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Determining the reliability of a computerized coach analysis instrument Johnson, Robert Bennett 1988

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DETERMINING THE RELIABILITY OF A COMPUTERIZED COACH ANALYSIS INSTRUMENT By ROBERT BENNETT JOHNSON .P.E., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF. MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of P h y s i c a l Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February 1988 (c) Robert Bennett Johnson, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date ftklL3, ma DE-6(3/81) A b s t r a c t The i n t e r and i n t r a - o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s of data c o l l e c t e d by observer s t r a i n e d i n the use of the Coach A n a l y s i s Instrument (CAI) are r e p o r t e d . The CAI i s part of the Computer ized Coaching A n a l y s i s System (CCAS) . The CAI c o l l e c t s data r e l a t e d to the l e a r n i n g environment c rea ted by the coach i n a team-sport p r a c t i c e s i t u a t i o n . Both i n t e r and i n t r a - o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s are r e p o r t e d for each of the i n s t r u m e n t ' s seven dimensions as w e l l as for the o v e r a l l i n s t r u m e n t . The r e l i a b i l i t y measures r e p o r t e d are T o t a l Percent Agreement (T) and Cohen's kappa ( K ) . Recommendations p e r t a i n i n g to the development of sy s temat i c o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s , t r a i n i n g program c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , and r e l i a b i l i t y measures are presented and d i s c u s s e d . i i Table of Contents ABSTRACT 11 TABLE OF CONTENTS i l l LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES . . v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v i i i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 EXPERIMENT 1: INTER AND INTRA-OBSERVER RELIABILITY 13 Measures of R e l i a b i l i t y . . . . .13 Percent Agreement Measures ••15 C o r r e l a t i o n a l Measures ...18 T r a i n i n g 20 I n t e r a c t i v e Video T r a i n i n g Systems 23 Method 24 Subjects 24 S t i m u l i 24 Apparatus. . • .25 D e f i n i t i o n s 27 C r i t e r i o n Code 29 Procedure 32 T r a i n i n g Tape 32 T r a i n i n g Program 35 R e l i a b i l i t y T e s t i n g .37 A n a l y s i s and Design. 39 Res u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n 40 O v e r a l l Instrument and Dimensional I n t e r o b s e r v e r and In t r a - o b s e r v e r R e l i a b i l i t i e s 40 i i i D i m e n s i o n a l I n t e r o b s e r v e r and I n t r a o b s e r v e r R e l i a b i l i t i e s 41 EXPERIMENT '2: MONOLOGUE PARSING RELIABILITY 58 Method 59 S u b j e c t s 59 S t i m u l i . .59 P r o c e d u r e .' 61 A p p a r a t u s 63 R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n 63 GENERAL DISCUSSION 71 Recommendations 7 9 C o n c l u s i o n 81 REFERENCES 82 APPENDICES A D e s c r i p t i o n of the CASS Model of Team S p o r t P r a c t i c e Components and I n s t r u m e n t s of the CCAS 86 B A Review of A l t e r n a t i v e R e l i a b i l i t y M e a s u r e s 101 C A Monte C a r l o S t u d y C o n c e r n i n g the D e t e r m i n a t i o n of B e h a v i o u r a l O b s e r v a t i o n I n s t r u m e n t R e l i a b i l i t y . . . 1 1 1 D T r a n s c r i p t s of Dat a Tapes 139 E Coach A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t T r a i n i n g Manual ....153 F T r a n s c r i p t s of T r a i n i n g Tapes 177 G F o l l o w up Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on P e r c e i v e d V a l i d i t y of Coach A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t 190 i v L i s t of Tab le s 1. Two by two frequency t ab le fo r dichotomous occurrence / non-occurrence d a t a . . 16 2. I n t e r o b s e r v e r T o t a l Agreement Percentage (T) and Cohen's kappa (K) va lue s fo r the o v e r a l l Coach A n a l y s i s Instrument (CAI) and each of i t ' s seven d imens ions , averaged over a l l segments and a l l s u b j e c t s 42 3. I n t r a - o b s e r v e r T o t a l Agreement Percentage (T) and Cohen's Kappa (K) Values for the o v e r a l l Coaching A n a l y s i s Instrument (CAI) and each of i t ' s seven d imens ions , averaged over a l l segments and a l l s u b j e c t s . . . . 4 3 4. I n t r a - O b s e r v e r T o t a l Agreement Percentage (T) and Cohen's kappa (K) Va lues fo r each observer fo r each dimension averaged over a l l segments 44 5 . I n t e r o b s e r v e r T o t a l Agreement Percentage (T) and Cohen' s kappa (K) Va lues fo r the elements Team, Group, and I n d i v i d u a l which make up Dimension 1: D i r e c t i o n averaged over a l l segments and a l l s u b j e c t s 45 6. Breakdown of a l l Comments coded as N o n - s k i l l 52 7. I n t r a - O b s e r v e r T o t a l Agreement Percentage (T) and Cohen's kappa (K) Va lues fo r the elements I n t e r r o g a t i v e , E v a l u a t i v e , D e s c r i p t i v e , P r e s c r i p t i v e , and A f f e c t i v e which make up Dimension 6: I n t e n t , averaged over a l l segments 56 8. Breakdown of Number of Comments I d e n t i f i e d by Sub jec t s and by C r i t e r i o n Pane l 64 9. Exper iment 2 Da ta : Comment Length 67 10. E r r o r F r e q u e n c i e s for Experiment 2 Data 69 11. I n t e r o b s e r v e r T o t a l Agreement Percentage (T) and Cohen' s Kappa (K) Va lues fo r the o v e r a l l Coaching A n a l y s i s Instrument (CAI) i n c l u d i n g a l l d imensions and e x c l u d i n g p r o b l e m a t i c d imens ions , averaged over a l l segments and a l l s u b j e c t s 76 v i L i s t of F i g u r e s 1. Diagram of Apparatus Arrangement fo r Experiment 1: I n t e r and I n t r a - o b s e r v e r R e l i a b i l i t i e s 26 2. Diagram of Power Pad Over l ay for the Coach A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t . . 28 3. Model of Team Sport P r a c t i c e Components . . 30 4. Model of Team Sport P r a c t i c e Components . .31 5. T i m e l i n e f o r T r a i n i n g Tape 34 6. T i m e l i n e f o r Experiment 1: I n t e r and I n t r a - o b s e r v e r R e l i a b i l i t i e s 38 7. T i m e l i n e for Experiment 2: Separate Comment I d e n t i f i c a t i o n R e l i a b i l i t y 62 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to thank my a d v i s o r , D r . Ian M. F r a n k s , my committee members, D r . Gary D. S i n c l a i r and D r . Robert W. S c h u t z , f o r t h e i r support and help i n making t h i s t h e s i s a r e a l i t y . F u r t h e r , I would l i k e to thank Pau l Nagelkerke "computer programmer e x t r a o r d i n a i r e , " my s u b j e c t s , and everyone e l s e who had the p a t i e n c e to help me d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e c t . S i n c e r e l y , Robert B. Johnson v i i i Research on t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s has been ongoing i n v a r i o u s forms s i n c e people acknowledged the va lue of e d u c a t i o n . T h i s r e s e a r c h has had a number of d i f f e r e n t f o c i as d i f f e r e n t aspects of the act of t each ing and the process of l e a r n i n g were s t u d i e d . In the 1940 ' s , r e s e a r c h e r s attempted to determine which teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were common to a l l " e f f e c t i v e t e a c h e r s " (Dunkin & B i d d l e , 1974). P r o c e s s - p r o d u c t s t u d i e s gained p o p u l a r i t y i n the 19*50'is and \ \ 1960's as the c la s s room c l i m a t e was i n v e s t i g a t e d ( F l a n d e r s , 1960; Rosenshine & F u r s t , 1971). In the 1970 ' s , the pr imary focus of r e s e a r c h a t t e n t i o n s h i f t e d to c o n t e x t - s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s , that i s , the s t u d e n t ' s soc io-economic s t a t u s , age, the t e a c h e r ' s o b j e c t i v e s and the sub jec t being t aught , e t c . Researchers attempted to i s o l a t e v a r i a b l e s that demonstrated a r e l a t i o n s h i p to student l e a r n i n g (Brophy & E v e r t s o n , 1974 ; Good & Grouws, 1975; McDonald & E l i a s , 1976; Soar & Soar , 1972; S t a l l i n g s & Kaskowi tz , 1974). In the 1980's advances i n computer ized data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s t echno logy have i n c r e a s e d the amount- and va lue of data that can be c o l l e c t e d on an ever i n c r e a s i n g number of c o n t e x t - s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s (McKenzie & C a r l s o n , 1984). One approach to r e s e a r c h on teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s through d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n , that- - i s , a c t u a l l y obse rv ing teachers w h i l e they teach and s tudents w h i l e they l e a r n . While t h i s seems an obvious method of s tudy , i t was r a r e l y i n c l u d e d i n r e s e a r c h before the 1960's,. There were s e v e r a l 1 reasons fo r t h i s omis s ion i n c l u d i n g the expense, i n terms of time and money, the s k i l l r e q u i r e d of the o b s e r v e r , the i n v a s i o n of the p r i v a c y of the teacher and the s choo l a d m i n i s t r a t o r , as w e l l as c l a ims that the presence of the observer so a l t e r e d the behaviour of both the teacher and the s t u d e n t s , that any data c o l l e c t e d would not be a v a l i d d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r t y p i c a l behaviour when the observer was not present (Medley & M i t z e l , 1963). Desp i t e these problems d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n became more p o p u l a r . However, a f u r t h e r problem of s u b j e c t i v i t y was e n c o u n t e r e d . The observers were o f ten s u p e r v i s o r s , exper ienced teachers or r e s e a r c h e r s and t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s were u s u a l l y based on s u b j e c t i v e judgements and o p i n i o n s . S ince there was l i t t l e q u a n t i t a t i v e data to back up the e v a l u a t i o n , problems of observer b i a s , r e l i a b i l i t y , and v a l i d i t y were m a n i f e s t . In an attempt to reduce or remove the s u b j e c t i v i t y that was i n h e r e n t i n many of these e a r l y methods of de te rmin ing teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s , such as " I n t u i t i v e Judgement", " E y e b a l l i n g " , " A n e c d o t a l R e c o r d s " , " C h e c k l i s t s and Ra t ing S c a l e s " ( S i e d e n t o p , 1983), r e s e a r c h e r s developed sy s temat i c o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . Sys temat ic o b s e r v a t i o n techniques permit a t r a i n e d o b s e r v e r , f o l l o w i n g the g u i d e l i n e s and procedures s p e c i f i e d by the ins t rument be ing u sed , to observe , r e c o r d , and ana lyze b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h the assumption that other o b s e r v e r s , u s ing the same ins trument and v iewing the same sequence of event s , would agree w i t h the recorded data ( S i e d e n t o p , 1983). S y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s t y p i c a l l y f o c u s on a s e l e c t e d number of p r e d e t e r m i n e d , c l e a r l y d e f i n e d c a t e g o r i e s of b e h a v i o u r as w e l l as d e f i n i t e r u l e s and p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The f o c u s o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t i s d i r e c t e d t o a c r i t i c a l e l e m e n t i n t h e t e a c h i n g / l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s and i s b a s e d on a sound t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k or m o d e l . Such i n s t r u m e n t s a r e u s e d by an o b s e r v e r t o s t r u c t u r e and f o c u s t h e c o l l e c t i o n of r e l e v a n t d a t a on t h e s u b j e c t i n p e r t i n e n t s i t u a t i o n s . S e v e r a l t y p e s of i n s t r u m e n t s have been d e s i g n e d to, u t i l i z e d i f f e r e n t d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . These p r o c e d u r e s i n c l u d e e v e n t r e c o r d i n g , w h i c h g a t h e r s i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o t h e f r e q u e n c y of e v e n t o c c u r r e n c e ; d u r a t i o n r e c o r d i n g , w h i c h i s u s e d t o c o l l e c t d a t a on how t i m e i s b e i n g s p e n t ; i n t e r v a l r e c o r d i n g , w h i c h u s e s a t i m e s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e of c o n s e c u t i v e i n t e r v a l s , f i r s t t o o b s e r v e t h e n t o r e c o r d b e h a v i o u r ; and i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s , a t e c h n i q u e u s e d t o r e c o r d b o t h t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r as i t o c c u r s i n s e q u e n c e ( R i n k , 1 9 8 5 ) . The o b s e r v e r v i e w s t h e s u b j e c t i n a c t i o n and c o d e s t h e t a r g e t b e h a v i o u r s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e c a t e g o r i e s s t i p u l a t e d by t h e r e c o r d i n g p r o c e d u r e u t i l i z e d by t h e s e l e c t e d s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t . The r e s u l t i s , c u s t o m a r i l y , a w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n of o b s e r v e d b e h a v i o u r a l e v e n t s s u p p o r t e d by summary t a b l e s of f r e q u e n c i e s , d u r a t i o n s e t c . U s i n g t h i s t e c h n i q u e , r e s e a r c h e r s have been a b l e t o g a t h e r r e l i a b l e , q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a on a v a r i e t y of b e h a v i o u r a l m e a s u r e s . W h i l e t h e c o n c e p t of s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n was d e v e l o p e d 3 i n the f i e l d of e d u c a t i o n and was i n i t i a l l y used to c o l l e c t data on teacher s i n the c la s s room s e t t i n g , the procedures have been adapted fo r use wi th the t e a c h i n g of motor s k i l l s i n the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and sport environments (Dougherty , 1970; C h e f f e r s , 1972). S ince the e a r l y 1970's numerous ins t ruments have been developed and/or m o d i f i e d to focus on v a r i o u s a spects of t e a c h i n g or l e a r n i n g i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and s p o r t . P r i o r to the development of such sy s temat i c approaches to o b s e r v a t i o n , the methods used to assess the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teachers and coaches were s i m i l a r to those used to assess teachers and, t h e r e f o r e , had s i m i l a r problems e . g . , s u b j e c t i v i t y , and q u e s t i o n a b l e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . These problems were even more pronounced when coach ing e f f e c t i v e n e s s was be ing assessed and the l a c k of an o b j e c t i v e , sy s t emat i c assessment t o o l a l lowed a great dea l of p e r s o n a l b ia s to e f f e c t the process of assessment. Too f r e q u e n t l y , the c o a c h ' s w i n / l o s s r e c o r d or the s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g s of v a r i o u s r e l a t e d p o p u l a t i o n s , that i s , a t h l e t e s , o f f i c i a l s , p a r e n t s , e t c . , were used as c r i t e r i a to determine i f a coach was s u c c e s s f u l and, t h e r e f o r e , e f f e c t i v e . O b v i o u s l y , s e v e r a l problems e x i s t wi th these measures. F i r s t , i t i s now apparent that a c o a c h ' s w i n / l o s s performance r e c o r d may not be a v a l i d i n d i c a t o r of e f f e c t i v e n e s s un le s s there i s some way to account fo r the myriad of v a r i a b l e s that c o n t r i b u t e to t h i s r e c o r d . For examplej an i n e f f e c t i v e coach might have a very s u c c e s s f u l program when measured on ly by a w i n / l o s s r e c o r d . T h i s could be a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t that the coach had a l a r g e pool of t a l e n t e d a t h l e t e s from which to draw. C o n v e r s e l y , an e f f e c t i v e coach might have a poor performance r e c o r d because of a l i m i t e d poo l of t a l e n t e d a t h l e t e s . Second, problems a r i s e when,a measure of a c o a c h ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s based on the p e r c e p t i o n s of o thers about h i s a t t i t u d e , a b i l i t i e s , or s t y l e . Such judgements may be b iased by i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the coach and the re sponding p o p u l a t i o n ( s ) . F u r t h e r , some of the respondents i n such s t u d i e s may have l i t t l e knowledge of e i t h e r the c o a c h ' s a b i l i t i e s or the requirements of the s p o r t . O p e r a t i n g from t h i s uninformed p o s i t i o n , they may base t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n on the c o a c h ' s performance r e c o r d . In l i g h t of these problems i t became apparent that a method of o b t a i n i n g v a l i d , o b j e c t i v e , q u a n t i t a t i v e data was needed i n order to r e a l i s t i c a l l y determine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the coach and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r . The i n i t i a l attempt at s o l v i n g these problems was made by Tharp and G a l l i m o r e (1976) . They were among the f i r s t to employ sy s temat i c o b s e r v a t i o n techniques to c o l l e c t data on a coach . S ince that time s e v e r a l ins t ruments have been developed and/or adapted to s tudy the behaviour of both the coach and t h e i r a t h l e t e s (Quarterman, 1980; L a n g s d o r f , 1979; R u s h a l l , 1977; Smith , Smol l & Hunt, 1978; S i n c l a i r , 1983; 1985). While c u r r e n t sy s temat i c o b s e r v a t i o n ins t ruments produce a l a rge amount of d e s c r i p t i v e data on a v a r i e t y of b e h a v i o u r a l 5 c o m p o n e n t s , t h e r e a r e a number of i m p o r t a n t p e r f o r m a n c e f a c t o r s t h a t have n o t y e t been a d d r e s s e d . These f a c t o r s i n c l u d e s u c h a s p e c t s a s : t h e c o n t e n t of t h e p r a c t i c e , t h e a t h l e t e ' s p e r f o r m a n c e n e e d s , i n p u t f r o m t h e o b s e r v e d c o a c h , e f f i c i e n c y of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n m e t h o d s , and t h e p e r c e i v e d u t i l i t y of t h e i n s t r u m e n t by t h e o b s e r v e d c o a c h . F r a n k s , J o h n s o n & S i n c l a i r ( i n p r e s s ) have d e v e l o p e d a s y s t e m t h a t a t t e m p t s t o a d d r e s s t h e s e i s s u e s . The C o m p u t e r i z e d C o a c h i n g A n a l y s i s S y s t e m (CCAS) i s b a s e d on a M o d e l of Team S p o r t P r a c t i c e Components, and c o n s i s t s of t h r e e c o m p u t e r i z e d o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s : a Coach A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t , an A t h l e t e A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t and an A t h l e t e Time E s t i m a t i o n I n s t r u m e n t . T h i s s y s t e m f o c u s e s on t h e c o n t e n t of t h e p r a c t i c e and t h e a t h l e t e ' s p e r f o r m a n c e n e e d s , and u s e s i n p u t f r o m t h e c o a c h b e i n g o b s e r v e d i n an a t t e m p t t o a s s e s s h i s / h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . F o r a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e m o d el and i n s t r u m e n t s see A p p e n d i x A. The p u r p o s e of t h i s s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y of o b s e r v e r s t r a i n e d i n t h e use of one a s p e c t of t h e CCAS, s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e C o a c h A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t ( C A I ) . B e h a v i o u r a l a n a l y s i s i n s t r u m e n t s a r e c u s t o m a r i l y s c r u t i n i z e d f o r two t y p e s of r e l i a b i l i t y . The f i r s t t y p e , i n t e r o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y i s d e t e r m i n e d t o e s t i m a t e t h e d e g r e e of a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n i n d e p e n d e n t o b s e r v e r s and t h u s i s c o n s i d e r e d a measure of o b j e c t i v i t y . The s e c o n d t y p e , i n t r a - o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y i s an e s t i m a t e of t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h an o b s e r v e r a g r e e s w i t h h i s / h e r own c o d i n g f r o m a p r e v i o u s o c c a s i o n and t h u s i s c o n s i d e r e d a measure of t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o r c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e o b s e r v e r . The CAI u s e s a f o r m of e v e n t r e c o r d i n g t o c o l l e c t d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a on t h e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t v e r b a l l y c r e a t e d by t h e c o a c h . The f u n d a m e n t a l u n i t s o f t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n a r e t h e s e p a r a t e comments made by t h e c o a c h . A s e p a r a t e comment was d e f i n e d a s : "any s t a t e m e n t , a b o u t a s i n g l e t o p i c ( r e l a t e d t o t h e p r a c t i c e o r n o t ) , made by t h e c o a c h , t h a t can s t a n d on i t ' s own, t h a t i s , i t can be a s i n g l e word o r s e v e r a l s e n t e n c e s . " T h e r e f o r e , t h e o b s e r v e r v i e w s a v i d e o t a p e of a c o a c h i n a p r a c t i c e s e t t i n g and a n a l y z e s e a c h s e p a r a t e comment made by the c o a c h by c o d i n g i t on e a c h of t h e s e v e n d i m e n s i o n s t h a t make up t h e I n s t r u c t i o n component of t h e C A I . The d i m e n s i o n s of t h e i n s t r u m e n t a r e as f o l l o w s : 1. The d i r e c t i o n of t h e c o a c h ' s comment i s d e t e r m i n e d as b e i n g : a) t o t h e e n t i r e Team b) t o a Group of a t h l e t e s c ) t o an I n d i v i d u a l a t h l e t e 7 The s e t t i n g • o f t h e comment's p r e s e n t a t i o n i s coded as b e i n g : a) P u b l i c - t h e comment i s p r e s e n t e d i n a s e t t i n g o r manner s u c h t h a t o t h e r s , b e s i d e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p t o whom t h e comment i s d i r e c t e d ( i . e . , a t h l e t e s , c o a c h e s , b y s t a n d e r s ) c a n h e a r t h e comment b) P r i v a t e - t h e comment i s p r e s e n t e d i n a s e t t i n g o r manner s u c h t h a t o n l y t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p t o whom t h e comment i s d i r e c t e d c a n h e a r t h e comment The method of p r e s e n t a t i o n i s coded a s : a) T a l k o v e r - t h e c o a c h makes t h e comment w h i l e t h e a t h l e t e s a r e p e r f o r m i n g b) F r e e z e - t h e c o a c h s t o p s t h e a t h l e t e s d u r i n g p e r f o r m a n c e t o make t h e comment c) D e m o n s t r a t e - t h e c o a c h d e m o n s t r a t e s a s k i l l o r t e c h n i q u e i ) i n R e a l Time - t h a t i s , a t t h e spe e d i t w o u l d be p e r f o r m e d i n c o m p e t i t i o n i i ) i n S l o w M o t i o n - a t a s l o w e r s p e e d t h a n i t w o u l d be p e r f o r m e d i n c o m p e t i t i o n d) T a l k A f t e r - t h e comment i s made d u r i n g a n a t u r a l b r e a k i n t h e f l o w of t h e d r i l l , t h a t i s , f o l l o w i n g a t r i a l o r r e p e t i t i o n o r a t t h e c o m p l e t i o n of a s e t p l a y 8 e) R e c o n s t r u c t - t h e c o a c h r e c o n s t r u c t s a s i t u a t i o n t h a t has j u s t o c c u r r e d and t h e n comments on i t f ) a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s e v e r a l o f t h e s e methods The o b s e r v e r t h e n d e t e r m i n e s t h e f o c u s o f t h e cominent, t h a t i s , w h e t h e r i t i s a d d r e s s i n g : a) S k i l l - t h e f o c u s o f t h e comment i s a s k i l l r e l a t e d b e h a v i o u r i ) When t h e comment i s s k i l l r e l a t e d , t h e s k i l l i t r e l a t e s t o i s i d e n t i f i e d . The s k i l l may be one of t h e s k i l l s l i s t e d i n t h e C o a c h ' s I n p u t ( s e e A p p e n d i x A) w h i c h has been e n t e r e d e a r l i e r , i f s o , i t i s co d e d by i t ' s S k i l l £. I f t h e comment i s n o t r e l a t e d t o one of t h e s k i l l s l i s t e d i n t h e p r a c t i c e p l a n , i t i s co d e d as an O t h e r S k i l l ( i n d i c a t i n g t h e o c c u r r e n c e of an u n p l a n n e d e v e n t ) . i i ) W i t h i n t h i s d e c i s i o n , t h e f o c u s i s f u r t h e r d e f i n e d i n t e r m s of t h e c o r r e c t n e s s o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e . When t h e comment i s i n r e f e r e n c e t o a c o r r e c t p e r f o r m a n c e of a s k i l l (what was done r i g h t ) , t h e n i t i s coded as C o r r e c t . When i t i s i n r e f e r e n c e t o an i n c o r r e c t p e r f o r m a n c e (what was done wrong) t h e n i t i s coded as I n c o r r e c t . I f t h e comment f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t s t h e a t h l e t e on how t o p e r f o r m t h e s k i l l o r i s a r e p e a t of e a r l i e r i n s t r u c t i o n s , t h e n i t i s coded as R e - i n s t r u c t i o n . b) N o n - s k i l l - t h e f o c u s o f t h e comment i s on a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n a s k i l l r e l a t e d b e h a v i o u r i ) When t h e comment i s n o n - s k i l l r e l a t e d i t i s coded as e i t h e r r e l a t i n g t o a t h l e t e B e h a v i o u r o r c o n d u c t , a t h l e t e E f f o r t , d r i l l o r p r a c t i c e O r g a n i z a t i o n o r O t h e r , f o r a n o n - p r a c t i c e r e l a t e d comment. Whether t h e comment was coded as s k i l l r e l a t e d o r non-s k i l l r e l a t e d i t i s t h e n a s s e s s e d i n t e r m s o f i t ' s a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e : a) I f t h e comment i s s k i l l r e l a t e d , a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i m p l i e s a k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r . An A p p r o p r i a t e comment w o u l d d e s c r i b e o r p r e s c r i b e t h e c o r r e c t m e c h a n i c s of a s k i l l o r t h e p r o p e r t a c t i c o r s t r a t e g y f o r a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . I f t h e comment i s n o t s k i l l r e l a t e d , a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i m p l i e s a f a i r comment t h a t i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e s i t u a t i o n . b) I f t h e comment i s s k i l l r e l a t e d , i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i m p l i e s a l a c k o f k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r , a m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s i t u a t i o n o r an 10 i n c o r r e c t e v a l u a t i o n of an a t h l e t e ' s o r g r o u p o f a t h l e t e s ' l e v e l o f a b i l i t y o r p e r f o r m a n c e . An I n a p p r o p r i a t e comment w o u l d d e s c r i b e o r p r e s c r i b e i n c o r r e c t m e c h a n i c s f o r a s k i l l , an i m p r o p e r t a c t i c o r s t r a t e g y f o r a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n o r an e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t i s u n r e a l i s t i c w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e a t h l e t e s ' a b i l i t y . I f t h e comment i s not s k i l l r e l a t e d , i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i m p l i e s a comment t h a t may be u n f a i r a n d / o r i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e s i t u a t i o n The p r o c e s s t h e n c o n s i d e r s t h e i n t e n t of t h e comment: a) I n t e r r o g a t i v e - i t ' s i n t e n t i o n i s t o a s k a q u e s t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e p e r f o r m a n c e b) E v a l u a t i v e - i t ' s i n t e n t i o n i s t o e v a l u a t e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e c) D e s c r i p t i v e - i t ' s i n t e n t i o n i s t o d e s c r i b e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e d) P r e s c r i p t i v e - i t ' s i n t e n t i o n i s t o p r e s c r i b e a c o r r e c t i o n o r an a l t e r n a t i v e method o f p r o d u c i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e e) A f f e c t i v e - i t ' s i n t e n t i o n i s t o a c t as a m o t i v a t o r t o t h e a t h l e t e . f ) I t ' s , i n t e n t i o n i s a c o m b i n a t i o n of s e v e r a l of t h e s e d e s c r i p t o r s 11 7. F i n a l l y , t h e o b s e r v e r d e t e r m i n e s t h e t o n e o r of t h e comment: a) P o s i t i v e - t h e comment i s e n t h u s i a s t i c , e n c o u r a g i n g e t c . b) N e u t r a l - t h e comment i s n e i t h e r e n t h u s n o r u n e n t h u s i a s t i c , e n c o u r a g i n g n o r d i s c ) N e g a t i v e - t h e comment i s u n e n t h u s i a s t i d i s c o u r a g i n g , s a r c a s t i c e t c . The f o l l o w i n g two e x p e r i m e n t s were d e s i g n e d and c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e b o t h t h e i n t e r o b s e r v e r and i n t r a - o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s of e a c h of t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s as w e l l as f o r t h e o v e r a l l i n s t r u m e n t . Two commonly u s e d r e l i a b i l i t y m e a s u r e s , T o t a l P e r c e n t A g r e e m e n t ( H o u s e , House & C a m p b e l l , 1 9 8 1 ) , and Cohen's k a p p a ( C o h e n , 1 9 6 0 ) , were e m p l o y e d . I n E x p e r i m e n t 1 p a i r - w i s e c o m p a r i s o n s of a l l o b s e r v e r s were made f o r e v e r y e l e m e n t of e a c h d i m e n s i o n on 200 d a t a p o i n t s t o o b t a i n i n t e r o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y v a l u e s . To o b t a i n i n t r a -o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y v a l u e s , d a t a f r o m e v e r y e l e m e n t of e a c h d i m e n s i o n f o r e a c h o b s e r v e r were compared f r o m r e p e a t e d c o d i n g s of a s e t of 50 d a t a p o i n t s . I n E x p e r i m e n t 2, t h e e f f e c t of t h e i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m on t h e o b s e r v e r s ' a b i l i t y t o p a r s e t h e c o a c h ' s monologue i n t o s e p a r a t e comments i s m e a s u r e d and d i s c u s s e d . c h a r a c t e r i a s t i c c o u r a g i n g 12 E x p e r i m e n t 1: I n t e r and I n t r a - o b s e r v e r R e l i a b i l i t y T h i s e x p e r i m e n t was d e s i g n e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f o b s e r v e r s t r a i n e d i n t h e use of t h e C A I . M e a s u r e s of R e l i a b i l i t y The most f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d measure of b o t h i n t e r and i n t r a -o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y i s t h e p e r c e n t a g e a g r e e m e n t s t a t i s t i c ( K e l l y , 1 9 7 7 ) . T h i s i s d e t e r m i n e d by h a v i n g two o r more o b s e r v e r s make i n d e p e n d e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e same e v e n t . The r e l i a b i l i t y m easure i s t h e n c a l c u l a t e d as t h e p e r c e n t a g e of a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e o b s e r v e r s . S i e d e n t o p ( 1 9 7 6 ) , has q u a n t i f i e d t h i s m easure a s : A g r e e m e n t s I n t e r o b s e r v e r = 1 X 100 R e l i a b i l i t y A g r e e m e n t s and D i s a g r e e m e n t s The u s u a l minimum l e v e l o f a c c e p t a n c e f o r i n t e r o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y i s 80% ( R u s h a l l , 1 9 7 7 ) . T h i s measure i s u s e f u l i n t h a t i t e n s u r e s u n i q u e , u n a m b i g u o u s c a t e g o r y d e f i n i t i o n s . H o w ever, t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l " d i s a d v a n t a g e s " a s s o c i a t e d w i t h th e u s e of t h i s s t a t i s t i c as a measure of r e l i a b i l i t y . F i r s t , i t n e g l e c t s t o c o n s i d e r " c h a n c e " a g r e e m e n t . Chance a g r e e m e n t i s d e f i n e d as t h e e x p e c t e d number o r p r o p o r t i o n of a g r e e m e n t s t h a t w o u l d be o b t a i n e d when t h e o b s e r v e r ' s r a t i n g s were 13 u n r e l a t e d . The percentage agreement s t a t i s t i c n e g l e c t s to c o n s i d e r chance because i t p r o v i d e s no c o n t r o l for the p o s s i b i l i t y that some or a l l of the agreements of observed behav iours may be due to chance agreement. Second, l i k e a l l r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s , i t does not have a meaningful lower bound of a c c e p t a b i l i t y . The obta ined va lue can range from 1% to 100%. There i s no s c i e n t i f i c bas i s for o b t a i n i n g a va lue above which the ins t rument can be s a i d to be r e l i a b l e and below which the ins t rument can be s a id to be u n r e l i a b l e . While 80% has been accepted i n the l i t e r a t u r e , ( R u s h a l l , 1977; House et a l . , 1981), t h i s appears to be a p u r e l y a r b i t r a r y v a l u e . F i n a l l y , the percent agreement s t a t i s t i c i s not d i r e c t l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e , that i s , there i s no c r i t e r i o n to measure the ob ta ined va lue a g a i n s t ; thus there i s no way to compare the r e l i a b i l i t y of d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u m e n t s . While these d i sadvantages are w e l l documented (Rowley, 1976; Hartman, 1977; T o w s t o p i a t , 1984), the percent agreement s t a t i s t i c cont inues to be f r e q u e n t l y used . Suggested reasons for i t ' s use i n c l u d e i t ' s c o m p u t a t i o n a l s i m p l i c i t y and the i m p l i c a t i o n that t h i s index has a d i r e c t l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e meaning (Rowley, 1976). T h i s i m p l i c a t i o n i s a r e s u l t of the f a c t that t h i s measure compares the "agreement" of two observers on t h e i r coding of a b e h a v i o u r a l e v e n t . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , p o s s i b l e f o r these observers to agree on an i n c o r r e c t coding of the event . S ince there i s u s u a l l y no " c r i t e r i o n " or c o r r e c t coding to compare the o b s e r v e r s ' codings w i t h , i t i s not p o s s i b l e to determine the percent 14 a c c u r a t e s t a t i s t i c b u t o n l y t h e p e r c e n t a g r e e m e n t s t a t i s t i c . F u r t h e r , s i n c e a l m o s t a l l b e h a v i o u r a l a n a l y s i s i n s t r u m e n t s m e a sure d i f f e r e n t b e h a v i o u r a l e v e n t s , t h e r e c a n be no " c r i t e r i o n " o r c o r r e c t i n s t r u m e n t t o compare o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s a g a i n s t . H owever, b e c a u s e t h e p e r c e n t a g r e e m e n t s t a t i s t i c i s u s u a l l y r e p o r t e d as a p e r c e n t a g e v a l u e , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be an i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t t h i s v a l u e c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e a c c u r a c y p e r c e n t a g e of t h e i n s t r u m e n t . I t f u r t h e r a p p e a r s t o i m p l y t h a t t h e p e r c e n t a g r e e m e n t v a l u e s of two d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u m e n t s c a n be c o m p a r e d , w i t h t h e i n s t r u m e n t h a v i n g t h e h i g h e r v a l u e b e i n g p e r c e i v e d as "more a c c u r a t e . " N e i t h e r of t h e s e i m p l i c a t i o n s i s p o s s i b l e . P e r c e n t A g r e e m e n t M e a s u r e s By e x a m i n i n g t h e p e r c e n t a g r e e m e n t s t a t i s t i c more c l o s e l y i t c a n be s e e n t h a t t h e r e a r e two p o s s i b l e t y p e s of a g r e e m e n t f o r d i c h o t o m o u s o r o c c u r r e n c e / n o n - o c c u r r e n c e d a t a , ( a ) a g r e e m e n t t h a t s o m e t h i n g d i d o c c u r and ( b ) a g r e e m e n t t h a t s o m e t h i n g d i d n o t o c c u r . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e c a n be two b a s i c t y p e s o f f o r m u l a s : T o t a l P e r c e n t Agreement - w h i c h i n c l u d e s b o t h o c c u r r e n c e and n o n - o c c u r r e n c e a g r e e m e n t ; and S p e c i f i e d E v e n t A g r e e m e n t - w h i c h i n c l u d e s o n l y o c c u r r e n c e o r non-o c c u r r e n c e a g r e e m e n t (House et a l . , 1 9 8 1 ) . I n t h i s s t u d y , o n l y T o t a l P e r c e n t Agreement was u s e d . D i c h o t o m o u s or o c c u r r e n c e / n o n - o c c u r r e n c e d a t a i s o f t e n s u m m a r i z e d i n a two by two t a b l e . See T a b l e 1. The l e t t e r s 15 Table 1 Two by two frequency table for dichotomous occurrence / non-occurrence data. Observer 2's scoring : occurrence non-occurrence Observer l's scoring occurrence non-occurrence A B C D yes yes no yes yes no no no A = number of agreements on occurrence. B = number of disagreements where observer 1 coded the category and observer 2 did not. C = number of disagreements where observer 1 did not code the category and observer 2 did. D = number of agreements on non-occurrence. (from House, House, and Campbell, 1981) 16 A t h r o u g h D r e p r e s e n t t h e two t y p e s o f a g r e e m e n t s and t h e two t y p e s o f d i s a g r e e m e n t s p o s s i b l e f r o m t h e s c o r i n g o f o c c u r r e n c e / n o n - o c c u r r e n c e o f a s i n g l e b e h a v i o u r by two s u b j e c t s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e f r e q u e n c y i n c e l l D i n d i c a t e s t h e number o f t i m e s b o t h o b s e r v e r s i n d i c a t e d n o n - o c c u r r e n c e of t h e t a r g e t b e h a v i o u r . B o t h m e a s u r e s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y , T o t a l P e r c e n t Agreement and k a p p a w i l l be p r e s e n t e d as e q u a t i o n s u s i n g t e r m s f r o m t h i s summary t a b l e f o r m a t . T o t a l P e r c e n t A g r e e m e n t (House e t a l . , 1981) A + D T% = • X 100 A + B + C + D T h i s v a l u e i n d i c a t e s t h e p e r c e n t of t o t a l o b s e r v a t i o n s on w h i c h t h e o b s e r v e r s a g r e e d . T h a t i s , t h e number of t i m e s t h e y a g r e e d t h a t t h e t a r g e t b e h a v i o u r o c c u r r e d ( A ) p l u s t h e number of t i m e s t h e y a g r e e d t h a t t h e t a r g e t b e h a v i o u r d i d n o t o c c u r ( D ) , d i v i d e d by t h e t o t a l number of o b s e r v a t i o n s . A p r o b l e m w i t h t h e t o t a l a g r e e m e n t s t a t i s t i c i s i t ' s d e p e n d a n c e on t h e f r e q u e n c y o f e v e n t o c c u r r e n c e o r non-o c c u r r e n c e . V e r y f r e q u e n t l y o r v e r y i n f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g 17 e v e n t s i n c r e a s e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of a l a r g e number of a g r e e m e n t s on o c c u r r e n c e or n o n - o c c u r r e n c e w h i c h i n t u r n , c a n l e a d t o i n f l a t e d a g r e e m e n t v a l u e s . A number of v a r i a t i o n s of t h i s b a s i c e q u a t i o n were d e v e l o p e d as r e s e a r c h e r s a t t e m p t e d t o use v a r i o u s a v e r a g i n g and w e i g h t i n g t e c h n i q u e s t o c o n t r o l f o r t h e p r o b l e m of a r t i f i c i a l l y i n f l a t e d a g r e e m e n t v a l u e s t h a t r e s u l t e d f r o m v a r y i n g e v e n t f r e q u e n c i e s . ( F o r a b r i e f r e v i e w of f i v e of t h e s e m e a s u r e s , O c c u r r e n c e A g r e e m e n t P e r c e n t a g e , Non-o c c u r r e n c e A g r e e m e n t P e r c e n t a g e , A v e r a g e O c c u r r e n c e / Non-o c c u r r e n c e A g r e e m e n t P e r c e n t a g e , and W e i g h t e d O c c u r r e n c e A greement P e r c e n t a g e , see A p p e n d i x B ) . P r o b a b l y t h e most o f t e n c i t e d p r o b l e m w i t h a l l v a r i a t i o n s of t h e P e r c e n t Agreement s t a t i s t i c i s t h a t t h e y do n o t a c c o u n t f o r " c h a n c e a g r e e m e n t . " A t d i f f e r e n t f r e q u e n c i e s of o c c u r r e n c e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f c h a n c e a g r e e m e n t d i f f e r s and f a i l u r e t o c o r r e c t f o r t h i s i n t r o d u c e s b i a s i n t o t h e measure of a s s o c i a t i o n . T h e r e a r e a t l e a s t two methods of a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n t r o l f o r c h a n c e a g r e e m e n t : t h o s e t h a t use w e i g h t e d e q u a t i o n s b a s e d on e v e n t f r e q u e n c y ( f o r a b r i e f r e v i e w of two of t h e s e m e a s u r e s , I n t e r o b s e r v e r A g r e e m e n t and W e i g h t e d A greement see A p p e n d i x B ) , a n d , c o r r e l a t i o n a l m e a s u r e s . C o r r e l a t i o n a l M e a s u r e s f o r C o r r e l a t i o n a l m e a s u r e s of a s s o c i a t i o n c h a n c e a g r e e m e n t by r e d u c i n g t h e v a l u e 18 a t t e m p t t o c o n t r o l of a g r e e m e n t ach ieved at h igh or low ra te s to those ach ieved at moderate r a te s of o c c u r r e n c e . An example of such a measure i s Cohen's kappa . kappa (Cohen, 1960). (A+B)(A+C) (C+D)(B+D) (A+D) + (A+B+C+D) (A+B+C+D) K = • - - — • (A+B)(A+C) (C+D)(B+D) (A+B+C+D) + • (A+B+C+D) (A+B+C+D) Th i s va lue i n d i c a t e s agreement f o r both occurrence and non-occurrence a f t e r c o n t r o l l i n g fo r chance agreement by t a k i n g i n t o account the p r o b a b i l i t i e s of agreement expected fo r the v a r i o u s f r e q u e n c i e s of e v e n t s . There are weaknesses wi th these measures of agreement. F i r s t , l i k e the percent agreement measures, they confound random and sy s temat i c e r r o r s . While random e r r o r s s imply i n d i c a t e a l apse i n a t t e n t i o n , sy s t emat i c e r r o r s are of s p e c i a l concern to the r e s e a r c h e r , as they i n d i c a t e a m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n . Second, no d i r e c t l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e means of a s s e s s i n g agreement i s a v a i l a b l e f o r these measures. An a l t e r n a t i v e to percent agreement and c o r r e l a t i o n a l s t a t i s t i c s as a measure of observer r e l i a b i l i t y i s the 19 a p p l i c a t i o n o f g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y t h e o r y . The r e s e a r c h e r d e t e r m i n e s v a r i a n c e components b a s e d on t h e o b s e r v e r s ' c o d i n g s and u s e s t h e s e components t o g e n e r a t e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s . i n a p i l o t s t u d y c o n d u c t e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ( s e e A p p e n d i x C ) , c o d i n g o f a c o a c h ' s b e h a v i o u r was c o m p l e t e d by two o b s e r v e r s u s i n g t h e C A I . E a c h o b s e r v e r i n d e p e n d e n t l y coded t h e same s e t of 56 comments. D a t a f o r e a c h e l e m e n t of e a c h d i m e n s i o n f o r e a c h comment was g i v e n a n u m e r i c a l v a l u e of 1 f o r o c c u r r e n c e and 0 f o r n o n - o c c u r r e n c e . These d a t a were t h e n u s e d i n s e p a r a t e B i o m e d i c a l D a t a P r o g r a m : P8V r u n s t o d e t e r m i n e v a r i a n c e components f o r e a c h d i m e n s i o n . A p r o b l e m , h o w e v e r , was f o u n d w i t h t h i s p r o c e d u r e . The n o m i n a l l y s c a l e d d i c h o t o m o u s d a t a p r o d u c e d no v a r i a n c e . A n d, s i n c e r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s a r e b a s e d on v a r i a n c e r a t i o s , no r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e s e d a t a . I t was, t h e r e f o r e , n o t p o s s i b l e t o use t h i s s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f r o m d a t a c o l l e c t e d u s i n g t h e C A I . The f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t , t h e n , m e a s u r e d t h e r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e CAI u s i n g T o t a l P e r c e n t A g r e e m e n t and k a p p a . Training The m a i n p u r p o s e o f c h e c k i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t y of d a t a c o l l e c t e d w i t h s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s i s t o e v a l u a t e t h e i r a c c u r a c y and o b j e c t i v i t y . H a w k i n s and D o t s p n 20 s o u r c e s of e r r o r i n o b t a i n i n g o b j e c t i v e , a c c u r a t e d a t a : The d e f i n i t i o n o f b e h a v i o u r g i v e n t o t h e o b s e r v e r by t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r may be v a g u e , s u b j e c t i v e o r i n c o m p l e t e. The b e h a v i o u r may be d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e c t b e c a u s e of i t ' s s u b t l e t y o r c o m p l e x i t y , b e c a u s e of d i s t r a c t i o n s , o r b e c a u s e of o t h e r f a c t o r s o b s t r u c t i n g t h e o b s e r v i n g p r o c e s s . The o b s e r v e r may be p o o r l y t r a i n e d , u n m o t i v a t e d , o r o t h e r w i s e i n c o m p e t e n t . ( p . 3 6 0 ) T r a i n i n g o b s e r v e r s i n t h e use of o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o u l d be a f f e c t e d by any o r a l l t h r e e of t h e s e p o s s i b l e e r r o r s o u r c e s . T h e r e a r e two f u n d a m e n t a l g o a l s of a t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m , one b e i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n of t h e o b s e r v e r i n t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i n g and r e c o r d i n g t e c h n i q u e s r e q u i r e d by t h e i n s t r u m e n t . The s e c o n d and more d i f f i c u l t t a s k , i s e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e o b s e r v e r c a n i d e n t i f y t h e b e h a v i o u r c a t e g o r i e s t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d i n g a w o r k i n g k n o w l e d g e of d e f i n i t i o n s f u n d a m e n t a l t o t h e i n s t r u m e n t . T h u s , t h e o p e r a t i o n a l l y t r a i n e d o b s e r v e r must n o t o n l y have k n o w l e d g e of t h e s e c a t e g o r i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s b u t must u n d e r s t a n d them and be a b l e t o a p p l y them t o d i f f e r e n t b e h a v i o u r a l s i t u a t i o n s . F o r t h i s 21 t o be p o s s i b l e t h e d e f i n i t i o n s must be u n a m b i g u o u s and-m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . W h i l e t h e r e s e a r c h e r w i l l no d o u b t have s t u d i e d and r e f i n e d t h e d e f i n i t i o n s d u r i n g t h e i n s t r u m e n t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t and t h r o u g h p i l o t s t u d i e s , t h e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s h o u l d a c t as a p r o v i n g g r o u n d o f t h e s u c c e s s of t h e s e r e f i n e m e n t s . I t i s d u r i n g t h e t r a i n i n g p e r i o d t h a t any s y s t e m a t i c e r r o r s c o m m i t t e d by t h e o b s e r v e r c a n and s h o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d . S y s t e m a t i c e r r o r s s u g g e s t a m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a d e f i n i t i o n w h i c h may o r may n o t be due t o i t ' s a m b i g u i t y . S e c o n d , t h e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s h o u l d t r a i n t h e o b s e r v e r s t o o b s e r v e , t h a t i s , where t o l o o k , and what t o l o o k f o r . P r o p e r t r a i n i n g i n t h i s a r e a w i l l m i n i m i z e i f n o t e l i m i n a t e t h i s s e c o n d t y p e of e r r o r . T h i r d , t h e i n t e n t of t h e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m i s t o p r o v i d e a method of e v a l u a t i n g t h e o b s e r v e r ' s p r o g r e s s t o w a r d t h e o b j e c t i v e of b e c o m i n g a s k i l l e d o b s e r v e r , t h a t i s , d e m o n s t r a t i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e d e f i n i t i o n s i n v o l v e d . Such an e v a l u a t i o n p r o v i d e s d a t a on t h e o b s e r v e r i n t e r m s of s y s t e m a t i c and random e r r o r s . A h i g h f r e q u e n c y of random e r r o r s i n d i c a t e s e i t h e r i n c o m p e t e n c e o r a l a c k of m o t i v a t i o n on t h e p a r t of t h e o b s e r v e r . I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s e v a l u a t i o n i s u s e d t o a s s e s s t h e o b s e r v e r ' s m a s t e r y of t h e r e c o r d i n g t e c h n i q u e s . C l e a r l y t h e n , t h e p r o g r a m e m p l o y e d t o t r a i n o b s e r v e r s i s of p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f a s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t . 22 Interactive Video Training Systems Bass ( 1 9 8 7 ) c o n c l u d e d t h a t a c o m p u t e r - v i d e o i n t e r a c t i v e s y s t e m was an e f f e c t i v e t r a i n i n g method i n t e r m s of e s t a b l i s h i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g an o b s e r v a t i o n a l r e p e r t o i r e . A t r a i n i n g v i d e o t a p e c o n s i s t s of a number of s e l e c t e d a c t i o n s egments and r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t v i a t h e c o m p u t e r . The c o m p u t e r i n t e r a c t s w i t h t h e v i d e o h a r d w a r e by r e a d i n g a t i m e code on t h e t a p e t o l o c a t e t h e p r e d e t e r m i n e d segment. The s u b j e c t i n t e r a c t s w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r by r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s v i a t h e k e y b o a r d . Cued by t h e s u b j e c t ' s r e s p o n s e s t o e a c h q u e s t i o n , t h e c o m p u t e r t h e n p r o c e e d s t o o r s e l e c t s t h e n e x t a p p r o p r i a t e segment of v i d e o t a p e t o be v i e w e d . I n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s prompt t h e c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m t o r e v i e w a p r e v i o u s segment of t a p e f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n p u r p o s e s b e f o r e p e r m i t t i n g t h e s u b j e c t t o p r o c e e d , w h e r e a s , c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s p e r m i t b r a n c h i n g t o a new s e g m e n t . T h i s a p p r o a c h a d d r e s s e s t h e t h r e e p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e s o f e r r o r i d e n t i f i e d by H a w k i n s and D o t s o n . An i n t e r a c t i v e . s y s t e m s u c h as t h a t d e s c r i b e d by B a s s w o u l d p r o v i d e t h e means t o e x a m i n e t h e s u b j e c t ' s t r a i n i n g t a p e d a t a and compare i t t o a c r i t e r i o n t o e s t a b l i s h t h e s u b j e c t ' s p r o g r e s s and i d e n t i f y b o t h random and s y s t e m a t i c e r r o r s . T h i s w o u l d p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e s u b j e c t on a l l t h r e e p o t e n t i a l e r r o r s o u r c e s . 23 The p u r p o s e of t h i s e x p e r i m e n t was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f o b s e r v e r s t r a i n e d i n t h e use of t h e C A I . T hese d a t a w i l l be u s e d t o p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e o v e r a l l i n s t r u m e n t and e a c h of i t ' s s e v e n d i m e n s i o n s . Method Subjects. F o u r s u b j e c t s , 2 m a l e s and 2 f e m a l e s , were s e l e c t e d f r o m a . l i s t o f k n o w l e d g e a b l e c o a c h e s s u p p l i e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l S p o r t G o v e r n i n g Body f o r B a s k e t b a l l . A l l s u b j e c t s , were a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n c o a c h i n g b a s k e t b a l l a t t h e h i g h s c h o o l , c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . • ^  Stimuli „ The s t i m u l i c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r 10 m i n u t e v i d e o t a p e d segments ( " C I " , "C2", "D", "E") r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f r o m a number of v i d e o t a p e d b a s k e t b a l l p r a c t i c e s . E a c h segment was i n t r o d u c e d by a 90 s e c o n d p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e c o a c h ' s d e s c r i p t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e d r i l l t h a t was t o be o b s e r v e d . The r e m a i n d e r of e a c h segment ( e i g h t and o n e - h a l f m i n u t e s ) c o n s i s t e d of 50 s e p a r a t e c o d e a b l e comments made by t h e c o a c h t o t h e a t h l e t e s as t h e y c o m p l e t e d t h e d r i l l . The comments r a n g e d i n l e n g t h f r o m s i n g l e w o r d s , t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 24 200 word m o n o l o g u e s . ( S e e A p p e n d i x D ) . The s e c t i o n s of t h e t r a i n i n g t a p e c o n t a i n i n g t h e comments were e d i t e d i n s u c h a manner t h a t e a c h s e p a r a t e comment was i s o l a t e d , t h a t i s , p r e c e d e d and f o l l o w e d by 2.5 s e c o n d s of t e s t p a t t e r n c o l o u r b a r s . T h i s s e p a r a t i o n was i n s e r t e d t o e n s u r e t h a t e a c h of t h e f o u r o b s e r v e r s were c o d i n g t h e same comments. Apparatus. The v i d e o t a p e s u s e d f o r b o t h t h e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m and d a t a c o l l e c t i o n were c o n s t r u c t e d by r e p r o d u c i n g s e l e c t e d s egments f r o m a d a t a b a s e of v i d e o t a p e d b a s k e t b a l l p r a c t i c e s u s i n g a P a n a s o n i c NV - A500 E d i t i n g C o n t r o l l e r , c o n n e c t e d t o two P a n a s o n i c NV - 8500 V i d e o C a s s e t t e R e c o r d e r s w i t h P a n a s o n i c CT - 110 C o l o r V i d e o M o n i t o r s . Coded d a t a was c o l l e c t e d v i a a 640K IBM c o m p a t i b l e Z e n i t h 181 m i c r o c o m p u t e r and a "Power P a d " i n p u t d e v i c e . The "Power P a d " i s a d i g i t i z a t i o n t a b l e t t h a t i n t e r f a c e d w i t h t h e p a r a l l e l p o r t of t h e m i c r o c o m p u t e r . F i g u r e 1 d e s c r i b e s t h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t -up. The a r e a of t h e t a b l e t i s d e f i n e d by a 12 i n c h s q u a r e . An a r r a y of 14,400 m i c r o - s w i t c h e s l i e j u s t b e n e a t h t h e s u r f a c e of t h e pad m a k i n g i t t o u c h s e n s i t i v e . A c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m was d e v e l o p e d t o s c a n t h e s e s w i t c h e s a t a r a t e of 10 t i m e s p e r s e c o n d . When a c l o s e d s w i t c h i s f o u n d , t h e x, y c o o r d i n a t e s of t h e p o i n t a r e r e a d and t h e s c a n c o n t i n u e s . The x, y v a l u e s of a c l o s e d s w i t c h on t h e pad a r e u s e d t o r e t r i e v e a v a l u e f r o m an a r r a y t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s t o a 25 Figure 1. Diagram of Apparatus Arrangement for Experiment 1: Inter and Intra-observer Reliabilities. " > Experimenter 26 s p e c i f i e d i n p u t e v e n t . The power pad o v e r l a y ( s e e F i g u r e 2 ) , was d e s i g n e d s u c h t h a t t h e s u b j e c t c o u l d s t o p t h e v i d e o t a p e ( i . e . , p a u s e ) and a n a l y z e o r code a comment s i m p l y by t o u c h i n g t h e b u t t o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o e a c h d i m e n s i o n and e l e m e n t i d e n t i f i e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e p r o c e s s p e r m i t t e d t h e s u b j e c t t o b a c k up t h r o u g h t h e d i m e n s i o n s p r e v i o u s l y c o d e d , i n o r d e r t o change o r r e c o d e a p r e v i o u s e n t r y . F o l l o w i n g c o d i n g of e a c h comment, t h e s u b j e c t w o u l d r e s t a r t t h e t a p e . The v i d e o t a p e s were p l a y e d oh a P a n a s o n i c NV-8500 E d i t i n g d e c k and v i e w e d on a P a n a s o n i c CT-110 m o n i t o r . The menu d r i v e n CAI p r o g r a m was w r i t t e n i n t h e T u r b o P a s c a l p r o g r a m m i n g l a n g u a g e and was i n t e r a c t i v e i n t h a t i t a l l o w e d t h e s u b j e c t t o c o n t r o l t h e VTR PAUSE and PLAY f u n c t i o n s v i a t h e c o m p u t e r i n p u t t a b l e t . T h i s c o n t r o l was a c h i e v e d by c o n n e c t i n g t h e p a r a l l e l p o r t of t h e c o m p u t e r t o t h e v i d e o deck w i t h a 3 4 - p i n c o n n e c t o r i n t e r f a c e d w i t h t h e VTR Remote p o r t . The c o m p u t e r m o n i t o r was c o n n e c t e d t o a P a n a s o n i c CT-110 m o n i t o r w i t h a BNC c o n n e c t o r . The m o n i t o r s f o r t h e v i d e o t a p e and t h e CAI p r o g r a m were p l a c e d s i d e by s i d e and t h e s u b j e c t s s a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r f e e t f r o m t h e m o n i t o r s d u r i n g c o d i n g . Definitions. The d i m e n s i o n s u t i l i z e d i n t h e CAI ( s e e page 7) a r e t h o s e d e f i n e d i n t h e I n s t r u c t i o n component of t h e M o d e l of Team S p o r t P r a c t i c e C omponents. The h i e r a r c h i c a l model s e e n 27 FIGURE 2 Diagram of digitization tablet overlay used in Experiment 1. PORTABLE COMPUTER (ZENITH 181) PARALLEL PORT i INPUT DEVICE (DIGITIZATION TABLET) E N D O F D R I L L T E A M T A L K O V E R F R E E Z E C O M M E N T G R O U P P U B L I C D E M O R T C D E M O R T I S K I L L C O R R E C T 10 R E C O N -S T R U C T O T H E R S K I L L I N -C O R R E C T A P P R O P R I A T E I N T E R R -O G A T I V E E V A L U -A T I V E D E S C R I P -T I V E P A U S E I N D I V I D U A L P R I V A T E D E M O S M C D E M O S M I T A L K R E C O N -A F T E R S T R U C T N O N - S K I L L B E H A V I O U R E F F O R T O R G A N I Z A T I O N A C C E P T O T H E R I N A P P R O P R I A T E P R E S C R I P -T I V E A F F E C T I V E P O S I T I V E ' N E U T R A L B A C K IIIIH U P N E G A T I V E A E C P C T 28 i n F i g u r e s 3 and 4 i s a s a m p l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e e v e n t s w h i c h o c c u r i n a team s p o r t p r a c t i c e . A t t h e f i r s t l e v e l , t h e p r a c t i c e i s p o r t r a y e d as a c o n t i n u o u s t i m e l i n e . T h i s t i m e l i n e i s b r o k e n down i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g segments:•Warm up; T e c h n i c a l ; T e c h n i c a l / T a c t i c a l ; T a c t i c a l ; S t r a t e g y ; C o n d i t i o n i n g ; O t h e r . E a c h of t h e segments r e p r e s e n t s t h e s e c t i o n of p r a c t i c e t i m e t h a t i s d e v o t e d t o c o a c h i n g t h e s k i l l s and c o n c e p t s r e l a t e d t o t h a t segment. T h e r e f o r e , e a c h segment i s c o m p r i s e d of a number of d r i l l s t h a t a r e u s e d t o t e a c h t h e s e s k i l l s and c o n c e p t s . E a c h of t h e s e d r i l l s i s a n a l y z e d i n t e r m s of t h r e e m e a s u r a b l e c o m p o n e n t s : O r g a n i z a t i o n , I n s t r u c t i o n , and A t h l e t e P e r f o r m a n c e . The h i e r a r c h y of e l e m e n t s b e l o w e a c h of t h e s e t h r e e m a j o r d r i l l c o m ponents makes up t h e c o n t e n t of t h e t h r e e o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s : t h e Coach A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t , t h e A t h l e t e A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t , and t h e A t h l e t e Time E s t i m a t i o n I n s t r u m e n t . B o t h t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n and I n s t r u c t i o n components a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e C A I . The CAI ( c a t e g o r i e s and d e f i n i t i o n s ) was d e v e l o p e d as t h e r e s u l t of c o n s u l t a t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a p a n e l of o b s e r v a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s e x p e r t s , team s p o r t c o a c h e s and e x e c u t i v e members of t h e C o a c h i n g A s s o c i a t i o n of C a n a d a . Criterion Code. The c r i t e r i o n code u s e d i n t h e t r a i n i n g t a p e was e s t a b l i s h e d by a p a n e l of o b s e r v a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s e x p e r t s and 29 Coaching Practice Figure 3. Model of Team Sport Practice Components. Direction and Explanation 1. Did the athletes appear to understand the goals and organization of the drill? 2. Were the instructions clear? 3 . Did the coach speak clearly? Realism. Was the drill realistic? 1. Were the correct number of athletes ln the area? 2. Was the beginning of the drill correct? 3 . Was the goal of the drill correct?. Athlete Work Rate 1. Did the athletes work enthusiastically? 2. Did the athletes perform their drills with total effort? Yes No 5 4 3 2 1 7f\ 7K7K Warm up Technical Technical/ Tactical Tactical S ^ e g y | | Other A A A\ ^^pproprlale^) c^^appropriat^ =rlp^^rescrlp^\jr Affec- N ^Positive) ^Ne jtraH ; ^Negative^ N COACH ANALYSIS INSTRUMENT 30 Figure 4. Model of Team Sport Practice Components. Athlete Performance (Time J Individ ual (Techntcaf Physiolog-ical Response Measure Blomech anical Response] Measure Psychlog leal Response| Measure To \ / T O V T O V T O ^ flnstruc^Organl-yFeed-feuest^ tion Azatlon/VbacW tons/ On (Contend O i T ' Organrt vzatlon/ rAppropA nnapproj! rlate J \ riate (RepetlUoil (Successful) (NeuSal) (^nsuccesSv ATHLETE ANALYSIS INSTRUMENT 31 ATHLETE TIME ESTIMATION INSTRUMENT b a s k e t b a l l coaches . Each panel member was g iven the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s and asked to s tudy them. Each member then i n d e p e n d e n t l y coded a s e r i e s of 80 i n d i v i d u a l comments. The r e s u l t s of. the i n d i v i d u a l codings were ana lyzed and c o l l a p s e d and a l l d isagreements between members were n o t e d . The pane l then c o l l e c t i v e l y reviewed the p r o b l e m a t i c comments and d i s c u s s e d the reasons for t h e i r c o d i n g . Seven comments were d i s c a r d e d because of c o n t e x t u a l l i m i t a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from the v ideo camera a n g l e . Repeated v iewings and d i s c u s s i o n l e d to agreement on a l l dimensions of a l l remaining comments. From t h i s data base of comments coded by the " c r i t e r i o n " p a n e l , 10 comments were randomly s e l e c t e d and shown to a group of coaches at a N a t i o n a l Coaching C e r t i f i c a t i o n Program c l i n i c as par t of an i n f o r m a l p i l o t s tudy . F o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n on the use of the ins t rument and exposure to the d e f i n i t i o n s , the coaches were asked to code the 10 comments. D i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w i n g the coding s e s s i o n i n d i c a t e d that the coaches agreed on 96% of the c r i t e r i o n c o d i n g . Procedure Tva-ining Tape. The t r a i n i n g tape c o n s i s t e d of three s e c t i o n s and was approx imate ly 90 minutes l o n g . S e c t i o n one conta ined a segment of a v ideotaped b a s k e t b a l l p r a c t i c e and was used to demonstrate and e x p l a i n the d i v i s i o n of the coach ' s monologue 32 i n t o a " D i r e c t i o n s and E x p l a n a t i o n " component and a " C o d e a b l e Comments" component. T h i s was done by p r e s e n t i n g t h e segment i n i t i a l l y i n i t ' s e n t i r e t y , t h e n s h o w i n g i t a g a i n , w i t h i t ' s i two component p a r t s d i v i d e d by a s e c t i o n o f t e x t . The f i r s t s e c t i o n was a l s o u s e d t o e x p l a i n and d e m o n s t r a t e t h e d i v i s i o n of t h e C o d e a b l e Comments component i n t o s e p a r a t e comments. T h i s was done by s h o w i n g t h e C o d e a b l e Comments component once i n i t ' s e n t i r e t y , t h e n s h o w i n g i t a g a i n w i t h t h e monologue d i v i d e d i n t o s e p a r a t e comments u s i n g a t o n e t o i n d i c a t e t h e b e g i n n i n g and end of e a c h s e p a r a t e comment. F i n a l l y , t h e C o d e a b l e Comments component was shown a g a i n , t h i s t i m e d i v i d i n g t h e monologue i n t o s e p a r a t e comments by i n s e r t i n g 2.5 s e c o n d s of t e s t p a t t e r n c o l o u r b a r s b e t w e e n e a c h comment. The s e c o n d s e c t i o n o f t h e t r a i n i n g t a p e c o n t a i n e d t h e e n t i r e p r a c t i c e segment ( b o t h t h e D i r e c t i o n s and E x p l a n a t i o n and C o d e a b l e Comments c o m p o n e n t s ) ; t h i s s e c t i o n u s e d c o l o u r b a r s t o show t h e d i v i s i o n s b e t w e e n t h e components as w e l l as t o d i v i d e t h e s e p a r a t e comments. F u r t h e r , i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e c o l o u r b a r s f o l l o w i n g e a c h comment, a s e c t i o n o f t e x t c o n s i s t i n g of t h e c r i t e r i o n code f o r t h e p r e c e d i n g comment was i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e t a p e . By p r o v i d i n g t h e c r i t e r i o n code i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e comment, t h e t r a i n e e c o u l d c h e c k h i s / h e r c o d i n g of t h e comment and r e v i e w i t i f n e c e s s a r y . The r e m a i n i n g s e c t i o n of t h e t r a i n i n g t a p e c o n t a i n e d t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s e g m ents of v i d e o t a p e d b a s k e t b a l l p r a c t i c e , e a c h d i v i d e d i n t o i t ' s component p a r t s and i n t o s e p a r a t e comments u s i n g c o l o u r b a r s and c r i t e r i o n code t e x t ( s e e F i g u r e 5 ) . 33 Figure 5. Timeline for Training Tape. Directions and Explanation component Separate Comments Codeable Comment component ru t w t t t t t Tones Inserted Colour Bars Segment 1: Directions and Explanation, and Codeable Comments components. Segment 2 Directions and Explanation Codeable Comments I flirt t t t t t Inserted Colour Bars (2.5 seconds) SEPARATE COMMENTS Segment 3 Directions and Explanation Codeable Comments I i I t t t t t Inserted Colour Bars (2.5 seconds) CRITERION CODE 34 A l l s e c t i o n s were r e p r o d u c e d on a b l a n k t a p e , and were d e r i v e d f r o m t a p e s o f two n a t i o n a l women's t e a m . b a s k e t b a l l p r a c t i c e s . The s e l e c t i o n o f segments was made t o i n c l u d e a d i v e r s i t y of comments, on b o t h s k i l l and n o n - s k i l l r e l a t e d b e h a v i o u r . T hese segments were meant t o r e p r e s e n t a t y p i c a l p r a c t i c e s i t u a t i o n . Training Program. E a c h s u b j e c t c o m p l e t e d a l l t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s i n d i v i d u a l l y . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n t h e s u b j e c t s were g i v e n a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e p u r p o s e of t h e r e s e a r c h . The t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m and d a t a c o l l e c t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s were e x p l a i n e d and t h e d a t a i n p u t s y s t e m was d e m o n s t r a t e d . The s u b j e c t s were g i v e n a copy o f t h e Coach A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t T r a i n i n g M a n u a l ( s e e A p p e n d i x E) and a s k e d t o r e a d i t and s t u d y t h e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s . The s e c o n d t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n , s c h e d u l e d a t l e a s t one week a f t e r t h e f i r s t , p r o v i d e d t h e f i r s t f o r m a l t r a i n i n g . T h i s s e s s i o n began w i t h an o r a l r e v i e w of t h e c a t e g o r y d e f i n i t i o n s where t h e s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o d e f i n e e a c h e l e m e n t o f . e a c h d i m e n s i o n and p r o v i d e an ex a m p l e of s u c h a comment. Any d i s c r e p a n c i e s b e t w e e n t h e CAI d e f i n i t i o n and t h e s u b j e c t ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i t were n o t e d and d i s c u s s e d . F o l l o w i n g t h i s p r o c e d u r e , t h e s u b j e c t v i e w e d t h e f i r s t two s e c t i o n s of t h e t r a i n i n g t a p e . T hese s e c t i o n s e x p l a i n e d and p r o v i d e d e x a m p l e s of t h e t h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e c o a c h ' s monologue i n t o a 35 " D i r e c t i o n s and E x p l a n a t i o n " segment and a " C o d e a b l e Comments" segment. A l s o , t h e y d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e C o d e a b l e Comments segment i n t o s e p a r a t e comments, f i r s t u s i n g t o n e s , t h e n u s i n g t e s t p a t t e r n c o l o u r b a r s . F u r t h e r , t h e s e s e c t i o n s p r o v i d e d t h e s u b j e c t w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r a c t i c e o p e r a t i n g t h e VTR and e n t e r i n g d a t a v i a t h e Power P a d . F i n a l l y , t h e s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d t o code two d a t a s egments and c h e c k t h e i r c o d i n g s a g a i n s t t h e c r i t e r i o n c o d e . T h e i r d a t a was s t o r e d and a n a l y z e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . T h i s a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d o f c o m p a r i n g t h e i r c o d i n g t o t h e c r i t e r i o n code and n o t i n g any s y s t e m a t i c e r r o r s w h i c h were d e f i n e d as s y s t e m a t i c d e v i a t i o n s f r o m t h e c r i t e r i o n c o d e , t h a t i s , t h e s u b j e c t c o n s i s t e n t l y c o d e s a p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r y o r c a t e g o r i e s i n c o r r e c t l y as compared w i t h t h e c r i t e r i o n c o d e . Such e r r o r s i n d i c a t e an i n c o r r e c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a c a t e g o r y d e f i n i t i o n . D u r i n g t h e t h i r d t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n , s c h e d u l e d t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y , t h e s u b j e c t s were a g a i n r e q u i r e d t o r e v i e w t h e c a t e g o r y d e f i n i t i o n s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , any s y s t e m a t i c e r r o r s f o u n d i n t h e p r e v i o u s d a y ' s c o d i n g s were e x a m i n e d and d i s c u s s e d . The s u b j e c t t h e n v i e w e d t h e n e x t s e c t i o n o f t h e t r a i n i n g t a p e . T h i s s e c t i o n p r o v i d e d more d i s c u s s i o n and e x a m p l e s of t h e d i v i s i o n s b e t w e e n " D i r e c t i o n and E x p l a n a t i o n " and " C o d e a b l e Comments" and b e t w e e n s e p a r a t e comments. The s u b j e c t s were a l s o r e q u i r e d t o code a t h i r d d a t a segment and c h e c k t h e i r d a t a a g a i n s t t h e c r i t e r i o n c o d e . T h i s d a t a was s t o r e d and a n a l y z e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . I f s y s t e m a t i c e r r o r s were f o u n d i n t h e c o d i n g s of t h e t h i r d 36 s e s s i o n , a f o u r t h t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n was s c h e d u l e d f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y . T h i s s e s s i o n f o c u s e d on t h e d e f i n i t i o n s of t h e c a t e g o r i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s y s t e m a t i c e r r o r s and i n c l u d e d c o d i n g o f segment two on t h e t r a i n i n g t a p e . F o l l o w i n g c o m p l e t i o n of t h e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m , r e l i a b i l i t y t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s were s c h e d u l e d . Reliability Testing. The s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e d a l l c o d i n g s e s s i o n s i n d i v i d u a l l y . Upon a r r i v a l , t h e s u b j e c t was g i v e n a b r i e f r e v i e w o f t h e c a t e g o r y d e f i n i t i o n s . He/she was t h e n g i v e n a copy of t h e t r a n s c r i p t o f t h e d a t a segment t o be c o d e d , and v i e w e d t h i s segment i n i t ' s e n t i r e t y . The s u b j e c t t h e n w a t c h e d t h e d a t a segment a g a i n , t h i s t i m e , p a u s i n g t h e t a p e and r e s p o n d i n g t o th e q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o D i r e c t i o n and E x p l a n a t i o n . The s u b j e c t t h e n w a t c h e d t h e " C o d e a b l e Comments" s e c t i o n . F o l l o w i n g e a c h comment, t h e s u b j e c t p r e s s e d t h e PAUSE b u t t o n on t h e d i g i t i z a t i o n pad and c o d e d t h e comment, t h e n r e s t a r t e d t h e t a p e and w a t c h e d t h e n e x t comment. A f t e r c o d i n g t h e f i n a l comment, t h e s u b j e c t a n s w e r e d t h e q u e s t i o n s on R e a l i s m and A t h l e t e Work R a t e u s i n g t h e c o m p u t e r k e y b o a r d ( s e e F i g u r e T h i s p r o c e d u r e was r e p e a t e d f o r e a c h o f t h e f o u r t a p e segments " C I " , "D", " C 2 " , and "E" . 37 Figure 6. Timeline for Experiment 1: Inter and Intra-observer Reliabilities. Entire Segment Codeable Comments Directions and Explanation s s \ \ • X \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ • • t Realism and Athlete Work Rate 38 Analysis and Design. Two types of agreement were measured i n t h i s s tudy , i n t e r and i n t r a - o b s e r v e r agreement. I n t e r - o b s e r v e r agreement for each p a i r of sub jec t s was determined fo r each of the seven dimensions of the i n s t r u m e n t . The sub jec t s were p a i r e d as 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 2 /3 , 2 /4 , and 3/4, and the data fo r each observer was compared to those fo r every other o b s e r v e r . The mean i n t e r - o b s e r v e r agreement f o r each of the seven dimensions was determined as w e l l as the o v e r a l l agreement for the e n t i r e system. I n t r a - o b s e r v e r agreement was determined fo r each of the seven dimensions of the i n s t r u m e n t . To do t h i s each s u b j e c t ' s data from t h e i r coding of segment " C I " was compared to the data from t h e i r coding of segment " C 2 " . The mean i n t r a - o b s e r v e r agreement fo r each of the dimensions was determined as w e l l as the o v e r a l l i n t r a - o b s e r v e r agreement fo r the e n t i r e i n s t r u m e n t . A review of a number of commonly employed r e l i a b i l i t y measures (see Appendix B) r e v e a l e d that no one measure was u n i f o r m l y s t ronger that the o t h e r s . T h e r e f o r e , two measures, T o t a l Percent Agreement (T) and Cohen's kappa (K) were used to measure the r e l i a b i l i t y of the ins t rument and i t ' s d imens ions . T o t a l Percent Agreement was chosen because i t i s a s tandard i n the l i t e r a t u r e . A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t ensures unique, unambiguous ca tegory d e f i n i t i o n s , and i t i s r e l a t i v e l y easy to c a l c u l a t e . Kappa was chosen because i t i s a s tandard 39 i n the l i t e r a t u r e , i t accounts fo r chance agreement, and i t i s r e l a t i v e l y easy to c a l c u l a t e . S ince the g e n e r a l l y accepted minimum l e v e l of agreement for T o t a l Percent Agreement i s 80%, t h i s l e v e l was adopted as the a c c e p t a b l e s tandard fo r T i n t h i s s tudy . E i g h t y percent was a l s o adopted as the a c c e p t a b l e K v a l u e . While i t i s obvious that s i n c e T does not take chance agreement i n t o account and K does, a T va lue of 80% i s e a s i e r to ach ieve than a K va lue of 80%, the i n v e s t i g a t o r f e l t that u s ing i d e n t i c a l va lues for both measures would serve two purpose s : f i r s t , i f a K va lue of 80% was a c h i e v e d , i t would i n d i c a t e a very h igh r e l i a b i l i t y , second, u s ing the same va lue would a l so i n d i c a t e the d i f f e r e n c e between the two va lues i n terms of the s t r i n g e n c y of the measures. R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n Overall Instrument Interobserver and Intra-observer Reliabilities. The i n t e r o b s e r v e r agreement va lues fo r the o v e r a l l ins t rument ( i . e . , a l l seven dimensions) averaged over a l l sub jec t p a i r i n g s and a l l segments were: T o t a l Percent Agreement (T)=90.8 , kappa (K)=78.5 . A K va lue below the a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l of 80 % i n d i c a t e s that an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l of o b j e c t i v i t y was not ach ieved-by a l l observers fo r a l l d imens ions . The percent agreement f i g u r e s , both T and K, fo r 40 each dimension averaged over a l l observers and a l l segments, are shown i n Table 2. S ix of the seven d imens ions , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, had T va lues above 80% agreement. However, on ly four of the seven d i m e n s i o n s , 2, 3, 5, and 7, had K va lues of 80% agreement o r ' h i g h e r . The i n t r a - o b s e r v e r agreement va lues fo r the o v e r a l l ins t rument averaged over a l l s u b j e c t s , a l l d imens ions , and a l l segments were both above the r e q u i r e d 80% v a l u e : (T=95.2, K=88.6) . These va lues i n d i c a t e that on the average , s u b j e c t s ach ieved an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l of c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and coding of a l l d imens ions . Table 3 shows the T and K i n t r a - o b s e r v e r va lues for each dimension averaged over a l l segments and a l l o b s e r v e r s . A l l seven dimensions had both T and K va lues equal to or i n excess of 80%. A d i m e n s i o n a l breakdown fo r each s u b j e c t ' s i n t r a -observer va lues i s shown i n Table 4. ( I t should be noted that s i n c e , by d e f i n i t o n , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to have Sys temat ic E r r o r s i n I n t r a - o b s e r v e r agreement, these va lues are expected to be h i g h e r that I n t e r o b s e r v e r agreement v a l u e s ) . Dimensional Inter-observer and Intra-observer Reliabilities The i n t e r o b s e r v e r agreement va lues fo r Dimension 1: D i r e c t i o n , were both below the a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l , T=77.3, K=48.8. Tab le 5 shows a breakdown of the elements that make up Dimension 1, that i s , Team, Group, and I n d i v i d u a l . I t can be seen that the s u b j e c t s scored w e l l on the I n d i v i d u a l element (T=93.3, K=86.2) but had d i f f i c u l t y wi th both the 41 Table 2 I n t e r o b s e r v e r T o t a l Agreement Percentage (T) and Cohen's kappa (K) Va lues fo r the o v e r a l l Coaching A n a l y s i s Instrument (CAI) and i t ' s  seven Dimens ions , averaged over a l l segments and a l l s u b j e c t s . T K O v e r a l l Ins t rument : CAI 90.8 78.5 Dimension 1: D i r e c t i o n 77.3 48 .8 2: S e t t i n g 98.3 96.6 3: Method 96.6 85 .4 4: Focus 86 .4 72.8 5 : A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s 98.9 97.8 6: In tent 84.6 63 .5 7: Charac te r 9 2 . 