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Factors that influence teenage smoking habits Mitchell, James 1981-12-31

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FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE TEENAGE SMOKING HABITS by JAMES MITCHELL B.A., B.P.E., McMaster University A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1981 (c) James Mitchell, 1981 In presenting this thesi$ in partial fulfiIment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of P^SiCIA'L The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date f\P(L \HJ X! ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Whittle, my thesis advisor, for all the help he gave me... Also, thanks should go to the members of my committee: Dr. Schutz, Dr. Pomfret, Dr. Brown and Dr. Walters for all their input in the final preparation this thesis. My gratitude is also expressed to The Board of Education for the City of Hamilton who allowed me to survey a proportion of their student body. Lastly, but not least, I would like to thank my wife, Lynn, for the many hours of work she put into the thesis. ii ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine whether any significant relationship existed between a teenager's smoking habits and certain selected factors. The factors studied were peer group pressures, the smoking habits of the parents, siblings who smoked and such social factors as the occupation and nationality of the parents. The hypotheses tested were: 1. Interpersonal factors have the most significant effect on the teenager and have an influence on whether he or she is a smoker or non-smoker. 2. Distinct differences exist between the reasons why males begin to smoke as opposed to why females begin. A female may be more influenced by the parents' smoking habits, especially the same-sex parent, while a male may be influenced by a combined effect of friends, parents, and siblings. 3. A teenager's smoking habit is more representative of their same-sex parent's smoking habits. The research instrument used in this study was a questionnaire which was specifically designed and constructed to meet the requirements of this study. The subjects used for this study were drawn from schools administrated by The Board of Education for the City of Hamilton in Hamilton, Ontario. The subjects, both males and females, ranged in age from 13 to 20 and were drawn from Grades 9 through 12 with 500 students being questioned. iii Cross tabulations, which allowed the drawing up of contingency tables for any discrete variables, either numeric or alphanumeric were utilized along with the chi square (X2 ) test to examine a number of paired relationships. This study concluded that a person's smoking habits, were not related to one factor alone but rather, a number of factors working together. iv CONTENTS Chapter Page 1 Introduction to the Problem. 1 2 Review of the Literature . .  . 7 3 Methods and Procedures 19 4 Results 28 5 Summary 71 Bibliography . . . 76 Appendix A. Smoking Questionnaire . . . .82 V LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Subject Smoking Status and the Number and Sex of Their Friends Who Smoke 11 2 Subject Smoking Status and Source of Encouragement to Smoke 13 3 Grade Breakdown of Those Surveyed 28 4' Age Breakdown of Those Surveyed 29 5 Smoking Characteristics of Those Surveyed 30 6 Comparison Between a Father's Occupation and Whether His Offspring Had Ever Smoked 31 77 Comparison Between a Mother's Occupation and Whether Her Offspring Had Ever Smoked 32 8 Comparison Between a Father's Occupation and Whether His Son Had Ever Smoked 33 9 Comparison Between a Father's Occupation and Whether His Daughter Had Ever Smoked JA-10 Comparison Between a Mother's Occupation and Whether Her Son Had Ever Smoked 35 11 Comparison Between a Mother's Occupation and Whether Her Daughter Had Ever Smoked 36 12 Comparison Between a Father's Birthplace and Whether His Offspring Had Ever Smoked 37 13 Comparison Between a Mother's Birthplace and Whether Her Offspring Had Ever Smoked 38 14- Comparison Between Who a Respondent Lives With and Their Present Smoking Habit 39 15 Comparison Between Who a Male Respondent Lives With and His Present Smoking Habit 39 16 Comparison Between Who a Female Respondent Lives With and Her Present Smoking Habit 4Q 17 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Offspring Ever Smoked 41 18 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Son Ever Smoked 42 vi Table Page 19 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Daughter Ever Smoked 42 20 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and Whether His Offspring Had Ever Smoked 43 21 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and Whether His Son Had Ever Smoked 44 22 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and Whether His Daughter Had Ever Smoked 44 23 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Offspring Presently Smokes 45 24 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Son Presently Smokes 45 25 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Daughter Presently Smokes 46 26 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and Whether His Offspring Presently Smokes 47 27 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and Whether His Son Presently Smokes 47 28 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and Whether His Daughter Presently Smokes 48 29 Comparison Between the Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke and Whether The Respondent Had Ever Smoked 49 30 Comparison Between the Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke and Whether the' Male Respondent Had Ever Smoked 49 31 Comparison Between the Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke and Whether the Female Respondent Had Ever Smoked 50 32 Comparison Between the Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke and Whether the Respondent Had Ever Smoked 51 33 Comparison Between the Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke and Whether the Male Respondent Had Ever Smoked 52 34 Comparison Between the Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke and Whether the Female Respondent Had Ever Smoked 52 vii Table Page 35 Comparison Between the Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke and Whether the Respondent Presently Smokes 53 36 Comparison Between the Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke and Whether the Male Respondent Presently Smokes 53 37 Comparison Between the Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke and Whether the Female Respondent Presently Smokes 54-38 Comparison Between the Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke and Whether the Respondent Presently Smokes 55 39 Comparison Between the Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke and Whether the Male Respondent Presently Smokes 55 40 Comparison Between the Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke and Whether the Female Respondent Presently Smokes 56 4-1 Comparison Between the Number of a Person's Five Best Friends Who Smoke and That Person's Present Smoking Habits 57 42 Comparison Between the Number of a Person's Five Best Friends Who Smoke and That Male Person's Present Smoking Habits 57 43 Comparison Between the Number of a Person's Five Best friends Who Smoke and That Female Person's Present Smoking Habits 58 44 Comparison Between a Person's Educational Goals and That Person's Present Smoking Habits 59 45 Comparison Between a Male Person's Educational Goals and That Male Person's Present Smoking Habits 60 46 Comparison Between a Female Person's Educational Goals and That Female Person's Present Smoking Habits 60 47 Comparison Between the Number of Outdoor Activities That a Male Participates In and That Male's Present Smoking Habits 61 viii Table Page 4-8 Comparison Between the Age At Which a Male First Tried Smoking and That Male's Present Smoking Habits 62 4-9 Comparison Between the Age At Which a Female Frist Tried Smoking and That Female's Present Smoking Habits 63 50 Company for the First Cigarette 64-51 Preferred Company for Smoking 65 Chapter I INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM "It is not sufficient to know how many children smoke. We must know something of the characteristics of these children and what distinguishes them from children who do not smoke...and why they start smoking." (Salber, 1962, p. 1018) Recent studies have shown (American Cancer Society, 1975; Kelson, 1975) that each year the proportions of students who smoke are increasing in most of the grade levels. Kelson demonstrated this trend in a study he conducted from 1964-71 in the State of Ohio, on students from Grades 7 to 12. Beginners start with exploratory "behaviour and the motive for this exploratory behaviour can be tied to a number of different factors such as peer group pressures to smoke, smoking habits of parents, siblings who smoke, and related social factors. The meaning and questions about these selected factors which will be used in this study need to be put forth. Peer Group Pressures "'The group' has been characterized as the most powerful agent in the teenager's life." (Coleman, 1965 2 p. 3). But what is the relationship between the smoking habits of an individual and the smoking habits of the group with whom he associates? If an individual is a member of a group where most members smoke, is he more likely to pick up the habit than if he were a member of a group where most do not smoke? Do peer group pressures determine the amount of cigarette smoking? These are interesting questions and some answers need to be found. Smoking Habits of Parents The smoking habits of the parents as to whether they both smoke, only one smokes, or nei,ther smokes has to be examined. When both parents smoke, is it more likely that their children will smoke? Supposing one parent smokes, is it more likely that their same-sex child will smoke, or opposite-sex child will smoke? What effect does neither of the parents smoking have on the likelihood of children becoming smokers? Siblings Who Smoke The smoking habits of an individual need, to be compared to the smoking habits of that person's brothers and sisters to see if there is any relationship between them. If a person has an older brother who smokes, is he more likely to take up smoking? When a person has an older sister who smokes, is he more likely to take up smoking? Supposing neither smoke, what is the effect? 3 Social Factors Some social factors need to be considered such as the occupation and nationality of the parents as well as the recreational habits of the teenage smokers and these factors may show some overall trends in the smoking habits of the teenagers. There is no longer any doubt that cigarette smoking is a direct threat to an individual's health. Nevertheless, people are smoking in ever-increasing numbers, at an earlier age, and more heavily than before. This study will look into selected factors that may help explain initiation of smoking in the young. Statement of the Problem The purpose of this study is to determine which of the selected factors (peer group pressures to smoke, smoking habits of parents, siblings who smoke and related social factors) have a significant relationship with teenage smoking habits. Subproblems 1. To determine the degree to which teenager's smoking habits are related to parents' smoking habits. 2. To determine if there may exist different motives why males chose to smoke as opposed to why females do. 3. To determine which of the selected factors have the greatest effect on teenage students, leading them to smoke. 