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"It's a long hard road to the top" : the career paths and leadership experiences of women in Canadian.. 2007

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"IT'S A LONG HARD ROAD TO THE TOP": THE CAREER PATHS AND LEADERSHIP EXPERIENCES OF WOMEN IN CANADIAN SPORT ADMINISTRATION by Josee Mattel B.A. , Laurentian University, 2004 A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R OF A R T S In The Faculty of Graduate Studies Human Kinetics UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A March 2007 © Josee Martel, 2007 ABSTRACT The under-representation of women in the higher echelons o f sport ing organizat ions has been examined since the 1970's . It is we l l documented, wi th the O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t being the target of much o f this c r i t i c i sm (B i schof f and R in ta la , 1994, 1996, 1997; Cameron 1996, Hovden , 2000a, 2000b; I S L P and I O C , 2004 ; M c K a y , 1997; Pf ister et. a l , 2005). Research shows a paucity of female leaders at a l l levels of sport ing organizat ions. Th i s study explored the career paths and leadership experiences of women who have accessed high level leadership posit ions in Canadian h igh performance sport ing organizat ions. Semi-structured, open ended interviews were conducted w i th ten of these women to e l ic i t their personal narratives, and informat ion concern ing their career experiences in sport administrat ion was obtained. These stories prov ide important insights into our current understandings of female experiences in sport administrat ion and the factors that continue to contribute to the under-representation of women in h igh leve l sport ing leadership. The research questions gu id ing the study were: (1) W h o are the women that have reached h igh level leadership posit ions in Canadian sport ing organizat ions? (2) H o w have they achieved these posi t ions? (3) What have been the circumstances and extent of their leadership invo lvement? (4) What factors st i l l h inder women ' s fu l l invo lvement and progression in sport administrat ion? Ac co rd i ng l y , I w i l l address four specif ic areas of invest igat ion. F i rs t , quantitative data w i l l be presented to demonstrate the lower levels of women part ic ipat ing at the O l y m p i c Games . Second, the study w i l l trace the career paths of women who have accessed h igh leve l sport management posit ions and highl ights women ' s entry and progression in sport administrat ion. Th i rd , the women ' s leve l o f leadership invo lvement w i l l be assessed inc lud ing the personal sk i l l s that led to their success and their accompl ishments in these executive roles. Four th , barriers h inder ing women ' s opportunit ies to advance into high level leadership posit ions w i l l be examined. The impl icat ions of these f indings w i l l then be discussed and recommendat ions w i l l be made for po l i c y makers and current sport ing leaders who can inf luence change w i th in their sport ing organizat ions. It is hoped that this study can contribute to a better understanding of female under-representation i n h igh level sporting leadership. i i T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S A B S T R A C T i i T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S i i i A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S vi i 1.0 C H A P T E R 1 : I N T R O D U C T I O N A N D R A T I O N A L E 1 1.1 P U R P O S E A N D R E L E V A N C E O F T H E S T U D Y 1 1.1.1 I M P O R T A N C E O F S P O R T T O C A N A D A 1 1.1.2 V A N C O U V E R 2 0 1 0 W I N T E R O L Y M P I C A N D P A R A L Y M P I C G A M E S 4 1.1.3 R E S E A R C H G A P S 6 1.2 W O M E N ' S P A R T I C I P A T I O N A T T H E O L Y M P I C G A M E S A N D I N C A N A D I A N S P O R T 8 1.2.1 S U M M E R O L Y M P I C G A M E S 1 0 1.2.2 W I N T E R O L Y M P I C G A M E S 11 1.2.3 W H A T D O E S T H I S D A T A T E L L U S ? 1 2 1.3 A R E A S O F S T U D Y 1 3 1.3.1 C A R E E R P A T H S 1 5 1.3.2 F E M A L E A D M I N I S T R A T O R S ' P E R C E P T I O N S O F T H E I R R O L E I N S P O R T I N G L E A D E R S H I P 1 8 1.3.3 B A R R I E R S TO W O M E N ' S E N T R Y A N D P R O G R E S S I O N I N S P O R T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N 1 9 1.3.4 R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S 2 0 1.4 M E T H O D O L O G Y 2 0 1.4.1 E T H I C S 2 0 1.4.2 R E C R U I T M E N T P R O C E D U R E S A N D P A R T I C I P A N T S E L E C T I O N 2 1 1.4.3 I N T E R V I E W I N G P R O C E S S A N D D A T A A N A L Y S I S 2 3 1.5 C H A L L E N G E S A N D L I M I T A T I O N S O F T H E S T U D Y 2 6 2 0 C H A P T E R 2 : R E V I E W O F R E L E V A N T L I T E R A T U R E A N D T H E O R E T I C A L F R A M E W O R K S 2 8 2.1 W O M E N I N S P O R T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N 2 8 2 .1 .1 S T U D I E S C O N D U C T E D I N T H E I N T E R N A T I O N A L C O N T E X T 2 9 2 .1 .1 .1 T H E I O C A N D I S L P ( 2 0 0 4 ) R E P O R T O N W O M E N , L E A D E R S H I P A N D T H E O L Y M P I C M O V E M E N T 3 0 2 . 1 . 1 . 2 T H E G E R M A N S T U D Y O N W O M E N I N L E A D E R S H I P B Y P F I S T E R E T . A L ( 2 0 0 5 ) 3 2 2 . 1 . 1 . 3 C A M E R O N ' S ( 1 9 9 6 ) S T U D Y O F W O M E N EM N E W Z E A L A N D V O L U N T A R Y S P O R T M A N A G E M E N T 3 2 2 . 1 . 1 . 4 H O V D E N ' S ( 2 0 0 0 A , 2 0 0 0 B , 2 0 0 5 ) N O R W E G I A N S T U D I E S O F W O M E N I N H I G H L E V E L S P O R T L E A D E R S H I P 3 3 2 . 1 . 1 . 5 B I S C H O F F A N D R I N T A L A ' S ( 1 9 9 4 , 1 9 9 6 ) S T U D I E S O F W O M E N I N E X E C U T I V E P O S I T I O N S I N T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S 3 3 2 . 1 . 1 . 6 G E N D E R S T U D I E S I N C A N A D I A N , A U S T R A L I A N A N D N E W Z E A L A N D S P O R T B Y M C K A Y ( 1 9 9 7 ) 3 4 2 . 1 . 2 S T U D I E S C O N D U C T E D I N T H E C A N A D I A N C O N T E X T 3 4 2 .1 .2 .1 H A L L , C U L L E N A N D S L A C K ' S ( 1 9 9 0 ) S T U D Y O F W O M E N I N C A N A D I A N N A T I O N A L S P O R T I N G O R G A N I Z A T I O N S 3 4 2 . 1 . 2 . 2 S P O R T C A N A D A ' S ( 1 9 9 1 ) S U R V E Y O F W O M E N I N S P O R T L E A D E R S H I P . . . 3 5 2 . 1 . 2 . 3 M A C I N T O S H A N D W H I T S O N ' S ( 1 9 9 0 ) S T U D Y O F C A N A D A ' S S P O R T I N G S Y S T E M . . . . 3 6 2 . 2 C A R E E R P A T H S A N D L E A D E R S H I P A T T R I B U T E S : A G E N E R A L O V E R V I E W 3 7 2 .2 .1 T H E B A C K G R O U N D O F W O M E N I N S P O R T I N G L E A D E R S H I P : W H A T T H E L I T E R A T U R E T E L L S U S A B O U T F E M A L E L E A D E R S W H O B E C O M E I N V O L V E D I N SPORT A D M I N I S T R A T I O N 3 7 2 . 2 . 2 E N T R Y A N D P R O G R E S S I O N INTO H I G H L E V E L S P O R T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N 4 2 2 .2 .3 L E A D E R S H I P S K I L L S O F F E M A L E S P O R T I N G L E A D E R S 4 4 2 . 2 . 4 L E A D E R S H I P S T Y L E S I N S P O R T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N 5 1 2 .3 BARRIERS T O A D V A N C E M E N T : W H A T R E S E A R C H SAYS A B O U T T H E ' G L A S S C E I L I N G ' F O R W O M E N IN SPORT ADMINISTRATION 5 2 2 .3 .1 I N D I V I D U A L L E V E L 5 4 2 . 3 . 2 O R G A N I Z A T I O N A L L E V E L 5 6 2 .3 .3 R E L A T I O N A L L E V E L 6 0 2 . 3 . 4 S O C I E T A L L E V E L 6 1 2 .3 .5 S U M M A R Y 6 2 2 .4 T H E O R E T I C A L F R A M E W O R K S 6 3 2 .4 .1 F E M I N I S M A N D S O C I A L C O N S T R U C T I O N I S M 6 3 2 . 4 . 2 O R G A N I Z A T I O N A L T H E O R Y 6 5 3 .0 C H A P T E R 3: W O M E N IN C A N A D I A N S P O R T ADMINISTRATION 6 8 3.1 P R O F I L I N G T H E PARTICIPANTS 6 8 3 .1 .1 P E R S O N A L B A C K G R O U N D S 6 9 3 .1 .1 .1 F A M I L Y B A C K G R O U N D 7 0 3 . 1 . 1 . 2 E D U C A T I O N A L A N D P R O F E S S I O N A L B A C K G R O U N D 7 2 3 .1 .1 .3 A T H L E T I C B A C K G R O U N D . : 7 3 3 .2 C A R E E R P A T H S IN SPORT ADMINISTRATION 7 7 3 .2 .1 E N T R Y INTO S P O R T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N 7 7 3 . 2 . 2 P R O G R E S S I O N I N S P O R T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N A N D L E A D E R S H I P A C C O M P L I S H M E N T S . . . . 8 2 3 .2 .3 L I M I T S T O P R O G R E S S I O N A N D P A R T I C I P A N T S ' F U T U R E A S P I R A T I O N S 8 8 3 .2 .4 C O N C L U D I N G T H O U G H T S 8 9 3.3 L E A D E R S H I P A T T R I B U T E S 9 1 iv 3.3 .1 L E A D E R S H I P S K I L L S 9 1 3 .3 .1 .1 I N D I V I D U A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S 9 1 3 . 3 . 1 . 2 A D M I N I S T R A T I V E S K I L L S A N D B R O A D P E R S P E C T I V E 9 3 3 .3 .1 .3 C O M M I T M E N T A N D A D V O C A C Y 9 4 3 . 3 . 1 . 4 N E T W O R K I N G 9 5 3 . 3 . 2 L E A D E R S H I P S T Y L E S 9 7 3 .3 .3 C O N C L U S I O N S 9 9 4 0 C H A P T E R 4: BARRIERS T O W O M E N ' S E N T R Y A N D P R O G R E S S I O N IN C A N A D I A N SPORT ADMINISTRATION 1 0 1 4 .1 INDIVIDUAL L E V E L 1 0 1 4 .1 .1 " G E N D E R IS N O L O N G E R A N I S S U E I N S P O R T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N . . . " : T H E I N V I S I B L E B A R R I E R S A N D T H E E F F E C T O F G E N D E R O N E N T R Y I N S P O R T I N G L E A D E R S H I P 1 0 1 4 . 1 . 2 " I N V O L V E M E N T I N S P O R T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N IS A P E R S O N A L C H O I C E . . . " : V O L U N T E E R I S M A S A B A R R I E R 1 0 4 4 . 1 . 3 T H E I M P O R T A N C E O F S U P P O R T N E T W O R K S A N D ITS R O L E A S A B A R R I E R TO W O M E N I N S P O R T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N 1 0 8 4 . 1 . 4 W O M E N ' S I N D I V I D U A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S •. I l l 4 . 2 ORGANIZATIONAL L E V E L : 1 1 2 4 .2 .1 O R G A N I Z A T I O N A L S T R U C T U R E 1 1 2 4 . 2 . 1 . 1 W O M E N A N D S P O R T C O M M I T T E E S 1 1 8 4 . 2 . 2 O R G A N I Z A T I O N A L C U L T U R E 1 1 9 4 .3 RELATIONAL L E V E L 1 2 3 4 .3 .1 R E S I S T I V E A T T I T U D E S T O W A R D S F E M A L E S P O R T I N G L E A D E R S 1 2 3 4 . 3 . 2 M E N T O R I N G A N D T H E N O T I O N O F F E M A L E ' T U R F P R O T E C T O R S ' 1 2 4 4 . 3 . 3 M A L E N E T W O R K S A N D T H E O L D B O Y S ' C L U B 1 2 8 4 . 4 S O C I E T A L L E V E L . . '. 1 3 0 4 .4 .1 T H E G E N D E R E D L A B O U R M A R K E T A N D S P O R T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N : S I M I L A R I T I E S . . . . 1 3 0 4 . 4 . 2 T H E I N F L U E N C E O F T H E ' G E N D E R O R D E R ' A N D S T E R E O T Y P E S O N W O M E N ' S E N T R Y A N D P R O G R E S S I O N I N S P O R T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N 1 3 1 5 .0 C H A P T E R 5: C O N C L U S I O N S A N D RECOMMENDATIONS 1 3 6 5.1 G E N E R A L REMARKS 1 3 6 5 .2 S U M M A R Y A N D C O N C L U S I O N S 1 3 7 5.2 .1 W O M E N A N D S P O R T M O V E M E N T 1 3 7 5 .2 .2 C A R E E R P A T H S A N D L E A D E R S H I P S K I L L S 1 4 0 5 .2 .3 B A R R I E R S 1 4 2 5 .2 .3 .1 I N D I V I D U A L L E V E L 1 4 3 5 . 2 . 3 . 2 O R G A N I Z A T I O N A L L E V E L 1 4 4 5 .2 .3 .3 R E L A T I O N A L L E V E L 1 4 6 V 5 . 2 . 3 . 4 S O C I E T A L L E V E L 1 4 7 5.3 R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S 1 4 7 5.3 .1 R E C R U I T M E N T O F F E M A L E L E A D E R S TO S P O R T I N G O R G A N I Z A T I O N S 1 4 8 5 .3 .2 A D V A N C I N G F E M A L E A D M I N I S T R A T O R S INTO H I G H E R L E V E L L E A D E R S H I P P O S I T I O N S 1 5 0 5 .3 .3 T H E I M P L E M E N T A T I O N O F Q U O T A S O R M A N D A T E D E Q U A L I T Y 1 5 0 5 .3 .4 T H E O R G A N I Z A T I O N A L D E V E L O P M E N T O F S U P P O R T S Y S T E M S A N D S O C I A L N E T W O R K S 1 5 3 5 .3 .5 L E A D E R S H I P T R M N T N G F O R A L L S P O R T I N G L E A D E R S 1 5 4 5 .3 .6 S H I F T I N G T H E O R G A N I Z A T I O N A L S T R U C T U R E A N D C U L T U R E T O C R E A T E A S U P P O R T I V E E N V I R O N M E N T F O R F E M A L E L E A D E R S 1 5 5 5 .3 .7 R E C O G N I Z I N G F E M A L E L E A D E R S A N D M O R E B R O A D L Y , W O M E N I N S P O R T 1 5 6 5 .4 F U T U R E C O N S I D E R A T I O N S 1 5 9 B I B L I O G R A P H Y 1 6 0 A P P E N D I C E S 1 6 7 A P P E N D I X 1: C A N A D I A N O L Y M P I C M A L E A N D F E M A L E A T H L E T E P A R T I C I P A T I O N R A T E S A N D M E D A L W I N N I N G S F O R T H E S U M M E R O L Y M P I C G A M E S 1 9 8 4 - 2 0 0 6 1 6 8 A P P E N D I X 2 : C A N A D I A N O L Y M P I C M A L E A N D F E M A L E A T H L E T E P A R T I C I P A T I O N R A T E S A N D M E D A L W I N N I N G S F O R T H E W I N T E R O L Y M P I C G A M E S 1 9 8 4 - 2 0 0 6 1 6 9 A P P E N D I X 3 : C O N S E N T F O R M 1 7 0 A P P E N D I X 4 : I N T E R V I E W Q U E S T I O N S 1 7 2 A P P E N D I X 5: D E M O G R A P H I C T A B L E - A G E N E R A L P R O F I L E O F T H E P A R T I C I P A N T S 1 7 5 A P P E N D I X 6: E T H I C S C E R T I F I C A T E O F A P P R O V A L 1 7 6 vi A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S I w o u l d first l ike to thank the Soc ia l Sciences and Humani t ies Research C o u n c i l for their f inancia l support dur ing the f ina l year o f m y degree. I am most indebted to the participants who took part in this study as without them, this study w o u l d not have been possible. In addit ion, I credit D r . Patr ic ia Ve r t insky for a l l o f her inspi rat ion, mot ivat ion and assistance throughout m y entire Master ' s Degree. H e r work ethic and w i s d o m are truly unsurpassed and her guidance has prov ided me wi th the sk i l l s and ambi t ion to pursue new ideas, perspectives and topics. I am also appreciative of m y committee members, D r . L au r a H u r d C la rke and D r . Wendy F r i sby whose knowledge and experience were extremely valuable in deve lop ing and car ry ing out this study. M a n y thanks to everyone at U B C who were always there to lend me a hand, an ear or a great suggest ion; you made this degree a real ly wonder fu l experience. I w o u l d also l i ke to thank m y f am i l y and friends for their unrelenting support dur ing m y studies in Vancouver . T o both m y parents I g ive b i g hugs and thank you for your uncondi t iona l love and encouragement in addit ion to your f inanc ia l assistance throughout this degree. T o m y best f r iend Ja imie, who is a lways and has a lways been there to l isten and discuss any and every issue. A special thank you goes to M o h a m m e d without w h o m I might not have kept m y sanity dur ing the many stressful t imes. H i s l o v i ng and support ive ways are a tribute to his character and I am very grateful to have h i m in m y l i fe . v i i 1 0 C H A P T E R 1; INTRODUCTION AND R A T I O N A L E 1 1 PURPOSE AND R E L E V A N C E O F T H E STUDY The Canadian sport ing system is an excel lent example demonstrat ing the ways i n wh i ch women have been exc luded f rom many soc ia l , po l i t i ca l and economic contexts s imp ly because of their gender. It has been a long road for women attempting to act ively participate in the coveted 'male preserves' . In Canada, the persistent exc lus ion of women f r om the publ ic labour force (Armst rong , 1978; Landsberg , 1982) such as h igh level government (Gigantes, 1989), business and economics (Belcourt et. a l . , 1992; Peach, 1992; Shack, 1977), po l i t i cs (Brodie and V i cke r s , 1982; K e a l y and Sangster, 1989; K o m e , 1985), academia (Brooks , 1997), and sport ing organizat ions (Barney, 1999; Fitness and Amateur Sport, 1982; H a l l , 1978; H a l l , Cu l l en and S lack, 1990; Ingl is , 1997; M a c d o n a l d , 1992; M c K a y , 1997; M e r c i e r and Werthner, 2 0 0 1 ; Sport Canada , 1991; Wh i te and Y o u n g , 1999) has been studied extensively and the f indings are s imi la r in that they show the extent to wh i ch women have been unwe lcome in h igh leve l sport ing leadership posit ions. S im i l a r l y , this study has examined the issue of female under- representation in sport administrat ion by h igh l ight ing the career paths and leadership sk i l l s of successful female leaders wh i le s imultaneously cons ider ing the ex is t ing barriers that continue to l imi t women ' s opportunit ies to enter and progress in sport administrat ion. I bel ieve that this in format ion is necessary i f we are to better understand the ways in wh i ch women access or are exc luded f r om high leve l leadership posi t ions. 1.1.1 Importance of sport to Canada It is important to point out that modern sport in Canada and wor ldw ide is shaped by cul tura l , soc ia l , economic and po l i t i ca l inf luences. No t on ly has sport evo lved 1 into an important component of the Canadian identity (Gruneau and Wh i t son , 1993; Gruneau, 1988; A l b i n s o n and Gruneau, 1976) but more important ly , the f inanc ia l aspects of both O l y m p i c and professional sport have taken on vast g lobal importance. Sport ing organizat ions have thus become power fu l institutions that are c lose ly t ied to business and pol i t ics . W i t h the a id of the media , their inf luence reaches beyond the major i ty of the Canadian populat ion and correspondingly shapes attitudes and experiences of both sports fans and non-sports fans. Sport Canada (2004) reported that: " i n 1991, 53,000 Canadians worked in sports-related jobs , an increase o f 1 4 % since 1986. W o m e n held 4 2 % of the j o b s " (Sport Canada(a) website, 2004). Though this statistic for women in part icular is h igh , we must be careful in assuming that they were mak ing s ignif icant inroads into male dominated govern ing bodies of h igh leve l sport ing organizat ions. Numerous studies have demonstrated the ways in wh i ch women are usual ly employed in the 'soft ' areas o f sport ing organizat ion, t yp ica l l y i n the secretarial, educational and pub l i c relations domains (Acker , 1990; A rms t rong , 1978; Chase, 1992; Duerst-Lahti and K e l l y , 1995; M c K a y , 1997, R in ta l a and B i scho f f , 1994, 1996; M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son , 1990). In addi t ion, women have been less v i s ib le in leadership posit ions at all levels of sport administrat ion and i f in charge, it is usual ly in the smal ler organizat ions. Interestingly, there are more women in pa id sport administrat ion posit ions than there are in volunteer posit ions for a number of reasons related to the gendered labour market. The issue o f volunteer ism as a barrier w i l l be rev iewed in Chapter 4 however it is important to note that this is part icular ly problematic as most sport ing organizat ions at 2 the very top of the sport governance hierarchy be long to the O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t whose organizat ional foundat ion is based on volunteer ism. These organizat ions control the direct ion and management of thousands of athletes wor ldw ide , wh i ch makes them inf luent ia l , and thus confers their leaders a s ignif icant amount of power. Statistics have shown that women in these organizations are severely under-represented in the govern ing bodies, especia l ly at the executive leve l and in the top leadership posit ions. Nevertheless, sport administrat ion evident ly presents an important employment sector for women in Canada therefore it is important to understand how and why there are so few female leaders thus support ing the need for an examinat ion of the ways in wh i ch women enter and progress in h igh level Canadian sport administrat ion. F ina l l y , Canadian sport ing organizations and their leaders have tremendous cul tura l , economic and po l i t i ca l power, especia l ly those at the elite leve l such as Sport Canada, the Canadian O l y m p i c Commit tee and many large sport federations. F o r this reason, it is also upon their govern ing bodies that sport ing organizat ions at the grassroots level model their administrat ive structure and operational management. If these organizat ions have a lack of female leaders because of ex is t ing barriers at the structural, cul tura l , relational and societal level then it is l i ke l y that these w i l l also be enacted in the govern ing bodies of grassroots sport ing organizat ions. Because h igh leve l Canadian sport ing organizat ions have such an incredible amount of inf luence and contro l over sport in Canada, their pol ic ies and procedures affect the entire Canadian sport ing system. " C h o i c e of act iv i ty, talent ident i f icat ion, mot ivat ion to participate, selection procedures, coach ing techniques, a l locat ion of funds, s imple day-to-day administrat ion, are a l l in f luenced by the cr i ter ia set by sports people to select and just i fy their own and other people 's ac t ions" (Schwartz, 1992 quoted in A p l i n , Soucie , Quek and O o n 1996, p.253). 3 Since sport has been characterized as an instrumental tool in the development of a l l Canadians, it is important that sport ing organizations ensure that everyone have access to sport and its administrat ion. In addit ion, h igh level sport ing organizat ions need not on ly promote equal ity among male and female athletes and administrat ion but they themselves display such egal i tar ianism in their governance structures. F o r these reasons, this study w i l l focus on women ' s experiences w i th regard to their entry and progression in Canadian sport administrat ion at various levels. 1.1.2 Vancouve r 2010 W in te r O l y m p i c and Para l ympic Games The I O C ' s awarding of the 2010 W in te r O l y m p i c and Para l ympic Games to Vancouver had an immense and immediate impact on the Canadian sport ing system. Canada 's host ing o f the 2010 Games w i l l place the country 's pub l i c image at the forefront. D i rec t l y t ied to the Vancouve r W in te r O l y m p i c and Pa ra l ympic Games is an extensive recruitment of athletes and administrators in addit ion to the implementat ion of advanced development programs wh i ch are a l l possible as a result of federal government fund ing. H a v i n g said that, women make up approximate ly 5 2 % o f the Canad ian populat ion and greatly contribute to the federal tax revenue be ing used to fund these Games thereby warranting their appropriate representation at the dec is ion-making table. Bo th the government of Canada and h igh level sport ing organizat ions have always taken the country 's athletic performance at O l y m p i c Games ser iously, thus p rov id ing s ignif icant fund ing for the establishment of organizat ions and programs wi th the a im of improv ing the number of medals won by Canadian athletes. Though some sport ing organizat ions have been established since the early 1900s, focus on h igh performance sport is re lat ively recent. M c K a y (1997) reported that: 4 " . . .the Canadian O l y m p i c Assoc ia t ion and the federal and prov inc ia l governments [have] instituted high performance programs. . . . i n 1971 Sport Canada and Recreat ion Canada were establ ished. . .and in 1976 the first federal minister wi th responsibi l i t ies for fitness and amateur sport was appointed" (p.31). Th i s emphasis has intensi f ied as very recently, h igh level sport ing organizat ions have taken assertive measures to increase the number of pod ium f inishes by Canadian athletes and place Canada at the front of the medal standings w i th programs such as ' O w n the P o d i u m ' and ' P layground to P o d i u m ' . In fact, "the C O C envis ions Canada 's O l y m p i c W in te r team in 2010 being first in the W o r l d , .. . in 2012 being among the top 8 nations in the W o r l d , .. .envisions Canada as a country where sport is central to its culture. . . [and] the O l y m p i c Movemen t be ing at the core o f this sport ing cu l tu re . . . " ( C O C website, 2005). There has thus been an extensive push to recruit and develop h igh performance athletes by implement ing a series of advanced programs, most of wh i ch are funded by government. W o m e n not on ly represent a number of potential recipients for such programs but should also be invo l ved in their creation and d isseminat ion. F o r these reasons, women are entit led to appropriate representation in these h igh leve l sport ing organizat ions who are i nvo l ved in the development and implementat ion of such init iat ives. Th i s also demonstrates the extent to wh i ch pod ium success is the underpinning value for h igh leve l Canadian sport ing organizat ions thereby promot ing the ethos of competit iveness, aggressiveness and personal achievement; attitudes tradit ional ly associated w i th a mascul ine management paradigm (Cameron 1996, Hovden 2000a, Hovden 2000b, M c K a y 1997). Though there are some women invo l ved at this level o f sport ing leadership, they are not in s ignif icant numbers therefore have litt le vo ice 5 and inf luence at the boardroom table. Th i s study w i l l address the ways in wh i ch organizat ions can increase the number of female leaders i n vo l ved in sport administrat ion. 1.1.3 Research Gaps Leadersh ip posit ions in sport ing organizat ions are often associated wi th s ignif icant power and inf luence and more important ly , have tradi t ional ly been held by men. A s this study exp lored various aspects of women ' s invo lvement in high leve l Canadian sport ing leadership, it was possible to compare these f indings against those of other important studies conducted in the Canadian context (Fitness and Amateur Sport, 1982; H a l l , 1978; H a l l , Cu l l en and S lack, 1990; M c K a y , 1997; Me rc i e r , 2001 , 2002 ; Sport Canada, 1991). However , it is important to remember that most o f these studies were carr ied out in the 1980s and early 1990s and have not since been pursued. These research f indings d id show that the gender structure of senior administrat ive posit ions in Canadian sport administrat ion had remained v i r tua l ly unchanged since around the m i d 1950s. A s early as 1985, Sport Canada was stressing the need to regular ly gather data on the status of women in sport leadership and in 1991, speculated that changing the gender imbalance in sport administrat ion i nvo l ved a three stage process: "(1) the p rob lem must be v is ib le , (2) the prob lem must c l a i m leg i t imacy and that (3) awareness achieves nothing without commitment on the part of those who inf luence events" (Sport Canada, 1991, p.24). Despi te these statements, no research has spec i f i ca l l y focused on female leaders in the Canadian sport ing system since then. Because this research is re lat ive ly dated, m y study brings knowledge regarding the access and progression made by women in sport administrat ion since efforts have been made to increase the representation o f female leaders at a l l levels of the sport ing system. Cor respond ing ly , this study's intention is to 6 update these f indings and analyze the extent and effects of change for female leaders in Canadian sport administrat ion, part icular ly w i th regard to career paths, leadership sk i l l s and barriers in f luenc ing their entry and progression. In this way, this study w i l l add to the body of literature on women in sport ing leadership in the context of the new m i l l enn ium. A l s o of great s igni f icance is the fact that this study differs f rom other Canad ian research concern ing women in sport ing leadership in terms of methodology. Th i s in i t ia l groundwork re l ied heavi ly on survey methodology in order to obtain statistical data on the number o f women volunteer administrators and executive members (Ha l l , Cu l l en and S lack, 1990; Sport Canada, 1991). Though Sport Canada (1991) used focus groups and M c K a y (1997) interv iewed some Canadian sport ing leaders, no study spec i f i ca l l y l ooked at p rov id ing a vo ice to female sport administrators in Canada to e l ic i t their perceptions and experiences i n sport administrat ion. F o r this reason, the in format ion used for this thesis derives f r om the personal interviews conducted w i th women i n vo l v ed in h igh level o f sport administrat ion in Canada. Though no methodology is a l l encompass ing, quantitative research has been c r i t i c ized for l im i t ing the results that can be found as an answer key based on the researcher's perspectives and understanding, is usual ly prov ided for respondents therefore the part icipants' v iewpoints are not a lways fu l l y represented in the results ( B i schof f and R inta la , 1994, 1996; H a l l , Cu l l en and S lack, 1990; M c K a y 1997). W i t h respect to the theoretical f rameworks used i n these previous analyses, most studies were based on a l iberal feminist perspective where the a im of the research was to increase the number o f women in sport administrat ion wi thout fundamental ly prob lemat iz ing the structures and practices of these same organizat ions. F o r this reason, 7 this study w i l l incorporate a feminist theoretical paradigm as we l l as organizat ional theory to examine h igh leve l sporting leadership. Such a perspective w i l l help account for the mul t ip le complexi t ies that affect women ' s entry and careers in sport administrat ion. F ina l l y , Inglis (1997) has proposed that: "Future research w i th in the boards of directors o f amateur sport organizat ions. . .continue to probe factors that may affect perceptions on various aspects o f board work , and continue to explore the ways men and women consider their invo lvement wi th various roles at the governance l e v e l " (p. 170). In conjunct ion, Cameron (1996) points to the paucity of research on women at the top levels of sport ing organizat ions. I bel ieve that this study's invest igat ion of the perceptions and experiences of past and current Canadian female sport ing leaders w i l l not on ly i n fo rm these research gaps but also contribute a deeper understanding of the gendered processes o f entry and progression in Canadian sport ing administrat ion. 1.2 W O M E N ' S PARTICIPATION A T T H E O L Y M P I C G A M E S A N D IN C A N A D I A N SPORT The O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t is an excel lent example of the ways in wh i ch women were s l ow l y accepted into sport ing organizat ions, first and foremost as athletes. There are s igni f icant ly more women part ic ipat ing in O l y m p i c sport since the first women took part in the Paris Games of 1900 where they made up on ly 2 % (19 women) of the 1225 athletes. B y 1936 in B e r l i n , women accounted for 8 % of a l l athletes and this number had increased to 1 2 % by the 1960 Summer O l y m p i c Games in R o m e . " B y the Games i n 1980, women ' s part ic ipat ion had leaped to represent close to 2 2 % and at the Sydney Games in 2000, the number of female athletes reached 4,069, o f a total of 10,651 participants, over 3 8 % " (O l ymp i c Rev i ew , 2004). 8 Though it is clear that there has been a general increase of female athletes a l lowed to participate at the Games , it has taken over 100 years for women to increase their part ic ipat ion rates f rom 2 % of total athletes in 1900 to 3 8 % in 2000 and have yet to come close to achiev ing gender equality. Th i s under representation o f female athletes goes a long way in exp la in ing the lack of women in its govern ing bodies. Indeed, the fact that the I O C has very few women in their administrat ive structures also provides national sport ing organizat ions wi th a male mode l of governance that reproduces the inequalit ies already exist ing. The acknowledgement of a 'gender issue' and the consequent efforts to increase the number o f women in O l y m p i c sport and its administrat ion led to an increase o f Canadian female athletes attending O l y m p i c Games . A t a l l levels of the Canadian sporting system, women ' s opportunit ies to participate in sport have grown immense ly yet male athletes continue to outnumber female athletes at every level in Canada. In 1998, Statistics Canada (2004) found that, of the 8.3 m i l l i o n Canadians that part icipated regular ly in one or more sports 15 years or older, 4 3 % were men wh i l e on ly 2 6 % were women . Th i s evident paucity o f women • i nvo l ved in sport ul t imately affects the number o f women who might eventual ly seek posit ions in sport ing organizat ions. Cameron (1996) aff i rms that part ic ipat ion numbers are relevant because most female administrators emerge f r om the poo l o f athletes and former athletes (p. 11). F o r this reason, it is useful to f irst acknowledge the histor ical under representation o f women at the O l y m p i c Games as we l l as Canadian female athletes and administrators in the O l y m p i c Movement . Statistics concerning the number of Canadian female athletes part ic ipat ing at the Games as we l l as the number of medals they won were col lected. They show the 9 signif icant contr ibut ion women have made to mainta in ing Canada 's p roud sport ing image, wh i ch also pos i t ive ly impacts its overal l sport ing system. W o m e n ' s opportunit ies to participate as athletes in both the Summer and W in te r O l y m p i c Games have not a lways been equal to those of their male counterparts. H a l l and R ichardson (1982) studied the number of O l y m p i c sports offered to both male and female athletes and reported that as of the late 1970's : " W o m e n cannot compete in as many sports or events at any o f these international competi t ions. In fact, i f you compare the number of sports open to men and women at the 1976 Summer O l y m p i c s , the 1980 Win te r O l y m p i c s , the 1978 Commonwea l th Games, and the 1979 Pan-Amer ican Games , you f i nd that the men had the opportunity to compete in exact ly twice as many sport as the women (62 to 31). In terms of the number of events, the ration is even higher. In other words, male athletes, at least on the basis of these international compet i t ions, have more than twice as many opportunit ies as female athletes to w in a meda l . " (p.43) Th i s undoubtedly in f luenced the number o f female athletes part ic ipat ing at the elite level and therefore the number of 'qua l i f i ed ' women avai lable for leadership posit ions in sport ing organizat ions. Da ta on Canadian O l y m p i c male and female athlete part ic ipat ion rates and medal w inn ings for both Summer (see Append ix 1) and W in te r (see Append ix 2) O l y m p i c Games f r om 1984 to 2006 c lear ly shows that recently, the number of male and female athletes representing Canada at the O l y m p i c Games has s l ow l y reached relative equal i ty, though men st i l l participate in more events than do women . 1.2.1 Summer O l y m p i c Games A s ment ioned, pr ior to 1984, women were severely under represented on Canada 's O l y m p i c teams. Th i s cont inued at the 1984 Summer O l y m p i c Games in L o s Ange les where Canada sent 413 athletes, its largest athlete delegation to date. A t this t ime, women represented on ly 3 7 % of the Canadian delegation wh i l e b r ing ing in 3 6 % o f 10 the country 's medal tal ly. A t the Summer Games in Seoul (1988), Canada 's delegation was drast ical ly reduced to a total of 315 athletes, though its gender compos i t ion had not changed much . W o m e n represented 3 5 % of the team in 1988 and won 4 1 % o f the country 's medals. In Ba rce lona 1992, the team was again cut back to 303 athletes wh i le the percentage of female athletes was s l ight ly increased to 3 9 % and brought in this exact share of the medals. B y 1996, women compr ised a stunning 5 0 % of the O l y m p i c team and won 5 0 % of the medals. S ince then, Canadian women ' s part ic ipat ion has remained relat ively stable representing 4 9 % of athletes at the Sydney (2000) and Athens (2004) O l y m p i c Games . A t each of these games, Canadian women brought home 5 0 % of the medals for the country. C lea r l y , women have been an inextr icable part o f Canada 's international sport ing success and therefore deserve s imi la r representation at the dec i s ion - mak ing leve l . 1.2.2 W in te r O l y m p i c Games G i v e n that the W in te r O l y m p i c Games were establ ished in 1924 and the fact that many nations be longing to the O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t do not experience winter-l ike condi t ions, the part ic ipat ion numbers in terms of nations and athletes are s igni f icant ly smal ler than those of the Summer O l y m p i c Games . U n l i k e these Games , the data co l lected shows that equal i ty for Canadian female athletes at the W in te r O l y m p i c Games has not yet been achieved. A t the 1984 Sarajevo O l y m p i c Games , Canada sent a total of 69 athletes, a mere 2 9 % of them women . That year, none o f the 20 female athletes brought home a medal though on ly two male athletes won a total o f four medals for Canada. The f o l l ow ing W in te r O l y m p i c Games were he ld on Canadian so i l in Ca lgary , A lber ta . C o m p r i s i n g on ly 2 6 % of Canada 's athlete's delegat ion, women w o n 6 7 % of the 11 medals at those Games sav ing what some have c l a imed , w o u l d have been the embarrassment of the host nation for their poor showing. W o m e n formed 2 7 % of the Canadian team in A lbe r t v i l l e (1992) and 3 3 % of the delegation in L i l l e h a m m e r (1994). Despi te their under representation at both of these W in te r O l y m p i c Games , they contr ibuted 4 4 % of the medals in 1992 and 4 3 % in 1994. A l r eady , female athletes were demonstrat ing their importance to the high performance sport program in Canada. The most recent W in te r O l y m p i c Games have shown a sl ight increase in Canadian female part ic ipat ion representing 4 2 % of the O l y m p i c team at the Nagano Games (1998) and 4 5 % in Salt L ak e C i t y (2002). A g a i n , women brought home 4 7 % (1998) and 5 6 % (2002) of the Canadian medals respectively. F i na l l y , in To r i no (2006), Canadian female athletes marked their greatest accompl ishment yet w inn ing a whopp ing 6 7 % o f the medal ta l ly for Canada whi le representing on ly 4 4 % of the Canadian team. F o r the first t ime it seems, more female athletic performances were lauded by fans and med ia a l ike than were the successes o f Canadian male athletes. 1.2.3 What does this data tel l us? It is evident that over t ime, the number of Canad ian athletes sent to O l y m p i c Games has f luctuated and at t imes, was s igni f icant ly reduced in numbers. What has not changed however is the proport ion of male and female athletes on O l y m p i c teams wh i ch demonstrates a lack of progression towards equality. It is also clear that women succeeded at international competi t ions given their representation and at t imes, outperformed their male counterparts. In many instances, there were almost twice as many Canadian male athletes and thus, twice as many opportunit ies for them to w in medals, attesting that women were per forming successful ly despite their l im i ted 12 opportunit ies. It should also be noted that the Summer O l y m p i c Games have prov ided Canadian women wi th greater opportunit ies for part ic ipat ion at the O l y m p i c s than those of the W in te r Games. Th i s data therefore demonstrates the value of women to the O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t in Canada and wor ldw ide as we l l as the international recognit ion o f the country i n sport ing competi t ions. The insubstantial increase i n the number o f Canadian female participants does not acknowledge the fact that women are a major prov ider of the national medal recogni t ion; a value wh i ch has been a prominent part of the country 's athlete preparation leading up to the Vancouve r 2010 W in te r O l y m p i c and Para lympic Games . Canadian female athletic performances in O l y m p i c compet i t ions unquest ionably warrant increased representation not on ly as athletes but in coach ing, manageria l and administrat ive posit ions. Unfortunately , Canadian women are prov ided much greater opportunit ies to participate as athletes than as coaches and administrators, as is the situation wor ldw ide . A s B i s c h o f f and R in ta la (1994) state succ inct ly : "when women ' s opportunit ies to serve in leadership roles do not keep pace wi th their opportunit ies as athletes or sport participants, the tradit ional gendered power differentials in society are r e in fo rced " (p.86). Th i s is a cruc ia l point as it is necessary that women gain inf luent ia l posi t ions w i th in the sport ing system i f they are go ing to reduce the barriers prevent ing them f r om accessing senior administrat ive posts. F o r this reason, it is important to rev iew what the literature tells us about women in sport administrat ion in various contexts. 1.3 A R E A S O F S T U D Y M y overarching research question sought to ident i fy and explore the career paths and experiences o f women in Canadian sport ing leadership. G i v e n the substantive Wh i te , 13 midd le to upper class, able-bodied mascul ine environment of most sport ing organizat ions and the consequent under-representation of women in leadership posi t ions, it begs the quest ion: W h o are the women that have reached high level leadership posit ions in the administrat ion of sport in Canada, how and why d i d they become invo l ved in these posit ions? What obstacles, i f any, have they had to overcome throughout their career paths? S im i l a r l y , it is also important to understand the experiences o f women who have not been invo l ved in sport leadership at its highest leve l for whatever reason. B o t h of these groups were consulted because each of them has unique perspectives concerning high level sport ing leadership and women ' s invo lvement w i th in it. In this way, it is also possible to highl ight factors that impact women ' s decis ions to avo id executive posit ions in sport administrat ion as we l l as h igh l ight ing those barriers that hinder their opportunit ies to access such posit ions. A s Cameron (1996) argues: "[t]o fu l l y understand what keeps women (or men) out of senior volunteer sport management one w o u l d need to ask people who are e l ig ib le on the cr iter ia already out l ined, but who have dec l i ned " (Cameron, 1996, p. 131). In this way, the combinat ion of perspectives a l lows for a broader analysis o f women ' s perce ived experiences in Canadian sport administrat ion. The interviews de lved into the women ' s personal backgrounds and explored their career path in sport ing leadership. Quest ions pertained to women ' s experiences as h igh level female leaders throughout their career, obstacles they may have faced dur ing their progression and some of the attributes and circumstances they perce ived to have inf luenced their experiences and success in sport ing leadership. F ina l l y , connect ing this study's f indings wi th that of the current literature concern ing women in sport 14 administrat ion, a general prof i le of h igh level female leaders emerges and a l lows for an examinat ion o f their entry and progression i n sport administrat ion. S imul taneous ly , it h ighl ights the various determinants that sustain the under-representation of women in sporting leadership hence some modest recommendat ions w i l l be made wi th the objective of creating more opportunit ies for future female leaders attempting to forge a career in Canad ian sport administrat ion. Th i s thesis is compr ised of f ive chapters. Chapter 1, the introductory chapter, provides the basic foundat ion of the study and the informat ion that it hoped to generate. The second chapter (Chapter 2) is a general literature rev iew about women in sport administrat ion and the theoretical f rameworks that have been used to exp la in their under- representation. Based on themes that have emerged in this previous literature, the f o l l o w i n g two chapters are a comprehensive analysis of the female respondents ' background and experiences in sport ing leadership. Chapter 3 considers women ' s career paths in sport administrat ion and the sk i l l s that a l lowed them to enter and progress into leadership posit ions. Furthermore, Chapter 4 discusses the barriers that women bel ieve cont inued to hinder their opportunit ies to lead i n h igh leve l sport ing organizat ions. F ina l l y , the last chapter (Chapter 5) summarizes these f indings and provides some conc lus ions to the issues discussed in the thesis, i n addit ion to suggesting modest approaches that sport ing organizations might undertake to increase their female representation at the governance level . 