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"It's a long hard road to the top" : the career paths and leadership experiences of women in Canadian.. Martel, Josée 2007-12-31

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"IT'S A LONG HARD ROAD TO THE TOP": THE CAREER PATHS AND LEADERSHIP EXPERIENCES OF WOMEN IN CANADIAN SPORT ADMINISTRATION  by  Josee Mattel B . A . , Laurentian University, 2004  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R OF ARTS In The Faculty of Graduate Studies Human Kinetics U N I V E R S I T Y O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A March 2007  © Josee Martel, 2007  ABSTRACT T h e under-representation o f w o m e n i n the h i g h e r echelons o f s p o r t i n g  o r g a n i z a t i o n s has been e x a m i n e d since the 1 9 7 0 ' s . It is w e l l d o c u m e n t e d , w i t h the  O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t b e i n g the target o f m u c h o f this c r i t i c i s m ( B i s c h o f f and R i n t a l a ,  1994, 1996, 1 9 9 7 ; C a m e r o n 1996, H o v d e n , 2 0 0 0 a , 2 0 0 0 b ; I S L P and I O C , 2 0 0 4 ; M c K a y ,  1 9 9 7 ; P f i s t e r et. a l , 2 0 0 5 ) . R e s e a r c h shows a p a u c i t y o f f e m a l e leaders at a l l levels o f  sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i s study e x p l o r e d the career paths and leadership experiences o f w o m e n w h o have accessed h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s i n C a n a d i a n h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Semi-structured, open ended i n t e r v i e w s w e r e c o n d u c t e d w i t h ten  o f these w o m e n to e l i c i t their personal narratives, and i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g their career  experiences i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was obtained. T h e s e stories p r o v i d e i m p o r t a n t  insights into o u r current understandings o f f e m a l e experiences i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the factors that continue to contribute to the under-representation o f w o m e n i n h i g h l e v e l s p o r t i n g leadership. T h e research questions g u i d i n g the study were: (1) W h o are the w o m e n that have reached h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s i n C a n a d i a n sporting  o r g a n i z a t i o n s ? (2) H o w have they a c h i e v e d these p o s i t i o n s ? (3) W h a t have been the  c ir c um s t an c e s and extent o f their leadership i n v o l v e m e n t ? (4) W h a t factors still h i n d e r w o m e n ' s f u l l i n v o l v e m e n t and progression i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ?  A c c o r d i n g l y , I w i l l address f o u r s p e c i f i c areas o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n . F i r s t , quantitative  data w i l l be presented to demonstrate the l o w e r levels o f w o m e n p a r t i c i p a t i n g at the O l y m p i c G a m e s . S e c o n d , the study w i l l trace the career paths o f w o m e n w h o have  accessed h i g h l e v e l sport management p o s i t i o n s a n d h i g h l i g h t s w o m e n ' s entry and  p r o g r e s s i o n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i r d , the w o m e n ' s l e v e l o f leadership i n v o l v e m e n t w i l l be assessed i n c l u d i n g the personal s k i l l s that l e d to their success and their  a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s i n these e x e c u t i v e roles. F o u r t h , barriers h i n d e r i n g w o m e n ' s  opportunities to advance into h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s w i l l be e x a m i n e d . T h e  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f these f i n d i n g s w i l l then be d i s c u s s e d and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w i l l be made  f o r p o l i c y m a k e r s and current sporting leaders w h o can i n f l u e n c e change w i t h i n their  s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . It is h o p e d that this study can contribute to a better understanding o f f e m a l e under-representation i n h i g h l e v e l sporting leadership.  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  ii  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  iii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  vii  1.0 C H A P T E R 1 : I N T R O D U C T I O N A N D R A T I O N A L E 1.1 P U R P O S E A N D R E L E V A N C E O F T H E S T U D Y  1 1  1.1.1  I M P O R T A N C E OF SPORT TO C A N A D A  1  1.1.2  VANCOUVER 2010 WINTER OLYMPIC AND PARALYMPIC G A M E S  4  1.1.3  RESEARCH GAPS  6  1.2 W O M E N ' S P A R T I C I P A T I O N A T T H E O L Y M P I C G A M E S A N D I N C A N A D I A N S P O R T 1.2.1  8  SUMMER OLYMPIC GAMES  10  1.2.2  WINTER OLYMPIC G A M E S  11  1.2.3  W H A T D O E S THIS D A T A T E L L U S ?  12  1.3 A R E A S O F S T U D Y  13  1.3.1  15  CAREER PATHS  1.3.2 F E M A L E A D M I N I S T R A T O R S ' P E R C E P T I O N S O F T H E I R R O L E I N S P O R T I N G LEADERSHIP  18  1.3.3  B A R R I E R S TO W O M E N ' S E N T R Y A N D P R O G R E S S I O N IN S P O R T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N  19  1.3.4  RECOMMENDATIONS  20  1.4 M E T H O D O L O G Y  20  1.4.1  ETHICS  20  1.4.2  RECRUITMENT PROCEDURES A N D PARTICIPANT SELECTION  21  1.4.3  INTERVIEWING PROCESS A N D D A T A A N A L Y S I S  23  1.5 C H A L L E N G E S A N D L I M I T A T I O N S O F T H E S T U D Y  26  2 0 C H A P T E R 2: REVIEW OF RELEVANT L I T E R A T U R E A N D T H E O R E T I C A L FRAMEWORKS  28  2.1 W O M E N I N S P O R T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N  28  2.1.1  29  STUDIES C O N D U C T E D IN T H E INTERNATIONAL C O N T E X T  2.1.1.1 T H E I O C A N D I S L P (2004) REPORT O N W O M E N , L E A D E R S H I P A N D T H E O L Y M P I C MOVEMENT  30  2.1.1.2 T H E G E R M A N S T U D Y O N W O M E N IN L E A D E R S H I P B Y PFISTER ET. A L (2005)  32  2 . 1 . 1 . 3 C A M E R O N ' S ( 1 9 9 6 ) S T U D Y O F W O M E N EM N E W Z E A L A N D V O L U N T A R Y S P O R T MANAGEMENT  32  2.1.1.4 H O V D E N ' S (2000A, 2000B, 2 0 0 5 ) N O R W E G I A N STUDIES OF W O M E N IN H I G H L E V E L SPORT LEADERSHIP  33  2.1.1.5 BISCHOFF A N D R I N T A L A ' S ( 1 9 9 4 , 1 9 9 6 ) STUDIES OF W O M E N IN E X E C U T I V E POSITIONS IN T H E U N I T E D STATES  33  2.1.1.6 G E N D E R STUDIES IN C A N A D I A N , A U S T R A L I A N A N D N E W Z E A L A N D SPORT B Y M C K A Y (1997)  34  2.1.2 STUDIES C O N D U C T E D IN T H E C A N A D I A N C O N T E X T  34  2.1.2.1 H A L L , C U L L E N A N D S L A C K ' S (1990) S T U D Y OF W O M E N IN C A N A D I A N N A T I O N A L SPORTING ORGANIZATIONS  34  2.1.2.2 SPORT C A N A D A ' S (1991) S U R V E Y OF W O M E N IN SPORT LEADERSHIP...  35  2.1.2.3 M A C I N T O S H A N D WHITSON'S (1990) S T U D Y OF C A N A D A ' S SPORTING  SYSTEM....36  2.2 C A R E E R P A T H S AND LEADERSHIP ATTRIBUTES: A G E N E R A L O V E R V I E W 2.2.1  37  T H E B A C K G R O U N D OF W O M E N IN SPORTING LEADERSHIP: W H A T T H E  LITERATURE TELLS US A B O U T F E M A L E LEADERS W H O B E C O M E INVOLVED IN SPORT A D M I N I S T R A T I O N  37  2.2.2 E N T R Y A N D P R O G R E S S I O N INTO H I G H L E V E L S P O R T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N  42  2.2.3 L E A D E R S H I P S K I L L S O F F E M A L E S P O R T I N G L E A D E R S  44  2.2.4 L E A D E R S H I P S T Y L E S I N S P O R T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N  51  2.3 B A R R I E R S T O A D V A N C E M E N T :  W H A T R E S E A R C H SAYS ABOUT T H E ' G L A S S  C E I L I N G ' F O R W O M E N IN S P O R T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N  52  2.3.1  INDIVIDUAL L E V E L  54  2.3.2  ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL  56  2.3.3 R E L A T I O N A L L E V E L  60  2.3.4  SOCIETAL LEVEL  61  2.3.5  SUMMARY  62  2.4 T H E O R E T I C A L F R A M E W O R K S  63  2.4.1 F E M I N I S M A N D S O C I A L C O N S T R U C T I O N I S M  63  2.4.2 O R G A N I Z A T I O N A L T H E O R Y  65  3 . 0 C H A P T E R 3: W O M E N IN C A N A D I A N S P O R T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N  68  3.1 P R O F I L I N G T H E P A R T I C I P A N T S  68  3.1.1  69  PERSONAL BACKGROUNDS  3.1.1.1 F A M I L Y B A C K G R O U N D  70  3.1.1.2 E D U C A T I O N A L A N D PROFESSIONAL B A C K G R O U N D  72  3.1.1.3 A T H L E T I C B A C K G R O U N D . :  73  3 . 2 C A R E E R P A T H S IN S P O R T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N  77  3.2.1  E N T R Y INTO SPORT A D M I N I S T R A T I O N  77  3.2.2 P R O G R E S S I O N IN SPORT A D M I N I S T R A T I O N A N D L E A D E R S H I P A C C O M P L I S H M E N T S . . . . 8 2 3.2.3  LIMITS TO PROGRESSION A N D PARTICIPANTS' F U T U R E ASPIRATIONS  88  3.2.4  C O N C L U D I N G THOUGHTS  89  3.3 L E A D E R S H I P A T T R I B U T E S  91  iv  3.3.1 L E A D E R S H I P S K I L L S  91  3.3.1.1 INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS  91  3.3.1.2 ADMINISTRATIVE SKILLS A N D B R O A D PERSPECTIVE  93  3.3.1.3 C O M M I T M E N T A N D A D V O C A C Y  94  3.3.1.4 N E T W O R K I N G  95  3.3.2 LEADERSHIP S T Y L E S  97  3.3.3 C O N C L U S I O N S  99  4 0 C H A P T E R 4: BARRIERS T O W O M E N ' S E N T R Y A N D P R O G R E S S I O N IN C A N A D I A N SPORT ADMINISTRATION  101  4 . 1 INDIVIDUAL L E V E L  101  4 . 1 . 1 " G E N D E R IS N O L O N G E R A N I S S U E I N S P O R T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N . . . " : T H E I N V I S I B L E BARRIERS A N D THE EFFECT OF GENDER O N E N T R Y IN SPORTING LEADERSHIP 4.1.2  101  " I N V O L V E M E N T I N S P O R T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N IS A P E R S O N A L C H O I C E . . . " :  VOLUNTEERISM AS A BARRIER  104  4 . 1 . 3 T H E I M P O R T A N C E O F S U P P O R T N E T W O R K S A N D ITS R O L E A S A B A R R I E R T O W O M E N IN SPORT ADMINISTRATION  108  4.1.4 W O M E N ' S INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS  •.  4 . 2 ORGANIZATIONAL L E V E L  :  Ill 112  4.2.1 O R G A N I Z A T I O N A L STRUCTURE  112  4.2.1.1 W O M E N A N D SPORT COMMITTEES  118  4.2.2 O R G A N I Z A T I O N A L C U L T U R E  119  4.3 RELATIONAL L E V E L  123  4.3.1 RESISTIVE ATTITUDES T O W A R D S F E M A L E SPORTING L E A D E R S  123  4.3.2 M E N T O R I N G A N D T H E N O T I O N O F F E M A L E ' T U R F P R O T E C T O R S '  124  4.3.3 M A L E N E T W O R K S A N D THE O L D B O Y S ' C L U B  128  4.4 SOCIETAL L E V E L . .  '.  4.4.1 T H E G E N D E R E D L A B O U R M A R K E T A N D SPORT ADMINISTRATION:  130 SIMILARITIES....130  4.4.2 T H E I N F L U E N C E O F T H E ' G E N D E R O R D E R ' A N D STEREOTYPES O N W O M E N ' S E N T R Y A N D PROGRESSION IN SPORT ADMINISTRATION  131  5 . 0 C H A P T E R 5: C O N C L U S I O N S A N D R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S  136  5.1 G E N E R A L R E M A R K S  136  5.2 S U M M A R Y AND CONCLUSIONS  137  5.2.1 W O M E N A N D S P O R T M O V E M E N T  137  5.2.2 C A R E E R P A T H S A N D L E A D E R S H I P SKILLS  140  5.2.3 B A R R I E R S  142  5.2.3.1 INDIVIDUAL L E V E L  143  5.2.3.2 O R G A N I Z A T I O N A L L E V E L  144  5.2.3.3 R E L A T I O N A L L E V E L  146  V  5.2.3.4 SOCIETAL L E V E L  147  5.3 R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S  147  5.3.1 R E C R U I T M E N T O F F E M A L E L E A D E R S TO S P O R T I N G O R G A N I Z A T I O N S  148  5.3.2 A D V A N C I N G F E M A L E A D M I N I S T R A T O R S INTO H I G H E R L E V E L L E A D E R S H I P POSITIONS  150  5.3.3 T H E I M P L E M E N T A T I O N O F Q U O T A S O R M A N D A T E D E Q U A L I T Y  150  5.3.4 T H E O R G A N I Z A T I O N A L D E V E L O P M E N T OF SUPPORT S Y S T E M S A N D S O C I A L NETWORKS  153  5.3.5 L E A D E R S H I P T R M N T N G F O R A L L S P O R T I N G L E A D E R S  154  5.3.6 SHIFTING T H E O R G A N I Z A T I O N A L S T R U C T U R E A N D C U L T U R E T O C R E A T E A SUPPORTIVE E N V I R O N M E N T F O R F E M A L E L E A D E R S  155  5.3.7 R E C O G N I Z I N G F E M A L E L E A D E R S A N D M O R E B R O A D L Y , W O M E N I N SPORT  156  5.4 F U T U R E C O N S I D E R A T I O N S  159  BIBLIOGRAPHY  160  APPENDICES  167  A P P E N D I X 1: C A N A D I A N O L Y M P I C M A L E A N D F E M A L E A T H L E T E P A R T I C I P A T I O N  RATES  AND M E D A L WINNINGS F O R THE S U M M E R O L Y M P I C G A M E S 1984-2006 A P P E N D I X 2: C A N A D I A N O L Y M P I C M A L E A N D F E M A L E A T H L E T E PARTICIPATION  168 RATES  AND M E D A L WINNINGS F O R THE WINTER OLYMPIC G A M E S 1984-2006  169  A P P E N D I X 3: C O N S E N T F O R M  170  APPENDIX 4: INTERVIEW QUESTIONS  172  A P P E N D I X 5: D E M O G R A P H I C T A B L E - A G E N E R A L P R O F I L E O F T H E P A R T I C I P A N T S  175  A P P E N D I X 6: E T H I C S C E R T I F I C A T E O F A P P R O V A L  176  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w o u l d first l i k e to thank the S o c i a l Sciences and H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l f o r their f i n a n c i a l support d u r i n g the f i n a l year o f m y degree. I a m most i n d e b t e d to the participants w h o t o o k part i n this study as w i t h o u t t h e m , this study w o u l d not have been possible. In a d d i t i o n , I credit D r . P a t r i c i a V e r t i n s k y f o r a l l o f her i n s p i r a t i o n , m o t i v a t i o n and assistance throughout m y entire M a s t e r ' s D e g r e e . H e r w o r k ethic and w i s d o m are t r u l y unsurpassed and her g u i d a n c e has p r o v i d e d m e w i t h the s k i l l s and a m b i t i o n to pursue n e w ideas, perspectives and topics. I a m also appreciative o f m y c o m m i t t e e m e m b e r s , D r . L a u r a H u r d C l a r k e and D r . W e n d y F r i s b y w h o s e k n o w l e d g e a n d experience w e r e e x t r e m e l y valuable i n d e v e l o p i n g and c a r r y i n g out this study. M a n y thanks to e v e r y o n e at U B C w h o w e r e a l w a y s there to l e n d m e a h a n d , an ear or a great s u g g e s t i o n ; y o u made this degree a r e a l l y w o n d e r f u l e x p e r i e n c e . I w o u l d also l i k e to thank m y f a m i l y and friends f o r their u n r e l e n t i n g support d u r i n g m y studies i n V a n c o u v e r . T o both m y parents I g i v e b i g hugs and thank y o u f o r y o u r u n c o n d i t i o n a l l o v e and encouragement i n a d d i t i o n to y o u r f i n a n c i a l assistance throughout this degree. T o m y best f r i e n d J a i m i e , w h o is a l w a y s and has a l w a y s been there to listen and discuss any and e v e r y issue. A special thank y o u goes to M o h a m m e d w i t h o u t w h o m I m i g h t not have kept m y sanity d u r i n g the m a n y stressful times. H i s l o v i n g and supportive w a y s are a tribute to his character and I a m v e r y grateful to have h i m i n m y l i f e .  vii  1 0 C H A P T E R 1; I N T R O D U C T I O N A N D R A T I O N A L E 1 1 PURPOSE AND R E L E V A N C E OF T H E STUDY T h e C a n a d i a n sporting system is an excellent e x a m p l e demonstrating the w a y s i n w h i c h w o m e n have been e x c l u d e d f r o m m a n y s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c contexts s i m p l y because o f their gender. It has been a l o n g r o a d f o r w o m e n attempting to a c t i v e l y participate i n the c o v e t e d ' m a l e preserves'. In C a n a d a , the persistent e x c l u s i o n o f w o m e n f r o m the p u b l i c labour force ( A r m s t r o n g , 1 9 7 8 ; L a n d s b e r g , 1982) such as h i g h l e v e l government (Gigantes, 1989), business and e c o n o m i c s ( B e l c o u r t et. a l . , 1 9 9 2 ; P e a c h , 1 9 9 2 ; S h a c k , 1977), p o l i t i c s ( B r o d i e and V i c k e r s , 1 9 8 2 ; K e a l y and Sangster, 1 9 8 9 ; K o m e , 1985), a c a d e m i a ( B r o o k s , 1997), and sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( B a r n e y , 1 9 9 9 ; Fitness and A m a t e u r Sport, 1 9 8 2 ; H a l l , 1 9 7 8 ; H a l l , C u l l e n and S l a c k , 1 9 9 0 ; I n g l i s , 1 9 9 7 ; M a c d o n a l d , 1 9 9 2 ; M c K a y , 1 9 9 7 ; M e r c i e r and W e r t h n e r , 2 0 0 1 ; Sport C a n a d a , 1 9 9 1 ; W h i t e and Y o u n g , 1999) has been studied e x t e n s i v e l y and the f i n d i n g s are s i m i l a r i n that they s h o w the extent to w h i c h w o m e n have been u n w e l c o m e i n h i g h l e v e l sporting leadership p o s i t i o n s .  S i m i l a r l y , this study has e x a m i n e d the issue o f f e m a l e under-  representation i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by h i g h l i g h t i n g the career paths and leadership s k i l l s o f successful f e m a l e leaders w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y c o n s i d e r i n g the e x i s t i n g barriers that continue to l i m i t w o m e n ' s opportunities to enter and progress i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I b e l i e v e that this i n f o r m a t i o n is necessary i f w e are to better understand the w a y s i n w h i c h w o m e n access or are e x c l u d e d f r o m h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s . 1.1.1 Importance o f sport to C a n a d a It is important to p o i n t out that m o d e r n sport i n C a n a d a and w o r l d w i d e is shaped b y c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e s . N o t o n l y has sport e v o l v e d  1  into an important c o m p o n e n t o f the C a n a d i a n identity ( G r u n e a u and W h i t s o n , 1 9 9 3 ; G r u n e a u , 1 9 8 8 ; A l b i n s o n and G r u n e a u , 1976) but m o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , the f i n a n c i a l aspects o f both O l y m p i c and p r o f e s s i o n a l sport have taken o n vast g l o b a l i m p o r t a n c e . S p o r t i n g organizations have thus b e c o m e p o w e r f u l institutions that are c l o s e l y tied to business and p o l i t i c s . W i t h the a i d o f the m e d i a , their i n f l u e n c e reaches b e y o n d the m a j o r i t y o f the C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n and c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y shapes attitudes a n d experiences o f both sports fans and non-sports fans. Sport C a n a d a (2004) reported that: " i n 1 9 9 1 , 5 3 , 0 0 0 C a n a d i a n s w o r k e d i n sports-related j o b s , an increase o f 1 4 % since 1986. W o m e n h e l d 4 2 % o f the j o b s " (Sport Canada(a) w e b s i t e , 2004). T h o u g h this statistic f o r w o m e n i n particular is h i g h , w e must be c a r e f u l i n a s s u m i n g that they were m a k i n g s i g n i f i c a n t inroads into male d o m i n a t e d g o v e r n i n g b o d i e s o f h i g h l e v e l sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . N u m e r o u s studies have demonstrated the w a y s i n w h i c h w o m e n are u s u a l l y e m p l o y e d i n the 'soft' areas o f sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n , t y p i c a l l y i n the secretarial, educational a n d p u b l i c relations d o m a i n s ( A c k e r , 1 9 9 0 ; A r m s t r o n g , 1 9 7 8 ; C h a s e , 1 9 9 2 ; D u e r s t - L a h t i and K e l l y , 1 9 9 5 ; M c K a y , 1997, R i n t a l a a n d B i s c h o f f , 1994, 1996; M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n , 1990). In a d d i t i o n , w o m e n have been less v i s i b l e i n leadership positions at all levels o f sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and i f i n charge, it is u s u a l l y i n the s m a l l e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Interestingly, there are m o r e w o m e n i n p a i d sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p o s i t i o n s than there are i n volunteer p o s i t i o n s f o r a n u m b e r o f reasons related to the gendered l a b o u r market. T h e issue o f v o l u n t e e r i s m as a barrier w i l l be r e v i e w e d i n C h a p t e r 4 h o w e v e r it is important to note that this is p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o b l e m a t i c as most sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s at  2  the v e r y top o f the sport governance hierarchy b e l o n g to the O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t w h o s e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f o u n d a t i o n is based on v o l u n t e e r i s m . T h e s e organizations c o n t r o l the d i r e c t i o n and management o f thousands o f athletes w o r l d w i d e , w h i c h m a k e s them i n f l u e n t i a l , and thus confers their leaders a s i g n i f i c a n t amount o f p o w e r . Statistics have s h o w n that w o m e n i n these organizations are severely under-represented i n the g o v e r n i n g b o d i e s , e s p e c i a l l y at the e x e c u t i v e l e v e l and i n the top leadership p o s i t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n e v i d e n t l y presents an important e m p l o y m e n t sector f o r w o m e n i n C a n a d a therefore it is important to understand h o w and w h y there are so f e w f e m a l e leaders thus s u p p o r t i n g the need f o r an e x a m i n a t i o n of the w a y s i n w h i c h w o m e n enter and progress i n h i g h l e v e l C a n a d i a n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . F i n a l l y , C a n a d i a n s p o r t i n g organizations and their leaders have tremendous c u l t u r a l , e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l p o w e r , e s p e c i a l l y those at the elite l e v e l such as Sport C a n a d a , the C a n a d i a n O l y m p i c C o m m i t t e e and m a n y large sport federations. F o r this reason, it is also u p o n their g o v e r n i n g bodies that s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s at the grassroots l e v e l m o d e l their administrative structure and operational management. If these organizations have a l a c k o f female leaders because o f e x i s t i n g barriers at the structural, c u l t u r a l , relational and societal level then it is l i k e l y that these w i l l also be enacted i n the g o v e r n i n g bodies o f grassroots sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . B e c a u s e h i g h l e v e l C a n a d i a n sporting organizations have such an i n c r e d i b l e amount o f i n f l u e n c e and c o n t r o l o v e r sport i n C a n a d a , their p o l i c i e s and procedures affect the entire C a n a d i a n s p o r t i n g system. " C h o i c e o f activity, talent i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , m o t i v a t i o n to participate,  selection procedures, c o a c h i n g techniques, a l l o c a t i o n o f f u n d s , s i m p l e  day-to-day a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , are a l l i n f l u e n c e d b y the c r i t e r i a set b y sports  p e o p l e to select and j u s t i f y their o w n and other p e o p l e ' s a c t i o n s "  ( S c h w a r t z , 1992 quoted i n A p l i n , S o u c i e , Q u e k and O o n 1996, p.253).  3  S i n c e sport has been characterized as an instrumental t o o l i n the d e v e l o p m e n t o f a l l C a n a d i a n s , it is important that sporting organizations ensure that e v e r y o n e have access to sport and its a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , h i g h l e v e l sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s need not o n l y p r o m o t e equality a m o n g m a l e and f e m a l e athletes and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n but they themselves d i s p l a y such e g a l i t a r i a n i s m i n their governance structures. F o r these reasons, this study w i l l focus on w o m e n ' s experiences w i t h regard to their entry and p r o g r e s s i o n i n C a n a d i a n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n at various levels. 1.1.2 V a n c o u v e r 2 0 1 0 W i n t e r O l y m p i c and P a r a l y m p i c G a m e s T h e I O C ' s a w a r d i n g o f the 2 0 1 0 W i n t e r O l y m p i c and P a r a l y m p i c G a m e s to V a n c o u v e r had an i m m e n s e and i m m e d i a t e i m p a c t o n the C a n a d i a n s p o r t i n g system. C a n a d a ' s h o s t i n g o f the 2 0 1 0 G a m e s w i l l place the c o u n t r y ' s p u b l i c i m a g e at the forefront. D i r e c t l y tied to the V a n c o u v e r W i n t e r O l y m p i c and P a r a l y m p i c G a m e s is an extensive recruitment o f athletes and administrators i n a d d i t i o n to the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a d v a n c e d d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m s w h i c h are a l l p o s s i b l e as a result o f federal g o v e r n m e n t f u n d i n g . H a v i n g s a i d that, w o m e n m a k e up a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 2 % o f the C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n and greatly contribute to the federal tax revenue b e i n g used to f u n d these G a m e s thereby w a r r a n t i n g their appropriate representation at the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g table. B o t h the g o v e r n m e n t o f C a n a d a and h i g h l e v e l sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s have a l w a y s taken the c o u n t r y ' s athletic p e r f o r m a n c e at O l y m p i c G a m e s s e r i o u s l y , thus p r o v i d i n g s i g n i f i c a n t f u n d i n g f o r the establishment o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p r o g r a m s w i t h the a i m o f i m p r o v i n g the n u m b e r o f medals w o n b y C a n a d i a n athletes. T h o u g h s o m e sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s have been established since the early 1900s, f o c u s o n h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e sport is r e l a t i v e l y recent. M c K a y (1997) reported that:  4  " . . .the C a n a d i a n O l y m p i c A s s o c i a t i o n and the federal a n d p r o v i n c i a l  governments [have] instituted h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e p r o g r a m s . . . . i n 1971  Sport C a n a d a and R e c r e a t i o n C a n a d a were e s t a b l i s h e d . . . a n d i n 1976 the  first federal m i n i s t e r w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r fitness and amateur sport was a p p o i n t e d " (p.31).  T h i s emphasis has i n t e n s i f i e d as v e r y recently, h i g h l e v e l sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s have taken assertive measures to increase the n u m b e r o f p o d i u m finishes b y C a n a d i a n athletes and place C a n a d a at the front o f the m e d a l standings w i t h p r o g r a m s such as ' O w n the P o d i u m ' and ' P l a y g r o u n d to P o d i u m ' . In fact, "the C O C e n v i s i o n s C a n a d a ' s O l y m p i c W i n t e r team i n 2 0 1 0 b e i n g first i n  the W o r l d , .. .in 2 0 1 2 b e i n g a m o n g the top 8 nations i n the W o r l d , .. . e n v i s i o n s C a n a d a as a c o u n t r y w h e r e sport is central to its  culture...[and] the O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t b e i n g at the core o f this s p o r t i n g c u l t u r e . . . " ( C O C website, 2 0 0 5 ) .  T h e r e has thus been an extensive p u s h to recruit and d e v e l o p h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e athletes b y i m p l e m e n t i n g a series o f a d v a n c e d p r o g r a m s , most o f w h i c h are f u n d e d b y government. W o m e n not o n l y represent a n u m b e r o f potential recipients f o r such p r o g r a m s but s h o u l d also be i n v o l v e d i n their creation and d i s s e m i n a t i o n . F o r these reasons, w o m e n are entitled to appropriate representation i n these h i g h l e v e l s p o r t i n g organizations w h o are i n v o l v e d i n the d e v e l o p m e n t and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f such initiatives. T h i s also demonstrates the extent to w h i c h p o d i u m success is the u n d e r p i n n i n g v a l u e f o r h i g h l e v e l C a n a d i a n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s thereby p r o m o t i n g the ethos o f c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s , aggressiveness and personal a c h i e v e m e n t ; attitudes t r a d i t i o n a l l y associated w i t h a m a s c u l i n e management p a r a d i g m ( C a m e r o n 1996, H o v d e n 2 0 0 0 a , H o v d e n 2 0 0 0 b , M c K a y 1997). T h o u g h there are s o m e w o m e n i n v o l v e d at this l e v e l o f sporting l e a d e r s h i p , they are not i n s i g n i f i c a n t n u m b e r s therefore have little v o i c e  5  and i n f l u e n c e at the b o a r d r o o m table. T h i s study w i l l address the w a y s i n w h i c h organizations can increase the n u m b e r o f f e m a l e leaders i n v o l v e d i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 1.1.3 R e s e a r c h G a p s L e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s are often associated w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t p o w e r and i n f l u e n c e and m o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been h e l d b y m e n . A s this study e x p l o r e d various aspects o f w o m e n ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n h i g h l e v e l C a n a d i a n sporting leadership, it was p o s s i b l e to c o m p a r e these f i n d i n g s against those o f other important studies c o n d u c t e d i n the C a n a d i a n context (Fitness and A m a t e u r Sport, 1 9 8 2 ; H a l l , 1 9 7 8 ; H a l l , C u l l e n and S l a c k , 1 9 9 0 ; M c K a y , 1 9 9 7 ; M e r c i e r , 2 0 0 1 , 2 0 0 2 ; Sport C a n a d a , 1991). H o w e v e r , it is important to r e m e m b e r that m o s t o f these studies were c a r r i e d out i n the 1980s and early 1990s and have not since been p u r s u e d . T h e s e research f i n d i n g s d i d s h o w that the gender structure o f senior a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s i n C a n a d i a n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n h a d r e m a i n e d v i r t u a l l y u n c h a n g e d since a r o u n d the m i d 1950s. A s early as 1 9 8 5 , Sport C a n a d a was stressing the need to r e g u l a r l y gather data on the status o f w o m e n i n sport leadership and i n 1 9 9 1 , speculated that c h a n g i n g the gender i m b a l a n c e i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n v o l v e d a three stage p r o c e s s : "(1) the p r o b l e m must be v i s i b l e , (2) the p r o b l e m must c l a i m l e g i t i m a c y and that (3) awareness achieves n o t h i n g w i t h o u t c o m m i t m e n t o n the part o f those w h o i n f l u e n c e e v e n t s " (Sport C a n a d a , 1 9 9 1 , p.24). D e s p i t e these statements, n o research has s p e c i f i c a l l y f o c u s e d on f e m a l e leaders i n the C a n a d i a n sporting s y s t e m since then. B e c a u s e this research is r e l a t i v e l y dated, m y study brings k n o w l e d g e r e g a r d i n g the access and p r o g r e s s i o n made b y w o m e n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n since efforts have been made to increase the representation o f f e m a l e leaders at a l l levels o f the sporting system. C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , this study's intention is to  6  update these f i n d i n g s and analyze the extent and effects o f change f o r f e m a l e leaders i n C a n a d i a n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h regard to career paths, leadership s k i l l s a n d barriers i n f l u e n c i n g their entry and p r o g r e s s i o n . In this w a y , this study w i l l add to the b o d y o f literature on w o m e n i n sporting leadership i n the context o f the n e w m i l l e n n i u m . A l s o o f great s i g n i f i c a n c e is the fact that this study differs f r o m other C a n a d i a n research c o n c e r n i n g w o m e n i n sporting leadership i n terms o f m e t h o d o l o g y . T h i s i n i t i a l g r o u n d w o r k r e l i e d h e a v i l y on survey m e t h o d o l o g y i n order to obtain statistical data o n the n u m b e r o f w o m e n volunteer administrators and e x e c u t i v e m e m b e r s ( H a l l , C u l l e n and S l a c k , 1 9 9 0 ; Sport C a n a d a , 1991). T h o u g h Sport C a n a d a (1991) used f o c u s groups and M c K a y (1997) i n t e r v i e w e d s o m e C a n a d i a n sporting leaders, n o study s p e c i f i c a l l y l o o k e d at p r o v i d i n g a v o i c e to f e m a l e sport administrators i n C a n a d a to e l i c i t their perceptions a n d experiences i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . F o r this reason, the i n f o r m a t i o n u s e d f o r this thesis derives f r o m the personal interviews c o n d u c t e d w i t h w o m e n i n v o l v e d i n h i g h l e v e l o f sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n C a n a d a . T h o u g h n o m e t h o d o l o g y is a l l e n c o m p a s s i n g , quantitative research has been c r i t i c i z e d f o r l i m i t i n g the results that can be f o u n d as an answer k e y based o n the researcher's perspectives and understanding, is u s u a l l y p r o v i d e d f o r respondents therefore the participants' v i e w p o i n t s are not a l w a y s f u l l y represented i n the results ( B i s c h o f f and R i n t a l a , 1994, 1 9 9 6 ; H a l l , C u l l e n and S l a c k , 1 9 9 0 ; M c K a y 1997). W i t h respect to the theoretical f r a m e w o r k s used i n these p r e v i o u s analyses, most studies were based on a l i b e r a l f e m i n i s t perspective w h e r e the a i m o f the research was to increase the n u m b e r o f w o m e n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h o u t f u n d a m e n t a l l y p r o b l e m a t i z i n g the structures and practices o f these same o r g a n i z a t i o n s . F o r this reason,  7  this study w i l l incorporate a f e m i n i s t theoretical p a r a d i g m as w e l l as o r g a n i z a t i o n a l theory to e x a m i n e h i g h l e v e l sporting leadership. S u c h a perspective w i l l h e l p account f o r the m u l t i p l e c o m p l e x i t i e s that affect w o m e n ' s entry and careers i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . F i n a l l y , Inglis (1997) has p r o p o s e d that: " F u t u r e research w i t h i n the boards o f directors o f amateur sport  o r g a n i z a t i o n s . . .continue to probe factors that m a y affect perceptions o n  various aspects o f b o a r d w o r k , and continue to e x p l o r e the w a y s m e n and  w o m e n c o n s i d e r their i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h various roles at the governance l e v e l " (p. 170).  In c o n j u n c t i o n , C a m e r o n (1996) points to the p a u c i t y o f research o n w o m e n at the top levels o f sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I b e l i e v e that this s t u d y ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the perceptions and experiences o f past and current C a n a d i a n f e m a l e sporting leaders w i l l not o n l y i n f o r m these research gaps but also contribute a deeper u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the gendered processes o f entry and p r o g r e s s i o n i n C a n a d i a n sporting a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  1.2 W O M E N ' S P A R T I C I P A T I O N A T T H E O L Y M P I C G A M E S A N D  IN  CANADIAN SPORT T h e O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t is an excellent e x a m p l e o f the w a y s i n w h i c h w o m e n w e r e s l o w l y accepted into sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s , first and f o r e m o s t as athletes. T h e r e are s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e w o m e n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n O l y m p i c sport since the first w o m e n t o o k part i n the P a r i s G a m e s o f 1900 where they made up o n l y 2 % (19 w o m e n ) o f the 1225 athletes. B y 1936 i n B e r l i n , w o m e n accounted f o r 8 % o f a l l athletes and this n u m b e r had increased to 1 2 % b y the 1960 S u m m e r O l y m p i c G a m e s i n R o m e . " B y the G a m e s i n 1980, w o m e n ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n h a d leaped to represent close to 2 2 % and at the S y d n e y G a m e s i n 2 0 0 0 , the n u m b e r o f f e m a l e athletes reached 4 , 0 6 9 , o f a total o f 10,651 participants, o v e r 3 8 % " ( O l y m p i c R e v i e w , 2004).  8  T h o u g h it is clear that there has been a general increase o f f e m a l e athletes a l l o w e d to participate at the G a m e s , it has taken o v e r 100 years f o r w o m e n to increase their p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates f r o m 2 % o f total athletes i n 1900 to 3 8 % i n 2 0 0 0 and have yet to c o m e c l o s e to a c h i e v i n g gender equality. T h i s under representation o f f e m a l e athletes goes a l o n g w a y i n e x p l a i n i n g the l a c k o f w o m e n i n its g o v e r n i n g b o d i e s . Indeed, the fact that the I O C has v e r y f e w w o m e n i n their administrative structures also p r o v i d e s national sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h a m a l e m o d e l o f governance that reproduces the inequalities already e x i s t i n g . T h e a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t o f a 'gender i s s u e ' and the consequent efforts to increase the n u m b e r o f w o m e n i n O l y m p i c sport and its a d m i n i s t r a t i o n l e d to an increase o f C a n a d i a n f e m a l e athletes attending O l y m p i c G a m e s . A t a l l levels o f the C a n a d i a n sporting s y s t e m , w o m e n ' s opportunities to participate i n sport have g r o w n i m m e n s e l y yet m a l e athletes c o n t i n u e to o u t n u m b e r f e m a l e athletes at e v e r y l e v e l i n C a n a d a . In 1998, Statistics C a n a d a (2004) f o u n d that, o f the 8.3 m i l l i o n C a n a d i a n s that participated r e g u l a r l y i n one or m o r e sports 15 years or older, 4 3 % w e r e m e n w h i l e o n l y 2 6 % were w o m e n . T h i s evident p a u c i t y o f w o m e n • i n v o l v e d i n sport u l t i m a t e l y affects the n u m b e r o f w o m e n w h o m i g h t e v e n t u a l l y seek p o s i t i o n s i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . C a m e r o n (1996) a f f i r m s that p a r t i c i p a t i o n n u m b e r s are relevant because most f e m a l e administrators emerge f r o m the p o o l o f athletes and f o r m e r athletes (p. 11). F o r this reason, it is u s e f u l to first a c k n o w l e d g e the h i s t o r i c a l under representation o f w o m e n at the O l y m p i c G a m e s as w e l l as C a n a d i a n f e m a l e athletes and administrators i n the O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t . Statistics c o n c e r n i n g the n u m b e r o f C a n a d i a n f e m a l e athletes p a r t i c i p a t i n g at the G a m e s as w e l l as the n u m b e r o f medals they w o n were c o l l e c t e d . T h e y s h o w the  9  s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n w o m e n have made to m a i n t a i n i n g C a n a d a ' s p r o u d s p o r t i n g i m a g e , w h i c h also p o s i t i v e l y i m p a c t s its o v e r a l l sporting system. W o m e n ' s opportunities to participate as athletes i n both the S u m m e r and W i n t e r O l y m p i c G a m e s have not a l w a y s been equal to those o f their m a l e counterparts. H a l l and R i c h a r d s o n (1982) studied the n u m b e r o f O l y m p i c sports o f f e r e d to both m a l e and female athletes and reported that as o f the late 1 9 7 0 ' s : " W o m e n cannot compete i n as m a n y sports or events at any o f these  international c o m p e t i t i o n s . In fact, i f y o u c o m p a r e the n u m b e r o f sports  open to m e n and w o m e n at the 1976 S u m m e r O l y m p i c s , the 1980 W i n t e r O l y m p i c s , the 1978 C o m m o n w e a l t h G a m e s , and the 1979 P a n - A m e r i c a n G a m e s , y o u f i n d that the m e n h a d the o p p o r t u n i t y to c o m p e t e i n e x a c t l y t w i c e as m a n y sport as the w o m e n (62 to 31). In terms o f the n u m b e r o f  events, the ration is e v e n higher. In other w o r d s , m a l e athletes, at least o n the basis o f these international c o m p e t i t i o n s , have m o r e than t w i c e as m a n y opportunities as f e m a l e athletes to w i n a m e d a l . " (p.43)  T h i s u n d o u b t e d l y i n f l u e n c e d the n u m b e r o f f e m a l e athletes p a r t i c i p a t i n g at the elite l e v e l and therefore the n u m b e r o f ' q u a l i f i e d ' w o m e n a v a i l a b l e f o r leadership p o s i t i o n s i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . D a t a o n C a n a d i a n O l y m p i c m a l e and f e m a l e athlete p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates and m e d a l w i n n i n g s f o r both S u m m e r (see A p p e n d i x 1) and W i n t e r (see A p p e n d i x 2) O l y m p i c G a m e s f r o m 1984 to 2 0 0 6 c l e a r l y shows that recently, the n u m b e r o f m a l e and f e m a l e athletes representing C a n a d a at the O l y m p i c G a m e s has s l o w l y reached relative e q u a l i t y , though m e n still participate i n m o r e events than do w o m e n . 1.2.1 S u m m e r O l y m p i c G a m e s A s m e n t i o n e d , p r i o r to 1984, w o m e n w e r e severely under represented o n C a n a d a ' s O l y m p i c teams. T h i s c o n t i n u e d at the 1984 S u m m e r O l y m p i c G a m e s i n L o s A n g e l e s where C a n a d a sent 4 1 3 athletes, its largest athlete delegation to date. A t this t i m e , w o m e n represented o n l y 3 7 % o f the C a n a d i a n delegation w h i l e b r i n g i n g i n 3 6 % o f  10  the c o u n t r y ' s m e d a l tally. A t the S u m m e r G a m e s i n S e o u l (1988), C a n a d a ' s delegation was d r a s t i c a l l y r e d u c e d to a total o f 315 athletes, though its gender c o m p o s i t i o n had not c h a n g e d m u c h . W o m e n represented 3 5 % o f the team i n 1988 and w o n 4 1 % o f the c o u n t r y ' s m e d a l s . In B a r c e l o n a 1 9 9 2 , the team was again cut b a c k to 303 athletes w h i l e the percentage o f f e m a l e athletes was s l i g h t l y increased to 3 9 % and brought i n this exact share o f the m e d a l s . B y 1996, w o m e n c o m p r i s e d a stunning 5 0 % o f the O l y m p i c team and w o n 5 0 % o f the m e d a l s . S i n c e then, C a n a d i a n w o m e n ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n has r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y stable representing 4 9 % o f athletes at the S y d n e y (2000) and A t h e n s (2004) O l y m p i c G a m e s . A t each o f these games, C a n a d i a n w o m e n brought h o m e 5 0 % o f the medals f o r the c o u n t r y . C l e a r l y , w o m e n have been an i n e x t r i c a b l e part o f C a n a d a ' s international sporting success and therefore deserve s i m i l a r representation at the d e c i s i o n making level. 1.2.2 W i n t e r O l y m p i c G a m e s G i v e n that the W i n t e r O l y m p i c G a m e s were established i n 1924 and the fact that m a n y nations b e l o n g i n g to the O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t do not experience winter-like c o n d i t i o n s , the p a r t i c i p a t i o n n u m b e r s i n terms o f nations and athletes are s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l e r than those o f the S u m m e r O l y m p i c G a m e s . U n l i k e these G a m e s , the data c o l l e c t e d shows that e q u a l i t y f o r C a n a d i a n f e m a l e athletes at the W i n t e r O l y m p i c G a m e s has not yet been a c h i e v e d . A t the 1984 Sarajevo O l y m p i c G a m e s , C a n a d a sent a total o f 6 9 athletes, a mere 2 9 % o f t h e m w o m e n . T h a t year, none o f the 2 0 f e m a l e athletes brought h o m e a m e d a l t h o u g h o n l y t w o m a l e athletes w o n a total o f f o u r m e d a l s f o r C a n a d a . T h e f o l l o w i n g W i n t e r O l y m p i c G a m e s were h e l d o n C a n a d i a n s o i l i n C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a . C o m p r i s i n g o n l y 2 6 % o f C a n a d a ' s athlete's d e l e g a t i o n , w o m e n w o n 6 7 % o f the  11  medals at those G a m e s s a v i n g w h a t some have c l a i m e d , w o u l d have been the embarrassment o f the host nation f o r their p o o r s h o w i n g . W o m e n f o r m e d 2 7 % o f the C a n a d i a n team i n A l b e r t v i l l e (1992) and 3 3 % o f the delegation i n L i l l e h a m m e r (1994). D e s p i t e their under representation at both o f these W i n t e r O l y m p i c G a m e s , they c o n t r i b u t e d 4 4 % o f the medals i n 1992 and 4 3 % i n 1994. A l r e a d y , f e m a l e athletes were demonstrating their i m p o r t a n c e to the h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e sport p r o g r a m i n C a n a d a . T h e most recent W i n t e r O l y m p i c G a m e s have s h o w n a slight increase i n C a n a d i a n f e m a l e participation representing 4 2 % o f the O l y m p i c team at the N a g a n o G a m e s (1998) and 4 5 % i n Salt L a k e C i t y (2002). A g a i n , w o m e n brought h o m e 4 7 % (1998) and 5 6 % (2002) o f the C a n a d i a n m e d a l s respectively. F i n a l l y , i n T o r i n o (2006), C a n a d i a n f e m a l e athletes m a r k e d their greatest a c c o m p l i s h m e n t yet w i n n i n g a w h o p p i n g 6 7 % o f the m e d a l t a l l y f o r C a n a d a w h i l e representing o n l y 4 4 % o f the C a n a d i a n team. F o r the first t i m e it seems, m o r e f e m a l e athletic performances were l a u d e d b y fans and m e d i a a l i k e than were the successes o f C a n a d i a n m a l e athletes. 1.2.3 W h a t does this data tell us? It is evident that o v e r t i m e , the n u m b e r o f C a n a d i a n athletes sent to O l y m p i c G a m e s has fluctuated and at times, was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e d i n n u m b e r s . W h a t has not c h a n g e d h o w e v e r is the p r o p o r t i o n o f m a l e and f e m a l e athletes o n O l y m p i c teams w h i c h demonstrates a l a c k o f p r o g r e s s i o n towards equality. It is also clear that w o m e n succeeded at international c o m p e t i t i o n s g i v e n their representation a n d at t i m e s , o u t p e r f o r m e d their m a l e counterparts. In m a n y instances, there were a l m o s t t w i c e as m a n y C a n a d i a n m a l e athletes and thus, t w i c e as m a n y opportunities f o r t h e m to w i n m e d a l s , attesting that w o m e n were p e r f o r m i n g s u c c e s s f u l l y despite their l i m i t e d  12  opportunities. It s h o u l d also be noted that the S u m m e r O l y m p i c G a m e s have p r o v i d e d C a n a d i a n w o m e n w i t h greater opportunities f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n at the O l y m p i c s than those o f the W i n t e r G a m e s . T h i s data therefore demonstrates the v a l u e o f w o m e n to the O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t i n C a n a d a and w o r l d w i d e as w e l l as the international r e c o g n i t i o n o f the c o u n t r y i n sporting c o m p e t i t i o n s . T h e insubstantial increase i n the n u m b e r o f C a n a d i a n f e m a l e participants does not a c k n o w l e d g e the fact that w o m e n are a major p r o v i d e r o f the national m e d a l r e c o g n i t i o n ; a v a l u e w h i c h has been a p r o m i n e n t part o f the c o u n t r y ' s athlete preparation l e a d i n g up to the V a n c o u v e r 2 0 1 0 W i n t e r O l y m p i c and Paralympic Games. C a n a d i a n f e m a l e athletic performances i n O l y m p i c c o m p e t i t i o n s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y warrant increased representation not o n l y as athletes but i n c o a c h i n g , m a n a g e r i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , C a n a d i a n w o m e n are p r o v i d e d m u c h greater opportunities to participate as athletes than as coaches and administrators, as is the situation w o r l d w i d e . A s B i s c h o f f and R i n t a l a (1994) state s u c c i n c t l y : " w h e n w o m e n ' s opportunities to serve i n leadership roles d o not keep pace w i t h their opportunities as athletes or sport participants, the traditional gendered p o w e r differentials i n society are r e i n f o r c e d " (p.86). T h i s is a c r u c i a l p o i n t as it is necessary that w o m e n gain i n f l u e n t i a l p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the sporting system i f they are g o i n g to reduce the barriers p r e v e n t i n g t h e m f r o m acces s i ng senior administrative posts. F o r this reason, it is important to r e v i e w w h a t the literature tells us about w o m e n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n various contexts.  1.3 A R E A S O F S T U D Y M y o v e r a r c h i n g research question sought to i d e n t i f y and e x p l o r e the career paths a n d experiences o f w o m e n i n C a n a d i a n sporting leadership. G i v e n the substantive W h i t e ,  13  m i d d l e to upper class, able-bodied m a s c u l i n e e n v i r o n m e n t o f most sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the consequent under-representation o f w o m e n i n leadership p o s i t i o n s , it begs the q u e s t i o n : W h o are the w o m e n that have reached h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s i n the administration o f sport i n C a n a d a , h o w and w h y d i d they b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n these p o s i t i o n s ? W h a t obstacles, i f any, have they h a d to o v e r c o m e throughout their career paths? S i m i l a r l y , it is also i mp o rtant to understand the experiences o f w o m e n w h o have not been i n v o l v e d i n sport leadership at its highest l e v e l f o r w h a t e v e r reason. B o t h o f these groups w e r e c o n s u l t e d because each o f them has u n i q u e perspectives c o n c e r n i n g h i g h l e v e l s p o r t i n g leadership and w o m e n ' s i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h i n it. In this w a y , it is also p o s s i b l e to h i g h l i g h t factors that i m p a c t w o m e n ' s d e c i s i o n s to a v o i d e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as w e l l as h i g h l i g h t i n g those barriers that h i n d e r their opportunities to access such p o s i t i o n s . A s C a m e r o n (1996) argues: "[t]o f u l l y understand what keeps w o m e n (or men) out o f senior volunteer sport management one w o u l d need to ask people w h o are e l i g i b l e o n the criteria already o u t l i n e d , but w h o have d e c l i n e d " ( C a m e r o n , 1996, p. 131). In this w a y , the c o m b i n a t i o n o f perspectives a l l o w s f o r a broader analysis o f w o m e n ' s p e r c e i v e d experiences i n C a n a d i a n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e i n t e r v i e w s d e l v e d into the w o m e n ' s personal b a c k g r o u n d s a n d e x p l o r e d their career path i n sporting leadership. Q u e s t i o n s pertained to w o m e n ' s experiences as h i g h l e v e l f e m a l e leaders throughout their career, obstacles they m a y have f a c e d d u r i n g their p r o g r e s s i o n and some o f the attributes and ci rcums tances they p e r c e i v e d to have i n f l u e n c e d their experiences and success i n sporting leadership. F i n a l l y , c o n n e c t i n g this study's f i n d i n g s w i t h that o f the current literature c o n c e r n i n g w o m e n i n sport  14  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a general p r o f i l e o f h i g h l e v e l f e m a l e leaders emerges and a l l o w s f o r an e x a m i n a t i o n o f their entry and p r o g r e s s i o n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , it h i g h l i g h t s the various determinants that sustain the under-representation o f w o m e n i n sporting leadership hence some modest r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w i l l be m a d e w i t h the objective o f creating m o r e opportunities f o r future f e m a l e leaders attempting to forge a career i n C a n a d i a n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s thesis is c o m p r i s e d o f f i v e chapters. C h a p t e r 1, the i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter, p r o v i d e s the basic f o u n d a t i o n o f the study and the i n f o r m a t i o n that it h o p e d to generate. T h e s e c o n d chapter (Chapter 2) is a general literature r e v i e w about w o m e n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the theoretical f r a m e w o r k s that have been used to e x p l a i n their underrepresentation. B a s e d o n themes that have e m e r g e d i n this p r e v i o u s literature, the f o l l o w i n g t w o chapters are a c o m p r e h e n s i v e analysis o f the f e m a l e respondents' b a c k g r o u n d and experiences i n sporting leadership. C h a p t e r 3 considers w o m e n ' s career paths i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the s k i l l s that a l l o w e d t h e m to enter a n d progress i n t o leadership p o s i t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , C h a p t e r 4 discusses the barriers that w o m e n b e l i e v e c o n t i n u e d to h i n d e r their opportunities to l e a d i n h i g h l e v e l s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , the last chapter (Chapter 5) s u m m a r i z e s these f i n d i n g s a n d p r o v i d e s some c o n c l u s i o n s to the issues d i s c u s s e d i n the thesis, i n a d d i t i o n to suggesting m o d e s t approaches that s p o r t i n g organizations m i g h t undertake to increase their f e m a l e representation at the governance l e v e l . 1.3.1 C a r e e r Paths T h o u g h e v e r y w o m a n ' s experience is u n i q u e and can never be f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d , s o m e patterns can be f o u n d i n m a n y o f the female leaders' career path i n sport  15  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . F o r this reason, this section e x a m i n e s the c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n d experiences that have e n a b l e d w o m e n to access leadership p o s i t i o n s i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . R e s e a r c h studies c o n d u c t e d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a and E u r o p e have c l e a r l y s h o w n that certain characteristics are often f o u n d i n h i g h level f e m a l e sporting leaders and that most possess a s i m i l a r s k i l l set ( C a m e r o n , 1996; P f i s t e r et. a l . , 2 0 0 5 ; M c K a y , 1 9 9 7 ; H a l l , C u l l e n and S l a c k , 1 9 9 0 ; H o v d e n , 2 0 0 0 a , 2 0 0 0 b , 2 0 0 5 ; I S L P and I O C , 2 0 0 4 ) . F o r this reason, personal characteristics s u c h as l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n and years o f e x p e r i e n c e were d i s c u s s e d i n terms o f their capacity to help w o m e n enter and progress i n sport leadership. F o r e x a m p l e , s o m e d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d r e g a r d i n g w o m e n ' s age at entry into sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as w e l l as years o f experience i n their career. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n can be c r u c i a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms o f the age o f the respondents as w e l l as their l e v e l o f experience i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , the age o f respondents can be v e r y u s e f u l because it a l l o w s f o r an interpretation o f the h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i a l context i n w h i c h this person has entered a n d e x p e r i e n c e d sport and/or sports a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . L i k e w i s e , the years o f experience this m e m b e r brings c o u l d indicate the extent to w h i c h she has established s o c i a l n e t w o r k s ; another topic that was addressed i n the i n t e r v i e w s . R e s e a r c h questions also addressed the s p e c i f i c career paths w o m e n t o o k to reach their current p o s i t i o n s as w e l l as their i n i t i a l experiences i n a c c e s s i n g h i g h l e v e l leadership positions i n sport. D i d they share s i m i l a r stories and b a c k g r o u n d s ? W a s there a p r o t o t y p i c a l route to s u c c e s s f u l sporting leadership f o r w o m e n ? T h i s k n o w l e d g e p r o v i d e s us w i t h a better understanding o f the e x c l u s i v i t y o f h i g h l e v e l s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the w a y s i n w h i c h ' s p e c i f i c ' w o m e n are recruited to serve w h i l e others are deterred.  16  W h i l e i d e n t i f y i n g these processes o f i n c l u s i o n , it is h o p e d to s i m u l t a n e o u s l y h i g h l i g h t the processes o f e x c l u s i o n that exist i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h r o u g h o u t the d i s c u s s i o n o f their career paths, participants were asked to f o c u s on the k e y characteristics that they b e l i e v e d were essential to b e c o m e a h i g h l e v e l sporting leader. T h e i n t e r v i e w s also p r o b e d the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' perceptions r e g a r d i n g attributes they p e r c e i v e d as necessary to be i n f l u e n t i a l o n E x e c u t i v e boards. S i n c e m u c h research has s h o w n that ' m a s c u l i n e ' attributes such as aggressiveness, independence and r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n are v a l u e d i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( H o v d e n 2 0 0 0 a , H o v d e n 2 0 0 0 b ) , w o m e n were a s k e d to describe their leadership style and the techniques that h a d m a d e t h e m successful or h a d turned t h e m a w a y f r o m this career. T h i s is i m p o r t a n t and has been d i s c u s s e d i n the literature w h i c h has established that w o m e n must often adapt i n p o s i t i o n s o f leadership w h e r e they had to essentially 'fit i n ' to the o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h r o u g h the w o m e n ' s stories about their experiences i n sport leadership, it was p o s s i b l e to h i g h l i g h t the p e r c e i v e d necessary attributes f o r sports leadership. In a d d i t i o n , this has also p r o v i d e d insight into the culture o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n where several barriers w e r e b e l i e v e d to exist f o r w o m e n attempting to progress into leadership roles. F o r this reason, this chapter also addresses the w a y s i n w h i c h f e m a l e leaders p e r c e i v e d their leadership styles and the characteristics they felt d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e m f r o m other leaders w h o have not h e l d or even aspired to attain top leadership p o s i t i o n s . T h e study also e x a m i n e d the degree to w h i c h these f e m a l e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' felt any k i n d o f pressure to represent or advocate f o r w o m e n ' s issues. D i d they f e e l they w e r e expected to p r o m o t e and participate i n w o m e n and sport initiatives? A s a result o f their m i n o r i t y status i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s , it is often assumed that f e m a l e leaders are m o r e l i k e l y to  17  assist other w o m e n reach leadership p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . H o w e v e r , C a m e r o n ' s (1996) study s h o w e d that m a n y w o m e n preferred to w o r k w i t h m e n rather than other w o m e n " . . . w h i c h poses a p r o b l e m i f they are b e i n g e x p e c t e d to p a v e the w a y f o r other w o m e n to j o i n t h e m at the t o p " (p.211). T h i s area o f study w i l l therefore discuss the w o m e n ' s perceptions o f m e n t o r i n g and their beliefs r e g a r d i n g w o m e n ' s opportunities i n sport. F i n a l l y , this study also a n a l y z e d w o m e n ' s thoughts r e g a r d i n g the r o l e o f s o c i a l n e t w o r k s i n ac c e s s i n g h i g h l e v e l sporting leadership p o s i t i o n s . A s C a m e r o n (1996) advances: " . . .one important p o s s i b i l i t y is whether or not w o m e n can use m a l e  n e t w o r k s as a p o i n t o f resistance: by i n f i l t r a t i n g all-male n e t w o r k s w i l l  w o m e n i n fact access i n f o r m a t i o n , . . . i n f l u e n c e m e n , s h o w that w o m e n are as capable, as c o m m i t t e d , as s k i l l e d as m e n ? W i l l they i n fact f i n d a w a y  to change the culture o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n this w a y ? " ( C a m e r o n , 1996,  p.202-203).  F o r this reason, this study also e x a m i n e d the w a y s i n w h i c h s o c i a l n e t w o r k s were important, advantageous or even necessary i n attaining e x e c u t i v e l e v e l p o s i t i o n s and i f they were an avenue o f change f o r f e m a l e leaders. 1.3.2 F e m a l e administrators' perceptions o f their r o l e i n s p o r t i n g leadership L e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s are associated w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t p o w e r and i n f l u e n c e ; p o s i t i o n s w h i c h have been generally h e l d b y m e n . T h a t b e i n g said, w o m e n w h o do attain this l e v e l o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n have been reported to be u n d e r v a l u e d and to l a c k i n f l u e n c e at the b o a r d r o o m table ( M c K a y 1997, C a m e r o n 1996). In order to assess the p e r c e i v e d i n f l u e n c e o f these f e m a l e leaders, they w e r e a s k e d to c o n v e y their experiences about h o w they h a d been slotted into their roles as w e l l as their experiences i n these leadership p o s i t i o n s . D i d they feel they h a d i n f l u e n c e d p o l i c y o r made a  18  s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to sport i n C a n a d a ? W e r e they a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the d e c i s i o n m a k i n g processes and were they g i v e n opportunities to demonstrate success i n these leadership p o s i t i o n s ? These questions can lead to a better u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f w o m e n f e e l i n g i s o l a t e d or i n e f f e c t i v e i n their p o s i t i o n s ( C a m e r o n 1996, M c K a y 1997) w h i c h can be a barrier to a d v a n c i n g i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 1.3.3  B a r r i e r s to w o m e n ' s entry and progression i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n T h i s study also sought to e x a m i n e the various factors w h i c h w e r e p e r c e i v e d to  h i n d e r w o m e n ' s opportunities to enter and progress into h i g h l e v e l sporting leadership. D i d the stories o f s u c c e s s f u l w o m e n administrators point to a s p e c i f i c type o f f e m a l e leader? T h r o u g h the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' personal histories, it was p o s s i b l e to h i g h l i g h t a n u m b e r o f barriers that were b e l i e v e d to exist f o r f e m a l e leaders i n C a n a d i a n s p o r t i n g organizations. In fact, these stories h i g h l i g h t e d the different experiences o f f e m a l e leaders and p o i n t e d to a n u m b e r o f factors that l e d to the m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n o f f e m a l e sport administrators. It has been argued that each i n d i v i d u a l ' s reality is shaped b y their particular s o c i a l l o c a t i o n ; a s o c i a l l o c a t i o n m a r k e d l y d e t e r m i n e d b y d e m o g r a p h i c factors such as class, race, gender and p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , it is a s s u m e d that w o m e n not o n l y experience various levels o f access to sport and sport leadership but also have v e r y different experiences as leaders. T h e study therefore e x a m i n e d the w a y s i n w h i c h the f e m a l e respondents b e l i e v e d they had been i m p e d e d , i f at a l l , i n their attempt to enter and progress i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s analysis can then be c o m p a r e d to data p r o v i d e d b y a n u m b e r o f other studies both i n C a n a d a and internationally. T h e s e f i n d i n g s w i l l thus h i g h l i g h t where f e m a l e administrators p e r c e i v e d they w e r e h e l d b a c k and the reasons that made t h e m feel this w a y .  19  1.3.4 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s U n d o u b t e d l y , f e m a l e sports administrators and their experiences can p r o v i d e a valuable k n o w l e d g e base i f w e are to understand gender relations i n C a n a d i a n s p o r t i n g organizations. T h e c o n c l u s i o n w i l l address the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f this study and its f i n d i n g s on both theory and practice. H o w do these w o m e n ' s experiences and perspectives further o u r understandings o f gender practices i n h i g h l e v e l sporting leadership? Indeed, h o w can w e u t i l i z e w o m e n ' s success stories to help us better understand the career paths o f w o m e n w h o have entered sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i l e h i g h l i g h t i n g the barriers that r e m a i n f o r various groups o f w o m e n ? M y f i n d i n g s therefore w i l l be relevant f o r a s p i r i n g leaders, current leaders as w e l l as p o l i c y m a k e r s i n sport. In a d d i t i o n , some modest r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w i l l be made c o n c e r n i n g the i d e n t i f i e d barriers. T h i s i n turn m a y facilitate and encourage the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f m o r e i n c l u s i v e p o l i c i e s w o r k i n g to change the androcentric practices that w o r k subtly to e x c l u d e w o m e n and other m i n o r i t i e s f r o m high level decision-making positions.  1.4 M E T H O D O L O G Y 1.4.1 E t h i c s E t h i c s a p p r o v a l f o r this study was r e c e i v e d b y the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o n January 30th, 2 0 0 6 . C o n s i d e r i n g the nature o f the study and the fact that questions investigated personal and therefore sensitive issues f o r the w o m e n , c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y was o f utmost c o n c e r n . O n the consent f o r m s (see A p p e n d i x 3) s i g n e d b y the participants, a c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y clause assured participants that their names w o u l d not be u s e d i n any p u b l i c a t i o n o f this study. F o r this reason, the participants are i d e n t i f i e d o n l y b y n u m b e r i n this d o c u m e n t and therefore, some o f the appendixes have been censored. It s h o u l d also  20  be noted that the participants' names were o m i t t e d f r o m the study d o c u m e n t s a n d r e p l a c e d b y reference n u m b e r s . A s a f i n a l p r e c a u t i o n , all study d o c u m e n t s have been kept i n a l o c k e d f i l i n g cabinet and all c o m p u t e r files are p a s s w o r d protected. 1.4.2 R e c r u i t m e n t procedures and participant selection In order to e x a m i n e the personal experiences o f h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d C a n a d i a n f e m a l e sporting leaders, it is necessary to speak to t h e m i n the f o r m o f i n t e r v i e w s . F o r this reason, I recruited w o m e n i n s i m i l a r h i g h l e v e l sporting leadership p o s i t i o n s a l l s e r v i n g i n the same h i g h l e v e l C a n a d i a n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n . Other f e m a l e respondents i n various sporting leadership p o s i t i o n s were approached w i t h an o f f e r to participate i n the study. M a n y o f these w o m e n were i d e n t i f i e d f r o m C A A W S ' ( C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d v a n c e m e n t o f W o m e n and Sport) yearly List of Most Influential Women in Sport and Physical Activity f o r the years 2 0 0 0 , 2 0 0 3 , 2 0 0 4 and 2 0 0 5 ; a list o f h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d w o m e n w h o have a c h i e v e d great success i n their sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n careers ( C A A W S , January 16, 2 0 0 7 ) . T h o u g h these w o m e n h a d perhaps not served i n the highest echelons o f sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , they possessed the necessary s k i l l s to succeed i n s p o r t i n g leadership nonetheless and h a d to potential to advance i f they w i s h e d . P o t e n t i a l respondents were e n c o u r a g e d to participate i n this study as it was their k n o w l e d g e that is essential i f w e are to better understand the role w o m e n have p l a y e d and do p l a y i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f C a n a d i a n sport. T h e y were also aware that this research is part o f a M a s t e r ' s thesis w h i c h w i l l a l l o w me to graduate f r o m the p r o g r a m . A total o f 13 participants were contacted through a f o r m a l letter m a i l e d to their h o m e or o f f i c e as w e l l as b y e-mail. S u c c e s s f u l l y , 12 o f these 13 w o m e n r e s p o n d e d a n d 10 w o m e n t o o k part i n the i n t e r v i e w i n g process. T w o o f the respondents were not able to  21  be i n t e r v i e w e d as there was a c o n f l i c t i n s c h e d u l i n g and was u n s u c c e s s f u l i n r e s c h e d u l i n g an i n t e r v i e w . T h e f e m a l e leaders w h o took part i n this study h a d h e l d r e g i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l , national and/or international l e v e l sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p o s i t i o n s w i t h m a n y o f the w o m e n h a v i n g h e l d p o s i t i o n s at each. A l l o f the respondent's names a n d contact i n f o r m a t i o n (e-mail and home/office addresses) were accessed f r o m internet search engines, personal contacts as w e l l as sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . O n c e this i n f o r m a t i o n was o r g a n i z e d , each o f the potential participants was contacted v i a an e-mail i n w h i c h I i n t r o d u c e d m y s e l f and b r i e f l y e x p l a i n e d the context o f the study. In a d d i t i o n , it i n d i c a t e d that a m o r e detailed letter h a d also been m a i l e d w h i c h w o u l d contain the s p e c i f i c details o f the study as w e l l as the procedure to take i f they w a n t e d to be i n v o l v e d . T h i s f o r m a l letter d e s c r i b e d the study procedures and p r o v i d e d the researcher's contact i n f o r m a t i o n a c c o m p a n i e d b y a consent f o r m to be returned to m e . O n c e they h a d been contacted, all o f the w o m e n r e s p o n d e d q u i c k l y and s h o w e d a great degree o f interest i n the study. T h e participants seemed receptive to m e e t i n g m e and t e l l i n g m e about their experiences i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as e v i d e n c e d b y the e-mail responses and return o f s i g n e d consent f o r m s . M a n y o f the w o m e n f o r w a r d e d m e their C V i n order to demonstrate their career paths i n sporting leadership. A f e w f e m a l e respondents also passed a l o n g i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h they b e l i e v e d were relevant to the study. In a d d i t i o n , m a n y o f t h e m also p r o v i d e d m e w i t h the names o f other f e m a l e leaders they thought m i g h t be useful f o r this study. O n c e a m a j o r i t y o f the out-of-town participants h a d agreed to be i n t e r v i e w e d , I began s c h e d u l i n g and c o n f i r m i n g i n t e r v i e w s a c c o r d i n g to the c i t y i n w h i c h the w o m e n l i v e d , g o i n g west to east f r o m V a n c o u v e r to C a l g a r y , R e g i n a and T o r o n t o .  22  1.4.3. I n t e r v i e w i n g process and data analysis In order to s o l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n on the career paths and experiences o f all participants, semi-structured, open-ended i n t e r v i e w s were used. I c o n d u c t e d a total o f ten i n t e r v i e w s lasting a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 Vi hours each w i t h o n lasting 3 hours f o r a total o f 17 hours and 4 minutes o f i n t e r v i e w m a t e r i a l . T h e i n t e r v i e w s w e r e c o n d u c t e d i n various settings. M o s t w e r e h e l d at the participants' o f f i c e w h i l e others w e r e at their h o m e and one t o o k place at a c o f f e e shop. It is b e l i e v e d that h o l d i n g the i n t e r v i e w s i n a setting o f the f e m a l e respondents' c h o i c e a l l o w e d t h e m to be i n an e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h they felt c o m f o r t a b l e . G u b r i u m and H o l s t e i n (2003) e x p l a i n : " T h e a i m o f the i n t e r v i e w e r is to d e r i v e , as o b j e c t i v e l y as p o s s i b l e , the respondent's own o p i n i o n s o f the subject matter i n q u e s t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n that the respondent w i l l r e a d i l y o f f e r and elaborate w h e n the ci rc u ms tan c e s are c o n d u c i v e . . . " (p.26). T h i s m e t h o d o l o g y thus a l l o w e d m e to answer some o f the research questions u s i n g h i g h l e v e l f e m a l e leaders' stories to investigate the issue o f under-representation h o p i n g that h i g h l i g h t i n g the career paths and s k i l l s o f w o m e n w h o h a d reached these p o s i t i o n s w o u l d l e a d to a better understanding o f those w h o are e x c l u d e d . Interestingly, one w o m a n c o m m e n t e d that p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n this study h a d g i v e n her the o p p o r t u n i t y to reflect o n her l i f e and career i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and that this had made her r e a l i z e that she had made a p o s i t i v e i m p a c t . She says: " . . .we d o n ' t w a n t to lose the stories, the stories are important. A n d , a n d I  e v e n f i n d it interesting w h e n I l o o k b a c k o n it, l i k e I was r e f l e c t i n g on it  y o u k n o w , before y o u c a m e . . .because at first I thought, oh I d o n ' t k n o w w h y she wants to talk to m e , l i k e I still t h i n k o f m y s e l f as y o u k n o w , a  little [administrator] w h o d i d all these things but I d o n ' t r e a l l y t h i n k o f  those things, they're j u s t part, they became a part o f m e " (Participant 0 0 6 ) .  23  I n t e r v i e w questions were i n f o r m e d b y the w o r k o f C a m e r o n (1996), M c K a y (1997), the I S L P and I O C (2004) and H a l l , C u l l e n and S l a c k (1990). It was b e l i e v e d that respondents s h o u l d feel c o m f o r t a b l e to speak freely about contentious issues w h i l e e n s u r i n g that the s t u d y ' s themes and s p e c i f i c points were d i s c u s s e d . T o this e n d , a general i n t e r v i e w guide was d e v e l o p e d f o r all o f the w o m e n (see A p p e n d i x 4) although the i n t e r v i e w questions were then i n d i v i d u a l l y t a i l o r e d f o r each participant i n order to e l i c i t im p o rtan t i n f o r m a t i o n about particular aspects o f their career. P r o b e s were also used to c l a r i f y s o m e responses or to d r i v e the conversation into m o r e d e t a i l . I began the i n t e r v i e w s b y p r o v i d i n g the participant w i t h a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the study and its purpose w h i l e r e m i n d i n g t h e m that they c o u l d w i t h d r a w f r o m the i n t e r v i e w at any t i m e w i t h o u t castigation. In a d d i t i o n , they were r e m i n d e d that their identities and responses w e r e c o n f i d e n t i a l and that they w o u l d r e m a i n a n o n y m o u s i n the write up o f the thesis. F i n a l l y , I o b t a i n e d p e r m i s s i o n to tape-record the session at w h i c h t i m e I turned o n the d e v i c e . T h e i n t e r v i e w was started w i t h some general questions about the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s i n i t i a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n sport and then m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y about p o s i t i o n s they h a d h e l d . T h i s was meant to keep the conversation light so that some rapport c o u l d be established between the researcher and the respondent w h i l e the s p e c i f i c questions p r o v i d e d m e w i t h s o m e c r e d i b i l i t y w i t h regards to m y understanding o f their career i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A s the i n t e r v i e w progressed, questions pertained to the w o m e n ' s s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as their perceptions o f the leadership s k i l l s necessary to succeed i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the i n t e r v i e w also p r o b e d the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s o p i n i o n s o f w o m e n ' s roles i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as w e l l some factors that h i n d e r their opportunities to advance into the highest levels o f sporting leadership.  24  The interviews were transcribed soon after the meeting and provided an initial reading of the data. Pamela Cawthorne (2001) has argued that: ".. .seeking to understand, interpret and report honestly the things people say and the things people do in all their 'messy complexity' enables deep and rich knowledge claims to be made. However, for the full richness of such claims to emerge, they must be mediated reflexively and selfconsciously through the purposes - and associated theoretical frameworks - researchers bring to their work" (p.67). For this reason, I took some field notes during the interview though the detailed notes were written immediately following the meeting. In this way, I was able to reflect on the positives and negatives of the interview and consider some of the discussion. This reflexive process allowed me to take away lessons from each interview and improve my interviewing skills in the process. In addition, I was able to remain aware of my shifting comprehension of the issues and measure my learning throughout the entire process. After the interview had been conducted, I mailed each participant a thank you card acknowledging their contributions to this study. Once all of the interviews had been transcribed, each was read and re-read in order to ensure that all of the relevant information had been selected and coded from each of them. A s the purpose of the study was to give a voice to women in sporting leadership, this was also reflected in the data analysis. A l l of the data was first coded by hand where a total of approximately 70 codes and sub-codes emerged. Content analysis was used to identify the most common topics as well as the themes emerging from the transcripts. Using Atlas T i , this information was more formally coded which made it much easier to analyze the data. A t this point, the themes were divided into chapters at which point I began to write up my findings. When choosing participant quotes, I focused on those that were most demonstrative of the participant's responses overall while ensuring that each  25  woman's experiences were evenly represented. Furthermore, when there were two opposing viewpoints concerning a particular issue, I selected quotes that were illustrative of each perspective to demonstrate the complexity of this issue. 1.5 C H A L L E N G E S A N D L I M I T A T I O N S O F T H E S T U D Y  Though the study procedures were an overall success, there are particular aspects of the methodology that might have affected the findings. First, the fact that only one interview was conducted with each woman means that there was very little time for the researcher to establish rapport with the interviewee. This could have influenced the findings as some of the respondents might not have trusted me enough to really open up about contentious issues that exist in high level sporting leadership. In addition, the respondents were all women holding a high level leadership position which means that some of the participants might have felt they had to be careful about what information they could divulge to me and therefore, might not have censored their answers or completely avoided some of the questions, particularly those about contentious issues. The fact that they were all in leadership positions also means that they have not been excluded from this domain and may not provide the same insight as a woman who has not reached this level of leadership. For this reason, future studies should include such participants to gain a broader understanding of women's under-representation in high level sporting leadership. Finally, it is also important that I situate myself as a researcher investigating the under-representation of women in sport administration. M y perspectives on this issue are inevitably shaped by my middle-class, French Canadian background in addition to my education, upbringing and life experiences inside and outside of sport. Likewise, my  26  inexperience as an interviewer also influenced my interviewer's responses, particularly during the first few interviews. For example, at times I did not follow up on responses that might have needed additional clarification. However, my interviewing skills did improve throughout this process and I believe that overall, the study was a success in generating a wealth of information on the careers and experiences of women in Canadian sport administration.  27  2.0 CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS In order to better understand the under representation o f w o m e n i n sporting leadership, it is essential to first r e v i e w the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f w o m e n i n C a n a d i a n sport because it has been established that w o m e n often enter sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as a result o f their i n v o l v e m e n t i n sport as athletes. T o this e n d , the O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t also p r o v i d e s an interesting area o f analysis because o f its far-reaching i n f l u e n c e g i v e n its m u l t i - b i l l i o n d o l l a r budget, i n a d d i t i o n to its w o r l d w i d e athlete base and t e l e v i s i o n audience. F o r this reason, the O l y m p i c G a m e s have been an o b v i o u s topic o f c r i t i c a l research where important f i n d i n g s have e n a b l e d us to better understand the under-representation o f w o m e n i n c o a c h i n g , o f f i c i a t i n g and sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e r e have been m a n y studies c o n d u c t e d i n a variety o f contexts that p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t to this research study. In an international context, six studies i n particular i n f o r m this thesis ( I S L P a n d I O C , 2 0 0 4 ; P f i s t e r et. a l . , 2 0 0 5 ; C a m e r o n , 1996; H o v d e n , 2 0 0 0 a , 2 0 0 0 b , 2 0 0 5 ; B i s c h o f f and R i n t a l a , 1994, 1 9 9 6 ; M c K a y , 1997). O n the other h a n d , three m a j o r C a n a d i a n studies ( H a l l , C u l l e n and S l a c k , 1 9 9 0 ; Sport C a n a d a , 1 9 9 1 ; M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n , 1990) p r o v i d e c r i t i c a l c o m p a r a t i v e data to assess the p o s i t i v e and negative transformations i n the C a n a d i a n sporting system and above a l l , its governance structures. M o r e o v e r , each o f these investigations is based on various theoretical f r a m e w o r k s ; m a n y o f w h i c h were pertinent to the f i n d i n g s o f this study.  2.1 WOMEN IN SPORT ADMINISTRATION T h e under-representation o f w o m e n i n sporting leadership has been w e l l d o c u m e n t e d i n both the n a t i o n a l and international contexts ( B i s c h o f f a n d R i n t a l a , 1994, 1996; C a m e r o n , 1996; H a l l , C u l l e n and S l a c k , 1 9 9 0 ; H o v d e n , 2 0 0 0 a , 2 0 0 0 b , 2 0 0 5 ; I S L P  28  and I O C , 2 0 0 4 ; M c K a y , 1 9 9 7 ; P f i s t e r et. a l . , 2 0 0 5 ; Sport C a n a d a , 1 9 9 1 ; M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n , 1990). F o r this reason, the literature r e v i e w w i l l first address studies c o n d u c t e d i n the international context and subsequently e x a m i n e studies c o n c e r n i n g the situation o f female sporting leaders i n C a n a d a . T o this e n d , the studies w i l l be d e s c r i b e d as to their general research questions and some o f their important f i n d i n g s . T h e s e particular studies also i n f o r m s o m e o f the s p e c i f i c arguments m a d e throughout the thesis a n d w i l l therefore be r e v i s i t e d i n later chapters. 2.1.1 Studies c o n d u c t e d i n the international context A t the international l e v e l , it is first important to e x a m i n e what can be c o n s i d e r e d the biggest and most c o m p l e x g o v e r n i n g structure i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n : the International O l y m p i c C o m m i t t e e . T h e O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t , represented a n d m a n a g e d b y the I O C , has been h e a v i l y c r i t i c i z e d f o r its efforts at gender equity and u n t i l recently, there had been n o s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the gender c o m p o s i t i o n o f their o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m e m b e r s h i p . A t its i n c e p t i o n , the I O C e x i s t e d as a ' m a l e - o n l y ' s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n : an o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r m e n and c o n t r o l l e d b y m e n . W i t h the rise o f the w o m e n ' s m o v e m e n t i n sport w h i c h then l e d to the establishment o f i mportant gender equity p o l i c i e s i n sport such as T i t l e I X i n the U n i t e d States and the B r i g h t o n D e c l a r a t i o n o n an international basis, the I O C was under great pressure to increase the n u m b e r o f f e m a l e athletes and leaders i n its o r g a n i z a t i o n . A s a result, it instituted a rule change i n 1973 w h i c h , f o r the first t i m e , a l l o w e d w o m e n to b e c o m e e l i g i b l e f o r m e m b e r s h i p i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n ; an important step i n o p e n i n g opportunities f o r w o m e n to participate i n O l y m p i c governance and setting the f u n d a m e n t a l standards o f gender e q u i t y f o r N a t i o n a l O l y m p i c  29  C o m m i t t e e s , International Federations and e v e r y other sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n related to the O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t . In his a n a l y s i s , L u c a s (1992) reports that: " A t the close o f the M o s c o w O l y m p i c G a m e s o f 1980, .. .there w e r e n o f e m a l e m e m b e r s on the O l y m p i c c o m m i t t e e , . . . w o m e n i n p o s i t i o n s o f p o w e r were nearly nonexistent i n N O C s and international federations, and . . . o n l y 3 % o f a l l o f f i c i a l s were w o m e n " (p. 133). T h e I O C w o u l d not elect its first f e m a l e m e m b e r s u n t i l 1981 and progress since has been v e r y s l o w , their n u m b e r s i n c r e a s i n g f r o m t w o i n 1981 to 6 i n 1990. In 1996, 7 o f the 9 4 I O C m e m b e r s ( 7 % ) were w o m e n w h i c h grew to nine o f 111 I O C m e m b e r s ( 8 % ) i n 1997. A s recently as 2 0 0 2 , this I O C c o u l d o n l y boast o f h a v i n g 15 w o m e n out o f their 113 I O C m e m b e r s h i p s ( 1 3 % ) . T h i s n u m b e r was again r e d u c e d i n 2 0 0 5 . T h e r e are c u r r e n t l y 10 f e m a l e I O C m e m b e r s s e r v i n g and o n l y 1 o f them on the E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e . O v e r its 109 year history, o n l y t w o w o m e n have ever h e l d a V i c e - P r e s i d e n c y w i t h i n the I O C ' s E x e c u t i v e B o a r d : A n i t a D e F r a n t z f r o m 1997-2001 and G u n i l l a L i n d b e r g , n e w l y elected i n 2 0 0 4 , s u p p o r t i n g c l a i m s that h i g h l e v e l f e m a l e sport administrators rarely gain p o w e r f u l and i n f l u e n t i a l p o s i t i o n s i n large sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( C a m e r o n , 1 9 9 6 ; M c K a y , 1 9 9 9 ; P f i s t e r et. a l . , 2 0 0 5 ; H o v d e n , 2 0 0 0 a ; M a c i n t o s h and B e a m i s h , 1990). T h o u g h the n u m b e r o f I O C m e m b e r s has fluctuated d u r i n g this t i m e , the general m e m b e r s h i p has never been less than 100 m e m b e r s and there have never been m o r e than 15 f e m a l e m e m b e r s s h o w i n g that f e m a l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n h i g h l e v e l international sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n is still very l i m i t e d .  2.1.1.1 The ISLP and I O C (2004) report on Women, Leadership and the Olympic Movement R e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d and p u b l i s h e d b y the I O C a n d the Institute o f Sport and L e i s u r e P o l i c y i n 2 0 0 4 a i m e d to c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n and statistics c o n c e r n i n g w o m e n ' s  30  roles i n O l y m p i c governance, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o l l o w i n g the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f gender e q u i t y targets. T h e p o l i c y stated that at least 1 0 % o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p o s i t i o n s s h o u l d be h e l d b y w o m e n . T h e report estimated that there were o n l y 251 f e m a l e N O C E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e m e m b e r s throughout the O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t (p. 17). G i v e n that N O C E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e s are t y p i c a l l y m a d e up o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 0 m e m b e r s and that there are o v e r 2 0 2 nations i n the O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t , this means w o m e n o n l y h o l d about 1 6 % o f the estimated 4 0 4 0 leadership p o s i t i o n s at the national l e v e l . Indeed, they reported that 7 1 % o f these w o m e n h a d been appointed after 1996. T h o u g h these statistics c l e a r l y reflect the flagrant m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n o f w o m e n i n a p o w e r f u l sport g o v e r n i n g b o d y , the report does not a n a l y z e the point that the I O C itself has f a i l e d to meet this p o l i c y b y not h a v i n g the 2 0 % it c a l l e d f o r b y 2 0 0 5 i n the targets. In contrast, the report p o i n t s to the absence o f f e m a l e leaders i n the N O C s as w e l l as the International Federations as the feeder organizations f u n d a m e n t a l l y responsible f o r the gender i m b a l a n c e w i t h i n the I O C stating: " . . .there is a h i e r a r c h y f r o m clubs at the base to r e g i o n a l , n a t i o n a l a n d  international federations, and to N O C s , C o n t i n e n t a l O l y m p i c A s s o c i a t i o n s and the I O C . .. .the N O C s are f a i l i n g to r e c o m m e n d w o m e n f o r  c o n s i d e r a t i o n as potential candidates and thus the I O C itself has restricted r o o m f o r m a n o e u v r e i n terms o f a p p o i n t i n g m o r e f e m a l e m e m b e r s " ( I S L P and I O C , 2 0 0 4 , p.88).  W i t h o u t a doubt, N O C s and I F ' s p l a y an important role i n the under-representation o f w o m e n i n sporting leadership. O n the other h a n d , it is also i mportant that the I O C as leader o f the O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t , take an active role i n i n c r e a s i n g f e m a l e representation i n its g o v e r n i n g bodies and ensure that its o w n o r g a n i z a t i o n e m b o d i e s the very p r i n c i p l e s and p o l i c i e s it creates a n d promotes. T h e y have yet to achieve this 1 0 % m i n i m u m target w i t h respect to w o m e n o n its E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e ( I S L P and I O C , 2 0 0 4 , p.64).  31  2.1.1.2 The German study on women in leadership by Pfister et. al (2005) P f i s t e r et. a l (2005) e x a m i n e d the n u m b e r o f G e r m a n f e m a l e sport administrators h o l d i n g any o f the 2 9 0 h o n o r a r y e x e c u t i v e positions and the 155 p a i d p o s i t i o n s i n G e r m a n Sports Federations. T h e y f o u n d that o n l y 19.7 % o f w o m e n h e l d e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s w h i l e they c o m p r i s e d 4 6 % o f m e m b e r s h o l d i n g p a i d p o s i t i o n s , (p.3) A t the O l y m p i c l e v e l , they c o n c l u d e d that: "[t]op-level c o m p e t i t i v e sports and the O l y m p i c s are quite c l e a r l y m a l e  d o m a i n s , w i t h o n l y one i n f i v e positions b e i n g h e l d b y w o m e n i n the O l y m p i c t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s " (Pfister et. a l . , 2 0 0 5 , p.3).  T h e i r analyses o f the w o m e n i n v o l v e d and their careers i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n y i e l d e d some interesting data w h i c h w i l l be referred to throughout this thesis. M o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , the situation d e s c r i b e d i n G e r m a n y m i m i c s the circumstances under w h i c h m a n y other studies d e s c r i b e d w o m e n ' s l i m i t e d participation i n h i g h l e v e l sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  2.1.1.3 Cameron's (1996) study of women in New Zealand voluntary sport management S i m i l a r l y , C a m e r o n (1996) studied w o m e n w h o h e l d p o s i t i o n s o n the national B o a r d s a n d E x e c u t i v e s i n the volunteer sector o f sport management i n N e w Z e a l a n d . S h e f o u n d that o n l y 2 0 % o f 6 1 0 volunteer national administrators w e r e f e m a l e . T h e s e f i n d i n g s c l e a r l y reflect the data p r o v i d e d on f e m a l e executives i n the G e r m a n study. S u r v e y data i n d i c a t e d that 6 3 % o f the 113 p a i d staff were w o m e n w o r k i n g as c l e r i c a l and administrative staff w i t h v e r y f e w o f t h e m h o l d i n g c o a c h i n g p o s i t i o n s ( C a m e r o n , 1996, p. 16). C o n v e r s e l y , statistics pertaining to the gender o f chairpersons o n the B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s illustrated a v e r y different situation. She f o u n d that 8 9 % o f n a t i o n a l directors were m e n and o f the seven females i n these p o s i t i o n s , six were i n w o m e n - o n l y  32  organizations (p. 16). T h i s is s i g n i f i c a n t as w o m e n ' s sports tend to be less p o w e r f u l as they have l o w e r budgets and f e w e r athletes.  2.1.1.4 Hovden's (2000a, 2000b, 2005) Norwegian studies of women in high level sport leadership H o v d e n (2005) studied w o m e n i n N o r w e g i a n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d f o u n d that o n l y 7 % o f the top leadership p o s i t i o n s are h e l d b y w o m e n w h i l e she estimates that they populate 2 8 % o f the national e x e c u t i v e boards o f N o r w e g i a n sport federations (p. 122123). F u r t h e r m o r e , she asserts that there has been n o s i g n i f i c a n t increase o f w o m e n h o l d i n g h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s since the m i d d l e o f the 1 9 9 0 ' s (p.19). In 2 0 0 0 , she p u b l i s h e d f i n d i n g s that related to the selection processes o f leaders i n the N o r w e g i a n C o n f e d e r a t i o n o f Sports ( N C S ) , an u m b r e l l a o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r o r g a n i z e d sport i n N o r w a y . H e r analysis y i e l d e d c r u c i a l data w h i c h greatly i n f o r m s the literature o n career paths and leadership s k i l l s section o f this thesis.  2.1.1.5 Bischoff and Rintala's (1994,1996) studies of women in Executive positions in the United States In the U n i t e d States, B i s c h o f f and R i n t a l a ( 1 9 9 4 , 1996) e x a m i n e d w o m e n ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g roles, m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y as Presidents and E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r s , i n U S O l y m p i c sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e y f o u n d that progress has been sporadic since the institution o f T i t l e I X i n 1972. In particular, they p o i n t e d out that d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f 1970 to 1990, o n l y 1 0 . 7 % o f E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r s and 1 0 % o f Presidents w e r e w o m e n i n the U n i t e d States national g o v e r n i n g b o d i e s (p.85). M o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , between 1970-1995, w o m e n made up 1 1 . 6 % o f E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r s and a mere 8 . 2 % o f Presidents i n the U S O C (p.82). In a d d i t i o n , they f o u n d that most o f these  33  opportunities f o r w o m e n c a m e i n a f e w selected sports. F i n a l l y , they s h o w e d that although o v e r this 25 year p e r i o d , the total n u m b e r o f leadership p o s i t i o n s d i d increase, v e r y f e w o r g a n i z a t i o n s also increased their o v e r a l l percentage o f w o m e n i n h i g h l e v e l sporting leadership. 2.1.1.6 G e n d e r s t u d i e s i n C a n a d i a n , A u s t r a l i a n a n d N e w Z e a l a n d s p o r t b y M c K a y (1997) In his 1997 study o f gender i n C a n a d i a n , A u s t r a l i a n and N e w Z e a l a n d s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , M c K a y (1997) used i n t e r v i e w s to e x a m i n e the androcentric practices that e x i s t e d and h i g h l i g h t the h e g e m o n i c m a s c u l i n e culture that it reproduces. H i s study p r o v i d e s an important analysis o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s as w e l l as first hand accounts o f m a l e and f e m a l e m a n a g e r s ' perceptions o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l culture. M c K a y ' s (1997) f i n d i n g s are e s p e c i a l l y relevant to the section d i s c u s s i n g barriers to w o m e n ' s access and p r o g r e s s i o n i n sporting leadership. 2.1.2 Studies c o n d u c t e d i n the C a n a d i a n , c o n t e x t In the C a n a d i a n context, several studies have i n v e s t i g a t e d the n u m b e r o f f e m a l e leaders i n national l e v e l sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s and suggested various reasons f o r their under-representation i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( H a l l , C u l l e n a n d S l a c k , 1 9 9 0 ; Sport C a n a d a , 1 9 9 1 ; M c K a y , 1 9 9 7 ; M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n , 1990). In a d d i t i o n , most also c o n s i d e r e d the status and role o f w o m e n i n C a n a d i a n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 2.1.2.1 H a l l , C u l l e n a n d S l a c k ' s (1990) s t u d y o f w o m e n i n C a n a d i a n n a t i o n a l sporting organizations F i r s t , H a l l , C u l l e n and S l a c k ' s (1990) study entitled The Gender Structure of National Sporting Organizations  e x a m i n e d the under representation o f w o m e n i n  C a n a d i a n sporting leadership. U s i n g questionnaires sent to m a l e a n d f e m a l e volunteer  34  administrators and e x e c u t i v e s , they c o l l e c t e d i n f o r m a t i o n o n the i n f l u e n c e o f the e n v i r o n m e n t , structure, culture, and resource a l l o c a t i o n on the opportunities f o r w o m e n i n C a n a d i a n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e y f o u n d that w o m e n c o n s i s t e d o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y one t h i r d o f the volunteer sector i n C a n a d i a n amateur sport a n d that m o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , the m e n o u t n u m b e r the w o m e n three to one i n most N S O s . T h e y also p o i n t e d out that although organizations c o n t i n u e d to increase the n u m b e r o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l opportunities f o r both m e n and w o m e n , the d o m i n a n t gender structure r e m a i n e d the same (p.l).  2.1.2.2 Sport Canada's (1991) survey of women in sport leadership Sport C a n a d a (1991) c o n d u c t e d a national survey i n order to assess the status o f w o m e n i n leadership positions i n C a n a d i a n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the t h i r d since 1981 addressing this issue. T h e first report f o u n d that w o m e n w e r e severely under-represented i n the technical and administrative side o f sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s o m e steps w e r e put i n place to increase the n u m b e r o f w o m e n i n leadership p o s i t i o n s . B y 1 9 8 5 , Sport C a n a d a reported that the status o f w o m e n had been i m p r o v e d . T h e increase o f f e m a l e leaders h o w e v e r h a d c o m e o n l y i n s p e c i f i c leadership p o s i t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y as p r o g r a m c o ordinators and leaders o f the s m a l l e r sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Indeed, w o m e n r e m a i n e d v i r t u a l l y i n v i s i b l e i n technical and c o a c h i n g p o s i t i o n s . F i n a l l y , Sport C a n a d a ' s 1988 report presented data o n the n u m b e r o f w o m e n i n different leadership p o s i t i o n s w h i l e c o n s i d e r i n g their salary as w e l l as the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l budgets a n d p o l i c i e s i n place. Interestingly, they s h o w e d that w o m e n accounted f o r 2 9 % o f a l l senior e x e c u t i v e members ( C E O , Director General, Management Director), 2 5 % of Technical Directors, 2 3 % o f H i g h P e r f o r m a n c e D i r e c t o r s , 4 0 % o f M a r k e t i n g D i r e c t o r s , 1 3 % o f N a t i o n a l team  35  H e a d coaches and 6 8 % o f N a t i o n a l P r o g r a m C o o r d i n a t o r s ( p . l ) . I n a d d i t i o n , the report s h o w e d that a m o n g volunteer administrators, w o m e n c o m p r i s e d 2 5 % o f B o a r d m e m b e r s and 2 4 % o f E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e members i n national sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s (p.4) therefore the report c o n c l u d e d that the f i n d i n g s : " . . . p o i n t to d i f f e r e n t i a l opportunities f o r w o m e n leaders and suggest[s] u n d e r l y i n g b l o c k e d opportunities f o r w o m e n . T h e s e b l o c k e d opportunities affect the e f f i c i e n c y and o v e r a l l performance o f national sport and fitness organizations and restrict the p o o l o f h u m a n resources f r o m w h i c h they can d r a w " (Sport C a n a d a , 1 9 9 1 , p.27). T h e s e statistics are i l l u s t r a t i v e o f the w a y s i n w h i c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s have c o n t r o l l e d the entry o f w o m e n i n sport administration and thus, the roles they have w i t h i n the organization.  2.1.2.3 Macintosh and Whitson's (1990) study of Canada's sporting system A n o t h e r important C a n a d i a n study c o n d u c t e d b y M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n (1990) f o c u s e d o n p o l i c y m a k i n g i n C a n a d i a n national s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s and h i g h l i g h t e d the persistent e x c l u s i o n o f w o m e n f r o m sporting leadership even after the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f gender equity p o l i c i e s . T h e y e l i c i t e d the perspectives o f sporting leaders i n leadership p o s i t i o n s to better understand the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g processes and the factors i n f l u e n c i n g those m a k i n g the d e c i s i o n s . In the s i x national sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s they s t u d i e d , these authors f o u n d that: " M a l e s o c c u p i e d a l l o f the s i x c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r p o s i t i o n s , 8 8 % o f the  technical d i r e c t o r . . .jobs, a l l o f the posts as head national c o a c h , and 8 1 % o f the make-up o f the b o a r d o f directors. In the p o w e r f u l e x e c u t i v e  .  c o m m i t t e e s o f these associations, males c o m p r i s e d 9 6 % [of m e m b e r s ] " ( M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n , 1990, p.61).  In a d d i t i o n , they p r o v i d e valuable insight into f e m a l e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' careers i n C a n a d i a n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  36  It is therefore evident i n a l l o f these studies that f e w w o m e n have h e l d h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n both i n C a n a d a a n d w o r l d w i d e and have thus little i n f l u e n c e and p o w e r o v e r w o m e n ' s sporting experiences. D e s p i t e a l l o f the efforts o n b e h a l f o f w o m e n , there have o n l y been slight changes o f the gender c o m p o s i t i o n i n the o v e r a l l management o f sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e s e studies h o w e v e r p r o v i d e context to the present study as w e l l as c o m p a r a t i v e data f o r the f i n d i n g s presented i n the f o l l o w i n g chapters.  2.2 C A R E E R P A T H S A N D L E A D E R S H I P A T T R I B U T E S : A G E N E R A L OVERVIEW 2.2.1 T h e b a c k g r o u n d o f w o m e n i n sporting leadership: W h a t the literature tells us about f e m a l e leaders w h o b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n A s m e n t i o n e d , there have been a n u m b e r o f studies e x a m i n i n g the underrepresentation o f w o m e n i n sport administration at various levels o f the s p o r t i n g s y s t e m ; most i n v e s t i g a t i n g the entry and consequent career path o f m a n y m a l e and f e m a l e leaders. R e s e a r c h was thus able to p r o f i l e the people w h o are i n v o l v e d i n sport a n d the m a n y characteristics and attributes t y p i c a l o f m e n and w o m e n i n h i g h l e v e l s p o r t i n g leadership. S p e c i f i c a l l y , w o r k b y M c K a y (1997), C a m e r o n (1996), H a l l , C u l l e n a n d S l a c k ( 1 9 9 0 ) , M a c i n t o s h and B e a m i s h (1990), I S L P and I O C (2004) as w e l l as P f i s t e r et. al (2005) e x a m i n e d w o m e n i n national and/or international l e v e l sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and a l l f o u n d that these female leaders sometimes possessed s i m i l a r personal b a c k g r o u n d s and qualities w h i c h a f f o r d e d t h e m the opportunities to participate at this l e v e l o f governance. F i r s t , the age o f f e m a l e leaders is an important detail because it h i g h l i g h t s the length o f experience needed to reach h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s and p r o v i d e s an i d e a o f the e x p e c t e d p r o g r e s s i o n o f w o m e n ' s career paths i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y  37  s p e a k i n g , the average age f o r f e m a l e leaders i n v o l v e d i n these studies r a n g e d f r o m the late 30s to m i d 50s. M o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y , i n C a m e r o n ' s (1996) study, the average age o f f e m a l e respondents was 4 8 years o l d (p.21) w h i l e M c K a y (1997) c o n f i r m e d that the m a j o r i t y o f f e m a l e administrators w h o participated i n his study w e r e i n their thirties and forties (p.48). L i k e w i s e , the I S L P and I O C (2004) study reported that respondents h a d a m e a n age o f 4 9 . 4 years a n d r e m a r k e d that though the age range o f f e m a l e leaders spanned f r o m 25 to 85 years o l d , there were o n l y 12 respondents under the age o f 35 (p. 18). T h i s is i n d i c a t i v e o f the vast experience needed b y those administrators at the international l e v e l . Indeed, M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n (1990) reported that m a l e administrators, w h o c o m p r i s e d 7 5 % o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l N S O staff, were quite y o u n g , t y p i c a l l y i n their m i d to late 30s (p. 146). W o m e n on the other h a n d , were o n average 5 Vi years y o u n g e r than the m a l e administrators. F i n a l l y , P f i s t e r et. al (2005) c o n c l u d e d that 8 0 % o f all G e r m a n administrators (male and female) were between the ages o f 36 to 65 years w i t h the average age b e i n g 55 years o l d . W h e n they c o m p a r e d the age o f f e m a l e administrators to that o f the m e n , they f o u n d that w o m e n were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 years y o u n g e r than their m a l e counterparts. Interestingly, they also reported that the age cohort f o r the o v e r 72year-old e x e c u t i v e m e m b e r s was e x c l u s i v e l y m a l e (p.24) h i g h l i g h t i n g the c o n t i n u e d existence o f an o l d b o y s n e t w o r k and the fact that m e n i n p o w e r tend to keep their p o s i t i o n s f o r l o n g e r periods o f time. S e c o n d , f a m i l i a l status as w e l l as the dual careers o f j o b and m o t h e r h o o d has been one o f the p i v o t a l points o f the f e m i n i s t argument f o r the under-representation o f w o m e n i n m a n y areas. W i t h regard to f a m i l y status and m o t h e r h o o d , C a m e r o n (1996) underscores its i m p o r t a n c e to w o m e n i n sport leadership stating:  38  " . . . f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d p r o v i d e s (or l i m i t s ) a v a i l a b i l i t y o f m a t e r i a l a n d  other sources w h i c h facilitate sports p a r t i c i p a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y at a h i g h  l e v e l , a n d s e c o n d l y , f a m i l y is where i n d i v i d u a l s receive those beliefs a n d values w h i c h together foster and place value o n an i d e o l o g y o f  participation a n d a c h i e v e m e n t " (p.36).  