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The effect of weight training on certain measures of agility Morford, Walter Robert 1959

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THE EFFECT OF WEIGHT TRAINING ON CERTAIN MEASURES OF A G I L I T Y  fey  WALTER ROBERT MORFORD B.P.E. U n i v e r s i t y  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1956.  A. THESIS SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of PHYSICAL EDUCATION  We a c c e p t . t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA August, 1959.  ABSTRACT The of weight  purpose of t h i s  s t u d y was  to determine  t r a i n i n g on g e n e r a l a g i l i t y ,  and  the  effect  further,  to  examine t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p r o g r e s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e e x e r c i s e , as o p p o s e d t o b a d m i n t o n , i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f g e n e r a l T h r e e f a c t o r s , n o n - t r a n s l a t o r y , t r a n s l a t o r y and  change o f  d i r e c t i o n were i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e as b e i n g components o f g e n e r a l a g i l i t y .  T h i r t y - s i x U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h students  enrolled  separate  Suitable tests representing  t h e s e f a c t o r s were s e l e c t e d t o e x a m i n e t h e  second year  agility.  hypotheses.  Columbia f i r s t  and  i n t h e s e r v i c e programme o f  t h e S c h o o l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n were r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d and d i v i d e d i n t o three groups. Experimental one  F o l l o w i n g the i n i t i a l  Group u n d e r w e n t a programme o f w e i g h t  o f t h e C o n t r o l g r o u p s p l a y e d b a d m i n t o n and  C o n t r o l g r o u p was activity.  tests,  the  training,  the  second  r e s t r i c t e d from a l l p h y s i c a l education  A t t h e end  o f t h e t e n week p e r i o d , t h e t h r e e  groups  were r e t e s t e d i n t h e same m a n n e r . The  Experimental  Group a v e r a g e d g a i n s i n p e r f o r m a n c e  t h a t were s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a l l three  items,  w h e r e a s , C o n t r o l Group I ( B a d m i n t o n ) e x h i b i t e d g a i n s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y tests only. for  No  significant  statistically  i n t h e B u r p e e and significant  C o n t r o l Group I I (no a c t i v i t y ) .  Experimental  Group d i d n o t  The  significantly  ment o f C o n t r o l Group I i n any  that  Side  g a i n s were  Step obtained  improvement of exceed the  of the t e s t s , but  the  improve-  did,  however, s i g n i f i c a n t l y exceed the Group I I i n t h e  B u r p e e and  Side  improvement of  Step t e s t s .  The  o f C o n t r o l Group I s i g n i f i c a n t l y e x c e e d e d t h a t o f Group I I i n t h e relationship I t was developing  was  Step Test o n l y .  A low  e s t a b l i s h e d between the  non-translatory  and  three  also effective  translatory  i n developing  improvement Control  statistical  c o n c l u d e d t h a t w e i g h t t r a i n i n g was  b a d m i n t o n was agility.  Side  Control  test  Items.  effective  agility,  and  these aspects  in that of  In p r e s e n t i n g the  this  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  thesis in partial  advanced degree at the  Of  B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that  it  freely  agree t h a t for  the  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and permission for extensive  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  D e p a r t m e n t o r by  be  gain  s h a l l not  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  Physical  Education  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r B, C a n a d a . Date  August 30,  1959  study.  I  Columbia,  ;  make  further  copying of t h i s  his representatives.  c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s  Department of  shall  the  of  University  Library  g r a n t e d by  that  be  fulfilment  Head o f  thesis my  I t i s understood  thesis  for  written  financial  permission.  TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER I  PAGE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  1  II  J U S T I F I C A T I O N OF THE PROBLEM  2  III  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  6  IV  METHODS AND PROCEDURE  20  RESULTS  29  DISCUSSIONL  35  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  41  V VI VII  BIBLIOGRAPHY  44  APPENDICES A. S T A T I S T I C A L TREATMENT  49  B. INDIVIDUAL  52  SCORE SHEET  C. RAW SCORES FOR BURPEE TEST  53  D. RAW SCORES FOR SIDE STEP TEST  54  E. RAW SCORES FOR Z I G ZAG TEST  55  L I S T OF TABLES I II III IV V VI VII  Comparison o f R e s u l t s Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Means o f t h e B u r p e e T e s t Comparison o f R e s u l t s Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Means o f t h e S i d e S t e p T e s t C o m p a r i s o n o f R e s u l t s B e t w e e n I n i t i a l and F i n a l Means o f t h e Z i g Z a g T e s t D e g r e e o f Improvement B e t w e e n Means o f E x p e r i m e n t a l Group a n d C o n t r o l Group 1 D e g r e e o f Improvement B e t w e e n Means o f E x p e r i m e n t a l Group a n d C o n t r o l Group I I D e g r e e o f Improvement B e t w e e n Means o f C o n t r o l Group I and C o n t r o l Group I I Degree o f I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n Between T e s t s of A g i l i t y  28 29 30 31 32 33 34  L I S T OF FIGURES I  D i a g r a m o f t h e Z i g Z a g Run  26  CHAPTER I  STATEMENT OP THE PROBLEM The  problem,  general a g i l i t y  i s t o determine the e f f e c t  of a semester  s e c o n d l y , whether development  initially,  weight  of weight  training  of general a g i l i t y  training;  and  i s mora e f f e c t i v e  t h a n a badminton  upon  i n the  activity  programme.  The three the  test  items s e l e c t e d  t o examine t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s a r e  a c c e p t e d measures o f a g i l i t y ,  S i d e S t e p and t h e Z i g Z a g Run.  t h e Burpee  Squat  Thrust,  CHAPTER I I J U S T I F I C A T I O N OF THE PROBLEM I t has b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d the important of  agility  fitness  components  are u s u a l l y  test  of motor a b i l i t y ,  former the  Is s t r e n g t h .  other factors  and m o t o r  McCloy,  important  (2) b y f a c t o r  components, a g i l i t y  are both  factors  affected  General a g i l i t y  three f a c t o r s .  The  ( 3 , p.4)  s t u d i e s ( 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ) have shown t h a t t h e  o f s t r e n g t h , speed  training.  and t h e  whereas,  i s d e p e n d e n t u p o n s t r e n g t h and s p e e d .  are b e n e f i c i a l l y  analysis,  oblique f a c t o r s .  i s d e p e n d e n t u p o n s t r e n g t h and v e l o c i t y ,  latter  f a c t o r of  as b e i n g e q u a l l y d o m i n a n t , and  t o change d i r e c t i o n ,  Experimental  in  (1) t h e most  that the c l o s e l y r e l a t e d  ability  I t thus  and power  (force  by a p l a n n e d is directly  seems l o g i c a l  as much as t h e o r t h o g o n a l f a c t o r s  times  velocity)  programme o f  weight  dependent upon to hypothesize  a r e Improved b y  that, weight  so a l s o w i l l  agility.  F u r t h e r , a l t h o u g h r e s e a r c h has b e e n c o n d u c t e d  areas  o f weight  s u c h as power  ibility  be t h e d e p e n d e n t f a c t o r  these  training,  the e f f e c t  training ( 8 ) , speed  evidence  of general  on a number o f s p e c i f i c  on  motor  ( 9 ) , endurance ( 1 0 ) , f l e x -  (11) and s t r e n g t h (12, 1 3 ) , t h e r e s t i l l  conclusive  tests  batteries.  general a g i l i t y  states  i s one o f  and f u r t h e r ,  i n c l u d e d i n motor a b i l i t y  According to Cousins,  identified  that general a g i l i t y  o f i t s e f f e c t upon g e n e r a l  remains agility.  no  3  Therefore,  i n view of these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ,  seem w o r t h w h i l e t o c o n d u c t a s t u d y on t h e e f f e c t training  upon c e r t a i n  measures  of  agility.  i t would of weight  4  REFERENCES  1  Cousins,  2  McCloy, C H . , Young, N.D., T e s t s and Measurements i n H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , New Y o r k , A p p l e t o n Century-Crofts, 1954.  3  Loc. c i t .  4  Capen, E.K., " S t u d y o f F o u r Programs o f Heavy R e s i s t a n c e E x e r c i s e s f o r Development of M u s c u l a r S t r e n g t h " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 27, (May, 1956), pp. 132-142.  5  W i l k i n , B.M., "The E f f e c t o f W e i g h t T r a i n i n g on Movement", R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 2 3 , 1952) , pp. 361-369.  6  Z o r b a s , W.A., K a r p o v i c h , P.V., "The E f f e c t o f W e i g h t L i f t i n g Upon t h e Speed o f M u s c u l a r C o n t r a c t i o n s " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 2 2 (May, 1 9 5 1 ) , pp.145-148.  7  Chui,  8  Loc. c i t .  9  Capen, l o c . c i t .  E.,  G-.S., "A F a c t o r A n a l y s i s o f S e l e c t e d Wartime Fitness Tests", Unpublished Doctor's Thesis, I n d i a n a , 1951, p.113, c i t e d i n B o o k w a l t e r , K.W., "Research Gains i n Motor F i t n e s s " , P r o c e e d i n g s , C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 60, 1957, pp. 59-66.  Speed o f (October,  "The E f f e c t o f S y s t e m a t i c W e i g h t T r a i n i n g on A t h l e t i c Power", R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 21 ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 5 0 ) , pp.188-194.  10  Capen, E.K., "The E f f e c t o f S y s t e m a t i c W e i g h t T r a i n i n g on Power, S t r e n g t h and E n d u r a n c e " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 2 1 (May, 1 9 5 0 ) , pp.83-93.  11  M a s s e y , B.H., C h a u d e t , N.L., " E f f e c t s of S y s t e m a t i c , Heavy R e s i s t a n c e E x e r c i s e s on Range o f J o i n t Movement i n Young A d u l t M a l e s " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 2 7 (March, 1 9 5 6 ) , pp.41-51.  12  M a s l e y , J.W., H a r i a b e d i a u , A., D o n a l d s o n , D.N., "Weight T r a i n i n g i n R e l a t i o n t o S t r e n g t h , Speed and C o o r d i n a t i o n " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 24 (October 1953) , pp.308-315:  5  15  R a s c h , P . J . , M o r e h o u s e , L . E . , " E f f e c t o f S t a t i c and Dynamic E x e r c i s e s on M u s c u l a r S t r e n g t h and Hypertrophy", J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d P h y s i o l g o y , vol.12 (July, 1957)  CHAPTER I I I  REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE Cureton defines reaction action  agility  i n c o n t r o l l e d n i m b l e movements, r a b b i t  and t o move q u i c k l y ,  I t may t h u s be s a i d t h a t movement r e q u i r i n g coordination against  (2,  dexterously  agility  complete  o f movements.  