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The effect of the 8 m.m. slow motion color film on the learning of specific motor skills Winslade, Donald Kenneth 1963

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THE EFFECT OF THE 8 M.M. SLOW MOTION COLOR FILM ON THE LEARNING^ OF SPECIFIC MOTOR SKILLS By Donald Kenneth Winslade B.P.E., The University of British Columbia, 1960 A Thesis Submitted i n Partial Fulfilment of The Requirements for the Degree of Master of Physical Education i n the School of Physical Education and Recreation We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard. The University of British Columbia April 1963 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that per-mission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representativeso I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i -cation of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,. Vancouver 8, Canada. Date ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of the 8m.m. slow motion color film on the learning of motor s k i l l s in physical education. Basketball s k i l l s were used i n the study. Three classes of Grade 9 boys were selected for the study. The three classes were administered the Stroup Basketball Test. After the i n i t i a l test one class was selected as the group to receive the class demonstration by film. One class was selected as the group to receive the class demonstration l i v e , by the teacher. The third group was selected as a control group. The groups were matched by threes on a basis of rank order. The live group and film group received 8 lessons i n basketball s k i l l s . The lessons were identical except for the method of demonstration. The control group received regular physical education periods, excluding basketball. At the end of the 8 lessons, the three groups were retested. Both the film and live groups showed gains i n performance which were s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. No s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant gains were obtained for the control group. The improvement of both the film group and live group significantly exceeded the improvement of the control group. The improvement of the film group did not significantly exceed the live group. It was concluded that the 8 m.m. slow motion color film seems conducive to the learning of motor s k i l l s and adaptable to use i n physical education when used competently. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 II JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM 5 III REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 11 IV METHODS AND PROCEDURES 28 V RESULTS 38 VI DISCUSSION 42 VII SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 47 BIBLIOGRAPHY 58 APPENDICES A STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA 49 B INDIVIDUAL SCORE SHEET 51 C LESSON PLANS 52 D RAW SCORES OF TEST 56 E RAW SCORES OF RELIABILITY 57 LIST OF TABLES I ANALYSIS OF HYPOTHESIS 38 II ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEANS 39 III ANALYSIS OF MEAN DIFFERENCES 40 IV t STATISTIC FOR RELIABILITY GROUP 41 V IMPROVEMENT IN TERMS OF STANDARD SCORES AND PERCENTILES 41 CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Throughout the history of education various methods have been developed to bring about greater efficiency i n imparting and acquiring knowledge. One of the most common methods now used i s instruction by the motion picture film. The popularity of the film has been evolving continually, and has increased particularly i n the past 20 years. Teachers are realizing that i n the educational film they now have a valuable teaching aid. The educational motion picture i s particularly suited to physical education. In physical education research relating to the use of the motion picture, there i s no agreement as to the effect of this visual aid on learning of motor s k i l l s . Although research on the use of the film i n physical education has answered many questions, additional ones s t i l l remain unanswered. Every study of the effect of motion pictures on learning i n physical education has involved the use of the film demonstration i n addition to live (teacher) demonstration, i.e. the film was used to supplement the teacher demonstration. This raises the question of how valu-able the motion picture i s when i t i s used as a teaching method by i t s e l f , i.e. without teacher demonstration. The film used i n a l l of the research conducted so far has been the 16 m.m. film. Today, 8 m.m. film i s becoming widely used by people 2 everywhere. It i s , therefore, possible for teachers to prepare their own 8 m.m. instructional film quite easily and relatively inexpensively. There is also the problem of whether or not the film has a unique contribution to make in teaching physical education. Friedrich (l) states: It has been the experience of the author i n previewing numerous motion picture dealing with physical education, that many films available are of l i t t l e value i n teaching a s k i l l inasmuch as the same material could be presented through demonstration of the teacher. It seems that he i s implying, *Vhy go to the trouble and expense of demonstrating on film what the teacher can do readily and inexpensively?" The teaching of physical education necessarily involves the teaching of a great number of motor s k i l l s . This i s d i f f i c u l t i f the teacher is unskilled because i t involves both demonstration and explanation. It would be an exceptional teacher who could demonstrate effectively a l l the physical education ac t i v i t i e s i n the curriculum. There is a problem when the teacher finds himself unable to demonstrate a particular s k i l l . It seems, therefore, an important question whether or not i t is feasible and worthwhile for the teacher to show a film of some excellent athlete or skilled performer doing the required s k i l l while the teacher provides the commentary, emphasizing the important points. The problem of this study i s to investigate the effect of the 8 m.m. slow motion color film on the learning of specific motor s k i l l s . More specifically the problem is to determine whether or not the 3 demonstration of s k i l l s by the 8 m.m. slow motion color film w i l l bring about learning equivalent to or better than learning produced by the conventional teacher demonstration method. An additional minor problem is to determine the f e a s i b i l i t y of teachers' producing and using the 8 m.m. slow motion colored film for physical education demonstration. Delimitations 1. Basketball s k i l l s are used as the motor s k i l l s to be examined. 2. Grade 9 boys of a Junior High School are the subjects. Definitions 1. Live (group) - demonstration by the teacher i n the gymnasium. 2. Film (group) - demonstration by the teacher on film. 4 REFERENCES 1. John A. Friedrich. "Teaching Games and S k i l l s Through Sound and Sight." Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation. 23 (June 1952) p. 12. CHAPTER II JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM Education has been defined as the imparting and acquisition of knowledge, ( l ) . The senses are central i n the acquisition of knowledge. The development of visual aids i s therefore of crucial importance i n education. Visual aids are used to bring about more efficient learning by use of the senses. One of the most common visual aids is the motion picture. Referring specifically to teaching Buchanan (2) said, "The film has brought movement to the diagram, l i f e to the map, and realism to the classroom." The use of the motion picture is not new to education but we do find technical advances over older ideas. The 16 m.m. film has been used i n education for a long time. Among newer technical advances i n motion picture photography is the 8 m.m. film, which is only just now finding a place i n education. The motion picture is one medium particularly suited to physical education; Palmer (5), however, feels that physical education unfortunately has not used the film extensively. The American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (4) also feel more use should be made of the motion picture. Many physical educators are aware of the numerous types of audio visual materials available. Nevertheless, more extensive and effective use of such materials like the motion picture should be made. Despite the lack of common agreement as to the effect of films i n 6 physical eduoation, most studies show that there seems to be some trend toward improved learning with the use of motion pictures. An important question yet unanswered is whether or not a film demonstration is a more effective method of teaching a s M l l than a teacher demonstration, i.e. does the motion picture possess some quality or dimension which w i l l cause better learning to occur. It would seem that the best way to test this is to have the same person demonstrate li v e and on film. If the two demonstrations are done by the same person in the same way, then is should be possible to determine accurately whether one group improves more than the other. Another question now coming into the minds of educators and physical education teachers concerns the 8 m.m. movie camera. Does this visual aid have a considerable potential i n the f i e l d of education? From 1948 onward, particularly i n the past 5 years, the 8 m.m. movie camera has made sweeping sales gains i n the photographic industry. Photo Trade magazine (5) i n a 1961 issue reported that the 8 m.m. movie cameras had edged into Canada*s number one sales position, replacing the 35 m.m. camera. It continued to report that there was a definite upswing in sales of "zoom" lenses and automatic controls i n the 8 m.m. f i e l d . In Photo Trade's 1962 issue (6) i t reported that Canada's best photographic seller for the second