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Biomechanical analysis of the dislocate Borchardt, Wallace James 1976

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c f BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DISLOCATE by WALLACE JAMES BORCHARDT B.Sc, University of Wisconsin, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION in the School of Physical Education and Recreation We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1976 (d) Wallace James Borchardt, 1976 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of /-^^Lsl/ijs^L^ ^fiu^t^^ti / The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date Mc, 22, /f7/ 6 i ABSTRACT The purpose of this study has been to make a biomechanical analysis of the dislocate as performed on the still rings. All testing was done in the gymnasium at the University of British Columbia with each of the five subjects taking three trials. Cable tension was monitored with strain gauges attached in series withthe ring cable. Each trial was filmed, and film and force records were synchronized with a flash gun which caused a timing mark to be placed on the chart recorder paper. When the subject felt he was ready the first of three trials was executed. There was a two minute rest between each trial to negate any effect of fatigue. After the completion of the third and final trial the subject was asked which trial he thought was the best of the three. The film record of the dislocate was later shown to a panel of experts who rated each dislocate. The rating by the panel of experts allowed each dislocate to be ranked in order of excellence. This rank order was the chosen criterion against which the biomechanical measurements were evaluated for the aim in coaching gymnastics is eventually to satisfy the subjective impression of the judges. The information recorded by the film was refined with the use of the Vanguard Motion Analyzer. Obtained were the following measures. a) position of the rings b) body position c) displacement of noted body landmarks ii The following conclusions were drawn from this study: 1. The patterns of force and body actions are similar for all subjects. Given these similarities it is difficult to identify measures which correlate highly with good performance. 2. The angular velocity of the movement of the legs at the second and third peaks of force is not well correlated with either experts' ranking (r = 0.18) or maximal force (r = 0.25). 3. The following are poor predictors of performance in the dislocate: a) Total range of angular displacement of the ring cable. b) Time (frames) between the second and third peaks of force. c) Angular displacement of the ring cable during the second and third peaks of force. d) Kipping angle. e) Amount of preparatory vertical drop of hips in the kipping phase. 4. Better performers are those who maximize the upward force during the kipping phase by accentuating the rise of the hips over that of the ankles. Consequently it is suggested that those teaching this activity concern themselves with methods of maximizing the upward thrust of the hips in the kipping phase. It is felt that this phase is the foundation block upon which the dislocate is built. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page 1. INTRODUCTION 1 Description of the Skill 2 Statement of the ProblemPurpose 2 Hypothesis 3 Importance of the Problem 3 Assumptions and. Limitations2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 5 Cinematography -> Cinematography and Dynamometry . 6 Cinematographic Analysis and Other Recording Systems .... 8 Cinematographic Analysis and Gymnastics 9 3. METHODS AND PROCEDURES 14 Subjects 1Instructions to the Subjects 14 Operational Instructions 5 Instrumentation 17 Force MeasurementMethods of Data Analysis 18 Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical .... 20 Body Position at Peak Force 2Selection of the Best Dislocate 2 iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 23 Selection of the Best Dislocate 2Force Profiles 5 Kipping Force 42 Events of the Second and Third Peaks of Force 44 Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable 4Body Position at Peak Force 53 Motions of Body Parts 5 Interrelations of Measurements 69 5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 73 Conclusions 75 REFERENCES 6 APPENDICES 80 A. Vanguard Data Acquisition Program 8B. Plotted Paths of the Ankles and Hips 2 C. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable 10D. Body Position at Peak Force 121 E. Panel of Experts' Ratings on Skill Performance 137 F. Measures of the Second and Third Peaks of Force 139 G. Force Recordings 142 H. Description of the Kipping Phase 158 I. Highest Dislocate I6J. Rank Order Correlations 164 V LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Selection of the Best Dislocate by the Subjects and the Panel of Experts 24 2. Kipping Force 43 3. Total Range of Ring Cable Displacement 51 4. Cable Tension and Cable Displacement at the Kipping Phase ... 52 5. Description of the Body Position at Peak Force 54 6. Interrelation of the Rank Order Correlations 70 6A. Vanguard Data Acquisition Program 81 7. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical -Subject MCT1 104 8. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical -Subject MCT2, Repeat 1 105 9. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical -Subject MCT2, Repeat 2 106 10. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical -Subject MCT2, Repeat 3 107 11. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical -Subject MCT3 108 12. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical -Subject DMT1 109 13. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical -Subject DMT2 110 14. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical -Subject DMT3 Ill 15. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical -Subject JTT1 112 16. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical -Subject JTT2 113 17. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical -Subject JTT3 114 vi LIST OF TABLES Table Page 18. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical -Subject RHT1 115 19. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical -Subject RHT2 116 20. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical -Subject RHT3 117 21. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical -Subject WBT1 118 22. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical -Subject WBT2 119 23. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical -Subject WBT3 120 24. Panel of Experts' Ratings on Skill Performance 138 25. Events at the Second and Third Peaks of Force . . . 140 26. Angular Velocity of the Legs at Maximum Force . . . 141 27. Force Recordings - MCT1 143 28. Force Recordings - MCT2 4 29. Force Recordings - MCT3 145 30. Force Recordings - DMT1 6 31. Force Recordings - DMT2 147 32. Force Recordings - DMT3 8 33. Force Recordings - JTT1 149 34. Force Recordings - JTT2 150 35. Force Recordings - JTT3 1 36. Force Recordings - RHT1 152 37. Force Recordings - RHT2 3 vii LIST OF TABLES Table Page 38. Force Recordings - RHT3 154 39. Force Recordings - WBT1 5 40. Force Recordings - WBT2 156 41. Force Recordings - WBT3 15 7 42. Hip Position during the Kipping Phase 159 43. Ankle Position during the Kipping Phase 160 44. Hip and Ankle Movement during the Kipping Phase 161 45. Highest Dislocate 163 46. Rank Order Correlations 165 47. Rank Order Correlations ..... 166 48. Rank Order Correlations 167 49. Rank Order Correlations 8 50. Rank Order Correlations 169 51. Rank Order Correlations 170 52. Rank Order Correlations 1 53. Rank Order Correlations 172 54. Rank Order Correlations 3 55. Rank Order Correlations 174 56. Rank Order Correlations 5 57. Rank Order Correlations •• 176 58. Rank Order Correlations 177 59. Rank Order Correlations 8 viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Aerial View of the Filming Arrangement 16 2. Schematic Arrangement of the Apparatus 9 3. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable: Repeated Measures of Subject MCT2 21 4. Cable Tension in One Ring Cable during the Performance of Subject MCT1 . 6 5. Cable Tension in One Ring Cable during the Performance of Subject MCT2 27 6. Cable Tension in One Ring Cable during the Performance of Subject MCT3 8 7. Cable Tension in One Ring Cable during the Performance of Subject DMT1 29 8. Cable Tension in One Ring Cable during the Performance of Subject DMT2 30 9. Cable Tension in One Ring Cable during the Performance of Subject DMT3 1 10. Cable Tension in One Ring Cable during the Performance of Subject JTT1 32 11. Cable Tension in .One Ring Cable during the Performance of Subject JTT2 3 12. Cable Tension in One Ring Cable during the Performance of Subject JTT3 34 13. Cable Tension in One Ring Cable during the Performance of Subject RHT1 5 14.. Cable Tension in One Ring Cable during the Performance of Subject RHT2 36 15. Cable Tension in One Ring Cable during the Performance of Subject RHT3 7 16. Cable Tension in One Ring Cable during the Performance of Subject WBT1 38 ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 17. Cable Tension in One Ring Cable during the Performance of Subject WBT2 39 18. Cable Tension in One Ring Cable during the Performance of Subject WBT3 40 19. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable - Subject MC 45 20. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable - Subject DM 46 21. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable - Subject JT 47 22. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable - Subject RH 48 23. Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable - Subject WB 49 24. Oscilloscope Display of the Vertical Motion of the Ankles (ordinate) Plotted Against the Vertical Motion of the Hips (abscissa) - Subject MC 57 25. Oscilloscope Display of the Vertical Motion of the Ankles (ordinate) Plotted Against the Vertical Motion of the Hips (abscissa) - Subject DM 58 26. Oscilloscope Display of the Vertical Motion of the Ankles (ordinate) Plotted Against the Vertical Motion of the Hips (abscissa) - Subject JT 59 27. Oscilloscope Display of the Vertical Motion of the Ankles (ordinate) Plotted Against the Vertical Motion of the Hips (absciss a) - Subject RH . 60 28. Oscilloscope Display of the Vertical Motion of the Ankles (ordinate) Plotted Against the Vertical Motion of the Hips (abscissa) - Subject WB 61 29. Vertical Movement Gradients of the Ankles and Hips during the Kipping Phase - Subject MC 2 30. Vertical Movement Gradients of the Ankles and Hips during the Kipping Phase - Subject DM 63 31. Vertical Movement Gradients of the Ankles and Hips during the Kipping Phase - Subject JT 4 X LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 32. Vertical Movement Gradients of the Ankles and Hips during the Kipping Phase - Subject RH 65 33. Vertical Movement Gradients of the Ankles and Hips during the Kipping Phase - Subject WB 66 34. Ankle Joint Path Tracing - Subject MCT1 83 35. Ankle Joint Path Tracing - Subject MCT2 4 36. Ankle Joint Path Tracing - Subject MCT3 85 37. Ankle Joint Path Tracing - Subject DMT1 6 38. Ankle Joint Path Tracing - Subject DMT2 87 39. Ankle Joint Path Tracing - Subject DMT3 8 40. Ankle Joint Path Tracing - Subject JTT1 89 41. Ankle Joint Path Tracing - Subject JTT2 90 42. Ankle Joint Path Tracing - Subject JTT3 1 43. Ankle Joint Path Tracing - Subject RHT1 92 44. Ankle Joint Path Tracing - Subject RHT2 3 45. Ankle Joint Path Tracing - Subject RHT3 94 46. Ankle Joint Path Tracing - Subject WBT1 5 47. Ankle Joint Path Tracing - Subject WBT2 96 48. Ankle Joint Path Tracing - Subject WBT3 7 49. Hip Joint Path Tracing - Subject MC 98 50. Hip Joint Path Tracing - Subject DM 9 51. Hip Joint Path Tracing - Subject JT 100 52. Hip Joint Path Tracing - Subject RH 101 53. Hip Joint Path Tracing - Subject WB 102 xi LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 54. Body Position at Maximum Force, Subject MCT1 122 55. Body Position at Maximum Force, Subject MCT2 123 56. Body Position at Maximum Force, Subject MCT3 124 57. Body Position at Maximum Force, Subject DMT1 125 58. Body Position at Maximum Force, Subject DMT2 . . 126 59. Body Position at Maximum Force, Subject DMT3 127 60. Body Position at Maximum Force, Subject JTT1 128 61. Body Position at Maximum Force, Subject JTT2 129 62. Body Position at Maximum Force, Subject JTT3 130 63. Body Position at Maximum Force, Subject RHT1 131 64. Body Position at Maximum Force, Subject RHT2 . 132 65. Body Position at Maximum Force, Subject RHT3 133 66. Body Position at Maximum Force, Subject WBT1 134 67. Body Position at Maximum Force, Subject WBT2 135 68. Body Position at Maximum Force, Subject WBT3 136 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Special gratitude is expressed to Dr. Arthur Chapman of Simon Fraser University, without whose help the completion of this study would not have materialized. Appreciation is also extended to Phil Hurren of the University of British Columbia Mechanical Engineering Department whose help was essential in the building of the testing apparatus. