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Effects of specialized training on the physical fitness of university competitive swimmers Gautschi, Edwin Harold Marcel 1966

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T H E E F F E C T S O F S P E C I A L I Z E D T R A I N I N G O N T H E P H Y S I C A L F I T N E S S O F U N I V E R S I T Y C O M P E T I T I V E S W I M M E R S By Edwin Harold M a r c e l Gautschi B . P . E . , The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950 B . E d . , The Universi ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957 A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S O F T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F P H Y S I C A L E D U C A T I O N In the School of P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A A p r i l , 1966 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Br i t ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that per-mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives., It is understood that copying or publ i -cation of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of P h y s i c a l Education The University of Br i t ish Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 28, 1966.  i i A B S T R A C T The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of specialized training on the physical fitness of twelve members of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Swimming T e a m . The specialized training consisted of the Basic or General Circui t , the Interval Circui t and the Swim C i r c u i t . The areas of physical fitness that were being considered included dynamic strength, dynamometer or static strength, cardiovas-cular endurance, breathing capacity, reaction time and ankle flexibili ty. The subjects were tested on three occasions; f irst , previous to the com-mencement of the training programme, second, midway through the competitive swimming season, and finally, at the completion of training. The experiment covered a period of approximately six months. Results were compared for the initial and intermediate tests, the initial and final tests and for the intermediate and final tests. Most notable improvement was shown in dynamic strength, whereas dynamom-eter strength evidenced no improvement. Significant improvement was also found in reaction time and ankle flexibility, but no improvement was indicated in cardiovascular endurance or breathing capacity. I l l T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S C H A P T E R P A G E I I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 Statement of the Problem 2 Purpose of the Study 2 The Hypotheses 3 Delimitations 3 Bas ic Assumptions 4 Definition of T e r m s 4 II J U S T I F I C A T I O N O F T H E P R O B L E M 8 III R E V I E W O F T H E L I T E R A T U R E 11 IV M E T H O D S A N D P R O C E D U R E S 25 Training Programme 25 Testing Procedure 31 V R E S U L T S 34 Dynamic Strength 34 Dynamometer Strength 36 Breathing Capacity 39 Reaction T i m e 39 Cardiovascular Endurance 40 Ankle Flexibi l i ty 40 iv C H A P T E R P A G E VI DISCUSSION O F R E S U L T S 42 VII S U M M A R Y A N D C O N C L U S I O N S 45 Recommendations for Future Study 46 B I B L I O G R A P H Y 48 A P P E N D I C E S 54 A P P E N D I X A 55 A P P E N D I X B 57 A P P E N D I X C 58 A P P E N D I X D 59 A P P E N D I X E 60 A P P E N D I X F 61 A P P E N D I X G 62 A P P E N D I X H 63 A P P E N D I X I 64 A P P E N D I X J 65 A P P E N D I X K 66 L I S T O F T A B L E S T A B L E P A G E 1 The Basic or General Circui t 26 2 The Interval C i r c u i t 28 3 The Swim Circui t 30 4 Chinning 35 5 Dipping 35 6 V e r t i c a l Jump 36 7 L a r s o n ' s Muscular Strength - Weighted Composite Score 36 8 Right G r i p 37 9 Left G r i p 37 10 Back L i f t 38 11 L e g Li f t 38 12 Total Dynamometer Strength 38 13 Strength per pound of Body Weight 39 14 Breathing Capacity 39 15 Reaction T i m e 40 16 H a r v a r d Step Test Rating 40 17 Right Ankle Flexibi l i ty 41 18 Left Ankle Flexibi l i ty 41 v i A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T The writer wishes to express his appreciation to his advisor, D r . Peter Mul l ins , for his advice and assistance, part icu-l a r l y with regard to the editing of this thesis. In addition, I wish to express my gratitude to M r . Jack Pomfret for his efforts on behalf of the swimming team, to D r . Stanley R. Brown for his invaluable assistance in the research laboratory, to D r . D. M c K i e for his advice concerning the statistical treatment of this study, and to D r . H . D. Whittle for his suggestions and guidance. C H A P T E R I I N T R O D U C T I O N During the past decade remarkable improvements have been made in performance times in individual competitive sports, p r i n c i -pally in the realm of swimming and track and f ie ld . In this period, record times have been lowered in almost every event (1) and there is every indication that this trend w i l l continue. In spite of this, C a r l i l e reflects with reference to swimming, that "training is st i l l very largely unscientific, a case of the blind leading the blind. " (2) A closer look at the reason or reasons underlying these out-standing accomplishments would appear to be pertinent at this time. Initially, it might be said that the matter is related to motivation; the very fact that an existing mark is lowered, and in many instances before the previous one has been entered in the record book, provides the nec-essary impetus for other competitors to put forth that "extra effort" in an attempt to exceed the achievement of the record holder. Obviously this is not the whole story since such exceptional results must be due to something more tangible than the psychological factors. This gives r ise to such factors as superior coaching, more proficient techniques, improved facilities and conditions, and immensely intensified training programmes. The latter, part icularly as it is related to the development of physical fitness, is most noteworthy and it is within this realm that this study w i l l be confined. A high state of training in the athlete obviously denotes his physical fitness, particularly factors of muscular strength and endurance 2 and cardiovascular endurance. Since these components of physical fitness, when achieved to the utmost, are vital to top swimming per -formance, a study of this area would appear to be of considerable significance. It is the intent of this research project, therefore, to determine the effect of specialized training on the physical fitness of selected swimmers . Statement of the problem; The problem in this thesis is to determine by way of carefully selected tests, whether or not improvements take place in the physical fitness of university competitive swimmers during and following intensive training schedules of a specialized nature. Purpose of the study: It is the purpose of this study to determine what effects such specialized conditioning as basic and interval circuit training and special weight training in the form of the Swim Circui t , in addition to routine swimming practice, have on the physical fitness of members of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Swimming Team over a six month period during the normal competitive swimming season. Moreover , the study w i l l attempt to resolve which factors of physical fitness are affected to the greatest degree under this kind of intensive training. Specifically, the aim w i l l be to determine the change that w i l l take place in the physical fitness of each swimmer over the three test periods and whether there is a significant difference in physical fitness in comparing the results of the f irst and second, f irst and third and second and third times of testing. 3 The hypothesis: It is hypothesized that the physical fitness of the swimming team members w i l l improve significantly when comparing the results of the second test period over the f i rs t test period, the third test period over the f i rs t test period and the third test period over the second test period. Delimitations: The study w i l l concern itself solely with members of the Universi ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Swimming T e a m , consisting of twelve male students. P h y s i c a l fitness w i l l be determined by tests in muscular strength and endurance, cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, breathing capacity and reaction time. Cardiovascular fitness w i l l be determined by pulse rate after stepping, using the H a r v a r d Step Test . Muscular strength and endurance w i l l be measured by tests of general motor ability and by static dynamometrical strength tests r e -spectively. The test of flexibility w i l l be restricted to ankle flexibility. The experiment w i l l be conducted over a six month period. The experimental group, being small in number and selective, cannot be considered a random sample of the population. Available norms concerning the physical fitness of highly trained athletes are extremely l imited. This factor necessitates the use of norms that apply to the normal healthy individual. 