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The effects of prototypic examples and video replay on adolescent girls' acquisition of basic field hockey… Russell, Diane 1991

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THE EFFECTS OF PROTOTYPIC EXAMPLES AND VIDEO REPLAY ON ADOLESCENT GIRLS' ACQUISITION OF BASIC FIELD HOCKEY SKILLS by DIANE RUSSELL B.P.E. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Schooi of P h y s i c a l Education and R e c r e a t i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1991 © Diane R u s s e l l , 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Department of MM / DE-6 (2/88) i i A b s t r a c t T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e d a n d c o m p a r e d t h e e f f e c t o f two f e e d b a c k m e t h o d o l o g i e s ( v i s u a l a n d t r a d i t i o n a l ) on t h e d e g r e e o f s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n f o r t h e two f i e l d h o c k e y s k i l l s , I n d i a n d r i b b l e a n d m o v i n g d r i v e . F o r t y - s e v e n f e m a l e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s , a g e s 12 t o 14 y e a r s , p r a c t i s e d two b a s i c f i e l d h o c k e y s k i l l s f o r f o u r c o n s e c u t i v e c l a s s e s . T h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p was p r e s e n t e d w i t h a p r o t o t y p i c e x a m p l e , v i d e o f e e d b a c k ( V F ) , a n d c h e c k l i s t a n a l y s i s w h i l e t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p was t a u g h t b y t r a d i t i o n a l f e e d b a c k m e t h o d s w h i c h i n c l u d e d t e a c h e r a n d s t u d e n t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h v e r b a l f e e d b a c k . P e r f o r m a n c e e v a l u a t i o n s w e r e made b y c o m p a r i n g s c o r e s o n t h e R u s s e l l (1989) F i e l d ~ H o c k e y C h e c k l i s t o f C r i t i c a l B e h a v i o u r s . M o t i v a t i o n a l a n d a t t i t u d i n a l a s p e c t s w e r e c o m p a r e d b y t h e u s e o f a L e a r n i n g P e r c e p t i o n s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A n ANCOVA o f t h e I n d i a n d r i b b l e p e r f o r m a n c e s d i d n o t r e v e a l a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m e t h o d o l o g i e s . A n a l y s i s o f t h e d e g r e e s o f i m p r o v e m e n t was made u s i n g two c o m p a r i s o n s (a) p e r c e n t a g e i m p r o v e m e n t c a l c u l a t i o n s r e v e a l e d a mean o f 27% f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p a n d 31% f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , (b) t h e H a l e a n d H a l e (1972) p r o c e d u r e i n d i c a t e d means o f 7 . 4 2 a n d 7 . 2 4 f o r t h e c o n t r o l a n d e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e ANCOVA o f t h e m o v i n g d r i v e i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( F = 5 . 7 5 , p < . 0 5 ) b e t w e e n t h e m e t h o d o l o g i e s i n f a v o r o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . T h e i m p r o v e m e n t c o m p a r i s o n s r e v e a l e d (a) mean s c o r e s o f 10% f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p a n d 32% f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , (b) t h e H a l e a n d H a l e p r o c e d u r e r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d mean s c o r e s o f 5 a n d 13 f o r t h e c o n t r o l a n d e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e L e a r n i n g P e r c e p t i o n s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e c h e c k l i s t s h e l p e d t h e m t o f o c u s on t h e c o r r e c t a n d i n c o r r e c t b e h a v i o u r s a n d t h a t w a t c h i n g t h e p r o t o t y p i c e x a m p l e i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h p e r s o n a l p e r f o r m a n c e s h e l p e d t o i m p r o v e t h e i r s k i l l l e v e l , t h u s p r o v i d i n g a m o t i v a t i o n a l e l e m e n t . i v T A B L E OF CONTENTS P a g e L I S T OF T A B L E S v i i i L I S T OF F I G U R E S i x C H A P T E R I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m 5 R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s e s 8 D e f i n i t i o n s 9 L i m i t a t i o n s 12 A s s u m p t i o n s 12 S i g n i f i c a n c e 12 I I L I T E R A T U R E REVIEW 15 O v e r v i e w o f L e a r n i n g T h e o r i e s 16 M o t o r L e a r n i n g T h e o r i e s 17 G e n t i l e ' s M o d e l 19 Q u a l i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s o f S k i l l D e v e l o p m e n t 25 F e e d b a c k 29 P r i n c i p l e s o f K n o w l e d g e o f R e s u l t s . . . 33 A u g m e n t e d F e e d b a c k 35 V i d e o F e e d b a c k 3 6 S e l f M o d e l l i n g 43 V Page The C h e c k l i s t 45 V i s u a l E v a l u a t i o n 4 8 I I I THE PROCEDURES 51 Subjects 51 Apparatus 51 Experimental Design . . . 51 C o n t r o l Group Procedures 53 Experimental Group Procedures 54 Data C o l l e c t i o n . . . 56 IV RESULTS 58 Indian D r i b b l e R e s u l t s 58 Moving Drive R e s u l t s 64 Questionnaire R e s u l t s 66 V DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 70 D i s c u s s i o n 70 Conclusions 75 Recommendations f o r Future Researchers 77 REFERENCES 7 8 v i P a g e A P P E N D I X E S A . E q u i p m e n t 83 B . L e a r n i n g E n v i r o n m e n t D e s i g n 84 C . I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r C o n t r o l G r o u p 85 D . I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p . . 8 6 E . S t u d e n t C h e c k l i s t s 87 F . L e a r n i n g P e r c e p t i o n s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . . . 89 G . R u s s e l l F i e l d H o c k e y C h e c k l i s t o f C r i t i c a l B e h a v i o u r s 95 H . C h e c k l i s t S c o r e s (Raw S c o r e s ) 100 I . G r o u p A P e r c e n t a g e o f I m p r o v e m e n t . . . . 102 J . G r o u p B P e r c e n t a g e o f I m p r o v e m e n t . . . . 104 K . E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p I n d i a n D r i b b l e u s i n g H a l e a n d H a l e P r o c e d u r e 105 L . C o n t r o l G r o u p I n d i a n D r i b b l e u s i n g H a l e a n d H a l e P r o c e d u r e 107 M . E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p M o v i n g D r i v e u s i n g H a l e a n d H a l e P r o c e d u r e 110 N . C o n t r o l G r o u p M o v i n g D r i v e u s i n g H a l e a n d H a l e P r o c e d u r e 112 0 . C o n t r o l G r o u p Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Summary 115 P . E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Summary 116 v i i P a g e Q . C o m p a r i s o n o f S i m i l a r Q u e s t i o n s (Raw S c o r e s ) 117 R. C o m p a r i s o n o f S i m i l a r Q u e s t i o n s ( P e r c e n t a g e s ) 119 v i i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1 C h e c k l i s t Scores f o r the Indian D r i b b l e and Moving H i t 59 2 A n a l y s i s of Covariance f o r the Indian D r i b b l e 60 3 Improvement Scores 63 4 A n a l y s i s of Covariance f o r the Moving H i t 65 i x L I S T OF F I G U R E S F I G U R E P a g e 1 I n i t i a l S t a g e o f S k i l l A c q u i s i t i o n . . . 20 2 F o u r P o s s i b l e O u t c o m e s o f E v a l u a t i v e P h a s e o f D e c i s i o n P r o c e s s 23 3 S e q u e n c e s o f C r i t i c a l E v e n t s i n S t u d e n t L e a r n i n g a n d C o n c u r r e n t T e a c h e r I n t e r v e n t i o n 27 4 A l t e r n a t i v e L e a r n i n g M o d e l 28 5 T h e E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n 52 1 THE EFFECTS OF PROTOTYPIC EXAMPLES AND VIDEO REPLAY ON ADOLESCENT GIRLS' ACQUISITION OF BASIC FIELD HOCKEY SKILLS CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM T e a c h i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n B . C . ' s p u b l i c s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i n v o l v e s t h e t e a c h i n g o f u n i t s o f s t u d y ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 -10 h o u r s o f i n s t r u c t i o n p e r u n i t ) i n a v a r i e t y o f s p o r t s . Due t o c u r r i c u l a r t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s , t h e r e i s l i m i t e d t i m e f o r s k i l l d e v e l o p m e n t a s e a c h u n i t o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n c l u d e s t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m p o n e n t s : s k i l l d e v e l o p m e n t , game p l a y , s t r a t e g y , r u l e s , e t i q u e t t e , p r a c t i c a l t e s t s , a n d a w r i t t e n q u i z . In a d d i t i o n t o t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s , t h e r e a r e p r a c t i c a l i s s u e s s u c h a s : l i m i t e d e q u i p m e n t a n d f a c i l i t i e s , a b s e n t e e i s m , s t u d e n t s w i t h d r a w i n g f r o m a n d e n t e r i n g t h e c o u r s e a t v a r i o u s t i m e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e s c h o o l y e a r , s t u d e n t s w i t h l i m i t e d l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y ( e g . E n g l i s h a s a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e ) , d i s r u p t i o n s f o r s p e c i a l s c h o o l e v e n t s , u n m o t i v a t e d s t u d e n t s t a k i n g a r e q u i r e d c o u r s e , a n d a t i m e t a b l e t h a t d i c t a t e s t h r e e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s p e r w e e k . B e c a u s e o f t h e r e a l i t i e s o f t h e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t , i t i s i m p e r a t i v e f o r t h e t e a c h e r t o d e s i g n h i g h q u a l i t y e x p e r i e n c e s , w h i c h i n c l u d e b o t h p h y s i c a l 2 and a n a l y t i c a l work, so t h a t students may b e n e f i t from the a v a i l a b l e time. T r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n P.E. c l a s s e s i n c o r p o r a t e s the use of teacher or student demonstrations, p r a c t i s e , and augmented v e r b a l feedback from the i n s t r u c t o r . This type of i n s t r u c t i o n has a f i r m t h e o r e t i c a l base as research has shown t h a t two f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t the l e a r n i n g and a c q u i s i t i o n of motor s k i l l s are p r a c t i s e and feedback (Annett and Kay, 1957; Bilode a u , 1969 as c i t e d i n Bilode a u , 1966; Adams, 1971; Del Rey, 1972; Oxendine, 1980 as c i t e d i n W i l l i a m s , 1980; Brooks, 1980; Reeve and M a g i l l , 1981). M a g i l l (1989) has c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s knowledge base w i t h evidence showing t h a t the use of demonstrations or modelling i s an e f f e c t i v e form f o r t e a c h i n g motor s k i l l s . Modern technology has paved the way f o r an a d d i t i o n a l form of feedback - v i s u a l feedback. While there i s no argument t h a t v i s u a l feedback i s extremely powerful and e f f e c t i v e (Adams, 1978; R i c k l i and Smith, 1980; R o t h s t e i n , 1980; Bayless, 1981; Cole, 1981) there are c o n t r a d i c t o r y b e l i e f s regarding the most e f f e c t i v e form of augmented feedback i n the realm of motor l e a r n i n g . Adams (1978) and R i c k l i and Smith (1980), re p o r t t h a t v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y feedback provide the most e f f e c t i v e forms of feedback. R o t h s t e i n (1980) and Cole (1981) argue t h a t a combination of a u d i o - v i s u a l feedback provides the most e f f e c t i v e form of feedback. Bayless (1981) c o n t r a d i c t s the l a t t e r researchers by r e p o r t i n g t h a t v i s u a l feedback i s s u p e r i o r t o audio-3 v i s u a l feedback. Bayless (1981) a l s o s t a t e s t h a t when v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y feedback are used simultaneously, i t only seems to confuse the l e a r n e r because the l e a r n e r i s overwhelmed w i t h feedback and cannot decipher r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . F u r t h e r research appears t o be needed i n t h i s area. Studies i n v o l v i n g videotape r e p l a y (VR), as a form of augmented v i s u a l feedback, i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of motor s k i l l s have focused on a c t i v i t i e s such as: trampoline (Penman, Ba r t z and Davis, 1968), bowling (Rothstein, 1976), f e n c i n g (Del Rey, 1971), sport-type motor s k i l l s (Jackson, 1973), t e n n i s ( R i c k l i and Smith, 1980), and swimming (Dowrick and Dove, 1980). R e s u l t s from these s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t VR can be an e f f e c t i v e t o o l i f : (a) i t i s used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a template performance ( R i c k l i and Smith, 1980), (b) the viewer's a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d t o s p e c i f i c aspects of the performance e i t h e r by the i n s t r u c t o r ' s v e r b a l cues or through the use of c h e c k l i s t s (Del Rey, 1971), (c) the videotape i s viewed i n small groups (Decker, 1983), (d) s u b j e c t s have p r e v i o u s l y been exposed t o v i e w i n g t h e i r own images on the monitor (Penman, B a r t z , and Davis, 1968), and (e) s u b j e c t s w i t h intermediate and advanced s k i l l s are used (Penman, B a r t z , and Davis, 1968). However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the e f f e c t s of videotape feedback (VF) on the a c q u i s i t i o n of motor s k i l l s has not been adequately researched w i t h t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n , t h a t i s , those who do not have p h y s i c a l or mental handicaps. 4 One of the recommendations f o r f u r t h e r research l i s t e d i n Sim and Stewart's (1984) paper, i n which the su b j e c t s were mentally handicapped a d u l t s , was t o u t i l i z e c h i l d r e n as su b j e c t s i n s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of video as a feedback t o o l because i t may have d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . The reason behind t h i s concept i s the evidence t h a t there are d i f f e r e n c e s i n the way c h i l d r e n l e a r n . While i t i s t r u e t h a t a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n do experience many of the same d i f f i c u l t i e s when l e a r n i n g a novel task, the important d i f f e r e n c e s cannot be ignored. C h i l d r e n and adolescents tend to process i n f o r m a t i o n at a slower r a t e than a d u l t s because they: 1. l a c k p e r c e p t u a l keenness or movement s e n s i t i v i t y , 2. encode i n f o r m a t i o n more p o o r l y , r e s u l t i n g i n slower search and r e t r i e v a l , 3. use i n e f f i c i e n t r e h e a r s a l , 4. have poorer o r g a n i z a t i o n techniques, 5. have l e s s experience i n long term storage on which t o base d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s . (Thomas, 1984, p. 101) A d u l t s have developed a v a r i e t y of l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s from past experience, whereas, c h i l d r e n have had l i t t l e p r i o r experience and, t h e r e f o r e , a l i m i t e d r e p e r t o i r e of s t r a t e g i e s from which t o choose (Gallagher & Thomas, 1986; Kelso & C l a r k , 1982; Thomas, 1984; Singer, 1980). C h i l d r e n a l s o have a s h o r t e r a t t e n t i o n span, are e a s i l y d i s t r a c t e d , and have a very strong d e s i r e t o achieve. However, f a i l u r e 5 t o achieve u s u a l l y r e s u l t s i n f r u s t r a t i o n , l o s s of mo t i v a t i o n , and l i t t l e d e s i r e t o continue the experience. The a b i l i t y of c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n can be improved i f l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e gross motor movements, s i m p l i f i e d a c t i o n s , and minimal cues from which t o respond (Singer, 1980) . STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The a c q u i s i t i o n of fundamental s k i l l s i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r f i e l d hockey game p l a y . F a i l u r e t o master these fundamentals i n e v i t a b l y r e s u l t s i n l a c k of b a l l c o n t r o l which i n t u r n may create other problems such as: i n c r e a s e d crowding of p l a y e r s , decreased pace i n the game, decreased m o t i v a t i o n , as w e l l as an in c r e a s e d p o t e n t i a l f o r i n j u r i e s . These problems would be reduced i f the l e a r n e r was able t o move beyond what Jewett and Mullan (1977) r e f e r t o as the p a t t e r n i n g stage of movement p r o f i c i e n c y t o the r e f i n i n g or v a r y i n g stages. Students o f t e n pass through the p e r c e i v i n g stage and enter the p a t t e r n i n g stage of movement. Due t o time c o n s t r a i n t s , they o f t e n p l a t e a u i n t h i s g e n e r i c movement stage. I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t video r e p l a y w i l l h elp f a c i l i t a t e the l e a r n e r ' s p r o g r e s s i o n t o the r e f i n i n g stage of performance. As l e a r n e r s progress from one l e v e l of movement p r o f i c i e n c y t o the next, they must make use of the a v a i l a b l e forms of feedback, both i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l , i n order t o detect performance e r r o r s , and i n t u r n make changes i n 6 s u b s e q u e n t p e r f o r m a n c e s . B y u s i n g a p r o t o t y p i c e x a m p l e i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h v i d e o r e p l a y o f a p e r s o n a l p e r f o r m a n c e , t h e l e a r n e r w i l l b e p r o v i d e d w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e d i s c r e p e n c y b e t w e e n t h e i n t e n d e d p e r f o r m a n c e g o a l ( p r o t o t y p i c e x a m p l e ) a n d t h e a c t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e ( v i d e o r e p l a y ) . A q u o t e f r o m R o t h s t e i n a n d A r n o l d (197 6) e m p h a s i z e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a l e a r n i n g m o d e l : F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h a n d u t i l i z a t i o n o f a m o d e l o f t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e l e a r n i n g o f m o t o r s k i l l s c a n b e q u i t e h e l p f u l i n a p p l y i n g r e s e a r c h t o t e a c h i n g . L e a r n i n g m o d e l s a t t e m p t t o d e s c r i b e t h e s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s w h i c h o c c u r d u r i n g m o t o r s k i l l l e a r n i n g . T h e r e f o r e , a l e a r n i n g m o d e l c a n s e r v e a s a f r a m e w o r k w i t h i n w h i c h d i s c r e t e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o a s p e c i f i c s p o r t c a n b e o r g a n i z e d . S e c o n d l y , a l e a r n i n g m o d e l c a n s e r v e t o b r i d g e t h e g a p s i n t h e r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i v e t o a s p e c i f i c s p o r t s k i l l , ( p . 44) G e n t i l e ' s (1972) M o d e l w h i c h i s b a s e d on n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a a s w e l l a s b e h a v i o u r c o n c e p t s , i s n o t a b l e b e c a u s e i t i s one o f t h e l i m i t e d a t t e m p t s t o a p p l y a s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n m o d e l d i r e c t l y t o t e a c h i n g . G e n t i l e o b s e r v e d how a n i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n s t o c h a n g e o r m a i n t a i n h e r p o s i t i o n , o r p o s i t i o n s o f o b j e c t s i n s p a c e . T h e m o d e l i s l i m i t e d t o d i r e c t , a d a p t i v e m o t o r p a t t e r n s t h a t a r e g o a l d i r e c t e d , i n s t r u m e n t a l o r i n t e n t i o n a l . T h i s two s t a g e m o d e l h a s c o n t r i b u t e d 7 s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the area of motor l e a r n i n g r e s e a r c h because i t c o n t r a s t s open and c l o s e d s k i l l s i n terms of t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and app r o p r i a t e l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n a d d i t i o n t o d e s c r i b i n g how d e c i s i o n making processes may work and how teachers may f a c i l i t a t e them ( G e n t i l e , 1972; Singer, 1980). During Stage I of G e n t i l e ' s Model, e n t i t l e d G e t t i n g the Idea of the Movement, the l e a r n e r attempts t o determine the general movement p a t t e r n t h a t works t o produce the d e s i r e d outcome. Throughout the second stage, c a l l e d F i x a t i o n / D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , the l e a r n e r attempts t o a t t a i n a p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l of s k i l l by r e f i n i n g the motor p a t t e r n l e a r n e d i n Stage I ( G e n t i l e , 1972). In summary, improvement i n b a s i c f i e l d hockey s k i l l s w i l l be dependent upon the l e a r n e r ' s a b i l i t y t o : (A) use i n f o r m a t i o n gained through s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n t o formulate a motor p l a n w i t h a high p r o b a b i l i t y of success; (B) execute the p l a n ; and then (C) u s i n g feedback about both the movement and the outcome of the movement, assess the i n t e r a c t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of both and decide what t o do on the next t r i a l - e i t h e r keep the same response p l a n or a l t e r i t . (Rothstein and Arn o l d , 1976, p. 48) The b a s i s of the l e a r n i n g environment design (see Appendix B) i s framed by G e n t i l e ' s (1972) Working Model of S k i l l A c q u i s i t i o n , Nixon and Locke's (1973) Model of C r i t i c a l D e c i s i o n s and I n t e r v e n t i o n s , and Jewett and 8 M u l l a n ' s (1977) Movement P r o c e s s C a t e g o r i e s a s t h e y p e r t a i n t o t h e n o v i c e ' s a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n d r i b b l e a n d t h e m o v i n g d r i v e . I t i s a l s o b a s e d on p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s w h i c h h a v e shown t h a t : (a) a " t e m p l a t e " o r m o d e l p e r f o r m a n c e i s r e q u i r e d d u r i n g t h e v i e w i n g o f t h e r e p l a y t o a l l o w t h e l e a r n e r t o make a c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n a c t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e a n d t h e i d e a l p e r f o r m a n c e ( K e e l e , 1977) a n d (b) t h e v i e w e r ' s a t t e n t i o n m u s t b e d i r e c t e d e i t h e r b y t e a c h e r c u e s o r a c h e c k l i s t ( D e l R e y , 1 9 7 1 ) . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o e x a m i n e a n d c o m p a r e t h e l e v e l o f s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n when u s i n g two d i f f e r e n t f e e d b a c k s t r a t e g i e s : v i s u a l f e e d b a c k m e t h o d a n d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f e e d b a c k m e t h o d . R E S E A R C H H Y P O T H E S I S T h e s t u d y h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t s u b j e c t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , who w o u l d b e e x p o s e d t o p r o t o t y p i c e x a m p l e s , v i d e o r e p l a y s o f t h e i r own p e r f o r m a n c e s , a n d t h e u s e o f a c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r c h e c k l i s t , w o u l d d e m o n s t r a t e a h i g h e r l e v e l o f l e a r n i n g t h a n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p w h i c h w o u l d b e t a u g h t u s i n g t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s . T h e s u b j e c t s ' p r o g r e s s i n l e a r n i n g , was i n f e r r e d b y r e c o r d i n g c h a n g e s i n p e r f o r m a n c e . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e s u b j e c t ' s r e s p o n s e s f o r e a c h t r i a l p e r i o d , w e r e r e f l e c t e d b y s c o r e s d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e R u s s e l l (1989) F i e l d H o c k e y C h e c k l i s t o f C r i t i c a l B e h a v i o u r s . 9 DEFINITIONS C l o s e d S k i l l . A m o t o r s k i l l i s c l a s s i f i e d a s a c l o s e d s k i l l i f i t i s : e x e c u t e d i n a n e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h o b j e c t s a r e r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e , s t a t i c , a n d u n c h a n g i n g .-. . o b j e c t s a r e n o t m o v i n g i n s p a c e a n d a r e t h e r e f o r e s t a b l e . S p o r t t a s k s u s i n g c l o s e d s k i l l s i n c l u d e g y m n a s t i c s , d i v i n g , v a r i o u s t r a c k a n d f i e l d e v e n t s s u c h a s h i g h j u m p , j a v e l i n , s w i m m i n g , b o w l i n g , f r e e - t h r o w s h o o t i n g , a n d g o l f . . . . A c l o s e d s k i l l u t i l i z e s a s t e r e o t y p e d movement p a t t e r n . ( R o b b , 1 9 7 2 , p . 125) C r i t i c a l B e h a v i o u r s . M o t o r s k i l l s may b e d i v i d e d i n t o a s e r i e s o f e l e m e n t s . C r i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r s a r e n o t a l l o f t h e o b s e r v a b l e e l e m e n t s b u t r a t h e r t h o s e t h a t a r e k e y t o t h e s u c c e s s f u l e x e c u t i o n o f a g i v e n s k i l l . G e n e r i c M o v e m e n t . J e w e t t a n d M u l l a n (1977) d e f i n e t h i s t y p e o f movement a s , " T h o s e movement o p e r a t i o n s o r p r o c e s s e s w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a n d e f f e c t i v e m o t o r p a t t e r n s . T h e y a r e t y p i c a l l y e x p l o r a t o r y o p e r a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e l e a r n e r r e c e i v e s o r " t a k e s i n " d a t a a s h e o r s h e m o v e s " ( p . 10) . T h e I n d i a n D r i b b l e . T h e o b j e c t o f t h i s s k i l l i s t o move t h e b a l l f o r w a r d i n a z i g - z a g f a s h i o n , w h i l e o n t h e r u n . I t i s p e r f o r m e d b y u s i n g t h e f l a t s i d e o f t h e s t i c k o n l y . L e v e l o f L e a r n i n g . I n t h i s s t u d y , t h e l e v e l o f l e a r n i n g i s d e f i n e d a s t h e r e l a t i v e l e v e l o f a c h i e v e m e n t o v e r f o u r t r i a l p e r i o d s w h i c h i s r e f l e c t e d b y t h e s u b j e c t s ' s c o r e s on R u s s e l l ' s (1989) F i e l d H o c k e y C h e c k l i s t o f C r i t i c a l B e h a v i o u r s . T h e M o v i n g D r i v e . I n t h e m o v i n g d r i v e , t h e b a l l i s h i t w h i l e t h e s u b j e c t i s r u n n i n g ( r a t h e r t h a n a s t a t i o n a r y h i t ) . I t i s a l s o r e f e r r e d t o a s a m o v i n g h i t . O p e n S k i l l . A s k i l l i s c o n s i d e r e d o p e n i t i f i s u s e d i n a c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . I t r e q u i r e s t h e a b s e n c e o f s t e r e o t y p i c movement p a t t e r n s . E x a m p l e s o f o p e n s k i l l s a r e : c a t c h i n g , b a t t i n g , o r s t r o k i n g m o v i n g b a l l s ( R o b b , 1972) . O r d i n a t i v e M o v e m e n t . J e w e t t a n d M u l l a n (1977) d e f i n e t h i s t y p e o f movement a s , "The p r o c e s s o f o r g a n i z i n g , r e f i n i n g , a n d p e r f o r m i n g s k i l l f u l movement" ( p . 1 0 ) . P a t t e r n i n g S t a g e o f M o v e m e n t . J e w e t t a n d M u l l a n (1977) d e f i n e t h i s s t a g e a s , " A r r a n g e m e n t a n d u s e o f b o d y p a r t s i n s u c c e s s i v e a n d h a r m o n i o u s ways t o a c h i e v e a movement p a t t e r n o r s k i l l . T h i s p r o c e s s i s d e p e n d e n t o n r e c a l l a n d p e r f o r m a n c e o f a movement p r e v i o u s l y d e m o n s t r a t e d o r e x p e r i e n c e d " ( p . 1 0 ) . P r o t o t y p i c E x a m p l e . T h i s i s a v i d e o t a p e r e c o r d i n g o f an i d e a l p e r f o r m a n c e t h a t i s v i e w e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a v i d e o o f t h e l e a r n e r ' s own p e r f o r m a n c e . I t may a l s o b e r e f e r r e d t o a s a p r o t o t y p i c s a m p l e , a m o d e l p e r f o r m a n c e , o r a t e m p l a t e . R e f i n i n g S t a g e o f M o v e m e n t . J e w e t t a n d M u l l a n d e f i n e t h i s s t a g e a s , " A c q u i s i t i o n o f s m o o t h , e f f i c i e n t c o n t o l i n p e r f o r m i n g a movement p a t t e r n o r s k i l l b y m a s t e r y o f s p a t i a l a n d t e m p o r a l r e l a t i o n s . T h i s p r o c e s s d e a l s w i t h t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f p r e c i s i o n i n m o t o r p e r f o r m a n c e a n d h a b i t u a t i o n o f p e r f o r m a n c e u n d e r more c o m p l e x c o n d i t i o n s " ( p . 1 0 ) . T r a d i t i o n a l I n s t r u c t i o n . T e a c h i n g t h a t i n v o l v e s t e a c h e r o r s t u d e n t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s a n d i n s t r u c t o r a u g m e n t e d v e r b a l f e e d b a c k . V a r y i n g S t a g e o f M o v e m e n t . J e w e t t a n d M u l l a n ( 1977 ) d e f i n e t h i s s t a g e a s , " I n v e n t i o n o r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p e r s o n a l l y u n i q u e o p t i o n s i n m o t o r p e r f o r m a n c e . T h e o p t i o n s a r e l i m i t e d t o d i f f e r e n t ways o f p e r f o r m i n g s p e c i f i c m o v e m e n t ; t h e y a r e o f an i m m e d i a t e s i t u a t i o n a l n a t u r e a n d 12 l a c k a n y p r e d e t e r m i n e d movement b e h a v i o r w h i c h h a s b e e n e x t e r n a l l y i m p o s e d on t h e m o v e r " ( p . 1 0 ) . LIMITATIONS 1. T h i s s t u d y i s d e l i m i t e d t o g i r l s , a g e s 12 t o 14 , who h a v e h a d l i m i t e d f i e l d h o c k e y e x p e r i e n c e . I n t h i s c a s e , f o u r f i e l d h o c k e y s k i l l s c l a s s e s p r i o r t o t h i s e x p e r i m e n t . 2 . T h i s s t u d y i s l i m i t e d t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g o f a p u b l i c s c h o o l P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n c l a s s . ASSUMPTIONS T h i s s t u d y i s b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t : (a) G e n t i l e ' s W o r k i n g M o d e l o f S k i l l A q u i s i t i o n i s v a l i d , (b) t h e " o r d i n a t i v e " movement l e v e l o f p r o g r e s s i o n i s a t t a i n a b l e b y a l l s t u d e n t s ( J e w e t t a n d M u l l a n , 1977) , (c) a l l s t u d e n t s w i l l p u t a r e a s o n a b l e amount o f e f f o r t i n t o l e a r n i n g t h e two new s k i l l s , a n d (d) s e l f - v i e w i n g i n a p r e v i o u s l y c o m p l e t e d g y m n a s t i c s u n i t w o u l d h e l p m i n i m i z e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e r n o f s u b j e c t s b e i n g o v e r l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i r i m a g e s on t h e m o n i t o r . SIGNIFICANCE T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s s t u d y was a n t i c i p a t e d t o b e two f o l d . F i r s t , i t e x t e n d s t h e c u r r e n t k n o w l e d g e p r e s e n t e d b y r e s e a r c h e r s who h a v e i n v e s t i g a t e d m o t o r s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n a n d v i d e o - s u p p l e m e n t e d f e e d b a c k . S e c o n d , t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l h a v e p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t e a c h e r s a n d c o a c h e s who a r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e f a c i l i t a t i o n o f m o t o r l e a r n i n g b y p r o v i d i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y f o r t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e p e r t o i r e . T h i s a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g y n o t o n l y g i v e s t h e l e a r n e r t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o w o r k i n d e p e n d e n t l y b u t a l s o p r o v i d e s t h e l e a r n e r w i t h more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o n e ' s own p r o g r e s s . I t a l s o h a s p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e t e a c h e r who i s f a c e d w i t h l a r g e c l a s s s i z e s , a s i t a l l o w s t h e t e a c h e r t o a t t e n d t o o t h e r t e a c h i n g demands w h i l e s t u d e n t s a r e c o g n i t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e a n a l y s i s . In s u m m a r y , d u e t o t h e r e a l i t i e s o f t h e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t , i t i s i m p e r a t i v e f o r t h e t e a c h e r t o d e s i g n h i g h q u a l i t y l e s s o n s t h a t i n c l u d e b o t h a n a l y t i c a l a n d p h y s i c a l w o r k . A n a l y t i c a l work i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n may b e i n t h e f o r m o f s e l f - a n a y l s i s o f a v i d e o t a p e d p e r s o n a l p e r f o r m a n c e . W h i l e f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h may b e r e q u i r e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e m o s t e f f e c t i v e f o r m o f f e e d b a c k , c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h h a s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t v i d e o r e p l a y i s a v e r y e f f e c t i v e f e e d b a c k f o r m e s p e c i a l l y w h e n : (a) u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a m o d e l p e r f o r m a n c e , (b) t h e l e a r n e r ' s a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d , (c) t h e l e a r n e r h a s p r e v i o u s l y b e e n e x p o s e d t o h e r s e l f -i m a g e , (d) t h e r e p l a y i s v i e w e d i n s m a l l g r o u p s , a n d (e) t h e l e a r n e r h a s i n t e r m e d i a t e o r a d v a n c e d s k i l l s . H o w e v e r , t h e e f f e c t s o f v i d e o f e e d b a c k on t h e a c q u i s t i o n o f m o t o r s k i l l s h a s n o t b e e n a d e q u a t e l y r e s e a r c h e d w i t h t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n , t h a t i s , t h o s e who do n o t h a v e p h y s i c a l o r m e n t a l h a n d i c a p s . Using G e n t i l e ' s (1972) Model as a t h e o r e t i c a l base f o r the l e a r n e r , Nixon and Locke's (1973) Model t o emphasize the concurrent r o l e s of the teacher and l e a r n e r , as w e l l as an a l t e r n a t i v e model to i n c o r p o r a t e video feedback methodology, i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the su b j e c t s i n the experimental group would demonstrate g r e a t e r achievement ( i . e . , higher scores on the R u s s e l l (1989) F i e l d Hockey C h e c k l i s t of C r i t i c a l Behaviours) than the c o n t r o l group which would be taught u s i n g t r a d i t i o n a l feedback methods. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW INTRODUCTION This l i t e r a t u r e review commences w i t h a b r i e f overview of e a r l y l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s and the subsequent development of motor l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s . I t d e f i n e s the four c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of motor l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s and models as they have been presented by Singer (1980). A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of G e n t i l e ' s Model (1972) i s i n c l u d e d as i t has been s e l e c t e d as the most appropriate model f o r t h i s study. Because s k i l l achievement cannot be separated from feedback i n the ed u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g , a d i s c u s s i o n of Nixon and Locke's (1973) teacher i n t e r v e n t i o n s model as w e l l as Jewett and Mullan's (1977) taxonomy of movement processes have a l s o been i n c l u d e d . The next s e c t i o n presents the f u n c t i o n s t h a t feedback serves i n a d d i t i o n t o d e f i n i n g the v a r i o u s forms of feedback. The four p r i n c i p l e s of knowledge of r e s u l t s are def i n e d and di s c u s s e d as i s the p e r c e i v e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s of d i f f e r e n t feedback forms. The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n deals s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h the advantages of us i n g video feedback f o r research and l e a r n i n g purposes and a summary of research s t u d i e s t h a t have combined video feedback w i t h motor s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n . The f i n a l s e c t i o n reviews s e l f - m o d e l l i n g and a s s o c i a t e d strengths and weaknesses, c h e c k l i s t s and t h e i r development, f o l l o w e d by Brown's (1982) techniques f o r v i s u a l e v a l u a t i o n . 16 OVERVIEW OF LEARNING THEORIES E a r l y l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s are of t e n c r i t i c i z e d because they attempt t o e x p l a i n a l l l e a r n i n g on the b a s i s of disconnected pieces of i n f o r m a t i o n and they are o f t e n comprised of questionable components, such as: (1) g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s beyond a c t u a l s c i e n t i f i c evidence; (2) s e l e c t i v e use of f a c t s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r convenience; (3) s o c i a l problems are not u s u a l l y considered; (4) i m p r a c t i c a l and u n r e a l i s t i c a p p l i c a t i o n t o everyday l i f e ; (5) scope too broad; (6) d i s r e g a r d f o r developmental f a c t o r s ; and (7) too much concern f o r mass behaviour r a t h e r t h a t i n d i v i d u a l behaviour. (Singer, 1980, p.83) Despite these c r i t i c i s m s , e a r l y l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s have played an important r o l e as c a t a l y s t s f o r contemporary t h e o r i e s . In the e a r l y 1900*s, b e h a v i o u r i s t s , a l s o c a l l e d a s s o c i a t i o n t h e o r i s t s , were t r y i n g t o disprove the theory t h a t i n s t i n c t accounted f o r behaviour. Instead, the b e h a v i o u r i s t s b e l i e v e d t h a t stimulus-response (S-R) c o n d i t i o n i n g was r e s p o n s i b l e and t h e i r prime i n t e r e s t was centered on overt behaviours. In 1927, Thorndike, presented the E m p i r i c a l Law of E f f e c t , which i n some ways i s s i m i a l r t o an open-loop system. In an open-loop system, the input events f o r the system ex e r t t h e i r i n f l u e n c e , the system e f f e c t s i t s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n on the input, and the system has an output. Because t h i s p a r t i c u l a r system doesn't c o n t a i n any compensatory c a p a b i l i t i e s , i t i s unable t o r e g u l a t e e r r o r s . The Law of E f f e c t was based on the theory t h a t a subject w i l l repeat a response i f i t i s r e i n f o r c e d . Thorndike was one of the e a r l i e s t researchers t o r e a l i z e the importance of reinforcement. One drawback t o t h i s law i s t h a t i t was o r i g i n a l l y used t o e x p l a i n how animals l e a r n . Since i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n i n 1927, s e v e r a l researchers have t r i e d t o use i t t o e x p l a i n human l e a r n i n g . However, many contemporary t h e o r i s t s have s i n c e challenged the use of t h i s law as a b a s i s f o r human l e a r n i n g f o r two reasons. F i r s t l y , i t f a i l s t o account f o r the improvement of performance based on the systematic c o r r e c t i o n of e r r o r ( E l w e l l and G r i n d l e y , 1938; Adams, 1971). Secondly, i t has been argued t h a t humans attempt t o c o r r e c t e r r o r s r a t h e r than repeat rewarded responses ( E l w e l l and G r i n d l e y , 1938). Despite these c r i t i c i s m s , Thorndike*s E m p i r i c a l Law of E f f e c t has been in s t r u m e n t a l i n s t i m u l a t i n g researchers t o i n v e s t i g a t e human motor l e a r n i n g . MOTOR LEARNING THEORIES A f t e r decades of research, motor l e a r n i n g t h e o r i s t s have e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t feedback p l a y s a v i t a l r o l e i n the e f f i c i e n t a c q u i s i t i o n of motor s k i l l s (Annett and Kay, 1957; Adams, 1971; Bilodeau , 1966; Brooks, 1980; C h r i s t i n a and Corcos, 1988; Reeve and M a g i l l , 1981) because i t provides the l e a r n e r w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n regarding the discrepancy between the a c t u a l performance and the response necessary 18 f o r an i d e a l performance (Bayless, 1981; Del Rey, 1972; Dowrick and Biggs, 1983; G e n t i l e , 1972). P r e s e n t l y , motor l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s and models f i t i n t o four d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s : i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g , c y b e r n e t i c , adaptive, and d e s c r i p t i v e (Singer, 1980). 1.INFORMATION PROCESSING Information p r o c e s s i n g t h e o r i s t s such as F i t t s and Posner, Welford, and Whiting have a l l developed motor l e a r n i n g models t h a t are p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the t r a n s m i s s i o n , storage, and r e t r i e v a l of i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as ways to improve these f u n c t i o n s ( F i t t s , 1962; Singer, 1980). 2. CYBERNETIC Cybernetic t h e o r i s t s such as Smith, B e r n s t e i n , and Adams, developed motor l e a r n i n g models t h a t s t r e s s the importance of the a v a i l a b i l i t y and e f f e c t i v e use of feedback. These c y b e r n e t i c models are based on clo s e d - l o o p systems (Singer, 1980). The clo s e d - l o o p system accommodates e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n . In t h i s system, the input enters a comparator (Be r n s t e i n , 1967) or i s compared against a reference (Adams, 1971) t h a t s p e c i f i e s the d e s i r e d value f o r the system. There i s a d e t e c t i o n of e r r o r s which i s f o l l o w e d by c o r r e c t i o n i f necessary. I t i s a s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g system t h a t compensates f o r d e v i a t i o n s from the reference. P r i o r t o 1971, when Adams introduced h i s c l o s e d - l o o p theory of motor l e a r n i n g , motor l e a r n i n g t h e o r i s t s were d i v i d e d a s t o t h e e x a c t r o l e t h a t f e e d b a c k s e r v e d . Some t h e o r i s t s b e l i e v e d t h a t f e e d b a c k f u n c t i o n e d t o r e g u l a t e p e r f o r m a n c e w h i l e o t h e r s v i e w e d i t a s a l e a r n i n g v a r i a b l e . A d a m ' s t h e o r y g a v e f e e d b a c k a c o m b i n e d l e a r n i n g a n d p e r f o r m a n c e r o l e i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s i m p l e s e l f - p a c e d g r a d e d m o v e m e n t s . 3 . A D A P T I V E A d a p t i v e m o d e l s , a l s o known as h i e r a r c h i c a l m o d e l s , h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d b y t h e o r i s t s s u c h a s K e e l e (1977) a n d S c h m i d t ( 1 9 8 2 ) . T h e y a r e b a s e d on h i g h e r - o r d e r a n d l o w e r -o r d e r p r o g r a m s a n d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s k i l l ( S i n g e r , 1 9 8 0 ) . 4 . D E S C R I P T I V E D e s c r i p t i v e t h e o r i e s s u c h a s : H e n r y ' s Memory Drum T h e o r y , C r a t t y ' s T h r e e L e v e l T h e o r y o f M o t o r B e h a v i o u r , T h e F i t t s - P o s n e r M o d e l , a n d G e n t i l e ' s M o d e l a r e a l l t h e o r i e s t h a t d e s c r i b e i n v o l v e d p r o c e s s e s b u t may n o t b e c l a s s i f i e d a s a s s o c i a t i o n , c y b e r n e t i c , i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g , o r a d a p t i v e t h e o r i e s ( S i n g e r , 1 9 8 0 ) . G E N T I L E ' S MODEL G e n t i l e ' s (1972) two s t a g e m o d e l , w h i c h i s b a s e d on n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a a s w e l l a s b e h a v i o u r c o n c e p t s , i s n o t a b l e b e c a u s e i t i s one o f t h e l i m i t e d a t t e m p t s t o a p p l y a s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n m o d e l d i r e c t l y t o t e a c h i n g . G e n t i l e o b s e r v e d how a n i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n s t o c h a n g e o r m a i n t a i n h e r p o s i t i o n , o r p o s i t i o n s o f objects in space. The model is limited to direct, adaptive motor patterns that are goal directed, instrumental or intentional. This two stage model has contributed sign i f i c a n t l y to the area of motor learning research because i t contrasts open and closed s k i l l s in terms of their characteristics and appropriate learning strategies in addition to describing how decision making processes may work and how teachers may f a c i l i t a t e them (Gentile, 1972; Singer, 1980) (see Figure 1). Papulation of SHmufi Sobcti** Attention formulation oitho Molof Plon lUipomo Execution FMdbock Dccnion Proc«iMi Huet InpoftM Figure 1. I n i t i a l Stage of S k i l l Acquisition. (From Gentile, A.M. Quest, 1972, 17, 3-23). (i) STAGE I: GETTING THE IDEA OF THE MOVEMENT Gentile suggests that the i n i t i a l stages of s k i l l acquisition are similar in both open and closed s k i l l s . Here, the learner attempts to determine the general movement pattern that works to produce a desired outcome. 21 (a) G O A L : T h e p r o b l e m i s p r e s e n t e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l who o r g a n i z e s a m o t o r p l a n i n o r d e r t o s o l v e t h i s p r o b l e m . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e o v e r a l l g o a l i s t o d r i b b l e t h e b a l l t o t h e p y l o n a n d t h e n p e r f o r m a m o v i n g d r i v e . (b) MOMENTARILY E F F E C T I V E P O P U L A T I O N OF S T I M U L I : A f t e r t h e i n d i v i d u a l s e t s a p a r t i c u l a r g o a l , t h e r e a r e e v e n t s t h a t a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s r e g u l a t o r y o r r e l e v a n t , a n d n o n - r e g u l a t o r y o r i r r e l e v a n t . R e g u l a t o r y e v e n t s . a r e movement p a t t e r n s t h a t c o n f o r m t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e p r e - d e t e r m i n e d g o a l w h i l e a l l o t h e r e v e n t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d n o n - r e g u l a t o r y . (c) S E L E C T I V E A T T E N T I O N : D u r i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l 1 s i n i t i a l a t t e m p t t o a t t a i n h e r s p e c i f i e d g o a l , s h e m u s t i d e n t i f y a n d s e l e c t i v e l y a t t e n d t o t h e m o m e n t a r i l y r e g u l a t o r y s u b s e t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n s t i m u l i . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e l e a r n e r must a t t e n d t o h e r b o d y p o s i t i o n , t h e p o s i t i o n a n d a n g l e o f h e r s t i c k , a n d m o s t i m p o r t a n t l y , s h e m u s t f o c u s on t h e b a l l a n d i t s m o v e m e n t . I r r e l e v a n t s t i m u l i s u c h a s c o n v e r s a t i o n a n d movement i n o t h e r a r e a s o f t h e gym m u s t s e l e c t i v e l y b e i g n o r e d . (d) THE MOTOR P L A N : A g e n e r a l p l a n o f a c t i o n i s o r g a n i z e d p r i o r t o t h e r e s p o n s e e x e c u t i o n . (e) EMITS RESPONSE 1: T h e l e a r n e r p e r f o r m s h e r f i r s t t r i a l . 22 ( f ) F E E D B A C K : T h e r e i s a b r i e f p e r i o d o f t i m e f o l l o w i n g t h e r e s p o n s e e x e c u t i o n i n w h i c h f e e d b a c k i s c o d e d a n d c a t e g o r i z e d s o t h a t i t may b e h e l d i n s h o r t t e r m memory s t o r a g e a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y u s e d f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s p o n s e . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e l e a r n e r w i l l b e a b l e t o u t i l i z e f e e d b a c k o b t a i n e d b y h e r s e l f ( w a t c h i n g t h e b a l l ' s p a t h d u r i n g a n d a f t e r e a c h p e r f o r m a n c e ) a s w e l l a s d e v e l o p a f e e l f o r t h e c o r r e c t n e s s o f h e r m o v e m e n t s . W a t c h i n g t h e v i d e o r e p l a y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a c h e c k l i s t w i l l a l s o h e l p f o c u s t h e l e a r n e r ' s s e l f - a n a l y s i s . (g) D E C I S I O N P R O C E S S E S : T h e l e a r n e r now h a s k n o w l e d g e t h a t may b e u s e d t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r t h e n e x t r e s p o n s e . F i r s t , k n o w l e d g e o f r e s u l t s ( K R ) , w h i c h i s e n c o d e d , i n t r i n s i c f e e d b a c k r e g a r d i n g t h e o u t c o m e p r o d u c e d b y t h e m o v e m e n t . S e c o n d , k n o w l e d g e o f p e r f o r m a n c e ( K P ) , e n c o d e d i n t r i n s i c f e e d b a c k c o n c e r n i n g t h e movement i t s e l f . T h i r d , a c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e g o a l p l a n a n d t h e a c t u a l o u t c o m e . I f t h e g o a l was a t t a i n e d a n d t h e movement was e x e c u t e d a s p l a n n e d , t h e n i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l w o u l d u s e t h e same m o t o r r e s p o n s e f o r t h e n e x t a t t e m p t . I f t h e g o a l was n o t a c c o m p l i s h e d , b u t t h e m o t o r p l a n was e x e c u t e d a s p l a n n e d , t h e n t h e m o t o r p l a n m u s t b e c h a n g e d p r i o r t o t h e n e x t r e s p o n s e . I f t h e g o a l was o b t a i n e d b u t n o t b y t h e d e s i g n e d m o t o r p l a n , t h e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l m u s t ; r e p e a t t h e i n i t i a l s t r a t e g y , 23 r e v i s e the pl a n , re-evaluate the environmental c o n d i t i o n s , or a l t e r the g o a l . A f t e r the i n d i v i d u a l has completed one or more s u c c e s s f u l (YES/YES) outcomes, she then moves to the second stage of s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n (see F i g u r e 2). FOUR POSSIBLE OUTCOMES OF EVALUATIVE PHASE OF DECISION PROCESS Type of Evaluation WAS THE MOVEMENT EXECUTED AS PLANNED ? WAS THE GOAL ACCOMPLISHED ? Outcome YES NO YES Got the Idea of the Movement Surprise | NO Something's Wrong Everything's Wrong F i g u r e 2. Four P o s s i b l e Outcomes of E v a l u a t i v e Phase of D e c i s i o n Process. (From G e n t i l e , A.M. Quest, 1972, 17, 3-23). 24 ( i i ) S T A G E I I : F I X A T I O N / D I V E R S I F I C A T I O N D u r i n g t h e s e c o n d s t a g e , t h e l e a r n e r a t t e m p t s t o a t t a i n a p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l l e v e l . T h e r e f o r e , t h e m o t o r p a t t e r n l e a r n e d i n s t a g e I o f t e n n e e d s t o b e r e f i n e d . T h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e s k i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e t y p e o f f e e d b a c k r e q u i r e d i n s t a g e I I . A n o p e n s k i l l i s a m o t o r s k i l l w h i c h i n v o l v e s v a r i a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s ( P o u l t o n , 1 9 5 7 ; D e l R e y , 1 9 7 2 ) . The u l t i m a t e g o a l i n a n o p e n s k i l l i s d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e s u b j e c t mus t d e v e l o p a r e p e r t o i r e o f d i v e r s e m o t o r p a t t e r n s , e a c h one f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f m o m e n t a r i l y e f f e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s . G e n t i l e (1972) a n d D e l R e y (1971) s u g g e s t t h a t t h e m o s t e f f e c t i v e f e e d b a c k i n o p e n s k i l l s i s a u g m e n t e d f e e d b a c k a b o u t t h e k n o w l e d g e o f r e s u l t s b e c a u s e i t p r o v i d e s t h e l e a r n e r w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g c h a n g e s i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t t h e movement p r o d u c e s o r f e e d b a c k a b o u t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t w e r e o p e r a t i v e a t t h e t i m e t h e s u b j e c t s e l e c t e d a m o t o r p a t t e r n . A c l o s e d s k i l l i n v o l v e s s t a t i o n a r y s p a t i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ( D e l R e y , 1 9 7 2 ) . T h e g o a l o f a c l o s e d s k i l l i s t h e f i x a t i o n o f a movement p a t t e r n so t h a t t h e same r e s p o n s e i s p r o d u c e d e a c h t i m e t h e s k i l l i s p e r f o r m e d . D u r i n g t h e f i x a t i o n s t a g e , t h e l e a r n e r t r i e s t o r e d u c e t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n h e r own movement p a t t e r n o r a l t e r t h e p a t t e r n t o a n e x t e r n a l l y i m p o s e d s t y l e . T h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e f e e d b a c k f o r c l o s e d s k i l l s i s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e movement i t s e l f ( k n o w l e d g e o f p e r f o r m a n c e ) ( G e n t i l e , 1 9 7 2 ) . 25 I n s u m m a r y , m o t o r s k i l l d e v e l o p m e n t i s d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e l e a r n e r ' s a b i l i t y t o : (A) u s e i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n e d t h r o u g h s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n t o f o r m u l a t e a m o t o r p l a n w i t h a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y o f s u c c e s s ; (B) e x e c u t e t h e p l a n ; a n d t h e n (C) u s i n g f e e d b a c k a b o u t b o t h t h e movement a n d t h e o u t c o m e o f t h e m o v e m e n t , a s s e s s t h e i n t e r a c t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f b o t h a n d d e c i d e what t o do o n t h e n e x t t r i a l - e i t h e r k e e p t h e same r e s p o n s e p l a n o r a l t e r i t . ( R o t h s t e i n a n d A r n o l d , 1976 , p . 48) QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SKILL DEVELOPMENT S k i l l p r o g r e s s i o n i s o f t e n m e a s u r e d t h r o u g h q u a n t i t a t i v e m e t h o d s s u c h a s , t h e d i s t a n c e c o v e r e d f o r t h e l o n g jump o r a t i m e e l a p s e d f o r t h e 100 m e t r e s . W h i l e t h e s e m e a s u r e s may b e v e r y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e more p r o f i c i e n t a t h l e t e , q u a l i t a t i v e e s t i m a t e s o f s k i l l p r o g r e s s i o n a r e more m e a n i n g f u l f o r t h e b e g i n n i n g l e v e l s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s i n c o r p o r a t e s a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s a n d t h a t t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o i s o l a t e b e c a u s e t h e y a r e i n t e r a c t i v e . N i x o n a n d L o c k e (1972) h a v e r e c o g n i z e d t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n a n d h a v e s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s t u d e n t a n d t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s b y d e t a i l i n g t h e s e f a c t o r s i n t h e S e q u e n c e s o f C r i t i c a l E v e n t s i n S t u d e n t L e a r n i n g a n d C o n c u r r e n t T e a c h e r I n t e r v e n t i o n s M o d e l ( s ee F i g u r e 3 ) . A s one c a n s e e , t h i s m o d e l u s e s S t a g e I o f G e n t i l e ' s M o d e l f o r i t s f o u n d a t i o n a n d b u i l d s t h e t e a c h e r ' s r o l e u p o n t h i s f o u n d a t i o n . T h e i n t e r a c t i o n s o f t h e s t u d e n t a n d t e a c h e r i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r m o d e l a r e t h o s e t h a t r e p r e s e n t t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n . I f o n e e x p a n d e d t h i s m o d e l t o i n c l u d e t h e m o s t r e c e n t f e e d b a c k t o o l , t h e v i d e o c a m e r a , a n d a l s o t o i n c o r p o r a t e s u c h f i n d i n g s o f v i s u a l i n s t r u c t i o n r e s e a r c h a s t h e u s e o f a p r o t o t y p i c e x a m p l e i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a s e l f - a n a l y s i s o f o n e ' s own p e r f o r m a n c e , a n d t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s t u d e n t a n d t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n s w o u l d b e s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d a s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e A l t e r n a t i v e L e a r n i n g M o d e l ( s e e F i g u r e 4 ) . I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t i f t e a c h e r s a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s e s e v e n s t a g e s a n d u s e t h e s e m o d e l s a s a t e a c h i n g g u i d e , t h e y w i l l b e a b l e t o a d v a n c e t h e l e a r n e r f r o m t h e g e n e r i c movement l e v e l t o t h e o r d i n a t i v e movement l e v e l . PHASE I CRITICAL EVENTS IN MOTOR LEARNING STUDENT SEQUENCE A STUDENT TEACHER G M I Bahavlot Activalad Idantttlaa Ralavant Sllmull i i Formulatat Motor Flan Emit* Raiponia 1 Procasaa* Faedback Decides Natura of Nasi Raiponia Emit* Rasponsa 2 TO PHASE II TEACHER PREACTIVE DECISIONS STAGE 1 STAGE 2 STAGE 3 STAGE 4 STAGE 5 $TAG£6 STAGE 7 POSTACTIVe EVENTS C » m Environment flan IntaucUeo. ClMliy Oaal E statu a* Matlva and laamlng Set. galect. Present ana' Analyse Practice Tatk. Provide Directions la* Performance. Support and Observe Practice. Dkoct »i%4 Aufmanl F««xft)ack. Culda Adktstmene. ol Porfermance. Pace and Sequence Practice. Analyre Evaluate and Adjual Instruction. Research om Reseatch ant Research en: Research an: Research on: Kswtvcta en; Resosrch on: Roeeerch on: Reseat ch on: Schedules Special Training Eooiament and Environment Class Sire Ability Crauplna Coeducation Motivation Goal Clarity Wholes and Pacta Level ol Ottflcutty Progression Oamanrtratfaa, atactica vMiaul enelmcdea Mater Plana Speed end Accuracy Sala Systematic Observation Uafwal Assistance suit* KnawUtfe* of FsWfo*mtnc* fltMillf learning Strstagles Incentive Molivailon Mental Practice Distribution ol Puclica Meaiery and Advanced Phaaat ol Piacllca Critical Incidents Descriptive Analyses f eechef PlenAlne) Progremtaed learning Verfcel Rehavlef Principles Attention and Olstrectle* v  TEACHER SEQUENCE CRITICAL DECISIONS AND INTERVENTIONS TO FACILITATE MOTOR LEARNING PHASE I Figure 3. Sequences of C r i t i c a l Events in Student Learning J and Concurrent Teacher Intervention. (From Nixon and Locke, 1973) . PHASE I CMICAL MINTS IN MOT OH U AMINO STUDENT SEQUENCE A STUDENT TEACHER OCCISIONS C ' U M (nvlti Q M I • • t a r l e r Activate* ft Mentlflei Stimuli F o r m u U M Meier Ptan t m h t R M p e n e t t P r e M t i M Feedfcedi Oecldae N»tu»« e l N o t R e i p o n M Emll t R e t p e n a e l .STAGE I C U r t r y O M l I i U k l l i n Student with a i d of proto-t y p i c example, c h e c k l i s t s and video replay. Goal Watch behaviour proto-i d e n t i f i e d t y p i c example to i d e n t i f y relevant cues. 0 0 ft o o o TO PHASE II TE ACHE It STAGE 2 h k M PratMnt mAA—hn Pracuc* T M * . STAGE 3 STAGE 4 OtMTM P t K l k * . S f 4 G £ 5 S M G £ S 0«M« A«iMilmwl • I Pa r lwiMnc* . S M G £ 7 P K * « A 4 Practice. POSTACTIVt IV (.NTS A*«trt«. Cwaivato •n* Adlutl Ivttlrucliofl. Formulate motor plan. Practise to get the idea of the movement. Watch proto-t y p i c example followed by video replay. Use teacher cues or c h e c k l i s t s to d i r e c t | at t e n t i o n . Compare the two pe r f o r -mances . Formulate next motor plan by adjusting o r i g i n a l plan or creating new plan. P r a c t i c e . Figure 4. A l t e r n a t i v e Learning Model*A R e v i s i o n of Nixon and Locke's Sequences of C r i t i c a l Events In Student Learning and Concurrent Teacher I n t e r v e n t i o n s . 29 FEEDBACK Two m a j o r f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t l e a r n i n g a n d a c q u i s i t i o n o f m o t o r s k i l l s a r e p r a c t i s e a n d f e e d b a c k . D u r i n g p r a c t i s e , t h e l e a r n e r mus t b e m o t i v a t e d t o l e a r n . T h e s k i l l mus t b e c h a l l e n g i n g a n d seem t o b e i m p o r t a n t ( S c h m i d t , 1 9 8 2 ) . F e e d b a c k d u r i n g p r a c t i s e s e s s i o n s c a n s e r v e f o u r d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s : 1 . p r o v i d e t h e l e a r n e r w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n a n d k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e o v e r a l l p e r f o r m a n c e , e r r o r s t h a t w e r e made , a n d ways o f c o r r e c t i n g t h e s e e r r o r s 2 . r e i n f o r c e m e n t - w h i c h i n c r e a s e s t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e w i l l b e r e p e a t e d 3 . p u n i s h m e n t - i f p e r c e i v e d a s a p u n i s h m e n t , w i l l s e r v e , t o d i s c o u r a g e a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n 4 . m o t i v a t i o n ( C h r i s t i n a a n d C o r c o s , 1 9 8 8 ) . R e s e a r c h h a s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t : t h e p r i m e f a c t o r t h a t i n f l u e n c e s t h e l e a r n i n g o f m o t o r s k i l l s i s f e e d b a c k (Adams, 1 9 7 1 ; A n n e t t a n d K a y , 1 9 5 7 ; B i l o d e a u , 1 9 6 6 ; B r o o k s , 1 9 8 0 ; D e l R e y , 1 9 7 2 ; O x e n d i n e , 1 9 7 7 ; M a g i l l , 1 9 8 9 ; R e e v e a n d M a g i l l , 1 9 8 1 ) . O t h e r i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s a r e f e e d b a c k p r e c i s i o n (Adams, 1971) a s w e l l a s t h e a b s o l u t e amount o f f e e d b a c k ( B i l o d e a u , 1 9 6 9 ) . A l t h o u g h r e s e a r c h on f e e d b a c k a n d i t s c o n n e c t i o n t o l e a r n i n g i n t h e p s y c h o m o t o r d o m a i n h a s b e e n e x t e n s i v e , t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a common " l a n g u a g e " h a s n o t b e e n c o m p l e t e l y d e v e l o p e d . W h i l e r e s e a r c h e r s do a g r e e on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f f e e d b a c k , t h e v a r i o u s r o l e s t h a t i t p l a y s h a v e b e e n d e s c r i b e d a n d d e f i n e d i n a v a r i e t y o f t e r m s : 30 q u a l i t a t i v e feedback, q u a n t i t a t i v e feedback, process feedback, i n f o r m a t i o n feedback, knowledge of performance, product feedback, knowledge of r e s u l t s , l e a r n i n g feedback, i n t r i n s i c feedback, e x t r i n s i c feedback, augmented feedback. Q u a l i t a t i v e feedback i s dichotomous i n f o r m a t i o n such as: too high, too low; c o r r e c t , i n c o r r e c t . Knowledge of performance (KP), a form of q u a l i t a t i v e feedback, i s d e f i n e d as: i n f o r m a t i o n regarding the performance i t s e l f (Del Rey, 1972); encoded i n t r i n s i c feedback ( G e n t i l e , 1972); i n f o r m a t i o n regarding the magnitude and d i r e c t i o n of the e r r o r s of the performance (Reeve and M a g i l l , 1981). Examples of KP are: f e e t too f a r apart, hands too c l o s e together. While q u a l i t a t i v e feedback appears t o be b e t t e r than no feedback at a l l , i t i s o f t e n too vague and, t h e r e f o r e , l i m i t e d i n i t s a b i l i t y t o a i d the l e a r n e r . In the l a t e r stages of l e a r n i n g , q u a n t i t a t i v e feedback may be p r e f e r a b l e t o q u a l i t a t i v e feedback because i t provides the l e a r n e r w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n regarding the d i r e c t i o n as w e l l as the amount ( i n u n i t s ) of e r r o r (Adams, 1971; Del Rey, 1972; Reeve and M a g i l l , 1981; Sim and Stewart, 1984). Process feedback ( M e l v i l l e , 1983), or i n f o r m a t i o n feedback (IF) (Bilodeau, 1966; Del Rey, 1972) i s most commonly c a l l e d the knowledge of performance (KP). Many researchers b e l i e v e t h a t KP i s the most c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n the motor l e a r n i n g process (Del Rey, 1972; Oxendine, 1977; Reeve and M a g i l l , 1981). Product feedback ( M e l v i l l e , 1984) which i s more commonly r e f e r r e d t o as knowledge of r e s u l t s (KR) (Annett and Kay, 1957; B i l o d e a u , 1966; Brooks, 1980; Del Rey, 1972; Oxendine, 1977; Reeve and M a g i l l , 1981) has been d e f i n e d as: any i n f o r m a t i o n regarding the environmental consequences of the movement (Del Rey, 1972); something which i s inherent i n the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n from the moment the subject i s given any rudimentary idea as t o what she i s t r y i n g t o do and i s not something introduced t o the t r a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n (Annett and Kay, 1957). Two examples of KR are: a f i n i s h i n g time f o r a 1500 m run and a numerical score f o r a gymnastics event. Annett and Kay's (1957) l e a r n i n g feedback i s a combination of knowledge of performance and knowledge of r e s u l t s i n which the subject take's t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a f t e r the t e r m i n a t i o n of a response and uses i t t o i n d i c a t e how the next response should be modified. I n t r i n s i c feedback i s i n f o r m a t i o n the l e a r n e r provides h e r s e l f by k i n e s t h e t i c a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the degree of e r r o r i n a movement. On the other hand, e x t r i n s i c feedback i s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s provided t o the l e a r n e r from an e x t e r n a l source such as a u d i t o r y , v i s u a l , and t a c t i l e modes. For example, i t may be v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n from an i n s t r u c t o r , or may be v i s u a l from a video r e c o r d i n g . These forms of supplemental i n f o r m a t i o n are sources of augmented feedback. Augmented feedback may be obtained w h i l e the subject i s executing a p a r t of the s k i l l or j u s t a f t e r she has executed p a r t or a l l of the s k i l l . Augmented feedback i s 32 given t o r e i n f o r c e , r e g u l a t e , and/or motivate performance (Annett and Kay, 1957; Bilodeau, 1961; C h r i s t i n a and Corcos, 1988; Robb, 1972). Schmidt (1982) used p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d feedback d e f i n i t i o n s by Holding (1965) and Singer (1980) and has summarized the v a r i o u s dimensions of e x t r i n s i c feedback. CONCURRENT - presented dur i n g the movement IMMEDIATE - presented immediately a f t e r the r e l e v a n t a c t i o n VERBAL - presented i n a form t h a t i s spoken or capable of being spoken ACCUMULATED - feedback th a t represents an accumulation of past performances KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS (KR) - v e r b a l i z e d ( v e r b a l i z a b l e ) post-^response i n f o r m a t i o n about the outcome of the response i n the environment TERMINAL - presented a f t e r the movement DELAYED - delayed from the r e l e v a n t a c t i o n NONVERBAL - presented i n a form t h a t i s not spoken SEPARATE - feedback th a t represents each performance s e p a r a t e l y KNOWLEDGE OF PERFORMANCE (KP) - v e r b a l i z e d (or v e r b a l i z a b l e ) post-response i n f o r m a t i o n about the nature of the movement p a t t e r n 33 PRINCIPLES OF KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS A g r e a t d e a l o f r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d i n t h e a r e a o f m o t o r l e a r n i n g a n d s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n h a s b e e n c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e l e a r n e r ' s k n o w l e d g e o f r e s u l t s . A summary o f c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h i n t h i s f i e l d i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e f o u r p r i n c i p l e s t h a t g o v e r n t h e k n o w l e d g e o f r e s u l t s . 1 . T h e f i r s t p r i n c i p l e o f KR i s t h a t KR i s r e q u i r e d i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n ( F i t t s , 1 9 5 1 ; G e n t i l e , 1 9 7 2 ; L a s z l o , 1 9 6 8 ) . F i t t s ( 1 9 6 5 ) p r o p o s e d t h a t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t s t a g e o f l e a r n i n g t h e s u b j e c t m u s t f o r m u l a t e an e x e c u t i v e p l a n o f t h e s k i l l a n d a l s o u n d e r s t a n d s p a t i a l s e q u e n c e s o f t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e m o v e m e n t . T h e e x e c u t i o n o f q u a l i t a t i v e l y c o r r e c t movement p a t t e r n s i s a s s i s t e d b y t h e l e a r n e r ' s a t t e n t i o n t o e x t e r n a l c u e s . W i t h r e p e a t e d p r a c t i s e , t h e l e a r n e r g r a d u a l l y b e c o m e s m o r e k i n e s t h e t i c a l l y a w a r e o f h e r movement a n d r e s u l t i n g p e r f o r m a n c e . A s s h e p r o g r e s s e s , s h e i s a b l e t o i n t e r n a l i z e h e r movement p a t t e r n s a n d a n y a u g m e n t e d f e e d b a c k b e c o m e s e v e n more e f f e c t i v e i n t h e i m p r o v e m e n t a n d m a s t e r y o f a s k i l l ( B r o o k s , 1 9 8 0 ; F i t t s , 1 9 6 2 ; L a s z l o , 1 9 6 8 ) . 