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The dislocate is a basic gymnastic skill performed on the still rings by both competitive and recreational gymnasts. It is a transitional move used to develop a strong forward swing which is most common in the dislocate—shoot to handstand. According to the standards set by the International Gymnastics Federation (F.I.G.) "Code of Points" the composition of a still ring routine is set down in Article 30 as follows (15:16): The exercise on the rings must involve movements alternating between swing, strength and hold parts, without swinging of the rings. The exercise should have two handstands, one of which must be executed with strength and the other attained by swing from a hang, inverted hang or support. Furthermore, the exercise should contain an additional strength part wherein the difficulty must conform to the total difficulty of the exercise. In Competition 2, one of the C parts must belong to the swinging parts, and in Competition 3, two of the C parts must belong to the swinging parts. The "Code of Points" more specifically states that a ring routine should be comprised of 45% strength parts and at least 38% must be swing parts for a harmonious routine. In the writer's opinion current trends in ring routines today point toward an increase in the percentage of swing content. Of the many moves that are classi fied as swing moves two groups can be formed: those moves that have the basic rear rise as its core and those moves that are based on the dislocate. 2 DESCRIPTION OF THE SKILL Starting from an inverted hanging position with a straight body the gymnast flexes at the hips to an inverted pike. Then he extends his body at the hips projecting the legs upward and backward which is followed by moving the straight arms forward. The body then descends in an extended position with the front of the body leading the descent. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The objective of this study was to determine biomechanical relationships (i.e. paths of joint centers, position of the rings, force patterns and body positions) which were associated with good performance among gymnasts doing a dislocate on the still rings. Kinematic analysis was performed and force patterns were collected for each of five subjects tested who were all members of the University of British Columbia gymnastics team. This study coordinates movement patterns, force patterns and angular displacements of the rings and provides information on the causative factors resulting in varying amounts of cable tension in the dislocate on the still rings. PURPOSE 1. To measure the resultant tensile cable force throughout the execution of the dislocate swing. 2. To evaluate the resultant tensile cable force profiles of several gymnasts. 3 3. To determine which body actions (i.e. hip extension, shoulder extension, etc.) are associated with impulse as shown by the tensile cable force profiles. 4. To determine which parameters are consistent within the performance of an individual gymnast but which vary between gymnasts of different ability. HYPOTHESIS Differences in skill of performers ranging from good to excellent are associated with quantitative differences and not with qualitative differences in the mechanical measurements made in this study. IMPORTANCE OF THE PROBLEM 1. This study will provide a basis for increased understanding of the dislocate on the still rings. 2. This study may help coaches and athletes understand the skill so that teaching the skill will be facilitated. 3. This study may provide insight into the factors determining performance. ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS The following assumptions and limitations must be taken into consideration: 1. The study was limited to five subjects from the University of British Columbia gymnastics team; therefore, there are limitations in generalizing to a large population of gymnasts who can perform the dislocate. Each subject was filmed attempting three trials of a dislocate. Each trial was analyzed leading to analysis of a total of fifteen dislocates. Joint estimations had to be made in the frames where the image was not clear. It was assumed that these estimations were consistent and accurate. It was assumed that each subject gave an "all out" effort on each trial. In any cinematographical investigation there are basic limitations: a) perspective errors, where parts of the body are closer to or further from the lens. b) lens aberration errors, which depend on the quality of equipment. c) scaling errors, where projected images are not sharp and distinct. 5 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE As legend states, problem solving through photographic means had its origins among the owners of racehorses. The problem was simple: when a horse galloped, was one foot always in contact with the ground? Muybridge (3^:59) proposed an experiment to find the answer to the problem. He had twenty-four cameras placed so that their shutters were tripped by strings which the horse broke as he galloped past. The results proved the majority wrong when the prints revealed the horse to have one unsupporting phase in his galloping stride. Thus the photographic study of motion was born. Noss (23:81) has stated that, "If the value of photography as a research tool were measured in terms of its frequency of application to problems in physical education, one might overestimate its value as an effective research technique." However, most filming in physical education is not destined for in-depth critical analysis; it is more for casual viewing. CINEMATOGRAPHY Cinematography is the act of making motion pictures that provide a maximal amount of relevant and accurate information about the subject matter being studied. Stanley C. Plagenhoef states (27:81): The use of motion pictures is probably the best single technique for obtaining kinetic and kinematic data related to whole body motion. Movement can be recorded under a wide range of conditions—most notably during competition and at times when it is desirable to obtain material with out the subject's immediate knowledge. 6 In its simplest form, cinematography is a film record which allows motion to be slowed down. In the more advanced forms of cinematographic analysis provisions are made for the accurate measure ment from film of the primary quantities of position displacement, and time. If displacement and time are established, velocity and acceleration can be computed. If mass and other physical character istics are known, then force, momentum, and center of gravity can be computed. A third order of methodology is to combine cinematographical records with other recording systems, such as electromyography, electrogoniometry, dynamometry and telemetry. Unfortunately, cinema tography has the major drawback of requiring time to process the data. Of the three most common camera sizes used for research purposes, the 16 mm. camera is used more frequently than 35 mm. or 8 mm. The 8 mm. camera in its present stage of development has a film size that does not produce an image suitable for research purposes. The 35 mm. film meets the standards of size and image quality for research purposes, but its combined lack of availability and cost of equipment preclude its use. CINEMATOGRAPHY AND DYNAMOMETRY The use of cinematography and dynamometry, or the direct measure ment of force to capture and measure critical events is well documented. The most common method of direct force measurement in conjunction with cinematography has been the use of some type of force platform. The 7 performance on the platform is usually filmed with a clock positioned in the camera field. The latter is wired to give pulses on the force record which are used to synchronize the film and force record. While the following descriptions are not particularly concerned with gym nastic activity they serve to illustrate the use of cinematography in the analysis of human movement. Payne (24:123) combined cinematography and a force platform to investigate a number of events. Records of the components of thrust at the feet of an athlete were obtained for: the vertical jump, sprint start, second step of sprint run, constant speed running, hurdling, shot putting and weight-lifting. Combined cinematography and dynamometry were used in a comparison between flop and straddle high jumpers (Kuhlow, 17:403). In this study, dynamic events at take-off were registered by a force platform which worked on the principle of piezo-electric crystals. The results obtained illustrated that performance of an activity was initially determined by the forces applied against the ground. Consequently the source of variations in performance must be examined with recourse to the forces producing the movement. In studying the standing broad jump of young children, Roy (29) found only a maximum deviation of 9% between the vertical force computed from film and that directly measured from a force platform. His study indicates that data on the accelerations of individual body segments which were deduced from the film and which combine to make up the total force can be measured reasonably accurately from the film. 8 Hay (12:34) used cinematography to investigate the relative influence of five factors on the magnitude of the pole-bend obtained in vaulting with a flexible pole. In his study, the mass of the subject remained constant throughout; thus the forces produced were directly proportional to the accelerations produced. This work illustrates the possibility of examining forces producing motion in those events where direct force measurements are not possible. CINEMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS AND OTHER RECORDING SYSTEMS Eckert (7:937) used cinematographic analysis in studying the vertical and standing broad jumps of college men and women. A comparison of range of motion of joint actions and maximal angular velocities for men and women indicated distinct time-force coordinations of the various joint actions in the performance of the vertical and standing broad jumps. Alternatively, Hebbelinck and Borms (13:324) combined cinematographic analysis and general pattern of muscle activity of the upper extremity during the performance of a front handspring. The greatest action potentials were recorded during the push-up phase when the hands hit the floor, followed by a reaction raising the center of gravity and increasing the rotational momentum. This work suggests that there are consistent patterns of motion and muscular activity in specific activities and the examination of such patterns provides a criterion for evaluation of quality of performance. 9 CINEMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS AND GYMNASTICS A number of investigators have used cinematographic analysis to describe patterns of motion in gymnastic activity. A cinematographic analysis of the forward somersault on parallel bars was done by Sullivan (33:16). Film tracings of the body position at the instant of release and regrasp were made of five performances. The center of gravity at release and regrasp was estimated and path of the center of gravity during the flight was calculated. Sullivan found that at release: a) the body is in a straight, lay out position, b) arms straight, c) angle of the arms with the perpendicular about 35° d) center of gravity directly over hand grasp and travelling upward rather than upward and forward At regrasp it was found the angle of the arms with the vertical to be 20°, so the center of gravity will be forward of the hands. Hatano (10:27) completed a cinematographic analysis of a double somersault using two subjects. It was found that the first somersault needs more time than the second in both subjects and the body angle at take-off was observed to be approximately 75° from the horizontal. These results also agree with Lundien (20:26) who studied the single backward somersault and recommended an optimal take-off angle to be 75° from the horizontal. The consistency reported amongst these studies of expert performers suggests direct aims which should guide the coach of the novice gymnast to improve his ability. Unfortunately such repeatable 10 information is not available for performers on the still rings. While most studies on the still ring event were concerned with the more advanced swing moves, especially giant swings, (Dusenbury (5), Peek (25), Dvorak (6),) relatively few studies have investigated the dislocate in gymnastics. Chaplan (2:22) describes the dislocate as follows: The gymnast should forcefully kip at the hips with the legs projecting out at 45° angle. The body will rise slightly if the kipping action is strong and the arms straight throughout. Hinds (14) contends that the kipping phase of the dislocate terminates in a planche position with the arms pressing out and down on the rings with the shoulders well in front and above. From this position the chest should lead the descent and the arms should move from along the sides of the body around in an arc to the front of the body. More quantitative information on skill analysis was produced by Dusenbury (5), who made an attempt to calculate from film the force generated at the bottom of the swing on the forward and backward giant swings. The results were surprising: Maximum Vertical Force Backward Giant Subject 1 (body wt. 60 kgs.) Subject 2 (body wt. 65.5 kgs.) 545 kgs. 432 kgs. 9 times the body wt. 6 times the body wt. Forward Giant Subject 1 Subject 2 434 kgs. 380 kgs. 7 times the body wt. 5 times the body wt. 11 But the positions at which these maximum forces were recorded were quite different in the two subjects used. In subject 1, the position of maximum vertical force occurred when the body was horizontal on the downward swing, while in subject 2, the position of maximum force on the hands occurred just before the subject reached the bottom of the downward swing. A cinematographical analysis of a straight arm backward giant on the still ring was done by Peek (25). The analysis included plotting paths of the hips, shoulders, ankles, and center of gravity along with an examination of the contribution of body segments to the whole move ment. The results of the analysis indicate that: 1. With reference to the suspension line of the rings the center of gravity followed a more or less vertical path, downward and upward. 