1.3.1 Career Paths Though every woman ' s experience is unique and can never be f u l l y understood, some patterns can be found in many of the female leaders' career path in sport 15 administrat ion. F o r this reason, this section examines the circumstances and experiences that have enabled women to access leadership posit ions in sport administrat ion. Research studies conducted in Nor th A m e r i c a and Europe have c lear ly shown that certain characteristics are often found in h igh level female sport ing leaders and that most possess a s imi lar sk i l l set (Cameron, 1996; Pf ister et. a l . , 2005 ; M c K a y , 1997; H a l l , Cu l l en and S lack, 1990; H o v d e n , 2000a, 2000b, 2005 ; I S L P and I O C , 2004). F o r this reason, personal characteristics such as level of educat ion and years of experience were discussed in terms of their capacity to help women enter and progress in sport leadership. F o r example , some demographic informat ion was col lected regarding women ' s age at entry into sport administrat ion as we l l as years of experience in their career. Th i s in format ion can be c ruc ia l , part icular ly in terms of the age of the respondents as we l l as their level o f experience in sport administrat ion. F o r example, the age of respondents can be very useful because it a l lows for an interpretation of the histor ical and socia l context in wh i ch this person has entered and exper ienced sport and/or sports administrat ion. L i k e w i s e , the years of experience this member brings cou ld indicate the extent to wh i ch she has establ ished socia l networks; another topic that was addressed in the interv iews. Research questions also addressed the specif ic career paths women took to reach their current posit ions as we l l as their in i t ia l experiences in accessing h igh level leadership posit ions in sport. D i d they share s imi la r stories and backgrounds? Was there a prototypical route to successful sporting leadership for women? Th i s knowledge provides us w i th a better understanding of the exc lus iv i t y o f h igh leve l sport ing organizat ions and the ways in wh i ch ' spec i f i c ' women are recruited to serve wh i le others are deterred. 16 W h i l e ident i fy ing these processes o f inc lus ion , it is hoped to s imultaneously h ighl ight the processes of exc lus ion that exist in sport administrat ion. Throughout the d iscuss ion of their career paths, participants were asked to focus on the key characteristics that they be l ieved were essential to become a h igh level sport ing leader. The interviews also probed the part ic ipants ' perceptions regarding attributes they perce ived as necessary to be inf luent ia l on Execut i ve boards. S ince much research has shown that 'mascu l ine ' attributes such as aggressiveness, independence and rat ional izat ion are va lued in sport ing organizat ions (Hovden 2000a, Hovden 2000b) , women were asked to describe their leadership style and the techniques that had made them successful or had turned them away f rom this career. Th i s is important and has been discussed in the literature wh i ch has establ ished that women must often adapt in posit ions of leadership where they had to essential ly ' f it i n ' to the organizat ion. Through the women ' s stories about their experiences in sport leadership, it was poss ib le to h ighl ight the perceived necessary attributes for sports leadership. In addi t ion, this has also prov ided insight into the culture of the organizat ion where several barriers were be l ieved to exist for women attempting to progress into leadership roles. Fo r this reason, this chapter also addresses the ways in wh i ch female leaders perceived their leadership styles and the characteristics they felt d is t inguished them f r om other leaders who have not held or even aspired to attain top leadership posi t ions. The study also examined the degree to wh i ch these female part ic ipants ' felt any k i nd of pressure to represent or advocate for women ' s issues. D i d they feel they were expected to promote and participate in women and sport init iat ives? A s a result of their minor i t y status in sport ing organizat ions, it is often assumed that female leaders are more l i ke l y to 17 assist other women reach leadership posit ions w i th in the organizat ion. However , Cameron ' s (1996) study showed that many women preferred to work w i th men rather than other women " . . . wh i ch poses a prob lem i f they are be ing expected to pave the way for other women to j o i n them at the t op " (p.211). Th i s area o f study w i l l therefore discuss the women ' s perceptions of mentor ing and their bel iefs regarding women ' s opportunit ies in sport. F i na l l y , this study also analyzed women ' s thoughts regarding the role of soc ia l networks in accessing high level sporting leadership posit ions. A s Cameron (1996) advances: " . . .one important poss ib i l i ty is whether or not women can use male networks as a point of resistance: by inf i l t rat ing all-male networks w i l l women in fact access in format ion, . . . inf luence men , show that women are as capable, as commit ted , as sk i l l ed as men? W i l l they in fact f i nd a way to change the culture of the organizat ion this w a y ? " (Cameron, 1996, p.202-203). Fo r this reason, this study also examined the ways in wh i ch socia l networks were important, advantageous or even necessary in attaining executive leve l posi t ions and i f they were an avenue of change for female leaders. 1.3.2 Female administrators ' perceptions of their role in sport ing leadership Leadership posit ions in sporting organizat ions are associated wi th s igni f icant power and inf luence; posit ions wh i ch have been general ly he ld by men. That be ing said, women who do attain this level of administrat ion have been reported to be undervalued and to lack inf luence at the boardroom table ( M c K a y 1997, Cameron 1996). In order to assess the perceived inf luence of these female leaders, they were asked to convey their experiences about how they had been slotted into their roles as we l l as their experiences i n these leadership posit ions. D i d they feel they had inf luenced po l i c y or made a 18 signif icant contr ibut ion to sport in Canada? Were they act ively i n vo l ved in the dec is ion mak ing processes and were they g iven opportunit ies to demonstrate success i n these leadership posi t ions? These questions can lead to a better understanding o f women fee l ing isolated or ineffect ive in their posit ions (Cameron 1996, M c K a y 1997) wh i ch can be a barrier to advancing in sport ing organizat ions. 1.3.3 Barr iers to women ' s entry and progression in sport administrat ion Th i s study also sought to examine the various factors wh i ch were perce ived to hinder women ' s opportunit ies to enter and progress into high leve l sport ing leadership. D i d the stories of successful women administrators point to a speci f ic type of female leader? Through the part ic ipants ' personal histories, it was possible to h ighl ight a number of barriers that were bel ieved to exist for female leaders in Canad ian sport ing organizat ions. In fact, these stories h ighl ighted the different experiences o f female leaders and pointed to a number of factors that led to the margina l izat ion of female sport administrators. It has been argued that each ind i v idua l ' s real i ty is shaped by their part icular socia l locat ion; a socia l locat ion marked ly determined by demographic factors such as class, race, gender and phys ica l abi l i ty . Consequent ly , it is assumed that women not on ly experience various levels of access to sport and sport leadership but also have very different experiences as leaders. The study therefore examined the ways in wh i ch the female respondents be l ieved they had been impeded, i f at a l l , i n their attempt to enter and progress in sport administrat ion. Th i s analysis can then be compared to data prov ided by a number of other studies both in Canada and international ly. These f indings w i l l thus h ighl ight where female administrators perceived they were he ld back and the reasons that made them feel this way. 19 1.3.4 Recommendat ions Undoubted ly , female sports administrators and their experiences can prov ide a valuable knowledge base i f we are to understand gender relations i n Canadian sport ing organizat ions. The conc lus ion w i l l address the impl icat ions of this study and its f indings on both theory and practice. H o w do these women ' s experiences and perspectives further our understandings of gender practices in h igh level sport ing leadership? Indeed, how can we ut i l ize women ' s success stories to help us better understand the career paths of women who have entered sport administrat ion wh i l e h igh l ight ing the barriers that remain for various groups o f women? M y f indings therefore w i l l be relevant for aspir ing leaders, current leaders as we l l as po l i c y makers in sport. In addit ion, some modest recommendat ions w i l l be made concern ing the ident i f ied barriers. Th i s in turn may faci l itate and encourage the implementat ion of more inc lus ive po l ic ies wo rk i ng to change the androcentric practices that work subtly to exc lude women and other minor i t ies f r om high level dec is ion-making posit ions. 1.4 M E T H O D O L O G Y 1.4.1 E th ics E th ics approval for this study was received by the Un ive rs i t y of B r i t i sh C o l u m b i a on January 30th, 2006. Cons ide r ing the nature of the study and the fact that questions investigated personal and therefore sensitive issues for the women , conf ident ia l i ty was of utmost concern. O n the consent forms (see A p p e n d i x 3) s igned by the participants, a conf ident ia l i ty clause assured participants that their names w o u l d not be used in any publ icat ion o f this study. F o r this reason, the participants are ident i f ied on ly by number in this document and therefore, some of the appendixes have been censored. It should also 20 be noted that the part ic ipants ' names were omitted f rom the study documents and replaced by reference numbers. A s a f ina l precaution, al l study documents have been kept in a locked f i l i ng cabinet and al l computer f i les are password protected. 1.4.2 Recrui tment procedures and participant select ion In order to examine the personal experiences of h igh l y qua l i f i ed Canadian female sport ing leaders, it is necessary to speak to them in the f o rm of interv iews. F o r this reason, I recruited women in s imi la r high level sport ing leadership posit ions a l l serv ing in the same high leve l Canadian sport ing organizat ion. Other female respondents i n various sport ing leadership posit ions were approached wi th an offer to participate in the study. M a n y o f these women were ident i f ied f rom C A A W S ' (Canadian Assoc i a t ion for Advancement of W o m e n and Sport) yearly List of Most Influential Women in Sport and Physical Activity for the years 2000, 2003, 2004 and 2005 ; a l ist of h igh ly qua l i f i ed women who have achieved great success in their sport administrat ion careers ( C A A W S , January 16, 2007). Though these women had perhaps not served in the highest echelons of sport administrat ion, they possessed the necessary sk i l l s to succeed in sport ing leadership nonetheless and had to potential to advance i f they wished. Potent ia l respondents were encouraged to participate in this study as it was their knowledge that is essential i f we are to better understand the role women have p layed and do play in the administrat ion o f Canadian sport. They were also aware that this research is part of a Maste r ' s thesis wh i ch w i l l a l low me to graduate f r o m the program. A total of 13 participants were contacted through a formal letter ma i l ed to their home or of f ice as we l l as by e-mail. Successfu l ly , 12 of these 13 women responded and 10 women took part in the in terv iewing process. T w o of the respondents were not able to 21 be interv iewed as there was a conf l ic t in schedul ing and was unsuccessful i n reschedul ing an interv iew. The female leaders who took part in this study had he ld regional , p rov inc ia l , national and/or international level sport administrat ion posit ions w i th many o f the women hav ing held posit ions at each. A l l o f the respondent's names and contact informat ion (e-mail and home/office addresses) were accessed f rom internet search engines, personal contacts as we l l as sport ing organizat ions. Once this in format ion was organized, each of the potential participants was contacted v i a an e-mail in wh i ch I introduced myse l f and br ie f ly expla ined the context of the study. In addi t ion, it indicated that a more detai led letter had also been mai led wh i ch w o u l d contain the specif ic details of the study as we l l as the procedure to take i f they wanted to be invo l ved . Th i s formal letter descr ibed the study procedures and prov ided the researcher's contact informat ion accompanied by a consent fo rm to be returned to me. Once they had been contacted, al l o f the women responded q u i c k l y and showed a great degree of interest in the study. The participants seemed receptive to meet ing me and te l l ing me about their experiences in sport administrat ion as ev idenced by the e-mail responses and return of s igned consent forms. M a n y of the women forwarded me their C V in order to demonstrate their career paths in sport ing leadership. A few female respondents also passed a long informat ion wh i ch they be l ieved were relevant to the study. In addit ion, many of them also prov ided me wi th the names of other female leaders they thought might be useful for this study. Once a major i ty of the out-of-town participants had agreed to be interv iewed, I began schedul ing and con f i rm ing interviews accord ing to the c i ty in wh i ch the women l i ved , go ing west to east f rom Vancouver to Ca lgary , Reg ina and Toronto . 22 1.4.3. Interv iewing process and data analysis In order to sol ic i t in format ion on the career paths and experiences o f al l participants, semi-structured, open-ended interv iews were used. I conducted a total of ten interviews last ing approximate ly 1 Vi hours each w i th on last ing 3 hours for a total of 17 hours and 4 minutes of interv iew material . The interviews were conducted in various settings. M o s t were he ld at the part ic ipants ' of f ice wh i le others were at their home and one took place at a coffee shop. It is be l ieved that ho ld ing the interviews in a setting of the female respondents' choice a l lowed them to be in an environment in wh i ch they felt comfortable. G u b r i u m and Ho ls te in (2003) exp la in : " The a im of the interv iewer is to derive, as object ive ly as possib le , the respondent's own op in ions of the subject matter in quest ion, in format ion that the respondent w i l l readi ly offer and elaborate when the circumstances are c o n d u c i v e . . . " (p.26). Th i s methodology thus a l lowed me to answer some of the research questions using high level female leaders' stories to investigate the issue of under-representation hop ing that h igh l ight ing the career paths and sk i l l s of women who had reached these posit ions w o u l d lead to a better understanding of those who are exc luded. Interestingly, one woman commented that part ic ipat ing in this study had given her the opportunity to reflect on her l i fe and career in sport administrat ion and that this had made her real ize that she had made a posit ive impact. She says: " . . .we don ' t want to lose the stories, the stories are important. A n d , and I even f i nd it interesting when I look back on it, l ike I was ref lect ing on it you know , before you came. . .because at first I thought, oh I don ' t know why she wants to talk to me, l ike I st i l l th ink of myse l f as you know , a l itt le [administrator] who d id al l these things but I don ' t real ly th ink of those things, they're just part, they became a part of m e " (Participant 006). 23 Interview questions were in formed by the work o f Cameron (1996), M c K a y (1997), the I S L P and I O C (2004) and H a l l , Cu l l en and S lack (1990). It was be l ieved that respondents should feel comfortable to speak freely about contentious issues wh i l e ensuring that the study's themes and specif ic points were discussed. T o this end, a general interv iew guide was developed for al l o f the women (see A p p e n d i x 4) although the interv iew questions were then ind i v idua l l y ta i lored for each part ic ipant i n order to e l ic i t important informat ion about part icular aspects of their career. Probes were also used to c lar i fy some responses or to dr ive the conversat ion into more detai l . I began the interviews by prov id ing the participant w i th a br ief introduct ion of the study and its purpose wh i l e remind ing them that they cou ld wi thdraw f r om the interview at any t ime without castigation. In addit ion, they were reminded that their identities and responses were conf ident ia l and that they w o u l d remain anonymous i n the write up of the thesis. F ina l l y , I obtained permiss ion to tape-record the session at wh i ch t ime I turned on the device. The interv iew was started wi th some general questions about the part ic ipant 's in i t ia l invo lvement in sport and then more spec i f i ca l l y about posit ions they had he ld . Th i s was meant to keep the conversat ion l ight so that some rapport cou ld be establ ished between the researcher and the respondent wh i le the speci f ic questions prov ided me wi th some cred ib i l i t y wi th regards to m y understanding of their career in sport administrat ion. A s the interv iew progressed, questions pertained to the women ' s socio-demographic informat ion as we l l as their perceptions of the leadership sk i l l s necessary to succeed in sport administrat ion. In addi t ion, the interview also probed the part ic ipant 's opin ions of women ' s roles in sport administrat ion as we l l some factors that hinder their opportunit ies to advance into the highest levels of sport ing leadership. 24 The interviews were transcribed soon after the meeting and provided an initial reading of the data. Pamela Cawthorne (2001) has argued that: " . . .seeking to understand, interpret and report honestly the things people say and the things people do in all their 'messy complexity' enables deep and rich knowledge claims to be made. However, for the full richness of such claims to emerge, they must be mediated reflexively and self- consciously through the purposes - and associated theoretical frameworks - researchers bring to their work" (p.67). For this reason, I took some field notes during the interview though the detailed notes were written immediately following the meeting. In this way, I was able to reflect on the positives and negatives of the interview and consider some of the discussion. This reflexive process allowed me to take away lessons from each interview and improve my interviewing skills in the process. In addition, I was able to remain aware of my shifting comprehension of the issues and measure my learning throughout the entire process. After the interview had been conducted, I mailed each participant a thank you card acknowledging their contributions to this study. Once all of the interviews had been transcribed, each was read and re-read in order to ensure that all of the relevant information had been selected and coded from each of them. A s the purpose of the study was to give a voice to women in sporting leadership, this was also reflected in the data analysis. A l l of the data was first coded by hand where a total of approximately 70 codes and sub-codes emerged. Content analysis was used to identify the most common topics as well as the themes emerging from the transcripts. Using Atlas T i , this information was more formally coded which made it much easier to analyze the data. A t this point, the themes were divided into chapters at which point I began to write up my findings. When choosing participant quotes, I focused on those that were most demonstrative of the participant's responses overall while ensuring that each 25 woman's experiences were evenly represented. Furthermore, when there were two opposing viewpoints concerning a particular issue, I selected quotes that were illustrative of each perspective to demonstrate the complexity of this issue. 1.5 C H A L L E N G E S AND LIMITATIONS O F T H E STUDY Though the study procedures were an overall success, there are particular aspects of the methodology that might have affected the findings. First, the fact that only one interview was conducted with each woman means that there was very little time for the researcher to establish rapport with the interviewee. This could have influenced the findings as some of the respondents might not have trusted me enough to really open up about contentious issues that exist in high level sporting leadership. In addition, the respondents were all women holding a high level leadership position which means that some of the participants might have felt they had to be careful about what information they could divulge to me and therefore, might not have censored their answers or completely avoided some of the questions, particularly those about contentious issues. The fact that they were all in leadership positions also means that they have not been excluded from this domain and may not provide the same insight as a woman who has not reached this level of leadership. For this reason, future studies should include such participants to gain a broader understanding of women's under-representation in high level sporting leadership. Finally, it is also important that I situate myself as a researcher investigating the under-representation of women in sport administration. My perspectives on this issue are inevitably shaped by my middle-class, French Canadian background in addition to my education, upbringing and life experiences inside and outside of sport. Likewise, my 26 inexperience as an interviewer also influenced my interviewer's responses, particularly during the first few interviews. For example, at times I did not follow up on responses that might have needed additional clarification. However, my interviewing skills did improve throughout this process and I believe that overall, the study was a success in generating a wealth of information on the careers and experiences of women in Canadian sport administration. 27 2.0 CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS In order to better understand the under representation of women in sport ing leadership, it is essential to first rev iew the part ic ipat ion of women in Canad ian sport because it has been establ ished that women often enter sport administrat ion as a result of their invo lvement in sport as athletes. T o this end, the O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t also provides an interesting area of analysis because of its far-reaching inf luence g iven its mul t i-b i l l ion dol lar budget, in addit ion to its wor ldw ide athlete base and te lev is ion audience. F o r this reason, the O l y m p i c Games have been an obvious topic of cr i t ica l research where important f indings have enabled us to better understand the under-representation o f women in coach ing, o f f i c ia t ing and sport administrat ion. There have been many studies conducted in a variety of contexts that prov ide valuable insight to this research study. In an international context, six studies in part icular i n fo rm this thesis ( I S LP and I O C , 2004; Pf ister et. a l . , 2005 ; Cameron , 1996; H o v d e n , 2000a, 2000b, 2005 ; B i s c h o f f and R in ta la , 1994, 1996; M c K a y , 1997). O n the other hand, three major Canad ian studies (Ha l l , Cu l l en and S lack, 1990; Sport Canada, 1991; M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son , 1990) prov ide cr i t ica l comparat ive data to assess the posi t ive and negative transformations in the Canadian sport ing system and above a l l , its governance structures. Moreove r , each o f these investigations is based on various theoretical f rameworks ; many of wh i ch were pertinent to the f indings of this study. 2.1 WOMEN IN SPORT ADMINISTRATION The under-representation of women in sport ing leadership has been we l l documented i n both the nat ional and international contexts (B i schof f and R in ta la , 1994, 1996; Cameron , 1996; H a l l , Cu l l en and S lack, 1990; H o v d e n , 2000a, 2000b, 2005 ; I S L P 28 and I O C , 2004 ; M c K a y , 1997; Pf ister et. a l . , 2005 ; Sport Canada, 1991; M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son , 1990). Fo r this reason, the literature rev iew w i l l f irst address studies conducted in the international context and subsequently examine studies concern ing the situation o f female sport ing leaders i n Canada. T o this end, the studies w i l l be descr ibed as to their general research questions and some of their important f ind ings. These part icular studies also i n fo rm some of the speci f ic arguments made throughout the thesis and w i l l therefore be revis i ted in later chapters. 2.1.1 Studies conducted in the international context A t the international leve l , it is first important to examine what can be considered the biggest and most complex govern ing structure in sport administrat ion: the International O l y m p i c Commit tee . The O l y m p i c Movemen t , represented and managed by the I O C , has been heavi ly c r i t i c ized for its efforts at gender equity and unt i l recently, there had been no s ignif icant changes in the gender compos i t ion of their organizat ional membership. A t its incept ion, the I O C existed as a 'male-only ' sport ing organizat ion: an organizat ion for men and contro l led by men. W i t h the rise of the women ' s movement in sport wh i ch then led to the establishment of important gender equity po l ic ies in sport such as T i t le I X in the Un i t ed States and the B r igh ton Dec lara t ion on an international basis, the I O C was under great pressure to increase the number o f female athletes and leaders in its organizat ion. A s a result, it instituted a rule change in 1973 wh i ch , for the first t ime, a l lowed women to become e l ig ib le for membership in the organizat ion; an important step in opening opportunit ies for women to participate in O l y m p i c governance and setting the fundamental standards of gender equity for Nat iona l O l y m p i c 29 Commit tees , International Federations and every other sport ing organizat ion related to the O l y m p i c Movement . In his analysis, Lucas (1992) reports that: " A t the close of the M o s c o w O l y m p i c Games of 1980, .. .there were no female members on the O l y m p i c committee, . . .women in posit ions of power were nearly nonexistent in N O C s and international federations, and . . .on ly 3 % of al l of f ic ia ls were w o m e n " (p. 133). The I O C w o u l d not elect its first female members unt i l 1981 and progress since has been very s low, their numbers increasing f r om two in 1981 to 6 in 1990. In 1996, 7 of the 94 I O C members ( 7% ) were women wh ich grew to nine of 111 I O C members ( 8% ) in 1997. A s recently as 2002, this I O C cou ld on ly boast of hav ing 15 women out of their 113 I O C memberships ( 13% ) . Th i s number was again reduced in 2005. There are currently 10 female I O C members serv ing and on ly 1 of them on the Execut i ve Commit tee . Ove r its 109 year history, on ly two women have ever held a V ice-Pres idency w i th in the I O C ' s Execut i ve Boa rd : A n i t a DeFrantz f r om 1997-2001 and G u n i l l a L i ndbe rg , new ly elected in 2004, support ing c la ims that h igh level female sport administrators rarely gain power fu l and inf luent ia l posit ions in large sport ing organizat ions (Cameron, 1996; M c K a y , 1999; Pf ister et. a l . , 2005 ; H o v d e n , 2000a ; Mac i n to sh and Beami sh , 1990). Though the number o f I O C members has f luctuated dur ing this t ime, the general membership has never been less than 100 members and there have never been more than 15 female members showing that female part ic ipat ion in h igh leve l international sport administrat ion is st i l l very l imi ted . 2.1.1.1 The ISLP and IOC (2004) report on Women, Leadership and the Olympic Movement Research conducted and publ ished by the I O C and the Institute of Sport and Le isure Po l i c y in 2004 a imed to col lect in format ion and statistics concern ing women ' s 30 roles in O l y m p i c governance, part icular ly f o l l o w i n g the implementat ion of gender equity targets. The po l i c y stated that at least 1 0 % o f dec is ion-making posit ions should be held by women. The report estimated that there were on ly 251 female N O C Execut i ve Commit tee members throughout the O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t (p. 17). G i v e n that N O C Execut i ve Commit tees are typ ica l l y made up of approximate ly 20 members and that there are over 202 nations in the O l y m p i c Movement , this means women on ly ho ld about 1 6 % of the estimated 4040 leadership posit ions at the national leve l . Indeed, they reported that 7 1 % of these women had been appointed after 1996. Though these statistics c lear ly reflect the flagrant margina l izat ion of women in a power fu l sport govern ing body , the report does not analyze the point that the I O C itself has fa i led to meet this po l i c y by not hav ing the 2 0 % it ca l led for by 2005 in the targets. In contrast, the report points to the absence o f female leaders in the N O C s as we l l as the International Federat ions as the feeder organizations fundamental ly responsible for the gender imbalance w i th in the I O C stating: " . . .there is a hierarchy f rom clubs at the base to regional , nat ional and international federations, and to N O C s , Cont inenta l O l y m p i c Assoc ia t ions and the I O C . .. .the N O C s are fa i l ing to recommend women for considerat ion as potential candidates and thus the I O C itself has restricted room for manoeuvre in terms of appoint ing more female members " ( I S LP and I O C , 2004, p.88). W i thout a doubt, N O C s and IF 's p lay an important role in the under-representation of women in sporting leadership. On the other hand, it is also important that the I O C as leader o f the O l y m p i c Movemen t , take an active role in increasing female representation in its govern ing bodies and ensure that its own organizat ion embodies the very pr inciples and pol ic ies it creates and promotes. They have yet to achieve this 1 0 % m i n i m u m target w i th respect to women on its Execut i ve Commit tee ( I SLP and I O C , 2004, p.64). 31 2.1.1.2 The German study on women in leadership by Pfister et. al (2005) Pf ister et. al (2005) examined the number of Ge rman female sport administrators ho ld ing any of the 290 honorary executive posit ions and the 155 pa id posit ions in German Sports Federations. They found that on ly 19.7 % of women he ld execut ive posit ions wh i le they compr ised 4 6 % of members ho ld ing pa id posit ions, (p.3) A t the O l y m p i c leve l , they conc luded that: "[t]op-level compet i t ive sports and the O l y m p i c s are quite c lear ly male domains , wi th on ly one in f ive posit ions be ing he ld by women in the O l y m p i c tra ining centres" (Pfister et. a l . , 2005, p.3). The i r analyses of the women invo l ved and their careers in sport administrat ion y ie lded some interesting data wh i ch w i l l be referred to throughout this thesis. M o r e important ly , the situation descr ibed in Germany m im i c s the circumstances under wh i ch many other studies descr ibed women ' s l im i ted part ic ipat ion in h igh leve l sport administrat ion. 2.1.1.3 Cameron's (1996) study of women in New Zealand voluntary sport management S im i l a r l y , Cameron (1996) studied women who he ld posit ions on the nat ional Boards and Execut ives in the volunteer sector of sport management in N e w Zea land. She found that on ly 2 0 % o f 610 volunteer national administrators were female. These f indings c lear ly reflect the data prov ided on female executives in the Ge rman study. Survey data indicated that 6 3 % of the 113 pa id staff were women wo rk i ng as c ler ica l and administrat ive staff wi th very few of them ho ld ing coach ing posit ions (Cameron, 1996, p. 16). Converse ly , statistics pertaining to the gender of chairpersons on the Boa rd of Directors i l lustrated a very different situation. She found that 8 9 % of nat ional directors were men and of the seven females in these posi t ions, six were i n women-only 32 organizat ions (p. 16). Th i s is s ignif icant as women ' s sports tend to be less power fu l as they have lower budgets and fewer athletes. 2.1.1.4 Hovden's (2000a, 2000b, 2005) Norwegian studies of women in high level sport leadership Hovden (2005) studied women in Norweg ian sport administrat ion and found that on ly 7 % of the top leadership posit ions are he ld by women wh i l e she estimates that they populate 2 8 % of the national execut ive boards of Norweg ian sport federations (p. 122- 123). Furthermore, she asserts that there has been no s ignif icant increase of women ho ld ing h igh level leadership posit ions since the midd le of the 1990's (p.19). In 2000, she publ ished f indings that related to the selection processes o f leaders in the No rweg i an Confederat ion of Sports ( N C S ) , an umbre l la organizat ion for organized sport in No rway . He r analysis y ie lded cruc ia l data wh i ch greatly in forms the literature on career paths and leadership sk i l l s section of this thesis. 2.1.1.5 Bischoff and Rintala's (1994,1996) studies of women in Executive positions in the United States In the Un i t ed States, B i s cho f f and R in ta la (1994, 1996) examined women ' s invo lvement in dec is ion-making roles, more spec i f i ca l l y as Presidents and Execut i ve Directors , in U S O l y m p i c sporting organizat ions. They found that progress has been sporadic since the inst i tut ion of T i t le I X in 1972. In particular, they pointed out that dur ing the per iod of 1970 to 1990, on ly 1 0 . 7 % of Execut i ve Directors and 1 0 % of Presidents were women in the Un i t ed States national govern ing bodies (p.85). M o r e important ly , between 1970-1995, women made up 1 1 . 6 % of Execut i ve Directors and a mere 8 . 2 % of Presidents in the U S O C (p.82). In addi t ion, they found that most of these 33 opportunit ies for women came in a few selected sports. F ina l l y , they showed that although over this 25 year per iod, the total number of leadership posit ions d id increase, very few organizat ions also increased their overal l percentage of women in h igh level sport ing leadership. 2.1.1.6 G e n d e r s tud ies i n C a n a d i a n , A u s t r a l i a n a n d N e w Z e a l a n d spo r t b y M c K a y (1997) In his 1997 study of gender in Canadian, Aust ra l ian and N e w Zea land sport ing organizat ions, M c K a y (1997) used interviews to examine the androcentric practices that existed and highl ight the hegemonic mascul ine culture that it reproduces. H i s study provides an important analysis of the profess ional izat ion of sport ing organizat ions as we l l as first hand accounts of male and female managers ' perceptions of organizat ional culture. M c K a y ' s (1997) f indings are especia l ly relevant to the section d iscuss ing barriers to women ' s access and progression in sporting leadership. 2.1.2 Studies conducted in the Canadian,context In the Canad ian context, several studies have invest igated the number o f female leaders in national leve l sport ing organizat ions and suggested various reasons for their under-representation in sport administrat ion (Ha l l , C u l l e n and S lack, 1990; Sport Canada, 1991; M c K a y , 1997; M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son , 1990). In addi t ion, most also considered the status and role of women in Canadian sport ing organizat ions. 2.1.2.1 H a l l , C u l l e n a n d S l a c k ' s (1990) s tudy o f w o m e n i n C a n a d i a n n a t i o n a l s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s First , H a l l , Cu l l en and S l ack ' s (1990) study entit led The Gender Structure of National Sporting Organizations examined the under representation of women in Canadian sport ing leadership. U s i n g questionnaires sent to male and female volunteer 34 administrators and executives, they co l lected informat ion on the inf luence of the environment, structure, culture, and resource al locat ion on the opportunit ies for women in Canadian sport ing organizat ions. They found that women consisted of approximate ly one th i rd of the volunteer sector in Canadian amateur sport and that more important ly , the men outnumber the women three to one in most N S O s . They also pointed out that although organizat ions cont inued to increase the number of professional and occupat ional opportunit ies for both men and women , the dominant gender structure remained the same (p . l ) . 2.1.2.2 Sport Canada's (1991) survey of women in sport leadership Sport Canada (1991) conducted a national survey in order to assess the status of women in leadership posit ions in Canadian sport ing organizat ions, the th i rd since 1981 addressing this issue. The first report found that women were severely under-represented in the technical and administrat ive side of sport administrat ion and some steps were put in place to increase the number of women in leadership posit ions. B y 1985, Sport Canada reported that the status of women had been improved . The increase of female leaders however had come on ly in specif ic leadership posi t ions, part icular ly as program c o - ordinators and leaders of the smal ler sporting organizat ions. Indeed, women remained v i r tua l ly inv i s ib le in technical and coach ing posit ions. F ina l l y , Sport Canada 's 1988 report presented data on the number of women in different leadership posit ions wh i l e cons ider ing their salary as we l l as the organizat ional budgets and pol ic ies in place. Interestingly, they showed that women accounted for 2 9 % o f al l senior executive members ( C E O , D i rec tor Genera l , Management Di rector ) , 2 5 % o f Techn ica l Directors , 2 3 % of H i g h Performance Directors , 4 0 % o f Ma rke t i ng Di rectors , 1 3 % o f Nat iona l team 35 Head coaches and 6 8 % o f Nat iona l P rogram Coordinators (p . l ) . In addi t ion, the report showed that among volunteer administrators, women compr ised 2 5 % of B o a r d members and 2 4 % of Execut i ve Commit tee members in national sport ing organizat ions (p.4) therefore the report conc luded that the f indings: " . . . po in t to differential opportunit ies for women leaders and suggest[s] under ly ing b locked opportunit ies for women. These b locked opportunit ies affect the e f f i c iency and overal l performance of nat ional sport and fitness organizat ions and restrict the poo l of human resources f r o m wh i ch they can d r aw " (Sport Canada, 1991, p.27). These statistics are i l lustrat ive of the ways in wh i ch organizat ions have contro l led the entry o f women in sport administrat ion and thus, the roles they have w i th in the organizat ion. 2.1.2.3 Macintosh and Whitson's (1990) study of Canada's sporting system Another important Canadian study conducted by M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son (1990) focused on po l i c y mak ing in Canadian national sport ing organizat ions and h ighl ighted the persistent exc lus ion of women f rom sport ing leadership even after the implementat ion of gender equity pol ic ies . They e l ic i ted the perspectives of sport ing leaders in leadership posit ions to better understand the dec is ion-making processes and the factors in f luenc ing those mak ing the decis ions. In the s ix national sport ing organizat ions they studied, these authors found that: " M a l e s occup ied al l o f the s ix chief executive of f icer posi t ions, 8 8 % of the technical director. . . jobs, a l l o f the posts as head national coach, and 8 1 % of the make-up o f the board o f directors. In the power fu l execut ive committees of these associations, males compr ised 9 6 % [of members ] " . (Mac in tosh and Wh i t son , 1990, p.61). In addi t ion, they prov ide valuable insight into female administrators ' careers in Canadian sport ing organizat ions. 36 It is therefore evident i n a l l o f these studies that few women have he ld high level leadership posit ions in sport administrat ion both in Canada and wor ldw ide and have thus l itt le inf luence and power over women ' s sport ing experiences. Despi te a l l o f the efforts on behalf of women , there have on ly been sl ight changes of the gender compos i t ion in the overal l management of sport ing organizat ions. These studies however prov ide context to the present study as we l l as comparat ive data for the f indings presented in the f o l l o w i n g chapters. 