f o r fast like i n  and e a s i l y . " (1)  i s q u i c k and e f f i c i e n t  control  o f t h e body w i t h  Agility  further  implies  rapid movement  time.  The is  a s , "The c a p a c i t y  value  illustrated  of a g i l i t y  i n sports  In the continuation  and p e r s o n a l  survival  of Cureton's d e f i n i t i o n ,  p.70). I t i m p l i e s a b i l i t y t o dodge a b a l l o r a missile quickly; to spring quickly to the f e e t ; t o c l i m b up a c a r g o n e t q u i c k l y or t o z i g zag q u i c k l y i n r u n n i n g from s h e l l h o l e t o s h e l l h o l e ; t o g e t down and up q u i c k l y ; t o p u t on a l i f e p r e s e r v e r o r a parachute q u i c k l y ; perhaps, to climb out o f a b u r n i n g p l a n e q u i c k l y ; o r t o p u l l o n e s e l f i n t o a l i f e b o a t , t o climb a rope onto a s h i p o r t o l o w e r o n e s e l f b y r o p e f r o m a b u r n i n g b o a t and t o v a u l t o n t o a horse or v e h i c l e q u i c k l y .  The  examples a r e s p e c i f i c i n e a c h c a s e , t h a t  dodge, t o c l i m b , t o v a u l t , up  a q u a l i t y that  "general  Is to  t o z i g z a g ; b u t t o g e t h e r t h e y sum  i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l be r e f e r r e d  t o as  agility".  Clarke  (3) on t h e o t h e r hand d e f i n e s  agility  as, " S k i l l s  r e q u i r i n g r a p i d movement o f t h e e n t i r e body i n d i f f e r e n t  7 directions  and i n r e s p o n s e  dodging i n f o o t b a l l , in  given  term a g i l i t y .  and  running,  m e n t i o n i s made o f t h r e e  implies  associated  stunts  different sports,  w i t h each area  i n the  i n each case a d i f f e r e n t aspect  In f o o t b a l l  In basketball  factor.  Lindhard,  gymnastics, describes  balance  dodging, a g i l i t y  may be  of the  qualified  p i v o t i n g , by p o s i t i o n a l change,  (4) i n d i s c u s s i n g agility  as b e i n g  agility  exercises  closely related to  on t h e one hand a n d t o j u m p i n g on t h e o t h e r ,  McCloy, of  and a g i l e  as i n  i n g y m n a s t i c s by a c o m b i n a t i o n o f b o t h o r y e t e v e n a  third in  pivoting i n basketball  the form o f a g i l i t y  examples  by  circumstances;  gymnastics." Here, s p e c i f i c  and  t o unexpected  (5) w r i t i n g i n 1939, s t a t e s  the fundamental a b i l i t i e s  and d e f i n e s  that  Agility  i s not confined  I s one  i t as t h e a b i l i t y  t o change t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e body o r p a r t s space r a p i d l y .  agility  o f t h e body i n  to the large  muscle  g r o u p s o r t o t h e body as a w h o l e .  In p h y s i c a l education, l a r g e muscle to parts aspect  g r o u p s and t h e whole b o d y .  o f t h e body and s m a l l m u s c l e  Of a g i l i t y  playing. it  which i s e x h i b i t e d  When a g i l i t y  implies  The  the primary concern i s with the  the a b i l i t y  fact  that  McCloy's  reference  groups r e f e r s t o t h a t i n typing  and p i a n o  o f t h e body as a whole i s r e f e r r e d t o , t o change t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e b o d y .  general  agility  m i g h t be made up o f f a c t o r s  o r components w h i c h were r e l a t e d more s p e c i f i c a l l y  to c e r t a i n  8 types the As  of a g i l i t y  statistical a result,  was  technique  not  one,  were e s t a b l i s h e d . the  as and  an  The  oblique  was  but  McCloy  f a c t o r of the  of a g i l i t y .  e s t a b l i s h e d r e c e n t l y as  ability ability  two  (6) d e s c r i b e s to to  as  the  efficiency  and  position  of the body r a p i d l y .  s p e e d , was  L a r s o n and  an  to  state  of  Yocum  an  defined  (7)  of footwork;  oblique as  describe  the  important  element  areas.  agility  the  ability  as  thought  i n most s p o r t s .  The  of  velocity  whereas,  to  also  which they  as  factor  f a c t o r dependent  agility  change o f d i r e c t i o n ,  of  components  change d i r e c t i o n was  strength  be  these  change d i r e c t i o n and  a l s o t h o u g h t t o be  element  components o f g e n e r a l  f a c t o r d e p e n d e n t upon s t r e n g t h and  defined  result  of f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i n motor  agility,  the  the  upon  change  the  including  consider  authors  go  to on  that: Speed i s a n o t h e r e l e m e n t i n t h e s u c c e s s f u l performance of a g i l i t y . The i n d i v i d u a l who i s a b l e t o change f r o m one p o s i t i o n t o a n o t h e r w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t s p e e d and c o o r d i n a t i o n has t h e h i g h e s t degree of f i t n e s s i n t h i s component. A g i l i t y i n some i n s t a n c e s c a l l s f o r s t r e n g t h and e n d u r a n c e .  Earlier  d e f i n i t i o n s of a g i l i t y  forms o f q u i c k  movement.  Gradually,  t i a t i o n between forms o f a g i l i t y r e a c h e d where a g i l i t y activities involve  was  running.  encompass a l l  however, t h e  evolved  considered  i n v o l v i n g running  tended to  as  until  the  differenpoint  either referring  or to a c t i v i t i e s  that  do  not  was to  9 The  possible existence  component and  of  Everett  general (8)  significantly and  "Side  i s revealed  i n w h i c h i t was  superior to  the  another measurable i n a study  ectomorphs i n the but  that  "Burpee S q u a t T h r u s t " ,  b e l i e v e t h a t the  relative rapidly Cross"  and  entailed  "Side  only  area  In the  there  was  two  The  Squat T h r u s t "  t o move t h e  The  "Burpee Squat  s t r e n g t h of the  authors  test  total  describe  the  "Criss Cross"  "translatory" agility  another without  and  the 3.  implies  to consider to r e f e r  agility  to  agility  and  the  the  "Side "Burpee  agility. body mass stepping,  spot".  though  form, i t  now  components, e s p e c i a l l y  certain s k i l l  appear r e a d i l y  less  and  i e . side  in its total  to s p e c i f i c  change o f d i r e c t i o n the  "on  of  f i n d i n g s t o d a t e would i n d i c a t e t h a t ,  components, t h r e e 1.  greater  "Criss  mesomorphs was  as m e a s u r i n g " n o n - t r a n s l a t o r y "  whereas, n o n - t r a n s l a t o r y  relating  The  Thrust"  running,  place to  i s necessary  signifi-  the  f r o m one  usual  test  body mass  t r a n s f e r of the  was  third no  T r a n s l a t o r y movement i n v o l v e s t h e  it  Cross"  a r a p i d change i n t h e b o d y p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h  S t e p " t e s t s as m e a s u r i n g  The  Sills  groups.  t o a n o t h e r as r e q u i r e d by  Step" t e s t s .  greater r e l a t i v e  importance.  "Criss  mesomorphs, b e c a u s e o f t h e i r  s t r e n g t h , were b e t t e r a b l e f r o m one  by  shown t h a t mesomorphs were  d i f f e r e n c e i n performance between the  authors  the  agility  Step" t e s t s of a g i l i t y ,  of a g i l i t y , cant  of y e t  areas.  Of  the  identifiable.  f a c t o r , 2.  non-translatory factor.  the  in  specific These  are,  translatory factor,  10  The  q u e s t i o n as t o w h e t h e r o r n o t a g i l i t y  improved ized  i n any one i n d i v i d u a l t h r o u g h  The p u r p o s e  college  first  year  women s t u d e n t s  motor c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : serial  r e a c t i o n time  those  o f low motor a b i l i t y as  agility,  test,  balance,  and s t r e n g t h .  women s t u d e n t s  i n the following kinesthetic  The e n t i r e  lower  response, quarter  t a k i n g t h e S c o t t Motor A b i l i t y  were s u b j e c t e d t o a s p e c i a l consisted  i n a study by L a f u s e .  o f t h e s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s t a t u s o f  measured by t h e S c o t t Motor A b i l i t y  of  a program of s p e c i a l -  t e a c h i n g i s answered t o some e x t e n t  (9).  c a n be  "poor group" c l i n i c ,  of fundamental s p o r t s s k i l l s  taught  test  which  over  an e i g h t  week p e r i o d .  I t was shown i n t h i s  study  motor a b i l i t y  o f low motor a b i l i t y  s u b j e c t s was amenable t o .  change t h r o u g h  beyond t h e 1 p e r c e n t  cant for  agility  balance  level  used  and s e r i a l  i n this  study  S c o t t Motor A b i l i t y  running,  The of  and p r a c t i c e .  motor p e r f o r m a n c e  these  and f i n a l  r e a c t i o n time. was t h a t  test  change o f d i r e c t i o n  classification  the  criteria  one  hand c l a s s i f i e s  obtained  scores i n  The t e s t o f  includes  and change o f p o s i t i o n .  as a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r  i s not e n t i r e l y  resolved.  To d a t e  on t h e o p i n i o n o f  i n p h y s i c a l education  selected f o r reference. agility  were  test  ( 1 0 ) . The c o u r s e  of a g i l i t y  leading researchers  signifi-  of the o b s t a c l e r u n i n  components depend t o some e x t e n t  various  Results,  of confidence,  t h e d i f f e r e n c e between i n i t i a l  agility,  the  instruction  that the general  McCloy  and on  ( 1 1 ) on t h e  as a n a r e a o f motor c a p a c i t y ,  whereas, a c c o r d i n g t o Y J i l l g o o s e  ( 1 2 )agility  i s one o f t h e  11 s p e c i f i c elements c o n t r i b u t i n g t o neuro-muscular C u r e t o n (13) emphasizes a g i l i t y f a c t o r s of motor a b i l i t y ; one  of the nine f a c t o r s  waiter  skill.  a s b e i n g one o f t h e p r i m e  and C o u s i n s  (14) l i s t s  of motor f i t n e s s .  agility  Finally,  as  Book-  ( 1 5 ) r e f e r s t o m o t o r f i t n e s s a s c o n s i s t i n g o f , among  o t h e r components, t h e p r e s e n t a g i l i t y  of the large  voluntary  musculature. Recent r e s e a r c h by Barrow (16) i n d i c a t e s b e i n g one o f t h e c o m p o n e n t s f o u n d t o be h i g h l y motor a b i l i t y .  An a g i l i t y  test battery  different criteria,  agility  related to  selected  included  as  on t h e  basis  of four  the following  eight  t e s t i t e m s : B u r p e e S q u a t T h r u s t , T u r n and Jump, C r i s s  C r o s s , S i d e S t e p , B a r Snap, Z i g Zag Run, B a r V a u l t ,  a n d Low  Hurdles.  included  in  N e a r l y a l l o f t h e s e t e s t items have been  o t h e r p r e v i o u s t e s t b a t t e r i e s o f motor a b i l i t y .  findings  of t h i s study only  was s e l e c t e d the  one t e s t o f a l l t h e above  as a v a l i d t e s t o f a g i l i t y .  This  items  selection,  Z i g Z a g R u n , was b a s e d on t h e i t e m h a v i n g t h e h i g h e s t  validity criteria. the  In the  and r e l i a b i l i t y r a t i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e o r i g i n a l The I t e m i s now i n c l u d e d  recently published The  different  i n the test battery of  Barrow Motor A b i l i t y  t e s t s u s e d t o measure a g i l i t y  test (17).  