4 It is not known to what degree training under actual swimming conditions will have on the development of physical fitness in the ex-perimental group. Basic assumptions: Each subject will be sufficiently motivated to put forth his best possible effort during the performance of the v a r i -ous tests. Testing procedures will be constant for all subjects. The tests used will be recognized tests and will be administered by trained personnel. Muscular strength and endurance, cardiovascular endurance, breathing capacity and flexibility, are important components of physical f itne s s. Reaction time is closely related to fitness, particularly with reference to competitive swimming performance. Any changes in test results will be due to alterations in physical fitness rather than to learning or motivation. Physical fitness will be construed as that condition evidenced by the highly trained athlete which is distinctly superior to that of the nor-mal healthy individual. Definition of terms: Fo r the purpose of this study "physical fitness" is defined as the ability to function physically at a high level of effici-ency. (3) "Muscular strength" is the maximum strength that is applied in a singular muscular contraction. (4) "Muscular endurance" is the ability to continue muscular ex-ertions of submaximal magnitude. (5) 5 "Cardiovascular endurance" refers to the condition of the circulatory system in adapting to work situations. ( 6 ) "General motor ability, " also known as general athletic ability, is the immediate capacity of an individual to perform in many varied stunts or athletic events. (7) "Static dynamometrical strength" is strength that is performed in a relatively stationary position and which can be registered on a dyna-mometer. (8) "Circuit training" describes that method of fitness training designed to develop muscular and cardiovascular fitness by the utiliza-tion of the overload principle (9) (10) and the theory of progressive resistance exercise. (11) It consists of a number of specific exercises arranged in a consecutive pattern in the form of a circuit, with progres-sion measured initially by increasing the time of performance and secondly, by increasing the number of repetitions, depending upon the exercise tolerance of the individual. The target time or completion time is based upon the execution of three circuits of the course. "Basic circuit training" is a programme of circuit training generally prescribed for the development of physical fitness in normal healthy individuals. "Interval circuit training" refers to an advanced type of the aforementioned conditioning programme specifically designed for highly competitive athletes. It consists of more strenuous exercises than those included in the basic circuit. The participant is required to complete five circuits with a target time of two minutes each and a one 6 minute rest interval between each circuit . The last circuit is followed immediately by running eight laps of the running track or equivalent. " T h e swim circui t " is an original special weight training programme that consists of specific conditioning exercises performed to develop strength and endurance in muscles that are involved in the various swimming strokes. 7 R E F E R E N C E S 1. " O l y m p i c Results, " W o r l d Sports, The B r i t i s h Olympic Association, 30:12, (December, 1964) pp. 30-39. 2. C a r l i l e , F . and C a r l i l e , U . , "Physiological Studies of Austral ian Olympic Swimmers in H a r d Training , " The Austral ian Journal of P h y s i c a l Education, 23, (October - November, 1961). 3. M c C l o y , C . H . and Young, N . D . , Tests and Measurements in Health and Physica l Education, 3rd. ed. , New York , Appleton - Century - Crofts , 1954, p. 222. 4. Clarke , H . H . , Application of Measurement to Health and Physica l Education, Englewood Cl i f fs , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I960, p. 222. 5. L o c . cit. 6. Mathews, D . K . , Measurement in Physica l Education, 2nd. ed. , Philadelphia and London, W . B . Saunders, 1963, p. 189. 7. I b i d . , p. 123. 8. Ibid. , p. 141. 9. Morgan, R . E . and Adam son, G . T . , Circui t Tra ining , London, B e l l and Sons, 1958, p. 31. 10. Hellebrandt, F . A . and Houtz, S. J . , "Mechanism of Muscle Training in Man: Experimental Demonstration of the Overload Pr inc iple , " P h y s i c a l Therapy Review, 36:6 (June, 1956), p. 371. 11. D e L o r m e , T . L . and Watkins, A . L . , Progress ive Resistance  E x e r c i s e , New York, Appleton - Century - Crofts , 1951. C H A P T E R II J U S T I F I C A T I O N OF T H E P R O B L E M In this age of highly specialized training in competitive athletics such as swimming and track and field, numerous systems are being employed in an attempt to develop an optimum degree of physical fitness which is a vital ingredient for the swimming champion. Up to the present time no single method has received universal accept-ance in its entirety. (1) There are those who have advocated in-the-water training exclusively for the development of fitness as well as swimming performance. (2) The majority of the foremost coaches at the present time however, recommend dry land training, particularly with the use of weights. (3) Ideally then, it would seem that a balanced combination of these two systems would satisfy the requirements and desires of most competitors. (4) It is desirable to determine, therefore, whether the method of training described herein will develop a top level of physical fitness in competitive swimmers. In addition it is hoped, if certain aspects of physical fitness show improvement and the extent to which they improve, that this will provide a basis for formulating future training programmes. Moreover, owing to the lack of indoor swimming facilities on the campus of the University of British Columbia, a sufficient amount of training under pool conditions is not possible. The members of the swim-ming team are required to travel to off-campus facilities at which time allotment is markedly restricted. Consequently it is also desirable to 9 know, by the level of physical fitness attained, if the specialized training as outlined will supplement the limited programme of actual swimming. Friermood (5) emphasizes the need for research in all phases of aquatics. It is suggested that training and conditioning have a place in future investigations. Accordingly, through the re-sults and conclusions of the study, the advancement of research may be the outcome if even to a slight degree. Dawson (6) notes that new ideas and methods should be at-tempted with a view towards the betterment of training programmes. Change and continued experimentation are psychological factors that can overcome even a negative physical factor. Swimmers simply want to try something new and any-thing new that works for the champion is worth trying. This makes sense and science is fighting human nature if it expects highly motivated athletes and coaches to wait for the completion of group laboratory study be-fore trying something new. (7) The specialized training upon which this study has its basis could conceivably open another door to training procedures. Finally, since norms for athletes with respect to physical fitness are few in number, it is hoped that this study will contribute to the establishment of standards of this nature. 10 R E F E R E N C E S 1. C a r l i l e , F . , Forbes C a r l i l e on Swimming, London, Pelham Books, 1963, p. 49. 2. L o c . cit. 3. Dawson, B . , A Swimmers Book of D r y - L a n d E x e r c i s e s , Ann A r b o r , Swim Central . 4. Garstang, Coaching for Swimming, London, Museum P r e s s , 1963, pTTK 5. F r i e r m o o d , H . T . , " T h e Need for Aquatic Research, " Aquatics Guide, D. G . W. S. , A . A . H . P . E . R. , (July 1963 - July 1965), pp. 22-27. 6. Dawson, op. cit. , p. 81. 7. L o c . cit. C H A P T E R III R E V I E W O F T H E L I T E R A T U R E A major part of the training of competitive swimmers necessari ly pertains to the physical fitness of the performer and the expression "physical fitness" as related to such athletic events as swimming on a competitive basis could be very wel l defined as "the ability to function physically at a high level of efficiency. " (1) This definition, then, would satisfy the age-old problem, "fitness for what?" , when queried with r e -spect to competitive swimming since it is readily conceivable precisely what degree of fitness is desirable for this activity. In spite of the varied approaches to the development of physical fitness in swimmers , training on the whole, according to C a r l i l e "remains very much an empir ica l , t r i a l - a n d - e r r o r p r o c e d u r e . " (2) This is assured ly due, in part at least, to the conflicting concepts with respect to the training methods that the experts have advocated in the past. Fitness training for swimmers can be classified into two general categories, f i rs t that which is restricted to the water and secondly, dry-land training. F o r many years , and for that matter, until quite recently, it had been held that optimal fitness, and consequently top swimming per -formance, could be achieved solely by training in the water. In this regar C a r l i l e (3) notes that in 1962, leading Dutch coaches had denounced exer-cises for strength other than those which could be executed in the water. The belief here was that the swimmers would become muscle bound, a factor that would impede their swimming performance. Nevertheless, dry land methods of training, notably with weights, are almost unanimously 12 accepted at present. On the face of it, this has seemed a good reason in the past for exercising "only" in the water to gain swimming fitness. Up to 1948 practically every swimming trainer in the world agreed with this. Now, however, practical ex-perience has proved them wrong and there are few top swimmers in the world who do 'not 1 work for strength out of the water in addition to their strenuous training in the water. (4) Further confirmation of the advantages of out-of-water training is evidenced by conditioning programmes prescribed by the foremost swimming coaches in the United States today, namely Kiphuth, Counsilman, McCaffee , Higgins, Schlueter, and the Dawsons. (5) Counsilman predicts that: . . . . eventually most swimming coaches w i l l agree that a mixed training program is necessary for the proper conditioning of swimmers . . . I am sure there w i l l always be some disagreement among coaches on the amount of emphasis that should be placed on each type of swimming training. (6) The objectives basic to the development of physical fitness in swim-mers are concerned with