2. The hip angle is slightly greater than 180° throughout the giant swing until the hips pass through the bottom of the swing. 3. The hip angle is decreased sharply after the legs pass through the bottom position. 4. The greatest angular velocity of the hips occurred on the downward swing between a position 45° below horizontal and the bottom. 5. The greatest angular velocity of the ankles occurred in the same position. Peek also stated, without proof, that there was a direct relationship between the velocity of the body (ankles and hips) during the descent and the success of completing the skill. 12 Sale (30) combined cinematography with force readings obtained from a load cell in studying the shoot to handstand. Although he did not analyze the dislocate he did define it as follows (30:5): A movement used to initiate a forward swing on the rings. From a straight body inverted hang position, the gymnast flexes the hip joint and then forcefully extends the hip joint and displaces the rings sideward and then forward with his arms. The body is thus positioned for a forward swing. Sale's analysis revealed the following about the shoot to handstand: 1. The common movement patterns as reflected in common fluctuations in ring cable tension and impulse development. 2. The ranked importance of movement patterns on the basis of magnitude of impulse produced. The maximum resultant vertical force ranged from 350 to 410 pounds force for the four subjects used; this was revealed through the use of a load cell connected in series with the ring cable. The peak force occurred at the bottom of the swing; the cell monitored the tension on one ring cable only. Sale concluded that better performances were associated with greater impulse development during the shoulder extension-hip flexion phase through the bottom of the downswing and the hip extension phase on the upward swing. In all the preceding descriptions of analysis performed on still ring events, the common factor was measurement of force. It is evident that the dislocate should be learned as a prerequisite to the shoot to handstand and giant swings. Moreover, no attempt was made in the previously mentioned studies to measure the forces generated throughout the dislocate. A pilot study was 13 undertaken by the present writer to describe the differences in what was thought to be two different types of dislocates. The mounting dislocate of thirty-two subjects were filmed, at the 1973 National Collegiate Athletic Association Gymnastic Championships. The differences were so small between the two types of dislocates that the writer concluded that the dislocates were all of the same type. The measurement of vertical cable tension in the dislocate by several performers is one of the themes of this study. While considerable information of a descriptive nature has been presented, there appears to be no consistent approach to the analysis of patterns of motion. The development of a technique for studying patterns of motion is a further aim of the study. CHAPTER III METHODS AND PROCEDURES SUBJECTS The subjects used were five gymnasts from the University of British Columbia gymnastics team. An attempt was made to secure gymnasts of varying skill level in the execution of the dislocate Individual height and weight for the subjects were as follows: Subject Height Weight MC 5 ft. 10% in. 165 lbs. DM 5 ft. 10h in. 158 lbs. JT 5 ft. 9k in. 156 lbs. RH 5 ft. 8 in. 159 lbs. WB 5 ft. 10h in. 179 lbs. Each subject wore a swim suit in order to facilitate the filming the body actions. INSTRUCTIONS TO THE SUBJECTS After each subject completed his own personal warm-up and stretching period the subject's body was marked at the following joint centers: 1. wrist - bands wrapped around the lower arm at the base of the hand (styloid process) 2. elbow - olecranon process 3. shoulder - acromioclavicular joint 4. trunk - placed on the side of the body nearest the camera at the level of L-l and T-12 5. hip - greater trochanter 6. knee - joint axis from position of flexion 7. ankle - lateral malleolus 15 Joint centers were marked by a black dot placed on a white tape that could be easily seen by the camera. The shoulder joint, because of its great range of motion, was indicated by a black mark placed on the body. After the body markings were put in place, the subject was allowed to swing freely on the rings and perform several practice dislocates. At this time the subject was asked to hang motionless, with both hands first on one ring and then on the other ring so that a reading for body weight calibration could be obtained on the chart recorder. When the subject felt he was ready the first of three trials was executed. There was a two-minute rest between each trial to negate any effect of fatigue. After the completion of the third and final trial the subject was asked which trial he thought was the best of the three. OPERATIONAL INSTRUCTIONS The collection of data was made possible with the assistance of the technical advisors of the Engineering Department at the University of British Columbia. One assistant was stationed to operate the camera and another assistant operated the chart recorder (Figure 1). Before the trial was attempted the name of the subject and number of the trial was recorded on the chart recorder paper. camera to subject distance 34 ft. 6 inches Figure 1 Aerial View of the Filming Arrangement bridge amplifiers flash chart recorder 17 The order of operational instructions was as follows: 1. Start the chart recorder 2. Start the camera 3. Fire the flash gun 4. Subject begins 5. Stop the camera when the performer arrives in a support position 6. Stop the chart recorder. The synchronization of the film and the chart recorder was done with an electric flash gun used as the timing light. As the flash gun was fired a timing mark was placed automatically on the chart recording paper. The flash was recorded on the film (Figure 1). INSTRUMENTATION Camera Bolex 16 mm 1.8 f stop speed 61 frames/sec Sun Cine Zoom Lens 16 mm F:18 15-60 mm Chart Recorder Make - Gulton (2 channel pen recorder) Type - TR 722 Speed - 25 mm/sec Bridge Amplifier Type - B.A.M. I Models - 6E62; 6E52 FORCE MEASUREMENT Because of the design of the testing apparatus it is important to understand the measurement of stress or strain through a metallic object. For the present purpose, strain may be defined as the change in length of a material. For simple tensile stress, provided the elastic limit is not exceeded the strain is proportioned to the stress 18 load. Direct force measurement was obtained from strain gauges located axially on the ring cables. With the use of a Wheatstone Bridge circuit combined with the strain gauge tranducers, cable tension was obtained and recorded by a two channel pen chart recorder. Force and time were expressed as a fraction of body weight and number of frames of film respectively. METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS Vanguard Data Acquisition Program The first step in converting the events recorded on film to usable data was the development of a computer program that would collect and register the position of the noted body landmarks. The Vanguard Data Acquisition Program (Appendix A) was designed to give abscissa and ordinate values to each of the body landmarks. sThis was done by setting abscissa and ordinate coordinates on each of the body points; the Vanguard Motion Analyzer (V.M.A.) automatically assigned abscissa and ordinate values to these locations. These values were then recorded and stored on computer tape for every other frame of the film. This information was later used to plot paths of motion of the seven body landmarks selected (Appendix B). The path tracings of the ankle, hip and knee were selected as the most useful, because they provide the most discernable path tracings. In general the patterns of motion did not facilitate quantitative comparison between either individuals or trials. 19 Wires to Bridge Amplifiers Figure 2 Schematic Arrangement of the Apparatus 20 to allow plots of the vertical motion of the ankles (ordinate) against vertical motion of the hips (abscissa). The latter allowed investigation of the relative emphasis of the motion of these two parts. ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT OF THE RING CABLES FROM VERTICAL The angular displacement of the ring cables from vertical was measured at every second frame (time interval = 0.0328 sec.) using the Vanguard Motion Analyzer. After the film was properly squared in the viewing screen of the V.M.A., the outer ring of the V.M.A. could be moved to measure the angular displacement of the ring cable from a vertical position (Figures 19-23). The actual cable measurement may be found in the appendix. It should be noted that positive values indicate movement of the ring cables in an anterior direction from the vertical position relative to the direction which the subject was facing. As a test of reliability the second trial of subject MC was measured and recorded at three different times (Figure 3). The procedure was judged to be reliable. BODY POSITION AT PEAK FORCE The point of maximum force was determined by the force readings taken from the strain gauges during the execution of the dislocate. The exact frame in which the greatest force was found was determined by plotting force versus time expressed in the number of frames. 22 Using the abscissa and ordinate values assigned by the Vanguard Data Acquisition Program for each body landmark, the body position was then graphed and body angles measured (Table 5). A line was drawn from the wrist to the shoulder and the shoulder to the hip; the shoulder angle was then measured. A line was drawn from the hip to the knee; the hip angle was measured. A line was drawn from the knee to the ankle; the knee angle was measured (Appendix D). Angular displacement of the ring cable at the time of peak force was also recorded. SELECTION OF THE BEST DISLOCATE A panel of experts was asked to rate the dislocates from the film record. The panel consisted of a university gymnast, two coaches and a F.I.G. judge. A significant amount of agreement was shown among the judges as indicated by a coefficient of concordance of 0.91 (p < .001). The rating sheet can be found in Appendix E and the results of this ordering are shown in Table 1. CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The chief aim of this study has been to find factors which are associated with good performance of the dislocate on still rings. This approach was necessary because of the paucity of biomechanical information concerning the factors which either lead to or enhance performance of the dislocate. The measurements obtained were analyzed with respect to consistencies shown by individuals on repeated trials and differences between subjects which may shed some light on their differing abilities. SELECTION OF THE BEST DISLOCATE Immediately after each subject completed his third trial the subject was asked to indicate which trial he thought to be his best. This seemed not to be an easy decision as the subjects believed the dislocates to be very similar to each other. This supposition of similarity is borne out by experimental evidence which is described later. A panel of experts was then asked to rate the dislocate from the film record. The panel consisted of a university gymnast, two coaches and a F.I.G. judge. The rating sheets can be found in the appendix. The results of this ordering are shown in the table (Table 1) below. 24 Table 1 Selection of the Best Dislocate by the Subjects and the Panel of Experts Rank Order by Experts Subject's Rank Order Trial Score Indicated Best 1 RHT1 30.0 2 RHT2 29.3 3 RHT3 28.7 X 4 WBT3 25.7 X 5 WBT1 25.0 6 WBT2 24.8 7 JTT3 21.8 X 8 JTT1 20.9 9 JTT2 20.4 10 DMT3 17.1 X 11 DMT1 16.5 12 DMT2 15.9 13 MCT3 14.3 14 MCT2 14.2 X 15 MCT1 12.0 25 Although the panel was instructed to rate each dislocate, their results clearly ranked the subjects. This rank order was the criterion with which a number of other measures were correlated for the aim in coaching gymnastics is eventually to satisfy the subjective impression of the judges. FORCE PROFILES The general features of the force profiles from all subjects (Figures 4-18) demonstrated three peaks of force. The first was related to the kipping phase and the last two were associated with the bottom of the swing. However subject RH produced recordings in which peaks two and three were combined into one peak. While the first peak was due to the kipping phase, the second peak was due to the subject resisting the acceleration due to gravity and arresting his vertical momentum. Sale states (30:100) "The magnitude of this impulse would be determined by the height from which the center of gravity of the body descended in a more or less free fall situation." The second force peak in the present study was associated with the following observations: a) rings were forward of vertical position b) arched body c) head in neutral position d) shoulders ^extended e) chest near vertical position A wide variety of positions was observed during the depression between the second and third force peaks. The only generally consistent observation during this phase was that the body was in an X Body Wt. 5 h 4 3 r 2 I 1 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Frames Figure 4 Cable Tension in One Ring during the Performance of Subject MCT1 X Body Wt. 5 y 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Frames Figure 8 Cable Tension in One Ring during the Performance of Subject DMT2 X Body Wt. 5 -0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Frames Figure 10 Cable Tension in One Ring during the Performance of Subject JTT1 X Body Wt. 140 160 Frames Figure 12 Cable Tension in One Ring during the Performance of Subject JTT3 180 X Body Wt. I i i i i 1 1 1 1 1— 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Frames Figure 13 Cable Tension in One Ring during the Performance of Subject RHT1 X Body Wt. 140 160 Frames Figure 17 Cable Tension in One Ring during the Performance of Subject WBT2 X Body Wt. 6 -5 h 4 3 2 1 1 I I 1 1 . ! 