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The influence of distinct coaching styles on personality and sportsmanship attitudes of elementary age… Miscisco, Daniel Robert 1976

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THE INFLUENCE OF DISTINCT COACHING STYLES ON PERSONALITY AND SPORTSMANSHIP ATTITUDES OF ELEMENTARY AGE GIRLS PLAYING COMPETITIVE BASKETBALL by DANIEL ROBERT MISCISCO B.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF • . MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the Department of . P h y s i c a l Education and Re c r e a t i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard Chairman THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA - September , 1976 0 Daniel Robert Miscisco, 1976 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r .an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agre t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r extensive, copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that, copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Physical Education .The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h . Columbi a Vancouver 8, B.C. Date . ' October 6, 1976 i i ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was to examine the e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t coaching s t y l e s on elementary school age g i r l s , who were i n v o l v e d i n a c o m p e t i t i v e b a s k e t b a l l program. The study was concerned with e f f e c t s . o f a t h l e t i c s and coaching s t y l e s upon the emotional, p e r s o n a l i t y , and c h a r a c t e r d e v e l -opment of g i r l s . A comparison of g i r l s who were not i n v o l v e d i n c ompetitive a t h l e t i c s with those who were was a l s o under-t aken . The sample i n c l u d e d t h i r t y - t w o p a r t i c i p a n t s and fo u r t e e n n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . The groups s t u d i e d c o n s i s t e d of Grade VII' g i r l s a t t e n d i n g C a t h o l i c elementary s c h o o l s , i n the Greater Vancouver area of B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. The t h i r t y - t w o p a r t i c i p a n t s were d i v i d e d i n t o three s e l e c t e d groups. Group I g i r l s were exposed to a non-aggressive, "easy-going" coach f o r a p e r i o d of approximately 3-1/2 months. Group I I I g i r l s were exposed to an aggressive and a u t o c r a t i c coach, while Group.II g i r l s were exposed to a coach who f e l l between these two extremes. A c o n t r o l group of n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s was s e l e c t e d from each s c h o o l . This study was designed to i n v e s t i g a t e hypotheses based on the f o l l o w i n g f i v e problems: I. changes i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p a r t i c i p a n t s as e l i c i t e d by d i f f e r e n t coaching s t y l e s , I I . changes i n sportsmanship a t t i t u d e s of p a r t -i c i p a n t s as e l i c i t e d by d i f f e r e n t coaching s t y l e s , i i i I I I . changes i n the s e l f - c o n c e p t of p a r t i c i p a n t s as e l i c i t e d by d i f f e r e n t coaching s t y l e s , I.V.- d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e of the p l a y e r s toward t h e i r coach as e l i c i t e d by r e s p e c t i v e coaching s t y l e s , V. d i f f e r e n c e s i n sportsmanship and p e r s o n a l i t y between p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . A 3 X 2 m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was performed on the fourteen p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s as w e l l as the two a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s to t e s t hypotheses I , I I , I I I and IV. Hypothesis V was t e s t e d by a 2 X 2 m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e on the same dependent v a r i a b l e s with the exception of a t t i t u d e toward the coach, to t e s t the d i f f e r -ences between the changes e l i c i t e d i n the p a r t i c i p a n t s (from a l l schools) and the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s ( a l s o from a l l s c h o o l s ) . The e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s were not i n agreement with the p r e d i c t e d hypotheses. The d i f f e r e n c e s among the three coach-ing s t y l e s , i n the changes e l i c i t e d i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s i n c l u d i n g s e l f - c o n c e p t and sportsmanship a t t i t u d e s were found to be n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t , at the .05 l e v e l . I t was also p r e d i c t e d t h a t there would be d i f f e r e n c e s among the three coaching s t y l e s i n the a t t i t u d e of the p l a y e r s toward t h e i r coach. The d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a t t i t u d e of the p l a y e r s . was found to be n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . F i n a l l y , the d i f f e r e n c e s between the. p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n p e r s o n a l i t y and .sportsmanship a t t i t u d e s were once again n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05. l e v e l . . T hesis Chairman i y TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I. INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM.... '.• 1 Background of the Problem.. 1 Purpose of the Study ' .3 The Problems . . . h Research Hypothes i s 6 R a t i o n a l e f o r the Hypotheses. 6 D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms.... 8 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study... ' ...11 J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the Study. 13 I I . REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE 15 S o c i a l i z a t i o n and B e h a v i o u r a l Determinants ..15 S o c i a l i z a t i o n and the Family l 6 S o c i a l i z a t i o n and the Coach 20 S o c i a l i z a t i o n and the Female A t h l e t e 23 Studies R e l a t i n g to P e r s o n a l i t y and Emotions of . . Males and Females.' 25 P e r s o n a l i t y of Male A t h l e t e s versus Male Non-Athletes ....25 P e r s o n a l i t y of Male A t h l e t e s of Various 'Sport Groups . . . • 2 9 P e r s o n a l i t y of Female A t h l e t e s ..33 P e r s o n a l i t y Research with A t h l e t i c C h i l d r e n 39 Emotions and Competitive A t h l e t i c s h3 Sex D i f f e r e n c e s between Males and Females -Roles, and P e r s o n a l i t i e s . . . . . . 1|6 P e r s o n a l i t y and S e l f - c o n c e p t . . . 53 Related Studies of Sportsmanship 56 V Chapter Page I I I . METHODOLOGY .. . 58 Experimental Design 58 Design of the Study ' 59 Measurements 62 For the Coaches ,.£>2 For the G i r l s Involved i n Competitive A t h l e t i c s . . 6 2 For the G i r l s Not Involved i n Competitive A t h l e t i c s ." 6 3 S e l e c t i o n of the Sample. 63 O r g a n i z a t i o n of Time, Space, Pe r s o n n e l , and Equi pmen t 63 'Instruments and T h e i r V a l i d i t y . . ' . 6 k For the Coaches. 6^ 4 For the G i r l s Involved i n Competitive A t h i e t i c s . . 6 9 Data Analys i s . 71 S c o r i n g Procedures 71 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s 75 IV. . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 78 Results • 7 8 D i s c u s s i o n . . 8 5 Hypothesis I ^5 Hypothesis I I . . . . . . ....93 Hypo the s i s I I I . . . . . . 9 ^  Hypothesis IV. . . 95 Hypothesis V .96 Summary • ^^ v i Chapter Page V.. .SUMMARY , CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH . . 103 Summary 10 3 Conclusions 105 Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research 106 BIBLIOGRAPHY... 109 APPENDICES • '.. 122 A. P a r e n t a l Consent Form..... 122 B. Coaching S t y l e Rating Scale '.12k C. Coaches' Competitive A t t i t u d e Scale ....126 D. Coaches' Competitive A t t i t u d e Scale Raw Scores . 129 E. S i x t e e n P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Adult - Form B. .131 F. Coaches-' S i x t e e n P e r s o n a l i t y Factor Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Sten Scores and Pro f i l e s . . . . . . 13^ G. Coaches' P e r s o n a l and B a s k e t b a l l Background.137 H. High School P e r s o n a l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Forms A + B . . l U l I. - High School P e r s o n a l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Sample Answer Sheet and Test P r o f i l e - Pre/Post.... i k k J. Sportsmanship Preference Record ...lU8 K. Sportsmanship Preference Record Answer Key..157 L. A t t i t u d e Toward the Coach Scale .l60 • M. L i s t of P e r s o n a l i t y Tests, c i t e d i n the Review of L i t e r a t u r e 162 VI 1 LIST OF TABLES. Table Page I P o p u l a t i o n , Household and Family C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by Cens.us T r a c t s - 1971- 12 II R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s of S i n g l e '- And Two-Form (A+B ) HS-PQ. . . . . ,' . 72 I I I M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n s Between Items and Factor 73 IV-.A D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s (Sten Scores) P a r t i c i p a n t s .... '8 b I.V-B D e s c r i p t i v e ' S t a t i s t i c s (Sten Scores) N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s . . . . . .81 V . M u l t i v a r i a t e Anova For Coaching S t y l e s 1 vs (2 +3 ) . • • • 8 2 VI M u l t i v a r i a t e Anova For Coaching S t y l e s 3 vs 3.•• 83 VII M u l t i v a r i a t e Anova For P a r t i c i p a n t s vs N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s (Both Pooled).. 8 1 + VIII Coaches' Competitive A t t i t u d e Scale Raw Scores. 130 IX Sten Scores For Coaching S t y l e s . . 13 5 V I 11 LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e '• Page 1. P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e s For Coaching S t y l e s -Pre/Post and Controls - Post... .86 2. Sportsmanship A t t i t u d e For Coaching S t y l e s -Pre/Post.... • •." . . . . . 87 3. Sportsmanship At.titude For P a r t i c i p a n t s and . • N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s - Post....... 88 k. A t t i t u d e Toward Coach For Coaching S t y l e s . . . ..89 5. P e r s o n a l i t y Profiles-For' 'Coaching S t y l e s - Pre.. 90 6. P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e s .'For Coaching S t y l e s . - Post 91 7. P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e s For P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s - Pre 97 8. P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e s For P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s - Post. .98 9.. Sportsmanship A t t i t u d e For P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s - Pre/Post...... 99 10. P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e of Coaching S t y l e s . . . . . . . . 136 lx ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n to Dr. G. Pennington, t h e s i s ,advisor , f o r h i s advice and sug g e s t i o n s , w.hich proved i n v a l u a b l e i n p r e p a r i n g t h i s study. I also wish to thank the committee members, Dr. F. E c h o l s , Dr. R. Schutz and Dr. G. S i n c l a i r . I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l to Dr. Schutz f o r h i s e x p e r t i s e i n the a n a l y s i s of the data. My g r a t i t u d e i s a l s o extended to the p r i n c i p a l s and coaches of the C a t h o l i c schools i n v o l v e d f o r . t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n i n p r o v i d i n g the subj e c t s f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h . A s p e c i a l thanks to the p a r t i c i p a n t s i s also extended. F i n a l l y , a wel l - d e s e r v e d thanks i s conveyed to my w i f e , I r e n e , f o r the countless hours of t y p i n g as w e l l as her e x c e l l e n t e d i t i n g suggestions. Without her encouragement and e f f o r t t h i s study would not have been p o s s i b l e . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM Background of the. Problem The e f f e c t s of h i g h l y organized competitive, sports upon immature p a r t i c i p a n t s have concerned men at l e a s t s i n c e the days o f . A r i s t o t l e . I t was he who p o i n t e d the . f i n g e r of c r i t i c i s m at the youth d i v i s i o n s of the Olympic Games. Much has been w r i t t e n on the hazards of competitive sports f o r youngsters ( R a r i c k , 1'9 69; Burke, 1963.; St. C l a i r , 1959 ; American Academy of P e d i a t r i c s , 1956; Lowman , 19^7)-E q u a l l y strong- sentiments r e g a r d i n g the b e n e f i t s of compet-i t i v e a t h l e t i c s have been v o i c e d by those who favour such competition (Danmehl and Razor, 1971; Brown, 1968; Jones, 1963; S a l a r i o , 1961). While the i s s u e s have been w e l l d e f i n e d , r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n b e a r i n g d i r e c t l y on them i s l i m i t e d . Nowhere i s the need f o r guidance and cooperation among educators, p h y s i c i a n s , and parents g r e a t e r than i n the problems connected with the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of c h i l d r e n i n c ompetitive a t h l e t i c s ( R e i c h a r t , 1957)- Many agree that competition i s e s s e n t i a l i n the growth and develop-ment of c h i l d r e n i n t o w e l l - b a l a n c e d , r e s p o n s i b l e , a d u l t s , however, there i s a d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e of o p i n i o n as to the l e v e l and I n t e n s i t y of competition i n which c h i l d r e n , should engage at the v a r i o u s stages of t h e i r development 1 (Hawks, 1963; S a l a r i o , 19Si; Hoxie, 1958 ; Wear, 19 57 ; Cromwell, 19.56; Hess, 1955 ; Hanson, 195U). The most vehement arguments centre on the q u e s t i o n of a t h l e t i c competition f o r c h i l d r e n under 13 years of age. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , much of the argument has been on an emotional r a t h e r than an i n t e l l e c t u a l b a s i s (Danmehl and Razor, 1971; R a r i c k , 1969 ; Brown, I968-; Burke, 1963; Hawks, 1963.; Jones, 1963; American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and Recreation., 1962; S a l a r i o , 1961 ; G r i e d e r , 1959 ; St. C l a i r ,. 1959 ; Hein, 1958 ; Hoxie, 1958 ; Maksim, • 1958 ; Wear, 1957; American Academy of P e d i a t r i c s , 1956; Hess, 1955; Hanson, 195^; Lowman, 19^7)- While the l i n e s have not been too c l e a r l y drawn, on one s i d e there are those who would p l a c e d e f i n i t e l i m i t a t i o n s on the i n t e n s i t y and scope of competitive a t h l e t i c s f o r young c h i l d r e n . In t h i s group, according to the review of l i t e r a t u r e by t h i s r e s e a r c h e r , are the m a j o r i t y of,educators and p h y s i c i a n s who have . s t u d i e d the i s s u e . On the other s i d e , are those who main-t a i n that h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d , highly, c o m p e t i t i v e , " v a r s i t y - , type" a t h l e t i c s are a d e s i r a b l e a c t i v i t y f o r c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r e a r l y s c h o o l y e a r s . This group c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y of sports promoters, p r o f e s s i o n a l a t h l e t e s , sports fans, and' some coaches. ' As w e l l as these two advocacy groups many parents of young p a r t i c i p a n t s a l s o take a p o s i t i o n concern-i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s s p o r t i n g endeavours. Some p a r e n t s , with a n a t u r a l ambition to develop t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s a t h l e t i c powers to the f u l l , are drawn to the side of h i g h l y organized programs of a t h l e t i c s ; o t h e r s , concerned more with the broader welfare of t h e i r c h i l d r e n , tend to support or endorse l e s s i n t e n s e sports'and r e c r e a t i o n programs. The opinions of many w r i t e r s are now being r e p l a c e d by s y s t e m a t i c , c o n t r o l l e d s t u d i e s (Behraman, 1967;. P i e r s o n and A n t o n a c c i , 1965 ; Kehr , 1963 ; Hale, 1959 ; Booth, 1958; Seymour, 195.6; Skubic, 1955 ; Johnson, Hutton, Johnson, 195^; S c o t t , 1953; Lareau, 1950). According to the American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and Recreation (1973) r e s e a r c h must, give to the f i e l d s of p h y s i c a l education the b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s of accurate f a c t s and p r i n c i p l e s with which to c o n s t r u c t sound p r a c t i c e and wise philosophy. More data on i n j u r i e s f o r the var i o u s sports should be accumulated and analyzed. Because emotional response i s a complex phenomenon, more resea r c h i s needed i n t h i s s p e c i f i c area. The e f f e c t of r e j e c t i o n from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a t h l e t i c s , needs f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n c e Lareau (1950) found that g i r l s who were i n t e r e s t e d i n a t h l e t i c competition but d i d not make the team scored higher i n anxiety and lower i n emotional s t a b i l i t y than o t h e r s . i n the group s t u d i e d . In f a c t , there remains a great amount of resea r c h to be conducted on. the e f f e c t s of a t h l e t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n upon g i r l s . (Hale, 1959 ) • Purpose of the Study The purpose of t h i s study was to examine the e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t coaching s t y l e s on elementary school age g i r l s who were i n v o l v e d i n a competitive "basketball program. The study was concerned with e f f e c t s of a t h l e t i c s and coaching s t y l e s upon the emotional, p e r s o n a l i t y , and c h a r a c t e r development of g i r l s . A comparison of g i r l s that were not i n v o l v e d i n competitive a t h l e t i c s with those that were was also undertaken. Changes i n p e r s o n a l i t y and c h a r a c t e r , whether p o s i t i v e or negative , ¥hich- may occur as the r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n competitive, sports have been demonstrated i n a l i m i t e d number of c o n t r o l l e d s t u d i e s ( O r l i c k , 1972; R.arick, 1969; Hanson, 1967; Powers, 19 60 ;-. S a l z , 1957 ; Hale, 1956; Johnson, 1956; Seymour, 1956 ; Skubic, 1956; Vovas , 1951+; Lareau, 1950). G i r l s ' sports programs at the elemen-t a r y school l e v e l have been, sub j e c t to even l e s s s c r u t i n y than boys' programs (Brown , 1'970 ;'Powers , I960; Lareau, 1950). . The Problems The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e two major problems. A. What are. the e f f e c t s of three d i s t i n c t coaching s t y l e s upon the p e r s o n a l i t y , a t t i t u d e s and s e l f - c o n c e p t of- elementary school age g i r l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n an i n t e r -school b a s k e t b a l l program? i . W i l l p e r s o n a l i t y development be i n f l u e n c e d by d i s t i n c t ' c o a c h i n g s t y l e s ? i i . W i l l s e l f - c o n c e p t be i n f l u e n c e d by d i s t i n c t coaching s t y l e s ? i i i . W i l l sportsmanship, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as honesty, i n t e g r i t y , fairnes-s , g e n e r o s i t y , c o u r t e s y , and acceptance of. r e s u l t s by i n f l u e n c e d by d i s t i n c t -co'aching s t y l e s ? i v . W i l l a t t i t u d e toward the coach d i f f e r depending on what coaching s t y l e g i r l s are exposed to? B. Do elementary school age g i r l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n an i n f e r s c h o o l b a s k e t b a l l program e x h i b i t changes i n person-a l i t y , s e l f - c o n c e p t and a t t i t u d e beyond growth and develop-i ment v a r i a t i o n s normally found i n g i r l s of t h i s age group? i . W i l l d i f f e r e n c e s be shown between p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s , i n regard to p e r s o n a l i t y development? i i . W i l l d i f f e r e n c e s be shown i n regard to p e r s o n a l i t y development between n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t g i r l s and the three groups of p a r t i c i p a n t s exposed to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e coaching s t y l e ? i i i . W i l l d i f f e r e n c e s be' shown between p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n regard to s e l f - c o n c e p t ?. i v . W i l l d i f f e r e n c e s be shown i n regard to s e l f -concept between n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t g i r l s and the three groups of p a r t i c i p a n t s exposed to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e coaching s t y l e ? v. W i l l d i f f e r e n c e s be shown between p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n regard to sportsmanship a t t i t u d e s ? 6 v i . W i l l d i f f e r e n c e s be shown i n regard to sportsmanship a t t i t u d e s between n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t g i r l s and the three groups of p a r t i c i p a n t s exposed to. t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e coaching s t y l e ? Research Hypotheses i . There are s i g n i f i c a n t . d i f f erences : among' g i r l s exposed to the th r e e coaching s t y l e s i n changes e l i c i t e d i n person-a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such, as s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , d r i v e , aggress-i v e n e s s , d e t e r m i n a t i o n , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and l e a d e r s h i p . i i . . There are s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among g i r l s exposed to the three coaching s t y l e s i n changes e l i c i t e d in. s e l f -concept r e l a t i n g to' s e l f - i d e n t i t y , s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n , moral-, e t h i c a l s e l f , and p e r s o n a l . s e l f . i i i . There are s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among g i r l s exposed to the three coaching s t y l e s i n changes e l i c i t e d i n s p o r t s -manship a t t i t u d e s r e l a t i n g to honesty, i n t e g r i t y , f a i r n e s s , g e n e r o s i t y , c o u r t e s y , and acceptance of r e s u l t s . i v . The a t t i t u d e of the p l a y e r s toward t h e i r coach v a r i e s depending upon the coaching s t y l e . v. Competition e l i c i t s s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n p e r s o n a l i t y and sportsmanship c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s beyond normally expected changes due to development and maturation. Moreover, changes w i l l vary with the coaching s t y l e to which g i r l s are exposed. R a t i o n a l e f o r the Hypotheses The r e s e a r c h concerning the e f f e c t s of competition on. elementary school age g i r l s i s extremely sparce. To say that . 7 competition i n i t i a t e s g r e a t e r than normal changes i n p e r s o n a l i t y , a t t i t u d e and s e l f - c o n c e p t among p a r t i c i p a n t s i s being too g e n e r a l . The researcher' "believes that f a c t o r s such as p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s , coaching s t y l e s , community v a l u e s , and p a r t i c i p a n t s ' goals are prime determinants of p o s i t i v e and negative development of c h i l d r e n ' s q u a l i t i e s . C h i l d r e n of elementary school age are very impression^ able. T h e r e f o r e , i t may be assumed that d i s t i n c t coaching s t y l e s w i l l , i n f l u e n c e changes beyond expected growth and development p a t t e r n s . The nature of t h i s development, however, w i l l be dependent upon the coaching s t y l e to which the g i r l s are exposed. This r a t i o n a l e i s based on behavior-• a l i s t i c t h e o r i e s as o u t l i n e d by Paul Goodman (196U). T h i s study proceeds on the assumption' that elementary school age g i r l s not p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n competitive b a s k e t b a l l and, t h e r e f o r e , not being exposed to a d i s t i n c t coaching s t y l e would e x h i b i t l i t t l e , i f any, change i n emotional., p e r s o n a l i t y , and c h a r a c t e r development beyond expected growth and development p a t t e r n s . B a r r i n g environmental trauma such as a broken home, p a r e n t a l n e g l e c t , or a l e a r n -in g d i s a b i l i t y these g i r l s would show normal developmental changes . . I t i s assumed here that a d i s t i n c t coaching s t y l e w i l l i n f l u e n c e sportsmanship a t t t i t u d e s of elementary school age g i r l s . I f a coach b e l i e v e s " i n winning at a l l c o s t s " , throws temper tantrums, blames r e f e r e e s f o r l o s s e s , or e x h i b i t s other poor sportsmanship q u a l i t i e s , t h i s behaviour 8 w i l l l i k e l y a f f e c t the g i r l s i n regard to- t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y and a t t i t u d e s . Furthermore, because of the impressionable age of these g i r l s i n v o l v e d the r e s e a r c h e r assumes that p e r s o n a l i t y q u a l i t i e s of the coaches auch-as-enthusiasm, a g g r e s s i v e n e s s , emotions, and temperament w i l l be t r a n s m i t t e d to p a r t i c i p a n t s on the r e s p e c t i v e teams. I t i s f u r t h e r assumed t h a t the a t t i t u d e s of the g i r l s toward t h e i r coach w i l l d i f f e r depending on the c o a c h i n g • s t y l e to which they were exposed. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms A. Competitive B a s k e t b a l l Program. A competitive b a s k e t b a l l program f o r C a t h o l i c elementary schools i s administered by the C a t h o l i c ' Y o u t h . A c t i v i t i e s . C a t h o l i c Youth' A c t i v i t i e s , a n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n , administers a l l aspects of competitive sports i n C a t h o l i c elementary s c h o o l s . In regard to b a s k e t b a l l the f o l l o w i n g a d m i n i s t r -a t i v e d u t i e s are performed: - schedules are sent to r e s p e c t i v e schools and coaches scores are r e p o r t e d to the C a t h o l i c Youth A c t i v i t i e s o f f i c e - standings are mailed out to coaches - league p l a y - o f f s and championships are conducted - a trophy i s awarded to the league champion many schools run independent tournaments duri n g the season 9 B. . Elementary School Age G i r l s . Pubescent P l a y e r . Immature Youngster. Young G i r l s or Youngsters. The aforementioned terms are used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y and r e f e r i n t h i s study to g i r l s e n r o l l e d i n Grade T- This means tha t a l l g i r l s would have been 12 years o l d u n t i l 197*+- That i s , they would have turned 13 years o l d a f t e r January, 1,97^. C. H i g h l y Organized Competitive S p o r t s . Programs i n which p l a y e r s are s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of a t h l e t i c or p o t e n t i a l s k i l l , where coaches are assigned f o r each team, and where teams are o r g a n i z e d f o r league or tournament p l a y . D. N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t Group. The group of g i r l s who at the time of t h i s study d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e , i n organized • school b a s k e t b a l l nor on an o u t s i d e competitive b a s k e t b a l l team. E. P e r s o n a l i t y . For purposes of t h i s study, p e r s o n a l i t y w i l l be thought of as r e p r e s e n t i n g the essence .of the i n d i v -i d u a l i n terms of what i s most t y p i c a l and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of her. In more concrete terms, p e r s o n a l i t y c o n s i s t s of a set of scores or d e s c r i p t i v e phrases which are used to d e s c r i b e an i n d i v i d u a l a c c ording to p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a b l e s , t r a i t s , or dimensions. These t r a i t s i n c l u d e r e s e r v e d vs outgoing, s t a b i l i t y , humble vs a s s e r t i v e , shy vs venturesome,, f o r t h - , r i g h t vs shrewd,.and p l a c i d vs apprehensive. 10 F. S e l f - C o n c e p t . For purposes of t h i s study s e l f - c o n c e p t r e l a t e s to s e l f - i dentiaty , s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n , m o r a l - e t h i c a l s e l f , and p e r s o n a l s e l f . G. ' Sportsmanship. For purposes of t h i s study sportsman-ship i s . d e f i n e d as those p a t t e r n s of behaviour p e r t a i n i n g to q u a l i t i e s . s u c h . a s honesty, i n t e g r i t y , f a i r n e s s , - g e n e r o s i t y , courtesy and g r a c e f u l acceptance of r e s u l t s which are ac c e p t a b l e ' t o the e s t a b l i s h e d values of contemporary Canadian s o c i e t y . H. Aggressive Coach. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , of the aggressive coach i n c l u d e : d i r e c t i v e and dominant - can be cruel,, o f t e n i n s u l t i n g - emotional , f r e q u e n t l y y e l l s emphasizes winning r e l i e s upon e x h o r t a t i o n and s t i m u l a t i o n v e r b a l l y abuses o f f i c i a l s uses t h r e a t s to motivate, t h r e a t e n i n g the a t h l e t e with c r i t i c i s m and embarrassment - score seems more important than people I. Non-aggressive Coach. - personable f l e x i b l e deeply concerned with w e l f a r e of h i s p l a y e r s popular and s o c i a b l e more i n t e r e s t e d i n people than scores .11 - uses p o s i t i v e means to motivate a t h l e t e s r a r e l y shows emotions or shouts at p l a y e r s r a r e l y , i f at a l l , shows condemnation of o f f i c i a l s Limitations, of the Study The study was conducted with g i r l s between the ages of 11 and 13 r e s i d i n g , i n Greater Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada., I t was r e s t r i c t e d to schools l o c a t e d i n two areas of Vancouver ( V i c t o r i a - F r a s e r v i e w ; Renfrew-Collingwood) and Census T r a c t 239 of the m u n i c i p a l i t y of Burnaby.