UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The effect of weight training on certain measures of agility Morford, Walter Robert 1959

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1959_A75 M6 E3.pdf [ 2.77MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0077199.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0077199-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0077199-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0077199-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0077199-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0077199-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0077199-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0077199-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0077199.ris

Full Text

THE EFFECT OF WEIGHT TRAINING ON CERTAIN MEASURES OF AGILITY fey WALTER ROBERT MORFORD B.P.E. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1956. A. THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the S c h o o l of PHYSICAL EDUCATION We a c c e p t .this t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Aug u s t , 1959. ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s s t u d y was t o determine t h e e f f e c t of weight t r a i n i n g on g e n e r a l a g i l i t y , and f u r t h e r , t o examine th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p r o g r e s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e e x e r c i s e , as opposed t o badminton, i n t h e development of g e n e r a l a g i l i t y . Three f a c t o r s , n o n - t r a n s l a t o r y , t r a n s l a t o r y and change of d i r e c t i o n were i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e as b e i n g s e p a r a t e components of g e n e r a l a g i l i t y . S u i t a b l e t e s t s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s e f a c t o r s were s e l e c t e d t o examine the h y p o t h e s e s . T h i r t y - s i x U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f i r s t and second y e a r s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n the s e r v i c e programme of t h e S c h o o l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n were randomly s e l e c t e d and d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e groups. F o l l o w i n g the i n i t i a l t e s t s , the E x p e r i m e n t a l Group underwent a programme of weight t r a i n i n g , one of the C o n t r o l groups p l a y e d badminton and the second C o n t r o l group was r e s t r i c t e d from a l l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t y . At the end of the t e n week p e r i o d , the t h r e e groups were r e t e s t e d i n the same manner. The E x p e r i m e n t a l Group averaged g a i n s i n performance t h a t were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a l l t h r e e i t e m s , whereas, C o n t r o l Group I (Badminton) e x h i b i t e d g a i n s t h a t were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e Burpee and S i d e Step t e s t s o n l y . No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s were o b t a i n e d f o r C o n t r o l Group I I (no a c t i v i t y ) . The improvement of the E x p e r i m e n t a l Group d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y exceed t h e improve-ment of C o n t r o l Group I i n any of the t e s t s , but d i d , however, s i g n i f i c a n t l y exceed the improvement of C o n t r o l Group I I i n the Burpee and S i d e Step t e s t s . The improvement of C o n t r o l Group I s i g n i f i c a n t l y exceeded t h a t of C o n t r o l Group I I i n the S i d e Step T e s t o n l y . A low s t a t i s t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p was e s t a b l i s h e d between the t h r e e t e s t Items. I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t weight t r a i n i n g was e f f e c t i v e i n d e v e l o p i n g n o n - t r a n s l a t o r y and t r a n s l a t o r y a g i l i t y , and t h a t badminton was a l s o e f f e c t i v e i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e s e a s p e c t s of a g i l i t y . In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver B, Canada. Date August 30, 1959 ;  TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 I I JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM 2 I I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE 6 IV METHODS AND PROCEDURE 20 V RESULTS 29 VI DISCUSSIONL 35 V I I SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 41 BIBLIOGRAPHY 44 APPENDICES A. STATISTICAL TREATMENT 49 B. INDIVIDUAL SCORE SHEET 52 C. RAW SCORES FOR BURPEE TEST 53 D. RAW SCORES FOR SIDE STEP TEST 54 E. RAW SCORES FOR ZIG ZAG TEST 55 LIST OF TABLES I Comparison o f R e s u l t s Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Means of the Burpee T e s t 28 I I Comparison of R e s u l t s Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Means of the S i d e Step Test 29 I I I Comparison of R e s u l t s Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Means of t h e Z i g Zag Te s t 30 IV Degree o f Improvement Between Means of E x p e r i m e n t a l Group and C o n t r o l Group 1 31 V Degree of Improvement Between Means of E x p e r i m e n t a l Group and C o n t r o l Group I I 32 VI Degree of Improvement Between Means of C o n t r o l Group I and C o n t r o l Group I I 33 V I I Degree of I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n Between T e s t s of A g i l i t y 34 LIST OF FIGURES I Diagram of the Z i g Zag Run 26 CHAPTER I STATEMENT OP THE PROBLEM The problem, i n i t i a l l y , i s to determine the e f f e c t upon general a g i l i t y of a semester of weight t r a i n i n g ; and secondly, whether weight t r a i n i n g i s mora e f f e c t i v e i n the development of gen e r a l a g i l i t y than a badminton a c t i v i t y programme. The t e s t items s e l e c t e d t o examine these hypotheses are three accepted measures of a g i l i t y , the Burpee Squat T h r u s t , the Side Step and the Z i g Zag Run. CHAPTER I I JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM I t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t g e n e r a l a g i l i t y i s one of the important components of motor a b i l i t y , and f u r t h e r , t e s t s of a g i l i t y are u s u a l l y i n c l u d e d i n motor a b i l i t y and motor f i t n e s s t e s t b a t t e r i e s . A c c o r d i n g to Cousins, (1) the most important f a c t o r of general a g i l i t y Is s t r e n g t h . McCloy, (2) by f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , i d e n t i f i e d other f a c t o r s as b e i n g e q u a l l y dominant, and s t a t e s t h at the c l o s e l y r e l a t e d components, a g i l i t y and the a b i l i t y to change d i r e c t i o n , are both o b l i q u e f a c t o r s . The former i s dependent upon s t r e n g t h and v e l o c i t y , whereas, the l a t t e r i s dependent upon s t r e n g t h and speed. (3, p.4) Experimental s t u d i e s (4 , 5 , 6,7) have shown that the f a c t o r s of s t r e n g t h , speed and power ( f o r c e times v e l o c i t y ) are b e n e f i c i a l l y a f f e c t e d by a planned programme of weight t r a i n i n g . General a g i l i t y i s d i r e c t l y dependent upon these three f a c t o r s . It thus seems l o g i c a l t o hypothesize t h a t , i n as much as the orthogonal f a c t o r s are Improved by weight t r a i n i n g , so a l s o w i l l be the dependent f a c t o r of g e n e r a l a g i l i t y . F u r t h e r , although r e s e a r c h has been conducted on the e f f e c t of weight t r a i n i n g on a number of s p e c i f i c motor areas such as power ( 8 ) , speed ( 9 ) , endurance (10), f l e x -i b i l i t y (11) and s t r e n g t h (12, 13), there s t i l l remains no c o n c l u s i v e evidence of i t s e f f e c t upon ge n e r a l a g i l i t y . 3 T h e r e f o r e , i n view of these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i t would seem worthwhile to conduct a study on the e f f e c t of weight t r a i n i n g upon c e r t a i n measures of a g i l i t y . 4 REFERENCES 1 Cousins, G-.S., "A F a c t o r A n a l y s i s of S e l e c t e d Wartime F i t n e s s T e s t s " , Unpublished Doctor's T h e s i s , Indiana, 1951, p.113, c i t e d i n Bookwalter, K.W., "Research Gains i n Motor F i t n e s s " , Proceedings, C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 60, 1957, pp. 59-66. 2 McCloy, C H . , Young, N.D., Tests and Measurements i n H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , New York, A p p l e t o n -C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1954. 3 Loc. c i t . 4 Capen, E.K., "Study of Four Programs of Heavy R e s i s t a n c e E x e r c i s e s f o r Development of Muscular S t r e n g t h " , Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 27, (May, 1956), pp. 132-142. 5 W i l k i n , B.M., "The E f f e c t of Weight T r a i n i n g on Speed of Movement", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 2 3 , (October, 1952) , pp. 361-369. 6 Zorbas, W.A., K a r p o v i c h , P.V., "The E f f e c t of Weight L i f t i n g Upon the Speed of Muscular C o n t r a c t i o n s " , Research Q u a r t e r l y , vol.22 (May, 1951), pp.145-148. 7 Chui, E., "The E f f e c t of Systematic Weight T r a i n i n g on A t h l e t i c Power", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 21 (October, 1950), pp.188-194. 8 Loc. c i t . 9 Capen, l o c . c i t . 10 Capen, E.K., "The E f f e c t of Systematic Weight T r a i n i n g on Power, S t r e n g t h and Endurance", Research Q u a r t e r l y , vol.21 (May, 1950), pp.83-93. 11 Massey, B.H., Chaudet, N.L., " E f f e c t s of Systematic, Heavy Resi s t a n c e E x e r c i s e s on Range of J o i n t Movement i n Young Adult Males", Research Q u a r t e r l y , vol.27 (March, 1956), pp.41-51. 