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Factors that influence teenage smoking habits Mitchell, James 1981

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FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE TEENAGE SMOKING HABITS by JAMES MITCHELL B.A., B.P.E., McMaster University A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1981 (c) James M i t c h e l l , 1981 In presenting th is thesi$ in p a r t i a l fu l f i Iment o f the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary shal l make it f r ee ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for scho la r ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h is representa t ives . It is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of th is thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wri t ten permission. Department of P^SiCIA'L The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date f\P(L \HJ X! ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to thank Dr. Whittle, my thesis advisor, f o r a l l the help he gave me... Also, thanks should go to the members of my committee: Dr. Schutz, Dr. Pomfret, Dr. Brown and Dr. Walters f o r a l l t h e i r input i n the f i n a l preparation t h i s t h e s i s . My gratitude i s also expressed to The Board of Education f o r the C i t y of Hamilton who allowed me to survey a proportion of t h e i r student body. L a s t l y , but not l e a s t , I would l i k e to thank my wife, Lynn, f o r the many hours of work she put into the t h e s i s . i i ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was to determine whether any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p existed between a teenager's smoking habits and c e r t a i n selected f a c t o r s . The factors studied were peer group pressures, the smoking habits of the parents, s i b l i n g s who smoked and such s o c i a l factors as the occupation and n a t i o n a l i t y of the parents. The hypotheses tested were: 1. Interpersonal factors have the most s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the teenager and have an influence on whether he or she i s a smoker or non-smoker. 2. D i s t i n c t differences exist between the reasons why males begin to smoke as opposed to why females begin. A female may be more influenced by the parents' smoking habits, e s p e c i a l l y the same-sex parent, while a male may be influenced by a combined e f f e c t of fr i e n d s , parents, and s i b l i n g s . 3. A teenager's smoking habit i s more representative of t h e i r same-sex parent's smoking habits. The research instrument used i n t h i s study was a questionnaire which was s p e c i f i c a l l y designed and constructed to meet the requirements of t h i s study. The subjects used f o r t h i s study were drawn from schools administrated by The Board of Education f o r the C i t y of Hamilton i n Hamilton, Ontario. The subjects, both males and females, ranged i n age from 13 to 20 and were drawn from Grades 9 through 12 with 500 students being questioned. i i i Cross tabulations, which allowed the drawing up of contingency tables f o r any discrete v a r i a b l e s , e i t h e r numeric or alphanumeric were u t i l i z e d along with the c h i square (X 2 ) test to examine a number of paired r e l a t i o n s h i p s . This study concluded that a person's smoking habits, were not re l a t e d to one f a c t o r alone but rather, a number of factors working together. iv CONTENTS Chapter Page 1 Introduction to the Problem. 1 2 Review of the Literature . . . . 7 3 Methods and Procedures 19 4 Results 28 5 Summary 71 Bibliography . . . 76 Appendix A. Smoking Questionnaire . . . .82 V LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Subject Smoking Status and the Number and Sex of Their Friends Who Smoke 11 2 Subject Smoking Status and Source of Encouragement to Smoke 13 3 Grade Breakdown of Those Surveyed 28 4' Age Breakdown of Those Surveyed 29 5 Smoking Characteristics of Those Surveyed 30 6 Comparison Between a Father's Occupation and Whether His Offspring Had Ever Smoked 31 77 Comparison Between a Mother's Occupation and Whether Her Offspring Had Ever Smoked 32 8 Comparison Between a Father's Occupation and Whether His Son Had Ever Smoked 33 9 Comparison Between a Father's Occupation and Whether His Daughter Had Ever Smoked JA- 10 Comparison Between a Mother's Occupation and Whether Her Son Had Ever Smoked 35 11 Comparison Between a Mother's Occupation and Whether Her Daughter Had Ever Smoked 36 12 Comparison Between a Father's Birthplace and Whether His Offspring Had Ever Smoked 37 13 Comparison Between a Mother's Birthplace and Whether Her Offspring Had Ever Smoked 38 14- Comparison Between Who a Respondent Lives With and Their Present Smoking Habit 39 15 Comparison Between Who a Male Respondent Lives With and His Present Smoking Habit 39 16 Comparison Between Who a Female Respondent Lives With and Her Present Smoking Habit 4Q 17 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Offspring Ever Smoked 41 18 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Son Ever Smoked 42 v i Table Page 19 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Daughter Ever Smoked 42 20 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and Whether His Offspring Had Ever Smoked 43 21 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and Whether His Son Had Ever Smoked 44 22 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and Whether His Daughter Had Ever Smoked 44 23 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Offspring Presently Smokes 45 24 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Son Presently Smokes 45 25 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Daughter Presently Smokes 46 26 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and Whether His Offspring Presently Smokes 47 27 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and Whether His Son Presently Smokes 47 28 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and Whether His Daughter Presently Smokes 48 29 Comparison Between the Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke and Whether The Respondent Had Ever Smoked 49 30 Comparison Between the Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke and Whether the' Male Respondent Had Ever Smoked 49 31 Comparison Between the Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke and Whether the Female Respondent Had Ever Smoked 50 32 Comparison Between the Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke and Whether the Respondent Had Ever Smoked 51 33 Comparison Between the Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke and Whether the Male Respondent Had Ever Smoked 52 34 Comparison Between the Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke and Whether the Female Respondent Had Ever Smoked 52 v i i Table Page 35 Comparison Between the Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke and Whether the Respondent Presently Smokes 53 36 Comparison Between the Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke and Whether the Male Respondent Presently Smokes 53 37 Comparison Between the Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke and Whether the Female Respondent Presently Smokes 54- 38 Comparison Between the Number of Older S i s t e r s Who Smoke and Whether the Respondent Presently Smokes 55 39 Comparison Between the Number of Older S i s t e r s Who Smoke and Whether the Male Respondent Presently Smokes 55 40 Comparison Between the Number of Older S i s t e r s Who Smoke and Whether the Female Respondent Presently Smokes 56 4-1 Comparison Between the Number of a Person's Five Best Friends Who Smoke and That Person's Present Smoking Habits 57 42 Comparison Between the Number of a Person's Five Best Friends Who Smoke and That Male Person's Present Smoking Habits 57 43 Comparison Between the Number of a Person's Five Best friends Who Smoke and That Female Person's Present Smoking Habits 58 44 Comparison Between a Person's Educational Goals and That Person's Present Smoking Habits 59 45 Comparison Between a Male Person's Educational Goals and That Male Person's Present Smoking Habits 60 46 Comparison Between a Female Person's Educational Goals and That Female Person's Present Smoking Habits 60 47 Comparison Between the Number of Outdoor A c t i v i t i e s That a Male Parti c i p a t e s In and That Male's Present Smoking Habits 61 v i i i Table Page 4-8 Comparison Between the Age At Which a Male Fir s t Tried Smoking and That Male's Present Smoking Habits 62 4-9 Comparison Between the Age At Which a Female Fr i s t Tried Smoking and That Female's Present Smoking Habits 63 50 Company for the First Cigarette 64- 51 Preferred Company for Smoking 65 Chapter I INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM "It i s not sufficient to know how many children smoke. We must know something of the characteristics of these children and what distinguishes them from children who do not smoke...and why they start smoking." (Salber, 1962, p. 1018) Recent studies have shown (American Cancer Society, 1975; Kelson, 1975) that each year the proportions of students who smoke are increasing i n most of the grade levels. Kelson demonstrated this trend i n a study he conducted from 1964-71 i n the State of Ohio, on students from Grades 7 to 12. Beginners start with exploratory "behaviour and the motive for this exploratory behaviour can be tied to a number of different factors such as peer group pressures to smoke, smoking habits of parents, siblings who smoke, and related social factors. The meaning and questions about these selected factors which w i l l be used i n this study need to be put forth. Peer Group Pressures "'The group' has been characterized as the most powerful agent i n the teenager's l i f e . " (Coleman, 1965 2 p . 3 ) . B u t w h a t i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s m o k i n g h a b i t s o f a n i n d i v i d u a l a n d t h e s m o k i n g h a b i t s o f t h e g r o u p w i t h w h o m h e a s s o c i a t e s ? I f a n i n d i v i d u a l i s a m e m b e r o f a g r o u p w h e r e m o s t m e m b e r s s m o k e , i s h e m o r e l i k e l y t o p i c k u p t h e h a b i t t h a n i f h e w e r e a m e m b e r o f a g r o u p w h e r e m o s t d o n o t s m o k e ? Do p e e r g r o u p p r e s s u r e s d e t e r m i n e t h e a m o u n t o f c i g a r e t t e s m o k i n g ? T h e s e a r e i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n s a n d s o m e a n s w e r s n e e d t o b e f o u n d . S m o k i n g H a b i t s o f P a r e n t s T h e s m o k i n g h a b i t s o f t h e p a r e n t s a s t o w h e t h e r t h e y b o t h s m o k e , o n l y o n e s m o k e s , o r n e i , t h e r s m o k e s h a s t o b e e x a m i n e d . W h e n b o t h p a r e n t s s m o k e , i s i t m o r e l i k e l y t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i l l s m o k e ? S u p p o s i n g o n e p a r e n t s m o k e s , i s i t m o r e l i k e l y t h a t t h e i r s a m e - s e x c h i l d w i l l s m o k e , o r o p p o s i t e - s e x c h i l d w i l l s m o k e ? W h a t e f f e c t d o e s n e i t h e r o f t h e p a r e n t s s m o k i n g h a v e o n t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f c h i l d r e n b e c o m i n g s m o k e r s ? S i b l i n g s Who S m o k e T h e s m o k i n g h a b i t s o f a n i n d i v i d u a l n e e d , t o b e c o m p a r e d t o t h e s m o k i n g h a b i t s o f t h a t p e r s o n ' s b r o t h e r s a n d s i s t e r s t o s e e i f t h e r e i s a n y r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e m . I f a p e r s o n h a s a n o l d e r b r o t h e r w h o s m o k e s , i s h e m o r e l i k e l y t o t a k e u p s m o k i n g ? W h e n a p e r s o n h a s a n o l d e r s i s t e r w h o s m o k e s , i s h e m o r e l i k e l y t o t a k e u p s m o k i n g ? S u p p o s i n g n e i t h e r s m o k e , w h a t i s t h e e f f e c t ? 3 S o c i a l Factors Some s o c i a l factors need to be considered such as the occupation and n a t i o n a l i t y of the parents as well as the recreational habits of the teenage smokers and these factors may show some o v e r a l l trends i n the smoking habits of the teenagers. There i s no longer any doubt that cigarette smoking i s a d i r e c t threat to an in d i v i d u a l ' s health. Nevertheless, people are smoking i n ever-increasing numbers, at an e a r l i e r age, and more heavily than before. This study w i l l look into selected factors that may help explain i n i t i a t i o n of smoking i n the young. Statement of the Problem The purpose of t h i s study i s to determine which of the selected factors (peer group pressures to smoke, smoking habits of parents, s i b l i n g s who smoke and r e l a t e d s o c i a l factors) have a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p with teenage smoking habits. Subproblems 1. To determine the degree to which teenager's smoking habits are r e l a t e d to parents' smoking habits. 