- The g i r l s i n v o l v e d were of the C a t h o l i c f a i t h and attended C a t h o l i c elementary s c h o o l s . The. Schools attended by the g i r l s i n c l u d e d grades 1 - 7 and were c o - e d u c a t i o n a l . The coaches were. C a t h o l i c males. One l i m i t a t i o n of the present study, i s l a c k of random sampling. Another l i m i t a t i o n • i s the c a u s a l i t y assumption which s t a t e s t h a t changes i n p e r s o n a l i t y or sportsmanship a t t i t u d e s may be due to some f a c t o r other than the coaching s t y l e . In the present r e s e a r c h no attempt was made to assess m o t i v a t i o n , g e n e r a l mptor a b i l i t y , i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t y or c u l t u r a l background. However, the s u b j e c t s attended schools i n communities with.approximately the same general s o c i a l , economic and c u l t u r a l background. Table I shows p o p u l a t i o n , household, and f a m i l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the two census t r a c t areas of Vancouver and Census T r a c t 239 i n Burnaby' (1971). TABLE I POPULATION, HOUSEHOLD AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS BY CENSUS TRACTS - 1 9 7 1 (CENSUS METROPOLITAN AREA OF VANCOUVER) • CORPUS CHRISTI ( V i c t o r i a - F r a s e r v i e w ) ST. MARY'S ( Re n f r e w - C o l l i ngwood ) HOLY CROSS (Census T r a c t 239) MARITAL-STATUS Si n g l e •1+3-9$ Married 1+6.1$ Other 10.0$ Sin g l e . kk.2% Married k6.6$ Other 9.2$ S i n g l e . 1+3.1+$-Married 50.2$ Other l+.3$ ETHNIC GROUP . B r i t i s h I s l e s ' 5k.9% German 9•8$ . I t a l i a n 3.5% Chinese 5-3% Scandinavian k.2% East European 8.8$ E n g l i s h as mother tongue 77 • 9%> . B r i t i s h I s l e s 1+9 • 5$ German 7•9 $ I t a l i a n 6.5$ Chinese. 6 . k% Scandinavian 1+. 0 $ East European 10.2$ E n g l i s h as mother tongue 73-1$ . B r i t i s h I s l e s 58.0$ German 5-9$' I t a l i a n 7.1+$ Chi nes e 5-8$ Scandinavian l+.6$ East European 6;2$ E n g l i s h as mother tongue 82.2$ OCCUPATION 'Managerial 3 • 2$ P r o f e s s i o n a l 3.3$ C l e r i c a l 22.6% S e r v i c e lh.h% Sales 12.k% C o n s t r u c t i o n 8.1$ T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 10.7$ . Managerial 1 . 6 $ P r o f e s s i o n a l 3.1$ C l e r i c a l 19-8$ Servi c e 1 8 . 0$ Sales 9-0$ C o n s t r u c t i o n 9-1+$ T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 13.2$ Managerial 3-3$ P r o f e s s i o n a l . 3-7$ C l e r i c a l 23 - 8 $ S e r v i c e 15-1$ Sales 10.0$ C o n s t r u c t i o n 10.8$ T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 7-9$ . INCOME -1 6 ,000 1 2 . 5 $ 13,000-15,999 13.0$ 10,000-12,999 "17.1+$ 7,000- 9,999 23.1$ 1+ ,000- 6 ,999 12.5$ Under h ,000 . 21.0$ 1 6,000--— 9,3$ 13,000-15,999 10.5$ 10,000-12,999 20.0$ 7 ,000- 9 ,999 23.9$ U . 0 0 0 - 6,999 16.9$ Under l+,000 18.8$ 16,000- 12.8$ 13,000-15,999 13-7$ 10,000-12,999' 20.3$ 7 ,000- 9 ,999 2k.k% l+,000- 6 ,999 11.1$ Under l+,000 17-3$ 13 J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the Study . One of the most c o n t r o v e r s i a l areas i n education today concerns the matter of competitive, a t h l e t i c s at the elementary s c h o o l l e v e l . There has been a multitude of w r i t i n g s , both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e , on the s u b j e c t (Danmehl and Razor, 19 7-1; R a r i c k , 1969 ; Brown , 1968; Burke, 1963; Hawks, 1963;. Jones, 1963; S.alario , 1961 ; G r i e d e r , 1959; Hoxie, 1959; St. C l a i r , 1959; Hein, 1958; Wear , 19 57 ; Ameri c an Academy of P e d i a t r i c s , 1956; Hess, 1955; Hanson, - 1 9 5 M• U n f o r t u n a t e l y , much of t h i s w r i t i n g i s based on s u b j e c t i v e viewpoints. Is competition r e a l l y bad? Or i s i t the o u t s i d e f o r c e s t h at warrant the blame? By o u t s i d e f o r c e s the researcher, i s r e f e r r i n g to coaches , parents ,. a l l - s t a r tournaments, and p r o f e s s i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s . To say that competitive a t h l e t i c s at the elementary school l e v e l i s good or bad, i s . b e i n g f a r too g e n e r a l . Research d e a l i n g with a l l components of competitive a t h l e t i c s i s needed. Competitive a t h l e t i c s are becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y popular with elementary s c h o o l age youngsters. The i n c r e a s e d number of minor hockey leagues and pee-wee f o o t b a l l leagues, i n a d d i t i o n to the p o p u l a r i t y of l i t t l e league b a s e b a l l , minor s o c c e r , and expanded elementary i n t e r - s c h o o l sports programs warrants a c l o s e examination of the e f f e c t s of these a c t i v i t i e s upon the p a r t i c i p a n t s . In recent years , competitive a t h l e t i c s at the elemen-t a r y l e v e l has made roots i n g i r l s ' sports and l e i s u r e •ih a c t i v i t i e s . . More g i r l s are i n v o l v e d i n competitive sports today than ever b e f o r e . Research l o o k i n g at the e f f e c t of these organized a c t i v i t i e s upon g i r l s i s c e r t a i n l y needed. To summarize, the study i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons: A. Evidence concerning the e f f e c t s of competitive a t h l e t i c s on elementary school age g i r l s i n regard to p e r s o n a l i t y , s e l f - c o n c e p t , v a l u e s , and a t t i t u d e s i s needed. B. I n s i g h t should be developed i n t o the p o s s i b i l i t y of p o s i t i v e and/or negative e f f e c t s emanating from comp-e t i t i o n i t s e l f or from d i s t i n c t coaching s t y l e s . C. Knowledge of the u l t i m a t e aims and goals of coaches i s needed. D. D i s c r i m i n a t i o n must be made between goals of coaches, such as the emphasis on winning, and the emotional e f f e c t s of competition i n regards to the r e s u l t s they may have on the p a r t i c i p a n t s . E. D e c i s i o n s should be sought on the type of c o n t r o l s r e q u i r e d to make competition f o r g i r l s at the elementary school age l e v e l a worthwhile experience. F. Research i s needed i n the area of emotional pressure r e s u l t i n g from competition and the a b i l i t y of elementary s c h o o l age. g i r l s to , cope with i t . CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE The present review of the l i t e r a t u r e has been d i v i d e d i n t o three main s e c t i o n s a l l of which contains s p e c i f i c s u b d i v i s i o n s . The. f i r s t s e c t i o n deals with s o c i a l -i z a t i o n and b e h a v i o u r a l a c q u i s i t i o n , and looks p r i n c i p a l l y at s o c i a l i z a t i o n and.the f a m i l y , s o c i a l i z a t i o n and the coach, and s o c i a l i z a t i o n . a n d the female a t h l e t e . . The second s e c t i o n explores p e r s o n a l i t y and s p e c i f i c a l l y , reviews l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to the f o l l o w i n g seven areas: A. P e r s o n a l i t y of male a t h l e t e s vs male non-athletes. B. P e r s o n a l i t y of male a t h l e t e s of v a r i o u s sports groups. C. P e r s o n a l i t y of female a t h l e t e s . D. P e r s o n a l i t y r e s e a r c h with a t h l e t i c c h i l d r e n . E. Emotions and competitive a t h l e t i c s . F. Sex d i f f e r e n c e s between males and females. G. P e r s o n a l i t y and s e l f - c o n c e p t . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of p e r t i n e n t sportsmanship s t u d i e s i s reviewed i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n . I. S o c i a l i z a t i o n and Behavioural. Determinants The t o p i c of s o c i a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n the s c i e n c e s o c i o l o g y , Is a major concept and f i e l d of study. The s o c i a l i z a t i o n process- i n v o l v e s the a c q u i s i t i o n of motives, f e e l i n g s , s k i l l s , c o g n i t i v e s e t s , and s o c i a l norms and e x p e c t a t i o n s . It embraces the i n f o r m a l a c q u i s i t i o n of these a t t r i b u t e s through peer groups and f r i e n d s h i p 15 2.6 r e l a t i o n s h i p s , as w e l l as from f o r m a l l y designated s o c i a l -i z i n g agents such as p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , m i n i s t e r s , • a n d o t h e r s . The process i n c o r p o r a t e s both the development of the i n d i v i d u a l as w e l l as t r a n s m i t t i n g c u l t u r a l values and p r o v i d i n g -a means of s e c u r i n g p o t e n t i a l consensus and s o c i a l c o n t r o l i n the c o l l e c t i v i t y of s o c i e t y (Mussen, Conger, Kagan, 1969 ) • A. S o c i a l i z a t i o n and the f a m i l y . "A c h i l d ' s ' behaviour i s a f u n c t i o n of h i s b i o l o g i c a l nature and the l e a r n i n g that r e s u l t s from i n t e r a c t i o n with h i s environment p a r t i c u l a r l y , h i s s o c i a l environment." (.Orlick, 1972:9 ) Most of a c h i l d ' s d e s i r e s , s k i l l s , .values, and a t t i t u d e s are l e a r n e d w i t h i n h i s s o c i a l environment and have a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e upon h i s behaviour. People, e s p e c i a l l y those who are i n some way s i g n i f i c a n t to a c h i l d , are h i s primary sources of m o t i v a t i o n s , f e a r s , and rewards (Mussen, Conger, Kagan, 1963). Models are u t i l i z e d i n a l l c u l t u r e s to promote the a c q u i s i t i o n of s o c i a l l y s a n ctioned behaviour p a t t e r n s (Bandura and Walters, 1963). A c h i l d i s c o n t i n u a l l y t a k i n g the a t t i t u d e s and emulating the behaviour of those around him, p a r t i c u l a r l y those who i n some sense c o n t r o l him.and on whom he depends (Mead, 193M- In a c h i l d ' s e a r l y years the parents are the p r i n c i p a l models of behaviour or the primary agents of s o c i a l i z a t i o n (McNeil, 1969). This i s e x e m p l i f i e d by the f a c t that c h i l d r e n f r e q u e n t l y reproduce not only the ap p r o p r i a t e a d u l t - r o l e ' 17 behaviour p a t t e r n s of t h e i r parents but a l s o reproduce such,things as p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s , mannerisms, gestures and even v o i c e i n f l e c t i o n s which the parents have never attempted to teach d i r e c t l y (Bandura and Walters, 1963). The tendency of the c h i l d to i n c o r p o r a t e p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s and values reaches i t s maximum po i n t at approx-imately eight or nine-years of age, which i s b e f o r e the peer group makes i t s f u l l impact on the c h i l d ( W i l l i a m s o n , 1966). The r o l e of the f a m i l y i n s o c i a l i z i n g a c h i l d i n v o l v e s " t e a c h i n g " him about the r e a l world, about the behaviour expected of him i n i t , about who and what he. i s , and about what other, people.are l i k e . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and i m i t a t i o n are the' two i n d i r e c t means by which, the young are s o c i a l i z e d i n the f a m i l y e a r l y l i f e , and l a t e r i n the s o c i e t y (McNeil, 19,69). Both concepts encompass the same b e h a v i o u r a l phenomenon, namely the tendency f o r an i n d i v i d u a l to reproduce the a c t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , or, emotional responses e x h i b i t e d by r e a l - l i f e or symbolized models (Bandura and Walters,. 1963). A t t i t u d e s are apparently more communicable through i n d i r e c t r a t h e r than d i r e c t s t i m u l a t i o n . For example, i f persons .around a c h i l d are i n t e r e s t e d i n and enjoy a c t i v i t i e s , the. c h i l d f a l l s r e a d i l y i n t o the p a t t e r n . However, i f people around a c h i l d are u n i n t e r e s t e d or d i s l i k e a c t i v i t i e s , the p r o b a b i l i t y of I n t e r e s t on the part of the c h i l d i s g r e a t l y d iminished (Pressy and Kuhlen, 1957). • "• . 18 The models and' reinforcements to which a c h i l d i s exposed dur i n g h i s e a r l y years are extremely important due to the f a c t that "basic o r i e n t a t i o n toward experience i s e s t a b l i s h e d e a r l y i n l i f e . F a i l u r e to e s t a b l i s h i n t e r e s t s i n c h i l d h o o d and youth " o f t e n r e s u l t s i n s i g n i f i c a n t gaps p e r s i s t i n g throughout l i f e " (Pressy and Kuhken , 1957:1+26). This f i n d i n g was supported by the Baldwin (19^8) l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s which i n d i c a t e d t h at c h i l d r e n who adopted t r a d i t i o n a l masculine ( a t h l e t i c s , mechanics, competitiveness) or feminine (gardening, cook-i n g , sewing) a c t i v i t i e s during the e a r l y school years r e t a i n e d t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n through adolescence and a d u l t -hood. The l i t e r a t u r e on s o c i a l i z a t i o n and behaviour a c q u i s i t i o n seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t a c h i l d becomes s o c i a l i z e d i n t o sport i n much the same manner that one becomes s o c i a l i z e d ' i n t o any mode of behaviour." The i m p l i c a t i o n being that l e a r n i n g a sport r o l e i s l a r g e l y dependant upon the models a v a i l a b l e to the c h i l d and the reinforcements to which the • c h i l d i s exposed. When a c h i l d i s young the parents are r e p o r t e d to be extremely important f a c t o r s i n p r o v i d i n g models f o r emulation as w e l l as r e i n f o r c e m e n t s . According to the p r i n c i p l e s of r o l e t h e o r y , a boy i d e n t i f i e s with h i s f a t h e r because i n the c h i l d ' s eyes he i s very . powerful i n c o n t r o l l i n g both rewards and punishment (Mussen, 1967). Love, a f f e c t i o n , a p p r o v a l , a t t e n t i o n and p r a i s e serve as 19 extremely e f f e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s f o r c h i l d r e n (McNeil, 1969; Pressy and Kuhlen, 1957). From a s o c i a l l e a r n i n g perspec-t i v e , the d e s i r e f o r a young c h i l d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n sport a r i s e s l a r g e l y from the d e s i r e to please h i s parents (or s i g n i f i c a n t other's) who encourage t h i s motive and an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with parents who are e f f e c t i v e models .of s p o r t i n g behaviour. A number of i n v e s t i g a t o r s have s t u d i e d the i n f l u e n c e of s o c i a l i z a t i o n agents upon ad o l e s c e n t s . For example, c o n s i d e r a b l e evidence has been accumulated to i n d i c a t e a congruency between.parental and c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n regard to e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . ' Evidence f o r p a r e n t a l and f a m i l i a l i n f l u -ences has been presented i n many re s e a r c h s t u d i e s (Campbell, 1969 ; Kandel and L e s s e r , 1969 ; Sewe11 and Shah, 1968 , Rehberg and Westby, 1967; E l l i s and Lane, 1963; Strauss,. 1962; and Burdua, i 9 6 0 ) . O r l i c k (1972) c a r r i e d out an exhaustive study of. s i x t e e n n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s and s i x t e e n p a r t i c i p a n t s i n minor hockey i n the c i t y of Edmonton. S i x res e a r c h instruments were used to c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n from the c h i l d r e n : C h i l d Sports Environment Interview, C h i l d r e n ' A t t i t u d e s about S p o r t • I n t e r v i e w , S.R.A. Inventory of C h i l d r e n ' s I n t e r e s t s , C h i l d r e n ' s P e r s o n a l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and A t t i t u d e s about Sports.. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d : 1.) that a t h l e t i c c h i l d r e n have parents who are themselves a c t i v e , and/or 2) a t h l e t i c c h i l d r e n have parents (or s i g n i f i c a n t o thers) who encourage t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 20 The hypothesis t h a t f a m i l y f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e choice of sport mode was i n v e s t i g a t e d by B i r r . e l l (1973). She c l a s s i f i e d sport i n t o two modes: competitive group sports i n v o l v i n g a w i n n e r / l o s e r , and n a t u r a l sport p a r t -i c i p a t i o n i n which an i n d i v i d u a l competes with some n a t u r a l f o r c e such as mountains, snow or water. The 139 undergraduate c o l l e g e women who completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e generated data suggesting a t t i t u d i n a l e f f e c t s from parents and b r o t h e r s and sister's of con a i d e r a b l e import- to sport motives . B. S o c i a l i z a t i o n and the coach. N o t i c e a b l y absent i n the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned s t u d i e s i s e m p i r i c a l data r e l a t e d to a t h l e t i c coaches as s o c i a l i z a t i o n agents. According to Tutko ( l 9 7 l ) a student, throughout h i s e d u c a t i o n a l y e a r s , has, i n most cases, a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n -s h i p with coaches than other t e a c h e r s . T h i s c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p with a coach over a p e r i o d of months - the work, -the. agony, the disappointment, and the successes -produces an atmosphere i n which the coach can become a t r u l y i n f l u e n t i a l b u i l d e r of ch a r a c t e r and a moulder of p e r s o n a l i t y . Although e m p i r i c a l data has been l a c k i n g , s e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s have noted the t h e o r e t i c a l relevance of the coaching, r o l e i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Kenyon (1968) has suggested that p h y s i c a l education and s p o r t s p r o v i d e the necessary c o n d i t i o n s f o r s o c i a l i z a t i o n with the '21 e x i s t e n c e of agents and models. Elsewhere, Kenyon (1969) h a s . d i s c u s s e d the degrees and types of involvement by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a sport and the v a r i a t i o n s of r e f e r e n c e groups that are l i k e l y to be important to them. Page (1969:200) has c i t e d the funct ion of coaches as r e f e r e n c e persons and e d u c a t i o n a l a d v i s o r s : "when the k i d who at f i f t e e n or s i x t e e n has tremendous promise, coaches are apt to t h i n k i n career terms, 'you go to Michigan S t a t e , we have, connections with such and such pro team'. In t h i s way, coaches become career s p e c i a l i s t s . " The i n f l u e n c e of the coach i n the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process f o r a t h l e t e s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important when s e v e r a l dimensions of the coach-player r e l a t i o n s h i p are analyzed. Since p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n high school a t h l e t i c s i s a h i g h l y - p r i z e d , p r e s t i g e - g r a n t i n g a c t i v i t y , the coach normally has c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o l i n matters such as the s e l e c t i o n of p l a y e r s and g r a n t i n g rewards and punishments. The p l a y e r s , i n most s i t u a t i o n s , v o l u n t a r i l y submit to the coach's c o n t r o l and i n f l u e n c e . Brim (1966:27) has noted that t h i s procedure of s e l e c t i o n help to assure t h a t those who enter the o r g a n i z a t i o n . ( o r a c t i v i t y ) w i l l not present d i f f i c u l t problems f o r the s o c i a l i z a t i o n program. The importance of the coach as a reference, person i s supported by Kemper's (1968) approach to r e f e r e n c e groups. He has'suggested t h a t there are t h r e e types of r e f e r e n c e groups. The normative which d e f i n e s the r o l e 22 the i n d i v i d u a l i s . t o assume; the r o l e model with whom the a c t o r ( i . e . the p l a y e r ) can compare h i s performance; and the audience to whom the acto r a t t r i b u t e s c e r t a i n values t h a t serve as h i s "behavioural guides. For many a t h l e t e s the high s c h o o l coach embodies a l l three types of r e f e r e n c e groups. Kemper (l968:UO-Ul) has noted that the c o i n c i d e n c e of these three types of ref e r e n c e groups p o t e n t i a t e s the most e f f e c t i v e type of s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Snyder (1972) drew upon a sample of 2.70 Ohio high schools that p a r t i c i p a t e d i n b a s k e t b a l l . A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was sent to the b a s k e t b a l l coaches and two v a r s i t y team members of each of the 270.schools. His re s e a r c h p r o v i d e s e m p i r i c a l data that document s e v e r a l aspects of the coaches' i n f l u e n c e over h i s p l a y e r s i n the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p rocess. A l a r g e m a j o r i t y of t h e . p l a y e r s i n the survey i n d i c a t e d that t h e i r b a s k e t b a l l coach had been i n f l u e n t i a l to them. A breakdown of the major types of i n f l u e n c e i n c l u d e d : helped with p e r s o n a l problems; development of b a s k e t b a l l p r o f i c i e n c y ; taught p r i d e , teamwork, sportsmanship, and hard work. The data f u r t h e r demonstrates the important r o l e •of the- coach i n guidance and c o u n s e l l i n g of the p l a y e r s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l plans f o r the f u t u r e . In g e n e r a l , the coaches ranked immediately behind the p l a y e r s ' parents In t h i s regard. The coach's i n f l u e n c e as a s o c i a l i z a t i o n agent extends c o n s i d e r a b l y beyond the behaviour of p l a y e r s i n the a c t u a l p r a c t i c e 23 and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the. game s i t u a t i o n . Furthermore, the data shows that many former p l a y e r s continue to seek out t h e i r coaches f o r advice and suggestions i n post s c h o o l y e a r s . Rider (1973) researched the i n f l u e n c e of b a s k e t b a l l coaches upon the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of a t h l e t e s at j u n i o r h i g h , high s c h o o l , and c o l l e g i a t e l e v e l s of competition. The e l e v e n - t r a i t A t h l e t i c M o t i v a t i o n Inventory was administered pre and post season to s i x coaches and s e v e n t y - f i v e p l a y e r s . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were found at the j u n i o r high or high s c h o o l l e v e l r e g a r d i n g the coaches' i n f l u e n c e over t h e i r p l a y e r s ' p e r s o n a l i t i e s . At the c o l l e g e l e v e l , the one t r a i t r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Was " e m o t i o n a l i t y " . C. S o c i a l i z a t i o n and the female a t h l e t e . One of the e a r l y r e p o r t s of survey r e s e a r c h i n t o female sport p a r t i c i p a t i o n was o f f e r e d by Heuser (1965). Although the study p e r t a i n s to young German women between the ages of f o u r t e e n and twenty-eight, the technique u t i l i z e d by Heuser i s somewhat unique and the f i n d i n g s provide i n t e r e s t i n g comparative data. E i g h t y g i r l s , from a given high s c h o o l , wrote anonymous essays concerning why they l i k e to engage i n sports and why they d i d not l i k e to p a r t i c i p a t e i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . According to Heuser, "between,the l i n e s " of the essays she d i s c e r n e d a group of motives that would prevent devotion to sport i n s p i t e of s u b j e c t s ' g e n e r a l a f f i r m a t i o n of p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e . A noteworthy r e s u l t from the study showed that the l a c k of q u a l i f i e d i n s t r u c t o r s proved a d e t e r r e n t to p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . Gerber, F e l s h i n , B e r l i n and Wyrick (197M i n v e s t -i g a t e d some of the background f a c t o r s that precede c o l l e g i a t e sport involvement of females. They c o l l e c t e d data r e l a t i v e to two age f a c t o r s : ( l ) age at which the c o l l e g e . performer was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d to the s p o r t ( s ) i n which she e l e c t s to compete during her c o l l e g e y e a r s , and ( 2 ) the age.at which she made the d e c i s i o n to pursue competition s e r i o u s l y i n the a c t i v i t y . The modal age at which these young women were i n t r o d u c e d to the sport was i n the e a r l y . teen y e a r s . However, more than h a l f of the a t h l e t e s , 5 5 - 5 % had t h e i r i n t r o d u c t o r y experience e a r l i e r . S erious p u r s u i t of the sport was also determined during the e a r l y adolescent years of twelve and f o u r t e e n . T h i r t y -f i v e arid a h a l f percent of the s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d , a l a t e r d e c i s i o n to compete and only 1 0 . 5 $ r e v e a l e d making.a commitment to t h e i r sport during the childhood, years before age eleven. Inasmuch as r o l e models are thought to be important b e h a v i o u r a l i n f l u e n c e s , the f o l l o w i n g questions were put • to s u b j e c t s comparing the B e r l i n (197^) sample. "Who do you s t r i v e most to emulate i n your sport accomplishment? What, I f any, i s your r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h i s i n d i v i d u a l ? " The person emulated most was the coach. That more of the 25 a t h l e t e s i d e n t i f i e d f r i e n d s and teammates than members of the f a m i l y c e r t a i n l y lends credence to Landers' and Luschen' ( l 9 T 0 ) s p e c u l a t i o n that peers may be j u s t as r e l e v a n t i n i n f l u e n c i n g sport p u r s u i t as members of the f a m i l y . II Studies R e l a t i n g to P e r s o n a l i t y and Emotions of • Males and Females . A. P e r s o n a l i t y of male a t h l e t e s versus male no n - a t h l e t e s . I n v e s t i g a t o r s (Berger and L i t t l e f i e l d , 1969; Bruner, 1969; Hunt, 1969; K r o l l , 19.69 ; • Chipman , 1968; Johnson, 1966; Werner and G o t t h e i l , 1966; Schendel, 1965; S l u s h e r , 196U; Merriman, i 9 6 0 ; Booth,. 1957; and . Bi ddulph , .195*0 have s t u d i e d the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s of the a t h l e t e versus the non-athlete at a l l l e v e l s , high s c h o o l through c o l l e g e , to f i n d a c o n t r a s t to t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e s . i . S t u d i e s using the Minnesota M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory Booth (1957) compared the p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s of (1) freshman and upperclas.s a t h l e t e s and n o n - a t h l e t e s , (2) freshman and v a r s i t y a t h l e t e s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n only team, i n d i v i d u a l , or team and i n d i v i d u a l s p o r t s , and (3) a t h l e t e s who were r a t e d as poor or good competitors. He found that v a r s i t y a t h l e t e s and upper-class non-athletes s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P.^ .05) showed more dominance than the freshman a t h l e t e s . " He also found .that the v a r s i t y a t h l e t e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i n d i v i d u a l sports 'scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y h igher on the d e p r e s s i o n t r a i t than those v a r s i t y athletes, p a r t i c i p a t i n g only i n team s p o r t s . 2 6 Slushe.r (196*0 compared HOO male high school j u n i o r and s e n i o r c l a s s lettermen and 100 male non-athletes r e l a t i v e to t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e s . He found t h a t . seven of the f a c t o r s , h y p o c h o n d r i a s i s , d e p r e s s i o n , hy s t e r i a, psychopathic deviation', f e m i n i n i t y , p a r a n o i a , and psychas-t h e n i a , on the MMPI d i s t i n g u i s h e d (P <C_ .05) between the a t h l e t i c and n o n - a t h l e t i c groups. Only two f a c t o r s , hypo-mania and the v a l i d i t y s c a l e showed n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . i i . S t u d i e s u s i n g the C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l Inventory Berger and L i t t l e f i e l d ( 1969 ) used t h i r t y ' o u t s t a n d i n g c o l l e g e f o o t b a l l a t h l e t e s , t h i r t y non-outstanding c o l l e g e f o o t b a l l athletes., and t h i r t y c o l l e g e n o n - a t h l e t e s . A f t e r c o n t r o l l i n g f o r s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e , the i n v e s t i g a t o r s found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s (P_^>.0l) between the groups or on any of the eighteen items of the CPI nor a composite s core. In the Merriman study ( i 9 6 0 ) the C a l i f o r n i a Psycholog-i c a l Inventory was administered to 808 high s c h o o l boys c l a s s i f i e d i n the f o l l o w i n g groups: upper and lower motor a b i l i t y groups, a t h l e t e s and. non-athletes matched according to motor a b i l i t y s c o r e s , p a r t i c i p a n t s ' i n team s p o r t s , p a r t i c i p a n t s i n i n d i v i d u a l sports and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e a m - i n d i v i d u a l s p o r t s . Few s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the mean scores on the CPI f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s i n team, i n d i v i d u a l , and t e a m - i n d i v i d u a l s p o r t s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e d that motor a b i l i t y may 27 be r e l a t e d to p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . ' Schendel (1965) compared the p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t -e r i s t i c s of 33^ n i n t h , t w e l f t h , and c o l l e g e males i n respe c t to l e v e l s of a t h l e t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . He found there were s p e c i f i c , d i f f e r e n c e s (P <C.05) between the measures of the p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s of a t h l e t e s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s at the n i n t h , t w e l f t h , and c o l l e g e l e v e l s . i i i . S t u d i e s using the Gordon P e r s o n a l P r o f i l e and Inventory Chipman (1968) found with c o l l e g e males that p a r t i c i p a n t s i n team sports were more s o c i a b l e and ascendent than were p a r t i c i p a n t s - i n i n d i v i d u a l sports and non-p a r t i c i p a n t s . He a l s o found that n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s were more o r i g i n a l i n t h i n k i n g than team sports members. Hunt's study (1969) was designed to i n v e s t i g a t e p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s of a sample of 111 c o l l e g e males. Resu l t s obtained from the p r o f i l e suggested that the white v a r s i t y a t h l e t e s ranked higher i n ascendency, emotional s t a b i l i t y , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t r a i t s when compared to the Negro and white, n o n - a t h l e t e s . The Negro v a r s i t y a t h l e t e s , ranked higher on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t r a i t when compared to Negro n o n - a t h l e t e s . .Hunt concluded that a t h l e t e s , r e g a r d l e s s of ethnic background, tend to d i f f e r (P_ <. .05) i n s e l e c t e d p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s when compared to non-a t h l e t e s . 