T h e I S L P a n d I O C (2004) report also supported her f i n d i n g s as respondents i n their study d i s c u s s e d the s i g n i f i c a n t i m p a c t o f support f r o m their parents as s o c i a l i z i n g agents' w h o were responsible f o r their i n i t i a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n sport (p.47). S i m i l a r l y , the G e r m a n study revealed that o n l y a m i n o r i t y o f administrators ( 1 1 % w o m e n and 4 % m e n ) h a d not participated i n sport as c h i l d r e n (Pfister et. a l . , 2 0 0 5 , p.9). O v e r a l l , it was f o u n d that m a l e administrators were m o r e l i k e l y to be m a r r i e d a n d have co-dependents than f e m a l e sport administrators. M c K a y (1997) f o u n d that nearly a l l o f the m e n but o n l y two-thirds o f the w o m e n were m a r r i e d or i n de facto relationships w i t h dependent c h i l d r e n (p.48-49). S i m i l a r l y , C a m e r o n (1996) f o u n d that f e m a l e sport administrators were less l i k e l y to be m a r r i e d o r have dependents than other w o m e n their age (p.60). P f i s t e r et. a l . (2005) f o u n d that 8 7 % o f m a l e administrators w e r e m a r r i e d c o m p a r e d to o n l y 5 7 % o f the w o m e n whereas 2 0 % o f f e m a l e administrators w e r e single w h i l e o n l y 6 % o f the m e n were not i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p (p.9). T h e y s u m m e d u p these f i n d i n g s o f their G e r m a n study stating that: " . . . w o m e n i n leadership p o s i t i o n s are s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e often ' s i n g l e s ' . .. . 6 7 % o f the f e m a l e but as m a n y as 8 3 % o f the m a l e leaders have  c h i l d r e n a n d 9 0 % o f the fathers reported that it w a s m a i n l y their w i v e s w h o l o o k e d after the c h i l d r e n . These results indicate that w o m e n have  m o r e d i f f i c u l t y i n b a l a n c i n g the triple b u r d e n o f f a m i l y , p r o f e s s i o n a n d v o l u n t a r y w o r k . " (Pfister et. a l . , 2 0 0 5 , p.25)  T h i s seems to be m o r e o f an issue at the r e g i o n a l a n d national l e v e l as e v i d e n c e d b y the I S L P a n d I O C report w h i c h indicates that 7 0 % o f the s a m p l e w o m e n w e r e i n a de facto r e l a t i o n s h i p a n d that a s i m i l a r percentage h a d one or m o r e c h i l d r e n . It s h o u l d also be  39  n o t e d that this f i n d i n g c o u l d be i n f l u e n c e d b y the s a m p l e o f respondents i n this international study as they are o l d e r a n d have h a d m o r e t i m e to establish their f a m i l y . T h i r d , the female leaders' l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l status have been i d e n t i f i e d as tertiary q u a l i f i c a t i o n s necessary to gain entry into s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y those at the h i g h e r l e v e l s . M o s t a l l o f the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d studies f o u n d that both m a l e a n d female sport administrators were w e l l educated ( C a m e r o n , 1996; I S L P a n d I O C , 2 0 0 4 ; M a c i n t o s h a n d W h i t s o n , 1 9 9 0 ; P f i s t e r et. a l . , 2 0 0 5 ) a n d m a n y h a d higher levels o f education than that o f the average p o p u l a t i o n (Pfister et. a l . , 2 0 0 5 , p.9). In their study, M a c i n t o s h a n d W h i t s o n (1990) f o u n d that m e n a n d w o m e n h a d c o m p a r a b l e educational b a c k g r o u n d s where a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 0 % o f respondents h a d a u n i v e r s i t y degree a n d another 5 0 % h a d a master o r h i g h e r l e v e l degree (p. 146). T h e I S L P and I O C (2004) h a d s i m i l a r data where 3 5 % o f f e m a l e administrators h a d a u n i v e r s i t y degree a n d 2 2 % h a d postgraduate degrees. M o s t administrators w e r e also f o u n d to be i n p a i d e m p l o y m e n t , u s u a l l y i n the h i g h e r echelons o f p r o f e s s i o n a l careers ( M c K a y , 1 9 9 7 ; C a m e r o n , 1996; P f i s t e r et. a l . , 2005). T h i s b a c k g r o u n d was c o n s i d e r e d b e n e f i c i a l to their sport leadership w o r k as m a n y respondents reported u s i n g their p r o f e s s i o n a l o f f i c e spaces to host meetings and p e r f o r m administrative tasks such as p h o t o c o p y i n g , f a x i n g , a n d telephone c a l l s f o r issues related to sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( C a m e r o n , 1 9 9 6 , p.22). M o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , a n u m b e r o f studies f o u n d that most f e m a l e s p o r t i n g leaders were also i n p a i d w o r k . C a m e r o n (1996) states that h a l f o f the w o m e n i n her study h a d f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t w h i l e a s m a l l percentage were i n part-time p a i d w o r k . L i k e w i s e , the I S L P and I O C (2004) study f o u n d that 6 3 % o f f e m a l e leaders were i n e m p l o y m e n t w i t h 4 8 % w o r k i n g f u l l - t i m e and 1 5 % part time. In the G e r m a n study, P f i s t e r et. a l . (2005) noted  40  that 6 4 % o f their respondents were i n full-time e m p l o y m e n t a n d most h e l d h i g h p o s i t i o n s i n their professions. Interestingly, they also p o i n t e d out that most f e m a l e administrators were i n v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l professions w h i l e their m a l e counterparts are u s u a l l y e m p l o y e d i n business a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e professions (p.9). T h e r e f o r e , this does indicate that m a n y w o m e n j u g g l e f a m i l y , p r o f e s s i o n a n d their sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w o r k , whether p a i d or volunteer. A l s o o f interest to this study w a s w o m e n ' s past experiences i n sport as athletes. In 1990, M a c i n t o s h a n d W h i t s o n (1990) f o u n d that m a n y m o r e m a l e than f e m a l e administrators brought w i t h t h e m this athletic b a c k g r o u n d . " A b o u t one-quarter o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l staff b r o u g h t personal  international-level sport experience to their j o b s . .. . W h e n c o m p a r e d to her  m a l e counterpart. . . . [ w o m e n ] less often possessed n a t i o n a l l e v e l o r h i g h e r personal sport e x p e r i e n c e . . . " ( M a c i n t o s h a n d W h i t s o n , 1 9 9 0 , p.146).  Interestingly, this pattern seems to have c h a n g e d o v e r the past fifteen years. R e c e n t studies such as C a m e r o n (1996), P f i s t e r et. a l . (2005) as w e l l as the I S L P a n d I O C (2004), investigated administrators athletic b a c k g r o u n d a n d f o u n d that though w o m e n entered sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n a variety o f w a y s , a s i g n i f i c a n t n u m b e r o f t h e m w e r e i n i t i a l l y i n v o l v e d as a result o f their i n v o l v e m e n t i n sport, p a r t i c u l a r l y those w i t h a h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e athletic b a c k g r o u n d . T h e y also established that m a n y f e m a l e leaders h a d participated i n elite sport at r e g i o n a l , national a n d international levels ( I S L P a n d I O C , 2 0 0 4 ; P f i s t e r et. a l . , 2 0 0 5 ) . In fact, the I S L P and I O C (2004) study r e v e a l e d that 8 1 . 8 % o f their f e m a l e respondents h a d been c o m p e t i t i v e athletes o f w h i c h 4 5 % h a d c o m p e t e d at the international l e v e l (p. 19). T h e y c o n c l u d e d that: " T h e sporting b a c k g r o u n d o f w o m e n r e c r u i t e d . . . c l e a r l y indicates the  i m p o r t a n c e o f a b a c k g r o u n d as an elite p e r f o r m e r f o r w o m e n . It is  suggested.. .that there is m o r e onus p l a c e d o n h a v i n g a b a c k g r o u n d as an  41  elite p e r f o r m e r i n the case o f w o m e n than o f m e n " ( I S L P a n d I O C , 2 0 0 4 , p.37). O n the other h a n d , P f i s t e r et. a l . (2005) also f o u n d that o n l y some o f the s p o r t i n g leaders h a d c o m p e t e d at the national and international levels h o w e v e r they f o u n d n o major differences a m o n g m a l e and female administrators i n terms o f their athletic b a c k g r o u n d s (p. 10). T h i s h i g h l i g h t s an important difference i n leadership q u a l i f i c a t i o n s between national and international sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Interestingly, C a m e r o n (1996) also points out that almost a l l o f her research participants began their w o r k as sport administrators i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the sport i n w h i c h they h a d been i n v o l v e d (p.40). T h i s statement again demonstrates the i m p o r t a n c e o f girls and w o m e n ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n sport at the participatory l e v e l as w e l l as c o a c h i n g , m a n a g i n g and o f f i c i a t i n g . In this w a y , w o m e n ' s athletic b a c k g r o u n d s seem to p l a y an important role i n their c h o i c e s to b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and progress into h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s . F e m a l e athletes thus p r o v i d e a p o o l o f p o s s i b l e candidates to f i l l leadership p o s i t i o n s i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s , g i v e n that successful athletes have recently been r e c r u i t e d to b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f their sport. H o w e v e r , it does leave a large group o f w o m e n w h o do not necessarily have an elite athletic b a c k g r o u n d but possess excellent m a n a g e r i a l and leadership s k i l l s and have a great understanding o f the s p o r t i n g system. T h i s issue does need to be addressed i f o r g a n i z a t i o n s want to increase the n u m b e r o f potential f e m a l e candidates f o r h i g h l e v e l s p o r t i n g leadership p o s i t i o n s . 2.2.2 E n t r y and p r o g r e s s i o n into h i g h l e v e l sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p o s i t i o n s M a n y studies c o n d u c t e d o n w o m e n i n sporting leadership have attempted to trace the career paths o f w o m e n ( C a m e r o n , 1996; P f i s t e r et. a l . , 2 0 0 5 ; H o v d e n 2 0 0 0 a , 2 0 0 0 b ) . M u c h research has e x a m i n e d the w a y s i n w h i c h w o m e n are recruited to sporting  42  organizations and p a r t i c u l a r l y into h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s . A s was j u s t d i s c u s s e d , m a n y f e m a l e leaders i n i t i a l l y enter sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as a result o f their athletic participation i n sports. T o this e n d , the I S L P and I O C (2004) f o u n d that there h a d been a s i g n i f i c a n t effort to recruit w o m e n w h o were already i n v o l v e d as athlete representatives, w h i c h they suggest is a ' m o r e gender b a l a n c e d area o f r e c r u i t m e n t ' (p.37). H o v d e n (2000a) studied the gendered selection processes i n N o r w e g i a n s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . She e x a m i n e d the criteria most often used f o r the selection o f candidates f o r sporting leadership p o s i t i o n s and f o u n d that they seemed to be advantageous f o r m a l e administrators. T h e most evident was i n c u m b e n c y w h i c h a l l o w e d m e m b e r s to stand f o r re-election. She f o u n d that m a l e administrators were m o r e l i k e l y to stand f o r re-election and h a d l o n g e r average t i m e periods o f m e m b e r s h i p than f e m a l e m e m b e r s (p.77). H e r analysis o f the most c o m m o n selection strategies p e r c e i v e d b y s p o r t i n g leaders revealed that m a n y t i m e s , candidates were recruited f r o m n e t w o r k s w h i c h not s u r p r i s i n g l y , were m a l e d o m i n a t e d . In another article, H o v d e n (2005) reports that m o s t selection c o m m i t t e e s w e r e m a i n l y p o p u l a t e d b y m a l e administrators and all o f t h e m had a m a l e leader. T h e s e processes therefore reproduce and m a i n t a i n the t r a d i t i o n a l gender order i n sport administration. H a r t m a n n - T e w s and C o m b r i n k (2005) studied the under representation o f w o m e n i n sport g o v e r n i n g bodies i n order to better understand the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f recruitment and a f f i r m a t i v e action. T h e y c o n c l u d e d that 2 m a i n procedures w e r e u s e d to recruit f e m a l e m e m b e r s : 1) a restricted procedure where the President selects m e m b e r s o f the E x e c u t i v e b o a r d and 2) an open procedure where several candidates are n o m i n a t e d f o r a p o s i t i o n f r o m w h i c h a selection c o m m i t t e e and thus, the o r g a n i z a t i o n is i n v o l v e d i n r e c r u i t i n g  43  m e m b e r s (p.74). It is therefore o b v i o u s that open procedures are m o r e c o n d u c i v e to the entry o f f e m a l e administrators. F i n a l l y , the authors o f the I S L P and I O C (2004) report suggest 3 general w a y s i n w h i c h female leaders are recruited to N O C E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e s : 1) n o m i n a t e themselves f o r e l e c t i o n or are i n v i t e d to stand, 2) as a result o f their athlete representative role or as I O C m e m b e r s , 3) a m i x t u r e of these routes, u n d e r s c o r i n g the important role o f senior administrators i n e n c o u r a g i n g , a s k i n g , n o m i n a t i n g and a p p o i n t i n g w o m e n to leadership p o s i t i o n s i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . N o n e t h e l e s s , m a n y sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s have taken measures to increase the n u m b e r o f w o m e n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p o s i t i o n s such as a d o p t i n g p o l i c i e s w h i c h has u n d o u b t e d l y been a p o s i t i v e step i n r e c r u i t i n g m o r e w o m e n to sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . C a m e r o n (1996) f o u n d that m a n y f e m a l e sporting leaders f o l l o w a s o m e w h a t linear bureaucratic path into leadership positions w h i c h oftentimes b e g i n as c o m p e t i t i v e athletes and/or i n v o l v e m e n t i n c l u b or r e g i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and e v e n t u a l l y p r o g r e s s i n g to the p r o v i n c i a l , national and international l e v e l . She describes h o w w o m e n u s u a l l y b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f sport at the c l u b or r e g i o n a l l e v e l and that once they have attained an e x e c u t i v e l e v e l p o s i t i o n w i t h i n this o r g a n i z a t i o n , they are able to m o v e onto the r e g i o n a l g o v e r n i n g b o d y (p.42). A c c o r d i n g to this author, it was often at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l w e r e w o m e n i n her study seemed to experience barriers to advancement. She does note h o w e v e r , that p r o g r e s s i o n to national sports a d m i n i s t r a t i o n became a v i a b l e o p t i o n f o r w o m e n w h o h a d adapted to the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l culture and were persistent i n their ascension to h i g h e r leadership p o s i t i o n s . She f o u n d that over h a l f o f her participants h a d f o l l o w e d the club-regional-national a d m i n i s t r a t i v e career path  44  (p.42). S i m i l a r l y , P f i s t e r et. a l . (2005) also reported that female leaders i n G e r m a n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o l l o w e d ' a f a i r l y t y p i c a l pattern o f p r o m o t i o n ' (p. 13) where most progressed f r o m c l u b l e v e l to r e g i o n a l level and f r o m there, to the n a t i o n a l a n d i n some cases, e v e n international l e v e l . Indeed, the I S L P a n d I O C (2004) report i n d i c a t e d that: " . . .the most s i g n i f i c a n t f o r m o f leadership experience o f w o m e n recruited to N O C E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e s is w o r k w i t h the national f e d e r a t i o n s . . . " (p. 19). A l t h o u g h the c l u b - r e g i o n a l - national m o d e l o f p r o g r e s s i o n was t y p i c a l f o r most sport administrators, C a m e r o n (1996) i n particular, d i d note that f o r s o m e w o m e n , the paths a n d opportunities i n sport administration were interestingly v a r i e d (p.51). E i t h e r w a y , administrators i n h i g h l e v e l leadership positions have been i n v o l v e d i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r m a n y years w h i c h suggests that leaders have to acquire a considerable amount o f experience i n order to reach h i g h l e v e l sport o r g a n i z a t i o n s . " A s a rule, the w a y up to the higher echelons was m a r k e d b y a r e l a t i v e l y  l o n g q u a l i f y i n g p e r i o d i n w h i c h they h a d to p r o v e their l o y a l t y , d i s p l a y a w i l l i n g n e s s to w o r k h a r d a n d s h o w s u c c e s s " (Pfister et. a l . , 2 0 0 5 , p. 13).  C a m e r o n (1996) e x a m i n e d the average length o f service f o r s p o r t i n g leaders a n d f o u n d that most w o m e n i n h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s h a d h e l d a p o s i t i o n o n a p r o v i n c i a l e x e c u t i v e b o d y f o r an average o f 10-12 years (p.42).This seems to be the n o r m f o r most sport administrators a s p i r i n g to top leadership positions though it w a s p e r c e i v e d that w o m e n w e r e often h e l d to a m u c h higher standard ( M c K a y , 1 9 9 7 ; P f i s t e r et. a l . , 2 0 0 5 ) . F i n a l l y , C a m e r o n (1996) also investigated female leaders' future aspirations i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Interestingly, she f o u n d that o n l y three o f the 3 9 w o m e n i n her study w a n t e d to progress into a h i g h e r p o s i t i o n w h i l e another six said they m i g h t be interested i f such a p o s i t i o n was o f f e r e d to t h e m (p.47). S i m i l a r l y , the I S L P a n d I O C (2004) study  45  f o u n d that though some w o m e n wanted to continue their w o r k i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to m a k e a d i f f e r e n c e , v e r y f e w aspired to progress into m o r e senior p o s i t i o n s or m o v e up the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l hierarchy (p.67). S e v e r a l female participants i n the study d i d indicate that they were frustrated w i t h their positions and were not l i k e l y to c o n t i n u e i n sporting leadership. O n the other h a n d , P f i s t e r et. a l . (2005) reported that 5 0 % o f their interviewees aspired to progress into h i g h leadership p o s i t i o n s (p. 14). In this w a y , these studies also p r o v i d e important data o n various barriers that deter or i n h i b i t w o m e n f r o m entering h i g h l e v e l s p o r t i n g leadership p o s i t i o n s . 2.2.3 L e a d e r s h i p s k i l l s o f f e m a l e sporting leaders S i n c e o n l y s o m e w o m e n ever reach the highest p o s i t i o n s i n s p o r t i n g leadership, it becomes essential to discuss the leadership s k i l l s and styles p e r c e i v e d as r e q u i r e d f o r such roles. A s has been m e n t i o n e d , the literature indicates that most h i g h l e v e l administrators also h o l d i n f l u e n t i a l positions i n their professional o c c u p a t i o n s ( M c K a y , 1 9 9 7 ; H o v d e n , 2 0 0 0 a , 2 0 0 0 b ; P f i s t e r et. a l . , 2 0 0 5 ; M a c i n t o s h a n d W h i t s o n , 1 9 9 0 ; I S L P and I O C , 2 0 0 4 ) . P f i s t e r et. a l . (2005) i n particular noted that f e m a l e leaders were able to a p p l y the s k i l l s they d e v e l o p e d i n their p r o f e s s i o n a l careers to their sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w o r k . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a p o s i t i o n i n the upper echelons o f professions is a preferred q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r s p o r t i n g leadership (p.13). S i m i l a r l y , C a m e r o n (1996) reported that m a n y f e m a l e respondents spoke o f b e i n g able to transfer s k i l l s such as o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and f i n a n c i a l management as w e l l as p u b l i c s p e a k i n g f r o m their p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n to their w o r k i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (p.95). M u c h research supports the n o t i o n that business and administrative c a p a b i l i t i e s are essential f o r g a i n i n g entry to h i g h l e v e l sporting organizations. In fact, m a n y authors d i s c u s s e d the i m p a c t o f the c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n and  46  the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s o n the s h i f t i n g leadership s k i l l s a n d styles r e q u i r e d to be s u c c e s s f u l i n sport leadership at its highest l e v e l ( H o v d e n , 2 0 0 0 a , 2 0 0 0 b ; M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n , 1 9 9 0 ; I S L P a n d I O C , 2 0 0 4 ; C a m e r o n , 1996). A s early as 1990, M a c i n t o s h a n d W h i t s o n (1990) reported that f i n a n c i a l expertise a n d f u n d r a i s i n g experience h a d b e c o m e the most desirable qualities f o r potential sport administrators a n d m u c h less attention was p a i d to their athletic b a c k g r o u n d (p.68). B e c a u s e o f the gendered structure o f the C a n a d i a n l a b o u r force, m e n were most l i k e l y to meet these credentials. T o this e n d , H a l l (1996) asserts that: " . . .the direct a n d o n g o i n g intervention o f the state has resulted i n the  r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f the C a n a d i a n sport system creating a p r o f e s s i o n a l  bureaucracy w i t h a m o r e corporate style o f management. T h e c o n t r o l o f  amateur sport has been l a r g e l y r e m o v e d f r o m the hands o f volunteers a n d  is n o w directed b y a n e w p r o f e s s i o n a l e l i t e " (p.92).  L a s t l y , H o v d e n (2000a) also notes h o w corporate m a n a g e r i a l s k i l l s such as b r o a d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l experience (p.21), e c o n o m i c management, budgets a n d strategic p l a n n i n g (p.23) have b e c o m e essential f o r i n d i v i d u a l s w a n t i n g to reach h i g h l e v e l s p o r t i n g leadership. Indeed, the I S L P and I O C (2004) report i n d i c a t e d that respondents b e l i e v e d that o r g a n i z a t i o n a l leadership, h u m a n relations as w e l l as c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s were the m a i n qualities that were needed f o r sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In s u m , p o s i t i o n s o f leadership n o w require that i n d i v i d u a l s possess a n u m b e r o f s k i l l s that enable t h e m to s u c c e s s f u l l y manage sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A n o t h e r leadership attribute that has been l a u d e d i n sport administrators is c o m m i t m e n t to the o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d the sport. F o r those i n d i v i d u a l s d o i n g a d v o c a c y f o r under represented groups, t y p i c a l l y w o m e n , this w a s also c o n s i d e r e d an e n v i a b l e trait f o r any leader. M o s t studies c o n c e r n i n g w o m e n i n sporting leadership discuss the intense  47  t i m e c o m m i t m e n t that administrators must devote to the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n order to be effective ( H o v d e n , 2 0 0 0 a , 2 0 0 0 b ; I S L P a n d I O C , 2 0 0 4 ; P f i s t e r et. a l , 2 0 0 5 ) . H o v d e n (2000b) f o u n d that h i g h l e v e l sport administrators h a d to m a k e themselves a v a i l a b l e to attend c o m p e t i t i o n s and meetings, u s u a l l y h e l d d u r i n g the e v e n i n g s a n d o n weekends. M o r e o v e r , m a n y o f these events take place out o f t o w n , r e q u i r i n g large amounts o f travel and t i m e spent a w a y f r o m h o m e (p.23). T h e s e f i n d i n g s are supported b y those o f the I S L P and I O C (2004) where they f o u n d that m a n y female administrators h a d made sacrifices i n terms o f their relationships w h i l e t r y i n g to balance w o r k , sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , f a m i l y a n d personal relationships. U n d o u b t e d l y , c o m m i t m e n t is an integral part o f leadership, h o w e v e r a r e d e f i n i t i o n o f what is c o n s i d e r e d c o m m i t m e n t is essential. O u r current understandings o f c o m m i t m e n t p o i n t to an i n d i v i d u a l w h o w o r k s l o n g h o u r ' s e v e r y d a y o f the w e e k a n d is w i l l i n g to be a w a y f r o m h o m e quite o f t e n ; a c o m m i t m e n t not everyone c a n a f f o r d to m a k e . W i t h respect to a d v o c a c y , w o m e n were often i n v o l v e d i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n because they w a n t e d to g i v e back to sport a n d m a k e a d i f f e r e n c e (Pfister et. a l , 2 0 0 5 , p. 13). W i t h the recent f o c u s o n w o m e n i n sport issues, m a n y s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s have created W o m e n ' s C o m m i t t e e s w h o s e purpose is to i d e n t i f y a n d attempt to rectify issues p e r t a i n i n g to w o m e n i n a l l aspects o f sport. In fact, the I S L P a n d I O C (2004) study r e v e a l e d that 4 9 % o f a l l f e m a l e N O C administrators w o r k e d i n W o m e n ' s C o m m i t t e e s and o v e r h a l f o f those p e r c e i v e d their role as p r i m a r i l y related to w o m e n ' s issues (p.22). T h o u g h this is p r o b l e m a t i c o n m a n y levels and is a clear demonstration o f the w a y s i n w h i c h f e m a l e administrators are b e i n g d r i v e n into n i c h e areas that are t y p i c a l l y associated  48  w i t h less prestige a n d i n f l u e n c e , it does indicate that m a n y w o m e n administrators are strong advocates o f g i r l s a n d w o m e n i n sport a n d dedicated to their cause. F i n a l l y , a n u m b e r o f research studies d i s c u s s e d the fact that past and current f e m a l e s p o r t i n g leaders act as role m o d e l s f o r y o u n g girls a n d w o m e n w h o m i g h t want to enter sporting leadership ( H a l l , C u l l e n a n d S l a c k , 1 9 9 0 ; I S L P a n d I O C , 2 0 0 4 ; M c K a y , 1 9 9 7 ; P f i s t e r et. a l , 2 0 0 5 ) . " T h e f o c u s o n role m o d e l s . . . i s . . .an essentially reactive one. .. .the  presence o f w o m e n i n leadership p o s i t i o n s demonstrates to other w o m e n that a c h i e v i n g such a p o s i t i o n is p o s s i b l e . .. . p e r c e i v i n g that such a  p o s i t i o n was reached through chance does not p r o v i d e m u c h g u i d a n c e i n  terms o f what others s h o u l d d o i n order to be s i m i l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l . " ( H a l l , C u l l e n a n d S l a c k , 1990, p.32-33)  T h i s argument is less s i g n i f i c a n t today as w o m e n have made c o n s i d e r a b l e inroads h o w e v e r it is important that these w o m e n be there i n larger n u m b e r s a n d r e m a i n v i s i b l e i n their p o s i t i o n s . A n o t h e r leadership s k i l l that was e m p h a s i z e d i n n u m e r o u s studies was a m e m b e r ' s a b i l i t y to n e t w o r k ( H o v d e n , 2 0 0 0 a , 2 0 0 0 b ; I S L P a n d I O C , 2 0 0 4 ; M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n , 1990). In her study, H o v d e n (2000b) f o u n d that s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s w e r e s e e k i n g i n d i v i d u a l s w h o h a d a b r o a d s o c i a l n e t w o r k as w e l l as contacts i n business a n d p o l i t i c s (p.23). L e a d e r s are most often v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l a n d c a n p r o v i d e opportunities to j u n i o r m e m b e r s i n their n e t w o r k s . T h i s is i mportant f o r f e m a l e administrators w a n t i n g to progress into top leadership p o s i t i o n s ( I S L P a n d I O C , 2 0 0 4 , p.52). In a d d i t i o n , a n e t w o r k o f friends a n d contacts p r o v i d e s an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h sources o f mental a n d e m o t i o n a l support as w e l l as p r a c t i c a l a d v i c e ( M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n , 1990, p.72). A s is s u m m e d up i n the I S L P a n d I O C (2004) report:  49  " A l l o f the respondents p o i n t e d towards the i m p o r t a n c e o f b e i n g a part o f a sports n e t w o r k , o f b e i n g s o c i a l i z e d into it and l e a r n i n g f r o m it and o f  g a i n i n g support or h a v i n g a d v i c e f r o m other m e m b e r s o f that n e t w o r k , or  o f c o n t r i b u t i n g to the c o n f i d e n c e o f other m e m b e r s i n the n e t w o r k " (p.49). F i n a l l y , there w e r e m a n y personal characteristics o f s p o r t i n g leaders that were b e n e f i c i a l f o r their w o r k i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T o this e n d , C a m e r o n (1996) c o n c l u d e d that p e r s o n a l i t y and personal traits were the most i mportant factors i n a c c e s s i n g n a t i o n a l l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s (p.76). E a c h study p r o v i d e d a s i m i l a r d e s c r i p t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l s k i l l s needed to be successful i n h i g h l e v e l s p o r t i n g leadership. I n d i v i d u a l s w h o were o r d e r l y , d e t e r m i n e d , l o y a l and h a d a g o o d reputation w e r e b e l i e v e d to represent i d e a l c a n d i d a c y ( H o v d e n , 2 0 0 0 b , p.23). In P f i s t e r et. a l ' s (2005) study, f e m a l e leaders were d e s c r i b e d as c o m p e t i t i v e and a m b i t i o u s w h i l e r e m a i n i n g v e r y h u m b l e and modest (p. 13). In a d d i t i o n , these leaders c i t e d the a b i l i t y to w o r k c o o p e r a t i v e l y w i t h , f o r and against m e n i n s i d e and outside o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n as an i mportant s k i l l that f e m a l e leaders i n particular, h a d to d e v e l o p (p. 14). A t the international l e v e l , the I S L P and I O C (2004) report noted that respondents b e l i e v e d m o r a l qualities, p e r s o n a l i t y traits such as honesty, integrity, p a s s i o n and c h a r i s m a as w e l l as extensive k n o w l e d g e o f the sporting system w e r e important characteristics p e r c e i v e d to be advantageous f o r w o m e n attempting to forge careers i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (p.26). O n the other h a n d , the I O C has been f o u n d g u i l t y o f n u m e r o u s scandals and c o r r u p t i o n a m o n g its elite leaders therefore this f i n d i n g seems to be m o r e o f an i d e a l and not p a r t i c u l a r l y a r e f l e c t i o n o f the actual organizational membership. L e a d e r s h i p s k i l l s are therefore important criteria b y w h i c h h i g h l e v e l sport administrators are selected. T h e under representation o f w o m e n has been attributed to a  50  n u m b e r o f reasons h o w e v e r personal leadership s k i l l s r e m a i n the areas i n w h i c h w o m e n are said to l a c k the experience o f most m a l e administrators. " W o m e n were e x c l u d e d f r o m leadership p o s i t i o n s because they w e r e suggested to possess less relevant personal s k i l l s than their m a l e counterparts. T h e s e e m i n g l y gender-neutral c o n s t r u c t i o n o f leadership s k i l l s acts to subordinate w o m e n ' s abilities and experiences and thus reinforces p r e v a i l i n g leadership structures" ( H o v d e n , 2 0 0 5 , p.26). 2.2.4 L e a d e r s h i p styles i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n T h e r e has a l w a y s been a debate c o n c e r n i n g styles o f leadership a m o n g m e n and w o m e n . S o m e authors ( H o v d e n 2 0 0 0 a , 2 0 0 0 b , 2 0 0 5 ; M c K a y , 1 9 9 7 , C a m e r o n , 1996) argue that m a l e leaders are generally p e r c e i v e d to have an aggressive, c o m p e t i t i v e and autocratic leadership style w h i c h is both the result and r e a f f i r m a t i o n o f a t r a d i t i o n a l m a s c u l i n e culture i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . W o m e n o n the other h a n d , are b e l i e v e d to b r i n g a m o r e c o n s u l t a t i v e , cooperative and d e m o c r a t i c approach to leadership. F o r e x a m p l e , M c K a y (1997) describes h o w f e m a l e respondents p e r c e i v e d that " . . . t h e i r c o n s u l t a t i v e styles c o n f l i c t e d w i t h m e n ' s adversarial t a c t i c s " (p.77). In C a m e r o n ' s (1996) study, she f o u n d that w o m e n b e l i e v e d that f e m a l e sporting leaders w e r e m o r e o r g a n i z e d , m o r e careful w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s finances and s p e n d i n g as w e l l as m o r e i n c l i n e d to c o n s i d e r the consequences o f d e c i s i o n s taken at that l e v e l (p. 132). H i s t o r i c a l l y , it has been the virtues associated w i t h the m a s c u l i n e style o f leadership that have been v a l u e d i n sport management and as a result, w o m e n ' s particular style o f m a n a g e m e n t , i f different to that o f her m a l e c o l l e a g u e , is u s u a l l y u n d e r v a l u e d and e f f e c t i v e l y rendered i n v i s i b l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , other studies have h i g h l i g h t e d the w a y s i n w h i c h w o m e n adopt this m a s c u l i n e leadership style i n order to 'fit i n ' w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l culture ( M c K a y , 1 9 9 7 ; H o v d e n , 2000a). T h e s e characteristics have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been associated w i t h  51  b e h a v i o u r d e e m e d m a s c u l i n e and thus, the basis o f c o n v e n t i o n a l s p o r t i n g leadership. It is therefore evident that w o m e n have entered o r g a n i z a t i o n a l at a disadvantage and have had to f a s h i o n their leadership strategies to a c c o m m o d a t e the structure and culture o f the organization. " D u r i n g their careers most o f the w o m e n c a m e to the c o n c l u s i o n that they had to adapt to the structures and cooperate w i t h m e n i n order to be  s u c c e s s f u l . .. .These w o m e n have appropriated the gendered culture o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . . . " (Pfister et. a l , 2 0 0 5 , p.10).  F o r this reason, it is b e l i e v e d that h i g h l e v e l m a l e and f e m a l e s p o r t i n g leaders are a product o f their o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c u l t u r e ; that i s , they m u s t l e a d i n a w a y that is accepted b y the m e m b e r s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n or risk not b e i n g successful i n the b o a r d r o o m . T h i s i n turn c o u l d l i m i t the opportunities f o r w o m e n attempting to reach the top leadership p o s i t i o n s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . T o c o n c l u d e , P f i s t e r et. al (2005) p r o v i d e a clear d e s c r i p t i o n o f a p r o t o t y p i c a l f e m a l e leader i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " T h e t y p i c a l f e m a l e e x e c u t i v e i n G e r m a n sport o r g a n i z a t i o n s is about 50 years o l d . S h e is either single and has n o c h i l d r e n or she is m a r r i e d and  either has n o c h i l d r e n or her c h i l d r e n are grown-up. She has the f u l l  support f r o m her h u s b a n d or c o m p a n i o n . She is well-educated a n d h i g h l y  q u a l i f i e d . T o d a y she w o r k s i n a leadership p o s i t i o n and has the f r e e d o m to o r g a n i z e and m a k e d e c i s i o n s . In her p r o f e s s i o n she is r e q u i r e d to have  g u i d a n c e s k i l l s , too. A t the b e g i n n i n g o f her career i n v o l u n t a r y w o r k she was m a i n l y e n c o u r a g e d b y the p e o p l e around her to take o n h i g h e r  p o s i t i o n s . A s a y o u n g adult she first made her m a r k o n the e x e c u t i v e b o a r d o f her l o c a l sports c l u b before t a k i n g on c o m m i t m e n t s at the r e g i o n a l and  national l e v e l s " (Pfister et. a l , 2 0 0 5 , p . l 1).  2.3 B A R R I E R S T O A D V A N C E M E N T : W H A T R E S E A R C H SAYS A B O U T T H E G L A S S C E I L I N G ' F O R W O M E N IN S P O R T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N T h e data p r o v i d e d i n the relevant studies r e c o g n i z e s the barriers that still exist f o r f e m a l e s p o r t i n g leaders. In terms o f the barriers f a c e d b y w o m e n entering h i g h l e v e l  52  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , research suggests that subtle methods o f f e m a l e e x c l u s i o n are e m b e d d e d i n the h i s t o r i c a l context o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s existence, the structure o n w h i c h it is f o u n d e d (e.g. m i s s i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedures, m e m b e r s h i p selection) as w e l l as the i n d i v i d u a l s w h o have h i s t o r i c a l l y been i n v o l v e d i n its g o v e r n i n g b o d i e s (Chase, 1 9 9 2 ; H o v d e n , 2 0 0 0 a , 2 0 0 0 b , 2 0 0 5 ; M c K a y , 1 9 9 7 ; I n g l i s , 1 9 9 7 ; P f i s t e r et. a l , 2 0 0 5 ; C a m e r o n , 1996, M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n , 1 9 9 0 ; I S L P and I O C , 2 0 0 4 ; H a r t m a n n - T e w s and Combrink). B u i l d i n g on P f i s t e r et. a l ' s (2005) 'processes o f i n f l u e n c e ' , I w i l l discuss f o u r m a i n areas where barriers have been e x p e r i e n c e d : (1) the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l ( m o t i v e s , d e c i s i o n s , competences, c o n d i t i o n s o f l i f e , i m a g e s , identities, etc.); (2) the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l (structure, culture, p o s i t i o n s , p o l i c i e s , etc); (3) the rel ati onal l e v e l (colleagues, leaders, n e t w o r k s , etc); and (4) the societal l e v e l (gendered l a b o u r market, gender order) ( p . l ) . A s these authors state: "It can be a s s u m e d that processes at all these levels i n f l u e n c e the d e c i s i o n s , m o t i v e s and 'careers' o f m e n and w o m e n i n sports  o r g a n i z a t i o n s as w e l l as the reasons f o r their ' d r o p p i n g o u t ' " (Pfister et. a l , 2005, p.l)  F u r t h e r m o r e , they i n d i c a t e d six reasons w h y f e m a l e administrators w e r e l e a v i n g s p o r t i n g leadership: 1) resistance o f the organizations to n e w ideas, 2) w i t h h o l d i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n b y top leaders i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s , 3) l a c k o f acceptance and a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t , 4) l a c k o f s o l i d a r i t y a m o n g w o m e n , 5) s t r i v i n g o f current administrators f o r p o w e r and prestige, and 6) gender d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (p. 16). A s a result o f these frustrations, some w o m e n chose to drop-out o f sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  53  2.3.1 I n d i v i d u a l l e v e l T h e r e are m a n y factors i n f l u e n c i n g i n d i v i d u a l w o m e n ' s d e c i s i o n to enter, r e m a i n and progress i n sporting a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . P e r s o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u c h as s o c i o - e c o n o m i c status as w e l l as f a m i l y a n d educational b a c k g r o u n d affect w o m e n ' s i n i t i a l access to sport and consequent c h o i c e to participate i n its a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . L i k e w i s e , w o m e n ' s personal f a m i l y status i n f l u e n c e s their a b i l i t y to participate i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as partners and c h i l d r e n are relationships that require time c o m m i t m e n t s and day-to-day r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T h e l a c k o f s e n s i t i v i t y a n d f l e x i b i l i t y f o r f e m a l e administrators w i t h personal c o m m i t m e n t s was a barrier reported i n nearly e v e r y study o n w o m e n i n s p o r t i n g leadership ( M c K a y , 1 9 9 7 ; P f i s t e r et. a l , 2 0 0 5 ; M a c i n t o s h a n d W h i t s o n , 1 9 9 0 ; C a m e r o n , 1996; H a l l , C u l l e n and S l a c k , 1990). In C a m e r o n ' s (1996) study, 8 6 % o f her participants b e l i e v e d that f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were a barrier to the advancement o f w o m e n i n sporting leadership (p. 129). M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n (1990) n o t e d that n o c h i l d c a r e was p r o v i d e d f o r m e m b e r s w i t h c h i l d r e n at c o m p e t i t i o n s , meetings or conferences (p.72). They concluded: "It is l i t e r a l l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r those females w h o bear the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the majority o f the home-care w o r k also to meet the expectations i n v o l v e d i n n a t i o n a l l e v e l sport p o s i t i o n s " (p.73). A n o t h e r c o m m o n reason g i v e n f o r the under representation o f w o m e n i n h i g h l e v e l sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n is their l a c k o f w i l l i n g n e s s to take on leadership roles ( I S L P and I O C , 2 0 0 4 ; M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n , 1990). S o m e authors attributed this to a l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e (Pfister et. a l , 2 0 5 5 , p. 19) and others p e r c e i v e d that w o m e n w e r e c o n s c i o u s l y not w i l l i n g to g i v e up so m u c h o f their h o m e l i f e to be v i s i b l e i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n , 1990, p.62). M c K a y (1997) f o u n d that m e n tended to attribute  54  the under-representation o f f e m a l e leaders i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s to i n d i v i d u a l d e f i c i e n c i e s (p.52). A g a i n , H o v d e n (2005) and M a c i n t o s h a n d W h i t s o n (1990) established that some administrators b e l i e v e d that the l a c k o f f e m a l e leaders was due to an i n d i v i d u a l l a c k o f m o t i v a t i o n , a m b i t i o n , priorities or adequate q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . In any case, a l l o f these reasons p o i n t to i n d i v i d u a l issues w i t h the f e m a l e leaders w h i c h r e i n f o r c e the current attitudes t o w a r d gender equity and w o m e n ' s under-representation i n sport. A d d i t i o n a l l y , the l a c k o f c o m m i t m e n t b y sport administrators, p a r t i c u l a r l y m e n , to gender e q u i t y has been i d e n t i f i e d as an e n o r m o u s barrier to the increase o f w o m e n i n sporting leadership ( C a m e r o n , 1 9 9 6 ; M c K a y , 1 9 9 7 ; H a l l , C u l l e n and S l a c k , 1990). In C a m e r o n ' s (1996) study, 7 2 % o f w o m e n agreed that a l a c k o f c o m m i t m e n t b y m e n to gender e q u i t y or a f f i r m a t i v e action p r o g r a m m e s was a barrier to w o m e n ' s advancement into h i g h l e v e l sporting leadership (p.129). L i k e w i s e , M c K a y ' s (1997) analysis o f a f f i r m a t i v e action and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o w e r i n A u s t r a l i a n , C a n a d i a n and N e w Z e a l a n d sport r e v e a l e d that there were generally three p o l i t i c a l stances t o w a r d a f f i r m a t i v e action p o l i c i e s : those w h o oppose it, the sceptics and c y n i c s as w e l l as the advocates (p.97-101). H e f o u n d that most m a l e administrators were not p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l c o m i n g o f such p o l i c i e s ; s o m e were even i n a u s p i c i o u s w h i l e others b e l i e v e d that it was ' w o m e n ' s w o r k ' . F i n a l l y , H a l l , C u l l e n and S l a c k (1990) state that: " T h e three major reasons g i v e n as to w h y there was n o need f o r a [equal  opportunity] p o l i c y were: (1) equal o p p o r t u n i t y exists already and there is  n o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n based on sex; (2) the 'merit o n l y ' p r i n c i p l e s h o u l d a p p l y  a l w a y s ; and (3) any changes i n the balance o f males versus females s h o u l d  e v o l v e ' n a t u r a l l y ' , rather than through any i m p o s e d p o l i c y " (p.20).  55  L a s t l y , there are both tangible and i n t a n g i b l e costs to h i g h l e v e l sport administrators. C a m e r o n (1996) reported that meetings, c o m p e t i t i o n s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e w o r k c o u l d require c h i l d c a r e and that there are often h i g h travel costs needed to attend c h a m p i o n s h i p s and conferences (p.97). In this sense, i n d i v i d u a l s . f r o m l o w e r s o c i o e c o n o m i c classes are e x c l u d e d f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n sporting leadership. A s a result o f the current gendered l a b o u r market, m a n y m o r e w o m e n b e l o n g i n the l o w e r i n c o m e brackets. C l o s e l y related to barriers at the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l are those at the r e l a t i o n a l l e v e l , as it i n v o l v e s a l l o f the i n d i v i d u a l s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . 2.3.2 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l T h e under-representation o f w o m e n i n leadership p o s i t i o n s is " . . . a n o u t c o m e o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l [and] structural arrangements w h i c h l i m i t the c h o i c e s o f w h o l e groups w h o share certain characteristics (e.g. w o m e n , o r l o w e r s o c i o e c o n o m i c status g r o u p ) " ( C a m e r o n , 1 9 9 6 , p. 187). A s m e n t i o n e d , the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l structure o f s p o r t i n g organizations restricts the entry o f w o m e n into leadership p o s i t i o n s o f p o w e r and leadership. F i r s t , the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l structure dictates the w a y s i n w h i c h the o r g a n i z a t i o n is to be m a n a g e d and operate therefore administrators are f o r c e d to w o r k under s p e c i f i c g u i d e l i n e s . O n e o f the most c i t e d c o m p l a i n t s w i t h respect to the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l structure was the t i m e c o m m i t m e n t and the i n f l e x i b i l i t y o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g s c h e d u l i n g ( M c K a y , 1 9 9 7 ; P f i s t e r et. a l , 2 0 0 5 ; M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n , 1 9 9 0 ; C a m e r o n , 1996). T h e t i m e spent a w a y f r o m h o m e f o r out o f t o w n meetings and c o m p e t i t i o n s p r o v e d to be too d e m a n d i n g f o r m a n y f e m a l e sporting leaders to w h i c h C a m e r o n (1996) adds the f i n a n c i a l costs associated w i t h such c o m m i t m e n t s (p.49).  56  T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l structure also influences the n u m b e r o f w o m e n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as a result o f m a n y organizations r e f u s i n g to institute gender e q u i t y policies ( M c K a y , 1997; M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n , 1990; I S L P and I O C , 2004). Interestingly, i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h h a d adopted equity-related p o l i c i e s , it was f o u n d that equity c o m m i t m e n t s were often o v e r l o o k e d i n f a v o u r o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a performanceoriented sport p r o g r a m ( M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n , 1990, p.81). Indeed, H a l l , C u l l e n a n d S l a c k (1990) echo this stating that: " I n fact, a l l issues o f equity such as those related to F r a n c o p h o n e , r e g i o n a l  disparities, s o c i o - e c o n o m i c p r i v i l e g e , athletes' rights, o r gender are b a s i c a l l y i g n o r e d . Q u i t e s i m p l y , the priorities o f C a n a d a ' s h i g h performance sport system appear to be e l s e w h e r e . . . " (p.35).  A t the international l e v e l , the I S L P a n d I O C (2004) report i n d i c a t e d that the l a c k o f f e m a l e m e m b e r s w a s due to the national federations w h i c h f a i l e d to present enough suitable f e m a l e candidates (p.39). T h e r e f o r e , i f w e a c k n o w l e d g e that the structure, w h i c h i n c l u d e s the stated m i s s i o n , values, objectives a n d p r o g r a m s are i n f l u e n c e d b y those i n v o l v e d i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g processes, then entry into the o r g a n i z a t i o n becomes c r u c i a l i f any structural change is to take place. It is also necessary to e x a m i n e the i n f l u e n c e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l culture o n the entry o f w o m e n into s p o r t i n g leadership. R e s e a r c h has s h o w n h o w sporting organizations have e m b r a c e d m a s c u l i n i t y as the i d e a l leadership m o d e l ( M c K a y , 1 9 9 7 ; C a m e r o n , 1 9 9 6 ; P f i s t e r et. a l , 2 0 0 5 ; M a c i n t o s h a n d W h i t s o n , 1 9 9 0 ; I S L P a n d I O C , 2 0 0 4 ) . A s C a m e r o n (1996) put it, " . . . s p o r t represents a w a y o f l i f e w h i c h has its o w n p e c u l i a r ethos a n d its o w n sets o f b e l i e f s " (p.36). M a n y o f the traditions as w e l l as the procedural f u n c t i o n i n g o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n are d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d b y the culture that is deeply e m b e d d e d . T h e h i s t o r i c a l f o u n d a t i o n o f m a n y sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s testifies that it was u s u a l l y m a l e administrators w h o established the o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r males a n d it is m e n w h o have since c o n t r o l l e d it. A s d e s c r i b e d b y P f i s t e r et. al (2005), the leadership styles o f m a l e a n d f e m a l e s p o r t i n g leaders are c l o s e l y associated w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l culture:  57  " T h e culture o f sports organizations and their patterns o f interaction are  shaped a c c o r d i n g to m e n ' s ( s oci al i zed) b e h a v i o u r and tastes, m e n ' s w i s h e s and needs, and m e n ' s w a y s o f life. O r g a n i z a t i o n s d e m a n d that leaders are self-confident, performance-oriented and c o m p e t i t i v e ; that they strive f o r  p o w e r , that they p r o c e e d strategically; that they have the a b i l i t y to enforce their interests; a n d . . .that they have a t h i c k s k i n w h e n f a c e d w i t h insults  and hostilities. ...those f e w successful female leaders [that] have adapted  to these e x p e c t a t i o n s . . .have d e v e l o p e d s i m i l a r b e h a v i o u r patterns and strategies to those o f their m a l e c o l l e a g u e s . . . " (p. 17).  T h u s , w o m e n have been r e q u i r e d to adapt to the o r g a n i z a t i o n s structure and culture; essentially they must 'fit i n ' . T h i s is e c h o e d b y C a m e r o n (1996) w h o c o n c l u d e s that managers tend to reserve p o w e r and p r i v i l e g e f o r those administrators they b e l i e v e d 'fit i n ' ; those they saw as b e i n g most l i k e themselves (p. 192). S i m i l a r l y , H o v d e n (2000a, 2 0 0 0 b ) c o n c l u d e d that candidates w h o had extensive m a n a g e r i a l s k i l l s and fit the h e g e m o n i c m a s c u l i n e i d e a l corporate i m a g e were m o r e l i k e l y to be selected. A n o t h e r structural and c u l t u r a l barrier f o u n d i n s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s is the i s o l a t i o n o f f e m a l e administrators into particular p o s i t i o n s / R e s e a r c h statistics have c l e a r l y s h o w n that even w h e n w o m e n attain h i g h l e v e l d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p o s i t i o n s , they u s u a l l y serve i n the less p o w e r f u l p o s i t i o n s . A s m e n t i o n e d , m a n y f e m a l e leaders w h o have reached h i g h l e v e l national and international management p o s i t i o n s have c o m e f r o m W o m e n ' s C o m m i t t e e s ( C a m e r o n , 1996), d i s a b l e d sport ( M c K a y , 1997) and w o m e n - o n l y sport o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( B i s c h o f f and R i n t a l a , 1994). In a d d i t i o n , M c K a y (1997) o b s e r v e d that w o m e n were m o r e l i k e l y to access top leadership p o s i t i o n s i n m u l t i s p o r t organizations and those associated w i t h sport and d i s a b i l i t y . T h i s p r o v i d e s evidence that female leaders have used these p o s i t i o n s as stepping stones to gain leadership experience. Duerst-Lahti and K e l l y (1995) c o n d u c t e d a n u m b e r o f studies c o n c e r n i n g the under representation o f w o m e n i n U S p o l i t i c s . T h e i r observations are a p p l i c a b l e to this  58  study o f w o m e n i n s p o r t i n g leadership i n terms o f w o m e n ' s p o s i t i o n s i n m a l e d o m i n a t e d institutions. " . . . m a n y f e m a l e p o l i t i c i a n s have opted to w o r k c l o s e l y w i t h p o l i t i c a l  organizations f o r w o m e n . N o t o n l y d o such groups often p r o v i d e a starting  p o i n t f o r w o m e n ' s p o l i t i c a l careers - a f f o r d i n g m u c h needed e x p e r i e n c e , encouragement, and f u n d i n g - but they frequently c o n t i n u e to w o r k  c l o s e l y w i t h f e m a l e legislators l o n g after they are elected to p u b l i c o f f i c e " (Duerst-Lahti and K e l l y , 1995, p.98).  