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Variations in the ventilatory and lactate thresholds with prolonged aerobic exercise Mavrogiannis, Apostolos 1985

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VARIATIONS IN THE VENTILATORY AND LACTATE THRESHOLDS WITH PROLONGED AEROBIC E X E R C I S E by APOSTOLOS MAVROGIANNIS B.Ph.Ed. N a t i o n a l  Academy o f P h y s i c a l  E d u c a t i o n , G r e e c e , 1981  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Physical  We a c c e p t  Education  this  and R e c r e a t i o n  thesis  to the required  as  conforming  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA January ©  1985  A p o s t o l o s M a v r o g i a n n i s , 1985  2?  In  presenting  requirements of  British  it  freely  agree for  this for  an  available  that  in  partial  advanced degree  Columbia,  I  agree  for  understood  that  financial  by  his  or  the  shall  reference  and  study.  I  extensive  her  shall  copying of  granted  by  the  not  be  allowed  of  make  further this  thesis  head of  representatives. publication  the  University  Library  copying or  gain  at  of  the  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e or  fulfilment  that  permission for  department  for  thesis  It  this  without  my  is thesis my  written  permission.  Department  of  •PHYSICAL  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main M a l l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  Date  t  )^^ary  %L C  )  HPZ  8D*Jc4T/0/V Columbia  Mf>  R£C££/\TIQ/S  ii ABSTRACT  The  purpose  of t h i s  in the v e n t i l a t o r y  study  was  ( V T ) and l a c t a t e  t o examine  ( L T ) t h r e s h o l d s a n d VO^max  following prolonged aerobic exercise. runners  (T:age=25.2 y r s ,  ml * k g - l ' m i n  - 1  )  t h e changes  Six well-trained  distance  Ht=170.0 cm, Wt=65.0 k g , VC>2max=59.6  and s i x u n t r a i n e d  (UT:age=25.3 y r s ,  Ht=180.3  cm, Wt=79.2 k g , V0 max=46.8 m l ' k g - * m i n - l ) m a l e s w e r e  studied  1  2  on  two o c c a s i o n s  involved  o f 2.22 m " s ~ l ,  each minute sampled  until  which  were  The i n i t i a l  via  was  Expired  increased  minute o f work.  processed  Blood  gases were  by a d a t a  lactate  catheter  days  preceded  later  r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e i r LT.  (p<0.10) time  reductions 2  1  ' m i n - , 9.6  882.5  1  gas exchange  the last  repeated  treadmill  Cart. system  variables  were  taken  10 s e c o f e a c h  and l a c t a t e c u r v e s ,  inspection  respectively.  the treadmill  run at a heart  rate  test cor-  The p h y s i o l o g i c a l m e a s u r e m e n t s r e c o r d e d  s e s s i o n were r e p e a t e d .  on t h e V 0 m a x  ml ' k g -  acquisition  measurements  during  the subjects  b y a 60 m i n u t e  during the f i r s t  m*s~l  continuously  VT and LT w e r e d e t e r m i n e d by v i s u a l  t h e e x c e s s CO2 e l i m i n a t i o n  Seven  by 0.22  by a Beckman M e t a b o l i c M e a s u r e m e n t  15 s e c o n d s .  an i n d w e l l i n g  evaluation  treadmill test with a starting  3052A), which determined r e s p i r a t o r y  every  to  apart.  fatigue.  and a n a l y z e d  Measurements  of  days  a continuous horizontal  velocity  (HP  seven  T h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t  i n VC^max, L T , VT, and t o t a l test  (TTT) i n t h e T group  t o 9.3  mph , 8.9  sec, respectively).  t o 8.2  treadmill  ( 5 9 . 6 t o 56.9  mph , a n d 925.0  V 0 m a x , L T , VT, a n d TTT w e r e 2  iii reduced  i n t h e UT  group  ( 4 6 . 8 t o 45.0 m l ' k g - ' r a i n - , 1  1  7.7  t o 7.6 raph, 8.0 t o 7.2 mph, and 730.0 t o 652.5 s e c , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , however, o n l y Although in  VT and TTT w e r e r e d u c e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the groups  the i n i t i a l  there  was  were  significantly  (p<0.10).  different  (p<0.05)  p h y s i o l o g i c a l m e a s u r e s due t o t r a i n i n g  no c h a n g e  i n the rate  of decline  VT, o r TTT when t h e UT g r o u p was compared VT a r e a f f e c t e d by p r o l o n g e d a e r o b i c  status,  i n VC^max, L T ,  t o T.  As LT a n d  exercise i t i s questionable  whether these t h r e s h o l d s  c a n be u s e d w i t h c o n f i d e n c e t o p r e d i c t  endurance  i n events  performance  well-trained  and r e c r e a t i o n a l  up  t o 60 m i n d u r a t i o n f o r  athletes.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract List  of Tables  List  of Figures  i i v>. .vi  Acknowledgment  v i i  I.  INTRODUCTION  1  II.  METHODS  5  III.  RESULTS  8  IV.  DISCUSSION  13  V.  REFERENCES  19  APPENDIX A - REVIEW OF LITERATURE  29  Introduction  29  Measurement and D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e AT  30  AT and V a r i o u s  41  Modes o f E x e r c i s e  The R e l a t i o n s h i p Metabolic  between t h e Onset o f  A c i d o s i s and H y p e r v e n t i l a t i o n  46  T r a i n i n g and AT  48  AT A l t e r a t i o n s f o l l o w i n g P r o l o n g e d A e r o b i c Perceived  Exertion  R e l a t i v e t o AT  AT R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h V a r i o u s AT a s a P r e d i c t o r o f D i s t a n c e R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Race P a c e Heart Rate Indices AT A l t e r a t i o n s w i t h  Exercise  59  Metabolic Parameters P e r f o r m a n c e and i t s  and AT Changes i n S u b s t r a t e  57  61 63 68  Availability  Summary  70 72  APPENDIX B - MARGINALS  75  APPENDIX C - INDIVIDUAL SUBJECTS PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA  76  APPENDIX D - BLOOD LACTATE VALUES  77  LIST OF Physical Characteristics Physiological  Data of  TABLES of  Subjects  Subjects  vi  L I S T OF  FIGURES  1.  L a c t a t e Curve  78  2.  Excess C0  79  3.  L a c t a t e and V e n t i l a t o r y  2  Curve Threshold  Values  12  v-ii ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would l i k e  t o t h a n k t h e members o f my c o m m i t t e e , D r . D.  M c k e n z i e , D r . J . T a u n t o n , and D r . K. C o u t t s . like  t o thank  guidance  my a d v i s o r  D r . D. M c k e n z i e  and a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g  my  first  I would e s p e c i a l l y f o rh i s invaluable  steps  T h a n k s a l s o e x t e n d e d t o J . P o t t s and B. L o r d Finally, for this  their  research.  for their  help.  I w i s h t o a c k n o w l e d g e my g r a t i t u d e t o my p a r e n t s ,  inexhaustible support.  achievement  suffering  of  would  I dedicate  Without  their  n o t have been p o s s i b l e .  t h i s p r o j e c t t o them.  sacrifice  For a l l their  I.  INTRODUCTION  The e n e r g y r e q u i r e m e n t s o f b r i e f , h i g h - i n t e n s i t y ( a n a e r o b i c ) and  prolonged,  understood Holloszly  low-intensity  (aerobic)  ( G o l l n i c k and Hermansen 1975).  Controversy  exists,  exercise  1973, Armstrong 1976, however,  i n explaining  t h e phenomenon o f t r a n s i t i o n f r o m a e r o b i c t o a n a e r o b i c during  prolonged  was  first  they  observed  exchange  intense  physical activity.  investigated increases  variables  above  exercise to fatigue. consumption  just  by Wasserman i n both  blood  below  that  metabolism  This  phenomenon  e t a l . (1964,  1973);  l a c t a t e and r e s p i r a t o r y  resting levels  They d e f i n e d  are well  during  the level  a t which  o f work o r o x y g e n  metabolic  the a s s o c i a t e d changes i n gas exchange occur  incremental  a c i d o s i s and  as t h e "anaerobic  threshold". Investigators anaerobic  have  threshold  e t a l . 1981, invasively  with  E/  v 0  2  serial  Simon e t a l . 1982,  with  (McLellan  i n v a s i v e l y determined the blood  lactates  (McLellan  Y o s h i d a e t a l . 1981)  such v a r i a b l e s as  (Wasserman e t a l . 1973, v  either  , V C O 2 , R, FEO2  Simon e t a l . 1982,  e t a l . 1981,  Davis  o r nona  n  d  F E  C02  Rupp 1 9 8 1 ) , V g / V C 0 2 , e t a l . 1983,  Caiozzo  e t a l . 1 9 8 2 ) , 0 P ( S a n k a r e t a l . 1 9 7 8 ) , a n d e x c e s s CO2 ( V o l k o v 2  et  a l . 1975,  exercise as  Rhodes  to fatigue.  the nonlinear  plotted  and M c k e n z i e  over  The a n a e r o b i c  increase  time  1984),  during  i n t h e above progressive 1  during  incremental  threshold  was d e f i n e d  designated increases  variables  i n workload.  However, K i n d e r m a n (1980) have  et  recorded  two  responding  t o 2 mM/1  nonlinear  i n c r e a s e of  The  second,  a l . (1979)  "breakaway"  lactate Vg  corresponding  and  and  and  to  the  points;  to  R was  Skinner  the  threshold.  measurement anaerobic (Davis to  and  The  the  et  found  a l . , 1976).  first,  part  of  exponential  l a c t a t e was  lactate  be v e r y r e p r o d u c i b l e ( S u c e c  two  measurement of  measurements  et a l . ,  termed  exchange  t o be h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t ,  These  cor-  significant  c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e gas  venous b l o o d  t h r e s h o l d was  McLellan  aerobic threshold.  i n c r e a s e i n l a c t a t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f 4 mM/1 anaerobic  the  first  termed  steep  and  the  r=0.95  were  found  1982).  The a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e " b r e a k a w a y " p o i n t s i n v e n t i l a t o r y and  blood  release  lactate  of  H  +  subsequently, (Wasserraan  variables  which  i n c r e a s e s COg  stimulating  et  was  a l . 1973,  the  b e l i e v e d to delivery  abrupt  Whipp  in  both  ventilation  exercise et  a l . 1982,  Recently, of  are  the  not  and  causal  Farrell  investigators  physiological  threshold  et  termed  the  blood but  to the  Davis  to  lungs  rather  during  realizing  the  changes  incremental  coincidental Morrison  and,  However,  that these abrupt  lactate  the  ventilation  1979).  a l . 1983,  events  due  increase in  and  s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have demonstrated  be  et  (Hagberg  a l .  1983).  oversimplification  represented  t h r e s h o l d determined  by by  the  anaerobic  gas  exchange  m e a s u r e m e n t s as t h e v e n t i l a t o r y t h r e s h o l d ( H a g b e r g e t a l . 1982, R e y b r o u c k e t a l . 1982, m e a s u r e m e n t s as  the  1983),  lactate  w h i l e that determined  by  t h r e s h o l d ( I v y e t a l . 1980,  lactate 1981,  G i l m a n and  Lemon 1982,  Research is  has  influenced  muscle  fiber  shown  by  such  that  et  anaerobic  a l . 1969,  as  in  Daniels et  athlete  who  knows  choose a running  his  1974,  anaerobic  The  of  al.  1971,  al.  1978,  importance  i s considerable;  threshold  is  able  to  p a c e a t w h i c h he e x e r c i s e s a e r o b i c a l l y w i t h o u t  i n t o a n a e r o b i c m e t a b o l i s m and,  fatigue  and  the  termination  (Rhodes  applications  onset  Rusko e t  a l . 1979).  delving  cumulation  economy,  ( C o s t i l l et  and a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e l a t t e r i n d i s t a n c e r u n n i n g the  running  availability,  threshold  Farrell  distance  VC^max, r u n n i n g  substrate  B e r g s t r o m e t a l . 1967,  Wyndham  success  factors  composition,  p l a s m a l a c t a t e , and 1976,  DePasquale et a l . 1983).  of  and  the  of  exercise  McKenzie,  anaerobic  consequently, due  1984).  threshold  to  avoiding  lactate  Other  include:  ac-  pertinent 1)  exercise  p r e s c r i p t i o n (Dwyer and B y b e e , 1983) , 2) c h a r a c t e r i z i n g e n d u r a n c e athletes  (Rusko  performance Rhodes and  et  (Sjodin  between  needed  by  the  indefinitely. e l e c t r o l y t e and and (ST)  the to  fatigue.  and  and  Jacobs  3)  predicting  1981,  Tanaka  endurance  et  al .  1983,  M c K e n z i e 1984) .  While running exists  a l . , 1980),  shift fast One  at anaerobic threshold  the  amount o f  oxygen  s p e e d an  transported  t i s s u e s ; t h e o r e t i c a l l y , the  equilibrium to  and  exercise  that  can  last  However, f a c t o r s s u c h as e l e v a t i o n o f t e m p e r a t u r e , f l u i d unbalance, d e p l e t i o n of g l y c o g e n of  muscle  twitch  fibers recruited  (FT)  assumption  cause in  the  using  from  athlete  the  slow  to  anaerobic  stores, twitch  experience threshold  to not  predict  endurance  performance  change t h r o u g h o u t  the event.  whether t h e anaerobic of  prolonged  accuracy reported  threshold  aerobic  f o r time  was t h a t  a 10.7% decrease  variable  stays  unchanged  so that  i n the course  i t c a n be u s e d  Indeed, Wiswell  of the anaerobic  marathon  significantly study and  runners lower  (average  threshold  ml/kg/min).  utilized  of the anaerobic  above  of muscle study  threshold a f t e r a very depletion  threshold  was a t t r i b u t e d  glycogen.  investigated the fate prolonged aerobic  of muscle glycogen  storage.  of the  less  prolonged  are  not glycogen  was  t o determine  aerobic  depleted.  exercise Thus  The l i t e r a t u r e  where  t h e e f f e c t o f one h o u r  subjects  and t r a i n e d  runners.  caused reveals  threshold  the individuals  the purpose  of this  of aerobic  t h e v e n t i l a t o r y and l a c t a t e i n f l e c t i o n  of u n t r a i n e d  anaerobic  e x e r c i s e which  a l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e s t a t e o f t h e a n a e r o b i c  on  The  i n d i c a t e d a change i n t h e t y p e o f f u e l s u b s t r a t e  to the reduction  in  running  i n this  The  was f o u n d  and  postexercise  the lowering  R that  V02max=57.3  with  e t a l . (1980)  8.4% d e c r e a s e i n VO^max f o l l o w i n g 2 h o u r s o f e x h a u s t i v e in  does  However, i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e  exercise  prediction.  this  points  study  exercise  and VG^max  II.  Subjects. males  S i x w e l l - t r a i n e d d i s t a n c e r u n n e r s and s i x u n t r a i n e d  volunteered  f o r the study.  were e x p l a i n e d and i n f o r m e d of  subjects  competed than  4 years,  diet the  was s u c h  i n road  regular  METHODS  races  while  runners  c o n s e n t was o b t a i n e d . the runners  from  10km up t o t h e m a r a t h o n  They w e r e  prior  modified  had been  eating  e t a l . , 1983). or drinking  training.  This  procedure has  mately  approxi-  fluctuations  apart .  i n both  of t h e s u b j e c t s .  This  t e s t i n g day.  time p e r i o d  body w e i g h t  with  5-minute  warm-up,  continuously  t o avoid  conditioning  The e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r -  a starting  each m i n u t e  was c h o s e n  and p h y s i c a l  i s t i c s o f the s u b j e c t s i n v o l v e d a continuous test  from  D a t a c o l l e c t i o n t o o k p l a c e on two s e s s i o n s  on t h e i r  their  to refrain  testing  7 days  before  asked  concentrations  scheduled  t i m e and from t r a i n i n g Procedure•  i n any  day and, i n a d d i t i o n ,  They w e r e a l s o  2 hours  f o r more  i n s t r u c t e d t o consume a m i x e d  shown t o r e s u l t i n s i m i l a r p r e t e s t m u s c l e g l y c o g e n (Miller  t r a i n e d and  were n o t i n v o l v e d  to the testing their  and t e s t s  The s e l e c t i o n  that  the untrained  activities.  f o r 3 days  The p r o c e d u r e s  until  velocity  sampled  Cart.  Measurements  system  (Hewlett  o f 2.22 m * s .  Following  was i n c r e a s e d  b y 0.22 m * s ~ l  - 1  the velocity volitional  fatigue.  and a n a l y z e d were  Packard  horizontaltreadmill  processed  Expired  gases  by a Beckman by a d a t a  a  were  Metabolic  acquisition  3052 A ) , w h i c h d e t e r m i n e d r e s p i r a t o r y 5  gas  exchange  consumption consecutive monitored  v a r i a b l e s every was  determined  15-second by  direct  15  by  seconds.  