4-Definitions Nonsmoker: is defined in this study as a student who in his lifetime has never smoked one cigarette. Smoker: is a student who has tried smoking, and is presently smoking. Quitter: is a student who has tried smoking, but has stopped smoking. Interpersonal factors: "motivation provided by interaction with emotionally significant others such as family members, friends, and acquaintances." (Boss, 1973, P. 381) Delimitations This study is delimited to the 1976-77 school year in the city of Hamilton, Ontario and uses Grades 9 to 12 from the school system of the Board of Education for the City of Hamilton. Assumptions The following assumptions are made: 1. The randomly picked public high schools selected: from a stratification of all city high schools into three categories; upper, middle and lower class area schools, are representative of the population in the Hamilton area (Statistics Canada, 1971); and 2. those surveyed gave accurate information. 5 Limitations Besides three common limitations facing studies of this nature, these being; the cooperation given by those surveyed, the accuracy of the questionnaire to measure what it is supposed to measure, and lastly, the sample itself, there were other major limitations placed on this study. First and foremost was an unwilling school system. The Board of Education for the City of Hamilton where this study was conducted, would not allow the random sampling and surveying of their students. What they would allow was the investigator to "supply teach" for the Board, thereby allowing the investigator to survey the classes he was assigned to. The investigator tried to work around this problem by only surveying a class from a school that had been chosen ahead of time with random selection of six schools from the district. Also, the Board of Education for the City of Hamilton censored part of the questionnaire. A section dealing with parental education was felt inappro priate by the Board and had to be deleted before the survey was allowed to proceed. Hypotheses 1. Interpersonal factors have the most significant effect on the teenager and have an influence on whether he or she is a smoker or non-smoker. 2. Distinct differences exist between the reasons why males begin to smoke as opposed to why females begin. 6 A female may be more influenced by the parents' smoking habits, especially the same-sex parent, while a male may be influenced by a combined effect of friends, parents, and siblings. 3. A teenager's smoking habit is more representative of their same-sex parents' smoking habits. Significance of the Study With the trend of teenage smoking on the increase, especially with respect ,to girls, there is a need to determine reasons why they are taking up the smoking habit. Past studies have tried to determine 'reasons why' but, the problem in dealing with these studies is that the majority were done in the United States on American teenagers with the most recent studies occurring in the late sixties and early seventies. These facts in them selves tend to show a need for an up-to-date Canadian  study into factors that influence teenage smoking habits and with the discovery of these factors, an effective educational programme might be developed to counter this rise in teenage smoking habits. 7 Chapter II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE For this review, literature that was deemed relevant to this study was gathered with specific reference to four main areas: a) smoking habits of parents; b) smoking habits of siblings; c) peer group pressures; and d) related social factors. While in some of the above areas there was ample material to review, in others, relevant material was scarce. None the less, an adequate review of the literature was obtainable. Smoking Habits of Parents The smoking habits of parents versus their children's smoking habits have been studied by many researchers in past years. Cartwright (1959), Horn (1959), Morison (1961), Salber (1961), and Williams (1973) to name a few. Williams' study (1973) was focused on the affects which both parents smoking, one parent smoking, or neither smoking had to do with the corresponding smoking habits of their offspring. His results indicated that the daughter in a family was more influenced by her parents' smoking habits than was the son, with the mother's smoking habits 8 having slightly more effect than the father's on the daughter's smoking habits. The relationship between the smoking behaviour of sons and mothers and sons and fathers was found to be non-significant. Earlier studies by Morison (1961) and especially Horn (1959), one of the pioneers in this area, produced results similiar to Williams with respect to the influence a parent has over their same-sex children's smoking habits. Salber (1961) directed his research to the question of the influence of parental smoking on students' smoking patterns. He chose to attack this question by examining three possible situations namely, where: a) both parents are non-smokers; b) both parents are smokers; or, c) one parent smokes and the other does not. In Salber's study, as can be seen below in the table, a definite difference exists between a student's smoking habits when he has parents who smoke as compared with students who have non-smoking parents. "In families where neither parent smoked, roughly one-quarter of the students were smokers; whereas in families where both parents were regular smokers, approximately half the students were smokers. In families where only one parent was a smoker and the other a non-smoker, the proportion of smokers among the students was substantially higher than when neither parent smoked and very nearly as high as when both parents smoked." (Salber, 1961, p. 1783) 9 Percentage of Student Smokers According to Parental Smoking Habits Parent a Current Smoker Both Parents Father Only Mother Only Neither Boys 49.1 43.2 38.2 28.5 Girls 52.2 43.3 4-7.7 26.4 Studies by Barrett (1962), Cartwright (1959), Kelson (1975), and Palmer (1970) also produced quite similar results as Salber. Barrett's (1962) study was of interest to Canadians as it was one of the few early smoking studies done in Canada. Barrett concluded from his study that the smoking habits of the father, especially if he smoked, had a significant effect on the smoking habits of his children. Barrett also believed that his study showed a relationship existing between a parent's smoking habits and their same-sex children's smoking habits. Other studies have shown differing results of the influence of parents' smoking habits on their children. In a study by Bewley (1974), a number of social factors that may start ithe adolescent down the pathway of smoking, one of them being the parents' smoking habits, were looked into. After analysing his data he came to the following conclusion: "there was a significant association between the boys' smoking habits and those of their parents." (p. 39) 10 Bewley's results showed that forty per cent of the non-smokers in his study had non-smoking parents, while fifty-two per cent of what he classified as heavy smokers had both parents smoking. Smoking Habits of Siblings Salber (1963) looked into the smoking habits of sibships, specifically the influence of older siblings smoking habits on younger siblings. With the use of a questionnaire, he studied close to seven thousand students, both males and females of high school age. His results showed that the "frequency of smoking is much higher among children who are members of families in which there is an older sibling who smokes than among children of families where there are older siblings who do not smoke or where there are no older siblings." (p. 570-571) Bewley (1974), looked deeper into the smoking habits of the siblings and categorized them into four groups: heavy smokers; light smokers; experimental smokers; and non-smokers. Prom the analysis of his data he suggested that the smoking habit of the siblings rather than the number is the more important factor associated with smoking. Significant figures in his study were that sixty-nine per cent of what he classified as heavy smokers had a brother or sister smoking, while ninety-one per cent of the non-smokers had no brothers or sisters smoking. Peer Group Pressures Palmer (1970) was interested in gauging the effect of peer group smoking on an individual's smoking habit. His results, as seen on the accompanying page, show certain trents vividly. (Table 1) 11 Table 1 Subject Smoking Status and the Number and Sex of Their Friends Who Smoke Boy Subjects Number of friends No n- Experimental Regular smoking Smoker Smoker Smoker Friends 0 241 71.1 425 50.1 15 13.5 1 46 13.3 115 13.5 4 2.7 2 20 5.6 102 12.0 8 7.2 3 11 2.9 78 9.2 8 7.2 4. 11 2.9 46 5.4 7 6.3 5 10 2.6 52 6.1 22 19.8 All 6 1.5 31 3.7 48 43.2 Girl Friends 0 323 95-3 1 7 2.1 2 5 1.5 3 3 0.9 4. l 0.3 5 0 0.0 All 0 0.0 774 91.2 67 60.4 38 4.5 9 8.1 16 1.9 7 6.3 7 0.8 8 7.2 2 0.2 4 3.6 6 0.7 5 4.5 6 0.7 11 9.9 Girl Subjects Boy Friends 0 646 8?.l 456 69.9 9 29.0 1 54 7.3 82 12.6 1 3.2 2 20 2.7 38 5.8 3 9.7 3 4 0.5 23 3.5 3 9.7 4 2 0.2 9 1.4 0 0.0 5 5 0.7 15 2.3 l 3.2 All 11 1.5 29 4.4 14 45.2 Girl Friends 0 672 90.6 1 42 5.7 2 15 2.0 3 7 0.9 4 1 0.1 5 3 0.4 All 2 0.3 486 74.5 2 6.5 59 9.0 3 9.7 44 6.7 2 6.5 26 4.0 4 12.9 10 1.5 5 16.1 17 2.6 3 9.7 10 1.5 12 38.7 1 Data from Palmer (1970). ! 12 Individuals who were non-smokers may have had some friends who smoked, "hut the ^greater proportion of them indicated that none of their friends smoked". (Palmer, 1970, p. 361) While, at the other end of the continuum, similar trends were found with regular smoking individuals indicating that most of their peer group were smokers. Palmer continued on in this area of study and looked at the source(s) of encouragement for a person to take his first cigarette. (Table 2) Prom his results, Palmer states that "boys were generally either encouraged to smoke or actually smoked with other boys while girls maintained the same relationship with other girls." (p. 363) The majority of the males and females who were (Purveyed in this study stated that the main source of encouragement to smoke, came from friends of the same sex. Prom Palmer's data it appears that neither parents nor siblings assumed any major part in encouraging the smoking habit outright, as do the peer groups. Than can be readily seen in Table 2 where the parents and siblings receive such low responses (usually under 10%) as a source of encouragement. Foss (1973) in his study, was uto find results similar to those of Palmer (1970), with respect to:the smoking habits of an individual versus the smoking habits of the individual's friends. Using Foss' results, it can be seen that an individual who does not smoke is more likely to associate with friends of similar preferences (50% of former smokers and 89% of people who have never smoked, in this study, stated that the majority Table 2 Subject Smoking Status and Source of Encouragement to Smoke Non-Smoker Experimental Smoker Regular Smoker Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls % % % % % % All Alone — — — — 137 16.1 84 12.9 13 11.7 2 6.5 Boy Friend 92 63.0 24 14.6 431 50.7 38 5.8 55 49.5 5 16.1 Girl Friend 3 2.1 60 36.8 9 1.1 232 35.6 7 6.3 14 45.2 Brother 5 3.4 6 3.7 87 10.2 65 10.0 12 10.8 0 0.0 Sister 1 0.7 6 3.7 10 1.2 63 9.7 3 2.7 2 6.5 Mother 1 0.7 1 0.6 8 0.9 40 6.1 0 0.0 1 3.2 Father 1 0.7 4 2.5 46 5.4 53 8.1 4 3.6 2 6.5 Other Relative 19 13.0 38 23.3 119 14.0 75 11.5 12 10.8 4 12.9 Other 24 16.4 24 14.7 2 0.2 2 0.3 5 4.5 1 3.2 14 of their friends are non-smokers). Also, in comparison, it can be seen that people who do smoke will probably associate with a group of friends who smoke (68% of smokers in this study stated that most of their friends smoked). Proportion of Friends Who Smoke None or Several Total Few r Most Smokers 11 (32%) 23 (68%) 34-Former Smokers 11 (50%) 11 (50%) 22 Never Smokers 32 (89%) 4 (11%) 36 Total 54- 38 92 Cartwright (1959), Lemin (1967), and Newman (1971) also did research studies into the effect of peer group pressures on the smoking habits of those involved in a group. These investigators again found that an individual was influenced by the smoking habits of his friends or the group of people he associates with. Lemin (1967) was to conclude that "the drive for conformity is influenced by the smoking habits of friends." (p. 304) Levitt (1970) conducted a multivariate study of correlative factors with respect to a young person's cigarette smoking habits, The main reason for this investigation was to determine the important variables involved in what influences a person's smoking habits so that preventive programmes could be developed to attack these variables. 