Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The effects of group process and sport imagery on the sport experience of high school athletes Sankar, Dan 1997

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-ubc_1997-0597.pdf [ 5.05MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0077163.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0077163-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0077163-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0077163-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0077163-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0077163-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0077163-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0077163-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0077163.ris

Full Text

THE EFFECTS OF GROUP PROCESS AND SPORT IMAGERY ON THE SPORT EXPERIENCE OF HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETES by D a n Sankar B.A., Dar tmouth Col lege, 1991 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O E A R T in T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S School o f H u m a n Kinet ics W e accept this thesis as con fo rming to the required standard T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A October 1997 © Dan Sankar, 1997 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. ^Department of H M & ^ K" -y; eg The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date O c - * g I°<1 DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T A s sport begins to gain momen tum, part ly due to the extreme value placed on professional athletics, the study and use o f sport psychology has also gained strength. M u c h , i f not a l l , o f its focus has centered on op t im iz ing ind iv idual athletic performance. L i t t l e , or no attention has been placed on foster ing a sport uni t whose basis is ind iv idua l g rowth and learning. A s we enter the new century, researchers and teachers al ike must begin to a l ign the education o f sport toward the mul t i tude o f athletes, i nc lud ing adolescent ones, w h o w i l l not f i n d a home in professional athletics, but w h o must take the ski l ls learned in the sport ing environment in to other avenues o f l i fe. The purpose o f the study is t w o f o l d : (1) to investigate the role o f group development toward the effectiveness o f an imagery t ra in ing program; and (2) to investigate the impact o f imagery toward enhancing sport experience. Qual i tat ive methodology, specif ical ly semi-structured interv iew analysis, was ut i l ized in this study. E ight (8) h igh school sport leaders part icipated in a eight week sport imagery t ra in ing program. The program was dr iven by a group counsel l ing approach (Amundson , Wes twood , Borgen, and Pol lard, 1989), w h i c h has received support i n non-sport settings, but p r io r to this study had not been tested w i t h athletes. The study found that the group process greatly impacted the learner and prov ided athletes a di f ferent perspective in wh ich to v iew their sport experience. Content analysis uncovered four categories: Group Characteristics, Learn ing Factors, App l i ca t ion Factors, and Program L imi ta t ions , under wh ich sixteen themes were ident i f ied. Def in i t ions and in terv iew support are of fered in the results chapter, and fur ther discussion is presented i n the chapter f i ve . The f ind ings o f the study are discussed to prov ide the impetus fo r future research in to the budd ing f i e ld o f sport counsel l ing. In addi t ion, suggestions fo r current coaches and teachers are presented. TABLE OF CONTENTS Title i Abstract i i Table o f Contents i i i Acknowledgements iv Chapter 1: Introduction 1 Chapter 2: Literature Review 6 Section 1: Mental Imagery and Performance 6 Section 2: Mental Imagery Theories 8 Section 3: Facihtating Factors of Mental Imagery 10 Section 4: Essential Elements o f Imagery Training 18 Section 5: Mental Imagery and Younger Athletes 27 Section 6: Summary o f Literature Review 29 Chapter 3: Methodology 30 Section 1: Research Environment 30 Section 2: Learning Environment 33 Section 3: Study Limitations 35 Chapter 4: Results 37 Section 1: Definit ion o f Categories 37 Section 2: Study Themes and Interview Support 38 Chapter 5: Discussion 52 Reinstatement o f Purpose 52 Question 1: Group Process and Learner 52 Question 2: Sport Imagery and Sport Experience 55 Discussion of Themes 57 Suggestions for Imagery Teachers 64 Future Directions for Imagery Research 65 Concluding Remarks 68 Epilogue: Thesis Meditations 70 References 86 iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The preparation of this thesis has been one of the greatest challenges of my life. It has been far more than a research project; it has been a personal life project. I owe many thanks to my support system, without whom this paper would not have found completion. I would like to thank my committee members Dr. David Cox, Dr. Alan Martin and especially, Dr. Marv Westwood whose belief in my potential as a graduate student as allowed me to find the same. His patience, care, and leadership is much appreciated. I would also like to acknowledge Dr. Sharon Bleuler who helped organize many of my preliminary plans regarding this project. I would like to thank my family: my late father, Moses, my mother, Esther, and my brothers and sisters, David, Michele, Levi, John, and especially my sister Naomi, who has been a constant source of inspiration and encouragement; not to mention my paper's favorite editor. I would like to thank my sport imagery students, who have not only given their time and effort to this project, but whose enthusiasm and zest for learning have provided an immeasurable source of encouragement for my work with high school athletes. Finally, I would like to thank my friends in Vancouver, Toronto, and elsewhere, who have courageously listened to my seemingly endless dialogue on the subjects of sport, group, imagery, and learning. iv CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION A s sport begins to gain momentum, part ly due to the extreme value placed on professional athletics, the study and use o f sport psychology has also gained strength. M u c h , i f not a l l , o f its focus has centered on op t im iz ing ind iv idual athletic performance. L i t t l e , or no attention has been placed on foster ing a sport uni t whose basis is ind iv idua l g rowth and learning. A s we enter the new century, researchers and teachers al ike must begin to a l ign the education o f sport toward the mul t i tude o f athletes, inc lud ing adolescent ones, w h o w i l l not f i nd a home in professional athletics, but w h o must take the ski l ls learned in the sport ing environment into other avenues o f l i fe. U t i l i z i n g sport to foster the complete ind iv idua l , rather than the complete athlete, seems a necessary requirement o f sport education i n the coming years. Th is movement may be a valuable one fo r i t may open new avenues o f thought regarding sport education. The w o r k o f the present study has attempted to prov ide this in fo rmat ion based in t w o potent ia l ly essential elements o f the overal l sport education parad igm: group process and sport imagery. A l t h o u g h there have been over 120 studies conducted on imagery w i t h athletes, l i tde attention has been given to the imagery environment. For this reason, this study explores the usefulness o f a group process mode l geared toward the creation o f an opt ima l imagery environment. Th is model has received research support i n non-sport envi ronments (Amundson , Wes twood , Borgen, and Pol lard, 1989), but has yet to be ut i l ized w i t h athletes. I n this manner, sport imagery can be explored w i th in a learning envi ronment w h i c h not on ly scripts the use o f imagery, but also provides students w i t h a social env i ronment conducive to education, encouragement, and support, w h i c h may be essential to imagery 's opt imal use. Throughout the l i terature, many dif ferent types o f imagery t ra in ing programs have been ut i l ized. Th is study introduces another version, ent i t led sport imagery. The sport imagery t ra in ing program ut i l ized in this study is characterized by the f o l l o w i n g : l (1) sport imagery is defined as any and all human pursuits toward the expanding of mind through meditation, relaxation and imagery exercises, with the purpose of activating, developing and cultivating the flowing, balanced mind. (2) sport imagery utilizes sport as the instrument for application, allowing the tools and lessons learned to have immediate and relevant importance to the student. (3) sport imagery is prefaced with the creation a safe and productive environment, centered around personal growth and inquiry. B y integrating group process and sport imagery into the sport learning environment, preliminary information of a future of sport education may be obtained. The purpose of the study was (1) to investigate the role of group development toward the effectiveness of sport imagery; and (2) to investigate the impact of sport imagery toward enhancing the sport experience of high school athletes. The corresponding research questions were: (1) What aspects of group process impact the learner? (2) What is the relationship between a sport imagery training program and sport experience? The combination of a counselling approach to the learning environment and a novel sport imagery training program has culminated in many interesting aspects regarding sport education. Chapter 2 reviews the literature in these areas. Chapter 3 describes methodological procedures. The results of the study, based on information accumulated from semi-structured interviews of high school student-athletes, can be found in Chapter 4 . Chapter 5 concludes the thesis with discussion, which includes recommendations for future research and suggestions for coaches and teachers. The literature review follows the researcher's personal grounds which is presented below. Personal Notation Ever since I can remember I have been interested in the workings o f mind and the mystery of experience. A s I entered graduate school, some four years ago, this tendency led naturally into the study of imagery. I began research into this area, with an early eye toward implementing and testing an imagery training program with adolesent athletes. 2 A s the academic journey has unfo lded, I have become aware o f a great number o f things regarding self, school, and l i fe wh ich are wor thy o f discussion in this narrative. I t is w i t h the greatest care that I disclose this in fo rmat ion fo r I k n o w myse l f to be somewhat atypical , in manner o f research and thought. A s I progressed through a l i terary and histor ical rev iew o f imagery and sport, I f ound some interesting f indings, but was not yet satisfied w i t h what was being reported. Essential elements o f t ra in ing were presented, but none seeming to capture the true value o f imagery and its usefulness w i t h athletes. Research prov ided ample support f o r its use, but fa i led to include the actualities o f the learning environment. A n d al though success was reported i t was always done w i t h the support o f sport performance measures; the l i fe effects o f these interventions remaining relat ively unknown. A t the time o f enrol lment, I had began m y o w n ' ind iv idua l research' in to the area o f imagery and m i n d . In the past, I had ut i l ized imagery, but d id so w i thou t preparation or rout ine. I had not received any t ra in ing or guidance in its use. I was aware o f breathing, but had not yet fo rmed an association between i t and imagery. A l t hough I k n e w o f its importance, i t was certainly a d i f f i cu l t sk i l l to control . B y m y f i rst summer, I became interested in eastern phi losophy. A n d w i t h this interest, an ent i rely di f ferent perspective o f imagery became very clear. Reading along w i t h Buddha, I real ized that a connect ion to imagery belonged to a connect ion to l i fe , and fur thermore, that the process o f imagery belonged tp the process o f l i fe . I n other words the true v is ions o f sport wh ich I sought to capture, w o u l d on ly appear when I adequately prepared myse l f fo r their arr ival . A s such, I began studying and pract ic ing the art o f medi tat ion at tempt ing to cult ivate a f l o w i n g , re lax ing m i n d environment to be used in and o f i tsel f and i n preparation fo r imagery. I was di legent in m y practice and ho ld ing to eastern t radi t ion, attempted to remain true to the process, repeatedly return ing to the ca lm and serenity o f m y dai ly sitt ings. I was ho ld ing not to any tangible measures o f success, but accepted that m y imagery was arr iv ing more v i v i d , clear and control led. I n addi t ion to fo rma l medi tat ion, I had begun to draw on Zen teachings, w h i c h invo lved employ ing meditat ive techniques throughout m y dai ly activit ies. Th is appl icat ion 3 o f practice was fe l t i n many places, but none more apparent than in the w o r l d o f sport and exercise. D a i l y physical and spir i tual t ra in ing a l lowed the frui ts o f m y practice to g row seemingly exponent ial ly. I had played sport m y entire l i fe , but as I connected to its process, I was overwhelmed by m y developing strength and stamina. Sport i tsel f had became its o w n reward, each act iv i ty an oppor tuni ty to focus and strengthen the m i n d and body. I n addi t ion to the posi t ive effects on fitness and performance, I made some other personal observations. First, as m y meditat ion/ imagery sessions progressed, I became aware o f the fact that al though I was previously unaware o f imagery, i t represented something I had possessed f r o m the start. Second, m y abi l i ty to focus on the nothingness w h i c h is medi tat ion, enhanced m y abi l i ty to concentrate and learn in many other aspects o f l i fe , inc lud ing sport. Th is real izat ion greatly impacted m y need to base m y research on the process o f imagery, rather than its outcome. Th i rd , many personal issues, wh ich unt i l this t ime had remained dormant in the unconscious began to surface. A l t hough change always remains d i f f i cu l t , I had gained the abi l i ty to see more clearer m y deepest wounds and pains. Th is clar i ty was evident i n the depth o f m y medi tat ion and the progress o f subsequent imagery, but was also fel t quite strongly in m y dream wor ld . D u r i n g this per iod, dreaming became more v i v i d . Dream-repi t i t ion and cycles began to be felt. I was content to handle these issues solo, but believe wholeheartedly i n one's need to traverse these ' m u r k y waters ' w i t h guidance. Whether by coincidence or design, I became drawn to the wr i t ings o f Car l Jung. A t f i rst , his connections to m y w o r k seemed distant, but as the study unraveled, incorporat ing his model o f the psyche and subsequent discussions became quite necessary. Due to the nature o f this research and its open-ended style and f o r m , i t has progressed fo r the most part, w i thou t anchor. T o this extent, exercising Jung's myst ica l author i ty in to this thesis helped prov ide some point o f reference, a l low ing me to draw a l ine between m y o w n work , m y research and also extending beyond. B y m y th i rd year, I was unsure what to make o f these transpir ings. O n the one hand, I was elated to have been able to develop and cult ivate this sk i l l , based main ly i n 4 medi tat ion. However , I was unsure how best to teach and research these ski l ls , especial ly in the group environment. A t this same t ime, I had developed d i f f icu l t ies w i th in m y School o f H u m a n Kinet ics and was drawn to a professor outside the department, w h o had int roduced me to a group process mode l some t w o years earlier. The Counsel l ing Psychology course, a graduate course on group dynamics was taught by Dr . M a r v Wes twood . He taught and modeled an approach to groups and learning I had not seen before. M y attachment to sport led me to th ink o f a great number o f ways to use his approach to counsel adolescents. A l though this mode l and practice had not been tested w i t h athletes, its p r ime focus o f creating a safe, comfor tab le , and uncondi t ional learning envi ronment seemed wel l suited to the sport imagery program I was designing. I t is this model and his supervision wh ich have played v i ta l roles in the actualization o f both the learning environment and the thesis. The shift o f focus f r o m sport psychology, wh ich remains interested in sport performance, to counsel l ing psychology was a most impor tant t ransformat ion. I n the latter, m y research and I cou ld proceed w i t h a 'process' approach, one geared to the learning environment. Teaching imagery was no longer the isolat ing factor o f research; gu id ing self-development, understanding, and acceptance became the central focus. I n addi t ion, this shi f t prov ided the impetus for me to accept the project as a chance to t ransform and g row along w i t h m y students. I n this way, the w o r l d l y ground o f answers and conclusions gave way to the heavenly ground o f questions and process. I hope that this thesis serves three purposes: (1) provides scienti f ic support fo r both the usefulness o f group process and sport imagery, (2) strengthens our resolve to uncover and make meaning o f that w h i c h is h idden, (3) provides f o o d f o r thought regarding the importance o f self-discovery and self-healing fo r adolescents o f al l ages. 5 CHAPTER 2; LITERATURE REVIEW The field o f sport imagery ( imagery, imaginary rehearsal, menta l imagery, imagery t ra in ing) has received m u c h attention as athletes are constant ly searching f o r ways to enhance sport experience and performance. There have been a mul t i tude o f studies and opin ions presented i n regards to its op t ima l use. Th is l i terature rev iew w i l l h igh l igh t these studies i n preparat ion fo r the learning/research env i ronment , w h i c h is the premise o f this thesis. The f o l l o w i n g rev iew begins by presenting studies l i n k i n g menta l imagery and performance. These opt imist ic f ind ings f i n d support f r o m menta l imagery theories, w h i c h are discussed i n section two . Section three and four prov ide a discussion regarding factors ( fac i l i ta t ing and essential respect ively) w h i c h are impor tant to the imagery process. Sect ion f i ve presents studies related to imagery and younger athletes. Section 1; Mental Imagery and Performance This section o f the l i terature rev iew presents research studies that support the posi t ive relat ionship between mental imagery and performance. These results have been generated through a var ie ty o f ways, inc lud ing laboratory studies, quest ionnaire studies, and self-report measures. Laboratory studies, w h i c h represent much o f the ear ly w o r k i n mental imagery, i nvo lve the standard pre-pOst test design compar ing a menta l pract ice group w i t h a physica l pract ice group, a combined physical and mental practice group and a no-pract ice group (Corb in , 1967a; Corb in , 1967b; Epstein, 1980). A l t h o u g h some studies u t i l i z ing this methodo logy fa i led to generate signi f icant results (Corb in , 1967a; Ryan and Simons, 1981), many others have prov ided support f o r mental imagery 's effectiveness i n enhancing athlete performance (Corb in , 1967b). The cumula t ive f ind ings o f these studies is represented by a statistical meta-analysis conducted by Fel tz and Landers (1983). They used this statistical technique on 146 effect sizes (60 studies) and found an overal l effect size o f 0.48 standard deviat ions. I n a f o l l o w - u p study incorporat ing 14 addi t ional studies, Fel tz , Landers, and Becker 6 (1988) reported an average effect size o f 0.43 standard deviat ions. These f ind ings revealed that an ind iv idua l i n a menta l practice group w i l l , on average, pe r fo rm a ha l f standard dev ia t ion better than an ind iv idua l in a no-pract ice group. M u c h o f the ear ly mental imagery research, w h i c h u t i l i zed a pre-post design w i t h four groups (mental imagery alone, physical practice alone, mental imagery and physica l pract ice, and no pract ice cont ro l ) , were methodolog ica l ly weak. First , many o f the studies fa i led to check whether subjects had successfully u t i l i zed imagery (Smi th , 1987). I t w o u l d also be d i f f i cu l t to ascertain whether subjects not instructed to use imagery d i d i n fact use i t . Second, many researchers agree that imagery is a sk i l l and must be pract iced (Vealey, 1986; M u r p h y , 1994), yet many o f the early studies (Epstein, 1980) fa i led to p rov ide pract ice t ime. T h i r d , in many cases the subjects' imagery scripts have not been p rov ided ( M u r p h y , 1994). Th is omiss ion makes i t d i f f i cu l t to repl icate the studies. These methodologica l d i f f icu l t ies encouraged researchers to u t i l ize other approaches to ve r i f y mental imagery 's usefulness as a per formance enhancement strategy. F o l l o w i n g the lead set by Mahoney and Avener (1977) , several studies used a quest ionnaire fo rmat to obtain in fo rmat ion compar ing the cogni t ive styles o f successful and unsuccessful compet i tors. Suinn (1983) administered a quest ionnaire to skiers o f var ious ab i l i ty levels and found that imagery was more v i v i d and clear fo r skiers o f h igher ab i l i ty . M y e r s , Cooke, Cu l len , and L i les (1979) u t i l ized a s imi lar quest ionnaire w i t h racquetbal l players, and reported that more successful players had greater c lar i ty and cont ro l o f imagery. These and s imi lar studies (Gou ld , Weiss & We inberg , 1989; Rote l la , Gansneder, O ja la & B i l l i n g , 1980) suggest that successful athletes are more l i ke l y to ut i l ize imagery than unsuccessful athletes. A d d i t i o n a l qual i tat ive support f o r the importance o f menta l imagery i n sk i l led per formance was prov ided by M c C a f f r e y and Or l i ck (1989). The in te rv iew process was u t i l i zed to accumulate in-depth in fo rmat ion about personal menta l strategies by h igh per formance golfers. Subjects in terv iewed fo r this study inc luded fourteen top professional golfers f r o m both the P.G.A. (Professional Gol fers Associat ion) and the L.P.G.A. (Ladies Professional Gol fers Associat ion) . These professionals, a l l o f w h o m had w o n professional tournaments, were compared to a group o f nine g o l f course 7 teaching professionals. Men ta l imagery was ident i f ied by a l l o f the tour ing professionals as an impor tant component associated w i t h excellence. A l t h o u g h the type o f imagery var ied across the gol fers, they a l l reported using imagery dai ly . U t i l i z i n g di f ferent methodologies, researchers have f o u n d that mental imagery has a pos i t ive effect upon athletic performance. The next section w i l l r ev iew the var ious theories that attempt to expla in the under ly ing process o f mental imagery. Sect ion 2: M e n t a l I m a g e r y T h e o r i e s One o f the f i rs t systematic studies on imagery was conducted by Betts (1909). H e invest igated the spontaneous use o f imagery in a var iety o f tasks inc lud ing s imple associat ion, log ica l th ink ing , mental mul t ip l icat ions, and d iscr iminat ion judgments . H e found that imagery was of ten used i n pe r fo rm ing these tasks, but m a y be more he lp fu l i n certain tasks than others and is probably not employed as f requent ly as m igh t be expected. Since these pre l iminary f ind ings, researchers have endeavored to discover the processes i n v o l v e d that a l low mental imagery to faci l i tate per formance. Several theories have attempted to exp la in the processes invo lved when an ind iv idua l menta l ly images. M o r e prominent explanations include: the psychoneuromuscular theory, the symbol ic learn ing explanat ion, the b io in format iona l theory, and the attention-arousal theory. T h e p s y c h o n e u r o m u s c u l a r t h e o r y . The psychoneuromuscular theory states that du r ing imagery o f overt acts there are minute innervat ions o f the i nvo l ved muscles, w h i c h are ident ica l to physica l pract ice, but have weaker magni tude (Hecker & Kaczor , 1988). The minute neuromuscular act ivat ion f r o m imagery is said to enhance the moto r schema in the mo to r cortex or the p r i m i n g o f the corresponding muscle movement nodes (Su inn, 1992). Test ing this theory involves the use o f e lect romyography, w h i c h is used to observe muscle act iv i ty dur ing imagery. Ear ly studies using e lect romyography have supported this theory (Suinn, 1976; Harr is and Robinson, 1986). S y m b o l i c l e a r n i n g t h e o r y . Or ig ina l l y developed by Sackett (1935) , this theory hypothesizes that imagery rehearsal gains are due to the oppor tun i ty to pract ice the symbol ic elements o f a moto r task. The theory infers that menta l imagery w i l l faci l i tate the learning o f ski l ls w h i c h are predominant ly cogni t ive. There is l im i ted support f o r 8 imagery 's effectiveness w i t h cogn i t ive tasks, rather than moto r tasks (Wr isberg and Ragsdale, 1979; Fel tz and Landers, 1983). Suinn (1992) suggests that i f imagery rehearsal wo rks because o f symbol ic learning, and i f videotape mode l ing also leads to observat ional learn ing, then comb in ing the t w o should enhance the effects f o u n d by imagery alone. Videotape mode l ing studies (Ha l l & Er f fmeyer , 1983; Gray , 1990) lend support to Su inn 's assertion. The bioinformational theory; Proposed by L a n g (1977, 1979a, 1985), the b io in fo rmat iona l theory suggests that mental imagery can be understood as products o f the brain's i n fo rmat ion processing capacity (Hecker & Kazcor , 1988). L a n g (1979b) states that an image is "a f in i te in fo rmat ion structure w h i c h can be reduced to specif ic proposi t ional un i ts" (p. 109). Imagery , according to L a n g , invo lves the act ivat ion o f a ne twork o f propos i t iona l ly coded in fo rmat ion . The in fo rmat ion is organized i n long-te rm m e m o r y as either st imulus characteristics or overt behavioral responses (Hecker & Kazcor , 1988). Th is theory is tested by detect ing psychophys io log ica l changes i n subjects, such as muscle tension or heart rate. Pre l iminary support has been p rov ided by Hecker and Kazcor (1988). The attention-arousal theory. Suggested by Fel tz and Landers (1983) , the attention-arousal theory states that du r ing imagery, the athlete learns to set his o r her phys io log ica l arousal at an op t ima l level . One posi t ive aspect o f this theory is i ts u t i l i za t ion o f cogni t ive and phys io log ica l aspects o f imagery rehearsal (Vealey, 1987). Enhanced per formance resul t ing f r o m the use o f mental pract ice, can be expla ined by the fact that imagery helps the athlete to br ing his or her attent ion to task-relevant cues and away f r o m disrupt ive i rrelevant cues (Feltz and Landers, 1983). Studies repor t ing decreases i n anxiety levels lend support to this theory (Weinberg , Seabourne & Jackson, 1981 , 1982). A l l o f the above theories require fur ther test ing and no single explanat ion has yet been agreed upon by mental imagery researchers. However , each theory may par t ia l ly expla in the intr icate mechanisms w h i c h a l low mental imagery to pos i t ive ly affect sk i l l development and performance. 