Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The effect of an eccentric-type exercise versus a concentric-type exercise in the management of chronic… Niesen-Vertommen, Sherri 1989

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1989_A7_5 N53.pdf [ 3.99MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0077192.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0077192-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0077192-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0077192-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0077192-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0077192-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0077192-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0077192-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0077192.ris

Full Text

THE EFFECT OF AN ECCENTRIC-TYPE EXERCISE VERSUS A CONCENTRIC-TYPE EXERCISE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC ACHILLES TENDONITIS BY SHERRI NIESEN—VERTOMMEN .S., UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA, MISSOULA, MT., 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (PHYSICAL EDUCATION) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1989 (c) Sherri Niesen-Vertommen, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2788) i i ABSTRACT The main purpose of t h i s study was t o determine which method of tendon r e h a b i l i t a t i o n - the " e c c e n t r i c ankle drop" e x e r c i s e or the u n i v e r s a l gym " c o n c e n t r i c p l a n t a r f l e x i o n / d o r s i f l e x i o n " e x e r c i s e - produced a more e f f e c t i v e r e s u l t i n terms of r e c o v e r y i n the treatment of c h r o n i c A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s . Seventeen s u b j e c t s w i t h c h r o n i c A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s were s t u d i e d . They were s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s t h a t they had a h i s t o r y of a t h l e t i c p a r t i c i p a -t i o n , and have had the symptoms o f A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s g r e a t e r than t h r e e weeks. Sub j e c t s were assign e d t o e i t h e r of two groups: t r a i n i n g u s i n g the " e c c e n t r i c ankle drop" e x e r c i s e or t r a i n i n g u s i n g the " c o n c e n t r i c p l a n t a r f l e x i o n / d o r s i f l e x i o n " e x e r c i s e . S u b j e c t s were c l i n i c a l l y examined by a p h y s i c i a n and r e f e r r e d t o the study, then p l a c e d on a twelve week e x e r c i s e program. They were examined and t e s t e d a t 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. T e s t i n g i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : average and peak torque measured on the KIN/COM I s o k i n e t i c Dynamometer a t 3 0 and 50 degrees per second, and f o r p l a n t a r f l e x o r c o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c muscle c o n t r a c t i o n s , a s u b j e c -t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of p a i n and r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y r a t e d on a s c a l e from 1 t o 10. The r e s u l t s showed the " e c c e n t r i c ankle drop" e x e r c i s e d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e i n average or peak torque v a l u e s a t e i t h e r v e l o c i t y of 3 0 or 50 degrees per second more so than the " c o n c e n t r i c p l a n t a r f l e x i o n / d o r s i f l e x i o n " e x e r c i s e . However, the e c c e n t r i c group d i d demonstrate l a r g e r g a i n s i n both i i i t orque v a l u e compared t o the c o n c e n t r i c group. The p l a n t a r f l e x o r torque v a l u e s on the whole i n c r e a s e d i n a l i n e a r f a s h i o n a t both v e l o c i t i e s f o r both groups s i m i l a r l y , as i n d i c a t e d by the h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d a n a l y s i s (p<.001). There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e seen i n p a i n r a t i n g s between the groups averaged over the f o u r t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s (p<.01) w i t h the e c c e n t r i c group d e c r e a s i n g i n p a i n more than the c o n c e n t r i c group. A l s o , the e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e group produced t h r e e times as many "pain f r e e " s u b j e c t s a t the end o f the program than the c o n c e n t r i c group. There was not a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e observed between the e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e group and the c o n c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e group w i t h the r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y e f f e c t . However the e c c e n t r i c group over the twelve week p e r i o d demonstrated a q u i c k e r r e t u r n t o p r e i n j u r y a c t i v i t y than d i d the c o n c e n t r i c group. The e c c e n t r i c group a l s o produced f o u r times as many f u l l r e t u r n t o p r e i n j u r y a c t i v i t y l e v e l s u b j e c t s by the end of the program than d i d the c o n c e n t r i c group. A l s o the r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y e f f e c t i n c r e a s e d i n a l i n e a r f a s h i o n f o r both groups s i m i l a r -l y , as i n d i c a t e d by the h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d a n a l y s i s (P<.001). Although no s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e was found between the two e x e r c i s e groups (except f o r p a i n l e v e l s ) , the s u b j e c t i v e measures f a v o r the use of the e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e . Thus from a c l i n i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , the e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e can be recommended as a more p o s i t i v e approach toward the c o n s e r v a t i v e management of c h r o n i c A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s . i v CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1 Statement of the Problem 4 Hypothesis 4 L i m i t a t i o n s 4 D e l i m i t a t i o n s 6 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 6 R a t i o n a l e 8 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 11 S t r u c t u r e and F u n c t i o n of Tendon 11 S t r u c t u r e and F u n c t i o n of the A c h i l l e s Tendon 16 E t i o l o g y and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of A c h i l l e s T e n d o n i t i s 19 Response of A c h i l l e s Tendon t o Force . . . . 2 4 Signs and Symptoms of A c h i l l e s T e n d o n i t i s . . 2 6 Treatment 29 3. PROCEDURES 34 Su b j e c t s 34 Treatment P r o t o c o l 34 T e s t i n g Procedures 35 A n a l y s i s of Data 3 6 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 38 R e s u l t s 38 P l a n t a r f l e x o r Average Torque a t V e l o c i t i e s of 30 and 50 Degrees Per Second 39 P l a n t a r f l e x o r Peak Torque a t V e l o c i t i e s of 3 0 and 50 Degrees Per Second 42 V Page Pa i n L e v e l s 42 Return t o A c t i v i t y (Performance Rating) . . . 44 C l i n i c a l Data 45 D i s c u s s i o n 56 5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 67 Summary 67 Conc l u s i o n s 68 Recommendations 70 REFERENCES 71 APPENDIX 78 A. Treatment P r o t o c o l 79 1. C o n c e n t r i c R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Program . 80 2. E c c e n t r i c R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Program . . 83 v i TABLES Ta b l e Page 4.1 D e s c r i p t i v e Data f o r S u b j e c t s 40 4.2 I n t r a c l a s s C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r T e s t - R e t e s t P l a n t a r f l e x i o n Peak Torque (N-m). .40 4.3 Mean and Standard D e v i a t i o n s o f the P l a n t a r f l e x o r s C o n c e n t r i c and E c c e n t r i c Average Torque (Newton-meters) over the 12 Week P e r i o d 41 4.4 Mean and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of the P l a n t a r f l e x o r s C o n c e n t r i c and E c c e n t r i c Peak Torque (Newton-meters) over the 12 Week P e r i o d . 43 4.5 Pain and Performance R a t i n g s : C o n c e n t r i c Group.52 4.6 Pain and Performance R a t i n g s : E c c e n t r i c Group .54 v i i FIGURES Figure Page 4.1 P l a n t a r f l e x o r Average Torque (Mean Values i n Newton-meters) a t 30 Degrees Per Second . . 4 9 4.2 P l a n t a r f l e x o r Average Torque (Mean Values i n Newton-meters) a t 50 Degrees Per Second . . 4 9 4.3 P l a n t a r f l e x o r Peak Torque (Mean Values i n Newton-meters) a t 3 0 Degrees Per Second . . . 50 4.4 P l a n t a r f l e x o r Peak Torque (Mean Values i n Newton-meters) a t 50 Degrees Per Second . . . 5 0 4.5 P a i n Ratings (Mean Values) 51 4.6 Return t o A c t i v i t y - Performance Ratings (Mean Values) 51 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author would l i k e t o thank those who a s s i s t e d her i n completing t h i s t h e s i s : committee chairman Dr. J . Taunton and committee members Dr. D. Clement, Dr. R. Mosher, Mrs. D. Maclntyre, and Mr. C. Smith, f o r t h e i r guidance and h e l p . - 1 -Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION A t h l e t e s i n v o l v e d i n running and jumping a c t i v i -t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y those a c t i v i t i e s t h a t i n v o l v e repeated impact l o a d i n g o f the lower limbs, run the r i s k o f i n c u r r i n g A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s . S i n c e the f i t n e s s e x p l o s i o n and the development o f j o g g i n g i n t o a common r e c r e a t i o n a l pastime, more people have been exposed t o the r i s k o f A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s than ever b e f o r e . In f a c t , A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s has become one of the most common a t h l e t i c i n j u r i e s today w i t h p a s t s t u d i e s o f lower limb i n j u r i e s i n runners r e p o r t i n g i n c i d e n c e s o f A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s as h i g h as 11%. (Clancy, 1976; Clement, 1981). T e n d o n i t i s i s a p a i n f u l inflammatory r e a c t i o n t o overuse a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g tendon. I t s course may be acute and s e l f - r e s o l v i n g o r i t may become c h r o n i c i n nature r e s u l t i n g i n p r o g r e s s i v e d i s a b i l i t y and weaken-i n g of the tendon. While the e t i o l o g y o f A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s i s s t i l l not f u l l y understood, a myriad of treatment regimens have been advocated w i t h both c o n f l i c t i n g and l e s s than rewarding r e s u l t s . Once the d i a g n o s i s has been made, and the a t h l e t e ' s degree o f d i s a b i l i t y e s t a b l i s h e d , a thorough knowledge of the n a t u r a l h i s t o r y and d i s e a s e p r o g r e s s i o n of A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s i s c r u c i a l t o the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e procedure. T e n d o n i t i s i n g e n e r a l , A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s b e i n g no exc e p t i o n , has l o n g proven t o be ve r y r e s i s t a n t t o c o n s e r v a t i v e treatment. C o n s e r v a t i v e treatment c o n s i s t s o f m o d a l i t i e s t h a t i n c l u d e extended p e r i o d s o f r e s t , i c e , a n t i - i n f l a m m a t o -r y drugs, e l e c t r o t h e r a p y , o r t h o t i c s , and c a s t immobil-i z a t i o n . When these methods f a i l , sometimes surgery i s - 2 -performed. Although these treatments may r e l i e v e symp-toms, r e c u r r e n c e i s common u n l e s s the b a s i c causes of the problem are d e a l t w i t h - e i t h e r an A c h i l l e s tendon too weak t o do what i s demanded of i t or biomechanical f a c t o r s p l a c i n g more s t r e s s on the tendon than i t c o u l d normally absorb. (Maguire and Purdam, 1986). There i s s u f f i c i e n t c u r r e n t evidence t o show t h a t i n a c t i v i t y a c t u a l l y weakens the tendon s t r u c t u r e . Thus, w h i l e r e s t o r surgery (which i s i n e v i t a b l y f o l l o w e d by r e s t ) may succeed i n r e l i e v i n g symptoms i n some cases, these are not the treatments o f c h o i c e . A v i c i o u s c y c l e begins, w i t h r e s t weakening the tendon s o t h a t symptoms r e c u r as soon as a c t i v i t y i s resumed. Eventu-a l l y any v i g o r o u s p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y provokes symptoms. Only i n cases of acute t e n d o n i t i s , where p a i n i s so i n t e n s e as t o prevent a t h l e t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , should complete r e s t be en f o r c e d and then o n l y u n t i l the acute symptoms subside (Curwin and S t a n i s h , 1984). I t has become e v i d e n t t h a t the most l i k e l y e t i o l o g y of A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s i s f o r c e s t h a t are generated v e r y r a p i d l y o r r e p e a t e d l y , as d u r i n g a t h l e t -i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h a t may exceed the maximal t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h of the a c t u a l tendon, and cause m i c r o s c o p i c l e s i o n s i n the tendon t i s s u e (Curwin and S t a n i s h , 1984) . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s a g o a l i n any therapy program t o enhance muscular s t r e n g t h through hypertrophy and thereby s t r e n g t h e n the tendon s u f f i c i e n t l y so t h a t imposed a t h l e t i c s t r e s s e s do not exceed i t s t e n s i l e c a p a c i t y . The fundamental requirement f o r hypertrophy of any t i s s u e i s the maintenance of p h y s i o l o g i c a l o v e r l o a d on the s t r u c t u r e . Muscle can work i n t h r e e manners: c o n c e n t r i c a l l y (when the muscle shortens w h i l e i t c o n t r a c t s ) , i s o m e t r i c a l l y (when the muscle l e n g t h - 3 -remains constant w h i l e i t c o n t r a c t s ) , and e c c e n t r i c a l l y when the muscle lengthens as i t c o n t r a c t s ) . Whether or not i n j u r y occurs t o the tendon depends i n l a r g e p a r t on the magnitude of these f o r c e s (Lamb, S t a n i s h and Curwin, 1980) . The development of the e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e program was conceived by Dr. Lamb and Dr. S t a n i s h when t r a d i -t i o n a l treatment methods f a i l e d . They found t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l s t r e t c h i n g , and i s o m e t r i c and c o n c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e s t h a t they p r e s c r i b e d d i d not produce enough t e n s i l e f o r c e on the tendon. They reasoned t h a t i f o n l y by a d d r e s s i n g the problem of t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h , i n s t a b i l i t y d i r e c t l y would be s o l v e d . That i s , the tendon must be g r a d u a l l y and p r o g r e s s i v e l y overloaded, thereby i n c r e a s i n g i t s t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h . They p o i n t e d out two reasons why p a t i e n t s should be u s i n g e c c e n t r i c l o a d i n g : 1) i t s i m u l a t e d a c t u a l movements i n v o l v e d i n the s p o r t and, 2) i t produced more t e n s i l e f o r c e than o t h e r forms of e x e r c i s e . The p o p u l a r i t y of t h e i r program has grown i n magnitude among most c l i n i c s throughout North America. They have conducted c o n t r o l l e d c l i n i c a l t r i a l s compar-i n g t h e i r e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e program t o o t h e r m o d a l i -t i e s , and have found v e r y f a v o r a b l e r e s u l t s , but they have gathered d e s c r i p t i v e data o n l y and no c o n t r o l l e d experimental r e s e a r c h has y e t been done. While i t i s c l e a r t h a t some form of muscle r e -t r a i n i n g t o s t i m u l a t e hypertrophy i s e s s e n t i a l i n attempting t o r e s o l v e A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s , i t i s u n c l e a r as t o which method, the t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e program or Dr. Lambs and Dr. S t a n i s h ' s new e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e program w i l l o p t i m i z e the r e c o v e r y p e r i o d . - 4 -STATEMENT OF PROBLEM The purpose of t h i s study was t o determine which method of e x e r c i s e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n - the " e c c e n t r i c ankle drop" e x e r c i s e or the u n i v e r s a l gym " c o n c e n t r i c p l a n t a r f l e x i o n / d o r s i f l e x i o n " e x e r c i s e - produced a more e f f e c t i v e r e s u l t i n terms of r e c o v e r y i n the treatment of c h r o n i c A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s . Hypotheses; In t h i s study i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t : 1) The " e c c e n t r i c ankle drop" e x e r c i s e w i l l produce a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t over the " c o n c e n t r i c ankle p l a n t a r f l e x i o n / d o r s i f l e x i o n " e x e r c i s e i n terms of u l t i m a t e r e c o v e r y time i n the treatment of c h r o n i c A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s , as measured by a decrease i n p a i n , a q u i c k e r r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y , and an i n -crease i n muscle s t r e n g t h . 2) The " e c c e n t r i c ankle drop" e x e r c i s e w i l l produce a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n s t r e n g t h over the "concen-t r i c ankle p l a n t a r f l e x i o n / d o r s i f l e x i o n " e x e r c i s e as measured by the average and peak c o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c p l a n t a r f l e x o r f o r c e s r e c o r d e d on the KIN/COM i s o k i n e t i c dynamometer. L i m i t a t i o n s The r e s u l t s of t h i s study were l i m i t e d by: 1) The e r r o r s of data c o l l e c t i o n by the KIN/COM i s o k i n e t i c dynamometer, as w e l l as e r r o r s t h a t can occur i n the accuracy of r e a d i n g v a l u e s o f f the r e c o r d i n g c h a r t . F a r r e l l & Richards (1986) r e p o r t I n t r a c l a s s C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s of RI (1.5) = 0.999 f o r s t a t i c t e s t s , RI (1.5) = 0.990 f o r dynamic t e s t s , - 5 -and RI (1.5) = 0.948 f o r s t r a i n gauge measure-ments, when measuring l e v e r arm p o s i t i o n , l e v e r arm v e l o c i t y , and f o r c e measuring systems. Machine and s u b j e c t r e l i a b i l i t y were maximized by the f o l l o w i n g procedures: a) The machine was c a l i b r a t e d b e f o r e each s e s s i o n f o r each s u b j e c t . b) T e s t i n g procedures and i n s t r u c t i o n s were s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . c) S u b j e c t s were g i v e n 2-3 warm-up t r i a l s a t both v e l o c i t i e s o f 30 and 50 degrees per second and then 4 of the next 5 f o r c e curves most s i m i l a r were averaged t o c a l c u l a t e the average and peak f o r c e s generated by each subj e c t . d) T h i s experimentor was the o n l y t r a i n e d observer performing a l l t e s t s on a l l sub-j e c t s . 2) The method of p a t i e n t s s u b j e c t i v e l y e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r improvement as measured by the p a i n s c a l e and the r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y s c a l e . Downie e t a l (1978) r e p o r t s a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , o f r=0.902 f o r the numerical r a t i n g s c a l e o f p a i n measurement marked 0-10 p o i n t s . T h i s same s c a l e i s used f o r the r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y measurement. However t h e r e i s no s p e c i f i c c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i -c i e n t e s t a b l i s h e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e as t h i s i s a new measurement s c a l e . T h i s s c a l e i s e x a c t l y the same numerical r a t i n g s c a l e used w i t h the p a i n measurement, marked 0-10 p o i n t s , o n l y w i t h the ends of the s c a l e c a r r y a d i f f e r e n t v e r b a l de-s c r i p t i o n . 3) The s u b j e c t ' s own m o t i v a t i o n t o work a t t h e i r e x e r c i s e . A l l , however, are a t h l e t e s and i t i s - 6 -assumed t h a t t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n a l l e v e l t o improve i s e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h . D e l i m i t a t i o n s The r e s u l t s of the study are d e l i m i t e d by: 1) The sample s i z e . 2) The extent t o which s u b j e c t s are a f f l i c t e d w i t h A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s . 3) The a b i l i t y of the s u b j e c t s t o perform the exer-c i s e motion c o r r e c t l y a c c o r d i n g t o the g i v e n p r o t o c o l . 4 . The a b i l i t y of the r e s e a r c h e r t o ensure t h a t the s u b j e c t s were a b l e t o perform maximally on a l l f o u r t e s t s . D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms For the purpose of c l a r i f i c a t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s are c o n s i d e r e d a p p l i c a b l e throughout the study: 1. A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s i s a p a i n f u l inflammatory r e a c t i o n i n v o l v i n g the A c h i l l e s tendon. T h i s r e a c t i o n i s an attempt by the tendon t o r e p a i r damaged e l a s t i n and c o l l a g e n u l t r a s t r u c t u r e w i t h s c a r t i s s u e . The cause of t h i s damage i s f o r c e s which a c t upon the tendon and exceed i t s t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h . C l i n i c a l l y , A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s can be diagnosed when p a i n , s w e l l i n g and tenderness are p r e s e n t upon p a l p a t i o n along the A c h i l l e s tendon and i n t o i t s i n s e r t i o n a t the c a l c a n e u s . 