muscular strength, muscular and cardiovascular endurance, or what is commonly referred to as stamina, and flexibility or suppleness. The strength factor has been the subject of considerable controversy among coaches over the years . There are those who would suggest that strength may not be an important ingredient for swimmers since many men and women who have tested low on physical strength are champion swimmers . (7) Faulkner (8) reflects that his Western Ontario University swimmers became weaker, as the season progressed, when tested for static strength although there was an improvement in stamina 1 3 and performance, the latter being indicated by the faster times during time t r ia ls . Schlueter (9) and other prominent coaches propose that "too many of us have gone overboard on weights" for the purpose of developing strength. It is generally conceded by most of the experts that young swimmers can benefit greatly f rom a strength programme, whereas the well-developed champions can better utilize their time with other aspects of training. (10) The amount and type of training, whether its purpose be to develop strength, endurance or f lexibili ty , is determined chiefly by the individuals body type and the particular stroke at which he specializes. (11) Cureton (12) shows that the majority of champion swimmers cluster decidedly to-ward the mesomorphic component of his somatotype triangle, with some tendency toward the ectomorphic-mesomorphic side. Few champions, if any, are above four in endomorphy, a characteristic that is apparent in almost all top athletes in most sporting events. With reference to the specific stroke at which the swimmer specializes it can be readily con-ceived that the type of training should be adequate to meet the needs of the specialty. Thus where the stroke demands a particular emphasis on the components of strength, endurance or flexibility, the training should be geared to obtain the optimum degree necessary. Indeed, the wise and ultimately successful coach w i l l design a programme specifically suited to the requirements of his swimmers on an individual basis . D r y - l a n d exercises are as numerous as the coaches who propose them and each has its particular significance. They may vary from the conventional calisthenics with the use of little or no equipment, to the 14 more complicated interval circuit training procedures. Other systems involve static tensions, bar bells , pulley weights, partner resistance, medicine balls , and endurance running. It is not uncommon to find a combination of the above items incorporated into one complete programme. Dawson (13) has compiled a collection of training procedures recommended by some of the most eminent coaches in the United States, Canada and Aust ra l ia . In the ensuing paragraphs, the literature pertaining to the effects of training on physical fitness w i l l be reviewed with specific reference being made to various weight and circuit training programmes and the relationship to competitive swimming where applicable. Howell and M o r f o r d (14) submit that there are many ways of at-taining physical fitness and that the principal methods include weight training, circuit training, static and isometric contractions and progres-sive calisthenics. These authors advise variety in order to maintain the interest of the individual thus increasing the effectiveness of the programme. a major factor in fitness training is the appearance of boredom by the repetition of an activity. Everyone should be aware of different methods of fitness training, and should change his program occasionally. (15) Throughout the literature on circuit training the importance of systematic progressive loading is emphasized. Steinhaus states the follow-ing with relation to the overload theory, a fundamental principle of circuit training: no matter how much a muscle is used, it w i l l not grow larger or stronger until it is overloaded. This means that the intensity of the work required of it must be increased above that to which it is normally 15 accustomed, i . e. , it must be required to exert more power (foot pounds per minute) or work against greater resistance than before. (16) Steinhaus further explains his theory of the overload principle in terms of intensive exercise with or without the use of weights. Weight training and heavy calisthenics are examples of what I choose to call f o r m a l overload-ing. Such activities can be used to strengthen any muscle or muscle group. They are easily described and graduated. They are effective to the extent that they develop the muscles that are important to the sport and do not increase inordinately the size and weight of muscles inappropriate to the sport in question. (17) Functional overloading is described by Steinhaus as that which is directly related to the sport. Thus a basketball player trains with m e d i -cine balls , a boxer uses heavy punching bags and extra-heavy shoes, the swimmer works out in the pool with his legs tied fast, and so on. (18) F inal ly , Steinhaus proposes that muscles can be overloaded by self r e -sistive exercise, a form of isometric contraction, whereby one group of muscles is used to resist another, at which time both groups may be simultaneously overloaded. (19) M c C l o y (20) suggests that overload w i l l result in a better blood supply which w i l l correspondingly increase the oxygen supply and result in an improvement of endurance. Hellebrandt and Houtz (21) discovered that both strength and endur-ance improved when work was performed against heavy resistance. M u l l e r (22) considers tension to be the key factor in strength development and that the use of heavy resistance requiring a longer contraction time concurs with this principle . 16 Morgan and Adam son (23) indicate that circuit training "aims at the development of muscular and c i rculo- respira tory f i t n e s s . " Adamson (24) had earl ier suggested this when he found that there was a substantial per cent increase in means in the results of tests in static and dynamic strength, power and endurance in twenty university men who were i n -volved in circuit training once a week over a period of two months. Adamson (25) later interpreted this system of training in terms based upon the principle of progressive loading. He stated further that this progressive loading theory has been "unhappily named the overload principle . " According to this principle , it is impossible to increase muscular strength or endurance except by the imposition of progressively heavier loads. A muscle can only increase in strength if it works at a greater rate than has been previously required. T h i s , therefore, calls for some control of the work rate during training, so that a steady increase may be maintained (2 6) Cureton (2 7) claims that interval training in track and long distance running are the best methods of improving cardiovascular endurance. Banister (28) in his study with junior high school boys, showed that the interval circuit training method was more efficient than circuit training activity in the development of total fitness, dynamic strength and endurance. Howell , et al , (29) in an experiment with two groups of university freshmen equated on their performance on the Roger 's Short Strength In-dex and another two groups of university freshmen equated on the basis of the L a r s o n Muscular Strength Test , came to the conslusion that circuit training caused statistically significant increases in strength and muscu-lar endurance. Dennis on, Howell and M o r f o r d (30) in a study comparing 17 isometric and isotonic exercise methods with twenty required programme students, placed one half of the group on a regular weight training sched-ule for eight weeks and the other half on the thirteen exercises of the Commander Set group over the same period of t ime. The results i n d i -cated that both exercise programmes brought about significant improve-ment in muscular endurance of the upper arms on the basis of scores on the A r m Strength Index. The regular weight trained group, however, showed a tendency toward greater gains on the whole than did the C o m -mander Set group, although the authors point out that the latter results were most encouraging considering fhe exercise time involved. Nunney (31), experimenting on swimmers in required physical education classes, discovered that students who participated in a combin-ation of swimming and circuit training exercises, improved their swimming speed more than those who participated in swimming alone. The findings of Davis (32) revealed that after a period of weight training, all seventeen of his subjects increased their speed in swimming the crawl stroke. Similar results were obtained by Thompson and Stull (33) who tested six groups of subjects on different training programmes. They concluded that swimmers who did specific weight training three times weekly and swam three times weekly showed greater improvement in their swimming performance. Hutchinson (34), however, found that swimming plus weight training produced no better results than those that were achieved solely by swimming. Jensen (35) used five different training methods consisting of varying proportions of weight training and swimming arid concluded that while swimming performance improved steadily after vigorous training 1 8 thirty minutes each day for five days a week, no one method of training was superior to another. Two studies reveal significant results pertaining to the effects of swimming on physical fitness. First, Davis (36) in analyzing the effects of training and conditioning for the two hundred yard crawl stroke upon the physical condition of non-varsity swimmers, found that scores on test batteries used to measure physical fitness, indicated that there was a decided improvement in motor fitness and gross strength although no significant difference was obtained for