work During;  the Time o f t h e Work: Good scores i n t h i s component are a t t a i n e d by endurance a t h l e t e s who are able t o make a quick adjustment of the c i r c u l a t i o n t o maximum e f f i c i e n c y and are able t o maintain t h i s l e v e l f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d of t i m e , V Recovery A f t e r a Hard Work Task: This f a c t o r i n -d i c a t e s the r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y of t h e c i r c u l a t o r y system i n terms of t h e pulse r a t e recovery a f t e r r e l a t i v e l y hard work. This f a c t o r does not c o r r e l a t e w i t h f a c t o r s 1, 2 or 4 and only s l i g h t l y w i t h component 3» Measurement of P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s : The measurement of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s has been attempted i n many ways, Larson (12) s t a t e s : The measurement of organic f u n c t i o n s can be accomplished i n s e v e r a l ways. The f i r s t method i s accomplished by d i r e c t measurement of the v a r i o u s c o n s t i t u e n t s of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s through non-performance and/or performance t e s t s ; f o r example^ c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y endurance i s measured by t a k i n g blood pressure, pulse r a t e , and other p h y s i o l o g i c measures . • . • The second method i s accomplished through i n d i r e c t measurement of the various organic f u n c t i o n s ; f o r example, c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y endurance i s measured by running f o r l o n g distances u n t i l demands are placed on the systems of c i r c u l a t i o n and r e s p i r a t i o n • . • • The t h i r d method i s - 17 -accomplished through a simulation of the activity or through performance i n the actual activity. In this procedure, fitness for football i s determined by participation i n football. This i s not a satisfactory approach? although i t is commonly used to determine what an individual can or cannot do. Method two, or the performance method i s commonly used as an approach to the measurement of physical fitness because of i t s simplicity. The search for effective tests of overall physical fitness has been long and d i f f i c u l t . Gureton (13) feels that, "Finding the best simple test of physical fitness has been like looking for the holy g r a i l . There have been many attempts to find such a test." In 1924 Collins and Howe (14)- c r i t i c a l l y examined various tests of 'physical fitness' and concluded that there was no single test to measure fitness. The problem was to choose a variety pf tests which would differentiate subjects in good condition from subjects i n poor condition. They proposed a schedule of tests designed to give a composite rating of four areas. These were (1) Motor Control Tests (2) Physiometric Tests (3) Somatometric Tests (4) Medical. Rogers (15) in 1925 reviewed the dynamometer strength tests and introduced the 'Strength Index' and 'Physical Fitness Index' concepts of evaluating physical fitness. In justifying his belief i n the evaluatory value of strength tests he states: The positive and very high relation of muscular strength to general health, physical, fitness, or capacity can hardly be questioned • • • • Practically every change i n the conditioning of the v i t a l organs has a corresponding change i n the condition or functioning of voluntary muscles. - 1 S -This b e l i e f i n the great importance of strength i n t e s t i n g f o r physical condition i s supported by McGloy (16) who states; "Hence, i n addition to i t s i n d i c a t i o n as t o general * medical'* condition, the strength t e s t s i n the form of physical f i t n e s s index t e l l much about the in d i v i d u a l ' s general f i t n e s s f o r l i v i n g and working." Although the importance of strength t e s t i n g i n physical f i t n e s s evaluation cannot be questioned, i t s use i s primarily l i m i t e d to the t e s t i n g of the strength component. Referring to t h i s use of strength t e s t s Cureton (17) states: I t i s one of the most important developments and the most recent research work shows the value of the dynamometer strength t e s t s . However, i t i s c l e a r that the 'Physical Fitness Index* norms of Rogers have caused much trouble i n work with young men, and that strength alone i s an inadequate basis upon which to judge f i t n e s s of any i n d i v i d u a l . In spite of the general acceptance of the d e s i r a b i l i t y of strength as an objective, i t i s only one of the components of f i t n e s s . In attempting to obtain a comprehensive evaluation of the state of f i t n e s s possessed by an i n d i v i d u a l i t i s necessary then to t e s t as many of the major components as possible. I t follows from t h i s that t e s t v a l i d i t y may be improved by i n -creasing the s i z e and scope of the t e s t battery. This p r i n c i p l e i s i l l u s t r a t e d by Cureton (IS) who, while r e f e r r i n g to the optimum prediction of physical f i t n e s s i n terms of motor f i t n e s s t e s t s , states: " I t i s possible to improve the v a l i d i t y of Motor Fitness i n the prediction of the 22-item c r i t e r i o n of Physical Fitness by adding the Mile Run and - 19 -Strength t o t h e a l l - a r o u n d l6*-item Motor F i t n e s s Test." By so doing Gureton was a b l e t o i n crease t h e v a l i d i t y from an R of .659 t o .763. With re f e r e n c e t o t e s t b a t t e r y s i z e Karpovich (19) s t a t e s : I t i s obvious t h a t , w i t h more numerous t e s t items, more i n f o r m a t i o n can be obtained about the i n d i v i d u a l . E f f o r t s are made, however, t o s e l e c t those items t h a t can r e v e a l the most and thus r e -duce the number of t e s t s . The use of too many t e s t s i s i m p r a c t i c a l • , . . The establishment of a competent p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t e s t b a t t e r y w i l l depend p r i m a r i l y on the compromising of two p r i n c i p l e s . F i r s t l y , the number of t e s t items must be l a r g e enough t o g i v e a comprehensive p i c t u r e of the main components of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , . Secondly, the s i z e o f the t e s t b a t t e r y must be small enough t o be a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y f e a s i b l e i n terms of time and economy. Another prime c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n s e l e c t i n g items t o t e s t the v a r i o u s components of f i t n e s s i s t h a t of s c i e n t i f i c f e a s i b i l i t y . This must be i n terms of r e l i a b i l i t y , o b j e c t i v i t y and v a l i d i t y . Motor f i t n e s s i s a p r a c t i c a l approach t o f i t n e s s f o r most young people. Brock, Cox and Pennock (20) state,; "Motor f i t n e s s i s the f i n a l c r i t e r i o n through which a l l other elements of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s are seen and measured i n man," Test. B a t t e r y Items: According to..Larson., (21) the a g i l i t y - 20 -component of motor f i t n e s s may be evaluated i n a moderately objective and r e l i a b l e manner (R's of more than .80) by means of ' A g i l i t y runs of short distances 1.. The. I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y Run has been established by Cureton (22) to be a v a l i d t e s t of a g i l i t y . Nicks and Fleishman; (23) indicate that shuttle runs and dodging runs load highly i n the Speed of Change of D i r e c t i o n f a c t o r . The 50 Yard Dash according to Larson (24) i s a highly r e l i a b l e and objective measure of running speed. The item may be accepted on face v a l i d i t y as a v a l i d c r i t e r i o n of running speed. Power or explosive strength may be adequately evaluated by the Standing;Broad Jump. Scott (25) has obtained a v a l i d i t y R of .79 f o r t h i s item. Larson (26) rates the r e l i a b i l i t y of the Standing Broad Jump i n the high category (.90 and above). F l e x i b i l i t y may be tested r e l i a b l y and v a l i d l y by the Cureton F l e x i b i l i t y Items, Shoulder F l e x i b i l i t y , Trunk Extension and Trunk Flexion. Cureton (27) has obtained r e l i a b i l i t y ratings of R .715 to .958 f o r these items. The same author (28) has obtained v a l i d i t y ratings as follows. Shoulder F l e x i b i l i t y (.23 - .64) Trunk Extension (.77 -Trunk Flexion (.29 - .64) Nicks and Fleishman (29) state that chins and dips are the best t e s t s of the Dynamic Strength Factor. Larson (30) states that these two items are highly objective and reliable measures of Muscular Strength and Endurance* Rogers (31) has established r e l i a b i l i t y , objectivity and validity R*s for chins. These are as follows: Chins: Objectivity .91 to .98 R e l i a b i l i t y .91 to .98 Validity .59 with Athletic Index The s c i e n t i f i c authenticity of dipping i s not given but this item may be accepted on face valid i t y as a measure of muscular strength and endurance. The Static Strength Dynamometer items have been validated by Rogers also. R e l i a b i l i t i e s and v a l i d i t i e s are as follows. Re l i a b i l i t y Validity with Athletic Index Right Grip .92 - .98 .68 Left Grip .90 - .97 .68 Back L i f t .88 - .97 .66 Leg L i f t .86 - .96 .64 According to Larson (32) runs of greater than 150 yards in length are highly reliable and objective measures of Gardio-Respiratory Endurance. The 600 Yard Run-Walk i s a valid c r i t e r i a of this type of fitness. The Five-Minute Step Test i s a simple circulatory test of physical fitness. This test estimates the adjustment to and the recuperative power from a standard work task. Cureton (33) investigated retest r e l i a b i l i t i e s of this test using 15 inch classroom seats and obtained R*s of .78 to .87• - 22 -According t o Gureton (34) the Cameron Heartometer f u r n i s h e s systematic and o b j e c t i v e records o f s y s t o l i c and d i a s t o l i c blood pressure, pulse pressure, heart r a t e and heart valve a c t i o n s , Gureton suggests t h a t one o f the uses of the Heartometer i s t h a t of " P r e d i c t i o n of t h e r e l a t i v e s t a t e of ' f u n c t i o n a l c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n ' i n su b j e c t s without heart disease,'' S e l e c t e d heartograph measurements may be i n t e r p r e t e d as f o l l o w s : ?1, Area Under Curve:- r e f l e c t s somewhat the blood pumped per stroke of the heart and a l s o the tone of t h e w a l l i n the b r a c h i a l a r t e r y and i t s branches, A strong c a r d i o v a s c u l a r system u s u a l l y gives a graph which has r e l a t i v e l y more area under the average s i n g l e c y c l e and t h i s area i s thought t o be somewhat p r o p o r t i o n a l t o a stronger s y s t o l i c and a stronger ' d i a s t o l i c squeeze', the l a t t e r being the f o r c e from the a o r t a p r o p e l l i n g the blood i n t o the systemic c i r c u i t a f t e r the c l o s i n g of the semi-lunar v a l v e s and a l s o t o the tone of the connecting a r t e r i e s and p e r i p h e r a l v e s s e l s , 2, S y s t o l i c Pulse Wave Amplitude:- This measurement i n -d i c a t e s the magnitude o f myocardial a c t i o n due t o the con-t r a c t i o n of the v e n t r i c l e s , A low amplitude suggests a heart w i t h r e l a t i v e l y weak stroke during s y s t o l e , 3, D i a s t o l i c Pulse Wave Amplitude:- This represents the par t of the c y c l e a f t e r the semi-lunar v a l v e s c l o s e , A l a r g e r amplitude i n d i c a t e s a more f o r c e f u l rebound of the - 23 -secondary wave, 4, O b l i q u i t y Angle:- The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the angle of o b l i q u i t y may be i n the f a c t t h a t a slow a c t i n g heart muscle, due t o weakness or t o s l u g g i s h heart t i s s u e , g i v e s a greater angle because more time i s taken f o r the upward stroke t o the maximum p o i n t , 5, Rest/Work R a t i o : - This measurement i s the r a t i o of the s y s t o l e c o n t r a c t i o n t o the o v e r a l l time of the d i a s t o l e , A strong e f f i c i e n t c a r d i o v a s c u l a r system has a high r a t i o / of 4 t o 1; an average system i s 1,69 t o 1; a poor c a r d i o v a s c u l a r system i s lower than 1,21 t o 1, 6, Pulse Rate:- This i s the r e g u l a r r a t e of heart beats taken i n beats per minute, A slow r a t e i s f a i r l y h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h endurance performance i n t r a c k running. According t o Cureton (35) the components of c a r d i o -v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n may be evaluated w i t h these t e s t items as f o l l o w s : I H a b i t u a l Autonomic Tone: (a) Area Under Curve (b) S y s t o l i c Amplitude S i t t i n g . (c) D i a s t o l i c Amplitude S i t t i n g (d) O b l i q u i t y Angle .•(e),- Rest/Work R a t i o ( f ) Pulse Rate I I Splanchnic Tone: .(a) S y s t o l i c Amplitude Standing IV, C i r c u l a t o r y Adjustment t o Hard A t h l e t i c Work: (a) S y s t o l i c Amplitude A f t e r E x e r c i s e fb) 600 Yard Run-Walk - 24 -V Recovery After a Hard Work Task: (a) Five-Minute Step Test R e l i a b i l i t y ratings for these Heartometer measurements range from ,719 to .928 according to Willet (36). Validity of the various items as predictors of All-Gut Treadmill Running ranged from R*s of .012 to .448^  Considerable research was carried on during the last World War and to a lesser extent since the war on the effects of required programme activ i t i e s of different durations and intensity on the physical fitness of young men. In 1943 Cureton (37) used the Larson (Chins - Vertical Jumps - Dips) Test to determine the effectiveness of a wartime physical conditioning class carried out twice-weekly for one hour, over a period of twelve weeks i n improving fitness. The mean improvements i n the 2600 male required programme students were as follows: Chins 27.95 % Vertical Jump 2.75 % Dipping 49.30 % Composite 6.78 % Brouha, Fradd, and Savage (3#) studied the effect of a twelve week, four hours weekly training programme on physical efficiency as measured by the Five-Minute Step Test. The study was conducted on 351 college students who had been subjected to a conditioning programme of marching, calisthenics, - 25 -combatives and runni n g . I t was found t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the students, those who had scored i n i t i a l l y under the c o l l e g e average, improved c o n s i d e r a b l y w h i l e those who were r a t e d i n the good t o e x c e l l e n t category o r i g i n a l l y showed a tendency towards poorer scores on the r e t e s t . This f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t the programme was adequate f o r the • u n f i t * but too easy f o r t h e a l r e a d y ' f i t * who needed harder e x e r c i s e i n order t o main t a i n or improve t h e i r f i t n e s s , Cureton (39) i n reviewing a number of s t u d i e s done a t the U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s on the f i t n e s s e f f e c t s of v a r i o u s r e q u i r e d programme a c t i v i t i e s comments on the low f i t n e s s value of many of these a c t i v i t i e s . He c i t e s a study done by Wolbers (40) who i n v e s t i g a t e d the c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s t r e n g t h , a g i l i t y and power b e n e f i t s of t w e n t y - s i x weeks of t h r i c e - w e e k l y v o l l e y b a l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The experimental group c o n s i s t e d of nine middle-aged men, A c o n t r o l group of t e n s i m i l a r men was a l s o used. The f i t n e s s t e s t b a t t e r y was composed of s e v e r a l Heartometer items, g r i p , back and l e g dynamometrical s t r e n g t h t e s t s , I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y Run, v e r t i c a l jump, and the Larson Chins - V e r t i c a l Jump - Dips'Test, R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t improvements were not impressive and t h a t the gains which were obtained were due i n part t o a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n the performance of the c o n t r o l s , Howell (41) using t h e Modif i e d Harvard Step Test as the c r i t e r i o n compared the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of badminton and v o l l e y b a l l and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g i n producing f i t n e s s changes. Both groups p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e i r programmes f o r f o u r weeks, meeting twice a week. Two groups of seventeen s u b j e c t s e n r o l l e d i n the r e q u i r e d programme were equated on the b a s i s of the M o d i f i e d Harvard Step Test. While c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g produced s i g n i f i c a n t improvement, the c o n t r o l s (badminton and v o l l e y b a l l group) f a i l e d t o show s i g n i f i c a n t l y p o s i t i v e changes. Gureton (42) i n r e v i e w i n g a p a i r of concurrent but separate s t u d i e s done by Be r r a f e t o (43) and Fordham (44) presents a comparison of a number of P h y s i c a l Education S e r v i c e Courses a t the U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s . The Ail-Round Muscular Endurance of students was t e s t e d p r i o r t o and immediately f o l l o w i n g t h e i r a c t i v i t y programme. The mean gains f o r each of these a c t i v i t i e s i n terms of standard scores i s as f o l l o w s . Basic C o n d i t i o n i n g 19.35 Apparatus 12.84 Boxing 11.29 Weight L i f t i n g 11.06 Intramural A t h l e t i c s 9.40 I n d i v i d u a l Tumbling 8.05 W r e s t l i n g 6.50 V o l l e y b a l l 5.09 Badminton 3.07 Hopkins (45) conducted a study t o evaluate the f i t n e s s - 27 -e f f e c t s of a combined programme of c a l i s t h e n i c s and v o l l e y b a l l c a r r i e d on three times a week f o r s i x months. The experimental group was composed of s i x t e e n middle-aged men, w h i l e a c o n t r o l group which d i d nothing other than normal a c t i v i t i e s was composed of s i x s u b j e c t s of s i m i l a r ages. R e s u l t s expressed i n mean improvements i n standard scores were as f o l l o w s f o r the experimental group: Heartometer B r a c h i a l Pulse Wave Area/S.A. 3© Area Under Curve 20 O b l i q u i t y Angle 15 S y s t o l i c Amplitude 18 Pulse Rate r e d u c t i o n 8 T o t a l P r o p o r t i o n a l Strength 9 I n s i g n i f i c a n t changes were obtained i n breath-holding, c h i n n i n g , g r i p s t r e n g t h , d i a s t o l i c pulse wave amplitude and d i a s t o l i c surge. The c o n t r o l s f a i l e d to show s i g n i f i c a n t improvements. Regression was observed i n the Rest/Work R a t i o and the Schneider Index, K i s t l e r ( 4 6 ) conducted a study of the r e s u l t s of e i g h t weeks of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a u n i v e r s i t y p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s pro-gramme. The programme c o n s i s t e d of a t h i r t y - m i n u t e workout h e l d three times a week f o r e i g h t weeks. The c l a s s p e r i o d c o n s i s t e d of approximately e i g h t minutes of c a l i s t h e n i c s and f o u r bouts of e x e r c i s e , each f i v e minutes i n d u r a t i o n . During the c a l i s t h e n i c s s t r e s s was placed on s t r e t c h i n g and bending e x e r c i s e s , s i t - u p s , push-ups and deep knee bends. The f i v e -minute bouts of e x e r c i s e were devoted t o a l l - o u t c h i n n i n g , obstacle-course running, personal-combat a c t i v i t i e s , and running. The study took the form of a t e s t - r e t e s t experiment w i t h the t e s t b a t t e r y composed o f : ( 1 ) a five-minute run f o r d i s t a n c e , ( 2 ) an o b s t a c l e course run f o r time, ( 3 ) push-up t e s t , ( 4 ) c h i n n i n g t e s t , and ( 5 ) s i t - u p t e s t . