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Measuring up : status and stigma within a special olympic floor hockey team Zyla, Jo-Ann 1990

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"MEASURING UP: STATUS AND STIGMA WITHIN A SPECIAL OLYMPIC FLOOR HOCKEY TEAM" An Ethnographic  Study  By JO-ANN ZYLA P.E.,  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION  in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (School o f P h y s i c a l Education and R e c r e a t i o n )  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1990 © Jo-Ann Z y l a , 1990  In presenting degree  this thesis  in partial fulfilment of the requirements  for an advanced  at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study. copying  of this thesis for scholarly  department  or  by  his or  I further agree that permission for extensive  purposes  may be granted  her representatives.  It  is  by the head of my  understood  that  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without permission.  Department of  P H Y  S I C A L EDUCATION AND RECREATION  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2/88)  APRIL 28, 1990  copying  or  my written  ABSTRACT The  purpose of t h i s t h e s i s was  to d i s c o v e r the S p e c i a l  Olympic f l o o r hockey a t h l e t e s ' understanding of the teams' and  p l a y e r s ' g o a l s , p r i o r i t i e s and  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the viewpoint represented  expectations.  of the mentally  by p r o f e s s i o n a l s and  parents  retarded  r a t i o n a l e was  has  on the  b e n e f i c i a l i n improving the l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s of the  athlete/coach  The  "insider"  t h a t the r e s u l t s might  S p e c i a l Olympics f l o o r hockey coach and  been  on the " o u t s i d e " .  emphasis on the a t h l e t e s ' p e r s p e c t i v e focused p o i n t of view. The  coaches',  be B.C.  i n improving  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , with the p o t e n t i a l r e s u l t of  maximizing the personal  growth, development and  performance  p o t e n t i a l of a t h l e t e s .  The  do the coaches  and  q u e s t i o n posed was:  a t h l e t e s each have a theory  of behaviour t h a t i s bound  and  d e f i n e d by t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c u l t u r e s (the dominant c u l t u r e and mental r e t a r d a t i o n s u b c u l t u r e ) .  The  s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d of approximately t h i r t y members of a  S p e c i a l Olympic f l o o r hockey team ranging forty s i x years. male.  Four members were female and  They were s t u d i e d e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y  techniques  of p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n  varied settings. through mid  April,  i n age  The  study was  1988,  and  and  from nineteen  to  twenty s i x were  utilizing  the  informal interview  in  conducted from e a r l y January  consisted  o r i e n t a t i o n to e s t a b l i s h r a p p o r t and  of t h r e e phases:  t o allow time t o blend  the s p o r t s e t t i n g ; o b s e r v a t i o n / c o n v e r s a t i o n  and  into  the more focused  phase c o n s i s t i n g of i n f o r m a l d i r e c t e d i n t e r v i e w s .  Data e l i c i t e d r e v e a l e d themes r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l i s a t i o n , stigma and s p o r t c u l t u r e . examined primary  S o c i a l i s a t i o n and t h e dominant c u l t u r e  and secondary  s o c i a l i s a t i o n , s o c i a l stock of  knowledge and r e l e v a n c e s t r u c t u r e s .  Impression  management, f r o n t  and back stage performances a r e s t r a t e g i e s employed by the mentally r e t a r d e d t o manage t e n s i o n .  Sport c u l t u r e i s an avenue  f o r the a t h l e t e s t o l e a r n about the s o c i a l stock o f knowledge and the r e l e v a n c e s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e dominant c u l t u r e . stigma  i s central  Dealing with  i n the d a i l y l i v e s o f the mentally r e t a r d e d and  i s a c o n s t a n t c h a l l e n g e because i t i s dependent on the interpretations of others...intersubjective r e a l i t y .  Passing and  c o v e r i n g a r e two of the coping s t r a t e g i e s u t i l i z e d by the mentally  retarded.  Myths concerning t h e a t h l e t e s emerged g r a d u a l l y , r e v e a l i n g t h a t coaches and a t h l e t e s each have a theory of behaviour bound and d e f i n e d by t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c u l t u r e s . t o S p e c i a l Olympics i s the value of uncovering  that i s  Of s i g n i f i c a n c e and understanding  dominant c u l t u r a l assumptions and b i a s e s i n t h e context o f i n t e r a c t i n g with a s u b c u l t u r e such as the S p e c i a l Olympic athletes, potentially resulting  i n more e f f e c t i v e a t h l e t e / c o a c h  interaction.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  vi  INTRODUCTION Biography  1 1  CHAPTER I : L i t e r a t u r e Review History 1950's I n t e r n a t i o n a l (Denmark) Canada (Ontario) B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver) I960'a I n t e r n a t i o n a l (Sweden, U.S.A.) Canada (Ontario) B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver) 1970's Canada 1980's Vancouver Normalisation / D e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n Advocacy S p e c i a l Olympics Recreation Integration Ethnography and Mental R e t a r d a t i o n Summary CHAPTER I I : Conducting the Study The Gatekeeper Informed Consent Role o f t h e Ethnographer Research Design Three Phases Settings Methodological R e f l e c t i o n s  6 6 7 7 8 9 10 10 11 12 13 13 15 15 18 20 21 22 26 38  • • •  •  CHAPTER I I I : S o c i a l i s a t i o n and the Dominant C u l t u r e "I'm upset, but I'm t r y i n g t o d e a l with i t i n a proper way." "Not Being L i k e a K i d " Impression Management Rapport F r o n t and Back Stage iv  40 41 41 42 45 47 51 56 60 61 69 72 76 79  Nicknames • "Gordie Howe and Wayne Gretzky He's Not" Sport C u l t u r e CHAPTER IV: Stigma Intersubjective Reality D e a l i n g with Stigma Coping S t r a t e g i e s Passing and Covering Gender Seizures Phantom Normalcy Language  B3 84 100 113 113 117 120 121 126 • • 127 128 129  CHAPTER V: A t h l e t e / Coach I n t e r a c t i o n s "Myths"understandings  133  BIBLIOGRAPHY  137  APPENDIX A: The A c t o r s The D r i l l e r s (B Team) The B l a s t e r s <C Team)  143 143 149  APPENDIX B: P r a c t i s e and Game Schedule  162  APPENDIX C: Question Framework  163  APPENDIX D: Taxonomies  167  APPENDIX E: Ethnoscience Model  182  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Many people c o n t r i b u t e d to the completion of t h i s t h e s i s . would l i k e t o thank the members of my  committee: Dr.  Elvi  Whittaker, Dr. Robert Sparks and  Dr. Richard  time, p a t i e n c e and  Dr. Gary S i n c l a i r f o r h i s k i n d  and  generous  Family,  e x p e r t i s e and  Mosher f o r t h e i r  counsel.  f r i e n d s and  c o l l e a g u e s : Ed, Samantha, Jamie, C e l i a  Haig-Brown, C o l l e e n Haney, Mary Lou S h i r l e y T u r c o t t e were a constant  S t a n l e y , Heather McKay and  source of encouragement  and  support.  I am  g r a t e f u l t o Anne T i l l e y who  f i e l d of mental r e t a r d a t i o n . Dan  Howe, E x e c u t i v e  cooperation and,  above a l l ,  Team have my  much about the  A l s o , I would l i k e t o acknowledge  D i r e c t o r of B.C.  i n arranging  taught me  the study.  S p e c i a l Olympics f o r h i s The  S p e c i a l Olympic coaches  the members of the Vancouver F l o o r Hockey  deepest, most s i n c e r e r e s p e c t and  s h a r i n g so much.  vi  gratitude for  I  INTRODUCTION  Biography. "None of my  early f i e l d  experiences were i n areas I  c o n s c i o u s l y s e l e c t e d " (Agar, 1980,  p. 23).  My  experience  differs  from Agar i n t h a t an i n t e r e s t i n Adapted P h y s i c a l Education initiated  i n an undergraduate course i n s p o r t s o c i o l o g y when I  researched the American S p e c i a l Olympics. l a t e r I was  A number of years  i n v o l v e d i n a proposal f o r f i t n e s s programming at  T r a n q u i l l e School, an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r the mentally i n Kamloops, B.C..  I had never met  and f e l t nervous about my to  handicapped,  a mentally d i s a b l e d person  a b i l i t y to provide r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s  a p o p u l a t i o n I knew nothing about  I was  was  and,  f r a n k l y , one of which  afraid.  I t took a long time t o g a i n e n t r y through  the b u r e a u c r a t i c  o r g a n i z a t i o n to the wards, a phenomenon I came t o know as "gatekeeping". of  The experience was  "bureaucracy  an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the e f f e c t s  on c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n s " , as d e s c r i b e d i n  lUi;®§y9£39Y and World View, (Handelman and Ley ton, 1978) of  a part  the mental r e t a r d a t i o n s e r v i c e system which e x e r c i s e s a l a r g e  percentage  of c o n t r o l over the l i v e s of the mentally r e t a r d e d .  remember being p u z z l e d and d i s t u r b e d about comments such as  "they  can't go to the gymn a f t e r dinner because they always go back to the ward and  i t would d i s t r e s s them t o change t h e i r r o u t i n e " I  a l s o remember my  f i r s t attempts a t "programming".  The  i n a p p r o p r i a t e p r e s c h o o l music I brought f o r the f i t n e s s amused the s t a f f who  were assigned to help me i  - "they  class  like  I  rock  music b e t t e r " .  In both cases, nobody asked the c l i e n t .  on the wards began s i m u l t a n e o u s l y with my S p e c i a l Olympics.  By day  in in street clothes (tight  p o i n t e d shoes) by s t a f f who p i e c e s of candy.  v o l u n t e e r work with  The experiences c o n t r a s t e d .  wards of c l i e n t s ushered  My work  I welcomed  belts,  rewarded them f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g  By n i g h t I helped t o o r g a n i z e s p o r t programs i n  s c h o o l gyms and p l a y i n g f i e l d s f o r mentally handicapped who  lived  with  people  i n the community, were a p p r o p r i a t e l y dressed t o  p a r t i c i p a t e and came and  A  l e f t the program with d i g n i t y i n t a c t .  s t r o n g d e s i r e t o e f f e c t change ( i n the c a p a c i t y of f i t n e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s ) i n t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n was  c u t s h o r t by the c l o s u r e  or d e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n of the s c h o o l . The c l o s u r e of the i n s t i t u t i o n was  c a r r i e d out q u i c k l y and  of some p a r e n t s , s t a f f  (who  depended on i t f o r t h e i r  and members of the community who have on t h e i r l i v e s .  I remember the  f e a r e d what impact  hostility  livelihoods) t h i s would  I t seemed i r o n i c t h a t t h e r e was r e s i s t a n c e  " f o r the sake of the p a t i e n t " i n changing  the r o u t i n e from  walking back t o the wards from dinner t o going t o the gymnasium, yet a d e c i s i o n t o move the same people out of the c i t y and community elsewhere seemingly  c o u l d be implemented very q u i c k l y  into a  with  l i t t l e debate on the r e p e r c u s s i o n s . T h i s theme of  p a t e r n a l i s m v e r s u s s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n or s e g r e g a t i o n versus i n t e g r a t i o n was  t o r e c u r many times. I decided to pursue f u r t h e r  t r a i n i n g i n the area of mental r e t a r d a t i o n not r e a l i s i n g import of the e x p e r i e n c e .  In 1985,  the  having spent a s h o r t time  as  a v o l u n t e e r and employee with the p r o v i n c i a l S p e c i a l Olympic head o f f i c e , I e n r o l l e d i n graduate s t u d i e s and was Ethnography, the method used  in this  study.  introduced to  The  study p r o p o s a l  was t o d i s c o v e r t h e S p e c i a l Olympic  a t h l e t e s ' understanding o f t h e coaches', teams' and p l a y e r s ' g o a l s , p r i o r i t i e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s .  The r a t i o n a l e was t h a t t h e  r e s u l t s might be b e n e f i c i a l i n improving t h e l e a d e r s h i p  qualities  of t h e B.C. S p e c i a l Olympics f l o o r hockey coach and i n improving athlete/coach  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , consequently maximizing t h e personal  growth, development and performance p o t e n t i a l o f a t h l e t e s . question theory  The  posed was: do t h e coaches and a t h l e t e s each have a  o f behaviour t h a t i s bound and d e f i n e d by t h e i r  respective  c u l t u r e s (the dominant c u l t u r e and mental r e t a r d a t i o n subculture)?  My s t a t e d assumptions were t h a t t h e a t h l e t e s a r e capable o f expressing perceptions  knowledge about t h e i r experiences, f e e l i n g s , and v a l u e s , and t h a t t h i s knowledge i s c u l t u r a l l y  shared w i t h i n t h e group o f mentally  handicapped a t h l e t e s .  S i m i l a r l y , I assumed t h a t g a i n i n g t h i s knowledge would enhance coach t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s . under many other  The  I came t o know t h a t I was o p e r a t i n g  c u l t u r e bound assumptions l a t e r i n t h e study.  r e s e a r c h design was ethnographic and the methodology  proposed was ethnoscience p a r t i c i p a n t observation knowledge.  which u t i l i z e s t h e techniques o f  and i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w t o e l i c i t  cultural  I had wanted t o implement t h i s methodology i n order  t o r e p l i c a t e James S p r a d l e y s '  work You Owe Y o u r s e l f a Drunk or  W i l l i a m Whytes' S t r e e t Corner S o c i e t y both o f linguistic detail.  which a r e r i c h i n  However, problems s u r f a c e d with  3  this  methodology because many of the a t h l e t e s had minimal skills.  T h i s happened d e s p i t e having completed  verbal  a pilot  study  with a S p e c i a l Olympic Soccer team d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s summer i n which the team, with one e x c e p t i o n , was  verbal.  I d i s c o v e r e d by  exposure t o many other teams i n game s i t u a t i o n s and the tournament t h a t each team i s by nature  The  individualistic.  l i t e r a t u r e review begins with documentation o f f o u r  decades of s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l changes l o c a l l y , n a t i o n a l l y internationally retarded. through  final  and such i n f l u e n c e on the l i v e s of the mentally  The p r i n c i p l e of N o r m a l i z a t i o n and  its'  the movements of d e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n and  is outlined. initially  and  Advocacy was  key  application mainstreaming  i n championing these movements,  as a support f o r p a r e n t s , e v o l v i n g i n t o a d e v i c e  towards s e l f - d e t e r m i n i s m f o r the mentally r e t a r d e d . o b j e c t i v e s and philosophy of S p e c i a l Olympics  The  i s presented  f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n of the m e r i t s of such an o r g a n i s a t i o n and the viewpoints of i t s d e t r a c t o r s , advocates of i n t e g r a t e d recreation.  N e i t h e r viewpoint i s t h a t of the mentally r e t a r d e d .  The ethnographic  l i t e r a t u r e reviewed  p r e s e n t s an 'emic' or  i n s i d e r p e r s p e c t i v e of the mentally r e t a r d e d on v a r i o u s t o p i c s such as stigma, coping s t r a t e g i e s and c o m p e t i t i v e s p o r t .  Conducting experiences 'gatekeeper', implications.  the study i n v o l v e d a d e s c r i p t i o n of the e a r l y  of f i e l d w o r k  which i n c l u d e c o n t a c t with the  o b t a i n i n g informed consent and the The changing  ethical  r o l e of the ethnographer  Tensions r e s u l t i n g from o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n two  4  i s examined.  paradigms,  p o s i t i v i s m and n a t u r a l i s m , i s e x p l a i n e d and t h e and s e t t i n g s a r e d e t a i l e d .  r e s e a r c h design  Methodological r e f l e c t i o n s  analyze  r e s e a r c h design problems.  S o c i a l i s a t i o n and the dominant c u l t u r e examines primary and secondary s o c i a l i s a t i o n , s o c i a l stock o f knowledge and r e l e v a n c e s t r u c t u r e s . Impression  management, f r o n t and back stage  performances a r e s t r a t e g i e s employed by the mentally r e t a r d e d t o manage t e n s i o n .  Sport c u l t u r e i s an avenue f o r the a t h l e t e s t o  l e a r n about the s o c i a l stock o f knowledge and r e l e v a n c e s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e dominant c u l t u r e .  D e a l i n g with stigma  i s c e n t r a l i n the d a i l y l i v e s o f the  mentally r e t a r d e d and i s a constant c h a l l e n g e because i t i s dependent on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f o t h e r s . . . i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e reality.  Passing and c o v e r i n g a r e two o f t h e coping  strategies  u t i l i z e d by the mentally r e t a r d e d and when s u c c e s s f u l i s termed Phantom Normalcy.  CHAPTER I L i t e r a t u r e Review  History.  "Cultures are not s c i e n t i f i c o b j e c t s . .  C u l t u r e and our views o f  i t a r e produced h i s t o r i c a l l y and a r e a c t i v e l y c o n t e s t e d . . . c u l t u r e i s contested,  temporal and emergent" ( C l i f f o r d and Marcus, 1986,  p. 1 9 ) .  H i s t o r i c a l s c r i b e s recorded experienced by the mentally  t h e a t t i t u d e s and c o n d i t i o n s  handicapped.  I t i s c e r t a i n t h a t no  account was presented by t h e people s u f f e r i n g t h i s c o n d i t i o n . T a r d i c i d e was commonly p r a c t i s e d and the mentally  handicapped  were assigned  as t h e 'holy  innocent'  r o l e s as c o u r t j e s t e r s , represented  and committed t o asylums throughout the c e n t u r i e s .  the decades j u s t p r i o r t o World War Two, S o c i a l  In  Darwinist  movements r e s u l t e d i n s t i g m a t i c i d e n t i t y f o r the mentally handicapped.  The ideology  regarding  mental r e t a r d a t i o n p o l i c y  s h i f t e d f o l l o w i n g World War Two c r e a t i n g a t r a n s i t i o n i n stigma connected with t h e mentally  retarded  t e c h n o l o g i c a l and r e p r o d u c t i v e  due t o an economic,  boom which r e s u l t e d i n a  convergence o f events t h a t c r e a t e d  a medical i s s u e out o f mental  r e t a r d a t i o n r a t h e r than "...a concern with d e v i a n c e . . . " 1983,  p. 4 7 ) .  These events i n c l u d e d : an i n c r e a s e  o f the s e v e r e l y r e t a r d e d a r t i c u l a t e population  (Evans,  i n the b i r t h  o f f s p r i n g o f the " h i g h l y educated and  segments" (Evans, 1983, p. 4 7 ) ; t h e g r e a t e r  s u r v i v a l r a t e o f these o f f s p r i n g due t o improved medical 6  technology; e l e v a t e d optimism and the p r o s p e r i t y of the times and r e t a r d a t i o n was  caused by  a change i n the a t t i t u d e t h a t  passed on as a f a m i l y t r a i t to the theory  the causes were g e n e t i c or due which was  expanded r e s o u r c e s  t o d i s e a s e s such as e n c e p h a l i t i s  i n f l u e n c e d by the i n c r e a s e i n the b i r t h of upper  middle c l a s s mentally  concerned with p r o v i d i n g s c h o o l s and  1970  severely retarded c h i l d parent  s e r v i c e s f o r the moderately  (Evans, 1983,  d i r e c t s e r v i c e s i n l o c a l communities.  p. 48).  From 1950  By the 1980s, the  handicapped were becoming s e l f advocates and  to  many mentally  lobbying change f o r  What f o l l o w s i s a breakdown of major events decade  by decade on an i n t e r n a t i o n a l , n a t i o n a l , and r e l a t e d t o p o l i c i e s and handicapped. o r i g i n and  mainly  o r g a n i s a t i o n s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r developing  themselves.  and  retarded c h i l d r e n .  By the 1950s, the mental r e t a r d a t i o n movement was  and  that  The  local level  p r i n c i p l e s concerning  m a t e r i a l i s organized  the  mentally  i n t h i s way  e v o l u t i o n of these p r o g r e s s i v e  as  t o show the  events.  l§5Qls lQt§?!Il®tlQD9l (Denmark) T h i s decade produced the advent of parent improve l i v i n g and  education  standards of the  organisations mentally  handicapped. Denmark l e d the way  with the formation  N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Parents  i n 1951.  of  They l o b b i e d  f e d e r a l government f o r improvements i n the c a r e system succeeded i n a c h i e v i n g parent  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n at t h i s  7  the the and  level.  to  A p r i n c i p l e -that, guided mental retardation policy f o r the next t h i r t y years was developed  in Denmark by Bank-Mikkelsen,  head of the Danish Mental Retardation service.  The p r i n c i p l e :  Normalization was defined by him as " . . . l e t t i n g the mentally retarded obtain an existence as close to normal as possible " (Wolfensberger,  1972,  p. 241).  Canada (Ontario) In Canada, a parent formulated the f i r s t organisation for the mentally retarded i n 1948 c a l l e d the Parents Council for Retarded Children (Simmons, 1985). impetus behind t h i s organisation. for  Volunteers provided the Parents sought each other out  support in understanding t h e i r s i t u a t i o n .  This 'support  advocacy' inspired the parents to s t a r t their own schools where the public school system did not provide them and to extend t h e i r purpose i n developing and operating services.  a range of community  In the same year, the Minister of Education,  Mr.  Dunlop, amalgamated the mentally retarded associations to form the Ontario Association for Retarded Children (OARC).  In the  early f i f t i e s , membership in OARC grew from 200 to 900  and  professionals started to join (Simmons, 1985).  By 1955,  the government provided 30?< of the funds needed for  the educational programs.  Health Minister Dymonds supported the  development of smaller mental hospitals as opposed to the large custodial s t y l e i n s t i t u t i o n s .  His ideology was to "...give the  mentally retarded a hand up not a hand out" (Simmons,1985, p. 169) and thus the i n i t i a t i o n of the mental retardation policy  3  which was  t o p r o v i d e care ( i n the way  of i n s t i t u t i o n s ) f o r the  mentally r e t a r d e d where f a m i l y and o r g a n i s a t i o n s c o u l d not  supply  it.  the  But what was  not a n t i c i p a t e d was  the demand exceeding  supply and the ensuing c l a s h between an o b j e c t i n g government and c o n t i n u i n g p r e s s u r e f o r more s e r v i c e s by the OARC (Simmons, 1985).  B r i t i s h Columbia Admission  (Vancouver)  of mentally handicapped persons t o  i n c r e a s e d i n the 1940s and Woodlands s c h o o l was  1950s (Adolph,  opened and  institutions  1987).  In  1945,  i t i n c l u d e d a t e a c h i n g s t a f f of  f i v e and a r e c r e a t i o n a l t h e r a p i s t whose major g o a l was  to  "improve the s o c i a l i s a t i o n of these subnormal c h i l d r e n " 1978,  p. 43). There grew a demand f o r admission  (Adolph,  for children  under the age of s i x .  B.C.  p a r a l l e l e d O n t a r i o i n the formation of an A s s o c i a t i o n  f o r the M e n t a l l y Retarded Mrs. L e o l a Purdy. of Retarded  conceived and o r g a n i s e d by a parent,  In 1952,  C h i l d r e n was  the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement  e s t a b l i s h e d as a response  t o the l a c k of  e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the s e v e r e l y r e t a r d e d . One from the Vancouver area was  p e r s o n a l l y f a m i l i a r with the  h i s t o r y . . . " I t j u s t wasn't r i g h t t h a t my  The Mental  being f i r s t admitted In 1954,  t o Essondale  I'm  be  not a teacher,  D e f e c t i v e s Act of  allowed p a t i e n t s t o be d i r e c t l y admitted  local  daughter c o u l d n ' t  taught by t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l when I, and c o u l d teach her a t home."  parent  1953  to Woodlands r a t h e r than  (a p l a c e f o r the mentally  ill).  the A s s o c i a t i o n r e c e i v e d a grant from the government and  9  appointed Ray  an e x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r .  In 1956  the Education M i n i s t e r  W i l l i s t o n amended the P u b l i c Schools Act t o allow  boards t o fund s c h o o l s f o r the mentally move was  retarded.  school  This p o l i t i c a l  an acknowledgement by the government of i t s  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r educating  the r e t a r d e d .  During  the 1950's,  the A s s o c i a t i o n o r g a n i z e d p l a y programs, r e c r e a t i o n a l programs i n the s c h o o l and,  " . . . i n 1957,  where square dancing, in"  a young peoples c l u b was  s o c i a l evenings and games were p a r t i c i p a t e d  (Vancouver-Richmond A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Mentally  1977). But u n t i l  1959,  t o an apparent concern f o r  r i s k of i n j u r y by R e c r e a t i o n and Parks p e r s o n n e l .  In  T r a n q u i l l e opened as an a d d i t i o n a l s c h o o l f o r the In the f i r s t  Retarded,  the o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n  community a c t i v i t i e s were minimal due  retarded.  formed  mentally  few years of o p e r a t i o n , over  Woodlands p a t i e n t s were t r a n s f e r r e d t o T r a n q u i l l e . year, a p i l o t workshop was  started in a  1959,  500 In the same  classroom.  19601s International  (Sweden, U.S.A.)  In d e t a i l i n g the P r i n c i p l e of N o r m a l i z a t i o n  i n 1969,  Bengt  N i r j e , e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r of the Swedish A s s o c i a t i o n f o r r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n , s t r e s s e d the importance of "...making a v a i l a b l e t o a l l mentally  r e t a r d e d people p a t t e r n s and c o n d i t i o n s of everyday  l i v i n g which are as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o t h e i r r e g u l a r circumstances  and ways of l i f e of s o c i e t y . . . " ( i n L a k i n ,  B r u i n i n k s , & S i g f o r d , 1981,  p.391).  10  In -the United S t a t e s d u r i n g the Kennedy e r a , many changes o c c u r r e d such as l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d i n g r i g h t s f o r the handicapped and the f o r m a t i o n (Sherrill,  1986,  Canada  i n 1968  of the F i r s t S p e c i a l Olympics  p.610).  (Ontario)  In 1962,  continued advocacy p r e s s u r e exerted by the OARC  succeeded i n p a s s i n g B i l l  131,  The Retarded C h i l d r e n s  A u t h o r i t i e s Act, which p r o v i d e d 50% of the necessary  Education funding f o r  the o p e r a t i o n of programs i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s systems. Education  A u t h o r i t y , as a r e s u l t , became r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of these programs. two  The  " T h i s a u t h o r i t y c o n s i s t e d of  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and f o u r from the  m u n i c i p a l government" (Simmons, 1985,  The f o l l o w i n g year, 1963,  p.  153).  the Roberts Report t o Dymond  emphasized the importance of p r e s e r v i n g f a m i l y and services.  But without  would not have taken mentally r e t a r d e d .  community  advocacy p r e s s u r e , the Canadian government  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the w e l f a r e of  the  While Swedish governmental i d e o l o g y  supported  the i n t e r e s t s of the mentally handicapped, the Canadian government was  more i n t e r e s t e d i n p o l i t i c a l advancement and  not  i n c o o p e r a t i n g with community o r g a n i s a t i o n s (Simmons, 1985).  Such community o r g a n i s a t i o n s as the OAMR i n s i s t e d on g r e a t e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n mental r e t a r d a t i o n p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n . r e s u l t was  a committee s t r u c k c o n s i s t i n g of members from  government and the O n t a r i o A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the M e n t a l l y  11  The both Retarded.  Through t h e impetus o f the OAMR t h e medical n u r s i n g c a r e model was  r e p l a c e d by a t r a i n i n g model which was community baaed as  opposed t o t h a t o f c u s t o d i a l c a r e .  B r i t i s h Columbia  (Vancouver)  During t h e s i x t i e s , t h e l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e mentally r e t a r d e d was a b l e t o p r o v i d e more s e r v i c e s , e f f e c t some measure of a t t i t u d e change i n t h e g e n e r a l populace  and support t h e  mentally r e t a r d e d i n t o moving out more w i t h i n the community. V o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g expanded t o 200 c l i e n t s being served by t h e workshops. of s k i l l .  C o n t r a c t work provided o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l l e v e l s Workers were p a i d enough t o supplement t h e i r  government handicapped allowances.  It still  was d i f f i c u l t t o  change n e g a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s towards t h e mentally handicapped, thus t h e attainment  o f t h e goal o f community  and group home e s t a b l i s h m e n t was d i f f i c u l t .  The f i r s t group home  Garry House, was b i t t e r l y opposed by neighbours. t r a i n r e s i d e n t s t o l i v e on t h e i r own.  living  The g o a l was t o  The next s t e p f o l l o w i n g  Garry House was A r l i n g t o n , a townhouse development which o f f e r e d semi-independent l i v i n g f o r 36 r e t a r d e d a d u l t s .  Meanwhile, i n 1969, t h e Vancouver A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C h i l d r e n and t h e Kiwania board  Retarded  Club brought about change i n s c h o o l  p o l i c y which r e s u l t e d i n education becoming a p u b l i c  responsibility.  As a r e s u l t , t h e P u b l i c School A c t was amended  by Education M i n i s t e r Peterson a l l o w i n g t h e s c h o o l boards t o  provide  accomodation f o r chapter run s c h o o l s and gave the boards  the r i g h t t o e s t a b l i s h and operate t h e i r own c l a s s e s f o r t h e retarded.  Oakridge School opened on May 12, 1961 with 113 p u p i l s . I t was "Canadas' f i r s t s c h o o l administered  f o r the r e t a r d e d  t o be b u i l t and  under a p u b l i c s c h o o l a u t h o r i t y "  A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Mentally  (Vancouver-Richmond  Retarded, 1980, p. 2 0 ) .  During t h e 60s r e c r e a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of bowling, square dancing, swimming, camping and s o c i a l c l u b s . a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o the retarded  expanded.  Recreational In Vancouver  t h e r e were two s o c i a l c l u b s , a t Sunset Memorial and H a s t i n g s East community c e n t r e s .  In 1962, t h e Board o f Parks and R e c r e a t i o n  expanded t h e i r summer playground program t o i n c l u d e t h e mentally handicapped and i t h i r e d a q u a l i f i e d person t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e a c t i v i t i e s . In B.C. S p e c i a l Education grew between 1960 and 1970 by 389« (Winzer, 1987, p.10). At t h i s time, r e c r e a t i o n took a t u r n towards n o r m a l i z a t i o n  with the formation,  i n 1971, o f a  f l o o r hockey team by t h e Vancouver-Richmond A s s o c i a t i o n . played club  They  Woodlands, David Thompson High, Richmond, Coquitlam Mens  (Vancouver-Richmond A s s o c i a t i o n , 1977).  19701s Canada There were some major i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s on p o l i c y development i n Canada i n the 1970s.  The CELDIC r e p o r t i n 1970  was an i n t e r n a t i o n a l document d e s c r i b i n g c h i l d r e n s needs f o r comprehensive s e r v i c e s i n t h e areas o f education,  health  welfare  and  justice.  P u b l i c Law 94-142, the "Education f o r a l l  Handicapped C h i l d r e n Act",  which was passed i n t h e United  i n 1975, guaranteed f r e e a p p r o p r i a t e  States  e d u c a t i o n t o handicapped  c h i l d r e n and youth. And I n t e r n a t i o n a l year of t h e c h i l d , i n 1979, promoted t h e r i g h t s o f t h e c h i l d such t h a t "...any c h i l d p h y s i c a l l y , mentally or s o c i a l l y disadvantaged, s h a l l r e c e i v e t h e treatment, e d u c a t i o n and s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d  by h i s s t a t e  or s i t u a t i o n " as s t a t e d i n Goguen, 1980 (Csapo, 1980, p. 176).  In Canada from 1970-1980, government p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g  mental  r e t a r d a t i o n p o l i c y s h i f t e d from an emphasis on " . . . l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n s and c u s t o d i a l care towards s m a l l e r  institutions,  group homes and improved community s e r v i c e s " (Simmons, 1985, p. 192).  The reasons f o r t h e p o l i c y change were: t h e Walter B.  W i l l i s t o n r e p o r t ; t h e development o f a c o n c e p t u a l scheme termed Normalization; Ontario  t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p o l i c y m i n i s t r i e s i n the  government and t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e Canada A s s i s t a n c e  which was a method o f c o s t  plan  sharing.  Scandal i n v o l v i n g t h e i n j u r y and death o f two inmates o f i n s t i t u t i o n s provided  impetus f o r f u r t h e r reform.  In 1971, a  Toronto lawyer, Walter W i l l i s t o n , was appointed by t h e O n t a r i o M i n i s t e r o f Health t o i n v e s t i g a t e these i n c i d e n t s and make recommendations f o r reform.  He recommended t h a t l a r g e h o s p i t a l  i n s t i t u t i o n s be phased down as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e and advised home v i s i t i n g and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s .  Mr. W i l l i s t o n a l s o  recommended t h a t every mentally r e t a r d e d  c h i l d should be with h i s  own f a m i l y u n t i l he reaches adulthood.... A d u l t s  14  should have  access t o community-based r e s i d e n c e s l o c a t e d i n p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s and as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o t h e i r homes.... Mentally r e t a r d e d people  should be a b l e t o draw on the g e n e r i c  e d u c a t i o n a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l , commercial and p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s o u r c e s of the community i n the same f a s h i o n as any (Simmons, 1985,  p.  other  194).  Mental r e t a r d a t i o n p o l i c y i n O n t a r i o was by Wolfensbergers'  citizen  further influenced  appointment as v i s i t i n g s c h o l a r a t the  N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e on Mental R e t a r d a t i o n a t York U n i v e r s i t y . i n t e r e s t was  His  i n the s y s t e m a t i c p l a n n i n g of s e r v i c e systems and  implementation  of the n o r m a l i z a t i o n p r i n c i p l e and of  advocacy. As a "moral entrepreneur"  (Simmons, 1985,  citizen p. 196)  he  i n f l u e n c e d p o l i t i c i a n s , o r g a n i s a t i o n s , parents and v o l u n t e e r s i n abandoning s c a l e d down i n s t i t u t i o n s and adopting  community  i n t e g r a t i o n on a l l l e v e l s .  12iQl§ Vancouver The t o 1987  l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n i n Vancouver d u r i n g the decade of was  i n c r e a s i n g l y meeting the g o a l s of n o r m a l i z a t i o n  i n t e g r a t i o n . There are t h r e e i n t e g r a t e d p r e s c h o o l s .  1977 and  Vocational  o p p o r t u n i t i e s are a v a i l a b l e through a m u l t i t u d e of programs such as workshops, a s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n program, v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , and work s t a t i o n s .  15  Examples of v o c a t i o n a l opport.unlt.ies a r e : Heroes, a food s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g program formed i n 1981;  generic  "work s t a t i o n s i n  industry",1984, designed t o take s e l e c t e d c l i e n t s from workshops and  i n t o productive  and  p r o f i t a b l e p o s i t i o n s i n p l a c e s such as  McDonalds, Lumberland, and  the Canadian Red  Cross.  Community l i v i n g programs broadened by 1979 Community Apartment program, e n a b l i n g own  to include:  the  c l i e n t s to l i v e i n t h e i r  apartments i n the community; a semi-independent  living  program e n t a i l i n g s u p e r v i s i o n from a l i v e - i n house manager; and a d u l t group homes.  In accordance with the N o r m a l i z a t i o n phasing out of d i r e c t r e c r e a t i o n and superseded s i n c e 1977  leisure services  by advocacy and  of these are c o u n s e l l i n g , education, l e i s u r e i n c l u d i n g a one  t o one  Principle, a  gradual was  support s e r v i c e s . Examples and  s k i l l s training in  l e i s u r e f r i e n d s e r v i c e (Vancouver-  Richmond A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Mentally  Handicapped People, 35th Annual  Report, 1986-1987).  In summary, the  l i v e s of the mentally  handicapped i n Canada  have been impacted over the past f o r t y years by a m u l t i p l i c i t y f o r c e s unleashed by the economic, t e c h n o l o g i c a l and explosion  of postwar p r o s p e r i t y . and  and  Sweden and  F e d e r a l government.  s o c i a l e q u a l i t y by  16  reproductive  Parents became empowered to  advocate f o r e d u c a t i o n a l  Denmark l a i d  lobbying the  of  local  p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h i s Advocacy movement formulation of the Normalization P r i n c i p l e .  