cardiovascular con-dition. Secondly, Cureton (37), evaluated the U.S. Navy's programme of training for underwater swimmers during.one typical course of six weeks' duration. The thirty men who trained vigorously five hours per day, five days per week, both in and out of the water, showed improve-ment in muscular endurance and cardiovascular fitness as well as in the reduction of fat. Cureton also notes in this study that programmes of maximal duration, four to ten hours per week, result in the greater relative improvement in muscular endurance and that cardiovascular fitness improvements are influenced by time and intensity factors, with better results being obtained when the dosage is gradually increased over several months. In summary, a review of some of the more pertinent information relevant to physical fitness as it applies to competitive swimming would seem worthwhile. Although other components of physical fitness may be apparent, muscular strength, muscular and cardiovascular endurance and flexibility are the three most vital to swimming performance. In 19 spite of the fact that strength has been refuted by some as to its neces-sity for swimming success, most authorities agree as to its worth. A n increase in swimming strength w i l l enable the swimmer to produce a higher swimming output. Swimming strength can be built up on dry land as well as in the water. At the higher levels of c o m -petition, weight training and body exercise should be featured prominently in the swimmer 4 s training programme. (38) The foregoing quotation points out the need for dry- land training in addition to the regular swimming schedule. There is no longer the fear that the individual w i l l become muscle bound, instead there is a desire to develop f i r m , well-conditioned muscles . Nowadays it is recognized that in order to be really fit, swimmers must take part in activities on land to strengthen them, and that a hard muscle is normally in a state of contraction indicating 'work 1 . A soft flabby muscle indicates weakness It can thus been (sic) seen that land conditioning is no longer a 'hit and m i s s ' affair (39) T o conclude this chapter, a survey of the literature relevant to the validity and reliabili ty of the tests and testing instruments utilized in this study, w i l l be presented. M c C l o y reveals that the H a r v a r d Step Test has been well validated as a measure of general endurance that might be highly desirable for the average citizen. " an *r' of . 70 has been obtained by a t r i s e r i a l cor-relation of the scores of two groups of rowers, varsity squad and begin-ners, and of an untrained group of men. " Brouha (41) advocates that the step test is a measure of the general capacity of the body, in particular the cardiovascular system, to adapt itself to hard work and to recover from what it has done. 20 The elements of dynamic strength as measured by chinning, dipping and the vert ical jump, according to L a r s o n (42), yield a higher validity correlation when compared to the other types of strength tests. M c C l o y (43) asserts that the test for ankle flexibility employed in this study, is useful p r i m a r i l y for swimming and the Dance. U t i l i z -ing this test of f lexibi l i ty , F i s h e r (44) evidenced a coefficient of r e l i a -bility of . 73 in testing and retesting the varsity and freshman swimming squads at Springfield College. Breathing capacity, states M c C l o y (45), has long been used as a measure of physical status and that the wet spirometer is a valid instru-ment for measuring this component of fitness. Moreover , Cureton claims that there is some indication that swimming develops breathing capacity. (46) The vert ical jump reaction time test, according to Cureton (47), is considered to be a reliable test to determine how quickly a person can react to a stimulus. 21 R E F E R E N C E S 1. M c C l o y , C . H . and Young, N . D . , Tests and Measurements in Health and Physica l Education, 3rd. ed. , New York, Appleton - Century - Crofts , 1954, p. 127. 2. C a r l i l e , F . and C a r l i l e , U . , "Physiological Studies of Austral ian Olympic Swimmers in H a r d Training , " The Austral ian Journal of P h y s i c a l Education, 23, (October-November, 1951), p. 5. 3. C a r l i l e , F . , Forbes C a r l i l e on Swimming, London, Pelham Books, 1963, p. 48. 4. L o c . cit. 5. Dawson, B . , A Swimmers Book of D r y - L a n d E x e r c i s e s , Ann A r b o r , Swim Central (Introduction). 6. Counsilman, J . E . , "Conditioning of Competitive Swimmers , " Coaching Review, The Royal Canadian Legion, 3:1, (June, 1965), pp. 6-7. 7. Dawson, op. cit, p. 2. 8. L o c . cit. 9. L o c . cit. 10. L o c . cit. 11. I b i d . , (Introduction). 12. Cureton, T . K . , P h y s i c a l Fitness of Champion Athletes, ' Urbana, U . of Illinois P r e s s , 1951, pp. 17-18. 13. Dawson, op. cit. , 47-80. 14. Howell , M . L . and M o r f o r d , W. R. , Fitness Training Methods, Toronto, C . A . H . P . E . R. , p. 11. 15. L o c . cit. 16. Steinhaus, A . H . , "Strength from Morpurge to M u l l e r - A Half Century of Research, " Journal of the Associat ion for P h y s i c a l  and Mental Rehabilitation, 9:5, (September-October, 1955), p. 47. 22 17. Steinhaus, A . H . , Toward an Understanding of Health and Physica l Education, Dubuque, W m . C . Brown, 1963, p. 324. 18. L o c . cit. 19. I b i d . , p. 325. 20. M c C l o y , C . H . , " E n d u r a n c e , " The Physica l Educator, 5, (March, 1948), p. 73. 21. Hellebrandt, F . A . and Houtz, S. J . , "Mechanism of Muscle Training in Man: Experimental Demonstration of the Overload P r i n c i p l e , " Phys ica l Therapy Review, 36:6, (June, 1956), p. 371. 22. M u l l e r , E . A . , " T r a i n i n g Muscular Strength, " Ergonomics , 2, (1959), p. 216. 23. Morgan, R. E . and Adamson, G . T . , Circui t Training , London, B e l l and Sons, 1958, p. 31. 24. Adamson, G . T . , " C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g , " Journal of P h y s i c a l Education, 46:137, (March, 1954), p. 6. 25. Adamson, G . T . , " C i r c u i t Training , "~ The P h y s i c a l Educator, 13:2, (May, 1956), p. 68. 26. L o c . cit. 27. Cureton, T . K . , "Improvements in Cardiovascular Condition of Humans Associated with Physica l Tra ining , Persistently P e r f o r m e d Sports and E x e r c i s e s , " College Physica l Education Associat ion, 60th Annual Proceedings, Columbus, Ohio, 1955. 28. Banister , E . W . , "The Relative Effectiveness of Interval C i r c u i t Training Compared with Three Other Methods of Fitness Training in a School Physica l Education Programme, " Unpublished Master ' s Thes is , Universi ty of B . C . , 1962, p. 32. 29. Howell , M . L . , et al , "Effects of C i r c u i t Training on Strength and Muscular Endurance, " / T h e Austral ian Journal of Physica l  Education, 28, (July, 1963), pp. 22-28. 30. Dennison, J . D . , Howell , M . L . and M o r f o r d , W . R . , "Effects of Isometric and Isotonic E x e r c i s e Programs Upon Muscular E n d u r a n c e , " Research Quarterly , 32:3, (October, 1961), pp. 348-352. 23 31. Nunney, D . N . . "Rela t ion of C i r c u i t Training to Swimming, " Research Quarterly , 31, (May, I960), pp. 188-98. 32. Davis , J . F . , " T h e Effect of Weight Training on Speed in Swimming, " The P h y s i c a l Educator, 12, (March, 1955), pp. 28-29. 33. Thompson, H . L . and Stull, G . A . , "Effects of Various T r a i n -ing P r o g r a m s on Speed in Swimming, " Research Quarterly , 30:4, (December, 1959), pp. 478-85. 34. Hutchinson, B . , "Effect of Systematic Weight Training upon Muscular Effic iency as Indicated by One Hundred Yards Swimming Performance , " Unpublished M a s t e r " s Thesis , University of Maryland, 1959. 35. Jensen, C . R. , " A Study of the Relative Effect of F i v e Training Methods on S w i m m i n g , " Dissertation Abstracts , 24:5, (November, 1963), p. 2351. 36. Davis , J . F . , "Effects of Training and Conditioning for Middle Distance Swimming upon Various P h y s i c a l Measures , " Research Quarterly , 30:4, (December, 1959), pp. 399-412. 37. Cureton, T . K . , "Improvements in P h y s i c a l Fitness Associated with a Course of U . S . Underwater Trainees , with and with-out Dietary Supplements, " Research Quarterly , 34:4, (December, 1963), pp. 440-53. 38. Garstang, J . G . , Coaching for Swimming, London, Museum P r e s s , 1963, p. 76. 39. The Amateur Swimming Association, Competitive Swimming, . London, Educational Productions, 1962, p. 65. 40. M c C l o y and Young, op. cit. , pp. 304-05. 41. Brouha, L . , " T h e Step Test ; A Simple Method of Measuring P h y s i c a l Fitness for Muscular Work in Young M e n , " Research Quarterly , 14, (March, 1943), pp. 31-36. 42. L a r s o n , L . A . , "Fac tor and Validity Analysis of Strength Variables with a Test Combination of Chinning, Dipping and V e r t i c a l Jump, " Research Quarterly, 2, (December, 1940), pp. 82-96. 43. M c C l o y and Young, op. cit. , p. 227. 24 44. F i s h e r , J . C . , " F l e x i b i l i t y as a Factor in Body Mechanics and Athletic Eff ic iency, " Unpublished Master ' s Thesis , Springfield College, 1938. 45. M c C l o y and Young, op. cit. , p. 385. 46. Cureton, T . K . , op. c i t . , p. 58. 