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t improvement may be achieved i n the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s elements of s t r e n g t h , endurance, and a g i l i t y through a s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g programme devoted t o these elements. Percent g a i n i n mean performance was as f o l l o w s : Chinning 3$ S i t - u p s 3 4 $ Obstacle,Course Run 1 0 , 9 $ Five-Minute Run 1 . 3 $ Push-Ups 1 7 . 6 $ Landiss ( 4 7 ) conducted a study of the e f f e c t of e i g h t p h y s i c a l education a c t i v i t i e s on p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and motor a b i l i t y scores on male c o l l e g e freshmen. The a c t i v i t i e s s e l e c t e d f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n were elementary courses i n swimming, boxing, weight t r a i n i n g , t e n n i s , w r e s t l i n g , tumbling-gymnastics, and. a ba s i c c o n d i t i o n i n g course. The c o n d i t i o n i n g course c o n s i s t e d o f c a l i s t h e n i c s , running, p u l l - u p s and grass d r i l l s . The c l a s s e s met three times a week f o r one hour throughout the F a l l semester. From the e n t i r e Freshman c l a s s t e s t e d w i t h the P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Test ( 1 , 3 0 0 Yard Shuttle,Run; 2«1 P u l l - u p s ; 3. Sit-ups) e i g h t equivalent groups were s e l e c t e d i n e i g h t groups of approximately f i f t y s u b j e c t s on the b a s i s o f homogeneity of age and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . The groups were then t e s t e d w i t h the Larson Test o f Motor A b i l i t y which i s composed of f o u r t e s t items: b a s e b a l l throw f o r d i s t a n c e ; p u l l - u p s ; v e r t i c a l jump; and bar snap. F o l l o w i n g the semester of a c t i v i t i e s each group was r e t e s t e d on the items. The c r i t i c a l r a t i o was used t o i n v e s t i g a t e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the mean g a i n s . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t improved p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s r a t i n g was e q u a l l y w e l l obtained by p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o n d i t i o n -i n g and tumbling-gymnastics; whereas swimming, t e n n i s and boxing are the a c t i v i t i e s l e a s t apt t o in c r e a s e the s t u d e n t 1 s sc o r e . I t was f u r t h e r found t h a t the w r e s t l i n g and tumbling gymnastics groups made the most s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n motor a b i l i t y . Again the groups i n d i c a t i n g the l e a s t improvement were t e n n i s , swimming, and boxing. Tumbling-gymnastics ranked h i g h i n both f i t n e s s and motor a b i l i t y improvements w h i l e w r e s t l i n g and c o n d i t i o n i n g ranked h i g h i n one component each. C r i t i c a l R a t i o s obtained by the c o n d i t i o n i n g c l a s s were: P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Test 7.10 Larson Motor A b i l i t y Test 3.18 B a s e b a l l Throw 0.45 P u l l - u p s 1.43 V e r t i c a l Jump 1.61 Bar Snap 6.13 300, Yard S h u t t l e Run 4.50 S i t - u p s 8.66 S i l l s (46) compared progress made i n physical fitness by low fitness students taking part i n special conditioning exercises with that made by students participating i n the regular programme. Thirty-three students were selected who scored poorly (mean score of less than 2© T-scores) on a battery of fitness tests composed of two minute sit-ups, pull-ups, 100 yard pick-a-back and the 300 Yard Shuttle Run. Thirty-three students participating i n the regular programme were selected randomly and used as a comparative group. The conditioning class was given ac t i v i t i e s which included (1) p u l l -ups, (2) two-minute sit-ups, (3) 220 yard run, (4) 440 yard run, (5) 660 yard run, (6) 860 yard run, (7) mile run^ (6) arm curls with heavy resistance, (9) arm pull-overs with heavy resistance (supine) and (10) push-ups. The group participating i n the regular programme were given usually a twenty-minute calisthenics period prior to their basic s k i l l s . Both classes met twice a week for two hours over one semester. The two groups were tested and retested following the programmes. In order to learn more about the effects of the special programme upon the experimental group, a second control group was established. This group was composed of thirty-three students from previous academic years who had mean T-scores of less than 20 on their f i r s t effort to pass the physical fitness tests. The gains made by this group from the beginning to the end of a semester were compared with those of the other - 31 -groups. - S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the mean gains f o r the t h r e e groups was as f o l l o w s : L e v e l of t S i g n i f i c a n c e S p e c i a l C o n d i t i o n i n g Regular Programme 4.13 .001 S p e c i a l C o n d i t i o n i n g Previous Year's Low F i t n e s s Group on the 3.10 .010 -Regular Programme Previous Year's Low F i t n e s s Group - Regular Programme .90 .400 > Regular Programme Howell, Kimoto and Mbrford (49) conducted a study t h a t demonstrated c l e a r l y t h a t w i t h no a c t i v i t y i n c r e a s e from normal everyday l e v e l s , no change i n endurance can be expected. The study was an attempt t o compare the r e l a t i v e values of i s o t o n i c and i s o m e t r i c t r a i n i n g . Howell et a l used three groups of male c o l l e g e freshmen e n r o l l e d i n the r e q u i r e d programme. These groups were equated on i n i t i a l performance i n endurance w i t h a two minute, a l l - o u t r i d e on the b i c y c l e ergometer at 14 kgs. r e s i s t a n c e . Group I f o l l o w e d a weight t r a i n i n g programme'^ Group I I engaged i n i s o m e t r i c work w h i l e Group I I I , the c o n t r o l , p a r t i c i p a t e d i n normal a c t i v i t i e s o n l y . The groups were r e t e s t e d on the b i c y c l e ergometer f o l l o w i n g eight weeks of t h e i r p r e s c r i b e d treatments. The obtained ' t 1 s t a t i s t i c s of the mean gains demonstrates the l a c k of improvement o f the c o n t r o l group. - 32 -t Group I 6.39 x Group II 4»41 x Group III 0.33 x S i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l Gapen (50) compared the e f f e c t s of a weight t r a i n i n g programme and a general p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g programme on the muscular s t r e n g t h and endurance, c i r e u l o - r e s p i r a t o r y endurance and a t h l e t i c power of c o l l e g e men. Group A, the weight t r a i n i n g group, was composed of sophomores w h i l e Group B was composed of male freshmen e n r o l l e d i n the r e q u i r e d programme p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g programme. Group A worked v i g o r o u s l y through a set s e r i e s of i s o t o n i c procedures. Group B p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a strenuous c o n d i t i o n i n g programme composed of the f o l l o w i n g ; (1) tumbling, r e l a y s and running (two weeks), (2) l i f t s and c a r r i e s , hand combats, and running (three weeks), (3) c o n d i t i o n i n g gymnastics ( f i v e weeks). Both c l a s s e s met twice a week f o r f o r t y minutes over a per i o d of eleven weeks. The groups were t e s t e d p r i o r t o and f o l l o w i n g the courses. I t was found th a t the Group. A programme gave g r e a t e r general improvement i n muscular st r e n g t h than the Group B programme. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were obtained i n e i t h e r muscular or c i r e u l o - r e s p i r a t o r y endurance. Percentage gains by the c o n d i t i o n i n g group were as f o l l o w s - 33 -i n s e l e c t e d items. % Gain of Mean Right G r i p 4.5 L e f t G r i p .5 Back L i f t 4.8 Leg L i f t 21.1 300 Yard Dash Dipping Chinning 27.9 16.4 6.3 Standing Broad Jump 1.4 Bannister (51) compared f o u r methods of t r a i n i n g i n an attempt t o determine which was the most e f f i c i e n t method. The study used f o u r equated groups of f o u r t e e n t o s i x t e e n year o l d boys, each f o l l o w i n g a d i f f e r e n t t r a i n i n g method. These r o u t i n e s were I n t e r v a l C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g , C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g w i t h Endurance Running, C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g f o l l o w e d by a games a c t i v i t y and an e n t i r e Games Programme. The groups were t e s t e d p r i o r t o the onset of the s p e c i a l programme and again at the, end of i t . . The groups were equated on the b a s i s o f scores from the i n i t i a l t e s t . C r i t e r i a used were The Harvard Step T e s t j Larson's Strength Index and McGloy's C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index. The s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g programme was c a r r i e d on once every ei g h t days i n a d d i t i o n t o the r e g u l a r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s f o r a p e r i o d of two months. R e s u l t s comparing the d i f f e r e n c e s of mean gains o c c u r i n g - 34 -between the groups from t e s t t o r e t e s t showed t h a t t he I n t e r v a l C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g Group showed gains i n t o t a l f i t n e s s over the C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g A c t i v i t y Group and the Games A c t i v i t y Group at the ,01 l e v e l . Gains i n the scores were made from t e s t t o r e t e s t by a l l the groups on a l l f a c t o r s . Johnson and Kubek (52) used three matched groups of t e n students i n comparing the muscular s t r e n g t h , muscular endur-ance and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r endurance b e n e f i t s of weight t r a i n i n g , c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g and general c o n d i t i o n i n g c l a s s e s . Test items used were Larson's Strength Test and the Harvard Step Test, and were g i v e n before and at the end of the e i g h t week, t w i c e -weekly c l a s s e s . S i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s were seen i n the c i r c u i t t r a i n e d group over the other two groups i n a l l t h r e e f a c t o r s . - 35 -REFERENCES 1. Mathews. D.K.,. Measurement i n Physical Education. Philadelphia, W..B. .Saunders, 1963, p. 3. * 2. Brownell, C.L.. Hagman. P.-. Physical Education -Foundations and Principles. New York, McGraw H i l l , 1951, Chapter 8. 3. Gowell, C C , Hazelton, H..,Curriculum Designs i n Physical Education. New York, Prentice Hall, 1955, p. 65. 4. Schrecker, K.A., "Physical Fitness", Journal of Physical Education, vol. 46 (July, 1954), p. 55. 5. Gureton. -T.K.-, Physical Fitness Appraisal and Guidance. St. Louis, CV. Mosby, 1947, p. 18. 6. Mathews, op. c i t . . p. 4. 7. Karpovich, P.V., Physiology of Muscular Activity. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, 1959, pp. 262-263. 6. Larson, L.A., Yocum, R.D., Measurement and Evaluation  i n Physical Health and Recreation Education. St.: Louis, CV. Mosby, 1951, pp. 156-161. 9. Nicks, D.C, Fleishman, E.,A., What Do Physical Fitness  Tests Measure? - A Review of Factor Analytic Studies, Office of Naval Research, Contract Nonr 609 (32), Technical Report 3, Yale University, Departments of Industrial Administration and Psychology, (July, I960), pp. 4-15. 10. Gureton, T.K., "What's Physical Fitness", Journal of Health. Physical Education and Recreation, vol. 16 (March, 1945), pp. 111-112. ' " 11. Cureton,. T.K., "The, Nature of Cardiovascular Condition i n Man", Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 17 (November. 1956). pp. 1139-1151. 12. Larson.op. c i t . . pp. 162-163. 13. Cureton, T.K., Physical Fitness Appraisal and , Guidance. St. Louis, CV. Mosby, 1947, p. 29. - 36 -14. C o l l i n s , V.D., Howe, E.C., "The Measurement of Organic and Neuromuscular Fitness", American Physical Education Review, v o l . 29 (February, 1924), pp. 64-70. 15. Rogers, F.R., "The Significance of Strength Tests i n Revealing Physical. Condition". Research Quarterly, v o l . 5 (October, 1934), pp. 43-46. 16. McCloy, C.H., "How About Some Muscle", Journal of Health and Physical Condition, v o l . 7 (May, 1936); pp. 302-303. 17. Cureton, op. c i t . . p. 37. 18. Cureton, op. c i t . . p. 64. 19. Karpovieh, op. c i t . . p. 263. 20. Brock, J.D., Cox, W. A.,.. Pennock, E.W., Chapter VII i n "Physical Fitness", Supplement to the Research  Quarterly, v o l . 12 (May, 1941), PP. 407-415. 21. Larson, op. c i t . . p. I63. 22. Cureton, T.K., Physical Fitness Workbook. St. Louis, C.V. Mosby, 1944, PP. 23-24. 23. Nicks and Fleishman, op. c i t . . p. 8. 24. Larson, l o c . c i t . 25. Scott, G.M., "The Assessment of Motor A b i l i t y of College Women". Research Quarterly, v o l . 10 (October, 1934), p. 63. 26. Larson, l o c . c i t . 27. Cureton, T.K., Physical Fitness of Champion Athletes. Urbana, The University of I l l i n o i s Press, 1951, P. 91. 28. Cureton, T.K., " F l e x i b i l i t y as an Aspect of Physical Fitness". Supplement to the Research Quarterly, v o l . 12-1May^  194U, pp. 381-390. 29. Nicks and Fleishman, op. c i t . . p. 5. - 37 -30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 4 0 . Larson, l o c . c i t . Rogers, F.R., Tests and Measurement Programs i n the  R e d i r e c t i o n of P h y s i c a l Education. New York. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Teachers College Bureau of P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1927, pp. 35-48. Larson, l o c . c i t . Cureton, T.K., Huffman, W.J., Welser, L., K i r e i l i s , R.W., Latham, D.E.,- Endurance of Young Men. Washington, S o c i e t y of Research i n C h i l d Development, N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l , 1945, p. 284. Cureton, T.K., Phys i c a l F i t n e s s Apprai s a l and Guidance. S t . L o u i s , C V . Mosby, 1947, pp. 232-253. Gureton, T.K., "The Nature of Card i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n i n Man", Jou r n a l of the American Medical  A s s o c i a t i o n , v o l . 17 (November. 1956). PP. 139-155. W i l l e t , A.E., "Car d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n as Measured by the Heartometer Related t o the Time f o r Ai l - O u t T r e a d m i l l Running", Unpublished P r o j e c t , P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Research.Laboratory, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1946. Cureton, T.K., "Improvement i n Motor F i t n e s s Associated w i t h P h y s i c a l Education and P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s C l i n i c Work". Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 14 (May, 1943), pp. 154-158. Brouha, L., Fradd. N.W., Savage, B.M., "Studies i n P h y s i c a l E f f i c i e n c y of College Students". Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 15 (October, 1944), pp. 211-225. Cureton, T.K. ,'• " P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Improvements of a Middle-Aged Man, w i t h B r i e f Reviews of Related S t u d i e s " . Research Q u a r t e r l y . v o l . 23 (May, 1952), pp. 149-160. Wolbers, C P . , "The E f f e c t s of V o l l e y b a l l on the P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of Adult Men", Unpublished Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1949. - 38 -41. Howell; M.L., Hodgson, J.L., Sorenson, J.T., " E f f e c t s of C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g on the Modified Harvard Step Test", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 34 (May; 1963), pp. 154-158. 42. Cureton, T.K., " P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Improvement of a Middle-Aged Man, w i t h B r i e f Review of Related S t u d i e s " . Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 23 (May, 1952), pp. 149-160. 43. B e r r a f e t o , P.R., "The E f f e c t of Various P h y s i c a l Education Service Courses on the Ail-Round Muscular Endurance of U n i v e r s i t y Students", Unpublished Master's Th e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1949. 44. Fordham, S.L., "The E f f e c t of Four Selected P h y s i c a l -Education A c t i v i t i e s on Muscular Endurance Test Scores", Unpublished Master's Th e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1949. 45. Hopkins, R.E., "The E f f e c t s of V o l l e y b a l l and C a l i s t h e n i c s on the P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of Adult Men", Unpublished Master's Th e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1951. 46. K i s t l e r , J.W., "A Study of the Results of Eig h t Weeks of P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a U n i v e r s i t y P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Program f o r Men"; Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 15 (March, 1944), pp. 23-29. 47. Landiss, C.W., "Influence of P h y s i c a l Education A c t i v i t i e s on Motor A b i l i t y and"Physical F i t n e s s of Male Freshmen", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 26 (October, 1955), pp. 295-307. 48. S i l l s , F.D., " S p e c i a l C o n d i t i o n i n g E x e r c i s e s f o r Students with,Low Scores on P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s . Tests", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 25 (October, 1954), PP. 333-3377 49. Howell, M.L., Kimoto, R., Mbrford, W.R., " E f f e c t of Isometric and I s o t o n i c E x e r c i s e . Programs upon , Muscular Endurance". Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 33 (December, 1962), pp. 536-540. 50. Capen, E.K., "The E f f e c t of Systematic Weight T r a i n i n g on Power, Strength and Endurance"-, Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 21, (May, 1950), pp. 83-92. - 39 -51. Bannisterj-.E.W., "The, R e l a t i v e E f f e c t i v e n e s s of I n t e r v a l • C i r c u i t , T r a i n i n g Compared with. Three, Other Methods of F i t n e s s T r a i n i n g i n a School P h y s i c a l Education -Program"., Unpublished Master's Thesis,, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I960. 52. Johnson, G.C., Kubeck, E.P., "A Comparison of the E f f e c t s of C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g s Weight T r a i n i n g , and P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n i n g upon T o t a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s as Measured by Muscular Strength and Muscular Endurance"-, Unpublished Graduating,Essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962. CHAPTER IV METHODS AND PROCEDURE A ten-item t e s t b a t t e r y was s e l e c t e d t o present a reasonably comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n of 'motor f i t n e s s 1 and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r - r e s p i r a t o r y c o n d i t i o n . . A group of f i r s t year male c o l l e g e students r e g i s t e r e d i n the U n i v e r s i t y ' s Required P h y s i c a l Education. Programme were s e l e c t e d randomly from a , ' P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n i n g ' c l a s s . Due t o the l a r g e number of t e s t s used no c o n t r o l group was u t i l i z e d , s i n c e i t has been o b j e c t i v e l y shown t h a t without muscular a c t i v i t y p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s l e v e l s w i l l not be a l t e r e d d r a s t i c a l l y , unless other environmental v a r i a b l e s change c o n s i d e r a b l y . A q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o determine h a b t i s of n u t r i t i o n , r e s t , e x e r c i s e and smoking was d i s t r i b u t e d at both the i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t i n g . Sub-j e c t s were i n s t r u c t e d t o i n d i c a t e any changes i n personal h a b i t s which might have i n f l u e n c e d f i t n e s s e i t h e r p o s i t i v e l y o r n e g a t i v e l y . The sample was g i v e n the t e s t b a t t e r y p r i o r t o and at t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f an e i g h t week course of ' p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n -i n g ' . Progress was evaluated by determining the s i g n i f i c a n c e of mean d i f f e r e n c e s between i n i t i a l and f i n a l s c o r e s . In order t o determine whether or not the experimental sample could be considered r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of male freshmen students e n r o l l e d i n the Required P h y s i c a l Education Programme at the U n i v e r s i t y , a comparison of the t e s t sample was made w i t h the h e i g h t , weight and performance of the 1962 U.B.C. AAHPER' Youth F i t n e s s Test Sample. Test B a t t e r y : Motor F i t n e s s and C a r d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n were chosen as the media through which p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s would be evaluated. Motor f i t n e s s components s e l e c t e d were a g i l i t y f speed, power, f l e x i b i l i t y , dynamic s t r e n g t h , s t a t i c s t r e n g t h and muscular endurance. Four o f f i v e components of c a r d i o -v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n were s e l e c t e d . The components s e l e c t e d were; I - H a b i t u a l Autonomic Tone, I I - Splanchnic Tonej IV - C i r c u l a t o r y Adjustment t o Hard A t h l e t i c Work, V - Recovery A f t e r a Hard Work Task, The t e s t items s e l e c t e d t o evaluate these components were as f o l l o w s : A Cardiovascular C o n d i t i o n Items Component! H a b i t u a l Autonomic Tone 1. Heartometer - Area Under Curve 2. Heartometer - S y s t o l i c Amplitude S i t t i n g 3. Heartometer - D i a s t o l i d Amplitude S i t t i n g 4. Heartometer - O b l i q u i t y Angle 5. Heartometer - Rest/Work. R a t i o 6. Heartometer - Pulse Rate Component IV C i r c u l a t o r y Adjustment t o Hard A t h l e t i c Work Component I I Splanchnic Tone Heartometer - S y s t o l i c Amplitude Standing 1. Heartometer - S y s t o l i c Amplitude ,A f t e r E x e r c i s e 2. 600 Yard Run-Walk Component V Recovery A f t e r a Hard Work Task Five-Minute Step Test B Motor F i t n e s s Items Component I A g i l i t y I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y Run . Component I I Speed 50 Yard Dash Component I I I Power Standing Broad Jump .Component IV F l e x i b i l i t y 1. Cureton Shoulder F l e x i b i l i t y 2. Cureton Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Backward 3• Cureton Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Forward Component V Dynamic Strength and Muscular Endurance 1. Chins 2. , Dips Component VI S t a t i c Strength - Dynamometer 1. Right Hand G r i p 2. L e f t Hand Grip 3. Back L i f t 4. =Leg L i f t - without b e l t S ubjects : The sub j e c t s were male c o l l e g e freshmen r e g i s t e r e d i n a Required Programme.'physical c o n d i t i o n i n g * c l a s s . The c l a s s was i t s e l f s e l e c t e d at random from t h r e e a v a i l a b l e * The sample was s e l e c t e d randomly from a c l a s s of approximately f o r t y - f i v e students. The sample^ o r i g i n a l l y twenty i n number, was reduced to f i f t e e n by the end of the - 43 -term due t o an assortment of i n j u r i e s and personal problems. Since t h e sample was s e l e c t e d at random and no attempt was made t o c o n t r o l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample, a comparison was made w i t h the 1962 U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia AAHPER Youth F i t n e s s Test Sample. This was done i n order t o determine whether or not t h e sample s e l e c t e d could be considered r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of male freshmen students en-r o l l e d i n the r e q u i r e d p h y s i c a l education programme at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The arguments of Nelson and Hurst (1) were f o l l o w e d i n s e t t i n g a l e v e l of confidence of 0 .05 f o r determining the r e l i a b i l i t y of the d i f f e r e n c e between the groups. Since t h e r e was no reason t o b e l i e v e t h a t the sample should be d i f f e r e n t from the main body of freshmen a lower l e v e l of confidence than 0 .05 would i n c r e a s e the p r o b a b i l i t y o f type I e r r o r i . e . of r e j e c t i n g a t r u e hypothesis of no d i f f e r e n c e between groups. A decrease i n the p r o b a b i l i t y of ac c e p t i n g a f a l s e hypothesis of no d i f f e r e n c e o r type I I e r r o r was not considered as important as the n e c e s s i t y to guard aga i n s t r e j e c t i n g a hypothesis o f no d i f f e r e n c e between groups. The.Physical. C o n d i t i o n i n g Programme: The ' P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n i n g * c l a s s from which the sample was obtained was one of three o f f e r e d i n the F a l l term. The c l a s s met t w i c e -weekly f o r a pe r i o d of ten weeks. The f i r s t and t e n t h weeks of the c l a s s were used f o r i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t i n g . Each p e r i o d c o n s i s t e d of approximately t h i r t y minutes of a c t i v i t y . - 44 -A l l s u b j e c t s had chosen ' p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g ' from among a l i m i t e d number of ' f i t n e s s a c t i v i t i e s ' o f f e r e d as p a r t of the one-year requirement i n P h y s i c a l Education f o r under-graduates. Of two c l a s s e s which students must take t o s a t i s f y the requirement, one must be a ' f i t n e s s a c t i v i t y ' . The type of i n s t r u c t i o n and the a c t i v i t i e s presented i n the c l a s s was e n t i r e l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the i n s t r u c t o r assigned t o the c l a s s . The a c t i v i t i e s presented d u r i n g the term were of a wide v a r i e t y of t y p e s . During the c l e a r weather i n the e a r l y p a r t of the term the periods c o n s i s t e d o f a short p r e l i m i n a r y c a l i s t h e n i c s s e s s i o n f o l l o w e d by a game of soccer. During the l a t t e r part of the F a l l term and on r a i n y days the group worked i n d o o r s . Indoors the group p a r t i c i p a t e d i n approximately f i f t e e n minutes of c a l i s t h e n i c s and s e l f - t e s t i n g e x e r c i s e s f o l l o w e d by f i f t e e n minutes of vigorous games. C o n t r o l Group; I t has been f a i r l y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t w i t h other environmental v a r i a b l e s reasonably c o n t r o l l e d , the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s t a t e of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s w i l l be p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e amount of t r a i n i n g done. Wolfson (2) determined the e f f e c t s of a programme of p r e s c r i b e d e x e r c i s e s on the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of a d u l t men. He found t h a t w h i l e the t r a i n i n g group improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n measures of c a r d i o ^ v a s c u l a r and motor f i t n e s s , a c o n t r o l group showed n e g l i g i b l e change. Other s t u d i e s (3 ,4,5 ,6) have shown t h a t l e s s vigorous - 45 -a c t i v i t i e s , such as v o l l e y b a l l and badminton, produce r e l a t i v e l y s m a ll p o s i t i v e changes i n f i t n e s s when compared w i t h more vigorous a c t i v i t i e s such as weight t r a i n i n g , con-d i t i o n i n g e x e r c i s e s and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g . In the l i g h t of t h i s o b j e c t i v e data showing t h a t changes i n p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s v a r i a b l e s of young men do not change i n the absence of r e g u l a r vigorous e x e r c i s e , i t was considered more valuable t o use the l i m i t e d time a v a i l a b l e i n measuring a l a r g e r number of experimental s u b j e c t s w i t h a l a r g e r number of t e s t s than would have been p o s s i b l e i f a c o n t r o l group had been employed i n the study. In order t o determine the e f f e c t s of other environmental v a r i a b l e s which might have i n f l u e n c e d the l e v e l of f i t n e s s of the t e s t sample a que s t i o n n a i r e was given t o each subject both at the i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t s . This attempted t o f i n d out any changes i n personal and h e a l t h h a b i t s which might have markedly i n f l u e n c e d p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of the s u b j e c t s . Habits evaluated were n u t r i t i o n , r e s t , e x e r c i s e and smoking. T e s t i n g Personnel: The t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was c a r r i e d on by two graduate students at the U n i v e r s i t y under the d i r e c t i o n of the Research Pr o f e s s o r of P h y s i c a l Education. The. Cameron Heartometer was operated e x c l u s i v e l y by the Research P r o f e s s o r . Test A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : The t e n t e s t items were administered d u r i n g the f i r s t week and again d u r i n g the f i n a l week of the term. - 46 -The t e s t items were given i n d e f i n i t e sequence at s p e c i f i c times of the day. The same time and environmental c o n d i t i o n s were used f o r both i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t s . The items were given i n f o u r groups. Group I t e s t s were given d u r i n g the second c l a s s p e r i o d , w h i l e Groups I I , I I I and IV were administered at t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l appointments d u r i n g the f i r s t week. S i m i l a r l y , f o r the f i n a l t e s t i n g , Group I items were g i v e n t o the e n t i r e group at the t w e n t y - f i r s t c l a s s p e r i o d w i t h the other three Groups administered during the week of the twenty-second c l a s s . The items were grouped as f o l l o w s : Group I Chin the Bar Standing Broad Jump 50 Yard Dash 600 Yard Run-Walk Group I I Cameron Heartometer - B r a c h i a l Sphygmograph Dips Cureton F l e x i b i l i t y I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y Run Group I I I Dynamometrical Strength (1) Hands (2) Back (3) Legs Group IV F i v e Minute Step Test Test items were administered according t o standardized procedures as f o l l o w s : - 47 -AAHPER F i t n e s s Test Items - Chins; Standing Broad Jump; 50 Yard Dash; 600 Yard Run-Walk: These items were administered according t o d i r e c t i o n s g i v e n i n the AAHPER Youth F i t n e s s Test Manual (7). Cameron Heartometer - B r a c h i a l Sphygmograph: The Heartometer was operated as d i r e c t e d i n the Cameron Heartometer Cor p o r a t i o n Pamphlet (8), Dips: Dips were done on the p a r a l l e l bars w i t h the bars at o r above shoulder l e v e l of a l l s u b j e c t s ( 9 ) . The subject jumped t o the high support p o s i t i o n on the bar. He was i n s t r u c t e d t o lower h i s body u n t i l t h e upper and lower arms made an angle of n i n e t y degrees at t h e elbow and then t o push h i m s e l f up t o f u l l e xtension again. The t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t o r h e l d h i s f i s t i n p o s i t i o n below the subjects shoulder such t h a t the shoulder would touch the f i s t when the n i n e t y degree angle was reached. The subject was t o l d t o complete as many dips as p o s s i b l e . Cureton F l e x i b i l i t y T e s t s : These items were administered according to d i r e c t i o n s g i v e n by Cureton (10). I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y Run: The I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y Run i s desc r i b e d f u l l y by Gureton (11). .Dynamometrical Strength: The two g r i p t e s t s , back l i f t and l e g l i f t were administered according to the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of Cureton (12). F i v e Minute Step Test: The Step Test was administered by the two graduate students t o two subjects at a time. -48 -Instructions as given by Brouha (13) were followedo S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis; Physical fitness progress made during the conditioning programme was evaluated by determining the signifieance of the differences i n performance on i n i t i a l and f i n a l tests. The s t a t i s t i c a l method used was the 'Difference Method', Garrett. (14) states,; "When groups are small the difference method i s often to be preferred • • , This method determines the significance of the mean of the differences between i n i t i a l and f i n a l performances, MJQ - Mean of difference between i n i t i a l and f i n a l tests SDQ - Standard Deviation of differences SEn - Standard Error of mean of differences %-o -t - (acceptable at the 5 per cent level of SEj/u confidence) df Degrees of freedom : N-1 Number i n sample minus one The test of the null-hypothesis used was a one-tail test with an ar b i t r a r i l y chosen (.05) level of significance, , A second technique was employed to evaluate the class progress. This involved the conversion of raw mean scores and mean differences to Standard Scores, Performance of the experimental group in Chins, Standing Broad Jump, 50 Yard Dash and 600* Yard Run-Walk was related to that of male college freshmen at the,University according to norms established i n the 1962 U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia AAHPER F i t n e s s Study (15)• Scores i n a l l other t e s t items were r e l a t e d t o Standard Score Tables e s t a b l i s h e d f o r normal young men of ages IS - 25 years at the U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s (16). This comparison was made i n order t o know i f the r e s u l t s were worthwhile b i o l o g i c a l l y . I t was f e l t t h a t although some of t h e gains may not have been s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y , due to large,Standard E r r o r s of mean d i f f e r e n c e s , t h i s g a i n may have been s i g n i f -i c a n t i n a p r a c t i c a l sense. For purposes.of d e s c r i p t i o n improvements i n Standard Scores were c l a s s i f i e d a r b i t r a r i l y as f o l l o w s : Standard Score Gain .Improvement Over 15 Very Good 10 - Ik Good 5-10 F a i r Under 5 Low In order t o determine whether o r not the sample s e l e c t e d could be considered r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of male freshmen i n the U n i v e r s i t y ' s Required Programme a comparison was made of the sample w i t h the 1962 U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia AAHPER F i t n e s s Test Sample, C r i t e r i a f o r comparison were h e i g h t , weight, and performance i n Chins, Standing Broad Jumps, 50 Yard Dash and 600 Yard Run-Walk. The s t a t i s t i c a l technique o u t l i n e d by Walker and Lev (17) was used t o estimate sampling e r r o r i n order to determine the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t the d e v i a t i o n of means of the t e s t sample from the U n i v e r s i t y sample arose s o l e l y from sampling e r r o r . . 