averaging  Maximal  oxygen  the  four  was  continuously  values.  Heart  lead  (Avionics Electrocardiograph  ECG  rate  highest  4000) . Blood by  lactate  placing,  mm)  in  the  and  easy  the  running  under  during  blood  The  serum was  later  last  the 10  subjects.  each  g  subject  catheter  allowed  without  a  analyzed  for  interfering The  the  lactate  (Kontron  640;  (32 rapid  blood  with  samples  seconds of each minute of  c e n t r i f u g e d and  technique  20  approach  l a c t a t e v a l u e s were p l o t t e d  lactate the  This  a  from  s e r u m was v i a an  Racine  work.  frozen.  automated  et  al.  1975,  et a l . 1976).  Blood  of  the  of  taken  technique,  venous b l o o d  s a m p l e s were  electrochemical  The  of  technique  The  Guillot  sterile  cephalic vein.  sampling  were t a k e n  measurements were  t h r e s h o l d was  lactate  curve;  the  versus  determined first  by  by  two  visual  "breakaway"  i n d i c a t o r of the l a c t a t e t h r e s h o l d ( f i g . independently  treadmill  researchers.  speed.  inspection  p o i n t was  the  1) and was e s t a b l i s h e d  Similarly,  by  examining  t h e e x c e s s CO2 e l i m i n a t i o n c u r v e s f o r e a c h s u b j e c t t h e v e n t i l a t o r y threshold McKenzie have  was  determined  1984)  (fig.2).  been  reported  (Volkov The  elsewhere  et  a l . 1975,  reliability (Sucec  et  of  Rhodes these  a l . 1982,  and  methods Goodman  1982) . During  t h e s e c o n d s e s s i o n t h e s u b j e c t s r a n f o r 60  minutes  on t h e t r e a d m i l l a t a h e a r t r a t e c o r r e s p o n d i n g threshold. of work. the  This  I t was  lactate  monitored  The  Room t e m p e r a t u r e run  the  gas  collection  the  initial  was  lactate  a t t a i n e d w i t h i n 10  minutes  e v e r y 5 m i n u t e s and when i t e x c e e d e d  subjects  the  treadmill  were  allowed  was m a i n t a i n e d a t 23°C.  treadmill  to  rate  threshold value,  accordingly.  lactate  heart  to t h e i r  was  stopped  apparatus  return test  to  and  normal.  to exhaustion.  measured d u r i n g the f i r s t  minutes  a l l o w any The  to  drink  water.  to  apply  elevation in  subjects  The  reduced,  F o l l o w i n g the 60-minute  f o r 2-10 to  s p e e d was  then  physiological  the blood  repeated parameters  s e s s i o n were r e - e v a l u a t e d .  Statistical Analysis. The using  statistical  three  two-way  s i g n i f i c a n c e was  significance  of  MANOVA d e s i g n s .  p<0.05.  The  data  was  chosen  M u l t i p l e comparisons using  method w e r e f u r t h e r a p p l i e d t o d e t e c t b e t w e e n p r e and p o s t v a l u e s . was  the  evaluated level  of  Scheffe's  significant differences  The 10 p e r c e n t l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e  used f o r these comparisons ( S c h e f f e \  1959).  8  III. Physical in  RESULTS  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the subjects  are presented  T a b l e 1. TABLE 1.  P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of S u b j e c t s (Means + Trained (n=6)  Measures Age (year) H e i g h t (cm) Weight ( k g ) V0 max ( m l ' k g -  1  2  -  * Significant differences  The  statistical  reflected  Untrained (n=6)  25.2+2 .0 170.0+5.4 65.0+3 .9 59.6+2.7  min !)  25.3+3.1 180.5+10.1 79.2+10.0* 46.8+3.2*  b e t w e e n g r o u p s a t p<0.05  differences  i n V02max  their training status.  between  In a d d i t i o n ,  the  runners weighed s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s than t h e u n t r a i n e d The  physiological  averaged  data  i s summarized  59.6+2.7 and 46.8+3.2 m l ' k g  r u n n e r s and u n t r a i n e d  - 1  trained  runners' reduction  The and  lactate  7.7+0.5  pectively. thresholds but  only  mph  treadmill  threshold  was  f o r the trained  V02max  These v a l u e s  'min , respectively ,  - 1  - 1  run.  However,  found  to occur  and u n t r a i n e d  The 60-min r u n c a u s e d r e d u c t i o n s  only  the  a t 9.6 + 0.8  subjects,  i n both  t o 9.3+0.7 mph ( t r a i n e d ) and 7.6+0.3 mph  (fig.3).  subjects.  was s i g n i f i c a n t ( p < 0 . 1 0 ) .  the trained subjects'  different  trained  f o r the trained  - 1  individuals, respectively.  the one-hour  groups  i n T a b l e 2.  *min  w e r e r e d u c e d t o 56 .9+2 .8 and 45 .0+2 .6 m l * k g following  SD)  aerobic  of these  (untrained),  v a l u e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  The p r o l o n g e d  res-  exercise  (p<0.10) d i d not  change  significantly  responding  the percentage  t o the l a c t a t e  82.7+8.9  of 0  2  threshold; Trained  (%VC>2max) a n d U n t r a i n e d :  consumption : 81.5+9.3  80.2+6.5 v e r s u s  cor-  versus  82.2+4.8  (%V02max).  The  ventilatory  t h r e s h o l d was  ( t r a i n e d ) and 8.0+0.6 mph cantly and  (p<0.10) s h i f t e d  7.2+0.5 mph  recorded  a t 8.9+0.8  mph  ( u n t r a i n e d ) . The 60-min r u n s i g n i f i these  v a l u e s t o 8.2+0.6 mph ( t r a i n e d )  (untrained)(fig. 3).  As i n t h e c a s e  of the  l a c t a t e t h r e s h o l d , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f O2 c o n s u m p t i o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g to  the v e n t i l a t o r y  in  both  groups;  t h r e s h o l d d i d not change  Trained:  76.1+8.6 v e r s u s  significantly  73.4+8.7  and U n t r a i n e d : 81.5+7.6 v e r s u s 78.5+6.5 ( % V 0 2 m a x ) . it  was o b s e r v e d  tended  that although the lactate  to increase following  threshold The  t h e 60-min  (XVO^max) moved i n t h e o p p o s i t e total  significantly  treadmill  time  (p<0.10) reduced  (XVO^max)  Furthermore,  t h r e s h o l d (%VQ max) 2  run, the v e n t i l a t o r y direction.  (TTT) on t h e V 0 m a x 2  i n both  trained  test  was  (925.0+61.9  v e r s u s 882.5+77.3 s e c ) and u n t r a i n e d (730.0+52.5 v e r s u s 652.5+75.7 sec) s u b j e c t s . No s i g n i f i c a n t at  c h a n g e s were o b s e r v e d  i n the heart  rates  t h e t i m e t h e l a c t a t e t h r e s h o l d o c c u r r e d ; T r a i n e d : 166.5+8.3  versus  167.3+9.0  167.0+11.1 The threshold  (b/min)  and  Untrained:  167.3+8.3  versus  (b/min).  respiratory was  (0.99+0.06  quotient  significantly  versus  corresponding  (p<0.10) r e d u c e d  0.95+0.03) and u n t r a i n e d  t o the l a c t a t e i n both  trained  (1.04+0.03 v e r s u s  0.96+0.04) The  subjects.  ventilatory  %V0 max). c o r r e l a t e d no  significant  any o f t h e v a r i a b l e s status  seemed  However, we  by  might  lactate  no  were  obtained  Thus we c o n c l u d e t h a t  effect  v i s u a l l y examining  (expressed  on  unequal changes  we  observed.  speculated  i n some o f t h e  in  training  the changes  the data  in  ruT=0.54.  interactions  measured.  t o have  obtain  thresholds  v e r y l o w ; r f = 0 . 4 2 and  2  Finally,  and  that  variables.  I n d e e d , by u s i n g S c h e f f e " t e s t s , i n two o f t h e v a r i a b l e s  (lactate  threshold,  changes  between  V02tnax) t h e g r o u p s  pre-post,  significant .  although  d i d not  the o v e r a l l  show  equal  interaction  was  non-  11  TABLE 2 . P h y s i o l o g i c a l Data o f S u b j e c t s  Measures  Trained Pre  LT  9.6+0.8  LT (%V0 max) VT  (mph)  VT  (%V0 max)  Untrained Pre  (n=6) Post  9.3+0.7*  7.7+0.5  7.6+0.3  81.5+9.3  82.7+8.9  80.2+6.5  82.2+4.8  8.9+0 .8  8.2+0.6*  8.0+0 .6  7.2+0.5*  76.1+8.6  73.4+8.7  81.5+7.6  78.5+6.5  59.6+2 .7 V0 max ) (ml*kg-l*min  56.9+2.8*  46.8+3.2  45.0+2.6  TTT ( s e c )  882.5+77.3*  730.0+52.5  652^75.7*  (mph) •  2  •  2  •  2  (n=6) Post  (Means+SD)  1  HR T L  (b/min)  RLT LT YT V0 max TTT HRLT RLX 2  : : : : ' •  925.0+61.9 166.5+8.3  167.3+9.0  167.3+8.3  167.0+11.1  0.99+0.06  0.95+0.03*  1.04+0.03  0.96jO.O4*  Lactate threshold Ventilatory threshold Maximum 0 consumption T o t a l t r e a d m i l l t i m e on t h e V 0 m a x t e s t Heart r a t e a t the l a c t a t e t h r e s h o l d Respiratory quotient at the l a c t a t e threshold 2  2  * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n p r e - p o s t a t p<0.10  FIGURE 3. Lactate (LT) and ventilatory (VT) threshold values before and after 60 mln of exercise.Trained ( ) versus untrained ( ). The asterisk indicates significant differences between prepost at p<0.05.  IV. The  DISCUSSION  s u b j e c t s examined i n t h i s study c o n s t i t u t e  geneous g r o u p s ; w e l l - t r a i n e d  endurance a t h l e t e s  two  and  hetero-  untrained  •  individuals.  Differences  threshold  attributed  are  evidence Volkov that  (Dunwoody and  et  a l . 1975,  trained  i n VC^max, l a c t a t e to  the  training  Rhodes 1981,  MacDougall  individuals  the  two  were  groups  found,  however,  when t h e y  on  our  VC^max,  v e n t i l a t o r y t h r e s h o l d s than u n t r a i n e d i n d i v i d u a l s . differences  the  were e x p r e s s e d  Previous  McKenzie  supports  higher  ventilatory  status.  Rhodes and  1977)  have  and  finding  lactate  and  No s i g n i f i c a n t  thresholds as  1984,  a  between  percentage  of  •  V02max.  This  (1982). a  much  As  finding  i t was  longer  subjects. lactate  time  threshold  groups.  for  heart  on  the  the  agreement the  VC^max  not et  et  Hughes e t  the  lactate  of  importance  modification  prior  the  we  procedure  glycogen  to  shown  concentrations  (Miller  special  et 13  to  the  between  similar  Hughson  threshold.  in  lasted  values  threshold  levels.  ventilatory  resulted  al.  untrained  ventilatory  and  testing.  the  different  substrate  the  followed  than  that  a  et  subjects  corresponding  the  fitness  consider  to  to  Kowalchuk  and  Parkhouse  a l . (1982) r e p o r t e d  a l . (1982) have  affects high  rates  corresponding  a l . (1981),  test  significantly  i n three groups w i t h d i f f e r e n t Ivy  with  well-trained  heart  were  Parkhouse rates  in  expected,  Finally,  the  is  We  (1981),  availability Thus  training feel  similar  a l . , 1983).  and  it  and  diet  confident pretest In  was  that  muscle  addition,  the  i n t e n s i t y and d u r a t i o n  such  that  which at  i t excluded  would  of our exercise  a s i g n i f i c a n t muscle glycogen  cause  fatigue;  i n exhaustive  8 0 % o f V02max  (Costill  e t a l . , 1971-b),  V0 max  (Costill  2  (Sherman been the  implicated  as t h e cause  obtained  i n this  glycogen  in  response  study  Following significant threshold,  reductions  and t o t a l  threshold,  ml * k g  post-exercise  threshold  - 1  subjects  Wiswell  shown  showed  with  2 hours  of  group.  of the exercise  the s i g n i f i c a n t l y  exhaustive  lower  R that  the lowering  was a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e r e d u c t i o n  level  The  i n that  i n d i c a t e d a change i n t h e t y p e o f f u e l  lactate  (1980),  a similar fitness  - 1  duration  et a l .  i n VC^max a n d v e n t i l a t o r y  " m i n ) as o u r t r a i n e d  Consequently,  V02max,  has been  l a c t a t e and v e n t i l a t o r y  following  runners  and t h e l o n g  particularly,  which  t r e a d m i l l t i m e on t h e VC^max t e s t ; 4.5%,  i n marathon  utilized.  Consequently,  Keeping the l a b o r a t o r y  run the trained  i n VC^max,  respectively,  ( V 0 2 m a x = 57.3  and,  t h e 60-min  an 8.4% a n d 1 0 . 7 % r e d u c t i o n s  intensity  has not  ( G i l m a n and Lemon, 1 9 8 2 ) .  7.9%, and 4.6%, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  running  depletion  are hot attributed to  to exercise  to a f f e c t the l a c t a t e threshold  reported  o f 72.5 min  temperature avoided environmental induced v a r i a t i o n s  the metabolic  3.1%,  depletion  69.4 m i n a t 8 0 %  of the fatigue.  the d e p l e t i o n o f muscle g l y c o g e n s t o r e s . at constant  runs  were  e t a l . , 1 9 7 1 - c ) , and 83 m i n a t 8 6 % o f V02max  e t a l . , 1981) muscle  results  protocol  was  high  study found  substrate  of the v e n t i l a t o r y of muscle  and v e n t i l a t o r y t h r e s h o l d ,  glycogen. and  total  treadmill the  time  untrained  pectively.  subjects  different.  the l i t e r a t u r e  test  were  also  decreased i n  by 3.8%, 1.3%, 1 0 . 0 % , a n d 1 0 . 6 % ,  However, o n l y  ificantly in  o n t h e VC^max  the last  Due t o l a c k  two v a r i a b l e s w e r e  of pertinent  ressign-  information  we c a n n o t compare t h e s e f i n d i n g s w i t h  other  studies. In  both  groups,  t h e l a c t a t e and v e n t i l a t o r y  e x p r e s s e d i n %V02max, a s w e l l a s , t h e h e a r t  rate corresponding  t o t h e l a c t a t e t h r e s h o l d showed no s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s the  following  60-min r u n . For  that  the reasons  those  changes  we  proposed  obtained  above  following  attributed  t o t h e muscle  is  s u p p o r t e d by t h e p o s t - R  further  the  subjects  threshold to  thresholds  were  would  0.95(T)  explanation  the  thresholds,  factors:  expected  that  influenced  were  i s t h e combined  minute  o f body  found  obtained; i f  R at the lactate t o 0.70,  contrary  post-exercise.  f o r those effects  The  reductions  in  of the following  temperature  v e n t i l a t i o n (Sutton  run are  Our s p e c u l a t i o n we  their  t o be c l o s e  we c a n o f f e r  1) e l e v a t i o n  t h e 60-min  values  depleted  a n d 0.96(UT) t h a t  only  do n o t b e l i e v e  glycogen depletion.  glycogen  have  we  which,  and J o n e s ,  possibly 1979);  2)  e l e c t r o l y t e and f l u i d u n b a l a n c e a s b r o u g h t a b o u t w i t h p r o l o n g e d exercise 3)  (Costill  the shift-  (ST)  to fast  muscular  e t a l . 1 9 7 0 , Wyndham  of muscle twitch  fatigue  and Strydom  fibers recruited  ( F T ) ( B r o o k s and Fahey,  caused  by a f a i l u r e  from  slow  1984);  i n neural  1968); twitch  4) n e u r o -  transmission  (McArdle  et  a l . 1981);  and  5)  a  reduction  in  efficiency  of  running. As was in  a l l of  the  shown by the  training The  the  interactions,  v a r i a b l e s measured  the r e d u c t i o n s  seem  to  be  observed  unaffected  by  status.  use  of  CO2  excess  and  lactate  measurements  for  the  d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f v e n t i l a t o r y and l a c t a t e t h r e s h o l d s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , was  shown  et  a l . 1975,  Ivy  et  that  to  be  Rhodes  a l . 1981,  the  valid  as  and  invasive  and  et  e t a l . 1982,  both  1984,  non-invasive  Studies  methods  et a l . 1976).  almost  a l .  have  of  1982,  revealed  determining  coincide.  et a l .  These p a p e r s Other  suggest  authors  (Hughes  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , w h i l e Simon e t a l .  ( 1 9 8 3 - a ) and G u t i n e t a l .  (1980)  reported  threshold  lactate low  threshold.  In  the  c o r r e l a t i o n s between  %V02max); changes in  ventilatory  i n gas  plasma  the This  r x = 0 . 4 2 and  lactate  opposite was  studies  an  was  in  the  thresholds  three  two  literature  of  we  Furthermore, before  six  i n three  unanticipated  i n the  study,  occurred  observed  occurred  present  ruT=0.54.  exchange  however,  1981,  lower  the  a l . 1982),  Yoshida  reported  that  et  et  (Volkov  m e t a b o l i s m c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y between  Davis  Denis  methods  Sucec  K u m a g a i e t a l . 1982,  thresholds  a l . 1982,  reliable  Kumagai e t a l . 1 9 8 2 ) .  them ( I v y e t a l . 1981,  that  as  McKenzie  the t h r e s h o l d of anaerobic  Caiozzo  well  of  finding reveal  a  a  before  observed  very  (expressed the  marked  s i x untrained the  coincidence  in  associated increase  t r a i n e d subjects,  because  the  while  subjects.  