with the  In t h e United  S t a t e s , p r o g r e s s i v e l e g i s l a t i v e changes and S p e c i a l Olympics were i n t r o d u c e d by t h e Kennedys.  The and  subsequent s e c t i o n s d e t a i l t h e N o r m a l i z a t i o n  i t s implementation  Principle  by means o f d e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n and  mainstreaming; Advocacy (from Support t o S e l f ) ; and R e c r e a t i o n I n t e g r a t i o n , a d e p i c t i o n o f segregated  ( S p e c i a l Olympics) as  opposed t o i n t e g r a t e d s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n .  17  Norma 1 i z a t i on/Dei n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n "Policy  r e p r e s e n t s the 'broad p l a n s , general p r i n c i p l e s , and  p r i o r i t i e s from which programs stem'..." a c c o r d i n g t o Cronbach e t el  (1981) i n ( V i t e l l o ,  retardation  policy  1985, P. 23).  has s h i f t e d  Ideology  r e g a r d i n g mental  i n t h e l a s t few decades and i s  communicated i n terms such as d e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n , n o r m a l i z a t i o n and mainstreaming.  Normalization i s a p r i n c i p l e  t h a t provided a common impetus t o the movements of deinstitutionalisation  and mainstreaming which p a r a l l e l e d  other i n t h e 1970s' and which a r e interdependent.  each  Mainstreaming  without d e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n  would be an empty concept and  deinstitutionalisation  mainstreaming would be nothing  without  more than dumping the mentally r e t a r d e d i n t o t h e community (Vitello,  1985).  Wolfensberger  (1972) r e f o r m u l a t e d t h e n o r m a l i z a t i o n  p r i n c i p l e from the Scandinavian  d e f i n i t i o n to state  "...the  u t i l i z a t i o n o f means which a r e as c u l t u r a l l y normative as possible,  i n order t o e s t a b l i s h  behaviour  and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  as p o s s i b l e "  (Wolfensberger,  and/or maintain  personal  which a r e as c u l t u r a l l y normative 1972, p. 28)  The p r i n c i p l e r e q u i r e s  t h a t we have higher e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f mentally r e t a r d e d persons. helpless,  As long as we p e r c e i v e r e t a r d e d persons as  p a s s i v e and dependent, they a r e l i k e l y t o e x h i b i t  behaviours.  Conversely, as e x p e c t a t i o n s become more  g a i n s i n a d a p t i v e behaviour  can be expected.  18  these  positive,  The n o r m a l i z a t i o n p r i n c i p l e  i s integrative  i n that retarded  persons belong i n the community as s t a t e d by G i l h o o l , (Vitello,  (1976) i n  1985, P. 31). N o r m a l i z a t i o n s e r v e s as t h e  philosophical movement.  underpinning f o r the d e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n  I t advocates t h a t d i s a b l e d c i t i z e n s a r e e n t i t l e d t o  those l e g a l and human r i g h t s t h a t a r e provided other c i t i z e n s . Deinstitutionalisation  i s concerned with t h e r e l o c a t i o n o f  r e t a r d e d people from l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n s t o s m a l l e r community based r e s i d e n t i a l f a c i l i t i e s with t h e u n d e r l y i n g assumption being t h a t t h i s community care w i l l  improve t h e q u a l i t y  of l i f e f o r  mentally r e t a r d e d persons.  "Mainstreaming r e f l e c t s a p o l i c y  t h a t i s opposed t o removing  children  from r e g u l a r classrooms and s e g r e g a t i n g them i n s p e c i a l  classes"  Sarason & D o r i s ,  (1979) i n V i t e l l o (1985, p. 4 8 ) . The  r o o t s came from t h e C i v i l R i g h t s movement i n the 1960s i n America at which time e f f o r t s were made t o p r o v i d e an equal e d u c a t i o n a l opportunity f o r children Legislation  from e t h n i c and r a c i a l  minorities.  had a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on p o l i c i e s t o i n t e g r a t e  these c h i l d r e n  into regular schools.  At the l o c a l l e v e l t h e change i n p o l i c y  i d e o l o g y , mentioned  i n the f i r s t paragraph (p.18), i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the Right o f A l l C h i l d r e n l e g i s l a t i o n which supports a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n f o r even t h e most s e v e r e l y handicapped i n more e n a b l i n g environments leading t o d e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n .  As a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h i s  l e g i s l a t i o n , students moved from i n s t i t u t i o n s such as Woodlands and  J e r i c h o t o more d e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  19  settings  such as Oakridge  School.  Today, the 25 students a t Gakridge  multihandicapped  school are  as opposed t o t h e e a r l y years when t h e bulk of  s t u d e n t s were d i s a b l e d t o a much l e s s e r degree (see p. 17). Many of t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study have been d i r e c t l y e f f e c t e d by t h i s shift  i n ideology.  Advocacy Advocacy i s d e f i n e d as "the a c t o f advocating or p l e a d i n g a cause" and an advocate  i s "one who pleads the cause o f another or  t o speak or w r i t e i n favour o f " (Funk & Wagnall). e v o l v e d from support advocacy i n the f i f t i e s ,  Advocacy  t o organized  a s s o c i a t i o n advocacy i n t h e s i x t i e s , c u l m i n a t i n g with  self  advocacy i n the s e v e n t i e s .  Advocacy d i d not e x i s t p r i o r t o 1950, a t which time  parents  gathered t o g e t h e r a t the l o c a l l e v e l f o r support o f each o t h e r . Thus, "support advocacy" (Neufeld, 1984, p. I l l ) generated the power and momentum o f monumental change i n mental r e t a r d a t i o n p o l i c i e s over t h e next t h i r t y y e a r s .  In 1958, parent groups  o r g a n i z e d the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the mentally r e t a r d e d and e v e n t u a l l y a network of p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s which were " t o become the p r i n c i p a l spawning ground f o r t h e advocacy programs o f t h e 1970s" (Neufeld, 1984, p. 115).  I t was through  t h e advocacy r o l e o f v o l u n t a r y agencies i n  the 1960s, such as t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e on Mental  Retardation,  t h a t p r o v i d e d t r a i n i n g i n the "area o f n o r m a l i z a t i o n and c i t i z e n advocacy" (Neufeld, 1984, p. 116). Though t h i s was supported,  c o n f l i c t arose from the f a c t t h a t p a r e n t s were a f r a i d of l o s i n g c o n t r o l over the s e r v i c e s t h a t they had worked hard t o b u i l d  In  up.  the s e v e n t i e s a number of c o a l i t i o n s of d i s a b l e d persons,  such as 'Peoples F i r s t ' , evolved out of a need f o r the d i s a b l e d persons t o c o u n t e r a c t the o v e r p r o t e c t i v e approaches of the then p r e v a i l i n g advocacy groups.  T h i s paramount change i n advocacy  ideology r e s u l t e d i n r e c o g n i t i o n of a b e l i e f t h a t a l l c i t i z e n s have a r i g h t t o l i v e , work and p l a y i n the community with dignity.  Specia1 Olympics According t o a coaches t r a i n i n g manual, i n Canada, p h y s i c a l educator Frank Hayden was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the development S p e c i a l Olympics i n the l a t e 1960s.  of  He r e c e i v e d l i t t l e or no  support from the Canadian a s s o c i a t i o n of Mental r e t a r d a t i o n or from the government.  In  B.C.,  S p e c i a l Olympics was formed i n 1980.  objectives are: who  Its  (a) t o promote s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n f o r people  are m e n t a l l y handicapped,  <b>  to help i n s t i l l  and improve the  s e l f - e s t e e m and p h y s i c a l awareness i n , and enhance the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the i n d i v i d u a l who to  i s mentally handicapped,  encourage and f a c i l i t a t e f i t n e s s , p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n and  c o m p e t i t i v e s p o r t a c t i v i t i e s b e n e f i c i a l t o those i n d i v i d u a l s are  <c>  mentally handicapped,  (d) t o promote through e x i s t i n g  governing b o d i e s and o t h e r a g e n c i e s , q u a l i f i e d training,  <e>  who  sport  i n s t r u c t i o n and  t o p r o v i d e a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l s and  documentary  r e s o u r c e s t o a i d t h e development o f S p e c i a l Olympic to  programs, <f)  make a v a i l a b l e t o those a t h l e t e s who have achieved t h e  a p p r o p r i a t e standards t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n p r o v i n c i a l , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n s .  The Canadian implementation  S p e c i a l Olympics developed a program model f o r  i n p r o v i n c i a l c h a p t e r s and t h i s model must r e f l e c t  <a> ...the development , growth and maintenance o f year round programs i n f i t n e s s , r e c r e a t i o n and s p o r t f o r the mentally handicapped, all  <b> t h a t these programs a r e open and a v a i l a b l e t o  mentally handicapped  people, (c> t h a t the approach t o  programming i s developmental providing a f u l l  continuum  i n nature and d i r e c t e d towards  of s e r v i c e s i n the area o f f i t n e s s  r e c r e a t i o n and s p o r t f o r a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  <d) t h a t t h e S p e c i a l  Olympics movement i n Canada i s community based and r e l i e s upon the v o l u n t e e r s e c t o r o f our communities t o operate t h e S p e c i a l Olympics of  program.  I t i s s t a t e d t h a t the "most important aspect  t h i s model i s t h a t i t i s developmental  towards p r o v i d i n g the mentally handicapped continuum  i n nature and d i r e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n with a f u l l  of s e r v i c e s i n t h e f i e l d o f f i t n e s s , r e c r e a t i o n and  sport."  There i s t e n s i o n between some parent groups and agencies such as S p e c i a l Olympics because,  e s s e n t i a l l y , parent  groups  support t h e n o r m a l i z a t i o n p r i n c i p l e and S p e c i a l Olympics  violates  t h a t p r i n c i p l e on the b a s i s t h a t i t i s a segregated program. According t o Lord (1979), S p e c i a l Olympics  b r i n g s f o r t h "... a l l  the disadvantages o f s e g r e g a t i o n ... which ... c o n t i n u e t o a f f e c t  the i n d i v i d u a l .  In many cases, people p a r t i c i p a t e year  after  year with l i t t l e or no improvement i n s k i l l s or community involvement...and  age  inappropriate a c t i v i t i e s "  <p.  115).  Lord (1979, p. 46) d i s c u s s e s the n e g a t i v e s of d i r e c t p r o v i s i o n and dependence.  service  l e a d e r - d i r e c t e d programs which f o s t e r consumer He i s c r i t i c a l of l a r g e numbers of people  d i s a b l i l i t i e s congregating f o r l e i s u r e e x p e r i e n c e s . l a r g e numbers i n themselves any  John  make i t v i r t u a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t amount of s k i l l upgrading.  with  He says t h a t  i m p o s s i b l e t o have  Small numbers and  i n d i v i d u a l programming allow f o r more f l e x i b l e p l a n n i n g while p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r using community r e s o u r c e s are i n c r e a s e d . numbers i n c r e a s e the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t o t h e r s w i l l p a r t i c i p a n t s who Many segregated  are d i s a b l e d and  Small  i n t e r a c t with  i n t u r n a c t as r o l e models.  l e i s u r e e x p e r i e n c e s are i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r  p e r s o n a l development.  P a r e n t a l p e r m i s s i o n must be obtained  and  the program l e a d e r s use language and rewards which are more t y p i c a l of 10 year o l d s .  Many segregated experiences which are  o v e r p r o t e c t i v e and have lowered  expectations afford  few  o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r i s k t a k i n g a necessary p a r t of development, d a i l y l i v i n g and  Hutchinson  integration.  and Bridge (1988) s t a t e t h a t the " . . . r e a l i t y i s ,  however, t h a t the i n t e g r a t i o n movement has only had a s i g n i f i c a n t impact  on the l i v e s of a s m a l l number of people who  i n t e g r a t e d i n most a s p e c t s of t h e i r l i v e s " ( p . 3 ) . i t has l i t t l e segregated  impact  in their  on the m a j o r i t y of people who  are  They say t h a t remain  l i v i n g , s c h o o l and work environment and t h a t  t h i s i s due t o p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e s of o v e r p r o t e c t i o n , l a b e l l i n g  and  s e g r e g a t i o n ; decades of p r o v i d i n g  services  ways; people r e j e c t i n g i n t e g r a t i o n f o r a l l but functioning  and  misinterpretation  i n segregated the few  highest  of the p r i n c i p l e of  n o r m a l i z a t i o n t o mean making people normal (Hutchinson, 1984, 45).  N i c h o l s (1988) concurs with t h i s view adding t h a t  "cannot l e g i s l a t e change i n p e r c e p t i o n s and persons with d i s a b i l i t i e s "  (p.  attitudes  p.  one  about  9).  S p e c i a l Olympics i s an agency t h a t employs r e v e r s e integration.  Lord and  Hutchison (1979) speak out  i n t e g r a t i o n as d i s t o r t i o n s of i n t e g r a t i o n and such as " h i n d e r i n g  against  list  reverse  disadvantages  community i n t e g r a t i o n ; being used t o  justify  an agency's commitment to i n t e g r a t i o n ; a t t r a c t i n g other devalued groups" (p. 117).  Another disadvantage i s t h a t a 50/50 r a t i o or  dominance of d i s a b l e d i s therefore  persons i s u n l i k e the r a t i o i n s o c i e t y  u n r e a l i s t i c f o r both d i s a b l e d  i n d i v i d u a l s ; such programs o f t e n thus f u r t h e r h i n d e r i n g integration  i s often  and  nondisabled  a t t r a c t other devalued groups,  community i n t e g r a t i o n .  Reverse  used to j u s t i f y an agencys commitment to  i n t e g r a t i o n , the agency and  community thus a v o i d i n g  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for providing  support s e r v i c e s f o r  Lord  advocates f o r persons with d i s a b i l i t i e s can approach; and  i n a s a f e s e t t i n g f o r the available.  their integration.  (1979) t a l k s about r e v e r s e i n t e g r a t i o n advantages  program content and  and  maintain c o n t r o l  s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n occurs  i n d i v i d u a l where supports  are  as: over first  The c h a l l e n g e i s t o d i s c o v e r i n each s i t u a t i o n the d e l i c a t e balance between p r o v i d i n g advocacy and support and a l l o w i n g the d i g n i t y o f r i s k necessary f o r each person t o develop. O v e r a l l , the t r e n d i s away from formal s e r v i c e s and towards  community  involvement where members are not "consumers o f s e r v i c e , but rather are c i t i z e n s "  (McKnight, 1985, p.15).  £5  Ethnography, snd Mental  Retardation  In t h e past twenty years, r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e on mental r e t a r d a t i o n has emerged adopting an approach which r e c o g n i s e s the mentally handicapped person's  p o i n t o f view. Such  ethnographic  work began i n 1967 with t h e r e s e a r c h o f R.B. Edgerton stigma  experienced  i n the  by mentally d i s a b l e d persons r e c e n t l y r e l e a s e d  from i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e .  H i s s u b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e upper  stratum o f the h o s p i t a l s ' m i l d l y r e t a r d e d p a t i e n t s with regard t o t h e i r IQs, t h e i r demonstrated s o c i a l competence and emotional stability. techniques  Interviews and p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n were t h e employed.  The emphasis, i n i t i a l l y , was on f r i e n d l y and i n t e r e s t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n a l approach and an encouragement t o speak about anything they l i k e d .  F o l l o w i n g t h i s , an attempt was made t o  maintain an i n t e r v i e w schedule which was l o o s e l y s t r u c t u r e d . I n t e r v i e w e r s were i n s t r u c t e d t o l e a d t h e p a t i e n t i n t o d e s c r i p t i o n of  c e r t a i n areas o f i n t e r e s t , by n o n d i r e c t i v e q u e s t i o n i n g  (Edgerton,  1967).  Areas of i n t e r e s t focused on seven t o p i c s such a s : "...where and how the e x - p a t i e n t l i v e d , making a l i v i n g , r e l a t i o n s with o t h e r s i n t h e community, sex and marriage p e r c e p t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f themselves,  and c h i l d r e n , and t h e i r  problems i n m a i n t a i n i n g themselves i n t h e community" 1967,  their  practical (Edgerton,  p. 17). As much p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n as p o s s i b l e  i n c l u d e d t r i p s t o r e c r e a t i o n areas, grocery shopping, s e e i n g , s o c i a l v i s i t s i n t h e i r homes and r e s t a u r a n t s .  £6  sight  Notes were never taken i n the presence of the e x - p a t i e n t s and some s e s s i o n s were tape r e c o r d e d . neighbours, and employers  were a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d .  sketches were used as w e l l . whom t h e r e was  Friends, r e l a t i v e s ,  p. 19).  and  The v i g n e t t e s d e s c r i b e d those about  a mass of d e t a i l e d knowledge s u f f i c i e n t " t o permit  an e x t e n s i v e and o b j e c t i v e account of t h e i r l i v e s " 1967,  Vignettes  (Edgerton,  They d i s c o v e r e d t h a t former p a t i e n t s employed  s t r a t e g i e s t o evade the stigma they e x p e r i e n c e d .  These  s t r a t e g i e s were p a s s i n g , c o v e r i n g and l o c a t i n g " b e n e f a c t o r s " or normal  In  people t o h e l p them i n t h e i r everyday  the  life.  The Cloak of Competence^ A f t e r Two  Decades, Edgerton  (1984) r e s t u d i e d the above group of people twenty  years l a t e r  u s i n g ethnographic t e c h n i q u e s . These people were v i s i t e d a t t h e i r homes, r e s t a u r a n t s , on e r r a n d s , shopping t r i p s and other everyday activities.  The purpose was  t o examine the p e r s o n a l and  social  r e s o u r c e s f o r coping with c h r o n i c or acute s t r e s s as they aged. They d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the s u b j e c t s were l e s s dependent on " b e n e f a c t o r s " and enjoyed l i f e  with optimism and c o n f i d e n c e .  Edgerton has continued t o pursue t h i s mode of r e s e a r c h i n mental r e t a r d a t i o n and i n 1984 P ^ ^ t i c i p a n t - O b s e r v e r Approach o u t l i n i n g the advantages research.  p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e c a l l e d t o Research  i n Mental R e t a r d a t i o n  and disadvantages of t h i s form of  He acknowledges such drawbacks t o p a r t i c i p a n t  o b s e r v a t i o n as expense and time consumption. advantages of  The  of l e a r n i n g how  However, the  people " a c t u a l l y behave i n a v a r i e t y  c o n t e x t s and t o grasp the meaning these a c t i v i t i e s have f o r  them" (Edgerton, 1984,  p. 500)  outweigh  the disadvantages.  Edgerton maintains t h a t i t i s v i t a l t o observe r e t a r d e d persons in  everyday  life  as i t n a t u r a l l y o c c u r s as o f t e n and i n as many  s e t t i n g s as p o s s i b l e r a t h e r than simply t a l k i n g about t h e i r  lives  with them. The reason being i s t h a t what they say they do and what they a c t u a l l y do o f t e n bears l i t t l e resemblance. f u r t h e r , t h i s i s because  "answering  And  the q u e s t i o n s of a parent,  s o c i a l worker, or some other person of a u t h o r i t y f r e q u e n t l y  has  more t o do with attempting t o p l e a s e or p l a c a t e t h a t person than i t does r e a l i t y " ( p . 5 0 0 ) .  B e s i d e s , what i s s a i d t o a s t r a n g e r i s  d i f f e r e n t , o f t e n , than what i s s a i d t o someone f a m i l i a r . q u e s t i o n i n g does not work because  Direct  i t i n v i t e s d e c e p t i o n and  imposes the q u e s t i o n e r ' s sense of what i s important r a t h e r than what the i n d i v i d u a l p u r p o r t s t o be of importance. r e s e a r c h demands time and r a p p o r t .  T h i s form of  An example i s c i t e d of a  whose s e l f p o r t r a y a l of a s e x u a l s o p h i s t i c a t e "masked  man  complete  ignorance of s e x u a l behaviour."  S e t t i n g s are s i g n i f i c a n t as w e l l . culture:  Any  s e t t i n g w i l l have i t s  i n s t i t u t i o n a l c u l t u r e s t r e s s e s p r o d u c t i v i t y whereas the  c l i e n t s u b c u l t u r e emphasizes s o c i a b i l i t y , harmony and maintenance of s e l f esteem. encourages  the  The " c l i e n t s c u l t u r e t o l e r a t e s and  . . . f a n t a s y p r o d u c t i o n s , some of which would be  c o n s i d e r e d b i z a r r e by o t h e r s , i n c l u d i n g the workshop s t a f f . These "normalcy  fabrications"  r e l i e v e boredom." T h i s was  ...serve t o enhance s e l f esteem and  a dominant f e a t u r e of S p e c i a l  Olympic  a t h l e t e s . Edgerton s t r e s s e s , as a f i n a l p o i n t , the emphasis of t h i s methodology of " s e e i n g t h i n g s through t h e i r eyes" i n order  £8  to  e l i c i t the meaning l i f e holds f o r them (Edgerton,  1984).  With the n a t i o n a l p o l i c y of d e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n , the r e l e a s e of many r e t a r d e d people i n t o the community c r e a t e d i s s u e s of  concern r e v o l v i n g around community a d a p t a t i o n .  L i v e s iD  Process (Edgerton, 1984), a c o l l e c t i o n of a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n by the S o c i o - B e h a v i o u r a l Group a t UCLA examines employment, f r i e n d s h i p , speech e t i q u e t t e , s h e l t e r e d workshops, stigma and perspectives using  self  m u l t i p l e methods of i n t e r v i e w s , o b s e r v a t i o n s ,  and quasi-experiments although the f o u n d a t i o n of the approach i s ethnographic.  Two  a r t i c l e s from L i v e s i n Process t h a t draw from  ethnographic data are Kaufman's (1984) F r i e n d s h i p Coping Systems x  and Community Adjustment  of M i l d l y Retarded A d u l t s and  E§£§E®9£ly.©§ on Being Handicapped^ Andrea Z e t l i n and Jim Turner  Self  Stigma and Adjustment  (1984).  by  The former i d e n t i f i e s four  types of f r i e n d s h i p p a t t e r n s among young a d u l t s and shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p of each t o s o c i a l adjustment.  Her study c o v e r s IS  months, a p e r i o d t h a t allowed her t o " d i s c u s s the p r o c e s s of movement from one type of adjustment Turner  t o another".  (1984) examined the experience of stigma and  Zetlin  and  the  s t r a t e g i e s employed i n coping with t h i s awareness.  Again, the  study took p l a c e over an 18 month p e r i o d , of prime  importance,  r a p p o r t developed over time a l t e r s the p o r t r a y a l o f f e r e d t o the researchers.  A person i n i t i a l l y c a s t as a " d e n i e r " l a t e r  r e v e a l e d h i m s e l f t o be a " q u a l i f i e r " . time i s i n v a l u a b l e i n examining  In a l l of these s t u d i e s ,  people who  "invoke s e l f  as  p r o t e c t i v e adaptive ( Z e t l i n and perceived  a c t i o n s t o conceal  Turner, 1984,  p. 118).  as nonthreatening  Only when the r e s e a r c h e r  i s an open view p e r m i t t e d .  iQ E£2S®§5§ the focus i s on studying i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y and complex and  changing  In 1986, Use  of a l c o h o l and f o r the study.  people  i s t h a t these people have  lives.  an a r t i c l e on A l c o h o l and  Retarded A d u l t s .  Data was  of s e v e r a l y e a r s . The  was  the  c o l l e c t e d from f o u r samples of  impetus retarded  ethnographic r e s e a r c h over the course  samples were: candidates  for  l i v i n g a d u l t s ; inner c i t y b l a c k s  and  deinatitutionalised adults.  Drug  A concern with adverse e f f e c t  drug use on community a d a p t a t i o n  adults u t i l i z i n g extensive  independently  is  In L i v e s  the l i v e s of r e t a r d e d  the c o n c l u s i o n  Edgerton p u b l i s h e d  by M e n t a l l y  'spoiled' identity"  The  normalization;  s u b j e c t s were seen i n v a r i o u s  s e t t i n g s such as work, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , l e i s u r e , shopping  trips,  v i s i t s to f r i e n d s etc.  aspects  Conversations  covered t o p i c s  of work, s e l f maintenance i n everyday a c t i v i t i e s ,  on  family  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , l e i s u r e , behaviour i n p u b l i c p l a c e s ,  communicative  competence, involvement with s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y system and as w e l l as a l c o h o l and  drug usage.  f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s , and the  Researchers a l s o  employers about a l c o h o l and  fantasy  interviewed drug use  of  subjects.  Edgerton l e a r n e d t h a t most of these people were aware t h a t being The  l a b e l l e d "mentally  r e t a r d e d " was  personally d i s c r e d i t i n g .  c o n d i t i o n s of t h e i r l i v e s were p a i n f u l i n t h a t they  experienced  s o c i a l and  p a r e n t a l r e j e c t i o n , l i v e d i n substandard  3©  housing,  had  l i m i t e d access to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  suffered anxiety, depression  and  incomes and  low s e l f esteem.  However,  drugs and a l c o h o l were r a r e l y abused because some of the s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d they had watched i t d e s t r o y people who  were c l o s e t o  them and they wanted t o a v o i d t h i s .  Dudleys' essence  ethnography L i v i n g with Stigma <1983) e x p l o r e s the  of stigma  person's  i n a l l f a c e t s of the mentally  l i f e using a constant comparative  analysis.  handicapped  method of q u a l i t a t i v e  Twenty seven s u b j e c t s f o r the study were drawn from  f o u r agencies f o r the mentally handicapped of mild and r e t a r d a t i o n who home.  moderate  l i v e d e i t h e r with t h e i r p a r e n t s or i n a group  A d d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a was  a w i l l i n g n e s s to become i n v o l v e d  i n the study and the a b i l i t y t o communicate s u b j e c t i v e m a t e r i a l as w e l l as f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n .  Data was  c o l l e c t e d on ten forms  t h a t served t o o r g a n i z e the data f o r the purpose of a n a l y s i s and p r e s e r v a t i o n i n n a t u r a l form.  A j o u r n a l of o b s e r v a t i o n s and a  j o u r n a l of impressions recorded i n i t i a l c o n t a c t s and d i s t i n g u i s h e d between what a c t u a l l y happened and what observed.  Another form recorded more focused o b s e r v a t i o n s  order t o d i r e c t r e s e a r c h e r s ' a t t e n t i o n t o processes"  was  (Dudley,  1984,  p. 109).  "...in  stigma-promoting  Each p a r t i c i p a n t was  allotted  an i n d i v i d u a l packet of forms t h a t o r g a n i z e d data w i t h i n s i x t o p i c a l areas t o r e c o r d o b s e r v a t i o n s and  conversations.  The r o l e and purpose of the r e s e a r c h e r s was the p a r t i c i p a n t a t the beginning of the study.  e x p l a i n e d to The  researchers  " . . . g r a d u a l l y moved i n t o t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s as p a r t i c i p a n t s t o the  31  extent- t h a t t h i s helped them become inconspicuous and accepted insiders"  (Dudley,  1984,  p.110).  as  The p a r t i c i p a n t s were t o l d t h a t  the i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s were c o n v e r s a t i o n s and they c o u l d t a l k f r e e l y about anything they wanted t o , although the r e s e a r c h e r s attempted t o d i r e c t the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t o t a l k i n g about the i n f o r m a t i o n areas of the  The study was  study.  d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e phases.  The  initial  o r i e n t a t i o n phase c o n s i s t e d of n o n i n t r u s i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s of d a i l y r o u t i n e a c t i v i t i e s , made i n the f i r s t Phase two  was  two  to four contacts.  the focused o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d i n which r e s e a r c h e r s  v i s i t e d a t v a r i e d times and s i t u a t i o n s i n order t o observe sampling i.e.  of f o u r k i n d s of a c t i v i t i e s such as  a  staff/participant  meals, p a r t i c i p a n t / p a r t i c i p a n t , i . e . i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s ,  participant/community  i . e . shopping  meetings.  The t h i r d phase was  focused on  stigma.  Dudley concluded  and s t a f f / s t a f f  i.e. staff  i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n which  o v e r a l l t h a t the r e s e a r c h p a r t i c i p a n t s are  " c a p t i v e s " of a "mentally r e t a r d e d world" t h a t i s segregated  from  the mainstream; t h a t they are very c o n s c i o u s of t h e i r s t i g m a t i c s t a t u s ; t h a t t h e r e a r e a number and v a r i e t y of ways t h a t i s promoted and t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s respond d e f e n s e l e s s or a c t i v e l y r e s i s t i n g stigma. was  a l s o examined.  to t h i s  by  stigma being  Passing as a s t r a t e g y  Edgerton's and Dudley's s t u d i e s focused on those who were w e l l a b l e t o communicate t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s - t h e i r s u b j e c t s were selected. was  In t h i s t h e s i s , t h e team was viewed as a whole.  There  a g r e a t e r range o f v e r b a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t may not make  sense on our terms but extends t h e boundaries o f e x p r e s s i o n  from  those who a r e f l u e n t t o those with minimal a r t i c u l a t i o n .  Dudley (1985) conducted an ethnographic  study  The M i s s i n g  l i n k i n E v a l u a t i n g S h e l t e r e d Workshop Programs^ The C l i e n t s ^ . IOP.yt'  S i x t e e n c l i e n t s i n a s h e l t e r e d workshop were c o n s u l t e d  about t h e i r work r o l e s and program. in-depth  P a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n and  i n t e r v i e w i n g methods were employed.  The 16 c l i e n t s were  chosen based on t h e i r : r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s o f t h e t o t a l workshop c l i e n t population  i n gender, r a c e and socioeconomic s t a t u s , I.Q  s c o r e and p e r i o d o f time as c l i e n t s o f t h e program;  their  a b i l i t y t o communicate t h e i r views and p e r c e p t i o n s and  their  w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e study. Most o f t h e c l i e n t s were i n d i f f e r e n t t o pursuing  o u t s i d e employment and spent  most o f  t h e i r time t a l k i n g about nonwork concerns i . e . r e l a t i o n s h i p s and most o f t h e c l i e n t s denied  having  a d i s a b i l i t y . I t became  apparent t h a t t h e c l i e n t s needed help " . . . i n understanding t h e g o a l s and f u n c t i o n s o f a workshop..." and  a l s o o f importance i s  the need t o understand "...why they need t o disavow p a r t i c u l a r l a b e l s as w e l l as t o d i s c o v e r t h e i r p r e f e r r e d ways o f d e s c r i b i n g their d i s a b i l i t i e s " perceptions,  <p. 239).  The e l i c i t a t i o n o f t h e c l i e n t s  i n t e r e s t s and preoccupations  t o work r o l e s .  Dudley concluded  may i n d i r e c t l y  relate  t h a t t h e views and p e r c e p t i o n s  of c l i e n t s who a r e l a b e l e d mentally  r e t a r d e d can be "both  relevant, and u s e f u l i n e v a l u a t i n g a s h e l t e r e d workshop programs' e f f e c t i v e n e s s " <p.  In  239).  Meaning i n L i f e as Experienced by_ Persons Labeled  Retarded  i n a Group How©* Heshusius  (1981) e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y  s t u d i e d e i g h t m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d people who  l i v e d i n a group home  and worked i n a s h e l t e r e d workshop. The time p e r i o d was months and  the purpose was  t o i n v e s t i g a t e some of the ways t h a t  these people experienced meaning i n day-to-day 1981). One  In other words, 'how  living  (Heshusius,  do they make sense of t h e i r  lives?'  of the o u t s t a n d i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between t h i s study and many of  the other ethnographic i n q u i r i e s was of  eight  self".  attention to "presentation  The r e s e a r c h e r ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s of s e l f was  and monitored  documented  i n f i e l d notes and i n p r e s e n t a t i o n of h i s r o l e t o  s t a f f and s u b j e c t s .  Heshusius g i v e s a f i n e l y d e t a i l e d account of  methodology - grounded theory (Glaser and S t r a u s s , 1967) g e n e r a t i o n of c a t e g o r i e s and t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s ,  -  theoretical  sampling, s a t u r a t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n of p a t t e r n s ; v a l i d i t y reliability  procedures.  Themes t h a t emerged can be c a t e g o r i z e d  as f o l l o w s (Heshusius documents the s u b j e c t s own these thematic t i t l e s . independence:  "we  and  words under  She does not impose her own  analysis);  badly want t o be more independent than we  be here"(p.136); marriage: " i f our present b o y / g i r l  can  friend  l e a v e s , we w i l l take another one, f o r i t i s important t o keep b e l i e v i n g t h a t we,  too, can marry and l i v e on our own  one  day,  and do the t h i n g s we want t o do j u s t as everyone e l s e " ( p . 1 3 8 ) ; p h y s i c a l / s e x u a l involvement, having c h i l d r e n and r e l a t i o n s h i p s : "we  boy/girl  do o f t e n understand q u i t e a b i t about other  34  persona'  behaviour  understanding  and t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s " < p . 1 3 8 ) ; i n t e r p e r s o n a l  and i n t r a p e r s o n a l understanding:  "we know t h a t we  are i n a p l a c e f o r t h e " r e t a r d e d " and we know t h e r e a r e t h i n g s we cannot do (such as r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , cooking good t h i n g s and math) but t h a t does not make us retarded"<p.138).  Ethnographic  s t u d i e s r e l a t e d t o s p o r t have a l s o been conducted.  Levine and  Langness (1983) and Vaz (1982) examine v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f coach/athlete r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  Levine and Langness (1983) conducted Context.  x  an ethnographic  study  A b i l i t y and Performance! Comparison o f Competitive  A t h l e t i c s Among M i l d l y Retarded  and Nonretarded  A d u l t s which  s t u d i e d m i l d l y mentally r e t a r d e d and nonretarded  adults  performance i n c o m p e t i t i v e a t h l e t i c s , s p e c i f i c a l l y b a s k e t b a l l . The team o f mentally r e t a r d e d p l a y e r s was one " . . . o f a l a r g e number o f p r i v a t e n o n p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e Los Angeles o r g a n i z e d by parents o f r e t a r d e d a d u l t s " (p.529). c o n s i s t e d o f seven members o f t h e Southern b a s k e t b a l l team.  Researchers  observed  area  The other team  California  Spirit  a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e game  but focused on t o p i c s such as "how, and by whom, game s t r a t e g y was planned  and c a r r i e d out; knowledge and use o f r u l e s by team  members; arguments with o f f i c i a l s and v e r b a l defense p o s i t i o n ; emotional  of a  e x p r e s s i o n o f team members b e f o r e , d u r i n g ,  and a f t e r p l a y ; on c o u r t "competency"; and t h e s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s under which play o c c u r r e d " (p. 529).  35  They d i s c o v e d t h a t r e t a r d e d a d u l t a "were c o n f r o n t e d s i m p l i f i e d r u l e s , emotional coaching,  ( r a t h e r than p r i m a r i l y s t r a t e g i c )  l a x o f f i c i a t i n g , and  which competition  occurred.  an a l t e r e d s o c i a l context  p l a y e r s " (p.  a t t i t u d e s towards winning d i f f e r e d f o r nonretarded  retarded players. the nonretarded.  Winning was  537).  and  an e x p l i c i t p a r t of the game f o r  and p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and  a normalizing  were the o f t e n - s t a t e d purposes"(p. 537).  of the coaches was being".  a  "For the r e t a r d e d p l a y e r s s e l f esteem, the  s p i r i t of c o m p e t i t i o n experience  within  They played with more a n x i e t y and  lower l e v e l of s t r a t e g i c p l a y than nonretarded The  with  on " f e e l i n g b e t t e r " or being  " R e a l l y " winning, however, was  The  emphasis  "a r e a l human  of the utmost importance  to retarded players.  Levine and  Langneas (1983) concluded  that  "...normalised  environments w i t h i n which r e t a r d e d a d u l t s play can a c t u a l l y deny them an o p p o r t u n i t y and  f o r 'normal' p l a y , p l a c i n g t h e i r  self-esteem  competence 'center stage,'...and c o n t r i b u t i n g t o an  increase  i n i n d i v i d u a l a n x i e t y , thus p r o v i d i n g another s e t t i n g t h a t demands and  r e i n f o r c e s ' r e t a r d e d ' behaviour"  B a s i c a l l y , competition circumstances  (p.  538).  should not be a l t e r e d under most  f o r retarded players.  Special Olympic athletes  were encouraged by coaches t o "have some fun out t h e r e " and "remember, good sportsmanship" yet t h i s seemed incongruent  to with  the hype t h a t preceded the year end p r o v i n c i a l tournament and medals and  f o r m a l i t y of the event.  