2. C h r o n i c A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s i n c l u d e s a l l p a t i e n t s who have had the p r e s e n t i n g symptoms o f A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s g r e a t e r than t h r e e weeks. 3. The " E c c e n t r i c Ankle Drop e x e r c i s e i s performed a c c o r d i n g t o the e s t a b l i s h e d p r o t o c o l by Lamb & - 7 -S t a n i s h (1984) as d e s c r i b e d i n Appendix A. The s u b j e c t w i l l stand e r e c t on a step o r support so t h a t the h e e l i s unsupported and l i f t the body i n t o a t i p t o e p o s i t i o n ; then drop the h e e l almost t o the l i m i t and q u i c k l y r a i s e the body up once again i n t o the t i p t o e p o s i t i o n , emphasizing the change i n d i r e c t i o n . T h i s e x e r c i s e i s performed s l o w l y and without r e s i s t a n c e a t f i r s t , then p r o g r e s s i n g t o ve r y r a p i d l y and w i t h i n c r e a s e d r e s i s t a n c e . 4. The "Ankle p l a n t a r f l e x i o n / d o r s i f l e x i o n " e x e r c i s e w i l l be performed on the c o n v e n t i o n a l u n i v e r s a l gym apparatus. The s u b j e c t w i l l p l a c e h i s / h e r f o o t on the pedals, s l o w l y push the f o o t i n t o a p o i n t e d t o e s p o s i t i o n , and then r e t u r n t o the s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n . 5. Recovery time i n v o l v e s the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s which are important i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f how s u c c e s s -f u l l y the symptoms of A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s are c o n t r o l l e d by e i t h e r program: an i n c r e a s e i n muscle s t r e n g t h , a decrease i n p a i n and r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y l e v e l . 6. C o n c e n t r i c muscle c o n t r a c t i o n occurs when the i n v o l v e d muscle c o n t r a c t s w h i l e s h o r t e n i n g . 7. E c c e n t r i c muscle c o n t r a c t i o n occurs when the i n v o l v e d muscle lengthens w h i l e c o n t r a c t i n g . 8. I s o m e t r i c muscle c o n t r a c t i o n occurs when the i n v o l v e d muscle c o n t r a c t s w h i l e no change i n l e n g t h occurs. 9. I s o k i n e t i c e x e r c i s e as performed on the KIN/COM dynamometer d u r i n g the t e s t i n g procedure i s a dynamic type o f r e s i s t i v e e x e r c i s e w i t h two unique f e a t u r e s : ( i ) the angular v e l o c i t y o f the KIN/COM can be - 8 -s p e c i f i e d i n t h i s study (at 3 0 and 50 degrees per second). ( i i ) when the s p e c i f i e d v e l o c i t y i s reached, the d e v i c e a u t o m a t i c a l l y accommodates t o g i v e maximal r e s i s t a n c e a t each p o i n t i n the range of motion w h i l e a l l o w i n g the s p e c i f i e d v e l o c i t y t o be maintained. T h e r e f o r e , muscular f o r c e can be maximal a t a l l p o i n t s i n the range of motion. 10. Average Torque - average recorded v a l u e a c r o s s the f u l l range of motion over the f o u r c o n s e c u t i v e maximal t r i a l s . 11. Peak Torque - average of the h i g h e s t recorded v a l u e (peak p o i n t ) over the f o u r c o n s e c u t i v e maximal t r i a l s , r e g a r d l e s s o f i t s p o s i t i o n i n the range of movement. 12. Return t o a c t i v i t y (performance l e v e l s ) . The amount of time r e q u i r e d t o get the p a t i e n t back t o p r e i n j u r y performing s p o r t s l e v e l s ( i . e . running, b a s k e t b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l , e t c . ) . R a t i o n a l e A c c o r d i n g t o Lamb, S t a n i s h and Curwin (1980), t h e r e are two b a s i c avenues of treatment f o r A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s . One i s t o remove the s t r e s s e s which are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n i t i a l l e s i o n , the o t h e r i s t o enhance the s t r e n g t h of the a c t u a l tendon so t h a t imposed s t r e s s e s do not r e s u l t i n i n j u r y . Removing s t r e s s e s i n v o l v e s extended p e r i o d s of r e s t . To the a t h l e t e , t h i s means e i t h e r s t o p p i n g or s u b s t a n t i a l l y d e c r e a s i n g the i n t e n s i t y o f h i s t r a i n i n g program. T h i s i s u s u a l l y unacceptable t o the p a t i e n t and r e s u l t s i n poor p a t i e n t compliance. A d d i t i o n a l l y , p h y s i c a l i n a c t i v i t y r e s u l t s i n a f u r t h e r decrease i n - 9 -the t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h of tendon. Consequently, upon resumption of a c t i v i t y , r e c u r r e n c e of the t e n d o n i t i s may be i n i t i a t e d by s t r e s s e s of l e s s e r magnitude than those which caused the i n i t i a l i n s u l t . The most s e n s i b l e approach would be t o i n c r e a s e the t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h of the tendon. Tendon i s a v i a b l e substance that, w i l l respond t o a t r a i n i n g p r o t o c o l . Lamb, S t a n i s h & Curwin (1980) b e l i e v e t h a t t e n d o n i t i s develops secondary t o an e c c e n t r i c a l l y a p p l i e d l o a d , as occur when a n t a g o n i s t muscles c o n t r a c t e c c e n t r i c a l l y as the movement of a body segment i s d e c e l e r a t e d and i t s d i r e c t i o n changed. Such as the case of a b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r , f o r example, the exact moment of g r e a t e s t p a i n o c c u r r e d i n l a n d i n g from a jump, although p a i n o f t e n would be f e l t d u r i n g t a k e o f f as w e l l . F u r t h e r t e s t i n g r e v e a l e d t h a t i n many cases, p a i n c o u l d be reproduced i n the c l i n i c o n l y by e c c e n t r i c l o a d i n g . G r e a t e r f o r c e p r o d u c t i o n d u r i n g e c c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n t r a n s l a t e s i n t o g r e a t e r s t r e s s on the tendon d u r i n g t h i s type of a c t i v i t y . Tendon was l o n g c o n s i d e r e d an i n e r t mechanical l i n k between muscle and bone. Tendon i s v e r y much a m e t a b o l i c a l l y a c t i v e t i s s u e t h a t responds t o s t r e s s i n the same f a s h i o n as muscle and bone. I t has been shown c o n s i s t e n t l y t h a t both i n t a c t (normal) and i n j u r e d (abnormal) tendon/ligaments respond t o c o n t r o l l e d p r o g r e s s i v e s t r e s s , r e s u l t i n g i n p r o g r e s s i v e i n c r e a s e i n t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h (Curwin and S t a n i s h , 1984). Komi (1977) and o t h e r s have shown t h a t e c c e n t r i c s t r e s s e s may exceed c o n v e n t i o n a l c o n c e n t r i c and i s o m e t r i c f o r c e s t h r e e f o l d . When a v i a b l e tendon i s t r a i n e d t o a s p e c i f i c s t r e n g t h , i t w i l l not d i s r u p t under s t r e s s u n l e s s the a p p l i e d s t r e s s exceeds the i n h e r e n t s t r e n g t h of t h a t - 10 -s p e c i f i c tendon. However, the tendon w i l l d i s r u p t p a r t i a l l y or t o t a l l y when the f o r c e a p p l i e d exceeds the i n h e r e n t t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h of the tendon. I f a tendon i s t o r n , the treatment program must i n c l u d e s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g i n o r d e r t o render t h a t tendon i n v u l n e r a b l e t o the q u a n t i t y of s t r e s s t h a t f o r c e d the i n i t i a l d i s r u p t i o n . Lamb, S t a n i s h and Curwin (1984) advocate t h a t when the type of damaging f o r c e was e c c e n t r i c i n type, the tendon must be r e -t r a i n e d i n an e c c e n t r i c f a s h i o n . Three methods of enhancing s t r e n g t h are v i a c o n c e n t r i c , e c c e n t r i c or i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s study was designed t o examine the d i f f e r e n c e between the " e c c e n t r i c ankle drop" e x e r c i s e which i s l a r g e l y an e c c e n t r i c type of movement, and the "ankle p l a n t a r f l e x i o n / d o r s i f l e x i o n " e x e r c i s e which i s l a r g e l y a c o n c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e , i n the management of c h r o n i c A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s . - 11 -Chapter 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE T h i s paper i s d i v i d e d i n t o s i x main c a t e g o r i e s : the s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n of tendon, the s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n of the A c h i l l e s tendon, e t i o l o g y and c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n of A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s , response of A c h i l l e s tendon t o f o r c e , h i s t o r y and examination of the i n j u r e d a t h l e t e , and treatment. Structure and Function of Tendon Tendon i s composed of c o l l a g e n and e l a s t i n , two p r o t e i n s , embedded i n a matrix of mucopolysacchrides. The u s u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i s approximately 2 p e r c e n t e l a s t i n , 30 percent c o l l a g e n , and 58 t o 70 p e r c e n t water. C o l l a g e n accounts f o r 70 p e r c e n t of the dry weight of tendon and so i s c o n s i d e r e d the major s t r u c -t u r a l component. Viewed c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l l y , tendon r e p r e s e n t s an o r g a n i z e d grouping of r e g u l a r p a r a l l e l f i b e r s . The c o l l a g e n i s arranged i n a h i e r a r c h y of p r o g r e s s i v e l y s m a l l e r s u b u n i t s i n diameter from the tendon f a s c i c l e through f i b r i l or f i b e r , s u b - f i b r i l , m i c r o f i b r i l t o s m a l l e s t component t r o p o c o l l a g e n . The c o l l a g e n f i b r i l s , though they are arranged l o n g i t u d i -n a l l y , are not s t r a i g h t , they appear zigzagged, or crimped. T h i s may be due t o t r a n s v e r s e mechanical i n t e r a c t i o n between f i b r i l s o r t o b u c k l i n g caused by s h r i n k i n g of the i n t e r f i b r i l l a r m atrix w i t h age. T h i s wavy c o n f i g u r a t i o n , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of tendon i n i t s r e l a x e d s t a t e , d i s a p p e a r s when tendon i s s t r e t c h e d (due t o the e l a s t i n content of the tendon), and f u n c t i o n s t o dampen the sudden s t r a i n imposed on - 12 -the tendon when the muscle c o n t r a c t s . When the t i s s u e i s s t r e t c h e d , i n i t i a l e x t e n s i o n i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a f l a t t e n i n g of the wave p a t t e r n (Booth and Gould; 1975; V i d i i k 1978). The main f u n c t i o n of tendon i s the t r a n s m i s s i o n of the t e n s i o n developed by a muscle, and the mechanical p r o p e r t i e s o f the s t r u c t u r e (great t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h , f l e x i b i l i t y , low e x t e n s i b i l i t y and almost p e r f e c t e l a s t i c i t y ) r e f l e c t these f u n c t i o n a l demands. Sin c e muscle produces f o r c e o n l y when i t i s c o n t r a c t i n g , t h i s has a s t r e t c h i n g e f f e c t on the tendon, known as t e n s i l e f o r c e . The t e n s i l e f o r c e a p p l i e d t o the tendon i s r e s i s t e d mainly by the c o l l a g e n , which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by poor e l a s t i c i t y but g r e a t mechanical s t r e n g t h . Because the c o l l a g e n f i b e r s are crimped, the i n i t i a l response t o t e n s i l e f o r c e i s s t r a i g h t e n i n g o f the f i b e r s so t h a t these waves or crimps d i s a p p e a r . The maximum v a l u e s o f the t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h o f human tendon i s 5-10 kg/mm and f o r c o l l a g e n 15-3 0 kg/mm (Harkness, 1968). I t has been estimated t h a t d u r i n g a muscle c o n t r a c t i o n of maximum i s o m e t r i c t e n s i o n , the tendon i s s t r e s s e d no more than one q u a r t e r of i t s u l t i m a t e t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h ( V i d i i k , 1969). At these p h y s i o l o g i -c a l t e n s i o n s which are a t the bottom o f the s t r e s s -s t r a i n curve, the tendon i s r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y exten-s i b l e , and p e r f e c t l y e l a s t i c s i n c e g r e a t e r s t r e s s e s a f f e c t the c o l l a g e n network i t s e l f (Booth, 1978). Pr o d u c t i o n o f muscle t e n s i o n has been found t o be hig h e r i n e c c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n than c o n c e n t r i c con-t r a c t i o n , and the d i f f e r e n c e between the two types of work loads i n c r e a s e s w i t h the i n c r e a s e i n c o n t r a c t i o n v e l o c i t y (Komi, 1977). The heterogeneous nature of tendon i s a l s o e v i d e n t when examining the s t r e s s - s t r a i n curve f o r tendons. - 13 -There i s no l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between a p p l i e d s t r e s s ( t e n s i o n per c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l area) and r e s u l t a n t s t r a i n (percent i n c r e a s e i n l e n g t h over t e s t i n g l e n g t h ) . Rather, the curve i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y sigmoid i n shape i n d i c a t i v e of the v i s c o e l a s t i c nature of tendon t i s s u e . Tendons d i s p l a y both e l a s t i c and p l a s t i c p r o p e r t i e s . I t d i s p l a y s e l a s t i c i t y i f i t r e t u r n s t o i t s o r i g i n a l geometric shape a f t e r the s t r e s s i s removed, and i f i t does not r e t u r n t o i t s o r i g i n a l shape, i t d i s p l a y s p l a s t i c p r o p e r t i e s . When s t r e s s e d , the tendon's g r a d u a l r e t u r n t o the o r i g i n a l shape i s termed the e l a s t i c a f t e r - e f f e c t . V i d i i k (1967) found t h a t tendons d i s p l a y p l a s t i c t e n d e n c i e s when submaximal lo a d s are a p p l i e d f o r longer p e r i o d s of time. In a r e g i o n of low s t r a i n (0-2 p e r c e n t g r e a t e r than o r i g i n a l r e s t i n g l e n g t h ) , c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n s i o n o ccurs w i t h minimal i n c r e a s e s i n i n t r a t e n d o n t e n s i o n . H i s t o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s demonstrated t h a t the wavy s t r u c -t u r e of the tendon t h a t the c o l l a g e n o u s bundles d i s p l a y i n a r e l a x e d s t a t e are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s phenomenon ( K a s t e l i c , 1978). Abrahams (1967) showed t h a t the amount of t e n s i o n i n t h i s lower r e g i o n of the curve i s dependent on the r a t e as w e l l as the magnitude of s t r a i n , w i t h r a p i d s t r a i n i n g r e s u l t i n g i n c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r t e n s i o n s . Oakes and Bialkower (1977) found t h a t exposure t o heat and the enzyme e l a s t a s e a l s o have d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s on the tendon, d e s t r o y i n g t h i s p o r t i o n of the curve, and d e c r e a s i n g the t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h of the tendon. In the mid p o r t i o n of the curve i n an area of s t r a i n equal t o 3-5 percent g r e a t e r than r e s t i n g l e n g t h , t h e r e i s a l i n e a r r i s e i n t e n s i o n w i t h i n c r e a s -i n g s t r a i n . In t h i s p o r t i o n of the curve, the amount of e x t e n s i o n i s c o n t r o l l e d e n t i r e l y by the behaviour of - 14 -the c o l l a g e n f i b e r s which are not f u l l y extended and o r i e n t a t e d i n the d i r e c t i o n o f the l o a d (Abrahams, 1967). With s t r a i n g r e a t e r than 5-6 pe r c e n t o f the tendon's r e s t i n g l e n g t h , t h e r e i s no f u r t h e r r i s e i n t e n s i o n , and f u r t h e r s t r a i n r e s u l t s i n i n c r e a s i n g gross d i s r u p t i o n . P h y s i c a l r u p t u r e , o r complete f a i l u r e o f the tendon, have been demonstrated a t s t r a i n s o f 10 per c e n t (Harkness, 1968) and 3 0 p e r c e n t (Abrahams, 1967) o f the r e s t i n g l e n g t h . Damage t o the tendon u l t r a s t r u c t u r e , t h e r e f o r e , can occur a t t e n s i o n s w e l l below those measured as being maximal t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h . T h i s damage does not become apparent as a gross rup-t u r e . Smaller s t r e s s e s and s t r a i n s through the tendon i t s e l f d u r i n g i n t e n s e e x e r c i s e can cause the tendon t o ru p t u r e i f t h e r e i s an a l t e r a t i o n of the normal angle between bone and muscle b e l l y t h a t l e a d s t o an unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s t r e s s e s a t those s i t e s where a ru p t u r e would be most l i k e l y . C h a v p i l (1967) s t u d i e d the anatomy, p h y s i o l o g y and mechanics o f bone-tendon muscle groups and showed t h a t the tendon i s a t i t s most v u l n e r a b l e under the f o l l o w -i n g circumstances: (i) When t e n s i o n i s a p p l i e d o b l i q u e l y , ( i i ) When t e n s i o n i s a p p l i e d q u i c k l y , ( i i i ) When the tendon i s tense b e f o r e the trauma, (iv) When the atta c h e d muscle group i s s t r e t c h e d i n an e c c e n t r i c manner by e x t e r n a l f o r c e s such as g r a v i t y o r the muscular s t r e n g t h o f the c a l f , f o r example, i n 'an unexpected manner. (v) When the tendon i s weak i n comparison w i t h the muscle. - 15 -He demonstrated t h a t , m e c h a n i c a l l y , even h e a l t h y tendons can be r u p t u r e d . Tendon i s v i a b l e m e t a b o l i c a l l y a c t i v e t i s s u e t h a t i s capable of a l t e r i n g i t s s t r u c t u r e i n response t o e x t e r n a l s t r e s s e s . S i g n i f i c a n t oxygen consumption, c o n c e n t r a t i o n of m e t a b o l i c enzymes, c o l l a g e n s y n t h e s i s and b l o o d flow have been measured. Because of t h e i r l i v i n g and adapting nature, these and o t h e r s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f tendon are i n f l u e n c e d by both p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and d i s u s e . In experiments c a r r i e d out on animals, p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e has been shown t o i n c r e a s e the t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h i n tendon (Booth and Gould; 1975, K i i s k i n e n , 1977; V i d i i k , 1967). S t r u c t u r a l changes t h a t seem t o account f o r t h i s i n c r e a s e of i s o l a t e d tendon t e n s i l e s s t r e n g t h seems t o be r e l a t e d t o the t h i c k n e s s of the tendon t i s s u e and i t s c o l l a g e n content. The e x e r c i s e has been shown t o i n c r e a s e c o l l a g e n s y n t h e s i s ( V i d i i k , 1978; K i i s k i n e n , 1977), t o i n c r e a s e the content of glycosaminoglycon ground substance ( K i i s k i n e n , 1977; Heikkinen, 1970) , and t o i n c r e a s e the f i b e r s i z e and number of c e l l u l a r n u c l e i (Booth and Gould, 1975). In a d d i t i o n , the oxygen consumption and b l o o d flow i n the tendon i n c r e a s e s as a r e s u l t of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y ( V a i l a s , 1978). V a i l a s (1978) a l s o demonstrated t h a t the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of m e t a b o l i c enzymes i n c r e a s e s as w e l l as the r a t e of enzyme a c t i v i t y due t o the exer-c i s e . Increases i n n i t r o g e n content have a l s o been recorded (Heikkinen and V u o r i , 1970). P h y s i c a l i n a c t i v i t y causes a r e v e r s a l on many of the t r e n d s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g . The c o l l a g e n o u s network of the tendon i s d i s r u p t e d as a r e s u l t of a decrease i n oxygen consumption and concen-t r a t i o n of m e t a b o l i c enzymes ( V a i l a s , 1978), and a - 16 -decrease i n c o l l a g e n s y n t h e s i s (Heikkinen and V u o r i , 1970). P h y s i c a l d i s u s e a l s o cause a decrease i n the c a p i l l a r y volume of the tendons and hence, g r e a t e r e x t e n s i b i l i t y per u n i t o f l o a d (Booth and Gould, 1975). The c o n s t i t u e n t s of the tendon, t h e r e f o r e , v a r y i n a number of ways w i t h the changes i n the l e v e l o f c h r o n i c p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . In the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e phase a f t e r an i n j u r y , the s t r e n g t h o f the tendon i s q u i t e s e n s i t i v e t o the q u a n t i t y o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y (Booth and Gould, 1975). S t r u c t u r e and F u n c t i o n o f t h e A c h i l l e s Tendon The A c h i l l e s tendon i s the common tendon of the gastrocnemius and s o l e u s muscle. The gastrocnemius a r i s e s from the l a t e r a l and medial femoral