1% - Experimental sample mean SDp - Standard D e v i a t i o n of pop u l a t i o n NE - Number i n experimental sample Z - Z score obtained f o r v a r i a b l e a - area o u t s i d e two o r d i n a t e s of Z ( p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t d i f f e r e n c e between means could have occured due t o chance) a acceptable at minimum of 0.05 f o r accepting n u l l hypothesis Z SD p Mp P o p u l a t i o n (U.B.C. AAHPER) mean - 51 -REFERENCES •1. Nelson, D.O., .Hurst, R.L., " S i g n i f i c a n t or Not S i g n i f i c a n t " ! Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 34 (May, 1963), PP. 239-242. 2. Wolfson, M., " E f f e c t s of a Program of P r e s c r i b e d E x e r c i s e s on the P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of Adult, Men", Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 195C 3. Hopkins, R.E., "The E f f e c t s of V o l l e y b a l l and C a l i s t h e n i c s on the P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of Adult Men", Unpublished^ Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1951. 4. W i l s o n , A.L., "The. E f f e c t of Weight T r a i n i n g on the P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of Young Men", Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1947. 5. Wolbers, C P . , "The E f f e c t s of V o l l e y b a l l on the P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of. Adult Men", Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1949. 6. Howell, ; M.L., Hodgson, J.L., Sorenson, J.T., " E f f e c t s of C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g on the Mo d i f i e d Harvard Step Test", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 34 (May, 1963), PP. 154-158. 7. AAHPER - N.E.A., F i t n e s s Department, AAHPER Youth , Fitnes s . Test Manual. 1201 S i x t e e n t h S t r e e t , N.W., Washington 6, D.C., 1958. 8. Cameron Heartometer Corporation. The Heartometer - In the F i e l d of P h y s i c a l Education. Pamphlet Cameron Heartometer Corporation, Chicago, 1954. 9 . Larson, L.A., "A Factor and V a l i d i t y A n a l y s i s of Strength V a r i a b l e s and Tests w i t h a Test Combination of Chinning, Dipping, and V e r t i c a l Jump", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 11 (December, 1940), pp. 82-Wl 10. Cureton, T.K., P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of Champion A t h l e t e s f Urbana, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1951, pp. 86-87. 11. I b i d . , p. 68. - 52 12. Cureton, T.K... Physical Fitness_Appraisal and Guidance; St.. Louis, CV. Mosby, 1947, pp. 361-363. 13. Brouha, L., "The Step Test; A Simple Method of Measuring Physical Fitness for Muscular Work i n Young Men", Research Quarterly, vol. 14 (March, 1943), pp,. ?>T-W. 14. Garrett, H.E., Statistics i n Psychology and Education. New York, Longmans Green, 1958, pp. 227-228. 15. University of British Columbia, U.B.C. AAHPER Physical Fitness Test Norms. University of British Columbia, 1962. 16. University of I l l i n o i s , Physical Fitness Rating Scores. University of I l l i n o i s , Urbana. 17. Walker, H.M.,. Lev, J.., S t a t i s t i c a l Inference. New, York, Henry Holt, 1953, pp. 144-145. CHAPTER V RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Comparison Of Sample With Required Programme Pop u l a t i o n Although the subjects used i n t h i s study were not s e l -ected by random sampling methods, i t was considered d e s i r a b l e t o know whether or not they were, as a group, reasonably r e p -r e s e n t a t i v e of the p o p u l a t i o n of male students e n r o l l e d i n the p h y s i c a l education programme at t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia* This i n f o r m a t i o n would provide answers t o two questions. The f i r s t question was whether or not the group of subjects was s u f f i c i e n t l y unique as t o produce bia s i n the experimental r e s u l t s and the second question was whether or not i t was p o s s i b l e t o assume t h a t the f i t n e s s o f other groups of students might be i n f l u e n c e d i n s i m i l a r manner by the same e x e r c i s e programme. In 1962-3, 350 male students i n the r e q u i r e d programme reported heights and weights and were g i v e n seven motor f i t n e s s t e s t s . This group was considered s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the p o p u l a t i o n of male students e n r o l l e d i n the p h y s i c a l education r e q u i r e d programme at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Sample mean hei g h t s and weights and sample mean scores of f o u r motor f i t n e s s v a r i a b l e s were compared, i n the manner described by Walker and Lev (1), w i t h r e q u i r e d programme p o p u l a t i o n means, A t w o - t a i l e d t e s t ( l e v e l of confidence 0,05) was used and any Z values f a l l i n g o u tside the c r i t i c a l r e g i o n were t o r e s u l t i n r e j e c t i n g the hypothesis of no difference between sample and population means. The following table shows that i n none of the variables was the difference between sample mean and population mean s u f f i c i e n t l y large to cast doubt on the proposition that the sample could have arisen by random sampling from the physical education required programme student population. Table 1 Significance of Difference Between Sample and Population Means Variable Mp % D M SD, Accept or a Reject Null Hypothesis Height (ins) 70.50 70.00 0.50 2.70 0.716 .47 Accept Weight (lbs) 154.80 151.10 3.70 19.20 0.746 .45 Accept Chins (no.) 7.30 6.00 1.30 2.80 1.797 .07 Accept Standing Broad Jump (ins) 87.10 86.40 0.70 8.00 0.269 .27 Accept 50 Yard Dash (sees) 6.85 6.80 0.05 0.39 0.496 .50 Accept 600 Yard Run-Walk (sees) 109.20 104.70 4.50 9.68 1.799 .07 Accept Level of confidence = 0.05 (for 'a' smaller than 0.05 rej e c t n u l l hypothesis) Mp Population mean % Experimental sample mean D M Difference between means SDp Standard Deviation of population Z f Z T score obtained a Area outside two ordinates of Z The r e s u l t s show that i t was reasonable to conclude that bias was not introduced into the experiment by s e l e c t i o n of a t y p i c a l students and that other groups of students could be influenced i n the same manner by the same exercise programme used i n t h i s study. Results of Health-Habit Questionnaire Analysis of pre and post-training questionnaire responses furnished both descriptive information as t o the nature of the subjects and an estimate of any changes i n personal habits which might have p o s i t i v e l y or negatively affected physical f i t n e s s . Description of Subjects: The subjects ranged i n age from eighteen to twenty-five years. The average age was found to be 19,5 years. Height ranged from 64 to 75 inches, with a mean of 70,5 inches. The range of weight was 120 pounds to 210 pounds. Surnames were used to c l a s s i f y subjects a r b i t r a r i l y into three ethnic groups; B r i t i s h o r i g i n , European o r i g i n , and Oriental o r i g i n . The sample was found to contain ten boys with B r i t i s h names, four with European names and one O r i e n t a l . This proportion of ethnic groups could be con-sidered reasonably representative of the r a c i a l make-up of the B r i t i s h Columbia Lower Mainland Area population. The subjects were a l l male college freshmen enrolled i n the required physical education programme. None of the sub-- $6 -j e c t s were v a r s i t y - c a l i b r e a t h l e t e s i n any a c t i v i t y . The sample was composed of students e n r o l l e d i n the f i r s t year of Commerce, Engineering, Science and A r t s Courses, No subject i n d i c a t e d an i n t e n t i o n t o enter the p r o f e s s i o n a l p h y s i c a l education programme. Subjects were asked to s u b j e c t i v e l y r a t e t h e i r l e v e l of f i t n e s s at the i n i t i a l t e s t s e s s i o n . Two su b j e c t s r a t e d themselves as being i n good c o n d i t i o n , nine f e l t they were i n f a i r c o n d i t i o n and f o u r thought t h e i r f i t n e s s l e v e l was poor. V a r i a t i o n s i n Personal H a b i t s : Responses were obtained at both i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s r e g a r d i n g a number of personal h e a l t h h a b i t s which might have a f f e c t e d the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s l e v e l of s u b j e c t s . Two s u b j e c t s noted t h a t they s u f f e r e d from s l i g h t colds a t the p r e - t e s t s e s s i o n . However, one of these s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d the same problem d u r i n g the f i n a l t e s t p e r i o d . The average s l e e p per n i g h t r e p o r t e d was approximately 7,5 hours. No change was reporte d i n s l e e p i n g h a b i t s during the experimental p e r i o d . S i m i l a r l y , no s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n e a t i n g h a b i t s were noted. Three subjects s t a t e d t h a t they had part-time jobs on the weekends. However, no changes e i t h e r i n d u r a t i o n of working hours or schedules were r e -ported. Ten su b j e c t s were non smokers, two smoked l e s s than f i v e c i g a r e t t e s a day and t h r e e smoked t e n o r more c i g a r e t t e s a day. Again, no s i g n i f i c a n t changes were re p o r t e d i n smoking h a b i t s . One student i n d i c a t e d t h a t he had done two hours a week of hard a t h l e t i c work p r i o r t o the i n i t i a l t e s t . T h i s subject p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the same a c t i v i t y (two hours of rugby per week) throughout the course of the experiment. Although a l l subjects had been employed at v a r i o u s jobs d u r i n g the preceding summer p e r i o d , these occupations were not of a strenuous nature. Three students p a r t i c i p a t e d i n badminton t w i c e a week, f o r one-half hour p e r i o d s , during the term. Only one subject i n d i c a t e d any change i n h a b i t s other than those i n d i c a t e d above. This student reported o b t a i n i n g an automobile d u r i n g the t e s t p e r i o d , which de-creased h i s normal e x e r c i s e t o a degree which c o u l d have n e g a t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e d h i s r e s u l t s . I t was noted t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r subject was the same i n d i v i d u a l who re p o r t e d a s l i g h t c o l d d u r i n g the f i r s t t e s t p e r i o d . In p h y s i c a l education experimental s t u d i e s there are many u n c o n t r o l l e d f a c t o r s which might i n f l u e n c e f i t n e s s . At b e s t , t e s t s u b j e c t s should continue t o l e a d normal l i v e s . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e , however, t o completely c o n t r o l personal h a b i t s which may have some e f f e c t on f i t n e s s . Answers t o the que s t i o n n a i r e showed t h a t o n l y f o u r students were engaged i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s a d d i t i o n a l t o the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g c l a s s i n which they were e n r o l l e d . — 5 8 — One subject played rugby f o r two hours per week p r i o r t o and d u r i n g the course of the experiment. Three subjects played badminton f o r two t h i r t y - m i n u t e periods per week durin g the experiment. The other students appeared t o have l i v e d reasonably w e l l r e g u l a t e d l i v e s and d i d not engage i n a d d i t i o n a l p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e . I t was not p o s s i b l e t o determine the e f f e c t s of the a d d i t i o n a l e x e r c i s e on the f i t n e s s of the f o u r s u b j e c t s d e s c r i b e d . The rugby player had, however, begun p l a y i n g rugby before the f i r s t t e s t i n g p e r i o d and thus the i n i t i a l e f f e c t s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n rugby could have been removed from the experimental r e s u l t s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n badminton and v o l l e y b a l l by novices twice a week f o r t h i r t y minutes each time has been shown to have very l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , (2,3,4,5). E f f e c t s Of The P h y s i c a l Conditioning.Programme The f o l l o w i n g changes i n c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n and motor f i t n e s s were observed i n t h i s study. C a r d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n Component I - H a b i t u a l Autonomic Tone: S t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r Component. I are shown i n . Table 2. - 5 9 -. Table 2 R e l i a b i l i t y of Mean,Differences Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Scores B r a c h i a l Pulse Wave i % V a r i a b l e s Area Under Curve (sq. .311 cms.) H a b i t u a l Autonomic Tone , Mf . MQ Accept or SDp SEm t Reject N u l l Hypothesis .346 .935 .060 .015 2.27 S y s t o l i c Amplitude . S i t t i n g (cms.) D i a s t o l i c Amplitude S i t t i n g ;. (cms.) 1.147 1.091 -.056 , .174 .045 1.25 .478 O b l i q u i t y 21.69 Angle, (deg.) Rest/Work R a t i o 1.80 .527 21.49 .049 .134 .035 1.42 -.20 1.71 2.33 69.13 .53 .58 .44 .47 .15 3.49 -6.33 10.92 2.84 2.92 Pulse Rate (beats per 77.40 minute) Test of N u l l Hypothesis - o n e - t a l l ' t * t e s t -L e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e - 0.05 Reject Accept Accept Accept Reject Reject M,- Mean of i n i t i a l scores i Mf .. Mean of f i n a l scores MQ Mean of d i f f e r e n c e s SDp Standard D e v i a t i o n of d i f f e r e n c e s SEj© Standard E r r o r of mean of d i f f e r e n c e s t Obtained *tr f o r mean d i f f e r e n c e ^ Table 3 shows i n i t i a l and f i n a l means and the d i f f e r e n c e s between means expressed i n standard s c o r e s . - .66 -Table 3 Standard Scores f o r H a b i t u a l Autonomic Tone Items B r a c h i a l Pulse Wave V a r i a b l e s Area Under Curve S y s t o l i c Amplitude S i t t i n g D i a s t o l i c Amplitude S i t t i n g Obliquity Angle Rest/Work R a t i o Pulse Rate I n i t i a l Mean 52 50 48 69 53 48 F i n a l Mean 58 46 53 71 63 58 D i f f e r e n c e 6 -4 10 10 D i f f e r e n c e R a t i n g F a i r Poor F a i r Low . Good Good Table 4 shows the number of students who made higher s c o r e s , the number who d i d not change and those who obtained lower scores from i n i t i a l t o f i n a l t e s t s . Table 4 C a r d i o v a s c u l a r Component I - Increases No Changes and Regressions V a r i a b l e Increases Area Under Curve 9 S y s t o l i c Amplitude D i a s t o l i c Amplitude 6 8 No Changes 2 0 0 Regressed 4 9 7 Table 4 cont'd V a r i a b l e Increases No Changes Regressed Obliquity-Angle 7 0 Rest/Work R a t i o 13 0 2 Pulse Rate 10 2 3 Improvements i n t e s t items measuring H a b i t u a l Autonomic Tone were as f o l l o w s : Area Under Curve: A s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mean g a i n o f .035 square cms. was obtained. This represents a standard score increase of 6, from a p r e - t r a i n i n g l e v e l of 52 standard s c o r e s . Nine subjects improved, f o u r regressed and two d i d not change. The improvement of 6 standard scores i s c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r than t h a t obtained by Hopkins (6) w i t h s i x t e e n middle-aged men who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a three times weekly p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s c l a s s oyer a s i x month p e r i o d . This group made mean gains of 20 standard s c o r e s . This group, however, may have had a g r e a t e r c a p a c i t y than the young men f o r improvement!