2. To determine i f there may exi s t d i f f e r e n t motives why males chose to smoke as opposed to why females do. 3 . To determine which of the selected factors have the greatest e f f e c t on teenage students, leading them to smoke. 4- Definitions Nonsmoker: i s defined i n t h i s study as a student who i n his l i f e t i m e has never smoked one c i g a r e t t e . Smoker: i s a student who has t r i e d smoking, and i s presently smoking. Quitter: i s a student who has t r i e d smoking, but has stopped smoking. Interpersonal f a c t o r s : "motivation provided by i n t e r a c t i o n with emotionally s i g n i f i c a n t others such as family members, frien d s , and acquaintances." (Boss, 1973, P. 381) Delimitations This study i s delimited to the 1976-77 school year i n the c i t y of Hamilton, Ontario and uses Grades 9 to 12 from the school system of the Board of Education f o r the C i t y of Hamilton. Assumptions The following assumptions are made: 1. The randomly picked public high schools selected: from a s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of a l l c i t y high schools into three categories; upper, middle and lower class area schools, are representative of the population i n the Hamilton area ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1971); and 2. those surveyed gave accurate information. 5 Limitations Besides three common l i m i t a t i o n s facing studies of t h i s nature, these being; the cooperation given by those surveyed, the accuracy of the questionnaire to measure what i t i s supposed to measure, and l a s t l y , the sample i t s e l f , there were other major l i m i t a t i o n s placed on t h i s study. F i r s t and foremost was an unwilling school system. The Board of Education f o r the C i t y of Hamilton where t h i s study was conducted, would not allow the random sampling and surveying of t h e i r students. What they would allow was the investigator to "supply teach" f o r the Board, thereby allowing the investigator to survey the classes he was assigned to. The investigator t r i e d to work around t h i s problem by only surveying a class from a school that had been chosen ahead of time with random s e l e c t i o n of s i x schools from the d i s t r i c t . Also, the Board of Education f o r the C i t y of Hamilton censored part of the questionnaire. A section dealing with parental education was f e l t inappro- p r i a t e by the Board and had to be deleted before the survey was allowed to proceed. Hypotheses 1. Interpersonal factors have the most s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the teenager and have an influence on whether he or she i s a smoker or non-smoker. 2. D i s t i n c t differences exist between the reasons why males begin to smoke as opposed to why females begin. 6 A female may be more influenced by the parents' smoking habits, e s p e c i a l l y the same-sex parent, while a male may be influenced by a combined e f f e c t of f r i e n d s , parents, and s i b l i n g s . 3 . A teenager's smoking habit i s more representative of t h e i r same-sex parents' smoking habits. Significance of the Study With the trend of teenage smoking on the increase, e s p e c i a l l y with respect ,to g i r l s , there i s a need to determine reasons why they are taking up the smoking habit. Past studies have t r i e d to determine 'reasons why' but, the problem i n dealing with these studies i s that the majority were done i n the United States on American teenagers with the most recent studies occurring i n the l a t e s i x t i e s and early seventies. These f a c t s i n them- selves tend to show a need f o r an up-to-date Canadian study into factors that influence teenage smoking habits and with the discovery of these f a c t o r s , an e f f e c t i v e educational programme might be developed to counter t h i s r i s e i n teenage smoking habits. 7 Chapter I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE For t h i s review, l i t e r a t u r e that was deemed relevant to t h i s study was gathered with s p e c i f i c reference to four main areas: a) smoking habits of parents; b) smoking habits of s i b l i n g s ; c) peer group pressures; and d) re l a t e d s o c i a l f a c t o r s . While i n some of the above areas there was ample material to review, i n others, relevant material was scarce. None the l e s s , an adequate review of the l i t e r a t u r e was obtainable. Smoking Habits of Parents The smoking habits of parents versus t h e i r children's smoking habits have been studied by many researchers i n past years. Cartwright (1959), Horn (1959), Morison (1961), Salber (1961), and Williams (1973) to name a few. Williams' study (1973) was focused on the a f f e c t s which both parents smoking, one parent smoking, or neither smoking had to do with the corresponding smoking habits of t h e i r o f f s p r i n g . His r e s u l t s indicated that the daughter i n a family was more influenced by her parents' smoking habits than was the son, with the mother's smoking habits 8 having s l i g h t l y more e f f e c t than the father's on the daughter's smoking habits. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the smoking behaviour of sons and mothers and sons and fathers was found to be non-significant. E a r l i e r studies by Morison (1961) and e s p e c i a l l y Horn (1959), one of the pioneers i n t h i s area, produced r e s u l t s s i m i l i a r to Williams with respect to the influence a parent has over t h e i r same-sex children's smoking habits. Salber (1961) directed his research to the question of the influence of parental smoking on students' smoking patterns. He chose to attack t h i s question by examining three possible situations namely, where: a) both parents are non-smokers; b) both parents are smokers; or, c) one parent smokes and the other does not. In Salber's study, as can be seen below i n the table, a d e f i n i t e difference exists between a student's smoking habits when he has parents who smoke as compared with students who have non-smoking parents. "In families where neither parent smoked, roughly one-quarter of the students were smokers; whereas i n fa m i l i e s where both parents were regular smokers, approximately h a l f the students were smokers. In families where only one parent was a smoker and the other a non-smoker, the proportion of smokers among the students was s u b s t a n t i a l l y higher than when neither parent smoked and very nearly as high as when both parents smoked." (Salber, 1961, p. 1783) 9 Percentage of Student Smokers According to Parental Smoking Habits Parent a Current Smoker Both Parents Father Only Mother Only Neither Boys 49.1 43.2 38.2 28.5 G i r l s 52.2 43.3 4-7.7 26.4 Studies by Barrett (1962), Cartwright (1959), Kelson (1975), and Palmer (1970) also produced quite s i m i l a r r e s u l t s as Salber. Barrett's (1962) study was of i n t e r e s t to Canadians as i t was one of the few early smoking studies done i n Canada. Barrett concluded from his study that the smoking habits of the father, e s p e c i a l l y i f he smoked, had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the smoking habits of his ch i l d r e n . Barrett also believed that h i s study showed a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between a parent's smoking habits and t h e i r same-sex children's smoking habits. Other studies have shown d i f f e r i n g r e s u l t s of the influence of parents' smoking habits on t h e i r c h i l d r e n . In a study by Bewley (1974), a number of s o c i a l factors that may s t a r t ithe adolescent down the pathway of smoking, one of them being the parents' smoking habits, were looked i n t o . A f t e r analysing his data he came to the following conclusion: "there was a s i g n i f i c a n t association between the boys' smoking habits and those of t h e i r parents." (p. 39) 10 Bewley's results showed that forty per cent of the non-smokers in his study had non-smoking parents, while fifty-two per cent of what he classifi e d as heavy smokers had both parents smoking. Smoking Habits of Siblings Salber (1963) looked into the smoking habits of sibships, specifically the influence of older siblings smoking habits on younger siblings. With the use of a questionnaire, he studied close to seven thousand students, both males and females of high school age. His results showed that the "frequency of smoking i s much higher among children who are members of families i n which there i s an older sibling who smokes than among children of families where there are older siblings who do not smoke or where there are no older siblings." (p. 570-571) Bewley (1974), looked deeper into the smoking habits of the siblings and categorized them into four groups: heavy smokers; light smokers; experimental smokers; and non-smokers. Prom the analysis of his data he suggested that the smoking habit of the siblings rather than the number i s the more important factor associated with smoking. Significant figures i n his study were that sixty-nine per cent of what he clas s i f i e d as heavy smokers had a brother or sister smoking, while ninety-one per cent of the non-smokers had no brothers or sisters smoking. Peer Group Pressures Palmer (1970) was interested in gauging the effect of peer group smoking on an individual's smoking habit. His results, as seen on the accompanying page, show certain trents vividly. (Table 1) 11 Table 1 Subject Smoking Status and the Number and Sex of Their Friends Who Smoke Boy Subjects Number of f r i e n d s No n- Experimental Regular smoking Smoker Smoker Smoker Friends 0 241 71.1 425 50.1 15 13.5 1 46 13.3 115 13.5 4 2.7 2 20 5.6 102 12.0 8 7.2 3 11 2.9 78 9.2 8 7.2 4. 11 2.9 46 5.4 7 6.3 5 10 2.6 52 6.1 22 19.8 A l l 6 1.5 31 3.7 48 43.2 G i r l Friends 0 323 95-3 1 7 2.1 2 5 1.5 3 3 0.9 4. l 0.3 5 0 0.0 A l l 0 0.0 774 91.2 67 60.4 38 4.5 9 8.1 16 1.9 7 6.3 7 0.8 8 7.2 2 0.2 4 3.6 6 0.7 5 4.5 6 0.7 11 9.9 G i r l Subjects Boy Friends 0 646 8?.l 456 69.9 9 29.0 1 54 7.3 82 12.6 1 3.2 2 20 2.7 38 5.8 3 9.7 3 4 0.5 23 3.5 3 9.7 4 2 0.2 9 1.4 0 0.0 5 5 0.7 15 2.3 l 3.2 A l l 11 1.5 29 4.4 14 45.2 G i r l Friends 0 672 90.6 1 42 5.7 2 15 2.0 3 7 0.9 4 1 0.1 5 3 0.4 A l l 2 0.3 486 74.5 2 6.5 59 9.0 3 9.7 44 6.7 2 6.5 26 4.0 4 12.9 10 1.5 5 16.1 17 2.6 3 9.7 10 1.5 12 38.7 1 Data from Palmer (1970). ! 12 Individuals who were non-smokers may have had some friends who smoked, "hut the ^greater proportion of them indicated that none of t h e i r friends smoked". (Palmer, 1970, p. 361) While, at the other end of the continuum, s i m i l a r trends were found with regular smoking i n d i v i d u a l s i n d i c a t i n g that most of t h e i r peer group were smokers. Palmer continued on i n t h i s area of study and looked at the source(s) of encouragement f o r a person to take h i s f i r s t c i g a r e t t e . (Table 2) Prom hi s r e s u l t s , Palmer states that "boys were generally e i t h e r encouraged to smoke or a c t u a l l y smoked with other boys while g i r l s maintained the same rela t i o n s h i p with other g i r l s . " (p. 363) The majority of the males and females who were (Purveyed i n t h i s study stated that the main source of encouragement to smoke, came from friends of the same sex. Prom Palmer's data i t appears that neither parents nor s i b l i n g s assumed any major part i n encouraging the smoking habit outright, as do the peer groups. Than can be r e a d i l y seen i n Table 2 where the parents and s i b l i n g s receive such low responses (usually under 10%) as a source of encouragement. Foss (1973) i n h i s study, was uto f i n d r e s u l t s s i m i l a r to those of Palmer (1970), with respect to:the smoking habits of an i n d i v i d u a l versus the smoking habits of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s f r i e n d s . Using Foss' r e s u l t s , i t can be seen that an i n d i v i d u a l who does not smoke i s more l i k e l y to associate with friends of s i m i l a r preferences (50% of former smokers and 89% of people who have never smoked, i n t h i s study, stated that the majority Table 2 Subject Smoking Status and Source of Encouragement to Smoke Non-Smoker Experimental Smoker Regular Smoker Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls % % % % % % A l l Alone — — — — 137 16.1 84 12.9 13 11.7 2 6.5 Boy Friend 92 63.0 24 14.6 431 50.7 38 5.8 55 49.5 5 16.1 G i r l Friend 3 2.1 60 36.8 9 1.1 232 35.6 7 6.3 14 45.2 Brother 5 3.4 6 3.7 87 10.2 65 10.0 12 10.8 0 0.0 Sister 1 0.7 6 3.7 10 1.2 63 9.7 3 2.7 2 6.5 Mother 1 0.7 1 0.6 8 0.9 40 6.1 0 0.0 1 3.2 Father 1 0.7 4 2.5 46 5.4 53 8.1 4 3.6 2 6.5 Other Relative 19 13.0 38 23.3 119 14.0 75 11.5 12 10.8 4 12.9 Other 24 16.4 24 14.7 2 0.2 2 0.3 5 4.5 1 3.2 14 of t h e i r friends are non-smokers). Also, i n comparison, i t can be seen that people who do smoke w i l l probably associate with a group of friends who smoke (68% of smokers i n t h i s study stated that most of t h e i r friends smoked). Proportion of Friends Who Smoke None or Several Total Few or Most Smokers 11 (32%) 23 (68%) 34- Former Smokers 11 (50%) 11 (50%) 22 Never Smokers 32 (89%) 4 (11%) 36 Total 54- 38 92 Cartwright (1959), Lemin (1967), and Newman (1971) also d i d research studies into the e f f e c t of peer group pressures on the smoking habits of those involved i n a group. These investigators again found that an i n d i v i d u a l was influenced by the smoking habits of h i s friends or the group of people he associates with. Lemin (1967) was to conclude that "the drive f o r conformity i s influenced by the smoking habits of f r i e n d s . " (p. 304) L e v i t t (1970) conducted a multivariate study of c o r r e l a t i v e factors with respect to a young person's cigarette smoking habits, The main reason f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to determine the important variables involved i n what influences a person's smoking habits so that preventive programmes could be developed to attack these v a r i a b l e s . 