2.2 C A R E E R PATHS AND L E A D E R S H I P A T T R I B U T E S : A G E N E R A L O V E R V I E W 2.2.1 The background o f women in sport ing leadership: What the literature tells us about female leaders who become invo l ved in sport administrat ion A s ment ioned, there have been a number of studies examin ing the under- representation of women in sport administrat ion at various levels of the sport ing system; most invest igat ing the entry and consequent career path of many male and female leaders. Research was thus able to prof i le the people who are i nvo l ved in sport and the many characteristics and attributes typical o f men and women in h igh level sport ing leadership. Spec i f i ca l l y , work by M c K a y (1997), Cameron (1996), H a l l , Cu l l en and S lack(1990) , Mac i n to sh and Beamish (1990), I S L P and I O C (2004) as we l l as Pf ister et. al (2005) examined women in national and/or international level sport administrat ion and al l found that these female leaders sometimes possessed s imi lar personal backgrounds and qualit ies wh i ch afforded them the opportunit ies to participate at this level of governance. F i rst , the age o f female leaders is an important detail because it h ighl ights the length of experience needed to reach high level leadership posit ions and provides an idea of the expected progression of women ' s career paths in sport administrat ion. Genera l l y 37 speaking, the average age for female leaders i nvo l ved in these studies ranged f rom the late 30s to m i d 50s. M o r e spec i f i ca l ly , in Cameron ' s (1996) study, the average age o f female respondents was 48 years o l d (p.21) wh i le M c K a y (1997) con f i rmed that the major i ty of female administrators who participated i n his study were in their thirties and forties (p.48). L i k e w i s e , the I S L P and I O C (2004) study reported that respondents had a mean age of 49.4 years and remarked that though the age range of female leaders spanned f r om 25 to 85 years o ld , there were on ly 12 respondents under the age of 35 (p. 18). Th i s is indicat ive of the vast experience needed by those administrators at the international leve l . Indeed, M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son (1990) reported that male administrators, who compr ised 7 5 % of the professional N S O staff, were quite young, typ ica l l y in their m i d to late 30s (p. 146). W o m e n on the other hand, were on average 5 Vi years younger than the male administrators. F i na l l y , Pf ister et. al (2005) conc luded that 8 0 % of al l German administrators (male and female) were between the ages of 36 to 65 years wi th the average age be ing 55 years o ld . W h e n they compared the age of female administrators to that of the men, they found that women were approximate ly 5 years younger than their male counterparts. Interestingly, they also reported that the age cohort for the over 72- year-old executive members was exc lus ive ly male (p.24) h igh l ight ing the cont inued existence of an o ld boys network and the fact that men in power tend to keep their posit ions for longer periods of t ime. Second, f ami l i a l status as we l l as the dual careers of j ob and motherhood has been one of the p ivota l points of the feminist argument for the under-representation of women in many areas. W i t h regard to f ami l y status and motherhood, Cameron (1996) underscores its importance to women in sport leadership stating: 38 " . . . f a m i l y background provides (or l imits ) ava i lab i l i ty of material and other sources wh i ch faci l itate sports part ic ipat ion, espec ia l ly at a h igh leve l , and secondly, f am i l y is where ind iv idua ls receive those bel iefs and values wh i ch together foster and place value on an ideo logy of part ic ipat ion and achievement" (p.36). The I S L P and I O C (2004) report also supported her f indings as respondents in their study discussed the s ignif icant impact of support f r om their parents as soc ia l i z ing agents' who were responsible for their in i t ia l invo lvement in sport (p.47). S im i l a r l y , the Ge rman study revealed that on ly a minor i ty of administrators ( 1 1 % women and 4 % men) had not part ic ipated in sport as chi ldren (Pfister et. a l . , 2005 , p.9). Ove ra l l , it was found that male administrators were more l i k e l y to be marr ied and have co-dependents than female sport administrators. M c K a y (1997) found that nearly a l l o f the men but on ly two-thirds of the women were marr ied or in de facto relat ionships w i th dependent ch i ldren (p.48-49). S im i l a r l y , Cameron (1996) found that female sport administrators were less l i ke l y to be marr ied or have dependents than other women their age (p.60). Pf ister et. a l . (2005) found that 8 7 % o f male administrators were marr ied compared to on ly 5 7 % of the women whereas 2 0 % of female administrators were single wh i le on ly 6 % o f the men were not in a relat ionship (p.9). They summed up these f indings of their German study stating that: " . . . w o m e n in leadership posit ions are s igni f icant ly more often ' s ing les ' . .. . 6 7 % of the female but as many as 8 3 % of the male leaders have chi ldren and 9 0 % of the fathers reported that it was ma in l y their w ives who looked after the ch i ldren. These results indicate that women have more d i f f i cu l t y in balanc ing the triple burden o f fami l y , profess ion and voluntary work . " (Pfister et. a l . , 2005, p.25) Th i s seems to be more of an issue at the regional and national level as ev idenced by the I S L P and I O C report wh i ch indicates that 7 0 % of the sample women were in a de facto relat ionship and that a s imi la r percentage had one or more ch i ldren. It should also be 39 noted that this f ind ing cou ld be inf luenced by the sample of respondents in this international study as they are older and have had more t ime to establish their f ami l y . T h i r d , the female leaders' level of educat ion, occupat ion and professional status have been ident i f ied as tertiary qual i f icat ions necessary to gain entry into sport ing organizat ions, especia l ly those at the higher levels. M o s t a l l o f the aforementioned studies found that both male and female sport administrators were we l l educated (Cameron, 1996; I S L P and I O C , 2004; M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son , 1990; Pf ister et. a l . , 2005) and many had higher levels of education than that o f the average populat ion (Pfister et. a l . , 2005 , p.9). In their study, M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son (1990) found that men and women had comparable educational backgrounds where approximate ly 8 0 % o f respondents had a univers i ty degree and another 5 0 % had a master or higher level degree (p. 146). The I S L P and I O C (2004) had s imi la r data where 3 5 % of female administrators had a univers i ty degree and 2 2 % had postgraduate degrees. M o s t administrators were also found to be in pa id employment , usual ly in the higher echelons of professional careers ( M c K a y , 1997; Cameron , 1996; Pf ister et. a l . , 2005). Th is background was considered benef ic ia l to their sport leadership work as many respondents reported us ing their professional of f ice spaces to host meetings and per form administrat ive tasks such as photocopy ing , f ax ing , and telephone cal ls for issues related to sport administrat ion (Cameron, 1996, p.22). M o r e important ly , a number of studies found that most female sport ing leaders were also i n pa id work. Cameron (1996) states that half o f the women in her study had ful l-t ime employment wh i l e a smal l percentage were in part-time pa id work. L i k e w i s e , the I S L P and I O C (2004) study found that 6 3 % of female leaders were in employment wi th 4 8 % wo rk i ng ful l-t ime and 1 5 % part t ime. In the German study, Pf ister et. a l . (2005) noted 40 that 6 4 % of their respondents were in ful l-t ime employment and most he ld h igh posit ions in their professions. Interestingly, they also pointed out that most female administrators were i nvo l ved in educat ional professions wh i le their male counterparts are usual ly employed in business and administrat ive professions (p.9). Therefore, this does indicate that many women juggle f ami l y , profession and their sport administrat ion work , whether pa id or volunteer. A l s o o f interest to this study was women ' s past experiences in sport as athletes. In 1990, Mac i n to sh and Wh i t son (1990) found that many more male than female administrators brought w i th them this athletic background. " A b o u t one-quarter of the professional staff brought personal international-level sport experience to their jobs . .. .When compared to her male counterpart. . . . [women] less often possessed national leve l or higher personal sport exper ience . . . " (Mac in tosh and Wh i t son , 1990, p.146). Interestingly, this pattern seems to have changed over the past f i fteen years. Recent studies such as Cameron (1996), Pf ister et. a l . (2005) as we l l as the I S L P and I O C (2004), investigated administrators athletic background and found that though women entered sport administrat ion in a variety of ways , a s ignif icant number of them were in i t i a l l y i n vo l ved as a result o f their invo lvement in sport, part icular ly those w i th a high performance athletic background. They also establ ished that many female leaders had participated in elite sport at regional , national and international levels ( I SLP and I O C , 2004; Pf ister et. a l . , 2005). In fact, the I S L P and I O C (2004) study revealed that 8 1 . 8 % of their female respondents had been compet i t ive athletes of wh i ch 4 5 % had competed at the international level (p. 19). They conc luded that: " The sport ing background of women recrui ted. . .c lear ly indicates the importance o f a background as an elite performer for women . It is suggested.. .that there is more onus placed on hav ing a background as an 41 elite performer in the case of women than o f m e n " ( I S LP and I O C , 2004, p.37). O n the other hand, Pf ister et. a l . (2005) also found that on ly some of the sport ing leaders had competed at the national and international levels however they found no major differences among male and female administrators in terms of their athletic backgrounds (p. 10). Th i s highl ights an important difference in leadership qual i f icat ions between national and international sport administrat ion. Interestingly, Cameron (1996) also points out that almost a l l o f her research participants began their work as sport administrators in the organizat ion o f the sport in wh i ch they had been invo l ved (p.40). Th i s statement again demonstrates the importance of gir ls and women ' s invo lvement in sport at the part ic ipatory level as we l l as coach ing, managing and of f i c ia t ing . In this way, women ' s athletic backgrounds seem to play an important role in their choices to become invo l ved in sport administrat ion and progress into high level leadership posi t ions. Fema le athletes thus prov ide a poo l of possible candidates to f i l l leadership posit ions in sport ing organizat ions, g iven that successful athletes have recently been recruited to become invo l ved in the administrat ion o f their sport. However , it does leave a large group of women who do not necessari ly have an elite athletic background but possess excel lent manageria l and leadership sk i l l s and have a great understanding of the sport ing system. Th i s issue does need to be addressed i f organizat ions want to increase the number o f potential female candidates for h igh level sport ing leadership posit ions. 2.2.2 En t ry and progression into high level sport administrat ion posit ions M a n y studies conducted on women in sport ing leadership have attempted to trace the career paths of women (Cameron, 1996; Pf ister et. a l . , 2005 ; Hovden 2000a, 2000b). M u c h research has examined the ways i n wh i ch women are recruited to sport ing 42 organizat ions and part icular ly into h igh level leadership posit ions. A s was just d iscussed, many female leaders in i t i a l l y enter sport administrat ion as a result of their athletic part ic ipat ion in sports. T o this end, the I S L P and I O C (2004) found that there had been a s ignif icant effort to recruit women who were already i nvo l ved as athlete representatives, wh i ch they suggest is a 'more gender balanced area of recruitment ' (p.37). H o v d e n (2000a) studied the gendered selection processes in Norweg ian sport ing organizat ions. She examined the cr iter ia most often used for the select ion of candidates for sport ing leadership posit ions and found that they seemed to be advantageous for male administrators. The most evident was incumbency wh i ch a l lowed members to stand for re-election. She found that male administrators were more l i ke l y to stand for re-election and had longer average t ime periods of membership than female members (p.77). H e r analysis o f the most c o m m o n selection strategies perceived by sport ing leaders revealed that many t imes, candidates were recruited f rom networks wh i ch not surpr is ingly , were male dominated. In another article, Hovden (2005) reports that most select ion committees were ma in l y populated by male administrators and al l o f them had a male leader. These processes therefore reproduce and maintain the tradit ional gender order in sport administrat ion. Hartmann-Tews and C o m b r i n k (2005) studied the under representation o f women in sport govern ing bodies in order to better understand the s igni f icance of recruitment and aff i rmative action. They conc luded that 2 ma in procedures were used to recruit female members: 1) a restricted procedure where the President selects members of the Execut i ve board and 2) an open procedure where several candidates are nominated for a posi t ion f r om wh ich a selection committee and thus, the organizat ion is i n vo l ved in recrui t ing 43 members (p.74). It is therefore obvious that open procedures are more conduc ive to the entry o f female administrators. F i na l l y , the authors of the I S L P and I O C (2004) report suggest 3 general ways in wh i ch female leaders are recruited to N O C Execut i ve Commit tees : 1) nominate themselves for elect ion or are inv i ted to stand, 2) as a result of their athlete representative role or as I O C members, 3) a mixture of these routes, underscor ing the important role of senior administrators in encouraging, ask ing, nominat ing and appoint ing women to leadership posit ions in sport administrat ion. Nonetheless, many sport ing organizat ions have taken measures to increase the number of women in dec is ion-making posit ions such as adopting pol ic ies wh i ch has undoubtedly been a posi t ive step in recruit ing more women to sport administrat ion. Cameron (1996) found that many female sport ing leaders f o l l ow a somewhat l inear bureaucratic path into leadership posit ions wh i ch oftentimes begin as compet i t ive athletes and/or invo lvement in c lub or regional administrat ion and eventual ly progressing to the p rov inc ia l , nat ional and international leve l . She describes how women usual ly become invo l ved in the administrat ion o f sport at the c lub or regional leve l and that once they have attained an executive level pos i t ion w i th in this organizat ion, they are able to move onto the regional govern ing body (p.42). A c c o r d i n g to this author, it was often at the regional leve l were women in her study seemed to experience barriers to advancement. She does note however, that progression to national sports administrat ion became a v iable opt ion for women who had adapted to the organizat ional culture and were persistent in their ascension to higher leadership posi t ions. She found that over half of her participants had f o l l owed the club-regional-national administrat ive career path 44 (p.42). S im i l a r l y , Pf ister et. a l . (2005) also reported that female leaders in German sport ing organizat ions f o l l owed 'a fa i r ly typ ica l pattern of p romot ion ' (p. 13) where most progressed f rom c lub level to regional level and f rom there, to the nat ional and in some cases, even international leve l . Indeed, the I S L P and I O C (2004) report indicated that: " . . .the most s ignif icant f o rm of leadership experience o f women recruited to N O C Execut i ve Commit tees is work w i th the national federat ions . . . " (p. 19). A l though the c lub - regional - national mode l o f progression was typ ica l for most sport administrators, Cameron (1996) in particular, d id note that for some women , the paths and opportunit ies in sport administrat ion were interestingly var ied (p.51). E i ther way, administrators in high leve l leadership posit ions have been i nvo l ved in sport administrat ion for many years wh i ch suggests that leaders have to acquire a considerable amount of experience in order to reach high level sport organizat ions. " A s a rule, the way up to the higher echelons was marked by a re lat ively long qua l i f y ing per iod in wh i ch they had to prove their loya l ty , d isp lay a wi l l ingness to work hard and show success" (Pfister et. a l . , 2005 , p. 13). Cameron (1996) examined the average length of service for sport ing leaders and found that most women in high level leadership posit ions had held a posi t ion on a prov inc ia l execut ive body for an average of 10-12 years (p.42).This seems to be the no rm for most sport administrators aspir ing to top leadership posit ions though it was perce ived that women were often held to a much higher standard ( M c K a y , 1997; Pf ister et. a l . , 2005). F i na l l y , Cameron (1996) also investigated female leaders' future aspirations in sport administrat ion. Interestingly, she found that on ly three of the 39 women in her study wanted to progress into a higher posi t ion wh i l e another six said they might be interested i f such a posi t ion was offered to them (p.47). S im i l a r l y , the I S L P and I O C (2004) study 45 found that though some women wanted to continue their work in sport administrat ion to make a difference, very few aspired to progress into more senior posit ions or move up the organizat ional hierarchy (p.67). Several female participants in the study d id indicate that they were frustrated wi th their posit ions and were not l i ke l y to continue in sport ing leadership. O n the other hand, Pf ister et. a l . (2005) reported that 5 0 % of their interviewees aspired to progress into high leadership posit ions (p. 14). In this way, these studies also prov ide important data on various barriers that deter or inh ib i t women f r om entering high level sport ing leadership posit ions. 2.2.3 Leadership sk i l l s o f female sport ing leaders S ince on ly some women ever reach the highest posit ions in sport ing leadership, it becomes essential to discuss the leadership sk i l l s and styles perce ived as required for such roles. A s has been ment ioned, the literature indicates that most h igh level administrators also ho ld inf luent ia l posit ions in their professional occupations ( M c K a y , 1997; H o v d e n , 2000a, 2000b; Pf ister et. a l . , 2005 ; M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son , 1990; I S L P and I O C , 2004) . Pf ister et. a l . (2005) in part icular noted that female leaders were able to apply the sk i l l s they deve loped in their professional careers to their sport administrat ion work. Consequent ly , a pos i t ion in the upper echelons of professions is a preferred qual i f i cat ion for sport ing leadership (p.13). S im i l a r l y , Cameron (1996) reported that many female respondents spoke of be ing able to transfer sk i l l s such as organizat ional and f inanc ia l management as we l l as publ ic speaking f r om their professional occupat ion to their work in sport administrat ion (p.95). M u c h research supports the not ion that business and administrat ive capabi l i t ies are essential for ga in ing entry to h igh leve l sport ing organizat ions. In fact, many authors discussed the impact of the commerc ia l i za t ion and 46 the profess ional izat ion of sport ing organizat ions on the shi f t ing leadership sk i l l s and styles required to be successful in sport leadership at its highest leve l (Hovden , 2000a, 2000b; Mac i n to sh and Wh i t son , 1990; I S L P and I O C , 2004; Cameron , 1996). A s early as 1990, Mac i n to sh and Wh i t son (1990) reported that f inanc ia l expertise and fundra is ing experience had become the most desirable qualit ies for potential sport administrators and much less attention was pa id to their athletic background (p.68). Because o f the gendered structure o f the Canadian labour force, men were most l i ke l y to meet these credentials. T o this end, H a l l (1996) asserts that: " . . .the direct and ongoing intervention of the state has resulted in the rat ional izat ion of the Canadian sport system creating a profess ional bureaucracy w i th a more corporate style o f management. The contro l o f amateur sport has been largely removed f rom the hands o f volunteers and is now directed by a new professional e l i te " (p.92). Las t l y , Hovden (2000a) also notes how corporate managerial sk i l l s such as broad organizat ional experience (p.21), economic management, budgets and strategic p lanning (p.23) have become essential fo r ind iv idua ls want ing to reach h igh leve l sport ing leadership. Indeed, the I S L P and I O C (2004) report indicated that respondents be l ieved that organizat ional leadership, human relations as we l l as communica t ion sk i l l s were the main qualit ies that were needed for sport administrat ion. In sum, posit ions of leadership now require that ind iv idua ls possess a number of sk i l l s that enable them to successful ly manage sport ing organizat ions. Another leadership attribute that has been lauded in sport administrators is commitment to the organizat ion and the sport. F o r those ind iv idua ls do ing advocacy for under represented groups, typ ica l ly women , this was also considered an enviable trait for any leader. M o s t studies concerning women in sporting leadership discuss the intense 47 t ime commitment that administrators must devote to the organizat ion in order to be effect ive (Hovden, 2000a, 2000b; I S L P and I O C , 2004; Pf ister et. a l , 2005) . Hovden (2000b) found that h igh level sport administrators had to make themselves avai lable to attend competi t ions and meetings, usual ly held dur ing the evenings and on weekends. Moreove r , many of these events take place out of town, requir ing large amounts of travel and t ime spent away f r om home (p.23). These f indings are supported by those of the I S L P and I O C (2004) where they found that many female administrators had made sacrif ices in terms of their relationships wh i l e t ry ing to balance work , sport administrat ion, f ami l y and personal relat ionships. Undoubted ly , commitment is an integral part of leadership, however a redef ini t ion of what is considered commitment is essential. O u r current understandings of commitment point to an ind i v idua l who works long hour 's everyday of the week and is w i l l i n g to be away f r om home quite often; a commitment not everyone can afford to make. W i t h respect to advocacy, women were often i n vo l ved in sport administrat ion because they wanted to g ive back to sport and make a difference (Pfister et. a l , 2005, p. 13). W i t h the recent focus on women in sport issues, many sport ing organizat ions have created W o m e n ' s Commit tees whose purpose is to ident i fy and attempt to rect i fy issues pertaining to women in a l l aspects of sport. In fact, the I S L P and I O C (2004) study revealed that 4 9 % of a l l female N O C administrators worked in W o m e n ' s Commit tees and over ha l f o f those perceived their role as pr imar i l y related to women ' s issues (p.22). Though this is problemat ic on many levels and is a clear demonstrat ion of the ways in wh i ch female administrators are being dr iven into niche areas that are typ ica l l y associated 48 with less prestige and inf luence, it does indicate that many women administrators are strong advocates o f gir ls and women in sport and dedicated to their cause. F ina l l y , a number of research studies discussed the fact that past and current female sport ing leaders act as role models for young gir ls and women who might want to enter sport ing leadership (Ha l l , Cu l l en and S lack, 1990; I S L P and I O C , 2004 ; M c K a y , 1997; Pf ister et. a l , 2005). " The focus on role mode ls . . . i s . . .an essential ly reactive one. .. .the presence of women in leadership posit ions demonstrates to other women that achiev ing such a posi t ion is possible. .. .perce iv ing that such a pos i t ion was reached through chance does not prov ide much guidance in terms of what others should do in order to be s imi la r l y success fu l . " (Ha l l , Cu l l en and S lack, 1990, p.32-33) Th i s argument is less s ignif icant today as women have made considerable inroads however it is important that these women be there in larger numbers and remain v is ib le in their posit ions. Another leadership sk i l l that was emphas ized in numerous studies was a member ' s abi l i ty to network (Hovden, 2000a, 2000b; I S L P and I O C , 2004; M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son , 1990). In her study, Hovden (2000b) found that sport ing organizat ions were seeking ind iv idua ls who had a broad socia l network as we l l as contacts in business and pol i t ics (p.23). Leaders are most often very inf luent ia l and can prov ide opportunit ies to jun io r members in their networks. Th i s is important for female administrators want ing to progress into top leadership posit ions ( I SLP and I O C , 2004, p.52). In addi t ion, a network of fr iends and contacts provides an ind iv idua l wi th sources of mental and emot iona l support as we l l as pract ical advice (Mac in tosh and Wh i t son , 1990, p.72). A s is summed up in the I S L P and I O C (2004) report: 49 " A l l o f the respondents pointed towards the importance of be ing a part of a sports network, of be ing soc ia l ized into it and learning f rom it and o f ga in ing support or hav ing advice f r om other members of that network, or o f contr ibut ing to the conf idence of other members in the ne twork " (p.49). F i na l l y , there were many personal characteristics of sport ing leaders that were benef ic ia l for their wo rk in sport administrat ion. T o this end, Cameron (1996) conc luded that personal i ty and personal traits were the most important factors in accessing nat ional level leadership posit ions (p.76). Each study prov ided a s imi la r descr ipt ion of the ind iv idua l sk i l l s needed to be successful in h igh leve l sport ing leadership. Indiv iduals who were orderly, determined, loya l and had a good reputation were be l ieved to represent ideal candidacy (Hovden , 2000b, p.23). In Pf ister et. a l 's (2005) study, female leaders were descr ibed as compet i t ive and ambit ious wh i le remain ing very humble and modest (p. 13). In addi t ion, these leaders c i ted the abi l i ty to work cooperat ive ly w i th , for and against men inside and outside of the organizat ion as an important sk i l l that female leaders in part icular, had to develop (p. 14). A t the international leve l , the I S L P and I O C (2004) report noted that respondents be l ieved mora l qual i t ies, personal i ty traits such as honesty, integrity, passion and char isma as we l l as extensive knowledge o f the sport ing system were important characteristics perceived to be advantageous for women attempting to forge careers in sport administrat ion (p.26). O n the other hand, the I O C has been found gui l ty o f numerous scandals and corrupt ion among its elite leaders therefore this f i nd ing seems to be more of an ideal and not part icular ly a ref lect ion of the actual organizat ional membership. Leadership sk i l l s are therefore important cr iter ia by wh i ch h igh level sport administrators are selected. The under representation of women has been attributed to a 50 number of reasons however personal leadership sk i l l s remain the areas in wh i ch women are said to lack the experience of most male administrators. " W o m e n were exc luded f r om leadership posit ions because they were suggested to possess less relevant personal sk i l l s than their male counterparts. The seemingly gender-neutral construct ion of leadership sk i l l s acts to subordinate women ' s abi l i t ies and experiences and thus reinforces preva i l ing leadership structures" (Hovden, 2005, p.26). 2.2.4 Leadership styles in sport administrat ion There has a lways been a debate concern ing styles of leadership among men and women . Some authors (Hovden 2000a, 2000b, 2005 ; M c K a y , 1997, Cameron , 1996) argue that male leaders are general ly perceived to have an aggressive, compet i t ive and autocratic leadership style wh i ch is both the result and reaff i rmat ion of a tradit ional mascul ine culture in sport ing organizat ions. W o m e n on the other hand, are be l ieved to br ing a more consultat ive, cooperative and democrat ic approach to leadership. F o r example , M c K a y (1997) describes how female respondents perce ived that " . . . the i r consultat ive styles conf l i c ted wi th men 's adversarial tact ics" (p.77). In Cameron ' s (1996) study, she found that women bel ieved that female sport ing leaders were more organized, more careful wi th the organizat ion 's f inances and spending as we l l as more inc l ined to consider the consequences of decis ions taken at that level (p. 132). H i s to r i ca l l y , it has been the virtues associated with the mascul ine style of leadership that have been va lued in sport management and as a result, women ' s part icular style of management, i f different to that o f her male col league, is usual ly undervalued and ef fect ive ly rendered inv is ib le . Furthermore, other studies have h ighl ighted the ways in wh i ch women adopt this mascul ine leadership style in order to 'f it i n ' w i th the organizat ional culture ( M c K a y , 1997; H o v d e n , 2000a). These characteristics have tradit ional ly been associated w i th 51 behaviour deemed mascul ine and thus, the basis of convent ional sport ing leadership. It is therefore evident that women have entered organizat ional at a disadvantage and have had to fashion their leadership strategies to accommodate the structure and culture of the organizat ion. " D u r i n g their careers most of the women came to the conc lus ion that they had to adapt to the structures and cooperate wi th men in order to be successful . .. .These women have appropriated the gendered culture of o rgan iza t i on . . . " (Pfister et. a l , 2005 , p.10). F o r this reason, it is be l ieved that h igh level male and female sport ing leaders are a product o f their organizat ional culture; that is , they must lead i n a way that is accepted by the members of the organizat ion or risk not be ing successful i n the boardroom. Th i s i n turn cou ld l im i t the opportunit ies for women attempting to reach the top leadership posit ions i n the organizat ion. T o conc lude, Pf ister et. al (2005) prov ide a clear descr ipt ion of a prototypica l female leader in sport administrat ion. " The typica l female execut ive in German sport organizat ions is about 50 years o ld . She is either single and has no chi ldren or she is marr ied and either has no chi ldren or her ch i ldren are grown-up. She has the fu l l support f r om her husband or compan ion . She is well-educated and h igh l y qua l i f ied . Today she works in a leadership posi t ion and has the f reedom to organize and make decis ions. In her profession she is required to have guidance sk i l l s , too. A t the beginning o f her career in voluntary work she was ma in l y encouraged by the people around her to take on higher posit ions. A s a young adult she first made her mark on the execut ive board of her loca l sports c lub before taking on commitments at the regional and national l eve l s " (Pfister et. a l , 2005 , p . l 1). 2.3 BARRIERS T O A D V A N C E M E N T : W H A T R E S E A R C H SAYS A B O U T T H E GLASS CEILING' F O R W O M E N IN SPORT ADMINISTRATION The data prov ided in the relevant studies recognizes the barriers that st i l l exist for female sport ing leaders. In terms of the barriers faced by women entering h igh level 52 administrat ion, research suggests that subtle methods of female exc lus ion are embedded in the histor ical context of the organizat ion 's existence, the structure on wh i ch it is founded (e.g. m iss ion , administrat ive procedures, membersh ip selection) as we l l as the ind iv idua ls who have h istor ica l ly been invo l ved in its govern ing bodies (Chase, 1992; H o v d e n , 2000a, 2000b, 2005 ; M c K a y , 1997; Ingl is , 1997; Pf ister et. a l , 2005 ; Cameron , 1996, M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son , 1990; I S L P and I O C , 2004; Hartmann-Tews and Combr ink ) . B u i l d i n g on Pf ister et. a l 's (2005) 'processes of in f luence ' , I w i l l discuss four ma in areas where barriers have been experienced: (1) the ind iv idua l level (motives, decis ions, competences, condit ions of l i fe , images, identit ies, etc.); (2) the organizat ional level (structure, culture, posi t ions, po l ic ies , etc); (3) the relat ional leve l (col leagues, leaders, networks, etc); and (4) the societal leve l (gendered labour market, gender order) (p . l ) . A s these authors state: "It can be assumed that processes at all these levels inf luence the decis ions, mot ives and 'careers' of men and women in sports organizat ions as we l l as the reasons for their 'd ropping o u t ' " (Pfister et. a l , 2005 , p. l ) Furthermore, they indicated six reasons why female administrators were leav ing sport ing leadership: 1) resistance of the organizations to new ideas, 2) w i thho ld ing of in format ion by top leaders in sport ing organizat ions, 3) lack of acceptance and acknowledgement , 4) lack of sol idar i ty among women , 5) str iv ing of current administrators for power and prestige, and 6) gender d iscr iminat ion (p. 16). A s a result o f these frustrations, some women chose to drop-out of sport administrat ion. 53 2.3.1 Indiv idual level There are many factors in f luenc ing ind i v idua l women ' s dec is ion to enter, remain and progress in sport ing administrat ion. Personal c ircumstances such as socio-economic status as we l l as f am i l y and educational background affect women ' s in i t ia l access to sport and consequent choice to participate in its administrat ion. L i k e w i s e , women ' s personal f ami l y status inf luences their abi l i ty to participate in sport administrat ion as partners and chi ldren are relat ionships that require t ime commitments and day-to-day responsibi l i t ies. The lack of sensit iv i ty and f l ex ib i l i t y for female administrators w i th personal commitments was a barrier reported in nearly every study on women in sport ing leadership ( M c K a y , 1997; Pf ister et. a l , 2005 ; M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son , 1990; Cameron , 1996; H a l l , Cu l l en and S lack, 1990). In Cameron ' s (1996) study, 8 6 % o f her participants be l ieved that f am i l y responsibi l i t ies were a barrier to the advancement of women in sport ing leadership (p. 129). Mac i n to sh and Wh i t son (1990) noted that no chi ldcare was prov ided for members wi th chi ldren at compet i t ions, meetings or conferences (p.72). They conc luded: "It is l i teral ly imposs ib le for those females who bear the responsib i l i ty for the majority of the home-care work also to meet the expectations i n vo l ved in nat ional level sport pos i t ions " (p.73). Another c o m m o n reason given for the under representation of women in h igh level sport administrat ion is their lack of w i l l ingness to take on leadership roles ( I SLP and I O C , 2004 ; M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son , 1990). Some authors attributed this to a lack of conf idence (Pfister et. a l , 2055 , p. 19) and others perce ived that women were consc ious ly not w i l l i n g to give up so much of their home l i fe to be v is ib le in sport administrat ion (Mac in tosh and Wh i t son , 1990, p.62). M c K a y (1997) found that men tended to attribute 54 the under-representation of female leaders in sport ing organizat ions to ind iv idua l def ic iencies (p.52). A g a i n , Hovden (2005) and M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son (1990) establ ished that some administrators bel ieved that the lack of female leaders was due to an ind iv idua l lack of mot ivat ion, ambi t ion , priorit ies or adequate qual i f icat ions. In any case, a l l o f these reasons point to ind iv idua l issues w i th the female leaders wh i ch reinforce the current attitudes toward gender equity and women ' s under-representation in sport. Add i t i ona l l y , the lack of commitment by sport administrators, part icular ly men, to gender equity has been ident i f ied as an enormous barrier to the increase of women in sport ing leadership (Cameron, 1996; M c K a y , 1997; H a l l , C u l l e n and S lack, 1990). In Cameron ' s (1996) study, 7 2 % of women agreed that a lack of commitment by men to gender equity or aff i rmative action programmes was a barrier to women ' s advancement into high level sport ing leadership (p.129). L i k e w i s e , M c K a y ' s (1997) analysis o f aff i rmative action and organizat ional power in Aust ra l i an , Canadian and N e w Zea land sport revealed that there were general ly three po l i t i ca l stances toward af f i rmat ive action pol ic ies : those who oppose it, the sceptics and cyn ics as we l l as the advocates (p.97-101). H e found that most male administrators were not part icular ly we l com ing o f such po l i c ies ; some were even inauspic ious wh i le others be l ieved that it was 'women ' s wo rk ' . F i na l l y , H a l l , Cu l l en and S lack (1990) state that: " The three major reasons given as to why there was no need for a [equal opportunity] po l i c y were: (1) equal opportunity exists already and there is no d iscr iminat ion based on sex; (2) the 'merit on l y ' pr inc ip le should apply a lways; and (3) any changes in the balance of males versus females should evo lve 'natura l ly ' , rather than through any imposed p o l i c y " (p.20). 55 Las t l y , there are both tangible and intangible costs to h igh leve l sport administrators. Cameron (1996) reported that meetings, compet i t ions and administrat ive work cou ld require chi ldcare and that there are often high travel costs needed to attend championships and conferences (p.97). In this sense, ind iv idua ls . f rom lower soc io - economic classes are exc luded f rom part ic ipat ion in sport ing leadership. A s a result of the current gendered labour market, many more women be long in the lower income brackets. C l o se l y related to barriers at the ind iv idua l level are those at the relat ional leve l , as it invo lves a l l o f the ind iv idua ls in the organizat ion. 2.3.2 Organizat ional leve l The under-representation of women in leadership posit ions is " . . . an outcome of inst i tut ional [and] structural arrangements wh i ch l im i t the choices of who le groups who share certain characteristics (e.g. women , or lower soc ioeconomic status g roup ) " (Cameron, 1996, p. 187). A s ment ioned, the organizat ional structure of sport ing organizat ions restricts the entry of women into leadership posit ions o f power and leadership. F irst , the organizat ional structure dictates the ways in wh i ch the organizat ion is to be managed and operate therefore administrators are forced to work under specif ic guidel ines. One of the most c i ted compla ints w i th respect to the organizat ional structure was the t ime commitment and the in f l ex ib i l i t y o f organizat ions regarding schedul ing ( M c K a y , 1997; Pf ister et. a l , 2005 ; Mac i n to sh and Wh i t son , 1990; Cameron , 1996). The t ime spent away f rom home for out of town meetings and compet i t ions proved to be too demanding for many female sport ing leaders to wh i ch Cameron (1996) adds the f inancia l costs associated w i th such commitments (p.49). 