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The effect of the 8 m.m. slow motion color film on the learning of specific motor skills Winslade, Donald Kenneth 1963

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THE EFFECT OF THE 8 M.M. SLOW MOTION COLOR FILM ON THE LEARNING^ OF SPECIFIC MOTOR SKILLS  By  Donald Kenneth Winslade B.P.E., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1960  A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of The Requirements f o r the Degree of Master of Physical Education i n the School of Physical Education and Recreation  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming t o the required standard.  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l 1963  In presenting  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y  of  B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and m i s s i o n f o r extensive purposes may  study.  I f u r t h e r agree that per-  copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y  be granted by the Head of my Department or  his representativeso  I t i s understood that copying or  by publi-  c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,. Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  ABSTRACT  The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of the  8m.m.  slow motion color f i l m on the learning of motor s k i l l s i n physical education. Basketball s k i l l s were used i n the study.  Three classes of Grade 9 boys were selected f o r the study. three classes were administered the Stroup Basketball Test.  The  After the  i n i t i a l t e s t one class was selected as the group to receive the class demonstration by f i l m .  One class was selected as the group to receive the  class demonstration l i v e , by the teacher. a control group.  The t h i r d group was selected as  The groups were matched by threes on a basis of rank order.  The l i v e group and f i l m group received 8 lessons i n basketball s k i l l s .  The  lessons were i d e n t i c a l except for the method of demonstration. The control group received regular physical education periods, excluding basketball. At the end of the 8 lessons, the three groups were retested.  Both the f i l m and l i v e groups showed gains i n performance which were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  gains were  obtained f o r the control group.  The improvement of both the f i l m group and  l i v e group s i g n i f i c a n t l y exceeded the improvement of the control group.  The  improvement of the f i l m group d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y exceed the l i v e group.  It was concluded that the 8 m.m.  slow motion color f i l m seems  conducive to the learning of motor s k i l l s and adaptable to use i n physical education when used competently.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER I II III IV V VI VII  PAGE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  1  JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM  5  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  11  METHODS AND PROCEDURES  28  RESULTS  38  DISCUSSION  42  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  47  BIBLIOGRAPHY  58  APPENDICES A  STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA  49  B  INDIVIDUAL SCORE SHEET  51  C  LESSON PLANS  52  D  RAW SCORES OF TEST  56  E  RAW SCORES OF RELIABILITY  57  LIST OF TABLES I II III IV V  ANALYSIS OF HYPOTHESIS  38  ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEANS  39  ANALYSIS OF MEAN DIFFERENCES  40  t STATISTIC FOR RELIABILITY GROUP  41  IMPROVEMENT IN TERMS OF STANDARD SCORES AND PERCENTILES  41  CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  Throughout the h i s t o r y of education various methods have been developed to bring about greater e f f i c i e n c y i n imparting and acquiring knowledge.  One of the most common methods now used i s i n s t r u c t i o n by the motion picture f i l m .  The popularity of the f i l m has been evolving  continually, and has increased p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the past 20 years.  Teachers  are r e a l i z i n g that i n the educational f i l m they now have a valuable teaching a i d .  The educational motion picture i s p a r t i c u l a r l y suited to physical education.  In physical education research r e l a t i n g to the use of the  motion picture, there i s no agreement as to the e f f e c t of this v i s u a l a i d on l e a r n i n g of motor s k i l l s .  Although research on the use of the f i l m i n  physical education has answered many questions, a d d i t i o n a l ones s t i l l remain unanswered.  Every study of the e f f e c t of motion pictures on learning i n physical education has involved the use of the f i l m demonstration i n addition to l i v e (teacher) demonstration, supplement the teacher demonstration.  i . e . the f i l m was used to  This raises the question of how v a l u -  able the motion picture i s when i t i s used as a teaching method by i t s e l f , i . e . without teacher  demonstration.  The f i l m used i n a l l of the research conducted so f a r has been the 16 m.m. f i l m .  Today, 8 m.m. f i l m i s becoming widely used by people  2 everywhere. m.m.  I t i s , therefore, possible for teachers to prepare their own  8  i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m quite e a s i l y and r e l a t i v e l y inexpensively.  There i s also the problem of whether or not the f i l m has a unique contribution to make i n teaching physical education.  F r i e d r i c h ( l ) states:  It has been the experience of the author i n previewing numerous motion picture dealing with physical education, that many films available are of l i t t l e value i n teaching a s k i l l inasmuch as the same material could be presented through demonstration of the teacher.  I t seems that he i s implying, *Vhy go to the trouble and expense of demonstrating on f i l m what the teacher can do r e a d i l y and inexpensively?"  The teaching of physical education n e c e s s a r i l y involves the teaching of a great number of motor s k i l l s .  This i s d i f f i c u l t  teacher i s u n s k i l l e d because i t involves both demonstration and It would be an exceptional teacher who  i f the explanation.  could demonstrate e f f e c t i v e l y a l l the  physical education a c t i v i t i e s i n the curriculum.  There i s a problem when the teacher finds himself unable to demonstrate a p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l .  I t seems, therefore, an important  question  whether or not i t i s feasible and worthwhile f o r the teacher to show a f i l m of some excellent athlete or s k i l l e d performer doing the required s k i l l while the teacher provides the commentary, emphasizing the important points.  The problem of t h i s study i s to investigate the e f f e c t of the 8 m.m.  slow motion color f i l m on the learning of s p e c i f i c motor s k i l l s .  More s p e c i f i c a l l y the problem i s to determine whether or not the  3 demonstration of s k i l l s by the 8 m.m.  slow motion color f i l m w i l l bring about  learning equivalent to or better than learning produced by the conventional teacher demonstration method.  An additional minor problem i s to determine the f e a s i b i l i t y teachers' producing and using the 8 m.m.  of  slow motion colored f i l m f o r  physical education demonstration.  Delimitations 1.  Basketball s k i l l s are used as the motor s k i l l s to be examined.  2.  Grade 9 boys of a Junior High School are the subjects.  Definitions 1.  Live (group) - demonstration by the teacher i n the gymnasium.  2.  Film (group) - demonstration by the teacher on f i l m .  4 REFERENCES  1.  John A. F r i e d r i c h . "Teaching Games and S k i l l s Through Sound and Sight." Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation. 23 (June 1952) p. 12.  CHAPTER II JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM  Education has been defined as the imparting and a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge, ( l ) . The senses are central i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge.  The development of v i s u a l aids i s therefore of c r u c i a l importance i n education.  Visual aids are used to bring about more e f f i c i e n t learning  by use of the senses.  One  of the most common v i s u a l aids i s the motion  picture.  Referring s p e c i f i c a l l y to teaching Buchanan (2) said, "The has brought movement to the diagram, l i f e to the map,  film  and realism to the  classroom." The use of the motion picture i s not new f i n d technical advances over older ideas. i n education for a long time.  to education but we  The 16 m.m.  do  f i l m has been used  Among newer technical advances i n motion  picture photography i s the 8 m.m.  f i l m , which i s only just now  finding a  place i n education.  The motion picture i s one medium p a r t i c u l a r l y suited to physical education; Palmer (5), however, f e e l s that physical education has not used the f i l m  unfortunately  extensively.  The American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (4) also f e e l more use should be made of the motion picture.  Many physical educators are aware of the numerous types of audio v i s u a l materials a v a i l a b l e . Nevertheless, more extensive and e f f e c t i v e use of such materials l i k e the motion picture should be made.  Despite the lack of common agreement as to the e f f e c t of films i n  6 physical eduoation, most studies show that there seems to be some trend toward improved learning with the use of motion pictures.  An important question yet unanswered i s whether or not a f i l m demonstration i s a more e f f e c t i v e method of teaching a s M l l than a teacher demonstration, i . e . does the motion picture possess some quality or dimension which w i l l cause better learning to occur. the best way on f i l m . way,  I t would seem that  to t e s t t h i s i s to have the same person demonstrate l i v e  and  I f the two demonstrations are done by the same person i n the same  then i s should be possible to determine accurately whether one group  improves more than the  other.  Another question now  coming into the minds of educators and  physical education teachers concerns the 8 m.m. v i s u a l a i d have a considerable  From 1948  movie camera.  Does t h i s  potential i n the f i e l d of education?  onward, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the past 5 years, the 8  m.m.  movie camera has made sweeping sales gains i n the photographic industry. Photo Trade magazine (5) i n a 1961  issue reported that the 8 m.m.  movie  cameras had edged into Canada*s number one sales p o s i t i o n , replacing the 35 m.m.  camera.  