* S y s t o l i c Amplitude S i t t i n g ; : The sample mean decreased .056 cms., r e p r e s e n t i n g a decrease of 4 standard scores from an i n i t i a l mean of 50 standard s c o r e s . S i x s u b j e c t s increased measurements and nine had lower measurements on r e t e s t i n g . F i v e of the subjects (nos. 1,3,5,6 and 8) who regressed had r e l a t i v e l y high scores on the i n i t i a l t e s t . Hopkins (7) found a mean improvement i n sit t i n g Systolic Amplitude in middle-aged men of 18 standard scores. Although this group would probably have had a greater capacity for improvement than the present experimental sample, the large improvements i n this group of adult men could also reflect the nature of the training programme which was of greater intensity and duration than that used i n this study, .Diastolic Amplitude Sitting: The mean positive change of •049 cms, was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant, and represents a gain of 5 standard scores, from an i n i t i a l mean level of 48 standard scores. Eight subjects increased scores while seven regressed in this item. Obliquity Angle: The sample increased only 2 standard scores from an i n i t i a l mean standard score of 69. Seven subjects had higher scores while eight regressed. The mean gain was not significant s t a t i s t i c a l l y . Hopkins (8) obtained a substantial improvement of 15 standard scores in his study.. . Rest/Work Ratio: The s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant mean improvement of .53 equals a 10 standard score gain from an original level of 53 standard scores. Thirteen subjects increased scores while only two scored below their i n i t i a l level after participating i n the programme. Subjects 3 and 6 who experienced a decrease i n scores also showed regression i n most measures of cardiovascular fitness. Since their - 63 -i n i t i a l scores were s u b s t a n t i a l l y above those o f most of the other s u b j e c t s i t may reasonably be assumed t h a t the programme was not adequate t o maintain t h e i r i n i t i a l l e v e l s of f i t n e s s . Seven subjects made s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s ; one of these gains was e x c e p t i o n a l l y l a r g e - a p o s s i b l e a r t i f a c t o f t he subject having a bad c o l d d u r i n g the i n i t i a l t e s t . Wolfson (9) found t h a t nine middle-aged men improved 20 standard scores more than a c o n t r o l group which d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s p e c i a l p r e s c r i b e d e x e r c i s e programme. These gains are of the magnitude observed i n the present study i n f o u r s u b j e c t s who s t a r t e d i n an i n i t i a l low s t a t e of f i t n e s s . Both middle-aged men and students w i t h low i n i t i a l scores would be capable of considerable improvement. Pulse Rate; A s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mean decrease i n r e s t i n g pulse r a t e of 8.33 beats per minute was obtained. This represents an improvement of 10 standard scores from an i n i t i a l l e v e l of 48 on the Standard Score S c a l e . Ten sub j e c t s i n c r e a s e d scores i n t h i s item w h i l e two remained the same and three regressed (among them s u b j e c t s 3 and 6). Component I I - Splanchnic Tone Item: S t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r Component I I are shown i n Table 5. Table 5 R e l i a b i l i t y of Mean D i f f e r e n c e Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Scores Splanchnic Tone Accept or V a r i a b l e Mj_ Mf ML SD D S E M D t Re j e c t N u l l Hypothesis B r a c h i a l Pulse Wave S y s t o l i c ,828 ,865 ,037 .166 ,043 .86 Accept Amplitude Standing (cms) L e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e necessary t o r e j e c t n u l l hypothesis s 0,05 A s t a t i s t i c a l l y n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t improvement of .037 cms. was obtained f o r the B r a c h i a l Pulse Wave item - S y s t o l i c Amplitude Standing. Since no standard scores were a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s item scores could not be compared w i t h norms done on other young men. The mean d i f f e r e n c e represents a 4«4 g a i n . Table 6 shows the number of students who made inc r e a s e s ^ the number who d i d not make changes and those who obtained reduced scores from i n i t i a l t o f i n a l t e s t s . Table 6 C a r d i o v a s c u l a r Component I I - Increases, No Changes and Regressions V a r i a b l e Increases No Changes Regressed S y s t o l i c Amplitude . 9 1 5 Standing - 65 -Subjects 2, 3, 4 and 6 regressed s u b s t a n t i a l l y (.11 t o •18 cms.) i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the programme was probably not i n t e n s i v e enough t o mai n t i a n t h e i r i n i t i a l Splanchnic Tone f i t n e s s . Subjects 4, 10, 13, 14 and 15 showed s u b s t a n t i a l gains (more than .09 ems.) w h i l e the remaining subjects d i d not change a p p r e c i a b l y . Component IV - C i r c u l a t o r y Adjustment t o Hard A t h l e t i c Work: S t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r Component IV are shown i n Table 7. Table 7 R e l i a b i l i t y of Mean D i f f e r e n c e Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Scores C i r c u l a t o r y Adjustment t o Hard A t h l e t i c Work B r a c h i a l Accept or Pulse Wave % % Mj> SD D S E j ^ t Reject N u l l V a r i a b l e s . Hypothesis S y s t o l i c Amplitude A f t e r 1.093 1.171 .077 .262 .069 .112 Accept E x e r c i s e (cms) Yard Run- 109.19 103.73 5.46 10.94 2.82 1.94 R e j e c t Walk (sees) Table 8 shows i n i t i a l and f i n a l means and mean d i f f e r e n c e s expressed i n standard scores f o r the 600 Yard Run-Walk. Table 8 Standard Scores f o r 600 Yard Run-Walk I n i t i a l F i n a l D i f f e r e n c e V a r i a b l e Mean Mean D i f f e r e n c e R a t i n g 600 Yard Run-Walk 39 51 12 Good - 66 -Table 9 shows the number of students who had incre a s e d scores, the number who d i d not change and those who obtained lower scores from i n i t i a l t o f i n a l t e s t s . Table 9 Cardiovascular Component IV - Increases, No Changes and Regressions V a r i a b l e „ Increases No Changes Regressions S y s t o l i c Amplitude 10 0 5 A f t e r E x e r c i s e 600 Yard Run-Walk 11 2 2 Improvements i n t e s t items measuring Adjustment t o Hard A t h l e t i c Work were as f o l l o w s : S y s t o l i c Amplitude A f t e r E x e r c i s e : A s t a t i s t i c a l l y n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t mean gain of .077 cms. was noted i n t h i s item. This represents a change of 0.7 per cent of t h e i n i t i a l mean, which i s a very small g a i n . Ten subjects had hi g h e r scores w h i l e f i v e regressed. Both i n c r e a s e s and r e g r e s s i o n s of considerable s i z e occurred w i t h a r e s u l t i n g low net g a i n . 600 Yard Run-Walk: The s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mean improvement of 5.46 seconds represents a standard score i n c r e a s e of 12 from an i n i t i a l mean l e v e l of 39 standard scores. Eleven subjects i n c r e a s e d w h i l e only two regressed and two remained the same. A l l increased scores, except one, were l e s s than t e n seconds. One s u b j e c t , predominately - 67 -endomorphic i n b u i l d , had a very low i n i t i a l time which he improved by 41 seconds i n the p o s t - t e s t . When t h i s a t y p i c a l case was removed from the s t a t i s t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s the mean improvement was reduced from 5.46 (12 S.S.) t o 2.93 (9 S.S.) a s m a l l but s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mean d i f f e r e n c e . Improvements i n C a r d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n - Component IV (Adjustment t o Hard A t h l e t i c Work): The Post-Exercise S y s t o l i c Amplitude item d i d not y i e l d r e s u l t s s i m i l a r t o the 600 Yards item. R e s u l t s . o b t a i n e d i n the 60G\ Yard Run-Walk i n d i c a t e d a f a i r l y modest improvement i n t h i s f a c t o r . Capen, (10.), studying the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of Weight T r a i n i n g and C o n d i t i o n i n g over an eleven week period";' found t h a t c o n d i t i o n i n g improved time 7.1 per cent i n the 300 Yard S h u t t l e Run.. His programme c o n s i s t e d of tumbling, running and r e l a y s , combative games and c o n d i t i o n i n g e x e r c i s e s done three times a week f o r f o r t y minutes. The groups under study were r e q u i r e d c l a s s e s i n the P h y s i c a l Education pro-gramme. Landiss (11) obtained h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t gains from a c o n d i t i o n i n g c l a s s i n the r e q u i r e d programme c a r r i e d on three times per week f o r an hour. He compared the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g programme w i t h a number of other a c t i v i t i e s o f f e r e d i n the r e q u i r e d programme, and found i t produced highest gains i n , C a r d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n as measured by the 300 Yard S h u t t l e Run. - 68 -Component V - Recovery After a Hard Work Task: S t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r the one item representing Component V are shown i n Table 10. Table 10 R e l i a b i l i t y of Mean Difference Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Scores Five Minute Step Test - Sum of 3 Recovery Counts Accept or Variable Mi Mf % SDj) S E ^ t Reject Null Hypothesis Five Minute Step Test 193.70 183.90 -9.80 17.10 4.42 2.22 Reject (beats) Level of si g n i f i c a n c e necessary to r e j e c t n u l l hypothesis = 0.05 Table 11 shows i n i t i a l and f i n a l means and the differences between means expressed i n standard scores. Table 11 Standard Scores f o r Five Minute Step Test I n i t i a l F i n a l Improvement Variable Mean Mean Difference Rating Five Minute Step Test 3© 39 9 F a i r to Good Table 12 shows the number of students who made increased scores, the number who did not change and those who obtained lower scores from i n i t i a l to f i n a l t e s t s . Table 12 Cardiovascular Component V - Increases, No Changes and Regressions V a r i a b l e Increases No Changes Regressed F i v e Minute Step Test 13 0 2 Improvements i n the t e s t item measuring Recovery A f t e r a Hard Work Task were as f o l l o w s : : F i v e Minute.Step. Test: S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mean improvement on t h i s item was 9.6 recovery beats. T h i s represents a 9 standard score g a i n from an i n i t i a l l e v e l of 30 standard scores. T h i r t e e n subjects increased scores w h i l e two regressed. Subjects 3 and 9 regressed s u b s t a n t i a l l y (15 and 29 beats) from i n i t i a l recovery counts, which were co n s i d e r a b l y s u p e r i o r to those of the other students. Seven su b j e c t s increased more than f o u r t e e n pulse beats. Brouha, Fradd and Savage (12), i n a study of the e f f e c t s of p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g c a r r i e d on f o u r hours a week f o r t h r e e months, found s i m i l a r r e s u l t s t o those observed i n the present study. These r e s u l t s showed t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the c o l l e g e students t e s t e d improved t h e i r f i t n e s s . However, those students who had i n i t i a l l y scored i n the good o r e x c e l l e n t c a t e g o r i e s tended t o show poorer scores on the r e t e s t w i t h the Harvard Step Test. T h e i r c o n c l u s i o n , which could a l s o apply t o the r e s u l t s of the present study, was t h a t the t r a i n i n g programme was - 70 -adequate for the 'unfit 1 but too easy for the already ' f i t ' i l " r Cardiovascular Condition seemingly improved i n a l l ten test items for subjects k and 15. Subjects 7, 10 and 13 increased i n eight or nine items. Seven students increased their scores i n six or seven items. Subjects 3 and 6 re-gressed in seven and nine items respectively, while subject 8 increased in only four items. . Application of the information from the Health - Habit Questionnaire to the above results furnished some possible explanations of these phenomena. Subject 3, who was found to regress in a l l but three items, was also found to have entered the programme in excellent condition as a result of playing rugby weekly. Subject 6, who regressed in a l l but one test item, was also found to have scored well in a l l items on the i n i t i a l test. Two subjects who increased scores i n eight or more items also participated i n volleyball regularly during the term and hence this programme may have acted as a further training stimulus. It was l i k e l y , however, that the effect of re-quired programme volleyball would be minimal as several studies have shown the low fitness benefits resulting from i t . Subject 10, who increased scores i n a l l but one item, was the student who had experienced a slight cold during the i n i t i a l test. This may have influenced his results positively. Herkimer (13.) studied the effects of seven months of exercise on adult men. He found marked cardiovascular gains which averaged 12 - 18 standard scores i n the Camerone Heartometer measures. It i s probably easier to produce improvements i n the f i t n e s s of middle-aged men just s t a r t i n g t r a i n i n g than i t i s to do t h i s with young college men. Nevertheless, one would hope to achieve improvements of 12 - 16 standard scores i n a good t r a i n i n g programme with people of any age group, while improvements of 5 - 6 standard scores are only just • f a i r 1 . Five items had s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mean gains corresponding to increases of 6 - 12 standard scores. The group showed s i g n i f i c a n t improvements i n : Variable Standard Score Component I Area Under Curve 6 Rest/Work Ratio 10 Pulse Rate 10 Component IV 600 Yard Run-Walk 12 Component V Five Minute Step Test 9 Subjects who entered the programme with low f i t n e s s increased scores considerably. On the other hand those who began i n good condition regressed consistently i n a l l com-ponents. The majority of the subjects showed only f a i r general increased scores - increasing i n some items and re-gressing i n some. The t r a i n i n g programme therefore appeared not to be; - 72 -c h a l l e n g i n g enough f o r f i t students, reasonably good s t i m u l u s t o improve f i t n e s s i n i n i t i a l l y poor f i t n e s s students, and i n d i f f e r e n t i n i t s e f f e c t s on a l a r g e middle group of students who increased s l i g h t l y i n some items, regressed i n others and as a group appeared t o f o l l o w no p a t t e r n i n the r e g r e s s i o n s o r inc r e a s e s which took p l a c e . Motor F i t n e s s Component I - A g i l i t y : S t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r Component I are shown i n Table 13. Table 13 R e l i a b i l i t y of Mean D i f f e r e n c e s Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Scores A g i l i t y Item Accept or V a r i a b l e Mi Mf Mr, S D D SEm t Reject N u l l Hypothesis I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y 18.66 18.41 -.25 .48 .13 2.01 Reject Run (sees) Table 14 shows i n i t i a l and f i n a l means and the d i f f e r e n c e s between means expressed i n standard s c o r e s . Table 14 Standard Scores f o r A g i l i t y Item I n i t i a l F i n a l D i f f e r e n c e V a r i a b l e Mean Mean D i f f e r e n c e Rating I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y Run 62 64 2 Low - 73 -Table 15 shows the number of students who made increa s e d score s , the number who d i d not change and those who obtained lower scores from i n i t i a l t o f i n a l t e s t s . Table 15 Motor F i t n e s s Component I - Increases, No Changes and Regressions V a r i a b l e Increases No Changes Regressions I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y Run 11 0 4 The mean improvement i n running time of .25 seconds represents a standard score improvement of 2 from an i n i t i a l mean l e v e l of 62 standard scores. Although the improvement was i n d i f f e r e n t (2 S.S.) i n a b i o l o g i c a l or p r a c t i c a l sense, i t was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t because of the s m a l l Standard E r r o r between means.. Small i n c r e a s e s were noted i n most s u b j e c t s w i t h eleven showing higher scores w h i l e f o u r decreased t h e i r s c o r e s . Only three subjects showed increased scores greater than .8 seconds,. In comparison w i t h other motor f i t n e s s item mean scores, the group had a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h i n i t i a l score (62 S.S.) i n the A g i l i