56 The organizat ional structure also inf luences the number of women in sport administrat ion as a result o f many organizat ions refusing to institute gender equity po l ic ies ( M c K a y , 1997; Mac i n to sh and Wh i t son , 1990; I S L P and I O C , 2004) . Interestingly, in organizat ions wh i ch had adopted equity-related po l i c ies , it was found that equity commitments were often over looked in favour o f establ ishing a performance- oriented sport program (Mac in tosh and Wh i t son , 1990, p.81). Indeed, H a l l , C u l l e n and S lack (1990) echo this stating that: " In fact, a l l issues of equity such as those related to Francophone, regional disparit ies, socio-economic pr iv i lege, athletes' r ights, or gender are bas ica l ly ignored. Qui te s imply , the priorit ies of Canada 's high- performance sport system appear to be e l sewhere . . . " (p.35). A t the international leve l , the I S L P and I O C (2004) report indicated that the lack of female members was due to the national federations wh i ch fa i led to present enough suitable female candidates (p.39). Therefore, i f we acknowledge that the structure, wh i ch includes the stated miss ion , values, objectives and programs are in f luenced by those i nvo l ved in the decis ion-making processes, then entry into the organizat ion becomes cruc ia l i f any structural change is to take place. It is also necessary to examine the inf luence of organizat ional culture on the entry of women into sport ing leadership. Research has shown how sporting organizat ions have embraced mascu l in i ty as the ideal leadership mode l ( M c K a y , 1997; Cameron , 1996; Pf ister et. a l , 2005 ; M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son , 1990; I S L P and I O C , 2004). A s Cameron (1996) put it, " . . . spor t represents a way of l i fe wh i ch has its own pecul iar ethos and its own sets of be l i e f s " (p.36). M a n y o f the traditions as we l l as the procedural funct ion ing of an organizat ion are direct ly in f luenced by the culture that is deeply embedded. The histor ica l foundat ion of many sport ing organizat ions testifies that it was usual ly male administrators who establ ished the organizat ion for males and it is men who have since contro l led it. A s descr ibed by Pf ister et. al (2005), the leadership styles of male and female sport ing leaders are c lose ly associated wi th the organizat ional culture: 57 " The culture of sports organizations and their patterns of interaction are shaped accord ing to men 's (social ized) behaviour and tastes, men 's wishes and needs, and men 's ways of l i fe. Organizat ions demand that leaders are self-confident, performance-oriented and compet i t i ve ; that they strive for power, that they proceed strategical ly; that they have the abi l i ty to enforce their interests; and. . .that they have a thick sk in when faced wi th insults and hosti l i t ies. . . .those few successful female leaders [that] have adapted to these expectat ions. . .have deve loped s imi lar behaviour patterns and strategies to those of their male co l l eagues . . . " (p. 17). Thus , women have been required to adapt to the organizat ions structure and culture; essential ly they must ' f i t i n ' . Th i s is echoed by Cameron (1996) who concludes that managers tend to reserve power and pr iv i lege for those administrators they be l ieved ' f i t i n ' ; those they saw as being most l ike themselves (p. 192). S im i l a r l y , H o v d e n (2000a, 2000b) conc luded that candidates who had extensive manageria l sk i l l s and fit the hegemonic mascul ine ideal corporate image were more l i ke l y to be selected. Another structural and cultural barrier found in sport ing organizat ions is the isolat ion o f female administrators into part icular pos i t ions/Research statistics have c lear ly shown that even when women attain h igh level dec is ion m a k i n g posi t ions, they usual ly serve in the less power fu l posit ions. A s ment ioned, many female leaders who have reached high level national and international management posit ions have come f rom W o m e n ' s Commit tees (Cameron, 1996), d isabled sport ( M c K a y , 1997) and women-only sport organizat ions (B i schof f and R inta la , 1994). In addi t ion, M c K a y (1997) observed that women were more l i ke l y to access top leadership posit ions in mult isport organizat ions and those associated w i th sport and disabi l i ty . Th i s provides evidence that female leaders have used these posit ions as stepping stones to gain leadership experience. Duerst-Lahti and K e l l y (1995) conducted a number o f studies concern ing the under representation of women in U S pol i t ics . The i r observations are appl icable to this 58 study of women in sport ing leadership in terms of women ' s posit ions in male dominated institutions. " . . .many female pol i t ic ians have opted to work c lose ly w i th po l i t i ca l organizat ions for women . No t on ly do such groups often prov ide a starting point for women ' s po l i t i ca l careers - af fording much needed experience, encouragement, and fund ing - but they frequently continue to work c lose ly w i th female legislators long after they are elected to pub l i c o f f i c e " (Duerst-Lahti and K e l l y , 1995, p.98). In the Canadian context, Sport Canada 's (1991) research o f female leadership i n nat ional sport ing organizat ions pointed to numerous factors wh i ch hindered women ' s opportunit ies and conc luded that women in sport faced s imi la r situations to those in other sectors o f the Canadian economy: they were located on lower levels of the organizat ional hierarchy mak ing s igni f icant ly lower annual salaries than d i d men in equivalent posit ions. L i k e w i s e , B i s c h o f f and R in ta l a (1994, 1996) conc luded that women were more l i ke l y to reach the posi t ion of Execut i ve D i rec tor than that o f President, and that this usual ly occurred in tradit ional ly female sports or those less v is ib le on the O l y m p i c program (i.e., synchronized s w i m m i n g and f i e ld hockey) . They predicated that women were systematical ly exc luded f r om those organizat ions that be longed to the O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t because of their important and prestigious status (p.3). M o r e recently, Cameron (1996) found that women execut ive off icers were more often in women-only sport organizat ions or in smal l sports (p. 16). Indeed, research has shown that it is easier for women to access h igh leve l posit ions in sports that command less power and less prestige; the sports that men rarely p lay and do not w ish to administer (Cameron, 1996; M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son , 1990; Pf ister et. a l , 2005 ; I S L P and I O C , 2004 ; M c K a y , 1997). E v e n when women have entered h igh level posit ions w i th in larger and 59 more inf luent ia l sport ing organizat ions, they do not ho ld the most power fu l posts. E c h o i n g M c K a y ' s (1997) f ind ings, Pf ister et. al (2005) conc luded that: " . . .women were emp loyed at the lower end of the hierarchy whereas men occup ied the top posit ions. W o m e n , moreover, were ma in l y responsible for the 'soft ' areas such as prevention strategies, health management, integration through sport or women in sport" (Pfister et. a l , 2005 , p.3). Furthermore, in their study of female N O C members, the I S L P and I O C (2004) also reported that 80 per cent of women ' s commiss ions were f i l l ed by women . F r o m this research, it is clear that many women are segregated into W o m e n ' s Commit tees wh i ch not on ly perpetuates the not ion that these are 'women ' s j obs ' but continues to frame the issues as women ' s problems. 2.3.3 Re la t iona l level Sport ing organizat ions, l i ke most organizat ions, require men and women to work together to achieve the goals and objectives set by the top administrators. A s such, the relat ionships that exist between members can impact and affect their pos i t ion w i th in the organizat ion; or their 'organizat ional f i t ' . Cameron (1996) states that: " . . . admin is t ra t ion at the contro l l ing level of sport, as a h igh status act iv i ty enhances a tendency for socia l c losure - the process whereby access to opportunit ies and associated rewards are l im i ted to a certain group, often through the process of formal qual i f icat ion or c redent ia l i sm. " (p. 190). She concludes by advancing that network ing and mentor ing can on ly m i n i m a l l y d ivers i fy sport ing organizat ions as this strategy often accommodates part icular k inds o f female administrators. Another relat ional barrier that has been w ide l y discussed is that of men 's soc ia l networks. It has long been contended that ' o ld boy ' s networks ' have had a considerable inf luence on the under-representation of women in sport ing organizat ions. Through these 60 networks, it has been reported that male administrators make in formal decis ions on important topics, lobby for other male candidates and discuss the promot ions of other h igh level execut ive ( M c K a y , 1997; Cameron , 1996; Mac i n to sh and Wh i t son , 1990). S ince most of these activit ies occur outside of the boardroom in settings such as go l f courses and bars, women are often exc luded. Research by Cameron (1996) and M c K a y (1997) has shown that men 's in formal networks are largely perce ived by women to hinder their opportunit ies in h igh level sport ing leadership. In the Canad ian context however, H a l l , Cu l l en and S lack (1990) found that 5 9 % of women agreed that men 's social networks were a barrier to the advancement of female leaders. What is problemat ic is that women ' s networks are not yet as power fu l or inf luent ia l as those of men and therefore are not benef ic ia l in the same ways ( M c K a y , 1997, p.54). 2.3.4 Societal level " M o s t advances for women in sport have occurred, w i th in the exis t ing structures of sport, for white, middle-class women , and for those already i nvo l ved in compet i t ive sports who have overcome the pract ica l and ideo log ica l constraints that continue to inh ib i t vast numbers of other women f rom part ic ipat ing at a l l " (Hargreaves, p.290 quoted in Cameron 1996, p.159). The gendered structure of society continues to play an important role in constra ining women in sport administrat ion (Pfister et. a l , 2005 , p. 10). Gender in sport ing organizat ions was also l i nked to stereotypes about male and female leaders. M c K a y (1997) found that male leaders he ld many stereotypical v iews regarding women ' s capabi l i t ies in sport administrat ion (p.83). Howeve r , many studies showed that female administrators found numerous ways to deal wi th stereotypes and opposi t ion in the male dominated wo r l d of sport (Pfister et. a l , 2005 , p. 14). In her 61 research, Chase (1992) examined the key people and forces as we l l as po l ic ies that affected women ' s invo lvement in O l y m p i c governance. She argued that in addit ion to the role of N O C s and IPs i n h inder ing women ' s opportunit ies, re l ig ious bel iefs regarding women in different cultures, med ica l i zed discourses about the female body and their part ic ipat ion in 'appropriate ' sports, as we l l as med ia representations of female athletes have each been dominant forces wo rk ing against the inc lus ion of women in the O l y m p i c Movement . In her analysis of the imp l i c i t and expl i c i t I O C po l i c ies , she determined that po l ic ies were not clear or power fu l enough to cause s ignif icant change in the organizat ion. What is even more problematic is the fact that there are no compl iance strategies in place to implement , moni tor and enforce the gender equity po l ic ies therefore organizat ions are not required to abide by them. 2.3.5 Summary Th i s entire section has focused on research h igh l ight ing the numerous barriers l im i t i ng women ' s entry and part ic ipat ion in h igh level sports leadership. It is evident that women have had to work w i th in restricted environments that greatly advantage men. F o r this reason, some women may have opted not to enter or aspire to h igh level sport ing leadership therefore presenting a barrier that must be addressed i f women are to become equal ly represented in sport administrat ion. It is clear that men have p layed an inf luent ia l role in the under-representation of women in sport ing leadership. G i v e n that sports were deve loped and administered by and for men, the organizat ional practices put in place corresponded to their def ini t ions of sport and how it should be pract iced. W i thout hav ing those men who are in power recognize the h istor ica l , structural and socia l barriers that st i l l exist h inder ing women ' s opportunit ies to access h igh leve l dec is ion-making posit ions 62 wi th in sport ing organizat ions, change w i l l on ly be l imi ted . A s we have entered the new m i l l enn ium and prev ious ly establ ished pol ic ies on women and sport have had t ime to take effect, this study w i l l provide a better understanding of the barriers that st i l l exist in l ight of the inroads made by women. It can be conc luded that: " . . .women who do not possess the expected opportunit ies, qual i f icat ions and competencies and who do not have this part icular type of personal i ty have great d i f f i cu l ty in j o i n i ng the executive boards of sports associations. Th i s is also true for those women who . . .cannot adapt to the preva i l ing structures of sport organ izat ions" (Pfister and Radtke, 2005, p.11). 2.4 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2.4.1 F e m i n i s m and socia l construct ionism H a l l (1996) insists that we need to understand " . . .that sport ing practices are h istor ica l ly produced, soc ia l l y constructed and cul tura l ly def ined to serve the interests and needs of power fu l groups in soc ie ty . . . " (p.6). In this way, feminist theory general ly seeks to analyze, c r i t i c ize , a f f i rm and advance the place o f women in society and in this case, at every level o f the sport ing system. Because many of these studies had a part icular focus on women , most do have feminist theoretical underpinnings. Th i s perspective highl ights the ways in wh i ch gender and power operate and are reproduced in the govern ing bodies of sport ( M c K a y , 1997; Cameron , 1996; H o v d e n , 2000a, 2000b; H a l l , 1996). M c K a y (1997) used a pro-feminist theoretical lens to examine the impact of aff i rmative action pol ic ies on the posit ions of women in sport ing leadership. H e also used concepts such as emphas ized femin in i ty (p.17) and hegemonic mascu l in i ty (p.21) to exp la in women ' s cont inued exc lus ion f rom top leadership posit ions in sport administrat ion. Cameron (1996) and Hovden (2000a, 2000b) used feminist theory to discuss the under representation o f women in sport ing administrat ion wh i l e relat ing this 63 to cr i t ica l perspectives on gender and sport ing leadership. Each referred to organizat ional theory to point out the important structural barriers that st i l l h inder women ' s opportunit ies. In addi t ion, many authors referred to socia l constructionist theory wh i ch states that notions of gender are constructed by society and thus, reiterated and p layed out in sport ing organizat ions ( M c K a y , 1997; Pf ister et. a l . , 2005 ; M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son , 1990; H a l l , 1978, 1996). A c c o r d i n g to H a l l (1978): "Gender . . .is best perce ived as 'a cont inuum of human attitudes and behaviours, soc ia l l y constructed, soc ia l l y perpetuated and soc ia l l y a l terable ' " (p.4) M c K a y (1997) used the concepts of mascul in i ty and femin in i ty (p.3) to show the ways in wh i ch gender is soc ia l l y constructed and consequently, how women are affected by the structures of labour, power and cathexis. In descr ib ing the s imi lar i t ies and differences between men and women ' s experiences in relat ion to the male-dominated culture o f sport ing organizat ions, M c K a y (1997) advanced that sport organizat ions were an important site where gender struggles occurred and thus, p layed a role in the construct ion and reproduct ion of gender inequal i t ies (p. 14). M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son (1990) discussed the concepts of sex-role soc ia l izat ion as we l l as power relations that exist between male and female administrators (p.75) to emphasize how the construct ion of gender inf luences the organizat ional culture. Th is was furthered by Pf ister et. al (2005) who pointed to the gendered structures and hierarchies in society as we l l as the impact of organizat ional culture to exp la in the under representation o f women in German sport ing organizat ions. 64 2.4.2 Organizat iona l Theory The concept of gendered organizat ion theory (Acker , 1990; M a r t i n , 1990) posits that much of the convent ional research and theories have conceptual ized organizat ions as gender neutral even though histor ica l ly , many organizat ions were establ ished by men in order to administer male sport thus taking on a mascul ine perspective. Hovden (2000b) used A c k e r ' s (1990) theoretical constructs concern ing the construct ion and reproduct ion o f gendered processes in sport ing organizat ions (p. 19) to exp la in the constant in f lux of men into sport ing leadership posit ions wh i le few women are v is ib le at any level o f governance structures in sport. A s Me r c i e r and Werthner (2001) point out: "we have a f ramework for th ink ing about a sport wo r l d that has as its basis many norms that are based on men 's characteristics, l ives and exper iences" (p.3). E l izabeth M o s s Kanter ' s (1971) concept of 'homologous reproduct ion ' has especia l ly proved useful in examin ing the barriers that exist for women in sport ing leadership (Hovden 2000a, 2000b; Cameron , 1996; M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son , 1990; B i s c h o f f and R inta la , 1994; H a l l , C u l l e n and S lack, 1990). Cameron ' s (1996) understanding of this concept is that men who ho ld power fu l leadership posit ions in sport typ ica l l y select other men and few women f rom those candidates who share s imi la r values and opin ions to themselves. W i t h this theory, she was able to h ighl ight the stereotyping of female administrators in sport and its inf luence on their entry into sport ing leadership. O n the other hand, Cameron (1996) c r i t i c ized Kanter ' s concept of 'homologous reproduct ion ' as it does not question the structural processes wh i ch " . . .support patriarchal systems of dominat ion and how these arrangements are mainta ined by the very women who are oppressed by t hem" (p. 194) h igh l ight ing the 65 complex i t ies concerning the lack of women in sport ing leadership. H o v d e n (2000a, 2000b) also used Kanter ' s (1971) theory to exp la in why male administrators were more l i ke l y to select other male leaders wh i ch best f it their idea of a sk i l l ed administrator. A c c o r d i n g to B i s c h o f f and R in ta la (1994): " The concept of homologous reproduct ion, the process in wh i ch the dominant group reproduces i tself based on socia l and/or phys ica l characteristics, has been used to exp la in the increasing leve l o f men coach ing women ' s sports, since the major i ty of athletic directors in dec is ion mak ing posit ions are males. Th i s cou ld certainly be a factor in the male-dominated gender ratio of the International O l y m p i c Commi t tee , as we l l as in the Un i t ed States O l y m p i c Commit tee B o a r d of Directors and the Execut i ve Commi t t ee " (p.86). Furthermore, H a l l , Cu l l en and S lack (1990) used the structural issues ident i f ied by Kante r (1971) as opportunity, power and proport ions to exp la in the processes by wh i ch female leaders are segregated into posit ions of l ow opportunity and power as we l l as their proport ional under-representation on dec is ion-making bodies in sport (p.30). In their own study, M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son (1990) used Kanter ' s theory to better understand the changes that needed to take place in sport ing organizat ions i n order to achieve equity (p.71) and the ways in wh i ch gender pol ic ies were implemented in various sport ing systems. Th i s thesis w i l l therefore be based on a number o f these theories in addit ion to broader concepts relat ing to the part icular methodology used for this study. I used a feminist perspective in this study because I wanted to el ic i t in format ion on the career paths and leadership sk i l l s of high level female sport ing leaders by us ing personal interviews wi th women ho ld ing such posit ions in Canadian sport administrat ion. " C o m i n g out of the modern l iterary movements of poststructural ism, postmodern ism, and deconstruct ion, discourse theory focuses on the analysis o f a text - broadly understood to inc lude l i v ed experiences and 66 cultural forms such as sport . " (B i r re l l in Messner and Sabo, 1990, p. 196) In this way, discourse analysis provides important theoretical insights to deconstruct ing some of the participants stories in order to h ighl ight the complex i t ies of the under representation of women in sport administrat ion. M a n y t imes however , the female administrators ' perspectives are not deconstructed but read as they were understood by the women themselves and presented as they are interpreted by the researcher. F i na l l y , I both con f i rm and trouble some theories when compar ing m y data to that wh i ch has been presented in the literature rev iew. 67 3 0 CHAPTER 3: WOMEN IN CANADIAN SPORT ADMINISTRATION Who are the women in high level Canadian sporting leadership? A l though the research questions investigated a breadth of topics, they also prov ided a general picture of the women i nvo l ved in high leve l sport ing leadership i n Canada. The data co l lected a l lowed for an interesting analysis as it h igh l ighted both the s imi lar i ty and divers i ty o f the female leaders' backgrounds and perspectives. Th i s chapter w i l l f irst prov ide a general prof i le of the participants i nvo l ved in this study and then present the f indings in two main areas of analysis: career paths and leadership involvement . 3.1 PROFILING THE PARTICIPANTS What are the women's backgrounds and what led to their entry and progression in high level Canadian sport administration? Sport administrat ion at its highest level requires ind iv idua ls to have part icular sk i l l s in order to successful ly manage the organizat ion. A s demonstrated in the literature rev iew, modern day sport ing organizat ions operate l ike major corporat ions in Canada wi th one except ion: many organizat ions deal ing wi th O l y m p i c sport are run by volunteers. Though many of these organizat ions have fu l l t ime employees handl ing the day-to-day operations, key dec is ion mak ing posit ions such as those on the Execut i ve Boards are p r imar i l y occup ied by volunteer members. In addi t ion, some o f the top leadership posit ions such as C E O and C O O , wh i ch are also pa id , are very inf luent ia l thus members have a direct input on the direct ion the organizat ion takes and its overa l l success. Research has shown that in both cases, volunteers and pa id sport administrators have very s imi lar backgrounds and career paths w i th a few important except ions. F o r this reason, sport administrators w i l l be treated as a general term for any ind i v idua l i nvo l ved 68 in sport governance and the dist inct ions w i l l be rev iewed in Chapter 4 i n the 'vo lunteer ism' section. Because on ly a smal l number of women ho ld top leadership posit ions in sport ing organizat ions, it is important to understand how they in i t i a l l y become i nvo l ved in sport administrat ion and gain access to leadership posit ions i n the organizat ion. It is through their l i fe stories that we can better understand women ' s career paths and leadership involvement in h igh level leadership. 3.1.1 Personal Backgrounds How have the participant's backgrounds influenced their skills, perspectives and approaches to sport administration? The literature rev iew has shown that an ind i v idua l ' s background is a dominant factor in a person's d isposi t ion to enter and progress in sport administrat ion (Cameron, 1996; M c K a y , 1997; H a l l , Cu l l en and S lack, 1990; Mac i n to sh and Wh i t son , 1990; I S L P and I O C , 2004 ; Pf ister et. a l , 2005). In this sect ion, I w i l l elaborate on the various circumstances wh i ch appear to have inf luenced the part ic ipant 's decis ions to in i t i a l l y get invo l ved in sport administrat ion and their choice to advance into higher leadership posit ions. In essence, this section provides a general prof i le o f a ' t yp i ca l ' h igh leve l female sport ing leader in Canada and her career path in high level sport administrat ion. Th i s o f course does not i m p l y that al l o f the women were s imi la r or represented the v iews and interests of on ly the ' female gender' . In fact, each participant seemed to have her own leadership style and qualit ies as we l l as divergent points o f v i ew on many o f the issues discussed dur ing the interviews. Th is shows the importance of understanding women ' s backgrounds and their inf luence on their decis ions to participate in sport administrat ion, part icular ly in high leve l leadership posit ions. The research data co l lected 69 to explore this aspect was coded into three speci f ic areas o f the part ic ipant 's background: f am i l y background; educational and professional background; and athletic background. 3.1.1.1 F a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d The stories co l lected in this study show that women were either getting i n vo l ved in volunteer activit ies or p lay ing sports at a very young age. Ove r ha l f of the women ta lked about the role of their f am i l y upbr ing ing on their dec is ion to enter sport administrat ion. M a n y o f them ment ioned that their parents had been i nvo l ved in the commun i t y in some sort of volunteer capacity and had encouraged them and their s ib l ings to engage in extracurr icular activit ies. F o r other women , their volunteer work in sport administrat ion began at a young age and stemmed f r om a personal interest in be ing invo l ved 'behind the scenes' . Consequent ly , most descr ibed their in i t ia l invo lvement in various volunteer or sport ing activit ies as a f am i l y oriented endeavour. Th i s then led some of them to combine their interest in sport w i th their volunteer wo rk or v ice versa, a l l o f them eventual ly choos ing to pursue volunteer or pa id posit ions in the higher levels of sport administrat ion. A s one woman put it: " The way I was brought up, m y f am i l y real ly be l ieved that you had a responsibi l i ty to give back to the commun i t y so you either give back wi th your t ime or you gave back money. A n d . . .so i t 's just engrained. (Participant 009). Th i s f i nd ing c lear ly supports Pf ister et. a l 's (2005) research that pointed to the importance of parental support on the invo lvement of men and women in sport ing leadership. L i k e w i s e , this also supports feminist theory wh i ch l inks the socia l construct ion of gender to sex/role theory (Hovden, 2005 ; M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son , 1990; H a l l , 1996). 70 Coinc identa l l y , the women ' s own fami l i a l c ircumstances p layed an important role in their degree o f invo lvement in sport administrat ion. A l m o s t a l l o f the respondents had a partner at home who supported their work , thus enabl ing them to spend more t ime in sport administrat ion. Indeed, 8 0 % o f the women in this study were i n de facto relat ionships wh i ch chal lenges somewhat M c K a y (1997) and Cameron ' s (1996) f ind ings that suggested women were more l i ke l y to be single. It does however mi r ror the results found in the I S L P and I O C (2004) report that indicated that 7 0 % of female respondents were marr ied and the same percentage had ch i ldren. Interestingly, there were two female administrators in this study that were st i l l active athletes and both had fami l ies . E ach woman was s l ow l y reduc ing her work load in volunteer sport administrat ion to focus on their fami l ies and athletic careers po int ing out that t ry ing to ' juggle ' al l three was too demanding. One woman descr ibed how her in-laws' p rox im i t y a l lowed them to accommodate and support her work as a volunteer sport administrator by p rov id ing her w i th daycare when needed. Th i s highl ights the fact that there are many women who do not have these support networks in place and may therefore be unable to participate in h igh level sport ing leadership. Th i s part icular f i nd ing is important as very l itt le research has focused on the secondary support networks wh i ch faci l itate women ' s opportunit ies to enter and progress in sport ing leadership. It is evident that both f am i l y upbr ing ing and current f ami l i a l situation prov ided the opportunity for these participants to engage in volunteer and sport ing activit ies. M a n y o f the women ' s in i t ia l experiences were cruc ia l in determining their future choices to enter sport leadership and progress into more important leadership roles w i th in Canadian sport ing organizat ions. 71 3.1.1.2 Educational and professional background M a n y o f the female participants spoke o f their invo lvement in h igh school and univers i ty committees; experiences wh i ch later in f luenced their dec is ion to continue into high leve l sport ing leadership. Seven of the participants ment ioned attending univers i ty wh i l e 3 had completed graduate studies, suggesting that h igh level sport ing leaders are indeed we l l educated. Interestingly, univers i ty athletic associations prov ided two of the 10 women wi th their in i t ia l experiences in the administrat ive side of sport wh i l e another woman worked in her univers i ty athletic department. Th i s is c lear ly supported by most literature pertaining to women in sport ing leadership (Cameron, 1996; I S L P and I O C , 2004; M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son , 1990; Pf ister et. a l , 2005). The educat ional background also prov ided some women wi th the opportunity to work in pa id sport administrat ion such as univers i ty athletic departments. Th is has been a starting p la t form for women progressing into O l y m p i c and international administrat ion. Interestingly, the participants had studied a number of different professions, f rom phys ica l educat ion to law and even women ' s studies. These divergent backgrounds inf luenced the roles women chose to take on and the v iewpoints they brought to the table. The analysis revealed that the women ' s professional backgrounds were a valuable asset in sport administrat ion and prov ided them wi th the necessary knowledge to be successful in leadership posit ions. Th i s combinat ion of sk i l l and experience a l lowed them to progress into the higher echelons of sport administrat ion. Furthermore, over ha l f o f the women ment ioned that they had been invo l ved in their sport ing organizat ion ma in l y on account of their professional background: " . . .to be honest u m m , I think m y background. . . u m m , you know , as soon as you have an accounting background or a legal background, it just seems 72 to be that those people are the ones who tend to take on the leadership roles because for some reason, you ' re v iewed as hav ing more cred ib i l i t y or whatever" (Participant 007). Those women who worked in pa id sport administrat ion also ta lked about the ' luxury of their pos i t ions ' . Some women expla ined that their j o b afforded them the t ime, resources and opportunit ies to participate as a volunteer in h igh level sport administrat ion because they had f l ex ib le work hours and were able to attend necessary meetings and access support networks. Th is conf i rms previous data prov ided by M c K a y (1997), Cameron (1996) and Pf ister et. al (2005) wh i ch indicated that female sport administrators were ove rwhe lming l y found to be in professional employment , t yp ica l l y ho ld ing important posit ions. Whether they were self-employed, phys ica l educat ion teachers, pract iced law or worked ful l-t ime as a coach/trainer or sport administrator, the women be l ieved their profession was conduc ive to taking on leadership posit ions in a Canadian sport ing body. W o m e n ' s professional backgrounds thus p layed a s igni f icant role in their access and part ic ipat ion in sport administrat ion, especia l ly in the higher execut ive level posit ions. 3.1.1.3 A t h l e t i c B a c k g r o u n d ".. .1 do think that it gives you an . . .edge to be a h igh performance athlete and then br ing content into that" (Participant 002). Another factor found to be s ignif icant in leading women to seek posit ions in Canadian sport ing organizat ions and successful ly progress to its highest leve l is their athletic background. Though not every woman interv iewed had been an elite athlete, 9 0 % of the respondents had part ic ipated in national and international compet i t ion and ta lked about their love and passion for sport. Th i s supports recent research by Cameron (1996), Pf ister et. al (2005) and the I S L P and I O C (2004) that found that most female sport 73 administrators had competed at the regional , nat ional and international levels . One woman in this study had been a recreational athlete and used sport as a vehic le for her work as an advocate for gir ls and women and phys ica l education teacher for ch i ldren. Genera l l y speaking, the analysis showed that most women be l ieved that an elite athletic background was important for sport administrators for four ma in reasons. F i rs t , the women ment ioned that hav ing participated in an O l y m p i c Games and part icular ly , hav ing won an O l y m p i c medal for some ind iv idua ls , made them high prof i le ind iv idua ls in their communi t ies . M a n y of the female sport administrators interv iewed were wo r l d renowned athletes who used their 'quasi celebrity status' to become i nvo l ved in pub l i c speaking or charity work. In some cases, the women said that many leaders were able to use their notoriety to br ing attention to various charities inside and out o f the sport ing w o r l d and thus, lend a hand to a number of other volunteer causes. In addi t ion, their h igh prof i le status also brought posit ive attention to the sport ing organizat ion and gave them an advantage in the areas of fundra is ing and corporate sponsorship. Th i s supports the argument that athletes should use their h igh prof i le to give back to the commun i t y and act as role models for young athletes. Second, it is argued that former athletes br ing a speci f ic knowledge o f sport to the table as a result of their sport ing experiences. M a n y participants ment ioned that being an athlete gave them 'c red ib i l i t y ' in the boardroom because they had been around the sport ing wo r l d for some t ime and cou ld relate to what past and current athletes be l ieved was needed to be successful . It was perceived that past athletes had a better understanding of the issues concern ing sport because they had been an 'end user' and were able to see both the athlete and administrat ive side of the issue. Moreove r , three 74 women had also coached elite athletes wh i ch gave them a unique understanding of the issues f rom al l three perspectives; athlete, coach and administrator. A s one woman put it: " . . .it does give you an advantage that you cou ld speak to issues log i ca l l y and f rom experience right. . . .and external ly, i t 's c r ed ib i l i t y " (Participant 006). In sum, it is perceived that an athletic background prov ided women wi th the abi l i ty to understand the impact of dec is ion mak ing on athletes, coaches as we l l as administrators and thus, make in formed choices concern ing po l i c y and practice at the governance leve l . A l l o f the participants reiterated the qual it ies that sport develops in athletes; qualit ies transferable to other areas of their l ives such as resi l ience, patience and conf idence. Interestingly, a few women pointed out how various k inds of sport ing backgrounds develop different leadership sk i l l s . F o r example , one woman not iced that team sports a l lowed athletes to develop a sense o f team work , a necessary sk i l l in the boardroom wh i l e sports that p laced two opponents against each other deve loped sk i l l s such as t ime and r isk management and gave them the abi l i ty to deal w i th uncertainty. Because decis ions are usual ly taken at the executive leve l , it requires leaders to discuss issues and make decis ions as a group. F o r this reason, the athletic background of sport administrators is therefore be l ieved to develop characteristics that are va lued in sporting leadership and are v i ewed as advantageous to successful ly per forming at the highest level of sport ing organizat ions. It seems that administrat ive work is perce ived by some leaders as a ' log ica l step' for both past and current athletes. However , it is important to recognize that an elite athletic background does not necessari ly mean that the ind i v idua l has a l l o f the leadership sk i l l s required to be successful at the highest levels of dec is ion mak ing in sport. A few women indicated that past athletes d id not necessari ly have the 7 5 administrat ive background needed to fu l f i l l those leadership roles. It was found that many athletes representatives' on Execut i ve Commit tees d i d not a lways bel ieve they were be ing taken ser iously and reported be ing stereotyped as 'wet beh ind the ears' and on ly l ook ing out for themselves and their part icular sport. Fo r this reason, it was important for women to develop various sk i l l sets in order to be credible and thus, successful . Th i s does indicate that sport administrat ion posit ions also need to be f i l l ed by ind iv idua ls who have a business administrat ion background as we l l as the network ing and leadership sk i l l s required to be successful . There are a number of male leaders that have been recruited as sport administrators f rom the areas of business and pol i t ics where there are again, much fewer women invo l ved . However , it is essential to f i nd female sport ing leaders in these areas and recruit them to the Canadian sport ing system. Las t ly , a lmost al l o f the women reported that their in i t ia l invo lvement in sport administrat ion was a direct result of their be ing invo l ved in sport as athletes. M a n y o f the female leaders interv iewed had begun their careers on an Ath le te ' s counc i l or committee as a representative for their part icular sport. Some women had even been i nvo l ved in setting up some of the first Ath le te 's Commit tees and were pioneers of the athlete's movement. One woman asserted that: " . . .to this point , every posi t ion I've had has been as an athlete representative so you k n o w for me, without that sport ing background, it w o u l d not have been poss ib l e " (Participant 007). Certa in ly , Ath le te ' s Commit tees have become an important 'stepping stone' for women ' s (and men's ) entry and progression into the higher echelons of sport administrat ion support ing Cameron (1996) and the I S L P and I O C ' s (2004) f ind ings. Indeed, most of the study participants in i t ia l l y entered the Ath le te 's Commit tee w i th in their part icular sport, 76 wh i ch demonstrates the importance of a l l sport ing organizat ions taking steps to increase the number o f h igh level female sport ing leaders because many women move up through their loca l , p rov inc ia l and national level sport govern ing bodies. 3.2 C A R E E R PATHS IN SPORT ADMINISTRATION It is obv ious that al l o f the women interv iewed had been invo l ved in sport administrat ion, though to vary ing degrees. Some c o m m o n patterns emerged in the career paths of the participants wh i ch h ighl ight the ways in wh i ch many women access leadership posit ions and progress through sport ing organizat ions. Nevertheless, these women also have d i f fe r ing levels of interest and achievement as sport ing leaders. Th i s section w i l l therefore examine and describe the general patterns o f entry and advancement for the h igh level female sport ing leaders who part ic ipated in this study and their numerous leadership accompl ishments. 3.2.1 Ent ry into sport administrat ion Th i s study explored the reasons why the female participants chose to become invo l ved in sport administrat ion and the circumstances under wh i ch they entered their leadership posit ions. F i rs t l y , many women pointed to the fact that they j o ined sport administrat ion because they wanted to create change w i th in the sport ing system. S im i l a r l y , a few women took on a sport administrat ion role because they s imp ly wanted to give back to sport; often the same sport wh i ch they felt they had rece ived so much f rom. Seven of the participants, for a number o f different reasons, spec i f i ca l l y ment ioned that they had advocated for change in order to make their sport ing organizat ions better for both current and upcoming athletes as we l l as gir ls and women . Some of the participants in i t i a l l y engaged in sport administrat ion because they be l ieved there were imbalances in 77 the system such as cheating or inequit ies, and felt they needed to become i n vo l v ed i n the dec is ion mak ing process. "That ' s how I started, just s imp ly you know , not l i k i n g what I saw around me and try ing to make a difference, t ry ing to make a change" (Participant 010). A l m o s t a l l o f the women ment ioned being invo l ved in volunteer sport ing leadership ' for the r ight reasons' . Fo r example , the female leaders who had been i nvo l ved i n the restructuring of their administrat ive body had actual ly e l iminated their o w n posit ions in order to make their sport ing organizat ion more effective. A g a i n , some women ment ioned that they had introduced succession p lann ing to their sport ing organizat ions wi th the hopes of bu i l d ing a more coherent sport ing system at a l l levels. It is therefore evident that this advocacy work on behalf of athletes, coaches and women shows the var ious areas in wh i ch they are i nvo l ved and the successful endeavours being undertaken by female sport administrators. Thus , it is evident that these women wanted to contribute to mak ing a difference and improv ing the organizat ion. T w o participants remarked they had become i nvo l ved i n sport administrat ion because they had a ' knack ' for administrat ive work and wanted to combine these sk i l ls wi th their interest in sport. Others be l ieved that they were inv i ted because o f their professional backgrounds. H a v i n g part ic ipated in sport and be ing invo l ved i n its administrat ion prov ided the women wi th countless opportunit ies to network w i th other athletes and administrators. Th i s and other sk i l l s p lay an important role in women ' s access and advancement into leadership posit ions in sport. In several other cases, women said they were recruited by their sport to sit on various committees, sometimes because there were no other female members. 