year i n a row was the 8 m.m. movie camera. It also pointed out that the 8 m.m. movie projector had moved into fourth place. It would seem quite safe, therefore, to assume that more and more 7 Canadian people are buying this oaraera. Swineford (7), i n 1960, stated that many modern teachers seem to be overlooking a significant audio-visual resource that has been on the market for many years but seldom dignified with classroom use. He was referring to the 8 m.m, home movie which he f e l t seemed to be taking a back seat to the 16 m.m. and 35 m.m. films and slides. He believes that teachers are inclined to think of the fragile nature of the film but as far as he is concerned i t seems that the film usually outlasts the audience. Another article stated: The 8 m.m, film i s a g i f t of our technology. We did not ask for i t but once available we looked, although frequently slowly, to see what gains i t offered. The 8 m.m, film can help democratize educational motion pictures by making them avail-able everywhere - i n classrooms, libr a r i e s , homes -so that the great power of the medium as a teaching-learning tool can be released i n ways not now possible. (8) As John Flory (9) of Eastman - Kodak Co. put i t : The 8 m.m, film w i l l be the paper back of the film f i e l d and that means cheaper service of both mass market and special, inexpensive service of the small cultural submarket. In the past several objections to the 8 m.m, camera and projector have been raised, Now these have almost been eliminated by new equipment. The industry has produced cameras with automatic controls such as electric eyes, close up and wide angle lenses, cameras that thread themselves, improved lighting and screens, and a l l round ease of use by the general public. 8 At present the 16 m.m. film and projector are of major use in most schools. The 8 m.m. movie camera has come into wide use among home movie picture hobbyists, many of them school teachers. For some reason the 8 m.m. film has not yet worked i t s way into the schools. Today, teachers must s t i l l order films from the nearest school board, Department of Education or commercial industry. This is a bothersome and inefficient process at i t s best. When the film arrives, the time may or may not be exactly right for using i t . A prime criterion of the worth of an educational material i s that is should be available to the learner when and where and as often as he wants i t . The American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (10), state that a v a i l a b i l i t y of materials is one of the prime factors upon which the effective use of a audio-visual aid is dependent. The major advantages to the use of the 8 m.m. motion picture over the 16 m.m. are as follows. (1) It i s compact (2) It is usually teacher owned (3) It is ready and available at a moments notice (4) It is inexpensive (6) It i s simple to operate (6) It i s not expensive and i t becomes the property of the teacher. Therefore, a teacher may build his own film library. Despite the obvious advantages, Dent ( l l ) has a word of caution. He believes that there are some major problems to be solved before we can expect a sweeping change from the existing 16 m.m. film to the 8 m.m. film for general use i n schools. Schofield (12) reports that we may witness a very rapid transition 9 period i f future experience proves the 8 m.m. film w i l l do the job as effectively as the 16 m.m. film. He continues; There are a tremendous number of questions that need to be answered about the pictorial medium i t s e l f be i t 8, 16 or 35 m.m. The way to get the answers is to increase the number of people making systematic studies of the film medium. The 8 m.m. film can greatly broaden the production base by bringing economical production potentialities within the reach of many who would otherwise be unable to engage in controlled s c i e n t i f i c studies of the motion picture. o Gaffney (13) feels the big "pay off" i n physical education is s t i l l ahead of us. He believes that i n boy's and girl's physical education the s k i l l s performed require motion and this motion must be shown by demonstration and that the possibilities for extending the teaching effectiveness of a single instruction through a well done 8 m.m. filmed demonstration are intriguing. It would now seem possible for physical eduoation teachers to make their own 8 m.m. motion pictures and i n doing so to increase their effectiveness as teachers. Perhaps, before they can do so, however, they need to understand the v e r s a t i l i t y of the 8 m.m. motion picture and appreciate f u l l y the many uses to which i t can be put. It would seem appropriate then, at this time, to make a study of the value of the 8 m.m. slow motion color picture as used to demonstrate motor s k i l l s i n physical education. 10 REFERENCES 1. Don Carlos E l l i s and Laura Thornborough. Motion Pictures i n Education. New York, Thomas Y. Crowell Co. 1923 p. 1. 2. Andrew Buchanan. The Film i n Education. London, Phoenix House Ltd. 1951 p. 11. 3. Gladys E. Palmer. "Motion Picture Survey i n the Field of Sports." Research Quarterly 7 (March 1936) p. 162. 4. John A. Friedrich, ed. Audio Visual Materials for Physical Education. Washington, American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 1957 p. 1. 5. "1960 Sales Up 10, Across Canada." Photo Trade 10 (February 1961) p. 10. 6. "Cross Canada Business Survey Shows Movies Tops." Photo Trade 11 (February 1962) p. 17. 7. Edwin J. Swineford. "The 8 m.m. Movie, An Audio Visual Resource." Grade Teacher 77 (January I960) p. 60. 8. Louis Forsdale. "The Dream About the 8 m.m. Film." Educational Screen and Audio Visual 41 (February 1962) p. 70. 9. Ibid, p. 72. 10. John A. Friedrich, ed. op. c i t . p. 5. 11. Ellsworth C. Dent. "What are the Chances for Success of the 8 m.m. Sound Film." Educational Screen and Audio Visual 41 (February 1962) p. 78. 12. Edward Schofield. "The Meaning of the 8 m.m. Film for Education." Educational Screen and Audio Visual 41 (February 1962) p. 76. 13. Mathew M. Gaffney. "Local School Production Opportunities with 8 m.m. Sound Film." Educational Screen and Audio Visual 41 (February 1962) p. 74. CHAPTER III REVIEW OF LITERATURE The History of the Motion Picture The earliest records were picture records. The purpose of these pictures was to inform and educate. It i s now generally believed that the cavemen, who drew these pictures, did so not as a means of ornamentation but primarily to impart facts, such as to issue a warning. Certainly their purpose was to convey ideas ( l ) . Comenius has the distinction of introducing visual education to the modern world and may properly be called the father of visual education. He gave the world the f i r s t illustrated text book in his "Orbus Pictus" or "The World Illustrated." He believed that the child could not learn through words alone. (2) Pestalozzi (3) believed i n developing the senses of sight and touch and employed visual aids i n his famous kindergarten. E l l i o t (4) has a very comprehensive chapter on the history of the motion picture. The following i s a summary of his chapter. As early as 130 A.D. Ptolemy discussed persistence of vision and i t s demonstration i n a series of lectures on optics but the phonomenon remained l i t t l e more than a physiological curiosity until the end of the 19th century. In 1832 Joseph Plateau put together a crude mechanical device which could give the viewer a sense of l i f e - l i k e motion by looking at a rapid succession of drawings. He called i t the Phenakistoscope. Two years later, 12 W. G. Hornor took Plateau's devioe and improved i t . The result was the Zoetrope or "Wheel of L i f e . " In these cases the men were dealing solely with drawings. Edward Muybridge i n 1872 made the f i r s t s c i e n t i f i c contribution to the development of the motion picture. He did a photographic study of a horse race. By getting a synchronized set of s t i l l photographs he succeeded i n capturing the movements of a galloping horse and paved the way for the development of the motion picture. By 1889 new inventions had taken place. Thomas Edison had invented a Kinetograph and Etienne Jules Marey a Chronotograph both of which photographed movement at the photographer's w i l l . In 18.95 the birth of the actual motion picture took place, but only after many problems had been solved. One of the major problems solved was the replacement of the heavy and bulky plates by a new flexible celluloid. The next problem was how to project the film. The work on such a projection instrument was so swift and so simultaneous that i t was hard to give credit to one man or team of men. From 1895 to 1910 the motion picture industry was feverishly preoccupied i n finding a clue to i t s own destiny. It was around the year 1910 that there was a discernible trend toward specialization and a separation of the film into the general category of theatrical and non-theatrical. During these years an enormous growth i n films for lectures and lyceums took place and the stage was set for an expanding non-theatrical film 13 industry to serve community, government, church, school and business. By 1910 specialized catalogues of educational films were available i n England, France and America. Starting about this time, educational films were produced for use i n schools. In spite of a l l the work and advances that had been accomplished i n the period between 1895 and 1925, the educational film was by 1940 s t i l l generally not appreciated by the lay public. It took the 1941-45 wartime experiences of the industry and the armed services to convince the average citizen that the use of films for educational purposes was more than a f r i l l or fad. Today the motion picture is being used more and more by educators and teachers as they begin to realize the values