12 Masley, J.W., H a r i a b e d i a u , A., Donaldson, D.N., "Weight T r a i n i n g i n R e l a t i o n to S t r e n g t h , Speed and C o o r d i n a t i o n " , Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 24 (October 1953) , pp.308-315: 5 15 Rasch, P.J., Morehouse, L.E., " E f f e c t of S t a t i c and Dynamic E x e r c i s e s on Muscular S t r e n g t h and Hypertrophy", J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d P h y s i o l g o y , vol.12 ( J u l y , 1957) CHAPTER I I I REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE Cureton d e f i n e s a g i l i t y as, "The c a p a c i t y f o r f a s t r e a c t i o n i n c o n t r o l l e d nimble movements, r a b b i t l i k e i n a c t i o n and to move q u i c k l y , d e x t e r o u s l y and e a s i l y . " (1) I t may thus be s a i d t h a t a g i l i t y i s quick and e f f i c i e n t movement r e q u i r i n g complete c o n t r o l of the body w i t h r a p i d c o o r d i n a t i o n of movements. A g i l i t y f u r t h e r i m p l i e s movement agai n s t time. The value of a g i l i t y i n s p o r t s and p e r s o n a l s u r v i v a l i s i l l u s t r a t e d In the c o n t i n u a t i o n of Cureton's d e f i n i t i o n , (2, p.70). I t i m p l i e s a b i l i t y t o dodge a b a l l or a m i s s i l e q u i c k l y ; t o s p r i n g q u i c k l y t o the f e e t ; to climb up a cargo net q u i c k l y or t o z i g zag q u i c k l y i n running from s h e l l h o l e t o s h e l l h o l e ; t o get down and up q u i c k l y ; t o put on a l i f e p r e s e r v e r or a parachute q u i c k l y ; perhaps, to climb out of a burning plane q u i c k l y ; or to p u l l o n e s e l f i n t o a l i f e b o a t , t o climb a rope onto a s h i p or t o lower o n e s e l f by rope from a bur n i n g boat and t o v a u l t onto a horse or v e h i c l e q u i c k l y . The examples are s p e c i f i c i n each case, t h a t Is t o dodge, to climb, t o v a u l t , to z i g zag; but tog e t h e r they sum up a q u a l i t y that i n t h i s study w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as "general a g i l i t y " . C l a r k e (3) on the other hand d e f i n e s a g i l i t y as, " S k i l l s r e q u i r i n g r a p i d movement of the e n t i r e body i n d i f f e r e n t 7 d i r e c t i o n s and i n response to unexpected circumstances; as i n dodging i n f o o t b a l l , p i v o t i n g i n b a s k e t b a l l and a g i l e s t u n t s i n gymnastics." Here, s p e c i f i c mention i s made of three d i f f e r e n t s p o r t s , and the form of a g i l i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each area i n the examples given i m p l i e s i n each case a d i f f e r e n t aspect of the term a g i l i t y . In f o o t b a l l dodging, a g i l i t y may be q u a l i f i e d by running, In b a s k e t b a l l p i v o t i n g , by p o s i t i o n a l change, and i n gymnastics by a combination of both or y e t even a t h i r d f a c t o r . L i n d h a r d , (4) i n d i s c u s s i n g a g i l i t y e x e r c i s e s i n gymnastics, d e s c r i b e s a g i l i t y as b e i n g c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to balance on the one hand and to jumping on the other, McCloy, (5) w r i t i n g i n 1939, s t a t e s t h a t a g i l i t y Is one of the fundamental a b i l i t i e s and d e f i n e s i t as the a b i l i t y to change the d i r e c t i o n of the body or p a r t s of the body i n space r a p i d l y . A g i l i t y i s not c o n f i n e d to the l a r g e muscle groups or to the body as a whole. In p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , the primary concern i s w i t h the l a r g e muscle groups and the whole body. McCloy's r e f e r e n c e to p a r t s of the body and small muscle groups r e f e r s t o that aspect Of a g i l i t y which i s e x h i b i t e d i n t y p i n g and piano p l a y i n g . When a g i l i t y of the body as a whole i s r e f e r r e d t o , i t i m p l i e s the a b i l i t y t o change the d i r e c t i o n of the body. The f a c t t h at g e n e r a l a g i l i t y might be made up of f a c t o r s or components which were r e l a t e d more s p e c i f i c a l l y to c e r t a i n 8 types of a g i l i t y was e s t a b l i s h e d r e c e n t l y as the r e s u l t of the s t a t i s t i c a l technique of f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i n motor a r e a s . As a r e s u l t , not one, but two components of g e n e r a l a g i l i t y were e s t a b l i s h e d . McCloy (6) d e s c r i b e s these components as the f a c t o r of the a b i l i t y t o change d i r e c t i o n and the f a c t o r of a g i l i t y . The a b i l i t y t o change d i r e c t i o n was thought of as an o b l i q u e f a c t o r dependent upon s t r e n g t h and v e l o c i t y and was d e f i n e d as the e f f i c i e n c y of footwork; whereas, a g i l i t y , a l s o thought t o be an o b l i q u e f a c t o r dependent upon s t r e n g t h and speed, was d e f i n e d as the a b i l i t y to change the p o s i t i o n of the body r a p i d l y . Larson and Yocum (7) d e s c r i b e a g i l i t y as a l s o i n c l u d i n g the element of change of d i r e c t i o n , which they c o n s i d e r to be an important element i n most s p o r t s . The authors go on to s t a t e t h a t : Speed i s another element i n the s u c c e s s f u l performance of a g i l i t y . The i n d i v i d u a l who i s able to change from one p o s i t i o n to another w i t h the g r e a t e s t speed and c o o r d i n a t i o n has the h i g h e s t degree of f i t n e s s i n t h i s component. A g i l i t y i n some i n s t a n c e s c a l l s f o r s t r e n g t h and endurance. E a r l i e r d e f i n i t i o n s of a g i l i t y tended to encompass a l l forms of quick movement. G r a d u a l l y , however, the d i f f e r e n -t i a t i o n between forms of a g i l i t y evolved u n t i l the p o i n t was reached where a g i l i t y was considered as e i t h e r r e f e r r i n g to a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g running or to a c t i v i t i e s t h a t do not i n v o l v e running. 9 The p o s s i b l e e x i s t e n c e of yet another measurable component of g e n e r a l a g i l i t y i s r e v e a l e d i n a study by S i l l s and E v e r e t t (8) i n which i t was shown that mesomorphs were s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r to ectomorphs i n the " C r i s s C r o s s " and "Side Step" t e s t s of a g i l i t y , but that In the t h i r d t e s t of a g i l i t y , the "Burpee Squat T h r u s t " , there was no s i g n i f i -cant d i f f e r e n c e i n performance between the two groups. The authors b e l i e v e t h a t the mesomorphs, because of t h e i r g r e a t e r r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h , were b e t t e r able t o move the body mass r a p i d l y from one area to another as r e q u i r e d by the " C r i s s C r o s s " and "Side Step" t e s t s . The "Burpee Squat T h r u s t " e n t a i l e d only a r a p i d change i n the body p o s i t i o n i n which the g r e a t e r r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h of the mesomorphs was of l e s s importance. The authors d e s c r i b e the " C r i s s C r o s s " and "Side Step" t e s t s as measuring " t r a n s l a t o r y " a g i l i t y and the "Burpee Squat T h r u s t " t e s t as measuring " n o n - t r a n s l a t o r y " a g i l i t y . T r a n s l a t o r y movement i n v o l v e s the t r a n s f e r of the body mass from one p l a c e t o another without running, i e . s i d e s t e p p i n g , whereas, n o n - t r a n s l a t o r y i m p l i e s "on the spot". The t o t a l f i n d i n g s to date would i n d i c a t e t h a t , though i t was u s u a l to c o n s i d e r a g i l i t y i n i t s t o t a l form, i t now i s n ecessary to r e f e r t o s p e c i f i c components, e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i n g a g i l i t y t o c e r t a i n s k i l l areas. Of the s p e c i f i c components, three appear r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e . These are, 1. the change of d i r e c t i o n f a c t o r , 2. the t r a n s l a t o r y f a c t o r , and 3. the n o n - t r a n s l a t o r y f a c t o r . 1 0 The q u e s t i o n as t o whether or not a g i l i t y can be improved i n any one i n d i v i d u a l through a program of s p e c i a l -i z e d t e a c h i n g i s answered to some extent i n a study by L a f u s e . ( 9 ) . The purpose of the study was to determine the s t a t u s of c o l l e g e f i r s t year women students of low motor a b i l i t y as measured by the Sc o t t Motor A b i l i t y t e s t , i n the f o l l o w i n g motor c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : a g i l i t y , b a lance, k i n e s t h e t i c response, s e r i a l r e a c t i o n time and s t r e n g t h . The e n t i r e lower q u a r t e r of those women students t a k i n g the S c o t t Motor A b i l i t y t e s t were su b j e c t e d t o a s p e c i a l "poor group" c l i n i c , which c o n s i s t e d of fundamental s p o r t s s k i l l s taught over an e i g h t week p e r i o d . It was shown i n t h i s study that the g e n e r a l motor a b i l i t y of low motor a b i l i t y s u b j e c t s was amenable t o . change through i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c e . R e s u l t s , s i g n i f i -cant beyond the 1 percent l e v e l of co n f i d e n c e , were obtained f o r the d i f f e r e n c e between i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t scores i n a g i l i t y , balance and s e r i a l r e a c t i o n time. The t e s t of a g i l i t y used i n t h i s study was that of the o b s t a c l e run i n the S c o t t Motor A b i l i t y t e s t ( 1 0 ) . The course i n c l u d e s running, change of d i r e c t i o n and change of p o s i t i o n . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a g i l i t y as a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r of motor performance i s not e n t i r e l y r e s o l v e d . To date these components depend to some extent on the o p i n i o n of va r i o u s l e a d i n g r e s e a r c h e r s i n p h y s i c a l education and on the c r i t e r i a s e l e c t e d f o r r e f e r e n c e . McCloy ( 1 1 ) on the one hand c l a s s i f i e s a g i l i t y as an area of motor c a p a c i t y , whereas, a c c o r d i n g t o YJillgoose ( 1 2 ) a g i l i t y i s one of the 11 s p e c i f i c elements c o n t r i b u t i n g t o neuro-muscular s k i l l . C u r e t o n (13) emphasizes a g i l i t y as b e i n g one of t h e prime f a c t o r s of motor a b i l i t y ; and C o u s i n s (14) l i s t s a g i l i t y as one of t h e n i n e f a c t o r s of motor f i t n e s s . F i n a l l y , Book-w a i t e r (15) r e f e r s t o motor f i t n e s s as c o n s i s t i n g o f , among o t h e r components, the p r e s e n t a g i l i t y o f t h e l a r g e v o l u n t a r y m u s c u l a t u r e . Recent r e s e a r c h by Barrow (16) i n d i c a t e s a g i l i t y as b e i n g one of t h e components found t o be h i g h l y r e l a t e d t o motor a b i l i t y . An a g i l i t y t e s t b a t t e r y s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s of f o u r d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a , i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g e i g h t t e s t i t e m s : Burpee Squat T h r u s t , T u r n and Jump, C r i s s C r o s s , S i d e S t e p , Bar Snap, Z i g Zag Run, Bar V a u l t , and Low H u r d l e s . N e a r l y a l l o f t h e s e t e s t items have been i n c l u d e d i n o t h e r p r e v i o u s t e s t b a t t e r i e s of motor a b i l i t y . I n t h e f i n d i n g s of t h i s study o n l y one t e s t of a l l t h e above items was s e l e c t e d as a v a l i d t e s t o f a g i l i t y . T h i s s e l e c t i o n , t h e Z i g Zag Run, was based on t h e i t e m h a v i n g t h e h i g h e s t v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y r a t i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e o r i g i n a l c r i t e r i a . The Item i s now i n c l u d e d i n t h e t e s t b a t t e r y of the r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d Barrow Motor A b i l i t y t e s t ( 1 7 ) . The t e s t s used t o measure a g i l i t y are many and v a r i e d , d i f f e r e n t t e s t i n g b a t t e r i e s e m p l o y i n g d i f f e r e n t t e s t s . The l a c k of u n i f o r m i t y i s due m a i n l y t o the c o m p l e x i t y of motor areas as a whole and the l a c k of any form of a s t a n d a r d d e f i n i t i o n of t h e v a r i o u s c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s , among w h i c h 12 of course, i s a g i l i t y . The v a r y i n g t e s t s of a g i l i t y may not be considered as e q u i v a l e n t s because they do not t e s t e x a c t l y the same