2 8 i v . Studies using the C a t t e l l S i x t e e n P e r s o n a l i t y . Factor Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Werner and G o t t h e i l (1966) administered the C a t t e l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e to.3^0 cadets e n t e r i n g the United States M i l i t a r y Academy who were con s i d e r e d to be the a t h l e t i c group and another group of l l 6 who were considered to be a t h l e t i c n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s , and found no evidence ( P_ > . 0 5 ) to support the view that c o l l e g e a t h l e t i c s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e . K r o l l (1969) s t u d i e d 9^ amateur and c o l l e g i a t e •• w r e s t l e r s using the S i x t e e n P e r s o n a l i t y Factor Q u e s t i o n n a i r When, compared to 'norms, w r e s t l e r s demonstrated a s i g n i f -i c a n t departure from average on Factor I i n d i c a t i n g tough-mindedness, s e l f - r e l i a n c e , and m a s c u l i n i t y . v. A Study using the.Guildford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey Johnson (1966) conducted a p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e s t i g a t i o n of. 3^0 secondary school boys who were e i t h e r f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s or n o n - f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s . While there were no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s c o n t r i h u t a b l e to a season of f o o t b a l l on p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s of j u n i o r and senior f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s there were s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s on the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s of ascendency, and o b j e c t i v i t y of the sophomore players.. In a d d i t i o n , the f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the n o n - f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s on the same two t r a i t s. 2 9 v i . A Study using the A d j e c t i v e Check L i s t and Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Bruner (1969) i n v e s t i g a t e d p e r s o n a l i t y and m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g a d u l t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n vigorous p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . The A d j e c t i v e Check L i s t and a q u e s t i o n n a i r e were administered to s i x t y adult male Caucasians; the men were d i v i d e d i n t o two equal groups - p a r t i c i p a n t s and non-p a r t i c i p a n t s i n vigorous p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . Results d i s -c l o s e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups on e i g h t s c a l e s . P a r t i c i p a n t s scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on: I n t r a -c e p t i o n , Number of Favorable A d j e c t i v e s Checked, Defensive-ness, Achievement, Dominance, and S e l f - C o n f i d e n c e , whereas n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s were s u p e r i o r on Succorance and C o u n s e l l i n g Readines s. v i i A Study u s i n g the C a l i f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y Biddulph (195*+). researched the p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l adjustment of high school boys of high a t h l e t i c achievement with the adjustment of boys of low a t h l e t i c achievement. It was found that students ranking high i n a t h l e t i c achieve-ment demonstrated a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r degree of p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l adjustment than d i d students ranking low i n a t h l e t i c achievement. B. P e r s o n a l i t y of male a t h l e t e s of v a r i o u s sport groups  Some i n v e s t i g a t o r s (Straub and D a v i s , 1971; K r o l l , 1969; S i n g e r , 1969; Newman, 1968; O g i l v i e , 1968 ; K r o l l 30 . • • . and C a r l s o n , .19.67; K r o l l and P e t e r s e n , 1965; Bosco, 1962 ; Lakie , 1962 ; and.La P l a c e , 195*0 have s t u d i e d the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s of v a r i o u s sport groups at high school through c o l l e g e l e v e l s to f i n d a c o n t r a s t i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e s . The f o l l o w i n g s t u d i e s o u t l i n e t h e i r f i n d i n g s . i . A Study using the Minnesota M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory LaPlace (195*0 i n v e s t i g a t e d the success i n p r o f -e s s i o n a l b a s e b a l l using f o r t y - n i n e major league player's and s i x t y - f o u r minor league p l a y e r s . Results i n d i c a t e d (P_ ^ .05) t h a t major league, p l a y e r s apply t h e i r s t r o n g -d r i v e towards a d e f i n i t e o b j e c t i v e by e x e r c i s i n g s e l f -d i s c i p l i n e , by adjus.ting to occupations r e q u i r i n g s o c i a l • c o n t a c t , and by e x e r c i s i n g i n i t i a t i v e . i i . . St u d i e s u s i n g the C a t t e l l S i x t e e n P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Bosco (1962) found (P < .05) that the e i g h t y - f o u r champion male gymnasts have a strong tendency toward b r i g h t n e s s and i n t e l l i g e n c e , calmness and m a t u r i t y , c r i t i c i s m and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , and c o n t r o l and enactness. K r o l l and Carlson (1967) and K r o l l and Petersen (1965) found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s (P> .05)'when l o o k i n g at c o l l e g i a t e w r e s t l e r s , amateur karate p a r t i c -i p a n t s , and winning and l o s i n g c o l l e g i a t e f o o t b a l l teams. When making within-group comparisons the i n v e s t i g a t o r s were not able to d i s t i n g u i s h between higher-and l e s s e r -s k i l l e d a t h l e t e s dealing, with the p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e s . 31 Straub and Davis. ( l 9 T l ) administered the quest-i o n n a i r e to 2k6 c o l l e g e v a r s i t y f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s , 50 of whom were att e n d i n g a small p r i v a t e c o l l e g e , 69 a t t e n d i n g an Ivy League U n i v e r s i t y , 83 a t t e n d i n g a Big-Ten U n i v e r s i t y , and kk a t t e n d i n g a small s t a t e - s u p p o r t e d c o l l e g e . The r e s u l t s i ndi c ate-d- that the teams scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher (P < .01) on f a c t o r s I , toughminded versus tender-minded; N, f o r t h r i g h t versus shrewd; , c o n s e r v a t i v e versus experimenting. The teams were found higher (P_^_.05) i n p e r s o n a l i t y on factors'; M, p r a c t i c a l versus' i m a g i n a t i v e ; 0, s e l f - a s s u r e d versus apprehensive and Q , group dependent versus s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . O g i l v i e (1968) claims from his.many s t u d i e s that those who r e t a i n the m o t i v a t i o n f o r competition w i l l possess most of the f o l l o w i n g 'personality • t r a i t s : ( l ) ambition, (2) o r g a n i z a t i o n , (3) deference, (h) dominance, (5) endurance and (6) a g g r e s s i v e n e s s . No claims that p e r s o n a l i t y data does separate the outstanding a t h l e t e from the average a t h l e t e were found. i i i . A Study using the Omnibus P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory Lakie (1962) compared the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s of 230 a t h l e t e s from a s t a t e u n i v e r s i t y , a p r i v a t e u n i v e r s i t y . , and two s t a t e c o l l e g e s . The scores' of the sports group, each group c o n s i s t i n g of a t h l e t e s from a l l four s c h o o l s , showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , on the S o c i a l M a t u r i t y Scale was shown with 32 the a t h l e t e s at the p r i v a t e u n i v e r s i t y s c o r i n g higher than a t h l e t e s at each of the other three schools. i v . A Study using the Thurstone Temperament Schedule Twenty-one male swimmers were ranked a c c o r d i n g to swimming a b i l i t y as determined by a c t u a l time t e s t s i n events used i n the N a t i o n a l C o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n high school dual meets. Newman (1968) found no set of p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s (P./" • 05) that could be used to i d e n t i f y the b e t t e r swimmers except the swimmers that ranked high i n the 100 yard f r e e s t y l e ranked high i n dominance. Those swimmers that ranked high i n the 100 yard b r e a s t - s t r o k e ranked low i n both dominance and impulsiveness and i n the s o c i a b l e t r a i t . v. A Study using the Edwards' Pe r s o n a l Preference • S chedule Singer (1969) found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (P_7.05) among ten v a r s i t y c o l l e g i a t e t e n n i s p l a y e r s and f i f t y - e i g h t , v a r s i t y and freshman b a s e b a l l p l a y e r s . When making, between-and w i t h i n - a t h l e t i c group comparisons with•normative data, achievement, i n t r a c e p t i o n , and dominance emerged as being s i g n i f i c a n t (P<_.05) with t e n n i s p l a y e r s s c o r i n g higher. The c o n f l i c t i n g views found with studying the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s of male a t h l e t e s versus the male non-a t h l e t e s and the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s of male a t h l e t e s of var i o u s sport groups p o i n t s to the need f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . U n t i l the p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r i e s are more 33 r e l i a b l e and u n t i l they tend to measure the same or s i m i l a r p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , few c o n c l u s i o n s about the p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e of the male a t h l e t e s may be drawn. C e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s of the male a t h l e t e seem to be i n d i c a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t i n most of the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed, but as to which exact t r a i t s are important, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to p r e d i c t . In order to provide some c l a r i t y , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h u t i l i z i n g the most r e l i a b l e and r e f i n e d p e r s o n a l i t y measuring instruments i s needed. C. P e r s o n a l i t y of female a t h l e t e s I n v e s t i g a t o r s ( B i r d , E.T., 1970; Dayries and Grimm, 1970 ; Moore ,. J . T . , 1970; Mushier, 1970;' W i l l i a m s , Moody, Hoepner , and O g i l v i e , 1970; Moore, S.M. , 1969; Malumphy, 1968; O g i l v i e , 1968; P e t e r s e n , Weber, and Trousdale, 1967; B i r d , A.H., 1965; Neal, 1963; and Flemming, 193h) have s t u d i e d the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s of the female a t h l e t e at a l l l e v e l s l o o k i n g f o r c o n t r a s t i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e s . i . S t udies using the C a t t e l l Sixteen P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Malumphy (1968) i n v e s t i g a t e d women p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n v a r i o u s i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e sports competition. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that the groups, f i f t e e n i n d i v i d u a l sports p a r t i c i p a n t s , s i x t e e n s u b j e c t i v e l y - j u d g e d sports p a r t -i c i p a n t s , twenty-eight team sports p a r t i c i p a n t s , eighteen t e a r n - i n d i v i d u a l sports p a r t i c i p a n t s , and forty-two non-p a r t i c i p a n t s , ' were s i m i l a r on fourteen of the dimensions of p e r s o n a l i t y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P <.05) on nine dimensions of p e r s o n a l i t y . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s t a t e d that a sport p a r t i c i p a n t may select a competitive sport on the b a s i s of her p e r s o n a l i t y . S p e c i f i c a l l y , team sport i n d i v i d u a l s were l e s s venturesome, and l e s s e x t r o v e r t e d than the i n d i v i d u a l sports group. The team-i n d i v i d u a l sports group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d as being l e s s venturesome, and l e s s e x t r o v e r t e d than the i n d i v i d u a l . The n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the sports groups as being l e s s c o n s c i e n t i o u s than the sub j e c t . i v e l y - j udged group; l e s s tough-minded, l e s s tough p o i s e , and l e s s l e a d e r s h i p than the i n d i v i d u a l and s u b j e c t i v e l y - j u d g e d groups; more out-going than the team sports group; and more i m a g i n a t i v e , more e x t r o v e r t e d , and more venturesome than the team-i n d i v i d u a l sports groups. Mushier (1970) s t u d i e d j u n i o r h i g h , s e n i o r h i g h , c o l l e g e , a s s o c i a t i o n , and n a t i o n a l l e v e l females i n competitive l a c r o s s e . The t o t a l competitive l a c r o s s e group was c h a r a c t e r i z e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P -^.05) more r e s e r v e d , i n t e l l i g e n t , a s s e r t i v e , happy-go-lucky, tough-minded, and experimenting than the norms e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the C a t t e l l S i x t e e n P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . No. r e g u l a r p a t t e r n of d i f f e r e n c e s was found on the s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r concluded, that p e r s o n a l i t y development may be independent of competitive sport . 3 5 c o m p e t i t i o n ; that s e l f s e l e c t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l i n t o competitive sports may be determined by p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l already possesses. O g i l v i e (1968) found young females, ages ten to fo u r t e e n , i n v o l v e d . i n high l e v e l c o m p e t i t i o n , to possess i n c r e a s e d c o n t r o l , s e l f assurance and s e l f as s.erti venes s , and were more tough-minded, i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , s e 1 f d i s c -i p l i n e d , and s l i g h t l y l e s s anxious and tense than those who were not i n v o l v e d i n high l e v e l competition. P e t e r s e n , Weber, and Trousdale (1967) s t u d i e d 156 women AAU a t h l e t e s and the women on the 196U United States Olympic team. The women who were engaged i n i n d i v i d u a l competition were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P •^1.05) more dominant, a g g r e s s i v e , adventuresome, s e n s i t i v e , i m a g i n a t i v e , r a d i c a l , and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and r e s o u r c e f u l than women engaged i n team s p o r t s . The team sportswomen were s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P ^ ..05) more r e a l i s t i c , steady, s o p h i s t i c a t e d , p r a c t i c a l , dependable, and i n t e r e s t e d i n immediate i s s u e s than the i n d i v i d u a l sport competitors. Moore, J.T. (1970) i n v e s t i g a t e d the p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s between a team s p o r t , an i n d i v i d u a l group s p o r t , and a combined group s p o r t . One hundred and f i f t y -e i ght girls.who p a r t i c i p a t e d on v a r s i t y i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c teams were given C a t t e l l ' s High School P e r s o n a l i t y Quest-i o n n a i r e (H.S.P.Q.). More s i m i l a r i t i e s than d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d among the groups. The i n d i v i d u a l sports group was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r emotional s t a b i l i t y and t h e i r 36 r e l a x e d attitude.. They showed l e s s e x c i t a b i l i t y , were more adventurous, tender-minded and l a c k e d s e l f - c o n t r o l while the combined sport group was c o n s c i e n t i o u s , p e r s i s t e n more s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , s e l f - a s s u r e d , s e 1 f - c o n t r o l i e d , tough-minded and was more tense than the other two groups. The team sport was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by having the l e a s t amount of amount of emotional s t a b i l i t y , l i k e d group a c t i o n , was i n s e c u r e , and had a tendency to worry. Shafor (1971) i n v e s t i g a t e d 179 a t h l e t e s , and.92 n o n - a t h l e t e s . The sports represented were b a s k e t b a l l , f i e l d hockey, v o l l e y b a l l , t e n n i s , badminton, and t r a c k and f i e l d . D i f f e r e n c e s were a s c e r t a i n e d between a t h l e t e s and n o n - a t h l e t e s . Team sportswomen were more t r u s t i n g , p r a c t i c a l , and group dependent. I n d i v i d u a l sport team members were more i n t e l l i g e n t than n o n - a t h l e t e s . Non-a t h l e t e s were more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t than e i t h e r group of a t h l e t e s . W i l l i a m s , Moody, Hoepner and O g i l v i e (1970) used three p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s : Jackson's P e r s o n a l i t y Research Form, Edwards' Personal Preference. Schedule, and C a t t e l l S i x t e e n P e r s o n a l i t y Factor Questionnaire to measure the t h i r t y female champion l e v e l competitors who were i n the 1968 N a t i o n a l Fencing Championships. On the b a s i s of the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study, the i n v e s t i g a t o r s concluded that i t may be p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y a f e n c i n g sport type by means of p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t assessments. They a l s o s t a t e d that at a high l e v e l of s k i l l only the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t 37 known as dominance di s t i n g u i shes ( P_. 0 5 ) between the achievement l e v e l s i n f e n c i n g . i i . Studies using the Edwards' Personal Preference S c he dule Weal (19 :63) i n v e s t i g a t e d the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s of women a t h l e t e s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n ' the 1959 Pan-American. G-ame s . She found that women a t h l e t e s scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher •( P_ _^.-0 5 ) on the v a r i a b l e s of achievement, autonomy, a f f i l i a t i o n , a g g r e s s i o n , o r d e r , and nuturance than d i d a c o n t r o l group of non-athletes.. Of the f i f t e e n v a r i a b l e s measured, s i x r e s u l t e d i n a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (P <.05). between the Pan-American a t h l e t e s with some, c o l l e g e t r a i n i n g , and the norm group. D a y r i e s , J.L. and Grimm, R.L. (1970) i n v e s t i g a t e d twenty-one i n t e r - c o l l e g i a t e a t h l e t e s , and compared them with the norm. As a group the a t h l e t e s were higher than norms on achievement, e x h i b i t i o n , autonomy, a f f i l i a t i o n , i n t r a c e p t i o n , dominance, nurturance, h e t e r o s e x u a l i t y , and aggression. The a t h l e t e s were lower than the norms on .the f a c t o r s of deference,. order , succorance, abasement, change, and endurance. A t h l e t e s d e s i r e to b.e independent, u n c o n v e n t i o n a l , and the centre of a t t e n t i o n . They want to be s u c c e s s f u l and to accomplish tasks r e q u i r i n g great s k i l l and e f f o r t . They express aggression with no g u i l t f e e l i n g , have need to i n d i c a t e i n t e r e s t i n other's problems, have low need f o r neatness and o r g a n i z a t i o n . 3 8 i i i . S tudies using the C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l Inventory B i r d (1965) i n v e s t i g a t e d the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s of fourte e n b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s and t h i r t e e n modern dancers. She found that the b a s k e t b a l l group scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P_ <.05) higher on the communality s c a l e and the modern dance group scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P £.05) higher on the f l e x i b i l i t y and f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s . Moore, S.M. (1969) s t u d i e d 102 U n i v e r s i t y of Kansas women between the ages of eighteen and twenty-two. The r e s u l t s of the study r e v e a l e d that the a c t i v e group scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the i n a c t i v e group i n r e s p o n s i b -i l i t y , . s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and ' communality . The .inactive group d i d not score s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the other two groups i n any of the p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s , however, s i g n i f i -cant c o r r e l a t i o n s were found between a c t i v i t y and s o c i a -b i l i t y , w e l l b e i n g , and dominance i n the i n a c t i v e group. i v . Studies using the O g i l v i e - T u t k o B a t t e r y of Four P e r s o n a l i t y Tests B i r d (19T0) i n v e s t i g a t e d f i f t y - f o u r Canadian College women i c e hockey playe.rs who vo l u n t e e r e d to take th.e O g i l v i e - T u t k o b a t t e r y of four p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s which c o n s i s t e d of the C a t t e l l S i x t e e n P e r s o n a l i t y Factor Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the Jackson's P e r s o n a l i t y Research Form, Edwards' Pe r s o n a l Preference Schedule, and Osgood's Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l . The women a t h l e t e s on the C a t t e l l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e r a t e d very high i n general a b i l i t y , were somewhat r e s e r v e d , s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , and l i b e r a l i n thought. 39 On the Jackson's Form they r a t e d very high i n autonomy and i n endurance and abasement. The Edwards' Schedule a l s o i n d i c a t e d the s u b j e c t s r a t i n g high i n the autonomy t r a i t . The i n v e s t i g a t o r concluded that the r e s u l t s of the study may have shown, trends, toward a c o n s i s t e n c y of p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which may support a d e f i n i t e p e r s o n a l i t y type f o r female competitors i n team s p o r t s . v. Study using the A d j e c t i v e T r a i t Check-List Flemming (193*+) s t u d i e d e i g h t y - f o u r high school a t h l e t e s and 219 high school n o n - a t h l e t e s . The summary of. major f i n d i n g s showed the a t h l e t i c type of g i r l i s not s t r i k i n g l y d i f f e r e n t from the n o n - a t h l e t i c type except i n her i n t e r e s t i n s p o r t s . I f there i s a d i f f -erence (as p e r c e i v e d by t e a c h e r s ) i t i s that the a t h l e t i c type i s more of a "good s p o r t " , f a i r e r , l i v e l i e r , has a more ple a s a n t v o i c e , has wider i n t e r e s t s , i s more b e a u t i f u l or p r e t t y , i s more i n t e r e s t i n g i n c o n v e r s a t i o n , i s more honest or t r u t h f u l and more h e l p f u l than average. D . P e r s o n a l i t y • r e s e a r c h - w i t h a t h l e t i c c h i l d r e n Very few r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have been conducted which explore the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s of a t h l e t i c c h i l d r e n . Those s t u d i e s which have i n v e s t i g a t e d the problem were s u b j e c t i v e i n t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n and were g e n e r a l l y completed i n the 1950's. Keeping these f a c t s i n mind some of the p e r t i n e n t f i n d i n g s of these s t u d i e s are b r i e f l y e x plained here. 1+0 Seymour (1956) c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y on t e n - t o t w e l v e -y e a r - o l d p a r t i c i p a n t s i n l i t t l e l e a g u e b a s e b a l l . T e a c h e r s s u b j e c t i v e l y . r a t e d t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s h i g h e r on e v e r y p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t ( c o o p e r a t i o n , s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , e m o t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t , l e a d e r s h i p , , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ) i n b o t h p r e - s e a s o n and p o s t - s e a s o n t e s t s . H owever, o n l y l e a d e r s h i p was s i g n i f i c a n t l y , h i g h e r f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n t e r m s o f s o c i a l a c c e p t a n c e f r o m p e e r s t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r r a t i n g s f r o m b o t h b o y s and g i r l s on b o t h p r e - s e a s o n and p o s t - s e a s o n t e s t s . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s w o u l d make g r e a t e r a d v a n c e s i n t e r m s o f a c c e p t a n c e f r o m p r e - s e a s o n t o p o s t - s e a s o n was r e j e c t e d . . The m a j o r h y p o t h e s e s o f t h e s t u d y , t h a t g r e a t e r i m p r o v e m e n t w o u l d be made by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s t u d y , was n o t s u p p o r t e d by t h e d a t a , e x c e p t i n t h e a r e a o f l e a d e r s h i p . From t h i s s t u d y ; i t a p p e a r s t h a t t e n - t o t w e l v e - y e a r - o l d b a s e b a l l p l a y e r s b e g i n p l a y i n g w i t h a h i g h e r l e v e l o f s o c i a l a c c e p t a n c e and more d e s i r a b l e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s t h a n t h e i r n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i n g peers'. H o w e v e r , i t i s n o t known w h e t h e r t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y had b e e n p a r t i c i p a t i n g s i n c e t h e age o f e i g h t or. w h e t h e r t h i s was t h e i r f i r s t e n c o u n t e r w i t h a l i t t l e l e a g u e team. S k u b i c (1956) f o u n d t h a t t e a c h e r s r a t e d l i t t l e l e a g u e and m i d d l e l e a g u e b a s e b a l l p l a y e r s as b e i n g b e t t e r a d j u s t e d s o c i a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y t h a n b o y s who were not members o f Ul teams. The p l a y e r s a l s o r e c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher grades i n p h y s i c a l education when compared to the non-p l a y e r s . Brown (1970) s t u d i e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between emotional adjustment and r a t i n g on a p h y s i c a l performance t e s t f o r c h i l d r e n aged nine to twelve. He found, that p h y s i c a l performance and emotional adjustment were not h i g h l y r e l a t e d . Rarick and McKee (l9*+9) u t i l i z e d the case.study technique to i n v e s t i g a t e the pe r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ten .children of high and ten c h i l d r e n of low motor p r o f i c i e n c y , a l l of whom were i n the. t h i r d grade. As s u b j e c t i v e l y evaluated by the. t eacher, c h i l d r e n i n the su p e r i o r motor p r o f i c i e n c y group tended to be. popular, a c t i v e , calm, r e s o u r c e f u l , a t t e n t i v e , c o o p e r a t i v e , and le a d e r s . C h i l d r e n i n the i n f e r i o r motor p r o f i c i e n c y group were more oft e n found to be shy, r e t i r i n g , tense, i m a g i n a t i v e , and f o l l o w e r s . Tuddenham .