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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A descriptive case study of selected recreation commissions Gordon, Terence Ian 1970

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A DESCRIPTIVE CASE STUDY OF SELECTED RURAL RECREATION  COMMISSIONS  by TERENCE IAN GORDON B.A. (P.E.) U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan, 1964  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the S c h o o l of Physical  Education  and Recreation  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming required  to the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1970  In  presenting  this  thesis  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e the L i b r a r y I  further  for  agree  scholarly  by h i s of  shall  this  written  at  the U n i v e r s i t y  make i t  tha  freely  permission  fulfilment  of  of  Columbia,  representatives. thesis  for  It  British  available  gain  the  requirements  reference copying  of  shall  that  not  copying  or  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  April,  1970  Columbia  and this  and R e c r e a t i o n  for that  study. thesis or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  permission.  Physical Education  I agree  by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  is understood  financial  for  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  Department o f  Date  in p a r t i a l  my  ABSTRACT  Faced certain  with  rural  struggle f o r their  R e c r e a t i o n Commissions  are examining responsible  a constant  their  purposes  This  case  study  in British  and f u n c t i o n s a s  for recreational  existence, Columbia  agencies  programmes.  o f seven  selected  rural  Recreation  C o m m i s s i o n s was  undertaken  certain  o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f t h e s e  aspects  commissions The by  i n serving small populations. C o m m i s s i o n s were s e l e c t e d  t h e Community  met  specific  standards,  Programmes  criteria  C o m m i s s i o n was  less  than  five  than  five  hundred  Following  a second  completed reports  compiled  and w h i c h that  each  Branch  i n nature.  The  populations  p o p u l a t i o n s o f more  A l l Commissions  s t u d i e d were  areas. an i n t e r v i e w i n g p r o c e d u r e selected  phase c o n s i s t i n g  by each Commission  were  and r u r a l  and t h r e e w i t h  people.  summer o f 1967 w i t h and  operated  Programmes  consisted of four with  hundred  unincorporated  a list  Branch Consultants  a c t i v e b y Community  selected  from  assuring the i n v e s t i g a t o r  voluntarily  Commissions  in  t o e x a m i n e and t o a n a l y s e  prepared.  during the  members o f e a c h of a mailed collectively,  Commission  questionnaire case  study  In t h e a n a l y s i s a breakdown o f elements r e l a t e d t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f the Commissions and t h e i r operation  was completed.  T h i s a n a l y s i s determined  the b a s i c causes o f t h e Commission § 3 shortcomings and whose s t r u g g l e i s merely a m a n i f e s t a t i o n  of greater  problems.  S u g g e s t i o n s a r e then made f o r c o r r e c t i n g t h e p i t falls  t h a t these Commissions have found themselves i n ,  with s p e c i f i c reference  made t o proper o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  s t r u c t u r e , d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l needs o f t h e people represented,  l e a d e r s h i p development, and b u d g e t i n g and  finance. Finally,  a suggestion  i s o u t l i n e d f o r a reorgan-  i z a t i o n o f r u r a l Commissions i n u n i n c o r p o r a t e d  areas such  as those s t u d i e d , under t h e a u t h o r i t y o f R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s . In t h i s way many problems common t o r u r a l  recreation  Commissions such as those s t u d i e d may be overcome.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  The volunteer time d a i l y iences  w r i t e r w i s h e s t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e many leaders  in British  tireless,  C o l u m b i a , who g i v e o f t h e i r  i n p r o v i d i n g r e c r e a t i o n , and r e c r e a t i o n e x p e r -  f o r others. Many t h a n k s a r e g i v e n  by  faculty  in  the School  University  a l s o to the guidance  members i n t h e A d u l t  Education  of Physical Education  of British  Columbia.  provided  D e p a r t m e n t and  and R e c r e a t i o n  at the  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I  PAGE THE STUDY  1  Introduction . . . o o . . . . . . . The Purpose  1 •  2  Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3  Method  3  Population  . . . . . .  S e l e c t i o n o f Commissions  Studied  . •  3 3  Sources o f Data . .  5  Interview Schedule. .  5  C o l l e c t i v e O p i n i o n Data Sheet  II  Questionnaire  8  Treatment o f Data  8  S u b j e c t i v e A n a l y s i s o f Data . . . .  8  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study . . . . .  9  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Used  12  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE  14  L i t e r a t u r e P e r t a i n i n g to Recreation Surveys i n the P a c i f i c Northwest  . .  L i t e r a t u r e R e l a t e d t o Canadian S t u d i e s .  14 27  L i t e r a t u r e R e l a t e d t o R e c r e a t i o n Boards and Commissions Structure  - G e n e r a l Purpose and 29'.  CHAPTER  PAGE L i t e r a t u r e R e l a t e d to Other O r g a n i z a t i o n s References . . . . . .  III  .o  41 45  CASE STUDY REPORTS  48  Commissions S e r v i n g P o p u l a t i o n s Up t o F i v e Hundred People . . . . . . . . .  48  Boswell  49  Cherryville  52  Decker Lake  . . . . . . . . . . . .  55  White Lake  57  Commissions S e r v i n g P o p u l a t i o n s Over F i v e Hundred People . . . . . . . .  60  C h e r r y Creek  60  Lac L a Hache  ••  62  Thornhill IV.  64  ANALYSIS  67  Organization  67  Budget and F i n a n c e  . . . . . . . . .  69  C o n s i d e r i n g Need .  69  Resources  . . . . . . . . .  70  Programme  . . . . . . .  73  Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B r i t i s h Columbia R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n Community Programmes Branch V.  CONCLUSIONS AND  RECOMMENDATIONS  73 .  73 77 78  CHAPTER  PAGE Commission S t r u c t u r e Determining Leadership Budgeting  t h e Needs  78 ' .  80 81  •  82  and F i n a n c e  83  Regional D i s t r i c t s References  •  88  BIBLIOGRAPHY  89  APPENDICIES  90  A.  The P e r s o n a l I n t e r v i e w Schedule  91  B.  Guidelines f o r Construction of Personal  C.  I n t e r v i e w Schedule  93  References  96  C o l l e c t i v e O p i n i o n Data Sheet Questionnaire  D.  Master Datai Sheets  •  97 103  LIST OF TABLES  TABLE I. II.  PAGE Commissions  Studied  . . . . . . . . .  A n a l y s i s of Structure  6  and Elements o f  Organization  68  III.  A n a l y s i s o f Resources  71  IV.  A n a l y s i s o f Programme  74  A n a l y s i s o f Expressed Problem . . . .  75  V.  LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE I  PAGE  Geographical Studied  L o c a t i o n o f Commissions 7  CHAPTER I I . INTRODUCTION  Approximately  t h r e e hundred and t w e n t y - f i v e  communities i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia  have  e s t a b l i s h e d , through p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t y , R e c r e a t i o n Commissions, f o r the purpose recreational  of organizing  services.  Much o f the s u c c e s s o f a r e c r e a t i o n park department depends on the d i r e c t i o n p r o v i d e d by i t s p o l i c y - m a k i n g board and the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s k i l l o f i t s e x e c u t i v e . Indeed, the g o v e r n i n g b o d i e s t h a t c o n t r o l the r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e , be they named commissions o r boards, have a t r a d i t i o n a l and important p a r t t o p l a y i n d e t e r m i n i n g the type and q u a l i t y o f p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n and park programmes and s e r v i c e s . . . . such b o d i e s have degrees o f a u t h o r i t y , some h a v i n g complete and independent p o l i c y making a u t h o r i t y , and o t h e r s h a v i n g o n l y an advisory function. * The Department o f E d u c a t i o n o f the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  has e s t a b l i s h e d a s e p a r a t e branch f o r  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f p u b l i c programmes. body, the Community Programmes Branch,  Through  service i s given  to communities e s t a b l i s h i n g p u b l i c programmes recreation.  The Branch  this  involving  also provides professional advice,  r e n d e r e d through R e g i o n a l C o n s u l t a n t s , whose purpose  i t is  to s t i m u l a t e a c t i v e l y the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f the p r o v i n c e , and the c i t i z e n s a l i k e .  The f u n c t i o n s o f the Branch,  as s t a t e d  i n i t s p u b l i c a t i o n a r e as f o l l o w s : (1)  2  2  To s t i m u l a t e l o c a l i n t e r e s t i n r e c r e a t i o n of a l l kinds. To a s s i s t communities t o d e v e l o p programmes s u i t e d t o t h e i r own needs and i n t e r e s t s . To encourage l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f such programmes, and t o ensure a maximum degree o f l o c a l c o n t r o l over them. To p r o v i d e a c o n s u l t a t i v e and advisement s e r v i c e i n r e c r e a t i o n m a t t e r s f o r communities and i n t e r e s t e d groups w i t h i n them.  (2) (3) (4)  Recently,  several Recreation  Commissions,  n i z e d by, and r e c e i v i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e Community Programmes Branch, and s p e c i f i c a l l y to the B r i t i s h Columbia R e c r e a t i o n been examining t h e i r purposes.  recog-  from the belonging  A s s o c i a t i o n , have  T h e i r concern l i e s i n  a t t e m p t i n g t o d e l i n e a t e problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the operation  o f t h e i r community r e c r e a t i o n programmes.  In  so d e l i n e a t i n g these problems, i t i s hoped t h a t the Commissions i n q u e s t i o n  may be a b l e t o f u n c t i o n more  e f f i c i e n t l y i n s a t i s f y i n g the r e c r e a t i v e needs o f the c i t i z e n s they  represent.  I I THE PURPOSE The  purpose o f t h i s study i s t o examine a s e l e c t e d  number o f r e c r e a t i o n commissions i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i n order  t o a n a l y s e c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e commission's  organization  and o p e r a t i o n  i n serving small  populations  3 In  examining t h e s e commissions, i t i s hoped t o d e t e r m i n e : a.  