78 "In m y earl ier years, I was one of the few women. A n d I k n o w I was inv i ted because o f that and that was in the 80s. P r io r to that, I bet there were very, very few women on boards but I th ink I was one o f the first to real ly get on the boards" (Participant 004). Interestingly, several of the participants ment ioned the poss ib i l i t y that some members may have in i t i a l l y entered their posit ions partly based on their gender or race. They d i d argue however that it was essential that these members act ively contribute to the boards and the dec is ion mak ing process in order to prove their capabi l i t ies at this leve l . It was evident that none o f the women wanted to feel as though they were in their pos i t ion s imp ly on the basis of their gender or other minor i t y status. T o this extent, one woman said: "I a lways th ink. . .that be ing a woman or be ing an athlete or be ing b lack you know , being a minor i t y . . .these might be the sort of things that might get you in the door eventual ly but i t 's your hard work ; i t ' s your commitment ; i t ' s what you real ly contribute that keeps you in the door, [you] never want to feel that, in any pos i t ion , I 'm in as a result of or just because o f those v is ib le things. .. .certainly I th ink we can never be complacent a g a i n . . . " (Participant 001). D u r i n g the interv iews, the participants were asked about how o l d they were when they first entered sport administrat ion. 6 0 % of the women said they had taken on leadership roles in sport ing organizat ions in their mid/late 20s to early 30s wh i l e the other 4 0 % reported that they were in their m i d 30s to early 40s. Th i s shows that most of the women were quite young when they in i t i a l l y got i nvo l ved in sport ing leadership yet are much older by the t ime they reach the top leadership posit ions. Interestingly, one woman commented that Execut i ve Commit tee members who were athlete's representatives seemed to be much younger than members who came f rom other areas of the sporting system. Th i s is an important considerat ion given that there are many h igh leve l female leaders who are or have been athlete's representatives however there is l i tt le research 79 examin ing the entry-level posit ions he ld by female sport ing leaders to con f i rm or advance this not ion. In the future, this cou ld provide an important area of analysis to the under- representation o f women in sporting leadership. The women were especia l ly encouraged to discuss their first leadership experiences in sport administrat ion in order to investigate at wh i ch leve l female leaders enter into sport ing organizat ions and how these experiences inf luence their future involvement . The women interv iewed in this study entered sport administrat ion at various levels and in different posit ions. A s ment ioned, many women began their work as athlete's representatives for their sport and in athlete advocacy groups. It was ment ioned that since athletes have had a much greater invo lvement at the administrat ive leve l , more and more govern ing bodies are targeting athletes and ex-athletes to become committee members and use them as resources. Th i s was ev ident ly important to some of the women in this study g iven that many women had entered sport ing leadership as a direct result of their invo lvement in sport. Another participant began her career in sport administrat ion as President of her c lub wh i l e others took up Execut i ve posit ions w i th in their p rov inc ia l sport ing organizat ions. One female respondent's f irst pos i t ion was at the national level for her sport wh i l e two participants were in pa id employment in a Canad ian sport program. Some of the participants had been elected to their posit ions in sport administrat ion. Others had been nominated by their committees or organizat ions for leadership roles. In one case, a woman discussed how some female leaders ensured that other women were being voted into the organizat ion saying: " . . .throughout elections, a lot of times w e ' l l sort of do some back room deals, not deals but we w o u l d look at who are the key women that we 80 wanted to get on there because we wanted to make sure that we promoted these women to get them in the r o l e " (Participant 005). F i na l l y , some women had been appointed to their posit ions by the organizat ion or had been asked to serve as a volunteer member on the administrat ive bodies of their organizat ion. Furthermore, many of the female participants suggested that they had been encouraged to run and supported by other board members, usual ly their mentors or people in their socia l networks. In one case, a woman ' s socia l network in i t i a l l y got her i nvo l ved in sport administrat ion f rom wh ich she deve loped an interest in pursu ing a career at the highest leve l . Another woman talked about how she was 'hand p i cked ' to sit on the executive board because she had shown an active interest i n the administrat ive side of the organizat ion and was w i l l i n g to become invo l ved on a volunteer basis. Th i s thought was echoed by a number of women interv iewed in this study and has important outcomes for the ways in wh i ch organizations recruit their members, part icular ly women . A s one woman put it: "I don ' t th ink i f I saw a ca l l for board members I w o u l d have stepped into the r ing and I don ' t think it works that w a y " (Participant 008). Some of these recruitment methods were rev iewed by Hartmann-Tews and C o m b r i n k (2005), I S L P and I O C (2004) and Cameron (1996) are consequently supported by the f indings of this study. Thus , the recruitment of women into sport ing leadership is part icular ly meaningfu l because it has impl icat ions on the number of women who enter and progress in sport administrat ion. Th i s also shows that potent ia l ly good leaders may not a lways 81 advance themselves for posit ions but are more than w i l l i n g to be i n vo l ved when asked to do so. " W e l l I th ink that u m m , women sign up for things or j o i n things or turn up for things in a different way than men do. L i k e . . .women sometimes have to be pursued and have to be ident i f ied and communica ted wi th and to ld that, l ook there's something that you might l ike to try and, whereas men might just show up more and I mean I've seen that, certainly in administrat ive roles. I wou ldn ' t have been i nvo l ved in the international federation i f a woman hadn't sought me out, I wasn ' t th ink ing gee, I'd l i ke to be i nvo l ved international ly. . . .that's why I say you know , maybe we have to l ook at do ing some recrui t ing because i t ' s not necessari ly the best way to promote more women in the organizat ion, just by wa i t ing to see who shows u p " (Participant 003). 3.2.2 Progression in sport administrat ion and leadership accompl ishments D u r i n g the interv iews, the women were asked to describe their career path i n sport administrat ion focus ing on their advancement into high level leadership posit ions. Equa l l y important was their perceived leadership accompl ishments in sport administrat ion as it demonstrates success and contentment in these leadership roles. A s discussed, many women started their careers as members of a sport ing organizat ion, usual ly the same sport in wh i ch they have competed, then taken on a V ice-Pres idency or V i ce-Cha i r pos i t ion and f ina l l y , move into the top leadership posit ions i n various organizat ions. " . . .1 don ' t know whether women do it more l inear ly . . . l ike in terms of career path. A n d they need to be a bit more patient you know , whether sometimes i t 's stepping out to the side before you get where you need to g o " (Participant 008). The literature rev iew d id suggest that progression is often l inear, meaning that sport administrators start o f f in smal l leadership roles for their loca l c lub , then move on to the prov inc ia l l eve l , reach the national body and its executive and some proceed to the international level (Cameron, 1996; Pf ister et. a l , 2005) . Though on ly one woman in this 82 study spec i f i ca l l y said she had started do ing sport administrat ion at her c lub , the progression of female leaders in this study is very s imi la r to that descr ibed i n the literature rev iew. F o r the most part, women became i nvo l ved at the prov inc ia l level of their sport ( 90% ) and progressed into leadership posit ions at the nat ional level ( 80% ) wh i l e 3 of the women were i nvo l ved at the international leve l . Furthermore, 3 0 % of the women were also in pa id sport administrat ion posit ions o f wh i ch 2 were also i nvo l ved in the volunteer side. A g a i n , this advancement usual ly i n vo l ved the women first becoming members of these organizat ions then mov ing up to the Execut i ve level posit ions. The analysis showed that women fo l l owed a log ica l path w i th in and between various levels of sport ing organizat ions. Ove r half of the respondents ment ioned that their career path seemed to be a natural progression where one posi t ion had led to the other. It is said that this natural progression a l lows for ind iv idua ls to gain important knowledge and experience at the entry-level posit ions so that as they progress to the higher levels, they can understand how 'it a l l works together'. " . . . there 's no vantage point l ike seeing how every piece works so when you do sit there and look around, you know it works because you ' ve been around it, you ' ve been in trenches and that's why you ' ve worked your way up and you can sort of have the abi l i ty to, to be able to strategical ly focus on different things and draw in the best peop l e . . . " (Participant 001). Th i s 'natural progress ion ' was not a lways qu ick as most o f the respondents descr ibed that they had al l been invo l ved in sport administrat ion for a long per iod o f t ime before attaining those top leadership posit ions at the prov inc ia l and nat ional leve l . Essent ia l ly , women had to work their way up the organizat ional ladder incremental ly , cont inu ing to gain valuable knowledge and experience a long the way. One woman descr ibed her strategy as: 83 " S o I th ink that's a lways been m y strategy...to establish m y cred ib i l i t y and then. . .people l isten to you and you can go a lot farther that way rather than com ing and say ing this is what we have to do, without people real ly k n o w i n g and trusting you. Y e a h , it takes a long t ime but I th ink it works better and then you ' ve got them on your side as w e l l " (Participant 003). T o this end, the average length of service for the female leaders in this study was 15 years w i th one woman hav ing been i nvo l ved i n sport administrat ion for over 25 years, 3 for over 20 years and on ly 3 wi th 10 years experience or less. Th i s does support data prov ided by Cameron (1996), Pf ister et. al (2005) and the I S L P and I O C (2004) about the average length o f service for female sport ing leaders in various countries. It was also found that female administrators moved into higher leadership posit ions in s imi lar ways to wh i ch they entered sport administrat ion. W o m e n usual ly progressed into more important leadership roles by running for e lect ion and/or being recruited and nominated to sit on a part icular board or committee. One participant in part icular ment ioned that her 'name' had faci l i tated her progress into other leadership posit ions because the other administrators knew who she was as a result of her athletic success. In another case, one of the respondents was 'headhunted' by a part icular organizat ion who had witnessed her success in pr ior administrat ive roles. Another woman spec i f i ca l l y attributed her progression in sport administrat ion to another woman who had sought her out and asked her to become invo l ved at a higher leve l , say ing that she had not in i t ia l l y thought about m o v i n g up the administrat ive hierarchy. A l l o f these examples h ighl ight the importance of socia l networks for those who are pursuing h igh level leadership posit ions. " S o I th ink a lot, I think part of that had to do w i th me being ident i f ied as a person, there were a few people that said you know , there's someone w e ' d l ike to get i nvo l ved and you know , we have elections every 4 years and 84 there's lots of you know , behind the scenes negotiations and discussions go ing o n " (Participant 005). W i t h respect to career paths, the participants were also asked to describe the circumstances that helped them achieve and prosper in h igh leve l leadership posit ions. T o a certain extent, a l l o f the women talked about the t ime commitment and necessary resources required for advancement in sport administrat ion. Some of the participants also emphas ized the importance of support networks, whether it be their partner or extended f am i l y and fr iends, in he lp ing them reach and per form at al l levels of sport administrat ion. In addi t ion, leadership sk i l l s such as business competency, proven success, experience and the abi l i ty to work we l l w i th men were s ingled out as important to advancing in sport management; sk i l l s that w i l l be discussed in the section On leadership attributes. F i na l l y , al l o f the women talked about the t ime commitment and necessary resources required for advancement in sport administrat ion. Some of the participants also emphas ized the importance of support networks, whether it be their partner or extended f ami l y and fr iends, in he lp ing them reach and per form at a l l levels of sport administrat ion. In addi t ion, leadership sk i l l s such as business competency, proven success, experience and the abi l i ty to work we l l w i th men were s ingled out as important to advancing in sport management to discuss the leadership accompl ishments ment ioned by the female administrators in this study. A s seen, al l o f the female leaders reported some progress in their sport administrat ion careers and were encouraged to describe some of their greatest accompl ishments. Because al l o f the women had chaired a number of important committees and/or led their organizations at one t ime, they ment ioned hav ing been s igni f icant ly i nvo l ved i n the decis ion mak ing process of large init iat ives such as 85 organizat ional mergers and the host ing of major compet i t ions. Several others had managed major re form wi th in their organizat ions. One woman declared that: " . . .my biggest legacy I th ink w i l l be in the change of the structure of the [organization] because I was i nvo l ved so long and it was so ineffect ive. W e w o u l d have these meetings once a year and we ' ve have l i ke 30 new people and a lot o f them were st i l l young and they had noth ing to real ly br ing to the table. So I sa id . . . we need to move this forward and I 'm prepared. . .to support i t 's move forward and here's what we need to do. W e need to you know , get a governance administrat ion to work w i th us to get this set up and we need to get the f o l l o w i n g people on our committee wi th d i f fer ing opin ions and real ly draw al l o f that f o r w a r d " (Participant 005). A few women stated that they had created an innovat ive concept that had been successful ly implemented and praised throughout their part icular sport ing system. F o r example , when one organizat ion restructured their administrat ion, this female leader, who received a large amount of support f rom the members of the Execu t i ve Commi t tee , mandated a gender quota po l i cy , wh i ch stated that the same number of men and women , were to sit on the Execut i ve Board . S ince there had been considerable resistance to this idea and she had worked very hard to conv ince the organizat ion that this was important, she be l ieved this to be one of her greatest accompl ishments . In another situation, one woman had deve loped a sport po l i c y that was currently be ing implemented i n her sport ing organizat ion and that organizat ional profits had accrued as a result of her ingenuity. S im i l a r l y , another participant spoke of her experience in establ ishing the first W o m e n and Sport Commit tee of her organizat ion as a result of the lack o f women in administrat ive leadership roles. D u e to this hard work , she reported that more women had been nominated and elected w i th in the governance structure than ever before. F o r those women who had entered sport ing leadership as a result of be ing an athlete representative, many be l ieved that they had been able to ef fect ive ly integrate the 86 athlete's perspective w i th in their boards and felt that this was an important achievement for sport administrat ion. One woman worked to improve the athlete's representation in governance structure stating: " . . . i f I am the proudest of anything thus far that I've done. . .and maybe appreciated by myse l f and a few athletes who truly understand the value of this, and that is that we went f r o m . . .a part ia l ly elected board to a complete ly elected board and the on ly way you can do that is by complete ly cutt ing out the representative mode l . A n d i f everyone was elected, than everyone was elected and there were no appointed people in i t " (Participant 010). The importance of this achievement is that athlete's were able to take on a much more inf luent ia l role w i th in the organizat ion. Ove ra l l , the women had been i nvo l ved in a number of important decis ions and had act ively part ic ipated in major projects and reforms w i th in their sport ing organizat ions. Throughout their careers, a l l o f the women exper ienced successes and some were fo rma l l y recognized through trophies and awards. H a l f of the women had won a prestigious award for their work in sport administrat ion. Some were honoured for their leadership sk i l l s and accompl ishments wh i le others were for their dedicat ion to sport and their contr ibutions in the management of these organizat ions. One woman spec i f i ca l l y regarded her award as remarkable because she had been the on l y woman nominated and was 'up against a l l m e n ' . A l l o f the women were thus successful in sport administrat ion and had accompl i shed some important feats throughout their careers. O n the whole , although the women ' s career paths were quite s imi lar , each o f them recounted a part icular story and emphas ized various factors that contr ibuted to their success in h igh level sport ing leadership. 87 3.2.3 Limits to progression and participants' future aspirations During the interviews, the female participants were asked to discuss their extent of their current involvement as well as any future aspirations in sport administration. As mentioned, it was found that 80% of the female leaders interviewed were retired athletes though some had retired more recently than others had while two women were still actively competing at a very high level. Though these women in particular had reduced their sport administration workload in order to focus on making the national team, both did remain associated to the organization in a limited capacity. Half of the women interviewed were still very involved in high level sport administration however few had clear aspirations to progress to top leadership positions at the national and international level. This fact is very significant as it demonstrates that many female administrators enter sporting leadership without clear intentionality to progress into the top leadership positions. Other female respondents said that they had worked very hard in order to prove themselves and gain enough membership support to access the Executive level of the organization. One woman claimed: "...I 'm still growing, there's still lots more I want to do. So, I'm not done yet" (Participant 001). This is in accordance with Cameron (1996) and the ISLP and IOC's (2004) observations that few women admit to actually aspire to the top leadership positions in sport administration. On the other hand, another woman mentioned that she had 'no desire to be leader of all organizations' and was not pursuing higher leadership positions, though she did say that if an opportunity came up, she would consider it. Similarly, another participant said she chose to end her progression at the national level even though she 88 was offered posit ions at the international level because she d id not want to leave these commitments . It is also important to discuss the fact that four women had stepped down f rom their last posit ions or retired f rom sport administrat ion say ing they had been invo l ved for a long t ime and wanted to focus on their careers, their fami l ies or their personal interests. Fo r example , one woman ment ioned that she wanted to continue wo rk i ng w i th athletes on market ing their port fo l ios and wi th their pub l i c speaking. Another woman spec i f i ca l l y said that she wanted to stay invo l ved in coaching whi le two other respondents had taken on pa id leadership posit ions outside of sport. M a n y of them also stated that they wanted to see 'new b l o o d ' on the committees and hopefu l l y new perspectives wh i ch is a clear indicat ion that the female leaders wanted divers i ty at the governance leve l . One woman ta lked about her frustrations in sport ing leadership and pointed to the lack of appreciation for the volunteers ' t ime and other responsibi l i t ies. Nonetheless, a l l o f the women were invo l ved in sport leadership to various extents and cont inued to help their sport ing organizat ions in various ways. The fact that they d id not just 'step into obscur i ty ' after retirement f r om sport administrat ion is indicat ive of the dedicat ion and passion they br ing to their work . They felt it was important to share their wealth of knowledge and experience wi th young people aspir ing to sport leadership therefore many female administrators had been mentors. The factors wh i ch led women to leave the organizat ion w i l l be discussed in detail in Chapter 4 deal ing wi th barriers. 3.2.4 Conc l ud ing thoughts " . . .women who have risen to that top are those who have made a career of sport and so they have this sport experience and the sport background u m m , and the knowledge to rise to the top because i t 's been their career p a t h . . . " (Participant 006). 89 There is every indicat ion that volunteer work for women in h igh level sport ing leadership is inextr icably t ied to their f am i l i a l , educat ional , profess ional , athletic and vocat ional l ives. A l l o f these components seemed to play an important role in both the level and degree o f the women ' s invo lvement in sport leadership. The f ami l i a l background prov ided insight into the in i t iat ion o f women to invo lvement in volunteer work. The educational and professional backgrounds of the female leaders exposed the personal c ircumstances that were advantageous for ind iv idua ls seeking posit ions in h igh level sport ing leadership. M o r e important ly , the women ' s athletic background was found to be an important factor i n reaching executive level leadership posit ions w i th in sport ing organizat ions because it was perce ived that they had credib i l i ty , experience and oftentimes, a h igh prof i le . In addit ion, each participant discussed numerous aspects of their sport administrat ion background that led to their entry and progression in sport ing leadership and the qualit ies that were deemed necessary to advance in sport administrat ion. The analysis also revealed that many women had v i r tua l ly progressed in the same manner, many o f them beginning at a young age and starting as athlete's representatives or on prov inc ia l execut ive boards, taking on larger and larger roles in sport administrat ion. The knowledge and experience gained a l lowed some of them access top leadership posit ions at the national and international leve l . F i na l l y , female administrators ta lked about their many leadership accompl ishments and some revealed that they had won awards or been recognized for their work in sport administrat ion. F o r these reasons, career paths should be a strong area of interest for those who are t ry ing to understand and establish po l i c y concern ing women in sport. 90 3.3 L E A D E R S H I P A T T R I B U T E S It is evident that an analysis o f the career paths of women in sport ing leadership is essential for understanding the circumstances under wh i ch women enter and progress in sport administrat ion. It is also important to further discuss their leadership invo lvement as it pertains to the leadership sk i l l s and styles that the respondents perce ived to be necessary or advantageous for sport administrators. F irst , women were asked to talk about the leadership sk i l l s that have been essential to their progression and success in high level sport leadership as we l l as those they be l ieved were present in other sport ing leaders. 3.3.1 Leadership Sk i l l s A s ment ioned, al l o f the women interv iewed in this study had a m i n i m u m of 10 years of experience in sport administrat ion wh i l e others had up to 25 years therefore it is evident that these women had accumulated enough experience and cred ib i l i ty to be in the top leadership posit ions. D u r i n g this t ime, they amassed a number o f leadership sk i l l s both in their professional and sport management work that were benef ic ia l to their sport administrat ion careers. F o r this reason, the women were encouraged to discuss the various sk i l l s that they be l ieved were required for sport administrators to be successful at the highest levels. Fou r ma in themes emerged. 3.3.1.1 Individual characteristics D u r i n g the interv iews, the women addressed the personal attributes that they perce ived a l lowed them to be successful in sport administrat ion. Though each woman described various personal leadership sk i l l s that they be l ieved were important to their sport administrat ion work , some ind iv idua l characteristics were repeatedly ment ioned 91 thereby h igh l ight ing the attributes part icular ly meaningfu l for sport ing leaders. F i rst , competency was ident i f ied as a c ruc ia l aspect of leadership. A l l o f the women talked about understanding the governance structure and hav ing the ' too ls ' to per form successful ly i n their posit ions. Of ten , the participants pointed to their experiences as athletes, coaches and administrators for hav ing prov ided them wi th an understanding of h igh level sport and the sk i l l s required to be successful . Equa l l y important, some women expla ined that their self-confidence and posi t ive attitudes had g iven them the courage to take on various projects and chal lenge themselves in sport administrat ion. In leadership posi t ions, several women ment ioned the importance of act ively sharing opin ions and v iewpoints w i th in the organizat ion and thus, getting i nvo l ved in the dec is ion mak ing process. Furthermore, almost every woman bel ieved that self-presentation and an aptitude for pub l i c speaking were essential for sport administrators. In order to be successful , women needed to be able to ef fect ive ly articulate their ideas and perspectives to other leaders, administrators and athletes. A s one woman summar ized : " . . . y o u have to be u m m , in m y op in ion . . . a good publ ic speaker, you have to be able to present ideas strongly and ef fect ive ly and to be comfortable network ing with people. . .because nobody can have an op in ion preva i l on its own . Y o u need a cr i t ica l mass behind it to dr ive it forward. So I need to get you on side and you on s ide . . .wh i ch means sitt ing down wi th you and d iscuss ing wi th you the merits of m y idea; that a l l invo lves speaking. A n d , and I have yet to f i nd a real ly h igh level successful administrator who cannot project themselves w e l l " (Participant 006). A l l o f these personal qualit ies were thus advantageous for women entering high level leadership posit ions w i th in any sport ing organizat ion. The literature rev iew showed that women had a diverse sk i l l set wh i ch made them e l ig ib le and competent for leadership posit ions in sport administrat ion, some of wh i ch were also reported in this 92 study. For this reason, the findings both confirm and further our understandings of leadership in sporting organizations. 3.3.1.2 Administrative skills and broad perspectives It is evident that administrative skills are necessary for anyone involved in sport administration. Many women stated that a combination of understanding the governance structure of the sporting system as well as possessing the organizational, administrative and time management skills were required to perform successfully in their positions. The ability to have a vision, set goals and focus on the task at hand were believed to be important for sporting leaders because they set the agenda of the organization and ensured its realization. In addition, strategic planning and thinking as well as risk management and problem solving were also said to be vital skills for successful sporting leaders. A few women commented that business management skills such as marketing, corporate sponsorship and an understanding of politics provided a useful background for bringing innovative approaches to sport administration. Almost all of the participants had enrolled in various kinds of leadership courses or attended conferences to gain other skills pertinent to sport administration. Thus, these administrative skills afforded women with the necessary technical skills to do the job. Most sport administrators were also found to be qualified in a number of important areas and bring this expertise to their leadership positions. As mentioned, women highlighted the importance of their various backgrounds in their initial interest in sport; their family, education, professional and athletic background were critical elements that influenced their access and progression in sport administration. In particular, those with professional backgrounds such as accounting, law and business administration 93 seemed to have a unique understanding of sport and insight into some of the issues. S im i l a r l y , the athletic and coach ing background of some respondents prov ided them wi th a broad perspective of the issues. M a n y women be l ieved they brought ' b ig picture th ink ing ' to the boardroom table as a result of these backgrounds. In addi t ion, those who were i nvo l ved w i th more than one sporting organizat ion or committee were perce ived to have a better understanding of the ways in wh i ch decis ions cou ld impact other areas of sport as we l l as the probable outcomes of these choices. Th i s broad perspective was be l ieved to lead administrators to make in fo rmed decis ions as they cou ld see various sides of the issue and not just the interests of their part icular sport. These different v iewpoints are then reflected in the decis ions taken on the administrat ive side of sport. These f indings are not surpr is ing as they are almost ident ical to those reported by Pf ister et. al (2005), Cameron (1996), Hovden (2000a, 2000b) and the I S L P and I O C (2004). 3.3.1.3 C o m m i t m e n t a n d A d v o c a c y W o m e n also ta lked about the level of commitment required for sport leadership and communica ted their dedicat ion to sport and its administrat ion. Sport administrators are required to attend numerous meetings and thus, spend a lot o f t ime prepar ing and work ing . Furthermore, some respondents were s imultaneously i n vo l ved i n var ious committees and ta lked about the heavy work load associated w i th these responsibi l i t ies. In addi t ion, the fact that many of these sport administrat ion posit ions are volunteer shows that ind iv idua ls who f i l l them are commit ted . A s prev ious ly ment ioned, most female leaders w i th an athletic background remarked that they wanted to give something back to sport, part icular ly the sport in wh i ch they had been invo l ved , by wo rk ing at the technical and administrat ive leve l . Th i s 94 supports the f indings of Pf ister et. a l 's (2005) study on women in Ge rman sport ing organizat ions. Interestingly, almost al l o f the women talked about their invo lvement in sport administrat ion as advocacy work and discussed their perce ived role as change agents in these organizat ions. A s discussed, some of the participants entered sport administrat ion w i th the intention of re forming the sport ing system for the better and changing the current funct ion ing of the overa l l administrat ion. M a n y of them were thus proponents for the 'softer ' side of sport, advocat ing for issues such as drug-free sport, women in sport, athlete's rights and sport for the disable, to name a few. One woman descr ibed it as: " . . .you try to do something that comes back and a l lows you to prof i le , to start to talk about issues, to start to talk about values, to start to talk about the other things that you real ly want to so that you end up hav ing a better sport system and one that's held a l itt le more accountable to the socia l values o f the count ry " (Participant 002). O n the whole , the women ' s commitment to advocacy seemed to be an integral part of their invo lvement in sport ing leadership and a part icular strength they brought to the boardroom table con f i rm ing previous research i n this area. 3.3.1.4 Networking D u r i n g the interv iews, women frequently spoke o f the cr i t ica l role that soc ia l networks p layed i n their sport administrat ion career and o f the importance o f leaders possessing this s k i l l . B u i l d i n g relationships w i th both men and women inside and outside of the organizat ion is a cr i t ica l aspect as h igh level sport is now inextr icably l i nked to business and sponsorship. F o r this reason, it is necessary for leaders to establish relat ionships w i th a number o f potential sponsors and constituents that can help move init iat ives forward. Th i s is understandable as M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son (1990) d i d f i nd that 95 the entire Canadian sport ing system had undergone a transformation f rom volunteer- based administrat ion to the profess ional izat ion and commerc ia l i za t ion of its governance structures. In addi t ion, top leaders need to gather votes and ra l l y support f r om other members for init iat ives they bel ieve are important. Moreove r , almost a l l o f the women be l ieved that relat ionships wi th members in their socia l network a l lowed leaders to share in format ion and receive input about some of their ideas. In a sense, women cou ld use other sport ing leaders as both a sounding board and support system. Several women also ment ioned that they made it a point to introduce themselves to other members at meetings and forge fr iendships w i th key people in the organizat ion, part icular ly men because they st i l l ho ld most of the inf luent ia l posit ions in sport administrat ion. T o this end, one woman emphas ized the importance of hav ing members be fami l i a r w i th you stating that " i t ' s not who you know but who knows y o u " (Participant 004). Indeed, these connect ions also prov ided leaders w i th a network f rom wh i ch to recruit and recommend other administrators for various posit ions. In some cases, women ' s entrance and progression in sport administrat ion were direct ly in f luenced by their networks. Th i s supports what Hovden (2000a, 2000b) , the I S L P and I O C (2004) and M a c i n t o s h and Wh i t son (1990) reported wi th respect to the s igni f icance o f soc ia l networks in p rov id ing access and support to women in sporting leadership. One part icular aspect of h igh leve l sport ing leadership was underscored by 7 0 % the women ; the abi l i ty to interact and network w i th the male administrators who populated most of the leadership posts in sport administrat ion. M a n y women bel ieved that organizat ions were st i l l very androcentric and that female leaders had to be comfortable in this mascul ine environment. 96 F ina l l y , the women also ta lked about the ways in wh i ch networks were developed. A t tend ing conferences was repeatedly ment ioned as a strategic method used to meet other people in sport administrat ion and scan for other potential leaders for their organizat ion. " . . . some things l ike go ing to sport ing events, go ing to network ing meetings, go ing to seminars, go ing to workshops, attending conferences a l l over the place; I mean understanding how the sport organizat ion works , meet ing the leaders of these sports and how they work you know , what they need . . . you have to stay connected to them and I th ink that that has real ly helped m e " (Participant 001). Nevertheless, it seems that socia l networks p layed a cruc ia l role in the women ' s entry and advancement in sport leadership. 3.3.2 Leadership Styles The female respondents in this study not on ly ta lked about the sk i l l s required to be successful in h igh level sport ing leadership but of the various approaches they had used to manage their careers. Consistent wi th their commitment and advocacy, several women ta lked about ensuring that ethics were respected and incorporated in their dec is ion mak ing wh i ch they be l ieved a l lowed them to make just i f iable decis ions for sport. One of the participants descr ibed that: " . . .it is your values that define you as a person and so you can' t wa iver f rom what it is that you bel ieve i n . A n d so, sometimes that means you either have to make the unpopular dec is ion and you have to wa lk away because otherwise what do you stand for? A n d so u m m , and that's, that's a hard one you know , as a l eader . . . " (Participant 009). M a n y o f the women also ta lked about ' leading by example ' . They felt that by per forming successful ly and demonstrat ing strong leadership qual i t ies, they w o u l d be role models for a l l leaders succeeding them, especia l ly female administrators. One woman ment ioned that leaders on ly have their reputation in the sport administrat ion wo r l d and therefore must ensure they make sound decis ions. Furthermore, a few of the 97 women descr ibed themselves as empower ing leaders suggesting that they l i k ed to extend their power and inf luence to other members by i n vo l v i ng them in the dec is ion mak ing process. F o r example , one woman asserted that she was more successful when she inc luded the input of her opponents in business proposals and init iat ives. Often t imes, women reported mentor ing other prosper ing leaders, sharing valuable knowledge and experience wh i ch empowered the apprentice. S im i l a r l y , a few female leaders ment ioned that they d id not 'm i c ro manage' their employees but instead a l lowed them to perform their duties independently. It is therefore evident that most women ' s approaches to leadership seemed to be l i nked to cooperat ion and empowerment wh i ch supports the informat ion prov ided by Cameron (1996) and M c K a y (1997). Nonetheless, the hegemonic mascul ine culture o f sport ing leadership means that both men and women have been compe l l ed to adopt a specif ic type o f leadership style, typ ica l l y one based on the mascul ine values of aggression, compet i t ion and autocracy. The women in this study d i d say that they be l ieved there was a difference between the leadership styles of male and female leaders in sport. Several examples of this were prov ided in the discussions. F o r example , one woman perce ived that men worr ied about the f inanc ia l aspect of the administrat ion such as cost effectiveness and investments wh i l e women seemed to be more concerned wi th the phi lanthropic and ethical pos i t ion of the organizat ion. M e n were also seen to be strategic and log ica l in their th ink ing whi le women were more detail oriented wh i ch accord ing to them, made the entire govern ing body run more smoothly . Another woman ment ioned that she was to ld that she had to learn to be less emotional in her leadership approaches as this was perce ived to be a sign o f weakness by men in the organizat ion. Furthermore, some women exp la ined that h igh 98 level male administrators tended to manage in a hierarchical manner be l i ev ing the organizat ion should be ' ru led f r om the top d o w n ' . O n the other hand, several female participants stated that they used the 'bottom up ' approach and encouraged jun io r members to take on leadership roles i n the organizat ion. A s one woman put it: " . . .the men, and they st i l l do to this today, a hierarchy. They rule f r om the top down . W o m e n manage l ike a web. A n d I thought l i ke yeah, you ' re just sort o f equa l . . . yeah, l ike a web. A n d I thought: 'that's m y sty le ' . . . . you surround yourself wi th the best people, and you let them do their j ob . Y o u motivate them, you inspire them, you assist them. . . in any way that you can to help them do their job . A n d that was sort of, I guess, m y style and u m m , l u ck i l y it seemed to w o r k " (Participant 004). Though these are general izat ions, these leadership styles do complement each other and have the potential to be very effect ive however they are not necessari ly related to gender. A s one of the women characterized her Execut i ve Commit tee : " . . .1 say that we ' re the blue suits and track suits. I th ink that our board needs to be blue suits and track suits because the blue suits g ive me the business advice I need and the track suits keep you honest as to why you ' re here at a l l " (Participant 009). In this sense, executive boards that have a divers i ty of perspectives a l l ow the sport ing organizat ion to be creative and progressive in its th ink ing and p lanning. Howeve r , there are as many s imi lar i t ies as there are differences between general ized male and female leadership styles and Duerst-Lahti and K e l l y (1995) warn that: " The prob lem has been (and continues to be) that one leadership style has been inst i tut ional ized and rewarded" (Duerst-Lahti and K e l l y , 1995, p.187). 3.3.3 Conc lus ions It is obv ious that women have had extensive invo lvement in sport leadership and have been successful in a number of areas. The women in this study had wide-ranging experience in sport administrat ion and many had he ld top leadership posit ions such as 99 Chair/President and Vice-Chair/Vice-President in regional , nat ional and international sport ing organizat ions. The interviews investigated the leadership sk i l l s be l ieved to be advantageous to female leaders. It was found that administrat ive qual it ies such as organizat ional and management sk i l l s were required for sport administrators wh i l e their professional background was s ignif icant in p rov id ing expertise to the Execut i ve Boa rd . Indiv idual characteristics such as competency, self-presentation and pub l i c speaking were perceived to be indispensable for those who wanted to take on the top leadership roles of the organizat ion. S imi l a r l y , ne twork ing was shown to be a cr i t ica l sk i l l in sport leadership because administrat ion requires intense group w o r k and relat ionship bu i ld ing . In addi t ion, membership support was needed for personal support, to share in format ion and to gain access to leadership posit ions. D u r i n g the interv iews, the participants also discussed their various approaches to leadership and how these often di f fered f r o m those o f men in sport administrat ion. It was noted that bu i ld ing good relat ionships w i th male col leagues was necessary for those women attempting to progress into the higher echelons of sport ing organizat ions as men st i l l he ld most key posit ions and organizat ions operated in a mascul ine leadership paradigm. Las t l y , the women also descr ibed their leadership styles as empower ing other members around them, part icular ly women , by sharing valuable knowledge and experiences w i th them. 100 4.0 C H A P T E R 4 - BARRIERS T O W O M E N ' S E N T R Y AND PROGRESSION IN C A N A D I A N SPORT ADMINISTRATION What are some of the barriers that have hindered women's entry and progression in sport administration? Th is chapter focuses sole ly on some of the d i f f icu l t ies women face when entering and progressing in sport ing leadership. A s discussed in previous chapters, sport administrat ion is in many ways s imi lar to operating a business; members need to possess speci f ic leadership sk i l l s and access the top dec is ion mak ing posit ions in order to effect change and move sport forward. Th i s shift has also brought about a change in the barriers that affect female sport administrators. Throughout the interv iews, women discussed their perceptions of barriers and how these and affected their career, i f at a l l . 4.1 INDIVIDUAL L E V E L Based on Pf ister et. a l 's (2005) interpretation, barriers at the ind i v idua l leve l relate to the administrators ' motives and decis ions to enter and progress in sport leadership. In addit ion, this section also refers to the ind i v idua l ' s competences and condit ions of l i fe . 4.1.1 "Gender is no longer an issue i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h e inv is ib le barriers and the effect o f gender on entry in sport ing leadership D u r i n g the interv iews, the women were asked to discuss their experiences as h igh level sport ing leaders and the obstacles they may have faced in reaching these leadership posit ions throughout their career. Some women said that many people in sport administrat ion bel ieved that the issues of women and sport had been resolved as a result of the increase in opportunit ies for women at al l levels as ev idenced by the recent increase of female part ic ipat ion rates and sl ight increase of women coaches and sport administrators. 