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The relative effectiveness of interval circuit training compared with three other methods of fitness… Banister, Eric W. 1962

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THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERVAL CIRCUIT TRAINING COMPARED rflTK THREE OTHER METHODS OF FITNESS TRAINING IN A SCHOOL PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME by EMC W. BANISTER B . S c . VICTORIA UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER 1953 Dip.P.E. LOUGHBOROUGH COLLEGE 1954 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE BEOUIREbiENT FOR THE BEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of PKYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION ccept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard: THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA .APRIL 1962 ABSTRACT Much controversy exists regarding the most e f f i c i e n t means of applying methods of progressive resistance work i n tr a i n i n g routines. The contrasting p r i n c i p l e s of isometric and isotonic exercise have added further confusion to the area, This study combines d i f f e r e n t forms of endurance and dynamic strength t r a i n i n g i n an eas i l y administered form which can be used i n a school physical education programme. I t compares t h i s method, called here. Interval C i r c u i t Training, with three other types of t r a i n i n g to determine which of these methods could be used best i n a school. Four groups of fourteen to sixteen year old boys were matched i n i t i a l l y on the basis of th e i r scores on three indices; The Harvard Step Test Index, Larson's Strength Index, McCloys C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index. The f i r s t two of these indices namely endurance and strength were com-bined to give a Total Fitness Factor. The i n i t i a l scores of the boys on each of these same tests also gave measures of what have been call e d The Endurance Factor and The Dynamic Strength Factor respectively. The boys took park i n four d i f f e r e n t t r a i n i n g programmes. One group did Interval C i r c u i t Training emphasising endurance and strength t r a i n i n g , one group conventional C i r c u i t Training combined with endurance running, another group conventional C i r c u i t Training f o l -lowed by games a c t i v i t y and the f i n a l group had a t o t a l A c t i r i t y pro-gramme. They took part i n the di f f e r e n t t r a i n i n g methods once every eight days for a period of two months by which time eight training-sessions had been completed. During the rest of their weekly pro-gramme a l l the groups followed a similar programme of a t h l e t i c s and gymnastics and there was no s p e c i f i c weight t r a i n i n g or endurance run-ning performed by any of the groups during t h i s time. After two months the groups were re-tested and the respective f i t n e s s indices calculated. The differences of mean gains occurring between the groups from test to re-test were compared. The Interval C i r c u i t Training Group showed gains i n t o t a l f i t -ness over the C i r c u i t Training A c t i v i t y group and the Games Activity-group at the l e v e l of significance chosen ( o . l ) . Also no s i g n i f i -cant gains were made by any of the other groups over each other i n any of the factors tested at the 10 per cent l e v e l of confidence. Gains i n the scores were made from test to re-test by a l l the groups on a l l the factors. The 1argest gains were made by the Interval C i r c u i t Training group and these gains were p a r t i c u l a r l y evident i n the strength factor. -a In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date ACKNOWLEDGMENT Grateful thanks are due to the P r i n c i p a l and members of the physical education s t a f f of Balmoral Junior High School for the i r eo-operation i n making t h i s study possible. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I II I I I IV V VI VII BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES A- STUDY DESIGN STATISTICAL TREATMENT B. INDIVIDUAL SCORE SHEET C. RAW SCORES MASTER SCORES LIST OF TABLES STATEMENT OF PROBLEM JUSTIFICATION OF THE PBOBLI REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE — METHODS AND PROCEDURE RESULTS DISCUSSION SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 PAGE 1 4 7 14 22 29 31 33 36 37 38 39 43 19 20 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 DIAGRAMS 49 CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM C i r c u i t t r a i n i n g has assumed an important place i n the physical education programmes of schools and colleges. Several adaptations and experiments have been made with the general method. The method as o r i g i n a l l y outlined by Morgan and Adamson ( l ) con-s i s t s of several progressive resistance exercises i n sequence called a c i r c u i t . To attempt a c i r c u i t an ind i v i d u a l f i r s t determines the maximum repetitions of an exercise which he can do for each item i n the sequence, either to exhaustion or i n t h i r t y seconds. He deter-mines the number he can do simply by performing a t r i a l run through the c i r c u i t . Half t h i s number constitutes his t r a i n i n g level for three complete turns of the c i r c u i t . The time taken to do t h i s i s the i n i t i a l c i r c u i t time. On the basis of the i n i t i a l time the super-visor a r b i t r a r i l y assesses for the subject a target time at which he can aim. When the indi v i d u a l succeeds i n performing the c i r c u i t within the target time higher levels of performance and a new target time are determined by repeating the above procedure. Standard c i r c u i t s have been designed with constant* repetitions and poundages for each item. Progression i s made from moderate to severe c i r c u i t s and variations can also be made within the c i r c u i t by emphasising either strength or endurance t r a i n i n g . The writer feels that a d i f f e r e n t method of t r a i n i n g w i l l develop strength and endurance better because previous methods lack i n t e n s i t y . The method of Interval C i r c u i t Training as used i n t h i s study employs the prin c i p l e s of i n t e r v a l running. This method of developing f i t n e s s 2 . consists of nearly maximal efforts spaced by short recovery periods,. The hypothesis of this study i s that Interval Circuit Training as a method of physical fitness training i s superior to the other three methods selected. The study is limited to fourteen to sixteen year old boys taking part i n a Junior High School programme of physical education. 