The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Commissions.  b.  The Commission's  role  to b e t t e r f u l f i l l  i n helping people  t h e i r r e c r e a t i v e needs.  c.  Problems i n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f programmes.  d.  How w e l l Commissions of  identify  the needs  the p e o p l e .  Ill  PROCEDURE  Method 3 The Case Study Method  as d e s c r i b e d by Mouly *  was s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . Population The p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s  study c o n s i s t e d o f seven  r e c r e a t i o n commissions, l o c a t e d i n r u r a l  areas and i n  unorganized or unincorporated t e r r i t o r i e s . S e l e c t i o n o f Commissions  Studied  The Community Programmes Branch, Department o f E d u c a t i o n , has e s t a b l i s h e d seven r e g i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e for  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes.  With t h e s e r e g i o n s , the  Branch i s a b l e t o r e n d e r more e f f e c t i v e l y  the s e r v i c e s  which i t c o n s i d e r s e s s e n t i a l i n e f f i c i e n t programme  4 direction,.  The  r e g i o n a l areas  Vancouver Fraser  are:  Island  Valley -  Sechelt  Okanagan V a l l e y Central B r i t i s h  Columbia  North - West B r i t i s h  Columbia  North - E a s t B r i t i s h  Columbia  Kootenays The  Community Programmes Branch p r o v i d e s a con-  s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e f o r each o f the Communities i n these regions  through a R e g i o n a l C o n s u l t a n t .  Commissions from each r e g i o n a l a r e a was  A list  of  compiled  with  the  guidance o f the C o n s u l t a n t i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n  and  the f i n a l  was  based on 1.  s e l e c t i o n o f the Commissions to be the f o l l o w i n g  A subjective community's  2.  studied  criteria.  a p p r a i s a l as to  the  accessibility.  A minimum o f f i v e a c t i v e members on  the  Commission. 3.  The  community e x i s t s i n a r u r a l area,  any  real influence  of a metropolitan  beyond area.  I n f l u e n c e here means t h a t the c i t i z e n s a c h i e v e the m a j o r i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s w i t h i n the community i t s e l f , and do not seek r e c r e a t i o n i n o t h e r communities t o any g r e a t e x t e n t .  5 4.  The Commission i s a c t i v e , as determined Community Programme Branch  5.  Standards.  The Commission does not possess a f u l l - t i m e recreation  The  director.  seven s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r  w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s o f l e s s than f i v e hundred  people,  t h r e e w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s o f more than f i v e hundred All  by  and  people.  seven commissions were from u n i n c o r p o r a t e d com-  m u n i t i e s . ( T a b l e I , F i g u r e 1) Sources of Data The d a t a f o r the study were g a t h e r e d by p e r s o n a l visits  t o each community and i n t e r v i e w s were conducted  w i t h s e l e c t e d members o f each Commission. work was  done i n the summer o f  Interview  field  1967.  Schedule  An I n t e r v i e w Schedule to  The  (Appendix A) was c o n s t r u c t e d  r e c o r d d a t a c o l l e c t e d from the members o f the R e c r e a t i o n  Commissions i n each community.  C e r t a i n g u i d e l i n e s were  f o l l o w e d i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s schedule and are  listed The  *  i n Appendix  these  B.  i n t e r v i e w s schedule assured c o n s i s t e n c y i n the  A c t i v e Commissions are those t h a t f i l e q u a r t e r l y r e p o r t s w i t h the Branch, and s u b s e q u e n t l y q u a l i f y f o r q u a r t e r l y f i n a n c i a l grants.  TABLE I  COMMISSIONS  GROUP I : COMMISSIONS  STUDIED  SERVING POPULATIONS UP TO FIVE  HUNDRED PEOPLE Commission  District Location  Studied  Number o f Members Population  Interviewed  On Commission  Boswell  Nelson  160  3  5  Cherryville  Kelowna  275  5  7  Decker Lake  Smithers  350  5  8  White Lake  Kamloops  110  5  5  GROUP I I :  COMMISSIONS  SERVING POPULATIONS OVER FIVE  HUNDRED PEOPLE Commission Studied  District. Population  Interviewed  Island  1,900  4  10  Lac L a Hache  Kamloops  2,200  5  8  Thornhill  Smithers  2,500  5  9  Cherry  Creek  Location  Number o f Members On Commission  Vancouver  Figure  V  Geographical Location o f Commissions S t u d i e d 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  BRITISH COLUMBIA MAIN HIGHWAYS, CITIES 8 TOWNS O IQ A3 JD TO  DOMINION MAP LIMITED 626 HOWE ST., VANCOUVER B.C.  I  Boswell Cherryville Decker Lake White Lake Cherry Creek L a c L a Hache Thornhill  p a t t e r n o f i n t e r v i e w i n g and  i n the r e c o r d i n g o f  S e v e r a l "open-ended" q u e s t i o n s  data.  were i n c l u d e d i n the  Schedule t o permit the e l a b o r a t i o n o f c e r t a i n w i t h o u t r e s t r i c t i n g the n a t u r e o f the  responses  information  collected. C o l l e c t i v e Opinion Following  Data Sheet  Questionaire  c o m p l e t i o n o f the i n t e r v i e w phase o f  the  study, a q u e s t i o n a i r e  and  mailed  (Appendix C) was  constructed,  t o each o f the Commissions v i s i t e d t o  r e s p o n s e s r e f l e c t i n g the c o l l e c t i v e o p i n i o n o f members.  Each Commission was  i o n s posed and commission.  get  commission  asked to d i s c u s s the  quest-  t o check the c o l l e c t i v e response o f  T h i s procedure was  check o f the c o l l e c t e d  introduced  the  to provide  o p i n i o n o f the Commissions  a  against  the p r i v a t e o p i n i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l members i n c e r t a i n matters. Treatment o f Data Case Study Reports f o r each community were p r e pared from the d a t a c o l l e c t e d . r e p o r t s was (Appendix  a i d e d by  the use  The  compilation  o f these  o f Master Data S h e e t s .  D).  S u b j e c t i v e A n a l y s i s o f Data The  d a t a from b o t h the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s  and  the q u e s t i o n a i r e s were t a b u l a t e d on Master Data S h e e t s .  In o r d e r  t o determine the p r i m a r y and  secondary problems  i d e n t i f i e d by Commission members, a s u b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s of responses to c e r t a i n questions blems c a t a g o r i z e d Further  and  recorded  a n a l y s i s was  was  made and  pro-  on the Master Data Sheets,  completed on the  elements t h a t are c o n s i d e r e d  the  various  p e r t i n e n t t o proper Board  o r Commission f u n c t i o n i n g under the f o l l o w i n g h e a d i n g s : 1.  Organizational  Structure  - Forum -  Operation  - P o l i c i e s - By Laws - Needs o f the People 2.  Resources  3.  Programme  4.  Budget and  5. 6.  Considered  Finance  Leadership Current  Problems  A comparison o f statements by those r e p r e s e n t i n g  i n d i v i d u a l s with  the c o l l e c t i v e o p i n i o n o f the Commiss-  i o n s as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body produced i n f o r m a t i o n was  that  used i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the Case Study R e p o r t s .  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the  Study  Whereas the n a t u r e o f the study n e c e s s i t a t e d visits  to remote r u r a l areas o f the p r o v i n c e , c e r t a i n  limitations cipated caused Since  were i n h e r e n t  "Forest Fire  Risk"  several delays the study  i n i t s conception. during  c e r t a i n members o f t h o s e  unanti-  t h e summer o f 1967,  and p o s t p o n e m e n t s i n  was c o n d u c t e d  An  during  Commissions  proceedings.  t h e summer  months  s e l e c t e d f o r study  w e r e n o t a v a i l a b l e due t o a b s e n c e f r o m t h e a r e a . in  Commission  personnel,  resulted i n interviews  Changes with  some  p e r s o n s n e w l y e l e c t e d t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n who w e r e n o t always very structure  knowledgeable  about t h e Commission  and o p e r a t i o n s .  P e r h a p s t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t was t h a t d u r i n g that  to understand  communicate this  the course  limitation  o f the study  their  limitation  encountered  i t became  t h e C o m m i s s i o n members v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y  ability  and i t s  i n their  and i n t e r p r e t t h e q u e s t i o n s  responses.  and t h e d a t a  Consideration  apparent  and t o  was g i v e n t o  and c o n c l u s i o n s  analyzed  are  based on t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1.  Responses s t a t e d  and e x p r e s s e d  s u b j e c t s who, b y t h e i r were a b l e , recognize 2.  nature  by the and a b i l i t y ,  to i n t e r p r e t the questions pertinent  and  facts.  Responses recorded  that revealed  information  w h i c h were s u b j e c t  tointerpretation.  10  Responses  r e c o r d e d t h a t were  eventually  i n t e r p r e t e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r and sequent a n a l y s i s , t o be judged and c l u d e d as a f a c t o f a p a r t i c u l a r  subcon-  Commission,  11  IV DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED  (1) Community Programmes Branch - A Branch o f t h e D e p a r t ment o f E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h  Columbia,  which i s an agency o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l government, o r g a n i z e d t o g i v e l e a d e r s h i p and a s s i s t a n c e i n h e l p i n g communities e s t a b l i s h r e c r e a t i o n programmes. (2)  Community Programmes Branch C o n s u l t a n t s - P r o f e s s i o n a l P e r s o n n e l , employed by the Community  Pro-  grammes Branch, who l e n d a d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e t o p u b l i c agencies  and communities i n t e r e s t e d i n Rec-  reation. (3)  B r i t i s h Columbia R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n - An organi z a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g o f member Commissions who have as a common i n t e r e s t , the d e s i r e t o c o - o r d i n a t e c e r t a i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the province, and which, by i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l n a t u r e , i s a b l e t o r e p r e s e n t t h e Commissions i n e x p r e s s i n g common o b j e c t i v e s , problems, and i n f o r m a t i o n , so t h a t c o l l e c t i v e o p i n i o n s may be e x p r e s s e d .  