15 Inferences from the analysis of his data l e d L e v i t t to state "that the peer group predictor v a r i a b l e s — a smoking best f r i e n d and a smoking group of f r i e n d s — a r e of paramount importance i n determining whether or not the respondent i s a smoker." ( L e v i t t , 1970) L e v i t t concluded that while by i t s e l f peer group pressures may not i n i t i a t e t h i s smoking habit, they do support and maintain the smoking behaviour. Related S o c i a l Factors Bynner (1970) put forward a "Recruitment Model" which was composed of four variables that he believed had the most bearing on a teenagers' smoking habits. These were: "1. number of friends who smoked; 2. a n t i c i p a t i o n of adulthood (a measure of the extent to which a boy had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n such l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s as going out drinking with f r i e n d s , going to coffee "bars, going to dance h a l l s , staying out l a t e with a group of older boys and g i r l s ) ; 3. parents permissiveness (a measure of the extent to which parents adopted permissive attitudes towards t h e i r children's smoking); and 4. whether put-off smoking by the danger of lung cancer." (p. 161) 16 Friends Smoke Parents not 3« permissive ^/towards smoking REINFORCERS | f I 1 ^ j 1 INHIBITORS Non-smoker T r i e r Smoker ^ \ 2. A n t i c i p a t i n g \ Put o f f 4. adulthood \ smoking by the xdanger of lung cancer The r e i n f o r c e r s i n the model are friends who smoke and the a n t i c i p a t i o n of adulthood. Lung cancer and i t s dangers along with the parents lack of permissiveness towards smoking are the i n h i b i t o r s . An example of t h i s model would be the case where a teen- ager was under considerable pressure from his friends to take- up smoking. I f his parents were i n d i f f e r e n t towards h i s smoking, and he was not put o f f by the health consequences of smoking, he would be very l i k e l y to take up the c i g a r e t t e . Bynner found that 88 per cent of the subjects i n his study that were confronted by these three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were smokers. This model suggests that an attempt should be made at t r y i n g to weaken the peer group pressure to smoke. Perhaps with more discouragement of smoking from both the parents and the school health i n s t r u c t o r coupled with better health education, t h i s r e s u l t could be obtained. Wohlford (1970) looked into the e f f e c t of broken versus i n t a c t families and patterns of parent-child i m i t a t i o n of smoking behaviour. He determined that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t 17 r e l a t i o n s h i p "between the c h i l d ' s smoking behaviour and whether his family was in t a c t or broken. Studies by Aronow (1976), Best (1961), Dische (1976), D o l l (1976), Hammond (1962), Pornell (1951), and others too numerous to mention, a l l concluded that smoking i s a danger to a person's health. Researchers l i k e Bothwell (1959), Boyle (1968), Kelson (1975), and Street (1967) t r i e d to determine whether school c h i l d r e n r e a l i z e d the health consequences of smoking; and ascertain these school children's subsequent smoking habits. The r e s u l t s of these studies produced some enlightening f a c t s . Boyle (1968) found that "most pup i l s believe smoking cigarettes could cause lung cancer, but present smokers were le s s convinced than former smokers and non-smokers", (p. 1287) In Kelson's (1975) study, 91.1% of those students whom he questioned expressed the b e l i e f that smoking i s harmful to the health of the person. In an e a r l i e r study by Bothwell (1959), 15.3% of the present smokers and 84.7% of the non-smokers were aware of the connection between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Summary Prom the l i t e r a t u r e review there seems to be strong suspicion that a young person's smoking habits can be affected by the people he or she i s associated with (the family and f r i e n d s ) . 18 Most of the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed was dated early 1970 or before, and i n most cases l i m i t e d to one or two factors being taken into consideration. Therefore, newer, more expanded, up-to-date studies need to be undertaken. Chapter I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURES The procedures and methods used i n t h i s study of "factors that may have an e f f e c t on teenage smoking habits" were examined under the following headings: a) research instrument selected f o r use; b) description of the research instrument; c) population f o r study and how i t was chosen; d) administration of the research instrument; e) processing of the data; and f ) s t a t i s t i c a l a n alysis. Research Instrument Selected f o r Use The research instrument selected f o r use i n t h i s study was a questionnaire which was s p e c i f i c a l l y designed and constructed f o r t h i s study. This questionnaire was developed a f t e r a thorough and ca r e f u l examination of other surveys and questionnaires, r e l a t e d or otherwise, and with a general over- a l l knowledge and adherence to the p r i n c i p l e s of questionnaire construction. Description of the research instrument. The questionnaire, which can be found i n the appendix (A), was constructed to gain the most relevant information possible about a student and yet at the same time, the questionnaire was kept a reasonable 20 length to increase the accuracy of the information. The majority of the 32 questions i n the questionnaire involved forced responses. The few questions where w r i t e - i n responses were needed dealt with parental occupation and parental b i r t h p l a c e . The questionnaire i t s e l f attempts to gain the following information: a) parental n a t i o n a l i t y , occupation, and smoking habits; b) such s o c i a l factors as the number of older brothers and s i s t e r s i n the family and t h e i r smoking habits; c) smoking habits of the in d i v i d u a l s being questioned as well as academic and a c t i v i t y i n t e r e s t s ; and d) the h i s t o r y of the f i r s t sampling of smoking as well as other contributing factors to the continuing or q u i t t i n g of the habit. Population f o r Study and How I t Was Chosen The subjects used f o r t h i s questionnaire were drawn from the Hamilton Public School Board, i n Hamilton, Ontario. The subjects ranged i n age from 13 to 20 and from Grades 9 through 12, both males and females. The schools that were used were determined by s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of a l l the public high schools i n the c i t y into three categories; lower, middle and upper c l a s s , or income-area, high schools as determined by S t a t i s t i c s Canada (1971). Two schools from each category were randomly picked as representative of the popula- t i o n i n that category, with 500 students being questioned. 21 Administration of the Research Instrument A f t e r permission was asked and obtained from the Hamilton School Board to administer the questionnaire i n t h e i r school system, a p i l o t study was undertaken to work out any problems that may ex i s t i n the questionnaire i t s e l f . A f t e r three administrations with minor modification the f i n a l make-up of the questionnaire was determined. The questionnaire was administered to the students, class by c l a s s , rather than at one large s i t t i n g , with average class s i z e being about 25 students. I t was found that i t took about 10 minutes to give directions and complete the questionnaire. To minimize any problems with administering the questionnaire, the investigator, was the only one to give the questionnaire, with i n i t i a l d i r ections being uniform f o r a l l t e s t i n g . These general i n s t r u c t i o n s were as follows: Most of the questions involve a yes/no response which can be c i r c l e d , but i n some instances a written one-or-more word response i s necessary. Also take s p e c i a l note of any words underlined, f o r example, questions 9 and 10 are concerned about your older brothers and s i s t e r s , not your younger ones. Do not write your name on the questionnaire and do not discuss your answers with your classmates at t h i s time. Please be as accurate as possible and take your time. The p i l o t study was conducted i n l a t e November and early December .of 1976, with the main study running from January to February, 1977. 22 Processing of the Data The students chosen i n t h i s study marked t h e i r responses d i r e c t l y on the questionnaire i t s e l f . Therefore, l a t e r , i t was necessary to transfer t h e i r responses on to data processing cards, using a code, where c e r t a i n positions on these cards were reserved f o r the responses from each question. Most of the variables examined, such as age, grade l e v e l , sex, number of brothers and s i s t e r s , and smoking habits could e a s i l y be transferred from the questionnaire to the data cards. However, the mother's and father's occupation and t h e i r corresponding country of b i r t h , needed to be converted to c e r t a i n l e v e l s and groups. For the parental occupations, Warner's Scale f o r Rating Occupations was employed. For a more indepth explanation of Warner's Scale reference should be made to h i s book 'Social Class i n America' (Warner, I960, p. 140-141). For the case of the parent's country of b i r t h , f i v e categories were a r b i t r a r i l y set up. They were: 1) Canada, 2) United Kingdom, 3) United States, 4) Other European, and 5) Other. Once the information had been transferred from the questionnaire to data cards, a computer was used f o r tabulation and further analysis of the information. 23 S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis The punched data was checked for keypunch errors using programme Datavet. Datavet was written by Trevor Lambert at the University of Birmingham Computer Centre and was developed "to check data prior to using a programming package such as SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) to analyse the data" (McMaster University, 1976, p. 1). Because of i t s v e r s a t i l i t y and ease of handling the type of information obtainable i n this study, the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) was chosen to handle the actual analysis and calculation of the data required (Nie, 1975)- Crosstabulations, which allow the drawing up of contingency tables, two-way to n-way, for any discrete variables, either numeric or alphanumeric, were u t i l i z e d to examine a number of paired relationships. These paired relationships were tested with a chi square (X^) test, a description of which can he found in Ferguson, Chapter III, 1971. Parental Factor 1. There i s no significant relationship between a father's occupation and whether his offspring has ever smoked. 2. There i s no significant relationship between a mother's occupation and whether her offspring has ever smoked. 