majority of  the  of two  "breakaway" p o i n t s . threshold the  may  B a s e d on  occur before  concept that  Whipp  and  Davis  the  60-min  the  decrease  the  decrease  in  in  run in  by Wasserman e t a l . ( 1 9 7 3 ) ,  Furthermore,  ventilation.  thresholds,  lactate  threshold  is  not  lactate  following  threshold  (%V02max) moved i n t h e  threshold  the  very  highly  studies  metabolism stays it  the  and  is possible taken  the  marathon  theorized race  at  starts;  unaltered  accuracy,  (Rhodes  either  with  i t was  throughout  60-min  F a r r e l l e t a l . 1979)  (using  to  that  was  greater  than  in  mph)  of  a f f e c t p e r f o m a n c e h a v e t o be  the  by  the to  ventilatory  1984,  Sjodin  have c o r r e l a t e d the or  marathoners point that  the  race  that  optimal.  are  the and,  able  those to  run  anaerobic  critical  point  consequently,  performance  a l l other  method) In  before  and  anaerobic  non-invasive  performance.  endurance  account  increase  supported  while  critical  end  the  blood  (%V02fnax) t e n d e d  McKenzie  assumed  predict  into  observed  opposite d i r e c t i o n .  running  that  the  run,  invasive  that  i t was  until  effect  we  for  is also  threshold  increase  J a c o b s 1981,  the  (expressed  responsible  conclusion  the  Investigators  at  f i n d i n g s u g g e s t s , o n c e more, t h a t  This  that  these  looking  ventilatory threshold  This  question  hypothesized  the the  we  l a c t a t e l e a d to the v e n t i -  on  in  the v e n t i l a t o r y  lactate threshold,  had  accumulation  observation  f i n d i n g that  i n blood  (1979).  both groups.  lactate  the  increases  l a t o r y c h a n g e s as i t was  our  with  factors  high which  In a d d i t i o n , L a F o n t a i n e  e t a l . ( 1 9 8 1 ) , F a r r e l e t a l . ( 1 9 7 9 ) , and  Kumagai e t a l . ( 1 9 8 2 )  have  also  with  performace  miles.  correlated  the anaerobic  at various  However, based  the v a l i d i t y  thresholds  i n predicting  t o 60 m i n d u r a t i o n  conclude were  unable  threshold appear such  t h e same  of using  endurance  a n d VC^max  a s V02max,  running  2 up  performance  t o 10 study,  reductions  sample  i n events  athletes.  athletes,  of our untrained  t o be due t o t h e s m a l l  from  highly  of the present  for well-trained  significant  very  t h e v e n t i l a t o r y and l a c t a t e  for recreational  t o show  races  on t h e f i n d i n g s  we q u e s t i o n  up  shorter  threshold  economy, muscle  also  although  we  i n the l a c t a t e  subjects;  size.  We  this  Other fiber  would  factors,  composition,  and s u b s t r a t e a v a i l a b i l i t y may a l s o be o f i m p o r t a n c e i n p r e d i c t i n g e n d u r a n c e p e r f o r m a n c e i n e v e n t s up t o 60 m i n  duration.  V.  REFERENCES  A r m s t r o n g , R o b e r t B. E n e r g y R e l e a s e i n t h e E x t r a f u s a l M u s c l e Fiber. In Knuttgen, H.G. N e u r o m u s c u l a r M e c h a n i s m s f o r T h e r a p e u t i c and C o n d i t i o n i n g E x e r c i s e . U n i v e r s i t y Park P r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , pp. 55-78, 1976. A s t r a n d P.O., a n d K. R o d a h l . Textbook (2nd e d . ) . New Y o r k : McGraw, 1 9 7 7 . Ball  o f Work  Physiology,  M., G r e e n H., Hughson R. a n d O r r G. V e n t i l a t o r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n p r o g r e s s i v e work a b o v e a n d b e l o w t h e a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d - c o m p a r i s o n o f arm a n d l e g e r g o m e t r y . Med. 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Med. S c i . S p o r t s Ex. 1 2 ( 2 ) , 8 7 , 1980, (abstract).  27 V o l k o v N . I . , S h i r k o v e t s E.A., and B o r i l k e v i c h V.E. Assessment o f A e r o b i c and A n a e r o b i c C a p a c i t y o f A t h l e t e s i n T r e a d m i l l Running Tests. Eur. J . Appl. P h y s i o l . 34, 121-130, 1975. W a s s e r m a n K. Breathing 298, 7 8 0 - 7 8 5 , 1978.  during  exercise.  N.  Engl. J .  Wasserman K., M c l l r o y M. D e t e c t i n g the Threshold of Metabolism i n Cardiac P a t i e n t s During E x e r c i s e . C a r d i o l o g y . 14, 8 4 4 - 8 5 2 , 1964.  Med.  Anaerobic Amer. J .  Wasserman K., Whipp B . J . , and D a v i s J.A. R e s p i r a t o r y P h y s i o l o g y of e x e r c i s e : M e t a b o l i s m , g a s e x c h a n g e and v e n t i l a t o r y control. I n W i d d i c o m b e J.G. ( e d ) . I n t e r n a t i o n a l Review of P h y s i o l o g y . 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Physiol. 49: 2 2 3 - 2 3 0 , 1982.  APPENDIX A - REVIEW OF LITERATURE Introduction Although the concept of the anaerobic threshold twenty  y e a r s a g o (Wasserman e t a l . , 1 9 6 4 ) ,  temporary clinical  issue  exercise  Different changes  to  that  initial oxygen  practical  i t remains  application  lactate  occur  consumption,  i s now u s e d  concentration  with  non-linear  incremental  increase  in  i s termed  been d e f i n e d as t h e l a c t a t e  to characterize  the  and v e n t i l a t o r y  gas  exercise  intensities.  o r excess CO2, r e l a t i v e  the v e n t i l a t o r y  threshold; intensity  i n f l e c t i o n point.  B a s i c s c i e n t i s t s do n o t a g r e e on t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l surrounding the  lactate etal. and of  these  alterations values 1981).  Hughes  thresholds.  has been  reported  the ventilatory  be r e l a t e d  1981).  correlation  between  and a c o n t i n u o u s  rise in  (Davis  e t a l . 1976, Y o s h i d a  have  threshold  demonstrated and l a c t a t e  t h e mechanisms c o n t r o l l i n g  t o acid-base  balance  (Wasserman  point.  controversial  they would  i n t e r m s o f p e r f o r m a n c e and m u s c l e  29  uncoupling  inflection  these  equivocally  an  appear  e t a l . 1973,  T h i s has a d i r e c t p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n t o the  individuals  events  Hagberg et a l . (1982) , H e i g e n h a u s e r et a l . ( 1 9 8 3 ) ,  e v e n t s have n o t been e l u c i d a t e d to  A high  i n gas exchange  e t a l . (1982)  Thus a l t h o u g h  con-  t o s p o r t s and  the "breakaway" p o i n t f o r b l o o d l a c t a t e v e r s u s e x e r c i s e has  a  physiology.  terminology  i n blood  exchange The  with  originated  exercising  fatigue.  30  This paper r e p r e s e n t s a c u r r e n t review of the i n f o r m a t i o n and  mechanisms o f t h e a n a e r o b i c  t h r e s h o l d and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n  to sport science.  Measurement and D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e A n a e r o b i c T h r e s h o l d  Wasserman e t a l . of  the onset  (1973) determined the n o n i n v a s i v e i n d i c a t o r s  of anaerobic  metabolism.  Eighty-five  s u b j e c t s b e t w e e n 17 and 91 y e a r s o f a g e were g i v e n exercise  tests  15W  every  The  anaerobic  of  3) an  decrease  threshold could  i n end-tidal  treadmill  the  C0  be  increments  identified  i n Vg  i n end-tidal  0  without  2  a  the point increase i n  corresponding  2  versus  s p e e d s on a h o r i z o n t a l  where 2  against  incremental  excess  C0  running  2  was  middle-distance  the expired a i r : ExcC0  corresponding  determine  the running  of  anaerobic  metabolism  running speed  2  throughout  speeds  corresponding  running  V^^M» speed  VC0 2  i t was p o s s i b l e to threshold  (VXAM)» c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y  not exceeding  H o w e v e r , when  runners.  i nsemilogarithmic  a c i d o s i s and i n c r e a s e i n a r t e r i a l b l o o d l a c t a t e . a t low speeds  excess  (ml/kg/min)=  2  By p l o t t i n g t h e v a l u e s o f E x c C 0  to  slightly.  examined.  measurements o f  Rarest X V 0 .  that  of  C 0 , and 4) an i n c r e a s e i n R.  was m e a s u r e d by s a m p l i n g  2  by  2) n o n l i n e a r  of four h i g h l y experienced  tests  scale  with  e t a l . (1975) i n v e s t i g a t e d  plotted  Excess  increase  increase  Volkov 2  ergometer  incremental  m i n u t e w h i l e changes i n gas exchange were  : 1) n o n l i n e a r  VCO2  C0  on t h e b i c y c l e  normal  ExcC0  metabolic  They 2  exceeded  observed  changed V^AM»  only  ExcC0  2  exhibited  a rapid exponential  corresponding  increase.  t o t h e "breakaway"  The r u n n i n g  point  gave  the value of  f° w h i c h a s y s t e m a t i c i n c r e a s e o f a n a e r o b i c r  VTAM>  metabolism  began.  A d d i t i o n a l l y , they n o t i c e d t h a t s u b j e c t s w i t h  levels  of training  the  speed  increase; at  a t which the best  exhibited  considerable  ExcC02 b e g a n  speed  different  differences i n  t o show a r a p i d  exponential  t r a i n e d a t h l e t e met t h e " b r e a k a w a y "  a significantly  higher  speed  than  d i d the least  point  trained  athlete. Sankar e t a l . (1978) threshold  by oxygen  examined  pulse.  T h i r t y - f o u r male  aged 1 9 - 3 1 were used f o r t h e s t u d y . with of The  determination  pulse  subjects  blood  i n similar  underwent  subjects  incremental  l a c t a t e s and other  firefighters,  They c h o s e t h o s e  V02max o f < 3 . 7 5 1 / m i n b e c a u s e t h e y  oxygen  of anaerobic  observed  with  very  treadmill  pulse  8 0 % o f VC^max.  t o approximately  approximately  3 0 mg/dl  The o x y g e n  7 0 % o f VC^max and p l a t e a u x  after  that..  Between  R, HR, PETO2, a n d l a c t a t e  60-70%  increased  continuing increased  or at lactic  acid  at approximately •  ml/beat  while  c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y v a r i a b l e s were  to  of  VC^max.  exercise  work  linearly  no p l a t e a u  high  measured a t t h e f o u r t h minute o f s t e a d y - s t a t e approximately  subjects  •  o f V0 max, 2  VE,  18  •  VCO2,  out of proportion to  •  VO2 i n d i c a t i n g t h e o n s e t o f m e t a b o l i c a c i d o s i s . concluded be  that  t h e index  of oxygen p u l s e  curvilinear  plateauing  of the metabolic  The i n v e s t i g a t o r s  of oxygen  acidosis,  i s a measure o f a p p r o a c h i n g  pulse  could  and t h e l e v e l i n g VC^max.  According anaerobic lactate et  to  Wasserman  threshold  level,  threshold  prolonged  that  running and by  on  heart  the  of  each  determined  speed  determined  the  rate  for  determined 30  min  continuously.  The  an  approximately  to  10 min  of  the  lasting as the  and  min  determined arterial  was  first  above  then of  4  mmol/1 the  twofold  the  capacity  oxygen  determined additional  30  The  heart  min.  b / m i n ) was while  In o r d e r  l a c t a t e to  kept  continuously  constant  f o r 4 mmol/1 l a c t a t e ,  lactate concentration  was  the  had  to  to  be  reduced  displayed 4 mmol/1  When t h e  nearly  heart  constant  r e d u c e d as  heart  remained  f o r the kept  constant  rate  the t r e a d m i l l  be  when c o m p a r e d  a  intake  two  exercise  with  by  underwent  t r e a d m i l l speed.  performed  skiers  determined  lactate concentration  t h a t was  1973,  cross-country  t r e a d m i l l speed  rise  the  lactate levels  same l a c t a t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n  arterial  of  in  o f 4 mmol/1 w e r e  second e x e r c i s e .  after  reduction 30  the  duration,  elevated  t r e a d m i l l speed,  duration  f o r the  unchanged d u r i n g  for  a  of  increase  However, Kinderman  l a c t a t e ) was  f o r 4 mmol/1 l a c t a t e (174  duration  the  A f t e r t h e i r maximal working  subjects  with  first  1978)  intensities  Seven  rates at l a c t a t e l e v e l s  exercises,  the  time.  treadmill,  The  1973,  Wasserman e t a l . ( 1964,  performance,  interpolation.  for  load  with s l i g h t l y  periods  r a t e , VO2,  by  the  2 mmol/1.  work  defined  were used i n t h a t s t u d y . (heart  with  to approximately  1 9 7 8 ) , c a n be m a i n t a i n e d for  a l . (1964,  coincides  a l . (1979) showed  anaerobic  et  a  result  exercise  running rate  up  speed  rose  4 mmol/1  and  during  the whole e x e r c i s e . of  thresholds,  I.  Aerobic first  II.  F i n a l l y , t h e a u t h o r s s u g g e s t e d new c o n c e p t s  as f o l l o w s : threshold  significant  : approximately elevation  increase  o f V g , RQ.  Aerobic  - anaerobic  2 mmol/1  lactate -  of l a c t a t e l e v e l ,  nonlinear  transition  : approximately  2 to  4 mmol/1 l a c t a t e . III.  Anaerobic threshold  : approximately  part  increase  of exponential  4 mmol/1 l a c t a t e - s t e e p  i n lactate  concentration.  M c L e l l a n e t a l . ( 1 9 8 1 ) do n o t a g r e e w i t h t h e a b o v e lactate  l e v e l s o f 2 and 4 mmol/1 f o r t h e a e r o b i c  threshold,  respectively.  They  designed  and  a study  t h e y i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e f f e c t o f work l o a d d u r a t i o n and  d i r e c t determinations  holds. the  S i x subjects  work  load  3 or 4 min. plot the  underwent  was i n c r e a s e The f i r s t  o f VE v e r s u s determination  while  of the aerobic  t h e work  15W  cycle each  and second  VO2 were  used  of the aerobic load  anaerobic i n which  on i n d i r e c t  and a n a e r o b i c  ergometer  thres-  tests  while  1 o r 2 m i n a n d 30W "breakaway"  points  a s an i n d i r e c t and a n a e r o b i c  a t an i n i t i a l  designated  rise  each  i n the  method f o r thresholds,  i n l a c t a t e and t h e  o n s e t o f t h e r a p i d r i s e i n l a c t a t e was u s e d a s a d i r e c t m e t h o d . The  f i n d i n g s showed t h a t r e l a t i v e a e r o b i c a n d a n a e r o b i c  values (60.13 aerobic  were  significantly  v s . 52.03%  higher  V0 max,  and a n a e r o b i c  2  f o r the 4 versus  threshold 1 min t e s t  a n d 85.09 v s . 7 7 . 5 2 % V 0 2 m a x , f o r  threshold,  respectively).  Lactic  acid  at  aerobic  versus  1  levels  at  threshold  rain  test  but  anaerobic  with  these  those  a t a e r o b i c and  Based  on  although at  arbitrary anaerobic on  the  there  values  was  levels  and  anaerobic  and  do  not  threshold  for  the  difference in a d d i t i o n , VO2  found  to  be  and  associated  different  4 mmol/1 a r e  threshold,  always  from  indirectly.  vary  that  usually  found  r e s p e c t i v e l y , they  are  Relative aerobic  and  apply.  may  3  lactate  i n v e s t i g a t o r s concluded  2  values  higher  threshold determined  the of  no In  was  anaerobic  findings  lactate  aerobic  significantly  threshold.  lactate  these  was  significantly  depending  test protocol.  Davis  et  a l . (1983)  examined  whether  the  gas  exchange  anaerobic threshold occurs at a f i x e d blood l a c t a t e concentration of  2  or  years)  4  mM.  Twelve  underwent  males  and  incremental  two  cycle  females  (mean  ergometer  gas e x c h a n g e and l a c t a t e m e a s u r e m e n t s w e r e t a k e n . threshold  was  chosen  •  systematic  and  4)  the  VO2  4mM  four  criteria  tests The  : 1)  systematic •  without  increase  i n blood  f o r each  lactate,  criterion  3)  2  mM  lactate,  Subsequently they  compared  among a l l s u b j e c t s . •  findings  showed  criterion  was  1/min,  for  1/min.  The  VE/V02  that  1.819 the last  anaerobic  the  mean  value  1/min, f o r t h e  third two  of  second  2 . 0 9 9 1/min, and values  threshold  •  a concomitant increase i n VE/VC02,  lactate concentrations.  values  while  anaerobic  •  increase in Vg/V02, 2)  using  age=22.3  differed result,  VO2  for  criterion f o r the  well  as  the was  from  between  •  VE/VO2  fourth  significantly as  Their •  1.863 2.847 the them.  