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The effect of physical conditioning on the motor fitness and cardiovascular condition of college freshmen. Scott, Harvey Alexander 1964

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THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL CONDITIONING ON.THE MOTOR FITNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR CONDITION"OF COLLEGE FRESHMEN  by  HARVEY ALEXANDER SCOTT B.A. U n i v e r s i t y o f Western O n t a r i o , 1962  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF-PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n t h e School of PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d standard  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1964  In presenting the  requirements  British  for  Columbia,  available mission  for  for  I  agree  reference  extensive  representatives.  cation  of t h i s  thesis  thesis  that  the  and s t u d y .  I  c o p y i n g of t h i s by the  It for  is  of  .  ^  !»  understood  further thesis  agree for  freely  that  per-  scholarly or by  t h a t , c o p y i n g or  f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not  Physical Education  1964.  the U n i v e r s i t y o f  Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Date  at  f u l f i l m e n t of  L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t  w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n * ,  Department  in partial  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d his  this  publi-  be a l l o w e d  ABSTRACT The  purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was  to evaluate  the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a twice-weekly t h i r t y - m i n u t e conditioning  1  'physical  c l a s s i n i m p r o v i n g the C a r d i o v a s c u l a r  and Motor F i t n e s s o f male c o l l e g e freshmen a t t h e of B r i t i s h Columbia.  I t was  hypothesized that  Condition University  selected  measurements of t h e p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s o f t h e sample would be improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y by t h e programme. F i f t e e n s u b j e c t s , s e l e c t e d randomly f r o m a l a r g e r number i n t h e c o n d i t i o n i n g c l a s s , were given, a f i t n e s s t e s t b a t t e r y p r i o r t o and programme.  The  a t t h e end o f t h e e i g h t week c o n d i t i o n i n g  g a i n s i n f i t n e s s measured were e v a l u a t e d  terms of s t a t i s t i c a l  in  s i g n i f i c a n c e and. i n terms o f s t a n d a r d  s c o r e s p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r normal young c o l l e g e  men.  A s t a t i s t i c a l c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group a l a r g e sample o f f i r s t y e a r s t u d e n t s t e s t e d i n 1962  and  was  made f o r t h e v a r i a b l e s h e i g h t , w e i g h t and motor performance. The  two  groups were f o u n d t o be s u f f i c i e n t l y a l i k e t o  c o n s i d e r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group as r e a s o n a b l y  representative  o f male c o l l e g e freshmen e n r o l l e d i n t h e R e q u i r e d Programme at the  University.  I n a l m o s t a l l of t h e v a r i a b l e s s t u d i e d , two-thirds  approximately  o f t h e s u b j e c t s showed changes w h i c h were i n t h e  d i r e c t i o n of increased  physical fitness.  A l l but one  of  the  twenty-two v a r i a b l e s used showed s m a l l mean changes i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of i n c r e a s e d  p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s although only  t w e l v e o f t h e s e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  Most o f t h e  mean g a i n s were t o o s m a l l t o be c o n s i d e r e d b i o l o g i c a l l y o r practically  important.  In t h e c a r d i o v a s c u l a r items, s e v e r a l subjects w i t h r e l a t i v e l y h i g h s c o r e s on t h e i r f i r s t t e s t s had l o w e r s c o r e s when t h e y were r e t e s t e d and s e v e r a l s u b j e c t s who had r e l a t i v e l y l o w s c o r e s on t h e i r f i r s t t e s t had h i g h e r s c o r e s when t h e y were r e t e s t e d .  Most o f t h e o t h e r s u b j e c t s i n -  c r e a s e d some o f t h e i r s c o r e s s l i g h t l y when t h e y were r e t e s t e d b u t a l s o some o f t h e i r s c o r e s d e c r e a s e d The f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s were made.  slightly.  F o r improvement  o f C a r d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n , t h e t r a i n i n g programme was t o o easy f o r t h e i n i t i a l l y f i t s t u d e n t s , r e a s o n a b l y adequate f o r t h e i n i t i a l l y u n f i t s t u d e n t s and o n l y s l i g h t s t i m u l u s f o r the majority.  F o r improvement of. Motor F i t n e s s t h e  t r a i n i n g programme was n o t s u f f i c i e n t e i t h e r i n d u r a t i o n or i n t e n s i t y  ( o r both) t o produce p r a c t i c a l o r b i o l o g i c a l l y  i m p o r t a n t changes.  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER  PAGE  I  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ..................  1  II  JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM  5  III  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  8  IV  METHODS AND PROCEDURE  V  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ......  53  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..  93  ,VI  ...  BIBLIOGRAPHY  40  .  98  APPENDICES A.  STATISTICAL TREATMENT ....  103  , B.  TIME TABLE FOR PROCEDURE  107  G.  INDIVIDUAL SCORE SHEET  ...  108  D.  HEALTH - HABIT QUESTIONNAIRE  109  E.  RAW SCORES FOR INITIAL TEST CARDIOVASCULAR CONDITION ITEMS  112  F.  RAW SCORES FOR FINAL TEST CARDIOVASCULAR CONDITION ITEMS  113  . G.  RAW SCORES FOR INITIAL TEST MOTOR FITNESS ITEMS". 114  H.  RAW SCORES.FOR FINAL TEST MOTOR FITNESS ITEMS .. -115  L I S T OF TABLES 1 2 3 4 5 o  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f D i f f e r e n c e Between Sample and P o p u l a t i o n Means ...... R e l i a b i l i t y o f Mean Gains i n H a b i t u a l Autonomic Tone S t a n d a r d Scores f o r H a b i t u a l Autonomic Tone Items .... ....... C a r d i o v a s c u l a r Component I - I n c r e a s e s , No Changes and R e g r e s s i o n s R e l i a b i l i t y o f Mean Gains i n S p l a n c h n i c Tone ... C a r d i o v a s c u l a r Component I I - I n c r e a s e s , No Changes and R e g r e s s i o n s  54 59 60 60 64 64  LIST OF TABLES (Cont'd) 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 v  27 2# 29 30  R e l i a b i l i t y o f Mean Gains i n C i r c u l a t o r y Adjustment t o Hard A t h l e t i c Work S t a n d a r d S c o r e s f o r 600 Y a r d Run-Walk C a r d i o v a s c u l a r Component I V - I n c r e a s e s , No Changes and R e g r e s s i o n s R e l i a b i l i t y o f Mean Gains i n F i v e Minute S t e p T e s t - Sum o f 3 Recovery Counts S t a n d a r d S c o r e s f o r F i v e Minute Step T e s t C a r d i o v a s c u l a r Component V - I n c r e a s e s , No Changes and R e g r e s s i o n s R e l i a b i l i t y o f Mean Gains i n t h e A g i l i t y Item .... S t a n d a r d S c o r e s f o r t h e A g i l i t y Item ............. Motor F i t n e s s Component I - I n c r e a s e s , No Changes and R e g r e s s i o n s R e l i a b i l i t y o f Mean Gains i n t h e Speed Item ...... S t a n d a r d S c o r e s f o r t h e Speed Item Motor F i t n e s s Component I I - I n c r e a s e s , No Changes and R e g r e s s i o n s R e l i a b i l i t y o f Mean Gains i n t h e Power Item ....... S t a n d a r d S c o r e s f o r t h e Power Item Motor F i t n e s s Component I I I - I n c r e a s e s , No Changes and R e g r e s s i o n s R e l i a b i l i t y of Mean Gains i n t h e F l e x i b i l i t y Items S t a n d a r d S c o r e s f o r t h e F l e x i b i l i t y Items Motor F i t n e s s Component IV - I n c r e a s e s , No Changes and R e g r e s s i o n s R e l i a b i l i t y o f Mean Gains i n t h e Dynamic S t r e n g t h and M u s c u l a r Endurance Items • S t a n d a r d Scores f o r t h e Dynamic S t r e n g t h and M u s c u l a r Endurance Items Motor F i t n e s s Component V - I n c r e a s e s , No Changes and R e g r e s s i o n s R e l i a b i l i t y o f Mean Gains i n t h e S t a t i c S t r e n g t h Items S t a n d a r d S c o r e s f o r t h e S t a t i c S t r e n g t h Items .... Motor F i t n e s s Component V I - I n c r e a s e s , No Changes and R e g r e s s i o n s  PAGE 65 65 66 68 68 69 72 72 73 74 74 75 75 76 76 77 78 78 80 80 Si 82 83 S3  CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM One o f the main o b j e c t i v e s o f the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme i s t h e development o f a s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s i n t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s (1)^  In order t o  s a t i s f y the objective of physical f i t n e s s i t i s the p o l i c y o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia t i o n s t o i n c l u d e compulsory activity*  and many o t h e r i n s t i t u -  participation i n a *fitness-  i n t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n requirement. , ' P h y s i c a l  conditioning*  i s one o f s e v e r a l ' f i t n e s s - a c t i v i t i e s *  offered  at the U n i v e r s i t y . Problem:  The problem  i s t o e v a l u a t e t h e degree t o which  a p a r t i c u l a r »physical c o n d i t i o n i n g *  programme i s s u c c e s s f u l  i n improving c e r t a i n measures of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . c a l l y , t h e purpose  i s twofold^  Specifi-  F i r s t l y , t h e study i s designed  t o measure i n i t i a l l e v e l s o f f i t n e s s o f t h e sample and t o r e l a t e t h e s e l e v e l s t o those o f a l a r g e number o f normal c o l l e g e menl  Secondly, t h e study i s designed t o determine  the changes i n p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s made d u r i n g t h e ' c o n d i t i o n i n g * programme and t o e v a l u a t e these changes i n terms o f standard s c a l e s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r l a r g e samples a t o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s . Hypothesis:  I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t s e l e c t e d measure-  ments o f t h e p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s o f the sample w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y by t h e ' p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g *  improved  programme.  Delimitations:  The s t u d y i s d e l i m i t e d t o f i f t e e n male  c o l l e g e freshmen e n r o l l e d i n t h e r e q u i r e d programme a t University.'  The  s u b j e c t s , s e l e c t e d randomly f r o m a c l a s s o f  f o r t y - f i v e , had chosen ' p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g number o f ' f i t n e s s - a c t i v i t i e s ' The  1  from a l i m i t e d  offered.  programme c o n s i s t e d of e i g h t weeks o f t w i c e - w e e k l y ,  t h i r t y - m i n u t e p e r i o d s of c o n d i t i o n i n g e x e r c i s e s and games. was  the  The  s e l e c t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s and  i n t e n s i t y of  active activity  e n t i r e l y t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h e student i n s t r u c t o r -  a customary arrangement o f c l a s s e s o f t h i s k i n d i n t h e r e q u i r e d programme at the, U n i v e r s i t y . D e f i n i t i o n s and  Assumptions :  Physical f i t n e s s i s defined  a s , " t h e n a t u r e and degree o f a d j u s t m e n t ( o r a d a p t a t i o n ) a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r i n g muscular e f f o r t . " ( 2 ) .  I t i s assumed  t h a t p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , a p a r t o f the t o t a l f i t n e s s , may comprehensively appraised  in  be  by m e a s u r i n g i n d i v i d u a l s ' motor  f i t n e s s and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n . Motor f i t n e s s may  be d e f i n e d a s , "A l i m i t e d phase o f  motor a b i l i t y w h i c h emphasizes c a p a c i t y f o r v i g o r o u s work or a t h l e t i c e f f o r t . " (3).  Cardiovascular  condition i s the  e f f i c i e n c y w i t h w h i c h t h e h e a r t and b l o o d v e s s e l s move t h e blood  around t h e body. I t i s assumed t h a t motor f i t n e s s may  be  evaluated  a d e q u a t e l y by v a l i d t e s t s o f t h e f a c t o r s - a g i l i t y ,  speed,  power, f l e x i b i l i t y , m u s c u l a r endurance, dynamic and s t a t i c  strength  strength.  Cardiovascular  c o n d i t i o n may  be a d e q u a t e l y measured by  v a r i a b l e s subsumed under f o u r o f i t s main components H a b i t u a l Autonomic Tone i n t h e Q u i e t S t a t e , S p l a n c h n i c  Tone,  C i r c u l a t o r y Adjustment t o Hard A t h l e t i c Work D u r i n g t h e Time of t h e Work, and  P u l s e Rate Recovery A f t e r a Hard Work  Task. ( 5 ) . I t i s assumed t h a t t h e t e n t e s t i t e m s i n t h e motor f i t n e s s - c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n t e s t b a t t e r y are  valid  and r e l i a b l e c r i t e r i a o f t h e s e b a s i c components o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and t h a t a r e a s o n a b l y comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s i s p r e s e n t e d by t h e s e t e s t s . Limitations:  The  s t u d y i s l i m i t e d by s e v e r a l f a c t o r s .  P s y c h o l o g i c a l a p p r e h e n s i o n had readings  o f a few  The  the  s u b j e c t s on t h e Cameron Heartometer -  B r a c h i a l Sphygmograph, c a u s i n g results.  a n o t i c e a b l e e f f e c t on  s l i g h t u n r e l i a b i l i t y of  t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s had had l i t t l e  e x p e r i e n c e i n Dynamometrical S t r e n g t h t e s t i n g . e n v i r o n m e n t a l and p e r s o n a l - h a b i t  previous The  variables (rest, nutrition,  d i s e a s e and a c t i v i t y . ) were not  c o n t r o l l e d . . Changes i n t h e s e  f a c t o r s during the experimental  p e r i o d were, however, t a k e n  i n t o account i n e v a l u a t i n g the progress of the  subjects.  REFERENCES Bucher, C.A.. .' Foundations of Physical Education. St. Louis, C.V. Mosby, 1950, p. 2b. Larson, L.A.j Yocum, R.D., Measurement and Evaluation i n Physical Health and Recreation Education. St. Louis, C.V. Mosby, 1951, p. 156. Cureton, T.K., "An Inventory and Screen Test of Motor Fitness f o r High School and College Men , Physical Educator. January, 1943. n  :  Cureton, T.K., "The Nature of Cardiovascular Condition i n Man, ' Journal of the American Medical Association, vol.' 17 (November, 1956), pp. 139-155. 1  Loc. c i t .  CHAPTER I I JUSTIFICATION OF THE  PROBLEM  The wide a c c e p t a n c e o f r e q u i r e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a i s based on t h e p r i n c i p l e that s a t i s f a c t i o n of physical education objectives i s a valuable  complement t o academic e d u c a t i o n .  In order t o  j u s t i f y t h i s p o s i t i o n i t i s important that p h y s i c a l educators have a v a i l a b l e o b j e c t i v e d a t a t o show t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p r o g r e s s made i n s a t i s f y i n g t h e s e aims. One  of t h e main o b j e c t i v e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s t h a t  of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s .  Administrators  emphasize t h i s aim  by  i n c l u d i n g compulsory p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a  'fitness-activity'  i n the p h y s i c a l education requirement.  I t i s important t o  know t h e degree t o w h i c h ' f i t n e s s - a c t i v i t i e s ' such as ' p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g ' are s u c c e s s f u l i n meeting the ness o b j e c t i v e . and  V e r y l i t t l e i s known r e g a r d i n g  the  fitduration  i n t e n s i t i e s o f e x e r c i s e n e c e s s a r y t o promote c o n s i s t e n t  progress i n f i t n e s s . E x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s have been done u s i n g  conditioning  c l a s s e s b o t h a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia and  at  o t h e r u n i v e r s i t i e s . S t u d i e s done on t h i s a c t i v i t y a t o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s have shown b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s o f d e g r e e s . (1,2,3K  varying  At t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  s t u d i e s done by Johnson and Kubeck (4),  and  Bannister  i l l u s t r a t e the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s of ' c o n d i t i o n i n g  (5)f  classes'.  -  6  -  However, i n g e n e r a l , t h e s e s t u d i e s have examined t h e  effect  o f t h e s e programmes on a v e r y l i m i t e d number o f parameters of f i t n e s s . There e x i s t s a d e f i n i t e need t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s o f Canadian s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia by u s i n g a broad b a t t e r y o f t e s t s and  to  evaluate the e f f e c t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the r e q u i r e d programme c l a s s e s on p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s .  Since ' p h y s i c a l  c o n d i t i o n i n g * i s one o f t h e more v i g o r o u s a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h s h o u l d have marked b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s on t h e f i t n e s s o f freshmen s t u d e n t s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o know what e f f e c t s can a c t u a l l y be o b t a i n e d and t h e e x t e n t o f t h e s e  effects.  I n v i e w o f t h e l a c k o f comprehensive o b j e c t i v e e v i d e n c e o f t h i s k i n d , i t would seem w o r t h w h i l e of t h i s nature.  The  t o conduct a  study  i n f o r m a t i o n obtained from t h i s  study  w i l l s e r v e as a b a s i s f o r r e p l a n n i n g f u t u r e programmes w i t h r e s p e c t t o such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as d u r a t i o n , and  intensity  o f e x e r c i s e , and s p e c i f i c a r e a s of weakness i n t h e p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s o f freshmen a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y .  REFERENCES' K i s t l e r , J . j A Study o f t h e R e s u l t s o f E i g h t Weeks o f Participation i n a University Physical Fitness Program f o r Men," Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 15, (March, 1944), p. 23. M  J o r d a n , C.S., "A Comparative Study o f t h e P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s o f a Group o f Boys f r o m S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e School P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Regular P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Program W i t h Another Group P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n A d d i t i o n a l Conditioning A c t i v i t i e s , " Unpublished G r a d u a t i n g E s s a y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963. L a n d i s s , C.W., "Influence of P h y s i c a l Education A c t i v i t i e s on Motor A b i l i t y and P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s o f Male Freshmen," R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 26 ( O c t o b e r , 1955), pp. ^ - W . Johnson, G.C.y Kubeck. E.P.. "A Comparison o f t h e E f f e c t s o f C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g , Weight T r a i n i n g ! and P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n i n g upon T o t a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s as Measured by M u s c u l a r S t r e n g t h and M u s c u l a r Endurance," U n p u b l i s h e d G r a d u a t i n g E s s a y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962. B a n n i s t e r , E.W.. "The R e l a t i v e E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f I n t e r v a l C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g Compared w i t h Three Other Methods o f F i t n e s s T r a i n i n g i n a S c h o o l P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Program," Unpublished M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I960.  CHAPTER I I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE A l t h o u g h t h e r e appear t o be many c o n f l i c t i n g o p i n i o n s as t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , " a c t u a l l y , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s b a s i c a l l y agree on o b j e c t i v e s even though as a u t h o r s t h e y may  s t a t e them i n somewhat d i f f e r e n t f o r m s . " (!.)•  , B r o w n e l l and Hagman (2) l i s t t h e o b j e c t i v e s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner: 1. 2. 3.  Physical f i t n e s s S o c i a l and motor s k i l l s Knowledges and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s  4.  Habits,  a t t i t u d e s , and  appreciations  Cowell andiHazelton, (3) f e e l that the o b j e c t i v e s i n order of importance a r e : 1. Organic power, t h e a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n adaptive e f f o r t • • • 2. Neuromuscular development . . . 3 . P e r s o n a l - s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s and adjustment ., • ... 4» I n t e r p r e t i v e and i n t e l l e c t u a l development . . • 5. E m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s i v e n e s s • . _. Physical Fitness:  Most p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s p l a c e t h e  o b j e c t i v e o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s at or near t h e t o p of t h e i r l i s t s . , T h i s p o i n t i s made by S h r e c k e r ( 4 ) who "Physical f i t n e s s , therefore,  feels,  s h o u l d be acknowledged as t h e  permanent aim o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n  ..."  P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s as a c l e a r c o n c i s e concept i s somewhat d i f f i c u l t to define.  C u r e t o n (5) s t a t e s :  P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s i s one phase o f t o t a l f i t n e s s . I t does not i n c l u d e a l l o f t h e a s p e c t s o f e m o t i o n a l fitness, or s o c i a l fitness . . . P h y s i c a l fitness i s  r e l a t e d t o t h e s e other phases o f f i t n e s s i n a d d i t i o n t o being important f o r i t s e l f . • . P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s means a great d e a l more t h a n freedom from s i c k n e s s o r passing a medical i n s p e c t i o n . . • p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s means a b i l i t y t o handle t h e body w e l l and t h e c a p a c i t y t o work hard over a l o n g p e r i o d o f time w i t h o u t diminished e f f i c i e n c y . In o r d e r t o a s c e r t a i n how t h e l e a d i n g a u t h o r i t i e s i n m e d i c i n e as w e l l as p h y s i c a l . e d u c a t i o n f i t n e s s Mathews (6) analyzed during a sixteen year period.  defined  physical  a number o f d e f i n i t i o n s made In r e v e a l i n g h i s f i n d i n g s he  states: T h i s a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e term " f i t n e s s " was most g e n e r a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d i n i t s broadest concept, t h a t o f t o t a l f i t n e s s , and i n c l u d e s t h e f o l l o w i n g f o u r components: 1.  Psychological f i t n e s s : (a) The emotional s t a b i l i t y n e c e s s a r y t o meet everyday problems c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f o n e s environment, and (b) S u f f i c i e n t psychological reserve t o handle a sudden emotional trauma. 1  2.  H e a l t h , o r normal p h y s i o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n  3»  Body mechanics, o r e f f i c i e n t performance i n s k i l l s from t h e common everyday s k i l l s o f s t a n d i n g , w a l k i n g and s i t t i n g t o t h e most complex . . .  4.  P h y s i c a l anthropometry, a t y p e o f f i t n e s s r e f l e c t e d i n body contour as a r e s u l t o f good muscular tones as w e l l as proper body weight.  