3S  The  the  team a l l wanted the g o l d .  Another ethnographic study was conducted  i n a sport  setting  and showed a d i s p a r i t y between what coaches' views, o p i n i o n s and g o a l s were and what young hockey p l a y e r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s on 'what the game was about'.  Vaz (1982) i n The P r o f e s s i g n a l i s a t i o n o f  Young Hockey Players! s t u d i e d one minor league o f hockey p l a y e r s aged seven t o e i g h t e e n (average age was twelve) over t h e winter season o f 1969/1970. He recorded o b s e r v a t i o n a l , c o n v e r s a t i o n a l and i n t e r v i e w data as w e l l as d i s t r i b u t i n g 1915 anonymous q u e s t i o n a i r e s t o boys r e g i s t e r e d i n minor hockey league.  Vaz  (1982) " . . . t r i e d t o p e n e t r a t e t h e o f f i c i a l pronouncements on what the game was about." the "...customar(y)  He attempted emphas(sis)  t o look beneath t h e s u r f a c e of  (on) t h e importance o f f u n and  r e c r e a t i o n , t h e t e a c h i n g of sportsmanship, and concern f o r the growth and moral development of y o u n g s t e r s " (p. 2 ) .  He s t r e s s e d  t h a t " s i n c e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n always a c t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e meaning t h e s i t u a t i o n has f o r them, any a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e and understanding o f s o c i a l behaviour r e q u i r e s an examination o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s and t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the action"  (Vaz, 1982, p. 2 ) . Vaz (1982)  showed t h a t although young p l a y e r s were expected t o r e s p e c t t h e r u l e s o f the game, they a r e given no formal i n s t r u c t i o n i n obeying r u l e s although they do r e c e i v e i n f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n v i o l a t i n g r u l e s . Vaz (1982) p r e s e n t s t h e a t h l e t e s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s about hockey r e g a r d i n g winning, sportsmanship,  socialisation,  r u l e s , and t h e s u b c u l t u r e o f v i o l e n c e t o l i s t a few.  37  SUMMARY The mentally  l i t e r a t u r e reviewed p r e s e n t s t h e people l a b e l l e d r e t a r d e d i n the l i g h t o f past h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s and  r e c e n t monumental changes due t o a convergence o f s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s which have r e s u l t e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l ,  legal,  v o c a t i o n a l , s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l advancements.  L i t e r a t u r e c o v e r i n g the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l scene i s presented in counterpoint  c o v e r i n g t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l , n a t i o n a l and l o c a l  scenes. N i r j e i n Sweden, Bank-Mikkelson i n Denmark and Wolfensberger i n North America pioneered  t h e p r i n c i p l e of  n o r m a l i z a t i o n and s e t out g u i d e l i n e s f o r i t s ' a p p l i c a t i o n and implementation through t h e movements of D e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n and  Mainstreaming. Simmons (1985) d e s c r i b e d n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l  r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e n o r m a l i z a t i o n p r i n c i p a l while by an A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Mentally  local publication  Retarded documented the grass  r o o t s lobbying f o r improved s e r v i c e s and catalogued  those  programs e f f e c t e d .  The  r o l e o f advocacy has changed  over t h e f o u r decades i t  has taken t o implement the n o r m a l i z a t i o n p r i n c i p l e .  The s h i f t  from support  advocacy  advocacy t o o r g a n i s e d  advocacy, t o s e l f  r e f l e c t s the i d e o l o g i c a l s h i f t from p a t e r n a l i s m determinism.  towards s e l f  Such p h i l o s o p h i c a l t e n s i o n s are played out i n arenas such s p o r t where advocates of community i n t e g r a t i o n debate  as  with  segregated, d i r e c t s e r v i c e o r i e n t e d agencies over the i s s u e s of paternalism  ( s e g r e g a t i o n ) and s e l f determinism  (integration).  N e i t h e r viewpoint i s t h a t of the mentally r e t a r d e d . Ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s the value of the 'emic' or insider perspective.  In s t u d y i n g the l i v e s of the people  l a b e l l e d mentally r e t a r d e d t h i s methodology enables t h e i r p o i n t of view t o be p r e s e n t e d .  The ethnographic s t u d i e s reviewed  mainly u t i l i z e d the techniques of i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w and p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n over a lengthy p e r i o d of time i n many different settings.  While t h i s method i s very time consuming and  expensive, the knowledge gained from o b s e r v i n g t r u e behaviour subsequent  and  understanding of the meaning of observed behaviour i s  invaluable.  39  CHAPTER II Conducting the Study  T y p i c a l l y , s e r v i c e agencies f o r the m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d are operated by nonretarded people (An e x c e p t i o n i s s e l f - a d v o c a t e groups  l i k e Peoples' C h o i c e ) , who  serve as  'gatekeepers':  " . . . a c t o r s with c o n t r o l over key r e s o u r c e s and avenues of o p p o r t u n i t y " (Hammersley & A t k i n s o n , 1983,  p.38).  Approval t o  conduct the study had t o be o b t a i n e d from the gatekeepers S p e c i a l Olympic  head o f f i c e .  The r o l e of ethnographer and complex.  i s not f i x e d , r a t h e r i t i s dynamic  T h i s complexity r e s u l t s from the ensuing dilemma of  c o n f l i c t i n g o b l i g a t i o n s between the ethnographer a t h l e t e / c o a c h , as d e s c r i b e d on page 42 and  and  43.  U t i l i z i n g an ethnographic r e s e a r c h d e s i g n proved t o be e f f e c t i v e but evoked training.  Mention  t e n s i o n i n the ethnographer  with  i s made of the e f f e c t s on the r e s e a r c h e r from  t h i s t e n s i o n between p o s i t i v i s m vs. n a t u r a l i s m .  Settings in  which the study takes p l a c e are d e s c r i b e d f o l l o w e d by methodological  positivist  reflections.  40  The  Gatekeeper  A p r o p o s a l was made t o B.C. S p e c i a l Olympics o u t l i n i n g t h e study.  Upon a p p r o v a l , t h e coach o f t h e Vancouver F l o o r hockey  team was c o n t a c t e d t o request p e r m i s s i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e on h i s team i n t h e dual r o l e s o f v o l u n t e e r coach and r e s e a r c h e r . very r e c e p t i v e .  He was  A p p l i c a t i o n was made t o t h e UBC e t h i c s committee  t o a c q u i r e approval o f t h e study and once t h i s Was a t t a i n e d , the Vancouver F l o o r Hockey a t h l e t e s were contacted by l e t t e r which o u t l i n e d t h e study and requested  participation.  One parent  c a l l e d me and asked what o b s e r v i n g and i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w i n g meant "how many people w i l l be t r a i p s i n g i n ? "  A telephone  call  f o l l o w e d t h e l e t t e r t o determine i n t e r e s t .  Informed Consent Informed consent was a d e l i c a t e i s s u e w i t h i n t h e study. When a person  i s nonverbal  and mentally handicapped, how can the  r e s e a r c h e r be sure t h a t t h e consent  given i s informed?  A l l of  the a t h l e t e s were o f l e g a l age and t h e r e f o r e consenting a d u l t s . Some l i v e d on t h e i r own, some i n group homes and o t h e r s with parents.  There were many q u e s t i o n s t o be c o n s i d e r e d .  How much  of t h e e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t I gave o f t h e study d i d t h e a t h l e t e s understand?  Did they r e a l l y know what they were consenting to?  Were they t r y i n g t o p l e a s e ?  Who should g i v e p e r m i s s i o n t o  p a r t i c i p a t e - t h e a t h l e t e s themselves,  t h e i r parents  (even though  the a t h l e t e was an a d u l t ) , t h e i r group home c a r e t a k e r , t h e i r f o s t e r parent, s o c i a l worker e t c . ? r e t a r d e d have?  What r i g h t s do t h e mentally  Are they v u l n e r a b l e and how much should they be 41  p r o t e c t e d and who Neufeld  should p r o v i d e t h i s p r o t e c t i o n ?  According t o  (1984) "The message they are sending i s t h a t they wish t o  speak f o r themselves and make t h e i r own s e l f advocacy i s a new  decisions" (pll7).  concept f o r the mentally d i s a b l e d  But  and  p a t e r n a l i s m and o v e r p r o t e c t i v e a t t i t u d e s a r e deeply r o o t e d .  Role o f the Ethnographer The r o l e of the ethnographer i s d e s c r i b e d by Agar  (1980, p.  41) as an a r r o g a n t e n t e r p r i s e :  In  a s h o r t p e r i o d o f time, an ethnographer moves i n  among a group of s t r a n g e r s t o study and d e s c r i b e t h e i r b e l i e f s , document t h e i r s o c i a l l i f e ,  w r i t e about t h e i r  s u b s i s t e n c e s t r a t e g i e s and g e n e r a l l y e x p l o r e the t e r r i t o r y r i g h t down t o t h e i r r e c i p e s f o r the evening meal...At b e s t , an ethnographer can only be  Agar  partial.  (1980) says t h a t the group members w i l l a s s i g n a  " s o c i a l c a t e g o r y " t o the ethnographer and t h a t what they t h i n k he wants t o l e a r n and t h e i r d e c i s i o n s on what he i s t o l d d e r i v e p a r t l y from t h e i r sense of who  "...will  he or she i s " (p. 41).  I  f e l t p r e s s u r e d and consumed by a need t o manage t h e s e impressions. I had i n t r o d u c e d my study t o the coaches as f o c u s i n g on " a t h l e t e / c o a c h i n t e r a c t i o n " and I was concerned about appearing t o take a c r i t i c a l view of the coaches or t h a t they might see me as a "spy" working f o r S p e c i a l Olympics. same time, I d i d not want t h i s f e a r t o i n f l u e n c e my  At the  observations.  I wanted t o be o b j e c t i v e and aee whatever waa something  t h a t might be unpopular  t h e r e , not ignore  t o document.  At the same time,  I d i d not want the a t h l e t e s t o screen i n f o r m a t i o n from me of a l a c k of t r u s t .  Olesen and Whittaker  (1968) i n The  because  Silent  Dialogue d e s c r i b e a s i m i l a r dilemma where "...the r e s e a r c h e r i s caught between c o n f l i c t i n g o b l i g a t i o n s - o n e , being f r i e n d l y  toward  the s t u d e n t s and the o t h e r , showing r e s p e c t f o r the l e c t u r e r .  On  the other hand, the r e s e a r c h e r i s i n v o l v e d with managing the l e c t u r e r ' s comfort w h i l e , a t the same time, managing the stance of impassive onlooker ..."(p.27).  When I began my  f i e l d w o r k with a S p e c i a l Olympic  floor  hockey team I i n t r o d u c e d myself as a r e s e a r c h e r and coach, but I was  never questioned about my r o l e as r e s e a r c h e r d e s p i t e the  presence of my f i e l d n o t e pad and o c c a s i o n a l l y my I was  tape r e c o r d e r .  c o n s i s t e n t l y expected t o play the r o l e of the coach  friend  i n t h a t I was  problems.  sought out t o s o l v e a t h l e t i c and p e r s o n a l  A l s o , when I stood i n the middle of the gymnasium and  i n i t i a t e d warmup, they complied without q u e s t i o n ! the season, along with the " o f f i c i a l " coaches, plaque with my status.  and  name engraved  upon i t ,  At the end of  I received a  c o n f i r m a t i o n of my  coaching  In the gymnasium, I observed, p a r t i c i p a t e d with and  questioned a t h l e t e s with r e g a r d t o t h e i r l i v e s as S p e c i a l Olympians.  After  p r a c t i s e s , o c c a s i o n a l l y I had c o f f e e with them  or drove them home a l l o w i n g more p e r s o n a l and i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e i r l i v e s .  detailed  And as I became aware of the  v u l n e r a b l e complexity i n which some l i v e d , my r o l e threatened t o  become t h a t of advocate. the  familiar;  assumptions attempted  At times, I found myself unable t o see  I caught myself  (or o t h e r s caught me) making  baaed on my own e x p e r i e n c e s and background;  and I  t o "make sense" o f t h e i r c u l t u r e because o f d i s c o m f o r t  with t h a t which d i d not hold meaning f o r me p e r s o n a l l y . In e f f e c t i t was a kind of c u l t u r e shock. I c o n s t a n t l y agonized over "adequate the  elicitation"  of data.  Was I a s k i n g enough q u e s t i o n s ,  r i g h t k i n d and o f the r i g h t people?  I s t r u g g l e d with the  q u a n t i t a t i v e n o t i o n s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and g e n e r a l i s a b i l i t y and reliability  (many responses were untrue - and I came t o r e a l i z e  t h a t t h i s i n i t s e l f was o f consequence). over my s h o u l d e r " (Whittaker, 1986, p.54).  44  I felt  "the p o s i t i v i s t  RESEARCH DESIGN The greatest, s t r u g g l e f o r me as a r e s e a r c h e r was i n o p e r a t i n g under two opposing  paradigms: p o s i t i v i s m v s .  n a t u r a l i s m , f o r I c o u l d not completely  d i s p e l past b i a s e s . Kuhn  (1970) d e s c r i b e s the need t o r e c o g n i s e the i n f l u e n c e o f the r e s e a r c h e r s background and t r a i n i n g .  F i r s t , a t l e a s t i n order o f p r e s e n t a t i o n , i s the i n s u f f i c i e n c y o f methodological  d i r e c t i v e s , by  themselves, t o d i c t a t e a unique s u b s t a n t i v e c o n c l u s i o n to many s o r t s o f s c i e n t i f i c q u e s t i o n s . examine e l e c t r i c a l or chemical  Instructed to  phenomena, the man who  i s i g n o r a n t o f these f i e l d s but who know what i t i s t o be s c i e n t i f i c may l e g i t i m a t e l y reach any one o f a number o f incompatible c o n c l u s i o n s .  Among  those  l e g i t i m a t e p o s s i b i l i t i e s , the p a r t i c u l a r c o n c l u s i o n s he does a r r i v e a t a r e probably experience  determined by h i s p r i o r  i n other f i e l d s , by t h e a c c i d e n t s o f h i s  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and by h i s own i n d i v i d u a l makeup (Kuhn, 1970, p . 3 ) .  My background and t r a i n i n g as a p h y s i c a l educator  created  problems i n moving from a h y p o t h e s i s t e s t i n g o r i e n t a t i o n t o a hypothesis g e n e r a t i n g o r i e n t a t i o n i n ethnography.  To l e t go of  the o b j e c t i v e , a c c u r a t e , s y s t e m a t i c , p r e d i c t a b l e , s t r u c t u r e d approach o f t h e p o s i t i v i s t s c i e n t i s t  and adopt t h e f l e x i b l e ,  r e f l e x i v e , i n t e r a c t i v e , u n s t r u c t u r e d , s u b j e c t i v e approach of the 45  ethnographer c r e a t e d a c o n f l i c t w i t h i n me.  Aa Peter  Berger  suggests i n the S o c i o l o g i c a l I n g u i r e r , " L i k e l o v e , a concentration  on technique i s l i k e l y t o l e a d t o impotence".  c h o i c e of u t i l i z i n g an ethnographic r e s e a r c h design appropriate,  but my  i n s e c u r i t y with minimal design  was structure  an assumption t h a t I c o u l d r e p l i c a t e the work of Spradley uncovering  The  and  in  a u b c u l t u r a l meanings through the r i c h n e s s of language  u s i n g ethnoscience  methods proved t o be too r i g o r o u s with  p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e f o r reasons which w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d  this  upon  later.  Ethnoscience  i s a g e n e r a l ethnographic method which  maintains the assumptions t h a t c u l t u r e i s shaped i n the mind, t h a t c u l t u r e i s knowledge. observation  and  I t uses the techniques  i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w t o e l i c i t c u l t u r a l knowledge.  Such knowledge i s l i s t e d , s o r t e d and  The  r e s e a r c h design  naturalistic. settings  of p a r t i c i p a n t  The  f o l k terms are i n t e r p r e t e d .  i s ethnographic and  therefore  a t h l e t e s were s t u d i e d i n n a t u r a l s p o r t  (games, p r a c t i s e s and  competitions)  holistically  (in  r e l a t i o n t o other aspects of the s i t u a t i o n i . e . o f f i c i a l s , athletes, parents). Edgerton (1967, 1984) Bogdan and  Taylor  The and  b a s i s f o r t h i s design was Dudley (1978) as w e l l  (1975) and  Levine and  whom have used ethnographic techniques and  the work of  as  Langness (1983), a l l of of p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n  i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w t o gain c u l t u r a l knowledge of the  handicapped.  The  other  t h e o r e t i c a l groundwork i s  symbolic  mentally  interactionism  (Blumer, 1969), which i n c l u d e s such concepts  premises as: meaning or s i g n i f i c a n c e , the i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e  and  nature  of r e a l i t y , the s e l f as s u b j e c t and o b j e c t and as a product s o c i a l p r o c e s s , and the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of events, persons, s e l f through  and  i n t e r a c t i o n with o t h e r s as a f o r c e f o r m a i n t a i n i n g  and a l t e r i n g r e a l i t y detailed  of  ( E s t r o f f , 1981).  These terms w i l l  be  i n chapter f o u r .  THREE PHASES The  study i s composed of t h r e e phases: o r i e n t a t i o n t o  e s t a b l i s h r a p p o r t and setting  (approx.  to allow time to "blend i n t o " the s p o r t  3 weeks d u r a t i o n ) ; o b s e r v a t i o n / c o n v e r s a t i o n  which took p l a c e d u r i n g the biweekly approximately  p r a c t i s e s and games and  one month i n l e n g t h ; and  was  a more focused phase  c o n s i s t i n g of i n f o r m a l d i r e c t e d i n t e r v i e w s with those a t h l e t e s who  were v e r b a l (see q u e s t i o n o u t l i n e ) and  informal conversations  with d i f f e r e n t groups of a t h l e t e s a t McDonalds r e s t a u r a n t c l o s e t o the community c e n t r e , (one month i n l e n g t h - see model Appendix  ethnoscience  E)  The t h r e e phases covered a p e r i o d of t h r e e months from January  5, 1988  to A p r i l  15th,  1988  and took p l a c e a t the Mount  P l e a s a n t community c e n t r e , Simon F r a s e r School gymnasium McDonalds Restaurant  on Cambie and B r i t t a n i a Community  (season end p r o v i n c i a l tournament).  47  and  Centre  Phase One Orientation On the f i r s t n i g h t of t h e f l o o r hockey season, t h e r e s e a r c h e r was i n t r o d u c e d as a graduate student and v o l u n t e e r coach by one of t h e head coaches.  The r e s e a r c h e r then e x p l a i n e d  t h e purpose of the study i n c l u d i n g k i n d s of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t would be sought; t h e g e n e r a l i n t e n t of t h e study; t h e importance of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and the frequency of c o n t a c t and l e n g t h of the study.  The consent forms were gone over with t h e group.  P a r e n t a l consent and i n d i v i d u a l consent were d e s c r i b e d and emphasized.  I t was s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e a t h l e t e s c o u l d choose t o  opt out of the study a t any time.  Some examples of responses f o l l o w .  One a t h l e t e t o l d me he  knew what a study was and had been i n s t u d i e s b e f o r e and c i t e d the UBC f i t n e s s t e s t i n g a few y e a r s p r i o r . Another a t h l e t e  said  he knew what a study was. Yet another s a i d he knew what s t u d i e s were and had been i n s t u d i e s b e f o r e "I got thoughts on why (he named a Canuck p l a y e r ) got a suspension".  Another  s a i d "I was i n  p r o v i n c i a l games". An a t h l e t e asked " I s i t a t e s t ? "  Another  q u e s t i o n posed by an a t h l e t e was "What's a study?"  One f e l l o w  responded  (with a l c o h o l on h i s breath) " I had t o f i r e t h r e e  people t h i s week because behind my back."  they were d r i n k i n g and s l o u g h i n g o f f  He t o l d me he worked a t Beaver Lumber and might  not be a b l e t o b r i n g the consent form back because work.  he had t o  Someone e l s e t o l d me t h a t her group home worker would get  the form; s e v e r a l other a t h l e t e s d i d not speak and so I had no 48  i d e a what they understood. that.  I d i d not f e e l comfortable  about  A very young l o o k i n g a t h l e t e g i g g l e d and nodded and  pressed up a g a i n s t me appearing  t o have no understanding  o f what  I was t r y i n g t o convey, or any i n t e r e s t f o r t h a t matter.  The  coaches were t o l d t h a t the f o c u s o f the study was on a t h l e t e p e r c e p t i o n s of g o a l s , p r i o r i t i e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s i n f l o o r hockey.  I proposed t o blend i n t o t h e s p o r t s e t t i n g by p l a y i n g t h e r o l e o f a coach r a t h e r than t h a t o f a r e s e a r c h e r .  I planned t o  i n t e r a c t with t h e team i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n as t h e other coaches. Phase Two Q*2§§.£yatign L Q2 .y. .E§§i=i2D n  e  T h i s phase c o n s i s t e d o f o b s e r v a t i o n / c o n v e r s a t i o n .  My r o l e  as coach was t o a s s i s t i n t h e p r a c t i s e s , but I had a note pad t o r e c o r d my o b s e r v a t i o n s and c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n my b r i e f c a s e , c l o s e a t hand.  The q u e s t i o n framework t h a t I had designed  p r o p o s a l was o c c a s i o n a l l y used t o e l i c i t  i n my  information, i . e . I  would ask q u e s t i o n s when the a t h l e t e s were s i t t i n g on t h e bench such as "what p o s i t i o n do you p l a y ? "  Phase Three Focused O b s e r v a t i o n  / Informal  Interview  T h i s stage o f t h e study was focused o b s e r v a t i o n and i n f o r m a l interview.  The q u e s t i o n framework (see Appendix C) was u t i l i z e d  d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s o n l y as a guide.  49  A t h l e t e s ignored some  q u e s t i o n s or l e d the i n t e r v i e w i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . reflexivity  But  i s one of the advantages of ethnographic  interviewing.  These i n t e r v i e w s took p l a c e on a hallway bench  away from the gymnasium and other people. by a s k i n g i f i t was  I approached  athletes  convenient f o r me t o t a l k t o them about  i d e a s and f e e l i n g s r e g a r d i n g f l o o r hockey.  Often they would  r e p l y by s a y i n g t h a t they would i n a few minutes or a f t e r second  p e r i o d , f o r example.  50  their  the  Settings The  Community Centre  The  Vancouver F l o o r Hockey team p r a c t i s e s a t Mount  Community Centre. years.  I t has  Pleasant  been the home of the team f o r e i g h t  I t i s e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e by bus  Most of  the  a t h l e t e s l i v e i n Vancouver, but some t r a v e l from Burnaby  and  Richmond t o p l a y .  The  a t h l e t e s t r a v e l by bus,  car pool,  walking,  one  and  parents d r i v e as w e l l .  The  drives himself  and  car.  athletes  t r a v e l alone or with f r i e n d s . The  Teams  The  team i s composed of approximately t h i r t y p l a y e r s , twenty  f o u r c o n s i s t e n t l y t u r n out t o p r a c t i s e s . 19 y e a r s o l d t o 46.  u n i t but by the beginning of  i n f o r m a l assessment by the coaches determined t h a t  the team should  be d i v i d e d i n two,  based on s k i l l  level.  team or " D r i l l e r s " would c a r r y the h i g h e s t s k i l l  level  and  community  p r a c t i s e on Tuesday n i g h t s a t Mount Pleasant  centre. The  "C"  T h i s team f o r m a l l y comprised t h r e e women and  The  "B"  athletes  eight  men.  team or " B l a s t e r s " would p r a c t i s e on Monday n i g h t s a t the  s c h o o l adjacent  t o the community c e n t r e  i t c o n s i s t e d of one  woman and  schedule. Appendix B). s p o r a d i c a l l y and at  from  Of the t h i r t y p l a y e r s , f o u r are female.  I n i t i a l l y , the team p r a c t i s e d as one February, an  They range i n age  the end  of the  twelve men  (Simon F r a s e r School)  and  (see p r a c t i s e and game  About s i x p l a y e r s attended p r a c t i s e s  d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p r o v i n c i a l tournament season.  51  The  Coaches  The coaches numbered from f o u r t o s i x and v a r i e d from week t o week.  One coach managed the D r i l l e r s and the other head coach  the B l a s t e r s .  The team manager was one o f t h e p a r e n t s and looked  a f t e r d e t a i l s such as equipment,  schedules e t c . and served as  l i a i s o n , o f t e n , between a t h l e t e s and coaches.  She was known as  mom .  Practise Structure The p r a c t i s e times were scheduled f o r f i v e t o seven o ' c l o c k on Tuesdays and seven t o e i g h t o ' c l o c k on Mondays. were g e n e r a l l y on time and knew t h e r o u t i n e . f o r i n s t r u c t i o n s but went t o the equipment  The a t h l e t e s  They d i d not wait  room and chose  b a s k e t b a l l s , v o l l e y b a l l s or s o c c e r b a l l s t o busy themselves u n t i l Barb, the equipment  manager a r r i v e d and, a t t h a t p o i n t , whoever  was a v a i l a b l e helped her b r i n g t h e bags o f equipment i n . G e n e r a l l y , the coaches a r r i v e d one by one and were approached f o r a d v i c e , t o chat w i t h , or ask q u e s t i o n s with r e g a r d t o f u t u r e games.  U s u a l l y , the gymnasium was f r e e by p r a c t i s e time,  although a f i t n e s s c l a s s was always w a i t i n g o u t s i d e t h e doors t o come i n a f t e r  practise.  I observed t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p r a c t i s e t o be f r e e time which was s e l f o r g a n i z e d i n t o : shooting baskets; t e a s i n g chasing people around; bouncing a b a l l around and around the gymnasium; and mini soccer game. a r r i v e d , they would  As the coaches and v o l u n t e e r s  j o i n i n t o whatever t h e a t h l e t e s were d o i n g .  The v o l u n t e e r s always allowed the a t h l e t e s t o make these c h o i c e s . There was  a n a t u r a l and a p p r o p r i a t e breakdown of f r e e c h o i c e  matching a b i l i t i e s and p e r s o n a l i t i e s i . e . the best p l a y e r s j o i n e d i n s o c c e r ; the f l i r t a t i o u s and very s o c i a l chased around; the s o l i t a r y p l a y e r s l i k e Sam  other  people  and Greg bounced the  around and around the gymnasium by themselves,  ball  apparently  d e s i r i n g no i n t e r a c t i o n or a t l e a s t not seeking i t (Sam  is  a u t i s t i c so t h i s g e n e r a l l y i s the nature of h i s i n t e r a c t i o n even on the f l o o r d u r i n g p r a c t i s e s and games). g e n e r a l l y done with another person  Shooting baskets  ( e i t h e r v o l u n t e e r or  was  another  a t h l e t e ) e n t a i l i n g a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of exchange with the f o c u s on improving  i n d i v i d u a l s k i l l s or showing o f f techniques i . e . more  t a l k i n g and s c o r i n g and c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t e c h n i q u e . f a s t moving s o c c e r game, the f o c u s was  on s c o r i n g .  With the Bouncing  the  b a l l around the gymnasium allowed one t o keep a t t e n t i o n focused away from o n e s e l f because they were engaged i n meaningful a c t i v i t y but d i d n ' t have t o i n t e r a c t . s o c i a l l y meaningful the o t h e r .  and g e n e r a l l y i n v o l v e d one sex going  after  I wondered about t h i s i n the sense t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s  came t o f l o o r hockey motivated those who  Teasing a c t i v i t i e s were  by d i f f e r e n t reasons or d e s i r e s :  wanted t o be with people f o r s o c i a l reasons; those  wanted t o compete and  loved the s p o r t ; those who  p l a c e t o go "To s t a y o f f the s t r e e t " For i n s t a n c e , why  would Sam  who  simply wanted a  (see Appendix D - p.  173).  come t o f l o o r hockey - he i s a u t i s t i c  53  and  seems t o not be i n v o l v e d with anybody.  own and i s on time.  He g e t s t h e r e on h i s  Why would L a r r y come only t o complain "I  don't want t o " .  The  p r a c t i s e then took t h e form o f a warm up which was l e d  by d i f f e r e n t v o l u n t e e r s running.  each week and i n c l u d e d s t r e t c h i n g and  Some o f t h e a t h l e t e s c o u l d not do t h e e x e r c i s e s , became  d i z z y "I can't  do t h a t "  (standing  on one f o o t ) o r d i d them  extremely w e l l "I'm double j o i n t e d " .  Many a t h l e t e s d i d not  appear t o understand how t o do some o f t h e movements and had t o be guided through t h e movements and c o n s t a n t l y t o l d t o pay a t t e n t i o n and not f o o l  around.  Then g e n e r a l l y , t h e r e would be a huddle and t h e head coach would e x p l a i n what was going t o t r a n s p i r e t h a t evening. always extremely w e l l organized She  She was  and had a typed p r a c t i s e p l a n .  spoke normally and was always calm and g e n t l e and w e l l  respected  by t h e a t h l e t e s - e a s i l y approachable.  The p r a c t i s e  would c o n s i s t o f d r i l l s and a scrimmage i n t e r s p e r s e d with time t o get a d r i n k o f water.  At t h e end o f t h e p r a c t i s e t h e a t h l e t e s  would be l e d i n a " c o o l down" f o l l o w e d  by a "huddle" i n which the  a t h l e t e s would form a c i r c l e i n t h e middle of t h e gymnasium surrounding the coach t o l i s t e n t o any p a r t i n g a d v i c e l e f t f o r home.  54  before  they  Games Games were played with normal teams such as t h e Jewish Community Centre, Super V a l u , Mount P l e a s a n t Community S t a f f and other S p e c i a l Olympic teams. arranged  In two cases a t h l e t e s  games with t h e i r work mates (Super V a l u ) .  not recorded because a l l o f t h e games were f o r f u n . o f t h e s c o r e s were c l o s e , schedule)  Centre  Scores were However, a l l  (see Appendix B f o r p r a c t i s e and game  According t o t h e coach, t h e games "...are b a s i c a l l y a  t r a i n i n g ground f o r the tournament a t the end o f the season."  MCDonalds Restaurant Mount P l e a s a n t Community Centre McDonalds.  i s w i t h i n a few b l o c k s o f  A f t e r t h e p r a c t i s e s or games, t h i s i s where I would  go with some o f t h e a t h l e t e s f o r a d r i n k .  Tournament B r i t t a n i a community c e n t r e ( w i t h i n a few m i l e s o f Mount P l e a s a n t ) was t h e s i t e o f t h e S p e c i a l Olympic p r o v i n c i a l hockey tournament A p r i l 8, t o A p r i l 10.  floor  The a t h l e t e s spent two  n i g h t s a t the c e n t r e along with a l l the other a t h l e t e s from the d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s i n B.C.  Besides p l a y i n g games, o p t i o n a l  a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d a r e c r e a t i o n a l swim, s k a t i n g , weight v i d e o s and pancake b r e a k f a s t .  lifting,  At t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e  tournament, a banquet, awards and entertainment ensued.  55  t h e 'Suspenders'  Pizza  Hut  A team windup d i n n e r was h e l d a t the P i z z a Hut r e s t a u r a n t a t the end of the season.  A t h l e t e s d i s c u s s e d the tournament,  past  c o m p e t i t i o n s (drawing s t r a t e g i e s on napkins) and g o s s i p . Plaques with team p i c t u r e s were g i v e n , i n a p p r e c i a t i o n , t o the coaches and manager. Methodological R e f l e c t i o n s In t h i s study, I t r i e d t o view the team as a whole, a l l o w i n g f o r a g r e a t e r range o f v e r b a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t extends the boundaries of e x p r e s s i o n from those who  are f l u e n t t o those with  minimal or no a r t i c u l a t i o n . I n i t i a l l y , an e t h n o s c i e n c e model proposed  (see Appendix  (1980).  I based my c h o i c e of t h i s model on the assumption  was  E) supported by the work of Spradley  t h e r e would be, as i n S p r a d l e y s ' You owe or Whytes' S t r e e t Corner S o c i e t y  that  y o u r s e l f a Drunk (1970)  (1955), a language unique t o the  m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d complete with cover terms and  componential  a n a l y s i s . But t h i s d i d not prove v i a b l e due t o the  language  l i m i t a t i o n s of the a t h l e t e s and the model i t s e l f was t h a t I focused more on language than o b s e r v a t i o n .  limiting in  I discovered  t h a t what was moat important t o the a t h l e t e s was t o sound  like  the coaches, not maintain an e x c l u s i v e semantic world.  B i k l e n and Moseley Retarded?^ "No  I^m  (1988) wrote an a r t i c l e t i t l e d Are you  C a t h o l i c ^ ! Q u a l i t a t i v e Methods i n the Study of  56  people with Severe Handicaga which was p u b l i s h e d a f t e r research.  my  Had t h i s a r t i c l e preceded my study, i t would have  i n f l u e n c e d the way  i n which  I asked q u e s t i o n s , amongst other  things.  They s t a t e t h a t the  . . . r e s e a r c h e r ' s major concern i s language.  The  dependence o f the q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h e r on  language,  and the image of the i d e a l informant as an person ( i . e . Doc i n Whyte, 1955)  may  articulate  c a l l f o r some  c r e a t i v e t a c t i c s i n the f a c e of the informant  who  cannot v e r b a l l y inform (p.161).  The study o u t l i n e s m o d i f i c a t i o n s f o r informants whose use of language i s l i m i t e d such as: breaking down q u e s t i o n s ;  rethinking  the use of s m a l l t a l k i n d e v e l o p i n g r a p p o r t as i t i s baaed an assumption o f mutual  "...on  understanding and f a m i l i a r i t y with  t y p i c a l p a t t e r n s o f communication"  ( B i k l e n and Moseley,  1988,  p.  157); c o n s u l t i n g the informant as t o where the i n t e r v i e w s should be conducted and o b s e r v i n g over a p e r i o d of time i n v a r i e d settings.  What I d i s c o v e r e d , over time, i s t h a t when a group of people are s t i g m a t i z e d , language mechanisms are a d a p t i v e . Kernan  Sabsay  and  (1981) r e p o r t a r e l i a n c e on o t h e r s r a t h e r than themselves.  "That i s , r a t h e r than being concerned with adequate 57  communicative  d e s i g n , m i l d l y r e t a r d e d speakers  apparently  r e l y on t h e i r  i n t e r l o c u t e r a t o seek t h e i n f o r m a t i o n they need t o understand or disambiguate t h e speakers  messages and t o provide t h e o v e r a l l  s t r u c t u r e f o r such t h i n g s as n a r r a t i v e s " (Sabsay & Kernan, 1979, p. 293). They p o i n t out t h a t "...the  m i l d l y r e t a r d e d almost never  ask q u e s t i o n s , i n i t i a t e r e p a i r , or use other l i n g u i s t i c means o f r e s o l v i n g t h e i r own c o n f u s i o n with o t h e r s ' u t t e r a n c e s . . . " (p.292).  I observed  t h a t t h e r e were times when a t h l e t e s would  s i t on t h e bench f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d during t h e game, but would never c h a l l e n g e t h e coach, complain  or ask q u e s t i o n s about  what they were doing. For i n s t a n c e , "what p o s i t i o n do you p l a y ? " "Beats me" or "whatever t h e coach t e l l s me".  Another example i s  when I asked an a t h l e t e "What i s sportsmanship?"  He r e p l i e d  " C a p t a i n " . I r e s t a t e d " I mean, what i s a good s p o r t ? " should know i t .  I t s a good workout.  Think about your p o s i t i o n .  He s a i d "I  T e r r y ' s a good g o a l i e .  We had a good game.  We played a  r e a l l y hard game" (see Appendix D - p. 170).  T h i s l e a d s t o another  p o i n t : s u b j e c t s may be i n c l i n e d t o  p l e a s e t h e i n t e r v i e w e r because they have very c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s with group home or other human s e r v i c e system s t a f f and a r e used t o doing or saying what i s a c c e p t a b l e t o them ( B i k l e n & Moseley, 1988).  A t h l e t e s would say "the bosses have r i g h t s t o t e l l us"  r e f e r r i n g t o the coaches.  58  Another problem  i s t h a t "...moat q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h e r s  are t r a i n e d t o ask open-ended q u e s t i o n s i n order t o a l l o w respondents  t o frame answers from t h e i r own p e r s p e c t i v e " ( B i k l e n  & Moseley, 1988, p. 158) but these do not work with t h e mentally r e t a r d e d . For example, "what do you t h i n k about your team?" " I t ' s good"  i s not as r i c h an answer as i f t h e q u e s t i o n were broken  down i n t o p a r t s as B i k l e n suggests. But otherwise, an open ended q u e s t i o n p r e s e n t s t o o much r i s k f o r where " i n t e r v i e w e r s d i f f i c u l t i e s tend t o c e n t e r on t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o understand t h e a c t u a l language o f t h e informant,  ...the i n t e r v i e w e e may have a  d i f f i c u l t time with t h e concepts of t h e i n t e r v i e w e r " ( B i k l e n , 1988,  p. 157).  59  CHAPTER I I I S o c i a l i s a t i o n and  the Dominant C u l t u r e  I n a p p r o p r i a t e and a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour dominant c u l t u r e based on economic, s o c i a l or determinants.  political  l i v e s : primary  The advent of mainstreaming and  n e c e s s i t a t e d secondary t o i n t r o d u c e and  s o c i a l i s i n g agents,  socialisation  was  deinstitutionalisation such as the  coaches,  i n t e r p r e t the dominant c u l t u r e i n order t o  f a c i l i t a t e integration.  