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A comparative study on the effectiveness of two grips for teaching beginning golf Alderman, Richard Brian 1960

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TWO GRIPS FOR TEACHING BEGINNING GOLF  *y  RICHARD BRIAN ALDERMAN B.P.E. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1956.  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of PHYSICAL EDUCATION and RECREATION  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1960.  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the  University  o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  study.  I further  c o p y i n g of t h i s  be g r a n t e d by the Head o f  Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver $, Canada.  my  I t i s understood  that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r  Department  thesis  financial  permission.  ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e which of two g r i p s , the Vardon overlapping g r i p or the Spread g r i p , produces the best r e s u l t s i n range, accuracy, v e l o c i t y and the angle of impact when teaching the g o l f swing to the beginning g o l f e r .  Also i n v e s t i g a t e d were the r e s u l t s  produced when the beginner was taught a second g r i p a f t e r s i x weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n .  The McKee t e s t , representing the  elements of the golf swing, was selected t o examine the hypotheses. Thirty-three  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f i r s t and  second year students e n r o l l e d i n the service program of the School of P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation were randomly selected and d i v i d e d i n t o two groups.  F o l l o w i n g the i n i t i a l  t e s t s , the f i r s t experimental group, c a l l e d the Vardon Group, underwent an eight week period of golf i n s t r u c t i o n , l e a r n i n g the Vardon g r i p i n the f i r s t s i x weeks and the Spread g r i p i n the l a s t two weeks.  The second experimental group, c a l l e d  the Spread Group, underwent an i d e n t i c a l type of i n s t r u c t i o n a l program, except the Spread g r i p was taught f o r the f i r s t s i x weeks and the Vardon g r i p was taught over the l a s t two weeks. Both groups were retested at the end of s i x weeks and at the end of eight weeks i n the same manner. Both groups averaged gains i n performance that were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t over the f i r s t s i x week period i n the elements of range and the angle of impact•  Over the l a s t  two weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n , only the Spread Group e x h i b i t e d a gain i n performance that was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and t h i s was i n the element of accuracy. Over the t o t a l eight week period of i n s t r u c t i o n , the Vardon Group averaged gains that were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n the elements of range angle of impact and accuracy, whereas, the Spread Group • e x h i b i t e d Improved gains i n performance that were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n the elements of range, angle of impact and v e l o c i t y . A s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the groups over both the s i x week period and eight week period was e x h i b i t e d i n the element of accuracy only.  The Spread  Group, using the Spread g r i p i n the f i r s t s i x week p e r i o d , and the Vardon g r i p i n the l a s t two week p e r i o d , improved i t performance whereas, the Vardon Group decreased i n performance over both periods^ of i n s t r u c t i o n . I t was concluded that only i n the element of accuracy can the Spread g r i p be construed as superior t o the Vardon g r i p when teaching the g o l f swing t o a group of beginners over an eight week period of twice-weekly i n s t r u c t i o n .  TABLE OP CONTENTS  CHAPTER I  PAGE  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  1  II  JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM  3  III  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  4  IV  METHODS AND PROCEDURE  13  ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS  24  DISCUSSION  40  V VI  BIBLIOGRAPHY  50  APPENDICES A. STATISTICAL TREATMENT  .54  B. EXAMPLE OF CALCULATIONS IN TREATMENT OF RAW SCORES..59 C. INDIVIDUAL SCORE SHEET  62  D. GROUP SCORE SHEET  63  E. AVERAGE RAW SCORES FOR VARDON GROUP  64  F. AVERAGE RAW SCORES FOR SPREAD GROUP  65  G. EQUATED RESULTS OF RAW SCORE TREATMENT H. PLAN OF GOLF LESSONS  ,.66 67  LIST OF TABLES I II III IV V VI VII  Comparison of Results Between I n i t i a l and Second Test Means i n the Element of V e l o c i t y 25 Comparison of Results Between Second and T h i r d Test Means i n the Element of V e l o c i t y . . . . . 26 Comparison of Results Between I n i t i a l and T h i r d Test Means i n the Element of ' V e l o c i t y ,27 Degree of Improvement Between the Means of the Vardon Group and Spread Group i n V e l o c i t y 28 Comparison of Results Between I n i t i a l and Second Test Means i n the Angle of D e v i a t i o n .29 Comparison of Results Between Second and T h i r d Test Means i n the Angle of D e v i a t i o n 30 Comparison of Results Between I n i t i a l and T h i r d Test Means i n the Angle of Deviation 30  V I I I Degree of Improvement Between Means of.the Vardon Group and the Spread Group i n Angle of '"Deviation, •«.32 IX Comparison of Results Between I n i t i a l and Second Test Means i n the Angle of Impact #33 X Comparison of Results Between Second and T h i r d Test Means i n the Angle of Impact 34 XI Comparison of Results Between I n i t i a l and Third Test Means i n the Angle of Impact .34 X I I Degree of Improvement Between the Means of the Vardon Group and the Spread Group i n the Angle of Impact 36 X I I I Comparison of Results Between I n i t i a l and Second Test Means i n the Element of Range »36 XIV Comparison of Results Between Second and T h i r d Test Means i n the Element of Range 37 XV Comparison of Results Between I n i t i a l and T h i r d Test Means i n the Element of Range ......38 XVL Degree of Improvement Between the Means of the Vardon Group and the Spread Group i n the Element of Range 39 f  LIST OP FIGURES I  Test Area  20  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The w r i t e r wishes t o express h i s sincere a p p r e c i a t i o n t o D r Max e  Howell and Mr, Robert Morford f o r t h e i r guidance and assistance throughout t h i s study*  CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE  PROBLEM  The purpose of t h i s study i s to i n v e s t i g a t e which of  two  g r i p s , the "Vardon" g r i p or the "Spread" g r i p , produces the best r e s u l t s i n range, accuracy, v e l o c i t y and the angle of impact when teaching the g o l f swing to the beginning g o l f e r . Also i n v e s t i g a t e d are the r e s u l t s produced when the beginner i s taught a second g r i p a f t e r s i x weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n : . The Vardon g r i p , or overlapping g r i p , as i t i s commonly c a l l e d , i s the method "by which the right-handed g o l f e r holds the club i n both hands with the r i g h t hand grasping the immediately below the l e f t hand.  The  club  l i t t l e f i n g e r of the  r i g h t hand overlaps, and r e s t s upon, the index f i n g e r of the l e f t hand.  The  f i n g e r s hold the club f i r m l y .  The hands are  on the club i n such a p o s i t i o n that the "V" formed by  the  index f i n g e r and thumb of each hand points approximately to the g o l f e r ' s r i g h t shoulder. The  Spread g r i p , which i s 6ften mistakenly c a l l e d the  " b a s e b a l l " g r i p , i s applied to the handle of the g o l f club i n the same manner as the Vardon g r i p except f o r one major d i f f e r e n c e , the l i t t l e f i n g e r of the r i g h t hand r e s t s against the index f i n g e r of the l e f t hand and i s on the club i t s e l f . In both grips the l e f t thumb r e s t s along the shaft of the club i n s i d e and beneath the palm of the r i g h t hand. This i s d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from the " b a s e b a l l " g r i p where  the l e f t thumb i s wrapped around the shaft outside the r i g h t hand. In the Spread g r i p there are eight f i n g e r s i n contact with the c l u b , whereas, i n the Vardon g r i p , there are seven f i n g e r s grasping the c l u b .  The exponents of the Spread g r i p  s t a t e that eight f i n g e r s tend to give more leverage to the g o l f swing, while those g o l f e r s who use the Vardon g r i p claim that seven f i n g e r s lend more "compactness" to the g r i p . This d i f f e r e n c e i n opinion has r e s u l t e d i n a controversy as to which method i s the b e t t e r . For the purposes of t h i s study, i t i s , t h e r e f o r e , hypothesized t h a t : 1. there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the gains r e s u l t i n g from the use of the Vardon g r i p or the Spread g r i p i n any of four selected c r i t e r i a used i n the t e s t i n g of beginning g o l f e r s f o l l o w i n g s i x weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n , and 2. there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the o r i g i n a l groups i n any of four selected c r i t e r i a f o l l o w i n g an a d d i t i o n a l two weeks of t r a i n i n g i n which the g r i p s f o r both groups are interchanged.  CHAPTER I I JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM Moat g o l f i n g a u t h o r i t i e s agree that the method by which the g o l f club i s held i s one of the most important components of the g o l f swing.  Though there i s considerable l i t e r a t u r e  concerning the use of the Vardon g r i p , there are l i t t l e or no o b j e c t i v e data i n the l i t e r a t u r e t o support the argument that i t i s superior t o the Spread g r i p .  The Vardon g r i p i s taught  to beginners mainly because i t i s the g r i p the teacher uses h i m s e l f , because i t i s the g r i p advocated by the leading performers i n the g o l f world or because i t i s the g r i p the teacher learned himself when he f i r s t s t a r t e d t o p l a y . There has been no attempt made t o discover i f the Spread g r i p would be more s u i t a b l e f o r the teaching of beginners. I f t h i s experiment i n d i c a t e s that one g r i p i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more e f f e c t i v e than the other, or that p r a c t i c e of both grips i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more e f f e c t i v e , i t may be of some value t o g o l f teachers. I f no conclusive  r e s u l t s are produced, i t w i l l have,  at l e a s t , supplied some o b j e c t i v e data.  CHAPTER I I I REVIEW OP THE  LITERATURE  • • • • i t took me a year of constant experimentation to s a t i s f y myself as to the s u p e r i o r i t y of t h i s g r i p over a l l others. I t seems to create j u s t the r i g h t amount of f u s i o n between the hands and i n v o l u n t a r i l y induces each to do i t s proper work. (1) I t was w i t h t h i s statement that Harry Vardon changed the g r i p which g o l f e r s had been u s i n g f o r 350 years.  The  fact  that Vardon, the best known g o l f p r o f e s s i o n a l of h i s day, h o l d i n g the golf club i n a c e r t a i n manner was  enough  was  for his  g r i p to become the most u n i v e r s a l l y accepted component i n the g o l f swing.  Since the i n c e p t i o n of t h i s g r i p i n 1905  m a j o r i t y of successful have used t h i s g r i p .  the  g o l f e r s , p r o f e s s i o n a l and amateur, Many p r o f e s s i o n a l s  proclaim t h e i r  p a r t i c u l a r method of doing various things i n the g o l f swing w i l l insure success, but i t i s almost without exception that they advocate the overlapping Vardon g r i p . The best d e s c r i p t i o n of the overlapping Vardon g r i p comes from Vardon h i m s e l f .  He states  (2):  The club i s h e l d i n the l a s t three f i n g e r s of the l e f t hand, the shaft pressing i n t o the top j o i n t of the f o r e f i n g e r . As the w r i s t should be turned so as to show the knuckles, the l e f t thumb w i l l be urged past the s h a f t . We now have the l e f t thumb f i r m l y on the c l u b , and the top j o i n t of the l e f t f o r e f i n g e r e x e r c i s i n g a determined h o l d . I f i s w i t h these two members that we want to g r i p t i g h t e s t ; that i s why we are  5 making use of the strongest part of the l e f t f o r e f i n g e r . In an ordinary way i t i s the f i n g e r w i t h which we f i n d we apply l e a s t pressure when we take hold of anything. I t seems to be a law of nature that the l i t t l e f i n g e r s s h a l l be able to g r i p more securely* Consequently, l e t the second, t h i r d and l i t t l e f i n g e r s f a l l into natural position after a firm grip has been taken w i t h the l e f t thumb. That rounded prot(i*uberance of admirable p r o p o r t i o n s , the b a l l of the r i g h t thumb, i s placed over the l e f t thumb, the top of which alone remains exposed to view. The f i r s t three f i n g e r s of the r i g h t hand clasp the s h a f t , and the l i t t l e f i n g e r overlaps and presses f i r m l y on the f o r e f i n g e r of the l e f t hand. Then the union i s complete. Tommy Armour, the l e a d i n g g o l f teacher of t h i s e r a , i n d i s c u s s i n g the g r i p , says (3) that one of the f i r s t things which determines how w e l l one i s going to be able to play i s the way i n which the club i s h e l d , and that both hands must be f i t t e d compactly together to coordinate the e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r s of l e f t - h a n d c o n t r o l and right-hand power.  