In c o n t r a s t t o t h i s broad concept o f t o t a l p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s K a r p o v i c h (7)  f e e l s t h a t f i t n e s s i s very  specific  t o t h e t a s k a t hand. . Confusion regarding the d e f i n i t i o n o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s stems from an understandable d e s i r e t o make a d e f i n i t i o n a p p l y t o e v e r y t h i n g under t h e sun . . .  -  10  S t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s means t h a t a p e r s o n p o s s e s s i n g i t meets c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l r e q u i r e ments. These r e q u i r e m e n t s may be a n a t o m i c a l ( s t r u c t u r a l ) or p h y s i o l o g i c a l ( f u n c t i o n a l ) , or b o t h . . . P h y s i o l o g i c a l f i t n e s s may r e q u i r e a p e r s o n t o be a b l e . . . t o p e r f o r m s p e c i f i c p h y s i c a l t a s k s i n v o l v i n g muscular e f f o r t . A compromise o f b o t h t h e ' t o t a l  1  and s p e c i f i c p o i n t s o f  v i e w i s p r e s e n t e d by L a r s o n and Yocum (8) who  state that  p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s may be d e f i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner: The n a t u r e and degree o f a d j u s t m e n t ( o r adaptation) i n a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r i n g muscular e f f o r t . A l l a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e muscular e f f o r t ; t h e r e f o r e physical fitness includes a l l l i f e a c t i v i t i e s . The amount o f e f f o r t , however, v a r i e s f r o m s l i g h t demands ( d a r t t h r o w i n g ) t o demands w h i c h a r e g r e a t (marathon r u n n i n g ) . The ' n a t u r e o f t h e adjustment r e f e r s t o the ease o r s t r a i n w i t h w h i c h t h e adjustment i s made. The 'degree' o f adjustment r e f e r s t o t h e f a c t t h a t adjustment i s c o n t i n u o u s and not dichotomous. 'Adjustment' o r a d a p t a t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t a t u s and t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f l i f e a c t i v i t i e s , w h a t e v e r t h e y might be. 1  The n a t u r e and degree o f adjustment made by the i n d i v i d u a l i n l i f e a c t i v i t i e s i s d e t e r m i n e d by the i n d i v i d u a l ' s m o r p h o l o g i c , p s y c h o l o g i c , and physiologic characteristics. The d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d w i t h d e f i n i n g p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s are of  a l s o m a n i f e s t i n a t t e m p t i n g t o i s o l a t e t h e component p a r t s it.  In order to accomplish t h i s separation of f i t n e s s  components, s e v e r a l assumptions o r promises must be made r e g a r d i n g t h e n a t u r e and scope o f t h e f i t n e s s  involved.  , L a r s o n and Yocum s t a t e : P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s i s one phase o f t o t a l f i t n e s s ^ and may be used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y w i t h motor f i t n e s s . Other phases o f t o t a l f i t n e s s i n c l u d e s o c i a l , " e m o t i o n a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l components . . . The d e f i n i t i o n (of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s ) i s of l i t t l e value  - 11 u n l e s s t h e composition o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s i s known. These components have been l i s t e d , i n numerous papers,' a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the war p e r i o d (1941-1945)• The i s t i n g s are l a r g e l y e m p i r i c a l ; however, t h e y are supported by enough evidence t o y i e l d a r a t h e r f i r m experimental b a s i s f o r t h e i r s c i e n t i f i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , F a c t o r a n a l y s i s s t u d i e s have a i d e d i n t h i s i d e n t ification. The components o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s are l i s t e d below:  P  1.  Resistance  to Disease  ...  2. Muscular Strength and Muscular Endurance: Muscular S t r e n g t h and Muscular Endurance r e f e r t o the a b i l i t y of, the i n d i v i d u a l t o continue s u c c e s s i v e e x e r t i o n s under c o n d i t i o n s where a l o a d i s p l a c e d on t h e muscle groups being used. A l l motor movements a r e made i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the number and i n t e n s i t y of c o n t r a c t i o n s . In t h i s i n s t a n c e ( c h i n n i n g f o r example), muscular s t r e n g t h becomes an important component o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , s i n c e t h e degree o f adjustment made i s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the amount and q u a l i t y of muscular t i s s u e . P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s i n terms of muscular s t r e n g t h r e q u i r e s : (a)  S u f f i c i e n t amount and q u a l i t y o f muscle f i b e r s . (b) A b i l i t y t o i n n e r v a t e the necessary number o f muscle f i b e r s . (c) E f f i c i e n t system o f i n t e r n a l and .. e x t e r n a l l e v e r a g e s . (d) A rhythm of, work i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the work l o a d . (e) A low i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e . ( f ) An e f f i c i e n t p a t t e r n of c o o r d i n a t i o n .  An i n d i v i d u a l who possesses a h i g h degree of a l l of t h e s e f a c t o r s w i l l be a b l e t o make any a d a p t a t i o n concerning muscular s t r e n g t h w i t h ease. 3. Endurance ( C a r d i o v a s c u l a r - R e s p i r a t o r y ) : C a r d i o v a s c u l a r - r e s p i r a t o r y endurance r e p r e s e n t s the a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l to s u s t a i n long-continued c o n t r a c t i o n s (submaslmum)where a number o f muscle groups are used, w i t h a s u f f i c i e n t d u r a t i o n and i n t e n s i t y t o put a demand on the f u n c t i o n s o f c i r c u l a t i o n and r e s p i r a t i o n . The e f f i c i e n c y o f the c a r d i o v a s c u l a r - r e s p i r a t o r y system i s an important component i n l i f e and i n p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s f o r two reasons: (1) muscles cannot c o n t i n u e t o c o n t r a c t  - 12 u n l e s s they a r e f u r n i s h e d w i t h f u e l and oxygen; and (2) f u e l and oxygen are c a r r i e d t o the muscle c e l l s by t h e c i r c u l a t o r y - r e s p i r a t o r y systems. The degree of a d a p t a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s of l o n g d u r a t i o n i s l a r g e l y due t o the degree of development of t h e s e systems, because the more h i g h l y developed c i r c u l a t o r y r e s p i r a t o r y systems y i e l d a b a s i s f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f muscular work (muscular c o n t r a c t i o n s ) . Mile r u n n e r s , f o r example, can c i r c u l a t e f o u r o r f i v e t i m e s more b l o o d per minute than the i n d i v i d u a l s who have had o n l y average t r a i n i n g . F i t n e s s , f o r endurance a c t i v i t i e s i s l a r g e l y determined by the r a t i o o f the amount o f b l o o d c i r c u l a t e d per minute t o t h e oxygen requirements o f t h e body . . . S u f f i c i e n t physiologic evidence i s a v a i l a b l e t o show t h a t the p h y s i c a l l y f i t i n d i v i d u a l , with respect to c i r c u l a t o r y - r e s p i r a t o r y endurance, has: (a)  A l a r g e r minute volume; t h e r e f o r e more f u e l and oxygen can be c a r r i e d t o muscle c e l l s and the removal of waste i s more adequate. (b) A slower p u l s e r a t e . T h i s g i v e s a d d i t i o n a l time f o r the v e n t r i c l e s t o r e l a x and f i l l . (c) Lower blood p r e s s u r e , which reduces the time when.pressures reach the physiologic l i m i t . (d) A l a r g e r s u r f a c e area i n the l u n g s . T h i s a l l o w s more oxygen t o be a s s i m i l a t e d by the b l o o d . (e) A l a r g e r number o f r e d c o r p u s c l e s and hemoglobin, which i n c r e a s e s the amount of oxygen brought t o the . tissues. ( f ) A g r e a t e r b u f f e r i n g c a p a c i t y of the blood, and muscle. T h i s d e l a y s fatigue. 4. Muscular Power: Muscular power i s the a b i l i t y to. r e l e a s e maximum f o r c e i n the s h o r t e s t period, o f t i m e . Power s Force x V e l o c i t y . Speed and f o r c e must, i n t h i s i n s t a n c e be combined f o r e f f e c t i v e performance • • • 5. Flexibility: The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n d i v i d u a l adjustments i n many p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s i s determined by t h e degree of t o t a l body o r s p e c i f i c j o i n t flexibility. Good f l e x i b i l i t y , or a wide range of movement, i s s i g n i f i c a n t p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y and mechanically ...  - 13  -  6, Speed: Speed i s t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o make s u c c e s s i v e movements o f t h e same k i n d i n t h e s h o r t e s t p e r i o d o f t i m e . Speed i s t h e number o f movements p e r u n i t o f time • • • 7. Agility: A g i l i t y i s the a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l t o change p o s i t i o n s i n space • • .'• 6V Coordination: Coordination i s the a b i l i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o i n t e g r a t e movements o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s i n t o one s i n g l e p a t t e r n . There a r e d i f f e r e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r each a c t i v i t y • • • 9» Balance: Balance i s t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o c o n t r o l o r g a n i c equipment n e u r o muscularly ... 10. A c c u r a c y : Accuracy i s the a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l t o c o n t r o l v o l u n t a r y movements toward an object ... A r e v i e w o f t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s s t u d i e s done up t o I 9 6 0 was made by, N i c k s and F l e i s h m a n  (9).  A number o f c o n s i s t e n t l y  d e f i n e d a r e a s were i d e n t i f i e d as f o l l o w s :  Strength  Areaf  F l e x i b i l i t y - S p e e d A r e a , Balance A r e a and Endurance A r e a . S t r e n g t h was  f o u n d t o be composed o f t h r e e  separate  factors. 1.  Explosive Strength:  T h i s f a c t o r appears t o emphasize  t h e a b i l i t y t o e x e r t maximum energy i n one e x p l o s i v e a c t . , I t has been c a l l e d Energy M o b i l i z a t i o n o r Power o r V e l o c i t y i n some s t u d i e s . 2.  Dynamic.Strength:  Dynamic S t r e n g t h seems t o i n v o l v e  t h e s t r e n g t h o f m u s c l e s i n t h e l i m b s i n moving o r s u p p o r t i n g t h e w e i g h t o f t h e body r e p e a t e d l y o v e r a g i v e n p e r i o d o f t i m e . 3. . S t a t i c S t r e n g t h :  T h i s f a c t o r i n v o l v e s an e x e r t i o n  o f a maximum f o r c e f o r a b r i e f p e r i o d o f t i m e a g a i n s t a f a i r l y immovable o b j e c t .  - 14 The F l e x i b i l i t y - S p e e d Area defined by Nicks and Fleishman seems t o be composed of a number of overlapping f a c t o r s .  Two  f l e x i b i l i t y factors were established; 'Extent F l e x i b i l i t y * which i s the a b i l i t y to move or stretch the body as f a r as possible, and*Dynamic F l e x i b i l i t y * which involves the a b i l i t y to make repeated f l e x i n g or stretching movements.  This type  of f l e x i b i l i t y i s involved i n such items as;Speed of Change of Direction (Agility),,Running Speed and Speed of. Limb Movement, The Balance, Area was found to be composed of three types of balance, namely, Static, Balance, Dynamic Balance, and Balancing Objects, Nicks and Fleishman found that the Coordination A r e a was composed of a number of i n t e r a c t i n g f a c t o r s such as Multiple Limb Coordination and Gross Body Coordination.  Gross Body  Coordination may be same f a c t o r otherwise known as> ' A g i l i t y ' , The. Endurance Area was found t o be highly correlated with the strength f a c t o r s , Cureton (10) contends that physical f i t n e s s may divided into three main components.  be  He states:  Three p r i n c i p a l approaches f o r objective t e s t i n g of physical f i t n e s s (apart from diagnosis of disease) are: . ,' 1, Appraisal of physique , 2. Appraisal of organic e f f i c i e n c y 3» Appraisal of motor f i t n e s s Physique i s concerned with the appearance, and proportion of body components.  development  Organic e f f i c i e n c y r e f e r s  to the l e v e l of function of the body systems.  Motor f i t n e s s  - 15 or dynamic f i t n e s s deals with the a b i l i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l to perform motor tasks fundamental to l i v i n g , such as running, jumping and throwing.  Gureton (10) defines motor f i t n e s s as  a " l i m i t e d phase of motor a b i l i t y which emphasizes; (1) endurance, (2) power, (3) strength, (4) a g i l i t y , (5) f l e x i b i l i t y , (6) balance.  It emphasizes the fundamental or gross b i g muscle  movements that are dominated by muscular energy, kinesthetic sense, and the suppleness of major t i s s u e s and j o i n t s . .  ."  Cardiovascular condition, the state of e f f i c i e n c y of the heart and blood vessels i s , according to Cureton (11) dependent on f i v e main f a c t o r s . I  Habitual Autonomic Tone or C i r c u l a t i o n as Indicated  by Cardiovascular Test i n the Quiet Lying. S i t t i n g and States:  Standing  Gureton contends that a high r a t i n g i n t h i s component  indicates a number of b e n e f i c i a l phenomena.  Foremost among  these i s the presence of low peripheral resistance due to good d i l a t i o n of c a p i l l e r i e s and good c i r c u l a t i o n through the heart and lungs rather than r e l a t i v e vasoconstriction. This may Interpreted as Vascular Relaxation.  be  This condition i s depend-  ent to a large degree upon the state of Autonomic Tone. II  Splanchnic Tone or A b i l i t y to Maintain the C i r c u l a t i o n  and Make Adjustment to the Quiet Standing Posture Within Minute:  Negatively, t h i s f a c t o r may  One  be termed Circulatory  > Ptosis, the i n a b i l i t y t o hold up the blood column against the force of gravity, r e s u l t i n g i n pooling of blood i n the  - 16 l o w e r body l e a v i n g an inadequate  s u p p l y t o t h e r e g i o n s above  the heart, III  E f f i c i e n c y i n a Long Sub-Maximum Work Task o r Q u i c k  P u l s e Rate Recovery A f t e r a M o d e r a t e . E x e r t i o n ;  Measurement  o f t h i s f a c t o r may be done t o l o c a t e t h e t r a n s i t i o n p o i n t between sub-maximal and maximal work f o r an i n d i v i d u a l , IV  C i r c u l a t o r y Adjustment t o Hard A t h l e t i c Work During;  t h e Time o f t h e Work:  Good s c o r e s i n t h i s component a r e  a t t a i n e d by endurance a t h l e t e s who a r e a b l e t o make a q u i c k a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e c i r c u l a t i o n t o maximum e f f i c i e n c y and a r e able t o maintain t h i s l e v e l f o r a longer period of time, V  R e c o v e r y A f t e r a Hard Work Task:  This f a c t o r i n -  d i c a t e s t h e r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e c i r c u l a t o r y system i n terms o f t h e p u l s e r a t e r e c o v e r y a f t e r r e l a t i v e l y work.  hard  T h i s f a c t o r does n o t c o r r e l a t e w i t h f a c t o r s 1, 2 o r  4 and o n l y s l i g h t l y w i t h component 3» Measurement  of P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s :  The measurement o f  p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s has been a t t e m p t e d i n many ways, Larson  (12) s t a t e s :  The measurement o f o r g a n i c f u n c t i o n s c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n s e v e r a l ways. The f i r s t method i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by d i r e c t measurement o f t h e v a r i o u s c o n s t i t u e n t s o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t h r o u g h nonperformance and/or performance t e s t s ; f o r example^ c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y endurance i s measured by t a k i n g b l o o d p r e s s u r e , p u l s e r a t e , and o t h e r p h y s i o l o g i c measures . • . • The second method i s accomplished t h r o u g h i n d i r e c t measurement o f t h e v a r i o u s o r g a n i c f u n c t i o n s ; f o r example, c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y endurance i s measured by r u n n i n g f o r l o n g d i s t a n c e s u n t i l demands a r e p l a c e d on t h e systems o f c i r c u l a t i o n and r e s p i r a t i o n • . • • The t h i r d method i s  - 17  -  accomplished through a simulation of the a c t i v i t y or through performance i n the actual a c t i v i t y . In t h i s procedure, f i t n e s s for f o o t b a l l i s determined by p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o o t b a l l . This i s not a s a t i s f a c t o r y approach although i t i s commonly used to determine what an i n d i v i d u a l can or cannot do. Method two, or the performance method i s commonly used as an approach to the measurement of physical f i t n e s s because of i t s s i m p l i c i t y . ?  The  search f o r effective t e s t s of o v e r a l l physical  has been long and d i f f i c u l t .  fitness  Gureton (13) f e e l s that, "Finding  the best simple t e s t of physical f i t n e s s has been l i k e looking f o r the holy g r a i l .  There have been many attempts to f i n d  such a t e s t . " In 1924  C o l l i n s and Howe (14)- c r i t i c a l l y examined various  t e s t s of 'physical f i t n e s s ' and concluded that there was single t e s t to measure f i t n e s s .  The  problem was  no  to choose a  variety pf t e s t s which would d i f f e r e n t i a t e subjects i n good condition from subjects i n poor condition.  They proposed a  schedule of t e s t s designed to give a composite r a t i n g of four areas.  These were (1) Motor Control Tests (2) Physiometric  Tests (3) Somatometric Tests (4) Medical. Rogers (15) i n 1925 t e s t s and Fitness  reviewed the dynamometer strength  introduced the 'Strength Index' and  'Physical  Index' concepts of evaluating physical f i t n e s s .  In  j u s t i f y i n g his b e l i e f i n the evaluatory value of strength t e s t s he  states:  The positive and very high r e l a t i o n of muscular strength to general health, physical, f i t n e s s , or capacity can hardly be questioned • • • • P r a c t i c a l l y every change i n the conditioning of the v i t a l organs has a corresponding change i n the condition or functioning of voluntary muscles.  -  1 S  -  T h i s b e l i e f i n t h e g r e a t importance o f s t r e n g t h i n t e s t i n g f o r p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i s supported by McGloy (16) who s t a t e s ; general  "Hence, i n a d d i t i o n t o i t s i n d i c a t i o n as t o  * medical'*  c o n d i t i o n , t h e s t r e n g t h t e s t s i n t h e form  of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s index t e l l much about t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s g e n e r a l f i t n e s s f o r l i v i n g and working." Although t h e importance o f s t r e n g t h t e s t i n g i n p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s e v a l u a t i o n cannot be questioned, i t s use i s p r i m a r i l y l i m i t e d t o the t e s t i n g o f the strength  component.  Referring  t o t h i s use o f s t r e n g t h t e s t s Cureton (17) s t a t e s : I t i s one o f t h e most important developments and t h e most r e c e n t r e s e a r c h work shows t h e v a l u e o f t h e dynamometer s t r e n g t h t e s t s . However, i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e ' P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Index* norms o f Rogers have caused much t r o u b l e i n work w i t h young men, and t h a t s t r e n g t h alone i s an inadequate b a s i s upon which t o judge f i t n e s s o f any i n d i v i d u a l . I n s p i t e o f t h e g e n e r a l acceptance o f t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f s t r e n g t h as an o b j e c t i v e , i t i s o n l y one o f t h e components o f f i t n e s s . In attempting t o o b t a i n a comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s t a t e o f f i t n e s s possessed by an i n d i v i d u a l i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h e n t o t e s t as many o f t h e major components as p o s s i b l e .  It  f o l l o w s from t h i s t h a t t e s t v a l i d i t y may be improved by i n c r e a s i n g t h e s i z e and scope o f t h e t e s t b a t t e r y .  This  p r i n c i p l e i s i l l u s t r a t e d by Cureton (IS) who, w h i l e r e f e r r i n g t o t h e optimum p r e d i c t i o n o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s i n terms of motor f i t n e s s t e s t s , s t a t e s :  " I t i s p o s s i b l e t o improve t h e  v a l i d i t y o f Motor F i t n e s s i n t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f t h e 22-item c r i t e r i o n o f P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s by adding the M i l e Run and  - 19 Strength to the all-around so d o i n g Gureton was  R o f .659  to  l6*-item Motor F i t n e s s T e s t . "  By  able t o increase the v a l i d i t y from  an  .763.  With reference to t e s t battery  s i z e K a r p o v i c h (19)  states:  I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t , w i t h more numerous t e s t i t e m s , more i n f o r m a t i o n can be o b t a i n e d about t h e i n d i v i d u a l . E f f o r t s are made, however, t o s e l e c t t h o s e i t e m s t h a t can r e v e a l t h e most and t h u s r e duce t h e number o f t e s t s . The use o f t o o many t e s t s i s impractical • , . . The  e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a competent p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t e s t  b a t t e r y w i l l depend p r i m a r i l y on t h e compromising o f  two  principles. F i r s t l y , the number o f t e s t i t e m s must be l a r g e  enough  t o g i v e a comprehensive p i c t u r e of t h e main components of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , . S e c o n d l y , t h e s i z e o f t h e t e s t b a t t e r y must be s m a l l enough t o be a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y f e a s i b l e i n terms of t i m e and  economy.  A n o t h e r prime c o n s i d e r a t i o n  i n s e l e c t i n g items t o  t h e v a r i o u s components o f f i t n e s s i s t h a t o f feasibility. and  test  scientific  T h i s must be i n terms o f r e l i a b i l i t y , o b j e c t i v i t y  validity. Motor f i t n e s s i s a p r a c t i c a l approach t o f i t n e s s f o r most  young p e o p l e .  B r o c k , Cox  and  Pennock (20)  s t a t e , ; "Motor  f i t n e s s i s t h e f i n a l c r i t e r i o n t h r o u g h w h i c h a l l o t h e r elements of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s are seen and measured i n Test. B a t t e r y  Items:  man,"  A c c o r d i n g to..Larson., (21)  the  agility  - 20 component o f motor f i t n e s s  may  be e v a l u a t e d i n a  moderately  o b j e c t i v e and r e l i a b l e manner (R's of more than .80) means o f ' A g i l i t y runs o f s h o r t d i s t a n c e s . .  The. I l l i n o i s  1  A g i l i t y Run has been e s t a b l i s h e d by Cureton valid test  by  (22)  t o be a  of a g i l i t y .  N i c k s and Fleishman; (23) i n d i c a t e t h a t s h u t t l e runs  and  dodging runs l o a d h i g h l y i n t h e Speed o f Change o f D i r e c t i o n factor. The reliable may  50 Yard Dash a c c o r d i n g t o Larson (24)  i s a highly  and o b j e c t i v e measure of r u n n i n g speed.  