9 Sect ion 3: F a c i l i t a t i n g F a c t o r s o f M e n t a l I m a g e r y This section of the review discusses factors which have been reported to facilitate effective imagery use. These factors are: (1) mental imagery and relaxation; (2) imagery practice; (3) imagery ability; (4) skill level; and (5) imagery perspective. I m a g e r y a n d R e l a x a t i o n . Visual motor behavior rehearsal (VMBR; Suinn, 1976) is a covert activity whereby a person experiences sensory-motor sensations that reintegrate reality experiences, and which include neuromuscular, physiological, and emotional involvement (Suinn, 1992). V M B R involves relaxation training, followed by imagery rehearsal. Early support for V M B R training was provided by anecdotal and case study research. Titley (1976) taught VMBR training to a university football kicker following three missed goals from within 35 yards. V M B R was initiated as a stress management technique and for skill development (assuring a standardized kicking motion). In the games following VMBR, the kicker showed noticeable gains in consistency and accuracy from longer distances. He became the leader in the conference in scoring, established fourteen school records, and set an N C A A field goal record of 63 yards. Gough (1989) implemented a version of VMBR training (relaxation prompted by soft music, followed by imagery practice) to three varsity baseball players with varying degrees of batting experience and ability. The subject with the poorest ability and experience improved his quality batting practice hits from 12% to 55%. A second subject, of moderate experience and ability, showed no significant improvement. The subject with the greatest experience and ability, improved from a baseline of 50% to 70% following training. Desiderato and Miller (1979) combined V M B R with stress inoculation training in a program designed for an experienced regional club level tennis player. Stress inoculation (Meichenbaum, 1977) involves self-instructional statements ("Be calm"), constructive self-statements to cope with errors ("okay you have two unforced errors in a row, concentrate on the next point"), and self-reinforcing statements ("good game, keep working hard"). Baseline measures indicated that the percentage of deuce games won 10 was 4 9 % f o r noncompet i t ive matches and 2 9 % for compet i t ive matches. F o l l o w i n g p rogram in tervent ion, the p layer was w i n n i n g 5 5 % o f noncompet i t ive matches, and 6 0 % o f compet i t ive matches. The player also reported an increase in conf idence, an eagerness fo r compet i t ive challenges, and a disappearance o f earl ier " fee l ings o f disaster" w h i c h of ten preceded matches. The importance o f these case study reports is that they present pract ical examples o f the benef i t o f mental imagery t ra in ing combined w i t h re laxat ion. These examples prov ide a p re l im inary in t roduct ion, s t imulat ing cont ro l led research; a discussion fo l lows . K o l o n a y (1977) tested the effectiveness o f V M B R using 72 male basketbal l players f r o m 8 col lege teams. F o l l o w i n g random assignment to four groups ( V M B R t ra in ing, re laxat ion t ra in ing on ly , imagery w i thou t re laxat ion, and no t ra in ing cont ro l ) , a six week in tervent ion per iod i n v o l v i n g f ree- throw shoot ing was implemented. The V M B R athletes s igni f icant ly improved their f ree- throw shoot ing ( 7 % ) , w h i l e the re laxat ion-only and imagery-on ly groups showed no change. We inbe rg , Seabourne, and Jackson (1981) repl icated this study, i m p r o v i n g i t th rough the use o f a p lacebo-contro l group. T h i r t y - t w o (32) male karate students were randomly assigned to one o f four condi t ions: V M B R t ra in ing, re laxat ion-only , imagery-on ly , or p lacebo-contro l . Performance measures were karate ski l ls , karate ski l ls combinat ions, and sparr ing. F o l l o w i n g a six week t ra in ing per iod consist ing o f b i -week ly meet ings, support f o r V M B R t ra in ing was prov ided. Signi f icant f ind ings were f o u n d f o r the sparr ing performance, i n wh ich the V M B R t ra in ing group per fo rmed better than the other groups. I n the karate ski l ls combinat ion task, s igni f icance was not reached, but the V M B R group showed the highest amount o f improvement . State anxiety levels were also measured, and s igni f icant ly lower levels o f state anxiety were f o u n d fo r the V M B R and re laxat ion-only groups compared to the imagery-on l y and cont ro l groups. S imi la r decreases in anxiety levels (both state and trai t) were f o u n d in another study by Weinberg , Seabourne, and Jackson (1982). I n this study, state anxiety levels were s igni f icant ly lowered fo r the V M B R t ra in ing and re laxat ion-only groups i n compar ison to the imagery-on ly and contro l groups. I n the case o f trait anxiety, al l groups showed signi f icant decreases. l l The ma jo r i t y o f research supports the importance o f re laxat ion t ra in ing i n combinat ion w i t h mental imagery. However , a few studies exist w h i c h are not support ive (Hamberger & Lohr , 1980; Gray, H a r i n g & Banks, 1984). Some reasons fo r lack o f s igni f icance may have been inef fect ive teaching methods, and/or an insuf f ic ient amount o f t ime to learn and pract ice re laxat ion. Imagery Practice. Current ly there is l im i ted research support f o r the accepted fact that imagery pract ice is a necessary aspect to any menta l imagery t ra in ing p rogram. In fact, We inbe rg , Seabourne, and Jackson (1982) conducted one o f the f e w studies at tempt ing to isolate the variable o f practice t ime. These researchers assigned karate subjects to either a 6-week V M B R group or a 1-day V M B R group. Results indicated that state anxiety was s ign i f icandy reduced fo r the 6-week V M B R group compared to the 1-day V M B R group. W i t h o u t extensive quant i tat ive support, researchers have commented on the importance o f imagery practice. M a r k s (1983) states, " the awareness o f imagery , and our ab i l i ty to use i t f o r any specif ic goal or purpose, is learnable and cou ld be acquired w i t h appropriate experience and t ra in ing " (p. 123). Richardson (1969) suggests that v iv idness and cont ro l o f imagery can be enhanced by practice. Vealey (1986) compares imagery improvement to strength development as both require repet i t ive practice. O r l i c k and Part ington (1988) in terv iewed O l y m p i c athletes and found support f o r imagery pract ice. They report that some O l y m p i c athletes d i d not i n i t i a l l y have good imagery cont ro l . I t was through consistent pract ice that these athletes were able to perfect their imagery ski l ls. Obv ious questions emanat ing f r o m this study are: h o w long should imagery sessions last? and how long should imagery programs run? A l t h o u g h suggestions concern ing imagery practice t ime have been g iven (Suinn, 1983; Fel tz and Landers, 1983), this topic requires fur ther research attention. I n terms o f imagery practice, t w o other elements are also w o r t h not ing. First , athletes w i l l progress at d i f fe r ing rates; therefore, predic t ing when the benefits o f consistent pract ice w i l l be experienced may be d i f f i cu l t . S im i la r l y , since menta l imagery has been proposed to have a mul t i tude o f possible uses (bu i ld ing sel f -conf idence, 12 enhancing motivation, stress management), it may be possible for an athlete to reap the benefits of practice quite early in a program. Second, quality of practice may be as important, if not more important than quantity of practice. Woolfolk, Murphy, and Parrish (1985) provide support for the importance of quality practice through a comparison of positive and negative imagery conditions. Thirty (30) college students, matched for golf-putting ability, were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: correct practice imagery, incorrect practice imagery, and no-training control. Subjects in the correct practice group were instructed to imagine a correct swing leading to the ball falling into the cup. Subjects in the incorrect practice group were instructed to imagine an incorrect swing leading to the ball narrowly missing the cup. The correct imagery practice group showed a substantial increase from baseline performance, while the incorrect practice group showed a substantial decrease from baseline measure. Although there appears to be global acceptance that practice is a vital element to mental imagery's effective use, questions regarding the program length and duration of sessions remain unanswered. This information may be essential in the organization of mental imagery programs for athletes. I m a g e r y A b i l i t y . It has been suggested that, although everyone has the ability to generate and use images, the extent of this ability varies considerably (Goss, Hall, Buckolz, & Fishburne, 1986). Common sense indicates that those individuals who possess high imagery ability would be more likely to benefit from its use. However, little empirical evidence exists to support this notion. Goss et al. (1986), utilized the Movement Imagery Questionnaire (MIQ) to classify subjects into one of three imagery groups: high visual/high kinesthetic (HH); high visual/low kinesthetic (HL); and low visual/low kinesthetic (LL). Performance was defined by the performance of four different movement patterns. The results showed that the HH group acquired the movements in the least number of trials, followed by the HL group and the LL group, which required the greatest number of trials. 13 These results are in accord w i t h Ryan and S imon 's (1981) study i n v o l v i n g physica l and menta l practice effects u t i l i z ing subjects learning to balance on a stabilometer. The study f o u n d that part ic ipants repor t ing strong v isua l images showed greater improvement than those repor t ing weak v isual images. S imi la r l y , strong kinesthet ic imagers per formed the stabilometer task better than weak kinesthet ic imagers. A l t h o u g h a relat ionship between imagery abi l i ty and moto r per formance seems to exist, other studies have fa i led to prov ide s igni f icant results (Epstein, 1980; Start & Richardson, 1964). The d i f f i c u l t y ar is ing w i t h the study o f imagery ab i l i ty is t w o - f o l d . First , imagery ab i l i ty is mul t i -d imens iona l inc lud ing both in ternal and external perspectives and v isual and kinesthetic approaches. I t has been suggested that specif ic requirements o f a sport (or task) must be considered p r io r to imp lementa t ion o f an imagery perspective or approach (McFadden, 1982). N o t on ly may i t be necessary to d is t inguish between visual and kinesthetic imagery and internal and external imagery, but also to determine the imagery type most suited to any specif ic sport or sk i l l . Second, e f fect ive ly testing the factor o f imagery ab i l i ty requires an ef fect ive measur ing device. Researchers state " i t appears that researchers w h o are interested i n i tnaginal processes in athletes are left in the unenviable pos i t ion o f fac ing a potent ia l ly impor tan t phenomenon that may be elusively dynamic and fo r w h i c h there is no psychometr ica l ly adequate assessment" (Mahoney and Epstein, 1981,p.448). Subsequent to these comments, The M o v e m e n t Imagery Quest ionnaire ( M I Q ; H a l l , Pongrac & Bucko lz , 1985) was developed. The M I Q is benef ic ial because i t provides both a v isua l and kinesthet ic imagery ra t ing. A l so , imagers are rated on their ab i l i ty to image actual movements , w h i c h was not the case in earl ier measures (The V iv idness o f V i sua l Imagery Quest ionnaire, V V I Q ; M a r k s , 1983), wh ich ut i l ize rat ings o f people, places and scenes. A p rob lem w i t h the M I Q is its inab i l i ty to prov ide imagery rat ings on sport-specif ic ski l ls o f an athlete. A l t h o u g h d i f f i cu l t to measure and classify, imagery ab i l i ty seems to be related to mo to r per formance. Further study in to the importance o f imagery ab i l i ty is necessary, however , research must cont inue to prov ide pract ical in fo rmat ion fo r imagers at a l l levels. 14 S k i l l L e v e l . Is mental imagery more benef ic ia l to the nov ice per former o r the sk i l led per former? There have been opposing v iews on this issue. Some researchers contend that imagery should be more benef ic ia l to the nov ice per former than to the expert (Schmidt , 1987; Wr isberg & Ragsdale, 1979). Since imagery faci l i tates rehearsing cogni t ive components, these researchers contend that novices w i l l benef i t f r o m its use because the in i t ia l stage o f learning is p r imar i l y cogn i t ive in nature. The opposing v i e w suggests that ef fect ive imagery ski l ls should be more useful to the sk i l led per fo rmer w h o has developed a strong internal representation o f the sk i l l . Support fo r the fo rmer v i e w was of fered by Wr isberg and Ragsdale (1979) . They in t roduced imagery pract ice early o r later i n the learning o f a moto r sk i l l and f o u n d that i t fac i l i ta ted per formance as a decreasing funct ion o f the amount o f phys ica l pract ice experienced. I n other words , subjects w i t h l o w task abi l i ty were more l i ke ly to benef i t f r o m menta l imagery than subjects w i t h higher task abi l i ty . I n support o f the alternate v iew, Denis (1985) suggests that an athlete may experience negative effects i f imagery is in t roduced pr io r to suf f ic ient sk i l l i n the task. Th is content ion is based on the not ion that as a novice, the athlete's internal representation o f the sk i l l m a y be incorrect o r insuf f ic ient ly elaborated. Suinn (1992) adds that the less experienced athlete may be rehearsing incorrect behaviors, causing per formance decrement rather than enhancement. Exper imenta l support f o r imagery 's effectiveness w i t h experts is p rov ided by N o e l (1980) w h o assigned 14 male tennis players to either a seven session imagery t ra in ing group or a cont ro l group. Basel ine per formance measures* obta ined by the p lay ing o f one tennis set, inc luded service accuracy and points p layed. Subjects were classi f ied as either " h i g h - a b i l i t y " or " l o w - a b i l i t y " . The results showed that h igh-ab i l i t y exper imental subjects improved their baseline service accuracy, but the accuracy o f l o w -ab i l i ty exper imental subjects decl ined. Points p layed were depicted as a rat io o f " w i n n e r s " (opponent had no chance to return) to "e r ro rs " (player was in pos i t ion to make a shot, but d id not ) . Results showed a trend fo r h igh-ab i l i t y imagery subjects to have a h igher ra t io (winners to errors) than h igh-ab i l i t y cont ro l subjects, w h i l e l o w - a b i l i t y imagery subjects tended to show a lower rat io than low-ab i l i t y cont ro l subjects. 15 A l t h o u g h the debate cont inues, the f o l l o w i n g study provides support f o r a th i rd v iewpo in t w h i c h contends that both novice and sk i l led performers can benef i t f r o m mental imagery. B la i r , H a l l , and Leyshon (1993) u t i l i zed a female vars i ty soccer team ( m i n i m u m 5 years c lub level experience) as sk i l led part ic ipants and volunteers f r o m an in t roductory soccer class (less than 1 year o f organized soccer experience) as nov ice per formers. Pr io r to the implementat ion o f a 6 week in tervent ion p rog ram, nov ice and sk i l led per formers were randomly assigned to either an imagery treatment group or a cont ro l group. Results showed that both novice and sk i l led per formers benef i ted to the same degree f r o m imagery practice. I m a g e r y Perspect ive . There are t w o imagery perspectives that have been ident i f ied : internal and external. Internal imagery involves sport imagery through the performer 's eye and body. External imagery consists o f seeing per formance as i f one is wa tch ing h imsel f /hersel f on a screen. M u c h o f the l i terature per ta in ing to imagery perspective ut i l izes an exploratory methodo logy and has been inconclus ive as to w h i c h perspective is more op t ima l to performance enhancement. Mahoney and Avener (1977) questioned 13 male gymnasts, w h o were f inal ists fo r the U S O l y m p i c team. The questionnaire asked questions related to var ious aspects o f their personal i ty, self-concept, and the strategies employed in t ra in ing and compet i t ion , inc lud ing menta l imagery. Researchers grouped the subjects in to very successful el i te gymnasts (those selected to the O l y m p i c team) and less successful elite gymnasts (those not selected to the O l y m p i c team).The results o f the study indicate that the very successful el i te gymnasts were more l i ke ly to ut i l ize internal imagery. A s l ight ly m o d i f i e d vers ion o f this study demonstrated that el i te rifle shooters used p r imar i l y internal imagery (Doy le & Landers, 1980). M u r p h y , Jowdy , and Dur tsch i (1989) in te rv iewed 87 el i te athletes. F i f t y -s ix percent (56%) indicated that they used internal imagery as they became more sk i l led in their sport, and 5 5 % reported that internal imagery was more ef fect ive in he lp ing their performance than external imagery. The researchers suggested that the internal perspective was used because i t made the imagery 16 clearer, enhanced the ab i l i ty to feel body movements i n the imagery , and enhanced the ab i l i ty to become more emot iona l ly i nvo lved in the imagery. O n the contrary, a number o f studies have not supported the premise that in ternal imagery is better than external imagery. On a questionnaire, 17% o f O l y m p i c gymnasts reported us ing internal imagery, 3 9 % reported using external imagery and the remainder used a combina t ion o f both (Smi th , 1983). Another study f o u n d that dar t - th row ing per formance was not s igni f icant ly related to internal imagery fo r males or females (Epstein, 1980). M y e r s et al. (1979) found no s igni f icant di f ferences, between less or more sk i l led racquetbal l players i n their imagery perspective. T w o studies also fa i l to show any substantial di f ference between internal and external imagery. McFadden (1982) examined hockey goal tending per formance through the use o f four study groups: internal imagery group, external imagery group, f i l m placebo group (subjects v iewed hockey f i l m s , but received no imagery t ra in ing) , and delayed treatment cont ro l group (no imagery t ra in ing or exper imenta l contact) . The study f o u n d that both imagery groups improved s igni f icant ly more than either the f i l m placebo or cont ro l groups, however , no s igni f icant dif ferences were f o u n d between the internal and external imagery groups. M u m f o r d and H a l l (1985) u t i l ized 59 f igure skaters o f var ious sk i l l levels. F o l l o w i n g a pre-test measure o f a f igure skat ing f igure task, part ic ipants were randomly assigned to one o f four treatment groups: an internal kinesthetic imagery group, an internal v isual imagery group, an external v isual imagery group, and a cont ro l t ra in ing group. F o l l o w i n g fou r t ra in ing sessions, post-test per formance measures indicated no s igni f icant di f ferences between the three types o f imagery t ra in ing. The var ied f ind ings regarding imagery perspective encourage addi t ional research attention. M u c h o f the ex is t ing l i terature assumes that athletes use either internal or external imagery , but, i n real i ty , athletes may ut i l ize a combina t ion o f the two . I n addi t ion, an athlete's sk i l l level may p lay an important role in de termin ing w h i c h perspective should be employed. Novices may be more suited to an external perspective to enhance the possib i l i ty o f error detect ion and correct ion, wh i l e w e l l sk i l led athletes may f i n d internal imagery more benef ic ial as i t enhances kinesthet ic sensi t iv i ty (Suinn, 1992). 17 C o n c l u s i o n . Th is section o f the l i terature rev iew has attempted to suggest impor tant factors i n regards to the fac i l i ta t ion o f mental imagery. The d i f f i c u l t y i n ascertaining the relat ive impor tance o f these factors is that the ro le o f imagery may be m u l t i - f o l d . Men ta l imagery has been classif ied as hav ing either a cogn i t ive func t ion (Paiv io , 1985) o r a mot iva t iona l func t ion (Paiv io, 1985; M a r t i n & H a l l , 1995). I n addi t ion, there is support to indicate that mental imagery may be benef ic ia l to an athlete's sel f -conf idence (Ha l l , Rodgers, & Barr, 1990; Bar r & H a l l , 1992) and anxiety cont ro l (Bennett & Stothart, 1978; We inbe rg , Seabourne, & Jackson, 1981 ,1982) . Therefore, un t i l such t ime that the products o f mental imagery t ra in ing are comple te ly k n o w n , the impor tance o f the aforement ioned factors may cont inue to be debated. Fur ther research notwi thstanding, suggestions regarding the implementa t ion o f mental imagery t ra in ing are of fered. Factors wh ich faci l i tate ef fect ive menta l imagery t ra in ing inc lude re laxat ion, imagery practice, and imagery abi l i ty . Sk i l l level and imagery perspective m a y be impor tant determinants, but to what degree requires addi t ional test ing. Researchers also suggest that the f o l l o w i n g may also p lay impor tant roles i n the effectiveness o f mental imagery: att i tude and bel ie f (Smi th , 1987; Mar tens, 1982); sk i l l type - cogni t ive versus moto r (Feltz & Landers, 1983); ind iv idua l i zed programs (B la i r , H a l l , and Leyshon, 1993); and v ideo-taped mode l ing (Ha l l & Er f fmeyer , 1983; Gray , 1990). I t is also impor tant to note that mental imagery t ra in ing should not be used in l ieu of, but in addi t ion to, physica l pract ice. Sect ion 4; Essent ia l E lemen ts o f I m a g e r y T r a i n i n g Th is section extends the w o r k o f the previous section by presenting not on ly factors w h i c h may aid the effectiveness o f imagery t ra in ing, but ones w h i c h m a y be indispensable to op t ima l imagery. L e a d e r s h i p . D u e to the nature o f imagery, many athletes may have d i f f i cu l t y creat ing and deve lop ing an imagery t ra in ing p rogram w i thou t guidance. A l t h o u g h many 18 researchers may agree w i t h the importance o f leadership, no studies have attempted to manipulate this factor. However , the nature o f imagery has p rompted many imagery researchers to touch on its importance. H a l l , Schmidt , Durand and Buckho lz (1994) l ist ' imagery inst ruct ions ' as an in f luenc ing factor o f imagery. " Imagery is a complex , mul t i -d imens iona l process. Therefore, the imagery instruct ions g iven to a per former are ext remely impor tant . They must conta in suf f ic ient detai l to ensure that the per former is imag ing the task i n the desired manner " (p. 124). I n the developmental stages o f a p rogram, p r o v i d i n g s imple and c o m m o n images fo r a l l students fur ther emphasizes the importance o f a good leader. Sheikh and K o r n (1994) state: "bo th exper imental and anecdotal evidence clear ly demonstrate that. imagery techniques can be a valuable tool i n i m p r o v i n g athletic per formance; however , they must be appl ied w i t h care. Research has demonstrated that they also can have deleterious effects when used inappropr ia te ly" (p. v ) . A s imagery t ra in ing begins to be used by coaches and teachers, the importance o f careful appl icat ion cannot be over looked. Indeed, ef fect ive imagery use may be d i rect ly related to h o w i t is in t roduced and taught. Fur ther support fo r the importance o f leadership is p rov ided f r o m Sheikh, Sheikh and M o l e s k i (1994) , w h o inc lude ' conv inc ing the cl ient (student) ' as one o f the methods fo r i m p r o v i n g imagery v iv idness. They state: " I m a g i n g ab i l i ty probably is universal ; yet, some cl ients c l a i m that they lack i t . A n impor tant p re l im inary step w i t h such ind iv iduals is conv inc ing them o f the cont rary" (p. 238) . Presenting students w i t h not on l y scient i f ic evidence and pract ical experience, but also a leader w h o h imse l f believes in its value, m a y be an essential element o f an ef fect ive imagery t ra in ing p rogram. Other elements o f leadership wh ich may affect the imagery t ra in ing p rogram inc lude: the premise o f the p rogram, the value created by the leader fo r its part ic ipants, the en joyment level o f the t ra in ing sessions, the qual i ty o f the learning env i ronment created and the pract ical i ty o f such a program. Indeed, these elements seem essential to the overa l l effectiveness o f imagery t ra in ing. 19 M e d i t a t i o n . A l t h o u g h the term 'med i ta t ion ' hard ly appears in imagery publ icat ions, its usefulness to imagery cannot be over looked. M a n y leaders in the f i e l d u t i l ize other terms to s igni fy the importance o f creat ing a clear, f l o w i n g m i n d env i ronment f o r creat ing an op t ima l imagery. I n l ieu o f medi ta t ion, imagery researchers have used the f o l l o w i n g terms: concentrat ion, self-awareness and focus. L i n k i n g self-awareness to self- talk, Green (1994) states: " T h e development o f self-awareness also includes iden t i f y ing the content and tendencies o f the athlete's self-talk. Is i t process or product or iented, descript ive or judgmenta l , sel f -enhancing or self-defeating? A r e there recurr ing situations in a contest w h i c h t r igger a negative f o r m o f self- talk? W h a t k i n d o f self- talk occurs dur ing good per formances?" (p. 50) . T h e exactness o f these questions relat ing to the self may not be easily answered w i thou t the d isc r im ina t ing func t ion o f a m i n d w h i c h meditates. Ano ther researcher cites the importance o f concentrat ion, p r o v i d i n g fur ther evidence o f the importance o f a m i n d w h i c h can focus through distract ions. Concentrat ion is the e l im ina t ion o f distractions. " I n nearly every sport there are mul t i tudes o f sound, sights, and physical distractions surrounding the event w h i c h can impede focus and performance. B y prevent ing distract ion, athletes w i l l pe r fo rm more o p t i m a l l y " ( K o r n , 1994, p. 207). Sheikh, Sheikh, and M o l e s k i (1994) cont inue: "Re laxat ion is a necessary p re l im inary step to v isual izat ion; i t clears the m i n d and dispels d is t ract ing muscular tension. B u t another prerequisite fo r v i v i d imagery is the ab i l i ty to concentrate. General ly , an endless procession o f thoughts f i les through our m i n d , and we seem to have l i t t le cont ro l over their occurrence or their nature. Bu t obv ious ly this lack o f thought cont ro l must be overcome by anyone w h o wishes to focus on one i m a g e " (p. 233) . Med i ta t i on m a y take imagery to a new leve l , a l l ow ing the 'procession o f thoughts ' to be accepted and forgot ten; the experience i tse l f ha i led most impor tant . These comments re lat ing to the importance o f self-awareness, focus, and concentrat ion lend support to the importance o f medi tat ion as an essential component o f any imagery t ra in ing program. A n d fo r students w h o have d i f f i cu l t y connect ing to the 20 their natural ly f l o w i n g images, medi tat ion (and relaxat ion) m a y prov ide the necessary t ra in ing wheels fo r useful imagery practice. D u e to its elusive and personal nature, medi ta t ion may require an object, w h i c h may be used as the student 's spir i tual t ra in ing ground. One o f the most popular objects is one 's o w n breathing. A l t h o u g h imagery scientists rarely ut i l ize f o r m a l medi ta t ion as a preparat ion f o r imagery, inc lud ing deep breaths in imagery scripts is qui te c o m m o n . K o r n f i e l d (1993) states that the focus ing o f attention on the breath m a y be the most universal ly used object o f medi tat ion. I n regards to the impor tance o f breathing awareness, he states: " T h e breath can become a great teacher because i t is a lways m o v i n g and changing. I n this s imple breathing, we can learn about contract ion and resistance, about opening and let t ing go. Here we can feel what i t means to l i ve gracefu l ly , to sense the t ruth o f the r iver o f energy and change that we are." ( K o r n f i e l d , 1993, p.61). Th is discussion on the importance o f medi ta t ion is best concluded w i t h words f r o m the authors o f Seeking the Heart of Wisdom: The Path of Insight Meditation. The ar t and d isc ip l ine o f medi ta t ion is one w a y o f b r ing ing the m i n d in to balance. W e train the m i n d in awareness and concentrat ion, steadying the attention so that i t is not restless and agitated. F r o m this increased sense o f ca lm and equan imi ty we can then look more deeply in to our experience. W e become aware in each moment o f both what i t is that 's happening and our re lat ionship to i t . W e ground ourselves in the real i ty o f what is actual ly present, rather than be ing lost i n our fantasies, thoughts, ideas, or interpretations. Th is steady and precise awareness br ings p ro found stabi l i ty because i t excludes noth ing. I n each moment there can be a balance because we practice opening to the f u l l range o f changing experience, w i thou t attachment or aversion. W e see clear ly what is happening i n the moment , d is t inguish ing the di f ferent elements o f the m i n d and body , and also understanding the laws govern ing this un fo ld ing process (Goldste in & K o r n f i e l d , 1987, p. 90-91) . 