3 respondents maintained that they had personal ly never faced any 101 barriers or they were unaware of any d i f f i cu l t y progressing in sport ing leadership. One woman acknowledged that barriers d id exist but bel ieved that the on l y potential barriers were psycho log ica l : " . . .there are barriers out there, I know there are but to me i t ' s , i t 's psycho log i ca l ; i t ' s , i f there are barriers, I don ' t see them wh i ch I th ink is a posit ive. So there are barriers, I k n o w there are u m m , and I guess there have been barriers for me but I've never not iced them. So m y bel ief is the on ly barriers we have are l im i ted by what we think our barriers are r ight " (Participant 004). She be l ieved that her self-confidence and sk i l l s had a l lowed her to work through any obstacles and achieve h igh level sporting leadership posit ions. One female respondent asserted that the 'scariest ' female leaders were those who be l ieved that because they had been able to make it to h igh level leadership posi t ions, any other woman or ind iv idua l w i th the requisite qual i f icat ions cou ld also access leadership posit ions i n sport administrat ion. The lack of acknowledgement for the many obstacles that do exist for some women does act as a barrier because women in sport in i t iat ives need to be supported by sport administrators in order to be implemented. Interestingly, one woman commented that change cou ld take place quite qu i ck l y i f a l l members were on board wi th the ini t iat ive, refut ing the not ion that on ly w i th t ime w i l l women enter h igh level leadership posit ions in greater numbers. She recounted that her administrat ion had been able to s igni f icant ly increase their f rancophone membersh ip in the governance structures by nominat ing and select ing such representatives at the f o l l o w i n g elections. Th i s therefore demonstrates that organizat ions are very capable o f rea l iz ing gender and diversity init iat ives i f they focus their effort and resources on accompl i sh ing that task. 102 Furthermore, the fact that some female leaders be l ieved there were no barriers because they had been able to access top leadership posit ions and chal lenges the not ion that women are representative of the ' female gender ' . M o s t women d id not perceive that they had accessed sport ing leadership on account of be ing a woman but that it was their sk i l l s that had gotten them elected or nominated to leadership posit ions in sport administrat ion. Ev ident l y , every member w o u l d l ike to be taken ser iously and bel ieve they are there because of their sk i l l s and not their gender. However , one woman d id ment ion that she was first recruited in her sport ing organizat ion because they needed a woman but that she had had to prove herself and demonstrate high-quality leadership sk i l l s in order to remain and progress in her pos i t ion . T o this effect, one woman said: "I a lways th ink. . .that be ing a woman or be ing an athlete or be ing b lack you know , being a minor i t y . . .these might be the sort of things that might get you in the door eventual ly but i t 's your hard work ; i t 's your commitment ; i t 's what you real ly contribute that keeps you in the door, [you] never want to feel that, in any pos i t ion , I 'm in as a result of or just because of those v is ib le things. .. .certainly I th ink we can never be complacent a g a i n . . . " (Participant 001). F o r this reason, some female respondents be l ieved that gender was not an issue anymore; it was real ly about getting the best people for the posit ions. It was w ide l y perce ived that sport ing leaders should be h igh ly qua l i f i ed and connected and that this was more important than the gender o f this i nd i v idua l . A s one woman put it: " S o there's st i l l work to do international ly and in Canada too in some areas but I th ink we ' re , i t 's a l l , i t 's accepted now that this is what we do and these are the issues and how we ' re deal ing w i th them. A n d let 's say in sport, i t 's just, i t 's not even a question anymore, so that's great" (Participant 003). 103 What is problemat ic w i th this statement is that it questions the entire role and va l id i ty o f W o m e n in Sport Commit tees and the women and sport movement . If we agree that the p rob lem o f female under-representation in sport administrat ion is resolved then strong po l i c y init iat ives w i l l not be developed and the remain ing barriers w i l l not be chal lenged. A l l that w i l l be left to do is promote the part ic ipat ion o f women as athletes, coaches and sport administrators. F o r instance, one woman revealed that her organizat ion 's W o m e n and Sport Commit tee had recently stopped p rov id ing a l ist o f female candidates to the select ion committee and at the f o l l o w i n g elect ions; s igni f icant ly fewer women had been voted into the organizat ion and few f i l l ed the top leadership posi t ions. Th i s underscores the fact that the p rob lem is not resolved and that efforts must be sustained to ensure that women are entering and progressing i n sporting leadership. If there is a widespread not ion that no barriers remain for women attempting to forge careers i n sport administrat ion then their under-representation w i l l continue to be v i ewed as the ind iv idua l p rob lem o f the women and no measures at the organizat ional leve l w i l l be put in place. Unfortunate ly , this may also mean that these female leaders are. less l i ke l y to mentor or recruit spec i f i ca l l y women and w i l l not be active proponents of women in sport init iat ives at the highest leve l in sport, where it may very we l l be needed the most. Th i s argument has not been evident in the literature on women in sport ing leadership. M c K a y (1997) d id f i nd that men were more l i ke l y to associate barriers to women ' s ind i v idua l characteristics however there is no ment ion that administrators d i d not perceive any barriers at a l l i n their career path i n sport administrat ion. 4.1.2 " Invo lvement in sport administrat ion is a personal c h o i c e . . . " : vo lunteer ism as a barrier 104 A s ment ioned, many female respondents acknowledged that some impediments d id exist for some leaders wi th respect to entry and progression in sport administrat ion but it was general ly perce ived that invo lvement in sport leadership was a 'personal cho i ce ' , especia l ly in volunteer posit ions. M o s t of the posit ions in Canadian sport administrat ion are volunteer and though members may receive some remunerat ion for airfare and accommodat ions, there is l itt le or no direct f inanc ia l gain f rom its involvement . The women in this study emphas ized that ind iv idua ls pursuing top leadership posit ions were required to commi t extensive amounts of their t ime in order to gain the sk i l l s , experience and network to access those posi t ions. A s has been repeatedly found in this and other studies, the t ime commitment , part icular ly in the higher levels of sport administrat ion, is enormous in addit ion to the extensive travel ing requirements o f leadership posit ions. Concomi tant l y , this t ime commitment also consists o f a s ignif icant f inancia l commitment as leaders must take t ime o f f work , pay for chi ldcare and at t imes, forward the funds for travel and accommodat ion fees. " . . .there are volunteers out there that are w i l l i n g to g ive up their vacat ion pay to do it. Y o u know so, or miss a day o f pay or whatever. I mean it costs you to be a volunteer. It costs you b ig t ime. Y o u know , you get your expenses pa id i f I remember to send in m y receipts wh i ch I hate to do you know , so it costs, it can cost thousands o f dol lars a year to volunteer. A n d it does and that's not even just around t ime " (Participant 004). Because most female sport administrators also had fu l l t ime professional employment , they needed to take t ime o f f wh i ch often meant that they w o u l d not be pa id . Genera l l y speaking, boards he ld between 6-8 meetings per year or he ld month ly meetings, depending on the level of the organizat ion (i.e. regional , p rov inc i a l , nat ional or international) and the importance o f the committee. If an ind iv idua l is i nvo l ved in a 105 number of committees, the t ime commitment becomes greater and requires them to be away f r om home for birthdays, anniversaries as we l l as chi ldren and f am i l y events. The volunteer aspect of sport administrat ion e l ic i ted various reactions by the women in this study. T w o women spec i f ica l ly ta lked about the d i f f i cu l t y o f hav ing people s ign up for leadership posit ions w i th in sporting organizat ions because they w o u l d not be rece iv ing pay for this commitment and cou ld not af ford the t ime. Converse ly , another women perce ived that many people were w i l l i n g to be i nvo l ved in sport leadership and had the t ime to devote though often d id not possess the proper qual i f icat ions to be f i l l the role successful ly . Moreove r , a number of female respondents perce ived that many professionals d i d not v i ew this work as credible because they were not being pa id to do the job . One woman ' s words show this: " . . .1 th ink sometimes what happens is because you ' re , you are a volunteer, people might not think that you understand or that you comprehend it but the President of the I O C is a volunteer u m m , just about every s ingle sport leader that I know in the w o r l d . . . 9 0 % of them are volunteers. .. .1 think at the end of the day i t 's u m m , you know , people never underest imating people just because they 're not mak ing money. I th ink so many times in l i fe , not just in sport, you, we often tend to define people by how much money they make. W e l l , they make a lot of money so they must k n o w what they 're d o i n g " (Participant 001). In a sense then, volunteer sport administrat ion was considered by some women to prov ide them wi th ind i v idua l rewards. O n the other hand, some women bel ieved that there was a posi t ive side to the fact that sport ing administrat ion was most ly volunteer based. These respondents be l ieved that volunteer sport ing organizat ions tended to attract ind iv idua ls who real ly cared about sport as there was no f inancia l gain to be made f r om its involvement . Th i s however does not necessari ly apply to h igh performance sport ing organizat ions at the p rov inc i a l , nat ional 106 and international levels whose budgets are immense and leadership posit ions compr ise a large amount of power and inf luence. A s a f ina l point , one woman suggested that volunteer-based sport ing organizat ions might need to rethink this mode l in l ight o f the increas ing commerc ia l i za t ion and profess ional izat ion of the h igh performance sport ing system. Ingl is ' (1997) study of administrators in Canadian volunteer sport ing organizat ions conc luded: "In the. . .nat ional amateur sport organizat ions, there has been a noteworthy shift dur ing the past two decades f r om volunteer-run 'k i tchen table operat ions' to the replacement of volunteer management w i th professional managers operat ing in a h igh ly rat ional , bureaucratic s t y l e " (p.160). In conc lus ion , it is important to h ighl ight that many respondents be l ieved that volunteer sport administrators chose to commi t their t ime and resources to this endeavour, without acknowledg ing that these ' cho ices ' are often constrained by var ious personal commitments . A n ind iv idua l must have the means to become i n vo l v ed in sport ing leadership as it requires them to spend many weekends out of town at compet i t ion, meetings and conferences away f r om both personal and profess ional responsibi l i t ies. In addi t ion, this also means that ind iv idua ls take on a great deal of wo rk over that o f their usual ful l-t ime employment as was found in Cameron (1996) and Pf ister et. a l 's (2005) studies. These roles become more intense as they move up the organizat ional hierarchy therefore h igh performance sport can be a very demanding f r o m an administrat ive point of v iew. F o r this reason, there are many ind iv idua ls who possess the sk i l l s to be great administrators but do not have the means to take on such enormous commitments . There needs to be an understanding that personal choices are gu ided by personal real i ty since some ind i v idua l ' s are not i n a f inanc ia l or personal situation to 107 volunteer or wo rk in sport administrat ion, especia l ly at the higher levels. A g a i n , i f sport administrators do not recognize that the volunteer aspect of sport administrat ion cou ld be d i f f i cu l t for many ind iv idua ls , there w i l l be no effort to enable such potential leaders to access leadership posit ions. 4.1.3 The importance of support networks and their role as a barr ier to women in sport administrat ion In order to be successful at the higher levels of sport administrat ion, ind iv idua ls must have various sources of support. Support networks are a major factor in women ' s decis ions to enter and/or progress in sporting leadership and even more so for women wi th young fami l ies . They inc lude immediate and extended f am i l y as we l l as fr iends, col leagues, h ired help and daycare. Though this l ist is far f r om exhaustive and support can extend f rom a number of sources to the ind i v idua l , these do represent the necessary assistance for ind iv idua ls to devote their t ime and resources to volunteer sport administrat ion. A s ment ioned when pro f i l i ng the participants of this study, almost al l o f the women spec i f i ca l l y ment ioned hav ing a partner and/or f am i l y in their l ives that prov ided the support they needed to be i nvo l ved in sporting leadership. F o r example , one woman reported that she and her husband had taken maternity (paternity) leaves so that both cou ld be i nvo l ved in the ra is ing of their f am i l y yet both be very active in their careers. In another case, she expla ined that her husband had worked f r om home and it was he who had stayed home to care for the ch i ldren. It should be noted that several women ment ioned that female leaders who reached posit ions in h igh level sport administrat ion often had ch i ldren who were o ld enough to be independent wh i ch indeed, af forded them 108 more t ime to dedicate to sport administrat ion. Another woman expressed gratitude for the help her husband prov ided wi th the chi ldren but had also hired a nanny to help w i th the household responsibi l i t ies. A l s o of interest was the fact that two o f the participants i m p l i e d that many marriages o f sporting leaders had fa i led as a result of the t ime commitment required and/or the fact that out-of-town compet i t ions, meetings and conferences were m i x e d and not al l partners were comfortable wi th that. " . . .the major barrier is be ing able to u m m , f i nd the f l ex ib i l i t y that w i l l a l low you to lead a balanced l i fe . Sport administrat ion, I 'm one of a handful o f women that have actual ly raised k ids and stayed marr ied, [that is women] that are in sport administrat ion. It just i sn ' t compat ib l e " (Participant 009). Th i s is also indicat ive of the socio-economic background of women in h igh level sport ing leadership as many cou ld af ford to hire outside help wh i ch prov ided them the t ime to do their sport administrat ion work . O f the women interv iewed for this study, s ix of them had ch i ld ren ; some wi th young fami l ies wh i le others had adult ch i ldren and even grandkids. W h e n asked how she balanced her sport administrat ion work , her career and her f am i l y , one woman retorted that it was imposs ib le to balance; it was more l i ke jugg l ing . Some women had reduced their level o f invo lvement i n sport administrat ion after they began hav ing ch i ldren. It is understandable that they take t ime away f rom their volunteer work when they are young mothers. What is problematic however, it is the fact that many are not returning because they cannot meet the demands of sport administrat ion and prov ide for their fami l ies . One woman summed it up: " i f you look at women in posit ions of power, I a lways notice that very few women have chi ldren you know. A n d the ones that do, you have to wonder how they do that. .. . they've got it you know , that they can go away for weeks and months and. . . f ine, but women aren't go ing to do that. 109 I mean . . . i t 's too b ig a cost and. . .some might have too much gui l t so you get some [female leaders] that don' t have k ids ; and do you want a profession that on ly has women who don' t have k ids. . .They need to come up wi th something e lse . . .we 've ta lked a lot about team coach ing and [about] k ids com ing or not coming . People want to do it d i f ferent ly and I guess that's the other th ing, there needs to be a who le array of w a y s " (Participant 008). Th i s conf i rms Cameron ' s (1996) observations that f ami l y responsibi l i t ies were considered a major barrier to women forg ing careers in sport administrat ion. Though on ly four women in this study had no ch i ldren, most acknowledged that this had p layed a role in their choice to pursue a career in sport administrat ion. One woman describes her experience: " . . .there were a couple of years where I was th ink ing whoa , this is too m u c h ; where I had a meet ing every night. Bu t I don ' t have any k ids , i f I had k ids u m m , I wou ldn ' t have volunteered for those things because you, there's no way I'd want to be away f rom them. . .So I th ink that makes a b ig difference, I know u m m , that there are a lot of women u m m , i n sport administrat ion who don ' t have ch i ldren, I mean I w o u l d say i t ' s probably ha l f and half but there are women , I th ink they have t ime you know , so I think i t 's easier for them. But I think i t 's tough but people do it and they do it in a certain way. I 'm sure it w o u l d a l l work out i t ' s just ; I probably wou ldn ' t have done as many. Y e a h I w o u l d have just focused on o n e . . . " (Participant 003). In contrast, s ix respondents referred to the not ion that male administrators had stay at home wives who looked after the household and ch i ldren who prov ided them wi th the t ime and independence to pursue sport administrat ion at a h igh leve l . One woman d isc losed that the men in her organizat ion d idn ' t understand the sacrif ices that some women had to make to remain i nvo l ved wi th the sport ing organizat ion. She says: " . . .1 think a lot of the men just don ' t even consider and I 'm ta lk ing even in the administrat ion, this is why I 'm k i n d of getting frustrated wi th [my organizat ion] , they just don ' t appreciate the other l ives and responsibi l i t ies we have " (Participant 005). 110 Genera l l y speaking, a l l o f the female respondents had some degree of support wh i ch a l lowed them to be i nvo l ved in sporting leadership and thus a f f i rm the importance of support networks to any successful leadership career. Consequent ly , female leaders who do not have suff ic ient support remain unable to commi t to h igh leve l sport ing leadership. These negative experiences can also lead to women leav ing sport administrat ion as a result of their frustrations. Th i s supports almost a l l o f the literature wh ich found that a lack o f sensit iv i ty and f l ex ib i l i t y on the part of the organizat ion towards women ' s personal and fami l i a l responsibi l i t ies caused a number of women to 'drop out ' ( M c K a y , 1997; Pf ister et. a l , 2005 ; Mac i n to sh and Wh i t son , 1990; Cameron , 1996; H a l l , C u l l e n and S lack, 1991). 4.1.4 W o m e n ' s Indiv idual Characterist ics A s presented in the previous chapter, many leadership sk i l l s were bel ieved to be essential for women to successful ly enter and progress in h igh level sport ing leadership. L i k e w i s e , these also work to exc lude specif ic types of leaders wh i ch have typ ica l l y been women . The barrier that was most frequently ment ioned among respondents was that some female leaders were not able to present themselves for posi t ions as we l l as the men. They were perceived to lack se l f-conf idence in app ly ing and expanding into more inf luent ia l leadership posit ions. A s one woman put it: " . . . th i s is a general izat ion but just m y perspective is that some of the woman were not as good at presenting themselves as the men and you know, when i t 's that c lose and everyone is qua l i f i ed , i f you ' re not go ing to present yoursel f profess ional ly . . .you ' re not go ing to get the votes" (Participant 007). Self-presentation was v iewed as a key asset in accessing sport ing leadership posit ions because successful leaders were perceived to be great publ ic.speakers who cou ld 111 effect ive ly present their ideas and the organizat ion 's overal l message. Self-presentation also includes excel lent communica t ion sk i l l s wh i ch was benef ic ia l for ne twork ing and relat ionship bu i ld ing . These f indings are c lear ly supported by Pf ister et. a l 's (2005) study wh i ch indicated that female leaders d id not apply for leadership posit ions in sport administrat ion because they d id not bel ieve they had the necessary qual i f icat ions to be chosen and therefore, l acked conf idence in themselves. Moreove r , several o f the participants pointed out that women were perce ived to ' avo id conf l i c t ' w i th in the organizat ion and for this reason, may be less suited for top leadership posit ions whose responsibi l i t ies inc lude conf l ic t resolut ion and personnel management. One participant noted that often, female leaders w o u l d retreat when confronted w i th 'strongly vo iced op in ions ' and thus, their thoughts were not ef fect ive ly integrated into the discussions. One woman argued that personal resolve was a major factor in women ' s decis ions to take on leadership roles in sport administrat ion. Though the literature pointed to women ' s lack o f qual i f icat ions and experience as the ma in cause of their under-representation in sport leadership, these female respondents be l ieved that there were a few personal i ty traits in female leaders that hindered their opportunit ies to participate in sport leadership but that the biggest barriers were present at the organizat ional leve l . 4.2 ORGANIZATIONAL L E V E L A t the organizat ional leve l , several factors were found to hinder women ' s opportunit ies in sport administrat ion. The barriers invo lve the culture, the posit ions and the pol ic ies w i th in the organizat ion. 4.2.1 Organizat iona l structure 112 Research has attempted to show that the greatest barriers for women in sport ing leadership seem to exist in the current structure o f most sport ing organizat ions. The profess ional izat ion of sport ing organizat ions has also generated a-change in the governance mode l where administrators have been replaced by professional experts in business administrat ion. In one instance, a woman recounted that she had had to f ire a volunteer administrator because that ind iv idua l was not per forming successful ly in their leadership posit ions. Th i s has also meant that posit ions are now be ing f i l l ed by professional ind iv idua ls ; an arena where there are also less female candidates. Nea r l y a l l o f the women spoke of the complex i t y o f be ing i nvo l ved on a large board. The posi t ive side they be l ieved is that there are more posit ions avai lable for women to gain entry and experience in h igh level sport leadership. Howeve r , in the larger organizat ions where there can be anywhere f r om 50 to 150 members, it can be d i f f i cu l t to gain the necessary support to institute change, part icular ly wi th regard to the actual governance structure. Several women in this study had been i nvo l ved i n the restructuring of their organizat ions and spoke of their experience conv inc ing members to vote themselves out of a pos i t ion as the a im was to reduce the number of members on the executive so that it cou ld work more eff ic ient ly . " S o I th ink that [the] governance mode l st i l l needs some work and when you have a governance mode l where you have a [large] board . . .and therefore it seems to be democrat ic because everybody has a say, i t 's very hard to ro l l it back . . . , people think you ' re tak ing something away " (Participant 009). Another chal lenge wi th large boards that was repeatedly ment ioned is that the huge membership makes it in t imidat ing for members to stand up and express themselves in front of the board, part icular ly when it comes to putt ing their name forward for 113 nominat ion . One woman noted that in some organizat ions, the vot ing i n of the members is done pub l i c l y so that everyone can see how many votes each member received. Th i s is problematic as it is potential ly embarrassing for those who do not accumulate many votes and may deter them f rom running again for membership. It seems that this may be more detrimental for women because female administrators have been recognized to lack self conf idence and thus, many are already hesitant to present themselves to the board for nominat ion . In addit ion, since most of the membersh ip is male, it can be less in t imidat ing for men to introduce themselves to the board than for female leaders. In this sense, smal ler boards cou ld prov ide a more comfortable environment for some men and women to assert interest and vo ice their op in ion . Several women discussed the lack of leadership tra ining prov ided for administrators by the sport ing organizat ion. It seems that many new members were not prepared and d id not possess a l l o f the necessary sk i l l s required to be successful i n their leadership role, part icular ly in volunteer sport ing organizat ions. One woman noted that many administrators who had come up by virtue of their athletic or coach ing background understood we l l the sport aspect. Some however , d i d not possess the proper management sk i l l s to do the work and make decis ions broad in scope. W i thout this addit ional tra ining, they were forced to learn by ' tr ial and error' wh i ch one woman descr ibed as 'unproduct ive leadership ' . Organizat iona l rules and pol ic ies also have a great impact on the ind iv idua ls i nvo l ved in sport administrat ion as we l l as those who choose not to participate. F irst , the Canadian sport ing system has taken the direct ion of h igh performance sport where programs are started at the grassroots level in order to ident i fy talent at a young age. 114 " . . .so there's that whole shift f r o m . . .a system that has been based on a state run system versus u m m , the business mode l where people pay for qual i ty p rograms" (Participant 009) . Some of the women ment ioned that in the past, lessons were free at loca l s w i m m i n g pools and equipment was prov ided so that ch i ldren cou ld learn basic sport ing sk i l l s at l itt le or no cost. Howeve r , the recreation system is now geared toward midd le to upper classes fami l ies as prices for registration, equipment and lessons have risen s igni f icant ly , leav ing many k ids unable to participate in grassroots sport. If these ind iv idua ls are not able to participate in sport at a young age, then they are most l i ke l y not go ing to be i nvo l ved in sport administrat ion as they get older. A g a i n , this cou ld potent ia l ly have adverse effects on organizat ional diversity as statistics show that v is ib le minor i t ies make up a large part of the lower socio-economic class and therefore are also under-represented in sport and its administrat ion. One participant put it this way: " . . .the k ids are encouraged to be i nvo l ved in sport al l across the board and I w o u l d th ink once that, i f that cou ld happen, more ch i ldren w i l l move up through the system and become adults who are st i l l i n vo l ved in sport. Bu t that's a long and s low process" (Participant 007). In this way, the organizat ional structure impacts the divers i ty of membership . Second, another woman expla ined this choice as one woman were just not w i l l i n g to make. She expla ined: " . . . i f I was a s ingle w o m a n . . .1 w o u l d have probably gone right up the ranks and [be]. . .actual ly running the show. It real ly doesn't interest me. .. . l ike there's on ly a few women , even in the corporate w o r l d . . .that rise to the top. A n d you what, I don ' t think we want to work 120 hours a week. L i k e , I don ' t want to work 120 hours a week for, you cou ldn ' t pay me Vi a m i l l i o n dol lars to work 120 hours a week, seven days a week l ike most men have to do. I'd just rather, I'd rather have more balance in m y l i f e " (Participant 004). 115 In this way, she be l ieved that some women s imp ly were not go ing to give up their fami l ies and personal l ives for a career they felt was not part icular ly rewarding. It is therefore evident that despite inroads made by female leaders, it is perce ived that many women do not aspire to 'that level of leadership ' . She states to this effect: " . . .women are much more cautious so and then they get smal ler organizat ions that are then u m m , responsible for, less power fu l in the structure and less budgets and you know , .. .and so then they don ' t get into the sort of, the echelons of power b rok ing . . . " (Participant 008). E ve r y organizat ion has its chartered rules wh i ch members are supposed to f o l l o w ; rules wh i ch can sometimes affect organizat ional membersh ip in subtle ways. F o r example , one woman ta lked about refusing to j o i n an organizat ion because it forced its female members to wear 'skirts and b lazers ' . " . . . they ' ve got a lot o f rules that I just think I don ' t k n o w whether. . . we have to have them, I don ' t know i f we have to have as many rules as they do . . . . They might l i ke the work but the way you ' ve structured it , absolutely not suitable to their l i festyle. So then they're fo rced ; i t ' s the subtext. They ' re mak ing a dec is ion l i ke I d id , on the polyester suit. N o t a chance. I a in ' t go ing nowhere in a polyester skirt. So therefore you ' ve done it, and I d idn ' t tel l [them] that, [they] d idn ' t have any idea but I ' l l tel l you right now, you ' ve set it up poor ly for w o m e n " (Participant 008). Moreove r , the organizat ional structure dictates the length of t ime members can serve in their pos i t ion . M a n y organizat ions a l low members to remain for long periods of t ime wh i ch usual ly means that many of the top leadership posit ions are f i l l ed by the same people. A c c o r d i n g to some participants, there wasn ' t enough turn-over i n the organizat ion, part icular ly in important leadership posit ions and therefore there was no 'new b l o o d ' rep lac ing them. S ince men ho ld most of the leadership posit ions i n sport administrat ion, women are not ga in ing representation in large numbers. O n the other hand, it is important to note that a few women d id discuss the negative impact of hav ing 116 too much turn over in the organizat ion because new members were not i n fo rmed about the init iat ives being discussed. Th is meant that issues had to be rev iewed yearly. One respondent commented that this was part icular ly problematic for l ow pr ior i ty committees saying: " . . . we met once a year, there was a b i g turnover each year so we had new faces, wh i ch was great to get people i nvo l ved but it wasn' t real ly e f fect ive" (Participant 007). These point to the organizat ional structure, wh i ch sets the rules, as in f luenc ing those who appl ied for sport ing leadership posit ions and more important ly , a lmost a l l o f the women perce ived that it was very d i f f i cu l t to institute rule changes. F ina l l y , govern ing bodies establish a number o f committees to help them manage the organizat ion. These range f r om a f inancia l committee to strategic p lann ing, fundra is ing to team select ion as we l l as nominat ions and women in sport, to name a few. Some committees are cruc ia l to the adequate funct ion ing of the organizat ion wh i l e others ensure that important interests are represented. W h e n these committees are ineffect ive for one reason or another, progress is not achieved and thus, goals are not met. In this study, three women reported that some committees w i th in their organizat ion were not funct ional and therefore ineffect ive. F o r instance, the nominat ion committee is very important because they prov ide the list of candidates for membership. If female leaders are not put forth on that 'slate' and do not nominate themselves to the board, they w i l l not access leadership posit ions in great numbers. The names put forth by the nominat ions committee also make a statement about where the organizat ion is go ing and what they hope to accompl i sh . If this committee is ineffect ive, it can act as a barrier for female leaders. 117 L i k e w i s e , it is evident that W o m e n and Sport Commit tees have also been unsuccessful in breaking down barriers for women in sport ing leadership 4.2.1.1 Women and Sport Committees It is important to discuss the role and impact o f W o m e n and Sport Commit tees in and on sport administrat ion. Genera l ly speaking, W o m e n and Sport committees are used to process in format ion concern ing various professional and educat ional opportunit ies for female leaders such as national and international conferences or external fund ing for leadership tra ining. The existence of a W o m a n and Sport committee in any organizat ion also creates a space where issues concern ing women can be discussed and resolved internal ly. In addit ion, the creative work be ing produced in this f o rum provides those members wi th opportunit ies to successful ly demonstrate their sk i l l s and thus, their potential to advance w i th in the organizat ion (i.e. success as Cha i r o f the W o m e n and Sport Commit tee can lead to Cha i r o f other committees) . Some o f the participants noted that it was essential to get women invo l ved in sport administrat ion and more important ly , have them take on var ious roles such as taking minutes, fac i l i tat ing meetings and presenting their ideas w i th in a group setting. A s ment ioned, W o m e n and Sport committees are usual ly f i l l ed wi th many other female leaders wh i ch act as a network o f mentors who can encourage younger women to take on leadership roles i n the organizat ion. The women interv iewed in this study reported that W o m e n and Sport committees were almost a lways exc lus i ve l y f i l l ed by female leaders. Th i s is important as it impl ies that on ly women are responsible for increasing female representation in sport administrat ion wh i le d im in i sh ing the cruc ia l role male leaders cou ld p lay i n the resolut ion 118 of gender issues. In this study, 3 women spec i f i ca l l y stated that they had not personal ly been invo l ved w i th women and sport init iat ives nor d i d they feel the need to advocate for this movement or represent 'women ' s ' v iews in the boardroom. Though it is important that each female leader become invo l ved i n areas in wh i ch they are comfortable , it is important that the organizat ion prov ide the space and opportunity for women who want to work towards equality. 4.2.2 Organizat iona l culture Each sport ing organizat ion is guided by a v i s ion and direct ion wh i ch is establ ished by the governance structure of the organizat ion and enacted by the leaders. Usua l l y , there are 2 to 3 top leaders who are at the he lm of the organizat ion as we l l as an executive board wh i ch oversees the administrat ion of sport. Consequent ly , the ind iv idua ls i n vo l ved in these posit ions create and reproduce the environment in wh i ch the organizat ion w i l l operate. G i v e n that sport administrat ion has tradit ional ly been a male domain and men st i l l ho ld most of the inf luent ia l leadership posi t ions, the organizat ional culture has accord ing ly been found to be androcentric (Hovden, 2000a, 2000b ; Cameron , 1996). Duerst-Laht i and K e l l y (1995) point out that even when women do gain leadership posit ions in sport administrat ion, they are constrained by their gender. " . . . w o m e n can successful ly enter mascul ine leadership roles but face two unhappy options, neither of wh i ch alters existent gender power relations. E i ther women must con form to ar t i f ic ia l ly heightened gender differentiat ion as a leader and agree that femin ine leaders' style exist , thereby perpetuating gender differentiat ion in the process or women leaders can 'do mascul ine leadership ' ; they can per form their leadership tasks in a way more mascul ine than men. The former reinstates gender dif ferent iat ion, wh i ch in turn perpetuates the probabi l i ty o f mascul ine dominat ion. The latter leaves women re inforc ing mascul in is t modes o f leadership when women might prefer to operate by other modes. Bo th options reinforce mascul ine va lua t i on . . . " (p.31) 119 It is evident that many female administrators are not l i ke l y to continue in sport administrat ion i f they are in an environment where they feel uncomfortable. However , this under representation d id not seem to affect al l female respondents as one woman discussed her experiences o f committee and executive work where she had been the on l y woman on the board. She said: " . . .1 don ' t real ly think about that. L i k e I th ink about do ing m y work and contr ibut ing and getting to know al l m y col leagues f r om their vantage po in ts . . . but I hardly, I don ' t a lways think oh god, I 'm the on ly w o m a n . . . " (Participant 001). E v e n so, another woman d id say that she wondered what it w o u l d be l i ke i f the numbers were reversed and there were '30 female administrators to 5 male administrators ' wi th women ho ld ing the key posit ions in the organizat ion. She be l ieved that organizat ions w o u l d be managed dif ferent ly and that leadership approaches w o u l d expand opportunit ies toward women . D u r i n g the interv iews, participants were asked to describe some of their thoughts and experiences o f organizat ional culture in sport administrat ion. The women respondents ident i f ied a number of important outcomes of the mascul ine organizat ional culture that they be l ieved hindered women ' s opportunit ies to enter and progress in sport administrat ion. F i rst , female respondents remarked that the organizat ional culture in sport administrat ion does not support women wi th or hav ing ch i ldren. One woman descr ibed an incident where her staff was reluctant to tell her about her pregnancy because she feared she w o u l d lose her pos i t ion. It was w ide l y perce ived that there was a negative connotat ion associated wi th h igh level female leaders hav ing chi ldren as it was thought that this w o u l d create a lag t ime in their career and a distract ion f r om their work in sport administrat ion. There was a widespread bel ief that motherhood and sport ing leadership 120 were not compat ib le as found in previous studies by Cameron (1996), Pf ister et. al (2005) and Mac in to sh and Wh i t son (1990). However , one female leader discussed the changes that needed to take place in order to create a woman and f am i l y - f r i end ly environment as we l l as f i nd ways in wh i ch leadership posit ions cou ld be adapted for member who have fami l ies . T o this effect, one woman said: "...I th ink we just have to make it work. Otherwise, we lose that expertise. A n d a lot o f corporations aren't getting that. They ' r e st i l l w i l l i n g to let women go, and not keep t hem" (Participant 004). Unfortunate ly , the organizat ional culture is heav i ly based on male tradit ions; many of wh i ch have been in place for years and others since incept ion. F o r this reason, they have become deeply embedded in both the structure and management o f every sport ing organizat ion. F o r example , many of the female respondents insisted that the organizat ional culture in their sport ing organizat ion was st i l l very much male centered and that this was evident in the way that the organizat ion was managed. One participant compla ined that meetings w o u l d be scheduled over a 4 day per iod a l l ow ing the men to do some go l f ing dur ing the day, or that meetings w o u l d be he ld or f in ished over beer at the end o f the day often exc lud ing the few female leaders. In addi t ion, regular and month ly meetings were usual ly scheduled at dinnert ime on weekdays and/or on weekends inc lud ing dur ing the hol idays wh i ch are inconvenient for those administrators who are responsible for their home and chi ldren as we l l . Th i s c lear ly supports M c K a y (1997), Cameron (1996) and Pf ister et. a l 's (2005) f ind ings that male networks were an advantage for men in sport ing leadership. Some respondents went on to say that female leaders w o u l d probably have been more aware of these issues when schedul ing meetings and w o u l d not spend addit ional ' vacat ion ' t ime at out-of-town compet i t ions and meetings 121 i n order to be away for the least amount of t ime. Throughout the interv iews, female respondents repeatedly ment ioned that sport ing organizat ions were very much afraid of changing these traditions and therefore past pol ic ies and procedures continue to restrict the amount of change an organizat ion is w i l l i n g to embrace. One woman summar ized : " . . .you k n o w the myths aren't true but they 're a l l , sc ient i f ica l ly based. If you run, your uterus is go ing to fa l l out, right. W e laugh at it now but at the t ime, you ' re f ight ing sc ience. . . . So I think i t 's that.. .because the myths are he ld , they are real ly entrenched and they are very v i c ious so when traditions become the male way o f do ing things, it is tough to change" (Participant 002). Interestingly, some women reported that in those sports where men and women competed equal ly or in equal numbers such as cur l ing , tr iathlon or equestr ianism, the governance structures were more often evenly balanced wi th male and female administrators. F i na l l y , a number o f female respondents discussed the inf luence o f organizat ional culture on men and women ' s leadership styles in sport administrat ion. It was perce ived that there were different expectations in terms of behaviour and approaches in the boardroom. T o this end, one woman related a s ignif icant experience: " . . .it was m y very first meeting so you can imagine , I was hardly over the top in conf idence and in everything else plus you ' re surrounded by 21 men and u m m , not k n o w i n g anyone. A n d u m m , I had a couple o f points that I had to br ing up . . . . A n y w a y , I presented them as best I cou ld and by then I.. .wasn't a babe in woods when it came to sitt ing around the boardroom and that. A n y w a y , dur ing one of the breaks, I was pu l l ed over by , I 'm sure a we l l meaning gent leman. . .who to ld me that you know , . . . you real ly have to watch your tone.. .people might be o f f put by m y tone. They may agree w i th me but. . .1 needed to take a much softer approach and not be so, I guess, aggressive. A n d I was absolutely . . . shocked. . .1 mean, I cou ld see myse l f as aggressive or assertive at much , much later meetings but this is m y first meet ing. .. .this is a stereotype" (Participant 010). She went on to say that at that same meeting, a man had lost his composure wh i le vehemently arguing why his idea should be implemented. Though he had banged the 122 table w i th his fists wh i l e ranting and rav ing in a very l oud vo ice , he was i ron ica l l y praised for the passion he brought to his sport administrat ion work. Th i s i l lustrates the various ways i n wh i ch we perceive and evaluate female leaders as opposed to male administrators. It supports the f indings of Pf ister et. a l 's (2005) Ge rman study wh i ch revealed that men and women ' s leadership styles i n sport administrat ion were greatly in f luenced by the organizat ional culture o f the sport ing organizat ion. Indeed, M c K a y (1997) sums it up say ing that women : " . . .must per form extraordinar i ly we l l by men 's cr i ter ia but in a manner that does not threaten men 's stereotypes about 'appropriate ' femin ine behaviour ; they need to be tough without be ing ' m a c h o ' . . . " ( M c K a y , 1997, p.85) 4,3 R E L A T I O N A L L E V E L Barr iers at the relat ional level refer to the relat ionships that exist between the ind iv idua ls ins ide and outside of the sport ing organizat ions such as col leagues, leaders and socia l networks. 