i t possesses. In conclusion, a statement by E l l i s . (5) It i s apparent that visual aids are f u l l y as old as education i t s e l f . The picture has grown steadily as an aid i n teaching, from the time when earliest man carved his f i r s t crude drawings in stone until the art of photography and cheap reproduction has made motion pictures available to a l l . Experimental Research In Instructional Films Experimental studies of the motion picture i n classroom instruction began shortly after 1915. (6) One of the f i r s t studies done i n this f i e l d was published i n 1918 by David Sumstine (7). He found that films used as an integral part of classroom instruction produced more permanent learning of factual information 14 than do methods of instruction i n which non-visual material is predominantly-used. A study by Knowlton and Tilton (8) also indicated that the use of the film i n instruction i s superior to the use of verbal material alone. Also they found that the use of the film increased the factual knowledge which was learned. McClusky (9) summarized that demonstration is a method of instruction superior to the use of the film i n teaching manipulatory s k i l l s i n high school physics laboratory exercises, in domestic science and i n industrial arts. Consitt (10) reported, on the basis of pupil teacher opinion, that the use of films in teaching history stimulates the imagination of children. The children realize the past, gain more sympathetic insight into the lives and feelings of the men and women of the past and get a f u l l e r and clearer picture of the environment; thus they can better imaginatively reconstruct for themselves other scenes of the same period as those seen on the films. Knowlton and Tilton ( l l ) found that motion pictures increased pupils' participation i n classroom discussion and i n other ways. They pointed out that the films probably did not cause pupils to read more history outside of the school during the experimental period but they feel i t did cause them to read voluntarily more supplementary material under controlled classroom conditions during school hours. There is further evidence that the film stimulates pupils to greater interest and activity i n the subject and i n classroom participation. Freeman and Hoefer (12) reported that health films stimulated children to bring more clippings, pictures and the l i k e , on topics covered. They brought more 15 than did the non-film group. Knowlton and Tilton (13) found that films were relatively more effective for "dull" than for "bright" children when effectiveness is measured by verbal tests of factual information. Consitt (14) i n studying the effectiveness of films on various grade levels, found that below the third grade in school, the use of films was less effective than on grade levels above the third. She found there i s general increase i n effectiveness of the film from the ninth year upward. Gibbs (15) and Rogers (16) agree that the film i s an economical method of teaching. The problem of economy is how well pupils learn to make certain desirable mental reactions i n terms of the amount of time spent in instruction. Thurstone and Peterson (17) studied attitudes and concluded; The experiments we conducted show that motion pictures have definite, lasting, effects on the social attitudes of children and that a number of pictures pertaining to the same issue may have a cumulative effect on attitude. Glassow (18), a physical educator, summarized the general findings of motion picture film studies as follows; The influence of films designed especially for the classroom has been made the subject of many studies. The results of these studies show that the proper use of visual materials w i l l increase i n i t i a l learning, effect the economy of time in learning, increase permanence i n learning, aid i n teaching backward children and motivate learning by increasing interest, attention, self a c t i v i t y and classroom participation. 16 The Motion Picture i n Physical Education Motion picture research has not been as extensive i n the f i e l d of physical education as in the f i e l d of general education. Nevertheless, a few studies have appeared i n the literature over the years. The f i r s t major study on the motion picture i n physical education was done by Ruffa (19). In his study of teaching track and f i e l d techniques, when the motion picture was used in addition to the usual instruction, greater gains were made i n the s k i l l s of the broad jump, shot put, high jump and 100 yard dash. He concluded that pupils learn more rapidly with films and that slow-motion is 5*9% more effective than oral or demonstration methods now used i n teaching these s k i l l s . Priebe and Burton (20) found that the use of the slow motion picture as a coaching device produced the following results; (a) The use of slow motion pictures i n coaching the western r o l l style i n the high jump made for faster progress and better achievement. (b) The use of slow motion pictures eliminated to a large extent the i n i t i a l period of t r i a l and error. (c) Illustrations of good form i n slow motion pictures seemed definitely superior to oral direction and physical demonstration of good form, particularly during the i n i t i a l period of learning. (d) The use of the slow motion picture contributed definitely to the marked interest i n analyzing individual errors and i n improving picture defects. Hupprich (21) i n a study of the motion picture i n teaching tennis stated that there is no doubt that the slow motion picture i s the ideal medium for presenting a motor activity such as a tennis serve. The fact that the slow motion does the teaching so well, so accuractly and so consistently i s , 17 in her opinion, the most important factor. Lockhart (22), studying the value of the motion pioture i n learning a motor s k i l l stated that the motion picture was found to be of definite value to those groups which had this device as part of the regular instructional program. She foundj (a) The rate of the improvement i n learning of the movie group was more consistent than that of the control group. (b) During the f i r s t two weeks of instruction the performance i n the two groups was practically identical. During the third the experimental group continued i t s i n i t i a l rapid rate of improvement whereas the control group remained at practically a stand s t i l l . (c) There is strong evidence that at the end of the f i f t h week the experimental group was definitely superior to the control. (d) By the end of the third week the "movie class had surpassed the non-movie group and continued to be superior throughout the remaining periods of observation. Nelson (23), i n a comparison of two groups i n the learning of golf s k i l l s found; (a) Both groups, the experimental film group and the control group, made gains i n learning. (b) The v a r i a b i l i t y of both groups decreased with practice. (c) Both groups became more homogeneous with practice, but not significantly different from each other. (d) Slow motion loop films seem to favor the learning of golf i n the later stages of learning but not i n the early stages. He concludes that gains were made by using the 16 m.m. slow motion loop film but that these gains were not significant between groups. Brown and Messersmith (24) did an experiment i n the use of the motion picture i n teaching tumbling. From the experiments the following were indicated; 18 (a) The experimental class made a l i t t l e more progress than did the control class but the superiority was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. (b) There i s a tendency for students to be highly motivated when moving pictures are used. x (c) There is a great need for more studies dealing with the use of motion pictures and the learning of motor s k i l l s . No experimental studies have been reported on the 8 m.m. motion picture i n physical education. Harold Hanfield has done some brief investigation with this film. In one study (25) he filmed his baseball players while batting and used these films as a diagnostic means. He stated that the filming of his hitters and the consequent reviewing of these films by the hitters helped them to do better. This is merely an opinion and no proof is presented for the statement. He stated that they may not be champions this year, but the time saved i n practice by the film was a big help to them. He f e l t the boys saw their faults on film and understood better what he meant when he corrected them. In Hianfield's other experiment with the 8 num. film (26) he used i t to help people to learn to swim. He found that twice as many students could be taught to jump into the pool, level off and swim 25 yards after studying their form on film, with the instructor's comments, than those not using the analytical movies. He f e l t the less expensive 8 m.m. film could be used i n preference to the 16 m.m. film because i t was viewed by small groups of students with similar d i f f i c u l t i e s . He stated that the 16 m.m. film was not required where a large audience was not present. Maas (27) i n an article on films i n physical education reveals that almost a l l high schools of any size are using the motion picture and that equipment is the main cost and obstacle. He feels that the use of the motion 19 picture projector i s unlimited and that motion picture teaching aids are available from a variety of sources. He believes that these are essential to the success of an educational curriculum. Many investigators have expressed some opinion to the use of the motion picture i n physical education. Palmer (28) believes that because the motion picture facilitates the analysis of motion as no other medium can, i t has an important function i n the f i e l d of physical education. Glassow (29) states that i n the f i e l d of physical education studies have indicated that the development of s k i l l i s aided when films are added to usual instruction. This evidence would indicate that the motion picture when combined with the usual instruction increases the amount of s k i l l learned but she believes that before this conclusion may be f u l l y accepted, additional experimental studies should be made. Bernhard (30) has stated that films i n physical education are used for the purposes of demonstration and self correction. She feels they are a valuable aid to the teacher i n instructing students i n specific activities by assisting him with the c r i t i c a l analysis of movement that is so necessary a part of successful performance. She claims that no demonstration method has proved more effective than the motion picture, judiciously used. Learning From Demonstration Films What are the principles and what is the psychology behind learning from a demonstration film? Some producers of educational film have attempted to use such 20 principles as Herbart's "five steps" formulated 100 years ago or Thorndikes "laws of learning", which were formulated more recently as an adequate set of learning principles (31). May (32) feels these principles have not proved very useful guides i n the production of good teaching films. One reason is that they (the principles) are too broad and general and do not reveal the intricate nature of the learning machinery. He therefore sets forth a theory of learning by films (33). The following is a summary of his theory. The importance for learning of responding to pictures and other non verbal presentations is seen most clearly with a film that demonstrates a performance of how something is done. A distinction is sometimes made between the acquisition of knowledge and of s k i l l . It is true that knowledge is most generally tested by questions and answers and s k i l l s by physical performance. An analysis of how they are acquired, however, reveals that verbal responses and cues play a prominent part i n the acquisition of both. It is true that the response - produced verbal cues tend to drop out i n performances that are so well practiced as to become automatic, yet this is not to deny the important role of language i n the early stages of learning. Learning from a demonstration is a case of learning by delayed imitation. Learning by imitation is not primarily an instinctive process but is acquired by previous learning. Before a child can learn by imitation, he must f i r s t learn to imitate. Learning to imitate breaks down into two major processes. (a) the learner must acquire certain basic s k i l l s or learn to perform acts which may later be worked by observing others 21 perform them. The process by which unit s k i l l s are acquired under tutelage or a person who possesses them is called "copying". (b) the second phase of imitative learning is called 'matched-dependent' behavior. After a child has learned to walk, talk, run, sing and so on, he can learn to run when he sees another child running or to sing when others are singing. Here, learning is largely a matter of discrimination - what to imitate, when and under what circumstances to do so. After an individual has acquired certain basic s k i l l s and has learned to copy the bahavior of others in the use of these s k i l l s , he is then i n a position to learn how to use his s k i l l s without the benefit of a leader or demonstrator. Imitation is therefore a step in the process of becoming an independent learner. The process is complete when the learner can perform the act without the benefit of a demonstration. This requires that a correct sequence of responses be made to certain external cues or that verbal direction be formulated and recalled or both. Thus, memory is an important factor i n guiding bahavior. The analysis of learning by imitation is preparatory to a further analysis of delayed imitation, which i s the type of learning required by most demonstration films. Delayed imitation does not provide an opportunity to practice the sequence of responses to the sequence of stimuli. The most the learner can do during the demonstration is to perform each step mentally or by slight imitative movements of his body. Following the demonstrator mentally turns out upon analysis to be a complex process involving perceptual, imaginal and verbal types of responses. Learning by observation of demonstration is therefore a case of learning by doing. What the observer learns during the demonstration i s what he actually does i n response to i t . 22 Along the same lines Kozman, Cassidy and Jackson (34) feel that learning i n physical education is largely a matter of imitation. Boys and girls acquire motor s k i l l s largely through imitation. They observe the act to be performed and then, with some exploration and t r i a l , perform with l i t t l e or no conscious analysis of how they need to move. Demonstration In Physical Education May (35) has directed our attention to four distinct classes of educational films, namely, the informational film the incentive film, the provocative film and the demonstration film. The demonstration film shows how to perform a skilled act, that i s , the performance shown on the screen i s intended to be imitated later by the observer. Randall (36) points out that demonstration in physical education w i l l give the pupils the pattern to be followed much more accurately, clearly and quickly than w i l l a verbal description of the activity. She believes that demonstration w i l l give the idea quickly and being activity, i t w i l l hold attention longer. Kozman (37) feels that a good demonstration i s designed for a specific purpose i n which pupils are helped to understand how something is done • Evans (38) states: Although everyone learns by doing, the s k i l l s involved in achieving the objectives of physical education require careful teaching and good demonstration before the learner can obtain satisfaction i n doing. 23 Oberteuffer (39) believes that i t is not only correct that actions i n the teaching of s k i l l s should be demonstrated and performed, but because the learning is a process of imitation, they must be demonstrated and performed correctly. The primary function of the teacher of s k i l l s is to present new material which is done through demonstration accompanied by verbal description (40). There are three ways in which a demonstration may be shown to a physical education class. Usually i t is the teacher who performs the demonstration, but on occasions a sk i l l e d performer i n the class w i l l make the demonstration. The third alternative is to use a visual aid, usually the motion picture (41). Lockhart (42) reveals that educators have advocated the use of the motion picture as an instructional device because this teaching aid is especially useful where an understanding of time and motion is essential. Bernhard (43) in a discussion of the uses of the film i n physioal education reports that today's films are primarily used for demonstration and self correction rather than orientation because these purposes are regarded as more than educational. Loop Films In disuussing the use of motion picture films i n physical education the American Association for Health Physical Education and Recreation (44) mention loop films. These films are merely regular motion pictures which 24 have been spliced together to form one continuous loop approximately 5 to 15 feet long. Therefore, the sequence of action may be repeated as many times as desired without having to rewind the film. The main advantage of a loop film i s i t s a b i l i t y to repeat therefore allowing the student to view the action an unlimited number of times. These films make maximum use of the repetitive factor i n learning. 25 REFERENCES 1. Don Carlos E l l i s and Laura Thornborough. Motion Pictures in Education. N.Y. Thomas Y. Crowell Co. 1923 p. 2. 2. Loc c i t . 3. Ibid, p. 3. 4. Godfrey M. E l l i o t . Film and Education. London, Phoenix House Ltd. 1951 p. 3-19. 5. E l l i s and Thornborough. op. c i t . p. 11. 6. Edgar Dale, Fannie W. Dunn, Charles F. Hoban and Etta Schneider. Motion Pictures i n Education. N.Y. The H.W. Wilson Co. 1938 p. 307. 7. David Sumstine. "A Comparative Study of Visual Instruction i n the High School." School and Society 7 (February 1918) p. 238. 8. Daniel C. Knowlton and Warren J. Tilton. Motion Pictures i n History Teaching. New Haven, Yale University Press 1929 p. 184. 9. Dean F. McClusky. "Comparisons of Different Methods of Visual Instruction." Visual Instruction. N.Y. Mancall Co. 1931 p. 83-166. 10. Frances Consitt. The Value of Films i n History Teaching. London G. Bell and Sons Ltd. 1931 p. 142. 11. Knowlton and Tilton, op. c i t . p. 92. 12. Frank N. Freeman and Carolyn Hoefer. "An Experimental Study of the Influence of Motion Picture Films on Behavior." Journal of  Educational Psychology 22 (September 1931) p. 411-25. 13. Knowlton and Tilton. op. c i t . p. 160. 14. Frances Consitt. op.cit. p. 123. 15. David Gibbs. "An Experiment as to Economy of Time i n Instruction by use of Motion Pictures." Educational Screen 4 (November 1925) p. 520-526. 16. Rowland Rogers. "Cutting the Time of Learning." Education Screen 4 (January 1925) p. 13-14. 17. Ruth C. Peterson and L.L. Thurstone. Motion Pictures and the Social Attitudes of Children. N.Y. The macmillan Co. 1933 p. 66. 26 18. Ruth B. Glassow. "Motion Pictures as an Teaching Aid." Journal of Health and Physical Education. 13 (October 1944) p. 463. 19. Edward J. Ruffa. An Experimental Study of the Motion Picture as used in the Teaching of Certain Athletic S k i l l s . Unpublished Masters Thesis, California, Stanford University 1936. 20. Roy E. Priebe and William H. Burton. "The Slow Motion Picture as a Coaching Device." School Review. 