3. There i s no significant relationship between a father's occupation and whether his son has ever smoked. 4. There i s no significant relationship between a father's occupation and whether his daughter has ever smoked. 5. There i s no significant relationship between a mother's occupation and whether her son has. ever smoked. 6 . T h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a m o t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n a n d w h e t h e r h e r d a u g h t e r h a s e v e r s m o k e d . 7. T h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a f a t h e r ' s b i r t h p l a c e a n d w h e t h e r h i s o f f s p r i n g h a s e v e r s m o k e d . 8. T h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a m o t h e r ' s b i r t h p l a c e a n d w h e t h e r h e r o f f s p r i n g h a s e v e r s m o k e d . 9. T h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a t e e n a g e r ' s s m o k i n g h a b i t s a n d t h e p a r e n t ( s ) w h o m a k e s u p t h e h o u s e h o l d h e l i v e s i n . 10. T h e r e i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a b o y ' s s m o k i n g h a b i t s a n d t h e p a r e n t ( s ) w h o m a k e s u p t h e h o u s e - h o l d h e l i v e s i n . 11. T h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a g i r l ' s s m o k i n g h a b i t s a n d t h e p a r e n t ( s ) w h o m a k e s u p t h e h o u s e - h o l d s h e l i v e s i n . P a r e n t s ' S m o k i n g H a b i t s 12. T h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a m o t h e r ' s s m o k i n g h a b i t s a n d w h e t h e r h e r o f f s p r i n g h a s e v e r s m o k e d . 13. T h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a m o t h e r ' s s m o k i n g h a b i t s a n d w h e t h e r h e r s o n h a s e v e r s m o k e d . 1 4 . T h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a m o t h e r ' s s m o k i n g h a b i t s a n d w h e t h e r h e r d a u g h t e r h a s e v e r s m o k e d . 15. T h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a f a t h e r ' s s m o k i n g h a b i t s a n d w h e t h e r h i s o f f s p r i n g h a s e v e r s m o k e d . 1 6 . T h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a f a t h e r ' s s m o k i n g h a b i t s a n d w h e t h e r h i s s o n h a s e v e r s m o k e d . 17. T h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a f a t h e r ' s s m o k i n g h a b i t s a n d w h e t h e r h i s d a u g h t e r h a s e v e r s m o k e d . 18. There i s no significant relationship between a mother's smoking habits and whether her offspring presently smoke. 19. There i s no significant relationship between a mother's smoking habits and whether her son presently smokes. 20. There i s no significant relationship between a mother's smoking habits and whether her daughter presently smokes. 21. There i s no significant relationship between a father's smoking habits and whether his offspring presently smoke. 22. There i s no significant relationship between a father's smoking habits and whether his son presently smokes. 23. There i s no significant relationship between a father's smoking habits and whether his daughter presently smokes. Older Brother's and Sister's Smoking Habits 24. There i s no significant relationship between the number of older smoking brothers a person has and whether that person has ever smoked. 25. There i s no significant relationship between the number of older smoking brothers a male has and whether that younger male has ever smoked. 26. There i s no significant relationship between the number of older smoking brothers a female has and whether that younger female has ever smoked. 27. There i s no significant relationship between the number of older smoking sisters a person has and whether that person has ever smoked. 28. There i s no significant relationship between the number of older smoking sisters a male has and whether that younger male has ever smoked. 29. T h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e n u m b e r o f o l d e r s m o k i n g s i s t e r s a f e m a l e h a s a n d w h e t h e r t h a t y o u n g e r f e m a l e h a s e v e r s m o k e d . 30. T h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e n u m b e r o f o l d e r s m o k i n g b r o t h e r s a p e r s o n h a s a n d w h e t h e r t h a t p e r s o n p r e s e n t l y s m o k e s . 31. T h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e n u m b e r o f o l d e r s m o k i n g b r o t h e r s a m a l e h a s a n d w h e t h e r t h a t y o u n g e r m a l e p r e s e n t l y s m o k e s . 32. T h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e n u m b e r o f o l d e r s m o k i n g b r o t h e r s a f e m a l e h a s a n d w h e t h e r t h a t y o u n g e r f e m a l e p r e s e n t l y s m o k e s . 33• T h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e n u m b e r o f o l d e r s m o k i n g s i s t e r s a p e r s o n h a s a n d w h e t h e r t h a t p e r s o n p r e s e n t l y s m o k e s . 34. T h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e n u m b e r o f o l d e r s m o k i n g s i s t e r s a m a l e h a s a n d w h e t h e r t h a t y o u n g e r m a l e p r e s e n t l y s m o k e s . 35. T h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e n u m b e r o f o l d e r s m o k i n g s i s t e r s a f e m a l e h a s a n d w h e t h e r t h a t y o u n g e r f e m a l e p r e s e n t l y s m o k e s . P e e r G r o u p E f f e c t o n S m o k i n g H a b i t 36. T h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s m o k i n g h a b i t s o f a p e r s o n ' s f i v e b e s t f r i e n d s a n d t h a t p e r s o n ' s s m o k i n g h a b i t s . 37. T h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s m o k i n g h a b i t s o f a m a l e ' s f i v e b e s t f r i e n d s a n d t h a t m a l e ' s s m o k i n g h a b i t s . 38. There i s no significant relationship between the smoking habits of a female's five best friends and that female's smoking habits. Educational Plans and a Person's Smoking Habits 39. There i s no significant relationship between the educational plans of a person and that person's present smoking habits. 40. There i s no significant relationship between the educational plans of a male and that male's present smoking habits. 41. There i s no significant relationship between the educational plans of a female and that female's present smoking habits. Participation Level and a Person's Smoking Habits 42. There i s no significant relationship between a person's smoking habits and the number of recreational ac t i v i t i e s one participates i n . 43. There i s no significant relationship between a person's smoking habits and the number of outdoor acti v i t i e s one participates i n . 44. There i s no significant relationship between a person's smoking habits and the number of school act i v i t i e s one participates i n . 45. There i s no significant relationship between a person's smoking habits and the number of school teams one participates on. Effect of Early Age Smoking on a Person's Later Smoking Habits 46. There i s no significant relationship between a male's early age smoking and his later smoking habits. 47. There i s no significant relationship between a female's early age smoking and her later smoking habits. CHAPTER 4 RESTJLTS The r e s u l t s of t h i s study were put into contingency tables to allow comparisons of the various va r i a b l e s , as well as to determine by the use of Chi square whether there are any s i g n i f i c a n t relationships between these d i f f e r e n t v ariables, when compared to one another. The Sample of the Population The sampling of the population was achieved by the use of the following subjects, charted to show the age and grade breakdown of t h i s study. Table 3 Grade Breakdown of Those Surveyed Grade Male Female Row Total 9 97 85 182 10 67 20 87 11 39 92 131 12 4-5 55 100 Total 248 49.6 252 50.4 i— . 500 100.0 i . „ — J Count Percentage 29 Table 4 Age Breakdown of Those Surveyed Age Male Female Row Total 13 4 1 5 14 45 40 85 15 77 45 122 16 52 71 123 17 47 66 113 18 20 22 42 19 3 6 9 20 0 1 1 Total 248 49.6 252 50.4 500 100.0 Count Percentage Examination of these two tables shows that the majority of the subjects f a l l into the age range of 15-17 years of age, with more males being surveyed i n the early high school grade levels (9 and 10), and more females i n the later grades. Overall the number of males and females surveyed in this study came out almost equal with 248 males being questioned and 252 females. Common Numbers i n This Section Numbers that appear frequently throughout the various sections, with respect to a person's smoking habits, are presented i n Table 5. 30 Table 5 Smoking Characteristics of Those Surveyed Never Smoked Those who have tried smoking Total Those who smoke now Those who do not smoke now Total Male 46 202 248 73 175 248 Female 60 192 252 96 156 252 Total 106 394 500 169 331 500 Row Percentage of Total 21.2 78.8 100.0 33.8 66.2 100.0 This table shows that 21.2% of those surveyed have never smoked, leaving 78.8% who have smoked. Those who smoke now make up only 33.8% of the total questioned. Parental Factors The question as to whether a person's smoking habits were related to his/her parents' occupation of birthplace was of concern i n this section, with the following results. When a father's or mother's occupation was compared to whether his or her offspring had ever smoked the following was true from this study. 31 Table 6 Comparison Between a Father's Occupation and Whether His Offspring Had Ever Smoked Father's Occupation Ever Smoked Row Total Yes No i (e.g. lawyers, J doctors) / 9 A 4^\ V (nurses, teachers) 1 6 > 23 1 ' r 9 32 (supervisors) 8 J \ 4 (foremen, plumbers) 52 14 66 5 (salesmen, p o l i c e ) 71 14 85 6 (steelworker) 177 49 226 7 (construction worker) 40 14 54 i 9 (unemployed) 31 6 37 Total ! 394 j 78.8 106 21.2 500 100.0 Count Percentage ir = 3.36 P = .7313 32 Table 7 Comparison Between A Mother's Occupation and Whether Her Offspring Had Ever Smoked Mother's Occupation Ever Smoked Row Total Yes No 2 "\ (e.g. nurses, ) teachers) / 51 3 I (supervisors) / 3>29 IS 6 35 4 \ (foremen, j plumbers)J 7J 2 J 5 (salesmen, p o l i c e ) 28 8 36 6 (steelworkers) 64 20 84 7 (construction worker) 14 5 19 8 (housewife) I 9 I (unemployed) j > 258 3 j ( 68 1) 326 Total 393 78.8 107 21.2 500 100.0 Count Percentage If- = 1.30 p = .9904 When these charts were tested by c h i square no s i g n i f i c a n t relationships were found. I t i s in t e r e s t i n g to note here that father's occupation l e v e l 6 was the most common response given by those surveyed. This t y p i f i e s the kind of town, a 33 s t e e l town, that Hamilton i s known f o r . Level s i x i n Warner's So c i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s made up of semi-skilled workers (steelworkers). For mother's occupation, l e v e l 8 (housewife), was by f a r the most common response given. With a further analysis of the preceding charts, the male/female responses of the off s p r i n g were separated and the following r e s u l t s were obtained. Table 8 Comparison Between a Father's Occupation and Whether His Son Had Ever Smoked Father* s Occupation Male Ever Smoked Yes No Row Total 1 "\ (e.g. lawyers. doctors) 2 . (nurses, teachers)y 3 (supervisors) 4 (foremen, / plumbers) -/ 5 (salesmen, p o l i c e ) 6 (steelworker) 7 (construction worker) 9 (unemployed) 45 37 87 22 11 33 12 57 43 108 40 Total 202 46 X 2 = .916 p = .8119 248 3* Table 9 Comparison Between a Father's Occupation and Whether His Daughter Had Ever Smoked Father's Occupation (salesmen, police) (steelworkers) 7 (construction worker) (unemployed) Female Ever Smoked (e.g. lawyers, doctors) 2 (nurses, teachers)I j 3 A l (supervisors) 4 (foremen, plumbers) J Total Row Total Count Percentage X 2 = 2.197 p = .1784 35 Table 10 Comparison Between a Mother's Occupation and Whether Her Son Had Ever Smoked Mother's Occupation (e.g. nurses, teachers) (supervisors) (foremen, plumbers) (salesmen, p o l i c e ) (steelworkers) (construction worker) 8 (housewife) (unemployed) Total Count Percentage IT = .4186 p = .6764 36 Table 11 Comparison Between a Mother's Occupation and Whether Her Daughter Had Ever Smoked Mother's Occupation (e.g. nurses, teachers) (supervisors) (foremen, plumbers) (salesmen, p o l i c e ) J (steelworkers) (construction worker) i 1 8 j (housewife) ! ) 9 (unemployed) Total Count Percentage IT = .097 P = .7357 Chi square again showed that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between any of the above fa c t o r s . 