In the C a n a d i a n context, Sport C a n a d a ' s (1991) research o f f e m a l e leadership i n n a t i o n a l sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s p o i n t e d to numerous factors w h i c h h i n d e r e d w o m e n ' s opportunities and c o n c l u d e d that w o m e n i n sport f a c e d s i m i l a r situations to those i n other sectors o f the C a n a d i a n e c o n o m y : they w e r e l o c a t e d o n l o w e r levels o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y m a k i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r annual salaries than d i d m e n i n equivalent p o s i t i o n s . L i k e w i s e , B i s c h o f f and R i n t a l a (1994, 1996) c o n c l u d e d that w o m e n w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to reach the p o s i t i o n o f E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r than that o f President, and that this u s u a l l y o c c u r r e d i n t r a d i t i o n a l l y f e m a l e sports or those less v i s i b l e o n the O l y m p i c p r o g r a m (i.e., s y n c h r o n i z e d s w i m m i n g and f i e l d h o c k e y ) . T h e y predicated that w o m e n w e r e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y e x c l u d e d f r o m those o r g a n i z a t i o n s that b e l o n g e d to the O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t because o f their important and prestigious status (p.3). M o r e recently, C a m e r o n (1996) f o u n d that w o m e n e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s w e r e m o r e often i n w o m e n - o n l y sport o r g a n i z a t i o n s or i n s m a l l sports (p. 16). Indeed, research has s h o w n that it is easier f o r w o m e n to access h i g h l e v e l p o s i t i o n s i n sports that c o m m a n d less p o w e r and less prestige; the sports that m e n rarely p l a y and do not w i s h to a d m i n i s t e r ( C a m e r o n , 1 9 9 6 ; M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n , 1 9 9 0 ; P f i s t e r et. a l , 2 0 0 5 ; I S L P and I O C , 2 0 0 4 ; M c K a y , 1997). E v e n w h e n w o m e n have entered h i g h l e v e l p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n larger and  59  m o r e i n f l u e n t i a l sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s , they do not h o l d the most p o w e r f u l posts. E c h o i n g M c K a y ' s (1997) f i n d i n g s , P f i s t e r et. al (2005) c o n c l u d e d that: " . . . w o m e n w e r e e m p l o y e d at the l o w e r e n d o f the h i e r a r c h y whereas m e n o c c u p i e d the top p o s i t i o n s . W o m e n , m o r e o v e r , w e r e m a i n l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the ' s o f t ' areas such as prevention strategies, health management, integration through sport or w o m e n i n s p o r t " (Pfister et. a l , 2 0 0 5 , p.3). F u r t h e r m o r e , i n their study o f f e m a l e N O C m e m b e r s , the I S L P and I O C (2004) also reported that 80 per cent o f w o m e n ' s c o m m i s s i o n s w e r e f i l l e d b y w o m e n . F r o m this research, it is clear that m a n y w o m e n are segregated into W o m e n ' s C o m m i t t e e s w h i c h not o n l y perpetuates the n o t i o n that these are ' w o m e n ' s j o b s ' but continues to frame the issues as w o m e n ' s p r o b l e m s . 2.3.3 R e l a t i o n a l l e v e l S p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , l i k e most o r g a n i z a t i o n s , require m e n and w o m e n to w o r k together to achieve the goals and objectives set b y the top administrators. A s s u c h , the relationships that exist between m e m b e r s can i m p a c t and affect their p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n ; or their ' o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f i t ' . C a m e r o n (1996) states that: " . . . a d m i n i s t r a t i o n at the c o n t r o l l i n g l e v e l o f sport, as a h i g h status a c t i v i t y  enhances a tendency f o r s o c i a l closure - the process w h e r e b y access to  opportunities and associated rewards are l i m i t e d to a certain g r o u p , often through the process o f f o r m a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n or c r e d e n t i a l i s m . " (p. 190).  She c o n c l u d e s b y a d v a n c i n g that n e t w o r k i n g and m e n t o r i n g can o n l y m i n i m a l l y d i v e r s i f y sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s as this strategy often a c c o m m o d a t e s particular k i n d s o f f e m a l e administrators. A n o t h e r re l ati o n al barrier that has been w i d e l y d i s c u s s e d is that o f m e n ' s s o c i a l n e t w o r k s . It has l o n g been contended that ' o l d b o y ' s n e t w o r k s ' have h a d a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on the under-representation o f w o m e n i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h r o u g h these  60  n e t w o r k s , it has been reported that m a l e administrators m a k e i n f o r m a l d e c i s i o n s on im p o r t a n t t o p i c s , l o b b y f o r other m a l e candidates and discuss the p r o m o t i o n s o f other h i g h l e v e l e x e c u t i v e ( M c K a y , 1 9 9 7 ; C a m e r o n , 1 9 9 6 ; M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n , 1990). S i n c e most o f these activities o c c u r outside o f the b o a r d r o o m i n settings such as g o l f courses and bars, w o m e n are often e x c l u d e d . R e s e a r c h b y C a m e r o n (1996) and M c K a y (1997) has s h o w n that m e n ' s i n f o r m a l n e t w o r k s are l a r g e l y p e r c e i v e d b y w o m e n to h i n d e r their opportunities i n h i g h l e v e l sporting leadership. In the C a n a d i a n context h o w e v e r , H a l l , C u l l e n a n d S l a c k (1990) f o u n d that 5 9 % o f w o m e n agreed that m e n ' s s o c i a l networks were a barrier to the advancement o f f e m a l e leaders. W h a t is p r o b l e m a t i c is that w o m e n ' s n e t w o r k s are not yet as p o w e r f u l or i n f l u e n t i a l as those o f m e n and therefore are not b e n e f i c i a l i n the same w a y s ( M c K a y , 1997, p.54). 2.3.4 S o c i e t a l l e v e l " M o s t advances f o r w o m e n i n sport have o c c u r r e d , w i t h i n the  e x i s t i n g structures o f sport, f o r w h i t e , middle-class w o m e n , and f o r those already i n v o l v e d i n c o m p e t i t i v e sports w h o have o v e r c o m e the p r a c t i c a l  and i d e o l o g i c a l constraints that c o n t i n u e to i n h i b i t vast n u m b e r s o f other w o m e n f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i n g at a l l " (Hargreaves, p.290 q u o t e d i n C a m e r o n 1996, p.159).  T h e gendered structure o f society continues to p l a y an important role i n c o n s t r a i n i n g w o m e n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (Pfister et. a l , 2 0 0 5 , p. 10). G e n d e r i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s was also l i n k e d to stereotypes about m a l e and f e m a l e leaders. M c K a y (1997) f o u n d that m a l e leaders h e l d m a n y stereotypical v i e w s r e g a r d i n g w o m e n ' s c a p a b i l i t i e s i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (p.83). H o w e v e r , m a n y studies s h o w e d that f e m a l e administrators f o u n d n u m e r o u s w a y s to deal w i t h stereotypes a n d o p p o s i t i o n i n the m a l e d o m i n a t e d w o r l d o f sport (Pfister et. a l , 2 0 0 5 , p. 14). In her  61  research, C h a s e (1992) e x a m i n e d the k e y p e o p l e and forces as w e l l as p o l i c i e s that affected w o m e n ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n O l y m p i c governance. She argued that i n a d d i t i o n to the role o f N O C s and IPs i n h i n d e r i n g w o m e n ' s opportunities, r e l i g i o u s beliefs r e g a r d i n g w o m e n i n different cultures, m e d i c a l i z e d discourses about the f e m a l e b o d y and their participation i n 'appropriate' sports, as w e l l as m e d i a representations o f f e m a l e athletes have each been d o m i n a n t forces w o r k i n g against the i n c l u s i o n o f w o m e n i n the O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t . In her analysis o f the i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t I O C p o l i c i e s , she d e t e r m i n e d that p o l i c i e s were not clear o r p o w e r f u l e n o u g h to cause s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . W h a t is even m o r e p r o b l e m a t i c is the fact that there are n o c o m p l i a n c e strategies i n place to i m p l e m e n t , m o n i t o r and enforce the gender e q u i t y p o l i c i e s therefore organizations are not r e q u i r e d to abide b y them. 2.3.5 S u m m a r y T h i s entire section has f o c u s e d on research h i g h l i g h t i n g the n u m e r o u s barriers l i m i t i n g w o m e n ' s entry and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n h i g h l e v e l sports leadership. It is evident that w o m e n have h a d to w o r k w i t h i n restricted e n v i r o n m e n t s that greatly advantage m e n . F o r this reason, some w o m e n m a y have opted not to enter or aspire to h i g h l e v e l sporting leadership therefore presenting a barrier that must be addressed i f w o m e n are to b e c o m e e q u a l l y represented i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . It is clear that m e n have p l a y e d an i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e i n the under-representation o f w o m e n i n sporting leadership. G i v e n that sports were d e v e l o p e d and a d m i n i s t e r e d b y and f o r m e n , the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l practices put i n place c o r r e s p o n d e d to their d e f i n i t i o n s o f sport and h o w it s h o u l d be p r a c t i c e d . W i t h o u t h a v i n g those m e n w h o are i n p o w e r r e c o g n i z e the h i s t o r i c a l , structural and s o c i a l barriers that still exist h i n d e r i n g w o m e n ' s opportunities to access h i g h l e v e l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p o s i t i o n s  62  w i t h i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s , change w i l l o n l y be l i m i t e d . A s w e have entered the n e w m i l l e n n i u m and p r e v i o u s l y established p o l i c i e s o n w o m e n and sport have had t i m e to take effect, this study w i l l p r o v i d e a better understanding o f the barriers that still exist i n light o f the inroads made b y w o m e n . It can be c o n c l u d e d that: " . . . w o m e n w h o do not possess the expected o p p o r t u n i t i e s , q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  and c o m p e t e n c i e s and w h o do not have this particular type o f p e r s o n a l i t y  have great d i f f i c u l t y i n j o i n i n g the e x e c u t i v e boards o f sports associations.  T h i s is also true f o r those w o m e n w h o . . .cannot adapt to the p r e v a i l i n g structures o f sport o r g a n i z a t i o n s " (Pfister and R a d t k e , 2 0 0 5 , p.11).  2.4 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2.4.1 F e m i n i s m and s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n i s m H a l l (1996) insists that w e need to understand " . . .that s p o r t i n g practices are h i s t o r i c a l l y p r o d u c e d , s o c i a l l y constructed and c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d to serve the interests and needs o f p o w e r f u l groups i n s o c i e t y . . . " (p.6). In this w a y , f e m i n i s t theory generally seeks to a n a l y z e , c r i t i c i z e , a f f i r m and advance the place o f w o m e n i n society and i n this case, at e v e r y l e v e l o f the sporting system. B e c a u s e m a n y o f these studies had a particular focus o n w o m e n , most d o have f e m i n i s t theoretical u n d e r p i n n i n g s . T h i s perspective h i g h l i g h t s the w a y s i n w h i c h gender and p o w e r operate and are r e p r o d u c e d i n the g o v e r n i n g bodies o f sport ( M c K a y , 1 9 9 7 ; C a m e r o n , 1 9 9 6 ; H o v d e n , 2 0 0 0 a , 2 0 0 0 b ; H a l l , 1996). M c K a y (1997) used a pro-feminist theoretical lens to e x a m i n e the i m p a c t o f a f f i r m a t i v e action p o l i c i e s on the p o s i t i o n s o f w o m e n i n s p o r t i n g leadership. H e also used concepts such as e m p h a s i z e d f e m i n i n i t y (p.17) and h e g e m o n i c m a s c u l i n i t y (p.21) to e x p l a i n w o m e n ' s c o n t i n u e d e x c l u s i o n f r o m top leadership p o s i t i o n s i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . C a m e r o n (1996) and H o v d e n ( 2 0 0 0 a , 2 0 0 0 b ) used f e m i n i s t theory to discuss the under representation o f w o m e n i n sporting a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i l e relating this  63  to c r i t i c a l perspectives o n gender and sporting leadership. E a c h referred to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l theory to p o i n t out the important structural barriers that still h i n d e r w o m e n ' s opportunities. In a d d i t i o n , m a n y authors referred to s o c i a l constructionist theory w h i c h states that n o t i o n s o f gender are constructed b y society a n d thus, reiterated and p l a y e d out i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( M c K a y , 1 9 9 7 ; P f i s t e r et. a l . , 2 0 0 5 ; M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n , 1 9 9 0 ; H a l l , 1978, 1996). A c c o r d i n g to H a l l (1978): " G e n d e r . . .is best p e r c e i v e d as 'a c o n t i n u u m o f h u m a n attitudes and  b e h a v i o u r s , s o c i a l l y constructed, s o c i a l l y perpetuated a n d s o c i a l l y a l t e r a b l e ' " (p.4)  M c K a y (1997) used the concepts o f m a s c u l i n i t y a n d f e m i n i n i t y (p.3) to s h o w the w a y s i n w h i c h gender is s o c i a l l y constructed and c o n s e q u e n t l y , h o w w o m e n are affected b y the structures o f l a b o u r , p o w e r and cathexis. In d e s c r i b i n g the s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences between m e n and w o m e n ' s experiences i n relation to the m a l e - d o m i n a t e d culture o f sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s , M c K a y (1997) a d v a n c e d that sport o r g a n i z a t i o n s were an important site where gender struggles o c c u r r e d a n d thus, p l a y e d a r o l e i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d r e p r o d u c t i o n o f gender inequalities (p. 14). M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n (1990) d i s c u s s e d the concepts o f sex-role s o c i a l i z a t i o n as w e l l as p o w e r relations that exist between m a l e and f e m a l e administrators (p.75) to e m p h a s i z e h o w the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f gender i n f l u e n c e s the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l culture. T h i s was furthered b y P f i s t e r et. al (2005) w h o p o i n t e d to the gendered structures a n d hierarchies i n society as w e l l as the i m p a c t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l culture to e x p l a i n the under representation o f w o m e n i n G e r m a n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  64  2.4.2 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l T h e o r y T h e concept o f gendered o r g a n i z a t i o n theory ( A c k e r , 1 9 9 0 ; M a r t i n , 1990) posits that m u c h o f the c o n v e n t i o n a l research and theories have c o n c e p t u a l i z e d organizations as gender neutral e v e n though h i s t o r i c a l l y , m a n y organizations were established b y m e n i n order to a d m i n i s t e r m a l e sport thus t a k i n g o n a m a s c u l i n e perspective. H o v d e n (2000b) u s e d A c k e r ' s (1990) theoretical constructs c o n c e r n i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n o f gendered processes i n sporting organizations (p. 19) to e x p l a i n the constant i n f l u x o f m e n into sporting leadership p o s i t i o n s w h i l e f e w w o m e n are v i s i b l e at any l e v e l o f governance structures i n sport. A s M e r c i e r and W e r t h n e r (2001) p o i n t out: " w e have a f r a m e w o r k f o r t h i n k i n g about a sport w o r l d that has as its basis m a n y n o r m s that are based o n m e n ' s characteristics, l i v e s a n d e x p e r i e n c e s " (p.3). E l i z a b e t h M o s s K a n t e r ' s (1971) concept o f ' h o m o l o g o u s r e p r o d u c t i o n ' has e s p e c i a l l y p r o v e d useful i n e x a m i n i n g the barriers that exist f o r w o m e n i n s p o r t i n g leadership ( H o v d e n 2 0 0 0 a , 2 0 0 0 b ; C a m e r o n , 1 9 9 6 ; M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n , 1 9 9 0 ; B i s c h o f f a n d R i n t a l a , 1 9 9 4 ; H a l l , C u l l e n and S l a c k , 1990). C a m e r o n ' s (1996) understanding o f this concept is that m e n w h o h o l d p o w e r f u l leadership p o s i t i o n s i n sport t y p i c a l l y select other m e n and f e w w o m e n f r o m those candidates w h o share s i m i l a r values and o p i n i o n s to themselves. W i t h this theory, she was able to h i g h l i g h t the stereotyping o f f e m a l e administrators i n sport and its i n f l u e n c e o n their entry into sporting leadership. O n the other h a n d , C a m e r o n (1996) c r i t i c i z e d K a n t e r ' s concept o f ' h o m o l o g o u s r e p r o d u c t i o n ' as it does not question the structural processes w h i c h " . . .support patriarchal systems o f d o m i n a t i o n and h o w these arrangements are m a i n t a i n e d by the v e r y w o m e n w h o are oppressed b y t h e m " (p. 194) h i g h l i g h t i n g the  65  c o m p l e x i t i e s c o n c e r n i n g the l a c k o f w o m e n i n s p o r t i n g leadership. H o v d e n (2000a, 2 0 0 0 b ) also used K a n t e r ' s (1971) theory to e x p l a i n w h y m a l e administrators w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to select other m a l e leaders w h i c h best fit their i d e a o f a s k i l l e d administrator. A c c o r d i n g to B i s c h o f f and R i n t a l a (1994): " T h e concept o f h o m o l o g o u s r e p r o d u c t i o n , the process i n w h i c h the d o m i n a n t group reproduces itself based o n s o c i a l and/or p h y s i c a l  characteristics, has been used to e x p l a i n the i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l o f m e n c o a c h i n g w o m e n ' s sports, since the m a j o r i t y o f athletic directors i n  d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p o s i t i o n s are males. T h i s c o u l d c e r t a i n l y be a factor i n the male-dominated gender ratio o f the International O l y m p i c C o m m i t t e e , as w e l l as i n the U n i t e d States O l y m p i c C o m m i t t e e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s and the E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e " (p.86).  F u r t h e r m o r e , H a l l , C u l l e n and S l a c k (1990) u s e d the structural issues i d e n t i f i e d by K a n t e r (1971) as o p p o r t u n i t y , p o w e r and proportions to e x p l a i n the processes b y w h i c h female leaders are segregated into p o s i t i o n s o f l o w o p p o r t u n i t y and p o w e r as w e l l as their p r o p o r t i o n a l under-representation o n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g bodies i n sport (p.30). In their o w n study, M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n (1990) u s e d K a n t e r ' s theory to better understand the changes that needed to take place i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n order to achieve equity (p.71) and the w a y s i n w h i c h gender p o l i c i e s were i m p l e m e n t e d i n various sporting systems. T h i s thesis w i l l therefore be based o n a n u m b e r o f these theories i n a d d i t i o n to broader concepts relating to the particular m e t h o d o l o g y used f o r this study. I u s e d a f e m i n i s t perspective i n this study because I w a n t e d to e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n o n the career paths and leadership s k i l l s o f h i g h l e v e l female sporting leaders b y u s i n g personal i n t e r v i e w s w i t h w o m e n h o l d i n g such p o s i t i o n s i n C a n a d i a n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " C o m i n g out o f the m o d e r n literary m o v e m e n t s o f p o s t s t r u c t u r a l i s m , p o s t m o d e r n i s m , and deconstruction, discourse theory focuses o n the analysis o f a text - b r o a d l y understood to i n c l u d e l i v e d experiences and  66  c u l t u r a l f o r m s such as s p o r t . " ( B i r r e l l i n M e s s n e r and S a b o , 1990, p. 196) In this w a y , d i s c o u r s e analysis p r o v i d e s important theoretical insights to d e c o n s t r u c t i n g s o m e o f the participants stories i n order to h i g h l i g h t the c o m p l e x i t i e s o f the under representation o f w o m e n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . M a n y t i m e s h o w e v e r , the f e m a l e administrators' perspectives are not deconstructed but read as they w e r e u n d e r s t o o d b y the w o m e n themselves and presented as they are interpreted b y the researcher. F i n a l l y , I both c o n f i r m and trouble s o m e theories w h e n c o m p a r i n g m y data to that w h i c h has been presented i n the literature r e v i e w .  67  3 0 CHAPTER 3: WOMEN IN CANADIAN SPORT ADMINISTRATION Who are the women in high level Canadian sporting leadership? A l t h o u g h the research questions investigated a breadth o f t o p i c s , they also p r o v i d e d a general picture o f the w o m e n i n v o l v e d i n h i g h l e v e l s p o r t i n g leadership i n C a n a d a . T h e data c o l l e c t e d a l l o w e d f o r an interesting analysis as it h i g h l i g h t e d both the s i m i l a r i t y a n d d i v e r s i t y o f the f e m a l e leaders' b a c k g r o u n d s a n d perspectives. T h i s chapter w i l l first p r o v i d e a general p r o f i l e o f the participants i n v o l v e d i n this study a n d then present the f i n d i n g s i n t w o m a i n areas o f analysis: career paths a n d leadership involvement.  3.1 PROFILING T H E PARTICIPANTS What are the women's backgrounds and what led to their entry and progression in high level Canadian sport administration? S p o r t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n at its highest l e v e l requires i n d i v i d u a l s to have particular s k i l l s i n order to s u c c e s s f u l l y manage the o r g a n i z a t i o n . A s demonstrated i n the literature r e v i e w , m o d e r n d a y sporting organizations operate l i k e major corporations i n C a n a d a w i t h one e x c e p t i o n : m a n y organizations d e a l i n g w i t h O l y m p i c sport are r u n b y volunteers. T h o u g h m a n y o f these organizations have f u l l t i m e e m p l o y e e s h a n d l i n g the day-to-day operations, k e y d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p o s i t i o n s such as those o n the E x e c u t i v e B o a r d s are p r i m a r i l y o c c u p i e d b y volunteer m e m b e r s . In a d d i t i o n , s o m e o f the top leadership p o s i t i o n s such as C E O a n d C O O , w h i c h are also p a i d , are v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l thus m e m b e r s have a direct input o n the d i r e c t i o n the o r g a n i z a t i o n takes a n d its o v e r a l l success. R e s e a r c h has s h o w n that i n both cases, volunteers a n d p a i d sport administrators have v e r y s i m i l a r b a c k g r o u n d s and career paths w i t h a f e w important e x c e p t i o n s . F o r this reason, sport administrators w i l l be treated as a general term f o r a n y i n d i v i d u a l i n v o l v e d  68  i n sport governance and the distinctions w i l l be r e v i e w e d i n C h a p t e r 4 i n the ' v o l u n t e e r i s m ' section. B e c a u s e o n l y a s m a l l n u m b e r o f w o m e n h o l d top leadership p o s i t i o n s i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s , it i s important to understand h o w they i n i t i a l l y b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and gain access to leadership p o s i t i o n s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . It i s t h r o u g h their l i f e stories that w e can better understand w o m e n ' s career paths and leadership i n v o l v e m e n t i n h i g h level leadership. 3.1.1 P e r s o n a l B a c k g r o u n d s  How have the participant's backgrounds influenced their skills, perspectives and approaches to sport administration? T h e literature r e v i e w has s h o w n that an i n d i v i d u a l ' s b a c k g r o u n d i s a d o m i n a n t factor i n a p e r s o n ' s d i s p o s i t i o n to enter and progress i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( C a m e r o n , 1996; M c K a y , 1 9 9 7 ; H a l l , C u l l e n a n d S l a c k , 1 9 9 0 ; M a c i n t o s h a n d W h i t s o n , 1 9 9 0 ; I S L P and I O C , 2 0 0 4 ; P f i s t e r et. a l , 2 0 0 5 ) . In this section, I w i l l elaborate o n the various circumstances w h i c h appear to have i n f l u e n c e d the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s d e c i s i o n s to i n i t i a l l y get i n v o l v e d i n sport administration and their c h o i c e to advance into h i g h e r leadership p o s i t i o n s . In essence, this section p r o v i d e s a general p r o f i l e o f a ' t y p i c a l ' h i g h l e v e l f e m a l e sporting leader i n C a n a d a and her career path i n h i g h l e v e l sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s o f course does not i m p l y that all o f the w o m e n were s i m i l a r o r represented the v i e w s and interests o f o n l y the ' f e m a l e gender'. In fact, each participant s e e m e d to have her o w n leadership style and qualities as w e l l as divergent points o f v i e w o n m a n y o f the issues d i s c u s s e d d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s . T h i s s h o w s the i m p o r t a n c e o f understanding w o m e n ' s b a c k g r o u n d s a n d their i n f l u e n c e o n their d e c i s i o n s to participate i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s . T h e research data c o l l e c t e d  69  to e x p l o r e this aspect was c o d e d into three s p e c i f i c areas o f the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s b a c k g r o u n d : f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d ; e d u c a t i o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d ; and athletic b a c k g r o u n d . 3.1.1.1 F a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d T h e stories c o l l e c t e d i n this study s h o w that w o m e n w e r e either getting i n v o l v e d i n volunteer activities or p l a y i n g sports at a v e r y y o u n g age. O v e r h a l f o f the w o m e n t a l k e d about the role o f their f a m i l y u p b r i n g i n g o n their d e c i s i o n to enter sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . M a n y o f t h e m m e n t i o n e d that their parents had been i n v o l v e d i n the c o m m u n i t y i n some sort o f volunteer c a p a c i t y a n d had e n c o u r a g e d t h e m and their s i b l i n g s to engage i n e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r activities. F o r other w o m e n , their volunteer w o r k i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n began at a y o u n g age and s t e m m e d f r o m a p e r s o n a l interest i n b e i n g i n v o l v e d ' b e h i n d the scenes'. C o n s e q u e n t l y , most d e s c r i b e d their i n i t i a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n various volunteer or s p o r t i n g activities as a f a m i l y oriented endeavour. T h i s then l e d s o m e o f t h e m to c o m b i n e their interest i n sport w i t h their v o l u n t e e r w o r k o r v i c e versa, a l l o f t h e m e v e n t u a l l y c h o o s i n g to pursue volunteer or p a i d p o s i t i o n s i n the h i g h e r levels o f sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A s one w o m a n put it: " T h e w a y I was brought up, m y f a m i l y r e a l l y b e l i e v e d that y o u had a  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to g i v e b a c k to the c o m m u n i t y so y o u either g i v e b a c k w i t h y o u r t i m e or y o u gave b a c k m o n e y . A n d . . .so i t ' s j u s t e n g r a i n e d . (Participant 0 0 9 ) .  T h i s f i n d i n g c l e a r l y supports P f i s t e r et. a l ' s (2005) research that p o i n t e d to the i m p o r t a n c e o f parental support on the i n v o l v e m e n t o f m e n and w o m e n i n s p o r t i n g leadership. L i k e w i s e , this also supports f e m i n i s t theory w h i c h l i n k s the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f gender to sex/role theory ( H o v d e n , 2 0 0 5 ; M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n , 1 9 9 0 ; H a l l , 1996).  70  C o i n c i d e n t a l l y , the w o m e n ' s o w n f a m i l i a l ci rcums tances p l a y e d an i mportant role i n their degree o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A l m o s t a l l o f the respondents h a d a partner at h o m e w h o supported their w o r k , thus e n a b l i n g t h e m to spend m o r e t i m e i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Indeed, 8 0 % o f the w o m e n i n this study w e r e i n de facto relationships w h i c h challenges s o m e w h a t M c K a y (1997) and C a m e r o n ' s (1996) f i n d i n g s that suggested w o m e n were m o r e l i k e l y to be s i n g l e . It does h o w e v e r m i r r o r the results f o u n d i n the I S L P and I O C (2004) report that i n d i c a t e d that 7 0 % o f f e m a l e respondents were m a r r i e d and the same percentage h a d c h i l d r e n . Interestingly, there were t w o f e m a l e administrators i n this study that were still active athletes and both h a d f a m i l i e s . E a c h w o m a n was s l o w l y r e d u c i n g her w o r k l o a d i n v o l u n t e e r sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to f o c u s o n their f a m i l i e s and athletic careers p o i n t i n g out that t r y i n g to ' j u g g l e ' all three was too d e m a n d i n g . O n e w o m a n d e s c r i b e d h o w her i n - l a w s ' p r o x i m i t y a l l o w e d t h e m to a c c o m m o d a t e and support her w o r k as a volunteer sport admi ni s trator b y p r o v i d i n g her w i t h daycare w h e n needed. T h i s h i g h l i g h t s the fact that there are m a n y w o m e n w h o do not have these support n e t w o r k s i n place and m a y therefore be u n a b l e to participate i n h i g h l e v e l s p o r t i n g leadership. T h i s particular f i n d i n g is i mportant as v e r y little research has f o c u s e d o n the secondary support networks w h i c h facilitate w o m e n ' s opportunities to enter and progress i n sporting leadership. It is evident that both f a m i l y u p b r i n g i n g and current f a m i l i a l situation p r o v i d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r these participants to engage i n volunteer and s p o r t i n g activities. M a n y o f the w o m e n ' s i n i t i a l experiences were c r u c i a l i n d e t e r m i n i n g their future c h o i c e s to enter sport leadership and progress into m o r e important leadership roles w i t h i n C a n a d i a n sporting organizations.  71  3.1.1.2 Educational and professional background M a n y o f the f e m a l e participants spoke o f their i n v o l v e m e n t i n h i g h s c h o o l and u n i v e r s i t y c o m m i t t e e s ; experiences w h i c h later i n f l u e n c e d their d e c i s i o n to c o n t i n u e into h i g h l e v e l sporting leadership. S e v e n of the participants m e n t i o n e d attending u n i v e r s i t y w h i l e 3 had c o m p l e t e d graduate studies, suggesting that h i g h l e v e l s p o r t i n g leaders are i n d e e d w e l l educated. Interestingly, u n i v e r s i t y athletic associations p r o v i d e d t w o o f the 10 w o m e n w i t h their i n i t i a l experiences i n the administrative side o f sport w h i l e another w o m a n w o r k e d i n her u n i v e r s i t y athletic department. T h i s is c l e a r l y supported b y most literature pertaining to w o m e n i n sporting leadership ( C a m e r o n , 1 9 9 6 ; I S L P and I O C , 2 0 0 4 ; M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n , 1 9 9 0 ; P f i s t e r et. a l , 2 0 0 5 ) . T h e e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d also p r o v i d e d some w o m e n w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y to w o r k i n p a i d sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n such as u n i v e r s i t y athletic departments. T h i s has been a starting p l a t f o r m f o r w o m e n p r o g r e s s i n g into O l y m p i c and international a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Interestingly, the participants had studied a n u m b e r o f different professions, f r o m p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n to l a w and even w o m e n ' s studies. T h e s e divergent b a c k g r o u n d s i n f l u e n c e d the roles w o m e n chose to take o n and the v i e w p o i n t s they brought to the table. T h e analysis r e v e a l e d that the w o m e n ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d s were a valuable asset i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p r o v i d e d t h e m w i t h the necessary k n o w l e d g e to be s u c c e s s f u l i n leadership p o s i t i o n s . T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f s k i l l and experience a l l o w e d t h e m to progress into the h i g h e r echelons o f sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , o v e r h a l f o f the w o m e n m e n t i o n e d that they had been i n v o l v e d i n their sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n m a i n l y on account o f their p r o f e s s i o n a l background: " . . .to be honest u m m , I think m y b a c k g r o u n d . . . u m m , y o u k n o w , as soon as y o u have an a c c o u n t i n g b a c k g r o u n d or a l e g a l b a c k g r o u n d , it just seems  72  to be that those people are the ones w h o tend to take o n the leadership roles because f o r s o m e reason, y o u ' r e v i e w e d as h a v i n g m o r e c r e d i b i l i t y or w h a t e v e r " (Participant 0 0 7 ) . T h o s e w o m e n w h o w o r k e d i n p a i d sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n also t a l k e d about the ' l u x u r y o f their p o s i t i o n s ' . S o m e w o m e n e x p l a i n e d that their j o b a f f o r d e d t h e m the t i m e , resources and opportunities to participate as a volunteer i n h i g h l e v e l sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n because they h a d f l e x i b l e w o r k hours and were able to attend necessary meetings and access support n e t w o r k s . T h i s c o n f i r m s p r e v i o u s data p r o v i d e d b y M c K a y (1997), C a m e r o n (1996) and P f i s t e r et. al (2005) w h i c h i n d i c a t e d that f e m a l e sport administrators were o v e r w h e l m i n g l y f o u n d to be i n p r o f e s s i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t , t y p i c a l l y h o l d i n g important p o s i t i o n s . W h e t h e r they w e r e s e l f - e m p l o y e d , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teachers, p r a c t i c e d l a w or w o r k e d f u l l - t i m e as a coach/trainer or sport administrator, the w o m e n b e l i e v e d their p r o f e s s i o n was c o n d u c i v e to t a k i n g o n leadership p o s i t i o n s i n a C a n a d i a n sporting b o d y . W o m e n ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d s thus p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t role i n their access and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n the h i g h e r e x e c u t i v e l e v e l positions. 3.1.1.3 A t h l e t i c B a c k g r o u n d ".. .1 do t h i n k that it gives y o u a n . . .edge to be a h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e athlete a n d then b r i n g content into that" (Participant 0 0 2 ) . A n o t h e r factor f o u n d to be s i g n i f i c a n t i n l e a d i n g w o m e n to seek p o s i t i o n s i n C a n a d i a n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s and s u c c e s s f u l l y progress to its highest l e v e l is their athletic b a c k g r o u n d . T h o u g h not e v e r y w o m a n i n t e r v i e w e d h a d been an elite athlete, 9 0 % o f the respondents h a d participated i n national and international c o m p e t i t i o n and t a l k e d about their l o v e and passion f o r sport. T h i s supports recent research b y C a m e r o n (1996), P f i s t e r et. al (2005) and the I S L P and I O C (2004) that f o u n d that most f e m a l e sport  73  administrators h a d c o m p e t e d at the r e g i o n a l , n a t i o n a l and international l e v e l s . O n e w o m a n i n this study h a d been a recreational athlete and used sport as a v e h i c l e f o r her w o r k as an advocate f o r g i r l s and w o m e n and p h y s i c a l education teacher f o r c h i l d r e n . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , the analysis s h o w e d that most w o m e n b e l i e v e d that an elite athletic b a c k g r o u n d was i mp o rtan t f o r sport administrators f o r f o u r m a i n reasons. F i r s t , the w o m e n m e n t i o n e d that h a v i n g participated i n an O l y m p i c G a m e s and p a r t i c u l a r l y , h a v i n g w o n an O l y m p i c m e d a l f o r s o m e i n d i v i d u a l s , made t h e m h i g h p r o f i l e i n d i v i d u a l s i n their c o m m u n i t i e s . M a n y o f the f e m a l e sport administrators i n t e r v i e w e d w e r e w o r l d r e n o w n e d athletes w h o used their 'quasi c e l e b r i t y status' to b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n p u b l i c s p e a k i n g or c h a r i t y w o r k . In some cases, the w o m e n s a i d that m a n y leaders w e r e able to use their notoriety to b r i n g attention to various charities i n s i d e and out o f the s p o r t i n g w o r l d and thus, l e n d a h a n d to a n u m b e r o f other volunteer causes. In a d d i t i o n , their h i g h p r o f i l e status also brought p o s i t i v e attention to the sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n and gave t h e m an advantage i n the areas o f f u n d r a i s i n g and corporate s p o n s o r s h i p . T h i s supports the argument that athletes s h o u l d use their h i g h p r o f i l e to g i v e b a c k to the c o m m u n i t y and act as role m o d e l s f o r y o u n g athletes. S e c o n d , it is argued that f o r m e r athletes b r i n g a s p e c i f i c k n o w l e d g e o f sport to the table as a result o f their sporting experiences. M a n y participants m e n t i o n e d that b e i n g an athlete gave them ' c r e d i b i l i t y ' i n the b o a r d r o o m because they h a d been a r o u n d the sporting w o r l d f o r some t i m e and c o u l d relate to what past and current athletes b e l i e v e d was needed to be s u c c e s s f u l . It was p e r c e i v e d that past athletes h a d a better understanding o f the issues c o n c e r n i n g sport because they had been an ' e n d user' and were able to see both the athlete and administrative side o f the issue. M o r e o v e r , three  74  w o m e n h a d also c o a c h e d elite athletes w h i c h gave t h e m a u n i q u e understanding o f the issues f r o m a l l three perspectives; athlete, c o a c h a n d administrator. A s one w o m a n put it: " . . .it does g i v e y o u an advantage that y o u c o u l d speak to issues l o g i c a l l y and f r o m experience right. . . . a n d e x t e r n a l l y , i t ' s c r e d i b i l i t y " (Participant 006). In s u m , it is p e r c e i v e d that an athletic b a c k g r o u n d p r o v i d e d w o m e n w i t h the a b i l i t y to understand the i m p a c t o f d e c i s i o n m a k i n g on athletes, coaches as w e l l as administrators and thus, m a k e i n f o r m e d c h o i c e s c o n c e r n i n g p o l i c y and practice at the governance l e v e l . A l l o f the participants reiterated the qualities that sport d e v e l o p s i n athletes; qualities transferable to other areas o f their l i v e s s u c h as r e s i l i e n c e , patience and c o n f i d e n c e . Interestingly, a f e w w o m e n p o i n t e d out h o w various k i n d s o f sporting b a c k g r o u n d s d e v e l o p different leadership s k i l l s . F o r e x a m p l e , one w o m a n n o t i c e d that team sports a l l o w e d athletes to d e v e l o p a sense o f team w o r k , a necessary s k i l l i n the b o a r d r o o m w h i l e sports that p l a c e d t w o opponents against each other d e v e l o p e d s k i l l s such as t i m e and r i s k management and gave t h e m the a b i l i t y to deal w i t h uncertainty. B e c a u s e d e c i s i o n s are u s u a l l y taken at the e x e c u t i v e l e v e l , it requires leaders to discuss issues and m a k e d e c i s i o n s as a group. F o r this reason, the athletic b a c k g r o u n d o f sport administrators is therefore b e l i e v e d to d e v e l o p characteristics that are v a l u e d i n sporting leadership and are v i e w e d as advantageous to s u c c e s s f u l l y p e r f o r m i n g at the highest l e v e l o f sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . It seems that a d m i n i s t r a t i v e w o r k is p e r c e i v e d b y some leaders as a ' l o g i c a l step' f o r both past and current athletes. H o w e v e r , it is i mportant to r e c o g n i z e that an elite athletic b a c k g r o u n d does not necessarily m e a n that the i n d i v i d u a l has a l l o f the leadership s k i l l s r e q u i r e d to be successful at the highest levels o f d e c i s i o n m a k i n g i n sport. A f e w w o m e n i n d i c a t e d that past athletes d i d not necessarily have the  75  administrative b a c k g r o u n d needed to f u l f i l l those leadership roles. It was f o u n d that m a n y athletes representatives' o n E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e s d i d not a l w a y s b e l i e v e they w e r e b e i n g taken s e r i o u s l y and reported b e i n g stereotyped as 'wet b e h i n d the ears' and o n l y l o o k i n g out f o r themselves and their particular sport. F o r this reason, it was important f o r w o m e n to d e v e l o p various s k i l l sets i n order to be c r e d i b l e and thus, s u c c e s s f u l . T h i s does indicate that sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p o s i t i o n s also need to be f i l l e d b y i n d i v i d u a l s w h o have a business administration b a c k g r o u n d as w e l l as the n e t w o r k i n g a n d leadership s k i l l s r e q u i r e d to be s u c c e s s f u l . T h e r e are a n u m b e r o f m a l e leaders that have been recruited as sport administrators f r o m the areas o f business and p o l i t i c s where there are again, m u c h f e w e r w o m e n i n v o l v e d . H o w e v e r , it is essential to f i n d f e m a l e s p o r t i n g leaders i n these areas and recruit them to the C a n a d i a n sporting system. L a s t l y , almost all o f the w o m e n reported that their i n i t i a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was a direct result o f their b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n sport as athletes. M a n y o f the f e m a l e leaders i n t e r v i e w e d had begun their careers on an A t h l e t e ' s c o u n c i l or c o m m i t t e e as a representative f o r their particular sport. S o m e w o m e n had e v e n been i n v o l v e d i n setting up s o m e o f the first A t h l e t e ' s C o m m i t t e e s and were pioneers o f the athlete's m o v e m e n t . O n e w o m a n asserted that: " . . .to this p o i n t , every p o s i t i o n I've h a d has been as an athlete  representative so y o u k n o w f o r m e , w i t h o u t that sporting b a c k g r o u n d , it w o u l d not have been p o s s i b l e " (Participant 0 0 7 ) .  C e r t a i n l y , A t h l e t e ' s C o m m i t t e e s have b e c o m e an important 'stepping stone' f o r w o m e n ' s (and m e n ' s ) entry and p r o g r e s s i o n into the h i g h e r echelons o f sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s u p p o r t i n g C a m e r o n (1996) and the I S L P and I O C ' s (2004) f i n d i n g s . Indeed, most o f the study participants i n i t i a l l y entered the A t h l e t e ' s C o m m i t t e e w i t h i n their particular sport,  76  w h i c h demonstrates the i m p o r t a n c e o f a l l sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s t a k i n g steps to increase the n u m b e r o f h i g h l e v e l f e m a l e sporting leaders because m a n y w o m e n m o v e up through their l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l a n d n a t i o n a l l e v e l sport g o v e r n i n g b o d i e s .  3.2 C A R E E R P A T H S IN S P O R T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N It is o b v i o u s that a l l o f the w o m e n i n t e r v i e w e d h a d been i n v o l v e d i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , though to v a r y i n g degrees. S o m e c o m m o n patterns e m e r g e d i n the career paths o f the participants w h i c h h i g h l i g h t the w a y s i n w h i c h m a n y w o m e n access leadership p o s i t i o n s a n d progress through sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , these w o m e n also have d i f f e r i n g levels o f interest a n d achievement as s p o r t i n g leaders. T h i s section w i l l therefore e x a m i n e a n d describe the general patterns o f entry a n d advancement f o r the h i g h l e v e l f e m a l e sporting leaders w h o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n this study a n d their n u m e r o u s leadership a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s . 3.2.1 E n t r y i n t o sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n T h i s study e x p l o r e d the reasons w h y the f e m a l e participants chose to b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d the ci rcums tances under w h i c h they entered their leadership p o s i t i o n s . F i r s t l y , m a n y w o m e n p o i n t e d to the fact that they j o i n e d sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n because they wanted to create change w i t h i n the s p o r t i n g s y s t e m . S i m i l a r l y , a f e w w o m e n t o o k o n a sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n role because they s i m p l y w a n t e d to g i v e b a c k to sport; often the same sport w h i c h they felt they h a d r e c e i v e d so m u c h f r o m . S e v e n o f the participants, f o r a n u m b e r o f different reasons, s p e c i f i c a l l y m e n t i o n e d that they h a d advocated f o r change i n order to m a k e their s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s better f o r both current and u p c o m i n g athletes as w e l l as g i r l s and w o m e n . S o m e o f the participants i n i t i a l l y engaged i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n because they b e l i e v e d there w e r e i m b a l a n c e s i n  77  the system such as cheating or i n e q u i t i e s , and felt they needed to b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n the d e c i s i o n m a k i n g process. " T h a t ' s h o w I started, just s i m p l y y o u k n o w , not l i k i n g w h a t I saw a r o u n d me and t r y i n g to m a k e a difference, t r y i n g to m a k e a c h a n g e " (Participant  010). A l m o s t a l l o f the w o m e n m e n t i o n e d b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n volunteer sporting leadership ' f o r the right reasons'. F o r e x a m p l e , the f e m a l e leaders w h o h a d been i n v o l v e d i n the restructuring o f their a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d y h a d actually e l i m i n a t e d their o w n p o s i t i o n s i n order to m a k e their sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n m o r e effective. A g a i n , s o m e w o m e n m e n t i o n e d that they h a d i n t r o d u c e d succession p l a n n i n g to their sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h the hopes o f b u i l d i n g a m o r e coherent sporting system at a l l levels. It is therefore evident that this a d v o c a c y w o r k on b e h a l f o f athletes, coaches and w o m e n s h o w s the v a r i o u s areas i n w h i c h they are i n v o l v e d and the successful endeavours b e i n g undertaken b y f e m a l e sport administrators. T h u s , it is evident that these w o m e n wanted to contribute to m a k i n g a d i f f e r e n c e and i m p r o v i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n . T w o participants r e m a r k e d they had b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n because they had a ' k n a c k ' f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e w o r k and w a n t e d to c o m b i n e these s k i l l s w i t h their interest i n sport. Others b e l i e v e d that they were i n v i t e d because o f their p r o f e s s i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d s . H a v i n g participated i n sport and b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n its a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o v i d e d the w o m e n w i t h countless opportunities to n e t w o r k w i t h other athletes and administrators. T h i s and other s k i l l s p l a y an i mportant role i n w o m e n ' s access and advancement into leadership p o s i t i o n s i n sport. In several other cases, w o m e n said they were recruited b y their sport to sit on various c o m m i t t e e s , s o m e t i m e s because there were n o other f e m a l e m e m b e r s .  78  "In m y earlier years, I was one o f the f e w w o m e n . A n d I k n o w I was i n v i t e d because o f that a n d that was i n the 80s. P r i o r to that, I bet there were v e r y , very f e w w o m e n o n boards but I t h i n k I was one o f the first to r e a l l y get on the b o a r d s " (Participant 004). Interestingly, several o f the participants m e n t i o n e d the p o s s i b i l i t y that s o m e m e m b e r s m a y have i n i t i a l l y entered their p o s i t i o n s partly based o n their gender or race. T h e y d i d argue h o w e v e r that it was essential that these m e m b e r s a c t i v e l y contribute to the boards and the d e c i s i o n m a k i n g process i n order to p r o v e their c a p a b i l i t i e s at this l e v e l . It was evident that none o f the w o m e n wanted to feel as though they were i n their p o s i t i o n s i m p l y o n the basis o f their gender or other m i n o r i t y status. T o this extent, one w o m a n said: "I a l w a y s t h i n k . . .that b e i n g a w o m a n or b e i n g an athlete or b e i n g b l a c k  y o u k n o w , b e i n g a m i n o r i t y . . .these m i g h t be the sort o f things that m i g h t get y o u i n the d o o r e v e n t u a l l y but i t ' s y o u r h a r d w o r k ; i t ' s y o u r  c o m m i t m e n t ; i t ' s what y o u r e a l l y contribute that keeps y o u i n the door,  [you] never want to feel that, i n any p o s i t i o n , I ' m i n as a result o f o r j u s t  because o f those v i s i b l e things. .. .certainly I t h i n k w e can n e v e r be c o m p l a c e n t a g a i n . . . " (Participant 001).  D u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s , the participants were a s k e d about h o w o l d they w e r e w h e n they first entered sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 6 0 % o f the w o m e n said they h a d taken on leadership roles i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n their mid/late 20s to early 30s w h i l e the other 4 0 % reported that they were i n their m i d 30s to early 40s. T h i s shows that most o f the w o m e n w e r e quite y o u n g w h e n they i n i t i a l l y got i n v o l v e d i n s p o r t i n g leadership yet are m u c h o l d e r b y the t i m e they reach the top leadership p o s i t i o n s . Interestingly, one w o m a n c o m m e n t e d that E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e m e m b e r s w h o were athlete's representatives seemed to be m u c h y o u n g e r than m e m b e r s w h o c a m e f r o m other areas o f the sporting system. T h i s is an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n that there are m a n y h i g h l e v e l f e m a l e leaders w h o are or have been athlete's representatives h o w e v e r there is little research  79  e x a m i n i n g the entry-level p o s i t i o n s h e l d b y f e m a l e sporting leaders to c o n f i r m or advance this n o t i o n . In the future, this c o u l d p r o v i d e an important area o f analysis to the underrepresentation o f w o m e n i n sporting leadership. T h e w o m e n were e s p e c i a l l y encouraged to discuss their first leadership experiences i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n order to investigate at w h i c h l e v e l f e m a l e leaders enter into sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s and h o w these experiences i n f l u e n c e their future i n v o l v e m e n t . T h e w o m e n i n t e r v i e w e d i n this study entered sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n at various levels and i n different p o s i t i o n s . A s m e n t i o n e d , m a n y w o m e n began their w o r k as athlete's representatives f o r their sport and i n athlete a d v o c a c y groups. It was m e n t i o n e d that since athletes have h a d a m u c h greater i n v o l v e m e n t at the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l , m o r e a n d m o r e g o v e r n i n g b o d i e s are targeting athletes a n d ex-athletes to b e c o m e c o m m i t t e e m e m b e r s and use them as resources. T h i s was e v i d e n t l y important to some o f the w o m e n i n this study g i v e n that m a n y w o m e n had entered sporting leadership as a direct result o f their i n v o l v e m e n t i n sport. A n o t h e r participant began her career i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as President o f her c l u b w h i l e others t o o k up E x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n their p r o v i n c i a l sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . O n e female respondent's first p o s i t i o n was at the national l e v e l f o r her sport w h i l e t w o participants were i n p a i d e m p l o y m e n t i n a C a n a d i a n sport program. S o m e o f the participants had been elected to their p o s i t i o n s i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Others h a d been n o m i n a t e d b y their c o m m i t t e e s or o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r leadership roles. In one case, a w o m a n d i s c u s s e d h o w s o m e f e m a l e leaders ensured that other w o m e n were b e i n g v o t e d into the o r g a n i z a t i o n s a y i n g : " . . .throughout elections, a lot o f times w e ' l l sort o f d o s o m e b a c k r o o m deals, not deals but w e w o u l d l o o k at w h o are the k e y w o m e n that w e  80  wanted to get o n there because w e w a n t e d to m a k e sure that w e p r o m o t e d these w o m e n to get t h e m i n the r o l e " (Participant 0 0 5 ) . F i n a l l y , some w o m e n h a d been appointed to their p o s i t i o n s b y the o r g a n i z a t i o n or had been a s k e d to serve as a volunteer m e m b e r on the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s o f their organization. F u r t h e r m o r e , m a n y o f the female participants suggested that they had been e n c o u r a g e d to run and supported b y other b o a r d m e m b e r s , u s u a l l y their mentors or p e o p l e i n their s o c i a l n e t w o r k s . In one case, a w o m a n ' s s o c i a l n e t w o r k i n i t i a l l y got her i n v o l v e d i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f r o m w h i c h she d e v e l o p e d an interest i n p u r s u i n g a career at the highest l e v e l . A n o t h e r w o m a n t a l k e d about h o w she was ' h a n d p i c k e d ' to sit o n the e x e c u t i v e b o a r d because she had s h o w n an active interest i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e side o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n and was w i l l i n g to b e c o m e i n v o l v e d on a v o l u n t e e r basis. T h i s thought was e c h o e d b y a n u m b e r o f w o m e n i n t e r v i e w e d i n this study and has i mportant o u t c o m e s f o r the w a y s i n w h i c h organizations recruit their m e m b e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w o m e n . A s one w o m a n put it: "I d o n ' t t h i n k i f I saw a c a l l f o r b o a r d m e m b e r s I w o u l d have stepped into  the r i n g and I d o n ' t t h i n k it w o r k s that w a y " (Participant 0 0 8 ) .  