1 82.4 42 Table 3 I n t r a - o b s e r v e r T o t a l Agreement Percentage (T) and Cohen's kappa  (K) Va lues fo r the o v e r a l l Coaching A n a l y s i s Instrument (CAI) and i t ' s seven Dimens ions , averaged over a l l segments and a l l s u b j e c t s . T K O v e r a l l Ins t rument : Dimension 1: CAI 95.2 D i r e c t i o n 92.4 S e t t i n g 98.5 Method 98.1 Focus 94.0 A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s 100.0 In tent 91.7 Charac te r 97.4 88 .6 82.8 97.0 93 .5 88 .0 100 .0 80.0 94.0 2: 3: 4: 5 : 6: 7 : 43 Table 4 I n t r a - O b s e r v e r T o t a l Agreement Percentage (T) and Cohen's Kappa  (K) Va lues fo r each observer fo r each dimension averaged over a l l  segment s. Observer Dimension Dimension Dimension Dimension K 1: D i r e c t i o n 96.0 91.0 2: , S e t t i n g 100 .0 100 .0 3 : Method 98 .0 91.2 4: Focus 98.0 96.0 5: A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s 100 .0 100.0 6: In tent 92.8 82.2 7 : C h a r a c t e r 98 .7 97.0 1: D i r e c t i o n 92.0 82.0 2: S e t t i n g 98.0 96.0 3: Method 97.7 90.3 4: Focus 94.0 88 .0 5 : A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s 100 .0 100 .0 6 : In tent 86 .8 70.2 7 : C h a r a c t e r 96.0 91.0 1: D i r e c t i o n 86 .7 70.0 2: S e t t i n g 98.0 96.0 3 : Method 99.0 95.4 4: Focus 92.0 84 .0 5 : A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s 100.0 100 .0 6: In tent 92.0 78.8 7: Charac te r 98.7 97.0 1: D i r e c t i o n 94 .7 88 .0 2: S e t t i n g 98.0 96.0 3: Method 97 .7 90.4 4: Focus 92.0 84 .0 5: A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s 100.0 100 .0 6: In tent 95 . 2 88 .9 7 : Charac te r 96.0 91.0 44 Table 5 I n t e r o b s e r v e r T o t a l Agreement Percentage (T) and Cohen's kappa (K) Values fo r the elements Team, Group, and I n d i v i d u a l which make up  Dimension 1: D i r e c t i o n averaged over a l l segments and a l l  s u b j e c t s . Dimension 1: D i r e c t i o n T K. Element Team: 69.7 26.5 Group: 68.3 23.2 I n d i v i d u a l : 93.3 86.2 45 Team (T=69.7, K=26.5) and Group (T=68.3, K=23.2) e l e m e n t s . T h e r e a r e a t l e a s t t h r e e p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e s e r e s u l t s . F i r s t l y , t h e d e f i n i t i o n s of Team and Group may have been a m b i g u o u s . The d e f i n i t i o n s g i v e n t o t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e : Team - t h e comment i s d i r e c t e d t o a l l members of t h e team i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r a c t i c e Group - t h e comment i s d i r e c t e d t o more t h a n One a t h l e t e b u t n o t t h e e n t i r e team, ( i . e ; , a g r o u p of p l a y e r s i n v o l v e d i n a d r i l l ; t h e s t a r t i n g l i n e u p ; e t c . ) . These d e f i n i t i o n s were d e v e l o p e d i n t h e same.manner as a l l o t h e r , d e f i n i t i o n s ( s e e D e f i n i t i o n s , page 2 9 ) . D u r i n g t h e I I o r a l r e v i e w s p r i o r t o e a c h d a t a c o l l e c t i o n s e s s i o n , a l l ,' I , < i s u b j e c t s were a b l e t o d e f i n e b o t h "Team" and " G r o u p " and ! • p r o v i d e an e x a m p l e of s u c h comments and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o n t e x t s . F u r t h e r , t h e a v e r a g e i n t r a - o b s e r v e r a g r e e m e n t f o r D i m e n s i o n 1 was T=92.4, K=82.8 s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e o b s e r v e r s were c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and c o d i n g of a l l t h r e e e l e m e n t s o f D i m e n s i o n 1. W h i l e c o n s i s t e n c y does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e a c c u r a c y ( i . e . , c o r r e c t i n t e r p r e t a t - . i o n ) , i t does s u g g e s t t h a t t h e d e f i n i t i o n i s unambiguous enough t o a l l o w t h e s u b j e c t t o have a s t a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e d e f i n i t i o n . G i v e n t h e s u b j e c t s ' p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e o r a l r e v i e w s and t h e i r i n t r a - o b s e r v e r s c o r e s , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a m b i g u i t y i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e r e s u l t s i n 46 T a b l e 5. A s e c o n d p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e s e l o w a g r e e m e n t v a l u e s i s t h a t w h i l e t h e r e were numerous e x a m p l e s of b o t h " G r o u p " and " I n d i v i d u a l " comments on t h e t r a i n i n g t a p e , t h e r e were no e x a m p l e s of "Team" comments.. T h i s was. a r e s u l t of t h e l i m i t e d d a t a base a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e t r a i n i n g t a p e . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 30% of t h e comments on t h e d a t a t a p e s were d i r e c t e d t o t h e "Team". I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s were u n s u r e as t o what c o n s t i t u t e d a "Team" comment h a v i n g n e v e r e n c o u n t e r e d one i n v i d e o t r a i n i n g . They may, t h e r e f o r e , have c o n f u s e d t h e i r c o d i n g of Team and Group comments w h i l e h a v i n g l e s s t r o u b l e w i t h I n d i v i d u a l comments. However, t h e o r a l e x a m i n a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e and t h e i n t r a -o b s e r v e r s c o r e s seem t o i n d i c a t e a s a t i s f a c t o r y u n d e r s t a n d i n g and c o n s i s t e n t a p p l i c a t i o n of a l l t h r e e d e f i n i t i o n s . A t h i r d e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t t h e manner i n . w h i c h b o t h t h e d a t a t a p e and t r a i n i n g t a p e were v i d e o t a p e d made i t d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e D i r e c t i o n of t h e comment. S i n c e b o t h t a p e s were r e c o r d e d u s i n g a s t a n d a r d w i d t h l e n s r a t h e r t h a n a w i d e a n g l e l e n s , anyone, v i e w i n g t h e t a p e saw o n l y t h e g r o u p of a t h l e t e s a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e d r i l l b e i n g t a p e d . O t h e r a t h l e t e s , p o s s i b l y t h e r e s t of t h e team, may have been i n v o l v e d i n t h e d r i l l on a r o t a t i o n ; o r s u b s t i t u t i o n b a s i s and t h u s were o f f t h e p l a y i n g s u r f a c e and p o s s i b l y o u t of camera v i e w . When t h e c o a c h made a comment t o e v e r y o n e i n v o l v e d i n t h e d r i l l ( i . e . , t h e e n t i r e t e a m ) , h e / s h e was i n c l u d i n g t h o s e c u r r e n t l y n o t a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g and o u t of camera v i e w . 47 H o w e v e r , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some s u b j e c t s may n o t have n o t i c e d t h o s e a t h l e t e s and t h u s i n c o r r e c t l y c oded t h e comment as " G r o u p " . T h i s i s l e s s l i k e l y t o o c c u r i n a s i t u a t i o n where t h e o b s e r v e r i s c o d i n g an e n t i r e p r a c t i c e and so r e c o g n i z e s w h i c h a t h l e t e s a r e i n v o l v e d -in a p a r t i c u l a r d r i l l , as o p p o s e d t o c o d i n g o n l y s e l e c t e d p a r t s o f t h e p r a c t i c e , as was t h e c a s e w i t h t h e d a t a t a p e . The i n t e r o b s e r v e r a g r e e m e n t v a l u e s ( s e e T a b l e 2) f o r D i m e n s i o n 2: S e t t i n g were v e r y h i g h (T=98.3, K=96.6). I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e d e f i n i t i o n s of b o t h " P u b l i c " and " P r i v a t e " were c l e a r and unam b i g u o u s and t h a t an a d e q u a t e number of e x a m p l e s o f e a c h were p r o v i d e d on t h e t r a i n i n g t a p e . T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n w o u l d l e a d t o e f f e c t i v e t r a i n i n g o f th e o b s e r v e r s t o i n t e r p r e t and code t h e b e h a v i o u r s r e l i a b l y . The i n t r a - o b s e r v e r a g r e e m e n t v a l u e s ( s e e T a b l e 3) f o r t h i s d i m e n s i o n a v e r a g e d o v e r a l l s u b j e c t s and a l l segments were a l s o h i g h (T=98.5, K=97.0) i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s were c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and c o d i n g of t h e e l e m e n t s of D i m e n s i o n 2. The i n t e r o b s e r v e r a g r e e m e n t v a l u e s f o r D i m e n s i o n 3: Method (T=96.6, K=85.4) b o t h s u r p a s s e d 80%. T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f a l l e i g h t e l e m e n t s ( T a l k O v e r , F r e e z e , D e m o n s t r a t e : R e a l Time C o r r e c t , D e m o n s t r a t e : R e a l Time I n c o r r e c t , D e m o n s t r a t e : S l o w M o t i o n C o r r e c t , D e m o n s t r a t e : S l o w M o t i o n i n c o r r e c t , T a l k A f t e r , and R e c o n s t r u c t ) , w h i c h make up D i m e n s i o n 3 were r e a s o n a b l y c l e a r and u n a m b i g u o u s . F u r t h e r , i t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s were a b l e t o i n t e r p r e t t h e 48 d e f i n i t i o n s c o r r e c t l y . The i n t r a - o b s e r v e r agreement va lues for Dimension 3 were T=98.1, K=93.5 sugges t ing s t rong c o n s i s t e n c y of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and cod ing of behaviours fo r a l l s u b j e c t s . The i n t e r o b s e r v e r agreement va lues for Dimension 4: S k i l l / N o n - s k i l l were: T=86.4, K=72.8, the K value f a i l i n g to achieve the r e q u i r e d 80% l e v e l . There are s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s fo r t h i s . F i r s t , l e t us examine the d e f i n i t i o n s of S k i l l and N o n - s k i l l . S k i l l - the comment i s d i r e c t e d towards a s k i l l . r e l a t e d b e h a v i o r . The comment may be concerned w i t h one of the s k i l l s i d e n t i f i e d by the coach before the p r a c t i c e or any other s k i l l or technique used i n the game ( e . g . , "When you shoot , you 've got to . . . " ) . N o n - s k i l l - the comment i s not s k i l l r e l a t e d . I t may concern Behaviour ( e . g . , "Stop h o r s i n g a r o u n d ! " ) ; i t may concern E f f o r t ( e . g . , " P i c k up the pace n o w . " ) ; i t may concern O r g a n i z a t i o n ( e . g . , " G a r y , Dan and Mike are group 1 . " ) ; i t may not be r e l a t e d to the p r a c t i c e , Other ( e . g . , " I went to the show l a s t n i g h t . " ) . 49 A g a i n , t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s were d e v e l o p e d i n t h e same manner as a l l o t h e r d e f i n i t i o n s ( s e e D e f i n i t i o n s , page 2 9 ) . F u r t h e r , p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e o r a l r e v i e w s p r i o r t o e a c h d a t a c o l l e c t i o n s e s s i o n d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t a l l s u b j e c t s were a b l e t o d e f i n e and p r o v i d e c o n t e x t u a l l ' y c o r r e c t ' e x a m p l e s of comments f o r b o t h element's of t h i s D i m e n s i o n . F i n a l l y , an e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e a v e r a g e i n t r a - o b s e r v e r a g r e e m e n t v a l u e s f o r D i m e n s i o n 4 (T=94.0, K=88.3) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e o b s e r v e r s were c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and c o d i n g of b o t h e l e m e n t s of D i m e n s i o n 4. G i v e n t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a m b i g u i t y i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n s a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e s e r e s u l t s . A s e c o n d p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t t h e o b s e r v e r s had d i f f i c u l t y i d e n t i f y i n g N o n - s k i l l comments, s i n c e t h e r e were v e r y few e x a m p l e s of s u c h comments on t h e t r a i n i n g t a p e ( t e n comments, 13%) when compared t o t h e d a t a t a p e s (105 comments, 5 2 . 5 % ) . H o w e v e r , t h e o r a l r e v i e w p e r f o r m a n c e and t h e i n t r a -o b s e r v e r v a l u e s s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s was n o t t h e c a s e . A more v i a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n may be t h a t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e d a t a t a p e and t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e l e d t o c o n t e x t u a l p r o b l e m s f o r t h e . s u b j e c t s . The t a p e was c o n s t r u c t e d s u c h t h a t e a c h d a t a segment was s e e n i n i t ' s e n t i r e t y . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , t h e segment was shown a g a i n b r o k e n down i n t o s e p a r a t e comments. E a c h comment i s s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e n e x t by 2.5 : s e c o n d s of t e s t p a t t e r n c o l o u r b a r s t o a l l o w t h e s u b j e c t t i m e t o p a u s e t h e t a p e and code t h e comment. O f t e n , t h e c o a c h makes s e v e r a l comments r e l a t i n g ' t o v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of t h e same p e r f o r m a n c e s e q u e n c e . I n ah a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e some 50 c o n t e x t f o r e a c h s e p a r a t e comment i n t h e s e c a s e s , t h e t a p e i s c o n s t r u c t e d t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e p e r f o r m a n c e s e q u e n c e r e l a t e d t o e a c h comment i s shown f o r t h a t comment. T h u s , t h e o b s e r v e r may see t h e same p e r f o r m a n c e s e q u e n c e s e v e r a l t i m e s , e a c h t i m e f o l l o w e d by a d i f f e r e n t ( s e p a r a t e ) comment. In-s h o r t , t h e r e i s a v i s u a l c o n t e x t u a l l e a d - i n f o r e a c h comment but n o t a l w a y s an a u d i o c o n t e x t u a l l e a d - i n . F u r t h e r , t h e s u b j e c t s were g i v e n an u n l i m i t e d amount of t i m e t o code e a c h comment and were a l l o w e d t o see r e p e a t e d v i e w i n g s o f e a c h comment i f t h e y w a n t e d t o . B e c a u s e of t h e s e f a c t o r s , p r o b a b l e e x t e n d e d d e l a y b e t w e e n c o d i n g o f two comments, and l a c k of a u d i o l e a d - i n o f p r e v i o u s comment t o p r o v i d e c o n t e x t , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some comments were m i s c o d e d as N o n - s k i l l E f f o r t i n s t e a d of S k i l l . F o r e x a m p l e , i n Comment A t h e c o a c h i s e x p l a i n i n g t h e need f o r b a l l c u t s i n ' a c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n . I n Comment B, t h e c o a c h s a y s "Come on P e t e ! " Comment B c o u l d be coded two ways, t h e f i r s t , o u t of c o n t e x t , as N o n - s k i l l E f f o r t ( i . e . , " P i c k up t h e pace P e t e ! " ) o r t h e s e c o n d , i n c o n t e x t , as S k i l l ( i . e . , " B a l l c u t now, P e t e ! " ) . As s e e n i n T a b l e 6 s u b j e c t s d i s a g r e e d " on t h e i r c o d i n g s on 47 of 105 (43 . 3 %) of t h e N o n - s k i l l comments s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e y ' had p o o r a g r e e m e n t as t o w h i c h comments were N o n - s k i l l . The i n t e r o b s e r v e r a g r e e m e n t v a l u e s ( s e e T a b l e 2) f o r D i m e n s i o n 5: A p p r o p r i a t e / I n a p p r o p r i a t e were w e l l above t h e 80% l e v e l " ( T = 9 8 . 9 , K=97.8) as were t h e i n t r a - o b s e r v e r v a l u e s ( s e e T a b l e 3) (T=100.0, K=100.0). T h i s was t o be e x p e c t e d f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . F i r s t , t h e c o a c h on t h e d a t a t a p e i s a 51 T a b l e 6 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Comments Coded as N o n - s k i l l Number of comments a l l o b s e r v e r s coded as N o n - s k i l l and a g r e e d on t h e e l e m e n t Number of comments o b s e r v e r s d i s a g r e e d on e i t h e r S k i l l / N o n - s k i l l o r E l e m e n t o f N o n - s k i l l Number of comments one o r more o b s e r v e r ( s ) c o d e d as N o n - s k i l l 52 s u c c e s s f u l h igh l e v e l coach who would not be expected to make many i n a p p r o p r i a t e comments. Second, there were no examples of i n a p p r o p r i a t e comments on the t r a i n i n g t ape . T h i s was due to the data base a v a i l a b l e fo r t r a i n i n g tape c o n s t r u c t i o n . A l l tapes i n t h i s data base were of another s u c c e s s f u l h igh l e v e l coach . T h i r d , s i n c e the sub jec t s had l i t t l e or no knowledge of the needs and p o t e n t i a l s of the a t h l e t e s on the data t apes , t h e n , i f the coach on the tape made a comment which appeared l o g i c a l and t e c h n i c a l l y sound to the s u b j e c t , i t was l i k e l y that t h i s comment would be coded as A p p r o p r i a t e . T h i s i s because the sub jec t might p r o p e r l y assume that the coach would not d e l i b e r a t e l y g ive the a t h l e t e a comment that i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e to h i s needs or p o t e n t i a l s . Due to i t ' s p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t i v i t y and i t ' s requirement of knowledge of the a t h l e t e s being coached i n order to ana lyze the c o a c h ' s a b i l i t y , i t may seem that t h i s Dimension might not be very u s e f u l . However, Master Coaches f a m i l i a r wi th the ins t rument have i n d i c a t e d that t h i s i s not the ca se . S e v e r a l such coaches i n c l u d i n g members of the Coaching A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada i n v o l v e d w i t h the i n s t r u m e n t ' s development and i n i t i a l p i l o t s t u d i e s , have suggested that t h i s i s a very c r i t i c a l d imension when e v a l u a t i n g coaches at coaching c l i n i c s as i t p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on the c o a c h ' s a b i l i t y to. determine key f a c t o r s of performance and h i s / h e r a b i l i t y to coach those f a c t o r s to a v a r i e t y of a t h l e t e s . The i n t e r o b s e r v e r agreement va lues (see Table 2) f o r Dimension 6: In tent were: T=84.6, K=63.5, the K agreement 53 i value being w e l l below the r e q u i r e d 80%. Looking at t h i s d imension more c l o s e l y i t can be seen that i n order to achieve agreement on t h i s d imension the sub jec t s had to agree on the occurrence and non-occurrence of f i v e separate e lements , " I n t e r r o g a t i v e " , . " E v a l u a t i v e " , " D e s c r i p t i v e " , " P r e s c r i p t i v e " , and " A f f e c t i v e " . While the ins t rument development and d e f i n i t i o n ref inement procedures employed fo r t h i s d imension were i d e n t i c a l to those used fo r a l l o ther dimensions of the ins t rument (see D e f i n i t i o n s , page 29) and s a t i s f a c t o r y sub jec t performance on o r a l reviews was a c h i e v e d , the i n t r a - o b s e r v e r agreement values . (T=91.7, K=79.9) seem to suggest at l e a s t a p a r t i a l l a c k of c o n s i s t e n c y i n the s u b j e c t ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these d e f i n i t i o n s . Two p o t e n t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n s fo r these data are s i m i l a r to e x p l a n a t i o n s suggested fo r the r e s u l t s i n Dimensions 1 and 4 above, , that i s , the problem may l i e i n the t r a i n i n g program, o r , i t may l i e i n the ca tegory d e f i n i t i o n s . As there were numerous examples of comments of each ca tegory on the t r a i n i n g tape i t i s u n l i k e l y that the t r a i n i n g program was the reason fo r these r e s u l t s . I t appears t h e n , that ambigui ty i n the d e f i n i t i o n s may be r e s p o n s i b l e for the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y agreement v a l u e s , both i n t e r and i n t r a -o b s e r v e r . The d e f i n i t i o n s the s u b j e c t s were g iven were: I n t e r r o g a t i v e - the comment i s i n the form of a q u e s t i o n r e l a t e d to the performance ( e . g . , "Why d i d you s w i t c h ? " ) . 54 E v a l u a t i v e - t h e comment e v a l u a t e s t h e p e r f o r m a n c e ( e . g . , " T h a t was a good s h o t " ; " Y o u r d e f e n s e i s t e r r i b l e " ; " T h a t ' s i t ! T h a t ' s i t ! " ) . , D e s c r i p t i v e - t h e comment d e s c r i b e s t h e p e r f o r m a n c e ( e . g . , " H e r e ' s what you d i d . . . . " ; "You s w i t c h e d w i t h . John when . . . . " ) . P r e s c r i p t i v e - t h e comment p r e s c r i b e s an a c t i o n t o t h e a t h l e t e , i t c o u l d be a p r e c u e as to what i s r e q u i r e d , i t c o u l d . b e a c o r r e c t i o n o r an a l t e r n a t i v e method of p r o d u c i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e ( e . g . , "Pump f a k e b e f o r e you go-up w i t h t h e s h o t . " ) . A f f e c t i v e - t h e comment a c t s as a m o t i v a t o r t o t h e a t h l e t e ( e . g . , " T h a t ' s t h e way t o work h a r d " ; "Get t h e p i a n o o f f y o u r b a c k . " ) . T a b l e 7 p r e s e n t s a b r e a k d o w n of D i m e n s i o n 6 i n t o i t ' s f i v e e l e m e n t s and t h e i n t r a - o b s e r v e r a g r e e m e n t v a l u e s f o r e a c h . E x a m i n a t i o n of t h i s t a b l e shows t h a t t h e l o w e s t a g r e e m e n t v a l u e f o r a l l s u b j e c t s was f o r t h e A f f e c t i v e e l e m e n t . As t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f A f f e c t i v e i s t h e most s u b j e c t i v e o f > a l l t h e e l e m e n t s t h a t make up t h e d i m e n s i o n , l o w e r a g r e e m e n t v a l u e s 55 Table 7 I n t r a - O b s e r v e r T o t a l Agreement Percentage (T) and Cohen's kappa  (K) Va lues fo r the elements I n t e r r o g a t i v e , E v a l u a t i v e , D e s c r i p t i v e , P r e s c r i p t i v e , and A f f e c t i v e which make up Dimension  6: I n t e n t , averaged over a l l segments. Dimension 6: In tent T K Observer Element I n t e r r o g a t i v e : 100 .0 100 .0 E v a l u a t i v e : 92.0 76.7 1 D e s c r i p t i v e : 98.0 91.2 P r e s c r i p t i v e : 94.0 84 . 1 A f f e c t i v e : 80.0 13 .5 I n t e r r o g a t i v e : 98.0 9 2.1 E v a l u a t i v e : 88.0 69 .4 2 De s c r i p t i v e : 76.0 51.0 P r e s c r i p t i v e : 88 .0 71.5 A f f e c t i v e : 84.0 33.8 I n t e r r o g a t i v e : 92.0 73.0 E v a l u a t i v e : 92.0 70.6 3 D e s c r i p t i v e : 98.0 87 .8 P r e s c r i p t i v e : 92.0 81.0 A f f e c t i v e : 86.0 38.6 I n t e r r o g a t i v e : 98.0 94.0 E v a l u a t i v e : 98 .0 95.0 4 D e s c r i p t i v e : 98 .0 87.8 P r e s c r i p t i v e : 94.0 85 .5 Af fee t i v e : 88 .0 71.6 56 may be e x p e c t e d . However, i n t e r o b s e r v e r agreement va lues c a l c u l a t e d without i n c l u d i n g A f f e c t i v e o c c u r r e n c e / n o n -occur rence i n the equa t ion are s t i l l below the r e q u i r e d 80% (T=87.0, K=72.4) . Th i s appears to i n d i c a t e that the A f f e c t i v e element was not the so l e reason for the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y Dimension 6 i n t e r o b s e r v e r agreement v a l u e s . F u r t h e r , s i n c e I n t e r r o g a t i v e i s the on ly element that had i n t r a - o b s e r v e r va lues above 80% for a l l s u b j e c t s , i t appears that there may be d e f i n i t i o n problems wi th the E v a l u a t i v e , D e s c r i p t i v e , and P r e s c r i p t i v e elements as w e l l as A f f e c t i v e . Based on these data i t becomes c l e a r that f u r t h e r d e f i n i t i o n ref inement fo r elements i n t h i s d imension are needed. The i n t e r o b s e r v e r agreement va lues for Dimension 7: Charac te r were both above the a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l (T=92.1, K=82.4) . T h i s d imension i s very s u b j e c t i v e and r e q u i r e s the sub jec t to determine i f the comment was presented i n a p o s i t i v e , n e u t r a l or nega t ive manner to the a t h l e t e . The l e v e l of agreement ach ieved by these sub jec t s may i n part be due to the f a c t that the coach on the data tapes i s a very animated and a r t i c u l a t e p e r s o n . It i s u s u a l l y qu i t e obvious to most observers when h i s comments are p o s i t i v e , when n e u t r a l and when n e g a t i v e . I f the coach were not as animated i t i s very p o s s i b l e that agreement va lues fo r t h i s d imension would be below a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l s . An example of t h i s was found when members of the c r i t e r i o n panel were c r e a t i n g the c r i t e r i o n code fo r the comments on the t r a i n i n g t a p e . The coach used on the t r a i n i n g tape was very ca lm, monotonic , and 57 e n i g m a t i c w h i c h l e d t o v e r y p o o r a g r e e m e n t v a l u e s p a n e l members on t h e C h a r a c t e r of h i s comments. be tween E x p e r i m e n t 2: S e p a r a t e Comment I d e n t i f i c a t i o n R e l i a b i l i t y T h i s e x p e r i m e n t was d e s i g n e d t o s t u d y t h e e f f e c t of t h e i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m on the. s u b j e c t s a b i l i t y t o p a r s e t h e c o a c h ' s monologue i n t o s e p a r a t e comments. W h i l e t h i s p r o c e s s was n o t r e q u i r e d of t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e c o n t r o l l e d s e t t i n g o f E x p e r i m e n t 1, i t i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e i n s t r u m e n t ' s r e l i a b l e u s e . I n o r d e r t o be q u a l i f i e d t o use t h e CAI an o b s e r v e r must be a b l e t o p e r f o r m s e v e r a l f u n c t i o n s r e l i a b l y . F i r s t , h e / s h e must be a b l e t o s e t up and o p e r a t e , t h e n e c e s s a r y e q u i p m e n t ( m i c r o - c o m p u t e r and power p a d ) . S e c o n d , . t h e o b s e r v e r must know and be a b l e t o a p p l y t o a v a r i e t y o f b e h a v i o u r a l s i t u a t i o n s , t h e c a t e g o r y d e f i n i t i o n s w h i c h c o m p r i s e t h e i n s t r u m e n t . F u r t h e r , t h e o b s e r v e r must be a b l e t o d i v i d e t h e c o a c h ' s monologue i n t o i t ' s two component p a r t s , " D i r e c t i o n s and, E x p l a n a t i o n " and " C o d e a b l e Comments". F i n a l l y , h e / s h e must be a b l e t o p a r s e t h e C o d e a b l e Comments component i n t o s e p a r a t e comments as d e f i n e d by t h e i n s t r u m e n t ' s d e f i n i t i o n of "Comment". P a r t of t h e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m f o r t h e CAI t h e n i n c l u d e s t e a c h i n g t h e s u b j e c t t o c o r r e c t l y d i v i d e t h e m o nologue i n t o s e p a r a t e comments. T h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by d e s c r i b i n g and d e m o n s t r a t i n g what c o n s t i t u t e s a s e p a r a t e comment. The method u s e d i n t h i s 58 t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m f i r s t p r e s e n t e d t h e s u b j e c t w i t h a c o m p l e t e C o d e a b l e Comment segment of t a p e . N e x t t h i s segment was d i v i d e d i n t o s e p a r a t e comments by u s i n g a t o n e t o i n d i c a t e t h e b e g i n n i n g and end of e a c h comment. F i n a l l y , , t h e segment was b r o k e n down i n t o s e p a r a t e comments by i n s e r t i n g 2.5 s e c o n d s of t e s t p a t t e r n b e t w e e n e a c h comment. I n o r d e r t o a n a l y z e t h i s p r o c e d u r e ' s e f f e c t on t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p a r s e t h e monologue i n t o s e p a r a t e comments t h e s u b j e c t ' s were t e s t e d b o t h p r i o r t o and f o l l o w i n g t r a i n i n g . • , . Method Subjects. The same s u b j e c t s were u s e d i n E x p e r i m e n t 2 as were, u s e d i n E x p e r i m e n t 1. Stimuli..' The s t i m u l i c o n s i s t e d o f two f i v e m i n u t e v i d e o t a p e d segments ("A" and "B") of b a s k e t b a l l p r a c t i c e . E a c h segment c o n t a i n e d a s e c t i o n of. b e t w e e n 60 and 90 s e c o n d s i n l e n g t h i n w h i c h t h e c o a c h d e s c r i b e d and o r g a n i z e d t h e d r i l l t o be r u n . The r e s t o f t h e segment c o n t a i n e d c o d e a b l e comments. E a c h segment c o n t a i n e d 20 comments. A "comment" was d e f i n e d a s : 59 Comment - any s t a t e m e n t , a b o u t a p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c ( r e l a t e d t o t h e p r a c t i c e o r n o t ) made by jthe ' c o a c h t h a t c a n s t a n d on i t ' s own ( i . e . , i t can be a s i n g l e word o r s e v e r a l s e n t e n c e s ) . The comments r a n g e d i n l e n g t h f r o m s i n g l e words ( e . g . , " G o o d " ) , t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 140 word p a r a g r a p h s : " L o o k , l o o k . Hey, hey! We're g e t t i n g so s l o p p y . We're s t a r t i n g t o a s k f o r f r e e b a l l s h e r e . To make i t w o r s e we're g i v i n g i t t o guys h e r e . You c o u l d j u s t as e a s i l y come out t o h e r e and p i c k e d up t h e b a l l a t a p o i n t of r e v e r s e p o s i t i o n . I ' l l r e m i n d you a g a i n . We want t o g e t f r e e b a l l s above t h e d o t t e d l i n e and b e l o w t h e f o u l l i n e , a n ywhere f r o m where you c a n s h o o t . O r , we want t o t r y and g e t i t h e r e a t t h e p o i n t p o s i t i o n o r a t t h e r e v e r s e p o s i t i o n . Not o u t i n no man's l a n d . So s t o p a s k i n g f o r i t i n no man's l a n d and s t o p g i v i n g i t t o p e o p l e i n no man's l a n d . " The segments were c h o s e n f r o m a d a t a base o f v i d e o t a p e d p r a c t i c e s and were i n t e n d e d t o r e p r e s e n t a t y p i c a l p r a c t i c e s i t u a t i o n . T r a n s c r i p t s o f t h e segments a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x F. 60 P r o c e d u r e The s u b j e c t s were t r a i n e d and c o m p l e t e d a l l c o d i n g s e s s i o n s i n d i v i d u a l l y . One week b e f o r e t h e f i r s t f o r m a l t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n , s u b j e c t s were g i v e n t h e Coach A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t T r a i n i n g M a n u a l ( s e e A p p e n d i x E) and a s k e d t o s t u d y t h e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s i n i t . E x p e r i m e n t 2 was i n i t i a t e d b e f o r e t h e s u b j e c t s f o r m a l t r a i n i n g and a f t e r t h e y had r e a d t h e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s . Upon a r r i v a l f o r t r a i n i n g , t h e s u b j e c t s were s u p p l i e d w i t h t h e t r a n s c r i p t f o r Segment A and a s k e d t o r e a d i t o v e r o n c e . They were t h e n a s k e d t o w a t c h Segment A, a f i v e m i n u t e segment of a b a s k e t b a l l p r a c t i c e . The e x p e r i m e n t r e q u i r e d t h e s u b j e c t s t o p l a c e a mark, on a t r a n s c r i p t o f t h e segment, a t t h e b e g i n n i n g and end of e a c h "comment", as t h e y i n t e r p r e t e d t h e d e f i n i t i o n of a comment u s e d by t h i s i n s t r u m e n t . The s u b j e c t s t h e n began t h e i r f o r m a l t r a i n i n g . F o l l o w i n g t h e c o d i n g o f t h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n of t h e t r a i n i n g t a p e , t h e s u b j e c t was a s k e d t o w a t c h a n o t h e r f i v e m i n u t e segment of p r a c t i c e , Segment B, and d i v i d e i t up i n t o i n d i v i d u a l comments by p l a c i n g marks on i t ' s t r a n s c r i p t . F i n a l l y , t h e s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o w a t c h Segment A a g a i n and d i v i d e i t up i n t o i n d i v i d u a l comments by p l a c i n g marks 1 on i t ' s t r a n s c r i p t . See F i g u r e 7. 61 Figure 7. Timeline for Experiment 2: Monologue Parsing Reliabilities. Code Segment Al Code Segment B Code Segment A2 62 Apparatus. The taped segments were p layed on a Panasonic NV-8500 v ideo E d i t i n g deck and d i s p l a y e d on a Panasonic CT-100 MCA v ideo m o n i t o r . The t r a n s c r i p t s were typed and presented as a s i n g l e paragraph . R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n The average number of comments i n t o which the s u b j e c t s d i v i d e d the segments are shown i n Table 8. Three of the four sub jec t s (1 , 3, and 4 ) , were more s u c c e s s f u l at d i v i d i n g the monologue i n t o comments that matched the " c r i t e r i o n c o d i n g " d u r i n g the P r e t e s t (segment A l ) than d u r i n g the P o s t t e s t (segments A2 and B ) . There are s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s for t h i s . F i r s t , i t cou ld have been that the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of "Comment" was ambiguous. The d e f i n i t i o n was developed a f t e r l o o k i n g at s e v e r a l hours of v ideotaped team-sport p r a c t i c e s which c o n t a i n e d i n excess of 1200 codeable comments. Refinements to the d e f i n i t i o n were made f o l l o w i n g p i l o t s t u d i e s and i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n i n v o l v i n g both b e h a v i o u r a l a n a l y s i s experts and members of the coaching f r a t e r n i t y : n a t i o n a l team coaches , e x e c u t i v e s from N a t i o n a l Sport Governing B o d i e s , and members of the Coaching A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada. However, g iven the r e s u l t s of t h i s exper iment , at l e a s t one problem w i t h t h i s d e f i n i t i o n has been i d e n t i f i e d . The d e f i n i t i o n s p e c i f i e s the importance b^ f 63 Table 8 Breakdown of Number of Comments I d e n t i f i e d by Sub jec t s and by C r i t e r i o n P a n e l . Observer # of A1/A2 Match Match C r i t e r i o n Comment s No . A l B A2 A l B A2 # % # % # % 1 21 11 15 6 10 45 4 15 8 36 2 32 30 34 24 15 68 20 77 18 82 3 32 7 6 0 15 68 1 5 0 0 4 17 8 12 5 5 23 2 8 4 18 Mean 26 14 17 9 11 51 7 26 8 34 1/3/4 -Mean 23 8 11 4 10 45 2 10 4 18 ® / 64 t h e c o n t e n t t o t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f a comment, but does not c l e a r l y s p e c i f y t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e t a r g e t a u d i e n c e t o t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f a comment. S i n c e t h e CAI c o d e s t h e " d i r e c t i o n " of t h e comment, t h a t i s , w h e t h e r i t i s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s t h e e n t i r e team, a g r o u p of a t h l e t e s , o r an i n d i v i d u a l a t h l e t e , a monologue t h a t a d d r e s s e s more t h a n one of t h e s e a u d i e n c e s must be c o m p r i s e d o f more t h a n one comment. I n an a t t e m p t t o c l a r i f y t h i s p o i n t t h e d e f i n i t i o n has s i n c e been r e w r i t t e n a s : Comment - any s t a t e m e n t , made by t h e c o a c h a b o u t a p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c ( r e l a t e d t o t h e p r a c t i c e o r n o t ) , w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r t a r g e t a u d i e n c e ( e i t h e r t h e e n t i r e team, a g r o u p o f a t h l e t e s , o r an i n d i v i d u a l a t h l e t e ) , t h a t can s t a n d on i t ' s own ( i . e . , i t c a n be a s i n g l e word or s e v e r a l s e n t e n c e s ) . A change i n e i t h e r t h e t o p i c o r t h e t a r g e t a u d i e n c e d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of t h e c o a c h ' s monologue s i g n a l s t h e end of one comment and t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n e x t . I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s c l a r i f i c a t i o n w i l l r e d u c e t h e a m b i g u i t y of t h e d e f i n i t i o n i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s . A s e c o n d e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e r e s u l t s d i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e 8 may be t h a t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of t h e p r o c e d u r e u s e d t o c o l l e c t t h e d a t a were u n c l e a r t o t h e s u b j e c t s o r , t h a t t h e m e a s u r e -ment p r o c e d u r e was e r r o r f u l . The p r o c e d u r e r e q u i r e d t h e 65 s u b j e c t t o p l a c e a p e n c i l mark on t y p e w r i t t e n t r a n s c r i p t s of t h e segments i n d i c a t i n g t h e b e g i n n i n g and end of e a c h comment. T h i s was done w h i l e w a t c h i n g and l i s t e n i n g t o t h e v i d e o t a p e . The s u b j e c t s were a l l o w e d t o r e a d t h r o u g h t h e t r a n s c r i p t once b e f o r e s t a r t i n g . They were a l l o w e d t o pause t h e t a p e a t a n y t i m e d u r i n g t h e segment t o make a mark o r c a t c h up, and were shown an e x a m p l e of what was r e q u i r e d on a d e m o n s t r a t i o n t r a n s c r i p t . F i n a l l y , t h e y were a s k e d i f t h e y u n d e r s t o o d what was r e q u i r e d and a l l q u e s t i o n s n o t r e l a t i n g t o t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t were a n s w e r e d b e f o r e t e s t i n g b e g a n . G i v e n t h i s s t r i n g e n t m e t h o d o l o g y i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e measurement r e q u i r e m e n t s o r p r o c e d u r e a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e r e s u l t s i n T a b l e 8. F i n a l l y , a more v i a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n c o u l d be t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e b i a s e s t h e s u b j e c t ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a "comment". The a v e r a g e number of words per comment, t h e a v e r a g e number of comments p e r segment, and t h e number of t i m e s e a c h segment was s e e n by t h e s u b j e c t i s shown i n T a b l e 9. The t r a i n i n g t a p e c o n t a i n s more t h a n f o u r t i m e s as many comments as t h e d a t a t a p e . F u r t h e r , t h e t r a i n i n g t a p e c o n t a i n s more t h a n f i v e t i m e s as many comments c o n t a i n i n g 20 words o r more as t h e d a t a t a p e . D u r i n g t h e t r a i n i n g t h e s u b j e c t s were e x p o s e d t o r e p e a t e d v i e w i n g s of comments t h a t were more t h a n t w i c e as l o n g as t h o s e v i e w e d i n t h e P r e t e s t . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s e x p o s u r e t o t h e s e " l o n g " comments i n f l u e n c e d t h e s u b j e c t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f what c o n s t i t u t e s a comment. E v i d e n c e f o r t h i s i s s e e n i n t h e s u b j e c t ' s a v e r a g e 66 Table 9 Experiment 2 Da ta : Comment Length Average Words Per Comment A c c o r d i n g to O b s e r v e r ' s Coding Observer A l B A2 1. 18 27 25 2. 12 10 11 3 . 12 43 53 4. 22 30 31 Average 16 30 30 Average Words Per Comment Segment A 15 Segment B 11 Average 13 T1 3 5 T2 25 T3 34 Average 31 Range of Words Per A c c o r d i n g To C r i t e r i o n Code Comment In Segments No. of Comments C o n t a i n i n g 20 Segment Minimum Maximum Words or More A 2 116 2 B 1 140 3 T l 2 288 11 T2 2 108 7 T3 4 188 9 Number of Comments On Tapes Data Tape 48 T r a i n i n g Tape 208 67 number of words per comment. T h e i r P o s t t e s t average (30) i s n e a r l y twice as long as t h e i r P r e t e s t average (16) and. very s i m i l a r to the t r a i n i n g tape average ( 3 1 ) . In an attempt to measure t h i s i n f l u e n c e two dependant v a r i a b l e s were i d e n t i f i e d : Combinat ion e r r o r s , where the sub jec t combines two or more c r i t e r i o n comments i n t o one; D i v i s i o n e r r o r s , where the sub jec t d i v i d e s one c r i t e r i o n comment i n t o two or more. The average number of Combinat ion e r r o r s n e a r l y t r i p l e d from P r e t e s t (3 .8 ) to P o s t t e s t ( 1 0 . 8 ) , whi le the number of D i v i s i o n e r r o r s reduced by more than 50%, ( P r e t e s t , 3 .3 ; P o s t t e s t , 1 .4 ) . See Table 10. F i n a l l y , w h i l e there were occurrences of both Combinat ion e r r o r s and D i v i s i o n e r r o r s i n both the P r e t e s t and the P o s t t e s t , none of the sub jec t s marked a comment end p o i n t that d id not correspond to a c r i t e r i o n comment end p o i n t . For example, i f the sub jec t combined two c r i t e r i o n comments i n t o one, the end p o i n t of t h i s combined comment corresponded to the end p o i n t of the second c r i t e r i o n comment. C o n v e r s e l y , i f the sub jec t d i v i d e d one c r i t e r i o n comment i n t o two, the end p o i n t of the second would correspond to the end p o i n t of the o r i g i n a l . Th i s suggests that whi le the concept of what c o n s t i t u t e s the content of a comment i s u n c l e a r to the s u b j e c t s a f t e r t r a i n i n g , t h e i r under s t and ing of the boundar ies of a comment was s i m i l a r to that of the r e s e a r c h e r s . One e x c e p t i o n to t h i s g e n e r a l t rend was i d e n t i f i e d i n Subject 2. T h i s sub jec t showed a s teady improvement i n performance from A l through B and A2. He c o n s i s t e n t l y 68 Table 10 E r r o r F r e q u e n c i e s fo r Experiment 2 D a t a . Combinat ion e r r o r s - the observer combines two or more c r i t e r i o n comments i n t o one. D i v i s i o n e r r o r s - the observer d i v i d e s one c r i t e r i o n comment i n t o two or more. Observer Combinat ion E r r o r s D i v i s i o n E r r o r s A l B A2 4 16 6 2 0 0 A l B A2 6 5 4 A l B A2 1 19 14 4 1 0 A l B A2 8 19 10 1 1 0 P r e t e s t Average P o s t t e s t Ave rage A l B A2 3.8 13 .8 7.8 10 .8 3.3 1.8 1.0 1.4 69 d i v i d e d t h e monologue up i n t o as many or more comments t h a n any o t h e r s u b j e c t . He had t h e g r e a t e s t number of m a t c h e s between A l and A2 and showed a s t e a d y i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e number of comments w h i c h m atched the. c r i t e r i o n . H i s a v e r a g e number of words p e r comment f o r e a c h segment r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e . The number of C o m b i n a t i o n e r r o r s made by t h i s s u b j e c t r e d u c e d f o l l o w i n g t r a i n i n g . He made more D i v i s i o n a l e r r o r s t h a n any o t h e r s u b j e c t i n b o t h P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t ; however t h i s number d e c r e a s e d i n b o t h segments of t h e P o s t t e s t . One e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s s u b j e c t ' s p e r f o r m a n c e may be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t he was an a s s i s t a n t c o a c h . A l l o t h e r s u b j e c t s were c u r r e n t l y a c t i n g as head c o a c h e s . P a r t o f t h e j o b of an a s s i s t a n t c o a c h i s t o l i s t e n t o t h e head c o a c h and a t t e m p t t o h e l p t h e a t h l e t e s u n d e r s t a n d and i m p l e m e n t t h e f e e d b a c k p r o v i d e d by t h e head c o a c h . A l s o , as an a s s i s t a n t he i s l i s t e n i n g t o t h e head c o a c h i n an a t t e m p t t o l e a r n f r o m h i m . I t may be t h a t t h i s s u b j e c t i s more u s e d t o l i s t e n i n g t o comments w h i l e t h e o t h e r s a r e u s e d t o g i v i n g them. From t h i s p o s i t i o n , S u b j e c t 2, h a v i n g more e x p e r i e n c e a t l i s t e n i n g t o s e p a r a t e comments w i t h i n t h e head c o a c h ' s m o n o l o g u e , m i g h t be e x p e c t e d t o p e r f o r m b e t t e r a t comment i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . F u r t h e r , he may have come i n t o t h e s t u d y w i t h a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what c o n s t i t u t e s a s e p a r a t e comment and t h u s was l e s s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e e x p o s u r e t o t r a i n i n g . B a sed on t h e s e r e s u l t s t h e n , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d t o S u b j e c t 2's s p e c i a l s t a t u s as compared w i t h t h e o t h e r 70 s u b j e c t s , i t must be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m e m p l o y e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n had a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on t h e s u b j e c t s ' a b i l i t y t o p a r s e t h e c o a c h ' s monologue i n t o s e p a r a t e comments. G e n e r a l D i s c u s s i o n T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be t h r e e m a i n p r o b l e m a t i c a r e a s w i t h s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n : s u b j e c t i v i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , and v a l i d i t y . S u b j e c t i v i t y i s o f t e n a r e s u l t -of an i n a d e q u a t e f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s e m p l o y e d by t h e i n s t r u m e n t . W i t h o u t a s p e c i f i c f r a m e w o r k t o work f r o m t h e o b s e r v e r i s a l l o w e d t o r e l y on i n t u i t i o n w h i c h may be i n f l u e n c e d ' by s u c h t h i n g s as p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e , i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s , e t c . T h i s s u b j e c t i v i t y may l e a d t o p o o r r e l i a b i l i t y . ' T h e r e a r e a t l e a s t two p o s s i b l e c a u s e s f o r p o o r r e l i a b i l i t y . F i r s t , i t may be t h a t t h e l a c k o f an a d e q u a t e f r a m e w o r k r e s u l t s i n ambiguous c a t e g o r y d e f i n i t i o n s . D e f i n i t i o n s ' w h i c h a r e n o t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , or a r e w o r ded i n s u c h a way as t o a l l o w more t h a n one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a r e a common c a u s e of p o o r r e l i a b i l i t y . S e c o n d , i n a d e q u a t e r e l i a b i l i t y may be due t o t h e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m u s e d t o t r a i n o b s e r v e r s t o use t h e i n s t r u m e n t . T r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s t h a t do' n o t i n c l u d e i n s t r u c t i o n s and e x a m p l e s of b o t h what t o l o o k f o r ( i . e . , b e h a v i o u r a l e v e n t s and c a t e g o r y d e f i n i t i o n s ) , and 71 how t o l o o k ( i . e . , o b s e r v a t i o n a l s k i l l s r e l a t e d t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r i n s t r u m e n t ) , may p r o d u c e u n r e l i a b l e o b s e r v e r s . F i n a l l y , s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s o f t e n , have v a l i d i t y p r o b l e m s . F o u r p o t e n t i a l v a l i d i t y c o n c e r n s i n c l u d e : C o n t e n t v a l i d i t y - how w e l l t h e c a t e g o r i e s d e s c r i b e t h e t o t a l r a n g e of b e h a v i o u r s t o be c o d e d . C o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y - how w e l l t h e s y s t e m r e p r e s e n t s a l l t h e b e h a v i o u r s , e l e m e n t s and p r o p e r t i e s t h a t g i v e t h e s y s t e m m e a n i n g and d i s t i n g u i s h i t f r o m o t h e r s y s t e m s . C o n v e r g e n t / D i v e r g e n t v a l i d i t y - t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h one b e h a v i o u r or e v e n t s t a n d s by i t s e l f o r d i f f e r s f r o m a n o t h e r . F a c e v a l i d i t y - t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e i n s t r u m e n t m e a s u r e s t h e r e a l w o r l d c o n s t r u c t i t p u r p o r t s t o m e a s u r e . O b j e c t i v e , r e l i a b l e d a t a i s of no use i f i t i s n o t a v a l i d r e f l e c t i o n of th e r e a l w o r l d . The o r i g i n a l p u r p o s e b e h i n d t h i s s t u d y was t o a t t e m p t t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e o n - g o i n g e f f o r t s t o a n a l y z e c o a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n an o b j e c t i v e , r e l i a b l e , v a l i d manner. I n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a f r a m e w o r k f o r s u c h a n a l y s e s t h e M o d e l of 72 Team S p o r t P r a c t i c e Components was d e v e l o p e d . T h i s h i e r a r c h i c a l model s o u g h t t o d i v i d e t h e p r a c t i c e i n t o i t ' s v a r i o u s components and t h e i r , r e s p e c t i v e d i m e n s i o n s . B a s e d on t h i s m o d e l , t h r e e s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s were d e v e l o p e d t o s t r u c t u r e t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e s s e s f o r t h e t h r e e m a i n components of t h e m o d e l , O r g a n i z a t i o n , I n s t r u c t i o n , and A t h l e t e P e r f o r m a n c e . T h i s s t u d y f o c u s e d on t h e Coach A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t ( C A I ) , w h i c h i s d e s i g n e d t o c o l l e c t d a t a on t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n and I n s t r u c t i o n c omponents of t h e m o d e l . The CAI a d d r e s s e s f i v e a r e a s t h a t were c o n s i d e r e d t o be l a c k i n g i n p r e v i o u s s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s , n a m e l y t h e c o n t e n t of t h e p r a c t i c e , t h e a t h l e t e ' s p e r f o r m a n c e n e e d s , i n p u t f r o m t h e o b s e r v e d c o a c h , e f f i c i e n t d a t a c o l l e c t i o n m e t h o d s , and t h e p e r c e i v e d u t i l i t y of s u c h an i n s t r u m e n t by t h e o b s e r v e d c o a c h . I n an a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i n t e r and i n t r a -o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r b o t h t h e o v e r a l l i n s t r u m e n t and e a c h of i t ' s s e v e n c a t e g o r i e s , d a t a c o l l e c t e d by t r a i n e d o b s e r v e r s was a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g t o two commonly u s e d r e l i a b i l i t y m e a s u r e s : T o t a l P e r c e n t Agreement ( T ) and k a p p a ( K ) . The p r e s e n t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e o v e r a l l C o a c h i n g A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t r e a c h e d a T v a l u e of 90.8, i t f a i l e d t o meet, t h e 80% l e v e l f o r t h e K measure ( K = 7 8 . 5 ) . A d i m e n s i o n by d i m e n s i o n e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e d a t a was u n d e r t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e s e r e s u l t s and i t was r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e p r o b l e m i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h r e e s p e c i f i c D i m e n s i o n s : 7 3 D i m e n s i o n 1: D i r e c t i o n - a p p e a r s t o have r e l i a b i l i t y p r o b l e m s b a s e d on e i t h e r i n a d e q u a t e t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e s , w h i c h f a i l e d t o i n c l u d e e x a m p l e s o f a l l t h r e e e l e m e n t s of D i m e n s i o n 1, o r most p r o b a b l y , ' on t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e v i d e o camera a n g l e , w h i c h f a i l e d to- encompass a l l a c t i v e members i n a p a r t i c u l a r d r i l l ' . T h i s p r o b l e m - may have r e s u l t e d i n t h e s u b j e c t n o t b e i n g p r o v i d e d w i t h s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n ' t o r e l i a b l y i d e n t i f y t h e e l e m e n t s . D i m e n s i o n 4: S k i l l / N o n - s k i l l - a p p e a r s t o have r e l i a b i l i t y p r o b l e m s b a s e d on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e d a t a t a p e . The t a p e was o r g a n i z e d i n s u c h a way t h a t p e r m i t t e d a p o s s i b l e l o s s o f c o n t e x t when s u b j e c t s a t t e m p t e d t o code c e r t a i n comments; i n p a r t i c u l a r ,. N o r i - s k i l l - E f f o r t Comments. D i m e n s i o n 6: I n t e n t - a p p e a r s t o have r e l i a b i l i t y p r o b l e m s b a s e d on a m b i g u i t y ' o f a c t u a l c a t e g o r y d e f i n i t i o n s of f o u r o f i t ' s f i v e e l e m e n t s . I t c a n be s e e n f r o m t h i s d a t a t h a t r e p o r t i n g an o v e r a l l i n s t r u m e n t r e l i a b i l i t y as a c o m p o s i t e s c o r e w i t h o u t m e n t i o n i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f t h e components o f t h e c o m p o s i t e may l e a d t o an i n a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i n s t r u m e n t ' s r e l i a b i l i t y . F o r e x a m p l e , s e v e r a l v e r y r e l i a b l e c omponents c o u l d mask t h e p o o r r e l i a b i l i t y of a n o t h e r c omponent. Use of s u c h an i n s t r u m e n t c o u l d l e a d t o t h e c o l l e c t i o n of i n a c c u r a t e , u n r e l i a b l e d a t a . 74 Removing any one of t h e above t h r e e p r o b l e m a t i c d i m e n s i o n s ( 1 , 4, 6 ) , f r o m t h e e q u a t i o n f o r o v e r a l l i n s t r u m e n t r e l i a b i l i t y r e s u l t s i n t h e o v e r a l l i n s t r u m e n t r e l i a b i l i t y t o e x c e e d t h e 80% l e v e l . See T a b l e 11. I n d e e d , i n an e l e m e n t by e l e m e n t e x a m i n a t i o n i t c a n be s e e n t h a t 21 of t h e 27 e l e m e n t s t h a t make up t h e i n s t r u m e n t a c h i e v e d i n t e r o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y m e a s u r e s of 80% o r . h i g h e r . F u r t h e r , o n l y D i m e n s i o n 6: I n t e n t a p p e a r s t o have d e f i n i t i o n a l p r o b l e m s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t w i t h o n l y m i n o r c h a n g e s t o t h e i n s t r u m e n t as w e l l as s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o t h e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m and d a t a t a p e c o n s t r u c t i o n t h e o v e r a l l 80% r e l i a b i l i t y l e v e l may be r e a c h e d f o r t h e o v e r a l l i n s t r u m e n t . A s e c o n d a r y p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o exa m i n e t h e e f f e c t of t h e i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m on t h e s u b j e c t ' s a b i l i t y t o p a r s e t h e c o a c h ' s m onologue i n t o s e p a r a t e comments. T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p a r t i c u l a r t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m u s e d had a p r o f o u n d l y n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on t h e s u b j e c t ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e l e n g t h of a s e p a r a t e comment. The a v e r a g e number of words p e r comment on t h e t r a i n i n g t a p e was a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w i c e as many as on t h e d a t a t a p e s u s e d f o r t h e p r e and p o s t t r a i n i n g t e s t s . The a v e r a g e number of words p e r comment f o r t h r e e of t h e f o u r s u b j e c t s on t h e i r p o s t t r a i n i n g ' t e s t s was a l m o s t d o u b l e t h a t of t h e i r p r e - t r a i n i n g a v e r a g e . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f "comment" was s u f f i c i e n t l y vague t o c r e a t e e r r o n e o u s e x p e c t a t i o n s by t h e s u b j e c t s . From t h e s e d a t a i t i s c l e a r t h a t a more p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n of comment i s i n o r d e r . F i n a l l y , d a t a f r o m t h i s 75 Table 11 I n t e r o b s e r v e r T o t a l Agreement Percentage (T) and Cohen's kappa (K)  Va lues fo r the o v e r a l l Coach A n a l y s i s Instrument (CAI) i n c l u d i n g  a l l d imensions and e x c l u d i n g p r o b l e m a t i c d imens ions , averaged over a l l segments and a l l s u b j e c t s . T K O v e r a l l Ins t rument : 90.8 78.5 Without Dimension 1: 92.7 82.6 4: 91.6 80.4 6: 92.4 82.0 1 and 4: 93.3 83.5 1 and 6: 95.1 88.3 4 and 6: 93.1 82.9 1, 4 and 6: 96.2 90.5 e x p e r i m e n t may s u g g e s t a p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e b e t ween head c o a c h e s and a s s i s t a n t c o a c h e s i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p a r s e a c o a c h ' s m onologue i n t o s e p a r a t e comments. The p u r p o s e o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y of d a t a c o l l e c t e d by o b s e r v e r s t r a i n e d i n t h e use of t h e C A I . However, t h e v a l i d i t y of t h e i n s t r u m e n t was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d a t a l l s t a g e s of i t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t and t e s t i n g . D u r i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e C o m p u t e r i z e d C o a c h i n g A n a l y s i s S y s t e m ( C C A S ) , and t h e M o d e l o f Team S p o r t P r a c t i c e Components on w h i c h i t i s b a s e d , c o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n t o c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y . A d r a f t o f t h e m o d e l , t h e CCAS c a t e g o r i e s and t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s were p r e s e n t e d t o and d i s c u s s e d w i t h a p a n e l o f o b s e r v a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s e x p e r t s , members of t h e C o a c h i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f C a n a d a , M a s t e r C oaches and o t h e r members of t h e c o a c h i n g f r a t e r n i t y . These p e o p l e were a s k e d t o comment on how w e l l t h e model and s y s t e m d e s c r i b e d t h e t o t a l r a n g e o f p o s s i b l e b e h a v i o u r s t o be c o d e d . B a s e d on t h e i r comments and s u g g e s t i o n s , r e v i s i o n s were made t o t h e b o t h t h e model and s y s t e m b e f o r e t h e f i n a l d r a f t was c o m p l e t e d . F u r t h e r , a f o l l o w - u p q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( s e e A p p e n d i x G) was p r e s e n t e d t o t h e c o a c h e s who p a r t i c i p a t e d as s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n c l u d e d q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e c o m p l e t e n e s s of t h e model and t h e s y s t e m as w e l l as t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s on t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d by t h e i n s t r u m e n t . A f t e r h a v i n g d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e model and one component o f t h e CCAS s y s t e m , t h e C A I , a l l c o a c h e s 77 s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e y f e l t t h e model a p p e a r e d c o m p l e t e i n t h e i r m i n ds and f e l t t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d w o u l d be u s e f u l i n t e r m s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . C o n s i d e r a t i o n was a l s o g i v e n t o c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . T h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o o k t h e two d i s t i n c t f o r m s . F i r s t , t h e s y s t e m was b a s e d on t h e M o d e l o f Team S p o r t P r a c t i c e Components w h i c h was d e v e l o p e d j u s t f o r t h i s p r o j e c t , e n s u r i n g i t ' s u n i q u e n e s s . S e c o n d , t h e s y s t e m was d e v e l o p e d a f t e r e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e a r e a o f s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n and a c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s . B a s e d on t h i s r e s e a r c h , a l i s t o f f i v e a r e a s t h a t a p p e a r e d t o be l a c k i n g i n p r e s e n t o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s was c o m p i l e d and t h e CCAS was d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o a d d r e s s t h e s e a r e a s . C o n v e r g e n t / D i v e r g e n t v a l i d i t y was c o n s i d e r e d when t h e c u r r e n t r e l i a b i l i t y s t u d y was d e s i g n e d . A r e c o g n i z e d measure of a s s e s s i n g c o n v e r g e n t / d i v e r g e n t v a l i d i t y i s i n t e r o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y ( L a u b a c h , ' 1 9 7 5 ) . T h e r e f o r e , i f a h i g h l e v e l o f i n t e r o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y i s a c h i e v e d , c o n v e r g e n t / d i v e r g e n t v a l i d i t y i s assumed. W h i l e f a c e v a l i d i t y c a n n o t be m e a s u r e d f r o m t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y , i t has s t i l l been g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t h e i n s t r u m e n t d e v e l o p e r s . The f u n d a m e n t a l a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e CCAS i s b a s e d upon i s t h a t t h e u l t i m a t e c r i t e r i a f o r m e a s u r i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a c o a c h s h o u l d b e a r r e l e v a n c e t o t h e a t h l e t e ' s p e r f o r m a n c e . T h u s , i f t h e a t h l e t e ' s l e v e l of p e r f o r m a n c e a t t h e s p e c i f i c s k i l l s b e i n g c o a c h e d i m p r o v e s and t h i s p e r f o r m a n c e i s d u r a b l e , t h e n t h e c o a c h may be deemed 78 t o have been e f f e c t i v e ( F r a n k s e t a l . 1 9 8 6 ) . T h e r e f o r e i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e CAI has f a c e v a l i d i t y a s t u d y must be c o n d u c t e d i n w h i c h t r a i n e d o b s e r v e r s u s i n g t h e CCAS c o l l e c t r e l i a b l e d a t a on a c o a c h and h i s a t h l e t e s o v e r an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d of t i m e ( e . g . , an e n t i r e s e a s o n ) and p l o t t h e a t h l e t e ' s l e v e l o f p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e s p e c i f i c s k i l l s b e i n g c o a c h e d . R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s S e v e r a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s may be drawn f r o m t h i s s t u d y : 1. W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f o r D i m e n s i o n 1: D i r e c t i o n , i t i s recommended t h a t a camera e q u i p p e d w i t h a w i d e a n g l e l e n s be u s e d when v i d e o t a p i n g t h e p r a c t i c e s t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e d a t a b a s e . T h i s w o u l d e n s u r e t h a t t h e o b s e r v e r ' s f i e l d of v i e w i s l a r g e enough t o encompass a l l i n d i v i d u a l s ( i n c l u d i n g s u b s t i t u t e p l a y e r s and p l a y e r s n o t c u r r e n t l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g ) who a r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r a c t i c e a n d / o r a p a r t i c u l a r d r i l l . I n a d d i t i o n i t i s recommended t h a t t h e use of a zoom l e n s t o "zoom i n " on a c o a c h o r an a t h l e t e s h o u l d o n l y o c c u r when h e / s h e i s d e m o n s t r a t i n g a s k i l l . A t a l l o t h e r t i m e s t h e f i e l d of v i e w of t h e camera s h o u l d encompass a l l p l a y e r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d r i l l a n d / o r p r a c t i c e . 79 S p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f o r D i m e n s i o n 1: D i r e c t i o n and D i m e n s i o n 4: F o c u s , i t i s recommended t h a t a l a r g e d a t a base of v i d e o t a p e d p r a c t i c e s be g a t h e r e d . T h i s d a t a b a s e s h o u l d i n c l u d e t a p e s o f p r a c t i c e s o f v a r i o u s team s p o r t s . F u r t h e r , i t s h o u l d i n c l u d e t a p e s of c o a c h e s a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s , w i t h d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s , and d i f f e r e n t c o a c h i n g s t y l e s and p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Such a d a t a b a s e c o u l d t h e n be u s e d t o c r e a t e a v a r i e t y of d a t a t a p e s f o r f u r t h e r r e l i a b i l i t y s t u d i e s and t o c r e a t e t r a i n i n g t a p e s f o r v a r i o u s s p o r t s to t r a i n o b s e r v e r s i n t h e use of t h e C A I . F u r t h e r , t h i s d a t a base s h o u l d be u s e d t o e n s u r e t h a t a l l t r a i n i n g t a p e s c r e a t e d t o t r ^ a i n o b s e r v e r s i n t h e use of t h e CAI i n c l u d e e q u a l numbers o f e x a m p l e s of e a c h e l e m e n t of e v e r y d i m e n s i o n o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . T h i s w o u l d e n s u r e t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g w o u l d n o t b i a s t h e o b s e r v e r w i t h r e g a r d s t o c e r t a i n e l e m e n t s o r d i m e n s i o n s . S p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f o r D i m e n s i o n 6: I n t e n t , i t i s recommended t h a t t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f f o u r o f t h e f i v e e l e m e n t s of D i m e n s i o n 6, n a m e l y E v a l u a t i v e , D e s c r i p t i v e , P r e s c r i p t i v e , and A f f e c t i v e , be r e v i s e d t o r e d u c e o r remove t h e i r c u r r e n t a m b i g u i t y . I t i s recommended t h a t a l o n g t e r m v a l i d i t y s t u d y be u n d e r t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e t h e f a c e v a l i d i t y o f t h e CCAS. 80 5. S p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f r o m E x p e r i m e n t 2, i t i s recommended t h a t a s t u d y be u n d e r t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e r e v i s e d d e f i n i t i o n o f "Comment" w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m ' s e f f e c t on t r a i n i n g o b s e r v e r s t o p a r s e a c o a c h ' m onologue i n t o s e p a r a t e comments. C o n c l u s i o n I n c o n c l u s i o n i t a p p e a r s t h a t w i t h r e f i n e m e n t of f o u r of t h e d e f i n i t i o n s of D i m e n s i o n 6: I n t e n t , as w e l l as m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and o b s e r v e r t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e s , o b s e r v e r s may be t r a i n e d t o r e l i a b l y use t h e Coach A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t . I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e , t h e n t h e s e o b s e r v e r s c o u l d c o l l e c t r e l i a b l e , o b j e c t i v e , q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a on t h e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t c r e a t e d by t h e c o a c h . Thes d a t a c o u l d t h e n be u s e d t o o b j e c t i v e l y d e t e r m i n e a c o a c h ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . 81 R e f e r e n c e s B a s s , R. F. (1987) . C o m p u t e r - A s s i s t e d O b s e r v e r T r a i n i n g . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d B e h a v i o u r A n a l y s i s , 2_0 ( 1 ) , 83-88. B r o p h y , J . E. & E v e r t s o n , C. M. ( 1974). M e a s u r i n g T e a c h e r E f f e c t s on P u p i l A c h i e v e m e n t . J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 66 , ( 3 ) , 390-405. C h e f f e r s , J . T. F. (1972) . 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An O b s e r v a t i o n a l System for Observ ing the V e r b a l and N o n - v e r b a l Behavior s Emi t ted By P h y s i c a l Educator s and Coaches . The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t o r , 37, 15-20. R i n k , J . E . (1985) . Teaching P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n fo r L e a r n i n g . T o r o n t o : Times M i r r o r / M o s e b y C o l l e g e P u b l i s h i n g . Rosensh ine , B . , & F u r s t , N. (1971) . Research i n Teacher Performance C r i t e r i a . In B. Smith , ( E d . ) , Research i n  Teacher . E d u c a t i o n . Englewbod C l i f f s , N. J . P r e n t i c e -H a l l . Rowley, G. L . (1976) . The R e l i a b i l i t y of O b s e r v a t i o n a l Measures . American E d u c a t i o n a l Research J o u r n a l , 13(1) , 51-59. R u s h a l l , B. S. (1977) . Two O b s e r v a t i o n Schedules for S p o r t i n g and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Env i ronment s . Canadian Journa l of A p p l i e d Sport S c i e n c e s , 2, 15-21. S i e d e n t o p , D. (1976) . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n : I n t r o d u c t o r y Analys i s . (2nd ed . ) , Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Company. S i e d e n t o p , D. (1983) . Deve lop ing Teaching S k i l l s i n P h y s i c a l  E d u c a t i o n (2nd e d . ) . Palo A l t o : M a y f i e l d P u b l i s h i n g Company. 84 S i n c l a i r , G . D. (1983) . P l a n n i n g f o r Improvement: P r o f i l e of a P r a c t i c e A n a l y s i s . Coaching Sc ience Update , 44-47. S i n c l a i r , G . D. (1983, W i n t e r ) . Focus ing On I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e : A Feedback A n a l y s i s P r o f i l e . Coaching Sc ience  Update , 44-47. S i n c l a i r , G . D. (1985, J u l y - A u g u s t ) . A n a l y z i n g Feedback S t y l e . Coaching Review, 60-64. S l o a t , K. M. C. (1978) . A comment on " C o r r e c t i o n fo r b ias  present i n a method of c a l c u l a t i n g i n t e r o b s e r v e r  agreement . " Unpubl i shed paper . Kamehomeha E a r l y E d u c a t i o n Program. Smith , R. E . , S m o l l , F . L . , & Hunt , E . B . (1978) . T r a i n i n g Manual f o r the Coaching Behavior Assessment System (CBAS) . Soar , R. & Soar , R. M. (1972) . An e m p i r i c a l a n a l y s i s of s e l e c t e d f o l l o w through programs: an example of a process approach to e v a l u a t i o n . In I . J . Gordon ( E d . ) E a r l y c h i l d h o o d e v a l u a t i o n : s e v e n t y - f i r s t yearbook of  N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y for the Study of E d u c a t i o n (Par t 2 ) . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s . S t a l l i n g s , J . & Kaskowi tz , D. (1974) . F o l l o w through c las s room  o b s e r v a t i o n e v a l u a t i o n , 1972-1973. O f f i c e of E d u c a t i o n , c o n t r a c t (OEC-08522480-4633[100]) , Menlo Park , C a l i f o r n i a , S tanford Research I n s t i t u t e . Tharp , R. G . , & G a l l i m o r e , R. (1976, J a n u a r y ) . What A Coach Can Teach A T e a c h e r . Psycho logy Today, pp. 75-78. T o w s t o p i a t , 0. (1984) . A Review of R e l i a b i l i t y Procedures fo r Measur ing Observer Agreement. Contemporary E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 9_, 333-352. 85 A p p e n d i x A M o d e l of T e am-Sport P r a c t i c e Components The h i e r a r c h i c a l model ( s e e F i g u r e s 3 and 4) i s a g e n e r i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of i n t e r a c t i n g e l e m e n t s of a team s p o r t p r a c t i c e . A t t h e f i r s t l e v e l , t h e p r a c t i c e i s s e e n as a c o n t i n u o u s t i m e l i n e . T h i s t i m e l i n e i s composed of t h e f o l l o w i n g s e g m e n t s : Warm up; T e c h n i c a l ; T e c h n i c a l / T a c t i c a l ; T a c t i c a l ; S t r a t e g y ; C o n d i t i o n i n g ; O t h e r . E a c h of t h e s egments r e p r e s e n t s t h e s e c t i o n of p r a c t i c e t i m e t h a t i s d e v o t e d t o c o a c h i n g t h e s k i l l s and c o n c e p t s r e l a t e d t o t h a t s egment. T h e r e f o r e , e a c h segment i s c o m p r i s e d of " n " d r i l l s t h a t a r e u s e d t o t e a c h t h e s e t y p e s of s k i l l s and t h e i r r e l a t e d c o n c e p t s . E a c h of t h e s e d r i l l s i n v o l v e s t h r e e m e a s u r a b l e c o m p o n e n t s : O r g a n i z a t i o n , I n s t r u c t i o n , and A t h l e t e P e r f o r m a n c e . The h i e r a r c h y w i t h i n e a c h of t h e s e t h r e e m a j o r d r i l l c omponents makes up t h e c o n t e n t of t h e t h r e e o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s : Coach A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t A. I n p u t B o t h t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n and I n s t r u c t i o n components a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d I n t h e Coach A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t . The O r g a n i z a t i o n component has t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s t h a t d a t a a r e c o l l e c t e d on: 86 A p p e n d i x A' 1. D i r e c t i o n and E x p l a n a t i o n - w h i c h a s k s q u e s t i o n s a b o u t th e c l a r i t y o f t h e c o a c h ' s s p e e c h , and t h e g o a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e d r i l l and what s k i l l s w i l l be w o r k e d o n . 2. R e a l i s m - w h i c h a s k s q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e r e a l i s m o f th e d r i l l s , i . e . , how c l o s e l y t h e y match c o m p e t i t i v e s i t u a t i o n s . 