I t continued to report that there was  a d e f i n i t e upswing  i n sales of "zoom" lenses and automatic controls i n the 8 m.m.  In Photo Trade's 1962  issue (6) i t reported that Canada's best  photographic s e l l e r for the second year i n a row was camera.  field.  I t also pointed out that the 8 m.m.  the 8 m.m.  movie  movie projector had moved into  fourth place.  I t would seem quite safe, therefore, to assume that more and more  7 Canadian people are buying this  oaraera.  Swineford (7), i n 1960,  stated that many modern teachers seem to  be overlooking a s i g n i f i c a n t audio-visual resource that has been on the market for many years but seldom d i g n i f i e d with classroom use. r e f e r r i n g to the 8 m.m, seat to the 16 m.m.  He  was  home movie which he f e l t seemed to be taking a back  and 35 m.m.  films and s l i d e s .  He believes that  teachers are i n c l i n e d to think of the f r a g i l e nature of the f i l m but as f a r as he i s concerned i t seems that the f i l m usually outlasts the audience.  Another a r t i c l e stated:  The 8 m.m, f i l m i s a g i f t of our technology. We did not ask f o r i t but once available we looked, although frequently slowly, to see what gains i t offered. The 8 m.m, f i l m can help democratize educational motion pictures by making them a v a i l able everywhere - i n classrooms, l i b r a r i e s , homes so that the great power of the medium as a teachinglearning tool can be released i n ways not now possible. (8)  As John Flory (9) of Eastman - Kodak Co. put i t :  The 8 m.m, f i l m w i l l be the paper back of the f i l m f i e l d and that means cheaper service of both mass market and s p e c i a l , inexpensive service of the small cultural submarket.  In the past several objections to the 8 m.m, have been raised,  Now  camera and projector  these have almost been eliminated by new  equipment.  The industry has produced cameras with automatic controls such as e l e c t r i c eyes, close up and wide angle lenses, cameras that thread themselves, improved l i g h t i n g and screens, and a l l round ease of use by the public.  general  8  At present the 16 m.m. f i l m and projector are of major use i n most schools.  The 8 m.m. movie camera has come into wide use among home movie  picture hobbyists, many of them school teachers. f i l m has not yet worked i t s way into the schools.  For some reason the 8 m.m. Today, teachers must  s t i l l order films from the nearest school board, Department of Education or commercial industry. best.  This i s a bothersome and i n e f f i c i e n t process at i t s  When the f i l m a r r i v e s , the time may or may not be exactly r i g h t f o r  using i t . A prime c r i t e r i o n of the worth of an educational material i s that i s should be a v a i l a b l e to the learner when and where and as often as he wants i t .  The American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (10), state that a v a i l a b i l i t y of materials i s one of the prime factors upon which the e f f e c t i v e use of a audio-visual a i d i s dependent.  The major advantages to the use of the 8 m.m. motion picture over the 16 m.m. are as follows. (1) (2) (3) (4) (6) (6)  I t i s compact I t i s usually teacher owned I t i s ready and available at a moments notice I t i s inexpensive I t i s simple to operate I t i s not expensive and i t becomes the property of the teacher. Therefore, a teacher may b u i l d h i s own f i l m library.  Despite the obvious advantages, Dent ( l l ) has a word of caution.  He believes  that there are some major problems to be solved before we can expect a sweeping change from the e x i s t i n g 16 m.m. f i l m to the 8 m.m. f i l m for general use i n schools.  Schofield (12) reports that we may witness a very rapid t r a n s i t i o n  9 period i f future experience proves the 8 m.m. e f f e c t i v e l y as the 16 m.m.  film.  He  f i l m w i l l do the job as  continues;  There are a tremendous number of questions that need to be answered about the p i c t o r i a l medium i t s e l f be i t 8, 16 or 35 m.m. The way to get the answers i s to increase the number of people making systematic studies of the f i l m medium. The 8 m.m. f i l m can greatly broaden the production base by bringing economical production p o t e n t i a l i t i e s within the reach of many who would otherwise be unable to engage i n controlled s c i e n t i f i c studies of the motion picture. o  Gaffney (13) f e e l s the b i g "pay o f f " i n physical education i s s t i l l ahead of us.  He believes that i n boy's and g i r l ' s physical education  the s k i l l s performed require motion and t h i s motion must be shown by demonstration and that the p o s s i b i l i t i e s for extending the  teaching  effectiveness of a single i n s t r u c t i o n through a well done 8 m.m.  filmed  demonstration are i n t r i g u i n g . I t would now t h e i r own  8 m.m.  effectiveness as  seem possible for physical eduoation teachers to make  motion pictures and i n doing so to increase t h e i r teachers.  Perhaps, before they can do so, however, they need to understand the v e r s a t i l i t y of the 8 m.m. uses to which i t can be  motion picture and appreciate f u l l y the many  put.  I t would seem appropriate the value of the 8 m.m.  then, at t h i s time, to make a study of  slow motion color picture as used to demonstrate  motor s k i l l s i n physical education.  10 REFERENCES  1.  Don Carlos E l l i s and Laura Thornborough. Motion Pictures i n Education. New York, Thomas Y. Crowell Co. 1923 p. 1.  2.  Andrew Buchanan. 1951 p. 11.  3.  Gladys E. Palmer. "Motion Picture Survey i n the F i e l d of Sports." Research Quarterly 7 (March 1936) p. 162.  4.  John A. F r i e d r i c h , ed. Audio Visual Materials f o r Physical Education. Washington, American Association f o r Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 1957 p. 1.  5.  "1960 Sales Up 10, Across Canada."  6.  "Cross Canada Business Survey Shows Movies Tops." (February 1962) p. 17.  7.  Edwin J . Swineford. "The 8 m.m. Movie, An Audio Visual Resource." Grade Teacher 77 (January I960) p. 60.  8.  Louis Forsdale.  The Film i n Education. London, Phoenix House L t d .  Photo Trade 10 (February 1961) p. 10.  "The Dream About the 8 m.m. Film."  Photo Trade 11  Educational Screen  and Audio Visual 41 (February 1962) p. 70. 9.  Ibid, p. 72.  10. 11.  John A. F r i e d r i c h , ed. op. c i t . p. 5. Ellsworth C. Dent. "What are the Chances for Success of the 8 m.m. Sound Film." Educational Screen and Audio Visual 41 (February 1962) p. 78.  12.  Edward Schofield. "The Meaning of the 8 m.m. Film f o r Education." Educational Screen and Audio Visual 41 (February 1962) p. 76.  13.  Mathew M. Gaffney. "Local School Production Opportunities with 8 m.m. Sound Film." Educational Screen and Audio Visual 41 (February 1962) p. 74.  CHAPTER III REVIEW OF LITERATURE  The History of the Motion Picture  The e a r l i e s t records were picture records. I t i s now  The purpose of these  pictures was  to inform and educate.  generally believed that the  cavemen, who  drew these pictures, did so not as a means of ornamentation  but primarily to impart f a c t s , such as to issue a warning. purpose was  Certainly t h e i r  to convey ideas ( l ) .  Comenius has the d i s t i n c t i o n of introducing v i s u a l education to the modern world and may  properly be c a l l e d the father of v i s u a l education.  He gave the world the f i r s t i l l u s t r a t e d text book i n his "Orbus P i c t u s " or "The World I l l u s t r a t e d . " He believed that the c h i l d could not learn through words alone.  (2)  Pestalozzi (3) believed i n developing the senses of sight and touch and employed v i s u a l aids i n h i s famous kindergarten.  E l l i o t (4) has a very comprehensive chapter on the h i s t o r y of the motion picture.  The following i s a summary of his chapter.  As early as 130 A.D.  Ptolemy discussed  persistence  of v i s i o n and  i t s demonstration i n a series of lectures on optics but the phonomenon remained l i t t l e more than a physiological c u r i o s i t y u n t i l the end of the  19th  century.  In 1832  Joseph Plateau put together a crude mechanical device  which could give the viewer a sense of l i f e - l i k e motion by looking at a rapid succession  of drawings.  He c a l l e d i t the Phenakistoscope.  Two  years l a t e r ,  12 W. G. Hornor took Plateau's devioe and improved i t . Zoetrope or "Wheel of L i f e . "  The r e s u l t was the  In these cases the men were dealing s o l e l y with  drawings. Edward Muybridge i n 1872 made the f i r s t s c i e n t i f i c contribution to the development horse race.  of the motion picture.  He did a photographic study of a  By getting a synchronized set of s t i l l photographs he  succeeded i n capturing the movements of a galloping horse and paved the way for the development  of the motion picture.  By 1889 new inventions had taken place.  Thomas Edison had  invented a Kinetograph and Etienne Jules Marey a Chronotograph both of which photographed movement at the photographer's w i l l .  In 18.95 the b i r t h of the actual motion picture took place, but only a f t e r many problems had been solved.  One of the major problems solved was the  replacement of the heavy and bulky plates by a new f l e x i b l e c e l l u l o i d .  The next problem was how to project the f i l m .  The work on such a  projection instrument was so swift and so simultaneous that i t was hard to give c r e d i t to one man or team of men.  From 1895 to 1910 the motion picture industry was preoccupied i n finding a clue to i t s own destiny.  feverishly  I t was around the year  1910 that there was a discernible trend toward s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and a separation of the f i l m into the general category of t h e a t r i c a l and nontheatrical.  During these years an enormous growth i n films f o r lectures and lyceums took place and the stage was set for an expanding non-theatrical f i l m  13 industry to serve community, government, church, school and  By 1910  business.  s p e c i a l i z e d catalogues of educational films were available  i n England, France and America.  S t a r t i n g about t h i s time, educational films  were produced for use i n schools.  In spite of a l l the work and advances that had been accomplished i n the period between 1895 and 1925,  the educational f i l m was by 1940  generally not appreciated by the l a y p u b l i c . experiences  still  I t took the 1941-45 wartime  of the industry and the armed services to convince the average  c i t i z e n that the use of films f o r educational purposes was more than a f r i l l or fad.  