t y Run. R i s t l e r (14) s t u d i e d the e f f e c t s of e i g h t weeks of three times weekly t h i r t y - m i n u t e bouts of running, c a l i s t h e n i c s and combatives. Of the c o l l e g e freshmen s t u d i e d he found t h a t 6 l per cent i n c r e a s e d scores, 21 per cent d e c l i n e d , w h i l e 18 per cent remained the same i n an o b s t a c l e course run f o r time. Herkimer (15) a l s o found d i f f i c u l t i e s i n - 74 -improving a g i l i t y . He noted that h i s group of adult men had a c t u a l l y regressed 5 standard scores a f t e r seven months of exercising. In view of above average performance at the i n i t i a l t e s t the small mean gain of .25 seconds (2 S.S.) obtained i n t h i s study would appear to be a f a i r improvement. Component II - Speed: S t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r Component II are shown i n Table Id. Table 16 R e l i a b i l i t y of Mean Differences Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Scores Speed Item Accept or Variable Mi Mj. Mr, SD D S E ^ t Reject Null Hypothesis 50 Yard Dash 6.81 6.69 .11 .21 .05 2.13 Reject (sees.) Table 17 shows i n i t i a l and f i n a l means and the differences between means expressed i n standard scores. Table 17 Standard Scores f o r Speed Item I n i t i a l F i n a l Difference Variable Mean Mean Difference Rating 50 Yard Dash 50 56 6 F a i r Table 18 shows the number of students who had increased scores, the number who d i d not change and those who obtained lower scores from i n i t i a l to f i n a l t e s t s . - 75 -Table 18 Motor Fitness Component, II - Increases, No Changes and Regressions Variable Increases No Changes Regressions 50 Yard Dash 9 4 2 A s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant mean improvement of .11 seconds was noted i n the 50. Yard Dash, , This represents a gain of 6 standard scores from an i n i t i a l level of 50 standard scores. Nine subjects increased their scores, four remained the same and two regressed. In light of the d i f f i c u l t i e s usually observed i n im-proving speed of running, this represents a reasonably good gain. Component III - Power: Sta t i s t i c a l results for Component III are shown i n ., Table 19. . Table 19 Rel i a b i l i t y of Mean Differences Between I n i t i a l and Final Scores Power Item Accept or Variable % Mp MQ S D D SEm t Reject Null Hypothesis Standing Broad Jump (inches) 86.4-0 86.83 2.43 3.72 .96 2.53 Reject Table 20 shows i n i t i a l and f i n a l means and the differences between means expressed i n standard scores. Table 20 Standard Scores f o r Power Item . I n i t i a l F i n a l D i f f e r e n c e V a r i a b l e Mean Mean D i f f e r e n c e Rating ,Standing Broad Jump 47 52 5 F a i r Table 21 shows the number of students who made increa s e d score s , the number who d i d not change and those who obtained lower scores from i n i t i a l t o f i n a l t e s t s . Table 21 Motor F i t n e s s Component I I I - Increases, No Changes and Regressions V a r i a b l e . Increases No Changes Regressions Standing Broad Jump 9 1 5 A s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mean g a i n of 2,43 inches was found. This represents an improvement of 5 standard scores^ from an i n i t i a l mean l e v e l of 47 standard s c o r e s . Nine s u b j e c t s i n c r e a s e d scores w h i l e f i v e regressed s l i g h t l y . One subject had the same score on both t e s t s . A l l changes were reasonably s i m i l a r i n amount and i t i s reasonable t o assume t h a t a general improvement i n jumping power d i d occur. This improvement may r e f l e c t the con s i d e r a b l e emphasis placed on running i n the programme. I t was seen t h a t low t o f a i r improvements were made i n the thr e e t e s t items u t i l i z i n g the E x p l o s i v e Strength of the Legs (16); the Ag i l i t y Run, 50 Yard Dash and Standing Broad Jump, These improvements appeared to be general in nature. No strongly consistent patterns of increased scores or re-gression i n the different variables were noted among subjects. Five subjects increased in a l l three items and five subjects increased scores i n two items. . Component IV - F l e x i b i l i t y : S t a t i s t i c a l results for Component IV are,shown i n ,Table 22. Table 22 Re l i a b i l i t y of Mean Differences Between I n i t i a l and Final Scores Variable Shoulder F l e x i b i l i t y (inches) Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Backward (inches) Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Forward (inches) F l e x i b i l i t y Items MD SD 9.58 12.39 2.81 17.20 17.27 !07 12.05 11.34 -.71 D 2.70 2.12 2.10 SE MD Accept or Reject Null Hypothesis .70 4.03 Reject .55 .13 Accept .54 1.31 Accept Table 23 shows i n i t i a l and f i n a l means and the differences between means expressed i n standard scores. Table 23 Standard Scores f o r F l e x i b i l i t y Items V a r i a b l e Shoulder F l e x i b i l i t y Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Backward Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Forward I n i t i a l . : Mean 48 66 55 F i n a l Mean 58 67 D i f f e r e n c e 10 D i f f e r e n c e R a t i n g Good Low 57 Low Table 24 shows the number of students who made increas e s the number who d i d not change and those who obtained lower scores from i n i t i a l t o f i n a l t e s t s . Table 24 Motor F i t n e s s Component IV - Increases, No Changes and Regressions V a r i a b l e Shoulder - F l e x i b i l i t y Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Backward Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Forward Increases 15 6 No Changes 0 0 Regressions 0 9 Improvements i n t e s t items measuring F l e x i b i l i t y were as f o l l o w s . - 79 -Shoulder F l e x i b i l i t y ; The mean improvement i n this item was 2.81 inches or 10 standard scores from an i n i t i a l l evel of 48 standard scores. The mean difference was also found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. A l l fifteen subjects i n -creased their scores. The general consistent improvement i n this item repre-sents a substantial gain i n Shoulder F l e x i b i l i t y during the experimental period. Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Backward: A mean gain of .07 inches was found to be a positive change of 1 standard score from 66 standard scores i n i t i a l l y . The mean gain was found to be insignificant s t a t i s t i c a l l y . Only six subjects increased while nine regressed. Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Backwards was not improved by the experimental factor. Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Forward: The mean gain of .71 inches represents a gain of 2 standard scores from an i n i t i a l mean level of 55 standard scores. The increase was found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y insignificant. Nine, subjects had higher scores while six regressed. Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Forwards was not increased substantially by the programme. Individual improvement i n one f l e x i b i l i t y item was not related to changes i n any of the other items. The gains made i n the three f l e x i b i l i t y items show that f l e x i b i l i t y i s - 80 -evidently specific to a joint or a joint complex. While the experimental factor produced substantial improvements i n shoulder range of motion, forward and backward trunk f l e x i -b i l i t y was not altered appreciably. Component V - Dynamic Strength and Muscular Endurance: St a t i s t i c a l results for Component V are shown i n Table 25. Table 25 Rel i a b i l i t y of Mean Differences Between I n i t i a l and Final Scores Dynamic Strength and Muscular Endurance Items Accept or Variable % % MQ SDD S E ^ t Reject Null Hypothesis Chins (no.) 6.00 6.33 .33 1.18 .30 1.08 Accept Dips (no.) 9.40 11.53 2.13 3.54 .91 2.33 Reject Table 26 shows i n i t i a l and f i n a l means and the differences between means expressed in standard scores. Table 26 Standard Scores for Dynamic Strength and Muscular Endurance Items I n i t i a l Final Difference Variable Mean Mean Difference Rating Chins 48 5© 2 Low Dips 47 58 11 Good Table 27 shows the number of students who made increased scores, the number who did not change and those who obtained lower scores from i n i t i a l to f i n a l tests. - 81 -Table 27 Motor Fitness Component V - Increases No Changes and Regressions Variable Increases No Changes Regressions Chins 6 6 3 Pips 10 2 3 Improvements i n test items measuring Dynamic Strength and Muscular Endurance were as follows. Chins: A mean gain of .33 chins was found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y insignificant. This gain represents a positive standard score change of 2 from an i n i t i a l level of 48 standard scores. Six subjects increased while the same number fa i l e d to change. Three subjects regressed. Of the six who increased scores, three increased by 2 chins and three by 1 chin. The programme did not appear to increase chinning per-formance appreciably. Dips: The mean improvement of 2.13 dips equals a standard score gain of 11 from an i n i t i a l level of 47 standard scores. The mean difference was found to be significant s t a t i s t i c a l l y . Ten subjects increased scores, two f a i l e d to change and three regressed. There was no apparent relationship among individuals between increases or decreases i n Chins with respect to increases or decreases in Dips. - 82 -This apparent lack of relationship between the two dynamic strength and muscular endurance items seems reasonable i n light of what has become known about the specificity of separate motor tasks. The nature of the training programme was such that although considerable emphasis was placed on push-ups, l i t t l e or no time was spent on development of the muscles involved i n chinning. This probably explains the gains made i n dipping and the failure to obtain improvements in chinning. In most studies reviewed, physical conditioning produced significant improvements in both of these items. Kistler (17) points out that particular emphasis was placed on chinning in his programme. This may account for the better improvements in arm strength in his study. Component VI - Static Strength: S t a t i s t i c a l results for Component VI are shown in Table 28. Table 28 Rel i a b i l i t y of Mean Differences Between I n i t i a l and Final Scores Variable Right Grip 118.93 Left Grip 107.40 Back L i f t 341.00 Leg L i f t 469.90 Static Strength Items % % MJJ SDD 122.73 3.80 117.67 10.27 349.20 8.20 520.10 50.20 S EMD * 3.48 1.09 3.32 3.10 39.92 10.31 .60 74.96 19.36 2.59 13.46 12.66 Accept or Reject Null Hypothesis Accept Reject Accept Reject Table 29 shows i n i t i a l and f i n a l means and the d i f f e r e n c e s between means expressed i n standard scores. Table 29 . Standard. Scores f o r S t a t i c . Strength Items I n i t i a l F i n a l D i f f e r e n c e V a r i a b l e Mean Mean D i f f e r e n c e R a t i n g R i g h t G r i p 51 55 4 Low L e f t Grip 50 60 10 Good Back L i f t 45 47 2 Low Leg L i f t 69 77 8 F a i r to .Table 30 shows the number of students who made i n c r e a s e s , the number who d i d not change and those who obtained lower scores from i n i t i a l t o f i n a l t e s t . Table 30 Motor F i t n e s s Component VI - Increases, No Changes and Regressions ,Variable Increases No Changes Regressions Rig h t G r i p 9 1 5 L e f t G r i p 13 0 2 Back L i f t 10 0 5 Leg L i f t 9 1 5 Improvements i n t e s t items measuring S t a t i c Strength were as f o l l o w s : Right G r i p : The mean g a i n of 3.80 pounds i n t h i s item equals an i n c r e a s e of 4 standard scores from an i n i t i a l mean - 84 -o f 51 standard scores. The mean g a i n was found t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Examination of i n d i v i d u a l sub-j e c t s showed t h a t nine i n d i v i d u a l s i n c r e a s e d , f i v e regressed and one remained the same. L e f t G r i p : The mean g a i n i n t h i s item of 10.27 pounds represents a 10 standard score increase from an i n i t i a l mean l e v e l of 50 standard s c o r e s . This improvement was found" t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . T h i r t e e n s u b j e c t s i n c r e a s e d scores w h i l e only two showed a decrease i n scores. Seven s u b j e c t s i n c r e a s e d t h e i r scores by 11 pounds or more (range 11 t o 36 pounds). No reason can be advanced f o r the s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r improvement i n t h e l e f t hand g r i p s i n c e both hands showed i n i t i a l s t r e n g t h l e v e l s of approximately equal magnitude ( L e f t G r i p - 50 S.S.j Right G r i p - 51 S.S.). No p a r t i c u l a r emphasis was placed on the development of the l e f t hand i n the c o n d i t i o n i n g programme. Wolfson (18) obtained an average g r i p s t r e n g t h i n c r e a s e of 10 standard scores i n a group of a d u l t men who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a programme of p r e s c r i b e d e x e r c i s e , Herkimer (19) found t h a t g r i p s t r e n g t h improved 6 standard scores i n a d u l t men a f t e r seven months of c a l i s t h e n i c s and v o l l e y b a l l . The average g a i n i n the present study was 7 standard scores. Back L i f t ; The mean g a i n i n t h i s item was 8.20 pounds - 8 5 -o r 2 standard scores. The i n i t i a l mean l e v e l was found t o be 4 5 standard s c o r e s . The change was found t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Ten sub j e c t s showed increased scores w h i l e f i v e regressed. Thus, although the mean g a i n was not s u b s t a n t i a l i n magnitude, increased scores (range of 2 t o 82 pounds) were made by two- t h i r d s of the sample. Leg L i f t : A s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mean gain of 5 0 . 2 0 pounds was obtained i n t h i s t e s t item. This represents an improvement of 8 standard scores from an i n i t i a l l e v e l of 6 9 standard scores. . I n view of the i n i t i a l h i g h l e v e l of s t r e n g t h i n t h i s i tem, the mean inc r e a s e obtained represents a good improve-ment. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the g r e a t e r g a i n i n l e g l i f t was due t o the considerable emphasis on running w h i l e t h e r e was nothing i n the programme which would s p e c i f i c a l l y a f f e c t back l i f t i n g s t r e n g t h . A s i g n i f i c a n t improvement was a l s o obtained i n t h e Standing Broad Jump. This item i s a l s o dependent upon l e g s t r e n g t h . Nine s u b j e c t s i n c r e a s e d i n the l e g l i f t w h i l e f i v e regressed and one subject remained the same. Although t h e r e appeared t o be considerable i n c o n s i s t e n c y of changes i n the dynamometrical s t r e n g t h items, on the whole, a t r e n d towards general i n c r e a s e i n scores was seen. Increases, no changes and r e g r e s s i o n s were found to be i n the r a t i o 4 1 : 2 : 1 7 f o r a l l f o u r items. Capen (20) obtained somewhat s i m i l a r l y inconsistent r e s u l t s i n studying the e f f e c t s of physical conditioning on S t a t i c Strength. His obtained gains reported i n percentages were as follows: Right Grip - 4.5$; Left Grip - ..5$; Back L i f t - 4.8$; Leg L i f t - 21.1$. It was noted that the Leg L i f t item.in h i s study, l i k e that i n the present study, showed considerable improvement. Although.there were f a i r to good mean gains i n dynamometrical strength t e s t s only two of these were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Of the f i f t e e n subjects tested i n four items - 60 te s t s i n a l l - there were 41 increased scores, 17 regressions and 2 unchanged. This was approximately the same proportion of advances to losses which was apparent i n the motor f i t n e s s and cardiovascular t e s t items. Tables 31 and 32 summarize the changes made i n Cardiovascular Condition and Motor F i t n e s s . Table 31 Summary of Changes i n Cardiovascular Condition No V a r i a b l e S.S. Gain S t a t . Sign. Increases (No.) Chg. (No.) Area Under Curve 6 X 9 2 S y s t o l i c Amplitude S i t t i n g -4 6 © D i a s t o l i c Amplitude S i t t i n g 5 8 0 O b l i q u i t y Angle 2 7 0 Rest/Work Ra t i o 10 X 13 0 Pulse Rate 10 X 10 2 S y s t o l i c Amplitude Standing 9 1 S y s t o l i c Amplitude A f t e r E x e r c i s e 10 0 600 Yard Run Walk 12 X 11 2 F i v e Minute Step Test 9 X 13 0 In A l l Tests Average Number of Increased Scores 9*6 Average Standard Score Gains 6.25 Range i n Standard Scores -4 to S.S. V a r i a b l e Gain E x p l o s i v e Strength I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y Run 2 50 Yard Dash 6 Standing Broad Jump 5 F l e x i b i l i t y Shoulder F l e x i b i l i t y 10 Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Backward 1 Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Forward 2 Dynamic Strength Chins 2 Dips 11 S t a t i c Strength Right G r i p 4 L e f t G r i p 10 Back L i f t 2 Leg L i f t 8 Table 32 Summary of Changes i n Motor F i t n e s s No S t a t . Increases Chg. Sign. (No.) (No.) Reg. In Each Component Avg. Avg. Range No. No. i n (No.) Increases Changes S.S. x x X 11 9 9 0 4 1 4 2 5 9.66 4.33 2-6 15 6 9 0 0 0 0 9 6 10.0 4.33 1-10 6 10 6 2 3 3 8.0 6.5 2-11 9 10 9 1 0 O 1 5 2 5 5 10.25 6.0 2-10 - 8 9 -The r e s u l t s show t h a t t h e r e was a uniform f a i r i n c r e a s e i n each of the components of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . In each of the items, about t w o - t h i r d s of the s u b j e c t s increased scores and o n e - t h i r d e i t h e r d i d not change o r they regressed. Subjects who increased scores i n some v a r i a b l e s d i d not increase i n ot h e r s , but t h e r e was no r e c o r d of c o n s i s t e n t i n c r e a s e o r r e g r e s s i o n f o r any i n d i v i d u a l or group of i n d i v i d u a l s except i n the c a r d i o v a s c u l a r t e s t s . In these t e s t s , two sub j e c t s w i t h i n i t i a l l y h i g h scores had, on the whole, lower scores on r e t e s t i n g and two sub j e c t s who had low i n i t i a l scores had, on the whole, higher scores at r e t e s t . For a l l t e n c a r d i o v a s c u l a r v a r i a b l e s t h e r e were f i v e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mean improvements, w i t h average standard score gains of 6.25 standard scores o v e r a l l (range -4 t o 12 standard s c o r e s ) . The three motor f i t n e s s components ( a g i l i t y , speed, power), were a l l s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h an average standard score improvement of 4.3 standard scores (range 2 t o 6 standard s c o r e s ) . Of t h e three f l e x i b i l i t y items on l y one was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The average standard score i n c r e a s e was 4.3 standard scores, (range 1 t o 10 standard scores).. Of t he two dynamic arm st r e n g t h i t e m s . ( d i p s and chins) only d i p s improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y and between the two there - 90 -was a standard score g a i n of 6.5 standard scores (range 2 to 11 standard s c o r e s ) . Of the f o u r s t a t i c s t r e n g t h items, l e f t hand g r i p and l e g l i f t showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mean improvements. The average standard score increase i n the f o u r items was 6.00 standard scores (range 2 t o 10 standard s c o r e s ) . In each of the f i v e main areas, the average numbers showing increased scores - as opposed t o those who d i d not change or regressed - were"approximately the same i . e . approximately t w o - t h i r d s of the f i f t e e n persons i n v o l v e d i n the study. The p r i n c i p l e of t a s k - s p e c i f i c i t y was apparent i n t h i s study. In f i t n e s s components i n which s e v e r a l t e s t items were used t o measure th a t p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , no general p a t t e r n of change took place.