47. Ibid. , pp. 95-96. C H A P T E R I V M E T H O D S A N D P R O C E D U R E S The experimental group was comprised of twelve male students who were members of the swimming team at the Universi ty of B r i t i s h Columbia. The experiment extended over a period of ap-proximately six months throughout the university competitive swimming season. Training programme: The specialized training to which the experimental group was subjected incorporated the Basic or General Circui t , the Interval Circui t and the Swim C i r c u i t . The programme was initiated with the Basic Circui t which was used for the first month of training. This was succeeded by the Interval C i r c u i t for two and one half months. The final phase of training was devoted to the Swim C i r c u i t . Table 1 outlines the Bas ic Circui t . T A B L E 1 The Bas ic or General Circui t Red Circui t Blue Circui t E X E R C I S E Weight (Lbs.) Repetitions Weight (Lbs.) Renetitions 1 2 3 1 2 3 1. Squat Thrust - 10 12 15 - 18 21 25 2. Two A r m C u r l 40 8 10 12 50 8 10 12 .3. Two A r m P r e s s 50 8 10 12 60 8 10 12 4. Straddle Bench Jumps 15 15 17 19 25 17 18 19 5. L a t e r a l Raise 7-1/2 8 10 12 10 8 10 12 6. Lying L a t e r a l Raise 10 8 10 12 15 8 10 12 7. Sit Ups - 10 14 18 - 21 25 30 8. Bench Step Ups - 15 17 20 - 23 26 30 9. Jump Chins - 1 2 3 - 4 6 8 •10. Bench P r e s s 60 6 8 10 80 6 8 10 11. Trunk Extension - 10 12 14 - 16 18 20 12. Bent Over Rowing 65 6 8 10 85 6 8 10 13. Stair Running - 6 8 10 2 x 10 6 8 10 27 In performing the Bas ic Circui t each of the subjects commenced at Red 1. This entailed the performance of three laps of the entire circuit at the stated dose listed under Red 1 for each exercise. "When this was accomplished in twenty-five minutes or less the subject per-formed at Red 2 and once again attempted to realize the target time of twenty-five minutes before moving to the Red 3, and so on. Table 2 portrays the Interval Circui t . T A B L E 2 The Interval Circui t E X E R C I S E Weight (Lbs.) 1 2 3 4 1. B a r b e l l Reverse C u r l (Hands Overgrasp) 45 55 65 85 2. B a r b e l l C u r l (Hands Undergrasp) 45 55 65 85 3. Side Bends 40 50 60 80 4. Straddle Bench Jumps 2 x 40 2 x 50 2 x 60 2 x 70 5. Lying Latera l Raise 10 20 30 40 6. Sit Ups 10 20 30 40 7. Chins 0 10 20 30 8. Trunk Extension 10 20 40 50 9. B a r b e l l P r e s s 45 55 65 85 10. T r i c e p Snatch" 20 40 60 -11. Bent Over Rowing 45 55 65 85 29 The eleven exercises in the Interval C i r c u i t were repeated three times, with the exception of the sit-up exercise, which was repeated five times. The subject selected the maximum weight he could lift from the poundages designated for each exercise and attempted to complete the circuit in two minutes or less . This sequence was repeated five times with a minute rest interval between each circuit . Immediately following the fifth circuit the subject ran eight laps of the running track. During inclement weather the running took place in the upper corr idors of the gymnasium. The Swim Circui t , as depicted in Table 3, is a circuit of r e l a -tively short duration, but one that can be extremely demanding if properly executed. The subjects worked through the circuit at a steady pace, resting for a maximum of thirty seconds after each exercise. 30 T A B L E 3 The Swim Circui t E X E R C I S E Weight ' (Lbs. ) Repetitions Sets 1. Straight A r m P u l l Overs 30-70 30-50 1 2. T r i c e p E x e r c i s e (Extensors) 25-70 20-30 1 3. Running on the Spot - Knees Above Waist (one minute) _ 1 1 4. A r m Rotators 25-60 30-50 1 5. Backstroke Pulleys 20-40 40 1 * 6. Standing Pulls (Isotonic) 35-? 35 3 7. Three Posit ion Holds (8 seconds) (Isometric) 35-? 10 2 * Backstroke and Individual Medley Specialists execute 3 sets of 30. 31 Testing procedure: The physical fitness and other tests used in this study are itemized below, with a description of what each test purports to measure. The testing instruments utilized and noted in the right hand column are recognized as standard testing equipment in physical education. D E S C R I P T I O N T E S T I N G T E S T 1. Dynamometer  Strength Hand grip - left and right Back lift Leg lift 2. L a r s o n ' s Muscular  Strength Chins Dips V e r t i c a l jumps 3. Breathing Capacity 4. V e r t i c a l Jump Reaction T i m e 5. : H a r v a r d Step  Test D E V I C E S Strength per pound of body Manuometer weight - indirectly related to motor ability. The items form part of Rogers Strength Index (SI) which is a measure of gen-eral athletic ability. (1) Predicts motor ability (general athletic ability). (2) Lung capacity - determines the amount of air that can be expired after the deepest pos-sible inspiration (3) - usually expected that this should be above average in swimmers . (4) Measures the individual's ability to move the whole body quickly as a unit in response to a stimulus. (5) It is associ -ated with the speed of starting in swimming. (6) Determines cardiovascular efficiency - the ability of the body to adapt itself to hard work and recover from same. (7) Chinning Bar P a r a l l e l B ars Wet Spirometer Selective Reaction T i m e r 22" Stepping Bench T i m e r Stethoscope 32 T E S T D E S C R I P T I O N 6. Ankle F l e x i b i l i t y The range of motion in the ankle joint which is con-sidered of great importance in specific events. Swimmers on the whole, require loose, flexible ankles since ankle flexibility is directly related to the flutter kick. " T h e r e is no doubt that better speed and endurance swimming p e r f o r m -ance paral lel greater flexibility in the major joints. " (8) The subjects were tested on three separate occasions during the experimental period; f i rs t at the beginning of the training programme, secondly, midway through the season and lastly, immediately following the final swimming competition. A l l testing was conducted under the direction of the research pro-fessor in the School of Physica l Education and Recreation at the U n i v e r s -ity of B r i t i s h Columbia . A l l testing procedures were standardized for each of the subjects, in that the order of testing was identical and methods for the individual tests were administered by the same person-nel . A l l testing took place in the physical education research laboratory at the aforementioned institution. T E S T I N G  D E V I C E S Trac ing B o a r d and Marking Sheet to trace ankle position at maximum flexion and extension. 33 R E F E R E N C E S 1. Mathews, D . R. , Measurement in Physica l Education, 2nd. ed. , Philadelphia and London, W . B . Saunders, 1963, p. 62. 2. I b i d . , p. 141. 3. M c C l o y , C . H . and Young, N . D . , Tests and Measurements in Health and P h y s i c a l Education, 3rd. ed. , New York , Appleton - Century - Crofts , 1954, pp. 384-85. 4. Cureton, T . K . , Phys ica l Fitness of Champion Athletes, Urbana, University of Illinois P r e s s , 1951, p. 58. 5. Ibid. , p. 95. 6. M c C l o y and Young, op. cit. , p. 229. 7. Mathews, op. c i t . , p. 201. 8. Cureton, op. cit. , p. 90. C H A P T E R V R E S U L T S The tests used in this study for the evaluation of the various components of physical fitness and related measures, have been sub-divided into the individual test items, where necessary, for the purpose of more ably presenting the significant results. The following tables show the information required for testing the significance between means of the paired observations for the init ial and intermediate test period, the initial and final test period, and the intermediate and final test period. The resulting t statistic is also shown. The symbols used in the succeeding tables are listed below: T l Initial test period. T2 Intermediate test period. T3 F i n a l test period. X I Mean of init ial scores. X2 Mean of intermediate scores. X3 Mean of final scores . 2~.d Sum of the differences between scores . Xd Sum of the squared differences between scores. Dynamic strength: Statistical results for Chinning are shown in Table 4. Significant improvement was evident from the intermediate tests over the initial tests and from the final tests over the initial tests. * There was no significant improvement from the final tests over the intermedi-ate tests. * Significant improvement is indicated in the following tables at the . 025 level of significance. 35 T A B L E 4 Chinning XI XZ X3 Zd Zd2 t _ T l - T2 12. 54 14. 71 26. 0 120. 0 3. 120 * T l - T3 12. 54 114.25 20. 5 61. 75 3.438 * T2 - T3 14.71 14.25 -5 . 5 49. 75 - .766 * Significant at the . 025 level of significance. In Table 5, for the test item Dipping, significant improvement was notable in the results from the intermediate tests to those of the initial tests, from the final tests over the initial tests and from the final tests over the intermediate tests. T A B L E 5 Dipping .... 2 X I XZ X3 Td Xd t _ T l - T2 15.21 20. 88 66.0 482.50 5. 780 * T l - T3 15.21 22. 83 91.5 885.75 6. 388 * T2 - T3 20.88 22. 83 23.5 2. 875 * * Significant at the . 025 level of significance. F o r the test, V e r t i c a l Jump, the statistical results as shown in Table 6, indicate that there was no significant improvement in this i tem. 36 T A B L E 6 V e r t i c a l Jump X I X2 X3 Zd Id2 t _ T l - T2 21. 08 21.04 - . 5 5.25 - . 6916 T l - T3 21. 08 21. 33 3. 0 13. 5 . 8070 T2 - T3 21. 04 21. 33 3. 5 8. 75 1. 205 Table 7 presents the overall dynamic strength in L a r s o n ' s Weighted Composite Score. Significant improvement is apparent f rom the results of the intermediate tests over the initial tests and the final tests over the initial tests. T A B L E 7 Larson 's Muscular Strength - Weighted Composite Score X I X2 X3 Z d Id L _ T l - T2 366. 18 406.37 482. 32 32,299. 37 4.067 * T l - T3 366. 18 412.50 555.89 38,045. 03 4. 800 * T2 - T3 406.37 412. 50 73.57 7,377.86 . 846 * Significant at the . 025 level of significance. Dynamometer strength: In the comparison of the means of the three test periods for Right G r i p and Left G r i p , as depicted in Tables 8 and 9, respectively, there was no significant improvement. 37 T A B L E 8 Right G r i p X I X2 X3 Xd Zd 2 t T l . _ - - T2 119.25 126. 08 83 2, 175 1. 986 T l • • T3 119.25 121. 17 23 1, 055 • 693 T2 -- T3 126. 08 121. 17 59 1, 425 1. 677 T A B L E 9 Left G r i p X I X2 X3 Id Zd 2 t T l -- T2 108.08 113.50 65 2, 335 1. 398 T l -• T3 108.08 112.92 58 1, 854 1. 399 T2 -- T3 113.50 112.92 -7 899 071 Statistical results for the dynamometrical strength test items, Back Lif t and L e g Lif t , are shown in Tables 10 and 11. There was no significant improvement for these items. 