3. A t h l e t e Work R a t e - w h i c h a s k s q u e s t i o n s on t h e p e r c e i v e d e f f o r t o f t h e a t h l e t e s . These q u e s t i o n s a r e r e s p o n d e d t o s u b j e c t i v e l y by t h e o b s e r v e r , u s i n g a f i v e p o i n t L i k e r t S c a l e . The I n s t r u c t i o n component c o l l e c t s d a t a on o n l y one c a t e g o r y , t h e Coac h ' s Comments. T h e r e a r e 7 d i m e n s i o n s of t h i s c a t e g o r y : 1. The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c o a c h ' s comment i s d e t e r m i n e d : a) t o t h e e n t i r e Team b) t o a Group o f a t h l e t e s c) t o an I n d i v i d u a l a t h l e t e 2. The s e t t i n g o f t h e comment's p r e s e n t a t i o n i s coded a s : a) P u b l i c - t h e comment i s p r e s e n t e d i n a s e t t i n g o r manner s u c h t h a t o t h e r s , b e s i d e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p t o whom t h e comment i s d i r e c t e d ( i . e . , a t h l e t e s , c o a c h e s , b y s t a n d e r s ) c a n h e a r t h e comment 87 A p p e n d i x A b) P r i v a t e - t h e comment i s p r e s e n t e d i n a s e t t i n g or manner s u c h t h a t o n l y t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p to whom t h e comment i s d i r e c t e d c a n h e a r t h e comment 3. The method of p r e s e n t a t i o n i s coded a s : a) T a l k o v e r - t h e c o a c h makes t h e comment w h i l e t h e a t h l e t e s a r e p e r f o r m i n g b) F r e e z e - t h e c o a c h s t o p s t h e a t h l e t e s d u r i n g p e r f o r m a n c e t o make t h e comment c) D e m o n s t r a t e - t h e c o a c h d e m o n s t r a t e s a s k i l l o r t e c h n i q u e i ) i n R e a l Time - i . e . , a t t h e s p e e d i t w o u l d be p e r f o r m e d i n c o m p e t i t i o n i i ) i n S l o w M o t i o n - a t a s l o w e r s p e e d t h a n i t w o u l d be p e r f o r m e d i n c o m p e t i t i o n d) T a l k A f t e r - t h e comment i s made d u r i n g a n a t u r a l b r e a k i n t h e f l o w o f t h e d r i l l i . e . , f o l l o w i n g a t r i a l o r r e p e t i t i o n , o r a t t h e . c o m p l e t i o n o f a s e t p l a y . e) R e c o n s t r u c t - t h e c o a c h r e c o n s t r u c t s a s i t u a t i o n t h a t has j u s t o c c u r r e d and t h e n comments on i t f ) a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s e v e r a l of t h e s e methods At t h e n e x t l e v e l of t h e I n s t r u c t i o n a l Comment h i e r a r c h y , t h e c o n t e n t of t h e c o a c h ' s comments a r e c o d e d : 88 A p p e n d i x A The o b s e r v e r d e t e r m i n e s t h e f o c u s o f t h e comment, i . e . , w h e t h e r i t i s a d d r e s s i n g : a) S k i l l - t h e f o c u s of t h e comment i s a s k i l l r e l a t e d b e h a v i o u r i ) When t h e comment i s s k i l l r e l a t e d , t h e s k i l l i t r e l a t e s t o i s i d e n t i f i e d . The s k i l l may be one of t h e s k i l l s l i s t e d i n t h e Coac h ' s I n p u t 1 w h i c h have been e n t e r e d e a r l i e r , i f s o , i t i s co d e d by i t ' s S k i l l £. I f t h e comment i s n o t r e l a t e d t o one of t h e s k i l l s l i s t e d i n t h e p r a c t i c e p l a n , i t i s coded as an O t h e r S k i l l ( i n d i c a t i n g t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f an u n p l a n n e d e v e n t ) . i i ) W i t h i n t h i s d e c i s i o n , t h e f o c u s i s f u r t h e r d e f i n e d i n t e r m s of t h e c o r r e c t n e s s o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e . When t h e comment i s r e l a t e d t o a c o r r e c t p e r f o r m a n c e o f a s k i l l (what was "done r i g h t " ) , i t i s coded as C o r r e c t . When i t i s r e l a t e d t o an i n c o r r e c t p e r f o r m a n c e (what was "done wrong") i t i s coded as I n c o r r e c t . I f i t i s f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n on how t o p e r f o r m a s k i l l o r a r e p e a t of e a r l i e r i n s t r u c t i o n s , t h e n i t i s coded as R e - i n s t r u c t i o n . 89 Appendix A b) N o n - s k i l l - the focus of the comment i s anyth ing other than a s k i l l r e l a t e d behaviour i ) When the comment i s n o n - s k i l l r e l a t e d i t i s coded as e i t h e r r e l a t i n g to a t h l e t e Behaviour or conduct , a t h l e t e E f f o r t , d r i l l or p r a c t i c e O r g a n i z a t i o n , or O t h e r , for a n o n - p r a c t i c e r e l a t e d comment. 5 . Whether the comment was coded as s k i l l r e l a t e d or non-s k i l l r e l a t e d i t i s then assessed i n terms of i t ' s i . • a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s w i t h regard to the c i r c u m s t a n c e : a) I f the comment i s s k i l l r e l a t e d , a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i m p l i e s a knowledge of the sub jec t mat te r ; an A p p r o p r i a t e comment would d e s c r i b e or p r e s c r i b e the c o r r e c t mechanics of a s k i l l or the proper t a c t i c or s t r a t e g y fo r a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . I f the comment i s not s k i l l r e l a t e d , a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i m p l i e s a f a i r comment that i s r e l e v a n t to the s i t u a t i o n . I f the comment i s s k i l l r e l a t e d , i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i m p l i e s a l a ck of knowledge of the sub jec t m a t t e r , a m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n , or an i n c o r r e c t e v a l u a t i o n of an a t h l e t e ' s or group of a t h l e t e s ' l e v e l of a b i l i t y or performance b) An I n a p p r o p r i a t e comment would d e s c r i b e or p r e s c r i b e i n c o r r e c t mechanics of a s k i l l , an improper t a c t i c or s t r a t e g y fo r a g iven s i t u a t i o n 90 A p p e n d i x A or an e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t i s u n r e a l i s t i c w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e a t h l e t e s a b i l i t y . I f t h e comment i s n o t s k i l l r e l a t e d , i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i m p l i e s a comment t h a t may be u n f a i r a n d / o r i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e s i t u a t i o n The p r o c e s s t h e n f o c u s e s upon t h e i n t e n t o f t h e comment a) I n t e r r o g a t i v e - i s i t ' s i n t e n t i o n t o a s k a q u e s t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e p e r f o r m a n c e b) E v a l u a t i v e - i s i t ' s i n t e n t i o n t o e v a l u a t e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e c) D e s c r i p t i v e - i s i t ' s i n t e n t i o n t o d e s c r i b e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e d) P r e s c r i p t i v e - i s i t ' s i n t e n t i o n t o p r e s c r i b e an a c t i o n , a c o r r e c t i o n o r an a l t e r n a t i v e method o f p r o d u c i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e e) A f f e c t i v e - i s i t ' s i n t e n t i o n t o a c t as a m o t i v a t o r t o t h e a t h l e t e , f ) I s i t ' s i n t e n t i o n a c o m b i n a t i o n of s e v e r a l o f t h e s d e s c r i p t o r s The o b s e r v e r d e t e r m i n e s t h e t o n e and c h a r a c t e r of t h e comment : a) P o s i t i v e - t h e comment i s e n t h u s i a s t i c , e n c o u r a g i n g e t c . b) N e u t r a l - t h e comment i s n e i t h e r e n t h u s i a s t i c n o r u n e n t h u s i a s t i c , e n c o u r a g i n g n o r d i s c o u r a g i n g 91 A p p e n d i x A c) N e g a t i v e - t h e comment i s u n e n t h u s i a s t i c , d i s c o u r a g i n g , s a r c a s t i c e t c . B. O u t p u t The r e s u l t s p r o g r a m f o r t h e C o a c h A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t a n a l y z e s t h e d a t a f o r b o t h t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e I n s t r u c t i o n c o m p o n e n t s . The O r g a n i z a t i o n component i s s u m m a r i z e d by a mean s c o r e w h i c h i s d e t e r m i n e d f o r e a c h of t h e q u e s t i o n s i n t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s ( D i r e c t i o n and E x p l a n a t i o n , R e a l i s m , A t h l e t e Work R a t e ) . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e s a summary of t h e e x p e r t o b s e r v e r ' s a n a l y s i s o f : t h e c o a c h ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s ; t h e r e a l i s m o f t h e d r i l l s t h a t were s e l e c t e d ; a n d , t h e a t h l e t e ' s work r a t e . The o u t p u t f r o m t h e I n s t r u c t i o n component i s p r e s e n t e d i n two t a b l e s . The t o t a l number of c o d e d comments i s d e t e r m i n e d . The number of t i m e s e a c h c a t e g o r y a p p e a r e d i n t h e c o a c h ' s comments (Team, G r o u p , I n d i v i d u a l , P u b l i c , P r i v a t e , S k i l l , e t c . ) , i s d e t e r m i n e d and d i s p l a y e d i n a t a b u l a r f o r m . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e s t h e a n a l y s t w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n and I n s t r u c t i o n p r o f i l e o f t h e c o a c h f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c o a c h i n g s e s s i o n . 92 A p p e n d i x A A t h l e t e A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t A. I n p u t B o t h t h e A t h l e t e A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t and t h e A t h l e t e Time E s t i m a t i o n I n s t r u m e n t a r e u s e d t o c o l l e c t d a t a on d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of t h e a t h l e t e ' s p e r f o r m a n c e . The A t h l e t e A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t was d e s i g n e d t o u s e d t o c o l l e c t d a t a on t h e E v e n t c a t e g o r y of t h e A t h l e t e P e r f o r m a n c e component. We d e f i n e " E v e n t " as a r e p e t i t i o n of a s k i l l e d p e r f o r m a n c e e.g., s h o o t i n g a f o u l s h o t , d o i n g a l a y - u p . F o u r t y p e s of d a t a can be c o l l e c t e d on any " e v e n t " : i ) T e c h n i c a l ; i i ) P h y s i o l o g i c a l ; i i i ) B i o m e c h a n i c a l ; i v ) P s y c h o l o g i c a l . T e c h n i c a l d a t a r e f e r s t o t h e t e c h n i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e s k i l l . The s k i l l t h e a t h l e t e i s p e r f o r m i n g may be one of t h e s k i l l s i n c l u d e d i n t h e C o a c h ' s I n p u t , i f s o , i t i s coded by i t ' s s k i l l number. I f t h e s k i l l t h e a t h l e t e i s p e r f o r m i n g i s n ' t i n c l u d e d i n t h e C o a c h ' s I n p u t , i t i s coded as an " O t h e r S k i l l " . The p e r f o r m a n c e i s a l s o coded as e i t h e r S u c c e s s f u l , n e u t r a l , o r u n s u c c e s s f u l as d e f i n e d by t h e c o a c h i n t h e C o a c h ' s I n p u t . The f o u r d i m e n s i o n s of t h e E v e n t c a t e g o r y a r e : : 1. T e c h n i c a l a) d a t a c a n be c o l l e c t e d on t h e w h o l e Team, on a Group of a t h l e t e s , o r an I n d i v i d u a l a t h l e t e b) t h e o b s e r v e r f i r s t i d e n t i f i e s t h e s k i l l b e i n g p e r f o r m e d , e i t h e r by i t ' s S k i l l £ o r as a n , O t h e r S k i l l 9 3 A p p e n d i x A c) t h e t o t a l number of R e p e t i t i o n s t h a t the, a t h l e t e p e r f o r m s i s coded a l o n g w i t h t h e number of S u c c e s s f u l , N e u t r a l and U n s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t s as d e f i n e d by t h e c o a c h i n h i s e a r l i e r i n p u t . 2. P h y s i o l o g i c a l * 3. B i o m e c h a n i c a l * 4. P s y c h o l o g i c a l * * " P h y s i o l o g i c a l " , " B i o m e c h a n i c a l " , , a n d " P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e s p o n s e M e a s u r e s " c a n a l s o be d e t e r m i n e d f o r an i n d i v i d u a l a t h l e t e and a r e t h e r e f o r e p a r t o f t h i s m o d e l , h o w e v e r , t h e s e m e a s u r e s a r e n o t a d d r e s s e d a t t h i s t i m e . C u r r e n t l y , we a r e w o r k i n g on a p r o g r a m t h a t w i l l a l l o w c o d i n g o f b o t h c o a c h and a t h l e t e b e h a v i o u r s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , u s i n g two o b s e r v e r s . T h i s i n t e g r a t e d d a t a w i l l p r o v i d e a r e a l t i m e summary of t h e p r a c t i c e i n t e r m s o f t h e c o a c h -a t h l e t e . i n t e r a c t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , s i m u l t a n e o u s c o d i n g o f c o a c h and a t h l e t e b e h a v i o u r s w i l l p r o d u c e a r e a l t i m e s e r i e s of d a t a s u c h a s : c o a c h ' s d i r e c t i o n s and e x p l a n a t i o n s , a t h l e t e ' s p e r f o r m a n c e , c o a c h ' s f e e d b a c k , a t h l e t e ' s p e r f o r m a n c e e t c . We b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e w i l l be s e v e r a l s u b s t a n t i a l b e n e f i t s f r o m s u c h a summary. F i r s t , t h e t y p e of comment t h e c o a c h i s s u p p l y i n g c a n be matched w i t h a p e r f o r m a n c e r e s u l t f r o m t h e a t h l e t e . M o r e o v e r , once a l a r g e d a t a b a s e has been e s t a b l i s h e d i t may be p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a s u c c e s s f u l p e r f o r m a n c e ( f o r a g i v e n a t h l e t e ) g i v e n a s p e c i f i c t y p e of comment. S e c o n d , t h e 94 A p p e n d i x A p e r s i s t e n c e o f t h e c o a c h c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d . We d e f i n e p e r s i s t e n c e as m a i n t a i n i n g t h e f o c u s of. a s e r i e s of f e e d b a c k s t a t e m e n t s on one a s p e c t of p e r f o r m a n c e u n t i l a p e r f o r m a n c e change i s d e m o n s t r a t e d o r u n t i l t h e a t h l e t e d i s p l a y s c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f what i s r e q u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s f u l p e r f o r m a n c e . F i n a l l y , t h i s s i m u l t a n e o u s c o d i n g of t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t ween t h e c o a c h and t h e a t h l e t e c o u l d a i d i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e c o a c h ' s c o m m u n i c a t i v e s k i l l s . I f t h e c o a c h i s p e r s i s t e n t i n p r o v i d i n g f e e d b a c k on a p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t o f p e r f o r m a n c e and no p e r f o r m a n c e c h a n g e , o r s i g n of c o m p r e h e n s i o n i s d i s p l a y e d by t h e a t h l e t e , t h e n one p o s s i b l e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t c o u l d be drawn i s t h a t t h e c o a c h i s f a i l i n g t o p r e s e n t f e e d b a c k t h a t has any u t i l i t y v a l u e t o t h a t ; a t h l e t e . B. O u t p u t The menu d r i v e n r e s u l t s p r o g r a m o f t h e A t h l e t e A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t i s d e s i g n e d t o a l l o w t h e a n a l y s t t o s e l e c t w h i c h d a t a i s t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s . The f i r s t menu a l l o w s t h e a n a l y s t t o s e l e c t w h e t h e r p e r f o r m a n c e d a t a on t h e e n t i r e team, a g r o u p of a t h l e t e s o r an i n d i v i d u a l a t h l e t e i s t o be i n c l u d e d . A s e c o n d menu i s u s e d t o s e l e c t t h e d r i l l s , and a t h i r d , t o s e l e c t , t h e s k i l l s t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s . The a n a l y z e d d a t a i s p r e s e n t e d i n s e v e r a l t a b l e s . The t o t a l number of r e p e t i t i o n s t h a t t h e t a r g e t a t h l e t e ( s ) p e r f o r m e d f o r e a c h s k i l l i s d i s p l a y e d . T h i s v a l u e i s b r o k e n 95 A p p e n d i x A down i n t o t h e number of s u c c e s s f u l , n e u t r a l , and u n s u c c e s s f u l r e p e t i t i o n s t h e a t h l e t e ( s ) p e r f o r m e d . F i n a l l y , t h e p e r c e n t of s u c c e s s f u l r e p e t i t i o n s f o r e a c h s k i l l i s c a l c u l a t e d and d i s p l a y e d . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e s t h e a n a l y s t w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e number of p e r f o r m a n c e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h e a t h l e t e r e c e i v e d and how s u c c e s s f u l h e / s h e was. A t h l e t e Time E s t i m a t i o n I n s t r u m e n t A. I n p u t The A t h l e t e Time E s t i m a t i o n I n s t r u m e n t i s u s e d t o c o l l e c t d a t a on t h e Time c a t e g o r y of t h e A t h l e t e . P e r f o r m a n c e component. Time c o s t d a t a i s c o l l e c t e d w i t h i n f i v e , d i m e n s i o n s : i ) L i s t e n i n g t i m e ; i i ) T r a n s i t i o n t i m e ; i i i ) A c t i v e t i m e ; i v ) W a i t i n g t i m e ; and v) O t h e r t i m e . 1. L i s t e n i n g t i m e i s t h e t i m e t h a t an a t h l e t e s p e n d s l i s t e n i n g : a) To I n s t r u c t i o n b) To O r g a n i z a t i o n c) To F e e d b a c k d) To Q u e s t i o n s i ) , a b o u t C o n t e n t i i ) a b o u t O r g a n i z a t i o n e) To C o n d u c t r e m a r k s A p p e n d i x A T r a n s i t i o n t i m e i s t h e t i m e t h a t an a t h l e t e s p e n d s i n t r a n s i t i o n : a) D r i l l t o d r i l l b) R e c o v e r y c) O t h e r A c t i v e t i m e , i s t h e t i m e t h a t an a t h l e t e s p e n d s a c t i v e l y e n g a g e d : a) On Task i ) A p p r o p r i a t e , t h a t i s , t h e a t h l e t e i s a c t i v e l y engaged i n t h e t a s k a s s i g n e d by t h e c o a c h and t h e demands of t h i s t a s k meet t h e needs o f t h e a t h l e t e i i ) I n a p p r o p r i a t e , t h a t i s , t h e a t h l e t e i s a c t i v e l y engaged i n t h e t a s k a s s i g n e d by t h e c o a c h b u t t h e demands of t h e t a s k do n o t meet t h e needs o f t h e a t h l e t e b) O f f T a s k i ) A p p r o p r i a t e , t h a t i s , t h e a t h l e t e i s a c t i v e l y engaged i n a t a s k o t h e r t h a n t h a t a s s i g n e d by t h e c o a c h ( p e r h a p s a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n of t h e a s s i g n e d t a s k ) , however t h i s u n a s s i g n e d t a s k i s more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e a t h l e t e w i t h r e g a r d t o h i s / h e r needs t h a n t h a t a s s i g n e d by t h e c o a c h 97 A p p e n d i x A i i ) I n a p p r o p r i a t e , t h a t i s , t h e a t h l e t e i s e i t h e r : - a c t i v e l y engaged i n a t a s k o t h e r t h a n t h a t a s s i g n e d by t h e c o a c h and t h i s u n a s s i g n e d t a s k does n o t meet t h e needs of t h e a t h l e t e any b e t t e r t h a n t h e a s s i g n e d t a s k - a c t i v e l y engaged i n a t a s k o t h e r t h a n t h a t a s s i g n e d by t h e c o a c h and t h e t a s k t h e a t h l e t e i s engaged i n meets t h e needs of t h e a t h l e t e b e t t e r t h a n t h e a s s i g n e d t a s k however t h i s u n a s s i g n e d t a s k does n o t meet t h e g o a l s of t h e p r a c t i c e segment - a c t i v e l y engaged i n n o n - d i s r u p t i v e b e h a v i o u r . i i i ) O t h e r , o t h e r w i s e u n c o d e a b l e a c t i v e t i m e W a i t i n g t i m e - i s t h e t i m e t h a t an a t h l e t e s p e n d s w a i t i n g : a) On T a s k , t h e a t h l e t e i s w a i t i n g f o r a t u r n a t p e r f o r m i n g t h e a s s i g n e d t a s k and i s p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p e r f o r m a n c e s of teammates and t h e f e e d b a c k t h e y a r e r e c e i v i n g f r o m t h e c o a c h ( c o g n i t i v e l y i n v o l v e d ) 98 A p p e n d i x A b) O f f T a s k , t h e a t h l e t e i s w a i t i n g f o r a t u r n a t p e r f o r m i n g t h e a s s i g n e d t a s k b u t i s n o t p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e d r i l l , teammates p e r f o r m a n c e s o r f e e d b a c k f r o m t h e c o a c h d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s teammates c) O t h e r , o t h e r w i s e u n c o d e a b l e w a i t i n g t i m e 5. O t h e r t i m e - w h i c h i s made up of t i m e s t h a t c a n n o t be coded i n any of t h e above c a t e g o r i e s . B. O u t p u t The r e s u l t s p r o g r a m f o r t h e A t h l e t e Time E s t i m a t i o n I n s t r u m e n t i s menu d r i v e n t o a l l o w t h e a n a l y s t t o s e l e c t w h i c h s e g m e n t ( s ) ( c a n i n c l u d e a l l s e g m e n t s ) o f t h e p r a c t i c e , (Warm up, T e c h n i c a l , e t c . ) , and w h i c h d r i l l s ( c a n i n c l u d e a l l d r i l l s ) w i t h i n t h e s e g m e n t ( s ) a r e t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s . The amount o f t i m e i n m i n u t e s and s e c o n d s , and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r c e n t a g e of b o t h t h e segment t i m e and t h e o v e r a l l p r a c t i c e t i m e i s d e t e r m i n e d f o r e a c h d i m e n s i o n , w i t h i n e a c h d r i l l , of e a c h component. The s e l e c t e d d a t a i s a n a l y z e d and p r e s e n t e d i n g r a p h i c and t a b u l a r f o r m . The t o t a l p r a c t i c e t i m e i s b r o k e n down and p r e s e n t e d i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t t a b l e s . F i r s t , i t i s d i v i d e d i n t o segment t i m e s and d r i l l t i m e s . A s e c o n d t a b l e l i s t s t h e v a r i o u s e l e m e n t s w h i c h make up t h e t h e 5 m a i n d i m e n s i o n s , e . g . , C a t e g o r y -Time; D i m e n s i o n - L i s t e n i n g ; E l e m e n t s - L i s t e n i n g t o I n s t r u c t i o n , L i s t e n i n g t o O r g a n i z a t i o n , e t c . The t o t a l amount of t i m e t h e t a r g e t a t h l e t e ( s ) s p e n t on e a c h e l e m e n t i s d i s p l a y e d . 99 A p p e n d i x A F u r t h e r , t h i s v a l u e i s u s e d t o c a l c u l a t e t h e p e r c e n t of d r i l l t i m e , t h e p e r c e n t of segment t i m e and t h e p e r c e n t of t o t a l p r a c t i c e t i m e , t h a t was s p e n t on e a c h e l e m e n t and e a c h d i m e n s i o n . A g r a p h i s drawn of t h e a n a l y z e d d a t a . The g r a p h shows t h e p e r c e n t of t i m e s p e n t . o n e a c h e l e m e n t of e a c h d i m e n s i o n f o r e a c h segment. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e s t h e a n a l y s t w i t h a c o n c i s e d e s c r i p t i o n of how t h e a t h l e t e s p e n d s h i s / h e r t i m e , t h u s r e v e a l i n g t h e c o a c h ' s t i m e management s k i l l s . C o a ch I n p u t . B e f o r e t h e p r a c t i c e b e g i n s t h e c o a c h s u p p l i e s t h e o b s e r v e r w i t h a p r a c t i c e p l a n w h i c h i n c l u d e s a l i s t o f th e names, numbers, and p o s i t i o n s of t h e p l a y e r s , t h e p r a c t i c e o b j e c t i v e s , t h e k e y f a c t o r s ( s k i l l s ) t o be c o a c h e d , d e f i n i t i o n s o f s u c c e s s f u l and u n s u c c e s s f u l p e r f o r m a n c e of e a c h of t h e s k i l l s l i s t e d a b o v e , a l i s t of t h e d r i l l s t o be u s e d t o t e a c h t h e above k e y f a c t o r s , and an a p p r o x i m a t e t i m e l i n e f o r t h e p r a c t i c e d i v i d i n g i t up i n t o s e gments as d e f i n e d by t h e model i . e . , T e c h n i c a l , T e c h n i c a l / T a c t i c a l e t c . 100 A p p e n d i x B A R e v i e w o f Seven Commonly Used R e l i a b i l i t y M e a s u r e s A p r o b l e m w i t h t h e t o t a l a g r e e m e n t s t a t i s t i c i s i t ' s d e p e n d a n c e on t h e f r e q u e n c y of e v e n t o c c u r r e n c e o r non-o c c u r r e n c e . V e r y f r e q u e n t l y o r v e r y i n f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g e v e n t s i n c r e a s e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of a l a r g e number of a g r e e m e n t s on o c c u r r e n c e o r n o n - o c c u r r e n c e w h i c h i n t u r n , c a n l e a d t o i n f l a t e d a g r e e m e n t v a l u e s . I n an a t t e m p t t o r e s o l v e t h i s p r o b l e m t h e S p e c i f i e d E v e n t A g r e e m e n t measure was d e v e l o p e d . T h e r e a r e a t l e a s t f o u r v a r i a t i o n s o f t h i s m e a s u r e , a l l d e r i v e d f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l t o t a l a g r e e m e n t f o r m u l a . T h e s e a r e d e s c r i b e d b e l o w . O c c u r r e n c e A g r e e m e n t P e r c e n t a g e ( H a r t m a n , 1977; H a w k i n s and D o t s o n , 1 9 7 5 ) : A 0% = X 100 A + B + C T h i s v a l u e i n d i c a t e s t h e p e r c e n t of t o t a l o b s e r v a t i o n s on w h i c h t h e o b s e r v e r s a g r e e d t h a t t h e t a r g e t b e h a v i o u r o c c u r r e d . T h a t i s , a g r e e m e n t o f n o n - o c c u r r e n c e of t h e t a r g e t b e h a v i o u r i s removed f r o m t h e c a l c u l a t i o n . 101 A p p e n d i x B N o n - o c c u r r e n c e Agreement P e r c e n t a g e ( H a r t m a n , 1977; H a w k i n s and D o t s o n , 1 9 7 5 ) : D N0% = X 100 B + C + D T h i s v a l u e i n d i c a t e s t h e p e r c e n t of t o t a l o b s e r v a t i o n s on w h i c h t h e o b s e r v e r s a g r e e d t h a t t h e t a r g e t b e h a v i o u r d i d n o t o c c u r . T h a t i s , a g r e e m e n t of o c c u r r e n c e of t h e t a r g e t b e h a v i o u r i s removed f r o m t h e c a l c u l a t i o n . A v e r a g e O c c u r r e n c e / N o n - o c c u r r e n c e Agreement P e r c e n t a g e ( H a w k i n s and D o t s o n , 1 9 7 5 ) : A D + A + B + C B + C + D M% = • X 100 2 T h i s v a l u e i n d i c a t e s t h e mean of t h e p e r c e n t of t o t a l o b s e r v a t i o n s on w h i c h t h e o b s e r v e r s a g r e e d on o c c u r r e n c e p l u s t h e p e r c e n t o f t o t a l o b s e r v a t i o n s on w h i c h t h e o b s e r v e r s a g r e e d on n o n - o c c u r r e n c e . T h i s s t a t i s t i c was d e s i g n e d t o r e d u c e t h e b i a s c r e a t e d by v e r y h i g h o r v e r y l o w e v e n t ( e i t h e r o c c u r r e n c e o r n o n - o c c u r r e n c e ) f r e q u e n c y . 102 Appendix B Weighted T o t a l Agreement Percentage ( F a r k a s , 1978; S l o a t , 1978): A + D W% = X 100 A + D + 2(B + C) Th i s va lue i n d i c a t e s the weighted mean of the percent of t o t a l o b s e r v a t i o n s on which the observers agreed on occurrence or n o n - o c c u r r e n c e . T h i s , s t a t i s t i c was des igned to reduce the p o s s i b l e b ia s i n the M% e q u a t i o n , above, that would appear i f there were unequal numbers of o b s e r v a t i o n s i n the denominators of the two bracketed terms of the f o r m u l a . In order to reduce t h i s p o t e n t i a l b i a s , each agreement score i s weighted a c c o r d i n g to the number of i n t e r v a l s from which i t i s d e r i v e d . Weighted Occurrence Agreement Percentage (House et a l • > 1981 ) : A A C% = X 100 or C% = X 100 A + B A + C 103 A p p e n d i x B T h i s m e a s u r e r e q u i r e s t h a t one o b s e r v e r be a s s i g n e d a " c r i t e r i o n " s t a t u s . The v a l u e i n d i c a t e s t h e p e r c e n t of t o t a l o b s e r v a t i o n s on w h i c h t h e " r e g u l a r " o b s e r v e r a g r e e s w i t h t h e c r i t e r i o n o b s e r v e r . These v a r i a t i o n s were d e v e l o p e d as r e s e a r c h e r s a t t e m p t e d t o use v a r i o u s a v e r a g i n g and w e i g h t i n g t e c h n i q u e s t o c o n t r o l f o r t h e p r o b l e m o f a r t i f i c i a l l y i n f l a t e d p e r c e n t a g r e e m e n t t h a t r e s u l t e d f r o m v a r y i n g e v e n t f r e q u e n c i e s . P r o b a b l y t h e most o f t e n c i t e d p r o b l e m w i t h a l l of t h e above m e a s u r e s i s t h a t t h e y do n o t a c c o u n t 'for " c h a n c e a g r e e m e n t " . A t d i f f e r e n t f r e q u e n c i e s of o c c u r r e n c e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f c h a n c e a g r e e m e n t d i f f e r s and f a i l u r e t o c o r r e c t f o r t h i s i n t r o d u c e s a b i a s i n t o t h e measure o f a s s o c i a t i o n . T h e r e a r e a t l e a s t two methods o f a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n t r o l f o r c h a n c e a g r e e m e n t : t h o s e t h a t u s e w e i g h t e d e q u a t i o n s b a s e d on e v e n t f r e q u e n c y , and c o r r e l a t i o n a l m e a s u r e s . E v e n t F r e q u e n c y P e r c e n t A g r e e m e n t M e a s u r e s . C l e m e n t ' s f o r m u l a ( C l e m e n t , 1 9 7 6 ) : A A A + B D C + D IOA = 1 - + 1 -A + B A + B + C + D C + D A + B + C + D * I n t e r o b s e r v e r A greement 104 A p p e n d i x B T h i s a p p r o a c h i s b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t c h a n c e a g r e e m e n t i s l e a s t l i k e l y t o o c c u r i n t h e l e a s t f r e q u e n t e v e n t , e i t h e r o c c u r r e n c e o r n o n - o c c u r r e n c e and t h u s w e i g h t s t h e two a g r e e m e n t components w i t h t h e l e a s t f r e q u e n t e v e n t b e i n g w e i g h t e d more h e a v i l y t h a n t h e most f r e q u e n t e v e n t , t o c o r r e c t f o r c h a n c e a g r e e m e n t . T h i s measure a l s o r e q u i r e s t h a t one o b s e r v e r be a s s i g n e d a " c r i t e r i o n " s t a t u s ; t h i s c an be a random s e l e c t i o n . C l e m e n t ' s s t a t i s t i c i n c l u d e s a g r e e m e n t s f o r b o t h o c c u r r e n c e and n o n - o c c u r r e n c e w i t h w e i g h t a s s i g n e d t o t h e s e d i f f e r e n t e v e n t s b a s e d on t h e f r e q u e n c y a t w h i c h t h e y a r e r e c o r d e d . A m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s e q u a t i o n was p r e s e n t e d by H a r r i s and La h e y ( 1 9 7 8 ) : W e i g h t e d Agreement ( H a r r i s and L a h l e y , 1 9 7 8 ) : A B + C + 2D D 2A + B + C WA% = + A+B+C 2 ( A + B + C + D) B+C+D .2A + B + C + D T h i s measure a l t e r s t h e d e n o m i n a t o r s of t h e A and C t e r m s of th e e q u a t i o n so t h a t t h e y a r e c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g t h e number of a g r e e m e n t s on e i t h e r o c c u r r e n c e o r n o n - o c c u r r e n c e by t h e t o t a l number of o b s e r v a t i o n s by e i t h e r o b s e r v e r r a t h e r t h a n by o n l y one " c r i t e r i o n " o b s e r v e r . T h i s r e d u c e s t h e o v e r e s t i m a t i o n o f a g r e e m e n t p r e s e n t i n C l e m e n t ' s f o r m u l a c a u s e d by use of a c r i t e r i o n o b s e r v e r . S e c o n d , WA u s e s t h e 105 A p p e n d i x B mean of t h e o c c u r r e n c e s r e c o r d e d by b o t h o b s e r v e r s r a t h e r t h a n j u s t t h e c r i t e r i o n . T h i s removes t h e i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of r a n d o m l y a s s i g n i n g more o r l e s s w e i g h t t o one o b s e r v e r ' s s c o r e . T h i s v a l u e i n d i c a t e s t h e o c c u r r e n c e a g r e e m e n t w e i g h t e d by t h e a v e r a g e r a t e of n o n - o c c u r r e n c e p l u s t h e non-o c c u r r e n c e a g r e e m e n t w e i g h t e d by t h e a v e r a g e r a t e of o c c u r r e n c e . C o m p a r i s o n o f R e l i a b i l i t y M e a s u r e s U s i n g D a t a f r o m E x p e r i m e n t 1. I n t e r o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r t h e o v e r a l l i n s t r u m e n t and i t ' s s e v e n d i m e n s i o n s a r e shown i n T a b l e 1. L o o k i n g a t t h e s e d a t a i t c a n be s e e n t h a t t h e 0% v a l u e i s c o n s i s t e n t l y l o w e s t . T h i s m e asure o n l y r e a c h e s a g r e e m e n t when s u b j e c t s a g r e e t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r e v e n t o c c u r r e d . A g r e e m e n t on n o n - o c c u r r e n c e i s n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e e q u a t i o n . D i m e n s i o n 1 ; D i r e c t i o n f o r e x a m p l e , i s c o m p r i s e d o f 3 e l e m e n t s , Team, G r o u p , and I n d i v i d u a l . S i n c e t h e s e e l e m e n t s a r e m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , t h e r e c a n o n l y be 1 e v e n t o c c u r r e n c e and 2 e v e n t non-o c c u r r e n c e s . T h e r e f o r e , i f o b s e r v e r 1 codes t h e D i r e c t i o n o f th e comment, "Team," and o b s e r v e r 2 codes t h e D i r e c t i o n o f t h e comment a s , " G r o u p , " t h e r e i s no o c c u r r e n c e a g r e e m e n t i n t h e 0% e q u a t i o n . The same c i r c u m s t a n c e a p p l i e d t o t h e any of th e o t h e r e q u a t i o n s however w o u l d r e s u l t i n 33.3% a g r e e m e n t b e c a u s e b o t h o b s e r v e r s a g r e e d t h a t t h e comment was n o t 106 Appendix B Table 1 I n t e r o b s e r v e r R e 1 i a. tt_i_l i t y M e a sure s for t^eC[o>ach A n a l y s i s Instrument (CAI) and each of 1 t 1 s seven _Dimensions , averaged over a l l segments and a l l s u b j e c t s . 0 NO M W C I0A WA O v e r a l l Instrument 73 .9 87 .7 80 .8 83 .3 85 .5 87 . 8 78 .6 Dimension 1 52 .9 71 .7 61 .3 64 .0 65 .9 71 . 6 57 .8 2 96 .7 96 .7 96 .7 96 .7 98 .3 98 . 3 96 .7 3 78 .0 96 .2 87 . 1 93 .5 84 .8 89 . 8 80 .5 4 76 .5 76 .5 76 .5 76 .5 86 4 86 . 4 76 .5 5 97 .8 97 .8 97 .8 97 .8 98 .9 98. 9 97 .8 6. 59 .8 80 . 1 70 . 1 73 .6 77 .7 81 . 2 65 .9 7 80 . I 89 .3 84 .6 86 . 1 88 .3 90 . 3 83 . 2 Occurrence Agreement Percentage ( 0 ) , Non-occurrence Agreement Percentage (NO), Average Occurrence / Non-occurrence Agreement Percentage (M) , Weighted T o t a l Agreement Percentage (W), Weighted Occurrence Agreement Percentage ( C ) , I n t e r o b s e r v e r Agreement ( I 0 A ) , Weighted Agreement (WA) 107 A p p e n d i x B d i r e c t e d t o w a r d an " I n d i v i d u a l . " Thus when t h e r e a r e o n l y two e l e m e n t s i n a d i m e n s i o n , as i n D i m e n s i o n s 2, 4 and 5, t h e 0% and N0% v a l u e s a r e e q u a l . H o w e v e r , when t h e r e a r e 3 or more e l e m e n t s as i n D i m e n s i o n s 1, 3, 6 and 7 t h e 0% measure p r o v i d e s a more c o n s e r v a t i v e m e asure of a g r e e m e n t as i t removes t h e p o t e n t i a l o v e r e s t i m a t i o n c a u s e d by n o n - o c c u r r e n c e a g r e e m e n t . E x a m i n i n g t h e M l , W%, and C% v a l u e s i n T a b l e 1 i t c a n be s e e n t h a t M% c o n s i s t e n t l y p r o v i d e s t h e l o w e s t v a l u e o f t h e 3. As m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , t h e M% measure i s d e s i g n e d t o r e d u c e t h e b i a s c r e a t e d by v e r y h i g h o r v e r y l o w e v e n t f r e q u e n c i e s w h i l e s t i l l c o n s i d e r i n g b o t h e v e n t o c c u r r e n c e and n o n - o c c u r r e n c e i n i t ' s e q u a t i o n . M% i s c o n s i s t e n t l y e q u a l t o o r l o w e r t h a n W% as M% c r e a t e s a b i a s by n o t a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e u n e q u a l numbers of o b s e r v a t i o n s u s e d as t h e d e n o m i n a t o r s f o r t h e two b r a c k e t e d t e r m s o f t h e e q u a t i o n . A D . + A + B + C B + C + D M% = ' 2 S i n c e W% c o r r e c t s f o r t h i s b i a s , t h e d e n o m i n a t o r v a l u e i s l o w e r , l e a d i n g t o s l i g h t l y h i g h e r a g r e e m e n t v a l u e s . The C% y a l u e a l w a y s p r o d u c e s t h e h i g h e s t v a l u e o f t h e s e 3 m e a s u r e s . 108 A p p e n d i x B The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e measure r e q u i r e s 1 o b s e r v e r t o be d e s i g n a t e d as a " c r i t e r i o n " o b s e r v e r . The C% v a l u e i n d i c a t e s o n l y t h e p e r c e n t of t o t a l o b s e r v a t i o n s on w h i c h t h e " r e g u l a r " o b s e r v e r a g r e e s w i t h t h e c r i t e r i o n o b s e r v e r . B e c a u s e t h i s m easure i g n o r e s one t y p e of o b s e r v e r d i s a g r e e m e n t ( e i t h e r B o r C ) , i t ' s a g r e e m e n t v a l u e s a r e s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h a t of e i t h e r W% o r M%. A A C% = x 100 o r C% = X 100 A + B A + C The I 0 A % and WA% m e a s u r e s i n d i c a t e a g r e e m e n t a f t e r a t t e m p t i n g c o n t r o l f o r c h a n c e a g r e e m e n t by w e i g h t i n g t h e e v e n t o c c u r r e n c e and n o n - o c c u r r e n c e b a s e d on t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s . R e f e r r i n g t o T a b l e 1, i t c a n be s e e n t h a t t h e I 0 A % v a l u e i s c o n s i s t e n t l y t h e h i g h e r of t h e t w o . T h i s i s due t o t h e f a c t t h a t I 0 A % i s an o v e r e s t i m a t i o n of a g r e e m e n t c a u s e d by t h e s e l e c t i o n o f one o b s e r v e r as a " c r i t e r i o n " . S i m i l a r t o t h e W% m e a s u r e , t h e use of t h i s c r i t e r i o n o b s e r v e r r e d u c e s t h e s i z e o f t h e d e n o m i n a t o r s of t h e A and D t e r m s of t h e e q u a t i o n by i g n o r i n g one t y p e of d i s a g r e e m e n t ( e i t h e r B o r ' C ) . , A A + B D C + D IOA = 1 • + 1 --A + B A + B . + C + D C + D A + B + C + D 109 A p p e n d i x B The WA% v a l u e r e d u c e s t h e above m e n t i o n e d o v e r e s t i m a t i o n by n o t a s s i g n i n g " c r i t e r i o n " s t a t u s t o e i t h e r o b s e r v e r . Thus n e i t h e r o b s e r v e r ' s s c o r e i s w e i g h t e d more or l e s s t h a n t h e o t h e r s . T h i s measure t h e n , w e i g h t s o c c u r r e n c e by t h e a v e r a g e f r e q u e n c y of n o n - o c c u r r e n c e and n o n - o c c u r r e n c e by t h e a v e r a g e f r e q u e n c y of o c c u r r e n c e . I t i s t h e r e f o r e a b l e t o a c c o u n t f o r b o t h t y p e s of a g r e e m e n t and b o t h t y p e s of d i s a g r e e m e n t . 