- Although good improve-ments were obtained i n Shoulder F l e x i b i l i t y , changes i n Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Forwards and Backwards were found t o be q u i t e s m a l l . . S i m i l a r i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s were found i n other components. Several a t y p i c a l cases were noted i n the t e s t sample.. Two s u b j e c t s who had entered the c o n d i t i o n i n g programme i n good c o n d i t i o n experienced f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t r e g r e s s i o n i n items measuring C a r d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n . . S e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s who obtained low scores on the i n i t i a l t e s t d i s p l a y e d con-- 91 -s i s t e n t l y good increas e s i n the c a r d i o v a s c u l a r items. I t seems reasonable t o assume t h a t the programme was inadequate t o maintain the f i t n e s s of t h e • f i t ' , students, but adequate f o r the. ' u n f i t ' students. Changes f o r most i n d i v i d u a l s were found t o be f a i r l y s m a l l , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the t r a i n i n g programme was e v i d e n t l y not frequent enough, lo n g enough or hard enough, or perhaps a l l t hree - to produce b i o l o g i c a l l y ( i . e . from the p o i n t of view of c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the t r a i n i n g programme t o h e a l t h and performance) important improvements i n f i t n e s s . - 92 -REFERENCES 1. .Walker, H.M., Lev, J., S t a t i s t i c a l Inference. New. York, Henry Holt, 1953, PP. 144-145. 2. Hopkins, R.E., "The E f f e c t s of V o l l e y b a l l and Calisthenics on the Physical Fitness of Adult Men", Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , 1951. 3 . Wilson, A.L., "The E f f e c t of Weight Training on the Physical Fitness of Adult Men", Unpublished. Master's Thesis, ; University of, I l l i n o i s , 1947. 4 . Wolbers, CP.,. "The E f f e c t s of V o l l e y b a l l on the Physical Fitness of Adult Men", Unpublished Master's Thesis, : University of, I l l i n o i s , 1949. 5. Howell, M.L., Hodgson, J.L.,. Sorenson, J.T.., " E f f e c t s of C i r c u i t Training on the Modified. Harvard Step Test". Research Quarterly, v o l . 34 (May, 1963), pp. 154^158^ 6. Hopkins, l o c . c i t . 7. . , Hopkins, l o c . c i t . 8. Hopkins, l o c . c i t . 9. Wolfson, M., " E f f e c t s of a Program of Prescribed Exercises on the Physical Fitness of Adult Men", Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , 1950. 10. . Capen, E.K., "The E f f e c t of Systematic Weight. Training on Power, Strength and Endurance", Research Quarterly, v o l . 21 (May, 1950), pp. 83-92. 11. Landiss," CW., "Influence of Physical Education A c t i v i t i e s oh Motor A b i l i t y and Physical Fitness of Male Freshmen", Research Quarterly, v o l . 26 (October, 1955), PP. 295-307. 12. Brouha, L., Fradd, N.W., Savage, B.M., "Studies i n Physical E f f i c i e n c y of College Students", Research Quarterly, v o l . 15 (October, 1944), pp. 211-225. 13. .Herkimer, L.R., "The E f f e c t s of Physical Exercise on Adult Men", Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , 1949. - 93 -14. K i s t l e r , J/.W., "A Study of the R e s u l t s of E i g h t Weeks of P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a U n i v e r s i t y P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Program f o r Men", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 15 (March, 1944), pp. 23-29. 15. Herkimer, l o c . c i t . 16. N i c k s , D.C, Fleishman, E.A., What Do P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Tests Measure? - A Review of Factor A n a l y t i c Studies. O f f i c e of Naval Research, Contract Nonr 609 (32), T e c h n i c a l Report 3, Yale U n i v e r s i t y , Departments of I n d u s t r i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Psychology, (July, I960), pp. 4-15. 17. K i s t l e r , l o c . c i t . 18. . Wolfson, l o c . c i t . 19. Herkimer, l o c . c i t . 20. Capen, l o c . c i t . 1 CHAPTER VI SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary In order to s a t i s f y t he o b j e c t i v e s of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i n c l u d e s i n the Required P h y s i c a l Education Programme, compulsory p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a ' f i t n e s s 1 type a c t i v i t y . One of a l i m i t e d number of these a c t i v i t i e s o f f e r e d i s P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n i n g . There i s a need t o o b t a i n o b j e c t i v e data regarding the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of these a c t i v i t i e s i n improving p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . The problem, i n t h i s study, was t o evaluate the im-provements i n Car d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n and Motor F i t n e s s made during a ' p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g ' c l a s s at the U n i v e r s i t y . .The c l a s s met twice-weekly f o r t h i r t y - m i n u t e s of c o n d i t i o n i n g e x e r c i s e s and a c t i v e games f o r a pe r i o d of e i g h t weeks. An experimental sample of f i f t e e n c o l l e g e freshmen was s e l e c t e d randomly from the c o n d i t i o n i n g c l a s s . The sample was given a ten-item f i t n e s s t e s t b a t t e r y p r i o r t o and at the end of the c o n d i t i o n i n g programme. The gains i n the f i t n e s s measures were evaluated i n terms of the s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of mean d i f f e r e n c e s and i n terms of standard scores e s t a b l i s h e d f o r normal young men. A comparison of the experimental group w i t h a l a r g e group of male freshmen s t u d i e d i n 1962, was made i n order t o determine whether the samples were s u f f i c i e n t l y a l i k e i n terms of h e i g h t , weight and performance to regard the experimental sample as - 95 -reasonably r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of male c o l l e g e freshmen e n r o l l e d i n the Required Programme. In none of the v a r i a b l e s examined, was the d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o cast doubt on t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n . Conclusions In view of the r e s u l t s obtained the f o l l o w i n g conclusions seem j u s t i f i e d . • 1. On the whole, i n a l l v a r i a b l e s studied^ t w o - t h i r d s of the subjects made increased s c o r e s . 2. The nature of t h e in c r e a s e s i n scores made were, on the average, s i m i l a r i n a l l components of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s s t u d i e d . 3. Mean changes, on the whole, were small and b i o l o g i c a l l y o r p r a c t i c a l l y not very important although twelve v a r i a b l e s of the twenty-two used i n the study showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mean improvements. In each of the f i v e main components, the average standard score i n c r e a s e was 4.33 - 6.25 standard s c o r e s . 4. L i t t l e c onsistency was noted among i n c r e a s e s i n scores i n items r e p r e s e n t i n g the same f i t n e s s component. Dynamic stren g t h gains i n arm extensors was not accompanied by an improvement i n f l e x o r s t r e n g t h . F l e x i b i l i t y improve-ments were a l s o found to be very s p e c i f i c . 5. Subjects i n i t i a l l y s c o r i n g h i g h l y on c a r d i o v a s c u l a r items d i d not score as high a f t e r the experimental p e r i o d . - 96 -I n d i v i d u a l s who entered the programme i n a poor s t a t e of f i t n e s s increased t h e i r scores c o n s i d e r a b l y i n the c a r d i o -v a s c u l a r items. The m a j o r i t y of the su b j e c t s showed g e n e r a l l y small higher scores i n a m a j o r i t y of the c a r d i o -v a s c u l a r v a r i a b l e s on being r e t e s t e d . I n t h i s l a t t e r group su b j e c t s d i d not have in c r e a s e d scores a l l i n the same v a r i a b l e s but, on the c o n t r a r y showed considerable i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h i s r e s p e c t . 6, I m p l i c a t i o n s from the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the programme was probably too easy f o r the i n i t i a l l y f i t , about r i g h t f o r the i n i t i a l l y u n f i t and i n s u f f i c i e n t stimulus t o g i v e good improvements i n Car d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n f o r the m a j o r i t y of the s u b j e c t s , 7. Re s u l t s obtained i n t h i s study i n d i c a t e a need f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of ways t o i n c r e a s e the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s improvements i n P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n i n g C l a s s e s . Recommendations 1. I t i s recommended t h a t experimental s t u d i e s be made t o gauge the f i t n e s s e f f e c t s of s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t methods of conducting P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n i n g Glasses w i t h a view t o designing the most e f f e c t i v e programme p o s s i b l e w i t h i n the a v a i l a b l e time l i m i t s , • 2. I t i s al s o recommended t h a t students e n t e r i n g the .Required Programme be c l a s s i f i e d according t o t h e i r i n i t i a l - 97 -f i t n e s s i n order t o make the programme more e f f e c t i v e . An a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h i s would be t h a t the content and method of the programme be d i v e r s i f i e d t o meet the needs of s p e c i f i c students o r groups of students. BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS AAHPER - N.E.A., F i t n e s s Department,. AAHPER Youth F i t n e s s Test -Manual. 1201 S i x t e e n t h S t r e e t , N.W.,. Washington 6, D.C, 1958. Brownell, CL.,. Hagman,. P., P h y s i c a l Education - Foundations  and P r i n c i p l e s . New York, McGraw H i l l , 1951. Bucher, C.A,.Foundations of P h y s i c a l Education. St. L o u i s , C.-V., Mosby, 1950. Cameron Heartometer Corporation, The Heartometer - In the  F i e l d of Physical. Education. Pamphlet, Cameron Heartometer Corporation, Chicago, 1954. Cowell, C C , Hazelton, H., Curriculum Designs i n P h y s i c a l - Education. New York, P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1955. Cureton, T.K.. P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Workbook. S t . L o u i s , C.V. Mosby, 1944. Cureton, T.K., P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A p p r a i s a l and Guidance. S t . L o u i s , C.V. Mosby, 1947. Cureton, T.K.,. P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of Champion A t h l e t e s . Urbana, The U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1951. G a r r e t t , H.E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education. New York, Longmans Green, 1958. Karpovich, P.V., Physiology of Muscular A c t i v i t y . P h i l a d e l p h i a , W.B. Saunders, 1959. Larson, L.A., Yocum, R.D., Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n i n P h y s i c a l Health and Recreati o n Education. S t . L o u i s , C.V. Mosby, 1951. Mathews, D.K., Measurement i n P h y s i c a l Education. P h i l a d e l p h i a , W.B. Saunders, 1963. N i c k s , D.C, Fleishman,, E.A., What Do P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Tests  Measure? - A Review of Fa c t o r A n a l y t i c Studies . O f f i c e of Naval Research, Contract Nonr 609 (32), T e c h n i c a l Report 3, Yale U n i v e r s i t y , Departments of I n d u s t r i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Psychology. ( J u l y , I960). - 99 -Rogers, F.R., Tests and Measurement Programs in the Redirection  of Physical Education. New York, Columbia University Teachers College Bureau of Publications, 1927. Walker, H.M.,- Lev, J., Statistical Inference, New York, Henry Holt, 1953. PERIODICALS Bannister, E.W.. "The Relative Effectiveness of Interval Circuit Training Compared with Three Other Methods of Fitness Training i n a School Physical Education Program", Unpublished Master 1s Thesis, University of British Columbia, I960. Berrafeto, P.R., "The Effect of Various Physical Education Service Courses on the All-Round Muscular Endurance of University Students", Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , 1949. Brock, J.D., Cox, W.A., Pennock, E.W., Chapter VII in "Physical Fitness", Supplement to the Research Quarterly, vol. 12 (May, 194D, pp. 407-415. Brouha, L., Fradd, N.W., Savage, B.M., "Studies in Physical Efficiency of.College Students", Research Quarterly, vol. 15 (October, 1944), pp. 211-2"2"5". Brown, S.R..- U.B.C. AAHPER Physical Fitness Test Norms. University of British Columbia, 1962. Capen, E.K., "The Effect of Systematic Weight Training on Power, Strength and Endurance". Research Quarterly, vol. 21 (May, 1950), pp. 83-92. Collins, V.D., Howe, E.C., "The Measurement of Organic and Neuromuscular Fitness", American Physical Education . Review, vol. 29 (February, 1924), pp. 64-70. Cureton, T.K., " F l e x i b i l i t y as an Aspect of Physical Fitness", Supplement to the Research Quarterly. vol. 12 (May, 194D, pp. ,381-390. Cureton, T.K., "An Inventory and Screen Test of Motor Fitness for High School and College Men", Physical Educator. January, 1943. - 100 -Cureton, T.K.,: "Improvement i n Motor Fitness Associated with Physical Education and Physical Fitness Clinic Work", Research Quarterly, vol. 14 (May, 1943) pp. 154-158. Cureton, T.K., "What's Physical Fitness", Journal of Health. Physical Education and Recreation, vol. 16 (March, 1945), pp. 111-112. Cureton, T.K., "Physical Fitness Improvements of a Middle-Aged Man, with Brief Reviews of Related Studies", Research Quarterly, vol. 23 (May, 1952), pp. 149-160. Cureton, T.K., "The Nature of Cardiovascular Condition i n Man", Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 17 (November, 1956), pp. 139-155. Cureton, T.K;, Huffman, W.J., Welser, L., K i r e i l i s , R.W., Latham, D.E., Endurance of Young Men. Washington, Society for Research in Child Development, National Research Council, 1945, p. 284. Fordham, S.L.,- "The Effect of Four Selected Physical Education Activities on Muscular Endurance Test Scores", Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , 1949. Herkimer, L.R., "The Effects of Physical Exercise on Adult Men", Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , 1949. Hopkins, R.E., "The Effects of Volleyball ,and Calisthenics on the Physical Fitness of Adult Men", Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , 1951. Howell, M.L., Hodgson, J.L., Sorenson, J.T., "Effects of Circuit Training on the Modified Harvard Step Test": Research Quarterly, vol. 34 (May, 1963), pp. 154-15*. Howell, M.L., Kimoto. R., Morford, W.R., "Effect of Isometric and Isotonic Exercise Programs upon Muscular Endurance", Research Quarterly, vol. 33 (December, 1962), pp. 536-540. Johnson, G.C., Kubeck, E.P., "A Comparison of the Effects of Circuit Training, Weight Training, and Physical Conditioning upon Total Physical Fitness as Measured by Muscular Strength and Muscular Endurance", Unpublished Graduating Essay, University of British Columbia, 1962. - 101 -Jordan, C.S., "A Comparative Study of the. P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s o f a Group of Boys from S i r Richard WbBride School . P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Regular P h y s i c a l Education Program With Another Group P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n A d d i t i o n a l C o n d i t i o n i n g A c t i v i t i e s , M Unpublished Graduating Essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963.. K i s t l e r , J.W.,, "A Study of the R e s u l t s of E i g h t Weeks of P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a U n i v e r s i t y P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Program f o r Men", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 15 (March, 1944), pp. 23-29. L a n d i s s , C.W., "Influence o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s on Motor A b i l i t y and P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of. Male.Freshmen", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 26 (October, 1 9 5 5 1 , pp. 295 - 3 0 7 . Larson, L.A.