37 W h e n a f a t h e r ' s a n d m o t h e r ' s " b i r t h p l a c e w a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n s m o k i n g h a b i t s , t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t e d : T a b l e 12 C o m p a r i s o n B e t w e e n a F a t h e r ' s B i r t h p l a c e a n d W h e t h e r H i s O f f s p r i n g H a d E v e r S m o k e d F a t h e r ' s E v e r S m o k e d R o w T o t a l B i r t h p l a c e N o _ 1 ( C a n a d a ) 213 39 252 ( U n i t e d K i n g d o m ) L 29) *> 35 5 f ( U n i t e d S t a t e s ) J 1] 1 J 4 ( O t h e r E u r o p e a n ) 53 25 78 1 , 5 ^ ; ( O t h e r ) 98 37 135 | T o t a l 394 78.8 106 21.2 500 100.0 1 , ,J C o u n t P e r c e n t a g e T- = 14.56 p = .0028 38 Table 13 Comparison Between a Mother's Birthplace and whether Her Offspring Had Ever Smoked Mother's Ever Smoked Row T o t a l Birthplace Yes No 1 (Canada) 211 41 252 2 ~) (United Kingdom)/ 3 ( (United S t a t e s ) J 38 4 (Other European) 54 23 77 5 (Other) 97 36 133 Total 394 78.8 f 106 1 2 1 ' 2 500 100.0 Count Percentage Tf = 10.54 p = .0293 Both these tables were found to have a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between the variables father's birthplaces and whether h i s o f f s p r i n g had ever smoked as well as mother's birthplace and whether her of f s p r i n g had ever smoked. With regard to tables 12 and 13, f o r birthplaces i n Canada and the United Kingdom, a higher percentage difference exists between those who had never t r i e d smoking and those who had. The comparison between whether a person smokes now and who they are l i v i n g with gave the following r e s u l t s : 3 f Table 14 Comparison Between Who A Respondent Lives With and Their Present. Smoking Habit Live With Father and Mother Just Mother | Just Father i Neither Total i r = 15.13 p = .0017 Smoke Now Yes 127 28 9 169 42.9 No 201 13 6 4 — 225 57.1 Row Total 328 41 15 10 394- 1 IOOJO. Count Percentage From this table a significant relationship was found to exist. With the separation of the responses into male/female categories the subsequent analysis revealed: Table 15 Comparison Between Who a Male Respondent Lives With and His Present Smoking Habit Live With Father and Mother Just Mother Just Father Neither Total Male Smoke Now Yes 60 No 117 Row Total 129 63.9 177 12 13 Count 202 j Percentage yr = 4.177 p = .2113 40 Table 16 Comparison Between Who a Female Respondent Lives With and Her Present Smoking Habit IT = 11.88 p = .0078 Live With Female Smoke Now Row Total Yes No Father and Mother Just Mother Just Father ) Neither j 67 23 84 6 3 J 151 29 12 Total 96 50.0 96 50.0 192 Count Percentage In the case of the table for the male responses, no significant relationship was found to exist, but i t i s interesting to note that the majority of the boys who live at home and had once smoked, no longer smoke. (Table 15) The table for the female responses on the other hand, shows a significant relationship existing between a g i r l s 1 smoking habits and the family make-up of the house she lives i n . When the males i n this study were seen l i v i n g with just their fathers and the females just with their mothers a much higher percentage of these people turned out to be smokers rather than non-smokers. 41 Parents 1 Smoking; Habits The mother's and father's smoking habits as compared to whether their offspring had ever tried smoking i s shown f i r s t , followed by an analysis of the mother's and father's smoking habit compared to their children's present smoking habits. Table 17 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Offspring Ever Smoked Mother Smokes Ever Smoke Row Yes _.N6_ Total Yes 160 26 186 No 234 80 314 Total 394- 106 500 78.8 u - 2 h l Count Percentage = 8.57 p = .0034 The above table, contains the results obtained from this study with respect to a comparison between the mother's smoking habits and whether their children had ever tried smoking. A significant relationship was found to exist between these two variables and a further analysis produced the following tables: Table 18 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Son Ever Smoked Mother Smokes- Male Row Ever Smoke Total Yes No Yes 78 15 93 No 124 31 155 Total 202 46 248 81.5 18.5 Percentage X 2 = .349 p = .5548 Table 19 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Daughter Ever Smoked Mother Smokes Female Ever Smoke Row Total Yes No Yes 82 11 92 No 110 49 159 Total 192 76.2 60 252 L X 2 = 10.64 p = .0011 Count Percentage With the introduction of the sex variable1,•, i t was found that the table concerned with the male's response does not show a significant relationship existing between the mother's 4-3. smoking habits and whether her sons had ever tried smoking. As for the female's response,, a significant relationship was s t i l l found to exist between these variables. The male and female tables i l l u s t r a t e that a larger percentage of the females, who had tried smoking had mothers who also smoked. The percentage was lesser i n males who tried smoking and had mothers who smoke. Next, the father's smoking habits need to be considered and analysed against whether his offspring has ever tried smoking. From this study the following results were obtained: Table 20 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and whether His Offspring Had Ever Smoked Father Smokes f Ever Smoke Row Total Yes No ! Yes [ No 240 154 53 53 293 207 | Total i ! , 394- I 106 7 8 . 8 21.2 500 | Count 'Percentage X^ = 3.66 p = .0556 No significant relationship was found to exist between the variables in the above chart, and even with further analysis, with male/female responses separated i n the charts below, no significant relationship was found to exist. 44 Table 21 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and Whether His Son Had Ever Smoked X 2 = .422 P = .5157 Father Smokes* Male Ever Smoke Row Total Yes No Yes 123 25 148 No 79 21 100 Total 202 81 .5 46 18.5 248 Count Percentage Table 22 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and Whether His Daughter Had Ever Smoked if = 3.25 P = .0715 Father Smokes Female Ever Smoke Row Total Yes No Yes 117 28 145 No 75 32 107 Total 192 76.2 60 23.8 252 Count Percentage With the analysis of the parental smoking habits versus t h e i r children's early experiences with smoking completed, i t now seems appropriate to examine the present smoking habits of the students questioned. Therefore the parental smoking habits versus t h e i r children's present smoking habits, as to whether they are s t i l l smokers or now non-smokers, was analysed. In the following three tables, the mothers smoking practices w i l l be compared to her children's smoking habits, at lea s t to those who have stated that they have t r i e d smoking. Table 23 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Offspring Presently Smokes Mother Smoke Now. Row Smokes Yes No Total Yes 90 70 160 No 79 155 234 Total 1690 42 .9 ! 225 i 57.1 394 Count Percentage X c = 18.71 p = .000:1 Table 24 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Son Presently Smokes f Mother Smokes Male Smoke Now Row Total Yes i i No Yes 36 42 78 No _JL 87 124 Total 73 36.1 129 63.9 202 Count Percentage Jf = 4 .84 p = .0278 46 Table 25 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Daughter Presently Smokes Mother Female Row Smokes Smoke Now Total Yes No Yes 54 28 82 No 42 68 110 Total 96 96 192 50.0 50.0 X 2 = 13.30 p = .0003 Count Percentage In Table 23, a relationship i s found to exist between these two variables, with this relationship s t i l l existing in Tables 24 and 25 when the responses of the students were separated by sex. A stronger relationship was found to exist between a mother's smoking practices and her daughter's, than between mother and son. Quite similar results were found when the father's smoking habits were compared to those of their sons and daughters, as can be seen i n the tables below: 47 Table 26 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and Whether His Offspring Presently Smokes Father Smoke Now Row Smokes Yes No Total Yes 119 121 240 No 50 104 154 Total 169 42.9 225 57.1 394 Count j Percentage IT = 10.53 p = .0012 Table 27 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and Whether His Son Presently Smokes X 2 = 7.38 p = .0066 Father Smokes Male Smoke Now Row Total Yes No Yes 54 69 123 No 19 60 79 Total . - 36.1 ~"l29 63.9 202 Count Percentage 48 Table 28 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and Whether His Daughter Presently Smokes r Count Percentage Again a relationship was found between a father's smoking inclinations and his offspring's who took up the habit, as can be seen i n table 26. But, when the table was further analysed by separating the sexes, something different occurred. A significant relationship was s t i l l found to exist between father and son but not between father and daughter. Of special interest i n the father-son table i s the proportion of sons who have quit smoking when their father does not smoke (almost 76% of those who have fathers who do not smoke have quit smoking). Older Brothers' and Sisters' Smoking Habits In this section the number, i f any, of older brothers and sisters who smoke w i l l be taken into consideration, and compared against certain variables. The f i r s t such comparison w i l l involve the number of 49 older brothers who smoke versus whether the respondent i n t h i s study had ever smoked. Table 29 Comparison Between the Number of Older Brother Who Smoke and Whether The Respondent Had Ever Smoked = 21.803 P = .0355 Count Percentage Table 30 Comparison Between the Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke and Whether The Male Respondent Had Ever Smoked Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke 0 1 2 Total I f = 1.46 Male Ever Smoke Row Total! Yes 54- No 52 59 111 Count Percent- age p = .5425 50': Table 31 Comparison Between the Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke and Whether The Female Respondent Had Ever Smoked Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke T- = 8.75 p = .0254- Female Ever Smoke Row Total For table 29, a relationship was found to exist between these two variables, but when the male-female responses of those questioned were separated into tables 30 and 31, some- thing different occurred. A significant relationship was found to exist for only the number of older brothers who smoke versus the number of females who had ever tried smoking and not for the male responses. An interesting trend can be seen i n a l l three of the above tables,. As the number of older brothers who smoke increases, i n almost a l l cases, the percentage difference between whether a person had or had not ever tried smoking increases. A good example of this occurs i n table 29, where for no older brothers who smoked, 76% of those who responded for this instance had tried smoking. When the number of brothers who 51 smoked was increased by one, the percentage of those who had ever t r i e d smoking, i n t h i s instance, jumped to 89.1%. The next comparison i s of the number of older s i s t e r s who smoke versus whether those questioned f o r t h i s study had ever t r i e d smoking. No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between any of the variables i n table(s) 32, 33 or 34. Similar trends, as were the case with the number of older brotherswho smoked, were found to exis t here, with increasing numbers of older s i s t e r s who smoke corresponding with increased proportions of respondents who had t r i e d smoking. Table 32 Comparison Between The Number of Older S i s t e r s Who Smoke and Whether The Respondent Had Ever Smoked Number of Older S i s t e r s Who Smoke Ever Smoke Row Total Yes No 0 87 28 115 1 76 13 89 ) 33^ | 3 N 5 / 11 ( 2 . /> 48 I > 5 53 4 r 1 0 1 1 2J 3 J oJ s Total 211 , 82.5 46 17.5 i X 2 = 3.839 P = .1531 Table 33 Comparison Between the Number of Older S i s t e r s Who Smoke and Whether The Male Respondent Had Ever Smoked Number of Older S i s t e r s Who Smoke Male Ever\Smoke Row Total Yes No 6 44 11 55 4 3 ^ 6^ ) 2 2 i 1 o 1 y 8 71 4 1 0 .  . o J Total 107 84.9 19 i 15.1 126 X 2 = 1.85 P = .7943 Table 34 Comparison Between The Number of Older S i s t e r s Who Smoke and Whether The Female Respondent Had Ever Smoked Number of Older S i s t e r s Who Smoke Female Ever Smoke Yes No Row Total Total If = 6.67 S-fct- 105 80.2 60 71 36 19.8 131 p = .1684 53 An analysis between the number of older brothers and s i s t e r s who smoke versus the present smoking habits of those respondents who stated that they had t r i e d smoking i s what follows i n the next few sets of tables. F i r s t the older brothers: Table 35 Comparison Between the Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke and Whether The Respondent Presently Smokes Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke Smoke Now Row Total Yes No 0 25 48 73 1 47 35 82 2 15 18 33 12l 51 [ 1 ) 1 5 . 