An understanding  knowledge of each c u l t u r e and promotes meaningful retarded.  the  P r i o r t o the p r i n c i p l e of N o r m a l i s a t i o n , the  mentally r e t a r d e d l e d segregated impaired.  i s s e t by  of the s o c i a l stock of  inherent relevance s t r u c t u r e s  communication on the p a r t of the  mentally  The d e s i r e t o "not be l i k e a k i d " communicates the  i n t e r n a l i s a t i o n of the a t h l e t e s awareness of the p e r v a s i v e p a t e r n a l i s m t h a t shaped the f o r m a t i v e years of t h e i r l i v e s . c o n t r a s t s with the normal a d u l t who concern with behaving behaviour  "like a kid".  matures with age.  This  does not g e n e r a l l y share a The assumption i s t h a t one's  A c c e s s i b i l i t y to s o c i a l stock of  knowledge r e q u i r e s s t r a t e g y i n the form of impression management, r a p p o r t , f r o n t stage and back stage performance employed by a l l actors.  Sport c u l t u r e i s i n c o r p o r a t e d by the a t h l e t e s i n many ways. Nicknames bestowed upon S p e c i a l Olympic a t h l e t e s are r e m i n i s c e n t of those g i v e n t o Sport Heroes but a l s o r e f l e c t a s p e c t s of the mental r e t a r d a t i o n s u b c u l t u r e .  60  The stigma of being  mentally  retarded  i s counteracted  s p o r t i n g arena. e v i d e n t and  by the s t a t u s o£ being  a winner i n a  P a t t e r n s of the mainstream s p o r t c u l t u r e are  p o i n t t o the n o r m a l i s i n g  i n f l u e n c e of S p e c i a l  Olympics.  "ILB  Upset^ but I^m  T r y i n g t o Deal with  i t i n a Proper  Way"  Goffman i n F r a z i e r (1976, p. 34-35) says t h a t what  "...first  draws a t t e n t i o n t o the p a t i e n t s ' c o n d i t i o n i s conduct t h a t i s " i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n the s i t u a t i o n . "  But the d e c i s i o n as t o whether  or not a given a c t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e must o f t e n be a l a y d e c i s i o n , simply  because we  behavioural  have no formal  subcultures  documentation of the  various  i n our s o c i e t y , l e t alone the  standards  of conduct o p e r a t i v e i n each of them.  ...Further,  s i n c e i n a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour i s t y p i c a l l y  behaviour t h a t someone does not l i k e and  finds  extremely troublesome, d e c i s i o n s concerning be p o l i t i c a l ,  i n the sense of e x p r e s s i n g  i t tend  to  the s p e c i a l  i n t e r e s t s of some p a r t i c u l a r f a c t i o n or person r a t h e r than i n t e r e s t s t h a t can be s a i d t o be above the concerns of any  p a r t i c u l a r grouping... ( F r a z i e r ,  1976,  p. 34-35).  The  above quote i s i l l u s t r a t e d  i n the f o l l o w i n g  When I worked at T r a n q u i l l e i n s t i t u t i o n , I had convincing  great  excerpt. difficulty  the s t a f f t o b r i n g the r e s i d e n t s t o the gymnasium  a f t e r dinner.  The  the d i n i n g h a l l .  gymnasium was The  excuse was 61  s i t u a t e d w i t h i n h a l f a block t h a t i t would d i s t u r b the  of  residents emotionally  t o have t h e i r r o u t i n e changed i . e . going  from the d i n i n g h a l l to the ward vs. going from the d i n i n g h a l l t o the gymnasium. was  S i x months l a t e r , T r a n q u i l l e was  I  in  McDonalds' i n North Vancouver and T r a n q u i l l e ordering  burgers.  saw  t h r e e former r e s i d e n t s of  T h e i r " r o u t i n e " was  changed, y e t they d i s p l a y e d no emotional  Bercovici segregation is,  closed.  and  obviously  disturbance.  (1981) argues t h a t "...the f a c t of  separation,  i s o l a t i o n from the l a r g e r community or c u l t u r e  i n i t s e l f , conducive t o the development of ' s u b c u l t u r e ' "  138).  Her  view i s t h a t  <p.  the  . . . i n d i v i d u a l s concerned, i n a d d i t i o n t o  being  i n h a b i t a n t s of a segregated s o c i a l system, d i f f e r from 'normal' persons i n the mainstream c u l t u r e not so much f o r reasons of p h y s i c a l or mental d i s a b i l i t y but because of t h e i r  l i f e h i s t o r i e s and  their  socialisation  e x p e r i e n c e s (which amount t o t h e i r a c c u l t u r a t i o n ) have r e s u l t e d i n a view of both s e l f and t h a t may  the s o c i a l  d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the  of the dominant c u l t u r e (p.  138).  world  'Weltanschauung'  Berger and Luckman (1967) argue that, primary  socialisation  i s more deeply entrenched  i n consciousness than what i s  internalised  s o c i a l i s a t i o n as i n , f o r example, the  i n secondary  N o r m a l i s a t i o n movement. through  life  Furthermore,  socialisation  continues  so  ...secondary  socialisation  ... must d e a l with an  a l r e a d y formed s e l f and an a l r e a d y i n t e r n a l i s e d ...the a l r e a d y i n t e r n a l i s e d persist.  Whatever new  internalised  world.  r e a l i t y has a tendency  c o n t e n t s are now  to  t o be  must somehow be superimposed upon t h i s  a l r e a d y present r e a l i t y (p. 129).  The above i n d i c a t e s primary r e t a r d e d may  s o c i a l i s a t i o n of the mentally  be impaired. The extent of primary s o c i a l i s a t i o n i s  e v i d e n t i n the f o l l o w i n g quote:  In a s o c i e t y of t h i s k i n d , the i n d i v i d u a l  cripple  or  b a s t a r d has v i r t u a l l y no s u b j e c t i v e defense a g a i n s t the stigmatic identity  a s s i g n e d t o him.  He  i s what he i s  supposed t o be, t o h i m s e l f as t o h i s s i g n i f i c a n t  others  and t o the community as a whole. ... He i s imprisoned i n the o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y of h i s s o c i e t y , although t h a t reality  i s s u b j e c t i v e l y present t o him  i n an a l i e n  t r u n c a t e d manner (Berger and Luckman, 1967,  63  p.152).  and  It has not been long s i n c e mentally r e t a r d e d people c o u l d even l i v e i n neighbourhoods because o f f a u l t y p e r c e p t i o n s and beliefs.  I t has taken much l o b b y i n g of m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l members  i n the f a c e o f neighbourhood o p p o s i t i o n b e f o r e C i t y C o u n c i l approved of  the f i r s t  group home "Garry house" i n t h e lower  mainland  Vancouver.  To f u r t h e r t h i s p o i n t , B e r c o v i c i d i v e r s i o n from  <1981> d i s c u s s e s t h e  "culturally prescribed life-patterns"  o f people  who have been i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s e d or r e s i d e i n group homes. C o n v e r s e l y , normal peers i n mainstream s o c i e t y  ...engage i n a l l or many o f t h e important of  institutions  the s o c i e t y t h a t mark t h e p r o g r e s s i o n o f an  i n d i v i d u a l along t h e path from b i r t h t o death.  These  i n d i v i d u a l s having been i n h a b i t a n t s o f a s e p a r a t e subsystem, have a c q u i r e d over long y e a r s . . . n o t d i f f e r e n t "behaviours" compared t o mainstream  just persons,  but a d i f f e r e n t s e t o f assumptions about t h e world and d i f f e r e n t s t r a t e g i e s f o r p h y s i c a l s u r v i v a l and f o r the maintenance o f s e l f esteem ( B e r c o v i c i , 1981, p.138).  The  l i f e p a t t e r n s o f t h i s group o f a t h l e t e s i s i n t e r e s t i n g  i n t h a t they, as a group, r e p r e s e n t a continuum from to  integration.  Residence,  institution  e d u c a t i o n , l e i s u r e , employment and  access t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and community r e s o u r c e s as w e l l as freedom o f c h o i c e concerning m a r i t a l and f e r t i l i t y  rights  made monumental and h i s t o r i c t r a n s i t i o n s . For example,  64  have  some o f  -the a t h l e t e s have been i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s e d .  Some l i v e i n group  homes such as Garry House and a few l i v e "semi-independently" i n the A r l i n g t o n townhouse development. Others l i v e with p a r e n t s i n p r i v a t e apartments  (living  independently under t h e same r o o f ) or  with r e l a t i v e s and f o s t e r p a r e n t s . S t i l l ,  t h e r e a r e those who  have graduated from group home l i v i n g t o independent the community.  living in  Almost a l l o f t h e a t h l e t e s went t o Oakridge, a  segregated s c h o o l , although a few have gone or go t o r e g u l a r high s c h o o l s ( s p e c i a l c l a s s e s ) and p a r t i c i p a t e i n S p e c i a l Olympics, a segregated program as opposed t o r e g u l a r r e c r e a t i o n programs (although some have attempted  t o do s o ) .  T h e r e f o r e , t h e group  shares a common l i f e - p a t t e r n t h a t d i f f e r s from t h e e x p e r i e n c e of mainstream  youth.  T h i s d i s p a r i t y i s w e l l s t a t e d by Berger and Luckman  My i n t e r a c t i o n with o t h e r s i n everyday  (1967):  life is,  t h e r e f o r e , c o n s t a n t l y a f f e c t e d by our common p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a v a i l a b l e s o c i a l stock o f knowledge.  The s o c i a l s t o c k o f knowledge i n c l u d e s  knowledge o f my s i t u a t i o n and i t s l i m i t s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s o c i a l stock o f knowledge thus permits t h e " l o c a t i o n " o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n s o c i e t y and the " h a n d l i n g " o f them i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e manner (p. 39) .  The a t h l e t e s p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s o c i a l stock of knowledge of mental r e t a r d a t i o n composed o f : group homes, managagement, s p e c i a l s c h o o l s , segregated classrooms,  d i s a b i l i t y allowances.  behaviour  and i n t e g r a t e d  S p e c i a l Olympics,  social  workers, t h e r a p i s t s and advocates as w e l l as r e s t r i c t e d freedom r e g a r d i n g such i n s t i t u t i o n s as marriage,  reproduction,  consumerism and f i n a n c i a l d e c i s i o n making - i n sum, r e t a r d a t i o n system". of  the "mental  The coaches p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s o c i a l  stock  knowledge of mainstream c u l t u r e : n u c l e a r f a m i l y ; continuum of  education  from p r e s c h o o l to k i n d e r g a r t e n to elementary  and  secondary s c h o o l , t r a d e / t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l , u n i v e r s i t y or work; little  league, community l e i s u r e , c o m p e t i t i v e s p o r t and f r e e  c h o i c e concerning activity  marriage,  c h i l d r e n , r e l i g i o n and  political  - a l l of which flows r e l a t i v e l y unimpeded and i s  a v a i l a b l e or a c c e s s i b l e c o n s i s t e n t l y anywhere i n western s o c i e t y . The a t h l e t e s and  coaches each have a separate and d i s t i n c t  social  stock of knowledge.  Neither s o c i a l stock of knowledge i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e and comprehensible to e i t h e r a t h l e t e s or coaches. p o s s i b l e f o r one who  does not p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s knowledge, such  as a f o r e i g n e r " (Berger and Luckman, 1967, Berger  and  " T h i s i s not  p. 39).  According  to  Luckman (1967),  ...the s o c i a l stock of knowledge d i f f e r e n t i a t e s  reality  by degrees of f a m i l i a r i t y .  and  I t p r o v i d e s complex  d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n concerning  those s e c t o r s of  everyday l i f e with which I must d e a l . . . Thus my  66  knowledge o f my own occupation and i t a world r i c h and s p e c i f i c , while I have only very  i a very  sketchy  knowledge o f the o c c u p a t i o n a l world o f o t h e r s .  The  s o c i a l stock o f knowledge f u r t h e r s u p p l i e s me with the t y p i f i c a t o r y schemes r e q u i r e d f o r the major r o u t i n e s o f my everyday l i f e . . .  <p. 4 1 ) .  A comment by one o f the a t h l e t e s s e r v e s as an example, "we l e a r n a t t h e house not t o s i t a t home and watch t e l e v i s i o n i n t o a c l u b and do t h i n g s " .  Integrating  t h e mentally  Get  retarded  i n t o the community c r e a t e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o view t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n p o i n t s as i n t h e above quote. s o c i a l stock o f knowledge "foreigner".  Becoming l i t e r a t e i n t h e new  i s not e n t i r e l y i n the c o n t r o l o f the  Fellow " f o r e i g n e r s " s t r a t i f i e d on a lower or higher  s c a l e can help i n t e r p r e t or r e f l e c t advances made. An excerpt from a c o n v e r s a t i o n with one o f t h e a t h l e t e s e x e m p l i f i e d  this  principle:  Pat says take Richmond p l a y e r o f f t o t h e a i d e and show them how i t ' s done.  Dan and I and some o f the other guys  have been through what t h e y ' r e going through. what t h e y ' r e doing wrong.  We know  We can show them t h e r i g h t way.  Change agents ( p o s s i b l y coaches) or f r i e n d l y n a t i v e s can smooth t h e way but t h e r e w i l l be those who r e s e n t the i n t r u s i o n of  something " f o r e i g n " ,  r e s i s t and c r e a t e b a r r i e r s ( p o s s i b l y  l e a d e r s o f community r e c r e a t i o n programs or teams).  The  t y p i f i c a t o r y schemes r e q u i r e d f o r t h e major r o u t i n e s o f l i f e a r e  67  different  today than they were f i f t y  years ago i n the  i n s t i t u t i o n , but they a r e becoming one and t h e same i d e a l l y , i n the  eyes o f the N o r m a l i s a t i o n movement.  My e x p e r i e n c e o f coaching c o u n t e r p o i n t e d impressions stemming from the stock o f knowledge o f the dominant c u l t u r e and the  submersion and growing awareness o f t h e v i e w p o i n t s and  c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e s u b c u l t u r e o f mental handicap. a particular  When I heard  d i a l o g u e from t h e f i l m " I heard t h e owl c a l l my  Name", i t c l a r i f i e d the n o t i o n o f r e l e v a n c e s t r u c t u r e s f o r me. Because "My knowledge o f everyday l i f e  i s s t r u c t u r e d i n terms of  r e l e v a n c e s . . . The b a s i c r e l e v a n c e s t r u c t u r e s r e f e r r i n g  t o everyday  l i f e a r e presented t o me ready-made by t h e s o c i a l s t o c k o f knowledge i t s e l f "  (Berger & Luckman, 1967, p. 42-43). The p r i e s t  asked h i s N a t i v e guide "How b i g i s your v i l l a g e ? " Mike Wallace r e p l i e d  "White man always say t h a t 'how b i g i s your  village-" you j u s t don't g e t i t .  My v i l l a g e i s so b i g t h a t i t  never g e t s r a i n e d on because the r a i n wind and t h e sea. of  i t s legends.  Get i t ?  i s my v i l l a g e t o o .  A l l the history  behind t h e question?  o f my t r i b e and a l l  You don't g e t i t . " What i s t h e framework I s the q u e s t i o n r e l e v a n t s e m a n t i c a l l y ?  When I ask "what i s a good coach?" (See Appendix and t h e response i s " a f t e r f l o o r hockey, c o f f e e time" i t s t r u c t u r a l l y  D - p. 180)  take a break,  j a r s my senses.  finish,  I have t o stop and  t h i s response because my unconscious a n t i c i p a t e d  response i s f o i l e d . attributes  And t h e  That's my v i l l a g e t o o and me, I am t h e v i l l a g e  and t h e v i l l a g e i s me.  t h i n k about  The N a t i v e ,  I may a n t i c i p a t e a c a t e g o r i c a l l i s t o f  such as " p a t i e n t " , "good l i s t e n e r " , even "good  63  knowledge t o t e a c h " .  One may  never have heard the word  " c o m p e t i t i o n " because of u n f a m i l i a r i t y with the s e t t i n g i n which the word i s used.  I t might be l o g i c a l t o respond out of context  such as c o m p e t i t i o n i s "one reason you go t o j a i l " . a p p r o p r i a t e answer might be e l i c i t e d o f f e r e d such as "winning".  An  i f an a l t e r n a t i v e word i s  When I framed my  interview according  t o s p o r t terminology and j a r g o n , I found the responses r e f l e c t e d streams o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s from the mental r e t a r d a t i o n s u b c u l t u r e . For i n s t a n c e , p a s s i n g and c o v e r i n g would d i s a l l o w t h i s a t h l e t e t o say "I've never heard t h a t word?  particular  What do you mean?"  I t would be important, r a t h e r , t o a s s e r t an answer i n a c o n f i d e n t manner, even i f i t i s the wrong answer.  "Not Being L i k e KicT Other themes from the stream of c o n s c i o u s n e s s of mental r e t a r d a t i o n i n v o l v e d "not being l i k e a k i d " .  Concern with t h i s  would not l i k e l y be a r e l e v a n t concern f o r a team of people i n t h e i r t w e n t i e s and t h i r t i e s , who b e f i t t i n g h i s / h e r c h r o n o l o g i c a l age.  would expect treatment  Another example i s e v i d e n t  i n the f o l l o w i n g exchange "What i s a good coach?" t o get a bus".  We,  'normal'  " t e l l s us  as t y p i c a l t h i r t y year o l d s might use our  how own  r e s o u r c e s i n f i n d i n g out t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n or would a u t o m a t i c a l l y know what " g e t t i n g a bus" e n t a i l e d i . e . l o c a t i o n , time, r i g h t amount of money, d e s t i n a t i o n e t c .  One more age  inappropriate  comment concerned the q u e s t i o n "what are the coaches e x p e c t a t i o n s ? " (See Appendix r e s p e c t them.  To l i s t e n .  we're going anywhere.  D - p. 182)  "They expect us t o  To stay out of t r o u b l e and t e l l  Expect good sportsmanship and good  69  us i f  behaviour  and conduct  a t a l l times - not l i k e a k i d " .  Yet  this  very comment sounds l i k e the e x p e c t a t i o n s a coach would have of a child.  One  more example r e l a t e s t o s o c i a l i s i n g .  r e a l l y good. people. with  You  You  "Socialising i s  got t o have to be r e a l l y grownup t o be around  got t o a c t a p p r o p r i a t e l y or people won't want t o be  you".  Another dimension  concerning r e l e v a n c e s t r u c t u r e s can  d i s c e r n e d i n the a t h l e t e s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of the coach. with "not being l i k e a k i d " was to  concern  e v i d e n t i n comments t h a t r e f e r r e d  the coaches as e i t h e r "being very n i c e " or not n i c e " h e ' l l  y e l l and was  The  be  shout a t p l a y e r s " .  An a d u l t from mainstream c u l t u r e  high i n s e l f esteem would be expected  power t o a s s e r t h i m s e l f i n uncomfortable coach was  who  t o have the p e r s o n a l interactions.  viewed as the u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y "the  But  the  boss".  My r e l e v a n c e s t r u c t u r e s i n t e r s e c t with the r e l e v a n c e s t r u c t u r e s of o t h e r s a t many points...An knowledge of everyday s t r u c t u r e s of o t h e r s .  life  important  The r e l e v a n c e s t r u c t u r e s of the  mentally  coaches.  a p p r o p r i a t e to share or t a l k about i n the  s p o r t i n g c o n t e x t had t o be l e a r n e d ; f o r example, Cathy, on very f i r s t  now  the  meeting, t o l d me t h a t Mike (an a t h l e t e ) her former  f i a n c e "he asked me was  my  i s the knowledge of r e l e v a n c e  r e t a r d e d a b u t t the r e l e v a n c e s t r u c t u r e s of the "Knowing" what was  element of  t o marry him  engaged t o Jack.  Sam  J u l y 2" had b a t t e r e d her but  would comment on h i s own  70  she  behaviour  i n t h i s way " t h a t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour" or " t h a t ' s i s n ' t i t ? And i t ' s bad f o r your l i p s .  silly,  And t h e doctor says s o " .  One a t h l e t e s a i d t o h i m s e l f d u r i n g warmup "I should have brought a s k i p p i n g rope.  I should have brought c r u t c h e s . "  On t h e other hand, I was c o n s t a n t l y wondering  what t o say t o  a t h l e t e s t h a t would communicate meaning between us. t h i s problem e x i s t e d f o r coaches as w e l l .  I c o u l d see  During a game, I  observed Pat (coach) a s k i n g L i s a r e p e a t e d l y how many s h i f t s she had p l a y e d . slightly.  She looked a t him but d i d not answer, only reddening  She d i d not say she d i d not know, or ask him what he  meant but then he d i d not ask her i f she understood, he d i d not r e s t a t e t h e q u e s t i o n e i t h e r - r a t h e r , he gave up "oh, never mind."  I f one had not played i n team s p o r t s i n s c h o o l i t would  not be a term commonly understood. sportscasts.  I t i s n o t used i n t e l e v i s i o n  Terminology i s not something  I heard t h e coaches  e x p l i c i t l y d e f i n e , although they may have i n a p r e v i o u s season.  In t h e f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n t h e knowledge o f the r e l e v a n c e s t r u c t u r e s of o t h e r s i s l a c k i n g , r e s u l t i n g between a coach and an a t h l e t e . overheard Greg  i n poor  communication  J u s t p r i o r t o a warmup, I  ( a t h l e t e ) complaining about work (he works i n a  workshop) and a coach s a y i n g t o him i n an unsympathetic way "we a l l have t o work, Greg."  He responded e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y  "yeah!"  H i s way o f i n t e r s e c t i n g worlds might be as such: see, I work and I know people u s u a l l y complain about work, and so I am going t o complain about work (but I love going t o work).  L a t e r i n the  season, Greg approached me and t o l d me t h a t he "worked today.  71  I'm  always on c a l l .  I have t o go i n . Bloe.  He'd  The guy  I r e p l a c e g e t s drunk on a l c o h o l and  I work a t Varco.  My  Mac  come home, take o f f h i s boots and go t o s l e e p .  Didn't watch t e l e v i s i o n or n o t h i n g . shouldn't work s h i f t s It's  dad works s h i f t s a t  Now  he's r e t i r e d .  You  <I had t o l d him t h a t I worked n i g h t s ) .  too hard on you."  So work i s taken f o r granted  by  mainstream c u l t u r e but i s a s t a t u s symbol t o the a t h l e t e s . here i s an example of mimicking  Yet  a c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e without  a c t u a l l y s h a r i n g the f e e l i n g s p e r s o n a l l y .  Impression  Management  A predominant f e a t u r e of the study r e v o l v e d around impression management.  Impression  Management i s a f e a t u r e of a l l s o c i a l  i n t e r a c t i o n , a necessary c o n d i t i o n f o r continued interaction. will  social  M e t h o d o l o g i c a l procedures must be employed which  r e v e a l not only the performances staged f o r the observer,  but the nature of the e f f o r t s which go i n t o producing backstage  s i t u a t i o n s i t conceals.  comes t o h i s  g e n e r a l l y unexpected  the  P a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n always  i n v o l v e s impression management (Berreman, 1962,  The ethnographer  i t and  p.3).  s u b j e c t s as an unknown,  and g e n e r a l l y unwanted  T h e i r impressions of him w i l l  determine  intruder.  the k i n d s of and  v a l i d i t y of data t o which he w i l l be a b l e t o g a i n access  and the degree of success of h i s work.  The  ethnographers  and s u b j e c t s are both performers and audience another.  They have t o judge one anothera  to  one  mistakes,  motives and other a t t r i b u t e s on the b a s i s of s h o r t but i n t e n s i v e c o n t a c t and then decide what d e f i n i t i o n of themselves  to project;  what they w i l l r e v e a l and what  they w i l l c o n c e a l and how  best t o do i t .  Each w i l l convey  t o the other the impression t h a t w i l l best serve h i s i n t e r e s t s as he sees them (Berreman, 1962,  U n l i k e Berreman's d e s c r i p t i o n , I came t o my of them) as a "known", somewhat expected tolerated was  intruder.  and,  p.11).  s u b j e c t s (some  i f not wanted then,  Some a t h l e t e s f e l t an immediate sense t h a t I  f a m i l i a r , although they c o u l d not p l a c e me.  One  athlete  remembered a t the very l a s t event of the hockey season, a dinner a t the P i z z a Hut, UBC  a few years ago  "I know you, you were a t the f i t n e s s t e s t a t - yeah, yeah I never f o r g e t a f a c e . "  most a t h l e t e s were s t r a n g e r s t o me and  I t o them.  the coaches and had a n t i c i p a t e d some s u s p i c i o n and consciousness.  i n e v e r y t h i n g and was  At the end of the season,  self  I was  helpful, included  g i v e n a T s h i r t with the team logo and a  framed p i c t u r e o f , and from, the team. was  I d i d not know  But they were the o p p o s i t e - f r i e n d l y ,  open and n o n i n t r u s i v e .  I t i s worth n o t i n g t h a t I  s u r p r i s e d t o be i n c l u d e d i n e v e r y t h i n g : whether i t was  still  feeling  But  due  to  l i k e an o u t s i d e r or because I i d e n t i f i e d more with  the r e s e a r c h e r r a t h e r than the coaching r o l e , I do not know.  73  I dressed i n "coaching gear" such as sweatpants, T s h i r t and runners, although I always brought  a briefcase.  But other  coaches came i n b u s i n e s s c l o t h e s complete with f o l d e r s or b r i e f c a s e s and changed a t the gymnasium.  I f e l t that I f i t i n  q u i t e w e l l , based on outward appearance.  The a t h l e t e s impressions o f me must have v a r i e d because my r e l a t i o n s h i p with them changed d r a m a t i c a l l y over time. i t was very uncomfortable  while we a d j u s t e d t o one another; I  n o t i c e d t h a t another r o o k i e coach was having difficulties. forward  Initially,  In my case,  similar  one o f the male a t h l e t e s was too  i n s i t u a t i o n s such as i n s i s t i n g t h a t I g i v e him a r i d e  "somewhere" and I found myself s t a y i n g c l e a r o f him.  On one  o c c a s i o n , i n p a r t i c u l a r , I r e a l i s e d a t t h e end o f the season t h a t he was c a l l i n g me coach, t r e a t i n g me with r e s p e c t and s h a r i n g h i s f e e l i n g s i n an almost  innocent way "gee, I haven't  played  this  good i n a long time."  In  other cases, a t h l e t e s kept t h e i r d i s t a n c e from me, some  watched me from a c r o s s the gymnasium. When I smiled encouragingly to  them they would q u i c k l y s h i f t t h e i r gaze.  season,  L a t e r i n the  they were the ones who d a l l i e d around me, g o s s i p i n g and  laughing.  In t h e s i t u a t i o n o f t h e male r o o k i e coach, female  some o f the  a t h l e t e s were b o l d , running up t o him and p a t t i n g h i s  p o s t e r i o r , b r i n g i n g a camera and a s k i n g t o have t h e i r taken with him.  He appeared  t o be s e l f c o n s c i o u s .  74  picture  He was very  alarmed one p r a c t i s e aa he ran towards me and t o l d me t h a t C a r o l was  b i t i n g h e r s e l f and banging her head a g a i n s t the w a l l and  did  not know what t o do.  I was  c o n s u l t e d the head coach, who spoke t o the a t h l e t e .  alarmed as w e l l and we  was  both  completely unperturbed  and  L a t e r , t h i s same a t h l e t e transformed from  a withdrawn, nonverbal i n d i v i d u a l t o a c h a t t i n g , animated who  he  person  o f f e r e d t o make us s l i p p e r s - George (the male coach) got a  f r e e p a i r and she charged me  I t was  like  "ten bucks".  the  ...popular n o t i o n t h a t although impersonal c o n t a c t s between s t r a n g e r s are p a r t i c u l a r l y s u b j e c t t o s t e r e o t y p i c a l responses, as persons come t o be on c l o s e r terms with each other t h i s c a t e g o r i c approach  recedes and  g r a d u a l l y sympathy, understanding, and a r e a l i s t i c assessment  of p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s take i t s p l a c e .  past the i n i t i a l t a c t f u l n e s s and d i s t a n c e they are to  r e c e i v e ; they may  Moving likely  attempt t o move on t o a more  ' p e r s o n a l ' plane where i n f a c t t h e i r d e f e c t w i l l cease t o be a c r u c i a l f a c t o r "  (Goffman,  1963,  p. 52).  T h i s p r o c e s s has been d e s c r i b e d by Davis (1964) as "breaking through"  (p. 128).  And t h e r e were a t h l e t e s whose demeanor  c o n s i s t e n t throughout the season, such as Grant who badgered  was  compulsively  any coach/volunteer w i t h i n range about the number of  s t i c k s the team owned, what would be served a t the tournament banquet or whether we should xerox s c h e d u l e s .  75  new  Rapport The  o f f i c i a l term f o r a good r e l a t i o n s h i p with an  i s rapport. initial  Agar (1980) s t a t e s p o s s i b l e reasons why,  stage, an  are a person who  informant might t a l k t o you: i s genuinely i n t e r e s t e d i n and  anothers' p o i n t of view. l i k e that.  And  - sharing  f o u r t h , you  so, t o r e c i p r o c a t e w i t h " <p.  88).  T h i r d , you  are  of  an  adapting  to  t h e i r food and  so  i n reasonable ways with the people you  "you  provided r i d e s home and  work  bought  went out a f t e r a p r a c t i s e or game.  are a p o t e n t i a l f r i e n d of s o r t . can  inform."  But  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t would have a t t r a c t e d me  you  Agar (1980) a l s o  i n t e r e s t i n g l y t h a t "...most of them, I t h i n k ,  life  you  are p e r f e c t l y w i l l i n g , probably i n s i s t e n t l y  need t o s e l e c t informants who  (p.  respectful  interested in  t h e i r l i v i n g conditions,  I occasionally  Agar suggests t h a t  ordinary  i s that  There u s u a l l y a r e n ' t many people around  c o f f e e f o r a t h l e t e s when we  p o i n t s out  the  (as quoted from an a t h l e t e : "I need t o t a l k  t o someone anyway").  on.  past  Second, most people enjoy t e l l i n g t h e i r s t o r y t o  interested listener  group l i f e  "One  informant  had  t o someone i n  - though t h e r e ' s always t h a t boundary problem"  88).  My  main informant was  someone t o whom I would have been  attracted  i n ordinary  l i f e f o r many reasons.  found him  approachable, honest, open, a r t i c u l a t e , wholesome, an  a l t r u i s t i c person - f r i e n d to a l l on the team. involved B.C.  i n many a s p e c t s of the  point.  He was  He had  system i . e . l o c a l  S p e c i a l Olympics, Oakridge, work s t a t i o n s  Berwick a t one  I really  liked  been  association,  and  had  a v a i l a b l e t o go f o r c o f f e e  76  him,  attended anytime.  gave me h i a home phone number, i n t r o d u c e d me t o h i a p a r e n t s ( i t was Cams' mother who had c a l l e d a f t e r the l e t t e r of i n i t i a l c o n t a c t had gone out a s k i n g "how many people were going t o be t r a i p s i n g through") and knew almost a l l the a t h l e t e s i n many more c o n t e x t s than j u s t hockey. Cam d i d not have any behaviour a b e r r a t i o n s t h a t c o u l d make communication months o l d e r than me so we had commonality  difficult. o f age.  enjoy such good r a p p o r t with a l l i n f o r m a n t s .  He was two I d i d not  I was caught i n a  few s i t u a t i o n s where "...each p o t e n t i a l source of d i s c o m f o r t f o r him when we a r e with him can become something we sense he i s aware o f , aware t h a t we a r e aware o f , and even aware of our s t a t e of  awareness about h i s awareness"  (Goffman, 1963, p. 18).  A  common r e p l y t o a q u e s t i o n was "why do you want t o know?"  An  example of t h i s i s when I was c o n s u l t i n g a t h l e t e s about s c h o o l programs,  i g n o r a n t of t h e c o n n e c t i o n t o stigma because I d i d not  have personal background did in  you go t o s c h o o l ? "  i n f o r m a t i o n on the a t h l e t e s . "In New Westminster"  "Ed, where  (something p r i c k e d  my c o n s c i o u s n e s s as Woodlands i s i n New Westminster and I had  known t h a t Ed's f a m i l y l i v e d i n Burnaby). remembered the name of t h e s c h o o l . i t wouldn't be n e c e s s a r y . "  I asked i f he  He s a i d "I c o u l d t e l l  you but  I s a i d "Okay, I was i n t e r e s t e d i n  what k i n d of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y you had when you were young, f o r example,  d i d you have P.E. and i f you d i d , what d i d you do i n  your c l a s s ? "  He s a i d "Well, okay i t was Woodlands.  compulsory r e c r e a t i o n , gymnasium, b a s e b a l l . " p a t e r n a l i s t i c theme of i n s t i t u t i o n a l  life  We had  T h i s r e f l e c t s the  i n c o n t r a s t t o the  c h o i c e s Ed i s now a b l e t o determine f o r h i m s e l f .  I asked another  man what I asked Ed and he s a i d " I went t o p r i v a t e s c h o o l . "  77  I  asked a l l of -the a t h l e t e s the same q u e s t i o n but one of the female a t h l e t e s i n the same age bracket t o l d me she had gone t o Lady of Sorrows i n grades 1,2,3  "Our  and then t o p r i v a t e s c h o o l . "  T h i s e x p e r i e n c e s h i f t e d me c l o s e t o the phenomena o f going " n a t i v e " which  i s d e f i n e d by Becker  (1971) i n R e i n h a r t z (1979)  as:  ...becoming i d e n t i f i e d with the i d e o l o g y of the dominant faction  i n the o r g a n i s a t i o n or community and framing the  q u e s t i o n s t o which h i s response p r o v i d e s answers so t h a t no one w i l l be hurt...He  u n w i t t i n g l y chooses problems  that  are not l i k e l y t o cause t r o u b l e or inconvenience t o those he found t o be such p l e a s a n t a s s o c i a t e s (p. 168).  Although, I do not t h i n k t h i s had been a problem a t a l l up to t h i s p o i n t , i t began t o be as I l e a r n e d more and more about the  difficult  l i v e s some of the a t h l e t e s l e d .  My s e n s i t i v i t i e s  were a l e r t e d by the responses t o my q u e s t i o n s on s c h o o l i n g . had evoked memories from the shameful p a s t - i t was  I  obvious  t h a t nobody wanted t o be l i n k e d with t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n .  I t became  apparent t h a t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o Goffman (1963), i s kept hidden f o r the purpose of m a i n t a i n i n g an i d e n t i t y or disidentifying  with the stigma t h a t the symbol of an i n s t i t u t i o n  c a r r i e s with i t .  78  F r o n t and Back Stage The f a l s e f r o n t s or b a c k s t a g e - f r o n t a t a g e impressions had t o be broken through as "one  reaches t h r e s h o l d a f t e r t h r e s h o l d of  c l a r i t y and understanding  only t o s l i d e g r a d u a l l y i n t o more  murkiness,  having r e c o g n i s e d how  very much more one must know t o  answer the newer, more p r e c i s e q u e s t i o n s " ( E s t r o f f , 1981, x v i ) . U n t i l I began t o spend time with a t h l e t e s o u t s i d e of the gymnasium, a t McDonalds, d r i v i n g home or t a l k i n g on the phone, I thought  they were very p a s s i v e .  immediately  My  impressions changed  and d i f f e r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n was  r e v e a l e d t o me  McDonalds versus a t the gymnasium or i n the lobby. i n f o r m a t i o n and the way a c c o r d i n g t o who  was  i n which i t was  with me.  That  conveyed changed  A grouping of f o u r men  and g i r l f r i e n d couple v s . t h r e e men  at  v s . a boy  and one woman v s . myself  and  one other a t h l e t e . Thus I came t o know t h a t language use " . . . i s a b e h a v i o u r a l phenomenon t h a t i s e s p e c i a l l y s e n s i t i v e t o the s e t t i n g s i n which i t o c c u r s " (Sabsay  and Kernan, 1981,  p.  283).  Evans (1983) e l a b o r a t e s by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t c o n v e r s a t i o n a l r e p e r t o i r e s of the mentally r e t a r d e d are l i m i t e d not by the handicap  but by the l i m i t of e x p e r i e n c e s .  As r a p p o r t developed  and as I began t o vary the s e t t i n g s i n  which I i n t e r a c t e d with the a t h l e t e s , I became aware of what Goffman c a l l s "performances".  My  f i r s t month of involvement  the team had r e s u l t e d i n f i e l d  notes t h a t commented on what " d i d  not happen" more than on what " d i d o c c u r " . f i e l d n o t e s r e c o r d my conversations.  My February  with  22  impressions "They don't p a i r o f f and  have  They don't ask q u e s t i o n s i . e . c h a l l e n g e or say  79  'Do we go here?' anything.  ' I s t h i s what you want?'  They don't check out  The guys don't t r e a t t h e g i r l members d i f f e r e n t l y . " I  b e l i e v e t h i s was c u l t u r e - b o u n d .  I c o u l d see what, a c c o r d i n g t o  my background e x p e r i e n c e s , was n o t t h e r e because I was expecting " c e r t a i n t h i n g s " such as "complaining about l a c k o f f l o o r time." As Schutz (1970) s a i d " I t s u f f i c e s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t I can reduce the o t h e r s ' a c t t o i t s '  t y p i c a l motive i n c l u d i n g t h e i r  reference  t o t y p i c a l s i t u a t i o n s , t y p i c a l ends, t y p i c a l means e t c " (p.180). But when the f r o n t stage performances and back stage performances were r e v e a l e d I seemed t o break through my own culture-bound perceptions.  F r o n t r e g i o n (or stage) r e f e r s t o the p l a c e where t h e performance i s g i v e n .  The performance o f an i n d i v i d u a l i n a f r o n t r e g i o n may be as an e f f o r t t o g i v e t h e appearance t h a t h i s activity  i n t h e r e g i o n s m a i n t a i n s and embodies c e r t a i n  standards.  The way i n which the performer t r e a t s the  audience w h i l e engaged  i n t a l k with them as matters of  p o l i t e n e s s and the way i n which the performer comports h i m s e l f w i t h i n v i s u a l or a u r a l range o f t h e audience but not n e c e s s a r i l y engaged  i n t a l k with them.  