He admits  that there are s e v e r a l g r i p v a r i a t i o n s which a few of the experts use, but they can get away w i t h these d e v i a t i o n s because they have the opportunity f o r considerable p r a c t i c e and p l a y .  Armour advocates the overlapping g r i p because I t  contributes to e x c e l l e n t hand a c t i o n , a necessary f a c t o r i n h i t t i n g a golf b a l l well. Novak (4) adds to t h i s by saying that the overlapping g r i p i s responsible f o r p o s i t i o n i n g the club c o r r e c t l y , f o r maintaining that p o s i t i o n at a l l points i n the swing, and f o r t r a n s m i t t i n g to the c l u b , through leverage, the f o r c e created by the body t u r n .  He t h i n k s the overlapping g r i p i s the only  way t o set the hands so that i t i s almost impossible f o r them not t o counterbalance  properly.  I t appears most of the p r o f e s s i o n a l g o l f e r s consider t h i s counterbalancing  of the hands important.  Nelson ( 5 ) ,  Turnesa ( 6 ) , Burke (7) and Mangrum (8) a l l mention i n one way or another that the hands must act i n o p p o s i t i o n to each other, and that the overlapping g r i p i s the g r i p that best promotes t h i s opposing a c t i o n . Guldahl (9) stresses the importance of making sure the r i g h t hand supplies the power and the l e f t hand supplies the control.  He t h i n k s the main idea of the overlapping g r i p i s  to remove some of the right-hand c o n t r o l from the swing.  He  t e l l s us t o remember that the power to be gained from w r i s t a c t i o n i n the swing depends e n t i r e l y upon the c o r r e c t placement of both hands on the c l u b . However, even the p r o f e s s i o n a l s tend to disagree on some of the f i n e r points concerning the proper g r i p .  Ben Hogan (10)  f o r example, emphasizes that the hands act as one u n i t ; that both hands supply an equal share of power and c o n t r o l . Hogan i s as c e r t a i n that the overlapping g r i p does t h i s as the others are c e r t a i n that i t does not. Hogan, who has probably done more experimentation  on h i s g r i p than any of the other  p r o f e s s i o n a l s , f e e l s that unless you have a co-operative union of the hands, the r i g h t hand w i l l achieve dominance and r u i n the swing. Both Hogan (11) and Mangrum (12) agree, however, that  7 the reason the club has l e s s chance of s l i p p i n g e i t h e r at the top of the swing or at impact with the b a l l i s due t o the f a c t that the hands are locked together and form a s i n g l e u n i t caused by the overlapping of the l i t t l e f i n g e r of the r i g h t hand. S e r i (13), i n h i s a n a l y s i s of the g o l f swing, s t a t e s that the proper hand g r i p i s e s s e n t i a l since the hands w i l l determine the d i r e c t i o n and path the head of the club takes to make contact with the b a l l .  He t h i n k s the overlapping  g r i p provides the compactness t o make t h i s p o s s i b l e . Rehling (14), i n h i s a n a l y s i s of techniques of the g o l f d r i v e , discovered from studying f i l m s of twelve well-known p r o f e s s i o n a l s and one amateur that eleven out of the t h i r t e e n g o l f e r s used the overlapping g r i p . Rehling (15) a l s o f e e l s that there i s a d e f i n i t e d i v i d i n g l i n e between knowledge and s k i l l i n connection w i t h the g r i p , and i t is- w i t h t h i s problem i n mind that he f e e l s the overlapping g r i p i s the best g r i p t o use I n teaching beginning g o l f e r s . It can be seen, t h e r e f o r e , that the m a j o r i t y of opinion i n d i c a t e s that the Vardon overlapping g r i p i s the best method by which t o hold a g o l f c l u b .  There are, however, a  few d i s s e n t e r s . Whitlach (16), i n 1910, s a i d that various reasons have been given t o e x p l a i n why the overlapping g r i p i s superior t o  . „, .8 any others, hut the one heard most f r e q u e n t l y was that men w i t h large hands were compelled t o adopt the Vardon g r i p . He f a i l e d t o see the l o g i c i n the inference that i t would not he as b e n e f i c i a l t o a man w i t h small hands. Seymour Down (17) i s of the opinion that a g o l f e r should experiment w i t h the various hand g r i p s .  He postulates  that the exact s e t t i n g of the hands v a r i e s with i n d i v i d u a l s because of the v a r i a t i o n i n muscle development, and that each player should experiment with various hand s e t t i n g s u n t i l the correct one i s found. The f a c t that beginners tend t o use a " n a t u r a l " or Spread g r i p at the beginning emerges from an a r t i c l e by Dr. D. V e l l e r . One  of the most common mistakes, claims V e l l e r (18), i s that  most beginners grasp the club i n one of two ways; they e i t h e r grasp i t l i k e a b a s e b a l l bat or place t h e i r r i g h t thumb d i r e c t l y behind the s h a f t . John W. Bunn, i n h i s book on the s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s of coaching, states £19): I t has always disturbed me t h i s tendency i n others t o accept b l i n d l y the methods employed by the s t a r a t h l e t e and t o assume these methods are correct merely because the man i s a top performer. The overlapping g r i p which i n some form or other i s u n i v e r s a l l y used has c e r t a i n mechanical disadvantages. The s t r o k i n g movement so f a r as the hands are concerned i s such that the top hand i s pushing back while the bottom hand i s pushing forward with a fulcrum midway between the center of the hands. Thus, the f u r t h e r the hands are spread, w i t h i n p r a c t i c a l l i m i t s of course, the greater the power of the s t r o k e . The e f f e c t i v e force i s increased i n proportion t o the  9 length of the force arm. Dana (20) measured the r e l a t i v e power produced I n the g o l f swing when u t i l i z i n g each of the three types of g r i p s ; the Vardon g r i p , the Spread g r i p and the b a s e b a l l g r i p .  He  used eighteen subjects who ranged from beginners t o members of the v a r s i t y g o l f team.  He found there was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e t o prove one g r i p superior t o e i t h e r of the others.  The l a r g e s t median v e l o c i t y came from the  Vardon g r i p and the l a r g e s t s i n g l e v e l o c i t y came from a person u s i n g the Spread g r i p . The  ;  success of the Spread g r i p i n tournament g o l f was  w e l l demonstrated i n 1959 by two of the b e t t e r known pro-*. - r f e s s i o n a l s , Art Wall* J r . , who won the United States Master's Tournament, and Bob Rosburg, who won the P r o f e s s i o n a l Golfer's A s s o c i a t i o n Tournament.  Both these players used the  Spjread g r i p . W a l l (21) e s p e c i a l l y recommends the Spread g r i p f o r women and men w i t h small hands because i t i s more n a t u r a l , l e s s tense and requires l e s s w r i s t a c t i o n . Golf Tests; Tests a p p l i c a b l e f o r the f u l l swinging shot i n g o l f which are found i n the l i t e r a t u r e are generally l i m i t e d t o measuring e i t h e r accuracy or distance. Clevett  (22), Wood (23) and Alway (24) designed target  t e s t s t o measure the accuracy of a g o l f shot. r e l i a b i l i t y obtained was 0.79 i n the Wood t e s t .  The highest The t e s t s  10 measuring distance are l i m i t e d t o a measurement of t o t a l yardage or a measurement of t o t a l f o r c e against a machine s p e c i a l l y designed f o r t h i s purpose.  Orlando (25) and  Autrey (26) designed t e s t s t o measure the d i s t a n c e of a golf shot outside and Dana (27) designed a machine t o measure the force of a g o l f shot from which he c a l c u l a t e d i t s d i s t a n c e . These t e s t s had r e l i a b i l i t i e s ranging from 0.72 f o r the ten t r i a l s i n the Autrey t e s t t o 0.79 f o r ten t r i a l s i n the target t e s t of Wood. The t e s t chosen f o r t h i s study was the Mary E l l e n McKee Test f o r the F u l l - S w i n g i n g Shot i n Golf (28).  This  t e s t measures not only accuracy and distance but v e l o c i t y as w e l l .  The c r i t e r i a f o r the s e l e c t i o n of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  t e s t were based upon the e s t a b l i s h e d s t a t i s t i c a l standards for i t s r e l i a b i l i t y .  The r e l i a b i l i t i e s c a l c u l a t e d from the  average of the t e n odd- and t e n even-numbered t r i a l s i n the experiment were 0.92 and 0.95 i n the element of range, 0.86 and 0.89 i n the element of v e l o c i t y , 0.81 and 0.89 i n the angle of impact and 0.82 and 0.60 i n the angle of d e v i a t i o n . A complete explanation of the t e s t may be found i n the next chapter on pages 17-19.  11 REFERENCES 1 Vardon, H., How To Play G o l f , Toronto, B e l l and Cockburn, 1912, p.86. 2 I b i d . , p.84 3 Armour, T., How To Play Your Best Golf A l l the Time, New York, Simon and Shuster, 1953, pp.48-57. 4 Novak, J . , Par Golf I n 8 Steps, New York, P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1953, p.28. " £  5 Nelson, B.,. Winning G o l f , New York, A.S. Barnes, 1946, p.20. 6 Turnesa, J . , 12 Lessons to B e t t e r G o l f , New York, Prentiee H a l l , 19B3, p.28. 7 Burke, J . , The Natural Way t o Better G o l f , London, Constable, 1955, p.43. 8 Mangrum, L., G o l f , A New Approach, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1949, p.8. 9 Guldahl, R., Groove Your G o l f , I n d i a n a p o l i s , BookwalterBall-Greathouse, 1939, p.25, 10 Hogan, B., Five Lessons The Modern Fundamentals of G o l f , New York, A.S. Barnes, iy&7, p.20. 11 I b i d . , p.23. 12 Mangrum, L., op. c i t . , p.10. 13 S e r i , J . , "Analysis of the Golf Swing", A t h l e S i e J o u r n a l , v o l . 39, (March 1959), pp.40-44. 14 Rehling, C , "Analysis of Techniques of the Golf D r i v e " , Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 26, (March.1955), pp.80r82. 15 R e h l i n g , C , "Beginning Golf Test", A t h l e t i c J o u r n a l , v o l . 33, (March 1953), p.18. 16 Whitlach, M., Golf For Beginners and Others, New York, C u t t i n g , 1910, p.14. :  17 Down, S., Standardized Golf I n s t r u c t i o n , New York, Pub. by Seymour Down, 1934, p.22. 18 V e l l e r , D., "Common G o l f i n g Mistakes", S c h o l a s t i c Coach, v o l . 28, (March 1959), p.38.  12 19 Bunn, J.W., S c i e n t i f i c P r i n c i p l e s of Ccaching, New York, P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1955, pp.229-230. 20 Dana, G., "An A n a l y s i s of Hand-Grip as a Factor I n f l u e n c i n g Power of the Golf Swing", Unpublished Master'w Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, 1947, pp.1-35. 21 W a l l , J r . , A., Sports I l l u s t r a t e d , v o l . 10, ( A p r i l 1959), 22 C l e v e t t , M.A., "An Experiment i n Teaching Methods of G o l f " , Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 1, (December 1931), p.104, 23 Wood, J . I . , "A Study For the Purpose of S e t t i n g Up S p e c i f i c a t i o n of a Golf D r i v i n g Cage Target and Test f o r Mid-Iron and B r a s s i e Clubs", Unpublished Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, 1933. 24 Alway, B., "Indoor Golf I n s t r u c t i o n " , Journal of the American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Health"7 P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation, v o l . 9, (September 1958), p.58. 25 Orlando, A., "Grading For G o l f " , Journal of the American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Health, P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation, v o l . 57, (May 1957), p.28. 26 Autrey, E.B., "A Study of a Battery of Tests f o r Measuring P l a y i n g A b i l i t y i n G o l f " , Unpublished Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, 1957. 27 Dana, G., op. c l t . , p.50. 28 McKee, M.E., "A Test For the F u l l Swinging Shot i n G o l f " , Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 21, (March 1950), pp.40-46.  CHAPTER IV METHODS AND PROCEDURE Two  groups of f i r s t and second year students r e g i s t e r e d  i n the required program of p h y s i c a l education at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia were s e l e c t e d randomly f o r the purposes of t h i s study.  The study was c a r r i e d out f o r a  semester of eleven weeks' d u r a t i o n . The two groups were d i v i d e d i n t o a Vardon experimental group and a Spread experimental group. The Vardon or Overlapping Group; This was a r e q u i r e d g o l f a c t i v i t y c l a s s of seventeen students.  These students  had not played g o l f previous to t h i s study.  