38 T A B L E 10 Back L i f t X I X2 X3 Id Id* t T l - T2 399.08 395.00 -49 46, 648 - . 218 T l - T3 399.08 396. 00 -137 19,625 - . 976 T2 - T3 395.00 396. 00 12 33,364 . 063 T A B L E 1 1 L e g Li f t X I X2 X3 Id i d 2 t T l - T2 939. 08 986. 92 574 124,514 1.764 T l - T3 939.08 958. 58 234 166,306 .557 T2 - T3 986. 92 958.58 -340 277,242 - .629 The results of total dynamometer strength as shown in Table 12, indicate no significant improvements over the three test periods. T A B L E 1 2 Total Dynamometer Strength X I X2 X3 Id Id 2 t T l - T2 1565. 50 1611.25 519 254, 411 1.032 T l - T3 1565. 50 1588.67 278 297,378 . 494 T2 - T3 1611.25 1588.67 244 310,442 - .423 39 Strength per pound of Body Weight, as in Table 13, likewise showed no significant improvement. T A B L E 13 Strength per pound of Body Weight X I X2 X3 Zd Zd 2 t T l - T2 9. 97 10. 25 3. 32 11. 79 . 964 T l - T3 9.97 10.04 1.41 7. 54 .497 T2 - T3 10.25 10. 04 -2 . 53 11. 93 . 718 Breathing capacity: Table 14 shows the statistical results for Breathing Capacity, in which there was no significant improvement. T A B L E 14 Breathing Capacity X I X2 X3 Zd Zd t T l - T2 341. 33 341. 42 1 2,119 . 021 T l - T3 341. 33 345.42 49 1,253 1.446 T2 - T3 341.42 345.42 48 674 2.085 Reaction time: Reaction Time (Table 15) resulted in significant improvement in the final test period, over the initial tests. No sig-nificant improvement was evidenced from the intermediate tests over the initial test or the final tests over the intermediate tests. 40 T A B L E 15 Reaction T i m e (Seconds) X I X2 X3 Id Zdf T l - T2 .306 .301 . .069 . 003597 1. 168 T l - T3 .306 . 292 . 171 • .007143 2. 387 * T2 - T3 . 301 .292 . 102 . 003992 1.747 * Significant at the . 025 level of significance. Cardiovascular endurance: Table 16 shows a comparison of the statistical measures for Cardiovascular Endurance, as determined by the rating computed from the results of the H a r v a r d Step Test , which indicates no significant improvement. T A B L E 16 H a r v a r d Step Test Rating X I X2 X3 Id Id 2 t T l -- T2 92. 58 94. 00 15 771 . 524 T l -- T3 92. 58 98. 17 67 1,493 1. 918 T2 -• T3 94. 00 98. 17 50 1, 182 1. 534 Ankle flexibility: Table 17 shows that there was significant i m -provement in Right Ankle Flexibi l i ty , according to the results obtained in intermediate tests, compared to the initial test period. Otherwise, no significant improvement was indicated. 41 T A B L E 17 Right Ankle Flexibi l i ty X I X2 X3 Zd Zd 2 t _ T l - T2 58.08 64.83 81 845 4. 503 * T l - T 3 58.08 63.83 69 1, 399 2.091 T2 - T3 64. 83 63.83 -12 526 - .507 * Significant at the . 025 level of significance. Statistical results for Left Ankle Flexibil i ty are shown in Table 18. Significant improvement was evidenced from the final tests over the initial tests. No significant improvement was ap-parent from the intermediate tests over the init ial tests or from the final tests as compared to the intermediate tests. T A B L E 1 8 Left Ankle Flexibi l i ty X I X2 X3 Zd Zd 2 t _ T l - T2 60. 50 63.83 40 630 1. 718 T l - T3 60.50 66.50 72 1,022 3.053 * T2 - T3 63.83 66.50 32 382 1. 779 * Significant at the . 025 level of significance. C H A P T E R V I D I S C U S S I O N O F R E S U L T S It is interesting to note that a l l significant improvement, with one exception, occurred between the intermediate tests over the initial tests and the final tests over the initial tests. The one exception con-cerned the dynamic strength test i tem, Dipping, in which there was s ig -nificant improvement in the final test over the intermediate test. This may suggest that a "peak" in the physical fitness of the subjects was at-tained between the intermediate and final test periods. Most notable improvements in the physical fitness of the swim-mers were made in the dynamic strength test items of Chinning and D i p -ping, in addition to the overall dynamic strength as presented in the "Weighted Composite Score of L a r s o n ' s Muscular Strength Test . These findings concur with those of Hellebrandt and Houtz (1), who found that muscular strength and endurance improved following work performed against heavy resistance, which would assimilate the type of exercises that constituted the specialized training described in this study. Dennison, Howell and M o r f o r d (2) also found that strength and muscular endurance improved markedly after a programme of circuit and weight training. The results of the test i tem, V e r t i c a l Jump, in which there was no improvement of statistical significance, do not agree with the con-clusions advanced by Berger (3), which state that dynamically trained groups significantly improved their vert ical jumping ability. 43 A l l phases of dynamometer or static strength manifested no significant improvement with this experimental group. These findings corroborate the opinions proposed by Faulkner (4) who noted that uni -versity swimmers became weaker as the season progressed, when tested for static strength. This may indicate that dynamometer strength is less important to swimmers than is dynamic strength. There was significant improvement in the test item, Reaction T i m e , in this study. These findings substantiate, to some degree, the views expressed by some authors who suggest that reaction time may be improved through training. (5) On the other hand, R a r i c k (6) concluded that speed of movement in highly skilled individuals cannot be appreciably increased. The improvements evidenced in ankle flexibility in this study may be more directly related to the training under actual swimming conditions rather than to the specialized training. The lack of improvement concerning such phases of physical fitness as cardiovascular endurance and breathing capacity, leads the author to agree with Tweit and others, (7) who intimate that it is difficult to detect any changes in highly skilled athletes since they may be approaching their physiological l imit . 44 R E F E R E N C E S 1. Hellebrandt, F . A . and Houtz, S . J . , "Mechanism of Muscle Training in Man: Experimental Demonstration of the Overload Pr inc iple , " Physica l Therapy Review, 36:6, (June, 1956), p. 371. 2. Dennison, J . D . , Howell , M . L . and M o r f o r d , W. R. , "Effects of Isometric and Isotonic E x e r c i s e Programs Upon Muscular Endurance, " Research Quarterly , 3Z:3, (October, 1961), pp. 348-35Z. 3. Berger , R. A . , "Effects of Dynamic and Static Training on V e r t i c a l Jumping Abil i ty , " Research Quarter ly , 34:4, (December, 1963), p. 423. 4. Dawson, B . , A Swimmers Book of D r y - L a n d E x e r c i s e s , Ann A r b o r , Swim Central , p. 2. 5. Tweit, A . H . , Gollnick, P . E . and Hearn, G . R . , "Effect of Training P r o g r a m on Total Body Reaction T i m e of Individuals of Low Fitness , " Research Quarter ly , 34:4, (December, 1963), p. 508. 6. Rar ick , L . , " A n a l y s i s of Speed Factor in Simple Athletic A c t i v i t i e s , " Research Quarterly , 8, (March, 1937), pp. 89-105. 7. Tweit, Gollnick and Hearn, loc . cit. C H A P T E R V I I S U M M A R Y A N D C O N C L U S I O N S The subjects of this study were twelve members of the Swimming Team at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in the physical fitness of the subjects while participating in a specialized training programme. The study covered a period of approximately six months, which was the normal competitive swimming season. The specialized training consisted of the Bas ic or General Circui t for the f i rs t two months, the Interval Circui t for the next two months, with the final two months being devoted to the Swim Circui t , the latter being a specially devised p r o -gramme involving the use of weights and pulleys. The experimental group was tested prior to the commencement of their training, midway through the competitive swimming season, and finally, at the completion of the training schedule. Phys ica l fitness was measured in terms of dynamic strength, dynamometer or static strength, cardiovascular endurance, breathing capacity, reaction time, and ankle flexibility. The results revealed significant improvement in the dynamic strength items, particularly with regard to Chinning and Dipping and overall dynamic strength. Reaction Time and Ankle Flexibi l i ty results also disclosed significant improvements. The following conclusions are warranted as a resulttof the special -ized training: 46 1. There was significant improvement in these aspects of phys-ical fitness; dynamic strength, reaction time, and ankle flexibility. 