3. REFERENCES 1. Morgan, R. E., Adamson, G. T., " C i r c u i t Training", G. B e l l and Sons, London, (1957). CHAPTER II JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM A problem which occurs frequently in ci r c u i t training with large numbers of students i s the delay experienced by the performer at some items. This handicap may be overcome to a certain extent by staggering the starting points of different individuals. It may also by remedied by halving the group and by allowing one half to perform while the other supervises and then, reversing the roles. However, this latter procedure leaves l i t t l e time for further activity i n a forty-five minute period. Hellebrandt and Houtz (l) consider that the sub-maximal loads, which circuit training uses, stimulate l i t t l e tension in muscles. Muller (2) regards the development of tension as the major training-stimulus and Clarke (3) has suggested that the overload principle has not been adequately applied in fitness training methods. The method of Interval Circuit Training developed in this study includes work with maximal or nearly maximal resistance for short time periods spaced with small rest periods. Strength and endurance are developed separately, with the endurance training following the strength training. On the other hand strength and endurance training proceed together in the standard methods of Circuit Training. Since repetitions i n the Interval Circuit resistance training are necessarily small, the working atmosphere is swift and intense; l i t t l e delay can occur even with large numbers. Performance is more easily checked by the instructor and the whole group may work together. Recent theories of isometric strength development by Hettinger and Miil1er ( 4 ) show that nearly maximal contractions held for a period of six seconds have a beneficial training effect even though the resis-tance is not moved. The Interval Circuit contains twelve items each of which has three constant repetitions. The target time for the twelve events i s two minutes* followed by a one minute rest-pause. Five successive two-minute turns complete the whole c i r c u i t which i s immediately followed by an endurance run between one and one-half and two miles. As a performer tires a smaller weight at an event can become his maximum resistance, according to the principles of MacQueen ( 5 ) . This study has been undertaken because no work has been done on the problem of devising a comprehensive fitness training method within the framework of a school physical education programme. It is an attempt to measure the relative effectiveness of Interval Circuit Training in a school physical education programme. 6 REFERENCES 1. Hellebrandt, F. A., Houtz, S. A., "Mechanism of Muscle Training i n Menj Experimental Demonstration of the Overload Principle," Physical therapy Review, vol. 36 (June 1956), p. 216. 2. Mailer, E. A*» "Training Muscle Strength, "Ergonomics, vol. 2 (1959), p. 216. 3 . Clarke, H. H., "Development of Volitional Muscle as Related to F i t n e s s , E x e r c i s e and Fitness Colloquium, (December 1959), p. 200. 4. Hettinger, T., Mailer, E. A*, "Muskelleistung and Muskel-training," Arbeitsphysiolegy, v o l . 15 (1953), pp. 111-126. 5. Macgueen, I* J . , "Recent Advances i n Technique of Progressive Resistance Exercises," B r i t i s h Medical Journal, vol. 2 (1954), p. 1193. CHAPTER I I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE In an early experiment by Adamson ( l ) half a class of fourteen to f i f t e e n year old boys i n a secondary school took part i n a c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g routine. This programme was done three times a week for a month and was i n addition to t h e i r normal physical education programme. The other half of the class received no additional a c t i v i t y . The groups were matched and randomly assigned either to the control or exercise group. At the end of the month they were retested on the same i n i t i a l t e s t s , McGloy's A t h l e t i c Strength Index, The Ravard Step Test and a Physical E f f i c i e n c y Index consisting of standing broad jump, shot put and body weight measures. The exercise group showed s i g n i f i -cant gains over the control group i n a l l three variables. In the Harvard Step Test the control group even showed a negative gain, i n d i c a t i n g that there could be a loss i n f i t n e s s as measured by t h i s test for students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the normal physical education pro-gramme. The method developed from t h i s experiment by Morgan and Adamson (2) called C i r c u i t Training has become widely used for improving physical f i t n e s s . C i r c u i t Training emphasizes the use of exercises incorporating resistance supplied either by the body i t s e l f or by the use of weights. However, i n both cases r e l a t i v e l y large numbers of repetitions are done with sub-maximal loads. On the other hand Cerutty ( 3 ) says that the best weight to be used to develop strength i s close to an individual's maximum. McMorris and E l k i n (4) seem to agree with Cerutty indicating that the stimulation of muscular hypertrophy by sub-maximal work was often not accompanied by strength gains. 8. Several -workers have investigated strength gains r e s u l t i n g from work with heavy weights. MacQueen (5) showed that gradual reduction of the muscle load as i t fatigues provides s u f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g e f f e c t . The work of Hellebrandt and Houtz (8) indicated that both strength and endurance improved when work was done against heavy resistance. In addition the gradient of the t r a i n i n g curve varied with the stress, frequency and duration of exercise. Repetitions with inadequate stress had l i t t l e effect i n strength t r a i n i n g . Muller (7) considers the key factor i n strength development to be tension. Tension i n the muscle decreases as the speed of contraction increases; the use of heavy resistances requiring a longer contraction time i s therefore better suited to strength development. Steinhaus (8), i n a review of the ideas of strength t r a i n i n g , outlined new concepts of the value of isometric and isotonic contraction. Studies by Lorback and Swegen (9) at Pennsylvania compared the e f f e c t i v e -ness of these methods i n developing muscle strength. Other studies no-tably by Adamson (10), (11), Dar cus and Salter (12), Matthews and Kruse (13) , and ftariek and Larsen (14) , have indicated a wide c o n f l i c t of opinion with regard to the merits of these two methods. Clarke (15) has suggested that many studies i n strength improvement have had inadequate t r a i n i n g periods, that the overload p r i n c i p l e has not been applied and that much work remains to be done i n determining the most effective u t i l i z a t i o n of exercise methods. Merton (16) investigating the problem of muscular fatigue found that a short rest period i s needed by a muscle after exhaustion before i t 9. can show a maximum contraction again. Previous investigation by d u l l e r (IT) also showed that when exercise i s heavy a larger amount of work can be done i f the exercise i s interspersed with rest pauses. Clarke, Shay and Mathews (18) estimated the optimum length of the res t period to be i n the region of two and one half minutes. Darcus (19) found that i n fatigue, other muscles besides the fatigued muscle