47 (March 1939( p. 192-198. 21. Florence L. Hupprich. "The use of Visual Aids i n Teaching Tennis." Journal of Health and Physical Education. 7 (February 1941) p. 93. 22. Aileene Lockhart. "The Value of the Motion Picture as an Instructional Device i n Learning a Motor S k i l l . " Research <Quarterly 15 (May 1944) p. 181-182. 23. Dale 0. Nelson. "Effect of the Slow Motion Loop Films on the Learning of Golf." Research Quarterly 29 (March 1958) p. 37-44. 24. H. Steven Brown and Lloyd Messersmith. "An Experiment i n Teaching Tumbling With and Without Motion Pictures." Research Quarterly 19 (December 1948) p. 304-307. 25. Harold Hanfield. "Shooting Your Own Hitters With 8 m.m. Film." Scholastic Coach 31 (January 1962) p. 62. 26. Harold Hanfield. "Slow Motion Movies for Swimming Coaching." Scholastic Coach 29 (January I960) p. 48. 27. John Maas. "What the Shooting is a l l About." Scholastic Coach 30 (January 1961) p. 7. 28. Gladys E. Palmer. "Motion Picture Survey i n the Field of Sports." Research Quarterly 7 (March 1936) p. 159. 29. Ruth B. Glassow. op. c i t . p. 501. 30. Frederica Bernhard. "Do You Use Films." Journal of Health and Physical Education. 15 (January 19441 p. 7. 31. Mark A. May. "The Psychology of Learning from Demonstration Films." Journal of Educational Psychology 37 (January 1946) p. 1-12. 32. Ibid, p. 2. 33. Mark A. May and Arthur A. Lumsdaine. Learning From Films. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1958 p. 168-184. 34. Hilda C. Kozman, Rosalind Cassidy, Chester 0. Jackson. Methods in Physical Education. Philadelphia W.B. Saunders C 0. 1958 p. 73. 27 35. Mark A. May. Motion Pictures for Post War Education. American Council i n Education Studies October 1948 p. 4. 36. M.W. Randall and W.R. Waine. Objectives of the Physical Education Lesson. London G. Bell and Sons Ltd. 1960 p. 26. 37. Hilda C. Kozman, Rosalind Cassidy and Chester 0. Jackson, op. c i t . p. 289. 38. Ruth Evans, Thelma Bacon, Mary E. Bacon and Joie L. Stapleton. Physical Education for Elementary Schools. New York McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1958 p. 51. 39. Delbert Oberteuffer. Physical Education. New York Harper and Brothers 1956 p. 268. 40. Ruth B. Glassow. op. c i t . p. 463. 41. Ruth Evans, et a l . op. c i t . p. 51. 42. Aileene Lockhart. op. c i t . p. 181. 43. Frederica Bernhard. op. c i t . p. 7. 44. John A. Friedrich, ed. Audio Visual Materials for Physical Education. Washington, American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 1957 p. 15. CHAPTER IV METHODS AND PROCEDURES Three grade 9 boys' physical education classes at Moscrop Junior High School, Burnaby, B. C. were' used in the study. The boys i n a l l three classes were given a basketball s k i l l test* Respective treatments were assigned to the groups i n a random manner. One class was to receive a l i v e demonstration, one class was to receive a film demonstration and one was to be the control group. Twenty subjects i n each class were matched by three's i n rank order as closely as possible. There was a constraint on the method of matching because the boys had to remain i n their classes and could not be shuffled randomly into different groups• The control class continued with a regular physical education period, excluding anything which involved basketball. This group was instructed by the regular school physical education teacher. The live group and film group were given the same lessons (see Appendix C) i n basketball s k i l l s for 8 weeks by the teacher conducting the experiment. The only difference was the method of demonstration. One class received the demonstration of the s k i l l by a 8 m.m. slow motion color film while the other class received the demonstration of the s k i l l by the teacher - liv e -. The demonstration on the film was performed by the teacher who demonstrated l i v e . Both demonstrations were identical. Therefore, the two demonstrations were the same and performed by the same person, the difference being the use of the slow motion color 8 m.m. film i n demonstrating to one group. 29 The. instructional time was held constant and the film was shown in the gymnasium. Therefore no shuttling from classrooms was involved. Throughout the lessons the teacher was verbally giving encourage-ment and correction but at no time did he correct by demonstration. A l l lessons were given between the hours of 9:00 a.m. to 10:30 a.m. The basketball s k i l l test was administered to the three classes at the conclusion of the eight lessons. Skills Selected One of the f i r s t problems was the selection of the s k i l l s to be measured. It was considered desirable to validate the selection of the sk i l l s by referring to four books written by well known basketball coaches. The four books referred to were by: (a) Adolph Rupp, (l) coach of the University of Kentucky. (b) Branch McCracken, (2) coach of Indiana University. (c) Frank McGuire, (3) former coach of North Carolina University. (d) Will iam Lai, (4) coach of Long Island University. There is common agreement among these coaches that three of the s k i l l s basic to the game of basketball are shooting, passing and dribbling. These coaches also agree that the two hand chest pass is the basic pass used i n basketball and that the lay up is the easiest shot to score and probably the f i r s t s k i l l taught in shooting. ' From the statements and opinions of the four coaches i t seemed quite justifiable to use the following 3 s k i l l s in the experiment. 30 (a) the lay up shot (b) the two hand chest pass (c) the dribble Test Selected The s k i l l test selected was the Stroup Basketball test (5). It was the only test which measured the three s k i l l s to be used i n the study. A description of the techniques used in administering the three items i s as follows; (a) Goal shooting - Starting at any position on the floor, the subject shoots, as many baskets as possible i n one minute, retrieving the bal l each time himself. (b) Wall passing - The subject stands behind a line six feet from a wall and passes the ball against the wall as many times as possible i n one minute. A pass is not counted i f the b a l l is batted instead of caught and passed or i f the subject moves over the restraining line when making a pass. (c) Dribbling - The subject dribbles alternately to the l e f t and right of bottles placed i n a line 15 feet apart for a 90 foot distance, circles the end bottle each time and continues for one minute. A miss is counted i f a bottle is knocked over or i f the bottle is not passed on the proper side. The score is the number of bottles properly passed i n the time l i m i t . In the test the raw scores are converted to scale scores (6) and these give a composite basketball s k i l l score for each individual. Stroup (7) reported that his test is reliable and valid because acceptable coefficients of r e l i a b i l i t y and valid i t y have been reported for similar and identiaal items by other investigators. Despite this feeling by Stroup, i t was f e l t the r e l i a b i l i t y of the test should be verified. 31 Preparation of the Film* A special film was required for the experiment. Because i t was necessary to have the demonstration on the film the same as would be performed i n the gymnasium, the pre-planning of the lessons and their accompanying demonstrations was needed. When this was completed the filming was done outdoors the following way. 1. Shooting A. Demonstration 1 - standing to one side of the basket, teacher demonstrated the pre-shot fundamentals. (a) head and eyes up (b) 2 hands on the b a l l (c) shooting hand directly behind the bal l (d) body relaxed and comfortable (e) b a l l controlled by the fingertips B. Demonstration 2 - teacher demonstrated proper release of b a l l . (a) ball held i n two hands (b) two hands remain on b a l l until i t is carried above the head. The ball i s gradually released. (c) shooting hand remains directly behind b a l l . (d) head and eyes look up (e) shooting arm extends f u l l y upward and bal l i s released off the fingertips. (f) ball must be released softly and placed on the backboard. & The demonstration on the film and i n the classroom was done by the writer. He was a member of the University basketball team for four years and was twice selected conference a l l - s t a r and Most Valuable Player. 32 Demonstration 3 - teacher demonstrated shot with one foot take off. (a) review previous mechanics (b) take off on opposite foot from the shooting hand (c) keep head up a l l the time (d) spring upward, not outward (e) release the b a l l softly (f) place the b a l l a b i t to the right of the basket and above i t on the backboard ( i f shooting right handed) Demonstration 4 - teacher demonstrated complete lay up shot. (a) review fundamentals from before (b) dribble in to shoot (c) crouch slightly and gather yourself for the take off (d) go straight up on take off (e) carry the ba l l as high as possible (f) release ball softly Demonstration 5 - teacher demonstrated and emphasized top portion of body, particularly the arms and hands, during the shot. (a) extend arm f u l l y (b) release b a l l off fingertips (c) follow through with arms and fingers Demonstration 6 - teacher demonstrated the bottom portion of the body, particularly the legs, during the shot. (a) take off on outside foot (b) go straight up i n air (c) be relaxed (d) bring feet together on jump 53 Demonstrations 1 to 4 were taken from 3 different angles. Demonstrations 5 and 6 were taken from one angle only. 2. Passing A. Demonstration 1 - teacher demonstrated proper method of holding the b a l l . (a) b a l l held i n front of body, chest high (b) fingers at side of b a l l , thumbs in back (c) elbows close to body but not against (d) ba l l should be slightly above the waist B. Demonstration 2 - teacher demonstrated and emphasized finger-tip control of b a l l . (a) b a l l i s held by the fingertips, loosely C. Demonstration 3 - teacher demonstrated proper release of the b a l l . (a) b a l l properly held as mentioned before (b) ba l l allowed to move i n a slightly downward motion, then upward to a f u l l cocked position (c) wrists are uncocked, fingers w i l l move forward, giving force to the b a l l (d) ba l l is released by thrusting arms forward (e) palms face the floor, thumbs close together Demonstration 1 was taken from 3 different angles. Demonstration 2 was taken from 1 angle only and demonstration 3 was taken from 2 angles. Close up scenes were used occasionally. 