condyles, t o which i t i s connected by s t r o n g , f l a t tendons. The so l e u s o r i g i n a t e from the p o s t e r i o r s u r f a c e s o f the t i b i a and f i b u l a and l i e s beneath the gastrocnemius. The i n d i v i d u a l tendons of the gastrocnemius and s o l e u s combine d i s t a l l y t o form the A c h i l l e s tendon. Because of t h i s arrangement, the A c h i l l e s tendon r e c e i v e s muscle f i b e r attachment from the s o l e u s u n t i l j u s t a few c e n t i m e t e r s above i t s i n s e r t i o n i n t o the calcan e u s . Note t h a t the s o l e u s and gastrocnemius c o n t r i b u t e s e p a r a t e l y t o the formation of the A c h i l l e s tendon, and t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n v a r i e s among i n d i v i d u a l s . The gastrocnemius p o r t i o n v a r i e s from 2 6 t o 11 cm i n l e n g t h . In comparison, the so l e u s c o n t r i b u t i o n v a r i e s from 11 t o 3 cm. A s s o c i a t e d w i t h the gastrocnemius and s o l e u s i s the p l a n t a r i s . The p l a n t a r i s i s a l o n g s t r i n g - l i k e tendon w i t h a s m a l l fuseform muscle b e l l y near i t s o r i g i n from the l i n e a aspera and o b l i q u e p o p l i t e a l - 17 -ligament of the knee j o i n t . The p l a n t a r i s runs between the gastrocnemius and s o l e u s , f o l l o w i n g the medial s u r f a c e of the calcaneus. O c c a s i o n a l l y , the tendon o f the p l a n t a r i s i s l o s t i n the i n t e r v a l annular ligament or i n the f a s c i a of the l e g . The p l a n t a r i s i s the rudiment of a l a r g e muscle which e x i s t s i n some of the lower mammals, i n s e r t i n g i n t o the p l a n t a r f a s c i a . V e s t i g i a l i n man, the p l a n t a r i s i s absent i n 6 t o 8% of a l l cases (Rasch and Burke, 1976). C o l l e c t i v e l y r e f e r r e d t o as the t r i c e p s surae, the gastrocnemius and s o l e u s are the prime movers f o r ankle p l a n t a r f l e x i o n . The gastrocnemius a s s i s t s i n knee f l e x i o n and s t a b i l i z i n g the femur on the t i b i a . The p l a n t a r i s a s s i s t s i n p l a n t a r and knee f l e x i o n , r e i n -f o r c i n g the gastrocnemius but d e v e l o p i n g l i t t l e power. The A c h i l l e s tendon, i n i t i a l l y fan-shaped and somewhat f l a t t e n e d near the gastrocnemius, becomes more rounded as i t approaches the calcaneus, where i t expands s l i g h t l y t o a t t a c h t o i t s p o s t e r i o r s u r f a c e . As i t expands, the tendon g r a d u a l l y c o n v e r t s t o f i b r o c a r t i l a g e and s t i f f e n s as a r e s u l t . B a r f r e d (1971) p o s t u l a t e s t h a t t h i s s t i f f n e s s p r o t e c t s the tendon from o b l i q u e f r a c t i o n , j u s t as the s t i f f c u f f f i t t e d on a f l e x c l o s e t o an e l e c t r i c i r o n , p r events b u c k l i n g of the f l e x . A second f e a t u r e of note i s t h a t the tendon t w i s t s as i t descends. The gastrocnemius p o r t i o n u s u a l l y makes up the more l a t e r a l and p o s t e r i o r p o r t i o n of the tendon. As a whole, the tendon appears t o r o t a t e l a t e r a l l y as i t descends. T h i s r o t a t i o n begins approx-i m a t e l y 12 t o 15 cm above the i n s e r t i o n and where the so l e u s begins t o c o n t r i b u t e f i b e r s t o the tendon. The degree of r o t a t i o n depends on the amount of f u s i o n between the gastrocnemius and s o l e u s p o r t i o n s of the - 18 -tendon. These two muscles may be separate through n e a r l y t h e i r e n t i r e l e n g t h o r fused, depending on the i n d i v i d u a l . Minimal r o t a t i o n seems" t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e n g t h y f u s i o n . T h i s t w i s t i n g produces areas o f s t r e s s c o n c e n t r a -t i o n i n the tendons, caused by a "sawing" a c t i o n o f one p a r t of the tendon on the oth e r ( B a r f r e d , 1971). T h i s e f f e c t i s more marked i n the area 2 t o 6 cm above the tendon i n s e r t i o n where r o t a t i o n i s most pronounced. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h i s i s a l s o the p o r t i o n o f the tendon w i t h the po o r e s t b l o o d supply (Lagergren and Lindholm, 1958) , and the most common s i t e o f t e n d o n i t i s . Vascular Supply The A c h i l l e s tendon r e c e i v e s i t s b l o o d supply a t t h r e e l o c a t i o n s : the musculotendinous j u n c t i o n , the tendon-bone j u n c t i o n , and along i t s l e n g t h . The b l o o d supply d e r i v e d along the l e n g t h of the tendon from the u n d e r l y i n g mesotendon i s most important. Small b l o o d v e s s e l s a r i s e from branches of the p o s t e r i o r t i b i a l and peroneal a r t e r i e s and anastomose i n the mesotendon. From t h e r e they assume a course p a r a l l e l w i t h the l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s o f the tendon i n the endotenon. (Edwards, 1946). S t u d i e s have shown t h a t the v a s c u l a r i t y o f the A c h i l l e s tendon i s reduced 2 t o 6 cm above i t s i n s e r -t i o n ( I n g l i s h e t a l . , 1976; Lea and Smith, 1972), a s i t e t h a t appears common f o r r u p t u r e (Lindholm & Arner, 1959) . The a s s o c i a t i o n between a zone o f reduced v a s c u l a r i t y and tendon r u p t u r e was shown by Rathburn and MacNab (1970) i n t h e i r study o f the su p r a s p i n a t u s tendon a t the shoulder j o i n t . The presence of such a zone i n the A c h i l l e s tendon i s c o n s i d e r e d t o p l a y an - 19 -e t i o l o g i c a l r o l e i n the r u p t u r e s of t h a t tendon (Smart, Taunton, and Clement, 1980). Although the reason f o r reduced v a s c u l a r i t y i n the su p r a s p i n a t u s tendon was l i n k e d t o p r e s s u r e from the o v e r l y i n g acromion no such cause has been demonstrated i n the A c h i l l e s tendon. Perhaps the area of reduced v a s c u l a r i t y c o i n c i d e s w i t h the c e s s a t i o n o f i n s e r t i o n o f the so l e u s muscle f i b e r s i n t o the tendon; or t w i s t -i n g may comprise the m i c r o v a s c u l a t u r e when the tendon i s under t e n s i o n (Curwin & S t a n i s h , 1984). E t i o l o g y and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f A c h i l l e s T e n d o n i t i s  Mechanics Tendons are adapted t o withstand t e n s i l e f o r c e s , and t h e i r f i b e r s are a l i g n e d i n response t o t h i s type of f o r c e . In areas where tendons must wit h s t a n d or "absorb" l a r g e f o r c e s , they are u s u a l l y found t o be lo n g i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r accompanying muscles because the tendon i s much s t r o n g e r than the muscle per u n i t area. Long tendons are a l s o a b l e t o " s t o r e " some of t h i s f o r c e f o r b r i e f p e r i o d s and use i t t o perform movement, much as a s t r e t c h e d e l a s t i c band a s s i s t s movement when i t i s r e l e a s e d (Murray e t a l . , 1978). T h i s i s the concept of e l a s t i c energy. At f i r s t g lance, the A c h i l l e s tendon seems w e l l s u i t e d t o withstand the e x t e r n a l f o r c e s encountered i n walking and running s i n c e g e n e r a l l y i t s f i b e r s are l o n g i t u d i n a l l y o r i e n t e d . However, r e c a l l t h a t the tendon t w i s t s as i t descends, producing areas of s t r e s s c o n c e n t r a t i o n as one p a r t o f the tendon saws a c r o s s another. T h i s s awlike a c t i o n i s compounded by the f a c t t h a t the tendon i s not homogeneous, but r e c e i v e s i n t e r d i g i t a t i n g f i b e r s from the s o l e u s . - 20 -The ankle i s a hinge j o i n t w i t h motion i n one plane o n l y ( s a g i t t a l ) which lead s t o the assumption t h a t any f o r c e a p p l i e d t o the A c h i l l e s tendon produces motion on l y about an a x i s through the ankle j o i n t . T h i s apparent s i m p l i c i t y i s c o n t r a d i c t e d when we c o n s i d e r t h a t motion a t the s u b t a l a r j o i n t a l s o a f f e c t s and i s a f f e c t e d by the A c h i l l e s tendon. Motion a t the s u b t a l a r j o i n t occurs i n the f r o n t a l and t r a n s v e r s e planes, producing i n v e r s i o n - e v e r s i o n and a b d u c t i o n -adduction movements, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Movement i n the t r a n s v e r s e plane t w i s t s and u n t w i s t s the A c h i l l e s tendon. I n v e r s i o n and e v e r s i o n p l a c e unequal t e n s i l e f o r c e s on d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the tendon which can r e s u l t i n a bowstring e f f e c t i n the A c h i l l e s tendon (Smart, Taunton, and Clement, 1980). B a r f r e d (1971) emphasizes t h a t f a c t t h a t a l l tendons p a s s i n g one or more j o i n t s w i t h axes of movement a t r i g h t angles t o each ot h e r may be exposed t o o b l i q u e t r a c t i o n . A 3 0 degree change i n the p o s i t i o n of the h i n d f o o t , he notes, r e s u l t s i n one s i d e of the tendon being e l o n g a t -ed 10 p e r c e n t more t h a t f i b e r s on the o t h e r s i d e . However, these movements are necessary t o a l l o w accom-modation of the f o o t t o uneven ground. L j u n g q y i s t (1968, i n a review of 92 cases of p a r t i a l A c h i l l e s tendon r u p t u r e ) , l i s t s t h a t f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n s as most l i k e l y t o cause t e a r s ( p a r t i a l or complete) of the A c h i l l e s tendon: Pushing o f f w i t h the weight-bearing f o o t w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y extending the knee, common i n s p r i n t i n g or running u p h i l l . The c a l f muscles are maximally c o n t r a c t e d . (Although Winters (1985) c o n t r a d i c t s t h i s statement and r e p o r t s t h a t the p l a n t a r f l e x o r s c o n t r a c t c o n c e n t r i c a l l y a t p u s h - o f f and not e c c e n t r i c a l l y ) . - 21 -Sudden and unexpected d o r s i f l e x i o n of the ankle, such as s l i p p i n g on a s t a i r or stumbling i n t o a h o l e , where the h e e l drops suddenly. The c a l f muscles are moderately c o n t r a c t e d but become maximally c o n t r a c t e d i n r e f l e x t o the sudden s t r e t c h . V i o l e n t d o r s i f l e x i o n w h i l e the f o o t i s p l a n t a r f l e x e d , such as i n jumping and f a l l i n g . The c a l f muscles are maximally c o n t r a c t e d , and sudden movement le a d s t o marked s t r e t c h i n g of the muscle and p a r t i c u l a r l y the tendon. A l l these examples i n v o l v e e c c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n of the muscle; t h a t i s , the muscle i s c o n t r a c t i n g and l e n g t h e n i n g as the tendon i s s t r e t c h e d . A t h l e t e s s u f f e r i n g from A c h i l l e s tendon l e s i o n s c h a r a c t e r i s t i -c a l l y f e e l more p a i n d u r i n g an e c c e n t r i c movement and can f r e q u e n t l y r e c a l l s p e c i f i c motions, much l i k e those mentioned, t h a t are p a i n f u l . E c c e n t r i c f o r c e s w i l l be e x p l o r e d i n more d e t a i l i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . Other E t i o l o g i c a l F a c t o r s Other e t i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s c i t e d by Smart, Taunton and Clement (1980) i n c l u d e : f u n c t i o n a l o v e r p r o n a t i o n , s t r u c t u r a l or dynamic d i s t u r b a n c e s i n the lower l e g , poor f l e x i b i l i t y w i t h i n the gastrocnemius/soleus u n i t , improper t r a i n i n g methods, and poor running footwear. They s p e c u l a t e t h a t , s i m i l a r t o bone and muscle, tendon undergoes s t r u c t u r a l and h i s t o c h e m i c a l m o d i f i c a -t i o n s i n response t o repeated e x e r c i s e . Unless s u f f i -c i e n t time i s allowed f o r these a d a p t a t i o n s t o occur g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e s i n t r a i n i n g volume and i n t e n s i t y , d e g e n e r a t i v e l e s i o n s of the tendon and/or p e r i t e n d o n may r e s u l t . - 22 -In t h e i r study (1984) t r a i n i n g e r r o r s were i d e n t i -f i e d as the primary e t i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s i n over 75% of a l l cases. T r a i n i n g e r r o r i n c l u d e d : poor gastrocnemius/soleus f l e x i b i l i t y as the h i g h e s t i n c i -dence of cases they examined, f o l l o w e d by a sudden i n c r e a s e i n t r a i n i n g mileage, a s i n g l e severe competi-t i v e o r t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n , such as a marathon or 10 km road cases, f o l l o w e d by a sudden i n c r e a s e i n t r a i n i n g i n t e n s i t y , r e p e t i t i v e h i l l running, recommencement of t r a i n i n g a f t e r an extended p e r i o d of r e l a t i v e i n a c t i v i -t y , running on uneven or s l i p p e r y t e r r a i n , changing shoes and b e g i n n i n g another s p o r t such as b a s k e t b a l l , t e n n i s or squash. F u n c t i o n a l o v e r p r o n a t i o n has been i m p l i c a t e d i n the e t i o l o g y of o t h e r running-induced i n j u r i e s and i s i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d t o the varus alignment of the f o r e f o o t , h e e l and d i s t a l s h a f t of the t i b i a . Smart, Taunton and Clement (1980) b e l i e v e t h a t f u n c t i o n a l o v e r p r o n a t i o n i s a l s o of primary importance t o the e t i o l o g y of A c h i l l e s tendon d i s o r d e r s . Of the 109 p a t i e n t s seen i n t h e i r study, 61 (56%) d i s p l a y e d f u n c t i o n a l o v e r p r o n a t i o n due t o an exaggerated varus alignment which they f e l t warranted c o r r e c t i o n w i t h the a p p r o p r i a t e c o r r e c t i v e running o r t h o t i c d e v i c e (CROD). Poor f l e x i b i l i t y w i t h i n the gastrocnemius/soleus u n i t , estimated by range of ankle p l a n t a r and d o r s i f l e x i o n , was another common e t i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r i n t h i s study. Poor f l e x i b i l i t y o f these muscles i n c r e a s -es the s t r a i n on the A c h i l l e s tendon d u r i n g running. Smart, Taunton and Clement (1980) r e g a r d l e s s than 12 degrees of d o r s i f l e x i o n and l e s s than 25 degrees of p l a n t a r f l e x i o n as inadequate. I n d i v i d u a l s l a c k i n g i n ankle f l e x i b i l i t y due t o t i g h t c a l f musculature o f t e n attempt t o g a i n a d d i t i o n a l range of d o r s i f l e x i o n by - 23 -a d d i t i o n a l knee f l e x i o n . I f t h i s i s u n s u c c e s s f u l they may be f o r c e d t o pronate more as a f u r t h e r compensating mechanism. (Bates e t a l . , 1979). E x c e s s i v e t r a i n i n g may culminate i n f a t i g u e of these c a l f muscles. S u c c e s s i v e days of heavy running w i l l d e p l e t e glycogen s t o r e s i n the s p e c i f i c muscle f i b e r s used t o shock absorb and p r o p e l . During the l a n d i n g phase f o l l o w i n g f o o t s t r i k e , the gastrocnemius and s o l e u s a c t e c c e n t r i c a l l y . The t e n s i l e l o a d i n g d u r i n g t h i s c o n t r a c t i o n combined w i t h g r a v i t a t i o n a l e l o n g a t i o n i s extremely h i g h . When the muscle i s d e p l e t e d of f u e l , i r r i t a t e d and r e l a t i v e l y c o n t r a c t e d , the tendon may undergo e x t r a o r d i n a r y s t r e t c h . M i c r o t e a r i n g of the primary and secondary f a s c i c l e s of the tendon may r e s u l t and a l o c a l i z e d inflammatory r e a c t i o n f o l l o w s . Continued running i n the presence of t h i s m i c r o t e a r i n the e a r l y phases of h e a l i n g may o v e r l o a d the immature s c a r . T o t a l r e s t may a l s o c r e a t e a s c a r which i s not of s u f f i c i e n t t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h . Thus, graded e c c e n t r i c r e h a b i l i t a t i v e d r i l l s may be s u p e r i o r t o t o t a l r e s t i n r e c o v e r y t o m i c r o t e a r i n g of the A c h i l l e s tendon. In 10% of t h e i r cases, poor running footwear appeared t o c o n t r i b u t e d i r e c t l y t o the onset of A c h i l l e s tendon i n j u r y . Most d i s o r d e r s seem t o o r i g i -nate i n the shoe h e e l . S o f t , l o o s e f i t t i n g h e e l counters and narrow h e e l bases do not p r o v i d e adequate s t a b i l i t y t o the s u b t a l a r j o i n t . A l a r g e h e e l f l a r e i n c r e a s e s the amount of A c h i l l e s tendon 'whip' f o l l o w -i n g h e e l s t r i k e by e f f e c t i v e l y i n c r e a s i n g the l e n g t h of the l e v e r arm (heel width) i n t o p r o n a t i o n . Other p o s s i b l e e t i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s c i t e d by Smart, Taunton and Clement (1980) i n c l u d e trauma t o an - 24 -abnormal tendon. The causes of abnormal tendon s t r u c -t u r e have been a s s o c i a t e d with rheumatic c o n d i t i o n s such as: hyperuricemia and gout; pseudogout; h e t e r o t o p i c o s s i f i c a t i o n ; Sever's d i s e a s e ; rheumatoid c o l l a g e n o l y s i s ; and a n k y l o s i n g s p o n d y l i t i s . Response o f the A c h i l l e s Tendon t o Force Tendon i s s u b j e c t e d t o both the f o r c e s generated by muscular c o n t r a c t i o n and t o the f o r c e s a p p l i e d e x t e r -n a l l y t o the limb and i t s i n s e r t i o n . Muscle generates f o r c e v i a t h r e e mechanisms of c o n t r a c t i o n ; c o n c e n t r i c (muscle c o n t r a c t s and i t s l e n g t h i s shortened), isomet-r i c (muscle l e n g t h remains constant w h i l e i t c o n t r a c t s ) and e c c e n t r i c (muscle c o n t r a c t s w h i l e being p h y s i c a l l y lengthened by e x t e r n a l f o r c e s ) . Whether or not i n j u r y occurs t o the tendon depends i n l a r g e p a r t on the magnitude of these f o r c e s , the speed of a p p l i e d t e n s i o n and the i n i t i a l s t r e n g t h of the tendon i n r e l a t i o n t o the muscle (Lamb, S t a n i s h & Curwin, 1980). The t e n s i o n s produced d u r i n g c o n c e n t r i c c o n t r a c -t i o n i s i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o the v e l o c i t y o f the muscle s h o r t e n i n g , w i t h the maximum c o n c e n t r i c t e n s i o n b e i n g generated d u r i n g the i s o m e t r i c c o n d i t i o n (Komi, 1973). A muscle c o n t r a c t i o n o f maximum i s o m e t r i c f o r c e s t r e s s -es the tendon no more than one q u a r t e r o f i t s u l t i m a t e t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h ( V i d i i k , 1969). The v e l o c i t y of le n g t h e n i n g i n f l u e n c e s the amount of t e n s i o n t h a t can be developed i n the muscle d u r i n g the e c c e n t r i c con-t r a c t i o n . When the muscle i s r a p i d l y s t r e t c h e d w h i l e c o n t r a c t i n g , t h e r e i s a l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n i n t r a t e n d o n t e n s i o n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the v e l o c i t y of e l o n g a t i o n - 25 -(Komi, 1973). Peak e c c e n t r i c a l l y generated f o r c e s have c o n s i s t e n t l y been shown t o exceed those generated by maximal i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n (Harkness, 1968; Komi, 1973) . In c o n t r a s t , i n a r e s t i n g s t a t e , muscle i s v e r y e x t e n s i b l e and when p a s s i v e l y s t r e t c h e d , the tendon i s almost e n t i r e l y absorbed by the compliant muscle t i s s u e w i t h no r i s e i n i n t r a t e n d o n t e n s i o n (Cavagna and Kancko, 1977). The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between muscle f o r c e and speed of s h o r t e n i n g d i f f e r s f o r e c c e n t r i c and c o n c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n . The f o r c e - v e l o c i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p i l l u s -t r a t e s t h a t i n e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e s , the f o r c e i n c r e a s e s as the v e l o c i t y of c o n t r a c t i o n i n c r e a s e s (at l e a s t t o a c e r t a i n p o i n t ) . In c o n t r a s t , d u r i n g c o n c e n t r i c exer-c i s e the f o r c e decreases as the speed of c o n t r a c t i o n i n c r e a s e s (Komi, 1973). The f o r c e - v e l o c i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p may have important a p p l i c a t i o n s t o t r a i n i n g . To i n c r e a s e muscle f o r c e under c o n d i t i o n s of n e g a t i v e work ( e c c e n t r i c c o n t r a c -t i o n ) , the limb should be moved as r a p i d l y as p o s s i b l e . During c o n c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e , movement should be p er-formed s l o w l y t o maximize f o r c e p r o d u c t i o n . The f o r c e p r o d u c t i o n d u r i n g e c c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n appears t o be g r e a t e r than d u r i n g c o n c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e . S i n c e t h i s f o r c e i s t r a n s m i t t e d by the tendon t o i t s i n s e r t i o n , the tendon i s s u b j e c t e d t o l a r g e r loads d u r i n g eccen-t r i c e x e r c i s e (Curwin and S t a n i s h , 1984). Komi (1973) employed maximal e c c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n as the s t i m u l u s f o r