110 A p p e n d i x C A Monte C a r l o S t u d y C o n c e r n i n g t h e D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f B e h a v i o u r a l O b s e r v a t i o n I n s t r u m e n t R e l i a b i l i t y The methods o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c o a c h e s have c h a n g e d a g r e a t d e a l i n t h e p a s t t w e n t y y e a r s . E a r l i e r e v a l u a t i o n s were b a s e d on e x a m i n a t i o n o f a c o a c h ' s p e r f o r m a n c e r e c o r d , ( i . e . , w i n / l o s s r e c o r d ) o r s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g s o f v a r i o u s p o p u l a t i o n s , ( i . e . , a t h l e t e s , o f f i c i a l s , p a r e n t s e t c . ) , t o d e t e r m i n e i f a c o a c h was e f f e c t i v e . S e v e r a l p r o b l e m s a p p e a r t o e x i s t w i t h t h e s e p a s t methods of mea s u r e m e n t . F i r s t l y , a c o a c h ' s p e r f o r m a n c e r e c o r d may n o t be a v a l i d i n d i c a t o r of e f f e c t i v e n e s s u n l e s s t h e r e i s some way t o a c c o u n t f o r some or a l l o f t h e m y r i a d o f v a r i a b l e s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h i s r e c o r d . F o r e x a m p l e , an i n e f f e c t i v e c o a c h m i g h t have a v e r y s u c c e s s f u l p r o g r a m when m e a s u r e d o n l y by a w i n / l o s s r e c o r d . T h i s c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c o a c h had a l a r g e p o o l o f s k i l l e d a t h l e t e s f r o m w h i c h t o draw. . C o n v e r s e l y , an e f f e c t i v e c o a c h m i g h t have a p o o r p e r f o r m a n c e r e c o r d b e c a u s e o f a l i m i t e d p o o l o f t a l e n t e d a t h l e t e s . S e c o n d l y , p r o b l e m s a r i s e when a c o a c h ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s b a s e d on t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f o t h e r s a b o u t h i s a t t i t u d e , a b i l i t i e s , o r s t y l e . Such j u d g e m e n t s may be b i a s e d by i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e c o a c h and t h e r e s p o n d i n g p o p u l a t i o n ( s ) . F u r t h e r , some of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s 111 A p p e n d i x C i n s u c h s t u d i e s may have l i t t l e k n o w l e d g e of e i t h e r t h e c o a c h ' s a b i l i t i e s o r t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e s p o r t . O p e r a t i n g f r o m t h i s u n i n f o r m e d p o s i t i o n , t h e y may b a s e t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n on t h e c o a c h ' s p e r f o r m a n c e r e c o r d . Due t o t h e o f t e n s u b j e c t i v e n a t u r e , and p e r h a p s q u e s t i o n a b l e v a l i d i t y of s u c h m e t h o d s , i t became a p p a r e n t t h a t an a l t e r n a t e method of o b t a i n i n g v a l i d , o b j e c t i v e , q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a on c o a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e was h e e d e d . The d e v e l o p m e n t of s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s has p r o v i d e d an i m p r o v e m e n t o v e r t h o s e i n i t i a l p r o c e d u r e s o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s e v a l u a t i o n . An i n s t r u m e n t i s h e r e d e f i n e d as a g r o u p of m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e b e h a v i o r a l d e f i n i t i o n s . The f o c u s o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e b e h a v i o r a l e v e n t s o f i n t e r e s t , b a s e d on a t h e o r y , model o r a n a l y t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . T h a r p and G a l l i m o r e ( 1 9 7 6 ) , were among t h e f i r s t t o use s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n t o c o l l e c t d a t a on a c o a c h . S i n c e t h a t t i m e s e v e r a l i n s t r u m e n t s have been d e v e l o p e d a n d / o r a d a p t e d t o s t u d y b o t h t h e c o a c h and a t h l e t e ( Q u a r t e r m a n , 1 9 8 0 ; L a n g s d o r f , 1 9 7 9 ; R u s h a l l , 1 9 7 7 ; S m i t h , S m o l l and H u n t , 1 9 7 8 ) . T hese i n s t r u m e n t s a r e u s e d by an o b s e r v e r t o c o l l e c t d a t a on c o a c h a n d / o r a t h l e t e b e h a v i o r s i n a p r a c t i c e o r game s i t u a t i o n . V a r i o u s r e c o r d i n g p r o c e d u r e s have been d e v e l o p e d i n c l u d i n g i n t e r v a l , d u r a t i o n and e v e n t r e c o r d i n g and g r o u p t i m e s a m p l i n g ( R i n k , 1985 p . 3 0 8 - 3 1 7 ) . The r e c o r d e d d a t a i s p r o c e s s e d t o p r o d u c e i n f o r m a t i o n s u c h a s , " r a t e p e r m i n u t e " o f t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f f e e d b a c k o r 112 A p p e n d i x C b e h a v i o r d i s p l a y e d by t h e c o a c h o r a t h l e t e . T hese o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s o f t e n c o n s i s t of a number of p r e d e t e r m i n e d , c l e a r l y d e f i n e d c a t e g o r i e s o f b e h a v i o r , as w e l l as g r o u n d r u l e s and p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e i r u s e . The o b s e r v e r v i e w s t h e p r a c t i c e and c a t e g o r i z e s b e h a v i o r s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e r e c o r d i n g p r o c e d u r e u s e d . The r e s u l t i s a w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n o f o b s e r v e d b e h a v i o r a l and t e m p o r a l e v e n t s . We ( F r a n k s , e t a l . 1986, J o h n s o n , e t a l . m a n u s c r i p t i n p r e p a r a t i o n ) , d e v e l o p e d a g e n e r a l model of a c o a c h i n g p r a c t i c e f o r a team s p o r t ( s e e A p p e n d i x 1 ) . A t o t a l c o a c h i n g p r a c t i c e t i m e l i n e was b r o k e n down i n t o s e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s : Warm up, T e c h n i c a l , T e c h n i c a l / T a c t i c a l , T a c t i c a l , S t r a t e g y , C o n d i t i o n i n g , O t h e r . E a c h of t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s was f u r t h e r b r o k e n down i n t o t h e v a r i o u s d r i l l s and o t h e r t i m e m e a s u r a b l e components t h a t made up e a c h c a t e g o r y . The d r i l l s t h e m s e l v e s were t h e n be b r o k e n down i n t o 3 c o m p o n e n t s : O r g a n i z a t i o n , I n s t r u c t i o n a l M e t h o d , and A t h l e t e P e r f o r m a n c e . D a t a was t h e n c o l l e c t e d a t t h i s l e v e l u s i n g a s e r i e s o f s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s . These d a t a c o u l d t h e n be u s e d t o o b j e c t i v e l y m e a sure c o a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s . We t h e n d e v e l o p e d a s y s t e m c o m p r i s e d o f t h r e e o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s . The b a s i s of t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s a r e t h r e e c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s w h i c h u t i l i z e d i g i t i z a t i o n b o a r d s t o a l l o w an o b s e r v e r o r o b s e r v e r s t o code c o a c h a n d / o r a t h l e t e b e h a v i o r i n a d d i t i o n t o r e c o r d i n g t h e v a r i o u s t i m e c o s t s o f 113 A p p e n d i x C d i f f e r e n t s e g m ents of t h e p r a c t i c e . B a s e d on t h e s e d a t a , a f e e d b a c k p r o f i l e of t h e c o a c h , t h e s u c c e s s r a t e of t h e a t h l e t e ' s p e r f o r m a n c e i n b o t h p r a c t i c e a n d / o r c o m p e t i t i o n and t h e e f f i c i e n c y of t h e c o a c h i n t e r m s of t i m e management, c o u l d t h e n be o b j e c t i v e l y and q u a n t i f i a b l y d e t e r m i n e d . I n t h i s p a p e r we w i l l c o n s i d e r o n l y d a t a c o l l e c t e d u s i n g t h e c o a c h i n g b e h a v i o u r a n a l y s i s i n s t r u m e n t . T h i s i n s t r u m e n t i s u s e d t o c o l l e c t d a t a t h a t d e s c r i b e s t h e c o a c h ' s v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r s . E a c h b e h a v i o u r , o r comment, i s d e s c r i b e d by c o d i n g 7 i t e m s w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h e " d i r e c t i o n " , " s e t t i n g " , " method", " f o c u s " , " a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s " , " i n t e n t " , and " c h a r a c t e r " , ( s e e A p p e n d i x 1 ) , of t h e comment. U s i n g t h i s i n s t r u m e n t I c o l l e c t e d d a t a on a n a t i o n a l team c o a c h o f a team s p o r t . A v i d e o t a p e o f a n a t i o n a l team p r a c t i c e was o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e C o a c h i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada and two b e h a v i o u r a l o b s e r v a t i o n e x p e r t s i n d e p e n d e n t l y c o d e d 5 i t e m s f o r e a c h o f 56 c o a c h i n g comments. ( D a t a on t h e i t e m s " M ethod" and " I n t e n t " were n o t i n c l u d e d b e c a u s e t h e y c o u l d n o t be c o d e d d i c h o t o m o u s l y ) . The d a t a f o r e a c h i t e m o f e a c h comment was t h e n g i v e n a n u m e r i c a l v a l u e of 1 or 2 ( o n a n o m i n a l s c a l e of m e a s u r e m e n t ) . D a t a f o r e a c h of t h e 5 i t e m s was t h e n u s e d i n 5 s e p a r a t e BMD:P8V r u n s t o d e t e r m i n e v a r i a n c e c o mponents t h a t were needed t o g e n e r a t e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s . A p r o b l e m , h o w e v e r , was f o u n d w i t h t h i s p r o c e d u r e . The n o m i n a l l y s c a l e d d i c h o t o m o u s d a t a p r o d u c e d no v a r i a n c e , a n d , s i n c e r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s a r e b a s e d on 114 A p p e n d i x C v a r i a n c e r a t i o s , no r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h i s d a t a . I n an a t t e m p t t o i n c r e a s e t h e v a r i a n c e o f t h e i t e m s I r e t u r n e d t o a p r o t o t y p e of t h e i n s t r u m e n t . T h i s e a r l i e r i n s t r u m e n t c o l l e c t e d d a t a on t h e same 7 i t e m s as m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , h o w e v e r , i n s t e a d of b e i n g coded d i c h o t o m o u s l y , e a c h i t e m was r a t e d on a 5 p o i n t s c a l e , w i t h 5 c o n s i d e r e d a good r a t i n g and 1 a p o o r r a t i n g on e a c h i t e m . T h i s i n s t r u m e n t had been d i s c a r d e d b e c a u s e o f i t ' s p r o b l e m s w i t h s u b j e c t i v i t y i n r a t i n g i t e m s and comments. U s i n g a random number g e n e r a t o r I g e n e r a t e d monte c a r l o d a t a f o r e a c h o f t h e 7 i t e m s i n e a c h of 56 comments f o r 2 o b s e r v e r s . U s i n g t h i s d a t a I a g a i n r a n BMD:P8V. The r e s u l t s f r o m t h i s ANOVA i n d i c a t e d t h a t s i n c e a l l d a t a had been r a n d o m l y g e n e r a t e d t h e r e was no s y s t e m a t i c v a r i a b i l i t y . T h a t i s , a l l v a r i a n c e i n t h e d a t a a p p e a r e d t o be due t o t h e e r r o r s c o r e v a r i a n c e ( s e e T a b l e 1 ) , and t h e r e f o r e no d i f f e r e n c e i n o b s e r v e r s o r comments c o u l d be d e t e c t e d . Had t h e d a t a been r e a l i n s t e a d o f r a n d o m l y g e n e r a t e d t h e r e w o u l d be a t l e a s t 3 p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r o b t a i n i n g t h i s t y p e of d a t a : 1 ) . The o b s e r v e r s who coded t h e comments were n o t c o m p e t e n t and t h e r e f o r e i n c o n s i s t e n t t o t h e p o i n t o f b e i n g c o m p l e t e l y random i n t h e i r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . 2 ) . The comments d i d n ' t l e n d t h e m s e l v e s t o c o d i n g o f t h i s k i n d and t h u s i n an a t t e m p t t o code u n c o d e a b l e d a t a t h e o b s e r v e r ' s c o d i n g p r o c e d u r e s were i n c o n s i s t e n t t o t h e p o i n t of b e i n g c o m p l e t e l y random. 3 ) . The i n s t r u m e n t does n o t 115 A p p e n d i x C p r o v i d e m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e c a t e g o r y d e f i n i t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e o b s e r v e r s c o u l d n o t c o n s i s t e n t l y code b e h a v i o u r s . The ANOVA i n d i c a t e d no d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n o b s e r v e r s , due t o t h e l a r g e e r r o r v a r i a n c e as w o u l d be e x p e c t e d s i n c e a l l d a t a had been g e n e r a t e d r a n d o m l y . Thus I n e e d e d . a s m a l l e r e r r o r v a r i a n c e t o d e t e c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n o b s e r v e r s and comments. I n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e s m a l l e r e r r o r v a r i a n c e I massaged o b s e r v e r 2's random d a t a . I t o o k o b s e r v e r l ' s d a t a and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y added e i t h e r +1,0, o r - 1 , t o e a c h i t e m f o r e a c h comment. I f a 5 was t o have +1 added t o i t , i t r e m a i n e d a 5 and t h e s e q u e n c e , +1, 0, - 1 , was c o n t i n u e d , s i m i l a r l y i f a 1 was t o have a -1 added t o i t , i t r e m a i n e d a 1. ( s e e F i g u r e 1 f o r an e x a m p l e ) . T h i s new d a t a became o b s e r v e r 2's d a t a and a BMD:P:8V was r u n . As s e e n f r o m T a b l e 2, a t r u e d i f f e r e n c e i n comments was f o u n d . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e had been h i d d e n i n t h e p r e v i o u s ANOVA by t h e l a r g e e r r o r v a r i a n c e . T h i s a n a l y s i s showed t h a t t h e comments were d i f f e r e n t ( a g a i n b e c a u s e t h e y were r a n d o m l y g e n e r a t e d ) , b u t t h a t t h e o b s e r v e r s were q u i t e s i m i l a r , ( e v e n w i t h a s m a l l e r r o r v a r i a n c e , no d i f f e r e n c e s a p p e a r e d ) . A g a i n , had t h i s been r e a l d a t a , i t w o u l d be r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t s i n c e t h e o b s e r v e r s seem t o a g r e e , t h e p r o b l e m , ( l a r g e amount o f v a r i a n c e due t o co m m e n t s ) , l i e s n o t i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t ' s d e f i n i t i o n s b u t i n - t h e comments t h e m s e l v e s , t h a t i s , t h e c o a c h whose comments a r e b e i n g c o d e d i s n o t c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e q u a l i t y of h i s / h e r comments. I n o r d e r t o d e t e c t d i f f e r e n c e s 116 A p p e n d i x C b e t w e e n o b s e r v e r s I needed t o r e d u c e t h e comment by o b s e r v e r i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t w h i c h i s u s e d as t h e e r r o r t e r m f o r t h e o b s e r v e r m a i n e f f e c t . To do t h i s I needed t o e i t h e r l o w e r t h e v a r i a n c e due t o comment, or l o w e r t h e v a r i a n c e due t o o b s e r v e r . R e c a l l t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l r a n d o m l y g e n e r a t e d d a t a v a r i e d f o r m 1 t o 5 and t h a t 5 was c o n s i d e r e d good and 1 p o o r . I f we assume, f o r t h i s e x a m p l e , t h a t t h e o b s e r v e d c o a c h i s h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d , t h e n t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d on h i m / h e r by t h e two ( c o m p e t e n t , c o n s i s t e n t ) o b s e r v e r s w o u l d f a l l m a i n l y i n t h e r a n g e o f 3 t o 5 f o r e a c h i t e m of a l l comments f o r b o t h o b s e r v e r s . I g e n e r a t e d s u c h d a t a f o r o b s e r v e r 1 and t h e n d e r i v e d o b s e r v e r 2's d a t a by a d d i n g +1 t o e a c h o f o b s e r v e r l ' s i t e m s c o r e s , ( a g a i n , 0 was added t o a s c o r e o f 5 t o keep t h e r a n g e c o n s i s t e n t ) . U s i n g t h i s d a t a BMD:P8V was r u n . As s e e n f r o m T a b l e 3, a t r u e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n o b s e r v e r s was f o u n d . T h i s i s due t o t h e s y s t e m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e b e t ween d a t a f o r o b s e r v e r 1 and o b s e r v e r 2, w i t h o b s e r v e r 2 c o n s i s t e n t l y c o d i n g t h e i t e m s e i t h e r h i g h e r t h a n o r t h e same as o b s e r v e r 1. A d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n comments was a l s o f o u n d , as e x p e c t e d s i n c e t h e comment d a t a had been r a n d o m l y g e n e r a t e d . T h e r e f o r e , i n o r d e r t o d e t e c t s y s t e m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s b e t ween o b s e r v e r s , we need u n a m b i g u o u s l y d e f i n e d . c a t e g o r i e s i n o u r i n s t r u m e n t , and c o m p e t e n t o b s e r v e r s . 117 A p p e n d i x C I m p l i c a t i o n s We a r e t r y i n g t o r e d u c e t h e s u b j e c t i v i t y o f c o a c h i n g b e h a v i o u r a n a l y s i s . To do t h i s we need t o have an o b j e c t i v e i n s t r u m e n t t h a t p r o v i d e s d a t a t h a t i s a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e c o a c h i n g c o m m u n i t y . The most p r e f e r a b l e method i s t o c o l l e c t d i c h o t o m o u s d a t a as t h i s e n a b l e s t h e o b s e r v e r ' s t o be c o n s i s t e n t and a c c u r a t e i n t h e way t h e y r a t e c o a c h i n g b e h a v i o u r s . As we have shown a b o v e , when a t t e m p t i n g t o t e s t s u c h an i n s t r u m e n t f o r r e l i a b i l i t y , p r o b l e m s o c c u r b e c a u s e of t h e l a c k of v a r i a b i l i t y i n o u r r a t i n g s c a l e . 118 A p p e n d i x C The h i e r a r c h i c a l m o d e l s e e n i n F i g u r e s 2 and 3 i s a sa m p l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a team s p o r t p r a c t i c e . A t t h e f i r s t l e v e l , t h e p r a c t i c e i s s e e n as a c o n t i n u o u s t i m e l i n e . T h i s t i m e l i n e i s b r o k e n down i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g s e g m e n t s : Warm up; T e c h n i c a l ; T e c h n i c a l / T a c t i c a l ; T a c t i c a l ; S t r a t e g y ; C o n d i t i o n i n g ; O t h e r . E a c h o f t h e segments r e p r e s e n t s t h e s e c t i o n of p r a c t i c e t i m e t h a t i s d e v o t e d t o c o a c h i n g t h e s k i l l s and c o n c e p t s r e l a t e d t o t h a t s egment. T h e r e f o r e , e a c h segment i s c o m p r i s e d of " n " d r i l l s t h a t a r e u s e d t o t e a c h t h e s e s k i l l s and c o n c e p t s . E a c h of t h e s e d r i l l s i s c o m p r i s e d o f t h r e e m e a s u r a b l e c o m p o n e n t s : O r g a n i z a t i o n , I n s t r u c t i o n a l M e t h o d , and A t h l e t e P e r f o r m a n c e . The h i e r a r c h y b e l o w e a c h of t h e s e t h r e e m a j o r d r i l l c omponents makes up t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e t h r e e o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s . B o t h t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n and I n s t r u c t i o n a l Method components a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e Coach A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t . The O r g a n i z a t i o n component has t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s t h a t d a t a a r e c o l l e c t e d o n : 1 ) . " D i r e c t i o n and E x p l a n a t i o n " - w h i c h a s k s q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e c l a r i t y o f t h e c o a c h ' s s p e e c h , and t h e g o a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e d r i l l ; 2 ) . " R e a l i s m " - w h i c h a s k s q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e r e a l i s m of t h e d r i l l s , i . e . , how c l o s e l y t h e y m atch c o m p e t i t i v e s i t u a t i o n s ; and 3 ) . " A t h l e t e B e h a v i o u r " - w h i c h a s k s q u e s t i o n s on p e r c e i v e d e f f o r t of t h e a t h l e t e s . These q u e s t i o n s a r e a n s w e r e d u s i n g a f i v e p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e and a r e t h e s u b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e o b s e r v e r . 119 Coaching Practice Figure 3. Model of Team Sport Practice Components. 2. Did the athletes perform their drills with total effort? cr1rP^rescrlp-\jrAffec-\ e ^ _ y \ | > U v e ^ ^ \ ^ « ^ / (Positive) (*Ne\ jtraft ^Negativ^ COACH ANALYSIS INSTRUMENT 120 121 A p p e n d i x C The Method component c o l l e c t s d a t a on o n l y one c a t e g o r y , t h e c o a c h ' s comments. F i r s t , t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c o a c h ' s comment i s d e t e r m i n e d , e i t h e r t o t h e e n t i r e "Team", a " G r o u p " of a t h l e t e s o r an " I n d i v i d u a l " a t h l e t e . Then t h e s e t t i n g o f th e comment's p r e s e n t a t i o n i s coded as e i t h e r " P u b l i c " - t h e comment i s p r e s e n t e d i n a s e t t i n g o r manner s u c h t h a t o t h e r s , b e s i d e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p t o whom t h e comment i s d i r e c t e d ( i . e . , a t h l e t e s , c o a c h e s , b y s t a n d e r s ) c a n h e a r t h e comment; o r " P r i v a t e " - t h e comment i s p r e s e n t e d i n a s e t t i n g o r manner s u c h t h a t o n l y t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p t o whom t h e comment i s d i r e c t e d c a n h e a r t h e comment. N e x t , t h e method of p r e s e n t a t i o n i s coded as e i t h e r " T a l k o v e r " - t h e c o a c h makes t h e comment w h i l e t h e a t h l e t e s a r e p e r f o r m i n g ; " F r e e z e " - t h e c o a c h s t o p s t h e a t h l e t e s d u r i n g p e r f o r m a n c e t o make t h e comment; " D e m o n s t r a t e " , t h e c o a c h d e m o n s t r a t e s a s k i l l o r t e c h n i q u e , e i t h e r i n " R e a l Time" - i . e . , a t t h e s p e e d i t w o u l d be p e r f o r m e d i n c o m p e t i t i o n ; o r i n " S l o w M o t i o n " - a t a s l o w e r s p e e d t h a n i t w o u l d be p e r f o r m e d i n c o m p e t i t i o n ; " T a l k A f t e r " - t h e comment i s made d u r i n g a n a t u r a l b r e a k i n t h e f l o w of t h e d r i l l i . e . , f o l l o w i n g a t r i a l o r r e p e t i t i o n , o r a t t h e c o m p l e t i o n of a s e t p l a y ; o r R e c o n s t r u c t - t h e c o a c h r e c o n s t r u c t s a s i t u a t i o n t h a t has j u s t o c c u r r e d and t h e n comments on i t . A t t h e n e x t l e v e l of t h e Method h i e r a r c h y , a s e r i e s o f c o d i n g d e c i s i o n s a r e made w h i c h . d e s c r i b e t h e c o n t e n t of t h e 1 2 2 A p p e n d i x C comment. F i r s t , t h e o b s e r v e r d e t e r m i n e s t h e f o c u s of t h e comment, i . e . , w h e t h e r i t s h o u l d be coded as " S k i l l " - t h e f o c u s o f t h e comment i s a s k i l l r e l a t e d b e h a v i o r , o r as "Non-s k i l l " - t h e f o c u s o f t h e comment i s a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n a s k i l l r e l a t e d b e h a v i o r . I f t h e comment i s s k i l l r e l a t e d , t h e s k i l l i t r e l a t e s t o i s i d e n t i f i e d . The s k i l l may be one of * t h e s k i l l s l i s t e d i n t h e C o a c h ' s I n p u t w h i c h have been e n t e r e d e a r l i e r , i f so i t i s coded by i t ' s " S k i l l £", o r , i f t h e comment i s n o t r e l a t e d t o one of t h e p r e v i o u s l y l i s t e d s k i l l s , i t i s co d e d as an " O t h e r S k i l l . " The n e x t d e c i s i o n c o n c e r n s t h e c o r r e c t n e s s of t h e p e r f o r m a n c e . I f t h e comment was r e l a t e d t o a c o r r e c t p e r f o r m a n c e of a s k i l l t h e n i t i s c o d e d as " C o r r e c t " . I f i t was r e l a t e d t o an i n c o r r e c t p e r f o r m a n c e t h e n i t i s coded as " I n c o r r e c t " . I f i t was f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n on how t o p e r f o r m t h e s k i l l o r a r e p e a t * Co a c h I n p u t . B e f o r e t h e p r a c t i c e b e g i n s t h e c o a c h s u p p l i e s t h e o b s e r v e r w i t h a p r a c t i c e p l a n w h i c h i n c l u d e s a l i s t o f t h e names, numbers, and p o s i t i o n s of t h e p l a y e r s , t h e p r a c t i c e o b j e c t i v e s , t h e k e y f a c t o r s ( s k i l l s ) t o be c o a c h e d , d e f i n i t i o n s o f s u c c e s s f u l and u n s u c c e s s f u l p e r f o r m a n c e of e a c h o f t h e s k i l l s l i s t e d a b o v e , a l i s t of t h e d r i l l s t o be us e d t o t e a c h t h e above key f a c t o r s , and an a p p r o x i m a t e t i m e l i n e f o r t h e p r a c t i c e d i v i d i n g i t up i n t o s egments as d e f i n e d by t h e model i . e . , T e c h n i c a l , T e c h n i c a l / T a c t i c a l e t c . 123 A p p e n d i x C of e a r l i e r i n s t r u c t i o n s , t h e n i t i s coded as "Re-i n s t r u c t i o n " . I f t h e comment was n o n - s k i l l r e l a t e d i t i s coded as e i t h e r r e l a t i n g t o a t h l e t e " B e h a v i o r " , a t h l e t e " E f f o r t " , d r i l l o r p r a c t i c e " O r g a n i z a t i o n " o r " O t h e r " , f o r a n o n - p r a c t i c e r e l a t e d comment. Whether t h e comment was coded as s k i l l r e l a t e d o r n o n - s k i l l r e l a t e d i t i s coded f o r i t ' s a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e . I f t h e comment i s s k i l l r e l a t e d , a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i m p l i e s a k n o w l e d g e of t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r ; an " A p p r o p r i a t e " comment w o u l d d e s c r i b e o r p r e s c r i b e t h e c o r r e c t m e c h a n i c s o f a s k i l l o r t h e p r o p e r t a c t i c o r s t r a t e g y f o r a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . I f th e comment i s n o t s k i l l r e l a t e d , a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i m p l i e s a f a i r comment t h a t i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e s i t u a t i o n . I f t h e comment i s s k i l l r e l a t e d , i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i m p l i e s a l a c k of k n o w l e d g e of t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r , a m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , o r an i n c o r r e c t e v a l u a t i o n o f an a t h l e t e ' s o r g r o u p o f a t h l e t e s ' l e v e l o f a b i l i t y o r p e r f o r m a n c e . An " I n a p p r o p r i a t e " comment w o u l d d e s c r i b e o r p r e s c r i b e i n c o r r e c t m e c h a n i c s o f a s k i l l , an i m p r o p e r t a c t i c o r s t r a t e g y f o r a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n o r an e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t i s u n r e a l i s t i c w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e a t h l e t e s a b i l i t y . I f t h e comment i s n o t s k i l l r e l a t e d , i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i m p l i e s a comment t h a t may be u n f a i r a n d / o r i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e s i t u a t i o n . The n e x t c o d i n g d e c i s i o n r e g a r d s t h e i n t e n t o f t h e comment. I s i t " I n t e r r o g a t i v e " - i s i t ' s i n t e n t i o n t o a s k a q u e s t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e p e r f o r m a n c e , i s i t " E v a l u a t i v e " - i s i t ' s i n t e n t i o n t o 124 A p p e n d i x C e v a l u a t e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e , i s i t " D e s c r i p t i v e " - i s i t ' s i n t e n t i o n t o d e s c r i b e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e , i s i t " P r e s c r i p t i v e " -i s i t ' s i n t e n t i o n t o p r e s c r i b e a c o r r e c t i o n o r an a l t e r n a t i v e method o f p r o d u c i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e , i s i t " A f f e c t i v e " - i s i t i n t e n d e d t o a c t as a m o t i v a t o r t o t h e a t h l e t e , o r i s i t ' s i n t e n t i o n a c o m b i n a t i o n of s e v e r a l o f t h e s e d e s c r i p t o r s . F i n a l l y , t h e c o d e r d e c i d e s i f t h e t o n e and c h a r a c t e r of t h e comment i s " P o s i t i v e " - t h e comment i s e n t h u s i a s t i c , e n c o u r a g i n g e t c . , " N e u t r a l " - t h e comment i s n e i t h e r e n t h u s i a s t i c n o r u n e n t h u s i a s t i c , e n c o u r a g i n g n o r d i s c o u r a g i n g , o r " N e g a t i v e " - t h e comment i s u n e n t h u s i a s t i c , d i s c o u r a g i n g , s a r c a s t i c e t c . B o t h t h e P l a y e r A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t and t h e Time A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t a r e u s e d t o c o l l e c t d a t a on t h e A t h l e t e P e r f o r m a n c e component. The P l a y e r A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t i s u s e d t o c o l l e c t d a t a on t h e " E v e n t " c a t e g o r y of A t h l e t e P e r f o r m a n c e . " T e c h n i c a l " d a t a c a n be c o l l e c t e d e i t h e r on t h e w h o l e "Team", a " G r o u p " o f a t h l e t e s o r an " I n d i v i d u a l " a t h l e t e . The o b s e r v e r f i r s t i d e n t i f i e s t h e s k i l l b e i n g p e r f o r m e d , e i t h e r by i t ' s " S k i l l £" o r as a n , " O t h e r S k i l l " . The t o t a l number of " R e p e t i t i o n s " t h a t t h e a t h l e t e p e r f o r m s i s c o d e d a l o n g w i t h t h e number of " S u c c e s s f u l " , " N e u t r a l " and " U n s u c c e s s f u l " a t t e m p t s as d e f i n e d by t h e c o a c h i n h i s e a r l i e r i n p u t . 125 A p p e n d i x C " P h y s i o l o g i c a l " , " B i o m e c h a n i c a l " , and " P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e s p o n s e M e a s u r e s " c a n a l s o be d e t e r m i n e d f o r an i n d i v i d u a l a t h l e t e and a r e t h e r e f o r e p a r t o f t h i s m o d e l , h o w e v e r , t h e s e m e a s u r e s a r e n o t a d d r e s s e d a t t h i s t i m e . The Time A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t i s u s e d t o c o l l e c t d a t a on t h e Time c a t e g o r y o f t h e A t h l e t e P e r f o r m a n c e component. Time c o s t d a t a can be c o l l e c t e d on f i v e s u b c a t e g o r i e s : 1 ) . L i s t e n i n g t i m e ; 2 ) . T r a n s i t i o n t i m e ; 3 ) . A c t i v e t i m e ; 4 ) . W a i t i n g t i m e ; and 5 ) . O t h e r t i m e . B o t h t h e amount of t i m e i n m i n u t e s and s e c o n d s , and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r c e n t a g e o f b o t h t h e segment t i m e and t h e o v e r a l l p r a c t i c e t i m e i s d e t e r m i n e d f o r e a c h s u b c a t e g o r y w i t h i n e a c h d r i l l o f e a c h component. 1) . L i s t e n i n g t i m e i s made up of t i m e s s p e n t l i s t e n i n g : a) . To I n s t r u c t i o n b) . To O r g a n i z a t i o n c) . To F e e d b a c k d) . To Q u e s t i o n s a b o u t ( i ) C o n t e n t , ( i i ) O r g a n i z a t i o n e) . To C o n d u c t 2) . T r a n s i t i o n t i m e i s made up of t i m e s p e n t i n t r a n s i t i o n : a) . D r i l l t o d r i l l b) . R e c o v e r y c ) . O t h e r 3) . A c t i v e t i m e i s made up of t i m e s p e n t : a ) . On Task - t h i s t i m e i s e i t h e r ( i ) A p p r o p r i a t e , t h a t i s , t h e a t h l e t e i s a c t i v e l y engaged i n t h e t a s k A p p e n d i x C a s s i g n e d by t h e c o a c h and t h e demands of t h i s t a s k meet t h e needs of t h e a t h l e t e ; o r ( i i ) I n a p p r o p r i a t e , t h a t i s , t h e a t h l e t e i s a c t i v e l y engaged i n t h e t a s k a s s i g n e d by t h e c o a c h b u t t h e demands of t h e t a s k do n o t meet t h e needs of t h e a t h l e t e . O f f T a s k - t h i s t i m e i s e i t h e r ( i ) A p p r o p r i a t e , t h a t i s , t h e a t h l e t e i s a c t i v e l y engaged i n a t a s k o t h e r t h a n t h a t a s s i g n e d by t h e c o a c h ( p e r h a p s a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h e a s s i g n e d t a s k ) , however t h i s u n a s s i g n e d t a s k i s more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e a t h l e t e w i t h r e g a r d t o h i s / h e r needs t h a n t h a t a s s i g n e d by t h e c o a c h , o r ( i i ) I n a p p r o p r i a t e , t h a t i s , t h e a t h l e t e i s e i t h e r 1 ) . a c t i v e l y engaged i n a t a s k o t h e r t h a n t h a t a s s i g n e d by t h e c o a c h and t h i s u n a s s i g n e d t a s k does n o t meet t h e needs of t h e a t h l e t e any b e t t e r t h a n t h e a s s i g n e d t a s k , 2 ) . a c t i v e l y engaged i n a t a s k o t h e r t h a n t h a t a s s i g n e d by t h e c o a c h and t h e t a s k t h e a t h l e t e i s engaged i n meets t h e needs of t h e a t h l e t e b e t t e r t h a n t h e a s s i g n e d t a s k however t h i s u n a s s i g n e d t a s k does not meet t h e g o a l s of t h e p r a c t i c e s egment, 3 ) . a c t i v e l y engaged i n non d i s r u p t i v e b e h a v i o u r . ( i i i ) O t h e r , o t h e r w i s e u n c o d e a b l e a c t i v e t i m e . W a i t i n g t i m e - w h i c h i s made up of t i m e s s p e n t w a i t i n g : On T a s k , t h e a t h l e t e i s w a i t i n g f o r a t u r n a t p e r f o r m i n g t h e a s s i g n e d t a s k and i s p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p e r f o r m a n c e s o f teammates and t h e f e e d b a c k t h e y a r e 127 A p p e n d i x C r e c e i v i n g f r o m t h e c o a c h . ( b ) O f f T a s k , t h e a t h l e t e i s w a i t i n g f o r a t u r n a t p e r f o r m i n g t h e a s s i g n e d t a s k but i s n o t p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e d r i l l , teammates p e r f o r m a n c e s o r f e e d b a c k f r o m t h e c o a c h d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s teammates. ( c ) O t h e r o t h e r w i s e u n c o d e a b l e w a i t i n g t i m e . 5). O t h e r t i m e - w h i c h i s made up of t i m e s t h a t c a n n o t be coded i n any of t h e above c a t e g o r i e s . 128 A p p e n d i x C F i g u r e 1. E x p l a n a t i o n o f d a t a g e n e r a t i o n and m a s s a g e . Run 1 - d a t a f o r b o t h o b s e r v e r 1 and o b s e r v e r 2 were r a n d o m l y g e n e r a t e d w i t h a r a n g e of 1 t o 5. Run 2 - d a t a f o r o b s e r v e r 1 was r a n d o m l y g e n e r a t e d . D a t a f o r o b s e r v e r 2 was d e r i v e d by a d d i n g e i t h e r +1, 0, o r -1 t o e a c h i t e m s c o r e f o r o b s e r v e r 1. F o r e x a m p l e , i f f o r comment 1 o b s e r v e r l ' s d a t a i s : 2321412 t h e n f o r comment 1 o b s e r v e r 2's d a t a becomes: 3312413 I f t h e s e q u e n c e (+1, 0, - 1 , +1, 0, -1 ...) i n d i c a t e d t h a t +1 was t o be added t o an o b s e r v e r 1 s c o r e of 5 t h e z e r o was added t o keep t h e s c o r e s w i t h i n t h e s p e c i f i e d r a n g e (1 t o 5) and t h e s e q u e n c e was c o n t i n u e d , t h a t i s , 0 w o u l d be added t o t h e n e x t s c o r e . S i m i l a r l y , i f t h e s e q u e n c e i n d i c a t e d t h a t -1 was t o be added t o an o b s e r v e r 1 s c o r e o f 1, 0 was added i n s t e a d . Run 3 - d a t a f o r o b s e r v e r 1 was r a n d o m l y g e n e r a t e d w i t h a r a n g e of 3 t o 5. D a t a f o r o b s e r v e r 2 was d e r i v e d f r o m o b s e r v e r l ' s d a t a by a d d i n g +1, t o e a c h i t e m s c o r e i n e a c h comment. A g a i n , an o b s e r v e r 1 s c o r e of 5 w o u l d have z e r o added t o i t t o keep w i t h i n t h e r a n g e . 129 Examples: "Run 1 Data" 011 2321412 012 3111225 021 1232524 022 5443114 031 2554442 032 2352215 Appendix C "Run 2 Data" 011 2321412 012 3312413 021 1232524 022 1142434 031 2554442 032 1553541 "Run 3 Data" 011 5544433 012 5555544 021 3545534 022 4555545 031 3453334 032 4554445 130 A p p e n d i x C R e f e r e n c e s F r a n k s , I . M., S i n c l a i r , G. D., Thomson, W., & Goodman, D. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . A n a l y s i s of t h e C o a c h i n g P r a c t i c e . S c i e n c e  P e r i o d i c a l On R e s e a r c h and T e c h n o l o g y i n S p o r t , GY-1. J o h n s o n , R.B.,& F r a n k s , I.M., ( m a n u s c r i p t i n p r e p a r a t i o n ) . The D e v e l o p m e n t of a S y s t e m f o r A n a l y z i n g C o a c h i n g B e h a v i o u r s . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , C e n t r e f o r S p o r t A n a l y s i s , V a n c o u v e r . L a n g s d o r f , E. V. ( 1 9 7 9 ) C o a c h i n g B e h a v i o r R e c o r d i n g Form i n D a r s t , P. W., M a n c i n i , V. H., & Z a k r a j s e k , D. B. ( E d s . ) S y s t e m a t i c O b s e r v a t i o n I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n f o r P h y s i c a l  E d u c a t i o n . ( p p . 306-315 ) . New Y o r k : L e i s u r e P r e s s . Q u a r t e r m a n , J . A. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . An O b s e r v a t i o n a l S y s t e m f o r O b s e r v i n g t h e V e r b a l and N o n - v e r b a l B e h a v i o r s E m i t t e d By P h y s i c a l E d u c a t o r s and C o a c h e s . The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t o r , _37, 15-20 . •. ~ • R u s h a l l , B. S. (1977 ) . Two O b s e r v a t i o n S c h e d u l e s f o r S p o r t i n g and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n E n v i r o n m e n t s . C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l of  A p p l i e d S p o r t S c i e n c e s , 2^ 15-21. 131 Appendix C Smith , R. E . , Smol l , F . L . , & Hunt , E . B . ( 1978). T r a i n i n g Manual fo r the Coaching Behavior Assessment System (CBAS) . Tharp , R. G . , & G a l l i m o r e , . R. (1976, J a n u a r y ) . What A Coach Can Teach A T e a c h e r . Psycho logy Today, pp. 75-78. 132 A p p e n d i x C T a b l e 1. E s t i m a t e s o f V a r i a n c e components f o r Run 2 C o m p u t a t i o n a l F o r m u l a s EMS(comments) - EMS(comments by o b s e r v e r s ) = V a r i a n c e due number of o b s e r v e r s t o comments E M S ( o b s e r v e r s ) - EMS(comments by o b s e r v e r s ) • = V a r i a n c e due number of comments t o o b s e r v e r s EMS(comments by o b s e r v e r s ) x v a r i a n c e due t o e r r o r = V a r i a n c e due t o comments by o b s e r v e r N.B. No e s t i m a t e i s a v a i l a b l e f o r v a r i a n c e due t o e r r o r s i n c e t h e r e i s o n l y one s c o r e p e r c e l l ; t h e r e f o r e , v a r i a n c e due t o e r r o r i s assumed t o be z e r o and EMS(comments by o b s e r v e r s ) i s an o v e r e s t i m a t e o f v a r i a n c e due t o comments by o b s e r v e r s . 1 3 3 A p p e n d i x C P e r c e n t a g e of C o m p u t a t i o n a l P r o c e d u r e s T o t a l V a r i a n c e V a r i a n c e due = 1.857 - 1.904 t o comments = -0.024 -13 2 . V a r i a n c e due = 1.226 - 1.904 t o o b s e r v e r s • = -0.012 -6 56 V a r i a n c e due = 1.904 x 0 t o comments by o b s e r v e r s . = 1.904 119 1.868 100 ANOVA T a b l e S o u r c e o f V a r i a n c e Comment s O b s e r v e r s Comments by o b s e r v e r s d f 55 1 55 SS 102 . 152 1. 226 104 .703 MS 1.857 1. 