The subjects  were t e s t e d w i t h the Mary E l l e n McKee Test f o r the P u l l Swinging Shot i n Golf (1) p r i o r to the beginning of i n s t r u c t i o n and were allowed to use any g r i p which they knew.  A f t e r s i x weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n they were given the  same t e s t again, and then, a f t e r two more weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n a t h i r d and f i n a l t e s t . The c l a s s was subjected to a supervised and programme of g o l f i n s t r u c t i o n .  planned  The plan of the g o l f lessons  i s found i n Appendix H. Each subject i n t h i 3 group was i n s t r u c t e d i n the use of the Vardon or overlapping g r i p : the g r i p i n which the l i t t l e f i n g e r of the r i g h t hand overlaps the index f i n g e r of the l e f t hand and the l e f t thumb f i t s down along the shaft underneath  14 the r i g h t hand.  Each subject i n t h i s group was ordered to  use only t h i s g r i p during the c l a s s e s of i n s t r u c t i o n .  I t was  impressed upon each subject i n the group t h a t , under no circumstances, was he to play any outside g o l f during the duration of the experiment.  At the end of s i x weeks t h i s  group was again given the McKee Golf t e s t .  Immediately  f o l l o w i n g the second t e s t , two more weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n ensued and the s u b j e c t s , at the beginning of t h i s two week p e r i o d , were taught the Spread g r i p , commonly known as the baseball grip.  This g r i p i s e x a c t l y the same as the Vardon  g r i p except f o r one major d i f f e r e n c e ; the l i t t l e f i n g e r of the r i g h t hand does not overlap the index f i n g e r of the l e f t hand but f i t s snugly on to the shaft and against the index f i n g e r of the l e f t hand.  This g r i p serves t o put one more  f i n g e r on the club than the Vardon g r i p .  The subjects were  ordered to use only t h i s g r i p during t h i s two week period of instruction.  The group was then given the McKee Golf Test  f o r the t h i r d time and i n s t r u c t e d to use the Spread g r i p during the t e s t . The group' as a whole met twice weekly f o r periods of t h i r t y minutes each. Due to the f a c t that t h i s group began t h e i r I n s t r u c t i o n w i t h the Vardon g r i p , they w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o , h e r e a f t e r , as the Vardon group. The Spread Group: This was a required g o l f a c t i v i t y c l a s s of s i x t e e n students.  These students had not played  .15 golf previous to t h i s study.  The subjects were t e s t e d w i t h  the Mary E l l e n McKee Test f o r the P u l l Swinging Shot' i n Golf p r i o r to i n s t r u c t i o n and were allowed to use any g r i p which they knew.  A f t e r s i x weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n the group was  again given the same t e s t .  Immediately f o l l o w i n g t h i s t e s t  the group was given two more weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n and given a third test. The c l a s s was subjected to a supervised and programme of g o l f i n s t r u c t i o n .  planned  The plan of the golf lessons  i s found i n Appendix H. Each subject i n t h i s group was i n s t r u c t e d i n the use of the Spread g r i p .  This g r i p e n t a i l s l a y i n g the thumb of the  l e f t hand down along the shaft i n s i d e the r i g h t hand, and not wrapping i t around the shaft outside the r i g h t hand as i t i s done i n the b a s e b a l l g r i p .  This g r i p a l s o e n t a i l s f i t t i n g  the l i t t l e f i n g e r of the r i g h t hand against the index f i n g e r of the l e f t hand and r e s t i n g i t on the c l u b .  This i s  d i f f e r e n t from the Vardon g r i p i n which the l i t t l e f i n g e r of the r i g h t hand overlaps the index f i n g e r of the l e f t hand. Each subject i n t h i s group was ordered to use only t h i s grip during the classes of i n s t r u c t i o n .  I t was impressed on each  subject i n the group t h a t , under no circumstances, was  he  to play any outside golf during the d n t i r e period of the experiment. At the end of s i x weeks t h i s group was again given the McKee Golf T e s t .  They were compelled to use the Spread g r i p  16 during the t e s t .  Immediately f o l l o w i n g t h i s second t e s t ,  two more weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n ensued and the s u b j e c t s , at the beginning of t h i s two week p e r i o d , were taught the Vardon grip.  The subjects were ordered to use only t h i s g r i p  during t h i s two week period of i n s t r u c t i o n .  The group was  then given the McKee Golf Test f o r the t h i r d time  and  i n s t r u c t e d to use the Vardon g r i p during the t e s t . The group as a whole met twice weekly f o r periods of t h i r t y minutes each. Due to the f a c t that t h i s group began t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n with the Spread g r i p f i r s t , they w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o , h e r e a f t e r , as the Spread Group. T e s t i n g Personnel; A team of three t e s t e r s the t e s t i n g programme to each group.  administered  The members of the  t e s t i n g team were two u n i v e r s i t y students and the i n s t r u c t o r . The same i n s t r u c t o r taught both groups.  P r a c t i c e i n the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the t e s t and the handling of the d i f f e r e n t sets of stakes was provided f o r a l l members of the t e s t i n g team, and a l l were f a m i l i a r w i t h the t e s t i n g r o u t i n e before a c t u a l l y t e s t i n g the f i r s t group.  The d u t i e s of the  two  students who were on the t e s t i n g team consisted of p l a n t i n g the appropriate stakes where the b a l l s f i r s t touched the ground. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of T e s t s : The three t e s t s were administered to the two groups of subjects on the f o o t b a l l f i e l d of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  17 The i n i t i a l t e s t was administered i n l a t e September, the second t e s t s i x weeks l a t e r i n the l a s t week of November and the t h i r d t e s t two weeks l a t e r i n the second week of December.  The two groups met f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s  and i n s t r u c t i o n on d i f f e r e n t days and at two d i f f e r e n t times i n the afternoon. A l l t e s t i n g f o r the two groups was c a r r i e d out on the same day but at d i f f e r e n t times during the day.  The weather was the same f o r a l l three t e s t s w i t h  the temperature being a l i t t l e lower f o r the second and third tests. The same t e s t i n s t r u c t i o n s were read t o both groups, and each group completed the t e s t s i n an i d e n t i c a l manner. The f o l l o w i n g statement was read t o each group p r i o r to the commencement of each t e s t : You are being submitted t o a s e r i e s of ten t r i a l s designed t o measure your a b i l i t y i n h i t t i n g a golf b a l l . The accurate r e s u l t s of these t e s t s are dependent on your g i v i n g f o r t h of your best performance i n each t r i a l . For t h i s purpose your co-operation i s requested. The three t e s t s were standardized f o r both groups.  Specific  d e t a i l s of the Mary E l l e n McKee Test administered to each group are o u t l i n e d  below:  1. Equipment; a. A rope 210 yards long.  This rope was marked at  25 yard i n t e r v a l s w i t h ribbons of d i f f e r e n t colours; each f i v e yards between the coloured ribbons was marked w i t h white ribbons.  T h i s rope was on the ground throughout the  - .  18  t e s t a and designated the l i n e of f l i g h t .  The rope was  laid  d i a g o n a l l y from the northwest corner of the f o o t b a l l f i e l d to the southeast corner of the f o o t b a l l f i e l d . b. Several sets of stakes numbered from one to t e n . Each set of stakes was designated by a c a p i t a l l e t t e r (e.g. A l , B2, C3, D8, E10, e t c . ) . c. One stop watch. d. A rope 60 yards long.  This rope was marked at ten  yard i n t e r n a l s w i t h red ribbons; each yard between the red ribbons was marked w i t h white ribbons. e. One hundred g o l f b a l l s . f. T h i r t y - t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l score sheets and four group score sheets. g. Pour number one woods; two right-handed and  two  left-handed. h. One rubber  mat.  2. Procedure: Each t e s t consisted of ten t r i a l s f o r each s u b j e c t .  A h i t which was i n the a i r l e s s than 0.6 of a  second was not counted as a t r i a l . were recorded. for  Topped shots and w h i f f s  A s p e c i f i e d set of ten stakes was  the ten t r i a l s of each subject.  the stake whose number corresponded  assigned  As the t e s t was  taken,  to the number of the t r i a l ,  and whose c a p i t a l l e t t e r corresponded to the s u b j e c t , was placed i n the ground at the point where the b a l l f i r s t struck.  The time of f l i g h t of a t r i a l was marasured by a  stop watch c a l i b r a t e d to one-tenth of a second.  Each  subject, p r i o r to h i s ten t r i a l s , was allowed ten warm-up swings.  19 5. Measurements; Measurements of the straightaway d i s t a n c e , and the d e v i a t i o n r i g h t or l e f t of the designated l i n e of f l i g h t were made a f t e r f i v e sets of t e n t r i a l s had' been taken.  The measurements f o r each stake were recorded on  the appropriate group sheet ( c f . Appendix D, p.62) designated by the l e t t e r of the stake and the space i n d i c a t e d by the number on the stake.  These measurements were l a t e r  t r a n s f e r r e d t o the i n d i v i d u a l score sheets (cf.Appendix G, p.61). a. Range.  The range was not measured d i r e c t l y .  The  distance recorded was the straightaway distance determined to the nearest f i v e yards by the rope marked with the coloured and white ribbons and which was s e r v i n g as the designated l i n e of f l i g h t .  This distance was determined  by r i g h t angle alignment w i t h the stake. b.  Deviation.  D e v i a t i o n t o the r i g h t or l e f t was  measured by the 60 yard rope perpendicular t o the straightaway rope.  The amount of d e v i a t i o n was the distance between the  straightaway rope and the stake.  The 60 yard rope was moved  to measure the d e v i a t i o n of each stake, and each d e v i a t i o n was measured t o the nearest yard. c.  Time of P l i g h t .  The time of f l i g h t was measured  from the moment of impact u n t i l the b a l l f i r s t touched the ground.  This was recorded immediately a f t e r each t r i a l .  --20 Figure 1 Test Area  Bu<FACH£*S  MAT  ^  ^  ^  ^  ^  ^  Treatment of Raw Scores: The elements i n the s k i l l of executing a f u l l wood shot are f i r s t , v e l o c i t y imparted t o the b a l l by the clubhead; second, accuracy i n d i r e c t i o n , the deviation  from the intended l i n e of f l i g h t ; t h i r d , " the  accuracy of impact, the angle at which the b a l l leaves the mat and with the v e l o c i t y determines the arc of f l i g h t ; f o u r t h , the range, the distance the b a l l t r a v e l s . The t e s t • s e l e c t e d , the Mary E l l e n McKee Test f o r the F u l l Swinging Shot i n Golf, measures these four elements.  21 The measurement of these four elements was achieved by recording three f a c t s concerning each t r i a l - 1) the distance between the point of impact and a point on the designated l i n e of f l i g h t l e v e l with the point where the b a l l f i r s t touched the ground, 2) the time consumed by the f l i g h t of the b a l l and 5) the amount of d e v i a t i o n r i g h t or l e f t of the designated l i n e of f l i g h t , measured on a l i n e perpendicular to the designated l i n e of f l i g h t . Treatment of these recordings f o r conversion i n t o the four elements of s k i l l i n the g o l f swing wa3 done i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: 1. V e l o c i t y : The v e l o c i t y desired was that imparted t o the b a l l by the impact of the clubhead.  The range could not  be used to determine v e l o c i t y because i t was the r e s u l t of not only the clubhead a c c e l e r a t i o n , but a l s o , the a c c e l e r a t i o n of g r a v i t y .  A r i g h t - a n g l e d t r i a n g l e was constructed to  determine the distance the b a l l t r a v e l l e d w i t h i n the time of f l i g h t i n the d i r e c t i o n 6f the clubhead a c c e l e r a t i o n . The r i g h t - a n g l e d t r i a n g l e was constructed i n a v e r t i c a l plane, one side being the range and the other a perpendicular erected at the point where the b a l l f i r s t touched the ground. The height of the perpendicular was the distance through which g r a v i t y moved the b a l l w i t h i n the time of f l i g h t and was found by u s i n g the formula, S--|gt . 2  The hypotenuse of  the t r i a n g l e , the l i n e which connected the height of the perpendicular t o the point of impact, represented the  22 distance the h a l l would have t r a v e l l e d i n the d i r e c t i o n of the clubhead a c c e l e r a t i o n had there been no g r a v i t y .  