Today the motion picture i s being used more and more by  educators  and teachers as they begin to r e a l i z e the values i t possesses.  In conclusion, a statement by E l l i s .  (5)  It i s apparent that v i s u a l aids are f u l l y as old as education i t s e l f . The picture has grown s t e a d i l y as an aid i n teaching, from the time when e a r l i e s t man carved his f i r s t crude drawings i n stone u n t i l the a r t of photography and cheap reproduction has made motion pictures available to a l l .  Experimental  Research In Instructional Films  Experimental  studies of the motion picture i n classroom  began s h o r t l y a f t e r 1915.  (6)  One of the f i r s t studies done i n t h i s f i e l d was by David Sumstine (7).  instruction  published i n 1918  He found that films used as an integral part of  classroom i n s t r u c t i o n produced more permanent learning of factual information  14 than do methods of i n s t r u c t i o n i n which non-visual material i s predominantlyused. A study by Knowlton and T i l t o n (8) also indicated that the use of the f i l m i n i n s t r u c t i o n i s superior to the use of verbal material alone. Also they found that the use of the f i l m increased the f a c t u a l knowledge which was  learned.  McClusky (9) summarized that demonstration i s a method of i n s t r u c t i o n superior to the use of the f i l m i n teaching manipulatory  skills  i n high school physics laboratory exercises, i n domestic science and i n industrial arts.  Consitt (10) reported, on the basis of pupil teacher opinion, that the use of films i n teaching h i s t o r y stimulates the imagination of c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n r e a l i z e the past, gain more sympathetic insight into the l i v e s and feelings of the men and women of the past and get a f u l l e r and clearer picture of the environment; thus they can better imaginatively reconstruct f o r themselves other scenes of the same period as those seen on the f i l m s .  Knowlton and T i l t o n ( l l ) found that motion pictures increased pupils' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n classroom discussion and i n other ways.  They pointed  out that the films probably did not cause pupils to read more h i s t o r y outside of the school during the experimental  period but they f e e l i t did cause them  to read v o l u n t a r i l y more supplementary material under c o n t r o l l e d classroom conditions during school hours.  There i s further evidence that the f i l m stimulates pupils to greater interest and a c t i v i t y i n the subject and i n classroom p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  Freeman  and Hoefer (12) reported that health films stimulated c h i l d r e n to bring more clippings, pictures and the l i k e , on topics covered.  They brought more  15 than did the non-film  group.  Knowlton and T i l t o n (13) found that films were r e l a t i v e l y more e f f e c t i v e for " d u l l " than f o r "bright" children when effectiveness i s measured by verbal tests of factual  information.  Consitt (14) i n studying the effectiveness of films on various grade l e v e l s , found that below the t h i r d grade i n school, the use of films was  less e f f e c t i v e than on grade l e v e l s above the t h i r d .  She found there i s  general increase i n effectiveness of the f i l m from the ninth year upward.  Gibbs (15) and Rogers (16) agree that the f i l m i s an economical method of teaching.  The problem of economy i s how well pupils learn to make  c e r t a i n desirable mental reactions i n terms of the amount of time spent i n instruction.  Thurstone and Peterson (17) studied attitudes and concluded;  The experiments we conducted show that motion pictures have d e f i n i t e , l a s t i n g , e f f e c t s on the s o c i a l attitudes of children and that a number of pictures pertaining to the same issue may have a cumulative e f f e c t on a t t i t u d e . Glassow (18), a physical educator, summarized the general of motion picture f i l m studies as follows; The influence of films designed e s p e c i a l l y f o r the classroom has been made the subject of many studies. The results of these studies show that the proper use of v i s u a l materials w i l l increase i n i t i a l learning, e f f e c t the economy of time i n learning, increase permanence i n learning, a i d i n teaching backward c h i l d r e n and motivate learning by increasing i n t e r e s t , attention, s e l f a c t i v i t y and classroom p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  findings  16  The Motion Picture i n Physical Education  Motion picture research has not been as extensive physical education as i n the f i e l d of general education.  i n the f i e l d of  Nevertheless, a  few studies have appeared i n the l i t e r a t u r e over the years.  The f i r s t major study on the motion picture i n physical education was  done by Ruffa  (19).  In his study of teaching track and f i e l d techniques,  when the motion picture was used i n addition to the usual i n s t r u c t i o n , greater gains were made i n the s k i l l s of the broad jump, shot put, high jump and 100 yard dash.  He concluded that pupils learn more r a p i d l y with films  and that slow-motion i s 5*9% more e f f e c t i v e than o r a l or demonstration methods now used i n teaching these s k i l l s .  Priebe and Burton (20) found that the use of the slow motion picture as a coaching device produced the following r e s u l t s ; (a)  The use of slow motion pictures i n coaching the western r o l l style i n the high jump made for faster progress and better achievement.  (b)  The use of slow motion pictures eliminated to a large extent the i n i t i a l period of t r i a l and error.  (c)  I l l u s t r a t i o n s of good form i n slow motion pictures seemed d e f i n i t e l y superior to oral d i r e c t i o n and physical demonstration of good form, p a r t i c u l a r l y during the i n i t i a l period of learning.  (d)  The use of the slow motion picture contributed d e f i n i t e l y to the marked i n t e r e s t i n analyzing i n d i v i d u a l errors and i n improving picture defects.  Hupprich (21) i n a study of the motion picture i n teaching  tennis  stated that there i s no doubt that the slow motion picture i s the ideal medium for presenting a motor a c t i v i t y such as a tennis serve.  The f a c t that the  slow motion does the teaching so w e l l , so accuractly and so consistently i s ,  17 i n her opinion, the most important f a c t o r .  Lockhart (22), studying the value of the motion pioture i n learning a motor s k i l l stated that the motion picture was found to be of d e f i n i t e value to those groups which had t h i s device as part of the regular i n s t r u c t i o n a l program.  She foundj  (a)  The rate of the improvement i n learning of the movie group was more consistent than that of the control group.  (b)  During the f i r s t two weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n the performance i n the two groups was p r a c t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l . During the t h i r d the experimental group continued i t s i n i t i a l rapid rate of improvement whereas the control group remained at p r a c t i c a l l y a stand s t i l l .  (c)  There i s strong evidence that at the end of the f i f t h week the experimental group was d e f i n i t e l y superior to the c o n t r o l .  (d)  By the end of the t h i r d week the "movie class had surpassed the non-movie group and continued to be superior throughout the remaining periods of observation.  Nelson (23), i n a comparison of two groups i n the learning of golf s k i l l s found; (a)  Both groups, the experimental f i l m group and the control group, made gains i n learning.  (b)  The v a r i a b i l i t y of both groups decreased with practice.  (c)  Both groups became more homogeneous with practice, but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from each other.  (d)  Slow motion loop films seem to favor the learning of golf i n the l a t e r stages of learning but not i n the e a r l y stages.  He concludes that gains were made by using the 16 m.m.  slow motion  loop f i l m but that these gains were not s i g n i f i c a n t between groups.  Brown and Messersmith (24) did an experiment i n the use of the motion picture i n teaching tumbling. indicated;  From the experiments the following were  18 (a)  The experimental class made a l i t t l e more progress than did the control class but the s u p e r i o r i t y was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant.  (b)  There i s a tendency for students to be highly motivated when moving pictures are used. x  (c)  There i s a great need f o r more studies dealing with the of motion pictures and the learning of motor s k i l l s .  No experimental studies have been reported on the 8 m.m. picture i n physical education. i n v e s t i g a t i o n with t h i s f i l m .  use  motion  Harold Hanfield has done some b r i e f In one study (25) he filmed his baseball  players while batting and used these films as a diagnostic means.  He stated  that the f i l m i n g of his h i t t e r s and the consequent reviewing of these films by the h i t t e r s helped them to do better. proof i s presented f o r the statement.  This i s merely an opinion and  He stated that they may  not be  champions t h i s year, but the time saved i n practice by the f i l m was help to them.  no  a big  He f e l t the boys saw t h e i r f a u l t s on f i l m and understood  better what he meant when he corrected them.  In Hianfield's other experiment with the 8 num. i t to help people to l e a r n to swim.  f i l m (26) he used  He found that twice as many students  could be taught to jump i n t o the pool, l e v e l o f f and swim 25 yards a f t e r studying t h e i r form on f i l m , with the instructor's comments, than those not using the a n a l y t i c a l movies. be used i n preference  He f e l t the less expensive 8 m.m.  to the 16 m.m.  f i l m because i t was  groups of students with s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s . f i l m was  f i l m could  viewed by small  He stated that the 16  not required where a large audience was  not  m.m.  present.  Maas (27) i n an a r t i c l e on films i n physical education reveals that almost a l l high schools of any size are using the motion picture and that equipment i s the main cost and obstacle.  