a r e many a n d v a r i e d ,  t e s t i n g b a t t e r i e s employing d i f f e r e n t t e s t s .  lack of u n i f o r m i t y  The  i s due m a i n l y t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f m o t o r  a r e a s a s a w h o l e and t h e l a c k o f a n y f o r m o f a s t a n d a r d d e f i n i t i o n of t h e various  c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s , among w h i c h  12 of  course,  be  considered  the be  is agility. as  postulates clarity  t o be  that  that  It follows  i n one  cating a g i l i t y  are  realised,  " i t i s no  the task  was  an  resistence  leg  of  the  specific  since  to  the  The  of  strength  upon  agility  improvement  to Young  have any  agility  and  agility,  measurable  on  dead w e i g h t  (20),  large  e f f e c t on  and  strength the  and  agility more  f a c t o r and  velocity.  However,  The  i n strength  as  to  "muscle boundness", i n t h a t  s u c h as  strength  Until  effect  i s brought of  rise  various  recently, i t  t r a i n i n g caused  weight  have g i v e n  i t s e f f e c t s upon  fitness.  weight  show t h e  increasing popularity  i t s b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t on speculation  whether  f a c t o r was  a v a i l a b l e to date to  training.  accepted that  general  to  this  of a r a p i d i n c r e a s e  o f motor a b i l i t y  generally  are  concept  progressive  data are  areas  and  the  a  conclusive  considerable  justify  been  a b o u t by  no  and  psychomotor  i n s t r e n g t h brought  the  training  increasing  as  i n f l u e n c e d by  to  influence  change o f d i r e c t i o n , b u t ,  weight  (18)  remained  d i d not  about by  indi-  question  According  strength  may  Henry  previously  coordination  programme w o u l d p r o d u c e any  agility.  factor  to  these a b i l i t i e s  earlier.  increase  thus  establishing with  t h a n had  exactly  agility  general.  l a r g e muscle  not  (19).  some e x t e n t ,  established  or n o t  in  shows t h a t  than  may  test  than i n another,  possible  s u c h as  not  c e r t a i n t e s t s of  rather  and  longer  or a c t i v i t y . "  To  specific  f a r more s p e c i f i c  abilities  evidence  that  motor a r e a  motor s k i l l s  t e s t s of a g i l i t y  b e c a u s e t h e y do  f a c t u a l data are  abilities  of u n i t a r y  varying  equivalents  same t h i n g . more v a l i d  The  was  "tightness"  i t " s l o w e d down"  athletes  13 and  ruined  agility  and  controlled  studies  have l a r g l y  erroneous  (21)  weight  C r o s s and The  tested  the  l i f t e r s using  Z i g Zag  above a v e r a g e  t e s t s of  the  i n the  agility  the  general  and  However, t h e s e  no  and  c o n t r o l group was out  lacking  in  to  show t h a t  uncontrolled  (22).  The  in this  before  g o i n g out  on  basis  motor a b i l i t y  had  case the  coordination. slightly  tests,  and also  a l l been weight i t was  not  deviations  from  e f f e c t s of weight t r a i n i n g  used.  This  p a r t i c u l a r study  of  programme o f w e i g h t school  football  l i f t e r s were  exercised  periods  e a c h day  to p r a c t i c e . initial  test.  The  and  was  not  room  raw  The  states  the  that  subjects,  changing gains  scores  scores.  the  by  i n the  of a g i l i t y  that  c a r r i e d out  improvised  t e s t , w h i c h showed an  author  con-  r e g u l a r l y with  Considerable  final  item  training in  team was  Burpee Squat T h r u s t  fact  Criss  i n d i v i d u a l s was  advanced weight  players  weights f o r short  the  and  of  agility.  junction with a high Fluke  coordination  i n d i v i d u a l s were  t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r not  carried  An  agility  subjects  n o r m a l were a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e since  hut  Burpee Squat T h r u s t ,  power o f t h e s e  f o r several years  possible  and  performance of a l l these  strength  above a v e r a g e . lifters  scientifically  d i s p e l l e d these popular  r e s u l t s showed t h e s e e i g h t e e n  further,  However,  beliefs.  Counsilman eighteen  coordination.  was  were  evident  for a five measured by  improvement  a t t e n t i o n must be  i n a d d i t i o n to the  in  drawn  item the raw to  conditioning  programme w i t h w e i g h t s , were a l s o p a r t i c i p a t i n g on  a  football  14 team, w i t h t h e r e s u l t the  total  gains  Research i n g and here  i n test  s t u d i e s concerning the  i t s effects  factors.  on power, speed  Chui,  weight t r a i n i n g experimental activities Karpovich also  study  not  possible to  s c o r e s t o the weight  i n as much as a g i l i t y  these  was  t h a t i t was  (23)  i s thought i n 1950,  i n c r e a s e d the  (24)  t h a t the  i n c r e a s e d i n an  indicated  trainreviewed  dependent  upon  showed i n h i s s t u d y  amount o f p o t e n t i a l  corresponding  proved  of weight  s t r e n g t h are  t o be  group, whereas, a c o n t r o l  showed no  exercises alone.  effect and  attribute  experimental  t h a t weight t r a i n i n g  power i n an  g r o u p engaged i n r o u t i n e  increase.  speed  Zorbas  and  of muscular c o n t r a c t i o n group.  Capen's  i n c r e a s e d the  (25)  muscular  s t r e n g t h of s u b j e c t s ; a l s o t h a t t r a i n i n g with weights result  of a g i l i t y  t e s t s t o measure t h e t h r e e d e s c r i b e d  were made a f t e r  ment i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n criteria  for test  statistical  reviewing  (26,27,28,29,30,31,32).  s e l e c t i o n were b a s e d  standards  of r e l i a b i l i t y  and  here.  i t e m may  of each t e s t  r e f e r r i n g t o the next The test  first  presented  S l o a n House, Y.M.C.A. McCloy  (34)  validity  and  of a g i l i t y be  considered  obtained  by  chapter.  Burpee Squat T h r u s t was  The  u p o n known e s t a b l i s h e d  aspects  Definitions  aspects  s t a n d a r d t e x t s o f measure••<-  previous a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h those  varied.  d i d not  i n muscular t i g h t n e s s .  Suitable  this  that  The  T e s t : A c c o r d i n g to McCloy by  time  R.H.  (33)  Burpee o f t h e W i l l i a m  requirement  recommends t e n s e c o n d s .  f o r the Sills  test and  has  15 Everett so  (35) expanded  as t o i n c r e a s e t h e r a n g e  that  t i m i n g may  r e p o r t e d by M c C l o y  of  0.921.  girls)  consider  The  Side Step Test;  (38) I n 1932,  a battery  by M c C l o y  The  test  reliability  ( r 0.553, b o y s , and r 0.341, McCloy  of t e s t s  and  Young  of a g i l i t y  of time.  The  object  involving  of squat  o f measurement  change o f t h e body o r n o n - t r a n s -  predicting test  rating  a g i l i t y by  a validity  physical  Sills  activity  The  test  of a g i l i t y . t o be  i t e m was McCloy  rating The  test  later  by  In motor  o f 0.704 and a i s also  used  (42) i n m e a s u r i n g  that  good  this  one f o r  performance.  reliability as a t e s t  (41) t o measure b a s i c  i n r e l a t i o n t o extreme  revised  states  a surprisingly  and p o t e n t i a l i t y  and E v e r e t t  by C o u n s i l m a n  weight  The  as a t e s t  described  and p r o g r e s s  shown i t s e l f  o f 0.982 ( 4 0 ) .  first  d e s i g n e d t o show a b i l i t y  games s k i l l  used  was  coordination  performance.  has  has  This test  of  (39) as a t e s t  simple t e s t  lines  seconds.  of performing a s e r i e s  and was  of t e s t s  in basketball  also  states  agility.  Edgren  of  consists  within a set period  The  The  thirty  seconds,  (36)  (37) as h a v i n g a  lower than that  test  Mathews  a measure o f a g i l i t y  the speed of p o s i t i o n a l  latory  in  As  i t t o be  running. thrusts  and Young  However, t h e v a l i d i t y  i s low.  time t o twenty  of s c o r e s .  v a r y between t e n and  is  is  the performance  of  elements  somatotypes,  the a g i l i t y  of  and  advanced  lifters.  test  consists  set eight  individual  feet  of r a p i d  apart  to transfer  and  side  to side  involves  movement b e t w e e n  the c a p a c i t y  t h e body mass f r o m one  of the  spot t o another  16 without  running,  or t r a n s l a t o r s  The Z i g Zag Run T e s t : T h i s Barrow the  i s a test  (43) i n t h e B a r r o w M o t o r A b i l i t y  reference  reliability and  agility.  the t e s t  rating  further,  has a v a l i d i t y  o f 0.736.  believes  McCloy  o f a g i l i t y u s e d "by  Test.  rating  According to o f 0.795 and a  (44) d e s c r i b e s  i t t o be a v a l i d  test  this  for predicting  sports achievement.  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Measurements i n H e a l t h York, C r o f t s , 1942.  and  Physical  19  30  L a r s o n , L., Yocum, R., Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n i n P h y s i c a l H e a l t h and R e c r e a t i o n E d u c a t i o n , S t . L o u i s , C.V. Mosby, 1 9 5 1 .  31  M c C l o y , C.H., Y o u n g , N.D. , T e s t s and M e a s u r e m e n t s i n H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , New Y o r k , A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1954.  32  B o v a r d , J . P . , C o z e n s , F.W., Hagman, E.P., T e s t s and Measurements i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 3 r d e d . , P h i l a d e l p h i a , W.B. S a u n d e r s , 1949.  33  M c C l o y , C.H., T e s t s and M e a s u r e m e n t s i n H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , New Y o r k , C r o f t s , 1 9 4 2 ,  34  Loc. c i t .  35  Sills,  36  Mathews, op. c i t . , p . 1 0 7 .  37  M c C l o y , Y o u n g , op. c i t . ,  38  E d g r e n , H.D., "An E x p e r i m e n t i n t h e T e s t i n g o f A b i l i t y and P r o g r e s s i n B a s k e t b a l l " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 3 { M a r c h 1 9 3 2 ) , pp.159-1717  39  McCloy,  40  McCloy, Young, o p . c i t . ,  p.88.  P.D., E v e r e t t , P., "The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f E x t r e m e S o m a t o t y p e s t o P e r f o r m a n c e i n M o t o r and S t r e n g t h T e s t s " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 2 4 (May 1 9 5 3 ) , p.224.  p.78.  loc.cit.  41;, S i l l s , E v e r e t t ,  p.80.  loc.cit.  42  C o u n s i l m a n , J . , "Does W e i g h t T r a i n i n g B e l o n g i n t h e Program?", J o u r n a l of the American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , v o l . 26 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 5 5 ) , p.17.  43  B a r r o w , H.M., Motor A b i l i t y T e s t i n g f o r C o l l e g e M i n n e a p o l i s , B u r g e s s , 1957, p . 1 5 .  44  McCloy, o p . c i t . ,  p.82.  Men,  CHAPTER METHODS AND Three  groups of f i r s t  University  of B r i t i s h  programme o f p h y s i c a l the purposes one,  of t h i s  The training had  class  beginning  The  year  students  The  three  two  control  tests  o f t h e programme and  randomly f o r  carried  out  for into  groups.  