( 1951) found that a t h l e t i c s k i l l s , l e a d e r -s h i p , and dari n g were a s s o c i a t e d with p o p u l a r i t y i n young-boys . The most h i g h l y esteemed boys i n grade one were those whom t h e i r peers considered good at games, good s p o r t s , " r e a l boys", not b a s h f u l , and dar i n g . The most important c o r r e l a t e s of p o p u l a r i t y with grade three boys were f a i r n e s s i n play and l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t y . Hahn (1970) used a sociogram on boys aged ten to twelve, and found that p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and sports played a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e i r s o c i a l order. . ' 1+2 ' S a l z (1957) u t i l i z e d f i v e p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s and found that the group of boys who had been exposed to v a r y i n g l e v e l s of competitive p l a y , i n c l u d i n g the L i t t l e League World S e r i e s , scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s than boys who d i d not have competitive a t h l e t i c ' e x p e r i e n c e s . The boys with competitive exposure possessed broader i n t e r e s t s i n s c i e n c e , music, s o c i a l s t u d i e s , home a r t s , a c t i v e and q u i e t p l a y ; were s u p e r i o r i n t r a i t s of c o o p e r a t i o n , f r i e n d l i n e s s , i n t e g r i t y , l e a d e r -s h i p , and c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , and were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher i n t o t a l adjustment scores. G i r l s i n grades e i g h t and nine were given the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Inventory to determine the r e l a t i o n -ship between a t h l e t i c competition and p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l adjustment. Powers ( i 9 6 0 ) r e p o r t e d l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between the e f f e c t s of i n t r a m u r a l and i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n with the exception that i n t e r s c h o 1 a s t i c competitors i m p r o v e d . s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n "behaviour immaturity" and f e e l i n g s of inadequacy. Lareau (1950) looked at the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t h l e t i c competition and p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l adjustment i n j u n i o r high s c h o o l g i r l s . The r e s u l t s of the study were that g i r l s with experience i n a t h l e t i c s showed b e t t e r p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l adjustment, were more' popular, exhib-i t e d higher l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s , were more a c t i v e i n clubs and o r g a n i z a t i o n s and were emot i o n a l l y more s t a b l e . h3 E. Emotions and competitive a t h l e t i c s Johnson (1956) demonstrated that m o t i v a t i o n could produce nausea i n some boys during severe p h y s i o l o g i c a l . s t r e s s . Hale (1956) r e p o r t e d that among 1,300 p h y s i c i a n -f a t h e r s of l i t t l e leaguers surveyed, 97 percent i n d i c a t e d that the games d i d not e x c i t e t h e i r sons s u f f i c i e n t l y to e f f e c t t h e i r h e a l t h adversely. Skubic (-1955 ) conducted a study to obtain by means of the Galvanic Skin Response T e s t , s c i e n t i f i c data r e g a r d i n g the emotional responses of boys i n a v a r i e t y of competitive s i t u a t i o n s . The Galvanic Skin Response a f f p r d s an i n d i c a t i o n of the a c t i v i t y of the autonomic, nervous system which i s of major importance i n the b o d i l y changes a s s o c i a t e d with emotional s t a t e s . I n s o f a r as the Galvanic Skin Response can be taken to be a v a l i d measure of the emotional e x c i t a t i o n of boys i n t h i s age l e v e l , the r e s u l t s of the study suggest that youngsters were no more stimu-l a t e d by competition i n league games than they were by competition i n p h y s i c a l education- games. Vovas (1957) found that among boys grades eight to twelve, b a s k e t b a l l e l i c i t e d the g r e a t e s t emotional response b a s e b a l l the lowest, and f o o t b a l l i n between. S e v i e r (1973) conducted a comparative study of aggression and r e l a t e d p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The study was designed to see i f members of a boys' championship soccer team i n Baltimore County possessed s i m i l a r p e r s o n a l i kk c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to those of adult male, champion soccer p l a y e r s from Great B r i t a i n . In a d d i t i o n , the boy champ-i o n s h i p soccer p l a y e r s were compared with a c o n t r o l group of non-soccer p l a y e r s to see i f any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d on a s e r i e s of p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s as measured by the C h i l d r e n ' s P e r s o n a l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The r e s u l t s showed a boys' championship soccer team was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from a c o n t r o l group i n i n t e l l i g e n c e , emotional s t a b i l i t y , a g g r e s s i o n , expedience, ventur esomeness ,, and c o n f i dence. In these scores the boys tended to exceed l e v e l s of the B r i t i s h . It appears then t h a t the members of the boys '. championship soccer team compared, very fav o u r a b l y with B r i t i s h soccer champions-as r e p o r t e d by Kane (1967). This may suggest t h a t a s p o r t type does e x i s t i n terms of p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . It may also help to give support to the t h e s i s that one's person-a l i t y t r a i t s l e a d a n . i n d i v i d u a l i n t o c e r t a i n s p o r t s . I t would seem t h a t the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s f o r the above study ( S e v i e r ' s ) i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . - For example, he s t a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e at the .05 l e v e l . • However, i n r e a l i t y , because of doing a T - t e s t on a number .of v a r i a b l e s h i s s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l i s .55- A l a r g e e r r o r f a c t o r i s pres ent. The focus of. much research i n p h y s i c a l education during the past t w e n t y - f i v e years has been i n the area of sport psychology. I n v e s t i g a t o r s have sought to determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p of v a r i o u s p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s as. r e l a t e d •1*5 to p a r t i c i p a t i o n and competition i n a t h l e t i c s . U n f o r t -u n a t e l y , b i a s has encouraged s t u d i e s l a c k i n g necessary c o n t r o l s as w e l l as que s t i o n a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s as ex e m p l i f i e d i n the 'Sevier.study. Furthermore, the resea r c h f i n d i n g s of the s t u d i e s reviewed on the male and female a t h l e t e seem to i n d i c a t e that p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s p o s s i b l e e x i s t between the subjects and the n a t i o n a l norms e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the p e r s o n a l i t y measuring Instruments, and between var i o u s comparisons w i t h i n the samples. U n t i l the p e r s o n a l i t y measuring instruments tend to measure the same or s i m i l a r p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , few c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn. . A l l of the s t u d i e s reviewed recommended that f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h be completed, i n v e s t i g a t i n g the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s of the male and female a t h l e t e . There are a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s a v a i l a b l e , however, the m a j o r i t y are designed f o r o l d e r adolescents and a d u l t s . In a d d i t i o n , many of the adult t e s t s are c l i n i c a l l y o r i e n t a t e d . For t h i s r e s e a r c h the . J r . - Sr. High School P e r s o n a l i t y Questionnaire was s e l e c t e The t e s t , assessing, major aspects of the teenager's person-a l i t y , has four a v a i l a b l e forms. According to the I n s t i t u t of P s y c h o l o g i c a l Research, 1973, the HSPQ gives the most complete coverage of p e r s o n a l i t y p o s s i b l e i n a b r i e f time. The dimensions measured have b e e n . i s o l a t e d by over twenty years of f a c t o r a n a l y t i c r e s e a r c h on normal and c l i n i c a l groups. The t e s t has been r e v i s e d and i n t e n s i f i e d i n v a l i d i t y s e v e r a l times, s i n c e i t s i n i t i a l p u b l i c a t i o n . The simpl U6 i c i t y i n s c o r i n g along with a t t r a c t i v e p r o f i l e sheets i n f l u e n c e d the r e s e a r c h e r ' s s e l e c t i o n . C a t t e l l has a C h i l d r e n ' s P e r s o n a l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (CPQ) designed f o r ages 8 - 12. Since s u b j e c t s were t h i r t e e n at the time of the post t e s t , i t was decided to.use the HSPQ. The I n s t i t u t e of P s y c h o l o g i c a l Research (1973) recommends i t s use for. ages 11 - 17-F. Sex d i f f e r e n c e s between males and females - r o l e s and p e r s o n a l i t i e s Howe (1971) i n a d i s c u s s i o n of the s t u d i e s done by Broverman (1968) and others at Worcester State H o s p i t a l i n Massachusetts, p o i n t e d out that c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s equated the c l i n i c a l l y ' h e a l thy male and the c l i n i c a l l y h e a l t hy a d u l t . These male and.female p s y c h o l o g i s t s viewed the c l i n i c a l l y h e a l thy female as q u i t e d i v e r g e n t . The "male valued items" used i n these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were such t h i n g s as: very a g g r e s s i v e , very independent, not at a l l emotional, very l o g i c a l , very d i r e c t , very advent-urous, very s e l f - c o n f i d e n t , very ambitious; the "female valued items" i n c l u d e d : very t a l k a t i v e , very t a c t f u l , very g e n t l e , very aware of f e e l i n g s of o t h e r s , very r e l i g i o u s , very q u i e t , very strong need f o r s e c u r i t y . In a study of c o l l e g e students u s i n g the same instruments, the f i n d i n g s l e d the i n v e s t i g a t o r s to conclude t h a t : Despite h i s t o r i c a l changes i n the l e g a l s t a t u s of women and d e s p i t e the changes i n p e r m i s s i b l e U7 "behaviours accorded men and women, the s e x - r o l e stereotypes continue to be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and. held i n agreement by both, c o l l e g e men and c o l l e g e women. (Broverman, 1968) The s o c i a l i z a t i o n process depends upon i n d i v i d u a l s , i n t e r n a l i z i n g the norms and r o l e s that s o c i e t y expresses, and r e q u i r e s . M c C l e l l a n d (1965) found that "the female image i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as s m a l l , weak, s o f t , and l i g h t . In the U.S. i t i s also d u l l , p e a c e f u l , r e l a x e d , c o l d , rounded, p a s s i v e and slow.". Masculine r o l e s , as r i g i d and c o n f i n i n g as they may be, at l e a s t allow the development of a c o n s i s t e n t and complimentary p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l i d e n t i t y from i n f a n c y onward. G i r l s are given a l i t t l e more than a decade of such- freedom - i f that - and then, at puberty, are expected to l i t e r a l l y s p l i t t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s . They are p e r m i t t e d to be i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and a r t i s t i c a l l y p r e c o c i o u s as a d u l t s . But at the age when boys are . encouraged to become p h y s i c a l l y , competitive and aggressive to t e s t t h e i r s t r e n g t h and p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y , g i r l s are asked to give up these p u r s u i t s . Only i n adolescence i s i t acceptable f o r females to. be p h y s i c a l l y aggressive and com p e t i t i v e . This a t t i t u d e was u n c o n s c i o u s l y r e f l e c t e d i n the t e l e v i s i o n coverage of the 1972 Olympics, when ABC's commentators r e f e r r e d to a l l the women con t e s t a n t s as " g i r l s " . A f t e r a group of feminine a c t i v i s t s swamped the switchboard f o r an hour with p r o t e s t s , the h a r r i e d deskman f i n a l l y t o l d one c a l l e r : "You win. I j u s t got. kQ • through to Munich. They're not saying g i r l s anymore. They're c a l l i n g them l a d i e s . " (Boslooper and Hayes, 1973) • The r e s u l t of t h i s k i n d of r o l e pressure i s that "as age i n c r e a s e s , s p o r t s prowess i n c r e a s e s i n boys but not i n g i r l s , " says Dr. John Kane of St. Mary's C o l l e g e , . London. "A g i r l ' s performance l e v e l i s d e f l e c t e d to othe r , more acceptable behaviour during late, adolescence." And he adds: " W i t h . s o c i e t y ' s expectations of women, i t ' s not s u r p r i s i n g we get the kind of women- we're asking f o r . " (Boslooper and Hayes, 1973) Women's.attitudes toward competition and success are e s t a b l i s h e d e a r l y . Infant g i r l s are handled d i f f e r -e n t l y from boys - more a f f e c t i o n a t e l y , more p r o t e c t i v e l y . And as soon as they l e a r n . t o walk, g i r l s are t r a i n e d d i f f e r e n t l y . ' S o c i o l o g i s t s John Roberts and B r i a n Sutton-Smith (1969) confirmed . t h i s i n a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l study of 1900 elementary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n given a v a r i e t y of psych-o l o g i c a l t e s t s and i n t e r v i e w s . "Boys ... are given higher achievement t r a i n i n g , " they concluded, "while g i r l s are given more c o n s i s t e n t obedience and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t r a i n i n g . These d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n correspond to the general d i f f e r e n c e s between adult male and female r o l e s over.the world." . Having been taught that "winning" means l o s i n g l o v e , g i r l s u s u a l l y f i n d that achievement i s accompanied . by an x i e t y . In. a study conducted by Matina Horner, now k9 p r e s i d e n t of R a d c l i f f e C o l l e g e , 65 percent of .a. group of women at the U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan expressed a n x i e t y oyer feminine success f i g u r e s , equating success with a l o s s of f e m i n i n i t y . At R a d c l i f f e , students were asked t o ' d e s c r i b e a h y p o t h e t i c a l student named Anne, who i s at the top of her medical school c l a s s . Nearly 75 percent of the group p i c t u r e d her as u n a t t r a c t i v e and hard up f o r dates. When asked what would happen to Anne when she le a r n e d about her top standing i n the c l a s s , one student r e p l i e d : "Anne w i l l d e l i b e r a t e l y lower her academic standing during the next term, while she does a l l she can to s u b t l e l y help C a r l . His grades.come up, and Anne soon drops out of medical s c h o o l . They marry, and he goes on i n school while she r a i s e s t h e i r f a m i l y . " (Boslooper and Hayes,. 1973) In a statement about the concept of aging and i t s e f f e c t s on women, Susan Sontag (197-2) s a i d : From e a r l y c h i l d h o o d on, g i r l s are t r a i n e d to care i n a p a t h o l o g i c a l l y exaggerated way about t h e i r appearance and are profoundly m u t i l a t e d (to the extent of being u n f i t t e d f o r f i r s t -c l a s s adulthood) by the extent of the s t r e s s put on p r e s e n t i n g themselves as p h y s i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e objects.. Women look, i n the m i r r o r more f r e q u e n t l y than men do. It i s v i r t u a l l y , t h e i r duty to look at themselves - t o look o f t e n . Indeed a woman who i s not n a r c i s s i s s t i c i s c o n sidered unfeminine. And a woman who spends l i t e r a l l y most of her time c a r i n g f o r , and making purchases to f l a t t e r her p h y s i c a l appearance i s not regarded i n t h i s s o c i e t y as what she i s : a k i n d of moral i d i o t . She i s thought to be q u i t e normal and i s envied by other women. 50 Perhaps the best summary of the s o c i a l dilemma appeared i n a newspaper advice column. Jean Adams, the columnist who handles teenage problems, r e c e i v e d .a l e t t e r from a t h i r t e e n - y e a r - o l d g i r l who wanted boys to both l i k e her and to play f o o t b a l l and b a s e b a l l with her. The r e p l y was as foHows : A g i r l who wants boys to l i k e her, and almost every g i r l does, u s u a l l y l e a r n s as she grows o l d e r to be more l i k e a g i r l and l e s s l i k e a boy. She t r i e s to look l i k e a g i r l , smell l i k e a g i r l , and act l i k e a g i r l . She does not have to give up f o o t b a l l or b a s e b a l l , but she does a l o t b e t t e r i f she l e t s the boys do the p l a y i n g while she watches and admires them. I f a c t u a l l y p l a y i n g i s very important to you, keep at i t . Many g i r l s are doing i t these more r e l a x e d days. But the ones who want t o . a t t r a c t boys are f o l l o w i n g the r u l e s f a i t h f u l l y . They lo o k , f e e l , s m e l l , and act l i k e g i r l s . It takes q u i t e a g i r l to p l a y rough and s t i l l do t h a t . Good Luck. (Boslooper and Hayes, 1973) Landers (1970) found that p h y s i c a l education majors had s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower and l e s s feminine scores than education majors on the MMPI and Gough Scale of Psycho-l o g i c a l F e m i n i n i t y , but f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d that the d i f f e r e n c e s were on only two c a t e g o r i e s ; i . e . r e s t r a i n e d and cautious versus brag and exaggerate, and r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . These kinds of data continue to be a v a i l a b l e , but they are u s u a l l y r e p o r t e d only to the e f f e c t that athletes, are "more masculine" than other groups. In 1971, H a r r i s r e p o r t e d on the d i f f e r e n c e s between the " s o c i a l s e l f " and "competitive s e l f " of.the female 51 a t h l e t e . Since the a t h l e t e s d i d not d i f f e r from the average p o p u l a t i o n i n terms of " s o c i a l s e l f " and d i d not present a s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t view of themselves i n competitive s i t u a t i o n s , H a r r i s concluded: I t appears that the a t h l e t i c female must assume the r o l e of the chameleon; she must be. feminine.or assume the s o c i a l l y acceptable r o l e for. the female i n . s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . At the same time, i f she d e s i r e s to be s u c c e s s f u l i n a t h l e t i c c o m p e t i t i o n , she must become more a g g r e s s i v e , dominance, achievement o r i e n t e d and demonstrate more tough mindedness and endurance and be l e s s a f r a i d to take r i s k s (1971) • C a t t e l l , Eber and Tatsuoka (1970). s t a t e that "the d i f f e r e n c e between.men and women, i n our own c u l t u r e and o t h e r s , show up very c l e a r l y ori the l6PF". In t h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n of these d i f f e r e n c e s , they i d e n t i f y only four of the s i x t e e n f a c t o r s , c o r r e c t e d f o r age, that are the same f o r both sexes: Factor. B, i n t e l l i g e n c e . ; F a c t o r C, ego s t r e n g t h ; F a c t o r F, surgency; and , s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . According to C a t t e l l and h i s c o l l e a g u e s , sex d i f f e r e n c e s are of magnitude i n comparison to age d i f f e r e n c e s . Although the l a t t e r are i d e n t i f i e d , they are regarded as l e s s i n f l u -e n t i a l . B a r r y , Bacon, and C h i l d (196k) g e n e r a l i z e age d i f f -erences i n r e l a t i o n to sex i n s o f a r as s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s concerned. T h e i r comment seems to bear e s p e c i a l l y , on the a t h l e t e . According to these r e s e a r c h e r s , sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y are unimportant i n i n f a n c y . But ... i n 52 c h i l d h o o d there i s ... a widespread p a t t e r n of greater pressure toward nurturance, obedience, and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n g i r l s , and toward s e l f - r e l i a n c e and achievement s t r i v i n g i n boys. In regard to s p e c i f i c .sex d i f f e r e n c e s among a t h l e t e s , O g i l v i e (1968) r e p o r t e d a somewhat uncl e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r s o n a l i t y and competition when s e p a r a t i n g a t h l e t e s by sex and age grouping. However, when c o n t r o l -l i n g f o r sex d i f f e r e n c e s and l e v e l of competition among Santa C l a r a Swim Club team members, O g i l v i e s t a t e d that " ... we f i n d t h a t boys and g i r l s become much more s i m i l a r between the ages of ten and fourt e e n years of age." Females s h i f t toward being more outgoing, but do not achieve the l e v e l of. y o u t h f u l males i n Factor A, r e s e r v e d -outgoing. D i f f e r e n c e s , as w e l l as s i m i l a r i t i e s , were also found by Ogilvie. f o r the same age group of male and female swimmers from Indiana. In h i s summary of the study of these t r a i t s he s t a t e d that " ... these data suggest that there i s a movement toward e x t r a v e r s i o n with age f o r males., but l e s s so f o r females." ' Kane (1972) i n comparing female p e r s o n a l i t y data of a t h l e t e s with that of males, r e p o r t e d that h i s f i n d i n g s f o r women su b j e c t s tended to f i t s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . Women were d e s c r i b e d as measuring lower on Factor E,' dominance and , s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . On the other hand, they were higher on Factor I , em o t i o n a l l y s e n s i t i v e ; 5 3 M, anxious; Q , conservative,'and A, s o c i a l l y warm. R e l a t i v e to sex d i f f e r e n c e s , Kane poses a c r i t i c a l '' questio n i n c o n s i d e r i n g whether d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y between sportsmen, and sportswomen are l e s s than.those of the s o - c a l l e d average n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i n g men and women. It i s important to note that both f e m i n i n i t y and feminism.have been the major s o c i a l i z a t i o n themes fo r women i n North American s o c i e t y f o r the past t h i r t y • years. Bardwick ( l 9 T l ) has suggested that ' "evolutionary-change i n sex r o l e s i s i n e v i t a b l e - but r a d i c a l change i s u n l i k e l y . " Because of the r o l e changes t a k i n g place' i n our s o c i e t y t h i s s u b j e c t area w i l l warrant c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h i n the near f u t u r e . There are a vast number, of wo r t h w h i l e . t o p i c s t h a t could be .researched. G. P e r s o n a l i t y and s e l f - c o n c e p t The e f f e c t of a r e s i d e n t i a l camping experience on the s e l f - c o n c e p t of boys from low income f a m i l i e s was st u d i e d by Alexander (1969)• . He d i v i d e d 150 boys i n t o , two groups with three sub-groups i n each. The camping experience c o n s i s t e d of s i x weeks of camp res i d e n c e where the program covered a f u l l spectrum of camping a c t i v i t i e s s u p e r v i s e d by a competent s t a f f . The c o n t r o l group met the same c r i t e r i a as the experimental group, but d i d not have the camping experience; although they p a r t i c i p a t e d i n Boys' Club, a c t i v i t i e s or other s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . He found that both campers and non-campers improved t h e i r 5*+ s e l f - c o n c e p t over a s i x weeks p e r i o d ; however, the camper group d i d not improve any more than the c o n t r o l group. Read (.1968) s t u d i e d the e f f e c t of a competitive and non-competitive program of p h y s i c a l education on the s e l f - c o n c e p t of high school j u n i o r s over a three month p e r i o d . The Tennessee S e l f Concept Scale was used as the measure o f s e l f - c o n c e p t . The author concluded that the two types of programs made no d i f f e r e n c e i n the s e l f -concept of those that p a r t i c i p a t e d . . Within the competitive program, constant winning improved s e l f - c o n c e p t while constant l o s i n g caused a negative change i n s e l f - c o n c e p t . Studies i n v o l v i n g other s e l f - c o n c e p t measuring instruments have a l s o found change i n s e l f - c o n c e p t over d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s of time. Ludwig and Maehr (1959) s t u d i e d the e f f e c t s of approval or d i s a p p r o v a l on the s e l f - c o n c e p t of seventh and eighth grade boys. The boys performed p h y s i c a l tasks i n f r o n t of an expert , who then made approv-ing or d i s a p p r o v i n g statements i r r e s p e c t i v e of the perform-ance. Tests of p h y s i c a l s e l f - c o n c e p t , general s e l f - c o n c e p t and the boys' preference f o r a c t i v i t i e s were made p r i o r to e v a l u a t i o n and at i n t e r v a l s a f t e r e v a l u a t i o n . Increases i n s e l f - c o n c e p t r a t i n g and preference f o r r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s f o l l o w e d the approval treatment. Results were i n t e r p r e t e d to support contentions that (a) s e l f - c o n c e p t change i s a f u n c t i o n of the r e a c t i o n of meaningful o t h e r s , and (b) change i n s e l f - c o n c e p t eventuate i n changes i n pre f e r e n c e and cho i ce. . - 5 5 Yeatts and Gordon (1968) i n v e s t i g a t e d the s e l f -concept, of seventh graders by using Gordon's "How I See Myself" s c a l e . They found no d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s e l f -image of the students who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n good p h y s i c a l education programs f o r three years as compared to students who had l i t t l e or no p h y s i c a l education f o r the three year, p e r i o d . . . The United States L i t t l e League program was s t u d i e d , hy Seymour (1956). Claims and counter claims as to the d e s i r a b i l i t y of competition of t h i s sort among boys e i g h t -to t w e l v e - y e a r s - o l d were i n v e s t i g a t e d . The author con-cluded that the L i t t l e League program d i d not a f f e c t i n e i t h e r a p o s i t i v e or a negative manner the normal problems c o n f r o n t i n g young boys. W i l k i n (1963) i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t on i n t e r - s c h o l -a s t i c competition on c e r t a i n areas of s e l f - c o n c e p t of seventh grade boys i n e i g h t randomly s e l e c t e d schools i n a' county s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n of s i x t y . . There were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t changes between the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s and p a r t i c i -pant , groups over the t o t a l time p e r i o d . The p a r t i c i p a n t group showed s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n s e l f - i d e a l d i s t a n c e i n the area l a b e l l e d " P a r e n t s : , the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t group showed s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n s e l f - i d e a l d i s t a n c e i n the area l a b e l l e d "Appearance". In g e n e r a l , l e s s e n i n g of s e l f - i d e a l -d i s t a n c e i s accepted as r e f l e c t i n g adjustment. The p a r t i -c i pant group showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher s e l f and i d e a l • " a r b i t r a r y " scores at the second t e s t i n g , but t h i s was • 5 6 not s i g n i f i c a n t on the. t h i r d t e s t . When s e l f - i d e a l d i f f e r e n c e s were summed f o r each i n d i v i d u a l , there were no s i g n i f i c a n t within-group or between group changes. Reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e of s e l f - c o n c e p t , i t is -obvious that i t has many f a c e t s , depending' on the instrument used. The Tennessee- 'Self Concept Scale d i v i d e s s e l f - c o n c e p t i n t o f i v e areas: p h y s i c a l , moral-e t h i c a l , p e r s o n a l , f a m i l y and s o c i a l . Regardless of the instrument used there' i s general agreement that s e l f - c o n c e p t can a l t e r , even though i t i s r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e . The key to change i n s e l f - c o n c e p t i s that the experience (treatment) must have meaning f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . U s u a l l y , i n order to d i s c o v e r change i n the s e l f - c o n c e p t , time i s a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r . I l l R e l a t e d Studies of Sportsmanship S e v e r a l s t u d i e s were p r e d i c a t e d on the assumption that sportsmanship a t t i t u d e s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would improve as the c h i l d became more mature. O'Neel (1937) devised a behaviour frequency r a t i n g s c a l e and found that c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s i n c r e a s e as the student becomes o l d e r . Blanchard (19^6) also found that c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s i n c r e a s e or become more d e s i r a b l e as the c h i l d matures' as measured by a r a t i n g . s c a l e . . A s i t u a t i o n a l t e s t was developed by Wood (1953) i n which the student i n d i c a t e d how he would r e a c t and why. The students scored p r o g r e s s -i v e l y higher each year. 57 McAfee (1959) devised a s i t u a t i o n a l t e s t to study the.sportsmanship a t t i t u d e s of s i x t h , seventh, and eighth grade boys. There was found- to be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f -i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the sportsmanship a t t i t u d e s of s i x t h , , seventh, and e i g h t h grade boys as measured by the Sportsmanship P r e f e r e n c e Record. The s i x t h grade, mean sco r e , and the seventh grade mean.score was 2.k0 p o i n t s higher than the eighth, grade mean score. Kehr (1965) d i d a comparative a n a l y s i s of s p o r t s -'manship response among, groups of eleven- and twelve-year-o l d boys who were c l a s s i f i e d as p a r t i c i p a n t s and non-p a r t i c i p a n t s i n L i t t l e League b a s e b a l l . On the b a s i s of t h i s experiment, i t may be concluded that L i t t l e League b a s e b a l l , as c u r r e n t l y conducted., has no measurable e f f e c t upon sportsmanship as t e s t e d by the McAfee Preference Record. As with p e r s o n a l i t y , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d i n -the area of sportsmanship. Not only are there few s t u d i e s , but the s e l e c t i o n of a measuring instrument was c i t e d as a major problem. In the s t u d i e s c i t e d the l a c k of c o n s i s t e n c y i n the r e s u l t s show a need f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g sportsmanship and the development of a more s u i t a b l e measuring instrument. CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY Experimental Design - The P r e - t e s t P o s t - t e s t c o n t r o l group. design. The groups s t u d i e d c o n s i s t e d of Grade VII g i r l s a t t e n d i n g C a t h o l i c elementary schools i n the Greater Vancouver area of B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. A l l g i r l s were twelve years o l d on December 31, 1973, t h a t i s , they turned t h i r t e e n a f t e r December 31, 1973. The number i n each experimental group was as f o l l o w s : • . Group 1 1 2 Group I I . 