t h i n g . I t f o l l o w s t h a t c e r t a i n t e s t s of a g i l i t y may be more v a l i d i n one motor area than i n another, thus i n d i -c a t i n g a g i l i t y to be s p e c i f i c r a t h e r than g e n e r a l . Henry (18) p o s t u l a t e s that f a c t u a l data are e s t a b l i s h i n g w i t h i n c r e a s i n g c l a r i t y t h a t motor s k i l l s and l a r g e muscle psychomotor a b i l i t i e s are f a r more s p e c i f i c than had p r e v i o u s l y been r e a l i s e d , " i t i s no longer p o s s i b l e to j u s t i f y the concept of u n i t a r y a b i l i t i e s such as c o o r d i n a t i o n and a g i l i t y , s i n c e the evidence shows that these a b i l i t i e s are s p e c i f i c to the task or a c t i v i t y . " (19). To some extent, the i n f l u e n c e of s t r e n g t h upon a g i l i t y was e s t a b l i s h e d e a r l i e r . The q u e s t i o n remained as to whether or not an i n c r e a s e i n s t r e n g t h brought about by a p r o g r e s s i v e r e s i s t e n c e programme would produce any measurable improvement i n a g i l i t y . A c c o r d i n g to Young (20), g e n e r a l s t r e n g t h and l e g s t r e n g t h d i d not have any l a r g e e f f e c t on the a g i l i t y f a c t o r of change of d i r e c t i o n , but, t h i s f a c t o r was more i n f l u e n c e d by the dead weight f a c t o r and v e l o c i t y . However, no c o n c l u s i v e data are a v a i l a b l e to date to show the e f f e c t on a g i l i t y of a r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n s t r e n g t h such as i s brought about by weight t r a i n i n g . The i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a r i t y of weight t r a i n i n g and i t s b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t on s t r e n g t h have g i v e n r i s e to c o n s i d e r a b l e s p e c u l a t i o n as to i t s e f f e c t s upon v a r i o u s areas of motor a b i l i t y and f i t n e s s . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , i t was g e n e r a l l y accepted that weight t r a i n i n g caused " t i g h t n e s s " and "muscle boundness", i n t h a t i t "slowed down" a t h l e t e s 13 and r u i n e d a g i l i t y and c o o r d i n a t i o n . However, s c i e n t i f i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d s t u d i e s have l a r g l y d i s p e l l e d these popular hut erroneous b e l i e f s . Counsilman (21) t e s t e d the a g i l i t y and c o o r d i n a t i o n of eighteen weight l i f t e r s u s i n g the Burpee Squat T h r u s t , C r i s s Cross and Z i g Zag t e s t s of g e n e r a l a g i l i t y and c o o r d i n a t i o n . The r e s u l t s showed these e i g h t e e n i n d i v i d u a l s were s l i g h t l y above average i n the performance of a l l these t e s t s , and f u r t h e r , the s t r e n g t h and power of these i n d i v i d u a l s was a l s o above average. However, these s u b j e c t s had a l l been weight l i f t e r s f o r s e v e r a l years and i n t h i s case i t was not p o s s i b l e to determine whether or not the d e v i a t i o n s from normal were a t t r i b u t a b l e to the e f f e c t s of weight t r a i n i n g s i n c e no c o n t r o l group was used. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r study was c a r r i e d out to show that advanced weight l i f t e r s were not l a c k i n g i n a g i l i t y . An u n c o n t r o l l e d programme of weight t r a i n i n g i n con-j u n c t i o n with a h i g h s c h o o l f o o t b a l l team was c a r r i e d out by Fluke (22). The p l a y e r s e x e r c i s e d r e g u l a r l y w i t h improvised weights f o r short p e r i o d s each day i n the changing room before going out to p r a c t i c e . C o n s i d e r a b l e gains were evident on the b a s i s of i n i t i a l and f i n a l raw scores f o r a f i v e item motor a b i l i t y t e s t . The item of a g i l i t y was measured by the Burpee Squat T h r u s t t e s t , which showed an improvement i n raw s c o r e s . The author s t a t e s t h a t a t t e n t i o n must be drawn to the f a c t t h at the s u b j e c t s , i n a d d i t i o n to the c o n d i t i o n i n g programme with weights, were a l s o p a r t i c i p a t i n g on a f o o t b a l l 14 team, w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t i t was not p o s s i b l e to a t t r i b u t e the t o t a l gains i n t e s t scores to the weight e x e r c i s e s a l o n e . Research s t u d i e s concerning the e f f e c t of weight t r a i n -i n g and i t s e f f e c t s on power, speed and s t r e n g t h are reviewed here i n as much as a g i l i t y i s thought to be dependent upon these f a c t o r s . Chui, (23) i n 1950, showed i n h i s study t h a t weight t r a i n i n g i n c r e a s e d the amount of p o t e n t i a l power i n an experimental group, whereas, a c o n t r o l group engaged i n r o u t i n e a c t i v i t i e s showed no cor r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e . Zorbas and Karpovich (24) proved that the speed of muscular c o n t r a c t i o n was a l s o i n c r e a s e d i n an experimental group. Capen's (25) study i n d i c a t e d t h a t weight t r a i n i n g i n c r e a s e d the muscular s t r e n g t h of s u b j e c t s ; a l s o t h a t t r a i n i n g w i t h weights d i d not r e s u l t i n muscular t i g h t n e s s . S u i t a b l e t e s t s t o measure the three d e s c r i b e d aspects of a g i l i t y were made a f t e r r e v i e w i n g standard t e x t s of measure••<-ment i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n (26,27,28,29,30,31,32). The c r i t e r i a f o r t e s t s e l e c t i o n were based upon known e s t a b l i s h e d s t a t i s t i c a l standards of r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y and previous a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h those aspects of a g i l i t y c o n s i d e r e d here. D e f i n i t i o n s of each t e s t item may be obtained by r e f e r r i n g t o the next chapter. The Burpee Squat Thrust T e s t : A c c o r d i n g to McCloy (33) t h i s t e s t was f i r s t presented by R.H. Burpee of the W i l l i a m Sloan House, Y.M.C.A. The time requirement f o r the t e s t has v a r i e d . McCloy (34) recommends ten seconds. S i l l s and 15 E v e r e t t (35) expanded the performance time to twenty seconds, so as to i n c r e a s e the range of s c o r e s . Mathews (36) s t a t e s that t i m i n g may vary between ten and t h i r t y seconds. The t e s t i s r e p o r t e d by McCloy and Young (37) as having a r e l i a b i l i t y of 0.921. However, the v a l i d i t y (r 0.553, boys, and r 0.341, g i r l s ) i s low. As a measure of a g i l i t y McCloy and Young co n s i d e r i t to be lower than that of t e s t s of a g i l i t y i n v o l v i n g running. The t e s t c o n s i s t s of performing a s e r i e s of squat t h r u s t s w i t h i n a set p e r i o d of time. The object of measurement i s the speed of p o s i t i o n a l change of the body or non-trans-l a t o r y a g i l i t y . The Side Step T e s t ; T h i s t e s t was f i r s t d e s c r i b e d by Edgren (38) In 1932, and was used as a t e s t of c o o r d i n a t i o n i n a b a t t e r y of t e s t s designed to show a b i l i t y and progress i n b a s k e t b a l l performance. The t e s t item was l a t e r r e v i s e d by McCloy (39) as a t e s t of a g i l i t y . McCloy st a t e s t h a t t h i s simple t e s t has shown i t s e l f to be a s u r p r i s i n g l y good one f o r p r e d i c t i n g games s k i l l and p o t e n t i a l i t y In motor performance. The t e s t has a v a l i d i t y r a t i n g of 0.704 and a r e l i a b i l i t y r a t i n g of 0.982 (40). The t e s t i s a l s o used as a t e s t of a g i l i t y by S i l l s and E v e r e t t (41) to measure b a s i c elements of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o extreme somatotypes, and a l s o by Counsilman (42) i n measuring the a g i l i t y of advanced weight l i f t e r s . The t e s t c o n s i s t s of r a p i d s i d e to s i d e movement between l i n e s set eig h t f e e t apart and i n v o l v e s the c a p a c i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l t o t r a n s f e r the body mass from one spot to another 16 without running, or t r a n s l a t o r s a g i l i t y . The Z i g Zag Run T e s t : T h i s i s a t e s t of a g i l i t y used "by Barrow (43) i n the Barrow Motor A b i l i t y T e s t . A c c o r d i n g t o the r e f e r e n c e the t e s t has a v a l i d i t y r a t i n g of 0.795 and a r e l i a b i l i t y r a t i n g of 0.736. McCloy (44) d e s c r i b e s t h i s t e s t and f u r t h e r , b e l i e v e s i t t o be a v a l i d t e s t f o r p r e d i c t i n g s p o r t s achievement. The t e s t c o n s i s t s of a weave run about o b s t a c l e s and i n v o l v e s the a b i l i t y t o change d i r e c t i o n r a p i d l y while running. 17 REFERENCES 1 Cureton, T.K., "The U n f i t n e s s of Young Men i n Motor F i t n e s s " , J o u r n a l of the American M e d i c a l  A s s o c i a t i o n , v o l . 125 (Sept. 1945), pp.69-74. 2 Loc. c i t . . 3 C l a r k e , H.H., The A p p l i c a t i o n of Measurement to H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 2nd ed., New York, P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1945, p.251. 4 Lindhard, J . , The Theory of Gymnastics, 3rd ed., London, Methuen, 1949, p.335. 5 McCloy, C.H., T e s t s and Measurements i n H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 2nd ed., New York, C r o f t s , 1942, p.88. 6 McCloy, C.H., Young, N.D., T e s t s and Measurements i n H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , New York, A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1954, p.4. 7 Larson, L., Yocum, R., Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n i n P h y s i c a l H e a l t h and R e c r e a t i o n E d u c a t i o n , S t . L o u i s , C.V. Mosby, 1951, p.161. 8 S i l l s , F.D., E v e r e t t , P., "The R e l a t i o n s h i p of Extreme Somatotypes to Performance i n Motor and S t r e n g t h T e s t s " , Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 24 (May 1953), pp. 223-2381 9 Lafuse, M., "A Study of the L e a r n i n g of Fundamental S k i l l s by C o l l e g e Freshman Women of Low Motor A b i l i t y " , Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 22 (May 1951), pp.149-157. 10 S c o t t , M.G., French, E., B e t t e r T e a c h i n g Through T e s t i n g , New York, A.S. Barnes, 1945, p7l37. 11 McCloy, C.H., Young, N.D., op. c i t . , p.82. 12 W i l l g o o s e , C.E., Rogers, M.L., " R e l a t i o n s h i p of Somatotypes to P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s " , J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l  Research, v o l . 42 (May 1949), p.709. 13 Cureton, l o c . c i t . 14 Cousins, G.S., "A F a c t o r A n a l y s i s of S e l e c t e d Wartime F i t n e s s T e s t s " , Unpublished Doctor's T h e s i s , Indiana, 1951, p.113, c i t e d i n Bookwatler, K.W., "Research Gains i n Motor F i t n e s s " , Proceedings, C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 60, 1957, pp.59-66. 18 15 Bookwalter, K.W., "Research Evidence of G-ains i n Motor F i t n e s s " , Proceedings, C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n  A s s o c i a t i o n , 60, 1957, p.59. 