a registered  These  experience.  selected  the  g r o u p s were d i v i d e d  students.  training  at  i n the r e q u i r e d  s t u d y was  Group: T h i s was  of twelve  t e s t e d w i t h the t h r e e  second  e d u c a t i o n were s e l e c t e d  g r o u p and  p r e v i o u s weight  and  study.  Experimental  PROCEDURE  Columbia r e g i s t e r e d  ten-week s e m e s t e r .  an e x p e r i m e n t a l  IV  weight  s t u d e n t s had The  s u b j e c t s were  of a g i l i t y  a g a i n at the  not  end  at  the  of  the  programme.  The  c l a s s was  s u b j e c t e d t o a s u p e r v i s e d and  programme o f w e i g h t this  s t u d y , was  training,  defined  planned  which, f o r the purposes  of  as:  A s y s t e m a t i c , w e l l - p l a n n e d program of e x e r c i s e s i n which the p a r t i c i p a n t uses w e i g h t s , b a r b e l l s and d u m b e l l s t o i n c r e a s e t h e r e s i s t a n c e o f v a r i o u s b o d i l y movements. T h i s type of e x e r c i s e w i t h weights i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the c o m p e t i t i v e type u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as " w e i g h t l i f t i n g " . In w e i g h t l i f t i n g t h e c o m p e t i t o r e n d e a v o u r s t o r a i s e a maximum w e i g h t i n a s i n g l e l i f t , whereas, i n weight t r a i n i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t e x e c u t e s many c o n s e c u t i v e r e p e t i t i o n s o f e a c h e x e r c i s e w i t h a w e i g h t w h i c h has b e e n f o u n d c o m p a t i b l e w i t h h i s s t r e n g t h and endurance. At  the  s u b j e c t was  start  of the  weight  given a table  t r a i n i n g programme  of e x e r c i s e s t o be  each  performed  with  21 barbells  and d u m b e l l s .  own l o a d s , this  a f t e r being  technique.  In  guided  The s u b j e c t s  a s p e c i a l l y designed structor  The s t u d e n t was a l l o w e d  an  individual's  he  could  lift  load  stages  of the weight  satisfactorily  recommenced  was i n c r e a s e d  The load  subject  The  g r o u p as a whole met t w i c e w e e k l y  exercising  subjects.  badminton a c t i v i t y  f o rperiods  and  repetitions of f o r t y -  con-  Group I p a r t i c i p a t e d i n  programme f o r t h e e n t i r e This  g r o u p was t e s t e d  at the  i n t h e same manner as t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l  Group.  second  Group I I was  Control  Group, l a b e l l e d C o n t r o l  from a l l p h y s i c a l against  participation underwent  was t h e n i n c r e a s e d  o f t h e s e m e s t e r and a g a i n a t t h e end o f t h e  restricted cautioned  achieved  a t f i v e maximum  Control  semester, meeting twice weekly.  The  possible  G r o u p s : E a c h one o f t h e s e two g r o u p s  of twelve  semester  where  each.  Control  beginning  programme,  t h e maximum r e p e t i t i o n s  the  a required  training  i n f i v e maximum r e p e t i t i o n s . The  were between t e n and t w e l v e .  sisted  the i n -  was d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e amount o f w e i g h t  e a c h day o f t r a i n i n g u n t i l  The  them i n t o  period.  number o f maximum r e p e t i t i o n s  f i v e minutes  involved i n  r e c o r d e d t h e i r own e f f o r t s on  s h e e t , and handed  a t t h e end o f e a c h the I n i t i a l  i n the p r i n c i p l e s  to f i xh i s  education class  a c t i v i t y , and  p a r t i c i p a t i o n In e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r  of a r e c r e a t i o n a l  nature.  This  group  physical also  t e s t i n g a t t h e b e g i n n i n g and end o f t h e s e m e s t e r .  Two c o n t r o l  g r o u p s were u s e d  i n this  study because  there  22 was  some q u e s t i o n as t o t h e e f f e c t  c l a s s programme u p o n a g i l i t y In t h i s  case, badminton  popular  activity  training  and  different physical  t h a t was  nature.  d e t e r m i n e and  The  s e l e c t e d as b e i n g  sufficiently  on  second c o n t r o l  provided  attribute  the e f f e c t s  group.  all  provided  were f a m i l i a r  t e s t i n g the f i r s t  administered  training  and  of the School  o f T e s t s : The  ( i t e m #1)  and t h e Z i g Zag Run T e s t  three test  on an open a r e a  was  e a c h one,  Practice i n stop  team,  and  actually  Side  were  apart  The  gymnasium Burpee  t o each  Step T e s t  group (item  #2)  administered  f o r i t e m #2,  each f o u r f e e t four feet  Columbia.  The  i t e m s were  of the  administered  ( i t e m #3)  F l o o r markings  t h r e e .white l i n e s  Columbia.  of P h y s i c a l  group.  divided into pairs.  individually.  administered  f o r a l l members o f t h e t e s t i n g  t o a l l groups  Squat T h r u s t T e s t  floor,  in  i t e m s and t h e h a n d l i n g o f  at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  as a whole,  thoroughly  w i t h the t e s t i n g r o u t i n e before  Administration  floor  weight  The members o f t h e  at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  was  and  c o n t r o l required to  A team o f t h r e e t e s t e r s  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the t e s t  watches  an a c t i v e  group, r e s t r i c t e d  of weight  t e s t i n g team were g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s  the  agility.  f a r removed f r o m  the s t a t i c  t e s t i n g programme t o e a c h  Education  of  agility.  Testing Personnel: the  o r some component  activity  i n v o l v e d e x e r c i s e and-movement o f a  activity,  badminton  was  of a r e g u l a r  i n the form of  l o n g were marked on t h e and p a r a l l e l  t o each  other.  25 For  i t e m #5,  and  a starting  in  line  and g u i d e  were u s e d  as c o r n e r  posts,  l i n e s were marked on t h e f l o o r  white. The  on  v o l l e y b a l l standards  s c o r i n g f o r each i n d i v i d u a l  separate  score cards  c a r d s were d i s t r i b u t e d necessary  particulars  s u b j e c t was  ( cf.Appendix  B, p . 5 2 ) .  t o s t u d e n t s who and t h e n  maintained  carried  filled  These  out t h e  them t o e a c h  testing  station.  The  Initial  nasium i n l a t e  test  was  administered  September and t h e f i n a l  i n t h e same manner t e n weeks Experimental tive All  same t i m e  The  a t t h e same t i m e  f o r the three  each group completed The the  g r o u p s was  Instructions  following  commencement  the t e s t  statement  of  administered  December.  I met f o r t h e i r  respec-  also  carried  three test  items  days.  out at the  were r e a d t o a l l g r o u p s , i n t h e same  and  order.  r e a d t o e a c h group p r i o r t o  testing:  You a r e b e i n g s u b m i t t e d t o a s e r i e s o f t h r e e s i m p l e t e s t s d e s i g n e d t o measure y o u r b o d i l y s h i f t i n e s s and y o u r a b i l i t y t o move r a p i d l y . The a c c u r a t e r e s u l t s o f t h e s e t e s t s a r e d e p e n d e n t on y o u r g i v i n g f o r t h of your best performance i n each item. F o r t h i s purpose your cooperation i s requested.  The  The  days.  items was  was  o f day b u t on d i f f e r e n t  o f d a y b u t on d i f f e r e n t  same t e s t  test  i n early  Group and C o n t r o l Goup  activities testing  later  i n d o o r s i n t h e gym-  were s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r a l l g r o u p s .  24 Specific  details  outlined  below:  Item #1. staff  the  supervised  member b e i n g was  the  the  test  his  three,  partner.  The  a c c o m p a n i e d by  a  each t e s t  T e s t : The  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h i s 20  f a c i n g one  while  the  entire  test  item,  another, One  each  was  twenty second attempts f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t was  testing one  The  group  member o f t h e  permitted  are  student  s e c o n d member c o u n t e d  Each subject  item  second t i m i n g .  ample room t o p e r f o r m .  p e r f o r m e d movement. f o l l o w e d by  regarding  B u r p e e Squat T h r u s t  arranged  afforded  performed  nature  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  p a i r e d and  being  of t h i s  pair  each  a single  trial  a l t e r n a t i n g with read  to  each  group  demonstration:  A l l number ones w i l l t a k e t h e t e s t f i r s t , w h i l e t h e number twos a c t as scorers. Number o n e s - - s t a n d w i t h k n e e s s t r a i g h t , arms a t s i d e s . On the s i g n a l ' r e a d y , go',-bend t h e k n e e s and h i p s and p l a c e t h e hands f l a t on t h e f l o o r i n f r o n t of you. T h r u s t t h e l e g s out b e h i n d to a f r o n t l e a n i n g r e s t p o s i t i o n . R e t u r n t o t h e s q u a t p o s i t i o n , and t h e n s t a n d . Repeat t h e s e f o u r p o s i t i o n s as many t i m e s as p o s s i b l e u n t i l t h e s i g n a l ' s t o p ' i s given. Number twos w i l l c o u n t t h e number o f c o m p l e t e movements p l u s t h e number o f q u a r t e r movements made by h i s p a r t n e r . T h i s number i s t h e p a r t n e r ' s s c o r e , ( e n t e r i t on h i s c a r d ) . When i n t h e f r o n t l e a n i n g r e s t p o s i t i o n t h e body must be in a reasonably s t r a i g h t l i n e with legs f u l l y extended. When r e t u r n i n g t o t h e s t a n d i n g p o s i t i o n , t h e body must be s t r a i g h t , t h a t i s , t h e k n e e s and h i p s are not b e n t . You w i l l have one p r a c t i c e t r i a l f o l l o w e d by t h r e e s c o r i n g t r i a l s .  I t e m #2. individually  The  Sjde-Step Test: This  t o each subject  by  test  was  a member o f t h e  administered testing  25 staff  w i t h a stop watch.  read t o each  individual,  The  following  a c c o m p a n i e d by  instructions a  were  demonstration:  You w i l l s t a n d a s t r i d e o v e r t h e c e n t r e l i n e i n a comfortable p o s i t i o n . On t h e command ' r e a d y , go', .move t o w a r d s t h e l i n e on y o u r r i g h t o r l e f t , i n a s i d e s t e p p i n g manner, u n t i l you a r e a b l e t o t o u c h t h e f l o o r on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e l i n e with your outer f o o t . T h e n move i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n i n t h e same manner u n t i l your other foot touches the f l o o r beyond the second l i n e . Continue i n t h i s manner u n t i l you have made 10 s u c h t r i p s f r o m t h e c e n t e r l i n e t o an o u t s i d e l i n e a l t e r n a t i n g f i v e t o y o u r r i g h t and f i v e to your l e f t . Be s u r e t h a t e a c h f o o t p a s s e s o v e r and t o u c h e s t h e f l o o r b e y o n d the r e s p e c t i v e l i n e . Your score i s the time t o the n e a r e s t t e n t h of a second i t t a k e s you t o c o m p l e t e t h i s movement. You w i l l be g i v e n one t r i a l and t h e n one s c o r i n g attempt.  