muscle hypertrophy, and found t h a t the e c c e n t r i c a l l y t r a i n e d s u b j e c t s s u f f e r e d from severe muscle soreness d u r i n g the p r e l i m i n a r y p e r i o d of t r a i n i n g . T h i s c o u l d p o s s i b l y i n d i c a t e damage t o muscle c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e or the tendon-muscle j u n c t i o n . Johnson (1976) r e p o r t e d t h a t s u b j e c t s e x e r c i s i n g - 26 -e c c e n t r i c a l l y a l l found t h i s type of t r a i n i n g e a s i e r t o do r a t h e r than the c o n c e n t r i c type even though they knew they were h a n d l i n g h e a v i e r r e s i s t a n c e s . Komi (1977) d i s c u s s e s how mechanical energy may be s t o r e d by the s t r e t c h i n g of s e r i e s e l a s t i c elements of muscle or tendon d u r i n g e c c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n and be r e - u t i l i z e d by the immediately f o l l o w i n g c o n c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n . Cavagna (1964, 1977) has shown t h a t the r e - u t i l i z a t i o n of t h i s " s t o r e d e l a s t i c energy" i n c r e a s -es the mechanical e f f i c i e n c y of running by as much as 40-50 percent and may c o n t r i b u t e as much as 50 p e r c e n t of the t o t a l energy requirements of running. Muscles w i t h s h o r t f i b e r s and l o n g e x t e n s i b l e tendons such as the extensor mechanism of the knee, and the p l a n t a r f l e x o r s of the f o o t w i t h t h e i r l o n g p a t e l l a r and A c h i l l e s tendons, appear t o be b e s t adapted f o r energy sto r a g e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t both these tendons are the s i t e of the c h r o n i c t e n d i n i t i d e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h running and jumping a t h l e t e s (James e t a l . , 1978; Taunton e t a l . , 1980). As f a r as Lamb, S t a n i s h and Curwin (1980) are concerned, the most l i k e l y e t i o l o g y f o r the m i c r o s c o p i c l e s i o n s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t e n d o n i t i s i s e x c e s s i v e f o r c e generated d u r i n g r e p e t i t i v e e c c e n t r i c muscle c o n t r a c -t i o n s . C o n c e n t r i c and i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s may exacerbate p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d t e n d o n i t i s , but these f o r c e s do not appear t o be s u f f i c i e n t t o cause the i n i t i a l i n s u l t . H i s t o r y and Examination o f the I n j u r e d A t h l e t e  H i s t o r y The importance of the case h i s t o r y cannot be overemphasized. S i n c e p a i n i s the u s u a l symptom t h a t causes the a t h l e t e t o seek help , the examiner must - 27 -determine where the p a i n i s , when i t occurs, how long i t l a s t s , and the time el a p s e d s i n c e symptoms were f i r s t n o t i c e d . The d u r a t i o n of p a i n and i t s s e v e r i t y are p a r t i c u l a r l y important i n c l a s s i f y i n g the degree of t e n d o n i t i s . I n v a r i a b l y , the a t h l e t e has been i n v o l v e d i n some type of r e p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t y , i n v o l v i n g jumping, c l i m b i n g , k i c k i n g or running. On r a r e o c c a s i o n s , the a t h l e t e may r e l a t e a s i n g l e episode t o a d i r e c t blow, a c e r t a i n l a n d i n g or t a k e - o f f ( B l a z i n a , 1973). C l i n i c a l Examination The i n j u r e d tendon should be p a l p a t e d along i t s l e n g t h i n both the r e l a x e d ( p l a n t a r f l e x e d ) and t a u t ( d o r s i f l e x e d ) p o s i t i o n s and compared wit h the c o n t r a l a t e r a l s i d e . T h i s i s b e s t done w i t h the p a t i e n t l y i n g prone. S w e l l i n g of the paratendon, u n l i k e t h i c k -ening of the tendon t i s s u e , i s s u p e r f i c i a l and f e e l s l e s s " s o l i d " . Pressure on the s w o l l e n segment o f t e n produces p a i n . F r e q u e n t l y a t h i c k e n e d area, the nodule or c r e p i t u s i s noted. T h i s may i n d i c a t e a p r e v i o u s i n j u r y t o the tendon or areas of f o c a l degeneration. Examination of j o i n t range and muscle t i g h t n e s s should be performed a l s o . A quick check can r e a d i l y be done by having the a t h l e t e l e a n forward a g a i n s t a support w i t h the h e e l on the f l o o r and the knee s t r a i g h t . Ask the p a t i e n t t o bend the knee of the extended l e g . The bent knee should a l l o w more d o r s i f l e x i o n because the gastrocnemius i s p a r t i a l l y r e l a x e d . I f d o r s i f l e x i o n does not i n c r e a s e , then t i g h t n e s s of the s o l e u s muscle i s p r e s e n t . At l e a s t 10 - 15 degrees d o r s i f l e x i o n i s r e q u i r e d w i t h the s u b t a l a r j o i n t i n the n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n . T i b i a , h e e l and f o r e f o o t alignment should be assessed w i t h the p a t i e n t prone. The o p p o s i t e h i p i s - 28 -abducted t o 40 degrees t o a l l o w b e t t e r v i s u a l i z a t i o n of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . L i n e s b i s e c t i n g the c a l f and calcaneus are drawn, and the r e a r f o o t angle measured w i t h the s u b t a l a r j o i n t i n the n e u t r a l j o i n t i n the n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n between i n v e r s i o n and e v e r s i o n (ap-p r o x i m a t e l y 1/3 i n v e r t e d from the p o s i t i o n of f u l l a v e r sion) (Root, 1971). The f o r e f o o t angle i s then measured by t a k i n g a p e r p e n d i c u l a r from the c a l c a n e a l b i s e c t i o n and comparing t h i s w i t h the plane of the f o r e f o o t . Values g r e a t e r than 3 degrees s u b t a l a r varus and 2 degrees f o r e f o o t varus o f t e n n e c e s s i t a t e f u n c -t i o n a l o v e r p r o n a t i o n d u r i n g weightbearing which w i l l i n c r e a s e t o r s i o n i n the tendon d u r i n g the stance phase. T i b i a l varum or an i n s u f f i c i e n t 1st ray complex w i l l a l s o i n c r e a s e the amount of f u n c t i o n a l p r o n a t i o n (Maguire and Purdam, 1986). F i n a l l y f u n c t i o n a l t e s t s such as hopping on one f o o t or dropping the h e e l r a p i d l y over the edge of a step may be used t o determine whether e c c e n t r i c con-t r a c t i o n of the c a l f muscles i s i n v o l v e d i n the i n j u r y . These t e s t s f r e q u e n t l y produce p a i n on l a n d i n g d u r i n g hopping or p a i n a t the end of the range of movement i n dropping over a support, and are important i n a com-p l e t e assessment of the problems (Curwin and S t a n i s h , 1984) . - 29 -T r e a t m e n t There are numerous treatment regimens advocated t o t r e a t A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s . The dominant c o n s e r v a t i v e treatment program g e n e r a l l y used today p r e s c r i b i n g m o d a l i t i e s such as r e s t , i c e , a n t i - i n f l a m m a t o r y drugs, e l e c t r o t h e r a p y , o r t h o t i c s , proper running footwear, proper t r a i n i n g and c a s t i m m o b i l i z a t i o n p r e s e n t s w i t h c o n f l i c t i n g and l e s s than rewarding r e s u l t s . When these methods f a i l , sometimes surgery i s performed. Lamb, S t a n i s h and Curwin (1980) p o i n t out t h a t although these treatments may r e l i e v e symptoms, r e c u r r e n c e i s common u n l e s s the b a s i c causes of the problem are b e i n g d e a l t w i t h e i t h e r on A c h i l l e s tendon too weak t o do what i s demanded of i t or biomechanical f a c t o r s p l a c i n g more s t r e s s on the tendon than i t c o u l d normally absorb. There i s s u f f i c i e n t c u r r e n t evidence t o show t h a t i n a c t i v i t y a c t u a l l y weakens the tendon s t r u c t u r e . Thus, w h i l e r e s t or surgery (which i s i n e v i t a b l y f o l l o w e d by r e s t ) may succeed i n r e l i e v i n g symptoms i n some cases, they are not the treatment o f c h o i c e . A v i c i o u s c y c l e begins, with r e s t weakening the tendon so t h a t symptoms r e c u r as soon as a c t i v i t y i s resumed. E v e n t u a l l y any v i g o r o u s p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y provokes symptoms. Only i n cases of acute t e n d o n i t i s , where p a i n i s so i n t e n s e as t o prevent a t h l e t i c p a r t i c i p a -t i o n , i s i t advocated t h a t complete r e s t be e n f o r c e d and then o n l y u n t i l the acute symptoms su b s i d e . The A c h i l l e s tendon has been examined and t r e a t e d i n much the same manner as the p a t e l l a r tendon. Leach e t a l . (1982) t r e a t e d h i s p a t i e n t s who were s u f f e r i n g from c h r o n i c A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s w i t h a m o d i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r running mileage, a h e e l e l e v a t i o n i n t h e i r shoe t o take some s t r a i n o f f the tendon complex, o r a l - 30 -a n t i - i n f l a m m a t o r y agents and a v i g o r o u s s t r e t c h i n g r o u t i n e . With the c o m p e t i t i v e or d e d i c a t e d runner w i t h p e r s i s t i n g d e b i l i t a t i n g p a i n , surgery was i n d i c a t e d . Again, the author had some success w i t h the s u r g i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n but the c h r o n i c p a t i e n t t h a t was t r e a t e d c o n s e r v a t i v e l y met w i t h a v a r i e t y of success r a t e s . B l a z i n a (1973) f e l t t h a t standard c o n s e r v a t i o n measures of i c e , r e s t and a n t i - i n f l a m m a t o r y m e d i c a t i o n have predominated as the c o n s e r v a t i v e treatment f o r A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s f o r y ears and t h a t the n e c e s s i t y f o r s u r g i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n r e p r e s e n t s the f a i l u r e t o manage the t e n d o n i t i s problem on a c o n s e r v a t i v e b a s i s . The i n a b i l i t y t o a r r e s t the d i s e a s e p r o g r e s s i o n w i t h the c o n s e r v a t i v e methods i l l u s t r a t e s the l a c k of knowledge about the b a s i c mechanics i n v o l v e d . Other l o n g - s t a n d i n g treatment procedures have been examined as t o t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the o v e r a l l treatment p l a n f o r t e n d o n i t i s . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of l o c a l c o r t i c o s t e r o i d s i s w e l l r e c o g n i z e d as an impor-t a n t t h e r a p e u t i c measure i n the c o n s e r v a t i o n treatment of l o c a l inflammatory c o n d i t i o n s . Kennedy (1976) has brought t o our a t t e n t i o n s e r i o u s c o m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w l o c a l s t e r o i d i n j e c t i o n . S t e r o i d s i n j e c t e d i n t o normal tendon weaken i t s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r up t o two weeks or l o n g e r . T h i s e f f e c t may be even more p r o -nounced wi t h r e p e t i t i v e i n j e c t i o n s . T h i s biomechanical d i s r u p t i o n i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o c o l l a g e n n e c r o s i s . Kennedy (1976) emphasized t h a t avoidance of v i g o r o u s muscular a c t i v i t y f o r a p e r i o d of a t l e a s t two weeks post i n j e c t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l . Although c o n t r o l l i n g the inflammatory process, t h e r e i s some evidence t h a t the c o r t i s c o s t e r o i d i n j e c t i o n may r e t a r d the n a t u r a l r e p a i r p rocess and along with the a s s o c i a t e d decrease i n - 31 -t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h , p r e d i s p o s e the i n v o l v e d tendon t o f u r t h e r i n j u r y . Davidson and Taunton (1987) r e p o r t e d t h a t e f f e c -t i v e treatment r e q u i r e s immediate withdrawal from a l l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t induce or enhance symptoms of the A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s . T h i s may n e c e s s i t a t e c r u t c h i m m o b i l i z a t i o n i n severe cases, but a simple m o d i f i c a -t i o n of a c t i v i t y may s u f f i c e i n o t h e r s . Treatment of the t e n d o n i t i s i n c l u d e s use of o r a l a n t i - i n f l a m m a t o r y agents, i c e massage, c o n t r a s t baths, h e e l wedges, and where a p p r o p r i a t e , o r t h o t i c d e v i c e s . A l s o a r e g u l a r program of s t r e t c h i n g and s t r e n g t h e n i n g e x e r c i s e s , i n c l u d i n g the e c c e n t r i c phase. Chronic cases of t e n d o n i t i s which do not respond t o non-operative treatment may r e q u i r e s u r g i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n . At the time of w r i t i n g , the authors had operated on 6% of cases seen over the p a s t f o u r y e a r s . Of the 15 s u r g i -c a l cases, 14 o b t a i n e d e x c e l l e n t r e s u l t s , and 1 a good r e s u l t . A r e h a b i l i t a t i v e program advocated today by a number of authors (Lamb, S t a n i s h and Curwin, 1980; Curwin and S t a n i s h , 1984; Clement, Taunton and Smart, 1984; Maguire and Purdam, 1986), i n c l u d e s an e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e program. They have r a t i o n a l i z e d t h a t s i n c e tendon i s c o n s t a n t l y opposed t o l a r g e e c c e n t r i c f o r c e s , optimal o v e r l o a d and subsequent hypertrophy of tendon t i s s u e can o n l y be achieved through graded e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e , and t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e n t r i c and i s o m e t r i c t r a i n i n g e x e r c i s e s do not c o n s t i t u t e s u f f i -c i e n t o v e r l o a d . Curwin and S t a n i s h (1984) s t a t e t h a t the r o l e of e x e r c i s e i n the form of t e n s i l e s t r e s s f o r treatment of s o f t t i s s u e d i s o r d e r s i s f i r m l y supported e x p e r i m e n t a l -l y by animal s t u d i e s . The r e s u l t s of such s t u d i e s form - 32 -the t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r the e x e r c i s e program t h a t forms the cornerstone o f t h e i r t h e r a p e u t i c program. The primary aim of the program i s t o s u b j e c t the i n j u r e d tendon t o g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g t e n s i l e s t r e s s e s u n t i l i t has developed a t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h adequate t o enable i t t o withstand the f u n c t i o n a l s t r e s s o f the running a t h l e t e ' s p a r t i c u l a r e f f o r t s . I t i s assumed t h a t p a i n - f r e e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s p o r t s i m p l i e d adequate t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h . They questioned many a f f e c t e d a t h l e t e s and r e a l -i z e d t h a t e c c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n was somehow i n v o l v e d i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f c h r o n i c t e n d o n i t i s . In the case o f a runner s u f f e r i n g w i t h A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s , he/she would complain t h a t running down a h i l l would g i v e the g r e a t e s t p a i n , o r as he/she would d e c e l e r a t e . F u r t h e r t e s t i n g r e v e a l e d t h a t i n many cases p a i n c o u l d be reproduced i n the c l i n i c o n l y by e c c e n t r i c l o a d i n g . Noting t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , Curwin and S t a n i s h (1984) designed a t r a i n i n g program t h a t would ( t h e o r e t -i c a l l y ) s trengthen the a c t u a l tendon t i s s u e . They reasoned t h a t the f o r c e s t o which the tendon was su b j e c t e d d u r i n g a c t i v i t y were c a u s i n g damage t o the tendon m i c r o s t r u c t u r e a t the c o l l a g e n f i b e r l e v e l . Although v a r i o u s types o f weight t r a i n i n g programs were f r e q u e n t l y p a r t o f the a t h l e t e ' s e x i s t i n g t r a i n i n g program. The emphasis was p r i m a r i l y on c o n c e n t r i c o r i s o k i n e t i c e x e r c i s e s . They added e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e s designed t o r e i n f o r c e the muscle-tendon u n i t and focused t h e i r t r a i n i n g regimen on the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e f u n c t i o n i n g areas: 1) Length. S t r e t c h i n g would be an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the program. By i n c r e a s i n g the r e s t i n g l e n g t h o f the muscle-tendon u n i t , i t would l e s s e n the s t r a i n - 33 -(deformation) t a k i n g p l a c e d u r i n g the same range of j o i n t movement. 2) Load. I n c r e a s i n g the l o a d would c l e a r l y s u b j e c t the tendon t o g r e a t e r s t r e s s and would form the b a s i s f o r the p r o g r e s s i o n o f the program. The p r i n c i -p l e o f p r o g r e s s i v e o v e r l o a d i n g forms the b a s i s o f a l l p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g programs. 3) Speed of c o n t r a c t i o n . The f o r c e on the tendon i s r e l a t e d t o the speed of muscle c o n t r a c t i o n . I n -c r e a s i n g the speed of the movement would a l s o i n c r e a s e the l o a d on the tendon. Based on these f a c t o r s they developed an e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e program t h a t c o n s i s t s o f f o u r phases: (1) s t r e t c h , (2) e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e , (3) s t r e t c h , as p r i o r t o e x e r c i s e , (4) i c e . T h i s along w i t h c o n t i n u i n g a l l a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h i s time u n l e s s p a i n made i t i m p o s s i b l e . P a i n i s the y a r d s t i c k f o r the pro g r e s s of treatment. - 34 -Chapter 3 PROCEDURES Subj ects Seventeen s u b j e c t s , both male and female, age 22 -49 who had been diagnosed w i t h c h r o n i c A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s had been r e c r u i t e d from Vancouver p h y s i c i a n s and p h y s i o t h e r a p y c l i n i c s and l o c a l s p o r t s c e n t e r s . C r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n was t h a t the s u b j e c t s must have a h i s t o r y of a t h l e t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n (have been i n v o l v e d i n a r e g u l a r running or jumping program f o r a t l e a s t 6 months) and have had the symptoms o f A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s f o r g r e a t e r than t h r e e weeks. Su b j e c t s w i t h a h i s t o r y of rheumatic c o n d i t i o n s were be excluded from the study. A l s o s u b j e c t s must have been diagnosed w i t h A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s by t h e i r p h y s i c i a n , and i f not, they were r e f e r r e d t o the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Colum-b i a Sports Medicine C l i n i c f o r a complete d i f f e r e n t i a l d i a g n o s i s . Treatment P r o t o c o l S u b j e c t s were assig n e d (based on age, sex, and l e n g t h of time p r e s e n t i n g w i t h c h r o n i c A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s ) t o e i t h e r of two groups: t r a i n i n g u s i n g the " c o n c e n t r i c ankle p l a n t a r f l e x i o n / d o r s i f l e x i o n " e x e r c i s e or the " e c c e n t r i c ankle drop e x e r c i s e . " A d e t a i l e d step by step i n s t r u c t i o n of each e x e r c i s e p r o t o c o l i s found i n Appendix A. The use of a n t i -i n flammatories, u l t r a s o u n d , e l e c t r o t h e r a p y , l a s e r , o r t h o t i c s , or any other modality was f o r b i d d e n . I f s u b j e c t s entered the study with o r t h o t i c s they were - 35 -p e r m i t t e d t o keep u s i n g them, but o r t h o t i c s were not p r e s c r i b e d d u r i n g the course of the study. T e s t i n g Procedures The s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d i n i t i a l l y , a t 4 weeks, a t 8 weeks, and again a t 12 weeks f o r the f o l l o w i n g measures: 1. C o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c p l a n t a r f l e x o r s average and peak torque v a l u e s were measured on the i n j u r e d l e g . A l l f o r c e s were measured on the KIN/COM i s o k i n e t i c dynamometer i n the School of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Lab a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Lever l e n g t h and angular v e l o c i t y were recorded a t speeds of 3 0 and 50 degrees per second. 2. The p a t i e n t s s u b j e c t i v e l y e v a l u a t e d the e s t i m a t i o n of t h e i r p a i n on a s c a l e of 0 t o 10. Zero denotes being "pain f r e e " , p r o g r e s s i n g t o t e n which denotes severe p a i n and d i s a b i l i t y caused by the A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s . 