21 Bel ie f . Several researchers have inc luded bel ie f as an essential e lement o f imagery t ra in ing (Smith, 1987; Martens, 1982). G iven the myster ious ind iv idua l di f ferences w h i c h exist regarding its use, the bel ie f factor may ho ld a strong predic t ive value f o r ef fect ive imagery use. Test ing bel ie f is made very d i f f i cu l t fo r t w o reasons. One, there is no rel iable tool f o r measur ing belief. Second, the essence o f be l ie f may be as dynamic , e lusive, and mul t id imens iona l as imagery i tself. No tw i ths tand ing , the importance o f be l ie f translates d i rect ly in to bu i ld ing i t i n imagery students. The Buddha referred to this ent i ty as fa i th or saddha and inc luded i t as one o f the f i ve spir i tual facul t ies 1 . Saddha refers to the qual i ty o f m i n d w h i c h includes trust, c lar i ty , conf idence, and devot ion. A s students relax in to the imagery experience, Goldste in and K o r n f i e l d (1987) o f fe r an image o f the power o f bel ief: T h i n k o f yourse l f as hav ing set out on a long journey through terrain never before explored. Y o u come to a mounta in and c l i m b to its very peak. The v i e w is fantastic, and the ch i l l i n the air is exhi larat ing. Ext raord inary though i t is, eventual ly you push on and cont inue the journey. The trai l takes you up other peaks, d o w n in to desert val leys, through swamplands and forests. Each place you come is unique, and i t is al l to be explored. Bu t this is on ly possible i f you t ravel l ight , w i thou t attachment to what has gone before, w i thou t compar ing , and w i thou t g i v i n g up. Fai th means trust ing the un fo ld ing process o f our l ives. I t is a wi l l ingness to let go o f fears and attachments, and open ourselves to the u n k n o w n in each moment , (p. 129). G r o u p L e a r n i n g E n v i r o n m e n t . N o fo rma l research has cont ro l led fo r this var iable, but al l those interested i n teaching imagery realize the importance o f a safe imagery env i ronment . Th is section br ie f ly discusses group process models fo r learning and provides an extended discussion o f the mode l u t i l ized fo r the present study. Suceeding this discussion, the advantages o f group process i n regards to learning and g rowth are presented. 1 The five spiritual faculties are faith, effort, mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom (Goldstein & Kornfield, 1987) 22 There are several group process models fo r learning w h i c h seem relevant to the object ives o f this study (Trotzer, 1977; B i o n , 1959; Y o l a m , 1985). I n order to f u l l y understand arid operate groups, L ieberman, Y a l o m , and M i l e s (1973) state that the leader must have expertise in one o f the behavioural sciences, exper ient ia l - learning expertise, and the ab i l i ty to present conceptual izat ions w h i c h prov ide group members experiences w i t h meaning. These theorists emphasis that by increasing understanding o f oneself and the conscious implementat ion o f interpersonal ski l ls through cogn i t i ve learn ing, one may gain useful insights in to one's problems, behaviour patterns, and att i tude patterns (Johnson & Johnson, 1982). S imi la r to the group process mode l u t i l i zed fo r the study, Tro tzer (1989) believes that groups develop through predictable stages. For each stage- security, acceptance, responsib i l i ty , w o r k , and c los ing- specif ic learning act ivi t ies may be used to assure the group proceeds ef fect ive ly . B y incorporat ing knowledge o f groups, learning act iv i t ies, and ef fect ive leadership, the group may prov ide " a means whereby w e as ind iv idua ls can reconsti tute and revi ta l ize the type o f personal experience that gives meaning to human existence and generates the impetus to incorporate those experiences in to our da i ly l i ves " (Trotzer, 1989, p. 5) . W . R . B i o n provides addi t ional in fo rmat ion fo r those interested in counsel l ing by suggesting that the therapist should avo id extraneous mental act iv i ty . H e states, " I f the psycho-analyst has not del iberately divested h imse l f o f memory and desire, the pat ient can feel this and is dominated by the feel ing that he is possessed by and contained i n the analyst 's state o f m i n d " ( B i o n , 1970, p. 42) . G iven the unconscious nature o f imagery and imagery t ra in ing this " thoughts w i thout a th inker " approach may prove useful . A l t h o u g h these theorists prov ide valuable in fo rmat ion regarding the group process, this study has selected the group process mode l o f A m u n d s o n , W e s t w o o d , Borgen and Pol lard (1989). A detai led descr ipt ion can be found in Employment Groups: The Counselling Connection. I n i t , A m u n d s o n , W e s t w o o d , Borgen , and Pol lard present a pract ical mode l f r o m w h i c h to design and operate groups. The book is wr i t ten fo r those interested i n career counsel l ing, but its g lobal appl icat ion makes i t a wise choice f o r athletic groups. 23 The components o f the group, as out l ined by these authors, inc lude Leader Approaches and Sk i l ls , Group Des ign , Group Goals and Ac t i v i t i es , M e m b e r Needs and Roles, and Group Processes. Each o f these components in terming le in to the actual izat ion o o f the group, w h i c h is "constant ly i n mo t ion , dynamic and mu l t i d imens iona l " (p. 1). A s such these components rest i n the t ime span o f the group def ined in the mode l as P lann ing Stage, In i t ia l Stage, Transi t ion Stage, W o r k i n g Stage, Termina t ion Stage, and Post-Group Stage. Th is theoret ical f ramework is supported by pract ical guidel ines leading to uncondi t iona l leadership, inc lus ion, safety, trust, and comfor t . I n addi t ion to the accompl ishment o f group object ives, group maintenance is cont inua l ly mon i to red and repaired. A m p l e t ime at the beginn ing o f the group is secured for group bu i ld ing , a l l o w i n g members a chance to introduce themselves to the group, inc lud ing presenting expectat ions, object ives, fears, and questions. N o r m s are discussed and agreed upon, a l l ow ing al l members to take responsib i l i ty fo r their actions and decisions. Th is or ientat ion has been shown to prov ide a non-defensive env i ronment , w h i c h is conduc ive to the development o f an op t ima l learning env i ronment (G ibb , 1991). Leadership approaches inc lude d i rect ing, in f luenc ing, fac i l i ta t ing, delegat ing, and d i rect ing, and depends on the stage o f group development. Leaders learn h o w to act, react, and interact i n order to assure the group proceeds in a healthy and product ive way. Sk i l ls such as empathy, c la r i f y ing , Unk ing, quest ioning, summar iz ing , act ive l is tening, b lock ing , and mode l i ng are those ut i l ized by the leader. Since the nature o f imagery t ra in ing has been shown to be in f luenced by the induct ion o f a re laxed state, the usefulness o f these group guidel ines seems essential to imagery t ra in ing. I n addi t ion to the comfor t af forded members by the use o f group process, other advantages have been presented in the l i terature. One o f the ma in advantages fo r group w o r k is the factor o f safety. The conf ines o f the group prov ide members w i t h a natural camouf lage i f they need to use i t (Trotzer, 1989). Th rough ef fect ive leadership, members may cont inual ly feel safe d isc losing as m u c h or as l i t t le as possible, always benefi t ted f r o m the 'strength in numbers ' tendency o f the group. Groups w h i c h have established c o m m o n group goals and guidel ines w i l l garner these safety benefits by a l l ow ing members to discuss feel ings, concerns, attitudes 24 and bel iefs w i t h more f requency than w i thou t the presence o f the group ( D i n k m e y e r & M u r o , 1971). A second advantage o f group w o r k is its ab i l i ty to create a sense o f be long ing fo r its members. Trotzer (1989) wr i tes, " W h e n members experience acceptance, understanding, and cohesiveness in the group, they begin to realize they are impor tant and w o r t h w h i l e " (p. 30). B y a l l ow ing ind iv idua ls the space to create personal ident i t ies, members m a y d i rect ly in f luence the characteristics o f the group (Trotzer, 1989). B y p r o m o t i n g inc lus ion and personal ident i ty , a sense o f be longing m a y mater ia l ize, p r o v i d i n g members w i t h the support needed fo r op t ima l g rowth and learning. Gazda (1968) stated that the group is 'a m ic rocosm o f social rea l i ty ' . Group w o r k , therefore, is an impor tant vehic le i n w h i c h to teach, mode l , and encourage those social characteristics w h i c h are deemed impor tant to the env i ronment under w h i c h they are f o r m e d (Trotzer, 1989). Creat ing change in real- l i fe situations is more l i ke l y to occur through group intervent ions because members are mak ing new discoveries and breakthroughs in a social context. For adolescents, this approach may be especial ly relevent due to the h igh level o f peer inf luence w h i c h is characteristic o f this populat ion. Trotzer (1989) states, " O n e o f the most surprising revelat ions that occurs again and again as one works w i t h groups is that ind iv iduals i n many cases k n o w what they want to do or should do to better themselves but w i l l not act on that knowledge un t i l they feel i t is acceptable and valued by their peer g r o u p " (p. 33). I n regards to sport imagery , the value and power o f the group process may be necessary requirements. Indeed, athletes m a y f u l l y understand the importance o f sport imagery, but un t i l i ts use is social ly accepted, i t w i l l remain in the per i fery o f the sport learning envi ronment . Ano ther advantage o f group process is its abi l i ty to personalize the learning process. Trotzer states, "g roup counsel l ing is especial ly he lp fu l in educational settings because i t contr ibutes to the personal izat ion o f the learning process by p r o v i d i n g an env i ronment i n w h i c h members can discuss their unique and c o m m o n p rob lems" (p. 39). B y incorporat ing the group process in to educational settings, learning may become personal ized, a l l o w i n g each student to be responsible fo r his o w n g rowth and understanding. B y integrat ing the ski l ls learned w i t h personal g rowth , upon comple t ion , 25 the student m a y be more l i ke ly to retain the habits and behaviors uncovered in the group sett ing. A f i na l advantage o f the group process is its ab i l i ty to a l l ow members to s imultaneously act as the helper and the helpee. The mutua l help w h i c h is af forded the group, a l lows group members to mainta in and bu i ld self-respect and se l f -wor th by assisting others (Trotzer, 1989). For leader groups, this dual ro le may be an impor tan t element o f a l l ow ing group members to make the transit ion f r o m group member to group leader. The ef fect ive leader, therefore, creates an env i ronment w h i c h readi ly redistr ibutes p o w e r to al l i ts members. T b this end, Trotzer (1989) comments , " T h e counselor is not the on ly one w h o can aid members and indeed should not be since the members are invaluable resources in the help ing process" (p. 34). Other advantages o f the group process inc lude spectator therapy (D inkmeyer and M u r o , 1971), mut i l p le feedback (Cohn, 1967), and increased counselor contact (Trotzer, 1989). These elements may enhance the qual i ty o f g rowth and learn ing, w h i c h are best summar ized under Y a l o m ' s (1985) term 'curat ive factors ' o f group process. M a c D e v i t t (1987) summarizes these twe lve components as fo l l ows : (1) A l t rus i sm: the process o f he lp ing others; (2) Cohesion: fee l ing that one t ru ly belongs to the group; (3) Catharsis: being able to express feel ings and concerns to others; (4) Insight: acqui r ing sel f -knowledge or sel f-understanding; (5) Interpersonal learning- input : rece iv ing feedback f r o m other members; (6) Interpersonal learning-output: acqui r ing interpersonal sk i l ls ; (7) Guidance: rece iv ing advice and suggestions; (8) F a m i l y reenactment: exper iencing and learning f r o m the group as i f i t were one's f a m i l y ; (9) Ins t i l la t ion o f hope: being encouraged by seeing that others have solved or are so lv ing their problems; (10) Un iversa l i t y : real iz ing that one is not so d i f ferent f r o m others; (11) Ident i f i ca t ion : mode l ing oneself after another member o r the therapist; (12) Existent ia l factors: rea l iz ing important , pa in fu l truths about l i fe (p. 76-77) . 26 "Together these factors interrelate in such a w a y to both create condi t ions fo r change and generate change" (Trotzer, 1989, p. 37). C o n c l u s i o n . Th is section presented a group o f essential elements fo r imagery t ra in ing: Leadership, Med i ta t ion , Bel ie f , and Group Learn ing Env i ronment . B y incorporat ing these elements in to sport imagery, the researcher and teacher may enter the learning env i ronment w i t h a firm phi losophical structure, w h i c h m a y also be seen as an essential element. Sect ion 5: M e n t a l I m a g e r y a n d Y o u n g e r A th le tes The in fo rmat ion contained in this l i terature rev iew has prov ided evidence that mental imagery can be an ef fect ive sk i l l f o r performance enhancement. A s such, i t may be impor tant to encourage younger athletes to inc lude mental imagery in their regular t ra in ing schedules. Unfor tunate ly , very f e w imagery studies have ut i l ized ch i ldren or adolescents as part icipants. F ishburne and H a l l (1988) found a posi t ive relat ionship between imagery ab i l i ty and moto r per formance in chi ldren. Elementary schools were chosen at random and grade six students were g iven motor development tests. Chi ldren classi f ied as either athlet ical ly g i f ted o r phys ica l ly awkward , were tested on v isual and kinesthetic imagery ab i l i ty by the movement imagery questionnaire ( M I Q ; H a l l , Pongrac and B u c k o l z , 1985). The results o f the study indicate a s igni f icant di f ference in imagery ab i l i ty between phys ica l ly a w k w a r d and athlet ical ly gi f ted chi ldren. The results o f this study were compared to another study, w h i c h tested imagery ab i l i ty fo r a normal popula t ion o f ch i ldren (grades 6 and 8) (Fishburne and H a l l , 1988). They f o u n d that athlet ical ly g i f ted ch i ldren showed higher v isual and kinesthetic imagery ab i l i ty than the normal populat ion. Physical ly a w k w a r d ch i ldren showed in fe r io r v isua l and kinesthet ic imagery abi l i ty . The impl icat ions o f these studies are t w o f o l d . First , i t has been hypothesized that mo to r behavior may be improved by deve lop ing better imagery abi l i t ies i n phys ica l ly a w k w a r d ch i ldren (Ha l l , Bucko lz , & Fishburne, 1992). 27 Second, a l though causal inferences are d i f f i cu l t to make, there does appear to be a strong posi t ive relat ionship between imagery and ch i ldren 's mo to r performance. A l t h o u g h these f ind ings are encouraging, implementat ion and test ing o f menta l imagery t ra in ing programs fo r younger athletes is necessary. One such study was conducted by Zhang, M a , Or l i ck , and Zi tzelsberger (1992). Promis ing young table tennis players (7-10 years o ld ) were randomly assigned to one o f three groups: (1) exper imenta l menta l t ra in ing p rogram ( inc lud ing re laxat ion, v ideo observat ion, and mental imagery sessions); (2) v ideo observat ion (no re laxat ion or mental imagery) ; and (3) cont ro l group. F o l l o w i n g an impressive 22 week t ra in ing p rogram, i t was reported that the exper imental group's performance was s igni f icant ly enhanced in re lat ion to the other groups. These researchers stated that the results clearly indicate that a mental imagery t ra in ing p rogram can result i n enhanced performance among 7-10 year o l d ch i ldren. Prediger (1988) assigned 120 seventh-grade students to one o f the f o l l o w i n g groups: re laxat ion/ imagery; re laxat ion/ imagery/physical pract ice; or physica l pract ice on ly . The per formance measure was the accuracy w i t h w h i c h these field hockey subjects cou ld h i t three targets. Results showed that the re laxat ion/ imagery group and physica l pract ice on ly group experienced s imi lar accuracy gains (68% and 7 0 % gain). The combinat ion re laxat ion/ imagery/physical practice group showed considerably higher gains than the other t w o groups (160% gain). These studies on ly begin to address the issue o f mental imagery t ra in ing fo r younger athletes. Indeed, comments f r o m other researchers also emphasize the importance o f imagery to younger athletes. Gaylean (1983) states that psychomotor ski l ls can he improved by teaching chi ldren imagery ski l ls. H a l l , B u c k o l z , and Fishburne (1992) suggest that research focusing on the usefulness o f mental imagery to physica l educat ion programs is essential. Other researchers have stated that ch i ldren are capable o f exper iencing and u t i l i z ing both v isual and kinesthetic imagery (Fishburne and H a l l , 1988). Men ta l imagery and younger athletes has yet to receive substant ial research attent ion. H o w e v e r , using mental imagery w i t h chi ldren and adolescents may be especial ly impor tant i n enhancing the acquisi t ion and performance o f specif ic mo to r 28 ski l ls. B y stressing the importance o f imagery to younger athletes and a l l o w i n g ample t ime f o r its pract ice and development, younger athletes w i l l possess an impor tant psycholog ica l strategy fo r performance enhancement. Section 6: Summary of L i terature Review The f i rst section prov ided a rev iew o f the l i terature concern ing the v iab i l i t y o f imagery as an ef fect ive too l f o r enhancing sk i l led performance. T h r o u g h the use o f a var iety o f d i f ferent methodologica l approaches, results indicate that menta l imagery can have a posi t ive in f luence on performance. The second section o f the rev iew focused on possible mechanisms under ly ing mental imagery. Four theories were discussed; each hav ing mer i t , but requ i r ing addi t ional empi r ica l evidence. The th i rd part o f the rev iew explored the speci f ic factors w h i c h faci l i tate the ef fect ive use o f imagery. Impor tan t factors are re laxat ion, practice, and abi l i ty . Sk i l l level and imagery perspective also require considerat ion. I n addi t ion, mental imagery should not be seen as a replacement f o r actual phys ica l practice. The four th section prov ide addi t ional elements w h i c h may be essential to op t ima l imagery. A l l require addit ional test ing and inc lude, leadership, medi ta t ion, be l ie f and group learning envi ronment . The last section reported studies i n v o l v i n g mental imagery w i t h younger athletes. A l t h o u g h in i t ia l support has been p rov ided , fur ther research w i t h younger athletes is necessary. 29 C H A P T E R 3: M E T H O D O L O G Y The purpose o f the study is (1) to investigate the ro le o f group development toward the effectiveness o f an imagery t ra in ing program; and (2) to investigate the role o f imagery t ra in ing toward enhancing sport experience. Th is study is designed to provide a pract ical learning envi ronment conducive to the extrapolat ion o f research f indings regarding imagery t ra in ing, group process, and the sport experience. I n order to ef fect ively represent both the research envi ronment and the learning env i ronment this chapter is presented in two parts. Part One describes the methodological approach adopted, pari t ic ipant in fo rmat ion , method o f assessment, and data analysis. Part T w o presents a descript ion o f the learning envi ronment , to permi t the reader to better understand themes presented in Chapter 4: Results. Th is chapter is concluded w i t h Study L imi ta t ions. Section 1; Research Environment " T h e purpose o f in te rv iewing is to f i n d out what is i n and on someone else's mind. . .we in terv iew people to find out f r o m them those things we cannot d i rect ly observe... we cannot observe feel ings, thoughts, and intentions... we cannot observe h o w people have organized their wor lds and the meanings they attach to what goes on in the w o r l d . W e have to ask people questions about those things. The purpose o f in te rv iewing , then is to a l low us to enter the other person's perspect ive" (Patton, 1990, p. 278). Methodological Approach. The study's purpose can best be met by u t i l i z ing a qual i tat ive methodology! Th is methodology is best suited fo r the extrapolat ion o f in format ion regarding a ind iv idua l 's experience relat ing to the relevant themes o f study. Semi-structured in terv iew format accompanied w i th content analysis w i l l be used to prov ide in fo rmat ion pertaining to this study's research questions. Semi-structured interv iews w i l l be directed by the use o f The Interv iew Guide, as out l ined by Patton 30 (1990). Th is methodological approach is one wh ich can a l low ind iv idua l part icipants an oppor tun i ty to describe their perceptions and experience regarding posi t ive and negative elements o f both the impact o f the group on learning and the impact o f sport imagery on the part icipants sport experience. Part icipant In format ion. E ight (8) senior sport leaders f r o m Oakv i l le Trafa lgar H i g h School i n Oakv i l le , Ontar io served as participants o f the study. Th is group was selected due to the novel and chal lenging nature o f the focus group. I t should be noted that these part icipants were not on ly sport leaders, but also school leaders. In i t ia l contact was made through the head o f the physical education department, f o l l o w i n g verbal consent. Several student athletes, w h o were ident i f ied by facul ty as sport leaders (sport captains and/or student athletic counci l members), were inv i ted to a pre l iminary meet ing. Th is pre l iminary meet ing prov ided the researcher an opportuni ty to introduce h imse l f and the upcoming sport imagery t ra in ing group. T w e l v e members attended the int roductory meet ing, and ten decided to part icipate i n the study. For personal reasons, t w o group members d id not remain a part o f the study group. The eight remain ing members served as the study group, comple t ing al l group requirements and prov id ing in terv iew in format ion f o l l o w i n g the group. Group members and sports p layed are organized below: Student Grade/Age Christopher 12/17 George 11/15 Lauren Rachel Donovan Frank Thomas Maur ice 11/15 9/13 12/17 12/16 12/17 12/17 (pseudonyms were Sports Played Other Vo l leyba l l , Rugby Coached Vo l leyba l l Footbal l , Basketbal l , Rugby Ath let ic Counc i l Exec B-Bal l , Vo l leyba l l , Softball Coached B-Ball, Y/Rep B-Ball B-Bal l , Vo l leyba l l , Softball Y /Rep Basketbal l Vo l leybal l , Rugby Y-Basketbal l V - B a l l , Hockey, Rugby, G o l f Coached Vo l leyba l l R o w i n g Ath let ic Counc i l Exec Vol leybal l Athletic Council Exec, Y-B-Bal l ut i l ized to assure part icipant conf ident ia l i ty) 31 D a t a C o l l e c t i o n . F o l l o w i n g the sport imagery t ra in ing program, the researcher organized personal interv iews w i t h each group member to prov ide in fo rmat ion regarding relevant topics o f study. Participants were g iven a choice regarding the in terv iew venue, al l chose to use a h igh school seminar room. In i t ia l plans cal led fo r in terv iews to take place immediate ly f o l l o w i n g the group. However , f o l l o w i n g discussion w i t h the part icipants, in terv iews were delayed for t w o months. Th is delay prov ided part icipants an oppor tun i ty to process what was actual ly learned and gained f r o m group part ic ipat ion. M e t h o d o f Assessment. A semi-structured in terv iew was used to study the research questions o f the project. Four questions have been developed to prov ide indiv iduals an oppor tuni ty to voice their thoughts, feel ings, and opin ions on the topics o f study. The f i rs t t w o questions are related to the role o f the group in regards to the effectiveness o f the mindfulness t ra in ing program. The second t w o questions are used to p rompt responses concerning the effectiveness o f the sport imagery t ra in ing program. The four semi-structured in terv iew questions created were: I n regards to the effectiveness o f the sport imagery t ra in ing program: W h a t was i t about the group and its process w h i c h was most important? W h a t was the most l i m i t i n g characteristic o f the group? T h i n k about the sport imagery t ra in ing program W h a t d id you value most about the program? Exp la in . W h a t was least valuable about the program? Exp la in . D a t a Ana lys i s . The semi-structured interv iew content analysis developed by Patton (1990) was used to prov ide general themes related to the specif ic areas o f study. A c c o r d i n g to Patton (1990), there are several steps that are to be fo l l owed . The f i rs t step o f the process was transcribing in terv iew mater ial . The second step was prepar ing a transcript summary fo r each group member. The th i rd step invo lved ve r i f y ing the 32 statements o f each transcript summary w i t h the interv iewee, to assure that the statements accurately ref lected the thoughts, feelings, and opinions o f those in terv iewed. F o l l o w i n g ver i f icat ion o f summary, the researcher set out to generate c o m m o n themes f r o m the col lect ive comments o f the eight group members. C o m m o n themes were then grouped in to categories to enhance the presentation o f the data. A s w i l l be presented in the next chapter, the data found four categories, under w h i c h sixteen themes emerged. The process o f theme generation was as fo l lows : (1) Transcipt ional mater ial were organized in to ind iv idua l meaning units, w i t h each representing a unique thought, idea, or perspective. (2) Through general perusal o f the data, potent ial themes were noted. (3) Further handl ing o f the ind iv idual meaning units a l lowed the researcher to ref ine and f inal ize important themes. (4) F o l l o w i n g theme development, four general categories were developed. (5) Themes and categories were val idated by the supervising researcher as a re l iabi l i ty check. Sect ion 2 : L e a r n i n g E n v i r o n m e n t " W e must foster ind iv idual i ty by celebrating each person's uniqueness and understanding that we are fundamental ly in ter twined by our c o m m o n desire fo r [spir i tual ] g rowth . A n d the essence o f our [spir i tual ] g rowth stem f r o m the lessons we teach one another, as students, fr iends and professors o f our o w n experiences." (Sarah Cho , 1996) Group Purpose (1) T o prov ide an envi ronment wh ich provides instruct ion and encouragement fo r sport enhancement through imagery t ra in ing and group process. (2) T o prov ide a group envi ronment for athletes to share sport and l i fe experiences. Group Goals (1) T o meet ind iv idua l needs toward sport enhancement through imagery t ra in ing. (2) For ind iv idua l group members to experience the benefits o f group work . (3) T o attempt to apply learning principles ( imagery t ra in ing and group bu i ld ing) to the ind iv idua l ' s sport setting. 