1 1 i_ 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Frames Figure 18 Cable Tension in One Ring during the Performance of Subject WBT3 41 arched position and the hips were approaching the bottom of the swing. Sale (30) found a slight rearward deflection which reduced momentarily the component of the force of gravity acting in line with the ring cables. While this ring movement was observed it was not consistently shown by all subjects. The third force peak represented the force occurring at the bottom of the swing. The following observations were associated with this phase: a) rearward ring deflection b) shoulder flexion c) head back d) hip flexion Sale (30) further states that it is this phase that is the most important impulse for accelerating the body upward in his study of the shoot to handstand. The present observations differ only slightly from those by Sale. At the time of the second two peaks of force, making up the force at the bottom of the swing, Sale observed the ring cable to be in a vertical position. During the depression occurring between the two peaks of force, Sale noted trunk flexion, and rearward deflection of the rings from vertical. The events surrounding the second and third peaks of force will be treated in more detail later in this chapter. KIPPING FORCE When the rank order of the first force peak during the kipping phase was correlated with the subjective rank order of dislocates by the panel of judges a correlation coefficient of 0.71 was obtained. Consequently it is suggested that maximization of the upward force during the kipping phase is an important precursor of the subsequent motion. The following table (Table 2) contains the force during the kipping phase expressed as a fraction of the body weight. The table also includes the percentage the kipping force represents when compared to the peak force occurring at the bottom of the dislocate. Table 2 Kipping Force Trial Kippinga Force Kippingb Force % Subject's Ave. % MCT1 1.92 64.0% 55.6% MCT2 2.31 55.6 MCT3 1.88 47.9 DMT1 2.57 65.5 58.1% DMT2 2.39 56.2 DMT 3 2.40 52.5 JTT1 2.25 49.4 50.7% JTT2 2.21 49.1 JTT3 2.25 53.6 RHT1 2.95 44.5 42.0% RHT2 2.47 39.2 RHT3 2.62 42.3 WBT1 2.40 52.9 53.1% WBT2 2.44 53.0 WBT3 2.40 53.3 a Kipping force is expressed as a fraction of the body weight. b Kipping force % is expressed as the percentage of the peak force. 44 EVENTS OF THE SECOND AND THIRD PEAKS OF FORCE The parameters of time (frames) and angular displacement of the ring cable during the second and third peaks of force were measured and can be found in the appendix (Table 25). It was thought that the two measures could be used to separate good from poor performances. When time (frames) between the second and third peaks of force was co-related with force and the assessment by the experts' correlations, r = -0.17 and r = -0.25 were obtained respectively. It was judged that these two measures yielded useless information. Another attempt to explain the events of the second and third peaks of force was tried using the angular velocity of the legs. Using the abscissa and ordinate values assigned by the Vanguard Data Acquisition Program the shoulder, hip and ankle joints were graphed for the two peaks of force. The angular velocity for each trial was computed (Appendix H). The angular velocity of the movement of the legs at both peaks of force is not well correlated with either experts' ranking (r = 0.18) or maximum force (r = 0.25). ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT OF THE RING CABLE The angular displacement of the ring cable from vertical was measured at every second frame (time interval = .0328 second). The actual cable measurement may be found in Appendix C. Figures 19-23 15 f 10 f 5 I co <u 2 o,f 60 1 CD R -5 h -10 -15 20 40 60 80 140 100 120 Figure 19 Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable Subject MC 160 Frames 180 100 . 120 Figure 20 Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable Subject DM 160 Frames Subject JT 15 , 10 h 5 r to co 60 U <u Q -10 -15 20 40 60 80 100 120 Figure 22 Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable Subject RH 140 160 Frames 180 15 10 to u 0 cu Q -5 -10 -15 20 40 60 80 120 100 Figure 23 Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable Subject WB —i 1 140 160 Frames 180 50 show the results of these measurements. It should be noted that positive values indicate movement of the ring cables in an anterior direction from the vertical position relative to the direction which the subject was facing. To the surprise of the investigator many of the irregularities shown in the curves consistently appear over the three trials. Had a larger time interval been selected the curve would have been smoother and less irregular, but information would have been lost or dismissed as experimental noise. The exact significance of the reproducible small perturbations in ring cable displacement is unclear and has not been investigated further in this study. At this point several general statements can be made about this measurement. 1. Each subject was consistent in his performance of the dislocate to yield the same general pattern of ring cable displacement. 2. With the exception of subject DM, all subjects yielded the same general pattern of ring cable displacement. When the total range of ring cable displacement (Table 3) was compared to both maximum force and the judgement of the experts, correlations of r = 0.33 and r = 0.13 were obtained respectively. Based on these correlations the total range of ring cable displace ment proved not to be associated either with particular changes in force profile or assessment of the judges. 51 Table 3 Total Range of Ring Cable Displacement Trial Forward Backward Total Displacement Displacement Range MCT1 12.0° - 9.2° 21.2° MCT2 13.4 - 8.4 21.8 MCT3 14.0 - 8.0 22.0 DMT1 14.0 - 6.4 20.4 DMT2 14.0 - 8.0 22.0 DMT3 15.2 - 8.0 23.2 JTT1 12.4 - 6.0 18.4 JTT2 13.0 - 7.6 20.6 JTT3 12.0 - 6.4 18.4 RHT1 13.0 -10.6 23.6 RHT2 14.8 - 9.4 24.2 RHT3 13.0 -10.6 23.6 WBT1 12.0 - 8.0 20.0 WBT2 11.2 - 7.8 19.0 WBT3 11.0 - 7.6 18.6 52 The angle of displacement of the ring cable from vertical during peak kipping force, hereafter referred to as kipping angle, was measured (Table 4). Rank order correlations of r = 0.35, r = 0.11 and r = 0.18 were obtained when comparing kipping angle with kipping force, maximum force and the judgement of the experts respectively. Therefore, there seems to be little relationship between the kipping angle and peak forces occurring during the kipping phase and the bottom of the swing, and the judgement of the experts. Table 4 Cable Tension and Cable Displacement at the Kipping Phase Trial Kipping Force Frame Kipping Angle Average MCT1 1.92 60 0° 0.86 MCT2 2.31 52 0.8 MCT3 1.88 46 1.8 DMT1 2.57 52 0 -0.13 DMT2 2.39 58 0.2 DMT 3 2.40 60 -0.6 JTT1 2.25 62 -2.0 -2.0 JTT2 2.21 70 -2.2 JTT3 2.25 60 -1.8 RHT1 2.95 52 1.0 0.86 RHT2 2.47 68 0.8 RHT3 2.62 78 0.8 WBT1 2.40 62 0.4 0.13 WBT2 2.44 60 0 WBT3 2.40 68 0 BODY POSITION AT PEAK FORCE The point of maximum force was determined from the force recordings of the strain gauges during the execution of the dislocate The exact frame in which the greatest force was found was determined by plotting the force versus time expressed in the number of frames. The table below (Table 5) is a summary of the information which describes the body position at peak force and includes the angular displacement of the ring cable at that moment. While the following information is qualitative rather than quantitative, it is included to allow comparisons to be made with similar observations by previous investigators. 54 Table 5 Description of the Body Position at Peak Force Trial Frame Shoulder Angle Hip Angle Knee Angle Angle of Ring Cable Subject's Indicated Best MCT1 116 162° 203° 206° -2.0° MCT2 115 162 193 195 -2.4 X MCT3 108 160 204 196 0 DMT1 124 152 163 177 -3.0 DMT2 130 161 176 174 -1.0 DMT 3 132 167 174 175 -3.2 X JTT1 128 167 168 185 -5.0 JTT2 135 200 208 191 -1.2 JTT3 127 165 171 186 -3.5 X RHT1 135 164 190 181 -1.3 RHT2 152 160 178 192 -2.4 RHT3 160 175 191 190 -3.0 X WBT1 133 153 179 181 -3.1 WBT2 131 164 175 194 -2.2 WBT3 140 151 169 187 -4.0 X It should be noted that all trials were accompanied with a rear ward (counter to the direction of the action) movement of the ring cable from the vertical position ranging from -5.0° to 0 (vertical). This data is similar to that obtained by Dvorak (6) who found, in both the bent and straight arm giant swings, at the position of maximum force the ring cable was behind vertical with an average deflection of -3.75°. These findings differ slightly from the conclusion drawn by Sale (30:106) who stated: The greatest impulse was produced during hip flexion and shoulder extension just after the bottom of the swing had been attained. MOTIONS OF BODY PARTS An attempt was made to develop a simple kinematic index in order to separate the better dislocates from the poorer dislocates. Initially the paths of motion of a number of reference markers located on the body were obtained (Appendix B). The data obtained illustrated the similarity in execution of technique among subjects. In general the patterns of motion did not facilitate quanti tative comparison between either individuals or trials. As mentioned previously (kipping force) the peak force produced during the kipping phase was highly correlated with subjective assessment of the overall performance by the panel of experts (r = 0.71). Consequently attention was diverted to this phase of the performance where kinematic differences between subjects were investigated in the following manner. The vertical motion of the ankles (ordinate) was plotted against the vertical motion of the hips (abscissa) in order to investigate the relative emphasis of the motion of these two body parts. Path tracings from the oscilloscope display are included in Figures 24-28 a graphic presentation of the movement gradients (ankle vs. hips) 56 are included in Figures 29-33. These graphs are plotted in arbitrary computer units which can be converted into absolute units of feet if they are multiplied by 0.025 feet per computer unit. 57 MCT3 Figure 24 Oscilloscope Display of the Vertical Motion of the Ankle (ordinate) Plotted against the Vertical Motion of the Hips (abscissa) Subject MC DMT1 Figure 25 illoscope Display of the Vertical Motion of the Ankle (ordinate) Plotted against the Vertical Motion of the Hips (abscissa) Subject DM JTT1 Figure 26 Oscilloscope Display of the Vertical Motion of the Ankle (ordinate) Plotted against the Vertical Motion of the Hips (abscissa) Subject JT 60 Figure 27 Oscilloscope Display of the Vertical Motion of the Ankles (ordinate) Plotted against the Vertical Motion of the Hips (abscissa) Subject RH WBT1 Figure 28 Oscilloscope Display of the Vertical Motion of the Ankles (ordinate) Plotted against the Vertical Motion of the Hips (abscissa) Subject WB 62 700 Ankle 650 -600 1 550 H Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 500 A 500 550 600 650 Hip Figure 29 Vertical Movement Gradients of the Ankles and Hips during the Kipping Phase. Subject MC 63 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 500 550 600 650 Hip Figure 30 Vertical Movement Gradients of the Ankles and Hips during the Kipping Phase. Subject DM 64 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 500 550 600 650 Hip Figure 31 Vertical Movement Gradients of the Ankles and Hips during the Kipping Phase. Subject JT 65 Ankle 700 650 H 600 550 A 500 550 600 Hip Figure 32 Vertical Movement Gradients of the Ankles and Hips during the Kipping Phase. Subject RH 650 66 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 500 550 600 650 Hip Figure 33 Vertical Movement Gradients of the Ankles and Hips during the Kipping Phase. Subject WB 67 Several general points can be made about the results of this type of presentation of data. 1. In the better subjects the kipping loop falls within the descent loop of the entire dislocate. 