12 Group I I I 8 Group I G i r l s that attended a C a t h o l i c elementary school and played competitive b a s k e t b a l l i n the C a t h o l i c Youth A c t i v -i t i e s School League. These g i r l s were exposed,to a non-ag g r e s s i v e , "easy-going" coach f o r a. .period of approximately 3-1/2 months. Group II G i r l s that attended a C a t h o l i c elementary school and played competitive b a s k e t b a l l i n the Catholic. Youth A c t i v -i t i e s School League. These g i r l s were exposed to a coach who f e l l between the two extremes f o r a p e r i o d of approx-imately 3-1/2 months. Group I I I G i r l s that attended a C a t h o l i c elementary s c h o o l and 58 :>9 played competitive b a s k e t b a l l i n the C a t h o l i c Youth A c t i v -i t i e s School League. These g i r l s were exposed to an aggressive and a u t o c r a t i c coach f o r a p e r i o d of approx-imately 3-1/2 months. A c o n t r o l group of n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s was s e l e c t e d from each s c h o o l . The numbers were as f o l l o w s : Group I 2 Group II 6 G r o up 111 6 In most cases, e s p e c i a l l y at the elementary l e v e l , i f g i r l s are not i n v o l v e d a t h l e t i c a l l y at s c h o o l , they w i l l not be i n v o l v e d elsewhere. This i s a major reason the re s e a r c h e r used g i r l s f o r the study. U n l i k e boys there are l i t t l e , i f any, o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r competitive a t h l e t i c s -out s i d e of s c h o o l . Design of the Study PRE ' ' POST . SCHOOL A - PARTICIPANTS NON-PARTICIPANTS SCHOOL B - PARTICIPANTS . NON-PARTICIPANTS SCHOOL C - PARTICIPANTS NON-PARTICIPANTS The i s a 3x2x2 f a c t o r . experimental design as o u t l i n e d i n the above f i g u r e f a c t o r i a l design with repeated measures On the l a s t 60. A. C . Coaching S t y l e s A, A, Aggressive., a u t o c r a t i c Moderate (In-between). A^ Non-aggressive, easy-going. D i s t i n c t Coaching S t y l e s Youngsters a t t e n d i n g C a t h o l i c elementary schools B ' P a r t i c i p a n t s i n b a s k e t b a l l . B^ N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . Time of t e s t i n g . C^ Pre-season.. C„ Post-seas on. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES Coaching s t y l e s . N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s vs p a r t i c i p a n t s DEPENDENT VARIABLES - Re: COACHING STYLES P e r s o n a l i t y S e l f - c o n c e p t Sportsmanship A t t i t u d e toward Coach - Re: NON-PARTICIPANTS.VS PARTICIPANTS P e r s o n a l i t y S e l f - c o n c e p t Sportsmanship C o n s i d e r a t i o n of how t h i s design c o n t r o l s f o r the v a r i o u s  t h r e a t s to v a l i d i t y . H i s t o r y was c o n t r o l l e d , s i n c e events i n time that might produce changes showed d i f f e r e n c e s i n both the exper-6 1 imental and c o n t r o l groups. Likewise , maturation was con-t r o l l e d through the use of a c o n t r o l group. Instrumentation was c o n t r o l l e d as tests and t e s t i n s t r u c t i o n s - were s i m i l a r . To conduct the study, the r e s e a r c h e r had to make use of av a i l able subjects.. In the C a t h o l i c s c h o o l s , c l a s s s i z e i n most cases i s s m a l l . T h e r e f o r e , numbers are few. To s e l e c t a c o n t r o l group from the three grade VII c l a s s e s i t was necessary to u t i l i z e the remaining students t h a t were not i n v o l v e d i n the competitive b a s k e t b a l l program. External. V a l i d i t y The r e s e a r c h e r i s s a t i s f i e d that the p r e - t e s t i n g d i d d i d not' i n c r e a s e or decrease i n d i v i d u a l s e n s i t i v i t y or responsiveness to the treatment.-Because the r e s e a r c h e r d i s g u i s e d to both the coaches . and p l a y e r s the exact nature of the r e s e a r c h , h o p e f u l l y , . r e a c t i v e arrangements were minimized. C a t h o l i c Y o u t h . A c t i v i t i e s B a s k e t b a l l League (C.Y.A.) The C.Y.A. administers a competitive b a s k e t b a l l league f o r a l l i n t e r e s t e d C a t h o l i c elementary s c h o o l s . There was a Grade VII league, and a Grade VI league. The re s e a r c h was concerned with the Grade VII league. The league was organized i n t o d i v i s i o n s , with the top two teams i n each d i v i s i o n advancing to the p l a y - o f f s . A f t e r the p l a y - o f f s and championship, the winning team r e c e i v e d a trophy. League p l a y began i n e a r l y January. A l l p r e - t e s t s r e g a r d i n g the study were administered p r i o r to the season, that i s , before the f i r s t league game. P r a c t i c e time, number of games, and tournaments were a l l c o n t r o l l e d . Each coach h e l d two. 2 hours p r a c t i c e s during the weeks of the season. Each team played a t o t a l of twelve league games. Furthermore, each team p a r t i c i p a t e d in'two weekend to u r n -aments. The c o o p e r a t i o n of the coaches was e x c e l l e n t r e g a r d i n g p r a c t i c e - time , games, and tournament p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Me as urement s a. .For the Coaches. Each of the s e l e c t e d coaches r e c e i v e d ' t e s t s i n p e r s o n a l i t y and sportsmanship to supply f u r t h e r p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n . During the past season, there were seven male coaches d i r e c t i n g twelve-and-under g i r l s ' b a s k e t b a l l teams. The researcher' i n t e r v i e w e d the seven coaches r e g a r d i n g h i s s i x c o l l e a g u e s . In two cases i t was impossible to get a r e l i a b l e c r o s s - s e c t i o n of e v a l u a t i o n s i n c e these coaches were new to .the C a t h o l i c s c h o o l s . However, based on the r a t i n g s three d i s t i n c t s t y l e s were s e l e c t e d . As mentioned, these coaches were given f u r t h e r t e s t s . b. For the G i r l s i n v o l v e d i n Competitive A t h l e t i c s . A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f coaching s t y l e was r e q u i r e d . 1 . P e r s o n a l i t y - Pre-Post pro gr am. 2. Sportsmanship A t t i t u d e Inventory - Pre-Post. 3. A t t i t u d e Toward Coach Pr.e-Post . h. Sports Cohesiveness Pre-Post. 63 • c. For the G i r l s not i n v o l v e d i n Competitive A t h l e t i c s . 1. P e r s o n a l i t y - Pre-Post program. 2. Sportsmanship A t t i t u d e Inventory - Pre-Post. S e l e c t i o n of the Sample C o n t r o l of as many v a r i a b l e s as possible.was attempted i n s e l e c t i n g the sample. Fac t o r s such as sex, age, grade, socio-economic s t a t u s , i n t a c t n e s s of the f a m i l y u n i t ( i . e . parents a l i v e and l i v i n g t o gether i n the home), a l l a t t e n d i n g C a t h o l i c elementary schools that are c o - e d u c a t i o n a l , were considered. Since the enrolment of C a t h o l i c schools i s s m a l l , only a small number of g i r l s t urn out f o r b a s k e t b a l l . There-f o r e , the. r e s e a r c h was conducted with the g i r l s who turned out f o r the r e s p e c t i v e teams. Random sampling was not u t i -l i z e d i n t h i s study f o r e i t h e r the experimental or the con-t r o l group. To conduct the study i t was necessary to make use of a v a i l a b l e s u b j e c t s . In f a c t , because of the l i m i t e d enrolments, as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, i t n e c e s s i t a t e d using a l l g i r l s i n the grade VII c l a s s e s . O r g a n i z a t i o n of Time, Space, Personnel and Equipment 1. B a s k e t b a l l Season. The b a s k e t b a l l league games began i n the f i r s t week of January, 197*+ and continued u n t i l A p r i l 10th. A l l s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d p r i o r to the season, and at the end of the season. No t e s t i n g was .conducted durin g the a c t u a l season. •' 6k 2. P r a c t i c e s , Games, and Equipment. A l l p r a c t i c e s and games were he l d at r e s p e c t i v e s c h o o l s . A l l r e q u i r e d equipment, i n regard to b a s k e t b a l l , was s u p p l i e d by the sch o o l s . This i n c l u d e d the gymnasium, b a l l s , s c o r i n g apparatus, team .uniforms, and r e f e r e e s . 3. Test and Equipment. T e s t i n g was administered at the r e s p e c t i v e s c h o o l s . A l l w r i t t e n t e s t s were done i n the classroom, under the res earcher's s u p e r v i s i o n . k. Personnel (Coaches). The coaches f r e e l y c a r r i e d out t h e i r own program. 5- Personnel (Regarding T e s t s ) . The'.res e archer i gave a l l . t e s t i n s t r u c t i o n s , as w e l l as evaluated a l l t e s t s . Instruments and T h e i r V a l i d i t y I For the Coaches A. Coaching S t y l e Rating Scale A coaching s t y l e r a t i n g device was designed by the reseacher and given to a l l coaches f o r the purpose of s e l e c t -ing three d i s t i n c t coaching s t y l e s . Tutko and Richards (19T1) have i d e n t i f i e d s e v e r a l coaching s t y l e s with those d e f i n e d as aggressive and. non-aggressive being s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s study. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d e d : Aggressive - D i r e c t and dominant. Can be c r u e l - of t e n i n s u l t i n g Emotional , f r e q u e n t l y y e l l s . Emphasizes winning. Relies.upon e x h o r t a t i o n and s t i m u l a t i o n . 65 V e r b a l l y , abuses o f f i c i a l s . Uses t h r e a t s to motivate , t h r e a t e n i n g the a t h l e t e with c r i t i c i s m and embarrassment, Score seems more important than people. Non-Aggres s i v e -- Personable. F l e x i b l e . Deeply concerned with w e l f a r e of p l a y e r s . Popular and s o c i a b l e . More i n t e r e s t e d i n people than s c o r e s . Uses p o s i t i v e means to motivate a t h l e t e s . Rarely shows emotion or shouts at p l a y e r s . R a rely, i f at a l l , shows condemnation of o f f i c i a l s . Using the above statements the seven coaches d i r e c t i n g twelve-and-under g i r l s ' b a s k e t b a l l teams were given the coaching s t y l e r a t i n g s c a l e f o r h i s s i x colleagues . In- two cases, because coaches were new, the r e s e a r c h e r could not get a good c r o s s - s e c t i o n of e v a l u a t i o n s . In regard to the coach being r a t e d , the i n t e r v i e w e d coach would rate each of the s i x t e e n previous statements between 0 - 10. The' statements were r e o r g a n i z e d by the process of- random s e l e c t i o n . Based on the a v a i l a b l e r a t i n g s three d i s t i n c t s t y l e s were s e l e c t e d . As mentioned, each statement was r a t e d from zero to ten. The higher the s c o r e , the more the statement c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was e v i d e n t . Items i i , v, v i i , v i i i , x, x i , x i i , xv are d e s c r i p t i v e of the aggressive coach while items i , i i i , i v , v i , i x , x i i i , x i v and x v i are d e s c r i p t i v e of the "easy-going" 66 coach. A mean score f o r each coach was obtained f o r aggressive items, and a mean score was obtained f o r "easy-going" items. The coach with the highest mean score f o r the aggressive items was s e l e c t e d , as was the. coach with the' highest mean score f o r the "easy-going" items. The coach with the c l o s e s t combined score to f o r t y was s e l e c t e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e :of the "in-between" s t y l e . These three coaches were given the f o l l o w i n g t e s t s . B.. The Competitive A t t i t u d e Scale The CA Scale was developed by Lakie (1966) f o r the purpose of r e v e a l i n g the degree to which i n d i v i d u a l s sub-s c r i b e to the "win-at-any-cost" philosophy of a t h l e t e s . F i f t y - f i v e items were s e l e c t e d from a v a r i e t y of. sources: books, popular magazines, p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , p r o f e s s -i o n a l j o u r n a l s , and s i t u a t i o n s r e p o r t e d by ot h e r s . This set of f i f t y - f i v e items was administered to s i x t y c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , and t h e i r responses were used f o r item a n a l y s i s . A f t e r items that seemed que s t i o n a b l e by the item a n a l y s i s and d e c i s i o n s of the judges were d i s c a r d e d , the twenty-two items i n the f i n a l s c a l e remained. ' R e l i a b i l i t y T e s t - r e t e s t scores obtained three months apart y i e l d e d a-P.earson r of . 6 l (N = 25.) , and s i m i l a r scores obtained s i x weeks apart r e s u l t e d i n an r of .6k (N=l6). I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y was estimated using Lord m o d i f i c a t i o n of the K-R 21 formula, y i e l d i n g a r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of . 8 l (N=80). 67 V a l i d i t y The author suggests that the v a l i d i t y of the CA Scale i s based upon the thoroughness and comprehen-siveness of the item a n a l y s i s and the advice of the judges. The items appear to have high content v a l i d i t y , and the content domain i s adequately sampled. C. S i x t e e n P e r s o n a l i t y Factor Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The S i x t e e n P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ("The l6PF") i s an o b j e c t i v e l y scored t e s t d e v i s e d by b a s i c r e s e a r c h i n psychology to give the most complete' coverage of p e r s o n a l i t y p o s s i b l e i n ' a ' b r i e f time.. The l6PF i s based on over 30 years of b a s i c r e s e a r c h and development, documented i n numerous books and over four hundred j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s , i n which every item has been subjected to f a c t o r a n a l y t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n . This has provided an u n u s u a l l y sound f o u n d a t i o n of e m p i r i c a l evidence that the s i x t e e n p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s are s t a b l e and independent. The t e s t has been r e v i s e d , modernized i n s c o r i n g , and i n t e n s i f i e d i n v a l i d i t y several, times s i n c e i t s i n i t i a l p u b l i c a t i o n i n 19*+9 ( C a t t e l l ) . A l l e s s e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s contained i n the Handbook f o r the l6PF, which was completely r e w r i t t e n and updated i n 1970 ( C a t t e l l and Eber). The factors.measured i n c l u d e : A Reserved vs Out-going B Less I n t e l l i g e n t vs More I n t e l l i g e n t C A f f e c t e d by F e e l i n g s vs E m o t i o n a l l y Stable 68 E F G H I L-M N .0 Humble Sober Expedient Shy Tough-Minded T r u s t i n g P r a c t i c a l For.thri ght P l a c i d Cons e r v a t i v e Group-Dependent Undi s c1 p i i n e d S e l f - C o n f l i c t Relaxe d vs vs vs vs vs vs vs vs vs vs vs vs vs A s s e r t i v e Happy-Go-Lucky Cons c i entious Venturesome Tender-Minded S u s p i c i o u s Imaginative Shrewd . Apprehensive • Exp er iment i n g S e l f - S u f f i c i e n t C o n t r o l l e d Tense R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r the s i x t e e n f a c t o r s c a l e s average about .75 f o r a s i n g l e form and .86 f o r combined (A+B) forms. I n t e r n a l • co n s t r u c t v a l i d i t i e s , average . 67 f o r s i n g l e form s.cales and 17'7 f o r combined (A+B) forms. G e n e r a l l y , the t e s t has proved i t s e l f f l e x i b l e and powerful i n the p r e d i c t i o n of v a r i o u s l i f e c r i t e r i a ; For example, m u l t i p l e c o r r e l -a t i o n s of the t e s t scores run t y p i c a l l y 0.6 with s c h o o l achievement, 0.5:with c l i n i c a l l y judged'neurotic t r e n d , and .,05 with earnings i n salesmanship. For highest r e l i a -b i l i t y , the authors recommend that at l e a s t two and, p r e f -e r a b l y , as many forms as p o s s i b l e be given. • 69 II For the g i r l s i n v o l v e d i n competitive a t h l e t i c s A. Sportsmanship Preference Record The Sportsmanship Preference Record (McAfee, 1959) which measures sportsmanship a t t i t u d e s , c o n s i s t s of twenty s i t u a t i o n s commonly encountered i n p h y s i c a l , education at. the junior, high s c h o o l l e v e l . Each s i t u a t i o n i s f o l l o w e d by a l i s t of four suggestions as to p o s s i b l e course of a c t i o n from which the p u p i l s are asked to choose one. The t e s t produces a sportsmanship r a t i n g which can be compared n u m e r i c a l l y and which i s geared to the i n t e r e s t l e v e l of t w e l v e - y e a r - o l d g i r l s . In order to e s t a b l i s h .th'e r e l i a b i l i t y , McAfee t e s t e d 150 seventh and. eighth grade.boys, i n October, 1963, and r e t e s t e d i n A p r i l , 196U. A c o r r e l a t i o n of the two t e s t s was computed and a c o r r e l a t i o n of .80 was obtained. The v a l i d i t y of t h e . t e s t i s somewhat q u e s t i o n a b l e , as shown by a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .53 between the McAfee Preference Record and a peer group r a t i n g . B. A t t i t u d e Toward the Coach For purposes of the study t h i s , a t t i t u d e s c a l e was' m o d i f i e d from an A t t i t u d e Toward the Supervisor Scale (AS). This s c a l e was c o n s t r u c t e d by Schmid, Morsh , and B e t t e r (1961) , as p a r t of a l a r g e r program designed to measure job s a t i s f a c t i o n . The wording was s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d , and f o r the purpose of t h i s study seemed s u i t a b l e . The only evidence of r e l i a b i l i t y r e p o r t e d was. the measure, of. i n t e r n a l 7 0 c o n s i s t e n c y (K.-R 20 - .90) of the o r i g i n a l set of seventeen items d e r i v e d by the homogeneous keying procedure. . However, i t i s probable t h a t the f i n a l s c a l e i s al s o i n t e r n a l l y conr s i s t e n t , s i n c e a l l of the fourt e e n items were contained i n . the o r i g i n a l seventeen. Evidence of v a l i d i t y i s not great.. The. content of the items suggests that the s c a l e does indeed measure a t t i t u d e toward s u p e r v i s o r s , s i n c e each statement begins with "My coach ..." . The scal e appears to be f a c -t o r i a l l y pure, but a d d i t i o n a l evidence, of v a l i d i t y would be d e s i r a b l e . C. High School P e r s o n a l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The, HSPQ i s a high school, v e r s i o n of the l6PF that can be administered to su b j e c t s ages twelve.to eighteen. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s a s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t t h a t can be given w i t h i n a c l a s s p e r i o d , to s i n g l e ' i n d i v i d u a l s or i n groups, to y i e l d a general assessment of p e r s o n a l i t y development. The HSPQ measures f o u r t e e n d i s t i n c t dimensions or t r a i t s of p e r s o n a l i t y which have been found by p s y c h o l o g i s t s to come near to c o v e r i n g the t o t a l p e r s o n a l i t y . The reading l e v e l of the t e s t i s adapted to ages eleven through eighteen 'years, and the s c o r i n g can be done r a p i d l y by a s t e n c i l key.. The f a c t o r s measured i n c l u d e : A Reserved vs Outgoing B D u l l vs B r i g h t C A f f e c t e d by F e e l i n g s vs • Emot i o n a l l y S t a b l e D . Undemonstrative vs. E x c i t a b l e E. Obedient vs F Sober (Serious) vs G Disregards Rules vs H' Shy ' vs I Tough-Minded . vs J L i k i n g Group A c t i o n vs 0 S e l f ^ A s sured vs Q 2 Group Dependent . vs Q3. U n c o n t r o l l e d vs Relaxed vs Aggressive ( A s s e r t i v e ) E n t h u s i a s t i c , Happy-Go-ConscientiOus Adventurous Tender-Minded I n d i v i d u a l i s m Apprehensive ( i n s e c u r e ) S e l f - S u f f i c.i ent C o n t r o l l e d Tense Table II shows the r e l i a b i l i t i e s of the fourteen v a r i a b l e s on a t e s t - r e t e s t b a s i s . R e t e s t i n g a f t e r one day shows, a high of .85 on v a r i a b l e A,','and a low of .72 on v a r i a b l e G. R e t e s t i n g a f t e r s i x months shows a high of .69 f o r v a r i a b l e H, and a low of .53 f o r , v a r i a b l e H. A l l of the f i g u r e s mentioned are f o r A. or B r e t e s t i n g . A + B r e t e s t i n g shows s u b s t a n t i a l l y higher c o e f f i c e n t s . Table I I I shows one estimate of v a l i d i t y based on the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n between the items i n each test, s c a l e and the corresponding pure f a c t o r . •Data A n a l y s i s A. S c o r i n g Procedures MARKING OF COACHES' SCORES a. Coaching S t y l e Rating S c a l e . Refer to page 6h . Discussed i n d e t a i l T A B L E - II R E L I A B I L I T Y AND V A L I D I T Y R E L I A B I L I T Y C O E F F I C I E N T S OF S I N G L E - AND TWO-FOFJM (A+B) K S P Q E-i I n t e r v a l L e n g t h HSPQ P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r s A B C D ' E F G H I J O -Q_- Q 0 Q , . 2 3 4 N u m b e r i n G r o u p . I m m e d i a t e R e t e s t A + B A o r B . 9 4 . 89 . 8 6 . 90 . 85 . 90 . 8 6 . 9 1 . 96 . 86 . 8 6 . 9 1 . 88 . 9 4 . 8 6 . 85 . 79 . 81 . 76 . 82 . 7 4 . 81 . 90 . 82 . 84 . 8 5 . 80 . 9 1 a v e r a g e o f 3 g r o u p s o f 90 t o 1 1 0 h i g h s c h o o l j u n i c r s R e t e s t a f t e r O n e P a y A + B • A o r B . -. 9 1 . 87 . 85 . 87 . 8 5 . 89 . 8 5 . 8 8 . 9 3 . 8 4 . 8 3 . 85 . 87 . 9 0 . 85 . 78 . 77 . 80 . 74 . 76 . 72 . 8 1 '.88 - . S I . 8 3 . 82 . 7 8 . 84 , '. R e t e s t a f t e r S i - x M o n s . A + B A o r B . 7 6 . 7 4 . 7 0 . 7 9 . 7 1 . 6 8 . 7 0 . 8 2 . 7 8 . 7 0 . 6 8 . 7 1 . 7 2 . 6 9 > . 62 . 60 . 58 . 65 . 57 . 5 3 . 62 . 69 . 65 . 5.8 . 56 . 55 . 6 0 . 5 8 1 2 0 9 t h g r a d e r s R e t e s t a f t e r O n e Y e a r A + B A o r B . 6 0 . 5 1 . 6 5 . 7 4 . 6 1 . 6 8 . 5 9 . 6 5 . 8 0 . 6 2 . 7 0 . 5 2 . 5 8 . 5 2 . 5 5 . 3 8 . 5 0 . 5 5 . 4 7 . 5 2 . 4 4 . 4 8 . 6 9 . 4 9 . 5 6 . 3 9 . 4 1 . 3 9 1 6 2 & 1 6 9 8 t h g r a d e r s T A B L E III C O N S T R U C T V A L I D I T Y A S D I R E C T V A L I D I T I E S , ON T H E B A S I S OF M U L T I P L E C O R R E L A T I O N S B E T W E E N I T E M S AND F A C T O R i 1 L e n g t h H S P Q P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r s A B C D E F G K I J 0 Q 0 Q n Q . 2 J 4 N u m b e r i n G r o u p A + B A o r B . 8 0 . 8 1 . 8 4 . 7 7 . 7 9 . 8 1 . 8 1 . 8 4 . 8 2 . 7 2 . 8 6 . 7 4 . 7 2 . 8 5 . 6 7 . 6.9 . 7 1 . 6 3 . 6 5 . 6 8 . 6 8 . 7 2 . 7 0 . 5 8 . 7 7 . 6 1 . 5 7 . 7 4 2 0 . 0 h i g h s c h o o l b e y s a n d - g i r l s u> Ik • v . • b. S i x t e e n PF - Adult. Each answer scores 0, 1, or 2 p o i n t s , except the Factor B ( i n t e l l i g e n c e or " c r y s t a l l i z e d general a b i l i t y " ) answers which score zero ( i n c o r r e c t ) or one ( c o r r e c t ) . The score of each s i n g l e item c o n t r i b u t e s to only one f a c t o r t o t a l . • ' H a n d s c o r i n g i s . accomplished by key, e a s i l y , r a p i d l y , and i n a standard manner. The meaning of raw scores from any form or combination of forms of the l6PF depends, of course, upon the p a r t i c u l a r forms used. Consequently, b e f o r e these raw scores can be e v a l u a t e d and i n t e r p r e t e d , they must be converted i n t o a system which places' the examinee's .score i n r e l a t i o n to scores obtained, by other people i n some def i n e d p o p u l a t i o n . The s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n t a b l e s from the Handbook f o r the S i x t e e n P e r s o n a l i t y Factor Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ('I969) were used to convert .raw scores to stens. c. Competitive A t t i t u d e Scale.. For items 6, 13', and 18 , f i v e p o i n t s are given f o r " s t r o n g l y approve", four f o r "approve", three f o r "undecided", two f o r "disapprove", and one f o r " s t r o n g l y disapprove". For a l l other items , the number of points are - g i v e n - i n r e v e r s e order.- The a t t i t u d e score i s the sum of the p o i n t s assigned to each item response. Thus the .scoring range i s from twenty-two to n i n e t y . The higher the a t t i t u d e s c o r e , the more c l o s e l y the subject s u b s c r i b e s to the "w.in-at-any-cost" philosophy ,. i . e . the more competitive h i s a t t i t u d e toward a t h l e t i c s. 75 MARKING OF SUBJECTS' SCORES a. Sportsmanship Preference Record. Each item of the McAfee Preference Test i s . scored on a four or f i v e p o i n t s c a l e . Each a l t e r n a t i v e i n each item has a po i n t value depending on the degree to which, that a l t e r n a t i v e i n d i c a t e s good sportsmanship a t t i t u d e s . A score of f i v e r epresents good sportsmanship, and a score of zero represents poor sportsmanship. The highest p o s s i b l e t e s t score i s n i n e t y - e i g h t and the lowest p o s s i b l e t e s t score i s nine. b. A t t i t u d e Toward the Coach. The items are scored, by g i v i n g a one f o r agreement with a p o s i t i v e ( f a v o u r a b l e ) statement or zero f o r d i s -agreement with a negative (unfavourable) statement. The authors d i d not s p e c i f y the method of computing the t o t a l s c o r e , but i t seems apparent that the s c a l e score should be the sum of the item scores. The range o f p o s s i b l e scores i s , t h e r e f o r e , from zero to f o u r t e e n . The higher, the score, the more favourable the a t t i t u d e toward coaches. c. High. School P e r s o n a l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . . The s c o r i n g procedures f o r ' t h e HSPQ are i d e n t i c a l to those used i n the l6PF. B . S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s Program SIMCORT (U.B.C.) was run on a l l s i x t y v a r i a b l e s f o r each of the s i x groups s e p a r a t e l y to pro v i d e means, standard d e v i a t i o n s , and i n t e r c o r r e l at i o n s . The . 7 6 -sixty, v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d t h i r t y p r e - t e s t scores and t h i r t y p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s . For the t h i r t y scores there are raw scores and sten scores f o r the fourteen p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . The remaining two scores are for. sportsmanship ' a t t i t u d e and a t t i t u d e toward the coach. I t should be noted that the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t groups do not have an a t t i t u d e toward the coach score. Though c o r r e l a t i o n was not part of the . hypothesis t e s t i n g the scores were obtained to a i d i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of . r e s u l t s . ..' A 3 X 2, coaching s t y l e by pre-post , m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was performed on the fourteen person-a l i t y v a r i a b l e s from the- HSPQ as w e l l as the two a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s , sportsmanship, and a t t i t u d e toward the coach f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s only. . T h i s m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e t e s t s hypotheses I , I I , I I I and IV. A 2 X 2 m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was per-formed on the same dependent v a r i a b l e s , . e x c e p t a t t i t u d e toward coach, to t e s t the d i f f e r e n c e between the changes e l i c i t e d in. the p a r t i c i p a n t s (from a l l schools) and the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s ( a l s o from a l l s c h o o l s ) . The 2 X 2 r e f e r s t o : 2 - A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s A l l non-part i.c ipant s 2 - . Pre - Post This m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e t e s t s hypothesis V. 77 Although i t would have been d e s i r a b l e to i n c l u d e the p a r t i c i p a n t - n o n p a r t i c i p a n t f a c t o r i n the i n i t i a l a n a l y s i s , r e s u l t i n g i n a .3 X 2 X 2 MANOVA, t h i s was.not p o s s i b l e due to the very small per c e l l sample s i z e . . Cons eqirent l y , the p a r t i c i p a n t s ,' and_ the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s , were each pooled across schools f o l l o w i n g the i n i t i a l a n a l y s i s which showed no d i f f e r e n c e s between schools (coaching s t y l e s ) . Furthermore, the a c t u a l a n a l y s i s was performed on the pre-post d i f f e r e n c e scores r a t h e r than t r e a t i n g this, as a - separate .two l e v e l f a c t o r on the depen-: dent v a r i a b l e s . I t i s acknowledged that d i f f e r e n c e scores tend to be u n r e l i a b l e , however, i t was necessary to m i n i -mize the number of dependent v a r i a b l e s because of the small sample s i z e . The e f f e c t of any u n r e l i a b i l i t y w i l l r e s u l t i n an i n c r e a s e i n the mean square e r r o r term with a sub-sequently more c o n s e r v a t i v e F t e s t . CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Result s A l l data c o l l e c t i o n was c a r r i e d out and completed as. o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I I I . However ,. minor d i f f e r e n c e s should be mentioned. F i r s t , i n the p o s t - t e s t s a few parents expressed minor concern to the teacher r e g a r d i n g the " t e s t s " t h e i r daughters were being subjected t o . This was i n spite, of the f a c t l e t t e r s e x p r e s s i n g the nature of the study, were sent to the parents at the o u t s e t of the r e s e a r c h . The few. parents that were alarmed could have i n f l u e n c e d to some degree the answering of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Second, when the r e s e a r c h e r administered the r e s p e c t i v e t e s t , there were a few absentees. For these p u p i l s the t e a c h e r , with w r i t t e n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i r e c t i o n s , administered the t e s t s to the g i r l s i n a q u i e t room on the f i r s t day they returned to c l a s s Outside of these two i n s t a n c e s the study was conducted accord in g to the methodology o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I I I . Upon s u c c e s s f u l completion of data c o l l e c t i o n the raw data was put on punch cards and the' a n a l y s i s done by the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia I.B.M. 360/65 computer. The e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s were s-ubjected to s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s through, the use of computer programs; U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia SIMCORT f o r means, standard d e v i a t i o n s , and c o r r e l -a t i o n s ; and MULTIVAR (Finn,. 