A volunteer  organization. (4) I n c o r p o r a t e d  (unincorporated) Area or T e r r i t o r y  4  "  Sec. 9 M u n i c i p a l A c t - The L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l upon r e c e i p t o f a s u f f i c i e n t p e t i t i o n and a f t e r a f a v o u r a b l e v o t e , may be L e t t e r s Patent i n c o r p o r a t e t h e r e s i d e n t s o f any a r e a o f  -12 land i n unorganized t e r r i t o r y i n t o a municipality. Sec. 17 ( ( D ) Every m u n i c i p a l i t y i n c o r p o r a t e d o r r e i n c o r p o r a t e d under t h i s a c t s h a l l be a c o r p o r a t i o n under the name o f " " as the case may be, w i t h a l l r i g h t s and l i a b i l i t i e s o f a c o r p o r a t i o n , and has f u l l power t o a c q u i r e by purchase, l e a s e , o r o t h e r w i s e and t o h o l d r e a l p r o p e r t y , and t o s e l l o r l e a s e r e a l p r o p e r t y , s u b j e c t t o the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s a c t , and l i k e - w i s e t o a c q u i r e , h o l d s e l l o r l e a s e p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y and t o c o n t r a c t f o r m a t e r i a l s and s e r v i c e s . ( ( 2 ) ) Except as o t h e r wise p r o v i d e d i n t h i s o r any o t h e r a c t , the powers o f a m u n i c i p a l i t y s h a l l be e x e r c i s e d by the c o u n c i l . (5)  Community Club A homogeneous group o f persons concerned  with  the development and improvement o f r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s and  facilities  Frequently  i n a g i v e n neighbourhood o r d i s t r i c t .  i s s o c i a l i n n a t u r e and o f t e n  f i n a n c i a l l y and o t h e r w i s e ,  supplements,  the e f f o r t s o f a e s t a b l i s h e d  r e c r e a t i o n a u t h o r i t y o r agency. ^*  REFERENCES  Rodney, Lynn S., A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n , New York, The Ronald Press Company, 1964, p. 95. Department o f E d u c a t i o n , Community Programmes Branch, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, A. S u t t o n , P r i n t e r to the Queen's Most E x c e l l e n t Majesty, 1963, p. 4. Mouly, George J . , The S c i e n c e o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research, New York, American Book Company, 1963, pp. 354-361. Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia, M u n i c i p a l A c t , V i c t o r i a , P r i n t e d by A. S u t t o n , P r i n t e r to the Queen's Most E x c e l l e n t M a j e s t y , 1962, Chapter 255. Meyer, H a r o l d D., and B r i g h t b i l l , C h a r l e s K., Community R e c r e a t i o n , Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1956, pp. 480-481.  14 CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The research  related l i t e r a t u r e included  an a p p r a i s a l o f  undertaken i n r u r a l r e c r e a t i o n o f B r i t i s h  Columbia, and o t h e r P a c i f i c North-West r e g i o n s ,  local  r e c r e a t i o n commissions and t h e i r b a s i c s t r u c t u r e , t h e structure of Recreation examples o f v o l u n t e e r For  Commissions and Boards, and some  organizations  i n other  disciplines.  the purpose o f t h i s study, the review o f  l i t e r a t u r e i s broken down i n t o f o u r d i s t i n c t b u t r e l a t e d categories. 1.  L i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to recreation and  surveys  o t h e r p e r t i n e n t work undertaken i n  B r i t i s h Columbia and the P a c i f i c North-West. 2.  L i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o Canadian  3.  L i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to Recreation and  studies. Commissions  Boards, p e r t a i n i n g t o s t r u c t u r e ,  organ-  i z a t i o n and p u r p o s e s . 4.  L i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o other  organizations.  I . LITERATURE PERTAINING TO RECREATION SURVEYS IN THE PACIFIC NORTH-WEST A review o f p e r t i n e n t  l i t e r a t u r e has r e v e a l e d  a  15 v a r i e t y of studies p e r t a i n i n g to Recreation  Commissions  as a g e n c i e s w i t h i n s p e c i f i e d communities, b o t h ally  and l o c a l l y w i t h i n the P r o v i n c e  However, these s t u d i e s r e p r e s e n t  region-  o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  the e f f o r t s o f i n d i v i d u a l  i n v e s t i g a t o r s t o d e l i n e a t e the problems a s s o c i a t e d i n given  communities r e l a t i n g  the R e c r e a t i o n  Commission  as  a s o c i a l force or organizational influence within a community.  Since  t h i s paper examines  o f the Commission's  organization  a c e r t a i n aspects  and o p e r a t i o n  to deter-  mine the needs o f t h e commission, i t s r o l e i n h e l p i n g people t o f u l f i l l  t h e i r r e c r e a t i v e needs, and  problems i n the o p e r a t i o n  other  o f programmes, i t was  felt  t h a t s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d s t u d i e s i n t h i s a r e a were worthy of n o t a t i o n .  While many a u t h o r i t i e s have b r o a d l y  b a s i s p r i n c i p l e s p e r t a i n i n g to t h i s aspect  stated  o f community  r e c r e a t i o n , o n l y r e l a t e d cases are i n c l u d e d  herein.  In a study p e r t a i n i n g t o a l o c a l r e c r e a t i o n s u r vey,  Hopkins  * concluded t h a t because the c i t i z e n s want  r e c r e a t i o n , community p l a n n i n g  i s essential.  He f u r t h e r  c o n c l u d e d t h a t the community expressed a need f o r adequate areas and f a c i l i t i e s ,  and hence, a "master p l a n " f o r the  development o f the community. A study o f the r e c r e a t i o n a u t h o r i t y i n the C i t y 2 o f Edmonton, A l b e r t a by F a r i n a *, r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t  16 f i n d i n g a p p l i c a b l e to that c i t y . p r i n c i p l e that there  should  ation co-ordinating  T h i s f i n d i n g i s the  e x i s t one  community  organiz-  the r e c r e a t i o n programme o f a com-  munity, w h i l e i t acknowledges the f a c t t h a t more than one  agency may  e x i s t and  which c o n t r i b u t e s  munity i n t o t a l r e c r e a t i o n .  This  to the com-  study r e l a t e s to  the  r e c r e a t i o n a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n a community o f a l a r g e r urban a r e a , but  i t i s f e l t t h a t the f i n d i n g s are  significant  i n l i g h t o f the f a c t t h a t s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s may  occur  i n r u r a l communities as w e l l . Another study undertaken i n a B r i t i s h urban area  i n 1956,  by Belshaw, C u l l i e and  recommended the e s t a b l i s h m e n t f o r the  within a defined the  community and  Currie  of a Recreation  purposes o f c o - o r d i n a t i n g  Columbia 3  Commission  recreation services  district.  A summary o f  study's p e r t i n e n t recommendations i s o u t l i n e d  b e l o w , * as an a i d t o the 4  taken i n t h i s  s o l u t i o n of the  problems under-  study.  SUMMARY OF MAIN RECOMMENDATIONS 1.  That a R e c r e a t i o n Commission be a p p o i n t e d j o i n t l y by the D i s t r i c t and the C i t y , c o n s i s t i n g o f members r e p r e s e n t i n g the D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l , the C i t y C o u n c i l , the e l e c t o r s . « . , the Community C e n t r e s , the Community Chest and C o u n c i l , v o l u n t a r y r e c r e a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l organi z a t i o n s , the School Board, and ( v a r i o u s ) I n d i a n Bands.  2.  That such a Commission be charged w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f p u b l i c p a r k s , the s u p e r v i s i o n o f Community C e n t r e s , l i b r a r i e s , r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , and w i t h the promotion o f c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the S c h o o l Board i n such m a t t e r s and o f g r e a t e r c o - o r d i n a t i o n among v o l u n t a r y associations.  3.  I n view o f the almost complete d e a r t h o f p r e - s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s and o f . . . , immediate s t e p s s h o u l d be taken t o expand these where c i t i z e n s agree as t o r e q u i r e m e n t s .  In e s t a b l i s h i n g a frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h ment o f a R e c r e a t i o n Commission,  this report set forth  i n i t s recommendations ^* a form o f o r g a n i z a t i o n the commission  which  s h o u l d t a k e , "which would meet most o f  the p o i n t s r a i s e d  ( p r e v i o u s l y ) and would be a s :  In o u r view, t h e r e s h o u l d be a Commission, which would be named a R e c r e a t i o n Commission, a p p o i n t e d under the a u t h o r i t y o f the m u n i c i pality. A p o s s i b l e form o f o r g a n i z a t i o n which would meet most o f the p o i n t s r a i s e d i n t h i s r e p o r t would be as f o l l o w s :  (1)  Two members each o f the D i s t r i c t and C i t y C o u n c i l r e s p e c t i v e l y , one o f whom t o be e l e c t e d Chairman.  (2)  Two members t o be e l e c t e d by the e l e c t o r s o f ( t h e d i s t r i c t ) , the e l e c t i o n t o be c a r r i e d o u t a t the same time as and i n a s i m i l a r way t o e l e c t i o n s t o the S c h o o l Board.  (3)  One member from each o f the f o r m a l l y cons t i t u t e d Community C e n t r e s .  (4)  Two members t o be nonimated from N o r t h Shore R e s i d e n t s by the Community Chest and C o u n c i l , on the assumption t h a t Community Chest fund are t o be i n v e s t e d i n Community C e n t r e s and s i m i l a r r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes.  18 (5)  Two members nominated tp r e p r e s e n t the p o i n t o f view o f v o l u n t a r y r e c r e a t i o n a l and e d u c a t ional organizations. The Community Programmes Branch suggests an A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l c o n s i s t i n g o f d e l e g a t e s from such groups. Our c o n c e p t i o n would be t h a t the main f u n c t i o n o f such an A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l would be to e l e c t these members.  (6)  One  (7)  One member each r e p r e s e n t i n g the Bands o f I n d i a n s r e s p e c t i v e l y .  member r e p r e s e n t i n g  the School  Board. (various)  I t i s our c o n c e p t i o n t h a t t h e r e should be but one R e c r e a t i o n Commission f o r the C i t y , D i s t r i c t , and I n d i a n Reserves combined. We know t h a t t h e r e may be p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o b j e c t i o n s t o t h i s , but we f e e l t h a t i t i s no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e t o t h i n k i n terms o f a s o c i a l s e p a r a t e n e s s o f the C i t y and D i s t r i c t . Further, i t cannot be assumed on any grounds t h a t the c i t i z e n s o f one w i l l not use, and use h a b i t u a l l y , the f a c i l i t i e s i f the other. C o - o r d i n a t e d development seems to be the o n l y s e n s i b l e p l a n . A p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e , that i s separate R e c r e a t i o n a l Commissions w i t h o c c a s s i o n a l j o i n t meetings, seems an unwieldy h a l f - h e a r t e d compromise. The  f u n c t i o n o f such a Commission would be  as f o l l o w s :  (1)  To take over the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f p u b l i c parks and a c t as j o i n t Parks Board, w i t h a s i n g l e D i r e c t o r of Parks.  (2)  To a d m i n i s t e r the Community C e n t r e Headq u a r t e r s and s t a f f , and through i t i n f l u e n c e the development o f Community C e n t r e s on the p l a n o u t l i n e d above.  (3)  To  (4)  To a d m i n i s t e r l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s as p a r t o f t h i s p l a n , o r t o make f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e to l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s .  (5)  To seek ways and means o f i n t e g r a t i n g the School Board programme w i t h r e c r e a t i o n a l and community s e r v i c e s needs.  a l l o c a t e funds t o Community  Centres.  19 (6)  To conduct s u p e r v i s e d i n parks.  (7)  To promote a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , and, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e S c h o o l Board, such a c t i v i t i e s as hobby c l a s s e s f o r c h i l d r e n and p r e - s c h o o l centres.  (8)  To promote g r e a t e r c o - o r d i n a t i o n among v o l u n t a r y groups.and t o p u b l i c i z e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . To t h i s end, t o m a i n t a i n an o f f i c e concerned w i t h p u b l i c i t y and t o a s s i s t i n the a l l o c a t i o n o f s p o r t s f a c i l i t i e s , i n s o f a r as these a r e n o t covered by the School Board and the Community Centres.  The  r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes  Commission would draw from the f o l l o w i n g  sources:  (1)  A l l o c a t i o n s p l a c e d a t i t s d i s p o s a l by the C i t y and D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l s and by the C o u n c i l s o f the ( v a r i o u s ) I n d i a n Bands. Such funds would n o t be earmarked f o r use i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s , b u t would be a l l o c a t e d t o s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s i n normal m u n i c i p a l budgetary p r o cedure.  (2)  A l l o c a t i o n s t o be expended on b e h a l f o f Community Chest and C o u n c i l .  (3)  There would be g e n e r a l a u d i t i n g s u p e r v i s i o n o f l o c a l funds r a i s e d and used by l o c a l Community C e n t r e s .  (4)  There would be powers t o accept g i f t s , d o n a t i o n s , and bequests from p r i v a t e s o u r c e s . T h i s would l e a v e the way open, f o r example, f o r s e r v i c e c l u b s t o conduct d r i v e s on b e h a l f o f the R e c r e a t i o n Commission's p r o gramme.  We b e l i e v e t h a t a Commission on these l i n e s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a Community C e n t r e p l a n , would be the most e f f e c t i v e way o f c o - o r d i n a t i n g (a) p u b l i c , v o l u n t a r y , and p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s , and (b) t h e i n t e r e s t s o f d i f f e r e n t neighbourhoods. We a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t the proposed c o m p o s i t i o n o f the Commission would ensure t h a t i t s i n t e r e s t would be i n a c t i v e programmes and n o t merely i n p h y s i c a l p l a n t .  20  A study i n the C i t y o f B e l l i n g h a m , Washington, g undertaken city's  by Jones  *, which reviewed  the n a t u r e o f t h a t  l e a d e r s h i p , both p r o f e s s i o n a l and v o l u n t e e r ,  suggests methods and p r a c t i c e s f o r t r a i n i n g both gations of recreational personnel.  While  aggre-  applicable to  l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s i n the most p a r t , some o f the c o n c l u s i o n s reached  i n the a r e a o f v o l u n t e e r l e a d e r s h i p  development a r e worthy o f note and are l i s t e d  below.  The r e s o u r c e s f o r t r a i n i n g l e a d e r s i n B e l l i n g h a m may n o t be complete b u t they a r e worthy u s i n g t o the utmost. With the a l l round t r a i n i n g o f s t u d e n t s i n the s c h o o l programme, a l a r g e group o f p o t e n t i a l l e a d e r s i s graduating every year. I t may be p o s s i b l e t h a t some o f these c o u l d be encouraged t o go on t o c o l l e g e t o advance t h e i r t r a i n i n g . But whether they do t h i s o r n o t , b e f o r e they reach c o l l e g e l e v e l there are o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e i n Bellingham. I t might be p o s s i b l e f o r a l e a d e r ' s t r a i n i n g c o u n c i l t o be s e t up which would use the l o n g e x p e r i e n c e o f the l e a d e r s i n the p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s . A l l the success t h a t these a g e n c i e s have had i n t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f l e a d e r s c o u l d be pooled t o the advantage o f the e n t i r e community. From such a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f l e a d e r t r a i n i n g t h e r e might e v o l v e a s p e c i a l group o f people who c o u l d be used where they are needed most. Then programmes i n ( o t h e r ) areas . . . . c o u l d be expanded without p l a c i n g a f u r t h e r s t r a i n on the o v e r - t a x e d e n e r g i e s o f present l e a d e r s . One p o s s i b l e method o f s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g would be as f o l l o w s : The a g e n c i e s would arrange p e r i o d i c a l c o u r s e s f o r the t r a i n i n g o f l e a d e r s . These might be h e l d i n a s e r i e s , once a y e a r . A l e a d e r ' s c o u n c i l , r e p r e s e n t i n g a l l the a g e n c i e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the scheme would s c r e e n the c a n d i d a t e s who c o u l d be p r o posed by any o f the s o u r c e s .  21  I t i s not suggested t h a t a l l l e a d e r s would take a l o n g , i n v o l v e d c o u r s e which would touch every agency. R a t h e r , a s a t i s f a c t o r y sequence o f study c o u l d be worked out by a l e a d e r ' s c o u n c i l which ensure t h a t the c a n d i d a t e f o r a p o s i t i o n as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r programme l e a d e r would be exposed to the b e s t p r a c t i c e s t h a t would f i t him f o r the p o s i t i o n he was to h o l d . The l e a d e r would r e a c h the end o f the c o u r s e such as t h i s with valuable information. He would know the o v e r - a l l p i c t u r e o f r e c r e a t i o n i n the city. T h i s would i n c l u d e s e e i n g at f i r s t hand the v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s , whether tax o r p u b l i c s u p p o r t e d . He would know what s e r v i c e s were o f f e r e d by a l l the a g e n c i e s so t h a t he would not be i n c l i n e d e i t h e r t o d i s c o u r a g e the development o f a new s e r v i c e which was u r g e n t l y r e q u i r e d , o r , on the o t h e r hand, t o encourage the development o f a s e r v i c e which was a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e . . . . S i n c e the l e a d e r who i s a Chest o f f i c e r does, and p r o b a b l y w i l l c o n t i n u e to p l a y a v e r y important r o l e i n the p l a n n i n g o f r e c r e a t i o n , h i s should be a t r a i n i n g t h a t e n a b l e s him to use h i s a b i l i t i e s i n the r a i s i n g and b u d g e t i n g o f f u n d s . He should a l s o know about the main f e a t u r e s o f h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , and r e c r e a t i o n . He needs to have an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the purposes o f each member agency, and o f the non-member a g e n c i e s . F a c t u a l knowledge o f who are s e r v e d , and where they l i v e , would h e l p him to be e f f e c t i v e . It  i s perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t to note t h a t the  o f s t u d i e s undertaken i n t h i s f i e l d are based on o r s t u d i e s p e r t a i n i n g i n the whole, to s p e c i f i c These s t u d i e s , based on common and  majority surveys  communities.  accepted p r i n c i p l e s o f  a number o f a u t h o r i t i e s i n the broad f i e l d o f r e c r e a t i o n , confine and  t h e i r purpose to a n a l y z i n g  i n d i v i d u a l communities  a l l the p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s of t h a t community's  programme.  22  One  such study, undertaken i n a major community  i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t a good d e a l o f e f f o r t was  spent i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a proper r o l e f o r  r e c r e a t i o n commission. an o b s e r v a t i o n  I t i s worthy o f note to  by McDonald and  7  Ramsay, * and  include  their  Summary o f Recommendations. The P e n t i c t o n R e c r e a t i o n Commission d e s e r v e s c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s f o r changing i t s r o l e from a f i n a n c i a l p r o v i d e r o n l y to t h a t o f a promoter, d e v e l o p e r and c o - o r d i n a t o r o f programme o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the r e s i d e n t s o f the community. The f i n a n c i a l p r o v i s i o n f o r l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g , i n i t i a t i o n of summer playground programmes, and the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f outdoor and w i l d e r n e s s programmes, as r e p o r t e d i n Chapter I I I , are a l l commendable. These a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be encouraged and developed as p a r t o f a y e a r - r o u n d , comp r e h e n s i v e community r e c r e a t i o n programme. The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a community r e c r e a t i o n programme depends upon s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . These i n c l u d e programme i n t e r e s t s and needs, areas and f a c i l i t i e s and t h e i r use, and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and l e a d e r s h i p p r o v i s i o n s . SUMMARY OF Leadership 1.  and  RECOMMENDATIONS  Administration  ( a ) T h a t a R e c r e a t i o n D i r e c t o r be h i r e d i n 1966 on a permanent b a s i s f o r the purpose o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a comprehensive community r e c r e a t i o n programme i n P e n t i c t o n ; (b)That t h i s person be charged w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r o v i d i n g the l e a d e r s h i p and d i r e c t i o n n e c e s s a r y to achieve the d e s i r e d o b j e c t i v e s o f such a programme as described i n this report;  the  23 (c) That t h e R e c r e a t i o n D i r e c t o r be appointed as head o f a new c i v i c Department o f Parks and R e c r e a t i o n . 