begin to contract, effecting whole body exercise. Easch and Morehouse (2()) found a certain s p e c i f i c i t y of the movement patterns i n r e p e t i t i v e resistance exercises. There are no indications that r e p e t i t i v e maximum work with rest pauses has been used i n a c i r c u i t method. This kind of t r a i n i n g i s well known i n a t h l e t i c s as i n t e r v a l t r a i n i n g and Starapf1 (2l) has ca l l e d i t the most exhaustive of a l l , producing high standards i n run-ning e f f i c i e n c y . Cerutty (22) has used the method of heavy resistance work i n repeated runs up eighty foot high s a n d h i l l s . Work by Balke and Ware (23) has also shown that endurance running i s an e f f i c i e n t method of improving cardiovascular endurance correlating well with maximum ef f o r t runs on the tread m i l l . J o k l (24) found that the hearts of athletes, especially those active i n the endurance sports of running, cycling and swimming more so than i n the strength sports of weight-l i f t i n g , wrestling and judo, were s i g n i f i c a n t l y stronger than the hearts of non athletes. The suggestion seems to be therefore that a d u a l i t y i n the t r a i n i n g method embracing the efforts of maximal strength work and endurance running i s desirable. Wolffe (25) has refuted the idea of over exertion and s t r a i n as a special p e r i l of adolescence. He has reported that no cardiologist of standing has indicated t h i s . 1©. Se also claims that a l l reported cases of death and injury i n physical activity have revealed seme prior undiscovered pathological condition* Larson (26) has shown that a dynamic strength index consisting of chins, dips and vertical jump i s three times more significant than dynamometer tests i n predicting a composite index of motor a b i l i t y * Brouha (27) introduced the step test as a general test of the body's capacity, i n particular that of the cardiovascular system, to adapt i t s e l f to and recover from hard exercise* 1 1 • REFERENCES 1. Adamson, G. T., "The Effects of Normal Physical Training Com-pared with the Effects of a Speci a l l y Designed Programme of Gymnastic Work," Journal of Physical Education, v o l . 44 (November 1952), p. 109. 2. Morgan, R. E., Adamson, G. T., " C i r c u i t Training", G. B e l l and Sons, London, 1957. 3. Cerutty, P. W., "How to Become a Champion", Stanley Paul, London, 1960. 4. McMorris, R. 0., E l k i n s , E. C., "A Study of Production and Evaluation of Muscle Hypertrophy," Arch, of Physical Medicine and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , v o l . 36 (July 1954), pp. 420-426. 5. MacQueen, I. J . , "Recent Advances i n the Technique of Pro-gressive Resistance Exercises," B r i t i s h Medical Journal, v o l . 2 (1954), p. 1193. 6. Hellebrandt, F. A., Houtz, S. A., "Mechanism of Muscle Training i n Men," Physical Therapy Review, v o l . 36 (June 1956), p. 371. 7. Miil 1 er, E. A., "Training Muscle Strength," Ergonomics, v o l . 2 (1959), p. 216. 8. Steinhaus, A. H., "Strength from Morpugo to Muller, " Journal of the Association of Physical and Mental Re h a b i l i t a t i o n , v o l . 9 (1955), pp. 147-150. 9. Lawtber, J . D., Pennsylvania State University Studies on Strength Decrement, Maintenance and Related Aspects," 61st Annual Proc. of the College Physical Education Association,(Dec. 1958), p. 142. 10. Adamson, G. T., "Milo or Muller I I " Journal of Physical Education, v o l . 51 (July 1959), pp. 59-62. 11. Adamson, G. T., "Effects of Isometric and Isotonic Exercise on Elbow Flexor and Spine Extensor Muscle Groups," Health and Fitness i n the Modern World, The A t h l e t i c I n s t i t u t e , ( l 9 6 l ) , pp. 172-180. , 12. 12. Darcus, H. P., S a l t e r , N., "Effects of Repeated Muscular Exertion on Muscle Strength," Journal of Physiology, v o l . 129 (1955), p. 325. 13. Matthews, D. K., Kruse, R., "Effect of Isometric and Isotonic Exercise on Elbow Flexor Muscle Groups," Research Quarterly, v o l . 28 (March 1957), p. 26. 14. Rarick, G. L., Larsen, G. L., "The Effects of Variations i n the Intensity and Frequency of Isometric Muscular E f f o r t on the Development of S t a t i c Muscular Strength i n Pre Pubescent Males," Arbeitsphysiologie, v o l . 18 (1959), pp. 13-21. 15. Clarke, H. H., "Development of V o l i t i o n a l Muscle Strength as Related to Fitness," Exercise and Fitness. The A t h l e t i c I n s t i t u t e , (December 1959), p. 200. 16. Merton, P. A., "Problems of Muscular Fatigue, B r i t i s h Medical Association B u l l e t i n , v o l . 12 (1956), p. 216. 17. Muller, E. A., "Theory of Rest Pauses," Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology and Cognate Medicine, v o l . 38 (1952)T PP. 205-215. 18. Clarke, H. H., Shay, C. T., Matthews, D. E., "Strength Decre-ment of Elbow Flexor Muscles Following Exhaustive Exercise," Arch, of Physical Medicine and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , v o l . 35 (1954), pp. 56-61. 19. Darcus, H. D., "Some Effects of Prolonged Muscular Exertion" Ergonomic Research Society Symposium on Fatigue, (1957), pp. 59-67. 20. Rasch, P. J . , Morehouse, L. E., "Effect of S t a t i c and Dynamic Exercise on Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy," Journal of Applied Physiology, v o l . 11 (1957), pp. 29-34. 21. Stampfl, P., "Stampf1 on Running" Herbert Jenkins, London, (August 1955), p. 47. 22. Cerutty, P. W., Op. C i t . , p. 16. 23. Balke, V., Ware, R. W., "The Effect of Physical Exercise on Metabolic P o t e n t i a l , " U.S. Armed Forces Medical Journal, v o l . 10 (1959), p. 675. 13. 24. J o k l , E., "Ballistocardiographic Studies on Athletes," American Journal of Cardiology, v o l . 4 (1959) , p. 105. 25. Wolffe, J . B., "Future Basic Research Relating Physical Education to Sports Medicine," 59th Annual Proceedings of the College Physical Education Association,(Dec. 1956), p. 115. 26. Larson, L. A., "A Factor and V a l i d i t y Analysis of Strength Variables with a Test Combination of Chinning, Dipping and V e r t i c a l Jump," Research Quarterly, v o l . 11 (Dec. 1940), pp. 82-96. 27. Brouha, L., "The Step Test," Research Quarterly, v o l . 14 (March 1943) pp. 31-36. CHAPTER IV METHODS AND PROCEDURE Composition of Groups The study used four equated groups of fourteen to sixteen year old boys for one period per school week. Their normal physical education programme consisted of three physical education periods and one health class per s i x day school week. Therefore s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g was given once every eight days. Each of the four equated groups followed a d i f f e r e n t t r a i n i n g routine. These routines were Interval C i r c u i t Training, C i r c u i t Training with Endurance Running, C i r c u i t Training followed by a Gaines A c t i v i t y and an entire Games Programme.) Each group consisted of thirteen boys. The pupils were matched on the basis of t h e i r scores on the McCloy's C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index ( l ) , The Larson Strength Test (2) and the Harvard Step Test (3). There-fore a l l four groups were c l a s s i f i e d and matched with respect to age weight and height and performance. One period per week the boys were instructed by the writer and during the rest of t h e i r programme by the school physical education teacher. No s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i n strength or endurance was given during the rest of t h e i r programme throughout the period of the experiment. Both t r a i n i n g and testing were done at the same time of day. Administration of the Tests For admiiiistration of the tests the boys were divided into pairs to observe and record each other's performance. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n index was computed from the age, weight and height of the boys by 15. means of the formulas-Index = 20 x (Age i n years) +- 6 x (Height i n inches) + 17eight i n pounds. The Larson Strength Test required the subject to complete as many pull-ups and dips as he could and to jump as high as possible. The pull-ups were done with the hands i n the overgrasp po s i t i o n and the feet clear of the ground. The subject was instructed to raise his chin to the bar when his arras were bent and to f u l l y ex trend the arms i n relaxation. No kicking was allowed and the number of complete chins was counted by the boy's partner. Dips were done on the paral-l e l bars. The subject jumped to the high support po s i t i o n on the bar. He was instructed, to lower his body u n t i l the upper and lower arms made an ongle of ninety degrees at the elbow, and then to push himself up to f u l l extension again. A short rest wae allowed between chinning and dipping. In the V e r t i c a l jump, the subject was f i r s t required to touch as high as possible on a wall scale with both hands above his head and his toes touching the w a l l . This height was recorded. Ee then stood sideways and jumped to touch as high as possible on the scale. The t i p s of the fingers were chalked. A crouch and arm swing were allowed and the best of three t r i a l s was taken as the v e r t i c a l jump. The difference i n inches between the i n i t i a l readings and f i n a l chalk marks was read to the nearest half inch. This test was ad-ministered by two instructors. The raw scores obtained on a l l these tests were converted by means of tables i n a manual (4) into weighted scores and summed for each subject. The index corresponding to t h i s 16. sum, read from another table i n the same manual was called the Dynamic Strength Factor. The Harvard Step Test required the subject to step up and down on a bench eighteen inches high for f i v e minutes at the rate of one step every two seconds. The pulse rate was measured for t h i r t y seconds at one, two and three minutes respectively from the end of the exercise. For the purposes of t h i s experiment, where the f u l l number of steps (150) was not done, the actual number of steps completed was used i n compu-tin g the index, rather than assigning arbitrary scores to the subject. The formula used to calculate the index wasj-, , 100 x Number of Steps Index — — — r ; TZ *—: — Sum oi the three pulse counts The stepping rhythm was counted by an ins t r u c t o r , and the pulse rates were counted by the boy's partners under conditions of silence and supervision. The above index when mu l t i p l i e d by a factor of 2/3 was called The Endurance Factor. For the purpose of the experiment scores on these two factors were added so that a Total Fitness Factor could be obtained. T h u s s -Strength Factor + Endurance Factor = Total Fitness Factor. Group A c t i v i t i e s The Interval C i r c u i t Group This group performed on a special c i r c u i t emphasizing maximal resistance (see Table 1, page 18). There, were twelve items i n the c i r c u i t . The number of repetitions of each item was three. The 17. weights were comparatively heavy, but the performer, as he became t i r e d , could use a l i g h t e r weight. When he was unable to move either himself or the weight through the f u l l range of movement he was instructed to hold a maximum contraction for s i x seconds. The duration of the c i r c u i t was always the same-two minutes followed by a one-minute rest. Time overspent by an individual on the c i r c u i t was deducted from his rest periods. Thus everyone always began together. At the end of f i v e such c i r c u i t s , the two miles run was performed. The Circuit-Bun Group This group used standard c i r c u i t s of varying i n t e n s i t y with sub maximal resistances. Progression was made when pupils achieved the target time for t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u i t (see Table 2 page 19). On completing the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g they immediately ran two miles. The C i r c u i t - A c t i v i t y Group The C i r c u i t - A c t i v i t y group performed on the same standard c i r c u i t s as the e,bove group. They took part as a class which had been halved to accommodate a large number of pupils. Thus they f i r s t supervised the Circuit-Bun group and when t h i s group departed to do the running they performed themselves under the supervision of the physical education inst r u c t o r . Any time l e f t at the end of the period was given over to games. The A c t i v i t y Group The A c t i v i t y group played games during- their t r a i n i n g period. The game varied from week to week consisting of basketball, soccer, volley-b a l l , f o o t b a l l , and s o f t b a l l . They took" no part i n s p e c i f i c c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g or endurance running. 18. A l l the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups were motivated by the time factor associated with the c i r c u i t s . In addition, the endurance running-groups had f u l l knowledge of t h e i r weekly run times. Items i n the C i r c u i t s The items and number of repetitions for both types of c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g are shown i n Tables 1 and 2 on pages 19 and 20 respectively. I t may be noticed that the f i v e standard c i r c u i t s of the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups d i f f e r only i n the amount of resistance used and the number of repetitions done. A l l members of the classes performed the t r a i n i n g . No one knew who was i n the experimental groups. 19. DESCRIPTION OF THE INTERVAL CIRCUIT Table 1. Item 1. Barbell Press 2. Barbell Curl 3. Barbell Reverse Curl 4. Barbell Tricep Snatch 5. Barbell Rowing 6. Dumbel1 Side Bends 7. Dumbel1 Straddle Jumps 8. Dumbel1 Lying Lateral Raise 9. Bench Press 10. Chins 11. S i t Ups 12. Trunk Extension' Two Mile Run Poundage 45 l b s , 45 l b s , 45 l b s , 45 l b s , 55 l b s , 55 l b s , 55 l b s , 55 l b s , 45 l b s , 55 l b s , 1 x 10 lbs 2 x 10 lbs 2 x 10 lbs 35 l b s , 45 l b s , 10 lbs, 10 l b s , 10 lbs. 65 lbs, 85 l b s . 65 l b s , 85 l b s . 65 l b s , 85 l b s . 65 l b s , 85 l b s . 65 lb s , 85 l b s . 1 x 25 l b s . 2 x 25 l b s . 2 x 25 l b s . 65 l b s . 