1975) f o r the u n i v a r i a t e and m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e . Means were obtained f o r 78 • . - 7 9 ' . both raw scores and sten scores on fourteen p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s and two- a t t i t u d e variable's f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s under coaching s t y l e s 1, .2, and 3, as w e l l as the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . This d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s i s shown i n Table IV-A' and Table IV-B . This study was designed to i n v e s t i g a t e hypotheses based on the f o l l o w i n g f i v e problems: I. changes i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p a r t i c i p a n t s as e l i c i t e d by d i f f e r e n t coaching s t y l e s , I I . changes i n sportsmanship a t t i t u d e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s as e l i c i t e d by d i f f e r e n t coaching s t y l e s , I I I . changes i n the s e l f - c o n c e p t of p a r t i c i p a n t s as e l i c i t e d by d i f f e r e n t coaching s t y l e s , IV. d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e of the p l a y e r s toward t h e i r coach as e l i c i t e d by 'respective coaching s t y l e s , V. d i f f e r e n c e s i n sportsmanship and p e r s o n a l i t y , between p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . The hypotheses I , I I , I I I and IV were t e s t e d by' m u l t i v a r i a t e ANOVA on.pre-post d i f f e r e n t scores. The two degrees of'freedom a v a i l a b l e f o r c o n t r a s t s among'the three coaching, s t y l e s were used to make two s i n g l e degree of freedom . s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t s . S t y l e 1 (non-aggressive, easy-going) vs the average of s t y l e s 2 and 3 (moderate, in-between; aggressive and a u t o c r a t i c ) ; a'nd s t y l e 2 vs s t y l e 3 were the two orthogonal comparisons made. The r e s u l t s f o r s i x t e e n v a r i a b l e s are given i n Tables V and VI. Hypothesis V was t e s t e d by m u l t i v a r i a t e ANOVA on.pre-post d i f f e r e n t scores. T A B L E IV-A D E S C R I P T I V E S T A T I S T I C S ( S T E N S C O R E S ) P A R T I C I P A N T S P A R T I C I P A N T S R-0 L . I . H . I . U-S 'P-E O-A S. H G L D. R. C. S. V. T. M .-T.M. V-D S. A. A GD : S S C. C. R.T. S . A. A. T.C. S C H O O L #1 . P RE 6.7 5.6 6.2 5. 7. 6.3 5.6 5.8. 5. 8 5. 3 5.6 •5.2 5.3 5.3 6.1 5 7 . 5 '7.2 P O S T 5.0 4. 3 6.2 5.3 5. 8 5.0 4.8 6.0 5.1 ••5.5 4. 8 5.0 4. 9 6.2 6 1 . 8 8. 4 SCHOOL #2 P R E 6 . 8 6.0. 6.9 5.0 6.7 5.5. 5.8 6.4 .6 . 0 .4.4 4.1 4.0 5.8 4. 6 6 3 . 8 9.5 P O S T 6.9 5. 5 7. 4 5.5 6.6 5.5 5.5 6. 8 4. 3 4.3 4.0 • 4 . 1 - 6. 1 4. 3 6 1 . 1 1 0 . 1 SCHOOL #3 P R E 6. 8 5. 8 6.6 5.6 5.6 5.0 7. 8 6. 3 5. 0 5.1 4.6 .4.8 5.9 5.6 7 8 . 2 1 1 . 0 P O S T 7.9 • 6 . 3 6.9 6. 1 5.4 6.0 6. 8 6.9 6 . 3 3.4 4.6 4.1 6. 4 4. 8 7 4.0 1 1 . 8 T O T A L P R E 6. 8 5. 8 6.6 5.4 6.2 5.4 6.5 6.2 5. 4 5.0 4.6 4 . 7 5.' 7 5.4 6 6 . 4 ' 9 . 2 T O T A L P O S T 6.6 5.4 6. 8 5 . 6 5.9 5. 5 5.7 6.6 5. 2 4.4 4.5 4.4 5. 8 5.1 6 5 . 6 1 0 . 1 TABLE IV-B DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS (STEN SCORES) NON-PANTICIPANTS ' -PARTICIPANTS R-0 L . I . H.I. U-S P-E' O-A s. HGL D. R. C. S. V. T.M. T.M. : V-D S .A. A GD SS C. C. R.T. S. A. A.T.C. SCHOOL #1 PRE ' 6.5 5.5 7.0 7.5 9.0 •8.5 5.5 7.5 3.5 4.5. 4.0 '5.5 6.0 3. 5 51.5 POST .7. 0 4.5 7.0 5- 5 7.5 6.5 6.0 7.0 5.0 6.0 3.5 4.5 5.0 4.5 54.0 SCHOOL #2 PRE 6.5 4. 8 5.5 4. 5 4.2 . 4.'8 6. 8 5.2 4. 3 5. 8 5.8 5. 0 5.5 4.0 49. 0 • POST 4.5 5. 0 6.7- 5.3 5. 8 6.0 6.0 5.2 3.7 5. 8 5.2 4.7 6. 3 5. 2 5 8.1 SCHOOL #3 PRE 5. 7 4. 2 5.3 5.0 5.7 . 5.0 5. 8 5.5 6.7 6.0 5. 2 5.7 5.5. 6.5 59. 0 POST 5. 5 6.7 6.0 4. 7 6. 0 5.0 6. 8 6. 5 5.0 4.2 5. 5 4. 0 6. 3 3.7 63. 7 • TOTAL PRE 6. 2 4. 8 5- 9 5. 7 6. 3 6.1 6.0 6.1 4. 8 . 5.4 5.0 5.4 5.7 4.7 60.0 : TOTAL POST 5. 7- 5.4 6.6 5.2 6.4 5. 8 .6.3 6.2 4.6 5.3 4.7 4.4 5.9. 4.5 6 2.0 82 T A B L E V M U L T I V A R I A T E A N D V A FOR C O A C H I N G S T Y L E S 1 v s ( 2+3 ) V A R I A B L E U N I V A R I A T E F U N I V A R I A T E P S T E P DOWN • P R e s e r v e d - O u t g o i n g 1 0 . 9 0 . 0 0 . 00 L e s s i n t e l l i g e n t -M o r e i n t e l l i g e n t 3 . 6 5 . 0 7 . 2 1 A f f e c t e d b y f e e l i n g s - . E m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e . 4 0 . 5 3 . • . 2 8 P h l e g m a t i c - E x c i t a b l e 1 . 6 3 . 21 . 3 5 O b e d i e n t - A s s e r t i v e . 0 1 . 9 1 . . 55 S o b e r - H a p p y - g o - l u c k y 1 . 0 7 . 3 1 . 7 8 D i s r e g a r d s r u l e s -C o n s c i e n t i o u s . 89 . 35 . 86 S h y - V e n t u r e s o m e . 0 6 • 81 . . 44 T o u g h m i n d e d - T e n d e r m i n d e d . 0 0 . . 9 8 . 4 3 V i g o r o u s - D o u b t i n g . 66 . 4 2 . 4 1 S e l f - a s s u r e d - A p p r e h e n s i v e . 10 . 7 5 . 8 8 G r o u p d e p e n d e n t -S e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . 0 3 . 87 . 7 6 C a s u a l - C o n t r o l l e d 2 . 2 5 . 14 . 72 R e l a x e d - T e n s e . 10 . 7 5 .' . 9 8 S p o r t s m a n s h i p 3 . 2 3 . 0 8 . 0 8 A t t i t u d e t o w a r d c o a c h . 31 • 59 . 37 F - R A T I O F O R M U L T I V A R I A T E T E S T OF E Q U A L I T Y OF MEAN V E C T O R S = 1 . 1 7 5 O f ..= 16 a n d 1 4 . 0 00 " P l e s s t h a n • . 383.9 83 T A B L E V I M U L T I V A R I A T E A N O V A F O R C O A C H I N G S T Y L E S 3 v s 3 V A R I A B L E U N I V A R I A T E F U N I V A R I A T E P S T E P DOWN P R e s e r v e d - O u t g o i n g . 9 6 . 3 4 . 34 • L e s s i n t e l l i g e n t -M o r e i n t e l l i g e n t . 2.14 . 1 5 . 20 A f f e c t e d b y f e e l i n g s -E m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e . 2 8 . 6 0 . 7 3 P h l e g m a t i c - E x c i t a b l e . 0 1 . . 9 3 . 52 O b e d i e n t - A s s e r t i v e . 16 . 69 . 7 5 S o b e r - H a p p y - g o - l u c k y 1 . 0 9 . 30 . 44 D i s r e g a r d s r u l e s -C o n s c i e n t i o u s . 6 5 . 4 3 . 37 S h y - V e n t u r e s o m e . 24 . . 6 3 . 79 T o u g h m i n d e d - T e n d e r m i n d e d 5 . 0 0 . 0 3 . 1 0 V i g o r o u s - D o u b t i n g 3 . 1 4 . 0 9 . 1 6 S e l f - a s s u r e d - A p p r e h e n s i v e . 26 . 6.1 . 5 2 G r o u p d e p e n d e n t -S e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . 2 5 . 62 • . 4 8 C a s u a l - C o n t r o l l e d . 1 1 . 74 . 8 5 R e l a x e d -' T e n s e . 49 . 49 . 3 5 S p o r t s m a n s h i p . 1 5 . . 7 0 . 8 5 A t t i t u d e t o w a r d c o a c h : . 0 2 • 90. . . 9 7 F - R A T I O FOR M U L T I V A R I A T E T E S T OF E Q U A L I T Y OF MEAN V E C T O R S = . 6 0 3 D f - 16 a n d 1 4 . 0 0 0 0 P l e s s t h a n . 8 3 4 6 ' 81+ T A B L E V I I M U L T I V A R I A T E A N O V A F O R P A R T I C I P A N T S v s N O N - P A R T I C I P A N T S ( B o t h P o o l e d ) V A R I A B L E U N I V A R I A T E F U N I V A R I A T E p. S T E P DOWN p R e s e r v e d - O u t g o i n g . 20 . 6 5 . 6 5 L e s s i n t e l l i g e n t -M o r e i n t e l l i g e n t 4 . 9 7 . 0 3 . 0 2 A f f e c t e d b y f e e l i n g s -E m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e 1 . 1 8 . 2 8 . 30 P h l e g m a t i c - E x c i t a b l e . 00 . 9 6 . 9 1 O b e d i e n t - A s s e r t i v e 1 . 6 1 . 2 1 . 32 S o b e r - H a p p y - g o - l u c k y . 0 9 . 76 . - 73 D i s r e g a r d s r u l e s -C o n s c i e n t i o u s 2 . 8 8 . 1 0 . 26 S h y - V e n t u r e s o m e . 00 . 9 9 . 60 T o u g h m i n d e d - T e n d e r m i n d e d . 0 0 . 9 4 . 26 V i g o r o u s - D o u b t i n g . 0 0 . 9 6 . 7 3 S e l f - a s s u r e d - A p p r e h e n s i v e . 0 4 . 8 5 . 89 G r o u p d e p e n d e n t -S e l f - s u f f i c i e n t 1 . 1 9 . 2 8 . 26 C a s u a l - C o n t r o l l e d . 87 . 3 6 . 26 R e l a x e d - T e n s e . 1 1 . 74 . 0 7 . . S p o r t s m a n s h i p . 4 4 . 5 1 . 37 F - R A T I O F O R M U L T I V A R I A T E T E S T O F E Q U A L I T Y OF MEAN V E C T O R S '= 1 . 22( D f = 15 a n d 3 0 . 0 0 0 0 - O V E R A L L P l e s s t h a n . 3 1 0 6 . • , 85 • ' The r e s u l t s f o r t h e s i x t e e n v a r i a b l e s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e IX.. D i s c u s s i o n H y p o t h e s i s I The d i f f e r e n c e s . among t h e t h r e e c o a c h i n g s t y l e s i n t h e c h a n g e s e l i c i t e d i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , w ere f o u n d t o . be. n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . F o r c o a c h i n g , s t y l e 1 ( n o n - a g g r e s s i v e , e a s y - g o i n g ) vs. t h e a v e r a g e o f 2 ( m o d e r a t e ,.. i n-b etwe en ) and 3. ( a g g r e s s i v e and a u t o c r a t i c ) t h e m u l t i v a r i a t e F r a t i o o f 1.1758 showed a p = .38. F o r c o a c h i n g s t y l e 2 vs c o a c h i n g s t y l e 3. t h e p was a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l t o .83. A c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f c o a c h i n g s t y l e 1 and t h e a v e r a g e , o f 2 and 3 shows t h a t ' v a r i a b l e 1 ' ' ( r e s e r v e d vs o u t g o i n g ) as a n a l y z e d by an u n i v a r i a t e , a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t . H o w e v e r , due t o a h i g h e r n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t o v e r a l l F t h i s s i n g l e s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s h o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d m e a n i n g f u l . F i g u r e s 1 - .6 show t h e g r a p h i n g o f t h e s t e n s c o r e s f o r c o a c h i n g s t y l e s m a k i n g t h e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e v i d e n t . The l i t e r a t u r e t h a t has b e e n c o v e r e d c e r t a i n l y i m p l i e s t h a t t h e c o a c h c a n have a v e r y n o t i c e a b l e , i n f l u e n c e on p a r t i c i p a n t s ( T u t k o , 1971; P a g e , 1969; S n y d e r , 1970; Kemper, 1968) , h o w e v e r , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y seem t o be c o n t r a r y \ •to t h o s e c i t e d i n t h e r e l a t e d r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e . F u r t h e r -m ore, S c h e n d e l (1970) found, h i g h s c h o o l a t h l e t e s had a s i g -n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r d e g r e e o f p e r s o n a l w o r t h and s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e t h a n n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s a t b o t h g r a d e n i n e and g r a d e t w e l v e . He m a i n t a i n e d t h a t w h a t e v e r p r o d u c e d t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n a t h l e t e s and n o n - a t h l e t e s had t h e i r m a j o r i n f l u e n c e p r i o r , t o 86 87 F i g u r e 2 . S P O R T S M A N S H I P A T T I T U D E F O R C O A C H I N G S T Y L E S - P R E / P O S T 88 RAW SCORES F i g u r e 3 . SPORTSMANSHIP ATTITUDE FOR PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS POST 89 o Ln o LO O LO O LO O in o U") CM rH H O O CTi CTi CO CO • rH rH rH rH rH RAW S C O R E S F i g u r e 4 . A T T I T U D E TOWARD COACH F O R C O A C H I N G S T Y L E S 91 92 grade nine. One c o n s i d e r a t i o n was the d i s t i n c t n e s s , of coaching s t y l e s . The r a t i n g device designed f o r the study enabled the s e l e c t i o n of three d i s t i n c t s t y l e s . The s e l e c -t i o n was v e r i f i e d by the C a t t e l l S i x t e e n . P e r s o n a l i t y Factor Q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r o f i l e s as e x h i b i t e d i n Appendix F. In summary, the coaches s e l e c t e d f o r the study had p e r s o n a l i t i e s that were d i f f e r e n t and, consequently, should have i n f l u e n c e d the development of the adolescent g i r l s i n a d i f f e r e n t way. A second c o n s i d e r a t i o n was the l e n g t h of the study. -Per-haps more than three and one-half months i s needed for. the coaches' p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s to b e'.tr ans c ended to. the p l a y e r s . This i s i m p l i e d i n the s e l f - c o n c e p t s t u d i e s .(Alexander, 1969; Read, 1968) where W i l k i n s (19Sh)' s t a t e d r e g a r d l e s s of the instrument used there i s general agreement that person-a l i t y can change, even though i t i s r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e . The key to change i s that the experience must have meaning for the i n d i v i d u a l , and, a s . w e l l , that s u f f i c i e n t time and exposure to a model are. necessary. In t h i s case, the model would be a coach with a d i s t i n c t i v e s t y l e . . I t i s the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s b e l i e f that the coach as a model i s i n f l u e n t i a l in'the.development of a c h i l d ' s person-a l i t y . As mentioned, the n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s may be a t t r i b u t e d to the short time span of the study. . The basket-b a l l season was too short to see, any s i g n i f i c a n t changes. Furthermore, not enough games were played. Three and one-h a l f months of a program of t h i s r e l a t i v e l y low i n t e n s i t y i s l i k e l y , not long enough f o r a coach to i n f l u e n c e a c h i l d 93 i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . H y p o t h e s i s .II The d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e t h r e e c o a c h -i n g s t y l e s i n .the c h a n g e s e l i c i t e d i n s p o r t s m a n s h i p a t t i t u d e s w ere f o u n d t o be n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . F o r c o a c h i n g s t y l e ' 1 ( n o n - a g g r e s s i v e , " e a s y - g o i n g " ) v s t h e a v e r - . age o f 2 ( m o d e r a t e , "inbetween") and 3 ( a g g r e s s i v e and a u t o -c r a t i c ) t h e m u l t i v a r i a t e F r a t i o o f 1.1758 showed a p '= .38. The u n i v a r i a t e s p o r t s m a n s h i p p = .08. As a s i n g l e v a r i a b l e s p o r t s m a n s h i p a p p r o a c h e s s i g n i f i c a n c e , however,' due t o a h i g h l y n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t o v e r a l l F t h i s . f a c t o r s h o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d m e a n i n g f u l . F o r c o a c h i n g s t y l e 2 vs c o a c h i n g s t y l e 3 t h e p was l e s s t h a n .83.. The u n i v a r i a t e s p o r t s m a n -s h i p v a r i a b l e showed a p = .-70 w h i c h i s a l s o h i g h l y n on-s i g n i f i c a n t . Once a g a i n t h e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s seem t o be c o n t r a r y t o p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h . As d i s c u s s e d i n H y p o t h e s i s I. a p a r t i c u l a r c o a c h i n g s t y l e s h o u l d be i n f l u e n t i a l t o a d o l e s c -e n t g i r l s . The l i t e r a t u r e on s p o r t s m a n s h i p t e n d s , t o be i n c o n s i s t e n t ( K e h r , 1963; M c A f e e , 1959). H o w e v e r , s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s (Wood, 1953 ; B l a n c h a r d , 19^6 ;' 0 ' N e e l , 1937) s u g g e s t t h a t c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s i n c r e a s e as t h e c h i l d g e t s o l d e r . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s o c i a l i z i n g a g e n t s a t t h e e a r l y ages s h o u l d p r o v e i n f l u e n t i a l . M c A f e e (.1959 ) f o u n d , l i t t l e l e a g u e b a s e b a l l t o be d e t r i m e n t a l t o s p o r t s m a n s h i p . H o w e v e r , he d i d n o t . a r r i v e a t t h e c u l p r i t - was i t t h e c o a c h , t h e p a r e n t s , o r t h e p r e s s u r e s o f c o m p e t i t i o n ? The non-s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t ' s a r r i v e d a t by t h e s t u d y c o u l d be a t t r i b -9h uted to the le n g t h of the study as explained i n the d i s -cussion of Hypothesis I. Hypothesis I I I The d i f f e r e n c e s among the three coach-ing s t y l e s i n the changes e l i c i t e d i n s e l f - c o n c e p t were found to be n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . For coaching s t y l e . 1 (non-aggressive, "easy-going") vs the average of 2 (moderate , "in-betveen 1) and 3 ( aggressive and a u t o c r a t i c ) the m u l t i v a r i a t e F r a t i o of 1.1758 showed a p = .38. For coach-i n g s t y l e 2 vs coaching s t y l e 3 the p was l e s s than .83. A c l o s e r examination of coaching s t y l e ! and the average of 2 and 3 shows that v a r i a b l e 11 ( s e l f - a s s u r e d - apprehensive), as analyzed by an u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance, was p = .75 For coaching s t y l e 2 vs coaching s t y l e - 3 the v a r i a b l e I I , as analyzed by an u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance,was p = . 6 l . This a s c e r t a i n s , with no doubt, that the changes i n s e l f -concept of the g i r l s was not d i f f e r e n t among the three coach-ing s t y l e s as set f o r t h i n .thi s. study. Hypotheses I., I I , and I I I were not supported by the r e s u l t s . The r e s e a r c h e r , as expressed e a r l i e r , s t i l l i s c o n f i d e n t a d i s t i n c t coaching s t y l e would be i n f l u e n t i a l to adolescent g i r l s . However, to. i n f l u e n c e the p a r t i c i p a n t a s u f f i c i e n t time span i s needed, and the r e s e a r c h e r has expressed t h a t the shortness of the season d i s a l l o w e d l a s t i n g p e r s o n a l i t y and a t t i t u d i n a l changes Three other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s that may have i n f l u e n c e d the r e s u l t s should be mentioned. F i r s t , perhaps a l l . g i r l s s t u d i e has a very strong f a m i l y s o c i a l i z a t i o n t h a t discouraged the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the coach to become evident. While t h i s 95 i s a p o s s i b i l i t y the r e s e a r c h e r dismisses i t as h i g h l y u n l i k e l y . Second, perhaps g i r l s have a p h y s i o l o g i c a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l - makeup that does hot allow them to take on aggressive q u a l i t i e s as e x e m p l i f i e d by the aggressive coach. There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h that supports t h i s viewpoint (Boslooper and Hayes, 1973; Sontag, 1972; Howe, 1971; M c C l e l l a n d , 1965). According to Roberts and Sutton-Smith (.1969) i n f a n t g i r l s are handled, d i f f e r e n t l y from boys - more a f f e c t i o n a t e l y , more ' p r o t e c t i v e l y ' , and as soon as they l e a r n to walk, g i r l s are t r a i n e d d i f f e r e n t l y . Despite these r o l e pressures the i n v e s t i g a t o r b e l i e v e s that d i s t i n c t coaching s t y l e s can be i n f l u e n t i a l to adolescent g i r l s . Boslooper and Hayes j 1973, s t a t e that t h i s r o l e pressure comes a f t e r pub-e r t y . G i r l s are given, a l i t t l e more than, a decade of freedom. Only i n adolescence i s i t acceptable f o r females to be phys-i c a l l y a ggressive and. c o m p e t i t i v e . Since the subjects of the study are i n adolescence the coach could prove i n f l u e n t i a l i n p e r s o n a l i t y and sportsmanship development. T h i r d , a l a r g e number of g i r l s were of I t a l i a n descent. The t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s of these g i r l s may have been i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e i r r e l u c t a n c e to assume aggressive q u a l i t i e s . T h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n adds to the aforementioned d i s c u s s i o n of g i r l s ' p h y s i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Hypothesis IV The d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a t t i t u d e of the p l a y e r s toward t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e coach was- found to be non-s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l , as shown by the o v e r a l l m u l t i -v a r i a t e F'.s f o r the two planned comparisons (Tables VII and '96 V I I I ) . A c l o s e r examination of coaching s t y l e 1 and the average of 2 and 3 shows that v a r i a b l e l 6 ( a t t i t u d e towards coach) as analyzed by an u n i v a r i a t e 'analysis of v a r i a n c e was .59 which was .highly n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . In coaching s t y l e 2 vs 3 the u n i v a r i a t e p = .90 i s once again h i g h l y n o n - s i g n i f -i c a n t . This r e s u l t seems to agree with the research (Read, 1968) i n that the s t y l e of a coach i s not as important.as the success of the team. C h i l d r e n seem to enjoy winning, and . w i l l not be bothered by the methods of a coach as long as the v e r d i c t , of the scoreboard i s i n t h e i r favour. . This i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n the re s e a r c h i n that the school with the aggressive coach were C a t h o l i c Youth A c t i v i t y league and p l a y - o f f champions. The other two schools d i d not reach the f i n a l s of the p l a y - o f f s . In league standings they were second and t h i r d i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e league s e c t i o n s . Both schools' were defeated i n t h e i r f i r s t p l a y - o f f game and sub-sequently e l i m i n a t e d from f u r t h e r c o m p e t i t i o n . Hypothesis V The d i f f e r e n c e s between the p a r t i c i p a n t s a n d : n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n p e r s o n a l i t y changes and sportsmanship a t t i u d e s were found t o be n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . The m u l t i v a r i a t e F r a t i o of 1.2202 showed a p = .31. Figures 7, 8 and 9 show the graphing of the sten scores f o r p a r t i c -i p a n t s vs n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s , making the n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e v i d e n t . The resea r c h f i n d i n g s seem co n t r a r y to the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s , r e s u l t s (Shafor, 1971; Dayries and Grimm, 1970 ; Malumphy , 1968; Flemming,' 193*0. The resea r c h f i n d i n g s of the s t u d i e s reviewed r e g a r d i n g the woman a t h l e t e seem to 97 98 99 O L O O L O O L D O oo r~~ r- > - D L O L O RAT7 S C O R E S F i g u r e 9. S P O R T S M A N S H I P A T T I T U D E F O R P A R T I C I P A N T S AND N O N - P A R T I C I P A N T S - P R E / P O S T lO'O i n d i c a t e that p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s p o s s i b l y e x i s t between the s u b j e c t s and the n a t i o n a l norms e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the p e r s o n a l i t y measuring instruments, and between v a r i o u s com-pari s o n s w i t h i n t.he samples. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the r e s e a r c h i s at the high school l e v e l and.beyond. Schendel (1970) i n a l o n g t i t u d i n a l study i n d i c a t e d that high school a t h l e t e s had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher degree of p e r s o n a l worth.and' s e l f -acceptance at both grade nine and grade twelve. .He main-t a i n e d that, whatever produced these d i f f e r e n c e s between a t h l e t e s and non-athletes had t h e i r major i n f l u e n c e , p r i o r to grade nine. C o n s i d e r i n g the s h o r t n e s s . o f the study, and the s o c i o l o g i c a l r o l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the female that were mentioned e a r l i e r , i t i s understandable that the p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s were s i m i l a r . ' The. i n v e s t i g a t o r once again f e e l s that given a longer.time span, -a d i s t i n c t coach-i n g s t y l e would i n f l u e n c e the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r s o n a l i t y and sportsmanship c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and thus show d i f f e r e n c e s between the p a r t i c i p a n t s and the non-participants.. Summary To conclude,.Hypotheses I, I I , and I I I were not supported by the r e s u l t s in. the two orthogonal . comparisons . Furthermore, i n a post hoc m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e , coaching s t y l e 1 (non-aggressive, "easy-going") vs 3 (aggress-i v e and a u t o c r a t i c ) showed n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s at the .05 l e v e l . The m u l t i v a r i a t e F r a t i o of 1.2511 showed a p l e s s than . 3*+. Even though v a r i a b l e 1 ( r e s e r v e d vs outgoing) 1101 i s s i g n i f i c a n t , and v a r i a b l e 15 (sportsmanship) approaches s i g n i f i c a n c e the h i g h l y n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t o v e r a l l F of the r e s u l t s of these two v a r i a b l e s should not be considered meaningful. With these r e s u l t s i t can be s a i d , on the basis' of t h i s study, that a p a r t i c u l a r coaching s t y l e does not i n f l u e n c e p e r s o n a l i t y or sportsmanship development of twelve-y e a r - o l d g i r l s over the course of a three and one-half month b a s k e t b a l l season. The i n v e s t i g a t o r i s of the b e l i e f that •coaching s t y l e w i l l i n f l u e n c e the p a r t i c i p a n t s . However, as p r e v i o u s l y expressed, time i s necessary f o r change or development of. p e r s o n a l i t y and sportsmanship a t t i t u d e s . The feminine r o l e e x p l a n a t i o n of many authors (Boslooper and Hayes, 1973; Howe, 1971; Sutton-Smith, 19.69 ; M c C l e l l a n d , 19.65) s t a t i n g that g i r l s w i l l hot take on a g g r e s s i v e , out-going tendencies was not accepted.as a reason f o r non-s i g n i f i c a n c e . . The i n v e s t i g a t o r accepts Boslooper and Hayes' (1973) p o s i t i o n that u n t i l puberty the r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n does not become e x p l i c i t . Therefore , sin c e the g i r l s were not at the teenage l e v e l t h i s was not accepted as a reason f o r n o n - s i g n i f i c a n c e . The n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s versus n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s proved q u e s t i o n a b l e . Coupled with a short season i n which the coach d i d not have the necessary time to impose h i s p e r s o n a l i t y on the g i r l s , and the f a c t that the g i r l s have a feminine r o l e that may provide a b a r r i e r t o . a g g r e s s i v e t e n d e n c i e s , these r e s u l t s seem j u s t i f i a b l e . The i n v e s t i g a t o r , as before s t a t e d , i s co n f i d e n t that more 102 time exposure to the coach would have e l i c i t e d p e r s o n a l i t y and sportsmanship d i f f e r e n c e s between p a r t i c i p a n t s and non-part i c i p ant s. • CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH Summary The main purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e th p o s s i b i l i t y that d i s t i n c t , coaching s t y l e s could i n f l u e n c e p e r s o n a l i t y and sportsmanship a t t i t u d e s of adolescent g i r l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g In a competitive b a s k e t b a l l league. F u r t h e r , the study examined d i f f e r e n c e s between p e r s o n a l i t y changes and sportsmanship a t t i t u d e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s and non-p a r t i c i p a n t s . A . t o t a l of- f o r t y - s i x t w e l v e - y e a r - o l d g i r l s were i n v o l v e d i n the experiment as subjects of which t h i r t y two were c l a s s e d as p a r t i c i p a n t s and fo u r t e e n were c l a s s e d as n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . By the use of a r a t i n g d e v i c e , and a p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t t hree d i s t i n c t coaches were s e l e c t e d and c l a s s i f i e d by type as. o u t l i n e d by Tutko i n Psychology of  Coaching ( l 9 T l ) - Twelve g i r l s were exposed to the "easy-going", non-aggressive coach, eight g i r l s were exposed to the a g g ressive coach, and twelve g i r l s were exposed to the "in-between" coach. The time of exposure was three and one h a l f to four months. The g i r l s were exposed to approximate four hours of p r a c t i c e time per week plus two league games. A l s o , there were two weekend tournaments during the season-. A l l three teams were .involved i n post-season p l a y - o f f s . There was a n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t group of g i r l s at each s c h o o l . . These n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t g i r l s acted as a c o n t r o l group. 