2,  (a) That t h e p r e s e n t Parks D i v i s i o n o f the E n g i n e e r i n g Department be taken o u t o f the E n g i n e e r i n g Department and be i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e proposed Department o f Parks and R e c r e a t i o n as soon as p r a c t i c a b l e a f t e r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h i s new D e p a r t ment ; (b) That t h e person heading up t h i s new D e p a r t ment o f Parks and R e c r e a t i o n have a p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g and demonstrated competence i n m u n i c i p a l park and r e c r e a t i o n administ r a t i o n , t h a t he be d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o the C i t y A d m i n i s t r a t o r , and t h a t he a l s o s i t as a member on a newly c r e a t e d Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Commission. T h i s l a t t e r body would be a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c i t i z e n body a d v i s o r y t o C o u n c i l and s i m i l a r i n many r e s p e c t s t o the p r e s e n t R e c r e a t i o n Coramission.  3.  (a) That t h e p r e s e n t R e c r e a t i o n Commission be a b o l i s h e d and a new Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Commission be e s t a b l i s h e d under S e c t i o n 632 o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t ; (b) That t h i s new Commission be empowered by C o u n c i l t o assume t h e d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the present Recreation Commission, b u t t h a t i t a l s o have d e l e g a t e d to i t a l l those a d m i n i s t r a t i v e powers o f the C o u n c i l r e l a t i n g t o parks and park p r o p e r t y n e c e s s a r y t o perform a u s e f u l and p u r p o s e f u l r o l e i n t h e community as an a d v i s o r y body t o C o u n c i l concerned w i t h a l l aspects o f p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c y .  4.  (a) That an i n t e r i m committee o f t h e p r e s e n t R e c r e a t i o n Commission be e s t a b l i s h e d t o c o n s i d e r , e v a l u a t e , and recommend on t h e many recommendations c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s r e p o r t ;  24 (b)  T h a t t h i s C o m m i t t e e a l s o assume t h e r o l e o f an " a c t i o n c o m m i t t e e " t o e n s u r e t h a t the recommendations o f t h i s r e p o r t are adeq u a t e l y p u b l i c i z e d and d e b a t e d , and t h a t t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s as a d o p t e d b y t h e Comm i s s i o n are p r o p e r l y presented f o r C o u n c i l consideration.  Programme 5.  6.  7.  8.  (a)  T h a t v a r i o u s c o m m u n i t y r e c r e a t i o n programmes be d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n a c o m p r e h e n s i v e programme designed to provide equal opportunity to a l l p e o p l e i n the community, r e g a r d l e s s o f situation;  (b)  That c e r t a i n groups r e c e i v e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n : e l d e r l y p e r s o n s , the unemployed, p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , older teen-agers, s i n g l e people o v e r 25, and t h e h a n d i c a p p e d .  (a)  T h a t t h e programmes e s t a b l i s h e d i n c l u d e a s u f f i c i e n t l y wide range o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o accommodate a l l r e c r e a t i o n i n t e r e s t s and needs f o r which, i n the o p i n i o n o f the Parks and R e c r e a t i o n C o m m i s s i o n , t h e r e i s an a p p a r e n t demand o r n e e d ;  (b)  T h a t t h e s e programmes i n c l u d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o l e a r n v a r i o u s a r t s and c r a f t s , t o e n g a g e i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , and t o p a r t i c i p a t e in athletics.  (a)  That personal involvement i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s b y i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s be a d e q u a t e l y and p r o p e r l y e n c o u r a g e d ;  (b)  T h a t programmes be d e v e l o p e d w i t h a v i e w t o b e c o m i n g s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g and s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r i n h e r e n t p o p u l a r i t y .  (a)  T h a t an A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l l p u b l i c and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e community i n t e r e s t e d i n r e c r e a t i o n be f o r m e d , and t h a t t h i s C o u n c i l e s t a b l i s h a  25 f i r m and c o n t i n u o u s l i a i s o n w i t h t h e Recr e a t i o n D i r e c t o r and Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Commission r e g a r d i n g r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g and programming i n t h e community. A r e a s and F a c i l i t i e s 9.  ( a ) T h a t a committee o f t h e proposed Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Commission be s e t up w i t h the express purpose o f s t u d y i n g and r e v i e w i n g programme needs and a s s e s s i n g the c u r r e n t and a n t i c i p a t e d demand f o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n areas and f a c i l i t i e s i n P e n t i c t o n ; (b) That t h i s Committee f u n c t i o n on a c o n t i n u o u s b a s i s w i t h a view t o recommending p e r i o d i c a l l y on o r d e r s o f p r i o r i t y r e g a r d i n g f u t u r e programming and the development o f s p e c i f i c areas and f a c i l i t i e s i n P e n t i c t o n ; (c) That t h i s Committee work c o n t i n u o u s l y w i t h the R e c r e a t i o n D i r e c t o r and c o n s u l t w i t h o t h e r c i v i c o f f i c i a l s p e r i o d i c a l l y t o ensure t h a t t h e a n t i c i p a t e d r e c r e a t i o n needs o f t h e community w i l l be met i n the most e f f i c i e n t and economical way p o s s i b l e .  10.  ( a ) T h a t a committee o f the proposed Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Commission be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h the express purpose o f s t u d y i n g and r e p o r t i n g on l o c a t i o n , space, and d e s i g n standards f o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s and f a c i l i t i e s ; (b)That t h i s committee be charged w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e v a l u a t i n g , r e v i e w i n g , and r e p o r t i n g on the adequacy o f a l l r e c r e a t i o n areas and f a c i l i t i e s i n P e n t i c t o n i n terms of these s t a n d a r d s , i n o r d e r t h a t t h e Comm i s s i o n may e v a l u a t e adequately and a d v i s e on a l l f u t u r e p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e development o f r e c r e a t i o n areas and f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e C i t y . Reference  was made t o " G u i d e l i n e s F o r Community  Self-Surveys i n Recreation"  8  * i n the i n i t i a l  phases o f  t h i s study, and was used as a guide i n d e v e l o p i n g the  26  4  Interview  Schedule.  The  s c a r c i t y o f r e l a t i v e and p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n  of the r u r a l r e c r e a t i o n s i t u a t i o n brings a t t e n t i o n to the f a c t t h a t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f such communities may be v a l u a b l e i n drawing  c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations f o r  f u r t h e r study i n t h i s a r e a . 9 10 11 While  several authorities  •  •  •  t o i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the I n t e r v i e w Schedule for this  w  e  r  and o t h e r bases  study, a l i m i t e d number o f s p e c i f i c  appear h e r e . what unique  referred  e  investigations  The b a s i c n a t u r e o f t h i s study appears somei n the f i e l d  o f r e c r e a t i o n and i s d e s i g n e d  s p e c i f i c a l l y t o gather i n f o r m a t i o n i n r u r a l commissions here i n B r i t i s h Columbia. dependent " s u r v e y s " completed  recreation  Many o f the i n -  i n R e c r e a t i o n i n B.C. a r e  beyond the c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s s t u d y .  Further-  more, these surveys a r e p a r t i c u l a r t o i n c o r p o r a t e d areas and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , whereas t h i s study f o c u s e s on the r u r a l and u n i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s . However, some p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e and r e v e a l e d some i n t e r e s t i n g  i n s i g h t i n t o the problems  f a c e d by r u r a l areas and t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n  commissions.  The I n t e r v i e w Schedule may be found i n Appendix A.  27 II.  LITERATURE RELATED TO CANADIAN STUDIES  The O n t a r i o Department o f E d u c a t i o n has  completed  a study e n t i t l e d A Model F o r A R e g i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n P r o 12 gram  * i n which many s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s ,  and c r i t e r i a are i d e n t i f i e d  problems,  as b e i n g r e l a t e d t o the  s i t u a t i o n t h a t e x i s t s i n the communities undertaken study h e r e .  In t h i s paper,  s i z e of p o l i t i c a l It  for  the author observes t h a t  u n i t s s h o u l d be governed  by two  the  factors.  s h o u l d be l a r g e enough so t h a t i t can e f f i c i e n t l y  and  e c o n o m i c a l l y a d m i n i s t e r the s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d , ( i n c l u d i n g recreational  s e r v i c e s ) and,  i t should be so o r g a n i z e d  t h a t the v o t e r s enjoy easy e l e c t o r a l access t o i t s d e c i s i o n makers.  I t i s noted t h a t c e r t a i n m u n i c i p a l problems  are r e l a t e d t o the absence o f one o f these Among the problems e x p r e s s e d a t t r i b u t e d to Recreation.  factors.  i n the study are those  I t i s suggested  t h a t by u s i n g  the R e g i o n a l i d e a , problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e a d e r s h i p and f i n a n c i n g are more r e a d i l y overcome.  The  author  d e s c r i b e s one county i n t h a t p r o v i n c e t h a t i s o p e r a t i n g s u c c e s s f u l l y and suggests t h t a  i t i s i t s county  unit  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t enables t h i s  efficient  functioning.  