A back  r e g i o n (stage) may be d e f i n e d as a p l a c e r e l a t i v e t o a g i v e n performance where the impression f o s t e r e d by the performer i s knowingly c o n t r a d i c t e d as a matter o f course.  The back r e g i o n i s t h e p l a c e where no member  of the audience w i l l i n t r u d e .  80  Since the v i t a l  secrets  of the show are v i s i b l e backstage and s i n c e performers behave out o f c h a r a c t e r w h i l e t h e r e , i t i s n a t u r a l t o expect t h a t the passage from the f r o n t r e g i o n t o the back r e g i o n w i l l be kept c l o s e d t o members of the audience iGoidtman, 1963, p. 112).  There were differment types of performance. performance and one as an i n d i v i d u a l " p l a y e r " .  One as a "team" The second week  of p r a c t i s e , I was s t a n d i n g by the entrance t o the gymnasium and overheard t h i n Cathy and A l t a l k i n g .  A l was very animated - I  had not seen him l i k e t h i s b e f o r e and he was t a l k i n g  quickly  "Judy i s dear f r i e n d of mine.  Works a t F r a s e r workshop".  s a i d "I know her from Heroes.  I l o s t my temper.  cause she wouldn't work a t t h e Red C r o s s . " a n t i c i p a t i n g j o i n i n g i n t o the c o n v e r s a t i o n .  Cathy  Judy got f i r e d  I walked up t o them "Hi, A l . " Al  immediately p h y s i c a l l y " c o n t r a c t e d " with h i s head down, m a i n t a i n i n g a p o s t u r e of a b s o l u t e s t i l l n e s s w h i l e f u r t i v e l y g l a n c i n g a t me sideways.  He r e f u s e d t o respond and I f e l t  s t u p i d , l i k e I had done something wrong t h a t I c o u l d not c o r r e c t . The " r e t a r d e d " p o s t u r e was more or l e s s the way p r a c t i s e s but I had caught him o f f g u a r d .  he behaved a t  I was s t i l l  an o u t s i d e r  t o him and I was not supposed t o know t h a t he c o u l d converse i n t h i s manner - as though I might have h i g h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f him if  I did.  L a t e r i n t h e season, I observed a d i f f e r e n c e between p r a c t i s e s and games where the only members present were team members from S p e c i a l Olympics and games with nonretarded p l a y e r s .  ai  During p r a c t i s e s (and t h i s took a while t o r e a l i s e ) a t h l e t e s d i d not c o r r e c t each o t h e r , although Sam or repeat phrases over and over.  would f l i p h i s hands, s p i t  I t was  as though, we  as  coaches, were p r i v y t o t h i s p r i v a t e c u l t u r e , as i t were.  But  d u r i n g games (with o u t s i d e r s or when o u t s i d e r s were present) behaviour t h a t was  largely  ignored or taken f o r granted became  unacceptable and the a t h l e t e s d i s t a n c e d themselves example, Sam  was  "put a l i d on i t . up."  Sam,  happening,  put a l i d on the Camay b i t .  For  Sam,  shut  t h a t the normal s p e c t a t o r s pretended which s i g n i f i e d t o me,  acknowledgement of h i s deviance and t h e i r expectations.  it.  t o l d d u r i n g games with nonretarded people t o  I a l s o observed  nothing was  from  their  lowered  societal  The r u l e s were d i f f e r e n t i n many r e s p e c t s .  the a t h l e t e s acknowledged the i n a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour  First,  and  d i s i d e n t i f l e d with i t and secondly, the normal s p e c t a t o r s d i d not acknowledge the i n a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour as they might have i f Sam had been a r e g u l a r , rowdy teenager.  C o f f e e times a t McDonalds presented another o p p o r t u n i t y t o observe f r o n t and backstage behaviour.  Talk was  we  gossipy, opinionated,  l e f t the gymnasium.  The content was  c o l o u r f u l and d e t a i l e d and each other q u i t e w e l l .  i n c e s s a n t when  i t became apparent t h a t they a l l knew  But t h i s was  i n no way  gymnasium other than b o y / g i r l f l i r t a t i o n s .  obvious a t the  Relationship talk  was  apparently a c c e p t a b l e m a t e r i a l i n the s p o r t context whereas s p o r t t a l k i . e . c r i t i c i s m of each other or t a l k about the coaches  was  s a f e r done out of the gymnasium i n the r e s t a u r a n t . " C h r i s (the coach) chewed him  (Kevin) out l a s t week f o r not showing  8£  up".  "Remember i n s o c c e r , B r i a n would stand around and we'd work." do.  do a l l the  I t seemed the r e v e r s e t o what I had been s o c i a l i s e d t o  Nobody c h a l l e n g e d the coaches a t p r a c t i s e s , but nobody  critical  of t h e i r team coaches i n the backstage r e g i o n  practises either.  was  after  The coaches were the "bosses", " t e a c h e r s " ,  "friends."  Nicknames B i k l e n and Moseley Retarded?" "No of  I^m  C a t h o l i c " ! Q u a l i t a t i v e Methods i n the Study  People with Severe Handicaps which d e s c r i b e d the e x p e r i e n c e of  communicating the  A  (1988) wrote a paper t i t l e d "Are you  with mentally r e t a r d e d i n f o r m a n t s .  Vancouver F l o o r Hockey team had d i f f i c u l t y  verbally.  One t h i r d of  i n communicating  The range i n l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t y was v a s t and i t was  tempting t o devote most of my time t o those who understand v e r b a l l y .  were easy t o  But t h e r e was more i n v o l v e d than j u s t  language expressed. What was t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of the words spoken or  the a c t i o n s d i s p l a y e d ?  enormous:  nicknames;  The r i c h n e s s of e x p r e s s i o n  was  l y i n g ; s t a t i s t i c a l r e c i t a t i o n ; s i l e n c e by  c h o i c e ; compulsive t a l k i n g ; s p o r t s t a l k ; themes from contemporary  i m i t a t i o n laden with  s o c i e t y such as n o r m a l i s a t i o n ; behaviour  management; gender s o c i a l i s a t i o n ; workshop and group home experiences e t c .  Stack (1975) d e s c r i b e s the usage of  nicknames  i n her study on s t r a t e g i e s f o r s u r v i v a l i n a black community as a bonding s o u r c e .  "Gordie  Howe and Wayne Gretzky  b©l§ DQt"  Although these a t h l e t e s were p l a y i n g f l o o r hockey, t r a n s f e r e n c e was made t o I c e Hockey.  A l l t h e i r s p o r t s heroes  were I c e Hockey p l a y e r s and r e f e r e n c e s were made c o n s t a n t l y t o Ice Hockey games, s c o r e s and t r a d e s .  L i k e Ice Hockey p l a y e r s ,  these S p e c i a l Olympic p l a y e r s had nicknames t h a t , i n some cases, were borrowed from t h e i c e hockey p l a y e r s but i n other  cases,  were r e f l e c t i v e of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r The nicknames were given t o a v a r i e t y o f o u t s t a n d i n g not j u s t a p a r t i c u l a r group o f f r i e n d s or the best  player.  characters,  playex*s.  Grandpa Walker As J e s s s a i d "Grandpa Walker i s Steves' nickname". a huge man with beard and g l a s s e s .  He d r i v e s  Steve i s  h i s own t r u c k  which he bought h i m s e l f and t h i s i s r a r e , nobody e l s e on t h e team has a d r i v i n g l i c e n s e .  He i s g o a l i e f o r t h e D r i l l e r s .  Steve i s  very g e n t l e but speaks with d i f f i c u l t y and s m i l e s a l l t h e time. He  i s a l s o known as one o f the two 'GAS CHAMBERS'.  When I asked  J e s s why Steve was c a l l e d t h e Gas Chamber, he made a motion he was s l i t t i n g  h i s t h r o a t so t h i s along with Steves'  g o a l t e n d i n g might mean t h a t he i s a dangerous p l a y e r .  like  proficient Steves'  Group Home s t a f f came and played a game along with t h e Mount P l e a s a n t Community Centre S t a f f a g a i n s t t h e team.  The  Gas Chamber Jess i s t h e second gas chamber, he u s u a l l y p l a y s c e n t r e and  i s an e x c e l l e n t p l a y e r .  He i s very s e r i o u s about t h e game. A f t e r  J e s s had a c l o s e c a l l on s c o r i n g d u r i n g one game, he h e l d up two  84  f i n g e r s t o show just, how bench and s a i d means."  " I t was  I asked  c l o s e i t had been. close.  I'll  He came back t o the  do i t by any  means.  By  any  him what he meant and he s a i d "Anyway I can."  He uses c o l o u r f u l language  "I'll  haunt the other team and make  mincemeat out of them", once when the r i n g went c l e a r a c r o s s the gymnasium, he commented s a r c a s t i c a l l y  "What went past me?  A  UFO?" During one p a r t i c u l a r l y e x c i t i n g game he s a t on the bench sweating,  w a i t i n g t o play and was  the only team member t h a t I  ever heard a l l u d e t o not being played enough rusting".  He a l s o was  When Pat once asked  "Me?  defense?"  t o get a hat t r i c k " .  I ' l l beat my  o l d r e c o r d " , "I'm  d i d they f l i p  T e r r y " , "she  don't get many p e n a l t i e s .  i t up?"  "Two  just s t i f f e d  N e i t h e r do I " and  minutes f o r  i t r i g h t i n " , "you  "you can  start  Greg Adams" ( a f t e r a p a r t i c u l a r l y good game t h a t  had played) but a l s o c r i t i q u e d them " t h a t was Richmond acored on t h e i r own t h a t guy was  so funny"  net) or a l l u d i n g t o Sam  h i t t i n g himself?"  i n f o r m a t i o n on other teams.  A f t e r Jordan  used t o play with Burnaby.  Jordan was  coach.  He's  the one who  did that.  He s a i d "Beats me".  ( a mentally r e t a r d e d Pat how  to  I are enemies  I used t o be C a p t a i n .  cut us" I asked  him why  J e s s always wears a poker  as  Cam,  J e s s provided  c a l l a g g r e s s i v e p l a y i n g , J e s s s a i d " L i s a , T e r r y and We  Dan  (after  "Hey  r e f e r e e and former manager of the Burnaby team) asked  t o Burnaby.  going  He complimented and acknowledged other p l a y e r s  "Great Goal Tending,  you know why  "I'm  Jess paid c l o s e a t t e n t i o n to t e c h n i c a l i t i e s  and analyzed p l a y s "Why  c a l l i n g Dan,  him t o go defense and he responded  He worked t o outdo h i s personal best  going t o score s i x g o a l s .  high s t i c k i n g "  already  the only p l a y e r I ever heard c h a l l e n g e the  coaches. Why  "I'm  he  e x p r e s s i o n r e g a r d l e s s o f what, he i s s a y i n g .  The rumour was t h a t  he was engaged but he never mentioned a g i r l f r i e n d and never t a l k e d about the t o p i c o f d a t i n g or women.  Pokie A l i a s t h e E l e c t r i c C h a i r A l i a s t h e Terminator Cam p l a y s defense with h i s g i r l f r i e n d on t h e D r i l l e r s team. He i s a very good p l a y e r and very popular with the team. nickname Pokie a l l u d e s t o "Pokie" Reddick  The  who p l a y s f o r t h e  Winnipeg J e t s . But the other names c o n t r a d i c t h i s nature which i s very g e n t l e , nonaggressive  and k i n d . However,  i t i s possible that  the names imply some l e v e l o f i r o n y or r e s p e c t by team mates and t h a t , even though he does not have a k i l l e r n a t u r e , he i s one o f the guys or one o f the l e a d e r s . He l i v e s a t home i n h i s own apartment and i s concerned friends.  about the w e l f a r e of h i s f a m i l y and  He t o l d me r e p e a t e d l y t h a t h i s mother was s i c k and t h a t  h i s parents were concerned I'm doing okay.  about him "I t e l l my f a t h e r and mother  They ask me.  They have c o n f i d e n c e i n me.  They're b u i l d i n g up my c o n f i d e n c e . " I asked what he expected  He i s very a l t r u i s t i c .  o f h i m s e l f , he s a i d " t o be good a t the  s p o r t I'm i n and t o h e l p other people.  Once I d i d a v o l u n t e e r  30b - I was a c o u r i e r f o r wheelchair s p o r t s . " be f r i e n d s with everyone...Pat  He s a i d " I l i k e to  says take Richmond p l a y e r o f f t o  the s i d e and show them how i t s done.  Dan and I and some o f the  other guys have been through what t h e y ' r e going through. what t h e y ' r e doing wrong.  When  We know  We can show them the r i g h t way."  86  He  t o l d me t h a t he "met a show. him.  downtown l a s t Tuesday.  I was r e a l l y s u r p r i s e d .  She's b l i n d .  t o l d me t h a t .  Cam  Murray  H i s aunt gave me money t o take  Apparently, he doesn't have any f r i e n d s .  She  He l i v e s i n Burnaby."  shows a l o t of c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r o t h e r s  work 11:00  I took him t o  - 1:30  a.m.  "I've got t o  There's rodents a t Super V a l u .  I can't  say r a t s cause i t might s c a r e L i s a . " When J e s s complained t h a t had t o play defense. Cam "I'll  h e l p you J e s s "  he  immediately o f f e r e d t o play with him,  Cam  d i d not seem t o l a c k c o n f i d e n c e i n  p l a y i n g the game but he o f t e n checked out h i s impressions "Hey Jo-Ann, i s n ' t Grant o f f s i d e ? " and he was  aware t h a t he  lacked  s o c i a l confidence.  He o f t e n asked the female coaches how r e l a t i o n s h i p problems.  When he asked Pam  L i s a ' s phone number, Pam there."  t o handle h i s i f she c o u l d g i v e him  s a i d "Ask her y o u r s e l f , Cam,  she's r i g h t  He a l s o asked me t o check out a note he had w r i t t e n t o  her t o aee i f i t was okay.  The romance began a t the s t a r t of the  season and he informed me a l l the way  along how  i t was  going "I  f i n a l l y had my date with L i s a , Jo-Ann. We went t o her house and had t e a with her mom, come over t o my mom  and dad.  girlfriend.  and b r o t h e r and her dog. She's going t o  house t h i s weekend and p l a y t e n n i s and meet my  She's g e t t i n g a racquet Saturday. She's a l s o my defense p a r t n e r . " Cam  Lisa's  my  and L i s a t a l k e d  about s p o r t s when they were alone together "I can beat you a t bowling so watch i t "  Cam  r e p l i e d t o L i s a "I was going t o go  nanananana l i k e the Canucks"  "Hey  87  t h e r e ' s a swim meet A p r i l  23  and a dance i n Coquitlam." a c t u a l l y a f u n game.  "Super Valu beat us f i r s t .  That was  The Jewish Community c e n t r e beat by one.  We beat Burnaby by two, i t was 4-6.  We beat Super Valu second.  That i s t h e f i r s t time I saw a p e n a l t y shot on Walker."  In s p i t e o f h i s apparent  and admitted  l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e , he  a l s o had a s i d e o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t was q u i t e proud and o f high esteem.  I was very fond o f Cam and he was popular with h i s  workmates a t Super Valu and organized them t o come and p l a y t h e team, and a l s o arranged  t o have t h e baker make a cake f o r Barbs'  b i r t h d a y , "Everyone a t Super Valu l i k e d t h e l e t t e r Pam wrote, t h e p a r t about me s c o r i n g t h e g o a l .  Pam was making i t a high f o r me.  So they were proud of me, yeah." L i k e J e s s , Cam was observant and analytical. there.  "They're j u s t s t a n d i n g around.  I can't b e l i e v e i t .  Sam's j u s t standing  I f L i s a and me were defense  wouldn't j u s t stand t h e r e " , "I play defense r i g h t ? have checked t h a t guy.  Sam should  Come on L i n d a " "Defense should be  h e l p i n g . " "Uh oh, t h e r e f e r e e i s t e l l i n g Joe Smith o f f . that?  we  See  I t ( t e n s i o n ) b u i l d s up - but i t does i n any p l a y e r . "  He loved t o t a l k about h i s t r a v e l s , awards and S p e c i a l Olympic e x p e r i e n c e s place.  "Steve and I were i n Calgary Olympics - t h i r d  J e s s and L i s a went t o Toronto.  Right J e s s ? " He a l s o  t a l k e d about memories r e l a t e d t o h i s team mates we r a t e d f o u r t h i n Soccer tournament.  "Right, T e r r y -  We came f i r s t p l a c e i n  C h i l l i w a c k . " " I was h i s back c a t c h e r i n Richmond tournament. Keep him o f f base.  He s t r u c k out once.  We got him on our team.  We gave him Joe f o r Jack." Cam dropped names "Hey Jo-Ann, I ' l l  63  b r i n g a p i c t u r e o f me and Douglaa M i l l e r . He's the CKVU weatherman." "Jim Robinson was t h e r e .  He was doing a play by  p l a y f o r us and a f t e r awards he announced us one by one" "Some of us were on Wide World o f S p o r t s " "I was on the r a d i o . "  I t i s not  s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Cam has had such media exposure, he seems l i k e such a good r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r S p e c i a l Olympics. Cam spoke o f h i s awards "For the draw I d i d i t f o r the Progress c l u b . of l i k e promoting S p e c i a l Olympics. you d i d good" "In f a c t I s t i l l came i n t h i r d p l a c e . gold."  I t ' s sort  People come up and say "Cam  have my m e d a l l i o n s .  Bowling I  L a s t time when i t was h e l d a t UBC I won a  He a l s o bragged about g e t t i n g away with an i n f r a c t i o n .  "In t h a t game l a s t monday t h e r e were no p e n a l t i e s f o r t h e other guy.  He was t e l l i n g the r e f e r e e o f f .  A g a i n s t Super Valu - they  d i d n ' t c a t c h me with my s t i c k up a g a i n s t my boss. purpose.  I d i d i t on  He was going t o c a l l a p e n a l t y a g a i n s t a l l except me.  I knew he d i d n ' t see me."  Cam i s observant and r e f l e c t i v e . tomorrow t o use v i d e o tape."  "We should ask C h r i s  I s a i d "wouldn't  He r e p l i e d "you c o u l d l e a r n by mistakes."  you be nervous?"  Cam watches h i s team  mates and comments on t h e i r behaviour "Apparently, C a r o l h i t s Dan when she g e t s mad.  She even h i t s me.  The D r i l l e r s have got  t h r e e g i r l s . " or "That's when Tom was with us. get i n t r o u b l e .  He t a k e s f o o l i s h p e n a l t i e s .  r e f e r e e a l l the time."  Complains  "Sam was mostly s t a n d i n g around.  too.  I don't know why he doesn't do much.  (Sam)  and t a l k s t o h i m s e l f .  t o work out.  He's rough.  He'd  t o the Jason  He makes funny sounds  Maybe he's got a problem he's t r y i n g  He says Sam be q u i e t t o h i m s e l f . " L a t e r , I asked  89  George why he thought Sam behaved l i k e t h a t and he a a i d "Apparently he'a on m e d i c a t i o n . "  During the season. Cam  experienced many changes: h i s mother's i l l n e s s , h i s f a m i l y moving from a l i f e t i m e s r e s i d e n c e t o another m u n i c i p a l i t y , l o s i n g h i s job (Super Valu c l o s i n g down) and s t a r t i n g another one a t McDonalds and g a i n i n g a new g i r l f r i e n d .  Chatterbox Grant i s an a t h l e t e i n h i s f o r t i e s . s m i l i n g but t a l k s v i r t u a l l y nonstop. working p l a y e r f o r t h e B l a s t e r s . details.  He i s amiable,  always  He i s a p e r s i s t e n t and hard  H i s main concern i s with  He a c t s l i k e a g e n e r a l manager and can g i v e an account  on p r a c t i c a l l y any t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t i n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f the team "These a r e good s t i c k s .  We bought  them l a s t year."  given jobs t o do by t h e coach such as d i s t r i b u t i n g r e g a r d i n g games or events.  He enjoys f o l l o w i n g  He i s o f t e n forms  laborious  procedures and can g e n e r a l l y be found i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o the coaches, not the a t h l e t e s because the a t h l e t e s a r e j u s t not i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s type o f t r i v i a . i n t e r f e r e s when people a r e t a l k i n g .  "A l o t o f people l i k e Grant I have problems when Grant  t a l k s - can't hear t h e coaches." When i t was decided t h a t the team would be s p l i t and the B l a s t e r s would p r a c t i s e a t Simon F r a s e r S c h o o l , Grant r e p e a t e d l y gave me i n t e n s i v e on how t o g e t t o the s c h o o l , even though  instructions  i t was r i g h t next door  t o the community c e n t r e . The f i r s t few weeks, Grant approached r e p e a t e d l y t o e x p l a i n r u l e s "two w h i s t l e s mean the p e r i o d i s over".  Four times he e x p l a i n e d i t t o me.  mentioned  L i n d a knew Grant and  t h a t "Grant got h i m s e l f i n t o t h i n g s .  30  I've known him  me  way past f i v e y e a r s . it." or  Grant l i k e t h i s program and I t h i n k I l i k e  Cam a l s o mentioned Grant i n a s o c i a l context  Dan would c a l l  t h e r e work i s .  me t o see how my work i s .  "Lisa,  I call  Grant  t o ask how  We s o c i a l i s e on t h e phone" But Grant had l i t t l e  t o l e r a n c e f o r Sam d u r i n g a game when t h e team members were s p e c t a t o r s "Put a l i d on i t , Sam" "Sam stop i t " i t ' s "unacceptable".  I t was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Grant t o worry, f o r example: should g e t back up goal tenders f o r s p o r t s f e s t . "  "We  H i s memory f o r  f a c t a and f i g u r e s was very good "We've got 24 new s t i c k s f o r t h e game f o r both teams.  Barb's o r d e r i n g 12 new s t i c k s f o r the game.  So w e ' l l have 24 new s t i c k s " " C h r i s i s gonna photocopy for  the players.  schedules  A l l the p l a y e r s should have one t o o so they  know when t o p l a y . You have t o work t o n i g h t , L i s a . In A p r i l , Cam has no days o f f "  "I can get P h i l a f t e r them i f they g e t me i n  the pool with my c l o t h e s on."  Grant was l i k e an a r c h i v i s t ,  r e c o r d i n g and r e c a l l i n g d e t a i l s from past events "Oh, what a g r e a t meal they c a t e r e d t o us a t t h e bowling banquet. beef, mashed p o t a t o e s .  Roast  They a r e going t o have t h e suspenders  a f t e r t h e banquet and they a r e going t o have 134 a t h l e t e s f o r t h e banquet.  The s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y i s f o r 200."  Grant w o r r i e d about h i s f r i e n d s as w e l l .  He s a i d t o Linda  when she t o l d him she had had twenty d o l l a r s s t o l e n "When you get home, L i n d a , you should put i t i n your w a l l e t . "  91  Although  Grant  was a master  o f d e t a i l , c o n s c i o u s of every move o f the team, he  was run over t h r e e times i n f r o n t of h i s apartment.  So the  nickname Chatterbox was a p p r o p r i a t e and s e l f e x p l a n a t o r y . "Grant was c r y i n g l a s t n i g h t when the p r a c t i s e was c a n c e l l e d . "  Lazybones Sam i s a u t i s t i c .  He i s very good l o o k i n g , extremely  and b i g boned and wears c u t o f f s a t p r a c t i s e . t h a t a r e d i s c o n c e r t i n g but h i s behaviour  tall  I t i s not h i s looks  ( s p i t t i n g , repeating  nonsense phrases such as "snow, nuisance, bobby bubbles", shaking h i s hands i n f r o n t of h i m s e l f s p a s m o d i c a l l y , t o l i s t some o f the behaviour) which appears t o be a mystery  t o other p l a y e r s who  comment on i t "Maybe he's got a problem  he i s t r y i n g t o work o u t .  He says - Sam, be q u i e t - t o h i m s e l f . "  "Apparently he's on  medication." front?"  "Remember when Pat had t o t e l l  Sam t o p l a y up  "Hey, Sam, you know why t h e guy was h i t t i n g h i m s e l f ? "  Although t h e other a t h l e t e s do  not comment t o Sam on h i s  language or behaviour d u r i n g p r a c t i s e s , i t bothers them when o u t s i d e teams come f o r games and they a l i d on i t . "  More o f t e n , though,  tell  him t o stop "Sam, put  they look t o the coaches t o  c o n t r o l him "Pam, Sam's p l a y i n g Woody Woodpecker i n the washroom. Sam's a c t i n g up", "Pam, Sam's making n o i s e s . " his  l i p s and says "Thats s i l l y ,  lips.  isn't  it?  And i t s ' s bad f o r your  And the doctor says s o . " He blows h i s l i p s again and says  "That ones t o o much.  Put a l i d on t h e Camay b i t .  bobby bubbles.  Camay, Camay, Camay, Camay.  that's s i l l y . "  L i s a says " j u s t i g n o r e him."  lid  To which Sam blows  Bobby bubbles,  No more camays, Grant says "put a  on i t " and Sam r e p l i e s "Put a l i d on i t and don't take i t  9£  off.  Sam,  put a l i d on i t and don't move i t , r i g h t ? "  "You're  d r i v i n g me up the c e i l i n g with t h a t a i l l y game" "Bobby bubbles. Enough i s enough. enough.  1970.  Sam  Oh.  t h a t ' s too much.  Oh.  want me t o stop r a t t l i n g ? i s unacceptable behaviour"  Oh.  Can i t .  What's your name?  Enough i s Oh.  Oh."  You  That i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour. " P i g , p i g , don't be a p i g . "  That  Lisa  says " A l l should be about the same l e v e l , not Jason and Sam team."  H i s language c o n s i s t s of n o n s e n s i c a l phrases such as  "nuisance. here?  Snow.  So you  workshop." "So t h a t ' s Super Valu?  can't see i t . "  Sam  They're  stands out on the gymnasium  and r a r e l y connects with the team members or the p l a y . never missed a p r a c t i s e or game and was to  always on time.  But t h i s may  source of f r u s t r a t i o n f o r h i s team mates who him e i t h e r .  In a way,  "stigmatized".  He was  I tried  Sam  was  have been the  c o u l d n ' t understand  s t i g m a t i z e d amongst the  an o u t s i d e r w i t h i n t h i s  group.  Playmaker  "What do you c a l l "The Playmaker."  her? Honey?" <They a l l laughed u p r o a r i o u s l y )  L i n d a f i r s t appeared on the f l o o r hockey 26.  But he  connect with him and f e l t f r u s t r a t e d because v e r b a l l y or  v i s u a l l y , I c o u l d not reach him.  The  on  scene on January  I n o t i c e d her s i t t i n g on the bench engrossed i n a  t h a t she h e l d on her l a p .  She was  s m a l l , young l o o k i n g  sweet, wore g l a s s e s and had a very l o v e l y s m i l e . beside her and n o t i c e d t h a t the notebook calculations.  I asked her what she was  and  I s a t down  was f i l l e d with math doing and she s a i d  had a math t e s t t o study f o r . She t o l d me  33  notebook  she  "I work a t Heroes.  Oh  yeah, I know everybody.  We're a l l good f r i e n d s . "  she d i d not play and she s a i d "I c a n ' t .  I asked  why  My knees have been  operated on." I s a i d "So you come out t o support them" She s a i d "Yes,  yes, I sure do support them" and laughed.  week L i n d a showed up with forms t o r e g i s t e r  The f o l l o w i n g  f o r t h e team. L a t e r ,  when I i n t e r v i e w e d L i n d a I was s u r p r i s e d when she t o l d me "I came out t o watch. asked  Then I got i n t o i t . You t a l k e d me i n t o i t .  me i f I was going t o s t a r t and I wanted t o l e a r n how t o  p l a y . " She seemed t o know e x a c t l y what t o do and played well.  You  The next week, she snuggled  a t h l e t e from a d i f f e r e n t team. behaving  very  up t o Len, a mentally r e t a r d e d  The week a f t e r t h a t Linda was  t h e same way with Jack, who supposedly  was engaged t o  Cathy who never showed up again a f t e r the i n i t i a l  practise.  L i n d a became q u i c k l y p r o f i c i e n t a t the game and scored a goal d u r i n g t h e Richmond game.  In the f i r s t week o f March, the  team had organized a b i r t h d a y party f o r Barb and, although Bob came with a g i r l  c a l l e d S h e l l e y , he ended up s i t t i n g a g a i n s t t h e  w a l l with h i s arm around L i n d a .  When I i n t e r v i e w e d L i n d a , she t o l d me she was born  i n 1969,  but I knew her age was 43. "I'm not shy" was an understatement. Linda had a l o t o f i n i t i a t i v e , was very v e r b a l and p h y s i c a l l y expressive. "teach".  She r e f e r r e d t o t h e  coaches as "the bosses"  They "teach us what t o do on t h e f l o o r and l i s t e n i n g t o  them" and "they a r e the ones t e a c h i n g us t o be n i c e . to  who  To teach us  l e a r n more" but she a l s o t a l k e d about t h e "bosses r i g h t s " as  "the bosses have a r i g h t t o teach us.  34  I f we p l a y d i r t y they have  r i g h t s t o t e l l us not t o play t h e next game." She s a i d t h a t ahe wanted her team mates t o t r e a t her " r e a l l y n i c e . screamed a t .  Not t o be  To have r e s p e c t f o r us." and the coaches t o t r e a t  her "same t h i n g .  But they a r e the ones t e a c h i n g us t o be n i c e .  To teach us t o l e a r n more." She t o l d me t h a t Pat was a good "the way he t a l k s t o us - very n i c e . supposed t o do on the f l o o r . people a r e not t o o good.  T r i e s t o t e l l me what I'm  Barb t o o .  At work.  I have been p l a c e s where  Screaming and y e l l i n g .  d i d n ' t l i k e the way t h e other coach pushed me l a s t n i g h t . thought If  he was going t o h u r t me.  coach  And I was h u r t i n s i d e  I I  myself.  he j u s t s a i d excuse me, but I d i d n ' t l i k e t h a t pushing me.  l i k e people when they hug me.  I'm used t o t h a t . "  On t h e l a s t day o f p r a c t i s e , L i n d a appeared unstrung.  I  completely  She c r i e d and t o l d me t h a t t h e r e a l reason S c o t t was  going t o q u i t t h e team was because o f the p r e s s u r e Tom was p u t t i n g on him t o g i v e him money. b o t h e r i n g her f o r money.  I asked  She s a i d t o n i g h t Tom was her i f she wanted t o go t o the  washroom. She came with me and t o l d me t h a t a g i r l team was t h r e a t e n i n g her with a k n i f e .  on the other  She s a i d t h a t Hugh s t i l l  c a l l s her a f t e r having put h i a hands down her pants.  She was  upset about Tom b o t h e r i n g her about money and Joe had raped her friend.  She seemed t o f e e l b e t t e r a f t e r she had t o l d me a l l t h i s  and we went back t o the game.  But Murray approached her and d i d  what he had seen a l l t h e other male a t h l e t e s do - he put h i s arm around her and she encouraged i t .  She s a i d t h a t what t h e p l a y e r s  should do i s "when they a r e t a l k i n g t o us you should stand t h e r e and  l i s t e n t o them and not walk away" and l a t e r she again  95  r e f e r r e d t o " l i s t e n i n g t o the coaches more." " l i s t e n ( s ) when people t e l l me. She  s a i d t h a t "we  television.  That's how  She  I've always l e a r n e d . "  l e a r n a t the house not t o s i t a t home  Get i n t o a c l u b and do t h i n g s . "  f a c e t o f a c e s o c i a l i s i n g with other people. world t o know what's going on. know you very w e l l . " together. team.  We  She  and t h a t "I come up To get out i n the I  t o l d me t h a t C a r r i e and L i s a "we  go out  L i k e s o c i a l i s i n g on a  the house."  On March 8, Linda t o l d me Christmas.  watch  L i k e s o c i a l i s i n g with you.  L i s a and me work t o g e t h e r . own  s a i d t h a t she  T h i s was  before  f o l l o w i n g the i n t e r v i e w i n which she t o l d  she l i v e d i n a group home. and he i n t e r c e p t e d Bob out, she's a married  she had gotten married  George, the v o l u n t e e r coach had  who  was  lady."  t h a t "being married" was  c u d d l i n g L i n d a "You  Linda blushed.  me  heard  b e t t e r watch  L a t e r , we  discovered  Linda's f a n t a s y .  The r e f e r e e s ' game, i n which the Vancouver team were s p e c t a t o r s , o f f e r e d a view of L i n d a ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p s with her team mates. to  Cam  had t o l d the Burnaby L i s a "See my  which she had responded "you going out with him?" and  i n t e r j e c t e d "I got these two t o g e t h e r . " to  s a i d t o Grant  one  "Be  have t o take my  Linda  Burnaby  guys work t o g e t h e r ? " i n c r e d u l o u s l y .  there.  Lisa?"  Then I heard Linda say  someone "You're gonna get i t tomorrow a t work" and  L i s a again s a i d "You  "I  girlfriend,  Linda  I always t a l k e d t o the s t a f f about i t "  orange p i l l  t o n i g h t b e f o r e bed.  tomorrow morning and one a t 1:30."  L i s a s "I had t o t e l l the s t a f f .  96  I got t o take  Linda s a i d t o the  two  The s t a f f had a meeting.."  L a t e r she s a i d "Someone s t o l e my twenty d o l l a r s . many twenty d o l l a r s . " much i t was.  I have t h a t  She held up her f i n g e r s t o i n d i c a t e how  She s a i d "You t w i t .  I'm s c r a t c h y cause I have  allergies."  On March 21, Cam, Steve, L i n d a , T e r r y and I went t o McDonalds f o r c o f f e e a f t e r the game f o r t h e r e f e r e e s .  Linda  t a l k e d about Bob p u t t i n g h i s hand down her pants i n t h e change area i n t h e gymnasium a t Mount P l e a s a n t community c e n t r e . t o l d Cam "I've got t o t a l k t o you p r i v a t e l y .  She  I t ' s person." She  whispered t o him and he r e p l i e d "you should have screamed." T e r r y s a i d "I'm t h e c a p t a i n .  You should have t o l d me.  wouldn't l e t any o f t h a t garbage happen. on my team."  I  I don't l e t t h a t happen  But Linda behaved i n an extremely  p r o v o c a t i v e and  f l i r t a t i o u s way towards t h e a t h l e t e s . "Up your nose with a rubber hose.  Oh t h a t ' s d i r t y sex t a l k . "  uncomfortable. c l e a n i t up.  extremely  Cam s p i l l e d h i s d r i n k and l e f t t o g e t something t o Linda s a i d when he l e f t  worried about something. The  Steve was  "Camie i s nervous.  He's  I don't know what's b o t h e r i n g him."  c o n v e r s a t i o n turned t o s p o r t s and l a t e r Linda i n t e r j e c t e d " I  t h i n k Steve l i k e s t h a t b i g f a t one. i s going t o have a baby on Saturday." Linda s a i d "No.  Lisa's lying.  The pregnant one. Oh Sharon T e r r y asked "Twins?"  I t ' s a b i g baby."  Sharon was and L i n d a s a i d "She's my boss."  I asked who  Linda t o l d me t h a t  she was going t o " V i o l e n c e s c h o o l " t o l e a r n how t o d e a l with i t . She t o l d me she had her tubes t i e d l a s t year. And she t o l d me about her marriage,  even b r i n g i n g wedding p i c t u r e s o f h e r s e l f and  "Bill".  97  When I had c o f f e e with f o u r o f t h e male a t h l e t e s on the team, one o f them, T e r r y , mentioned t h a t he had one g i r l on h i s team "Oh w e l l , I don't mind.  She's good.  responded "What do you c a l l her? "The  Playmaker"  Honey?"  Steve  Terry q u i c k l y r e t o r t e d  They a l l laughed u p r o a r i o u s l y .  i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s comment as an reputation.  Linda."  Originally, I  a l l u s i o n t o her f l i r t a t i o u s  L a t e r , I came upon an a r t i c l e i n t h e Sports  of the Vancouver Sun c o v e r i n g  "Rocket R i c h a r d " which  section  contained  the quote "He wasn't t h e g r e a t e s t s k a t e r or t h e best playmaker but  i n s i d e the blue l i n e he was a f u r y t h a t g o a l t e n d e r s  forgot".  L i n d a s ' nickname suddenly had a double meaning.  was c o n s i d e r e d  She  a good p l a y e r by the guys and 'Playmaker' was a  nickname t h a t T e r r y had c o i n e d , buff.  never  T e r r y being  the sports  I had not heard the term b e f o r e but having  jargon  t h i s new  i n f o r m a t i o n and c o n s i d e r i n g t h e above f a c t s shed new l i g h t on the meaning o f t h e nickname.  Of course,  the other  f a c t was t h a t the  guys had laughed " u p r o a r i o u s l y " and i n such a way t h a t i m p l i e d a connection  The  t o her f l i r t a t i o u s behaviour.  I t was w i t t y !  Coaches  Dudley T h i s was t h e name t h a t C a r r i e had given the new male coach, George. him.  volunteer  The g i r l s on the team were i n f a t u a t e d with  C a r o l was nonverbal t h e e n t i r e season and George had been  d i s c o n c e r t e d because he caught her b i t i n g h e r s e l f and banging her head a g a i n s t t h e w a l l and had sought help from t h e head coaches as i n what t o do about i t . L a t e r , when C a r o l began t o t a l k , she  98  brought. George a p a i r of a l i p p e r a t h a t ahe had k n i t f o r him.  She  g i g g l e d and o f f e r e d t o make me a p a i r when I admired her work. She s a i d "Sure.  That w i l l  be t e n d o l l a r s . "  C a r r i e wanted me t o  take a p i c t u r e of her and George. The male a t h l e t e s around George as though he were an  flocked  idol.  Bed That was my nickname. purplish  ( a r t i f i c i a l ) hair colour.  that colour it.  Why  I was teased c o n s t a n t l y  (my n a t u r a l c o l o u r  because of my  L i s a s a i d " I f God gave you  i s brown) then you should  do you c o l o u r your h a i r ? "  On the other hand, C a r r i e  f a s c i n a t e d and asked me i f I had dyed i t even more p u r p l e wanted t o know e x a c t l y how what c o l o u r  i t used t o be.  I had done i t .  the season I was r e f e r r e d t o as "Hey,  Red!"  was  and  She wanted t o know  I f e l t l i k e a freak!  99  leave  For the r e s t of  Sport C u l t u r e "How  about games?"  "Not o n l y the game but the p r a c t i s e teaches them e x a c t l y how t o win. P a s s i n g , s h o o t i n g , one on one, two on two, s h o o t i n g and p a s s i n g . Workouts and e x e r c i s e . But the main t h i n g i s the reds p l a y the yellow. Two p o i n t s - a win i s two p o i n t s " "Do  you know what the p r i o r i t i e s a r e ? "  "Everybody should have p r i o r i t i e s . We are a p a r t of the community and w e ' l l always be a p a r t of the community. We are people t r y i n g t o accomplish what we want, what we b e l i e v e i n . Important t h i n g i s t o r e c o g n i s e we are here as equal individuals and t h e r e f o r e we should be t r e a t e d as individuals. Our needs should be attended t o because t h a t ' s what our p r i o r i t i e s a r e " "You  sound  experienced."  "Eighteen y e a r s p l u s seven y e a r s i n a league. B.C.S.O." Ed  E i g h t years i n  ( S p e c i a l Olympic A t h l e t e )  T h i s s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s the p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t s p o r t and  mental  r e t a r d a t i o n are s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t s r e f l e c t i n g s o c i e t a l c o n d i t i o n s . In a h i s t o r i c a l sense, games and p l a y have g i v e n way Sport and  i t s meaning has changed i n accordance  technology.  significant in  through  economics and p o l i t i c s .  