15 Inferences from the analysis of his data led Levitt to state "that the peer group predictor variables—a smoking best friend and a smoking group of friends—are of paramount importance in determining whether or not the respondent is a smoker." (Levitt, 1970) Levitt concluded that while by itself peer group pressures may not initiate this smoking habit, they do support and maintain the smoking behaviour. Related Social Factors Bynner (1970) put forward a "Recruitment Model" which was composed of four variables that he believed had the most bearing on a teenagers' smoking habits. These were: "1. number of friends who smoked; 2. anticipation of adulthood (a measure of the extent to which a boy had participated in such leisure activities as going out drinking with friends, going to coffee "bars, going to dance halls, staying out late with a group of older boys and girls); 3. parents permissiveness (a measure of the extent to which parents adopted permissive attitudes towards their children's smoking); and 4. whether put-off smoking by the danger of lung cancer." (p. 161) 16 Friends Smoke Parents not 3« permissive ^/towards smoking REINFORCERS | f I 1 ^ j 1 INHIBITORS Non-smoker Trier Smoker ^ \ 2. Anticipating \ Put off 4. adulthood  smoking by the xdanger of lung cancer The reinforcers in the model are friends who smoke and the anticipation of adulthood. Lung cancer and its dangers along with the parents lack of permissiveness towards smoking are the inhibitors. An example of this model would be the case where a teen ager was under considerable pressure from his friends to take-up smoking. If his parents were indifferent towards his smoking, and he was not put off by the health consequences of smoking, he would be very likely to take up the cigarette. Bynner found that 88 per cent of the subjects in his study that were confronted by these three characteristics were smokers. This model suggests that an attempt should be made at trying to weaken the peer group pressure to smoke. Perhaps with more discouragement of smoking from both the parents and the school health instructor coupled with better health education, this result could be obtained. Wohlford (1970) looked into the effect of broken versus intact families and patterns of parent-child imitation of smoking behaviour. He determined that there was no significant 17 relationship "between the child's smoking behaviour and whether his family was intact or broken. Studies by Aronow (1976), Best (1961), Dische (1976), Doll (1976), Hammond (1962), Pornell (1951), and others too numerous to mention, all concluded that smoking is a danger to a person's health. Researchers like Bothwell (1959), Boyle (1968), Kelson (1975), and Street (1967) tried to determine whether school children realized the health consequences of smoking; and ascertain these school children's subsequent smoking habits. The results of these studies produced some enlightening facts. Boyle (1968) found that "most pupils believe smoking cigarettes could cause lung cancer, but present smokers were less convinced than former smokers and non-smokers", (p. 1287) In Kelson's (1975) study, 91.1% of those students whom he questioned expressed the belief that smoking is harmful to the health of the person. In an earlier study by Bothwell (1959), 15.3% of the present smokers and 84.7% of the non-smokers were aware of the connection between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Summary Prom the literature review there seems to be strong suspicion that a young person's smoking habits can be affected by the people he or she is associated with (the family and friends). 18 Most of the literature reviewed was dated early 1970 or before, and in most cases limited to one or two factors being taken into consideration. Therefore, newer, more expanded, up-to-date studies need to be undertaken. Chapter III METHODS AND PROCEDURES The procedures and methods used in this study of "factors that may have an effect on teenage smoking habits" were examined under the following headings: a) research instrument selected for use; b) description of the research instrument; c) population for study and how it was chosen; d) administration of the research instrument; e) processing of the data; and f) statistical analysis. Research Instrument Selected for Use The research instrument selected for use in this study was a questionnaire which was specifically designed and constructed for this study. This questionnaire was developed after a thorough and careful examination of other surveys and questionnaires, related or otherwise, and with a general over all knowledge and adherence to the principles of questionnaire construction. Description of the research instrument. The questionnaire, which can be found in the appendix (A), was constructed to gain the most relevant information possible about a student and yet at the same time, the questionnaire was kept a reasonable 20 length to increase the accuracy of the information. The majority of the 32 questions in the questionnaire involved forced responses. The few questions where write-in responses were needed dealt with parental occupation and parental birthplace. The questionnaire itself attempts to gain the following information: a) parental nationality, occupation, and smoking habits; b) such social factors as the number of older brothers and sisters in the family and their smoking habits; c) smoking habits of the individuals being questioned as well as academic and activity interests; and d) the history of the first sampling of smoking as well as other contributing factors to the continuing or quitting of the habit. Population for Study and How It Was Chosen The subjects used for this questionnaire were drawn from the Hamilton Public School Board, in Hamilton, Ontario. The subjects ranged in age from 13 to 20 and from Grades 9 through 12, both males and females. The schools that were used were determined by stratification of all the public high schools in the city into three categories; lower, middle and upper class, or income-area, high schools as determined by Statistics Canada (1971). Two schools from each category were randomly picked as representative of the popula tion in that category, with 500 students being questioned. 21 Administration of the Research Instrument After permission was asked and obtained from the Hamilton School Board to administer the questionnaire in their school system, a pilot study was undertaken to work out any problems that may exist in the questionnaire itself. After three administrations with minor modification the final make-up of the questionnaire was determined. The questionnaire was administered to the students, class by class, rather than at one large sitting, with average class size being about 25 students. It was found that it took about 10 minutes to give directions and complete the questionnaire. To minimize any problems with administering the questionnaire, the investigator, was the only one to give the questionnaire, with initial directions being uniform for all testing. These general instructions were as follows: Most of the questions involve a yes/no response which can be circled, but in some instances a written one-or-more word response is necessary. Also take special note of any words underlined, for example, questions 9 and 10 are concerned about your older brothers and sisters, not your younger ones. Do not write your name on the questionnaire and do not discuss your answers with your classmates at this time. Please be as accurate as possible and take your time. The pilot study was conducted in late November and early December .of 1976, with the main study running from January to February, 1977. 22 Processing of the Data The students chosen in this study marked their responses directly on the questionnaire itself. Therefore, later, it was necessary to transfer their responses on to data processing cards, using a code, where certain positions on these cards were reserved for the responses from each question. Most of the variables examined, such as age, grade level, sex, number of brothers and sisters, and smoking habits could easily be transferred from the questionnaire to the data cards. However, the mother's and father's occupation and their corresponding country of birth, needed to be converted to certain levels and groups. For the parental occupations, Warner's Scale for Rating Occupations was employed. For a more indepth explanation of Warner's Scale reference should be made to his book 'Social Class in America' (Warner, I960, p. 140-141). For the case of the parent's country of birth, five categories were arbitrarily set up. They were: 1) Canada, 2) United Kingdom, 3) United States, 4) Other European, and 5) Other. Once the information had been transferred from the questionnaire to data cards, a computer was used for tabulation and further analysis of the information. 23 Statistical Analysis The punched data was checked for keypunch errors using programme Datavet. Datavet was written by Trevor Lambert at the University of Birmingham Computer Centre and was developed "to check data prior to using a programming package such as SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) to analyse the data" (McMaster University, 1976, p. 1). Because of its versatility and ease of handling the type of information obtainable in this study, the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) was chosen to handle the actual analysis and calculation of the data required (Nie, 1975)-Crosstabulations, which allow the drawing up of contingency tables, two-way to n-way, for any discrete variables, either numeric or alphanumeric, were utilized to examine a number of paired relationships. These paired relationships were tested with a chi square (X^) test, a description of which can he found in Ferguson, Chapter III, 1971. Parental Factor 1. There is no significant relationship between a father's occupation and whether his offspring has ever smoked. 2. There is no significant relationship between a mother's occupation and whether her offspring has ever smoked. 3. There is no significant relationship between a father's occupation and whether his son has ever smoked. 4. There is no significant relationship between a father's occupation and whether his daughter has ever smoked. 5. There is no significant relationship between a mother's occupation and whether her son has. ever smoked. 6. There is no significant relationship between a mother's occupation and whether her daughter has ever smoked. 7. There is no significant relationship between a father's birthplace and whether his offspring has ever smoked. 