-, "A F a c t o r and V a l i d i t y A n a l y s i s of Strength V a r i a b l e s and Tests w i t h a Test. Combination of Chinning, Dipping, and V e r t i c a l Jump^j Research  Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 11 (December, 1940), pp. 82-96. McGloy, C.H., "How About Some Muscle"., Journa l of Health and P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n , v o l . 7 (May, 1936), pp. 302-303. Nelson, D.O., Hurst, R.L., " S i g n i f i c a n t or.Not S i g n i f i c a n t " , Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 34 (May, 1963), pp. 239-242. Rogers, F.R., "The S i g n i f i c a n c e of Strength Tests i n Revealing P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n " , Research Q u a r t e r l y f v o l . 5 (October, 1934), pp. 43-46. S c o t t , G.M., "The Assessment of Motor A b i l i t y of College Women", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 10 (October, 1934), p. 63. Schrecker, K.A., " P h y s i c a l . F i t n e s s " , Journal of P h y s i c a l Education, v o l . 4 6 . ( J u l y , 1954), p. 55. S i l l s , F.D., ."Special. C o n d i t i o n i n g E x e r c i s e s f o r Students w i t h Low Scores on P h y s i c a l . F i t n e s s Tests", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 25 (October, 1954), PP. 333-337. U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Rating Scores. U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , Urbana. W i l l e t , A.E.-, "Ca r d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n as Measured by the Heartometer Related to the Time f o r A i l - O u t T r e a d m i l l Running", Unpublished Project,, P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s . Research Laboratory, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1946. - 102 -W i l s o n , A.L., "The E f f e c t of Weight T r a i n i n g on the P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of Young Men", Unpublished Master's Th e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1947, Wolbers, CP.-, "The E f f e c t s o f V o l l e y b a l l on the P h y s i c a l . F i t n e s s of Adult Men", Unpublished Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1949. Wolf son, Mi,, " E f f e c t s of a Program of P r e s c r i b e d E x e r c i s e s on the Physical. F i t n e s s of Adult Men", Unpublished .Master's Th e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1950. APPENDIX A STATISTICAL TREATMENT Study Design S i n g l e Group,, Test - Retest Experiment (N = 15) X _ Experimental Factor X = I n i t i a l Test ~" P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n i n g F i n a l Test D i f f e r e n c e Procedure (1) Random s e l e c t i o n of sample from the P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n i n g C l a s s . (2) A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of f i t n e s s t e s t b a t t e r y t o sample t o o b t a i n I n i t i a l scores. •(3) Sample p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e g u l a r P h y s i c a l Con-d i t i o n i n g Class f o r eight weeks. (4) A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of f i t n e s s t e s t b a t t e r y to sample to o b t a i n F i n a l scores. F i t n e s s Test Batt e r y A C a r d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n Items Component I H a b i t u a l Autonomic Tone 1. Heartometer - Area Under Curve , 2V Heartometer - S y s t o l i c Amplitude S i t t i n g 3. Heartometer - D i a s t o l i c Amplitude S i t t i n g 4.. Heartometer - O b l i q u i t y Angle 5. Heartometer - Rest/Work R a t i o 6 . Heartometer - Pulse Rate Component I I Splanchnic Tone Heartometer - S y s t o l i c Amplitude Standing Component IV Component V - 104 -C i r c u l a t o r y Adjustment to Hard A t h l e t i c Work 1. Heartometer - S y s t o l i c Amplitude A f t e r E x e r c i s e 2. 600 Yard Run-Walk Recovery A f t e r A Hard Work Task F i v e Minute Step Test B Motor F i t n e s s Items Component I A g i l i t y I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y Run Component I I Speed 50 Yard Dash Component I I I Power Standing.Broad Jump Component IV F l e x i b i l i t y 1. Cureton Shoulder F l e x i b i l i t y 2. Cureton Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Backward 3. Cureton Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Forward Component V Dynamic Strength and Muscular Endurance 1. Chins 2. Dips Component VI S t a t i c Strength 1.. Right Hand G r i p - Dynamometer 2. L e f t Hand G r i p - Dynamometer 3. ' Back L i f t - Dynamometer 4« Leg L i f t - Dynamometer - 105 -General S t a t i s t i c a l O u t l i n e The f o l l o w i n g c a l c u l a t i o n s were made. (1) The s i g n i f i c a n c e of d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance of the experimental group on the i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t s . (2) Comparison of the t e s t sample w i t h the 1962 U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia AMEER F i t n e s s Test Sample w i t h respect t o he i g h t , weight and per-formance i n chin n i n g , standing broad jumpj 50 yard dash and 600 y a r d run-walk. Procedure and Formulae (1) S i g n i f i c a n c e of d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance of group on i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t s . D i f f e r e n c e Method ( G a r r e t t , 1, p. 227) % - Mean of d i f f e r e n c e between i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t s SDj) - Standard D e v i a t i o n of d i f f e r e n c e s S E D - Standard E r r o r of mean of d i f f e r e n c e s > MD-0. t - 1 (Acceptable at the 5 per cent l e v e l S E M D of confidence) df - Degrees of freedom N-1 - Number i n sample minus one (2) Determination o f whether sample s e l e c t e d could be considered r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of male freshmen students e n r o l l e d i n the Required P h y s i c a l Education Programme at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, E s t i m a t i o n of sampling e r r o r i n order t o t e s t p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between means cou l d have a r i s e n s o l e l y from random e r r o r s of sampling. Standard D e v i a t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n (U.B.C. AAHPER F i t n e s s Test - 1962) sample was known. (Walker and Lev, 2, pp. 144-145) /V (Mp - %) Z = . - 106 -Mp - Pop u l a t i o n (U.B.C. AAHPER) mean Mg - Experimental sample mean SDp - Standard D e v i a t i o n of po p u l a t i o n % - Number i n experimental sample Z - Z score obtained f o r v a r i a b l e a - area o u t s i d e two or d i n a t e s of Z ( p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t d i f f e r e n c e between means could have occurred due t o chance) a acceptable at minimum of 0.05 f o r accepting n u l l h y p o thesis. APPENDIX B TIME TABLE FOR PROCEDURE 1. Class Day 1 - Sample s e l e c t i o n . 2. Class Day 2 - A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Group I t e s t items t o e n t i r e group. Group I items: Chins Standing Broad Jump 50 Yard Dash 600 Yard Run-Walk 3. Week of Class 2 - A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Group I I , I I I and IV t e s t items during three i n d i v i d u a l appointments. Appointment 1 - Group I I items: Heartometer Dips Cureton F l e x i b i l i t y (a) Shoulder (b) Trunk Backward (c) Trunk Forward I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y Run Appointment 2 - Group I I I items: Dynamometrical Strength • (a) Hand G r i p - Right L e f t (b) Back L i f t Cc) Leg L i f t Appointment 3 - Group IV item: F i v e Minute Step Test 4. Class Days 4 to 20 - P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n i n g Glass. 5. C l a s s Day 21 - A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Group I items. 6. Week of Class 22 - A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Groups I I , I I I and IV t e s t items i n the same manner as i n i n i t i a l t e s t . APPENDIX C INDIVIDUAL SCORE SHEET Name: Address: Telephone: I n i t i a l Chins Standing Broad Jump ( i n s , ) 50 Yard Dash (sees.) . ' • 600 Yard Run-Walk (sees.) • Heartometer F l e x i b i l i t y ( i n s . ) Shoulder -Trunk Backward . Trunk Forward -;  Dips . I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y Run. (sees.) ____ Dynamometric Strength (lbs.,) Right G r i p ...' -L e f t G r i p , _ Back L i f t Leg, L i f t . F i v e Minute Step Test (pulse beats) APPENDIX D PHYSICAL'EDUCATION REQUIRED PROGRAMME 1 Health - Habit Questionnaire Name: Address: ... Phone: P.E. Course: . Main F i e l d of Study: _ Age: • Height: f t . i n . Weight: lbs.. I n s t r u c t i o n s : Please answer as c a r e f u l l y and as a c c u r a t e l y as you can each of the f o l l o w i n g questions concerning your h e a l t h h a b i t s . You are asked f o r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n order t h a t we may more a c c u r a t e l y analyze the r e s u l t s o f your p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t e s t s . Your answers w i l l be kept c o n f i d e n t i a l . Section, A i s t o be completed and returned at the next c l a s s meeting. S e c t i o n B w i l l be completed at the time of the f i n a l t e s t i n g . S e c t i o n A: 1. Have you experienced any i l l n e s s s i n c e the term began? ( i n c l u d e severe c o l d s ) . ______ I f so l i s t : (a) How long . (b) •  • (c) . ; 2. - Do you smoke? • I f so, how much? C i g a r e t t e s Cigars • Pipe ___________ 3,. How many hours of sl e e p per nigh t on the average? What i s your u s u a l time of going t o bed? 4. Do you eat at home, residence h a l l , f r a t e r n i t y , cook f o r s e l f , c a f e t e r i a or r e s t a u r a n t ? I n d i c a t e which • 5. I f you have a part time job d u r i n g the term, i n d i c a t e how many hours per week. . ;  What are your hours of work? - 11© -6. Before t h i s term began were you doing any r e g u l a r vigorous e x e r c i s e or hard manual work? '  I f so, how many hours per day? (approximately) ~ 7. , Are you engaging i n any r e g u l a r p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e or a c t i v i t y o r hard manual work (other than t h i s c l a s s ) during t h i s term? I f so, how many hours per day? 8. Is th e r e anything i n your present mode of l i v i n g which i n your o p i n i o n might adversely or fav o u r a b l y i n f l u e n c e your p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s ? I f so, d i s c u s s : 9. When you s t a r t e d the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g c l a s s t h i s term d i d you consider y o u r s e l f t o be i n good f a i r . poor p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n as a r e s u l t of your summer a c t i v i t i e s ? S e c t i o n B: 1. Have you had a severe c o l d o r other i l l n e s s r e c e n t l y ? I f so, d e s c r i b e : 2. Has there been any recent change i n your mode of l i v i n g (smoking, s l e e p i n g , e a t i n g , working, e x e r c i s i n g , etc.) which might adversely o r b e n e f i c i e n t l y a f f e c t your s t a t e of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s ? I f so, d e s c r i b e : - I l l KEY TO APPENDICES E t o H E-F C a r d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n Items 1. Area Under Curve 2. S y s t o l i c Amplitude S i t t i n g 3 . D i a s t o l i c Amplitude S i t t i n g 4. O b l i q u i t y Angle 5. Rest/Work R a t i o 6. Pulse Rate 7. S y s t o l i c Amplitude Standing S. S y s t o l i c , Amplitude A f t e r E x e r c i s e 9. 600 Yard Run-Walk 10. F i v e Minute Step Test G-H Motor F i t n e s s Items 1. I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y Run 2. 50 Yard Dash 3 . Standing Broad Jump 4. Cureton Shoulder F l e x i b i l i t y 5. Cureton.Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Backward 6. Cureton Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Forward 7. Chins 8. Dips 9 . Right Hand G r i p 10. L e f t Hand G r i p 11. • Back L i f t 12. , Leg L i f t APPENDIX E RAW SCORES FOR INITIAL TEST CARDIOVASCULAR CONDITION ITEMS Item Item Item Item 1 2 3 4 Subject sq.cms. cms. cms. degrees 1 4^2 1.73 .71 19.7 2 .32 1.14 .60 20.9 3 •44 1.40 .60 20.5 4 .09 .69 i05 24.5 5 .35 1.36 .69 19.2 6 .42 1.61 .74 20.5 7 .26 .92 .45 22.6 8 .28 1,34 .54 19,7 9 .35 1.25 .49 21.2 10 *39 ;84 .37 24.7 11 .24 1.07 ,36 20.6 12 ,23 .63 ,35 21.5 13 ,41 1.04 .49 23 i2 14 .20 1.01 ,25 23.0 15 .27 .98 .46 23.2 Mean .311 1.147 .476 21.693 Item 5 2.45 1.91 2.72 ,35 2.06 2.54 1.21 1.66 2.90 1.04 1.63 1.56 1.53 1.33 1.36 i:799 Item 6.. /min. 74 71 61 112 66 63 67 74 69 61 67 61 70 92 93 Item 7 cms. 1.01 1.01 1.03 .55 1.04 l $ 1.04 ,90 .72 •77 .65 .79 .67 .64 Item Item Item 6. 9 10 cms. sees. no. 1.34 95 179 .61 105 167 1.01 96 166 .57 172 223 1.31 116 162 1*53 110 195 ,94 103 224 1.36 106 194 1.25 99 157 .66 106 206 ,63 115 203 .67 105 193 1.70 100 190 1.21 102 166 .79 104 219 77,40 .626 1.093 109^26 193,7 APPENDIX F RAW SCORES FOR FINAL TEST CARDIOVASCULAR CONDITION ITEMS Item ,1 Subject sq.cms. 1 .38 2 .34 3 .40 4 .23 5 .39 6 .40 7 .38 8 .28 9 .37 10 .39 11 .29 12 .30 13 .38 14 .32 15 .34 Mean .346 Item Item Item Item 2 3 4 5 cms. cms. degrees 1.54 " .63 19.0 . 2.65 1.16 .54 21.2 2.55 1.26 .51 20.0 2.22 .88 .31 22.5 1.38 1.12 .64 23.0 •2.78 1.13 .59 20.9 2.27 1.10 .63 20.8 1.75 1.18 .53 19.8 2.50 1.19 .62 21.5 3.33 .93 .57 21.0 3.20 ; .98 .36 21.3 2.19 .81 . .46 23.2 1.91 1.08 .52 22.7 1.87 .97 .52 23.2 2.03 1.04 .48 22.2 ; 2.26 1.091 .527 21.487 2.326 Item Item Item Item Item 6 7 8 9 10 /min. cms. cms. sees. no. 62 1.16 1.21 90 1Z? 71 • .86 • 1.05 99 186 68 .91 1.43 94 195 91 .65 .74 131 209 62 .89 1.60 110 181 69 .93 , 1.18 120 178 76 .61 .9? 103 191 77 1.05 1.06 103 170 69 .90 1.64 91 172 56 ; 1.19 1.34 104 173 65 .65 -.97 106 201 72 .65 .90 101 182 63 .94 1.66 97 173 63 .76 .92 102 181 73 .83 .87 105 194 69.13 .865 1.171 103.73 183-9 APPENDIX G RAW SCORES FOR INITIAL TEST MOTOR FITNESS ITEMS Item Item Item Item Item 1 2 3 4 5 Subject sees. sees. i n s . i n s . i n s . 1 19.3 6.5 97.5 6.6 9.3 2 17.4 7.2 89.0 8.3 13.6 3 17.9 6.5 96.0 11.7 18.1 4 21.4 7,7 77.5 10.8 20.6 5 18.0 6.5 83.0 6.9 14.8 6 19.2 6.6 81.0 20.2 19.0 7 19.5 6.5 92.5 7.0 15.8 8 18.5 7.0 85.0 5.8 19.4 9 18.5 6.4 93.0 6.9 14.7 10 18.6 6.8 85.5 §•5 15.9 11 18.1 7.0 79.P 8.7 20.8 12 17.4 6.6 89.0 14.6 22.7 13 19.3 6.8 87.0 3.7 17.0 14 17.4 7,1 83.0 14.0 20.1 15 19.4 6.9 78.0 12.0 16.2 Mean 18.66 6.81 86.40 9.58 17,2C Item Item Item Item Item Item Item 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 i n s . no. no. l b s . l b s . l b s . l b s . 12.8 7 16 140 120 387 555 12.7 6 13 120 116 380 465 13.7 2 4 145 102 375 465 8.2 0 0 110 81 260 450 7.7 8 12 130 126 395 440 6.1 11 17 139 1 5 i 341 420 12.2 6 13 124 118 351 511 11.7 14 18 99 9ifc 390 701 12.1 9 7 122 118 372 550 10.6 6 10 79 78 293 363 16.1 3 1 99 80 325 365 14.9 7 16 120 95 360 601 18.7 2 6 115 108 335 530 9.3 6 6 132 120 320 312 12.0 3 2 110 104 231 320 12.05 6.00 9.40 118:93 107^ 40 341.00 469. i c APPENDIX H RAW SCORES FOR FINAL TEST MOTOR FITNESS ITEMS Subject 1 2 3 4 I 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Mean Item 1 sees. 18.5 17.0 17.7 20.6 18.6 18.6 19,4 18.0 18.4 17.4 18.2 17.6 19.0 17.8 19.3 18.41 Item Item Item Item 2 3 4„ 5.. sees. ins. ins. ins. 6.4 95.5 10.0 14,3 6.8 92.0 10.8 12.2 6.6 96.0 15.4 17,5 7-3 76.5 11.6 19.0 6.6 92.0 7.0 15.0 6.6 79.0 26.8 21.1 6.4 96.5 9.0 14.6 6.7 88.0 6,5 18.1 6.4 99.0 11.9 14,5 6.6 88.0 7.6 16.2 6.9 06.5 9.2 19.5 6.6 87; 5 24.2 20.2 6.8 89.5 8.2 17.2 7.1 90.0 15.1 24.2 6.6 76.5 12.6 15^ 5 6.69 88.83 12.39 17.2^ Item Item Item Item Item Item Item 6 7, 8. 9. 10 11 12 ins. no. no. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. 10.9 9 13 134 129 410 535 9.2 8 17 130 120 323 601 8.5 3 7 120 119 320 522 7.0 0 1 120 117 325 355 8.3 7 12 123 118 365 590 6.1 11 16 147 152 350 530 12.6 6 12 130 128 387 632 11.6 14 30 120 105 398 670 14.8 7 8 124 138 340 535 9.2 8 13 110 107 375 451 17.6 2 4 ,v 99 104 32t 435 13.0 8 18 118 100 368 675 17.2 2 8 130 110 371 510 10.6 7 12 136 111 322 440 13.5 3 2 100 107 260 320 11.34 6.33 11.53 122.73 117.67 349.20 520.07 - 116 -Garrett, H.-E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education. New York, Longmans Green, 1958, pp. 227-228. Walker, H.M.., Lev. J.,, S t a t i s t i c a l Inference. New York, Henry Holt, 1953, PP« 144-145. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0077207/manifest

Comment

Related Items