16 Barrow, H.M., "Test of Motor A b i l i t y f o r C o l l e g e Men", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 25 (October 1954), pp.253-260. 17 Barrow, H.M., Motor A b i l i t y T e s t i n g f o r C o l l e g e Men, M i n n e a p o l i s , Burgess, 1957. 18 Henry, F.M., " S p e c i f i c i t y vs G e n e r a l i t y i n L e a r n i n g Motor S k i l l s " , Proceedings, C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n  A s s o c i a t i o n , 61, 1958, p.126. 19 Loc. c i t . 20 Young, K.E., "An A n a l y t i c Study of the Tests of Change of D i r e c t i o n " , Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , State U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, August 1937, p.20. 21 Counsilman, J . , "Does Weight T r a i n i n g Belong In the Program?", J o u r n a l of the American A s s o c i a t i o n  f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , v o l . 26 (January 1955), p.17. 22 F l u k e , D.W., " T r a i n i n g With Weights", S c h o l a s t i c Coach, v o l . 27 (October 1957), pp.22^2in ~~ 23 Chui, E., " E f f e c t of Systematic Weight T r a i n i n g on A t h l e t i c Power", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 21, (October 1950), pp.188-194. 24 Zorbas, W.S., Karpovich, P.V., " E f f e c t of Weight L i f t i n g Upon the Speed of Muscular C o n t r a c t i o n s " , Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 22 (May 1951), pp.145-148. 25 Capen, E.K., "A Study of Four Programs of Heavy R e s i s t a n c e E x e r c i s e s f o r Development of Muscular S t r e n g t h " , Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 27 (May 1956), pp.132-142, 26 Mathews, D.K., Measurement i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , P h i l a d e l p h i a , W.B. Saunders, 1958. 27 McCloy, C H . , T e s t s and Measurements i n H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , New York, C r o f t s , 1942. 28 Weiss, R.A., P h i l l i p s , M., A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of T e s t s i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , S t . L o u i s , C.V. Mosby, 1954. 29 C l a r k e , H.H., A p p l i c a t i o n of Measurement to H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 2nd ed., Englewood C l i f f s , P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1950. 19 30 Larson, L., Yocum, R., Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n i n P h y s i c a l H e a l t h and R e c r e a t i o n E d u c a t i o n , S t . L o u i s , C.V. Mosby, 1951. 31 McCloy, C.H., Young, N.D. , T e s t s and Measurements i n H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , New Y o r k , A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1954. 32 Bovard, J.P., Cozens, F.W., Hagman, E.P., T e s t s and Measurements i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 3 r d ed., P h i l a d e l p h i a , W.B. Saunders, 1949. 33 McCloy, C.H., T e s t s and Measurements i n H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , New Y o r k , C r o f t s , 1942, p.88. 34 L o c . c i t . 35 S i l l s , P.D., E v e r e t t , P., "The R e l a t i o n s h i p of Extreme Somatotypes t o Performance i n Motor and S t r e n g t h T e s t s " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 2 4 (May 1953), p.224. 36 Mathews, op. c i t . , p.107. 37 McCloy, Young, op. c i t . , p.78. 38 Edgren, H.D., "An Experiment i n the T e s t i n g of A b i l i t y and P r o g r e s s i n B a s k e t b a l l " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 3 {March 1932), pp.159-1717 39 McCloy, l o c . c i t . 40 McCloy, Young, o p . c i t . , p.80. 41;, S i l l s , E v e r e t t , l o c . c i t . 42 Counsilman, J . , "Does Weight T r a i n i n g B e l o n g i n the Program?", J o u r n a l of the American A s s o c i a t i o n  f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , v o l . 26 ( J a n u a r y 1955), p.17. 43 Barrow, H.M., Motor A b i l i t y T e s t i n g f o r C o l l e g e Men, M i n n e a p o l i s , B u r g e s s , 1957, p.15. 44 McCloy, o p . c i t . , p.82. CHAPTER IV METHODS AND PROCEDURE Three groups of f i r s t and second year students at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia r e g i s t e r e d i n the r e q u i r e d programme of p h y s i c a l education were s e l e c t e d randomly f o r the purposes of t h i s study. The study was c a r r i e d out f o r one, ten-week semester. The three groups were d i v i d e d i n t o an experimental group and two c o n t r o l groups. The Experimental Group: T h i s was a r e g i s t e r e d weight t r a i n i n g c l a s s of twelve s t u d e n t s . These students had not had p r e v i o u s weight t r a i n i n g e xperience. The s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d w i t h the three s e l e c t e d t e s t s of a g i l i t y at the b e g i n n i n g of the programme and a g a i n at the end of the programme. The c l a s s was s u b j e c t e d to a s u p e r v i s e d and planned programme of weight t r a i n i n g , which, f o r the purposes of t h i s study, was d e f i n e d as: A s y s t e m a t i c , well-planned program of e x e r c i s e s i n which the p a r t i c i p a n t uses weights, b a r b e l l s and dumbells to i n c r e a s e the r e s i s t a n c e of v a r i o u s b o d i l y move-ments. T h i s type of e x e r c i s e w i t h weights i s c o n t r a s t e d with the competitive type u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d to as "weight l i f t i n g " . In weight l i f t i n g the competitor endeavours to r a i s e a maximum weight i n a s i n g l e l i f t , whereas, i n weight t r a i n i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t executes many conse c u t i v e r e p e t i t i o n s of each e x e r c i s e with a weight which has been found compatible with h i s s t r e n g t h and endurance. At the s t a r t of the weight t r a i n i n g programme each sub j e c t was given a t a b l e of e x e r c i s e s to be performed w i t h 21 b a r b e l l s and dumbells. The student was allowed to f i x h i s own loa d s , a f t e r b e i n g guided i n the p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s technique. The s u b j e c t s r e c o r d e d t h e i r own e f f o r t s on a s p e c i a l l y designed sheet, and handed them i n t o the i n -s t r u c t o r at the end of each p e r i o d . In the I n i t i a l stages of the weight t r a i n i n g programme, an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l o a d was determined by the amount of weight he could l i f t s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n f i v e maximum r e p e t i t i o n s . The number of maximum r e p e t i t i o n s was i n c r e a s e d where p o s s i b l e each day of t r a i n i n g u n t i l the maximum r e p e t i t i o n s achieved were between t e n and twelve. The load was then i n c r e a s e d and the s u b j e c t recommenced e x e r c i s i n g at f i v e maximum r e p e t i t i o n s The group as a whole met twice weekly f o r p e r i o d s of f o r t y -f i v e minutes each. The C o n t r o l Groups: Each one of these two groups con-s i s t e d of twelve s u b j e c t s . C o n t r o l Group I p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a r e q u i r e d badminton a c t i v i t y programme f o r the e n t i r e semester, meeting twice weekly. T h i s group was t e s t e d at the be g i n n i n g of the semester and again at the end of the semester i n the same manner as the Exp e r i m e n t a l Group. The second C o n t r o l Group, l a b e l l e d C o n t r o l Group I I was r e s t r i c t e d from a l l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s a c t i v i t y , and cautioned against p a r t i c i p a t i o n In e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r p h y s i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a r e c r e a t i o n a l nature. T h i s group a l s o underwent t e s t i n g at the be g i n n i n g and end of the semester. Two c o n t r o l groups were used i n t h i s study because there 22 was some q u e s t i o n as to the e f f e c t of a r e g u l a r a c t i v i t y c l a s s programme upon a g i l i t y or some component of a g i l i t y . In t h i s case, badminton was s e l e c t e d as b e i n g an a c t i v e and popular a c t i v i t y t h a t was s u f f i c i e n t l y f a r removed from weight t r a i n i n g and i n v o l v e d e x e r c i s e and-movement of a thoroughly d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e . The second c o n t r o l group, r e s t r i c t e d i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , p r o v i d e d the s t a t i c c o n t r o l r e q u i r e d to determine and a t t r i b u t e the e f f e c t s of weight t r a i n i n g and badminton on a g i l i t y . T e s t i n g P e r s o n n e l: A team of three t e s t e r s a d m i n i s t e r e d the t e s t i n g programme to each group. The members of the t e s t i n g team were graduate students of the School of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. P r a c t i c e i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the t e s t items and the h a n d l i n g of stop watches was p r o v i d e d f o r a l l members of the t e s t i n g team, and a l l were f a m i l i a r w i t h the t e s t i n g r o u t i n e before a c t u a l l y t e s t i n g the f i r s t group. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of T e s t s : The three t e s t items were administered t o a l l groups on an open area of the gymnasium f l o o r at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The Burpee Squat T h r u s t T e s t (item #1) was administered t o each group as a whole, d i v i d e d i n t o p a i r s . The Side Step T e s t (item #2) and the Z i g Zag Run T e s t (item #3) were ad m i n i s t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l l y . F l o o r markings f o r item #2, i n the form of three .white l i n e s each f o u r f e e t l o n g were marked on the f l o o r , each one, f o u r f e e t apart and p a r a l l e l t o each o t h e r . 25 For item #5, v o l l e y b a l l standards were used as corner p o s t s , and a s t a r t i n g l i n e and guide l i n e s were marked on the f l o o r i n white. The s c o r i n g f o r each i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t was maintained on separate score cards ( cf.Appendix B, p.52). These cards were d i s t r i b u t e d t o students who f i l l e d out the necessary p a r t i c u l a r s and then c a r r i e d them to each t e s t i n g s t a t i o n . The I n i t i a l t e s t was administered indoors i n the gym-nasium i n l a t e September and the f i n a l t e s t was adm i n i s t e r e d i n the same manner t e n weeks l a t e r i n e a r l y December. The Experimental Group and C o n t r o l Goup I met f o r t h e i r r e s p e c -t i v e a c t i v i t i e s at the same time of day but on d i f f e r e n t days. A l l t e s t i n g f o r the three groups was a l s o c a r r i e d out at the same time of day but on d i f f e r e n t days. The same t e s t I n s t r u c t i o n s were read t o a l l groups, and each group completed the t e s t items i n the same o r d e r . The f o l l o w i n g statement was read t o each group p r i o r to the commencement of t e s t i n g : You are b e i n g submitted t o a s e r i e s of three simple t e s t s designed to measure your b o d i l y s h i f t i n e s s and your a b i l i t y t o move r a p i d l y . The accurate r e s u l t s of these t e s t s are dependent on your g i v i n g f o r t h of your best performance i n each item. For t h i s purpose your c o o p e r a t i o n i s requested. The three t e s t items were s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r a l l groups. 