In  a d d i t i o n , the maximal  exchange to  anaerobic  the second,  These the  threshold  third,  observations  anaerobic  percent  differences  were  and f o u r t h  from  the gas  1 7 , 4 1 , and 87 c o m p a r e d criterion,  respectively.  l e d t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s t o conclude  threshold  discerned  from  l a c t a t e b r e a k p o i n t does n o t c o r r e s p o n d  gas exchange with a fixed,  that  or the absolute  l a c t a t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f 2 o r 4 mM. Simon e t a l . ( 1 9 8 2 ) d e s i g n e d whether t h e i n v a s i v e anaerobic anaerobic and  threshold  untrained  an e x p e r i m e n t t o i n v e s t i g a t e  threshold  (ATn) occur  sedentary  men.  (AT^) and  together  noninvasive  i n both  trained  T h e AT^ was d e t e r m i n e d  from  a m a r k e d i n c r e a s e i n p l a s m a l a c t a t e a n d t h e ATn f r o m a n o n l i n e a r increase findings  i n Vg d u r i n g showed  that  incremental  leg cycling  tests.  The  t h e t r a i n e d s u b j e c t s ' AT-^ ( 6 8 . 8 % VC^max)  and ATn ( 6 5 . 8 % VC^max) d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y .  Additional  observations  mean  lactate from  showed  concentration  the untrained  (11.5  that  mM).  the trained  ( 1 0 . 5 mM)  subjects'  However,  subjects'  d i d not d i f f e r  mean p e a k  lactate  significantly concentration  t h e mean t i m e o f a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e p e a k  l a c t a t e concentration during passive recovery occurred cantly  earlier  untrained to  f o r the trained  (4.3 m i n ) . This  suggest  from muscle individuals.  that  there  to blood  peak  (1.8 min) compared  signifit o the  observation  l e d the i n v e s t i g a t o r s  may be a s l o w e r  lactate translocation  i n the untrained  compared  to trained  Rupp for  (1981)  investigated  the determination  Twenty  men  and  whether 4  of the anaerobic  women  served  as  different  threshold  subjects  methods  are  similar.  f o r the study  and  they underwent a maximal i n c r e m e n t a l b i c y c l e ergometer e x e r c i s e . The in  methods V  VCO2)  and  E  tested  method  in FEC0 ),  decrease  were  : Method 2(M  method  2  -  2  - nonlinear in FE0  increase  (M3  3  1(M^  M4  and from  Their  (32 and  M1  and M  findings V0  31  ( 2 0 . 7 and  2  showed  ml/kg)  2  V0  2  2  as w o r k  intensity  significantly m l / k g ) . 2) No  The  126.7 of  heart  rate  b/min)  M3  M4  and  difference and M 4 .  was  a t w h i c h M^  and  significantly  (164.7  between  and  b/min).  rate  o f M^  from 4)  and  M  ( 1 3 0 . 5 and  Ui  or between  5) The h e a r t r a t e o f f e m a l e s ( 1 5 1 . 3 b / m i n ) was  and  different ificant M3  and  1) M i  (53.6 and  2  than M  3  and M  difference M4.  different Based  M  on  8)  these  and  M  2  and M4 m e a s u r e  % V0 max  (71.2 (64.2%  2  t h e same a n a e r o b i c  methods.  7) No 2  or  sign-  between  significantly  across  a l l methods.  the author's  t h e same  signi-  were  2  V0 max)  M3  significantly  b e t w e e n M-[ and M  2  observations measure  were 2  i n % V0 max  males  2  ( 8 4 and 8 1 . 3 % V 0 m a x ) .  4  Females  than  V0 max)  51.9%  rate  significant  f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t t h a n males (139.2 b/min) a c r o s s a l l 6)  ml/kg).  2  heart  No 2  M3  significant  occurred  2  different  159.2  heart  M  : 1)  different  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n m a l e s and f e m a l e s ( 2 6 . 4 and 25.2 V 0 3)  a  increase  the following  were  19.7  without  2  - second n o n l i n e a r  i n V g ) , and method 4 ( M 4 - a d e c r e a s e i n F E C 0 increased).  increase  conclusions  were:  threshold,  2) M3  anaerobic threshold,  3) a  distinction  exists  between  and  % V0 max),  are  higher  , M  a n d M3 ,  2  4) anaerobic  2  than  those  M4 ( V 0  threshold  o f men,  than  S u c e c ( 1 9 8 1 ) d e s i g n e d an e x p e r i m e n t o f an  heart  rates  threshold  males.  t o examine t h e v a l i d i t y  incremental horizontal  protocol f o r  t h e c o n c u r r e n t d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f V 0 m a x and a n a e r o b i c  threshold  2  in  m a l e s and f e m a l e s .  runners the to  were  used  horizontal the paired  treadmill  f o r both sexes.  from  the horizontal reliable  The  males'  distance 2  were  t o be  The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a n a e r o b i c  threshold  protocol  was  found  t o be  f o r b o t h t h e m a l e s ( r = 0 . 8 6 ) and f e m a l e s at anaerobic  V0 J 2  equal  treadmill  treadmill  from  found  an i n c l i n e d  2  scores  female  T h e means o f V 0 m a x f o r  protocol  mean V 0 m a x  test  and  T w e l v e m a l e and t w e l v e  f o r the study.  rate,  f o r women  and 5 ) a n a e r o b i c  2  reliability  ml/kg,  heart  occurs a t a h i g h e r % V0 max i n females  and  2  threshold  valid  (r=0.93).  was 3 . 2 8  1/rnin o r  48.0  at anaerobic  threshold  was  •  ml/kg/min  while  significantly when of  the females'  lower  the anaerobic  their  V0  2.33 1/min o r 40.6 m l / k g / m i n . threshold  was e x p r e s s e d  V 0 m a x , no s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  2  the  males'  The  author  and  females',  concluded  2  72.3%  as a  percentage  was f o u n d  and 73.2%,  that horizontal  However,  between  respectively.  treadmill  protocol  will  •  produce  valid  and r e l i a b l e  V0 max 2  and a n a e r o b i c  threshold  v a l u e s s i m i l a r t o v a l u e s made d u r i n g i n c l i n e d t r e a d m i l l for  d i s t a n c e runners  of both  sexes.  In a d d i t i o n ,  protocol  males  have  a h i g h e r a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d when e x p r e s s e d i n 1 / m i n o r m l / k g / m i n , than  females,  b u t when  anaerobic  threshold  i s expressed  as  a % o f V02max i t i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f s e x . Caiozzo years  e t a l . (1982)  o f age showed  ventilatory  index  that  ^E/ 02 tested The  reliable  of the anaerobic •  threshold  •  •  •  2  the blood  correlation  indices  correlation  (1976,  al.  (1982) only  and  the anaerobic  are i n close  and D e n i s  lactate  threshold  f i t with  1979) and Sucec  0.71  anaerobic  a l l the  V g / V 0 2 i n d e x a l s o showed t h e h i g h e s t t e s t - r e t e s t t h e d e t e c t i o n \of  lactate  among  2  (r=0.93).  al.  findings  et a l . (1982),  e t a l . (1982)  and 0.77, r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  e t a l . (1983)  determinations  gas  were  among  underwent  exchange  values  designed  determine  independent  incremental  and l a c t a t e  were p l o t t e d  sent  ranging  while  These  Davis et  Hughes e t  a  between  a study  correlation ventilatory  time.  t o 9 independent the anaerobic  cycle  lactate) from  was v e r y 0.16  the ventilatory  were  investigators  t o 0.82, w i t h threshold,  Sixteen while and t h e  these  plots  who w e r e a s k e d t o  Agreement  with  threshold  tests  taken,  Subsequently,  threshold.  poor  anaerobic  ergometer  measurements  versus  t o examine t h e  investigators.  dependently determined anaerobic threshold versus  from  reported  agreement between g a s exchange and l a c t a t e  subjects  (r=0.93).  thresholds.  Gladden  For  and  , V C O 2 , R, a n d V E / V 0 , was t h e V E / V 0 .  such as  correlations  of  sensitive  20 t o 31  threshold  for  with  16 s u b j e c t s  •  had t h e h i g h e s t  v  t h e most  f o r detection •  among i n d i c e s  examining  among  values  correlation a median  i n -  (ventilatory coefficients  value  the r ranged  the  from  o f 0.46. 0.37 t o  0.96 w i t h a m e d i a n o f 0.66, w h i l e the  r ranged  from  f o r the lactate  0.59 t o 0.97 w i t h a m e d i a n o f 0.72.  on t h e s e r e s u l t s t h e a u t h o r s s u g g e s t e d tions  of gas exchange  t h a t independent  and l a c t a t e  anaerobic  l e s s agreement than p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d . among i n d e p e n d e n t method  threshold, Based evalua-  t h r e s h o l d have  I n a d d i t i o n , agreement  investigators f o r a given anaerobic threshold  i s l e s s than t h a t p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d f o r i n v e s t i g a t o r s  within a given laboratory. Determination method was f o u n d anaerobic By  t o be a s v a l i d  10 m a l e  •  as w i t h a r t e r i a l (Yoshida  college-aged  not d i f f e r  et a l . ,  subjects  they  to  significantly  when  measured  coefficient  either  Furthermore,  o f r=0.86  between  e t a l . (1982) designed  determine  runners  who  velocity  the anaerobic  with  they  lactate  a noninvasive  threshold.  r u n c o n t i n u o u s l y on  o f 12-14 km/h  according  They  threshold  capability  at which  the l i n e a r i t y of running speed-heart  lost  that the  was c a l l e d  versus  running  while heart  and p l o t t e d  deflection  speeds.  velocity  correlated very highly  (1/min).  field  an  up t o s u b m a x i m a l v e l o c i t i e s  t o the runners'  gas  recorded  examined  t h e t r a c k from  recorded  was  1981).  observed  and g a s e x c h a n g e t h r e s h o l d when e x p r e s s e d i n VG>2 v a l u e s Conconi  lactate  , h e a r t r a t e , and R a t a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d  exchange o r l a c t a t e measurements. a correlation  blood  •  t h a t VC>2%, V02max, did  t h r e s h o l d by a D o u g l a s bag  t h r e s h o l d measurements  examining •  of anaerobic  210  initial varying  rates  The  test  were  velocity  rate relationship  (V^).  I t was shown  (r=0.99) w i t h t h e a n a e r o b i c  threshold the  determined  by  blood  reproducibility  of  the  lactate  determination  t o be h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t  (r=0.99).  very  between  high  correlations  measurements, was  Furthermore, and  while  also  they  found  recorded  competitive  running  s p e e d s , an r=0.93 i n 5000M, r=0.95 i n t h e m a r a t h o n , and i n 1-hr r a c e s . of  measuring  running  r=0.99  These f i n d i n g s h i g h l y d e m o n s t r a t e t h e f e a s i b i l i t y the anaerobic  speed-heart  rate  t h r e s h o l d by relationships,  using an  noninvasive  approach  which  c a n be c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e f i e l d . M o r i t a n i e t a l . ( 1 9 8 0 ) showed t h a t s u r f a c e  electromyography  i s a v a l i d n o n i n v a s i v e method f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a n a e r o b i c threshold.  Eighteen  males  (25.3 y e a r s )  and  eighteen  females  (20.9 y e a r s ) u n d e r w e n t i n c r e m e n t a l c y c l e e x e r c i s e w h i l e s u r f a c e electrodes anaerobic  were  applied  t h r e s h o l d was  on  their  determined  quadriceps by  muscle.  the n o n l i n e a r  The  increase  i n the electromyogram, i . e . , the p o i n t at which three consecutive electromyogram  values  estimate  the l i n e a r  was  from  tested  deviated  above  one  standard  r e g r e s s i o n equation.  for i t s validity  by  correlating  e r r o r of  This  method  t h e VO2  values  a t t h e a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d a s d e r i v e d by t h e e l e c t r o m y o g r a m - w o r k plots  with  those  derived  The  f i n d i n g s showed  the  two  the  pooled  al.  methods data  from  exchange  highly significant  f o r males (r=0.97).  ( 1 9 8 2 ) showed  gas  that  (r=0.96), Further  measurements.  correlations females  s t u d i e s by  between  (r=0.89)  and  Moritani et  a n a l y s i s of m y o l e c t r i c s i g n a l s  p r o v i d e a n o n i n v a s i v e measure o f l a c t a t e t h r e s h o l d .  may  Orr et a l . (1980) examined whether the s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n (SE)  of  anaerobic  threshold  based  on  the  VE/V02  criteria  and u s i n g a 15 s e c s a m p l i n g p e r i o d c o r r e l a t e w i t h a c o m p u t e r i z e d algorithm A  technique  2 ( C E - 2 ) and  determined of  squares  used by  for  ( C E ) using  3(CE-3)  on  the  the  study  incremental  regression  basis  were used  multiple  of  for  the  the  fitted  to  smallest  pooled  residual  comparison.  The  regressions.  model  whose a n a e r o b i c  work t e s t s .  linear  Ten  the  subjects  threshold  was  data sum were  determined  f i n d i n g s showed t h a t  anaerobic  t h r e s h o l d i n % VC^max was h i g h e r f o r t h e C E - 2 ( 7 2 . 6 ) d e t e r m i n a t i o n than  for  SE  and  SE  and  was  the  SE  CE-2  correlated  CE-3  found  concluded  ( 6 3 . 6 ) and  (r=0.65). between that  the  the  CE-3  (58.9)  significantly  However,  CE-2  and  method  no  CE-3 used  determinations.  (r=0.82)  significant (r=0.51).  to  as  as  correlation  The  determine  well  researchers  the  "breakaway" can s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the v a l u e used f o r  point  of  anaerobic  threshold.  Anaerobic T h r e s h o l d and Modes of  Davis the  et  anaerobic  a l . (1976) threshold  Various  Exercise  investigated  among  three  the  modes  comparability of  exercise  of (arm  c r a n k i n g , l e g c y c l i n g , and t r e a d m i l l w a l k - r u n n i n g ) w i t h d u p l i c a t e determinations  obtained  t h r e s h o l d f o r arm  from  cranking,  30  male s u b j e c t s .  l e g c y c l i n g , and  The  anaerobic  treadmill walking-  running  occurred  pectively. anaerobic  a t 4 6 . 5 , 6 3 . 8 , a n d 5 8 . 6 % o f VC^max,  No s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  t h r e s h o l d mean v a l u e s  walking-running  while  found  for leg cycling  t h e mean  c r a n k i n g was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  was  anaerobic  res-  between t h e and t r e a d m i l l  t h r e s h o l d f o r arm  lower than l e g c y c l i n g o r t r e a d m i l l  walking-running. Anaerobic was  t h r e s h o l d d u r i n g one- versus two-legged  examined by S t a m f o r d  anaerobic  t h r e s h o l d approximated  and t w o - l e g g e d indicated does  et a l . (1978).  cycling.  4 8 % o f VC^max  found  of the t o t a l  anaerobic  that  f o r both one-  According to the authors, t h i s  that the size  not influence  They  cycling  exercising  t h r e s h o l d when  finding  m u s c l e mass  expressed  on  a r e l a t i v e b a s i s , b u t , r a t h e r , t h e mode o f e x e r c i s e i s p r o b a b l y the primary  influencing  factor  a s i t i s shown by t h e f i n d i n g s  o f t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d y by D a v i s e t a l . ( 1 9 7 6 ) . Payne during  a n d Lemon  treadmill  competitive and  (1982) compared  running  swimmers  and t e t h e r e d  were  used  1) T r e a d m i l l r u n n i n g  tethered V0 max 2  swimming  f o r anaerobic  (73.0 versus  was f o u n d  50.4),  versus  anaerobic  swimming.  S i x male  and  The r e s u l t s  significantly  lactate showed  greater  t h r e s h o l d : % of  2) a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t  than  treadmill difference  f o r 5 min p o s t e x e r c i s e l a c t a t e v a l u e s (11.87 v e r s u s  11.31 mmol/1) and a n a e r o b i c (73.0  was  threshold  f o r the study  g a s e x c h a n g e m e a s u r e m e n t s were t a k e n .  that:  anaerobic  65.9),  t h r e s h o l d : % mode s p e c i f i c  and 3) t r e a d m i l l  t h r e s h o l d (75.4 v e r s u s  lactate  71.7) were  1  V02max  t h r e s h o l d and non-significant.  Based  on t h e s e  findings  the authors  suggested  that  specific  arm t r a i n i n g r e s u l t s i n an a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d (% mode s p e c i f i c V02max) d u r i n g  tethered  from t r e a d m i l l  swimming  a  i t i s not d i f f e r e n t  running.  