He f e e l s that the use of the motion  19 picture projector i s unlimited and that motion picture teaching aids are available from a v a r i e t y of sources. to the success of an educational  He believes that these are essential  curriculum.  Many investigators have expressed some opinion to the use of the motion picture i n physical  education.  Palmer (28) believes that because the motion picture f a c i l i t a t e s the analysis of motion as no other medium can, i t has an important function i n the f i e l d of physical  education.  Glassow (29) states that i n the f i e l d of physical education  studies  have indicated that the development of s k i l l i s aided when films are added to usual i n s t r u c t i o n . This evidence would indicate that the motion picture when combined with the usual i n s t r u c t i o n increases the amount of s k i l l learned but she believes that before t h i s conclusion may  be f u l l y accepted, additional  experimental studies should be made.  Bernhard (30) has stated that films i n physical education are used for  the purposes of demonstration and s e l f correction.  She feels they are a  valuable a i d to the teacher i n i n s t r u c t i n g students i n s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s by a s s i s t i n g him with the c r i t i c a l analysis of movement that i s so necessary a part of successful performance.  She claims that no demonstration method has  proved more e f f e c t i v e than the motion picture, j u d i c i o u s l y used.  Learning From Demonstration Films  What are the p r i n c i p l e s and what i s the psychology behind learning from a demonstration film?  Some producers of educational f i l m have attempted to use such  20 p r i n c i p l e s as Herbart's " f i v e steps" formulated 100 years ago or Thorndikes "laws of learning", which were formulated more recently as an adequate set of learning p r i n c i p l e s (31).  May  (32) f e e l s these p r i n c i p l e s have not proved very useful guides  i n the production of good teaching f i l m s .  One reason i s that they (the  p r i n c i p l e s ) are too broad and general and do not reveal the i n t r i c a t e nature of the learning machinery. films (33).  He therefore sets f o r t h a theory of learning by  The following i s a summary of his theory.  The importance for learning of responding to pictures and other non verbal presentations a performance of how  i s seen most c l e a r l y with a f i l m that demonstrates  something i s done.  A d i s t i n c t i o n i s sometimes made  between the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge and of s k i l l .  I t i s true that knowledge  i s most generally tested by questions and answers and s k i l l s by physical performance.  An analysis of how  they are acquired, however, reveals that  verbal responses and cues play a prominent part i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of both. I t i s true that the response - produced verbal cues tend to drop out i n performances that are so well practiced as to become automatic, yet t h i s i s not to deny the important role of language i n the early stages of learning.  Learning from a demonstration i s a case of learning by delayed imitation.  Learning by i m i t a t i o n i s not primarily an i n s t i n c t i v e process but i s acquired by previous learning. he must f i r s t learn to imitate.  Before a c h i l d can learn by imitation,  Learning to imitate breaks down into two  major processes. (a)  the learner must acquire c e r t a i n basic s k i l l s or learn to perform acts which may l a t e r be worked by observing others  21 perform them. The process by which unit s k i l l s are acquired under tutelage or a person who possesses them i s c a l l e d "copying". (b)  the second phase of imitative learning i s c a l l e d 'matcheddependent' behavior. After a c h i l d has learned to walk, t a l k , run, sing and so on, he can learn to run when he sees another c h i l d running or to sing when others are singing. Here, learning i s l a r g e l y a matter of discrimination - what to imitate, when and under what circumstances to do so.  After an individual has acquired c e r t a i n basic s k i l l s and has learned to copy the bahavior of others i n the use of these s k i l l s , he i s then i n a p o s i t i o n to l e a r n how to use his s k i l l s without the benefit of a leader or demonstrator.  Imitation i s therefore a step i n the process of  becoming an independent learner.  The process i s complete when the learner  can perform the act without the b e n e f i t of a demonstration.  This requires  that a correct sequence of responses be made t o c e r t a i n external cues or that verbal d i r e c t i o n be formulated and r e c a l l e d or both.  Thus, memory i s  an important factor i n guiding bahavior.  The analysis of learning by imitation i s preparatory to a further analysis of delayed imitation, which i s the type of learning required by most demonstration f i l m s .  Delayed imitation does not provide an opportunity  to practice the sequence of responses to the sequence of s t i m u l i .  The most  the learner can do during the demonstration i s t o perform each step mentally or by s l i g h t imitative movements of his body.  Following the  demonstrator mentally turns out upon analysis to be a complex process involving perceptual, imaginal and verbal types of responses.  Learning by observation of demonstration i s therefore a case of learning by doing.  What the observer learns during the demonstration i s  what he a c t u a l l y does i n response to i t .  22 Along the same l i n e s Kozman, Cassidy and Jackson (34) f e e l that learning i n physical education  i s l a r g e l y a matter of i m i t a t i o n .  Boys and g i r l s acquire motor s k i l l s l a r g e l y through i m i t a t i o n . They observe the a c t to be performed and then, with some exploration and t r i a l , perform with l i t t l e or no conscious analysis of how they need to move.  Demonstration In Physical Education  May (35) has directed our attention to four d i s t i n c t classes of educational films, namely, the informational f i l m the incentive f i l m , the provocative f i l m and the demonstration f i l m .  The demonstration f i l m shows how to perform a s k i l l e d act, that i s , the performance shown on the screen i s intended to be imitated l a t e r by the observer.  Randall  (36) points out that demonstration i n physical  education  w i l l give the pupils the pattern to be followed much more accurately, c l e a r l y and quickly than w i l l a verbal description of the a c t i v i t y .  She  believes that demonstration w i l l give the idea quickly and being a c t i v i t y , i t w i l l hold attention longer.  Kozman (37) f e e l s that a good demonstration i s designed f o r a s p e c i f i c purpose i n which pupils are helped to understand how something i s done •  Evans (38) states:  Although everyone learns by doing, the s k i l l s involved i n achieving the objectives of physical education require careful teaching and good demonstration before the learner can obtain s a t i s f a c t i o n i n doing.  23 Oberteuffer (39) believes that i t i s not only correct that actions i n the teaching of s k i l l s should be demonstrated and performed, but because the learning i s a process of imitation, they must be demonstrated  and  performed c o r r e c t l y .  The primary function of the teacher of s k i l l s i s to present new material which i s done through demonstration accompanied by verbal description (40).  There are three ways i n which a demonstration may be shown to a physical education c l a s s .  Usually i t i s the teacher who performs the  demonstration, but on occasions a s k i l l e d performer i n the class w i l l make the demonstration.  The t h i r d alternative i s to use a v i s u a l a i d , usually  the motion picture (41).  Lockhart (42) reveals that educators have advocated the use of the motion picture as an i n s t r u c t i o n a l device because t h i s teaching a i d i s e s p e c i a l l y useful where an understanding of time and motion i s e s s e n t i a l .  Bernhard (43) i n a discussion of the uses of the f i l m i n physioal education reports that today's films are primarily used f o r demonstration and s e l f correction rather than orientation because these purposes are regarded as more than educational. Loop Films  In disuussing the use of motion picture films i n physical education the American Association f o r Health Physical Education and Recreation (44) mention loop f i l m s .  These films are merely regular motion pictures which  24 have been s p l i c e d together to form one continuous loop approximately 5 to 15 feet long.  Therefore, the sequence of action may be repeated as many  times as desired without having to rewind the f i l m .  The main advantage  of a loop f i l m i s i t s a b i l i t y to repeat therefore allowing the student to view the a c t i o n an unlimited number of times. use of the r e p e t i t i v e factor i n learning.  These films make maximum  25 REFERENCES 1.  Don Carlos E l l i s and Laura Thornborough. Education.  N.Y.  Motion Pictures i n  Thomas Y. Crowell Co. 1923 p. 2.  2.  Loc c i t .  3.  Ibid, p. 3.  4.  Godfrey M. E l l i o t . Film and Education. London, Phoenix House L t d . 1951 p. 3-19. E l l i s and Thornborough. op. c i t . p. 11.  5. 6.  Edgar Dale, Fannie W. Dunn, Charles F. Hoban and E t t a Schneider. Motion Pictures i n Education. N.Y. The H.W. Wilson Co. 1938 p. 307.  7.  David Sumstine. "A Comparative Study of Visual Instruction i n the High School." School and Society 7 (February 1918) p. 238.  8.  Daniel C. Knowlton and Warren J . T i l t o n . Motion Pictures i n History Teaching. New Haven, Yale University Press 1929 p. 184.  9.  Dean F. McClusky. Instruction." 166.  "Comparisons of Different Methods of Visual Visual Instruction. N.Y. Mancall Co. 1931 p. 83-  10.  Frances Consitt. The Value of Films i n History Teaching. G. B e l l and Sons L t d . 1931 p. 142.  London  11.  Knowlton and T i l t o n , op. c i t . p. 92.  12.  Frank N. Freeman and Carolyn Hoefer. "An Experimental Study of the Influence of Motion Picture Films on Behavior." Journal of Educational Psychology 22 (September 1931) p. 411-25.  13.  Knowlton and T i l t o n .  14.  Frances Consitt. o p . c i t . p. 123.  15.  David Gibbs. "An Experiment as to Economy of Time i n Instruction by use of Motion Pictures." Educational Screen 4 (November 1925) p. 520-526.  16.  Rowland Rogers. "Cutting the Time of Learning." Education Screen 4 (January 1925) p. 13-14.  17.  Ruth C. Peterson and L.L. Thurstone. Motion Pictures and the Social Attitudes of Children. N.Y. The macmillan Co. 1933 p. 66.  