33 Group Timelines Start Date: October 2 2 , 1 9 9 6 E n d Date : December 1 1 , 1996 Run T ime : 8 weeks Group I t inerary Each session consisted o f a specific structured group act iv i ty i n w h i c h al l members part ic ipated. I n addi t ion to these activi t ies, sport lessons were organized in w h i c h to set a basis fo r discussion and learning. Session 1 The purpose o f the f i rst session was to a l low each member a chance to introduce themselves and their sport (s). The f i rst session also prov ided the leader an oppor tun i ty to out l ine the agenda fo r the upcoming weeks. Session 2 Th is session focused on members ' fears and/or concerns regarding the group. Th is was accompl ished through partner work , f o l l o w e d by a group discussion. The session ended w i t h a pre l iminary discussion regarding group norms and rules. Session 3 The purpose o f this session was to f inal ize group norms and rules and to use partner w o r k to brainstorm ideas regarding the def in i t ion o f sport success. Session 4 Sport Success/LifeLine Ac t i v i t y This session extended pre l iminary w o r k completed regarding sport success. Students were introduced to the L i f e L i n e A c t i v i t y and began construct ion. Session 5 L i feL ine / In t roduc t ion to Sport Imagery Tra in ing The session began w i t h a processing o f the L i f e L i n e Ac t i v i t y , and concluded w i t h a lecture in t roducing sport imagery t raining. Session 6 Sport Imagery Tra in ing Discussion M o c k Session This session was used exclusively to discuss sport imagery. The leader wa lked the group through a mock session. 34 Sessions 7-16 The remainder o f the sessions began w i t h a sport imagery session, inc lud ing breathing, relaxat ion, and imagery. F o l l o w i n g the session and partner discussions, the f o l l o w i n g sport topics were introduced and discussed. Session 7 Peak Performance/Inverted U-Theory Session 8 Spor tF low/The F l o w Experience Session 9 Opt ima l Arousal , Stress Management and Sport Imagery T ra in ing Session 10 Communicat ion Session 11 M o t i v a t i o n and Goa l Sett ing Session 12 Coaching Issues Session 13 Barriers to Sport Imagery Tra in ing Session 14 The Opt imal Ath lete/The Balanced Athlete Session 15 Consol idat ion and Integrat ion Session 16 Closure Section 3: Study Limi tat ions (1) The f ind ings o f the study may lack general izabi l i ty to the general populat ion. The study ut i l ized h igh school sport leaders, and as such may not be representative o f the average adolescent athlete. (2) D u e to the nature o f the research, the instructor and the in terv iewer were the same person. A l t h o u g h al l attempts were made to assure that part icipants honest ly and accurately present their thoughts on the group and t ra in ing program, the absence o f a neutral interv iewer may have biased the f indings. (3) A l t h o u g h sport imagery tools were presented and taught, the instructor o w n e d not any credentials or t raining in this discipl ine, wh ich may l im i t the contr ibut ion o f the f indings to both sport imagery t ra in ing and the under ly ing group process model . 35 (4) The f ind ings o f this study ref lect the outcome and process o f this part icular sport imagery t ra in ing program and may not necessarily transfer to other groups o w n i n g a similar focus. (5) T o gain op t ima l effects o f imagery, its practice must accumulate over t ime. Therefore, the fu l l impact o f imagery t ra in ing may not have been fel t dur ing this program's eight week durat ion. A 2-3 mon th f o l l o w - u p was not possible. 36 C H A P T E R 4: R E S U L T S Th is chapter presents the results o f the study, based on the data accumulated dur ing the in terv iew process o f the study. A s oud ined in the previous chapter, students were encouraged to vo ice their opinions regarding the impact o f the group and the imagery t ra in ing program. The f i rst section o f this chapter presents the major categories and accompanying themes drawn f r o m the in terv iew f indings. These def in i t ions are presented to fami l iar ize the reader w i t h the general f ind ings o f the study. The second section extends these themes by p rov id ing support ing evidence f r o m the part ic ipant 's in terv iew material. I n order to present the format o f the upcoming discussion, a summary table l is t ing categories and corresponding themes is prov ided below. Th is table is f o l l owed by a w o r k i n g def in i t ion o f each category and theme. T h e S p o r t I m a g e r y G r o u p Group Characteristics Learn ing Factors Appl ica t ion Factors Program L imi ta t ions Sharing Experiences Learn ing about others Sport App l i ca t ion S l o w - M o v i n g C o m f o r t Learn ing about sport Sleep App l ica t ion Choosing Members Support Learn ing about imagery Other App l ica t ion Act iv i t ies Nove l ty Env i ronment En joyment Value Sect ion 1: D e f i n i t i o n o f Categor ies Data analysis, wh ich invo lved separating interview data into ind iv idual meaning units prov ided the basis fo r theme generation. Once ident i f ied the themes were then categorized in to four major categories: Group Characteristics, Learn ing Factors, App l i ca t ion Factors, and Program Shortcomings. 37 Group Characteristics. The category " G r o u p Character ist ics" represents the cu lminat ion o f themes related to specific characteristics o f the group, w h i c h includes a l l aspects related to group design, dynamics and interpersonal process. The themes represented i n this category appear related to the group process mode l u t i l i zed fo r the study. There are six themes wh ich have immerged: Sharing Experiences, Comfor t , Support, Nove l t y , En joyment and Value. Learning Factors. The category "Learn ing Factors" represents those themes regarding a student's actualization o f learning. I n other words, what d id students actual ly learn throughout the durat ion o f the study. Th is category is d iv ided in to three themes: Learn ing about others, Learn ing about sport, and Learn ing about imagery. I n this chapter, imagery refers to any or al l elements o f the actual imagery sessions, wh ich inc luded medi tat ion, relaxat ion and imagery. Application Factors. A t the beginning o f the group, al l members vo iced a desire to be able to apply the pr inciples learned in the group. As such, the emergence o f this category is quite appropriate. " A p p l i c a t i o n Factors" are those themes related to apply ing the w o r k tp a student's l i fe , inc lud ing sport, sleep, and other act ivi t ies w h i c h appear connected to the transfer o f learning. Th is category has three themes: Sport App l i ca t ion , Sleep App l i ca t ion , and Other Appl icat ion. Program Limitations. The category "Program L i m i t a t i o n s " is presented to inc lude those elements o f the program w h i c h the participants fe l t were restr ict ing or a hindrance. Th is section presents a l ist o f program shortcomings in four categories: S low M o v i n g , Choosing Members , Act iv i t ies , and Environment. Section 2: Study Themes and Interview Support W i t h w o r k i n g def in i t ions o f the categories out l ined, this section presents the themes o f the study. Transcr ipt ional support a l low the themes to come al ive w i t h the thoughts and opin ions o f the student athletes w h o part ic ipated i n the study group. D u e to 38 the small number of participants and the novelty of the research environment, several comments are used to support each theme. Group Characteristics Under the category Group Characteristics, six themes have been generated: (1) Sharing experiences, (2) Comfort, (3) Support, (4) Novelty, (5) Enjoyment* and (6) Value. S h a r i n g exper iences refers direcdy to comments related to a student's telling of ideas, reactions, thoughts, and stories. These comments supported a direct relevance to either them as the speaker or listener. This sharing could occur one-on-one or in the larger group context. The content of the sharing tended to incorporate both sport and non-sport elements. Although there was material which needed to be taught, the group's main focus was to allow members an opportunity to express themselves and their experiences, learning from each other in the process. Seven of the eight members commented on the importance of and their ability to share thoughts, feelings, and experiences with the group. Frank provided support of this group characteristic and at the same time commenting on the group's ability to progress. He says: "I valued everybody contributing and this made it good, especially as the group developed." (Frank) When asked what would she would change about the group, One student's comment typified the importance of sharing experiences to the value of the group: "Choose members who like to discuss" (Rachel) 39 Rachel 's comment supported the usefulness o f p rov id ing an envi ronment conducive to those w h o have the abi l i ty and to wi l l ingness to share experiences. I n expla in ing the importance o f sharing experiences, Maur ice replies: "...discussing allowed us to come up with good thoughts." (Maurice) Other comments also adequately support the theme, "Shar ing Exper iences". "/ valued sharing ideas on sport" (Christopher) "Something I enjoyed was going over experiences with other people." (Thomas) "I valued sharing experiences with others" (Lauren) "I valued being able to compare what good friends thought about sport." (Donovan) "I valued being able to share what you found." (George) Comfort refers to any comments connected to feel ings o f comfor t , safety, and trust fel t w i t h i n the confines o f the group. Th is theme is supported by comments d i rect ly related to a student's comfor t level , wh i ch they reported contr ibuted to an openness to learning. G iven the nature o f the t ra in ing tools (relaxation and medi tat ive imagery) , p rov id ing a comfor table, safe environment was a necessity. U t i l i z i n g the group approach wh ich fosters feel ings o f safety and comfor t , a l lowed six o f the eight members to posi t ive ly comment on the comfor t level o f the group environment. F ive o f the comments, presented be low, h igh l ight the group characteristic o f " C o m f o r t . " "The environment was peaceful" (Christopher) "I valued feeling good about being around good people, good athletes" (George) "I liked the atmosphere, I liked the group" (Frank) "a good way to start off the morning" (Thomas) "we all bonded in some aspect." (Maurice) 40 A sixth comment f r o m Lauren, not on ly provides addit ional support f o r the h igh comfor t level af forded to group members, but takes i t a step further: "Learning about others made it easier to concentrate around them" (Lauren) Th is comment neatly l inks the f i rst two themes o f the this category, suggesting that i f persons are g iven a chance to get to k n o w and trust those around them, concentrat ion and learning can be enhanced. Support is def ined as any comments related to feel ing supported by other group members, or p rov id ing support f o r other group members. Th is support need not be conf ined to activit ies di rect ly invo lved w i t h the group, but may also inc lude other school and sport activi t ies. Th is theme also encompasses those comments referr ing to the sharing o f c o m m o n goals. The group was designed fo r sport leaders, w h o may already be inc l ined to support ing others, and four o f the eight prov ided evidence o f this group characteristic. Frank capsualized the essence o f what may have been the group 's ma in object ive: "Everyone was trying to accomplish the same thing, everybody was striving to reach that point of inner calmness... It wasn't just one on one, it was the group" (Frank) The t ime spent bu i ld ing the group environment pr ior to beginning actual imagery t ra in ing went a long w a y to establishing this and other common goals, wh ich cou ld natural ly lead to group support. B i l l commented on the impact o f the group outside o f our m o r n i n g sessions, re lat ing to support ing each other 's decision to be invo lved in the group: "Good time with all my friends, we would talk about it during the day." (Donovan) Al though support was experienced w i th in the confines o f the group, Maur ice prov ided addi t ional evidence o f support occurr ing in non-group activi t ies: 41 "I valued the fact that we had two of our girls basketball players; motivated me to organize trips and support them and the team. The support was mutual, began helping each other both in and out of the group." (Maurice) George p rov ided fur ther p roo f o f the theme o f "Suppor t " i n a comment related to part ic ipat ion on actual h igh school teams: "/ valued being able to use it to make you a better athlete and to help your teammates" (George) Novelty refers to any comments l inked to students becoming aware o f novel ideas or perspectives, wh ich contr ibuted to both how they felt or what they learned. Th is ' nove l t y ' may be related to either sport, imagery or learning. F ive persons commented on the group characteristic o f " N o v e l t y " . O f those comment ing four bel ieved that the group prov ided a new perspective on sport and the sport experience: "/ valued getting new perspectives on sport, it got me thinking about a whole new aspect of sport" (Christopher) "It showed me something else...opened different doors... I valued learning there was another aspect to it all." (Rachel). "I thought about sport in a different way." (Donovan) "Allows sport to be seen from a different angle...opens your eyes." (George) O n the theme o f novel ty, there was one comment wh ich supported the opposite v i ew : "Alot of the stuff I had done before and I had seen it before" (Frank) 42 Enjoyment refers to any comments associated w i t h the degree o f en joyment fe l t by the student. Th is category includes en joy ing any number o f group elements, inc lud ing its members, its t ra in ing ski l ls, its appl icat ion, or other. The six male members o f the group, al l made statements support ing an enjoyable group environment. Each o f the six members prov ide a sl ight ly di f ferent premise, but each ref lect the c o m m o n group characteristic o f "En joymen t " : 'I enjoyed the imagery' (Christopher) "I enjoyed other people's stories, opinions, and perspectives." (Frank) "Good time with all my friends, we would talk about it during the day." (Donovan) "I wanted to have fun and accomplished this" (Maurice) "Had a good time doing it." (Thomas) "I liked sportweek, to see where we are and where we are going and I liked applying the work." (George) The comprehensive support g iven by these students is a testament to the students themselves. They searched fo r elements wh ich w o u l d make i t enjoyable. I n addi t ion, the fact that several areas o f enjoyment are ident i f ied may suggest a degree o f intr insic value in the group 's structure. Value refers to any comments related to students feel ing that the group and its p rogram were o f personal value. Th is theme encompasses general statements regarding the value o f the program. Specif ic appl icat ion value is categorized under " A p p l i c a t i o n Factors" . The major i t y o f comments related to this theme arrive f r o m students when asked what was least valuable about the group and program. Six o f the students p rov ided support f o r the value o f the program. "I do not think there was anything invaluable." (Thomas) "nothing in my mind sticks out as least valuable." (George) "there really wasn't anything limiting about the group...I really wouldn't change much...couldn't ask for much more." (Donovan) 43 "/ didn't find anything specifically not valuable tome." (Frank) "I thought everything we did had a purpose." (Maurice) "It is something that will be beneficial to me." (Christopher) Learning Factors Under the category o f Learn ing Factors, there are three themes, (1) Learn ing about Others, (2) Learn ing about Sport, and (3) Learn ing about Imagery. Learn ing about Others refers to comments reveal ing what members learned about others, inc lud ing learning about others' experiences, opinions, and perspectives. Students indicated that learning about others influences their perceptions o f themselves and others. Th is theme incorporates learning about what others th ink and feel about sport and h o w best to ut i l ize ski l ls taught i n the group. Seven o f the eight students posi t ive ly commented on the value gained f r o m learning about others. A n extension o f an earlier statement by Lauren exempl i f ies the essence o f this theme: "We got to know each other better and to learn about different people's sports., .it is very important to get different people's opinions...learn about others, made it easier to concentrate around them." (Lauren) Others comments also support the importance o f this theme: "Once everyone started talking, letting out their ideas, it was good (Frank) "I valued being able to hear others' experiences" (Donovan) "I valued finding out what myself and others had to contribute to the group (Maurice) "I valued meeting people from other sports, even people you knew." (Thomas) "I valued talking to other people." (George) 44 Learn ing about others was also a means o f learning how others' relax, breath, and imagine as Rachel 's comments about the actual imagery t ra in ing p rogram suggest: "/ would hear someone say something and know that it applied tome, but I never would have thought of it, and then I would try it." (Rachel) Learn ing about Sport refers to comments corresponding to learning about sport. Th is theme includes a student's learning about the specif ic task o f sport performance, sport t ra in ing, sport preparat ion, and sport experience. F ive of the eight students made comments referr ing to the theme o f "Lea rn ing about Sport" . A l l comments relate to sport learn ing, but each says something s l ight ly di f ferent, a l l ow ing the mul t id imensional nature o f the group to surface: "It is important to stay calm throughout it all." (Lauren) "I valued meeting friends, having fun, and learning about sport and psychology" (Maurice) "I liked learning about peak performance and different things about sport you don't usually talk about." (Christopher) "I valued learning about the importance of preparation." (Donovan) "Ivalued learning about imagery and sport and the way you can apply it." (George) Learning about Imagery includes comments wh ich focused direct ly on the impact o r value o f the specif ic sport imagery intervent ion. Imagery is def ined by the three t ra in ing tools, medi tat ion, re laxat ion, and imagery, and also encompasses learning about w h y imagery is important. A l l eight members made comments referr ing to learning about imagery. Rachel 's comment supported the importance o f not on ly teaching ' h o w ' to image, but also ' w h y ' we image: 45 "/ valued the discussions beforehand because we would not have known why we were doing it" (Rachel) Rachel continues by accurately describing the process o f relaxat ion, w h i c h is extended by comments f r o m Donovan and Lauren. "/ valued the relaxing part of it, the breathing was important, to be doing really nothing, not tensing anything." (Rachel) "Lights out and learning how to physically relax was important" (Donovan) "Doing relaxation skills was a good way to start." (Lauren) Thomas prov ided support o f one o f the truths o f imagery i n v o l v i n g the use o f al l the senses, not jus t 'seeing ' : "/ valued utilizing mental training in regards to the other senses, feeling, hearing" (Thomas) Christopher 's comment emphasizes another truth o f imagery t ra in ing, wh ich is that meditat ive imagery is a ski l l wh i ch we are already doing, even i f we do not realize i t : "It brought imagery a step further from where I was." (Christopher) Other comments wrap up this theme o f "Learn ing about Imagery" . "Visualizing was good" (Frank) "I valued the introduction of imagery and being able to use it both in group and outside." (Maurice) "I found imagery was helpful" (George) 46 Appl icat ion Factors There are three themes represented under the category App l i ca t ion Factors, and include: (1) Sport App l i ca t ion , (2) Sleep App l ica t ion , and (3) Other App l ica t ion . Sport Appl icat ion refers to any comments related to app ly ing lessons learned to a student's sport. Th is theme includes comments related to actual appl icat ion or thoughts regarding future appl icat ion. A l l eight student athletes made reference to being able to apply group lessons in to their sport sett ing.The two female members o f the group, Rachel and Lauren were players on the h igh school basketball team, wh ich f in ished th i rd i n the province, and appl ied group w o r k direct ly in to their basketball experience. "/ worked it into my foul shot routine: When I knew I was going to the line, I would say okay I know I can do this, and then I would visualize myself; I put in the breath. I am not sure if it helped, but it gives me that second to calm down." (Rachel) "Rachel and I were the two most calm on the court, and we would look at each other and both know why." (Lauren) Rachel 's comment emphasizes the use o f a number o f t ra in ing tools. H e r account ing includes posit ive self-talk, v isual izat ion, and breathing and wrapped i t in to a useful pre-shot rout ine. Lauren 's comment sol idif ies the importance o f group lessons as both players were aware o f the importance o f remain ing ca lm and focused. Frank, Thomas and George support the theme o f Sport App l i ca t ion by presenting ways o f using sport imagery to improve their athletic performances: "/ take more time visualizing and breathing, calm me down, let me play at a higher performance level." (Frank) "It will be interesting to think about how to use these tools for next season...thoughts related to actual preparation to use in my sport environment." (Thomas) Al "using it to make you a better athlete." (George) Maur ice and Donovan prov ide support fo r apply ing group lessons to sport warm-ups, comment ing on using tools i n preparation fo r compet i t ion: "/ valued using it on my own to prepare for big games." (Maurice) "Learning how to relax and being able to know that I can step on the court without wondering if I was ready." (Donovan) Christopher 's general comment relat ing to Sport App l ica t ion completes this theme: "/ valued using some of the principles in my own sport setting" (Christopher) Sleep A p p l i c a t i o n is def ined as any comments referr ing to apply ing lessons learned f r o m the p rogram to enhance or help members prepare fo r sleep. There were on ly t w o comments related to apply ing tools learned to the sleep environment. I t is inc luded because more than one person has commented on its usefulness f o r sleep throughout the durat ion o f the group. "I use breathing techniques to calm down, use it as a preparation for sleep." (Frank) "I use it to get to sleep some nights." (Donovan) O t h e r A p p l i c a t i o n refers to any comments associated to apply ing lessons learned to other avenues other than sport and sleep, wh ich appeared o f value to the part icipants. There were three comments related to apply ing sport imagery techniques to other, non-sport act ivi t ies, t w o o f wh ich are general comments: "In other pressure situations, not related to sport, we will be able to calm ourselves down, and keep focused on it." (Lauren) "Find ways to use it in our lives" (Donovan) 48 Several o f the group members were invo lved in a Leadership Retreat dur ing the implementat ion o f the group. One o f the retreat leaders, commented that the w o r k in our group, in f luenced the leadership retreat. The researcher attended the leadership workshop and answered many questions regarding the topic o f sport imagery and the power o f the group. "Influenced the leadership retreat" (Maurice) Program Limitat ions Under the category Program L imi ta t ions , four themes are represented and include: (1) S low M o v i n g , (2) Choosing Members , (3) Act iv i t ies , and (4) Env i ronment . Slow Mov ing refers to any comments recount ing the perceived slowness o f the group. I n part icular, comments ref lect that the beginning o f the program was slow. Three o f the eight in terv iewed commented that the development o f the group cou ld have occurred more qu ick ly : "Start applying it earlier." (George) "The group could have got moving faster... the first couple of weeks were slow." (Thomas) "The beginning was slow...too much time at the beginning getting to know each other." (Lauren) Choosing Members refers to any comments related to the choosing o f group members. These comments were made in reference to future groups, and h o w best to enhance the qual i ty o f such a group. F ive members interv iewed believe that choosing members is an important element o f an ef fect ive group. G iven the nature o f the tools taught, this considerat ion is an impor tant one. I n the matter o f bel ief and its importance, Christopher repl ied: 49 "some people in the group were not sold on mental training" (Christopher) Thomas suggested that the group may have been enhanced by selecting season-long athletes: "it would have been better if group members did more than school sports... it was difficult to relate to group members who are not season-long athletes." (Thomas) Rachel , w h o was the youngest group member commented: "They were older than me and this restricted me." (Rachel) Donovan and Lauren wrap up the theme o f "Choos ing M e m b e r s " by suggesting the use o f more students and students f r o m di f ferent sports. "Use a greater variety of athletes from different sports." (Lauren) "We only had a set number of people." (Donovan) A c t i v i t i e s refers to any comments regarding the activit ies o f the group, w h i c h l im i ted the group or how they learned. Th is theme also refers to suggestions made fo r activit ies wh ich may be used in a future group. A l though group activit ies were designed w i t h purpose, four o f the eight members in terv iewed, suggested that the use o f other activit ies may have enhanced the group. Christopher made t w o separate comments regarding activit ies. The f i rst refers to partner debr ie f ing, w h i c h took place after each imagery session and pr io r to group w o r k : "Partner work was not as useful as it could have been." (Christopher) "More group work, group activities, puzzles and mental games." (Christopher) 50 Readings were prov ided to group members related to specif ic lessons o f sport. Frank comments o f these readings, presenting another program l im i ta t ion : "Readings were not very useful; I am more a listener and a talker, that is how I learn." (Frank) I n regards to act ivi t ies, Lauren believes that the group w o u l d be enhanced by teaching other th ings: "Learn different things, like coaching techniques." (Lauren) A n d a f ina l comment by George prefers the group to dedicate more t ime to the actual imagery sessions: "More guided imagery." (George) E n v i r o n m e n t refers to any comments related to l im i t i ng characteristics o f the environment, wh ich impacted the learning process. This theme includes the physical envi ronment o r the t ime o f group meetings. Three comments referr ing to the environment are prov ided: "Chairs were a bit wobbly." (George) "People coming late, disturbances (Rachel) "Work out a night schedule, mornings were hard." (Maurice) 51 C H A P T E R 5: DISCUSSION The results o f the study, presented in the previous chapter, prov ide pre l iminary support f o r the use o f group development techniques for imagery t ra in ing. I n addi t ion, the implementat ion o f the sport imagery t ra in ing program had a posi t ive impact on the sport experience o f these athletes. Throughout this chapter, these f ind ings w i l l be expanded in to a discussion w i t h three purposes. First, this chapter w i l l answer the research questions o f the study, w h i c h are reinstated below. Second, the themes generated in the previous chapter are discussed, leading to the th i rd purpose o f the chapter, w h i c h presents future direct ions in research and suggestions fo r coaches/teachers. I t is impor tant to note that this study, al though based on a sport imagery t ra in ing p rogram, u t i l ized no performance measures to test the results o f the study. Therefore, direct extensions o f current sport psychology l i terature in this area are not necessarily prov ided by this study. A l though sport psychology l i terature prov ided the basis o f the study, the research focus has transformed f r o m extr insic sport performance to intr insic sport experience and learning. A s the chapter progresses this di f ference may become more apparent. Re ins ta tement o f Pu rpose The purpose o f the study was (1) to investigate the role o f group development toward the effectiveness o f sport imagery; and (2) to investigate the impact o f sport imagery toward enhancing the sport experience o f h igh school athletes. The corresponding research questions were: (1) What aspects o f group process impact the learner? (2) W h a t is the relat ionship between a sport imagery t ra in ing program and sport experience? Q u e s t i o n 1; G r o u p Process a n d L e a r n e r The group 's design and operat ion was based on a mode l presented by Amundson , et a l . (1989). Th is approach has been referred to as 'g roup process' or ' the group process m o d e l ' . A l t h o u g h this model has received support in non-sport settings, p r io r to this project, i t had not been ut i l ized in a sport environment. 5 2 This group process was v i ta l to the success o f the p rogram fo r a number o f reasons, a discussion o f wh ich fo l lows. Th is discussion focuses on the f i rst research quest ion: W h a t aspects o f the group process impacted the learner? F ive general elements are of fered: Env i ronment fo r Change, Knowledge o f Groups, Trust ing Env i ronment , Learn ing Communica t ion Ski l ls , and Integrat ion o f Learning. Environment for Change. The group process mode l presented the learner w i t h the oppor tun i ty to serve t w o main goals, one o f learning and pract ic ing imagery ski l ls and the other o f f o r m i n g and re f in ing attitudes. F r o m Amundson et al. (1989); i n terms o f the group process mode l , " there are t w o emphases: acquisi t ion o f relevant ski l ls and in format ion , wh ich is the 'educat ive' element, and the development and/or maintenance o f a construct ive at t i tude" (p 3). Th is combinat ion, referred to as 'psycho-educat ive ' , was made possible by creat ing and operat ing the group w i t h the use o f this counsel l ing paradigm. Chartrand and Len t (1987) h igh l ight the importance o f a psycho-educat ional or ientat ion fo r p romot ing the g rowth o f the student-athlete. I n addi t ion to recogniz ing that counsel l ing paradigms need not be reserved fo r athletes w i t h psychological d i f f icu l t ies, they state that the learning environment should emphasize: " (a) the ind iv idua l ' s desire fo r acquir ing ski l ls; (b) his or her capacity to learn; (c) the counselor 's role as a teacher w h o demonstrates, models, and provides opportuni t ies fo r pract ic ing desired behaviors; and (d) the appl icabi l i ty o f acquired ski l ls to a broader reperto i re" (p. 165). Th is psycho-educative approach, based on leading the group f r o m inside out, prov ided an envi ronment fo r change fo r the students in the study. These students may have on ly been fami l iar w i t h learning based on one-way communicat ion (teacher to student). I n contrast, the interact ive approach encouraged al l members to become teachers, each tak ing responsibi l i ty fo r each other 's learning and movements to change. Knowledge of Groups. A l though the group 's ma in focus was sport, learning about groups and their opt imal operat ion played a large role fo r the group members. 53 Learn ing about the importance o f groups, w h y persons j o i n groups, how best to op t im ize groups, h o w best to lead groups, and other i tems, greatly impacted the learning process fo r these members. The group included sport leaders, w h o were not on ly interested i n h o w this in fo rmat ion could be ut i l ized to enhance the group 's value, but also h o w these pr incip les cou ld be appl ied to other sport and non-sport settings. Trust ing Environment. The group 's commi tment to the acceptance o f va ry ing perspectives and ideas, a l lowed its members to speak freely. A s the group progressed in to its w o r k i n g stage, i t was this f reedom wh ich a l lowed group members to learn ef fect ively. Di f ferences o f opinions had been handled effect ively, each member understanding that i t was these differences wh ich make each ind iv idual unique and special. The abi l i ty fo r group members to speak freely was based in the group members ab i l i ty to trust one another, the leader, and the process. A l though group members, ident i f ied as sport leaders, entered the program w i th a wi l l ingness to trust others, the group 's in i t ia l commi tment to setting common goals and out l in ing norms and rules, p layed a large role in assuring the trust ing learning environment wh ich prevai led. The value o f such an environment may be best explained by the non-defensive or ientat ion o f the group and its members. The counsel l ing paradigm ut i l ized fo r the study v iewed communica t ion as a people process rather than as a language process (Gibb, 1961). The creat ion o f a trust ing envi ronment was made possible through attempts to reduce the degree o f defensiveness in group members, a l l ow ing group members to concentrate more completely on learning and pract ic ing skil ls. G ibb continues, "Defens ive arousal prevents the l istener f r o m concentrat ing upon the message. N o t on ly do defensive communicators send o f f mul t ip le value, mot ive and affect cues, but also defensive recipients distort what they receive." Learning Communicat ion Skills. The group 's commi tmen t to the process o f learning a l lowed its members an opportuni ty to enhance communicat ion ski l ls. Th is was accompl ished in t w o ways. The f i rst was through partner work , where group members w o u l d l isten to each other 's stories and present back to the group the in fo rmat ion f r o m 54 their partner. Th is a l lowed group members an opportuni ty to practice act ive- l is tening, c la r i fy ing , and paraphrasing ski l ls, wh i ch could be extended to other groups and learning environments. The leader attempted to teach such ski l ls, wh ich is consistent w i t h the comments f r o m Guerney, Stol lack and Guerney (1970), w h o state that the ro le o f the counsel lor is to teach "personal and interpersonal attitudes and ski l ls w h i c h the student can apply... and to enhance his (or her) o w n and others' satisfaction w i t h l i f e " (p. 100). The second w a y that members learned communicat ion ski l ls was through leader observat ion. Amundson et al. (1989) state that this type o f mode l ing can be very ef fect ive in a l l ow ing groups to proceed ef fect ively: " I f you can teach, mode l and reinforce the use o f specific communicat ion ski l ls, members w i l l f ind that understanding each other, mak ing decisions and bu i ld ing trust are easier than i f no t ra in ing is prov ided or i f destructive communica t ion is used" (p. 26). The leader attempted to ut i l ize a posi t ive attitude and model communicat ion ski l ls, such as empathy, l ink ing, active-l istening and c lar i fy ing. Integration of Learning. A n oppor tun i ty to integrate the f ind ings o f the group was prov ided in the f ina l stages o f the group ( terminat ion). The f ina l group session invo lved discussing and sharing ideas regarding important concepts learned throughout the durat ion o f the group. These def in i t ions served to consolidate the findings o f the group, and the discussions a l lowed each member to assimilate the in format ion in to their o w n terms* and f o r thei r o w n purposes. D u e to the novel nature o f both the group approach and the t ra in ing p rogram, this integrat ion was especial ly important. A s Amundson et al. (1989) state, " t o o of ten groups ' just end ' w i thout focusing careful ly on what has been learned or determining specif ic ways to apply these learnings in the absence o f ongo ing group support" (p. 240) . Terminat ing the group i n a manner wh ich focused on integrat ion and closure a l lowed the group to terminate in a posit ive manner fo r its members. These f i ve elements- Envi ronment fo r Change, Knowledge o f Groups, Trust ing Env i ronment , Learn ing o f Communicat ion Ski l ls, and Integration o f Learn ing- summarize those aspects o f the group process wh ich impacted the learner. 55 Question 2: Sport Imagery and Sport Experience T h e second research question explored h o w the sport imagery t ra in ing p rogram effected the sport experience fo r its members. Three elements emerged to answer this quest ion: Learn ing and Pract ic ing Sport Imagery, T h e Intr insic Va lue o f Sport, Sport and the Other Senses. Learn ing and Practicing Sport Imagery. The major i ty o f studies ci ted i n chapter t w o o f this thesis provide a posit ive relat ionship between imagery and sport performance, however many h igh school athletes have not been introduced this sk i l l . W i t h this p rogram, these students were g iven an opportuni ty to learn and practice these m i n d development ski l ls. These ski l ls may be useful to each o f the students due to the transferabi l i ty o f this sk i l l . I n other words, the ski l l cou ld be appl ied to any sport or act iv i ty . Indeed, by connect ing oneself to breathing and body awareness, the student was prov ided a means o f re lax ing and ca lming the self for compet i t ion. The Int r ins ic Value of Sport. F o l l o w i n g a discussion regarding sport success, group members brainstormed ideas regarding the purpose o f sport. I n addi t ion to w e l l -k n o w n factors, such as physical f itness, compet i t ion, and social factors, the group also recognized the intr insic value o f sport. The group noted that sport p rov ided each athlete an oppor tun i ty to gain mental strength; a l low ing sport to be used as a means o f pract ic ing focus, re laxat ion, and concentrat ion skil ls. I n this manner, sport i tsel f became the reward, p rov id ing group members a chance to ident i fy the intr insic value o f sport. Sport and AH the Senses. The last aspect connect ing imagery to the sport experience was a l low ing group members to do more than merely 'see sport ' . Through pract ical imagery and discussions regarding actual compet i t ion, students recognized the importance o f u t i l i z ing al l the senses. Be ing able ' to fee l ' the action a l lowed several students to gain better access to their imagery potent ial . Indeed, this approach to imagery cou ld be ut i l ized i n the actual sport setting, a l low ing group members to gain a more 56 ref ined def in i t ion o f what sport may provide. B y gaining knowledge and practice regarding the use o f al l the senses, group members may be more l i ke ly to opt imize their sport experiences. Three elements- Learn ing and Pract ic ing Sport Imagery, The Intr insic Va lue o f Sport, and Sport and A l l the Senses- are of fered in response to this study's second research question. These discussions require fur ther research attention and support, but may begin to prov ide new perspectives on the purpose and func t ion o f sport education. Discussion o f T h e m e s This section furthers the analysis o f the research questions by rev is i t ing the categories presented in Chapter 4 . B y extending this discussion in this way , addit ional in fo rmat ion regarding the importance o f group process and sport imagery are of fered. (Themes related to Program L imi ta t ions are not discussed in this section, see suggestions fo r imagery teachers and future directions fo r imagery research.) G r o u p Charac te r i s t i cs . The category " G r o u p Characterist ics" provides evidence o f the value o f u t i l i z ing the group bu i ld ing techniques. G iven the goals o f the group, wh ich inc luded teaching, pract ic ing and discussing sport imagery, the six characteristics (sharing experiences, comfor t , support, novel ty , enjoyment and value) were impor tant ones to surface. Sharing Experiences. A l l members made reference to this theme in then-interv iews. G iven the nature o f both the group process and the lessons taught and pract iced, this occurrence is a posi t ive element o f the study's f indings. Th is theme's recogni t ion by al l members provides evidence fo r the h igh level o f trust, safety, and comfo r t w h i c h was present. One o f the group 's goals was to be able to prov ide an env i ronment fo r members to share their stories and opinions regarding sport. In so do ing, members were presented w i t h a chance to make sense o f their o w n sport experiences, and in the process, a l low other group members to also benefi t f r o m each other 's experiences. 57 For advanced groups, this pre l iminary w o r k could lead to the implementat ion o f sport enactments. I n other words, as trust levels increase, group members cou ld be encouraged to act out past or practice future sport experiences. Scr ipted images and scenes cou ld be the focus o f the group a l low ing group members a chance to act out sport experiences wh ich may be stressful or d i f f icu l t . In addi t ion, a l l ow ing group members the l icense to discuss and w o r k through elements o f sport not related to actual compet i t ion may be benef ic ial (i.e., pract ic ing tel l ing a parent to hold back their comments dur ing a compet i t ion , or te l l ing a coach that they do hot l ike being 'put d o w n ' i n f ront o f others). Comfort. The importance o f comfor t is an important element o f the program. G iven the nature o f the ski l ls taught and the open-ended discussions, p rov id ing a peaceful, uncondi t ional envi ronment was essential. The use o f the group process mode l paid great div idends. in p rov id ing such an environment. The importance o f this characteristic fo r the actual imagery session is important , but also holds signif icance fo r the discussions wh ich fo l lowed. D u r i n g the scripted session, comfor t was essential fo r students to be able to quiet, focus, and strengthen the m i n d . I n the group discussions,.it was important fo r the level o f comfor t to be maintained. Th is cont inued comfor t a l lowed members to share their experiences (posit ive or negative) regarding the session. Support. I n the group context, support was an important theme. L i terature w i t h employment groups suggest that the group plays an important role i n p rov id ing members a sense o f inclusion and communi ty . "Because members o f the group were mutua l ly interested in what happened in each other 's j o b search, people tended to acquire a sense o f purpose and meaning der ived, actual ly f r o m the importance attached by other peop le" (Amundson et a l . , 1989, p. 11). For the sport group, group members were interested i n each other 's sport enhancement. W i t h established group goals, al l members cou ld gain a sense o f purpose and commun i t y f r o m the interactions o f the group. The fact that the members supported in each other outside o f the group, further emphasizes the impor tance o f this characteristic. 58 Novelty. The theme novel ty is an interest ing theme to emerge. On the one hand, sport imagery is i tsel f a novel concept. Gain ing new perspectives on sport may be attr ibuted to an early discussion regarding sport success and purpose. Where once the students saw sport as purely physical , f o l l o w i n g discussion, students began to see sport as also a vehicle fo r intel lectual and spiritual learning. A l t hough the concepts remain simple, awareness and appl icat ion seemed to prov ide the students w i t h a new understanding. For sport imagery specif ical ly, intel lectual and spir i tual t ra in ing involves bu i ld ing m i n d strength, as we l l as body strength. Sport became seen as an opportuni ty to practice focus and concentrat ion ski l ls. Relaxat ion prov ided a focus, as the student was scripted to tense and relax muscles. A l l o w i n g thoughts to 'ar r ive and pass' , ' re turn ing to center ' , ' le t t ing g o ' , p rov ided activi t ies w h i c h were t ru ly something new and di f ferent fo r these students. The assumed act iv i ty o f breathing took on new meaning. Where once i t was something to keep you-al ive, n o w it was something that cou ld keep you awake. Real iz ing that focused breathing was always possible and always present seem to prov ide good ' n e w ' in format ion . The sport imagery session lasted twenty minutes, but students were encouraged to cont inue breathing, and focusing throughout the entire session. Th is cont inued or ientat ion to the process o f awareness contr ibuted m u c h to the not ion o f novelty. Indeed, the group i tsel f became an oppor tuni ty to relax, focus, and concentrate, a l l ow ing the group i tsel f to be novel . Uncondi t ional leadership, based on sharing stories and opinions, l i nk ing students ideas, c lar i fy ing ideas, empathiz ing w i t h feelings, and the use o f other group tools, prov ided an environment wh ich was something quite new and refreshing to these students. Ac tua l l y being heard, understood, and appreciated seemed to possess its o w n novel ty fo r these students. Enjoyment. Since the nature o f the group was sport, the emergence o f this theme is important . For the most part, sport 's role in the high school envi ronment is one o f 59 release and enjoyment. A l though this group was not ident i f ied as 'a team' , creat ing an enjoyable atmosphere remained a pr ior i ty . Value. M o s t o f the comments referr ing to this element were prov ided v ia double negative. W h a t d i d you f i n d least valuable? was responded to by: "There was noth ing least va luable . " The importance o f these statements can be understood in t w o ways: (1) the sport imagery and discussions were most valuable and/or (2) the operat ion o f the group was int r ins ical ly valuable to these students. Students found value in learning a new sk i l l , one w h i c h owned a sport focus, but a . l i fe value. Students found value in learning how to apply these ski l ls. Students valued being able to share their o w n thoughts and feelings regarding h o w best to approach sport. Students valued being able to learn ' w h y ' these ski l ls were impor tant to k n o w and practice. I n regards to value, the group i tsel f also held value. The group owned 16 sessions, and no member missed more than two. Members understood and abided by the rules o f the group, inc lud ing attendance responsibi l i t ies, but g iven the volunteer and extra-curr icular nature o f the group, its members must have been able to ident i fy w i t h both the group 's goals and value. Learning Factors. "Learn ing Factors" invo lved those elements wh ich group members ident i f ied as 'what was learned' . The f irst theme o f this category was learning about others, w h i c h provides fur ther support fo r the importance o f h o w the group was operated. The nature o f the p rogram was designed to prov ide members a chance to learn and practice new ski l ls, wh i ch were supported by two other themes, learning about imagery and learning about sport. Learning about Others. The group assembled athletes f r o m di f ferent sports, and group members gained insights in to what others th ink about sport. The group 's openness to story- te l l ing and op in ion-g iv ing a l lowed this learning to take place. In addi t ion, understanding that ind iv idual differences w i l l always surface and k n o w i n g that there are 60 several ways to accompl ish the same task a l lowed group members to remain open to the thoughts o f others. I n regards to the imagery ski l ls taught, learning f r o m others was essential. There i; not ' one ' way to approach breathing, re lax ing, and imagery sessions. B y discussing the actual imagery sessions, f i rst w i t h a partner and then in the group environment, each member gained insights into h o w to approach the simple, but d i f f i cu l t process o f ca lming the m i n d in preparat ion fo r imagery and sport. Learning about Sport. Group members commented on a var iety o f topics re lat ing to sport. M o t i v a t i n g athletes has been seen as s imply one's abi l i ty to 'psyche up ' fo r sport. F o l l o w i n g the group and its teachings, members were in t roduced to a di f ferent perspective. Th is perspective mir rors that o f one researcher, w h o believes that the purpose o f mental rehearsal is to prov ide more ' last ing effects' to the athlete. H e states, "a l though self-regulation and arousal/activation goals are st i l l employed, such goals are achieved through sk i l l t ra in ing w i t h last ing effects, as compared to the transitory inf luences o f the older psyching-up approaches" (Suinn, 1992, p. 492) . Th is movement away f r o m immediate coach-induced mot ivat ion may a l low athletes to take responsibi l i ty fo r their o w n t ra in ing and learning. I n regards to the athlete's sport, the group prov ided a means o f cont ro l l ing and enhancing the experience through preparation and ut i l izat ion o f mental ski l ls, such as breathing, re laxat ion, and imagery. I n addi t ion, the group served to educate members on h o w sport may be used to teach l i fe ski l ls. Th is important element moves beyond s imply sport performance into discussions regarding practical l i fe tools, such as communicat ion and stress management. I n addi t ion, creating an environment fo r spir i tual practice and discussion further h ighl ight the impor tance o f this sport group to more than just sport. Group members commented on the importance o f preparat ion, and h o w best to prepare fo r compet i t ion. A l t hough useful sport in format ion , members were prov ided in format ion l i nk ing these preparatory skil ls to a number o f di f ferent activi t ies, inc lud ing 61 those not related to sport. I n this manner, a large part o f learning about sport i nvo l ved l i nk ing i t to other aspects o f l i fe . Sport, therefore became a vehic le f o r other lessons. Learning about Imagery. Consider ing the group was about sport imagery, the emergence o f the theme "Learn ing about Imagery " should not be a surprise. Indeed, the students were eager to w o r k w i t h these tools and learn h o w best to emp loy these techniques in sport and l i fe . Due to the durat ion o f the group (2 months) and the nature o f the ski l ls, much o f the learning revolved around bu i ld ing bel ief i n its use. Imagery is an important sk i l l to develop, but tangible results may not be fel t d i rect ly. Ac tua l l y do ing the imagery was also important. Us ing the group envi ronment and leader scripts prov ided group members f irst hand experience w i t h this tool . The group context a l lowed subsequent discussion and quest ioning to enhance the qual i ty o f learning about a new sk i l l . Due to its connect ion