Hagerman and M i c k e l s o n among  that  competitive  motor-driven  U.S. N a t i o n a l  (1980) examined a n a e r o b i c  oarsmen  by u s i n g  treadmill. Men's  Rowing  a rowing  threshold  ergometer  Thirty-three  candidates  Team  as s u b j e c t s  served  and  f o r the whose  a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d s were d e t e r m i n e d by g a s e x c h a n g e m e a s u r e m e n t s on  incremental  treadmill. for  exercises  i n the rowing  ergometer  The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e a n a e r o b i c  the rowing  exercise  occurred  (at  f o r the t r e a d m i l l exercise occurred  an a v e r a g e  power  output  threshold  a t 8 2 % o f VO^max  a v e r a g e power o u t p u t o f 1748 k g - m * m i n ~ l ) , w h i l e threshold  and i n t h e  ( a t an  the anaerobic  a t 7 2 % o f V0 max 2  o f 780 k g - m * m i n ) . - i  However,  •  V02max v a l u e s  d i d not d i f f e r  of  The i n v e s t i g a t o r s a t t r i b u t e d t h e 1 0 % d i f f e r e n c e  exercise.  in anaerobic threshold ficity the  significantly  f o r t h e two modes  b e t w e e n t h e two e x e r c i s e s  to the speci-  of t r a i n i n g and t o a d a p t a b i l i t y and t h e y  use of task  specificity  testing for reliable  suggested evaluation  o f an a t h l e t e ' s p h y s i o l o g i c a l c a p a c i t y . Wiswell bicyle of  and  e r g o m e t e r and t r e a d m i l l .  age were  ments  e t a t . (1979) compared  they  used  as s u b j e c t s .  determined  t r e a d m i l l running  threshold  on  T h i r t y m a l e s , 18 t o 25 y e a r s Using  the anaerobic which  anaerobic  gas exchange measure-  threshold  occurred  forbicycling  a t 6 9 . 4 % and 7 4 . 5 % o f  V02max, r e s p e c t i v e l y . and  2.90  terms.  1/min,  respectively,  anaerobic  threshold  addition,  they  anaerobic  threshold  treadmill  expressed and r  : = 0  observed  were  Ball  2.58  absolute  anaerobic groups  Seven male  may  when  In  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  anaerobic  (rbik =0.79, e  threshold  non-significant  be e x e r c i s e m o d a l i t y  threshold  s i x female  l e g and  arm  arm  was  threshold  ( r b i k = 0.4, e  dependent.  were  above a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d  of  and  below  the anaerobic  slope  anaerobic  changes  The  underwent  fatigue,  findings  while showed  nonlinear  time  f o r VE  response.  was c o i n c i d e n t w i t h a of Vf  for leg exercise,  increased to  10.0  from and  r e s p e c t i v e l y , while  and  different  increase  threshold  threshold  of  and  the nonlinear  plateauing  threshold,  until  taken.  l e g ergometry,  f versus  above  subjects  ergometer t e s t s  in  slope  influence  college-aged  f o r both  a  the  work  l e g ) i n a f f e c t i n g the  that  i n f and  and  progressive  and  versus  exchange measurements  anaerobic  treadmill.  2  f ) during  (arm  and  progressive  increase  and  e t a l . ( 1 9 8 1 ) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e change i n t h e p a t t e r n v  muscle  bicycle  B a s e d on t h e s e f i n d i n g s t h e a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d  v e n t i l a t i o n ( T,  below  the  of  in  i n 1 / m i n ) and V0 max  t o be  anaerobic threshold  these  equivalent  expressed  significant  However,  found  =  gas  when  on  a  (VO2  »76) .  treadmill 0•10)•  of  were  a s % VG^max, r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r a n a e r o b i c  VC^max  that  values  T h e i r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  between  r  These  and 10.3  f were and 4.88  2.75  4.14  f o r arm  2.60 above  and the  and  the 0.75  above  the  exercise, 1.16  below  anaerobic  threshold.  Furthermore,  a  significantly  no  significant  authors arm Vf  lower  i t was f o u n d  volume  differences  concluded  during were  that the lower  e x e r c i s e compared at anaerobic  that  arm e x e r c i s e  noted  anaerobic  by  Withers  both  of the anaerobic  et a l . (1981)  and  10 e n d u r a n c e - t r a i n e d  was  expressed  significant runners  forms  differences  runners.  significantly  runners  (3.0 versus  while  the runners  thresholds on for  than  terms  between  the better  group  tested  specific  on  (%V02max) t h e y the c y c l i s t s  examined cyclists  observed (66.3%)  or the runners  2.56  significantly (52.7 versus  The i n v e s t i g a t o r s  anaerobic  higher  the  anaerobic  46.8 ml/kg/min)  attributed  f o r which  demon-  ergometer,  the  t h r e s h o l d s t o be r e c o r d e d  the a c t i v i t y  and  (77.3%)  t h r e s h o l d s than  1 / m i n ) on t h e b i c y c l e  demonstrated  no  However, when a n a e r o b i c  greater anaerobic  l o c a l muscular  and t h e V f p l a t e a u .  i n a b s o l u t e terms t h e c y c l i s t s  the c y c l i s t s  the t r e a d m i l l .  exercise,  When a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d  and c y c l i s t s ( 7 4 . 3 % ) on t h e t r e a d m i l l .  strated  of  i n 10 e n d u r a n c e - t r a i n e d  i n relative  was e x p r e s s e d  The  threshold during  t h r e s h o l d was  ( 6 1 . 2 % ) on t h e b i c y c l e e r g o m e t e r  threshold  f.  t o l e g e x e r c i s e and t h e p l a t e a u of  threshold during  specificity  although  i n maximum  s u g g e s t s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between h y p o c a p n i a The  plateaued at  i t trained  tendency by t h e to the  a d a p t a t i o n s t o c y c l i n g and r u n n i n g .  The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between the Onset o f M e t a b o l i c A c i d o s i s and H y p e r v e n t i l a t i o n  acid  Studies  have  display  similar  exercise these  test  shown  that  abrupt  to fatigue.  similarities  ventilation  and b l o o d  increases during Researchers  i n occurence  lactic  an i n c r e m e n t a l  have s p e c u l a t e d  a t t h e "breakaway"  that point  b e t w e e n v e n t i l a t i o n a n d b l o o d l a c t a t e may be due t o t h e r e l e a s e of H  w h i c h i n c r e a s e s CO2 d e l i v e r y t o t h e l u n g s a n d , s u b s e q u e n t l y ,  +  stimulate  ventilation  (Wasserman e t a l . 1 9 7 3 , Whipp a n d D a v i s  1979). Hagberg test  e t a l . (1982) designed  the aforementioned  a study  speculation.  McArdle's  disease patients  phorylase,  are incapable  where  They  and  blood venous  observations  lactic  acid  d i d not r i s e  pH d i d n o t d e c r e a s e suggested  above  i s not c a u s a l l y r e l a t e d with the metabolic Farrel cycle and  e t a l . (1983)  ergometer  tests  the s u b j e c t s pedaled at  a work-load  fatigue,  while  examined  on two s e p a r a t e  the experimental  treatment.  lactate  was i n c r e a s i n g  observed  resting  values These  during e x e r c i s e  8 males  who  underwent  occasions; the control  In the control  treatment  and t h e r e a f t e r ,  135 kpm e v e r y  measurements were  t e s t and a t t h e end o f each w o r k - l o a d .  Their  acidosis.  f o r 4 min a t 0 work-load  which  They  but rather increased.  that hyperventilation  four  o f myophos-  glycogenolysis.  v e n t i l a t o r y t h r e s h o l d o c c u r r e d a t 8 1 % o f VO^max. that  could  examined  who, due t o t h e l a c k of muscle  they  taken  min u n t i l  prior  to the  V e n t i l a t o r y measurements  were a l s o m o n i t o r e d treatment, control bouts  the  at  s u b j e c t s performed  treatment, at  each w o r k - l o a d .  after  1300-2000  they  kp/min  first  on  the  In  the  the  experimental  same t e s t  performed  two  as  in  3-min  c y c l e ergometer  in  the work  order  i  to  prematurely  pH.  raise  They o b s e r v e d  blood  lactate  t h a t the onset  a t t h e same VO2 i n b o t h t r e a t m e n t s 2.15  levels  lower  of h y p e r v e n t i l a t i o n (control=2.32,  blood  elevated pH  experimental  depressed  ( c o n t r o l = 7.352,  t a l i s e ? ) during the experimental treatment. the  signifi-  ( c o n t r o l = l . 9 9 , experimental=10.30  significantly  investigators  to  conclude  that  blood  occurred  1/min) a l t h o u g h a t t h i s p o i n t , b l o o d l a c t a t e was  cantly  led  and  mM)  and  experimen-  These o b s e r v a t i o n s the  rise  in  blood  l a c t a t e and d e c l i n e i n b l o o d pH w i t h t h e o n s e t o f h y p e r v e n t i l a t i o n are c o i n c i d e n t a l r a t h e r than c a u s a l . M o r r i s o n et a l . (1983) i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t of  alkaline  i n f u s i o n on t h e a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d . S i x m a l e s (mean VC>2max=4.01 1/min) u n d e r w e n t fatigue.  Blood  incremental pH  plasma b i c a r b o n a t e occasion,  4.2%  which  blood  kept  sequently,  ergometer  at  maximum  power  18.1  mmol/1.  In a  NaHC03 was pH  blood  cycle  and  pH  infused  bicarbonate  ( 7 . 3 6 ) and  repeat  was test  at  resting  bicarbonate  under  c o n d i t i o n s , w h i l e VC^max d i d n o t  ificantly  in  was  found  also  the  two to  be  another a  Ventilatory  significantly  rate Con-  mmol) w e r e  neutral conditions that  conditions. not  on  and  levels.  (27.0  higher  until  7.24,  i n t r a v e n o u s l y at  significantly acidemic  under  output  tests  differ  those sign-  "breakaway"  different  for  the  neutral  (79.1%  Ventilation  VC^max) and a c i d e m i c f  at  (150 1/min) and peak  blood  (10.9  V02max  neutral  was  (154  also  However,  f o r acidemic  condition.  These  (10.4  CO2  peak  (4.58  The that  output  was  contribute  "breakaway"  neutral  i s unaffected  toward  the  neutral  (5.10  1/min)  conclude  when a c i d o s i s  suggested that  increase  as  non-chemical  in ventilation  at  threshold.  general  conclusion  the increase  also  well  significantly  of  the aforementioned  i n lactate concentration  i s not  confirmed  Ivy e t a l . (1981),  with  studies  by  Davis  and G u t i n e t a l . ( 1 9 8 0 ) .  and  studies,  responsible  f o r t h e i n c r e a s e i n v e n t i l a t i o n d u r i n g an i n c r e m e n t a l is  acidemic  mmol/1) and  1/min) and  i s c o r r e c t e d w i t h NaHC03, and t h e y  the anaerobic  for  f i n d i n g s l e d the i n v e s t i g a t o r s to  the v e n t i l a t o r y  stimuli  similar  1/min) c o n d i t i o n , as  l a c t a t e f o r acidemic  mmol/1).  different  that  100%  ( 7 6 . 8 % VC^max) c o n d i t i o n .  exercise,  Gass  (1981),  Of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t  i s t h e f i n d i n g o f G u t i n e t a l . ( 1 9 8 0 ) and Simon e t a l . ( 1 9 8 3 - a ) that  the v e n t i l a t o r y  "breakpoint"  occurred  before  the l a c t a t e  "breakpoint." T r a i n i n g and  Costill that  et  Anaerobic  a l . ( 1 9 7 3 ) and  i n d i v i d u a l s with  similar  Threshold  Daniels V02max  differently  i n an e n d u r a n c e c o m p e t i t i o n .  and  ( 1 9 7 7 ) and  Rodahl  Wilmore  ( 1 9 7 4 ) have values  perform  In a d d i t i o n ,  (1977) p o i n t  reported  out that  quite Astrand  athletes  may  continue  V02max  t o improve  reaches  their  a plateau.  performance  although  These o b s e r v a t i o n s i n d i c a t e  o t h e r f a c t o r s t h a n VO^max may a l s o a f f e c t e n d u r a n c e Davis e t a l . one  such  that  performance.  ( 1 9 7 9 ) d e s i g n e d an e x p e r i m e n t where t h e y i n v e s t i g a t e d  factor,  men p e r f o r m e d for  their  t h e anaerobic  cycle  endurance  threshold.  training  Nine  5 d a y s p e r week  45 m i n p e r e x e r c i s e s e s s i o n f o r 9 w e e k s .  4 weeks o f t r a i n i n g rate designed  middle-aged each  For the f i r s t  the subjects exercised a t a target heart  t o correspond  t o a VC^max 5 0 % o f t h e way b e t w e e n •  the of  anaerobic training  t h r e s h o l d a n d VC^max.  this  For the last  v a l u e was i n c r e a s e d t o 7 0 % .  After  5 weeks training,  t h e a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y by 44%, e x p r e s s e d as a b s o l u t e VO2, a n d by 1 5 % , e x p r e s s e d  r e l a t i v e t o V0 max. 2  Ready a n d Q u i n n e y ( 1 9 8 2 ) e x a m i n e d a l t e r a t i o n s i n a n a e r o b i c threshold in  as t h e r e s u l t  21 m a l e s ,  cycling  25 y e a r s  o f endurance of age.  on t h e e r g o m e t e r  training  and d e t r a i n i n g  The t r a i n i n g  a t 8 0 % o f VC^max  c o n s i s t e d of  f o r 30 m i n f o u r  times  p e r week f o r 9 w e e k s .  Training  19.4%  increases i n anaerobic  t h r e s h o l d expressed  (1/min) and r e l a t i v e  (%V02max) t e r m s ,  resulted  i n 70.4%and as a b s o l u t e  respectively.  However,  t h e c h a n g e i n r e l a t i v e a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant.  F o l l o w i n g 9 weeks o f d e t r a i n i n g  37.1% of  the  i n c r e a s e i n a b s o l u t e a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d was r e m a i n e d .  Although  the  6 weeks  decrease  i n anaerobic  t h r e s h o l d was s u b s t a n t i a l  a f t e r t r a i n i n g , t h e f i n a l v a l u e remained above  t h e p r e - t e s t measurement.  significantly elevated  The a u t h o r s  concluded  that  9 weeks o f t r a i n i n g changes  i n anaerobic  threshold in  effect  appears  o f endurance  by Y o s h i d a  underwent p e r week  cycle  significant  of anaerobic  t o be s i m i l a r  mental  exercise  increase  respiratory V02max  test.  t o changes  that  suggested  exercise  intensity  resulted  (37%),  i n t h e onset  acidosis  observed  would  (17%),  significant  training  lactate,  (10%),  the i n v e s t i -  intensity  as suggested  be one o f t h e most  corby  effective  training.  training  35 y e a r s  i n significant  Vg ( 1 5 % ) , h e a r t r a t e  e t a l . (1982) i n v e s t i g a t e d  endurance  corresponding  B a s e d on t h e s e f i n d i n g s  arterial  e t a l . (1979),  methods f o r endurance  they  t h e endurance  t o 4 mmol/1  college  f o r 15 m i n o n  resulted  of metabolic  Furthermore,  gators  Denis  concentration  Seven male  training  threshold  i n s u b m a x i m a l VO2 ( 4 % ) ,  Kinderman  lactate  cor-  d e t e r m i n e d d u r i n g an i n c r e -  training  anaerobic  (23%).  ergometer  ergometer  compensation  (14%).  responding  a t an i n t e n s i t y  e t a l . (1982).  This  R ( 5 % ) , and l a c t a t e  subjects,  blood  blood lactate  i n absolute  decreases  training  f o r 8 weeks, a t an i n t e n s i t y  t o 4 mmol/1 a r t e r i a l  an  and t h e l o s s  t o 4 mmol/1 a r t e r i a l  examined  3 days  of  t o cause  2  students  and  time  V0 max.  responding  of  threshold  due t o d e t r a i n i n g  The  was  i ssufficient  the effect  on t h e a n a e r o b i c  of age. lasted  The s u b j e c t s  threshold underwent  60 m i n p e r d a y 3 d a y s  c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o 8 0 - 8 5 % o f V02max.  i n increases  o f 40 weeks  i n the ventilatory  i n five bicycle  a week a t  This  threshold  training (10%),  lactate  threshold (11%), anaerobic  lactate  ( 1 8 % ) , maximal  (14%).  However,  V02max.  Furthermore,  in  maximal  work  training, the 20th  the  at  a  load  significant i t was  l o a d was increase  ( 2 2 % ) , and increase  net  was  from  i n anaerobic  the  mmol/1  efficiency  observed  shown t h a t a l t h o u g h  significant  4  in  the increase 1 0 t h week  of  t h r e s h o l d s appeared  at  week.  Sjodin changes  no  work  threshold at  et  a l . (1982)  occurring with  velocity  where  an  examined added  VQBLA  muscle  training  occurred  enzyme  of  20  activity  min  running  ( 4 mmol/1 l a c t a t e )  once  a week f o r 14 weeks t o t h e r e g u l a r p r o g r a m o f e i g h t w e l l - t r a i n e d m i d d l e and l o n g d i s t a n c e m a l e r u n n e r s . c a n t i n c r e a s e i n VQBLA ( f r o m 4.69 decrease x  g  -  io~®) , w h i l e  -  hydrogenase a  x  and  significant  to  0.90  of  the runners  weeks.  