3. Dribbling A. Demonstration 1 - teacher demonstrated proper method of dribbling (standing). (a) body crouched slightly over the ball (b) head held up 34 (c) fingers semi-spread, hand cupped (d) ba l l pushed to floor by using fingertips (e) elbow low, forearm almost parallel to the floor (f) elbow very l i t t l e rise and f a l l B. Demonstration 2 - teacher demonstrated how to control the bal l with the fingertips, (a) ball directed by the fingertips C. Demonstration 3 - teacher demonstrated how to change direction and how to use high-low dribble, (a) review fundamentals from before (b) body balance maintained with weight forward on the ball of the feet (c) hips low and knees bent on turns (d) outside hand used for dribbling (keep the body between the ball and the defensive man) (e) height of dribble depends upon use of the dribble Demonstration 1 was taken from 3 angles. Demonstrations 2 and 3 were taken from 1 angle only. The 8 m.m. color Kodachrome II daylight film was used. It was taken in slow motion at 64 frames per second. The color film was used so as to duplicate the liv e demonstration as much as possible. Also the use of color may be very important i n holding class attention. The film was taken i n slow motion to enable a better analysis of motion. The individual demonstrations were taken from various angles to coincide with the different viewing angles of the liv e demonstration by the class. During the liv e demonstration the pupils were encouraged to move about to see the s k i l l performed from various angles. 35 Statistical Analysis of Data (a) Hypothesis tested The problem investigated i n the study was stated i n the form of the following hypothesis. (1) The l i v e and film groups would improve between i n i t i a l and fina l tests but the control group would not improve. (2) The improvement i n the film group would be as large as the improvement made by the li v e group. (b) Statistical hypothesis The above hypothesis were tested i n traditional form of the null hypothesis for analysis by means of Fisher's t s t a t i s t i c . 4. 3. 1. 6. 5. 2. Where H hypothesis H alternate hypothesis 36 C = control group F = film group L = liv e group 2 = fin a l test 1 = i n i t i a l test 2-1 = difference between i n i t i a l and final test The s t a t i s t i c a l treatment dealt with a comparison of mean differences between the i n i t i a l and final tests of the three groups and a comparison of the difference of the mean differences between (a) the film group and the control group, (b) the live group and the control group, and (c) the film group and the liv e group. (c) R e l i a b i l i t y of Test A class of 24 junior high school boys was selected. The boys performed the Stroup Basketball test one day and one week later performed the test again. The r e l i a b i l i t y coefficient of correlation was determined by the Pearson r and by analysis of the differences between means using students t stat i s t i c at the 0.05 level of confidence. 37 REFERENCES 1. Adolph F. Rupp. Championship Basketball. Englewood C l i f f s , Prentice Hall Inc. 1948 p. 21-54. 2. Branch MoCracken. Indiana Basketball, Englewood C l i f f s , Prentice Hall Inc. 1955 p. 61-96. 3. Frank McGuire. Offensive Basketball. Englewood C l i f f s , Prentice Hall Inc. 1958 p. 28-65. 4. William T. Lai. Winning Basketball. Englewood C l i f f s , Prentice Hall Inc. 1955 p. 8-52. 5. Francis Stroup. "Game Results as a Criteria for Validating Basketball S k i l l Tests." Research 'Quarterly 26 (October 1955) p. 353-356. 6. H. Harrison Clarke. Application of Measurement to Health and Physical Education. Englewood C l i f f s , Prentice Hall Inc. 1959 p. 502 7. Francis Stroup. op. c i t p. 355. 8. Helen M. Walker and Joseph Lev. Statistical Inference. New York, Henry Holt and Co. 1953 p. 151-153. CHAPTER V RESULTS The results of the study are summarized and presented i n the following order: -1. A statement of the s t a t i s t i c a l hypothesis tested 2. An analysis of the difference between means 3. An analysis of the mean differences 4. An analysis of r e l i a b i l i t y Table I is a summary of the s t a t i s t i c a l hypothesis tested and the values of the t sta t i s t i c necessary for significance. TABLE I ANALYSIS OF HYPOTHESIS Where C = control group H = s t a t i s t i c a l hypothesis F = film group H = alternate hypothesis L = liv e group ^A" = population mean 1 = i n i t i a l test 2 = fi n a l test HYPOTHESIS LEVEL OF CONFIDENCE* DEGREES OF FREEDOM t NECESSARY TO REJECT H 1. H i / t i - / * o .05 19 2.09 * H i C 2-1 O 2. Ki^/<~Fi-, - 0 .05 19 2.09 A 3. .05 19 2.09 * I t L x - i ^ Z . O 4. .05 19 1.73 r Hi y*-?z-i c*-' 5. .05 19 1.73 * H : ^ / ^ L ^ " l *-'*•-< 6. .05 19 2.09 * r One Tail Test 4 Two Tail Tesjj 39 The data derived from the raw scores of the three groups are summarized i n the accompanying tables. A l l students i n the live group improved as did a l l the students in the film group. By contrast, i n the control group, 12 students showed improvement while 8 did not show improvement. The changes in performance over the 8 lessons are summarized i n Table II. TABLE II ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEANS Test 1 Test 2 Mean Diff. St. Error of Mean Diff. Obt. t Rej. or Acc. Null Hypo. Mean St.Dev. Mean St.Dev. Film Group 166.0 9.41 186.95 12.85 20.95 2.01 10.42 Reject Live Group 168.0 8.07 185.15 10.43 17.15 1.81 9.47 Reject gontrol Group 180.1 18.25 180.7 18.56, .60 1.94 .31 Accept The film group showed a mean difference of 20.95 between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l test and the improvement between the two tests showed a t of 10.42 which was s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant at the .05 level of confidence and would have been significant at higher levels of confidence including .01, The l i v e group showed a mean difference of 17,15 between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l test and a t of 9,47 which was s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant at the .05 level of confidence and would have been significant at higher levels of confidence including .01. The control group showed a mean difference of .60 between the i n i t i a l 40 and f i n a l test and a t of .31 which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant at the •05 level of confidence. A summary of the differences between improvement made between the three groups is shown i n Table III, TABLE III ANALYSIS OF MEAN DIFFERENCES Difference Between Mean Differences St. Error of Difference Between Mean Differences Obtained t Accept or Rej. Null Hypo. Film vs Control 21.05 2.63 7.96 Reject Live vs Control 16.75 3.07 5.46 Reject Film vs Live 3.80 2.70 1.41 Accept An analysis of the relative improvements between the film group and the control group showed a mean difference of 21.05 i n favor of the film group. The value of t was 7.96 - s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant at the .05 level of confidence. The differences between the mean differences of the li v e and control group was 16.75. The value of t was 5.46 which was s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant at the .05 level of confidence. The differences between mean differences of the film group and the li v e group was 3.80 with a t of 1.41 which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant at the .05 level of confidence. R e l i a b i l i t y The coefficient of r e l i a b i l i t y was found to be .92. 41 The changes i n performance between the i n i t i a l and second test of the r e l i a b i l i t y group are shown i n Table IV. TABLE IV t STATISTIC FOR RELIABILITY GROUP Test 1 Test 2 Mean Difference St. Error of Mean Diff. Obtained t Mean St. Dev. Mean St. Dev. 184.6 5.00 185.8 11.31 1.1 1.32 .79 The r e l i a b i l i t y group showed a mean difference of 1.1 between test 1 and test 2 and a t of .79 which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant at the .05 level of confidence. Improvement in Standard Scores and Percentile The scale scores were converted to standard scores and percentiles. These are shown i n Table V. TABLE V IMPROVEMENT IN TERMS OF STANDARD SCORES AND PERCENTILES Mean Standard ~Z Scale Score Score Score Percentile Film Test 1 166.0 55.3 .32 62.55 Test 2 186.9 62.3 .74 77.04 Diff. +7.0 +14.5 Live Test 1 168.0 56.2 .37 64.43 Test 2 185.2 61.7 .71 76.11 Diff. +5.5 +11.7 Control Test 1 180.1 60.0 .59 72.24 Test 2 180.7 60.2 .61 72.91 Diff . +0.2 +0.7 The film group increased 7.0 standard scores and 14.19 percentiles. The live group increased 5.5 standard scores and 11.68 percentiles. The control group increased only 0.2 standard scores and 0.67 percentiles. CHAPTER VI DISCUSSION In the study two groups were taught lessons which included demonstrations; one by film and one l i v e . Another group, the control group, had no lessons. The group used i n the r e l i a b i l i t y test also had no lessons or demonstration. There are two important features of the results. F i r s t i s the considerable improvement of groups which received demonstrations over the group which received no demonstration; second is the improvement of the film group i n relation to the li v e group. The two groups which received demonstrations improved significantly. The control group showed almost no improvement between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l test. The r e l i a b i l i t y group showed no significant improvement. The film group improved 20.95 scale scores (7 standard scores) between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l test. The live group improved 17.15 scale scores (5.5 standard scores) between the i n i t i a l and final test. The control group improved only 0.6 scale scores (.2 standard scores) between the i n i t i a l and final test. On a ratio basis the film group improved 35 times as much as the control group. The li v e group improved 29 times as much as the control group. An interpretation of scores i n terms of percentile ranks shows that the film group moved from the 63rd percentile to the 77th percentile and the l i v e group increased from the 64th percentile to the 76th percentile. 