to m i n d and experience, phi losophical and psychological elements found their way into the group's discussion. A l though discussions ut i l ized the w o r d imagery, medi tat ion, f l o w i n g imagery, or medi tat ive imagery are better representations o f this concept, as taught by this group. Discussions regarding G o d and energy entered the domain o f learning, a l low ing unanswerable questions to become a part o f the learning process. Application Factors. " A p p l i c a t i o n Factors" was the th i rd category fo rmed f r o m the in terv iew mater ial prov ided by the students. Sport, Sleep and Other Appl icat ions are the themes represented in this category and prov ide support f o r the group 's ab i l i ty to transform learning in to actual sport and l i fe settings. Sport Application. A l though the effects o f imagery t ra in ing may be slow i n arr iv ing, many group members fel t comfortable and mot ivated to ut i l ize these principles d i rect ly in to their sport ing environments. Feedback f r o m the interv iews prov ided support fo r the usefulness o f direct ly apply ing these skil ls. For future groups, mon i to r ing performance through repeated in terv iews fo l low ing compet i t ion may be a useful way to test the effectiveness o f these pr inciples i n the sport 62 setting. Indeed, extending imagery from an activity to be performed before and after competition into a device to be used during competition has support from this study. Placing importance on meditative and relaxation techniques may have a great deal to do with this extension. Although athletes may not be able to visualize certain elements during competition, there may always be time to breathe and relax. Sleep Application. Although only a limited number of interviewees commented on the importance of sleep application, it remains a potentially important issue. Utilizing breathing and relaxation principles for sleep is a viable application for the skills taught in the group. Athletes may choose to schedule imagery sessions prior to sleep, allowing the benefits of a relaxed and flowing mind environment to be used for individual imagery and as a prelude to sleep. As research in this area progresses, sleep and dreams may prove to be a valuable aid regarding the impact and influence of regular imagery training. Indeed, measurement in the area of imagery has always caused researchers problems. Future research utilizing long-term extensive imagery practice may find that interviewing students regarding the quality of both dreams and sleep may provide interesting correlations. Carl Jung makes reference to the importance of dreams, suggesting that they 'give information about the secrets of the inner life and reveal to the dreamer hidden factors of his personality' (Jung, 1933, p. 16). With deeper levels of practice, this 'inner world' may be accessed, allowing the development of Jung's active imagination, which refers to a technique for granting the psyche freedom and time to express itself spontaneously without the usual interference of the ego (Stevens, 1994). Stevens continues: "active imagination requires a state of reverie, half-way between sleep and waking. It is like beginning to fall asleep but stopping short before consciousness is lost, and remaining in that condition, and observing what occurs" (p. 108). Other Application. The group quickly found ways of utilizing these techniques in other areas of life. The simple act of breathing awareness is a simple activity which can be used in preparation for tests or exams, job interviews, or other. Indeed, the intrinsic value 63 o f these ski l ls, ma in ly i nvo lv ing m ind condi t ioning and strength, was seen as o w n i n g its o w n value, regardless o f the appl icat ion, sport or otherwise. Suggestions for Imagery Teachers Be bo ld in creating learning environments. Due to the newness o f imagery t ra in ing, f i r m guidelines have not been provided. Neither coaching cert i f icat ion nor teacher's col lege prov ide guidance or instruct ion in imagery t ra in ing. Search fo r l i terature concerning its use, and a l low i t to enhance your o w n ideas regarding the imagery environment. Seek professional t ra in ing in the area o f counsel l ing or sport counsel l ing. Participate in groups wh ich o w n a counsel l ing perspective. Educate yourselves on breakthroughs in education, counsel l ing and psychology. Cont inu ing to p lay the role o f student w i l l enhance your o w n learning environments. U t i l i ze a Rogerian approach to learning. "Roger ' s basic assumptions are that people are essentially t rustworthy, that they have a vast potent ial f o r understanding themselves and resolv ing their o w n problems wi thout direct intervent ion on the (coach's) part, and that they are capable o f self-directed g rowth i f they are i nvo lved in a (sport) re lat ionship." (Corey, 1996 p. 202). A coach wh ich sees learning as more than a process o f constant attention and input may a l low players an opportuni ty to become more self-directed and responsible. Establish a trust ing environment. Imagery t ra in ing has been shown to be helpfu l , but remains relat ively new. A s such, students o f imagery w i l l be unsure o f its purpose and process upon entering. U t i l i z i n g group-bui ld ing activit ies and trust fo rmat ion techniques w i l l go far to insur ing that a safe environment is created for imagery 's op t ima l use. Provide t ime fo r pract icing communicat ion skil ls. U t i l i z i ng imagery training may open new perspectives fo r ind iv idual group members, wh ich w i l l require expression to be understood. Be sure that group norms regarding non- judgmental , uncondi t ional support among group members are clearly ident i f ied. Allow students to arr ive at their o w n conclusions. A l thouugh guidance and support are essential, imagery t ra in ing is most def in i te ly a solo journey. B y assuring a 64 relaxing, non-defensive educational environment, there may be little need for further intervention. Define and redefine key concepts. Stressing the importance of defining concepts and providing the space for students to create their own working definitions may prove quite valuable. The language behind the group has much to do with the group itself. By remaining positive and honest, the imagery group is less likely to stall. Encourage students to be creative. Creativity and spontaneity are important indicators of personal growth. Promote the use of journals or sport logs to allow students to describe life to themself and others. Painting or writing one's emotions and thoughts may allow an opportunity for healthy expression. Incorporate imagery skills into a sport or exercise setting. Applying imagery lessons into the sporting environment may prove a useful connection. In order for imagery training to be used effectively, the skills are best utilized directly with sport itself. Future Directions for Imagery Research The future of imagery research holds the promise of a great many things. The importance of a strong mind, coupled with a growing interest in mind/body techniques places great responsibility on those interested in shaping the future of sport and sport education. As reviewed in chapter two, the groundwork for new developments in imagery has been laid, with numerous studies supporting its benefit to self and sport. Questions regarding the mechanisms underlying imagery's effectiveness have begun to be addressed, but further and deeper questioning is necessary. This section presents the researcher's ideas regarding future research directions, which may lead to a better understanding of imagery's potential. Consolidation of Definition. In order for imagery research to proceed effectively, consolidating its definition is needed. This consolidation may involve reviewing, linking, and contrasting the definitions of imagery practitioners. Through identification of important characteristics and motives of both imagery and imagery training programs, avenues of research may be best identified. Clarifying the roles of 65 relaxat ion and medi tat ion in regards to the imagery question may a l low teachers and researchers an oppor tun i ty to best create an opt imal learning environment. I n addi t ion, a consol idated def in i t ion may prov ide graduate students interested i n the study o f imagery f i r m guidelines i n wh ich to plan and test programs wh ich may better serve the col lect ive search fo r answers. Imagery researchers may also find great value in def in ing other important concepts o f the imagery question. Assur ing that the f ields o f sport counsel l ing, sport psychology and sport phi losophy are proper ly ident i f ied may be essential to organiz ing effect ive lines o f research. Ident i fy ing the role o f imagery fo r these connected, but separate f ie lds may a l low al l in format ion to feed a hol ist ic picture o f imagery. More Learning Environments. The purpose o f this study was to present imagery t ra in ing tools w i thout a l i nk to sport performance, but as a l ink to l i fe performance and experience. Sport was used as a vehicle to create an interest ing and enjoyable learning environment in w h i c h to introduce and practice these tools. I n this manner, the 'process' o f imagery could be investigated, at tempting to prov ide in-depth accounts o f h o w these tools and their implementat ion impacted the learner. Future research, interested in the process o f imagery may also find benefit in this approach to research, one wh ich focuses on actual learning environments. A l t hough the debate regarding how best to ut i l ize imagery continues, its importance is w ide ly accepted. I n the coming years, direct research in to actual learning environments seems a necessity. I n regards to imagery research, qual i tat ive methodology may be an indispensable tool . B y a l low ing actual imagery students a voice i n wh ich to share ideas, opinions, and cr i t ic isms o f imagery t ra in ing programs, future imagery learning environments may be enhanced. Th is study employed the use o f these techniques in an extra-curr icular h igh school envi ronment , b r ing ing together athletes f r o m di f ferent sports. Future research at tempt ing to use imagery and group principles direct ly in to the sport setting may be an impor tant d i rect ion to take. M u c h o f the value o f these techniques is der ived f r o m dai ly use. T o this 66 extent, the high school sport setting may be a prime vehicle in which to better understand these processes. Performance Measurement. Although there have been many studies in the area of sport imagery, reaching firm conclusions regarding its use remains difficult. The foremost research difficulty in sport imagery is the issue of measurement. For the most part, sport psychology has utilized sport performance measurements to monitor the impact of imagery interventions. Due to the individual nature of imagery and potential time lags regarding its effects, and the extremely large number of factors impacting performance, studies using performance measures may not be able to get to the 'heart' of the imagery question. In determining the future of imagery, it is important to question its purpose. Why is imagery important? How can imagery be effectively taught? In what setting do students learn and use imagery most effectively? What leader characteristics are necessary? Can imagery be researched with a continual external focus? What does the experience of imagery provide for students? What preparatory tools are important to optimal imagery and why? B y first answering these questions, researchers may be able to best direct research to unravel its mystery and power. In regards to sport performance, this study offers little information. The focus of this study was geared to self-growth and inquiry rather than actual sport performance. A s such, future research focused on athletic performance may not choose this type of study design. However, this approach coupled with performance monitoring may also be useful. (For example, Rachel, a ninth grade varsity starter and group member, shot 9/10 from the field and 5/5 from the line in the Ontario Girls Basketball Final Four contributing to the team's bronze medal.) Imagery and the Group. Further research into the importance of the group and group process is required. The link between the group and the team is a natural one, and testing accepted non-sport group models in the sport environment may provide valuable 67 information. The group process model utilized in this study, based in non-defensiveness, trust and growth may be a particularly interesting line of research in the coming years. The importance of the group and its development need not be restricted to the study of imagery. It may be true that safety, trust, and comfort are necessary prerequisites to an effective imagery training program. However, with further research support, these valuable group properties may be shown to be essential elements for any sport team or class, with or without the use of imagery. As research develops in this area of group dynamics, it may be analyzed with the existing literature on team cohesion and satisfaction. By integrated these findings, positive and progression movements may be identified for teachers and coaches of sport. Furthermore, the budding field of sport counselling may gain strength. Indeed, viewing sport as a prime vehicle for inner growth and transformation may allow experts in the field to develop and implement innovative sport learning environments, which may better serve young students. Cul tura l Differences. In regards to imagery, cultural differences have yet to be studied. In order to effectively understand the motive, process, and product of imagery, studying how different cultures view and practice this skill may be necessary. Are certain cultures more likely to use imagery than others? Are certain culture more likely to believe in its power than others? Does the familial support granted certain cultures aid in the usefulness of imagery practice? Indeed, these questions are not easy ones to answer, but by beginning to search for cultural links, the research and practice of imagery may be directed effectively. Concluding Remarks As we ponder the implications of this study, many issues arise from a number of different fields. With this project, the study of sport imagery with adolescent athletes has been extended in a number of ways. Most important of which is the utilization of a supported group process model. This study has provided preliminary support for the 68 usefulness of such a model in providing an optimal environment for imagery use and discussion. The model and its operation is not an approach which can be taken lightly. Its basis in counselling knowledge and training combined with the leader's own inner strength make this approach to sport and learning a delicate operation. Therefore, although this study provides support for its usefulness, without skilled leadership, the effects could do more harm than good. Regardless of the approach, realizing the importance and value of creating a safe, inclusive, and unconditional environment for learning and sharing remains useful to any and all sport coaches and teachers. In addition, the use of meditation as a preparation for imagery has also gained exposure with this study. The importance of breathing awareness provides a useful link between the actual experience and the image. In addition, utilizing meditation as 'training wheels' for optimal imagery may be appropriate for some students. As a life tool, meditation serves its own purpose, providing a bridge to sleep and dreams, and also serving spiritual needs. Meditation can help trigger, what Jung refers to as, the transcendent function, allowing persons to access their own archetypes in search of a stronger Self. For the past forty years, imagery research has developed and transformed in effective ways. As one peers into the vast array of scientific findings, the scope and magnitude of imagery becomes obvious. Imagery has stood alone as a field of study, but seems to naturally touch a vast number of fields- motivation, self-confidence, learning, and performance. And although untested, imagery and its link to the mind also opens avenues of thought regarding other interesting topics- sleep, dreams, inner growth and the flow experience. The challenge for imagery scientists is not only to continue to attack the mainstream lines of inquiry, but also to begin to delve into the deeper questions, which are begging to be asked. It is only through these collective efforts that the imagery puzzle may be completed. And until such time, research and practice continues with the hope that what is finally revealed is that which we already know to be true. 69 E P I L O G U E Thesis Meditations The following writing enactments have helped make sense of the vast degree of knowledge and experience which has accompanied this graduate project. Expression has not arrived easily throughout my study period, but as I have prepared the final document, I am pulled to disclose these metaphorical findings. Indeed, much of the value of any research is directly related to the philosophical and moral ground of the researcher. I am hopeful that my disposition toward process and experience is made clear through these individual accounts. The implications to sport, education and life remain in the mind and heart of the reader, however, the writer has gained a greater understanding of these elements under the umbrella of expression, which these stories have allowed. Contents The Cove of Knowledge Creating Snow Illusions of Grandeur The Tree of Wisdom The Mountain Trail Morning Session Vancouver Rain Pillows of Books Imagining Soccer Walking and Talking with Jung The Train of Study 7 5 7 6 7 7 7 8 7 9 8 1 8 2 8 3 8 5 8 6 8 7 70 The C o v e of Knowledge I w a n d e r t h e halls o f The House o f S tudy , w i t h o u t p a r t i c u l a r p u r p o s e , a n d s t u m b l e i n t o a r o o m w h i c h has n o n a m e o n t h e d o o r . I p r o p o p e n t h e d o o r a n d t a k e t h e first s t e p i n to a d e l i g h t f u l r o o m , w i t h sof t c a r p e t , c l e a n wa l ls , a n d s tacks a n d s tacks o f b o o k s . As I c l o s e t h e d o o r b e h i n d m e , s ign i fy ing m y p r e s e n c e , t h e l i tt le v o i c e ins ide m e wh ispers , " W e l c o m e t o t h e C o v e o f K n o w l e d g e . " I e n t e r e d p e a c e f u l l y , n o b o d y o n a n y s ide o f m e ; a n d w a s g r e e t e d b y t h e p i c t u r e o f a l a r g e g r o u p c l u s t e r e d in o n e a r e a o f t h e r o o m . There w e r e o t h e r p e o p l e s c a t t e r e d a b o u t , n o t h o l d i n g t o a n y p a r t i c u l a r o r d e r o r d isc ip l ine . I w a l t z e d o v e r t o t h e a r e a h o l d i n g t h e la rges t g r o u p , b e l i e v i n g it w a s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t , a n d h e l p e d myse l f t o o n e o f t h e b o o k s . I w i p e d t h e dus t f r o m this p a r t i c u l a r v o l u m e a n d r e a d t h e t i t le o f t h e b o o k : " A n I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f D r e a m s b y S i g m u n d F r e u d " . I n t r i g u e d i m m e d i a t e l y b y t h e w o r d , dreams, I b e g a n p e r u s i n g m y d a i l y r e a d i n g . Be fo re I h a d c o m p l e t e d a g l a n c e o f t h e t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s , I c o u l d f e e l t h e sexua l t e n s i o n b u i l d i n g ins ide m e a n d u n c o n s c i o u s l y a t t r i b u t e d it t o t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g sexua l e n e r g y w h i c h w a s n o w g la r ing ly a p p a r e n t in t h o s e a r o u n d m e . I k n e w v e r y q u i c k l y t h a t I w a s in o v e r m y h e a d , b u t e n j o y e d r e m a i n i n g a c h a r a c t e r in this g r o u p ' s lustful s p a c e , s imply b r e a t h i n g m y b r e a t h a n d m i n d i n g Freud 's m i n d . As t h e p a g e s f l i p p e d , e a c h c l e a r e r t h a n its p r e d e c e s s o r , I l i ved o u t t h e m e s s a g e s b e t w e e n t h e l ines, d r e a m i n g o f i n t r o d u c t o r y p s y c h o l o g y courses r e p e a t i n g t h e s a m e s h a d o w y lines; r e p e a t i n g t h e s a m e i n t e l l e c t u a l f l a v o u r o f a wr i te r w h o h a d n o t y e t r e s o l v e d his o w n sexua l repressions; r e p e a t i n g t h e w o r d s o f t h e G r a n d f a t h e r o f P s y c h o l o g y , w h o a l t h o u g h u n p e r f e c t e d , w a s p r o v i d e d l isense t o a n o i n t t h e w o r l d w i t h his i m a g i n a t i o n a n d e n e r g y . I r e a d o n w a r d , a l l o w i n g d r e a m s o f b o t h p a i n a n d p l e a s u r e t o wh is t le t h r o u g h m y rep ressed soul . I fe l t a n g e r t o so m a n y w h o h a d p o i s o n e d m e w i t h the i r insecur i t ies; a n d fe l t a n g e r t o mysel f fo r h a v i n g d o n e t h e s a m e t o o thers . I fe l t sadness a t t h e s t a t e o f t h e w o r l d , rea l iz ing t h e c h a i n s o f b o n d a g e in w h i c h w e w e r e c a u g h t . I fe l t l one ly in t h e f a c e o f w h a t I d i d n o t k n o w a b o u t mysel f . I fe l t n e e d y , p l e a d i n g fo r a r e l e a s e f r o m this v is ion o f t h e h u m a n c o n d i t i o n . Disgust a n d hor ror e m a n a t i n g , I c o n t i n u e d t o f l ip p a g e s , I c o n t i n u e d t o r e a d o n , I c o n t i n u e d t o i m m e r s e myse l f i n to th is p r e s c r i b e d a c a d e m i c r e q u i r e m e n t . 71 By day's end, I was left studying alone. The group of eager students, who greeted my late arrival were now busy immersing themselves in the Freudian Reality of Life. I was aware of my alone-ness, but continued to read on into the deep of night. It was not until well after the midnight hour that I finally closed the book. At the time, I had no idea what I had gained from reading it. Quotes and references alluded my grasp, left instead with the implant of many interesting themes: Psychoanalysis, Sublimation, Transference, Hidden Sexual Impulses, Inadequacy, Therapist Dependency, Denial, and Ego to name a few. I made my way to the exit, and prior to leaving, peered at the empty library of psychology. As the words of Freud flung from the immediate conscious into the always waiting and floating unconscious, I promised myself that the next time I walk into this Cove of Knowledge, I would take a path less travelled. Creating Snow On the steps of The House, I stare at the snow I have created. It is pure and white, clean and cool. Most of the patrons choose a more realistic project, one which can be capsualized and presented in a simple project. Why did I choose to create snow? It is beautiful to look at, incredible to feel, but far too difficult to research and to prove. I look upward and see that the sky is blue and feel that the air is warming. I stutter to myself, knowing the unenviable position in which I am trapped. I have proposed snow, succeeded in creating snow, and must now calmly watch the snow disappear in front of my eyes. As I stare into the multitude of files, my heart is ripped open as I understand that without the product, any attempts to convince my advisors that I had succeeded will be in vain. Indeed, even the limited articles I have referenced cannot offer any service to my findings. The findings were of the experience and are best suited to discussion rather than analysis. My spirit sinks as I watch the beloved Sun melt away my graduate thesis. In desperation, I attempt to build something, something which can never capture the essence of snow, but perhaps something that I could present, a piece of the puzzle. In my mind only, I make snowballs and crunch them together, believing the carving can come later. 72 I am careful not to bite off more than I can chew, realizing that quality is more important than quantity. My last gasps are good ones, and I return to the steps as silly as I was creative. In a heap, I throw the snow back onto the lawn, knowing that as quick as I arrive at my room temperature cubicle, any remnants of the now-disappeared snow would evaporate. As I picture myself dry but desolate, the campus clock chimes 8:00 and I know that I must begin my day's work, praying that it snows on defence day. Illusions of Grandeur I was standing on the roof of the House of Study meditating through the summer breeze which blew in from the North. I remained calm and tranquil, allowing thoughts of study and experience to arrive, be heard, and pass on. On this particular day, there seemed no rest from the spinning mind, but I remained true to my breathing and breezy mantra, awaiting the delicate moments of complete emptiness. As always, it was difficult to know how many earthly minutes had passed, but I completed my spiritual practice at the precise moment it was destined to be completed and stretched out my painful legs. As I did, a revelation hit me, leaving me gasping for air. Sweat began to pour down, my body temperature rising rapidly, the mind so recently calm and balanced, now spinning and excited. I jumped to my feet, ready to tell the world of the true future of sport and life; ready to tell the world that God had sent another Messenger; ready to tell the world that our modern day savior was not of the human form, but had arrived in the ever-changing and ever-dynamic form of Sport. The revelation was as clear as the crisp blue sky and as mysterious as the chilling summer breeze which continued to float divine messages into my dormant unconscious. How so wonderful. Everyone knows of sports, and now, they will know of Sport. I had yet to outline a plan to tell the world of this new found vehicle to liberation, when I gazed to the heavens and noticed a ripple in the sky. "A Hole in the Sky", my little voice murmured. But how could this be? I looked down from my perch onto the lawn of The House of Study hoping somebody else was witnessing this mysterious spectacle, but could locate no one. When I peered back to the sky, the hole in the sky had disappeared. Now shaken and disturbed, I wandered around the roof aimlessly, 73 w o n d e r i n g w h a t t o m a k e o f this a f t e r n o o n ' s f e r v e n t a c t i v i t y . The m i n d q u i c k l y t o o k c h a r g e , d ispe l l ing al l no t ions o f g r a n d e u r , a n d ra t iona l i z ing t h e mys te r ious ' H o l e in t h e Sky' as a p o s t - h y p n o t i c m e d i t a t i v e h a l l u c i n a t i o n . I t o o k s t o c k o f m y e v e r - g r o w i n g e g o a n d slid d o w n t h e ivy v ines c a r r y i n g m e b a c k d o w n t o Ear th. As I r e a c h e d t h e g r o u n d , t h e c o u r t y a r d c l o c k c h i m e d 3:00 a n d I k n e w it w a s t i m e fo r m y n e x t c lass, e n t i t l e d : ' M e d i t a t i o n a n d The G o d C o m p l e x ' . G i v e n t h e d a y ' s e v e n t s , it w a s a class I m o s t c e r t a i n l y d i d n o t w a n t t o miss. The Tree of Wisdom As I w a l k a l o n g t h e P a t h o f K n o w l e d g e , d r e a m i n g o f m y re tu rn t o The H o u s e o f S t u d y , I c a t c h t h e vis ion o f a g r e a t Tree o f W i s d o m . M y m e d i t a t i v e w a l k i n g t rans fo rms inst inct ive ly t o s t a n d i n g m e d i t a t i o n , m y o b j e c t o f m e d i t a t i o n n o w The Tree o f W i s d o m . O n t h e s u r f a c e , this t r e e rests l ike al l o the rs , p r o v i d i n g b o t h s h a d e a n d o x y g e n , b u t in m y s t a t e o f e m p t i n e s s I a m m a g n e t i c a l l y d r a w n t o this C o n i f e r o u s C r e a t u r e o f C r e a t i o n . As I rest m y g a z e o n t h e t r e m e n d o u s p r e s e n c e in f r o n t o f m e , t h e r e a s o n fo r s t o p p i n g f inds m e , as I w a t c h t h e t r e e c a r r y itself i n to t h e d a y l i g h t sky. I w a t c h t h e t r e e l a u n c h itself i n to t h e un iverse f l o a t i n g pu rpose fu l l y o u t o f r a n g e , l e a v i n g o n l y t h e c l e a r b l u e sky. The sun , n o w b e a t i n g d o w n o n m e p r o v i d e s p r o o f t h a t t h e r e a r e answers a m i d s t t h e fo res t o f t h e o r y a n d k n o w l e d g e , p r o v i d e s be l i e f t h a t t h e L ight d o e s w a n t t o sh ine , p r o v i d e s e n c o u r a g e m e n t t h a t t h e j o u r n e y in to n o t h i n g n e s s c a n p r o v i d e t h e u l t i m a t e g i f t o f e v e r y t h i n g . I a m a w a r e o f m y l o c a t i o n , n o t f a r f r o m t h e House o f S t u d y , a w a r e o f m y lonel iness, a w a r e o f m y c o m p u l s i v e n e s s , a w a r e o f m y s t u b b o r n n e s s , a w a r e o f m y m a n i a , a w a r e o f m y d e p r e s s i o n , a w a r e o f m y d o u b t , a w a r e o f m y f e a r a n d a w a r e o f t h e p e r v a d i n g darkness w h i c h rests u n d e r n e a t h t h e L ight w h i c h n o w shines. I a m a w a r e o f m y b o d y , I a m a w a r e o f b r e a t h i n g , I a m a w a r e o f t h e n o t h i n g n e s s w h i c h is m e . I a m a w a r e o f m y b ro the rs , I a m a w a r e o f m y sisters, I a m a w a r e o f m y m o t h e r s , I a m a w a r e o f m y fa the rs , I a m a w a r e o f m y sons a n d I a m a w a r e o f m y d a u g h t e r s . I a m a w a r e o f m y self, I a m a w a r e o f m y e g o , a n d I a m a w a r e o f G o d , w h o s e Light myster ious ly shines a m i d s t t h e t h i c k a n d d e n s e forest . 