2. In subject RH there is greater rise of the ankles and hips during the kipping phase (Figure 32) when compared with that shown by the remaining subjects. subject RH - average rise 93 y units other subjects - average rise 7.58 y units 3. There is a greater movement (rise) of the ankles as compared to the hips. 4. The ankles of subject RH finished at a higher position than their initial starting position in the inverted straight body hang. Finish Vertical movement of ankles in subject RH average starting position - 655 y units average finishing position - 696 y units Only one other subject (DM) consistently showed this pattern but not to the extent shown by subject RH. The other subjects showed the opposite patterns; i.e., the position of ankles at completion of the kipping phase is lower than the ankle in the initial starting position. Subject RH shows greater hip movement (rise) than the other subj ects. V Subject: RH other subjects Subject RH's average hip rise is 51.6 y units whereas the other subjects' hips only rise on the average 13.8 y units. INTERRELATIONS OF MEASUREMENTS The rating by the panel of experts allowed each dislocate to be ranked in order of excellence. This rank order was the chosen criterion against which the biomechanical measurements were evaluated. The existence of a high rank order correlation between expert assess ment and a given biomechanical measure was accepted as the basis for the assumption of usefulness of a biomechanical measure. This approach allowed certain measures to be rejected as providing insignificant information on the performance of the skill. Hopefully, coaches and other individuals using the information provided in this thesis would pay particular attention to biomechanical measures which were highly correlated with expert opinion of good performance. Table 6 Interrelation of Rank Order Correlations 12 3 4 56789 10 11 12 1. Grad. of down kip 2. Grad. of up kip 0.88 3. Mean grad. (up & down) 4. Peak force 0.76 0.78 0.74 5. Experts' scores 0.80 0.92 0.87 0.85 6. Highest dislocate^ -0.21 7. Amt. of vert, rise hips 0.94 0.86 0.97 8. Amt. of vert, drop hips 0.36 0.36 9. Kipping force 0.74 0.63 0.62 0.78 0.71 0.65 0.27 10. Kipping angle 0.11 0.18 0.35 11. Displ. of the ring cable between 2nd & 3rd peaks -0.17 -0.11 12. Time between 2nd & 3rd peaks -0.17 -0.25 13. Total range of ring displacement 0.33 0.13 14. Angular velocity of the legs 0.25 0.18 Gradient is the ratio of the vertical movement of the ankles to the vertical movement of the hips. b Table 45. C Table 26. Significance at: r _c ir = .44, r _n 1C = .60 " .05; 15 .01; 15 71 From the preceding rank order correlations the following state ments can be made: 1. a) The highest peak force was obtained by those gymnasts whose gradient is lowest in the kipping phase; i.e., those gymnasts who emphasized the vertical hip move ment rather than ankle movement. b) The actual amount of drop of hips is poorly correlated with peak force (r = 0.36) and the amount of rise of hips is well correlated with force (r = 0.86). There fore the upward force in the hips is well correlated with the subsequent peak force at the bottom of the swing. 2. a) The ranking by the experts is very well correlated with the relative emphasis of the vertical hip movement over that of the ankles (mean gradient r = 0.87). b) The same also applies to the ranking by the experts and the vertical rise of the hips (r = 0.85). 3. The peak force at the bottom of the swing is also well correlated with the experts' ratings (r = 0.85). 4. The rating by the panel of experts was correlated with the following gradients and gave the following results: a) Gradient-down kip r = 0.80 b) Gradient-up kip r = 0.92 c) Mean gradient r = 0.87 d) Peak force r = 0.85 The measurements of kipping angle, angular displacement of the ring cable between the second and third peaks, time between the second and third peaks and total range of ring cable dis placement prove to be poor tools in predicting performance. 73 CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The purpose of this study has been to make a biomechanical analysis of the dislocate as performed on the still rings. All testing was done in the gymnasium at the University of British Columbia with each of the five subjects taking three trials. Cable tension was monitored with strain gauges attached in series with the ring cable. Each trial was filmed, and film and force records were synchronized with a flash gun which caused a timing mark to be placed on the chart recorder paper. After each subject completed his own personal warm-up and stretching period the subject's body was marked at the following joint centers: 1. wrist 2. elbow 3. shoulder 4. trunk 5. hip 6. knee 7. ankle After the body markings were put in place, the subject was allowed to swing freely on the rings and perform several practice dislocates. When the. subject felt he was ready the first of three trials was executed. There was a two minute rest between each trial to negate any effect of fatigue. After the completion of the third and final trial the subject was asked which trial he thought was the best of the three. 74 The film record of the dislocate was later shown to a panel of experts who rated each dislocate. The rating by the panel of experts allowed each dislocate to be ranked in order of excellence. This rank order was the chosen criterion against which the biomechanical measurements were evaluated for the aim in coaching gymnastics is eventually to satisfy the subjective impression of the judges. The information recorded by the film was refined with the use of the Vanguard Motion Analyzer. Obtained were the following measures: a) position of the rings b) body position c) displacement of noted body landmarks The Vanguard Data Acquisition Program was designed to give abscissa and ordinate values to each of the body landmarks. This information was later used to plot paths of motion of the seven body landmarks selected. CONCLUSIONS The patterns of force and body actions are similar for all subjects. Given these similarities it is difficult to identify measures which correlate highly with good performance. The angular velocity of the movement of the legs at the second and third peaks of force is not well correlated with either experts' ranking (r = 0.18) or maximal force (r = 0.25). The following are poor predictors of performance in the dislocate: a) Total range of angular displacement of the ring cable. b) Time (frames) between the second and third peaks of force. c) Angular displacement of the ring cable during the second and third peaks of force. d) Kipping angle. e) Amount of preparatory vertical drop of hips in the kipping phase. Better performers are those who maximize the upward force during the kipping phase by accentuating the rise of the hips over that of the ankles. Consequently, it is suggested that those teaching this activity concern themselves with methods of maximizing the upward thrust of the hips in the kipping phase. It is felt that this phase is the foundation block upon which the dislocate is built. REFERENCES 76 77 REFERENCES 1 Austin, J.M., "Cinematographic Analysis of the Double Backward Somersault," M.S. Thesis, University of Illinois, 1960. 2 Chaplan, M., "Elementary Dislocate, " Modern Gymnast, June-July, 19 70. 3 Cooper, J.M. (ed), Selected Topics on Biomechanics, Chicago: Athletic Institute, 1971. 4 Cooper, J.M., R. Ward, P. Taylor and D. Barlow, "Kinesiology of the Long-Jump," Biomechanics III, Vol. 8, Karger, Basel, 1973. 5 Duesbury, James, "A Kinetic Comparison of Forward and Reverse Giant Swings on the Still Rings as Performed by Gymnasts with Varying Body Types," Unpublished M.S. Thesis, University of Massachusetts, 1968. 6 Dvorak, R.H., "A Kinematic Comparison Between the Bent and Straight Arm Giant Swings on the Still Rings Using Cinematographical Analysis," University of New Mexico, 1973. 7 Eckert, H.M., "Angular velocity and range of motion in the vertical and standing broad jumps," Research Quarterly, Vol. 39, No. 4, 1968. 8 . "The effect of added weights on joint action in the vertical jump," Research Quarterly, Vol. 39, No. 4, 1968. 9 Grossfeld, A.L., "Under Bar Somersault on the Parallel Bars," M.S. Thesis, University of Illinois, 1962. 10 Hatano, Y., "Study of the Mechanics of the Backward Double Somersault," Modern Gymnast, Nov. 1962. 11 Hay, J.G., "An Investigation of Mechanical Efficiency in Two Styles of High Jumping," Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Iowa, 1967. 12 . "Pole Vaulting: A Mechanical Analysis of Factors Influencing Pole-Bend," Research Quarterly, Vol. 38, No. 1, 1967. 13 Hebbelinck, J. and J. Borms, "Cinematographic and Electromyographic Study of the Front Handspring," Biomechanics I, Karger, Basel, 1968. 78 REFERENCES 14 Hinds, J.W., Still Rings: Skills and Techniques, Santa Monica, California, Sundby Publications, 19 72. 15 International Gymnastics Federation (F.I.G.), Supplements and Amendments to the Code of Points 1968, Zurich: Neue Zurcher Zeitung, 1971. 16 Ketlinski, R., "Can High Speed Photography Be Used as a Tool in Biomechanics?," Selected Topics on Biomechanics, Chicago: Athletic Institute, 1971. 17 Kuhlow, A., "A Comparative Analysis of Dynamic Take-off Features of Flop and Straddle," Medicine and Sport, Biomechanics III, Vol. 8, Karger, Basel, 1973. 18 Lascari, A.T., "The Felge Handstand - A Comparative Kinetic Analysis of a Gymnastics Skill," Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1970. 19 Leggett, D.A. and J.C. Waterland, "An Electromyographic Study of Selected Shoulder Muscles during Arm Support Activity," Biomechanics III, Vol. 8, Karger, Basel, 1973. 20 Lundien, E.C., "A Cinematographic Analysis of the Backward Somersault," M.S. Thesis, University of Illinois, 1951. 21 Moorse, A. C, "A Cinematographical Analysis of a Full Twisting Backward Somersault," M.S. Thesis, University of Illinois, 1951. 22 Morrison, J.B., "The Mechanics of Muscle Function in the Locomotion," Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 3, 1970. 23 Noss, James, "Control of Photographic Perspective in Motion Analysis," Journal of Health, Physical Education, and  Recreation, Vol. 38, 1967. 24 Payne, A.H., W.J. Slater and T. Telford, "Athletic Activities, A Preliminary Investigation," Ergonomics, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1968. 25 Peek, R.W., "A Cinematographic and Mechanical Analysis of the Straight Arm Backward Giant Swing on the Still Rings," M.S. Thesis, Springfield College, 1968. 26 Plagenhoef, S.C., "Computer programs for obtaining kinetic data on human movement," Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 1, 1968. 79 REFERENCES 27 . "Gathering Kinesiological Data Using Modern Measuring Devices," Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, Vol. 39, No. 8, 1968. 28 . "Methods for Obtaining Kinetic Data to Analyze Human Motions," Research Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1966. 29 Roy, B.G., "Kinematics and kinetics of the standing long jump in seven, ten, thirteen and sixteen year old boys," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin, 19 71. 30 Sale, D.G., "A Cinematographical and Mechanical Analysis of the Shoot-to-Handstand Performed on the Rings," M.S. Thesis, University of Western Ontario, 1972. 31 Sale, D.G. and R.L. Judd, "Dynamometric instrumentation of the rings for analysis of gymnastic movements," Medicine and Science  in Sports, Vol. 6, No. 3, 19 74. 32 Spencer, R.R., "Ballistics in the Mat Kip," Research Quarterly, Vol. 34, No. 2, 1963. 33 Sullivan, R.M., "The Forward Somersault on the Parallel Bars," Modern Gymnast, March, 1966. 34 Taylor, Paul, "Essentials of Cinematography," Selected Topics on Biomechanics, Chicago: Athletic Institute, 19 71. 35 Vanis, G.J., "A Cinematographic Analysis of the Yamashita Vault over the Long Horse," Modern Gymnast, Nov.-Dec., 1965. APPENDIX A 80 81 Table 6A Vanguard Data Acquisition Program C-fch FCCAL *' I <*6\ •01 .«>2 T "VANGUARD NOT I 0(> AKALYSER DATA AC'JISTItiv T CC R A !• " , ! ! ! 21 A "ivAh.E OF FILN.'AIA " DATE'A t! 21 .db A 'MJ1-.3ER CF DATA P G ! NTS ~ KO , ! 21 .Ut A "Dt YCU U'AUT C A L IBu AT 1C |. " IS > ! 21.12 I (0 YES - IS ) I . la ,3 .«/ J , 1 . 1 2 01 .12 A " START U.G ADD!". ESS" AD IS AD=AE-2|F AM ,!'C;3 2 u l . I 4 Q ca.<T2 S 2=F/.CT C 3 ^ 2 3 »O 4 ) aa .24 S ?=F'/CT C3423 ,64 > ; I < 7 -1 CS )2 .34 ,2 .B4 ,2 .So ok .06 S £ =F : CT C j4 2o » 06 ) «2.«6 S 5 «F>:CT<3423 .oo > ;S Y«F; CTC3423 ,64 > 2ii . I 2 S it =FC OR I Ali+A «a , >' > ; S 7 *FCCn C <AD*1 )«(fi«2),V) «/2.1iS 5 Z»F>CT <34i:3,o4 ) J t C 2 - 1 3 o ) a . I « , 2 . I 4 , £ . 1 2 u3.to3 S AO Mil 92 JT " t IE A!* ITV CJ-=CK nnCG?£t ",!!'.! KJ.34 T > VALUE YVA.LUS 5' DIFF YD IFF J'S Y*' 23. ii3 F AM ,KC 50 2 *.3.26 S S;.=FCCR CAD+C1.X i!2 > >-FCCP C £ 1 54 ) 23.2fc S SY = FCCR C11 93 + CIC<'2 ) )-FCC?. Ct 1 So ) «3.i<> s >• I = IS:-/U..C-I )> 23.12 S YI=(£Y/CI.C-1 ) ) 23 . 14 F AM ,I.C JD 153 .16 G 5.22 Zt.-iiZ 3 MA>=FCCr. CfciS2HA«2) ;S Y CA ) =FC Cr ( f.l 93 +A <;2 ) *4 .23 I' Cij'C - (A } >4 .22 ,4 . 23 ,4 . 24 24.24 S D>.CA >-FCCP. C b 1 S2* (A '2 > *2 )-FCC"? C bl '.-2 • CA ' 2 ) j lib S DYCA ) =F3CP. C «j 1 i3 + CA i:a )+2 )-FCCF, C fcl 93 + CA«2 ) ) 04.36 S >*S<A) = CDr<A)-?-I)/ CS> « .«1)I3 YE<A) = <CY<A>-YI)/<SY*.ai ) 104.16 T ~fc.24, ;•' CA ) , Y (A ) ,DXCA ) ,DY CA > ,'XE CA ) , YE (A > , ! 24 . 1 fc K 24 .22 T ;•: CA ) , YCA ) , ! 44.22 p. 25.22 T " hYSTESS IS Cl-ECK PF CGP£> " , ! ! ! ! *5 T " >; UP X DC'..:k Y U? Y DCVK V-', Y*" ,'. 25.25 S AD=AD+1!C*2 S5.06 F AM ,KC iD 2 03 .4 t F AM ,1.-C;D 5.12! 26.12 S WW = CIoCI2)-CA-l ) iS >: CWV } »FC CR IAD **A *£ ) »S Y (VV ) =FC C~ C CAD + 1 ) + CA *2 ) ) »5 .12 F A = l ,|..0 ID 6 f5.14 G 7.22 26.25 I CIJC-A 16 . 1 2 ,6 . 1 2 ,6 . 26 ' " *>6.*>6 s hxiA ) = c;^ CA ) -;;CKC+A >>/?-">•.a 1 •«6.V»fc S KYCA ) *< Y(A > -V(I-!C+A > > /SY« .8 1 <>6.l/> T >• CA ) , 5;CIvC+A ) , Y CA J , YCKC+A ) , hV CA ) , hYlA } , ! ^6.11 R uo.12 T XCA ) ,/. CUX; ,Y CA ) , YCW Y) , ! 06.14 R ..... iii.£2 T " REPEATABILITY ChECK c = CG?At-'" , I ! ! I 87 .04 T " 1ST X 2ND 5C 1ST Y 21JD Y y% YS" , ! 07'.4(5 S AD=AD+IJC*2 27 .26 F A M ,K0 ID 2 27 .36 F A -1 , ICC ID & " w7.12 Q 26.22 S V = CIJC*2J+A S :.tw )=FCC": IAD + (A*2 ) ) IS Y CW > ='C CP. C C AD + 1 ) + C A *2 ) ) at.j5 I (KC-j'Ot.lc.c.lcjt.'ilu at.s CA ) = CMA )-"»•') )/s;" .a 1 ;s >Y CA ) = c YCA J -YCV J 3/sr*.a i 26.12 T ; CA ),;: ci:;, YC A ), Y cu ) ,s: (A ) ,P Y CA ;, i at.11 s 2L.12 T > CA ) ,/'.«•! ) , YCA ) , Y CV J , ! J t. I 4 R 32.Si. A l!?CCTAL?i; DE=2;F I-1,5 IS K = 5-IID 33.72 3K. .o3 T *3 .22 , ?DEC ll-AL? |G 3«.6«l 32 .72 S > -F ITS ICC/12"! ) ;S CC =CC -* I 3 " I- ; 5 DE'DE + I -'t*r 31.2 1 S L' =FCC i". C I 1 2 >j ,33 t4 ) 31.2a S i'=rCCI' Cl I J!/,LIJ!;V) 2 1.23 S ?