The  item  be accepted on f a c e v a l i d i t y as a v a l i d c r i t e r i o n  of  r u n n i n g speed. Power o r e x p l o s i v e s t r e n g t h may by t h e Standing;Broad R o f .79  for this  Jump.  item.  of the Standing Broad F l e x i b i l i t y may  be adequately  S c o t t (25)  Larson (26)  evaluated  has o b t a i n e d a v a l i d i t y  r a t e s the r e l i a b i l i t y  Jump i n the h i g h category (.90 be t e s t e d r e l i a b l y  and  above).  and v a l i d l y by t h e  Cureton F l e x i b i l i t y Items, Shoulder F l e x i b i l i t y , Trunk E x t e n s i o n and Trunk F l e x i o n .  Cureton  (27)  r e l i a b i l i t y r a t i n g s o f R .715  t o .958  f o r these items.  same author  has o b t a i n e d The  (28) has o b t a i n e d v a l i d i t y r a t i n g s as f o l l o w s .  Shoulder F l e x i b i l i t y  (.23  -  Trunk E x t e n s i o n  (.77  -  Trunk F l e x i o n  (.29  -  N i c k s and Fleishman  (29)  .64)  .64)  s t a t e t h a t c h i n s and d i p s are  t h e b e s t t e s t s of t h e Dynamic S t r e n g t h F a c t o r .  Larson  (30)  states that these two items are highly objective and r e l i a b l e measures of Muscular Strength and Endurance*  Rogers (31)  has  established r e l i a b i l i t y , o b j e c t i v i t y and v a l i d i t y R*s f o r chins.  These are as follows:  Chins:  Objectivity  .91 to  .98  Reliability  .91 to  .98  Validity  .59  with A t h l e t i c Index  The s c i e n t i f i c authenticity of dipping i s not given but t h i s item may  be accepted on face v a l i d i t y as a measure of  muscular strength and endurance. The S t a t i c Strength Dynamometer items have been validated by Rogers a l s o .  R e l i a b i l i t i e s and v a l i d i t i e s are as follows. Reliability  V a l i d i t y with A t h l e t i c Index  Right Grip  .92  -  .98  .68  Left  .90  -  .97  .68  Back L i f t  .88  -  .97  .66  Leg  .86  -  .96  .64  Grip  Lift  According to Larson (32)  runs of greater than 150  yards  i n length are highly r e l i a b l e and objective measures of Gardio-Respiratory Endurance.  The 600  Yard Run-Walk i s a  v a l i d c r i t e r i a of t h i s type of f i t n e s s . The Five-Minute  Step Test i s a simple c i r c u l a t o r y test  of physical f i t n e s s .  This test estimates the adjustment to  and the recuperative power from a standard work task. (33)  Cureton  investigated r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s of t h i s t e s t using  15 inch classroom seats and obtained R*s of .78  to  .87•  - 22 A c c o r d i n g t o Gureton (34) t h e Cameron Heartometer f u r n i s h e s s y s t e m a t i c and o b j e c t i v e r e c o r d s o f s y s t o l i c and d i a s t o l i c b l o o d p r e s s u r e , p u l s e p r e s s u r e , h e a r t r a t e and heart valve actions,  Gureton s u g g e s t s t h a t one o f t h e u s e s  o f t h e Heartometer i s t h a t o f " P r e d i c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e state of 'functional cardiovascular condition' i n subjects w i t h o u t h e a r t disease,'' S e l e c t e d h e a r t o g r a p h measurements may be i n t e r p r e t e d as f o l l o w s : ?1,  A r e a Under Curve:- r e f l e c t s somewhat t h e b l o o d pumped  p e r s t r o k e o f t h e h e a r t and a l s o t h e t o n e o f t h e w a l l i n t h e b r a c h i a l a r t e r y and i t s b r a n c h e s ,  A strong cardiovascular  system u s u a l l y g i v e s a graph w h i c h has r e l a t i v e l y more a r e a under t h e average s i n g l e c y c l e and t h i s a r e a i s thought t o be somewhat p r o p o r t i o n a l t o a s t r o n g e r s y s t o l i c and a s t r o n g e r ' d i a s t o l i c squeeze', t h e l a t t e r b e i n g t h e f o r c e f r o m t h e a o r t a p r o p e l l i n g the blood i n t o t h e systemic c i r c u i t  after  t h e c l o s i n g o f t h e s e m i - l u n a r v a l v e s and a l s o t o t h e t o n e o f t h e c o n n e c t i n g a r t e r i e s and p e r i p h e r a l v e s s e l s , 2,  S y s t o l i c P u l s e Wave A m p l i t u d e : - T h i s measurement i n -  d i c a t e s t h e magnitude o f m y o c a r d i a l a c t i o n due t o t h e contraction of the ventricles,  A l o w a m p l i t u d e suggests a h e a r t  w i t h r e l a t i v e l y weak s t r o k e d u r i n g s y s t o l e , 3,  D i a s t o l i c P u l s e Wave A m p l i t u d e : -  This represents t h e  part o f t h e c y c l e a f t e r t h e semi-lunar valves c l o s e ,  A  l a r g e r a m p l i t u d e i n d i c a t e s a more f o r c e f u l rebound o f t h e  - 23  -  s e c o n d a r y wave, 4,  O b l i q u i t y A n g l e : - The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e a n g l e o f  o b l i q u i t y may  be i n t h e f a c t t h a t a slow a c t i n g h e a r t m u s c l e ,  due t o weakness o r t o s l u g g i s h h e a r t t i s s u e , g i v e s a g r e a t e r a n g l e because more t i m e i s t a k e n f o r t h e upward s t r o k e t o t h e maximum p o i n t , 5,  Rest/Work R a t i o : - T h i s measurement i s t h e r a t i o o f  t h e s y s t o l e c o n t r a c t i o n t o t h e o v e r a l l t i m e of t h e d i a s t o l e , A s t r o n g e f f i c i e n t c a r d i o v a s c u l a r system has a h i g h r a t i o 4 t o 1;  an average system i s 1,69  system i s l o w e r t h a n 1,21 6,  to  t o 1;  /  of  a poor c a r d i o v a s c u l a r  1,  P u l s e Rate:- T h i s i s t h e r e g u l a r r a t e o f h e a r t b e a t s  taken i n beats per minute,  A slow r a t e i s f a i r l y h i g h l y  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h endurance performance i n t r a c k r u n n i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o C u r e t o n (35) t h e components o f c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n may be e v a l u a t e d w i t h t h e s e t e s t i t e m s as follows: I  H a b i t u a l Autonomic (a) (b) . (c) (d) .•(e),(f)  II  Tone:  A r e a Under Curve S y s t o l i c Amplitude S i t t i n g D i a s t o l i c Amplitude S i t t i n g O b l i q u i t y Angle Rest/Work R a t i o P u l s e Rate  S p l a n c h n i c Tone: .(a)  S y s t o l i c Amplitude Standing  IV, C i r c u l a t o r y Adjustment t o Hard A t h l e t i c Work: (a) fb)  S y s t o l i c Amplitude A f t e r E x e r c i s e 600 Yard Run-Walk  - 24 V  Recovery After a Hard Work Task: (a)  Five-Minute Step Test  R e l i a b i l i t y ratings f o r these Heartometer measurements range from ,719 to .928 according to W i l l e t (36). V a l i d i t y of the various items as predictors of All-Gut Treadmill Running ranged from R*s of .012 to .448^ Considerable research was carried on during the l a s t World War and to a l e s s e r extent since the war on the e f f e c t s of required programme a c t i v i t i e s of d i f f e r e n t durations and i n t e n s i t y on the physical f i t n e s s of young men. In 1943 Cureton (37) used the Larson (Chins - V e r t i c a l Jumps - Dips) Test to determine the effectiveness of a wartime physical conditioning class carried out twice-weekly f o r one hour, over a period of twelve weeks i n improving f i t n e s s . The mean improvements i n the 2600 male required programme students were as follows: Chins V e r t i c a l Jump Dipping Composite  27.95 % 2.75 %  49.30 % 6.78 %  Brouha, Fradd, and Savage (3#) studied the e f f e c t of a twelve week, four hours weekly t r a i n i n g programme on physical e f f i c i e n c y as measured by the Five-Minute Step Test. The study was conducted on 351 college students who had been subjected t o a conditioning programme of marching,  calisthenics,  - 25 c o m b a t i v e s and r u n n i n g .  I t was f o u n d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e  s t u d e n t s , t h o s e who had s c o r e d i n i t i a l l y under t h e c o l l e g e a v e r a g e , improved c o n s i d e r a b l y w h i l e t h o s e who were r a t e d i n t h e good t o e x c e l l e n t c a t e g o r y o r i g i n a l l y showed a tendency towards p o o r e r s c o r e s on t h e r e t e s t .  This f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s  t h a t t h e programme was adequate f o r t h e • u n f i t * b u t t o o easy f o r the already maintain  ' f i t * who needed h a r d e r e x e r c i s e i n o r d e r t o  o r improve t h e i r f i t n e s s ,  Cureton ( 3 9 ) i n reviewing  a number o f s t u d i e s done a t  t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s on t h e f i t n e s s e f f e c t s o f v a r i o u s r e q u i r e d programme a c t i v i t i e s comments on t h e l o w f i t n e s s v a l u e o f many o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . He c i t e s a s t u d y done by Wolbers (40) who i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s t r e n g t h , a g i l i t y and power b e n e f i t s o f t w e n t y - s i x weeks o f t h r i c e - w e e k l y participation. m i d d l e - a g e d men, a l s o used.  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  volleyball  group c o n s i s t e d o f n i n e  A c o n t r o l group o f t e n s i m i l a r men was  The f i t n e s s t e s t b a t t e r y was composed o f s e v e r a l  Heartometer i t e m s , g r i p , back and l e g dynamometrical  strength  t e s t s , I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y Run, v e r t i c a l jump, and t h e L a r s o n C h i n s - V e r t i c a l Jump - D i p s ' T e s t , improvements were n o t i m p r e s s i v e  Results indicated that  and t h a t t h e g a i n s w h i c h  were o b t a i n e d were due i n p a r t t o a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n t h e performance o f t h e c o n t r o l s , H o w e l l (41) u s i n g t h e M o d i f i e d Harvard S t e p T e s t as t h e  c r i t e r i o n compared t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f  badminton  and v o l l e y b a l l and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g i n p r o d u c i n g f i t n e s s changes.  Both groups p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e i r programmes f o r  f o u r weeks, meeting t w i c e a week.  Two groups o f s e v e n t e e n  s u b j e c t s e n r o l l e d i n t h e r e q u i r e d programme were equated on the b a s i s of the M o d i f i e d Harvard Step T e s t .  While c i r c u i t  t r a i n i n g produced s i g n i f i c a n t improvement, t h e c o n t r o l s (badminton and v o l l e y b a l l group) f a i l e d t o show s i g n i f i c a n t l y positive  changes.  G u r e t o n (42)  i n r e v i e w i n g a p a i r o f c o n c u r r e n t but  s e p a r a t e s t u d i e s done by B e r r a f e t o (43)  and Fordham  (44)  p r e s e n t s a comparison o f a number o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n S e r v i c e Courses a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s .  The A i l - R o u n d M u s c u l a r  Endurance o f s t u d e n t s was t e s t e d p r i o r t o and i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e i r a c t i v i t y programme.  The mean g a i n s f o r each  o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s i n terms o f s t a n d a r d s c o r e s i s as f o l l o w s . Basic Conditioning  19.35  Apparatus  12.84  Boxing  11.29  Weight L i f t i n g  11.06  Intramural A t h l e t i c s  9.40  I n d i v i d u a l Tumbling  8.05  Wrestling  6.50  Volleyball  5.09  Badminton  3.07  Hopkins (45)  conducted a s t u d y t o e v a l u a t e t h e f i t n e s s  - 27  -  e f f e c t s o f a combined programme o f c a l i s t h e n i c s and  volleyball  c a r r i e d on t h r e e t i m e s a week f o r s i x months.  The  group was  while a control  composed o f s i x t e e n m i d d l e - a g e d men,  experimental  g r o u p w h i c h d i d n o t h i n g o t h e r t h a n normal a c t i v i t i e s composed o f s i x s u b j e c t s o f s i m i l a r ages.  Results  was  expressed  i n mean improvements i n s t a n d a r d s c o r e s were as f o l l o w s f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group: Heartometer B r a c h i a l P u l s e Wave Area/S.A.  3©  Area Under Curve  20  O b l i q u i t y Angle  15  S y s t o l i c Amplitude  18  Pulse Rate r e d u c t i o n  8  Total Proportional Strength  9  I n s i g n i f i c a n t changes were o b t a i n e d i n b r e a t h - h o l d i n g , c h i n n i n g , g r i p s t r e n g t h , d i a s t o l i c p u l s e wave a m p l i t u d e d i a s t o l i c surge. improvements.  and  The c o n t r o l s f a i l e d t o show s i g n i f i c a n t  R e g r e s s i o n was  R a t i o and t h e S c h n e i d e r  observed  i n t h e Rest/Work  Index,  K i s t l e r ( 4 6 ) conducted  a study of the r e s u l t s of e i g h t  weeks o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a u n i v e r s i t y p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s p r o gramme.  The programme c o n s i s t e d o f a t h i r t y - m i n u t e workout  h e l d t h r e e t i m e s a week f o r e i g h t weeks.  The c l a s s p e r i o d  c o n s i s t e d of approximately e i g h t minutes of c a l i s t h e n i c s f o u r bouts o f e x e r c i s e , each f i v e m i n u t e s i n d u r a t i o n . t h e c a l i s t h e n i c s s t r e s s was  p l a c e d on s t r e t c h i n g and  and During  bending  e x e r c i s e s , s i t - u p s , push-ups and deep knee bends.  The  five-  m i n u t e bouts o f e x e r c i s e were devoted t o a l l - o u t c h i n n i n g , o b s t a c l e - c o u r s e r u n n i n g , personal-combat running.  activities,  and  The s t u d y t o o k t h e form o f a t e s t - r e t e s t  w i t h t h e t e s t b a t t e r y composed o f :  experiment  ( 1 ) a five-minute run f o r  d i s t a n c e , ( 2 ) an o b s t a c l e c o u r s e r u n f o r t i m e , ( 3 ) push-up t e s t , ( 4 ) c h i n n i n g t e s t , and ( 5 ) s i t - u p t e s t .  Results indicated  t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t improvement may be a c h i e v e d i n t h e p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s elements o f s t r e n g t h , endurance, and a g i l i t y a s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g programme devoted t o t h e s e  through  elements.  P e r c e n t g a i n i n mean performance was as f o l l o w s : Chinning Sit-ups O b s t a c l e , C o u r s e Run F i v e - M i n u t e Run Push-Ups  3$ 3 4 $ 1 0 , 9 $ 1 . 3 $ 1 7 . 6 $  L a n d i s s ( 4 7 ) conducted a s t u d y o f t h e e f f e c t o f e i g h t physical education a c t i v i t i e s  on p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and motor  a b i l i t y s c o r e s on male c o l l e g e freshmen.  The  s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n were elementary  activities courses i n  swimming, b o x i n g , w e i g h t t r a i n i n g , t e n n i s , w r e s t l i n g , t u m b l i n g g y m n a s t i c s , and. a b a s i c c o n d i t i o n i n g c o u r s e .  The c o n d i t i o n i n g  c o u r s e c o n s i s t e d o f c a l i s t h e n i c s , r u n n i n g , p u l l - u p s and g r a s s drills.  The c l a s s e s met t h r e e t i m e s a week f o r one hour  t h r o u g h o u t t h e F a l l semester.  From t h e e n t i r e Freshman c l a s s  t e s t e d w i t h t h e P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s T e s t ( 1 , 3 0 0 Yard  Shuttle,Run;  2«1 P u l l - u p s ; 3. S i t - u p s ) e i g h t e q u i v a l e n t groups were s e l e c t e d i n e i g h t g r o u p s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t y s u b j e c t s on t h e b a s i s o f homogeneity o f age and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s .  The groups were  t h e n t e s t e d w i t h t h e L a r s o n T e s t o f Motor A b i l i t y w h i c h i s composed o f f o u r t e s t i t e m s :  b a s e b a l l throw f o r d i s t a n c e ;  p u l l - u p s ; v e r t i c a l jump; and b a r snap.  F o l l o w i n g t h e semester  o f a c t i v i t i e s each group was r e t e s t e d on t h e i t e m s .  The  c r i t i c a l r a t i o was used t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e mean g a i n s .  The r e s u l t s showed t h a t improved p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s  r a t i n g was e q u a l l y w e l l o b t a i n e d ing  by p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o n d i t i o n -  and t u m b l i n g - g y m n a s t i c s ; whereas swimming, t e n n i s and  boxing are t h e a c t i v i t i e s l e a s t apt t o increase t h e s t u d e n t s 1  score.  I t was f u r t h e r found t h a t t h e w r e s t l i n g and t u m b l i n g  g y m n a s t i c s groups made t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n motor ability.  A g a i n t h e groups i n d i c a t i n g t h e l e a s t improvement  were t e n n i s , swimming, and b o x i n g .  Tumbling-gymnastics ranked  h i g h i n b o t h f i t n e s s and motor a b i l i t y improvements w h i l e w r e s t l i n g and c o n d i t i o n i n g r a n k e d h i g h i n one component e a c h . C r i t i c a l R a t i o s obtained  by t h e c o n d i t i o n i n g c l a s s were:  P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Test  7.10  L a r s o n Motor A b i l i t y T e s t  3.18  B a s e b a l l Throw  0.45  Pull-ups  1.43  V e r t i c a l Jump  1.61  Bar Snap  6.13  300, Yard S h u t t l e Run  4.50  Sit-ups  8.66  S i l l s (46) compared progress made i n physical f i t n e s s by low f i t n e s s students taking part i n s p e c i a l conditioning exercises with that made by students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the regular programme. scored poorly  Thirty-three students were selected  who  (mean score of l e s s than 2© T-scores) on a  battery of f i t n e s s tests composed of two minute sit-ups, pull-ups, 100 yard pick-a-back and the 300 Yard Shuttle  Run.  Thirty-three students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the regular programme were selected randomly and used as a comparative group. conditioning c l a s s was given a c t i v i t i e s which included  The (1) p u l l -  ups, (2) two-minute sit-ups, (3) 220 yard run, (4) 440 yard run, (5) 660 yard run, (6) 860 yard run, (7) mile run^ (6) arm curls with heavy resistance, (9) arm pull-overs with heavy resistance (supine) and (10) push-ups.  The group p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the  regular programme were given usually a twenty-minute c a l i s t h e n i c s period p r i o r to t h e i r basic  skills.  Both classes met twice a week f o r two hours over one semester.  The two groups were tested and retested following  the programmes. In order to l e a r n more about the e f f e c t s of the s p e c i a l programme upon the experimental group, a second control group was established.  This group was composed of t h i r t y - t h r e e  students from previous academic years who had mean T-scores of l e s s than 20 on t h e i r f i r s t e f f o r t to pass the physical fitness tests.  The gains made by t h i s group from the beginning  to the end of a semester were compared with those of the other  - 31 groups. - S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e mean g a i n s f o r t h e t h r e e groups was as f o l l o w s :  Special Conditioning R e g u l a r Programme Special Conditioning P r e v i o u s Year's Low F i t n e s s Group on t h e -Regular Programme P r e v i o u s Y e a r ' s Low F i t n e s s Group - R e g u l a r Programme > R e g u l a r Programme  t  Level of Significance  4.13  .001  3.10  .010  .90  .400  H o w e l l , Kimoto and M b r f o r d (49) conducted a s t u d y t h a t demonstrated c l e a r l y t h a t w i t h no a c t i v i t y i n c r e a s e f r o m normal everyday l e v e l s , no change i n endurance c a n be e x p e c t e d . The s t u d y was an attempt t o compare t h e r e l a t i v e v a l u e s o f i s o t o n i c and i s o m e t r i c t r a i n i n g .  H o w e l l e t a l used t h r e e  groups o f male c o l l e g e freshmen e n r o l l e d i n t h e r e q u i r e d programme.  These groups were equated on i n i t i a l  performance  i n endurance w i t h a two minute, a l l - o u t r i d e on t h e b i c y c l e ergometer a t 14 k g s . r e s i s t a n c e .  Group I f o l l o w e d a w e i g h t  t r a i n i n g programme'^ Group I I engaged i n i s o m e t r i c work w h i l e Group I I I , t h e c o n t r o l , p a r t i c i p a t e d i n normal  activities  only.  ergometer  The groups were r e t e s t e d on t h e b i c y c l e  f o l l o w i n g e i g h t weeks o f t h e i r p r e s c r i b e d t r e a t m e n t s . The obtained ' t  1  s t a t i s t i c s o f t h e mean g a i n s demonstrates t h e  l a c k o f improvement o f t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p .  - 32  -  t Group I  6.39  Group I I  4»41 x  Group I I I  x  0.33  x S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l Gapen (50) compared t h e e f f e c t s o f a w e i g h t t r a i n i n g programme and a g e n e r a l p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g programme on t h e m u s c u l a r s t r e n g t h and endurance, c i r e u l o - r e s p i r a t o r y endurance and a t h l e t i c power o f c o l l e g e men.  Group A, t h e  w e i g h t t r a i n i n g g r o u p , was composed o f sophomores w h i l e Group B was composed o f male freshmen e n r o l l e d i n t h e r e q u i r e d programme p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g programme.  Group A worked  v i g o r o u s l y through a set s e r i e s of i s o t o n i c procedures. Group B p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a s t r e n u o u s c o n d i t i o n i n g programme composed o f t h e f o l l o w i n g ; (1) t u m b l i n g , r e l a y s and r u n n i n g (two w e e k s ) , (2) l i f t s and c a r r i e s , hand combats, and r u n n i n g ( t h r e e w e e k s ) , (3)  c o n d i t i o n i n g gymnastics ( f i v e weeks).  Both  c l a s s e s met t w i c e a week f o r f o r t y m i n u t e s o v e r a p e r i o d o f e l e v e n weeks. the  The g r o u p s were t e s t e d p r i o r t o and f o l l o w i n g  courses. I t was f o u n d t h a t t h e Group. A programme gave g r e a t e r  g e n e r a l improvement i n m u s c u l a r s t r e n g t h t h a n t h e Group B programme.  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were o b t a i n e d i n  e i t h e r m u s c u l a r o r c i r e u l o - r e s p i r a t o r y endurance. P e r c e n t a g e g a i n s by t h e c o n d i t i o n i n g group were as f o l l o w s  - 33 i n selected  -  items. % G a i n o f Mean Right  4.5  Grip Grip  .5  Back L i f t  4.8  Left  Leg  Lift  21.1  Chinning  27.9  Dipping  16.4  300  6.3  Yard Dash  1.4  S t a n d i n g Broad Jump Bannister  (51)  compared f o u r methods of t r a i n i n g i n an  a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h was The  the most e f f i c i e n t method.  s t u d y u s e d f o u r equated groups o f f o u r t e e n t o s i x t e e n  y e a r o l d boys, each f o l l o w i n g a d i f f e r e n t t r a i n i n g method. These r o u t i n e s were I n t e r v a l C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g , C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g w i t h Endurance Running, C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g by a games a c t i v i t y and  followed  an e n t i r e Games Programme.  The  groups  were t e s t e d p r i o r t o t h e onset o f t h e s p e c i a l programme  and  a g a i n a t the, end o f i t . . The  basis  groups were equated on t h e  of scores from the i n i t i a l t e s t .  C r i t e r i a used were  Harvard Step T e s t j Larson's Strength C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index. was  The  Index and McGloy's  s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g programme  c a r r i e d on once e v e r y e i g h t days i n a d d i t i o n t o  r e g u l a r p h y s i c a l education  The  the  c l a s s e s f o r a p e r i o d o f two  R e s u l t s comparing t h e d i f f e r e n c e s o f mean g a i n s  months. occuring  - 34 between t h e groups f r o m t e s t t o r e t e s t showed t h a t t h e I n t e r v a l C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g Group showed g a i n s i n t o t a l f i t n e s s o v e r t h e C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g A c t i v i t y Group and t h e Games A c t i v i t y Group a t t h e ,01 l e v e l .  Gains i n t h e s c o r e s were made f r o m  t e s t t o r e t e s t by a l l t h e groups on a l l f a c t o r s . Johnson and Kubek (52) used t h r e e matched groups o f t e n s t u d e n t s i n comparing t h e m u s c u l a r s t r e n g t h , m u s c u l a r endurance and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r  endurance b e n e f i t s o f w e i g h t t r a i n i n g ,  c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g and g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n i n g c l a s s e s .  