and  Measurement i s  modern s p o r t i n order t o o b j e c t i f y success  and  The mentally r e t a r d e d are keenly aware of s o c i a l  measurement and now,  due t o the i n t e g r a t i o n movement, must f i n d  ways t o "measure up". way  with p o l i t i c s  S i m i l a r l y , the meaning of mental r e t a r d a t i o n has  been transformed  productivity.  to sport.  t o a c h i e v e t h i s by  Sports  enhances s t a t u s and p r o v i d e s  means of secondary  dominant c u l t u r e .  108  one  s o c i a l i s a t i o n i n t o the  Measurement of Mental r e t a r d a t i o n i s  ...based on observable who  behaviours  over which a person  i s p e r c e i v e d t o be incompetent i s assumed t o have  no c o n t r o l because of i n t e l l e c t u a l absence of c o n t r o l , coupled leads t o the devalued  of "normalcy" may  intellectual  s t a t u s of 'mentally  (Manion & B e r s a n i , 1987,  Observation  with  impairments.  deficits,  retarded'"  p.236).  and measurement o f behaviours  and  determination  be approached from the b i o p s y c h o l o g i c a l or  s o c i o - a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . The  f i r s t perspective derives  i t s ' measures of mental r e t a r d a t i o n on the use of two p a t h o l o g i c a l and  This  statistical.  models: the  The p a t h o l o g i c a l baaing  normalcy  on the absence or presence of symptoms and the s t a t i s t i c a l on measurable t r a i t s which are i n t e l l i g e n c e and  adaptive  the  behaviour  i n the case of mental r e t a r d a t i o n .  However, the s o c i o - a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e mental r e t a r d a t i o n as an " . . . a c q u i r e d  social  recognises  status, defined  and  p e r c e i v e d a c c o r d i n g t o the type of performance expected of persons h o l d i n g t h a t s t a t u s " a c c o r d i n g t o Wolfensberger, (1975) in  (Manion & B e r s a n i , 1987,  p. 237).  T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e emphasizes  the i n t e r a c t i o n between an i n d i v i d u a l and society.  101  h i s environment  and  ... mental r e t a r d a t i o n then i s a s o c i a l r o l e or a s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t determined and  d e f i n e d by  c o l l e c t i v e l y p r e s c r i b e d behaviours and expectations  the  role  of a given s o c i a l network... behaviour  becomes c o n t e x t u a l  and  i n which i t o c c u r s .  r e f l e c t s t e n e t s of the c u l t u r e  Therefore  i t can be concluded t h a t  mental r e t a r d a t i o n i s a s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t , s u b j e c t to s o c i a l manipulation prevalency  simply  i n c r e a s i n g or d e c r e a s i n g i t s  by r e d e f i n i n g the concept of  'normalcy'(Manion & B e r s a n i , 1987,  Sport,  l i k e mental r e t a r d a t i o n , i s a s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t .  r e a l nature and  meaning i s t r a n s i t o r y and  e x e m p l i f i e d by George Herbert  Mead who  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between games and the symbolic  interactionist  t r a d i t i o n t h a t one societal etc.  p.238).  discussed  p l a y and  tradition.  uncertain. This  was  the  the s o c i a l s e l f through I t i s through  this  i s a b l e t o view s p o r t as a r e f l e c t i o n  systems and  Its  of  a l l that e n t a i l s : values, b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s  Jean-Marie Brohm <1978) r e a f f i r m s t h a t s p o r t r e f l e c t s or  m i r r o r s the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t encompass i t . science  has penetrated  15 years and  s p o r t and  Positivist  p h y s i c a l education  i n the  last  i s " . . . a b l e t o g i v e an o r d e r l y , uncomplicated view  of the world of s p o r t and  leisure"  (Sparks,  1985,  p.2>.  H i s t o r i c a l l y , the seeds of p o s i t i v i s m i n s p o r t and were p l a n t e d and  grew i n the I n d u s t r i a l  Revolution  conquests i n the f i e l d of technology where work and became the i d e a l and  then the i d o l of the age"  102  leisure  and " i t a production  (Huizinga,  1955).  Brohm (1978) r e i t e r a t e s the n o t i o n t h a t modern a p o r t s haa shaped by c a p i t a l i s t  industrialisation.  of "experimental  a n a l y t i c a l s c i e n c e , philosophy  and  reformism. Church and  From t h i s age,  p. 192)  and  detailed.  accuracy  and  Manion and  Key  Bersani  value i s measured.  i t s ' emphasis on u r b a n i s a t i o n  i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n where " . . . p r o d u c t i o n  the mentally capable  retarded  sytematisation,  (1987) e l a b o r a t e on the i n f l u e n c e of  I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n and  and  fantastic"  Rules have become i n c r e a s i n g l y  words are technology,  e f f i c i e n c y and  the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h  and  changed the nature of play forms.  Record keeping became s t a t i s t i c s . s t r i c t and  dominance  S t a t e , economics ... pursued i n dead  e a r n e s t " over " e v e r y t h i n g i m a g i n a t i v e , f a n c i f u l and ( H u i z i n g a , 1955,  been  the  and  as a measure of value i n  e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s " had  i n the p o s i t i o n of being  placed  "considered  not  of becoming p r o d u c t i v e members of s o c i e t y " (p.234).  It i s clear that c a p i t a l i s t  i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n influenced  c u l t u r e i n r e c e n t h i s t o r y by the embodiment of measurement i n current c u l t u r a l values.  Performance, p r o d u c t i o n ,  time,  i n t e l l i g e n c e , can a l l be measured.  The  i n t r o d u c t i o n of the i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t by B i n e t  Simon helped  maintain  and  a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward mental  r e t a r d a t i o n based on the f e a r of g e n e t i c o r i g i n s and heritability factors.  I t was  103  meant t o be a d i a g n o s t i c  t o o l f o r s p e c i a l education  but became a r i g i d ,  q u a n t i t a t i v e d e v i c e measuring i n t e l l i g e n c e as a f i x e d and  The  s e l e c t i v e quantity  (Manion & B e r s a n i ,  1987, p. 235).  s o c i o - a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e sees mental  r e t a r d a t i o n as a s o c i a l s t a t u s t o which a person i s a s s i g n e d :  ... due t o b e h a v i o u r a l  p a t t e r n s manifested  by t h e  i n d i v i d u a l and t h e e v a l u a t i o n of t h a t behaviour by the culture.  An achieved  s t a t u s i s a c q u i r e d through v i r t u e  of an i n d i v i d u a l s ' p e r c e i v e d competence or incompetence as i t i s evaluated  by o t h e r s  i n t h e s o c i a l system.  This  s o c i a l s t a t u s i s not s t r u c t u r a l l y s p e c i f i e d i n the o r g a n i s a t i o n o f a system but r a t h e r e x i s t s as a s o c i a l category arises  t h a t can be a c t i v a t e d or developed as the need  (Manion and B e r s a n i ,  1987, p.237).  Blumer (1969), Edgerton (1967) and Bogdan and T a y l o r support  (1975)  the s o c i o - a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n of mental  r e t a r d a t i o n as an a b s t r a c t n o t i o n which i s dependent upon s o c i e t a l v a l u e s , b e l i e f s and  processes.  I t would f o l l o w t h a t i f s p o r t and mental r e t a r d a t i o n are s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t s , then any s h i f t i n s o c i e t a l values would a l t e r the d e f i n i t i o n , d i r e c t i o n , and r o l e of each.  The  Normalisation  p r i n c i p l e , d e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n and mainstreaming movements represent  such a s h i f t . In t h i s study, t h e a t h l e t e s d i s p l a y e d a  keen awareness o f stigma and an even keener d r i v e t o " a c t  104  appropriately". "appropriate  There was  always an  behaviour" and  seemed t o provide  i n t e r p l a y between  winning or s c o r i n g .  a forum f o r i n c r e a s e d  The  gymnasium  status a t h l e t i c a l l y  and  socially.  Moving from s t i g m a t i c i d e n t i t y towards r a i s e d s o c i a l i s v i a b l e f o r the mentally  retarded  P h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d Rick Hansen and Increased  visibility  Terry Fox  of p h y s i c a l l y and  i n d i v i d u a l s on t e l e v i s i o n and a c t o r who  through the medium of  other  are  mentally  sport.  examples.  disabled  media (such as C h r i s Burke,  has downs syndrome) combined with high p r o f i l e agencies  l i k e S p e c i a l Olympics and  i t s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s with the media  s p o r t s p e r s o n a l i t i e s , medals and  competitions,  tournaments m i r r o r c u r r e n t s o c i e t a l v a l u e s and enhancing.  T h i s viewpoint r e p r e s e n t s  of S p e c i a l Olympic a t h l e t e s which was ethnographic  The  status  t r a v e l and are  status  the c o l l e c t i v e elicited  perspective  through  techniques.  view t h a t segregated s p o r t i s s t a t u s enhancing  d e t r a c t o r s : those who  advocate i n t e g r a t i o n and  has  oppose segregated  events f o r i t s ' a t t e n t i o n on s t i g m a t i c group i d e n t i f i c a t i o n deviance.  and  However, t h i s i s m i s l e a d i n g .  One  cannot put an  of actor  onstage without knowing the name of the play or having s c r i p t i n hand. There must be an  introduction.  Himmelfarb & Evans (1974)  d e s c r i b e a theme of l i b e r a t i o n whereby the i n d i v i d u a l i s f r e e t o embrace the deviance r a t h e r than disown i t . Within ones "own"  there  a group of  i s freedom t o r e t r e a t 'backstage' i f the  performance i s l e s s than adequate.  105  But  i t i s a stage,  and  within  t h i s segregated  group i s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o 'rehearse'.  network of f r i e n d s w i t h i n the s u b c u l t u r e i s important  The  as a  support and the coaches are the prompters o f f s t a g e , f i l l i n g r o l e of s u p p o r t i v e ' s c r i p t i n t e r p r e t e r s ' .  the  To have t o compete  b e f o r e l e a r n i n g the s k i l l s or p o s s e s s i n g the t o o l s i s a setup f o r failure.  The S p e c i a l Olympic team p r o v i d e s the s e t t i n g f o r  a c q u i r i n g the semantic  knowledge necessary.  I argue t h a t only an  ' e t i c ' or o u t s i d e view c o u l d d o g m a t i c a l l y p r e s s u r e f o r a b s o l u t e integration.  The r e s u l t c o u l d be i n t e n s e c u l t u r e shock and  an  even g r e a t e r need t o implement coping s t r a t e g i e s t o disavow the p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e l l e c t . But t h i s viewpoint o u t s i d e r p e r s p e c t i v e and not the concern of t h i s C o l l e c t i v i t y has s t r e n g t h as i t was  i s an  study.  d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a t h l e t e s seem  t o f i n d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o "measure up" w i t h i n the s p o r t domain. The g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y context.  l i e s i n "measuring up"  A p p r o p r i a t e behaviour  in a social  i s a goal t h a t a l l work towards.  The measure of " a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s " i s an e l u s i v e and attainment  and  difficult  l e a v e s the a t h l e t e v u l n e r a b l e t o s t i g m a t i c  e x p e r i e n c e s f o r which coping s t r a t e g i e s are employed while success and achievement i n a t h l e t i c s i s more r e a d i l y measured  and  rewarded i n p r e d i c t a b l e and c o n c r e t e ways i n the form of t r o p h i e s , medals, and team membership.  S t i g m a t i c symbols over  time are r e p l a c e d by s t a t u s symbols - " l a s t n i g h t I won, s t a r t e d but I won."  According t o Huizinga  I just  (1955) "Winning means  showing o n e s e l f s u p e r i o r i n the outcome of a game.  Nevertheless,  the evidence of t h i s s u p e r i o r i t y tends t o c o n f e r upon the winner a semblance of s u p e r i o r i t y  in general.  something more than the game as such.  106  In t h i s r e s p e c t , he wins He has won  s e l f esteem,  obtained honour and b e n e f i t of the  t h i a honour and  esteem at once accrued to  the  group t o which the v i c t o r belongs"<p.50).  Membership i n the c u l t u r e of mental r e t a r d a t i o n i s assured but chance to get  i n t o the game" ( S p e c i a l Olympic slogan) and  membership i n the dominant c u l t u r e can one  be achieved and  "a  obtain  sport i s  of the mediums.  Team membership i n S p e c i a l Olympics seems t o p r o v i d e a s t a b l e , p r e d i c t a b l e , yet c h a l l e n g i n g athletes.  I t was  environment f o r  the  important t h a t they remain with the same s p o r t  c l u b i n t h e i r neighbourhood t o be with t h e i r f r i e n d s . Olympic p i n s , t r o p h i e s , and  worn p r o u d l y .  j a c k e t s , badges e t c . were s t a t u s  T r a v e l and  contact  with media and  p e r s o n a l i t i e s as w e l l as c e l e b r i t i e s a l s o provided a source of bragging. ranged broadly interviews  An understanding of s p o r t  as evidenced by the responses t o the  i n t e r n a t i o n a l teams i n c l u d i n g s p o r t s t a t i s t i c s was the case of some a v i d f l o o r hockey a t h l e t e s . i t was  Appendix D - p.  symbols  sports  s t a t u s and  was  terminology  i n the Appendix D. Knowledge of n a t i o n a l  important but  Special  informal and extensive  Competition  a l s o important t o be a good s p o r t  in  was  (see  170).  A t h l e t e s attended hockey f o r numerous reasons r a n g i n g from " s t a y i n g o f f the s t r e e t " , which was  generally  t h a t o r i g i n a t e d from group home s t a f f "not "competition"  or f o r "fun"  an encouragement  t o s i t at home", t o  (see Appendix D - p.  107  173).  There was a good understanding competition,  of penalties, strategy,  s o c i a l i s a t i o n , sportsmanship and d r i l l s .  But t h e r e  was c o n f u s i o n as t o d e f i n i t i o n s of c o o l down and warmup (see Appendix D - p. 175). In some cases, t h e i n f o r m a l did  interviews  not produce c l a r i t y as t o whether or not t h e a t h l e t e s  understood a s p o r t term but c o n v e r s a t i o n was understood.  An example occured  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e term  a t the tournament banquet  where a good grasp o f "team" was d i s p l a y e d . been good coaching:  Dan s a i d t h e r e had  "the team played as a team not as  i n d i v i d u a l s , t o t a l team s p i r i t and e f f o r t , e x c e l l e n t goal tending". spirit, coaching  J e f f a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r g o l d medal wins t o "good team  everybody d i d t h e i r jobs, everybody was c o o p e r a t i v e , good strategy.  Other team played d i r t y .  the body and high s t i c k i n g a l o t too. back - c r o s s checking.  They were t a k i n g  Using t h e s t i c k i n the  Referee wasn't c a l l i n g p e n a l t i e s . "  Dan  added " p r a c t i s e s p a i d o f f , p o s i t i o n a l p l a y how t o run g e t your wind a l l paid o f f . "  There were many p a r a l l e l s between young hockey p l a y e r s a t t i t u d e s d e p i c t e d i n the ethnographic  study The  E?lQ^®s§i9D§ii§etion o f Young Hockey P l a y e r s (Vaz, 1982) and the S p e c i a l Olympic a t h l e t e s .  One example was d e l i b e r a t e t r i p p i n g i n  a game "they d i d n ' t catch me with my s t i c k up a g a i n s t my boss. did say.  i t on purpose" a S p e c i a l Olympic a t h l e t e was overheard t o Likewise,  questioned game?"  a young hockey p l a y e r i n t h e Vaz study was  "Do you t h i n k i t s ok t o break the r u l e s t o win the  "Oh, yeah" he responded (Vaz, 1982, p. 8 0 ) .  108  I  Another p a r a l l e l r e l a t e d t o sportsmanship.  An i c e hockey  p l a y e r was asked "Do you t h i n k hockey teaches you sportsmanship?" and he r e p l i e d "yes".  We shake hands a t t h e end of t h e game and  say "good game" and we're j u s t - I can't e x p l a i n i t , but i t teaches me more sportsmanship" S p e c i a l Olympic  (Vaz, 1982, p.55).  Similarly, a  a t h l e t e d e f i n e d i t as "we shook t h e i r hands.  p l a y our b e s t . " and "they don't shake hands a f t e r t h e game. t h i n k t h a t ' s a bad a t t i t u d e "  We I  (see Appendix D - p. 170).  A study t h a t focused on nonretarded and r e t a r d e d b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s . Context^ A b i l i t y and Performance:  Comparison of  Competitive A t h l e t i c s Among M i l d l y Retarded and Nonretarded AduAJ=§ concluded t h a t r e t a r d e d a d u l t s "...were c o n f r o n t e d with s i m p l i f i e d r u l e s , emotional  ( r a t h e r than p r i m a r i l y  strategic)  c o a c h i n g , l a x o f f i c i a t i n g , and an a l t e r e d s o c i a l c o n t e x t w i t h i n which c o m p e t i t i o n o c c u r r e d " (Levine & Langness, observed t h a t , i n i t i a l l y , themselves t o t h e game.  1983, p.537).  I  nonretarded teams were l a x i n a p p l y i n g However, once t h e f i r s t p e r i o d was over,  g e n e r a l l y , they played s e r i o u s l y , because t h e D r i l l e r s were very good p l a y e r s .  Scores were c l o s e .  Assumptions  were s h a t t e r e d .  Another p a r a l l e l between t h i s t h e s i s and t h e above study r e l a t e s t o coaches. encouraged  mentioned  Coaches f o r t h e r e t a r d e d p l a y e r s  them t o "have f u n " and " i t ' s  j u s t a game" but the  a t h l e t e s were very s e r i o u s about winning. " j u s t a game".  109  To them, i t was not  Predigt-abil i t y The  s t r u c t u r e of S p e c i a l Olympics provided  the a t h l e t e s with  p r e d i c t a b i l i t y which supported the s o c i a l network and  maintenance  of f r i e n d s h i p s "Hey,  a dance i n  there's  Coquitlam", "That's the day 7th of A p r i l " and uniforms."  "On  a swim meet A p r i l 23 and track s t a r t s  (Grants'  the 29th of t h i s month we  birthday),  get  our  I t i s a l s o a s t a b l e environment f o r l e a r n i n g  practising  the  and  skills.  Glamour C o n v e r s a t i o n s at McDonalds, on d r i v e s home, a t the and  tournament and  community c e n t r e s events: VU13  a t the P i z z a Hut  or i n the lobby of  shake our  been t o Indiana",  hands."  and  "I've  been on  "John McKeachie came over t o  S p e c i a l Olympics  offered opportunities  would never otherwise be p o s s i b l e . enhancing t o the  the  were f i l l e d with mention of c e l e b r i t i e s  "Some of us were on wide world of s p o r t s " ,  a f t e r I've  banquet  that  These e x p e r i e n c e s were s t a t u s  athletes.  Travel Many of the c a s u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s  revolved  around  excitement of t r a v e l e x p e r i e n c e s as members of S p e c i a l "Steve and River",  I went t o C a l g a r y " , "we  "You  both played  know t h a t number 1 guy,  persons' view of the world was  normalising  Olympics:  i n Campbell  he went to Indiana with  T r a v e l broadens knowledge of the world. retarded  the  At one  time the  much narrower.  me."  mentally It i s a  e x p e r i e n c e because t r a v e l t o s p o r t events i s s i m i l a r  t o what p r o f e s s i o n a l a t h l e t e s  do.  lie  Famous A t h l e t e s The  names of famous a t h l e t e s are dropped i n c o n v e r s a t i o n  beat the s t u f f i n g out of the L i o n s  (B.C.) - A l Wilson."  "We  Mixing  with s p o r t s c e l e b r i t i e s enhances s t a t u s through a s s o c i a t i o n .  Sport  Terminology Sport c u l t u r e i s absorbed through t e l e v i s i o n s p o r t s c a s t s f o r  a l o t of a t h l e t e s .  One  n i g h t I c a l l e d an a t h l e t e a t home and  c o u l d b a r e l y hear what he was television.  T e r r y t o l d me  P h i l a d e l p h i a today. signed  Berry.  Quinn good.  s a y i n g f o r the s p o r t s c a s t on  t h a t "Canucks made a d e a l  Canucks signed one  He might play t o n i g h t .  I  the  with  team Canada p l a y e r I hear Berrys good.  Pat  Every n i g h t a f t e r the game he s i t s down and  thinks...He t a l k s t o B r i a n . " I asked who  B r i a n was.  "Assistant  manager.  I t h i n k Pat Quinn t a l k e d t o him  I f he say  l e t ' s s i g n Berry so Pat Quinn c a l l s him up and  s i g n t h a t paper.  Now  nobody can take him.  the Vancouver Canucks."  I t was  a t h l e t e s were t o be i n t e r v i e w e d or l e s s , l i k e hockey s t a r s .  about the Berry  He's  i n t e r e s t i n g to me and  guy. says  the property how  of  eager the  I wondered i f they f e l t , more  Terry r e f e r r e d to h i m s e l f as a " f r e e  agent".  Sports  Statistics  In the lobby  before a game between the Burnaby team and  Vancouver team I overheard and a t h l e t e s from the two facts.  "I'm  recorded  bantering  the  between  teams t h a t r e f l e c t e d knowledge of d e t a i l e d  the o l d e s t p l a y e r .  I'm  responded "I've played t h i r t y y e a r s . "  111  a veteran."  (Ed)  Lance  Ed s c o f f e d " T h i r t y years  ago  was  1958.  They didn't, have i t .  I t h i n k Gordie Howe has  the  r e c o r d f o r power play g o a l s .  Wayne Gretzky scored 92 g o a l s i n  one  i s Jo-Anns f a v o u r i t e p l a y e r .  season."  Richard  Lance s a i d "#66  Vemieux i s #66.  Richmond got e l i m i n a t e d from  p l a y o f f s l a s t n i g h t by Vernon. the New  West B r u i n s . "  112  Kamloopa i s going  the  to eliminate  CHAPTER IV Stigma Stigma r e f e r s t o an a t t r i b u t e or a t t r i b u t e s which are discrediting.  The  mentally  which d e a l s with stigma  deeply  handicapped r e p r e s e n t a s u b c u l t u r e  daily.  C h a l l e n g i n g the l a b e l  'mentally  r e t a r d e d ' becomes complex because t h i s s u b c u l t u r e ' s b e l i e f system i s grounded i n i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y .  Negative d i f f e r e n c e  combined with a v o i c e t h a t i s d i s c r e d i t e d by the dominant c u l t u r e makes meaningful communication  elusive.  N o r m a l i z a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s c r e a t e i n t e r f a c e between mainstream c u l t u r e and the mentally with stigma  r e t a r d e d and the r e s u l t i s t h a t d e a l i n g  becomes consuming as they s t r u g g l e t o appear normal.  Managing the ensuing  t e n s i o n n e c e s s i t a t e s the development of  coping s t r a t e g i e s composed of v a r i o u s p a s s i n g and techniques.  covering  Success i n these e f f o r t s i s d e s c r i b e d as Phantom  Normalcy, c o n s t a n t l y s u b j e c t e d t o r i s k of exposure.  lDt®£§y^J.®£ti!£® Rea 1 i t y "Our  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of o t h e r s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of us  only can confirm but can a l t e r who t h i n k us t o be, and who p.220).  we  t h i n k we a r e , who  they t h i n k they a r e " < E s t r o f f ,  E s t r o f f d e s c r i b e s the process of  not  others 1981,  "...identification,  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , e x p e r i e n c i n g , knowing and changing of s e l f through i n t e r a c t i o n s with o t h e r s " ( E s t r o f f , 1 9 8 1 , p.220).  He  d i s c u s s e s the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of negative d i f f e r e n c e and those whose f o r m e r l y incongruent and  a c t i o n s , meanings,  that  experiences  c o n f l i c t s when p l a c e d i n c o n t a c t with each other p r o v i d e s a  b a s i s f o r producing and m a i n t a i n i n g an i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e Cam  p o r t r a y s t h i s i n h i s statement  other guys have been through what t h e y ' r e doing wrong. Eds' a s s e r t i o n t h a t "we t r y i n g t o accomplish  We  "Dan  and  I and some of the  what t h e y ' r e going through.  We know  can show them the r i g h t way"  are p a r t of the community.  what we want, what we  t h i n g i s t o r e c o g n i s e we  reality.  We  believe i n .  are  or people  Important  are here as i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e r e f o r e we  should be t r e a t e d as i n d i v i d u a l s " .  Ed expresses a sense of  empowerment and c o l l e c t i v i t y and C a r r i e adds t o t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n i n s a y i n g t h a t " v o l u n t e e r s get to f e e l more comfortable handicapped people. t h i s and t h a t .  Communication l i k e t h a t .  around  Communication  like  Vice versa."  The s i g n i f i c a n c e concerning t h i s study of a t h l e t e / c o a c h i n t e r a c t i o n , i n my  mind, was  c l a s h i n g of c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s .  I f I, as a coach, r e a c t t o behaviour  t h a t appears s t r a n g e ,  immoral, unusual, than a search f o r the a t h l e t e s ' meaning concerning the behaviour i s i n o r d e r . Although  I b e l i e v e i t never i s . The  r e l a t e s t o the coaches' Estroff  i s necessary b e f o r e judging or r e s c u i n g  role.  A l l behaviour  significance  makes sense.  <1981) d i s c u s s e s the i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e nature of r e a l i t y  as  r e f e r r i n g t o "common sense knowledge and r e a l i t y of one person  by  others"<p.  128).  Another domain i n which t h e r e was  d i s p a r i t y i n assumptions  was  d a t i n g and marriage.  An a t h l e t e t o l d a new,  and  I t h a t she "got married b e f o r e Christmas"  c o n g r a t u l a t e d her and she showed me  114  v o l u n t e e r coach  (Linda).  I  her r i n g and s a i d she wanted  t o b r i n g wedding p i c t u r e s t h e f o l l o w i n g week ( t h i s she d i d , though n e i t h e r she nor t h e "groom" were i n wedding a p p a r e l ) . L a t e r i n t h e evening, one of t h e male a t h l e t e s was c u d d l i n g up t o her and t h e new, v o l u n t e e r coach s a i d "you b e t t e r watch out, she's a married l a d y . " "I know."  The a t h l e t e  At t h e time t h i s acknowledgement served t o a f f i r m  L i n d a ' s c l a i m , i n my mind. Linda's compulsive continued.  (Bob) looked annoyed and s a i d  However, f u r t h e r i n t o t h e season,  f l i r t a t i o n with t h e male team members  In c o n v e r s a t i o n , I mentioned t o the team manager t h a t  Linda had claimed t o be married but t h a t she l i v e d i n a group home and I hadn't r e a l i s e d t h a t married couples l i v e d i n group homes.  The manager r e t o r t e d "Oh, she's not married, they l i v e i n  s e p a r a t e group homes - i t ' s a f a n t a s y o f h e r s . "  I felt  embarrassed f o r L i n d a , a t having exposed t h e t r u t h . c r e a t e d some measure o f i n s e c u r i t y i n my work. viewpoints o f s e v e r a l ethnographers Whittaker  and Olesen  And i t a l s o  Of note a r e the  concerning t h i s phenomena.  (1968) say t h a t "...whether t h e students  were p r e s e n t i n g " r e a l i t y " f o r us, whether respondents t e l l i n g t h e t r u t h - caused  us l i t t l e or no a n x i e t y .  were With our  n o t i o n s o f i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y i n f i e l d r e s e a r c h , we conceived o f the outlook o f each i n d i v i d u a l as c h a r a c t e r i z e d by " m u l t i p l e realities"  ...the a c t o r s c o n t r o l l e d our images o f them by e d i t i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n about themselves,  g i v i n g us only p a r t o f t h e d e t a i l s ,  or only p a r t o f t h e s i t u a t i o n as i t had o c c u r r e d " (p. 4 1 ) .  115  Another aspect of t h i s was u n w i t t i n g l y placed h e r s e l f i n .  the t r a p t h a t Linda As E s t r o f f  product a c t s back on the producer"  ...persons  had  (1981) d e s c r i b e s "the  <p.219) meaning t h a t  produce meanings, r e a l i t i e s  and  s i g n i f i c a n c e s t h a t they experience as other than own  product; the product g a i n s an e x i s t e n c e  of the producers' v o l i t i o n .  their  independent  At some p o i n t i n the  c o n s c i o u s f i r m i n g and s h a r i n g of the c o n s t r u c t e d r e a l i t y , i t becomes r e a l i n an even more massive and  i t can no longer be changed r e a d i l y "  As time went on, Linda's compulsive abandon her "married  way  (p. 219).  f l i r t a t i o n f o r c e d her t o  l a d y " facade f o r when George (the v o l u n t e e r  coach) s a i d "you b e t t e r watch out, she's a married l a d y " , i t i n d i c a t e d t h a t the coaches were t a k i n g her s e r i o u s l y .  She  dropped the facade when she became aware t h a t we were aware t h a t i t was  a facade.  She completely stopped  mentioning  her  "marriage" and became known as the "playmaker" by male members of the team.  Her  i d e n t i t y changed as members f r e e l y r e l a t e d t o her  i n ways they d i d not with other female members of the team. course, the team managers comment t o me, overheard, conversion.  blew L i n d a s ' cover and may  Of  which Linda had  a l s o have i n f l u e n c e d her  T h i s i s what Goffman r e f e r s t o as p a s s i n g which w i l l  be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l  later.  life  Dealing with  Stigma  The I n t e r a c t i o n i a t paradigm suggests t h a t "meaning i s d e r i v e d from and produced through i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication and exchange" Blumer, (1969) i n E s t r o f f  (1981, p.216).  According t o Berger and Luckman (1967)  . . . o b j e c t s and e x p e r i e n c e s possess few a b s o l u t e , i n h e r e n t q u a l i t i e s , but a r e endowed with q u a l i t i e s and s i g n i f i c a n c e through persons encounters with them. These encounters a r e i n t e r p r e t e d and understood by persons on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r commonsense knowledge, which has been e s t a b l i s h e d , confirmed and a l t e r e d through t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n with other persons who have had s i m i l a r encounters and made s i m i l a r  interpretations.  Meanings and s i g n i f i c a n c e a r e decided upon and learned by n e g o t i a t i n g with o t h e r s .  A minimum o f common  knowledge and shared meanings i s e s s e n t i a l t o communicate  Estroff  ( E s t r o f f , 1981, p.217).  (1981) e l a b o r a t e s : "...shared knowledge and meaning  a t a t a c i t everyday, commonsense l e v e l i s not only t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r i n t e r a c t i o n , but i t i s a l s o generated, maintained and a l t e r e d by i n t e r a c t i o n "  (p.217).  When I began my f i e l d w o r k with t h e f l o o r hockey team, t h e most n o t a b l e e x p e r i e n c e was i n not knowing how t o communicate with t h e team members: i n not knowing how t o behave or i n t e r p r e t  117  t h e i r behaviour.  I t was l i k e t u n i n g a t e l e v i s i o n , watching t h e  l i n e s r o l l i n g r a p i d l y down the screen and g r a d u a l l y slowing  until  the p i c t u r e i s c l e a r , but I never d i d g e t t h e p i c t u r e completely f r e e of the r o l l i n g glimpses  l i n e s : they only slowed enough t o allow me  o f t h e performance.  with communication suggested Goffman (1963) c l a r i f i e s t h i s  The very awareness o f my d i s c o m f o r t an awareness o f ' d i f f e r e n c e ' . experience:  When normals and s t i g m a t i z e d do i n f a c t e n t e r one another's  immediate presence,  e s p e c i a l l y when they  t h e r e attempt t o s u s t a i n a j o i n t c o n v e r s a t i o n a l encounter,  t h e r e occurs one o f t h e p r i m a l scenes o f  s o c i o l o g y ; f o r , i n many cases, these moments w i l l be the ones when t h e causes and e f f e c t s o f stigma d i r e c t l y c o n f r o n t e d by both s i d e s .  must be  The s t i g m a t i z e d  i n d i v i d u a l may f i n d t h a t he f e e l s unsure o f how we normals w i l l  i d e n t i f y him and r e c e i v e him (p.  My f i r s t encounters  13).  c o n s i s t e d o f a few a t h l e t e s encroaching  i n t e n s e l y on my p e r s o n a l boundaries  - some touching me, f l i r t i n g ,  s t a r i n g f o r uncomfortable l e n g t h s o f time or l e a n i n g up a g a i n s t my body. backing  Others were s u s p i c i o u s and kept d i s t a n c e between us, away i f I made an approach a t c o n v e r s a t i o n , a v e r t i n g  t h e i r eyes i f I caught them watching me.  I made many mistakes  and was shocked a t how t r a n s p a r e n t my s t e r e o t y p e d were and how q u i c k l y I made assumptions.  perceptions  Some o f t h e a t h l e t e s  were normal l o o k i n g and I d i s c o v e r e d t h a t I made u n r e a l i s t i c demands on them (see Appendix A, Sam p. 154). Others "looked" more  n a  handicapped and I underestimated t h e i r a b i l i t i e s A, Ed p. 156).  I was  ( see Appendix  judging mental a b i l i t y on p h y s i c a l  and when I r e a l i s e d t h i s , I began t o wonder how happened t o the a t h l e t e s and what t h i s was  appearance  many times t h i s  l i k e f o r them.  f l u s t e r e d and unsure o f myself and of course lacked  I felt  awareness  t h a t these r e l a t i o n s h i p s would change over time as we grew t o "know" each o t h e r .  My impression was  " t h i s i s the way  it is"  without n o t i o n s of s t a g i n g performances or stigma management techniques.  G r a d u a l l y , I became aware of some of my  assumptions,  p o s s i b l y stemming from the dominant c u l t u r e . following w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h i s employment.  Some examples  with r e s p e c t t o d a t i n g and  The s u b c u l t u r e of mental r e t a r d a t i o n appeared t o  work under a d i f f e r e n t s e t of assumptions l a r g e l y r o o t e d i n t e n s i o n management s t r a t e g i e s .  The a t h l e t e s d i d not seem t o f e e l  comfortable i n making mistakes, l e a r n i n g through " t r i a l e r r o r " as i t were.  and  D i r e c t l y checking out p e r c e p t i o n s would  r e q u i r e a measure o f s e l f esteem and r i s k of r i d i c u l e or invalidation. avoid t h i s .  Rather, the s t r a t e g i e s employed  were designed t o  When someone s a i d "Cathy got f i r e d from working a t  the Red C r o s s " , I imposed my  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g "being  f i r e d " and thought about wrongdoings t h a t might be connected with dismissal.  The a t h l e t e s , t o o , understood the term i n t h i s way  is illustrated  i n the quote " I had t o f i r e t h r e e guys t h i s week  because they were d r i n k i n g and s l o u g h i n g o f f behind my (Tom).  back"  I came t o l e a r n t h a t "being f i r e d " i s an e x p e r i e n c e  shared by many a t h l e t e s and t h e i r f r i e n d s because t h e r e were no  119  as  other  explanations  a v a i l a b l e , apparently,  of a job, such as being apparently  laid off.  But  to account f o r the l o s s  i t s ' meaning  r e l a t e d t o v o c a t i o n a l t r e n d s and  was  team manager, an a t h l e t e s ' mother, as such:  was  explained  "places  by  the  like  McDonalds only h i r e a t h l e t e s f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d of time, although there  i s b i g PR  k i d s come t o me  The job and  around i t . The and  t e l l me  k i d s t h i n k they are f i r e d .  The  t h a t they don't know what they d i d . "  d i f f e r e n c e between my  experience of being  l e t go on  the a t h l e t e s might be i n c h a l l e n g i n g or q u e s t i o n i n g  reasons f o r being  l e t go.  Instead,  the a t h l e t e s l e f t the  the the  job  assuming they were f i r e d , and t o be f i r e d meant some wrongdoing had  been committed as L i s a i n d i c a t e d "Judy got f i r e d cause  wouldn't work at the Red  Cross"  u n w i l l i n g t o check out.  I t a l s o says something about  which they f e l t unable or were the  dominant c u l t u r e s l a c k of t a k i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o communicate what was misperceptions,  going on which may,  clearly  as i l l u s t r a t e d by  my  be a r e s u l t of f a u l t y assumptions.  Coping How  she  does a r e t a r d e d  Strategies  person respond t o t h a t " t o r n  feeling?  What kind of defense mechanisms do r e t a r d e d  develop?  Most r e t a r d e d  people must r e l y on very  up" people  simple  p s y c h o l o g i c a l t a c t i c s or, as S t e r n l i c h t suggests i n Evans (1983, p.125) the more p r i m i t i v e defense mechanisms such as r e g r e s s i o n , f i x a t i o n , d e n i a l , undoing and  i£0  isolation.  repression,  Excerpt from F i e l d n o t e s February C a r r i e asked me bleeding.  She  22,  1988:  t o help her get her e a r r i n g s o f f . s a i d she was  the equipment room.  depressed  She was  mostly  Her ears were  and asked me t o come i n t o  incoherent but a g i t a t e d ,  " l e a r n i n g t o d e a l with i t i n a proper way"  (her anger).  "If I  get down I f e e l s i c k - f e e l my  forehead.  I get down r i g h t here  (she pressed her abdomen)  churned up  inside."  I'm  She  mentioned  a worker i n the group home. "When she's okay, she's okay but watch out when she's not." which was  completely  C a r r i e d i d not play a t a l l t o n i g h t  unusual.  Passing and  Covering  According t o Goffman (1963) i n Dudley (1983), p a s s i n g i s the a b i l i t y t o sometimes "...pass as someone with a l e s s s t i g m a t i c i d e n t i t y or as a normal person"  (p.73), while " . . . c o v e r i n g c o u l d  be viewed as a s p e c i a l form of p a s s i n g i n s i t u a t i o n s where the person's i d e n t i t y i s not known, as w i l l i n g n e s s t o admit t o the p o s s e s s i o n of a s t i g m a t i c a t t r i b u t e does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean openly v o l u n t e e r i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n " (p.SO). common ways of denying normal.  