3. The p a t i e n t s s u b j e c t i v e l y e v a l u a t e d t h e i r r e t u r n t o s p o r t s a c t i v i t y on a s c a l e o f 0 t o 10. Zero denotes b e i n g "unable t o perform the a c t i v i t y " , p r o g r e s s i n g t o t e n which denotes " f u l l a c t i v i t y resumed t o p r e i n j u r y l e v e l " . Each s u b j e c t was r e q u i r e d t o read and s i g n a consent form o u t l i n i n g the t e s t i n g and time r e q u i r e -ments. Subjec t s were a l s o r e q u i r e d t o keep a d a i l y t r a i n i n g l o g of t h e i r e x e r c i s e programs and p r o g r e s -s i o n , any oth e r a c t i v i t i e s they p a r t i c i p a t e d i n , as w e l l as a s u b j e c t i v e estimate of t h e i r p a i n l e v e l and how hard the e x e r c i s e was to perform t h a t day on a s c a l e o f 0 to 10. The s u b j e c t s were not t o l d t o - 36 -r e f r a i n from a c t i v i t y , however m o d i f i c a t i o n of a c t i v i t y was recommended u n t i l c o n t r o l of symptoms was achieved. A l s o t h i s experimentor monitored the s u b j e c t s ' p rogress weekly by phone or v i s i t , t o ensure the e x e r c i s e was b e i n g done c o r r e c t l y and the p r o g r e s s i o n t o the next l e v e l was a p p r o p r i a t e . A n a l y s i s o f Data The experimental d e s i g n was a 2 x 4 a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e w i t h repeated measures on the l a s t f a c t o r w i t h the two groups: " e c c e n t r i c ankle drop" and the "con-c e n t r i c p l a n t a r f l e x i o n / d o r s i f l e x i o n " group b e i n g the two l e v e l s of the independent v a r i a b l e . These groups were t e s t e d a t f o u r d i f f e r e n t time p e r i o d s : 0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. With alpha s e t a t 0.01 the hypotheses t o be t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e used t e n separate analyses of v a r i a n c e t o analyze change i n : (1) Average torque recorded a t v e l o c i t i e s of 30 and 50 degrees per second, measuring concen-t r i c and e c c e n t r i c p l a n t a r f l e x o r muscle c o n t r a c t i o n a c t i v i t y . (2) Peak torque recorded a t v e l o c i t i e s of 3 0 and 50 degrees per second, measuring c o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c p l a n t a r f l e x o r muscle c o n t r a c -t i o n a c t i v i t y . (3) P a i n l e v e l s . (4) Return t o a c t i v i t y p r o g r e s s i o n . T h i s p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i v e importance of the dependent v a r i a b l e w i t h i n each l e v e l of the independent v a r i a b l e . A t r e n d a n a l y s i s was then completed to. t e s t f o r c o n s i s t e n t t r e n d s i n the data, a n a l y z i n g l i n e a r , q u a d r a t i c , and c u b i c p a t t e r n s - 37 -throughout the twelve week time p e r i o d . The a n a l y s i s was accomplished u s i n g BMD:P2V b i o m e d i c a l s t a t i s t i c a l package a v a i l a b l e a t the computing c e n t e r of the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. To determine t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y , i n t r a c l a s s c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (ICC) were c a l c u l a t e d f o r 20 s u b j e c t s . An ICC of .80 was c o n s i d e r e d t o r e f l e c t a c c e p t a b l e t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y . With the r e t r o s p e c t i v e c l i n i c a l data, mean and standard d e v i a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r a l l r e p o r t e d v a r i a b l e s , and frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s and g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s are presented. - 38 -Chapter 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In t h i s chapter, the group t r a i n i n g w i t h the u n i v e r s a l gym "ankle p l a n t a r f l e x i o n / d o r s i f l e x i o n " e x e r c i s e w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as the c o n c e n t r i c group, and the group t r a i n i n g w i t h the " e c c e n t r i c ankle drop" e x e r c i s e w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as the e c c e n t r i c group. The p l a n t a r f l e x o r s of both e x e r c i s e groups were t e s t e d both e c c e n t r i c a l l y and c o n c e n t r i c a l l y . These t e s t i n g measures w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as the c o n c e n t r i c muscle c o n t r a c t i o n or the e c c e n t r i c muscle c o n t r a c t i o n , both measured i n Newton-meters a t v e l o c i t i e s of 3 0 and 50 degrees per second. Ten separate analyses of v a r i a n c e analyzed changes i n (1) average torque f o r c e recorded a t v e l o c i t i e s of 30 and 50 degrees per second, measuring c o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c p l a n t a r f l e x o r muscle c o n t r a c t i o n a c t i v i t y , (2) peak torque f o r c e recorded a t v e l o c i t i e s of 3 0 and 50 degrees per second, measuring c o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c p l a n t a r f l e x o r muscle c o n t r a c -t i o n a c t i v i t y , (3) p a i n l e v e l s , (4) r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y p r o g r e s s i o n . R e s u l t s The seventeen s u b j e c t s , mean age 34.8 y e a r s , (range 22 t o 49 years) , were a l l diagnosed as h a ving c h r o n i c A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s by t h e i r p h y s i c i a n . The 10 males and 7 females v a r i e d i n s e v e r i t y of c h r o n i c A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s , r anging from 4 weeks p o s t - i n j u r y t o 2.6 y e a r s . Table 4.1 d e t a i l s data on age, sex and grouping. A l l s u b j e c t s were v o l u n t e e r s who gave t h e i r - 39 -informed consent. No h i s t o r y of knee, h i p or l e g i n j u r y , abnormality or p r e v i o u s surgery was r e p o r t e d . T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y o f maximal c o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c torques a t 3 0 and 50 degrees per second was s t u d i e d i n 20 h e a l t h y s u b j e c t s by r e p e a t i n g t e s t i n g a t these two v e l o c i t i e s a f t e r a 60 minute r e s t p e r i o d . During the 60 minute r e s t p e r i o d , the s u b j e c t s were p e r m i t t e d t o r i s e and walk about. T e s t - r e t e s t compari-sons of c o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c peak torques are shown i n T a b l e 4.2. In most s u b j e c t s , r e t e s t torques were lower than t e s t torques, w i t h i n t r a c l a s s c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (ICC) r a n g i n g from .71 t o .83. P l a n t a r f l e x o r Average Torque Force s a t V e l o c i t i e s o f 30  and 50 Degrees Per Second The average torque v a l u e s are summarized i n Table 4.3. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found i n average torque f o r c e a t e i t h e r v e l o c i t y of 3 0 or 50 degrees per second between the c o n c e n t r i c group, t r a i n i n g on the u n i v e r s a l gym, performing the ankle p l a n t a r f l e x i o n / d o r s i f l e x i o n e x e r c i s e and the e c c e n t r i c group who performed the e c c e n t r i c ankle drop e x e r c i s e . There was a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p<0.001) l i n e a r time e f f e c t through t r e n d a n a l y s i s , i n d i c a t i n g t h e r e was l i n e a r i n c r e a s e i n performance over the 12 weeks f o r both groups. Although t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the group and treatment e f f e c t s , F i g u r e 4.1 and 4.2, i l l u s t r a t e t h a t the e c c e n t r i c group, over the 12 week p e r i o d , demonstrated l a r g e r g ains as compared t o the c o n c e n t r i c group a t both v e l o c i t i e s . - 40 -Table 4.1 Descriptive Data for Subjects Time with Chronic Achilles Age (years) Tendonitis Sports Group Gender x sd (Months) Involved 1 Runner Ctoncentric Female - 3 28.66 + 3.2 3.6 + .9 1 Dance 1 Soccer Male - 6 37.33 + 1.7 3.9 + 1.3 4 Runners 2 Basketball 2 Runners Eccerrtric Female - 4 31.00 + 2.6 3.7 + .9 1 Soccer 1 Volleyball Male - 4 39.50 + 3.2 3.7 + 1.1 3 Runners 1 Basketball Table 4.2 Intraclass Correlation Coefficients for Test-Retest Plantarflexion Peak Torques (N-m). (N=20) Contraction Velocity (o/sec) Test x sd Retest x sd ICC Concentric Eccentric Ctonoerrtric Eccentric 30 48.41 30 39.12 50 48.70 50 41.56 7.67 45.79 7.87 37.02 5.69 46.57 8.02 39.12 6.85 .83 6.28 .80 5.55 .81 5.90 .71 - 41 -Table 4.3 Mean and Standard Deviations f a r Concentric and Eccentric Plantarflexors Average Torque (Newton-meters) over the Twelve Week Period. Velocity Groups (Degrees Muscle Time Per Second) Cdntractian Concentric Eccentric 0 Weeks 30 Cane 36.21 11.2 36.70 12.2 Ecc 27.70 10.8 29.20 11.0 50 Cane 38.83 11.8 39.51 11.5 ECC 28.54 11.2 30.77 10.6 4 Weeks, 30 Cane 41.45 7.3 47.29 11.3 Ecc 31.37 7.9 38.03 12.1 50 Cane 44.70 9.3 49.66 10.5 Ecc 33.66 9.1 44.25 10.6 8 Weeks 30 Cane 43.58 14.7 56.03 12.0 Ecc 36.58 14.1 47.81 8.5 50 Cane 56.95 15.2 59.77 13.8 ECC 39.99 14.9 51.92 13.4 12 Weeks 30 Cane 55.91 14.7 64.53 12.5 ECC 44.99 14.6 57.55 10.5 50 Cane 58.70 15.7 66.48 12.1 Ecc 49.62 15.7 60.70 11.4 - 42 -P l a n t a r f l e x o r Peak Torque F o r c e s a t V e l o c i t i e s o f 30  and 50 Degrees Per Second The peak torque v a l u e s are summarized i n Table 4.4. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found i n peak torque a t e i t h e r v e l o c i t y or 3 0 or 50 degrees per second between the c o n c e n t r i c group and the e c c e n t r i c group. There was a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p<0.001) l i n e a r time e f f e c t through t r e n d a n a l y s i s , i n d i c a t i n g t h e r e was a l i n e a r i n c r e a s e i n performance over the 12 weeks f o r both groups. Although t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the group and treatment e f f e c t s , F i g u r e s 4.3 and 4.4, i l l u s t r a t e t h a t the e c c e n t r i c group, over the 12 week p e r i o d , demonstrated l a r g e r g a i n s as compared t o the c o n c e n t r i c group at both v e l o c i t i e s . P a i n L e v e l s There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n p a i n r a t i n g s between the c o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c group averaged over the f o u r t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s (p<0.01). I n i t i a l l y , the c o n c e n t r i c "average" p a i n r a t i n g was 6.5 on the continuum s c a l e of 0 (no pain) t o 10 (severe pain) and the e c c e n t r i c group was a t 6.0. By the end of the 12 weeks, the c o n c e n t r i c groups p a i n had d i m i n i s h e d on the average of 3.0 s c a l e p o i n t s , w h i l e the e c c e n t r i c groups p a i n had d i m i n i s h e d by an average of 4.67 p o i n t s ( F i g u r e 4.5). The change over the f o u r t e s t i n g s e s -s i o n s was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t (p<0.01) as was the h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r t r e n d a n a l y s i s (p<0.001). The i n t e r a c t i o n between the groups and the f o u r t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s was not s i g n i f i c a n t s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the t r e n d - 43 -Table 4.4 Mean and Standard Deviations f a r Concentric and Eccentric Plantarflexors Peak Torque (Newtan-neters) over the Twelve Week Period. Time Velocity (Degrees Muscle Per Second) Contraction Groups Concentric Eccentric 0 Weeks 30 Cane Ecc 43.04 33.12 13.7 10.0 41.88 35.51 12.8 12.5 50 Cane Ecc 43.70 36.41 16.3 14.4 45.36 37.40 1 2 . 1 2 . 4 Weeks 30 Cane Ecc 45.24 35.49 9.1 8.5 53.79 45.87 10.7 10.2 50 Cane Ecc 48.91 39.54 10.9 9.1 55.44 50.73 11.2 10.9 8 WGGJCS 30 Cane Ecc 48.83 40.99 16.1 15.1 62.81 57.29 11.7 11.1 50 Cane Ecc 51.91 45.08 18.1 17.7 64.63 58.85 11.5 11.4 12 Weeks 30 Cane Ecc 60.41 51.33 17.1 16.2 72.40 66.03 12.4 12.0 50 Cane ECC 63.79 55.91 17.7 16.2 72.85 70.83 11.0 10.3 - 44 -of p a i n t o decrease i s s i m i l a r i n both the c o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c groups. However, the e c c e n t r i c group decreased c o n s i d e r a b l y more. O v e r a l l i n the c o n c e n t r i c group, one s u b j e c t was p a i n f r e e a f t e r 12 weeks, two s u b j e c t s improved t h e i r c o n d i t i o n c o n s i d e r a b l y (average of 5.0 s c a l e p o i n t s ) , f o u r s u b j e c t s improved t h e i r c o n d i t i o n s l i g h t l y (aver-age of 2.3 s c a l e p o i n t s ) , and one s u b j e c t remained the same. In c o n t r a s t , i n the e c c e n t r i c group, t h r e e s u b j e c t s were p a i n f r e e a f t e r 12 weeks, f o u r s u b j e c t s improved t h e i r c o n d i t i o n c o n s i d e r a b l y (average 5.5 s c a l e p o i n t s ) , and two s u b j e c t s improved t h e i r c o n d i -t i o n s l i g h t l y (average of 2.5 s c a l e p o i n t s ) (Tables 4.5 and 4.6). Return t o A c t i v i t y (Performance Rating) There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y r a t i n g s between the c o n c e n t r i c and eccen-t r i c group averaged over the f o u r r e s t i n g s e s s i o n s . However, t h e r e was a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r time e f f e c t (p<0.001) through t r e n d a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t i n g t h e r e was a l i n e a r i n c r e a s e i n r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y performance over the 12 weeks f o r both the e c c e n t r i c and the c o n c e n t r i c group. I n i t i a l l y , the c o n c e n t r i c "average" performance r a t i n g was 5.88 on the continuum s c a l e o f 0 (unable t o perform) t o 10 ( f u l l p r e i n j u r y a c t i v i t y resumed) and the e c c e n t r i c group was a t 5.77. By the end of 12 weeks, the c o n c e n t r i c groups p e r f o r -mance had i n c r e a s e d on the average of 2.25 s c a l e p o i n t s , w h i l e the e c c e n t r i c groups performance had i n c r e a s e d by an average of 3.12 s c a l e p o i n t s ( F i g u r e 4.6). The i n t e r a c t i o n between the groups and the f o u r t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s was not s i g n i f i c a n t s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the t r e n d o f a q u i c k e r r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y i n c r e a s e s - 45 -s i m i l a r l y f o r both the c o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c group. However the e c c e n t r i c group i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y more. O v e r a l l , i n the c o n c e n t r i c group, one s u b j e c t resumed p r e - i n j u r y a c t i v i t y performance a f t e r the 12 weeks, two s u b j e c t s improved t h e i r a c t i v i t y l e v e l s c o n s i d e r a b l y (average o f 3.3 s c a l e p o i n t s ) and f i v e s u b j e c t s improved t h e i r performance s l i g h t l y (average of 1.2 s c a l e p o i n t s ) . In c o n t r a s t , i n the e c c e n t r i c group, f o u r s u b j e c t s resumed p r e i n j u r y a c t i v i t y p e r f o r -mance a f t e r the 12 weeks, two s u b j e c t s improved t h e i r a c t i v i t y l e v e l s c o n s i d e r a b l y (average o f 4.0 s c a l e p o i n t s ) and t h r e e s u b j e c t s improved t h e i r a c t i v i t y l e v e l s s l i g h t l y (average o f 1.3 s c a l e p o i n t s ) (Table 4.5 and 4.6). C l i n i c a l Data When l o o k i n g a t A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s from a c l i n i -c a l s t a n d p o i n t , the c l i n i c a l d i a g n o s i s i s based upon the c o g n i t i o n of common s i g n s and symptoms e l i c i t e d d u r i n g the p h y s i c a l examination, as o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r . The u s u a l p r o g r e s s i o n o f symptoms was common i n n e a r l y a l l p a t i e n t s . The m a j o r i t y o f the p a t i e n t s c l i n i c a l l y e x h i b i t e d p o i n t s p e c i f i c tenderness along the tendon o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s m a l l nodule developed i n the area. Only one s u b j e c t e x h i b i t e d s i g n s a t the A c h i l l e s tendon i n s e r t i o n i n t o the calcaneus and t h i s was the s u b j e c t whose p a i n remained co n s t a n t and h i s p r o g r e s -s i o n slower ( p o s s i b l y b u r s i t i s a f f e c t i n g h i s rec o v e r y a l s o ) . The e t i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s o f A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s c i t e d by Smart, Taunton and Clement (1980) i n c l u d e : f u n c t i o n a l o v e r p r o n a t i o n , poor f l e x i b i l i t y w i t h i n the gastrocnemius/soleus u n i t , improper t r a i n i n g methods, - 46 -and poor running footwear. I f we f i r s t examine the biomechanics a t the ankle, i t has been i m p l i c a t e d by t h e above authors, t h a t a runners' p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o i n j u r y i n c r e a s e s w i t h h i s / h e r degree of f u n c t i o n a l o v e r p r o n a t i o n . The m a j o r i t y of the t e n d o n i t i s s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study (14 out of 17) d i d e x h i b i t some degree of v a r u s h e e l and/or f o r e f o o t alignment. E i g h t of the f o u r t e e n s u b j e c t s entered the study w i t h o r t h o t i c s they had been u s i n g p r e v i o u s l y and f o u r s u b j e c t s had o r t h o t i c s p r e s c r i b e d by t h e i r p h y s i c i a n (to be a c q u i r e d once the study was completed) t o a i d i n c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i r o v e r p r o n a t i o n . Looking a t the causes of overuse i n j u r y , poor gastrocnemius/soleus f l e x i b i l i t y was seen i n 16 of the 17 s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study, w h i l e improper t r a i n i n g methods t o i n c l u d e ; a s i n g l e severe c o m p e t i t i v e or t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n , a sudden i n c r e a s e i n t r a i n i n g mileage or i n t e n s i t y , r e p e t i t i v e h i l l running or running on uneven t e r r a i n or recommencement of t r a i n i n g a f t e r an extended p e r i o d of r e l a t i v e i n a c t i v i t y , was r e p o r t e d by 14 of the 17 s u b j e c t s . And two s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d changing t h e i r running footwear p r i o r t o t h e i r A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s symptoms. The most p r e v a l e n t s p o r t the A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s s u b j e c t s were i n v o l v e d i n was running (10 s u b j e c t s ) f o l l o w e d by b a s k e t b a l l (3 s u b j e c t s ) , s o c c e r (2 sub-j e c t s ) , v o l l e y b a l l (1 subject) and dance (1 s u b j e c t ) . A l l s u b j e c t s were a b l e t o r e p o r t t h a t the a c t i v i t y they were i n v o l v e d i n d i d s u b j e c t the p l a n t a r f l e x o r s t o e x c e s s i v e r e p e t i t i v e types of s t r a i n . S u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r a c t i v i t y l e v e l as h i g h as p o s s i b l e throughout the program. In o t h e r words, as i n Lamb and S t a n i s h ' s p r o t o c o l , en-f o r c e d r e s t s was not p a r t of the study. None of the - 47 -17 s u b j e c t s i n the study c o n d i t i o n d e t e r i o r a t e d , although t h r e e s u b j e c t s (two i n the c o n c e n t r i c group and one i n the e c c e n t r i c group) d i d r e p o r t v e r y s m a l l g a i n s (an i n c r e a s e of o n l y one s c a l e p o i n t ) i n p e r f o r -mance. A l l s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study were c l a s s i f i e d as r e c r e a t i o n a l a t h l e t e s , none of them were a c t i v e , competing a t h l e t e s whose r i g o r o u s schedule would r e q u i r e m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r hard t r a i n i n g schedules. Thus the s u b j e c t s were ab l e t o f o l l o w the o u t l i n e d p r o t o c o l r e g a r d i n g a g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e i n r e t u r n i n g t o t h e i r p r e v i o u s s p o r t a c t i v i t y l e v e l s w i t h much succe s s . While i t appear t h a t t e n d o n i t i s p a t i e n t s can attempt t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r a c t i v i t y l e v e l , the a t h l e t e must be c a u t i o n e d t o l i m i t e d some a c t i v i t y and f o l l o w a g r a d u a l r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y p r o g r e s s i o n u n t i l the symptoms have been c o n t r o l l e d and the i n j u r e d tendon i s g a i n i n g s t r e n g t h . Lamb and S t a n i s h (1980) r e p o r t e d t h a t d u r i n g the f i r s t t h r e e weeks of the e c c e n t r i c ankle e x e r c i s e , p a i n may a c t u a l l y i n c r e a s e . Upon examining the e x e r c i s e l o g s each s u b j e c t was r e q u i r e d t o keep, s p e c i f i c days a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a i n tended t o appear more f r e q u e n t l y f o r the e c c e n t r i c group d u r i n g the f i r s t few weeks of the program, most o f t e n c o i n c i d i n g w i t h speed or r e s i s t a n c e i n c r e a s e s w h i l e p r o g r e s s i n g t h e i r program. Muscle tends t o become sore i n the e a r l y stages of e c c e n t r i c t r a i n i n g most probably due t o h i g h p r o d u c t i o n of t e n s i o n , or a f t e r f a t i g u e l o a d i n g w i t h repeated maximal e c c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n (Komi, 1973). E x e r c i s e compliance i s d i f f i c u l t t o c o n t r o l f o r i n a study such as t h i s one. However, t h i s experimentor d i d c a l l each s u b j e c t weekly t o monitor p r o g r e s s and g i v e encouragement. Over the twelve week p e r i o d , i t was recommended t h a t the s u b j e c t s perform t h e i r - 48 -s p e c i f i c e x e r c i s e r o u t i n e s s i x times per week, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e i r r e g u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s would e n t a i l 72 e x e r c i s e bouts over the 12 weeks. The average number of e x e r c i s e p e r i o d s f o r those i n the e c c e n t r i c group was 58.8 w h i l e f o r the c o n c e n t r i c group i t was 49.4. Most s u b j e c t s were a b l e t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r a c t i v i t y l e v e l (although somewhat m o d i f i e d t o b e g i n with) throughout the course of the study and o n l y t h r e e were m i n i m a l l y a c t i v e . Those who were m i n i m a l l y a c t i v e over the 12 weeks e i t h e r l a c k e d m o t i v a t i o n or, as i n most cases, p a i n was t h e i r l i m i t i n g f a c t o r . I t was apparent i n two cases (one from each e x e r c i s e group) t h a t , a f t e r a bout wi t h the f l u which r e q u i r e d them t o l a y o f f t r a i n i n g f o r a few days t o a week, m o t i v a t i o n t o resume t r a i n i n g decreased. They d i d however, co n t i n u e t o e x e r c i s e although not t o the same exte n t as d u r i n g the f i r s t h a l f of the program. G e n e r a l l y , f o r the e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e group, i t appeared t h a t the h i g h e r e x e r c i s e compliance was r e l a t e d t o convenience and a v a i l a b i l i t y of equipment. For the c o n c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e group the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a u n i v e r s a l gym and the nature of the weight increments make i t d i f f i c u l t t o be used as a r e h a b i l i t a t i v e t o o l . In some cases, p a t i e n t s attempting t o s l o w l y i n c r e a s e t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e w i l l jump from 5 t o 10 kg because of convenience r a t h e r than purchase and u t i l i z e s m a l l e r 1 kg weights i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e more s l o w l y . A l -though t h i s was recommended t o those i n the c o n c e n t r i c group, o n l y f o u r took t h a t a d v i c e . In some cases, i t can be p o s t u l a t e d t h a t o v e r l o a d i n g an a l r e a d y weakened s t r u c t u r e too q u i c k l y causes f u r t h e r a g g r a v a t i o n . - 49 -Figure 4.1 Oarxserrtric and Eccentric Plantarflexors Average Torque Mean Values (N-m) at 30 degrees per second for each exercise group. CONC GROUP. . (C GR) ECC GROUP. . (E GR) 70 Concentric Contraction = CC 60 Eccentric Contraction = EC 50 AVERAGE TORQUE (NEWTON-METERS) 40 30 20 56.G3* 64-53 CC-EGR 57.. 