op. c i t . p. 160.  26 18.  Ruth B. Glassow. "Motion Pictures as an Teaching A i d . " Journal of Health and Physical Education. 13 (October 1944) p. 463.  19.  Edward J . Ruffa. An Experimental Study of the Motion Picture as used i n the Teaching of Certain A t h l e t i c S k i l l s . Unpublished Masters Thesis, C a l i f o r n i a , Stanford University 1936.  20.  Roy E. Priebe and William H. Burton. "The Slow Motion Picture as a Coaching Device." School Review. 47 (March 1939( p. 192-198.  21.  Florence L. Hupprich. "The use of Visual Aids i n Teaching Tennis." Journal of Health and Physical Education. 7 (February 1941) p. 93.  22.  Aileene Lockhart. "The Value of the Motion Picture as an Instructional Device i n Learning a Motor S k i l l . " Research <Quarterly 15 (May 1944) p. 181-182.  23.  Dale 0. Nelson. "Effect of the Slow Motion Loop Films on the Learning of Golf." Research Quarterly 29 (March 1958) p. 37-44.  24.  H. Steven Brown and Lloyd Messersmith. "An Experiment i n Teaching Tumbling With and Without Motion Pictures." Research Quarterly 19 (December 1948) p. 304-307.  25.  Harold Hanfield. "Shooting Your Own H i t t e r s With 8 m.m. Scholastic Coach 31 (January 1962) p. 62.  26.  Harold Hanfield. "Slow Motion Movies for Swimming Coaching." Scholastic Coach 29 (January I960) p. 48.  27.  John Maas. "What the Shooting i s a l l About." (January 1961) p. 7.  28.  Gladys E. Palmer.  Film."  Scholastic Coach  30  "Motion Picture Survey i n the F i e l d of Sports."  Research Quarterly 7 29.  Ruth B. Glassow.  30.  Frederica Bernhard. "Do You Use Films." Journal of Health and Physical Education. 15 (January 19441 p. 7. Mark A. May. "The Psychology of Learning from Demonstration Films." Journal of Educational Psychology 37 (January 1946) p. 1-12.  31.  op. c i t .  (March 1936) p. 159. p. 501.  32.  Ibid, p. 2.  33.  Mark A. May and Arthur A. Lumsdaine. Learning From Films. Yale University Press, 1958 p. 168-184.  34.  Hilda C. Kozman, Rosalind Cassidy, Chester 0. Jackson. Methods i n Physical Education. Philadelphia W.B. Saunders C . 1958 p. 73. 0  New Haven,  27 35.  Mark A. May. Motion Pictures for Post War Education. American Council i n Education Studies October 1948 p. 4.  36.  M.W.  37.  Hilda C. Kozman, Rosalind Cassidy and Chester 0. Jackson, p. 289.  38.  Ruth Evans, Thelma Bacon, Mary E. Bacon and Joie L. Stapleton. Physical Education f o r Elementary Schools. New York McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1958 p. 51.  39.  Delbert Oberteuffer.  Randall and W.R. Lesson. London  Brothers 1956  Waine. Objectives of the Physical Education G. B e l l and Sons L t d . 1960 p. 26.  Physical Education.  New York  op. c i t .  Harper and  p. 268.  40.  Ruth B. Glassow.  op. c i t . p. 463.  41.  Ruth Evans,  42.  Aileene Lockhart.  43. 44.  Frederica Bernhard. op. c i t . p. 7. John A. F r i e d r i c h , ed. Audio Visual Materials f o r Physical Education. Washington, American Association f o r Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 1957 p. 15.  et a l . op. c i t . op. c i t .  p. 51. p. 181.  CHAPTER IV METHODS AND PROCEDURES  Three grade 9 boys' physical education classes a t Moscrop Junior High School, Burnaby, B. C. were' used i n the study.  The boys i n a l l three classes were given a basketball s k i l l t e s t * Respective treatments were assigned to the groups i n a random manner.  One  class was t o receive a l i v e demonstration, one class was to receive a f i l m demonstration and one was to be the control group.  Twenty subjects i n  each class were matched by three's i n rank order as c l o s e l y as possible. There was a constraint on the method of matching because the boys had to remain i n t h e i r classes and could not be shuffled randomly into d i f f e r e n t groups•  The control class continued with a regular physical education period, excluding anything which involved basketball.  This group was  instructed by the regular school physical education teacher. The l i v e group and f i l m group were given the same lessons (see Appendix C) i n basketball s k i l l s f o r 8 weeks by the teacher conducting the experiment. The only difference was the method of demonstration. the  One class received  demonstration of the s k i l l by a 8 m.m. slow motion color f i l m while the  other class received the demonstration of the s k i l l by the teacher - l i v e -. The demonstration on the f i l m was performed by the teacher who demonstrated live.  Both demonstrations were i d e n t i c a l .  Therefore, the two  demonstrations were the same and performed by the same person, the difference being the use of the slow motion color 8 m.m. f i l m i n demonstrating to one group.  29 The. i n s t r u c t i o n a l time was held constant and the f i l m was shown i n the gymnasium.  Therefore no s h u t t l i n g from classrooms was involved.  Throughout the lessons the teacher was v e r b a l l y giving encouragement and correction but a t no time d i d he correct by demonstration.  A l l lessons were given between the hours of 9:00 a.m. to 10:30 a.m.  The basketball s k i l l t e s t was administered to the three classes at the conclusion of the eight lessons.  Skills  Selected  One of the f i r s t problems was the s e l e c t i o n of the s k i l l s measured. skills  I t was considered  t o be  desirable t o validate the s e l e c t i o n of the  by r e f e r r i n g to four books written by well known basketball coaches.  The four books referred to were by: (a)  Adolph Rupp, ( l ) coach of the University of Kentucky.  (b)  Branch McCracken,  (c)  Frank McGuire, (3) former coach of North Carolina University.  (d)  W i l l iam L a i , (4) coach of Long Island University.  (2) coach of Indiana University.  There i s common agreement among these coaches that three of the skills  basic t o the game of basketball are shooting, passing and d r i b b l i n g .  These coaches also agree that the two hand chest pass i s the basic pass used i n basketball and that the l a y up i s the easiest shot to score and probably the f i r s t s k i l l taught i n shooting.  '  From the statements and opinions of the four coaches i t seemed quite j u s t i f i a b l e to use the following 3 s k i l l s  i n the experiment.  30 (a)  the l a y up shot  (b)  the two hand chest pass  (c)  the dribble  Test Selected The s k i l l t e s t selected was the Stroup Basketball t e s t (5). I t was the only t e s t which measured the three s k i l l s to be used i n the study.  A description of the techniques used i n administering the three items i s as follows; (a)  Goal shooting - S t a r t i n g a t any p o s i t i o n on the f l o o r , the subject shoots, as many baskets as possible i n one minute, r e t r i e v i n g the b a l l each time himself.  (b)  Wall passing - The subject stands behind a l i n e s i x f e e t from a wall and passes the b a l l against the wall as many times as possible i n one minute. A pass i s not counted i f the b a l l i s batted instead of caught and passed or i f the subject moves over the r e s t r a i n i n g l i n e when making a pass.  (c)  D r i b b l i n g - The subject dribbles a l t e r n a t e l y to the l e f t and r i g h t of b o t t l e s placed i n a l i n e 15 f e e t apart for a 90 foot distance, c i r c l e s the end b o t t l e each time and continues for one minute. A miss i s counted i f a bottle i s knocked over or i f the b o t t l e i s not passed on the proper side. The score i s the number of bottles properly passed i n the time l i m i t .  In the t e s t the raw scores are converted to scale scores (6) and these give a composite basketball s k i l l score f o r each i n d i v i d u a l .  Stroup (7) reported that his t e s t i s r e l i a b l e and v a l i d because acceptable c o e f f i c i e n t s of r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y have been reported for similar and identiaal items by other investigators.  Despite t h i s f e e l i n g by Stroup, i t was f e l t the r e l i a b i l i t y of the t e s t should be v e r i f i e d .  31 Preparation of the Film*  A special f i l m was required f o r the experiment.  Because i t was  necessary to have the demonstration on the f i l m the same as would be performed i n the gymnasium, the pre-planning of the lessons and t h e i r accompanying demonstrations was needed.  When this was completed the  f i l m i n g was done outdoors the following way.  1.  Shooting A.  Demonstration 1 - standing to one side of the basket, teacher demonstrated the pre-shot fundamentals.  B.  (a)  head and eyes up  (b)  2 hands on the b a l l  (c)  shooting hand d i r e c t l y behind the b a l l  (d)  body relaxed and comfortable  (e)  b a l l controlled by the f i n g e r t i p s  Demonstration 2 - teacher demonstrated proper release of b a l l . (a)  b a l l held i n two hands  (b)  two hands remain on b a l l u n t i l i t i s carried above the head. The b a l l i s gradually released.  (c)  shooting hand remains d i r e c t l y behind b a l l .  (d)  head and eyes look up  (e)  shooting arm extends f u l l y upward and b a l l i s released o f f the f i n g e r t i p s .  (f)  b a l l must be released s o f t l y and placed on the backboard.  & the w r i t e r .  The demonstration on the f i l m and i n the classroom was done by He was a member of the University basketball team for four  years and was twice selected conference a l l - s t a r and Most Valuable Player.  32 Demonstration 3 - teacher demonstrated shot with one foot take off. (a)  review previous mechanics  (b)  take o f f on opposite foot from the shooting hand  (c)  keep head up a l l the time  (d)  spring upward, not outward  (e)  release the b a l l  (f)  place the b a l l a b i t to the r i g h t of the basket and above i t on the backboard ( i f shooting r i g h t handed)  softly  Demonstration 4 - teacher demonstrated complete l a y up shot. (a)  review fundamentals from before  (b)  dribble i n to shoot  (c)  crouch s l i g h t l y and gather yourself f o r the take o f f  (d)  go straight up on take o f f  (e)  carry the b a l l as high as possible  (f)  release b a l l s o f t l y  Demonstration 5 - teacher demonstrated and emphasized top portion of body, p a r t i c u l a r l y the arms and hands, during the shot. (a)  extend arm f u l l y  (b)  release b a l l o f f f i n g e r t i p s  (c)  follow through with arms and fingers  Demonstration 6 - teacher demonstrated the bottom portion of the body, p a r t i c u l a r l y the legs, during the shot. (a)  take o f f on outside foot  (b)  go s t r a i g h t up i n a i r  (c)  be relaxed  (d)  bring feet together on jump  53 Demonstrations 1 to 4 were taken from 3 d i f f e r e n t angles. Demonstrations 5 and 6 were taken from one angle only. 2.  