One  of the most  mental handicap i s t o t r y t o "pass"  as  There are many ways of p a s s i n g , some of the most common  methods a r e : c o n c e a l i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s , mastering  facts,  asking  q u e s t i o n s , u n r e a l i s t i c domestic and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s , and excessive reserve.  l£i  Concealing Associations Goffman (1963)  d e s c r i b e s a person who wished  d i s a b i l i t y as one who w i l l n o t i c e d i s a b i l i t y i n another person.  t o conceal h i s  r e v e a l i n g mannerism  "Moreover, he i s l i k e l y t o r e s e n t those  mannerisms t h a t a d v e r t i s e the f a c t o f d i s a b i l i t y , f o r i n wishing t o c o n c e a l h i s d i s a b i l i t y he wishes o t h e r s t o c o n c e a l t h e i r s " (P.86).  Kevin  your pants" here."  c r i t i c i z e d o t h e r s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s " p u l l up  "don't e a t i n here.  you're not supposed t o e a t i n  During games with normal p l a y e r s or s p e c t a t o r s , a group  of p l a y e r s drew a t t e n t i o n t o Sams behaviour which they never d i d d u r i n g p r a c t i s e s "Sam, put a l i d on i t . "  Mastering F a c t s Evans <1983> says " . . . t h a t some t r y t o master f a c t s t o make themselves  sound p r e c o c i o u s such as memorization  of sports  s t a t i s t i c s or t h e dates o f h i s t o r i c a l or p e r s o n a l e v e n t s " (p.125).  Ed, d u r i n g warmup, commented t o no one i n p a r t i c u l a r  "Buddy H o l l y c r a s h .  They found a l l h i s s t u f f - watch with  i n i t i a l s on i t i n t a c t "  I asked him how he knew and he s a i d "I  heard i t e i g h t y e a r s ago"  and d u r i n g a c o n v e r s a t i o n with members  of t h e Burnaby team i n the lobby o f t h e R e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e "Wayne Gretzky scored 92 g o a l s i n one season."  Grant was o f t e n r e c i t i n g  numbers and d e t a i l s completely out o f context "Oh, what a great meal they c a t e r e d t o us a t t h e bowling banquet. mashed p o t a t o e s .  Roast  They a r e going t o have t h e suspenders  beef, a f t e r the  banquet and they a r e going t o have 134 a t h l e t e s f o r t h e banquet. The s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y i s f o r 200" (March 2 1 ) .  122  Asking  Questions  Another method was  t o ask q u e s t i o n s c o m p u l s i v e l y t o draw  a t t e n t i o n away from t h e i r handicap.  "In being on the asking  r a t h e r than answering end of an i n t e r a c t i o n , they d i d not have t o d i s p l a y what they knew or d i d not know" (Evans, Grant was  1983,  n o t o r i o u s f o r asking q u e s t i o n s such as "Do  p. we  126). have  enough xerox c o p i e s ? " , "Have you got the schedule f o r the tournament?"  But when I t r i e d t o i n t e r v i e w him,  he was  uncomfortable  and  I t was p o s s i b l e  j u s t looked a t me  in silence.  very  t h a t the coaches i n a d v e r t e d l y c u l t i v a t e d t h i s q u a l i t y by him  giving  jobs t o do such as d i s t r i b u t i n g forms t o the a t h l e t e s .  U n r e a l i s t i c Domestic and O c c u p a t i o n a l A s p i r a t i o n s Another predominant p a s s i n g mode was domestic  and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s .  apparent  Tom  in unrealistic  t o l d me  the boss a t Lumberland and had t o " f i r e t h r e e guys." a s p i r e d t o an e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n with S p e c i a l  t h a t he  was  Jordan  Olympics.  E x c e s s i v e Reserve E x c e s s i v e r e s e r v e p r o v i d e s a defense t h a t many u t i l i z e :  They a v o i d a l l behaviour cause them t o laugh.  t h a t might upset o t h e r s or  Some become very s k i t t i s h ,  t o g r e a t , sometimes absurd  going  l e n g t h s to a v o i d c o n t a c t  with normal people.... Some r e t a r d e d people p l a y possum, or something e l s e .  Retarded  persons  may  p a s s i v e s t y l e f o r a number of reasons. a mask t h a t covers a g g r e s s i o n .  123  adopt the For some, i t i s  For o t h e r s i t i s a  r e a c t i o n t o f e e l i n g s t h a t i t i s f u t i l e f o r them t o t r y t o c o n t r o l t h e i r environments  (Evans, 1983,  p.  128).  J e s s , Jack, A l , C a r o l and t o an extent many o t h e r s i n v a r y i n g degrees e x h i b i t e d t h i s tendency. t h i s was  I t was  apparent  that  a coping s t r a t e g y because they became more open and  r e l a x e d as the season progressed, and they were animated  i n other  s e t t i n g s . Others, l i k e C a r r i e , C a r o l , Grant manifested the c o n f r o n t a t i o n with t a s k s t h a t they were i l l  equipped  i n t e l l e c t u a l l y t o handle by becoming anxious and f e a r f u l . expressed a n x i e t y as above; Linda s a i d "I thought he was hurt me.  And  I was  stomach", I d i d , and  h u r t i n s i d e myself."  Carrie going t o  Carol said " f e e l  my  I c o u l d f e e l her h e a r t r a c i n g .  There were t h r e e a t h l e t e s who  were non v e r b a l f o r  p h y s i o l o g i c a l reasons. As i t turned out, and t h i s c o u l d only have been d i s c o v e r e d over an extended  p e r i o d of time, a f o u r t h  person  whom I had c l a s s i f i e d as nonverbal because I had never seen her speak t o anyone, approached q u e s t i o n "how t h a t she was f o r him  me a t the end of the season with a  do you e x p l a i n what a s e i z u r e i s ? " I t turned out very a r t i c u l a t e but "Often they c r e a t e d i f f i c u l t i e s  ( o u t s i d e r ) as "defenses", t o keep him a t a d i s t a n c e or at  l e a s t t o s t a l l him o f f w h i l e he i s c o n s i d e r e d and examined more closely"  (Wagner, 1981,  p. 5 ) .  124  Furthermore,  B i k l e n and Moaeleya' a r t i c l e  <1988> d e s c r i b e d  how:  . . . i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f a s s e r t ( e d ) t h a t (a) man had no language,  although h i s f r i e n d s i n t h e group home  i n s i s t e d and t h e r e s e a r c h e r observed t h a t he spoke and communicated j u s t f i n e .  The informant d i d not  experience t h e s e t t i n g o f t h e t e s t as comfortable enough t o r i s k t a l k i n g , so he never d i d (p. 160).  A s i m i l a r experience o c c u r r e d when I was p r e s e n t i n g a coaching c l i n i c S p e c i a l Olympics  i n P o r t A l b e r n i years ago a t the i n c e p t i o n of i n B.C.  The a t h l e t e s were dead s i l e n t i n t h e  gymnasium as they t r i e d out the game o f f l o o r hockey.  This  c o n t r a s t e d with what i s t y p i c a l l y a rowdy, n o i s y s p o r t . former  The  coach o f the P o r t A l b e r n i team had s i n c e moved t o  Vancouver and i s a r e g i o n a l c o o r d i n a t o r , o f t e n a s s i s t i n g with the Vancouver team.  I mentioned my impressions t o her i n t h a t the  a t h l e t e s seemed so competent and she noted g e t t i n g the concept o f the game."  "they're r e a l l y  One way t o make sense o f t h i s  behaviour was t o a t t r i b u t e t h e s i l e n c e t o l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s brought  t o mind Evans <1983> quote " c o n v e r s a t i o n a l  r e p e r t o i r e s o f t h e mentally r e t a r d e d a r e l i m i t e d not by t h e handicap  but by the l i m i t of e x p e r i e n c e s " ( p . 122). Adding t o  t h i s i s a comment by one o f t h e parents o f the nonverbal a t h l e t e s when I commented on how much he had improved over the season " w e l l , they s a i d he would never he does t h a t now, no problem."  be a b l e t o take t h e bus alone but  Gender Awareness o£ gender r o l e s and a t t i t u d e s were d i s p l a y e d by the  a t h l e t e s where i n order t o pass as normal female a t h l e t e s  t a l k e d openly about the t o p i c but male a t h l e t e s d i d not.  Cathy  t o l d me t h a t Jack was her f i a n c e and Gary her e x - f i a n c e "but he used t o beat me up.  He asked me t o marry him J u l y 2."  The male  a t h l e t e s r a r e l y mentioned marriage or d a t i n g with the e x c e p t i o n of  K e i t h who c o n f i d e d t h a t h i s g i r l f r i e n d ' s name was C a r r i e and  he had met her a t church; he tended t o be q u i t e f l i r t a t i o u s and macho.  When he f i r s t  "woo woo"!  s p i e d a new female v o l u n t e e r he squealed  Some male members d i s p l a y e d i n t e r e s t i n the o p p o s i t e  sex n o n v e r b a l l y by p u t t i n g t h e i r arms around women or standing too  close.  L a t e r , i n the season, I heard t h a t J e s s was engaged  although he never mentioned a g i r l f r i e n d or appeared  interested  i n women i n the same way t h a t T e r r y never t a l k e d about d a t i n g y e t showed up with a g i r l f r i e n d a t t h e tournament  banquet.  When I  p o i n t e d out t o him t h a t "I never knew you had a g i r l f r i e n d " , he r e p l i e d "You got t o c o n c e n t r a t e on the game."  Bob brought h i s  g i r l f r i e n d S h e l l e y along t o a p r a c t i s e and wanted t o know i f she could j o i n . around L i n d a .  But he proceeded t o spend t h e evening with h i s arm Both Henshel <1972) and Edgerton <19S7) suggested  t h a t t h e i r s u b j e c t s would marry anyone as d i d Heshusius (1981) for  " J u s t t o have one <a g i r l f r i e n d or b o y f r i e n d ) was o f great  importance"(p.97) i n order t o g a i n membership i n t o t h e dominant culture.  1 c.'S  Seizures Athletes  look t o coaches as  'normalcy' guides i n t o the  dominant c u l t u r e f o r coping s t r a t e g i e s i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r stigma. One  One  of the a f f l i c t i o n s commonly experienced i s s e i z u r e .  a t h l e t e s u f f e r e d s e i z u r e s during  another a t h l e t e sought out a d v i c e concerning her  seizures.  the f i n a l tournament  on how  t o manage  T h i s t o p i c i s common and  and  information acceptable  w i t h i n the environment of S p e c i a l Olympics as: Goffman (1963) describes  back p l a c e s  where:  ... persons of the  i n d i v i d u a l ' s k i n d stand exposed  f i n d they need not t r y to conceal  t h e i r stigma, nor  o v e r l y concerned with c o o p e r a t i v e l y it.  Here the  C a r o l approached me  is?  would you  I mean I had  what i t i s ?  tell  (p.  with the q u e s t i o n me?  How  do  I tell  a seizure yesterday.  I t ' s hard t o e x p l a i n . "  How  Greg's massive s e i z u r e s and back and  Ed,  " i f I asked you people what a do you  tell  I suggested we Carol.  " T e l l them i t ' s l i k e you're daydreaming."  rocking  disattend  81).  manager) as I d i d not know what t o t e l l  son  t r y i n g to  be  i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be a b l e to be a t ease  among h i s f e l l o w s  question  and  who  She  was  ask  a  seizure people Barb <the  Barb t o l d  her  t a l k e d about  seated b e s i d e  us,  f o r t h on the bench, r e t o r t e d "I don't know  he never does a n y t h i n g " which puzzled versed i n the causes of s e i z u r e s . a s e i z u r e , I don't know what I'm  me  but may  and  why,  not t o someone  C a r o l s a i d "Well, saying  her  when I have  I say weird  things."  C a r o l f e l t c o m f o r t a b l e t a l k i n g t o us about her problem although  1£7  i t was apparent t h a t ahe d i d not f e e l the aame way about outsiders. and  other  The gymnasium was a s a f e p l a c e t o r e p o r t her anxiety  embarrassment about having p u b l i c s e i z u r e s .  S i m i l a r l y , Bob had two s e i z u r e s during the tournament and was thus banned from p l a y i n g any f u r t h e r f o r h i s own s a f e t y . admitted t h a t he had f o r g o t t e n t o take h i s p i l l s  He  and was  d i s t r a u g h t and behaved v i o l e n t l y when t o l d t h a t he c o u l d n ' t continue to play.  The team members s i l e n t l y watched him s e i z u r e  t w i c e and h i s angry r e a c t i o n a t having been benched. concerning  The r u l e  s e i z u r e s was s p e c i f i c t o play i n S p e c i a l Olympics and  something t h a t was understood and e a s i l y r e l a t e d t o w i t h i n team members and coaches.  Phantom Normalcy According when a r e t a r d e d  t o Goffman (1963), Phantom Normalcy i s achieved person s u c c e s s f u l l y passes as normal.  "There are  degrees o f phantom normalcy, and each has i t s r i s k s . The moderately s u c c e s s f u l passer f o o l s some of the people some o f the time or i s l e d t o b e l i e v e he does" (p. 126-127). exemplified She  Linda  t h i s i n her " r o l e " as a married woman (see p. 9 4 ) .  succeeded f o r a long p e r i o d o f time because she employed a l l  the c u l t u r a l symbols such as a r i n g , wedding photo and dates as proof  of her m a r i t a l s t a t u s .  She was c o n s i s t e n t i n her  v e r b a l i z a t i o n o f her m a r i t a l s t a t u s but not her behaviour as regarding  dominant c u l t u r a l r u l e s such as f i d e l i t y and  commitment.  I t was t h i s t h a t gave her away.  example i s noted.  Another s i m i l a r  One of the f i r s t n i g h t s of the season, I  noticed a g i r l  s i t t i n g on a bench with a notebook.  She s a i d her  name was Linda and she was doing her math homework. d i s c o v e r e d t h a t Linda was  Later, I  i n her f o r t i e s and d i d not go t o  school.  One a t h l e t e d i d not scheme t o pass as normal but responded spontaneously t o a c h a l l e n g e o f h i s s p o r t c u l t u r a l  knowledge.  B r i a n i s a S p e c i a l Olympic a t h l e t e from another team who v i s i t i n g the Vancouver team one p r a c t i s e . exchange  was  I overheard an  between h i m s e l f and a member of the Super Valu team  d u r i n g a break a t the game. "Do you p l a y b a s k e t b a l l ? "  The Super Valu member asked B r i a n  B r i a n s a i d "yes."  p l a y e r asked "what p o s i t i o n ? "  B r i a n s a i d "Second p o s i t i o n . "  Super Valu p l a y e r s a i d "pardon?" repeated "second p o s i t i o n . "  The Super Valu The  B r i a n looked uncomfortable and  The Super Valu p l a y e r s a i d  "pardon?"  B r i a n looked even more uncomfortable and repeated "second p o s i t i o n " blushing. face.  The degree of d i s t r e s s was apparent i n h i s  Both L i n d a and B r i a n were exposed i n t h e i r  passing  attempts.  Language There were phenomena a s s o c i a t e d with language i n the occurrence of speech e r r o r s connected t o stigma and coping s t r a t e g i e s which on a l a r g e r scope grew out of s o c i a l i s a t i o n w i t h i n the broader s o c i e t y  (primary s o c i a l i s a t i o n ) .  Besides  speech e r r o r s which o f t e n l e d t o c o n f u s i o n "I went t o v i o l e n c e s c h o o l " , I was  initiated  i n t o the mechanism o f what Goffman  (1963) r e f e r s t o as "phantom normalcy" which taught me t o reduce  129  literal  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f what was s a i d  problem).  (time took c a r e o f t h i s  Sometimes i t was obvious " I had t o f i r e a couple o f  guys" (the chances o f t h i s a t h l e t e being a s u p e r v i s o r a r e s m a l l ) and other times i t was not " I got married b e f o r e Christmas" ( i t was p l a u s i b l e t h a t any o f the a t h l e t e s c o u l d have been m a r r i e d ) . And,  o f course, I s t i l l  had t r o u b l e comprehending the speech of  nine of t h e a t h l e t e s t h a t came c o n s i s t e n t l y t o p r a c t i s e .  There  were a t h l e t e s who t a l k e d but made no sense t o me, e i t h e r because they had a c o n d i t i o n such as autism i n which they withdrew p e r i o d i c a l l y and c a r r i e d on monologues t h a t were d i s c o n n e c t e d "nuisance, snow, workshop." or d i d not connect t o my l i n e o f q u e s t i o n i n g "What do you t h i n k about your team?" "why?" "I l i k e Burnaby b e s t " and I asked play?"  "I l i k e Burnaby."  " I t ' s good"  "What p o s i t i o n do you  A f t e r t h i s exchange, I asked Barb, the  equipment manager, why A l focused on Burnaby and she provided me i n s i g h t i n t o the context o f h i s answers "Because h i s f r i e n d s were t a l k i n g about t h e game a g a i n s t Burnaby l a s t n i g h t . t a l k i n g about Burnaby and t h a t Jordan was t h e r e .  They were He wasn't at  the game l a s t n i g h t and he has never been t o Burnaby."  Another example of speech  t h a t appeared  out o f c o n t e x t ,  i n i t i a l l y , was d u r i n g a warm up when we were doing s i d e stretches.  I t was s i l e n t i n the gymnasium and Ed b l u r t e d out  "Buddy H o l l y c r a s h .  They found a l l h i s s t u f f - watch with  i n i t i a l s on i t i n t a c t . "  I was s t a n d i n g next t o him and asked how  he knew t h i s and he r e p l i e d " I heard i t e i g h t years ago." L a t e r , I remembered t h a t a t the beginning o f the p r a c t i s e , C h r i s , the coach, had asked everyone t o make sure they took o f f t h e i r  138  watches and  jewelry.  wondered i f Ed's  I d i d not know how  t o make sense of t h i s , I  comment r e g a r d i n g Buddy H o l l y ' s watch  was  r e l a t e d t o C h r i s ' s a d v i c e . Evans (1983) suggests t h a t , as a defense mechanism, some "...devoted  themselves to mastery of  s t a t i s t i c s or f a c t s t h a t would make them sound p r e c o c i o u s i . e . the memorization of s p o r t s s t a t i s t i c s or the dates of or p e r s o n a l e v e n t s "  (p. 126).  historical  In the lobby, one n i g h t , I  was  s i t t i n g on a bench l i s t e n i n g to a v e r b a l exchange between members of the Burnaby team and the Vancouver team, Ed s a i d "I'm oldest player.  I'm  a veteran."  Lance (Burnaby p l a y e r )  with "I've played t h i r t y y e a r s . " years ago was  1958.  Ed r e t o r t e d i n s t a n t l y  They d i d n ' t have i t .  has the r e c o r d f o r power p l a y g o a l s . g o a l s i n one  the countered "Thirty  I t h i n k Gordie Howe  Wayne Gretzky  scored  92  season."  Ten members of the team were d i f f i c u l t t o comprehend because of i n a r t i c u l a t i o n or incomprehension than a t h i r d of the team.  and t h i s represented more  E x a c e r b a t i n g the problem was  focused d e l i b e r a t e l y on speech r a t h e r than nonverbal initially,  because of the model I was  secondly, because i t was  themselves over and over.  o p e r a t i n g under and  I had t o ask t o repeat  O c c a s i o n a l l y I had help from other  a t h l e t e s i n i n t e r p r e t i n g nonverbal One  behaviour  a t h l e t e approached me  with h i a hands on h i s head, hopping and it,  and only t o me,  and  behaviour,  i m p o s s i b l e t o check out or make sense  out o f o b s e r v a t i o n s with someone who  w i t h i n t h i s study.  that I  but i t was  imitating a rabbit  laughing.  I never knew what i t meant.  youngest on the team, was  almost nonverbal  131  a problem  He always d i d Jason,  the  and behaved i n a very  coy  and cute way.  He would a i d l e up t o me aay " h e l l o " , knock on  my head and g i g g l e .  He o f t e n hugged the coaches and they allowed  him t o do t h i s which I thought was i n a p p r o p r i a t e . During games, he would play but would slowly back o f f the f l o o r towards the w a l l , only t o be g e n t l y pushed back on.  By the end of the  season, he was s t a y i n g on the f l o o r and making attempts t o h i t the  ring.  Simon, was a l s o nonverbal and  extremely e r r a t i c .  He, o c c a s i o n a l l y had t o be taken o f f the  f l o o r f o r h i t t i n g other p l a y e r s . s m i l i n g and l a u g h i n g .  At the same time, he would be  Goffman d e s c r i b e s the "in-group d e v i a n t "  wearing a happy and a c q u i e s c e n t inferiority.  h i s behaviour was  mask t o cover a c h r o n i c sense of  There were a t l e a s t f o u r people who behaved i n t h i s  manner although they would never acknowledge f e e l i n g s o f i n f e r i o r i t y and I do not know how one would e l i c i t t h a t would c o n f i r m t h a t n o t i o n .  information  CHAPTER V  Conclusions Athlete/Coach  I n t e r a c t i o n s - "My^hs"understandings  In the e a r l y days of s c i e n c e , i t was  b e l i e v e d t h a t the  t r u t h l a y a l l around us...was t h e r e f o r the t a k i n g . . . w a i t i n g , l i k e a crop of c o r n , only t o be harvested and gathered  in.  The t r u t h would make i t s e l f  known t o us i f only we would observe wide-eyed and thought  nature with t h a t  innocent p e r c e p t i v e n e s a t h a t mankind i s  t o have possessed  i n those Arcadian days before  the F a l l . . . b e f o r e our senses became d u l l e d by p r e j u d i c e and s i n .  Thus the t r u t h i s t h e r e f o r the t a k i n g only  i f we can p a r t the v e i l and observe in  of p r e j u d i c e and  t h i n g s as they r e a l l y are...(Medawar,  (Hammersley & A t k i n s o n , 1983,  "Myths" understandings  one  The  what lay b e f o r e the r e s e a r c h e r preceded  Viewing  1979)  p.12).  emerged g r a d u a l l y .  come an awareness t h a t myths e x i s t e d . of  preconception  But f i r s t had  literal  to  interpretation  this.  mental r e t a r d a t i o n as a s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t s h a t t e r s  myth, namely t h a t i t i s a b i o l o g i c a l property bestowed upon a  person a t b i r t h .  I f mental r e t a r d a t i o n i s p e r c e i v e d i n a  c u l t u r a l sense, where c u l t u r e , by d e f i n i t i o n , i s "...the body of learned b e l i e f s , t r a d i t i o n s , and guides f o r behavior t h a t are shared among members of any human s o c i e t y , " where 133  "...behavior  t h a t the members have a c q u i r e d by  by o b s e r v a t i o n ,  i n s t r u c t i o n a t the hands o f other  by i m i t a t i o n , or  members of t h a t group"  ( B a r r e t t , 1984, p.54) then t h e l i m i t a t i o n s imposed on those l a b e l l e d mentally  retarded  do not a r i s e from r e t a r d a t i o n , r a t h e r  from t h e dominant c u l t u r e s p e r c e p t i o n  itself.  Another myth predominating i s t h a t the mentally cannot r e p r e s e n t  themselves.  retarded  The purpose o f the study was t o  e l i c i t t h e a t h l e t e s viewpoint, because r a r e l y was t h i s undertaken. heard.  Rather, t h e v o i c e o f the parent or o f f i c i a l  was  However, i n s p i t e o f t h i s i n t e n t i o n , I made assumptions  regarding  who c o u l d a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r viewpoints which were  l a r g e l y based on appearance and behaviour and r e s u l t e d i n inadequate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  o f the team.  Myths have been generated by r e c r e a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n a l s who f e a r m i s a p p l i c a t i o n o f the n o r m a l i z a t i o n  principle.  Reverse  i n t e g r a t i o n and segregated s p o r t i s seen t o be damaging i n t h a t a (50/50 r a t i o i s u n l i k e the r a t i o i n s o c i e t y and i s t h e r e f o r e u n r e a l i s t i c f o r both d i s a b l e d and nondisabled a t h l e t e s themselves looked  i n d i v i d u a l s ) . The  t o the coaches as secondary  s o c i a l i s a t i o n agents who helped them "how do I e x p l a i n a s e i z u r e ? " i n t e r p r e t and model t h e dominant c u l t u r e values and behaviour i n a n e u t r a l environment.  134  Mentally r e t a r d e d people do not l e a r n . d i s p r o v e d many times  i n the study.  T h i s myth was  Improvements i n performance,  q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g s o c i a l customs o f d a t i n g and work, a s p i r a t i o n s towards work and c o m p e t i t i v e g o a l s a l l i n d i c a t e d a b i l i t y to learn.  "I j u s t s t a r t e d but a l r e a d y I won" a r t i c u l a t e s  the awareness and s t i m u l a t i o n o f improvement and s u c c e s s .  The myth t h a t mentally r e t a r d e d people stigma  attached t o being mentally  a r e not aware of t h e  r e t a r d e d i s d i s p r o v e d by t h e  e l a b o r a t e coping s t r a t e g i e s employed t o a l l a y t h e p a i n r e s u l t i n g from being t r e a t e d as i n f e r i o r .  The  myth t h a t a t h l e t e s a r e not c r i t i c a l or a n a l y t i c a l about  t h e i r experiences  or t h e people surrounding  them was c o n t r a d i c t e d  by t h e exposure t o f r o n t and back stage performances.  What  appeared t o be t r u e i n one s e t t i n g was f a l s e i n a d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g , f o r example, t h e a t h l e t e s d i d not c r i t i c i z e coaches or g o s s i p i n the gymnasium.  or c h a l l e n g e  But i n McDonalds, r a p i d f i r e  a n a l y s i s of p l a y s , s t r a t e g i e s and team mates was  observed.  I chose t h e t o p i c , a t h l e t e / c o a c h i n t e r a c t i o n : t h e a t h l e t e s p e r s p e c t i v e because I suspected  t h a t t h e coaches would make  assumptions, based on t h e i r own s p o r t s o c i a l i s a t i o n , as t o what the a t h l e t e s comprehended. disjunctures. although,  T h i s proved t o be t r u e ; t h e r e were  I d i d not expect  t o c a t c h myself  i n t h i s net,  l o g i c a l l y , as a member of t h e dominant c u l t u r e I, t o o ,  would make s i m i l a r assumptions.  E t h n o c e n t r i c i t y : "the tendency  t o e v a l u a t e other c u l t u r a l p r a c t i s e s one's own  culture"  (Barrett,  thereby i l l u m i n a t i n g  the  1984,  p.8)  athlete/coach interaction realities  of  d e f i n e s t h i s experience  for Special  to t h i s concept c o u l d r e s u l t  alternative  vantage p o i n t  o r i g i n of c u l t u r a l myths.  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Edgerton (1979) E n v i r o n m e n t s and Behaviour! The A d a p t a t i o n o f M e n t a l l y Retarded Persons. B a l t i m o r e : U n i v e r s i t y Park P r e s s . Schutz, A. (1967). of Human A c t i o n .  Common Sense and S c i e n t i f i c Phaengmenologica, 6-47.  Interpretation  S h e r r i l l , C. (1986). Adapted P h y s i c a l Education and R e c r e a t i o n ! A M u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y Approach (3rd e d . ) . Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown. Simmons, H. G. (1982). From Asylum t o Welfare. N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e on Mental R e t a r d a t i o n .  Downsview, ON:  Sparks, R. E. C. (1985). Knowledge S t r u c t u r e s i n Sport and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . S o c i o l o g y o f Sport J o u r n a l , (No. 2 ) , 1-8. S p r a d l e y , J . P. (1980). P a r t i c i p a n t O b s e r v a t i o n . H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston.  New York:  Spradley, J . P., & McCurdy, D. W. (1972). The C u l t u r a l E x p e r i e n c e ! Ethnography i n Complex S o c i e t y . Chicago, I L L : S c i e n c e Research A s s o c i a t e s .  141  Spradley, J . P. (1979). The Ethnographic Interview. H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston.  New York:  Spradley, J . P. (1970). You Owe Y o u r s e l f a Drunk], An Ethnography o f Urban Nomads. Boston: L i t t l e , Brown. Spradley, J . P., & Mann, B. (1975). The C o c k t a i l W a i t r e s s ^ Women^s Work i n a Male World. New York: Wiley. Stack, C. B. (1975). A l l Our K i n ! S t r a t e g i e s f o r S u r v i v a l i n Black Community. New York: Harper & Row. T a y l o r , S., Study o f Meyers, American  & Bogdan, R. (1981). A Q u a l i t a t i v e Approach t o t h e Community Adjustment. i n R. H. B r u i n i n k s , C. E. B. B. S i g f o r d , & K. C. L a k i n . Monograph o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n on Mental D e f i c i e n c y (No. 4 ) , 77-81.  Vaz, E. W. (1982). The p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of young hockey players. Lincoln: The U n i v e r s i t y o f Nebraska P r e s s . V i t e l l o , S. J . , & S o s k i n , R. M. I t s S o c i a l and L e g a l Context. Prentice-Hall.  (1985). Mental R e t a r d a t i o n ! Englewood C l i f f s , NJ:  Wagner, R. (1981). The I n v e n t i o n on C u l t u r e . Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s .  ( r e v . ed.)  Whittaker, E. (1986). D i s c o v e r i n g the Haole: The Grammar of the Fieldwork Encounter. i n The Mainland Haole, 48-73. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Whyte, W. F. (1955). S t r e e t Corner S o c i e t y ! The S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e of an I t a l i a n Slum (2nd e d . ) . Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s s . Wolfensberger, W., N i r j e , B., Olshansky, S., Perske, R., & Roos, P. (1972). The p r i n c i p l e o f n o r m a l i z a t i o n i n human s e r v i c e s Toronto: N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e on Mental R e t a r d a t i o n . Z e t l i n , A. G., & Murtaugh, M. (1988). F r i e n d s h i p P a t t e r n s of M i l d l y L e a r n i n g Handicapped and Nonhandicapped High School Students. American J o u r n a l on Mental R e t a r d a t i o n , 92 ( 5 ) , 447-454.  APPENDIX A  The A c t o r s B.C. S p e c i a l Olympic a t h l e t e s have v a r y i n g  backgrounds.  Some have been i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s e d a t one p o i n t i n t h e i r l i v e s and o t h e r s have never been.  Some have been i n t e g r a t e d i n t o normal  s c h o o l s w h i l e o t h e r s have never been t o s c h o o l .  Some l i v e a t  home with t h e i r p a r e n t s , o t h e r s i n group homes, s t i l l alone or with f r i e n d s . employed  others  They a r e young, o l d ; male, female;  and unemployed;  married and unmarried.  have two elements i n common.  But they a l l  One i s t h e i r mental handicap and  and another i s t h e i r membership i n B.C.S.O. (a non p r o f i t o r g a n i s a t i o n p r o v i d i n g s p o r t f o r t h e mentally handicapped)  It i s  these commonalities t h a t bind them together as a s u b c u l t u r e .  The D r i l l e r s  <B Team)  DAN Is t h e team c a p t a i n . a t Oakridge. skill  He was born i n 1959 and went t o s c h o o l  He l o o k s p e r f e c t l y normal and has a high l e v e l of  i n hockey.  He has, s i n c e l a s t season, become r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r l e a d i n g h i s team i n warmups which he d e s i g n s : has t h e team form a c i r c l e around him and does: shoulder r o l l s , s i d e bends, s t r e t c h i n g ham s t r i n g s , s i t u p s , pushups, up and down on toes s t r e t c h i n g c a l f muscles, l e g s t r e t c h e s t o t h e s i d e , running from s i d e t o s i d e , jogging around the gymn and d r i l l s which he a l s o develops, f o r example,  two s i d e s a r e formed and Dan stands i n  f r o n t moving h i s arms forward, sideways e t c . r e q u i r i n g the person on each s i d e t o move i n t h e d i r e c t i o n he i n d i c a t e s as q u i c k l y as  143  possible. still  Dan's f a t h e r was a former  soccer s t a r i n England.  l i v e s with h i s parents and works i n a greenhouse.  He  He i s  capable o f i n i t i a t i n g and l e a d i n g h i s team mates, o f t a l k i n g t o them d i p l o m a t i c a l l y r e g a r d i n g t h e i r behaviour  or misbehaviour; of  m a i n t a i n i n g c o n s i s t e n t s t a b l e behaviour. Dan p l a y s c e n t e r .  JACK Was born i n 1961 and went t o s c h o o l a t Oakridge. with h i s parents and works a t F r a s e r Workshop. d i f f i c u l t t o understand  when he speaks.  and maintains a bored or detached  He l i v e s  He i s very  He looks  unresponsive  look, although one time he  s u r p r i s e d me when I put my hand on h i a shoulder and p a t t e d i t and s a i d "good going. Jack" and he i m p u l s i v e l y hugged me. He o c c a s i o n a l l y l o s e s h i s temper. He has a p p a r e n t l y been engaged and f l i r t s with L i n d a .  Jack i s t h i n and very quick on the f l o o r ,  very motivated t o s c o r e when he p l a y s , however, o f t e n he j u s t s i t s on t h e s i d e l i n e s . with h i s b r o t h e r , s i s t e r wing.  H i s parents came t o the s p o r t s f e s t along i n law and t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  Jack p l a y s  He c a l l s me "my coach" which makes me f e e l good.  GARY Was born i n 1962 and went t o K i t s High. parents and works a t F r a s e r Workshop. expressive emotionally.  He l i v e s with h i s  He i s a t t r a c t i v e and very  He has a t e r r i b l e temper and a c c o r d i n g  t o a female s p e c t a t o r known as Cathy  (who says they were  engaged,) he beat her up c a u s i n g her t o break o f f the engagement. He i s a l s o known t o do the n o t o r i o u s T i g e r Dance but I can't d e s c r i b e i t because t h e head coach, C h r i s , wouldn't l e t him  144  demonstrate i t saying "no, loony."  He  i t ' s g r o s s , I don't l i k e i t . He goes  i s a good p l a y e r u s u a l l y p l a y i n g wing.  His father  o f t e n comes out t o watch.  JESS Was  born i n 1964  apartment and normal but, face.  He  and went t o Oakridge.  i s known f o r h i s nickname obsession  ( r e f e r r i n g t o a hockey r i n g ) .  "I'm  i . e . he  calls  the gas chamber, Mi3s Piggy  t h a t going past me  - a UFO?"  He has a dry sense of humour and  a complaint  T h i s was  previous record."  to l a c k of f l o o r time.  He  said  the only r e f e r e n c e of any He  i s very  and u s u a l l y f i x e s on g e t t i n g a "hat t r i c k " or beating  athlete  determined "my  i s very s u p p o r t i v e of h i s f e l l o w p l a y e r s  wears a hockey sweat s h i r t t o p r a c t i s e . from me  looks  apparent when he s a t a long time on the bench and  already r u s t i n g . "  nearing  He  own  l i k e Jack, wears a detached s u s p i c i o u s look - poker  uses c l i c h e s i . e . "what was  t h i s was  lives in his  i s going t o school to l e a r n e l e c t r o n i c s .  v a r i o u s team mates the t e r m i n a t o r , and  He  and  He kept h i s d i s t a n c e  f o r a long time, e v e n t u a l l y r e l a x i n g and c h a t t i n g . He  usually plays centre.  STEVE Was He  born i n 1953  l i v e s a t home and works i n r e g u l a r i n d u s t r y .  recently died.  He  t h i c k g l a s s e s and verbally. own  and went t o West P o i n t Grey s p e c i a l  His mother  i s a huge red headed bearded f e l l o w who has a d i f f i c u l t time e x p r e s s i n g  When he does, he sometimes s t u t t e r s .  t r u c k , which he bought with h i s own  145  class.  wears  himself He d r i v e s h i s  money, and  he i s very  wary of people bumming r i d e s from him. of h i s way  t o d r i v e someone.  He was  He w i l l not go a yard out  very f r i e n d l y t o me  from the s t a r t and would u s u a l l y approach s t a n d i n g r i g h t up t o me, uncomfortable friendliness). tender.  right  me by s a y i n g " H i " and  c h e s t t o c h e s t , i n an  p r o x i m i t y < with Steve, t h i s was  unbearably just  genuine  He i s very popular and i s an e x c e l l e n t goal  Although  I f e l t he c o u l d be q u i t e coy and  mentioned  dancing "three f a s t ones and one slow one" with a g i r l  a t the  P o r t A l b e r n i tournament, he showed extreme annoyance and d i s c o m f o r t around  Linda's f l i r t i n g .  CARRIE Was  born i n 1967  independent  and went t o Oakridge.  She  i s i n the  l i v i n g program, i n an apartment of her own  house manager t o p r o v i d e support, but was  semi-  with a  p r e v i o u s l y i n a group  home and d i d n ' t seem happy "when she's okay, she's okay i n home) but watch out when she's not.." She  (worker  i s attractive,  a t h l e t i c a l l y g i f t e d and quick and she expresses her emotions o f t e n and i n a dramatic way.  But she has problems with her  temper and she i s c o n s t a n t l y checking out as t o whether or not her behaviour  i s a p p r o p r i a t e . " I f you see me f r u s t r a t e d ,  'don't be f r u s t r a t e d ' " or "Am though I'm  pissed o f f ? "  very tense d u r i n g games. about good sportsmanship.  say  I h a n d l i n g myself b e t t e r even  C a r r i e i s h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e and becomes She  l o v e s t o win but t a l k s a t length  She sought out my a d v i c e on a number  of i s s u e s from c o l o u r i n g her h a i r t o camera care and asked me  to  take o f f and h o l d her p i e r c e d e a r r i n g s , take p i c t u r e s of her "make sure you get a p i c t u r e of me r e a l l y moving" and  146  l i s t e n to  her when she was upset interested  "I'm churned up i n s i d e " .  She was  r o m a n t i c a l l y i n George, t h e v o l u n t e e r coach from UBC.  She was not i n t e r e s t e d i n any of t h e mentally handicapped guys. She appeared t o be very high s t r u n g .  She was chosen t o compete  i n t h e B.C. games and was very e x c i t e d about t h a t .  She p l a y s  wing .  LISA Was born i n 1965 and went t o Oakridge.  She l i v e s a t home.  She i s t h i n k i n g about moving t o a group home " I might move t o a group home but I don't want t o be t o o f a r away from my p a r e n t s . My mom says whenever I'm ready.  I c o u l d go t o a grouphome i n  Burnaby but t h a t ' s t o o f a r from my f r i e n d s .  I got t o get a job  b e f o r e I move t o a group home." L a t e r i n the year she got a job a t Heroes.  L i s a l o o k s handicapped, speaks i n a very slow drawl,  her p o s t u r e i s hunched  and she looks sideways, not d i r e c t l y a t  the person she i s speaking t o (she a l s o wears g l a s s e s ) .  Cam i s  her b o y f r i e n d but she wants t o be a b l e t o play t h e f i e l d  "we get  t o dance with whoever we want."  She has i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g s t o say  about h e r s e l f " L e t me win and a l l t h a t . . . I always say t h a t before I p l a y " and has a wide v a r i e t y o f i n t e r e s t s , t e n n i s , swimming. She i n d i c a t e s t h a t she might have a r e l i g i o u s background  " i f God  had wanted you t o have r e d h a i r he'd have given you r e d h a i r " ( t o me) and uses the phone t o stay i n touch with f r i e n d s . p o s i t i o n i s Cams defense p a r t n e r .  