35 EC-EGR 1 CC-CGR 44,99 EC-OCR 4 8 WEEKS 12 Figure 4.2 Concentric and Eccentric Plantarflexors Average Torque Mean Values (N-m) at 50 degrees per second for each exercise group. CONC GROUP. . (C GR) ECC GROUP. . (E GR) 70 Concentric Contraction = CC 60 Eccentric Contraction = EC 50 AVERAGE TORQUE (NEWTON-METERS) 40 30 20 66,48 CC-EGR / 60,70 EC-EGR 58V70 CC-CGR 62 EC-CGR 4 8 WEEKS 1 2 - 50 -Figure 4.3 Concentric and Eccentric Plantarflexors Peak Torque Mean Values (N-m) at 30 degrees per second for each exercise group. CONC GROUP. . (C GR) ECC GROUP. .(E GR) 70 Concentric Contraction = CC Eccentric Contraction = EC PEAK TORQUE (NEWTON-METERS) 60 50 40 30 20 72.40 CC-EGR 66,03 EC-EGR 60,41 CC-CGR 33 EC-CGR 8 1 2 WEEKS Figure 4.4 Concentric and Eccentric Plantarflexors Peak Torque Mean Values (N-m) at 50 degrees per second for each exercise group. 72.85 CC-EGR CONC GROUP. (C GR) ECC GROUP. . (E GR) 70 60 Concentric a t t r a c t i o n = CC Eccentric Contraction = EC PEAK TORQUE (NEWTON-METERS) 50 40 30 20 64,63" 70,33 EC-EGR y 63,79 CC-CGR 91 EC-CGR 1 2 W E E K S - 51 -Figure 4.5 Pain Ratings (Mean Values) Severe Pain 10 9 8 7 PAIN SCALE 6 5 4 3 2 Pain Free 1 •2>78 8 WEEKS CONC . ECC ." Gcsicentric ^1*35 Eccentric 12 Figure 4.6 Return to Act i v i t y - Performance Ratings (Mean Values) 10 F u l l A c t i v i t y Resumed PERFORMANCE SCALE Unable to Perform 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 jj.89 Eccentric 8-13 Oancentric CONC ECC 8 WEEKS 12 * Denotes Pain Free ** Denotes f u l l A c t i v i t y Resumed - 54 -Pain Perf 0 4 8 12 Pain Perf 0 4 8 12 * Denotes Pain Free ** Denotes f u l l A c t i v i t y Resumed - 56 -DISCUSSION There are numerous treatment regimens advocated t o t r e a t A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s . The dominant c o n s e r v a t i v e treatment programs g e n e r a l l y used today have p r e s e n t e d w i t h c o n f l i c t i n g and l e s s than rewarding r e s u l t s (Leach e t a l . , 1973). Maguire and Purdam (1986) p o i n t out t h a t although these treatments may r e l i e v e symptoms, r e c u r r e n c e i s common u n l e s s the b a s i c causes of the problem are d e a l t with, e i t h e r an A c h i l l e s tendon too weak t o do what i s demanded o f i t or biomechanical f a c t o r s p l a c i n g more s t r e s s on the tendon than i t c o u l d n o r m a l l y absorb. The use of e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e t r a i n -i n g has been advocated over the t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e t r a i n i n g as a primary f e a t u r e i n t e n d o n i t i s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n (Lamb, S t a n i s h and Curwin, 1980; Curwin and S t a n i s h , 1984; Smart, Taunton and Clement, 1980; Maguire and Purdam, 1986) . The purpose of t h i s study was t o determine the e f f e c t s of a twelve week e x e r c i s e program, i n a group of p a t i e n t s w i t h c h r o n i c A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s , comparing the c o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e programs. The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h e r e were no s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s observed between the two e x e r c i s e groups based on o b j e c t i v e measures of average and peak torque v a l u e s . However, the e c c e n t r i c exer-c i s e group d i d prove b e n e f i c i a l i n c o n t r o l l i n g the symptoms of c h r o n i c A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s more so than the c o n c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e group. C o n t r o l l i n g the symp-toms of A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o c o n t r o l l i n g the p a t i e n t s ' s u b j e c t i v e f e e l i n g of p a i n , and not always d i r e c t l y dependent on i n c r e a s e s i n p l a n t a r f l e x i o n average or peak torque g a i n s . However, i t became e v i d e n t t h a t those p a t i e n t s who became t o t a l l y p a i n f r e e a f t e r the 12 week program were those who a c t u a l l y demonstrated an i n c r e a s e i n p l a n t a r f l e x o r - 57 -average and peak torque and demonstrated a q u i c k e r r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y , a l l secondary t o a decrease i n t h e i r p e r c e i v e d p a i n . In terms of the i n i t i a l h y p o t h e s i s of t h i s study, the " e c c e n t r i c ankle drop" group d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e i n average and peak torque v a l u e s a t e i t h e r v e l o c i t y o f 30 or 50 degrees per second more so than the " c o n c e n t r i c p l a n t a r f l e x i o n / d o r s i f l e x i o n " group. However, as p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , the e c c e n t r i c group d i d have l a r g e r g a i n s i n the p l a n t a r f l e x o r torque v a l u e s , as w e l l as a q u i c k e r r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y , and a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n p a i n . The p l a n t a r f l e x o r s on the whole i n c r e a s e d i n a l i n e a r f a s h i o n f o r both average and peak torque f o r c e s a t both v e l o c i t i e s f o r both groups s i m i l a r l y , as i n d i c a t e d by the h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d a n a l y s i s (p<0.001). Although t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences between the group and the treatment e f f e c t , the e c c e n t r i c group demonstrated l a r g e r g a i n s i n both average and peak torque v a l u e s over the 12 week p e r i o d as compared t o the c o n c e n t r i c group (Tables 4.2 and 4.3) . The s u b j e c t i v e p a t i e n t e v a l u a t i o n o f r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y l e n t much support when e v a l u a t i n g the success of the e x e r c i s e programs and i n the r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y p r o g r e s s i o n . Each s u b j e c t e v a l u a t e d h i s / h e r own r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y on a 10 p o i n t s c a l e and were subsequently asked t o compare each r a t i n g w i t h the next i n order t o o b t a i n a g e n e r a l course o f pr o g r e s s . The r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y e f f e c t i n c r e a s e d i n a l i n e a r f a s h i o n f o r both groups s i m i l a r l y , as i n d i c a t e d by the h i g h l y s i g n i f i -c ant t r e n d a n a l y s i s (p<0.001). Although t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the group and the r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y e f f e c t , the e c c e n t r i c group over the twelve week p e r i o d demonstrated a q u i c k e r r e t u r n t o - 58 -p r e i n j u r y a c t i v i t y than d i d the c o n c e n t r i c group. The e c c e n t r i c group a l s o produced f o u r times as many f u l l r e t u r n t o p r e i n j u r y a c t i v i t y l e v e l s u b j e c t s by the end of the program than d i d the c o n c e n t r i c group. The s u b j e c t i v e p a t i e n t e v a l u a t i o n o f p a i n has n o t a b l y a i d e d t h i s study i n the e v a l u a t i o n o f the success o f the e x e r c i s e program and i n the r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y p r o g r e s s i o n . Each s u b j e c t e v a l u a t e d h i s / h e r own e s t i m a t i o n o f p a i n on a 10 p o i n t s c a l e and were subsequently asked t o compare each r a t i n g w i t h the next i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a g e n e r a l course o f p r o g r e s s . The s u b j e c t s * e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e i r p a i n on the average decreased over the 12 weeks s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f o r those i n the e c c e n t r i c group (p<0.01) than the concen-t r i c group, although t h e r e was a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r t r e n d a n a l y s i s demonstrating both groups de-crea s e d s i m i l a r l y i n a l i n e a r f a s h i o n . The e c c e n t r i c group a l s o produced t h r e e times as many " p a i n f r e e " s u b j e c t s by the end of the program than d i d the concen-t r i c group. There was a l a r g e v a r i a n c e amongst the s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study from an age d i f f e r e n c e (range 22 yea r t o 49 years) t o the average l e n g t h o f time they were i n f l i c t -ed w i t h the c h r o n i c A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s (range 4 weeks t o 2.6 y e a r s ) . Martens e t a l . , (1982) r e p o r t e d t h a t c o n s e r v a t i v e treatment (to i n c l u d e an e x e r c i s e regimen) f a i l e d i n 16 out of 38 cases when the t e n d o n i t i s was i n an advanced stage, but was v e r y e f f e c t i v e i n the e a r l y stages. In t h i s study, the small number of s u b j e c t s p r e c l u d e d a f u r t h e r subgrouping based on the stage of t e n d o n i t i s . Another important v a r i a b l e t h a t may a f f e c t the v a r i a n c e i n torque v a l u e s recorded i s the r e l i a b i l i t y of the KIN/COM i s o k i n e t i c dynamometer. The mechanical r e l i a b i l i t y o f the KIN/COM dynamometer has been - 59 -e s t a b l i s h e d ( F a r r e l l and R i c h a r d s , 1986); however r e p o r t s of the r e l i a b i l i t y of measurement t e s t - r e t e s t v a l u e s d u r i n g c o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c i s o k i n e t i c t e s t i n g seems t o v a r y w i t h the d i f f e r e n t body p a r t s t e s t s . While the knee has a h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y , r a n g i n g from .68 t o .95 ( T r e d i n n i c k and Duncan, 1987), o t h e r areas such as the elbow r a n g i n g from .72 t o .83 ( G r i f f i n , 1987) and the ankle r a n g i n g from .64 t o .74 (Maclntyre, 1987) demonstrate more v a r i a b i l i t y i n t e s t -r e t e s t peak torque v a l u e s . The I n t r a c l a s s C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h i s t e s t i n g p r o t o c o l i n d i c a t e d t h a t t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t e s t i n g c o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c p l a n t a r f l e x i o n torque ranged from .71 t o .83. Thus, c a u t i o n should be used i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the v a r i a b l e s u s i n g data from t h i s study because of the r e l a t i v e l y low ICC. G r i f f i n (1987) has suggested t h a t the v a r i a b i l i t y i n t e s t i n g may be due t o f a t i g u e , incomplete s t a b i l i z a -t i o n , sequence of t e s t i n g , and l a c k of f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w i t h procedures. A few of these v a r i a b l e s were a l s o noted i n t h i s study, n o t a b l y the incomplete s t a b i l i z a -t i o n a t the ankle and the sequence of t e s t i n g . There i s not a premade e s t a b l i s h e d f o o t p l a t e w i t h s t r a p p i n g f o r p o s i t i o n i n g as of y e t a v a i l a b l e w i t h the KIN/COM, and t h i s c o u l d cause v a r i a b i l i t y among t e s t i n g s e s -s i o n s . A l s o d u r i n g i s o k i n e t i c t e s t i n g , s u b j e c t s were reque s t e d t o perform c o n s e c u t i v e maximal c o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s , w i t h no r e s t i n t e r v a l between e f f o r t s . Maximal e f f o r t s a t each t e s t v e l o c i t y were i n i t i a t e d always w i t h a c o n c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n . The d i s c r e p a n c y i n amount of c o n c e n t r i c - e c c e n t r i c d i f f e r -ence may be a r e s u l t of the c o n s e c u t i v e nature of t e s t i n g . E c c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s performed immediately b e f o r e c o n c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s have been noted t o i n c r e a s e the f o r c e of c o n c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n (Asmussen, - 6 0 -1974; Cavagna, 1979). The e c c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s i n t h i s study t h e r e f o r e , may have i n c r e a s e d c o n c e n t r i c torque, because the h i g h e r c o n c e n t r i c t orques were rec o r d e d a t both v e l o c i t i e s . Furthermore, the maximal e c c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s may have d i m i n i s h e d by the c o n s e c u t i v e c o n c e n t r i c - e c c e n t r i c t e s t i n g , because maximal e c c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s have been r e p o r t e d t o be more f a t i g u i n g than c o n c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s (Komi, 1974) . Thus, a g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e between maximal c o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c peak torques might have been noted i f maximal c o n c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s had been t e s t e d s e p a r a t e l y from maximal e c c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s . Another argument presented by R o t h s t e i n , Lamb, and Mayhew (1987) looked a t the widespread use of i s o k i n e t i c measurements t h a t appear t o have imparted them a c r e d i b i l i t y t h a t f a r exceeds what c u r r e n t l y can be supported by r e s e a r c h . Because i s o k i n e t i c d e v i c e s measure torque w h i l e the limb i s moving, i s o k i n e t i c t e s t i n g has been c a l l e d "dynamic t e s t i n g " . R o t h s t e i n e t a l (1987) b e l i e v e t h a t the use of the term "dynamic" has l e d many people t o b e l i e v e t h a t i s o k i n e t i c t e s t i n g can be used t o i n f e r f u n c t i o n a l c a p a c i t y . These r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t they know of no s t u d i e s t h a t demon-s t r a t e t h a t i s o k i n e t i c t e s t i n g has any g r e a t e r i n f e r e n t i a l c a p a c i t y than does any oth e r form o f muscle t e s t i n g o r c l i n i c a l data. With d e v i c e s such as the KIN/COM which measures f o r c e s through the use of a s t r a i n gauge mounted on the machine arm, d i s t a n c e measurements must be made f o r torque c a l c u l a t i o n s . When a limb i s a t t a c h e d t o the d e v i c e , the a x i s of r o t a t i o n f o r t h a t limb must be a l i g n e d w i t h the mechanical a x i s o f the machine. Whenever the a x i s o f r o t a t i o n of the limb and machine cannot be a l i g n e d , the torque v a l u e s measured w i l l not r e f l e c t a c c u r a t e l y the performance of the muscles. - 61 -The more incongruent the two axes, the g r e a t e r the e r r o r . T h i s e r r o r would be s m a l l e r when t e s t i n g muscles t h a t c r o s s r e l a t i v e l y simple j o i n t s such as the knee or elbow. In these j o i n t s , the a x i s of r o t a t i o n ( i . e . i n s t a n t c e n t e r of r o t a t i o n ) moves o n l y a s m a l l amount and limb segments can be s t a b i l i z e d e a s i l y . The e r r o r i s l a r g e r when t e s t i n g more complex j o i n t s such as the ankle o r shoulder. For example, when t e s t i n g p l a n t a r f l e x i o n w i t h the Cybex I I , c o n s i d e r a b l e movement of the a n k l e j o i n t occurs r e g a r d l e s s of the s t a b i l i z a -t i o n methods used. T h i s u n c o n t r o l l e d movement (which can a l s o occur w i t h the KIN/COM), l e a d s t o measurement e r r o r . In a d d i t i o n t o the obvious movement t h a t can be observed, changes i n the axes of r o t a t i o n as the limb segments move are w e l l documented f o r many j o i n t s (Poppen and Walker, 1976; Sammarco and B u r n s t e i n , 1973). Because no co r r e s p o n d i n g change of the machine a x i s occurs d u r i n g these movements, t h i s r e s u l t s i n an i n a c c u r a t e p o r t r a y a l of muscle performance. In a more p o s i t i v e l i g h t , R o t h s t e i n e t a l (1987) a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t the use of i s o k i n e t i c measurements t o measure torque p r o d u c t i o n of s e l e c t e d muscle groups i s a p p r o p r i a t e , p r o v i d i n g t h a t care i s taken w i t h r e g a r d t o a x i s alignment, c a l i b r a t i o n and g r a v i t y compensa-t i o n , a l l of which were v e r y c a r e f u l l y looked a f t e r i n t h i s study. A l s o o b j e c t i v e measures o b t a i n e d from the KIN/COM dynamometer are needed t o f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h and g a i n f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o which areas of t e s t i n g and measurement are c o r r e c t and r e l i a b l e and which areas need t o be improved. T e s t i n g the ankle may be one area t h a t can be improved upon by p r o v i d i n g a c o n s i s t e n t , s t a b l e f o o t p l a t e t h a t may reduce measurement e r r o r so t h a t r e l i a b l e o b j e c t i v e measures can be o b t a i n e d f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . - 62 -The importance o f both o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e measures must not be overlooked. S u b j e c t i v e measures such as p a i n seem t o be v e r y powerful i n d i c a t o r s o f f u n c t i o n , o f t e n not r e f l e c t i n g a c c u r a t e o b j e c t i v e measures reco r d e d on d e v i c e s such as the KIN/COM. When p a i n g r a d u a l l y decreases c o i n c i d i n g w i t h a gr a d u a l i n c r e a s e i n r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y , both seem t o be b e t t e r i n d i c a t o r s o f progress than rec o r d e d torque v a l u e s . Although both groups d i d demonstrate a l i n e a r i n c r e a s e i n torque v a l u e s over the 12 weeks, n o n - s i g n i f i c a n c e was found between the two groups. The q u e s t i o n then a r i s e s i f c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e measures are s e n s i t i v e enough t o r e f l e c t the s u b j e c t i v e r e s u l t s . Authors R o t h s t e i n (1989) and J e t t e (1989) s t r e s s the importance of u s i n g both o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e measures t o make sound c l i n i c a l d e c i s i o n s . These authors s t a t e t h a t both measures should e f f e c t i v e l y and o b j e c t i v e l y ( r e l i -ably) apply t o the q u a l i t y o f a measurement t o o l and be used a c c o r d i n g l y . An i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g i n t h i s study was seen when a l l s u b j e c t s , a t a l l f o u r t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s , and a t both v e l o c i t i e s , demonstrated h i g h e r p l a n t a r f l e x o r concen-t r i c muscle c o n t r a c t i o n v a l u e s than e c c e n t r i c muscle c o n t r a c t i o n v a l u e s . Although the e c c e n t r i c group d i d average h i g h e r s c o r e s o v e r a l l on both the c