2V 5 20 Total 102 49.0 106 ____5ii0_ 208 X 2 = 14.2 p = .0051 Table 36 Comparison Between The Number of Older Brother Who Smoke and Whether The Male Respondent Presently Smokes Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke Male Smoke Now Row Total Yes No 0 14 30 44 1 19 12 31 2~) 61 3 7 7 14 2 > 10 24 4) l j l j Total 47 52 1 *> X 2 = 7.833 p = .04 54 Table 37 Comparison Between The Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke and Whether The Female Respondent Presently Smokes Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke Female Smoke Now Row Total Yes | No 0 11 18 29 1 28 23 51 2) 9) 111 5 5 V 16 1 > 13 29 2 J l J Total 55 50.5 54 49.5 109 X 2 = 2.48 p = .2513 Table 35 shows a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between the number of older brothers who smoke and the present smoking habits of the persons questioned. Under further analysis, with the breakdown of table 35 into separate male-female responses we f i n d that i n table 36, the male responses are s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t while i n table 37, the female responses are no longer s i g n i f i c a n t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note from the separate male responses i n table 36, the high proportion of in d i v i d u a l s who stated that they no longer smoke who also have no older brothers smoking. In sharp contrast i s the rapid increase i n proportions of those who stated they s t i l l smoke, as the number of older brothers who smoke increase. The number of older s i s t e r s who smoke as compared to the present smoking habits of those questioned was studied to see i f any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s . 55 Table 38 Comparison Between The Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke and Whether The Respondent Presently Smokes Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke Smoke Now Row Total _ Y e s No 0 21 66 1 46 30 76 2 21 12 33 31 ? ) 47 | O f 9 16 _ . . . u L. _ J _ i 2 / Total L „ , 95 1 i 117 1 55.2 . 212 X 2 = 27.36 p = .000$ Table 39 Comparison Between The Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke and Whether The Male Respondent Presently Smokes Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke Male Smoke Now Yes No Row Total Total if = 18.38 11 43 40.2 64 59.8 44 43 20 107 p = .0017 56 Table 40 Comparison Between The Number of Older S i s t e r s Who Smoke and Whether The Female Respondent Presently Smokes Number of Older S i s t e r s Who Smoke S i g n i f i c a n t relationships were found to ex i s t i n a l l three of the above tables. As was the case i n the preceding tables, c e r t a i n trends can be seen i n these tab l e s . In a l l three of the above tables, a l a r g e r number of respondents having no older s i s t e r s who smoked, stated that they themselves no longer smoked. Also as the number of older s i s t e r s who smoked started to increase, so d i d the number of respondents who said they smoked, and at a dra s t i c rate. Peer Group A f f e c t on Smoking Habit This part deals with what some people consider as one of the more important aspects of continued teenage smoking, that being the number of friends of an i n d i v i d u a l who smoke. The variables examined here w i l l be the respondents present smoking habits versus the number of t h e i r f i v e best friends who smoke. The following r e s u l t s were obtained: 57 Table 41 Comparison Between The Number of a Person's Five Best Friends Who Smoke and That Person's Present Smoking Habits Number of Your Five Best Friends Who Smoke Smoke Now Row [ Total Yes No 0 7 73 80 1 7 47 54 2 13 48 61 3 26 29 55 4 40 14 54 5 | 76 14 90 Total 169 j 42.9 225 57.1 394 x 2 = 154.72 p = ,0©Q1\ Table 42 Comparison Between the Number of a Person's Five Best Friends Who Smoke and That Male Person's Present Smoking Habits Number of Your Five Best Friends Who Smoke Male Smoke Now Row Total Yes No , . . — . . 46s) 1 | 2> 9 24 V 95 104 A 3) 25 J 3 14 18 32 4 18 9 37 5 32 7 39 Total r 73 36.1 129 63.9 202 X 2 = 81.37 p = .00011 58 Table 43 Comparison Between The Number of a Person's Five Best Friends Who Smoke and That Female Person's Present Smoking Habits Number of Your Female Row Five Best Friends Smoke Now Total Who Smoke Yes No ° T " "377 i j 2 3 > 5 0 58 2 10 23 53 3 12 11 23 4 22 5 27 5 44 7 51 Total 96 96 192 50.0 50.0 X 2 = 73.13 p = .oooaA A l l three tables were found to have a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g within them, and the following trends were found: - i n a l l three of the above tables the highest number of quitters were found i n the category where none of t h e i r f i v e best friends smoked. - i n a l l three of the above tables as the number of best friends who smoke increases, so does the number of respondents who smoke now. This leaves the highest number of smokers at category f i v e , where a l l f i v e of t h e i r best friends smoke. This i s also the category where the lowest number of quitters were found. - of minor s i g n i f i c a n c e , but noteworthy, was 59 category three. This category became a t r a n s i t i o n zone, where the majority becomes the minority. In categories zero, one and two, the majority of respondents were non-smokers, but at, or a f t e r category three, the reverse was true. Educational Plans and a Person's Smoking Habits Could there be any relat i o n s h i p between a person's educational goals and h i s present smoking habits? A comparison was made between the var i a b l e s , whether a person smoked now, and t h e i r educational goals. From the tables below, a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found to exi s t f o r a l l three examples. Table 44 Comparison Between a Person's Educational Goals and That Person's Present Smoking Habits Educational Plans Smoke Now Row Total Yes., No High School University 107 ! 62 | I 92 I 133 199 195 Total | 169 J 4-2.9 225 57.1 394 X 2 = 18.53 p = .0001. 60 Table 45 Comparison Between a Male Person's Educational Goals and That Male Person's Present Smoking Habits Educational Plans Male Smoke Now Row Total Yes No High School 42 48 90 University- 31 81 112 Total 73 | 36.1 129 65.9 202 X 2 = 6.99 p = .0082 Table 46 Comparison Between a Female Person's Educational Goals and That Female Person's Present Smoking Habits Educational Plans Female Smoke Now Row Total Yes No High School 65 44 109 University 31 52 83 Total 96 50.0 96 50.0 192 X 2 = 8.49 p = .0036 The tables indicate that the person who has aspirations of going on to college or university i s more frequently a non-smoker, whereas of those who are only going as far as high school a slim majority overall tend to be smokers. 61 P a r t i c i p a t i o n Level and a Person's Smoking; Habits Facts of a person's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n various areas, such as recreational a c t i v i t i e s , outdoor a c t i v i t i e s , school a c t i v i t i e s , and school teams, were gathered and compared with the respondent's smoking habits i n the hope of discovering some unique patterns of spare-time pleasure. Unfortunately such was not the case. The four a c t i v i t y variables above were compared to the respondent's present smoking habits and no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found to exis t i n any of the cases. To give an example, because to give more would just be r e p e t i t i v e , the comparison between the number of outdoor a c t i v i t i e s versus the male respondent's present smoking habits i s given: Table 47 Comparison Between The Number of Outdoor A c t i v i t i e s That a Male Parti c i p a t e s In and That Male's Present Smoking Habits Number of Outdoor A c t i v i t i e s Male Smoke Now Yes No Row Total 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total 4 6 7 17 10 14 9 6 } 10 15 2) 26 24 J 16 29 23 17 14, 18 36 23 46 33 31 33 73 36.1 129 63.9 202 X 2 = 4.18 p = .1731 62 Even though no significant relationship was found to exist between a male's smoking habits and his participation i n outdoor a c t i v i t i e s , i t i s interesting to note that three or four outdoor activities are the more common levels of participation for the males i n this study. Effect of Early Age Smoking on a Person's Later Smoking Habits The next area of concern i s the effect of early age smoking on the eventual smoking habits of an individual. V/hether they s t i l l smoke and the age at which they f i r s t began are the variables to be considered. The tables below exhibit the information found from this study i n separated male/female responses. Table 48 Comparison Between The Age At Which a Male F i r s t tried Smoking and That Male's Present Smoking Habits Age F i r s t Smoked Male Smoke Now Yes A 2 6 4/ 11 6 8 8 12 8 13 a 73 36.1. 7 2 13 7 12 26 9 20 15 6 8 ___4 29 Row Total 12 129 _63_,9. 42 23 32 17 28 27 14 19 202 Jf- = 11.1 p = .2867 63 Table 4-9 Comparison Between The Age At Which A Female F i r s t T r ied Smoking and That Female's Present Smoking Habits ) Age F i r s t Smoked 19.277 Female Smoke Now Row * Total P = .05 Table 4-8, the table f o r the male responses, shows that no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p exists between the two variables, but a rela t i o n s h i p was found to exi s t between these variables i n the female table, table 4-9. The following points are noted from table 4-9: - the age of ten f o r females, i n t h i s study, seems to be some what of a c r i t i c a l age. The meaning of which i s best explained i n the remaining points. - smoking at an early age, ( f i v e to ten years), i n t h i s study, most often l e d to continued smoking i n l a t e r years. 64 - those who started smoking later usually showed a better chance of dropping the habit and being classifi e d as quitters. Company for the Fi r s t Cigarette It was deemed important for this study to try and find out who the person was with when they f i r s t tried smoking. Various questions were placed i n the questionnaire to deal with this problem. The results obtained are contained i n Table 50. It should be remembered that a person could be, and i n some instances, was with a mixed age group when he or she f i r s t tried smoking and thus could be placed i n one or more of the categories below: Table 50 Company for the Fi r s t Cigarette Male Female Peer Friends 131 130 (Alone 18 19 Older Friends 58 54 Younger Friends 14 12 Parents 8 3 Older Brother 14 6 Older Sister 7 14- It i s not hard to determine from the data generated by this study who the majority of the respondents were with when they f i r s t tried smoking. They were with their peer friends, meaning friends their own age level. 