Passing A.  Demonstration 1 - teacher demonstrated proper method of holding the  B.  ball.  (a)  b a l l held i n front of body, chest high  (b)  fingers a t side of b a l l , thumbs i n back  (c)  elbows close to body but not against  (d)  b a l l should be s l i g h t l y above the waist  Demonstration 2 - teacher demonstrated and emphasized  finger-tip  control of b a l l . (a) C.  b a l l i s held by the f i n g e r t i p s , loosely  Demonstration 3 - teacher demonstrated proper release of the b a l l . (a)  b a l l properly held as mentioned before  (b)  b a l l allowed to move i n a s l i g h t l y downward motion, then upward to a f u l l cocked p o s i t i o n  (c)  wrists are uncocked, fingers w i l l move forward, giving force to the b a l l  (d)  b a l l i s released by thrusting arms forward  (e)  palms face the f l o o r , thumbs close together  Demonstration 1 was taken from 3 d i f f e r e n t angles.  Demonstration  2 was taken from 1 angle only and demonstration 3 was taken from 2 angles. Close up scenes were used occasionally. 3.  Dribbling A.  Demonstration 1 - teacher demonstrated proper method of d r i b b l i n g (standing). (a)  body crouched s l i g h t l y over the b a l l  (b)  head held up  34  B.  (c)  fingers semi-spread, hand cupped  (d)  b a l l pushed to f l o o r by using f i n g e r t i p s  (e)  elbow low, forearm almost p a r a l l e l to the f l o o r  (f)  elbow very l i t t l e r i s e and f a l l  Demonstration 2 - teacher demonstrated how to control the b a l l with the f i n g e r t i p s , (a)  C.  b a l l directed by the f i n g e r t i p s  Demonstration 3 - teacher demonstrated how to change d i r e c t i o n and how to use high-low d r i b b l e , (a)  review fundamentals from before  (b)  body balance maintained with weight forward on the b a l l of the feet  (c)  hips low and knees bent on turns  (d)  outside hand used for d r i b b l i n g (keep the body between the b a l l and the defensive man)  (e)  height of dribble depends upon use of the dribble  Demonstration 1 was taken from 3 angles.  Demonstrations 2 and 3  were taken from 1 angle only. The 8 m.m. color Kodachrome I I daylight f i l m was used. taken i n slow motion a t 64 frames per second.  I t was  The color f i l m was used so  as to duplicate the l i v e demonstration as much as possible. of color may be very important i n holding class attention.  Also the use The f i l m was  taken i n slow motion to enable a better analysis of motion. The i n d i v i d u a l demonstrations were taken from various angles to coincide with the d i f f e r e n t viewing angles of the l i v e demonstration by the class.  During the l i v e demonstration the pupils were encouraged to move  about to see the s k i l l performed from various angles.  35 S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis of Data (a)  Hypothesis tested The problem investigated i n the study was stated i n the form of  the following hypothesis.  (b)  (1)  The l i v e and f i l m groups would improve between i n i t i a l and f i n a l tests but the control group would not improve.  (2)  The improvement i n the f i l m group would be as large as the improvement made by the l i v e group.  S t a t i s t i c a l hypothesis The above hypothesis were tested i n t r a d i t i o n a l  hypothesis for analysis by means of Fisher's t s t a t i s t i c . 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  Where H  hypothesis  H  alternate hypothesis  form of the n u l l  36 C  = control group  F  = f i l m group  L  = l i v e group  2  = final test  1  = i n i t i a l test  2-1  = difference between i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t  The s t a t i s t i c a l treatment dealt with a comparison of mean differences between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l tests of the three groups and a comparison of the difference of the mean differences between (a) the f i l m group and the control group, (b) the l i v e group and the control group, and (c) the f i l m group and the l i v e group. (c)  R e l i a b i l i t y of Test A class of 24 junior high school boys was selected.  The boys  performed the Stroup Basketball t e s t one day and one week l a t e r performed the t e s t again.  The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n was determined  by the Pearson r and by analysis of the differences between means using students t s t a t i s t i c at the 0.05 l e v e l of confidence.  37 REFERENCES  1.  Adolph F. Rupp. Championship Basketball. Hall Inc. 1948 p. 21-54.  2.  Branch MoCracken. Indiana Basketball, Hall Inc. 1955 p. 61-96.  3.  Frank McGuire. Offensive Basketball. Hall Inc. 1958 p. 28-65.  4.  William T. L a i . Winning Basketball. Inc. 1955 p. 8-52.  5.  Francis Stroup. "Game Results as a C r i t e r i a f o r V a l i d a t i n g Basketball S k i l l Tests." Research 'Quarterly 26 (October 1955) p. 353-356.  6.  H. Harrison Clarke. Education.  Englewood C l i f f s , Prentice  Englewood C l i f f s ,  Englewood C l i f f s ,  Prentice  Prentice  Englewood C l i f f s , Prentice Hall  Application of Measurement to Health and Physical  Englewood C l i f f s , Prentice Hall Inc. 1959 p. 502  7.  Francis Stroup. op. c i t p. 355.  8.  Helen M. Walker and Joseph Lev. S t a t i s t i c a l Inference. Henry Holt and Co. 1953 p. 151-153.  New York,  CHAPTER V RESULTS The r e s u l t s of the study are summarized and presented i n the following order: 1.  A statement of the s t a t i s t i c a l hypothesis tested  2.  An analysis of the difference between means  3.  An analysis of the mean differences  4.  An analysis of r e l i a b i l i t y Table I i s a summary of the s t a t i s t i c a l hypothesis tested and the  values of the t s t a t i s t i c necessary f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e .  Where C F L 1  = = = =  TABLE I ANALYSIS OF HYPOTHESIS control group H = s t a t i s t i c a l hypothesis f i l m group H = alternate hypothesis l i v e group ^A" = population mean i n i t i a l test 2 = final test LEVEL OF CONFIDENCE* .05  HYPOTHESIS 1.  H  H 2.  i  / t i - / i  C  *  2-1  Ki^/<~Fi-,  o  0  3.  I t L x - i ^ Z .  c  2.09  .05  19  2.09 *  .05  19  1.73  .05  19  1.73 *  .05  19  2.09 *  A  r  -  *-'*•-<  6.  r  19  *'  5. L  .05  O  4.  H:^/^ ^"l  t NECESSARY TO REJECT H 2.09 *  O -  Hiy*-?z-i  DEGREES OF FREEDOM 19  One T a i l Test  4 Two T a i l Tesjj  39 The data derived from the raw scores of the three groups are summarized i n the accompanying tables.  A l l students i n the l i v e group improved as d i d a l l the students i n the f i l m group.  By contrast, i n the control group, 12 students showed  improvement while 8 d i d not show improvement.  The changes i n performance over the 8 lessons are summarized i n Table I I . TABLE I I ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEANS  Test 1 Mean St.Dev. Film Group  166.0  9.41  Live Group  168.0  8.07  gontrol Group  180.1  18.25  Test 2 Mean St.Dev. 186.95  12.85  185.15  10.43  180.7  18.56,  Mean St. Error of D i f f . Mean D i f f .  Obt. t  Rej. or Acc. Null Hypo.  20.95  2.01  10.42  Reject  17.15  1.81  9.47  Reject  .60  1.94  .31  Accept  The f i l m group showed a mean difference of 20.95 between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t and the improvement between the two tests showed a t of 10.42 which was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l of confidence and would have been s i g n i f i c a n t a t higher l e v e l s of confidence including .01, The l i v e group showed a mean difference of 17,15 between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t and a t of 9,47 which was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l of confidence and would have been s i g n i f i c a n t a t higher l e v e l s of confidence including .01. The control group showed a mean difference of .60 between the i n i t i a l  40 and f i n a l t e s t and a t of .31 which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the •05 l e v e l of confidence. A summary of the differences between improvement made between the three groups i s shown i n Table I I I , TABLE I I I ANALYSIS OF MEAN DIFFERENCES  Difference Between Mean Differences Film vs Control Live vs Control  St. Error of Difference Between Mean Differences  Obtained t  Accept or Rej. Null Hypo.  21.05  2.63  7.96  Reject  16.75  3.07  5.46  Reject  3.80  2.70  1.41  Accept  Film vs Live  An analysis of the r e l a t i v e improvements between the f i l m group and the control group showed a mean difference of 21.05 i n favor of the f i l m group.  The value of t was 7.96 - s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l  of confidence. The differences between the mean differences of the l i v e and control group was 16.75.  The value of t was 5.46 which was s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l of confidence. The differences between mean differences of the f i l m group and the l i v e group was 3.80 with a t of 1.41 which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence. Reliability The c o e f f i c i e n t of r e l i a b i l i t y was found to be .92.  41 The changes i n performance between the i n i t i a l and second t e s t of the r e l i a b i l i t y group are shown i n Table IV. TABLE IV t STATISTIC FOR RELIABILITY GROUP  Test 1 St. Dev. Mean 184.6  5.00  Test 2 Mean St. Dev. 185.8  Mean Difference  St. Error of Mean D i f f .  Obtained t  1.1  1.32  .79  11.31  The r e l i a b i l i t y group showed a mean difference of 1.1 between t e s t 1 and t e s t 2 and a t of .79 which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l of confidence.  Improvement i n Standard Scores and Percentile The scale scores were converted to standard scores and percentiles. These are shown i n Table V. TABLE V IMPROVEMENT IN TERMS OF STANDARD SCORES AND PERCENTILES  Film Test 1 Test 2 Diff. Live Test 1 Test 2 Diff. Control Test 1 Test 2 Diff.  Mean Scale Score 166.0 186.9 168.0 185.2 180.1 180.7  Standard Score 55.3 62.3 +7.0 56.2 61.7 +5.5 60.0 60.2 +0.2  ~Z Score .32 .74 .37 .71 .59 .61  Percentile 62.55 77.04 +14.5 64.43 76.11 +11.7 72.24 72.91 +0.7  The f i l m group increased 7.0 standard scores and 14.19 percentiles. The l i v e group increased 5.5 standard scores and 11.68 percentiles. The control group increased only 0.2 standard scores and 0.67 percentiles.  CHAPTER VI DISCUSSION In the study two groups were taught lessons which included demonstrations; one by f i l m and one l i v e . group, had no lessons.  Another group, the control  The group used i n the r e l i a b i l i t y t e s t also had  no lessons or demonstration.  There are two important features of the r e s u l t s .  