o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c muscle c o n t r a c t i o n s , the c o n c e n t r i c muscle c o n t r a c t i o n v a l u e s remained h i g h e r than the e c c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s . To the b e s t of t h i s authors' knowledge, these f i n d i n g s have not been documented elsewhere i n the l i t e r a t u r e . These r e s u l t s are i n c o n t r a s t t o the data r e p o r t e d by s t u d i e s (Rizzardo, Bay and Wessel, 1988; Olsen e t a l . , 1972; Komi, 1973) i n which the concen-t r i c / e c c e n t r i c peak torque r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the knee extens o r s was s i m i l a r t o t h a t found f o r the elbow and - 63 -h i p muscles, where the e c c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s produced h i g h e r torque v a l u e s than the c o n c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s a t most t e s t e d v e l o c i t i e s . One e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the c o n c e n t r i c muscles con-t r a c t i o n t o be l a r g e r than the e c c e n t r i c muscle con-t r a c t i o n i n t h i s study, i s e x p l a i n e d by Winter (1985). Winter found t h a t the c o n c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n o f the p l a n t a r f l e x o r s a t push-off c r e a t e s the l a r g e s t and most important energy b u r s t of any muscle group r e c o r d e d d u r i n g the g a i t c y c l e . Whereas p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y , e c c e n t r i c a l l y generated f o r c e s are g r e a t e r than concen-t r i c a l l y generated f o r c e s , i n a f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t y such as g a i t , the nature of the p l a n t a r f l e x o r s ' concen-t r i c a l l y generated f o r c e i s much g r e a t e r than i t s e c c e n t r i c a l l y generated f o r c e . Winter a l s o r e p o r t s i n o t h e r areas such as the knee, where the e c c e n t r i c a l l y generated f o r c e s are g r e a t e r than the c o n c e n t r i c a l l y generated f o r c e s , i t s power b u r s t s are mainly n e g a t i v e r e p r e s e n t i n g the a b s o r p t i o n of energy by the e c c e n t r i -c a l l y c o n t r a c t i n g quadriceps as the knee f l e x e s d u r i n g weight acceptance. Thus, due t o the nature of the g a i t c y c l e and the recorded torque f o r c e s generated, the e c c e n t r i c muscle c o n t r a c t i o n s b e i n g l a r g e r a t the knee and c o n c e n t r i c muscle c o n t r a c t i o n s b e i n g l a r g e r a t the ankle, seem t o f i t a f u n c t i o n a l r a t h e r than p h y s i o l o g i -c a l p a t t e r n s . Another important f a c t o r i s the f o r c e - v e l o c i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p where the e c c e n t r i c a l l y generated f o r c e i s r e p o r t e d t o i n c r e a s e as the v e l o c i t y of c o n t r a c t i o n i n c r e a s e s (at l e a s t t o a c e r t a i n p o i n t ) , and the c o n c e n t r i c a l l y generated f o r c e decreases as the speed of c o n t r a c t i o n i n c r e a s e s (Komi, 1973). T h i s study used v e l o c i t i e s of 3 0 and 50 degrees per second compared t o the knee commonly measuring v e l o c i t i e s of 60, 12 0, and 180 degrees per second ( T r e d i n n i c k and Duncan, 1987) - 64 -and the elbow measuring v e l o c i t i e s o f 45 and 72 degrees per second (Rodgers and Berger, 1974). When t e s t i n g the p l a n t a r f l e x o r s a t h i g h e r v e l o c i t i e s (60 and 70 degrees per second), the s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d a l a c k o f s t a b i l i z a t i o n a t the ankle and f e e l i n g unable t o produce maximal c o n t r a c t i o n s . S i n c e the ankle d i d not produce a c c u r a t e measurements a t these h i g h e r v e l o c i -t i e s , the r e l a t i v e l y slower v e l o c i t i e s used i n t h i s study may have l e a d t o the h i g h e r c o n c e n t r i c a l l y r e c o r d e d t e n s i o n s . Jensen and Di F a b i o (1989) d i d a study on the e f f e c t s o f a quadriceps femoris muscle e c c e n t r i c t r a i n i n g program on s t r e n g t h gains i n p a t i e n t s w i t h p a t e l l a r t e n d o n i t i s . They looked a t the d i f f e r e n c e between h e a l t h y i n d i v i d u a l s and p a t i e n t s i n f l i c t e d w i t h p a t e l l a r t e n d o n i t i s when t r a i n i n g e c c e n t r i c a l l y . They found t h a t e c c e n t r i c t r a i n i n g had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on i n c r e a s i n g the s t r e n g t h d i f f e r e n c e s between r i g h t and l e f t e x t r e m i t i e s i n normal s u b j e c t s but t h a t i t was n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t i n s u b j e c t s w i t h p a t e l l a r t e n d o n i t i s . One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n was t h a t p a i n and d i s c o m f o r t i n the knee were l i k e l y t o account f o r some of the d i f f e r e n c e between normal t e n d o n i t i s s u b j e c t s . The authors reasoned t h a t l o a d i n g the quadricep femoris tendon e c c e n t r i c a l l y produces t e n s i o n l e v e l s exceeding c o n c e n t r i c o r maximal i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s . A p a i n o r p r o t e c t i v e response c o u l d l i m i t the l e v e l s o f e c c e n t r i c work when r e s i s t a n c e i s a p p l i e d t o the j o i n t . The authors found a neg a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between work r a t i o s and p a i n r a t i n g s , t h a t show t h a t even m i l d t o moderate d i s c o m f o r t w i l l a f f e c t muscle performance, p a r t i c u l a r l y under maximum tendon-loading c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s p a i n o r p r o t e c t i v e response seen i n Jensen and D i F a b i o ' s (1989) study may have a l s o been another f a c t o r i n t h i s study e x p l a i n i n g why the e c c e n t r i c - 65 -muscle c o n t r a c t i o n v a l u e s were low. S u b j e c t s d i d r e p o r t some degree of p a i n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t e s t i n g t h a t may have a f f e c t e d the recorded r e s u l t s . While i t appears t h a t the e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e i s a s u c c e s s f u l r e h a b i l i t a t i v e e x e r c i s e , the exact p h y s i o -l o g i c a l response of the tendon i s unknown. The p h y s i o -l o g i c a l changes, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o tendon hypertrophy, a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e c c e n t r i c work have y e t t o be examined. In both c o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c work, the a c t i v a t i o n of muscle i n c r e a s e s l i n e a r l y w i t h the i n c r e a s e i n f o r c e output. P r o d u c t i o n of muscle t e n s i o n can be much h i g h e r i n e c c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n and the d i f f e r e n c e i n t e n s i o n between maximal e c c e n t r i c work and c o n c e n t r i c work i n c r e a s e s w i t h the i n c r e a s e i n c o n t r a c t i o n v e l o c i t y (Asmussen, 1965; Komi, 1973). While the two e x e r c i s e s (the e c c e n t r i c ankle drop and c o n c e n t r i c p l a n t a r f l e x i o n / d o r s i f l e x i o n ) were n e i t h e r u n i q u e l y e c c e n t r i c or c o n c e n t r i c r e s p e c t i v e l y , nor were they of maximal s t r e s s , the major component of each e x e r c i s e (the p e r i o d d u r i n g which the most l o a d i n g took p l a c e ) , o c c u r r e d e i t h e r d u r i n g an e c c e n t r i c phase or a c o n c e n t r i c phase. The speed of muscle c o n t r a c t i o n i s an i n t e g r a l component of the l o a d i n g phase d u r i n g the e c c e n t r i c ankle drop e x e r c i s e , and i t has a l s o been found t o be important t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n terms of r e p r o d u c i n g s p o r t s p e c i f i c speed (Wyatt, 1981). While the ankle p l a n t a r f l e x i o n / d o r s i f l e x i o n e x e r c i s e must be performed s l o w l y , the e c c e n t r i c ankle drop e x e r c i s e must be performed p r o g r e s s i v e l y f a s t e r . The e x e r c i s e would then be s i m u l a t i n g a jumping/landing s i t u a t i o n i n terms of the speed of p l a n t a r f l e x o r c o n t r a c t i o n . I t i s p l a u s i b l e t h a t i n t h i s manner the e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e not o n l y can be u s e f u l as a t h e r a p e u t i c e x e r c i s e but can a l s o have i m p l i c a t i o n s i n the p r e v e n t i o n of such - 6 6 -overuse t e n d i n i t i d e s . Lamb and S t a n i s h (1980) suggest t h a t s t r e n g t h e n i n g the tendon d u r i n g the e c c e n t r i c phase of muscle c o n t r a c t i o n may l e a d t o l e s s s u s c e p t i -b i l i t y t o m i c r o t e a r i n g i n the t i s s u e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t e n d o n i t i s . I t may a l s o be the case t h a t i n performing the e x e r c i s e a t s p o r t s p e c i f i c speeds, the a t h l e t e might be b e t t e r prepared t o resume p r e i n j u r y l e v e l s a f t e r a minimal p e r i o d of time. - 67 -Chapter 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary The main purpose of t h i s study was t o determine which method of e x e r c i s e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n - the "eccen-t r i c ankle drop" e x e r c i s e or the u n i v e r s a l gym "concen-t r i c p l a n t a r f l e x i o n / d o r s i f l e x i o n " e x e r c i s e - produced a more s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t i n terms of r e c o v e r y i n the treatment o f c h r o n i c A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s . Seventeen s u b j e c t s a l l w i t h c h r o n i c A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s , were p l a c e d i n one of two groups i n which they performed e i t h e r the " e c c e n t r i c ankle drop" e x e r c i s e o r the " c o n c e n t r i c p l a n t a r f l e x i o n / d o r s i f l e x i o n " e x e r c i s e . T e s t i n g i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : average and peak torque were reco r d e d on the KIN/COM i s o k i n e t i c dynamometer a t 3 0 and 50 degrees per second f o r p l a n t a r f l e x o r c o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c muscle c o n t r a c t i o n s , a s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f p a i n , and a r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y p r o g r e s s i o n were c o l l e c t e d . T h i s o c c u r r e d a t f o u r t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s d u r i n g the twelve week program: i n i t i a l l y a t 0 weeks, a t 4 weeks, at 8 weeks and again a t 12 weeks. R e s u l t s showed t h a t the " e c c e n t r i c ankle drop" e x e r c i s e produced g r e a t e r r e s u l t s i n terms of c o n t r o l -l i n g the symptoms of A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s than d i d the c o n v e n t i o n a l u n i v e r s a l gym " c o n c e n t r i c p l a n t a r f l e x i o n / d o r s i f l e x i o n " e x e r c i s e . Although i t was not found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t , both groups demonstrated a l i n e a r i n c r e a s e i n average and peak torque f o r c e s over the twelve weeks, wi t h the e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e group averag-i n g l a r g e r torque readings than the c o n c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e group. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n p a i n f o r those performing the " e c c e n t r i c ankle drop" e x e r c i s e , and w h i l e the c o n c e n t r i c group e x e r c i s i n g on the - 68 -u n i v e r s a l gym a l s o demonstrated a l i n e a r decrease i n p a i n , i t was not t o the e x t e n t as experienced by the e c c e n t r i c group. Both groups a l s o demonstrated a l i n e a r i n c r e a s e i n r e t u r n t o a c t i v i t y over the twelve weeks, w i t h the e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e group r e p o r t i n g q u i c k e r r e t u r n s than the c o n c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e group. T h i s i n c r e a s e , however, was not found t o be s i g n i f i -c ant. Although no s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e was found between the two e x e r c i s e groups (except f o r p a i n l e v e l s ) , the s u b j e c t i v e measures f a v o r the use of the " e c c e n t r i c ankle drop" e x e r c i s e . Thus from a c l i n i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , the e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e can be recommended as a more p o s i t i v e approach toward the c o n s e r v a t i v e management of c h r o n i c A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s . And w h i l e i t seems apparent t h a t these a t h l e t e s can c o n t i n u e t o be a c t i v e w h i l e b e i n g t r e a t e d , the type and l e v e l of a c t i v i t y should be monitored and m o d i f i e d i f warranted. C o n c l u s i o n s 1. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n average and peak torque v a l u e s were observed d u r i n g e c c e n t r i c and c o n c e n t r i c p l a n t a r f l e x o r c o n t r a c t i o n s between the two v e l o c i t i e s . Although t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r i n c r e a s e i n both torque v a l u e s a t both v e l o c i t i e s over the 12 weeks. 2. The " e c c e n t r i c ankle drop" e x e r c i s e demonstrated a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l the p a i n f u l symptoms of c h r o n i c A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s b e t t e r than the " c o n c e n t r i c p l a n t a r f l e x i o n / d o r s i f l e x i o n " e x e r c i s e . 3. Average and peak torque g a i n s i n the p l a n t a r f l e x o r muscle group do not n e c e s s a r i l y correspond t o the p a t i e n t ' s d i m i n i s h i n g p a i n symptoms. The a b i l i t y t o i n c r e a s e the average and peak torque f o r c e s i n - 69 -the af fected l imb, however, i s f e l t to be impor-tant i n terms of being e s sent ia l to a f u l l recov-ery and to the a b i l i t y to return to p r e i n j u r y a c t i v i t y l e v e l s . 4. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ferences i n re turn to a c t i v i t y progress ion was observed between the two exercise groups. However the subjects own evaluat ion of t h e i r progression d i d correspond to t h e i r d imin-i s h i n g pain and proved valuable i n monitoring t h e i r rate of progress when returning to p r e i n j u r y a c t i v i t y l e v e l s . - 70 -RECOMMENDATIONS 1. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h should be conducted f o l l o w i n g a s i m i l a r p r o t o c o l but u s i n g a f o o t p l a t e w i t h a h i g h t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y , t o f u r t h e r e x p l o r e the e f f e c t s o f an " e c c e n t r i c " type of e x e r c i s e a t the A c h i l l e s tendon. 2 . F u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n t e s t i n g p r o t o c o l should i n c l u d e t e s t i n g c o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c c o n t r a c -t i o n s s e p a r a t e l y , a l t e r i n g the l e n g t h o f warm-up and r e s t p e r i o d s , and t e s t i n g a t d i f f e r e n t v e l o c i -t i e s . 3 . The p h y s i o l o g i c a l mechanism of a d a p t a t i o n w i t h i n a tendon exposed t o e c c e n t r i c f o r c e s must be exam-i n e d and p o s s i b l y c o r r e l a t e d t o the c l i n i c a l management of the t e n d o n i t i s symptoms. 4. In o r d e r t o f u l l y e v a l u a t e the m e r i t s of the " e c c e n t r i c ankle drop" e x e r c i s e as r e h a b i l i t a t i v e t o o l i n the management of c h r o n i c A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s , l o n g term follow-up should be c o l l e c t -ed on the p a t i e n t s . I d e a l l y , one would l i k e t o see a p a t i e n t c ontinue w i t h f u l l a c t i v i t y w i t h no r e c u r r e n c e of t e n d o n i t i s symptoms. - 71 -REFERENCES 1) Abrahams, M. Mechanical behaviour of tendon i n v i t r o . M e d i c a l and B i o l o g i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g 5:433-443, 1967. 2) Asmussen, E., Bonde-Petersen, F. Storage of e l a s t i c energy i n s k e l e t a l muscles i n man. A c t a  Phvs Scand 91:385-392, 1974. 3) B a r f r e d , T. Experimental r u p t u r e of the A c h i l l e s tendon: comparison of v a r i o u s types of experimen-t a l r u p t u r e i n r a t s . A c t a Orthop Scand 42:528-543, 1971. 4) Bates, B.T., O s t e r n i g , L.R., Mason, B., James, L.S. Foot o r t h o t i c d e v i c e s t o modify s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s of lower e x t r e m i t y mechanics. Am J of  Sp o r t s Med 7(6):338-342. 1979. 5) Bennett, J.G., Stauber, W.T. E v a l u a t i o n and treatment of a n t e r i o r knee p a i n u s i n g e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e . Med S c i Sports Exerc 19(5):526—30, 1980. 6) B l a z i n a , M.D., K e r l a n , R., Jobe, F., C a r t e r , V., and C a r l s o n , G. Jumper's knee. Orthop C l i n i c s o f  N.A. 4(3):665-678, 1973. 7) Booth, F.W., Gould, E.W. E f f e c t s of t r a i n i n g and d i s u s e s of c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e . Exer Sports S c i  Rev 82-112, 1975. 8) Brody, D.M. Running i n j u r i e s . C l i n i c a l Symposia 32(4): 2-36, 1980. 9) Burdett, R.G., Van Swearingen, J . R e l i a b i l i t y o f i s o k i n e t i c muscle endurance t e s t s . J of Orthop  Sports Phvs Ther 8(10):484-488, 1987. 10) C a n n e l l , L . J . The e f f e c t s of an e c c e n t r i c - t y p e e x e r c i s e v e r s u s a c o n c e n t r i c - t y p e e x e r c i s e i n the management of c h r o n i c p a t e l l a r t e n d o n i t i s . Masters T h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1982. 11) Cavagna, G.A., Kaneko, M. Mechanical work and e f f i c i e n c y i n l e v e l walking and running. J P h v s i o l 168:467-481, 1977. - 72 -12) Cavagna, G.A. Storage and u t i l i z a t i o n o f e l a s t i c energy i n s k e l e t a l muscle. Exer Sports S c i e n c e s  Rev 5:89-129. 1977. 13) C h a v p i l , M. P h y s i o l o g y of c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e Prague: C z e c h o s l o v a k i a M e d i c a l P r e s s . 1967. 14) Clancy, W.G., Neidhart, D., Brand, R.L. A c h i l l e s T e n d i n i t i s i n runners: A r e p o r t of f i v e cases. Am J Sports Med 4(2):46-56. 1976. 15) Clement, D.B., Taunton, J.E., Smart, G.W. A c h i l l e s T e n d i n i t i s : P e r i t e n d i n i t i s , E t i o l o g y and Treatment. Am J Sports Med 12(3):179-184, 1984. 16) Clement, D.B., Taunton, J.E., Smart, G.W. e t a l . A Survey of Overuse Running I n j u r i e s . Phys Sp o r t s  Med 9:47-58, 1981. 17) Clement, D.B., Taunton, J.E., Taunton, C.H. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between u r i c a c i d and t e n d o n i t i s i n the endurance a t h l e t e . In A.W. T a y l o r (Ed.), A p p l i c a t i o n of Science and Medicine t o Sport S p r i n g f i e l d , I I . : C C . Thomas, 1975, pp. 40-46. 18) Clement, D.B., Taunton, J.E. A guide t o the p r e v e n t i o n of running i n j u r i e s . Can Fam Phys A p r i l 1980. 19) Curwin, S., S t a n i s h , W. T e n d o n i t i s : I t s e t i o l o g y  and treatment Callmore Press, 1984. 20) Davidson, R.G., Taunton, J.E. A c h i l l e s T e n d o n i t i s . Med Sport S c i Exerc 23:71-79, 1987. 21) Doss, W.S. and Karpovich, P. A comparison of c o n c e n t r i c , e c c e n t r i c , and i s o m e t r i c s t r e n g t h of the elbow f l e x o r s . J Appl P h y s i o l 20:351-53, 1965. 22) Downie, W.W., Leathman, P.A., Rhind, V.M. e t a l . S t u d i e s w i t h p a i n r a t i n g s c a l e s . An Rheum P i s 37:378-381. 1978. 23) Edwards, D.A.W. The b l o o d supply and lymphatic drainage of tendons. J Anatomy 80:147-152, 1946. 24) E l o r a n t o , V., Komi, P.V. F u n c t i o n o f the quadriceps femoris under maximal c o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s . Electromyograph C l i n . N e u rophysiol 20:159-174, 1980. - 73 -25) F a r r e l l , M. and R i c h a r d s , J.E. A n a l y s i s of the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the k i n e t i c communica-t o r e x e r c i s e d e v i c e . Med S c i Sports Exerc 18:44-49, 1986. 26) F i l s i n g e r , L., Taunton, J.E., Clement, D.B. e t a l . The e f f e c t s of two c o n s e r v a t i v e forms of e x e r c i s e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n the treatment of c h r o n i c p a t e l l a r t e n d o n i t i s . Unpublished, 1982. 27) G r i f f i n , J.W. D i f f e r e n c e s i n elbow f l e x i o n torque measured c o n c e n t r i c a l l y , e c c e n t r i c a l l y and isomet-r i c a l l y . Phvs Ther 67: 1205-1208, 1987. 28) Hakkinen, K. and Komi, P.V. A l t e r a t i o n s of mechanical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of human s k e l e t a l muscle d u r i n g s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g . EJAP. 50: 161-172, 1983. 29) Harkness, R.D. Mechanical p r o p e r t i e s of  c o l l a a e n e o u s t i s s u e s i n t r e a t i s e on c o l l a g e n , ed. B.S. Gould. 2:247-310. New York, Academic Press, 1968. 