20 l b s , (suspended from shoulders) 15 l b s , 20 lbs (Held behind head) 15 lb s , 20 lbs. The trai n i n g programme consisted of the f o i l owing:-1. Completing i n two minutes three repetitions of each item with the maximum weight which could be moved. 2. Resting one minute. 3. Repeating the whole c i r c u i t as above _5 times. 4. Any individual not completing the c i r c u i t i n 2 minutes had the overtime deducted from the rest period. 5. As the performer t i r e d a lower weight would become a maximum for him, free choice of weights was allowed for each item. 6. Any movement not able to be completed was held for sis: seconds. 7. At the end of the 5th lap the two mile run was immediately performed. 2D. DESCRIPTION OP FIVE STANDARD CIRCUITS USED BY THE CIRCUIT TRAINING GROUPS Table 2 ITEM 1. S i t Ups 2o Chins 3. Shuttle Run 4. Step Ups 5 . Straddle Jump 6. Squat Thrusts 7. Trunk Extention 8. Push Ups 9. Barbell Curl 10. Barbell Press Target Times Poundages C i r c u i t I 15 3 3 15 5 S 12 10 10 5 C i r c u i t II 15 5 3 15 5* 12 15 10 C i r c u i t I I I 15 5 3 12 8' 15 10 12 C i r c u i t IV 15 5 15 8* 15 10 3 12 Ci r c u i t V 15 6 2 15 8 S 15 10 12 10.00 rains 11.00 mins 10.00 mins 10.30 rains 10.00 mi us •H 6 lbs « 10 lbs s 15 lbs s 15 lbs * 15 lbs «« 5 lbs sx 10 lbs 10 lbs *K 25 lbs «« 35 lbs xs« 45 lbs **ts 55 lbs s s x 65 lbs In performance of a c i r c u i t the ten items constitute one turn of the c i r c u i t . Three turns must be completed i n the target time, before the individual can attempt the next higher c i r c u i t . The C i r c u i t Training A c t i v i t y Group supervised The C i r c u i t Training Endurance Run group before they themselves attempted the c i r c u i t . This was done i n order to simulate conditions which would occur with a large class needing to be s p l i t i n half and practiced separately. The C i r c u i t Endurance Run group went on a two mile run immediately after a l l of them had finished th e i r c i r c u i t . The C i r c u i t A c t i v i t y group joined the Games group immediately after completing the c i r c u i t . 21 REFERENCES 1„ McCloy, C. H., "The Measurement of A t h l e t i c Power," A. S. Barnes and Co., New York. (l932j~ 2. Larson, L. A., "A Factor and V a l i d i t y Analysis of Strength Variables and Tests with a Test Combination of Chinning, Dipping, and V e r t i c a l Jump," Research Quarterly, v o l . 11 (December 1940), pp. 82-96. 3. Brouha, L., "The Step Test; A Simple Method of Measuring Physical Fitness for Muscular Work i n Young Men," Research Quarterly, v o l . 14 (March 1943), pp. 31-36. 4. Weiss, R. A., P h i l l i p s , M., "Administration of Tests i n Physical Education," The C. V. Mosby Co., St, Louis, 1954. CHAPTER V RESULTS TABLES SHOWING MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF INITIAL AND FINAL SCORES. Table 8. Total Fitness Factor Grp. I II I I I IV N o - X i n t . ^ i n t . ^ f i n . I) f i n . 13 113.53 12.83 126.76 9.64 13.23 7.10 13 111.23 13.80 120.92 14.91 9.69 10.61 13 112.23 15.28 118.61 17.04 6.38 7.27 13 113.30 10.39 120.30 14.86 7.00 12.44 This table shows the r e l a t i v e E f f i c i e n c y of the i n i t i a l matching of the groups i n terms of the Means and Standard Deviations of i n i t i a l scores. X. , Mean of I n i t i a l scores i n t . X,. Mean of F i n a l scores f i n . D Mean difference between I n i t i a l and F i n a l scores S. i Standard Deviation of I n i t i a l Scores i n t . S„. Standard Deviation of F i n a l Scores t i n . S— Standard Deviation of difference between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Scores. 23. Table 4. Dynamic Strength Factor Grp. No. X. , i n t . i n t . X _. f i n . f i n . B SD I 13 58.53 11,88 68.00 12.25 9.46 9.90 II 13 60.85 10.61 66,92 12.37 6.07 6.43 II I 13 58.15 11,23 63.92 13.39 5.76 5.25 IV 13 63.30 9.76 67.23 12.37 3.92 12.59 X. , Mean of I n i t i a l scores i n t . f i n . Mean of F i n a l Scores D Mean difference between I n i t i a l and F i n a l scores S. , Standard Deviation of I n i t i a l Scores i n t . S„. Standard Deviati on of F i n a l scores f i n . S— Standard Deviation of difference between I n i t i a l and Fi n a l scores. 24. Table 5. Endurance Factor Grp. No. X. , i n t . i n t . f i n . S„. D f i n . S^ v D I 13 55.00 5.83 58.76, 6.06 3.76 8.56 II 13 50.38 9.40 54.00 7.22 3.61 6.80 I I I 13 54.07 10.08 54.69 8.43 0.61 4.20 IV 13 50.00 11.06 53.07 6.87 3.07 6.56 X. , i n t . Mean of I n i t i a l scores f i n , Mean of Fi n a l s cores B Mean difference scores between I n i t i a l and Fin a l i n t . Standard Deviation of I n i t i a l scores S„. f i n . Standard Deviation of F i n a l scores Standard I n i t i a l Deviation of Difference between and F i n a l scores. Table 6. Gains i n Scores made by the Groups from I n i t i a l to F i n a l Tests on the Total Fitness, Dynamic Strength and Endurance Factors Grp. I Grp. I I Grp. I l l Grp. IV D D D~ D Total Fitness 13.23 9.69 6.38 7.00 Dynamic Strength 9.46 6.07 5.76 3.92 Endurance 3.76 3.61 0.61 3.07 26 Table 7 . Differences between the groups on Total Fitness factor • d SE~r d Obtained t Accept or Reject Hypothesis Accept E. A" Group I — Group I I 3 . 5 4 3 . 6 6 0 . 9 7 0 . 4 0 Group I - Group I I I 6 . 8 4 3 . 6 0 1 . 9 0 Reject 0 . 1 0 Group I — Group I V 6 . 2 3 3 * 2,<S 1 . 9 2 Rej ect 0 . 1 0 Group i : - Group I I I 3 . 3 0 3 . 3 5 0 . 9 9 Accept 0 . 4 0 Group I I - Group I V 2 . 6 9 4 . 0 3 0 . 6 7 Accept 0 . 5 0 Group i n - Group I V 3 . 7 5 - 0 . 6 2 - 0 . 1 7 Accept 0 . 5 0 The Null hypothesis tested was that no difference occurred i n the gains between the groups taken two at a, time. *Extreme Area showing the l i m i t s of the C r i t i c a l Region for the obtained t scores. 27, Table 8. Differences between Groups on Dynamic Strength Factor I d Obtained t Accept or Reject Hypothesis K.A* Group I — Group II •3.38 4.25 0.80 Accept 0.50 Group II - Group I I I 3.69 3.30 1.12 Accept 0.40 Group I - Group IV 5.53 4.40 1.37 Accept 0.20 Group I - Group I I I 3.30 3.20 0.14 Accept 0.50 Group II - Group IV 2.69 4.32 0.50 Accept 0.50 Group I I I - Gr oup IV -0.62 3.72 0.50 Accept 0.50 The Null hypothesis tested was that no difference occurred i n the gains between the groups taken two at a time. 'Extreme Area showing the l i m i t s of the C r i t i c a l Region for the obtained t scores. 