t o 4.89 m x s ~ l ) ,  i n phosphofructocinase  l x min !  citrate decrease  These  were  i n PFK/CS  7.65  io~4  5.35  ratio  from  over  a  observations l e d the i n v e s t i g a t o r s  de-  However,  increase significantly  w  moles  of l a c t a t e  The  x  s  to  unchanged.  activity  signifi-  significant  observed.  -  d i d not  (from  the a c t i v i t i e s  synthase  moles x g ~ l x m i n !  They o b s e r v e d a  to  1.42  VO^max the  14  conclude  t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g i n t e n s i t y c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o VQBLA w i l l i n c r e a s e VQBLA  and  active  will  result  skeletal  significant  muscles  in local  metabolic  of w e l l - t r a i n e d  adaptations runners  i n the  without  a  c h a n g e i n VC^max.  Alterations  i n muscle  metabolites  and  blood  lactate  i n work a b o v e and b e l o w t h e a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d w e r e i n v e s t i g a t e d  by  Green  e t a l . (1980).  as  subjects  work-load to  f o r the study  on d i f f e r e n t  subjects  glucose-6-P phosphate creatine wt)  phosphate  creatine  increased  When  threshold, lactate,  2  anaerobic  threshold, - 1  wet  ( 3 . 1 t o 7.7 mmol * k g l ) .  t o 9.6 m m o l " k g  At  -  t h r e s h o l d , c r e a t i n e p h o s p h a t e was  as glucose-6-P  decreased  increased  ( t o 16.7  ( 0 . 3 7 t o 0.83 m m o l ' k g ) , - 1  Blood l a c t a t e increases  - 1  the blood  muscle  (12.2  ( 1 3 . 8 t o 18.6 m m o l ' k g ) .  were o n l y o b s e r v e d  threshold.  a 20% r e d u c t i o n i n c r e a t i n e  was r e d u c e d  was  as w e l l  1  corresponding  t h e VO2 a n a e r o b i c  ( t o 5 . 2 mmol*kg~l) , l a c t a t e  further  mmol'kg- ),  a t VO2 v a l u e s  At 107% V 0  was o b s e r v e d .  VO2 a n a e r o b i c  even  while  served  exercised at constant  at anaerobic  2  students  i n anaerobic threshold, creatine,  or citrate  and l a c t a t e  117%  and  occasions  e x e r c i s e d below  no c h a n g e was f o u n d  college  and they  5 0 , 7 0 , 107 a n d 1 1 7 % o f V 0  the  and  Five active  i n work a b o v e t h e VO2 a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d ,  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s were  concentrations.  consistently  below t h e  became more  exaggerated  The l a t t e r  t h e h i g h e r t h e VO2 a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d . H e n r i t z e e t a l . (1982) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e f f e c t s o f t r a i n i n g above  and below  cardiovascular women.  the onset and body  of blood  composition  The s u b j e c t s who t r a i n e d i n two g r o u p s ,  the  p e r i o d i t was o b s e r v e d  g r o u p showed a s i g n i f i c a n t (48-50%).  accumulation  parameters  on  i n college  5 d a y s p e r week f o r 12 weeks  were d i v i d e d training  lactate  above-OBLA a n d b e l o w - O B L A . that only  After  t h e above-OBLA  i n c r e a s e i n V 0 2 m a x ( 6 % ) a n d VO2-OBLA  I t was f u r t h e r o b s e r v e d t h a t w h i l e b o t h t h e above-OBLA  and  below-OBLA  groups  showed  significant  increases  VO2-  in  0BLA/V02raax p r e - p o s t t r a i n i n g t h e below-OBLA g r o u p d e m o n s t r a t e d only  a  16%  increase  Body  while  the  by  42%.  The  i n v e s t i g a t o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t OBLA may  intensity that  composition  above-OBLA  for  large  eliciting  parameters  changes  improvements  group  remained  unchanged.  be a c r i t i c a l  i n VC^max and  i n V02max  increased  may  not  training  VO2-OBLA,  and  required  for  be  l a r g e i m p r o v e m e n t s i n VO2-OBLA. Robinson of  training  and  intensity  p e r f o r m a n c e as active  males,  interval 12  of 217  -  running  2.8  times  years  a of  mean  frequency  age  week  time  for  ( c a . 85%  of  work of  to  2.9  323  rest times  m/min.  and 3.2%  (3.30  t o 3.41  2  follows: for a  1:3  week  1)  mean a  for  (C)  frequency  30  -  (3.80  Distance  100m,  for  V02max)  2.72  changes  resulted  1/min) f o r VO2  at  a and  continued The  of  200m,  min  increased  3.1%  lasted  mean s p e e d  ( c a . 125%  scores  only  distance,  i n t e r v a l s of of  normally  the  findings  8.9%  t o 3.9o  (3.73 1/min)  1/min) f o r I and C g r o u p s , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  threshold to  as  Control  mean V 0 m a x  endurance  program  the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d .  1/min) f o r D g r o u p and  (2.35  the  ratio  3)  t o 4.06  15.6%  1)  training  min  to  into  V02max) and  per  that:  of  30  relationship  Twenty-one  divided  training  showed  anaerobic  run.  The  the  threshold  were  groups.  same a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n d u r i n g  The  min  I n t e r v a l (I) - running  at  mean s p e e d  15  continuously per  examined  anaerobic  e a c h g r o u p was  300m  a  and  control  m/min. 2) a  (1980)  m e a s u r e d by 22.3  and  weeks and  (D)  Sucec  2)  i n mean  increases  anaerobic  threshold  for  D group,  (2.08  (2.55  t o 2.84 1/min) f o r I g r o u p  t o 2.81 1/min) f o r C g r o u p .  threshold 6.2%  11.3%  when  expressed i n r e l a t i v e  f o r D group  (63.1  12.8%  increased  f o r I group  ( 2 . 9 7 t o 3.0 km).  19.3%f o r D group  (3.07  changes  4) endurance  (2.95  t o 3.5 k m ) ,  t o 3.47 k m ) , a n d 1.3% f o r C g r o u p  The c o r r e l a t i o n  coefficients •  V02max  and a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d  f o r t h e change •  (VO2 a n d %V02max)  i n e n d u r a n c e p e r f o r m a n c e w e r e 0.14, - 0 . 6 1 ,  respectively. that  (%V02max) were  (63.3 t o 6 5 . 2 % ) .  •  in  terms  i n anaerobic  t o 67.0 % ) , 8.1% f o r I group ( 6 7 . 8  t o 7 3 . 3 % ) , a n d 3.0% f o r C g r o u p performance  3) i n c r e a s e s  a n d 6.5%  with  and -0.35,  B a s e d on t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s t h e a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d •  both moderate  ( c a . 8 5 % VO^max) a n d i n t e n s i v e  ( c a . 125%  •  V02max) t r a i n i n g  increases  performance, ant that related  anaerobic threshold  anaerobic threshold  t o endurance performance changes  and endurance  changes  are closely  t h a n VO2 c h a n g e s .  M e t a b o l i c and performance r e s p o n s e s t o a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d and h i g h i n t e n s i t y t r a i n i n g w e r e s t u d i e d b y R i v e r a e t a l . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . T w e n t y - f o u r f e m a l e swimmers, 12-19 to  s i x weeks o f i n t e r v a l  in  two groups  (84.11%  as f o l l o w s :  of subjects'  y e a r s o f age were  training Group  while  they were  divided  intensity  training  I - high  best performance  subjected  time).  Group  II -  t r a i n i n g a t t h e a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d (an i n t e n s i t y which e l i c i t e d an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f 4 mmol/1 l a c t a t e ) . maximal were  alactacid  determined  capacity, from  Maximal a e r o b i c c a p a c i t y ,  and maximal  a tethered  swimming  lactacid test,  capacity  while  100  and 400 m e t e r s t i m e d swim w e r e a l s o p e r f o r m e d f r o m e a c h s u b j e c t .  The f i n d i n g s showed in  maximal  t h a t b o t h g r o u p s had s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s  aerobic  c a p a c i t y , maximal  alactacid  capacity,  and m a x i m a l l a c t a c i d c a p a c i t y . However, t h e G r o u p I d e m o n s t r a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r g a i n s o v e r t h e Group I I : maximal a e r o b i c capacity  11.42  versus  3.08  cal/kg*min,  maximal  alactacid  c a p a c i t y 13.10 v e r s u s 2.62 c a l / k g , and m a x i m a l l a c t a c i d c a p a c i t y 11.42  versus  groups rate m  8.73  improved,  than  study on  with  Group  (8.18 v e r s u s was  and  I I improving  (2.07 versus  The  authors'  I training  had  1.63  at a  b u t Group  both faster  s e c ) and  c o n c l u s i o n from  a more p r o f o u n d I I was  et a l. (1981) examined  i n 29  to performance,  more  400 this  effect  effective  tests.  intensities  V02max  m  responses,  on t h e p e r f o r m a n c e  regards  t h e Group  sec).  Group  the metabolic  training  With  I i n 100  4.63  that  Gibbons  cal/kg.  on  young  the e f f e c t  of  various  anaerobic  threshold, anaerobic  (mean  =  age  19.8  years)  lowfit  power (mean  •  V02max in  =  35  ml/kg/min)  three groups,  Group  females.  The  I (anaerobic  s u b j e c t s were  threshold heart  divided rate),  Group I I ( a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d h e a r t r a t e p l u s 40% o f a n a e r o b i c threshold heart They heart  heart  rate  rate),  minus  trained  40%  and  Group  I I I (anaerobic threshold  of anaerobic  f o r 8 weeks  r a t e s (+ 5 b / m i n ) .  threshold heart  on t r e a d m i l l s After  at individual  the t r a i n i n g  rate). training  period the three  groups i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n anaerobic t h r e s h o l d , anaerobic power  and  difference  VC^max was  from  found  pre- to post-test.  between  groups.  The  No  authors  significant concluded  that  anaerobic  threshold,  anaerobic  power,  a n d VC^max a r e  a l l t r a i n a b l e w i t h i n t h e i n t e n s i t y l e v e l s w h i c h were i n v e s t i g a t e d and  they  recommended  that  low-fit  a l e v e l 40% below t h e i r a n a e r o b i c The  effect  of  females  should  train  at  of exercise  on  threshold.  i n t e n s i t y and q u a n t i t y  the a e r o b i c  ( 2 mmol/1 l a c t a t e ) and a n a e r o b i c (4 mmol/1  thresholds  were  Forty  investigated  moderately  by L a F o n t a i n e  f i t (anaerobic  at  either  low (anaerobic  (aerobic and  threshold),  either  threshold  or high  low (15 m i l e s  week) q u a n t i t y  minus  p e r week)  f o r t e n weeks.  or high  Training  not increase  the  groups  their  medium  thresholds  increased  than  subjects  the other  tested.  indicated threshold.  their  occurred  According  and h i g h  and  V02max  thresholds,  intensity  more  than  at high  days  increased  the groups t r a i n i n g at  significantly  d i d n o t change  f o r increases  2)  intensity-low  threshold  to the authors  i n intensity threshold  five  per  A f t e r the t r a i n i n g  or anaerobic  anaerobic  groups.  threshold)  1) t h e l o w i n t e n s i t y g r o u p s  significantly  intensity-high quantity  medium  (30 m i l e s  a t low i n t e n s i t y , and 3) t h e g r o u p s  quantity more  aerobic  t r a i n i n g a t medium  aerobic  training  their  trained  20 b / m i n ) ,  i n t e n s i t y (anaerobic  t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s found:  did  of 55% t o 70%  The s u b j e c t s  p e r week and i n t e n s i t y was m o n i t o r e d d a i l y . period  e t a l . (1982).  thresholds  o f V02max) m a l e s w e r e u s e d f o r t h e s t u d y .  lactate)  these  i n the  findings  i n the aerobic  Howard e t a l . ( 1 9 8 2 ) e x a m i n e d m i t o c h o n d r i a l v o l u m e  changes  i n d i f f e r e n t m u s c l e f i b e r t y p e s due t o t r a i n i n g a t t h e  anaerobic  threshold.  weeks  bicycle  Five  untrained  ergometer t r a i n i n g  intensity a blood  of  60-82%  lactate  resulted  of  subjects  5 times  their  a week  of  min  V0 max, This  i n maximal  of  at  an  eliciting  2  4 mmol/1.  increases  6  f o r 30  individual  concentration  in significant  underwent  training  power  (12%),  •  VC^max  (13%),  power  at a blood  lactate  concentration  mmol/1 ( 1 8 % ) , v o l u m e d e n s i t y o f m i t o c h o n d r i a muscle  (40%),  muscle f i b e r increases  and  t h e number  (21%).  Type  by  t h e Type  the  Type  I fibers  led  the i n v e s t i g a t o r s  (from  exercising  at anaerobic  in  capacity  aerobic  volume  IIA f i b e r s  and  6.21%  to conclude  m i t o c h o n d r i a l volume, e s p e c i a l l y Anaerobic Threshold  et  a l . (1980)  muscle glycogen  affects  runners  V02max  a  V02max  (mean test  on  4.47%  that  to  i n Type  largest 4.07%),  t o 6.60%)  These  and  observations  untrained  greater  subjects  increase  increase  i n muscle  II fibers.  A l t e r a t i o n s Following Exercise  examined  the anaerobic  whether threshold.  =57.26 m l / k g / m i n )  a bicycle  2.47%  show a s i g n i f i c a n t  Prolonged Aerobic  Wiswell  (from  t o 7.13%).  an e v e n  lateralis  demonstrated the  (from  threshold  4  c a p i l l a r i e s p e r number o f  IIB fibers  in mitochondrial  followed  of  i n vastus  of  ergometer.  lowering  the  S i x marathon  were  subjected  to  After  the test  the  subjects in  rested  maximal  completed  f o r 20 m i n a n d t h e n  effort  they  they  ( c o v e r i n g 14-17 m i l e s ) .  rested  f o r another  ran f o r 2  hours  When t h e r u n was  20 m i n a n d r e p e a t e d t h e  •  V02max  test.  Anaerobic  t h r e s h o l d was o b t a i n e d  •  •  by u s i n g gas  •  exchange measurements (Vg, V g / V 0 2 and FEO2) and b l o o d were  taken  a t 4 min a f t e r  exercise.  lactates  The f i n d i n g s  showed  an 8.4% r e d u c t i o n i n VO^max ( f r o m 4.5 t o 4.12 1/min) a c c o m p a n i e d w i t h a r e d u c t i o n i n a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d o f 10.7% in  absolute  expressed of  terms  i n relative  4 5 % was a l s o  Furthermore, reduced  observed  a t any g i v e n  change  i n type  A  decrease  i n p o s t - e x e r c i s e maximum  lactate.  exchange  VO^max  speculated  that  of fuel  this  exercise  and t h e decrease  in  found.  The i n v e s t i g a t o r s  anaerobic  may  threshold that  be b r o u g h t  glycogen  about  was  at least  significantly  t h e second might  between  after  the  the decrease  i n anaerobic  concluded occurs  test.  be t h e r e s u l t  substrate u t i l i z e d  relationship  was  ratio  during  A non-significant lactate  expressed  3.65 t o 3.26 1/min) o r 1 0 . 4 % when  terms (from 81.3% t o 72.0%).  respiratory  investigators a  (from  when  with  i n part  that  The of run.  i n postthreshold  the increase  endurance  by i n c r e a s i n g  training muscle  levels.  Sucec e t a l .  (1980) i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t o f u l t r a m a r a t h o n  p e r f o r m a n c e on m a x i m a l a e r o b i c power and a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d . Five  ultramarathon  runners,  five  ultramarathon  w a l k e r s and  5 c o n t r o l r u n n e r s s e r v e d a s s u b j e c t s whose VO^max a n d a n a e r o b i c threshold  were t e s t e d  prior  t o (9-4 days) and f o l l o w i n g (2-6  days) a 100-mile the 9  race j o i n t  point  Pain  track race.  For the five  and m u s c l e s o r e n e s s Scale.  days  was r e c o r d e d  The u l t r a m a r a t h o n  following  using  runners  Henry's  covered  a  mean d i s t a n c e o f 108.7 km ( 1 6 . 7 7 h o u r s ) , w h i l e t h e u l t r a m a r a t h o n walkers  covered  Following (from not  a mean d i s t a n c e o f 1 0 0 . 9 km  the race  4.24  the runners'  t o 4.01  decrease  1/min),  significantly  while  (from  a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d was d e c r e a s e d 7.3%  (from  1/min),  I t was  moderately  intensive  the  and m i d - r e g i o n s  2 t o more t h a n concluded are  that  related  anaerobic  hours).  was d e c r e a s e d  b y 5.4%  the walkers'  3.23  t o 3.17  joint  mechanisms  a l s o observed  o f t h e body  t o 1.78  a generalized,  which  the race.  seen  1.92  soreness  The  underlying post  t o the decrements  The  f o r b o t h r u n n e r s and w a l k e r s ,  and muscle  5 days f o l l o w i n g  V02max d i d  1/min).  