The  v e l o c i t y was found by d i v i d i n g the l a t t e r distance by the time of f l i g h t . 2. Angle of Impact; The angle of impact was found by u s i n g the r i g h t - a n g l e d t r i a n g l e that was constructed to determine the v e l o c i t y .  The angle of impact was the angle  formed by the l i n e representing the range and the hypotenuse. 3. Angle of D e v i a t i o n : The angle of d e v i a t i o n was determined by the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a r i g h t - a n g l e d t r i a n g l e i n a h o r i z o n t a l plane. The two sides were the straightaway distance and the d e v i a t i o n from the straightaway d i s t a n c e . The angle of d e v i a t i o n was the angle formed by the s t r a i g h t away distance and the hypotenuse of the t r i a n g l e . 4. Range:  The range was found by u s i n g the r i g h t -  angled t r i a n g l e that was constructed t o determine the angle of d e v i a t i o n .  The range wa3 the hypotenuse of t h i s t r i a n g l e .  A sample of the treatment of the raw scores i s found i n Appendix B. Equating the Groups: The groups were equated on the basis, of equivalent groups; the matching was done i n i t i a l l y by p a i r s so that each person i n the Vardon Group had a match i n the Spread Group. Due t o the unique aspects i n the determining the s k i l l elements i n the g o l f swing i t was impossible to  25 equate the groups on the b a s i s of one s k i l l element only (e.g. two subjects equated on the basis of range would not be equal i n the elements of v e l o c i t y , angle of impact or angle of d e v i a t i o n ) .  As a r e s u l t , four d i f f e r e n t sets of  matched p a i r s emerged from the equating of the groups.  Ten  p a i r s were matched i n the element of v e l o c i t y , eight d i f f e r e n t p a i r s were matched i n the element of range, nine p a i r s were matched i n respect t o the angle of d e v i a t i o n and nine p a i r s were matched i n the angle of impact.  Each of the four  d i f f e r e n t elements of the s k i l l i n h i t t i n g a golf b a l l had a d i f f e r e n t set of p a i r s . This procedure enabled the experimenter t o set o f f the e f f e c t s of the use of the Vardon g r i p against the e f f e c t s of the use of the Spread g r i p i n four d i f f e r e n t elements of s k i l l concerned w i t h the f u l l number one wood shot i n g o l f . F o l l o w i n g the treatment of the raw scores of each group, the matching was done i n r e l a t i o n t o the p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l element concerned.  Appendix G shows the r e s u l t s of the raw  score treatment and the way i n which subjects were equated on the b a s i s of the four d i f f e r e n t s k i l l elements.  REFERENCES 1 McKee, M.E., "A Test f o r the F u l l Swinging Shot i n Golf", R e s e a r c l r Q u a r t e r l y, v o l . 21, (March 1950), pp. 40-46.  CHAPTER V ANALYSIS OP THE RESULTS The data obtained from the two experimental groups are summarized i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s .  The s t a t i s t i c a l  treatment of the r e s u l t s deals with the degree of improvement i n the mean performance of each group between the i n i t i a l and the second t e s t , between the second and the t h i r d t e s t and between the i n i t i a l and the t h i r d t e s t i n the elements of v e l o c i t y , range, angle of d e v i a t i o n and angle of impact. Also s t a t i s t i c a l l y t r e a t e d are the comparisons of the means of improvement  i n each t e s t between the groups In the elements  of v e l o c i t y , range, angle of d e v i a t i o n and angle of impact. A. V e l o c i t y I n i t i a l t o Second Test: The mean increase i n v e l o c i t y v a r i e d In the Vardon Group from 2.24 f t . / s e c . t o 55.69 f t . / s e c , whereas, i n the Spread Group, the mean increase i n v e l o c i t y v a r i e d from 4.61 f t . / s e c . t o 29.81 f t . / s e c .  There were f i v e  subjects i n the Vardon Group who showed a decrease i n v e l o c i t y over the s i x week period of i n s t r u c t i o n , the l a r g e s t decrease being 22.4 f t . / s e c .  In the Spread Group, over the  same s i x week p e r i o d , there were four subjects who showed a decrease; these decreases ranged from 3.89 f t . / s e c . t o 14.92 ft./sec. The d i f f e r e n c e s i n the performance l e v e l s of each group over the s i x week i n s t r u c t i o n a l period are summarized i n  25 Table I .  Of the two groups, n e i t h e r showed a d i f f e r e n c e  between the i n i t i a l and second t e s t that was significant.  statistically  The mean improvement of the Vardon Group was  7.34 f t . / s e c . with a t r a t i o of 0.83 which was not statistically significant.  The subjects of the Spread Group  showed an increase i n mean performance of 5.02 f t . / s e c . with a t r a t i o of 0.99 which again was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. TABLE I Comparison of Results Between I n i t i a l and Second Test Means i n the Element of V e l o c i t y Groups  Wl  SDi  Vardon Group  108.45  10.28  115.79  19.43  7.34  0.83  Spread Group  108.94  10.81  113.96  9.23  5.02  0.99  M  2  SD  2  M!-M  2  t  Second t o T h i r d Test: Of the t e n subjects i n the Vardon Group f i v e showed an improvement i n performance f o l l o w i n g t h i s two week period of i n s t r u c t i o n .  In the Spread Group,  s i x of the ten subjects e x h i b i t e d improved performance over the same p e r i o d . Table I I summarizes the d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance l e v e l s of each group over the two weeks period during which both groups had switched over t o the other g r i p ; the Vardon Group t o the Spread g r i p and the Spread Group t o the Vardon grip.. The most notable mean gain i n performance was e x h i b i t e d by the Spread Group, u s i n g the Vardon g r i p .  In t h i s group,  the mean performance i n v e l o c i t y was increased 13 f t . / s e c ,  26 whereas, the mean performance gain i n v e l o c i t y of the Vardon Group, u s i n g the Spread g r i p , only increased 3.5 f t . / s e c . f o l l o w i n g the two weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n .  The  difference  between the t e s t means of 3.5 f t . / s e e . with a t r a t i o of 0.74 f o r the Vardon Group was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  The  d i f f e r e n c e between t e s t means of 13 f t . / s e c . with a t r a t i o of 1.74 f o r Spread Group a l s o was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. TABLE I I Comparison of Results Between Second and T h i r d Test Means i n the Element of V e l o c i t y Groups  M  2  SD  M  2  3  SD  3  M -M 2  5  t  Vardon Group  115.79  19.43  119.29  14.99  3.5  0.74  Spread Group  113.96  9.23  126.96  22.21  13.0  1.74  I n i t i a l to T h i r d Test: Improved mean performances i n v e l o c i t y v a r y i n g from 4.39 f t . / s e c . t o 54.88 f t . / s e e . were recorded f o r the Vardon Group over the t o t a l eight week period of i n s t r u c t i o n .  This mean gain i n performance was  the r e s u l t of the subjects having been taught both g r i p s , the Vardon and Spread g r i p s , but u s i n g the Spread g r i p i n the t h i r d and f i n a l t e s t .  In the Spread Group, over the same  period of time and with them using the Vardon g r i p i n the 1  t h i r d t e s t , the mean Improvement i n v e l o c i t y v a r i e d from 4.52 f t . / s e c . t o 70.38 f t . / s e c . A summary of the performance l e v e l s of each group i s shown i n Table I I I . Of the two groups, only the r e s u l t s of the Spread Group, which learned the Spread g r i p f i r s t and  27 the Vardon g r i p second, were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The improvement i n performance between the i n i t i a l t e s t mean and the t h i r d t e s t mean was 18.02 f t . / s e c . ( t ^ 2 . 7 9 ) which was acceptable at the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence.  The  mean improvement i n v e l o c i t y over the same period of time f o r the Vardon Group was 10.84 f t . / s e c . ( t = 1 . 4 6 ) , which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . TABLE I I I Comparison of Results Between I n i t i a l and T h i r d Test Means i n the Element of V e l o c i t y Groups  M  SD  x  X  M  3  SD  3  M]_-Mg  t  Vardon Group  108.45  10.28  119.29  14.99  10.84  1.46  Spread Group  108.94  10.81  126.96  22.21  18.02  2.79 *  *- S i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence The Vardon Group compared w i t h the Spread Group: The degrees of improvement between the i n i t i a l and second t e s t , between the second and t h i r d t e s t and between the i n i t i a l and t h i r d t e s t of the Vardon Group were compared with those of the Spread Group.  The e v a l u a t i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the  d i f f e r e n c e between the means of both groups i n the element of v e l o c i t y i s shown i n Table IV. In none of the t e s t s was the mean improvement of the Vardon Group found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than that of the Spread Group. The mean improvement between Test 1 and Test 2 i n the Vardon Group was 7.34 f t . / s e c , whereas, the mean improvement  28 f o r the same period i n the Spread Group was 5.02 f t . / s e e . The d i f f e r e n c e between these two gains r e s u l t e d i n a t r a t i o of 0.26 which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  Between  Test 2 and Test 3 the d i f f e r e n c e between the mean improvement of 3.5 f t . / s e c . f o r the Vardon Group and the mean Improvement of 13 f t . / s e c . f o r the Spread Group r e s u l t e d In a t r a t i o of 0.85 which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  Between Test 1  and Test 3 the d i f f e r e n c e between the mean improvement of 10.84 f t . / s e c . f o r the Vardon Group and the mean improvement of 18.02 f t . / s e c . f o r the Spread Group r e s u l t e d i n a t r a t i o of 0.68 which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant.  TABLE IV Degrees of Improvement Between the Means of the Spread Group and the Vardon Group Vardon Group Mean  Tests  Spread Group Mean  t  Test 1 - Test 2  7.34  5.02  0.26  Test 2 - Test 3  3.50  13.00  0.85  Test 1 - Test 3  10.84  18.02  0.68  B. Angle of D e v i a t i o n I n i t i a l t o Second Test: The mean increase i n d e v i a t i o n from the designated l i n e of f l i g h t v a r i e d i n the Vardon Group from 57 minutes t o 13 degrees 15 minutes, whereas, i n the Spread Group there was meanydeerease i n the angle of d e v i a t i o n v a r y i n g from 42 minutes to 12 degrees 50 minutes. There were f i v e subjects i n the Vardon Group who showed an increase i n the angle of d e v i a t i o n over the s i x week period of i n s t r u c t i o n .  In the Spread Group there were f i v e subjects  29 who showed a decrease i n the angle of d e v i a t i o n over the same period. A summary of the performance l e v e l s of each group over the s i x weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n i s shown i n Table V. the r e s u l t s of e i t h e r group was s t a t i s t i c a l l y  None of  significant.  The mean increase i n the angle of d e v i a t i o n f o r the Vardon Group was 4 degrees w i t h a t r a t i o of 1.56 which was not statistically significant.  In the Spread Group, the mean  decrease, or mean improvement, i n the angle of d e v i a t i o n was 57.56 minutes with a t r a t i o of 0.57 which was not statistically  significant. TABLE V  Comparison of Results Between I n i t i a l and Second Test Means i n the Angle of D e v i a t i o n ( i n minutes) Groups  M  x  S.D]_  Vardon Group  843  Spread Group  842.56 230.91  258.14  M  2  1082.78 785  SD  2  M -M x  t  2  345.66  239.78  1.56  278.16  -57.56  0.37  Second to T h i r d Test: Only eight out of the eighteen subjects i n both groups, four i n each group, showed improvement  i n the angle of d e v i a t i o n when they switched to  the second g r i p . Table VI summarizes the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the performance l e v e l s of each group over the two weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n . the Vardon Group, the mean performance i n the angle of d e v i a t i o n increased 1 degree 34 minutes with a t r a t i o of 0.61 which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  The Spread  In  30 Group had mean performance improvement of 55 minutes f o r a t r a t i o of 0.66 which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant.  TABLE VI Comparison of Results Between Second and T h i r d Test Means i n the Angle of D e v i a t i o n ( i n minutes) Groups  M  Vardon Group Spread Group  SD  2  1028.78 785  M  2  SD  3  345.66  1171.11  278.16  729.67  5  t  M -M 2  3  94.33  0.61  250.96 -&5.33  0.66  295.81  I n i t i a l t o T h i r d T e s t : In the Vardon Group, only one out of the nine subjects improved i n h i s accuracy over the t o t a l eight week period of i n s t r u c t i o n , whereas, f i v e out of the nine subjects i n the Spread Group improved. The d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance l e v e l s of each group over the eight week p e r i o d of i n s t r u c t i o n are summarized i n Table VII.  