4.3.1 Res ist ive attitudes towards female sport ing leaders A s the executive boards are predominant ly f i l l ed w i th men, a number of women discussed incidents where they had been chal lenged or even discredited by men in their organizat ions dur ing their careers i n sport administrat ion. In one case, a respondent reported that a male col league was extremely of fended when she had chal lenged his bel ief that a part icular sport was 'ordained by G o d to be p layed by boys ' . Ano the r woman asserted that even though she had been successful i n h igh leve l leadership and had 'sealed, s igned, de l i vered ' many pol ic ies and init iat ives, some members st i l l quest ioned her and other female leaders' c red ib i l i ty as h igh leve l administrators. S im i l a r l y , a few participants ment ioned that talented women who were articulate, educated and modest 123 were often perce ived as in t imidat ing to other members in the organizat ion, part icular ly men. It was also insinuated that these female administrators had been scrut in ized because they were v i ewed as serious compet i t ion for the top leadership posi t ions. In a more serious case, one participant described her unpleasant encounters w i th a male administrator who she c l a imed was t ry ing to ru in her career, stating that she had nearly had a nervous breakdown because o f the gr ief he had put her through wh i l e she was head of the organizat ion. She be l ieved that he cou ld not contend wi th hav ing lost a leadership posi t ion i n sport administrat ion to a woman and therefore was determined to discredit her in front of other members in the organizat ion. G i v e n this sometimes hosti le environment, the lack of female administrators in sport ing organizat ions also means that there is less support f rom same sex col leagues who cou ld better understand the issues and posi t ion that some female leaders were fac ing. Interestingly, three women descr ibed h igh leve l sport ing leadership as a ' l one ly ' place for female administrators though it was ment ioned that feminist-based advocacy groups d id prov ide some support for those who were i nvo l ved in the women and sport movement. In essence, some female respondents bel ieved that there was no one to talk to, especia l ly in the highest leadership posit ions w i th in the organizat ion. "There ' s no one to talk to and you can' t when you ' re in a leadership posi t ion real ly u m m , there needs to be most of the t ime, a l itt le bit of distance between you and your staff because they 're not there to solve your p rob lems " (Participant 009). 4.3.2 Men to r i ng and the not ion of female 'turf protectors' Men to r i ng was an important aspect explored i n this study and thus, the participants were encouraged to discuss their experiences and perceptions concern ing this topic. Mentors , much l ike socia l networks, were considered important by a l l o f the 124 interv iew respondents and were said to be necessary for younger members as it not on ly helped them become comfortable w i th in the organizat ion but also prov ided them wi th leadership advice and encouragement in a number of situations. In this sense, mentors contribute greatly to younger female members ' overa l l in their sport administrat ion career. Several women ta lked about being guided to in i t ia l leadership posit ions and wi th their mentor 's assistance, were able to get voted i n . The women in this study had been mentored by male and female administrators and some had posi t ive wh i le others had negative experiences. One woman said she entered and progressed in sport administrat ion because of a male administrator who was we l l known for his support of female leaders at a t ime where there were a few. In this way, she be l ieved he prov ided her w i th the conf idence and abil i t ies to take on bigger leadership roles in the organizat ion. S im i l a r l y , another woman ment ioned that hav ing a mentor enabled her to cope w i th the pressures of h igh level sport ing leadership. F o r these reasons, mentor ing was often cons idered as an essential part of succession p lanning i f the organizat ion is to develop its future leaders. Interestingly, one female respondent v iewed mentor ing as a k i n d of leadership tra ining. Unfortunate ly , few female leaders are c o m i n g into sport leadership by way of mentor ing. T o this end, she says: " . . .we keep ta lk ing about hav ing to increase our representation o f women and not just representation, I 'm ta lk ing qua l i f i ed leaders, ta lked about deve lop ing leaders, handhold ing leaders, he lp ing evolve leaders who happen to be women and men for that matter but especia l ly women need that help. E ve r y man around the table was oh , yeah, yeah, I ' l l be a leader you know , this and that, whatever you know , I ' l l be a mentor and I've never yet seen one of them or heard one of them be connected w i th , introduce me to u m m , send me an e-mail of or f r o m another female mentoree of any k i n d of sorts" (Participant 010). 125 It is therefore evident that mentors were perceived to be important for women in sport administrat ion although several o f the women d id report hav ing negative experiences wi th mentors wh i le others had not personal ly been mentored in their career to date. In one case, one respondent expressed that she had never exper ienced mentor ing but quite the opposite saying that she had had very disheartening relat ionships wi th female leaders. She be l ieved that they had been very tough on her and had not been understanding, sensitive or compassionate to her needs wh i ch had thus made he experiences wi th mentors a 'n ightmare ' . Despite not hav ing a mentor, one woman said that she had made it a point to mentor other women to give them the tools and advice she w ished she had had. It can therefore be assumed that for ind iv idua ls who have unpleasant mentor ing experiences, they are not l i ke l y to themselves become i n vo l v ed in mentor ing other young administrators wh i ch can negat ively impact the entire sport ing organizat ions. O n the other hand, women who reported hav ing good mentor ing experiences c l a imed they were able to use this new knowledge and apply it i n their leadership relat ionships throughout their careers. D u r i n g the interv iews, some women d id state that there were some leaders who were perce ived to be i n vo l ved in sport administrat ion for 'ego grat i f i ca t ion ' , re l i sh ing the power and prestige associated w i th ho ld ing top leadership posit ions in h igh level sporting organizat ions. Interestingly, it was also ment ioned that some female leaders who had earned a certain degree o f inf luence in the organizat ion were determined to continue this successful path and any other members* part icular ly female members , were regarded as compet i t ion. Th i s is supported by Pf ister et. al (2005) who found a 126 " . . . l a c k o f sol idar i ty among female leaders . . . " (p.31). Though this can be somewhat attributed to the ethos of competit iveness associated w i th the mascul ine organizat ional culture, it also shows that women know that on ly a few women are l i ke l y to be voted into the organizat ion and therefore v i ew other female candidates as oppos i t ion. A c k e r (1990) also discerned that: " . . .women were fa i l i ng to cooperate w i th each other, tak ing power and us ing it in oppressive ways (repeating exact ly what the men have done), creating their own structures of status and reward. [These images are]...at odds w i th other images of women as nurtur ing and support ive" (Acker , 1990, p. 142). Fo r this reason, some female leaders descr ibed that mentor ing was perce ived by some as a loss of their power and a fear of perhaps los ing their pos i t ion . T o this end, one female respondent commented: " . . .they are in posit ions of power so they ' re . . .scared that i f they act a certain way, people w i l l th ink they are favour ing and then you know , .. .they're not much of a help to any o f the women c o m i n g to work because they 're so worr ied about be ing label led and being he lp fu l ; i t 's counterproductive. Y o u w o u l d have gotten better help f rom the men that were at the h e l m " (Participant 008). One participant suggested that female leaders needed to feel that equal opportunit ies existed for all talented leaders regardless of gender before this d i f f idence w o u l d disappear. In order to protect their pos i t ion as we l l as their poss ib i l i t y o f ach iev ing the top leadership posi t ions, some leaders were perce ived to put very l itt le effort in he lp ing and mentor ing other women into sport ing leadership. What is interesting is the fact that on ly two women discussed this issue dur ing the interv iews and both bel ieved that this was an important barrier that women faced in sport ing leadership wh i ch needs to be addressed. One female respondent summar ized : 127 " . . .when you have women who are turf protecting or men who are 'turf protect ing ' , then you have a ce i l i ng on what you are go ing to achieve because there are some very good, we l l intended women who cou ld rise above but for a woman to . . .go up, more important ly , it means a man has to come down . .. . i t 's important that in i t ia l leaders. . . wherever they make that f irst breakthrough be as confident as possible and be. . .as g lobal in their th ink ing as possible because they on ly pave the way for more women i f they 're successful . Bu t i f they're not successful , they make it ten times harder for the women beh ind t hem" (Participant 006). 4.3.3 M a l e networks and the O l d boys ' c lub In the previous sect ion, the organizat ional culture was discussed as it related to exc lud ing women f rom high level sport ing leadership. In part icular, it was noted that the mascul ine culture in sport ing organizat ions was perceived to create an uncomfortable environment for some female leaders. In addit ion, the organizat ional structure in f luenced who entered because it dictates the ways in wh i ch leaders gain access to these posit ions. Some organizat ions for example , elected members and therefore, ind iv idua ls who were voted in were relat ively we l l known and accepted by the other members. Th i s again highl ights the importance of socia l networks in accessing sport ing leadership posit ions for women . One woman expla ined that another female candidate had not made the execut ive board in her organizat ion because she was not 'we l l -known ' by the other members. It was be l ieved that when she had been invo l ved long enough, other members w o u l d recognize her name and contr ibutions and she w o u l d thus be voted in because she already had the sk i l l s and administrat ive background to f i l l the pos i t ion . Soc ia l networks however can also present a barrier for ind iv idua ls who have conf l i c t ing perspectives to those already ho ld ing leadership posit ions as ev idenced by some women say ing that progression into the top leadership posit ions of an organizat ion was more d i f f i cu l t as these posit ions of power were usual ly held by wel l-supported men in the organizat ion 128 who remained for long periods of t ime. Fo r this reason, women must already ' f i t i n ' w i th the mascul ine organizat ional culture and most important ly , be accepted by the men in the organizat ion as the best candidate among those representing themselves in order to access h igh level leadership posi t ions, as was advanced by H o v d e n (2000a, 2000b) . There is also support f rom Shaw and Hoeber (2003) who assert that: " . . . w o m e n who express discourses of mascu l in i ty are perce ived by ind iv idua ls in organizations as people who can adapt w i th the social hierarchy and access power . . . . W o m e n who want to succeed in an environment that is dominated by discourses o f mascu l in i ty must also embrace mascul ine work pract ices" (Shaw and Hoeber , 2003 , p.352). Equa l l y important is the fact that most men in the organizat ion were fami l i a r w i th each other and many had been fr iends or acquaintances for years. In this way, it was d i f f i cu l t for new members to access these socia l networks and consequently, leadership posit ions. One woman pointed out that it was often the same members around the table and that this sometimes caused the board to become complacent w i th the funct ion ing o f the organizat ion and even less l i ke l y to change the way things were be ing done. Nevertheless, one woman d id perceive that this 'male culture ' had somewhat disappeared though she was not certain how this had inf luenced women in sport ing leadership say ing: " . . .1 don' t know whether the change in culture has made it easier or harder for women . Eas ier in so far as i f you ' re qua l i f i ed person. . .1 mean you have to put in some t ime . . . you need experience, but i t ' s not so o l d boys c lub. U m m , on the other hand i f you were a woman in that o l d boys c lub before, you cou ld ascend through as we l l so it's...I suppose overa l l i t 's made it easier because i t 's not so much an o l d boys c lub anymore " (Participant 007). In the same way, another participant descr ibed what she ca l led the 'a lpha male mental i ty ' where there is one part icular male leader on the board who is never chal lenged by other members in terms of opin ions and decis ion-making. Th i s is s igni f icant for 129 leaders attempting to make change wi th in the organizat ion. F o r this reason, men in the network were seen as being he ld to different standards than other men and women in the organizat ion. F o r example , one woman perceived that female leaders needed to work harder than male administrators i n order to gain respect and be taken ser iously as leaders: " . . .1 def in i te ly do everything that I can to contribute to the best o f m y abi l i ty and in as many ways as I can so that it, so that it leads people l i ke myse l f to overachieve, to over deve lop. . .and that's k i l l i n g . . .because we ' re over exhausted in t ry ing to do everything and to be everything to everyone at a l l t imes wh i le the guys are just c ru is ing w i th on ly one project on the go at a t ime. So, you def ini te ly feel l i ke you have to over achieve. Y o u a lso. . .feel l ike you have to be careful because i f you make a mistake, we l l then you obv ious l y weren't ready for responsibi l i ty . Whereas i f a man makes a mistake, we l l things happen. . .mistakes happen. . .don ' t worry about i t . . .dust yourself o f f and keep go ing . I ' l l be there. Want to have a beer afterwards?" (Participant 010). Th i s supports Duerst-Laht i and K e l l y ' s (1995) f ind ings that " . . . w o m e n but not men face a p rov ing per iod o f about a year. . . . Further, women apparently need to reprove their competency w i th every new group they encounter" (p.29). 4.4 S O C I E T A L L E V E L In this last sect ion, barriers found at the societal leve l relate to the gendered labour market as we l l as to the gender order in sport ing organizat ions. Th i s point is part icular ly s ignif icant because as Duerst-Lahti and K e l l y (1995) a f f i rm: " . . . the paucity of women at executive levels cannot be sat isfactori ly expla ined by demographics . . .the barriers are mul t ip le in leve l , are related to a mascul in ist society that judges roles and behaviours di f ferent ly due to sex and gender, are exper ienced almost exc lus i ve l y by women regardless of their co lor (although women of co lor experience these barriers dif ferent ly than do white w o m e n ) . . . " (p.82) 4.4.1 The gendered labour market and sport administrat ion: S imi lar i t ies Though men must do sport administrat ion under these same condi t ions, the gendered labour market demonstrates that more men are located in the higher salary 130 echelons than are women . Because the tradit ional volunteer based governance mode l has shifted to a profess ional ized and commerc i a l i zed administrat ion, potential members are now be ing recruited f rom the po l i t i ca l and business arenas where men again dominate leadership posit ions. In this way, men are more l i ke l y to possess the qual i f icat ions, leadership sk i l l s and socia l networks now required to access sport administrat ion posts. Th i s f ind ing c lear ly reflects many other studies on women in sport ing leadership (Cameron, 1996; Mac i n to sh and Wh i t son , 1990; Pf ister et. a l . , 2005) wh i ch have assessed the inf luence of the gendered labour market on women ' s opportunit ies to participate in h igh level sport ing leadership. In addi t ion, this also reflects the gendered labour market on an international scale such as the Un i t ed Nat ions where it is pointed out: "Because of education and employment trends, it is suggested opt imis t i ca l l y that the poo l f r om wh ich the next generation of managers is drawn w i l l contain as many women as men. Howeve r , this w i l l e f fect ive ly lead to a greater access to top levels of management on ly i f the structural barriers that impede the access of women managers ( lower and midd le level) to decis ive posit ions can be surmounted" (Un i ted Nat ions , 1995). 4.4.2 The inf luence o f the 'gender order ' and stereotypes on women ' s entry and progression in sport administrat ion "Sport contr ibuted to the fabricat ion of the gender order by 'natura l iz ing ' male dominance; preserving an arena of popular culture for men ; d i v i d ing women a long l ines of class, race, and athletic interest; contr ibut ing to changes in gender ideologies in the dominant culture; and structuring phys ica l and emot ional experiences, and mode l ing the human body and human fee l ing around mascul ine and femin ine axes" (Ha l l , 1996, p.39). M a n y studies have discussed the 'gender order ' that exists in sport administrat ion and expla ined the ways in wh i ch high ratios of women are relegated to posit ions of lower status, inf luence and compensat ion. M c K a y (1997) e lucidated: 131 " . . .gender must be seen as decis ive in organizat ions because most have cultures in wh i ch men 's experiences are ascendant and women ' s are subordinate. .. .G i ven that men control the most power fu l soc ia l inst itut ions, and their values are more h igh ly esteemed than women ' s , then women must cont inua l ly ' do ' gender under disadvantaged cond i t i ons " ( M c K a y , 1997, p. 14). In this way, the 'gender order ' constrains women ' s opportunit ies to gain entry and progress in h igh level sport ing leadership posit ions. Stereotypes regarding male and female administrators are a s ignif icant contr ibutor mainta in ing this 'gender order ' that exists i n sport ing organizat ions. One woman descr ibed the stereotypical bel iefs between men and women in terms of leadership styles and sk i l l s . She succ inct ly states that: " The men were concerned that the women are go ing to spend al l the money and the women are concerned the men are go ing to take a l l the power ; in a nutshel l . A n d i t 's true anywhere you look , on boards, anywhere you g o " (Participant 006). Fo r a long t ime, feminists have been arguing that women in h igh leve l sport ing leaders are forced to maintain some element o f ' f emin in i t y ' . Though some bel ieve these k inds of issues had been rect i f ied, one woman commented that she carr ied herself in a more femin ine manner and made sure to dress profess ional ly because she be l ieved this af forded her a certain amount of credib i l i ty . A t the same t ime, she commented that men cou ld come to meetings in shorts and a go l f shirt without a prob lem. In another interv iew, the participant remarked that one female member in her organizat ion needed to adjust her attire to become a l itt le more femin ine i f she wanted to succeed and progress in sport administrat ion. Th i s suggests that there is st i l l some truth to the not ion that women feel they are required to maintain a certain degree of femin in i ty . Th i s reflects what was found by Cameron (1996) and the I S L P and I O C (2004) who discussed the s igni f icance of dress codes in sport leadership. 132 Throughout the interv iews, the respondents often referred to stereotypical notions of male and female leaders to characterize other administrators they had worked wi th dur ing their sport administrat ion careers. F i rst , a lmost a l l o f the women talked about the typica l approaches men and women took to entering and progressing into top leadership posit ions. It was agreed that men were much bolder in their pursuit o f leadership posi t ions, often app ly ing for the top posit ions in the organizat ion. W o m e n were descr ibed as being more passive in their in i t ia l invo lvement as many of them were encouraged by their social network and recruited by other organizat ional members. One participant noted that many young men w o u l d apply for leadership posit ions for wh i ch they d i d not meet the cr i ter ia wh i le women were much more 'caut ious ' in where they appl ied. W i t h respect to this progression, one woman expla ined: " . . .a lot of the men don ' t need to be grounded so much in the sense of their accompl ishment to feel they have a right to move o n " (Participant 002). Ove r half the women in this study stated that women in general tended to be insecure and l ack ing conf idence wh i ch impacted their patterns of entry and progression in h igh level leadership. W o m e n were most often portrayed as reserved, passive and compassionate in their leadership approaches and were perce ived to avo id conf l ic t . A s one woman put it: " . . . w o m e n don ' t l ike conf l i c t so they ' l l often acquiesce in the face of strongly vo iced op in ion rather than to say: T understand what you ' re say ing and how c lear ly you are say ing it u m m , but here's how I t h i n k ' " (Participant 006). O n the other hand, men were usual ly characterized as outgoing, aggressive and authoritative. One woman attributed most barriers to women ' s lack of conf idence and stated that these cou ld be overcome i f women be l ieved in themselves. However , this 133 reasoning does not exp la in the other factors that have hindered some female leaders despite their hav ing reported a posit ive attitude and a h igh leve l o f conf idence. A l t hough some research has rendered a degree o f va l id i ty to these characterizations (Cameron, 1996; Pf ister et. a l . , 2005 ; I S L P and I O C , 2004; H a l l , Cu l l en and S lack, 1990), the stereotypical image o f women remains. These stereotypes can thus potent ia l ly have negative effects on male and female leaders wh i ch cou ld deter them f r om want ing to enter or advance into high level leadership posit ions. It is important to note however that this dua l i sm character iz ing male and female leaders as complete opposites should not be considered by any means representative for al l sport ing leaders, regardless of gender. It is true that opportunit ies for women in al l spheres of leadership have increased tremendously, even though barriers continue to shift and redefine themselves and st i l l exist in various forms for many women today. " A n d for some reason, women seem to go so far and then be content at that level and I th ink some of it is women ho ld ing back, not expanding their own borders, not want ing to move up u m m , they found a comfor t zone and they're and I th ink sometimes that has to do w i th t ime because you know , i f you ' re go ing to be i nvo l ved at this leve l , you do have to do some travel ing, you do have to do some weekend w o r k " (Participant 006). F i na l l y , many women indicated that there was a lack of recogni t ion for female leaders in terms of awards and commemorat ions. M o s t of the participants in this study had been acknowledged for their work in sport administrat ion though they recounted being among very few female nominees and even fewer female recipients. Th i s is a log ica l consequence of the under-representation of female leaders in h igh leve l sport administrat ion since most are never g iven the opportunity to lead the organizat ion and therefore do not have a p la t form on wh i ch to demonstrate their success. W i thout showing other organizat ional members concrete success, women are less l i ke l y to be accepted into 134 high level leadership roles and thus, w i l l be unable to change the 'gender order ' in sport administrat ion. 135 5 0 C H A P T E R 5: C O N C L U S I O N S A N D R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S "...it's the old story, your work is never done... " (Participant 006). 5.1 G E N E R A L R E M A R K S A s has been shown, it is essential that a l l o f those who enjoy sport in Canada have representation at the administrat ive level of the Canadian sport ing system where decis ions about the sport programs are taken. Though divers i ty can inc lude language, race, ethnici ty, region and many other areas, this study focuses on gender and the under- representation of women in Canadian high level sport ing leadership. It invest igated the career paths, leadership sk i l l s and barriers that exist for these female administrators and e l ic i ted, through interv iews, informat ion on female leaders' experiences in sport ing organizat ions and the perce ived competencies required to access these leadership posit ions. Because sport, part icular ly O l y m p i c sport, has taken on such importance in Canada wi th government and corporate sponsors spending m i l l i ons o f dol lars , it is important to understand the ways in wh i ch women access (or not) the govern ing bodies of h igh leve l sport ing organizat ions. In this way, the dec is ion-making process might become more balanced and representative of the general populat ion. Da ta concern ing female athletes' part ic ipat ion rates at O l y m p i c Games , both international ly and for Canada, showed the incremental progress women have made in terms of increasing their representation over the years. Howeve r , R in ta l a and B i s cho f f (1997) remind us that: " . . . w h i l e women may participate as athletes, far fewer women participate in the leadership posit ions of sport, posit ions wh i ch exert control over women ' s sport ing exper iences" (p.2). A s has been shown in this and many other studies, this vo i d is the result o f a number of factors inh ib i t ing the progression of female leaders to important leadership posit ions in 136 sport. Despi te the efforts of the W o m e n and Sport movement wh i ch began around the m i d 1970's , there has been no s ignif icant overal l change of the organizat ional structures and cultures in sport administrat ion. It is therefore evident that changing the gender imbalance and the deeply embedded traditions in sport administrat ion is d i f f i cu l t as sport ing organizat ions are very resistant to change. One participant noted: " S o I th ink those k inds o f things are some of the learning 's that I've had, in that, you have to ho ld in those places that are uncomfortable i f you want change to br ing about and real ize that change doesn't go in a straight l ine, it goes fo rward and back and it, at what point do you push and pu l l and those k inds of th ings" (Participant 002). It is essential to first understand the factors that inf luence women ' s entry and progression in sport leadership as we l l as those that lead to their under-representation, g iven that both have a s ignif icant effect on the entire sport ing system. F o r this reason, this study makes use o f feminist ideals that take women ' s perspectives as the basis for understanding their experiences in sport administrat ion. Femin is t research must therefore work : " . . . towards deve lop ing practices that are in fo rmed by understandings of the ways in wh i ch various structures of inequal i ty articulate in g iven contexts, and shape the l ives of different groups of w o m e n " (Hargreaves, 2000, p.216) In this chapter, I w i l l rev iew the f indings of this study in terms of career paths, leadership sk i l l s and barriers to women ' s entry and progression in h igh leve l sport administrat ion. T o this end, I w i l l attempt to draw some conclus ions as we l l as prov ide some modest recommendat ions wi th the objective of increasing the number of women in sport ing leadership that might be of some use to sport ing organizat ions and part icular ly , W o m e n and Sport Commit tees . 5.2 S U M M A R Y A N D C O N C L U S I O N S 5.2.1 W o m e n and Sport M o v e m e n t 137 W i t h respect to the O l y m p i c Movement , the I O C and some of its related organizat ions have taken some measures to improve the number of female leaders i nvo l ved in their administrat ions by sponsoring W o m e n and Sport conferences and prov id ing gender equity guidel ines for a l l o f their constituents. However , the I O C as we l l as many other international organizat ions do not f o l l ow these prescr ibed guidel ines and thus, are not demonstrat ing a strong commitment to improv ing the representation of women in leadership posi t ions. Those participants who had been i nvo l ved w i th sport administrat ion international ly reported that women are st i l l greatly under-represented at the international level and that fundamental issues such as the use of gender neutral language or mandat ing the presence of at least one female administrator on each committee are st i l l being contested by W o m e n and Sport advocates. One woman commented: " I f you talk to any woman that's i nvo l ved internat ional ly , she ' l l tel l you that...it's just not accepted that women should be treated on an equal plane than men because they have tradit ion and they have events that have a lways been in place for men and have less events for women . .. .even the language. . . i t ' s total ly accepted here to have gender neutral language [but internationally,] that's a b ig f ight . . . chang ing our const i tut ion. . . . [They] don ' t agree w i th ca l l i ng Cha i r . . . l ike [as a woman] , I was Cha i rman of [a] c o m m i s s i o n . . . " (Participant 003). The W o m a n and Sport M o v e m e n t has prov ided a p la t form for groundbreaking change on an international scale over the past 25 years. M o s t of the women in this study d id report that there were more women now then when they had first entered sport ing leadership but that the boardroom tables remained gendered. In addi t ion, there have been a number of very successful Canadian h igh level female sport ing leaders wh i ch have brought posit ive attention to the country. Canada has been regarded as a l iberal and forward th ink ing 138 country in that Canadian sporting organizat ions have had a number o f women in top leadership posi t ions, at least compared to the rest o f the wor ld . A s ment ioned, some of these female leaders have been extremely successful in their roles and are respected international ly. The female respondents in this study perce ived Canada to be an international leader in the area of W o m e n and Sport. One woman asserted that Canada was actual ly one of the few countries that invested almost equal ly in men and women ' s sport. They bel ieved that this was important i f the country was go ing to be seen and heard at the international level of the sport ing system. One woman exp la ined how she be l ieved the corporate sector had pos i t ive ly impacted the W o m e n and Sport M o v e m e n t by sponsor ing both male and female athletes and sport ing organizat ions in order to reach men and women customers. In addi t ion, many o f these corporat ions have equal i ty pol ic ies themselves wh i ch point out that they must invest in both male and female sport and at t imes, these pol ic ies are t ied to the sponsorship dol lars thus advanc ing the posi t ion of women in sport. O n the other hand, we must not get complacent and argue that since we may be ahead of international standards, our work is done. Though there is st i l l a l ong road ahead, we cannot underestimate the posit ive impact o f pol ic ies and programs on the increase of female leaders. The addit ion of female leaders in sport administrat ion has prov ided sport ing organizat ions wi th different perspectives d raw ing attention to issues prev ious ly over looked by male dominated executive boards, thus improv ing the management and operation of h igh level sport ing organizat ions. Moreove r , the increased v i s ib i l i t y of women in top leadership posit ions through opportunit ies and med ia is 139 bel ieved to have drawn other women to sport administrat ion and thus augmented the poo l of female candidates aspir ing to sport leadership. One woman conc luded: " W o m e n aren't seeing their l ives wi th the same degree of l imitat ions and hopefu l ly that w i l l expand to the wo r l d of sport as we l l . I just th ink that sport leadership, leadership in general, has often been v i ewed as a male domain . I mean, we don ' t have women P r ime M in i s t e r s . . .we don ' t have many women Presidents, we have some. . .we have women corporat ion leaders.. .now so the wo r l d is changing for women but there was a t ime when women d idn ' t aspire to that level of leadership. [G row ing up].. . I saw women as participants and I saw women as the ones who served brownies and cocoa and coffee at the events. That ' s the way I saw them [because].. .1 never had a woman coach . . .1 see women now in coach ing at grassroots wh i ch I d idn ' t see them then, it used to be al l the dads who were out . . . . I do see some women in of f i c ia t ing , I do see women ach iev ing at a higher l e v e l . . . " (Participant 006). 5.2.2 Career Paths and Leadership Sk i l l s A s was discussed in chapter 3, the study in fo rmed the literature concern ing women in organizat ional leadership as it pertains to their career path and the organizat ional leadership sk i l l s needed to be successful i n h igh leve l sport administrat ion. Genera l l y speaking, it was found that a number of factors needed to intersect in order for women to be i nvo l ved in sport administrat ion at its highest l eve l ; they had to have the right personal c ircumstances, possess the necessary sk i l l s and personal resolve, be given opportunit ies and have strong support networks wh i ch afforded them the t ime and resources to participate. Th i s study was able to prov ide a general image o f a typ ica l h igh leve l female leader. F i rst , most female administrators were h igh ly educated and were in h igh level professional employment wi th many o f them hav ing a vast background in sport as athletes. They were typ ica l l y in their late 20s to early 30s and had partners he lp ing them wi th f ami l y responsibi l i t ies as we l l as a large support network wh i ch enabled them to 140 participate in sport administrat ion at its highest level cons ider ing the extensive t ime and resource commitment . Fema le leaders c l a imed they had entered sport administrat ion out of a personal interest in sport wi th many of them hav ing come in as athlete representatives. The study also h ighl ighted the importance of socia l networks and mentors in accessing sport ing leadership posit ions. M o s t women began their careers on prov inc ia l govern ing bodies progressing 'natural ly ' up the organizat ional hierarchy to national and even international sport ing leadership w i th an average length o f service o f 15 years. One woman expla ined that when leaders first enter sport ing leadership posit ions: " . . . i t 's very important to . . . l isten to the culture of the organizat ion when you first getting on the committee or the board, understand how people get there, what 's happening, move agendas but never, ever, ever be afraid to speak up and speak up u m m , also u m m , get u m m , you k n o w connected or just sort of understand how al l o f these people work and get them to buy into what you ' re also a l l about, you know and i f i t 's agenda for women spec i f i ca l ly , then you champion on that committee or on that board too to support what you ' re d o i n g " (Participant 001). Though this career path seems to be s imi lar for both men and women , female leaders' enter at much lower rates into much lower posit ions and often never reach the top leadership posit ions in h igh prof i le sport ing organizat ions. Th i s does support what has been stated in organizat ional theory, part icular ly wi th respect to the homologous reproduct ion of male leaders. Th i s study d id f i nd that women perce ived that the inf luence of men in leadership posit ions and their social networks meant that more men than women were nominated and consequently elected to govern ing bodies. Howeve r , it should also be noted that the few women who are able to access these networks are more l i ke l y to progress to the highest leadership posit ions in sport administrat ion. 141 In terms of leadership sk i l l s and styles, the female respondents reported a number of competencies they bel ieved were essential for sport administrators in general but part icular ly for women . Admin is t ra t i ve and business sk i l l s i n addit ion to self-confidence, a broad perspective and a great sense of commitment to the organizat ion were be l ieved to be essential sk i l l s for success in h igh leve l sport ing leadership. N e t w o r k i n g capabi l i t ies were also seen as advantageous for entry and progression into leadership posit ions as administrators must be respected and supported i n order to be nominated and elected to such posts. Th i s is also associated wi th the accepted leadership styles prevalent in sport administrat ion. A s discussed, the mascul ine traits of aggression, compet i t ion and conf idence are va lued wh i l e more femin ine disposit ions such as compass ion , cooperat ion and t imid i ty are subordinated and thus, this androcentric culture constrains the leaders who do not ' f i t i n ' . Soc ia l constructionist theory can be used to expl icate the fact that female leaders who have made it into h igh level leadership posit ions have usual ly adopted this accepted style of leadership. Howeve r , w ide l y he ld stereotypes about female leaders also suggest that they must maintain a certain element of ' f emin in i t y ' when adopting this mascul ine leadership style. In this way, the socia l construct ion of gender dictates the ideal leadership sk i l l s and approaches to h igh level sport administrat ion. H a l l (1996) avers that in order for women to lead without stereotypical constraints on their approaches, there must be a redef in i t ion of female leadership. She says: " . . .a k inder, more var iable, and more fo rg i v ing ideal of femin in i t y needs to be constructed" (p.58). 5.2.3 Barr iers A s is evident in chapter 4, many barriers remain mak ing it d i f f i cu l t for women to attain leadership posit ions in sport administrat ion. Though these barriers are much more 142 subtle than i n the past, they nonetheless inf luence female leaders' career paths in sport administrat ion. A s ment ioned, barriers were ident i f ied at four levels : 1) i nd i v idua l leve l , 2) organizat ional leve l , 3) relat ional level and 4) societal leve l . 5.2.3.1 I n d i v i d u a l leve l Barr iers ident i f ied at the ind iv idua l level were related to the female leaders' personal characteristics, competencies and circumstances. F i rs t , the study h igh l ighted the lack o f acknowledgement of barriers that exist for some women in sport ing leadership. In addi t ion, several of the female respondents d id indicate that they d i d not look at the gender of potential candidates but wanted to f i nd the best person to f i l l the pos i t ion. W i thout acknowledg ing issues that exist, it w i l l be imposs ib le to put measures in place to rect i fy them. M o s t participants however d id accept the fact that some barriers do hinder women ' s opportunit ies to access leadership posit ions in sport. M o s t women pointed to the inf luence o f personal c ircumstances on an administrator 's abi l i ty to devote the t ime and resources to sport administrat ion, part icular ly in volunteer-based organizat ions. Furthermore, this seemed to have a greater impact on women who had ch i ldren as their personal responsibi l i t ies were perce ived to conf l i c t w i th the heavy demand of sport ing leadership. T o this end, support networks were reported to be essential as they prov ided the necessary assistance for women to participate in sport administrat ion to the degree they wished. F ina l l y , this study revealed that female leaders' lack o f self-confidence and consequently, lack of communica t ion and network ing sk i l l s were be l ieved to l im i t women ' s entry and progression in sport administrat ion. Essent ia l ly , women who were hot in the right personal situation or have the key sk i l l s were not l i ke l y to be i n vo l ved in sport ing leadership, especia l ly at the higher levels. 