Item #3. to  one  The  s u b j e c t at a time  t e s t i n g team, who stop watch. subject  Z i g Zag Run  The  and  Test: This test s u p e r v i s e d by  a l s o r e c o r d e d the time following  a c c o m p a n i e d by  a  instructions  was  administ  a member o f  the  of the run w i t h a were r e a d t o  the  demonstration:  S t a n d on t h e s t a r t i n g l i n e i n a s e m i crouched p o s i t i o n . On t h e s i g n a l , ' r e a d y , go', r u n f o r w a r d and p a s s t o t h e l e f t of the standard i n the middle of the r e c t a n g l e , then t u r n t o your r i g h t and p a s s t o t h e r i g h t o f t h e n e x t s t a n d a r d and t u r n t o y o u r l e f t . Run t o t h e t h i r d s t a n d a r d and p a s s i t on t h e r i g h t , t u r n l e f t and p a s s t h e c e n t r e s t a n d a r d a g a i n t o t h e l e f t and t u r n t o y o u r r i g h t to the next s t a n d a r d . P a s s t h i s on t h e r i g h t and t u r n l e f t h e a d i n g f o r t h e s t a r t i n g line. Repeat t h i s c i r c u i t t w i c e more. Be c a r e f u l n o t t o t o u c h t h e s t a n d a r d s on y o u r way r o u n d and do n o t k n o c k any o v e r . You w i l l be a l l o w e d one t r i a l and one s c o r i n g attempt. Y o u r s c o r e i s t h e number o f  26 seconds to the n e a r e s t t e n t h i t t a k e s you t o c o m p l e t e t h e three times.  FIGURE Diagram of the  that course  1. Z i g Zag  Run  16»  10'  Starting  Line  CHAPTER V RESULTS The control The  d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m an e x p e r i m e n t a l group groups  activity  Control  class  degree three  Group I p a r t i c i p a t e d  o f improvement selected tests  comparison  between t h e t h r e e  The  Burpee  increased  deals w i t h the  i n t h e mean p e r f o r m a n c e  o f each of the  of a g i l i t y  the  selected  (cf.  2,5.  groups.  i n t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l Group  i n the performance  test  item.  i nthe  T h i s was n o t t h e c a s e i n e i t h e r o f In f a c t ,  o n l y 5 o f t h e 12 s u b j e c t s i n performance,  i n the performance  levels  o f each  a r e summarized  were s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant.  and f i n a l  The mean  group  i n Table I.  g r o u p s , t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l Group and C o n t r o l  showed d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e i n i t i a l  that  of t h i s  Squat T h r u s t s v a r i e d  o v e r t h e t e n week t r a i n i n g p e r i o d  I  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  C, p.5'3).  differences  Of t h e t h r e e  between  of a g i l i t y .  Group I I showed an i n c r e a s e  Appendix  The  tests  groups; the  i n each t e s t  g r o u p s ; and f i n a l l y ,  number o f Burpee  two c o n t r o l Control  i n the three  Test: Each subject  group f r o m 0.25'to  Group  treatment of the r e s u l t s  showed some improvement The  badminton  education a c t i v i t y .  o f t h e means o f improvement  any two o f t h e t h r e e  in a  training  o f t i m e and C o n t r o l  from a l l p h y s i c a l  statistical  tables.  a t e n week w e i g h t  f o r t h e same p e r i o d  was r e s t r i c t e d The  of  i n t h e accompanying  E x p e r i m e n t a l Group u n d e r w e n t  programme.  II  a r e summarized  and two  test  Group means  improvement  28 of  the E x p e r i m e n t a l  w h i c h was The  Group was  significant  Subjects  o f 0.6  cant  5 percent  II  1 percent  with a t - r a t i o  showed a s l i g h t  t-ratio  with a t - r a t i o level  o f C o n t r o l Group I showed an  performance at the  at the  1.53  o f 0.4  level  decrease  w h i c h was  o f 2.9  of  5.7,  confidence.  i n c r e a s e i n mean w h i c h was  of c o n f i d e n c e ,  and  statistically  signifi-  C o n t r o l Group  i n performance of  not  of  -0.04  with  a  significant.  TABLE I C o m p a r i s o n o f R e s u l t s Between I n i t i a l and Burpee  Burpee T e s t  Mj_  Experimental  Group 11.27  Final  SD]_  Mg  SD  Mj^-Mg  t  1.1  12.8  1.3  1.53  5.7  2  10.5  1.3  11.1  1.07  0.6  Control  13.46  1.0  13.5  1.0  -0.04  2.9**  Significant  at the  1 percent  level  of  confidence  Significant  at the  5 percent  level  of  confidence  The  Side  Step  T e s t ; Of  the  twelve  Group o n l y s e v e n showed Improved  performance.  I n C o n t r o l Group I , t e n o f t h e  i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e s , and  the performances  of e i g h t of the  a c t u a l l y poorer,  ( c f . A p p e n d i x D,  Table levels notable  the  the  times twelve  of subjects  i n C o n t r o l Group I I ,  twelve  s u b j e c t s were  p.54).  I I summarizes t h e d i f f e r e n c e s L i n  o f e a c h group o v e r  0.4  subjects In  Experimental  exhibited  The  Test  C o n t r o l Group I Group I I  Means o f  performance  t e n week p e r i o d .  g a i n i n performance of t h i s  test  The  i t e m was  most  exhibited,  29 not by t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l this  Group, b u t b y C o n t r o l Group I .  g r o u p t h e mean p e r f o r m a n c e t i m e  creased  Group was d e c r e a s e d  mean p e r f o r m a n c e t i m e  o f C o n t r o l Group I I was  b y 0.2 s e c o n d s .  The d i f f e r e n c e  Group I was s t a t i s t i c a l l y  not  of confidence.  statistically  significant  The r e s u l t s  The'  actually  between t h e t e s t  o f 3.20 f o r C o n t r o l at the 1 percent  o f C o n t r o l Group I I were  significant.  In t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l group i n t h e f i n a l  of the  by o n l y 0.5 s e c o n d s .  means o f -0.7 s e c o n d s w i t h a t - r a t i o  level  was d e -  b y 0.7 s e c o n d s w h e r e a s , t h e p e r f o r m a n c e t i m e  Experimental  poorer  f o r the t e s t  In  test  2.94 was s t a t i s t i c a l l y  Group t h e mean improvement  of the  was 0.5 s e c o n d s , and t h e t - r a t i o o f significant  at the 5 percent  l e v e l of  confidence.  TABLE I I C o m p a r i s o n o f R e s u l t s Between I n i t i a l Side  Side  Step  Test  Experimental  Group  C o n t r o l Group I Control  Group I I  Significant Significant The  Step  and P i n a l Means o f The  Test  M]_  SD~i  Mg  SD  9.7  0.93  9.2  0.78  -0.5  2.94  10.0  1.37  9.3  0.95  -0.7  3.20  8.1  0.63  8.3  0.58  0.2  at the 1 percent at the 5 percent  Z i g Zag Run T e s t :  2  M]_-M  t  2  0.9  l e v e l of confidence l e v e l of confidence  Improved p e r f o r m a n c e  times  v a r y i n g f r o m 0.2 s e c o n d s t o 1.1 s e c o n d s were r e c o r d e d f o r eleven  of the twelve  s u b j e c t s o f the Experimental  Group.  50 Only in  s e v e n o f t w e l v e s u b j e c t s had  Control  Control the  Group I , whereas,  times i n the f i n a l Appendix  E,  i n this test  group had  test was  improved  times of Eight  Control  test  levels  test,  o f e a c h group i s  groups, only the r e s u l t s  t o be  statistically  results  seconds  of C o n t r o l  t i m e o f -0.4  not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  initial  (t*3.00)  seconds  test  mean o f 0.04  seconds  ( t  test  ( t - 0 . 6 ) was  1.6)  =  and  exhibited  i n the d i f f e r e n c e between the i n i t i a l  the f i n a l  The  significant,  Group I I I n w h i c h t h e group  of  signifi-  between the  mean o f -0.5  i n performance  Group I was  actual loss  of  performance  acceptable at the 5 percent l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e .  results  and  performance  mean and t h e f i n a l  mean improvement for  Of t h e t h r e e  E x p e r i m e n t a l Group a p p e a r e d The  poorer  times  p.55).  shown i n T a b l e I I I .  cant.  slower.  than i n the i n i t i a l  A summary o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e  the  performance  t h e mean p e r f o r m a n c e  Group I I showed a t e n d e n c y t o be  twelve subjects  (cf.  improved  the  an  mean  also  not  Means o f  The  significant.  TABLE I I I Comparison  of Results  Between I n i t i a l and P i n a l Zig  Zig  Zag Run  Experimental  Test Group  M  1  Zag  Run  SD  2  SDg  M^-Mg  t  27.00  0.73  26.50  0.88  -0.5  26.40  1.41  -0.4  1.6  25.41  0.86  0.04  0.6  Control  Group I  26.80  1.30  Control  Group I I  25.37  .92  Significant  M  X  at the 5 p e r c e n t l e v e l  of confidence  3.0 **  31 The E x p e r i m e n t a l d e g r e e o f improvement of  Group Compared  between t h e i n i t i a l  each of the three t e s t s  compared  with that  significance  and f i n a l  of the Experimental  o f C o n t r o l Group I .  I:The  results  Group was  The e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e  o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e means o f t h e two  g r o u p s i s shown i n T a b l e t h e mean improvement significantly improvement  W i t h C o n t r o l Group  IV.  I n none  of the t e s t  of. t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l  greater than  Group f o u n d  i n C o n t r o l Group  i n the Experimental  items  I.  was  t o be  The mean  Group f o r t h e B u r p e e  test,  was 1.5 s q u a t s , w h e r e a s , t h e mean improvement  f o r t h e same  i t e m i n C o n t r o l Group I was o n l y 0.6 s q u a t s .  This  resulted  i n a t-ratio  significant  o f 1.9 w h i c h , t h o u g h n o t  at the 5 percent  level  -0.7  Run t e s t  acceptable  Step  o f -0.5  Group and a mean Improvement  s e c o n d s f o r C o n t r o l Group I was n o t s u f f i c i e n t  statistically  Group  In the Side  t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e mean improvement  seconds f o r t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l  statistically  of confidence, nevertheless  showed some t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s s i g n i f i c a n c e . test  difference  (t-1.0).  Similarly,  of  t o be  i n the Z i g Zag  t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e means o f t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l  (-0.5 s e c o n d s ) and C o n t r o l Group I (-0.4 s e c o n d s ) w i t h  a t-ratio  o f 0.21 was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant.  TABLE I V Degree o f Improvement  Between  Control Test  Item  Burpee T e s t Side Step T e s t Z i g Z a g Run T e s t  Means o f E x p e r i m e n t a l  Group and  Group I  Experimental 1.53 -0.5 -0.5  Group  Control  Group I  0.6 -0.7 -0.4  t 1.9 0.6 0.21  32 Experimental  Group Compared  d e g r e e o f improvement  between t h e i n i t i a l  each of the three t e s t pared  with that  W i t h C o n t r o l Group I I : and f i n a l  Items o f t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l  o f C o n t r o l Group I I .  