226 1.904 F 0.98 0.64 134 A p p e n d i x C T a b l e 2. E s t i m a t e s o f V a r i a n c e c omponents f o r Run 2 C o m p u t a t i o n a l F o r m u l a s EMS(comments) - EMS(comments by o b s e r v e r s ) ~ = V a r i a n c e due number of o b s e r v e r s t o comments E M S ( o b s e r v e r s ) - EMS(comments by o b s e r v e r s ) = V a r i a n c e due number of comments t o o b s e r v e r s EMS(comments by o b s e r v e r s ) x v a r i a n c e due t o e r r o r = V a r i a n c e due t o comments by o b s e r v e r N.B. No e s t i m a t e i s a v a i l a b l e f o r v a r i a n c e due t o e r r o r s i n c e t h e r e i s o n l y one s c o r e p e r c e l l ; t h e r e f o r e , v a r i a n c e due t o e r r o r i s assumed t o be z e r o and EMS(comments by o b s e r v e r s ) i s an o v e r e s t i m a t e o f v a r i a n c e due t o comments by o b s e r v e r s . 135 A p p e n d i x C C o m p u t a t i o n a l P r o c e d u r e s P e r c e n t a g e o f T o t a l V a r i a n c e V a r i a n c e due = 3.116 - 0.089 t o comments = 1.514 95 V a r i a n c e due = 0.012 - 0.089 t o o b s e r v e r s 56 = -0.001 V a r i a n c e due = 0.089 x 0 t o comments by o b s e r v e r s = 0.089 1.602 100 ANOVA T a b l e S o u r c e o f V a r i a n c e Comment s O b s e r v e r s Comments by o b s e r v e r s d f 55 1 55 SS 171 .366 0.012 4 .917 MS 3 . 116 0.012 0.089 F 34 .85 0 . 13 136 Appendix C Table 3. E s t i m a t e s of V a r i a n c e components fo r Run 3 Computa t iona l Formulas EMS(comments) - EMS(comments by observer s ) • = V a r i a n c e due number of observer s to comments EMS(observers ) - EMS(comments by observer s ) = V a r i a n c e due number of comments to observer s EMS(comments by observer s ) x v a r i a n c e due to e r r o r = V a r i a n c e due to comments by observer N . B . No e s t imate i s a v a i l a b l e for v a r i a n c e due to e r r o r s ince there i s o n l y one score per c e l l ; t h e r e f o r e , v a r i a n c e due to e r r o r i s assumed to be zero and EMS(comments by observer s ) i s an overe s t imate of v a r i a n c e due to comments by o b s e r v e r s . 137 Appendix C Percentage of Computa t iona l Procedures T o t a l V a r i a n c e V a r i a n c e due = 0.680 - 0.123 to comments = 0 .278 15 2 V a r i a n c e due = 84.903 - 0.123 to observer s = 1.514 .79 56 V a r i a n c e due = 0.123 x 0 = 0.123 to comments by observer s 1 .915 100 ANOVA Table Source of V a r i a n c e Comment s Observers Comments by observer s df 55 1 55 SS 37 .424 84 .903 6 .811 MS 0 .680 84 .903 0 . 123 F 5.49 685 .58 138 A p p e n d i x D D a t a Segment A: P r e t e s t A l r i g h t , l e t s go now p l e a s e . No t r a n s i t i o n . No t r a n s i t i o n . W e ' l l t a k e 5 on 5 f r o m m i d c o u r t , 5 On 5 f r o m m i d c o u r t . P o s t s l e t ' s n o t f o r g e t t h a t e x c h a n g e uh? One of t h e most d i f f i c u l t t h i n g s t o d e f e n d . You remember t h e p r o b l e m s you had w i t h M c M a s t e r . M c M a s t e r ' s w h o l e o f f e n s e was b a s e d on t h o s e c r o s s s c r e e n s a l o n g t h e b a s e l i n e . We s t i l l d o n ' t do enough o f i t on t h e p o s t . I t ' l l be r i g h t h e r e . G o l d b a l l . No t r a n s i t i o n . No t r a n s i t i o n . W e ' l l go a b o u t 7 e a c h . H e r e we go. Good s c r e e n A a r o n . Whoa. Whoa. Whoa, whoa Walk w a l k ! No hoop, no hoop. R i g h t h e r e g o l d b a l l m i d c o u r t . See f i f we can s t a r t w i t h a f r e e b a l l . Make s u r e we d o n ' t g e t 2 s w i n g s uh? A a r o n , A a r o n , I d o n ' t t h i n k y o u ' r e even aware b u t you a r e r e a l l y l a n d i n g up down b e l o w t h e b l o c k an a w f u l l o t , eh? You g e t , y e a h , y o u ' r e l a n d i n g t h i s way y o u ' r e r i g h t down h e r e . J u s t d o n ' t l e t y o u r s e l f g e t down t o o l o w . T h a t ' s i t M i k e . C'mon G o r d y . C'mon G o r d y . T h a t ' s i t G o r d y . S h u f f l e c u t . O f f s i d e G o r d y c'mon. Ah, g o l d t h a t ' s 0 f o r 3. G o r d y make s u r e we're e x c h a n g i n g on t h a t ah on t h e weak s i d e when we r u n a d r i b b l e e n t r y . On d r i b b l e e n t r i e s d o n ' t f o r g e t t h e w e a k s i d e e x c h a n g e , o r t h e o f f s i d e e x c h a n g e . Get a f r e e b a l l . L o o k , l o o k . Hey, hey! We're g e t t i n g so s l o p p y we're s t a r t i n g t o a s k f o r f r e e b a l l s h e r e . To make i t w o r s e , we're g i v i n g i t t o gu y s h e r e . You c o u l d have j u s t as e a s i l y come ou t t o h e r e and p i c k e d up t h e b a l l a t a p o i n t o f r e v e r s e 139 A p p e n d i x D p o s i t i o n . I ' l l r e m i n d you a g a i n . We want t o g e t f r e e b a l l s above t h e d o t t e d l i n e and b e l o w t h e f o u l l i n e , a n y w h e r e f r o m where you c a n s h o o t . Or we want t o t r y and g e t i t h e r e a t th e p o i n t p o s i t i o n o r a t the r e v e r s e p o s i t i o n . Not o u t i n no man's l a n d . So s t o p a s k i n g f o r i t i n no man's l a n d and s t o p g i v i n g i t t o p e o p l e i n no man's l a n d . L e t ' s g o . S t e p i n J e t h r o , t h a t ' s i t . Good boy A a r o n . Way t o l o o k A a r o n . T h a t ' s 5 we g o t 2 t o g o . F o u l 2 t o g o . J . i f you s m e l l t r o u b l e j u s t make s u r e you pop w i t h a d r i b b l e . 140 A p p e n d i x D D a t a Segment B Here you go J . S e v e n t i m e s b l u e . Good boy J o h n n y . S h u f f l e c u t . Get o u t of t h e r e J o h n . Good. J a m i e you g o t t a t a k e a q u i c k l o o k uh? You g o t t a s c r e e n down, you l o o k , n o t h i n g t h e r e g o t t a pop o u t , c a u s e we g o t a new s h u f f l e c u t c o m i n . Ok. hang o n . Ah Moe, y o u ' r e l o n g s a f e t y . I know, I know, b u t you s t i l l g o t t a do i t , you g o t t a do i t . T h e r e ' s a , f r e e o n e . Watch t h e key James. Yes J o h n n y . T h a t ' s 3 . S t r o n g s i d e r i g h t . S t r o n g s i d e r i g h t . Get some good s h a r p c u t s . Good boy J o h n n y . T h a t ' s i t , t h a t ' s i t . Get o u t of t h e r e J ames. T h a t ' s t h e way, t h a t ' s t h e way. Moe, Moe. You g o t t a . W e l l I g u e s s t h e o n l y t h i n g I c a n say i s t h a t i f you g e t c a u g h t i n d e e p . . . K e v , I d o n ' t know, how d i d you f i n d you were g e t t i n g c a u g h t i n deep when you have t o be l o n g s a f e t y ? I f you g e t c a u g h t i n deep and M a u r i c e , I know how d i f f i c u l t i t i s c a u s e you want t o r e b o u n d . B u t i f you l a n d up g e t t i n g c a u g h t i n deep you c a n r e b o u n d b u t o n l y i f y o u ' v e s c r e a m e d so t h a t h a l f t h e w o r l d c a n h e a r you "Long s a f e t y " so t h a t somebody e l s e know's t h e y ' r e gonna have t o go. L i k e i f you w o u l d a y e l l e d i t w o u l d have been e a s y f o r P a u l , c a u s e he was o u t a t 2 0 f t . a l r e a d y . B u t you g o t t a l e t him know i f y o u ' r e n o t gonna be l o n g s a f e t y . No, n o , we're d o i n g t h a t . H e r e we g o . Good b o y . T h a t ' s t h e i d e a . C'mon we g o t t a h i t t h o s e b o a r d s . Ah, J . good b l o c k . Go a g a i n , go a g a i n , go a g a i n . T h a t ' s i t . T h e r e you go P a u l . W e l l d one, w e l l d o n e , w e l l d o n e . Way t o s e t y o u r man up b l u e a l l o v e r , s u p e r . T h a t ' s 7 ok. Heads up p l e a s e . Heads up. 141 A p p e n d i x D D a t a C A l r i g h t , l e t s go now p l e a s e . No t r a n s i t i o n . No t r a n s i t i o n . W e ' l l t a k e 5 on 5 f r o m m i d c o u r t , 5 On 5 f r o m m i d c o u r t . P o s t s l e t ' s n o t f o r g e t t h a t e x c h a n g e uh? One of t h e most d i f f i c u l t t h i n g s t o d e f e n d . You remember t h e p r o b l e m s you had w i t h M c M a s t e r . M c M a s t e r ' s w h o l e o f f e n s e was b a s e d on t h o s e c r o s s s c r e e n s a l o n g t h e b a s e l i n e . We s t i l l d o n ' t do enough o f i t on t h e p o s t . I t ' l l be r i g h t h e r e . G o l d b a l l . No t r a n s i t i o n . No t r a n s i t i o n . W e ' l l go a b o u t 7 e a c h . H e r e we go • 1. Good s c r e e n A a r o n . 2. Whoa. Whoa. Whoa, whoa Walk w a l k ! No hoop, no hoop. 3. R i g h t h e r e g o l d b a l l m i d c o u r t . 4. See i f we c a n s t a r t w i t h a f r e e b a l l . 5. Make s u r e we d o n ' t g e t 2 s w i n g s uh? 6. A a r o n , A a r o n , I d o n ' t t h i n k y o u ' r e even aware b u t you a r e r e a l l y l a n d i n g up down b e l o w t h e b l o c k an a w f u l l o t , eh? You g e t , y e a h , y o u ' r e l a n d i n g t h i s way y o u ' r e r i g h t down h e r e . J u s t d o n ' t l e t y o u r s e l f g e t down t o o l o w . 7. T h a t ' s i t M i k e . C'mon G o r d y . C'mon G o r d y . T h a t ' s i t G o r d y . 8. S h u f f l e c u t . 9. O f f s i d e G o r d y c'mon. 10. Ah, g o l d t h a t ' s 0 f o r 3.. 11. G o r d y make s u r e we're e x c h a n g i n g on t h a t ah on t h e weak s i d e when we r u n a d r i b b l e e n t r y . 142 A p p e n d i x D 12. On d r i b b l e e n t r i e s d o n ' t f o r g e t t h e w e a k s i d e e x c h a n g e , o r th e o f f s i d e e x c h a n g e . 13. Get a f r e e b a l l . 14. L o o k , l o o k . Hey, hey! We're g e t t i n g so s l o p p y we're s t a r t i n g t o a s k f o r f r e e b a l l s h e r e . To make i t w o r s e , we're g i v i n g i t ' t o , g u y s h e r e . You c o u l d ' h a v e j u s t as e a s i l y come o u t t o h e r e and p i c k e d up t h e b a l l a t a p o i n t o f r e v e r s e p o s i t i o n . I ' l l r e m i n d you a g a i n . We want t o g e t f r e e b a l l s above t h e d o t t e d l i n e and b e l o w t h e f o u l l i n e , a n ywhere f r o m where you c a n s h o o t . Or we want t o t r y and g e t i t h e r e a t t h e p o i n t p o s i t i o n o r a t t h e r e v e r s e p o s i t i o n . Not o u t i n no man's l a n d . So s t o p a s k i n g f o r i t i n no man's l a n d and s t o p g i v i n g i t t o p e o p l e i n no man's l a n d . 15. L e t ' s g o . 16. S t e p i n J e t h r o , t h a t ' s i t . 17. Good boy A a r o n . Way t o l o o k A a r o n . 18. T h a t ' s 5 we g o t 2 t o g o . 19. F o u l , 2 t o go . 20. J . i f you s m e l l t r o u b l e j u s t make s u r e you pop w i t h a d r i b b l e . 21. I t e l l y ou guys we g o t t o g e t a f t e r i t a l o t t o u g h e r on t h e b o a r d s . 22. Good boy M i k e . 23. Q u i c k . Q u i c k , q u i c k . 24. Come on q u i c k q u i c k q u i c k g e t on h i m . 25. F o r g o o d n e s s s a k e who's on t h e b o a r d s A a r o n ? 143 Appendix D 26. Nothing long no th ing long no th ing l o n g . 27. Good pass . 28. Q u i c k l y q u i c k l y p r e s s u r e . 29. Keep him t h e r e . Slow him down de fense . 30. Get home . 31 . J . D . d o n ' t r e a c h . 32. A l r i g h t over h e r e . F i v e q u i c k l y each . .Doggone I mean we're j u s t s t anding behind people everywhere . The defense has been n o n - e x i s t e n t . Nobody guard ing people i n the p o s t . 33. Aaron you h a v e n ' t been i n f r o n t of a man y e t . 34. J . D . who are you guarding? 35. Ready to go . On the end. Who's been of f? 36. Jamie you of f? Get i n James fo r somebody. 37. Need a 5 man wi th a b a l l . 38. M i c h a e l you p l a y i n g 5? 39. A a r o n ' s 5, here we go . L e t ' s go . 40. We need somebody coming m i d d l e . 41 . T h a t ' s i t ' good. 42. Watch the key . 43. Whoa whoa whoa whoa whoa. F i v e for g o l d s , f i v e fo r the g o l d s . E v e r y b o d y ' s s i t t i n g there watching Kev do a l ay up. Two guys should be, r i g h t down there on top of him r e b o u n d i n g . 44. Aaron y o u ' r e on the o f f s i d e p o s t . D o n ' t come acros s when the b a l l ' s on the swing . Yeah un le s s he b r i n g s you , d o n ' t come . 144 Appendix D 45. A l r i g h t are we p u t t i n g pre s sure on the b a l l out of bounds? L e t ' s go . 46. Who's up? 47. John are you g e t t i n g in? 48. Here take A l o f f . 49. Who's i n the f r o n t cour t now? 50. Heads up, hang on hang o n . 145 A p p e n d i x D D a t a Segment D Ok. L e t ' s a h , l e t s s t a r t w i t h g o i n g some f u l l c o u r t r i g h t o f f t h e b a t i n HAND and l e t ' s s t a r t i t f r o m a f r e e t h r o w , ok. W e ' l l s t a r t i t f r o m a f r e e t h r o w r i g h t f r o m h e r e w h e t h e r t h e r e ' s a r e b o u n d o r a made b a s k e t we're g o i n g r i g h t f r o m h e r e . I f t h e r e ' s a made b a s k e t l e t ' s g e t on him f u l l c o u r t . F u l l c o u r t man t o man, no FACE j u s t g e t up and deny and f u l l t r a n s i t i o n u n t i l we s t o p i t . We w i l l go w i t h , HAND b o t h teams i n HAND. L e t ' s have A a r o n p l a t i n g 5 i n g o l d , A a r o n ah M i c h a e l p l a y i n g 4, ah G o r d y p l a y i n g 3, ahm K e v i n and J.D. p l a y i n g 1 and 2 i n g o l d , ok. I n b l u e l e t ' s have ah J o h n p l a y i n g 5, ah J a m i e p l a y i n g 4, ah l e t ' s have P a u l p l a y i n g 3, and M a u r i c e and A l p l a y i n g 1 and 2 and J e t h r o c o m i n g i n as b l u e o r g o l d . Ok so we g o t P a u l p l a y i n g on t h e b l u e team, ah M i c h a e l p l a y i n g on t h e g o l d team. A l r i g h t we g o t b l u e s h o o t i n g a f r e e t h r o w m o v i n g f r o m h e r e . Ready t o g o . F u l l t r a n s i t i o n . F u l l t r a n s i t i o n . 1. Good p a s s . 2. Come on James. 3. Come on J o h n . T h a t ' s t h e way. 4. C u t t e r s 20 f e e t . 5. Come on G o r d y . 6. Good J . 7. T r a c e t r a c e , t r a c e . 14 6 A p p e n d i x D . 8. Ah, h o l d i t p l e a s e , h o l d i t . Two t h i n g s , i f t h e b a l l i s a t t h e s i d e one of t h e f i r s t t h i n g s t h i s guy i s g o i n g t o be l o o k i n g t o do i s t o t h r o w t h e b a l l l o n g . Now we've g o t a l l t h o s e guys o v e r t h e r e p l a y i n g D a r n e l l C l a s h T r y i n g t o g e t on t o p of t h e i r man, b u t i t ' s t o u g h . I f we d o n ' t have James P a r k e r p u t t i n g some p r e s s u r e on t h i s g uy. I d o n ' t c a r e i f i t ' s 10 f e e t away but f o r g o o d n e s s s a k e be s c r e a m i n g a t t h i s guy c a l l i n g b a l l and g e t y o u r hands up i n h i s f a c e somehow so he t h i n k s a b o u t h a v i n g t o p u t i t on t h e f l o o r and n o t d r i b b l i n g . C l e a r ? I f you p l a y b a c k l i k e P a u l i s r i g h t now t h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o s t o p t h i s guy f r o m t h r o w i n g a s i x t y f o o t t o u c h d o w n . But i f you g e t y o u r hands up i t s g o i n g t o make t h i s a l o t t o u g h e r . S e c o n d l y , G o r d y , i f y o u ' r e my o u t l e t and I ' v e g o t t h e b a l l I d o n ' t want you t h e r e . I want you c u t t i n g and p o s t i n g 20 f e e t . O t h e r w i s e t h e w e a k s i d e t r a i l i s i n a u s e l e s s p o s i t i o n . So i f t h e b a l l i s i n t h e hands of a t r a i l g e t t h a t m i d d l e guy o u t of t h e r e and g e t t h e o f f s i d e t r a i l s t e p p i n g t o w a r d s t h e b a l l . Q u e s t i o n s ? 9. Ok. A a r o n you g e t t i n g i n ? L e t ' s go. 10. Ah who's g o t A a r o n ? L e t ' s g o . H e r e we go. 11. Need a l e a d J . 12. N i c e p a s s G o r d y . 13. F i v e M i c h a e l . L e t ' s g o . 14. N i c e p a s s . 15. J.D. J.D. y o u ' r e m i d d l e and t h e b a l l comes t o a s i d e you g o t t a come o u t and become a l e a d . F a s t as you c a n . 147 A p p e n d i x D 16. B l u e on t h e e n d . L e t ' s g e t on h i m . B l u e on t h e e n d . 17. Come on A a r o n . Come on A a r o n . 18. Good boy K e v . 19. .Side o u t . S i d e o u t . 20. Way t o g e t b a c k g o l d , way t o g e t b a c k . 21. Watch t h e v o l l e y b a l l , w a t c h t h e v o l l e y b a l l . 22. G i v e him a s c r e e n J o h n , t h a t ' s i t . 23. Good good James. W e l l d one, w e l l d o n e . 24. T r a c e h i m , t r a c e h i m . 25. Hey h o l d i t . F i v e f o r t h e b l u e s . Why d i d t h e g o l d s g e t the b a s k e t ? Nobody's m a k i n g i t t o u g h f o r A a r o n . 26. A l you were i n b e a u t i f u l p o s i t i o n t o make i t t o u g h . You were 10 f e e t away. Y o u r man w a s n ' t m o v i n g . Do s o m e t h i n g so t h a t A a r o n c a n ' t t h r o w i t l o n g . H e r e we g o . 27. B l u e on t h e e n d . 28. Get some p r e s s u r e o n . 29. T r a c e h i m , t r a c e h i m , t r a c e h i m , M i c h a e l . A l r i g h t . 30. Come on G o r d y . 3 1 . P i c k i t up. P i c k i t up and g e t o u t o f t h e r e . 32. Q u i c k , q u i c k , q u i c k , q u i c k . 33. L e t ' s g e t a f r e e b a l l . L e t ' s g e t a f r e e b a l l . 34. A l r i g h t h o l d i t , h o l d i t . t h i s i s n o t good e n o u g h . 35. S t a n d on t h e b l o c k M i c h a e l . 36. Can you b e l i e v e t h e y j u s t c o m p l e t e d t h i s p a s s ? I f you a l l o w t h i s t o happen a g a i n we h a v e n ' t g o t a ho p e . 37. Now J o h n why you p l a y b e h i n d him when t h e b a l l ' s way-out h e r e I have no i d e a . B u t I ' l l t e l l you w h a t , i f you do 148 Appendix D i t we ' re i n deep t r o u b l e . We're gonna p lay T o r o n t o , they got 6 ' 11" , 6 ' 9 " , 6 ' 8 " , 6' 8 " . We g o t t a have pres sure on the passer and you g o t t a get i n f r o n t of these guys . Do not l e t get the b a l l i n s i d e 10 f e e t . Make them come o u t s i d e the 3 p o i n t l i n e to get the t h i n g . 38. Now put something i n t o the d e f e n s e . 39. On the s i d e . Gold b a l l on the s i d e . Here we go . 40. J e t h r o go go ld next uh? 41. A l r i g h t another s ide ou t , another s ide o u t . 42. Good screen J t h a t ' s i t . 43 . Good pass . 44. Come on Aaron shoot the b a l l . 45. On the end, g o l d . 46. Hey get s e t , get s e t , get s e t . Get a bad c a l l from a r e f e r e e and we lo se the b a l l . 47. Here we go . 48. T h a t ' s i t . S h u f f l e c u t . 49. Quick , q u i c k , q u i c k . 50. Good screen J o h n . 149 A p p e n d i x D D a t a Segment E We'd l i k e t o p l a y some f u l l c o u r t . C o a c h ' s w i l l p l a y 5, o t h e r g uys p l a y i n g 1, 2 and 3. Ah, l e t ' s have um, l e t ' s have a h , A a r o n , P a u l , and J o h n one team. Ah, J a m i e , Moe and K e v i n b l u e . Ah, A l , G o r d y and M i c h a e l a h , g o l d . And S t a n l y , J e t h r o and J a m i e g o l d . G o l d J.D., s o r r y . G o l d . Y o u ' r e ok t h e way you a r e S t a n . Ah f i r s t team to 5, f i r s t team f i v e : . Q u i c k . 1. Need a c u t t e r Moe, need a c u t t e r He's l o s t y o u . 2. Good boy Moe . 3 . Q u i c k . T h a t ' s o ne. 4 . Come bac k A l , p o s t up. 5 . S i d e o u t , s i d e o u t . 6 . T h a t ' s t h e i d e a . 7 . Get i t up a b i t . 8. One n o t h i n g b l u e . 9 . Speak up. 10 . Good boy J.D. Way t o go t o t h e hoop, J a y . 11. Good boy J e t h r o . 12. T u r n over.. L e t ' s g o. 13 . Ah down a t t h i s e n d . No hoop. Down a t t h i s end . 14. Who's g u a r d i n g A a r o n ? 15 . Don't l e t him t h r o w l o n g p a s s e s . 16 . L e t ' s go l e t ' s go l e t ' s go t h e r e 's y o u r f r e e b a l l . 17 . Good boy A l . 18. H e r e we go. N e x t . -19 . T r a c e i t , t r a c e i t , n o t h i n g l o n g 150 A p p e n d i x D 20. Good t r y . Good l o o k . 2 1 . Come on A a r o n . You g o t t a move y o u r f e e t A a r o n . 22. Get a f r e e b a l l i f you c a n . 23. F e e t , f e e t , f e e t , f e e t . 24. One s h o t o n l y . 25. P o s t Moe, p o s t . 26. L e t ' s g o , l e t ' s g o . 27. S t a y w i t h him James. T r a c e l o n g , t h a t ' s i t . 28. Good boy Moe. 29. Good work b l u e , good work b l u e . 30. Make s u r e Moe. 3 1 . T h a t ' s i t . 32. Out of b o u n d s . 33. Good d e f e n s e b l u e . 34. Good boy J a m i e . 35. Need a l e a d , need a l e a d . 36. Good boy A a r o n 37 . Cut J.D. 38. On t h e e n d , on t h e e n d , on t h e e n d . 39. Good b l o c k J o h n . 40 . Q u i c k l y . 4 1 . You a l r i g h t A a r o n ? 42. T h e r e you go J o h n . P o s t J o h n n y , p o s t J o h n n y , p o s t T h a t ' s i t . 4 3 . F r e e b a l l . Good. 44. A l r i g h t , a l r i g h t . Good p a s s c o a c h . 45. Q u i c k . H e r e we g o . 151 A p p e n d i x D 46. Got t o o many guys p o s t i n g up. 47. S h o t Moe. Good s h o t Moe. I t ' s i n . 48. L e t ' s g o . Q u i c k . 49. Count i t . C ount i t , l e t ' s g o. 50. Good boy J a m i e . 152 - A p p e n d i x E Coach A n a l y s i s S y s t e m ( C A S ) : Coach A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t T r a i n i n g Tape M a n u a l D e v e l o p e d by: I.M. F r a n k s , G.D. S i n c l a i r , R.B. J o h n s o n C e n t r e f o r . S p o r t A n a l y s i s , U.B.C. D e v e l o p e d w i t h t h e a i d o f a S p o r t Canada G r a n t . W i t h a s s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e C o a c h i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f C a n a d a . 153 A p p e n d i x E I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s m a n u a l has been d e v e l o p e d as p a r t o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o g r a m f o r t r a i n i n g o b s e r v e r s i n t h e use of t h e CAS i n s t r u m e n t . T h i s i n s t r u m e n t e n a b l e s o b s e r v e r s t o i d e n t i f y and r e c o r d o n g o i n g c o a c h i n g b e h a v i o u r s . The i n s t r u m e n t i s made up of a s e r i e s o f b e h a v i o u r a l d e f i n i t i o n s . E a c h comment made by t h e c o a c h w i l l be coded b a s e d on t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s . The i n s t r u m e n t was d e v e l o p e d as an o b j e c t i v e way t o a n a l y z e c o a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The d e f i n i t i o n s a r e d e s i g n e d t o measure b e h a v i o u r s w h i c h have been shown t o i n f l u e n c e a t h l e t e ' s p e r f o r m a n c e . The d a t a i s i n p u t i n t o a c o m p u t e r v i a a "Power P a d " ( a d i g i t i z a t i o n b o a r d ) w h i c h s p e e d s b o t h d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s . T h i s i n s t r u m e n t has been d e v e l o p e d t o be us e d by c o a c h e s t o a n a l y z e t h e i r c o a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s and i s n o t i n t e n d e d f o r use as an e v a l u a t o r . W i t h p r o p e r t r a i n i n g , c o a c h e s o f any team s p o r t may be a n a l y z e d u s i n g t h i s i n s t r u m e n t . O v e r v i e w o f t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m . S y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s can p r o v i d e o b j e c t i v e d a t a on b e h a v i o u r a l e v e n t s o n l y i f t h e o b s e r v e r s a r e p r o p e r l y t r a i n e d . I n d e p e n d e n t o b s e r v e r s must be a b l e t o a g r e e on how a p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o u r i s t o be coded o r t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d r e l i a b l e . . An o b v i o u s o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s 154 A p p e n d i x E t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m t h e n , i s t o e s t a b l i s h h i g h " i n t e r - o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y " . I n t e r - o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y i s d e f i n e d as t h e a b i l i t y o f two i n d e p e n d e n t o b s e r v e r s o b s e r v i n g t h e same b e h a v i o u r t o code t h e b e h a v i o u r i n e x a c t l y t h e same way. To a c h i e v e t h i s o b j e c t i v e t h e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m f o r t h i s i n s t r u m e n t r e q u i r e s : ( 1 ) a t h o r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h i s m a n u a l ; ( 2 ) c a r e f u l v i e w i n g . o f t h e t r a i n i n g t a p e ; ( 3 ) s a t i s f a c t o r y p e r f o r m a n c e on a w r i t t e n t e s t o f t h e b e h a v i o u r a l d e f i n i t i o n s and c o d i n g p r o c e d u r e s ; ( 4 ) c o d i n g a v i d e o t a p e d s e q u e n c e o f v a r i o u s c o a c h i n g b e h a v i o u r s . A c r i t e r i o n l e v e l o f p e r f o r m a n c e on b o t h t h e w r i t t e n t e s t and t h e v i d e o c o d i n g must be a c h i e v e d b e f o r e an o b s e r v e r may be u s e d t o c o l l e c t d a t a f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s . P o t e n t i a l P r o b l e m s w i t h B e h a v i o u r a l O b s e r v a t i o n The use o f s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c a n l e a d t o t h e g a t h e r i n g o f v a l u a b l e b e h a v i o u r a l d a t a . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e s e p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h r e s e a r c h e r s s h o u l d be aware o f . A p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e o f e r r o r i s t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e o b s e r v e r . The e x p e c t a t i o n s and b i a s e s an o b s e r v e r b r i n g s t o th e o b s e r v a t i o n a l s e s s i o n c a n a f f e c t how a comment, s i t u a t i o n , o r c o a c h i s c o d e d . B e h a v i o u r s w h i c h a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e o b s e r v e r s e x p e c t a t i o n s may be m i s c o d e d o r d i s r e g a r d e d a l t o g e t h e r . F o r e x a m p l e , i f t h e o b s e r v e r 155 A p p e n d i x E e x p e c t s a c o a c h t o be v e r y p o s i t i v e and f r i e n d l y , t h e o b s e r v e r may o v e r l o o k o r m i s i n t e r p r e t i n s t a n c e s o f n e g a t i v i s m o r s a r c a s m . S i m i l a r l y , i f t h e o b s e r v e r e x p e c t s t h e c o a c h t o be n e g a t i v e , i n s t a n c e s of e n c o u r a g e m e n t o r r e i n f o r c e m e n t may be m i s s e d . A w a r e n e s s of t h i s p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m i s i m p o r t a n t so t h a t o b s e r v e r s c a n make a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t t o code b e h a v i o r s o b j e c t i v e l y . A s e c o n d p o s s i b l e e x p e c t a t i o n p r o b l e m o c c u r s when t h e o b s e r v e r ' s c o d i n g o f b e h a v i o u r s becomes i n f l u e n c e d by p r e v i o u s b e h a v i o u r s i n t h e same s e s s i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , i f t h e f i r s t few comments t h e c o a c h makes a r e coded as n e g a t i v e , t h i s may i n f l u e n c e t h e r e s t of t h e c o d i n g s e s s i o n . The o b s e r v e r t h e n , must s t r i v e t o code e a c h b e h a v i o u r i n d e p e n d e n t l y and o b j e c t i v e l y . R e a c t i v i t y - a b e h a v i o u r change o c c u r r i n g as a r e s u l t o f b e i n g o b s e r v e d , i s a n o t h e r p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m . The p r o t o c o l f o r t h e CAS i n s t r u m e n t s i s q u i t e i n t r u s i v e on t h e c o a c h as i t r e q u i r e s h i m / h e r to p r o v i d e i n p u t t o t h e o b s e r v e r , wear a m i c r o p h o n e and be o b s e r v e d a n d / o r v i d e o t a p e d d u r i n g t h e p r a c t i c e . T h i s r a t h e r d r a m a t i c change i n t h e c o a c h ' s p r a c t i c e e n v i r o n m e n t may c a u s e b e h a v i o u r a l c h a n g e s i . e . , t h e c o a c h becomes more c a r e f u l a n d / o r r e a c t s i n a way h e / s h e t h i n k s h e / s h e s h o u l d r a t h e r t h a n i n a n a t u r a l manner. H o w e v e r , a f t e r a p e r i o d o f a c c l i m a t i z a t i o n , t h a t i s , a f t e r a number of p r a c t i c e s have been o b s e r v e d a n d / o r t a p e d , t h e d e g r e e of r e a c t i v i t y w i l l l i k e l y d i m i n i s h as t h e c o a c h becomes more a c c u s t o m e d t o b e i n g o b s e r v e d . 156 A p p e n d i x E A t h i r d p r o b l e m i s r e l i a b i l i t y . I f t h e o b s e r v e r s do n o t code t h e b e h a v i o u r s e x a c t l y as t h e y were t r a i n e d then- t h e d a t a becomes u n r e l i a b l e . The o b s e r v e r must be c a r e f u l t o s t i c k t o t h e b e h a v i o u r a l d e f i n i t i o n s as d e f i n e d i n t h e m a n u a l and r e f r a i n f r o m a t t a c h i n g t h e i r own m e a n i n g s t o t h e t e r m s . S i n c e t h e c o a c h w i l l be e v a l u a t i n g h i m / h e r s e l f w i t h t h i s d a t a u n d e r t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i t was coded as d e f i n e d i n t h i s m a n u a l , i t i s v i t a l t h a t t h e o b s e r v e r s s t i c k e x a c t l y t o t h e o r i g i n a l d e f i n i t i o n s e ven i f t h e y d o n ' t a g r e e w i t h an a p p l i c a t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e . E t h i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s V i o l a t i o n s o f p r i v a c y and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y a r e t h e p r i m a r y r i s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e v i d e o r e c o r d i n g method o f o b s e r v a t i o n . S i n c e v i d e o r e c o r d i n g p r o d u c e s a p ermanent v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y r e c o r d , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e n s u r e a n o n y m i t y of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t . A l s o , t h e l o n g e r t h e r e c o r d e d t a p e i s k e p t , t h e g r e a t e r t h e l i k e l i h o o d , o f i t s c o n t e n t s b e i n g v i e w e d by u n a u t h o r i z e d p e o p l e . F o r t h e s e and o t h e r e t h i c a l r e a s o n s t h e n , i t i s e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t t h a t no c o a c h i s o b s e r v e d / t a p e d w i t h o u t p r e v i o u s l y g i v i n g h i s / h e r w r i t t e n c o n s e n t . . ( S e e a t t a c h e d c o n s e n t f o r m s ) . The c o a c h must be made aware of h i s / h e r r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o p a r t i c i p a t e or t o w i t h d r a w a t any t i m e . S t e p s must a l s o be t a k e n t o e n s u r e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f t h e d a t a . The r e s u l t s o f t h e b e h a v i o u r a l 157 A p p e n d i x E a s s e s s m e n t must n o t be d i s c u s s e d w i t h anyone n o t d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o j e c t . The t a p e s must be e r a s e d o r d e s t r o y e d as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r a s s e s s m e n t . L a s t l y , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o e m p h a s i z e t o t h e c o a c h t h a t t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e n o t g o i n g t o be u s e d t o e v a l u a t e h i s / h e r p e r f o r m a n c e b u t r a t h e r t o d e s c r i b e i t and p r o v i d e f e e d b a c k u s e f u l f o r t h e c o a c h ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . O v e r v i e w , o f t h e CAS I n s t r u m e n t s The CAS i n s t r u m e n t s d i f f e r f r o m o t h e r s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s i n s e v e r a l ways: t h e y l o o k a t t h e c o n t e n t of t h e p r a c t i c e ; t h e y l o o k a t a t h l e t e p e r f o r m a n c e ; t h e y n o t o n l y a l l o w s f o r , b u t r e q u i r e i n p u t f r o m t h e c o a c h ; t h e y use a c o m p u t e r t o c o l l e c t and a n a l y z e d a t a ; t h e y use i m p r o v e m e n t i n a t h l e t e p e r f o r m a n c e as a measure of c o a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s . B e f o r e t h e o b s e r v e r c a n b e g i n c o d i n g h e / s h e must have t h e f o l l o w i n g i n p u t f r o m t h e c o a c h : ( 1 ) a - l i s t o f t h e names, numbers and p o s i t i o n s o f t h e a t h l e t e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r a c t i c e ; ( 2 ) a l i s t o f t h e s k i l l s h e / s h e p l a n s t o c o a c h d u r i n g t h e p r a c t i c e ; d e f i n i t i o n s o f b o t h , s u c c e s s f u l and u n s u c c e s s f u l p e r f o r m a n c e of t h e s e s k i l l s ; a l i s t of t h e d r i l l s t o be u s e d t o t e a c h t h e above s k i l l s ; an a p p r o x i m a t e t i m e l i n e f o r . t h e p r a c t i c e , ( s e e A p p e n d i x B ) . Once t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n has been e n t e r e d i n t o t h e p r o g r a m t h e o b s e r v e r may b e g i n c o d i n g . 15 8 A p p e n d i x E Coach A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t . I n t h e CAS Co a c h A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t i n s t r u m e n t e a c h comment i s c o d e d u n d e r s e v e n c a t e g o r i e s . F i r s t , t h e f o c u s of t h e comment i s d e t e r m i n e d . The comment may be d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s t h e e n t i r e Team, a Group o f p l a y e r s , o r an I n d i v i d u a l . S e c o n d , t h e s e t t i n g of t h e comment i s c o d e d . I f t h e comment i s d e l i v e r e d i n s u c h a manner t h a t o t h e r s ( a t h l e t e s , c o a c h e s , b y s t a n d e r s ) , b e s i d e s t h e a t h l e t e ( s ) t o whom i t was d i r e c t e d c a n h e a r , t h e n i t i s c o n s i d e r e d a P u b l i c comment. I f n o t , t h e n i t i s c o n s i d e r e d a P r i v a t e comment. T h i r d , t h e method o f d e l i v e r y o f t h e comment i s d e c i d e d u p o n . D i d t h e c o a c h T a l k Over t h e d r i l l w h i l e t h e a t h l e t e s c o n t i n u e d t o p e r f o r m ? D i d h e / s h e F r e e z e t h e d r i l l i n m i d -p e r f o r m a n c e ? D i d he/ s h e D e m o n s t r a t e as w e l l as comment? I f s o , was t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n i n R e a l Time ( i . e . , a t game l i k e s p e e d ) o r was i t i n S l o w M o t i o n , and was i t m e c h a n i c a l l y C o r r e c t o r I n c o r r e c t . D i d t h e c o a c h , w a i t . u n t i l a n a t u r a l b r e a k i n t h e f l o w o f t h e d r i l l ( i . e . , a f t e r a t r i a l o r r e p e t i t i o n by an a t h l e t e , o r a t t h e end o f t h e d r i l l ) t o make a comment ( T a l k A f t e r ) , o r d i d t h e c o a c h R e c o n s t r u c t a s i t u a t i o n t h a t had p r e v i o u s l y o c c u r r e d ? F o u r t h , t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e comment i s e x a m i n e d . I s t h e comment S k i l l r e l a t e d ? I f s o , w h i c h s k i l l ( f r o m t h e l i s t t h e c o a c h s u p p l i e d ) does i t r e l a t e t o , a n d , i s i t a comment a b o u t an a t h l e t e s C o r r e c t 159 A p p e n d i x E p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e s k i l l , an I n c o r r e c t p e r f o r m a n c e , o r R e i n s t r u c t i o n on how t o p e r f o r m t h e s k i l l . I f t h e comment i s N o n - s k i l l r e l a t e d does i t c o n c e r n an a t h l e t e s B e h a v i o u r , an a t h l e t e s E f f o r t , t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e d r i l l a n d / o r p r a c t i c e , o r none of t h e above ( O t h e r ) . F i f t h , t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e comment i s d e t e r m i n e d . I s t h e comment A p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e s i t u a t i o n o r I n a p p r o p r i a t e . S i x t h , t h e i n t e n t o f t h e comment i s c o d e d . I s t h e comment E v a l u a t i v e -g o o d / b a d ; i s i t D e s c r i p t i v e - d e s c r i b e t h e a t h l e t e s p e r f o r m a n c e ; i s i t P r e s c r i p t i v e - p r e s c r i b e an a l t e r n a t i v e method o f p e r f o r m i n g ; i s i t A f f e c t i v e < - , a m o t i v a t i o n a l comment; i s i t I n t e r r o g a t i v e - a s k t h e a t h l e t e a q u e s t i o n ; or a c o m b i n a t i o n o f any o r a l l o f t h e a b o v e . F i n a l l y , t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e comment i s d e t e r m i n e d . I s i t s p o k e n i n a P o s i t i v e , N e u t r a l , o r N e g a t i v e manner. To g e t a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o d i n g c a t e g o r i e s r e f e r t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n s e c t i o n o f t h i s m a nual w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e b e h a v i o u r s and e x a m p l e s of e a c h one . 160 A p p e n d i x E O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s Comment - any s t a t e m e n t , a b o u t a p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c , ( r e l a t e d t o t h e p r a c t i c e o r n o t ) , made by t h e c o a c h , t h a t c a n s t a n d on i t ' s own, i . e . , i t c a n be a s i n g l e word o r s e v e r a l s e n t e n c e s . Team - t h e comment i s d i r e c t e d t o a l l members o f t h e team i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r a c t i c e . Group - t h e comment i s d i r e c t e d t o more t h a n one a t h l e t e b u t no t t h e e n t i r e team, i . e . , a g r o u p of p l a y e r s i n v o l v e d i n a d r i l l ; t h e s t a r t i n g l i n e u p ; e t c . I n d i v i d u a l - t h e comment i s d i r e c t e d t o an i n d i v i d u a l a t h l e t e who i s r e f e r r e d t o by name or d i r e c t l y s p o k e n t o by t h e c o a c h . P u b l i c - t h e comment i s p r e s e n t e d i n a s e t t i n g o r manner s u c h t h a t o t h e r s b e s i d e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p ( t o whom t h e comment i s d i r e c t e d ( e . g . a t h l e t e s , c o a c h e s , b y s t a n d e r s ) , can h e a r t h e comment. P r i v a t e - t h e comment i s p r e s e n t e d i n a s e t t i n g o r manner s u c h t h a t o n l y t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p t o whom t h e comment i s d i r e c t e d c a n h e a r i t . 