The most notable gain i n performance was e x h i b i t e d by  the Spread Group.  In t h i s group, the mean performance was  improved by 1 degree 53 minutes f o r a t r a t i o of 0.95 which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  The d i f f e r e n c e between  t e s t means f o r the Vardon Group over the same period of time showed an Increase i n the angle of d e v i a t i o n of 5 degrees 34 minutes f o r a t r a t i o of 4.22 which was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence. TABLE V I I Comparison of Results Between I n i t i a l and T h i r d Test Means i n the Angle of D e v i a t i o n ( i n minutes) Groups Vardon Group  M 843  x  SD  X  258.15  M  3  1177.11  SD  3  295.81  Mi-M  3  334.11  Spread Group 842.56 230.91 729.67 250.97 -112.89 ^ S i g n i f i c a n t at 1 percent l e v e l of confidence  t 4.22*+ 0.95  ~  31  The Vardon Group compared w i t h the Spread Group: The degrees of improvement between the i n i t i a l and second t e s t , between the second and t h i r d t e s t and between the i n i t i a l and t h i r d test of the Vardon Group were compared w i t h those of the  Spread Group.  The e v a l u a t i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the  d i f f e r e n c e between the means of both groups i s shown i n Table V I I I . The r e s u l t s showed that between the i n i t i a l and second t e s t s the d i f f e r e n c e between the mean gain i n improvement of the  Spread Group and the mean decrease i n performance of the  Vardon Group was s u f f i c i e n t l y great t o be accepted statistically.  Wo s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was  e s t a b l i s h e d between the groups between the second and t h i r d test.  However, between the i n i t i a l and t h i r d t e s t the  d i f f e r e n c e between the mean gain i n improvement of the Spread Group and the mean decrease i n performance of the Vardon Group was again s u f f i c i e n t l y great t o be accepted s t a t i s t i c a l l y . The mean improvement i n the Spread Group between Test 1 and  Test 2 was 4 degrees, whereas, the mean decrease i n  performance i n the Vardon Group was 57.56 minutes over the same s i x week p e r i o d . and  The d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s increase  decrease was 6 degrees 56 minutes which r e s u l t e d i n a  t r a t i o of 2.32 which was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence.  Between Test 2 and Test 3 the d i f f e r e n c e  between the mean improvement of 55.33 minutes f o r the Spread Group and the mean decrease i n performance of 1 degree 34 minutes f o r the Vardon Group was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  32 significant.  The mean improvement between Test 1 and Test 3  f o r the Spread Group was 1 degree 53 minutes, whereas, f o r the Vardon Group there was a mean decrease i n performance of 5 degrees 34 minutes f o r the same eight week period of instruction.  The d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s increase and  decrease was 7 degrees 27 minutes and gave a t r a t i o of 2.68 which was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence. TABLE V I I I Degrees of Improvement Between the Means of the Vardon Group and the Spread Group ( i n minutes) Tests  Vardon Group Mean  t  Spread Group Mean  Test 1 - Test 2  -239.78  57.56  2.32 i  Test 2 - Test 3  -94.33  55.33  0.89  Test 1 - Test 3  -334.11  112.89  2.68*  "k S i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence. C. Angle of Impact I n i t i a l to Second Test; Increased angles of impact v a r y i n g from 3 degrees 30 minutes t o 41 degrees 48 minutes were recorded f o r seven of the nine subjects i n the Vardon Group.  Eight of the nine subjects i n the Spread Group had  increased angles of impact over the same s i x week period of  instruction. A summary of the performance l e v e l s of each group i s  shown i n Table IX. Both the Vardon Group and the Spread Group showed d i f f e r e n c e s between the i n i t i a l and second t e s t means that were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  The mean increase  of the Vardon Group was 12 degrees 14 minutes f o r a t r a t i o of 2.66 which was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of  33 confidence.  The subjects i n the Spread Group showed a mean  increase of 9 degrees 7 minutes f o r a t r a t i o of 3.24 which was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence. TABLE IX Comparison of Results Between I n i t i a l and Second Test Means i n the Angle of Impact ( i n minutes) Groups  SD-L  M  SD  M -M  t  Vardon Group  l 773.33  297.86  1506.89  619.58  733.56  2.66 t  Spread Group  772.78  328.56  1320.11  313.62  547.33  3.27*  «fc S i g n i f i c a n t  at the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence.  M  2  2  x  2  Second t o T h i r d T e s t : Of the nine subjects i n the Vardon Group, only two showed increases a f t e r switching to the Spread g r i p and a f t e r having had two more weeks of instruction.  In the Spread Group, f i v e of the nine subjects  showed Increases i n the angle of impact upon switching to the Vardon g r i p . Table X summarizes the d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance l e v e l s of each group over the two week p e r i o d .  The most  notable r e s u l t between Test 2 and Test 3 was the decrease of 2 degrees 7 minutes e x h i b i t e d by the Vardon Group u s i n g the Spread g r i p .  This decrease between the two t e s t s  a t r a t i o of 0.57 which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  gave  significant.  The Spread Group had an Increase over the same period of only 8.11 minutes f o r a t r a t i o of 0.057 which was not statistically  significant.  54 TABLE X Comparison of Results Between Second and T h i r d Test Means i n the Angle of Impact ( i n minutes) M  Groups  2  SD  M  2  SD  3  3  M -M 2  t  3  Vardon Group  1506.89  619.58  1380.00  541.64  -126.89  Spread Group  1320.11  313.62  1328.22  446.65  8.11  0.57 0.057  I n i t i a l t o T h i r d Test; Increases i n the angle of impact v a r y i n g from 2 degrees 44 minutes t o 30 degrees 45 minutes were recorded f o r eight of the nine subjects i n the-Vardon Group over the t o t a l eight week p e r i o d .  The same r e s u l t s  h e l d true f o r the Spread Group i n which eight of the nine subjects i n the group had increases i n t h e i r angles of impact over the same p e r i o d . A summary of the performance l e v e l s of each group i s shown i n Table X I . The mean increases of both groups over the t o t a l eight weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n were s u f f i c i e n t l y great to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  The increase i n mean  performance of the Vardon Group was 10 degrees 7 minutes f o r a t r a t i o of 2.90 which was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence.  The mean increase f o r the Spread Group  over the same period was 9 degrees 14 minutes f o r a t r a t i o of 4.53, which was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence. TABLE XI Comparison of Results Between I n i t i a l and T h i r d Test Means i n the Angle of Impact ( i n minutes) Groups t SD-L M SD M-L-M l M  Vardon Group 773.33  3  297.86  1380  3  541.64  3  606.67  Spread Group 772.78 328.56 1328.22 446.65 554.40 * S i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence S i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence  2.90* 4.53**  35 The Vardon Group compared with the Spread Group;  The  amounts of increase between the i n i t i a l and second t e s t , between the second and t h i r d t e s t and between the i n i t i a l and t h i r d t e s t of the Vardon Group were compared with those of the Spread Group.  The e v a l u a t i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of  the d i f f e r e n c e between the means of both groups i s shown i n Table X I I . No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were e s t a b l i s h e d between the two groups f o r any of the three periods of instruction. Comparison between the mean increase of 12 degrees 14 minutes f o r the Vardon Group and the mean increase of 9 degrees 7 minutes f o r the Spread Group between Test 1 and Test 2 gave a t r a t i o of 0.91 which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant.  Between Test 2 and Test 3 the Vardon Group  showed a decrease of 2 degrees 7 minutes i n performance, whereas, the Spread Group showed an increase i n performance of 8.11 minutes.  Comparison of the decrement with the  increment gave a t r a t i o of 0.71 which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant.  Comparison between the mean increase of 10  degrees 7 minutes f o r the Vardon Group between Test 1 and Test 3 and the mean increase of 9 degrees 14 minutes f o r the Spread Group over the same eight weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n gave a t r a t i o of 0.27 which was a l s o not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant.  36 TABLE X I I Degrees of Improvement Between the Means of the Vardon Group and the Spread Group ( i n minutes) Tests  Vardon Group Mean  Spread Group Mean  t  Test 1 - Test 2  733.56  547.33  0.91  Test 2 - Test 3  -126.89  8.11  ©.71  Test 1 - Test 3  606.67  554.40  0.27  D. Range I n i t i a l t o Second Test; Of the eight subjects i n the Vardon Group, seven showed improvement i n performance over the s i x weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n .  I n the Spread Group a l l of  the eight subjects i n the group e x h i b i t e d improvement i n performance over the same period of i n s t r u c t i o n . Table X I I I summarizes the d i f f e r e n c e s - i n performance l e v e l s of each group over the f i r s t s i x weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n . Both groups showed improvement gains that were s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant.  The mean improvement of 116.13 f e e t f o r the  Vardon Group gave a t r a t i o of 4.73 which was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence.  The Spread Group  e x h i b i t e d a mean improvement of 74.25 feet over the same period of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r a t r a t i o of 3.73 which was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence. TABLE X I I I Comparison of Results Between I n i t i a l and Second Test Means i n the Element of Range Groups t M SD SD l *l-*2 Vardon Group 158.5 64.34 274.63 80.42 116.13 4.73 -ki M  1  2  2  Spread Group 160.5 70.84 234.75 53.57 74.25 3.73 ^ • ^ S i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence.  57 Second to T h i r d Test: Improved performances In range varying from 5 f e e t t o 105 f e e t were recorded f o r the Vardon Group i n the l a s t two weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n and a f t e r over to the Spread Grip.  switching  Of the eight subjects i n the Spread  Group, seven e x h i b i t e d improved performance i n range over the same two week p e r i o d .  The subjects i n t h i s group had  switched over to the Vardon g r i p during t h i s period of instruction. A summary of the performance l e v e l s of each group over the two week period i s shown i n Table XIV.  The Bardon Group  showed a mean improvement of 6.62 f e e t (t=- 0.26) which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  The Spread Group, however,  e x h i b i t e d a notable gain i n performance.  The mean  improvement f o r t h i s group over the two week period was 75.75 feet f o r a t r a t i o of 2.86 which was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of  confidence. TABLE XIV  Comparison of Results Between Second and T h i r d Test Means i n the Element of Range Groups  M  SD  2  2  %  SD  3  M -M 2  t  3  Vardon Group  274.63  80.42  281.25  74.51  6.62  0.26  Spread Group  234.75  53.57  310.50  88.72  74.75  2.86  * Significant  at the 5 percent l e v e l of  *  confidence  I n i t i a l t o T h i r d Test: A l l subjects i n the Vardon Group showed improvement  gains over the t o t a l eight week p e r i o d .  In the Spread Group only one of the eight subjects e x h i b i t e d a decrease i n performance over the same period and he  38 dropped from 296 feet t o 285 feet.. The performance l e v e l s of both groups are summarized i n Table XV.  The r e s u l t s of both groups over the eight week  period showed improvement gains that were s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. The Vardon Group had a mean Improvement f o r the eight week period of 122.75 feet f o r a t r a t i o of 5.29 which was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence.  The  Improved performance r e s u l t s f o r the Spread Group over the same period was 150 feet f o r a t r a t i o of 3.89 which was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence. TABLE XV Comparison of Results Between I n i t i a l and T ir<a Test Means i n the Element of Range n  Groups  M  SD  t  Mi  SDx  Vardon Group  158.5  64.34  281.25  74.51  122.75  5.29**  Spread Group  160.5  70.84  310.50  88.72  150.00  3.89**  **Significant  3  3  Mi-Ms  at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence.  The Vardon Group compared w i t h the Spread Group; The degrees of improvement between the i n i t i a l and second t e s t , between the second and t h i r d t e s t and between the i n i t i a l and  t h i r d t e s t of the Vardon Group were compared w i t h those  of the Spread Group.  