28. Table 9. Differences between Groups on Endurance Factor SEj d Accept or Reject E. A* I Obtained t Hypothesi s Group I — Group I I 0.16 2.86 0.06 Accept 0.50 Group I - Group I I I 3.15 2.67 1.48 Accept 0,20 Group I - Group IV 0.69 3.01 0.23 Accept 0.50 Gr oup I — Gr oup I I I 3.00 2.44 1.23 Accept 0.40 Group II - Group IV 0.53 2.08 0.26 Accept 0.50 Group I I I - Group IV -2.46 3.15 -0.78 Accept 0.50 The Null hypothesis tested was that no difference occurred i n the gains between the groups taken two at a time. ^Extreme Area showing the l i m i t s of the C r i t i c a l Region for the obtained t scores. CHAPTER VI DISCUSSION The study shows that s i g n i f i c a n t gains were made by the Interval C i r c u i t Group over both the C i r c u i t Training-Activity Group and the A c t i v i t y Group i n the Total Fitness Factor. No s i g n i f i c a n t gains were made by any group over any other factors. Although i t i s l o g i c a l to expect p a r a l l e l improvement i n measures of endurances i n both groups which had endurance running during t r a i n i n g i t i s notice-able that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t gains made by either of these Groups over the C i r c u i t Training-Activity or A c t i v i t y Groups i n t h i s factor. The i n s i g n i f i c a n t differences found between each of the two C i r c u i t Training groups and the A c t i v i t y group does not p a r a l l e l the findings of Adamson ( l ) . This i s probably due to the d i f f e r i n g condi-tions of the experiments. In the l a t t e r case the C i r c u i t Training-was given three times a week i n addition to a normal programme for a month. In the present study the special t r a i n i n g period was given as part of the programme once every eight days for two months and even then was r e s t r i c t e d i n the case of the C i r c u i t Training-Activity Group. The superior performance of the Interval C i r c u i t group on the tests may be due to experience gained i n applying intense e f f o r t , Ikai and Steinhaus (2) have indicated that even though capacity i s a measure of the physiological l i m i t , the actual performance i s i t s e l f limited by psychological factors - especially i n any test where maximum eff o r t i s needed. Limitations and errors i n the method of the experiment were con-t r o l l e d to some extent since these were common to the groups compared 30. i n the study. No attempt was made therefore to measure them. No absolute interpretation has been made of the scores on the three factors and only differences between scores have been studied within the popu-l a t i o n of fourteen to sixteen year old boys i n The Junior High School. Cureton (3) has shown the i n s u f f i c i e n c y of the Harvard Step Test as an indicator of cardiovascular e f f i c i e n c y when t r a i n i n g i n i t s method i s not given previous to the tes t i n g . Although a separate study (4) showed the increased predictive quality of i t when t h i s t r a i n i n g i s given these conditions are not represented i n t h i s study, where only tests at the beginning and end of the experiment were possible. The matched group s t a t i s t i c a l treatment provides a powerful test of the n u l l hypothesis proposed. The lev e l of significance chosen was deemed s u f f i c i e n t for the two t a i l e d test used since consequences of a Type II error were considered to be of importance to the study. The Extreme Areas of a l l the obtained t scores have been reported as a matter of intere s t . Further work i n t h i s area may investigate whether an increased frequency and period of t r a i n i n g would give more s i g n i f i c a n t differences than shown here. CHAPTER VII SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Ever since progressive resistance methods have been applied to f i t -ness t r a i n i n g a large measure of controversy has developed concerning the best organization of such methods into a generally applicable t r a i n i n g regime. The r i v a l claims of isometric and isotonic methods have been especially i n t e r e s t i n g . C i r c u i t Training sought to combine into one system many of these modern ideas taut i t seems to lack somewhat i n the i n t e n s i t y of e f f o r t required for the highest development. Four methods of developing physical fitness have been compared i n t h i s study. Three of the methods used progressive resistance exer-cises and, i n addition, two involved endurance running. One of the resistance methods organized the resistances and repetitions of the c i r c u i t d i f f e r e n t l y from the generally accepted method and combined them with endurance running. When done i n t h i s form the t r a i n i n g was c a l l e d Interval C i r c u i t Training. The other methods involved ( l ) conventional C i r c u i t Training with Endurance running, (2) C i r c u i t Training and Games A c t i v i t y and (3) only Games A c t i v i t y . Four groups of fourteen to sixteen year old boys i n a Junior High School programme were used i n the study. The groups were matched by equating each boy i n each group with one boy i n each of the other groups on the basis of an age, height and weight index, a dynamic strength factor and an endurance factor. The four groups took part i n th e i r separate t r a i n i n g programmes once every eight days for two months at the end of which time they were retested on the same i n i t i a l t e s t s . During the period of the 32. experiment they were motivated by a f u l l knowledge of their progress. Differences between matched individuals in the gains achieved by them from the i n i t i a l to the fina l tests were compared by means of a st a t i s t i c a l test of the null hypothesis that there was no difference between the gains made by the groups taken two at a time. The effects of the training methods on the separate factors of Total Fitness, Dynamic Strength and Endurance were compared. It is apparent from the results that the Interval Circuit Training method was more efficient than the Circuit Training-Activity and the Activity methods but not significantly more efficient than the Circuit Training-Endurance Run method. The fusion of the isometric and isotonic methods with the use of maximal resistances may be the v i t a l factor responsible for the superiority of the Interval Circuit Training Method. The use of Circuit Training in situations which necessitate dividing a class into halves and running them separately through the c i r c u i t in order not to cause delays results i n each half prac-ticing for only half the period. Such an arrangement does not seem to have any apparent superiority over a pure games programme. Further research into the effectiveness of Interval Circuit Training might resolve the contribution made by the experience gained from intense effort i n the training process. Increase in the fre-quency and length of the training period together with a superior evaluation of the fitness factors would also indicate more clearly the areas of improvement. BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS. Blearners, P., Lindquist, £. F., "Elementary S t a t i s t i c a l Method," Boston, Houghton M i f f l i n , 1960. Gerutty, P. W., "How to Become a Champion," London, Stanley Paul, 1960. Cureton, T. K., "Physical Fitness of Champion Athletes", Urbana, The University of I l l i n o i s Press, 1951. Cureton, T. E., "Endurance of Young Men,'* Washington, Society for Research in Child Development Monograph, 1945. McCloy, C. H., "The Measurement of Athletic Power," New York, A. S. Barnes, 1932. Morgan, R. E., Adamson, G. T., "Circuit Training," London, 6. Bell and Sons, 1957. Stampfl, F., "Stampfl on Running," London, Herbert Jenkins, August, 1955. Weiss, R. A., P h i l l i p s , M., "Administration