procedure  The  paper  suggests t h a t t h i s  might be a p p l i c a b l e i n o t h e r r u r a l areas and i s c o n s i d e r e d  28  pertinent The  i n l i g h t of t h i s study. C e n t r e f o r Community S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y  Saskatchewan, has  published  a s e r i e s of  of  publications  13  e n t i t l e d Keys To Community. related do  to R e c r e a t i o n  examine the  should f o l l o w  #  While not  Commissions, these  processes that smaller  u l a t i o n o f r u r a l a r e a s , and  does use  pop-  f o r exemplary purThis  s e r i e s of  i s brought to f o c u s here i n t h a t i t may  c o n c e i v e d o r a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the v a r i o u s studied  r u r a l communities  i n v o l v i n g the  poses, c a s e s p e r t a i n i n g to R e c r e a t i o n . publications  publications  and  i n undertaking projects  specifically  herein  community, and  are  elements  i n some form r e l a t e d t o the  that i t i s impossible  be  total  to look to any  specific  a r e a f o r a n a l y s i s w i t h o u t r e l a t i n g another segment o f community s t r u c t u r e .  These g u i d e s draw t h i s f a c t to  community a t t e n t i o n and  r e v e a l t h a t the  i n v o l v e development, p l a n n i n g , self-survey, evaluation both l o c a l l y  and  use  provincially.  that l i m i t e d information in British  and  Columbia.  "Keys To  co-ordination  of  the  Community" efforts,  of resources a v a i l a b l e , I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to note  such as t h i s i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e  29  I I I LITERATURE RELATED TO RECREATION BOARDS AND GENERAL PURPOSE AND  COMMISSIONS  STRUCTURE  The Community Programmes Branch, i n i t s p u b l i s h e d 14 • Guide To R e c r e a t i o n Commissions l i n e d the p r o c e d u r e s ,  processes  has and  thoroughly  out-  s t e p s t o be taken i n  e s t a b l i s h i n g and o p e r a t i n g R e c r e a t i o n Commissions, i n Organized  and Unorganized  both  areas o f the p r o v i n c e .  This  " g u i d e " i s assumed' to c o n t a i n the a p p r o p r i a t e and  neces-  s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n on the f u n c t i o n s o f Commissions,  and  s h o u l d be used e x t e n s i v e l y by the Commissions i n the Province. lined  A comparison o f the a d v i c e and  in this  procedures  " g u i d e " w i t h o t h e r a u t h o r a t i v e sources  outmay  g i v e some i n s i g h t i n t o the c u r r e n t problems o f the Recr e a t i o n Commissions under i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s The  "guide",  study.  i n a d v i s i n g communities i n Unorgan-  i z e d areas o u t l i n e s the R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and D u t i e s o f 15 the R e c r e a t i o n Commission. " The R e c r e a t i o n Commission has been e l e c t e d to o r g a n i z e , a d m i n i s t e r , and c o - o r d i n a t e a sound r e c r e a t i o n programme f o r a l l the people  30 o f a l l ages i n the community on a year-round basis. T h i s w i l i r e q u i r e sound study, p l a n n i n g , and c o - o p e r a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g are some o f the s p e c i f i c d u t i e s o f the R e c r e a t i o n Commiss i o n s :(a) E s t a b l i s h sub-committees, amongst which might be: ( i ) C o n s t i t u t i o n , ( i i ) Finance, ( i i i ) P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s , ( i v ) L e a d e r s h i p , (v) F a c i l i t i e s and Maintenance, ( v i ) Promotion and S p e c i a l P r o j e c t s , ( v i i ) S u r v e y s . (b) Study and draw up a c o n s t i t u t i o n t o the needs o f the community.  suit  (c) L i s t a l l the r e c r e a t i o n and community groups and t h e i r programmes. (d) Study the r e c r e a t i o n wants and the community.  needs o f  (e) P r o v i d e f o r the e n l i s t m e n t o f good l e a d e r s and p r o v i d e f o r t h e i r t r a i n i n g . Study the p o s s i b i l i t y o f the employment o f aa f u l l - t i m e or part-time D i r e c t o r . ( f ) Study the matter o f f i n a n c i n g a good r e c r e a t i o n programme i n the community. The t o draw up  R e c r e a t i o n Commission w i l l be a p l a n which can  above i n f o r m a t i o n o f the  be  put  is available.  suggested p r o j e c t s  and  in a position  i n t o a c t i o n when  The  following  concerns o f the  are  the some  Recreation  Commission:(a) O b t a i n a thorough knowledge o f a l l r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n the community, which w i l l e n a b l e the Commission t o d i r e c t people to the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . Such a l i s t s h o u l d i n c l u d e l i b r a r i e s , museums, concerts, sports events, e t c . L i s t also the n a t u r a l advantages o f the a r e a which can be used f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ,  3 1  such as camping and h i k i n g a r e a s , s i t e s , swimming f a c i l i t i e s , e t c .  picnic-  (b) L e t t h e community groups know the many s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e through t h e Community Programmes Branch. Resource m a t e r i a l i s a l s o a v a i l a b l e from o t h e r s o u r c e s ; f o r i n s t a n c e , the Department o f E x t e n s i o n o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, e t c . (c) Promote programmes where these may be needed, based on t h e survey. T h i s can be done d i r e c t l y as a Commission e f f o r t o r by some a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d o r g a n i z a t i o n . (d) Arrange f o r f i l m - s h o w i n g s o r the s e t t i n g up o f a F i l m C o u n c i l . (e) Sponsor and promote the v i s i t s o f groups or i n d i v i d u a l s f o r concerts, d i s p l a y s , exhibitions, talks, e t c . (f)  Promote c l i n i c s o r workshops f o r l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g through t h e R e g i o n a l Cons u l t a n t o f the Community Programmes Branch. A l s o s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t i n and f a c i l i t a t e t h e sending o f d e l e g a t e s t o the l e a d e r s h i p c o u r s e s , r e c r e a t i o n conf e r e n c e s , and c l i n i c s arranged by t h e Branch.  (g) Develop a l o c a l r e c r e a t i o n l i b r a r y . S t a r t w i t h a few good r e f e r e n c e books on r e c r e a t i o n . (h) M a i n t a i n In a study  good p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s .  i n Community O r g a n i z a t i o n  f o r Recreation,  16  (Edmonton, A l b e r t a ) F a r i n a t r u s t e d t o the R e c r e a t i o n  * described  the power, en-  Commission by t h e C i t y C o u n c i l .  He then p o r t r a y e d how adequate "democratic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " s h o u l d be accomplished i n forming t h e R e c r e a t i o n Commission.  By-Law 1069 gave the R e c r e a t i o n Commiss i o n power to a c t i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y t o C o u n c i l i n r e l a t i o n to the 'development, maintenance, and e x t e n s i o n and use' o f a l l r e c r e a t i o n a l grounds owned or c o n t r o l l e d by the C i t y C o u n c i l i n c l u d i n g b u i l d i n g s and equipment, and s p o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ; to c o - o p e r a t e w i t h and encourage a l l e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s promoting any s p o r t o r r e c r e a t i o n ; to work i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h and a d v i s e the C i t y Commissioners on the d i r e c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f s p o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n a l grounds w i t h i n the C i t y , i n c l u d i n g drawing-up o f t i m e t a b l e s f o r the most e f f e c t i v e use o f such grounds and b u i l d i n g s by c l u b s o r teams; t o r e p o r t and r e commend to C o u n c i l r e g a r d i n g the f u r n i s h i n g o f adequate equipment and f a c i l i t i e s t o be d i s t r i b u t e d to r e c r e a t i o n a l grounds and b u i l d i n g s f o r v a r i o u s types o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y ; t o c o - o p e r a t e w i t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s , c i v i c , s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , so t h a t the most b e n e f i c i a l and e f f i c i e n t use c o u l d be made o f a l l r e c r e a t i o n areas and f a c i l i t i e s ; and f i n a l l y t o hear and c o n s i d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from any body o f c i t i z e n s on any matter r e l a t i n g to r e c r e a t i o n , whether r e p r e s e n t i n g an e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n or not. Any t e x t on community o r g a n i z a t i o n o r r e c r e a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , any r e c r e a t i o n e x e c u t i v e , o r any s u c c e s s f u l community r e c r e a t i o n programme, i n d i c a t e t h a t the common demominator o f success i n the f i e l d o f Community o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n i s a d e m o c r a t i c approach. The most w i d e l y used d e m o c r a t i c approach i s t h a t o f having p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s work w i t h a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e community group, which a c t s i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y and a s s i s t s i n d e t e r m i n i n g the needs and r e s o u r c e s o f the community. The N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , on the b a s i s o f t h e i r vast experience i n t h i s f i e l d s t a t e : "The more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y neighbourhood people f e e l f o r t h e i r community c e n t r e the g r e a t e r w i l l be the success o f the c e n t r e as a r e a l n e i g h bourhood c l u b . For t h i s r e a s o n many c i t i e s are o r g a n i z i n g groups o r c o u n c i l s o f neighbourhood people around each c e n t r e to a c t i n an  33  a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y to the c e n t r e ' s s t a f f , and to put at the d i s p o s a l of the workers t h e i r knowledge o f neighbourhood c o n d i t i o n s and o f the d e s i r e s and needs o f the p e o p l e . Indeed, so important i s t h i s a d v i s o r y committee o r c o u n c i l t h a t many a u t h o r i t i e s m a i n t a i n t h a t the f i r s t step i n promoting community r e c r e a t i o n i s to o b t a i n such a group. The g r e a t e s t weakness o f the R e c r e a t i o n Commission i s t h a t , a s i d e from the c i t y c o u n c i l and the s c h o o l boards, the membership does not r e p r e s e n t those groups who are most v i t a l l y concerned with r e c r e a t i o n i n the c i t y . (Mr.) r e c o g n i z e d t h i s and made s e v e r a l recommenda t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the make-up o f the R e c r e a t i o n Commission. He recommended t h a t i n a d d i t i o n to r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the c i t y c o u n c i l and the two s c h o o l b o a r d s , t h e r e should be on the R e c r e a t i o n Commission r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l A g e n c i e s , Edmonton A t h l e t i c C o u n c i l , F e d e r a t i o n o f Community Leagues and Arts Council. In a d d i t i o n , he recommended t h a t f o u r members be e l e c t e d from the g e n e r a l public. These recommendations were never f u l l y d i s c u s s e d by the R e c r e a t i o n Commission, and a f t e r a c u r s o r y r e a d i n g were d i s m i s s e d . There was, however, much m e r i t i n these p r o posals. In t h e i r t e x t Meyer and B r i g h t b i l l R e c r e a t i o n w i t h o t h e r known and  vital  * equate  community programmes.  