2.86 t o 2.63 1/min) and 8.0% ( f r o m  respectively.  lower  VC^max  (16.38  throughout  persisted f o r investigators  exercise  i n the post  soreness  V02max and  threshold values.  Perceived Exertion Relative to Anaerobic T h r e s h o l d Simon e t a l . ( 1 9 8 3 - b ) e x a m i n e d p e r c e i v e d e x e r t i o n r e l a t i v e to anaerobic untrained lactate, an  threshold i n s i xhighly  men.  Scale ratings  of perceived  and g a s e x c h a n g e m e a s u r e m e n t s were  incremental  threshold  Borg  t r a i n e d and s i x s e d e n t a r y  c y c l e ergometer  f o r the trained  group  test. averaged  taken  V02max and  exertion, throughout anaerobic  63.8 m l / k g / m i n a n d  60.6%  VO^max,  35.5  ral/kg/min  subjects' was  perceived  greater  However,  untrained  80.1%  t h e mean p e r c e i v e d  ( 1 5 . 4 ) were  similar  between p e r c e i v e d  combined  anaerobic  a t 0.87.  exertion  which  The t r a i n e d  subjects'  exertion  (16.2)  a t 8 5 % and  observed  that the  a n d % VC^max  f o r both  f o r perceived  was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  The i n v e s t i g a t o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t o f work  (13.5)  corresponding  occurred  I t was a l s o  was 0.94, w h i l e  threshold  the effort  averaged  o f 4 mmol/1 i n t h e t r a i n e d  2  groups  group  than that of the u n t r a i n e d  V0 max, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  correlation  rate  of the untrained  exertion at the anaerobic threshold  a lactate concentration  and  %  those  a n d 4 5 . 1 % VO^max, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  significantly  (10.5). to  while  lower  exertion  and c o r r e l a t e d  1) t r a i n e d  at the anaerobic  and  subjects  threshold  t o be  g r e a t e r than u n t r a i n e d s u b j e c t s but both groups r a t e i t s i m i l a r l y at  a lactate  exertion  concentration  i s more h i g h l y  o f 4 mmol/1, and 2)  perceived  r e l a t e d t o % VO^max  than % a n a e r o b i c  e t a l . (1981) examining  110 n o n - a t h l e t i c  threshold. Dressendorfer men, 30 t o 61 y e a r s  o f age r e p o r t e d  a rating  exertion  ("somewhat h a r d "  t o "hard") a t the time  the  o f 14 +_ 2  anaerobic threshold  occurred.  of  perceived  61  A n a e r o b i c T h r e s h o l d R e l a t i o n s h i p s With Various Metabolic  Parameters  Green e t a l . (1979) i n v e s t i g a t e d in  anaerobic  be  e x p l a i n e d by m u s c l e  10  active  found 44.3  t h r e s h o l d which  college  that their  exists  fiber  males  muscle  between  the v a r i a b i l i t y individuals  t y p e and c o m p o s i t i o n .  (mean fiber  a n d 8.9% f o r t y p e  whether  V02max=53.9  type  Examining  ml/kg/min)  distributions  2  they  were 46.3,  I , I I A , and I I B , r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  t h e i r a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d o c c u r r e d a t 75% V0 max.  may  while  Correlation  c o e f f i c i e n t s b e t w e e n t h e f i b e r t y p e d i s t r i b u t i o n s and a n a e r o b i c threshold -0.11  and 0.30.  when f i b e r area  were found No  t o be n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t significant  t y p e was e x p r e s s e d  and r a n g e d  difference  was  also  as a p e r c e n t o f c r o s s  ( r = - 0 . 4 4 t o 0.37) o r when SDH  activity  was  between found  sectional  used.  The  i n v e s t i g a t o r s concluded t h a t the muscle c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s t u d i e d do  not i n f l u e n c e  the onset  o f a n a e r o b i o s i s as  by  the anaerobic t h r e s h o l d .  "  represented  Rusko e t a l . (1980) examined a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d , s k e l e t a l m u s c l e enzymes and f i b e r c o m p o s i t i o n i n 15 young (mean age=17.6 years) female averaged that  cross-country skiers.  40.9 ml/kg/min  V02max  correlated  Their anaerobic threshold  o r 86% o f V0 max. 2  significantly  I t was  (r=0.60) w i t h  observed anaerobic  t h r e s h o l d , e x p r e s s e d i n m l / k g / m i n ( a b s o l u t e ) and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t l y when e x p r e s s e d  i n % VO^max ( r e l a t i v e ) .  no  correlation  significant  The % ST f i b e r s  with relative  showed  anaerobic threshold.  SDH c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  with  r e l a t i v e anaerobic  threshold  ( r = 0 . 6 3 ) and c i t r a t e s y n t h a s e w i t h a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d e x p r e s s e d in  ml/kg/min  (r=0.58).  The a g e o f t h e s u b j e c t s  correlated  p o s i t i v e l y with r e l a t i v e anaerobic threshold (r=0.54). to  the authors  these  anaerobic threshold The  results  support  was  the hypothesis  that  i s r e l a t e d t o o x i d a t i v e capacity of muscle.  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  transport  According  investigated  anaerobic  threshold  i n 32 b i a t h l e t s 1 8 . 7 y e a r s  age  (Rusko and P a h k i l a ,  1 9 8 0 ) . The s u b j e c t s  and  anaerobic  o f 62 m l / k g / m i n  threshold  ( 7 8 % VC^max) , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  and o x y g e n  had a  a n d 49  of  V02max  ml/kg/min  I t was o b s e r v e d t h a t h e a r t  volume  (x = 383 m l / m ) and h e m a t o c h t ( x = 4 6 . 9 % ) c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y 2  w i t h VC^max and a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d . that  determinants  of oxygen  on t h e o n s e t o f m e t a b o l i c  The i n v e s t i g a t o r s c o n c l u d e d  transport  may  have  influence  acidosis.  Komi e t a l . ( 1 9 8 1 ) e x a m i n i n g 9 s u b j e c t s  reported  a  signi-  f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n %ST m u s c l e f i b e r s a n d V Q B L A ( r = 0 . 7 8 ) , and  between  average mechanical  (r =0.90),  VQBLA  significantly  while  power  the mechanical  output work  at VQBLA  A  N  C  L  was n o t r e l a t e d  t o VQBLA*  I v y e t a l . ( 1 9 8 0 ) s t u d y i n g 13 m a l e s u b j e c t s f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t relationships  between  the capacity  of muscle  homogenates  t o o x i d i z e p y r u v a t e and a b s o l u t e  (r=0.94) o r r e l a t i v e  (r=0.83)  lactate  muscle  absolute  thresholds;  between  ( r = 0 . 7 4 ) and r e l a t i v e V02max' and a b s o l u t e  %ST  f i b e r s and  (r=0.70) l a c t a t e t h r e s h o l d s ;  lactate threshold  (r=0.91).  and between  Sjodin reported ratio  a  of  et  r=-0.46 and  capillary  and  r=0.58,  However, at  and  OBLA  area in  no  plus  with  area.  capillary  was  found  When V 0 m a x was  that  both  5  inherent  are  threshold  i t was  changes and  the  and  The  of  density  16  shown  that  accounted  males  for  showed  0  %ST  shown  f o r 92%  of  and  a  area.  consumption  2  i t was  that  the  %ST  variance  another v a r i a b l e The  adaptative  significance for  i n the V E / V 0 at  2  a P r e d i c t o r of  investiqualities  the  onset  Distance  i n v e s t i g a t e d the  race  pace  subjects  observed  second  r=0.62  i t s R e l a t i o n s h i p with Race Pace  a l . (1978)  women j o g g e r s .  where  were  accumulation.  Performance and  anaerobic  fibers  only s l i g h t l y higher (r=0.98).  Anaerobic T h r e s h o l d as  et  muscle  i t was  added as  2  e x e r c i s i n g muscle  Weiser  PFK/CS  a n d  VQBLA  between  d e n s i t y accounted  of  lactate  H  (%V02max) and  Furthermore,  suggested  of b l o o d  D  %ST  that  between O B L A  gators the  capillary  reported  correlation  t h e c o r r e l a t i o n was  L  and  i n VQBLA*  correlation  (r=0.96).  OBLA  a n d  VQBLA  Furthermore,  a l . (1981)  %ST  male m a r a t h o n e r s  c o r r e l a t i o n s with  together  et  19  respectively.  respectively.  61% of the v a r i a n c e  significant  -0.68,  density  ratio  Tesch  examined  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  and  PFK/CS  a l . (1981)  of  underwent  that  eight  ratio,  the  first  V0 max.  Four  87%  2  3.2  of  them  r e l a t i o n s h i p of km  an  in 7  men  and  incremental  test  showed  occurred subjects  two  a t 73%  abrupt V0 max  showed  2  only  the  first  trial,  abrupt  change  the running  km was a v e r a g e d .  speed  f o r each  running speed  From a 3.2 km  time  400 m o f t h e m i d d l e  2.4  The s u b j e c t s who showed two a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d  changes r a n a t t h e second threshold  a t 7 8 % VC^max.  change  one, w h i l e those  ran at that  speed.  s p e e d was s i g n i f i c a n t l y at the c r i t i c a l  I t was o b s e r v e d  correlated  anaerobic  w i t h one a n a e r o b i c  with  that  the t r e a d m i l l  t h r e s h o l d (r=0.92) and w i t h  •  VC^max ( r = 0 . 8 6 ) , w h i l e t h e c r i t i c a l a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d e x p r e s s e d as %V02max was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h VC^max ( r = 0 . 1 9 ) . Based a  on t h e s e  person's  observations  running  speed  the investigators f o r 3.2  km  closely  suggested  that  approximates  t h a t p a c e a b o v e w h i c h an e x p o n e n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n h y p e r v e n t i l a t i o n o c c u r s as pace i s i n c r e a s e d . Thorland cross  e t a l . (1980)  country  during  (5000m) r u n n i n g  treadmill  collegiate  running  cross-country  studied relationships times  and m e t a b o l i c  i n t e n female  between responses  ( 1 8 . 8 t o 28.2 y e a r s )  competitors.  They  observed  that  t h e a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d was t h e b e s t p r e d i c t o r o f c r o s s - c o u n t r y run  time  and t h i s  equation: threshold). of  Best  r e l a t i o n s h i p was d e s c r i b e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g  time  ( s e c )= 2091.23  Anaerobic  the variance  -  threshold values  (r=0.84) i n t h e r u n n i n g  (19.363 x  anaerobic  accounted  f o r71%  performances,  while  •  V02max  values  either  singularly  (r=0.78) o r i n c o m b i n a t i o n  w i t h a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d ( r = 0 . 8 1 ) was n o t a s a c c u r a t e a p r e d i c t o r of  running  times.  The  relationship  between  anaerobic  at  s e l f - p a c e d r u n n i n g was i n v e s t i g a t e d  in  16 women.  running  The v e l o c i t y  was d e t e r m i n e d  then used  threshold  in  on a t r a c k  34.7 m l / k g / m i n  and t h e s e  velocities  (r=0.87).  slightly  and a n a e r o b i c  threshold aver-  I t was o b s e r v e d  concluded  that  t h r e s h o l d when t h e y  Green  e t a l . (1981) examining  adolescent mile  and a d u l t d i s t a n c e r u n n e r s track  threshold that  18 h i g h l y  times  a n d VO^max.  anaerobic  were  inversely  I t was a l s o  observed related  suggested  t h r e s h o l d may p l a t e a u w i t h  that  correlated women  r u n a t what  t h e y p e r c e i v e t o be a c o m f o r t a b l e p a c e f o r a e r o b i c  two  were  to fatigue.  threshold  The i n v e s t i g a t o r s  above a n a e r o b i c  runs  and a n a e r o b i c  o r 7 3 . 2 % VO^max.  self-paced running  run  15 m i n s e l f - p a c e d  i n incremental treadmill  was 47.5 m l / k g / m i n  2  highly  of i n d i v i d u a l  T h e s e d a t a were c o m p a r e d t o VO^max a n d a n a e r o b i c  obtained  V0 max  aged  by Dwyer e t a l . ( 1 9 8 2 )  i n 8 m i n t r e a d m i l l r u n s t o o b t a i n VO2 a t a s e l f - p a c e d  running pace.  The  t h r e s h o l d a n d VO2  training.  trained that  male  one and  to anaerobic by t h e a u t h o r s  training  and w i t h  age l i k e VC^max. Kumagai anaerobic mile  e t a l. (1982) examined  t h r e s h o l d and performances  races  i n 17 e n d u r a n c e r u n n e r s  Anaerobic t h r e s h o l d averaged 64.1  ml/kg/min.  They  relationships  between  i n 5km, 10km, a n d 10 (16-18  years  of  age).  51.0 m l / k g / m i n a n d VC^max a v e r a g e d  observed  that  correlations  between  •  V02max a n d p e r f o r m a n c e s not  high  i n 5km, 10km, a n d 10 m i l e r a c e s  (r=-0.64, r=-0.67,  r=-0.57,  respectively),  were while  those  between  high  anaerobic  (r=-0.94,  threshold  r=-0.83,  and p e r f o r m a n c e s  r=-0.83,  were  respectively).  very  Anaerobic  t h r e s h o l d a c c o u n t e d f o r 8 3 . 9 % , 7 0 . 4 % , and 6 9 . 7 % o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n t h e 5 km, 10 km, and 10 m i l e p e r f o r m a n c e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Tanaka anaerobic eleven  e t a l . (1983) threshold  non-endurance  compared  a n d OBLA trained  the contribution  t o endurance  a c t i v e males,  They o b s e r v e d t h a t a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d correlated  higher  than  d i d V0 max  work  rate  2  versus work  with  at anaerobic  work  rate  rate  performance i n  aged  22-28  (expressed  a n d OBLA  threshold  a t OBLA  at anaerobic  (r=-0.60),  threshold,  Anaerobic  OBLA,  respectively.  threshold  was  combined  predictor,  the variance  performance increased Reybroucket ventilatory the  work r a t e o r V 0  rate  2  increased  heart  to anaerobic of these  threshold,  and work  rate  at  i n endurance at  threshold  two v a r i a b l e s  rate  anaerobic as  another  to endurance  t o 84%.  a l . (1983)  threshold  ventilation  When  as  performance  OBLA a c c o u n t e d 6 7 , 6 0 , 37 and 5 0 % o f t h e v a r i a n c e performance,  (r=-0.81)  as w e l l  (r=-0.77) w i t h  (r=-0.70).  years.  i n ml/kg/min)  1500-m m i n r u n p e r f o r m a n c e  (r=-0.77)  of the  examined  f o r short-term  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between exercise  (defined  as  i m m e d i a t e l y b e l o w t h e work r a t e a t w h i c h disproportionately  o r V 0 ) and v e n t i l a t o r y 2  threshold  relative  t o work  f o r long-term  exercise  •  (defined rate  a s t h e work  a t which  rather  rate  ventilation  than a t t a i n  a steady  or V0  2  immediately  continued  below  to increase  state) with  endurance  t h e work  with  time  performance  (12-min r u n ) i n 8 males. the  highest  long-term  that  c o r r e l a t i o n with  exercise  threshold  They o b s e r v e d t h a t  the ventilatory threshold f o r  (r=0.82) i n comparison  f o r short-term  12-min r u n showed  exercise  the v e n t i l a t o r y threshold  t o the v e n t i l a t o r y  (r=0.73).  They  f o r long-term  concluded  exercise  i s  a more s p e c i f i c m e a s u r e t o p r e d i c t e n d u r a n c e p e r f o r m a n c e . Sjodin  and J a c o b s  reported  a very  marathon  running  high  velocity, to  t h e marathon  et  a l . (1979)  VQBLA  together  accounted showed  to performance  marathon  races)  than  running  s h i p between V Q B L A level  a  n  d  VQBLA  w  (3.2km,  a  s  marathoners  (r^0.49),  shown  i n marathon  variance.  roost  closely 15km,  N  D  that  prior Farrel  related  19.3km, and  f i b e r s (r>0.47), and V 0  A  running  t r a i n i n g volume  9.7km,  d i d %ST m u s c l e  economy  t o t h e OBLA ( r > 0 . 9 1 ) .  with  i t was  f o r 96% of t h i s  that  (r^.0.91)  (rM).83),  Furthermore,  f o r 92% of the variance  while  18 m a l e  c o r r e l a t i o n (r=0.96) between V Q B L A  velocity.  accounted  VQBLA  (1981) examining  VC^max  corresponding  2  They a l s o o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e h i g h  relation-  race pace i s independent o f t h e c o m p e t i t i v e  of the runner. L a F o n t a i n e e t a l . (1981) s t u d i e d  maximal  steady  state  (defined  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  as t h e oxygen  uptake,  heart  r a t e and/or t r e a d m i l l v e l o c i t y a t which plasma l a c t a t e concentration They  observed  8.05km, the  was 2.2 mmol/1 o f p l a s m a ) and v a r i o u s that  running  paces  16.09km, and 20km d i s t a n c s  running  events.  