74 As I s ta re i n t o t h e n o t h i n g n e s s w h i c h is e v e r y t h i n g , a c l o u d m a k e s its w a y in f r o n t o f t h e g l o w i n g sun. Be fo re I c a n d e t e r m i n e w h a t has c a u s e d t h e s h a d o w , m y Tree o f W i s d o m shoots o u t o f t h e sky, r e t u r n i n g t o its r ight fu l p l a c e o n t h e J o u r n e y o f Life. U p o n r e t u r n , t h e t r e e d o e s n o t f e e l a n e e d t o te l l o f its j o u r n e y in to t imeless s p a c e , b u t w a r m l y asks o f m i n e . Be fo re r e c o u n t i n g m y e x p e r i e n c e , I s t o p mysel f , k n o w i n g The Tree o f W i s d o m k n e w m y story fa r b e f o r e I i m a g i n e d it. Bl inking f ina l ly , m y g a z e r e t u r n e d t o t h e p a t h a h e a d , w h i c h ins t inc t ive ly l e a d s m e b a c k t o m e d i t a t i v e w a l k i n g . The g l o w i n g e x p e r i e n c e , n o t h e l d as a n y t h i n g u n u s u a l o r o u t o f t h e o r d i n a r y , a l l o w e d t o a r r i ve , b e e x p e r i e n c e d a n d t o pass o n , l e a v i n g n o t h i n g t a n g i b l e t o s c i e n c e , b u t s o m e t h i n g v e r y rea l t o l i fe. The p a t h a h e a d n o t a n y b r i g h t e r f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e , b u t for m o m e n t s a f t e r , t h e s teps r e m a r k a b l y l ighter . The Mountain Trail I w a l k s lowly , b e n d i n g myse l f i n to t h e d e p t h s o f t h e m o u n t a i n t ra i l . I c a n n o t s e e The H o u s e o f S t u d y , b u t k n o w t h a t t h e j o u r n e y l e a d s t o a p a n o r a m i c v i e w o f her . As I t rek u p w a r d , I rea l ize h o w l ight ' t h e w a y ' c a n b e . Trea l ize h o w p e a c e f u l e a c h s t e p c a n b e . I rea l ize h o w t h e m o u n t a i n s e e m s t o h a v e k n o w n a b o u t this j o u r n e y l o n g b e f o r e m e , a n d has p r e p a r e d t h e trai l fo r m e . I rea l ize h o w e a c h s t e p s e e m s t o b e g r e e t e d w i t h g e n u i n e c a r e f r o m t h e e a r t h b e n e a t h . The p a t h b e n d s , a n d w i t h it, m y e y e s c a t c h a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e sky, w h i c h b a c k d r o p s t h e b r a n c h e s . The sky, a m o m e n t a g o b l u e , has b e c o m e a s h a d o w y b l a c k . The sun , l o n g a g o set , e c h o e s h e r l o v e , b e g i n n i n g in t h e w e s t a n d e n d i n g in t h e eas t . The p a t h c o n t i n u e s u p w a r d , f o r e t e l l i n g on l y da rkness . I real ize t h e t r u t h o f n i g h t w h i c h h a s h a p p e n e d u p o n m e . The t ra i l c o n t i n u e s a n d I e m b r a c e t h e darkness w h i c h fuels m y t r ip . M y p a c k is l ight a n d if m y c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e c o r r e c t , I will a r r i ve a t m y s u m m i t in t i m e t o w e l c o m e t h e Sun. I r e m e m b e r a t i m e w h e n I w o u l d d o this trai l w i t h a s p o t l i g h t , b u t n o w f e e l m u c h m o r e c o m f o r t a b l e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e da rkness , b e l i e v i n g it is b e t t e r t o h a v e n o l igh t o n e v e r y t h i n g , t h a n s o m e l ight o n s o m e t h i n g s . A n d a lso , o n c e o n e has t h e f a i t h t o t u r n o f f t h e spo t l i gh t a n d l ive in d a r k n e s s , t h e l ight d o e s f ina l ly sh ine. A n d if y o u ask G o d , He is a l w a y s h a p p y t o p r o v i d e m o r e . 75 The tra i l c o n t i n u e s a n d b e n d s a g a i n , t h e sky c o m p l e t e l y b l a c k , b u t t h e trai l lit u p , as if w i t h c a n d l e s . As I p e e r in to t h e da rkness , I s e e t h e a n s w e r t o m y p raye rs ; a q u a r t e r m o o n fluttering a m i d s t t h e f e w p l a y f u l c l o u d s o f t h e n igh t . I c a r r y o n , m y f e e t k n o w i n g p a i n , b u t t r a n s m i t t i n g p l e a s u r e . M y h e a r t r a c e s w i t h e a c h s t r e n g t h e n i n g s t e p . There a r e spots w h e r e it is v e r y d i f f i cu l t t o see . I l ook t o t h e skies, b u t a m e n g u l f e d w i t h t h e da rkness o f h e a v y l e a v e s a n d t h i c k forest . I l o o k t o t h e sky a n d f i n d da rkness , b u t I, t r u d g e o n w a r d . I m o v e w i t h inst inct , k n o w i n g t h a t t h e h i d d e n m o o n wil l s o o n r e t u r n , t h a t t h e p a t h wi l l a g a i n f i n d l ight . As e g o a n d t h o u g h t t r a n s c e n d l e a v i n g o n l y t h e c r u n c h o f t h e trai l a n d t h e da rkness o f t h e w a y , I b e g i n t o h e a r t h e i n f a m o u s h o o t s a n d h o w l s o f t h e forest . I c o n t i n u e o n w a r d a n d h e a r shouts a n d shrieks: " h e l p m e , I a m s tuck . h e l p m e , I h a v e lost m y w a y . h e l p m e , it is t o o d a r k t o s e e . " I t ry t o h e l p , b u t q u i c k l y real ize t h a t t h o s e c a u g h t in darkness mus t l e a r n t o s t a n d a n d w a l k o n the i r o w n , b e f o r e t h e y c a n b e g u i d e d t o t h e Light. I c o n t i n u e o n w a r d , r e t u r n i n g t o m y lonel iness. The fores t a n i m a l s c o n t i n u e t o h a u n t m y e v e r y s t e p . M y ra t iona l i za t ions n e v e r s e c u r i n g p e a c e fo r t o o l o n g : " h e l p m e l e a r n t o w a l k , h e l p m e t o s t a n d o n m y o w n . I a m n o t a f r a i d o f t h e darkness . I w o u l d l ike t o t r a v e l a l o n g w i t h y o u , b u t first t e a c h m e h o w t o w a l k . " M y i m m e d i a t e r e s p o n s e i n to t h e h e a t o f t h e n i g h t , k n o w i n g t h a t I h a v e d e a d l i n e s t o m e e t , is: "To l e a r n t o w a l k t h e w a y , b e g i n b r e a t h i n g a n d b e l i e v i n g , c a r i n g a n d c o n c e n t r a t i n g , re lax ing a n d r e l e a s i n g , s t u d y i n g a n d s e e i n g , p r a y i n g a n d p a n t i n g , m e d i t a t i n g a n d m i n d i n g , a n d i n v e n t i n g a n d i m a g i n i n g a n d y o u wil l n o t on l y l e a r n h o w t o w a l k , b u t a lso h o w t o f ly." I stroll o n w a r d , w ish ing I c o u l d d o m o r e , b u t real ize unless a n d unt i l I t a k e c a r e o f m y n e e d s , h o w c a n I possib ly b e o f se rv i ce t o o thers . The v o i c e s f a d e as t h e forest b r e a k s a n d turns e v e r c loser t o m y sunrise p e r c h . The m o o n , o n its o w n t rave ls , s t re t ches h i g h e r i n to t h e sky, a n d I th ink o f ' h e r ' , w o n d e r i n g if she is w a t c h i n g this s a m e m o o n . The n i g h t rolls 76 o n w a r d , e a c h s t e p h e a v i e r a n d h a p p i e r t h a n its p r e d e c e s s o r . The m o u n t a i n , as s t e e p as e v e r , has sh i f ted t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l , m y g a z e f o c u s e d o n t h e g r o u n d b e l o w , b e l i e v i n g e a c h s t e p t o b e as s i m p l e as a c h i l d ' s first. No t ions o f s c h o o l , spo r t , G o d a n d ' h e r ' i n t e r t w i n e t h e m s e l v e s i n to m y m e d i t a t i v e m o o n w a l k , e a c h s t e p b r i n g i n g m e c loser t o e a c h o f t h e m , e a c h s t e p o w n i n g a n i m p o r t a n t ro le in t h e o v e r a l l p i c t u r e , e a c h s t e p k n o w i n g t h a t if o n e is m issed , t h e r e m a y b e n o o t h e r . I w a l k o n w a r d , I w a l k u p w a r d , u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t e n d i n g t h e t r ip m a y b e t h e m o s t d i f f icu l t . The e a s t ho r i zon g l o w s , s ign i fy ing t h e e n d o f n igh t . I w res t l e w i t h m y last f e w s teps , l o v i n g t h e f e e l i n g o f p a i n a l m o s t - e n d e d . I e m b r a c e t h e last f e w s teps a n d k n o w t h a t m y s u m m i t n o w a w a i t s . As I rest m y p a c k a t j o u r n e y ' s d e s t i n a t i o n , t h e t o w n b e l o w s leeps, e x p e c t a n t o f a la rms . The a i r is t h i n , b u t f resh. The d a w n a i i ve a n d w o n d e r f u l . M y b o d y a c h i n g b u t a w a k e , e a c h p a r t w a n t i n g a p i e c e o f t h e Light. I rest o n a r o c k a n d m e l t i n to t h e d a w n i n g . M y m i n d is p e a c e f u l , s a c r e d , a n d si lent, a l l o w i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e itself t o d o t h e t a l k i n g . M y h e a r t is n e e d y b u t h a p p y , u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e m i r a c l e w h i c h is t a k i n g p l a c e . M y spirit, a l r e a d y h e r e , jo ins m y Self s o a k i n g in t h e first f e w rays o f G o d ' s n e w l ight . O n c e s e e n , t h e Light arr ives q u i c k l y , a l l o w i n g m y g a z e t o d r o p t o t h e v i l l a g e b e l o w . A n d w i t h e y e s u n b l i n k i n g , I s p o t The H o u s e a n d w o n d e r if t h e y c a n e v e r k n o w o f t h e mys te ry a n d e x c i t e m e n t w h i c h p e r v a d e s o n t h e m o u n t a i n t o p . Morning Session It has b e e n r a i n i n g fo r w h a t s e e m s like w e e k s . The ra in sesshin w a s o n l y t o last a w e e k , b u t s i n c e I h a d y e t t o a t t a i n ' t h e g r e a t e s t g i f t ' , I w a s d e t e r m i n e d t o c o n t i n u e m y m e d i t a t i v e ques t . M y m o r n i n g b i k e session w o u l d b e g i n w h e n I fe l t r e a d y t o f inal ly real ize t h a t m o m e n t o f c o m p l e t e stillness a n d o n e n e s s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s spo r t f l ow . I a w a k e t o t h e m u t t e r i n g s o f m y b i k e , b u t a m q u i c k l y c a u g h t b y m y spor t k o a n - h o w d o e s a t e a m s c o r e m o r e g o a l s t h a n its o p p o n e n t a n d still lose? M y s i m p l e - m i n d e d n e s s m a k e s this d i f f i cu l t t o c o m p r e h e n d b y i n t e l l e c t u a l m e a n s a n d I r e l e a s e i n to t h e e x p e r i e n c e , w h i c h rests d r o p p i n g in ra ind ro p s . 77 A h h a . M y f o c u s . As s l e e p consc iousness f a d e s in to t h e t r u t h w h i c h is ' t h e w a y ' , m y f o c u s has f o u n d m e . I r e m a i n o p e n a n d a w a r e , c o n t i n u a l l y a s k i n g t h e ra in : " W h e r e d i d y o u c o m e f r o m ? W h e r e a r e y o u g o i n g ? As m y ket t les b r e w s , I real ize t h a t I a m a g a i n d a y - d r e a m i n g r a t h e r t h a n m e d i t a t i n g . The t e a ke t t l e , h a p p y t o h a v e p l a y e d a l a r m c l o c k whispers : " t h e r e is n o d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n d r e a m i n g a n d m e d i t a t i n g " . I p o u r m y t e a , a n d p r e p a r e fo r m o r n i n g session. From t h e first sip o f t e a , I a m a w a k e n e d , n o t n e e d i n g c a f f e i n e , b u t w a r m t h . M y g a z e is f o r w a r d , I sit u p r i g h t , n o t e b o o k a n d p e n h a n d y . I a m sure t o t a k e e a c h sip or g u l p o f t e a w i t h c o m p l e t e a w a r e n e s s , f e e l i n g t h e n e e d , h e a r i n g t h e m i n d ye l l i ng a t m y h a n d a n d a r m t o lift a n d tw is t , sme l l i ng t h e r e m n a n t s o f last n igh t ' s i n c e n s e , m y spirit f l o w i n g a n d a t t e n t i v e t o t h e ra in w h i c h d r o p s . S i l ence r e m a i n i n g g o l d e n , I e a t b r e a k f a s t , s a d d l e u p m y p a c k , a n d f l o a t i n to r id ing m o d e . The ra in has s l o w e d , s e e m i n g l y w a n t i n g t o h e l p m e ar r i ve safe ly . I r i de , e a c h r o t a t i o n a c t i n g as a r o t a t i o n o f t h e e a r t h a r o u n d t h e s u n , e a c h p u d d l e a s c a t t e r i n g o f a n o t h e r un iverse , e a c h c a r w h i c h passes m e , a n o t h e r o n e o n the i r w a y t o e n l i g h t e n m e n t . The t ra i l t o The House o w n s t w o rou tes a n d I f i n d myse l f o n t h e l o n g e r r o u t e . I w o n d e r if I h a v e t i m e a n d h a p p i l y real ize t h a t she is o n m y s ide . The t ra i l b e n d s a n d twists, a n d e n d s m a g i c a l l y w i t h a g r u e l i n g c l i m b . U p o n r e a c h i n g t h e t o p , a n d s e e i n g t h e g l e a m o f t h e c a m p u s c l o c k , I rea l ize I a m l a t e a n d p r a y it is n o t d e f e n c e d a y . Vancouver Rain I rest o n Facu l t y L a w n , s t r a n d e d u n d e r n e a t h t h e p o u r i n g ra in . There is a chi l l in t h e air , b u t I d o n o t f i n d it c o l d . I b e g i n b y w a l k i n g a b o u t , l o o k i n g a n d b e l i e v i n g a t t h o s e a r o u n d m e . The stories o f l ife y e t t o b e t o l d , I e m b r a c e t h e c h a r a c t e r s , w h o c o l l e c t i v e m a k e u p The House. I s e e e y e s p e e r i n g a t m e , w o n d e r i n g w h o I a m , a n d w h y I d o n ' t c o m e in o u t o f t h e ra in . En joy ing t h e ra in as m u c h as I d o , I c a n n o t v e r b a l i z e t h e j o y o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e , I c a n o n l y m o d e l it. The w a l k turns t i r i ng , so I f i n d a p l a c e t o 'si t ' . The c a m p u s is lush w i t h g r e e n grass a n d w ise p ines , t h e air cr isp a n d p u r e . As I sit a n d m e d i t a t e , b a s k i n g in t h e s h o w e r s a n d s torms, I m o v e b e y o n d t h e p e o p l e , I m o v e b e y o n d 78 a c a d e m i c s , I m o v e b e y o n d soc ia l a l i e n a t i o n , I m o v e b e y o n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l misg iv ings , I m o v e b e y o n d p a r e n t a l pressure, I m o v e b e y o n d c a r e e r o b j e c t i v e s , I m o v e b e y o n d t h e en t i t y k n o w n as m i n d s p a c e , a n d f i n d a h o m e in t h e rea l i ty o f i n n e r s p a c e . The d r o p s hi t m e o n e b y o n e , e a c h te l l i ng a d i f f e r e n t story. O n e ar r i v ing f r o m a m o n s o o n in I n d i a , te l l i ng o f p o v e r t y a n d progress . A n o t h e r , o n its w a y t o Israel s c r e a m s , " K e e p y o u r p r o m i s e . " Still a n o t h e r v a g u e l y e x c l a i m s , "Turn le f t , t u r n le f t , t u r n le f t " . O n e r a i n d r o p l a n d e d a n d s e d u c t i v e l y w h i s p e r e d , "I a m r e a d y . " Still a n o t h e r tells o f t h e TSE, w h i c h a l w a y s has o n e m o r e sha re t o sell. The d r o p s hit m e o n e b y o n e , e a c h t o u c h i n g m y spirit in its a r r i v ing a n d in its pass ing . I c a p t u r e t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e fa l l ing ra in , a n d d o so n o t t o c e l e b r a t e t h e c la r i t y , b u t t o o p e n t o it. The ra in falls, a n d m y m i n d spins m e i n t o a n inner real i ty . M y p o s t u r e h a d n o t c h a n g e d for s o m e t i m e , a n d this idol - l ike p o s e , h a d f o u n d m a n y w o r s h i p p e r s , w h o w e r e b o t h e x c i t e d a n d a f r a i d . I rest a l i v e in t h e m o m e n t , w o n d e r i n g w h e n t h e exp los i ve rea l i za t i on o f a lost soul w o u l d hit m e . The r e w a r d , w h e n t h o u g h t o f , wil l n e v e r a r r i ve , a n d a m s a d d e n e d b y m y fut i le a t t e m p t s . M y inner e a r c e a s e s , l e a v i n g m e a g a i n t o m a k e e x t e r n a l se lec t ions . The c a m p u s , n o w e x p e c t a n t o f Sun , a w a k e n s m y d r e a m i n g m i n d . I b r e a t h myse l f i n t o m y b o d y , u n l e a s h i n g t h e p a i n o f m e d i t a t i v e s i t t ing. I r eve l in t h e p a i n , b e f o r e b l i nk ing , s ign i fy ing t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f m y a f t e r n o o n session. I rise a n d b e f o r e I c a n n o t i c e t h e a t t e n t i o n I h a d a t t r a c t e d , al l d i sperse , as if n o t h i n g h a d h a p p e n e d . Pil low of Books I rest n o w in m y s t u d y c a r r e l p l a c i n g f ina l t o u c h e s o n t h e p a p e r w h i c h is d e s t i n e d t o c a u s e a la rms . The p a p e r s p o n t a n e o u s a n d error fu l o w n s l i t t le a c a d e m i c m e r i t , t h e m e t h o d o l o g y a n d o b j e c t i v i t y lost in a g r a d u a t e s e a Of f r e e d o m a n d pass ion . In te rv iew c o n t e n t analys is, r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e t h o u g h t s a n d op in ions o f s tuden ts , a r e s k e w e d b y t h e v o c a b u l a r y a n d lessons o f t h e o n e ask ing t h e ques t ions . Va l id i t y a n d rel iabi l i ty b e c o m i n g d i f f i cu l t t o m e a s u r e , t h e a n s w e r ly ing in t h e h e a r t o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r ; m o r a l i t y c l a i m i n g t h e h ighes t a u t h o r i t y . S lap! The Z e n Stick s lams across t h e b a c k o f m y sp ine , i f e e l its i m p a c t a n d k n o w its seriousness. The b e l o v e d k y o s a k u , a m o n k o f t w e n t y e i g h t 79 a w a k e n s m y d r e a m i n g m i n d , re tu rn ing it t o m y p l a c e , l e a v i n g spor t , g r o u p , a n d life for t h e u n c o n s c i o u s c a v e r n s o f s l e e p a n d m e d i t a t i o n . M y b o o k s t r a n s f o r m t h e m s e l v e s in to p i l lows, e n t i c i n g m e t o a b a n d o n m y w o r l d l y s tud ies for t h e d e l i g h t a n d w o n d e r o f a n o t h e r w o r l d . 'A r r i ve c a l m a n d f l o w i n g , o t h e r w i s e t h e w a v e s a n d w i n d s will s k e w t h e p i c t u r e ' , w h i s p e r t h e p i l lows. E v a p o r a t i n g i n to t h e c l o u d s o f s lo th a n d s l u m b e r , t h e b o o k s c r y o u t f o r r e t r e a t , w h i n i n g the i r w a y in to s l e e p a n d d r e a m s , s c r e a m i n g fo r a r e a d i n g o f t h e m i n d . I c o n s c i o u s l y a b a n d o n w o r l d l y responsibi l i t ies, w h o c o u l d n o t a n d c a n n o t b e r e a d y for t h e s e p r o p o s a l s o n spor t a n d c o u n s e l l i n g , a n d a c c e p t t h e p i l l ows ' r e q u e s t f o r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . R e a d i n g a m i d s t t h e s p l e n d o r o f s l e e p , a l l o w i n g m e s s a g e s t o b e f u s e d w i t h m y o w n . Pictures a n d m y t h s u n d e r s t o o d a n d a p p l i e d , t h e inner s t u d e n t f i n d i n g its o w n r e w a r d s . P r e p a r a t i o n c o m p l e t e , I dr i f t n o w aimlessly b e t w e e n t w o wor lds . If I b e g i n d r e a m i n g t o m y le f t , I d r e a m t h e w o r l d I w a n t t o d i e in. If I b e g i n d r e a m i n g t o m y r igh t , I d r e a m t h e w o r l d in w h i c h I c a n n o t d i e . B o t h w o r l d s o w n i n g f l o w a n d b a l a n c e , b u t r e m a i n i n g i n t e r t w i n e d on l y b y t h e c o n c e p t o f t i m e . The w o r l d w h i c h p r e c l u d e s d e a t h a w o n d e r f u l p l a c e , t h e w o r l d w h i c h k n o w s n o t d e a t h r e m a i n i n g a b a s t i o n o f e g o t i s t i c a l su f fe r ing a n d narcissistic t e n d e n c i e s , c o n t i n u a l l y res t r ic t ing c o l l e c t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t . O n this d a y , I m o v e lef t a n d h e a r , " y o u wil l d i e t o d a y , b u t o n t h e b a s e b a l l d i a m o n d , a son is te l l i ng his f a t h e r h o w t o b e s t c o a c h h i m ; o n t h e s o c c e r f i e l d , n i n e t y m i n u t e s l o n g s i n c e o v e r , t h e t e a m s c o n t i n u e t o p l a y o n , h a v i n g l o n g s i n c e f o r g o t t e n t h e s c o r e ; o n t h e b a s k e t b a l l c o u r t , p a r e n t s a n d c o m m u n i t i e s j a m - p a c k h i g h s c h o o l g y m s , f u n d i n g a n d f e e d i n g t h e c h i l d r e n o f spor t y o u will d i e t o d a y , b u t y o u r l e g a c y lives o n , y o u r pass ion a n d c o m m i t m e n t t o k n o w l e d g e a n d se rv i ce o w n s n o b o u n d s ; y o u r e g o t i s t i c a l r a m b l i n g s ea r l y in life i r o n e d o u t i n to p rogress ive t h e o r y , p r a c t i c e , a n d e x p e r i e n c e in y o u r la te r years . " I m o v e le f t , a l l o w i n g all t h o u g h t s o f g r a n d e u r a n d c i r c u m s t a n c e t o pass, k n o w i n g al l t o b e i m p e r m a n e n t . The b a t t l e fo r d e a t h r e m a i n i n g o n l y a d r e a m fo r b e f o r e o n e c a n truly d i e , h e mus t first o f a l l , h a v e l i ved . M y h e a r t r a c i n g , m y m i n d buzz ing , I f i n d myse l f l e a n i n g r igh t , t h e d r e a m w o r l d o f t h e u n k n o w n t o p p l e d b y t h e inf in i te c y c l e s o f l ife. The hel l r e a l m , t h e r e a l m o f t h e h u n g r y ghos ts , t h e h u m a n r e a l m , t h e a n i m a l r e a l m , t h e j e a l o u s g o d s , a n d t h e h e a v e n l y r e a l m s p i n n i n g in a c o n t i n u o s 80 k a r m i c f l o w . I n d e e d , w i t h i n this s a m s a r a is f o u n d h e w h o c a n n o t k n o w a n y d i f f e r e n t . P r e p a r a t i o n fo r p e a c e a n d o n e n e s s h a l t e d b y t h e b a t t l i n g w o r l d s , t h e o n e n e s s b e t w e e n self a n d un iverse imposs ib le t o see w i t h o u t first a o n e n e s s b e t w e e n self a n d e g o . W h e r e o n c e p s y c h o t h e r a p y w a s fo r t h e ill> it is n o w assured ly fo r t h e h e a l t h y . W h e r e o n c e , therapy w a s g e a r e d t o w a r d s m e n d i n g t h e e g o a n d s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e p e r s o n a l i t y , n o w it is learning g e a r e d t o w a r d m o v i n g b e y o n d t h e e g o , t rus t ing p e r s o n a l i t y , a n d t r a v e l l i n g d e e p e r in to t h e e x p e r i e n c e . The w o r l d s fuse a g a i n , f i n d i n g the i r link in b r e a t h i n g , t h e b o d y f l o w i n g a n d a l i v e , t h e m i n d m e d i t a t i v e a n d a c t i v e , t h e h e a r t d i s t r a u g h t a n d t i r e d , a n d t h e spirit a l i v e a n d g r o w i n g . N a p t i m e o v e r , t h e b i l l owy cush ions h a r d e n i n g , b o o k s r e t u r n i n g t o t h e t h e i r o r ig ina l f o r m . B r e a t h i n g myse l f o u t o f m y a f t e r n o o n m e d i t a t i o n , I re tu rn t o t h e b o o k s a n d p a p e r s w h i c h s t a n d b e t w e e n m e a n d m y d e f e n c e . Imagining Soccer Ins ide The House o f S tudy rests a n e a g e r s t u d e n t , p o n d e r i n g e x a m ques t i ons a m i d s t a n a u d i e n c e o f adv isors a n d peers . He r e a d s ques t ions a n d a n s w e r s t h e m , a l w a y s c o n f i d e n t t h a t e v e n t h e mis takes s u c c e e d in c la r i f y i ng t h e o v e r a l l p i c t u r e . W i t h t h e e x a m n o t y e t f i n i shed , t h e s t u d e n t ' s m i n d drif ts t o s o c c e r . He stares o u t t h e w i n d o w in to t h e o p e n f i e l d , h e a r i n g t h e cr isp r i pp le o f t h e n e t f o l l o w i n g a g o a l , f e e l i n g t h e sof tness o f t h e g r e e n grass, t a s t i n g t h e e s s e n c e o f c o m p e t i t i o n . The i m a g i n a t i o n flies w i l d , c o i n c i d i n g w i t h t h e r e l i n q u i s h m e n t o f t h e p e n , w h i c h d r o p s f r o m t h e f ingers o f t h e u n k n o w i n g s t u d e n t t o t h e f loor . A l t h o u g h all in t h e r o o m h e a r d a p e n d r o p t o t h e f loor , in t h e m i n d o f t h e s t u d e n t this s o u n d w a s p e r c e i v e d as t h e o p e n i n g k ickof f . W i t h o u t a t t a c h m e n t t o t i m e a n d s p a c e , t h e s t u d e n t t ranspor ts h imsel f o n t o t h e w a i t i n g s o c c e r f i e l d , a m i d s t t h e c h a l l e n g e a n d e x c i t e m e n t o f t h e w o r l d ' s g a m e . The e x a m n o w c o m p l e t e l y f o r g o t t e n , s c i e n c e a n d t h e o r y le f t s t r a n d e d , r e m a i n i n g a l i v e o n l y in t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f r o m s t u d e n t t o a t h l e t e c o m p l e t e . The g a m e b e g i n s b r i g h t a n d b u b b l y , f l o w i n g t h r o u g h e a c h pass , e a c h t a c k l e , a n d e a c h g o a l . The c r o w d is m o d e s t b u t l ively, u n d e r s t a n d i n g 81 t h a t t h e e s s e n c e o f f o o t b a l l lies in its s impl ic i ty . T e a m s c o m p e t e , b u t r e m a i n o p e n t o t h e e n e m y , n o t y e t k n o w i n g w h o ho lds v i c t o r y . The tes t , w h i c h m o m e n t s a g o w a s w r i t t e n w i t h a p e n , n o w f inds its answers f r o m a pa i r o f six studs. The s t u d e n t c o m e a t h l e t e d e t a c h i n g f r o m t h e rea l i ty o f ' a p l a y e r ' , l e a v i n g o n l y ' t h e p l a y ' . A n d u n d e r t h e invisible gu i se o f m e d i t a t i o n , h e b r e a t h s , re laxes a n d i m a g i n e s his w a y t h r o u g h n i n e t y m inu tes . Inside t h e House o f S tudy , adv isors w o n d e r a n d w a i t , b u t pun ish h i m n o t , u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e d u a l responsibi l i ty o f a s t u d e n t t o g a i n b o t h i m p e r i c a l k n o w l e d g e a n d e x p e r i e n t i a l w i s d o m . A n d it is w i t h s u p p o r t a n d g u i d a n c e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t a t h l e t e se l f -admin is ters his p r o p o s e d spor t elixir o n t o h imsel f a n d his c h o s e n g a m e . Walking a n d Talking with Jung O u t s i d e t h e House o f S tudy is a l o n g w i n d i n g p a t h , a p a t h I t r a v e r s e q u i t e regu la r ly . I usual ly h a v e c o m p a n y o n this t rek , b u t reca l l a d a y I t r u d g e d f o r w a r d o n m y o w n . It w a s d i f f i cu l t t o k n o w w h e t h e r I h a d lost m y g r o u p or if t h e y h a d lost m e . Regard less , I c o n f i d e n t l y s e a r c h e d a n d r e s e a r c h e d in so l i t ude . As I i m m e r s e d myse l f i n to t h e n a t u r a l w a v e s o f t h e fo res t I h a d e n t e r e d , I k n e w t h a t this w a s i n d e e d t h e c o r r e c t p a t h . There w e r e l o n g s t re tches w h e n I w o u l d c l o s e m y e y e s , g a i n i n g t h e w i s d o m o f m y j o u r n e y b y l is ten ing t o t h e lec tu res o f t h e wh is t l ing b i rds; a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e t r u t h o f l e a r n i n g b y i n h a l i n g t h e f l o w i n g i n c e n s e o f t h e fo res t f a i t h fu l . U n d e r m y f e e t t h e p a t h w a s sof t , a l l o w i n g e a c h s t e p t o f l o w u n a b a t e d a n d u n e n c u m b e r e d . I t r u d g e d f o r w a r d , e v e n t h e a m i d s t t h e cr ies f r o m t h e House o f S tudy wi l l ing m e n o t t o g o . As m y m e t a p h o r i c a l forest d r o p p e d i n to t h e real i ty o f m y w o r k w i t h a d o l e s c e n t s , I h e a r d J u n g wh isper : ' D a n , a p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o m m i t m e n t t o t h e p a t h o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n is h a r d l y a p p r o p r i a t e t o a d o l e s c e n c e ' . In a d a z e , I b e g a n c o n v e r s i n g w i t h J u n g o n t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f n o t t e a c h i n g i n d i v i d u a t i o n , b u t m o d e l i n g it. I r e t u r n e d t o m y b a s t i o n o f s t u d y , spo r t a n d a r g u e d : ' w h a t o f t h e b u d d i n g c o u n s e l l o r uti l izing n o t a psychological c o m m i t m e n t , b u t a sport c o m m i t m e n t t o t h e p a t h o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n ' . J u n g r e m a i n e d si lent, w a n t i n g t o k n o w m o r e , w a n t i n g m e t o e x p a n d . H a v i n g t h e a t t e n t i o n o f s u c h a n i m p o r t a n t p e r s o n c a u s e d m e t o p a u s e a n d stut ter . His a t t e n t i v e e y e s s o o n w a n d e r e d a n d b e f o r e I c o u l d b e g i n t o a r t i c u l a t e a rea l a n s w e r , h e d i s a p p e a r e d , l e a v i n g m e a g a i n a l o n e in m y fores t o f p o t e n t i a l k n o w l e d g e . 