103 An examination of the dependent v a r i a b l e s : p e r s o n a l i t y , s e l f - c o n c e p t , sportsmanship, and a t t i t u d e s toward the coach were considered f o r a l l g i r l s under each r e s p e c t i v e coaching s t y l e . Furthermore, the dependent v a r i a b l e s of p e r s o n a l i t y , s e l f - c o n c e p t , and sportsmanship a t t i t u d e s were examined re g a r d i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . The exper-imental design u t i l i z e d p r e - a n d - p o s t ' t e s t i n g . A 3 X 2 m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was performed on f o u r t e e n p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s as w e l l as two a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s . The p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s were as f o l l o w s : Reserved vs Out go i ng-Less i n t e l l i g e n t vs More i n t e l l i g e n t A f f e c t e d by f e e l i n g s vs E m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e Phlegmatic vs . E x c i t a b l e Obedient vs As s e r t i v e Sober vs Happy-go-lucky Disregards r u l e s vs Cons c i ent i ous Shy vs Venturesome Tough-minded vs Tender-minded Vi gorous vs Doubt i ng S e l f - a s s u r e d vs Apprehensive Group-dependent vs S e l f - s u f f i c i e n t Casual vs C o n t r o l l e d Relaxed vs Tense The two a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d sportsmanship and a t t i t u d e toward the coach. 10.5 The 3 X 2 r e f e r s t o : 3 - Three p a r t i c i p a n t ( s c h o o l s ) 2 -' •' Pre-post T h i s m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e t e s t s Hypotheses I , II , I I I and IV. A 2 X 2 m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was performed on the same dependent v a r i a b l e s with the exception of a t t i t u d e toward the coach, to t e s t the d i f f e r e n c e s between the changes e l i c i t e d i n the p a r t i c i p a n t s (at a l l schools) and the non-p a r t i c i p a n t s ' ( a l s o at a l l , s c h o o l s ) . The 2 X 2 r e f e r s t o : 2 - P a r t i c i p a n t s (from a l l schools) N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s ( a l s o from a l l s c h o o l s ) 2 - Pre-post This m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e t e s t s Hypothesis V. Go n c l u s i o n s 1. The d i f f e r e n c e s r e g a r d i n g p e r s o n a l i t y development of. adolescent t w e l v e - y e a r - o l d g i r l s i n v o l v e d i n a competitive b a s k e t b a l l league i s not i n f l u e n c e d to any n o t i c e a b l e degree by a d i s t i n c t coaching s t y l e over a p e r i o d of 3-1/2 months as set f o r t h i n t h i s study. 2. The d i f f e r e n c e s r e g a r d i n g sportsmanship a t t i t u d e s of. adolescent t w e l v e - y e a r - o l d g i r l s i n v o l v e d i n a competitive b a s k e t b a l l league i s not i n f l u e n c e d to any n o t i c e a b l e degree by a d i s t i n c t coaching s t y l e over a p e r i o d of 3-1/2 months as set f o r t h i n t h i s study. i o$ 3. The d i f f e r e n c e s r e g a r d i n g the development of s e l f -concept of adolescent t w e l v e - y e a r - o l d g i r l s i n v o l v e d i n a competitive b a s k e t b a l l league i s not i n f l u e n c e d to any n o t i c e a b l e degree by a d i s t i n c t coaching s t y l e over a p e r i o d of 3-1/2 months as set f o r t h i n t h i s study. k. The d i f f e r e n c e s r e g a r d i n g the a t t i t u d e of the p l a y e r s toward the coach of adolescent t w e l v e - y e a r - o l d g i r l s , i n v o l v e d i n a competitive b a s k e t b a l l league i s not i n f l u e n c e d to' any n o t i c e a b l e degree by a d i s t i n c t coaching s t y l e over a p e r i o d of 3-1/2 months as set f o r t h i n t h i s study. 5.. P a r t i c i p a t i o n of adolescent t w e l v e - y e a r - o l d g i r l s i n a competitive b a s k e t b a l l , league does not i n f l u e n c e the d e v e l -opment of p e r s o n a l i t y or sportsmanship a t t i t u d e s any d i f f e r -e n t l y from n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t g i r l s as .set f o r t h i n t h i s study. Recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h 1. This study i l l u s t r a t e s the importance of f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , p r e f e r a b l y with.a l o n g t i t u d i n a l dimension, to provide knowledge of the coach's importance on the s o c i a l -i z a t i o n .process. The l o n g t i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h could be boys and g i r i s . 2. The same r e s e a r c h , except over a l a r g e r span of time making use of diffe r e n t . m e a s u r e s f o r : a) coaching s t y l e s , b) p e r s o n a l i t y , sportsmanship, and a t t i t u d e s . .3. The w r i t e r would l i k e to see a long range study of p e r s o n a l i t y and sports i n t e r e s t s to determine i f a c t i v i t y produced c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y p a t t e r n s or i f they are present 107 before p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Such rese a r c h would have to begin st u d y i n g s u b j e c t s as c h i l d r e n and f o l l o w t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l growth i n t o adulthood. Information of t h i s order may have t h e r a p e u t i c use i n t r e a t i n g p e r s o n a l i t y d i s -orders. ' h. With the r e v o l u t i o n of the female r o l e i n contemporary Canadian s o c i e t y , a study of p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s between males and females at v a r i o u s l e v e l s would be a p p r o p r i a t e . 5. A study to i n v e s t i g a t e the hypothesis that s o c i o -economic s t a t u s and f a m i l y s i z e are l e s s of an i n f l u e n c e on sport m o t i v a t i o n than f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with geography and climate . '• 6. T h i s r e s e a r c h found that the p a r t i c i p a n t s seemed to emphasize winning and were not concerned with the coaching s t y l e s as long as t h i s need was met. Further r e s e a r c h i s needed i n t h i s area. For example, what q u a l i t i e s do young-s t e r s look f o r i n a coach that w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward t h a t coach? 7. Research of the same t o p i c using a more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of boys and/or g i r l s i s ne,eded. Also a comparative study of p u b l i c vs C a t h o l i c boys and/or g i r l s would prove worthwhile. 108 B I B L I O G R A P H Y 109 BIBLIOGRAPHY Alexander, A l b e r t A. . 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" P s y c h o l o g i c a l D i f f e r e n c e s Between A t h l e t e s and N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s i n A t h l e t i c s at Three E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s , " Research Q u a r t e r l y , 36:52-67, 1965-Schendel, J. "The P s y c h o l o g i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of High School A t h l e t e s and N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s i n A t h l e t i c s : A Three Year L o n g t i t u d i n a l Study," Contemporary Psychology  of Sport, E d i t e d by G.S. Kenyon. Chicago: The A t h l e t i c I n s t i t u t e , 1970. S c o t t , Phebe. "Att i t u d e ' Toward A t h l e t i c Competition Elementary Schools," Research Q u a r t e r l y , 2M-:352 O c t o b e r , 1 9 5 3 . i n -361 , 119 S e v i e r , Vernon A. "A Comparative Study of Aggression and Related P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c , " J o u r n a l of P h y s i c a l  E d u c a t i o n , kg: 38-57, 1973. Seymour, E . W.' 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" I n t e r - S c h o o l Competition i n the Elementary Schools ," The J o u r n a l f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and R e c r e a t i o n , 20: 279-80, 1950. Werner, A l f r e d C. " P h y s i c a l Education and the Development of Leadership C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Cadets at the U.S. M i l i t a r y Academy." Unpublished D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , S p r i n g f i e l d .College , I960. Werner, A l f r e d C., and Edward G o t t h e i l . " P e r s o n a l i t y Devel-opment and P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c s , Research Q u a r t e r l y , 37=126-131, 1966. Whiting, H.T. , and D.E. Stembridge. " P e r s o n a l i t y and the P e r s i s t e n t Non-Swimmer," Research Q u a r t e r l y , 36:31+8-356, 1965. W i l k i n , Bruce M. 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" E f f e c t s of P h y s i c a l Education Taught By a S p e c i a l i s t on P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s and S e l f Image," Research Q u a r t e r l y , 39= 766-790, 1968. 122 APPENDIX A P a r e n t a l Consent Form 123 December 2, .1973 Dear Parents , As p a r t of my Master's Degree i n P h y s i c a l Education at the Uni v e r s i t y , of B r i t i s h Columbia I plan to conduct a study of the e f f e c t s of competitive b a s k e t b a l l on the p e r s o n a l i t y and a t t i t u d i n . a l development of Grade VII g i r l s . I would a p p r e c i a t e your a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s endeavour by a l l o w i n g your child', r e g a r d l e s s of her p l a y i n g b a s k e t b a l l , to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s r e s e a r c h .project as t h i s study i n v o l v e s both the play e r s and non-p l a y e r s . . I have r e c e i v e d permission from the school p r i n c i p a l and c l a s s teacher to administer three i n v e n t o r i e s that w i l l help me determine the e f f e c t s , i f any, of competit-i v e b a s k e t b a l l . The i n v e n t o r i e s would be administered during school time. The r e s u l t s would be of a group nature, and no one i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be s i n g l e d out. I would be ple a s e d to d i s c u s s any f u r t h e r questions you may have. Thank you very much f o r your cooperation i n t h i s worthwhile r e s e a r c h . ' Please s i g n the consent form and r e t u r n as soon a s . p o s s i b l e to your c h i l d ' s ' teacher. Yours s i n c e r e l y , Dan R. M i s c i s c o , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. PARENTAL CONSENT FORM I, , give permission f o r my daughter to be a subject i n the e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h conducted by Dan M i s c i s c o i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r h i s Master's Degree. 12k. APPENDIX B. Coaching S t y l e Rating Scale 1 2 5 COACHING STYLE RATING SCALE W i l l you please i n d i c a t e your o p i n i o n on each of the accompanying statements i n regard to your coaching peer. To i n d i c a t e your o p i n i o n , draw a c i r c l e around the number which best d e s c r i b e s your agreement as shown: 1 0 , 9 St rongly Agree 8, 7 Agree 6 , 5 , h Unde c i ded 3., 2 Di s agree s 1 , 0 S t r o n g l y Di s agree s 10 9 8 7 6 5 U 3 2 1 0 i 10 9 8 7 6 5 U 3 2 1 0 i i 10 9 8 7 6 '5 •U 3 2 1 0 i i i 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 k 3 2 1 0 i v 10. 9 8 7 6 5 k 3 2 1 0 V 1 0 9 8' 7 6 5 k 3 2 1 0 v i 10 9 8 7. 6 5 k 3 2 1 .0 v i i 10 .9 8 7 6 5 h 3 2 1 0 v i i 10 9 8 7 6 5 h 3 2 1 0 i x 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 h 3 2 1 0 x • 10 9 8 7 6 5 k 3 2 1 0 x i 10 9 8 7 6. 5 k 3 2 1 0 x i i 10 9 8 7 6 5 V 3 2 1 0' x i i 10 9 8 7 6 5 h 3 2 1 0 x i v 10 9 8 7 •6 5 k 3 2 1 0 XV 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 h 3 2 1 0 xv i Rarely shows emotion. Openly attacks o f f i c i a l s ' . More i n t e r e s t e d i n people than score Deeply concerned with w e l f a r e of p l a y e r s . Uses t h r e a t s to motivate -c r i t i c i s m and embarrassment. Personable. Score seems, more important than people. Emphasizes winning. F l e x i b l e . Can be c r u e l and s a d i s t i c - o f t e n i n s u l t i n g . R e l i e s upon e x h o r t a t i o n and s t i m u l a t i o n . D i r e c t and dominant. Rarely i f at a l l shows condemnation of o f f i c i a l s . Uses p o s i t i v e means to motivate a t h l e t e s. Emotional - f r e q u e n t l y y e l l s . Popular and s o c i a b l e . NAME OF COACH RATED 126 APPENDIX C Coaches' Competitive A t t i t u d e Scale 127 COACHES' COMPETITIVE ATTITUDE SCALE (CA). C i r c l e the category that i n d i c a t e s your f e e l i n g towards the "behaviour d e s c r i b e d i n each of the s i t u a t i o n s . 1. S t r o n g l y Approve. 2. Approve. 3. Undecided. h. Disapprove. 5. S t r o n g l y Disapprove. 1 2 3 h 5 1. During a f o o t b a l l game team A has the b a l l on i t s own ^5-yard l i n e , f o u r t h down .and 1 • yard to go f o r a f i r s t down. The coach of team A s i g n a l s to the quarterback the play that he wants the team to run. 1 2 3 k 5 .2. Team A i s the v i s i t i n g b a s k e t b a l l team and. each time a member of the team i s given a f r e e shot the home crowd sets up a c o n t i n u a l din of noise u n t i l the shot has been taken. 1 2 3 k 5 3. Tennis p l a y e r A- f r e q u e n t l y c a l l s out, throws up h i s arms, or otherwise t r i e s to i n d i c a t e that h i s opponent's serve i s out of bounds when i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . 1 2 3 U -'5 h. In a t r a c k meet, team A enters a man i n the mile run who i s to set a f a s t pace f o r the f i r s t h a l f of the race and.then drop out. 1 2 3 k. 5 5- In a f o o t b a l l game, team B's quarterback was t a c k l e d r e p e a t e d l y a f t e r handing o f f . and a f t e r he was out. of the pl a y . 1 2 3 k .5 6. Sam, p l a y i n g g o l f with h i s f r i e n d s , h i t a drive, i n t o the rough. He a c c i d e n t l y moved the b a l l with h i s f o o t , although not improv-ing .his p o s i t i o n he added a pen a l t y stroke to h i s score. 1 2 3 k 5 7- A b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r was caught out of p o s i t -io n on defense and r a t h e r than allow h i s . opponent to attempt a f i e l d goal he f o u l e d him. . 1 2 3 k 5 8. P l a y e r A during a g o l f match made quick noises and movements when p l a y e r B was g e t t i n g ready to make a shot. 1 2 3 h 5. 9- School A has a powerful but q u i t e slow f o o t b a l l team. The night before p l a y i n g a sma l l e r but f a s t e r team, they allowed the • f i e l d s p r i n k l i n g system to remain on, causing the f i e l d to be heavy and slow. 128 1 2 3 k 5 10. A b a s k e t b a l l team used p l a y e r A to draw the opponent's high s c o r e r i n t o f o u l i n g s i t u a t i o n s 1 2 3 k 5 11- The alumni of College A pressured the Board of Trustees to lower the admission and e l i g i b i l i t y requirements f o r a t h l e t e s . 1 2 3 k 5 12. Team A, by use of fake i n j u r i e s , was able to stop the c l o c k long enough to get o f f the play that r e s u l t e d in- the winning touchdown. 1 2 3 h 5 13. A tennis p l a y e r was given.the advantage of a bad c a l l i n a c l o s e match. He then "evened up" the c a l l by i n t e n t i o n a l l y h i t t i n g the b a l l out of bounds. 1 2 3 h 5 l U . The coach of b a s k e t b a l l team A removed h i s team from the f l o o r i n p r o t e s t of an o f f i c i a l ' s d e c i s i o n . 1 2 3 h 5 15. Between seasons a coach moved from College .A • to College B and he then persuaded three of College A's a t h l e t e s to t r a n s f e r to College B. 1 2 3 k 5 l 6 . A f t e r l o s i n g a c l o s e f o o t b a l l game the coach of the l o s i n g team p u b l i c l y accused the game o f f i c i a l s of f a v o u r i t i s m when the game movies showed that the winning touchdown had been scored by u s i n g an i l l e g a l . m a n e u v e r . 1 2 3 k 5 17- College C.lowered the admission requirements f o r boys awarded a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s . 1 2 3 h 5 18.. Team A's s a f e t y man r e t u r n e d a punt f o r a touchdown. Unseen by the o f f i c i a l s he had stepped out of bounds i n f r o n t of h i s team's bench. His coach n o t i f i e d the o f f i c i a l s of t h i s f a c t . 1 2 3 k 5 ''19. A c o l l e g e with very few a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s to o f f e r , gives a t h l e t e s preference on a l l types of campus jobs. . 1 2 3 k 5 20. S e v e r a l wealthy alumni of College C make a monthly g i f t to s e v e r a l a t h l e t e s who are i n need of f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . ; 1 2 3 h 5 21. College K has a p o l i c y of not a l l o w i n g any member of a v a r s i t y squad to a s s o c i a t e with . the v i s i t i n g team u n t i l the contest or meet i s completed. 1 2 3 ^ 5 22. The Board of Trustees at College C f i r e d the f o o t b a l l coach and gave as the reason f o r h i s d i s m i s s a l h i s f a i l u r e to win a conference ch-ampi onship during the past f i v e years. 129 APPENDIX D Coaches' Competitive A t t i t u d e Scale Raw Scores 130 •T A B L E VIII COACHES'' COMPETITIVE ATTITUDE SCALE RAW SCORES COACHING STYLE COACHING STYLE COACHING STYLE I II I I I 1. 2 - 1. 2 . . 1. .1 2. 5 2 . h .2. 5 3. It 3. h 3. 5 •k. k u.. 1 • k. 3 5- 5 •' 5. 5 5. 5 6- h ' 6. •ii- 6. 5 7. h 7- 2. 7- 1 8. 5 8. .5 8. 5 9. 5 9- 5 • 9- 5 10. 2 •10 . 1 10. 3 .11. u 11. 5 11. 5 12 . 1+ 12. 5 12. 5 13. 3 1 3 • 1 13. 5 Ik. 5 5 : ii+. 5 15- h 15. 5 ' ' • ' 15. 5 ••16.. 5 16. 2 16. 5 17. U. 17. 5 17- 5 1.8. 3 18. 3 18. 5 19. U 19.' U ' 19. 5 .20 . 2 20. 5 20. 5 21. 5 21. . 5 .21. 1 22 . 1+ 22 . .It 22 . 3 TTL. 87 80 92 131 APPENDIX E S i x t e e n P e r s o n a l i t y Adult Factor ~- Fo rra .Questionnaire B 1 3 2 16 PF WHAT TO DO: Insi d e t h i s booklet are some questions to see what a t t i t u d e s and i n t e r e s t s you. have. There are no " r i g h t " and "wrong", answers because everyone has the r i g h t to. h i s own views. To be able to get the best advice from your r e s u l t s , you w i l l want to answer them e x a c t l y and t r u l y . I f a separate "Answer Sheet" has not been given to you, t u r n t h i s b o o k l e t over and te a r o f f the Answer Sheet on.the back page. • . Write your name and a l l other i n f o r m a t i o n asked f o r on the top l i n e of the Answer Sheet. F i r s t you should answer the four sample, questions below so that you can see whether you need to ask anything before s t a r t i n g . Although you are. to read the questions i n t h i s b o o k l e t , you must rec o r d your answers on the answer sheet ( a l o n g s i d e the same number as i n the b o o k l e t ) . There are three p o s s i b l e answers to each question. Read the f o l l o w i n g examples and mark your answers at the top of. your answer sheet where i t says "Examples." F i l l i n the l e f t - h a n d box. i f your answer choice- i s the "a" answer, i n the middle box' i f your answer choice i s the "b" answer, and i n the r i g h t - h a n d box i f you choose the "c" answer. EXAMPLES: 1.. I l i k e to watch team games. a. yes, b. o c c a s i o n a l l y , c. no. 2. I p r e f e r people who: • a. are r e s e r v e d , b. (are) i n between, c. ' make friends' e a s i l y . 3. Money cannot b r i n g happiness. a. yes ( t r u e ) , b. i n between, c. no ( f a l s e ) . k. Woman i s t o . c h i l d as cat i s t o : a. k i t t e n , b. dog, ' c . boy. In the l a s t example there i s a r i g h t answer - k i t t e n . But there are very few such reasoning items. cont d. 133 Ask now i f anything i s not c l e a r . The examiner w i l l t e l l you i n a moment to turn the page and s t a r t . When you answer, keep these four p o i n t s i n mind: 1.. You are asked not to spend time pondering. Give the f i r s t , n a t u r a l answer, as i t comes to you. Of course, the questions are too short to give you a l l the p a r t i c u l a r s you would sometimes.like to have. For i n s t a n c e , the above ques t i o n asks you about "team games" and you might be fonder of f o o t b a l l than basket-b a l l . But you are.to r e p l y " f o r the average game," or . to s t r i k e an average i n s i t u a t i o n s o f • t h e kind s t a t e d . Give the best answer you can at a r a t e . n o t slower than f i v e or s i x a minute. You should f i n i s h i n a l i t t l e more than h a l f an hour. 2. Try not to f a l l back on the middle, " u n c e r t a i n " answers . except when the answer, at e i t h e r end i s r e a l l y i m p o s s i b l f o r you - perhaps once every - four' or f i v e - q u e s t i o n s . 3. Be sure not to s k i p anything, but answer every q u e s t i o n , somehow. Some may not apply to you very w e l l , but give your best guess. Some may seem p e r s o n a l ; but remember that the answer sheets are kept c o n f i d e n t i a l and cannot be scored without a s p e c i a l s t e n c i l key. Answers to p a r t i c u l a r questions are not i n s p e c t e d . k. Answer -as"honestly as p o s s i b l e what i s true of you. Do not merely mark what seems "the r i g h t t h i n g to say" to impress the examiner'. 131+ APPENDIX F Coaches' S i x t e e n Sten P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Scores and P r o f i l e s 135 T A B L E IX STEN SCORES FOR COACHING STYLES FACTOR COACHING- STYLE I Qui et , Easy-Going COACHING STYLE II Moderate - i n Between• COACHING STYLE II A g g r e s s i v e -. Aut o c r at i c A . 9 5 7 B 6 5 6 c .8 6 10 E k 6 . 10 F 7 6 10 G 10 10 5 H 7 5 10 I 9 5 3 L - 2 5 8 M 6 6 N 7 h l 0 3 6 •3 V k It. 3. 1 IT • ' 3 s 9 . 8 It 2 7 U 136 CENTILE RANK Factor SERVED SS TELLIGENT [OTI ON ALLY ;SS STABLE IBMISSIVE iRIOUS :ss RIGID MID (UGHMINDED i i OUSTING tACTICAL ISOPHIST-L T E D )NFIDENT 0 )NSERVATIVEQ1 *OUP->HERENT 5LLOWS OWN *GES 3LAXED 90 100 Fiaure 10. PERSONALITY PROFILE OF COACHING STYLES OUTGOING MORE INTELLIGENT EMOTIONALLY STABLE AGGRESSIVE HAPPY-GO-LUCKY STAID VENTURESOM SENSITIVE SUSPICIOUS IMAGINATIV SHREWD APPREHENSI EXPERIMENT SELF-SUFFICIENT CONTROLLEE HIGH TENSI LEVEL Legend: Coaching Style I " Coaching Style II' Coaching Style III 137. . APPENDIX G Coaches* P e r s o n a l and B a s k e t b a l l Background 138 COACHING STYLE I (non-aggressive,, "easy-going") twenty-six years of age. s i n g l e . no post-secondary education. works as a p h y s i c a l education i n s t r u c t o r at school s t u d i e d . has been C a t h o l i c Youth A c t i v i t i e s Summer Camp D i r e c t o r f o r the past two,years (Camp Latona). a c t i v e as a p l a y e r i n high s c h o o l . v o l u n t a r i l y coached b a s k e t b a l l f o r seven years. coaching experience with boys and g i r l s . has made an e f f o r t to attend b a s k e t b a l l c l i n i c s . keenly i n t e r e s t e d i n b a s k e t b a l l . has had winning teams i n c l u d i n g one g i r l s C.Y.A. league champion. has o r g a n i z e d a number of weekend tournaments. has p a r t i c i p a t e d i n many tournaments. b a s k e t b a l l i s a constant t o p i c of d i s c u s s i o n at s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s . 139 COACHING STYLE II (moderate, "in-between") t h i r t y - o n e years of age. married, f a t h e r of f i v e c h i l d r e n , no post-secondary education. works as a plumbing i n s p e c t o r f o r C i t y , of Vancouver.' played very l i t t l e b a s k e t b a l l i n high s c h o o l . v o l u n t a r i l y coached b a s k e t b a l l f o r nine years. coaching experience with boys p r i m a r i l y . has made an o c c a s i o n a l e f f o r t to attend b a s k e t b a l l c l i n i c s . keenly i n t e r e s t e d i n b a s k e t b a l l . reads b a s k e t b a l l l i t e r a t u r e . his. teams have enjoyed success, however, no league championship to h i s c r e d i t . has organized a number of weekend,tournaments. has p a r t i c i p a t e d i n many tournaments. b a s k e t b a l l i s a constant t o p i c of d i s c u s s i o n at s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s . i Uo COACHING STYLE I I I (ag g r e s s i v e and a u t o c r a t i c ) t h i r t y years of age. married, f a t h e r of three c h i l d r e n , no post-secondary education. works as an engineer f o r B r i t i s h Columbia F e r r i e s . a c t i v e as a p l a y e r i n high sc h o o l . v o l u n t a r i l y coached b a s k e t b a l l f o r ten years. coaching experience with boys and g i r l s . has made an o c c a s i o n a l e f f o r t , to attend b a s k e t b a l l c l i n i c s . keenly i n t e r e s t e d i n b a s k e t b a l l . teams have enjoyed success, one C a t h o l i c Youth A c t i v i t i e s league championship to h i s c r e d i t . - has p a r t i c i p a t e d i n many tournaments. b a s k e t b a l l i s a constant t o p i c of d i s c u s s i o n at s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s . Ikl APPENDIX H High School P e r s o n a l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Forms A + B 1U 2 J r . - Sr. HSPQ' WHAT TO DO: You have a Booklet and an Answer Sheet. Write your name , age, e t c . , on the: An swer Sheet whe re i t . t e11s you to. The Booklet before you has i n i t questions about your i n t e r e s t s and your l i k e s and d i s l i k e s . Althougn you are to read the questions i n t h i s Booklet, you must put your answers on the Answer Sheet , making sure that the number of your answer matches the, number of the question i n the Booklet. F i r s t , we s h a l l give you two examples so that you w i l l know e x a c t l y what to do. A f t e r each of the questions there are three answers. Read the f o l l o w i n g examples and f i l l i n the r i g h t boxes where i t says Example 1 and Example 2, on the Answer Sheet, below your name. F i l l i n the l e f t - h a n d box i f your answer choice i s the "a" answer, the middle box i f your choice i s the "b" answer, and.the ri g h t - h a n d box i f you choose the "c" answer. EXAMPLES: 1. Which would you r a t h e r do: 2. I f you have a q u a r r e l , do you make f r i e n d s a. v i s i t a zoo, again q u i c k l y ? b. . u n c e r t a i n , a. yes, b. i n between, c. go up i n an a i r p l a n e ? c. no. As you can see from these examples, there a r e , u s u a l l y no r i g h t or wrong answers, although sometimes a c o r r e c t answer i s expected. Each person i s d i f f e r e n t and you should say only what i s true f o r you. You can always f i n d one answer that s u i t s you a l i t t l e b e t t e r than the o t h e r s , so never leave a question without marking one of the answers. Inside you w i l l f i n d more questions l i k e the ones above. When you are t o l d to turn the page, begin with number 1 and go on u n t i l you f i n i s h a l l the questions. In answering them, please keep these four p o i n t s i n mind: 1. Answer the questions f r a n k l y and t r u t h f u l l y . There i s no advantage, i n g i v i n g an untrue answer about y o u r s e l f because you t h i n k i t i s the " r i g h t t h i n g to say." 2. Answer the questions as q u i c k l y as you can. Don't spend too much t i m e . t h i n k i n g about them. Give the f i r s t , n a t u r a l answer that comes to you. Some questions may seem much l i k e o t h e r s , but no two are e x a c t l y a l i k e so your answers w i l l o f t e n be d i f f e r e n t too. contd. Iii 3 3. Use the middle answer only when i t i s a b s o l u t e l y i m p o s s i b l to decide on one of the other c h o i c e s . In other words, the "a or the "c" answer sh o u l d be used most of the time. k. Don't skip any qu e s t i o n s . .Sometimes a statement may not seem to apply to you, but answer every q u e s t i o n , somehow. I f there i s anything you don't understand, please ask your questions now. I f you have no question now, but l a t e r on come across a word you don't know, ask the examiner then. 11+1+ APPENDIX I High School P e r s o n a l i t y Sample Answer Sheet and. Test Ques t i o n n a i r e - Pre/Post P r o f i l e M E L . ANSWER SHEET: The Jr.-Sr. HSPQ, FORM : A G E : S E X S C H O O L (A, B, C, or 0) EDITION USED : 1963 1968-69. F , R S T LAST YR8. MTMS.' G. OR B. T R U C T I O N S : F I L L IN C O M P L E T E L Y T H E 3 0 X B E L O W W H I C H IS N U M B E R E D T H E S A M E AS T H A T Y O U A R E A N S W E R I N G IN T H E •MPLE I: a b C E X A M P L E 2: a O C T O D A Y ' S D A T E , T E S T B O O K L E T . • • • • • • Page 2 a b a • a • a • a • a • a o u a • a • • b • b B b • b • b • b s b • b • b • b m b • b • b b • b M b • b • b • c • c • c • c m c • c • c • • c c • c . • c • c Page 3 a b c 22 m • • a b c 2 3 • • • a b c 24 • m • 2 5 Li • • a b c 26 m • • a b c 2 7 • • • a b c 2 8 • • a a b c 2 9 s • • a b c 3 0 • m a a b c 3 1 a • • a b c 3 2 a • • a b c 3 3 • • • a b c 3 4 • • m 3 5 B • • a b c 3 6 C • B a b c 3 7 a • • a b c 33 • m • a b c 3 9 a • • a b c 40 m • • a b c 41 • • m Page 4 a b c 4 2 • B • 43 -2- ± C 44 a n a a b c B • • a b c 45 m • • a b c 46 • a • a b c 47 • • m a b c 48 m • • a b c 49 • • m 50 51 • a 5 2 ® 5 3 rj 54 55 §g 5 7 • 58 Q 5 9 a 60 Q 61 m b • b • b • b • b • b • b • b • c • c • c m c • b • b c • • • 23 • b c a • b c • • E n d , p. 3 E n d , p. 4 Page 5 a b c 62 S3 • • a b c 63 • • m a b e 64 m • • a b c 65 • • • a b c 65 • m • a b c 67 • • m a b e 5 3 a • • a b c 69 m • • a b c 7 0 • H O , , a b c 71 • • a „ a b c 7 2 IB • • , , a b c 7 3 a • • 7 J a* b c 7 4 • • B a b c " ^ • • a b c 7 6 a • • a b c 77 m • • a b c 78 • • m a b c 7 9 a • • a b c 8 0 • • S3 a b c 81 m • • E n d , p. 5 Page 6 a b c 82 • • a a b c 8 3 • • H a b c 84 • • m a b c 8 5 m • . • a b c 86 m • • a b c 87 • • m a b c 88 • • m a b c 8 9 B • • 9 0 • • a „ . a b c 9 1 B • • „ „ a b c 9 2 a • • a b ° 9 3 • • a a b c 9 4 • • a a b c 9 5 • • a a b c 9 6 S • • a b c " • • B a b c 98 m • • a b c 9 9 • • S3 1 0 0 B • • a b c 1 ° 1 a • • E n d , p. 6 Page 7 a b c B • • a b c • a n a b c • @ • a b c 0 5 • • a a b c 06 m a o a b c 0 7 a • • a b c os • • a a b c 09 a • • a b c 1 0 • • B a b c 11 • • m a b c 1 2 • • a a b c 13 m • • a b c 1 4 a • • a b c 1 5 • a • a b c i s m • • a b c 1 7 a • • a b c 13 • • @ a b c 1 9 B • • 20 • • m a b c 2 1 a • • E n d , p. 7 Page 8 a b c 122 a • • a b c 1 2 3 • • B a h c 1 2 4 • • 3 a b c 125 a • • a b c 126 • • m a b c 1 2 7 a • • a b c 123 • • m a b c 1 2 9 a • • 130 n 131 m 132 n 133 n 134 4 135 a a 138 r j 137 D 138 rf] 139 rfj 140 g 141 n b • b B) b • b • b • • b • b • b • b • b • b c • c • c • c • c • c c m m c c • Do not wr i te here H S C O R E R a w Std IC 3 1 1 h n tl V 1 7 Z J _ b 3 £—/—. 