2 . T h e s e c o n d p r i n c i p l e o f KR i s t h a t t h e l e a r n e r ' s r a t e o f i m p r o v e m e n t d e p e n d s o n t h e p r e c i s e n e s s o f KR (Adams, 1 9 7 1 ; F i t t s , 1 9 6 2 ; R e e v e a n d M a g i l l , 1 9 8 1 ) . A n n e t t a n d K a y ( 1 9 5 7 ) f o u n d t h a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e d e g r e e o f p r e c i s i o n d e p e n d s on t h e s t a g e o f l e a r n i n g a s w e l l a s t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e c u e s a r e p r e s e n t e d . F o r e x a m p l e : t h e o p t i m a l p r e c i s i o n o f KR f o r t h e b e g i n n e r w o u l d a p p e a r t o b e more "general" than f o r the advanced l e a r n e r ; and the more advanced the s k i l l l e v e l , the more p r e c i s e the KR can be. 3. The t h i r d p r i n c i p l e of KR i n v o l v e s the frequency of i t s occurrence. Research i n t h i s area i n d i c a t e s t h a t the more KR i s given, the gre a t e r the r a t e of l e a r n i n g and performance (Bilodeau, 1966; M a g i l l , 1980). This does not imply t h a t the l e a r n e r i s able t o u t i l i z e a l l of the KR a v a i l a b l e t o her. In f a c t , the l e a r n e r may only be responding t o a p o r t i o n of the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o her (Reeve and M a g i l l , 1981). Annett and Kay's (1957) e a r l i e r work a l s o found t h i s t o be t r u e . R e s u l t s of t h e i r study suggested t h a t the l e a r n e r can only a t t e n d t o an optimal number of cues at one time and recommend t h a t the i n s t r u c t o r should arrange augmented feedback i n such a way t h a t - t h e l e a r n e r w i l l be able t o acquire the optimal value from such cues. Cues t h a t help the subject i n the e a r l y stages of l e a r n i n g become redundant and can l a t e r be removed without any s e r i o u s l o s s of e f f i c i e n c y . However, Adams (1971) s t a t e s t h a t there i s a l o s s of e f f i c i e n c y when KR i s used as a c r u t c h . This i s due t o the sub j e c t s inexperience i n r e l y i n g upon t a s k - r e l e v a n t cues as in f o r m a t i o n a i d s . 4. The f o u r t h p r i n c i p l e of KR concerns the temporal l o c a t i o n of KR. The KR delay i n t e r v a l i s the p e r i o d of time between the response and the KR. E a r l y s t u d i e s i n t h i s area which used slow p o s i t i o n i n g responses, suggested t h a t l e a r n i n g i s adversely a f f e c t e d i f a r e p e t i t i o n occurs between the o r i g i n a l movement and the d e l i v e r y of i t s 35 r e l a t e d KR. Recent s t u d i e s , u s i n g r a p i d b a l l i s t i c responses, have provi d e d c o n t r a d i c t o r y evidence regarding the e f f e c t s of KR delay on performance and l e a r n i n g (Lee and M a g i l l , 1983; Schmidt, 1982). This area r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r research i n order t o be c o n c l u s i v e . 'The post-KR delay i n t e r v a l , which allows i n f o r m a t i o n t o be processed, i s the time p e r i o d between KR and the beginning of the next t r i a l or performance. Adams (1971) suggested t h a t the optimal l e n g t h of t h i s i n t e r v a l i s determined by the preciseness of KR, and the s u b j e c t ' s stage of l e a r n i n g . However, the optimal time f o r the post-KR delay i n t e r v a l has yet t o be determined because: most research i n t h i s area has been based upon simple motor tasks and the r e s u l t s are not g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o complex t a s k s ; and l i t t l e i s known about the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the post-KR delay i n t e r v a l and the processes i n v o l v e d i n a c q u i r i n g motor s k i l l s (Singer, 1980). In summary, feedback has a v a r i e t y of forms, serves v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s , and i s imperative t o the l e a r n i n g of motor s k i l l s . AUGMENTED FEEDBACK There are c o n t r a d i c t o r y b e l i e f s r e garding the most e f f e c t i v e form of augmented feedback i n the realm of motor l e a r n i n g . However, there i s no argument t h a t v i s u a l feedback i s extremely powerful and e f f e c t i v e (Adams, 1977; Bayless, 1981; Cole, 1981; R i c k l i and Smith, 1980; R o t h s t e i n , 1980; V i c k e r y , 1980). Adams (1971) and R i c k l i and Smith (1980), 36 r e p o r t t h a t v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y feedback provide the most e f f e c t i v e forms of feedback. R o t h s t e i n (1980) and Cole (1981) argue t h a t a combination of a u d i o - v i s u a l feedback provide s the most e f f e c t i v e form of feedback. Bayless (1981) c o n t r a d i c t s the l a t t e r researchers by r e p o r t i n g t h a t v i s u a l feedback i s s u p e r i o r t o a u d i o - v i s u a l feedback. Bayless a l s o s t a t e s t h a t when v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y feedback are used simultaneously, i t only seems to confuse the l e a r n e r because she i s overwhelmed w i t h feedback and cannot decipher r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . This i s an area where f u r t h e r research i s r e q u i r e d . VIDEO FEEDBACK In the past, research observations were l i m i t e d by the number of observers ( i . e . , the number of observers t h a t c o u l d be p h y s i c a l l y , accomodated i n t o an o b s e r v a t i o n room) i n a d d i t i o n to t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l the speed of events. Over the past 25 years the u t i l i z a t i o n of augmented v i s u a l feedback i n the form of videotape r e p l a y , has s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons: (a) inexpensive, (b) reusable, (c) easy f o r the amateur to use, (d) c o n t r o l over playback speed, (e) r e l a t i v e s i m p l i c i t y of e d i t i n g records, (f) i n c r e a s e d f l e x i b i l i t y i n a l l o w i n g the a n a l y s i s of data a f t e r the event, (g) r e p l a y allows f o r the development of h i g h l y r e l i a b l e s c o r i n g techniques, and (h) decreases observers judgement - behaviours are e i t h e r observable or not (Maxwell and P r i n g l e , 1983). 37 I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e p r a c t i c a l b e n e f i t s , some r e s e a r c h e r s b e l i e v e t h a t v i d e o f e e d b a c k may s e r v e t o i n c r e a s e m o t i v a t i o n , h e l p o v e r c o m e r e s i s t a n c e , a n d i n c r e a s e l e a r n i n g a n d p e r f o r m a n c e ( D o w r i c k a n d B i g g s , 1983 ; D o w r i c k a n d D o v e , 1 9 8 0 ) . R e c e n t l y , v i d e o r e p l a y h a s b e e n u s e d t o m o d i f y b e h a v i o u r i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : t h e r a p e u t i c s e t t i n g s ( i . e . , c h r o n i c a n d a c u t e p s y c h o t i c s a n d a l c o h o l i c s ; d i a g n o s t i c d i s o r d e r s ) ; t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g ; i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l t r a i n i n g , ( i . e . , c o u n s e l l i n g a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n ) ; a n d i n s p o r t s e t t i n g s . W h i l e t h e m a j o r i t y o f v i d e o f e e d b a c k (VF) r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n c o n d u c t e d -on s o c i a l s k i l l s t r a i n i n g , t h e r e h a v e b e e n a n u m b e r o f s i g n i f i c a n t s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f m o t o r s k i l l s . P e n m a n , B a r t z a n d D a v i s (1968) w e r e some o f t h e e a r l i e s t r e s e a r c h e r s t o u s e VR a s a n i n s t a n t s o u r c e o f f e e d b a c k i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f m o t o r s k i l l s . T h e e f f e c t s o f VR was e x a m i n e d on f i r s t y e a r u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s who w e r e l e a r n i n g t r a m p o l i n e s k i l l s . R e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y s h o w e d t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p ( w i t h no VR) a n d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . T h e f a c t t h a t t h e VR g r o u p s p e n t t i m e m o n i t o r i n g t h e r e p l a y a n d l e s s t i m e a c t u a l l y p r a c t i s i n g t h e s k i l l s , h i g h l i g h t s t h e b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s o f VR on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t r a m p o l i n e s k i l l s . D r a w b a c k s t o t h i s s t u d y w e r e t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u b j e c t s v i e w i n g t h e i r own i m a g e s . P e n m a n , B a r t z , a n d D a v i s , f o u n d t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e o v e r l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i r 38 images and t h e r e f o r e recommended tha t repeated exposure to one's own image would probably reduce t h i s problem. In 1971, Del Rey looked at the e f f e c t s of form ( r a t i n g s c a l e ) , accuracy (points on the t a r g e t ) , and l a t e n c y of movement w i t h respect t o the f e n c i n g lunge. The c o l l e g e women i n v o l v e d i n t h i s study showed a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement when form, accuracy, and l a t e n c y were used i n combination w i t h video feedback. Del Rey c o n t r i b u t e s t h i s p o s i t i v e r e s u l t t o d i r e c t viewing. In d i r e c t viewing, the sub j e c t ' s a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d s e l e c t i v e l y t o r e g u l a t o r y cues because of the f a c t t h a t novices do not a u t o m a t i c a l l y a t t e n d t o r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . In 1973, Jackson i n v e s t i g a t e d video feedback (VF) on the a c q u i s i t i o n and r e t e n t i o n of sport type motor s k i l l s ( i . e . , v o l l e y against w a l l , b a s k e t b a l l f o u l shot, c a t c h i n g t e n n i s b a l l s ) . Subjects i n t h i s study demonstrated a p o s i t i v e r e s u l t i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of sport type motor s k i l l s and a l s o reported p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s on a sport r e t e n t i o n t e s t t h a t was administered s i x weeks f o l l o w i n g the s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n t e s t . Jackson's i n c o r p o r a t i o n of a r e t e n t i o n t e s t was unique at t h i s p o i n t i n time i n so f a r as t h i s v a l u a b l e element had not been considered i n previous s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g VF. Ro t h s t e i n and A r n o l d (1976) compiled a w e l l organized summary of research i n v o l v i n g videotape feedback. This a r t i c l e l i s t s 52 research s t u d i e s , w i t h both s i g n i f i c a n t and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s , t h a t may b e a p p l i e d t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . T h e i r a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s c o n c l u d e t h a t t a s k , s e x a n d a g e do n o t a f f e c t t h e o u t c o m e o f t h e s e s t u d i e s . H o w e v e r , v e r y few s t u d i e s i n c l u d e d e l e m e n t a r y o r h i g h s c h o o l a g e d s u b j e c t s . T h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s t u d i e s c e n t e r e d a r o u n d c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . T h e y d i d c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v i d e o t a p e r e p l a y may d e p e n d o n t h e s k i l l l e v e l o f t h e s u b j e c t s , t h e t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s , a n d t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e t h e s t u d y i s c o n d u c t e d . T h e y a l s o a d v i s e g u i d e d v i e w i n g when b e g i n n e r s a r e e x t r a c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m v i d e o t a p e r e p l a y s . R i c k l i a n d S m i t h (1980) r e v i e w e d c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h f e e d b a c k w o u l d b e e x p e c t e d t o b e m o s t e f f e c t i v e . T h r e e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h h a d p r e v i o u s l y b e e n i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e w e r e : (1) a " t e m p l a t e " o r m o d e l p e r f o r m a n c e i s r e q u i r e d d u r i n g t h e v i e w i n g o f t h e r e p l a y t o a l l o w t h e l e a r n e r t o make a c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e a c t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e a n d t h e i d e a l p e r f o r m a n c e ( K e e l e , 1 9 7 7 ) . (2) T h e v i e w e r ' s a t t e n t i o n mus t b e d i r e c t e d , a s s u g g e s t e d b y D e l Rey ( 1 9 7 1 ) . (3) V i d e o f e e d b a c k a p p e a r s t o b e more e f f e c t i v e f o r a d v a n c e d a n d i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l s t u d e n t s t h a n f o r b e g i n n e r s (Penman, B a r t z , a n d D a v i s , 1 9 6 8 ) . R i c k l i a n d S m i t h (1980) c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y o n t h e e f f e c t s o f V F on t h e t e n n i s s e r v e , a s p e r f o r m e d b y a d u l t s . T h i s c l o s e d s k i l l was d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e p h a s e s a n d V F was p r o v i d e d u n d e r a v a r i e t y o f t e m p o r a l c o n d i t i o n s : e a r l y s t a g e o f l e a r n i n g , m i d d l e , a n d a c o m b i n a t i o n o f e a r l y a n d m i d d l e . D e l R e y ' s (1971) i d e a o f d i r e c t e d a t t e n t i o n was f o l l o w e d i n t h i s s t u d y b y t h e i n s t r u c t o r p r o v i d i n g v e r b a l c u e s w h i l e t h e l e a r n e r s w a t c h e d t h e v i d e o r e p l a y . S u b j e c t s a l s o c o m p l e t e d a s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e t e s t i n g p e r i o d . R e s u l t s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e t e s t i n g g r o u p s , t h e r e f o r e , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i t d o e s n o t m a t t e r when V F i s g i v e n i n t h e l e a r n i n g c y c l e . T h e r e s u l t s a l s o s h o w e d t h a t w h i l e V F r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r p e r f o r m a n c e s i n some p h a s e s o f t h e s k i l l s , when c o m p a r e d t o t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p (no V F ) , i t was n o t t r u e i n a l l p h a s e s . T h i s l e a d R i c k l i a n d S m i t h t o c o n c l u d e t h a t V F was n o t a s e f f e c t i v e a s m o s t p e o p l e h a d p r e v i o u s l y t h o u g h t . H o w e v e r , r e s u l t s o f t h e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t 8 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e l e a r n e r s p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e i m p r o v e d a s a r e s u l t o f V F . T h e r e f o r e , V F may b e p r o v i d i n g a m o t i v a t i o n a l e l e m e n t . D o w r i c k a n d D o v e (1983) a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l v a l u e o f V F i n t h e i r w o r k w i t h s p i n a b i f i d a c h i l d r e n . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e c h i l d r e n ' s v i d e o r e c o r d i n g s o f t h e i r s w i m m i n g p e r f o r m a n c e s w e r e e d i t e d s o t h a t a l l e v i d e n c e o f d i s t r e s s , w h i c h r a n g e d f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e f u s a l , f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , t o c r y i n g , w e r e r e m o v e d i n o r d e r t o s e e i f t h i s w o u l d p r o m o t e a b e h a v i o u r a l c h a n g e . T h e r e s u l t s s h o w e d t h a t s e l f - m o d e l l i n g , a s a f o r m o f o b s e r v a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g , r e s u l t e d i n r a p i d c h a n g e s i n b e h a v i o u r w h i c h p a v e d t h e way f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n a n d i m p r o v e m e n t o f s w i m m i n g s k i l l s . S i m a n d S t e w a r t ' s (1984) s t u d y i n c o r p o r a t e d c r i t i c a l l e a r n i n g c o m p o n e n t s r e v e a l e d i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h ; p r o t o t y p i c e x a m p l e s ( t e m p l a t e o r m o d e l p e r f o r m a n c e s ) , v i d e o t a p e f e e d b a c k , v e r b a l c u e s , a n d p r a c t i s e f o l l o w i n g f e e d b a c k d e l i v e r y . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e i r s t u d y was t o s e e i f t h e s e c r i t i c a l l e a r n i n g c o m p o n e n t s w o u l d p r o v i d e c o n c r e t e t a n g i b l e p e r f o r m a n c e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e s t a n d i n g l o n g jump f o r m i l d l y r e t a r d e d a d u l t s . R e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n p r e - t e s t a n d p o s t - t e s t mean d i s t a n c e m e a s u r e m e n t s t o p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s . T h i s may h a v e r e s u l t e d b e c a u s e t h e s u b j e c t s ' p e r f o r m a n c e l e v e l s w e r e t o o l o w t o b e n e f i t f r o m t h e v i d e o t a p e r e p l a y s , t h u s s u p p o r t i n g P e n m a n , B a r t z , a n d D a v i s ' (1968) e a r l i e r t h e o r y r e g a r d i n g t h e k n o w l e d g e b a s e r e q u i r e d f o r V F t o b e r e l e v a n t f o r t h e l e a r n e r . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f V F on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f m o t o r s k i l l s h a s n o t b e e n a d e q u a t e l y r e s e a r c h e d w i t h t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n ( t h o s e who do n o t h a v e a n y m e n t a l o r p h y s i c a l h a n d i c a p s ) . One o f t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h l i s t e d i n S i m a n d S t e w a r t ' s (1984) p a p e r was t o u t i l i z e c h i l d r e n a s s u b j e c t s i n s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v i d e o as a f e e d b a c k t o o l b e c a u s e i t may h a v e d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . T h e r e a s o n b e h i n d t h i s theory i s the evidence t h a t there are d i f f e r e n c e s i n the way c h i l d r e n l e a r n . While i t i s t r u e t h a t a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n do experience many of the same d i f f i c u l t i e s when l e a r n i n g a novel task, the important d i f f e r e n c e s cannot be ignored. C h i l d r e n and adolescents tend t o process i n f o r m a t i o n at a slower r a t e than a d u l t s because they: (a) l a c k p e r c e p t u a l keenness or movement s e n s i t i v i t y ; (b) encode i n f o r m a t i o n more p o o r l y , r e s u l t i n g i n slower search and r e t r i e v a l ; (c) use i n e f f i c i e n t r e h e a r s a l ; (d) have poorer o r g a n i z a t i o n techniques; and (e) have l e s s experience i n long term storage on which t o base d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s (Thomas, 1984). A d u l t s have "developed a v a r i e t y of l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s froitf past experience, whereas, c h i l d r e n have had l i t t l e p r i o r experience and, t h e r e f o r e , a l i m i t e d r e p e r t o i r e of s t r a t e g i e s from which t o choose (Gallagher and Thomas, 198 6; Kelso and C l a r k , 1982; Thomas, 1984; Singer, 1980). C h i l d r e n a l s o have a s h o r t e r a t t e n t i o n span, are e a s i l y d i s t r a c t e d , and a l s o have a very strong d e s i r e t o achieve. However, f a i l u r e t o achieve u s u a l l y r e s u l t s i n f r u s t r a t i o n , l o s s of mo t i v a t i o n , and l i t t l e d e s i r e to continue the experience. The a b i l i t y of c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n can be improved i f l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e more gross motor movements, s i m p l i f i e d a c t i o n s , and minimal cues from which to respond (Singer, 1980). 43 SELF MODELLING Video tapes c o n t a i n i n g modelling are f r e q u e n t l y used as a method of p r e s e n t i n g d e s i r a b l e behaviours t o s p e c i f i c groups of people (Bayless, 1981; Brooks, 1980; C r a t t y , 1968; Creer and M i k l i c k , 1970; Cryer, 1988; C u r t i s and Zi n s , 1988; Decker, 1983; Dowrick and Dove, 1980; G r i f f i t h s , 1974; M e l v i l l e , 1983; R i c k l i and Smith, 1980; Sim and Stewart, 1894; S o l l i e and Sc o t t , 1983). Researchers have used a v a r i e t y of terms t o r e f e r t o the performance demonstrated by a model: p r o t o t y p i c example (Bayless, 1981); model performance (Brooks, 1980; C r a t t y , 1968;); and a template ( R i c k l i and Smith, 1980). A p r o t o t y p i c example i s a videotape r e c o r d i n g of an i d e a l performance t h a t - i s u s u a l l y viewed i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a video of the l e a r n e r ' s own performance. Exposure t o t h i s e x t r i n s i c source of feedback has proven t o be e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g the l e a r n e r t o i d e n t i f y her own performance e r r o r s . This i s accomplished by a l l o w i n g the l e a r n e r t o make a comparison between her a c t u a l performance and the intended or i d e a l performance. There has been l i m i t e d research i n v o l v i n g the most app r o p r i a t e group s i z e t o view the p r o t o t y p i c example i n co n j u n c t i o n w i t h the l e a r n e r ' s video. Two research s t u d i e s t h a t s p e c i f i c a l l y looked at group s i z e were conducted by S o l l i e and Scott (1983) and Decker (1983). S o l l i e and Scott (1983) hypothesized t h a t students who had group feedback would a t t a i n a higher s k i l l when compared t o dyadic groups ( p a r t n e r s ) . However, t h i s hypothesis was not supported. That same year, Decker a l s o looked at group s i z e and recommended th a t one or two observers w i t h the a d d i t i o n of the i n s t r u c t o r ' s feedback would produce the best r e s u l t s . Two drawbacks of s e l f - m o d e l l i n g t h a t have been reporte d are (1) s u b j e c t s are o f t e n o v e r l y concerned w i t h t h e i r appearance on the monitor (2) o f t e n s u b j e c t s focus on negative aspects of t h e i r behaviour and overlook the p o s i t i v e aspects. The f i r s t drawback may be overcome by a l l o w i n g the subjects t o view themselves f r e q u e n t l y on the screen so t h a t they are not preoccupied w i t h t h e i r images. Repeated exposure to self-images should be done before attempting t o l e a r n from these videos (Penman, B a r t z , and Davisy 1968; S o l l i e and S c o t t , 1983). The second drawback may be overcome by g e t t i n g the l e a r n e r t o s e l e c t i v e l y attend t o c e r t a i n aspects of her performance. Researchers agree t h a t the mere ob s e r v a t i o n of a video w i l l not help i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of a motor s k i l l (Del Rey, 1971; Penman, Bartz and Davis, 1968; R o t h s t e i n , 1976; S o l l i e and S c o t t , 1983). Instead, the l e a r n e r ' s a t t e n t i o n must be d i r e c t e d towards p a r t i c u l a r aspects of the performance i n a systematic f a s h i o n i n order t o p i c k out r e l a t i v e p a r t s of the video d i s p l a y . Guided q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and c h e c k l i s t s are recommended to enable the s u b j e c t s t o focus on aspects of the performance t h a t were executed i n a d d i t i o n t o elements t h a t need to be improved (Bayless, 1981; Del Rey, 1971; S o l l i e and S c o t t , 1983). 