8. There is no significant relationship between a mother's birthplace and whether her offspring has ever smoked. 9. There is no significant relationship between a teenager's smoking habits and the parent(s) who makes up the household he lives in. 10. There is not significant relationship between a boy's smoking habits and the parent(s) who makes up the house hold he lives in. 11. There is no significant relationship between a girl's smoking habits and the parent(s) who makes up the house hold she lives in. Parents' Smoking Habits 12. There is no significant relationship between a mother's smoking habits and whether her offspring has ever smoked. 13. There is no significant relationship between a mother's smoking habits and whether her son has ever smoked. 14. There is no significant relationship between a mother's smoking habits and whether her daughter has ever smoked. 15. There is no significant relationship between a father's smoking habits and whether his offspring has ever smoked. 16. There is no significant relationship between a father's smoking habits and whether his son has ever smoked. 17. There is no significant relationship between a father's smoking habits and whether his daughter has ever smoked. 18. There is no significant relationship between a mother's smoking habits and whether her offspring presently smoke. 19. There is no significant relationship between a mother's smoking habits and whether her son presently smokes. 20. There is no significant relationship between a mother's smoking habits and whether her daughter presently smokes. 21. There is no significant relationship between a father's smoking habits and whether his offspring presently smoke. 22. There is no significant relationship between a father's smoking habits and whether his son presently smokes. 23. There is no significant relationship between a father's smoking habits and whether his daughter presently smokes. Older Brother's and Sister's Smoking Habits 24. There is no significant relationship between the number of older smoking brothers a person has and whether that person has ever smoked. 25. There is no significant relationship between the number of older smoking brothers a male has and whether that younger male has ever smoked. 26. There is no significant relationship between the number of older smoking brothers a female has and whether that younger female has ever smoked. 27. There is no significant relationship between the number of older smoking sisters a person has and whether that person has ever smoked. 28. There is no significant relationship between the number of older smoking sisters a male has and whether that younger male has ever smoked. 29. There is no significant relationship between the number of older smoking sisters a female has and whether that younger female has ever smoked. 30. There is no significant relationship between the number of older smoking brothers a person has and whether that person presently smokes. 31. There is no significant relationship between the number of older smoking brothers a male has and whether that younger male presently smokes. 32. There is no significant relationship between the number of older smoking brothers a female has and whether that younger female presently smokes. 33• There is no significant relationship between the number of older smoking sisters a person has and whether that person presently smokes. 34. There is no significant relationship between the number of older smoking sisters a male has and whether that younger male presently smokes. 35. There is no significant relationship between the number of older smoking sisters a female has and whether that younger female presently smokes. Peer Group Effect on Smoking Habit 36. There is no significant relationship between the smoking habits of a person's five best friends and that person's smoking habits. 37. There is no significant relationship between the smoking habits of a male's five best friends and that male's smoking habits. 38. There is no significant relationship between the smoking habits of a female's five best friends and that female's smoking habits. Educational Plans and a Person's Smoking Habits 39. There is no significant relationship between the educational plans of a person and that person's present smoking habits. 40. There is no significant relationship between the educational plans of a male and that male's present smoking habits. 41. There is no significant relationship between the educational plans of a female and that female's present smoking habits. Participation Level and a Person's Smoking Habits 42. There is no significant relationship between a person's smoking habits and the number of recreational activities one participates in. 43. There is no significant relationship between a person's smoking habits and the number of outdoor activities one participates in. 44. There is no significant relationship between a person's smoking habits and the number of school activities one participates in. 45. There is no significant relationship between a person's smoking habits and the number of school teams one participates on. Effect of Early Age Smoking on a Person's Later Smoking Habits 46. There is no significant relationship between a male's early age smoking and his later smoking habits. 47. There is no significant relationship between a female's early age smoking and her later smoking habits. CHAPTER 4 RESTJLTS The results of this study were put into contingency tables to allow comparisons of the various variables, as well as to determine by the use of Chi square whether there are any significant relationships between these different variables, when compared to one another. The Sample of the Population The sampling of the population was achieved by the use of the following subjects, charted to show the age and grade breakdown of this study. Table 3 Grade Breakdown of Those Surveyed Grade Male Female Row Total 9 97 85 182 10 67 20 87 11 39 92 131 12 4-5 55 100 Total 248 49.6 252 50.4 i— . 500 100.0 i .„ —J Count Percentage 29 Table 4 Age Breakdown of Those Surveyed Age Male Female Row Total 13 4 1 5 14 45 40 85 15 77 45 122 16 52 71 123 17 47 66 113 18 20 22 42 19 3 6 9 20 0 1 1 Total 248 49.6 252 50.4 500 100.0 Count Percentage Examination of these two tables shows that the majority of the subjects fall into the age range of 15-17 years of age, with more males being surveyed in the early high school grade levels (9 and 10), and more females in the later grades. Overall the number of males and females surveyed in this study came out almost equal with 248 males being questioned and 252 females. Common Numbers in This Section Numbers that appear frequently throughout the various sections, with respect to a person's smoking habits, are presented in Table 5. 30 Table 5 Smoking Characteristics of Those Surveyed Never Smoked Those who have tried smoking Total Those who smoke now Those who do not smoke now Total Male 46 202 248 73 175 248 Female 60 192 252 96 156 252 Total 106 394 500 169 331 500 Row Percentage of Total 21.2 78.8 100.0 33.8 66.2 100.0 This table shows that 21.2% of those surveyed have never smoked, leaving 78.8% who have smoked. Those who smoke now make up only 33.8% of the total questioned. Parental Factors The question as to whether a person's smoking habits were related to his/her parents' occupation of birthplace was of concern in this section, with the following results. When a father's or mother's occupation was compared to whether his or her offspring had ever smoked the following was true from this study. 31 Table 6 Comparison Between a Father's Occupation and Whether His Offspring Had Ever Smoked Father's Occupation Ever Smoked Row Total Yes No i (e.g. lawyers, J doctors) / 9 A 4^\ V (nurses, teachers) 1 6 > 23 1 ' r9 32 (supervisors) 8 J \ 4 (foremen, plumbers) 52 14 66 5 (salesmen, police) 71 14 85 6 (steelworker) 177 49 226 7 (construction worker) 40 14 54 i 9 (unemployed) 31 6 37 Total ! 394 j 78.8 106 21.2 500 100.0 Count Percentage ir = 3.36 P = .7313 32 Table 7 Comparison Between A Mother's Occupation and Whether Her Offspring Had Ever Smoked Mother's Occupation Ever Smoked Row Total Yes No 2 "\ (e.g. nurses, ) teachers) / 51 3 I (supervisors) / 3>29 IS 6 35 4 \ (foremen, j plumbers)J 7J 2 J 5 (salesmen, police) 28 8 36 6 (steelworkers) 64 20 84 7 (construction worker) 14 5 19 8 (housewife) I 9 I (unemployed) j > 258 3 j ( 68 1) 326 Total 393 78.8 107 21.2 500 100.0 Count Percentage If- = 1.30 p = .9904 When these charts were tested by chi square no significant relationships were found. It is interesting to note here that father's occupation level 6 was the most common response given by those surveyed. This typifies the kind of town, a 33 steel town, that Hamilton is known for. Level six in Warner's Social Classification is made up of semi-skilled workers (steelworkers). For mother's occupation, level 8 (housewife), was by far the most common response given. With a further analysis of the preceding charts, the male/female responses of the offspring were separated and the following results were obtained. Table 8 Comparison Between a Father's Occupation and Whether His Son Had Ever Smoked Father* s Occupation Male Ever Smoked Yes No Row Total 1 "\ (e.g. lawyers. doctors) 2 . (nurses, teachers)y 3 (supervisors) 4 (foremen, / plumbers) -/ 5 (salesmen, police) 6 (steelworker) 7 (construction worker) 9 (unemployed) 45 37 87 22 11 33 12 57 43 108 40 Total 202 46 X2 = .916 p = .8119 248 3* Table 9 Comparison Between a Father's Occupation and Whether His Daughter Had Ever Smoked Father's Occupation (salesmen, police) (steelworkers) 7 (construction worker) (unemployed) Female Ever Smoked (e.g. lawyers, doctors) 2 (nurses, teachers)I j 3 Al (supervisors) 4 (foremen, plumbers) J Total Row Total Count Percentage X2 = 2.197 p = .1784 35 Table 10 Comparison Between a Mother's Occupation and Whether Her Son Had Ever Smoked Mother's Occupation (e.g. nurses, teachers) (supervisors) (foremen, plumbers) (salesmen, police) (steelworkers) (construction worker) 8 (housewife) (unemployed) Total Count Percentage IT = .4186 p = .6764 36 Table 11 Comparison Between a Mother's Occupation and Whether Her Daughter Had Ever Smoked Mother's Occupation (e.g. nurses, teachers) (supervisors) (foremen, plumbers) (salesmen, police)J (steelworkers) (construction worker) i 1 8 j (housewife) ! ) 9 (unemployed) Total Count Percentage IT = .097 P = .7357 Chi square again showed that there was no significant relationship between any of the above factors. 