The e v a l u a t i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n c e  of  the d i f f e r e n c e between the means of both groups i s shown i n Table XVI. In none of the t e s t s was the mean improvement of the Vardon jSroup found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than that of  39 the Spread Group. The mean improvement i n the Vardon Group between Test 1 and Test 2 was 116.13 f e e t , whereas, the mean improvement f o r the same s i x weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n i n the Spread Group was 74.25 f e e t .  The d i f f e r e n c e between these two gains was  39.88 f e e t f o r a t r a t i o of 1.47 which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant.  Between Test 2 and Test 3 the d i f f e r e n c e  between the mean improvement of 6.62 feet f o r the Vardon Group and mean improvement of 75.75 feet f o r the Spread Group was 69.13 feet f o r a t r a t i o of 1.48 which again was not statistically significant.  The mean improvement gain  between Test 1 and Test 3 f o r the Vardon Group was 122.75 f e e t , whereas, the mean improvement gain f o r the same eight week period of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r the S p a d Group was 150 f e e t . re  This r e s u l t e d i n a d i f f e r e n c e of 29.25 feet f o r a t r a t i o of 0.62 which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant.  TABLE XVI Degrees of Improvement Between the Means of the Vardon Group and the Spread Group Tests  Vardon Group Mean  Spread Group Mean  t  Test 1 - Test 2  116.13  74.25  1.47  Test 2 - Test 3  6.62  75.75  1.48  Test 1 - Test 3  122.75  150.00  0.62  CHAPTER VI DISCUSSION The foregoing a n a l y s i s would seem to i n d i c a t e that there i s r e l a t i v e l y no s u p e r i o r i t y , i n the items measured, to be gained by teaching e i t h e r hand g r i p to beginners at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l over an eight week p e r i o d of i n s t r u c t i o n . However, there are s e v e r a l f a c t o r s which must be considered in this discussion. The subjects i n t h i s study were beginners who had not played g o l f before and, as a r e s u l t , caution should be taken i n comparing the r e s u l t s of t h i s study with those obtained i n i n v e s t i g a t i o n s which i n v o l v e d subjects who had previous g o l f experience. Between the i n i t i a l and second t e s t , during which the subjects were i n command of only one g r i p , and a l l were equated beginners, there was very l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n of s u p e r i o r i t y shown between the two g r i p s except i n one f a c t o r , that of accuracy.  In t h i s element, the Spread g r i p was  found to be more e f f e c t i v e f o r the subjects i n these groups.  This would seem to be contrary to popular  two  thought,  as the Spread g r i p i s p r i m a r i l y used because i t i s thought to provide more power, not accuracy ( 1 ) . Dana (2) found i t to be as powerful as, and p o s s i b l y more powerful than the other g r i p s , but he d i d not measure accuracy or the arc of f l i g h t because he was u s i n g a f o r c e machine.  Under the  conditions of t h i s study however, the only s t a t i s t i c a l l y  41 s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e over the f i r s t s i x weeks was i n accuracy. In the element of range, or the a b i l i t y t o h i t the b a l l long d i s t a n c e s , there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r n c e between the two g r i p s , even-though the mean improvements w i t h i n each group were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . In the phase of the experiment where the subjects switched over t o another g r i p , there entered the f a c t o r of l e a r n i n g a new g r i p a f t e r having l e a r n t another g r i p quite recently.  Would the knowledge of one g r i p , a f t e r only s i x  weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n , a f f e c t the i n d i v i d u a l when l e a r n i n g a new grip?  Would i t help him or hinder him?  Would one  p a r t i c u l a r g r i p taught before the other grip prove to be more e f f e c t i v e than v i c e versa?  The r e s u l t s showed there  was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on e i t h e r of the groups i n t h i s phase.  The subjects i n the Vardon Group,  upon switching over t o the Spread g r i p h i t t h e i r shots a l i t t l e lower than d i d the subjects i n the Spread Group who were u s i n g the Vardon g r i p , but the degree of change was not statistically significant.  On the other hand, the subjects  i n the Spread Group tended t o h i t t h e i r shots w i t h more v e l o c i t y upon switching over t o the Vardon g r i p than d i d the subjects i n the Vardon Group, but again the increase was not statistically significant. In the element of accuracy n e i t h e r group showed any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s upon switching over t o the other g r i p .  The Vardon Group was s l i g h t l y more inaccurate  »  42  while u s i n g the Spread g r i p , while the Spread Group was a l i t t l e s t r a i g h t e r u s i n g the Vardon g r i p , hut the d i f f e r e n c e between the decrement and the increment was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. the  In the element of range both groups improved,  Spread Group u s i n g the Vardon g r i p s l i g h t l y more than the  Vardon Group but again the d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. The t h i r d phase of the experiment was concerned w i t h measuring the degrees of improvement between the groups when they had the knowledge of both grips but were u s i n g the second one learned. the  In both group, i n the elements of range,  angle of impact and v e l o c i t y , there was s l i g h t improvement  shown but no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e r e s u l t e d from the order i n which the grips were taught. element of accuracy was there any s t a t i s t i c a l shown.  Only i n the significance  In t h i s element the Spread Group, w i t h the knowledge  of the Spread g r i p f o l l o w i n g s i x weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n and u s i n g thereafter., the Vardon g r i p , showed a decided advantage over the Vardon Group which learned the Vardon g r i p f i r s t and the Spread g r i p second. I t has been contended by the experts that the Vardon overlapping g r i p i s superior i n a l l respects to any of the other g r i p s .  In regard to the Spread g r i p , t h i s opinion  was not substantiated i n t h i s experiment.  43 REFERENCES 1  Bunn, J.W., S c i e n t i f i c P r i n c i p l e s of Soaching, New York, Prentice H a l l , 1955, p.230.  2  Dana, G., "An A n a l y s i s of Hand-Grip as a Factor I n f l u e n c i n g Power of the Golf Swing", Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r i s t y of Iowa, 1947, p.34.  CHAPTER V I I SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS T h i r t y - t h r e e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f i r s t and second year students r e g i s t e r e d i n the required p h y s i c a l education programme were randomly s e l e c t e d and d i v i d e d i n t o two groups.  Each group was given an i n i t i a l t e s t t o  determine i t s a b i l i t y to h i t a g o l f b a l l with a number one wood.  The t e s t given was the Mary E l l e n McKee Test f o r the  P u l l Swinging Shot i n Golf.  The t e s t measured four elements  i n the a b i l i t y t o h i t a g o l f b a l l : the range, the v e l o c i t y of the b a l l , the angle of d e v i a t i o n from the designated l i n e of f l i g h t and the angle of impact.  Only those students who  had not played g o l f previous to the experiment were s e l e c t e d . The f i r s t group, c a l l e d the Vardon Group, was given g o l f i n s t r u c t i o n , u s i n g the Vardon overlapping g r i p , f o r s i x weeks. the  The second group, c a l l e d the Spread Group, was given  same amount and type of i n s t r u c t i o n except Ehe Spread  g r i p was taught.  Both groups were then given a second t e s t ,  i d e n t i c a l to the i n i t i a l t e s t .  F o l l o w i n g the second t e s t ,  both groups were given i d e n t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n f o r two more weeks.  The Vardon Group was i n s t r u c t e d i n the use of the  Spread g r i p during t h i s period of i n s t r u c t i o n , and the Spread Group  was taught the use of the Vardon g r i p .  At the end of  t h i s two week period both groups were then given a t h i r d t e s t , i d e n t i c a l t o the f i r s t two t e s t s .  In the t h i r d t e s t , the  subjects were required to use the g r i p they had j u s t learned  45 i n the two weeks immediately preceding the t h i r d t e s t . The  improvements were analyzed s t a t i s t i c a l l y  within  each group and comparisons were made between the groups. On the b a s i s of s t a t i s t i c a l treatment the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were evident: A. V e l o c i t y 1.  The only s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t i n the  v e l o c i t y element was the improvement gain of 18.02 f t . / s e c . (t=2.79) between the i n i t i a l and t h i r d t e s t i n the Spread Group.  This was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of  confidence. 2.  The Vardon Group a l s o exhibited  a mean gain over  the same period. (10.84 f t . / s e c . ) but i t was not s u f f i c i e n t to be accepted s t a t i s t i c a l l y 3. two  (t*1.46).  There was not s u f f i c i e n t d i f f e r e n c e  between these  gains i n improvement over the eight week period t o be  statistically significant  (t-0.68).  These r e s u l t s tend t o i n d i c a t e that over an eight week period of twice-weekly i n s t r u c t i o n , a group of beginners, when taught the Spread g r i p i n i t i a l l y and the Vardon g r i p secondly, showed a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n v e l o c i t y of the g o l f shot, when compared t o a group i n which the introduction  t o the grips was reversed.  B. Angle of D e v i a t i o n 1.  The Vardon Group exhibited  a mean Increase i n the  angle of d e v i a t i o n over the eight weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n .  The  46 amount of mean increase of 5 degrees 34 minutes between the i n i t i a l and t h i r d t e s t was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence (t = 4.22). 2.  The spread Group, on the other hand, over the same  eight week period of i n s t r u c t i o n , showed a decrease of 1 degree 53 minutes.  This decrease was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t ( t = 0.94). 3.  The d i f f e r e n c e between the mean increase i n the  angle of d e v i a t i o n over the eight week p e r i o d of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r the Vardon Group and the mean decrease i n the angle of d e v i a t i o n over the same p e r i o d f o r the Spread Group was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence (t= 2.68). 4.  The only other s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t i n  the angle of d e v i a t i o n was the d i f f e r e n c e between the mean increase of the angle of d e v i a t i o n over the f i r s t s i x weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n  (Test 1 to Test 2) f o r the Vardon Group and  the mean decrease i n the angle of d e v i a t i o n over the same p e r i o d f o r the Spread Group.  The d i f f e r e n c e between the  increment of the Vardon Group and the decrement of the Spread Group was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence (t = 2.32). These r e s u l t s would tend t o i n d i c a t e  that t o improve  the accuracy of a g o l f shot over a s i x week p e r i o d of t w i c e weekly i n s t r u c t i o n , the beginner should be taught the Spread grip.  An a d d i t i o n a l  two weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n i n which the  group was introduced t o the Vardon g r i p r e s u l t e d continued improvement i n accuracy. 4p  in a  47 C. Angle of Impact 1.  Both groups recorded s i g n i f i c a n t increases between  the i n i t i a l and second t e s t s .  The Vardon Group had a mean  increase of 12 degrees 14 minutes f o r a t r a t i o of 2.67, while the Spread Group, over the same s i x week period of i n s t r u c t i o n , had an increase i n i t s angle of impact of 9 degrees 7 minutes f o r a t r a t i o of 3.28.  These t r a t i o s  were s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence. 2.  The d i f f e r e n c e between the increases by both groups  over the s i x week period of i n s t r u c t i o n was not  statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t (t = 0.91). 3.  Over the t o t a l eight week period of i n s t r u c t i o n  n e i t h e r grip proved superior to the other, and the order i n which the grips were taught had no s t a t i s t i c a l significance  i n regard to the angle of impact ( t = 0 . 2 7 ) .  These r e s u l t s tend t o i n d i c a t e  that as a person  progresses i n h i s a b i l i t y to h i t a golf b a l l , there I s a tendency to h i t i t higher i n the f i r s t s i x weeks of t w i c e weekly i n s t r u c t i o n , whichever grip i s used. D. Range 1.  