24 S p e c i f i c d e t a i l s of t h i s nature r e g a r d i n g each t e s t item are o u t l i n e d below: Item #1. the Burpee Squat Thrust T e s t : The e n t i r e t e s t i n g s t a f f s u p e r v i s e d the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h i s t e s t item, one member b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the 20 second t i m i n g . The group was p a i r e d and arranged f a c i n g one another, each student b e i n g a f f o r d e d ample room to perform. One member of the p a i r performed the t e s t while the second member counted each performed movement. Each s u b j e c t was p e r m i t t e d a s i n g l e t r i a l f o l l o w e d by t h r e e , twenty second attempts a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h h i s p a r t n e r . The f o l l o w i n g statement was read to each group accompanied by a demonstration: A l l number ones w i l l take the t e s t f i r s t , while the number twos act as s c o r e r s . Number ones--stand with knees s t r a i g h t , arms at s i d e s . On the s i g n a l 'ready, go',-bend the knees and h i p s and p l a c e the hands f l a t on the f l o o r i n f r o n t of you. Thrust the legs out behind to a f r o n t l e a n i n g r e s t p o s i t i o n . Return to the squat p o s i t i o n , and then stand. Repeat these f o u r p o s i t i o n s as many times as p o s s i b l e u n t i l the s i g n a l 'stop' i s given. Number twos w i l l count the number of complete movements plus the number of quarter movements made by h i s p a r t n e r . T h i s number i s the p a r t n e r ' s s c o r e , (enter i t on h i s c a r d ) . When i n the f r o n t l e a n i n g r e s t p o s i t i o n the body must be i n a reasonably s t r a i g h t l i n e w i t h legs f u l l y extended. When r e t u r n i n g t o the s t a n d i n g p o s i t i o n , the body must be s t r a i g h t , t h at i s , the knees and h i p s are not bent. You w i l l have one p r a c t i c e t r i a l f o l l o w e d by three s c o r i n g t r i a l s . Item #2. The Sjde-Step T e s t : T h i s t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l l y t o each subject by a member of the t e s t i n g 25 s t a f f w i t h a stop watch. The f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s were read to each i n d i v i d u a l , accompanied by a demonstration: You w i l l stand a s t r i d e over the centre l i n e i n a comfortable p o s i t i o n . On the command 'ready, go', .move towards the l i n e on your r i g h t or l e f t , i n a s i d e -s t e p p i n g manner, u n t i l you are able to touch the f l o o r on the other si d e of the l i n e w i t h your outer f o o t . Then move i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n i n the same manner u n t i l your other f o o t touches the f l o o r beyond the second l i n e . Continue i n t h i s manner u n t i l you have made 10 such t r i p s from the center l i n e t o an o u t s i d e l i n e a l t e r n a t i n g f i v e to your r i g h t and f i v e to your l e f t . Be sure that each f o o t passes over and touches the f l o o r beyond the r e s p e c t i v e l i n e . Your score i s the time to the nearest t e n t h of a second i t takes you to complete t h i s movement. You w i l l be given one t r i a l and then one s c o r i n g attempt. Item #3. The Z i g Zag Run T e s t : T h i s t e s t was administ to one subject at a time and s u p e r v i s e d by a member of the t e s t i n g team, who a l s o recorded the time of the run w i t h a stop watch. The f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s were read to the subject accompanied by a demonstration: Stand on the s t a r t i n g l i n e i n a semi-crouched p o s i t i o n . On the s i g n a l , 'ready, go', run forward and pass to the l e f t of the standard i n the middle of the r e c t a n g l e , then t u r n to your r i g h t and pass to the r i g h t of the next s t a n -dard and t u r n t o your l e f t . Run to the t h i r d standard and p a s s i t on the r i g h t , t u r n l e f t and pass the c e n t r e standard again t o the l e f t and t u r n to your r i g h t to the next standard. Pass t h i s on the r i g h t and t u r n l e f t heading f o r the s t a r t i n g l i n e . Repeat t h i s c i r c u i t twice more. Be c a r e f u l not to touch the standards on your way round and do not knock any over. You w i l l be allowed one t r i a l and one s c o r i n g attempt. Your score i s the number of 26 seconds to the nearest t e n t h that i t takes you to complete the course three times. FIGURE 1. Diagram of the Z i g Zag Run 16» 10' S t a r t i n g Line CHAPTER V RESULTS The data obtained from an experimental group and two c o n t r o l groups are summarized i n the accompanying t a b l e s . The Experimental Group underwent a t e n week weight t r a i n i n g programme. C o n t r o l Group I p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a badminton a c t i v i t y c l a s s f o r the same p e r i o d of time and C o n t r o l Group I I was r e s t r i c t e d from a l l p h y s i c a l e ducation a c t i v i t y . The s t a t i s t i c a l treatment of the r e s u l t s d e a l s w i t h the degree of improvement i n the mean performance of each of the three s e l e c t e d t e s t s of a g i l i t y i n the three groups; the comparison of the means of improvement i n each t e s t between any two of the three groups; and f i n a l l y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the three s e l e c t e d t e s t s of a g i l i t y . The Burpee T e s t : Each s u b j e c t i n the Experimental Group showed some improvement i n the performance of t h i s t e s t item. The i n c r e a s e d number of Burpee Squat T h r u s t s v a r i e d i n the group from 0.25'to 2,5. T h i s was not the case i n e i t h e r of the two c o n t r o l groups. In f a c t , o n l y 5 of the 12 s u b j e c t s of C o n t r o l Group I I showed an i n c r e a s e i n performance, ( c f . Appendix C, p.5'3). The d i f f e r e n c e s i n the performance l e v e l s of each group over the t e n week t r a i n i n g p e r i o d are summarized i n Table I . Of the th r e e groups, the Experimental Group and C o n t r o l Group I showed d i f f e r e n c e s between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t means that were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The mean improvement 28 of the Experimental Group was 1.53 w i t h a t - r a t i o of 5.7, which was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e . The Subjects of C o n t r o l Group I showed an i n c r e a s e i n mean performance of 0.6 w i t h a t - r a t i o of 2.9 which was s i g n i f i -cant at the 5 percent l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e , and C o n t r o l Group I I showed a s l i g h t decrease i n performance of -0.04 w i t h a t - r a t i o of 0.4 which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . TABLE I Comparison of R e s u l t s Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Means of The Burpee Test Burpee Test Mj_ SD]_ Mg SD 2 Mj^-Mg t Experimental Group 11.27 1.1 12.8 1.3 1.53 5.7 C o n t r o l Group I 10.5 1.3 11.1 1.07 0.6 2.9** C o n t r o l Group I I 13.46 1.0 13.5 1.0 -0.04 0.4 S i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence S i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence The Side Step T e s t ; Of the twelve s u b j e c t s In the Experimental Group only seven showed Improved times of performance. In C o n t r o l Group I, ten of the twelve s u b j e c t s e x h i b i t e d improved performances, and i n C o n t r o l Group I I , the performances of e i g h t of the twelve s u b j e c t s were a c t u a l l y poorer, ( c f . Appendix D, p.54). Table I I summarizes the d i f f e r e n c e s L i n performance l e v e l s of each group over the ten week p e r i o d . The most notable gain i n performance of t h i s t e s t item was e x h i b i t e d , 29 not by the Experimental Group, but by C o n t r o l Group I. In t h i s group the mean performance time f o r the t e s t was de-creased by 0.7 seconds whereas, the performance time of the Experimental Group was decreased by only 0.5 seconds. The' mean performance time of C o n t r o l Group I I was a c t u a l l y poorer by 0.2 seconds. The d i f f e r e n c e between the t e s t means of -0.7 seconds w i t h a t - r a t i o of 3.20 f o r C o n t r o l Group I was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e . The r e s u l t s of C o n t r o l Group I I were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . In the Experimental Group the mean improvement of the group i n the f i n a l t e s t was 0.5 seconds, and the t - r a t i o of 2.94 was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of co n f i d e n c e . TABLE I I Comparison of R e s u l t s Between I n i t i a l and P i n a l Means of The Side Step Test Side Step Test M]_ SD~i Mg SD 2 M]_-M2 t Experimental Group 9.7 0.93 9.2 0.78 -0.5 2.94 C o n t r o l Group I 10.0 1.37 9.3 0.95 -0.7 3.20 C o n t r o l Group I I 8.1 0.63 8.3 0.58 0.2 0.9 S i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence S i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence The Z i g Zag Run T e s t : Improved performance times v a r y i n g from 0.2 seconds t o 1.1 seconds were recorded f o r eleven of the twelve s u b j e c t s of the Experimental Group. 50 Only seven of twelve s u b j e c t s had improved performance times i n C o n t r o l Group I, whereas, the mean performance times of C o n t r o l Group I I showed a tendency to be slower. E i g h t of the twelve s u b j e c t s i n t h i s group had poorer performance times i n the f i n a l t e s t than i n the i n i t i a l t e s t , ( c f . Appendix E, p.55). A summary of the performance l e v e l s of each group i s shown i n Table I I I . Of the three groups, only the r e s u l t s of the Experimental Group appeared to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -cant. The improved performance r e s u l t s between the i n i t i a l t e s t mean and the f i n a l t e s t mean of -0.5 seconds ( t * 3 . 0 0 ) was acceptable at the 5 percent l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e . The mean improvement i n performance time of -0.4 seconds ( t = 1.6) f o r C o n t r o l Group I was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , and the r e s u l t s of C o n t r o l Group I I In which the group e x h i b i t e d an a c t u a l l o s s i n the d i f f e r e n c e between the i n i t i a l t e s t mean and the f i n a l t e s t mean of 0.04 seconds (t-0.6) was a l s o not s i g n i f i c a n t . TABLE I I I Comparison of R e s u l t s Between I n i t i a l and P i n a l Means of The Z i g Zag Run Z i g Zag Run Test M1 SD X M 2 SDg M^-Mg t Experimental Group 27.00 0.73 26.50 0.88 -0.5 3.0 ** C o n t r o l Group I 26.80 1.30 26.40 1.41 -0.4 1.6 C o n t r o l Group I I 25.37 .92 25.41 0.86 0.04 0.6 S i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence 31 The Experimental Group Compared With C o n t r o l Group I:The degree of improvement between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l r e s u l t s of each of the three t e s t s of the Experimental Group was compared wi t h that of C o n t r o l Group I . The e v a l u a t i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e between the means of the two groups i s shown i n Table IV. In none of the t e s t items was the mean improvement of. the Experimental Group found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than i n C o n t r o l Group I. The mean improvement i n the Experimental Group f o r the Burpee t e s t , was 1.5 squats, whereas, the mean improvement f o r the same item i n C o n t r o l Group I was only 0.6 squats. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e r e s u l t e d i n a t - r a t i o of 1.9 which, though not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of co n f i d e n c e , n e v e r t h e l e s s showed some tendency towards s i g n i f i c a n c e . In the Side Step t e s t the d i f f e r e n c e between the mean improvement of -0.5 seconds f o r the Experimental Group and a mean Improvement of -0.7 seconds f o r C o n t r o l Group I was not s u f f i c i e n t t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e ( t - 1 . 0 ) . S i m i l a r l y , i n the Z i g Zag Run t e s t the d i f f e r e n c e between the means of the Experimental Group (-0.5 seconds) and C o n t r o l Group I (-0.4 seconds) wi t h a t - r a t i o of 0.21 was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Degree of Improvement Between Means of Experimental Group and TABLE IV C o n t r o l Group I Test Item Experimental Group C o n t r o l Group I t Burpee Test Side Step Test Z i g Zag Run Test 1.53 -0.5 -0.5 0.6 -0.7 -0.4 1.9 0.6 0.21 32 Experimental Group Compared With C o n t r o l Group I I : The degree of improvement between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l r e s u l t s of each of the three t e s t Items of the Experimental Group was com-pared with that of C o n t r o l Group I I . D e t a i l s of the s i g n i f i -cance of the d i f f e r e n c e between the means of these-groups i s presented i n Table V. The r e s u l t s showed that i n a l l three of the s e l e c t e d t e s t items of a g i l i t y the mean improvements i n the Experimental Group were g r e a t e r than those i n C o n t r o l Group I I . In two of the items the improvements were s u f f i c i e n t l y great to be accepted s t a t i s t i c a l l y . The mean Improvement i n the Burpee Test f o r the Experimental Group was 1.53, whereas, f o r C o n t r o l Group I I i t was only 0.04. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a t - r a t i o of 3.4 which was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l ' o f c o n f i d e n c e . A t - r a t i o of 2.7 f o r the Side Step t e s t obtained f o r the d i f f e r e n c e between the Experimental Group (-0.5 seconds) and C o n t r o l Group I I (0.2 seconds) was a l s o s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , but at the 5 percent l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e . In the t h i r d item, the Z i g Zag Run t e s t , the degree of d i f f e r e n c e (t 1.4) between these two groups was not s u f f i c i e n t to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e . TABLE V The Degree of Improvement Between Means of Experimental Group and C o n t r o l Group I I Test Item Experimental Group C o n t r o l Group I I t Burpee Test 1.53 0.04 3.4 Side Step Test -0.5 0.2 2.7 Z i g Zag Run Test -0.5 0.04 1.4 33 C o n t r o l Group I Compared With C o n t r o l Group I I : The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e between the means of improvement of the two c o n t r o l groups was determined and the r e s u l t s were summarized i n Table VI. No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was e s t a b l i s h e d between the two c o n t r o l groups f o r e i t h e r the Burpee or the Z i g Zag Run t e s t s . The t - r a t i o of 1.4 f o r the Burpee T e s t and the t - r a t i o of 0.9 f o r the Z i g Zag Run Test were not s u f f i c i e n t to be accep t a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l l y . Comparison between the mean improvement i n performance i n the Side Step T e s t between C o n t r o l Group I (-0.7 seconds) and C o n t r o l Group I I (0.2 seconds) r e s u l t e d i n a t - r a t i o of 3.0 which was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence i n favour of C o n t r o l Group I. TABLE VI The Degree of Improvement Between Means of C o n t r o l Group I and C o n t r o l Group I I Tes t Item C o n t r o l Group I C o n t r o l Group I I t Burpee Test 0.6 0.04 1.4 Side Step T e s t -0.7 0.2 3.0 Z i g Zag Run Te s t 0.4 0.04 0.9 S i g n i f i c a n t at the 5.percent l e v e l of confidence I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n of Test Items: The i n i t i a l t e s t scores of the three groups i n each of the three t e s t items were combined and i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d . The score d i s t r i b u t i o n s of each t e s t item were grouped by means of a scattergram, and the c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n determined by a product moment 34 formula, ( c f . Appendix A, p.51). The r e s u l t s of the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between the three s e l e c t e d t e s t s of a g i l i t y are contained i n Table V I I ; The r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r two of the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s , the Side Step and the Z i g Zag ^un, and the Burpee and Side Step showed a r-0.59, whereas, i n the t h i r d i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n , Burpee and Z i g Zag, r-0.56. TABLE VII Degree of I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n Between T e s t s of A g i l i t y Test (N 36) r Side Step vs Z i g Zag Run 0.59 Burpee vs Side Step 0.59 Burpee vs Z i g Zag Run 0.56 CHAPTER VI DISCUSSION S e v e r a l advanced weight l i f t e r s t e s t e d by Counsilman (1) were found to be above average i n t h e i r performance of the Burpee, Crissr-Cross and Z i g Zag Run t e s t s of a g i l i t y . S i n c e , at the time of t e s t i n g , the s u b j e c t s were a l l c h r o n i c weight l i f t e r s , i t was not p o s s i b l e to determine whether a g i l i t y , as such, had a c t u a l l y been improved i n each i n d i v i d u a l because of weight l i f t i n g e x e r c i s e s . The r e s u l t s of the present study would i n d i c a t e that there was a tendency f o r a ten week weight t r a i n i n g programme t o improve performance i n three s e l e c t e d t e s t s of a g i l i t y , whereas, no such improvement r e s u l t e d In a c o n t r o l group that was w i t h h e l d from p a r t i c i -p a t i n g i n a p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . However, another p h y s i c a l e ducation a c t i v i t y , i n t h i s case badminton, a l s o showed tendencies toward improving c e r t a i n aspects of a g i l i t y , namely, the Burpee and the Side-Step t e s t , i n which s t a t i s - . t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e was e s t a b l i s h e d at the 5 percent and at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence r e s p e c t i v e l y . The r e s u l t s of a r e c e n t study by K u s i n i t z and Keeney (2) e s t a b l i s h e d that a weight t r a i n i n g programme s i g n i f i c a n t l y improved, at the 1 percent l e v e l , the a b i l i t y of 12-17 year o l d boys i n the performance of the Dodge Run and the Burpee t e s t s . The c o n t r o l group, which underwent a r o u t i n e programme of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , a l s o showed Improvement i n the Burpee t e s t s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l and the Dodge Run s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l . The authors concluded t h a t s i n c e there were improvements i n b o t h groups 36 that e i t h e r the i n c r e a s e s were due to l e a r n i n g or that b o t h programmes were e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n the development of these f a c t o r s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the study by K u s i n i t z and Keeney i s l i m i t e d t o a comparison between a weight t r a i n i n g group and a c o n t r o l group of r e g u l a r r o u t i n e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . Thus, comparisonbetween these r e s u l t s and those of the present study must be l i m i t e d to the r e s u l t s obtained by the Experimental Group and C o n t r o l Group I which p a r t i c i -pated i n a r e g u l a r programme of badminton. The r e s u l t s show that the d i f f e r e n c e s between the means of improvement of these two groups was small and that i n none of the three t e s t s are the d i f f e r e n c e s l a r g e enough to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l . The r e s u l t s , t h e r e f o r e , between the two s t u d i e s are s i m i l a r , and i t would appear that a g i l i t y , as measured by the t e s t s s e l e c t e d , tends to show improvement as a r e s u l t of a c t i v i t y , whether t h i s a c t i v i t y i s weight t r a i n -i n g or badminton or a r e g u l a r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme (3) . When the r e s u l t s are considered on the b a s i s of an a c t i v i t y as opposed to no a c t i v i t y i t then appears from t h i s study that s i g n i f i c a n t improvement of the weight t r a i n i n g group over the no a c t i v i t y group or C o n t r o l Group I I was s u f f i c i e n t to be s i g n i f i c a n t i n two of the three t e s t s of a g i l i t y . On the same b a s i s of comparison only one item of C o n t r o l Group I e x h i b i t e d a degree of improvement which was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t when compared wi t h the improvement of C o n t r o l Group II. 37 The l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h i s item, the Side Step t e s t , was unexpected. The mean performance time on the i n i t i a l t e s t f o r t h i s group was 10 seconds w i t h a standard d e v i a t i o n of 1.37, while the mean performance time on the f i n a l t e s t was 9.3 seconds w i t h a standard d e v i a t i o n of 0.95. The d i f f e r e n c e between these means of 0.7 seconds was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence (t=3.20). The p o s s i b i l i t y of a s i m i l a r i t y between the Side-Step and f o o t movement i n p l a y i n g badminton a r i s e s . However, the r e l a t i o n -s h i p , i f any, has s t i l l to be e s t a b l i s h e d . The degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p between the three items of a g i l i t y was found to be very low. T h i s i s i n agreement w i t h the theory of the s p e c i f i c i t y of motor a b i l i t y ( 4 ) . McCloy (5) i d e n t i f i e s the e x i s t e n c e of two separate f a c t o r s , a g i l i t y , and change of d i r e c t i o n , the l a t t e r measured by the Z i g Zag Run and the former by the Side Step and Burpee. A c c o r d i n g to t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , l i t t l e or no d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between the Side-Step and Burpee items. However, S i l