of Tests i n Physical Education," St. Louis, C. V. Mosby, 1954, PERIODICALS Adamson, G. T., "The Effeets of Normal Physical Training Compared with the Effeets of a Specially Designed Programme of Gymnastic Work," Journal of Physical Education, vol. 44 (Nov. 1952) pp. 109-112. Adamson, G. T., "Mil© or Muller ( i i ) ," Journal of Physical Education, vol. 51 (July 1959), pp. 59-62. Adamson, G. T. Effects of Isometric and Isotonic Exxrcise on Elbow Flexor and Spine Extensor Muscle Groups," Health and Fitness i n the Modern World, Chicago, The Athletic Institute, (1961), pp. 172-180. Balke, W., Ware, R. W., "The Effect of Physical Exercise on Metabolic Potential," U.S. Armed Forces Medical Journal, vol. 10 (1959), pp. 674-67 Brouha, L., "The Step Test: A Simple Method of Measuring Physical Fitness for Muscular Work i n Young Men," Research Quarterly, vol. 14 (March 1943), pp. 31-36. Clarke, H. H., "Development of Volitional Muscle Strength as Related to Fitness," Exercise and Fitness, Chicago, The Athletic Institute, (December 1959), pp. 200-213. Clarke, H. H., Shay, C. T., Mathevs, B. K., "Strength Decrement of Elbow Flexor Muscles Following Exhaustive Exercise," Arch, of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, v o l . 35 (1954), pp. 560-561. Cureton, T. K. "Experimental and St a t i s t i c a l Analysis of the Step Test," Society for Research i n Child Bevelopment, vol. 1© (1954), pp. 187-194. Darcus, B. P., "Some Effects of Prolonged Muscular Exertion" Ergenomic Research Society Symposium on Fatigue, (1957) pp. 59-67. Darcus, H. P., Salter, N., "Effects of Repeated Muscular Exertion on Muscle Strength,'* Journal of Physiology, vol. 129 (1955) pp. 324-330. Bempster, J . , "Analysis of Two Handed Pulls Using Free Body Biagrams" Journal of Applied Physiology, v o l . 13 (November 1958), pp. 469-480. Hellebrandt, F. A., Houtz, S. A., "Mechanism of Muscle Training i n Men," Physical Therapy Review, vol. 36 (June, 1956), pp. 371-375. Hettinger, T., Muller, E. A., "Muskel l e i stung und Muskel training,* 1 Arbeitsphysiologie, v o l . 15 October 1953, pp. 111-126. Ikai, M., Steinhaus, A. H., "Some Factors Modifying the Expression of Human Strength,'* Health and Fitness i n the Modern World, Chicago, The Athletic Institute, (1961), pp. 148-161. Jok l , E., "Ballistocardiographic Studies on Athletes," American Journal of Cardiology, v o l . 4 (1959) pp. 105-107. Larson, L. A. "Factor and Validity Analysis of Strength Variables with a Test Combination of Chinning, Dipping and Vertical Jump,'* Research Quarterly, vol. 11 (December 1940), pp. 82-96. Lawther, J . D., "Pennsylvania State University Studies on Strength Decrement Maintenance and Related Aspects," 61st Annual Pro-ceedings of the College Physical Education Association, (1958), pp. 142-147. Lietzke, M. H., "Relation between Weight L i f t i n g Totals and Body Build," Science, vol. 124 (1956), pp. 486-487. MacQueen, I. J . , "Recent Advances i n the Technique of Progressive Re-sistance Exercises," Br i t i s h Medical Journal, vol. 2 (1954) pp. 1193-1198. Mathews, D. K., Kruse, R. "Effect of Isometric and Isotonic Exercise on Elbow Flexor Muscle Groups," Research Quarterly, vol. 28 (March 1957), pp. 26-37. McMorris, B. 0., El kins, E. C , "A Study of the Production and Evaluation of Muscle Hypertrophy," Arch, of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 35 (July 1954), pp. 420-426. Merton, P. A., "Problems of Muscular Fatigue," B r i t i s h Medical Association Bulletin, vol. 12 (1956), p. 216. Morehouse, L. E. "Physiological Basis of Strength Development," Exercise and Fitness, Chicago, The Athletic Institute, (December 1959) pp. 193-198. Morris, C. B., "The Measurement of Strength of Muscle Relative to i t s Cross Section," Research Quarterly, vol. 19 (December 1948), pp. 295-303. Muller, E. A., "Theory of Rest Pauses," Quarterly Journal of Experi-mental Physiology and Cognate Medicine, vol. 38 1952, pp. 205-215. Muller, E. A., "Training Muscle Strength," Ergonomics, vol. 2 (1959) pp. 216-219. Rariek, G. L., Larsen, G. L*, "The Effeets of Variations i n Intensity and Frequency of Isometric Muscular Effort on the Development of Static Muscular Strength i n PrePubeseent Males," Arbeits-physiologie, vol. 18 (1959) pp. 13-21. Rasch, P. J . , Morehouse, L. E., "Effect of Static and Dynamic Exercise on Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy," Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 11 (1957) pp. 29-34. Steinhaus, A. H., "Strength from Morpugo to Muller," Journal of the Association of Physical and Mental Rehabilitation, vol. 9 (1955) pp. 147-150. Wakim, K. G., Krusen, F. A., "Comparison of Effects of El e c t r i c a l Stimulation with Effects of Intermittent Compression on Work Output and Endurance," Arch, of Physical Medicine and Rehabili-tation, vol. 38 (1957), pp. 21-27. Whitney, R. J . , "The Strength of the L i f t i n g Action i n Man," Ergonomics, v o l . 1 (February 1958), pp. 101-108. Wolffe, J . B., "Future Basic Research Relating Physical Education to Sports Medicine," 29th Annual Proceedings of the College Physical Education Association. (1956), pp. 115-125. Wire, W., "Positive Effects of Circuit Training," Essex Education Journal, (November 1955), pp.18-19. APPENDIX 36. APPENDIX A STUDY DESIGN I X. ... , Experimental factor v X ,. . D (x„. -X. v i n i t i a l T , •, • n . . , m • .—•.—V F i n a l v F i n a l i n i t i a l ) Interval C i r c u i t Training ' I I X. ... , Experimental Factor . X_. . D ( x . -X \ 1 I l l t l a l C i r c u i t Training * F l n a l F l n a l i n i t i a l ) Endurance Running I I I X. ... n Experimental Factor . X„. ., D (Xv,. .,-X , i n i t i a l C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g > F i n a l ^ i n a l ^ i n i t i a l ) Games A c t i v i t y IV X. ... , Experimental Factor , X.„. D (X -X v i n i t i a l "7, . . . . , >• F i n a l v F i n a l i n i t i a l ) Games A c t i v i t y ° ' 37. APPENDIX A STATISTICAL TREATMENT K s { - 0 Al t e r n a t i v e l y E1 i /U- l > 0 Level of Significance - o.l two t a i l e d test C r i t i c a l Region of t score for t h i s value of oC (12 df) B : t > 1.78 R 2 : t < -1.78 t (df (N-I) ) _ d-yUri, _ d 7N-I SE- S , d d d Mean difference of gains occurring between groups df Degrees of Freedom N Number i n sample SE— Standard Error of Mean differences d S^ Standard Deviation of the differences 38. APPENDIX B INDIVIDUAL SCORE SHEET Name Age Height (inches) Weight (lbs) Grade McCloy's C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index 20 x (Age i n years) +• 6 x (height i n inches) Weight i n pounds Larson Strength Index Raw Score Weighted Score Chins Dips V e r t i c a l Jump (inches) Total Norm Score Strength Factor Harvard Step Test Number of Steps completed Time of exercise i n seconds Pulse counts 1- l J - min. from end of exercise 2- 2i' min. from end of exercise 3- 3-> min. from end of exercise Total Physical Fitness F a c t o r = Number of Steps x 100. Sum of Pulse Counts Endurance Factor - 3/3 Physical Fitness Factor Total Physical Fitness Factor= Endurance Factor + Strength Factor 39. API END IX C RAW SCORES RAW SCORES OF THE INTERVAL CIRCUIT GROUP TABLE 10 Total ,., n i Fitness *?