Both groups e x h i b i t e d mean improvements  over the  f i r s t s i x weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n i n range that were statistically significant.  The Vardon Group had a mean gain  of 116.75 feet ( t = 4 . 7 3 ) , while the Spread Group Improved 74.25 feet ( t = 3 . 7 3 ) .  Both of these gains were s i g n i f i c a n t  at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence. 2.  When these two groups switched over to the other  48 grips f o r the l a s t two weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n , only the Spread Group e x h i b i t e d significant.  a mean gain i n range that was  statistically  The Spread Group, u s i n g the Vardon g r i p ,  showed an increase of 75.75 feet  (t = 2.86) which was  s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence. 3.  Both groups showed mean gains over the t o t a l eight  weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n i n the element of range that were statistically significant.  The Vardon Group improved 122.75  feet (t = 5.29) and the Spread Group improved 150 feet (t= 3.89).  Both these mean increases i n range by the two  groups were  s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent  l e v e l of confidence. 4.  Neither g r i p , or sequence of g r i p s , showed a  difference  which was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t with the  other during any of the phases of i n s t r u c t i o n i n the element of range. The r e s u l t s tend to i n d i c a t e t h a t , i n the element of range, over an eight week period of twice-weekly i n s t r u c t i o n , neither the Vardon g r i p nor the Spread g r i p i s superior to the other f o r beginners at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . In summary, t h e r e f o r e , the r e s u l t s of t h i s experiment indicate  that:  1. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  between the  Vardon g r i p and the Spread g r i p i n the elements of range, v e l o c i t y and angle of impact a f t e r s i x weeks of twiceweekly golf i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h beginning g o l f e r s .  49 2. The  Spread g r i p , over a s i x week period of twiee-  weekly i n s t r u c t i o n with beginners, shows a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t s u p e r i o r i t y i n accuracy over the Vardon g r i p . -3. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the order i n which the two grips .the Vardon g r i p and the Spread g r i p , are taught to a group of beginning g o l f e r s over a period  of  eight weeks i n s t r u c t i o n . Recommendations f o r Further Study: I t i s suggested f o r future experimentation t h a t : 1. two c o n t r o l groups be included i n t h i s study design with each u s i n g only one g r i p during the t o t a l period  of  instruction. 2. upon switching to the second g r i p f o r i n s t r u c t i o n , both of the experimental groups be allowed an equal amount of time to l e a r n the second g r i p as was  allowed f o r the  f i r s t grip. 3. only one element of the g o l f 3 k i l l be measured. 4. f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n be conducted f o r purposes of measuring, more a c c u r a t e l y , the elements concerned with s k i l l of h i t t i n g a g o l f b a l l .  the  BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Armour, T., How To Play Your Best Golf A l l the Time, New York, Simon, Shuster, 1953. Barnes, J.M., A Guide t o Good G o l f , London, Lane, 1929. Berg, P., My Number 1 Shot, New York, A.S. Barnes, 1951. B r a i d , J . , Golf Guide and How To Play G o l f , London, Spaulding, lSii: ~ Brown, I . , How To Play Golf, New York, American Sports Pub., 19~30~ Bunn, J.W., S c i e n t i f i c P r i n c i p l e s of goaching, New York, P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1955. Burke, J . , The N a t u r a l Way t o B e t t e r Golf, London, Constable, Cotton, H., This Game^of G o l f , New York, C. S c r i b n e r , 1948. G a r r e t t , H.E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education, New York, Longmans Green, 5 t h ed., 1958. Guldahl, R., Groove Your G o l f , I n d i a n a p o l i s , Bookwalter-BallGreathouse, 1939. Hogan, B., Five Lessons The Modern Fundamentals; of G o l f , New York, A.S. Barnes, 1957. Jones, R.T., Down the Fairway, New York, Minton, Balch, 1927. Mangrum, L., G o l f , A New Approach, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1949. M i d d l e c o f f , C , Advanced 1957.  Golf, Englewood C l i f f s , P r e n t i c e H a l l l ,  Nelson, B., Winning G o l f , New York, A.S. Barnes, 1946. Robinson, L., Golf Secrets of the Pros, New York, Arco, 1956. Sarazen, G., #0 Years of Championship G o l f , New York, Prentice H a l l , 1950. Snead, S., How To Play G o l f , Garden C i t y , Garden C i t y Pub. Co., 1946. Turnesa, J . , 12 Lessons t o B e t t e r Golf, New York, P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1953. Vardon, H., How To Play G o l f , Toronto, B e l l , Cockburn, 1912.  5a  PERIODICALS Alway, B., "Indoor Golf I n s t r u c t i o n " , Journal of the American Assocla'tIon f o r Health, P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation, v o l . 9, (September 1958), pp.35-38. Autrey, E.B., "A Study of a Battery of Tests f o r Measuring P l a y i n g A b i l i t y i n G o l f " , Unpublished Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, 1937. Beise, D., Peaseley, V., "Golf Reaction Time, Speed and A g i l i t y " , Research Quarterly, v o l . 8, (March 1937), pp.133-142. C l e v e t t , M.A., "An Experiment i n Teaching Methods of G o l f " , Research Quarterly, v o l . 2, (December 1931), pp.104-112. Dana, G., "An A n a l y s i s of Hand-Grip as a Factor I n f l u e n c i n g Power of the Golf Swing", Unpublished Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, 1947. Hofer, A., H i c k s , H., "Choosing a Method f o r School G o l f " , Journal of the American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Health, P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation, v o l . 16, (June 1945), pp.325-326. LaPorte, W.R., "Golf Time Allotment", Research Quarterly, v o l . 7, (October 1936), pp.99-128. Lehman, H.C., "Age and S k i l l i n Golf", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 9, (October 1938), pp.5-Hr. McKee, M.E., "A Test For the F u l l Swinging Shot i n Golf", Research Quarterly, v o l . 21, (March 1950), pp.40-46. Murphy, M.A., " C r i t e r i a f o r Judging a Golf Knowledge Test", Research Quarterly, v o l . 4, (December 1933), pp.81-88. Nelson, D.O., " E f f e c t s of Slow Motion Loopfilms on the Learning of G o l f " , Research Quarterly, v o l . 29, (March 1958), pp.37"^4"B~. Pape, L.A., "Analysis of the Golf Swing", Journal of the American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Health, P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation, v o l . 28, (January 1957), pp.42-44. Rehling, C , "Beginning Golf Test", A t h l e t i c J o u r n a l , v o l . 33, (March 1953), pp.18-20. Rehling, C , "Analysis of Techniques of the Golf D r i v e " , Research Quarterly, v o l . 26, (March 1955), pp.80-82.  52 S e r i , J . J . , "Analysis of the Golf Swing", A t h l e t i c .Journal, v o l . 39, (March 1959), pp.40-44. Stanley, D.K., "Acre of G o l f " , J o u r n a l of the American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Health, P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation, v o l . 26, ( A p r i l 1955), pp.14-19. V e l l e r , D., "Common G o l f i n g Mistakes", S c h o l a s t i c Coach, v o l . 28, (March 1959), p.38. Wood, J . I . , "A Study For the Purpose of S e t t i n g Up S p e c i f i c a t i o n s of a Golf D r i v i n g Cage Target and Test f o r Mid-Iron and Bcassie Clubs", Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, 1933.  APPENDIX  APPENDIX A STATISTICAL TREATMENT The raw scores obtained from the i n i t i a l , second and t h i r d t e s t r e s u l t s of the four elements of s k i l l concerned with the McKee Test f o r the F u l l Swinging Shot i n Golf from each of the two groups were analyzed s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: Study Design A. The Vardon Group B. The Spread Group Tests of the F u l l Swinging Shot i n Golf Test 1.  The Mary E l l e n McKee Test  Test 2  The Mary E l l e n McKee Test  Test 3  The Mary E l l e n McKee Test  Plan The Vardon Group  The Spread Group  I n i t i a l Test  I n i t i a l Test  S i x weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n u s i n g the Vardon g r i p Second Test Two weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n u s i n g the Spread g r i p T h i r d Test  S i x weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n u s i n g the Spread g r i p Second Test Two weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n u s i n g the Vardon g r i p T h i r d Test  Procedure and Formulae 1. Determination of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e between c o r r e l a t e d means of the i n i t i a l and second t e s t r e s u l t s of each group i n each t e s t and i n each of the four  55 s k i l l elements. reach 0.05  The  l e v e l of confidence was required to  to he acceptable.  0. 05 and 0.01  The t a b l e of t at both the  l e v e l s of confidence f o r nine degrees of  freedom (n-1) i s shown as 2.26  and 3.25  respectively, for  eight degrees of freedom (N-1) as 2.31  and 3.36 r e s p e c t i v e l y  and f o r seven degrees of freedom (N-1)  as 2.36  respectively (1).  and  3.50  To obtain s i g n i f i c a n c e , the f o l l o w i n g  formulae were used: 1.  No. of subjects  2.  Mean Score  3.  Standard Deviation  4.  Standard E r r o r of the Mean  M  (N) 51  !j21 cr = I ^X*_ |v/\* M  <r  5. D i f f e r e n c e between the Means  (M,-M a ^  6.  C o r r e l a t i o n between I n i t i a l and Second Test Results  7.  Standard E r r o r of the Difference between Correlated Means  8.  C a l c u l a t i o n of the " t " Ratio  2. Determination  of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e  i n the means of improvement between the i n i t i a l and second t e s t between groups and i n each of the four s k i l l elements. The l e v e l of confidence was required to reach 0.05 acceptable.  The t a b l e of t at both the 0.05  to be  and 0.01 l e v e l s  56  of confidence f o r nine degrees of freedom (N-l) i s shown as 2.26  and 3.25  r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r eight degrees of freedom (N-l)  as 2.31 and 3.36  r e s p e c t i v e l y , and f o r seven degrees of  freedom (N-l) as 2.36  and 3.50  respectively.  (2).  To obtain s i g n i f i c a n c e the f o l l o w i n g procedure was used: 1.  No. of Subjects  (N)  2.  Mean Scores of the I n i t i a l Test  3.  Standard Deviation of I n i t i a l Test (SD.)  4.  Mean Scores of Second Test t*lx)  5.  Standard Deviation of the Second Test (.^Da.)  6.  Gain i n Means  7.  Standard E r r o r of Means of Second Test C&VAS)  8.  Standard E r r o r of the D i f f e r e n c e of Means (uncorrelated) (<r )  9.  C a l c u l a t i o n of the t Ratio  (M.)  C^.-^v)  D  t=  M ,  " M <  3. Determination of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e between c o r r e l a t e d means of the second and t h i r d t e s t r e s u l t s of each t e s t i n each group and i n each of the four s k i l l elements.  The l e v e l of confidence was required t o reach 0.05  to be acceptable.  The table of t at both the 0.05  and 0.01  l e v e l s of confidence f o r nine degrees of freedom (H-l) i s shown as 2.26 and 3.25 freedom (N-l) as 2.31  r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r eight degrees of and 3.36  r e s p e c t i v e l y , and f o r seven  degrees of freedom (N-l) as 2.36  and 3.50  respectively.  To  obtain s i g n i f i c a n c e the same formulae as i n 1. were used. 4. Determination of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e i n the means of improvement between the second and t h i r d t e s t  57 r e s u l t s between groups and i n each of the four s k i l l elements. The l e v e l of confidence was required t o reach 0.05 to be acceptable.  The t a b l e of t at both the 0.05 and 0.01 l e v e l s  of confidence f o r nine degrees of freedom (N-l) i s shown as 2.26 and 3.25 r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r eight degrees of freedom (N-l) as 2.31 and 3.36 r e s p e c t i v e l y , and f o r seven degrees of freedom (N-l) as 2.36 and 3.50 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  To obtain  s i g n i f i c a n c e the same procedure as i n 2. was used. 5. Determination of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e between c o r r e l a t e d means of the i n i t i a l and t h i r d t e s t r e s u l t s of each t e s t i n each group and i n each of the four  1  s k i l l elements. The l e v e l of confidence was required t o reach 0.05 to be acceptable.  The t a b l e of t at both the 0.05  and 0.01 l e v e l s of confidence f o r nine degrees of freedom (H-l)  i s shown as 2.26 and 3.25 r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r eight  degrees of freedom (N-l) as 2.31 and 3.36 r e s p e c t i v e l y , and f o r seven degrees of freedom (N-l) as 2.36 and 3.50 respectively.  