30) Hart, D.L., M i l l e r , L.C., Stauber, W.T. E f f e c t of c o o l i n g f o r c e o s c i l l a t o r s d u r i n g maximal e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e . Exp Neuro C 90:73-80, 1985. 31) Heikkinen, E. and V u o r i , I. E f f e c t of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y on the c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e metabolism i n mice. Scand J C l i n Lab I n v e s t 113:36 (suppl.) 1970. 32) I n g l e s , A.E., S c o t t , W.N., S i u l c o , T.P., P a t t e r s o n , A. H. Ruptures of the t e n d o - A c h i l l e s -an o b j e c t i v e assessment of s u r g i c a l and n o n - s u r g i c a l treatment. J Bone J o i n t Surg 58A: 990-992, 1976. 33) James, S.L., Bates, B.T. and O s t e r n i g , L.R. I n j u r i e s t o runners. Am J Sports Med 6:40-50, 1978. 34) Johnson, B.L., Adanczyk, J.W. A comparison of c o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c muscle t r a i n i n g . Med  S c i Sports Exerc 8(1): 35-38, 1976. 35) K a s t e l i c , J . , G a l e s k i , A., and Baer, E. The multicomposite s t r u c t u r e of tendon. Conn T i s s  Res 6:11-23, 1978. - 74 -36) Kennedy, J.C. and W i l l i s , R.B. The e f f e c t s o f l o c a l s t e r o i d i n j e c t i o n s on tendons: A biomechanical and m i c r o s c o p i c c o r r e l a t i v e study. Am J Sports Med 4 ( 1 ) : 11-21, 1976. 37) K i i s k i n e n , A. P h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g and c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e s i n young mice. P h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f A c h i l l e s tendons and l o n g bones. Growth 41:123-137, 1977. 38) Komi, P.V. Biomechanics and neuromuscular p e r f o r -mance. Med S c i Sports Exerc 16: 26-28, 1984. 39) Komi, P.V. Changes i n motor u n i t a c t i v i t y and metabolism i n human s k e l e t a l muscle d u r i n g and a f t e r repeated e c c e n t r i c and c o n c e n t r i c c o n t r a c -t i o n s . A c t a Phys Scand 100:246-254, 1977. 40) Komi, P.V. Measurement of f o r c e - v e l o c i t y r e l a t i o n -s h i p i n human muscle under c o n c e n t r i c and eccen-t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s . Med and Sp o r t s : Biomechanics  I I I :224-29. 41) K r i s s o f f , W.B. and F e r r i s , W.D. Runner's i n j u r i e s . Phys Sports Med 7(12): 55-64, 1979. 42) Lagergren, C., Lindhom, A. V a s c u l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the A c h i l l e s tendon. Acta Orthop Scand 116: 491-495, 1958. 43) Lamb, H.E., S t a n i s h , W.D., Curwin, S. The r e l a -t i o n s h i p of e c c e n t r i c a l l y produced muscular t e n s i o n t o the e t i o l o g y of c h r o n i c t e n d o n i t i s . Unpublished paper. H a l i f a x , 1980. 44) Lea, R.B., Smith, L. N o n s u r g i c a l treatment of tendo A c h i l l e s r u p t u r e . J Bone J o i n t Surg: Am 1398-1407, 1972. 45) Leach, R.E. James, S., and Wasilewski, S. A c h i l l e s T e n d o n i t i s . Am J Sports Med 9(2):93-98, 1981. 46) Lindholm, A., Arner, 0. Subcutaneous r u p t u r e of the A c h i l l e s tendon. A c t a Orthop Scand (Suppl) 239: 1959. 47) L j u n g q v i s t , R. Subcutaneous p a r t i a l r u p t u r e of the A c h i l l e s tendon. Acta Orthop Scand (Suppl) 113:1-86, 1968. - 75 -48) Maclntyre, D. T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y study. Unpublished paper. Vancouver, 1984. 49) Maguire, K., Purdam, C. A c h i l l e s T e n d o n i t i s . Unpublished paper. A u s t r a l i a . 1986. 50) Martens, M., Wouters, P., Burssens, H. e t a l . P a t e l l a r t e n d o n i t i s : Pathology and r e s u l t of treatment. Acta Orthop Scand 53:445-450, 1982. 51) Melzack, R. Concepts of p a i n measurement. P a i n  measurement and assessment, ed. R. Melzack. 1-37. Raven Press, New York, 1983. 52) Murray, D.A. and H a r r i s o n E. Constant v e l o c i t y dynamometer: An a p p r a i s a l u s i n g mechanical l o a d i n g . Med S c i Sports Exerc 18:612-624, 1986. 53) Murray, M.P., Guten, G.N., S e p c i , S.B. e t a l . F u n c t i o n s of the t r i c e p s surae d u r i n g g a i t . Compensatory mechanisms f o r u n i l a t e r a l l o s s . J Bone J o i n t Surer (Am) 60A:473-476, 1978. 54) Newham, D.J., M i l l s , K. R., Q u i g l e y , B.M. P a i n and f a t i g u e a f t e r c o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c muscle c o n t r a c t i o n s . C l i n S c i 64:55-62, 1983. 55) Oakes, B.W., and Bialkower, B. Biomechanical and u l t r a s t r u c t u r a l s t u d i e s on the e l a s t i c wing tendon from domestic fowl. J Anatomy 1233(2):369-387, 1977. 56) Olson, V.L., Smidt, G.L., Johnston, R.C. The maximum torque generated by the e c c e n t r i c , isomet-r i c , and c o n c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s of the h i p abductor muscles. Phys Ther 52:149-57, 1972. 57) Poppen, N.K., Walker, P.S. Normal and abnormal motion of the shoulder. J Bone J o i n t Surg (Am) 58:195-206, 1976. 58) Puddu, G., I p p l o l i t o , E., P o s t a c c h i n i , F. A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of A c h i l l e s tendon d i s e a s e . Am J  Sports Med 4:145-150, 1976. 59) Rasch, P.J. and Burke, R.K. K i n e s i o l o g y and  A p p l i e d Anatomy (5th e d i t i o n ) . P h i l a d e l p h i a : Lea and F e b i g e r , 1976, pp. 384-410. 60) Rathburn, J.B., and Mcnabb, I. The m i c r o v a s c u l a r p a t t e r n of the r o t a t o r c u f f . J Bone J o i n t Surg 52B:540-553, 1970. - 76 -61) R i z z a r d o , M., Bay, G., Wessel, J . E c c e n t r i c and C o n c e n t r i c Torque and power of the knee extensors of females. Can J Sports S c i 13:2 166-169, 1988. 62) Roels, J . , Martens, M., M u l i e r , J . C , and Burssens, A. P a t e l l a r t e n d o n i t i s . Am J Spo r t s  Med 6(6):362-368, 1978. 63) Rodgers, K . C , Berger, R.A. Motor u n i t i n v o l v e -ment and t e n s i o n d u r i n g maximum v o l u n t a r y concen-t r i c , e c c e n t r i c , i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s o f elbow f l e x o r s . Med S c i Sports Exerc 6:253-259, 1974. 64) Root, M.L., Orion, W.O., Weed, J.H. and Hughes, R.J. Biomechanical examination o f the f o o t . C l i n i c a l Biomechanics C o r p o r a t i o n , Los Angeles, 1971. 65) R o t h s t e i n , J.M. Lamb, R.L., Mayhew, T.P. C l i n i c a l uses o f i s o k i n e t i c measurements. Phys Ther 67(12):1840-1844, 1987. 66) Sammarco, G.J., B u r n s t e i n , A.H., F r a n k e l , V.H. Biomechanics o f the ankle: A ki n e m a t i c study. Orthop C l i n North Am 4:75-79, 1973. 67) S e l i g e r , V., D o l e j s , L., and Karas, V. A dynamometric comparison o f maximum e c c e n t r i c , c o n c e n t r i c , and i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s u s i n g EMG and energy expenditure measurements. Eur J Appl.  P h y s i o l 45:235-244, 1980. 68) S h i e l d s , C.L., K e r l a n , R.K., Jobe, F.W., e t a l . the Cybex I I e v a l u a t i o n of s u r g i c a l l y r e p a i r e d A c h i l l e s tendon r u p t u r e . Am J Sports Med 6(6):369-372, 1978. Cybex. 69) Smart, G.W., Taunton, J.E., Clement, D.B. A c h i l l e s tendon d i s o r d e r s i n runners - a review. Med S c i Sports Exerc 12:231-243, 1980. 70) S t a n i s h , W.D., Curwin, S., Rubinovich, M. T e n d o n i t i s . The a n a l y s i s and treatment f o r running. C l i n i c s i n Sports Medicine 4(4):493-609, 1985. 71) S t a n i s h , W., Rubinovich, R.M., and Curwin, S. E c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e i n c h r o n i c t e n d o n i t i s . C l i n i c a l Orthop and R e l Res 208:65-68, 1986. - 77 -72) S t e i n e r , M. Biomechanics of Tendon H e a l i n g . J Biomechanics 15(12):951-958, 1982. 73) T r e d i n n i c k , T. J . Duncan, P.W. R e l i a b i l i t y o f measurements of c o n c e n t r i c and e c c e n t r i c i s o k i n e t i c l o a d i n g . Phys Ther 68(5):656-659, 1988. 74) Taunton, J.E., Clement, D.B., McNicol, K. P l a n t a r F a s c i t i s i n runners - a study of 40 cases. Med  S c i S ports Exer 12(2):137, 1980. 75) V a i l a s , A.C., T i p t o n , CM., L a u g h l i n , H.L., Teheng, T.K., and Matthes, R.D. P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y on ligaments and tendons. Med S c i Sports 7(3):165-175, 1978. 76) V i d i i k , A. The e f f e c t o f t r a i n i n g on the t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h of i s o l a t e d r a b b i t tendons. Scand J  P l a s t i c Reconstr Surg 1:141-147, 1967. 77) V i d i i k , A. T e n s i l e s t r e n g t h p r o p e r t i e s of A c h i l l e s tendon systems i n t r a i n e d and u n t r a i n e d r a b b i t s . A c t a Orthop Scand 40:L 261-272, 1969. 78) V i d i i k , A. On the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r u c t u r e and mechanical f u n c t i o n of s o f t c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e . Anat Gest 72:75-79, 1978. 79) Welsh, R.P., Clodman, J . C l i n i c a l survey A c h i l l e s t e n d o n i t i s i n a t h l e t e s . Can Med J Assoc 26(122):193-195, 1980. 80) Winter, D.A. Concerning the s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s f o r the d i a g n o s i s of p a t h o l o g i c a l g a i t and f o r r e h a -b i l i t a t i o n p r o t o c o l s . Phys Can 37 (4) :245-252, 1985. 81) Wyatt, M.P., Edwards, A.M. Comparison of quadriceps and hamstring torque v a l u e s d u r i n g i s o k i n e t i c e x e r c i s e . J Orthop Sports Phvs Ther 3:48-56, 1981. - 78 -APPENDIX A Treatment P r o t o c o l - 79 -P r o t o c o l f o r A c h i l l e s T e n d o n i t i s B a s i c s o f Treatment The program i s t o be c a r r i e d out once d a i l y , 6 days per week, f o r twelve weeks, The l e v e l o f i n t e n s i -t y i s determined by the amount of d i s c o m f o r t the s u b j e c t f e e l s i n the l a s t 5-10 r e p e t i t i o n s o f the e x e r c i s e . In order t o use p a i n / d i s c o m f o r t as an e f f e c t i v e monitor, the s u b j e c t s w i l l be i n s t r u c t e d not t o c a r r y out the e x e r c i s e s a f t e r a p r a c t i c e o r workout, as they may experience p a i n then anyway. There should be some d i s c o m f o r t i n the l a s t 10 of the 50 r e p e t i -t i o n s , but p a i n should not be pr e s e n t throughout and the l e v e l of p a i n should not be extreme. I g n o r i n g p a i n , the body's warning s i g n a l , means f u r t h e r damage may occur. P r o g r e s s i o n should not take p l a c e u n t i l d i s c o m f o r t i s absent o r minimal. The program i n c l u d e s f i v e s t e p s : 1. Warm-up, s i t - u p s , e t c . , u n t i l l i g h t sweat i s achieved. 2. F l e x i b i l i t y a. S t a t i c s t r e t c h (ankle i n n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n ) . b. Hold 15 t o 3 0 seconds. c. Repeat 3 t o 5 times. 3. S p e c i f i c e x e r c i s e s - 5 s e t s of 10 of the concen-t r i c or e c c e n t r i c program. 4. F l e x i b i l i t y - s t r e t c h as p r i o r t o e x e r c i s e . 5. Ice a p p l i c a t i o n : crushed i c e a p p l i e d t o tender or p a i n f u l area f o r 5 t o 10 minutes. - 80 -C o n c e n t r i c R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Program Phase 1 The p r o g r e s s i v e c o n c e n t r i c weight program c o n s i s t s of 5 s e t s o f 10 r e p e t i t i o n s , t o be performed once d a i l y , 6 days per week, i n a p a i n f r e e range of motion. The c o n c e n t r i c ankle e x e r c i s e i s the s t a r t o f the program (Table 1) . F i r s t attempts a t t h i s e x e r c i s e w i l l not produce f i v e s e t s o f 10 r e p e t i t i o n s . Slowly p r o g r e s s t o 50 r e p e t i t i o n s as p a i n d i m i n i s h e s and s t r e n g t h i n c r e a s e s . F i g u r e 1 i l l u s t r a t e s the " u n i v e r s a l weight ma-c h i n e 1 used t o perform the c o n c e n t r i c ankle p l a n t a r f l e x i o n / d o r s i f l e x i o n e x e r c i s e . The p i n i s i n s e r t e d i n t o the a p p r o p r i a t e weight amount and the f e e t are p l a c e d on the de s i g n a t e d f o o t p l a t e s , w i t h the knees f u l l y extended. Now s l o w l y push the p l a t e s away from your body, r e s u l t i n g i n a p o i n t e d toe movement and then s l o w l y b r i n g the f e e t back t o the n e u t r a l s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n , and r e s t 5 seconds. Repeat t o a maximum of 10 r e p e t i t i o n s . Repeat t h i s s e t 4 more times. When f i v e s e t s o f 10 r e p e t i t i o n s can be performed e a s i l y , p r o g r e s s t o the next l e v e l as per T a b l e 1. I f A c h i l l e s tendon ankle p a i n occurs d u r i n g o r a f t e r a s e s s i o n , immediately apply i c e t o the area f o r 10 minutes and go back t o the p r e v i o u s l e v e l o f i n t e n s i t y the f o l l o w i n g day. As t h i s i s a new a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n , t h e r e may be some d i s c o m f o r t i n your A c h i l l e s tendon area, t h i s doesn't i n d i c a t e damage. Again, i c e the area f o r a t l e a s t 10 minutes. Phase 2 The graduated running program i s not t o be s t a r t e d u n t i l t he symptoms are completely c o n t r o l l e d and the s t a r t l e v e l as per Table 1 i s performed e a s i l y . - 81 -M o d i f i e d r e s t i n c l u d e s swimming, walking, e t c . , a c t i v i -t i e s t h a t can be done r e l a t i v e l y p a i n - f r e e . To s t a r t , r unning i s done on a l t e r n a t e days, b e g i n n i n g w i t h 1 km, . and i n c r e a s i n g by 1 km. every t h i r d run. Begin w i t h j o g g i n g and g r a d u a l l y progress t o f u l l speed running, a c c o r d i n g t o the i n t e n s i t y l e v e l i n Table 1. I n i t i a l l y , running should be r e s t r i c t e d t o s t r a i g h t ahead on smooth, f l a t , even s u r f a c e s . Upper body weight l i f t i n g , swimming or c y c l i n g , i f t o l e r a t e d , s hould be performed on " r e s t " days t o m a i n t a i n f i t n e s s . D a i l y r u nning can commence once l e v e l 4 i s reached, p r o v i d i n g t h e r e are no symptoms. Phase 3 The maintenance program begins once L e v e l 4 i s a t t a i n e d and d a i l y running has been achieved, f r e e of any symptoms. The maintenance program c o n s i s t s of u n r e s t r i c t e d p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as t o l e r a t e d , c o n t i n u i n g the L e v e l 4 c o n c e n t r i c ankle e x e r c i s e s 2-3 times per week, and a d a i l y program of lower l e g f l e x i b i l i t y e x e r c i s e s . Push Feet Forward Return t o N e u t r a l P o s i t i o n FIGURE 1 CONCENTRIC ANKLE PLANTARFLEXION/DORSIFLEXION EXERCISE - 82 -TABLE 1 G u i d e l i n e s f o r C o n c e n t r i c Ankle E x e r c i s e The U n i v e r s a l Weight machine i s i n g r a d u a t i o n s of 10 pounds (4 k i l o g r a m s ) . I t i s a d v i s a b l e t o purchase f o u r 2 pound f i s h weights t o a l l o w a s m a l l e r poundage i n c r e a s e i f these weights are not a v a i l a b l e a t your f a c i l i t y . T h i s a l s o allows a p r o g r e s s i o n between l e v e l s shown i n Table 1. G e n e r a l l y , i n c r e a s i n g the r e s i s t a n c e by one-quarter of your body weight i s a s u i t a b l e s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r the f i r s t phase of the program, although t r i a l and e r r o r may change t h i s r u l e . Body Weight (pounds) 100 131 161 t o t o t o 130 160 200 P r o g r e s s i o n Stack Weight A c t i v i t y L e v e l S t a r t L e v e l 1 L e v e l 2 L e v e l 3 L e v e l 4 25 30 40 m o d i f i e d r e s t 50 65 80 j o g g i n g - a l t e r n a t e days 75 105 120 1/2 s p e e d - a l t e r n a t e days 100 13 0 160 3/4 s p e e d - a l t e r n a t e days 125 160 200 f u l l speed d a i l y running * - 83 -E c c e n t r i c R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P r o t o c o l f o r A c h i l l e s T e n d o n i t i s Phase 1 The p r o g r e s s i v e e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e program con-s i s t s o f 50 r e p e t i t i o n s o f drops performed once d a i l y , 6 days per week. F i r s t attempts a t t h i s e x e r c i s e w i l l not produce 5 s e t s of 10 r e p e t i t i o n s . Slowly p r o g r e s s t o 50 r e p e t i -t i o n s as p a i n d i m i n i s h e s and s t r e n g t h i n c r e a s e s . P r o g r e s s i o n i s made by i n c r e a s i n g the speed of movement, i n c r e a s i n g the support h e i g h t , and i n c r e a s i n g the r e s i s t a n c e . The program proceeds as f o l l o w s : 1. Weight i s supported e q u a l l y on both f e e t throughout the e x e r c i s e s e s s i o n . 2. Incre a s e s h i f t i n g o f weight t o symptomatic l e g . 3. Weight i s supported on symptomatic l e g o n l y . 4. Incre a s e speed of dropping. 5. Increa s e support h e i g h t 6. Add weight t o sh o u l d e r s . As the s t r e n g t h o f the co n n e c t i v e t i s s u e i n c r e a s e s , the p a i n w i l l decrease and the f o r c e on the tendon can be i n c r e a s e d u n t i l the d i s c o m f o r t r e c u r s . The f o r c e i n c r e a s e i s achieved by g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g the speed of c o n t r a c t i o n and i n c r e a s i n g the r e s i s t a n c e . R e f e r t o Tabl e 1. - 84 -TABLE 1 Progression week Days Exercise Activity Level Start 1,2 Slew drop, b i l a t e r a l weight support 3,4 Moderate speed, b i l a t e r a l support 5,6 Fast drop, b i l a t e r a l support Modified rest Level 1 1,2 Slow, increased weight an symptomatic leg 3,4 Moderate, increased weight 5,6 Fast, increased weight 1,2 Slow, weight supported an symptomatic leg 3,4 Moderate, weight an one leg 5,6 Fast speed Jogging -alternate days Level 2 1,2 Slow drop, b i l a t e r a l weight support 3,4 Moderate speed, b i l a t e r a l support 5,6 Fast drop, b i l a t e r a l support 1,2 Slow, increased weight an symptomatic leg 3,4 Moderate, increased weight 5,6 Fast, increased weight 1/2 speed -alternate days Level 3 days 1,2 3,4 5,6 Slow, weight supported on symptomatic leg Moderate, weight an one leg Fast speed 1,2 Slow, add 10% of body weight 3,4 Moderate speed, same weight 5,6 Fast speed 3/4 speed -alternate Level 4 8 1,2 Slow, increase by 5 to 10 Full speed 10 lbs. daily running 3,4 Moderate speed, same weight 5,6 Fast speed Weeks 9-12 Same progression adding 5-10 lbs each week - 85 -The amount of weight added i s the amount n e c e s s a r y t o reproduce the person's d i s c o m f o r t ; t h i s i s not a l a r g e amount, r e f e r t o T a b l e 2. The i n t e n s i t y of the e x e r c i s e should be such t h a t p a i n , or d i s c o m f o r t , i s experienced i n the l a s t s e t r e p e t i t i o n s . T h i s d i s c o m f o r t i n d i c a t e s t h a t a s l i g h t o v e r l o a d i n g of the tendon i s o c c u r r i n g , which i s n e c e s s a r y t o i n c r e a s e i t s s t r e n g t h . However extreme p a i n , e s p e c i a l l y through the e n t i r e 50 r e p e t i t i o n s , i s a s i g n t h a t too much f o r c e i s b e i n g a p p l i e d . I f unusual A c h i l l e s tendon p a i n occurs d u r i n g or a f t e r a s e s s i o n , immediately apply i c e t o the a r e a f o r 10 minutes and do the p r e v i o u s l e v e l of i n t e n s i t y the f o l l o w i n g day. As t h i s i s a new a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n , t h e r e may be some d i s c o m f o r t i n your A c h i l l e s tendon. T h i s doesn't i n d i c a t e damage. Again, i c e the a r e a f o r 10 minutes. R e f e r t o F i g u r e 1 f o r an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the e c c e n t r i c e x e r c i s e . _ a) S t a r t & End P o s i t i o n i ) Knees S t r a i g h t i i ) T i p Toe P o s i t i o n i i i ) F e e t few inches a p a r t i v ) Hands on r a i l i n g f o r b) M i d d l e P o s i t i o n i i ) Heel drops below support and q u i c k l y pushes back up i ) Knees S t r a i g h t b a l a n c e i i i ) Emphasize change i n d i r e c t i o n FIGURE 1 ECCENTRIC ANKLE DROP EXERCISE - 86 -Phase 2 The graduated running program i s not t o be s t a r t e d u n t i l t h e symptoms are completely c o n t r o l l e d and the e c c e n t r i c drops can be performed e a s i l y a t L e v e l 1. M o d i f i e d r e s t i n c l u d e s swimming, c y c l i n g , walking, e t c . , a c t i v i t i e s t h a t can be done r e l a t i v e l y p a i n - f r e e , t o s t a r t , running i s done on a l t e r n a t e days, b e g i n n i n g w i t h 1 km. and i n c r e a s i n g by 1 km. every t h i r d run. Begin w i t h j o g g i n g and g r a d u a l l y p r o g r e s s t o f u l l speed running, a c c o r d i n g t o the i n t e n s i t y l e v e l i n T a b l e 1. I n i t i a l l y , r u n n ing should be r e s t r i c t e d t o s t r a i g h t ahead on smooth, f l a t , even s u r f a c e s . Upper body weight l i f t i n g , swimming, or c y c l e s , i f t o l e r a t e d , s hould be performed on " r e s t " days t o m a i n t a i n f i t n e s s . D a i l y running can commence once l e v e l 4 i s reached, p r o v i d i n g t h e r e are no symptoms. Phase 3 The maintenance program beings once L e v e l 4 i s a t t a i n e d and d a i l y running has been achieved, f r e e of any symptoms. The maintenance program c o n s i s t s of u n r e s t r i c t e d p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as t o l e r a t e d , c o n t i n u i n g the l e v e l 4 e c c e n t r i c ankle drop e x e r c i s e 2-3 times per week, and a d a i l y program of lower l e g f l e x i b i l i t y e x e r c i s e s . 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0077192/manifest

Comment

Related Items