5" ///-1 3 Jr.-Sr. H.S.P.Q. TEST PROFILE •nme: Age: Se x: Grade in School: Date c D RAW SCORE Form A 5 3 2 3 Form B Total Stan Score 5 3 /o lo 7 7 i t LOW SCORE DESCRIPTION RESERVED, DETACHED, CRITICAL, COOL (Sizothymia) LESS INTELLIGENT, CONCRETE-THINKING (Lower scholastic mental capacity) AFFECTED BY FEELINGS, EMOTIONALLY LESS STABLE, EASILY UPSET, CHANGEABLE (Lower ego strength) PHLEGMATIC, DELIBERATE, INACTIVE, STODGY (Phlegmatic temperament) OBEDIENT, MILD, CONFORMING (Submissiveness) SOBER, PRUDENT, SERIOUS, TACITURN (Desurgency) DISREGARDS RULES, UNDEPENDABLE, BY-PASSES OBLIGATIONS (Weaker superego strength) SHY, RESTRAINED, DIFFIDENT, TIMID (Threctia! TOUGH-MINDED, SELF-RELIANT, REALISTIC, NO-NONSENSE (Harria) VIGOROUS, GOES READILY WITH GROUP, ZESTFUL, GIVEN TO ACTION (Zeppia) SELF-ASSURED, PLACID, SECURE, SERENE (Untroubled adequacy) 3 GROUP-DEPENDENT, A "JOINER" AND SOUND FOLLOWER . (Group adherence) CASUAL, CARELESS OF SOCIAL RULES, UNTIDY, FOLLOWS OWN URGES •': (Low integration) RELAXED, TRANQUIL, TORPID, UNFRUSTRATED (Low ergic tension) -cortd-Order Foctbrs (Optional): Extroversion Anxiety C amments: A sten of by about 2 S T A N D A R D 2 3 4 TEN S C O R E (STEN) 3 6 7 8 I 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 • • • • • . • • • f t HIGH SCORE DESCRIPTION B C D E f i l l I v J • O • • T T t T • OUTGOING, WARMHEARTED, EASY-GOING, PARTICIPATING (Cyclothymia) MORE INTELLIGENT, ABSTRACT-THINKING. BRIGHT (Higher scholastic mental capacity) EMOTIONALLY STABLE, FACES REALITY, CALM (Higher ego strength) EXCITABLE, IMPATIENT, DEMANDING, OVERACTIVE (Excitability) ASSERTIVE, INDEPENDENT, AGGRESSIVE, STUBBORN (Dominance) HAPPY-GO-LUCKY, HEEDLESS, GAY, ENTHUSIASTIC (Surgency) CONSCIENTIOUS, PERSEVERING, STAID, RULE-BOUND (Stronger superego strength) VENTURESOME, SOCIALLY BOLD, UNINHIBITED, SPONTANEOUS (Parmia) TENDER-MINDED, DEPENDENT, OVER-PROTECTED, SENSITIVE . (Premsia) DOUBTING, OBSTRUCTIVE, INDIVIDUALISTIC, REFLECTIVE, INTERNALLY RESTRAINED, (Coasthenia) UNWILLING TO ACT APPREHENSIVE, WORRYING, DEPRESSIVE, TROUBLED (Guilt proneness) SELF-SUFFICIENT, PREFERS OWN DECISIONS, RESOURCEFUL (Self-sufficiency) CONTROLLED, SOCIALLY-PRECISE, SELF-DISCIPLINED, COMPULSIVE (High self-concept control) TENSE, DRIVEN, OVERWROUGHT, FRETFUL (High ergic tension) I 2 3 4 S 3% 4.4% 9.2% 15.0% 19 * 7 • » 10 is obtained 1% 19.1% 15.0% 9.2% 4.4% 2.3% o f teenagers Jr.-Sr. H.S.P.Q. TEST PROFILE ame: Age: Grade in School: Date: _ IX RAW SCORE j FACTO Form A Form B Total Sten Score LOW SCORE DESCRIPTION A IH- I RESERVED, DETACHED, CRITICAL, COOL (Sizothymia) B < 3 LESS INTELLIGENT, CONCRETE-THINKING (Lower scholastic mental capacity) C 7 AFFECTED BY FEELINGS, EMOTIONALLY LESS STABLE, EASILY UPSET, CHANGEABLE (Lower ego strength) D L 3 PHLEGMATIC, DELIBERATE, INACTIVE, STODGY (Phlegmatic temperament) E IX ? OBEDIENT, MILD, CONFORMING (Submissiveness) F a SOBER, PRUDENT, SERIOUS, TACITURN (Desurgency) G l o DISREGARDS RULES, UNDEPENDABLE, BY-PASSES OBLIGATIONS (Weaker superego strength) H 11 7 SHY, RESTRAINED, DIFFIDENT, TIMID (Threctia) i 3 TOUGH-MINDED, SELF-RELIANT, .. REALISTIC, NO-NONSENSE (Harria) J 12. ? VIGOROUS, GOES READILY WITH GROUP, ZESTFUL, GIVEN TO ACTION (Zeppia) 0 lo SELF-ASSURED, PLACID, SECURE, SERENE (Untroubled adequacy) Q2 5" f GROUP-DEPENDENT, A "JOINER" AND SOUND FOLLOWER (Group adherence) Q3 "*$ CASUAL, CARELESS OF SOCIAL RULES, UNTIDY, FOLLOWS OWN URGES (Low integration) Q« -• II 5^ RELAXED, TRANQUIL, TORPID, UNFRUSTRATED (Low ergic tension) • f T { S T A N D A R D TEN SCORE (STEN) —* Avsrag* *— 3 4 5 6 7 8 f 10 m 1; 1: D 8 n H |; o Qz • • • • HIGH SCORE DESCRIPTION f • t • * • t T t • OUTGOING, WARMHEARTED, EASY-GOING, PARTICIPATING ; (Cyclothymia) MORE INTELLIGENT, ABSTRACT-THINKING, BRIGHT (Higher scholastic mental capacity) EMOTIONALLY STABLE, FACES REALITY, CALM (Higher ego strength) EXCITABLE, IMPATIENT, DEMANDING, OVERACTIVE (Excitability) ASSERTIVE, INDEPENDENT, AGGRESSIVE, STUBBORN (Dominance) HAPPY-GO-LUCKY, HEEDLESS, GAY, ENTHUSIASTIC (Surgency) -CONSCIENTIOUS, PERSEVERING, STAID, RULE-BOUND (Stronger superego strength) VENTURESOME, SOCIALLY BOLD, UNINHIBITED, SPONTANEOUS • (Parmia) TENDER-MINDED, DEPENDENT, OVER-PROTECTED, SENSITIVE (Premsia) DOUBTING, OBSTRUCTIVE, INDIVIDUALISTIC, REFLECTIVE, INTERNALLY RESTRAINED, (Coaslhenia) UNWILLING TO ACT APPREHENSIVE, WORRYING, DEPRESSIVE, TROUBLED (Guilt proneness) SELF-SUFFICIENT, PREFERS OWN DECISIONS, RESOURCEFUL. (Self-sufficiency) CONTROLLED, SOCIALLY-PRECISE, SELF-DISCIPLINED, COMPULSIVE (High self-concept control) TENSE, DRIVEN, OVERWROUGHT, FRETFUL (High ergic tension) econd-Order Factors (Optional) Extroversion J I Comments: '  Anxiety A sten of 1 2 by about 2 J % 4.4% 3 4 9 « 9.2% 15.0% 19.1% 19 7 8 » 10 i s obtained 1 % 15.0% 9.2% 4.4% 2.3% of teenagers ihQ APPENDIX J Sportsmanship Preference Record - 11+9 SPORTSMANSHIP PREFERENCE RECORD What -would you do i n a tough s i t u a t i o n ? I n s t r u c t i o n s : Read the paragraph below, then s e l e c t the sentence "below the paragraph which best answers what you t h i n k you would do. DO NOT MARK ON THE TEST QUESTION PAPERS.' Mark your s e l e c t i o n by e n c i r c l i n g the ap p r o p r i a t e l e t t e r on the accompanying answer sheet. Make your c i r c l e s m a l l . These are questions about what you do i n your games and s p o r t s . EXAMPLE: You are team c a p t a i n , i n b a s e b a l l . One of the f i e l d e r s on your team drops a f l y b a l l he should have caught, e a s i l y , t h i n k he i s a f r a i d of the b a l l . What, would you do? Complain to the teacher that t h i s g i r l i s n ' t t r y i n g hard Y e l l at her to catch the next f l y or y o u ' w i l l h i t her. (You wouldn't r e a l l y h i t her but you want to scare her so that she w i l l catch the next one'. ) c. Give her encouragement to catch the next one. d. Say nothing to her. DIRECTIONS: ' Try to put y o u r s e l f in' each of the f o l l o w i n g 20 .tough s i t u a -t i o n s . Think what you would which i s the c l o s e s t to what ber we are not i n t e r e s t e d i n should do --we want to know There are no grades.on t h i s ; honest with y o u r s e l f . do, then p i c k the sentence you think you would do. Remem-knowing what you t h i n k you what you a c t u a l l y would do. i t i s j u s t to see i f you are QUESTIONS: 1. You are p l a y i n g soccer with your team i n the p h y s i c a l education p e r i o d . One of the b i g g i r l s on the other team i s roughing up some of the small e r p l a y e r s on your team. These sm a l l e r p l a y e r s on your team are a f r a i d of t h i s b i g . g i r l so they aren't p l a y i n g as w e l l as they o r d i n a r i l y . d o . Your team i s a c t u a l l y the b e t t e r team, but now you are l o s i n g . You are about the same s i z e as t h i s b i g g i r l on the other team. What would you do? 150 Try hard to win anyway. S t a r t roughing up the l i t t l e p l a y e r s on the other team. If they can do i t to your p l a y e r s , you can do i t to t h e i r p l a y e r s . Let i t go, and i f you lo s e the game"protest to the teache Warn, the b i g g i r l to c u t ' i t out or you W i l l rough her up. The s c h o o l championship v o l l e y b a l l game i s schedule f o r F r i d a y . You are te.am c a p t a i n of one of the teams. One of the best p l a y e r s on the other team i s absent f o r the •game F r i d a y . With t h a t p l a y e r absent your team w i l l probably win the game; i f the absent p l a y e r were able to p l ay i n the game, there i s a good chance that your team would l o s e . Winning t h i s game means a l o t to everyone on your team. There are no spares on e i t h e r team. What would you do?. Play the game F r i d a y so your team would be sure to win. It i s n ' t your f a u l t i f she i s absent. Play the game when the absent p l a y e r can be there to. pl a y . Demand that the game be f o r f e i t e d to your team because the other team hasn't•enough p l a y e r s . Play the game F r i d a y , but have one of your p l a y e r s not pla y so that each team w i l l be equal i n numbers. In a. b a s k e t b a l l game i n which you are p l a y i n g , the umpire did not know the r u l e s too w e l l and made a l o t of mistakes. Most of these mistakes were i n your f a v o r ; because of these mistakes by the umpire, your team i s ahead. What would you do? Say nothing to the umpire about h i s mistakes whether they are f o r or against you. T e l l . t h e umpire to c a l l them f a i r or you w i l l beat him up Leave i t up to the other team to c o r r e c t the umpire's mi s t ake s . As long as the mistakes are i n your f a v o r , don't say anything about them. I f the mistakes are against you, then c o r r e c t them. • Correct a l l mistakes. 151 You have the best b a s k e t b a l l team i n your p h y s i c a l education p e r i o d , but two of your best p l a y e r s were absent f o r a long time, so you l o s t a l l of your games. At about the end of the season teams I and II were t i e d for f i r s t p l a c e . Your good p l a y e r s are back now and your team could e a s i l y beat e i t h e r team I or I I , but you have already l o s t too many, games to win the champ-i o n s h i p . You l i k e the p l a y e r s on team I and d i s l i k e the p l a y e r s on team I I . What would you do i n the remaining games? Lose to team I on purpose and t r y to beat team I I , so the team you l i k e w i l l win the championship. Decide which team i s b e t t e r between team I and team II and l o s e to that, team so that the b e t t e r team of the two w i l l win the championship. Try to beat each team as. badly as you can to prove that you have the best team, even i f you didn't win the championship. Play' as you normally would. Your team i s p l a y i n g . b a s k e t b a l l on an outdoor court. The sun i s low t h i s time of.day and i t shines i n the eyes of the- team that shoots at the west end of the court. You are p l a y i n g a team from another school which hasn't n o t i c e d that the sun w i l l a f f e c t t h e i r s h o oting. The r u l e s don't permit a choice. What would you do? Try to have the game played so that the other team w i l l always face the sun; that way your team w i l l have an advantage. • Try to have the game played so that each team w i l l face the sun h a l f the time. Leave i t up to the o f f i c i a l s ; say nothing about the sun; i t i s the other team's tough luck i f they don't n o t i c e i t Don't say anything to anybody; j u s t leave i t to l u c k . On your b a s k e t b a l l team there i s one g i r l who i s a b e t t e r shot than the r e s t . Your team c a p t a i n has t h i s g i r l stay under the opposing team's basket. The other g i r l s on your team pass the b a l l around u n t i l . t h e y can get the g i r l who i s the good shot c l e a r , then they pass i t to her, and she u s u a l l y makes the basket. Your team has a l o t of team-work p l a y i n g t h i s way, and so f a r your team has won a l l i t s games.' You f e e l you should have a chance to make some of the baskets y o u r s e l f . • Why should one g i r l have a l l the glory? What would you do? 152 a. Take some shots now and then whether the team ca p t a i n l i k e s i t ' or not. b. Play a poor game y o u r s e l f so that the team c a p t a i n w i l l have'to change her methods. . c. Ask the team c a p t a i n to have a team d i s c u s s i o n and vote whether or not to change methods. d. Continue to p l a y as the team c a p t a i n wants you t o . a. b . c . d. Your team l o s t the school championship i n b a s k e t b a l l 3.0 to 28. I t seemed to you that the o f f i c i a l s were c a l l i n g a l o t more fo.uls against your team than they were against the opposing team. You f e e l you had the b e t t e r team and should have won. What would you do? Threaten to take a poke at the o f f i c i a l s . Demand that the game be replayed.. Just l e t i t go. Challenge the winning team to another game chickens i f they don't p l a y . they are You are p l a y i n g v o l l e y b a l l . The score i s t i e d . It i s the opposing team's serve and the b a l l landed near the l i n e i n the back court. You know the b a l l a c t u a l l y h i t o u t s i d e the l i n e , but i t was very c l o s e and most people thought i t h i t i n s i d e the l i n e . What would you do' Say i t was o u t s i d e . Say i t was i n s i d e ; everyone t h i n k s i t was, so why argue. Ask that the serve be re p l a y e d . Say that you didn't see i t and have someone e l s e c a l l i t . . You are p l a y i n g v o l l e y b a l l f o r the school championship. Your team i s ahead by three p o i n t s , but the best servers on the opposing team are coming up. When the b e l l r i n g s the game w i l l end. I t i s four minutes before the b e l l r i n g s . . The other team j u s t made another point,, narrowin; your l e a d to only two p o i n t s . What would you do? Have someone on your team hit. the b a l l way out of the court to s t a l l for. time. Play hard, to get the s t a l l u n t i l the b e l l serve ; r i n g s . then i f you are s t i l l ahead, 153 c. Play hard to get your serve and p l a y hard to keep i t , but give the other team a chance and don't s t a l l . d. Fake an i n j u r y and c a l l time out. e. C a l l a l e g a l time out. 10. You are the best p i t c h e r on your b a s e b a l l team. The team c a p t a i n knows t h i s but she wants to be p i t c h e r h e r s e l f , so she has you play f i r s t base. You want to p i t c h and you don't l i k e f i r s t base. What would you do? a. Refuse to p l a y unless you get to p i t c h . b. Do a pc."' job of p l a y i n g f i r s t base so t h a t you w i l l get changed .to something e l s e . c. Get the other members of your team to t e l l the team ca p t a i n you are the best p i t c h e r . d. Play f i r s t base as best' you can. 11. You and your best f r i e n d are on opposing teams i n the school b a s e b a l l league. You d i s l i k e your team c a p t a i n and most of the p l a y e r s on your team, but a c c o r d i n g to school r u l e s once you are on a team you can't change. You know your best f r i e n d always h i t s to deep center f i e l d , and you see that the center f i e l d e r on your team i s i n too c l o s e . When your best f r i n e d comes to bat what would you do? a. Keep your mouth shut and say nothing to the center f i elder? b. T e l l the center f i e l d e r to play out f a r t h e r , but don't say you know your best friend w i l l probably h i t t h e r e . c. T e l l the center f i e l d e r to play out f a r t h e r , and say your best f r i e n d u s u a l l y h i t s i n deep center. d. T e l l the center f i e l d e r to play i n even c l o s e r to be sure your best f r i e n d gets a h i t . 12. You are p l a y i n g b a s e b a l l during p h y s i c a l education. The team at bat c a l l s the b a l l s and s t r i k e s during t h e i r t u r n at bat. When your team was out i n f i e l d the umpire (who was a member of the other team) c a l l e d a l l the plays i n favor of h i s own team. You know a number of h i s d e c i s i o n s were d e l i b e r a t e l y wrong. Your team i s l o s i n g . Your team i s now up to bat and i t i s your t u r n to umpire. What would you do? 15^ C a l l the d e c i s i o n i n favor of your team l i k e the f e l l o w on the other team d i d . I f they can do i t , you can do i t C a l l i n favor of the other team to prove you are a good sp o r t . C a l l them as you see them, r e g a r d l e s s of what the other t e am does. C a l l i n favor of your team u n t i l your team i s ahead. You are p l a y i n g b a s e b a l l and the opposing team has some p l a y e r s absent, which makes the.teams uneven with your team having the advantage. What would you do? Vo lun.t eer to p1ay f o r the other t e am Volunteer to play for the other t e am as w e l l as you do fo r your t e am. Don't v o l u n t e e r to play f o r them at a l l . Don't play f o r them u n t i l your team i s ahead. You are on a l o s i n g team i n p h y s i c a l education. Your team has never won a game. In b a s e b a l l sometimes the whole p e r i o d w i l l go by and you w i l l never get your ups. P l a y i n g on t h i s team i s no fun at a l l . What would you do Pool around so that the opposing team won't have any fun e i t h e r . Let the other team get a b i g l e a d , and then maybe they w i l l l e t up a l i t t l e and l e t you get your ups. Play as best you can anyway. Refuse to p l a y . Speak to the teacher r e g a r d i n g the team i n e q u a l i t i e s . You are team c a p t a i n i n b a s e b a l l and have a p l a y e r on your team who i s the best b a s e b a l l p l a y e r i n sc h o o l . T h i s g i r l gets a l l the g l o r y and the r e s t of your team never gets c r e d i t f o r anything. Your team could win a l l I t s games even i f t h i s good p l a y e r didn't p l a y . .What would you do? Let her play where she can do the best job. Le.t her play i n only part of the games 155 c. Put her i n r i g h t f i e l d where she couldn't do much. d. T e l l her not to t r y to be a s t a r -- have her l e t up a l i t t l e . 16. You are a p i t c h e r on your b a s e b a l l team. Your team i s p l a y i n g a nearby s c h o o l . You r e a l l y , want to win t h i s game. It i s against t h e . r u l e s to p i t c h side arm, but a b i g league p i t c h e r who l i v e s near you showed you a way to p i t c h s i d e arm that was r e a l hard to d e t e c t . You don't t h i n k the umpire would n o t i c e i t i f you p i t c h e d side arm t h i s way. I f you p i t c h side arm, you know you could win the game. What would you do? a. P i t c h s i d e arm u n t i l the umpire catches you. b. . P i t c h side arm j u s t when the good h i t t e r s are up to bat. c. Don't p i t c h s i d e arm at a l l . d. Don't p i t c h s i d e arm unless you s t a r t to l o s e . 17- You are choosing g i r l s to run on a r e l a y team. You need eight g i r l s and you have chosen the seven f a s t e s t . There are two g i r l s who are equal i n speed and they both want to be the eighth runner. One of the g i r l s i s your best f r i e n d , but she has never run i n a r e l a y b e f o r e . The other g i r l was on the team l a s t year. What would you do? a. Choose your best f r i e n d -- give her a chance. b. Choose the g i r l who i s n ' t your best f r i e n d ; she has more experience. c. Have the two g i r l s f l i p a c o i n to see who runs. d. Ask someone e l s e to choose•between the two g i r l s . e. Alternate, the g i r l s . 18. The school r e c o r d i n the broad jump i s 17 f e e t . You have jumped as f a r as 17'6" t h i s year, but not o f f i c i a l l y . During the f i e l d day when the jumps are made, a mistake i n measuring gave you c r e d i t f o r a jump of 17'2", which made you the new school champ. What would you do? a. T e l l the teacher he mis-measured. b. Let i t go as though you a c t u a l l y jumped 17'2"; you already have jumped f a r t h e r . . . 156 c . Ask the teacher what he t h i n k s you should do. d. Let i t go as though you a c t u a l l y jumped 17'2", and t r y hard to jump f a r t h e r next time. 19. Your school Is sending four g i r l s to run i n a r e l a y at a t r a c k meet. The teacher has s e l e c t e d the four f a s t e s t g i r l s i n the school to run; you were s e l e c t e d as the . f i f t h g i r l s to run i n case any of the f i r s t four g i r l s . were absent. When the meet began one of the four f a s t e s t g i r l s d i d n ' t show up. You had the school, j e r s e y on and were a l l ready to s t a r t the race. At the l a s t minute t h i s absent g i r l a r r i v e s ; you couldn't f i n d the teacher to ask him what to do. What would you do? a. Let the f a s t e r g i r l run. b. Run the race y o u r s e l f ; teach her a l e s s o n to be on time next time. c. Ask the other g i r l s i f they t h i n k you should run i n the race or not. d. Run i n .the race y o u r s e l f ; act as though you don't see the g i r l who was l a t e . 20. You are team c a p t a i n and you hear a g i r l on your team swear. What would you do? a. Let i t go. b. Ask her to cut i t out. c. T e l l the teacher. d. Ask the g i r l to lea v e . 157 APPENDIX K Sportsmanship P r e f e r e n c e Record Answer Key 159 SPORTSMANSHIP PREFERENCE RECORD - Answer Key a -- 5 p o i n t s 11. a -- 2 p o i n t s b -- 0 p o i n t s b -- 3 p.o i nt s c -- 2 p o i n t s c -- 5 p o i n t s d -- 1 p o i n t d -- 0 p o i n t s a -- 0 p o i n t s 12. a -- 1 p o i n t b --"•5 p o i n t s b -- 1 p o i n t c -- 1 p o i n t c -- 5 p o i n t s d -- 3 p o i n t s d -- 1 point a -• 3 p o i n t s ' 1 3 . a -- 5' p o i n t s b -- .0 p o i n t s b -- 1 p o i n t c -• 3 p o i n t s c -- 2 p o i n t s d -- 1 p o i n t d -- 1 p o i n t e -- h p o i n t s a -- 1 p o i n t , l i t . . a -- .1 p o i n t b -- 2 p o i n t s b -- 1 p o i n t c -- 2 p o i nt s c -- 5 p o i n t s d .-- 5 p o i n t s d -- 0 p o i n t s e -- 3 p o i n t s a -• 0 p o i n t s 15. a -• 5 p o i n t s b -- 5 p o i n t s b -- 2 p o i n t s c -- 3 p o i n t s c -- 2 p o i n t s d -- h p o i n t s d -- 2 p o i n t s a -- 0 p o i n t s 16. ' a -- 0 .point s b -- .1 p o i n t b -- 0 p o i n t s c -- 5 p o i n t s c -- 5 p o i n t s d -- k p o i n t s d -- 0 p o i n t s a -- 0 p o i n t s ' IT- a -- 1 p o i n t b -- 1 p o i n t b -- 5 p o i n t s c -- 5 p o i n t s c -- 2 p o i n t s 4 -- 1 p o i n t d -- 2 p o i n t s e -- 3 p o i n t s a -- 5 p o i n t s 18. a -- 5 p o i n t s b -- 1 p o i n t b -- 1 p o i n t c -- 3 p o i n t s c • -- 2 p o i n t s d -- 1 p o i n t d -- 1 p o i n t . a -- 0 p o i n t s 19. a -- 5 p o i n t s b -- 1 poi nt b -- 0 p o i n t s c -- 5 p o i n t s •c -- 3 poi nt s 1 -- 0 point's d -- 0 p o i n t s e -- 3 p o i n t s a -- 0 p o i n t s .20. a -- 1 p o i n t b -- 1 p o i n t b -- 5 p o i n t s c - 3 p o i n t s c -- 2 p o i n t s d -- 5 p o i n t s d -- 3 p o i n t s i 6 o APPENDIX L A t t i t u d e Toward the Coach Scale I b l ATTITUDE TOWARD THE COACH SCALE Answer each item "by e n t e r i n g the ap p r o p r i a t e l e t t e r i n the space p r o v i d e d according to the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e : A. S t r o n g l y agree. B_;_ Agree. C^ Undecided. D. Disagree. S t r o n g l y Disagree. My coach i s admired and res p e c t e d by a l l of hi s p l a y e r s . 2. My coach p r a i s e s h i s men f o r a job w e l l done. 3. My coach ignores o p i n i o n s of those who disagree with him. h. My coach c o n f i d e n t l y handles emergency s i t u a t i o n s . . • . 5. My coach takes a l l the c r e d i t when others do good work. 6. My co ach ig n o r e s ' t h e f e e l i n g s of h i s p i ayers 7- My coach always backs up h i s p l a y e r s . 8 . My coach t r e a t s h i s p l a y e r s u n u s u a l l y w e l l . 9 • ' My coach co n s i d e r s the s a f e t y of h i s p i ayers above a l l el s e. 10. My coach gives i n s t r u c t i o n s t hat are hard to underst and. 11. My coach has the wrong o p i n i o n . o f some of h i s p l a y e r s . 12. My coach has genuine i n t e r e s t i n h i s work. 13'. My coach works hard and welcomes a d d i t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . lk. My coach i s not always f a i r i n judging our . work. • 162 APPENDIX . M L i s t of. P e r s o n a l i t y Tests C i t e d the Review-of L i t e r a t u r e i n NAME OF TEST SOURCE COMMENTS A d j e c t i v e T r a i t Check L i s t I n s t i t u t e of P s y c h o l o g i c a l Research, 3^ - F l e u r y St. West Montreal 357, Que. Canada. A s t a n d a r d i z e d 3 0 0 - a d j e c t i v e l i s t . Used i n p e r s o n a l i t y assessment and psychometric r e s e a r c h . An a t t r a c t i v e p r o f i l e sheet i s i n c l u d e d . Test i s geared f o r a d u l t s . C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l Invent ory I n s t i t u t e of P s y c h o l o g i c a l Research, 3^ F l e u r y St. West Montreal 357, Que. Canada. A ^80-item t r u e - f a l s e q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r normal i n d i v i d u a l s , based on the Minn-esota M u l t i p h a s i s Inventory. The CPI o f f e r s a combination of f e a t u r e s which, j u s t i f y i t s d e s c r i p t i o n as "a new achieve-ment i n p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t i n g " . Geared f o r older adolescents and.adults. C a t t e l l S i x t e e n P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I n s t i t u t e of P s y c h o l o g i c a l Research, 3^ F l e u r y St. West Montreal 357, Que. Canada. The S i x t e e n P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r Questionn-a i r e are o b j e c t i v e l y - s c o r a b l e t e s t s devised by b a s i c r e s e a r c h i n psychology to give the most complete coverage of p e r s o n a l i t y p o s s i b l e i n a b r i e f time. Coverage of p e r s o n a l i t y i s ensured by the s i x t e e n f u n c t i o n a l l y independent and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y meaningful dimensions i s o l a t e d by over twenty years of f a c t o r a n a l y t i c r e s e a r c h on mormal and c l i n i c a l groups. The range i s for young a d u l t s and' adults (15 years and o v e r ) . C a t t e l l J r . - S r High School P e r s o n a l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (HSPQ) I n s t i t u t e of P s y c h o l o g i c a l Research, 3h F l e u r y St. West Montreal 357, Que. Canada. Assesses major aspects of the teenager's p e r s o n a l i t y . A m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l t e s t g i v i n g scores on fourteen f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , emotional m a t u r i t y , anxiety l e v e l , superego s t r e n g t h , e x t r o -v e r s i o n , e t c . The range i s ages 11 or 12 to 17 or 18. NAME OF TEST SOURCE COMMENTS Ch i l d r e n ' s P e r s o n a l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (CPQ) I n s t i t u t e of P s y c h o l o g i c a l Research, 3k F l e u r y St. West, Montreal 357, Que. Canada. The o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s of the c h i l d ' s i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y f u r n i s h e d by the t e s t r e s u l t s supplements other a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . Each o f the two t e s t p a r t s can be given i n a c l a s s p e r i o d to a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l or to groups. The CPQ c o n s i s t s of f o u r t e e n s c a l e s , each measuring a dimension whose . f u n c t i o n a l l y independent nature has been e s t a b l i s h e d by f a c t o r -a n a l y t i c r e s e a r c h . The range i s ages 8 - 12. Edward's Personal Preference Schedule I n s t i t u t e of P s y c h o l o g i c a l Research, 3^ F l e u r y St. West, Montreal 357, Que. Canada. A f o r c e d - c h o i c e i n v e n t o r y designed to show the r e l a t i v e importance w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l of f i f t e e n key needs or motives. Minimizes the n a t u r a l tendency of examinees to choose f a c e -s a v i n g or s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e responses U s e f u l i n p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g and p e r s o n a l i t y r e s e a r c h . The range i s c o l l e g e students and a d u l t s . Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and Inventory I n s t i t u t e of P s y c h o l o g i c a l Research, 3^ F l e u r y St. West, Montreal 357, Que. Canada. Two short , e a s i l y - a d m i n i s t e r e d i n v e n -t o r i e s designed to measure eight aspects of p e r s o n a l i t y . The range i s high s c h o o l and above. G u i l d f o r d -Zimmerman Temperament S urvey Sheridan Supply Co. , Beve r l y H i l l s , C a l i f o r n i a , U.S.A. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Test Centre has the t e s t but no manual. Test i s 191+9- The catalogues c o n s u l t e d do not have i t l i s t e d , t h e r e f o r e , i t may be d i s c o n t i n u e d . NAME OF TEST SOURCE . COMMENTS Minnesota Mult i phas i c P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory • I n s t i t u t e of P s y c h o l o g i c a l Research, 3^ F l e u r y St. West, Montreal 357, Que. Canada. A d i a g n o s t i c instrument c o n s t r u c t e d e n t i r e l y on the b a s i s of c l i n i c a l c r i t e r i a . Ten s c a l e s i n c l u d i n g hypo-c h o n d r i a s i s , .depression, h y s t e r i a , p a r a n o i a , s c h i z o p h r e n i a , hypomania, etc. The range i s ol d e r adolescents and adult s. Omnibus P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory I n s t i t u t e of P s y c h o l o g i c a l Research, 3^ F l e u r y St. West, Montreal 357, Que. Canada. A 385-item i n v e n t o r y with f o u r t e e n s c a l e s designed to assess s e l e c t e d c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s of human behaviour, c h i e f l y i n the areas of normal e g o - f u n c t i o n i n g and i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y . Although norms are a v a i l a b l e only f o r c o l l e g e freshmen, i t i s expected that the OPI w i l l . b e u s e f u l f o r both r e s e a r c h and c o u n s e l l i n g with- college-bound high school j u n i o r s and s e n i o r s . The range i s f o r o l d e r adolescents and young a d u l t s . Thurstone Temperament Schedule I n s t i t u t e of 'Psychological Research, 3I+ F l e u r y St. West, Montreal 357, Que. Canada. No i n f o r m a t i o n i n catalogue. A l l of the of B r i t i s h above t e s t s can Columbia, Angus be obtained on loan from the Psychology Test Centre,. U n i v e r s i t y B u i l d i n g . 

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