Details  The  results of  Group was com-  of the s i g n i f i -  cance o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e means o f t h e s e - g r o u p s i s presented of  i n T a b l e V.  the s e l e c t e d  test  the E x p e r i m e n t a l Group I I . great  The r e s u l t s items  t h e improvements were  i n t h e Burpee T e s t f o r t h e  This resulted  at the 1 percent  2.7 f o r t h e S i d e S t e p  between t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l  i n a t-ratio level'of  test  the 5 percent  the t h i r d  level  II i t  o f 3.4 w h i c h was  confidence.  A  t-ratio  obtained f o r the d i f f e r e n c e  Group  (-0.5 s e c o n d s ) and C o n t r o l  Group I I (0.2 s e c o n d s ) was a l s o  In  sufficiently  Group was 1.53, w h e r e a s , f o r C o n t r o l Group  was o n l y 0.04.  at  i n Control  statistically.  The mean Improvement  of  i n a l l three  t h e mean i m p r o v e m e n t s i n  Group were g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e  t o be a c c e p t e d  significant  of a g i l i t y  I n two o f t h e i t e m s  Experimental  showed t h a t  statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t , but  of confidence.  i t e m , t h e Z i g Z a g Run t e s t ,  the degree of  difference  ( t 1.4) between t h e s e two g r o u p s was n o t  sufficient  t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y  acceptable.  TABLE V The Degree o f Improvement Between Means o f E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Group I I Test  Item  Burpee T e s t Side Step T e s t Z i g Z a g Run T e s t  Experimental  Group  1.53 -0.5 -0.5  C o n t r o l Group I I 0.04 0.2 0.04  Group  t 3.4 2.7 1.4  33 C o n t r o l Group I Compared significance  With Control  No  i n Table  b e t w e e n t h e two  d e t e r m i n e d and t h e r e s u l t s  significant  d i f f e r e n c e was  Zag Run t e s t s .  and  the t - r a t i o  The t - r a t i o  o f 0.9  o f 1.4  f o r the Burpee T e s t  f o r t h e Z i g Zag Run T e s t  t o be a c c e p t a b l e  and  Control  Step Test  b e t w e e n C o n t r o l Group I (-0.7  statistically  of confidence  significant  i n favour  TABLE The Degree o f Improvement and Test  Item  Burpee T e s t Side Step T e s t Z i g Zag Run T e s t  of the t h r e e combined test  seconds)  of Test  percent  Group I .  Group I  Group I I Control  Group I I  t  0.04 0.2 0.04 level  of  The s c o r e  1.4 3.0 0.9  confidence  I t e m s : The i n i t i a l  groups i n each of the t h r e e  i t e m were  of  VI  0.6 -0.7 0.4  and i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d .  coefficient  of C o n t r o l  Group I  at the 5.percent  Intercorrelation  at the 5  Between Means o f C o n t r o l  Control  Control  Significant  i n performance  Group I I (0.2 s e c o n d s ) r e s u l t e d i n a t - r a t i o  3.0 w h i c h was level  were n o t  statistically.  C o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e mean improvement the Side  established  c o n t r o l groups f o r e i t h e r t h e Burpee or t h e  Zig  in  were  VI.  statistically  sufficient  The  o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e means o f improvement  o f t h e two c o n t r o l g r o u p s was summarized  Group I I :  test  test  items  were  distributions  g r o u p e d by means o f a s c a t t e r g r a m ,  of c o r r e l a t i o n determined by a product  scores  of each  and t h e moment  34 formula, The selected  The the Step  ( c f . A p p e n d i x A, results tests  of the  Side Step  intercorrelations  of a g i l i t y  relationships and  the  p.51).  are  f o r two Z i g Zag  of the ^un,  and  showed a r - 0 . 5 9 , w h e r e a s , i n t h e  B u r p e e and  Z i g Zag,  Degree o f  Intercorrelation  Test  (N Step  i n Table  36)  vs  Z i g Zag  intercorrelations, the third  B u r p e e and  Burpee  vs  Side  Burpee  vs  Z i g Zag  VII  Between T e s t s  of  Step Run  Side  intercorrelation,  Agility r  Run  three  VII;  r-0.56.  TABLE  Side  contained  between the  0.59 0.59 0.56  CHAPTER V I DISCUSSION S e v e r a l advanced were f o u n d t o be Burpee, at  the time o f t e s t i n g , i t was  as s u c h , had  of weight  present  s t u d y would  three  selected  resulted  performance  tests  lifting  improved  i n each  exercises.  The  indicate  that  tests  of a g i l i t y ,  In a control  education a c t i v i t y , t e n d e n c i e s toward  group  i n this  whereas,  that  was  case badminton,  tical  was  established  The  results  established improved, old  boys  tests.  that  of a r e c e n t a weight  Burpee  test  physical showed  agility, statis- .  a t t h e 5 p e r c e n t and  s t u d y by K u s i n i t z  the a b i l i t y  o f t h e Dodge Run  education, also  significant  Dodge Run  significant  concluded  that  since  partici-  i n which  group, which underwent a  programme o f p h y s i c a l the  also  t r a i n i n g programme  i n the performance control  from  at  of confidence r e s p e c t i v e l y .  at the 1 percent l e v e l ,  The  in  s u c h improvement  aspects of  the Side-Step t e s t ,  1 percent l e v e l  no  performance  However, a n o t h e r  and  of the  a tendency f o r a  withheld  n a m e l y , t h e Burpee  weight  agility,  results  t h e r e was  improving c e r t a i n  significance  Since,  individual  t r a i n i n g programme t o i m p r o v e  pating i n a physical activity.  the  of a g i l i t y .  t o d e t e r m i n e whether  (1)  of the  t h e s u b j e c t s were a l l c h r o n i c  a c t u a l l y been  because  t e s t e d by C o u n s i l m a n  i n their  Z i g Zag Run  not p o s s i b l e  week w e i g h t  lifters  above a v e r a g e  C r i s s r - C r o s s and  lifters,  ten  weight  and K e e n e y  (2)  significantly o f 12-17 and  the  year Burpee  routine  showed Improvement i n  at the 1 percent l e v e l  at the 5 p e r c e n t l e v e l . t h e r e were improvements  The  and  the  authors  i n both  groups  36 that  e i t h e r the i n c r e a s e s  programmes were e q u a l l y  were due t o l e a r n i n g o r t h a t  both  e f f e c t i v e i n the development o f  these f a c t o r s .  Unfortunately, limited  t h e s t u d y by K u s i n i t z and K e e n e y i s  t o a comparison between  a c o n t r o l group o f r e g u l a r activities.  a w e i g h t t r a i n i n g group and  routine  physical  T h u s , c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e s e r e s u l t s and  of the present  s t u d y must  be l i m i t e d t o t h e r e s u l t s  by t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l Group and C o n t r o l pated  i n a regular  show t h a t  the  programme o f b a d m i n t o n .  g r o u p s was  small  are the d i f f e r e n c e s  5 percent  studies  level.  and t h a t  large  opposed t o no a c t i v i t y significant  the  significant  same b a s i s  of the  three  activity  i s weight  p h y s i c a l education  at two  as as  train-  programme  on t h e b a s i s  o f an  (3).  activity  study  o f t h e weight t r a i n i n g group  group or C o n t r o l  i n two  agility,  i t then appears from t h i s  improvement  o v e r t h e no a c t i v i t y t o be  i n none  improvement  t e n d s t o show improvement  whether t h i s  or badminton or a r e g u l a r  that  partici-  enough t o be s i g n i f i c a n t  When t h e r e s u l t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d as  obtained  The r e s u l t s  a r e s i m i l a r , and i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t  a r e s u l t of a c t i v i t y ,  those  The r e s u l t s , t h e r e f o r e , b e t w e e n t h e  m e a s u r e d by t h e t e s t s s e l e c t e d ,  ing  Group I w h i c h  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e means o f  o f t h e s e two tests  education  of the three  of comparison only  exhibited  a d e g r e e o f improvement  different  when compared  Group  I I was  sufficient  t e s t s of a g i l i t y .  one i t e m  of C o n t r o l  w h i c h was  w i t h t h e improvement  On  Group  I  significantly of C o n t r o l  Group I I .  37 The  l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e  was  unexpected.  test  for this  of  1.37,  was  9.3  the  item, the  mean p e r f o r m a n c e t i m e  group was  while  10  t h e mean p e r f o r m a n c e  time  possibility  l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e  o f a s i m i l a r i t y between t h e  i f any,  The agility the  has  still  t o be  theory  found  t o be  of the  very  low.  Run  and  this  the  former  correlation  t h e s e two by  agility.  and  that  t o the the  The  established  and  The  three  items  (4).  Side  Step  study  of  and  the  Burpee.  with  McCloy  separate f a c t o r s ,  agility,  Zig  Zag  According  to  d i s t i n c t i o n i s made b e t w e e n However, S i l l s  of i n d i v i d u a l s  (6)  to  test  as m e a s u r i n g  found  a  perform them  translatory  as m e a s u r i n g n o n - t r a n s l a t o r y between t h e s e  supports  such  items  t h e o r i e s and  f a r f r o m b e i n g a common f a c t o r ,  a number o f s p e c i f i c  relation-  a c c o r d i n g l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d between  relationship  in this  agility,  o r no  ability  Burpee t e s t  low  foot  T h i s i s i n agreement  Step  Burpee i t e m s .  i n the  items,  referring  agility  out  and  and  However, t h e  l a t t e r m e a s u r e d by  the S i d e  classification, little  the S i d e - S t e p low  by  the  significant  Side-Step  between the  (5) i d e n t i f i e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f two change o f d i r e c t i o n ,  The  The  s p e c i f i c i t y of motor a b i l i t y  and  test  established.  degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p was  deviation  o f 0.95.  (t=3.20).  test,  initial  final  s e c o n d s was  movement i n p l a y i n g b a d m i n t o n a r i s e s . ship,  Step  on t h e  on t h e  deviation  b e t w e e n t h e s e means o f 0.7  1 percent  Side  seconds w i t h a standard  seconds w i t h a s t a n d a r d  difference at  The  for this  points  i s , in fact,  factors.  r e l a t i v e l y small effect  of weight  training  upon  the  38 Zig-Zag the  Run  other  test  two  was. d i s a p p o i n t i n g i n v i e w o f t h e  test  programme was  not  items.  P o s s i b l y the weight  sufficiently  i n t e n s i v e or  i n o r d e r t o p r o d u c e more p r o n o u n c e d  Dodge Run  u s e d by K u s i n i t z and  comparable to the measure t h e  factor  K e e n e y r e p o r t an was  Zig-Zag  and  (8)  on t h e  both  effects.  i n their  although  t o weight  not  at the  have any Slight  the r e s u l t s  is  not  of  l e g s t r e n g t h were n o t  The  r e s o l v e d as  results  effects  of t h i s  group.  of weight  more d i f f i c u l t  1 percent  level.  