143 5.2.3.2 Organizational level The organizat ion was also perceived to present numerous barriers to women attempting to gain h igh leve l leadership posit ions i n sport. Ove ra l l , some aspects of the organizat ional structure and culture were considered to hinder women ' s opportunit ies in subtle ways. A s Duerst-Laht i and K e l l y (1995) a f f i rm: " S ex d iscr iminat ion and patriarchal control have on ly become more subtle and ins id ious , rather than reformed or e l iminated, and the worst part may be that female legislators remain unaware o f their differential par t i c ipat ion" (p. 185). Fo r example , the governance structure determined the large number of administrators sitt ing on executive boards wh i ch was often in t imidat ing for female leaders as most of these posts were f i l l ed by men. In addit ion, the ineffectiveness o f organizat ional committees part icular ly the W o m e n and Sport as we l l as the nominat ion committees was problemat ic in the sense that goals and init iat ives were not be ing deve loped or met, wh i ch rendered the issues inv is ib le to the govern ing bodies. Add i t i ona l l y , respondents pointed out that organizat ions have rules and pol ic ies in place to help them proper ly manage the entire structure, although many of these were be l ieved to deter women f rom part ic ipat ing in leadership posit ions. The cost associated w i th attending out-of-town compet i t ions, meetings and conferences in terms o f t ime and money was too great for some women who were thus unable to contribute their sk i l l s to the organizat ion. A g a i n , traditions such as compet i t ions and congregational attire for women wh i ch includes skirts and blazers d i d not appeal to some women and caused them to turn down leadership posit ions in sport administrat ion. F ina l l y , the length of service for administrators is also dictated by the organizat ional structure where members cou ld remain in their posit ions 144 for many years meaning that fewer women were able to infi l trate the organizat ional bodies and increase their representation. S im i l a r l y , the organizat ional culture was also perce ived to act as a barrier for female leaders entering and progressing in sport administrat ion. The historical invo lvement o f men in sport ing leadership has left its impr int in the ways in wh i ch administrators behave and develop wi th in the organizat ion. Th i s androcentric culture was bel ieved to inf luence women ' s career because those who were not comfortable in this k i n d o f environment were not l i ke l y to continue their invo lvement in the organizat ion. " A c c o r d i n g to organizat ional theorists, the structure and behaviour of institutions is determined, at least in part, by the character o f the inst i tut ion itself; its predominant culture; and the characteristics of the pol ic ies they adminis ter " ( Ke l l y and Duerst-Laht i , 1995, p. 144) In addi t ion, many female respondents reported that sport administrat ion was not f am i l y f r iendly , part icular ly to female leaders with ch i ldren. Nonetheless, this mascul ine culture was perceived to have the most impact on the leadership styles o f male and female administrators. The participants c lear ly descr ibed that female leader 's were required to take on some of these mascul ine traits wh i le mainta in ing a degree o f femin in i t y in their leadership approaches. F o r this reason, some women were unable or unw i l l i ng to meet such d i f f i cu l t cr i ter ia and d i d not become invo l ved in sport ing leadership. A s M e r c i e r and Werthner (2001) mainta in : "...the tradit ional v iew of leadership was founded on male-oriented values of rat ional i ty, compet i t ion, and independence. ...[they] are so deeply embedded in our po l i t i ca l and socia l institutions that they are i n v i s i b l e . " " A n d when we s imp ly try to fit women into this ex is t ing mode l , they often, and yet not surpr is ingly , are isolated, receive l itt le support, have l im i ted opportunit ies, and do not stay around, thereby perpetuating the preva i l ing th ink ing that women cannot 'take the pressure ' " (p.5). 145 Some of these f indings can be expla ined by sex-role theory as w e l l as soc ia l construct ionism because women are compe l l ed to take on speci f ic attributes and behaviours s imp ly because o f their gender. Nevertheless, these f indings ev ince the need for: " . . . an organizat ional v i s ion that embodies the goals, needs, and values o f both leaders and fo l lowers , of both gir ls and boys, women and men. Th i s w i l l require . . .organizat ions to adopt new values and act i n new w a y s " (Merc ie r and Werthner, 2001 , p.7). 5.2.3.3 R e l a t i o n a l leve l A s ment ioned, the relat ional level compr ised barriers that existed as a result of relat ionship between ind iv idua ls in sporting organizat ions. Notab ly , a number of female respondents descr ibed situations where they had exper ienced resistance on the part of male leaders. They recounted that female leaders' work was h igh l y scrut in ized by other administrators wh i l e another said that she had been direct ly cha l lenged by a male col league in the boardroom. In addit ion, this study examined the relat ionships between female leaders in sport ing organizat ions. These respondents be l ieved that some female leaders hindered other women ' s opportunit ies by gr ipp ing their power and status instead of us ing it to assist and mentor other women into sport ing leadership. M a n y female leaders considered mentor ing important, part icular ly those women who had had posi t ive experiences themselves. Moreove r , the study revealed that men 's strong socia l networks continue to be perce ived as a major barrier to women ' s entry and progression in sport administrat ion. Th i s ' o ld boys c l ub ' reproduces the mascul ine culture as a l l o f the organizat ion 's committees and boards are populated by these male administrators. Consequent ly , these networks have a broad spectrum of power and inf luence in sport ing leadership. 146 5.2.3.4 Societal level Barr iers at the societal leve l were associated w i th the gendered labour market that exists in present society in addit ion to the gender order in sport administrat ion that work to mainta in women ' s under-representation in sporting leadership. " A l m o s t a l l areas o f socia l l i fe - such as occupat ional and educat ional opportunity, po l i t i ca l behaviour, marriage and fami l y , sexual bel iefs and practices, leisure patterns, and most certainly sport - are in f luenced and affected by the inst i tut ional ized inequalit ies of soc iety . " (Ha l l , M . A . , 1978, p.65) W o m e n work ing inside and outside of sport administrat ion have s imi la r career paths in as much as they are located in the lowest echelons of administrat ion and salary. Furthermore, stereotypes about female leaders and their skil ls/styles continue to constrain women ' s abi l i t ies to succeed into h igh level leadership posit ions as some female respondents ment ioned that they felt they needed to dress and behave wi th a certain degree o f femin in i ty in order to be accepted as credible administrators. 5.3 R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S " G i v e n the embeddedness o f gendered power relations in organizat ions i n general and sport organizat ions in particular, the impetus for change needs to come f rom sources both internal and external and, as we l l , encompass mul t ip le strategies" (R inta la and B i schof f , 1997, p. 17). In this sect ion, I prov ide some modest suggestions for sport ing organizat ions l ook ing to increase the number of women entering and progressing in leadership posit ions. W i thout a doubt, effect ive measures are needed to eradicate the barriers st i l l affect ing women in sport ing leadership and encourage their f u l l part ic ipat ion in leadership at the highest levels. One female respondent summed it up say ing: " . . .1 came into what I felt was a culture where women were already important. I d idn ' t feel l i ke it was a battle yet when you look at the membersh ip of the [organization], i t 's s t i l l , the major i ty are men. U m m , 147 but I th ink especia l ly w i th women mak ing up at least half, i f not more of our athletes r ight now, .. . i t 's real ly important that they be able to see female faces on the administrat ive bodies that.. .run the program o f sport " (Participant 007). W i t h respect to the barriers that exist for women in sport ing leadership, there are many recommendat ions that cou ld help increase the number of female administrators ga in ing high level leadership posit ions i n sport administrat ion. 5.3.1 Recrui tment o f female leaders to sport ing organizat ions F irst , it is fundamental that the sporting system continue to encourage the l i f e long part ic ipat ion o f young gir ls and women in sport because the longer women are i nvo l ved in sport, the l ike l ie r they are to become invo l ved in its administrat ion. F o r this reason, it is essential to act ively recruit women for part ic ipat ion as we l l as leadership in sport. Th i s recruitment process should target women at a young age, part icular ly in the loca l and regional sport ing organizat ions, getting them invo l ved in volunteer administrat ive tasks at compet i t ions. In this way, they acquire sk i l l s and experience needed to gain access to leadership posit ions in h igh leve l sport ing organizat ions. Th i s 'new b l o o d ' in the organizat ion has also been perceived as p rov id ing a fresh perspective to the administrat ion and ensuring that the organizat ion continues to deal wi th current issues fac ing sport. A s was found in this study, many female leaders are former athletes thus p rov id ing a large group o f potential candidates for leadership posit ions. Recrui tment should be focused on female athletes but should also be expanded to the areas of business and pol i t ics where some qua l i f i ed and inf luent ia l women might be interested in becoming invo l ved in sport administrat ion. The profess ional izat ion of the sport ing system has made it d i f f i cu l t for 'k i tchen table' administrators to gain leadership posit ions yet their 148 part ic ipat ion should not be turned away as they cou ld be of assistance to the organizat ion in a number o f ways. Th i s study d id establish that many women are perce ived to j o i n sport administrat ion in different ways than men therefore it is imperat ive that sport ing organizat ions implement new and innovat ive ways of recruit ing women into sport administrat ion. F o r example , organizat ional leaders cou ld target women at sport ing compet i t ions, in educational settings (i.e. universi ty , co l lege, etc.) or at conferences and discuss what leadership opportunit ies are avai lable for young women in sport. A s seen, there is much the organizat ion can do to increase the number of women ho ld ing leadership posit ions. The nominat ion committee or a s imi la r govern ing body should nominate women for various k inds of leadership posit ions and ensure that some of these female leaders are voted into sport ing organizat ions. One woman suggested that more female leaders should run in different categories so that they enter var ious committees and are more l i ke l y to increase their overal l presence in sport ing organizat ions. S im i l a r l y , each govern ing body should have a l ist of women who are qua l i f i ed at the regional , national and international levels and present it to various selection committees in order to ensure that exper ienced Canad ian female administrators are accessing leadership roles at a l l levels of the sport ing system. In addi t ion, inf luent ia l members in the organizat ion need to continue promot ing female members to progress to higher leve l leadership posit ions.as it has been shown that women in top leadership posit ions can be a catalyst for an increase in female leaders w i th in the organizat ion. Unfortunate ly , we must keep in m i n d that: " S i m p l y recruit ing women to the higher echelons of bureaucratic organizat ion does not necessari ly mean that the character o f the organizat ion w i l l become less mascul in ist and more f em in i zed and woman-fr iend ly " ( Ke l l y and Duerst-Laht i , 1995, p.87). 149 5.3.2 A d v a n c i n g female administrators into higher leve l leadership posit ions Once women have accessed a leadership pos i t ion , it is important that they be prov ided wi th a number of leadership opportunit ies on a w ide range o f projects, programs and committees w i th in the organizat ion. If female administrators take on leadership opportunit ies and successful ly demonstrate their sk i l l s , they become more v is ib le w i th in the organizat ion wh i ch is cruc ia l for women want ing to progress into the top leadership posit ions. T o this end, female leaders should be encouraged to attend sport ing events, organizat ional meetings as we l l as conferences, seminars and workshops in order to gain experience and bu i ld a soc ia l network. Where they cou ld , sport ing organizat ions should make prov is ions to prov ide some f inanc ia l assistance (daycare, etc) for some female members attending meetings, conferences or other network ing opportunit ies. A s was ment ioned, it is important for women to understand the management of sport ing organizat ions and meet other leaders in sport i f they want to progress in sport administrat ion. W h e n it is possib le , the organizat ion should col laborate w i th past and present female leaders on promot ing women in sport administrat ion in schools as we l l as various mentor ing programs help ing young leaders enter and progress in sport ing leadership posit ions. In this way, mentors should encourage female leaders to apply for a variety of leadership posit ions even though they may not bel ieve they have the required sk i l l s and experience for the role. Sport ing organizat ions also need to look at the poss ib i l i t y of transit ioning their leaders just as they do wi th their athletes. Ret i red leaders are a great source of knowledge and it is important to use their expertise even after they have left sport administrat ion. 5.3.3 The implementat ion of quotas or mandated equal ity 150 The implementation of quotas or affirmative action policies has been debated for years. Though there continues to be debate, it is suggested that mandating some sort of equality at the governance level is important in order to ensure that minority groups are represented at the boardroom table. Two women discussed the large amount of resistance from administrators to the implementation of quotas or 'mandated equality'. When asked why organizations were reluctant to adopt such measures, the standard reply from the female respondents was that it was perceived to constrain the quality of membership by legislating the gender, age, race or ethnicity of the individual fill ing the position. In essence, it was believed that quotas did not allow for the 'best person' to f i l l the position. Indeed, many female respondents agreed that setting quotas was not an effective way of increasing the number of women in sporting leadership and it would only work to undermine the credibility of women as they would be perceived to be there simply on account of their gender and not their skills. One female respondent added that organizations which refused to use quotas or affirmative action must therefore ensure that their mission statements reflect the tenets adopted by the Women and Sport Movement and that their governing bodies understand and apply them in their decision making. However, many organizations still have no policies concerning women as evidenced in the ISLP and IOC (2004) study which revealed that 49.3% of National Olympic Committees did not make reference to any policy on Women and Sport in their mission statements and another 43.8% who had no national programs in place to promote women's sport (p.42-43). As discussed, in order for women and sport initiatives to be passed successfully and be implemented effectively, 151 it is necessary to have the fu l l support of a l l board members since most po l ic ies cannot be passed or implemented without consensus. T w o participants argued the opposite v iew, that there was a posi t ive impact of mandated equal i ty and c l a imed that quotas w o u l d not on ly be a catalyst for i n vo l v i ng more women in sport administrat ion overal l but w o u l d make it easier to implement W o m e n and Sport init iat ives. In addi t ion, a quota system a l lows an organizat ion to make a clear af f i rmat ion regarding this issue by not leav ing the increase o f female sport ing leaders to on ly chance and t ime, both of wh i ch have not seemed to be effect ive dur ing the past 25 years. One Canadian female sport ing leader descr ibed her experience mandat ing equal ity in her sport ing organizat ion: " . . .the resistance was not on the part of the women for equal i ty , it was on the part of the men. U m m , and I th ink there was a fee l ing that, the sentiment was that.. .mandating 50/50 perhaps d i d not a l low for the best people and that an organizat ion is best served by the best people. There was another group of us . . .the group that came together to create th is . . . was pretty much equal men and women . . .that said yes but i f we don ' t start out this way, we w i l l never l i ke l y get to that po in t " (Participant 006). Based on the part ic ipants ' interv iews, it is evident that there are many types o f pol ic ies that cou ld be established that w o u l d not necessari ly threaten the qual i ty of organizat ional membership. In one instance, a sport ing organizat ion mandated that two execut ive posit ions be reserved for female administrators who w o u l d remain for a m i n i m u m of one year at the end of wh i ch new administrators cou ld be appointed i f needed. S im i l a r l y , sport ing organizat ions cou ld also mandate equal ity on their boards stating for example that there are f ive male and f ive female members. The top leadership posit ions such as President and Vice-President cou ld be elected or appointed regardless of gender. F o r those sport ing organizat ions sending delegates to larger execut ive boards, it cou ld be 152 mandated that there be one delegate f r om each gender put forward. M o r e important ly , these k inds of init iat ives should be subject to rev iew every few years to ensure that the results are encouraging. Because these measures are then not perce ived to be permanent, there may be less resistance to their implementat ion. U n l i k e in the past, resistance to these k inds of init iat ives has become very subtle. M o s t sport ing leaders agree that there is a lack o f female leaders in sport administrat ion and that they are fu l l y commit ted to increasing their numbers yet noth ing seems to happen at the po l i c y leve l . In her analysis of the imp l i c i t and expl i c i t I O C po l i c ies , Chase (1992) determined that pol ic ies were not clear or power fu l enough to cause s ignif icant change in the organizat ion. Th i s has remained a prob lem, as most po l ic ies are not associated wi th compl iance strategies hence organizat ions are not required to implement the po l i c ies , an issue wh i ch needs to be addressed by sport ing organizat ions. A s H a l l , C u l l e n and S lack (1990) stated long ago: " The adoption of an equal opportunity po l i c y , and the creation of a mechan ism to enforce and moni tor it, are both the beg inn ing and ult imate organizat ional solut ions, since both recognize that the p rob lem l ies not w i th the women , but wi th the organizat ion and its cu l ture " (Ha l l , C u l l e n and S lack, 1990, p.35). 5.3.4 The organizat ional development of support systems and socia l networks It is important that sport ing organizat ions prov ide support services such as babysit t ing for its members in order to enable those who have fami l ies or other personal responsibi l i t ies to participate to the fullest extent without g i v i ng up al l that is important to them. Fo r instance, some members may need to take their ch i ldren w i th them to meetings as they cannot f i nd or af ford to pay for babysi t t ing. In this way, the organizat ion is support ing its members who are more l i ke l y to retain these administrators. One woman 153 recounted that she supported a female leader who needed to take some t ime o f f for her f am i l y by hav ing two members do her j ob unt i l she cou ld take on the fu l l t ime responsibi l i t ies again. Another example that was prov ided was to a l low members to work f rom home and when poss ib le , prov ide f inancia l assistance to make that poss ib le (i.e. pay for the internet and telephone/fax). If this is not possible then the organizat ion cou ld be f lex ib le wi th work hours a l l ow ing members to work at their convenience, w i th in reason o f course. In this way, the organizat ion reaches out to potential female administrators who are in the lower socio-economic groups and prov ide the govern ing body wi th the representation of an important and often, under-represented perspective. It is also important that network ing opportunit ies between al l administrators are prov ided so that they may bu i l d relationships and gain a better understanding o f each other's perspectives. In addi t ion, male leaders should make sure to inc lude female administrators in their networks and v ice versa as women w i l l not progress in sport administrat ion without the support of the men in the organizat ion. 5.3.5 Leadership tra ining for a l l sporting leaders It is important that women continue to develop the sk i l l s and competencies needed to succeed in leadership. Though sporting organizat ions must continue the work they are do ing in terms of conferences and research, they cou ld benefit f r o m prov id ing leadership tra ining for a l l o f their members. In this way, every administrator can know what to br ing and expect at the boardroom table without s ing l ing out women in part icular and ' f i x i n g ' them up for leadership. Examples inc lude the creation o f leadership training handbooks or organizat ional manuals that describe what is expected of members ; how they go about passing init iat ives or even the organizat ional po l ic ies that dictate the ways 154 in wh i ch the organizat ion should be managed. Th i s informat ion is essential to the effect ive administrat ion of the organizat ion and acts as a reference document for a l l members. In addit ion, sport ing organizat ions cou ld col laborate w i th educat ional institutions to develop leadership training programs for schools and universit ies thus also p rov id ing students wi th opportunit ies to become invo l ved in sport leadership. T o conc lude however, it is important to keep in m i n d what Duerst-Laht i and K e l l y (1995) bel ieve concern ing women ' s ind iv idua l def ic iencies as a barrier to their invo lvement i n h igh level sport administrat ion: " . . . ha rd work and ind iv idua l self-improvement, though necessary for success, cannot independently enable most women to overcome most o f the male-preferencing obstacles present in today 's workp l aces " (p.57). 5.3.6 Sh i f t ing the organizat ional structure and culture to create a supportive environment for female leaders It is evident that structural changes are needed in order to rea l ly open sport administrat ion to women. F i rst , rules and regulations may need to be removed, changed or adapted in order to ensure that they are not inadvertently exc lud ing various groups o f ind iv idua ls . Fo r example , govern ing bodies should have various ways in wh i ch members j o i n boards so that there are a number of different avenues into the organizat ion. Though it is important to have members nominated and elected, some posit ions can also be appointed so that i f there is a group that is under-represented, a representative can then be appointed to the board. " W e need to understand that the structure o f an organizat ion is not neutral, that organizat ions are structured through an inv i s ib le gender-biased v i ew of real i ty, and that ind iv idua l solutions w i l l not result in sustainable changes for women in coach ing and leadership roles in sport" (Merc ie r and Werthner, 2001 , p.5). 155 A l l administrators, but part icular ly female leaders are encouraged to question the organizat ional processes and approaches as we l l as c r i t i ca l l y analyze the tradit ions and culture that are relevant in their sport ing organizat ion and where needed, take the steps to init iate change. If women are to enter and progress in sport ing leadership in larger numbers, it is essential that the mascul ine organizat ional culture become more inc lus ive of other leadership styles. It is important that al l leaders be encouraged to br ing their own approach to leadership in sport administrat ion and not be constrained by stereotypes of an 'appropriate ' leadership style for each gender. T o this end, Shaw and Hoeber (2003) mainta in that: " The adoption of more inc lus ive manageria l styles that recognize, value, and important ly , articulate the value of discourses of femin in i t y and mascu l in i ty throughout organizat ions and, over t ime, develop an equitable organizat ional cu l ture " (Shaw and Hoeber , 2003, p.371). Sport ing organizat ions cou ld offer various forms of support for its members and a l low them to give their input in a number of different ways. F o r example , the organizat ion might encourage members to anonymous ly post suggestions by m a i l or e-mail so that they may be more comfortable sharing ideas that are not necessari ly a l igned wi th those o f the organizat ional culture. If some leaders feel that something is l ack ing or that a part icular issue needs to be discussed in detai l , it is essential that they have the opportunity to strike up a formal or in formal committee and make some recommendat ions. B y ensuring that female leaders are comfortable in the organizat ion, it is more l i ke l y that they w i l l remain in sport administrat ion long enough to advance into the top leadership roles. 5.3.7 Recogn i z i ng female leaders and more broadly , women in sport 156 It is important that sport ing organizat ions continue to pub l i c l y recognize women that are mak ing a s ignif icant contr ibut ion in to the organizat ion and sport in general. The development of new awards and programs in addit ion to a publ ic focus on female leaders' successes w i l l not on ly highl ight the work that is be ing done by women but may entice more o f them to become i nvo l ved i n sport administrat ion. In addi t ion, W o m e n and Sport must become a pr ior i ty at a l l levels of the Canadian sport ing system i f the situation for female administrators is to improve dramatical ly . Organizat ions need to be proact ive around women and sport issues, mak ing these init iat ives a pr ior i ty w i th in sport ing organizat ions by setting and f o l l ow ing pol ic ies as we l l as f i nd ing ways to enforce them. It is most important to present advocacy work on behalf of women and other minor i t y groups as a process for better dec is ion-making and not s imp ly a matter of hav ing the same number of men and women in sport administrat ion. Th i s way, members and part icular ly male members, may see the benefits of these init iat ives and support work on women and sport. One respondent commented that organizat ions and their members need to understand that the W o m e n and Sport Commit tee is not l ook ing to take over the management of the organizat ion; it is s imp ly l ook ing to improve female representation and invo lvement in sport ing leadership. She says: " W e ' r e just t ry ing to make sure there are opportunit ies for women to emerge into leadership wh i ch impacts po l i cy , wh i ch impacts the part ic ipat ion of women . A n d yes, we have pretty good success now on the p lay ing f i e ld but we don ' t have that ref lected in the technical side, we certainly don ' t have many women h igh performance coaches, we don ' t have many in o f f i c ia t ing , so the technical side is very weak, and we certainly don ' t have it i n leadership. So we ' re just l ook ing to try and create awareness and to create opportunit ies so that young gir ls , f o l l o w i n g in our footsteps, might see that as a v iable path for them to f o l l ow and you don ' t go where you don ' t see yourself b e i n g " (Participant 006). 157 Organizations should greatly encourage the participation of men on Women and Sport Committees in order to create a better understanding of and support for the issues facing women in sporting leadership. If men are more aware of and better understand the issues facing female leaders in sport administration, they may be less likely to resist initiatives promoting an increase of women in sport leadership. Equally important, men could also provide valuable insight and a unique perspective to these issues. Finally, it is necessary that sporting organizations ensure that the appropriate amounts of dollars are being provided for Women and Sport initiatives and programs aimed at increasing the number of female leaders in the organization. In order to be effective, Women and Sport committees need to secure a certain amount of funding for the development and implementation of such programs and initiatives. It is evident that Women and Sport committees are important in as much as they provide a forum where pertinent issues can be discussed as well as opportunities for its members to accumulate skills and advance in the organization. Unfortunately, these committees are not always effective but without them, issues may be left unresolved. For this reason, efforts concerning women and sport must be sustained if the position of women in all areas of the sporting system is to be advanced. For this reason, sporting organizations need to engage sponsors and build partnerships with employers to set up programs for women in sporting leadership such as paid leaves for administrators attending administration-related events. Moreover, federal, provincial and regional government agencies who provide funding to sporting organizations could attach provisions to the money being given to the organization. 158 When great programs or initiatives are implemented and have demonstrated positive results, sporting organizations should encourage inter-organizational collaboration to establish various policies so that change is not isolated but enacted throughout the entire sporting system. If sporting organizations at all levels come together to work on these initiatives, it will unify the system and coordinate all of the resources available. These relationships may also open opportunities for leaders to be streamlined into higher sporting leadership positions. In conclusion, there are a number of other issues that are specific to each organization which would require other measures than those mentioned. Accordingly, it is important that organizations elicit the opinions of their members as to what would make them stronger and particularly, how they can recruit and retain female leaders. If the organization remains flexible to the needs of its members, administrators could be more comfortable and satisfied and thus continue to be involved in sport administration avoiding the loss of knowledge and expertise from leaders 'dropping out'. 5.4 F U T U R E CONSIDERATIONS Although this study was able to provide some interesting data on the high level female leaders' career paths and barriers to involvement in Canadian sport administration, there are many questions and issues that need to be investigated. First, the participants in this study were all in a leadership position in sport administration, though not all at the same level. Nonetheless, the fact that all of these women had reached such a position signifies that only their perspectives have been incorporated into the research findings. For this reason, it is important that other studies examining the under- representation of women in sporting leadership include the viewpoints of women who 159 have been exc luded f rom leadership posit ions in sport w i th the a im of better understanding the reasons for wh i ch they are not invo lved . A s Cameron (1996) remarked: " . . .one of the d i f f icu l t ies in terms of promot ing women ' s part ic ipat ion is that those who are already invo l ved , the people who are consulted by pol icy-makers and fund ing agencies about barriers, needs, and potential programmes for women , are . . .women who have already overcome the barriers, or not been affected by them, or prefer that they pers ist " (p. 166). It is understood that future studies should also e l ic i t the stories and opin ions o f male administrators. Cer ta in ly , each o f the barriers discussed in this study cou ld be further investigated and inc lude various perspectives. F o r example , it w o u l d be important to speak to those administrators i nvo l ved wi th the W o m e n and Sport Commit tees in order to better understand the lack of progress in female representation in sport ing leadership. Th i s in format ion cou ld also shed l ight on the ineffectiveness of po l ic ies concern ing women and sport and the ways in wh i ch the cause cou ld be better served. Another example concerns the issue of turf-protection wh i ch w o u l d prov ide an interesting area o f analysis for those want ing to better understand the approaches and v iewpoints o f women in top leadership posit ions w i th respect to the relat ionships that exist among female leaders. S im i l a r l y , future research should address the gender relations that exist between male and female members in sport ing organizat ions and part icular ly , at the highest leve l o f governance where men are even more prevalent. It is evident that societal , po l i t i ca l and structural change is needed in order to increase the number o f female administrators in h igh leve l sport. A s shown, the organizat ional structure and culture that exist can constrain women ' s leadership opportunit ies although a deeper analysis of organizat ional po l ic ies and processes in 160 various sport ing organizat ions on an international scale cou ld reveal noteworthy comparat ive data. Once there are more women invo l ved in the higher levels of sport administrat ion, it w i l l be possible to assess i f female leaders begin to reinvent themselves and alter their approaches to leadership. The true test for women in sport ing leadership w i l l be when young women c o m i n g into administrat ion are no longer the firsts to reach these posit ions but the 1 0 t h and so on. Future studies need to examine the ways i n wh i ch female leaders have tai lored their leadership approaches to be successful in sport administrat ion but also the acceptance of women in power fu l posit ions at every leve l of sport. Furthermore, it w i l l be interesting to see i f some sport ing leaders change their approaches as organizat ions begin to d ivers i fy and expand. Add i t i ona l l y , future research cou ld delve deeper into var ious types of sport ing organizat ions and the differences i n access and progression that exist for women in sporting leadership. 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D o n M i l l s , O x f o r d Un ive rs i t y Press, Ontar io , 1999. 166 APPENDICES 167 A P P E N D I X 1: Canadian Olympic male and female athlete participation rates and medal winnings for the Summer Olympic Games 1984-2006 S U M M E R M A L E F E M A L E T O T A L O L Y M P I C A T H L E T E S A T H L E T E S A T H L E T E S G A M E S 1 9 8 4 S U M M E R - 2 6 2 6 3 % 1 5 1 3 7 % 4 1 3 L O S A N G E L E S 1 9 8 8 S U M M E R - 2 0 6 6 5 % 1 0 9 3 5 % 3 1 5 S E O U L 1 9 9 2 S U M M E R - 1 8 5 6 1 % 1 1 8 3 9 % 3 0 3 B A R C E L O N A 1 9 9 6 S U M M E R - 1 5 2 5 0 % 1 5 3 5 0 % 3 0 5 A T L A N T A ***yea r of the w o m a n * * * 2 0 0 0 S U M M E R - 1 4 7 5 1 % 1 4 3 4 9 % 2 9 0 S Y D N E Y 2 0 0 4 S U M M E R - 1 3 5 5 1 % 1 3 2 4 9 % 2 6 7 A T H E N S S U M M E R O L Y M P I C G A M E S M A L E M E D A L S % F E M A L E M E D A L S % T O T A L M E D A L S 1 9 8 4 S U M M E R - L O S A N G E L E S 2 8 6 4 % 1 6 3 6 % 4 4 1 9 8 8 S U M M E R - S E O U L 6 6 0 % 4 4 0 % 1 0 1 9 9 2 S U M M E R - B A R C E L O N A 1 1 6 1 % 7 3 9 % 1 8 1 9 9 6 S U M M E R - A T L A N T A 11 5 0 % 1 1 5 0 % 2 2 2 0 0 0 S U M M E R - S Y D N E Y 7 5 0 % 7 5 0 % 1 4 2 0 0 4 S U M M E R - A T H E N S 6 5 0 % 6 5 0 % 1 2 1 6 8 A P P E N D I X 2 : Canadian Olympic male and female athlete participation rates and medal winnings for the Winter Olympic Games 1984-2006 WINTER O L Y M P I C G A M E S M A L E A T H L E T E S % F E M A L E A T H L E T E S % T O T A L A T H L E T E S 1 9 8 4 W I N T E R - S A R A J E V O 4 9 7 1 % 2 0 2 9 % 6 9 1 9 8 8 W I N T E R - C A L G A R Y 8 5 7 4 % 3 0 2 6 % 1 1 5 1 9 9 2 W I N T E R - A L B E R T V I L L E 8 5 7 3 % 3 2 2 7 % 1 1 7 1 9 9 4 W I N T E R - L I L L E H A M M E R 6 5 6 7 % 3 2 3 3 % 9 7 1 9 9 8 W I N T E R - N A G A N O 8 9 5 8 % 6 5 4 2 % 1 5 4 2 0 0 2 W I N T E R - S A L T L A K E C I T Y 8 7 5 5 % 7 0 4 5 % 1 5 7 2 0 0 6 W I N T E R - T O R I N O 1 1 6 5 6 % 9 0 4 4 % 2 0 6 WINTER O L Y M P I C G A M E S M A L E M E D A L S % F E M A L E M E D A L S % T O T A L M E D A L S 1 9 8 4 W I N T E R - S A R A J E V O 4 1 0 0 % 0 0 % 4 1 9 8 8 W I N T E R - C A L G A R Y 2 3 3 % 4 6 7 % 6 ( 5 ) 1 9 9 2 W I N T E R - A L B E R T V I L L E 5 5 6 % 4 4 4 % 9 ( 7 ) 1 9 9 4 W I N T E R - L I L L E H A M M E R 8 5 7 % 6 4 3 % 1 4 ( 1 3 ) 1 9 9 8 W I N T E R - N A G A N O 8 5 3 % 7 4 7 % 1 5 2 0 0 2 W I N T E R - S A L T L A K E C I T Y 8 4 4 % 1 0 5 6 % 1 8 ( 1 7 ) 2 0 0 6 W I N T E R - T O R I N O 8 3 3 % 1 6 6 7 % 2 4 1 6 9 A P P E N D I X 4: INTERVIEW QUESTIONS: 'BREAKING IN': WOMEN'S ACCESS TO HIGH PERFORMANCE SPORT LEADERSHIP IN CANADA Introduction Thank you very much for taking this t ime to sit down wi th me and tel l me about your l i fe as a sport administrator. M y interest in do ing this interv iew is to get some o f your thoughts and perceptions about your experiences in sport administrat ion. nature of the interv iew is to map your personal career story, there w i l l be instances where questions may delve into private aspects of your l i fe . If at any t ime, you become uncomfortable w i th the d iscuss ion, you can let me know and we w i l l move on to another quest ion. Be fore we begin, I w i l l have you sign this consent fo rm wh i ch is s imp ly a formal i ty . It includes a br ief summary o f the study, the purpose and procedures and a statement o f conf ident ia l i ty . Here is a copy for your records. If you don ' t m i n d , I w i l l tape the interv iew because I real ly want to focus on what you are saying and I 'm not great at l is tening wh i l e tak ing detai led notes. I also want to ensure that I have an accurate record of our conversat ion so that I don ' t misinterpret your comment . Because the interv iew is conf ident ia l , on ly I w i l l have access to this tape and once the interv iew has been transcribed, the data w i l l be erased. D o you have any questions before we begin? Quest ions A ) Career paths F irst , I w o u l d l i ke you to talk a l itt le about your entry into sport administrat ion and your to your pos i t ion 1) Te l l me about how you in i t i a l l y became invo l ved in sport administrat ion? Probe: ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ I ^ o ^ ^ k ^ ^ x ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ i r ^ p ^ r t J ^ g ^ ^ k ^ r m r r K ^ ^ in f luenced your entry into sport administrat ion? 172 • T e l l me a l itt le about your role | 2) H o w and when d id you first become a member | P r o b e : Spec i f i ca l l y , how d id you come to H o w is this s imi la r O R different f rom other members, both male and female? That is , how do other members come to theTrHHHJHH^^^H posi t ions? • What exact ly is your role | see as your ro le ; that is , what are you part icular ly interested in? • H o w long have you been invo l ved in sport administrat ion? What do you • I am interested in the average age of female administrators. H o w o ld were you when you became a member ||^mH? F o r the rest of the interv iew, I w o u l d l ike you to focus on your experiences • In order to better understand the s igni f icance of mentor ing relat ionships | tel l me what you bel ieve has been the role o f socia l networks in leading to your ^̂^̂ m̂ posi t ion? Was this mentor a man or woman? W h o do you bel ieve are the most inf luent ia l members in social networks? • I have read in your C V that you have he ld a number of important administrat ive posit ions both in the voluntary and professional sectors. O f these posi t ions, wh i ch roles have been most inf luent ia l in leading you to your posi t ion What do you feel are the most pressing issues fac ing | Where do you feel you are hav ing the biggest impact dur ing your t ime | N o w I'd l ike to discuss the leadership characteristics that, in your op in ion , are required or encouraged for h igh leve l sport ing leaders. 3) What do you bel ieve are the sk i l l s or qualit ies you br ing ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ | ? H o w is this s imi lar or different f rom other members, both male and female? 4) W e know that women have played a s ignif icant role in promot ing and support ing other women into sport ing leadership and throughout their careers. 173 A s a h igh leve l female sport ing leader, how, i f at a l l , have you v iewed your role in advocat ing for other women and/or women ' s issues, ̂ ^̂ ^̂ ^H^̂ HHIH? Have you exper ienced any resistance in this work? B ) Barr iers/Divers i ty 1) What are some of the challenges or barriers that you have come across throughout your career and some of the strategies you have used to manage them. 2) What role do you women have p layed women participate in the administrat ion and what is the value in hav ing ? 3) W h y do you bel ieve very few women are i nvo l ved in h igh level sport administrat ion? Probe: | D o you feel it was harder be ing a woman on this Commit tee? Have there been other occasions were you , as a woman , were a minor i ty in a part icular role in sport administrat ion? • What about the balance between your career and f ami l y ? 4) Some people c l a im that, to be compet i t ive i n a g lobal marketplace, organizat ions should strive for a socio-demographical ly diverse membership . T h i n k i n g about the general membership how is divers i ty accounted for and do you bel ieve this to be important in m o v i n g forward? 6) What are you future plans i n sport administrat ion? D ) Conc lus ion A s we ' ve covered a l l o f m y questions, I'd just l i ke to conc lude by thanking you again for hav ing taken the t ime to tell me about yourself. Is there anything else you w o u l d l ike to add or any addit ional comments y o u ' d l i ke to make? 174 A P P E N D I X 5: Demographic Table - A General Profile of the Participants Demographic characteristic Number of participant with profile A g e 25-29 1 ( 1 0 % ) 30-34 2 ( 2 0 % ) 35-39 3 ( 3 0 % ) 40-44 2 ( 2 0 % ) 44-49 1 (10% ) 50+ 1 (10% ) Race/Ethnic i ty Wh i t e 9 ( 90% ) Other 1 (10% ) C lass M i d d l e to upper class 10 ( 1 0 0 % ) Educat ion Un ivers i t y degree 7 ( 7 0 % ) Graduate studies 3 ( 3 0 % ) Profess ional occupat ion L a w y e r 2 ( 20% ) Phys i ca l educat ion teacher 1 (10% ) Sport administrator 4 ( 4 0 % ) Pr ivate business owner 2 ( 2 0 % ) Ret i red 1 (10% ) Ma r i t a l status Marr ied/De Facto relat ionship 8 ( 80% ) Unmar r i ed 2 ( 20% ) Children/Co-dependents Ch i ld ren 6 ( 60% ) Ath le t i c background Regiona l/Prov inc ia l 9 ( 9 0 % ) Nat iona l 7 ( 7 0 % ) International 5 ( 5 0 % ) Years o f experience in sport administrat ion 5-10 years 4 ( 4 0 % ) 10-15 years 3 ( 3 0 % ) 15-25 years 3 ( 30% ) Sport administrat ion posi t ion Pa i d 3 ( 30% ) Vo lunteer 7 ( 7 0 % ) L e v e l o f leadership Regiona l/Prov inc ia l 10 ( 1 0 0 % ) Na t iona l 8 ( 80% ) International 3 ( 3 0 % ) 175

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