S o m e o f these recruitment methods were r e v i e w e d b y H a r t m a n n - T e w s and C o m b r i n k (2005), I S L P and I O C (2004) and C a m e r o n (1996) are c o n s e q u e n t l y supported b y the f i n d i n g s o f this study. T h u s , the recruitment o f w o m e n into sporting leadership is p a r t i c u l a r l y m e a n i n g f u l because it has i m p l i c a t i o n s on the n u m b e r o f w o m e n w h o enter and progress i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s also shows that p o t e n t i a l l y g o o d leaders m a y not a l w a y s  81  advance themselves f o r p o s i t i o n s but are m o r e than w i l l i n g to be i n v o l v e d w h e n a s k e d to d o so. " W e l l I t h i n k that u m m , w o m e n sign up f o r things or j o i n things or turn up  f o r things i n a different w a y than m e n d o . L i k e . . . w o m e n s o m e t i m e s have to be pursued and have to be i d e n t i f i e d and c o m m u n i c a t e d w i t h and t o l d that, l o o k there's s o m e t h i n g that y o u m i g h t l i k e to try and, whereas m e n m i g h t j u s t s h o w up m o r e and I m e a n I've seen that, c e r t a i n l y i n  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e roles. I w o u l d n ' t have been i n v o l v e d i n the international  federation i f a w o m a n h a d n ' t sought me out, I w a s n ' t t h i n k i n g gee, I'd l i k e to be i n v o l v e d internationally. ...that's w h y I say y o u k n o w , m a y b e w e  have to l o o k at d o i n g some r e c r u i t i n g because i t ' s not necessarily the best w a y to p r o m o t e m o r e w o m e n i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , j u s t b y w a i t i n g to see w h o shows u p " (Participant 0 0 3 ) .  3.2.2 P r o g r e s s i o n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and leadership a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s D u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s , the w o m e n were a s k e d to describe their career path i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o c u s i n g o n their advancement into h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s . E q u a l l y important was their p e r c e i v e d leadership a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as it demonstrates success and contentment i n these leadership roles. A s d i s c u s s e d , m a n y w o m e n started their careers as m e m b e r s o f a s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n , u s u a l l y the same sport i n w h i c h they have c o m p e t e d , then taken on a V i c e - P r e s i d e n c y or V i c e - C h a i r p o s i t i o n and f i n a l l y , m o v e into the top leadership p o s i t i o n s i n various organizations. " . . .1 d o n ' t k n o w whether w o m e n do it m o r e l i n e a r l y . . . l i k e i n terms o f  career path. A n d they need to be a bit m o r e patient y o u k n o w , whether  s o m e t i m e s i t ' s stepping out to the side before y o u get w h e r e y o u need to g o " (Participant 0 0 8 ) .  T h e literature r e v i e w d i d suggest that p r o g r e s s i o n is often linear, m e a n i n g that sport administrators start o f f i n s m a l l leadership roles f o r their l o c a l c l u b , then m o v e o n to the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , reach the national b o d y and its e x e c u t i v e and s o m e p r o c e e d to the international l e v e l ( C a m e r o n , 1996; P f i s t e r et. a l , 2 0 0 5 ) . T h o u g h o n l y one w o m a n i n this  82  study s p e c i f i c a l l y said she h a d started d o i n g sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n at her c l u b , the progression o f f e m a l e leaders i n this study is v e r y s i m i l a r to that d e s c r i b e d i n the literature r e v i e w . F o r the most part, w o m e n b e c a m e i n v o l v e d at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l o f their sport ( 9 0 % ) and progressed into leadership p o s i t i o n s at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l ( 8 0 % ) w h i l e 3 o f the w o m e n w e r e i n v o l v e d at the international l e v e l . F u r t h e r m o r e , 3 0 % o f the w o m e n w e r e also i n p a i d sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p o s i t i o n s o f w h i c h 2 w e r e also i n v o l v e d i n the volunteer side. A g a i n , this advancement u s u a l l y i n v o l v e d the w o m e n first b e c o m i n g m e m b e r s o f these o r g a n i z a t i o n s then m o v i n g up to the E x e c u t i v e l e v e l p o s i t i o n s . T h e analysis s h o w e d that w o m e n f o l l o w e d a l o g i c a l path w i t h i n and between various levels o f sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . O v e r h a l f o f the respondents m e n t i o n e d that their career path seemed to be a natural p r o g r e s s i o n where one p o s i t i o n had l e d to the other. It is said that this natural p r o g r e s s i o n a l l o w s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s to gain i mportant k n o w l e d g e and experience at the entry-level p o s i t i o n s so that as they progress to the h i g h e r l e v e l s , they can understand h o w 'it a l l w o r k s together'. " . . . t h e r e ' s no vantage p o i n t l i k e seeing h o w e v e r y piece w o r k s so w h e n  y o u do sit there and l o o k a r o u n d , y o u k n o w it w o r k s because y o u ' v e been a r o u n d it, y o u ' v e been i n trenches and that's w h y y o u ' v e w o r k e d y o u r  w a y up and y o u can sort o f have the a b i l i t y to, to be able to strategically  focus o n different things and draw i n the best p e o p l e . . . " (Participant 0 0 1 ) . T h i s 'natural p r o g r e s s i o n ' was not a l w a y s q u i c k as most o f the respondents d e s c r i b e d that they h a d all been i n v o l v e d i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r a l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e before attaining those top leadership p o s i t i o n s at the p r o v i n c i a l and n a t i o n a l l e v e l . E s s e n t i a l l y , w o m e n h a d to w o r k their w a y up the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l ladder i n c r e m e n t a l l y , c o n t i n u i n g to gain v a l u a b l e k n o w l e d g e a n d experience a l o n g the w a y . O n e w o m a n d e s c r i b e d her strategy as:  83  " S o I t h i n k that's a l w a y s been m y strategy...to establish m y c r e d i b i l i t y  and t h e n . . .people listen to y o u and y o u can go a lot farther that w a y rather  than c o m i n g and s a y i n g this is what w e have to d o , w i t h o u t p e o p l e r e a l l y k n o w i n g and trusting y o u . Y e a h , it takes a l o n g t i m e but I t h i n k it w o r k s  better and then y o u ' v e got them on y o u r side as w e l l " (Participant 0 0 3 ) .  T o this e n d , the average length o f service f o r the f e m a l e leaders i n this study was 15 years w i t h one w o m a n h a v i n g been i n v o l v e d i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r o v e r 25 years, 3 f o r o v e r 2 0 years and o n l y 3 w i t h 10 years experience or less. T h i s does support data p r o v i d e d b y C a m e r o n (1996), P f i s t e r et. al (2005) and the I S L P a n d I O C (2004) about the average length o f service f o r f e m a l e sporting leaders i n various countries. It was also f o u n d that f e m a l e administrators m o v e d into h i g h e r leadership p o s i t i o n s i n s i m i l a r w a y s to w h i c h they entered sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . W o m e n u s u a l l y progressed into m o r e i mp o rtan t leadership roles b y r u n n i n g f o r e l e c t i o n and/or b e i n g recruited and n o m i n a t e d to sit on a particular b o a r d or c o m m i t t e e . O n e participant i n particular m e n t i o n e d that her ' n a m e ' h a d f a c i l i t a t e d her progress into other leadership p o s i t i o n s because the other administrators k n e w w h o she was as a result o f her athletic success. In another case, one o f the respondents was ' h e a d h u n t e d ' b y a particular o r g a n i z a t i o n w h o h a d w i t n e s s e d her success i n p r i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e roles. A n o t h e r w o m a n s p e c i f i c a l l y attributed her p r o g r e s s i o n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to another w o m a n w h o h a d sought her out and asked her to b e c o m e i n v o l v e d at a h i g h e r l e v e l , s a y i n g that she had not i n i t i a l l y thought about m o v i n g up the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e hierarchy. A l l o f these e x a m p l e s h i g h l i g h t the i m p o r t a n c e o f s o c i a l n e t w o r k s f o r those w h o are p u r s u i n g h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s . " S o I t h i n k a lot, I t h i n k part o f that had to d o w i t h m e b e i n g i d e n t i f i e d as a person, there were a f e w people that said y o u k n o w , there's s o m e o n e w e ' d l i k e to get i n v o l v e d and y o u k n o w , w e have elections e v e r y 4 years and  84  there's lots o f y o u k n o w , b e h i n d the scenes negotiations and d i s c u s s i o n s g o i n g o n " (Participant 0 0 5 ) . W i t h respect to career paths, the participants were also a s k e d to describe the c ir c um stan c e s that h e l p e d t h e m achieve and prosper in h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s . T o a certain extent, a l l o f the w o m e n t a l k e d about the t i m e c o m m i t m e n t and necessary resources r e q u i r e d f o r advancement in sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . S o m e o f the participants also e m p h a s i z e d the i m p o r t a n c e o f support n e t w o r k s , whether it be their partner or extended f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , in h e l p i n g t h e m reach and p e r f o r m at all levels o f sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , leadership s k i l l s such as business c o m p e t e n c y , p r o v e n success, experience and the a b i l i t y to w o r k w e l l w i t h m e n were s i n g l e d out as important to a d v a n c i n g i n sport management; s k i l l s that w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the section On leadership attributes. F i n a l l y , all o f the w o m e n t a l k e d about the t i m e c o m m i t m e n t and necessary resources r e q u i r e d f o r advancement i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . S o m e o f the participants also e m p h a s i z e d the i m p o r t a n c e o f support n e t w o r k s , whether it be their partner or extended f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , i n h e l p i n g t h e m reach and p e r f o r m at a l l levels o f sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , leadership s k i l l s such as business c o m p e t e n c y , p r o v e n success, experience and the a b i l i t y to w o r k w e l l w i t h m e n were s i n g l e d out as i mportant to a d v a n c i n g i n sport management to discuss the leadership a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s m e n t i o n e d b y the f e m a l e administrators i n this study. A s seen, all o f the f e m a l e leaders reported s o m e progress i n their sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n careers and were encouraged to describe s o m e o f their greatest a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s . B e c a u s e a l l o f the w o m e n had c h a i r e d a n u m b e r o f i mportant c o m m i t t e e s and/or l e d their organizations at one t i m e , they m e n t i o n e d h a v i n g been s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n v o l v e d i n the d e c i s i o n m a k i n g process o f large i n i t i a t i v e s such as  85  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l mergers and the h o s t i n g o f major c o m p e t i t i o n s . S e v e r a l others h a d m a n a g e d m a j o r r e f o r m w i t h i n their o r g a n i z a t i o n s . O n e w o m a n d e c l a r e d that: " . . . m y biggest l e g a c y I t h i n k w i l l be i n the change o f the structure o f the [organization] because I was i n v o l v e d so l o n g and it was so i n e f f e c t i v e .  W e w o u l d have these meetings once a year and w e ' v e have l i k e 3 0 n e w people and a lot o f t h e m were still y o u n g a n d they h a d n o t h i n g to r e a l l y b r i n g to the table. S o I s a i d . . . w e need to m o v e this f o r w a r d and I'm  p r e p a r e d . . .to support i t ' s m o v e f o r w a r d and here's w h a t w e need to do.  W e need to y o u k n o w , get a governance a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to w o r k w i t h us to get this set up and w e need to get the f o l l o w i n g p e o p l e on o u r c o m m i t t e e w i t h d i f f e r i n g o p i n i o n s and r e a l l y d r a w all o f that f o r w a r d " (Participant  005).  A f e w w o m e n stated that they h a d created an i n n o v a t i v e concept that had been s u c c e s s f u l l y i m p l e m e n t e d and praised throughout their particular s p o r t i n g system. F o r e x a m p l e , w h e n one o r g a n i z a t i o n restructured their a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , this f e m a l e leader, w h o r e c e i v e d a large amount o f support f r o m the m e m b e r s o f the E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e , m a n d a t e d a gender quota p o l i c y , w h i c h stated that the same n u m b e r o f m e n and w o m e n , were to sit on the E x e c u t i v e B o a r d . S i n c e there h a d been c o n s i d e r a b l e resistance to this i d e a and she had w o r k e d v e r y h a r d to c o n v i n c e the o r g a n i z a t i o n that this was important, she b e l i e v e d this to be one o f her greatest a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s . In another situation, one w o m a n had d e v e l o p e d a sport p o l i c y that was currently b e i n g i m p l e m e n t e d i n her sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n and that o r g a n i z a t i o n a l profits h a d a c c r u e d as a result o f her i n g e n u i t y . S i m i l a r l y , another participant spoke o f her e x p e r i e n c e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the first W o m e n and Sport C o m m i t t e e o f her o r g a n i z a t i o n as a result o f the l a c k o f w o m e n i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e leadership roles. D u e to this hard w o r k , she reported that m o r e w o m e n had been n o m i n a t e d and elected w i t h i n the governance structure than ever before. F o r those w o m e n w h o h a d entered sporting leadership as a result o f b e i n g an athlete representative, m a n y b e l i e v e d that they h a d been able to e f f e c t i v e l y integrate the  86  athlete's perspective w i t h i n their boards and felt that this was an i mportant achievement f o r sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . O n e w o m a n w o r k e d to i m p r o v e the athlete's representation i n governance structure stating: " . . . i f I a m the proudest o f a n y t h i n g thus far that I've d o n e . . .and m a y b e appreciated b y m y s e l f and a f e w athletes w h o t r u l y understand the v a l u e o f this, and that is that w e went f r o m . . .a p a r t i a l l y elected b o a r d to a c o m p l e t e l y elected b o a r d and the o n l y w a y y o u c a n do that is b y c o m p l e t e l y cutting out the representative m o d e l . A n d i f e v e r y o n e was elected, than e v e r y o n e was elected and there were n o appointed p e o p l e i n i t " (Participant 010). T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f this achievement is that athlete's were able to take o n a m u c h m o r e i n f l u e n t i a l role w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . O v e r a l l , the w o m e n h a d been i n v o l v e d i n a n u m b e r o f i mp o rtan t d e c i s i o n s and h a d a c t i v e l y participated i n major projects and r e f o r m s w i t h i n their s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h r o u g h o u t their careers, a l l o f the w o m e n e x p e r i e n c e d successes a n d s o m e were f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d through trophies and awards. H a l f o f the w o m e n had w o n a prestigious a w a r d f o r their w o r k i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . S o m e were h o n o u r e d f o r their leadership s k i l l s and a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s w h i l e others w e r e f o r their d e d i c a t i o n to sport and their c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n the management o f these o r g a n i z a t i o n s . O n e w o m a n s p e c i f i c a l l y regarded her a w a r d as r e m a r k a b l e because she h a d been the o n l y w o m a n n o m i n a t e d and was 'up against a l l m e n ' . A l l o f the w o m e n were thus successful i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and had a c c o m p l i s h e d s o m e important feats throughout their careers. O n the w h o l e , although the w o m e n ' s career paths were quite s i m i l a r , each o f t h e m r e c o u n t e d a particular story and e m p h a s i z e d various factors that c o n t r i b u t e d to their success i n h i g h l e v e l sporting leadership.  87  3.2.3 Limits to progression and participants' future aspirations During the interviews, the female participants were asked to discuss their extent of their current involvement as well as any future aspirations in sport administration. As mentioned, it was found that 80% of the female leaders interviewed were retired athletes though some had retired more recently than others had while two women were still actively competing at a very high level. Though these women in particular had reduced their sport administration workload in order to focus on making the national team, both did remain associated to the organization in a limited capacity. Half of the women interviewed were still very involved in high level sport administration however few had clear aspirations to progress to top leadership positions at the national and international level. This fact is very significant as it demonstrates that many female administrators enter sporting leadership without clear intentionality to progress into the top leadership positions. Other female respondents said that they had worked very hard in order to prove themselves and gain enough membership support to access the Executive level of the organization. One woman claimed: "...I'm still growing, there's still lots more I want to do. So, I'm not done yet" (Participant 001). This is in accordance with Cameron (1996) and the ISLP and IOC's (2004) observations that few women admit to actually aspire to the top leadership positions in sport administration. On the other hand, another woman mentioned that she had 'no desire to be leader of all organizations' and was not pursuing higher leadership positions, though she did say that if an opportunity came up, she would consider it. Similarly, another participant said she chose to end her progression at the national level even though she  88  was o f f e r e d p o s i t i o n s at the international l e v e l because she d i d not w a n t to leave these commitments. It is also important to discuss the fact that f o u r w o m e n had stepped d o w n f r o m their last p o s i t i o n s or retired f r o m sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s a y i n g they h a d been i n v o l v e d f o r a l o n g t i m e and wanted to f o c u s on their careers, their f a m i l i e s or their personal interests. F o r e x a m p l e , one w o m a n m e n t i o n e d that she wanted to c o n t i n u e w o r k i n g w i t h athletes o n m a r k e t i n g their p o r t f o l i o s and w i t h their p u b l i c s p e a k i n g . A n o t h e r w o m a n s p e c i f i c a l l y said that she wanted to stay i n v o l v e d i n c o a c h i n g w h i l e t w o other respondents had taken o n p a i d leadership p o s i t i o n s outside o f sport. M a n y o f t h e m also stated that they w a n t e d to see 'new b l o o d ' on the c o m m i t t e e s and h o p e f u l l y n e w perspectives w h i c h is a clear i n d i c a t i o n that the f e m a l e leaders w a n t e d d i v e r s i t y at the governance l e v e l . O n e w o m a n t a l k e d about her frustrations i n sporting leadership and p o i n t e d to the l a c k o f appreciation f o r the volunteers ' t i m e and other r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . N o n e t h e l e s s , a l l o f the w o m e n were i n v o l v e d i n sport leadership to various extents and c o n t i n u e d to h e l p their s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n various w a y s . T h e fact that they d i d not j u s t 'step i n t o o b s c u r i t y ' after retirement f r o m sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n is i n d i c a t i v e o f the d e d i c a t i o n and p a s s i o n they b r i n g to their w o r k . T h e y felt it was important to share their wealth o f k n o w l e d g e and experience w i t h y o u n g people a s p i r i n g to sport leadership therefore m a n y f e m a l e administrators had been mentors. T h e factors w h i c h l e d w o m e n to leave the o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n detail i n C h a p t e r 4 d e a l i n g w i t h barriers. 3.2.4 C o n c l u d i n g thoughts " . . . w o m e n w h o have risen to that top are those w h o have m a d e a career o f sport and so they have this sport experience and the sport b a c k g r o u n d  u m m , a n d the k n o w l e d g e to rise to the top because i t ' s been their career p a t h . . . " (Participant 0 0 6 ) .  89  T h e r e is e v e r y i n d i c a t i o n that volunteer w o r k f o r w o m e n i n h i g h level s p o r t i n g leadership is i n e x t r i c a b l y tied to their f a m i l i a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l , athletic and v o c a t i o n a l l i v e s . A l l o f these c o m p o n e n t s seemed to p l a y an important r o l e i n both the level and degree o f the w o m e n ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n sport leadership. T h e f a m i l i a l b a c k g r o u n d p r o v i d e d insight into the i n i t i a t i o n o f w o m e n to i n v o l v e m e n t i n volunteer w o r k . T h e educational a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d s o f the f e m a l e leaders e x p o s e d the personal circumstances that were advantageous f o r i n d i v i d u a l s s e e k i n g p o s i t i o n s i n h i g h l e v e l sporting leadership. M o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , the w o m e n ' s athletic b a c k g r o u n d was f o u n d to be an important factor i n r e a c h i n g executive l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n sporting organizations because it was p e r c e i v e d that they h a d c r e d i b i l i t y , e x p e r i e n c e and oftentimes, a h i g h p r o f i l e . In a d d i t i o n , each participant d i s c u s s e d n u m e r o u s aspects o f their sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b a c k g r o u n d that l e d to their entry and p r o g r e s s i o n i n sporting leadership and the qualities that w e r e d e e m e d necessary to advance i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e analysis also revealed that m a n y w o m e n had v i r t u a l l y progressed i n the same manner, m a n y o f them b e g i n n i n g at a y o u n g age and starting as athlete's representatives or o n p r o v i n c i a l e x e c u t i v e boards, t a k i n g o n larger a n d larger roles i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e k n o w l e d g e and experience g a i n e d a l l o w e d s o m e o f t h e m access top leadership p o s i t i o n s at the national and international l e v e l . F i n a l l y , f e m a l e administrators t a l k e d about their m a n y leadership a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s and s o m e revealed that they had w o n awards or been r e c o g n i z e d f o r their w o r k i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . F o r these reasons, career paths s h o u l d be a strong area o f interest f o r those w h o are t r y i n g to understand and establish p o l i c y c o n c e r n i n g w o m e n i n sport.  90  3.3 L E A D E R S H I P A T T R I B U T E S It is evident that an analysis o f the career paths o f w o m e n i n s p o r t i n g leadership is essential f o r understanding the c i rcums tances under w h i c h w o m e n enter a n d progress i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . It is also important to further discuss their leadership i n v o l v e m e n t as it pertains to the leadership s k i l l s and styles that the respondents p e r c e i v e d to be necessary or advantageous f o r sport administrators. F i r s t , w o m e n were a s k e d to talk about the leadership s k i l l s that have been essential to their p r o g r e s s i o n and success i n h i g h l e v e l sport leadership as w e l l as those they b e l i e v e d w e r e present i n other s p o r t i n g leaders. 3.3.1 L e a d e r s h i p S k i l l s A s m e n t i o n e d , all o f the w o m e n i n t e r v i e w e d i n this study h a d a m i n i m u m o f 10 years o f experience i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i l e others had up to 25 years therefore it is evident that these w o m e n had a c c u m u l a t e d e n o u g h experience and c r e d i b i l i t y to be i n the top leadership p o s i t i o n s . D u r i n g this t i m e , they amassed a n u m b e r o f leadership s k i l l s both i n their p r o f e s s i o n a l and sport management w o r k that were b e n e f i c i a l to their sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n careers. F o r this reason, the w o m e n were e n c o u r a g e d to discuss the various s k i l l s that they b e l i e v e d were r e q u i r e d f o r sport administrators to be s u c c e s s f u l at the highest l e v e l s . F o u r m a i n themes emerged. 3.3.1.1 Individual characteristics D u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s , the w o m e n addressed the p e r s o n a l attributes that they p e r c e i v e d a l l o w e d t h e m to be successful i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h o u g h each w o m a n d e s c r i b e d various personal leadership s k i l l s that they b e l i e v e d were i m p o r t a n t to their sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w o r k , s o m e i n d i v i d u a l characteristics were repeatedly m e n t i o n e d  91  thereby h i g h l i g h t i n g the attributes p a r t i c u l a r l y m e a n i n g f u l f o r s p o r t i n g leaders. F i r s t , c o m p e t e n c y was i d e n t i f i e d as a c r u c i a l aspect o f leadership. A l l o f the w o m e n t a l k e d about understanding the governance structure and h a v i n g the ' t o o l s ' to p e r f o r m s u c c e s s f u l l y i n their p o s i t i o n s . O f t e n , the participants p o i n t e d to their experiences as athletes, coaches and administrators f o r h a v i n g p r o v i d e d t h e m w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i g h l e v e l sport and the s k i l l s r e q u i r e d to be s u c c e s s f u l . E q u a l l y important, s o m e w o m e n e x p l a i n e d that their self-confidence and p o s i t i v e attitudes had g i v e n t h e m the courage to take on various projects and challenge themselves i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In leadership p o s i t i o n s , several w o m e n m e n t i o n e d the i m p o r t a n c e o f a c t i v e l y s h a r i n g o p i n i o n s and v i e w p o i n t s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and thus, getting i n v o l v e d i n the d e c i s i o n m a k i n g process. F u r t h e r m o r e , almost every w o m a n b e l i e v e d that self-presentation and an aptitude f o r p u b l i c s p e a k i n g were essential f o r sport administrators. In order to be s u c c e s s f u l , w o m e n needed to be able to e f f e c t i v e l y articulate their ideas and perspectives to other leaders, administrators a n d athletes. A s one w o m a n s u m m a r i z e d : " . . . y o u have to be u m m , i n m y o p i n i o n . . . a g o o d p u b l i c speaker, y o u have to be able to present ideas strongly and e f f e c t i v e l y and to be c o m f o r t a b l e n e t w o r k i n g w i t h p e o p l e . . . b e c a u s e n o b o d y can have an o p i n i o n p r e v a i l o n its o w n . Y o u need a c r i t i c a l mass b e h i n d it to d r i v e it f o r w a r d . S o I need to get y o u o n side and y o u on s i d e . . . w h i c h means sitting d o w n w i t h y o u and d i s c u s s i n g w i t h y o u the merits o f m y i d e a ; that a l l i n v o l v e s s p e a k i n g . A n d , and I have yet to f i n d a r e a l l y h i g h l e v e l s u c c e s s f u l admi ni s trator w h o cannot project themselves w e l l " (Participant 0 0 6 ) . A l l o f these personal qualities were thus advantageous f o r w o m e n entering h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n any sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e literature r e v i e w s h o w e d that w o m e n had a diverse s k i l l set w h i c h made t h e m e l i g i b l e and competent f o r leadership p o s i t i o n s i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , some o f w h i c h w e r e also reported i n this  92  study. For this reason, the findings both confirm and further our understandings of leadership in sporting organizations. 3.3.1.2 Administrative skills and broad perspectives It is evident that administrative skills are necessary for anyone involved in sport administration. Many women stated that a combination of understanding the governance structure of the sporting system as well as possessing the organizational, administrative and time management skills were required to perform successfully in their positions. The ability to have a vision, set goals and focus on the task at hand were believed to be important for sporting leaders because they set the agenda of the organization and ensured its realization. In addition, strategic planning and thinking as well as risk management and problem solving were also said to be vital skills for successful sporting leaders. A few women commented that business management skills such as marketing, corporate sponsorship and an understanding of politics provided a useful background for bringing innovative approaches to sport administration. Almost all of the participants had enrolled in various kinds of leadership courses or attended conferences to gain other skills pertinent to sport administration. Thus, these administrative skills afforded women with the necessary technical skills to do the job. Most sport administrators were also found to be qualified in a number of important areas and bring this expertise to their leadership positions. As mentioned, women highlighted the importance of their various backgrounds in their initial interest in sport; their family, education, professional and athletic background were critical elements that influenced their access and progression in sport administration. In particular, those with professional backgrounds such as accounting, law and business administration  93  seemed to have a u n i q u e understanding o f sport a n d insight into s o m e o f the issues. S i m i l a r l y , the athletic and c o a c h i n g b a c k g r o u n d o f s o m e respondents p r o v i d e d t h e m w i t h a b r o a d perspective o f the issues. M a n y w o m e n b e l i e v e d they brought ' b i g picture t h i n k i n g ' to the b o a r d r o o m table as a result o f these b a c k g r o u n d s . In a d d i t i o n , those w h o w e r e i n v o l v e d w i t h m o r e than one sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n or c o m m i t t e e were p e r c e i v e d to have a better understanding o f the w a y s i n w h i c h d e c i s i o n s c o u l d i m p a c t other areas o f sport as w e l l as the p r o b a b l e o u t c o m e s o f these c h o i c e s . T h i s b r o a d perspective was b e l i e v e d to lead administrators to m a k e i n f o r m e d d e c i s i o n s as they c o u l d see various sides o f the issue and not just the interests o f their particular sport. T h e s e different v i e w p o i n t s are then reflected i n the d e c i s i o n s taken o n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e side o f sport. T h e s e f i n d i n g s are not s u r p r i s i n g as they are a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l to those reported b y P f i s t e r et. al (2005), C a m e r o n (1996), H o v d e n ( 2 0 0 0 a , 2 0 0 0 b ) and the I S L P and I O C (2004). 3.3.1.3 C o m m i t m e n t a n d A d v o c a c y W o m e n also t a l k e d about the l e v e l o f c o m m i t m e n t r e q u i r e d f o r sport leadership and c o m m u n i c a t e d their d e d i c a t i o n to sport and its a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Sport administrators are r e q u i r e d to attend n u m e r o u s meetings and thus, spend a lot o f t i m e p r e p a r i n g and w o r k i n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , s o m e respondents were s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n v o l v e d i n v a r i o u s c o m m i t t e e s and t a l k e d about the heavy w o r k l o a d associated w i t h these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . In a d d i t i o n , the fact that m a n y o f these sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p o s i t i o n s are volunteer shows that i n d i v i d u a l s w h o f i l l them are c o m m i t t e d . A s p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , most f e m a l e leaders w i t h an athletic b a c k g r o u n d r e m a r k e d that they w a n t e d to give s o m e t h i n g b a c k to sport, p a r t i c u l a r l y the sport i n w h i c h they had been i n v o l v e d , b y w o r k i n g at the t e c h n i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l . T h i s  94  supports the f i n d i n g s o f P f i s t e r et. a l ' s (2005) study o n w o m e n i n G e r m a n s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Interestingly, almost all o f the w o m e n t a l k e d about their i n v o l v e m e n t i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as a d v o c a c y w o r k and d i s c u s s e d their p e r c e i v e d role as change agents i n these o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A s d i s c u s s e d , some o f the participants entered sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h the intention o f r e f o r m i n g the sporting s y s t e m f o r the better a n d c h a n g i n g the current f u n c t i o n i n g o f the o v e r a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . M a n y o f t h e m were thus proponents f o r the 'softer' side o f sport, a d v o c a t i n g f o r issues such as drug-free sport, w o m e n i n sport, athlete's rights and sport f o r the d i s a b l e , to name a f e w . O n e w o m a n d e s c r i b e d it as: " . . . y o u try to do s o m e t h i n g that c o m e s b a c k a n d a l l o w s y o u to p r o f i l e , to start to talk about issues, to start to talk about values, to start to talk about the other things that y o u r e a l l y want to so that y o u e n d up h a v i n g a better sport system and one that's h e l d a little m o r e accountable to the s o c i a l values o f the c o u n t r y " (Participant 0 0 2 ) . O n the w h o l e , the w o m e n ' s c o m m i t m e n t to a d v o c a c y seemed to be an integral part o f their i n v o l v e m e n t i n sporting leadership and a particular strength they brought to the b o a r d r o o m table c o n f i r m i n g p r e v i o u s research i n this area.  3.3.1.4 Networking D u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s , w o m e n frequently s p o k e o f the c r i t i c a l r o l e that s o c i a l n e t w o r k s p l a y e d i n their sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n career and o f the i m p o r t a n c e o f leaders possessing this s k i l l . B u i l d i n g relationships w i t h both m e n and w o m e n i n s i d e and outside o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n is a c r i t i c a l aspect as h i g h l e v e l sport is n o w i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d to business and s p o n s o r s h i p . F o r this reason, it is necessary f o r leaders to establish relationships w i t h a n u m b e r o f potential sponsors a n d constituents that can help m o v e initiatives f o r w a r d . T h i s is understandable as M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n (1990) d i d f i n d that  95  the entire C a n a d i a n sporting system had undergone a transformation f r o m volunteerbased a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n a n d c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n o f its governance structures. In a d d i t i o n , top leaders need to gather votes and r a l l y support f r o m other m e m b e r s f o r initiatives they b e l i e v e are important. M o r e o v e r , almost a l l o f the w o m e n b e l i e v e d that relationships w i t h m e m b e r s i n their s o c i a l n e t w o r k a l l o w e d leaders to share i n f o r m a t i o n and receive input about some o f their ideas. In a sense, w o m e n c o u l d use other sporting leaders as both a s o u n d i n g b o a r d and support system. S e v e r a l w o m e n also m e n t i o n e d that they m a d e it a p o i n t to introduce themselves to other m e m b e r s at meetings and forge f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h k e y people i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y m e n because they still h o l d most o f the i n f l u e n t i a l positions i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T o this e n d , one w o m a n e m p h a s i z e d the i m p o r t a n c e o f h a v i n g m e m b e r s be f a m i l i a r w i t h y o u stating that " i t ' s not w h o you  k n o w but who  k n o w s y o u " (Participant 0 0 4 ) . Indeed, these c o n n e c t i o n s also  p r o v i d e d leaders w i t h a n e t w o r k f r o m w h i c h to recruit and r e c o m m e n d other administrators f o r various p o s i t i o n s . In s o m e cases, w o m e n ' s entrance and p r o g r e s s i o n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w e r e d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d b y their n e t w o r k s . T h i s supports w h a t H o v d e n (2000a, 2 0 0 0 b ) , the I S L P and I O C (2004) and M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n (1990) reported w i t h respect to the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s o c i a l n e t w o r k s i n p r o v i d i n g access and support to w o m e n i n sporting leadership. O n e particular aspect o f h i g h l e v e l sporting leadership was u n d e r s c o r e d b y 7 0 % the w o m e n ; the a b i l i t y to interact and n e t w o r k w i t h the m a l e administrators w h o p o p u l a t e d most o f the leadership posts i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . M a n y w o m e n b e l i e v e d that o r g a n i z a t i o n s were still very androcentric and that f e m a l e leaders h a d to be c o m f o r t a b l e i n this m a s c u l i n e e n v i r o n m e n t .  96  F i n a l l y , the w o m e n also t a l k e d about the w a y s i n w h i c h n e t w o r k s w e r e d e v e l o p e d . A t t e n d i n g conferences was repeatedly m e n t i o n e d as a strategic m e t h o d used to meet other people i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and scan f o r other potential leaders f o r their o r g a n i z a t i o n . " . . . s o m e things l i k e g o i n g to sporting events, g o i n g to n e t w o r k i n g  meetings, g o i n g to seminars, g o i n g to w o r k s h o p s , attending conferences  a l l o v e r the p l a c e ; I m e a n understanding h o w the sport o r g a n i z a t i o n w o r k s ,  m e e t i n g the leaders o f these sports and h o w they w o r k y o u k n o w , what  they n e e d . . . y o u have to stay connected to t h e m a n d I t h i n k that that has  r e a l l y h e l p e d m e " (Participant 0 0 1 ) .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , it seems that s o c i a l networks p l a y e d a c r u c i a l role i n the w o m e n ' s entry and advancement i n sport leadership. 3.3.2 L e a d e r s h i p S t y l e s T h e f e m a l e respondents i n this study not o n l y t a l k e d about the s k i l l s r e q u i r e d to be successful i n h i g h l e v e l sporting leadership but o f the various approaches they h a d u s e d to manage their careers. C o n s i s t e n t w i t h their c o m m i t m e n t and a d v o c a c y , several w o m e n t a l k e d about e n s u r i n g that ethics w e r e respected and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n their d e c i s i o n m a k i n g w h i c h they b e l i e v e d a l l o w e d t h e m to m a k e j u s t i f i a b l e d e c i s i o n s f o r sport. O n e o f the participants d e s c r i b e d that: " . . .it is y o u r values that define y o u as a person a n d so y o u c a n ' t w a i v e r  f r o m what it is that y o u b e l i e v e i n . A n d so, sometimes that means y o u  either have to m a k e the u n p o p u l a r d e c i s i o n and y o u have to w a l k a w a y  because otherwise what d o y o u stand f o r ? A n d so u m m , a n d that's, that's a hard one y o u k n o w , as a l e a d e r . . . " (Participant 0 0 9 ) .  M a n y o f the w o m e n also t a l k e d about ' l e a d i n g b y e x a m p l e ' . T h e y felt that b y p e r f o r m i n g s u c c e s s f u l l y and d e m o n s t r a t i n g strong leadership qualities, they w o u l d be role m o d e l s f o r a l l leaders s u c c e e d i n g t h e m , e s p e c i a l l y f e m a l e administrators. O n e w o m a n m e n t i o n e d that leaders o n l y have their reputation i n the sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w o r l d and therefore must ensure they m a k e s o u n d d e c i s i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , a f e w o f the  97  w o m e n d e s c r i b e d themselves as e m p o w e r i n g leaders suggesting that they l i k e d to e x t e n d their p o w e r and i n f l u e n c e to other m e m b e r s b y i n v o l v i n g t h e m i n the d e c i s i o n m a k i n g process. F o r e x a m p l e , one w o m a n asserted that she was m o r e s u c c e s s f u l w h e n she i n c l u d e d the input o f her opponents i n business proposals and i n i t i a t i v e s . O f t e n times, w o m e n reported m e n t o r i n g other p r o s p e r i n g leaders, s h a r i n g v a l u a b l e k n o w l e d g e and experience w h i c h e m p o w e r e d the apprentice. S i m i l a r l y , a f e w f e m a l e leaders m e n t i o n e d that they d i d not ' m i c r o m a n a g e ' their e m p l o y e e s but instead a l l o w e d t h e m to p e r f o r m their duties independently. It is therefore evident that most w o m e n ' s approaches to leadership seemed to be l i n k e d to c o o p e r a t i o n and e m p o w e r m e n t w h i c h supports the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d b y C a m e r o n (1996) and M c K a y (1997). N o n e t h e l e s s , the h e g e m o n i c m a s c u l i n e culture o f sporting leadership means that both m e n and w o m e n have been c o m p e l l e d to adopt a s p e c i f i c type o f leadership style, t y p i c a l l y one based o n the m a s c u l i n e values o f a g g r e s s i o n , c o m p e t i t i o n and autocracy. T h e w o m e n i n this study d i d say that they b e l i e v e d there was a d i f f e r e n c e between the leadership styles o f m a l e and female leaders i n sport. S e v e r a l e x a m p l e s o f this were p r o v i d e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , one w o m a n p e r c e i v e d that m e n w o r r i e d about the f i n a n c i a l aspect o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n such as cost effectiveness a n d investments w h i l e w o m e n seemed to be m o r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h the p h i l a n t h r o p i c a n d ethical p o s i t i o n o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n . M e n were also seen to be strategic a n d l o g i c a l i n their t h i n k i n g w h i l e w o m e n w e r e m o r e detail oriented w h i c h a c c o r d i n g to t h e m , m a d e the entire g o v e r n i n g b o d y run m o r e s m o o t h l y . A n o t h e r w o m a n m e n t i o n e d that she was t o l d that she h a d to learn to be less e m o t i o n a l i n her leadership approaches as this was p e r c e i v e d to be a sign o f weakness b y m e n i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , s o m e w o m e n e x p l a i n e d that h i g h  98  l e v e l m a l e administrators tended to manage i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l m a n n e r b e l i e v i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d be ' r u l e d f r o m the top d o w n ' . O n the other h a n d , several f e m a l e participants stated that they u s e d the ' b o t t o m u p ' approach and e n c o u r a g e d j u n i o r m e m b e r s to take o n leadership roles i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . A s one w o m a n put it: " . . .the m e n , and they still d o to this today, a h i e r a r c h y . T h e y r u l e f r o m the  top d o w n . W o m e n manage l i k e a web. A n d I thought l i k e yeah, y o u ' r e just sort o f e q u a l . . . yeah, l i k e a web. A n d I thought: 'that's m y s t y l e ' . . . . y o u  s u r r o u n d y o u r s e l f w i t h the best p e o p l e , and y o u let t h e m d o their j o b . Y o u  motivate t h e m , y o u i n s p i r e t h e m , y o u assist t h e m . . . i n any w a y that y o u  can to h e l p t h e m d o their j o b . A n d that was sort of, I guess, m y style and u m m , l u c k i l y it seemed to w o r k " (Participant 0 0 4 ) .  T h o u g h these are generalizations, these leadership styles d o c o m p l e m e n t each other and have the potential to be v e r y effective h o w e v e r they are not n e c e s s a r i l y related to gender. A s one o f the w o m e n characterized her E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e : " . . .1 say that w e ' r e the blue suits and track suits. I t h i n k that o u r b o a r d  needs to be blue suits a n d track suits because the blue suits g i v e m e the business a d v i c e I need and the track suits keep y o u honest as to w h y y o u ' r e here at a l l " (Participant 0 0 9 ) .  In this sense, e x e c u t i v e boards that have a d i v e r s i t y o f perspectives a l l o w the s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n to be creative and progressive i n its t h i n k i n g and p l a n n i n g . H o w e v e r , there are as m a n y s i m i l a r i t i e s as there are differences between g e n e r a l i z e d m a l e and f e m a l e leadership styles and D u e r s t - L a h t i and K e l l y (1995) w a r n that: " T h e p r o b l e m has been (and continues to be) that one leadership style has  been i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d and r e w a r d e d " (Duerst-Lahti and K e l l y , 1 9 9 5 , p.187).  3.3.3 C o n c l u s i o n s It is o b v i o u s that w o m e n have had extensive i n v o l v e m e n t i n sport leadership and have been s u c c e s s f u l i n a n u m b e r o f areas. T h e w o m e n i n this study h a d w i d e - r a n g i n g experience i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and m a n y h a d h e l d top leadership p o s i t i o n s such as  99  Chair/President and V i c e - C h a i r / V i c e - P r e s i d e n t i n r e g i o n a l , national and international sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e i n t e r v i e w s investigated the leadership s k i l l s b e l i e v e d to be advantageous to f e m a l e leaders. It was f o u n d that administrative qualities such as o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and management s k i l l s were r e q u i r e d f o r sport administrators w h i l e their p r o f e s s i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d was s i g n i f i c a n t i n p r o v i d i n g expertise to the E x e c u t i v e B o a r d . I n d i v i d u a l characteristics such as c o m p e t e n c y , self-presentation a n d p u b l i c s p e a k i n g w e r e p e r c e i v e d to be i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r those w h o w a n t e d to take o n the top leadership roles o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , n e t w o r k i n g was s h o w n to be a c r i t i c a l s k i l l i n sport leadership because a d m i n i s t r a t i o n requires intense group w o r k and r e l a t i o n s h i p b u i l d i n g . In a d d i t i o n , m e m b e r s h i p support was needed f o r personal support, to share i n f o r m a t i o n and to g a i n access to leadership p o s i t i o n s . D u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s , the participants also d i s c u s s e d their various approaches to leadership and h o w these often d i f f e r e d f r o m those o f m e n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . It was noted that b u i l d i n g g o o d relationships w i t h m a l e colleagues was necessary f o r those w o m e n attempting to progress into the h i g h e r echelons o f sporting organizations as m e n still h e l d m o s t k e y positions and o r g a n i z a t i o n s operated i n a m a s c u l i n e leadership p a r a d i g m . L a s t l y , the w o m e n also d e s c r i b e d their leadership styles as e m p o w e r i n g other m e m b e r s a r o u n d t h e m , p a r t i c u l a r l y w o m e n , b y sharing v a l u a b l e k n o w l e d g e and experiences w i t h them.  100  4.0 C H A P T E R 4 - B A R R I E R S T O W O M E N ' S E N T R Y A N D P R O G R E S S I O N IN CANADIAN SPORT ADMINISTRATION What are some of the barriers that have hindered women's entry and progression in sport administration? T h i s chapter focuses s o l e l y o n some o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s w o m e n face w h e n entering and p r o g r e s s i n g i n sporting leadership. A s d i s c u s s e d i n p r e v i o u s chapters, sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n is i n m a n y w a y s s i m i l a r to operating a b u s i n e s s ; m e m b e r s need to possess s p e c i f i c leadership s k i l l s a n d access the top d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p o s i t i o n s i n order to effect change a n d m o v e sport f o r w a r d . T h i s shift has also brought about a change i n the barriers that affect f e m a l e sport administrators. T h r o u g h o u t the i n t e r v i e w s , w o m e n d i s c u s s e d their perceptions o f barriers a n d h o w these a n d affected their career, i f at a l l .  4.1 INDIVIDUAL L E V E L B a s e d o n P f i s t e r et. a l ' s (2005) interpretation, barriers at the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l relate to the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' m o t i v e s a n d d e c i s i o n s to enter a n d progress i n sport leadership. In a d d i t i o n , this section also refers to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s competences a n d conditions of life. 4.1.1 " G e n d e r is n o l o n g e r an issue i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h e i n v i s i b l e barriers a n d the effect o f gender o n entry i n sporting leadership D u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s , the w o m e n were a s k e d to discuss their experiences as h i g h l e v e l s p o r t i n g leaders a n d the obstacles they m a y have f a c e d i n r e a c h i n g these leadership p o s i t i o n s throughout their career. S o m e w o m e n s a i d that m a n y p e o p l e i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b e l i e v e d that the issues o f w o m e n a n d sport h a d been r e s o l v e d as a result o f the increase i n opportunities f o r w o m e n at a l l levels as e v i d e n c e d b y the recent increase o f f e m a l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates and slight increase o f w o m e n coaches a n d sport administrators. 3 respondents m a i n t a i n e d that they h a d p e r s o n a l l y never f a c e d any  101  barriers or they were unaware o f any d i f f i c u l t y p r o g r e s s i n g i n s p o r t i n g leadership. O n e w o m a n a c k n o w l e d g e d that barriers d i d exist but b e l i e v e d that the o n l y potential barriers were p s y c h o l o g i c a l : " . . .there are barriers out there, I k n o w there are but to m e i t ' s , i t ' s  p s y c h o l o g i c a l ; i t ' s , i f there are barriers, I d o n ' t see t h e m w h i c h I t h i n k is a p o s i t i v e . S o there are barriers, I k n o w there are u m m , a n d I guess there  have been barriers f o r me but I've never n o t i c e d t h e m . S o m y b e l i e f is the o n l y barriers w e have are l i m i t e d b y what w e t h i n k o u r barriers are r i g h t " (Participant 0 0 4 ) .  