f o r t h e 402,3m,  3.22km,  correlated  t r e a d m i l l pace a t maximal s t e a d y s t a t e  highly  with  (r=0.84 t o 0.995).  Rhodes  and McKenzie  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between  from  velocity  the running  bolism-VTAM) They  examined  determined by V o l k o v the  a n c i  actual  by e x c e s s  performance  times  times,  (calculated  CO2 e l i m i n a t i o n From  the V  taken  from  whose V-pAM  curves  w  a  s  as d e s c r i b e d  values they  T A M  meta-  i n a marathon.  runners  f o r the marathon  times  t o examine  at the threshold of anaerobic  e t a l . (1975).  the actual  a study  p r e d i c t e d marathon  e i g h t e e n male marathon  predicted times  with  (1984) d e s i g n e d  estimated  and c o r r e l a t e d  a marathon r a c e .  They  these found  a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n (r=0.94) between t h e p r e d i c t e d and  actual  other  marathon  factors  being  o p t i m a l , V-p  Heart Rate I n d i c e s and Anaerobic  Threshold  anaerobic  e t a l. (1981)  minus  as  t h r e s h o l d were  with  predictor  a g e ) maximum  from  calculated  examining  the heart  significantly  heart  rate  higher  by t h e K a r v o n e n rate  t h a n 8 5 % o f maximum h e a r t  (151 b/min).  t h r e s h o l d were  8 0 % o f maximum h e a r t  (71%), heart  that  110 n o n a t h l e t i c rates  than 85%  ( 1 5 2 b/min) o r 8 5 % o f t h e a g e - p r e d i c t e d  rates at anaerobic  subjects  AM  of age, observed  o f a c t u a l maximum r a t e  different  that,  performance.  men, 30 t o 61 y e a r s  heart  suggested  b e a good  Dressendorfer  (220  and they  may  f o r marathon  at  times,  rate  equation.  at anaerobic  rate.  not  However,  significantly  reserve  (154 b/min)  I n 78 o f t h e 110 t h r e s h o l d was h i g h e r  P a t t o n e t a l . (1979) examined 5 r u n n e r s and at  found  that  higher  the runners'  absolute  the  heart  not  significantly  185  b/min.  an  anaerobic  and r e l a t i v e  rate at anaerobic  threshold  different,  fitness  occurred  a t VO^max.  However,  f o r both  concluded  level  p r o v i d e a good i n d i c a t i o n  threshold  groups  runners=181 b/min,  The i n v e s t i g a t o r s  individual's  levels  and 6 non-runners  that  absolute  was  non-runners=  regardless of  heart  rate  measures  o f work l e v e l r e q u i r e d f o r a n a e r o b i c  threshold. Dwyer a n d Bybee ( 1 9 8 3 ) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e h e a r t r a t e and 20  percent young  and  maximum  females.  maximum h e a r t  cycle  heart  using  r a t e were d e t e r m i n e d  was d e t e r m i n e d  individual  of anaerobic  The s u b j e c t s ' a n a e r o b i c  exercise to fatigue,  threshold  rate  while  by r e g r e s s i n g  regression equations.  threshold i n  t h r e s h o l d , VC^max  during  the heart  response  an  incremental  rate at anaerobic heart  on VO2  rate  T h e mean  value f o r  •  anaerobic rate  t h r e s h o l d was 7 0 . 1 % VC^max w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g  o f 158.4 b/min  observed  that  (86.3%  a l l subjects  a t 7 0 % o f maximum h e a r t work  stress with  o f maximum  heart  were  anaerobic  rate.  respect  zone  to anaerobic  above  their  maximum r=0.60  a highly variable anaerobic  heart that  rate.  was f o u n d  rate).  However, a zone o f  b e t w e e n 7 5 - 9 0 % o f maximum h e a r t this  below  t h r e s h o l d a t any s p e c i f i c Furthermore, between  non-uniform  t h r e s h o l d was  of subjects  They  threshold  r a t e ( 5 8 - 7 5 % VC^max).  number  heart  observed Within  exercised percent  at  t h e low c o r r e l a t i o n  of  % o f maximum  heart  r a t e of  anaerobic allow,  threshold  according  threshold rate  to the authors,  to a percent  figure  concluded  maximum h e a r t  standard  threshold,  values  grouped  i n r e l a t i v e heart  Parkhouse  trained,  e t a l . ( 1982)  and h i g h l y  rate at  by age o r s e x , s h o u l d  n o t be  examined  at anaerobic  trained.  threshold  (163.9,  percentage  o f maximum h e a r t  and 8 6 ) .  164.4,  at anaerobic investigators  may  be u s e d  t h i r t y - t h r e e men, 17  i n t o 3 groups;  They o b s e r v e d  rate  at anaerobic  maximal a e r o b i c / a n a e r o b i c  Threshold  the heart  were  almost  as w e l l  as the  threshold (82, had a  a b o v e 8 0 % o f maximum h e a r t  concluded  f o r exercise  untrained,  that  f o r the 3 groups  and 167.0 b/min),  threshold  8 0 % o f maximum h e a r t  Anaerobic  threshold.  I n a d d i t i o n , 67% of a l l subjects  The  at  heart  The i n v e s t i g a t o r s  rate at the anaerobic  identical  rate  or absolute  f o r % maximum h e a r t  t o 28 y e a r s o f age who w e r e d i v i d e d  84,  rate  t o i n d i v i d u a l s due t o t h e w i d e r a n g e among homogeneous  subjects  rates  threshold d i d  the t r a n s l a t i o n of anaerobic  for training prescription.  that  anaerobic applied  a n d %V02max o f a n a e r o b i c  that  % o f maximum  heart  p r e s c r i p t i o n , however, rate  heart rate. rate  training  may be t o o l o w a s t i m u l u s f o r  improvement.  Alterations  with  Changes  i n Substrate  Availability  Ivy of  e t a l . (1981)  9 active  subjects  investigated  during  cycle  the lactate  ergometer  threshold  exercises  under  control,  high  conditions. than  g l u c o s e , and h i g h  at a l l work-loads.  (blood l a c t a t e  lactate)  were  was  observed  for  t h e two  52.7%  blood  free  fatty  acid  D u r i n g t h e g l u c o s e t r i a l b l o o d l a c t a t e was g r e a t e r  control  values  blood  - pre-exercise value  t h e same that  for control  the l a c t a t e  treatments  VO^max).  Corrected  a r e d u c t i o n i n both blood  free lactate  lactate  = change  i n blood  and g l u c o s e  threshold  (control  However,  blood  =  was  trials.  It  not d i f f e r e n t  5 3 . 9 % VO^max; g l u c o s e  fatty  acid  condition  and change i n b l o o d  =  caused lactate  •  at  a l l work-loads  The  free  lactate the  fatty  acid  threshold  V O 2 was  although  condition  also  t h e same caused  a  as  control.  shift  i n the  ( 5 9 . 8 % VO^max).  B a s e d on t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s  concluded  the l a c t a t e  investigators  be a l t e r e d by c h a n g i n g  that  threshold  can  substrate a v a i l a b i l i t y .  K o w a l c h u k and Hughson ( 1 9 8 1 ) showed t h a t 5 d a y s o f d i e t a r y manipulation gas  high  mixed  diet  f o r L than  threshold  F i v e female  diet (M).  determined  s u b j e c t s were  ( H ) , low c a r b o h y d r a t e The s i g n i f i c a n t l y  t h a t f o r H and M,  certified  tested  diet  lower  by  (L)  R that  t h e changes  t h e r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n o f c a r b o h y d r a t e and f a t m e t a b o l i z e d  during L  carbohydrate  a normal  was f o u n d in  the anaerobic  exchange measurements.  under and  affects  exercise.  and h i g h e r  The p l a s m a l a c t a t e  during  H.  However,  levels VC^max  were l o w e r was  during  significantly  h i g h e r f o l l o w i n g H (2535 ml/min) t h a n f o l l o w i n g L (2305 ml/min) . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e V g / V C 0 2 was h i g h e r i n L t h r o u g h o u t t h e e x e r c i s e , w h i l e t h e oxygen uptake c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e a n a e r o b i c t h r e s h o l d  was h i g h e r These  i n H ( 1 5 9 5 m l / m i n ) and l o w e r  observations  dietary  i n L (1310 m l / m i n ) .  l e d the investigators  manipulation  alters  t o conclude  the v e n t i l a t o r y  response  that  to pro-  gressive exercise. Hughes anaerobic  et al.(1982)  t h r e s h o l d was  the s u b j e c t s .  affected  9 males by  observed  that the  the glycogen  state  of  When t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e u n d e r a g l y c o g e n - d e p l e t e d  state  the v e n t i l a t o r y  rate,  while  relative  studying  t h r e s h o l d was s h i f t e d  the lactate  threshold  t o a normal glycogen  to a lesser  to a greater  work  work  rate  state.  Summary  The  anaerobic  threshold  i s determined  m e a s u r e m e n t s , 2 ) g a s e x c h a n g e m e a s u r e m e n t s , 3) and  4) f i e l d  tests.  These methods appear  among them, h o w e v e r , t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n is  very  different  subjective; anaerobic  independent  thresholds.  by  •  determine  to correlate  of anaerobic  investigators The v e n t i l a t o r y  E  measurements •  •  and  2  R,  FE0 ,  the excess  reliable.  2  0 P , and e x c e s s 2  CO2 m e t h o d s  Recently,  points;  the f i r s t  lactate  (aerobic  to  FEC0 ,  2  approximately  seem  t o be  investigators corresponding  threshold) 4 mmol/1  obtain  •  t h r e s h o l d a r e Vg, VCO2,  the anaerobic  C0 . 2  d i s c e r n two  E  E  •  • 2  valid  V , E  and  "breakaway"  to approximately  lactate  •  V /V02,  V /V0 ,  t h e most  and t h e second  highly  threshold  may  •  V /VC0 ,  lactate  electromyography,  •  which  1)  2 mmol/1  corresponding  (anaerobic threshold).  New t e r m s o f t h r e s h o l d s have a l s o b e e n i n t r o d u c e d d e t e r m i n e d by g a s e x c h a n g e m e a s u r e m e n t s  ; the t h r e s h o l d  i s called  w h i l e t h a t d e t e r m i n e d by l a c t a t e m e a s u r e m e n t s  ventilatory,  i s called  lactate  threshold. Anaerobic athletes  tend  threshold  t o show a h i g h e r  are t e s t e d a t the a c t i v i t y the  i s exercise  specificity  modality  anaerobic  threshold  f o r which they  o f t r a i n i n g and  train.  an  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the abrupt incremental  was only  exercise  shown t h a t t h e s e  of  attributed  concentration  in ventilation  not hold  true  any  during  longer.  abrupt changes a r e not c a u s a l  but  the  improvement  i n endurance  It  rather  t o the i n c r e a s e of anaerobic  performance i s  threshold after  t r a i n i n g . T h e r e i s d i s a g r e e m e n t among i n v e s t i g a t o r s magnitude  of  improvement  probably  because  of  different  fitness  levels  that  reflects  coincidental. Part  the  they  adaptation.  increase  does  when  This  The b e l i e f t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e i n b l o o d l a c t a t e was  dependent;  a  training  4 mmol/1 l a c t a t e  different of  intensity  of  the  subjects.  threshold,  protocols i t seems,  corresponding  i s t h e most e f f e c t i v e  concerning  anaerobic  training  to  specific  used  and  however,  approximately  in eliciting  t h e maximum  improvement. Anaerobic exercise; There synthase,  threshold  decreases  after  i t i s a l s o a f f e c t e d by s u b s t r a t e is a heart  relationship  between  volume, h e m a t o c r i t ,  prolonged  aerobic  availability.  VC^max,  SDH,  h e m o g l o b i n , and %ST  citrate fibers  with anaerobic threshold. Anaerobic  t h r e s h o l d determines  t h e pace which  can r u n a e r o b i c a l l y f o r a l o n g d i s t a n c e . threshold aerobic  a l l o w s an a p p r o x i m a t i o n  individuals  Knowing t h e a n a e r o b i c  of performance  i n prolonged  activities.  Heart  rate  threshold,  c a n be  a good  indicator  of the  r e g a r d l e s s o f s e x , age, and f i t n e s s  anaerobic levels  of  individuals. Anaerobic area for lead  threshold i s a controversial  of e x e r c i s e physiology. more into  Undoubtedly,  aerobic to anaerobic  i n the  there  i s a  need  area  which  will  o f t h e phenomenon o f t r a n s i t i o n  from  i n f o r m a t i o n t o be o b t a i n e d clarification  issue  metabolism.  i n this  APPENDIX B -  FACTOR  LEVEL  VARIATE  STATUS  TRAINED  LT . LT(%V0 max) VT . VT(%V0 max) V0 max TTT HR RLT  UNTRAINED LT . LT(%V0 max) VT . YT(%V0 max) V0 max TTT HR R  MEAN  STD DEV  12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12  9.5 82.1 8.5 74.8 58.3 903.7 166.9 0.97  0.8 8.8 0.8 8.4 3.0 70.4 8.3 0.05  12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12  7.6 81.3 7.6 80.0 45.9 691.2 167.2 1.00  0.4 5.6 0.7 7.0 2.9 74.2 9.4 0.06  LT . LT(%V0 max) VT . YT(%V0 max) V0 max TTT HR R  12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12  8.6 80.9 8.5 78.8 53.2 827.5 166.9 1.02  1.2 7.7 0.9 8.3 7.3 115.6 7.9 0.06  LT . LT(%V0 max) VT . YT(%V0 max) V0 max TTT HR R  12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12  8.5 82.5 7.7 76.0 51.0 767.5 167.2 0.96  1.1 6.9 0.8 7.8 6.7 140.5 9.7 0.04  2  2  2  L T  2  2  2  L T  L T  PREPOST  PRE  2  2  2  L T  L T  POST  MARGINALS  2  2  2  L T  L T  COUNT  APPENDIX C-INDIVIDUAL SUBJECTS PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA VT (mph)  .VT VOgmax TTT H R u (%VQr>max) (ml.kg" .min- ) (sec) (b/min)  LT .LT (mph) (XVO^max) TRAINED-PRE VALUES 1 10.0 79.91 2 10.0 87.01 3 10.0 78.51 4 8.0 67.11 5 9.5 81.50 6 10.0 95.23  7.5 10.0 9.0 8.5 9.5 9.0  61.76 87.01 74.71 73.03 81.50 78.87  61.73 59.54 57.85 56.62 58.00 63.89  990 900 915 840 900 1005  175 166 176 156 158 168  1.03 0.94 1.05 1.05 0.98 0.89  TRAINED-POST VALUES 1 9.5 78.64 2 10.0 83.20 3 9.5 81.96 4 8.0 70.19 5 9.0 84.26 6 10.0 97.76  7.5 8.0 9.0 7.5 8.0 9.0  63.97 68.18 77.00 67.80 75.38 88.21  57.40 60.66 58.22 53.94 53.19 58.00  945 945 855 795 795 960  169 167 179 158 156 175  0.98 0.99 0.99 0.95 0.93 0.90  UNTRAINED-PRE VALUES 7 7.5 83.13 8 7.5 72.05 9 8.0 75.06 10 7.0 76.99 11 8.5 88.61 12 7.5 85.59  8.5 7.0 8.5 8.5 8.0 7.5  87.09 67.09 80.78 87.49 80.90 85.59  41.30 46.73 49.00 46.20 50.84 46.69  690 720 825 735 735 675  176 155 169 175 169 160  1.07 1.01 1.06 1.00 1.10 1.05  UNTRAINED-POST VALUES 7 7.5 83.95 7.5 8 7.5 77.09 7.0 9 8.0 78.98 7.0 10 7.0 80.84 7.0 11 8.0 81.85 8.0 12 7.5 90.82 6.5  83.95 72.18 68.52 80.84 81.85 83.86  41.88 47.05 45.80 46.40 47.34 41.51  630 690 780 630 630 555  170 163 164 186 152 167  0.99 0.93 0.99 0.92 0.94 1.03  1  RLT  1  77 APPENDIX D - BLOOD LACTATE VALUES (mph): 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 TRAINED-PRE VALUES 2.1 2.1 1 1.0 1.0 2 3 1.1 2.3 4 3.3 3.3 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.6 5 1.7 1.4 1.2 1.1 2.7 2.1  9.0  9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0  2.6 1.3 2.1 3.2 1.6 2.1  2.3 1.4 2.8 3.8 1.5 2.8  2.9 1.4 3.3 5.2 3.3 2.7  3.9 2.2 4.1 6.7 2.6 3.6  4.9 4.9 8.1 7.6 2.1 2.2 5.2 5.2 4.9 7.2  1.2 1.5 1.1 0.9 1.2 2.0 1.7 2.1 1.1 1.4 1.2 1.4  2.0 1.1 2.2 2.7 2.2 2.0  2.8 1.3 2.7 5.8 2.9 2.2  4.3 1.8 4.0 4.6 3.5 4.0  4.4 5.4 6.9 10.0 2.3 3.0 3.8 4.8 6.6 5.7 4.6 4.8 7.1 9.3 15.6  TRAINED-POST VALUES 1 2 3 4 1.2 1.1 2.1 1.4 5 1.5 0.9 6  1.3 1.1 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.2  UNTRAINED-PRE VALUES 2.9 2.9 3.7 4.1 7 3.6 2.7 3.3 3.1 8 9 1.3 1.1 1.9 10 1.9 2.1 2.3 3.0 11 4.5 4.1 5.4 4.7 12 4.0 3.9 4.6 6.0  5.1 5.0 6.1 4.9 6.7 8.2 2.0 3.5 4.7 3.1 3.7 5.0 6.4 6.1 7.9 4.8 7.3 10.0  UNTRAINED-POST VALUES 7 1.4 1.7 1.7 2.0 8 1.3 2.0 1.6 2.2 9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.4 10 1.7 1.7 2.1 2.8 11 1.4 1.5 1.8 2.2 12 6.3 5.8 6.2 6.9  2.5 3.0 1.4 4.2 2.5 8.5  3.9 4.5 4.0 6.1 2.1 3.1 4.7 6.6 4.1 4.1 10.5 11.1  3.2 6.3  6.3 7.9 13.8 6.0 8.9 10.6 6.2 6.4 8.5 10.0 10.2 13.1  8.8 11.4 4.2 6.4 8.7 11.3 4.9 5.7  9.5  a  6.7 8.5 7.1 9.4  FIGURE 1. Lactate curve for one subject shows a velocity of 10.0 mph at the lactate threshold.  79  FIGURE 2. Excess C 0 curve f o r one s u b j e c t 7.0 mph a t the v e n t i l a t o r y t h r e s h o l d . 2  shows a v e l o c i t y  

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