«FCCn<307«,24e«) 31.v>'4 ^ i:'. =FC C:'^ C3 o'l .'1 , 3 Vu ) APPENDIX B 82 83 Figure 34 Ankle Joint Path Tracing Subject MCT1 Figure 35 Ankle Joint Path Tracing Subject MCT2 Figure 36 Ankle Joint Path Tracing Subject MCT3 Figure 37 Ankle Joint Path Tracing Subject DMT1 Figure 38 Ankle Joint Path Tracing Subject DMT2 Figure 39 Ankle Joint Path Tracing Subject DMT3 Figure 40 Ankle Joint Path Tracing Subject JTT1 Figure 41 Ankle Joint Path Tracing Subject JTT2 Figure 42 Ankle Joint Path Tracing Subject JTT3 Figure 43 Ankle Joint Path Tracing Subject RHT1 Figure 44 Ankle Joint Path Tracing Subject RHT2 Figure 45 Ankle Joint Path Tracing Subject RHT3 Figure 46 Ankle Joint Path Tracing Subject WBT1 Figure 47 Ankle Joint Path Tracing Subject WBT2 Figure 48 Ankle Joint Path Tracing Subject WBT3 98 Figure 49 Hip Joint Path Tracing Subject MC 99 Hip Joint Path Tracing Subject DM JTT2 JTT3 Figure 51 Hip Joint Path Tracing Subject JT RHT2 RHT3 Figure 52 Hip Joint Path Tracing Subject RH WBT2 WBT3 Figure 53 Hip Joint Path Tracing Subject WB APPENDIX C 103 104 Table 7 Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical Subject: MC Trial 1 ame Degrees Frame Degrees Frame Degrees Frame Degrees 0 0 48 1.5 96 10.2 144 -7.0 2 0 50 1.5 98 12.0 146 -7.0 4 0 52 1.5 100 12.0 148 -6.8 6 0 54 0.5 102 12.0 150 -6.5 8 0 56 0 104 8.0 152 -5.8 10 0 58 0.5 106 6.5 154 -5.4 12 -0.2 60 0 108 4.0 156 -5.4 14 0 62 -0.5 110 4.0 158 -6.0 16 0 64 0 112 3.2 160 -5.0 18 0 66 0.5 114 0 162 -4.0 20 0 68 1.0 116 -2.0 164 -3.0 22 0 70 1.0 118 -2.5 166 -3.0 24 0 72 1.0 120 -2.5 168 -2.6 26 +0.5 74 2.2 122 -3.2 170 -2.0 28 0.8 76 3.2 124 -4.5 172 -1.5 30 1.0 78 4.2 126 -4.5 174 -1.0 32 1.2 80 7.0 128 -4.5 176 0 . 34 1.5 82 9.0 130 -6.8 178 +0.5 36 1.5 84 9.4 132 -8.0 180 1.8 38 1.5 86 10 134 -8.5 182 3.5 40 1.0 88 9.2 136 -9.0 184 2.5 42 0.5 90 9.2 138 -9.2 186 1.5 44 0.8 92 9.8 140 -7.2 188 1.5 46 1.0 94 9.8 142 -7.2 190 2.5 105 Table 8 Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical Subject: MCT2 Repeat 1 Frame Degrees 0 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 10 0 12 0 14 0 16 0 18 0 20 0 22 0.2 24 0.2 26 0.4 28 1.0 30 2.0 32 2.0 34 1.5 36 1.5 38 1.0 40 1.0 42 1.0 44 1.0 46 1.0 Frame Degrees 48 1.0 50 0 52 0 54 0 56 0 58 0 60 0.8 62 1.0 64 1.0 66 1.0 68 2.0 70 2.5 72 3.5 74 5.2 76 7.0 78 7.0 80 7.2 82 7.6 84 9.2 86 10.2 88 12.4 90 13.0 92 13.0 94 13.0 Frame Degrees 96 13.0 98 13.0 100 12.4 102 9.0 104 6.2 106 3.6 108 3.6 110 4.5 112 0 114 -3.0 116 -2.0 118 -2.0 120 -4.8 122 -5.2 124 -5.0 126 -4.0 128 -4.0 130 -6.0 132 -6.0 134 -5.8 136 -5.0 138 -4.8 140 -3.2 142 -3.2 Frame Degrees 144 -3.2 146 -5.4 148 -7.0 150 -7.0 152 -6.4 154 -4.0 156 -1.0 158 -1.0 160 -2.2 162 -3.2 164 -4.0 166 -3.5 168 -3.5 170 -3.0 172 -2.0 174 -0.4 176 0 178 0 180 0 182 1.0 184 1.0 186 1.6 188 1.8 190 2.0 106 Table 9 Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical Subject: MCT2 Repeat 2 Frame Degrees 0 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 10 0 12 0 14 0 16 0 18 0 20 0 22 0 24 0.8 26 0.8 28 0.8 30 0.8 32 0.8 34 0.8 36 0.8 38 1.2 40 1.4 42 1.4 44 1.6 46 0 Frame Degrees 48 0 50 0 52 0 54 0 56 0 58 0.4 60 0.8 62 0.8 64 0.2 66 0.4 68 2.0 70 2.0 72 5.2 74 5.2 76 6.8 78 7.4 80 7.0 82 7.8 84 8.4 86 9.4 88 11.2 90 12.8 92 13.2 94 13.2 Frame Degrees 96 13.2 98 12.6 100 11.6 102 8.2 104 5.8 106 4.8 108 3.6 110 4.4 112 0.4 114 -3.2 116 -2.0 118 -3.0 120 -4.2 122 -5.0 124 -4.6 126 -4.6 128 -6.0 130 -6.0 132 -7.0 134 -6.0 136 -5.8 138 -5.4 140 -3.6 142 . -3.6 Frame Degrees 144 -3.6 146 -5.0 148 -7.0 150 -7.6 152 -7.2 154 -3.8 156 -1.0 158 -0.8 160 -2.8 162 -3.2 164 -3.8 166 -4.0 168 -3.6 170 -3.6 172 -3.2 174 -1.6 176 -0.2 178 0.4 180 0.4 182 0.6 184 0.6 186 1.8 188 2.0 190 2.0 107 Table 10 Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical Subject: MCT2 Repeat 3 Frame Degrees 0 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 10 0 12 0 14 0 16 0 18 0 20 0 22 0.2 24 0 26 0 28 0.2 30 0.2 32 0.2 34 0.2 36 0.2 38 0.6 40 0.8 42 1.0 44 1.0 46 0.6 Frame Degrees 48 0.8 50 0.8 52 0.8 54 0 56 0 58 0 60 0.2 62 0.2 64 0 66 0 68 2.0 70 2.2 72 3.6 74 4.8 76 5.2 78 6.8 80 7.0 82 7.0 84 8.6 86 10.0 88 12.0 90 12.6 92 12.8 94 13.4 Frame Degrees 96 13.4 98 12.6 100 10.4 102 7.4 104 5.0 106 3.2 108 2.6 110 3.6 112 0 114 -2.0 116 -2.4 118 -2.4 120 -6.0 122 -5.8 124 -5.0 126 -4.8 128 -5.2 130 -6.2 132 -7.4 134 -6.4 136 -6.0 138 -5.0 140 -4.0 142 -4.2 Frame Degrees 144 -4.2 146 -7.0 148 -8.0 150 -8.4 152 -7.0 154 -4.6 156 -1.8 158 -1.8 160 -2.6 162 -3.2 164 -4.0 166 -4.0 168 -4.0 170 -3.6 172 -3.2 174 -1.0 176 0 178 0 180 -0.4 182 0 184 0.4 186 0.8 188 1.4 190 1.6 108 Table 11 Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical Subject: MC Trial 3 Frame Degrees 0 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 10 0 12 0.8 14 0.8 16 1.0 18 1.2 20 1.2 22 1.2 24 1.5 26 1.5 28 1.5 30 1.5 32 1.8 34 2.0 36 2.0 38 3.0 40 3.0 42 2.4 44 1.8 46 1.8 Frame Degrees 48 1.8 50 1.4 52 1.4 54 1.2 56 1.2 58 2.0 60 2.0 62 2.0 64 3.5 66 4.0 68 4.0 70 5.0 72 6.0 74 8.8 76 10.5 78 12.4 80 13.6 82 14.0 84 14.0 86 14.0 88 14.0 90 12.0 92 10.6 94 9.2 Frame Degrees 96 7.0 98 6.8 100 5.4 102 5.4 104 6.0 106 1.4 108 0 110 -1.0 112 -1.4 114 -4.5 116 -5.0 118 -4.8 120 -3.5 122 -3.5 124 -4.5 126 -7.0 128 -8.0 130 -6.0 132 -4.0 134 -4.0 136 -3.2 138 -3.0 140 -3.0 142 -4.0 Frame Degrees 144 -4.4 146 -4.4 148 -5.4 150 -4.0 152 -2.6 154 -1.4 156 -1.0 158 -1.0 160 -1.0 162 -1.0 164 0 166 1.0 168 1.0 170 1.0 172 0.8 174 0.8 176 0.8 178 3.8 180 3.4 182 3.0 184 2.0 186 2.2 188 2.2 190 2.2 109 Table 12 Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical Subject: DM Trial 1 Frame Degrees 0 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 10 0 12 0 14 0.2 16 0.2 18 .0.2 20 0.2 22 0.4 24 0.4 26 0.4 28 0.4 30 0.4 32 0.4 34 0.4 36 0.4 38 0.2 40 0.8 42 0.8 44 0.8 46 0.6 Frame Degrees 48 0 50 0 52 0 54 0 56 0 58 0.4 60 0.4 62 0.8 64 0.8 66 0.8 68 1.2 70 1.2 72 1.2 74 1.0 76 1.0 78 2.2 80 5.0 82 9.4 84 12.4 86 13.6 88 14.0 90 13.8 92 10.8 94 9.0 Frame Degrees 96 8.0 98 8.0 100 8.0 102 8.0 104 11.4 106 12.0 108 13.0 110 13.0 112 11.4 114 8.4 116 3.0 118 0.8 120 2.2 122 0.8 124 -3.0 126 -3.8 128 -4.2 130 -5.0 132 -5.0 134 -6.0 136 -6.0 138 -6.4 140 -6.4 142 -6.2 Frame Degrees 144 -5.8 146 -5.8 148 -5.8 150 -5.8 152 -6.4 154 -5.0 156 -2.0 158 0 160 1.6 162 1.6 164 1.4 166 -2.0 168 -2.0 170 -5.0 172 -5.0 174 -4.0 176 0.6 178 3.8 180 5.6 182 3.0 184 0 186 0 188 2.8 190 4.6 110 Table 13 Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical Subject: DM Trial 2 ame Degrees Frame Degrees Frame Degrees Frame Degree! 0 0 48 0.4 96 10.0 144 -5.0 2 0 50 0.4 98 9.0 146 -5.0 4 0 52 0.2 100 8.0 148 -6.4 6 0 54 0.2 102 8.0 150 -6.4 8 0 56 0.2 104 8.4 152 -6.4 10 0 58 0.2 106 10.4 154 -6.0 12 0 60 0 108 11.6 156 -7.4 14 -0.2 62 0 110 13.0 158 -8.0 16 -0.2 64 0 112 14.0 160 -7.6 18 -0.2 66 0 114 14.0 162 -3.2 20 0 68 0 116 14.0 164 -1.4 22 0 70 0 118 13.6 166 -0.2 24 0 72 -0.4 120 9.4 168 0 26 0 74 -0.4 122 5.2. 170 0.2 28 0 76 -0.2 124 2.0 172 0.2 30 0.4 78 -0.2 126 2.0 174 0.2 32 0.4 80 -0.2 128 2.0 176 0 34 0.4 82 -0.2 130 -1.0 178 -3.0 36 0.4 84 1.0 132 -2.8 180 -4.0 38 0.4 86 3.2 134 -3.0 182 -1.6 40 0.4 88 6.0 136 -5.0 184 1.2 42 0.4 90 9.0 138 -5.6 186 3.0 44 0.4 92 10.4 140 -5.6 188 3.0 46 0.4 94 11.0 142 -5.0 190 2.0 Ill Table 14 Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical Subject: DM Trial 3 Frame Degrees 0 0.4 2 0.4 4 0.4 6 0.4 8 0.4 10 0.4 12 0.4 14 0.4 16 1.0 18 1.2 20 1.2 22 1.2 24 1.2 26 1.2 28 1.2 30 1.4 32 1.4 34 1.4 36 1.4 38 1.4 40 1.4 42 1.4 44 1.4 46 1.6 Frame Degrees 48 1.6 50 1.2 52 0.8 54 0.4 56 0 58 -0.4 60 -0.6 62 -0.6 64 0.4 66 0 68 0.4 70 1.0 72 1.0 74 1.4 76 1.6 78 1.0 80 -0.2 82 0 84 0 86 1.4 88 5.2 90 9.4 92 11.2 94 12.4 Frame Degrees 96 11.8 98 11.0 100 10.4 102 9.2 104 9.4 106 9.2 108 9.2 110 9.4 112 11.4 114 13.0 116 14.0 118 15.2 120 14.0 122 9.4 124 3.4 126 1.0 128 1.4 130 0 132 -3.2 134 -4.8 136 -3.8 138 -5.0 140 -6.0 142 -4.6 Frame Degrees 144 -4.6 146 -7.4 148 -6.8 150 -4.6 152 -4.6 154 -4.6 156 -7.4 158 -8.0 160 -6.8 162 -4.0 164 -0.2 166 0 168 0.4 170 0.4 172 0.4 174 0.4 176 -2.0 178 -4.0 180 -5.0 182 -3.0 184 2.6 186 5.0 188 5.6 190 3.2 112 Table 15 Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical Subject: JT Trial 1 Frame Degrees 0 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 10 0 12 0 14 0 16 0 18 0 20 0 22 0 24 0 26 0 28 0 30 0 32 -0.6 34 -0.6 36 -0.2 38 -0.2 40 -0.2 42 -0.2 44 -0.2 46 -0.2 Frame Degrees 48 -0.4 50 -0.4 52 -1.0 54 -1.4 56 -1.0 58 -2.0 60 -2.4 62 -2.0 64 -1.4 66 -1.4 68 -1.0 70 -1.0 72 0 74 0 76 1.4 78 2.4 80 2.6 82 3.2 84 5.0 86 6.0 88 7.6 90 8.6 92 8.6 94 8.4 Frame Degrees 96 7.0 98 7.4 100 7.4 102 7.0 104 7.0 106 8.8 108 10.0 110 11.0 112 12.4 114 12.4 116 9.6 118 6.2 120 1.4 122 2.2 124 2.4 126 -1.0 128 -5.0 130 -3.2 132 -3.6 134 -5.0 136 -4.8 138 -5.6 140 -6.0 142 -6.0 Frame Degrees 144 -6.0 146 -5.8 148 -5.4 150 -5.4 152 -5.4 154 -5.0 156 -3.2 158 -1.4 160 -0.8 162 1.0 164 0 166 -1.6 168 -2.0 170 -1.4 172 -1.0 174 -1.0 176 -0.6 178 -0.6 180 3.2 182 184 186 188 190 113 Table 16 Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical Subject: JT Trial 2 ame Degrees Frame Degrees Frame Degrees Frame Degrees 0 0 48 0 96 7.0 144 -5.6 2 0 50 0 98 8.0 146 -7.6 4 0 52 0 100 9.0 148 -7.2 6 0 54 -1.2 102 11.0 150 -7.2 8 0 56 -1.2 104 11.4 152 -7.0 10 0 58 -1.2 106 11.4 154 -6.0 12 0 60 -1.0 108 11.4 156 -6.0 14 0 62 -1.0 110 11.4 158 -6.0 16 0 64 -2.0 112 11.4 160 -6.8 18 0 66 -2.0 114 11.4 162 -6.2 20 0 68 -2.0 116 12.0 164 -5.0 22 0 70 -2.2 118 12.4 166 -4.2 24 0 72 -1.2 120 13.0 168 -2.0 26 0 74 -1.0 122 13.0 170 -2.0 28 0 76 -1.0 124 11.8 172 -4.0 30 0 78 -0.8 126 9.0 174 -4.0 32 0 80 -0.8 128 5.0 176 -4.0 34 0 82 0 130 2.0 178 -2.8 36 -0.4 84 2.0 132 1.4 180 -2.2 38 -0.4 86 2.2 134 0 182 -1.6 40 -0.4 88 3.0 136 -2.4 184 -1.6 42 -0.4 90 3.8 138 -5.0 186 -1.0 44 0 92 3.8 140 -2.4 188 0 46 0 94 4.2 142 -4.6 190 1.2 114 Table 17 Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical Subject: JT Trial 3 Frame Degrees 0 0.4 2 0.4 4 0.4 6 0.4 8 0.4 10 0.4 12 0.4 14 0.4 16 0.4 18 0.4 20 0.4 22 0.8 24 0.8 26 0.8 28 0.8 30 0.8 32 0.8 34 0.8 36 0.8 38 0.8 40 0.8 42 0 44 0 46 0 Frame Degrees 48 0 50 -0.2 52 -0.4 54 -1.2 56 -1.8 58 -1.8 60 -1.8 62 -1.4 64 0 66 0.4 68 0.4 70 0.4 72 0.4 74 1.2 76 2.4 78 3.0 80 3.8 82 3.8 84 4.0 86 5.6 88 6.4 90 8.6 92 8.6 94 9.6 Frame Degrees 96 10.0 98 10.2 100 10.4 102 11.0 104 11.0 106 11.0 108 12.0 110 12.0 112 12.0 114 12.0 116 9.6 118 5.6 120 3.8 122 2.0 124 1.0 126 -1.0 128 -6.0 130 -4.0 132 -4.4 134 -5.0 136 -5.4 138 -6.0 140 -6.0 142 -6.4 Frame Degrees 144 -6.4 146 -6.4 148 -6.2 150 -6.4 152 -6.4 154 -5.2 156 -4.8 158 -3.0 160 -1.2 162 -1.0 164 -1.0 166 -1.4 168 -1.8 170 -1.8 172 -0.8 174 -0.2 176 0 178 0.4 180 3.0 Table 18 Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical Subject: RH Trial 1 Frame Degrees 0 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 10 0 12 0 14 0 16 0 18 0.2 20 0.2 22 0.4 24 0.4 26 0.6 28 0.6 30 1.0 32 1.0 34 1.0 36 1.0 38 1.0 40 1.0 42 1.0 44 1.0 46 1.0 Frame Degrees 48 1.0 50 1.0 52 1.0 54 1.2 56 0.8 58 0.8 60 0.8 62 1.2 64 1.2 66 -1.0 68 -2.6 70 -2.4 72 -1.2 74 -1.2 76 -1.0 78 0.4 80 -0.2 82 -1.0 84 -1.0 86 -1.0 88 -0.8 90 2.0 92 3.0 94 5.4 Frame Degrees 96 7.4 98 9.6 100 11.6 102 12.4 104 12.4 106 12.8 108 12.8 110 13.0 112 12.4 114 11.2 116 11.2 118 11.2 120 11.4 122 11.2 124 11.2 126 10.6 128 7.8 130 5.6 132 1.0 134 0 136 -2.6 138 -4.6 140 -5.0 142 -4.6 Frame Degrees 144 -5.6 146 -6.4 148 -8.8 150 -8.8 152 -8.8 154 -10.6 156 -10.6 158 -9.6 160 -7.0 162 -6.0 164 -6.0 166 -6.0 168 -7.0 170 -7.0 172 -6.0 174 -4.0 176 -2.8 178 -2.0 180 -2.0 182 -1.0 184 0 186 0 188 2.0 190 2.0 116 Table 19 Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical Subject: RH Trial 2 Frame Degrees 0 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 10 0 12 0 14 0 16 0 18 0 20 0 22 0.4 24 0.4 26 0.4 28 0.8 30 0.8 32 0.8 34 0.8 36 0.8 38 0.8 40 0.8 42 0.8 44 0.8 46 0.8 Frame Degrees 48 0.8 50 0.8 52 0.8 54 0.8 56 0.8 58 0.8 60 0.8 62 0.8 64 0.8 66 0.8 68 0.8 70 1.2 72 1.2 74 0 76 -0.8 78 -0.8 80 -0.8 82 -0.8 84 -2.2 86 -2.2 88 -2.0 90 -2.0 92 0 94 0.4 Frame Degrees 96 1.8 98 3.0 100 2.0 102 2.0 104 2.0 106 2.6 108 4.8 110 6.6 112 8.0 114 10.4 116 11.8 118 13.6 120 13.6 122 14.8 124 14.8 126 14.8 128 13.0 130 12.8 132 12.0 134 10.6 136 9.4 138 9.4 140 9.4 142 9.4 Frame Degrees 144 8.6 146 5.0 148 2.0 150 -0.6 152 -2.4 154 -5.0 156 -6.0 158 -4.2 160 -4.6 162 -7.0 164 -8.0 166 -9.4 168 -9.4 170 -9.4 172 -9.4 174 -8.6 176 -7.0 178 -7.0 180 -6.4 182 -6.4 184 -7.0 186 -7.6 188 -7.0 190 -6.0 117 Table 20 Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical Subject: RH Trial 3 Frame Degrees 0 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 10 0 12 0 14 0 16 0 18 0 20 0 22 0.4 24 0.4 26 0.4 28 0.4 30 0.4 32 0.4 34 0.6 36 0.6 38 0.6 40 0.2 42 0.2 44 0.4 46 0.4 Frame Degrees 48 0.4 50 0.4 52 0.4 54 0.4 56 0.4 58 0.4 60 0.4 62 0.4 64 0.4 66 0.4 68 0.4 70 0.6 72 0.6 74 0.6 76 0.6 78 0.8 80 0.8 82 0.8 84 0.6 86 0.4 88 0.4 90 -1.0 92 -1.4 94 -2.0 Frame Degrees 96 -2.6 98 -2.8 100 -1.8 102 -1.0 104 0 106 1.0 108 0.4 110 0.4 112 0.4 114 2.4 116 3.0 118 4.0 120 7.0 122 9.0 124 11.4 126 13.0 128 13.0 130 13.0 132 13.0 134 13.0 136 11.4 138 11.4 140 11.4 142 11.4 Frame Degrees 144 11.4 146 11.2 148 11.0 150 10.2 152 8.0 154 4.0 156 1.0 158 1.0 160 -3.0 162 -5.0 164 -5.0 166 -5.0 168 -5.6 170 -6.4 172 -10.0 174 -10.0 176 -10.0 178 -10.0 180 -10.6 182 -9.6 184 -9.0 186 -8.0 188 -7.0 190 -6.8 118 Table 21 Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical Subject: WB Trial 1 Frame Degrees 0 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 10 0 12 0 14 0 16 0 18 0 20 0 22 0 24 0 26 0 28 0 30 0 32 0 34 0 36 0 38 0 40 0 42 0.2 44 0.2 46 0.2 Frame Degrees 48 0.2 50 0.2 52 0.2 54 0.2 56 0.4 58 0.4 60 0.4 62 0.4 64 0.4 66 0.6 68 0.6 70 0 72 0 74 0 76 0 78 -0.4 80 -1.0 82 -1.6 84 -1.6 86 -0.4 88 2.0 90 5.0 92 7.0 94 7.2 Frame Degrees 96 8.6 98 8.6 100 8.8 102 8.6 104 8.6 106 8.6 108 8.6 110 9.4 112 11.0 114 11.0 116 12.0 118 11.6 120 10.4 122 7.0 124 5.2 126 3.4 128 1.4 130 -2.4 132 -3.0 134 -3.2 136 -6.0 138 -5.8 140 -6.0 142 -6.0 Frame Degrees 144 -6.0 146 -6.2 148 -6.4 150 -8.0 152 -7.8 154 -6.8 156 -6.8 158 -6.2 160 -6.2 162 -6.0 164 -5.8 166 -6.4 168 -7.6 170 -7.2 172 -6.2 174 -4.0 176 -2.0 178 -0.8 180 -0.2 182 -1.0 184 -1.0 186 -0.8 188 -0.8 190 +0.4 Table 22 Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical Subject: WB Trial 2 Frame Degrees 0 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 10 0 12 0 14 0 16 0 18 0 20 0 22 0 24 0 26 0 28 0 30 0 32 0 34 0.4 36 0.4 38 0.4 40 0.4 42 0.2 44 0.2 46 0.2 Frame Degrees 48 0.2 50 0.2 52 0.2 54 0.2 56 0.2 58 0.2 60 0 62 0 64 0.4 66 0.4 68 0 70 0 72 0 74 0 76 0 78 -2.0 80 -2.6 82 -2.4 84 0 86 0 88 2.8 90 5.4 92 8.0 94 8.4 Frame Degrees 96 8.8 98 9.0 100 9.0 102 9.0 104 9.0 106 9.0 108 9.0 110 9.0 112 10.4 114 11.0 116 11.2 118 11.2 120 10.0 122 6.4 124 4.8 126 2.0 128 0 130 -1.6 132 -2.8 134 -4.0 136 -5.0 138 -5.2 140 -5.8 142 -5.8 Frame Degrees 144 -5.8 146 -7.0 148 -7.8 150 -7.6 152 -7.0 154 -6.0 156 -6.0 158 -5.0 160 -5.0 162 -6.0 164 -6.0 166 -5.4 168 -5.4 170 -5.4 172 -5.4 174 -2.4 176 -1.4 178 -1.0 180 0 182 0 184 -0.4 186 -1.4 188 -1.4 190 0.8 120 Table 23 Angular Displacement of the Ring Cable from Vertical Subject: WB Trial 3 ame Degrees 0 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 10 0 12 0 14 0 16 ' 0 18 0 20 0 22 0 24 0 26 0 28 0 30 0 32 0 34 0 36 0 38 0 40 0 42 -0.2 44 -0.2 46 -0.2 Frame Degrees 48 -0.2 50 -0.2 52 -0.2 54 -0.2 56 -0.2 58 -0.2 60 -0.2 62 -0.2 64 -0.2 66 0 68 0 70 0 72 0 74 0 76 0 78 0 80 -0.2 82 0 84 0 86 -1.0 88 -2.0 90 -2.0 92 -1.0 94 1.0 Frame Degrees 96 3.0 98 6.0 100 7.2 102 8.0 104 8.8 106 8.8 108 8.8 110 8.8 112 8.0 114 8.0 116 8.0 118 9.2 120 10.6 122 11.0 124 11.0 126 11.0 128 8.6 130 5.0 132 4.0 134 2.2 136 -0.4 138 -3.0 140 -4.0 142 -5.2 Frame Degrees 144 -5.0 146 -6.0 148 -6.0 150 -6.0 152 -6.0 154 -7.0 156 -7.4 158 -7.6 160 -7.2 162 -6 .