37 When a father's and mother's "birthplace was compared to their children smoking habits, the following resulted: Table 12 Comparison Between a Father's Birthplace and Whether His Offspring Had Ever Smoked Father's Ever Smoked Row Total Birthplace No _ 1 (Canada) 213 39 252 (United Kingdom) L 29) *> 35 5 f (United States) J 1] 1 J 4 (Other European) 53 25 78 1 , 5 ^ ; (Other) 98 37 135 | Total 394 78.8 106 21.2 500 100.0 1 , ,J Count Percentage T- = 14.56 p = .0028 38 Table 13 Comparison Between a Mother's Birthplace and whether Her Offspring Had Ever Smoked Mother's Ever Smoked Row Total Birthplace Yes No 1 (Canada) 211 41 252 2 ~) (United Kingdom)/ 3 ( (United States)J 38 4 (Other European) 54 23 77 5 (Other) 97 36 133 Total 394 78.8 f 106 1 21'2 500 100.0 Count Percentage Tf = 10.54 p = .0293 Both these tables were found to have a significant relationship existing between the variables father's birthplaces and whether his offspring had ever smoked as well as mother's birthplace and whether her offspring had ever smoked. With regard to tables 12 and 13, for birthplaces in Canada and the United Kingdom, a higher percentage difference exists between those who had never tried smoking and those who had. The comparison between whether a person smokes now and who they are living with gave the following results: 3f Table 14 Comparison Between Who A Respondent Lives With and Their Present. Smoking Habit Live With Father and Mother Just Mother | Just Father i Neither Total ir = 15.13 p = .0017 Smoke Now Yes 127 28 9 169 42.9 No 201 13 6 4— 225 57.1 Row Total 328 41 15 10 394-1 IOOJO. Count Percentage From this table a significant relationship was found to exist. With the separation of the responses into male/female categories the subsequent analysis revealed: Table 15 Comparison Between Who a Male Respondent Lives With and His Present Smoking Habit Live With Father and Mother Just Mother Just Father Neither Total Male Smoke Now Yes 60 No 117 Row Total 129 63.9 177 12 13 Count 202 j Percentage yr = 4.177 p = .2113 40 Table 16 Comparison Between Who a Female Respondent Lives With and Her Present Smoking Habit IT = 11.88 p = .0078 Live With Female Smoke Now Row Total Yes No Father and Mother Just Mother Just Father ) Neither j 67 23 84 6 3 J 151 29 12 Total 96 50.0 96 50.0 192 Count Percentage In the case of the table for the male responses, no significant relationship was found to exist, but it is interesting to note that the majority of the boys who live at home and had once smoked, no longer smoke. (Table 15) The table for the female responses on the other hand, shows a significant relationship existing between a girls1 smoking habits and the family make-up of the house she lives in. When the males in this study were seen living with just their fathers and the females just with their mothers a much higher percentage of these people turned out to be smokers rather than non-smokers. 41 Parents1 Smoking; Habits The mother's and father's smoking habits as compared to whether their offspring had ever tried smoking is shown first, followed by an analysis of the mother's and father's smoking habit compared to their children's present smoking habits. Table 17 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Offspring Ever Smoked Mother Smokes Ever Smoke Row Yes _.N6_ Total Yes 160 26 186 No 234 80 314 Total 394- 106 500 78.8 u- 2hl Count Percentage = 8.57 p = .0034 The above table, contains the results obtained from this study with respect to a comparison between the mother's smoking habits and whether their children had ever tried smoking. A significant relationship was found to exist between these two variables and a further analysis produced the following tables: Table 18 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Son Ever Smoked Mother Smokes- Male Row Ever Smoke Total Yes No Yes 78 15 93 No 124 31 155 Total 202 46 248 81.5 18.5 Percentage X2 = .349 p = .5548 Table 19 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Daughter Ever Smoked Mother Smokes Female Ever Smoke Row Total Yes No Yes 82 11 92 No 110 49 159 Total 192 76.2 60 252 L X2 = 10.64 p = .0011 Count Percentage With the introduction of the sex variable1,•, it was found that the table concerned with the male's response does not show a significant relationship existing between the mother's 4-3. smoking habits and whether her sons had ever tried smoking. As for the female's response,, a significant relationship was still found to exist between these variables. The male and female tables illustrate that a larger percentage of the females, who had tried smoking had mothers who also smoked. The percentage was lesser in males who tried smoking and had mothers who smoke. Next, the father's smoking habits need to be considered and analysed against whether his offspring has ever tried smoking. From this study the following results were obtained: Table 20 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and whether His Offspring Had Ever Smoked Father Smokes f Ever Smoke Row Total Yes No ! Yes [ No 240 154 53 53 293 207 | Total i ! , 394- I 106 78.8 21.2 500 | Count 'Percentage X^ = 3.66 p = .0556 No significant relationship was found to exist between the variables in the above chart, and even with further analysis, with male/female responses separated in the charts below, no significant relationship was found to exist. 44 Table 21 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and Whether His Son Had Ever Smoked X2 = .422 P = .5157 Father Smokes* Male Ever Smoke Row Total Yes No Yes 123 25 148 No 79 21 100 Total 202 81.5 46 18.5 248 Count Percentage Table 22 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and Whether His Daughter Had Ever Smoked if = 3.25 P = .0715 Father Smokes Female Ever Smoke Row Total Yes No Yes 117 28 145 No 75 32 107 Total 192 76.2 60 23.8 252 Count Percentage With the analysis of the parental smoking habits versus their children's early experiences with smoking completed, it now seems appropriate to examine the present smoking habits of the students questioned. Therefore the parental smoking habits versus their children's present smoking habits, as to whether they are still smokers or now non-smokers, was analysed. In the following three tables, the mothers smoking practices will be compared to her children's smoking habits, at least to those who have stated that they have tried smoking. Table 23 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Offspring Presently Smokes Mother Smoke Now. Row Smokes Yes No Total Yes 90 70 160 No 79 155 234 Total 1690 42.9 ! 225 i 57.1 394 Count Percentage Xc = 18.71 p = .000:1 Table 24 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Son Presently Smokes f Mother Smokes Male Smoke Now Row Total Yes i i No Yes 36 42 78 No _JL 87 124 Total 73 36.1 129 63.9 202 Count Percentage Jf = 4.84 p = .0278 46 Table 25 Comparison Between a Mother's Smoking Habits and Whether Her Daughter Presently Smokes Mother Female Row Smokes Smoke Now Total Yes No Yes 54 28 82 No 42 68 110 Total 96 96 192 50.0 50.0 X2 = 13.30 p = .0003 Count Percentage In Table 23, a relationship is found to exist between these two variables, with this relationship still existing in Tables 24 and 25 when the responses of the students were separated by sex. A stronger relationship was found to exist between a mother's smoking practices and her daughter's, than between mother and son. Quite similar results were found when the father's smoking habits were compared to those of their sons and daughters, as can be seen in the tables below: 47 Table 26 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and Whether His Offspring Presently Smokes Father Smoke Now Row Smokes Yes No Total Yes 119 121 240 No 50 104 154 Total 169 42.9 225 57.1 394 Count j Percentage IT = 10.53 p = .0012 Table 27 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and Whether His Son Presently Smokes X2 = 7.38 p = .0066 Father Smokes Male Smoke Now Row Total Yes No Yes 54 69 123 No 19 60 79 Total . -36.1 ~"l29 63.9 202 Count Percentage 48 Table 28 Comparison Between a Father's Smoking Habits and Whether His Daughter Presently Smokes r Count Percentage Again a relationship was found between a father's smoking inclinations and his offspring's who took up the habit, as can be seen in table 26. But, when the table was further analysed by separating the sexes, something different occurred. A significant relationship was still found to exist between father and son but not between father and daughter. Of special interest in the father-son table is the proportion of sons who have quit smoking when their father does not smoke (almost 76% of those who have fathers who do not smoke have quit smoking). Older Brothers' and Sisters' Smoking Habits In this section the number, if any, of older brothers and sisters who smoke will be taken into consideration, and compared against certain variables. The first such comparison will involve the number of 49 older brothers who smoke versus whether the respondent in this study had ever smoked. Table 29 Comparison Between the Number of Older Brother Who Smoke and Whether The Respondent Had Ever Smoked = 21.803 P = .0355 Count Percentage Table 30 Comparison Between the Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke and Whether The Male Respondent Had Ever Smoked Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke 0 1 2 Total If = 1.46 Male Ever Smoke Row Total! Yes 54-No 52 59 111 Count Percent age p = .5425 50': Table 31 Comparison Between the Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke and Whether The Female Respondent Had Ever Smoked Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke T- = 8.75 p = .0254-Female Ever Smoke Row Total For table 29, a relationship was found to exist between these two variables, but when the male-female responses of those questioned were separated into tables 30 and 31, some thing different occurred. A significant relationship was found to exist for only the number of older brothers who smoke versus the number of females who had ever tried smoking and not for the male responses. An interesting trend can be seen in all three of the above tables,. As the number of older brothers who smoke increases, in almost all cases, the percentage difference between whether a person had or had not ever tried smoking increases. A good example of this occurs in table 29, where for no older brothers who smoked, 76% of those who responded for this instance had tried smoking. When the number of brothers who 51 smoked was increased by one, the percentage of those who had ever tried smoking, in this instance, jumped to 89.1%. The next comparison is of the number of older sisters who smoke versus whether those questioned for this study had ever tried smoking. No significant relationship was found between any of the variables in table(s) 32, 33 or 34. Similar trends, as were the case with the number of older brotherswho smoked, were found to exist here, with increasing numbers of older sisters who smoke corresponding with increased proportions of respondents who had tried smoking. Table 32 Comparison Between The Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke and Whether The Respondent Had Ever Smoked Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke Ever Smoke Row Total Yes No 0 87 28 115 1 76 13 89 ) 33^ | 3N 5 / 11 ( 2 . / > 48 I > 5 53 4 r 1 0 1 1 2J 3 J oJ s Total 211 , 82.5 46 17.5 i X2 = 3.839 P = .1531 Table 33 Comparison Between the Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke and Whether The Male Respondent Had Ever Smoked Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke Male Ever\Smoke Row Total Yes No 6 44 11 55 43^ 6^ ) 2 2i 1 o1 y8 71 41 0 .  . oJ Total 107 84.9 19 i 15.1 126 X2 = 1.85 P = .7943 Table 34 Comparison Between The Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke and Whether The Female Respondent Had Ever Smoked Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke Female Ever Smoke Yes No Row Total Total If = 6.67 S-fct-105 80.2 60 71 36 19.8 131 p = .1684 53 An analysis between the number of older brothers and sisters who smoke versus the present smoking habits of those respondents who stated that they had tried smoking is what follows in the next few sets of tables. First the older brothers: Table 35 Comparison Between the Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke and Whether The Respondent Presently Smokes Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke Smoke Now Row Total Yes No 0 25 48 73 1 47 35 82 2 15 18 33 12l 51 [ 1)15. 