She b e l i e v e d that her self-confidence and s k i l l s h a d a l l o w e d her to w o r k through any obstacles and achieve h i g h l e v e l sporting leadership p o s i t i o n s . O n e f e m a l e respondent asserted that the 'scariest' f e m a l e leaders w e r e those w h o b e l i e v e d that because they h a d been able to m a k e it to h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s , any other w o m a n or i n d i v i d u a l w i t h the requisite q u a l i f i c a t i o n s c o u l d also access leadership p o s i t i o n s i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e l a c k o f a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t f o r the m a n y obstacles that d o exist f o r s o m e w o m e n does act as a barrier because w o m e n i n sport i n i t i a t i v e s need to be supported b y sport administrators i n order to be i m p l e m e n t e d . Interestingly, one w o m a n c o m m e n t e d that change c o u l d take place quite q u i c k l y i f a l l m e m b e r s w e r e on b o a r d w i t h the i n i t i a t i v e , r e f u t i n g the n o t i o n that o n l y w i t h t i m e w i l l w o m e n enter h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s i n greater n u m b e r s . She recounted that her a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had been able to s i g n i f i c a n t l y increase their f r a n c o p h o n e m e m b e r s h i p i n the governance structures b y n o m i n a t i n g a n d s e l e c t i n g such representatives at the f o l l o w i n g elections. T h i s therefore demonstrates that o r g a n i z a t i o n s are v e r y capable o f r e a l i z i n g gender and d i v e r s i t y initiatives i f they focus their effort and resources o n a c c o m p l i s h i n g that task.  102  F u r t h e r m o r e , the fact that s o m e f e m a l e leaders b e l i e v e d there w e r e n o barriers because they h a d been able to access top leadership p o s i t i o n s and challenges the n o t i o n that w o m e n are representative o f the ' f e m a l e gender'. M o s t w o m e n d i d not perceive that they h a d accessed s p o r t i n g leadership o n account o f b e i n g a w o m a n but that it was their s k i l l s that h a d gotten t h e m elected or n o m i n a t e d to leadership p o s i t i o n s i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . E v i d e n t l y , e v e r y m e m b e r w o u l d l i k e to be taken s e r i o u s l y and b e l i e v e they are there because o f their s k i l l s and not their gender. H o w e v e r , one w o m a n d i d m e n t i o n that she was first r e c r u i t e d i n her sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n because they needed a w o m a n but that she h a d had to p r o v e herself and demonstrate high-quality leadership s k i l l s i n order to r e m a i n and progress i n her p o s i t i o n . T o this effect, one w o m a n said: "I a l w a y s t h i n k . . .that b e i n g a w o m a n or b e i n g an athlete or b e i n g b l a c k  y o u k n o w , b e i n g a m i n o r i t y . . .these m i g h t be the sort o f things that m i g h t  get y o u i n the d o o r e v e n t u a l l y but i t ' s y o u r h a r d w o r k ; i t ' s y o u r  c o m m i t m e n t ; i t ' s what y o u r e a l l y contribute that keeps y o u i n the door,  [you] never want to feel that, i n any p o s i t i o n , I'm i n as a result o f o r j u s t  because o f those v i s i b l e things. .. .certainly I t h i n k w e can never be c o m p l a c e n t a g a i n . . . " (Participant 001).  F o r this reason, some f e m a l e respondents b e l i e v e d that gender was not an issue a n y m o r e ; it was r e a l l y about getting the best people f o r the p o s i t i o n s . It was w i d e l y p e r c e i v e d that sporting leaders s h o u l d be h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d and c o n n e c t e d and that this was m o r e important than the gender o f this i n d i v i d u a l . A s one w o m a n put it: " S o there's still w o r k to do internationally and i n C a n a d a too i n s o m e  areas but I t h i n k w e ' r e , i t ' s a l l , i t ' s accepted n o w that this is w h a t w e d o  and these are the issues and h o w w e ' r e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e m . A n d let's say i n sport, i t ' s just, i t ' s not even a question a n y m o r e , so that's great" (Participant 0 0 3 ) .  103  W h a t is p r o b l e m a t i c w i t h this statement is that it questions the entire role a n d v a l i d i t y o f W o m e n i n Sport C o m m i t t e e s and the w o m e n and sport m o v e m e n t . If w e agree that the p r o b l e m o f f e m a l e under-representation i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n is r e s o l v e d then strong p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s w i l l not be d e v e l o p e d and the r e m a i n i n g barriers w i l l not be c h a l l e n g e d . A l l that w i l l be left to d o is p r o m o t e the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f w o m e n as athletes, coaches and sport administrators. F o r instance, one w o m a n r e v e a l e d that her o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s W o m e n and Sport C o m m i t t e e h a d recently stopped p r o v i d i n g a list o f f e m a l e candidates to the selection c o m m i t t e e and at the f o l l o w i n g e l e c t i o n s ; s i g n i f i c a n t l y f e w e r w o m e n h a d been v o t e d into the o r g a n i z a t i o n and f e w f i l l e d the top leadership p o s i t i o n s . T h i s underscores the fact that the p r o b l e m is not r e s o l v e d and that efforts m u s t be sustained to ensure that w o m e n are entering and p r o g r e s s i n g i n sporting leadership. If there is a w i d e s p r e a d n o t i o n that n o barriers r e m a i n f o r w o m e n attempting to forge careers i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n then their under-representation w i l l c o n t i n u e to be v i e w e d as the i n d i v i d u a l p r o b l e m o f the w o m e n and n o measures at the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l w i l l be put i n place. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , this m a y also m e a n that these f e m a l e leaders are. less l i k e l y to m e n t o r or recruit s p e c i f i c a l l y w o m e n and w i l l not be active proponents o f w o m e n i n sport initiatives at the highest l e v e l i n sport, where it m a y v e r y w e l l be needed the most. T h i s argument has not been evident i n the literature o n w o m e n i n sporting leadership. M c K a y (1997) d i d f i n d that m e n w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to associate barriers to w o m e n ' s i n d i v i d u a l characteristics h o w e v e r there is n o m e n t i o n that administrators d i d not perceive any barriers at a l l i n their career path i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 4.1.2 " I n v o l v e m e n t i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n is a personal c h o i c e . . . " : v o l u n t e e r i s m as a barrier  104  A s m e n t i o n e d , m a n y f e m a l e respondents a c k n o w l e d g e d that s o m e i m p e d i m e n t s d i d exist f o r s o m e leaders w i t h respect to entry and p r o g r e s s i o n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n but it was generally p e r c e i v e d that i n v o l v e m e n t i n sport leadership was a 'personal c h o i c e ' , e s p e c i a l l y i n v o l u n t e e r p o s i t i o n s . M o s t o f the p o s i t i o n s i n C a n a d i a n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are volunteer and though m e m b e r s m a y receive s o m e r e m u n e r a t i o n f o r airfare and a c c o m m o d a t i o n s , there is little or n o direct f i n a n c i a l g a i n f r o m its i n v o l v e m e n t . T h e w o m e n i n this study e m p h a s i z e d that i n d i v i d u a l s p u r s u i n g top leadership p o s i t i o n s were r e q u i r e d to c o m m i t extensive amounts o f their time i n order to gain the s k i l l s , experience and n e t w o r k to access those p o s i t i o n s . A s has been repeatedly f o u n d i n this and other studies, the t i m e c o m m i t m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the h i g h e r levels o f sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , is e n o r m o u s i n a d d i t i o n to the extensive t r a v e l i n g requirements o f leadership p o s i t i o n s . C o n c o m i t a n t l y , this time c o m m i t m e n t also consists o f a s i g n i f i c a n t f i n a n c i a l c o m m i t m e n t as leaders must take time o f f w o r k , p a y f o r c h i l d c a r e and at t i m e s , f o r w a r d the funds f o r travel and a c c o m m o d a t i o n fees. " . . .there are volunteers out there that are w i l l i n g to g i v e up their v a c a t i o n pay to do it. Y o u k n o w so, or m i s s a day o f p a y o r whatever. I m e a n it costs y o u to be a volunteer. It costs y o u b i g time. Y o u k n o w , y o u get y o u r expenses p a i d i f I r e m e m b e r to send i n m y receipts w h i c h I hate to d o y o u k n o w , so it costs, it can cost thousands o f dollars a year to volunteer. A n d it does and that's not e v e n j u s t around t i m e " (Participant 0 0 4 ) . B e c a u s e most f e m a l e sport administrators also had f u l l t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t , they needed to take t i m e o f f w h i c h often meant that they w o u l d not be p a i d . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , boards h e l d between 6-8 meetings per year or h e l d m o n t h l y meetings, d e p e n d i n g o n the l e v e l o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n (i.e. r e g i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l , n a t i o n a l or international) and the i m p o r t a n c e o f the c o m m i t t e e . If an i n d i v i d u a l is i n v o l v e d i n a  105  n u m b e r o f c o m m i t t e e s , the time c o m m i t m e n t becomes greater a n d requires t h e m to be a w a y f r o m h o m e f o r b i r t h d a y s , anniversaries as w e l l as c h i l d r e n and f a m i l y events. T h e volunteer aspect o f sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n e l i c i t e d various reactions b y the w o m e n i n this study. T w o w o m e n s p e c i f i c a l l y t a l k e d about the d i f f i c u l t y o f h a v i n g people s i g n up f o r leadership p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s because they w o u l d not be r e c e i v i n g p a y f o r this c o m m i t m e n t and c o u l d not a f f o r d the t i m e . C o n v e r s e l y , another w o m e n p e r c e i v e d that m a n y people were w i l l i n g to be i n v o l v e d i n sport leadership and h a d the t i m e to devote though often d i d not possess the proper q u a l i f i c a t i o n s to be f i l l the role s u c c e s s f u l l y . M o r e o v e r , a n u m b e r o f f e m a l e respondents p e r c e i v e d that m a n y p r o f e s s i o n a l s d i d not v i e w this w o r k as c r e d i b l e because they w e r e not b e i n g p a i d to do the j o b . O n e w o m a n ' s w o r d s s h o w this: " . . .1 t h i n k s o m e t i m e s what happens is because y o u ' r e , y o u are a volunteer,  people m i g h t not t h i n k that y o u understand or that y o u c o m p r e h e n d it but  the President o f the I O C is a volunteer u m m , just about e v e r y s i n g l e sport  leader that I k n o w i n the w o r l d . . . 9 0 % o f t h e m are volunteers. .. .1 t h i n k at  the e n d o f the day i t ' s u m m , y o u k n o w , p e o p l e n e v e r u n d e r e s t i m a t i n g  people j u s t because t h e y ' r e not m a k i n g m o n e y . I t h i n k so m a n y times i n l i f e , not j u s t i n sport, y o u , w e often tend to define p e o p l e b y h o w m u c h m o n e y they m a k e . W e l l , they m a k e a lot o f m o n e y so they m u s t k n o w what t h e y ' r e d o i n g " (Participant 0 0 1 ) .  In a sense then, volunteer sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d b y s o m e w o m e n to p r o v i d e t h e m w i t h i n d i v i d u a l rewards. O n the other h a n d , s o m e w o m e n b e l i e v e d that there was a p o s i t i v e side to the fact that sporting a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was m o s t l y volunteer based. T h e s e respondents b e l i e v e d that volunteer sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s tended to attract i n d i v i d u a l s w h o r e a l l y c a r e d about sport as there was n o f i n a n c i a l gain to be made f r o m its i n v o l v e m e n t . T h i s h o w e v e r does not necessarily a p p l y to h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s at the p r o v i n c i a l , n a t i o n a l  106  and international levels w h o s e budgets are i m m e n s e and leadership p o s i t i o n s c o m p r i s e a large amount o f p o w e r and i n f l u e n c e . A s a f i n a l p o i n t , one w o m a n suggested that volunteer-based sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s m i g h t need to r e t h i n k this m o d e l i n l i g h t o f the i n c r e a s i n g c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n and p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f the h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e sporting system. I n g l i s ' (1997) study o f administrators i n C a n a d i a n v o l u n t e e r s p o r t i n g organizations c o n c l u d e d : "In t h e . . . n a t i o n a l amateur sport o r g a n i z a t i o n s , there has been a n o t e w o r t h y shift d u r i n g the past t w o decades f r o m volunteer-run ' k i t c h e n table operations' to the replacement o f volunteer management w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l managers operating i n a h i g h l y r a t i o n a l , bureaucratic s t y l e " (p.160). In c o n c l u s i o n , it is i mp o rtan t to h i g h l i g h t that m a n y respondents b e l i e v e d that volunteer sport administrators chose to c o m m i t their t i m e and resources to this endeavour, w i t h o u t a c k n o w l e d g i n g that these ' c h o i c e s ' are often c o n s t r a i n e d b y v a r i o u s personal c o m m i t m e n t s . A n i n d i v i d u a l must have the means to b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n sporting leadership as it requires t h e m to spend m a n y w e e k e n d s out o f t o w n at c o m p e t i t i o n , meetings a n d conferences a w a y f r o m both personal and p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . In a d d i t i o n , this also means that i n d i v i d u a l s take o n a great deal o f w o r k o v e r that o f their usual f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t as was f o u n d i n C a m e r o n (1996) and P f i s t e r et. a l ' s (2005) studies. T h e s e roles b e c o m e m o r e intense as they m o v e up the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y therefore h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e sport can be a v e r y d e m a n d i n g f r o m an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o i n t o f v i e w . F o r this reason, there are m a n y i n d i v i d u a l s w h o possess the s k i l l s to be great administrators but do not have the means to take o n s u c h e n o r m o u s c o m m i t m e n t s . T h e r e needs to be an understanding that personal c h o i c e s are g u i d e d b y personal reality since s o m e i n d i v i d u a l ' s are not i n a f i n a n c i a l o r p e r s o n a l situation to  107  volunteer or w o r k i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y at the h i g h e r l e v e l s . A g a i n , i f sport administrators d o not r e c o g n i z e that the volunteer aspect o f sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o u l d be d i f f i c u l t f o r m a n y i n d i v i d u a l s , there w i l l be n o effort to enable such potential leaders to access leadership p o s i t i o n s . 4.1.3 T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f support n e t w o r k s and their role as a barrier to w o m e n i n sport administration In order to be successful at the higher levels o f sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l s must have various sources o f support. Support n e t w o r k s are a m a j o r factor i n w o m e n ' s d e c i s i o n s to enter and/or progress i n sporting leadership and e v e n m o r e so f o r w o m e n w i t h y o u n g f a m i l i e s . T h e y i n c l u d e i m m e d i a t e and extended f a m i l y as w e l l as f r i e n d s , colleagues, h i r e d help and daycare. T h o u g h this list is far f r o m e x h a u s t i v e a n d support can e x t e n d f r o m a n u m b e r o f sources to the i n d i v i d u a l , these do represent the necessary assistance f o r i n d i v i d u a l s to devote their t i m e and resources to volunteer sport administration. A s m e n t i o n e d w h e n p r o f i l i n g the participants o f this study, a l m o s t all o f the w o m e n s p e c i f i c a l l y m e n t i o n e d h a v i n g a partner and/or f a m i l y i n their l i v e s that p r o v i d e d the support they needed to be i n v o l v e d i n sporting leadership. F o r e x a m p l e , one w o m a n reported that she and her h u s b a n d h a d taken maternity (paternity) leaves so that both c o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n the r a i s i n g o f their f a m i l y yet both be v e r y active i n their careers. In another case, she e x p l a i n e d that her h u s b a n d h a d w o r k e d f r o m h o m e and it was he w h o had stayed h o m e to care f o r the c h i l d r e n . It s h o u l d be noted that several w o m e n m e n t i o n e d that f e m a l e leaders w h o reached p o s i t i o n s i n h i g h l e v e l sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n often h a d c h i l d r e n w h o were o l d e n o u g h to be independent w h i c h i n d e e d , a f f o r d e d t h e m  108  m o r e t i m e to dedicate to sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A n o t h e r w o m a n expressed gratitude f o r the help her h u s b a n d p r o v i d e d w i t h the c h i l d r e n but h a d also h i r e d a n a n n y to h e l p w i t h the h o u s e h o l d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . A l s o o f interest was the fact that t w o o f the participants i m p l i e d that m a n y marriages o f sporting leaders h a d f a i l e d as a result o f the t i m e c o m m i t m e n t r e q u i r e d and/or the fact that out-of-town c o m p e t i t i o n s , meetings a n d conferences were m i x e d and not all partners were c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h that. " . . .the major barrier is b e i n g able to u m m , f i n d the f l e x i b i l i t y that w i l l a l l o w y o u to l e a d a b a l a n c e d l i f e . Sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , I'm one o f a h a n d f u l o f w o m e n that have actually raised k i d s a n d stayed m a r r i e d , [that is w o m e n ] that are i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . It just i s n ' t c o m p a t i b l e " (Participant 009). T h i s is also i n d i c a t i v e o f the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d o f w o m e n i n h i g h l e v e l sporting leadership as m a n y c o u l d a f f o r d to hire outside h e l p w h i c h p r o v i d e d t h e m the time to d o their sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w o r k . O f the w o m e n i n t e r v i e w e d f o r this study, s i x o f t h e m h a d c h i l d r e n ; s o m e w i t h y o u n g f a m i l i e s w h i l e others had adult c h i l d r e n and even g r a n d k i d s . W h e n a s k e d h o w she b a l a n c e d her sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w o r k , her career and her f a m i l y , one w o m a n retorted that it was i m p o s s i b l e to b a l a n c e ; it was m o r e l i k e j u g g l i n g . S o m e w o m e n h a d r e d u c e d their l e v e l o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n after they began h a v i n g c h i l d r e n . It is understandable that they take t i m e a w a y f r o m their volunteer w o r k w h e n they are y o u n g mothers. W h a t is p r o b l e m a t i c h o w e v e r , it is the fact that m a n y are not r e t u r n i n g because they cannot meet the demands o f sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p r o v i d e f o r their f a m i l i e s . O n e w o m a n s u m m e d it up: " i f y o u l o o k at w o m e n i n p o s i t i o n s o f p o w e r , I a l w a y s notice that very f e w w o m e n have c h i l d r e n y o u k n o w . A n d the ones that d o , y o u have to  w o n d e r h o w they do that. .. . t h e y ' v e got it y o u k n o w , that they can go  a w a y f o r w e e k s and m o n t h s a n d . . . f i n e , but w o m e n aren't g o i n g to do that.  109  I m e a n . . .it's too b i g a cost a n d . . .some m i g h t have too m u c h g u i l t so y o u get s o m e [female leaders] that d o n ' t have k i d s ; and do y o u want a p r o f e s s i o n that o n l y has w o m e n w h o d o n ' t have k i d s . . . T h e y need to c o m e up w i t h s o m e t h i n g e l s e . . . w e ' v e t a l k e d a lot about team c o a c h i n g and [about] k i d s c o m i n g or not c o m i n g . P e o p l e w a n t to do it d i f f e r e n t l y and I guess that's the other t h i n g , there needs to be a w h o l e array o f w a y s " (Participant 008). T h i s c o n f i r m s C a m e r o n ' s (1996) observations that f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were c o n s i d e r e d a m a j o r barrier to w o m e n f o r g i n g careers i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h o u g h o n l y f o u r w o m e n i n this study h a d n o c h i l d r e n , most a c k n o w l e d g e d that this h a d p l a y e d a role i n their c h o i c e to pursue a career i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . O n e w o m a n describes her experience: " . . .there were a c o u p l e o f years where I was t h i n k i n g w h o a , this is too  m u c h ; where I had a m e e t i n g e v e r y night. B u t I d o n ' t have any k i d s , i f I  h a d k i d s u m m , I w o u l d n ' t have v o l u n t e e r e d f o r those things because y o u , there's n o w a y I'd want to be a w a y f r o m t h e m . . . S o I t h i n k that m a k e s a  b i g d i f f e r e n c e , I k n o w u m m , that there are a lot o f w o m e n u m m , i n sport  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h o d o n ' t have c h i l d r e n , I m e a n I w o u l d say i t ' s p r o b a b l y  h a l f and h a l f but there are w o m e n , I t h i n k they have t i m e y o u k n o w , so I think i t ' s easier f o r th e m. B u t I t h i n k i t ' s tough but people do it and they d o it i n a certain w a y . I ' m sure it w o u l d a l l w o r k out i t ' s j u s t ; I p r o b a b l y  w o u l d n ' t have done as m a n y . Y e a h I w o u l d have j u s t f o c u s e d o n o n e . . . " (Participant 0 0 3 ) .  In contrast, s i x respondents referred to the n o t i o n that m a l e administrators h a d stay at h o m e w i v e s w h o l o o k e d after the h o u s e h o l d and c h i l d r e n w h o p r o v i d e d t h e m w i t h the t i m e and independence to pursue sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n at a h i g h l e v e l . O n e w o m a n d i s c l o s e d that the m e n i n her o r g a n i z a t i o n d i d n ' t understand the sacrifices that s o m e w o m e n had to m a k e to r e m a i n i n v o l v e d w i t h the sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n . She says: " . . .1 t h i n k a lot o f the m e n just d o n ' t even c o n s i d e r and I ' m t a l k i n g even  i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , this is w h y I'm k i n d o f getting frustrated w i t h [my  o r g a n i z a t i o n ] , they just d o n ' t appreciate the other l i v e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w e h a v e " (Participant 0 0 5 ) .  110  G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , a l l o f the f e m a l e respondents had s o m e degree o f support w h i c h a l l o w e d t h e m to be i n v o l v e d i n sporting leadership and thus a f f i r m the i m p o r t a n c e o f support networks to any successful leadership career. C o n s e q u e n t l y , f e m a l e leaders w h o do not have s u f f i c i e n t support r e m a i n unable to c o m m i t to h i g h l e v e l sporting leadership. T h e s e negative experiences can also l e a d to w o m e n l e a v i n g sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as a result o f their frustrations. T h i s supports a l m o s t a l l o f the literature w h i c h f o u n d that a l a c k o f sensitivity and f l e x i b i l i t y o n the part o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n towards w o m e n ' s p e r s o n a l and f a m i l i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c a u s e d a n u m b e r o f w o m e n to ' d r o p out' ( M c K a y , 1 9 9 7 ; P f i s t e r et. a l , 2 0 0 5 ; M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n , 1 9 9 0 ; C a m e r o n , 1996; H a l l , C u l l e n and S l a c k , 1991). 4.1.4 W o m e n ' s I n d i v i d u a l Characteristics A s presented i n the p r e v i o u s chapter, m a n y leadership s k i l l s were b e l i e v e d to be essential f o r w o m e n to s u c c e s s f u l l y enter and progress i n h i g h l e v e l s p o r t i n g leadership. L i k e w i s e , these also w o r k to e x c l u d e s p e c i f i c types o f leaders w h i c h have t y p i c a l l y been w o m e n . T h e barrier that was m o s t frequently m e n t i o n e d a m o n g respondents was that some f e m a l e leaders w e r e not able to present themselves f o r p o s i t i o n s as w e l l as the m e n . T h e y were p e r c e i v e d to l a c k s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i n a p p l y i n g and e x p a n d i n g into m o r e i n f l u e n t i a l leadership p o s i t i o n s . A s one w o m a n put it: " . . . t h i s is a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n but j u s t m y perspective is that s o m e o f the w o m a n were not as g o o d at presenting themselves as the m e n and y o u k n o w , w h e n i t ' s that c l o s e a n d e v e r y o n e is q u a l i f i e d , i f y o u ' r e not g o i n g to present y o u r s e l f p r o f e s s i o n a l l y . . . y o u ' r e not g o i n g to get the v o t e s " (Participant 007). Self-presentation was v i e w e d as a k e y asset i n acces s i ng s p o r t i n g leadership p o s i t i o n s because successful leaders were p e r c e i v e d to be great p u b l i c . s p e a k e r s w h o c o u l d  111  e f f e c t i v e l y present their ideas and the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s o v e r a l l message. Self-presentation also i n c l u d e s e x c e l l e n t c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s w h i c h was b e n e f i c i a l f o r n e t w o r k i n g a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p b u i l d i n g . T h e s e f i n d i n g s are c l e a r l y supported b y P f i s t e r et. a l ' s (2005) study w h i c h i n d i c a t e d that f e m a l e leaders d i d not a p p l y f o r leadership p o s i t i o n s i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n because they d i d not b e l i e v e they h a d the necessary q u a l i f i c a t i o n s to be chosen and therefore, l a c k e d c o n f i d e n c e i n themselves. M o r e o v e r , several o f the participants p o i n t e d out that w o m e n w e r e p e r c e i v e d to ' a v o i d c o n f l i c t ' w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and f o r this reason, m a y be less suited f o r top leadership p o s i t i o n s w h o s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c l u d e c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n and personnel management. O n e participant noted that often, f e m a l e leaders w o u l d retreat w h e n c o n f r o n t e d w i t h ' s t r o n g l y v o i c e d o p i n i o n s ' and thus, their thoughts w e r e not e f f e c t i v e l y integrated into the d i s c u s s i o n s . O n e w o m a n argued that personal resolve was a major factor i n w o m e n ' s d e c i s i o n s to take o n leadership roles i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h o u g h the literature p o i n t e d to w o m e n ' s l a c k o f q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and experience as the m a i n cause o f their under-representation i n sport leadership, these f e m a l e respondents b e l i e v e d that there were a f e w p e r s o n a l i t y traits i n f e m a l e leaders that h i n d e r e d their opportunities to participate i n sport leadership but that the biggest barriers were present at the organizational level.  4.2 ORGANIZATIONAL L E V E L A t the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l , several factors w e r e f o u n d to h i n d e r w o m e n ' s opportunities i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e barriers i n v o l v e the culture, the p o s i t i o n s and the p o l i c i e s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . 4.2.1 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l structure  112  R e s e a r c h has attempted to s h o w that the greatest barriers f o r w o m e n i n s p o r t i n g leadership s e e m to exist i n the current structure o f m o s t sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f sporting organizations has also generated a-change i n the governance m o d e l where administrators have been r e p l a c e d b y p r o f e s s i o n a l experts i n business a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In one instance, a w o m a n recounted that she h a d h a d to fire a volunteer administrator because that i n d i v i d u a l was not p e r f o r m i n g s u c c e s s f u l l y i n their leadership p o s i t i o n s . T h i s has also meant that p o s i t i o n s are n o w b e i n g f i l l e d b y professional i n d i v i d u a l s ; an arena where there are also less f e m a l e candidates. N e a r l y a l l o f the w o m e n spoke o f the c o m p l e x i t y o f b e i n g i n v o l v e d o n a large b o a r d . T h e p o s i t i v e side they b e l i e v e d is that there are m o r e p o s i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e f o r w o m e n to g a i n entry and experience i n h i g h l e v e l sport leadership. H o w e v e r , i n the larger o r g a n i z a t i o n s where there can be anywhere f r o m 50 to 150 m e m b e r s , it can be d i f f i c u l t to g a i n the necessary support to institute change, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h regard to the actual governance structure. S e v e r a l w o m e n i n this study h a d been i n v o l v e d i n the restructuring o f their organizations a n d spoke o f their experience c o n v i n c i n g m e m b e r s to vote themselves out o f a p o s i t i o n as the a i m was to reduce the n u m b e r o f m e m b e r s on the e x e c u t i v e so that it c o u l d w o r k m o r e e f f i c i e n t l y . " S o I t h i n k that [the] governance m o d e l still needs s o m e w o r k a n d w h e n y o u have a governance m o d e l where y o u have a [large] b o a r d . . .and  therefore it seems to be d e m o c r a t i c because e v e r y b o d y has a say, i t ' s very hard to r o l l it b a c k . . . , p e o p l e think y o u ' r e t a k i n g s o m e t h i n g a w a y " (Participant 0 0 9 ) .  A n o t h e r c h a l l e n g e w i t h large boards that was repeatedly m e n t i o n e d is that the huge m e m b e r s h i p m a k e s it i n t i m i d a t i n g f o r m e m b e r s to stand up and express themselves i n front o f the b o a r d , p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n it c o m e s to p u t t i n g their n a m e f o r w a r d f o r  113  n o m i n a t i o n . O n e w o m a n noted that i n some o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the v o t i n g i n o f the m e m b e r s is done p u b l i c l y so that e v e r y o n e can see h o w m a n y votes each m e m b e r r e c e i v e d . T h i s is p r o b l e m a t i c as it is potentially embarrassing f o r those w h o d o not a c c u m u l a t e m a n y votes and m a y deter t h e m f r o m r u n n i n g again f o r m e m b e r s h i p . It seems that this m a y be m o r e detrimental f o r w o m e n because f e m a l e administrators have been r e c o g n i z e d to l a c k self c o n f i d e n c e and thus, m a n y are already hesitant to present themselves to the b o a r d f o r n o m i n a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , since most o f the m e m b e r s h i p is m a l e , it can be less i n t i m i d a t i n g f o r m e n to introduce themselves to the b o a r d than f o r f e m a l e leaders. In this sense, s m a l l e r boards c o u l d p r o v i d e a m o r e c o m f o r t a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t f o r s o m e m e n and w o m e n to assert interest and v o i c e their o p i n i o n . S e v e r a l w o m e n d i s c u s s e d the lack o f leadership t r a i n i n g p r o v i d e d f o r administrators by the s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . It seems that m a n y n e w m e m b e r s w e r e not prepared and d i d not possess a l l o f the necessary s k i l l s r e q u i r e d to be s u c c e s s f u l i n their leadership r o l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n volunteer sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . O n e w o m a n n o t e d that m a n y administrators w h o had c o m e up by virtue o f their athletic or c o a c h i n g b a c k g r o u n d understood w e l l the sport aspect. S o m e h o w e v e r , d i d not possess the proper management s k i l l s to d o the w o r k and m a k e d e c i s i o n s b r o a d i n scope. W i t h o u t this a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , they w e r e f o r c e d to learn b y 'trial and error' w h i c h one w o m a n d e s c r i b e d as 'unproductive leadership'. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l rules and p o l i c i e s also have a great i m p a c t o n the i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as w e l l as those w h o choose not to participate. F i r s t , the C a n a d i a n sporting system has taken the d i r e c t i o n o f h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e sport w h e r e programs are started at the grassroots l e v e l i n order to i d e n t i f y talent at a y o u n g age.  114  " . . .so there's that w h o l e shift f r o m . . .a system that has been based o n a  state run system versus u m m , the business m o d e l w h e r e p e o p l e p a y f o r  q u a l i t y p r o g r a m s " (Participant 0 0 9 ) .  S o m e o f the w o m e n m e n t i o n e d that i n the past, lessons were free at l o c a l s w i m m i n g p o o l s and e q u i p m e n t was p r o v i d e d so that c h i l d r e n c o u l d learn basic sporting s k i l l s at little or n o cost. H o w e v e r , the recreation system is n o w geared t o w a r d m i d d l e to upper classes f a m i l i e s as prices f o r registration, e q u i p m e n t and lessons have risen s i g n i f i c a n t l y , l e a v i n g m a n y k i d s unable to participate i n grassroots sport. If these i n d i v i d u a l s are not able to participate i n sport at a y o u n g age, then they are most l i k e l y not g o i n g to be i n v o l v e d in sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as they get older. A g a i n , this c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y have adverse effects on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d i v e r s i t y as statistics s h o w that v i s i b l e m i n o r i t i e s m a k e up a large part o f the l o w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c class and therefore are also under-represented i n sport and its a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . O n e participant put it this w a y : " . . .the k i d s are e n c o u r a g e d to be i n v o l v e d i n sport all across the b o a r d and  I w o u l d t h i n k once that, i f that c o u l d h a p p e n , m o r e c h i l d r e n w i l l m o v e up  through the system and b e c o m e adults w h o are still i n v o l v e d i n sport. B u t that's a l o n g and s l o w p r o c e s s " (Participant 0 0 7 ) .  In this w a y , the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l structure i m p a c t s the d i v e r s i t y o f m e m b e r s h i p . S e c o n d , another w o m a n e x p l a i n e d this c h o i c e as one w o m a n w e r e just not w i l l i n g to m a k e . She e x p l a i n e d : " . . . i f I was a s i n g l e w o m a n . . .1 w o u l d have p r o b a b l y gone right up the  ranks and [ b e ] . . . a c t u a l l y r u n n i n g the s h o w . It r e a l l y d o e s n ' t interest m e .  .. . l i k e there's o n l y a f e w w o m e n , even i n the corporate w o r l d . . .that rise to  the top. A n d y o u what, I d o n ' t t h i n k w e want to w o r k 120 hours a week.  L i k e , I d o n ' t w a n t to w o r k 120 hours a w e e k for, y o u c o u l d n ' t p a y me Vi a m i l l i o n dollars to w o r k 120 hours a week, seven days a w e e k l i k e most  m e n have to do. I'd just rather, I'd rather have m o r e balance i n m y l i f e " (Participant 0 0 4 ) .  115  In this w a y , she b e l i e v e d that some w o m e n s i m p l y were not g o i n g to g i v e up their f a m i l i e s and personal l i v e s f o r a career they felt was not p a r t i c u l a r l y r e w a r d i n g . It is therefore evident that despite inroads made b y f e m a l e leaders, it is p e r c e i v e d that m a n y w o m e n do not aspire to 'that l e v e l o f l e a d e r s h i p ' . She states to this effect: " . . . w o m e n are m u c h m o r e cautious so and then they get s m a l l e r organizations that are then u m m , responsible for, less p o w e r f u l i n the structure and less budgets and y o u k n o w , .. .and so then they d o n ' t get into the sort of, the echelons o f p o w e r b r o k i n g . . . " (Participant 0 0 8 ) . E v e r y o r g a n i z a t i o n has its chartered rules w h i c h m e m b e r s are s u p p o s e d to f o l l o w ; rules w h i c h can s o m e t i m e s affect o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m e m b e r s h i p i n subtle w a y s . F o r e x a m p l e , one w o m a n t a l k e d about r e f u s i n g to j o i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n because it f o r c e d its female m e m b e r s to w e a r 'skirts and b l a z e r s ' . " . . . t h e y ' v e got a lot o f rules that I just t h i n k I d o n ' t k n o w w h e t h e r . . . w e  have to have t h e m , I d o n ' t k n o w i f w e have to have as m a n y rules as they d o . . . . T h e y m i g h t l i k e the w o r k but the w a y y o u ' v e structured it,  absolutely not suitable to their lifestyle. S o then t h e y ' r e f o r c e d ; i t ' s the  subtext. T h e y ' r e m a k i n g a d e c i s i o n l i k e I d i d , o n the p o l y e s t e r suit. N o t a  chance. I a i n ' t g o i n g n o w h e r e i n a polyester skirt. S o therefore y o u ' v e  done it, and I d i d n ' t tell [them] that, [they] d i d n ' t have any i d e a but I'll tell y o u right n o w , y o u ' v e set it up p o o r l y f o r w o m e n " (Participant 0 0 8 ) .  M o r e o v e r , the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l structure dictates the length o f t i m e m e m b e r s can serve i n their p o s i t i o n . M a n y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l l o w m e m b e r s to r e m a i n f o r l o n g p e r i o d s o f t i m e w h i c h u s u a l l y means that m a n y o f the top leadership p o s i t i o n s are f i l l e d b y the same people. A c c o r d i n g to s o m e participants, there w a s n ' t e n o u g h turn-over i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n i mp o rtant leadership p o s i t i o n s and therefore there was n o ' n e w b l o o d ' r e p l a c i n g t h e m . S i n c e m e n h o l d most o f the leadership p o s i t i o n s i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w o m e n are not g a i n i n g representation i n large n u m b e r s . O n the other h a n d , it is i mp o rtan t to note that a f e w w o m e n d i d discuss the negative i m p a c t o f h a v i n g  116  too m u c h turn o v e r i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n because n e w m e m b e r s w e r e not i n f o r m e d about the initiatives b e i n g d i s c u s s e d . T h i s meant that issues h a d to be r e v i e w e d yearly. O n e respondent c o m m e n t e d that this was p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o b l e m a t i c f o r l o w p r i o r i t y c o m m i t t e e s saying: " . . . w e met once a year, there was a b i g turnover each year so w e h a d n e w  faces, w h i c h was great to get p e o p l e i n v o l v e d but it w a s n ' t r e a l l y e f f e c t i v e " (Participant 0 0 7 ) .  T h e s e point to the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l structure, w h i c h sets the rules, as i n f l u e n c i n g those w h o a p p l i e d f o r s p o r t i n g leadership p o s i t i o n s and m o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , a l m o s t a l l o f the w o m e n p e r c e i v e d that it was v e r y d i f f i c u l t to institute rule changes. F i n a l l y , g o v e r n i n g bodies establish a n u m b e r o f c o m m i t t e e s to h e l p t h e m manage the o r g a n i z a t i o n . These range f r o m a f i n a n c i a l c o m m i t t e e to strategic p l a n n i n g , f u n d r a i s i n g to team selection as w e l l as n o m i n a t i o n s and w o m e n i n sport, to name a f e w . S o m e c o m m i t t e e s are c r u c i a l to the adequate f u n c t i o n i n g o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i l e others ensure that i mp o rtan t interests are represented. W h e n these c o m m i t t e e s are i n e f f e c t i v e f o r one reason or another, progress is not a c h i e v e d and thus, goals are not met. In this study, three w o m e n reported that some c o m m i t t e e s w i t h i n their o r g a n i z a t i o n w e r e not f u n c t i o n a l and therefore i n e f f e c t i v e . F o r instance, the n o m i n a t i o n c o m m i t t e e is very i m p o r t a n t because they p r o v i d e the list o f candidates f o r m e m b e r s h i p . If f e m a l e leaders are not put forth on that 'slate' and d o not n o m i n a t e themselves to the b o a r d , they w i l l not access leadership p o s i t i o n s i n great n u m b e r s . T h e names put forth b y the n o m i n a t i o n s c o m m i t t e e also m a k e a statement about where the o r g a n i z a t i o n is g o i n g and w h a t they hope to a c c o m p l i s h . If this c o m m i t t e e is i n e f f e c t i v e , it can act as a barrier f o r f e m a l e leaders.  117  L i k e w i s e , it i s evident that W o m e n and Sport C o m m i t t e e s have also been u n s u c c e s s f u l i n b r e a k i n g d o w n barriers f o r w o m e n i n sporting leadership  4.2.1.1 Women and Sport Committees It is important to discuss the role a n d i m p a c t o f W o m e n and Sport C o m m i t t e e s i n a n d on sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , W o m e n and Sport c o m m i t t e e s are used to process i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g various p r o f e s s i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l opportunities f o r f e m a l e leaders such as national and international conferences or external f u n d i n g f o r leadership t r a i n i n g . T h e existence o f a W o m a n and Sport c o m m i t t e e i n any o r g a n i z a t i o n also creates a space w h e r e issues c o n c e r n i n g w o m e n can b e d i s c u s s e d a n d r e s o l v e d internally. In a d d i t i o n , the creative w o r k b e i n g p r o d u c e d i n this f o r u m p r o v i d e s those m e m b e r s w i t h opportunities to s u c c e s s f u l l y demonstrate their s k i l l s and thus, their potential to advance w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n (i.e. success as C h a i r o f the W o m e n and Sport C o m m i t t e e can l e a d to C h a i r o f other c o m m i t t e e s ) . S o m e o f the participants noted that it was essential to get w o m e n i n v o l v e d i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and m o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , have t h e m take on v a r i o u s roles such as t a k i n g m i n u t e s , f a c i l i t a t i n g meetings a n d presenting their ideas w i t h i n a group setting. A s m e n t i o n e d , W o m e n and Sport c o m m i t t e e s are u s u a l l y f i l l e d w i t h m a n y other f e m a l e leaders w h i c h act as a n e t w o r k o f mentors w h o can encourage y o u n g e r w o m e n to take o n leadership roles i n the organization. T h e w o m e n i n t e r v i e w e d i n this study reported that W o m e n a n d Sport c o m m i t t e e s were a l m o s t a l w a y s e x c l u s i v e l y f i l l e d b y f e m a l e leaders. T h i s i s i mportant as it i m p l i e s that o n l y w o m e n are responsible f o r i n c r e a s i n g f e m a l e representation i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i l e d i m i n i s h i n g the c r u c i a l role m a l e leaders c o u l d p l a y i n the r e s o l u t i o n  118  o f gender issues. In this study, 3 w o m e n s p e c i f i c a l l y stated that they h a d not p e r s o n a l l y been i n v o l v e d w i t h w o m e n and sport initiatives n o r d i d they feel the need to advocate f o r this m o v e m e n t or represent ' w o m e n ' s ' v i e w s i n the b o a r d r o o m . T h o u g h it is important that each f e m a l e leader b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n areas i n w h i c h they are c o m f o r t a b l e , it is im p o r t an t that the o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o v i d e the space and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r w o m e n w h o want to w o r k towards equality. 4.2.2 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l culture E a c h sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n is g u i d e d b y a v i s i o n a n d d i r e c t i o n w h i c h is established b y the governance structure o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n and enacted b y the leaders. U s u a l l y , there are 2 to 3 top leaders w h o are at the h e l m o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n as w e l l as an e x e c u t i v e b o a r d w h i c h oversees the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f sport. C o n s e q u e n t l y , the i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n these p o s i t i o n s create and reproduce the e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h the o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l operate. G i v e n that sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a m a l e d o m a i n and m e n still h o l d most o f the i n f l u e n t i a l leadership p o s i t i o n s , the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l culture has a c c o r d i n g l y been f o u n d to be androcentric ( H o v d e n , 2 0 0 0 a , 2 0 0 0 b ; C a m e r o n , 1996). D u e r s t - L a h t i and K e l l y (1995) p o i n t out that even w h e n w o m e n do g a i n leadership p o s i t i o n s i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , they are c o n s t r a i n e d b y their gender. " . . . w o m e n can s u c c e s s f u l l y enter m a s c u l i n e leadership roles but face t w o  u n h a p p y o p t i o n s , neither o f w h i c h alters existent gender p o w e r relations.  E i t h e r w o m e n m u s t c o n f o r m to a r t i f i c i a l l y heightened gender  differentiation as a leader and agree that f e m i n i n e leaders' style e x i s t ,  thereby perpetuating gender differentiation i n the process or w o m e n  leaders can ' d o m a s c u l i n e l e a d e r s h i p ' ; they can p e r f o r m their leadership  tasks i n a w a y m o r e m a s c u l i n e than m e n . T h e f o r m e r reinstates gender differentiation, w h i c h i n turn perpetuates the p r o b a b i l i t y o f m a s c u l i n e  d o m i n a t i o n . T h e latter leaves w o m e n r e i n f o r c i n g m a s c u l i n i s t modes o f leadership w h e n w o m e n m i g h t prefer to operate b y other m o d e s . B o t h  options r e i n f o r c e m a s c u l i n e v a l u a t i o n . . . " (p.31)  119  It is evident that m a n y f e m a l e administrators are not l i k e l y to c o n t i n u e i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i f they are i n an e n v i r o n m e n t w h e r e they feel u n c o m f o r t a b l e . H o w e v e r , this under representation d i d not seem to affect all f e m a l e respondents as one w o m a n d i s c u s s e d her experiences o f c o m m i t t e e and e x e c u t i v e w o r k w h e r e she h a d been the o n l y w o m a n on the b o a r d . She said: " . . .1 d o n ' t r e a l l y t h i n k about that. L i k e I t h i n k about d o i n g m y w o r k and  c o n t r i b u t i n g and getting to k n o w all m y colleagues f r o m their vantage  p o i n t s . . . but I h a r d l y , I d o n ' t a l w a y s t h i n k oh g o d , I'm the o n l y w o m a n . . . " (Participant 001).  E v e n so, another w o m a n d i d say that she w o n d e r e d what it w o u l d be l i k e i f the numbers were reversed and there were ' 3 0 f e m a l e administrators to 5 m a l e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' w i t h w o m e n h o l d i n g the k e y p o s i t i o n s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . She b e l i e v e d that o r g a n i z a t i o n s w o u l d be m a n a g e d d i f f e r e n t l y and that leadership approaches w o u l d e x p a n d opportunities toward women. D u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s , participants were a s k e d to describe s o m e o f their thoughts and experiences o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l culture i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e w o m e n respondents i d e n t i f i e d a n u m b e r o f important o u t c o m e s o f the m a s c u l i n e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l culture that they b e l i e v e d h i n d e r e d w o m e n ' s opportunities to enter and progress i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . F i r s t , f e m a l e respondents r e m a r k e d that the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l culture i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n does not support w o m e n w i t h or h a v i n g c h i l d r e n . O n e w o m a n d e s c r i b e d an i n c i d e n t where her staff was reluctant to tell her about her p r e g n a n c y because she feared she w o u l d lose her p o s i t i o n . It was w i d e l y p e r c e i v e d that there was a negative c o n n o t a t i o n associated w i t h h i g h l e v e l f e m a l e leaders h a v i n g c h i l d r e n as it was thought that this w o u l d create a l a g time i n their career a n d a distraction f r o m their w o r k i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e r e was a w i d e s p r e a d b e l i e f that m o t h e r h o o d and s p o r t i n g leadership  120  were not c o m p a t i b l e as f o u n d i n p r e v i o u s studies b y C a m e r o n (1996), P f i s t e r et. al (2005) a n d M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n (1990). H o w e v e r , one f e m a l e leader d i s c u s s e d the changes that needed to take place i n order to create a w o m a n and f a m i l y - f r i e n d l y e n v i r o n m e n t as w e l l as f i n d w a y s i n w h i c h leadership p o s i t i o n s c o u l d be adapted f o r m e m b e r w h o have f a m i l i e s . T o this effect, one w o m a n said: "...I  t h i n k w e j u s t have to m a k e it w o r k . O t h e r w i s e , w e lose that expertise.  A n d a lot o f corporations aren't getting that. T h e y ' r e still w i l l i n g to let w o m e n g o , and not keep t h e m " (Participant 004). U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l culture is h e a v i l y based on m a l e traditions; m a n y o f w h i c h have been i n place f o r years and others since i n c e p t i o n . F o r this reason, they have b e c o m e d e e p l y e m b e d d e d i n both the structure and management o f e v e r y sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , m a n y o f the f e m a l e respondents i n s i s t e d that the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l culture i n their sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n was still very m u c h m a l e centered and that this was evident i n the w a y that the o r g a n i z a t i o n was m a n a g e d . O n e participant c o m p l a i n e d that meetings w o u l d be s c h e d u l e d o v e r a 4 day p e r i o d a l l o w i n g the m e n to do s o m e g o l f i n g d u r i n g the day, or that meetings w o u l d be h e l d or f i n i s h e d o v e r beer at the e n d o f the d a y often e x c l u d i n g the f e w f e m a l e leaders. In a d d i t i o n , regular and m o n t h l y meetings were u s u a l l y s c h e d u l e d at d i n n e r t i m e on w e e k d a y s and/or o n w e e k e n d s i n c l u d i n g d u r i n g the h o l i d a y s w h i c h are i n c o n v e n i e n t f o r those administrators w h o are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r their h o m e and c h i l d r e n as w e l l . T h i s c l e a r l y supports M c K a y (1997), C a m e r o n (1996) and P f i s t e r et. a l ' s (2005) f i n d i n g s that m a l e n e t w o r k s w e r e an advantage f o r m e n i n s p o r t i n g leadership. S o m e respondents went on to say that f e m a l e leaders w o u l d p r o b a b l y have been m o r e aware o f these issues w h e n s c h e d u l i n g meetings and w o u l d not spend a d d i t i o n a l ' v a c a t i o n ' t i m e at out-of-town c o m p e t i t i o n s and meetings  121  i n order to be a w a y f o r the least amount o f time. T h r o u g h o u t the i n t e r v i e w s , f e m a l e respondents repeatedly m e n t i o n e d that sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s w e r e v e r y m u c h afraid o f c h a n g i n g these traditions and therefore past p o l i c i e s and procedures c o n t i n u e to restrict the amount o f change an o r g a n i z a t i o n is w i l l i n g to embrace. O n e w o m a n s u m m a r i z e d : " . . . y o u k n o w the m y t h s aren't true but t h e y ' r e a l l , s c i e n t i f i c a l l y based. If y o u r u n , y o u r uterus is g o i n g to f a l l out, right. W e laugh at it n o w but at  the t i m e , y o u ' r e f i g h t i n g s c i e n c e . . . . S o I t h i n k i t ' s that...because the  m y t h s are h e l d , they are r e a l l y entrenched and they are v e r y v i c i o u s so w h e n traditions b e c o m e the m a l e w a y o f d o i n g things, it is tough to c h a n g e " (Participant  002).  Interestingly, s o m e w o m e n reported that i n those sports where m e n and w o m e n c o m p e t e d e q u a l l y or i n equal n u m b e r s such as c u r l i n g , triathlon or e q u e s t r i a n i s m , the governance structures were m o r e often e v e n l y b a l a n c e d w i t h m a l e and f e m a l e administrators. F i n a l l y , a n u m b e r o f f e m a l e respondents d i s c u s s e d the i n f l u e n c e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l culture on m e n and w o m e n ' s leadership styles i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . It w a s p e r c e i v e d that there w e r e different expectations i n terms o f b e h a v i o u r and approaches i n the b o a r d r o o m . T o this e n d , one w o m a n related a s i g n i f i c a n t e x p e r i e n c e : " . . .it was m y v e r y first m e e t i n g so y o u can i m a g i n e , I was h a r d l y o v e r the  top i n c o n f i d e n c e and i n e v e r y t h i n g else plus y o u ' r e s u r r o u n d e d b y 21  men  and u m m , not k n o w i n g anyone. A n d u m m , I had a c o u p l e o f points that I  h a d to b r i n g u p . . . . A n y w a y , I presented t h e m as best I c o u l d and b y then  I.. . w a s n ' t a babe i n w o o d s w h e n it c a m e to sitting a r o u n d the b o a r d r o o m  and that. A n y w a y , d u r i n g one o f the breaks, I was p u l l e d o v e r b y , I'm sure a w e l l m e a n i n g g e n t l e m a n . . . w h o t o l d m e that y o u k n o w , . . . y o u r e a l l y  have to w a t c h y o u r t o n e . . .people m i g h t be o f f put b y m y tone. T h e y m a y  agree w i t h m e b u t . . .1 needed to take a m u c h softer approach and not be so,  I guess, aggressive. A n d I was a b s o l u t e l y . . . s h o c k e d . . .1 m e a n , I c o u l d see m y s e l f as aggressive or assertive at m u c h , m u c h later meetings but this is m y first m e e t i n g . .. .this is a stereotype" (Participant  010).  