l s (6) found a low c o r r e l a t i o n i n the a b i l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l s to perform these two items, and a c c o r d i n g l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d between them by r e f e r r i n g t o the Side Step t e s t as measuring t r a n s l a t o r y a g i l i t y and the Burpee t e s t as measuring n o n - t r a n s l a t o r y a g i l i t y . The low r e l a t i o n s h i p between these items e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s study supports such t h e o r i e s and p o i n t s out that a g i l i t y , f a r from b e i n g a common f a c t o r , i s , i n f a c t , a number of s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s . The r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l e f f e c t of weight t r a i n i n g upon the 38 Zig-Zag Run t e s t was. d i s a p p o i n t i n g i n view of the e f f e c t upon the other two t e s t items. P o s s i b l y the weight t r a i n i n g programme was not s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t e n s i v e or s u f f i c i e n t l y prolonged i n order to produce more pronounced e f f e c t s . The Dodge Run used by K u s i n i t z and Keeney (7) i n t h e i r study i s comparable to the Zig-Zag Run and both are b e l i e v e d to measure the f a c t o r of change of d i r e c t i o n , y e t K u s i n i t z and Keeney r e p o r t an improvement due to weight t r a i n i n g which was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l . Young, (8) on the other hand, s t a t e s t h a t g e n e r a l s t r e n g t h and l e g s t r e n g t h do not have any l a r g e e f f e c t upon the f a c t o r of change of d i r e c t i o n . S l i g h t disagreement e x i s t s at t h i s p o i n t and although the r e s u l t s of the present study tend to agree w i t h Young's c o n c l u s i o n s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , the q u e s t i o n i s not e n t i r e l y r e s o l v e d as i n i t i a l and f i n a l measurements of l e g s t r e n g t h were not recorded here. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study are l i m i t e d a c c o r d i n g to the a c t u a l programme of weight t r a i n i n g experienced by the experimental group. As the knowledge of f a c t s c o n cerning the e f f e c t s of weight t r a i n i n g a c crues, i t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y more d i f f i c u l t to g e n e r a l i z e about weight t r a i n i n g , as d i f f e r i n g programmes may have v a r y i n g e f f e c t s upon s t r e n g t h , muscular endurance and hypertrophy (9) (10). What e f f e c t these programmes, which vary a c c o r d i n g to s e t s , l o a d s , r e p e t i t i o n s and frequency of e x e r c i s e have upon f a c t o r s such as a g i l i t y , i s s t i l l undetermined. However, i t would appear that a c c o r d i n g to the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s study, weight t r a i n -59 i n g , f a r from having any d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t upon a g i l i t y , had i n f a c t a b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t upon c e r t a i n f a c e t s of i t . 40 REFERENCES 1 Counsilman, J . , "Does Weight T r a i n i n g Belong i n the Program?", J o u r n a l of the American A s s o c i a t i o n  f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , v o l . 26,(January 1955), p.17. 2 K u s i n i t z , I . , Keeney, C.E., " E f f e c t s of P r o g r e s s i v e Weight T r a i n i n g on H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of Adolescent Boys", Research Q u a r t e r l y , vol.29 (October 1958), p.294. 5 Loc. c i t . 4 Henry, F.M., " S p e c i f i c i t y vs G e n e r a l i t y i n L e a r n i n g Motor S k i l l s " , Proceedings, C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n  A s s o c i a t i o n , 61, 1958, p.126. 5 McCloy, C.H., Young, N.D., T e s t s and Measurements i n H e a l t h and PhysicaX~Education, New York, A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1954, p.4. 6 S i l l s , F.D., E v e r e t t , P., "The R e l a t i o n s h i p of Extreme Somatotypes to Performance i n Motor and S t r e n g t h T e s t s " , Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 24 (May 1953), p.227. 7 Young, K.E., An A n a l y t i c Study of the Tests of Change of D i r e c t i o n , Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , State U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, August, 1937, p.20. 8 McQueen, I . J . , "Recent Advances i n the Technique of P r o g r e s s i v e R e s i s t a n c e E x e r c i s e " , B r i t i s h  M e d i c a l J o u r n a l , (Nov. 20, 1954), p.1193-1197. 9 Capen, E.K., "Study of Four Programs of Heavy Res i s t a n c e E x e r c i s e f o r Development of Muscular S t r e n g t h " , Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 27 (May 1956) p.132. CHAPTER VII SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS T h i r t y - s i x U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f i r s t and second year students i n the r e q u i r e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t y programme were randomly s e l e c t e d and d i v i d e d i n t o three groups. Each group was submitted to a s e r i e s of three s e l e c t e d t e s t s of a g i l i t y , the Burpee t e s t , the Side Step t e s t and the Z i g Zag t e s t . The experimental group p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a ten weeks' p r o g r e s s i v e weight t r a i n i n g programme, and of the two c o n t r o l groups, one p a r t i c i p a t e d i n badminton while the other was excused from a l l c l a s s a c t i v i t y . At the end of the semester the three groups were r e - t e s t e d i n the same manner. Improvement was measured s t a t i s t i c a l l y w i t h i n each group and a comparison of t h i s improvement was made between the groups. On the b a s i s of s t a t i s t i c a l treatment the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were e v i d e n t : 1. The Experimental Group averaged gains i n the performance of the Burpee T e s t (t=5.7) that were s t a t i s t i -c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence and i n the Side Step Test (t-2.94) and the Z i g Zag Run Test (t-3.00) that were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of co n f i d e n c e . 2. C o n t r o l Group I, which p a r t i c i p a t e d i n badminton f o r the semester, showed a gain i n the Side Step Test (t~3.20) which was s i g n i f i c a n t . The t r a t i o e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the Burpee T e s t (t-2.9) was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t , whereas, that of the 42 Z i g Zag Run Test (t=1.6) was not s i g n i f i c a n t . 3,. C o n t r o l Group I I , which was excused from a l l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s a c t i v i t y , e x h i b i t e d d i f f e r e n c e s between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t means that were not s i g n i f i c a n t . 4. The improvement of the Experimental Group d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y exceed the improvement of C o n t r o l Group I i n any of the t e s t s , whereas, i t s i g n i f i c a n t l y exceeded the improvement of C o n t r o l Group I I i n both the Burpee Teat (t=3.4) and the Side Step Test ( t - 2 . 7 ) . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of d i f f e r e n c e between these groups f o r the Z i g Zag Run wit h a t r a t i o of 1.4, though t e n d i n g towards s i g n i f i c a n c e , was n e v e r t h e l e s s , not acceptable at the 5 percent l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e . 5. The improvement of C o n t r o l Group I s i g n i f i c a n t l y exceeded the improvement of C o n t r o l Group I I i n the Side Step Test only ( t - 3 . 0 ) . 6. In no case d i d the improvement of e i t h e r of the C o n t r o l Groups exceed the improvement of the Experimental Group. 7. The s p e c i f i c nature of the f a c t o r of gen e r a l a g i l i t y i s i n d i c a t e d by the low c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n determined by the product moment formula between the three items, r e v e a l i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p of 0.59 f o r two of the c o r r e l a t i o n s and 0.56 f o r the t h i r d c o r r e l a t i o n between the Burpee and Z i g Zag t e s t s . On the b a s i s of these r e s u l t s , evidence i s pro v i d e d which i n d i c a t e s weight t r a i n i n g to be an e f f e c t i v e means of deve l o p i n g those aspects of a g i l i t y measured by the Burpee and 4 3 Side Step T e s t s , r e f e r r e d to as t r a n s l a t o r y and n o n t r a n s l a t o r y a g i l i t y . I t f u r t h e r appears that a semester of badminton i s a l s o e f f e c t i v e i n d e v e l o p i n g these aspects of a g i l i t y . Improvement i n the f a c t o r of change of d i r e c t i o n , though not s i g n i f i c a n t , was, n e v e r t h e l e s s , s u f f i c i e n t to show that there were no d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s due to the heavy p r o g r e s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e e x e r c i s e s of the weight t r a i n i n g programme. 44 BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , Research Methods A p p l i e d to H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , Washington D.C., Department of N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1952. Barrow, H.M., Motor A b i l i t y T e s t i n g f o r C o l l e g e Men, M i n n e a p o l i s , Burgess, 1957. Bovard, J.F., Cozens, F.W., Hagman, E.P., T e s t s and Measurements i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 3rd ed., P h i l a d e l p h i a , W.B. Saunders, 1949. C l a r k e , H.H., A p p l i c a t i o n of Measurement to H e a l t h and  P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 2nd ed., Englewood C l i f f s , P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1950. Delorme, T.L., Watkins, A.L., P r o g r e s s i v e R e s i s t a n c e E x e r c i s e , New York, A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1951. Preund, J.E., Modern Elementary S t a t i s t i c s , New York, P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1952. G a r r e t t , H.E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and E d u c a t i o n , 5th ed., New York, Longmans, Green, 1958. Larson, L., Yocum, R., Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n i n P h y s i c a l  H e a l t h and R e c r e a t i o n E d u c a t i o n , S t . L o u i s , C.V. Mosby, 1951. Lindhard, J . , The Theory of Gymnastics, 3rd ed., London, Methuen, 1949. McCloy, C.H., T e s t s and Measurements In H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l  E d u c a t i o n , 2nd ed., New York, C r o f t s , 1942. McCloy, C.H., Young, N.D., Tests and Measurements i n H e a l t h  and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , New York, Appleton-Century-C r o f t s , 1954. Mathews, D.K., Measurement In P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , P h i l a d e l p h i a , W.B. Saunders, 1958. Murray, Weight L i f t i n g and P r o g r e s s i v e R e s i s t a n c e E x e r c i s e , New York, Ronald P r e s s , 1954. Murray, J . , Karpovich, P.V., Weight T r a i n i n g i n A t