F i r s t i s the  considerable improvement of groups which received demonstrations over the group which received no demonstration; second i s the improvement of the f i l m group i n r e l a t i o n to the l i v e group.  The two groups which received demonstrations improved significantly.  The control group showed almost no improvement between the  i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t .  The r e l i a b i l i t y group showed no s i g n i f i c a n t  improvement.  The f i l m group improved 20.95 scale scores (7 standard scores) between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l test.  The l i v e group improved 17.15 scale  scores (5.5 standard scores) between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t .  The control  group improved only 0.6 scale scores (.2 standard scores) between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t .  On a r a t i o basis the f i l m group improved 35 times as much as the control group.  The l i v e group improved 29 times as much as the control  group.  An i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of scores i n terms of percentile ranks shows that the f i l m group moved from the 63rd percentile to the 77th percentile and the  l i v e group increased from the 64th percentile to the 76th percentile.  43 In contrast, the control group remained at the 72nd p e r c e n t i l e .  The second important feature of the results i s the relationship i n learning between the two groups receiving demonstrations. improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y .  Both groups  Although the difference between the two  groups  was not s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y , i t i s important that the f i l m group did improve as much as the l i v e demonstration group.  The r e l i a b i l i t y study shows that although the group had more variable scores on retest there was no difference i n mean scores. Also the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was high, showing that there was l i t t l e change i n the r e l a t i v e a b i l i t y of the boys between t e s t s .  This supports the  inference based on the i n i t i a l and f i n a l control group scores.  In the  absence of t r a i n i n g , scores on the Stroup Test are very stable and apparently r e f l e c t the true a b i l i t i e s of the boys i n performing basketball skills*  Demonstration i s one of the main methods by which a physical education teacher instructs h i s pupils.  In order to be of value t h i s  demonstration must be of high quality, that i s , the demonstration must be performed w e l l .  Often teachers are unable to perform a good demonstration  and therefore need a suitable substitute.  In t h i s study both demonstrations were done by the same person i n the same way and the results showed that both methods of demonstrating produced s i g n i f i c a n t s k i l l improvement.  I t would seem j u s t i f i a b l e , therefore,  for a physical education teacher to use a 8 m.m.  slow motion color f i l m as  a suitable substitute when he lacks a b i l i t y to perform the demonstration.  44 Also of importance i s the use of the 8 m.m. r e s u l t s show that the 8 m.m.  motion picture.  The  f i l m w i l l produce s i g n i f i c a n t improvement when  used alone i n a demonstration.  It should now be possible f o r a physical  education teacher to make his own films using the 8 m.m.  camera and use  these as the class demonstration.  For example, i f a teacher found he i s unable to demonstrate the high jump, he could take an 8 m.m.  movie camera to the University and make  a f i l m of a member of the track team performing the event.  Not only does  the teacher have the demonstration i n the sequence he wishes but also the f i l m becomes his property. a film library i n this  The physical education teacher could b u i l d up  way.  Another advantage of the slow motion f i l m i s that i t may be used to analyze movement.  The use of the f i l m i n the analysis of motion could  be very useful to the coach and performer.  The coach could take an 8  slow motion f i l m of an athlete and analyze the performance.  m.m.  He could then  make s p e c i f i c recommendations about the correction to be made.  The athlete  would be able to appreciate his performance and understand the flaws i n i t to a degree not possible by any other method. It would seem quite l o g i c a l to make such 8 m.m.  f i l m s , both  demonstration and analysis, into loop-films thus saving the problem of rewinding while at the same time taking advantage of the learning e f f e c t through repeated showings.  I t i s possible that the novelty e f f e c t of the f i l m demonstration may be an important factor i n learning and therefore repeated use of the f i l m may lessen the learning e f f e c t or i t may not. given consideration.  This factor must be  45 It i s not suggested that the 8 m.m. type of f i l m can replace the teacher.  slow motion picture or any-  Nevertheless, films do seem to  have some real value i n the f i e l d of physical education.  Dale ( l ) states; Some schools may use films as a substitute f o r the teacher i n the sense that the f i l m may be able to do something that a teacher himself cannot do.  May (2) i s of the same opinion; The value of the f i l m l i e s i n the degree to which i t supplements the demonstrational and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s k i l l s of the teacher.  Therefore, i t i s concluded, the purpose of the 8 m.m.  slow motion  picture i n physical education i s not to displace teachers but instead to aid them i n doing a more e f f i c i e n t job of teaching physical education.  It would seem, therefore, that the physical education teacher has a very useful audio-visual a i d i n the 8 m.m. may provide many uses i n the future.  slow motion f i l m which  At present i t seems most adaptable to  demonstration and analysis of motor s k i l l s .  46 REFERENCES  Edgar Dale. Audio Visual Methods i n Teaching. Press Co. 1951 p. 195.  New York, The Dryden  Mark A. May. "The Psychology of Learning from Demonstration Films." Journal of Educational Psychology 37 (January 1946) p. 12.  CHAPTER VII SUMMARY AND  CONCLUSIONS  Three Grade 9 boys* physical education classes at Moscrop Junior High School, Burnaby, B.C.,  were used as subjects i n the study.  A l l pupils  within the three classes were given the Stroup Basketball Test which consisted of shooting, passing and d r i b b l i n g .  Twenty subjects i n each  class were matched by threes i n rank order as c l o s e l y as possible. treatments were assigned to the groups i n a random manner.  The  Respective  two  demonstration classes p a r t i c i p a t e d i n 8 lessons on basketball s k i l l s , the only difference i n the two lessons being the method of demonstration.  One class  received the demonstration i n the gym l i v e by the teacher while the class received the demonstration on the f i l m by the same teacher. demonstrations were i d e n t i c a l . education periods.  other Both  The control class received regular physical  At the end of the 8 lessons a l l classes were retested  with the Stroup Basketball  Test.  Improvement of each group between i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t was s t a t i s t i c a l l y determined.  The r e l a t i v e improvement between groups was  also tested s t a t i s t i c a l l y .  The following r e s u l t s were obtained. 1.  There was groups.  a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n both the f i l m and l i v e  2.  The control group did not show any s i g n i f i c a n t improvement.  3.  The f i l m group improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than the control group.  4.  The l i v e group improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than the control group.  5.  The f i l m group had a larger mean raw score than the l i v e group but the difference was not s i g n i f i c a n t .  On the basis of the r e s u l t s the following conclusions were made:  48 1*  The 8 m.n. slow motion color f i l m seems adaptable to use i n physical education and conducive to the learning of motor s k i l l s when used competently.  2.  The 8 m.m. slow motion color f i l m i s e f f e c t i v e when used as the sole demonstration method.  3.  A 8 m.m. slow motion color f i l m demonstration i s as e f f e c t i v e as a l i v e demonstration done by the same person.  4.  The physical education teacher can make h i s own films with an 8 m.m. movie camera and can use this f i l m i n demonstrating s k i l l s to h i s c l a s s .  Rec ommendati ons  1.  A study should be done to compare the difference between 8 m.m. and 16 m.m. motion picture films on the learning of motor s k i l l s .  2.  A study should be done on the retention factor i n the use of the 8 m.m. motion picture.  3.  A study should be done on the e f f e c t of 8 m.m. demonstrations on learning motor s k i l l s .  4.  A study should be done using the 8 m.m. f i l m a t normal speed (not slow motion).  5.  A study should be done with teachers of varying aptitudes f o r s k i l l demonstration. The r e s u l t s could be contrasted with the f i l m demonstration of an expert.  loop-films  49 APPENDIX A STATISTICAL TREATMENT, Study Design Three groups  (a)  l i v e demonstration N = 20  (b)  f i l m demonstration N » 20  (c)  control group Stroup Basketball  One Test  N » 20 Test  Administered before and a f t e r the 8 lessons.  General S t a t i s t i c a l  Outline  1.  Significance of difference of control group between Test 1 and Test 2.  2.  Significance of difference of f i l m group between Test 1 and Test 2.  3*  Significance of difference of l i v e group between Test 1 and Test 2»  4.  Significance of differences between means of the f i l m group and the control group.  5.  Significance of differences between means of the l i v e group and the control group.  6»  Significance of differences between means of the f i l m group and the l i v e group.  Procedures and Formula 1.  To obtain the significance of differences the following formula were used. N = number of subjects Mean Score =  £x  Difference = D =« Xg - X^  50  Mean Difference = d d  2  =  D  -  D  -  d  x  d  D  »  i D N  Standard Error of Mean Difference ) t statistic  2.  =  t  =  D So"  To obtain the r e l i a b i l i t y of the Stroup Test, the following formula was used.  ~-  A/txy -  ( i x ) C^y)  51 APPENDIX B INDIVIDUAL SCORE  NAME  SHEET  DIV.  