2V 5 20 Total 102 49.0 106 ____5ii0_ 208 X2 = 14.2 p = .0051 Table 36 Comparison Between The Number of Older Brother Who Smoke and Whether The Male Respondent Presently Smokes Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke Male Smoke Now Row Total Yes No 0 14 30 44 1 19 12 31 2~) 61 3 7 7 14 2 > 10 24 4) lj lj Total 47 52 1 *> X2 = 7.833 p = .04 54 Table 37 Comparison Between The Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke and Whether The Female Respondent Presently Smokes Number of Older Brothers Who Smoke Female Smoke Now Row Total Yes | No 0 11 18 29 1 28 23 51 2) 9) 111 5 5 V 16 1 > 13 29 2 J lJ Total 55 50.5 54 49.5 109 X2 = 2.48 p = .2513 Table 35 shows a significant relationship existing between the number of older brothers who smoke and the present smoking habits of the persons questioned. Under further analysis, with the breakdown of table 35 into separate male-female responses we find that in table 36, the male responses are still significant while in table 37, the female responses are no longer significant. It is interesting to note from the separate male responses in table 36, the high proportion of individuals who stated that they no longer smoke who also have no older brothers smoking. In sharp contrast is the rapid increase in proportions of those who stated they still smoke, as the number of older brothers who smoke increase. The number of older sisters who smoke as compared to the present smoking habits of those questioned was studied to see if any significant relationship exists. 55 Table 38 Comparison Between The Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke and Whether The Respondent Presently Smokes Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke Smoke Now Row Total _Yes No 0 21 66 1 46 30 76 2 21 12 33 31 ?) 47 | Of 9 16 _... u L. _J _ i 2/ Total L „, 95 1 i 117 1 55.2 . 212 X2 = 27.36 p = .000$ Table 39 Comparison Between The Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke and Whether The Male Respondent Presently Smokes Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke Male Smoke Now Yes No Row Total Total if = 18.38 11 43 40.2 64 59.8 44 43 20 107 p = .0017 56 Table 40 Comparison Between The Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke and Whether The Female Respondent Presently Smokes Number of Older Sisters Who Smoke Significant relationships were found to exist in all three of the above tables. As was the case in the preceding tables, certain trends can be seen in these tables. In all three of the above tables, a larger number of respondents having no older sisters who smoked, stated that they themselves no longer smoked. Also as the number of older sisters who smoked started to increase, so did the number of respondents who said they smoked, and at a drastic rate. Peer Group Affect on Smoking Habit This part deals with what some people consider as one of the more important aspects of continued teenage smoking, that being the number of friends of an individual who smoke. The variables examined here will be the respondents present smoking habits versus the number of their five best friends who smoke. The following results were obtained: 57 Table 41 Comparison Between The Number of a Person's Five Best Friends Who Smoke and That Person's Present Smoking Habits Number of Your Five Best Friends Who Smoke Smoke Now Row [ Total Yes No 0 7 73 80 1 7 47 54 2 13 48 61 3 26 29 55 4 40 14 54 5 | 76 14 90 Total 169 j 42.9 225 57.1 394 x2 = 154.72 p = ,0©Q1\ Table 42 Comparison Between the Number of a Person's Five Best Friends Who Smoke and That Male Person's Present Smoking Habits Number of Your Five Best Friends Who Smoke Male Smoke Now Row Total Yes No ,.. — .. 46s) 1 | 2> 9 24 V 95 104 A 3) 25 J 3 14 18 32 4 18 9 37 5 32 7 39 Total r 73 36.1 129 63.9 202 X2 = 81.37 p = .00011 58 Table 43 Comparison Between The Number of a Person's Five Best Friends Who Smoke and That Female Person's Present Smoking Habits Number of Your Female Row Five Best Friends Smoke Now Total Who Smoke Yes No °T " "377 ij 23>50 58 2 10 23 53 3 12 11 23 4 22 5 27 5 44 7 51 Total 96 96 192 50.0 50.0 X2 = 73.13 p = .oooaA All three tables were found to have a significant relationship existing within them, and the following trends were found: - in all three of the above tables the highest number of quitters were found in the category where none of their five best friends smoked. - in all three of the above tables as the number of best friends who smoke increases, so does the number of respondents who smoke now. This leaves the highest number of smokers at category five, where all five of their best friends smoke. This is also the category where the lowest number of quitters were found. - of minor significance, but noteworthy, was 59 category three. This category became a transition zone, where the majority becomes the minority. In categories zero, one and two, the majority of respondents were non-smokers, but at, or after category three, the reverse was true. Educational Plans and a Person's Smoking Habits Could there be any relationship between a person's educational goals and his present smoking habits? A comparison was made between the variables, whether a person smoked now, and their educational goals. From the tables below, a significant relationship was found to exist for all three examples. Table 44 Comparison Between a Person's Educational Goals and That Person's Present Smoking Habits Educational Plans Smoke Now Row Total Yes., No High School University 107 ! 62 | I 92 I 133 199 195 Total | 169 J 4-2.9 225 57.1 394 X2 = 18.53 p = .0001. 60 Table 45 Comparison Between a Male Person's Educational Goals and That Male Person's Present Smoking Habits Educational Plans Male Smoke Now Row Total Yes No High School 42 48 90 University- 31 81 112 Total 73 | 36.1 129 65.9 202 X2 = 6.99 p = .0082 Table 46 Comparison Between a Female Person's Educational Goals and That Female Person's Present Smoking Habits Educational Plans Female Smoke Now Row Total Yes No High School 65 44 109 University 31 52 83 Total 96 50.0 96 50.0 192 X2 = 8.49 p = .0036 The tables indicate that the person who has aspirations of going on to college or university is more frequently a non-smoker, whereas of those who are only going as far as high school a slim majority overall tend to be smokers. 61 Participation Level and a Person's Smoking; Habits Facts of a person's participation in various areas, such as recreational activities, outdoor activities, school activities, and school teams, were gathered and compared with the respondent's smoking habits in the hope of discovering some unique patterns of spare-time pleasure. Unfortunately such was not the case. The four activity variables above were compared to the respondent's present smoking habits and no significant relationship was found to exist in any of the cases. To give an example, because to give more would just be repetitive, the comparison between the number of outdoor activities versus the male respondent's present smoking habits is given: Table 47 Comparison Between The Number of Outdoor Activities That a Male Participates In and That Male's Present Smoking Habits Number of Outdoor Activities Male Smoke Now Yes No Row Total 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total 4 6 7 17 10 14 9 6 } 10 15 2) 26 24 J 16 29 23 17 14, 18 36 23 46 33 31 33 73 36.1 129 63.9 202 X2 = 4.18 p = .1731 62 Even though no significant relationship was found to exist between a male's smoking habits and his participation in outdoor activities, it is interesting to note that three or four outdoor activities are the more common levels of participation for the males in this study. Effect of Early Age Smoking on a Person's Later Smoking Habits The next area of concern is the effect of early age smoking on the eventual smoking habits of an individual. V/hether they still smoke and the age at which they first began are the variables to be considered. The tables below exhibit the information found from this study in separated male/female responses. Table 48 Comparison Between The Age At Which a Male First tried Smoking and That Male's Present Smoking Habits Age First Smoked Male Smoke Now Yes A 2 6 4/ 11 6 8 8 12 8 13 a 73 36.1. 7 2 13 7 12 26 9 20 15 6 8 ___4 29 Row Total 12 129 _63_,9. 42 23 32 17 28 27 14 19 202 Jf- = 11.1 p = .2867 63 Table 4-9 Comparison Between The Age At Which A Female First Tried Smoking and That Female's Present Smoking Habits ) Age First Smoked 19.277 Female Smoke Now Row * Total P = .05 Table 4-8, the table for the male responses, shows that no significant relationship exists between the two variables, but a relationship was found to exist between these variables in the female table, table 4-9. The following points are noted from table 4-9: - the age of ten for females, in this study, seems to be some what of a critical age. The meaning of which is best explained in the remaining points. - smoking at an early age, (five to ten years), in this study, most often led to continued smoking in later years. 64 - those who started smoking later usually showed a better chance of dropping the habit and being classified as quitters. Company for the First Cigarette It was deemed important for this study to try and find out who the person was with when they first tried smoking. Various questions were placed in the questionnaire to deal with this problem. The results obtained are contained in Table 50. It should be remembered that a person could be, and in some instances, was with a mixed age group when he or she first tried smoking and thus could be placed in one or more of the categories below: Table 50 Company for the First Cigarette Male Female Peer Friends 131 130 (Alone 18 19 Older Friends 58 54 Younger Friends 14 12 Parents 8 3 Older Brother 14 6 Older Sister 7 14-It is not hard to determine from the data generated by this study who the majority of the respondents were with when they first tried smoking. They were with their peer friends, meaning friends their own age level. 65 Also showing considerable strength was the group who first smoked with older friends. Surprisingly, showing lower results was the group who first smoked alone. Information was also obtained from this study on the company, if any, a person who presently smokes prefers to keep when he or she is indulging in the smoking habit. The two questions asked were: 1. How often do you smoke alone? andc. 2. How often do you smoke with friends? The results obtained from this study are: Table 51 Preferred Company for Smoking Smoke Smoke With Alone Friends Never 12 0 Some of 100 58 the time Most of 55 82 the time Always 2 29 Total 169 169 For this study, the generated data seems to indicate a marked preference for smoking to occur more frequently in groups rather than the individual smoking alone. Discussion The discussion of the results found from this study takes place under the subheading of the various variables deemed important: 66 Parental factors. A comparison of mother's and father's places of birth with their offspring's declaration of having smoked or never having smoked was significant. Where the parent's birthplace was the United Kingdom or Canada, these respondents were found to have a higher probability of having tried smoking at some time, than were those surveyed whose parents were from the United States, other European, or other countries (not listed). The parents or parent with whom a female was living was also found to have a significant relationship in this study to that girl's smoking habits. Por a girl living with a single parent (her mother), it was found in this study that she, by far, was more likely to be a smoker than a non-smoker. Of those living with both parents, the majority were non-smokers. These results tend to agree with the finding of such authors as Horn (1959), Morison (1961) and Williams (1973). Parent's Smoking Habits. A relationship was found to exist between a mother's smoking