45 THE CHECKLIST S i m p l y s t a t e d , a c h e c k l i s t i s a l i s t o f t h i n g s t o l o o k f o r when o b s e r v i n g a p e r f o r m a n c e . I t i s a t o o l t h a t p r o v i d e s t h e e v a l u a t o r w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g b o t h t h e p r o c e s s a n d t h e p r o d u c t o f a g i v e n s k i l l ( B a r r o w a n d M a g e e , 1 9 7 9 ; G r o n l u n d , 197 6 ) . Some a d v a n t a g e s i n u s i n g t h e c h e c k l i s t a r e : (a) i t m e a s u r e s v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f a p r o d u c t , (b) i t i s a d a p t a b l e f o r c l a s s u s e , (c) i t g i v e s i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o c e s s a n d t h e p r o d u c t , (d) s i m p l e y e s / n o j u d g e m e n t , (e) r e c o r d s w h e t h e r a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s p r e s e n t o r n o t , (f) i t i s u s e f u l f o r e v a l u a t i n g p e r f o r m a n c e s k i l l s t h a t c a n b e d i v i d e d i n t o a. s e r i e s o f s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s , a n d (g) m i n i m i z e s b i a s a n d h a l o e f f e c t e r r o r s ( B a r r o w and: M a g e e , 1 9 7 9 ; B a u m g a r t n e r a n d J a c k s o n , 1 9 8 7 ; G r o n l u n d , 1 9 7 6 ) . When c r e a t i n g a c h e c k l i s t , t h e c h e c k l i s t u s e r a n d d e v e l o p e r m u s t d e c i d e i f s h e w o u l d l i k e t o u t i l i z e a n e x i s t i n g c h e c k l i s t , m o d i f y a n e x i s t i n g c h e c k l i s t , o r d e v e l o p h e r own c h e c k l i s t . B a u m g a r t n e r a n d J a c k s o n (1987) r e c o m m e n d t h a t c h e c k l i s t s s h o u l d b e c r e a t e d f o r s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s b e c a u s e a t e a c h e r - m a d e c h e c k l i s t c a n meet t h e e v a l u a t i o n n e e d s o f a s p e c i f i c c l a s s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e v o c a b u l a r y u s e d o n t h e c h e c k l i s t s h o u l d r e f l e c t t h e v o c a b u l a r y t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h . S e c o n d l y , t h e c h e c k l i s t u s e r m u s t d e t e r m i n e t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s t y p e o f e v a l u a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , i t may b e t o e n h a n c e t h e l e a r n i n g o f a s p e c i f i c m o t o r s k i l l . T h i r d l y , t h e c h e c k l i s t u s e r m u s t d e c i d e i f t h e components of the s k i l l are e q u a l l y weighted or i f some should be weighted "heavier" than others. L a s t l y , the a c t i o n s t h a t comprise the c h e c k l i s t should be presented i n a l o g i c a l order (Baumgartner and Jackson, 1987). The R u s s e l l (1989) F i e l d Hockey C h e c k l i s t of C r i t i c a l Behaviours was developed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r e v a l u a t i n g the Indian d r i b b l e and moving d r i v e i n a P h y s i c a l Education s e t t i n g . I t was p i l o t e d and administered u s i n g recognized t e s t development procedures o u t l i n e d by Barrow and Magee (1979), Baumgartner and Jackson (1987) and Gronlund (1976). Gronlund (1976) has d e t a i l e d 4 steps t o f o l l o w when c r e a t i n g a c h e c k l i s t : 1. I d e n t i f y each of the s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s d e s i r e d i n the performance. 2. Add t o the l i s t those a c t i o n s t h a t represent common e r r o r s ( i f they are u s e f u l i n e v a l u a t i o n , are l i m i t e d i n number and can be c l e a r l y s t a t e d ) . (p. 401) The f i r s t two steps were accomplished by t a k i n g 120 female P.E. students, i n grades 8 and 9, and v i d e o t a p i n g t h e i r performances f o r the Indian d r i b b l e and the moving d r i v e f o l l o w i n g 4 f i e l d hockey le s s o n s . This videotape was analyzed t o determine c r i t i c a l behaviours and common e r r o r s . 3. Arrange the d e s i r e d a c t i o n s i n the approximate order i n which they are expected to occur. 4. Provide a simple procedure f o r checking each a c t i o n as i t occurs (or f o r numbering the a c t i o n s i n sequence i f appropriate) (Gronlund, 1976, p. 401). In order t o improve the c h e c k l i s t ' s u s a b i l i t y , the elements presented i n the c h e c k l i s t were arranged i n a s e q u e n t i a l order i n which they were expected t o occur and were separated i n t o the c a t e g o r i e s o f : hands, body, s t i c k , and b a l l . Small boxes were i n c l u d e d on the c h e c k l i s t so t h a t the observer c o u l d p l a c e a check mark beside behaviours t h a t were present d u r i n g the o b s e r v a t i o n . Two recognized f i e l d hockey experts, one who coaches at the h i g h school l e v e l and the other who coaches at the u n i v e r s i t y and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , were c o n s u l t e d regarding the v a l i d i t y of t h i s c h e c k l i s t . Both experts confirmed t h a t the c h e c k l i s t contained a l l c r i t i c a l elements of the two s k i l l s . The high school coach was t r a i n e d how t o use the ~ instrument and was then subjected t o a r e l i a b i l i t y check agai n s t the c h e c k l i s t developer. The r e l i a b i l i t y of t h i s measurement instrument was found t o be .95 u s i n g the frequency r a t i o and .90 u s i n g the p o i n t - b y - p o i n t agreement r a t i o (Baumgartner and Jackson, 1987), thus i n d i c a t i n g a h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h i s c h e c k l i s t . R u s s e l l ' s c h e c k l i s t c o n s i s t s of two s e c t i o n s , the Indian d r i b b l e and the moving d r i v e . Each s k i l l was scored independently and each s k i l l was broken down i n t o 14 c r i t i c a l elements. These elements were a l l components of the s k i l l s r a t h e r than outcomes of the movements. The r a t i o n a l e f o r c e n t e r i n g on the process of performing f i e l d hockey s k i l l s was t h a t i f each s k i l l was performed t o p e r f e c t i o n , the outcome would be r e f l e c t e d by the movements. For 48 e x a m p l e , i f a s u b j e c t s c o r e d 14 o u t o f 14 o n t h e m o v i n g d r i v e ( p r o c e s s ) t h e n h e r a c c u r a c y (outcome) w o u l d r e f l e c t h e r s c o r e . T h e s c o r e f o r e a c h s u b j e c t was c a l c u l a t e d b y a d d i n g t h e n u m b e r o f c o r r e c t b e h a v i o u r s f o r e a c h s k i l l . F o r e x a m p l e , a s u b j e c t may o b t a i n a s c o r e o f 6 f o r t h e I n d i a n d r i b b l e a n d a s c o r e o f 8 f o r t h e m o v i n g d r i v e ( s ee A p p e n d i x G) . VISUAL EVALUATION B r o w n (1982) h a s i d e n t i f i e d a v a r i e t y o f e v a l u a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s t h a t a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f m o t o r s k i l l s . Some o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s a r e : 1. V i d e o t a p e f r o m a v a n t a g e p o i n t . I n o r d e r t o s e l e c t t h e b e s t v a n t a g e p o i n t one mus t c o n s i d e r t h e p e r f o r m e r a n d o b s e r v e r . T h e o b s e r v e r mus t b e a t a d i s t a n c e w h i c h a l l o w s t h e e n t i r e s e q u e n c e o f t o t a l b o d y movements t o b e c l e a r l y v i e w e d . 2 . D e p e n d i n g on t h e a c t i v i t y , t h e s k i l l s h o u l d b e v i e w e d f r o m a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t a n g l e s o r one c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d a n g l e . F o r e x a m p l e , a f i e l d h o c k e y m o v i n g d r i v e mus t b e o b s e r v e d f r o m t h e p l a y e r ' s r i g h t s i d e o r s t r a i g h t o n . I f v i e w e d f r o m t h e l e f t s i d e , t h e a t h l e t e ' s h a n d s w i l l b e o b s t r u c t e d b y h e r own b o d y . 3 . T h e o b s e r v a t i o n s h o u l d b e c o n d u c t e d i n a s e t t i n g t h a t i s n o t d i s t r a c t i n g . 4 . When p o s s i b l e , t h e p e r f o r m a n c e s h o u l d b e o b s e r v e d i n a n a r e a w h i c h h a s h o r i z o n t a l o r v e r t i c a l r e f e r e n c e l i n e s . F o r example, f i e l d hockey d r i b b l i n g s k i l l s may be done between e x i s t i n g p a r a l l e l l i n e s on the gym f l o o r . In summary: 1. Feedback has a v a r i e t y of forms, serves v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s , and i s imperative t o the a c q u i s i t i o n of motor s k i l l s . 2. Present motor t h e o r i e s and models f i t i n t o four c a t e g o r i e s : i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g , c y b e r n e t i c , adaptive, and d e s c r i p t i v e (Singer, 1980) 3. G e n t i l e ' s (1972) Model i s c l a s s i f i e d as a d e s c r i p t i v e model. I t i s a notable model because i t attempts to apply a s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n model d i r e c t l y t o t e a c h i n g . 4. The u t i l i z a t i o n of augmented v i s u a l feedback i n the form of videotape r e p l a y , has s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d over the past 25 years because: i t i s inexpensive; easy f o r the amateur to use; minimizes observer e r r o r s ; and o f f e r s more c o n t r o l over playback speed. 5. Research s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g videotape r e p l a y and i t s a f f e c t s on s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n have i n c l u d e d motor s k i l l s such as: trampoline s k i l l s , v o l l e y b a l l serve and v o l l e y , running technique, t e n n i s serve, long jump, swimming, and f e n c i n g . These s t u d i e s have reported s i g n i f i c a n t and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . 6. Recognized t e s t development procedures were used to c r e a t e the R u s s e l l (1989) F i e l d Hockey C h e c k l i s t of C r i t i c a l Behaviours and t o e s t a b l i s h r e l i a b i l i t y , v a l i d i t y , and u s a b i l i t y . 50 R e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f r o m r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v i d e o t a p e r e p l a y on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f m o t o r s k i l l s h a v e b e e n b a s e d on (a) c o n v e n i e n t s a m p l e s o f u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s , a n d (b) p h y s i c a l l y a n d m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d s u b j e c t s . H o w e v e r , l i t t l e i s known a b o u t t h e e f f e c t s o f v i d e o f e e d b a c k , p r o t o t y p i c e x a m p l e s , a n d d i r e c t e d s e l f - a n a l y s i s o n t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n , t h a t i s t h o s e who do n o t h a v e p h y s i c a l o r m e n t a l h a n d i c a p s . CHAPTER III THE PROCEDURE SUBJECTS The sample of convenience was comprised of 47 female students, ages 12 t o 14, from two r e g u l a r l y scheduled p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s . These s u b j e c t s were a t t e n d i n g a r e q u i r e d p h y s i c a l education course i n a l a r g e urban p u b l i c school and a l l were regarded as novice f i e l d hockey p l a y e r s . Subjects were randomly assigned t o the experimental and c o n t r o l groups by s e l e c t i n g every second name on the al p h a b e t i z e d c l a s s r o s t e r . APPARATUS A Panasonic videocamera model number AG170 was used to rec o r d performances. Each subject was s u p p l i e d w i t h her own f i e l d hockey s t i c k and each group shared 3 hockey b a l l s (see Appendix A f o r a d e t a i l e d equipment l i s t ) . THE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN The research employed a 2 X 2 f a c t o r i a l design w i t h repeated measures on the second f a c t o r . The f i r s t f a c t o r was the method of l e a r n i n g and c o n s i s t e d of two l e v e l s , program A and program B. The second f a c t o r was time c o n s i s t i n g of the p r e - t e s t , on the i n i t i a l day of the experiment, and the p o s t - t e s t , on day four (see Figu r e 5 ) . Therefore, the two independent v a r i a b l e s are method of l e a r n i n g and time. The dependent v a r i a b l e i s the l e v e l of achievement r e f l e c t e d i n a numerical score from the R u s s e l l (1989) F i e l d Hockey C h e c k l i s t of C r i t i c a l Behaviours. 52 P r i o r t o t e s t i n g , t h e two c l a s s e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y w e r e v i d e o t a p e d f i v e t i m e s d u r i n g t h e i r g y m n a s t i c s u n i t so t h a t t h e y w o u l d become a c c u s t o m e d t o v i e w i n g t h e i r own i m a g e s o n t h e m o n i t o r . T h e s e t a p e s w e r e n o t u s e d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . TIME P R E - T E S T POST T E S T METHOD GROUP A X « OF LEARNING ( c o n t r o l ) * * * GROUP B ( e x p e r i m e n t a l ) i • x t / 7 F i g u r e 5. T h e E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n 53 ( i ) C o n t r o l G r o u p ( G r o u p A) P r o c e d u r e s On t h e f i r s t d a y o f t h e s t u d y , s t u d e n t s i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p (n=24) warmed up b y r e v i e w i n g t h e I n d i a n d r i b b l e a n d t h e m o v i n g d r i v e . T h e y t h e n p r o c e e d e d t o t h e p r a c t i s e a r e a w h e r e t h e y w e r e v i d e o t a p e d on e a t a t i m e . T h i s t r i a l c o n s i s t e d o f : p e r f o r m i n g t h e I n d i a n d r i b b l e h a l f way down t h e gym f l o o r a n d t h e n e x e c u t i n g a m o v i n g d r i v e when t h e y r e a c h e d a m a r k e r ( see A p p e n d i x B f o r t h e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t d e s i g n ) . A f t e r e a c h p e r s o n i n t h i s g r o u p h a d b e e n v i d e o t a p e d t h e g r o u p p r a c t i s e d t h e same s e r i e s o f movements 9 more t i m e s f o r a t o t a l o f 10 t r i a l s on d a y o n e . W h i l e t h e y w e r e p r a c t i s i n g t h e i n s t r u c t o r p r o v i d e d t h e m w i t h a u g m e n t e d v e r b a l f e e d b a c k a n d i n s t r u c t o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n s ( see A p p e n d i x C f o r c o n t r o l g r o u p i n s t r u c t i o n s ) . On d a y s 2 , 3 , a n d 4 t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p p r a c t i s e d t h e same movement s e r i e s 10 t i m e s a n d r e c e i v e d t h e same t y p e o f t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n a n d f e e d b a c k a s on d a y o n e . D u r i n g t h e 1 0 t h t r i a l on d a y f o u r , t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e v i d e o t a p e d o n c e a g a i n . F o l l o w i n g t h i s f i n a l v i d e o t a p i n g s e s s i o n , t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e L e a r n i n g P e r c e p t i o n s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h s o l i c i t e d t h e l e a r n e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e o p e r a t i o n o f V C R ' s a n d v i d e o c a m e r a s , m o t i v a t i o n a l a s p e c t s , a s w e l l a s t h e i r o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g s p e c i f i c e l e m e n t s o f t h e s t u d y ( see A p p e n d i x F f o r L e a r n i n g P e r c e p t i o n s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) . 54 ( i i ) E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p ( G r o u p B) P r o c e d u r e s On t h e i n i t i a l d a y o f t h e s t u d y , s t u d e n t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p (n=23) warmed up b y r e v i e w i n g t h e I n d i a n d r i b b l e a n d t h e m o v i n g d r i v e . T h e y t h e n p r o c e d e d t o t h e p r a c t i s e a r e a w h e r e t h e y w e r e v i d e o t a p e d o n e a t a t i m e . T h i s t r i a l c o n s i s t e d o f : p e r f o r m i n g t h e I n d i a n d r i b b l e h a l f way down t h e gym f l o o r a n d t h e n e x e c u t i n g a m o v i n g d r i v e when t h e y r e a c h e d a m a r k e r . A f t e r s t u d e n t s i n g r o u p s B h a d b e e n v i d e o t a p e d , t h e y w e r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h a p r o t o t y p i c e x a m p l e , t h a t i s , a v i d e o t a p e d two a n d one h a l f m i n u t e m o d e l p e r f o r m a n c e o f a U . B . C . v a r s i t y p l a y e r e x e c u t i n g t h e I n d i a n d r i b b l e a n d m o v i n g d r i v e on a gym f l o o r . A t t h i s t i m e , f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w i t h t h e s t u d e n t ' s c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r c h e c k l i s t was i n i t i a t e d b y t h e t e a c h e r who i d e n t i f i e d t h e c r i t i c a l m o v e m e n t s p e r f o r m e d b y t h e m o d e l ( s e e A p p e n d i x E f o r c h e c k l i s t e x a m p l e s ) . A f t e r v i e w i n g t h e p r o t o t y p i c e x a m p l e , t h e s u b j e c t s p e r f o r m e d two t r i a l s w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f t h e same m o v e m e n t s p e r f o r m e d when t h e y w e r e o r i g i n a l l y v i d e o t a p e d . A f t e r a l l o f t h e members i n a s u b g r o u p (a g r o u p o f 2 o r 3 s t u d e n t s ) w e r e t a p e d a g a i n o n t h e i r t h i r d t r i a l t h e y o n c e a g a i n w a t c h e d t h e p r o t o t y p i c e x a m p l e a n d t h e n a n a l y z e d t h e i r own v i d e o t a p e d p e r f o r m a n c e ( s e e A p p e n d i x D f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p i n s t r u c t i o n s ) . W h i l e a n a l y z i n g t h e i r own p e r f o r m a n c e , s u b j e c t s f i l l e d o u t c h e c k l i s t s o f c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r s f o r t h e i r own l e a r n i n g p u r p o s e s . T h e s e c h e c k l i s t s i n c l u d e d a l i s t i n g o f c o r r e c t a n d 55 i n c o r r e c t movements, and space f o r the student t o w r i t e i n two movements t h a t she would concentrate on i n f u t u r e t r i a l s (see Appendix E f o r c h e c k l i s t examples). The s u b j e c t s then executed two more t r i a l s . On days 2,3, and 4 of the study, s u b j e c t s i n the experimental group began each c l a s s by watching the p r o t o t y p i c example and then reviewing t h e i r c h e c k l i s t s . The l e a r n e r s then performed 3 t r i a l s , w i t h v i d e o t a p i n g o c c u r r i n g on t h e i r t h i r d t r i a l , reviewed the p r o t o t y p i c example, and then analyzed t h e i r own performance. A f t e r they had s e l e c t e d , two movements t h a t they wanted t o improve upon, they then performed 2 more t r i a l s f o r a t o t a l of 5 t r i a l s per day. I t i s important t o note t h a t the o v e r a l l p r a c t i s e time f o r both groups was equal. -On the f o u r t h and f i n a l day of the study, the experimental group was videotaped on t h e i r f i f t h t r i a l ( p o s t - t e s t ) . F o l l o w i n g t h i s f i n a l v i d e o t a p i n g s e s s i o n , the students were i s s u e d the Learning Perceptions Questionnaire which asked f o r the l e a r n e r s ' comments reg a r d i n g t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the oper a t i o n of VCR's and videocameras, m o t i v a t i o n a l aspects, as w e l l as t h e i r o pinions on s p e c i f i c elements of the study. This q u e s t i o n n a i r e was s i m i l a r t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t was given t o the c o n t r o l group. The only d i f f e r e n c e was the a d d i t i o n of three questions regarding the p r o t o t y p i c example, and the c h e c k l i s t t h a t they had u t i l i z e d over the past four c l a s s e s (see Appendix F f o r Learning Perceptions Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) . 56 ( i i i ) D a t a C o l l e c t i o n On d a y one o f t h e . s t u d y , a l l s t u d e n t s warmed up a n d r e v i e w e d t h e I n d i a n d r i b b l e a n d t h e m o v i n g d r i v e i n one l a r g e g r o u p . T h e n , t h e y w e r e v i d e o t a p e d p e r f o r m i n g e a c h o f t h e two f i e l d h o c k e y s k i l l s . T h i s t a p e was u s e d f o r t h e i r p r e t e s t . A f t e r a l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s h a d b e e n v i d e o t a p e d , t h e y w e r e a s s i g n e d t o e i t h e r t h e c o n t r o l o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . On t h e l a s t d a y o f t h e s t u d y , t h e two g r o u p s w e r e i n t e r m i x e d a n d v i d e o t a p e d f o r t h e i r p o s t - t e s t . B o t h g r o u p s w e r e i n t e r m i x e d d u r i n g t h e p r e t e s t a n d p o s t - t e s t s e s s i o n s i n o r d e r t o c o n t r o l f o r o b s e r v e r b i a s d u r i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e a n a l y s i s . T h e b l i n d o b s e r v e r was a f i e l d h o c k e y e x p e r t who h a d f i v e y e a r s c o a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a t t h e c l u b l e v e l . She was t r a i n e d t o u s e t h e c h e c k l i s t a n d t h e n p r o c e e d e d t o a n a l y z e t h e p r e t e s t v i d e o . In o r d e r t o a v o i d o b s e r v e r d r i f t , s h e was r e t r a i n e d two d a y s l a t e r . A f t e r t h i s r e t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n , t h e b l i n d o b s e r v e r a n a l y z e d t h e v i d e o c o n t a i n i n g p o s t - t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e s . A t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e a n a l y s i s , t h e b l i n d o b s e r v e r h a d r e p o r t e d f o u r s c o r e s f o r e a c h s u b j e c t : I n d i a n d r i b b l e p r e t e s t , m o v i n g d r i v e p r e t e s t , I n d i a n d r i b b l e p o s t -t e s t , a n d t h e m o v i n g d r i v e p o s t - t e s t . T h e s e raw s c o r e s w e r e t h e n u s e d t o c a l c u l a t e (a) a n a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e , (b) p e r c e n t a g e o f i m p r o v e m e n t , a n d (c) an i m p r o v e m e n t s c o r e b a s e d o n t h e p r o c e d u r e o u t l i n e d b y H a l e a n d H a l e ( 1 9 7 2 ) , f o r t h e I n d i a n d r i b b l e a n d t h e m o v i n g d r i v e . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s d a t a a n a l y s i s was t o d e t e r m i n e i f s u b j e c t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , who w e r e e x p o s e d t o p r o t o t y p i c e x a m p l e s , v i d e o r e p l a y s o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l p e r f o r m a n c e s , a n d t h e u s e o f c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r c h e c k l i s t s , w o u l d d e m o n s t r a t e g r e a t e r a c h i e v e m e n t t h a n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p who w e r e t a u g h t w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l f e e d b a c k m e t h o d s . 58 CHAPTER I V RESULTS This study began w i t h two c l a s s e s which c o n s i s t e d of 47 students (N = 47). For a v a r i e t y of reasons, as the experiment progressed ( i . e . , absences, i n j u r y , not b r i n g i n g gym s t r i p , etc.) complete data was obtained f o r 22 students i n the c o n t r o l group (n = 22) and 15 students i n the experimental group (n = 15). Indian d r i b b l e r e s u l t s . A comparison of raw scores showed t h a t the average score f o r the c o n t r o l group (n = 22) dur i n g the p r e - t e s t was 8 w i t h a standard d e v i a t i o n of 2.5 and the average post t e s t score was 12 w i t h a standard d e v i a t i o n of 1.8 The experimental group (n = 15) rep o r t e d s i m i l a r average scores i n the p r e t e s t (X = 8) and the post t e s t (X = 12). However, the experimental group was more d i v e r s e i n the p r e - t e s t as r e f l e c t e d i n the standard d e v i a t i o n {s = 3.8) but became more homogeneous i n the post t e s t (s = 1.4) (see Table 1). The data was subjected t o an a n a l y s i s of covariance to determine i f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between the two groups. The u n d e r l y i n g assumptions of the a n a l y s i s of covariance are t h a t the sub j e c t s represent random samples from the same p o p u l a t i o n and tha t t h e i r scores are normally d i s t r i b u t e d . These two c o n d i t i o n s were met and the ANCOVA was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g the raw scores from the p r e t e s t and p o s t - t e s t . The ANCOVA r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the F c r i t i c a l = 4.11 and the F observed = .0011 Therefore, there was no 59 Table 1 Checklist Scores for the Indian Dribble and  Moving Hit Pre-test Post test Group Indian Moving Indian Moving dribble hit dribble hit A X 8 7 12 9 s 2.5 2.2 1.8 3.7 B X 8 6 12 10 s 3.8 2.2 1.4 2.1 60 Table 2 Analysis of Covariance for the Indian Dribble Source of variation Between Within Total Sum of squares:Y 1.78 98.22 100 Sum of squares:X 0.027 330.76 331.03 Sum of products 0.7 30.3 31 Degrees of freedom 1 35 36 Adjusted sum of squares:X 0.01 321.41 321.42 Degrees of freedom for adjusted sum of squares 1 34 35 Variance estimates Sb*=.01 3^=9.45 F = .01/9.45 = .0011 p > .05 61 s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( £ > .05) b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s f o r t h e I n d i a n d r i b b l e ( see T a b l e 2 ) . T h e ANCOVA a p p e a r e d t o b e t h e b e s t m e a s u r e m e n t f o r t h i s s t u d y . H o w e v e r , i t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o l o o k a t two o t h e r m e a s u r e s , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f i m p r o v e m e n t , a n d t h e H a l e a n d H a l e (1972) i m p r o v e m e n t p r o c e d u r e , t o s e e i f t h e y s u p p o r t e d t h e h y p o t h e s i s . T h e u s e o f p e r c e n t a g e o f i m p r o v e m e n t s c o r e s h a s b e e n s u b j e c t t o c r i t i c i s m b e c a u s e t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y f o r e r r o r i n t h e p r e t e s t a n d p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s a n d when t h e y a r e b o t h u s e d i n a c a l c u l a t i o n , t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c o m p o u n d e d e r r o r . W i t h t h i s p r e c a u t i o n i n m i n d , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f i m p r o v e m e n t s c o r e s w e r e c a l c u l a t e d b y d e t e r m i n i n g how much e a c h i n t e r v a l on t h e 14 p o i n t s c a l e was w o r t h i n p e r c e n t . T h e p r e t e s t raw s c o r e was t h e n s u b t r a c t e d f r o m t h e p o s t - t e s t s c o r e i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d i f f e r e n c e ( i . e . , 8 - 6 = 2 ) . T h e d i f f e r e n c e was t h e n c a l c u l a t e d i n p e r c e n t ( i . e . , 2 / 14 = 1 4 . 2 %) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e amount o f i m p r o v e m e n t . A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e s e i m p r o v e m e n t s c o r e s s h o w e d t h a t t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p h a d a n a v e r a g e i m p r o v e m e n t s c o r e o f 27% a n d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p h a d an a v e r a g e i m p r o v e m e n t s c o r e o f 31% (see T a b l e 3 ) . S c o r e s w e r e a l s o c o m p a r e d u s i n g t h e H a l e a n d H a l e (1972) p r o c e d u r e . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o c e d u r e was deemed a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s s t u d y b e c a u s e i t was d e v e l o p e d f o r m e a s u r e m e n t i n t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s e t t i n g a n d i s b a s e d o n t h e p r e m i s e t h a t i m p r o v e m e n t a t t h e l o w l e v e l o f 62 performance should not be weighted as h e a v i l y as the same amount of improvement at a higher l e v e l of performance. Even though t h i s method has been subject t o c r i t i c i s m , i t appears to be the best "improvement" assessment a v a i l a b l e f o r motor s k i l l s at t h i s time. This procedure r e q u i r e d the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of p r e t e s t and p o s t - t e s t scores. Once the raw scores were transformed t o T-scores, a conversion t a b l e was used t o determine each s u b j e c t ' s p r o g r e s s i o n score. The pr o g r e s s i o n score r e p r e s e n t i n g the p r e t e s t score was su b t r a c t e d from the pr o g r e s s i o n score r e p r e s e n t i n g the post-t e s t score i n order t o determine the f i n a l improvement score. R e s u l t s of t h i s procedure i n d i c a t e d t h a t the c o n t r o l group had an average improvement score of 7.4 and a standard d e v i a t i o n of 5.0 w h i l e the experimental group had an average improvement score of 7.2 w i t h a standard d e v i a t i o n of 7.50 (see Table 3 ) . The a n a l y s i s of covariance r e s u l t s , along w i t h the two improvement measures, i n d i c a t e d t h a t there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (£ > .05) between the two groups f o r the Indian d r i b b l e when comparing p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s . 63 Table 3 Improvement Scores Percentage of Improvement Hale and Hale Improvement Score Group Indian Moving Indian Moving dribble hit dribble hit A X 26.7 10.1 7.42 5 s 18.1 14.4 5 7.45 B X 31.3 32.4 7.42 13.3 s 28.4 ' 16.4 7.5 9.25 64 Moving d r i v e r e s u l t s . A comparison of raw scores showed th a t the c o n t r o l group had an average p r e - t e s t score of 7 w i t h a standard d e v i a t i o n of 2.2 and an average post t e s t score of 9 w i t h a standard d e v i a t i o n of 3.7 The experimental group report e d an average p r e t e s t score of 6 w i t h a standard d e v i a t i o n of 2.2 and a p o s t - t e s t average score of 10 w i t h a standard d e v i a t i o n of 2.1 Even though both groups d i d show improvement, the c o n t r o l group became more d i v e r s e i n the p o s t - t e s t w h i l e the experimental group maintained i t s i n i t i a l v a r i a b i l i t y (see Table 1). Using an a n a l y s i s of covariance of the p r e t e s t and p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s , (see Table 4) the F c r i t i c a l = 4.12 and the F observed =5.75 A comparison of percentage of improvement scores (see Table 3) showed t h a t the c o n t r o l group had an average improvement score of 10% and the experimental group had an average improvement score of 32% Re s u l t s from Hale and Hale's procedure (see Table 3) i n d i c a t e d t h a t the c o n t r o l group had an average improvement score of 5.0 w i t h a standard d e v i a t i o n of 7.5 w h i l e the experimental group had an average improvement score of 13.3 w i t h a standard d e v i a t i o n of 9.2 The a n a l y s i s of covariance r e s u l t s , i n a d d i t i o n t o the improvement scores, i n d i c a t e d t h a t there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p < .05) between the two groups f o r the moving d r i v e d u r i n g the post t e s t . 65 Table 4 A n a l y s i s of Covariance f o r the Moving D r i v e Source of v a r i a t i o n Between W i t h i n T o t a l Sum of squares:Y 33.03 186.65 219. 68 Sum of squares:X 18.35 173.35 191. 7 Sum of products -3.76 876.73 872. 97 Degrees of freedom 1 35 36 Adj u s t e d sum of squares:X 667.49 3944.82 3277 . 33 Degrees of freedom f o r ad j u s t e d sum of squares 1 34 35 Variance estimates Sb*= 667 . 4 9 SwZ= 116.02 F = 667.49 / 116.02 = 5.75 P < .05 66 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e R e s u l t s T h e L e a r n i n g P e r c e p t i o n s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a n a l y z e d b y (a) c o n v e r t i n g t h e raw s c o r e s t o p e r c e n t a g e s i n o r d e r t o a c c o u n t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n g r o u p s i z e a n d t h e n , (b) t h e r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e two g r o u p s w e r e c o m p a r e d . G e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i r e d f r o m t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h o w e d t h a t t h e a v e r a g e age f o r s u b j e c t s i n b o t h g r o u p s w e r e t h e same (X = 13 y e a r s ) . M o s t o f t h e s u b j e c t s i n b o t h g r o u p s w e r e f a m i l i a r w i t h o p e r a t i n g a V C R a n d h a d a V C R a t home . H o w e v e r , m o s t s u b j e c t s d i d n o t h a v e a v i d e o - c a m e r a a t home a n d w e r e n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h i t s o p e r a t i o n . T h e m a j o r i t y o f s u b j e c t s i n b o t h g r o u p s e n j o y e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s i n g e n e r a l a n d s t a t e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d p r e f e r , t o w o r k w i t h p a r t n e r s o r i n s m a l l g r o u p s i n c l a s s , r a t h e r t h a n w o r k i n d i v i d u a l l y . B o t h g r o u p s a g r e e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d r a t h e r s p e n d t i m e l e a r n i n g new s k i l l s a n d games t h a n p r a c t i s e s k i l l s a n d games t h a t t h e y a l r e a d y knew. M o s t s u b j e c t s i n b o t h g r o u p s a g r e e d t h a t w a t c h i n g d e m o n s t r a t i o n s ( w h e t h e r i n s t r u c t o r o r v i d e o ) a n d p h y s i c a l p r a c t i s e h e l p e d t o i m p r o v e t h e i r s k i l l l e v e l i n b o t h t h e I n d i a n d r i b b l e a n d t h e m o v i n g h i t o v e r t h e 4 d a y l e a r n i n g p e r i o d . T h e m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s i n b o t h g r o u p s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y h a d a p p l i e d a r e a s o n a b l e amount o f e f f o r t , h o w e v e r , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p r e p o r t e d t h a t 82% t r i e d t h e i r h a r d e s t e a c h d a y , a s c o m p a r e d t o 38% i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n e f f o r t c o u l d b e d u e t o i n c r e a s e d m o t i v a t i o n as 67 a r e s u l t o f i n c o r p o r a t i n g v i d e o r e p l a y i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s o r may s i m p l y b e a r e a c t i o n t o a n o v e l e x p e r i e n c e . F i f t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t o f t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y g o t n e r v o u s when b e i n g v i d e o t a p e d as c o m p a r e d t o 41% o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . P e r h a p s t h e l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n c e , i n r e l a t i o n t o n e r v o u s n e s s , a p p e a r e d i n t h e n u m b e r o f s u b j e c t s who d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t v i d e o t a p i n g made t h e m n e r v o u s . T h e c o n t r o l g r o u p r e p o r t e d 27% w h i l e t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p r e p o r t e d 59%. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e c o u l d b e d u e t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s ' i n c r e a s e d e x p o s u r e t o s e l f -i m a g e s o r p o s s i b l y s e l f - v i e w i n g f o r l e a r n i n g p u r p o s e s h e l p e d t o d e c r e a s e n e r v o u s n e s s a n d a n x i e t y . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 40% o f t h e l e a r n e r s i n b o t h g r o u p s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y l i k e d t o w a t c h t h e m s e l v e s on t h e m o n i t o r . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t 47% o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , c o m p a r e d t o 38% o f t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , s a i d t h e y d i d n o t l i k e t o w a t c h t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s i s a n i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n b e c a u s e 82% o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p r e p o r t e d t h a t w a t c h i n g t h e i r own i m a g e h e l p e d t o i m p r o v e t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e . T h e r e f o r e , e v e n t h o u g h t h e y may e x p e r i e n c e n e r v o u s n e s s , a n d do n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e w a t c h i n g t h e i r own i m a g e , t h e y s t i l l f e l t t h a t t h e y w e r e i m p r o v i n g f r o m t h e v i d e o f e e d b a c k . S i x t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p f e l t t h a t w a t c h i n g t h e p r o t o t y p i c e x a m p l e h e l p e d i m p r o v e t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e , h o w e v e r , 24% d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h i s s t a t e m e n t . 68 E i g h t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e f e e d b a c k p r o v i d e d b y t h e i n s t r u c t o r h e l p e d t o i m p r o v e t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e . T h i s h i g h p e r c e n t a g e c o u l d p o s s i b l y b e d u e t o t h e s t u d e n t s 1 r e l u c t a n c e t o a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n h o n e s t l y . S t u d e n t s o f t e n t r y t o p l e a s e t h e t e a c h e r a n d g i v e t h e a n s w e r t h a t t h e y f e e l t h e t e a c h e r i s s e a r c h i n g f o r . T h i s c o u l d b e t h e c a s e e v e n t h o u g h a l l r e s p o n s e s w e r e a n o n y m o u s . E i g h t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e c h e c k l i s t h e l p e d t h e m t o f o c u s o n t h e e l e m e n t s t h a t t h e y w e r e p e r f o r m i n g c o r r e c t l y a n d 94% r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e c h e c k l i s t h e l p e d f o c u s t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on t h e m o v e m e n t s t h a t t h e y w e r e p e r f o r m i n g i n c o r r e c t l y . T h i s i s e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t i n m o t o r s k i l l d e v e l o p m e n t b e c a u s e n o t o n l y i s i t i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e l e a r n e r t o r e c o g n i z e c o r r e c t movement p a t t e r n s , i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t t h e l e a r n e r r e c o g n i z e e r r o r s t h a t n e e d t o b e c o r r e c t e d . I n o t h e r w o r d s , we l e a r n f r o m an a n a l y s i s o f o u r m i s t a k e s ( s e e A p p e n d i c e s 0 t o R f o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s ) . I n summary , an a n a l y s i s o f m o v i n g d r i v e r e s u l t s d i d s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p w h i c h was t a u g h t u s i n g t h e v i s u a l m e t h o d o l o g y w o u l d show a g r e a t e r a c h i e v e m e n t t h a n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p w h i c h was t a u g h t u s i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m e t h o d o l o g y . H o w e v e r , an a n a l y s i s o f t h e I n d i a n d r i b b l e r e s u l t s d i d n o t s u p p o r t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s a s t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( £ > .05) b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s . A n a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s f r o m t h e L e a r n i n g P e r c e p t i o n s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h o w e d t h a t : 1. S u b j e c t s i n b o t h g r o u p s p u t a r e a s o n a b l e amount o f e f f o r t i n t o l e a r n i n g t h e two f i e l d h o c k e y s k i l l s d u r i n g t h e f o u r d a y s o f t h e s t u d y . 2 . T h e c o n t r o l g r o u p f e l t t h a t f e e d b a c k p r o v i d e d b y t h e i n s t r u c t o r h e l p e d t o i m p r o v e t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e . 3. T h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e c h e c k l i s t h e l p e d t h e m t o d i r e c t t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o c o r r e c t a n d i n c o r r e c t b e h a v i o u r s . 4 . T h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p i n d i c a t e d t h a t e v e n t h o u g h t h e y d i d n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e w a t c h i n g t h e i r own i m a g e s o n t h e m o n i t o r , t h e y s t i l l f e l t t h a t t h e i r s k i l l s i m p r o v e d a s a r e s u l t o f w a t c h i n g v i d e o r e p l a y s o f t h e i r own p e r f o r m a n c e s . 70 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS T h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f a l e a r n i n g m o d e l h a s b o t h t h e o r e t i c a l a n d p r a c t i c a l b e n e f i t s . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , i t c a n s e r v e as a f r a m e w o r k w i t h i n w h i c h t o o r g a n i z e d i s c r e t e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s f o r t h e e n h a n c e m e n t o f t e a c h i n g d e c i s i o n s . P r a c t i c a l l y , i t p r o v i d e s a s y s t e m m a t i c . g u i d e f o r s u p p o r t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i o n . I n t h i s s t u d y , G e n t i l e ' s (1972) M o d e l a s w e l l a s N i x o n a n d L o c k e ' s (1973) M o d e l s e r v e d a s t h e f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e v i s u a l f e e d b a c k m e t h o d o l o g y . G e n t i l e ' s (1972) M o d e l , t h o u g h d a t e d , was s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e i t was a m o t o r s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n m o d e l t h a t was d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g . L i m i t a t i o n s e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h i s s t u d y c e n t e r e d a r o u n d t h e r e a l i t i e s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e r e w e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t n u m b e r o f s u b j e c t s w i t h i n c o m p l e t e d a t a d u e t o a b s e n c e s , i n j u r y , a n d v i o l a t i o n s o f r e g u l a t i o n s b y n o t b r i n g i n g gym s t r i p t o c l a s s . T h i s p r o b l e m o f n u m b e r s c o u l d h a v e b e e n r e d u c e d i f f o u r c l a s s e s o f s t u d e n t s h a d b e e n u s e d i n s t e a d o f t w o . F o r t u n a t e l y , d e s p i t e t h e s e p r o b l e m s , t h e n u m b e r o f s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e s t u d y was s u f f i c i e n t t o p e r m i t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a n a l y s i s . I d e a l l y , i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n more b e n e f i c i a l f o r t h e l e a r n e r s t o h a v e h a d l o n g e r p r a c t i s e s e s s i o n s ( i n s t e a d o f one h o u r p e r i o d s ) b e c a u s e a g o o d d e a l o f c l a s s t i m e was u s e d i n a l l o w i n g t h e s t u d e n t s t i m e t o g e t c h a n g e d , b r i n g i n g o u t t h e e q u i p m e n t ( T . V . a n d V . C . R . , v i d e o c a m e r a , s t i c k s b a l l s , p y l o n s e t c . ) , t a k i n g a t t e n d a n c e , d e a l i n g w i t h s t u d e n t s who w e r e i l l , i n j u r e d or who d i d not b r i n g gym s t r i p , and p u t t i n g the equipment away. Another p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n was the a v a i l a b i l i t y of only one monitor. I t would have been i d e a l t o have had two or three monitors so t h a t the students d i d not have t o wait t o use i t . One may ask, "With a l l of these r e s t r i c t i o n s , i s i t worth the e f f o r t ? " The answer t o t h i s q u e s tion i s not a simple yes or no. I t i s probably not worth the e f f o r t of b r i n g i n g out a l l of the equipment f o r t e a c h i n g r e l a t i v e l y simple motor t a s k s . However, i t i s worthwhile f o r : (a) t e a c h i n g complex t a s k s , or (b) f o r students who are ex p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y and cannot seem t o progress beyond the g e n e r i c stage of movement f o r a given t a s k . Four consecutive p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s d i d appear to provide s u f f i c i e n t time f o r the sub j e c t s i n both groups to demonstrate improvement i n both the Indian d r i b b l e and the moving d r i v e . This was r e f l e c t e d i n the change i n raw scores from day one t o day fo u r . A comparison of raw scores showed t h a t the mean score f o r the c o n t r o l group (n = 22) when performing the Indian d r i b b