Test items  used were L a r s o n ' s S t r e n g t h T e s t and t h e H a r v a r d Step T e s t , and were g i v e n b e f o r e and a t t h e end o f t h e e i g h t week, t w i c e weekly c l a s s e s .  S i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s were seen  i n t h e c i r c u i t t r a i n e d group o v e r t h e o t h e r two groups i n a l l three f a c t o r s .  - 35 REFERENCES 1.  Mathews. D.K.,. Measurement i n Physical Education. Philadelphia, W..B. .Saunders, 1963, p. 3. *  2.  Brownell, C.L.. Hagman. P.-. Physical Education Foundations and P r i n c i p l e s . New York, McGraw H i l l , 1951, Chapter 8.  3.  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Physical Education and Recreation, v o l . 16 (March, 1945), pp. 111-112. ' "  11.  Cureton,. T.K., "The, Nature of Cardiovascular Condition i n Man", Journal of the American Medical Association, v o l . 17 (November. 1956). pp. 1139-1151.  12.  Larson.op. c i t . . pp. 162-163.  13.  Cureton, T.K., Physical Fitness Appraisal and , Guidance. St. Louis, C V . Mosby, 1947, p. 29.  -  14.  36 -  C o l l i n s , V.D., Howe, E.C., "The Measurement o f Organic and Neuromuscular F i t n e s s " , American P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Review, v o l . 29 (February, 1924),  pp. 64-70.  15.  Rogers, F.R., "The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f S t r e n g t h T e s t s i n R e v e a l i n g P h y s i c a l . C o n d i t i o n " . Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 5 (October, 1934), pp. 43-46.  16.  McCloy, C.H., "How About Some Muscle", J o u r n a l o f Health and P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n , v o l . 7 (May,  pp. 302-303.  1936);  17.  Cureton, op. c i t . . p. 37.  18.  Cureton, op. c i t . . p. 64.  19.  Karpovieh, op. c i t . . p. 263.  20.  Brock, J.D., Cox, W. A.,.. Pennock, E.W., Chapter V I I i n " P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s " , Supplement t o t h e Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 12 (May, 1941), PP. 407-415.  21.  Larson, op. c i t . . p. I63.  22.  Cureton, T.K., P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Workbook. S t . L o u i s , C.V. Mosby, 1944, PP. 23-24.  23.  Nicks and Fleishman, op. c i t . . p. 8.  24.  Larson,  25.  S c o t t , G.M., "The Assessment o f Motor A b i l i t y o f C o l l e g e Women". Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 10 (October, 1934), p. 63.  26.  Larson, l o c . c i t .  27.  Cureton, T.K., P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s o f Champion A t h l e t e s . Urbana, The U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1951, P. 91.  28.  Cureton, T.K., " F l e x i b i l i t y as an Aspect o f P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s " . Supplement t o t h e Research Q u a r t e r l y ,  loc. c i t .  v o l . 12-1May^ 194U, pp. 381-390.  29.  N i c k s and Fleishman, op. c i t . . p. 5.  -  37 -  30.  Larson, l o c . c i t .  31.  R o g e r s , F.R., T e s t s and Measurement Programs i n t h e R e d i r e c t i o n o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . New York. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Teachers C o l l e g e Bureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1927, pp. 35-48.  32.  Larson, l o c . c i t .  33.  C u r e t o n , T.K., Huffman, W.J., W e l s e r , L., K i r e i l i s , R.W., Latham, D.E.,- Endurance o f Young Men. W a s h i n g t o n , S o c i e t y o f R e s e a r c h i n C h i l d Development, N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , 1945, p. 284.  34.  C u r e t o n , T.K., Phys i c a l F i t n e s s A p p r a i s a l and Guidance . S t . L o u i s , C V . Mosby, 1947, pp. 232-253.  35.  G u r e t o n , T.K., "The N a t u r e o f C a r d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n i n Man", J o u r n a l o f t h e American M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , v o l . 17 (November. 1956). PP. 139-155.  36.  W i l l e t , A.E., " C a r d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n a s Measured by t h e Heartometer R e l a t e d t o t h e Time f o r A i l - O u t T r e a d m i l l Running", U n p u b l i s h e d P r o j e c t , P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Research.Laboratory, U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1946.  37.  C u r e t o n , T.K., "Improvement i n Motor F i t n e s s A s s o c i a t e d w i t h P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s C l i n i c Work". R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 14 (May, 1943), pp. 154-158.  38.  Brouha, L., F r a d d . N.W., Savage, B.M., " S t u d i e s i n P h y s i c a l E f f i c i e n c y o f College Students". R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 15 (October, 1944), pp. 211-225.  39.  C u r e t o n , T.K. ,'• " P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Improvements o f a Middle-Aged Man, w i t h B r i e f Reviews o f R e l a t e d S t u d i e s " . R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y . v o l . 23 (May, 1952), pp. 149-160.  40.  W o l b e r s , C P . , "The E f f e c t s o f V o l l e y b a l l on t h e P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s o f A d u l t Men", U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1949.  - 38 41.  H o w e l l ; M.L., Hodgson, J.L., Sorenson, J.T., " E f f e c t s o f C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g on t h e M o d i f i e d H a r v a r d S t e p T e s t " , Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 34 (May; 1963),  pp. 154-158.  42.  C u r e t o n , T.K., " P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Improvement o f a Middle-Aged Man, w i t h B r i e f Review o f R e l a t e d S t u d i e s " . R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 23 (May, 1952),  pp. 149-160.  43.  B e r r a f e t o , P.R., "The E f f e c t o f V a r i o u s P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n S e r v i c e Courses on t h e A i l - R o u n d M u s c u l a r Endurance o f U n i v e r s i t y S t u d e n t s " , Unpublished M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1949.  44.  Fordham, S.L., "The E f f e c t o f F o u r S e l e c t e d P h y s i c a l - E d u c a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s on M u s c u l a r Endurance Test S c o r e s " , Unpublished M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1949.  45.  Hopkins, R.E., "The E f f e c t s o f V o l l e y b a l l and C a l i s t h e n i c s o n t h e P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s o f A d u l t Men", Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1951.  46.  K i s t l e r , J.W., "A Study o f t h e R e s u l t s o f E i g h t Weeks of P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a U n i v e r s i t y P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Program f o r Men"; R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 15 (March, 1944), pp. 23-29.  47.  L a n d i s s , C.W., " I n f l u e n c e o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s on Motor A b i l i t y a n d " P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s o f Male Freshmen", R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 26  (October, 1955), pp. 295-307.  48.  S i l l s , F.D., " S p e c i a l C o n d i t i o n i n g E x e r c i s e s f o r S t u d e n t s with,Low S c o r e s on P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s . T e s t s " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 25 (October, 1954),  PP. 333-3377  49.  H o w e l l , M.L., K i m o t o , R., M b r f o r d , W.R., " E f f e c t o f I s o m e t r i c and I s o t o n i c E x e r c i s e . Programs upon , M u s c u l a r Endurance". R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 33  (December, 1962), pp. 536-540.  50.  Capen, E.K., "The E f f e c t o f S y s t e m a t i c Weight T r a i n i n g on Power, S t r e n g t h and Endurance"-, R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 21, (May, 1950), pp. 83-92.  - 39 51.  Bannisterj-.E.W., "The, R e l a t i v e E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f I n t e r v a l • C i r c u i t , T r a i n i n g Compared w i t h . Three, Other Methods of F i t n e s s T r a i n i n g i n a S c h o o l P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n -Program"., U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I960.  52.  Johnson, G.C., Kubeck, E.P., "A Comparison o f t h e E f f e c t s o f C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g s Weight T r a i n i n g , and P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n i n g upon T o t a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s as Measured by M u s c u l a r S t r e n g t h and M u s c u l a r Endurance"-, U n p u b l i s h e d G r a d u a t i n g , E s s a y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962.  CHAPTER IV METHODS AND A ten-item  PROCEDURE  t e s t b a t t e r y was  selected to present a  r e a s o n a b l y comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n o f 'motor f i t n e s s  1  and  c a r d i o v a s c u l a r - r e s p i r a t o r y c o n d i t i o n . . A group of f i r s t  year  male c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y ' s R e q u i r e d P h y s i c a l Education. Programme were s e l e c t e d randomly f r o m a ,'Physical Conditioning' c l a s s .  Due  t o t h e l a r g e number of  t e s t s used no c o n t r o l group was  u t i l i z e d , s i n c e i t has  been  o b j e c t i v e l y shown t h a t w i t h o u t m u s c u l a r a c t i v i t y p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s l e v e l s w i l l not be a l t e r e d d r a s t i c a l l y , u n l e s s e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s change c o n s i d e r a b l y .  A  questionnaire  t o d e t e r m i n e h a b t i s o f n u t r i t i o n , r e s t , e x e r c i s e and was  other  smoking  d i s t r i b u t e d a t b o t h t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t i n g .  j e c t s were i n s t r u c t e d t o i n d i c a t e any changes i n  Sub-  personal  h a b i t s w h i c h might have i n f l u e n c e d f i t n e s s e i t h e r p o s i t i v e l y or negatively. The  sample was  g i v e n t h e t e s t b a t t e r y p r i o r t o and  at  t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f an e i g h t week c o u r s e of ' p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n ing'.  P r o g r e s s was  evaluated  by d e t e r m i n i n g  the s i g n i f i c a n c e  o f mean d i f f e r e n c e s between i n i t i a l and f i n a l s c o r e s . o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r not t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  In  sample  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f male freshmen s t u d e n t s  e n r o l l e d i n t h e R e q u i r e d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Programme a t U n i v e r s i t y , a comparison o f t h e t e s t sample was h e i g h t , w e i g h t and  performance o f t h e 1962  F i t n e s s T e s t Sample.  made w i t h  the the  U.B.C. AAHPER' Youth  Test Battery:  Motor F i t n e s s and C a r d i o v a s c u l a r  Condition  were chosen as t h e media t h r o u g h w h i c h p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s would be e v a l u a t e d .  Motor f i t n e s s components s e l e c t e d were a g i l i t y f  speed, power, f l e x i b i l i t y , dynamic s t r e n g t h , s t a t i c and m u s c u l a r endurance.  strength  Four o f f i v e components o f c a r d i o -  v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n were s e l e c t e d .  The components s e l e c t e d  were; I - H a b i t u a l Autonomic Tone, I I - S p l a n c h n i c  Tonej  I V - C i r c u l a t o r y Adjustment t o Hard A t h l e t i c Work, V - R e c o v e r y A f t e r a Hard Work Task, The t e s t i t e m s s e l e c t e d t o e v a l u a t e t h e s e components were a s f o l l o w s : A  Cardiovascular Condition  Component!  Component I I  Items  H a b i t u a l Autonomic Tone  1.  Heartometer - Area Under Curve  2.  Heartometer - S y s t o l i c A m p l i t u d e S i t t i n g  3.  Heartometer - D i a s t o l i d A m p l i t u d e S i t t i n g  4.  Heartometer - O b l i q u i t y A n g l e  5.  Heartometer - Rest/Work. R a t i o  6.  Heartometer - P u l s e Rate  Splanchnic  Tone  Heartometer - S y s t o l i c A m p l i t u d e S t a n d i n g Component IV  Component V  C i r c u l a t o r y Adjustment t o Hard A t h l e t i c Work  1.  Heartometer - S y s t o l i c A m p l i t u d e ,After Exercise  2.  600 Y a r d Run-Walk  Recovery A f t e r a Hard Work Task Five-Minute Step Test  B  Motor F i t n e s s  Component I  Items Agility Illinois Agility  . Component I I  Run  Speed 50 Yard Dash  Component I I I  Power S t a n d i n g Broad Jump  .Component I V  Component V  Flexibility 1.  Cureton Shoulder F l e x i b i l i t y  2.  C u r e t o n Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Backward  3•  C u r e t o n Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y  Dynamic S t r e n g t h and M u s c u l a r 1.  Forward Endurance  Chins  2. , D i p s Component V I  S t a t i c S t r e n g t h - Dynamometer 1.  R i g h t Hand G r i p  2.  L e f t Hand G r i p  3.  Back L i f t  4. Subjects:  =Leg L i f t - w i t h o u t b e l t  The s u b j e c t s were male c o l l e g e  r e g i s t e r e d i n a R e q u i r e d Programme.'physical class.  freshmen  conditioning*  The c l a s s was i t s e l f s e l e c t e d a t random f r o m t h r e e  available*  The sample was s e l e c t e d randomly f r o m a c l a s s o f  approximately f o r t y - f i v e students.  The sample^  originally  t w e n t y i n number, was r e d u c e d t o f i f t e e n by t h e end o f t h e  - 43 t e r m due t o an a s s o r t m e n t o f i n j u r i e s and p e r s o n a l problems. S i n c e t h e sample was s e l e c t e d a t random and no attempt was made t o c o n t r o l t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e sample, a comparison was made w i t h t h e 1962 U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia AAHPER Y o u t h F i t n e s s T e s t Sample.  T h i s was done i n  o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e whether o r n o t t h e sample s e l e c t e d c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f male freshmen s t u d e n t s enr o l l e d i n t h e r e q u i r e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The arguments o f N e l s o n and H u r s t (1) were f o l l o w e d i n s e t t i n g a l e v e l o f confidence of 0.05 f o r determining t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e g r o u p s .  Since  t h e r e was no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e sample s h o u l d be d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e main body o f freshmen a l o w e r l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e t h a n 0 . 0 5 would i n c r e a s e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f t y p e I e r r o r i . e . o f r e j e c t i n g a t r u e h y p o t h e s i s o f no d i f f e r e n c e between g r o u p s .  A decrease i n t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a c c e p t i n g  a f a l s e h y p o t h e s i s o f no d i f f e r e n c e o r t y p e I I e r r o r was n o t c o n s i d e r e d a s i m p o r t a n t as t h e n e c e s s i t y t o g u a r d a g a i n s t r e j e c t i n g a h y p o t h e s i s o f no d i f f e r e n c e between g r o u p s . T h e . P h y s i c a l . C o n d i t i o n i n g Programme:  The ' P h y s i c a l  C o n d i t i o n i n g * c l a s s f r o m w h i c h t h e sample was o b t a i n e d was one o f t h r e e o f f e r e d i n t h e F a l l t e r m . w e e k l y f o r a p e r i o d o f t e n weeks.  The c l a s s met t w i c e -  The f i r s t and t e n t h weeks  o f t h e c l a s s were used f o r i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t i n g .  Each  p e r i o d c o n s i s t e d o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y minutes o f a c t i v i t y .  - 44  -  A l l s u b j e c t s had chosen ' p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g ' f r o m among a l i m i t e d number o f ' f i t n e s s a c t i v i t i e s ' o f f e r e d as p a r t o f t h e one-year r e q u i r e m e n t i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r undergraduates.  Of two  c l a s s e s w h i c h s t u d e n t s must t a k e t o  satisfy  t h e r e q u i r e m e n t , one must be a ' f i t n e s s a c t i v i t y ' . The t y p e o f i n s t r u c t i o n and the a c t i v i t i e s p r e s e n t e d t h e c l a s s was  in  e n t i r e l y t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the i n s t r u c t o r  assigned t o the c l a s s .  The  a c t i v i t i e s presented  t e r m were o f a wide v a r i e t y o f t y p e s .  during  the  During the c l e a r  w e a t h e r i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f the t e r m t h e p e r i o d s  consisted  o f a s h o r t p r e l i m i n a r y c a l i s t h e n i c s s e s s i o n f o l l o w e d by a game of s o c c e r .  D u r i n g the l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e F a l l term  on r a i n y days t h e group worked i n d o o r s . p a r t i c i p a t e d i n approximately and  and  I n d o o r s t h e group  f i f t e e n m i n u t e s of c a l i s t h e n i c s  s e l f - t e s t i n g e x e r c i s e s f o l l o w e d by f i f t e e n m i n u t e s o f  v i g o r o u s games. C o n t r o l Group;  I t has been f a i r l y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t  w i t h other environmental v a r i a b l e s reasonably  c o n t r o l l e d , the  i n d i v i d u a l ' s s t a t e o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s w i l l be p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e amount o f t r a i n i n g done.  W o l f s o n (2)  determined the  e f f e c t s of a programme o f p r e s c r i b e d e x e r c i s e s on p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s o f a d u l t men.  the  He f o u n d t h a t w h i l e  the  t r a i n i n g group improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n measures o f c a r d i o ^ v a s c u l a r and motor f i t n e s s , a c o n t r o l group showed n e g l i g i b l e change.  Other s t u d i e s ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ) have shown t h a t l e s s  vigorous  - 45 a c t i v i t i e s , such as v o l l e y b a l l and badminton, produce r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p o s i t i v e changes i n f i t n e s s when compared w i t h more v i g o r o u s  a c t i v i t i e s such a s w e i g h t t r a i n i n g , con-  d i t i o n i n g e x e r c i s e s and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g . I n t h e l i g h t o f t h i s o b j e c t i v e d a t a showing t h a t changes i n p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s v a r i a b l e s o f young men do n o t change i n t h e absence o f r e g u l a r v i g o r o u s  e x e r c i s e , i t was  considered  more v a l u a b l e t o u s e t h e l i m i t e d t i m e a v a i l a b l e i n measuring a l a r g e r number o f e x p e r i m e n t a l  s u b j e c t s w i t h a l a r g e r number  o f t e s t s t h a n w o u l d have been p o s s i b l e i f a c o n t r o l g r o u p had been employed i n t h e s t u d y . In order t o determine t h e e f f e c t s o f other  environmental  v a r i a b l e s w h i c h might have i n f l u e n c e d t h e l e v e l o f f i t n e s s o f t h e t e s t sample a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was g i v e n t o each s u b j e c t b o t h a t t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t s . out any changes i n p e r s o n a l  This attempted t o f i n d  and h e a l t h h a b i t s w h i c h might  have m a r k e d l y i n f l u e n c e d p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s o f t h e s u b j e c t s . H a b i t s e v a l u a t e d were n u t r i t i o n , r e s t , e x e r c i s e and smoking. T e s t i n g Personnel:  The t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was c a r r i e d  on by two g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e Research P r o f e s s o r o f P h y s i c a l  Education.  The. Cameron Heartometer was o p e r a t e d e x c l u s i v e l y b y t h e Research  Professor.  Test A d m i n i s t r a t i o n :  The t e n t e s t i t e m s were  administered  d u r i n g t h e f i r s t week and a g a i n d u r i n g t h e f i n a l week o f t h e term.  - 46 The t e s t i t e m s were g i v e n i n d e f i n i t e sequence a t s p e c i f i c t i m e s o f t h e day.  The same t i m e and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  conditions  were used f o r b o t h i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t s . The i t e m s were g i v e n i n f o u r g r o u p s .  Group I t e s t s were  g i v e n d u r i n g t h e second c l a s s p e r i o d , w h i l e Groups I I , I I I and I V were a d m i n i s t e r e d a t t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l appointments d u r i n g t h e f i r s t week.  S i m i l a r l y , f o r t h e f i n a l t e s t i n g , Group I  items were g i v e n t o t h e e n t i r e group a t t h e t w e n t y - f i r s t c l a s s p e r i o d w i t h t h e o t h e r t h r e e Groups a d m i n i s t e r e d  during  t h e week o f t h e t w e n t y - s e c o n d c l a s s . The i t e m s were grouped as f o l l o w s : Group I C h i n t h e Bar S t a n d i n g Broad Jump 50 Yard 600  Dash  Yard Run-Walk  Group I I Cameron Heartometer - B r a c h i a l  Sphygmograph  Dips Cureton  Flexibility  I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y Run Group I I I Dynamometrical S t r e n g t h (1) Hands (2) Back (3) Legs Group I V F i v e Minute S t e p Test Test items were a d m i n i s t e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o s t a n d a r d i z e d p r o c e d u r e s as f o l l o w s :  - 47 AAHPER F i t n e s s T e s t Items - C h i n s ; S t a n d i n g Broad Jump; 50 Yard Dash; 600 Yard Run-Walk:  These i t e m s were a d m i n i s t e r e d  a c c o r d i n g t o d i r e c t i o n s g i v e n i n t h e AAHPER Youth F i t n e s s T e s t Manual  (7).  Cameron Heartometer - B r a c h i a l Sphygmograph:  The  Heartometer was o p e r a t e d as d i r e c t e d i n t h e Cameron Heartometer C o r p o r a t i o n Pamphlet ( 8 ) , Dips:  D i p s were done on t h e p a r a l l e l  bars w i t h t h e bars  a t o r above s h o u l d e r l e v e l o f a l l s u b j e c t s ( 9 ) . The s u b j e c t jumped t o t h e h i g h s u p p o r t p o s i t i o n on t h e b a r .  He was  i n s t r u c t e d t o l o w e r h i s body u n t i l t h e upper and l o w e r arms made an angle o f n i n e t y degrees a t t h e elbow and t h e n t o push h i m s e l f up t o f u l l e x t e n s i o n a g a i n .  The t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t o r  h e l d h i s f i s t i n p o s i t i o n below t h e s u b j e c t s s h o u l d e r s u c h t h a t t h e s h o u l d e r would t o u c h t h e f i s t when t h e n i n e t y degree a n g l e was r e a c h e d .  The s u b j e c t was t o l d t o complete as many  dips as p o s s i b l e . Cureton F l e x i b i l i t y T e s t s : These i t e m s were a d m i n i s t e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o d i r e c t i o n s g i v e n by Cureton I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y Run:  (10).  The I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y Run i s  d e s c r i b e d f u l l y by Gureton ( 1 1 ) . .Dynamometrical Strength:  The two g r i p t e s t s , back  lift  and l e g l i f t were a d m i n i s t e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of Cureton  (12).  F i v e Minute Step Test:  The S t e p Test was a d m i n i s t e r e d  by t h e two g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s t o two s u b j e c t s a t a t i m e .  -48  -  Instructions as given by Brouha (13) were followedo S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis;  Physical f i t n e s s progress made  during the conditioning programme was  evaluated  by determining  the signifieance of the differences i n performance on  initial  and f i n a l t e s t s . The s t a t i s t i c a l method u s e d was  the 'Difference Method',  Garrett. (14) states,; "When groups are small the difference method i s often to be preferred • • ,  This method  determines the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the mean of the differences between i n i t i a l and f i n a l performances, MJQ  - Mean of difference between i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t s  SDQ - Standard Deviation of differences SEn - Standard Error of mean of differences t df : N-1  -  %-o SEj/u  -  (acceptable at the 5 per cent l e v e l of confidence)  Degrees of freedom Number i n sample minus one  The t e s t of the null-hypothesis used was t e s t with an a r b i t r a r i l y  chosen (.05)  , A second technique was progress.  a one-tail  l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e ,  employed to evaluate the class  This involved the conversion  and mean differences to Standard Scores,  of raw mean scores Performance of the  experimental group i n Chins, Standing Broad Jump, 50 Yard Dash and 600* Yard Run-Walk was  related to that of male college  freshmen at the,University according to norms established i n  t h e 1962  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia AAHPER F i t n e s s  Study (15)•  S c o r e s i n a l l o t h e r t e s t i t e m s were r e l a t e d t o  S t a n d a r d Score T a b l e s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r normal young men o f ages I S - 25 y e a r s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s  (16).  T h i s comparison was made i n o r d e r t o know i f t h e r e s u l t s were w o r t h w h i l e b i o l o g i c a l l y . I t was f e l t t h a t a l t h o u g h some o f t h e g a i n s may n o t have been s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y , due t o l a r g e , S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f mean d i f f e r e n c e s , t h i s g a i n may have been s i g n i f i c a n t i n a p r a c t i c a l sense.  For purposes.of  description  improvements i n S t a n d a r d S c o r e s were c l a s s i f i e d  arbitrarily  as f o l l o w s : S t a n d a r d Score G a i n  .Improvement  Over 15  Very Good  10 - Ik  Good  5-10  Fair  Under 5  Low  I n o r d e r t o determine whether o r n o t t h e sample s e l e c t e d c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  o f male freshmen i n t h e  U n i v e r s i t y ' s R e q u i r e d Programme a comparison was made o f t h e sample w i t h t h e 1962 F i t n e s s T e s t Sample,  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia AAHPER C r i t e r i a f o r comparison were h e i g h t ,  w e i g h t , and performance  i n C h i n s , S t a n d i n g Broad Jumps, 50  Yard Dash and 600 Y a r d Run-Walk. The s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e o u t l i n e d by Walker and L e v (17) was used t o e s t i m a t e s a m p l i n g e r r o r i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e  t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t the d e v i a t i o n o f means o f t h e t e s t sample f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y sample a r o s e s o l e l y f r o m s a m p l i n g  error.  Z SD Mp  . 1%  p  P o p u l a t i o n (U.B.C. AAHPER) mean - E x p e r i m e n t a l sample mean  SDp - S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n NE  - Number i n e x p e r i m e n t a l sample  Z  - Z score obtained f o r v a r i a b l e  a  - a r e a o u t s i d e two o r d i n a t e s o f Z ( p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t d i f f e r e n c e between means c o u l d have o c c u r e d due t o chance)  a  a c c e p t a b l e a t minimum o f 0.05 f o r a c c e p t i n g n u l l hypothesis  - 51 REFERENCES •1.  N e l s o n , D.O., .Hurst, R.L., " S i g n i f i c a n t o r Not S i g n i f i c a n t " ! Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 34 (May, 1963), PP. 239-242.  2.  W o l f s o n , M., " E f f e c t s o f a Program o f P r e s c r i b e d E x e r c i s e s on t h e P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s o f Adult, Men", U n p u b l i s h e d Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 195C  3.  Hopkins, R.E., "The E f f e c t s o f V o l l e y b a l l and C a l i s t h e n i c s on t h e P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s o f A d u l t Men", Unpublished^ Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1951.  4.  W i l s o n , A.L., "The. E f f e c t o f Weight T r a i n i n g on t h e P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s o f Young Men", U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1947.  5.  W o l b e r s , C P . , "The E f f e c t s o f V o l l e y b a l l on t h e P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of. A d u l t Men", U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1949.  6.  H o w e l l , M.L., Hodgson, J . L . , Sorenson, J.T., " E f f e c t s of C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g on t h e M o d i f i e d Harvard S t e p T e s t " , Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 34 (May, 1963), PP. 154-158.  7.  AAHPER - N.E.A., F i t n e s s Department, AAHPER Youth , F i t n e s s . T e s t Manual. 1201 S i x t e e n t h S t r e e t , N.W., Washington 6, D.C., 1958.  8.  Cameron Heartometer C o r p o r a t i o n . The Heartometer - I n t h e F i e l d o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . Pamphlet Cameron Heartometer C o r p o r a t i o n , C h i c a g o , 1954.  9.  L a r s o n , L.A., "A F a c t o r and V a l i d i t y A n a l y s i s o f S t r e n g t h V a r i a b l e s and T e s t s w i t h a T e s t C o m b i n a t i o n o f C h i n n i n g , D i p p i n g , and V e r t i c a l Jump", R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 11 (December, 1940),  ;  pp.  82-Wl  10.  C u r e t o n , T.K., P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s o f Champion A t h l e t e s Urbana, U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1951, pp. 86-87.  11.  I b i d . , p. 68.  f  - 52 12.  Cureton, T.K... Physical Fitness_Appraisal and Guidance; St.. Louis, C V . Mosby, 1947, pp. 361-363.  13.  Brouha, L., "The Step Test; A Simple Method of Measuring Physical Fitness f o r Muscular Work i n Young Men", Research Quarterly, v o l . 14 (March, 1943), pp,. ?>T-W.  14.  Garrett, H.E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education. New York, Longmans Green, 1958, pp. 227-228.  15.  University of B r i t i s h Columbia, U.B.C. AAHPER Physical Fitness Test Norms. University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962.  16.  University of I l l i n o i s , Physical Fitness Rating Scores. University of I l l i n o i s , Urbana.  17.  Walker, H.M.,. Lev, J.., S t a t i s t i c a l Inference. New, York, Henry Holt, 1953, pp. 144-145.  CHAPTER V RESULTS AND  DISCUSSION  Comparison Of Sample W i t h R e q u i r e d  Programme P o p u l a t i o n  A l t h o u g h t h e s u b j e c t s used i n t h i s s t u d y were not e c t e d by random s a m p l i n g methods, i t was  sel-  considered d e s i r a b l e  t o know w h e t h e r o r not t h e y were, as a g r o u p , r e a s o n a b l y  rep-  r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f male s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia* T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n would p r o v i d e answers t o two  questions.  The f i r s t q u e s t i o n was whether o r not t h e group o f s u b j e c t s was  s u f f i c i e n t l y u n i q u e as t o produce b i a s i n t h e  experimental  r e s u l t s and t h e second q u e s t i o n was whether o r not i t was p o s s i b l e t o assume t h a t t h e f i t n e s s o f o t h e r groups o f  students  might be i n f l u e n c e d i n s i m i l a r manner by t h e same e x e r c i s e programme. In 1962-3, 350 male s t u d e n t s i n t h e r e q u i r e d programme r e p o r t e d h e i g h t s and w e i g h t s and were g i v e n seven motor fitness tests. to  T h i s group was  considered s u f f i c i e n t l y large  be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f male s t u d e n t s  e n r o l l e d i n t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e d programme a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and w e i g h t s  Sample mean h e i g h t s  and sample mean s c o r e s o f f o u r motor f i t n e s s  v a r i a b l e s were compared, i n the manner d e s c r i b e d by W a l k e r and Lev  (1),  w i t h r e q u i r e d programme p o p u l a t i o n means,  A t w o - t a i l e d t e s t ( l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e 0,05)  was  used  and any Z v a l u e s f a l l i n g o u t s i d e t h e c r i t i c a l r e g i o n were t o  r e s u l t i n r e j e c t i n g the h y p o t h e s i s o f no d i f f e r e n c e between sample and p o p u l a t i o n means.  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows t h a t  i n none o f t h e v a r i a b l e s was t h e d i f f e r e n c e between sample mean and p o p u l a t i o n mean s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o c a s t doubt o n the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e sample c o u l d have a r i s e n by random sampling from t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e d programme student p o p u l a t i o n . Table 1 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f D i f f e r e n c e Between Sample and P o p u l a t i o n Means Mp  Variable  %  D  Accept o r a Reject N u l l Hypothesis  SD,  M  Height ( i n s )  70.50 70.00  0.50 2.70  0.716 .47  Accept  Weight ( l b s )  154.80 151.10  3.70 19.20  0.746 .45  Accept  1.30 2.80  1.797  Accept  7.30  Chins (no.) Standing Broad Jump ( i n s )  87.10 86.40  0.269 .27  Accept  6.80  0.05 0.39  0.496 .50  Accept  109.20 104.70  4.50 9.68  1.799 .07  Accept  6.85  0.70  L e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e = 0.05  ( f o r 'a' s m a l l e r than reject null  Mp  P o p u l a t i o n mean  %  E x p e r i m e n t a l sample mean  DM  D i f f e r e n c e between means  SDp Z a  .07  8.00  50 Yard Dash (sees) 600 Yard RunWalk (sees)  6.00  hypothesis)  Standard D e v i a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n f  Z  T  0.05  score obtained  Area o u t s i d e two o r d i n a t e s o f Z  The  r e s u l t s show t h a t i t was  t h a t b i a s was  reasonable  to  conclude  not i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e experiment by  selection  o f a t y p i c a l students and t h a t o t h e r groups o f students  could  be i n f l u e n c e d i n the same manner by t h e same e x e r c i s e programme used i n t h i s  study.  R e s u l t s o f Health-Habit  Questionnaire  A n a l y s i s of pre and p o s t - t r a i n i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e responses f u r n i s h e d both d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n as t o the nature t h e s u b j e c t s and an estimate o f any  of  changes i n p e r s o n a l h a b i t s  which might have p o s i t i v e l y or n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t e d p h y s i c a l fitness. D e s c r i p t i o n of S u b j e c t s :  The  eighteen to twenty-five years. be 19,5  years.  a mean of 70,5 t o 210  The  s u b j e c t s ranged i n age from average age was  Height ranged from 64 inches.  found  to  t o 75 i n c h e s , w i t h  The range o f weight was  120  pounds  pounds.  Surnames were used t o c l a s s i f y s u b j e c t s a r b i t r a r i l y t h r e e e t h n i c groups; B r i t i s h o r i g i n , European o r i g i n , Oriental origin.  The  sample was  and  found t o c o n t a i n t e n boys  w i t h B r i t i s h names, f o u r w i t h European names and Oriental.  into  one  T h i s p r o p o r t i o n of e t h n i c groups c o u l d be con-  s i d e r e d r e a s o n a b l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e r a c i a l make-up of t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Lower Mainland The  Area p o p u l a t i o n .  s u b j e c t s were a l l male c o l l e g e freshmen e n r o l l e d i n  the r e q u i r e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme.  None of t h e  sub-  -  $6  -  j e c t s were v a r s i t y - c a l i b r e a t h l e t e s i n any a c t i v i t y .  The  sample was composed o f s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n t h e f i r s t  year  o f Commerce, E n g i n e e r i n g , S c i e n c e and A r t s C o u r s e s ,  No  s u b j e c t i n d i c a t e d an i n t e n t i o n t o e n t e r t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p h y s i c a l education  programme.  S u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o s u b j e c t i v e l y r a t e t h e i r l e v e l of f i t n e s s at the i n i t i a l t e s t session.  Two s u b j e c t s r a t e d  t h e m s e l v e s as b e i n g i n good c o n d i t i o n , n i n e f e l t t h e y were i n f a i r c o n d i t i o n and f o u r t h o u g h t t h e i r f i t n e s s l e v e l was poor. V a r i a t i o n s i n Personal Habits:  Responses were o b t a i n e d  a t b o t h i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s r e g a r d i n g a number o f p e r s o n a l h e a l t h h a b i t s w h i c h might have a f f e c t e d t h e physical f i t n e s s l e v e l of subjects. Two s u b j e c t s n o t e d t h a t t h e y s u f f e r e d f r o m s l i g h t at the pre-test session.  However, one o f t h e s e  colds  subjects  r e p o r t e d t h e same problem d u r i n g t h e f i n a l t e s t p e r i o d . average s l e e p p e r n i g h t r e p o r t e d was a p p r o x i m a t e l y  7,5  The hours.  No change was r e p o r t e d i n s l e e p i n g h a b i t s d u r i n g t h e experimental  period.  S i m i l a r l y , no s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n  e a t i n g h a b i t s were n o t e d .  Three s u b j e c t s s t a t e d t h a t  had p a r t - t i m e j o b s on t h e weekends.  they  However, no changes  e i t h e r i n d u r a t i o n o f w o r k i n g h o u r s o r s c h e d u l e s were r e ported.  Ten s u b j e c t s were non smokers, two smoked l e s s t h a n  f i v e c i g a r e t t e s a day and t h r e e smoked t e n o r more c i g a r e t t e s a day.  A g a i n , no s i g n i f i c a n t changes were r e p o r t e d i n smoking  habits. One s t u d e n t i n d i c a t e d t h a t he had done two h o u r s a week o f h a r d a t h l e t i c work p r i o r t o t h e i n i t i a l t e s t .  This  s u b j e c t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e same a c t i v i t y (two hours o f rugby p e r week) t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u r s e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . Although  a l l s u b j e c t s had been employed a t v a r i o u s  during the preceding not o f a s t r e n u o u s  jobs  summer p e r i o d , t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s  nature.  were  Three s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n  badminton t w i c e a week, f o r o n e - h a l f hour p e r i o d s , d u r i n g the term.  Only one s u b j e c t i n d i c a t e d any change i n h a b i t s  o t h e r t h a n t h o s e i n d i c a t e d above.  T h i s student  reported  o b t a i n i n g an a u t o m o b i l e d u r i n g t h e t e s t p e r i o d , w h i c h dec r e a s e d h i s normal e x e r c i s e t o a degree w h i c h c o u l d have negatively influenced his r e s u l t s .  I t was n o t e d t h a t t h i s  p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t was t h e same i n d i v i d u a l who r e p o r t e d a s l i g h t cold during the f i r s t test period. In p h y s i c a l education experimental  studies there are  many u n c o n t r o l l e d f a c t o r s w h i c h might i n f l u e n c e f i t n e s s . At b e s t , t e s t s u b j e c t s s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o l e a d n o r m a l l i v e s . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e , however, t o c o m p l e t e l y  c o n t r o l personal  h a b i t s w h i c h may have some e f f e c t on f i t n e s s . Answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e showed t h a t o n l y f o u r s t u d e n t s were engaged i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s a d d i t i o n a l t o t h e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g c l a s s i n w h i c h t h e y were e n r o l l e d .  — 58 — One  s u b j e c t p l a y e d rugby f o r two h o u r s p e r week p r i o r  t o and d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e  experiment.  Three s u b j e c t s p l a y e d badminton f o r two t h i r t y - m i n u t e p e r i o d s p e r week d u r i n g the The  experiment.  o t h e r s t u d e n t s appeared t o have l i v e d  reasonably  w e l l r e g u l a t e d l i v e s and d i d not engage i n a d d i t i o n a l physical exercise. I t was  not p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e  a d d i t i o n a l e x e r c i s e on t h e f i t n e s s o f t h e f o u r s u b j e c t s described.  The r u g b y p l a y e r had, however, begun p l a y i n g  r u g b y b e f o r e t h e f i r s t t e s t i n g p e r i o d and t h u s t h e  initial  e f f e c t s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n rugby c o u l d have been removed from the experimental  results.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n badminton  and v o l l e y b a l l by n o v i c e s t w i c e a week f o r t h i r t y m i n u t e s each t i m e has been shown to have v e r y l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , (2,3,4,5). E f f e c t s Of The  P h y s i c a l Conditioning.Programme  The f o l l o w i n g changes i n c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n and motor f i t n e s s were o b s e r v e d i n t h i s Cardiovascular  study.  Condition  Component I - H a b i t u a l Autonomic Tone: S t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r Component. I a r e shown i n . Table  2.  -59  -  . Table 2 R e l i a b i l i t y o f M e a n , D i f f e r e n c e s Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l S c o r e s H a b i t u a l Autonomic Brachial P u l s e Wave Variables  i %  A r e a Under Curve ( s q . cms.)  .311  Systolic Amplitude .Sitting (cms.) Diastolic Amplitude Sitting ;. (cms.)  , Mf  . MQ  .935  .060  1.147  1.091  -.056  , .174  .478  .527  .049  21.49  -.20  1.80  2.33  .53  (beats per 77.40  69.13  -6.33  P u l s e Rate minute)  SDp  .346  Obliquity 21.69 Angle, (deg.) Rest/Work Ratio  Tone  .134  SE  m  t  Accept o r Reject N u l l Hypothesis  .015  2.27  Reject  .045  1.25  Accept  .035  1.42  Accept  1.71  .44  .47  Accept  .58  .15  3.49  Reject  2.84  2.92  Reject  10.92  Test o f N u l l Hypothesis - o n e - t a l l ' t * t e s t Level of s i g n i f i c a n c e - 0.05 M,-  Mean o f i n i t i a l s c o r e s  i Mf ... Mean o f f i n a l s c o r e s MQ  Mean o f d i f f e r e n c e s  SDp  Standard D e v i a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e s  SEj© S t a n d a r d E r r o r o f mean o f d i f f e r e n c e s t  O b t a i n e d *t  r  f o r mean d i f f e r e n c e  ^ T a b l e 3 shows i n i t i a l and f i n a l means and t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between means e x p r e s s e d i n s t a n d a r d s c o r e s .  - .66 Table 3 Standard Scores f o r H a b i t u a l Autonomic Tone Items Brachial P u l s e Wave Variables  Initial Mean  Final Mean  Difference  A r e a Under Curve  52  58  6  Fair  Systolic Amplitude Sitting  50  46  -4  Poor  Diastolic Amplitude Sitting  48  53  Fair  Angle  69  71  Low  Rest/Work Ratio  53  63  10  . Good  P u l s e Rate  48  58  10  Good  Obliquity  Difference Rating  T a b l e 4 shows t h e number o f s t u d e n t s who made h i g h e r s c o r e s , t h e number who d i d n o t change and t h o s e who o b t a i n e d lower scores from i n i t i a l t o f i n a l  tests.  Table 4 C a r d i o v a s c u l a r Component I - I n c r e a s e s No Changes and R e g r e s s i o n s Variable  Increases  No Changes  Regressed  A r e a Under Curve  9  2  4  Systolic Amplitude  6  0  9  Diastolic Amplitude  8  0  7  Table 4 cont'd Variable  Increases  No Changes  Regressed  ObliquityAngle  7  0  Rest/Work Ratio  13  0  2  P u l s e Rate  10  2  3  Improvements i n t e s t i t e m s measuring H a b i t u a l Autonomic Tone were as f o l l o w s : Area Under Curve: o f .035  A s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mean g a i n  square cms. was o b t a i n e d .  This represents a standard  s c o r e i n c r e a s e o f 6, f r o m a p r e - t r a i n i n g l e v e l o f 52 scores.  standard  Nine s u b j e c t s improved, f o u r r e g r e s s e d and two d i d  not change. The  improvement o f 6 s t a n d a r d s c o r e s i s c o n s i d e r a b l y  s m a l l e r t h a n t h a t o b t a i n e d by Hopkins (6) w i t h s i x t e e n m i d d l e aged men who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a t h r e e t i m e s w e e k l y p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s c l a s s o y e r a s i x month p e r i o d . g a i n s o f 20 s t a n d a r d s c o r e s .  T h i s group made mean  T h i s g r o u p , however, may have  had a g r e a t e r c a p a c i t y t h a n t h e young men f o r improvement!* S y s t o l i c Amplitude .056  Sitting;:  The sample mean d e c r e a s e d  cms., r e p r e s e n t i n g a d e c r e a s e o f 4 s t a n d a r d s c o r e s f r o m  an i n i t i a l mean o f 50 s t a n d a r d s c o r e s .  Six subjects increased  measurements and n i n e had l o w e r measurements on r e t e s t i n g . F i v e o f t h e s u b j e c t s (nos. 1,3,5,6 and 8) who r e g r e s s e d had r e l a t i v e l y h i g h s c o r e s on t h e i n i t i a l  test.  Hopkins (7) found a mean improvement i n s i t t i n g S y s t o l i c Amplitude i n middle-aged men of 18 standard scores.  Although t h i s group would probably have had a  greater capacity f o r improvement than the present  experimental  sample, the large improvements i n t h i s group of adult men could also r e f l e c t the nature of the t r a i n i n g programme which was of greater i n t e n s i t y and duration than that used i n t h i s study, .Diastolic Amplitude S i t t i n g :  The mean positive change of  •049 cms, was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , and represents a gain of 5 standard scores, from an i n i t i a l mean l e v e l of 48 standard scores.  Eight subjects increased scores while  seven regressed i n t h i s item. Obliquity Angle:  The sample increased only 2 standard  scores from an i n i t i a l mean standard score of 69. Seven subjects had higher scores while eight regressed. gain was not s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y .  The mean  Hopkins (8) obtained  a substantial improvement of 15 standard scores i n h i s study.. . Rest/Work Ratio:  The s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mean  improvement of .53 equals a 10 standard score gain from an o r i g i n a l l e v e l of 53 standard scores.  Thirteen subjects  increased scores while only two scored below t h e i r l e v e l a f t e r participating  i n the programme.  initial  Subjects 3 and  6 who experienced a decrease i n scores also showed regression i n most measures of cardiovascular f i t n e s s .  Since t h e i r  - 63 i n i t i a l s c o r e s were s u b s t a n t i a l l y above t h o s e o f most o f t h e o t h e r s u b j e c t s i t may r e a s o n a b l y be assumed t h a t t h e programme was n o t adequate t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r i n i t i a l of f i t n e s s .  levels  Seven s u b j e c t s made s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s ; one  o f t h e s e g a i n s was e x c e p t i o n a l l y l a r g e - a p o s s i b l e a r t i f a c t o f t h e s u b j e c t h a v i n g a bad c o l d d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l  test.  W o l f s o n (9) f o u n d t h a t n i n e m i d d l e - a g e d men improved 20 s t a n d a r d s c o r e s more t h a n a c o n t r o l group w h i c h d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s p e c i a l p r e s c r i b e d e x e r c i s e programme. These g a i n s a r e o f t h e magnitude observed  i n t h e present  s t u d y i n f o u r s u b j e c t s who s t a r t e d i n an i n i t i a l l o w s t a t e of f i t n e s s .  