2. No significant improvement was evidenced in dynamometer strength, cardiovascular endurance and breathing capacity. In the light of these conclusions it sould be noted that the fitness standards attained were generally at a high level . It is difficult to de-termine precisely what level of fitness was reached, however, owing to the lack of norms for highly trained athletes. Although not directly investigated in this study, it is interesting to note that there was notable improvement in swimming performance, evidenced by the fact that all swimmers tested recorded their fastest times. Two of the swimming team members each set two national inter-collegiate records . The swimmers involved in this study had been ac-customed to training an average of eleven hours per week in the water with their respective highly competitive age-group swimming clubs. In comparison, the Universi ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Swimming Team has been l imited to four hours of water time per week. It is reasonable to assume, therefore, that the specialized training programme adequately supplemented the l imited water training time. Recommendations for future study In consideration of the results in this study pertaining to the time during which greatest improvements in physical fitness were made, it has been suggested in Chapter VI that a plateau may have been reached concerning the swimmers ' fitness. This may indicate that a tapering-off in training take place in future experiments, rather than the continued 47 rigorous training throughout the entire programme, as was performed in this study. A future study of this nature may be attacked from the compara-tive point of view in which two sample groups would be involved. One group would be trained entirely in the water while the control group would use dry land methods in addition to the regular swimming practice se s sions. The possibilities of further research in the realm of physical fitness as it pertains to the superbly conditioned athlete, are consider-able. There is much that can be done with regard to competitive swim-mers , specifically with reference to the relationship between physical fitness and swimming performance, a subject that was not directly i n -vestigated in this study. B I B L I O G R A P H Y B I B L I O G R A P H Y A . B O O K S Amateur Swimming Association, Competitive Swimming, London, Museum P r e s s , 1963. C a r l i l e , F . , Forbes C a r l i l e on Swimming, London, Pelham Books, 1963. C l a r k e , H . H . , Application of Measurement to Health and Physica l  Education, 3rd. ed. , New York , Appleton - Century - Crofts , 1954. Cureton, T . K . , "Improvements in Cardiovascular Condition of Humans Associated with P h y s i c a l Training, Persistently P e r -formed Sports and E x e r c i s e s , " College Physica l Education Association, 60th. Annual Proceedings, Columbus, Ohio, 1955. Cureton, T . K . , P h y s i c a l Fitness Appraisa l and Guidance, St. L o u i s , C . V . Mosby, 1947. Cureton, T . K . , Phys ica l Fitness of Champion Athletes, Urbana, University of Illinois P r e s s , 1951. Dawson, B . , A Swimmer 's Book of D r y - L a n d E x e r c i s e s , Ann A r b o r , Swim Central . D e L o r m e , T . L . and Watkins, A . L . , Progress ive Resistance E x e r c i s e , New York, Appleton - Century - Crofts , 1951. Ferguson, G . A . , Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education, M c G r a w - H i l l , New York, 1959. F le ishman, E . A . , The Structure and Measurement of P h y s i c a l Fitness , Englewood C l i f f s , Prentice - H a l l , 1964. Garrett , H . E . , Statistics in Psychology and Education, New York, Longmans Green, I960. Garstang, J . G . , Coaching for Swimming, London, Museum P r e s s , 1963. Howell , M . L . and M o r f o r d , W. R. , Fitness Training Methods, Toronto, Canadian Associat ion for Health, P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation. Johnson, W. R. , Science and Medicine of E x e r c i s e and Sports, Harper Brothers , New Y o r k , I960. 50 Kiputh, R . J . H . , Swimming, New York, A . S . Barnes , 1942. L a r s o n , L . A . and Y o c o m , R. D . , Measurement and Evaluation in  Physica l , Health, and Recreation Education, St. L o u i s , C . V . Mosby, 1951. M c C l o y , C . H . and Young, N . D . , Tests and Measurements in Health  aridCPhysical Education, 3rd. ed. , New York, Appleton -Century - Crofts , 1954. Mathews, D . K . , Measurement in Physica l Education, 2nd. ed. , Philadelphia and London, W. B . Saunders, 1963. Morehouse, L . E . and Rasch, P . J . , Scientific Basis of Athletic  Training, Philadelphia and London, W. B . Saunders, 1958. Morgan, R. E . and Adamson, G . T . , Ci rcui t Tra ining , London, B e l l and Sons, 1958. Spiegel, M . R. , Theory and Problems of Statistics, Schaum's Outline Series , New Y o r k , Schaum Publishing Company, 1961. Steinhaus, A . H . , Toward an Understanding of Health and Physica l  Education, Dubuque, W m . C . Brown, 1963. B . P E R I O D I C A L S Adamson, G . T . , ' 'Circui t T r a i n i n g , " Journal of Physica l Education, 46:137 (March, 1954), pp. 1 - 6, 10. Adamson, G . T . , " C i r c u i t Training, " The Physica l Educator, 13:2 (May, 1956), pp. 68 - 70. Berger , R. A . , "Effects of Dynamic and Static Training on V e r t i c a l Jumping Abil i ty , " Research Quarter ly , 34:4, (December, 1963), pp. 419 - 24. Brouha, L . , " T h e Step Test ; A Simple Method of Measuring Physica l Fitness for Muscular "Work in Young Men, " Research Quarter ly , 14, (March, 1943), pp. 31 - 36. Capen, E . K . , "The Effect of Systematic Weight Training on Power, Strength and Endurance, " Research Quarterly , 21, (May, 1950), pp. 83 - 92. 51 C a r l i l e , F . and C a r l i l e , U . , "Physiological Studies of Austral ian Olympic Swimmers in H a r d Training , " The Austral ian Journal  of Phys ica l Education, 23, (October - November, 1961), pp. 5 - 34. Collumbine, H . , "Relationship Between Body Build and Capacity for E x e r c i s e , " Journal of Applied Physiology, 2, (1949), pp. 155-65. Counsilman, J . E . , "Conditioning of Competitive S w i m m e r s , " Coaching Review, The Royal Canadian Legion, 3:1, (June, 1965), pp. 6 - 7 . Cureton, T . K . , " F l e x i b i l i t y as an Aspect of Physica l F i tness , " Supplement to the Research Quarterly , 12, (May, 1941), pp. 381 - 90. Cureton, T . K . , "Improvements, in P h y s i c a l Fitness Associated with a Course of U . S . Underwater Trainees , with and without Dietary Supplements," Research Quarter ly , 34:4, (December, 1963), pp. 440 - 53. Cureton, T . K . and Sterling, L . F . , "Fac tor Analysis of Cardiovascular Test Var iables , " The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physica l  Fi tness , 4, (March, 1964), pp. 1 - 24. Davis , J . F . , "Effects of Training and Conditioning for Middle Distance Swimming upon Various Physica l Measures , " Research Quarterly , 30:4, (December, 1959), pp. 399 - 412. Davis , J . F . , " T h e Effect of "Weight Training on Speed in Swimming, " The P h y s i c a l Educator, 12, (March, 1955), pp. 28 - 29. Dennison, J . D . , Howell , M . L . and M o r f o r d , W. R. , "Effects of Isometric and Isotonic E x e r c i s e Programs upon Muscular E n d u r a n c e , " Research Quarterly , 32:3, (October, 1961), pp. 348 - 52. F r i e r m o o d , H . T . , "The Need for Aquatic R e s e a r c h , " Aquatics Guide, D . G . W. S. , A m e r i c a n Associat ion for Health, P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation, (July, 1963 - July , 1965), pp. 22 - 27. Hellebrandt, F . A . and Houtz, S . J . , "Mechanism of Muscle Training in Man: Experimental Demonstration of the Overload Pr inc iple , " Physica l Therapy Review, 36:6, (June, 1956), pp. 371 - 83. Hemmingway, A . , "Physiological Bases of Training, " Ergonomics , 2, (February, 1959), pp. 131 - 42. 52 Henry, F . M . , "Influence of Athletic Training on the Resting C a r d i o -vascular System, " Research Quarterly , 25, (March, 1954), pp. 37 - 40. Henry, F . M . and B e r g , E."W. , "Physiological and Performance Changes in Athletic Condit ioning," Journal of Applied Physiology, 3, (1950), pp. 103 - 11. Howell , M . L . , et al , "Effects of Circui t Training on Strength and Muscular Endurance, " The Austral ian Journal of P h y s i c a l  Education, 28, (July, 1963), pp. 22 - 28. Howell , M . L . , Hodgson, J . L . and Sorenson, J . T . , "Effects of Circui t Training on the Modified Harvard Step Test , " Research Quarterly , 34:2, (May, 1963), pp. 154 - 157. Howell , M . L . , Kimoto, R. and M o r f o r d , W. R. , "Effect of Isometric and Isotonic Exerc ise Programs upon Muscular Endurance, " Research Quarter ly , 33:4, (December, 1962), pp. 536 - 40. L a r s o n , L . A . , " A Factor and Validity Analysis of Strength Variables and Tests with a Test Combination of Chinning, Dipping, and V e r t i c a l Jump, " Research Quarterly , 11, (December, 1940), pp. 82 - 96. M c C l o y , C . H . , " E n d u r a n c e , " The Physica l Educator, 5, (March, 1948), pp. 73 and 74. M u l l e r , E . A . , " T r a i n i n g Muscular Strength, " Ergonomics , 2, (1959), pp. 212 - 19. Nunney, D . N . , "Relation of C i r c u i t Training to Swimming, " Research  Quarterly, 31, (May, I960), pp. 188 - 98. " O l y m p i c Results, " "World Sports, The B r i t i s h Olympic Associat ion, 30:12, (December, 1964), pp. 30 - 34. Steinhaus, A . H . , "Strength from Morpurge to M u l l e r - A Half Century of Research, " Journal of the Associat ion for P h y s i c a l and Mental  Rehabilitation, 9:5, (September - October, 1955), pp. 147 - 50. Thompson, H . L . , and Stull, G . A . , "Effects of Various Training P r o -grams on Speed in S w i m m i n g , " Research Quarterly , 30:4, (December, 1959), pp. 478 - 85. Tweit, A . H . , Gollnick, P . D . and Hearn, G . R . , "Effect of Training P r o g r a m on Total Body Reaction T i m e of Individuals of Low F i t -n e s s , " Research Quarterly , 34:4, (December, 1963), pp. 508 - 13. 