147  Her  CAM Was born  i n 1954 and went, t o Vancouver Tech.  He l i v e s i n a  p r i v a t e apartment i n h i s parents home and worked a t Super Valu but a f t e r t h e l o c a l s t o r e c l o s e d , he got a job a t McDonalds which he l i k e s as much as the one a t Super V a l u . a f t e r Eldon  Cam i s known as Pokey  (Pokey) Reddick o f the Winnipeg J e t s and he i s  f r i e n d l y and sweet.  He i s t a l l  and overweight  very  and wears g l a s s e s .  He g i v e s t h e appearance o f being shy and o f t e n asks f o r help i n doing the r i g h t t h i n g such as asking me t o check over a note t o L i s a or a s k i n g Pam t o g i v e him L i s a s phone number.  But he  appears t o have i n s i g h t i n t o what h i s problem i s "they're b u i l d i n g up my c o n f i d e n c e " he s a i d about h i s p a r e n t s .  He has a  l o t o f empathy f o r f e l l o w p l a y e r s "we were h e l p i n g the weaker group...Dan and I and some o f the other guys have been what t h e y ' r e going through.  through  We know what t h e y ' r e doing wrong.  We can show them the r i g h t way."  Cam i s very proud o f the  a s s o c i a t i o n he has had with famous people through S p e c i a l Olympics and t a l k s about t h i s a l o t "Next monday, I ' l l m e d a l l i o n and p i c t u r e o f me and Doug M i l l e r .  b r i n g my  He's the CKVU  weatherman" and " I was on t h e r a d i o " and "Some o f us were on wide world o f s p o r t s . " behaviour  Cam never d i s p l a y s anything but gentlemanly  and has g r e a t r e s p e c t from h i s team mates.  He i s  always happy t o go f o r c o f f e e and i s my main informant,  has most  peoples phone numbers and has been around a long time.  He p l a y s  defense  and has scored two g o a l s t h i s  148  season.  SCOTT Was born i n 1961 and went, t o Oakridge. has a j o b .  S c o t t i s over s i x f e e t t a l l  person on t h e team.  but the most g e n t l e  He i s r e g u l a r l y provoked by Simon and  r e f u s e s t o f i g h t " I don't want t o f i g h t . the request  He l i v e s a t home and  he made t o C h r i s and Barb.  d i s c o v e r e d , was being pressured  What should  I do?" i s  He, i t was l a t e r  by Tom t o g i v e him money and the  account i s , t h a t he stayed away from hockey because he was a f r a i d of Tom.  S c o t t i s a slow p l a y e r mostly due t o h i s bulk but i s a  good defenseman and seems t o f o l l o w t h e game w e l l .  We never  really interacted.  JEFF Was born i n 1953 and went t o Oakridge. works f o r a company. natured  and g e n t l e .  He l i v e s a t home and  J e f f i s a good l o o k i n g man and i s very good He i s one o f t h e gang c o n s i s t i n g o f T e r r y ,  J e s s , Gary, Dan and Jack.  He i s a good p l a y e r and u s u a l l y  p o s i t i o n s as wing. He i s a r t i c u l a t e but r a r e l y spoke.  He t a l k e d  more a t the banquet d u r i n g the tournament about h i s o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e success o f t h e team.  He seemed t o enjoy  and want  t o analyse t h e performance o f the team a t the tournament. H i s parents came t o watch him p l a y a t t h e tournament.  The  B l a s t e r s iC Team).  TERRY Was born i n 1963 and went t o Lord Byng. and UBC.  He l i v e s a t home  works a t Eraser Workshop and a l s o does j a n i t o r i a l d u t i e s a t Terry i s goal tender  f o r t h e C team and i s a very i49  hard  working p l a y e r .  He i s devoted t o aporta and when I aaked him i f  why he never t a l k e d about h i a g i r l c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e game."  f r i e n d , he s a i d "got t o  Terry l o v e s t o use s p o r t j a r g o n . He  t a l k s about h i m s e l f as having been "a f r e e agent" and about the "Canucks Pat  (having) made a d e a l with P h i l a d e l p h i a today...I t h i n k  Quinn t a l k e d t o him about t h e Berry guy.  I f he say l e t s s i g n  Berry so Pat Quinn c a l l s him up and says s i g n t h a t paper. nobody can take him. Canucks."  Now  He's the property o f the Vancouver  T e r r y i s popular with everyone and i s very shrewd a t  m a n i p u l a t i n g r i d e s -- Steve s t a y s a m i l e away from him but I found myself somehow d r i v i n g " j u s t a l i t t l e way" a l l t h e way down East Hastings.  He a l s o managed t o sneak h i s g i r l  f r i e n d i n t o the  tournament banquet, he i s a r e a l wheeler and d e a l e r .  Terry i s  good a t psyching up t h e team.  KEVIN Was born i n 1954 and l i v e s i n A r l i n g t o n group home. works a t Pandora/Varco. wears t h i c k g l a s s e s .  He  Kevin has Downs Syndrome, i s s m a l l and  He i s v e r y s e r i o u s and concerned about  f o l l o w i n g r u l e s as he admonished  C a r o l a few times "You a r e not  supposed t o e a t i n t h e gymn." He has a l o t of o p i n i o n s and c o n s i d e r s Pat t h e boss. understand.  He i s a good p l a y e r but i s d i f f i c u l t  to  H i s good f r i e n d i s A l with whom he l i v e s and works.  During t h e tournament Kevin t o l d me he would b r i n g p i c t u r e s o f his  family.  He spoke much more t o me i n t h i s s e t t i n g than t h e  p r a c t i s e s and games.  158  AL Was born i n 1955 and l i v e a i n t h e A r l i n g t o n group home. works a t Pandora/Varco. d i s a b l e d of t h e group. and,  He  A l , appearance wise, i s one o f t h e most He wears t h i c k g l a s s e s , limps h e a v i l y  l i k e Cathy, l o o k s sideways a t t h e person he i s speaking t o  ( i f t h e person i s not f a m i l i a r t o him).  He a l s o i s very  d i f f i c u l t t o understand and tends t o repeat what he has immediately e x p e r i e n c e d . him, he responded Burnaby. his  For example, when I was i n t e r v i e w i n g  t o a l l my q u e s t i o n s with some r e f e r e n c e t o  I asked Barb why t h a t would be so and she s a i d  f r i e n d s were t a l k i n g about the game a g a i n s t Burnaby  "Because last  night.  They were t a l k i n g about Burnaby and t h a t Jordan was  there.  He wasn't a t the game l a s t n i g h t and he has never been t o  Burnaby."  A l , o f a l l t h e a t h l e t e s seems t h e most anxious t o be  a s s o c i a t e d with anyone o f higher f u n c t i o n i n g .  He o f t e n says  "Jordan, he's my f r i e n d " or "Len, he's my f r i e n d . "  He i s very  c h a t t y with t h e mentally handicapped and l o v e s C h r i s , t h e coach, but i s very r e t i c e n t with u n f a m i l i a r normal  head  people.  LEE Was born i n 1962 and went t o Oakridge. Pandora/Varco  He works a t  and l i v e s a t A r l i n g t o n Group home.  Syndrome and i s very t h i n .  He i s n o n v e r b a l .  Lee has Downs  Lee always wears a  worn out bowling badge on h i s T s h i r t and uses hand s i g n a l s at times.  He i s an e x c e l l e n t p l a y e r .  him, he d i d not mix much.  Although a l l seemed t o l i k e  He understood t h e d r i l l s and f o l l o w e d  them w e l l and was a g i l e and f l e x i b l e .  151  JASON Was school.  born i n 1970 and i a a student a t John O l i v e r high He has l i v e d with h i s f o s t e r p a r e n t s s i n c e he was  two.  He i s i n a T r a i n a b l e c l a s s but takes P.E. from a r e g u l a r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher and p l a y s with "the guys"  i n soccer.  He i s  c l a s s i f i e d as moderately handicapped a c c o r d i n g t o h i s mother but he appears very low f u n c t i o n i n g .  He g i g g l e s a l o t and  stands on the f l o o r watching and g i g g l i n g a t the p l a y . very f r i e n d l y and o f t e n approached me "how coaches and seems very happy.  are you"  generally He i s  He hugs the  Jasons mother says he never stops  t a l k i n g a t home but he never i n t e r a c t e d v e r b a l l y with me other than h i s behaving i n a t e a s i n g manner.  Hia mother says he has a  g r e a t sense of humour but doesn't t h i n k he i s handicapped or at l e a s t does not show i t i f he does.  She says, he does f o r g e t and  understands people but has a hard time meeting people.  His  teacher says t h a t he r e a l l y p i c k s up i n P.E. then r e g r e s s e s and t h a t she t h i n k s i t c o u l d be due t o the s k i l l s not happening on a r e g u l a r b a s i s or not t r a n s f e r r i n g from hockey t o s c h o o l and  vice  v e r s a or t h a t i t i s e m o t i o n a l .  LARRY Waa his  born i n 1965 and went t o Oakridge s c h o o l .  f o s t e r mother and works a t Pandora/Varco.  syndrome and i s very overweight.  he l i v e s with  L a r r y has downs  He i s a b i t d i f f i c u l t  to  understand but t a l k s a l l the time about h i s g i r l f r i e n d s and church and when he spoke, he stood i n very c l o s e p r o x i m i t y - too c l o s e f o r comfort.  He o f t e n behaved d e f i a n t l y and s t u b b o r n l y i n  p r a c t i s e s , l a y i n g down on the ground when he d i d n ' t want t o do  15£  something,  or c r y i n g "I don't want t o be on t h i s team, uh, uh.  don't want t o . "  I  L a r r y d i d not seem i n t e r e s t e d i n the game a t a l l  and spent most of h i s time t r y i n g t o get a t t e n t i o n from the coaches.  He c o u l d be a moat c o u r t l y and charming  individual.  SAM Was  born i n 1961.  He i s l o o k i n g f o r a 30b through Jobs West  and i s a l s o l o o k i n g f o r a r e s i d e n c e . his  f a t h e r , one o f the a t h l e t e s t o l d me h i s mother d i e d a s h o r t  time ago. Sam  P r e s e n t l y he i s l i v i n g with  He i s a u t i s t i c , very t a l l ,  l a r g e and good l o o k i n g .  never misses a p r a c t i s e , always comes i n c u t o f f jeans and  h o l d s the hockey  stick directly  i n f r o n t of him l i k e a cane.  He  does not i n t e r a c t with other p l a y e r s but o f t e n makes r e p e t i t i o u s n o i s e s "bobby bubbles, bobby bubbles", "Camay, Camay" and sometimes he s p i t s or blows h i s l i p s and c o r r e c t s h i m s e l f "That's silly, so.  isn't i t ?  And  i t s bad f o r your l i p s .  And the doctor s a i d  Is t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour or i n a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour?"  During p r a c t i s e s , nobody c o r r e c t s Sam  but d u r i n g games when  normal p l a y e r s are p r e s e n t , they c o r r e c t him and a c t as they are embarrassed.  Sam  does not seem connected t o the game  any more than he i s t o the p l a y e r s . to  though  He has been going t o s c h o o l  get t r a i n i n g f o r a job but has y e t t o succeed i n f i n d i n g a  job.  MURRAY Was  born i n 1962 and went t o Burnaby South High S c h o o l .  l i v e s with h i s b l i n d aunt i n an apartment Powell "a r e g u l a r company."  Murray  153  He  and works a t A t l a s on  i s d i f f i c u l t t o understand  but i s very m i l d mannered. and a c c o r d i n g t o Cam His  He doesn't i n t e r a c t much with anybody  "Apparently he doesn't have any  aunt p a i d me t o take him t o a show.  I was  friends.  surprised."  Although a f t e r watching Linda f l i r t with many of the males on the team, he made an attempt t o i m i t a t e t h i s a t the end of the season but looked as though he f e l t extremely s e l f c o n c i o u s .  Murray  p l a y s hard but i s not too concerned with the r e s u l t s of the games.  LINDA Was  born i n 1944  and says she went t o Our Lady of Sorrows i n  grades 1, 2, and 3 and then went t o Oakridge. a group home but i s now and i s not employed.  i n a semi-independent  She was  living in  apartment  situation  At the beginning o f the season, Linda came  as a s p e c t a t o r and was  s i t t i n g on the s i d e l i n e s "doing math  homework" - she s a i d she had a t e s t t o study f o r . I had asked her why  she d i d n ' t p l a y and she s a i d "I c a n ' t .  operated on"  My knees have been  ( l a t e r she t o l d me she j u s t had a t u b a l  ligation)  but she j o i n e d the next week and turned out t o be a very competent p l a y e r as Terry s a i d "she's good".  When I asked her  what her reasons f o r p l a y i n g were she s a i d "You t a l k e d me it.  You asked me  l e a r n how  i f I was  to play."  going t o s t a r t and I d i d .  L i n d a has a problem around men  into  I wanted t o  and has had  i n v o l v e d f l i r t a t i o n s with a t l e a s t f i v e team members although she p u r p o r t s t o be m a r r i e d . the  She has an e x t e n s i v e f a n t a s y world.  end of the season she became d i s t r a u g h t s a y i n g t h a t a team  member had put h i s hands down her pants, another g i r l on the other team was  t h r e a t e n i n g her with a k n i f e , Tom  154  was b o t h e r i n g  At  her about, money and Don (member o f another team) had raped her friend.  She a l s o was going  t o have s e r i o u s surgery  l a s t t a l k e d t o her was going  to "Violence school."  and when I But Linda i s  very a r t i c u l a t e and w e l l groomed and has a p l e a s a n t manner, however she does take c e n t r e  stage.  ED Was born i n t h e e a r l y 1940s ( he says he i s 46) and was r e l u c t a n t t o say where he went t o s c h o o l .  "In New Westminster.  I c o u l d t e l l you but i t wouldn't be necessary...oh w e l l . Woodlands."  H i s mother r e c e n t l y d i e d and Ed l i v e s on h i s own i n  an apartment although he i s c l o s e t o h i s f a m i l y who took him " t o Hawaii s i x times and Mexico."  He formerly  played with t h e  Vancouver Richmond A s s o c i a t i o n team i n 1972 and went t o S p e c i a l Olympics i n Winnipeg i n 1974.  He says t h a t f l o o r hockey was  i n f e r i o r because t h e r e was no c o m p e t i t i o n . and  has wry w i t and y e t i s capable of t a k i n g o f f h i s pants i n t h  gymn t o change i n t o h i s sweats. is  He i s a p h i l o s o p h e r  He i s t a l l , s l e n d e r , though he  concerned with h i s weight - "they're  (other team mates) not  concerned with t a k i n g o f f t h e weight but as you get o l d e r i t ' s important" and he has t h i c k g l a s s e s and o f t e n has t r o u b l e his  s i g h t when he i s p l a y i n g .  a goal.  Ed i s v o r a c i o u s  with  i n h i s pursuit of  Nothing stands i n h i s way i n h i s determination  t o win.  He t a l k s c o n s t a n t l y about hockey s c o r e s , d e t a i l s about teams and he i s c r i t i c a l o f r e f e r e e s and h i s team mates performance, sometimes d i s p l a y i n g d i s g u s t a t t h e i r incompetence "some p l a y e r s weren't up t o doing anything."  anything"  or "I don't know why, he never doe  Ed i s a r t i c u l a t e and an a v i d Canuck f a n and i s f u l l  155  of  comments and i n f o r m a t i o n  about the hockey world.  of  the most o p i n i o n a t e d people on the team.  n i g h t at h i s home and the T.V. h a r d l y hear him.  was  He i s one  I had c a l l e d him  one  b l a r i n g so l o u d l y I c o u l d  Ed a l s o never l o o k s a person i n the eye.  CAROL Was  born i n 1967 and f i r s t  went t o s c h o o l a t the C h i l d r e n s '  Foundation (because of severe emotional problems), then went t o Oakridge and then r e g u l a r high s c h o o l . the  hockey  season).  She l i v e d a t home ( a f t e r  Her b r o t h e r always brought her t o p r a c t i s e s .  C a r o l i s a t t r a c t i v e and an e x c e l l e n t p l a y e r and s c o r e s o f t e n . When she misses a shot, she sometimes bangs her head a g a i n s t the w a l l or b i t e s h e r s e l f , a behaviour t h a t very much alarmed a v o l u n t e e r coach.  She takes her purse wherever she goes and  u s u a l l y has food tucked i n s i d e and a cup of c o f f e e with her as well.  Although she knows she i s not t o do t h i s , nothing stops  her from t r y i n g .  C a r o l s a i d almost nothing f o r the f i r s t  months, and I was  shocked when she approached  asked you q u e s t i o n would you t e l l me?  How  me and s a i d " I f I  do I t e l l  a seizure i s ? "  I had never i n t e r v i e w e d her because  was n o n v e r b a l .  She i s a u t i s t i c .  She was  people what I assumed she  very fond of one of the  v o l u n t e e r coaches and made him a p a i r of s l i p p e r s . asked me  two  When she  i f I would l i k e her t o make me a p a i r , I s a i d sure and  she r e p l i e d " T h a t ' l l be ten d o l l a r s . "  She t a l k e d about her  medication and s e i z u r e s and p h y s i c a l d i s c o m f o r t and l i k e s u f f e r s p a i n i n her abdomen  (stress?)  156  Carrie  GRANT Was  born  i n 1946  and went t o " p r i v a t e s c h o o l . "  an apartment on h i s own  new  He  i s small and b a l d i n g and  His nickname by the team members i s  t a l k s too much."  Grant  lives in  and makes money by l o o k i n g a f t e r  c l e a n i n g of the b u i l d i n g . nonstop.  He  i s concerned  the  talks  "chatterbox"..."he  with d e t a i l "we've got  s t i c k s f o r the game f o r both teams.  Barbs o r d e r i n g 12  24 new  s t i c k s f o r the game...Oh what a great meal they c a t e r e d t o us at the bowling  banquet..  r o a s t beef, mashed potatoes.  They are  going t o have the suspenders a f t e r the banquet and t h e y ' r e going to  have 134  athletes."  He  i s sometimes given the task of handing  out forms with a t h l e t e s names on them. always has a s m i l e on h i s f a c e . h i m s e l f d u r i n g the games. watch and h i s b r o t h e r was Grant c a l l s Pam,  His speech i s slow and  He r e a l l y appears t o enjoy  At the tournament, h i s p a r e n t s came t o a score keeper.  He seems c o n f i d e n t .  the c o o r d i n a t o r a t home t o check out d e t a i l s  make sure nobody has f o r g o t t e n a n y t h i n g . team manager.  he  and  He would make a good  However, he i s a p p a r e n t l y absent minded when i t  comes to h i m s e l f : he f o r g o t h i s shoes and Pam  had t o run to h i s  house t o get them b e f o r e a game and he has been run over  three  times i n the same spot by a c a r .  BOB Was  born  i n 1963  and  works a t a lumber y a r d .  l i v e s i n the A r l i n g t o n group home. Bob  initially  He s a i d nothing but l e e r e d and c l o s e t o my  was  scary t o be around.  stood extremely  body and f o r the f i r s t  few  and  uncomfortably  p r a c t i s e s asked  home and d i d not e a s i l y take no f o r an answer.  157  He  for a ride  By the end of the  season, he was normal i n h i s i n t e r a c t i o n with me.  He  regularly  bears c u t s and b r u i s e s "I had a s e i z u r e a t work and h i t the concrete.  I was  lifting  heavy boxes."  normal but moves and r e a c t s s l o w l y .  He i s t a l l and  looks  H i s speech i s slow and  laboured, sometimes i t appears as though he i s on drugs of some sort.  He  had a problem with Linda i n being accused of t a k i n g  advantage of her and he brought a handicapped g i r l t o p r a c t i s e t o get  her "on the team" but he i s a good and determined p l a y e r .  had t o be p h y s i c a l l y r e s t r a i n e d from p l a y i n g a t the  He  tournament  a f t e r having been d i s q u a l i f i e d f o l l o w i n g two s e i z u r e s on the gymn floor.  JAKE Was  born i n 1967 and l i v e s with f o s t e r p a r e n t s .  n a t i v e Indian and was the  season.  He i s  very f r i e n d l y and chatty a t the s t a r t of  He t o l d me about "Pow  wow"  t h a t he a t t e n d s with h i s  s o c i a l worker and d e s c r i b e d the t h i n g s he had learned a t R i l e y Park Community c e n t r e .  We played b a s k e t b a l l and he showed me the  s h o t s he had l e a r n e d a t the c e n t r e and t o l d me he weight t h e r e as w e l l .  lifted  In mid February, t h e r e was an i n c i d e n t i n which  Greg a l l e g e d Jake s t r a n g l e d him i n the washroom and Jake d i d not r e t u r n t o hockey a f t e r t h i s .  My assumption was t h a t the reason  was connected t o t h i s i n c i d e n t , but I found out l a t e r t h a t that was not the case a t a l l .  158  SIMON Was born i n 1953 and went t o Oakridge. A r l i n g t o n group home.  He l i v e s i n t h e  Simon i s nonverbal and h y p e r a c t i v e .  He  looks q u i t e handicapped and has t r o u b l e i n c o n t r o l l i n g h i s emotions i n the gymn although he always has a s m i l e on h i s f a c e . His body i s r i g i d and i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o know what he understands but every p r a c t i s e he b r i n g s a helmet t o a coach f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n p u t t i n g t h e s t r a p on.  He i s f u s s y about t h e f i t  t r i e s on a l o t of helmets before he i s happy.  and sometimes  When he got a new  p a i r of sweat pants, he p o i n t e d t h i s out t o us p r o u d l y .  Simon had  t r o u b l e i n warmup and needed a s s i s t a n c e i n p o s i t i o n i n g h i s body. During games, he c o u l d g e t upset e a s i l y and was guided o f f t h e f l o o r t o c o o l down.  GREG Was born i n 1961 and went t o Oakridge. and l i v e s a t home with h i s p a r e n t s . Panndora/Varco. team.  He i s an only  child  Greg works a t  H i s mother Barb i s t h e equipment manager f o r t h e  Greg i s mentally handicapped, hemiplegic and has a shunt  i n h i s neck.  He i s more o f a l o n e r i n t h a t he does not i n t e r a c t  with other p l a y e r s - does not converse. i s always c h e e r f u l .  He t o l d me "I'm  But he t a l k s a l o t and  always on c a l l .  The guy I  r e p l a c e g e t s drunk on a l c o h o l and I have t o go i n . " He t o l d me I should not work s h i f t s " I t ' s hard on you" as a p p a r e n t l y h i s f a t h e r worked  s h i f t s b e f o r e he r e t i r e d .  Gregs' a t t e n t i o n span i s  s h o r t and i t was d i f f i c u l t t o g e t an i n t e r v i e w with him although he always was asking i f I would i n t e r v i e w him.  159  TOM l a a former Vancouver p l a y e r .  I f i r s t , met  him when I  working with the Burnaby Soccer team and he was  a s p e c t a t o r at a  Burnaby S p o r t s Club game a g a i n s t the Burnaby Blue Hawks. so proud of h i s coach P h i l Leblond.  Tom  t h i s past season i n f r e q u e n t l y but was a l c o h o l on o c c a s i o n and bragged  was  He  came t o the p r a c t i s e s  feared.  He reeked of  of having t o f i r e someone.  He  e x t o r t s money a c c o r d i n g t o p l a y e r s and the equipment manager t o l d me t h a t S p e c i a l Olympics  c o u l d do nothing as long as he  d i d n ' t i n t e r f e r e i n the gymn.  He would a p p a r e n t l y approach  a t h l e t e s o u t s i d e the c e n t r e .  Tom  was  assumed t h a t because  who  he was a  good p l a y e r he c o u l d not show up t o p r a c t i s e s but be allowed t o compete i n S p o r t s f e s t and was  very upset when C h r i s s a i d  he  c o u l d not.  JORDAN Is a mentally handicapped i s married t o P a t t i ,  Burnaby coach/manager/player.  He  l i v e s i n a house, d r i v e s a c a r , works at  Vancouver General H o s p i t a l and seems t o be everywhere a t once. He f a n t a s i z e s about being a d i r e c t o r / l e a d e r / m a n of  importance.  Jordan i s m a n i p u l a t i v e and devious a c c o r d i n g t o a t h l e t e s . s a i d " L i s a , T e r r y and I are enemies t o Burnaby.  We  with Burnaby.  coach.  one who me"  I used t o be c a p t a i n .  c u t us."  I asked why  used t o play  he c u t them and he r e p l i e d  They don't t r u s t him and c a l l him  says he i s h i s f r i e n d .  Jordan was  He's  the  "Beats  " J o r d a n i e " except A l  Jordan p r e s e n t s another f a c e t o  160  Jess  who  normal  coaches and o u t s i d e r s - eager to p l e a s e , humble such as i n posing a q u e s t i o n t o the coach Pat "How  do you c a l l  aggressive  p l a y i n g ? " and Pat responded with "I don't know. You're the Ref".  161  APPENDIX B P r a c t i c e and Game Schedule DATE  EVENT  LOCATION  JANUARY 5  ORIENTATION  MT. PLEASANT  JANUARY 1 2  PRACTISE  MT. PLEASANT  JANUARY 1 9  GAME-JEWISH COM. CNTR. VS. VAN. TEAM  MT. PLEASANT  JANUARY 2 6  GAME-Super Valu VAN. TEAM  MT. PLEASANT  FEB  GAME-Super Valu VAN. TEAM  MT. PLEASANT  FEB  8  PRACTISE  S.F.  SCHOOL  FEB  15  PRACTISE  S.F.  SCHOOL  FEB  16  GAME-BURNABY TEAM VS. VAN. TEAM  MT. PLEASANT  FEB  22  PRACTISE  S.F.  FEB  23  GAME-Super Valu VAN. TEAM  MT. PLEASANT  FEB  29  GAME-RICHMOND TEAM VS. VAN. TEAM  S.F. SCHOOL MT. PLEASANT  SCHOOL  MARCH  1  PRACTISE  MARCH  7  PRACTISE CANCELLED  MARCH  8  GAME-MT. PLEASANT COMMUNITY STAFF VS. VAN. TEAM  MT. PLEASANT  MARCH  14  GAME-BURNABY TEAM VS. VAN. DRILLERS  S.F.  MARCH  15  PRACTISE  MT. PLEASANT  MARCH  21  GAME-SURREY TEAM VS. BURNABY TEAM  S.F. SCHOOL (REFEREES PRACTISE)  MARCH  22  GAME-COQUITLAM TEAM VS. VAN.  MT. PLEASANT  MARCH  29  GAME-BURNABY VS.VAN MT. PLEASANT 16cl  COFFEE  MCDONALDS 4 ATHLETES  SCHOOL  MCDONALDS 2 ATHLETES  MCDONALDS 4 ATHLETES  APPENDIX C Question Framework The  purpose of the study was  t o d i s c o v e r the a t h l e t e s '  understanding o f : 1. the coaches' g o a l s , p r i o r i t i e s expectations;  and  2. teams' g o a l s , p r i o r i t i e s and s t r a t e g i e s ;  3. p l a y e r s ' g o a l s , p r i o r i t i e s and  expectations.  I began i n t e r v i e w i n g a t h l e t e s i n f o r m a l l y on March 1, and  continued  throughout t h i s month.  On  the f i r s t day  1988,  of  p r a c t i s e , as I spoke t o each a t h l e t e i n d i v i d u a l l y , I t o l d t h a t I was  i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r o p i n i o n s about how  worked, how asking  they f e l t about the s p o r t e t c . and  participated  some a l l u d e d t o other  i n t e r v i e w and  season, I recognised  i n being  p e r s o n a l i t i e s being questions  had office.  L a t e r on i n the  t h a t many of the a t h l e t e s watched a great  d e a l of s p o r t on T.V. cooperation  to t h e i r  did a story."  be  They seemed  i n t e r v i e w s they  i n " s p e c i a l O l y m p i c s c a l l e d me  They d i d a l i t t l e  the team  t h a t I would  them l a t e r i n the season t o speak to me.  i n t e r e s t e d and  them  and  I wondered i f the e n t h u s i a s t i c  interviewed interviewed  reminded them of " a f t e r the game."  sports I centered  around the f o l l o w i n g framework but o f t e n I was  my  short  c i r c u i t e d by a l i m i t e d v e r b a l a b i l i t y or understanding of what I was  getting at.  I g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w e d where the a t h l e t e s l e d  1.  What does the a t h l e t e understand of the coaches'  What i s h i s / h e r d e f i n i t i o n of a goal? or broad goals? both?  goals?  Does he/she have s p e c i f i c  Does he/she have weekly g o a l s or seasonal  Are h i s / h e r g o a l s i n d i v i d u a l o r i e n t e d or team  163  me.  or  oriented?  Are h i s / h e r g o a l s c o m p e t i t i v e natured;  towards  behaviour  m o d i f i c a t i o n ; team sportsmanship; p e r s o n a l development; f i t n e s s ; socialization;  integration?  Are h i s / h e r g o a l s c o n s i s t e n t ?  Does  he/she a d j u s t h i s / h e r g o a l s o f t e n , o c c a s i o n a l l y , or a t a l l ?  Does  he/she t h i n k they a r e r e a l i s t i c and a t t a i n a b l e ?  2.  What does t h e a t h l e t e understand  about the coaches'  expectations? What i s h i s / h e r d e f i n i t i o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n ? d e f i n e mental handicap? individual?  How does he/she p e r c e i v e a b i l i t y o f the  Of t h e team?  comprehension of s k i l l s ,  How does he/she  What a r e h i s / h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f drills,  strategy?  the a t h l e t e t o have p e r s o n a l g o a l s ?  Does he/she  expect  Does he/she expect t o  i n v o l v e the a t h l e t e i n d e c i s i o n making or goal s e t t i n g ? he/she expect  good attendance and proper  behaviour,  h i s / h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g attendance,  Does  or what a r e  behaviour,  dress?  What type o f r e l a t i o n s h i p does he/she expect t o have with athletes?  3.  What i s t h e a t h l e t e s ' understanding  o f the coaches'  priorities? Is i t c o m p e t i t i o n ; r e c r e a t i o n ; s o c i a l i s a t i o n ; sportsmanship? i t a p r i o r i t y t h a t he/she "know" each a t h l e t e ? p r i o r i t i e s i n p r a c t i s e session? differ?  development o f s p e c i a l  interest?  164  What a r e h i s / h e r  In seasonal planning?  What i s h i s / h e r philosophy?  Is  Do they  I s an a t h l e t e s ' personal  4.  What a r e the a t h l e t e s ' goals?  Why does he/she p a r t i c i p a t e i n f l o o r hockey? expect t o achieve i n a p r a c t i s e s e s s i o n ? have long range g o a l s  i . e . longer  perceive  team g o a l s t o o be?  (passing  and c o v e r i n g ) ,  altruistic  What does he/she  In the season?  than the season?  Are h i s g o a l s s t a t u s  What does he oriented  m a t e r i a l i s t i c ( t r o p h i e s , medals) or  (getting f r i e n d s to p a r t i c i p a t e , helping  Are they c o n s i s t e n t from week t o week? (team) or i n d i v i d u a l ?  Does he  team mates)?  Are h i s g o a l s c o l l e c t i v e  Does he want t o model the coach or any  other team member?  5.  What a r e the a t h l e t e s '  priorities?  Are h i s / h e r p r i o r i t i e s c o m p e t i t i v e ; socialisation?  Are h i s / h e r  r e c r e a t i o n a l ; or r e l a t e d t o  p r i o r i t i e s personal  or o r i e n t e d  towards t h e team ( i . e . i f winning i s a p r i o r i t y , then i s i t winning as a team or a c h i e v i n g  his/her  personal  best)?  Is  h i s / h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e coach a p r i o r i t y over and above h i s / h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s / h e r peers? in his/her 6.  Is the sport a p r i o r i t y  life?  What a r e a t h l e t e s '  expectations?  What does t h e a t h l e t e expect o f the coach?  i . e . f r i e n d , teacher,  father figure, a u t h o r i t a r i a n / d i s c i p l i n a r i a n , counsellor, model. high  role  What does t h e a t h l e t e expect o f h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f ? i . e .  l e v e l o f s k i l l , p o p u l a r i t y , punctual attendance?  the a t h l e t e expect o f h i s / h e r companionship, support?  team mates?  What does  i.e. loyalty,  How does he/she expect t o be t r e a t e d by  165  his/her  coach and peers?  sessions?  Of the season?  What does he/she expect o f p r a c t i s e Of competitions?  Is there a  d i f f e r e n c e among these?  7.  What a r e t h e d e f i n i t i o n s t h a t t h e a t h l e t e a p p l i e s t o the  following  terms  team coach goal expectation skill  competition recreation strategy drill  practise game athlete priority  What does the a t h l e t e see as " r o l e o f coach", " r o l e o f team". good  " r o l e of a t h l e t e " ,  What a r e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a good coach?  athlete?  166  A  APPENDIX D Taxonomy  COMPETITION  Winning feels good. Depends on ho* your attitude is when you Min. Whether you feel good about yourself. Feel good about winning. Don't make your opponent feel bad. Don't go "oh I won and you didn't", that'5 like bragging.  It's important that you can show them what you're made of.  dinning isn't everything as long as you have fun and enjoy the competition. If you losing, you gotta be willing to lose. If you're winning you gotta be willing to win.  167  STRATEGY  I didn't have to go to drama because I case here.  Keep in your end.  Playing defense.  Defense forward.  Position one plays forward.  Defense should be helping. Attack defense. CHECKING  Haunt the other teas. KOM to check  Keep going all the way.  Stay on the puck.  Strive to be the best. Play hard.  168  Drills One on One Two on Two Passing Shooting.  A good team tournament. shook their our best,  is in Richmond Good team we hands. We play j  There is good sportsmanship. On some of the teams there isn't. I don't want to mention all of them, but Burnaby is tough. They don't shake hands after the game. I think that's a bad attitude.  Always should be good sportsmanship, excitement, enjoyment. Good sportsmanship is "a person shouldn't get mad. A person shouldn't go off to one player. Everybody tries to do what they can do. Everybody should realize there's always a next time. Now Jake, he hasn't come bask. Some people that are so anxious to win they'd want to do anything, it irritates them. They don't accept defeat. They're here to win but for fun too.  Maybe he thought he did something wrong to Greg (Jake). I thought it was wrong what he did to Greg, totally wrong. There are lots of good sports on our team. But the worst behaviour I seen is too much yelling on bench. Can't hear what the coach is saying. Can't hear the referee or the line change.  It's good for everyone to know how he's doing. I felt good, I noved up and scored. When we did that - everyone was quiet and then after the goal they cheered and said nice going.  169  PHYSICAL FITNESS  Don't cose to hockey for that (fitness).  I'D Al years old and I need to bum off as EMch as I can. That's the reason I think there should be too much activity.  I do i t every Wednesday two exercise classes.  One by where I work, I like fitness very ouch. I lost quite a few pounds here, about ten pounds.  178  WHAT is « mm  To learn to play hockey, learning more.  In Richnond Tournament - good team we shake their hands we play our best.  To raise tnortey.  171  Everybody together, It's every individual not just me.  REASONS FOR COKING OUT  I case out to watch, then I got into it. You talked we into it. You asked roe if I was going to start and I did, I wanted to learn to play.  To practise  Competition  I like the sport. I love the game. I like it, I don't like Richmond. Too much cliqueness. Here it's much nicer. I love floor hockey.  For fun.  It's an activity for besides work.  I come here for recreation, socialisation and leisure. Socialize.  To stay off the street.  I got to keep fit. They're not concerned about taking off the weight but as you get older it's important. Basic reasons - for fitness, I like to keep active. Exercise. For the exercise. Fitness.  178  COOL DOWN  We have to do it everyday.  Taking a shower,  173  with a drill . 123 . 123.  Not really sure.  174  exercise. I'm in aerobics, tennis, swim team. You exercise.  PENALTIES  Hooking, smashing, high sticking tripping. j  If you get a penalty its' two ainutes.  For high sticking.  No fighting.  I  No high sticking. No fighting. No arguing. No pushing. No slashing. No tripping either. High sticking, slashing any kiraj of thing. High sticking, slashing, body checking, Smashing with stick, shouting, pushing, flgressive playing, talking back to coaches, violence.  175  SOCIALISING  Socialising is really good. You have to be really grown up to be around people. You got to act appropriately or people won't want to be with you  I cone here for recreation, socialisation and leisure.  Every monday and tuesday its' a thing for me to get away from home. We learn at the house not to sit and watch T.V. Set into a club and do things. It's a place to come and learn and meet other people and that's socialisation  I think it's important. Lisa, Grant or Dan would call me to see how my work is. I call to ask how their work is. . We socialise on the phone. Talk to friends. Introduce ourselves, shake hands and say my name is so and so.  176  DRILL  When people...when people. No high sticking.  Three on two; we and john would play defense and pass  I'm not sure what a drill is.  i t ; two on one; Maria up the  goal tender; passing drill; Mork with someone else and pass. 1 Three on two; two on one; defermsive drill - having two defense men oij three forwards. Back and forth. Back and forth. In and out pylons. Basketball. Flip pass, fool pass, checking, one on one, three on three, front and centre.  Stretching, running around the gym.  177  They need it. It gets a team in shape but it gets a person in shape. I do like movement. The drills are good for younger. I don't like to shoot the puck all the time. I'm getting older. I like to run, shoot, pass. Our group diii dia a drill - they try to condition you.  BAD COACH  I didn't like the way the other coach pushed Be like that last night, I dthought he was going to hurt EB.  178  GOOD COftCH  Pat, the way he talks to us, very nice.  They just the teas  Tries to tell me what I'm supposed to do on the floor  After play hockey take a break, finish, coffee time.  They show everyone different positions to play on our team. Telling us hoow to move up more, blocking other people. Move up •ore so we get a goal.  Real nice to us.  ows us how it's done.  Makes sure we« get rides and everything.  Hard worker.  Tells us how to' get the bus.  Phil wasen't a lousy one.  Able to be at' tournaments.  ey're teaching us. Go to the coach, talk to him if we have a problem. Helps you.  179  Good kowledge to teach.  COACHES ROLE  V^*" Bosses have a right to teach us.  As a player and a friend or whatever, when we are not playing.  \ \ b teach us how to play \ in sports. Teach forward, jogging, touching the wall, cose back.  It*5 a job. They're working for special Olympics. It's the players who decide if a coach loses his job. Coaching is a stressful1 job.  Coaches have a tough responsibility trying to motivate and keep a team up.  For coaching. To make them understand the game a lot better. Hake sure we're on different lines. For helping on differnt lines <the players).  Some coaches get picky, you don't have to be told one hundred times.  180  COACHES EXPECTATIONS  Expect good sprtraanship. and good behaviour and conduct at all times.  1  To stay out of trouble and tell if going anywhere.  181  APPENDIX  E  ETHNOSCIENCE  JANUARY PHASE i  orientation rapport Appendix C  MODEL  FEBRUARY PHASE 3  2  focused observation informal interview  observation conversation Appendix B ELICITATIQN TECHNIQUES  participant observation  QUESTION FRAMEWORK  data  categorized domain taxonomy ^attr^butes ^ Appendix A,F  T H  «  f  R Y  infernal interview  approach interview with a topic  CODING  DEFINING  v  . CONSTANT COMPARATIVE METHOD OF ANALYSIS  182  /  

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