Both m i d d l e - a g e d men and s t u d e n t s w i t h l o w  i n i t i a l s c o r e s would be c a p a b l e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e improvement. Pulse Rate;  A s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mean decrease  i n r e s t i n g p u l s e r a t e o f 8.33 b e a t s p e r minute was o b t a i n e d . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s an improvement o f 10 s t a n d a r d s c o r e s f r o m an i n i t i a l l e v e l o f 48 on t h e S t a n d a r d Score S c a l e .  Ten  s u b j e c t s i n c r e a s e d s c o r e s i n t h i s i t e m w h i l e two remained t h e same and t h r e e r e g r e s s e d (among them s u b j e c t s 3 and 6 ) . Component I I - S p l a n c h n i c Tone Item: S t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r Component I I a r e shown i n T a b l e 5.  Table 5 R e l i a b i l i t y o f Mean D i f f e r e n c e Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Scores S p l a n c h n i c Tone Variable  Mj_  Mf  Brachial P u l s e Wave Systolic ,828 Amplitude S t a n d i n g (cms)  ,865  ML  ,037  SD  t  Accept o r Reject Null Hypothesis  .86  Accept  SEMD  D  .166  ,043  L e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e necessary t o r e j e c t h y p o t h e s i s s 0,05  null  A s t a t i s t i c a l l y n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t improvement o f .037 cms. was o b t a i n e d f o r t h e B r a c h i a l P u l s e Wave i t e m - S y s t o l i c Amplitude Standing.  S i n c e no s t a n d a r d s c o r e s were a v a i l a b l e  f o r t h i s i t e m s c o r e s c o u l d n o t be compared w i t h norms done on o t h e r young men.  The mean d i f f e r e n c e r e p r e s e n t s a 4«4  gain. T a b l e 6 shows t h e number o f s t u d e n t s who made i n c r e a s e s ^ t h e number who d i d n o t make changes and t h o s e who o b t a i n e d reduced scores from i n i t i a l t o f i n a l  tests.  Table 6 C a r d i o v a s c u l a r Component I I - I n c r e a s e s , No Changes and R e g r e s s i o n s Variable Systolic Amplitude Standing  Increases .  9  No Changes 1  Regressed 5  - 65 S u b j e c t s 2, 3, 4 and 6 r e g r e s s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y (.11 t o •18 cms.)  i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e programme was p r o b a b l y n o t  i n t e n s i v e enough t o m a i n t i a n t h e i r i n i t i a l S p l a n c h n i c Tone fitness.  S u b j e c t s 4, 10, 13, 14 and 15 showed s u b s t a n t i a l  g a i n s (more t h a n .09 ems.) w h i l e t h e r e m a i n i n g s u b j e c t s d i d n o t change a p p r e c i a b l y . Component I V - C i r c u l a t o r y Adjustment t o Hard A t h l e t i c Work: S t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r Component I V a r e shown i n T a b l e 7. Table 7 R e l i a b i l i t y o f Mean D i f f e r e n c e Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Scores C i r c u l a t o r y Adjustment t o Hard A t h l e t i c Work Brachial P u l s e Wave Variables Systolic Amplitude A f t e r E x e r c i s e (cms) Yard RunWalk ( s e e s )  %  %  1.093  1.171  109.19  103.73  Mj>  SD  .077  .262  5.46  D  SEj^ . .069  t  .112  10.94 2.82 1.94  Accept o r Reject Null Hypothesis Accept Reject  T a b l e 8 shows i n i t i a l and f i n a l means and mean d i f f e r e n c e s e x p r e s s e d i n s t a n d a r d s c o r e s f o r t h e 600 Yard Run-Walk. Table 8 S t a n d a r d Scores f o r 600 Yard Run-Walk Variable 600 Y a r d Run-Walk  Initial Mean 39  Final Mean 51  Difference 12  Difference Rating Good  -  66 -  T a b l e 9 shows t h e number o f s t u d e n t s who had i n c r e a s e d s c o r e s , t h e number who d i d not change and t h o s e who lower scores from i n i t i a l t o f i n a l  obtained  tests.  Table 9 C a r d i o v a s c u l a r Component IV - I n c r e a s e s , No Changes and R e g r e s s i o n s Variable  „  Systolic Amplitude After Exercise  Increases  No Changes  Regressions  10  0  5  11  2  2  600 Y a r d Run-Walk  Improvements i n t e s t i t e m s measuring Adjustment t o Hard A t h l e t i c Work were as f o l l o w s : S y s t o l i c Amplitude A f t e r E x e r c i s e :  A  statistically  n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t mean g a i n o f .077 cms. was n o t e d i n t h i s T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a change o f 0.7 p e r cent o f t h e i n i t i a l  item.  mean, w h i c h i s a v e r y s m a l l g a i n . scores while f i v e regressed.  Ten s u b j e c t s had h i g h e r  Both i n c r e a s e s and r e g r e s s i o n s  of considerable s i z e occurred w i t h a r e s u l t i n g low net g a i n . 600 Y a r d Run-Walk:  The s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t mean  improvement o f 5.46 seconds r e p r e s e n t s a s t a n d a r d i n c r e a s e o f 12 from an i n i t i a l mean l e v e l o f 39 scores.  score standard  E l e v e n s u b j e c t s i n c r e a s e d w h i l e o n l y two  and two remained t h e same. were l e s s t h a n t e n seconds.  regressed  A l l i n c r e a s e d s c o r e s , except one, One s u b j e c t ,  predominately  - 67  -  endomorphic i n b u i l d , had a v e r y low i n i t i a l t i m e w h i c h he improved by 41 c a s e was  seconds i n the p o s t - t e s t .  When t h i s a t y p i c a l  removed f r o m t h e s t a t i s t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s t h e mean  improvement was  r e d u c e d f r o m 5.46  a s m a l l but s t a t i s t i c a l l y  (12  S.S.)  t o 2.93  (9  S.S.)  s i g n i f i c a n t mean d i f f e r e n c e .  Improvements i n C a r d i o v a s c u l a r (Adjustment t o Hard A t h l e t i c Work):  C o n d i t i o n - Component IV The  Post-Exercise  S y s t o l i c A m p l i t u d e i t e m d i d not y i e l d r e s u l t s s i m i l a r t o 600  Yards item.  Results.obtained  the  i n t h e 60G\ Yard Run-Walk  i n d i c a t e d a f a i r l y modest improvement i n t h i s f a c t o r . Capen, (10.), s t u d y i n g t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of Weight T r a i n i n g and  C o n d i t i o n i n g o v e r an e l e v e n week period";'  f o u n d t h a t c o n d i t i o n i n g improved t i m e 7.1 300  Yard S h u t t l e Run..  running  p e r cent i n t h e  H i s programme c o n s i s t e d o f  tumbling,  and r e l a y s , combative games and c o n d i t i o n i n g  done t h r e e t i m e s a week f o r f o r t y m i n u t e s .  The  exercises  groups under  s t u d y were r e q u i r e d c l a s s e s i n t h e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n p r o gramme.  Landiss  (11)  obtained h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t  gains  f r o m a c o n d i t i o n i n g c l a s s i n t h e r e q u i r e d programme c a r r i e d on t h r e e t i m e s p e r week f o r an h o u r .  He compared t h e  p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g programme w i t h a number of  other  a c t i v i t i e s o f f e r e d i n t h e r e q u i r e d programme, and f o u n d i t produced h i g h e s t g a i n s i n , C a r d i o v a s c u l a r measured by t h e 300  Yard S h u t t l e  Run.  Condition  as  - 68 Component V - Recovery A f t e r a Hard Work Task: S t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r t h e one item r e p r e s e n t i n g Component V a r e shown i n T a b l e 10. T a b l e 10 R e l i a b i l i t y o f Mean D i f f e r e n c e Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Scores F i v e Minute Step Test - Sum o f 3 Recovery Counts Variable F i v e Minute Step T e s t (beats)  Accept o r Reject Null Hypothesis  Mi  Mf  %  SDj)  SE^  t  193.70  183.90  -9.80  17.10  4.42  2.22  L e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e necessary t o r e j e c t h y p o t h e s i s = 0.05 T a b l e 11 shows i n i t i a l  Reject  null  and f i n a l means and t h e d i f f e r e n c e s  between means expressed i n standard s c o r e s . Table 11 Standard Scores f o r F i v e Minute Step T e s t Variable F i v e Minute Step Test  Initial Mean 3©  Final Mean 39  Difference 9  Improvement Rating F a i r t o Good  Table 12 shows t h e number o f students who made i n c r e a s e d s c o r e s , the number who d i d not change and those who obtained lower s c o r e s from i n i t i a l t o f i n a l  tests.  Table  12  C a r d i o v a s c u l a r Component V - I n c r e a s e s , No Changes and R e g r e s s i o n s Variable  Increases  No Changes  Regressed  F i v e Minute 13  S t e p Test  2  0  Improvements i n t h e t e s t i t e m measuring Recovery A f t e r a Hard Work Task were as f o l l o w s : : F i v e Minute.Step. T e s t : improvement on t h i s i t e m was  S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mean 9.6 r e c o v e r y b e a t s .  This  r e p r e s e n t s a 9 s t a n d a r d s c o r e g a i n f r o m an i n i t i a l l e v e l of 30 s t a n d a r d s c o r e s . two r e g r e s s e d . (15  Thirteen subjects increased scores while  S u b j e c t s 3 and 9 r e g r e s s e d  substantially  and 29 beats) f r o m i n i t i a l r e c o v e r y c o u n t s , w h i c h were  considerably s u p e r i o r to those of the other students.  Seven  s u b j e c t s i n c r e a s e d more t h a n f o u r t e e n p u l s e b e a t s . Brouha, Fradd and Savage (12),  i n a study o f t h e  effects  o f p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g c a r r i e d on f o u r hours a week f o r t h r e e months, f o u n d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s t o t h o s e observed present study.  i n the  These r e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f  t h e c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s t e s t e d improved t h e i r f i t n e s s . t h o s e s t u d e n t s who  However,  had i n i t i a l l y s c o r e d i n t h e good o r  e x c e l l e n t c a t e g o r i e s tended t o show p o o r e r s c o r e s on t h e r e t e s t w i t h t h e Harvard S t e p T e s t . T h e i r conclusion, which could a l s o apply t o the r e s u l t s o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y , was t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g programme was  - 70 adequate f o r the ' u n f i t  r  1  but too easy f o r the already ' f i t ' i l "  Cardiovascular Condition seemingly improved i n a l l ten  t e s t items f o r subjects k and 15.  Subjects 7, 10 and 13  increased i n eight o r nine items.  Seven students increased  t h e i r scores i n s i x or seven items.  Subjects 3 and 6 r e -  gressed i n seven and nine items r e s p e c t i v e l y , while subject 8 increased i n only four items. . Application of the information from the Health - Habit Questionnaire to the above r e s u l t s furnished some possible explanations of these phenomena.  Subject 3, who was found  to regress i n a l l but three items, was also found t o have entered the programme i n excellent condition as a r e s u l t of playing rugby weekly.  Subject 6 , who regressed i n a l l but  one t e s t item, was also found to have scored w e l l i n a l l items on the i n i t i a l t e s t . Two subjects who increased scores i n eight or more items also participated i n v o l l e y b a l l r e g u l a r l y during the term and hence t h i s programme may have acted as a f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g stimulus.  I t was l i k e l y , however, that the effect of r e -  quired programme v o l l e y b a l l would be minimal as several studies have shown the low f i t n e s s benefits r e s u l t i n g from it.  Subject 10, who increased scores i n a l l but one item,  was the student who had experienced a s l i g h t cold during the i n i t i a l test.  This may have influenced h i s r e s u l t s p o s i t i v e l y .  Herkimer (13.) studied the e f f e c t s of seven months of  e x e r c i s e on a d u l t men. which averaged  He found marked c a r d i o v a s c u l a r g a i n s  12 - 18 standard s c o r e s i n t h e Camerone  Heartometer measures. I t i s probably e a s i e r t o produce improvements i n t h e f i t n e s s of middle-aged men  j u s t s t a r t i n g t r a i n i n g than i t i s  t o do t h i s w i t h young c o l l e g e men.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , one would  hope to a c h i e v e improvements o f 12 - 16 standard scores i n a good t r a i n i n g programme w i t h people o f any age group, w h i l e improvements of 5 - 6 standard s c o r e s are o n l y j u s t •fair . 1  F i v e items had  statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t mean gains  c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o i n c r e a s e s of 6 - 12 standard s c o r e s .  The  group showed s i g n i f i c a n t improvements i n : Variable  Standard  Component I  Area Under Curve Rest/Work R a t i o Pulse Rate  6 10 10  Component IV  600  Yard Run-Walk  12  Component V  F i v e Minute Step T e s t  9  S u b j e c t s who  Score  entered the programme w i t h low  increased scores considerably.  fitness  On the o t h e r hand those  who  began i n good c o n d i t i o n r e g r e s s e d c o n s i s t e n t l y i n a l l components.  The m a j o r i t y o f the s u b j e c t s showed o n l y f a i r  g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e d s c o r e s - i n c r e a s i n g i n some items and r e g r e s s i n g i n some. The t r a i n i n g programme t h e r e f o r e appeared not t o  be;  - 72 c h a l l e n g i n g enough f o r f i t s t u d e n t s , r e a s o n a b l y good s t i m u l u s t o improve f i t n e s s i n i n i t i a l l y poor f i t n e s s s t u d e n t s , and i n d i f f e r e n t i n i t s e f f e c t s on a l a r g e m i d d l e group o f s t u d e n t s who i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y i n some i t e m s , r e g r e s s e d i n o t h e r s and as a g r o u p appeared t o f o l l o w no p a t t e r n i n t h e r e g r e s s i o n s o r i n c r e a s e s which took p l a c e . Motor F i t n e s s Component I - A g i l i t y : S t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r Component I a r e shown i n Table  13. Table  13  R e l i a b i l i t y o f Mean D i f f e r e n c e s Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l S c o r e s A g i l i t y Item Variable Illinois Agility Run (sees)  Mi  Mf  Mr,  18.66  18.41  -.25  SD  D  SE  .48  m  .13  t  Accept o r Reject N u l l Hypothesis  2.01  Reject  T a b l e 14 shows i n i t i a l and f i n a l means and t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between means e x p r e s s e d  i n standard Table  scores.  14  Standard Scores f o r A g i l i t y Item Variable Illinois A g i l i t y Run  Initial Mean 62  Final Mean  Difference  64  2  Difference Rating Low  - 73 T a b l e 15  -  shows t h e number o f s t u d e n t s who  s c o r e s , t h e number who  made i n c r e a s e d  d i d not change and t h o s e who  lower scores from i n i t i a l t o f i n a l Table  obtained  tests.  15  Motor F i t n e s s Component I - I n c r e a s e s , No Changes and R e g r e s s i o n s Variable  Increases  No Changes  Regressions  Illinois A g i l i t y Run  11  4  0  The mean improvement i n r u n n i n g t i m e o f .25  seconds  r e p r e s e n t s a s t a n d a r d s c o r e improvement o f 2 f r o m an mean l e v e l o f 62 s t a n d a r d s c o r e s . was  (2 S.S.)  indifferent  i t was  initial  A l t h o u g h t h e improvement  i n a b i o l o g i c a l or p r a c t i c a l  sense,  s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t because o f t h e s m a l l  S t a n d a r d E r r o r between means.. S m a l l i n c r e a s e s were n o t e d i n most s u b j e c t s w i t h e l e v e n showing h i g h e r s c o r e s w h i l e f o u r d e c r e a s e d t h e i r s c o r e s . Only t h r e e s u b j e c t s showed i n c r e a s e d s c o r e s g r e a t e r t h a n .8 seconds,.  I n comparison w i t h o t h e r motor f i t n e s s  mean s c o r e s , t h e group had a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h i n i t i a l (62 S.S.)  i n the A g i l i t y  R i s t l e r (14)  score  Run.  s t u d i e d t h e e f f e c t s o f e i g h t weeks o f t h r e e  t i m e s w e e k l y t h i r t y - m i n u t e bouts o f r u n n i n g , and c o m b a t i v e s .  item  calisthenics  Of t h e c o l l e g e freshmen s t u d i e d he  found  t h a t 6 l per c e n t i n c r e a s e d s c o r e s , 21 per cent d e c l i n e d , w h i l e 18 p e r c e n t remained t h e same i n an o b s t a c l e c o u r s e run f o r time.  H e r k i m e r (15)  a l s o found d i f f i c u l t i e s i n  - 74 improving a g i l i t y .  He noted t h a t h i s group o f a d u l t men  had  a c t u a l l y r e g r e s s e d 5 standard s c o r e s a f t e r seven months o f exercising.  In view of above average  performance a t t h e  i n i t i a l t e s t the s m a l l mean g a i n o f .25  seconds (2  S.S.)  o b t a i n e d i n t h i s study would appear t o be a f a i r improvement. Component I I - Speed: Statistical  r e s u l t s f o r Component I I are shown i n  Table I d . Table  16  R e l i a b i l i t y o f Mean D i f f e r e n c e s Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Scores Speed Item Variable 50 Yard Dash (sees.)  Mi  Mj.  6.81  6.69  Mr,  SD  .11  D  .21  SE^  Accept o r Reject N u l l Hypothesis  t  .05  2.13  Reject  Table 17 shows i n i t i a l and f i n a l means and the d i f f e r e n c e s between means expressed i n standard s c o r e s . Table  17  Standard Scores f o r Speed Item Variable 50 Yard Dash  Initial Mean 50  Final Mean 56  Difference 6  Table 18 shows the number o f students who s c o r e s , the number who  Difference Rating Fair  had i n c r e a s e d  d i d not change and those who  lower s c o r e s from i n i t i a l t o f i n a l  tests.  obtained  - 75 Table 18 Motor Fitness Component, I I - Increases, No Changes and Regressions Variable  Increases  50 Yard Dash  No Changes  9  Regressions  4  2  A s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mean improvement of .11 seconds was noted i n the 50. Yard Dash, , This represents a gain of 6 standard scores from an i n i t i a l l e v e l of 50 standard scores.  Nine subjects increased t h e i r scores, four  remained the same and two regressed. In l i g h t of the d i f f i c u l t i e s usually observed i n improving speed of running, t h i s represents a reasonably good gain. Component I I I - Power: S t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r Component I I I are shown i n ., Table 19. . Table 19 R e l i a b i l i t y of Mean Differences Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Scores Power Item Variable  %  Standing Broad Jump (inches)  86.4-0  Mp  86.83  MQ  SD  2.43  3.72  D  SE  m  .96  t  2.53  Accept or Reject Null Hypothesis Reject  Table 20 shows i n i t i a l and f i n a l means and the differences between means expressed i n standard scores.  Table  20  S t a n d a r d Scores f o r Power Item . Initial Mean  Variable  Final Mean  Difference Rating  Difference  ,Standing Broad Jump  47  52  5  Fair  T a b l e 21 shows t h e number o f s t u d e n t s who made i n c r e a s e d s c o r e s , t h e number who d i d n o t change and t h o s e who lower scores from i n i t i a l t o f i n a l  obtained  tests.  T a b l e 21 Motor F i t n e s s Component I I I - I n c r e a s e s , No Changes and R e g r e s s i o n s Variable  . Increases  Standing Broad Jump  9  A statistically was f o u n d .  No Changes  Regressions  1  5  s i g n i f i c a n t mean g a i n o f 2,43  inches  T h i s r e p r e s e n t s an improvement o f 5 s t a n d a r d  s c o r e s ^ f r o m an i n i t i a l mean l e v e l o f 47 s t a n d a r d s c o r e s . Nine s u b j e c t s i n c r e a s e d scores w h i l e f i v e regressed One s u b j e c t had t h e same s c o r e on b o t h All  slightly.  tests.  changes were r e a s o n a b l y s i m i l a r i n amount and i t  i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t a g e n e r a l improvement i n jumping power d i d o c c u r .  T h i s improvement may r e f l e c t t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e  emphasis p l a c e d on r u n n i n g i n t h e programme. I t was s e e n t h a t l o w t o f a i r improvements were made i n the t h r e e t e s t items u t i l i z i n g the E x p l o s i v e S t r e n g t h of the  Legs (16); Jump,  the A g i l i t y Run,  50 Yard Dash and Standing Broad  These improvements appeared to be general i n nature.  No strongly consistent patterns of increased scores or regression i n the d i f f e r e n t variables were noted among subjects. Five subjects increased i n a l l three items and f i v e subjects increased scores i n two  items.  . Component IV - F l e x i b i l i t y : Statistical ,Table  r e s u l t s f o r Component IV are,shown i n  22. Table 22 R e l i a b i l i t y of Mean Differences Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Scores F l e x i b i l i t y Items  Variable  MD  Shoulder Flexibility (inches) Trunk Flexibility Backward (inches) Trunk Flexibility Forward (inches)  SD D  Accept or Reject Null Hypothesis  SE MD  9.58  12.39  2.81  2.70  .70  4.03  Reject  17.20  17.27  !07  2.12  .55  .13  Accept  12.05  11.34  -.71  2.10  .54  1.31  Accept  Table 23 shows i n i t i a l and f i n a l means and the differences between means expressed i n standard scores.  T a b l e 23 Standard Scores f o r F l e x i b i l i t y Items Initial . Mean  Variable  Final Mean  :  Difference  Difference Rating  Shoulder Flexibility  48  58  Trunk Flexibility Backward  66  67  Low  Trunk Flexibility Forward  55  57  Low  10  Good  T a b l e 24 shows t h e number o f s t u d e n t s who made i n c r e a s e s t h e number who d i d not change and t h o s e who o b t a i n e d l o w e r scores from i n i t i a l t o f i n a l  tests.  Table  24  Motor F i t n e s s Component I V - I n c r e a s e s , No Changes and R e g r e s s i o n s Variable Shoulder - Flexibility Trunk Flexibility Backward  Increases  No Changes  Regressions  15  0  0  6  0  9  Trunk Flexibility Forward Improvements i n t e s t i t e m s measuring F l e x i b i l i t y were as f o l l o w s .  - 79 Shoulder F l e x i b i l i t y ;  The mean improvement i n t h i s item  was 2.81 inches or 10 standard scores from an i n i t i a l l e v e l of 48 standard scores.  The mean difference was also found  to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  A l l f i f t e e n subjects i n -  creased t h e i r scores. The general consistent improvement i n t h i s item represents a substantial gain i n Shoulder F l e x i b i l i t y during the experimental period. Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Backward:  A mean gain of .07 inches  was found to be a positive change of 1 standard score from 66 standard scores i n i t i a l l y . insignificant statistically.  The mean gain was found to be Only s i x subjects increased  while nine regressed. Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Backwards was not improved by the experimental f a c t o r . Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Forward:  The mean gain of .71 inches  represents a gain of 2 standard scores from an i n i t i a l mean l e v e l of 55 standard scores.  The increase was found to be  statistically insignificant.  Nine, subjects had higher scores  while s i x regressed. Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Forwards was not increased substantially by the programme. Individual improvement i n one f l e x i b i l i t y item was not related t o changes i n any of the other items.  The gains  made i n the three f l e x i b i l i t y items show that f l e x i b i l i t y i s  - 80 evidently s p e c i f i c to a j o i n t or a j o i n t complex. experimental f a c t o r produced  While the  substantial improvements i n  shoulder range of motion, forward and backward trunk f l e x i b i l i t y was not altered appreciably. Component V - Dynamic Strength and Muscular Endurance: S t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r Component V are shown i n Table  25. Table 25 R e l i a b i l i t y of Mean Differences Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Scores Dynamic Strength and Muscular Endurance Items  Variable  %  %  MQ  SD  D  SE^  Accept or Reject Null  t  Hypothesis Chins (no.)  6.00  6.33  Dips (no.)  9.40  11.53  .33 2.13  1.18  .30  1.08  Accept  3.54  .91  2.33  Reject  Table 26 shows i n i t i a l and f i n a l means and the differences between means expressed i n standard scores. Table 26 Standard Scores f o r Dynamic Strength and Muscular Endurance Items Variable  Initial Mean  Final Mean  Difference  Chins  48  5©  2  Dips  47  58  11  Difference Rating Low Good  Table 27 shows the number of students who made increased scores, the number who  did not change and those who  lower scores from i n i t i a l to f i n a l t e s t s .  