82 As I re tu rn f r o m m y h a l l u c i n a t o r y e x p e r i e n c e w i t h Dr. J u n g , I c o n t i n u e t o t r u d g e f o r w a r d , w ish ing I h a d a b e t t e r a n s w e r fo r Dr. J u n g , h o p i n g fo r a n o t h e r c h a n c e t o e x p a n d o n m y t h o u g h t s c o n c e r n i n g spor t , a d o l e s c e n t s , a n d life. As I a t t e m p t t o f i n d m y b e a r i n g s , I rea l ize t h a t t h e o n l y c h a n c e I h a v e t o s h a r e m y f ind ings is t o re tu rn t o The H o u s e o f S tudy . N o w , if I c o u l d on l y r e m e m b e r t h e w a y h o m e . The Train of Study I f e e l t h e t r a i n b r a k i n g t o a ha l t , a n d I k n o w I h a v e a r r i v e d . It is a p e c u l i a r f e e l i n g fo r a l t h o u g h I k n o w t h e e n d has a r r i v e d , t h e su r round ings w h i c h f a c e m e a r e i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e w h i c h c o m m e n c e d t h e t r ip . It is t r u e t h a t t h o s e w h o g r e e t m e m a y b e d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h o s e w h o d e p a r t e d m e . W h i c h e v e r d e p a r t m e n t c h e c k s m e , I wil l t ry t o m a k e it b a c k t o t h e c a m p u s in o n e p i e c e . The j o u r n e y has b e e n q u i t e in te res t ing , a n d wil l n o d o u b t b e h o a r d e d w i t h q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e Spor t I m a g e r y Express, w h i c h has b e e n z o o m i n g a r o u n d spor t g r o u p s a t t e m p t i n g t o le t answers b e e n f o u n d . " H o w w a s t h e d e s i g n o f t h e t r a i n ? " , o n e thesis i n s p e c t o r asks. The d e s i g n w a s w e a k , it w a s d i f f i cu l t t o k n o w w h a t c a r I w a s o n . Train s ta f f w e r e f r i end ly , b u t a l l s e e m e d b u s y w i t h o t h e r passengers . The i n s p e c t o r l o o k e d a t m e n o t b e l i e v i n g , a n d a l l o w e d m e t o pass for reasons h e w a s n o t a w a r e of . B a g g a g e c l a i m . W a i t , I h a d n o b a g s , s a v e t h e o n e o n m y shou lde r . I c a r r y n o t a l ibrary , b u t o w n a j o u r n a l a n d m a n y p e n s . S o m e t i m e s , I h a v e fruit o r b r e a d a n d I a l w a y s h a v e w a t e r . Buddhists t e x t a r e h a r d l y f a r a w a y , no r a r e a pa i r o f c l e a t s . I h a v e a lso b e e n c a r r y i n g s o m e t h i n g else. I h a v e b e e n c a r r y i n g a r o u n d m y thesis. I wil l b e d e l i g h t e d t o l e a v e this b e h i n d , f o r it w a s n o t m e a n t fo r m e . The l igh ter p a c k wil l a lso d o w o n d e r s fo r t h e t rave ls w h i c h lay a h e a d . I w a n d e r t h r o u g h t h e s t a t i o n , unsure w h y it c o n t i n u e s t o f e e l l ike I a m m o v i n g o n a t ra in . P e o p l e a r e g r e e t e d , h u g g e d , a n d t e a r e d . I f l o a t a imlessly w o n d e r i n g w h i c h bus t o c a t c h . Is t h e j o u r n e y n o t y e t c o m p l e t e . " I t h o u g h t t h e t r a i n r i de w o u l d l e a d m e t o m y d e s t i n y " , t h e c h i l d in m e wh ispers , r e a d y t o g o h o m e , r e a d y t o b e h o m e . As I w r i t e , b o x e s a r e s t o r e d a n d t e l e p h o n e lines c u t , m y m o t h e r ' s h o u s e los ing a son . I wh is t le a r o u n d , t r y i n g t o l ook busy , b u t real ize t h a t t h e o n l y w o r k lef t t o b e d o n e w a s t o w a i t fo r m y r ide. I f o u n d a q u i e t c o r n e r a n d b e g i n a l t e r i n g m y thesis, k n o w i n g t h a t w h a t I h a v e m a y a l r e a d y b e g o o d 83 e n o u g h . M y thesis- is it real ly m y thesis? The q u e s t i o n b e g s as I e n t e r t a i n lonel iness. W h a t d o e s it m a t t e r w h a t I th ink I k n o w a b o u t l i fe? W h a t m a t t e r s is n o t t h e n i n e t y p e r c e n t t h a t I d o k n o w , b u t t h a t t h e t e n p e r c e n t I d o n ' t k n o w n is t h e t e n p e r c e n t it t a k e s t o b e success fu l in t h e w o r l d . " M a y b e m y r ide is n o t c o m i n g ? " , I d i d n ' t h e a r myse l f say. A n d w h i l e n o t s p e a k i n g , b e g i n s ta r ing a t t h e S c h e d u l e o f Trains. It s e e m s t h a t t h e s t a t i o n is s o m e w h a t o f a h u b fo r t h e r e w e r e m a n y t ra ins w h i c h I c o u l d c a t c h . All s e e m q u i t e in t r igu ing . It is s t r a n g e b e c a u s e , I k n o w m y t r a i n pass wil l g e t m e o n m a n y t ra ins , b u t I a m l a c k i n g c r e d e n t i a l s fo r m a n y o f t h e des t i na t i ons . I c h e c k a n d m a k e sure m y thesis has n o t b e e n l i f t e d , w o n d e r i n g if I e v e n o w n c r e d e n t i a l s fo r t h e p l a c e in w h i c h I h a v e a r r i v e d . The t r ip w a s q u i t e a m a z i n g . There w e r e t i m e s w h e n all I c o u l d s e e w a s w h e r e I h a d b e e n . A t o t h e r t i m e s , I c o u l d s e e o n l y w h e r e I w a s g o i n g . The p i c t u r e s a r e as v i v id as t h e f e e l i n g o f s i t t ing in a t ra in g o i n g b a c k w a r d s . It is on l y n o w a t t h e e n d t h a t I real ize t h e il lusion o f t i m e , fo r t ru ly , b o t h p e r s p e c t i v e s d e p i c t t h e s a m e p i c t u r e . As I a r r i ve , I k n o w t h a t t h e ar r iva l is t h e i m p o r t a n t t h i n g a n d so t o is t h e fu tu re . The t r ip w a s q u i t e a m a z i n g . I t a l k e d t o c h i l d r e n o f spo r t , it w a s s t r a n g e b e c a u s e t h e ta l k o c c u r r e d in m y d r e a m s a n d visions. The v o i c e w a s m a n y t i m e s , m y o w n , or e lse, a six y e a r o l d s o c c e r p l a y e r or a t e n y e a r o l d h o c k e y p l a y e r or a t h i r t e e n y e a r o l d r u g b y p l a y e r or a s ix teen y e a r o l d b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r . The ch i l d ' s f a c e r e m a i n s f a c e l e s s fo r so m a n y c h a n t fo r t h e s a m e t h i n g , so m a n y c h a n t fo r t h e spor t elixir. The f r i g h t e n i n g t h i n g fo r n e w c o a c h e s is t h a t w h a t e te rna l izes o n e c h i l d m a y p o i s o n a n o t h e r . The t r ip w a s q u i t e a m a z i n g . I e n t e r e d w i t h spor t , k n o w i n g I w a s t e a c h i n g s o m e t h i n g else. I ex i t t e a c h i n g l i fe t h r o u g h spor t . I e n t e r e d c o n f i d e n t a n d c a u t i o u s ; I ex i t s c a r e d a n d reckless. I e n t e r e d in s e a r c h o f e x p e r i e n c e a n d I ex i t in s e a r c h o f t h e s a m e . I e n t e r e d u n t o u c h e d b y t h e e c s t a s y o f n o t h i n g n e s s , I ex i t s t ronge r a n d d e e p e r , n o w w a n t i n g its o p p o s i t e . I e n t e r e d loya l a n d r e s p e c t f u l a n d exi t p r a y i n g I d o t h e s a m e . I e n t e r e d a n d n o w I exi t . The t r ip w a s q u i t e a m a z i n g . It w a s as if, I h a d t r a c i n g p a p e r a n d I t r a c e d a r o u n d m y r e s e a r c h e n v i r o n m e n t a n d p l a c e d t h e result n e x t t o m y o w n i d e a l i z e d vers ion o f h i g h s c h o o l spor t . The analysis o f this thesis is t h e w o r d s b e h i n d t h e s e t w o p i c t u r e s , i n c l u d i n g h o w t o fuse o n e i n t o t h e o t h e r . I s ta re a r o u n d t h e n o w - e m p t y s ta t i on a n d b e l i e v e t h a t I m a y h a v e d e t r a i n e d p r e m a t u r e l y . I t ry t o rise b u t c a n n o t . M y legs a r e p a r a l y z e d , I c a n n o t m o v e . I g r i p in p a i n , wi l l ing t h e f e e l i n g b a c k in to m y legs.. 84 I g r i p in p a i n , rea l iz ing t h e d r e a m w h i c h has o c c u r r e d . I t e n s e m y legs , b r e a t h a n d f e e l a g a i n t h e legs w h i c h r e m a i n u n m o v e d . I s tar t le myse l f a w a k e , a n d a m q u i c k l y c a u g h t b y t h e ' c l a m p e t y c l a m p ' o f t h e rails u n d e r n e a t h m y s t a n d i n g p i l low. " O h , t h e t r a i n r ide c o n t i n u e s " , I c r y t o myse l f , n o t k n o w i n g w h i c h is m o r e p a i n f u l , t h e d r e a m o r t h e real i ty . " W h e n t h e c o n d u c t o r a p p e a r s , I mus t r e m i n d h i m t o w a k e m e w h e n m y s ta t i on ar r ives . " , I w h i s p e r t o mysel f b e f o r e e n t e r i n g a n o t h e r t r a in o f d r e a m s . 85 R E F E R E N C E S A m u n d s o n , N.E., W e s t w o o d , M.J. , Borgen, W . E . & Pol lard , D .E . (1989) . Employment Groups: The Counselling Connection. Vancouver, B.C.: Lugus Product ions. Barr , K. and H a l l , C. (1992). The use o f imagery by rowers. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 23 (3) , 243 -261 . Bennett , B. and Stothart, C. (1978). The effects of a relaxation-based cognitive technique on sport performances. Paper presented at the Congress o f the Canadian Society fo r M o t o r Learn ing and Sport Psychology, Toronto , Canada. Bet ts, G . (1909) . The distribution and functions of mental imagery. N e w Y o r k : Teachers Col lege, Co lumbia Univers i ty . B i o n , W . (1961). Experiences in Groups. N e w Y o r k : Basic Books. B i o n , W . (1970) . Attention and Interpretation. N e w Y o r k : Basic Books . B la i r , A . , H a l l , C. and Leyshon, G. (1993). Imagery effects on the performance o f ski l led and novice soccer players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 1 1 , 9 5 - 1 0 1 . Budney , A .J . , M u r p h y , S .M. , & W o o l f o l k , R.L. (1994). Imagery and M o t o r Performance: W h a t do we real ly know? In A . A . Sheikh and E.R. K o r n (eds.), Imagery in Sports and Physical Performance, (p. 97-120). A m i t y v i l l e , N e w Y o r k : Bay wood . Chartrand, J . M . and Lent , R.W. (1987). Sports Counsel l ing: Enhancing the Deve lopment o f the Student-Athlete. Journal of Counselling and Developing, 66 (4) , 164-167. C o h n , B. (Ed.) . (1967) . Guidelines for future research on group counselling in the public school setting. Washington, D C : Amer ican Personnel and Guidance Associat ion. Corb in , C. (1967a). The effects o f covert rehearsal on the development o f a complex motor sk i l l . The Journal of General Psychology, 76 , 143-150. Corb in , C. (1967). Effects o f mental practice on sk i l l development after contro l led practice. Research Quarterly, 38, 534-538. Corey, G. (1996) . Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy (5th Ed.). Pacif ic Grove, CA. : Brooks/Cole Publ ishing. Denis , M . (1985). V isua l imagery and the use o f mental practice in the development o f mo to r ski l ls. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, 10, 4S-16S. Desiderato, O. and M i l l e r , I . M . (1979). Improv ing tennis performance by cogni t ive behavior modi f ica t ion techniques. The Behavior Therapist, 2:4, 19. D inkmeyer , D .D . and M u r o , J.J. (1971). Group Counselling: Theory and practice. I tasca, I L : F.E. Peacock. D o y l e , L. & Landers, D . (1980). Psychological skills in elite and subelite shooters. Unpubl ished manuscript. Epstein, M . (1980). The relat ionship o f mental practice on motor sk i l l learning and per formance o f a moto r task. Journal of Sport Psychology, 2, 211-220. Fel tz, D . & Landers, D. (1983). The effects o f mental practice on motor sk i l l learning and performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport Psychology, 5 , 2 5 - 5 7 . Fel tz, D., Landers, D., and Becker (1988). A revised meta-analysis o f the mental practice l i terature on motor sk i l l learning. I n D. Druckman and J. Swets (eds). Ennhancing Human Performance: Issues, Theories and Techniques. Washington: Nat ional Academy Press. 86 Fishburne, G . and H a l l , C. (1987). V isua l and kinesthetic imagery abi l i ty in chi ldren: Impl icat ions fo r teaching motor ski l ls. In G T Barrette, RS Feingold , C R Rees, and Pieron (eds)., Myths, Models and Methods in Sport Pedagogy. Champaign, I L : H u m a n Kinet ics. Fishburne, G. and H a l l , C. (1988). Imagery abi l i ty and movement. I n M . Lashuk (ed.). Proceedings of the Alberta Teacher Educators in Physical Education Society Meeting. Calgary: Univers i ty o f Calgary. Gazda, G . M . (1968) . Preface. Journal of Research and Development in Education. 1 (2) , p. 1-2. G i b b (1961). Defence Leve l and Inf luence in Smal l Groups. In Petralo, L . and Bass, B . M . (Eds) . Leadership and Interpersonal Behavior, p. 6 6 - 8 1 . N e w Y o r k : H o l t , Renhart and W i l s o n . Goldste in, J. & K o r n f i e l d , J. (1987). Seeking the Heart of Wisdom: The path to insight editation. Boston: Shambhala. Goss, S., H a l l , C , Bucko lz E., and Fishburne, G. (1986). Imagery abi l i ty and the acquisi t ion and retention o f movements. Memory Cognition, 14, 469-477. Gough , D. (1989). Improv ing batt ing ski l ls w i th small col lege baseball players through guided visual imagery. Coaching Clinic, 27, 1-6. G o u l d , D , Weiss, M . & Weinberg , R. (1989). Psychological characteristics o f successful and non-successful B ig -Ten wrestlers. Journal of Sport Psychology, 3, 6 9 - 8 1 . Gray, J., H a r i n g , M . and Banks, N . (1984). Menta l rehearsal fo r sport performance: exp lor ing the relaxat ion- imagery paradigm. Journal of Sport Psychology, 2 ,329-339. Green, L B . (1994). The Use o f Rehabi l i tat ion o f In jured Athletes. I n A . A . Sheikh and E.R, K o r n (eds.), Imagery in Sports and Physical Performance, (p. 157-174). A m i t y v i l l e , N e w York : Baywood . Guerney, G.B. , Stol lack, G. , & Guerney, L. (1970). A format fo r a new mode o f psychological practice: Or how to escape a zombie. Counselling Psychologist, 2(2), 97-104. H a l l , C , Bucko lz E., and Fishburne, G. (1992). Imagery and the acquisi t ion o f moto r skil ls. Canadian Journal of Sport Science, 17 (1) , 19-27. H a l l , C. and Er f fmeyer , E. (1983). The effect o f v isuo-motor behavior rehearsal w i t h videotaped model ing i n free throw accuracy o f intercollegiate female basketball players; Journal of Sport Psychology, 5(3) , 343-346. H a l l , C , Pongrac, J., and Bucko lz , E. (1985). The measurement o f imagery abi l i ty . Human Movement Science, 4 , 107-118. Hal l * C , Rodgers, W . , & Barr , K. (1990). The use o f imagery by athletes i n selected sports. The Sport Psychologist, 4 , 1 - 1 0 . H a l l , C , Schmidt , D. , Durand, M . , and Bucko lz , E. (1994). Imagery and M o t o r Sk i l l Acqu is i t ion . I n A . A . Sheikh and E.R. K o r n (eds.), Imagery in Sports and Physical Performance, (p. 121-134). A m i t y v i l l e , N e w Y o r k : Baywood . Hamberger, K., Loh r , J. (1980). Relat ionship o f relaxat ion t ra in ing to the contro l lab i l i ty o f imagery. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 5 1 , 1 0 3 - 1 1 0 . Harr is , D V . and Robinson, W.J . (1986). The effects o f sk i l l leve l on E M G act iv i ty dur ing internal and external imagery. Journal of Sport Psychology, 8, 105-111. 87 c Hecker , J. & Kazcor , L. (1988). App l ica t ion o f imagery theory to sport psychology: Some prel iminary f indings. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 10, 363-373. Johnson, D. & Johnson, R. (1982). Joining together: Group theory and group skills. (2nd edi t ion) . Eng lewood Cli f fs* NJ : Prent ice-Hal l . Jung, C.G. (1933). Modern Man in Search of Soul. Or lando: Harcour t Brace & Company Kap leau, P. (1989). The Three Pillars of Zen. N e w Y o r k : A n c h o r Books . Ko lonay , B. (1977). The effects of visuo-motor behavior rehearsal on athletic performance. Unpubl ished master's thesis, The Ci ty Un ivers i ty o f N e w York . K o r n , E.R. (1994). Men ta l Imagery in Enhancing Performance: Theory and Pract ical Exercises. I n A . A . Sheikh and E.R. K o r n (eds.), Imagery in Sports and Physical Performance, (p. 121-134). A m i t y v i l l e , N e w Y o r k : Bay wood . Lang , P. (1977). Imagery in therapy: A n in format ion processing analysis o f fear. Behavior Therapy, 8, 862-886. L a n g , P. (1979a). A b io- in format iona l theory o f emot ional imagery. Psychophysiology, 16 ,495-512 . L a n g , P. (1979b). Language, image, and emot ion. In K. Pl iner, K. Blankenstein & I. Speigal (Eds.), Advances in the study of communication and affect: Perception of emotion in self and others (p.107-117). N e w Y o r k : P lenum Press. L a n g , P. (1985). The cogni t ive psychophysio logy o f emot ion: Fear and anxiety. I n A . T u m a & J. Maser (Eds.), Anxiety and the anxiety disorders (p. 131-107). Hi l lsdale, N J : Er lbaum. L ieberman, M . , Y a l o m , I . & Mi les , M . (1973). Encounter groups: First facts. N e w Y o r k : Basic Books. Mahoney , M . , & Avener , M . (1977). Psychology o f the elite athlete: A n exploratory study. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1, 135-141. Mahoney , M . & Epstein, M . (1981). The assessment o f cogni t ion in athletes. I n T . Mer luzz i , C. Glass, & M . Genest (Eds), Cognitive Assessment (p .439-451) . N e w Y o r k : G u i l f o r d Press. Marks , D. (1983). Men ta l imagery and consciousness: A theoretical rev iew. I n A . Sheikh (Ed.) , Imagery: Current theory, research, and application (p .96-130) . N e w Y o r k : W i l e y . Mar tens, R. (1982, September). Imagery in sport. Paper presented at the V U Commonwea l th and International Conference on Sport, Physical Educat ion, Recreation, and Dance, Brisbane, Austra i l ia . M a r t i n K. and H a l l , C. (1995). Us ing mental imagery to enhance intr insic mot iva t ion . Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17, 54-69, M c C a f f r e y , N. and Or l i ck , T. (1989). Menta l factors related to excellence among top professional golfers. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 20:4, 256-278. McCa f f rey , N . and Or l i ck , T. (1991). Menta l t ra in ing w i t h chi ldren fo r sport and l i fe. The Sport Psychologist, 5 ,322 -334 . McFadden , R.S. (1982). An Investigation of the Relative Effectiveness of Two Types of Imagery Rehearsal Applied to Enhance Skilled Athletic Performance, unpublished doctoral dissertation, Un ivers i ty o f Toronto. 88 Meichenbaum, D. (1977). Cognitive-behavior modification: An integrative approach. N e w Y o r k : P lenum Press. M o r i t z , S. (1994) . Searching for a relationship between imagery and self-confidence. Unpubl ished master 's thesis, The Univers i ty o f Western Ontar io. M u m f o r d , B. and H a l l , C. (1985). The effects o f internal and external imagery on per formaing f igures in f igure skating. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, 10, 171-177. M u r p h y , S. (1994). Imagery intervent ions in sport. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26 (4) , 486-494. M u r p h y , S., Jowdy , D. and Dur tsch i , S. (1989). Report on the United States Olympic Committee survey on imagery use in sport: 1989. Colorado Springs, C O . Myers , A . , Cooke, C , Cu l len , J., & L i les , L. (1979). Psychological aspects o f athletic compet i tors: A repl icat ion across sports. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 3, 361-366. Noe l R.C. (1980). The effect o f v isuo-motor behavioral rehearsal on tennis performance, Journal of Sport Psychology, 2, 220-226. Or l i ck .T . & Part ington J. (1988). Menta l l inks to excellence. The Sport Psychologist, 2, 105-130: Paiv io , A . (1985). Cogni t ive and mot ivat ional funct ions o f imagery in human performance. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Science, 10, 22S-28S. Patton, M . Q . (1990) . Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods (2nd Ed.). NewbUry Park, Cal i forn ia, S A G E . Prediger (1988). Performance enhancement through visual izat ion. Research Quaterly for Exercise and Sport, Fal l . Richardson, A . (1967). Menta l Practice: A rev iew and discussion. Research Quarterly, 3 8 , 9 5 - 1 0 7 , 2 6 2 - 2 7 3 . Richardson, A . (1969). Mental Imagery. N e w Y o r k : Springer. Rogers, C. (1961) . On Becoming a Person. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n . Rotel la, R., Gansneder D., Ojala, D., and B i l i n g , J. (1980). Cogni t ions and cop ing strategies o f elite skiers: an exploratory study o f young develop ing athletes. Journal of Sport Psychology, 2, 350-354. Ryan, E., Simons, J. (1981). Cogni t ive demand imagery, and frequency o f mental practice as factors in f luencing the acquisit ion o f mental ski l ls. Journal of Sport Psychology, 4,35-45. Sackett, R. (1935). The relat ionship between the amount o f symbol ic rehearsal and retent ion o f a maze habit. Journal of General Psychology, 13, 113-128. Schmidt , R.A. (1987). Motor Control and Learning: A Behavioral Emphasis, 2nd edn. Champaign, 111.: H u m a n Kinet ics Sheikh, A . A . and K o r n , E.R. (1994). Preface. In A . A . Sheikh and E.R. K o r n (eds.), Imagery in Sports and Physical Performance, (p. v ) . A m i t y v i l l e , N e w Y o r k : B a y w o o d . Sheikh, A . A . , Sheikh K.S., and M o l e s k i L . M . (1994). Improv ing Imag ing Abi l i t ies . I n A . A . Sheikh and E.R. K o r n (eds.), Imagery in Sports and Physical Performance. (p. 231-248). A m i t y v i l l e , N e w Y o r k : Baywood . 89 Smi th , D. (1983). Changes in competitive state anxiety as time to compete nearsfor Olympic gymnasts. Paper presented at the A A H P E R D Convent ion, Minneapo l is , M N . Smi th , D. (1987). Condi t ions that faci l i tate the development o f sport imagery t ra in ing. The Sport Psychologist, 1, 237-247. Start, K . B . and Richardson, A . (1964). Imagery and mental practice. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 34, 85-90. Stevens, A . (1994). Jung. N e w Y o r k : O x f o r d Univers i ty Press. Suinn, R. (1976). B o d y th ink ing fo r O lymp ic champs. Psychology Today, 36, 38-43. Suinn, R. (1983). Imagery and sports. I n A . Sheikh (Ed.) , Imagery: Current theory, research, and application. N e w Y o r k : W i l e y . Suinn , R. (1992). Imagery. I n R. Singer, M . Murphey , and K. Tenant (Eds), Handbook of Research on Sport Psychology. N e w York : M a c m i l l a n Publ ishing Company. T i t ley , R. (1976, September). The loneliness o f a long-distance kicker. The Athletic Journal, 74-80. Trotzer , J.P. (1989). The counsel lor and group: Integrating theory, training and practice. Monte r rey : Brooks/Cole. Vealey , R. (1987). Imagery training for performance enhancement. Paper presented at the Sports Psychology Inst i tute, Port land, M E . Vealey, R. (1986). Imagery t ra in ing fo r performance enhancement. In J. W i l l i a m s (Ed.), Applied sport psychology. Paulo A l t o , C A : May f i e ld . We inberg , R., Seabourne, T. and Jackson, A . (1982). Effects o f v isuo-motor behavior rehearsal on state-trait anxiety and performance: is practice important? Journal of Sport Behavior, 5, 209-219. Weinberg , R., Seabourne, T . and Jackson, A . (1981). Effects o f v isuo-motor behavior rehearsal, relaxat ion, and imagery on karate performance. Journal of Sport Psychology, 3, 228-238. W o o l f o l k , R., Parr ish, W . & Murphy .S . (1985). The effects o f posi t ive and negative imagery on motor sk i l l performance. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9, 335-3 4 1 . Wr isberg , C. and Ragsdale, M . (1979). Cogni t ive demand and practice level : factors in mental rehearsal as factors in f luencing acquisit ion o f motor skil ls. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 5, 201-208. Zhang L., M a , Q., Or l i ck , T . & Zitselsberger, L. (1992). The effect o f mental - imagery t ra in ing on performance enhancement w i t h 7-10-year o ld chi ldren. The Sport Psychologist, 6, 2 3 0 - 2 4 1 . 90 i m a g e r y I m a g e r y gu ides one to m i n d a n d b o d y , a n d w i t h h e a r t real izes, w i t h i n S p i r i t , a l l can be f o u n d . I m a g e r y r e q u i r e s pat ience a n d bel ief , be fo re he r , one m u s t en te r H i s s a n c t u a r y , one o f peace, se ren i t y a n d compass ion . I m a g e r y is o f t he m i n d , is i t n o t ? i ndeed he is, b u t the r o a d t o h i m moves t h r o u g h H e r . I m a g e r y teaches awareness, she suggests t a k i n g H i s awareness lesson, whose c lass room is t he b o d y . I m a g e r y asks b u t one ques t i on : w i t h o u t H e r , h o w does one expect to see me? don snnUav march 1996 91 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0077163/manifest

Comment

Related Items