general  disagreement  strength  exists  of the present  As  these  study  and  final  are  limited  accrues,  as a g i l i t y ,  is s t i l l  a c c o r d i n g t o the  tend  to  according to  experienced  by  the  the  concerning  i t becomes  the  increasingly as  have v a r y i n g e f f e c t s u p o n s t r e n g t h ,  hypertrophy  frequency  this  measurements  knowledge o f f a c t s  programmes, w h i c h v a r y and  at  question  t o g e n e r a l i z e about weight t r a i n i n g ,  e n d u r a n c e and  factor  here.  training  the  training  repetitions  that  initial  study  d i f f e r i n g programmes may muscular  is  which  l a r g e e f f e c t upon the  recorded  a c t u a l programme o f w e i g h t experimental  study  training  a g r e e w i t h Young's c o n c l u s i o n s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e entirely  The  are b e l i e v e d to  o t h e r hand, s t a t e s t h a t  o f change o f d i r e c t i o n . and  due  significant  l e g s t r e n g t h do  point  and  training  o f change o f d i r e c t i o n , y e t K u s i n i t z and  improvement  statistically  Young,  Run  (7)  upon  sufficiently  prolonged  Keeney  effect  (9)  (10).  What  according to sets,  effect  loads,  o f e x e r c i s e have upon f a c t o r s  undetermined. limitations  However, i t would of t h i s  study,  such  appear  weight  train-  59 ing, had  f a r f r o m h a v i n g any d e l e t e r i o u s i n fact  a beneficial  effect  effect  upon  agility,  upon c e r t a i n f a c e t s  of i t .  40  REFERENCES 1  C o u n s i l m a n , J . , "Does W e i g h t T r a i n i n g B e l o n g i n t h e Program?", J o u r n a l of the American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , v o l . 2 6 , ( J a n u a r y 1 9 5 5 ) , p.17.  2  Kusinitz,  5  Loc. c i t .  4  H e n r y , F.M., " S p e c i f i c i t y vs G e n e r a l i t y i n L e a r n i n g Motor S k i l l s " , Proceedings, College P h y s i c a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n , 61, 1958, p.126.  5  M c C l o y , C.H., Young, N.D., T e s t s and Measurements i n H e a l t h and P h y s i c a X ~ E d u c a t i o n , New Y o r k , A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1954, p.4.  6  Sills,  7  Young, K.E., An A n a l y t i c S t u d y o f t h e T e s t s o f Change o f D i r e c t i o n , Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , State U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa, A u g u s t , 1937, p.20.  8  McQueen, I . J . , "Recent A d v a n c e s i n t h e T e c h n i q u e o f Progressive Resistance Exercise", B r i t i s h M e d i c a l J o u r n a l , (Nov. 20, 1 9 5 4 ) , p.1193-1197.  9  Capen, E.K., " S t u d y o f F o u r Programs o f Heavy R e s i s t a n c e E x e r c i s e f o r Development of M u s c u l a r Strength", R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 27 (May 1956) p.132.  I . , Keeney, C.E., " E f f e c t s o f P r o g r e s s i v e W e i g h t T r a i n i n g on H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of A d o l e s c e n t Boys", R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 2 9 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 5 8 ) , p.294.  F.D., E v e r e t t , P., "The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f E x t r e m e S o m a t o t y p e s t o P e r f o r m a n c e i n M o t o r and S t r e n g t h T e s t s " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 24 (May 1 9 5 3 ) , p.227.  CHAPTER V I I  SUMMARY AND  Thirty-six University  CONCLUSIONS  of B r i t i s h  second y e a r s t u d e n t s i n t h e r e q u i r e d activity  programme were r a n d o m l y  three  groups.  Each  three  selected  tests  Step t e s t  group  of a g i l i t y ,  re-tested  groups,  At t h e end o f t h e s e m e s t e r i n t h e same manner. within  into  test,  the Side  The e x p e r i m e n t a l group  w h i l e t h e o t h e r was e x c u s e d  statistically  and d i v i d e d  t h e Burpee  programme, and o f t h e two c o n t r o l  activity.  and  was s u b m i t t e d t o a s e r i e s o f  i n a t e n weeks' p r o g r e s s i v e  i n badminton  first  physical education  selected  and t h e Z i g Z a g t e s t .  participated  Columbia  weight  training  one p a r t i c i p a t e d from a l l c l a s s  the t h r e e groups  were  Improvement was m e a s u r e d  e a c h group  and a c o m p a r i s o n  of t h i s  improvement was made b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s .  On t h e b a s i s results 1.  were  treatment the f o l l o w i n g  evident:  The E x p e r i m e n t a l Group a v e r a g e d  performance cally in  of s t a t i s t i c a l  o f t h e Burpee  significant  Test  (t=5.7) t h a t  at the 1 p e r c e n t l e v e l  the Side Step Test  gains i n the were  statisti-  o f c o n f i d e n c e and  ( t - 2 . 9 4 ) and t h e Z i g Z a g Run T e s t  t h a t were s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  (t-3.00)  at the 5 percent l e v e l of  confidence. 2. for  Control the semester,  which Burpee  Group I , w h i c h  i n badminton  showed a g a i n i n t h e S i d e S t e p T e s t  was s i g n i f i c a n t . Test  participated  The t r a t i o  ( t - 2 . 9 ) was a l s o  established  significant,  (t~3.20)  f o r the  whereas, t h a t  of the  42 Zig  Z a g Run T e s t  3,.  (t=1.6) was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .  Control  education class initial  activity,  and f i n a l  4.  Group I I , w h i c h was e x c u s e d f r o m a l l  test  exhibited  means t h a t  The improvement  significantly  d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e  were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .  o f t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l Group d i d n o t  e x c e e d t h e improvement  of Control  any o f t h e t e s t s , w h e r e a s , i t s i g n i f i c a n t l y improvement  of C o n t r o l  and t h e S i d e between  these  Group  I in  exceeded the  Group I I i n b o t h t h e B u r p e e T e a t  Step Test  physical  (t-2.7).  The s i g n i f i c a n c e  (t=3.4)  of d i f f e r e n c e  g r o u p s f o r t h e Z i g Zag Run w i t h a t r a t i o  o f 1.4,  t h o u g h t e n d i n g t o w a r d s s i g n i f i c a n c e , was n e v e r t h e l e s s , n o t acceptable  at the 5 percent  5.  The improvement  e x c e e d e d t h e improvement Test  only  6.  level  of confidence.  of Control  of C o n t r o l  Group  Group  I I i n the Side  Step  (t-3.0). I n no c a s e d i d t h e improvement  Control  I significantly  Groups e x c e e d t h e improvement  of e i t h e r  of the  of the Experimental  Group. 7. is  The s p e c i f i c  nature  of the f a c t o r  i n d i c a t e d b y t h e low c o e f f i c i e n t  by t h e p r o d u c t moment revealing  of c o r r e l a t i o n  f o r m u l a between t h e t h r e e  a relationship  and 0.56 f o r t h e t h i r d  of general  agility  determined  items,  o f 0.59 f o r two o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s  c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e B u r p e e and  Z i g Zag t e s t s . On t h e b a s i s  of these r e s u l t s ,  i n d i c a t e s weight t r a i n i n g developing those aspects  evidence  i s provided  which  t o be an e f f e c t i v e means o f o f a g i l i t y measured b y t h e B u r p e e and  43  Side  S t e p T e s t s , r e f e r r e d t o as t r a n s l a t o r y and  agility. also  I t f u r t h e r appears that  effective  Improvement  i n developing  a semester of badminton i s aspects  of a g i l i t y .  i n t h e f a c t o r o f change o f d i r e c t i o n ,  significant,  was, n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  were no d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s resistance  these  nontranslatory  exercises  sufficient  t o show t h a t  due t o t h e h e a v y  of t h e weight  training  though not  progressive programme.  there  44  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BOOKS A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , R e s e a r c h Methods A p p l i e d t o H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n D.C., D e p a r t m e n t o f N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1952. B a r r o w , H.M., Motor A b i l i t y T e s t i n g f o r C o l l e g e Minneapolis, Burgess, 1957.  Men,  B o v a r d , J . F . , C o z e n s , F.W., Hagman, E.P., T e s t s and Measurements i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 3 r d e d . , P h i l a d e l p h i a , W.B. S a u n d e r s , 1949. C l a r k e , H.H., A p p l i c a t i o n o f Measurement t o H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 2nd e d . , E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , Prentice Hall, 1950. D e l o r m e , T . L . , W a t k i n s , A.L., P r o g r e s s i v e R e s i s t a n c e E x e r c i s e , New Y o r k , A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1951. P r e u n d , J . E . , Modern E l e m e n t a r y Prentice Hall, 1952.  S t a t i s t i c s , New  G a r r e t t , H.E., S t a t i s t i c s i n P s y c h o l o g y and New Y o r k , Longmans, G r e e n , 1958. Larson,  York,  Education,  5th  ed.,  L . , Yocum, R., Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n i n P h y s i c a l H e a l t h and R e c r e a t i o n E d u c a t i o n , S t . L o u i s , C.V. Mosby, 1951.  Lindhard,  J . , The T h e o r y o f G y m n a s t i c s , 3 r d Methuen, 1949.  M c C l o y , C.H., Tests Education,  and 2nd  ed.,  London,  Measurements I n H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l e d . , New Y o r k , C r o f t s , 1942.  M c C l o y , C.H., Y o u n g , N.D., Tests and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , Crofts, 1954.  and Measurements i n H e a l t h New Y o r k , Appleton-Century-  Mathews, D.K., Measurement I n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , P h i l a d e l p h i a , W.B. S a u n d e r s , 1958. Murray, New  Weight L i f t i n g and P r o g r e s s i v e R e s i s t a n c e E x e r c i s e , York, Ronald P r e s s , 1954.  M u r r a y , J . , K a r p o v i c h , P.V., Weight T r a i n i n g i n A t h l e t i c s , Englewood C l i f f s , P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1955.  BOOKS  (Cont'd)  Rummel, J . F . , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o R e s e a r c h P r o c e d u r e s i n E d u c a t i o n , New Y o r k , H a r p e r B r o s . , 1958. S c o t t , M.G., French, E., B e t t e r Teaching Through New Y o r k , A.S. B a r n e s , 1945. Weiss,  Testing,  R.A., P h i l l i p s , M., A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f T e s t s i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , S t . L o u i s , C.V. Mosby, 1954.  PERIODICALS B a r r o w , H.M., " T e s t of Motor A b i l i t y f o r C o l l e g e Men", R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 2 5 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 5 4 ) , pp.253-260. B o o k w a l t e r , K.W., " R e s e a r c h E v i d e n c e o f G a i n s i n Motor Fitness", Proceedings, College Physical Education A s s o c i a t i o n , 60, 1957, pp.59-66. Capen, E.K., "The E f f e c t o f S y s t e m a t i c Weight T r a i n i n g on Power, S t r e n g t h and E n d u r a n c e " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 21 (May 1 9 5 0 ) , p p . 