l e i n the p r e t e s t was 8 and the p o s t - t e s t mean was 12. The experimental group (n = 15) reported s i m i l a r scores (X = 8 and X = 12 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) f o r the Indian d r i b b l e . A comparison of raw scores f o r the moving d r i v e showed t h a t the c o n t r o l group (n = 22) reported a mean score of 7 f o r the p r e t e s t and 9 f o r the p o s t - t e s t . The experimental group (n = 15) had an mean p r e t e s t score of 6 and an mean p o s t - t e s t score of 10. These r e s u l t s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t the sub j e c t s were attempting to organize and r e f i n e t h e i r i n i t i a l movements. Thus, they had progressed beyond the e x p l o r a t o r y operations i n v o l v e d i n the g e n e r i c movement stage and had progressed t o the o r d i n a t i v e movement stage where they attempted t o organize and r e f i n e t h e i r movements. The a n a l y s i s of data c o l l e c t e d f o r the Indian d r i b b l e d i d not support the hypothesis t h a t students who have been exposed t o a p r o t o t y p i c example, video r e p l a y s of t h e i r own performances, and the use of c r i t i c a l behaviour c h e c k l i s t s would demonstrate a higher l e v e l of l e a r n i n g than those who were taught by t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g methods. This f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t a n t w i t h Penman, B a r t z , and Davis' (1968) research which i n v e s t i g a t e d video feedback w i t h trampoline s k i l l s , R i c k l i and Smith's (1980) research i n v e s t i g a t i n g the e f f e c t s of video feedback and the t e n n i s serve, as w e l l as Sim and Stewart's (1984) study on the e f f e c t s of video feedback on long jump s k i l l s . However, one should keep i n mind th a t even though both groups i n t h i s study spent the same amount of t o t a l time l e a r n i n g the f i e l d hockey s k i l l s , the s e l f -d i r e c t e d experimental group spent time monitoring personal performances and the p r o t o t y p i c example, and as a r e s u l t completed h a l f the number of p h y s i c a l p r a c t i s e t r i a l s compared to the c o n t r o l group. This evidence i n d i c a t e s t h a t even though the two groups were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n t h e i r p o s t - t e s t performances, the video feedback c o n d i t i o n s were as e f f e c t i v e as t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n . One p o s s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t i s t h a t the c h e c k l i s t f o r the Indian d r i b b l e may not have been s e n s i t i v e enough t o detect d i f f e r e n c e s i n the two groups. Therefore, the r e was a p o s s i b i l i t y of a type I I e r r o r (maintaining the n u l l hypothesis) i n comparing p o s t - t e s t scores f o r the Indian d r i b b l e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the experimental group was more v a r i a b l e i n the p r e t e s t (s_ = 3.8) than the c o n t r o l group (s = 2.5) and a f t e r four c l a s s e s of p r a c t i s e , t h e i r performance became more c o n s i s t e n t (s = 1.4) than t h a t of the c o n t r o l group (s^  = 1.8). The a n a l y s i s of the data c o l l e c t e d f o r the moving d r i v e d i d support the hypothesis t h a t students who have been exposed t o a p r o t o t y p i c example, video r e p l a y s of t h e i r own performances, and the use of c r i t i c a l behaviour c h e c k l i s t s would demonstrate a higher l e v e l of l e a r n i n g than the c o n t r o l group which was taught by t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g methods. This r e s u l t i s congruent w i t h previous research by: Del Rey (1971) who examined the main e f f e c t s of form, accuracy, and l a t e n c y w i t h the c l a s s i c f e n c i n g lunge; Jackson's (1973) work w i t h sport type motor s k i l l s ; and Dowrick and Dove's (1983) study on s e l f - m o d e l l i n g and the a c q u i s i t i o n of swim s k i l l s . These r e s u l t s run c o n t r a r y to R i c k l i and Smith's (1980) and R o t h s t e i n and Arnold's (1976) theory t h a t video feedback i s more e f f e c t i v e w i t h intermediate or advanced s u b j e c t s than w i t h beginners. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o look at the v a r i a b i l i t y of the two groups over the course of the study. The experimental group a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s w e r e e q u a l l y v a r i a b l e i n t h e p r e t e s t s f o r t h e m o v i n g d r i v e (s = 2.2) b u t a t t h e e n d o f t h e s t u d y , t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p b e c a m e more v a r i a b l e i n t h e i r s c o r e s (s = 3 .7 ) w h i l e t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p r e c o r d e d m o r e c o n s i s t e n t s c o r e s (s = 2 . 1 ) . T h e d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t b e t w e e n t h e two s k i l l s c o u l d b e d u e t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r d e g r e e o f d i f f i c u l t y . T h e m o v i n g d r i v e i s m o r e c o m p l e x a n d t h e r e f o r e m o r e d i f f i c u l t t o e x e c u t e c o r r e c t l y . T h e r e a s o n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p e x c e l l e d i n t h i s s k i l l c o u l d b e b e c a u s e t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e n o t o n l y a b l e t o s e e t h e i r m i s t a k e s b u t w e r e a l s o a b l e t o s e e i f t h e i r m i s t a k e s w e r e b e i n g c o r r e c t e d i n f u t u r e p e r f o r m a n c e s . A n a n a l y s i s o f t h e q u e s t i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e L e a r n i n g P e r c e p t i o n s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e v e a l e d t h a t : 1 . S u b j e c t s i n b o t h g r o u p s p u t i n a r e a s o n a b l e amount o f e f f o r t i n t o l e a r n i n g t h e two f i e l d h o c k e y s k i l l s d u r i n g t h e f o u r d a y s o f t h e s t u d y . T h i s i s i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e one m u s t k e e p i n m i n d t h a t t h e s e s u b j e c t s d i d n o t v o l u n t e e r f o r t h e s t u d y a n d t h e r e f o r e c o u l d c o n t a m i n a t e t h e r e s u l t s i f t h e y w e r e n o t t r y i n g t o l e a r n t h e two f i e l d h o c k e y s k i l l s . 2 . T h e c o n t r o l g r o u p f e l t t h a t f e e d b a c k p r o v i d e d b y t h e i n s t r u c t o r h e l p e d t o i m p r o v e t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e . T h i s i s i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t v e r b a l f e e d b a c k i n a d d i t i o n t o p h y s i c a l p r a c t i s e h e l p s t o i m p r o v e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f m o t o r s k i l l s . 3. The experimental group b e l i e v e d t h a t the c h e c k l i s t helped them to d i r e c t t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o c o r r e c t and i n c o r r e c t behaviours. I d e n t i f y i n g c o r r e c t behaviours served as a m o t i v a t i o n a l element t o help encourage the s u b j e c t s t o continue t o l e a r n and r e f i n e t h e i r s k i l l s . The m o t i v a t i o n of students cannot be taken l i g h t l y because one must be motivated i n order t o c o r r e c t performance e r r o r s ( C h r i s t i n a and Corcos, 1988) and " a person who i s not motivated w i l l not perform w e l l " (Robb, 1972, p. 10). The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i n c o r r e c t behaviours as p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d by Bayless (1981), Del Rey (1972), Dowrick and Biggs (1983), G e n t i l e (1972), Keele, (1977), and R i c k l i and Smith, (1980), i s important because i t allows the l e a r n e r t o process t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n by comparing the i d e a l performance to the a c t u a l performance and then make appr o p r i a t e m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n subsequent performances. 4. The experimental group i n d i c a t e d t h a t even though they d i d not p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e watching t h e i r own images on the monitor, they s t i l l f e l t t h a t t h e i r s k i l l s improved as a r e s u l t of watching video r e p l a y s of t h e i r own performances. CONCLUSIONS In c o n c l u s i o n , t h i s study has c o n t r i b u t e d t o the present knowledge base of video r e p l a y i n the area of motor s k i l l s a c q u i s i t i o n . I t has shown t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s are a t t a i n a b l e u s i n g novices as s u b j e c t s and t h a t the use of the v i s u a l methodology, which i n c l u d e s p r o t o t y p i c examples, c h e c k l i s t s , and previous exposure to self-images, i s b e n e f i c i a l w i t h complex motor t a s k s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s r esearch study are i n agreement w i t h previous research f i n d i n g s t h a t have reporte d on the b e n e f i t s of u s i n g p r o t o t y p i c examples i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h v i e w i n g p e r s o n a l performances ( R i c k l i and Smith, 1980) and d i r e c t i n g the l e a r n e r ' s a t t e n t i o n v i a c h e c k l i s t s (Del Rey, 1971) but run c o n t r a r y t o the f i n d i n g s regarding the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of video feedback when used by novices (Penman, Ba r t z and Davis, 1968; R o t h s t e i n and A r n o l d , 1976). The use of a p r o t o t y p i c example, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the viewing of one's own videotaped performance, was b e n e f i c i a l because the l e a r n e r was able t o i d e n t i f y the d i f f e r e n c e s between the l e a r n e r ' s intended performance, the l e a r n e r ' s a c t u a l performance, and an i d e a l performance. C h e c k l i s t s a l s o proved to be b e n e f i c i a l i n h e l p i n g t o focus the l e a r n e r ' s a t t e n t i o n . In t h i s study, the student c h e c k l i s t s i n c l u d e d c o r r e c t and i n c o r r e c t movements. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i n c o r r e c t movements helped the l e a r n e r i d e n t i f y movements t h a t r e q u i r e d m o d i f i c a t i o n w h i l e the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c o r r e c t movements served two purposes. One purpose was t o prevent the l e a r n e r from a l t e r i n g or changing movements tha t she was already performing c o r r e c t l y . The second purpose was to permit the l e a r n e r t o r e a l i z e t h a t she was i n f a c t performing s e v e r a l elements of the s k i l l c o r r e c t l y and t h e r e f o r e m o t i v a t i n g the student t o continue w i t h the t a s k . T h e r e s u l t s d i d n o t s u p p o r t p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s t h a t s u g g e s t e d t h a t v i s u a l f e e d b a c k w o u l d n o t b e b e n e f i c i a l f o r b e g i n n e r s a s t h e n o v i c e s i n t h i s s t u d y d e m o n s t r a t e d p r o g r e s s i o n f r o m t h e p a t t e r n i n g s t a g e o f t h e g e n e r i c movement l e v e l t o t h e r e f i n i n g s t a g e o f t h e o r d i n a t i v e movement l e v e l . R e s u l t s s h o w e d t h a t t h e v i s u a l f e e d b a c k m e t h o d o l o g y was e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e a s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m e t h o d o l o g y i n a c q u i r i n g t h e s k i l l o f I n d i a n d r i b b l i n g a n d was s i g n i f i c a n t l y more e f f e c t i v e i n a c q u i r i n g t h e more c o m p l e x m o v i n g d r i v e s k i l l . RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCHERS: I n l i g h t o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y , i t w o u l d b e a p p r o p r i a t e t o c o n d u c t f u r t h e r s t u d i e s t o d e t e r m i n e : 1. t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v i d e o f e e d b a c k on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f m o t o r s k i l l s w i t h e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ( a g e s 9 - 1 2 y e a r s ) a s t h i s age g r o u p h a s n o t r e c e i v e d s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n t o d a t e ; 2 . t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v i d e o f e e d b a c k on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f m o t o r s k i l l s when c o m p a r i n g v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f c o m p l e x i t y ; 3 . t h e r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f e a c h o f t h e v i d e o f e e d b a c k c o m p o n e n t s : (a) s e l f - m o d e l l i n g , (b) s t u d e n t c h e c k l i s t s , a n d (c) p r o t o t y p i c e x a m p l e s on t h e a c q u i s i t o n o f m o t o r s k i l l s . 78 R E F E R E N C E S Adams, J . 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Chicago: Rand McNally College. Oxendine, J. B. (1986). Motor s k i l l learning for e f f e c t i v e sport performance. In Jean M. Williams (Ed.), Applied  Sport Psychology: Personal Growth to Peak Performance, (pp. 17-34). Mountain View, C a l i f o r n i a : Mayfield. Penman K. A., Bartz, D., & Davis, R. (1968). Relative effectiveness of an instant replay videotape recorder i n teaching trampoline. The Research Quarterly, 39(4), 1060-1062. Poulton, E.C. (1957). On pr e d i c t i o n i n s k i l l e d movements. Psychological B u l l e t i n , 54(6), 467-478. Reeve, T. G. & Magil l , R. A. (1981). The Role of the components of knowledge of re s u l t s information i n error correction. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 52, (1), 80-85. R i c k l i , R. & Smith, G. (1980). Videotape feedback e f f e c t s on tennis serving form. Perceptual and Motor S k i l l s , 50, 895-901. Robb, M. D. (1972). The Dynamics of Motor S k i l l A c q u i s i t i o n , (pp. 9-11, 125). New Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l . Rothstein, A. & Arnold R. K. (1976). Bridging the gap: app l i c a t i o n of research on videotape feedback and bowling. Motor S k i l l s : Theory into Practice, 1, 35-62. 82 R o t h s t e i n , A. (1980). E f f e c t i v e use of Videotape Replay i n Learning Motor S k i l l s , J o u r n a l of P h y s i c a l Health,  Education, and Recreation, 5_1(2), 59-60. Schmidt, R.A. (1982). Motor C o n t r o l and Learning. Champaign, I l l i n o i s : Human K i n e t i c s . Sim, L. & Stewart, C. (1984). The e f f e c t s of videotape feedback on the standing broad jump performances of m i l d l y and moderately mentally r e t a r d e d a d u l t s . P h y s i c a l Educator, 41,(1), 21-29. Singer, R. (1980). Motor Learning and Human Performance (3rd Ed.) (pp. 81-130). New York: Macmillan. S o l l i e , D.L. & Scot t , J.P. (1983). Teaching communication s k i l l s : a comparison of videotape feedback methods. Family R e l a t i o n s , 32, 503-511. Thomas, J . (1984). Motor Development During Childhood (pp. 91-101). Minneapolis: Burgess. Thorndike, E.L. (1927). The law of e f f e c t . American J o u r n a l  of Psychology, 39, 212-222. V i c k e r y , B.(1980). The use of videotape i n c o r r e c t i n g shot p u t t i n g e r r o r s . A t h l e t i c J o u r n a l , 61(4), 26. 83 Appendix A Equipment people a) student s u b j e c t s b) i n s t r u c t o r - t o provide augmented v e r b a l feedback and demonstrations c) teacher - to operate videocamera and s u p e r v i s e the experimental group f i e l d hockey s t i c k s - 1 per person (approximately 25) 6 orange hockey b a l l s p r o t o t y p i c example (videotape) one videotape f o r each group of three students i n group B (approximately 6 tapes) one videotape f o r groups A and B on t h e i r f i r s t and l a s t t r i a l s videocamera c h a r t s A and B which c o n t a i n students names as w e l l as i n s t r u c t i o n s pylons - 13 (2 f o r s t a r t i n g markers, 2 t o i n d i c a t e when t o perform the moving d r i v e , 4 f o r g o a l s , 5 t o d i v i d e gym i n h a l f ) c h e c k l i s t s f o r group B (days 1,2,3,and 4 - 3 0 copies of each typed back t o back) T.V. w i t h VCR p e n c i l s f o r group B 84 A p p e n d i x B L e a r n i n g E n v i r o n m e n t D e s i g n T . V . V . C . R . 1 . p e n c i l s 2 . c h e c k l i s t s 3 . p r o t o t y p i c t a p e . G r o u p B ( e x p e r i m e n t a l ) p y l o n < < — V I n d i a n d r i b b l e m o v i n g d r i v e G r o u p A ( c o n t r o l ) V p y l o n > > v i d e o c a m e r a 85 A p p e n d i x C G r o u p A I n s t r u c t i o n s GROUP R e a d a l l o f t h e O n l y o n e p e r s o n STEP I U s i n g f i r s t p a s s e d t h e s e c o n d p y l o n , h i t t h e b a l l (on t h e r u n ) t o w a r d t h e w a l l . STEP II When y o u h a v e d o n e t h i s , p i c k up t h e b a l l i n y o u r h a n d a n d c a r r y i t b a c k t o y o u r l i n e . T h e n go t o t h e e n d o f y o u r l i n e . R e p e a t s t e p s I a n d I I t e n t i m e s . D o n ' t f o r g e t t o c o u n t . STEP III A f t e r d o i n g t h e s e s k i l l s t e n t i m e s , c l e a n up y o u r s t a t i o n : - r e m o v e c h a r t A f r o m t h e w a l l a n d r e t u r n i t t o y o u r i n s t r u c t o r - p u t away s t i c k s , b a l l s , a n d p y l o n s STEP IV A f t e r c l e a n i n g up y o u r s t a t i o n y o u m a y : u s e t h e s k i p p i n g r o p e s i n y o u r s t a t i o n o r s i t a n d t a l k q u i e t l y a t y o u r s t a t i o n GROUP A INSTRUCTIONS FOR DAY 4 R e p e a t S T E P S 1 a n d I I a s a b o v e e x c e p t y o u w i l l b e v i d e o t a p e d o n y o u r 1 0 t h t r i a l . 86 A p p e n d i x D G r o u p B I n s t r u c t i o n s STEP I W a t c h p r o t o t y p i c p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e v i d e o t a p e w i t h y o u r e n t i r e g r o u p STEP II U s i n g t h e p r o p e r f o r m , I n d i a n d r i b b l e f r o m t h e f i r s t p y l o n t o t h e s e c o n d p y l o n . A f t e r y o u h a v e p a s s e d t h e s e c o n d p y l o n , h i t t h e b a l l (on t h e r u n ) t o w a r d t h e w a l l . STEP III When y o u h a v e d o n e t h i s , p i c k up t h e b a l l i n y o u r h a n d a n d c a r r y i t b a c k t o y o u r l i n e . T h e n go t o t h e e n d o f y o u r l i n e . R e p e a t S t e p I I . STEPIV When y o u a r e r e a d y t o b e g i n y o u r t h i r d t u r n , h a n d y o u r t a p e t o t h e c a m e r a p e r s o n a n d t h e n l e t h e r know t h a t y o u a r e r e a d y t o b e t a p e d . She w i l l s i g n a l t o y o u when s h e i s r e a d y f o r y o u t o s t a r t . A l l t h r e e p e o p l e i n y o u r g r o u p w i l l r e p e a t s t e p I I a n d w i l l b e r e c o r d e d on t h e same t a p e . STEP V A f t e r a l l t h r e e p e o p l e i n y o u r g r o u p h a v e b e e n r e c o r d e d , t a k e t h e t a p e t o t h e VCR a n d w a t c h t h e v i d e o s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g o r d e r : 1 . w a t c h t h e p r o t o t y p i c p e r f o r m a n c e 2 . w a t c h y o u r own p e r f o r m a n c e a n d f i l l o u t t h e c h e c k l i s t 3 . Y o u may w a t c h y o u r own t a p e m o r e t h a n o n c e i f n e c e s s a r y . • When a l l t h r e e p e o p l e i n y o u r g r o u p h a v e o b s e r v e d t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e , t a k e t h e v i d e o t a p e t o t h e c a m e r a p e r s o n . DO NOT r e w i n d y o u r t a p e . STEP VI R e p e a t S t e p I I two m o r e t i m e s . STEP VII When y o u h a v e f i n i s h e d , c l e a n up y o u r s t a t i o n : - h a n d i n y o u r c h e c k l i s t s , p e n c i l s , a n d v i d e o t a p e s - p u t away t h e s t i c k s , b a l l s a n d p y l o n s - r e m o v e c h a r t B f r o m t h e w a l l a n d r e t u r n i t t o y o u r i n s t r u c t o r STEP VIII A f t e r c l e a n i n g up y o u r s t a t i o n , y o u m a y : u s e t h e s k i p p i n g r o p e s o r s i t a n d t a l k q u i e t l y . 87 Appendix E Student C h e c k l i s t s INDIAN D R I B B L Z NAME INSTRUCTIONS: Place a check mark i n the appropriate boxes a f t e r you have watched your video. T H S S S A S S T H E THINGS THAT YOU ARB DOING CORRECTLY HANDS al e f t hand at the top of the s t i c k • hands apart BODY Q l e g s b e n t j — [ s t a y s low forward | [ j o g g i n g ^always f a c i n g S T I C K •contacts the b a l l with the f l a t side only •s t i c k stays i n front of the body • completely turns s t i c k head over the b a l l B A L L j — | b a l l ahead the stays of feet r — [ b a l l moves ^—' diagonally forward J — [ b a l l s t a y s t — ' w i t h i n 1 m e t e r o f t h e b o d y a t a l l t i m e s •contacts the center of the b a l l (—[1 h i t t o — p u s h b a l l f r o m s i d e t o s i d e T H E S E ARB T H E THINGS THAT NEED TO B E CORRECTED HANDS BODY S T I C K B A L L | — [ r i g h t hand '—-'at the top of s t i c k j—[hands '—'together < f l i g h t hand *—-turning with the s t i c k /-""[leaning on ' — t h e s t i c k • s t r a i g h t legs a pops up and down |~~[ walking acontacting the b a l l with round side of s t i c k • reaching s t i c k behind body • contacting top of the b a l l j — [ b a l l goes behind fe e t {"""[ball goes •-"•^  between legs nmore than 1 h i t to move b a l l from side to side L i s t two things that you-need to correct i n your next p r a c t i s e s . 88 MOVING HIT N A M E . INSTRUCTIONS: Place a check mark in the appropriate boxes after you have watched your video. THESE ARE THE THINGS THAT YOU ARE DOING CORRECTLY. HANDS • l e f t hand at the top of the stick [ jhands start apart during dribble r — I hand3 1 — ' s l i d e together during approach BODY |~"}legs bent •turn sideways so that l e f t foot i s forward during drive j—I a few steps L—I between the last dribble and the hit r~^head down f—| jogging STICK O contacts center of the b a l l t—(follows -Through after hit •arm3 straight during follow through BALL •stays infront of feet • b a l l i s on right side of the body • b a l l i s pushed ahead of the body during approach THESE ARE THE THINGS THAT NEED TO BE CORRECTED HANDS BODY Oright hand at top of stick r-—jhands '—"together during dribble p—Jhands '—*apart during hit r—-.straight I—»legs ano steps between dribble and hit p-ihead up Muring hit • walking STICK astick tops b a l l ,no follow through after hit o arms bent uring <—ki follow through BALL | — i b a l l '—'directly infront of body • b a l l behind feet List two things that you need to correct during your next practises. 89 A p p e n d i x F L e a r n i n g P e r c e p t i o n s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e GROUP A INSTRUCTIONS: P l a c e a c h e c k mark on t h e l i n e b e l o w e a c h s t a t e m e n t . Y o u do n o t n e e d t o w r i t e y o u r name on t h i s f o r m . 