-6 164 -6.0 166 -6.0 168 -6.0 170 -7.2 172 -7.0 174 -7.0 176 -7.0 178 -6.6 180 -6.4 182 -4.0 184 -2.0 186 -1.0 188 -0.8 190 -0.8 APPENDIX D 121 Figure 54 Body Position at Maximum Force Subject: MCT1 123 Figure 55 Body Position at Maximum Force Subject: MCT2 Figure 56 Body Position at Maximum Force Subject: MCT3 Figure 5 7 Body Position at Maximum For Subject: DMT1 Figure 58 Body Position at Maximum Force Subject: DMT2 Figure 59 dy Position at Maximum Fo Subject: DMT3 Figure 60 Body Position at Maximum Fo Subject: JTT1 Figure 61 Body Position at Maximum Force Subject: JTT2 Figure 62 Body Position at Maximum For Subject: JTT3 Figure 63 Body Position at Maximum Fo Subject: RHT1 Figure 64 Body Position at Maximum Fo Subject: RHT2 Figure 65 Body Position at Maximum Force Subject: RHT3 Figure 66 Body Position at Maximum Fo Subject: WBT1 Figure 6 7 Body Position at Maximum For Subject: WBT2 Figure 68 Body Position at Maximum For Subject: WBT3 APPENDIX E 137 138 Table 24 The Panel of Experts' Ratings on Skill Performance rH CN CO <t rH CN CO rH CN CO <r CD CD CD CD CD CD CD CD CD CD CD CD 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 Tj Xl TJ T3 13 13 T3 X) TJ T3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 <-> >-0 >s >-> >-) >-> >n Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Subject MC 2 2 4.5 3.5 3 2 5.7 3.5 3.2.5 4.8 4.0 Subject DM 3 3 6 4.5 2 3 5.9 5.0 3 3 6.1 5.0 Subject JT 4 4 6.4 6.5 3 4 6.4 7.0 4 4 6.8 7 Subject RH 6 8 7.5 8.5 5 8 7.3 9 5 8 7.2 8.5 Subject WB 4 6 7 8 4 5.5 6.8 8.5 4 6 7.2 8.5 APPENDIX F 139 I 140 Table 25 Events at the Second and Third Peaks of Force ti cu cu CU J5 •rl CU Trial (frames) ti o CU -rl rH CO 00 CO ft cu a) rH Q CTJ +J O cd cu rH 00 33 CU cu cn rH cl U CN cu rH 00 33 CU CU P-l rH cd M U CO 4J ti cu s CU CO U A! cd cd rH CU ft P-l CO •rl ti CU • & 60 4J MCT1 6 0 4.0° -2.0° 6 MCT2 6 0 3.6 -2.4 6 MCT3 4 3.7° 6.0 0 6 DMT1 4 2.2 0.8 -3.0 3.8 DMT2 No Second and Third Peak -1.0 0 DMT 3 7 1.4 1.0 -3.2 4.2 JTT1 8 2.3 1.4 -5.0 6.4 JTT2 7 1.7 7.0 -1.2 8.2 JTT3 8 1.5 4.6 -3.5 8.1 RHT1 5 3.3 6.7 -1.3 8.0 RHT2 No Second and Third Peak -3.6 0 RHT3 No Second and Third Peak -3.0 0 WBT1 5 -2.7 1.4 -3.1 4.5 WBT2 5 1.0 2.0 -2.2 • 4.4 WBT3 5 -0.4 1.6 -4.0 5.6 The second column is the time (frames) occurring between the two peaks of force. The third column is the angle between the ring cable and vertical occurring at the depression between the two peaks of force. Columns four and five give the angle between the ring cable and vertical occurring at the second and third peaks of force respectively. The sixth column is the total angular displacement of the ring cable during the two peaks of force. Table 26 Angular Velocity of the Legs at Peak Force Peak Trial Degrees, Rank Experts Force Frame Order Rank Rank MCT1 4.45 11 15 15 MCT2 3.90 13 14 13 MCT3 3.33 14 13 14 DMT1 10.05 1 11 10 DMT 2 8.40 2 12 11 DMT 3 7.80 4 10 5 JTT1 6.16 5 8 6 JTT2 0.16 15 9 8 JTT3 5.00 8 7 12 RHT1 5.37 7 1 1 RHT2 6.15 6 2 2 RHT3 4.80 9 3 3 WBT1 7.87 3 5 7 WBT2 4.40 12 6 4 WBT3 4.55 10 4 8 Correlation of the angular velocity of the legs with the rating of the experts r = 0.18 Correlation of the angular velocity of the legs with peak force r = 0.25 APPENDIX G 142 143 Table Tension in one ring cable during the Force is expressed as a fraction of number of 27 performance of subject MC trial 1. the body weight and time as the frames. Frame X Body Wt. Frame X Body Wt. 0 1.0 102.64 0.19 5.36 1.0 107.76 2.04 10.48 1.0 110.32 3.85 15.60 1.0 112.88 2.73 20.72 1.0 114.16 2.61 25.84 0.77 115.44 2.77 30.96 0.57 116.72 3.00 36.08 0.57 118.00 2.81 41.20 0.69 123.12 1.58 46.32 0.81 128.24 0.69 51.44 1.19 133.36 0.34 56.56 1.77 138.48 0.27 59.12 1.92 143.60 0.23 61.68 1.61 148.72 0.19 66.80 0.77 153.84 0.19 71.92 0.42 158.96 0.23 77.04 0.27 164.08 0.81 82.16 0.07 169.20 0.84 87.28 0.07 174.32 0.81 92.40 0.07 179.44 0.77 97.52 0.07 144 Table Tension in one ring cable during the Force is expressed as a fraction of number of 28 performance of subject MC trial 2. the body weight and time as the frames. Frame X Body Wt. Frame X Body Wt. 0 1.0 102.64 0.76 5.36 1.0 107.76 3.54 10.48. 1.04 109.04 3.69 15.60 0.96 110.32 3.54 20.72 0.77 111.60 3.35 25.84 0.69 112.88 3.46 30.96 0. 77 114.16 4.00 36.08 1.04 115.44 4.15 41.20 1.11 118.00 2.38 46.32 1.73 123.12 1.23 48.88] 2.19 128.24 1.08 51.44 2.31 133.36 0.92 54.00 1.92 138.48 0.69 56.56 1.15 143.60 0.50 61.68 1.08 148.72 0.38 66.80 0.50 153.84 0.46 71.92 0.38 158.96 0.46 77.04 0.27 164.08 0.65 82.16 0.27 169.20 0.54 87.28 0.31 174.32 0.58 92.40 0.27 179.44 0.96 97.52 0.27 145 Table 29 Tension in one ring cable during the performance of subject MC trial 3. Force is expressed as a fraction of the body weight and time as the number of frames. Frame X Body Wt. Frame X Body Wt. 0 1.0 102.64 3.07 5.36 1.0 103.92 3.35 10.48 1.0 105.20 3.15 15.60 0.65 107.76 3.92 20.72 0.57 112.88 1.92 25.84 0.50 118.00 0.77 30.96 0.61 123.12 0.77 36.08 0.88 128.24 0.69 41.20 1.42 . 133.36 0.57 46.32 1.88 138.48 0.37 51.44 0.77 143.60 0.27 56.56 0.31 148.72 0.23 61.68 0.23 153.84 0.19 66.80 0.15 158.96 0.15 71.92 0.07 164.08 0.31 77.04 0.07 169.20 0.50 82.16 0.07 174.32 0.65 87.28 0.07 179.44 0.77 92.40 0.11 97.52 0.77 146 Table Tension in one ring cable during the Force is expressed as a fraction of number of 30 performance of subject DM trial 1. the body weight and time as the frames. Frame X Body Wt. Frame X Body Wt. 0 1.0 102.64 0.28 5.36 1.0 107.76 0.40 10.48 0.95 112.88 2.02 15.60 0.88 118.00 3.00 20.72 0.77 119.28 2.93 25.84 0.71 120.56 3.02 30.96 0.71 123.12 4.0 36.08 0.71 124.40 4.4 41.20 0.77 125.68 3.55 46.32 1.44 128.24 1.44 51.44 2.44 133.36 0.66 52.72 2.57 138.48 0.66 54.00 2.51 143.60 1.11 56.56 2.0 144.88 1.31 61.68 0.93 146.16 1.24 66.80 0.71 148.72 1.0 71.92 0.55 153.84 0.60 77.04 0.33 158.96 0.40 82.16 0.26 164.08 0.37 87.28 0.20 169.20 0.42 92.40 0.22 174.32 0.55 97.52 0.22 179.44 0.62 147 Table Tension in one ring cable during the Force is expressed as a fraction of number of 31 performance of subject DM trial 2. the body weight and time as the frames. Frame X Body Wt. Frame X Body Wt. 0 1.02 97.52 0.39 5.36 1.0 102.64 0.33 10.48 0.94 107.76 0.35 15.60 0.94 112.88 0.37 20.72 0.92 118.00 1.04 25.84 0.81 123.12 2.72 30.96 0.68 124.40 2.87 36.08 0.75 125.68 2.92 41.20 0.77 126.96 2.95 46.32 0.83 128.24 3.33 51.44 1.46 130.80 4.25 56.56 2.35 133.36 2.25 5 7.84 2.39 138.48 0.66 59.12 2.31 143.60 0.56 61.68 1.66 148.72 0.89 66.84 0.98 151.28 1.25 71.92 0.73 153.84 1.06 82.16 0.44 164.08 0.42 87.28 0.35 169.20 0.37 92.40 0.35 174.32 0.35 179.44 0.52 148 Table Tension in one ring cable during the Force is expressed as a fraction of number of 32 performance of subject DM trial 3. the body weight and time as the frames. Frame X Body Wt. Frame X Body Wt. 0 1.0 97.52 0.33 5.36 1.0 102.64 0.31 10.48 1.0 107.76 0.33 15.60 1.0 112.88 0.33 20.72 0.88 118.00 0.66 25.84 0.77 123.12 2.77 30.96 0.83 125.68 3.73 36.08 0.84 128.24 3.15 41.20 0.88 130.80 4.37 46.32 1.0 132.08 4.57 51.44 1.3 133.36 3.77 56.56 2.15 135.92 1.33 59.12 2.40 138.48 0.82 61.68 2.15 143.60 0.75 66.80 1.0 148.72 0.93 69.36 0.75 151.28 1.22 71.92 0.82 153.84 1.15 74.48 0.71 158.96 0.71 77.04 0.62 164.08 0.48 82.16 0.42 169.20 0.42 87.28 0.35 174.32 0.37 92.40 0.42 179.44 0.48 149 Table Tension in one ring cable during the Force is expressed as a fraction of number of 33 performance of subject JT trial 1. the body weight and time as the frames. Frame X Body Wt. Frame X Body Wt. 0 1.05 92.40 0.17 5.36 1.07 97.52 0.125 10.48 1.17 102.64 0.15 15.60 1.0 107.76 0.22 20.72 0.92 112.88 0.45 25.84 0.85 118.00 3.0 30.96 0.85 120.56 4.0 36.08 0.77 123.12 2.95 41.20 0.75 125.68 4.0 46.32 0.87 128.24 4.55 51.44 1.07 133.36 1.05 56.56 1.65 135.92 0.92 61.68 2.2 138.46 1.1 62.96 2.25 143.60 1.0 64.24 2.17 148.72 1.0 66.80 2.07 153.84 0.7 71.92 1.0 158.96 0.37 77.04 0.45 164.08 0.45 82.16 0.27 169.20 0.52 87.28 0.17 174.32 0.5 179.44 0.55 150 Table Tension in one ring cable during the Force is expressed as a fraction of number of 34 performance of subject JT trial 2. the body weight and time as the frames. Frame X Body Wt. Frame X Body Wt. 0 1.0 107.76 0.14 5.36 1.0 112.88 0.14 10.48 1.0 118.00 0.16 15.60 1.0 123.12 1.45 20.72 1.02 125.68 2.02 25.84 0.95 126.96 4.48 30.96 0.83 128.24 3.69 36.08 0.71 130.80 3.09 41.20 0.59 133.36 3.93 46.32 0.59 134.64 4.5 51.44 0.71 135.92 3.93 56.56 0.95 138.48 1.78 61.68 1.45 141.04 0.95 66.80 1.90 143.60 1.0 69.36 2.21 148.72 0.76 71.92 2.02 153.84 0.90 77.04 0.83 158.96 0.59 82.16 0.40 164.08 0.36 87.28 0.31 169.20 0.40 92.40 0.19 174.32 0.43 97.52 0.12 179.44 0.45 102.64 0.09 151 Table 35 Tension in one ring cable during the performance of subject JT trial 3. Force is expressed as a fraction of the body weight and time as the number of frames. Frame X Body Wt. Frame X Body Wt. 0 1 112.88 0.48 5.36 1 118.00 2.88 10.23 1 119.28 4.11 15.60 1 120.56 3.80 20.72 0.93 123.12 2.95 25.84 0.91 125.68 3.57 30.96 0.66 126.96 4.20 36.08 0.45 128.24 3.90 41.20 0.54 133.26 0.89 46.32 0.82 138.48 0.84 51.44 0.95 143.60 0.93 56.56 1.52 146.16 0.93 59.12 2.25 148.72 0.79 61.68 2.20 153.84 0.50 66.80 1.72 158.96 0.32 71.92 0.57 161.52 0.27 77.04 0.54 164.08 0.43 82.16 0.27 169.20 0.57 87.28 0.18 92.40 0.09 97.52 0.16 102.64 0.20 107.76 0.20 152 Table Tension in one ring cable during the Force is expressed as a fraction of number of 36 performance of subject RH trial 1. the body weight and time as the frames. Frame X Body Wt. Frame X Body Wt. 0 1.05 97.52 0.20 5.36 1.05 102.64 0.15 10.48 1.02 107.76 0.125 15.60 0.97 112.88 0.17 20.72 0.95 118.00 0.30 25.84 0.90 123.12 0.80 30.96 0.87 128.24 4.00 36.08 0.82 129.52 4.92 41.20 0.85 130.80 4.85 46.32 1.35 133.36 5.62 51.44 2.95 134.64 6.62 56.56 1.425 135.92 5.25 57.84 1.32 138.48 1.75 59.12 1.77 143.60 0.80 61.68 1.175 148.72 0.95 64.24 1.00 153.84 0.70 66.80 0.80 158.96 0.52 71.92 0.62 164.08 0.40 77.04 0.62 169.20 0.37 82.16 0.60 174.32 0.42 87.28 0.60 179.44 0.55 92.40 0.35 153 Table Tension in one ring cable during the Force is expressed as a fraction of number of 37 performance of subject RH trial 2. the body weight and time as the frames. Frame X Body Wt. Frame X Body Wt. 0 1.0 97.52 0.57 5.36 1.0 102.64 0.55 10.48 1.0 107.76 0.50 15.60 1.0 112.88 . 0.27 20.72 0.95 118.00 0.10 25.84 0.95 123.12 0.05 30.96 0.95 133.36 0.12 36.08 0.92 138.48 0.30 41.20 0.85 143.60 1.75 46.32 0.75 148.72 5.42 51.44 0.70 151.28 6.00 56.56 0.72 152.50 6.30 61.68 1.25 152.84 4.62 66.80 2.37 158.96 1.00 68.08 2.47 161.52 0.80 69.36 2.35 164.08 0.85 71.92 1.87 169.20 0.80 77.04 1.25 174.32 0.52 82.16 0.70 179.44 0.45 87.28 0.60 92.40 0.60 154 Table Tension in one ring cable during the Force is expressed as a fraction.of number of 38 performance of subject RH trial 3. the body weight and time as the frames. Frame X Body Wt. Frame X Body Wt. 0 1.0 97.52 0.62 5.36 1.0 102.64 0.60 10.48 1.0 107.76 0.57 15.60 1.05 112.88 0.57 20.72 1.05 118.00 0.38 25.84 1.05 123.12 0.19 30.96 0.95 128.24 0.14 36.08 0.90 133.36 0.14 41.20 0.88 138.48 0.16 46.32 0.88 143.60 0.26 51.44 0.93 148.72 0.81 56.56 0.88 151.28 1.55 61.68 0.86 153.84 3.28 66.80 0.93 156.40 4.81 71.92 1.43 158.96 5.71 74.48 2.36 160.24 6.19 77.04 2.62 161.52 5.48 79.60 2.14 164.08 1.66 82.16 1.43 169.20 0.88 84.72 1.36 174.32 0.90 87.28 1.19 179.44 0.66 92.40 0.82 155 Table Tension in one ring cable during the Force is expressed as a fraction of number of 39 performance of subject WB trial 1. the body weight and time as the frames. Frame X Body Wt. Frame X Body Wt. 0 1.0 97.52 0.26 5.36 1.02 102.64 0.26 10.48 1.02 107.76 0.24 15.60 1.02 112.88 0.26 20. 