\<* B Strength Factor Endurance Factor Factor Weighted Norm Pulse Norm Name Score Score Count Score I F I F I F I F I F Index 1. B.C. 150 218 31 48 1.48 135 57 66 88 114 836 836 2. P.W. 212 279 60 78 146 175 69 57 129 135 773 778 3. J.S. 290 366 65 84 163 185 61 54 126 138 873 877 4. R.F. 288 384 66 89 180 171 55 53 120 142 854 854 5. D.M. 281 341 63 78 182 174 55 57 118 135 861 874 6. T.G. 242 280 55 65 161 155*62 55 117 120 877 877 7. B.B. 225 262 49 58 181 150 51 60 100 118 858 866 8. E.R. 223 301 50 69 190* 207 48 48 98 117 83© 844 9. J.B. 360 337 83 77 188 159 51 63 134 140 854 863 10. J.M. 256 249 66 64 203 156 49 64 115 128 781 780 11. G.3. 232 235 66 67 205 190 49 53 115 120 772 780 12. ^ • M * 226 252 51 57 182 148 55 67 106 124 823 822 13. D.I). 257 230 57 50 164 150 53 67 110 117 875 878 "indicates performance of less than 160 steps 40. APPENDIX C RAW SCORES RAW SCORES OF THE CIRCUIT TRAINING ENDURANCE RUN GROUP TABLE 11 Total Fitness Strength Factor Endurance Factor Factor - 1 e x -Weighted Norm Pulse. Norm Name Score Score Count Score I F I F I F I F I F I F 1. B ,B. 136 184 45 60 240* 174* 27 37 72 97 736 741 2. V • J . 231 235 75 76 157* 172 53 58 128 134 723 721 3. R .W. 249 254 64 65 183 211 55 47 119 112 793 793 4. B .M. 301 268 68 60 180* 163 49 61 117 121 854 865 5. B .K. 248 255 55 56 173 193 57 52 112 1.08 852 874 6. J ,R. 241 305 55 70 165 s 186 55 54 110 124 832 844 7. G .0. 237 269 61 69 187 167 48 60 109 129 809 812 8. D .K. 219 254 41 48 173* 176 47 49 88 97 896 901 9. B .11. 323 383 75 90 194 184 50 55 125 145 819 830 10. R ,T. 276 287 71 74 195 201 51 48 122 122 812 815 11. D ,W. 212 270 69 87 159* 170 49 59 118 146 727 722 12. J .M. 243 232 55 53 181 15.1 55 66 110 119 834 848 13. T ,B. 229 243 57 62 168 179 59 56 116 118 796 798 Indicates performance of less than 150 steps 41. APPENDIX C RAW SCORES RAW SCORE OF THE CIRCUIT TRAINING-ACTIVITY GROUP TABLE 12 Name Strength Factor Weighted Norm Score Score Endurance Factor Pulse Count Norm Score Total Fitness Factor kcCloys Index I F I F I F 1 F I F I F 1. D .M. 188 208 54 59 214* 177* 28 30 82 89 748 751 2. G.H. 261 281 67 72 163 166 61 60 128 132 786 799 3. D.P. 351 410 68 80 170 166 59 60 127 140 896 903 4. G.C. 157 183 45, 52 144 153 69 65 114 117 769 779 5. B .M. 350 341 67 66 209 194 48 51 115 117 908 915 6. W.T. 323 350 75 82 184 186 55 54 130 136 821 829 7. D.P. 188 184 54 53 170 173 56 58 110 111 746 758 8. T. G. 162 184 34 39 168* 176 51 49 85 88 84:8 854 9. J.P. 268 288 61 65 146 163 69 62 130 127 841 840 10, J .M. 246 266 69 75 201 197 5.0 51 119 126 766 766 11. T.G. 247 319 63 83 207 170 48 59 1 1 1 142 784 784 12. G.C. 213 221 47 49 174 175 57 57 104 106 826 823 13. B.M. 203 221 52 56 206 183 52 55 104 111 798 799 indicates pertormance of less than 150 steps 42. Ai*iKDIX C RAW SCORES RAJ SCORES OF TEE ACTIVITY GRGlh TABLE 13 N 8,111 e Strength. F a c t o r Weighted Norm Score Score Endurance Fpetor Pul se Count Norm Score T o t a l F i t n e s s Factor i C C l O Y S Index I_ F I F I F I F I 1 F 1. i i* # £J • 243 240 54 u O 315 2755 15 40 69 93 872 879 2 • J.B. 295 326 76 84 160* 178 54 56 130 140 806 816 3. R.F. 305 367 69 S5 174 204 57 49 126 134 856 863 4. J.K. 272 263 70 68 174 157 59 64 129 132 812 814 5. G.V. 264 326 60 74 195 192 51 52 111 126 841 846 6. IJ.C. 271 238 60 52 1 75* 187 50 53 110 105 870 869 7. <J .£ . 273 349 61 80 217 173 46 57 10 7 137 874 873 3. B.T. 237 287 45 53 178* 183* 46 45 91 98 938 940 9. N.R. 349 283 81 65 189 178 £53 56 134 121 830 832 10„ o T 263 196 74 56 159 S 178S 47 49 121 105 754 756 11. 169 227 55 73 167 189 60 53 115 126 718 729 12. B.L. 229 230 57 K O 180 152 55 66 112 118 824 824 13. G.h. 186 244 61 79 187s 181 s K 7 o a 50 118 129 738 738 I n d i c a t e s performance of l e s s than 150 steps 43. APPENDIX C MASTER SCORES GAINS IN THE TOTAL FITNESS FACTOR FOR THE FOUR MATCHED GROUPS TABLE 14 Interval C i r c u i t - C i r c u i t - A c t i v i t y C i r c u i t Run A c t i v i t y 1. 26 25 7 24 2. 6 6 4 10 3. 12 -7 13 8 4. 22 4 3 3 5. 17 -4 2 15 6. 3 14 6 -5 7. 18 20 1 30 8. 19 9 3 7 9. 6 20 -3 -13 10. 13 0 7 -16 11. 5 28 31 11 12. 18 9 2 6 13. 7 2 -7 11 44. APPENDIX C MASTER SCORES GAINS IN THE DYNAMIC STRENGTH FACTOR FOR THE FOUR MATCHED GROUPS TABLE 1^5.' Interval C i r c u i t - C i r c u i t - A c t i v i C i r c u i t Run A c t i v i t y 1. 17 15 5 -1 2. 18 1 5 8 3. 19 1 12 16 4. 24 -8 7 -2 5. 15 1 -1 14 6. 10 15 7 -8 7. 9 8 -1 19 8. 19 7 5 8 9. -6 15 4 -16 10. -2 3 6 -18 11. 1 18 20 18 12. 6 -2 2 -5 13. -7 5 4 18 45. APPENDIX C MASTER SCORES GAINS IN THE ENDURANCE FACTOR FOR THE FOUR MATCHED GROUPS TABLE 16 Interval C i r c u i t - C i r c u i t -C i r c u i t Run A c t i v i t y -1. 9 10 2 25 2. -12 5 - 1 2 3. -7 -8 1 -8 4. -2 12 -4 5 5. 2 -5 3 1 6. -7 -1 -1 3 7. 9 12 2 11 8. 0 2 - 2 -1 9. 12 5 - 7 3 10. 1 5 - 3 1 2 11. 4 10 11 -7 12. 12 11 0 11 13. 14 -3 3 -7 46. APPENDIX C MASTER SCORES DIFFERENCES IN GAINS OF MATCHED SETS IN TOTAL FITNESS FACTOR TABLE_17 I Interval C i r c u i t Group I I C i r c u i t Run Group I I I C i r c u i t - A c t i v i t y Group IV A c t i v i t y Group I-II I - I I I I-IV II-III 1 1 -IV I I I - I ' 1. 1 19 2 18 1 -17 0 2 - 4 2 - 4 - 6 3. 19 -1 4 -20 -15 5 4 . 18 19 19 1 1 0 5. 21 15. 2 - 6 -19 -13 6 , -11 -3 8 8 19 11 7. - 2 17 -12 19 -8 -29 8. 10 16 12 6 2 - 4 -9. -11 9 19 23 31 10 10. 13 6 29 -7 16 23 11. -23 -26 -6 -3 17 20 12. 9 16 12 7 3 - 4 13. 5 0 - 4 -5 -9 _ 4 47. APPENDIX C MASTER SCORES DIFFERENCE IN GAINS OF fo'ATCH SETS IN SE ENDURANCE FACTOR TABLE 1 8 I Interval C i r c u i t Group I I Circuit-Run Group I I I C i r c u i t - A c t i v i t y Group IV A c t i v i t y Group I-II i - n i I-IV I I - I I I II-IV III-I1 1. „1 i l -16 12 -15 -27 2. -17 - l l -14 6 3 - 3 3. 1 - 8 1 - 9 0 9 4. -14 2 - 7 16 7 - 9 5. 7 - 1 1 - 8 - 6 2 6. - 6 - 6 -10 0 - 4 - 4 7. - 3 7 - 2 10 1 - 9 -8. - 2 2 1 4 3 - 1 9o 7 19 9 12 2 -10 10. 18 14 13 - 4 - 5 - 1 11. - 6 - 7 11 - 1 17 18 12. 1 12 1 11 0 -11 13. 17 11 21 - 6 4 10 48. APPENDIX C MASTER SCORES DIFFERENCE IN GADS OF MATCHED SETS IN THE DYNAMIC STRENGTH FACTOR TABLE 19 I Interval C i r c u i t Group II Circuit-Run Group I I I C i r c u i t - A c t i v i t y Group IV A c t i v i t y Group I- I I I - I I I I-IV I I - I I I II-IV III-IV 1 . 2 12 18 10 16 6. 2. 17 13 10 - 4 - 7 - 3 3. 18 7 3 -11 -15 - 4 4. 32 17 26 -15 - 6 9 5. 14 16 1 2 -13 -15. 6. - 5, 3 18 8 23 15 7. 1 10 -10 9 -11 -20 8. 12 14 11 -12 -11 - 3 9. -21 -10 10 11 31 20 10. - 5 - 8 16 - 3 21 24 11. -17 -19 -17 - 2 0 2 12. 8 4 11 - 4 3 7 13. -12 -11 -25 1 -13 -14 4 9 . APPENDIX D DIAGRAMS FIGURE I Diagram of Layout of C i r c u i t s i t ups Trunk Extension I step l ups straddle jump Barbell Press Barbell Curl squat Chins thrusts Press Push ups Press Curl Curl FIGURE II Diagram of Layout of Interval C i r c u i t iencn rress Trunk Extension Bench Jench Press Jumps side bends l y i n g l a t e r a l raise Chins S i t ups Press . Reverse Tricep Curl Curl Snatch Rowing 

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