R e c r e a t i o n i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f community l i v i n g ; i t i s a l e g i t i m a t e community r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on a par w i t h e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h and w e l f a r e . In many p l a c e s i t i s b e i n g cons i d e r e d f o r the f i r s t time. In o t h e r s i t i s an e s t a b l i s h e d s e r v i c e i n need o f s t r e a m l i n i n g to meet changing c o n d i t i o n s . In every community it is essential.  34 Fitzgerald t h e o r y by  18 " f u r t h e r adds to the  above a u t h o r ' s  stating that:  Community o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n means the development and maintenance of l e a d e r s h i p , f a c i l i t i e s , and programmes o r s e r v i c e s t h a t w i l l p r o v i d e optimum r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l the people o f a community. I t i n c l u d e s r e l a t i o n s h i p s among a l l the r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s o f the community t h a t w i l l assure c o - o p e r a t i o n , co-ordination and community s o l i d a r i t y as a b a s i s f o r the opportunities. I t means d e v e l o p i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g a s t r u c t u r e t h a t i s designed to p r e s e n t r e s o u r c e s to meet needs and to e s t a b l i s h new r e s o u r c e s i f t h e i r need i s indicated. The  views toward e f f e c t i v e agency o p e r a t i o n  at a  19 more s o p h i s t i c a t e d l e v e l as expressed by may  Shivers  g i v e the budding commission an i d e a l v i e w - p o i n t  strive for.  In f o r m u l a t i n g  organizational  to  structure  e s t a b l i s h e s the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s , as s t a n d a r d s . 1. Purpose. V i t a l t o the i n i t i a t i o n o f every r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e agency i n any s e c t o r o f s o c i e t y , or to the t r a n s a c t i o n o f any o p e r a t i o n by the agency o r i t s u n i t s , i s a c l e a r and d e f i n i t e statement r e l a t i n g to the purposes f o r which the agency i s e s t a b lished. This explanation w i l l r e s u l t i n the development o f p l a n s and emphasis upon the achievement o f the aims t h e r e i n s e t forth. The purpose f o r which the agency was e s t a b l i s h e d i s the essence o f t h a t enterprise. A l l o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s are subo r d i n a t e to the primary purpose and each must s e r v e to s u b s t a n t i a t e and a i d i n the attainment o f the c h i e f purpose. 2  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . A comprehensive e x a m i n a t i o n o f the e n t i r e range o f a c t i v i t i e s , o p e r a t i o n s , and s e r v i c e s t o be produced must be made so  he  35 t h a t each f a c e t o f the agency and i t s u n i t s can be i d e n t i f i e d and a s s i g n e d r e l a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . . . . Recreational service a g e n c i e s a r e o r g a n i z e d c h i e f l y w i t h t h e aim of p r o v i d i n g e x p e r i e n c e s o f a r e c r e a t i o n a l n a t u r e t o a l l o f t h e people i n a g i v e n community, i f t h e agency i s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l family, or for a particular c l i e n t e l e . I t would t h e r e f o r e be d e c i d e d l y f o o l i s h t p e s t a b l i s h t h e agency w i t h o u t f i r s t d e t e r mining whether the p u b l i c wants o r i s ready to a c c e p t the p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e , whether such an agency c a n employ p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l , and whether adequate f i n a n c i a l support w i l l be a v a i l a b l e t o permit a comprehensive and v a r i e d program a t a p r i c e which t h e community i s w i l l i n g t o pay. U n l e s s the answers t o these q u e s t i o n s a r e p o s i t i v e , a d d i t i o n a l p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n and d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l need f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s must be made t h e f i r s t order o f business. 3.  S i m p l i f i c a t i o n . A l l a c t i v i t i e s , t h a t are not e s s e n t i a l to the production o f r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s s h o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d , and those a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e c o n t i n u e d s h o u l d be managed i n the s i m p l e s t e f f i c i e n t way.  4.  Functional Segregation. The o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d be s t r u c t u r e d on t h e primary purpose o f the agency and n o t around p e r s o n n e l . The n a t u r e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e determines t h e c h i e f f u n c t i o n o f t h e agency, and t h u s , o f i t s e l f , o f f e r s the c o r r e c t foundation f o r organi z a t i o n . . . . Functional segregation d i s t r i butes work e f f o r t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . S i m i l a r o r complementary f u n c t i o n s s h o u l d be grouped so as t o form the s e v e r a l major d i v i s i o n s o f t h e system . . . .  5.  A u t h o r i t y and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Centralization of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and wide d e l e g a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y i n o r d e r t o f i x t h e former and render the l a t t e r most e f f e c t i v e i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s are necessary . . . . S c i e n t i f i c f o r m u l a t i o n o f work r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s l e a d s t o s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f e f f o r t and develops  36 e x p e r t s i n some p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , w i t h r e s u l t a n t advantages d e r i v e d from c o n c e n t r a t e d attention. Standarization. The s u b s t i t u t i o n o f s t a n d a r d o p e r a t i n g p r o c e d u r e s , i n the r o u t i n e o f d a i l y a f f a i r s o f t h e agency, f o r p o l i c y statements c o n c e r n i n g i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s should be made. P a r t i c u l a r t e c h n i q u e s o f b e s t p r a c t i c e , c a r e f u l l y determined, s h o u l d be adopted and a p p l i e d throughout the agency. . . . U n l e s s standards a r e i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the d a i l y o p e r a t i o n s o f the agency, t h e r e i s no b a s i s f o r comparison and no sure method f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g whether o r n o t the agency's e f f o r t s approximate the aims f o r which the agency was e s t a b l i s h e d . . . . P r o p e r l y i n s t i t u t e d standards f u r n i s h i n c e n t i v e t o p e r s o n n e l t o achieve a l e v e l o f competency which they can c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e r a t h e r than b e i n g dependent upon some nebulous i d e a l about which t h e r e a r e no means of determination. Planning. The s a t i s f a c t o r y accomplishment o f the agency's purpose can be a t t a i n e d o n l y when t h e r e i s a l o g i c a l p l a n by which a l l o f the system's p e r s o n n e l and a l l o f i t s i n t e r e s t s and f u n c t i o n s are guided. Therefore, i n t e l l i g i b l e , sharp, and comprehensive p l a n s are e s s e n t i a l to e f f e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . P l a n n i n g a s s i s t s achievement o f aims. I t d e f i n e s the r e a l i n t e r e s t s o f t h e system, the g o a l s t o be reached, and s p e c i f i c a l l y d e t a i l s the p r i o r i t y , p e r s o n n e l , f a c i l i t i e s , space, m a t e r i a l , and money to be used i n t h e i r accomplishment. The aims p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r a c t i o n , s e t t i n g up primary o b j e c t i v e s , and the means and t e c h n i q u e s t o be u t i l i z e d i n a r r i v i n g a t those o b j e c t i v e s . . . . With p l a n n i n g the arrangement o f work, t h e d e l e g a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y and the f i x i n g o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y are d e c i d e d upon, d e c i s i o n s a r e made as t o what s h o u l d be done, who w i l l do i t , how i t w i l l be performed, and when and where people's needs a r e c o n t i n u o u s l y b e i n g m o d i f i e d . F o r these r e a s o n s , p l a n n i n g i s o f utmost s i g n i f i c a n c e i f the agency i s t o s a t i s f y demand.  37  20 The  Athletic Institute,  ° i n i t s publication  d i r e c t e d toward community r e c r e a t i o n d i s c u s s e s  the "board  member" and h i s f u n c t i o n s as such; A l a r g e share o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r g o v e r n i n g the a f f a i r s o f community r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s r e s t s i n boards and committees. U s u a l l y members o f these boards and committees are l e a d e r s o f a b i l i t y , i n f l u e n c e , and i n t e r g rity. They a r e a l s o v o l u n t e e r s i n t h a t they are u n p a i d . Board members h e l p t o e s t a b l i s h the p o l i c i e s which a r e executed by the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f , p r e s e n t t h e community's p o i n t o f view, and i n t e r p r e t t h e work o f t h e agency to t h e community. Board members r e p r e s e n t group t h i n k i n g i n g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n t o a v i t a l community s e r v i c e . . . . U n l e s s the board member i s w e l l informed, he i s n o t l i k e l y t o be convinced o r c o n v i n c i n g . Because the range o f r e c r e a t i o n c h o i c e s and i n t e r e s t s i s made, thereby c a l l i n g f o r the use o f v a r i e d r e s o u r c e s i n t h e community the board member must know how the r e c r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l o f the s c h o o l , t h e park, the c h u r c h , and many v o l u n t a r y , as w e l l as s e m i - p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s , can be used t o b e s t advantage. S i m i l a r l y , he must understand the r e l a t i v e f o r c e s which bear upon the r e c r e a t i o n needs o f the i n d i v i d u a l - c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n , w e l f a r e , and o t h e r s . The i n t e r e s t s and c o n c e r n s o f the board member must be d i r e c t e d toward t h e t o t a l needs o f t h e t o t a l community. R e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s must be a l l o c a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f r e l a t i v e need between and among neighbourhoods. These needs are n o t s t a t i c . They change c o n s t a n t l y and c o n s e q u e n t l y r e q u i r e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f i n i t i a l p l a n s and adjustment o f s e r v i c e s . Only as these needs are c o n t i n u o u s l y and systema t i c a l l y a p p r a i s e d , i s t h e board member i n a position to act i n t e l l i g e n t l y .  