72 0.98 118.00 0.48 25.84 0.92 123.12 1.64 30.96 0.78 125.68 3.04 36.08 0.66 128.24 4.04 41.20 0.66 130.80 4.04 46.32 0.70 133.36 4.54 51.44 1.16 135.92 2.74 56.56 1.94 138.48 1.28 61.68 2.40 143.60 0.96 66.80 1.84 148.72 1.12 71.92 0.92 151.28 1.08 74.48 1.08 153.84 0.84 77.04 0.80 158.96 0.48 82.16 0.46 164.08 0.50 87.28 0.28 169.20 0.48 92.40 0.22 174.32 0.48 179.44 0.72 156 Table Tension in one ring cable during the Force is expressed as a fraction of number of 40 performance of subject WB trial 2. the body weight and time as the frames. Frame X Body Wt. Frame X Body Wt. 0 1.0 92.40 0.30 5.36 1.02 97.52 0.30 10.48 1.04 102.64 0.30 15.60 1.00 107.76 0.32 20. 72 0.96 112.88 0.38 25.84 0.90 118.00 1.08 30.96 0.76 123.12 3.00 36.08 0.62 125.68 4.26 41.20 0.70 126.96 4.26 46.32 0.80 128.24 4.36 51.44 1.48 130.80 4.60 56.56 2.24 133.36 2.40 59.12 2.40 135.92 1.20 60.40 2.44 138.48 1.00 61.68 2.40 143.60 1.02 66.80 1.48 146.16 1.12 69.36 0.96 148.72 1.12 70.64 0.90 153.84 0.64 71.92 1.00 158.96 0.60 77.04 0.60 164.08 0.54 82.16 0.40 169.20 0.58 87.28 0.30 174.32 0.60 179.44 0.84 157 Table Tension in one ring cable during the Force is expressed as a fraction of number of 41 performance of subject WB trial 3. the body weight and time as the frames. Frame X Body Wt. Frame X Body Wt. 0 1.0 97.52 0.14 5.36 1.0 102.64 0.11 10.48 1.0 107.76 0.16 15.60 1.0 112.88 0.16 20. 72 0.96 118.00 0.18 25.84 0.94 123.12 0.36 30.96 0.86 128.24 1.30 36.08 0.70 133.36 4.14 41.20 0.56 134.64 4.28 46.32 0.52 135.92 4.14 51.44 0.58 138.48 4.30 56.56 0.86 139.76 4.50 61.68 1.62 141.04 3.80 66.80 2.36 143.60 1.50 68.08 2.40 148.72 0.90 71.92 2.14 153.84 0.96 77.04 • 0.82 156.40 1.04 78.32 0.72 158.96 1.00 79.60 0. 86 164.08 0.48 82.16 0.74 169.20 0.44 87.28 0.36 174.32 0.40 92.40 0.18 179.44 0.54 APPENDIX H 158 159 Table 42 Hip Position During the Kipping Phase Trial Downstroke Upstroke starting low = amount drop high low = amount rise position— position position— position MCT1 566 552 14 566 552 14 MCT2 566 546 20 578 546 32 MCT3 554 538 16 570 538 32 DMT1 556 519 37 566 519 47 DMT2 553 516 37 568 516 52 DMT3 552 514 38 566 514 52 JTT1 550 509 41 564 509 55 JTT2 549 514 35 56 7 514 53 JTT3 548 512 36 565 512 53 RHT1 552 525 27 600 525 75 RHT2 553 523 30 608 523 85 RHT3 548 522 26 600 522 78 WBT1 560 511 49 580 511 69 WBT2 552 498 54 564 498 66 WBT3 567 518 49 585 518 67 160 Table 43 Ankle Position During the Kipping Phase Trial Downstroke Upstroke starting low = amount drop high low = amount rise position position position position MCT1 677 539 138 642 539 103 MCT2 676 559 117 675 559 116 MCT3 663 560 103 668 560 108 DMT1 665 514 151 6 70 514 156 DMT2 662 503 159 6 72 503 169 DMT3 663 503 160 673 503 170 JTT1 650 501 149 629 501 128 JTT2 654 495 159 648 495 153 JTT3 653 497 156 648 497 151 RHT1 656 560 96 691 560 131 RHT2 661 553 108 710 553 157 RHT3 649 560 89 689 560 129 WBT1 662 532 130 651 532 119 WBT2 665 524 131 644 524 120 WBT3 669 531 138 654 531 123 161 Table 44 Hip and Ankle Movement During the Kipping Phase Trial Downstroke Ankle Hip drop drop £ MCT1 138 14 152 MCT2 117 20 137 MCT3 103 16 119 DMT1 151 37 188 DMT2 159 37 196 DMT3 160 38 198 JTT1 149 41 190 JTT2 159 35 194 JTT3 156 36 192 RHT1 96 27 123 RHT2 108 30 138 RHT3 89 26 115 WBT1 130 49 179 WBT2 131 54 185 WBT3 138 49 187 Upstroke Ankle Hip rise rise E 103 14 117 116 32 148 108 32 140 156 47 203 169 52 221 170 52 222 128 55 183 153 53 206 151 53 204 131 75 206 157 85 242 129 78 207 119 69 188 120 66 186 123 67 190 Difference (rise-drop) -35 11 21 15 25 24 -7 12 12 83 104 92 9 1 3 APPENDIX I 162 Table 45 Highest Dislocate Trial Ankle Location Knee Location Hip Location Trunk Location Wrist Location Elbow Location Shoulder Location Total Mean Shoulder to Ankle Height Divide by Mean Height Rank Order MCT1 640 590 554 539 596 5 73 557 4049 175 23.13 9 MCT2 674 617 575 550 596 580 562 4154 175 23.74 4 MCT3 665 609 564 543 590 5 72 554 4097' 175 23.41 5 DMT1 6 70 614 565 539 582 556 543 4069 179 22.73 12 DMT2 6 74 617 5 75 550 596 580 562 4154 179 23.20 8 DMT3 673 617 566 534 576 548 536 4050 179 22.62 13 JTT1 627 589 557 532 577 547 530 3959 172 23.01 10 JTT2 647 601 563 536 5 76 550 540 4013 172 23.33 6 JTT3 645 597 560 532 578 550 534 3996 172 23.23 7 RHT1 687 638 600 570 579 " 5 72 568 4214 173 24.36 2 RHT2 710 653 608 572 582 569 562 4256 173 24.60 1 RHT3 689 642 599 567 574 562 556 4189 173 24.21 3 WBT1 648 606 5 76 553 583 559 545 4070 180 22.61 14 WBT2 641 594 562 534 5 72 550 533 3986 180 22.14 15 WBT3 653 613 583 553 589 568 552 4111 180 22.83 11 ON APPENDIX J 164 Table 46 Rank Order Correlations Trial MCT1 MCT2 MCT3 DMT1 DMT2 DMT3 JTT1 JTT2 JTT3 RHT1 RHT2 RHT3 WBT1 WBT2 WBT3 Gradient Down Kip 9.86 5.85 6.44 4.08 4.30 4.21 3.63 4.54 4.33 3.55 3.60 3.42 2.65 2.43 2.82 Gradient Down Kip Rank Order 15 13 14 8 10 9 7 12 11 5 6 4 2 1 3 Experts' Rank Order 15 14 13 11 12 10 8 9 7 1 2 3 5 6 4 0 1 1 3 2 1 1 3 4 4 4 1 3 5 1 ED2 = r = Dz 0 1 1 9 4 1 1 9 16 16 16 1 9 25 1 110.0 0.8 Gradient Up Kip 7.36 3.63 3.38 3.32 3.25 3.27 2.33 2.89 2.85 1.75 1.85 1.65 1.72 1.82 1.84 Gradient Up Kip Rank Order 15 14 13 12 10 11 7 9 8 3 6 1 2 4 5 Experts Rank Order 15 14 13 11 12 10 8 9 7 1 2 3 5 6 4 D 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 4 2 3 " 2 1 ZD2 r Dz 0 0 0 1 4 1 1 0 1 4 16 4 9 4 1 46 0.92 ON Ln Table 47 Rank Order Correlations Mean Gradient Mean Highest Trial Mean Gradient Kip Kip Rank Order Experts' Rank Order D D2 Gradient Rank Order Dislocate Rank Order D D2 MCT1 8.61 15 15 0 0 15 9 6 36 MCT2 4.74 13 14 1 1 13 4 9 81 MCT3 4.91 14 13 1 1 14 5 9 81 DMT1 3.70 10 11 1 1 10 12 2 4 DMT2 3.77 12 12 0 0 12 8 4 16 DMT3 3.74 11 10 1 1 11 13 2 4 JTT1 2.98 7 8 1 1 7 10 3 9 JTT2 3.71 9 9 0 0 9 6 3 9 JTT3 3.59 8 7 1 1 8 7 1 1 RHT1 2.65 5 1 4 16 5 2 3 9 RHT2 2.72 6 2 4 16 6 1 5 25 RHT3 2.53 4 3 1 1 4 3 1 1 WBT1 2.18 2 5 3 9 2 14 12 144 WBT2 2.12 1 6 5 25 1 15 14 196 WBT3 2.33 3 4 1 ZD2 1 = 74 3 11 8 ZD2 64 = 680 r = 0.87 r = -0.21 r-1 ON 167 Table 48 Rank Order Correlations Amount Rise Hips Experts' Rank Rank Trial Order Order MCT1 15 15 MCT2 13 14 MCT3 13.5 13 DMT1 12 11 DMT2 10.5 12 DMT3 10.5 10 JTT1 7 8 JTT2 8.5 9 JTT3 8.5 7 RHT1 3 1 RHT2 1 2 RHT3 2 3 WBT1 4 5 WBT2 6 6 WBT3 5 4 Experts' Rank D D2 Order 0 0 15 0.5 0.25 14 0.5 0.25 13 11 11 1.5 2.25 12 0.5 0.25 10 11 8 0.5 0.25 9 1.5 2.25 7 2 4 1 11 2 11 3 11 5 0 0 6 11 4 ZD2 = 15.5 r = 0.97 Kipping Angle Rank Order D D2 9.5 5.5 30.25 4 10 100 1 12 144 9.5 1.5 2.25 7 5 25 12 2 4 14 6 36 15 6 36 13 6 36 2 11 4 2 4 4 11 6 11 9.5 3.5 12.25 9.5 5.5 30.25 ZD2 = 463 r = 0.18 168 Table 49 Rank Order Correlations Trial MCT1 MCT2 MCT3 DMT1 DMT2 DMT 3 JTT1 JTT2 JTT3 RHT1 RHT2 RHT3 WBT1 WBT2 WBT3 Gradient Up Kip Rank Order 15 14 13 12 10 11 7 9 8 3 6 1 2 4 5 Gradient Down Kip Rank Order 15 13 14 8 10 9 7 12 11 5 6 4 2 1 3 D 0 1 1 4 0 2 0 3 3 2 0 3 0 3 2 D^ 0 1 1 16 0 4 0 9 9 4 0 9 0 9 4 Amount Drop Hips Rank Order 15 13 14 6.5 6.5 5 4 9 8 11 10 12 2.5 1 2.5 Amount Rise Hips Rank Order 15 13.5 13.5 12 10.5 10.5 7 8.5 8.5 3 1 2 4 6 5 D 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 8 9 10 2.5 5 2.5 Dz 0 0.25 0.25 4.5 20.25 4 16 5.5 30.25 3 9 ZD2 = 66 r = 0.88 0.25 0.25 64 81 100 6.25 25 6.25 ED2 = 359 r = 0.359 169 Table 50 Rank Order Correlations Trial MCT1 MCT2 MCT3 DMT1 DMT2 DMT3 JTT1 JTT2 JTT3 RHT1 RHT2 RHT3 WBT1 WBT2 WBT3 Gradient Up Kip Rank Order 15 14 13 12 10 11 7 9 8 3 6 1 2 4 5 Max. Force Rank Order 15 13 14 10 11 5 6 8 12 1 2 3 7 4 8 Amount Drop Max. Amount Hips Force Drop Rank Rank Hips Order Order D 0 1 1 4 1 36 1 1 16 4 16 4 25 0 9 ZD2 = 119 r = 0.78 14 20 16 37 37 38 41 35 36 27 30 26 49 54 49 15 13 14 6.5 6.5 5 4 9 8 11 10 12 2.5 1 2.5 15 13 14 10 11 5 6 8 12 1 2 3 7 4 8 0 0 0 3.5 4.5 0 2 1 4 10 8 9 4.5 3 5.5 Dz 0 0 0 12.25 20.25 0 4 1 16 100 64 81 20.25 9 30.25 ZD2 = 358 r = 0.361 170 Table 51 Rank Order Correlations Trial MCT1 MCT2 MCT3 DMT1 DMT2 DMT 3 JTT1 JTT2 JTT3 RHT1 RHT2 RHT3 WBT1 WBT2 WBT3 Gradient Down Kip 9.86 5.85 6.44 4.08 4.30 4.21 3.63 4.54 4.33 4.55 3.60 3.42 2.65 2.43 2.82 Gradient Down Kip Rank Order 15 13 14 8 10 9 7 12 11 5 6 4 2 1 3 Max. Force Rank Order 15 13 14 10 11 5 6 8 12 1 2 3 7 4 8 0 0 0 4 1 16 1 16 1 16 16 1 25 9 25 ED2 = 131 r = 0.76 Mean Max. Gradient Force Rank Rank Order Order 15 15 13 14 10 12 11 7 9 8 5 6 4 2 1 3 13 14 10 11 5 6 8 12 1 2 3 7 4 8 Dz 0 0 0 0 1 36 1 1 16 16 16 1 25 9 25 ED2 =147 r = 0.74 171 Table 52 Rank Order Correlations Trial MCT1 MCT2 MCT3 DMT1 DMT2 DMT 3 JTT1 JTT2 JTT3 RHT1 RHT2 RHT3 WBT1 WBT2 WBT3 Amount Rise Hips 14 32 32 47 52 52 55 53 53 75 85 78 69 66 67 Amount Rise Hips Rank Order 15 13.5 13.5 12 10.5 10.5 7 8.5 8.5 3 1 2 4 6 5 Max. Force Rank Order 15 13 14 10 11 5 6 8 12 1 2 3 7 4 8 Max. Experts' Force Rank Rank D 0 0.5 0.5 2 0.5 5.5 1 0.5 3.5 2 1 1 3 2 3 ED2 r = Dz 0 0.25 0.25 4 0.25 30.25 1 0.25 12.25 4 1 1 9 4 9 76.5 0.86 Order 15 14 13 11 12 10 8 9 7 1 2 3 5 6 4 Order 15 13 14 10 11 5 6 8 12 1 2 3 7 4 8 D 0 1 1 1 1 5 2 1 5 0 0 0 2 2 4 Dz 0 1 1 1 1 25 4 1 25 0 0 0 4 4 16 ZD2 = 83 r = 0.85 172 Table 53 Rank Order Correlations Time between Max. Peaks Force Rank Rank Trial Order Order MCT1 5.5 15 MCT2 5.5 13 MCT3 12 14 DMT1 11 10 DMT2 14 11 DMT3 3.5 5 JTT1 1.5 6 JTT2 3.5 8 JTT3 1.5 12 RHT1 8.5 1 RHT2 14 2 RHT3 14 3 WBT1 8.5 7 WBT2 8.5 4 WBT3 8.5 8 Time between Peaks Rank D D2 Order 9.5 90.25 5.5 7.5 56.25 5.5 2 4 12 1 1 11 3 9 14 1.5 2.25 3.5 4.5 20.25 1.5 4.5 20.25 3.5 10.5 110.25 1.5 7.5 56.25 8.5 12 144 14 11 121 14 1.5 2.25 8.5 4.5 20.25 8.5 0.5 0.25 8.5 ZD2 = 657.5 r = -0.17 Experts' Rank Order D D2 15 9.5 90.25 14 8.5 72.25 13 11 11 0 0 12 2 4 10 6.5 42.25 8 6.5 42.25 9 5.5 30.25 7 5.5 30.25 1 7.5 56.25 2 12 144 3 11 121 5 3.5 12.25 6 2.5 6.25 4 4.5 20.25 ED2 = 702.75 r = -0.25 173 Table 54 Rank Order Correlations Angular Displacement between Max. Peaks Force Rank Rank Trial Order Order MCT1 6 15 MCT2 6 13 MCT3 6 14 DMT1 12 10 DMT2 14 11 DMT3 11 5 JTT1 4 6 JTT2 1 8 JTT3 2 12 RHT1 3 1 RHT2 14 2 RHT3 14 3 WBT1 9 7 WBT2 10 4 WBT3 8 8 D 9 7 8 2 3 6 2 7 10 2 12 11 2 6 0 Angular Displacement between Peaks Rank D2 Order 6 6 6 12 14 11 4 1 2 3 14 14 9 10 8 81 49 64 4 9 36 4 49 100 4 144 121 4 36 0 ED2 =657 r = -0.17 Experts' Rank Order 15 14 13 11 12 10 8 9 7 1 2 3 5 6 4 D Dz 9 81 8 64 7 49 1 1 2 4 1 1 4 16 8 64 5 25 2 4 12 144 11 121 4 16 4 16 4 16 ED2 = 622 r = -0.11 174 Table 55 Rank Order Correlations Trial MCT1 MCT2 MCT3 DMT1 DMT2 DMT3 J.TT1 JTT2 JTT3 RHT1 RHT2 RHT3 WBT1 WBT2 WBT3 Kipping Angle Rank Order 9.5 4 1 9.5 7 12 14 15 13 2 4 4 6 9.5 9.5 Max. Force Rank Order 15 13 14 10 11 5 6 8 12 1 2 3 7 D 13 0.5 4 7 8 7 1 1 2 1 1 5.5 30.25 9 81 169 0.25 16 49 64 49 1 1 4 1 1 4.0 5.5 30.25 8.0 1.5 2.25 Kipping Angle Rank Order 9.5 4 1 9.5 7 12 14 15 13 2 4 4 6 9.5 9.5 Kipping Force Rank Order 14 10 15 3 9 7 11.5 13 11.5 1 4 2 7 5 7 D 2 5 2.5 2 1.5 1 0 2 1 4.5 20.25 6 36 14 196 6.5 42.25 4 25 6.25 4 2.25 1 0 4 1 4.5 20.25 2.5 6.25 ZD2 = 499 0.11 ZD 2 _ r = 368.5 0.35 Table 56 Rank Order Correlations Trial Kipping Force Kipping Force Rank Order Max. Force Rank Order D MCT1 1.92 14 15 1 MCT2 2.31 10 13 3 MCT3 1.88 15 14 1 DMT1 2.57 3 10 7 DMT2 2.39 9 11 2 DMT3 2.40 7 5 2 JTT1 2.25 11.5 6 5.5 JTT2 2.21 13 9 4 JTT3 2.25 11.5 12 0.5 RHT1 2.95 1 1 0 RHT2 2.47 4 2 2 RHT3 2.62 2 3 1 WBT1 2.40 7 7 0 WBT2 2.44 5 4 1 WBT3 2.40 7 8 1 ED2 r Kipping Force Experts' Rank Rank D2 Order Order D D2 1 14 15 1 1 9 10 14 3 9 1 15 13 2 4 49 3 11 8 64 4 9 12 3 9 4 7 10 3 9 30.25 11.5 8 3.5 12.25 16 13 9 4 16 0.25 11.5 7 4.5 20.25 0 1 1 0 0 4 4 2 2 4 1 2 3 1 1 0 7 5 2 4 1 5 6 1 1 1 7 4 3 9 121.50 ED2 = 163.5 0.78 r = 0. 71 176 Table 5 7 Rank Order Correlations Trial MCT1 MCT2 MCT3 DMT1 DMT2 DMT 3 JTT1 JTT2 JTT3 RHT1 RHT2 RHT3 WBT1 WBT2 WBT3 Total Range Rank Order 8 7 5.5 10 5.5 4 14.5 9 14.5 2.5 1.0 2.5 11 12 13 Experts' Rank Order 15 14 13 11 12 10 8 9 7 1 2 3 5 6 4 D 7 7 7.5 1.0 6.5 6.0 6.5 0 7.5 1.5 1.0 0.5 6 6 9 ED2 = Dz 49 49 56.25 1 42.25 36 42.25 0 56.25 2.25 1 0.25 36 36 81 488.5 0.13 Total Range Rank Order 8 7 5.5 10 5 .5 4 14.5 9 14.5 2.5 1 2.5 11 12 13 Max. Force Rank Order 15 13 14 10 11 5 6 8 12 1 2 3 7 4 8 D 7 6 8.5 0 5.5 1 8.5 1 2.5 1.5 1 0.5 4 8 5 ED2 r = Dz 49 36 72.25 0 30.24 1 72.25 1 6.25 2.25 1 0.25 16 64 25 376.5 0.33 Table 58 Rank Order Correlations Trial Kipping Force Rank Order Gradient Down Kip Rank Order D D2 Kipping Force Rank Order Gradient Up Kip Rank Order D D2 Kipping Force Rank Order Mean Gradient Kip Rank Order D D2 MCT1 14 15 1 1 14 15 1 1 14 15 1 1 MCT2 10 13 3 9 10 14 4 16 10 13 3 9 MCT3 15 14 1 1 15 13 2 4 15 14 1 1 DMT1 3 8 5 25 3 12 9 81 3 10 7 49 DMT2 9 10 1 1 9 10 1 1 9 12 3 9 DMT 3 7 9 2 4 7 11 4 16 7 11 4 16 JTT1 11.5 7 4.5 20.25 11.5 7 4.5 20.25 11.5 7 4.5 20.25 JTT2 13 12 1 1 13 9 4 16 13 9 4 16 JTT3 11.5 11 0.5 0.25 11.5 8 3.5 12.25 11.5 8 3.5 12.25 RHT1 1 5 4 16 1 3 2 4 1 5 4 16 RHT2 4 6 2 4 4 6 2 4 4 6 2 4 RHT3 2 4 2 4 2 1 1 1 2 4 2 4 WBT1 7 2 5 25 7 2 5 25 7 2 5 25 WBT2 5 1 4 16 5 4 1 1 5 1 4 16 WBT3 7 3 4 ED2 r 16 = 143.5 = 0.744 7 5 2 ZD2 r 4 = 206.5 = 0.635 7 3 4 ZD2 r 16 = 214.5 = 0.62 Table 59 Rank Order Correlations Amount Gradient Amount Amount Rise Up Kipping Rise Kipping Drop Hips Kip Force Hips Force Hips Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Trial Order Order D D2 Order Order D D2 Order Order D . D2 MCT1 15 15 0 0 14 15 1 1 14 15 1 1 MCT2 13.5 14 0.5 0.25 10 13.5 3.5 12.25 10 13 3 9 MCT3 13.5 13 0.5 0.25 15 13.5 1.5 2.25 15 14 1 1 DMT1 12 12 0 0 3 12 9 81 3 6.5 3.5 12.25 DMT2 10.5 10 0.5 0.25 9 10.5 1.5 2.25 9 6.5 2.5 6.25 DMT3 10.5 11 0.5 0.25 7 10.5 3.5 12.25 7 5 2 4 JTT1 7 7 0 0 11.5 7 4.5 20.25 11.5 4 7.5 56.25 JTT2 8.5 9 0.5 0.25 13 8.5 5.5 30.25 13 9 4 16 JTT3 8.5 8 0.5 0.25 11.5 8.5 3.0 9 11.5 8 3.5 12.25 RHT1 3 3 0 0 1 3 2 4 1 11 10 100 RHT2 1 6 5 25 4 1 3 9 4 10 6 36 RHT3 2 1 1 1 2 2 0 0 2 12 10 100 WBT1 4 2 2 4 7 4 3 9 7 2.5 4.5 20.25 WBT2 6 4 2 4 5 6 1 1 5 1 4 16 WBT3 5 5 0 0 7 5 2 4 7 2.5 4.5 20.25 ZD2 = 35.5 ZD2 = 197.5 ZD2 = 410.5 r = .937 r = 0.648 r = 0.267 

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