RAW  SHOOTING  PASSING  DRIBBLING  TOTAL  SCORE  S C A L E SCORE  52 APPENDIX C LESSON PLANS  The lessons f o r the two groups were the same, the variable being the method of demonstration. demonstration by Lesson 1  -  Keep i n mind that one group received  film. Stroup Test given  Lesson 2 lo  Explain and demonstrate the mechanics of the l a y up shot (answer questions)  2*  Form 6 teams - one to each basket  3.  Practice the stand shot - one at a time  4.  Give contest - which team can score 10 i n row  5.  Practice the step with l a y up  6.  Give contest - f i r s t team to score 10 i n row  7.  Practice dribble as run i n l a y up  8.  Give contest - f i r s t team to score 10 i n row  9.  Contest to see which team can score the most i n 2 minutes.  Lesson 3 1.  Review and demonstrate mechanics of l a y up.  2.  Drill  x  x  Z has b a l l , goes i n and shoots and goes to to end of other l i n e . B gets rebound and gives to next boy i n Z line. B goes to end of Z l i n e .  3.  Contest - f i r s t team to score 10 - which team scores most i n 2 minutes.  4.  Explain and demonstrate mechanics of passing.  53 5.  Drill  yc  X X X  x  ^\  1 passes to each member i n the l i n e and then takes h i s place i n l i n e , New person from l i n e takes his place.  *V ^ Lesson 4 1.  Review demonstration of l a y up and passing.  2.  Drills As i n lesson 2 K  X  « X  *  (b)  x  X  x x  v  As i n lesson 2  X  As i n lesson 2 except B gets rebound and brings b a l l to top of key and passes b a l l to next man i n z l i n e .  3,  Compete - f i r s t team to score 15  4,  Explain and demonstrate mechanics of dribbling  5,  Dribbling d r i l l s (a)  Z  * X X X./^"  "^yC  yC X X  6  Z l i n e dribbles to B l i n e and gives b a l l t o next person i n B l i n e who dribbles back to Z l i n e . (b) 6.  Tunnel b a l l - dribble up to front,  Contest - dribble down and back to see which team w i l l f i r s t . Each person goes once.  finish  Lesson 5 1.  Review and demonstrate a l l s k i l l s .  2,  Drill  x  X  * X  Z B B Z  dribbles i n and shoots l a y up. recovers rebound and dribbles to top of key. passes b a l l to next boy i n Z l i n e . and B change l i n e s .  54 3.  D r i l l - form 6 l i n e s Dribble down and shoot l a y up. I f score dribble back, i f miss shoot one more l a y up and dribble back. Stop dribble 10 feet from next person and pass b a l l to him.  4.  Back to o r i g i n a l 6 baskets. Contest to see which team can score 10 baskets i n a row. Dribble i n .  5.  In 6 teams - spread out between dotted l i n e s  B a l l starts a t back of l i n e . Pupils dribble i n and out around other team members, returns t o h i s place and gives the b a l l to the next person who does the same.  ZD Lesson 6 1.  Drill Dribble i n and shoot l a y up. Recover b a l l b a l l and pass to next person. Drill 8  * v * '*  % X V  2.  B passes to Z l i n e and goes to end of Z l i n e . Z catches pass and returns i t by passing to next boy i n B l i n e . Z goes t o end of B l i n e . 3.  Drill *  x A *  y y  Same as above d r i l l except boy dribbles to next person. hand one way, l e f t hand the other. 4.  Right  Drill I  Line 2 has b a l l . Person from 4 comes to key. 2 passes b a l l to 4. 2 cuts o f f 4 and receives b a l l and dribbles i n for l a y up. 2 goes to l i n e l j 4 goes to l i n e 3. 1 gets the rebound and passes i t to 3; 3 to next person i n l i n e . 1 goes to l i n e 4j 3 goes to l i n e 2.  55 Lesson 7 1,  Review and demonstrate a l l s k i l l s  2.  Drill  as i n lesson 5 3.  Contest  Dribble (6 teams) around 3 chairs, shoot l a y up and dribble back. Lesson 8 1.  Intra squad games  Lesson 9 1.  Explain and demonstrate a l l s k i l l s  2.  D r i l l s as before  56 APPENDIX D RAW SCORES  Film No.  Eive  Control Test 1 Test 2  Test 1  Test 2  Test 1  Test 2  1  150  182  156  171  150  154  2  153  180  157  169  153  155  3  159  173  159  178  159  163  4  160  183  160  167  " 160  5  160  174  163  167  163  169  6  160  180  164  193  164  148  7  161  180  163  196  164  160  8  161  175  167  189  168  178  9  162  164  168  185  175  185  10  162  193  168  196  177  178  11  162  207  169  196  180  188  12  163  192  169  197  185  182  13  167  182  170  177  186  173  14  170  177  170  198  188  176  15  173  196  171  183  190  197  16  176  187  174  200  196  187  17  176  1 94  175  1 87  18  177  206  179  192  207  206  19  182  211  181  192  214  205  20  186  213  189  202  218  220  .  202  178  209  57 APPENDIX E RELIABILITY RAW SCORES Boy  X Score (Test l )  Y Score (Test 2)  1  180  178  2  207  204  3  182  175  4  194  188  5  187  182  6  191  189  7  165  167  8  182  182  9  180  172  10  164  168  11  213  215  12  206  201  13  174  177  14  182  174  15  173  182  16  161  166  17  177  187  18  192  196  19  183  179  20  187  186  21  193  193  22  211  204  23  196  183  24  180  179  58 BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Buchanan, Andrew.  The Film i n Education.  London, Phoenix House Ltd.  Clarke, H. Harrison. Application of Measurement to Health and Education. Englewood C l i f f s , Prentice-Hall Inc. 1959. Consitt, Frances. The Value of Films i n History Teaching. and Sons, Ltd. 1931. Dale, Edgar. Audio Visual Methods In Teaching. Co. 1951. Dale Edgar, Dunn, Fannie W., Pictures In Education. E l l i o t , Godfrey M.  New  Physical  London  York  G. B e l l  The Dryden Press  Hoban, Charles F. and Schneider, E t t a . New York The H.W. Wilson Co. 1938.  Film and Education.  London  E l l i s , Don Carlos and Thornborough, Laura. New York Thomas Y. Crowell Co. 1923.  1951.  Phoenix House Ltd.  Motion  1951.  Motion Pictures In Education.  Evans, Ruth, Bacon, Thelma, Bacon, Mary E. and Stapleton, Joie E. Physical Education f o r Elementary Schools. New York McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1958. F r i e d r i c h , John A. ed. Audio Visual Materials for Physical Education. Washington, American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation 1957. Knowlton, Daniel C. and T i l t o n , Warren J. Motion Pictures i n History Teaching. New Haven, Yale University Press 1929. Kozman, Hilda C , Cassidy, Rosiland and Jackson, Chester 0. Methods In Physical Education. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co. 1958. L a i , William T. 1955.  Winning Basketball. Englewood C l i f f s  McClusky, Dean F.  Visual Instruction.  McCracken, Branch. Inc. 1955. McGuire, Frank. Inc. 1958.  Indiana Basketball,.  Offensive Basketball.  New  York  Prentice-Hall  Mancall Co.  Englewood C l i f f s  Englewood C l i f f s  May,  Mark A. Motion Pictures f o r Post War Council In Education Studies 1948.  May,  Mark A. and Lunsdaine, Arthur A. Yale University Press, 1958.  Education.  Inc.  1931.  Prentice-Hall  Prentice-Hall  Washington, American  Learning From Films.  New Haven,  59 Oberteuffer, Delbert. 1956.  Physical Education.  Peterson, Ruth C. and Thurstone, L.L. Attitudes of Children. New York  New York  Harper and Brothers  Motion Pictures and the Social The McMillan Co. 1933.  Randall, W.M. and Waine, W.K. Objectives of the Physical Education Lesson. London G. B e l l and Sons Ltd. 1960. Ruffa, Edward J . An Experimental Study of the Motion Picture as Used i n the Teaching of Certain A t h l e t i c S k i l l s . Unpublished Masters Thesis, C a l i f o r n i a , Stanford University 1936. Rupp, Adolph F. Inc. 1948.  Championship Basketball.  Walker, Helen M. and Lev, Joseph. Holt and Co. 1953.  Englewood C l i f f s  S t a t i s t i c a l Inference.  Prentice-Hall  New York  Henry  PERIODICALS Bernard, Frederica. "Do you Use Films." Education. 15 (January 1944) p. 7.  Journal of Health and Physical  Brown, H. Steven and Messersmith, Lloyd. "An Experiment i n Teaching Tumbling With and Without Motion Pictures." Research Quarterly 19 (December 1948) p. 304-307. Dent, Ellsworth C. "What are the Chances f o r Success of the 8 m.m. Sound Film." Educational Screen and Audio V i s u a l . 41 (February 1962) p. 78-81. Forsdale, Louis. "The Dream About the 8 m.m. Film." Audio V i s u a l . 41 (February 1962) p. 70-73.  Educational Screen and  Freeman, Frank N. and Hoefer, Carolyn. "An Experimental Study of the Influence of Motion Picture Films on Behavior." Journal of Educational Psychology. 22 (September 1931) p. 411-425. F r i e d r i c h , John A. "Teaching Games and S k i l l s Through Sound and Sight." Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation. 23 (June 1952) p. 12-13, Gaffney, Mathew M. "Local School Production Opportunities with 8 m.m. Sound Film." Educational Screen and Audio V i s u a l . 41 (February 1962) p. 74-76. Gibbs, David. "An Experiment as to Economy of Time i n Instruction by Use of Motion Pictures." Educational Screen. 4 (November 1925) p. 520-526. Glassow, Ruth B. "Motion Pictures as a Teaching A i d . " Journal of Health and Physical Education. 13 (October 1942) p. 463-465. E a n f i e l d , Harold. "Shooting Your Own Hitters With 8 m.m. Coach. 31 (January 1962) p. 62-63.  Film."  Scholastic  60 Hanfield, Harold. "Slow Motion Movies for Swimming Coaching." Coach. 29 (January I960) p. 48.  Scholastic  Hupprich, Florence L. "The Use of Visual Aids i n Teaching Tennis." Journal of Health and Physical Education. 7 (February 1941) p. 93-95. Lockhart, Aileene. "The Value of the Motion Picture as a Instructional Device i n Learning a Motor S k i l l . " Research 'Quarterly. 15 (May 1944) p. 181-182. "I960 Sales Up 14$ Across Canada."  Photo Trade.  10  "Cross Canada Business Survey Shows Movies Tops. (February 1962) p. 17-19. Maas, John. "What the Shooting Is A l l About." (January 1961) p. 7-8.  (February 1961) p.  Photo Trade.  10-1&  11  Scholastio Coach.  30  May, Mark A. "The Psychology of Learning From Demonstration Films." Journal of Educational Psychology. 37 (January 1946) p. 1-12. Nelson, Dale 0. "Effects of the Slow Motion Loop Film on the Learning of Golf." Research Quarterly. 29 (March 1958) p. 37-44. Palmer, Gladys E. "Motion Picture Survey In the F i e l d of Sports." Quarterly. 7 (March 1936) p. 162-167.  Research  Priebe, Ray E. and Burton, William H. "The Slow Motion Pictures As A Coaching Device." School Review. 47 (March 1939) p. 192-198. Rogers, Rowland. "Cutting the Time of Learning." (January 1925) p. 13-14.  Educational Screen.  4  Schofield, Edward. "The Meaning of the 8 m.m. Film f o r Education." Education Screen and Audio V i s u a l . 41 (February 1962) p. 76-78. Stroup, Francis. "Game Results as a C r i t e r i a f o r V a l i d a t i n g Basketball S k i l l Tests." Research Quarterly. 26 (October 1955) p. 353-356. Sumstine, David. "A Comparative Study of Visual Instruction i n the High School." School and Society. 7 (February 1918) p. 238-240. Swineford, Edwin J . "The 8 m.m. Movie, An Audio Visual Resource." Teacher. 77 (January I960) p. 60-61.  Grade  

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