habits and whether or not her daughter had ever smoked. Of those females questioned who stated that their mother's smoked, 88.2% of these girls had •tried smoking, while only 69.2% of those girls who had mothers who didn't smoke, had tried smoking. Significant relationships were also to be found between a mother's smoking habits and her offspring's present smoking habit, with the mother-daughter combination showing a higher relationship than the mother-son. 67 In the majority of the cases, when the smother smoked, the daughter was more likely to smoke; when the mother did not smoke the daughter usually didn't. When the father's smoking habits were compared to their son's present smoking habits, the relationship that existed was found to be significant. Worth mentioning is the situation where the father does not smoke. It was found in this study that the majority of the boys (76%) followed the lead of their fathers and did not smoke. Studies by Barrett (1962), Bewley (1974) and Salber (1961) showed the same kind of positive relationship existing between the smoking habits of one parent and the smoking habits of their same sex children, as exists in this study. Older brother's and sister's smoking habits. The number of older brother's who smoke and their younger sister's smoking habits, were found to be related in this study. As the number of older brother's who smoked increased, so did the likelihood that the younger sister v.would take up the smoking habit. A comparison between the number of older brothers who smoked versus the present smoking habits of their younger brothers also produced a significant relationship. The rapid shift in the smoking habits of those surveyed is interesting to note. It was found in this study that when an individual answered that none of their older brothers smoked they themselves were usually found to be non-smokers. As the number of older brothers who smoked increased, so did 68 the likelihood that the person being questioned was a smoker. The question as to whether the number of older sisters who smoked had an effect on the present smoking habits of "• their younger brothers and sisters was determined to be significant in this study. Similar trends were found for these two variables as were found in the preceding set of variables concerning the number of older brothers who smoke. As the number of older sisters who smoke increases, so does the likelihood that their younger brothers and sisters will be smokers. The relationship that was found to exist in this study between the smoking habits of older brothers and sisters and their younger brothers and sisters was similar in nature to Salber's (1963) study. Peer group affect on smoking habit. A significant relationship was found to exist between the number of a person's five best friends who smoke and that person's present smoking habits. The highest number of people who chose to quit smoking once they had tried it, occurs in this study when none of a person's best friends are smokers. As the number of best friends who smoke increases, so does the likelihood that the respondent will still smoke. Studies by Foss (1973) and Palmer (1970) tend to back up this view of the effect of peer pressures on an individual's smoking habits. Educational plans and a person's smoking habits. Comparing the educational plans of a person, and that person's smoking habits indicated that a relationship existed between these' 69 two variables. Those respondents who indicated that they wanted to enter university were usually found to be non-smokers, whereas those who stated that high school was as far, educationally, as they wanted to go, tended to be smokers. Affect of early age smoking on a person's later smoking  habits. When the age at which a person first smoked was compared to that person's present smoking habit, a significant relationship was found to exist. This study indicated that the person who had first tried smoking at an early age (five to ten years) usually continued smoking as compared to the individual who was to first try smoking in later years (after From the variables that were investigated by this study the following were found to have a significant relationship existing between them and the smoking habits of those questioned: ten). - females initial choice of smoking or not smoking related to: males initial choice of smoking or not smoking related to: 1. father's birthplace 1. father's birthplace 2. mother:' s birthplace 2. mother' s birthplace mother' s smoking habits number of older brothers who smoke 70 - females choice of continuing to smoke or quitting related to: 1. parent(s) living with (mother only}, (father only), (both) 2. mother's smoking habits 3. number of older sisters who smoke 4. number of five best friends who smoke 5. age first smoked - males choice of continuing to smoke or quitting related to: 1. Mother's smoking habits 2. father's smoking habits 3. number of older brothers who smoke 4. number of older sisters who smoke 5. number of five best friends who smoke 71 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY The purpose of this study is to determine which of the selected factors have a significant relationship with teenage smoking habits. The factors involved are: peer group pressures; smoking habits of parents; older siblings who smoke; and, selected social factors. The subproblems that were involved were: 1. To determine the degree to which a teenager's smoking habits are related to their parents smoking habits. 2. To determine if there may exist different reasons why males chose to smoke as opposed to why females do. 3. To determine which of the selected factors_ have the greatest effect on teenage students, that would lead them to smoke. The research instrument selected for use was a question naire which was specifically designed and constructed to meet the requirement of this study. The questionnaire itself attempts to gain the following information: (a) parental nationality, occupation, and smoking habits; (b) such social factors as the number of older brothers and sisters in the family and their smoking habits; (c) smoking habits of the individuals being questioned as well as academic and activity interests; and 7;2 (d) the history of the first sampling of smoking as well as other contributing factors to the continuing or quitting of the habit. The subjects used for this questionnaire were drawn from the Board of Education for the City of Hamilton in Ontario. The subjects, males and females, ranged in age from 13 to 20 and from grades 9 through 12. The schools used were randomly selected after stratifi cation of all schools in the city into three categories; lower, middle and upper social class area schools as determined by Statistics Canada (1971). Then two schools from each category were chosen. The pilot study was conducted in late November and early December 1976, with the main study running from January to February 1977 and involving 500 students (respondents). The students chosen in this study marked their responses directly on the questionnaire itself. Therefore it was necessary later to transfer their responses on to data processing cards. Once the information had been transferred from the questionnaire to the data cards, a computer was used for tabulation and further analysis of the information. In the analysis of the data, Chi square tests of indepen dence using contingency tables, at the 5% level of significance, were used. This allows different variables to be compared with each other, to see if there is any relationship between them. Various null hypothesis were tested under the following factors: parental influence, parental smoking habits, older 73 siblings smoking habits; peer group smoking habits; educational plans; activity participation level; and, affect of early smoking on later smoking habits. Conclusions The following is a listing of the variables that this study indicated had a significant relationship with a young person's smoking habits: females initial choice of smoking or not smoking related to: 1. father's birthplace 2. mother's birthplace 3. mother's smoking habits 4. number of older brothers who smoke - males initial choice of smoking or not smoking related to: 1. father's birthplace 2. mother's birthplace females choice of continuing to smoke or quitting related to: 1. parent(s) living with (mother only) (father (only) (both) 2. mother's smoking habits 3. number of older sisters who smoke 4. number of five best friends who smoke 5. age first smoked males choice of continuing to smoke or quitting related to: 1. mother's smoking habits 2. father's smoking habits 3. number of older brothers who smoke 4. number of older sisters who smoke 5. number of five best friends who smoke A teenager's present smoking habits were found to be related to their same-sex parent's smoking habits, with the 74 mothers' smoking habits having a stronger influence on their daughters' rather than their sons', and the fathers' smoking habits having a significant effect on their sons* and not their daughters'. Prom the list above, it can be seen that there exists differences between the variables found in this study that were significantly related to the male's and female's initial choice of smoking. What was found that was similar, was, that both males and females most likely shared that first cigarette experience with a group of peer friends. In conclusion, it can not be said that one variable and one variable alone had the greatest effect on a teenager's smoking habit. What is put forwad is the idea of a combined effect as well as a cumulative effect. A combined effect means that an individual faces the influence of a number of smoking related variables. For example, a young male may be faced with a father who smokes as well as a number of older brothers who smoke. This younger male is subjected to the combined effect of both these variables. The cumulative effect comes in, when it is determined how many and how extensively an individual is subjected to the smoking related variables, found significant in this study. For example, it is more likely that a male whose father smokes, most of whose older brothers and sisters smoke and the majority of his best friends smoke, is himself a smoker as opposed to a boy who faces the above variables but to a lesser extent and the word lesser is of major importance here. 75 Taking into account these two theories, the combined and the cumulative affect, a definite need is presented for additional research and study. Recommendations 1. Further research and study into the areas found . significant in this study. 2. Changes, if necessary, in the school health curriculums to take into account the additional variables found significant in this study rather than just trying to effect young peoples' smoking habits via the health consequences of smoking. 3. Development of teaching units for the main sections in this study. 4. An increase in public awareness, especially in parents, of the related effects of their smoking habits. 5. After reviewing the literature it was found that the vast majority of the research work done into smoking habits was conducted outside of Canada, specifically in the United States. This Canadian study, now complete, has seen striking similarities and trends between the-* United States and Canadian data. A suggestion to be considered is that facts found on smoking behaviour in the United States could be generalized to Canada, with caution. 