43 In contrast, the control group remained at the 72nd percentile. The second important feature of the results i s the relationship i n learning between the two groups receiving demonstrations. Both groups improved significantly. Although the difference between the two groups was not significant s t a t i s t i c a l l y , i t i s important that the film group did improve as much as the live demonstration group. The r e l i a b i l i t y study shows that although the group had more variable scores on retest there was no difference i n mean scores. Also the r e l i a b i l i t y coefficient was high, showing that there was l i t t l e change i n the relative a b i l i t y of the boys between tests. This supports the inference based on the i n i t i a l and fi n a l control group scores. In the absence of training, scores on the Stroup Test are very stable and apparently reflect the true a b i l i t i e s of the boys i n performing basketball s k i l l s * Demonstration is one of the main methods by which a physical education teacher instructs his pupils. In order to be of value this demonstration must be of high quality, that i s , the demonstration must be performed well. Often teachers are unable to perform a good demonstration and therefore need a suitable substitute. In this study both demonstrations were done by the same person i n the same way and the results showed that both methods of demonstrating produced significant s k i l l improvement. It would seem justifiable, therefore, for a physical education teacher to use a 8 m.m. slow motion color film as a suitable substitute when he lacks a b i l i t y to perform the demonstration. 44 Also of importance is the use of the 8 m.m. motion picture. The results show that the 8 m.m. film w i l l produce significant improvement when used alone i n a demonstration. It should now be possible for a physical education teacher to make his own films using the 8 m.m. camera and use these as the class demonstration. For example, i f a teacher found he is unable to demonstrate the high jump, he could take an 8 m.m. movie camera to the University and make a film of a member of the track team performing the event. Not only does the teacher have the demonstration i n the sequence he wishes but also the film becomes his property. The physical education teacher could build up a film library i n this way. Another advantage of the slow motion film is that i t may be used to analyze movement. The use of the film i n the analysis of motion could be very useful to the coach and performer. The coach could take an 8 m.m. slow motion film of an athlete and analyze the performance. He could then make specific recommendations about the correction to be made. The athlete would be able to appreciate his performance and understand the flaws i n i t to a degree not possible by any other method. It would seem quite logical to make such 8 m.m. films, both demonstration and analysis, into loop-films thus saving the problem of rewinding while at the same time taking advantage of the learning effect through repeated showings. It i s possible that the novelty effect of the film demonstration may be an important factor i n learning and therefore repeated use of the film may lessen the learning effect or i t may not. This factor must be given consideration. 45 It i s not suggested that the 8 m.m. slow motion picture or any-type of film can replace the teacher. Nevertheless, films do seem to have some real value i n the f i e l d of physical education. Dale (l) states; Some schools may use films as a substitute for the teacher i n the sense that the film may be able to do something that a teacher himself cannot do. May (2) is of the same opinion; The value of the film l i e s i n the degree to which i t supplements the demonstrational and instructional s k i l l s of the teacher. Therefore, i t i s concluded, the purpose of the 8 m.m. slow motion picture i n physical education i s not to displace teachers but instead to aid them in doing a more efficient job of teaching physical education. It would seem, therefore, that the physical education teacher has a very useful audio-visual aid i n the 8 m.m. slow motion film which may provide many uses i n the future. At present i t seems most adaptable to demonstration and analysis of motor s k i l l s . 46 REFERENCES Edgar Dale. Audio Visual Methods in Teaching. New York, The Dryden Press Co. 1951 p. 195. Mark A. May. "The Psychology of Learning from Demonstration Films." Journal of Educational Psychology 37 (January 1946) p. 12. CHAPTER VII SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Three Grade 9 boys* physical education classes at Moscrop Junior High School, Burnaby, B.C., were used as subjects i n the study. A l l pupils within the three classes were given the Stroup Basketball Test which consisted of shooting, passing and dribbling. Twenty subjects i n each class were matched by threes in rank order as closely as possible. Respective treatments were assigned to the groups i n a random manner. The two demonstration classes participated i n 8 lessons on basketball s k i l l s , the only difference in the two lessons being the method of demonstration. One class received the demonstration i n the gym l i v e by the teacher while the other class received the demonstration on the film by the same teacher. Both demonstrations were identical. The control class received regular physical education periods. At the end of the 8 lessons a l l classes were retested with the Stroup Basketball Test. Improvement of each group between i n i t i a l and fi n a l test was s t a t i s t i c a l l y determined. The relative improvement between groups was also tested s t a t i s t i c a l l y . The following results were obtained. 1. There was a significant improvement in both the film and l i v e groups. 2. The control group did not show any significant improvement. 3. The film group improved significantly more than the control group. 4. The l i v e group improved significantly more than the control group. 5. The film group had a larger mean raw score than the l i v e group but the difference was not significant. On the basis of the results the following conclusions were made: 48 1* The 8 m.n. slow motion color film seems adaptable to use i n physical education and conducive to the learning of motor s k i l l s when used competently. 2. The 8 m.m. slow motion color film i s effective when used as the sole demonstration method. 3. A 8 m.m. slow motion color film demonstration i s as effective as a live demonstration done by the same person. 4. The physical education teacher can make his own films with an 8 m.m. movie camera and can use this film i n demonstrating s k i l l s to his class. Rec ommendati ons 1. A study should be done to compare the difference between 8 m.m. and 16 m.m. motion picture films on the learning of motor s k i l l s . 2. A study should be done on the retention factor i n the use of the 8 m.m. motion picture. 3. A study should be done on the effect of 8 m.m. loop-films demonstrations on learning motor s k i l l s . 4. A study should be done using the 8 m.m. film at normal speed (not slow motion). 5. A study should be done with teachers of varying aptitudes for s k i l l demonstration. The results could be contrasted with the film demonstration of an expert. 49 APPENDIX A STATISTICAL TREATMENT, Study Design Three groups (a) live demonstration N = 20 (b) fi l m demonstration N » 20 (c) control group N » 20 One Test Stroup Basketball Test Administered before and after the 8 lessons. General Statistical Outline 1. Significance of difference of control group between Test 1 and Test 2. 2. Significance of difference of film group between Test 1 and Test 2. 3* Significance of difference of liv e group between Test 1 and Test 2» 4. Significance of differences between means of the fil m group and the control group. 5. Significance of differences between means of the live group and the control group. 6» Significance of differences between means of the film group and the l i v e group. Procedures and Formula 1. To obtain the significance of differences the following formula were used. N = number of subjects Mean Score = £ x Difference = D =« Xg - X^ 50 Mean Difference = D » i D N d = D - D d 2 - d x d Standard Error of Mean Difference ) t sta t i s t i c = t = D So" 2. To obtain the r e l i a b i l i t y of the Stroup Test, the following formula was used. A / t x y - ( i x ) C^y) ~-51 APPENDIX B INDIVIDUAL SCORE SHEET NAME DIV. RAW SCORE SCALE SCORE SHOOTING PASSING DRIBBLING TOTAL 52 APPENDIX C LESSON PLANS The lessons for the two groups were the same, the variable being the method of demonstration. Keep in mind that one group received demonstration by film. Lesson 1 - Stroup Test given Lesson 2 lo Explain and demonstrate the mechanics of the lay up shot (answer questions) 2* Form 6 teams - one to each basket 3. Practice the stand shot - one at a time 4. Give contest - which team can score 10 i n row 5. Practice the step with lay up 6. Give contest - f i r s t team to score 10 i n row 7. Practice dribble as run i n lay up 8. Give contest - f i r s t team to score 10 i n row 9. Contest to see which team can score the most in 2 minutes. Lesson 3 1. Review and demonstrate mechanics of lay up. 2. D r i l l Z has b a l l , goes in and shoots and goes to to end of other l i n e . B gets rebound and gives to next boy i n Z l i n e . B goes to end of Z l i n e . x x 3. Contest - f i r s t team to score 10 - which team scores most i n 2 minutes. 