To obtain s i g n i f i c a n c e the same formulae as  i n 1. and 3. were used. 6. Determination of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e i n the means of improvement between the i n i t i a l  and:third  t e s t r e s u l t s between the groups and i n each of the four s k i l l elements.  The l e v e l of confidence was required to reach  ,0.05 to be acceptable.  The t a b l e of t at both the 0.05 and  0.01 l e v e l s of confidence f o r nine degrees of freedom (N-l) i s shown as 2.26 and 3.25 r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r eight degrees of freedom (N-l) as 2.31 and 3.36 r e s p e c t i v e l y , and f o r seven  58 degrees of freedom (N-1) as 2.36 and 3.50 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  To  obtain s i g n i f i c a n c e the same formulae and procedure as i n 2. and 4. were used.  REFERENCES 1  G a r r e t t , H.E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education, 5th ed., New York, Longmans, Green, 1958, p.449.  2  Loc. c i t  APPENDIX B EXAMPLE OF CALCULATIONS IN TREATMENT OF RAW SCORES 1. Data: Deviation.....  50 f e e t  Straightaway Distance..  270 f e e t  Time of F l i g h t  ..4 seconds  2. C a l c u l a t i o n s : a. Angle of D e v i a t i o n : The amount of d e v i a t i o n from the designated 8  l i n e of f l i g h t , -C  A— point of impact B - point from which CB i s measured 0- point where h a l l ' touched ground  first  AB =f straightaway distance which h a l l t r a v e l l e d Tangent of Angle A =. BC 50 AB 270  .18  Angle A = 10 degrees 30 minutes b. Range: The range i s the hypotenuse of the r i g h t angled t r i a n g l e constructed t o c a l c u l a t e the angle of d e v i a t i o n ! 3 A= point of impact B = point from which CB i s measured C =• point where h a l l touched ground Range —  first  BC Sine of Angle of Deviation  =  2 7 4 1  60 e. Angle of Impact: The angle of impact, i n a perpendicular plane, i s the angle formed by the range and the d i r e c t i o n of the a c c e l e r a t i o n imparted to the b a l l by the clubhead. A r p o i n t of impact B s point where b a l l touched ground C - height of b a l l when neglecting gravity CB : distance g r a v i t y moved b a l l AB = the range AC = distance b a l l would have t r a v e l l e d i n d i r e c t i o n of clubhead acceleration Angle A - angle of impact 1) distance g r a v i t y moved the b a l l S i g t ^ = a x 32 f t . / s e c . x (4 seconds) T  = 256 f e e t 2) tangent of angle of impact _ CB . .934 " AB " 3) angle of impacts 43.0 degrees 3 minutes. V Q l c l t y : Use the t r i a n g l e that was constructed to Q  determine the angle of impact, c  A s point of impact B s point where b a l l touched ground C - height of b a l l neglecting gravity AB =the range CB =• distance g r a v i t y moved ball AC = distance b a l l would have t r a v e l l e d i n d i r e c t i o n of clubhead a c c e l e r a t i o n  "6-1 1)distance b a l l t r a v e l l e d i n the d i r e c t i o n of clubhead a c c e l e r a t i o n i s the hypotenuse of the triangle . . CB _ 256 f t . hypotenuse - sine of angle of impact .6828 " ° ° (  8)»loolt . T  AC  . |Z|_g£.  .  M  .  7  IT>  APPENDIX C  INDIVIDUAL SCORE SHEET  F i r s t Test  Second Test  T h i r d Test  T r i a l D i s t Dev Time  T r i a l D i s t Dev Time  T r i a l D i s t Dev Time  1 2 3 .4 5 6  -  7 8 9'.. 10 Total Averag e Tops Whiffs  Test T r i a l Number Name  Name  Name  Name  Name  Name  D i s t Dev Time D i s t Dev Time D i s t Dev Time D i s t Dev Time D i s t Dev Time D i s t Dev Time 1 2 3 4 5  6 7 8 9 10 Total Av. Tops Whiffs  o a  •D  CO O  o w  H  CO  t)  APPENDIX E AVERAGE RAW SCORES FOR THE VARDON GROUP Subject  I n i t i a l Test Distance Deviation  1  78.2  2  Time  Second Test Distance D e v i a t i o n  Time  Third Test Distance D e v i a t i o n  Time  14.7  1.9  121.5  24.5  3.2  122.5  28  3.2  37  6.4  .9  114.5  26  5  117.5  24  4.2  3  55  15.6  1.4  90  27.5  3.5  55  13.5  1.6  4  59.6  14.2  1.8  74  31  3.3  92  10  2.2  5  118.3  13.2  3.6  93  36  3.4  105.5  26.5  3.4  6  87.5  26.1  2.4  116.5  14  3  134.5  26  3.6  7  65  22.3  2.2  94.5  31  2.6  103.5  43.5  4  8  60  14.2  1.7  75  36.5  2.8  94  28.5  2.7  9  27  5.8  .7  53  22  1.9  64.5  27.5  2.4  10  93  24.5  3.1  86  37  2.9  115.5  43.5  3.3  11  46  7.8  1.5  103  20.5  3.4  92.5  24.5  2.8  12  37.5  6.-7  1.3  58  9  1.5  58  18.5  1.4  13  39  15.3  1.1  88  27  2.6  38  2.1  14  19.5  7  .8  37  17  .8  70.5  27.5  1.6  15  53.5  4.6  1.5  96  24.5  3.2  79  17.5  2.8  16  84  39.5  2.3  85  45  2.8  93  41.5  2.6  17  58  14.2  1.8  161  24  5.2  90  28  2.8  65  APPENDIX P AVERAGE RAW SCORES FOR THE ; SPREAD GROUP Subject  I n i t i a l Test Distance Deviation  Time  1  78.8  14.9  2.4  2  18.8  6.4  .8  5  26  11  4  62  17.5  5  23.5  6  Second Test Distance D e v i a t i o n  Time  Third Test Distance D e v i a t i o n  Time  13.5  2.5  116  24.5  48  5  1.1  45  5  .9  .9  79  19  2.6  108  18  3.3  1.5  104  28  3.2  104  13.5  2.5  3  .7  75  27.5  1.8  91  17  2.4  36  10.3  .8  74  23  2.6  79  28.5  1.9  7  46.5  12.4  1.4  53.5  9  1.2  67  15.5  1.6  8  97.8  15  2.7  98  14  3.2  93.5  12.5  2.3  9  23.5  10  .9  43  7  l.H  72.5  26.5  2.2  10  79.5  18.8  2.4  103.5  26.5  3.2  118.5  38.5  3.6  11  29  4.4  .7  86  14  2.4  126.5  20  3.4  12  20.5  7.6  .7  98  20  2.9  78  16  2.2  16.4  4.0  181  19  5.0  193.5  26.5  5.2  13  147  87.5  3.7  14  78.5  19.6  2.2  97  23  2.7  125  24.5  3.5  15  55  10.9  1.6  85  21  2.9  99  26.5  3.1  16  53  11  1.4  90  18.8  2.6  169  21  2.8  Velocity  Angl<9 of Impact  Range  Angle of D e v i a t i o n  •  Subj . Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 1 Test 2 Test 3  . . Vardon Group  122 1374 134 190 1 162 602 150 95 2 124 711 106 101 3 126 788 110 104 4 833 131 108 90 5 891 118 111 101 6 063 112 113 115 7 1137 111 117 104 8 1288 96 119 97 9 123 125 118 LO Means 108,45 115.79 119.29 843  1269 529 1352 1557 508 1397 1020 1090 1023  72 83 113 140 162 171 238 289  123 171 354 315 297 282^ 373 282  228 213 360 288 243 irzi 378 369  324 401 552 641 808 861 1037 1141 1195  1076 2909 1248 2125 672 1587 1429 1360 1156  1435 2246 1045 828 567 1264 1201 1611 2223  1082.78 1177.11 158.5 274.63 281.25 773.33 1506.89 1380  112 433 1208 121 89 1A 113 620 526 103 97 2A 113 703 708 114 102 3A 134 788 135 1165 105 4A 113 842 113 800 108 5A 110 888 102 573 110 6A 124 961 120 115 1036 7A 128 1127 105 117 357 8A 188 1221 114 118 692 9A 133 113 128 LOA Means 108.94 113.96 126.96 842.56 785  635 716 425 1080 665 781 1190 380 695  76 85 112 145 162 168 240 296  132 243 234 165 276 264 267 297  234 330 252 207 510 309 357 285  345 351 509 657 752 793 1060 1232 1256  1529 1440 1420 1284 509 1639 1251 1268 1541  838 1110 1653 823 647 1623 1599 1925 1736  lj  Spread Group  846 1061 1385 1012 1035 1243 827 1367 1818  729.67 160.5  234.75 310.5  772.78 1320.1 1328.22  APPENDIX H PLAN OF GOLF LESSONS Lea3on One The Grip Main P o i n t s : 1. Club diagonally across l e f t hand. 2. Heel of club beneath muscle pad i n the l e f t hand and down across the middle j o i n t s of the f i n g e r s and out the middle j o i n t of the forefinger. 3. V formed by thumb and index f i n g e r of l e f t hand points t o r i g h t eye. 4. In the r i g h t hand the club l i e s r i g h t across the f i r s t j o i n t s of a l l f i n g e r s . 5. L e f t thumb f i t s i n t o and underneath the depression i n the r i g h t palm. 6. V formed by thumb and index f i n g e r on r i g h t hand points toward r i g h t of the centre of the forehead. 7. Vardon g r i p : l i t t l e f i n g e r of the r i g h t hand overlaps and f i t s i n t o the depression between the l e f t index f i n g e r and second f i n g e r . N.B. T h i r d f i n g e r of l e f t hand must touch the l i t t l e f i n g e r of r i g h t hand, and t h i r d f i n g e r of r i g h t hand must be f i r m l y on the shaft of the c l u b . 8. Spread g r i p : l i t t l e f i n g e r r e s t s snugly against index f i n g e r of r i g h t side of the club and against the index f i n g e r of the l e f t hand. 9. L e f t thumbs i n both grips rest-down along the opposite side of the shaft underneath the r i g h t palm. Lesson Two The Stance Main P o i n t s : 1. B a l l o f f l e f t h e e l . 2. Right foot pointed s t r a i g h t ahead. 3. L e f t foot s l i g h t l y turned t o l e f t . 4. Feet s l i g h t l y wide'r than shoulder width. 5. Knees f l e x e d s l i g h t l y . 6. L e f t arm s t r a i g h t . 7. Right shoulder lower than l e f t shoulder. 8. Chin back of b a l l . 9. Line of hips p o i n t i n g s l i g h t l y back. 10. S l i g h t bend forward at h i p s . 11. Clubhead s l i g h t l y ahead of hands. 12. Weight s l i g h t l y more on r i g h t f o o t . {60%)  68 Lesson Three  The  Baokswing  Main P o i n t s : 1. Hands and shoulders s t a r t hack together. 2. Hips s t a r t to r o t a t e immediately a f t e r . 5. Head i s steady. 4. Shoulders r o t a t e ahead of h i p s . 5. L e f t hand g r i p i s f i r m . 6. L e f t hand guides club hack. 7. Right elbow i s close to r i g h t side ( h i p ) . 8. L e f t arm i s s t i l l s t r a i g h t . 9. L e f t foot r o l l s inward s l i g h t l y . 10. L e f t knee comes to point to j u s t behind b a l l . 11. Both knees s l i g h t l y f l e x e d . 12. Hips pivot f o r t r a n s f e r of weight to r i g h t foot (90$). 13 Shoulders l i f t s l i g h t l y and are on same plane. 14. Club i s dragged s t r a i g h t back from b a l l . Lesson Four  The Top  of Backswlng  Main P o i n t s : i 1. Chin i s i n same p o s i t i o n as at s t a r t . 2. Most..of... weight i s on r i g h t f o o t . . ~-3. - L e f t - arm i s s t r a i g h t . 4. Club face has opened. 5. L e f t shoulder i s d i r e c t l y below c h i n . 6. Shoulders at r i g h t angles to l i n e of f l i g h t . 7. Line of hips at 45 degree angle. 8. Wrists are cocked. Grip must stay t i g h t . 9. Club shaft i s h o r i z o n t a l to ground. 10. There must be a d e f i n i t e pause here. Lesson Five  The Downswing  Main p o i n t s : 1. Hips i n i t i a t e downswing. 2. Shoulders follow,then arms,then hands. 3. Weight s h i f t s with h i p movement. 4. Head i s steady. 5. L e f t arm i s s t i f f . 6. Right elbow i s i n close t o s i d e . 7. Right knee comes i n and points toward b a l l . 8. L e f t side s t a r t s to s t i f f e n up. 9. Right shoulder s t a r t s to come down.  69 Lesson S i x The H i t t i n g Area Main P o i n t s : 1. Right hand i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r whipping a c t i o n . 2. Brace r i g h t foot against the mat. 3. L e f t hand helps r i g h t hand t o whip clubhead. 4. Right knee p o i n t s toward the b a l l . 5. L e f t arm s t i l l s t r a i g h t . 6. Head s t i l l steady. 7. Body does not sway. Remains f i x e d . 8. L e f t side s t i f f . 9. Right elbow against s i d e . 10. P e e l a c t i o n of whipping clubhead i n t o b a l l . ;  Lesson Seven  The Moment of Impact  Main P o i n t s : 1. Head i s steady and exact same p o s i t i o n as at address. 2. L e f t side i s s t i f f and s t r a i g h t . 3. W r i s t s have uncocked and pronated. 4. L e f t foot has weight of body r e s t i n g on i t . 5. Head i s s l i g h t l y behind the b a l l . 6. Right h e e l i s o f f the ground. 7. Hips turned s l i g h t l y to the l e f t . 8. Right elbow i s close to s i d e . 9. Right shoulder i s a l i t t l e lower than l e f t . Lesson E i g h t The Follow Through Main P o i n t s : 1. Head i s not l i f t e d at impact but i s allowed to come up on i t s own v o l i t i o n . 2. Clubhead t r a v e l s s t r a i g h t through towards target. 3. Arms are kept s t r a i g h t u n t i l shoulder height and then bent. 4. Right h e e l f o l l o w s swing along the mat. 5. Hips turned towards the t a r g e t . 6. Elbows must be on same plane at end of swing. Lesson Nine  Main Point Breakdown  1. Arms must hang l o o s e l y away from body. 2. Feet on s t r a i g h t l i n e . 3. As club s t a r t s back, l e f t knee turns i n toward the b a l l and behind i t . 4. L e f t arm i s s t r a i g h t throughout the swing. 5. Right elbow i s kept close to r i g h t s i d e .  70 6. 7. 8. 9.  Head i s steady throughout swing. Weight i s 60% on r i g h t foot t o s t a r t w i t h . Club i s h o r i z o n t a l at top of backswing. Club i s dragged back t o begin backswing.  Lesson Ten  Main Point Breakdown  1. Sequence i n backswing i s hands, arms, shoulders and h i p s . 2. Sequence i n downswing i s opposite. 3. Grip must be f i r m at a l l times. 4. L e f t hand i n i t i a t e s the r i g h t hand i n t o whipping the clubhead through. 5. Right hand main f a c t o r i n h i t t i n g area. 6. Right knee p o i n t s toward b a l l i n downswing. 7. L e f t side s t i f f e n s up at impact. 8. Follow through i s s t r a i g h t toward t a r g e t . 9. Clubface opens on way up and closes on way down. Lesson Eleven Lesson Twelve  P r a c t i c e With I n d i v i d u a l Coaching P r a c t i c e and Review of Lesson One on Grips  Lessen T h i r t e e n Same as Lesson One but Grip I n s t r u c t i o n Switched Lesson Fourteen  Lesson F i f t e e n  Lesson Sixteen  Same as Lessons on Backswing-Stance-Top of Backswing  Same as Lessons on Downswing-Hitting AreaMoment of Impact and Follow Through  P r a c t i c e With Review of Grip Lesson and Coaching  

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