1 . I b e l i e v e t h a t my s k i l l l e v e l f o r t h e I n d i a n D r i b b l e i m p r o v e d o v e r t h e p a s t 4 c l a s s e s . STRONGLY A G R E E UNCERTAIN D I S A G R E E STRONGLY A G R E E D I S A G R E E 2 . I b e l i e v e t h a t p r a c t i s e h e l p e d t o i m p r o v e my s k i l l l e v e l f o r t h e I n d i a n D r i b b l e . STRONGLY A G R E E UNCERTAIN D I S A G R E E STRONGLY A G R E E D I S A G R E E 3 . I b e l i e v e t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n t o me f r o m t h e t e a c h e r o r i n s t r u c t o r h e l p e d i m p r o v e my f i e l d h o c k e y s k i l l l e v e l . STRONGLY A G R E E UNCERTAIN D I S A G R E E STRONGLY " A G R E E D I S A G R E E I b e l i e v e t h a t my s k i l l l e v e l f o r t h e m o v i n g d r i v e i m p r o v e d o v e r t h e p a s t 4 c l a s s e s . STRONGLY A G R E E UNCERTAIN D I S A G R E E STRONGLY A G R E E D I S A G R E E I b e l i e v e t h a t p r a c t i s e h e l p e d i m p r o v e my s k i l l l e v e l f o r t h e m o v i n g d r i v e . STRONGLY A G R E E UNCERTAIN D I S A G R E E STRONGLY " A G R E E D I S A G R E E I b e l i e v e t h a t w a t c h i n g t h e t e a c h e r ' s ( o r i n s t r u c t o r ' s ) d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e s k i l l s h e l p e d me t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s k i l l s . STRONGLY A G R E E UNCERTAIN D I S A G R E E STRONGLY ~ A G R E E D I S A G R E E D u r i n g t h e p a s t 4. f i e l d h o c k e y c l a s s e s , I p u t i n a r e a s o n a b l e e f f o r t e v e r y d a y t o l e a r n t h e s k i l l s . _STRONGLY A G R E E UNCERTAIN D I S A G R E E STRONGLY AGREE D I S A G R E E 90 8. During the past 4 f i e l d hockey c l a s s e s , I t r i e d my hardest each day to l e a r n the s k i l l s . STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE 9. I get nervous when I am videotaped. STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE 10. I l i k e t o watch my performance on the t e l e v i s i o n . STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE 11. In g e n e r a l , I enjoy P h y s i c a l Education c l a s s e s . STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE 12. In P.E. c l a s s , I work best i n groups of three or more. STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE 13. In P.E. c l a s s , I work best w i t h a p a r t n e r . STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE 14. In P.E. c l a s s , I work best i n d i v i d u a l l y . STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE 15. I would r a t h e r spend time doing s k i l l s t h a t I a l r e a d y know than l e a r n new s k i l l s . STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE 16. In P.E. c l a s s , I would r a t h e r p l a y games than l e a r n s k i l l s . STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE 17. i n P.E. c l a s s , I.would r a t h e r p l a y games that I al r e a d y know than l e a r n new games. STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE 91 18. I am GRADE 8 GRADE 9 19. I am 11 12 13 14 20. This i s my f i r s t year i n grade 8. YES NO GRADE 10 15 YEARS OLD 21. My f a m i l y has a VCR at home. YES NO 22. My f a m i l y owns a video camera. YES NO 23. I know how to operate a VCR. YES NO -24. I know how to operate a vid e o camera. YES NO 92 L e a r n i n g P e r c e p t i o n s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e GROUP B INSTRUCTIONS: P l a c e a c h e c k mark on t h e l i n e b e l o w e a c h s t a t e m e n t . Y o u do n o t n e e d t o w r i t e y o u r name on t h i s f o r m . 1 . I b e l i e v e t h a t my s k i l l l e v e l f o r t h e I n d i a n D r i b b l e i m p r o v e d o v e r t h e p a s t 4 c l a s s e s . STRONGLY A G R E E U N C E R T A I N D I S A G R E E STRONGLY A G R E E D I S A G R E E 2 . I b e l i e v e t h a t p r a c t i s e h e l p e d t o i m p r o v e my s k i l l l e v e l f o r t h e I n d i a n D r i b b l e . STRONGLY A G R E E U N C E R T A I N D I S A G R E E STRONGLY A G R E E D I S A G R E E 3 . I b e l i e v e t h a t w a t c h i n g t h e m o d e l p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e v i d e o h e l p e d my p e r f o r m a n c e . STRONGLY AGREE U N C E R T A I N D I S A G R E E -~ STRONGLY A G R E E D I S A G R E E 4 . I b e l i e v e t h a t my s k i l l l e v e l f o r t h e m o v i n g d r i v e i m p r o v e d o v e r t h e p a s t 4 c l a s s e s . STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN D I S A G R E E STRONGLY A G R E E D I S A G R E E 5 . I b e l i e v e t h a t p r a c t i s e h e l p e d i m p r o v e my s k i l l l e v e l f o r t h e m o v i n g d r i v e . STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN D I S A G R E E STRONGLY A G R E E D I S A G R E E 6. I b e l i e v e t h a t w a t c h i n g t h e t e a c h e r ' s ( o r i n s t r u c t o r ' s ) d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e s k i l l s h e l p e d me t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s k i l l s . STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN D I S A G R E E STRONGLY A G R E E D I S A G R E E 7. I b e l i e v e t h a t w a t c h i n g my own p e r f o r m a n c e on T.V. h e l p e d i m p r o v e my, p e r f o r m a n c e . STRONGLY A G R E E . UNCERTAIN D I S A G R E E STRONGLY A G R E E D I S A G R E E 93 8 . I b e l i e v e t h a t the c h e c k l i s t helped t o focus my a t t e n t i o n on the t h i n g s t h a t I was doing c o r r e c t l y . STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE 9. I b e l i e v e t h a t the c h e c k l i s t helped t o -focus my a t t e n t i o n on the t h i n g s t h a t I was doing i n c o r r e c t l y . STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE 10. During the past 4 f i e l d hockey c l a s s e s , I put i n a reasonable e f f o r t every day t o l e a r n the s k i l l s . STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE 11. During the past 4 f i e l d hockey c l a s s e s , I t r i e d my hardest each day t o l e a r n the s k i l l s . STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE 12. I get nervous when I am-videotaped. STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE 13. I l i k e t o watch my performance on the t e l e v i s i o n . STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE 14. In g e n e r a l , I enjoy P h y s i c a l Education c l a s s e s . STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE 15. In P.E. c l a s s , I work best i n groups of three or more, STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE 16. In P.E. c l a s s , I work best w i t h a p a r t n e r . STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE 94 17. In P.E. c l a s s , I work best i n d i v i d u a l l y , STRONGLY " AGREE AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE 18. I would r a t h e r spend time doing s k i l l s t h a t I al r e a d y know than l e a r n new s k i l l s . STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE 19. In P.E. c l a s s , I would r a t h e r p l a y games than l e a r n s k i l l s . STRONGLY " AGREE AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY " DISAGREE 20. In P.E. c l a s s , I would r a t h e r p l a y games tha t I already know than l e a r n new games. STRONGLY " AGREE AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE 2 1 . I am GRADE 8 GRADE 9 22. I am 11 12 13 14 23. This i s my f i r s t year i n grade 8. YES NO STRONGLY " DISAGREE GRADE 10 15 YEARS OLD 24. My f a m i l y has a VCR at home. YES NO 25. My f a m i l y owns a video camera. YES NO 26. I know how to operate a VCR. YES NO 27. I know how to operate a video camera. YES NO 95 A p p e n d i x G R U S S E L L ' S F I E L D HOCKEY C H E C K L I S T OP C R I T I C A L BEHAVIOURS P l a c e a c h e c k m a r k (»/ ) b e s i d e t h e b e h a v i o u r s t h a t a r e present, INDIAN DRIBBLE HANDS r — i l e f t hand '—'at the top of the stick • hands apart BODY Q^legs bent r—jstaya low •ialway Jforward f-jjogging •alw s facing f S T I C K •contacts the b a l l with the f l a t side only as tick stays in front of the body i—I completely '—'turns stick head over the b a l l BALL rnball stays ahead of the feet r — i b a l l moves '—' diagonally forward ab a l l stays within 1 meter of the body at a l l times MOVING HIT •contacts the center of the b a l l (—[1 hit to v-_Jpu3h b a l l from side to side T O T A L 14 HANDS •l e f t hand at the top of the stick BODY f"]hand3 apart during dribble Ohands sli d e together during approach start bent Qlegs Oturn sideways so that left, foot i s forward during drive p—.a few steps L-1 between the last dribble and the hit p-jhead down j—-pogging S T I C K Dcontacts center of the b a l l r—ifollows •—Through after hit straight during follow through B A L L Dstays infront of feet • b a l l i s on right side of the body D b a l l i s pushed ahead of the body during approach TOTAL 14 96 DETAILED DESCRIPTORS OF CHECKLIST COMPONENTS INDIAN DRIBBLE 1.hands apart beginners w i l l have the r i g h t hand lower than the l e f t because they do not have the w r i s t s t r e n g t h to keep them c l o s e t o g e ther 2.legs bent h i p s are f l e x e d and knees are bent 3. stays low run forward keeping knees bent, i . e . , does not h i t the b a l l , stand u p r i g h t , run a f t e r the b a l l , and then bend over to c ontact the b a l l again 4. always f a c i n g forward does not t u r n back to camera to c o l l e c t a misplaced b a l l 5. jogging moving f a s t e r than a walk 6. c o n t a c t s b a l l w i t h f l a t s i d e of s t i c k only i . e . , does not t r y to stop or c o n t r o l b a l l w i t h rounded s i d e of the s t i c k 97 7. s t i c k s t a y s i n f r o n t o f t h e b o d y i . e . , t h e s u b j e c t moves h e r f e e t r a t h e r t h a n r e a c h i n g b e h i n d h e r o r b e t w e e n h e r l e g s w i t h t h e s t i c k t o r e a c h t h e b a l l 8 . c o m p l e t e l y t u r n s s t i c k h e a d o v e r t h e b a l l s t i c k c o n t a c t s b a l l a t 5 o ' c l o c k a n d 7 o ' c l o c k p o s i t i o n s , t h e n r e p e a t s t h i s a c t i o n - a common e r r o r i s t o c o n t a c t t h e b a l l a t 3 o ' c l o c k a n d 9 o ' c l o c k p o s i t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e m o v i n g t h e b a l l s i d e w a y s a s o p p o s e d t o d i a g o n a l l y f o r w a r d 9. c o n t a c t s t h e c e n t e r o f t h e b a l l a c t u a l s t i c k c o n t a c t i s s l i g h t l y u n d e r n e a t h t h e c e n t e r p a r t o f t h e b a l l - a common e r r o r i s t o s t r o k e o r p e t t h e t o p o f t h e b a l l w i t h t h e s t i c k , t h i s c a u s e s v e r y l i t t l e movement o f t h e b a l l a n d t h e s u b j e c t t e n d s t o o v e r - r u n t h e b a l l 1 0 . 1 h i t t o p u s h t h e b a l l f r o m s i d e t o s i d e t h e s t i c k t o u c h e s t h e b a l l o n c e o n t h e r i g h t s i d e i n o r d e r t o d i r e c t i t d i a g o n a l l y t o t h e l e f t ( f o r w a r d ) a n d t h e n o n l y 1 t o u c h on t h e l e f t s i d e t o move i t d i a g o n a l l y t o t h e r i g h t ( f o r w a r d ) - a common e r r o r i s t o u s e m o r e t h a n one t o u c h o n e a c h s i d e o f t h e b a l l 98 11. b a l l stays ahead of the f e e t the s u b j e c t does not over-run the b a l l 12. b a l l moves d i a g o n a l l y forward r a t h e r than from s i d e t o s i d e 13. b a l l stays w i t h i n one meter of the body i e . , the sub j e c t i s able t o run a f a i r l y s t r a i g h t l i n e down the gym r a t h e r than having t o run 2 t o 3 meters t o p i c k up the b a l l and then have t o do so on the other s i d e MOVING H IT 1. hands s l i d e together d u r i n g approach l e f t hand remains at top of s t i c k w h i l e r i g h t hand s l i d e s t o the top of the s t i c k beside the l e f t hand 2. t u r n sideways so t h a t l e f t foot i s forward d u r i n g d r i v e a common e r r o r i s both f e e t f a c i n g t a r g e t , i n s t e a d the l e f t foot and l e f t shoulder should face t a r g e t 3. a few steps between l a s t d r i b b l e and h i t a f t e r b a l l has been pushed d i a g o n a l l y ahead (to the r i g h t s i d e of the body) the sub j e c t takes a few running steps t o cat c h up t o the b a l l before h i t t i n g i t 4 . h e a d down a common e r r o r i s t o l o o k up w h i l e h i t t i n g w h i c h u s u a l l y l e a d s t o t o p p i n g t h e b a l l o r m i s s i n g i t a l t o g e t h e r 5 . c o n t a c t s c e n t e r o f t h e b a l l t h e s t i c k may b r u s h a l o n g t h e f l o o r a t t h e same t i m e t h e b a l l i s h i t common e r r o r s - t o p p i n g t h e b a l l , h i t t i n g t h e s t i c k on t h e f l o o r t o o f a r b e h i n d t h e b a l l a n d t h e r e f o r e m i s s i n g i t 6. f o l l o w s t h r o u g h a f t e r h i t s t i c k d o e s n o t s t o p o n t h e g r o u n d 7 . a rms a r e s t r a i g h t d u r i n g f o l l o w t h r o u g h i e . , e l b o w s a r e s t r a i g h t a n d w r i s t s a r e n o t b e n t 8 . b a l l i s p u s h e d a h e a d o f t h e b o d y d u r i n g a p p r o a c h b a l l i s d i a g o n a l l y f o r w a r d a n d t o t h e r i g h t o f t h e l e f t f o o t p r i o r t o h i t 100 Appendix H C h e c k l i s t Scores (Raw Scores) group A = c o n t r o l group group B = experimental group Subject Group P r e - t e s t Ind. dr. Mov. h i t Post t e s t Ind. d r . Mov. h 1 A 6 6 11 7 2 B 4 7 11 11 3 A 7 9 13 7 4 B 2 3 11 5 5 A 8 5 7 9 6 B 9 5 13 10 7 A 4 7 11 10 8 B 6 4 i n c . i n c . 9 B 7 9 13 12 10 A i n c . i n c . 7 6 11 B 11 4 14 12 12 B 7 7 14 14 13 B 4 4 i n c . i n c . 14 A 11 6 i n c . i n c . 15 B 7 5 10 12 16 A 8 3 11 5 17 A 9 5 14 9 18 A 9 5 12 5 19 A 8 8 11 7 20 A 9: 7 14 (continues) 11 P r e - t e s t Subject Group Ind. dr. 22 B i n c . 23 A 7 24 B 13 25 A 6 26 A 6 27 A 5 28 A 8 29 B 8 30 B 13 31 B 10 32 A 9 33 A 13 34 B 13 35 A 10 36 A 9 37 A 12 38 A 11 39 B 2 40 B 3 41 A 11 42 B 12 43 B 6 44 B 9 101 Post t e s t Mov. h i t Ind. dr. Mov. h i t i n c . i n c . i n c . 14 13 14 11 12 10 6 13 8 8 12 13 6 12 10 6 11 6 7 13 8 8 13 10 6 12 11 8 14 11 9 13 12 8 '*11 11" 7 12 7 8 13 9 8 14 8 8 10 8 3 13 10 5 i n c . i n c . 5 1 1 4 5 10 11 5 14 8 8 i n c . i n c . 102 Appendix I Group A Percentage of Improvement Subject Indian d r i b b l e Moving h i t 1 37.7 7.1 3 42.8 -14.2 5 -7.1 14.2 7 42.8 28.5 10 i n c . i n c . 14 i n c . i n c . 16 21.4 14 .2 17 37.7 28.5 18 21.4 0 19 21.4 -7 .1 20 37.7 28.5 21 37.7 0 23 42.8 0 25 50 14 .2 26 42.8 37.7 27 50 28.5 28 21.4 0 32 37.7 21.4 33 0 21.4 35 14.2 0 36 28.5 7 .1 37 14.2 0 (continues) 103 S u b j e c t I n d i a n d r i b b l e M o v i n g h i t 38 - 7 . 1 0 41 0 - 7 . 1 104 Appendix J Group B Percentage of Improvement Subject Indian d r i b b l e Moving h i t 2 50 28.5 4 64.2 14.2 6 28.5 37.7 8 i n c . i n c . 9 42.8 21.4 11 21.4 57.1 12 50 50 13 i n c . i n c . 15 21.4 50 22 i n c . i n c . 24 i n c . i n c . 29 37.7 7.1 30 0 14.2 31 14.2 37 .7 34 -14.2 21.4 39 78.5 50 40 i n c . i n c . 42 -14.2 42.8 43 57.1 21.4 44 i n c . i n c . 105 Appendix K Experimental Group Indian D r i b b l e u s i n g Hale and Hale Procedure Subject 2 4 6 8 9 11 12 13 15 22 24 29 30 31 34 39 40 42 43 44 P r e t e s t score 4 2 9 6 7 11 7 4 7 13 8 13 10 13 2 3 12 6 9 T-score 37 31 53 44 47 60 47 37 47 66 50 66 56 66 31 34 63 44 53 P r o g r e s s i o n score 5.51 4.18 11.54 7.62 8.75 15. 94 8.75 5.51 8.75 21.03 10.05 21.03 13.25 21.03 4.18 4.8 18.31 7. 62 11.54 (continues) 106 S u b j e c t P o s t - t e s t T - s c o r e P r o g r e s s i o n F i n a l s c o r e s c o r e i m p r o v e m e n t s c o r e 2 11 60 15.94 10.43 4 11 60 15.94 11.76 6 13 66 21.03 9.49 8 - - -9 13 66 21.03 12.28 11 14 69 24.14 8.2 12 14 69 24.14 15.39 13 15 10 56 13.25 4.5 22 - - -24 12 63 18.31 -2.72 29 13 66 21.03 10.98 30 13 66 21.03 0 31 12 63 18.31 5.06 34 11 60 15.94 -5.09 39 13 66 21.03 16 . 8 5 40 42 10 56 13.25 -5.06 43 14 69 24.14 16.52 107 Appendix L C o n t r o l Group Indian D r i b b l e u s i n g  Hale and Hale Procedure Subject P r e t e s t T-score P r o g r e s s i o n score score 1 6 44 7.62 3 7 47 8.75 5 8 50 10.05 7 4 37 5.51 10 14 11 60 15.94 16 8 50 10.05 17 9 53 11.54 18 9 53 11.54 19 8 50 10.05 20 9 53 11.54 21 3 34 4.8 23 7 47 8.75 25 6 44 7.62 26 6 44 7.62 27 5 40 6.34 28 8 50 10.05 32 9 53 11.54 33 13 66 21.03 35 10 56 13.25 36 9 53 11.54 (continues) Subject 37 41 P r e t e s t score 12 11 108 T-score 63 60 P r o g r e s s i o n score 18 .31 15.94 Subject 1 3 5 7 10 14 16 17 18 19 20 21 23 25 26 27 28 32 P o s t - t e s t score 11 13 7 11 7 11 14 12 11 14 8 13 13 12 12 11 14 T-score 60 66 47 60 47 60 69 63 60 69 50 66 66 63 63 60 69 P r o g r e s s i o n score 15.94 21.03 8.75 15.94 8.75 15. 94 24.14 18.31 15.94 24.14 10.05 21.03 21.03 18.31 18.31 15. 94 24.14 (continues) F i n a l improvement score 8.32 12.28 -1.3 10.43 5.89 12 . 6 6.77 5.89 12.6 5.25 12.28 13.41 10 . 69 11. 97 5.89 12. 6 109 S u b j e c t P o s t - t e s t T - s c o r e P r o g r e s s i o n F i n a l s c o r e s c o r e i m p r o v e m e n t s c o r e 35 12 63 18.31 5.06 36 13 66 21.03 9.49 37 14 69 24.14 5.83 38 10 56 13.25 -2.69 41 11 60 15.94 0 110 Appendix M Experimental Group Moving D r i v e u s i n g Hale and Hale Procedure Subject P r e t e s t T-score P r o g r e s s i o n score score 2 7 52 11.03 4 3 34 4.8 6 5 43 7.27 8 4 39 6.05 9 9 61 16.7 11 4 39 6.05 12 7 52 11.03 13 4 39 6.05 15 5 43 7.27 22 24 11 70 25.29 29 7 52 11.03 30 8 57 13.87 31 6 48 9.16 34 8 57 13.87 39 3 34 4.8 40 5 43 7.27 42 5 43 7.27 43 5 43 7.27 44 8 57 13.87 (continues) I l l S u b j e c t P o s t - t e s t T - s c o r e P r o g r e s s i o n F i n a l s c o r e • s c o r e i m p r o v e m e n t s c o r e 2 11 70 25.29 14.26 4 5 43 7.27 2.47 6 10 66 21.03 13.76 8 - - -9 12 75 31.86 15.16 11 12 75 31.86 25.81 12 14 80 40.13 29.1 13 15 12 75 31.86 24.59 22 -24 10 66 21.03 -4.26 29 8 57 13.87 2.84 30 10 66 21.03 7.16 31 11 70 25.29 16.13 34 11 70 25.29 11.42 39 10 66 21.03 16.23 40 42 11 70 25.29 18.02 43 8 57 13.87 6.6 112 Appendix N C o n t r o l Group Moving D r i v e u s i n g Hale and Hale Procedure Subject 1 3 5 7 10 14 16 17 18 19 20 21 23 25 26 27 28 32 33 35 36 P r e t e s t score 6 9 5 7 6 3 5 5 8 7 5 14 6 8 6 6 8 9 7 8 T-score 48 61 43 52 48 34 43 43 57 52 43 80 48 57 48 48 57 61 52 57 P r o g r e s s i o n score 9.16 16.7 7.27 11.03 9.16 4.8 7.27 7.27 13.87 11.03 7.27 40.13 9.16 13.87 9.16 9.16 13.87 16.7 11.03 13.87 (continues) Subject 37 38 41 P r e t e s t score 8 8 5 113 T-score 57 57 43 P r o g r e s s i o n score 13.87 13.87 7.27 Subject 1 3 5 7 10 14 16" 17 18 19 20 21 23 25 26 27 28 32 P o s t - t e s t score 7 7 9 10 6 5 9 5 7 11 5 14 8 13 10 6 11 T-score 52 52 61 66 48 43 61 43 52 70 43 80 57 79.5 66 48 70 P r o g r e s s i o n score 11.03 11.03 16.7 21.03 9.16 7.27 16.7 7.27 11.03 25.29 7.27 40.13 13.87 39.22 21.03 9.16 25.29 (continues) F i n a l improvement score 1.87 -5. 67 9.43 10 2.47 9.43 0 -2.84 14.26 0 0 4 .71 25.35 11. 87 0 11.42 114 S u b j e c t P o s t - t e s t T - s c o r e P r o g r e s s i o n F i n a l s c o r e s c o r e i m p r o v e m e n t s c o r e 33 12 75 31.86 15.16 35 7 52 11.03 0 36 9 61 16.7 2.83 37 8 57 13.87 0 38 8 57 13.87 0 41 4 39 6.05 -1.22 115 Appendix 0 Learning P e r c e p t i o n s Questionnaire C o n t r o l Group Questionnaire Summary (Group A) Question S t r o n g l y Agree U n c e r t a i n Disagree S t r o n g l y Blank Number Agree Disagree 1 1 16 5 3 0 1 2 7 14 4 0 0 1 3 4 18 4 0 0 0 4 2 10 10 4 0 0 5 5 14 7 0 0 1 6 10 7 6 1 2 0 7 2 14 9 0 1 0 8 1 9 13 1 1 1 9 8 7 4 3 4 0 10 5 6 5 5 5" 0 11 4 19 2 1. 1 0 12 5 14 7 0 0 0 13 6 13 5 1 1 0 14 1 4 11 7 2 0 15 0 5 5 11 5 0 16 7 3 8 5 3 0 17 3 4 7 11 1 0 116 Appendix P Learning P e r c e p t i o n s Questionnaire Experimental Group Questionnaire Summary (Group B) Question S t r o n g l y Agree U n c e r t a i n Disagree S t r o n g l y Blank Number Agree Disagree 1 4 8 3 2 0 0 2 6 9 2 0 0 0 3 4 7 2 4 0 0 4 0 12 4 1 0 0 5 5 7 3 1 0 1 6 9 6 1 1 0 0 7 6 8 1 2 0 0 8 3 12 . 1 1 0 0 9 4 12 1 0 0 0 10 4 7 4 1 0 11 4 10 0 3 0 0 12 7 0 0 5 5 0 13 5 2 2 3 5 0 14 7 4 2 0 3 0 15 5 9 3 0 0 0 16 7 8 2 0 0 0 17 1 2 5 6 3 0 18 0 2 3 9 3 0 19 2 3 2 7 3 0 20 2 0 3 9 3 0 117 Appendix Q Learning P e r c e p t i o n s Questionnaire Comparison of S i m i l a r Questions (Raw Scores) Question Number St r o n g l y Agree Agree U n c e r t a i n )up A Group B A B A B A B 1 1 1 4 16 8 5 3 2 2 7 6 14 9 4 2 - 3 - 4 - 7 - 2 3 - 4 18 - 4 -4 4 2 0 10 12 10 4 5 5 5 5 14 7 7 3 6 6 10 9 7 6 6 1 - 7 - 6 - 8 - • 1 - 8 - 3 - 12 - 1 - 9 - 4 - 12 - 1 7 10 2 4 14 7 9 4 8 11 1 4 9 10 13 0 9 12 8 7 7 0 4 0 10 13 5 5 6 2 5 2 11 14 4 7 19 4 2 2 12 15 5 5 14 9 7 3 13 16 6 7 13 8 5 2 14 17 1 1 4 2 11 5 15 18 0 0 5 2 5 3 16 19 7 2 3 3 8 2 17 20 3 2 4 0 7 3 (continues) Q u e s t i o n Number G r o u p A G r o u p B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 118 D i s a g r e e A 3 0 0 4 0 1 S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e 0 1 3 5 1 0 1 7 11 5 11 B 2 0 4 1 1 1 2 1 0 1 3 5 3 0 0 0 6 9 7 9 A 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 4 5 1 0 1 2 5 3 1 B 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 5 3 0 0 3 3 3 3 A 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 B l a n k B 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 119 Appendix R Learning P e r c e p t i o n s Questionnaire Comparison of Questions i n Percentages Question Number S t r o n g l y Agree Agree Group A Group B A B A B 1 1 3.8 23.5 61.5 47 2 2 26.7 35.2 53.8 52.9 3 - 23.5 - 41.1 3 - 15.3 - 69.2 4 4 7.6 0 38.4 70.5 5 5 19.2 29.4 53.8 41.1 6 6 38.4 52.9 26.7 35.2 7 35.2 47 8 - 17.6 - 70.5 9 - 23.5 - 70.5 7 10 7.6 23.5 53.8 41.1 8 11 3.8 23.5 34.6 58.8 9 12 30.7 41.1 26.7 0 10 13 19.2 29.4 23 11.7 11 14 15.3 41.1 73 23.5 12 15 19.2 29.4 53.8 52.9 13 16 23 41.1 50 47 14 17 3.8 5.8 15.3 11.7 15 18 0 0 19.2 11.7 16 19 26.7 11.7 11.5 17.6 17 20 . 11.5 11.7 15.3 0 (continues) 120 Q u e s t i o n Number U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e G r o u p A G r o u p B A B A B 1 1 19.2 17.6 11.5 11.7 2 2 15.3 11.7 0 0 3 1 1 . 7 - 23.5 3 - 15.3 0 4 4 38.4 23.5 15.3 5.8 5 5 26.7 17.6 0 5.8 6 6 23 5.8 3.8 5.8 7 5.8 11.7 8 5.8 - 5.8 9 - 5.8 - 0 7 10 34.6 23.5 0 5.8 8 11 50 0 3.8 17.6 9 12 15.3 . 0 11.5 29.4 10 13 19.2 11.7 19.2 17.6 11 . 14 7.6 11.7 3.8 0 12 15 26.7 17.6 0 0 13 16 19.2 11.7 3.8 0 14 17 42.3 29.4 26.7 35.2 15 18 19.2 17.6 42.3 52.9 16 19 30.7 11.7 19.2 41.1 17 20 26.7 17.6 42.3 52.9 ( c o n t i n u e s ) 121 Q u e s t i o n Number S t r o n g l y B l a n k D i s a g r e e G r o u p A G r o u p B A B A B 1 1 0 0 3.8 0 2 2 0 0 3.8 0 - 3 - 0 - 0 3 ... - 0 0 -4 4 0 0 0 0 5 5 0 0 3.8 5.8 6 6 7.6 0 0 0 7 0 - 0 8 0 - 0 9 - 0 - 0 7 10 ' 3.8 5.8 0 0 8 11 3.8 0 3.8 0 9 12 15.3 29.4 0 0 10 13 19.2 29.4 0 0 11 14 3.8 17.6 0 0 12 15 0 0 0 0 13 16 3.8 0 0 0 14 17 7.6 17.6 0 0 15 18 19.2 17.6 0 0 16 19 11.5 17.6 0 0 17 20 3.8 17.6 0 0 

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