4. Explain and demonstrate mechanics of passing. 53 5. D r i l l X X X yc x ^ \ 1 passes to each member i n the line and *V then takes his place i n li n e , ^ New person from line takes his place. Lesson 4 1. Review demonstration of lay up and passing. 2. D r i l l s As i n lesson 2 K X « * X (b) As i n lesson 2 x X x x v X As i n lesson 2 except B gets rebound and brings b a l l to top of key and passes ball to next man i n z li n e . 3, Compete - f i r s t team to score 15 4, Explain and demonstrate mechanics of dribbling 5, Dribbling d r i l l s (a) Z * X X X./^" "^yC yC X X 6 Z line dribbles to B line and gives ball to next person i n B line who dribbles back to Z l i n e . (b) Tunnel ball - dribble up to front, 6. Contest - dribble down and back to see which team w i l l finish f i r s t . Each person goes once. Lesson 5 1. Review and demonstrate a l l s k i l l s . 2, D r i l l Z dribbles in and shoots lay up. B recovers rebound and dribbles to top of key. B passes ba l l to next boy i n Z li n e . x * Z and B change lines. X X 54 3. D r i l l - form 6 lines 4. 5. Dribble down and shoot lay up. If score dribble back, i f miss shoot one more lay up and dribble back. Stop dribble 10 feet from next person and pass ba l l to him. Back to original 6 baskets. Contest to see which team can score 10 baskets i n a row. Dribble i n . In 6 teams - spread out between dotted lines ZD Ball starts at back of li n e . Pupils dribble i n and out around other team members, returns to his place and gives the ball to the next person who does the same. Lesson 6 1. D r i l l D r i l l Dribble i n and shoot lay up. Recover ball b a l l and pass to next person. 8 * v * ' * % X V 2. B passes to Z line and goes to end of Z line. Z catches pass and returns i t by passing to next boy i n B l i n e . Z goes to end of B l i n e . 3. D r i l l * y y x A * Same as above d r i l l except boy dribbles to next person. Right hand one way, l e f t hand the other. 4. D r i l l I Line 2 has b a l l . Person from 4 comes to key. 2 passes ball to 4. 2 cuts off 4 and receives ball and dribbles in for lay up. 2 goes to line l j 4 goes to line 3. 1 gets the rebound and passes i t to 3; 3 to next person i n line. 1 goes to line 4j 3 goes to line 2. 55 Lesson 7 1, Review and demonstrate a l l s k i l l s 2. D r i l l as i n lesson 5 3. Contest Dribble (6 teams) around 3 chairs, shoot lay up and dribble back. Lesson 8 1. Intra squad games Lesson 9 1. Explain and demonstrate a l l s k i l l s 2. D r i l l s as before 56 APPENDIX D RAW SCORES Film Eive Control No. Test 1 Test 2 Test 1 Test 2 Test 1 Test 2 1 150 182 156 171 150 154 2 153 180 157 169 153 155 3 159 173 159 178 159 163 4 160 183 160 167 " 160 178 5 160 174 163 167 163 169 6 160 180 164 193 164 148 7 161 180 163 196 164 160 8 161 175 167 189 168 178 9 162 164 168 185 175 185 10 162 193 168 196 177 178 11 162 207 169 196 180 188 12 163 192 169 197 185 182 13 167 182 170 177 186 173 14 170 177 170 198 188 176 15 173 . 196 171 183 190 197 16 176 187 174 200 196 187 17 176 1 94 175 1 87 202 209 18 177 206 179 192 207 206 19 182 211 181 192 214 205 20 186 213 189 202 218 220 57 APPENDIX E RELIABILITY RAW SCORES Boy X Score (Test l ) Y Score (Test 2) 1 180 178 2 207 204 3 182 175 4 194 188 5 187 182 6 191 189 7 165 167 8 182 182 9 180 172 10 164 168 11 213 215 12 206 201 13 174 177 14 182 174 15 173 182 16 161 166 17 177 187 18 192 196 19 183 179 20 187 186 21 193 193 22 211 204 23 196 183 24 180 179 58 BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Buchanan, Andrew. The Film i n Education. London, Phoenix House Ltd. 1951. Clarke, H. Harrison. Application of Measurement to Health and Physical  Education. Englewood C l i f f s , Prentice-Hall Inc. 1959. Consitt, Frances. The Value of Films i n History Teaching. London G. Bell and Sons, Ltd. 1931. Dale, Edgar. Audio Visual Methods In Teaching. New York The Dryden Press Co. 1951. Dale Edgar, Dunn, Fannie W., Hoban, Charles F. and Schneider, Etta. Motion  Pictures In Education. New York The H.W. Wilson Co. 1938. E l l i o t , Godfrey M. Film and Education. London Phoenix House Ltd. 1951. E l l i s , Don Carlos and Thornborough, Laura. Motion Pictures In Education. New York Thomas Y. Crowell Co. 1923. Evans, Ruth, Bacon, Thelma, Bacon, Mary E. and Stapleton, Joie E. Physical  Education for Elementary Schools. New York McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1958. Friedrich, John A. ed. Audio Visual Materials for Physical Education. Washington, American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation 1957. Knowlton, Daniel C. and Tilton, Warren J. Motion Pictures i n History  Teaching. New Haven, Yale University Press 1929. Kozman, Hilda C , Cassidy, Rosiland and Jackson, Chester 0. Methods In  Physical Education. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co. 1958. Lai, William T. Winning Basketball. Englewood C l i f f s Prentice-Hall Inc. 1955. McClusky, Dean F. Visual Instruction. New York Mancall Co. 1931. McCracken, Branch. Indiana Basketball,. Englewood C l i f f s Prentice-Hall Inc. 1955. McGuire, Frank. Offensive Basketball. Englewood C l i f f s Prentice-Hall Inc. 1958. May, Mark A. Motion Pictures for Post War Education. Washington, American Council In Education Studies 1948. May, Mark A. and Lunsdaine, Arthur A. Learning From Films. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1958. 59 Oberteuffer, Delbert. Physical Education. New York Harper and Brothers 1956. Peterson, Ruth C. and Thurstone, L.L. Motion Pictures and the Social  Attitudes of Children. New York The McMillan Co. 1933. Randall, W.M. and Waine, W.K. Objectives of the Physical Education Lesson. London G. Bell and Sons Ltd. 1960. Ruffa, Edward J. An Experimental Study of the Motion Picture as Used i n  the Teaching of Certain Athletic S k i l l s . Unpublished Masters Thesis, California, Stanford University 1936. Rupp, Adolph F. Championship Basketball. Englewood C l i f f s Prentice-Hall Inc. 1948. Walker, Helen M. and Lev, Joseph. Statistical Inference. New York Henry Holt and Co. 1953. PERIODICALS Bernard, Frederica. "Do you Use Films." Journal of Health and Physical  Education. 15 (January 1944) p. 7. Brown, H. Steven and Messersmith, Lloyd. "An Experiment i n Teaching Tumbling With and Without Motion Pictures." Research Quarterly 19 (December 1948) p. 304-307. Dent, Ellsworth C. "What are the Chances for Success of the 8 m.m. Sound Film." Educational Screen and Audio Visual. 41 (February 1962) p. 78-81. Forsdale, Louis. "The Dream About the 8 m.m. Film." Educational Screen and  Audio Visual. 41 (February 1962) p. 70-73. Freeman, Frank N. and Hoefer, Carolyn. "An Experimental Study of the Influence of Motion Picture Films on Behavior." Journal of Educational  Psychology. 22 (September 1931) p. 411-425. Friedrich, John A. "Teaching Games and Skills Through Sound and Sight." Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation. 23 (June 1952) p. 12-13, Gaffney, Mathew M. "Local School Production Opportunities with 8 m.m. Sound Film." Educational Screen and Audio Visual. 41 (February 1962) p. 74-76. Gibbs, David. "An Experiment as to Economy of Time i n Instruction by Use of Motion Pictures." Educational Screen. 4 (November 1925) p. 520-526. Glassow, Ruth B. "Motion Pictures as a Teaching Aid." Journal of Health  and Physical Education. 13 (October 1942) p. 463-465. Eanfield, Harold. "Shooting Your Own Hitters With 8 m.m. Film." Scholastic  Coach. 31 (January 1962) p. 62-63. 60 Hanfield, Harold. "Slow Motion Movies for Swimming Coaching." Scholastic  Coach. 29 (January I960) p. 48. Hupprich, Florence L. "The Use of Visual Aids i n Teaching Tennis." Journal of Health and Physical Education. 7 (February 1941) p. 93-95. Lockhart, Aileene. "The Value of the Motion Picture as a Instructional Device i n Learning a Motor S k i l l . " Research 'Quarterly. 15 (May 1944) p. 181-182. "I960 Sales Up 14$ Across Canada." Photo Trade. 10 (February 1961) p. 10-1& "Cross Canada Business Survey Shows Movies Tops. Photo Trade. 11 (February 1962) p. 17-19. Maas, John. "What the Shooting Is A l l About." Scholastio Coach. 30 (January 1961) p. 7-8. May, Mark A. "The Psychology of Learning From Demonstration Films." Journal  of Educational Psychology. 37 (January 1946) p. 1-12. Nelson, Dale 0. "Effects of the Slow Motion Loop Film on the Learning of Golf." Research Quarterly. 29 (March 1958) p. 37-44. Palmer, Gladys E. "Motion Picture Survey In the Field of Sports." Research  Quarterly. 7 (March 1936) p. 162-167. Priebe, Ray E. and Burton, William H. "The Slow Motion Pictures As A Coaching Device." School Review. 47 (March 1939) p. 192-198. Rogers, Rowland. "Cutting the Time of Learning." Educational Screen. 4 (January 1925) p. 13-14. Schofield, Edward. "The Meaning of the 8 m.m. Film for Education." Education Screen and Audio Visual. 41 (February 1962) p. 76-78. Stroup, Francis. "Game Results as a Criteria for Validating Basketball S k i l l Tests." Research Quarterly. 26 (October 1955) p. 353-356. Sumstine, David. "A Comparative Study of Visual Instruction in the High School." School and Society. 7 (February 1918) p. 238-240. Swineford, Edwin J. "The 8 m.m. Movie, An Audio Visual Resource." Grade  Teacher. 77 (January I960) p. 60-61. 

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