53 C . U N P U B L I S H E D M A T E R I A L S Banister , E . W . , "The Relative Effectiveness of Interval C i r c u i t Training compared with Three Other Methods of Fitness Training in a School P h y s i c a l Education P r o g r a m m e , " Unpublished Master ' s Thes is , The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962. F i s h e r , J . C . , " F l e x i b i l i t y as a Factor in Body Mechanics and Athletic E f f i c i e n c y , " Unpublished Master^s Thes is , Springfield College, 1938. Hutchinson, B . , "Effect of Systematic Weight Training upon Muscular Effic iency as Indicated by One Hundred Yards Swimming P e r f o r m -ance , " Unpublished Master ' s Thesis , University of Maryland, 1959. Jensen, C . R. , " A Study of the Relative Effect of F i v e Training Methods on Swimming, " Dissertation Abstracts , 24:5, (November, 1963). Johnson, G . C . and Kubeck, E . P . , " A Comparison of the Effects of Circui t Tra ining , Weight Tra ining , and Physica l Conditioning upon Total Fitness as Measured by Muscular Strength and Muscular E n d u r a n c e , " Unpublished Graduating E s s a y , The Universi ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962. M o r f o r d , W. R. , " T h e Effects of Weight Training on Certain Measures of A g i l i t y , " Unpublished Master ' s Thesis , The Universi ty of B r i t i s h Columbia , 1956. Pomfret , J . B . , " A n Experiment to Determine the Relative Effectiveness or Improved Swimming Time when using the Freestyle Tumble T u r n in comparison to the Freestyle Throw-Away T u r n , " Unpublished Master ' s Thes is , Universi ty of Washington, 1962. Scott, H . A . , " T h e Effect of Physica l Conditioning on the Motor Fitness and Cardiovascular Condition of College F r e s h m e n , " Unpublished Master*s Thes is , the Universi ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965. Simmons, R. , " T h e Effect of Circui t Training upon Cardiovascular C o n -dition and Motor P e r f o r m a n c e , " Unpublished Master ' s Thes is , The Universi ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965. Wallace, B . T . , "The Effects of Training for Competitive Rowing on Cardiovascular Condition as Measured by the B r a c h i a l Pulse W a v e , " Unpublished Master ' s Thesis , The Universi ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965. A P P E N D I C E S 55 A P P E N D I X A S T A T I S T I C A L T R E A T M E N T Study Design Single group, triple test experiment. T2 vs T l T3 vs T l T3 vs T2 N = 12 F o r m u l a t = Zd N l d 2 - (Zd)2 N - 1 One-tailed test with N - 1 (11) degrees of freedom, t - tabled = 2. 201 L e v e l of Significance The . 025 level of significance was chosen instead of . 05 for the following reasons: 1. Three t-tests on three pairs of means are not independent and therefore the . 05 level of significance does not hold as would be the case for dependent variables. 56 2. "When all possible t-tests are done on a set of means instead of two randomly selected means, then some significant results could be expected purely by chance. F o r example, at the .05 level , five out of every one hundred results could be expected to be significant, even when all of the hypotheses were true. To guard against this, a more stringent level of significance has been used. Procedure The t statistic was calculated in the following manner: The means of the raw scores for each test item on each of the three tests were calculated. (X) The sum of the difference of each pair of raw scores was calculated. ( Zd) The sum of the squared differences of each pair of raw scores was calculated. (Id2) The above information was inserted in the aforementioned formula to determine the t statistic. If the calculated t statistic was greater than t-tabled (2.201), then this was considered to be an i n -dication of significant improvement. If it was less than t-tabled then it was assumed that there was no significant improvement. P E R S O N A L D A T A N A M E A G E H E I G H T (IN. ) W E I G H T T l T2 T3 T l T2 T3 T l i : .T2 T3 A u l d , G . 18 19 19 72. 5 72.5 72.5 161 159 161.5 Baker , G . 18 18 18 69 69 69 151. 5 152 154 Conroy, P . 18 18 18 68. 5 69 69 139 144. 5 146 Frewer , C . 17 17 17 69. 5 69. 5 69.5 130 131 131. 5 Gi l lespie , G . W . 19 19 19 73 73 73 162. 5 161 164. 5 Griff i ths , B . 20 21 21 68. 5 68. 5 68. 5 175 180. 5 183 M a n s e l l , R. 18 18 18 72. 5 72. 5 72. 5 159 161. 5 162. 5 M a r k s , E . 19 19 20 72.5 72. 5 72. 5 171 166 162. 5 Pearce , J . D . 19 19 19 70 70 70 164 164 163 Smith, D . L . 21 21 22 66 66. 5 66.5 146 146 147 Stafford, M . 24 24 24 73. 5 73. 5 74 175. 5 171. 5 174 "Walker, R. 17 18 18 68. 5 69 69 158 159 158 O i—i ><! bd —J F I T N E S S R E S U L T S - L A R S O N ' S M U S C U L A R S T R E N G T H T E S T N A M E C H I N S D I P S V E R T I C A L J U M P T l T2 T3 T l T2 T3 T l T2 T3 A u l d , G . 13. 5 16. 5 14. 5 10. 5 19. 5 19.5 19.5 19 18. 5 Baker , G . 17.5 20. 5 17. 5 22. 5 28. 5 33. 5 21.5 22 22 Conroy, P . 12. 5 16 13. 5 16 20 21 24 23. 5 23 F r e w e r , C . 10.5 12. 5 12. 5 7.5 17. 5 18 17. 5 18 18. 5 Gi l lespie , G . W. 14. 5 16 16. 5 18 25. 5 26. 5 21 20 19. 5 Griff i ths , B . 8. 5 9 10. 5 7.5 12. 5 15 19. 5 20 20 Mansel l , R. 10. 5 16 13. 5 15 20 21. 5 23 22. 5 24. 5 M a r k s , E . 13. 5 15. 5 15 24. 5 30. 5 33. 5 21 22 21.5 Pearce , J . 8 6. 5 10. 5 10 9 14 19 19. 5 20. 5 Smith, D . L . 16 22. 5 21. 5 17 28 33. 5 22 22. 5 23 Stafford, M . 13. 5 15 13. 5 19 24 21. 5 21 20. 5 22 Walker, R. 12 10. 5 12 15 15. 5 16. 5 24 23 23 H O X a U l 00 A P P E N D I X D F I T N E S S R E S U L T S - L A R S O N ' S M U S C U L A R S T R E N G T H T E S T N A M E W E I G H T E D C O M P O S I T E S C O R E %ILE R A N K T l T2 T3 T l T2 T3 A u l d , G . 337. 90 392.13 367.25 81 97 92 Baker , G . 443.17 498. 04 488.67 98 99 99 Conroy, P . 406. 50 445.11 419.30 98 99 98 F r e w e r , C . 271. 60 337. 05 345.10 33 80 84 Gil lespie , G . W. 394.10 422.66 422.23 97 98 98 Griff i ths , B . 282.40 312.60 334. 10 40 64 78 Mansel l , R. 370.80 432. 41 439.55 93 98 98 M a r k s , E . 406. 83 459. 09 457.82 98 99 99 Pearce , J . 279.90 268. 80 337. 95 39 32 80 Smith, D . L . 417. 61 522. 42 539.83 98 99 99 Stafford, M . 387. 60 413. 57 408.05 96 98 98 Walker, R. 395.70 372.55 390.15 97 93 96 F I T N E S S R E S U L T S - D Y N A M O M E T E R S T R E N G T H (LBS. ) * Sore B a c k * * Badly B r u i s e d Hand N A M E RIGHT GRIP L E F T GRIP B A C K L I F T L E G L I F T T l T2 T3 T l T2 T3 T l T2 T3 T l T2 T3 A u l d , G . 141 145 130 109 119 101 330 392 341 848 1045 900 Baker , G . 125 130 128 120 110 118 500 460 440 948 989 995 Conroy, P . 105 130 119 90 119 112 347 365 380 850 840 901 F r e w e r , C . 88 1106 90 92 100 100 380 398 370 851 900 820 Gi l lespie , G . W . 120 139 131 110 110 109 292 371 362 875 838 1150 Griff i ths , B . 110 118 105 103 100 105 442 278 428 1063 1112 900 M a n s e l l , R. 136 123 129 114 105 100 458 445 415 1057 1170 1040 M a r k s , E . 110 112 107 110 103 116 470 428 410 905 990 922 Pearce , J . 121 109 127 112 112 120 351 320 380 880 750 860 Smith, D . L . 110 131 130 92 123 120 397 438 408 875 922 1050 Stafford, M . 142 142 144 124 131 136 422 475 480 917 1112 920 Walker , R. 123 128 114 121 130 118 400 370 338 1200 1175 1045 > H d X w a*-o A P P E N D I X F F I T N E S S R E S U L T S - D Y N A M O M E T E R S T R E N G T H ( L B S . ) N A M E T O T A L L I F T S T R E N G T H P E R P O U N D O F B O D Y W E I G H T T l " T2 T3 T l T2 T3 A u l d , G . 1428 1701 1472 8. 87 10. 70 9. 11 Baker , G . 1693 1689 1681 11.21 11. 11 10. 92 Conroy, P . 1392 1454 1512 10. 01 10. 06 10. 36 F r e w e r , C . 1411 1504 1380 10. 85 11. 48 10. 49 Gil lespie , G . W . 1397 1458 1752 8. 62 9. 06 -10. 65 Griff i ths , B . 1718 1485 1538 9. 82 8. 23 8. 40 Mansel l , R. 1765 1843 1684 11. 10 11. 41 10. 36 M a r k s , E . 1595 1633 1555 9. 33 9. 84 9.56 Pearce , J . 1464 1291 1487 8. 93 7. 87 9. 12 Smith, D . L . 1474 1614 1708 10. 10 11. 05 11. 62 Stafford, M . 1605 I860 1680 9. 17 10. 85 9.66 Walker, R. 1844 1803 1615 11. 67 11. 34 10. 22 62 A P P E N D I X G F I T N E S S R E S U L T S - B R E A T H I N G C A P A C I T Y , R E A C T I O N T I M E N A M E B R E A T H I N G C A P A C I T Y ( C U . T N . ) V E R T I C A L J U M P R E A C T I O N T I M E ( S E C . ) T l T2 T3 T l T2 T3 A u l d , G . 336 331 . 342 . 308 . 300 .295 Baker , G . 275 265 275 . 327 .317 . 308 Conroy, P . 340 331 343 . 321 . 285 .290 F r e w e r , C . 306 333 325 . 306 . 308 .292 Gil lespie , G . W . 367 370 372 . 330 . 333 . 298 Griff i ths , B . 334 323 327 .314 . 328 . 332 Mansel l , R. 357 357 364 . 344 . 362 . 323 M a r k s , E . 384 382 387 .299 . 278 . 265 Pearce , J . 360 342 347 .283 . 280 .270 Smith, D . L . 295 290 299 . 285 . 298 . 320 Stafford, M . 402 428 425 .294 . 282 . 273 Walker, R. 340 345 339 .266 . 237 .240 63 A P P E N D I X H F I T N E S S R E S U L T S - H A R V A R D S T E P T E S T N A M E T O T A L R E C O V E R Y P U L S E R A T I N G T l T2 T3 T l T2 T3 A u l d , G . 195 182 175 77 82 86 Baker , G . .157 158 147 9 6 95 102 Conroy, P . 168 146 137 89 103 109 F r e w e r , C . 165 155 178 91 97 84 Gil lespie , G . W. 131 155 153 115 97 98 Griff i ths , B . 187 186 180 80 81 83 M a n s e l l , R. 164 151 156 91 99 96 M a r k s , E . 174 185 158 86 81 95 Pearce , J . 168 160 152 89 ;-9.4 99 Smith, D . L . 137 137 124 109 109 121 Stafford, M . 165 153 165 91 98 91 Walker, R. 155 163 137 97 92 114 64 A P P E N D I X I F I T N E S S R E S U L T S - A N K L E F L E X I B I L I T Y ( D E G R E E S ) N A M E T l T2 T3 RIGHT L E F T RIGHT L E F T RIGHT L E F T A u l d , G . 66 69 70 70 70 67 Baker , G . 59 50 70 66 54 71 Conroy, P . 56 64 68 70 75 74 Frewer , C . 69 71 71 70 66 79 Gil lespie , G . W. 50 65 63 59 72 72 Griff i ths , B . 58 62 66 57 62 63 M a n s e l l , R. 68 70 68 68 69 69 M a r k s , E . 50 47 52 53 51 50 Pearce , J . D . 42 51 57 63 62 68 Smith, D . L . 64 63 71 66 63 63 Stafford, M . 60 58 60 59 58 58 Walker, R. 55 56 62 65 64 64 65 A P P E N D I X J F I T N E S S D A T A S H E E T Swimmers 1964-65 N A M E F A C U L T Y _DATE_ A G E Y E A R S L O C A L A D D R E S S H O M E A D D R E S S H E I G H T (Ft.) (Ins.) 1. Bone Muscle Fat A n a l y s i s . L O C A L P H O N E N O . H O M E P H O N E N O . _ W E I G H T (Lbs.) Larson^s Muscular Strength Test Chins (No.) Dips (No.) V e r t i c a l Jump (Ins.) Composite (Check) 3. Breathing Capacity (Cubic Inches) Room Temperature = F . T r i a l s 1 2 3 V e r t i c a l Jump Reaction T i m e (Seconds) T r i a l s : - 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6 - . 7. _ 8. _ 9. . 10. Test Time 7. Ankle Flexibi l i ty (Degrees) Right Ankle Left Ankle Dynamometer Strength(Lbs.) Right G r i p lz 2 3 Left G r i p 1 2 3 Back Lif t 1 2 Leg Li f t 1 3 Total Pounds Strength per pound of body weight ~ Harvard Step Test Resting Pulse Rate (30") = _ Recovery Pulse : 1 - 1:30 = _ 2 - 2:30 = _ 3 - 3:30 = _ Total = 66 A P P E N D I X K S T A T I S T I C A L C A L C U L A T I O N F O R M Item S U B J E C T T T d d2 G . A . G . B . P . C . C . F . W . G . B . G . R. M . E . M . , J . P . D . S . M . S . R . W . N - 12 N - 1 = 11 X = X = Id = Id 2 = Id 

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