She went o n to say that at that same m e e t i n g , a m a n had lost his c o m p o s u r e w h i l e v e h e m e n t l y a r g u i n g w h y his i d e a s h o u l d be i m p l e m e n t e d . T h o u g h he h a d b a n g e d the  122  table w i t h his fists w h i l e ranting and r a v i n g i n a v e r y l o u d v o i c e , he was i r o n i c a l l y p r a i s e d f o r the p a s s i o n he brought to his sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w o r k . T h i s illustrates the various w a y s i n w h i c h w e perceive and evaluate f e m a l e leaders as o p p o s e d to m a l e administrators. It supports the f i n d i n g s o f P f i s t e r et. a l ' s (2005) G e r m a n study w h i c h r e v e a l e d that m e n and w o m e n ' s leadership styles i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were greatly i n f l u e n c e d b y the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l culture o f the s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . Indeed, M c K a y (1997) sums it up s a y i n g that w o m e n : " . . .must p e r f o r m e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y w e l l b y m e n ' s c r i t e r i a but i n a m a n n e r that does not threaten m e n ' s stereotypes about ' a p p r o p r i a t e ' f e m i n i n e b e h a v i o u r ; they need to be tough w i t h o u t b e i n g ' m a c h o ' . . . "  (McKay,  1997, p.85) 4,3 R E L A T I O N A L L E V E L B a r r i e r s at the relational l e v e l refer to the relationships that exist between the i n d i v i d u a l s i n s i d e and outside o f the sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as c o l l e a g u e s , leaders and social networks. 4.3.1 R e s i s t i v e attitudes towards f e m a l e s p o r t i n g leaders A s the e x e c u t i v e boards are p r e d o m i n a n t l y f i l l e d w i t h m e n , a n u m b e r o f w o m e n d i s c u s s e d incidents where they h a d been c h a l l e n g e d or e v e n d i s c r e d i t e d b y m e n i n their o r g a n i z a t i o n s d u r i n g their careers i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In one case, a respondent reported that a m a l e c o l l e a g u e was e x t r e m e l y o f f e n d e d w h e n she h a d c h a l l e n g e d his b e l i e f that a particular sport was ' o r d a i n e d b y G o d to be p l a y e d b y b o y s ' . A n o t h e r w o m a n asserted that e v e n t h o u g h she h a d been s u c c e s s f u l i n h i g h l e v e l leadership a n d h a d 'sealed, s i g n e d , d e l i v e r e d ' m a n y p o l i c i e s and i n i t i a t i v e s , s o m e m e m b e r s s t i l l q u e s t i o n e d her and other f e m a l e leaders' c r e d i b i l i t y as h i g h l e v e l administrators. S i m i l a r l y , a f e w participants m e n t i o n e d that talented w o m e n w h o were articulate, educated a n d modest  123  were often p e r c e i v e d as i n t i m i d a t i n g to other m e m b e r s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y m e n . It was also i n s i n u a t e d that these f e m a l e administrators h a d been s c r u t i n i z e d because they w e r e v i e w e d as serious c o m p e t i t i o n f o r the top leadership p o s i t i o n s . In a m o r e serious case, one participant d e s c r i b e d her unpleasant encounters w i t h a m a l e administrator w h o she c l a i m e d was t r y i n g to r u i n her career, stating that she h a d nearly had a nervous b r e a k d o w n because o f the g r i e f he had put her t h r o u g h w h i l e she was head o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n . She b e l i e v e d that he c o u l d not c o n t e n d w i t h h a v i n g lost a leadership p o s i t i o n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to a w o m a n and therefore was d e t e r m i n e d to discredit her i n front o f other m e m b e r s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . G i v e n this sometimes hostile e n v i r o n m e n t , the l a c k o f f e m a l e administrators i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s also means that there is less support f r o m same sex colleagues w h o c o u l d better understand the issues and p o s i t i o n that s o m e f e m a l e leaders were f a c i n g . Interestingly, three w o m e n d e s c r i b e d h i g h l e v e l s p o r t i n g leadership as a ' l o n e l y ' place f o r f e m a l e administrators though it was m e n t i o n e d that feminist-based a d v o c a c y groups d i d p r o v i d e s o m e support f o r those w h o were i n v o l v e d i n the w o m e n and sport m o v e m e n t . In essence, s o m e f e m a l e respondents b e l i e v e d that there was no one to talk to, e s p e c i a l l y i n the highest leadership p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . " T h e r e ' s n o one to talk to and y o u c a n ' t w h e n y o u ' r e i n a leadership  p o s i t i o n really u m m , there needs to be most o f the t i m e , a little bit o f  distance between y o u a n d y o u r staff because t h e y ' r e not there to s o l v e y o u r p r o b l e m s " (Participant 0 0 9 ) .  4.3.2 M e n t o r i n g and the n o t i o n o f female 'turf protectors' M e n t o r i n g was an i mp o rtan t aspect e x p l o r e d i n this study and thus, the participants were e n c o u r a g e d to discuss their experiences and perceptions c o n c e r n i n g this topic. M e n t o r s , m u c h l i k e s o c i a l n e t w o r k s , w e r e c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t b y a l l o f the  124  i n t e r v i e w respondents a n d were s a i d to be necessary f o r y o u n g e r m e m b e r s as it not o n l y h e l p e d t h e m b e c o m e c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n but also p r o v i d e d t h e m w i t h leadership a d v i c e and encouragement i n a n u m b e r o f situations. In this sense, mentors contribute greatly to y o u n g e r f e m a l e m e m b e r s ' o v e r a l l i n their sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n career. S e v e r a l w o m e n t a l k e d about b e i n g g u i d e d to i n i t i a l leadership p o s i t i o n s and w i t h their m e n t o r ' s assistance, were able to get v o t e d i n . T h e w o m e n i n this study h a d been m e n t o r e d b y m a l e and f e m a l e administrators and some had p o s i t i v e w h i l e others h a d negative experiences. O n e w o m a n said she entered and progressed i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n because o f a m a l e administrator w h o was w e l l k n o w n f o r his support o f f e m a l e leaders at a t i m e where there were a f e w . In this w a y , she b e l i e v e d he p r o v i d e d her w i t h the c o n f i d e n c e and abilities to take o n b i g g e r leadership roles i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , another w o m a n m e n t i o n e d that h a v i n g a m e n t o r e n a b l e d her to c o p e w i t h the pressures o f h i g h l e v e l sporting leadership. F o r these reasons, m e n t o r i n g was often c o n s i d e r e d as an essential part o f s u c c e s s i o n p l a n n i n g i f the o r g a n i z a t i o n is to d e v e l o p its future leaders. Interestingly, one f e m a l e respondent v i e w e d m e n t o r i n g as a k i n d o f leadership t r a i n i n g . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , f e w f e m a l e leaders are c o m i n g into sport leadership b y w a y o f m e n t o r i n g . T o this e n d , she says: " . . . w e keep t a l k i n g about h a v i n g to increase o u r representation o f w o m e n and not j u s t representation, I'm t a l k i n g q u a l i f i e d leaders, t a l k e d about  d e v e l o p i n g leaders, h a n d h o l d i n g leaders, h e l p i n g e v o l v e leaders w h o  happen to be w o m e n and m e n f o r that matter but e s p e c i a l l y w o m e n need  that help. E v e r y m a n a r o u n d the table was o h , yeah, yeah, I'll be a leader y o u k n o w , this and that, whatever y o u k n o w , I'll be a m e n t o r and I've never yet seen one o f t h e m or heard one o f them be c o n n e c t e d w i t h , introduce me to u m m , send m e an e-mail o f or f r o m another f e m a l e mentoree o f any k i n d o f s o r t s " (Participant 0 1 0 ) .  125  It is therefore evident that mentors were p e r c e i v e d to be i mportant f o r w o m e n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n although several o f the w o m e n d i d report h a v i n g negative experiences w i t h mentors w h i l e others had not p e r s o n a l l y been m e n t o r e d i n their career to date. In one case, one respondent expressed that she h a d never e x p e r i e n c e d m e n t o r i n g but quite the opposite s a y i n g that she had h a d v e r y disheartening relationships w i t h f e m a l e leaders. She b e l i e v e d that they had been v e r y tough o n her a n d h a d not been understanding, sensitive or c o m p a s s i o n a t e to her needs w h i c h h a d thus m a d e he experiences w i t h mentors a ' n i g h t m a r e ' . D e s p i t e not h a v i n g a m e n t o r , one w o m a n said that she h a d m a d e it a p o i n t to m e n t o r other w o m e n to g i v e t h e m the tools a n d a d v i c e she w i s h e d she had had. It can therefore be assumed that f o r i n d i v i d u a l s w h o have unpleasant m e n t o r i n g experiences, they are not l i k e l y to themselves b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n m e n t o r i n g other y o u n g administrators w h i c h can n e g a t i v e l y i m p a c t the entire s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . O n the other h a n d , w o m e n w h o reported h a v i n g g o o d m e n t o r i n g experiences c l a i m e d they w e r e able to use this n e w k n o w l e d g e and apply it i n their leadership relationships throughout their careers. D u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s , s o m e w o m e n d i d state that there w e r e s o m e leaders w h o were p e r c e i v e d to be i n v o l v e d i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r 'ego g r a t i f i c a t i o n ' , r e l i s h i n g the p o w e r and prestige associated w i t h h o l d i n g top leadership p o s i t i o n s i n h i g h l e v e l sporting organizations. Interestingly, it was also m e n t i o n e d that s o m e f e m a l e leaders w h o h a d earned a certain degree o f i n f l u e n c e i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n w e r e d e t e r m i n e d to continue this successful path and any other members* p a r t i c u l a r l y f e m a l e m e m b e r s , were regarded as c o m p e t i t i o n . T h i s is supported b y P f i s t e r et. al (2005) w h o f o u n d a  126  " . . . l a c k o f s o l i d a r i t y a m o n g f e m a l e l e a d e r s . . . " (p.31). T h o u g h this can be s o m e w h a t attributed to the ethos o f competitiveness associated w i t h the m a s c u l i n e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l culture, it also s h o w s that w o m e n k n o w that o n l y a f e w w o m e n are l i k e l y to be v o t e d into the o r g a n i z a t i o n and therefore v i e w other f e m a l e candidates as o p p o s i t i o n . A c k e r (1990) also d i s c e r n e d that: " . . . w o m e n were f a i l i n g to cooperate w i t h each other, t a k i n g p o w e r and  u s i n g it i n oppressive w a y s (repeating e x a c t l y what the m e n have done),  creating their o w n structures o f status a n d r e w a r d . [These images are]...at odds w i t h other images o f w o m e n as n u r t u r i n g a n d s u p p o r t i v e " ( A c k e r , 1990, p. 142).  F o r this reason, some f e m a l e leaders d e s c r i b e d that m e n t o r i n g was p e r c e i v e d b y s o m e as a loss o f their p o w e r and a fear o f perhaps l o s i n g their p o s i t i o n . T o this e n d , one f e m a l e respondent c o m m e n t e d : " . . .they are i n p o s i t i o n s o f p o w e r so t h e y ' r e . . .scared that i f they act a certain w a y , people w i l l t h i n k they are f a v o u r i n g and then y o u k n o w , .. .they're not m u c h o f a help to any o f the w o m e n c o m i n g to w o r k because t h e y ' r e so w o r r i e d about b e i n g l a b e l l e d and b e i n g h e l p f u l ; i t ' s c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e . Y o u w o u l d have gotten better h e l p f r o m the m e n that were at the h e l m " (Participant 0 0 8 ) . O n e participant suggested that f e m a l e leaders needed to feel that equal opportunities e x i s t e d f o r all talented leaders regardless o f gender before this d i f f i d e n c e w o u l d disappear. In order to protect their p o s i t i o n as w e l l as their p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c h i e v i n g the top leadership p o s i t i o n s , some leaders w e r e p e r c e i v e d to put v e r y little effort i n h e l p i n g and m e n t o r i n g other w o m e n into sporting leadership. W h a t is interesting is the fact that o n l y t w o w o m e n d i s c u s s e d this issue d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s and both b e l i e v e d that this was an important barrier that w o m e n f a c e d i n sporting leadership w h i c h needs to be addressed. O n e f e m a l e respondent s u m m a r i z e d :  127  " . . . w h e n y o u have w o m e n w h o are turf protecting or m e n w h o are 'turf  p r o t e c t i n g ' , then y o u have a c e i l i n g on what y o u are g o i n g to achieve  because there are s o m e v e r y g o o d , w e l l intended w o m e n w h o c o u l d rise  above but f o r a w o m a n t o . . .go u p , m o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , it means a m a n has  to c o m e d o w n . .. .it's important that i n i t i a l l e a d e r s . . . w h e r e v e r they m a k e that first breakthrough be as c o n f i d e n t as p o s s i b l e and b e . . .as g l o b a l i n  their t h i n k i n g as p o s s i b l e because they o n l y p a v e the w a y f o r m o r e w o m e n i f t h e y ' r e s u c c e s s f u l . B u t i f they're not s u c c e s s f u l , they m a k e it ten times harder f o r the w o m e n b e h i n d t h e m " (Participant 0 0 6 ) .  4.3.3 M a l e n e t w o r k s and the O l d b o y s ' c l u b In the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l culture was d i s c u s s e d as it related to e x c l u d i n g w o m e n f r o m h i g h l e v e l s p o r t i n g leadership. In particular, it was noted that the m a s c u l i n e culture i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s was p e r c e i v e d to create an u n c o m f o r t a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t f o r s o m e f e m a l e leaders. In a d d i t i o n , the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l structure i n f l u e n c e d w h o entered because it dictates the w a y s i n w h i c h leaders gain access to these p o s i t i o n s . S o m e o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r e x a m p l e , elected m e m b e r s and therefore, i n d i v i d u a l s w h o were v o t e d i n were r e l a t i v e l y w e l l k n o w n and accepted b y the other m e m b e r s . T h i s again h i g h l i g h t s the i m p o r t a n c e o f s o c i a l networks i n acces s i ng s p o r t i n g leadership p o s i t i o n s f o r w o m e n . O n e w o m a n e x p l a i n e d that another f e m a l e candidate h a d not made the e x e c u t i v e b o a r d i n her o r g a n i z a t i o n because she was not ' w e l l - k n o w n ' b y the other m e m b e r s . It was b e l i e v e d that w h e n she had been i n v o l v e d l o n g e n o u g h , other m e m b e r s w o u l d r e c o g n i z e her n a m e and contributions and she w o u l d thus be v o t e d i n because she already h a d the s k i l l s and administrative b a c k g r o u n d to f i l l the p o s i t i o n . S o c i a l networks h o w e v e r can also present a barrier f o r i n d i v i d u a l s w h o have c o n f l i c t i n g perspectives to those already h o l d i n g leadership p o s i t i o n s as e v i d e n c e d b y some w o m e n s a y i n g that p r o g r e s s i o n into the top leadership p o s i t i o n s o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n was m o r e d i f f i c u l t as these p o s i t i o n s o f p o w e r were u s u a l l y h e l d b y well-supported m e n i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n  128  w h o r e m a i n e d f o r l o n g periods o f time. F o r this reason, w o m e n m u s t already 'fit i n ' w i t h the m a s c u l i n e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l culture and most i m p o r t a n t l y , be accepted b y the m e n i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n as the best candidate a m o n g those representing themselves i n order to access h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s , as was a d v a n c e d b y H o v d e n ( 2 0 0 0 a , 2 0 0 0 b ) . T h e r e is also support f r o m S h a w and H o e b e r (2003) w h o assert that: " . . . w o m e n w h o express discourses o f m a s c u l i n i t y are p e r c e i v e d b y  i n d i v i d u a l s i n organizations as people w h o can adapt w i t h the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y and access p o w e r . . . . W o m e n w h o want to succeed i n an  e n v i r o n m e n t that is d o m i n a t e d b y discourses o f m a s c u l i n i t y must also embrace m a s c u l i n e w o r k p r a c t i c e s " ( S h a w and H o e b e r , 2 0 0 3 , p.352).  E q u a l l y i mp o rtan t is the fact that most m e n i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n w e r e f a m i l i a r w i t h each other and m a n y h a d been friends or acquaintances f o r years. In this w a y , it was d i f f i c u l t f o r n e w m e m b e r s to access these s o c i a l n e t w o r k s and c o n s e q u e n t l y , leadership p o s i t i o n s . O n e w o m a n p o i n t e d out that it was often the same m e m b e r s a r o u n d the table and that this s o m e t i m e s caused the b o a r d to b e c o m e c o m p l a c e n t w i t h the f u n c t i o n i n g o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n and e v e n less l i k e l y to change the w a y things were b e i n g done. N e v e r t h e l e s s , one w o m a n d i d perceive that this ' m a l e c u l t u r e ' h a d s o m e w h a t disappeared though she was not certain h o w this h a d i n f l u e n c e d w o m e n i n sporting leadership s a y i n g : " . . .1 d o n ' t k n o w whether the change i n culture has made it easier o r harder  f o r w o m e n . E a s i e r i n so far as i f y o u ' r e q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n . . .1 m e a n y o u  have to put i n some t i m e . . . y o u need e x p e r i e n c e , but i t ' s not so o l d boys  c l u b . U m m , o n the other h a n d i f y o u were a w o m a n i n that o l d boys c l u b before, y o u c o u l d ascend through as w e l l so it's...I suppose o v e r a l l i t ' s made it easier because i t ' s not so m u c h an o l d b o y s c l u b a n y m o r e " (Participant 0 0 7 ) .  In the same w a y , another participant d e s c r i b e d what she c a l l e d the ' a l p h a m a l e m e n t a l i t y ' where there is one particular m a l e leader o n the b o a r d w h o is n e v e r c h a l l e n g e d b y other m e m b e r s i n terms o f o p i n i o n s and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . T h i s is s i g n i f i c a n t f o r  129  leaders attempting to m a k e change w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . F o r this reason, m e n i n the n e t w o r k were seen as b e i n g h e l d to different standards than other m e n and w o m e n i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , one w o m a n p e r c e i v e d that female leaders needed to w o r k harder than m a l e administrators i n order to gain respect and be taken s e r i o u s l y as leaders: " . . .1 d e f i n i t e l y d o e v e r y t h i n g that I can to contribute to the best o f m y a b i l i t y and i n as m a n y w a y s as I can so that it, so that it leads p e o p l e l i k e m y s e l f to o v e r a c h i e v e , to o v e r d e v e l o p . . .and that's k i l l i n g . . .because w e ' r e o v e r exhausted i n t r y i n g to do e v e r y t h i n g a n d to be e v e r y t h i n g to e v e r y o n e at a l l times w h i l e the guys are j u s t c r u i s i n g w i t h o n l y one project o n the go at a time. S o , y o u d e f i n i t e l y feel l i k e y o u have to o v e r achieve. Y o u a l s o . . .feel l i k e y o u have to be careful because i f y o u m a k e a m i s t a k e , w e l l then y o u o b v i o u s l y w e r e n ' t ready f o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . W h e r e a s i f a m a n m a k e s a m i s t a k e , w e l l things h a p p e n . . . m i s t a k e s h a p p e n . . . d o n ' t w o r r y about i t . . .dust y o u r s e l f o f f and keep g o i n g . I'll be there. W a n t to have a beer a f t e r w a r d s ? " (Participant 0 1 0 ) . T h i s supports D u e r s t - L a h t i and K e l l y ' s (1995) f i n d i n g s that " . . . w o m e n but not m e n face a p r o v i n g p e r i o d o f about a year.... Further, w o m e n apparently need to r e p r o v e their c o m p e t e n c y w i t h e v e r y n e w group they e n c o u n t e r " (p.29). 4.4 S O C I E T A L  L E V E L  In this last section, barriers f o u n d at the societal l e v e l relate to the gendered labour market as w e l l as to the gender order i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i s p o i n t is p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t because as D u e r s t - L a h t i and K e l l y (1995) a f f i r m : " . . . t h e p a u c i t y o f w o m e n at e x e c u t i v e levels cannot be satisfactorily  e x p l a i n e d b y d e m o g r a p h i c s . . .the barriers are m u l t i p l e i n l e v e l , are related  to a m a s c u l i n i s t society that judges roles and b e h a v i o u r s d i f f e r e n t l y due to sex and gender, are e x p e r i e n c e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y b y w o m e n regardless o f their c o l o r (although w o m e n o f c o l o r experience these barriers d i f f e r e n t l y than d o w h i t e w o m e n ) . . . " (p.82)  4.4.1 T h e gendered l a b o u r market and sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n : S i m i l a r i t i e s T h o u g h m e n must d o sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n under these same c o n d i t i o n s , the gendered l a b o u r market demonstrates that m o r e m e n are l o c a t e d i n the h i g h e r salary  130  echelons than are w o m e n . B e c a u s e the traditional volunteer based governance m o d e l has shifted to a p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d and c o m m e r c i a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , potential m e m b e r s are n o w b e i n g recruited f r o m the p o l i t i c a l and business arenas w h e r e m e n again d o m i n a t e leadership p o s i t i o n s . In this w a y , m e n are m o r e l i k e l y to possess the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , leadership s k i l l s and s o c i a l n e t w o r k s n o w required to access sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n posts. T h i s f i n d i n g c l e a r l y reflects m a n y other studies o n w o m e n i n s p o r t i n g leadership ( C a m e r o n , 1 9 9 6 ; M a c i n t o s h and W h i t s o n , 1 9 9 0 ; P f i s t e r et. a l . , 2005) w h i c h have assessed the i n f l u e n c e o f the gendered l a b o u r market o n w o m e n ' s opportunities to participate i n h i g h level sporting leadership. In a d d i t i o n , this also reflects the gendered labour market o n an international scale such as the U n i t e d N a t i o n s w h e r e it is p o i n t e d out: " B e c a u s e o f education a n d e m p l o y m e n t trends, it is suggested  o p t i m i s t i c a l l y that the p o o l f r o m w h i c h the next generation o f managers is  d r a w n w i l l contain as m a n y w o m e n as m e n . H o w e v e r , this w i l l e f f e c t i v e l y l e a d to a greater access to top levels o f management o n l y i f the structural  barriers that i m p e d e the access o f w o m e n managers ( l o w e r and m i d d l e  level) to d e c i s i v e p o s i t i o n s can be s u r m o u n t e d " ( U n i t e d N a t i o n s , 1995).  4.4.2 T h e i n f l u e n c e o f the 'gender order' and stereotypes o n w o m e n ' s entry and p r o g r e s s i o n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n " S p o r t c o n t r i b u t e d to the f a b r i c a t i o n o f the gender order b y ' n a t u r a l i z i n g '  male d o m i n a n c e ; p r e s e r v i n g an arena o f p o p u l a r culture f o r m e n ; d i v i d i n g w o m e n a l o n g lines o f class, race, and athletic interest; c o n t r i b u t i n g to  changes i n gender i d e o l o g i e s i n the d o m i n a n t c u l t u r e ; a n d structuring  p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l experiences, and m o d e l i n g the h u m a n b o d y and  h u m a n f e e l i n g a r o u n d m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e a x e s " ( H a l l , 1996, p.39).  M a n y studies have d i s c u s s e d the 'gender order' that exists i n sport administration and e x p l a i n e d the w a y s i n w h i c h h i g h ratios o f w o m e n are relegated to p o s i t i o n s o f l o w e r status, i n f l u e n c e and c o m p e n s a t i o n . M c K a y (1997) e l u c i d a t e d :  131  " . . .gender must be seen as d e c i s i v e i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s because m o s t have  cultures i n w h i c h m e n ' s experiences are ascendant and w o m e n ' s are subordinate. .. . G i v e n that m e n c o n t r o l the most p o w e r f u l s o c i a l  institutions, and their values are m o r e h i g h l y esteemed than w o m e n ' s , then w o m e n must c o n t i n u a l l y ' d o ' gender under d i s a d v a n t a g e d c o n d i t i o n s " ( M c K a y , 1997, p. 14).  In this w a y , the 'gender order' constrains w o m e n ' s opportunities to g a i n entry and progress i n h i g h l e v e l sporting leadership p o s i t i o n s . Stereotypes r e g a r d i n g m a l e and f e m a l e administrators are a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t o r m a i n t a i n i n g this 'gender order' that exists i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . O n e w o m a n d e s c r i b e d the stereotypical beliefs between m e n and w o m e n i n terms o f leadership styles and s k i l l s . She s u c c i n c t l y states that: " T h e m e n were c o n c e r n e d that the w o m e n are g o i n g to spend a l l the  m o n e y and the w o m e n are c o n c e r n e d the m e n are g o i n g to take a l l the  p o w e r ; i n a n u t s h e l l . A n d i t ' s true a n y w h e r e y o u l o o k , o n boards, a n y w h e r e y o u g o " (Participant 0 0 6 ) .  F o r a l o n g t i m e , f e m i n i s t s have been a r g u i n g that w o m e n i n h i g h l e v e l s p o r t i n g leaders are f o r c e d to m a i n t a i n some element o f ' f e m i n i n i t y ' . T h o u g h s o m e b e l i e v e these k i n d s o f issues h a d been r e c t i f i e d , one w o m a n c o m m e n t e d that she c a r r i e d herself i n a m o r e f e m i n i n e m a n n e r and made sure to dress p r o f e s s i o n a l l y because she b e l i e v e d this a f f o r d e d her a certain amount o f c r e d i b i l i t y . A t the same t i m e , she c o m m e n t e d that m e n c o u l d c o m e to meetings i n shorts and a g o l f shirt w i t h o u t a p r o b l e m . In another i n t e r v i e w , the participant r e m a r k e d that one f e m a l e m e m b e r i n her o r g a n i z a t i o n n e e d e d to adjust her attire to b e c o m e a little m o r e f e m i n i n e i f she w a n t e d to succeed and progress i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s suggests that there is still some truth to the n o t i o n that w o m e n feel they are r e q u i r e d to m a i n t a i n a certain degree o f f e m i n i n i t y . T h i s reflects w h a t was f o u n d b y C a m e r o n (1996) and the I S L P and I O C (2004) w h o d i s c u s s e d the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f dress codes i n sport leadership.  132  T h r o u g h o u t the i n t e r v i e w s , the respondents often referred to stereotypical n o t i o n s o f m a l e and f e m a l e leaders to characterize other administrators they h a d w o r k e d w i t h d u r i n g their sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n careers. F i r s t , a l m o s t a l l o f the w o m e n t a l k e d about the t y p i c a l approaches m e n and w o m e n t o o k to entering and p r o g r e s s i n g into top leadership p o s i t i o n s . It was agreed that m e n were m u c h b o l d e r i n their pursuit o f leadership p o s i t i o n s , often a p p l y i n g f o r the top p o s i t i o n s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . W o m e n were d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g m o r e passive i n their i n i t i a l i n v o l v e m e n t as m a n y o f t h e m w e r e e n c o u r a g e d b y their s o c i a l n e t w o r k and recruited b y other o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m e m b e r s . O n e participant noted that m a n y y o u n g m e n w o u l d a p p l y f o r leadership p o s i t i o n s f o r w h i c h they d i d not meet the c r i t e r i a w h i l e w o m e n were m u c h m o r e ' c a u t i o u s ' i n where they a p p l i e d . W i t h respect to this p r o g r e s s i o n , one w o m a n e x p l a i n e d : " . . .a lot o f the m e n d o n ' t need to be g r o u n d e d so m u c h i n the sense o f their a c c o m p l i s h m e n t to feel they have a right to m o v e o n " (Participant 002). O v e r h a l f the w o m e n i n this study stated that w o m e n i n general tended to be insecure and l a c k i n g c o n f i d e n c e w h i c h i m p a c t e d their patterns o f entry and p r o g r e s s i o n i n h i g h l e v e l leadership. W o m e n were most often portrayed as reserved, passive a n d c o m p a s s i o n a t e i n their leadership approaches and were p e r c e i v e d to a v o i d c o n f l i c t . A s one w o m a n put it: " . . . w o m e n d o n ' t l i k e c o n f l i c t so t h e y ' l l often acquiesce i n the face o f strongly v o i c e d o p i n i o n rather than to say: T understand what y o u ' r e  s a y i n g a n d h o w c l e a r l y y o u are s a y i n g it u m m , but here's h o w I t h i n k ' " (Participant 0 0 6 ) .  O n the other h a n d , m e n were u s u a l l y characterized as o u t g o i n g , aggressive and authoritative. O n e w o m a n attributed most barriers to w o m e n ' s l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e and stated that these c o u l d be o v e r c o m e i f w o m e n b e l i e v e d i n themselves. H o w e v e r , this  133  r e a s o n i n g does not e x p l a i n the other factors that have h i n d e r e d some f e m a l e leaders despite their h a v i n g reported a p o s i t i v e attitude and a h i g h l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e . A l t h o u g h some research has rendered a degree o f v a l i d i t y to these characterizations ( C a m e r o n , 1996; P f i s t e r et. a l . , 2 0 0 5 ; I S L P and I O C , 2 0 0 4 ; H a l l , C u l l e n and S l a c k , 1990), the stereotypical i m a g e o f w o m e n remains. T h e s e stereotypes can thus p o t e n t i a l l y have negative effects on m a l e and f e m a l e leaders w h i c h c o u l d deter t h e m f r o m w a n t i n g to enter or advance i n t o h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s . It is important to note h o w e v e r that this d u a l i s m c h a r a c t e r i z i n g m a l e and f e m a l e leaders as c o m p l e t e opposites s h o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d b y any means representative f o r all s p o r t i n g leaders, regardless o f gender. It is true that opportunities f o r w o m e n i n all spheres o f leadership have increased t r e m e n d o u s l y , even though barriers c o n t i n u e to shift and redefine themselves and s t i l l exist i n various f o r m s f o r m a n y w o m e n today. " A n d f o r some reason, w o m e n seem to go so far and then be content at  that l e v e l and I t h i n k s o m e o f it is w o m e n h o l d i n g b a c k , not e x p a n d i n g their o w n borders, not w a n t i n g to m o v e up u m m , they f o u n d a c o m f o r t  z o n e and they're and I t h i n k sometimes that has to d o w i t h t i m e because  y o u k n o w , i f y o u ' r e g o i n g to be i n v o l v e d at this l e v e l , y o u d o have to do  some t r a v e l i n g , y o u d o have to do some w e e k e n d w o r k " (Participant 0 0 6 ) .  F i n a l l y , m a n y w o m e n i n d i c a t e d that there was a l a c k o f r e c o g n i t i o n f o r f e m a l e leaders i n terms o f awards and c o m m e m o r a t i o n s . M o s t o f the participants i n this study h a d been a c k n o w l e d g e d f o r their w o r k i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n though they recounted b e i n g a m o n g v e r y f e w f e m a l e n o m i n e e s and e v e n f e w e r f e m a l e recipients. T h i s is a l o g i c a l consequence o f the under-representation o f f e m a l e leaders i n h i g h l e v e l sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n since most are never g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y to l e a d the o r g a n i z a t i o n and therefore d o not have a p l a t f o r m on w h i c h to demonstrate their success. W i t h o u t s h o w i n g other o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m e m b e r s concrete success, w o m e n are less l i k e l y to be accepted i n t o  134  h i g h l e v e l leadership roles and thus, w i l l be unable to change the 'gender o r d e r ' i n sport administration.  135  5 0 C H A P T E R 5:  CONCLUSIONS AND  RECOMMENDATIONS  "...it's the old story, your work is never done... " (Participant 006). 5.1 G E N E R A L  REMARKS  A s has been s h o w n , it is essential that a l l o f those w h o e n j o y sport i n C a n a d a have representation at the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l o f the C a n a d i a n s p o r t i n g system w h e r e d e c i s i o n s about the sport programs are taken. T h o u g h d i v e r s i t y can i n c l u d e language, race, e t h n i c i t y , r e g i o n and m a n y other areas, this study focuses on gender and the underrepresentation o f w o m e n i n C a n a d i a n h i g h l e v e l sporting leadership. It i n v e s t i g a t e d the career paths, leadership s k i l l s and barriers that exist f o r these f e m a l e administrators and e l i c i t e d , through i n t e r v i e w s , i n f o r m a t i o n on f e m a l e leaders' experiences i n sporting organizations and the p e r c e i v e d c o m p e t e n c i e s r e q u i r e d to access these leadership p o s i t i o n s . B e c a u s e sport, p a r t i c u l a r l y O l y m p i c sport, has taken o n s u c h i m p o r t a n c e i n C a n a d a w i t h g o v e r n m e n t and corporate sponsors s p e n d i n g m i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s , it is important to understand the w a y s i n w h i c h w o m e n access (or not) the g o v e r n i n g bodies o f h i g h l e v e l sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . In this w a y , the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g process m i g h t b e c o m e m o r e b a l a n c e d and representative o f the general p o p u l a t i o n . D a t a c o n c e r n i n g f e m a l e athletes' p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates at O l y m p i c G a m e s , both i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y and f o r C a n a d a , s h o w e d the i n c r e m e n t a l progress w o m e n have made i n terms o f i n c r e a s i n g their representation over the years. H o w e v e r , R i n t a l a and B i s c h o f f (1997) r e m i n d us that: " . . . w h i l e w o m e n m a y participate as athletes, far f e w e r w o m e n participate  i n the leadership p o s i t i o n s o f sport, p o s i t i o n s w h i c h exert c o n t r o l o v e r w o m e n ' s sporting e x p e r i e n c e s " (p.2).  A s has been s h o w n i n this and m a n y other studies, this v o i d is the result o f a n u m b e r o f factors i n h i b i t i n g the p r o g r e s s i o n o f f e m a l e leaders to i mportant leadership p o s i t i o n s i n  136  sport. D e s p i t e the efforts o f the W o m e n and Sport m o v e m e n t w h i c h began a r o u n d the m i d 1 9 7 0 ' s , there has been n o s i g n i f i c a n t o v e r a l l change o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l structures and cultures i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . It is therefore evident that c h a n g i n g the gender i m b a l a n c e and the d e e p l y e m b e d d e d traditions i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n is d i f f i c u l t as sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s are v e r y resistant to change. O n e participant n o t e d : " S o I t h i n k those k i n d s o f things are s o m e o f the l e a r n i n g ' s that I've h a d ,  i n that, y o u have to h o l d i n those places that are u n c o m f o r t a b l e i f y o u w a n t change to b r i n g about and realize that change d o e s n ' t go i n a straight l i n e , it goes f o r w a r d and b a c k and it, at what p o i n t do y o u p u s h and p u l l and those k i n d s o f t h i n g s " (Participant 0 0 2 ) .  It is essential to first understand the factors that i n f l u e n c e w o m e n ' s entry and p r o g r e s s i o n i n sport leadership as w e l l as those that lead to their under-representation, g i v e n that both have a s i g n i f i c a n t effect o n the entire sporting system. F o r this reason, this study makes use o f f e m i n i s t ideals that take w o m e n ' s perspectives as the basis f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g their experiences i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . F e m i n i s t research must therefore w o r k : " . . . t o w a r d s d e v e l o p i n g practices that are i n f o r m e d b y understandings o f the w a y s i n w h i c h various structures o f i n e q u a l i t y articulate i n g i v e n contexts, and shape the l i v e s o f different groups o f w o m e n " (Hargreaves, 2 0 0 0 , p.216) In this chapter, I w i l l r e v i e w the f i n d i n g s o f this study i n terms o f career paths, leadership s k i l l s and barriers to w o m e n ' s entry a n d p r o g r e s s i o n i n h i g h l e v e l sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T o this e n d , I w i l l attempt to draw s o m e c o n c l u s i o n s as w e l l as p r o v i d e s o m e modest r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w i t h the objective o f i n c r e a s i n g the n u m b e r o f w o m e n i n sporting leadership that m i g h t be o f some use to sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p a r t i c u l a r l y , W o m e n and Sport C o m m i t t e e s .  5.2 S U M M A R Y A N D C O N C L U S I O N S 5.2.1 W o m e n and Sport M o v e m e n t  137  W i t h respect to the O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t , the I O C and some o f its related organizations have taken some measures to i m p r o v e the n u m b e r o f f e m a l e leaders i n v o l v e d i n their administrations b y s p o n s o r i n g W o m e n and Sport conferences and p r o v i d i n g gender e q u i t y g u i d e l i n e s f o r a l l o f their constituents. H o w e v e r , the I O C as w e l l as m a n y other international o r g a n i z a t i o n s do not f o l l o w these p r e s c r i b e d g u i d e l i n e s and thus, are not d e m o n s t r a t i n g a strong c o m m i t m e n t to i m p r o v i n g the representation o f w o m e n i n leadership p o s i t i o n s . T h o s e participants w h o had been i n v o l v e d w i t h sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y reported that w o m e n are still greatly under-represented at the international l e v e l a n d that f u n d a m e n t a l issues such as the use o f gender neutral language or m a n d a t i n g the presence o f at least one female admi ni s trator on each c o m m i t t e e are still b e i n g contested b y W o m e n and Sport advocates. O n e w o m a n commented: "If y o u talk to any w o m a n that's i n v o l v e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y , s h e ' l l tell y o u  that...it's j u s t not accepted that w o m e n s h o u l d be treated o n an equal p l a n e than m e n because they have tradition and they have events that have  a l w a y s been i n place f o r m e n and have less events f o r w o m e n . .. .even the l a n g u a g e . . . i t ' s totally accepted here to have gender neutral language [but internationally,] that's a b i g f i g h t . . . c h a n g i n g o u r c o n s t i t u t i o n . . . . [They]  d o n ' t agree w i t h c a l l i n g C h a i r . . . l i k e [as a w o m a n ] , I was C h a i r m a n o f [a]  c o m m i s s i o n . . . " (Participant 0 0 3 ) .  T h e W o m a n and Sport M o v e m e n t has p r o v i d e d a p l a t f o r m f o r g r o u n d b r e a k i n g change o n an international scale o v e r the past 25 years. M o s t o f the w o m e n i n this study d i d report that there were m o r e w o m e n n o w then w h e n they h a d first entered s p o r t i n g leadership but that the b o a r d r o o m tables r e m a i n e d gendered. In a d d i t i o n , there have been a n u m b e r o f very successful C a n a d i a n h i g h l e v e l f e m a l e sporting leaders w h i c h have brought p o s i t i v e attention to the country. C a n a d a has been regarded as a l i b e r a l and f o r w a r d t h i n k i n g  138  c o u n t r y i n that C a n a d i a n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s have h a d a n u m b e r o f w o m e n i n top leadership p o s i t i o n s , at least c o m p a r e d to the rest o f the w o r l d . A s m e n t i o n e d , some o f these f e m a l e leaders have been e x t r e m e l y s u c c e s s f u l i n their roles a n d are respected internationally. T h e f e m a l e respondents i n this study p e r c e i v e d C a n a d a to be an international leader i n the area o f W o m e n and Sport. O n e w o m a n asserted that C a n a d a was actually one o f the f e w countries that i n v e s t e d almost e q u a l l y i n m e n and w o m e n ' s sport. T h e y b e l i e v e d that this was important i f the c o u n t r y was g o i n g to be seen and heard at the international l e v e l o f the sporting system. O n e w o m a n e x p l a i n e d h o w she b e l i e v e d the corporate sector h a d p o s i t i v e l y i m p a c t e d the W o m e n and Sport M o v e m e n t b y s p o n s o r i n g both m a l e a n d female athletes and sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n order to reach m e n and w o m e n customers. In a d d i t i o n , m a n y o f these c o r p o r a t i o n s have e q u a l i t y p o l i c i e s themselves w h i c h p o i n t out that they must invest i n both m a l e and f e m a l e sport a n d at times, these p o l i c i e s are tied to the s p o n s o r s h i p d o l l a r s thus a d v a n c i n g the p o s i t i o n o f w o m e n i n sport. O n the other hand, w e must not get c o m p l a c e n t and argue that since w e m a y be ahead o f international standards, our w o r k is done. T h o u g h there is still a l o n g r o a d ahead, w e cannot underestimate the p o s i t i v e i m p a c t o f p o l i c i e s and p r o g r a m s on the increase o f f e m a l e leaders. T h e a d d i t i o n o f f e m a l e leaders i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has p r o v i d e d sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h different perspectives d r a w i n g attention to issues p r e v i o u s l y o v e r l o o k e d b y m a l e d o m i n a t e d e x e c u t i v e boards, thus i m p r o v i n g the management and operation o f h i g h l e v e l sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . M o r e o v e r , the increased v i s i b i l i t y o f w o m e n i n top leadership p o s i t i o n s through opportunities and m e d i a is  139  b e l i e v e d to have d r a w n other w o m e n to sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and thus augmented the p o o l o f f e m a l e candidates a s p i r i n g to sport leadership. O n e w o m a n c o n c l u d e d : " W o m e n aren't seeing their l i v e s w i t h the same degree o f l i m i t a t i o n s and h o p e f u l l y that w i l l e x p a n d to the w o r l d o f sport as w e l l . I j u s t t h i n k that  sport leadership, leadership i n general, has often been v i e w e d as a m a l e  d o m a i n . I m e a n , w e d o n ' t have w o m e n P r i m e M i n i s t e r s . . .we d o n ' t have  m a n y w o m e n Presidents, w e have s o m e . . .we have w o m e n c o r p o r a t i o n  leaders.. . n o w so the w o r l d is c h a n g i n g f o r w o m e n but there was a t i m e w h e n w o m e n d i d n ' t aspire to that l e v e l o f leadership. [ G r o w i n g u p ] . . . I saw w o m e n as participants and I saw w o m e n as the ones w h o served  b r o w n i e s and c o c o a and c o f f e e at the events. T h a t ' s the w a y I saw t h e m  [because].. .1 never h a d a w o m a n c o a c h . . .1 see w o m e n n o w i n c o a c h i n g at  grassroots w h i c h I d i d n ' t see t h e m then, it used to be all the dads w h o were o u t . . . . I d o see some w o m e n i n o f f i c i a t i n g , I d o see w o m e n a c h i e v i n g at a h i g h e r l e v e l . . . " (Participant 0 0 6 ) . 5.2.2 C a r e e r Paths and L e a d e r s h i p S k i l l s  A s was d i s c u s s e d i n chapter 3, the study i n f o r m e d the literature c o n c e r n i n g w o m e n i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l leadership as it pertains to their career path and the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l leadership s k i l l s needed to be s u c c e s s f u l i n h i g h l e v e l sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , it was f o u n d that a n u m b e r o f factors needed to intersect i n order f o r w o m e n to be i n v o l v e d i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n at its highest l e v e l ; they h a d to have the right personal c i r c u m s t a n c e s , possess the necessary s k i l l s and personal r e s o l v e , be g i v e n opportunities and have strong support networks w h i c h a f f o r d e d t h e m the t i m e and resources to participate. T h i s study was able to p r o v i d e a general i m a g e o f a t y p i c a l h i g h l e v e l f e m a l e leader. F i r s t , most female administrators were h i g h l y educated a n d w e r e i n h i g h l e v e l p r o f e s s i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t w i t h m a n y o f t h e m h a v i n g a vast b a c k g r o u n d i n sport as athletes. T h e y were t y p i c a l l y i n their late 20s to early 30s and h a d partners h e l p i n g t h e m w i t h f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as w e l l as a large support n e t w o r k w h i c h e n a b l e d t h e m to  140  participate i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n at its highest l e v e l c o n s i d e r i n g the e x t e n s i v e t i m e a n d resource c o m m i t m e n t . F e m a l e leaders c l a i m e d they h a d entered sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n out o f a personal interest i n sport w i t h m a n y o f t h e m h a v i n g c o m e i n as athlete representatives. T h e study also h i g h l i g h t e d the i m p o r t a n c e o f s o c i a l n e t w o r k s and mentors i n ac c e s s i n g s p o r t i n g leadership p o s i t i o n s . M o s t w o m e n began their careers on p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n i n g bodies p r o g r e s s i n g ' n a t u r a l l y ' up the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y to national and e v e n international sporting leadership w i t h an average length o f service o f 15 years. O n e w o m a n e x p l a i n e d that w h e n leaders first enter s p o r t i n g leadership positions: " . . .it's very i mp o rtan t t o . . .listen to the culture o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n w h e n  y o u first getting on the c o m m i t t e e or the b o a r d , understand h o w p e o p l e get there, w h a t ' s h a p p e n i n g , m o v e agendas but never, ever, ever be afraid to  speak up a n d speak up u m m , also u m m , get u m m , y o u k n o w c o n n e c t e d or  just sort o f understand h o w a l l o f these p e o p l e w o r k a n d get t h e m to b u y into what y o u ' r e also a l l about, y o u k n o w and i f i t ' s agenda f o r w o m e n  s p e c i f i c a l l y , then y o u c h a m p i o n o n that c o m m i t t e e or on that b o a r d too to support what y o u ' r e d o i n g " (Participant 0 0 1 ) .  T h o u g h this career path seems to be s i m i l a r f o r both m e n and w o m e n , f e m a l e leaders' enter at m u c h l o w e r rates into m u c h l o w e r p o s i t i o n s and often never reach the top leadership p o s i t i o n s i n h i g h p r o f i l e sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i s does support what has been stated i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l theory, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h respect to the h o m o l o g o u s r e p r o d u c t i o n o f m a l e leaders. T h i s study d i d f i n d that w o m e n p e r c e i v e d that the i n f l u e n c e o f m e n i n leadership p o s i t i o n s and their s o c i a l n e t w o r k s meant that m o r e m e n than w o m e n w e r e n o m i n a t e d and consequently elected to g o v e r n i n g b o d i e s . H o w e v e r , it s h o u l d also be noted that the f e w w o m e n w h o are able to access these n e t w o r k s are m o r e l i k e l y to progress to the highest leadership p o s i t i o n s i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  141  In terms o f leadership s k i l l s and styles, the f e m a l e respondents reported a n u m b e r o f competencies they b e l i e v e d were essential f o r sport administrators i n general but p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r w o m e n . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e and business s k i l l s i n a d d i t i o n to self-confidence, a b r o a d perspective and a great sense o f c o m m i t m e n t to the o r g a n i z a t i o n were b e l i e v e d to be essential s k i l l s f o r success i n h i g h l e v e l sporting leadership. N e t w o r k i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s were also seen as advantageous f o r entry and p r o g r e s s i o n into leadership p o s i t i o n s as administrators must be respected and supported i n order to be n o m i n a t e d a n d elected to such posts. T h i s is also associated w i t h the accepted leadership styles prevalent i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A s d i s c u s s e d , the m a s c u l i n e traits o f aggression, c o m p e t i t i o n and c o n f i d e n c e are v a l u e d w h i l e m o r e f e m i n i n e d i s p o s i t i o n s such as c o m p a s s i o n , cooperation a n d t i m i d i t y are subordinated and thus, this androcentric culture constrains the leaders w h o do not 'fit i n ' . S o c i a l constructionist theory c a n be used to e x p l i c a t e the fact that f e m a l e leaders w h o have made it into h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s have u s u a l l y adopted this accepted style o f leadership. H o w e v e r , w i d e l y h e l d stereotypes about f e m a l e leaders also suggest that they must m a i n t a i n a certain element o f ' f e m i n i n i t y ' w h e n a d o p t i n g this m a s c u l i n e leadership style. In this w a y , the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f gender dictates the ideal leadership s k i l l s and approaches to h i g h l e v e l sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . H a l l (1996) avers that i n order f o r w o m e n to lead w i t h o u t stereotypical constraints on their approaches, there m u s t be a r e d e f i n i t i o n o f f e m a l e leadership. She says: " . . .a k i n d e r , m o r e v a r i a b l e , and m o r e f o r g i v i n g i d e a l o f f e m i n i n i t y needs to be c o n s t r u c t e d " (p.58). 5.2.3 B a r r i e r s A s is evident i n chapter 4, m a n y barriers r e m a i n m a k i n g it d i f f i c u l t f o r w o m e n to attain leadership p o s i t i o n s i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h o u g h these barriers are m u c h m o r e  142  subtle than i n the past, they nonetheless i n f l u e n c e f e m a l e leaders' career paths i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A s m e n t i o n e d , barriers were i d e n t i f i e d at f o u r l e v e l s : 1) i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , 2) o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l , 3) relational level and 4) societal l e v e l . 5.2.3.1 I n d i v i d u a l l e v e l B a r r i e r s i d e n t i f i e d at the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l were related to the f e m a l e leaders' personal characteristics, competencies and circumstances. F i r s t , the study h i g h l i g h t e d the l a c k o f a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t o f barriers that exist f o r s o m e w o m e n i n sporting leadership. In a d d i t i o n , several o f the f e m a l e respondents d i d indicate that they d i d not l o o k at the gender o f potential candidates but w a n t e d to f i n d the best person to f i l l the p o s i t i o n . W i t h o u t a c k n o w l e d g i n g issues that exist, it w i l l be i m p o s s i b l e to put measures i n place to rectify them. M o s t participants h o w e v e r d i d accept the fact that s o m e barriers do h i n d e r w o m e n ' s opportunities to access leadership p o s i t i o n s i n sport. M o s t w o m e n p o i n t e d to the i n f l u e n c e o f personal circumstances on an a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s a b i l i t y to devote the t i m e and resources to sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n volunteer-based o r g a n i z a t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , this seemed to have a greater i m p a c t on w o m e n w h o had c h i l d r e n as their personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were p e r c e i v e d to c o n f l i c t w i t h the h e a v y d e m a n d o f sporting leadership. T o this e n d , support networks w e r e reported to be essential as they p r o v i d e d the necessary assistance f o r w o m e n to participate i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to the degree they w i s h e d . F i n a l l y , this study revealed that f e m a l e leaders' l a c k o f self-confidence and consequently, l a c k o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n and n e t w o r k i n g s k i l l s w e r e b e l i e v e d to l i m i t w o m e n ' s entry and p r o g r e s s i o n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . E s s e n t i a l l y , w o m e n w h o were hot i n the right personal situation or have the k e y s k i l l s were not l i k e l y to be i n v o l v e d i n s p o r t i n g leadership, e s p e c i a l l y at the h i g h e r levels.  143  5.2.3.2 Organizational level T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n was also p e r c e i v e d to present n u m e r o u s barriers to w o m e n attempting to g a i n h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s i n sport. O v e r a l l , s o m e aspects o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l structure a n d culture were c o n s i d e r e d to h i n d e r w o m e n ' s opportunities i n subtle w a y s . A s D u e r s t - L a h t i and K e l l y (1995) a f f i r m : " S e x d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and patriarchal c o n t r o l have o n l y b e c o m e m o r e subtle and i n s i d i o u s , rather than r e f o r m e d or e l i m i n a t e d , and the worst part m a y be that f e m a l e legislators r e m a i n unaware o f their differential  p a r t i c i p a t i o n " (p. 185).  