16 1 A p p e n d i x E T a l k o v e r - t h e c o a c h makes t h e comment w h i l e t h e a t h l e t e s a r e p e r f o r m i n g , e .g., " T h a t ' s i t ! Hands up on d e f e n s e , " t h e c o a c h s t o p s t h e p e r f o r m a n c e t o make an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l comment, i . e . , " H o l d i t , t r a v e l l i n g g o l d . B l u e on t h e e n d " . F r e e z e - t h e c o a c h s t o p s t h e a t h l e t e s d u r i n g a p e r f o r m a n c e t o make a s k i l l r e l a t e d comment, e.g., " H o l d i t , n obody move! Now, l o o k a t y o u r p o s i t i o n i n g . " D e m o n s t r a t e - t h e c o a c h d e m o n s t r a t e s a s k i l l o r t e c h n i q u e e i t h e r i n " R e a l T i m e " , i . e . , a t t h e speed i t w o u l d be p e r f o r m e d i n a game, o r i n "Slow M o t i o n " , i . e . , a t a s l o w e r speed t h a n i t w o u l d be p e r f o r m e d i n a game. T a l k a f t e r - t h e comment i s made d u r i n g a n a t u r a l b r e a k i n the f l o w o f t h e d r i l l , i . e . , f o l l o w i n g a t r i a l o r r e p e t i t i o n by an a t h l e t e o r a t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e d r i l l o r a t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f a s e t p l a y . R e c o n s t r u c t - t h e c o a c h r e c o n s t r u c t s a s i t u a t i o n t h a t has j u s t o c c u r r e d and comments on i t . S k i l l - t h e comment, i s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s a s k i l l r e l a t e d b e h a v i o r . The comment may be c o n c e r n e d w i t h one of t h e s k i l l s i d e n t i f i e d by t h e c o a c h b e f o r e t h e p r a c t i c e o r 162 A p p e n d i x E any o t h e r s k i l l o r . t e c h n i q u e u s e d i n t h e game, e.g., "When you s h o o t , y o u ' v e g o t t o ..." C o r r e c t - t h e comment i s s k i l l r e l a t e d and d i r e c t e d t o a s k i l l t h a t has been p e r f o r m e d c o r r e c t l y , e.g. " T h a t ' s i t , f i g h t o v e r t h e p i c k . " I n c o r r e c t - t h e comment i s s k i l l r e l a t e d and d i r e c t e d t o a s k i l l t h a t has been p e r f o r m e d i n c o r r e c t l y , e.g., "No, r e s t t h e b a l l on y o u r . f i n g e r t i p s when you s h o o t , n o t on y o u r p a l m . " R e i n s . t r u c t - t h e comment i s s k i l l r e l a t e d b u t i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s a c o r r e c t o r i n c o r r e c t p e r f o r m a n c e . The comment may be a r e p e a t o f p r e v i o u s l y g i v e n i n f o r m a t i o n on how t o p e r f o r m a s k i l l o r i t may be new i n f o r m a t i o n on how t o p e r f o r m a ' s k i l l . F o r e x a m p l e , i f i t i s a r e p e a t o f p r e v i o u s l y g i v e n i n f o r m a t i o n i t may be u s e d t o p r e c u e an a t h l e t e i n an o n g o i n g s i t u a t i o n i . e . , "Be r e a d y t o f i g h t o v e r t h e p i c k " , o r "Watch t h e b a c k d o o r , w a t c h t h e b a c k d o o r " . I f i t i s u s e d as new i n f o r m a t i o n i t may be g i v e n a f t e r a p e r f o r m a n c e i . e . , "Good, now t r y t o h o l d t h e b a l l l o n g e r a f t e r y ou jump b e f o r e you s h o o t " , o r "Your body p o s i t i o n i s g o o d , now t r y t o g e t y o u r arms up, e l b o w s o u t when you box o u t . " 163 A p p e n d i x E N o n - s k i l l - t h e comment i s n o t s k i l l r e l a t e d . I t may c o n c e r n B e h a v i o r , e .g. " S t o p h o r s i n g a r o u n d ! " ; i t may c o n c e r n E f f o r t , e .g . " P i c k up t h e pace now."; i t may c o n c e r n O r g a n i z a t i o n , e .g. " G a r y , Dan and M i k e a r e g r o u p 1."; i t may n o t be r e l a t e d t o t h e p r a c t i c e , O t h e r , e .g. " I went t o t h e show l a s t n i g h t . " A p p r o p r i a t e - t h e comment, w h e t h e r s k i l l r e l a t e d o r n o t , was a p p r o p r i a t e w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e . I f t h e comment i s s k i l l r e l a t e d , a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i m p l i e s a k n o w l e d g e of t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r , an a p p r o p r i a t e comment w o u l d d e s c r i b e o r p r e s c r i b e t h e c o r r e c t m e c h a n i c s o f a s k i l l o r t h e p r o p e r t a c t i c o r s t r a t e g y f o r a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . I f t h e comment i s n o t s k i l l r e l a t e d , a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i m p l i e s a f a i r comment t h a t i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e s i t u a t i o n . I n a p p r o p r i a t e - t h e comment, w h e t h e r s k i l l r e l a t e d o r n o t , i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e . I f t h e comment i s s k i l l r e l a t e d , i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i m p l i e s a l a c k o f k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r , a m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e s i t u a t i o n , o r an i n c o r r e c t e v a l u a t i o n o f an a t h l e t e ' s o r g r o u p of. a t h l e t e s ' l e v e l o f a b i l i t y o r p e r f o r m a n c e . 164 A p p e n d i x E I f t h e comment i s n o t s k i l l r e l a t e d , i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i m p l i e s a comment t h a t may be u n f a i r a n d / o r i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e s i t u a t i o n . I n t e r r o g a t i v e - t h e comment i s i n t h e f o r m o f a q u e s t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e p e r f o r m a n c e e.g. "Why d i d you s w i t c h ? " E v a l u a t i v e - t h e comment e v a l u a t e s t h e p e r f o r m a n c e e . g . " T h a t was a good s h o t " ; "Your d e f e n s e i s t e r r i b l e " ; " T h a t ' s i t , t h a t ' s i t " . D e s c r i p t i v e - t h e comment d e s c r i b e s t h e p e r f o r m a n c e , e .g. " H e r e ' s what you d i d . . . " ; "You s w i t c h e d w i t h J o h n when P r e s c r i p t i v e - t h e comment p r e s c r i b e s an a c t i o n , a c o r r e c t i o n o r an a l t e r n a t i v e method o f p r o d u c i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e , e.g. "Pump f a k e b e f o r e you go up w i t h t h e s h o t . " A f f e c t i v e - t h e comment a c t s as a m o t i v a t o r t o t h e a t h l e t e , e . g. " T h a t ' s t h e way t o work h a r d . " P o s i t i v e - t h e t o n e and c h a r a c t e r o f t h e comment i s p o s i t i v e , e n c o u r a g i n g , - e n t h u s i a s t i c , e .g. "That was a good s h o t ! " 165 A p p e n d i x E N e u t r a l - t h e t o n e and c h a r a c t e r of t h e comment i s n e u t r a l , n e i t h e r e n c o u r a g i n g n o r d i s c o u r a g i n g , e n t h u s i a s t i c n o r u n e n t h u s i a s t i c , e .g. " L e t ' s b r e a k f o r w a t e r . " N e g a t i v e - t h e t o n e and c h a r a c t e r o f t h e comment i s n e g a t i v e , u n e n t h u s i a s t i c , d i s c o u r a g i n g , s a r c a s t i c , e . g. "The w h o l e o f f e n s e i s a w f u l . " 166 A p p e n d i x E T r a i n i n g Tape M a n u a l A p p e n d i x A: C o a c h ' s P l a n Number o f d r i l l s t o be r u n d u r i n g p r a c t i c e : 3 Name of D r i l l 1: 4 on 4 D r i l l 2: 2 on 2 D r i l l 3: H e l p s i d e s c r e e n i n g game Number of s k i l l s t o be f o c u s s e d on i n D r i l l # 1, " D e f e n s i v e s h e l l " : 5 Name of S k i l l 1: F o r c e t o m i d d l e ' S k i l l 2: H e l p S k i l l 3: Swi t c h i n g S k i l l 4: R e b o u n d i n g S k i l l 5: A g g r e s s i v e n e s s 167 Number of s k i l l s A p p e n d i x E to be f o c u s s e d on i n D r i l l # 2, "2 on 2": 5 Name of S k i l l 1: D e n i a l S k i l l 2: F o r c e t o c o r n e r i S k i l l 3: H e l p S k i l l 4: F o r c e t o m i d d l e S k i l l 5: R e c o v e r y / b a l l p r e s s u r e Number o f s k i l l s t o be f o c u s s e d on i n D r i l l # 3, " H e l p s i d e s c r e e n i n g game": 5 Name o f S k i l l 1: Deny S k i l l 2: H e l p S k i l l 3: F o r c e t o m i d d l e S k i l l 4: B a l l p r e s s u r e S k i l l 5: T a l k 168 A p p e n d i x E I m p o r t a n t : Read t h i s m a n u a l c o m p l e t e l y b e f o r e a t t e m p t i n g t o s e t up t h e e q u i p m e n t o r r u n t h e p r o g r a m . D i r e c t i o n s f o r S e t - u p and O p e r a t i o n N . B . **** Make s u r e t h a t t h e c o m p u t e r i s s w i t c h e d OFF. **** 1) . C o n n e c t t h e Power Pad/VCR c o n n e c t e r c o r d t o t h e p a r a l l e l p o r t o f t h e c o m p u t e r . C o n n e c t t h e "Coach P a d " t o t h e (A) e x t e n s i o n o f t h e c o r d . 2) . I n s e r t t h e Coach A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t d i s k i n t o t h e d i s k d r i v e and c l o s e t h e d r i v e d o o r . 3) . T u r n on t h e c o m p u t e r and i t ' s m o n i t o r . 4) . The t i t l e page w i l l a p p e a r . 5) . P r o c e e d t o t h e M a i n Menu. S e l e c t #1: "DATA INPUT" 6) . E n t e r D a t e , T i m e , e t c . 7) . When t h e "DRILL MENU" a p p e a r s , e n t e r t h e d r i l l s l i s t e d i n t h e t h e C o a c h ' s P l a n ( A p p e n d i x A ) . 169 A p p e n d i x E 8) . When t h e " S K I L L MENU" a p p e a r s , e n t e r t h e s k i l l s f o r e a c h d r i l l , as l i s t e d i n t h e C o a c h ' s P l a n ( A p p e n d i x A ) . A f t e r e n t e r i n g t h e f i n a l s k i l l and. p r e s s i n g <RETURN>, t u r n y o u r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e VCR. 9) . Make s u r e t h e VCR and m o n i t o r a r e t u r n e d OFF and p r o p e r l y c o n n e c t e d t o e a c h o t h e r . 10) . C o n n e c t t h e VCR Remote c a b l e t o t h e Remote P o r t o f t h e VCR. 11) . T u r n on t h e VCR and i t ' s m o n i t o r . 12) . P r e s s EJECT b u t t o n on VCR t o open c a s s e t t e d o o r a n d / o r t o e n s u r e t h e m a c h i n e does n o t a l r e a d y have a c a s s e t t e i n i t . I n s e r t t h e Coach A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t T r a i n i n g Tape and c l o s e t h e d o o r ( i f VCR has o n e ) . 13) . C o n n e c t t h e VCR Remote c a b l e ( f r o m t h e r e m o t e p o r t of t h e V C R ), t o t h e Power Pad/VCR c o n n e c t e r ( f r o m t h e p a r a l l e l p o r t of t h e c o m p u t e r ) and p r e s s <RETURN>, ( o n t h e c o m p u t e r k e y b o a r d ) . 170 A p p e n d i x E P r e s s i n g <RETURN> has two e f f e c t s : i ) i t p u t s t h e VCR u n d e r c o n t r o l o f t h e c o m p u t e r , i . e . , t h e [PAUSE] b u t t o n on t h e Power Pad w i l l p a u s e and un - p a u s e t h e VCR; and i i ) i t s t a r t s t h e t a p e p l a y i n g , t h e r e f o r e , f r o m now o n , i n o r d e r t o pause t h e t a p e , you must p r e s s t h e . [ P A U S E ] b u t t o n on t h e Power P a d . P r o c e e d t h r o u g h t h e T r a i n i n g Tape f o l l o w i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s i t p r e s e n t s and u s i n g t h e Power Pad t o pause t h e t a p e and code comments. When you have c o m p l e t e d t h e T r a i n i n g T a p e , p l e a s e r e w i n d t h e t a p e , save y o u r d a t a as d i r e c t e d by t h e p r o g r a m , and s w i t c h o f f t h e VCR, t h e c o m p u t e r and b o t h m o n i t o r s . 171 A p p e n d i x E E x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e P r o g r a m and t h e B o a r d The p r o g r a m i s menu d r i v e n . The M a i n Menu a l l o w s you t o c h o o s e t h e p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n you w i s h t o p e r f o r m . I n t h i s e x a m p l e we d i s c u s s o n l y #1. DATA INPUT. ( F o r d i s c u s s i o n o f o t h e r o p t i o n s r e f e r t o CCAS S e t u p and O p e r a t i o n s M a n u a l . The DATA INPUT s u b p r o g r a m c o n s i s t s o f 4 s e c t i o n s . 1. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n - t h e p r o g r a m a s k s you f o r v a r i o u s d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a u s e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e '-• r e s u l t s . 2. Coach I n p u t - t h e p r o g r a m r e q u i r e s s p e c i f i c i n p u t f r o m t h e c o a c h who i s b e i n g o b s e r v e d a b o u t t h e p r a c t i c e b e f o r e t h e o b s e r v a t i o n b e g i n s . 3. S t o r a g e - t h e p r o g r a m a s k s y o u t o s u p p l y , a f i l e name i f you w i s h t o save t h i s d a t a . 4. D a t a I n p u t - t h e p r o g r a m a s k s you q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e c o a c h ' s i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e f i r s t d r i l l . Then a c c e p t s y o u r c o d i n g o f e a c h comment. F i n a l l y , i t a s k s you q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e r e a l i s m o f t h e d r i l l and t h e a t h l e t e ' s work r a t e , t h e n s t o r e s t h i s d a t a u n d e r t h e 172 A p p e n d i x E f i l e n a m e you s u p p l i e d e a r l i e r . The p r o g r a m t h e n a s k s you i f you want t o code a n o t h e r d r i l l o r end t h e o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d . The B o a r d The b o a r d i s u s e d t o p a u s e t h e v i d e o t a p e and code t h e c o a c h ' s comment. 1. S e l e c t 1 o f : TEAM o r GROUP o r INDIVIDUAL. 2. S e l e c t 1 o f : PUBLIC o r PRIVATE. 3. S e l e c t w h i c h e v e r method o r methods were u s e d t o p r e s e n t the comment and p r e s s ACCEPT. 4. S e l e c t : 1 o f : S K I L L o r NON-SKILL. 5. I f S K I L L , s e l e c t w h i c h s k i l l o r s k i l l s were r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e comment and p r e s s ACCEPT. 6. I f NON-SKILL, s e l e c t 1 o f : BEHAVIOUR o r EFFORT o r ORGANIZATION o r OTHER. 7. S e l e c t ! o f : APPROPRIATE o r INAPPROPRIATE. 173 A p p e n d i x E 8. S e l e c t t h e d e s c r i p t o r o r d e s c r i p t o r s t h a t b e s t d e s c r i b e t h e i n t e n t o f t h e comment and p r e s s ACCEPT. 9. S e l e c t 1 o f : POSITIVE o r NEUTRAL or NEGATIVE and p r e s s ACCEPT. 10. I f a t any t i m e , b e f o r e you p r e s s t h e ACCEPT b u t t o n a t t h e f i n a l l e v e l ( P O S I T I V E , NEUTRAL, NEGATIVE) you m i s c o d e s o m e t h i n g o r change y o u r mind a b o u t a c o d i n g and want t o r e c o d e i t , use t h e BACKUP b u t t o n t o go bac k t o t h a t l e v e l , and r e c o d e t h e comment f r o m t h e r e down. A f t e r p r e s s i n g ACCEPT f o r t h e f i n a l t i m e , c h a n g e s c a n n o t be made t o t h e c o d i n g s . I f you f e e l you have made an e r r o r , w r i t e i t down on t h e t r a n s c r i p t o f t h e d r i l l and b r i n g i t t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s a t t e n t i o n . 174 A p p e n d i x E t e s t e d on y o u r k n o w l e d g e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t and i t ' s u s e . The i n s t r u m e n t c o n s i s t s o f a number of b e h a v i o u r a l d e f i n i t i o n s . You w i l l o b s e r v e a v i d e o t a p e o f an a t h l e t i c p r a c t i c e and code t h e c o a c h ' s b e h a v i o u r s b a s e d on t h e above m e n t i o n e d d e f i n i t i o n s . The d a t a w i l l be c o l l e c t e d by a c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m and a "Touch pad" w h i c h you w i l l be t r a i n e d t o u s e . The amount of t i m e needed f o r t r a i n i n g w i l l n o t e x c e e d f i v e h o u r s . The amount of t i m e needed f o r e a c h c o d i n g s e s s i o n w i l l n o t e x c e e d one h o u r and t h e t o t a l number of c o d i n g s e s s i o n s w i l l n o t e x c e e d t e n . You have t h e r i g h t t o w i t h d r a w f r o m t h e e x p e r i m e n t a t any t i m e w i t h no p r e j u d i c e . Y o u r i d e n t i t y as a s u b j e c t i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t w i l l r e m a i n c o n f i d e n t i a l i n t h a t no r e c o r d w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d o f y o u r name and p a r t i c i p a t i o n a f t e r t h e d a t a have been c o l l e c t e d . I f you have any q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h p l e a s e c a l l e i t h e r of t h e above i n v e s t i g a t o r s d u r i n g o f f i c e h o u r s . C o n s e n t I have r e a d t h e above comments and u n d e r s t a n d t h e e x p l a n a t i o n , have r e c e i v e d a copy of t h i s c o n s e n t f o r m f o r my r e c o r d s , and I v o l u n t e e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . D a t e : S u b j e c t : . ( S i g n a t u r e ) W i t n e s s : 176 Appemdix F T r a i n i n g Tape D r i l l 1 B a s k e t b a l l M o n o l o g u e - Wayne H u s s e y D i r e c t i o n s and E x p l a n a t i o n s : Need a b a l l . Need a b a l l . W h i t e ' s on o f f e n s e , g r e e n ' s on d e f e n s e . Okay, we're w o r k i n g on d e f e n s e s h e l l d r i l l . We want t h e same p r i n c i p l e s as a l w a y s . B a l l ' s i n t h i s g u a r d . . . Ang j u s t go o v e r t h e r e so we c a n show what we w a n t . B a l l ' s i n t h i s g u a r d s h a n d s . Sandy s h o u l d be f o r c i n g i t t o t h e m i d d l e where t h e d e f e n s i v e g u a r d p o s i t i o n ok i t ' s t h e d e f e n s i v e g u a r d p o s i t i o n . We've been s a y i n g d e f e n s i v e g u a r d b u t t h a t ' s n o t r i g h t b e c a u s e a f o r w a r d m i g h t be up h e r e , ok, so i f y o u ' r e p l a y i n g someone i n t h e g u a r d ' s p o s i t i o n s s u c h as b a s i c a l l y t h e w i n g o r anywhere a t t h e t o p of t h e key h i g h e r t h a n t h e f o u l l i n e , you have t o be r e a d y t o h e l p . B a l l ' s i n a g u a r d ' s hands y o u ' r e h e l p i n g g u a r d t o g u a r d . B a l l goes t o a f o r w a r d ' s hands y o u ' r e h e l p i n g g u a r d t o f o r w a r d . So we're a l w a y s g e t t i n g g u a r d p o s i t i o n h e l p oh t h e b a s k e t b a l l . * * ( P l a y e r a s k s a q u e s t i o n ) . * Y e a h . . . f o r c i n g m i d d l e . . . we've c h a n g e d t h a t . We d o n ' t want t o f o r c e b a s e l i n e , we f e e l t h a t we can do a b e t t e r j o b i n t h e m i d d l e . I f we g e t a l o t o f good c o n c e n t r a t e d h e l p . I f we t r y b a s e l i n e , we d o n ' t f e e l we g e t t h e p r o p e r movement we want and we f e e l we g e t h u r t by t h e q u i c k d r i b b l e j u m p e r s , ok, b e c a u s e b a s e l i n e f o r c e w i l l h e l p i f t h e g i r l comes a l l t h e way. So i f s h e ' s gonna t a k e d r i b b l e j u m p e r s we d o n ' t have any h e l p . H e r e , i f she w a n t s 177 Appemdix F t o t a k e a d r i b b l e jumper we have a h e l p p e r s o n r i g h t h e r e . So t h a t ' s why we're c h a n g i n g o u r p h i l o s o p h y a b i t and I t h i n k p e o p l e f e e l more c o m f o r t a b l e f o r c i n g i n t o t h e m i d d l e as p l a y e r s , ok. So when t h e b a l l i s l o w e r t h a n t h e f o u l l i n e , two e x c e l l e n t h e l p d e f e n s e and we want s w i t c h i n g on t h e back s i d e . S c r e e n i n g and s w i t c h i n g on t h e b a c k s i d e . B a l l c u t t i n g . You c a n b a l l c u t i f you p a s s f r o m t h e g u a r d p o s i t i o n o r y o u c a n s t a y , ok. No s w i t c h i n g f r o m g u a r d t o g u a r d . So t h e r e ' s s w i t c h i n g on t h e b a c k s i d e . B a l l c u t t i n g f r o m t h e o n - s i d e g u a r d p o s i t i o n . E v e r y b o d y i s g o i n g h a r d t o t h e b o a r d s and we're l o o k i n g t o go one.on one. We want a g g r e s s i v e n e s s on t h e b a s k e t b a l l . And a g g r e s s i v e n e s s means p u t t i n g t h e hand up o v e r t h e b a s k e t b a l l t a k i n g away t h e s h o t ok. L e t ' s s t a r t . W e ' l l s w i t c h you when we t h i n k y o u ' v e done a good j o b . . C o d a b l e Comments 1) . T a l k now. T a l k . T a l k . 2) . P a s s i t . B o a r d s , t h a t ' s i t . T a l k K a r e n and Sandy. 3) . ( R e s p o n s e t o a q u e s t i o n ) . No you d o n ' t have t o . Y o u ' r e t r y i n g t o g e t t h r o u g h . You s w i t c h when someone c a n ' t g e t t h r o u g h , and K a r e n you g o t t a t e l l p e o p l e y o u ' r e i n h e l p . L e t ' s go.. 4) . B o a r d s . Get t h e b a l l . Get t h e b a l l . 178 Appemdix F • Ok. K a r e n you had v e r y g o o d - h e l p b u t when y o u r g i r l t h a t s c r e e n . L e t ' s s e t i t up r i g h t where we w e r e . T o n i o v e r t h e r e . B a s k e t b a l l o v e r h e r e . E v e r y b o d y g e t t o where you were Ok now w h e r e ' s y o u r h e l p coming f r o m . S e e, t h i s i s what we t a l k e d a b o u t t h e o t h e r d a y . U n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e h e l p p r o c e s s , u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h e r e ' s y o u r h e l p gonna come f r o m . T h e r e ok you p l a y l i k e t h i s ok. We want h e r t o deny t h e b a s k e t b a l l so i f you p l a y l i k e t h i s t h e r e ' s a good c h a n c e t h e y ' r e gonna s c o r e a l a y u p . A l r i g h t . I f you p l a y l i k e t h i s k n o w i n g where h e l p comes f r o m t h a t w i l l n o t h a p p e n , ok. And i f t h e b a l l " p a s s e d t h e r e now, ok, T o n i p a s s t h e b a l l t h e r e . Now y o u ' r e i n t h e g u a r d p o s i t i o n so you have t o p r o v i d e h e l p f o r t h e f o r w a r d . So we're p r o v i d i n g h e l p on t h e b a s k e t b a l l f r o m t h e g u a r d p o s i t i o n w h e t h e r i t ' s i n t h e f o r w a r d ' s hands o r i n t h e g u a r d ' s h a n d s . The h e l p i s a l w a y s c o m i n g f r o m t h e g u a r d p o s i t i o n n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e g u a r d i t s e l f , ok. A l r i g h t . H u s t l e p u t t o t h e b a l l . Ah. A g a i n t h e b a l l ' s on t h i s s i d e . K a r e n i n t o t h e h e l p . R i g h t now A n d r e a i n t o t h e h e l p . N ot you K a r e n y o u ' r e d e n y i n g . Go. B o a r d s . B o a r d s . Gonna have t o r e b o u n d d e f e n s e r e b o u n d . B o a r d s , that°s i t . 179 Appemdix F Good h e l p now Andy, h e l p Andy, good h e l p , good h e l p , good h e l p , Andy, good h e l p . O k . l e t ' s s e t i t up w i t h A n d r e a and h e r p l a y e r down h e r e . And j u s t t a k e a l o o k a t i t . B a l l ' s o v e r on t h i s s i d e o f t h e f l o o r and e v e r y b o d y " s gonna w a t c h A n d r e a ' s movement t h e r e c a u s e i t s h o u l d be a b o u t a s t e p b e t t e r / Ok, t h e b a l l ' s t h e r e i t s h o u l d be one s t e p b e t t e r i n t o t h e m i d d l e o f t h e l a n e . A g a i n t r y i n g t o keep t h e f l a t t r i a n g l e y o u c a n h u s t l e o u t t o t h e b a l l . B a l l went down h e r e s t i l l i n p r e t t y good p o s i t i o n ok. T h e r e was an e x c h a n g e made. We g o t t h r o u g h i t n o t t o o b a d , ok. Now t h i n g i s when t h e b a l l came t o h e r e ok as t h e b a l l s i n t h e a i r t o t h e r e you g o t t a t a k e a s t e p up. You w a i t e d t i l l t h e b a l l g o t t h e r e ok. And t h e n when t h e b a l l came h e r e you g o t t a g e t r i g h t o u t t h e r e and deny i t l i k e y ou d i d . And t h e b a l l came o v e r , t o t h i s s p o t h e r e and you s t a y e d w i t h y o u r h i g h l e g up, ok. She s t a y e d w i t h h e r h i g h l e g up and what, she s h o u l d have done i s opened up h e r e and p l a y e d w i t h t h i s hand t o deny t h e b a l l and t h e n h e l p ; be r e a d y t o h e l p w i t h y o u r f e e t . Cause i f you p l a y here, and K a r l a t u r n s t h e c o r n e r , c h a n c e s a r e y o u ' r e gonna r e a c h i n l i k e t h i s t o h e l p and t h a t ' s n o t good e n o u g h . You p l a y l i k e t h i s , I ca n p l a y my p l a y e r h e r e and I'm r e a d y t o s t e p i n and h e l p and i f t h e b a l l ' s k i c k e d , b a c k o u t t h e r e I'm r e a d y t o c h a r g e o u t w i t h t h i s l e a d f o o t f o r c i n g b a c k t o where 180 Appemdix F my n e x t a r e a of h e l p i s ok. So t h a t ' s why I want t o make s u r e we c a n g e t i n t h a t t y p e o f p o s i t i o n . 13) . T h a t ' s i t . Keep p l a y i n g , keep p l a y i n g . Deny i t K a r e n . 14) . B o a r d s , t h a t ' s i t good j o b . 15) . C o u p l e more good ones w e ' l l s w i t c h y o u . L e t ' s go g r e e n work h a r d . 16) . Ok now i n a s i t u a t i o n l i k e t h a t on. a b a c k d o o r f r o m f o r w a r d t o g u a r d l i k e t h a t o u r d e f e n s i v e h e l p p l a y e r has t o be i n m o t i o n as t h e b a l l ' s i n t h e a i r . So i n o t h e r w ords t h e w o r s t t h i n g t h a t ' s gonna happen T o n i i s gonna c a t c h t h e b a l l h e r e and be d o u b l e teamed. T h a t ' s th e w o r s t t h i n g t h a t s h o u l d happen t o us on a bac k d o o r t r y . So r e a c t a l i t t l e q u i c k e r on i t . * ( C o a c h t a l k i n g t o c o a c h , dubbed o u t on t r a i n i n g t a p e ) . See t h e y t r y b u t t h e y j u s t d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d and t h e y ' r e a b o u t a h a l f s t e p b e h i n d on e v e r y t h i n g and t h e y ' r e gonna have t o work on i t and work on i t and work on i t . 17) . Ready t o move y o u r f e e t K a r e n . A t t a g i r l . 18) . B o a r d s , t h a t ' s i t . 19) . Ok, s w i t c h i t . Good j o b . 20) . E v e r y b o d y t o t h e b o a r d s a l l o f f e n s i v e and d e f e n s i v e p l a y e r s . 181 Appemdix F T r a i n i n g Tape D r i l l 2 B a s k e t b a l l M o n o l o g u e - Wayne H u s s e y D i r e c t i o n s and E x p l a n a t i o n : L e t ' s g e t a h , y e l l o w ' s up h e r e . Y e l l o w ' s up h e r e , we have g u a r d s , T r a c e y d e f e n s e , w i n g T o n i d e f e n s e , P a t y o u ' r e on d e f e n s e ok. We a r e g o i n g i n t o g r o u p s of f o u r , now what we're w o r k i n g on i s , d e f e n s i v e l y , w i n g d e n i a l , f o r c i n g t h e b a l l t o t h e c o r n e r of t h e f l o o r r i g h t now ok w i t h o u t g e t t i n g b e a t . H a r d w i n g d e n i a l , when t h e b a l l , g e t s i n , so T o n i g e t s t h e b a l l on t h e w i n g . When t h e b a l l g e t s i n , y o u ' r e d r o p p i n g o f f i n t o h e l p p o s i t i o n ok d r o p p i n g o f f i n t o h e l p and i t ' s i m p o r t a n t t h a t you r e a l i z e we're g e t t i n g h e l p f r o m t h i s p o s i t i o n h e r e and i t ' s t h e g u a r d p o s i t i o n . So when t h e b a l l s i n t h i s f o r w a r d s hands we're g e t t i n g h e l p f r o m t h i s g u a r d ; t h e b a l l s i n t h i s g u a r d s hands we're gonna g e t h e l p f r o m t h a t g u a r d . So t h e g u a r d p o s i t i o n i s p r o v i d i n g h e l p when t h e b a l l s i n t h e f o r w a r d s hands on t h e w i n g o r t h e g u a r d s hands a t t h e t o p of t h e k e y . . Now, y o u ' r e l o o k i n g t o p l a y 1 on 1, you s h o u l d have t h e f o r c e t o t h e m i d d l e t o t h e h e l p ; i f you do d r i v e by h e r and we do g e t t h e h e l p , we're l o o k i n g a t t h e r e c o v e r y . Y o u r r e c o v e r y i s t o come b a c k and t a k e away s h o t so y o u ' r e s t a y i n g i n y o u r a r e a , t h e b a l l comes ba c k t o you and y o u r l o o k i n g t o s h o o t i t r i g h t away; so t h e b a l l s k i c k e d b a c k we g e t a good r e c o v e r y t h e n you keep w o r k i n g so i t ' s a c o n s t a n t 2 on 2 game r i g h t h e r e ok. So y e l l o w s down a t t h a t 182 Appemdix F end w i t h L o u i s a , a h , b l u e s o v e r a t t h a t b a s k e t w i t h C o l l e e n , w h i t e s a t t h a t b a s k e t w i t h M i k e , who's l e f t - g r e e n s w i t h P e t e r . C o d e a b l e Comments 1. Keep w o r k i n g . Keep w o r k i n g . 2. Take away s h o t now K a r l a . 3. T o n i make s u r e you f o r c e t h e m i d d l e and g e t r i g h t on t h e b a l l . L o t t a b a l l p r e s s u r e . 4. Get on h e r . Get on h e r . Ready w i t h y o u r f e e t . T h a t ' s i t , h u s t l e K a r l a . T h a t ' s i t , good j o b . 5. T h a t ' s i t . Don't w o r r y a b o u t t h i s f a k e T o n i , o.k., t h e f a k e t o t h e m i d d l e . Don't w o r r y a b o u t t h e f a k e c a u s e you g o t h e l p t h e r e . Don°t go f o r t h e f a k e so t h a t she c a n b e a t you b a s e l i n e . 6. Keep t h e p o s i t i o n . Good j o b , keep w o r k i n g . 7. Gonna have t o g e t t h e hand o v e r t h e b a l l T o n i , s h e ' s i n s c o r i n g a r e a , g e t y o u r hand o v e r t h e b a s k e t b a l l . 183 Appemdix F 8. O.K. now t h a t ' s n o t bad b e c a u s e she made h e r make a d r i b b l e jump s h o t . Now y o u ' r e d e n y i n g i n h e r e , b a l l s up t h e r e , y o u ' r e d e n y i n g o u t h e r e , t h e body i s r i g h t , t h e b a l l comes i n , you a d j u s t y o u r p o s i t i o n and g e t y o u r hand o v e r t h e b a s k e t b a l l t o t a k e away t h e s h o t and i f she makes f a k e s t h i s way you d o n ' t go w i t h h e r , you l e a n w i t h h e r b u t you d o n ' t go w i t h h e r . You d o n ' t want h e r t o b e a t h e r t o t h e b a s e l i n e s i d e . 9. Get t h a t hand o v e r t h e s h o t T o n i , hand o v e r t h e s h o t . 10 . T h a t ' s b e t t e r . 11. Rebound now T o n i , r e b o u n d . 12. H u s t l e up. G o t t a g e t t h e hand o v e r t h e b a l l when s h e ' s i n s c o r i n g a r e a s . 13. H a r d A n g . Hand o v e r the. b a l l , o v e r t h e b a l l S u s i e , t h e o t h e r h a n d . 14. O.K. s t a r t i t a g a i n w e ' l l show you what h a p p e n e d , show you what s h o u l d have h a p p e n e d . B a l l comes i n , o.k. you come o u t , p u t t h e wrong hand o v e r t h e b a l l i t s h o u l d be t h i s hand h e r e b e c a u s e t h a t ' s t h e way - t h e l e g and t h e hand s h o u l d c o r r e s p o n d , t h a t ' s t h e hand you s h o u l d g e t up. 184 Appemdix F 15. When she p u t t h e b a l l on t h e g r o u n d and b e a t h e r -and you came r c a n ' t h e l p w i t h y o u r h a n d . - y o u ' v e g o t t o jump r i g h t i n w i t h y o u r b o d y . - you went l i k e t h i s and you've g o t t o jump o v e r w i t h y o u r b o d y . . . Yeah„ b u t s h e ' s g o t t a work h a r d . The s e c o n d t h i n g was she k i c k e d up. t h e b a l l and t h e n you s t o o d h e r e and she t o o k one s t e p and g o t i t b a c k a g a i n . As soon as she t h r o w s t h e b a l l t o C a r o l y o u ' v e g o t t o g e t o u t h e r e w i t h y o u r hand and deny t h e b a l l a g a i n - c a n ' t s t o p , c a n ' t r e l a x j u s t b e c a u s e s h e ' s t h r o w n t h e b a l l . 16. Work h a r d , hand up, hand up, hand up. T h a t ' s i t , o u t , d eny. Hand up, hand up, t h a t ' s i t , - good j o b . 17. S e e , b e c a u s e y o u ' r e . c h e a t i n g t h a t s i d e , you d i d n ' t need any h e l p , you c u t h e r o f f . 18. Hand up, hand up, t h a t ' s i t , s p r i n t L y n n , good j o b . 19. O.K. Rebound now, r e b o u n d , d o n ' t w a l k f o r t h e r e b o u n d . 20. No, deny i t , hand up. B o a r d s . Go g e t i t . T h a t ' s i t . You d o n ' t l e t h e r g e t i t b u t you g e t o f f h e r a s t e p t o o . She's g o t t a work h a r d on t h e b a c k d o o r . Don't l e t h e r b e a t you b a c k d o o r . 185 Appemdix F T r a i n i n g t a p e D r i l l 3 B a s k e t b a l l M o n o l o g u e - Wayne H u s s e y D i r e c t i o n s and E x p l a n a t i o n : H e l p s i d e S c r e e n i n g Game Ok. H o l d i t . H e l p s i d e s c r e e n i n g game so 4 y e l l o w s o v e r t h e r e . 2 on o f f e n s e , 2 on d e f e n s e , 2 p a s s e r s r i g h t h e r e , b a l l s up h i g h . Ok. Good o f f s i d e movement, l e t s s e t good s c r e e n s , p l a y on t h i s s i d e you g u y s c a n keep m o v i n g . t h e b a l l s t a n d o v e r t h e r e Ken keep m o v i n g t h e b a l l A n d r e a more i n a f o r w a r d s s p o t . Move t h e b a l l b a c k and f o r t h and when one of t h e s e guys b r e a k s f r e e you guys c a n g i v e them t h e b a l l . Y o u - c a n a l s o t h r o w i t o v e r i f you l i k e , a l r i g h t and you g u y s j u s t work on y o u r d e f e n s e . I f you c u t t o t h e b a l l , you c a n c u t t o t h e b a l l and you g o t t a r e p l a c e y o u r s e l f r i g h t a f t e r w a r d s . Ok l e t s go t a l k on d e f e n s e now, t a l k . C o d e a b l e Comments 1) . T h a t ' s i t good j o b , keep t a l k i n g , h u s t l e o u t . ; . 2) . Ok l e t ' s t r y t h a t one more. t i m e . Get t h e b a l l t h e same way you came down h e r e had a good s l i c e t h r o u g h no p r o b l e m t h e r e . Made i t o u t t o t h e c o r n e r y o u ' r e i n good h e l p , t h a t ' s a l r i g h t when t h e b a l l s t h r o w n o v e r t h e r e , h u s t l e o u t l i k e y ou d i d , now i t ' s j u s t l i k e we were 186 Appemdix F w o r k i n g o n , ok. we need h e l p f r o m t h e g u a r d p o s i t i o n , t h i s i s t h e g u a r d p o s i t i o n so T o n i you s h o u l d have been o f f j u s t a h a l f s t e p , ok, K a r l a y o u ' r e d e n y i n g t h e b a l l ah f o r c i n g t h e b a l l m i d d l e so t h a t t h i s o f f e n s i v e p a s s e r , what she has t o l o o k a t , i s she c a n ' t go t h i s way b e c a u s e y o u ' r e p l a y i n g h e r t o n o t t o go t h a t way and s h e ' s n o t t o o c o m f o r t a b l e g o i n g m i d d l e ' c a u s e she s e e s a n o t h e r d e f e n s i v e p l a y e r , so t h a t ' s t h e image we want t o p r o j e c t t o t h i s d e f e n s i v e p l a y e r , t a k i n g away t h e b a s e l i n e where t h e r e i s no h e l p f o r c i n g h e r where t h e r e i s h e l p and h o p i n g she won't t a k e i t , b e c a u s e t h e r e i s h e l p s t a n d i n g r i g h t t h e r e . Ok so when t h e b a l l does g e t t h r o w n o v e r make s u r e you g e t i n t o p r o p e r d e f e n s i v e p o s i t i o n . I t ' s a l r i g h t , remember t o p l a y on t h i s s i d e of t h e f l o o r , d o n ' t wander t o t h e o t h e r s i d e , when were i n h e l p d e f e n s e . T h a t ' s i t K a r l a , good j o b keep m o v i n g on t h e b a c k s i d e . T h a t ' s i t , keep m o v i n g on t h e b a c k s i d e . Ok b a l l s o u t h e r e K a r l a , what s h o u l d happen? D e f e n s i v e l y y o u ' r e down t h e r e T o n i has t h e b a l l , what s h o u l d happen? Deny. We're h e l p i n g f r o m t h e g u a r d p o s i t i o n s and so t h e r e w o u l d be h e l p c oming f r o m t h e r e . 187 Appemdix F Ok r o t a t e , O f f e n s e , s o r r y , d e f e n s e t o p a s s e r , o f f e n s e t o d e f e n s e , p a s s e r s t o o f f e n s e . Ok, l e t ' s make s u r e we p l a y t h e s e two s p o t s . When t h e b a l l s e n t e r e d on t h i s s i d e o f t h e f l o o r , p l a y t h e s e two s p o t s , p l a y t h e g u a r d s p o t T o n i . Don't l e t h e r p o s t up. I f you c u t t o t h e b a s k e t i t ' s o n l y when t h e b a l l s o v e r t h e r e so when t h e b a l l s on t h i s s i d e of t h e f l o o r you can c u t t o t h e b a s k e t and r e p l a c e y o u r s e l f . I f t h e b a l l s on t h i s s i d e o f t h e f l o o r , t h e n you p l a y t h e s e two p o s i t i o n s l i k e we were j u s t t a l k i n g a b o u t . Good j o b , go t o t h e b o a r d s P a t go t o t h e b o a r d s and d o n ' t l e t h e r go l e f t , t a k e t h a t away w i t h y o u r b o d y . H o l d i t , b a l l s t h e r e , where s h o u l d you be? T h a t ' s i t . T h a t ' s i t . Not bad j o b , you had good p o s i t i o n t h e p r o b l e m was t h a t when t h e b a l l was i n t h e a i r t o A n d r e a you went v e r y t e n t a t i v e l y a t h e r . You went l i k e t h i s and you s t o p p e d r i g h t a b o u t h e r e . Be v e r y a g g r e s s i v e and t a k e away t h e s h o t . I f you c a n ' t g e t t h r o u g h T r a c e you m i g h t have t o s w i t c h . You m i g h t have t o s w i t c h . 188 Appemdix F 12) . Y e a h t h a t ' s t h e way. 13) . Good j o b , good c u t A n d r e a . 14) . Come on P a t . Watch t h o s e . b a l l c u t s you c a n ' t s l e e p . 15) . T h a t ' s . i t . g o o d j o b , good s w i t c h , t h a t ' s . t h e way good t a l k . 16) . H u s t l e , h e l p P a t , good j o b ; t h e r e i t i s good d e f e n s e t h a t t i m e , t h e r e you g o , we g o t t h e h e l p . 17) . Ok l e t ' s s w i t c h i t . R o t a t e . 18) . H u s t l e up now, h u s t l e up, t h a t a g i r l . 19) . A l r i g h t be r e a d y , A n d r e a you t r y and f i g h t t h r o u g h f i r s t , b u t i f you c a n ' t she s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e t h e s w i t c h , you know, b u t t r y and l e t h e r r e c o g n i z e t h a t she s h o u l d be s w i t c h i n g . 20) . H u s t l e K a r e n , h u s t l e K a r e n . See i f she g e t s t h e b a l l i n t h a t s h o o t i n g a r e a you c a n n o t s i t b a c k and l e t h e r s h o o t , you have t o be a g g r e s s i v e and g e t t h e hand up o v e r t h e b a l l . 189 A p p e n d i x G Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Do you f e e l t h e Coach A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t c o l l e c t s d a t a t h a t i s v a l u a b l e t o a c o a c h ? I f s o , i n what way? I f a s e r v i c e was a v a i l a b l e ( a t no c o s t ) t o have an o b s e r v e r code you i n p r a c t i c e u s i n g t h e Coach A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t , w o u l d you use i t ? Do you f e e l t h a t t h e r e a r e a r e a s of t h e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t c r e a t e d by t h e c o a c h t h a t t h e i n s t r u m e n t s h o u l d c o l l e c t d a t a on b u t d o e s n ' t ? I f y e s , what a r e t h e s e a r e a s ? Do you f e e l t h a t t h e r e a r e a r e a s of t h e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t c r e a t e d by t h e c o a c h t h a t t h e i n s t r u m e n t does c o l l e c t d a t a on b u t d o e s n ' t need t o ( i . e . , s u p e r f l u o u s d a t a ) ? I f y e s , what a r e t h e s e a r e a s ? The p u r p o s e of t h e C o a c h A n a l y s i s I n s t r u m e n t i s t o p r o v i d e t h e o b s e r v e d c o a c h w i t h d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a on t h e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n a e n t > h e / s h e c r e a t e s i n p r a c t i c e . To what e x t e n t do you f e e l i t a c h i e v e s t h i s p u r p o s e ? 190 

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