65 Also showing considerable strength was the group who f i r s t smoked with older friends. Surprisingly, showing lower results was the group who f i r s t smoked alone. Information was also obtained from this study on the company, i f any, a person who presently smokes prefers to keep when he or she i s indulging in the smoking habit. The two questions asked were: 1. How often do you smoke alone? andc. 2. How often do you smoke with friends? The results obtained from this study are: Table 51 Preferred Company for Smoking Smoke Smoke With Alone Friends Never 12 0 Some of 100 58 the time Most of 55 82 the time Always 2 29 Total 169 169 For this study, the generated data seems to indicate a marked preference for smoking to occur more frequently i n groups rather than the individual smoking alone. Discussion The discussion of the results found from this study takes place under the subheading of the various variables deemed important: 66 Parental f a c t o r s . A comparison of mother's and father's places of b i r t h with t h e i r offspring's declaration of having smoked or never having smoked was s i g n i f i c a n t . Where the parent's birthplace was the United Kingdom or Canada, these respondents were found to have a higher p r o b a b i l i t y of having t r i e d smoking at some time, than were those surveyed whose parents were from the United States, other European, or other countries (not l i s t e d ) . The parents or parent with whom a female was l i v i n g was also found to have a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h i s study to that g i r l ' s smoking habits. Por a g i r l l i v i n g with a single parent (her mother), i t was found i n t h i s study that she, by f a r , was more l i k e l y to be a smoker than a non-smoker. Of those l i v i n g with both parents, the majority were non- smokers. These r e s u l t s tend to agree with the f i n d i n g of such authors as Horn (1959), Morison (1961) and Williams (1973). Parent's Smoking Habits. A rel a t i o n s h i p was found to ex i s t between a mother's smoking habits and whether or not her daughter had ever smoked. Of those females questioned who stated that t h e i r mother's smoked, 88.2% of these g i r l s had •tried smoking, while only 69.2% of those g i r l s who had mothers who didn't smoke, had t r i e d smoking. S i g n i f i c a n t relationships were also to be found between a mother's smoking habits and her offspring's present smoking habit, with the mother-daughter combination showing a higher re l a t i o n s h i p than the mother-son. 67 In the majority of the cases, when the smother smoked, the daughter was more l i k e l y to smoke; when the mother did not smoke the daughter usually didn't. When the father's smoking habits were compared to their son's present smoking habits, the relationship that existed was found to be significant. Worth mentioning i s the situation where the father does not smoke. It was found i n this study that the majority of the boys (76%) followed the lead of their fathers and did not smoke. Studies by Barrett (1962), Bewley (1974) and Salber (1961) showed the same kind of positive relationship existing between the smoking habits of one parent and the smoking habits of their same sex children, as exists i n this study. Older brother's and sister's smoking habits. The number of older brother's who smoke and their younger sister's smoking habits, were found to be related i n this study. As the number of older brother's who smoked increased, so did the likelihood that the younger sister v.would take up the smoking habit. A comparison between the number of older brothers who smoked versus the present smoking habits of their younger brothers also produced a significant relationship. The rapid shift i n the smoking habits of those surveyed is interesting to note. It was found i n this study that when an individual answered that none of their older brothers smoked they themselves were usually found to be non-smokers. As the number of older brothers who smoked increased, so did 68 the l i k e l i h o o d that the person being questioned was a smoker. The question as to whether the number of older s i s t e r s who smoked had an ef f e c t on the present smoking habits of "• t h e i r younger brothers and s i s t e r s was determined to be s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s study. Similar trends were found f o r these two variables as were found i n the preceding set of variables concerning the number of older brothers who smoke. As the number of older s i s t e r s who smoke increases, so does the l i k e l i h o o d that t h e i r younger brothers and s i s t e r s w i l l be smokers. The rela t i o n s h i p that was found to exis t i n t h i s study between the smoking habits of older brothers and s i s t e r s and t h e i r younger brothers and s i s t e r s was s i m i l a r i n nature to Salber's (1963) study. Peer group a f f e c t on smoking habit. A s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found to exis t between the number of a person's f i v e best friends who smoke and that person's present smoking habits. The highest number of people who chose to quit smoking once they had t r i e d i t , occurs i n t h i s study when none of a person's best friends are smokers. As the number of best friends who smoke increases, so does the l i k e l i h o o d that the respondent w i l l s t i l l smoke. Studies by Foss (1973) and Palmer (1970) tend to back up t h i s view of the e f f e c t of peer pressures on an in d i v i d u a l ' s smoking habits. Educational plans and a person's smoking habits. Comparing the educational plans of a person, and that person's smoking habits indicated that a re l a t i o n s h i p existed between these' 69 two v a r i a b l e s . Those respondents who indicated that they wanted to enter u n i v e r s i t y were usually found to be non- smokers, whereas those who stated that high school was as f a r , educationally, as they wanted to go, tended to be smokers. Af f e c t of e a r l y age smoking on a person's l a t e r smoking habits. When the age at which a person f i r s t smoked was compared to that person's present smoking habit, a s i g n i f i c a n t re l a t i o n s h i p was found to e x i s t . This study indicated that the person who had f i r s t t r i e d smoking at an early age ( f i v e to ten years) usually continued smoking as compared to the i n d i v i d u a l who was to f i r s t t r y smoking i n l a t e r years ( a f t e r From the variables that were investigated by t h i s study the following were found to have a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between them and the smoking habits of those questioned: ten). - females i n i t i a l choice of smoking or not smoking rela t e d to: males i n i t i a l choice of smoking or not smoking re l a t e d to: 1. father's birthplace 1. father's birthplace 2. mother:' s birthplace 2. mother' s birthplace mother' s smoking habits number of older brothers who smoke 70 - females choice of continuing to smoke or q u i t t i n g r e l a t e d to: 1. parent(s) l i v i n g with (mother only}, (father only), (both) 2. mother's smoking habits 3. number of older s i s t e r s who smoke 4. number of f i v e best friends who smoke 5. age f i r s t smoked - males choice of continuing to smoke or q u i t t i n g r e l a t e d to: 1. Mother's smoking habits 2. father's smoking habits 3. number of older brothers who smoke 4. number of older s i s t e r s who smoke 5. number of f i v e best friends who smoke 71 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY The purpose of t h i s study i s to determine which of the selected factors have a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p with teenage smoking habits. The factors involved are: peer group pressures; smoking habits of parents; older s i b l i n g s who smoke; and, selected s o c i a l f a c t o r s . The subproblems that were involved were: 1. To determine the degree to which a teenager's smoking habits are related to t h e i r parents smoking habits. 2. To determine i f there may e x i s t d i f f e r e n t reasons why males chose to smoke as opposed to why females do. 3. To determine which of the selected factors_ have the greatest e f f e c t on teenage students, that would lead them to smoke. The research instrument selected f o r use was a question- naire which was s p e c i f i c a l l y designed and constructed to meet the requirement of t h i s study. The questionnaire i t s e l f attempts to gain the following information: (a) parental n a t i o n a l i t y , occupation, and smoking habits; (b) such s o c i a l factors as the number of older brothers and s i s t e r s i n the family and t h e i r smoking habits; (c) smoking habits of the indivi d u a l s being questioned as well as academic and a c t i v i t y i n t e r e s t s ; and 7;2 (d) the h i s t o r y of the f i r s t sampling of smoking as well as other contributing factors to the continuing or q u i t t i n g of the habit. The subjects used f o r t h i s questionnaire were drawn from the Board of Education f o r the C i t y of Hamilton i n Ontario. The subjects, males and females, ranged i n age from 13 to 20 and from grades 9 through 12. The schools used were randomly selected a f t e r s t r a t i f i - cation of a l l schools i n the c i t y into three categories; lower, middle and upper s o c i a l class area schools as determined by S t a t i s t i c s Canada (1971). Then two schools from each category were chosen. The p i l o t study was conducted i n l a t e November and early December 1976, with the main study running from January to February 1977 and involving 500 students (respondents). The students chosen i n t h i s study marked t h e i r responses d i r e c t l y on the questionnaire i t s e l f . Therefore i t was necessary l a t e r to transfer t h e i r responses on to data processing cards. Once the information had been transferred from the questionnaire to the data cards, a computer was used fo r tabulation and further analysis of the information. In the analysis of the data, Chi square tests of indepen- dence using contingency tables, at the 5% l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e , were used. This allows d i f f e r e n t variables to be compared with each other, to see i f there i s any rel a t i o n s h i p between them. Various n u l l hypothesis were tested under the following factors: parental influence, parental smoking habits, older 73 s i b l i n g s smoking habits; peer group smoking habits; educational plans; a c t i v i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l ; and, a f f e c t of early smoking on l a t e r smoking habits. Conclusions The following i s a l i s t i n g of the variables that t h i s study indicated had a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p with a young person's smoking habits: females i n i t i a l choice of smoking or not smoking rela t e d to: 1. father's birthplace 2. mother's birthplace 3. mother's smoking habits 4. number of older brothers who smoke - males i n i t i a l choice of smoking or not smoking related to: 1. father's birthplace 2. mother's birthplace females choice of continuing to smoke or q u i t t i n g r e l a t e d to: 1. parent(s) l i v i n g with (mother only) (father (only) (both) 2. mother's smoking habits 3. number of older s i s t e r s who smoke 4. number of f i v e best friends who smoke 5. age f i r s t smoked males choice of continuing to smoke or q u i t t i n g r e l a t e d to: 1. mother's smoking habits 2. father's smoking habits 3. number of older brothers who smoke 4. number of older s i s t e r s who smoke 5. number of f i v e best friends who smoke A teenager's present smoking habits were found to be relat e d to t h e i r same-sex parent's smoking habits, with the 74 mothers' smoking habits having a stronger influence on t h e i r daughters' rather than t h e i r sons', and the fathers' smoking habits having a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e i r sons* and not t h e i r daughters'. Prom the l i s t above, i t can be seen that there exists differences between the variables found i n t h i s study that were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to the male's and female's i n i t i a l choice of smoking. What was found that was s i m i l a r , was, that both males and females most l i k e l y shared that f i r s t c igarette experience with a group of peer f r i e n d s . In conclusion, i t can not be s a i d that one variable and one variable alone had the greatest e f f e c t on a teenager's smoking habit. What i s put forwad i s the idea of a combined e f f e c t as well as a cumulative e f f e c t . A combined e f f e c t means that an i n d i v i d u a l faces the influence of a number of smoking rel a t e d v a r i a b l e s . For example, a young male may be faced with a father who smokes as well as a number of older brothers who smoke. This younger male i s subjected to the combined e f f e c t of both these v a r i a b l e s . The cumulative e f f e c t comes i n , when i t i s determined how many and how extensively an i n d i v i d u a l i s subjected to the smoking r e l a t e d variables, found s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s study. For example, i t i s more l i k e l y that a male whose father smokes, most of whose older brothers and s i s t e r s smoke and the majority of his best friends smoke, i s himself a smoker as opposed to a boy who faces the above variables but to a l e s s e r extent and the word l e s s e r i s of major importance here. 75 Taking into account these two theories, the combined and the cumulative a f f e c t , a d e f i n i t e need i s presented f o r additional research and study. Recommendations 1. Further research and study into the areas found . s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s study. 2. Changes, i f necessary, i n the school health curriculums to take into account the additional variables found s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s study rather than just t r y i n g to e f f e c t young peoples' smoking habits v i a the health consequences of smoking. 3. Development of teaching units f o r the main sections i n t h i s study. 4. An increase i n public awareness, e s p e c i a l l y i n parents, of the r e l a t e d e f f e c t s of t h e i r smoking habits. 