obtained  - 81 Table 27 Motor Fitness Component V - Increases No Changes and Regressions Variable  Increases  Chins Pips  No Changes  Regressions  6  6  3  10  2  3  Improvements i n t e s t items measuring Dynamic Strength and Muscular Endurance were as follows. Chins:  A mean gain of .33 chins was found to be  statistically insignificant.  This gain represents a positive  standard score change of 2 from an i n i t i a l l e v e l of 48 standard scores.  S i x subjects increased while the same  number f a i l e d t o change.  Three subjects regressed.  Of the  six who increased scores, three increased by 2 chins and three by 1 chin. The programme d i d not appear t o increase chinning performance appreciably. Dips:  The mean improvement of 2.13 dips equals a  standard score gain of 11 from an i n i t i a l l e v e l of 47 standard scores.  The mean difference was found to be  significant s t a t i s t i c a l l y .  Ten subjects increased scores,  two f a i l e d to change and three regressed.  There was no  apparent r e l a t i o n s h i p among individuals between increases or decreases i n Chins with respect to increases or decreases in  Dips.  - 82 -  This apparent lack of r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two dynamic strength and muscular endurance items seems reasonable i n l i g h t of what has become known about the s p e c i f i c i t y of separate motor tasks.  The nature of the t r a i n i n g programme  was such that although considerable emphasis was placed on push-ups, l i t t l e or no time was spent on development of the muscles involved i n chinning.  This probably explains the  gains made i n dipping and the f a i l u r e to obtain improvements i n chinning.  In most studies reviewed, physical conditioning  produced s i g n i f i c a n t improvements i n both of these  items.  K i s t l e r (17) points out that p a r t i c u l a r emphasis was placed on chinning i n h i s programme.  This may account f o r the  better improvements i n arm strength i n h i s study. Component VI - Static  Strength:  S t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r Component VI are shown i n Table 28. Table 28 R e l i a b i l i t y of Mean Differences Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Scores S t a t i c Strength Items  Right Grip  118.93  122.73  3.80  13.46  3.48  1.09  Accept or Reject Null Hypothesis Accept  Left Grip  107.40  117.67  10.27  12.66  3.32  3.10  Reject  Back L i f t  341.00  349.20  8.20  39.92  10.31  .60  Accept  Leg L i f t  469.90  520.10  50.20  74.96  19.36  2.59  Reject  Variable  %  %  MJJ  SD  D  S MD E  *  T a b l e 29 shows i n i t i a l and f i n a l means and t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between means e x p r e s s e d i n Table  standard scores.  29  . Standard. Scores f o r S t a t i c . S t r e n g t h Items Variable  Initial Mean  Final Mean  Difference  Difference Rating Low  Right Grip  51  55  4  Left Grip  50  60  10  Back L i f t  45  47  2  Low  Leg  69  77  8  F a i r to  Lift  Good  . T a b l e 30 shows t h e number o f s t u d e n t s who made i n c r e a s e s , t h e number who d i d n o t change and t h o s e who o b t a i n e d l o w e r scores from i n i t i a l t o f i n a l  test.  Table  30  Motor F i t n e s s Component V I - I n c r e a s e s , No Changes and R e g r e s s i o n s ,Variable Right Grip  Increases  No Changes  Regressions  9  1  5  Left Grip  13  0  2  Back L i f t  10  0  5  9  1  5  Leg L i f t  Improvements i n t e s t i t e m s measuring S t a t i c S t r e n g t h were as f o l l o w s : Right Grip:  The mean g a i n o f 3.80 pounds i n t h i s i t e m  e q u a l s an i n c r e a s e o f 4 s t a n d a r d s c o r e s f r o m an i n i t i a l mean  - 84 o f 51 s t a n d a r d  scores.  The mean g a i n was f o u n d t o be  statistically insignificant.  E x a m i n a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l sub-  j e c t s showed t h a t n i n e i n d i v i d u a l s i n c r e a s e d , f i v e  regressed  and one remained t h e same. Left Grip:  The mean g a i n i n t h i s i t e m o f 10.27 pounds  r e p r e s e n t s a 10 s t a n d a r d  s c o r e i n c r e a s e f r o m an i n i t i a l mean  l e v e l o f 50 s t a n d a r d s c o r e s . be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  T h i s improvement was f o u n d " t o Thirteen subjects increased  s c o r e s w h i l e o n l y two showed a d e c r e a s e i n s c o r e s .  Seven  s u b j e c t s i n c r e a s e d t h e i r s c o r e s by 11 pounds o r more (range 11 t o 36 pounds). No r e a s o n c a n be advanced f o r t h e s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r improvement i n t h e l e f t hand g r i p s i n c e both hands showed i n i t i a l strength l e v e l s of approximately ( L e f t G r i p - 50 S.S.j  e q u a l magnitude  R i g h t G r i p - 51 S.S.).  No p a r t i c u l a r  emphasis was p l a c e d on t h e development o f t h e l e f t hand i n t h e c o n d i t i o n i n g programme. W o l f s o n (18) o b t a i n e d an average g r i p s t r e n g t h i n c r e a s e o f 10 s t a n d a r d s c o r e s i n a group o f a d u l t men who had participated  i n a programme o f p r e s c r i b e d e x e r c i s e ,  Herkimer (19) f o u n d t h a t g r i p s t r e n g t h improved 6 s t a n d a r d s c o r e s i n a d u l t men a f t e r seven months o f c a l i s t h e n i c s and volleyball. standard  The average g a i n i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was 7  scores.  Back L i f t ;  The mean g a i n i n t h i s i t e m was 8.20 pounds  -  o r 2 standard scores. be 4 5 s t a n d a r d s c o r e s . statistically  -  The i n i t i a l mean l e v e l was f o u n d t o The change was found t o be  insignificant.  scores w h i l e f i v e  8 5  Ten s u b j e c t s showed i n c r e a s e d  regressed.  Thus, a l t h o u g h t h e mean g a i n was n o t s u b s t a n t i a l i n magnitude, i n c r e a s e d s c o r e s (range o f 2 t o 82 pounds) were made by t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e sample. Leg L i f t : 5 0 . 2 0  A statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t mean g a i n o f  pounds was o b t a i n e d i n t h i s t e s t i t e m .  This represents  an improvement o f 8 s t a n d a r d s c o r e s f r o m a n i n i t i a l l e v e l o f 69  standard  scores.  . I n view of t h e i n i t i a l high l e v e l of strength i n t h i s i t e m , t h e mean i n c r e a s e o b t a i n e d r e p r e s e n t s a good improvement.  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e g r e a t e r g a i n i n l e g l i f t was  due t o t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis on r u n n i n g w h i l e t h e r e was n o t h i n g i n t h e programme w h i c h w o u l d s p e c i f i c a l l y a f f e c t back lifting  strength.  A significant  i n t h e S t a n d i n g Broad Jump. leg strength.  improvement was a l s o o b t a i n e d  T h i s i t e m i s a l s o dependent upon  Nine s u b j e c t s i n c r e a s e d i n t h e l e g l i f t  while  f i v e r e g r e s s e d and one s u b j e c t remained t h e same. A l t h o u g h t h e r e appeared t o be c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f changes i n t h e dynamometrical s t r e n g t h i t e m s , on t h e w h o l e , a t r e n d towards g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n s c o r e s was s e e n . I n c r e a s e s , no changes and r e g r e s s i o n s were f o u n d t o be i n the r a t i o 4 1 : 2 : 1 7 f o r a l l four items.  Capen (20) o b t a i n e d  somewhat s i m i l a r l y i n c o n s i s t e n t  r e s u l t s i n s t u d y i n g the e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g on S t a t i c Strength.  H i s obtained g a i n s r e p o r t e d i n percentages  were as f o l l o w s :  R i g h t G r i p - 4.5$; L e f t G r i p - ..5$; Back  L i f t - 4.8$; Leg L i f t - 21.1$.  I t was noted t h a t the Leg  L i f t i t e m . i n h i s study, l i k e t h a t i n t h e present showed c o n s i d e r a b l e Although.there  improvement. were f a i r t o good mean g a i n s i n  dynamometrical s t r e n g t h t e s t s o n l y two o f t h e s e statistically  study,  significant.  were  Of t h e f i f t e e n s u b j e c t s t e s t e d  i n f o u r items - 60 t e s t s i n a l l - t h e r e were 41 i n c r e a s e d s c o r e s , 17 r e g r e s s i o n s and 2 unchanged.  T h i s was  approximately  t h e same p r o p o r t i o n o f advances t o l o s s e s which was i n t h e motor f i t n e s s and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r t e s t  items.  Tables 31 and 32 summarize the changes made i n C a r d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n and Motor F i t n e s s .  apparent  T a b l e 31 Summary o f Changes i n Cardiovascular Condition S.S. Gain  Variable Area Under Curve Systolic Sitting  Amplitude  Diastolic Sitting  Amplitude  6  Stat. Sign.  Increases (No.)  No Chg. (No.)  9  2  -4  6  ©  5  8  0  7  0  X  O b l i q u i t y Angle  2  Rest/Work R a t i o  10  X  13  0  P u l s e Rate  10  X  10  2  S y s t o l i c Amplitude Standing  9  1  S y s t o l i c Amplitude After Exercise  10  0  600 Y a r d Run Walk F i v e M i n u t e S t e p Test  12  X  11  2  9  X  13  0  In A l l Tests Average Number of Increased Scores  9*6  Average Standard S c o r e Gains  6.25  Range i n Standard Scores  -4 t o  T a b l e 32 Summary o f Changes i n Motor F i t n e s s  Variable  S.S. Gain  Stat. Sign.  Explosive Strength  11  0  4  x  9  4  2  X  9  1  5  15  0  0  1  6  0  9  2  9  0  6  2  6  6  3  11  10  2  3  9  1  5  0  2  10  O  5  9  1  5  2  50 Y a r d Dash  6  S t a n d i n g Broad Jump  5  Flexibility Shoulder F l e x i b i l i t y Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Backward  10  Dynamic S t r e n g t h Chins Dips  Reg. (No.)  x  I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y Run  Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Forward  Increases (No.)  No Chg. (No.)  S t a t i c Strength Right Grip  4  Left Grip  10  Back L i f t  2  Leg L i f t  8  I n Each Component Avg. Avg. Range No. No. in Increases Changes S.S.  9.66  10.0  4.33  2-6  4.33  1-10  8.0  6.5  2-11  10.25  6.0  2-10  -  -  8 9  The r e s u l t s show t h a t t h e r e was a u n i f o r m f a i r i n c r e a s e i n each o f t h e components o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s .  I n each o f  t h e i t e m s , about t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e s u b j e c t s i n c r e a s e d s c o r e s and o n e - t h i r d e i t h e r d i d n o t change o r t h e y r e g r e s s e d . S u b j e c t s who i n c r e a s e d s c o r e s i n some v a r i a b l e s d i d n o t i n c r e a s e i n o t h e r s , b u t t h e r e was no r e c o r d o f c o n s i s t e n t i n c r e a s e o r r e g r e s s i o n f o r any i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p o f individuals  except i n t h e c a r d i o v a s c u l a r t e s t s .  In these  t e s t s , two s u b j e c t s w i t h i n i t i a l l y h i g h s c o r e s h a d , on t h e w h o l e , l o w e r s c o r e s on r e t e s t i n g  and two s u b j e c t s who had  l o w i n i t i a l s c o r e s had, on t h e w h o l e , h i g h e r s c o r e s a t retest. F o r a l l t e n c a r d i o v a s c u l a r v a r i a b l e s t h e r e were f i v e statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t mean improvements, w i t h average  s t a n d a r d s c o r e g a i n s o f 6.25 s t a n d a r d s c o r e s o v e r a l l  (range  -4 t o 12 s t a n d a r d s c o r e s ) . The t h r e e motor f i t n e s s components ( a g i l i t y , power), were a l l s t a t i s t i c a l l y  speed,  s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h an average  s t a n d a r d s c o r e improvement o f 4.3 s t a n d a r d s c o r e s  (range  2 t o 6 standard scores). Of t h e t h r e e f l e x i b i l i t y i t e m s o n l y one was significant.  statistically  The average s t a n d a r d s c o r e i n c r e a s e was 4.3  s t a n d a r d s c o r e s , (range 1 t o 10 s t a n d a r d scores).. Of t h e two dynamic arm s t r e n g t h i t e m s . ( d i p s and c h i n s ) o n l y d i p s improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y and between t h e two t h e r e  - 90 was  a s t a n d a r d s c o r e g a i n o f 6.5  standard scores  (range  2 t o 11 s t a n d a r d s c o r e s ) . Of t h e f o u r s t a t i c s t r e n g t h i t e m s , l e f t hand g r i p and leg l i f t  showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t mean improvements.  The average s t a n d a r d s c o r e i n c r e a s e i n t h e f o u r i t e m s 6.00  was  s t a n d a r d s c o r e s (range 2 t o 10 s t a n d a r d s c o r e s ) . I n each o f t h e f i v e main a r e a s , t h e average numbers  showing i n c r e a s e d s c o r e s - as opposed t o t h o s e who change o r r e g r e s s e d - w e r e " a p p r o x i m a t e l y  d i d not  t h e same i . e .  a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e f i f t e e n persons i n v o l v e d i n the study. The p r i n c i p l e o f t a s k - s p e c i f i c i t y was study.  apparent i n t h i s  I n f i t n e s s components i n w h i c h s e v e r a l t e s t  items  were used t o measure t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ,  no  g e n e r a l p a t t e r n of change t o o k p l a c e . - A l t h o u g h good  improve-  ments were o b t a i n e d i n S h o u l d e r F l e x i b i l i t y , changes i n Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Forwards and Backwards were found t o be q u i t e s m a l l . . S i m i l a r i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s were found i n o t h e r components. S e v e r a l a t y p i c a l cases were noted i n t h e t e s t sample.. Two  s u b j e c t s who  had e n t e r e d t h e c o n d i t i o n i n g programme i n  good c o n d i t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t r e g r e s s i o n i n i t e m s measuring who  Cardiovascular Condition.. Several individuals  o b t a i n e d low s c o r e s on t h e i n i t i a l t e s t d i s p l a y e d con-  - 91 s i s t e n t l y good i n c r e a s e s i n t h e c a r d i o v a s c u l a r i t e m s . seems r e a s o n a b l e  It  t o assume t h a t t h e programme was i n a d e q u a t e  t o m a i n t a i n t h e f i t n e s s o f t h e • f i t ' , s t u d e n t s , b u t adequate f o r the. ' u n f i t '  students.  Changes f o r most i n d i v i d u a l s were f o u n d t o be f a i r l y s m a l l , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g programme was e v i d e n t l y not f r e q u e n t  enough, l o n g enough o r h a r d enough, o r perhaps  a l l t h r e e - t o produce b i o l o g i c a l l y ( i . e . f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f c o n t r i b u t i o n s of t h e t r a i n i n g programme t o h e a l t h and performance) i m p o r t a n t  improvements i n f i t n e s s .  - 92  -  REFERENCES 1.  .Walker, H.M., Lev, J . , S t a t i s t i c a l I n f e r e n c e . New. York, Henry H o l t , 1953, PP. 144-145.  2.  Hopkins, R.E., "The E f f e c t s of V o l l e y b a l l and C a l i s t h e n i c s on the P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of Adult Men", Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1951.  3.  W i l s o n , A.L., "The E f f e c t of Weight T r a i n i n g on the P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of Adult Men", Unpublished. Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of, I l l i n o i s , 1947. ;  4.  Wolbers, CP.,. "The E f f e c t s of V o l l e y b a l l on the P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of Adult Men", Unpublished Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of, I l l i n o i s , 1949. :  5.  Howell, M.L., Hodgson, J.L.,. Sorenson, J.T.., " E f f e c t s of C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g on the Modified. Harvard Step T e s t " . Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 34 (May, 1963), pp. 154^158^  6.  Hopkins, l o c . c i t .  7.  . , Hopkins, l o c . c i t .  8.  Hopkins, l o c . c i t .  9.  Wolfson, M., " E f f e c t s of a Program of P r e s c r i b e d E x e r c i s e s on the P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of Adult Men", Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1950.  10.  11.  . Capen, E.K., "The E f f e c t of Systematic Weight. T r a i n i n g on Power, S t r e n g t h and Endurance", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 21 (May, 1950), pp. 83-92.  Landiss," CW.,  "Influence of Physical Education A c t i v i t i e s oh Motor A b i l i t y and P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of Male Freshmen", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 26 (October, 1955),  PP. 295-307.  12.  Brouha, L., Fradd, N.W., Savage, B.M., "Studies i n P h y s i c a l E f f i c i e n c y of C o l l e g e Students", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 15 (October, 1944), pp. 211-225.  13.  .Herkimer, L.R., "The E f f e c t s of P h y s i c a l E x e r c i s e on Adult Men", Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1949.  - 93 14.  K i s t l e r , J/.W., "A Study o f t h e R e s u l t s o f E i g h t Weeks of P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a U n i v e r s i t y P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Program f o r Men", R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 15 (March, 1944), pp. 23-29.  15.  Herkimer, l o c . c i t .  16.  N i c k s , D.C, F l e i s h m a n , E.A., What Do P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s T e s t s Measure? - A Review o f F a c t o r A n a l y t i c S t u d i e s . O f f i c e o f N a v a l R e s e a r c h , C o n t r a c t Nonr 609 (32), T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t 3, Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , Departments o f I n d u s t r i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and P s y c h o l o g y ,  (July, I960), pp. 4-15.  17.  Kistler, loc. c i t .  18.  . Wolfson, l o c . c i t .  19.  Herkimer, l o c . c i t .  20.  Capen, l o c . c i t .  CHAPTER V I  1  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary In order to s a t i s f y the objectives of physical f i t n e s s t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n c l u d e s i n t h e R e q u i r e d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Programme, c o m p u l s o r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a 'fitness  1  type a c t i v i t y .  One o f a l i m i t e d number o f t h e s e  a c t i v i t i e s offered i s Physical Conditioning. t o obtain objective data regarding  There i s a need  the effectiveness of these  a c t i v i t i e s i n improving p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . The problem, i n t h i s s t u d y , was t o e v a l u a t e provements i n C a r d i o v a s c u l a r  t h e im-  C o n d i t i o n and Motor F i t n e s s made  during a 'physical conditioning' class at the University. .The c l a s s met t w i c e - w e e k l y f o r t h i r t y - m i n u t e s  of conditioning  e x e r c i s e s and a c t i v e games f o r a p e r i o d o f e i g h t weeks. e x p e r i m e n t a l sample o f f i f t e e n c o l l e g e freshmen was randomly f r o m t h e c o n d i t i o n i n g c l a s s . a ten-item  An  selected  The sample was  given  f i t n e s s t e s t b a t t e r y p r i o r t o and a t t h e end of  t h e c o n d i t i o n i n g programme. were e v a l u a t e d  The g a i n s i n t h e f i t n e s s measures  i n terms o f the s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of  mean d i f f e r e n c e s and i n terms o f s t a n d a r d s c o r e s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r normal young  men.  A comparison o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group w i t h a l a r g e group o f male freshmen s t u d i e d i n 1962,  was made i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e  w h e t h e r t h e samples were s u f f i c i e n t l y a l i k e i n terms o f h e i g h t , w e i g h t and performance t o r e g a r d  t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l sample as  - 95 r e a s o n a b l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f male c o l l e g e freshmen e n r o l l e d i n t h e R e q u i r e d Programme.  I n none o f t h e v a r i a b l e s examined,  was t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two groups s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e to  c a s t doubt on t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n .  Conclusions In view o f t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s seem  justified. • 1.  On t h e whole, i n a l l v a r i a b l e s s t u d i e d ^ t w o - t h i r d s o f  t h e s u b j e c t s made i n c r e a s e d s c o r e s . 2.  The n a t u r e o f t h e i n c r e a s e s i n s c o r e s made were, on  the average,  s i m i l a r i n a l l components o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s  studied. 3.  Mean changes, on t h e whole, were s m a l l and b i o l o g i c a l l y  o r p r a c t i c a l l y not very important although twelve v a r i a b l e s o f t h e twenty-two used i n t h e s t u d y showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mean improvements.  I n each o f t h e f i v e main  components, t h e average s t a n d a r d s c o r e i n c r e a s e was 4.33  - 6.25 4.  standard scores.  L i t t l e c o n s i s t e n c y was n o t e d among i n c r e a s e s i n  s c o r e s i n i t e m s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e same f i t n e s s component. Dynamic s t r e n g t h g a i n s i n arm e x t e n s o r s was n o t accompanied by an improvement i n f l e x o r s t r e n g t h . ments were a l s o found t o be v e r y 5.  F l e x i b i l i t y improve-  specific.  S u b j e c t s i n i t i a l l y s c o r i n g h i g h l y on c a r d i o v a s c u l a r  items d i d not score as high a f t e r the experimental p e r i o d .  - 96 I n d i v i d u a l s who e n t e r e d t h e programme i n a poor s t a t e o f f i t n e s s increased t h e i r scores considerably i n t h e c a r d i o vascular items.  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t s showed  g e n e r a l l y small higher scores i n a m a j o r i t y of the c a r d i o v a s c u l a r v a r i a b l e s on b e i n g r e t e s t e d .  I n t h i s l a t t e r group  s u b j e c t s d i d n o t have i n c r e a s e d s c o r e s a l l i n t h e same v a r i a b l e s b u t , on t h e c o n t r a r y showed c o n s i d e r a b l e differences i n this 6,  individual  respect.  I m p l i c a t i o n s from the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the  programme was p r o b a b l y t o o easy f o r t h e i n i t i a l l y f i t , about r i g h t f o r t h e i n i t i a l l y u n f i t and i n s u f f i c i e n t s t i m u l u s t o g i v e good improvements i n C a r d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n f o r t h e majority of the subjects, 7.  R e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e a need f o r  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f ways t o i n c r e a s e t h e p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s improvements i n P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n i n g  Classes.  Recommendations 1.  I t i s recommended t h a t e x p e r i m e n t a l  s t u d i e s be made  t o gauge t h e f i t n e s s e f f e c t s o f s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t methods of conducting  P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n i n g G l a s s e s w i t h a view t o  d e s i g n i n g t h e most e f f e c t i v e programme p o s s i b l e w i t h i n t h e a v a i l a b l e time l i m i t s , • 2.  I t i s a l s o recommended t h a t s t u d e n t s  entering the  .Required Programme be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r  initial  - 97 f i t n e s s i n o r d e r t o make t h e programme more e f f e c t i v e . alternative  An  t o t h i s would be t h a t t h e c o n t e n t and method o f  t h e programme be d i v e r s i f i e d t o meet t h e needs o f s p e c i f i c s t u d e n t s o r groups o f s t u d e n t s .  BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS AAHPER - N.E.A., F i t n e s s Department,. AAHPER Youth F i t n e s s T e s t -Manual. 