8 3 - 9 3 . Capen, E.K., "A S t u d y o f F o u r Programs o f Heavy R e s i s t a n c e E x e r c i s e s f o r Development of M u s c u l a r S t r e n g t h " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 27 (May 1 9 5 6 ) , pp.132-142. C a r p e n t e r , A., "An A n a l y s i s o f t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e F a c t o r s o f V e l o c i t y , S t r e n g t h and Dead Weight t o A t h l e t i c P e r f o r m a n c e " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 12 (March 1 9 4 1 ) , pp. 34-40. C h u i , E . , " E f f e c t o f S y s t e m a t i c Weight T r a i n i n g on A t h l e t i c Power", R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 21 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 5 0 ) , pp. 188-194. C o u n s i l m a n , J . , "Does Weight T r a i n i n g B e l o n g i n t h e P r o g r a m ? " , J o u r n a l of the American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , v o l . 26 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 5 5 ) , p.15-17. Cousins,  G.S., "A F a c t o r A n a l y s i s o f S e l e c t e d Wartime F i t n e s s T e s t s " , U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r ' s T h e s i s , I n d i a n a , 1951, c i t e d i n B o o k w a l t e r , K.W., "Research Gains i n Motor Fitness", Proceedings, College Physical Education A s s o c i a t i o n , 60, 1957, pp.59-66.  C u r e t o n , ' T.K., "The U n f i t n e s s o f Y o u n g Men- i n M o t o r F i t n e s s " , J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , v o l . 123, (September 1 9 4 3 ) , pp.69-74.  46 PERIODICALS  (Cont'd)  E d g r e n , H.D., "An E x p e r i m e n t i n t h e T e s t i n g o f A b i l i t y and Progress i n B a s k e t b a l l " , Research Quarterly, v o l . 3 ( M a r c h 1 9 3 2 ) , pp.159-171. Fluke,  D.W., vol.  " T r a i n i n g With Weights, S c h o l a s t i c 27 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 5 7 ) , pp.22-25.  Coach,  Henry,  F.M., " S p e c i f i c i t y vs G e n e r a l i t y i n L e a r n i n g Motor S k i l l s " , Proceedings, College P h y s i c a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n , 61,1958, pp.126-128.  H o u t z , S . J . , "The I n f l u e n c e o f Heavy R e s i s t a n c e E x e r c i s e S t r e n g t h " , The P h y s i o t h e r a p y Review, v o l . 26 (May 1 9 4 9 ) ,  on  K u s i n i t z , J . , K e e n e y , C.E., " E f f e c t s o f P r o g r e s s i v e W e i g h t T r a i n i n g on H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s o f A d o l e s c e n t B o y s ' , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 29 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 5 8 ) ,  pp. 294-S"0"!n  Lafuse,  M., "A S t u d y o f t h e L e a r n i n g o f F u n d a m e n t a l S k i l l s by C o l l e g e Freshman Women o f Low M o t o r A b i l i t y " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 22 (May 1 9 5 1 ) , pp.149-157.  McQueen, J . , " R e c e n t A d v a n c e s i n t h e T e c h n i q u e o f Progressive Resistance Exercise", B r i t i s h J o u r n a l , November 20, 1954, pp.1193-1197.  Medical ,  M a s l e y , J.W., H a i r a b e d i a u , A., D o n a l d s o n , D.N., "Weight T r a i n i n g i n R e l a t i o n t o S t r e n g t h , Speed and C o o r d i n a t i o n " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 24 (October 1 9 5 3 ) , pp.308-3TB~: Massey, B.H., C h a u d e t , N.L., " E f f e c t o f S y s t e m a t i c Heavy R e s i s t a n c e E x e r c i s e s on Range o f J o i n t Movement i n Y o u n g A d u l t M a l e s " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 27 (March 1956), p p . 4 1 - 5 T : R a s c h , P . J . , Morehouse, L . E . , " E f f e c t o f S t a t i c and Dynamic E x e r c i s e s on M u s c u l a r S t r e n g t h and H y p e r t r o p h y " , J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P h y s i o l o g y , v o l . 12 ( J u l y 1 9 5 7 ) , pp.29-40. Sills,  F.D., E v e r e t t , P., "The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f E x t r e m e Somatotypes t o P e r f o r m a n c e i n Motor and S t r e n g t h T e s t s " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 24 (May 1 9 5 3 ) , pp.149-157.  Thompson, C.W., "Some P h y s i o l o g i c E f f e c t s o f I s o m e t r i c and I s o t o n i c Work i n Man", R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 25 (December 1 9 5 4 ) , pp.476-482.  47 PERIODICALS  (Cont'd)  W a l t e r s , E . , " S c i e n t i f i c F o u n d a t i o n s of the O v e r l o a d System", S c h o l a s t i c C o a c h , v o l . 27 ( A p r i l 1 9 5 8 ) , pp.20-23. Wilkin,  B.M., "The E f f e c t ' o f Weight T r a i n i n g on Speed o f Movement", R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 23, ( O c t o b e r 1 9 5 2 ) , pp.361-369.  W i l l g o o s e , C.E., R o g e r s , M.L., " R e l a t i o n s h i p o f S o m a t o t y p e s to P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s " , J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, , v o l . 42 (May 1 9 4 9 ) , pp.704-712. 1  W o l b e r s , C P . , S i l l s , F . , "Development o f S t r e n g t h i n H i g h S c h o o l Boys by S t a t i c M u s c l e C o n t r a c t i o n s " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 24 (December 1 9 5 6 ) , pp.446-450. Y o u n g , K.E., "An A n a l y t i c S t u d y o f t h e T e s t s o f Change o f D i r e c t i o n " , Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , State U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa, A u g u s t , 1937. Z o r b a s , W.S., K a r p o v i c h , P.V., " E f f e c t o f Weight L i f t i n g Upon t h e Speed o f M u s c u l a r C o n t r a c t i o n s " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 22 (May 1 9 5 1 ) , pp.145-148.  48  APPENDIX  .APPENDIX A S T A T I S T I C A L TREATMENT The results  raw  scores  obtained  of the t h r e e  g r o u p s were a n a l y z e d  Study  test  f r o m the  items  initial  of a g i l i t y  statistically  i n the  and  final  test  from each of  3  f o l l o w i n g manner:  Design  Tests  of  A.  Experimental........Weight  B.  Control I  C.  Control II  Training  Badminton ..No  activity  Agility 1.  Burpee S q u a t  2.  Z i g Zag  3.  Side  Thrust  Run  Step  Plan Group A 1 2 3  Procedure  and  Group B 1 2, 3  1  of the  significance  b e t w e e n c o r r e l a t e d means o f t h e  required both  i n each group. t o r e a c h 0.05  t h e 0.05  and  degrees of freedom (1).  2 3  Formulae  1. D e t e r m i n a t i o n  each t e s t  Group C  0.01  The  initial  level  and  acceptable.  level  of c o n f i d e n c e  i s shown as  final  of confidence  t o be  (n-1)  of d i f f e r e n c e  2.20  The for and  results  of  was  t a b l e of t at eleven 3.11  respectively.  50 To o b t a i n  s i g n i f i c a n c e the f o l l o w i n g  1. No. o f S u b j e c t s 2. Mean S c o r e  f o r m u l a e were  used:  (N)  X.x N  3. S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n  /Z  5. D i f f e r e n c e  o f Mean  dT,- -  between Means  (M1-M2)  6. C o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n I n i t i a l  7. S t a n d a r d E r r o r  8. C a l c u l a t i o n  2  -JTW=TT  6  4. S t a n d a r d E r r o r  x  and P i n a l  of the D i f f e r e n c e  Results  between C o r r e l a t e d  Means  of the " t " Ratio  "S.E.DIff. 2. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e the  means o f Improvement  The l e v e l  i n each t e s t  o f c o n f i d e n c e was r e q u i r e d  acceptable.  The t a b l e  confidence  as  2.20 and 3.11 r e s p e c t i v e l y . ( 2 ) .  1. No. o f S u b j e c t s  groups.  t o r e a c h 0.05 t o be  f o r e l e v e n degrees of freedom  significance  2. Mean S c o r e s  i t e m between  o f t a t b o t h t h e 0.05 and 0.01  of  To o b t a i n  of d i f f e r e n c e i n  the f o l l o w i n g  (N)  of I n i t i a l  Test  level  ( N - l ) I s shown  p r o c e d u r e was u s e d :  51 3. S t a n d a r d  Deviation of I n i t i a l  4. Mean S c o r e s 5. S t a n d a r d 6. G a i n  of P i n a l  Test  Test  Deviation of P i n a l  Test  i n Means  7. S t a n d a r d  Error  o f Means o f P i n a l  8. S t a n d a r d  Error  o f t h e D i f f e r e n c e o f Means  9. C a l c u l a t i o n  Test (uncorrelated)  of the t r a t i o  3. D e t e r m i n a t i o n between t h e e n t i r e  of the degree of i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n  Initial  scores of each t e s t  a) The raw s c o r e s were g r o u p e d b) The c o e f f i c i e n t moment f o r m u l a  and p l o t t e d  on a  item. scattergram  o f c o r r e l a t i o n was o b t a i n e d b y t h e p r o d u c t i n c o r p o r a t i n g the data d e r i v e d from the  scattergram.  r«  1*X. _H  -  l_  <J«Jv  REFERENCES 1. G a r r e t t , H.E., S t a t i s t i c s i n P s y c h o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n , 5 t h e d . , New Y o r k , Longmans, G r e e n , 1958, p . 4 4 9 . 2. L o c .  cit.  APPENDIX B INDIVIDUAL SCORE SHEET  Name  ....  Phone No  Age Time  Activity.  TESTS RESULTS  Date  Item  #1  Item  #2  ..seconds  Item  #3  seconds  Stamp  (a)  (b)......... (c)......  V  APPENDIX C RAW EXPERIMENTAL Subj .  Initial  GROUP  Teat  SCORES FOR THE BURPEE TEST CONTROL GROUP I  Final  Test  Subj .  Initial  Test  CONTROL GROUP I I  Final  1  11.00  13.5  1  11.50  11.50  2  11.75  12.00  2  11.75  • 12.00  3  12.50  15.00  3  4  12.25  13.75  4  5  10.50  12.75  5  6  11.25  12.50  6  7  11.25  12.50  7  8  12.00  15.00  8  9  10.75  12.00  9  11.00  10  10  8.50  Subj  Test  Initial  Test  Final  1  14.75  14.50  2  13.50  14.25  10.50  3  13.75  14.00  12.50  11.75  4  13.25  13.50  11.25  11.75  5  14.50  14.50  9.50  10.50  6  11.75  11.75  8.75  9.50  7  13.50  13.00  10.50  8  13.75  13.75  10.00  9  13.75  14.50  12.50  13.50  10  12.75  12.25  9.50  10.25 9.50  2  11  10.75  11.00  11  9.50  11.00  11  11.75  12.00  12  12.25  13.00  12  9.50  10.50  12  14.50  14.00  APPENDIX D RAW  SCORES FOR THE SIDE STEP TEST  EXPERIMENTAL GROUP Subj .  Initial  Test  CONTROL GROUP I  Final  Test  Subj .  Initial  Test  CONTROL GROUP I I  Final  Test  Subj  Initial  Test  Final  1  8.5  8.7  1  8.0  7.4  1  7.6  7.4  2  11.0  10.0  2  9.4  9.0  2  7.5  7.4  3  9.1  8.6  3  8.-4  8.3  3  7.8  7.9  4  11.2  11.2  . 4  7.4  10.5  4  7.6  8.0  5  10.0  9.3  5  10.5  9.8  5  8.6  8.7  6  9.2  8.9  6  11.2  9.6  6  7.6  7.7  7  9.6  9.2  7  11,4  10,6  7  8.0  8.7  8  10.9  9.3  8  10.0  10.0  8  7.7  8.1  9  9.5  8.9  9  10.4  8.7  9  8.6  8.5  10  9.2  8.5  10  11.5  8.7  10  9.4  9.0  11  9.7  9.7  11  10.9  9.0  11  8.7  8.7  12  8.5  8.5  12  10.5  10.0  12  8.8  9.0  APPENDIX E RAW SCORES FOR THE Z I G ZAG RUN EXPERIMENTAL Subj .  Initial  GROUP  Test  CONTROL GROUP I  Final  Test  Subj .  Initial  Test  CONTROL GROUP I I  Final  Test  Subj  Initial  Test  Find  1  26.5  25.6  1  25.9  25.3  1  24.1  24.5  2  28.2  28.0  2;  24.8  24.6  2  24.3  24.4  3  26.6  26.0  3  26.4  26.5  3  24.7  25.0  4  27.4  27.6  4  27.4  26.0  4  24.6  24.4  5  27.5  27.0  5  26.9  29.6  5  25.6  25.7  6  27.5  27.0  6  26.1  26.5  6  26.2  26.1  7  26.2  26.0  7  27.3  26.5  7  25.8  25. 2  8  27.2  26.2  8  27.3  28.0  8  24.8  25. 1  9  27.4  26.5  9  28.0  28.5  9  24.8  25. 0  10  27.5  27.0  10  25.3  25.2  10  26.4  26. 3  11  25.5  24.8  11  27.0  25.8  11  26.6  27.  12  26.9  26.4  12  26.8  25.0  12  26.5  26,. 3  o  

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