76 BIBLIOGRAPHY American Cancer Society, Chicago Unit, "Survey on Student Smoking Habits in The Chicago Public Schools, 1968", American  Journal of Public Health 65:923-38, Sept. 1975-Aronow, W. S., "Effect of Cigarette Smoking and of Carbon Monoxide on Coronary Heart Disease", Chest 70 (4) 514-18, Oct. 1976. Baer, D. J. and Katkin, J. M. Jr., "Limitation of Smoking by Sons and Daughters Who Smoke and Smoking Behaviour of Parents", Journal of Genetic Psychology 118 (Second Half):293-6, June 1971. Barrett, K. A., "High School Students' Smoking Habits", Canadian Journal of Public Health 53, No. 12, p. 500-6, Dec. 1962. Bergen, B. J., "Some Evidence for a Peer Group Hypothesis About Adolescent Smoking", Health Education Journal, 21:113, Feb. 1973. Best, W. E., "A Canadian Study of Mortality in Relation to Smoking Habits, A Preliminary Report", Canadian Journal of  Public Health 52;99-106, 1961 Bewley, B. R., "Factors Associated With The Starting of Cigarette Smoking by Primary School Children", British Journal  of Preventive and Social Medicine, 28(1):37-44, 1974. Borland, B. L., "Relative Effects of Low Socio-Economic Status, Parental Smoking and Poor Scholastic Performance on Smoking Among High School Students", Social Science Medical 9(l):27-30, January, 1975• Boss, E. R. and Rose, C. L., "Age and Interpersonal Factors in Smoking Cessation", Journal of Health and Social Behaviour 14(4):381-7, Dec. 1973. Bothwell, P. W., "The Epidemiology of Cigarette Smoking in Rural School Children", Medical Officer 102:125-32, Sept. 1959. Boyle, C. M., "Some Factors Affecting the Smoking Habits of a Group of Teenagers", Lancet 2(581):1287-9, Dec. 14, 1968. Bynner, J. M.? "Behavioural Research Into Children's Smoking: Some Implications for Anti-Smoking Strategy", Royal Society  of Health Journal 90, 159-163, May-June, 1970. Cartwright, E., "Distribution and Development of Smoking Habits", Lancet 2\725-27, Oct. 31, 1959. Coleman, J., "The Adolescent Society", Basic Book Inc., New York, 1965. 7? Cresswell, M., "University of Illinois Anti-Smoking Education Study", Illinois Journal of Education 60, 27-37, March 1971. Davis, R. L., "Status of Smoking Education Research", Journal  of School Health, 38, No. 6, p. 323, June 1968. Dimond, S. J., "Smoking Habits of Deliquent Boys," British  Journal of Preventative and Social Medicine, I, No. 18, p. 52-54, January 1964. Dische, S., 'Cigarette Smoking and Cancer of Bladder and Lung", British Medical Journal 2(6045), p. 1174-5, Nov. 13, 1976. Doll, R., "Mortality in Relation to Smoking: 20 Years Observation on Male British Doctors", British Medical Journal 2(6051) p. 1525-36, Dec. 25, 1976. Ferguson, G. A., Statistical Analysis in Psychology and  Education, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1971. Fielding, B., "The Smoke Filled Trap", National Education  Journal 53, No. 7, p. 18-20, Oct. 1964. Foss, R., "Personality, Social Influence and Cigarette Smoking", Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, Sept. 14, 1973. Hammond, E. C, "The Effects of Smoking", Science America 207:3-15, 1962. Hardyck, C. D., and Petrinovich, L. F., Introduction to  Statistics for the Behavioural Sciences, W. B. Saunders Company, 1969. Hochbaum, G. M., "Psychosocial Aspects of Smoking with Special Reference to Cessation", American Journal of Public Health 55 692-97, May 1975-Horn, D., "Cigarette Smoking Among High; School Students", American Journal of Public Health, 49:1497-1511 (Nov.) 1959. Horn, D., "Current Smoking Among Teenagers", Public Health  Report 83:458-60, 1968. Horowitz, M. J., "Psychological Aspects of Education Related to Smoking", Journal of School Health, p. 284, June 1966. Jenson, L. and Thompson, J., "Report of 1965 Smoking Survey", Journal of School Health, 34(8) p. 371, Oct. 1965. Kahn, E. B. and Edwards, C. N., "Smoking and Youth: Contri butions to the Study of Smoking Behaviour in High School Students", Journal of School Health 40(10):561-2, Dec. 1970. 78 Keeve, J. P., "Smoking Habits and Attitudes of 3057 Public School Students and Their Families (Newburgh, New York)", Journal of School Health 35(10):458-9, Dec. 1965. Kelson, S. P., Pullella, J. L., and Otterland, A., "The Growing Epidemic: A Survey of Smoking Habits and Attitudes Toward Smoking Among Students in Grades 7 Through 12 in Toledo and Lucas County (Ohio) Public Schools—1964 and 1971", American Journal of Public Health 65(9):923-38, Sept. 1975-Ladye, J. A., and Creswell, W.. H. Jr., and Stone, D. B., "A Cohort Study of 1,205 Secondary School Smokers", Journal  of School Health 42(l):47-52, Jan. 1972. Lampert, K. J., "The Effectiveness of Anti-Smoking Campaigns: Moralistic or Scientific Approach", Journal of School Health 36, Jan. 1966. Laughlin, T. J., "Socio-Psychological Aspects of Cigarette Smoking", Canadian Journal of Public Health 61(4):301-12, July-Aug.. 1970. Lawton, A. P., "The Psychology of Adolescent Anti-Smoking Education:, Journal of School Health 53(Oct.) 333, 1963. Lebovits, B., "Smoking and Personality: A Methodological Analysis", Journal of Chronic Diseases 23(10):813-21, March 1971. Lemin, B., "Smoking in 14 Year-Old School Children", Interna  tional Journal of Nursing Studies, 4, 301-7, 1967. Levitt, E. E., "A Multi-variate Study of Correlative Factors in Youthful Cigarette Smoking", Developmental Psychology, 2, 5-11, 1970. Levitt, E. E., "Reasons for Smoking and Not Smoking Given By School Children", Journal of School Health 41(2):101-5, Feb. 1971. :  Maclaine, A. G., "Smoking and Young People", Medical Journal  of Australia, 2 (Sept.) 388-390, 1964. Mataraz, J. D., and Saslow, G., "Psychological and Related Characteristics of Smokers and Non-Smokers", The Psychological  Bulletin, 57:493-513, Nov. I960. Mausner, B. and Mischler, J. B., "Cigarette Smoking Among Junior High School Students", Journal of Special Education, 1 61-66, 1966. McKennell, A. C., "Smoking Motivation Factors", British Journal  of Social and Clinical Psychology 9(1):8-22, Feb. 1970. Merki, D. J., "The Effects of Two Educational Methods and Message Themes on Rural Youths' Smoking Behaviour", Journal  of School Health, p. 452, Sept. 1968. 79 Morison, J. B., "Smoking Habits of Winnipeg School Children", Canadian Medical Association Journal 84 (May 6, 1970) 1006-7. Newman, I. M., "Adolescent Cigarette Smoking as Compensatory Behaviour", Journal of School Health 40(6):316-21, June 1970. Newman, I. M., "Ninth Grade Smokers—2 Years Later", Journal  of School Health, November, 1971, p. 497. Newman, I. M., "Status Configurations and Cigarette Smoking in a Junior High: School", Journal of School Health 40(1): 28-31, Jan. 1970. Palmer, A. B., "Some Variables Contributing to the Onset of Cigarette Smoking Among Junior High School Students", Social  Science and Medicine, Volume 4, 359-66, 1970. Parnell, R. W., "Smoking and Cancer", Lancet 1, 963, 1951. Piper? G. W. ? Thomas, W., Wake, F.. R., Matthews, V. L., "Smoking Habits of Grade 7 Children—A Comparative Study", Canadian Journal of Public Health 64(2)Supplementary: fcJ36-42, March 1973. Salber, E. J., "Influence of Siblings on Student Smoking Patterns", Pediatrics, 31, No. 4, 570-572, April 1963. Salber, E. J., "Smoking Among School Age Children", American  Journal of Public Health, 52:1018, June 1962. Salber, E. J., "Smoking Habits of High School Students Related to Intelligence and Achievement", Pediatrics, 29, No. 5, p. 780-7, May 1962. Salber, E. J. and MacMahon, J., "Cigarette Smoking Among High School Students Related to Social Class and Parental Smoking Habits", American Journal of Public Health 51 (Dec.) p. 1780, 1961. Sallak, V. J., "A Study of Smoking Practices of Selected Groups of Junior and Senior High School Students", Journal  of School Health 31, No. 9, p. 313, Nov. 1961. Statistics Canada, "Population and Housing Characteristics by Census Tracts for Hamilton", Census Tract Bulletin, 1971. Steel, P. H., "Cigarette Smoking in School Children", Journal  of the Medical Society of New Jersey, 63, 555-7, 1966. Stewart, L., and Livson, N., "Smoking and Rebelliousness: A Longitudinal Study from Childhood to Maturity", Journal of  Consult. Psychology 30(3):225-9, June 1966. Streit, W. K., "Students Expressed Views on Smoking", Journal  of School Health 37:151-152, 1967- ~ so Williams, A. F., "Personality and Other Characteristics Associated with Cigarette Smoking Among Young Teenagers", Journal of Health and Social Behaviour 14(4):374-80, Dec. 1973. Wohlford, P., "Initiation of Cigarette Smoking: Is It Related to Parental Smoking Behaviour?", Journal of Consult. Clinical  Psychology 34(2):148-51, April 1970^ Wohlford, P., and Giammona, S. T., "Personality and Social Variables Related to the Initiation of Smoking Cigarettes", Journal of School Health 39(8):544-52, Oct. 1969-Woody. R. H., "Smoking: Psychosocial, Personality, and Behavioural Factors", Journal of School Health 49(8):427-34, Oct. 1970. Yacenda, J. A., "Smoking Behaviour and Young People. The Need for New Directions.", Clinical Pediatrics (Phila.) 12(1):Supplementary:13A P, Jan. 1973. Zagona, S. V., "An Analysis of Some Psycho-Social Variables Associated With Smoking Behaviour in a College Sample", Psychological Reports 17 (Dec.) 967-978, 1974. 81 APPENDIX 82? APPENDIX A Smoking Questionnaire Male Female Age Grade Please circle the appropriate response or fill in the "blank. 1. Father's occupation? 2. His country of birth? 3. Mother's occupation? 4-. Her country of birth? 5. Are you living with: A. your father and mother? B. just your mother? C. just your father? D. neither? 6. Does your mother smoke daily? yes no 7. Does your father smoke daily? yes no 8. What type of tobacco does your father smoke? Cigarette Pipe Cigar 9. Do your have older brothers? yes no If yes, how many older brothers? How many of them smoke? 10. Do. J you have older sisters? yes no If yes, how many older sisters? How many of them smoke? 11. Of your five best friends, how many smoke? 12. Do you plan to be a smoker when you get older? . yes no 13. How far do you plan to go in school? High School University 14-. Are you. aware that smoking can be dangerous to your health? yes no 15. In what recreational sports do you participate? (a) basketball (b) football (c) tennis (d) golf (e) bowling (f) skating (g) swimming (h) others (i) none 16. In what outdoor activities do you participate? (a) hunting (b) camping (c) fishing ("d) boating (e) horseback riding (f) cycling (g) others (h) none 17. What school activities do you engage in? (a) clubs (b) choir (c) band/orchestra (d) debate (e) others (f) none 18. To what school teams do you belong? (a) football (b) track (c) basketball (d) volleyball (e) golf (f) swimming (g) wrestling (h) cheerleading (i) curling (j) others (k) none 19. Have you ever tried smoking? yes no If yes to the above question, answer the rest of the questions, if no to the above, leave the rest of the questions blank. 20. How old were you when you first tried smoking? 21. How old were you when you started smoking regularly? (at least one cigarette per day). 22. Do you smoke now? yes no 23. Were you alone when you first smoked? yes no 24. Were you with friend(s) the same age as you when you first smoked? yes no 84 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 50. 31. 32. Were you with older friend(s) when you first smoked? Were you with younger friend(s) when you first smoked? Were your friends smoking with you when you first smoked? Were you with your parents when you first smoked? Were you with your older brother when you first smoked? Were you with your older sister when you first smoked? How often do you smoke alone? Never How often do you smoke with friends? Never yes yes yes yes yes yes Some of the time Some of the time no no no no no no Most of the time Most of the time Always Always 

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