F o r e x a m p l e , the g o v e r n a n c e structure d e t e r m i n e d the large n u m b e r o f administrators sitting o n e x e c u t i v e boards w h i c h was often i n t i m i d a t i n g f o r f e m a l e leaders as most o f these posts were f i l l e d b y m e n . In a d d i t i o n , the ineffectiveness o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o m m i t t e e s p a r t i c u l a r l y the W o m e n and Sport as w e l l as the n o m i n a t i o n c o m m i t t e e s was p r o b l e m a t i c i n the sense that goals and initiatives were not b e i n g d e v e l o p e d or met, w h i c h rendered the issues i n v i s i b l e to the g o v e r n i n g b o d i e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , respondents p o i n t e d out that o r g a n i z a t i o n s have rules and p o l i c i e s i n place to h e l p t h e m p r o p e r l y manage the entire structure, although m a n y o f these were b e l i e v e d to deter w o m e n f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n leadership p o s i t i o n s . T h e cost associated w i t h attending out-of-town c o m p e t i t i o n s , meetings and conferences i n terms o f t i m e and m o n e y was too great f o r s o m e w o m e n w h o w e r e thus unable to contribute their s k i l l s to the o r g a n i z a t i o n . A g a i n , traditions such as c o m p e t i t i o n s and c o n g r e g a t i o n a l attire f o r w o m e n w h i c h i n c l u d e s skirts a n d blazers d i d not appeal to some w o m e n and caused t h e m to turn d o w n leadership p o s i t i o n s i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . F i n a l l y , the length o f service f o r administrators is also dictated b y the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l structure where m e m b e r s c o u l d r e m a i n i n their p o s i t i o n s  144  f o r m a n y years m e a n i n g that f e w e r w o m e n were able to infiltrate the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b o d i e s and increase their representation. S i m i l a r l y , the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l culture was also p e r c e i v e d to act as a barrier f o r f e m a l e leaders entering and p r o g r e s s i n g i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e historical i n v o l v e m e n t o f m e n i n sporting leadership has left its i m p r i n t i n the w a y s i n w h i c h administrators behave and d e v e l o p w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s androcentric culture was b e l i e v e d to i n f l u e n c e w o m e n ' s career because those w h o w e r e not c o m f o r t a b l e i n this k i n d o f e n v i r o n m e n t were not l i k e l y to continue their i n v o l v e m e n t i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . " A c c o r d i n g to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l theorists, the structure a n d b e h a v i o u r o f  institutions is d e t e r m i n e d , at least i n part, b y the character o f the institution itself; its p r e d o m i n a n t culture; and the characteristics o f the p o l i c i e s they a d m i n i s t e r " ( K e l l y and D u e r s t - L a h t i , 1 9 9 5 , p. 144)  In a d d i t i o n , m a n y f e m a l e respondents reported that sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was not f a m i l y f r i e n d l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y to f e m a l e leaders w i t h c h i l d r e n . N o n e t h e l e s s , this m a s c u l i n e culture was p e r c e i v e d to have the most i m p a c t o n the leadership styles o f m a l e and f e m a l e administrators. T h e participants c l e a r l y d e s c r i b e d that f e m a l e leader's w e r e r e q u i r e d to take o n some o f these m a s c u l i n e traits w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g a degree o f f e m i n i n i t y i n their leadership approaches. F o r this reason, some w o m e n were unable or u n w i l l i n g to meet such d i f f i c u l t c r i t e r i a and d i d not b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n s p o r t i n g leadership. A s M e r c i e r and W e r t h n e r (2001) m a i n t a i n : "...the traditional v i e w o f leadership was f o u n d e d o n male-oriented values o f rationality, c o m p e t i t i o n , and independence. ...[they] are so deeply  e m b e d d e d i n o u r p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l institutions that they are i n v i s i b l e . " " A n d w h e n w e s i m p l y try to fit w o m e n into this e x i s t i n g m o d e l , they  often, and yet not s u r p r i s i n g l y , are isolated, receive little support, have l i m i t e d opportunities, and do not stay a r o u n d , thereby perpetuating the  p r e v a i l i n g t h i n k i n g that w o m e n cannot 'take the p r e s s u r e ' " (p.5).  145  S o m e o f these f i n d i n g s can be e x p l a i n e d b y sex-role theory as w e l l as s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n i s m because w o m e n are c o m p e l l e d to take on s p e c i f i c attributes and behaviours s i m p l y because o f their gender. N e v e r t h e l e s s , these f i n d i n g s e v i n c e the need for: " . . . a n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l v i s i o n that e m b o d i e s the g o a l s , needs, and values o f  both leaders and f o l l o w e r s , o f both girls and b o y s , w o m e n and m e n . T h i s w i l l r e q u i r e . . . o r g a n i z a t i o n s to adopt n e w values and act i n n e w w a y s " ( M e r c i e r and W e r t h n e r , 2 0 0 1 , p.7).  5.2.3.3 R e l a t i o n a l l e v e l A s m e n t i o n e d , the re l ati o n al l e v e l c o m p r i s e d barriers that e x i s t e d as a result o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d i v i d u a l s i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . N o t a b l y , a n u m b e r o f f e m a l e respondents d e s c r i b e d situations where they h a d e x p e r i e n c e d resistance o n the part o f m a l e leaders. T h e y recounted that female leaders' w o r k was h i g h l y s c r u t i n i z e d b y other administrators w h i l e another said that she h a d been d i r e c t l y c h a l l e n g e d b y a m a l e c o l l e a g u e i n the b o a r d r o o m . In a d d i t i o n , this study e x a m i n e d the relationships between f e m a l e leaders i n s p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e s e respondents b e l i e v e d that s o m e f e m a l e leaders h i n d e r e d other w o m e n ' s opportunities b y g r i p p i n g their p o w e r and status instead o f u s i n g it to assist and m e n t o r other w o m e n into sporting leadership. M a n y f e m a l e leaders c o n s i d e r e d m e n t o r i n g important, p a r t i c u l a r l y those w o m e n w h o h a d h a d p o s i t i v e experiences themselves. M o r e o v e r , the study revealed that m e n ' s strong s o c i a l networks c o n t i n u e to be p e r c e i v e d as a major barrier to w o m e n ' s entry and p r o g r e s s i o n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s ' o l d boys c l u b ' reproduces the m a s c u l i n e culture as a l l o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s c o m m i t t e e s and boards are p o p u l a t e d b y these m a l e administrators. C o n s e q u e n t l y , these n e t w o r k s have a b r o a d s p e c t r u m o f p o w e r and i n f l u e n c e i n sporting leadership.  146  5.2.3.4 Societal level B a r r i e r s at the societal l e v e l were associated w i t h the gendered l a b o u r market that exists i n present society i n a d d i t i o n to the gender order i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n that w o r k to m a i n t a i n w o m e n ' s under-representation i n sporting leadership. " A l m o s t a l l areas o f s o c i a l l i f e - such as o c c u p a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y , p o l i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r , marriage and f a m i l y , s e x u a l beliefs a n d practices, leisure patterns, and most c e r t a i n l y sport - are i n f l u e n c e d and affected b y the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d inequalities o f s o c i e t y . " ( H a l l , M . A . , 1978, p.65) W o m e n w o r k i n g i n s i d e a n d outside o f sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n have s i m i l a r career paths i n as m u c h as they are l o c a t e d i n the lowest echelons o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and salary. F u r t h e r m o r e , stereotypes about f e m a l e leaders and their skills/styles c o n t i n u e to constrain w o m e n ' s abilities to succeed into h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s as some f e m a l e respondents m e n t i o n e d that they felt they needed to dress a n d behave w i t h a certain degree o f f e m i n i n i t y i n order to be accepted as c r e d i b l e administrators.  5.3  RECOMMENDATIONS " G i v e n the embeddedness o f gendered p o w e r relations i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n  general and sport organizations i n particular, the i m p e t u s f o r change needs to c o m e f r o m sources both internal and external a n d , as w e l l , e n c o m p a s s  m u l t i p l e strategies" ( R i n t a l a and B i s c h o f f , 1997, p. 17).  In this section, I p r o v i d e s o m e modest suggestions f o r sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s l o o k i n g to increase the n u m b e r o f w o m e n entering and p r o g r e s s i n g i n leadership p o s i t i o n s . W i t h o u t a doubt, effective measures are needed to eradicate the barriers still affecting w o m e n i n sporting leadership and encourage their f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n leadership at the highest levels. O n e f e m a l e respondent s u m m e d it up s a y i n g : " . . .1 c a m e into what I felt was a culture w h e r e w o m e n were already  important. I d i d n ' t feel l i k e it was a battle yet w h e n y o u l o o k at the  m e m b e r s h i p o f the [organization], i t ' s s t i l l , the m a j o r i t y are m e n . U m m ,  147  but I t h i n k e s p e c i a l l y w i t h w o m e n m a k i n g up at least half, i f not m o r e o f o u r athletes right n o w , .. .it's r e a l l y i mportant that they be able to see  f e m a l e faces on the administrative bodies that.. .run the p r o g r a m o f s p o r t " (Participant 0 0 7 ) .  W i t h respect to the barriers that exist f o r w o m e n i n sporting leadership, there are m a n y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s that c o u l d help increase the n u m b e r o f f e m a l e administrators g a i n i n g h i g h l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 5.3.1 R e c r u i t m e n t o f f e m a l e leaders to sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s F i r s t , it is fundamental that the sporting system continue to encourage the l i f e l o n g participation o f y o u n g g i r l s and w o m e n i n sport because the l o n g e r w o m e n are i n v o l v e d i n sport, the l i k e l i e r they are to b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n its a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . F o r this reason, it is essential to a c t i v e l y recruit w o m e n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n as w e l l as leadership i n sport. T h i s recruitment process s h o u l d target w o m e n at a y o u n g age, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the l o c a l and r e g i o n a l sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s , getting t h e m i n v o l v e d i n v o l u n t e e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e tasks at c o m p e t i t i o n s . In this w a y , they acquire s k i l l s a n d experience needed to gain access to leadership p o s i t i o n s i n h i g h l e v e l sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i s ' n e w b l o o d ' i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n has also been p e r c e i v e d as p r o v i d i n g a fresh perspective to the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and e n s u r i n g that the o r g a n i z a t i o n continues to deal w i t h current issues f a c i n g sport. A s was f o u n d i n this study, m a n y f e m a l e leaders are f o r m e r athletes thus p r o v i d i n g a large g r o u p o f potential candidates f o r leadership p o s i t i o n s . R e c r u i t m e n t s h o u l d be f o c u s e d o n f e m a l e athletes but s h o u l d also be e x p a n d e d to the areas o f business and p o l i t i c s where s o m e q u a l i f i e d and i n f l u e n t i a l w o m e n m i g h t be interested i n b e c o m i n g i n v o l v e d i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f the s p o r t i n g system has made it d i f f i c u l t f o r ' k i t c h e n table' administrators to g a i n leadership p o s i t i o n s yet their  148  p a r t i c i p a t i o n s h o u l d not be turned a w a y as they c o u l d be o f assistance to the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n a n u m b e r o f w a y s . T h i s study d i d establish that m a n y w o m e n are p e r c e i v e d to j o i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n different w a y s than m e n therefore it is i m p e r a t i v e that sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s i m p l e m e n t n e w and i n n o v a t i v e w a y s o f r e c r u i t i n g w o m e n into sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l leaders c o u l d target w o m e n at sporting c o m p e t i t i o n s , i n e d u c a t i o n a l settings (i.e. u n i v e r s i t y , c o l l e g e , etc.) or at conferences and discuss what leadership opportunities are a v a i l a b l e f o r y o u n g w o m e n i n sport. A s seen, there is m u c h the o r g a n i z a t i o n can do to increase the n u m b e r o f w o m e n h o l d i n g leadership p o s i t i o n s . T h e n o m i n a t i o n c o m m i t t e e or a s i m i l a r g o v e r n i n g b o d y s h o u l d n o m i n a t e w o m e n f o r various k i n d s o f leadership p o s i t i o n s a n d ensure that some o f these f e m a l e leaders are v o t e d into sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . O n e w o m a n suggested that m o r e f e m a l e leaders s h o u l d run i n different categories so that they enter v a r i o u s c o m m i t t e e s and are m o r e l i k e l y to increase their o v e r a l l presence i n s p o r t i n g organizations. S i m i l a r l y , each g o v e r n i n g b o d y s h o u l d have a list o f w o m e n w h o are q u a l i f i e d at the r e g i o n a l , national and international levels and present it to various selection c o m m i t t e e s i n order to ensure that e x p e r i e n c e d C a n a d i a n f e m a l e administrators are a c c e s s i n g leadership roles at a l l levels o f the s p o r t i n g s y s t e m . In a d d i t i o n , i n f l u e n t i a l m e m b e r s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n need to c o n t i n u e p r o m o t i n g f e m a l e m e m b e r s to progress to higher l e v e l leadership positions.as it has been s h o w n that w o m e n i n top leadership p o s i t i o n s can be a catalyst f o r an increase i n f e m a l e leaders w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , w e must keep i n m i n d that: " S i m p l y r e c r u i t i n g w o m e n to the higher echelons o f bureaucratic  o r g a n i z a t i o n does not necessarily m e a n that the character o f the  o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l b e c o m e less m a s c u l i n i s t and m o r e f e m i n i z e d a n d w o m a n - f r i e n d l y " ( K e l l y and D u e r s t - L a h t i , 1 9 9 5 , p.87).  149  5.3.2 A d v a n c i n g f e m a l e administrators into h i g h e r l e v e l leadership p o s i t i o n s O n c e w o m e n have accessed a leadership p o s i t i o n , it is i mportant that they be p r o v i d e d w i t h a n u m b e r o f leadership opportunities on a w i d e range o f projects, p r o g r a m s a n d c o m m i t t e e s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . If f e m a l e administrators take on leadership opportunities and s u c c e s s f u l l y demonstrate their s k i l l s , they b e c o m e m o r e v i s i b l e w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h is c r u c i a l f o r w o m e n w a n t i n g to progress into the top leadership p o s i t i o n s . T o this e n d , f e m a l e leaders s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d to attend s p o r t i n g events, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l meetings as w e l l as conferences, seminars and w o r k s h o p s i n order to gain experience and b u i l d a s o c i a l network. W h e r e they c o u l d , sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s s h o u l d m a k e p r o v i s i o n s to p r o v i d e some f i n a n c i a l assistance (daycare, etc) f o r s o m e female m e m b e r s attending meetings, conferences or other n e t w o r k i n g opportunities. A s was m e n t i o n e d , it is important f o r w o m e n to understand the management o f sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s and meet other leaders i n sport i f they w a n t to progress i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . W h e n it is p o s s i b l e , the o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d collaborate w i t h past and present f e m a l e leaders o n p r o m o t i n g w o m e n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n s c h o o l s as w e l l as various m e n t o r i n g p r o g r a m s h e l p i n g y o u n g leaders enter and progress i n s p o r t i n g leadership p o s i t i o n s . In this w a y , mentors s h o u l d encourage f e m a l e leaders to a p p l y f o r a variety o f leadership p o s i t i o n s even though they m a y not b e l i e v e they have the r e q u i r e d s k i l l s and experience f o r the role. S p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s also need to l o o k at the p o s s i b i l i t y o f t r a n s i t i o n i n g their leaders just as they do w i t h their athletes. R e t i r e d leaders are a great source o f k n o w l e d g e and it is important to use their expertise even after they have left sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 5.3.3 T h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f quotas or mandated equality  150  The implementation of quotas or affirmative action policies has been debated for years. Though there continues to be debate, it is suggested that mandating some sort of equality at the governance level is important in order to ensure that minority groups are represented at the boardroom table. T w o women discussed the large amount of resistance from administrators to the implementation of quotas or 'mandated equality'. When asked why organizations were reluctant to adopt such measures, the standard reply from the female respondents was that it was perceived to constrain the quality of membership by legislating the gender, age, race or ethnicity of the individual filling the position. In essence, it was believed that quotas did not allow for the 'best person' to fill the position. Indeed, many female respondents agreed that setting quotas was not an effective way of increasing the number of women in sporting leadership and it would only work to undermine the credibility of women as they would be perceived to be there simply on account of their gender and not their skills. One female respondent added that organizations which refused to use quotas or affirmative action must therefore ensure that their mission statements reflect the tenets adopted by the Women and Sport Movement and that their governing bodies understand and apply them in their decision making. However, many organizations still have no policies concerning women as evidenced in the I S L P and I O C (2004) study which revealed that 49.3% of National Olympic Committees did not make reference to any policy on Women and Sport in their mission statements and another 43.8% who had no national programs in place to promote women's sport (p.42-43). A s discussed, in order for women and sport initiatives to be passed successfully and be implemented effectively,  151  it is necessary to have the f u l l support o f a l l b o a r d m e m b e r s since most p o l i c i e s cannot be passed or i m p l e m e n t e d w i t h o u t consensus. T w o participants argued the opposite v i e w , that there was a p o s i t i v e i m p a c t o f m a n d a t e d e q u a l i t y and c l a i m e d that quotas w o u l d not o n l y be a catalyst f o r i n v o l v i n g m o r e w o m e n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o v e r a l l but w o u l d m a k e it easier to i m p l e m e n t W o m e n and Sport initiatives. In a d d i t i o n , a quota system a l l o w s an o r g a n i z a t i o n to m a k e a clear a f f i r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g this issue b y not l e a v i n g the increase o f f e m a l e s p o r t i n g leaders to o n l y chance a n d t i m e , both o f w h i c h have not seemed to be e f f e c t i v e d u r i n g the past 25 years. O n e C a n a d i a n f e m a l e sporting leader d e s c r i b e d her experience m a n d a t i n g equality i n her sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n : " . . .the resistance was not on the part o f the w o m e n f o r e q u a l i t y , it was o n the part o f the m e n . U m m , and I t h i n k there was a f e e l i n g that, the  sentiment was that.. . m a n d a t i n g 50/50 perhaps d i d not a l l o w f o r the best  people and that an o r g a n i z a t i o n is best served b y the best people. T h e r e  was another g r o u p o f u s . . .the g r o u p that c a m e together to create t h i s . . . was  pretty m u c h equal m e n and w o m e n . . .that said yes but i f w e d o n ' t start out this w a y , w e w i l l never l i k e l y get to that p o i n t " (Participant 0 0 6 ) .  B a s e d on the participants' i n t e r v i e w s , it is evident that there are m a n y types o f p o l i c i e s that c o u l d be established that w o u l d not necessarily threaten the q u a l i t y o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m e m b e r s h i p . In one instance, a sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n mandated that t w o e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s be reserved f o r female administrators w h o w o u l d r e m a i n f o r a m i n i m u m o f one year at the e n d o f w h i c h n e w administrators c o u l d be a p p o i n t e d i f needed. S i m i l a r l y , sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o u l d also mandate equality o n their boards stating f o r e x a m p l e that there are f i v e m a l e a n d f i v e f e m a l e m e m b e r s . T h e top leadership p o s i t i o n s such as President and V i c e - P r e s i d e n t c o u l d be elected or appointed regardless o f gender. F o r those sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s s e n d i n g delegates to larger e x e c u t i v e boards, it c o u l d be  152  mandated that there be one delegate f r o m each gender put f o r w a r d . M o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , these k i n d s o f initiatives s h o u l d be subject to r e v i e w e v e r y f e w years to ensure that the results are e n c o u r a g i n g . B e c a u s e these measures are then not p e r c e i v e d to be permanent, there m a y be less resistance to their i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . U n l i k e i n the past, resistance to these k i n d s o f initiatives has b e c o m e v e r y subtle. M o s t sporting leaders agree that there is a lack o f f e m a l e leaders i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and that they are f u l l y c o m m i t t e d to i n c r e a s i n g their n u m b e r s yet n o t h i n g seems to happen at the p o l i c y l e v e l . In her analysis o f the i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t I O C p o l i c i e s , C h a s e (1992) d e t e r m i n e d that p o l i c i e s were not clear or p o w e r f u l e n o u g h to cause s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s has r e m a i n e d a p r o b l e m , as most p o l i c i e s are not associated w i t h c o m p l i a n c e strategies hence o r g a n i z a t i o n s are not r e q u i r e d to i m p l e m e n t the p o l i c i e s , an issue w h i c h needs to be addressed b y sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A s H a l l , C u l l e n and S l a c k (1990) stated l o n g ago: " T h e adoption o f an equal o p p o r t u n i t y p o l i c y , and the creation o f a  m e c h a n i s m to enforce and m o n i t o r it, are both the b e g i n n i n g a n d ultimate o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s o l u t i o n s , since both r e c o g n i z e that the p r o b l e m lies not  w i t h the w o m e n , but w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n and its c u l t u r e " ( H a l l , C u l l e n and S l a c k , 1990, p.35).  5.3.4 T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f support systems and s o c i a l n e t w o r k s It is important that sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o v i d e support services such as b a b y s i t t i n g f o r its m e m b e r s i n order to enable those w h o have f a m i l i e s or other personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to participate to the fullest extent w i t h o u t g i v i n g up a l l that is important to them. F o r instance, some m e m b e r s m a y need to take their c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e m to meetings as they cannot f i n d or a f f o r d to pay f o r b a b y s i t t i n g . In this w a y , the o r g a n i z a t i o n is s u p p o r t i n g its m e m b e r s w h o are m o r e l i k e l y to retain these administrators. O n e w o m a n  153  recounted that she supported a f e m a l e leader w h o needed to take s o m e t i m e o f f f o r her f a m i l y b y h a v i n g t w o m e m b e r s do her j o b u n t i l she c o u l d take on the f u l l t i m e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s again. A n o t h e r e x a m p l e that was p r o v i d e d was to a l l o w m e m b e r s to w o r k f r o m h o m e and w h e n p o s s i b l e , p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l assistance to m a k e that p o s s i b l e (i.e. p a y f o r the internet and telephone/fax). If this is not p o s s i b l e then the o r g a n i z a t i o n c o u l d be f l e x i b l e w i t h w o r k hours a l l o w i n g m e m b e r s to w o r k at their c o n v e n i e n c e , w i t h i n reason o f course. In this w a y , the o r g a n i z a t i o n reaches out to potential f e m a l e administrators w h o are i n the l o w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c groups and p r o v i d e the g o v e r n i n g b o d y w i t h the representation o f an i mp o rtan t and often, under-represented perspective. It is also important that n e t w o r k i n g opportunities between all administrators are p r o v i d e d so that they m a y b u i l d relationships and gain a better u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f each other's perspectives. In a d d i t i o n , m a l e leaders s h o u l d m a k e sure to i n c l u d e f e m a l e administrators i n their n e t w o r k s and v i c e versa as w o m e n w i l l not progress i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h o u t the support o f the m e n i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . 5.3.5 L e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g f o r a l l sporting leaders It is important that w o m e n continue to d e v e l o p the s k i l l s a n d c o m p e t e n c i e s needed to succeed i n leadership. T h o u g h sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s must c o n t i n u e the w o r k they are d o i n g i n terms o f conferences and research, they c o u l d benefit f r o m p r o v i d i n g leadership t r a i n i n g f o r a l l o f their m e m b e r s . In this w a y , e v e r y admi ni s trator can k n o w w h a t to b r i n g and expect at the b o a r d r o o m table w i t h o u t s i n g l i n g out w o m e n i n particular and ' f i x i n g ' t h e m up f o r leadership. E x a m p l e s i n c l u d e the creation o f leadership t r a i n i n g h a n d b o o k s or o r g a n i z a t i o n a l manuals that describe what is e x p e c t e d o f m e m b e r s ; h o w they go about p a s s i n g i n i t i a t i v e s or e v e n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s that dictate the w a y s  154  i n w h i c h the o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d be m a n a g e d . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n is essential to the e f f e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n and acts as a reference d o c u m e n t f o r a l l m e m b e r s . In a d d i t i o n , sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o u l d collaborate w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l institutions to d e v e l o p leadership t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s f o r s c h o o l s and universities thus also p r o v i d i n g students w i t h opportunities to b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n sport leadership. T o c o n c l u d e h o w e v e r , it is important to keep i n m i n d what D u e r s t - L a h t i and K e l l y (1995) b e l i e v e c o n c e r n i n g w o m e n ' s i n d i v i d u a l d e f i c i e n c i e s as a barrier to their i n v o l v e m e n t i n h i g h l e v e l sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n : " . . . h a r d w o r k and i n d i v i d u a l self-improvement, t h o u g h necessary f o r  success, cannot i n d e p e n d e n t l y enable most w o m e n to o v e r c o m e most o f  the male-preferencing obstacles present i n t o d a y ' s w o r k p l a c e s " (p.57).  5.3.6 S h i f t i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l structure and culture to create a supportive e n v i r o n m e n t f o r f e m a l e leaders It is evident that structural changes are needed i n order to r e a l l y o p e n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to w o m e n . F i r s t , rules and regulations m a y need to be r e m o v e d , c h a n g e d or adapted i n order to ensure that they are not inadvertently e x c l u d i n g various groups o f i n d i v i d u a l s . F o r e x a m p l e , g o v e r n i n g bodies s h o u l d have various w a y s i n w h i c h m e m b e r s j o i n boards so that there are a n u m b e r o f different avenues into the o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h o u g h it is im po rtan t to have m e m b e r s n o m i n a t e d and elected, some p o s i t i o n s can also be a p p o i n t e d so that i f there is a g r o u p that is under-represented, a representative can then be a p p o i n t e d to the b o a r d . " W e need to understand that the structure o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n is not neutral,  that o r g a n i z a t i o n s are structured through an i n v i s i b l e gender-biased v i e w o f reality, and that i n d i v i d u a l solutions w i l l not result i n sustainable  changes f o r w o m e n i n c o a c h i n g and leadership roles i n s p o r t " ( M e r c i e r and W e r t h n e r , 2 0 0 1 , p.5).  155  A l l administrators, but p a r t i c u l a r l y f e m a l e leaders are e n c o u r a g e d to question the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l processes and approaches as w e l l as c r i t i c a l l y a n a l y z e the traditions and culture that are relevant i n their sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n and where needed, take the steps to initiate change. If w o m e n are to enter and progress i n sporting leadership i n larger n u m b e r s , it is essential that the m a s c u l i n e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l culture b e c o m e m o r e i n c l u s i v e o f other leadership styles. It is important that all leaders be e n c o u r a g e d to b r i n g their o w n approach to leadership i n sport administration and not be constrained b y stereotypes o f an 'appropriate' leadership style f o r each gender. T o this e n d , S h a w and H o e b e r (2003) m a i n t a i n that: " T h e a d o p t i o n o f m o r e i n c l u s i v e m a n a g e r i a l styles that r e c o g n i z e , value, and i m p o r t a n t l y , articulate the value o f discourses o f f e m i n i n i t y and  m a s c u l i n i t y throughout o r g a n i z a t i o n s and, over t i m e , d e v e l o p an equitable o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c u l t u r e " ( S h a w and H o e b e r , 2 0 0 3 , p.371).  S p o r t i n g organizations c o u l d offer various f o r m s o f support f o r its m e m b e r s a n d a l l o w t h e m to g i v e their input i n a n u m b e r o f different w a y s . F o r e x a m p l e , the o r g a n i z a t i o n m i g h t encourage m e m b e r s to a n o n y m o u s l y post suggestions b y m a i l or e-mail so that they m a y be m o r e c o m f o r t a b l e sharing ideas that are not n e c e s s a r i l y a l i g n e d w i t h those o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l culture. If s o m e leaders feel that s o m e t h i n g is l a c k i n g or that a particular issue needs to be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l , it is essential that they have the o p p o r t u n i t y to strike up a f o r m a l or i n f o r m a l c o m m i t t e e and m a k e s o m e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . B y e n s u r i n g that f e m a l e leaders are c o m f o r t a b l e i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , it is m o r e l i k e l y that they w i l l r e m a i n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n l o n g e n o u g h to advance into the top leadership roles. 5.3.7 R e c o g n i z i n g f e m a l e leaders and m o r e b r o a d l y , w o m e n i n sport  156  It is i mp o rtan t that sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n t i n u e to p u b l i c l y r e c o g n i z e w o m e n that are m a k i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n i n to the o r g a n i z a t i o n and sport i n general. T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n e w awards and programs i n a d d i t i o n to a p u b l i c f o c u s on f e m a l e leaders' successes w i l l not o n l y h i g h l i g h t the w o r k that is b e i n g done b y w o m e n but m a y entice m o r e o f them to b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , W o m e n and Sport must b e c o m e a p r i o r i t y at a l l levels o f the C a n a d i a n s p o r t i n g s y s t e m i f the situation f o r f e m a l e administrators is to i m p r o v e d r a m a t i c a l l y . O r g a n i z a t i o n s need to be p r o a c t i v e a r o u n d w o m e n and sport issues, m a k i n g these i n i t i a t i v e s a p r i o r i t y w i t h i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s b y setting and f o l l o w i n g p o l i c i e s as w e l l as f i n d i n g w a y s to enforce t h e m . It is most important to present a d v o c a c y w o r k o n behalf o f w o m e n and other m i n o r i t y groups as a process f o r better d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and not s i m p l y a matter o f h a v i n g the same n u m b e r o f m e n and w o m e n i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s w a y , m e m b e r s and p a r t i c u l a r l y m a l e m e m b e r s , m a y see the benefits o f these initiatives and support w o r k on w o m e n and sport. O n e respondent c o m m e n t e d that o r g a n i z a t i o n s and their m e m b e r s need to understand that the W o m e n and Sport C o m m i t t e e is not l o o k i n g to take o v e r the management o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n ; it is s i m p l y l o o k i n g to i m p r o v e f e m a l e representation and i n v o l v e m e n t i n sporting leadership. She says: " W e ' r e j u s t t r y i n g to m a k e sure there are opportunities f o r w o m e n to  emerge into leadership w h i c h i m p a c t s p o l i c y , w h i c h i m p a c t s the  participation o f w o m e n . A n d yes, w e have pretty g o o d success n o w o n the p l a y i n g f i e l d but w e d o n ' t have that reflected i n the t e c h n i c a l side, w e  c e r t a i n l y d o n ' t have m a n y w o m e n h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e coaches, w e d o n ' t have m a n y i n o f f i c i a t i n g , so the t e c h n i c a l side is v e r y w e a k , and w e  certainly d o n ' t have it i n leadership. S o w e ' r e j u s t l o o k i n g to try and create awareness and to create opportunities so that y o u n g g i r l s , f o l l o w i n g i n o u r  footsteps, m i g h t see that as a v i a b l e path f o r them to f o l l o w and y o u d o n ' t go where y o u d o n ' t see y o u r s e l f b e i n g " (Participant 0 0 6 ) .  157  Organizations should greatly encourage the participation of men on Women and Sport Committees in order to create a better understanding of and support for the issues facing women in sporting leadership. If men are more aware of and better understand the issues facing female leaders in sport administration, they may be less likely to resist initiatives promoting an increase of women in sport leadership. Equally important, men could also provide valuable insight and a unique perspective to these issues. Finally, it is necessary that sporting organizations ensure that the appropriate amounts of dollars are being provided for Women and Sport initiatives and programs aimed at increasing the number of female leaders in the organization. In order to be effective, Women and Sport committees need to secure a certain amount of funding for the development and implementation of such programs and initiatives. It is evident that Women and Sport committees are important in as much as they provide a forum where pertinent issues can be discussed as well as opportunities for its members to accumulate skills and advance in the organization. Unfortunately, these committees are not always effective but without them, issues may be left unresolved. For this reason, efforts concerning women and sport must be sustained if the position of women in all areas of the sporting system is to be advanced. For this reason, sporting organizations need to engage sponsors and build partnerships with employers to set up programs for women in sporting leadership such as paid leaves for administrators attending administration-related events. Moreover, federal, provincial and regional government agencies who provide funding to sporting organizations could attach provisions to the money being given to the organization.  158  When great programs or initiatives are implemented and have demonstrated positive results, sporting organizations should encourage inter-organizational collaboration to establish various policies so that change is not isolated but enacted throughout the entire sporting system. If sporting organizations at all levels come together to work on these initiatives, it will unify the system and coordinate all of the resources available. These relationships may also open opportunities for leaders to be streamlined into higher sporting leadership positions. In conclusion, there are a number of other issues that are specific to each organization which would require other measures than those mentioned. Accordingly, it is important that organizations elicit the opinions of their members as to what would make them stronger and particularly, how they can recruit and retain female leaders. If the organization remains flexible to the needs of its members, administrators could be more comfortable and satisfied and thus continue to be involved in sport administration avoiding the loss of knowledge and expertise from leaders 'dropping out'. 5.4 F U T U R E C O N S I D E R A T I O N S  Although this study was able to provide some interesting data on the high level female leaders' career paths and barriers to involvement in Canadian sport administration, there are many questions and issues that need to be investigated. First, the participants in this study were all in a leadership position in sport administration, though not all at the same level. Nonetheless, the fact that all of these women had reached such a position signifies that only their perspectives have been incorporated into the research findings. For this reason, it is important that other studies examining the underrepresentation of women in sporting leadership include the viewpoints of women who  159  have been e x c l u d e d f r o m leadership p o s i t i o n s i n sport w i t h the a i m o f better understanding the reasons f o r w h i c h they are not i n v o l v e d . A s C a m e r o n (1996) r e m a r k e d : " . . .one o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n terms o f p r o m o t i n g w o m e n ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n is that those w h o are already i n v o l v e d , the p e o p l e w h o are c o n s u l t e d b y p o l i c y - m a k e r s and f u n d i n g agencies about barriers, needs, and potential p r o g r a m m e s f o r w o m e n , a r e . . . w o m e n w h o have already o v e r c o m e the barriers, or not been affected b y t h e m , or prefer that they p e r s i s t " (p. 166). It is understood that future studies s h o u l d also e l i c i t the stories and o p i n i o n s o f m a l e administrators. C e r t a i n l y , each o f the barriers d i s c u s s e d i n this study c o u l d be further investigated and i n c l u d e various perspectives. F o r e x a m p l e , it w o u l d be i mportant to speak to those administrators i n v o l v e d w i t h the W o m e n and Sport C o m m i t t e e s i n order to better understand the l a c k o f progress i n female representation i n s p o r t i n g leadership. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d also shed light on the ineffectiveness o f p o l i c i e s c o n c e r n i n g w o m e n a n d sport and the w a y s i n w h i c h the cause c o u l d be better served. A n o t h e r e x a m p l e concerns the issue o f turf-protection w h i c h w o u l d p r o v i d e an interesting area o f analysis f o r those w a n t i n g to better understand the approaches and v i e w p o i n t s o f w o m e n i n top leadership p o s i t i o n s w i t h respect to the relationships that exist a m o n g f e m a l e leaders. S i m i l a r l y , future research s h o u l d address the gender relations that exist between m a l e a n d f e m a l e m e m b e r s i n sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p a r t i c u l a r l y , at the highest l e v e l o f governance w h e r e m e n are even m o r e prevalent. It is evident that s o c i e t a l , p o l i t i c a l and structural change is needed i n order to increase the n u m b e r o f f e m a l e administrators i n h i g h l e v e l sport. A s s h o w n , the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l structure and culture that exist can constrain w o m e n ' s leadership opportunities although a deeper analysis o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s and processes i n  160  various sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s on an international scale c o u l d reveal n o t e w o r t h y c o m p a r a t i v e data. O n c e there are m o r e w o m e n i n v o l v e d i n the h i g h e r levels o f sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , it w i l l be p o s s i b l e to assess i f f e m a l e leaders b e g i n to reinvent themselves and alter their approaches to leadership. T h e true test f o r w o m e n i n sporting leadership w i l l be w h e n y o u n g w o m e n c o m i n g into a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are n o l o n g e r the firsts to reach these p o s i t i o n s but the 1 0  t h  and so o n . Future studies need to e x a m i n e the w a y s i n w h i c h f e m a l e leaders  have t a i l o r e d their leadership approaches to be successful i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n but also the acceptance o f w o m e n i n p o w e r f u l p o s i t i o n s at e v e r y l e v e l o f sport. F u r t h e r m o r e , it w i l l be interesting to see i f some sporting leaders change their approaches as o r g a n i z a t i o n s b e g i n to d i v e r s i f y and e x p a n d . A d d i t i o n a l l y , future research c o u l d d e l v e deeper into v a r i o u s types o f sporting o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the differences i n access and p r o g r e s s i o n that exist f o r w o m e n i n sporting leadership. F o r e x a m p l e , v a r i o u s sports c o u l d be c o m p a r e d i n terms o f f e m a l e athletes c o m p e t i n g and their representation at the g o v e r n a n c e l e v e l as it is b e l i e v e d that ' f e m i n i n e ' sports are m o r e l i k e l y to have m o r e w o m e n leaders at the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l . F i n a l l y , future studies s h o u l d c o n t i n u e to advance theories c o n c e r n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l processes as w e l l as gender relations i n m a l e d o m i n a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t s such as sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 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D o n M i l l s , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press, O n t a r i o , 1999.  166  APPENDICES  167  A P P E N D I X 1:  Canadian Olympic male and female athlete participation rates and medal winnings for the Summer Olympic Games 1984-2006  262  63%  151  37%  413  206  65%  109  35%  315  -  185  61%  118  39%  303  -  152  50%  153  50%  305  -  147  51%  143  49%  290  -  135  51%  132  49%  267  1984 S U M M E R LOS  TOTAL ATHLETES  FEMALE ATHLETES  MALE ATHLETES  SUMMER OLYMPIC GAMES -  ANGELES  1988 S U M M E R SEOUL 1992 S U M M E R B A R C E L O N A 1996 S U M M E R A T L A N T A  * * * y e a r o f the woman*** 2000 S U M M E R S Y D N E Y 2004 S U M M E R ATHENS  SUMMER OLYMPIC GAMES 1984 S U M M E R LOS  MALE MEDALS -  %  FEMALE MEDALS  %  TOTAL MEDALS  28  64%  16  36%  44  6  60%  4  40%  10  -  11  61%  7  39%  18  -  11  50%  11  50%  22  7  50%  7  50%  14  6  50%  6  50%  12  ANGELES  1988 S U M M E R SEOUL 1992 S U M M E R B A R C E L O N A 1996 S U M M E R A T L A N T A 2000 S U M M E R S Y D N E Y 2004 S U M M E R  -  ATHENS  168  A P P E N D I X 2:  Canadian Olympic male and female athlete participation rates and medal winnings for the Winter Olympic Games 1984-2006  WINTER OLYMPIC GAMES  MALE ATHLETES  1984 W I N T E R -  %  FEMALE ATHLETES  %  TOTAL ATHLETES  49  71%  20  29%  69  85  74%  30  26%  115  -  85  73%  32  27%  117  -  65  67%  32  33%  97  -  89  58%  65  42%  154  -  87  55%  70  45%  157  -  116  56%  90  44%  206  SARAJEVO 1988  W I N T E R -  C A L G A R Y 1992 W I N T E R ALBERTVILLE 1994 W I N T E R  L I L L E H A M M E R 1998 W I N T E R N A G A N O 2002 W I N T E R SALT  L A K E  CITY 2006 W I N T E R TORINO  WINTER OLYMPIC GAMES  MALE MEDALS  1984 W I N T E R -  %  FEMALE MEDALS  %  TOTAL MEDALS  4  100%  0  0%  4  -  2  33%  4  67%  6(5)  -  5  56%  4  44%  9(7)  -  8  57%  6  43%  14(13)  -  8  53%  7  47%  15  -  8  44%  10  56%  18 (17)  -  8  33%  16  67%  24  SARAJEVO 1988 W I N T E R C A L G A R Y 1992 W I N T E R ALBERTVILLE 1994 W I N T E R  L I L L E H A M M E R 1998 W I N T E R N A G A N O 2002 W I N T E R SALT  L A K E  CITY 2006 W I N T E R TORINO  169  A P P E N D I X 4:  INTERVIEW QUESTIONS: 'BREAKING IN': WOMEN'S ACCESS TO HIGH PERFORMANCE SPORT LEADERSHIP IN CANADA Introduction T h a n k y o u v e r y m u c h f o r t a k i n g this t i m e to sit d o w n w i t h m e and tell m e about y o u r l i f e as a sport administrator. M y interest i n d o i n g this i n t e r v i e w is to get some o f y o u r thoughts and perceptions about y o u r experiences i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  nature o f the i n t e r v i e w is to m a p y o u r personal career story, there w i l l be instances where questions m a y delve into private aspects o f y o u r l i f e . If at any t i m e , y o u b e c o m e u n c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h the d i s c u s s i o n , y o u c a n let m e k n o w and w e w i l l m o v e o n to another question. B e f o r e w e b e g i n , I w i l l have y o u s i g n this consent f o r m w h i c h is s i m p l y a f o r m a l i t y . It i n c l u d e s a b r i e f s u m m a r y o f the study, the purpose and procedures a n d a statement o f c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . H e r e is a c o p y f o r y o u r records. If y o u d o n ' t m i n d , I w i l l tape the i n t e r v i e w because I r e a l l y want to f o c u s o n what y o u are s a y i n g and I ' m not great at l i s t e n i n g w h i l e t a k i n g detailed notes. I also w a n t to ensure that I have an accurate r e c o r d o f our conversation so that I d o n ' t misinterpret y o u r c o m m e n t . B e c a u s e the i n t e r v i e w is c o n f i d e n t i a l , o n l y I w i l l have access to this tape a n d once the i n t e r v i e w has been transcribed, the data w i l l be erased. D o y o u have any questions before w e b e g i n ? Questions A ) C a r e e r paths F i r s t , I w o u l d l i k e y o u to talk a little about y o u r entry into sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and y o u r to y o u r p o s i t i o n 1) T e l l m e about h o w y o u i n i t i a l l y became i n v o l v e d i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ?  Probe: ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^I^o^^k^^x^^^^^ir^p^rtJ^g^^k^rmrrK^^ i n f l u e n c e d y o u r entry into sport administration?  172  •  T e l l m e a little about y o u r role | 2)  H o w and w h e n d i d y o u first b e c o m e a m e m b e r |  Probe:  S p e c i f i c a l l y , h o w d i d y o u c o m e to  different f r o m other  H o w is this s i m i l a r O R  m e m b e r s , both m a l e a n d f e m a l e ? That i s , h o w d o other  m e m b e r s c o m e to theTrHHHJHH^^^H p o s i t i o n s ? •  W h a t e x a c t l y is y o u r role |  •  H o w l o n g have y o u been i n v o l v e d i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ?  •  I a m interested i n the average age o f f e m a l e administrators. H o w o l d were y o u  see as y o u r r o l e ; that i s , w h a t are y o u p a r t i c u l a r l y interested i n ?  when you became a member  What do y o u  ||^mH?  F o r the rest o f the i n t e r v i e w , I w o u l d l i k e y o u to f o c u s o n y o u r experiences •  In order to better understand the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f m e n t o r i n g relationships |  •  I have read i n y o u r C V that y o u have h e l d a n u m b e r o f i mportant a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ m  tell m e what y o u b e l i e v e has been the role o f s o c i a l n e t w o r k s i n l e a d i n g to y o u r p o s i t i o n ? W a s this m e n t o r a m a n o r w o m a n ? W h o do y o u b e l i e v e are the most i n f l u e n t i a l m e m b e r s i n s o c i a l n e t w o r k s ?  p o s i t i o n s both i n the v o l u n t a r y and p r o f e s s i o n a l sectors. O f these p o s i t i o n s , w h i c h roles have been most i n f l u e n t i a l i n l e a d i n g y o u to y o u r p o s i t i o n  W h a t d o y o u feel are the most p r e s s i n g issues f a c i n g | W h e r e d o y o u feel y o u are h a v i n g the biggest i m p a c t d u r i n g y o u r t i m e |  N o w I'd l i k e to discuss the leadership characteristics that, i n y o u r o p i n i o n , are r e q u i r e d o r e n c o u r a g e d f o r h i g h l e v e l sporting leaders. 3) W h a t d o y o u b e l i e v e are the s k i l l s o r qualities y o u b r i n g ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ | ? H o w is this s i m i l a r o r different f r o m other m e m b e r s , both m a l e and f e m a l e ? 4)  W e k n o w that w o m e n have p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n p r o m o t i n g and s u p p o r t i n g  other w o m e n into sporting leadership and throughout their careers.  173  A s a h i g h l e v e l f e m a l e s p o r t i n g leader, h o w , i f at a l l , have y o u v i e w e d y o u r role i n a d v o c a t i n g f o r other w o m e n and/or w o m e n ' s issues, this w o r k ?  ^^^^^^H^^HHIH? H a v e y o u e x p e r i e n c e d any resistance i n  B) Barriers/Diversity  1) W h a t are some o f the challenges or barriers that y o u have c o m e across throughout y o u r career and s o m e o f the strategies y o u have used to manage them.  2)  W h a t role d o y o u w o m e n have p l a y e d  and w h a t is the value i n h a v i n g ?  w o m e n participate i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 3)  W h y d o y o u b e l i e v e v e r y f e w w o m e n are i n v o l v e d i n h i g h l e v e l sport administration?  Probe: | D o y o u feel it was harder b e i n g a w o m a n o n this C o m m i t t e e ? H a v e there been other o c c a s i o n s were y o u , as a w o m a n , w e r e a m i n o r i t y i n a particular role i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ? •  W h a t about the balance between y o u r career and f a m i l y ? 4)  S o m e people c l a i m that, to be c o m p e t i t i v e i n a g l o b a l m a r k e t p l a c e , o r g a n i z a t i o n s  s h o u l d strive f o r a s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c a l l y diverse m e m b e r s h i p . T h i n k i n g about  the general m e m b e r s h i p  h o w is d i v e r s i t y accounted f o r and do y o u  b e l i e v e this to be important i n m o v i n g  6)  forward?  W h a t are y o u future plans i n sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ?  D) Conclusion A s w e ' v e c o v e r e d a l l o f m y questions, I'd just l i k e to c o n c l u d e b y t h a n k i n g y o u again f o r h a v i n g taken the t i m e to tell me about yourself. Is there a n y t h i n g else y o u w o u l d l i k e to a d d or any a d d i t i o n a l c o m m e n t s y o u ' d l i k e to m a k e ?  174  A P P E N D I X 5:  Demographic Table - A General Profile of the Participants Demographic characteristic  Number of participant with profile  Age 25-29  1 (10%)  30-34  2 (20%)  35-39  3 (30%)  40-44  2 (20%)  44-49  1 (10%)  50+  1 (10%) Race/Ethnicity  White  9 (90%)  Other  1 (10%) Class  M i d d l e to upper class  10 ( 1 0 0 % )  Education U n i v e r s i t y degree  7 (70%)  Graduate studies  3 (30%)  Professional occupation Lawyer  2 (20%)  P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher Sport administrator P r i v a t e business o w n e r Retired M a r i t a l status  1 (10%) 4 (40%) 2 (20%) 1 (10%)  Married/De Facto relationship  8 (80%)  Unmarried  2 (20%)  Children/Co-dependents Children  6 (60%) Athletic background  Regional/Provincial National  9 (90%) 7 (70%)  International  5 (50%)  Y e a r s o f experience i n sport administration 5-10 years  4 (40%)  10-15 years  3 (30%)  15-25 years  3 (30%)  Sport a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p o s i t i o n Paid  3 (30%)  Volunteer  7 (70%) L e v e l o f leadership  Regional/Provincial National International  10 ( 1 0 0 % ) 8 (80%) 3 (30%)  175  

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