1201 S i x t e e n t h S t r e e t , N.W.,. Washington 6, D.C, 1958. Brownell,  C L . , . Hagman,. P., P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n - F o u n d a t i o n s and P r i n c i p l e s . New Y o r k , McGraw H i l l , 1951.  Bucher, C . A , . F o u n d a t i o n s o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . S t . L o u i s , C.-V., Mosby, 1950. Cameron Heartometer C o r p o r a t i o n , The Heartometer - I n t h e F i e l d o f P h y s i c a l . E d u c a t i o n . Pamphlet, Cameron Heartometer C o r p o r a t i o n , C h i c a g o , 1954. C o w e l l , C C , H a z e l t o n , H., C u r r i c u l u m D e s i g n s i n P h y s i c a l - E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k , P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1955. C u r e t o n , T.K.. P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Workbook. S t . L o u i s , Mosby, 1944.  C.V.  C u r e t o n , T.K., P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A p p r a i s a l and Guidance. S t . L o u i s , C.V. Mosby, 1947. C u r e t o n , T.K.,. P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of Champion A t h l e t e s . Urbana, The U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1951. G a r r e t t , H.E., S t a t i s t i c s i n P s y c h o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k , Longmans Green, 1958. K a r p o v i c h , P.V., P h y s i o l o g y o f M u s c u l a r A c t i v i t y . P h i l a d e l p h i a , W.B. Saunders, 1959. L a r s o n , L.A., Yocum, R.D., Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n i n P h y s i c a l H e a l t h and R e c r e a t i o n E d u c a t i o n . S t . L o u i s , C.V. Mosby, 1951. Mathews, D.K., W.B.  Measurement i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . P h i l a d e l p h i a , Saunders, 1963.  N i c k s , D.C, Fleishman,, E.A., What Do P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s T e s t s Measure? - A Review o f F a c t o r A n a l y t i c S t u d i e s . O f f i c e o f N a v a l R e s e a r c h , C o n t r a c t Nonr 609 (32), T e c h n i c a l Report 3, Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , Departments o f I n d u s t r i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and P s y c h o l o g y . ( J u l y , I960).  - 99 Rogers, F.R., Tests and Measurement Programs i n the Redirection of Physical Education. New York, Columbia University Teachers College Bureau of Publications, 1927. Walker, H.M.,- Lev, J., S t a t i s t i c a l Inference, Henry Holt, 1953.  New York,  PERIODICALS Bannister, E.W.. "The Relative Effectiveness of Interval C i r c u i t Training Compared with Three Other Methods of Fitness Training i n a School Physical Education Program", Unpublished Master s Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I960. 1  Berrafeto, P.R., "The E f f e c t of Various Physical Education Service Courses on the All-Round Muscular Endurance of University Students", Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , 1949. Brock, J.D., Cox, W.A., Pennock, E.W., Chapter VII i n "Physical Fitness", Supplement t o the Research Quarterly, v o l . 12 (May, 194D, pp. 407-415. Brouha, L., Fradd, N.W., Savage, B.M., "Studies i n Physical E f f i c i e n c y of.College Students", Research Quarterly, v o l . 15 (October, 1944), pp. 211-2"2"5". Brown, S.R..- U.B.C. AAHPER Physical Fitness Test Norms. University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962. Capen, E.K., "The E f f e c t of Systematic Weight Training on Power, Strength and Endurance". Research Quarterly, v o l . 21 (May, 1950), pp. 83-92. C o l l i n s , V.D., Howe, E.C., "The Measurement of Organic and Neuromuscular Fitness", American Physical Education . Review, v o l . 29 (February, 1924), pp. 64-70. Cureton, T.K., " F l e x i b i l i t y as an Aspect of Physical Fitness", Supplement t o the Research Quarterly. v o l . 12 (May, 194D, pp. ,381-390. Cureton, T.K., "An Inventory and Screen Test of Motor Fitness f o r High School and College Men", Physical Educator. January, 1943.  - 100  -  Cureton, T.K., "Improvement i n Motor Fitness Associated with Physical Education and Physical Fitness C l i n i c Work", Research Quarterly, v o l . 14 (May, 1943) pp. 154-158. :  Cureton, T.K., "What's Physical Fitness", Journal of Health. Physical Education and Recreation, v o l . 16 (March, 1945), pp. 111-112. Cureton, T.K., "Physical Fitness Improvements of a MiddleAged Man, with Brief Reviews of Related Studies", Research Quarterly, v o l . 23 (May, 1952), pp. 149-160. Cureton, T.K., "The Nature of Cardiovascular Condition i n Journal of the American Medical Association, v o l . 17 (November, 1956), pp. 139-155.  Man",  Cureton, T.K;, Huffman, W.J., Welser, L., K i r e i l i s , R.W., Latham, D.E., Endurance of Young Men. Washington, Society f o r Research i n Child Development, National Research Council, 1945, p. 284. Fordham, S.L.,- "The E f f e c t of Four Selected Physical Education A c t i v i t i e s on Muscular Endurance Test Scores", Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , 1949. Herkimer, L.R., "The E f f e c t s of Physical Exercise on Adult Men", Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , 1949. Hopkins, R.E., "The E f f e c t s of V o l l e y b a l l ,and Calisthenics on the Physical Fitness of Adult Men", Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , 1951. Howell, M.L., Hodgson, J.L., Sorenson, J.T., " E f f e c t s of C i r c u i t Training on the Modified Harvard Step Test": Research Quarterly, v o l . 34 (May, 1963), pp. 154-15*. Howell, M.L., Kimoto. R., Morford, W.R., "Effect of Isometric and Isotonic Exercise Programs upon Muscular Endurance", Research Quarterly, v o l . 33 (December, 1962), pp. 536-540. Johnson, G.C., Kubeck, E.P., "A Comparison of the E f f e c t s of C i r c u i t Training, Weight Training, and Physical Conditioning upon Total Physical Fitness as Measured by Muscular Strength and Muscular Endurance", Unpublished Graduating Essay, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962.  -  Jordan,  101  -  C.S., "A Comparative Study o f the. P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s o f a Group o f Boys f r o m S i r R i c h a r d WbBride S c h o o l . P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Regular P h y s i c a l Education Program W i t h Another Group P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n A d d i t i o n a l Conditioning A c t i v i t i e s , Unpublished Graduating E s s a y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1963.. M  Kistler,  J.W.,, "A Study o f t h e R e s u l t s of E i g h t Weeks of Participation i n a University Physical Fitness Program f o r Men", R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 15 (March, 1944), pp. 23-29.  L a n d i s s , C.W., " I n f l u e n c e o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s on Motor A b i l i t y and P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of. Male.Freshmen", R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 26 ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 5 5 1 , pp.  Larson,  295-307.  L.A.-, "A F a c t o r and V a l i d i t y A n a l y s i s o f S t r e n g t h V a r i a b l e s and T e s t s w i t h a Test. C o m b i n a t i o n o f C h i n n i n g , D i p p i n g , and V e r t i c a l Jump^j R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 11 (December, 1940), pp. 8 2 - 9 6 .  McGloy, C.H., "How About Some Muscle"., J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n , v o l . 7 (May, 1936), pp. 302-303. N e l s o n , D.O., H u r s t , R.L., " S i g n i f i c a n t or.Not S i g n i f i c a n t " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 34 (May, 1963), pp. 239-242. R o g e r s , F.R., "The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f S t r e n g t h T e s t s i n R e v e a l i n g P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n " , Research Q u a r t e r l y v o l . 5 ( O c t o b e r , 1934), pp. 4 3 - 4 6 . f  S c o t t , G.M., "The Assessment o f Motor A b i l i t y o f C o l l e g e Women", R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 10 ( O c t o b e r , 1934), p. 63. Schrecker,  K.A., " P h y s i c a l . F i t n e s s " , J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , v o l . 4 6 . ( J u l y , 1954), p. 55.  S i l l s , F.D., ."Special. C o n d i t i o n i n g E x e r c i s e s f o r S t u d e n t s w i t h Low S c o r e s on P h y s i c a l . F i t n e s s T e s t s " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 25 ( O c t o b e r , 1954), PP. 333-337. U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Rating U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , Urbana.  Scores.  W i l l e t , A.E.-, " C a r d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n as Measured by t h e Heartometer R e l a t e d t o t h e Time f o r A i l - O u t T r e a d m i l l Running", Unpublished P r o j e c t , , P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s . R e s e a r c h L a b o r a t o r y , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1946.  - 102 W i l s o n , A.L., "The E f f e c t o f Weight T r a i n i n g on t h e P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s o f Young Men", U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1947, W o l b e r s , CP.-, "The E f f e c t s o f V o l l e y b a l l on t h e P h y s i c a l . F i t n e s s o f A d u l t Men", U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1949. W o l f son, Mi,, " E f f e c t s o f a Program o f P r e s c r i b e d E x e r c i s e s on t h e P h y s i c a l . F i t n e s s o f A d u l t Men", U n p u b l i s h e d .Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1950.  APPENDIX A STATISTICAL TREATMENT Study Design S i n g l e Group,, T e s t - R e t e s t Experiment X  _ I n i t i a l T e s t ~"  Experimental Factor Physical Conditioning  (N = 15) X  F i n a l Test  =  Difference Procedure (1)  Random s e l e c t i o n o f sample f r o m t h e P h y s i c a l Conditioning Class.  (2)  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of f i t n e s s t e s t b a t t e r y t o sample to obtain I n i t i a l scores.  •(3) (4)  Sample p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e g u l a r P h y s i c a l Cond i t i o n i n g C l a s s f o r e i g h t weeks. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i t n e s s t e s t b a t t e r y t o sample to obtain F i n a l scores.  Fitness Test Battery A  Cardiovascular Condition  Component I  H a b i t u a l Autonomic Tone 1. , 2V  Component I I  Items  Heartometer - A r e a Under Curve Heartometer - S y s t o l i c A m p l i t u d e S i t t i n g  3.  Heartometer - D i a s t o l i c A m p l i t u d e S i t t i n g  4..  Heartometer - O b l i q u i t y Angle  5.  Heartometer - Rest/Work  6.  Heartometer - P u l s e Rate  Splanchnic  Ratio  Tone  Heartometer - S y s t o l i c A m p l i t u d e S t a n d i n g  - 104 Component IV  C i r c u l a t o r y Adjustment t o Hard A t h l e t i c Work 1.  Heartometer - S y s t o l i c Amplitude A f t e r Exercise  2. Component V  600 Yard Run-Walk  Recovery A f t e r A Hard Work Task F i v e Minute Step T e s t  B  Motor F i t n e s s  Component I  Items  Agility I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y Run  Component I I  Speed 50 Yard Dash  Component I I I Power S t a n d i n g . B r o a d Jump Component IV  Component V  Component V I  Flexibility 1.  Cureton S h o u l d e r F l e x i b i l i t y  2.  C u r e t o n Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Backward  3.  C u r e t o n Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y  Dynamic S t r e n g t h and M u s c u l a r 1.  Chins  2.  Dips  Static  Forward Endurance  Strength  1..  R i g h t Hand G r i p - Dynamometer  2.  L e f t Hand G r i p  - Dynamometer  3. ' Back L i f t - Dynamometer 4«  Leg L i f t  - Dynamometer  - 105 General S t a t i s t i c a l  Outline  The f o l l o w i n g c a l c u l a t i o n s were made. (1)  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group on t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l tests.  (2)  Comparison o f t h e t e s t sample w i t h t h e 1962 U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia AMEER F i t n e s s T e s t Sample w i t h r e s p e c t t o h e i g h t , w e i g h t and p e r formance i n c h i n n i n g , s t a n d i n g broad jumpj 50 y a r d dash and 600 y a r d r u n - w a l k .  Procedure and Formulae (1)  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance o f group on i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t s . D i f f e r e n c e Method ( G a r r e t t , 1,  p. 227)  %  - Mean o f d i f f e r e n c e between i n i t i a l and final tests  SDj)  - Standard D e v i a t i o n of d i f f e r e n c e s  SED  - S t a n d a r d E r r o r o f mean o f d i f f e r e n c e s > MD-0.  t  -  1  SEMD  (2)  ( A c c e p t a b l e a t t h e 5 p e r cent l e v e l of confidence)  df  - Degrees o f freedom  N-1  - Number i n sample minus one  D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f whether sample s e l e c t e d c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f male freshmen s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n t h e Required P h y s i c a l Education Programme a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , E s t i m a t i o n o f sampling e r r o r i n order t o t e s t p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between means c o u l d have a r i s e n s o l e l y f r o m random e r r o r s o f s a m p l i n g . S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n (U.B.C. AAHPER F i t n e s s T e s t - 1962) sample was known. (Walker and Lev,  Z  =  /V  2, pp. 144-145)  (Mp - % ) .  - 106 Mp  - P o p u l a t i o n (U.B.C. AAHPER) mean  Mg  - Experimental  SDp  - Standard D e v i a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n  %  - Number i n e x p e r i m e n t a l  Z  - Z score obtained f o r v a r i a b l e  a  - a r e a o u t s i d e two o r d i n a t e s o f Z ( p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t d i f f e r e n c e between means c o u l d have o c c u r r e d due t o chance)  a  a c c e p t a b l e a t minimum o f 0.05 f o r a c c e p t i n g n u l l hypothesis.  sample mean  sample  APPENDIX B TIME TABLE FOR PROCEDURE 1.  C l a s s Day 1  - Sample s e l e c t i o n .  2.  C l a s s Day 2  - A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Group I t e s t items t o e n t i r e group. Group I i t e m s :  3.  Chins S t a n d i n g Broad Jump 50 Yard Dash 600 Yard Run-Walk Week o f C l a s s 2 - A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Group I I , I I I and IV t e s t items during three i n d i v i d u a l appointments. Appointment 1 - Group I I i t e m s : Heartometer Dips Cureton F l e x i b i l i t y (a) S h o u l d e r (b) Trunk Backward (c) Trunk Forward I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y Run Appointment 2 - Group I I I i t e m s : Dynamometrical S t r e n g t h • (a) Hand G r i p - R i g h t Left (b) Back L i f t Cc) Leg L i f t Appointment 3 - Group I V i t e m : F i v e Minute S t e p Test  4.  C l a s s Days 4 t o 20 - P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n i n g Glass.  5.  C l a s s Day 21 - A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Group I i t e m s .  6.  Week o f C l a s s 22 - A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Groups I I , I I I and IV t e s t i t e m s i n t h e same manner as in i n i t i a l test.  APPENDIX C INDIVIDUAL SCORE SHEET Name: Address: Telephone: Initial Chins S t a n d i n g Broad Jump ( i n s , ) 50 Y a r d Dash ( s e e s . )  . '•  600 Yard Run-Walk ( s e e s . )  •  Heartometer Flexibility  (ins.)  Shoulder  -  Trunk Backward Trunk Forward Dips  . -  ;  .  I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y Run. ( s e e s . )  ____  Dynamometric S t r e n g t h (lbs.,) Right Grip  ...' -  Left Grip  ,  Back L i f t Leg, L i f t F i v e Minute S t e p T e s t (pulse beats)  .  _  APPENDIX D PHYSICAL'EDUCATION REQUIRED PROGRAMME 1  Health - Habit Questionnaire  Name: Address:  ...  P.E. Course: Age:  Phone:  .  Main F i e l d o f Study: _  • Height:  f t .  i n . Weight:  lbs..  Instructions: P l e a s e answer as c a r e f u l l y and as a c c u r a t e l y as y o u c a n each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g y o u r h e a l t h h a b i t s . You a r e asked f o r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n o r d e r t h a t we may more a c c u r a t e l y analyze t h e r e s u l t s o f your p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t e s t s . Your answers w i l l be k e p t c o n f i d e n t i a l . S e c t i o n , A i s t o be completed and r e t u r n e d a t t h e n e x t c l a s s m e e t i n g . S e c t i o n B w i l l be completed a t t h e t i m e o f the f i n a l t e s t i n g . S e c t i o n A: 1.  Have y o u e x p e r i e n c e d any i l l n e s s s i n c e t h e t e r m began? ( i n c l u d e s e v e r e c o l d s ) . ______ I f so l i s t : (a) (b) • (c)  2.  How l o n g .  - Do y o u smoke? Cigarettes Cigars Pipe  .  • •  ;  I f s o , how much?  • ___________  3,.  How many hours o f s l e e p p e r n i g h t on t h e average? What i s y o u r u s u a l t i m e o f g o i n g t o bed?  4.  Do y o u e a t a t home, r e s i d e n c e h a l l , f r a t e r n i t y , cook f o r s e l f , cafeteria or restaurant? I n d i c a t e which •  5.  I f you have a p a r t t i m e j o b d u r i n g t h e t e r m , i n d i c a t e how many hours p e r week. . What a r e y o u r h o u r s o f work? ;  - 11© 6.  7.  B e f o r e t h i s t e r m began were y o u d o i n g any r e g u l a r v i g o r o u s e x e r c i s e o r h a r d manual work? ' I f s o , how many h o u r s p e r day? ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y )  ~  , Are y o u engaging i n any r e g u l a r p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e o r a c t i v i t y o r h a r d manual work ( o t h e r t h a n t h i s c l a s s ) d u r i n g t h i s term? I f so, how many hours p e r day?  8.  I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g i n y o u r p r e s e n t mode o f l i v i n g w h i c h i n y o u r o p i n i o n might a d v e r s e l y o r f a v o u r a b l y i n f l u e n c e your p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s ? I f so, discuss:  9.  When y o u s t a r t e d t h e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g c l a s s t h i s t e r m d i d y o u c o n s i d e r y o u r s e l f t o be i n good fair . poor p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n as a r e s u l t o f y o u r summer a c t i v i t i e s ?  S e c t i o n B: 1.  Have y o u had a s e v e r e c o l d o r o t h e r i l l n e s s If so, describe:  recently?  2.  Has t h e r e been any r e c e n t change i n y o u r mode o f l i v i n g (smoking, s l e e p i n g , e a t i n g , w o r k i n g , e x e r c i s i n g , e t c . ) w h i c h might a d v e r s e l y o r b e n e f i c i e n t l y a f f e c t y o u r state of physical fitness? If so, describe:  - Ill  KEY TO APPENDICES E t o H E-F  C a r d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n Items 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. S. 9. 10.  G-H  Area Under Curve S y s t o l i c Amplitude S i t t i n g D i a s t o l i c Amplitude S i t t i n g O b l i q u i t y Angle Rest/Work R a t i o P u l s e Rate S y s t o l i c Amplitude Standing S y s t o l i c , Amplitude A f t e r E x e r c i s e 600 Y a r d Run-Walk F i v e Minute S t e p T e s t  Motor F i t n e s s  Items  1. I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y Run 2. 50 Yard Dash 3. S t a n d i n g Broad Jump 4. C u r e t o n S h o u l d e r F l e x i b i l i t y 5. Cureton.Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Backward 6. C u r e t o n Trunk F l e x i b i l i t y Forward 7. Chins 8. Dips 9. R i g h t Hand G r i p 10. L e f t Hand G r i p 11. • Back L i f t 12. , Leg L i f t  APPENDIX E RAW  SCORES FOR INITIAL TEST  CARDIOVASCULAR CONDITION ITEMS Item  1  Item  Item  2  3  Item  4  Item  5  Subject  sq.cms.  cms.  cms.  degrees  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15  ^42 .32 •44 .09 .35 .42 .26 .28 .35 *39 .24 ,23 ,41 .20 .27  1.73 1.14 1.40 .69 1.36 1.61 .92 1,34 1.25 ;84 1.07 .63 1.04 1.01 .98  .71 .60 .60 i05 .69 .74 .45 .54 .49 .37 ,36 ,35 .49 ,25 .46  19.7  20.9 20.5 24.5 19.2 20.5 22.6 19,7 21.2 24.7 20.6 21.5 23 i2 23.0 23.2  2.45 1.91 2.72 ,35 2.06 2.54 1.21 1.66 2.90 1.04 1.63 1.56 1.53 1.33 1.36  Mean  .311  1.147  .476  21.693  i:799  Item  Item  Item  Item  Item  /min.  cms.  cms.  sees.  no.  74 71 61 112 66 63 67 74 69 61 67 61 70 92 93  1.01 1.01 1.03 .55 1.04  1.34 .61 1.01 .57 1.31 1*53 ,94 1.36 1.25 .66 ,63 .67 1.70 1.21 .79  95 105 96 172 116 110 103 106 99 106 115 105 100 102 104  179 167 166 223 162 195 224 194 157 206 203 193 190 166 219  1.093  109^26  193,7  6..  77,40  7  l  $  1.04 ,90 .72 •77 .65 .79 .67 .64 .626  6.  9  10  APPENDIX F RAW SCORES FOR FINAL TEST CARDIOVASCULAR CONDITION ITEMS  Subject  Item ,1 sq.cms.  Item 2 cms.  Item 3 cms.  Item 4 degrees  Item 5  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15  .38 .34 .40 .23 .39 .40 .38 .28 .37 .39 .29 .30 .38 .32 .34  1.54 1.16 1.26 .88 1.12 1.13 1.10 1.18 1.19 .93 ; .98 .81 1.08 .97 1.04  " .63 .54 .51 .31 .64 .59 .63 .53 .62 .57 .36 . .46 .52 .52 .48  19.0 21.2 20.0 22.5 23.0 20.9 20.8 19.8 21.5 21.0 21.3 23.2 22.7 23.2 22.2  . 2.65 2.55 2.22 1.38 •2.78 2.27 1.75 2.50 3.33 3.20 2.19 1.91 1.87 2.03 ; 2.26  .346  1.091  .527  Mean  21.487  2.326  Item 6 /min. 62 71 68 91 62 69 76 77 69 56 65 72 63 63 73 69.13  Item 7 cms. 1.16 • .86 .91 .65 .89 .93 .61 1.05 .90 ; 1.19 .65 .65 .94 .76 .83  Item 8 cms. 1.21 • 1.05 1.43 .74 1.60 , 1.18 .9? 1.06 1.64 1.34 -.97 .90 1.66 .92 .87  .865  1.171  Item 9 sees.  Item 10 no.  90 99 94 131 110 120 103 103 91 104 106 101 97 102 105  186 195 209 181 178 191 170 172 173 201 182 173 181 194  103.73  183-9  Z?  1  APPENDIX G RAW SCORES FOR INITIAL TEST MOTOR FITNESS ITEMS Item  Item  Item  Item  Item  Item  Item  Item  Item  Item  Item  Item  Subject  sees.  sees.  ins.  ins.  ins.  ins.  no.  no.  lbs.  lbs.  lbs.  lbs.  1 2  19.3  6.5  97.5  9.3 13.6 18.1 20.6 14.8 19.0 15.8 19.4  7 6 2 0 8 11 6 14 9 6 3 7 2 6 3  16 13 4 0 12 17 13  140 120 145 110 130 139 124 99 122 79 99 120 115 132 110  120  387 380 375 260 395 341 351 390  17.0 20.1 16.2  12.8 12.7 13.7 8.2 7.7 6.1 12.2 11.7 12.1 10.6 16.1 14.9 18.7 9.3 12.0  555 465 465 450 440 420 511 701 550 363 365 601 530 312 320  17,2C  12.05  3 4  5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15  Mean  1  2  3  4  17.4  7.2  21.4 18.0 19.2  85.0 93.0  17.4 19.4  7,7 6.5 6.6 6.5 7.0 6.4 6.8 7.0 6.6 6.8 7,1 6.9  6.6 8.3 11.7 10.8 6.9 20.2 7.0 5.8 6.9  79.P 89.0 87.0 83.0 78.0  8.7 14.6 3.7 14.0 12.0  18.66  6.81  86.40  17.9 19.5 18.5  18.5 18.6 18.1 17.4  19.3  6.5  89.0 96.0  77.5 83.0 81.0  92.5 85.5  §•5  9.58  5  14.7 15.9 20.8  22.7  6  7  6.00  8  18  7 10 1  16  6 6 2  9  10  116  102 81 126 1 5  i  118 ifc  9  118 78 80 95 108 120 104  11  372  293 325 360 335 320 231  12  9.40 118:93 107^40 341.00 469. i  c  APPENDIX H RAW SCORES FOR FINAL TEST MOTOR FITNESS ITEMS  Subject 1 2 3 4  I7  8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15  Mean  Item 1 sees. 18.5 17.0 17.7 20.6 18.6 18.6 19,4 18.0 18.4 17.4 18.2 17.6 19.0 17.8 19.3 18.41  Item 2 sees.  Item 3 ins.  Item 4„ ins.  Item 5.. ins.  Item 6 ins.  Item 7, no.  Item 8. no.  6.4 6.8 6.6  6.6 6.4 6.7 6.4 6.6 6.9 6.6 6.8 7.1 6.6  95.5 92.0 96.0 76.5 92.0 79.0 96.5 88.0 99.0 88.0 06.5 87; 5 89.5 90.0 76.5  10.0 10.8 15.4 11.6 7.0 26.8 9.0 6,5 11.9 7.6 9.2 24.2 8.2 15.1 12.6  14,3 12.2 17,5 19.0 15.0 21.1 14.6 18.1 14,5 16.2 19.5 20.2 17.2 24.2 15^5  10.9 9.2 8.5 7.0 8.3 6.1 12.6 11.6 14.8 9.2 17.6 13.0 17.2 10.6 13.5  9 8 3 0 7 11 6 14 7 8 2 8 2 7 3  13 17 7 1 12 16 12 30 8 13 4 18 8 12 2  6.69  88.83  12.39  17.2^  11.34  7-3 6.6  6.33  ,v  Item 9. lbs.  Item 10 lbs.  Item 11 lbs.  Item 12 lbs.  134 130 120 120 123 147 130 120 124 110 99 118 130 136 100  129 120 119 117 118 152 128 105 138 107 104 100 110 111 107  410 323 320 325 365 350 387 398 340 375  535 601 522 355 590 530 632 670 535 451 435 675 510 440 320  3  2t  368 371 322 260  11.53 122.73 117.67 349.20 520.07  -  116  -  G a r r e t t , H.-E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and E d u c a t i o n . New York, Longmans Green, 1958, pp. 227-228. Walker, H.M.., Lev. J.,, S t a t i s t i c a l I n f e r e n c e . New York, Henry H o l t , 1953, PP« 144-145.  

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