5. A f t e r reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e i t was found that the vast majority of the research work done into smoking habits was conducted outside of Canada, s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the United States. This Canadian study, now complete, has seen s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s and trends between the-* United States and Canadian data. A suggestion to be considered i s that facts found on smoking behaviour i n the United States could be generalized to Canada, with caution. 76 BIBLIOGRAPHY American Cancer Society, Chicago Unit, "Survey on Student Smoking Habits in The Chicago Public Schools, 1968", American Journal of Public Health 65:923-38, Sept. 1975- Aronow, W. S., "Effect of Cigarette Smoking and of Carbon Monoxide on Coronary Heart Disease", Chest 70 (4) 514-18, Oct. 1976. Baer, D. J. and Katkin, J. M. Jr., "Limitation of Smoking by Sons and Daughters Who Smoke and Smoking Behaviour of Parents", Journal of Genetic Psychology 118 (Second Half):293-6, June 1971. Barrett, K. A., "High School Students' Smoking Habits", Canadian Journal of Public Health 53, No. 12, p. 500-6, Dec. 1962. Bergen, B. J., "Some Evidence for a Peer Group Hypothesis About Adolescent Smoking", Health Education Journal, 21:113, Feb. 1973. Best, W. E., "A Canadian Study of Mortality i n Relation to Smoking Habits, A Preliminary Report", Canadian Journal of Public Health 52;99-106, 1961 Bewley, B. R., "Factors Associated With The Starting of Cigarette Smoking by Primary School Children", British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine, 28(1):37-44, 1974. Borland, B. L., "Relative Effects of Low Socio-Economic Status, Parental Smoking and Poor Scholastic Performance on Smoking Among High School Students", Social Science Medical 9(l):27-30, January, 1975• Boss, E. R. and Rose, C. L., "Age and Interpersonal Factors in Smoking Cessation", Journal of Health and Social Behaviour 14(4):381-7, Dec. 1973. Bothwell, P. W., "The Epidemiology of Cigarette Smoking i n Rural School Children", Medical Officer 102:125-32, Sept. 1959. Boyle, C. M., "Some Factors Affecting the Smoking Habits of a Group of Teenagers", Lancet 2(581):1287-9, Dec. 14, 1968. Bynner, J. M.? "Behavioural Research Into Children's Smoking: Some Implications for Anti-Smoking Strategy", Royal Society of Health Journal 90, 159-163, May-June, 1970. Cartwright, E., "Distribution and Development of Smoking Habits", Lancet 2\725-27, Oct. 31, 1959. Coleman, J., "The Adolescent Society", Basic Book Inc., New York, 1965. 7? Cresswell, M., "University of I l l i n o i s Anti-Smoking Education Study", I l l i n o i s Journal of Education 60, 27-37, March 1971. Davis, R. L., "Status of Smoking Education Research", Journal of School Health, 38, No. 6, p. 323, June 1968. Dimond, S. J . , "Smoking Habits of Deliquent Boys," B r i t i s h Journal of Preventative and S o c i a l Medicine, I, No. 18, p. 52-54, January 1964. Dische, S., 'Cigarette Smoking and Cancer of Bladder and Lung", B r i t i s h Medical Journal 2(6045), p. 1174-5, Nov. 13, 1976. D o l l , R., "Mortality i n Relation to Smoking: 20 Years Observation on Male B r i t i s h Doctors", B r i t i s h Medical Journal 2(6051) p. 1525-36, Dec. 25, 1976. Ferguson, G. A., S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis i n Psychology and Education, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1971. F i e l d i n g , B., "The Smoke F i l l e d Trap", National Education Journal 53, No. 7, p. 18-20, Oct. 1964. Foss, R., "Personality, S o c i a l Influence and Cigarette Smoking", Journal of Health and S o c i a l Behaviour, Sept. 14, 1973. Hammond, E. C , "The E f f e c t s of Smoking", Science America 207:3-15, 1962. Hardyck, C. D., and Petrinovich, L. F., Introduction to S t a t i s t i c s f o r the Behavioural Sciences, W. B. Saunders Company, 1969. Hochbaum, G. M., "Psychosocial Aspects of Smoking with Special Reference to Cessation", American Journal of Public Health 55 692-97, May 1975- Horn, D., "Cigarette Smoking Among High; School Students", American Journal of Public Health, 49:1497-1511 (Nov.) 1959. Horn, D., "Current Smoking Among Teenagers", Public Health Report 83:458-60, 1968. Horowitz, M. J . , "Psychological Aspects of Education Related to Smoking", Journal of School Health, p. 284, June 1966. Jenson, L. and Thompson, J . , "Report of 1965 Smoking Survey", Journal of School Health, 34(8) p. 371, Oct. 1965. Kahn, E. B. and Edwards, C. N., "Smoking and Youth: Co n t r i - butions to the Study of Smoking Behaviour i n High School Students", Journal of School Health 40(10):561-2, Dec. 1970. 78 Keeve, J . P., "Smoking Habits and Attitudes of 3057 Public School Students and Their Families (Newburgh, New York)", Journal of School Health 35(10):458-9, Dec. 1965. Kelson, S. P., P u l l e l l a , J . L., and Otterland, A., "The Growing Epidemic: A Survey of Smoking Habits and Attitudes Toward Smoking Among Students i n Grades 7 Through 12 i n Toledo and Lucas County (Ohio) Public Schools—1964 and 1971", American Journal of Public Health 65(9):923-38, Sept. 1975- Ladye, J . A., and Creswell, W.. H. J r . , and Stone, D. B., "A Cohort Study of 1,205 Secondary School Smokers", Journal of School Health 42(l):47-52, Jan. 1972. Lampert, K. J . , "The Effectiveness of Anti-Smoking Campaigns: M o r a l i s t i c or S c i e n t i f i c Approach", Journal of School Health 36, Jan. 1966. Laughlin, T. J., "Socio-Psychological Aspects of Cigarette Smoking", Canadian Journal of Public Health 61(4):301-12, July-Aug.. 1970. Lawton, A. P., "The Psychology of Adolescent Anti-Smoking Education:, Journal of School Health 53(Oct.) 333, 1963. Lebovits, B., "Smoking and Personality: A Methodological Analysis", Journal of Chronic Diseases 23(10):813-21, March 1971. Lemin, B., "Smoking i n 14 Year-Old School Children", Interna- t i o n a l Journal of Nursing Studies, 4, 301-7, 1967. L e v i t t , E. E., "A Multi-variate Study of Correlative Factors i n Youthful Cigarette Smoking", Developmental Psychology, 2, 5-11, 1970. L e v i t t , E. E., "Reasons f o r Smoking and Not Smoking Given By School Children", Journal of School Health 41(2):101-5, Feb. 1971. : Maclaine, A. G., "Smoking and Young People", Medical Journal of A u s t r a l i a , 2 (Sept.) 388-390, 1964. Mataraz, J . D., and Saslow, G., "Psychological and Related Cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of Smokers and Non-Smokers", The Psychological B u l l e t i n , 57:493-513, Nov. I960. Mausner, B. and Mischler, J . B., "Cigarette Smoking Among Junior High School Students", Journal of Special Education, 1 61-66, 1966. McKennell, A. C., "Smoking Motivation Factors", B r i t i s h Journal of S o c i a l and C l i n i c a l Psychology 9(1):8-22, Feb. 1970. Merki, D. J . , "The E f f e c t s of Two Educational Methods and Message Themes on Rural Youths' Smoking Behaviour", Journal of School Health, p. 452, Sept. 1968. 79 Morison, J . B., "Smoking Habits of Winnipeg School Children", Canadian Medical Association Journal 84 (May 6, 1970) 1006-7. Newman, I. M., "Adolescent Cigarette Smoking as Compensatory Behaviour", Journal of School Health 40(6):316-21, June 1970. Newman, I. M., "Ninth Grade Smokers—2 Years Later", Journal of School Health, November, 1971, p. 497. Newman, I. M., "Status Configurations and Cigarette Smoking i n a Junior High: School", Journal of School Health 40(1): 28-31, Jan. 1970. Palmer, A. B., "Some Variables Contributing to the Onset of Cigarette Smoking Among Junior High School Students", Social Science and Medicine, Volume 4, 359-66, 1970. P a r n e l l , R. W., "Smoking and Cancer", Lancet 1, 963, 1951. P i p e r ? G. W. ? Thomas, W., Wake, F.. R., Matthews, V. L., "Smoking Habits of Grade 7 C h i l d r e n — A Comparative Study", Canadian Journal of Public Health 64(2)Supplementary: fcJ36-42, March 1973. Salber, E. J . , "Influence of S i b l i n g s on Student Smoking Patterns", P e d i a t r i c s , 31, No. 4, 570-572, A p r i l 1963. Salber, E. J . , "Smoking Among School Age Children", American Journal of Public Health, 52:1018, June 1962. Salber, E. J . , "Smoking Habits of High School Students Related to Intelligence and Achievement", P e d i a t r i c s , 29, No. 5, p. 780-7, May 1962. Salber, E. J . and MacMahon, J., "Cigarette Smoking Among High School Students Related to S o c i a l Class and Parental Smoking Habits", American Journal of Public Health 51 (Dec.) p. 1780, 1961. Sallak, V. J., "A Study of Smoking Practices of Selected Groups of Junior and Senior High School Students", Journal of School Health 31, No. 9, p. 313, Nov. 1961. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, "Population and Housing Characteristics by Census Tracts f o r Hamilton", Census Tract B u l l e t i n , 1971. S t e e l , P. H., "Cigarette Smoking i n School Children", Journal of the Medical Society of New Jersey, 63, 555-7, 1966. Stewart, L., and Livson, N., "Smoking and Rebelliousness: A Longitudinal Study from Childhood to Maturity", Journal of Consult. Psychology 30(3):225-9, June 1966. S t r e i t , W. K., "Students Expressed Views on Smoking", Journal of School Health 37:151-152, 1967- ~ s o Williams, A. F., "Personality and Other Characteristics Associated with Cigarette Smoking Among Young Teenagers", Journal of Health and Social Behaviour 14(4):374-80, Dec. 1973. Wohlford, P., "Initiation of Cigarette Smoking: Is It Related to Parental Smoking Behaviour?", Journal of Consult. C l i n i c a l Psychology 34(2):148-51, April 1970^ Wohlford, P., and Giammona, S. T., "Personality and Social Variables Related to the Initiation of Smoking Cigarettes", Journal of School Health 39(8):544-52, Oct. 1969- Woody. R. H., "Smoking: Psychosocial, Personality, and Behavioural Factors", Journal of School Health 49(8):427-34, Oct. 1970. Yacenda, J. A., "Smoking Behaviour and Young People. The Need for New Directions.", Clinical Pediatrics (Phila.) 12(1):Supplementary:13A P, Jan. 1973. Zagona, S. V., "An Analysis of Some Psycho-Social Variables Associated With Smoking Behaviour i n a College Sample", Psychological Reports 17 (Dec.) 967-978, 1974. 81 APPENDIX 82? APPENDIX A Smoking Questionnaire Male Female Age Grade Please c i r c l e the appropriate response or f i l l i n the "blank. 1. Father's occupation? 2. His country of birth? 3. Mother's occupation? 4-. Her country of birth? 5. Are you l i v i n g with: A. your father and mother? B. just your mother? C. just your father? D. neither? 6. Does your mother smoke daily? yes no 7. Does your father smoke daily? yes no 8 . What type of tobacco does your father smoke? Cigarette Pipe Cigar 9. Do your have older brothers? yes no I f yes, how many older brothers? How many of them smoke? 10. Do. J you have older s i s t e r s ? yes no I f yes, how many older s i s t e r s ? How many of them smoke? 11. Of your f i v e best friends, how many smoke? 12. Do you plan to be a smoker when you get older? . yes no 13. How f a r do you plan to go i n school? High School University 14-. Are you. aware that smoking can be dangerous to your health? yes no 15. In what recreational sports do you participate? (a) basketball (b) f o o t b a l l (c) tennis (d) golf (e) bowling (f) skating (g) swimming (h) others ( i ) none 16. In what outdoor a c t i v i t i e s do you participate? (a) hunting (b) camping (c) f i s h i n g ("d) boating (e) horseback r i d i n g ( f) cy c l i n g (g) others (h) none 17. What school a c t i v i t i e s do you engage in? (a) clubs (b) choir (c) band/orchestra (d) debate (e) others (f) none 18. To what school teams do you belong? (a) f o o t b a l l (b) track (c) basketball (d) v o l l e y b a l l (e) golf ( f) swimming (g) wrestling (h) cheerleading ( i ) c u r l i n g ( j ) others (k) none 19. Have you ever t r i e d smoking? yes no If yes to the above question, answer the rest of the questions, i f no to the above, leave the rest of the questions blank. 20. How old were you when you f i r s t t r i e d smoking? 21. How old were you when you started smoking regularly? (at least one cigarette per day). 22. Do you smoke now? yes no 23. Were you alone when you f i r s t smoked? yes no 24. Were you with friend(s) the same age as you when you f i r s t smoked? yes no 84 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 50. 31. 32. Were you with older friend(s) when you f i r s t smoked? Were you with younger friend(s) when you f i r s t smoked? Were your friends smoking with you when you f i r s t smoked? Were you with your parents when you f i r s t smoked? Were you with your older brother when you f i r s t smoked? Were you with your older s i s t e r when you f i r s t smoked? How often do you smoke alone? Never How often do you smoke with friends? Never yes yes yes yes yes yes Some of the time Some of the time no no no no no no Most of the time Most of the time Always Always

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