h l e t i c s , Englewood C l i f f s , P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1955. BOOKS (Cont'd) Rummel, J.F., An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Research Procedures i n  E d u c a t i o n , New York, Harper Bros., 1958. S c o t t , M.G., French, E., B e t t e r Teaching Through T e s t i n g , New York, A.S. Barnes, 1945. Weiss, R.A., P h i l l i p s , M., A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Tests i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , S t . L o u i s , C.V. Mosby, 1954. PERIODICALS Barrow, H.M., "Test of Motor A b i l i t y f o r C o l l e g e Men", Research Q u a r t e r l y , vol.25 (October 1954), pp.253-260. Bookwalter, K.W., "Research Evidence of Gains i n Motor F i t n e s s " , Proceedings, C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n  A s s o c i a t i o n , 60, 1957, pp.59-66. Capen, E.K., "The E f f e c t of Systematic Weight T r a i n i n g on Power, S t r e n g t h and Endurance", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 21 (May 1950), pp.83-93. Capen, E.K., "A Study of Four Programs of Heavy R e s i s t a n c e E x e r c i s e s f o r Development of Muscular S t r e n g t h " , Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 27 (May 1956), pp.132-142. Carpenter, A., "An A n a l y s i s of the R e l a t i o n s h i p of the F a c t o r s of V e l o c i t y , S t r e n g t h and Dead Weight to A t h l e t i c Performance", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 12 (March 1941), pp. 34-40. C h u i , E., " E f f e c t of Systematic Weight T r a i n i n g on A t h l e t i c Power", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 21 (October 1950), pp. 188-194. Counsilman, J . , "Does Weight T r a i n i n g Belong i n the Program?", J o u r n a l of the American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , v o l . 26 (January 1955), p.15-17. Cousins, G.S., "A F a c t o r A n a l y s i s of S e l e c t e d Wartime F i t n e s s T e s t s " , Unpublished Doctor's T h e s i s , Indiana, 1951, c i t e d i n Bookwalter, K.W., "Research Gains i n Motor F i t n e s s " , Proceedings, C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 60, 1957, pp.59-66. Cureton,' T.K., "The U n f i t n e s s of Young Men- i n Motor F i t n e s s " , J o u r n a l of the American M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , v o l . 123, (September 1943), pp.69-74. 46 PERIODICALS (Cont'd) Edgren, H.D., "An Experiment i n the T e s t i n g of A b i l i t y and Progress i n B a s k e t b a l l " , Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 3 (March 1932), pp.159-171. Fl u k e , D.W., " T r a i n i n g With Weights, S c h o l a s t i c Coach, v o l . 27 (October 1957), pp.22-25. Henry, F.M., " S p e c i f i c i t y vs G e n e r a l i t y i n L e a r n i n g Motor S k i l l s " , Proceedings, C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n  A s s o c i a t i o n , 61,1958, pp.126-128. Houtz, S.J., "The In f l u e n c e of Heavy Res i s t a n c e E x e r c i s e on S t r e n g t h " , The Physiotherapy Review, v o l . 26 (May 1949), K u s i n i t z , J . , Keeney, C.E., " E f f e c t s of P r o g r e s s i v e Weight T r a i n i n g on H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of Adolescent Boys', Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 29 (October 1958), pp. 294-S"0"!n Lafuse, M., "A Study of the Le a r n i n g of Fundamental S k i l l s by C o l l e g e Freshman Women of Low Motor A b i l i t y " , Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 22 (May 1951), pp.149-157. McQueen, J . , "Recent Advances i n the Technique of P r o g r e s s i v e Resistance E x e r c i s e " , B r i t i s h M e d i c a l  J o u r n a l , November 20, 1954, pp.1193-1197. , Masley, J.W., Ha i r a b e d i a u , A., Donaldson, D.N., "Weight T r a i n i n g i n R e l a t i o n to St r e n g t h , Speed and C o o r d i n a t i o n " , Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 24 (October 1953), pp.308-3TB~: Massey, B.H., Chaudet, N.L., " E f f e c t of Systematic Heavy Resi s t a n c e E x e r c i s e s on Range of J o i n t Movement i n Young Adu l t Males", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 27 (March 1956), p p . 4 1 - 5 T : Rasch, P.J., Morehouse, L.E., " E f f e c t of S t a t i c and Dynamic E x e r c i s e s on Muscular St r e n g t h and Hypertrophy", J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d P h y s i o l o g y , v o l . 12 ( J u l y 1957), pp.29-40. S i l l s , F.D., E v e r e t t , P., "The R e l a t i o n s h i p of Extreme Somatotypes to Performance i n Motor and S t r e n g t h T e s t s " , Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 24 (May 1953), pp.149-157. Thompson, C.W., "Some P h y s i o l o g i c E f f e c t s of I s o m e t r i c and I s o t o n i c Work i n Man", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 25 (December 1954), pp.476-482. 47 PERIODICALS (Cont'd) W a l t e r s , E., " S c i e n t i f i c Foundations of the Overload System", S c h o l a s t i c Coach, v o l . 27 ( A p r i l 1958), pp.20-23. W i l k i n , B.M., "The E f f e c t ' of Weight T r a i n i n g on Speed of Movement", Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 23, (October 1952), pp.361-369. W i l l g o o s e , C.E., Rogers, M.L., " R e l a t i o n s h i p of Somatotypes to P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s " , J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 1, v o l . 42 (May 1949), pp.704-712. Wolbers, C P . , S i l l s , F., "Development of S t r e n g t h i n High School Boys by S t a t i c Muscle C o n t r a c t i o n s " , Research  Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 24 (December 1956), pp.446-450. Young, K.E., "An A n a l y t i c Study of the T e s t s of Change of D i r e c t i o n " , Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , State U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, August, 1937. Zorbas, W.S., Karpovich, P.V., " E f f e c t of Weight L i f t i n g Upon the Speed of Muscular C o n t r a c t i o n s " , Research  Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 22 (May 1951), pp.145-148. 48 APPENDIX .APPENDIX A STATISTICAL TREATMENT The raw scores obtained from the i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t r e s u l t s of the three t e s t items of a g i l i t y from each of 3 groups were analyzed s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: Study Design A. Experimental........Weight T r a i n i n g B. C o n t r o l I Badminton C. C o n t r o l I I ..No a c t i v i t y T e sts of A g i l i t y 1. Burpee Squat Thrust 2. Z i g Zag Run 3. Side Step P l a n Group A Group B Group C 1 1 1 2 2, 2 3 3 3 Procedure and Formulae 1. Determination of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of d i f f e r e n c e between c o r r e l a t e d means of the i n i t i a l and f i n a l r e s u l t s of each t e s t i n each group. The l e v e l of confidence was r e q u i r e d to r e a c h 0.05 to be a c c e p t a b l e . The t a b l e of t at both the 0.05 and 0.01 l e v e l of confidence f o r eleven degrees of freedom (n-1) i s shown as 2.20 and 3.11 r e s p e c t i v e l y . (1). 50 To o b t a i n s i g n i f i c a n c e the f o l l o w i n g formulae were used: 1. No. of Subjects (N) 2. Mean Score X.x N 3. Standard D e v i a t i o n / Z x 2 6 -JTW=TT 4. Standard E r r o r of Mean dT,- -5. D i f f e r e n c e between Means (M1-M2) 6. C o r r e l a t i o n between I n i t i a l and P i n a l R e s u l t s 7. Standard E r r o r of the D i f f e r e n c e between C o r r e l a t e d Means 8. C a l c u l a t i o n of the " t " R a t i o "S.E.DIff. 2. Determination of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of d i f f e r e n c e i n the means of Improvement i n each t e s t item between groups. The l e v e l of confidence was r e q u i r e d to r e a c h 0.05 to be a c c e p t a b l e . The t a b l e of t at bot h the 0.05 and 0.01 l e v e l of confidence f o r eleven degrees of freedom (N-l) Is shown as 2.20 and 3.11 r e s p e c t i v e l y . ( 2 ) . To o b t a i n s i g n i f i c a n c e the f o l l o w i n g procedure was used: 1. No. of Subjects (N) 2. Mean Scores of I n i t i a l Test 51 3. Standard D e v i a t i o n of I n i t i a l T e s t 4. Mean Scores of P i n a l T e s t 5. Standard D e v i a t i o n of P i n a l Test 6. Gain i n Means 7. Standard E r r o r of Means of P i n a l Test 8. Standard E r r o r of the D i f f e r e n c e of Means (u n c o r r e l a t e d ) 9. C a l c u l a t i o n of the t r a t i o 3. Determination of the degree of i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n between the e n t i r e I n i t i a l scores of each t e s t item. a) The raw scores were grouped and p l o t t e d on a scat t e r g r a m b) The c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n was obtained by the product moment formula i n c o r p o r a t i n g the data d e r i v e d from the scattergram. 1*X. - <J«Jv r « _ H l_ REFERENCES 1. G a r r e t t , H.E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and E d u c a t i o n , 5th ed., New York, Longmans, Green, 1958, p.449. 2. Loc. c i t . APPENDIX B INDIVIDUAL SCORE SHEET Name .... Age Phone No Time A c t i v i t y . TESTS RESULTS Item #1 (a) ( b ) . . . . . . . . . ( c ) . . . . . . Item #2 ..seconds Item #3 seconds Date Stamp V APPENDIX C RAW SCORES FOR THE BURPEE TEST EXPERIMENTAL GROUP CONTROL GROUP I CONTROL GROUP I I Subj . I n i t i a l Teat F i n a l Test Subj . I n i t i a l Test F i n a l Test Subj I n i t i a l Test F i n a l 1 11.00 13.5 1 11.50 11.50 1 14.75 14.50 2 11.75 12.00 2 11.75 • 12.00 2 2 13.50 14.25 3 12.50 15.00 3 9.50 10.50 3 13.75 14.00 4 12.25 13.75 4 12.50 11.75 4 13.25 13.50 5 10.50 12.75 5 11.25 11.75 5 14.50 14.50 6 11.25 12.50 6 9.50 10.50 6 11.75 11.75 7 11.25 12.50 7 8.75 9.50 7 13.50 13.00 8 12.00 15.00 8 10.25 10.50 8 13.75 13.75 9 10.75 12.00 9 9.50 10.00 9 13.75 14.50 10 8.50 11.00 10 12.50 13.50 10 12.75 12.25 11 10.75 11.00 11 9.50 11.00 11 11.75 12.00 12 12.25 13.00 12 9.50 10.50 12 14.50 14.00 APPENDIX D RAW SCORES FOR THE SIDE STEP TEST EXPERIMENTAL GROUP CONTROL GROUP I CONTROL GROUP I I Subj . I n i t i a l Test F i n a l Test Subj . I n i t i a l Test F i n a l Test Subj I n i t i a l Test F i n a l 1 8.5 8.7 1 8.0 7.4 1 7.6 7.4 2 11.0 10.0 2 9.4 9.0 2 7.5 7.4 3 9.1 8.6 3 8.-4 8.3 3 7.8 7.9 4 11.2 11.2 . 4 7.4 10.5 4 7.6 8.0 5 10.0 9.3 5 10.5 9.8 5 8.6 8.7 6 9.2 8.9 6 11.2 9.6 6 7.6 7.7 7 9.6 9.2 7 11,4 10,6 7 8.0 8.7 8 10.9 9.3 8 10.0 10.0 8 7.7 8.1 9 9.5 8.9 9 10.4 8.7 9 8.6 8.5 10 9.2 8.5 10 11.5 8.7 10 9.4 9.0 11 9.7 9.7 11 10.9 9.0 11 8.7 8.7 12 8.5 8.5 12 10.5 10.0 12 8.8 9.0 APPENDIX E RAW SCORES FOR THE ZIG ZAG RUN EXPERIMENTAL GROUP CONTROL GROUP I CONTROL GROUP II Subj . I n i t i a l Test F i n a l Test Subj . I n i t i a l Test F i n a l T e s t Subj I n i t i a l Test F i n d 1 26.5 25.6 1 25.9 25.3 1 24.1 24.5 2 28.2 28.0 2; 24.8 24.6 2 24.3 24.4 3 26.6 26.0 3 26.4 26.5 3 24.7 25.0 4 27.4 27.6 4 27.4 26.0 4 24.6 24.4 5 27.5 27.0 5 26.9 29.6 5 25.6 25.7 6 27.5 27.0 6 26.1 26.5 6 26.2 26.1 7 26.2 26.0 7 27.3 26.5 7 25.8 25. 2 8 27.2 26.2 8 27.3 28.0 8 24.8 25. 1 9 27.4 26.5 9 28.0 28.5 9 24.8 25. 0 10 27.5 27.0 10 25.3 25.2 10 26.4 26. 3 11 25.5 24.8 11 27.0 25.8 11 26.6 27. o 12 26.9 26.4 12 26.8 25.0 12 26.5 26,. 3 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0077199/manifest

Comment

Related Items