38 L i s t i n g the p r i n c i p l e s t h a t a board member s h o u l d 21 follow,  t h i s text  continues:  Board members s h o u l d understand the s i g n i f i a n c e and importance o f r e c r e a t i o n i n the community. Board members s h o u l d be aware o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e t o o t h e r community s e r v i c e s . Board members should look o b j e c t i v e l y a t t h e i r s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as board members and a t t o t a l community r e c r e a t i o n needs, and keep a b r e a s t o f changing c o n d i t i o n s , continuously r e a s s e s s i n g t h e i r e f f o r t s and reasons f o r s e r v i c e . Board members s h o u l d have the courage t o r e s i s t p r e s s u r e s o f a l l types and i n s i s t upon h i g h standards f o r t h e i r a g e n c i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e g a r d t o competent p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l . Board members s h o u l d be aware o f t h e i r r o l e as board members, a c t i n g i n c o n c e r t w i t h t h e i r f e l l o w members w i t h o u t u n s u r p i n g the functions of the executive. O u t l i n i n g the p l a c e o f the " c l u b " and o f " c l u b 22 a c t i v i t i e s " w i t h i n the r e c r e a t i o n programme, V a n n i e r describes  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  form t h a t such a c l u b  should  take. An o r g a n i z e d c l u b has o f f i c e r s , a w r i t t e n c o n s t i t u t i o n , keeps attendance records,, s e t s up membership q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and meets regularly i n a s p e c i f i c place. There a r e numerous k i n d s o f c l u b s . Each o f the broad r e c r e a t i o n program areas (dance, music, drama t i c s , s p o r t s and games, e t c . ) o f f e r s many possibilities. The  Nucleus A group o f f i v e o r more people i n t e r e s t e d i n s t a r t i n g a c l u b i s a l a r g e enough n u c l e u s . T h i s i n i t i a l group should d i s c u s s the t e n t a t i v e name, purpose, time and meeting p l a c e , and  0  '  39 p o s s i b l e sponsor f o r the a c t i v i t y . Next, a t i m e and p l a c e s h o u l d b e s e t f o r a g a t h e r i n g o f a l l o t h e r s who m i g h t b e i n t e r e s t e d i n joining. A t t e n d a n c e a t t h i s m e e t i n g c a n be promoted by t e l e p h o n e , p o s t e r s , b u l l e t i n b o a r d n o t i c e , newspaper i t e m s , o r word o f mouth. One o f t h e i n i t i a l o r g a n i z e r s s h o u l d p r e s i d e at t h i s f i r s t meeting. The agenda would p r o b a b l y i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g items for discussion: The p u r p o s e o f t h e c l u b . Membership. P r o p o s e d name. Time and p l a c e o f a r e g u l a r m e e t i n g . Dues. Officers elected. Elect a president, v i c e p r e s i d e n t , s e c r e t a r y , and t r e a surer at t h i s meeting, or the temporary chairman should appoint a nomination c o m m i t t e e t o s u b m i t c a n d i d a t e s * names at the next meeting. (7) Sponsor. A t e m p o r a r y s e c r e t a r y s h o u l d be a p p o i n t e d t o s e r v e t h e g r o u p u n t i l an e l e c t e d one t a k e s o v e r . (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)  The  Sponsor The s p o n s o r c h o s e n b y t h e g r o u p s h o u l d d e m o c r a t i c a l l y guide r a t h e r than a u t o c r a t i c a l l y r u l e them. Leadership i s i n f l u e n c i n g others to c o - o p e r a t i v e l y reach a goal they e s t a b l i s h • . . The  Officers A l l c l u b o f f i c e r s s h o u l d b e s e l e c t e d and e l e c t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and w i l l i n g n e s s to serve the group. Youth needs t o l e a r n how t o c h o o s e i t s l e a d e r s w i s e l y . Too o f t e n t h o s e most p o p u l a r a r e s e l e c t e d r a t h e r t h a n t h o s e most c a p a b l e . The s p o n s o r c a n a s s i s t i n h e l p i n g the group s e l e c t l e a d e r s w i s e l y by s e r v i n g on t h e n o m i n a t i n g c o m m i t t e e and i n d i r e c t l y g u i d i n g h i s f o l l o w e r s to submit the best slate of o f f i c e r s possible . . . . The C o n s t i t u t i o n When c l u b g r o u p s f o r m u l a t e and u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r a i m and p u r p o s e , t h e y s h o u l d n e x t w r i t e a c o n s t i t u t i o n - the w r i t t e n laws by which they wish to a b i d e . T h e s e g o v e r n i n g r u l e s may be p r e c e d e d by a p r e a m b l e , a l t h o u g h t h i s is  40 often ommitted. i n c l u d e d i n the Article Article Article Article Article Article  I II III IV V VI  Separate a r t i c l e s constitution are:  to  be  Name Purpose Membership Officers Meeting Amendments  I t i s u s u a l l y wise procedure to appoint a s m a l l committee t o w r i t e a sample c o n s t i t u t i o n . T h i s p a t t e r n document c a n t h e n be t a i l o r e d , a p p r o v e d , and a d o p t e d t o f i t t h e s p e c i f i c n e e d s of the c l u b . Adopting the c o n s t i t u t i o n should take c a r e f u l thought. E a c h a r t i c l e s h o u l d be r e a d t h o r o u g h s l o w l y a l o u d , d i s c u s s e d , and c h a n g e d i f t h e m a j o r i t y p r e s e n t v o t e t o do s o . To a v o i d h a s t y and numerous c h a n g e s l a t e r , i t is c u s t o m a r y t h a t two r e a d i n g s and t w o - t h i r d s m a j o r i t y v o t e b e n e c e s s a r y t o amend any p a r t o f the o r i g i n a l document. Parliamentary Techniques A l l m e e t i n g s s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d i n a b u s i n e s s - l i k e way, R o b e r t ' s R u l e s o f O r d e r i s commonly u s e d as a g u i d e . T h i s book o n p a r l i a m e n t a r y p r o c e d u r e i s b a s e d upon t h e m a j o r i t y r u l e s b u t t h a t e v e r y o n e has e q u a l r i g h t s o f o p i n i o n and v o i c e . Each meeting should f o l l o w a p l a n o r an a g e n d a . . . • " Evaluation The s p o n s o r , o f f i c e r s , and c l u b members s h o u l d e v a l u a t e y e a r l y , o r more f r e q u e n t l y , the j o b t h e y h a v e d o n e o r f a i l e d t o do i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e i r a i m and p u r p o s e as s t a t e d i n t h e c o n stitution. A simple c h e c k - l i s t questionnaire, . • • . c a n be u s e d t o o b t a i n t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m a l l members. I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t no p e r s o n s i g n t h e p a p e r and t h a t a l l b e e n c o u r a g e d to use the ( o p p o r t u n i t y ) f o r w r i t i n g i n t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n s o f how t h e c l u b m i g h t b e i m p r o v e d . "  41 IV  LITERATURE RELATED TO OTHER ORGANIZATIONS A survey o f the l i t e r a t u r e was conducted i n an  attempt t o e l i c i t  some common elements amongst non-  r e c r e a t i o n boards o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , some o f t h e c u r r e n t  and t o look  theories of administration  into  so t h a t  a comparison might be made. A study was made i n areas o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and administration ional  theory,  administration,  business administration, and a v a r i e t y o f v o l u n t a r y  educatorgan-  izations . Katz,  " w r i t i n g i n t h e Harvard B u s i n e s s Review  b e l i e v e s t h a t the approach t o a d e f i n i t i o n o f the adminis t r a t i o n p r o c e s s i s based on what a man does r a t h e r  than  what he i s . As used here, a s k i l l i m p l i e s an a b i l i t y which can be developed, n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n b o r n , and which i s m a n i f e s t e d i n performance, not merely i n p o t e n t i a l . So the p r i n c i p a l c r i t e r i o n o f s k i l l f u l n e s s must be e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n under v a r y i n g c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s approach suggests t h a t e f f e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e s t on t h r e e b a s i c d e v e l o p a b l e s k i l l s which o b v i a t e the need f o r i d e n t i f y i n g s p e c i a l t r a i t s and which may p r o v i d e a u s e f u l way o f l o o k i n g a t any u n d e r s t a n d i n g the adminis t r a t i v e process. T h i s approach i s the o u t growth o f f i r s t h a n d o b s e r v a t i o n o f e x e c u t i v e s at work c o u p l e d w i t h study o f c u r r e n t f i e l d research i n administration . . . . .  42 Three S k i l l Approach I t i s assumed here t h a t an a d m i n i s t r a t o r i s one who (a) d i r e c t s the a c t i v i t i e s o f o t h e r persons and (b) undertakes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c h i e v i n g c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s through these e f f o r t s . Within t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , successf u l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n appears to r e s t i n t h r e e b a s i c s k i l l s , which we w i l l c a l l t e c h n i c a l , human, and c o n c e p t u a l . * I t would be u n r e a l i s t i c t o a s s e r t t h a t these s k i l l s are not i n t e r r e l a t e d , y e t t h e r e may be r e a l m e r i t i n examini n g each one s e p a r a t e l y , and i n d e v e l o p i n g them independently. In the  t e x t by Houle  proper board membership and members are  listed.  He  an o u t l i n e i s g i v e n  for  s u c c i n c t d u t i e s o f board  states:  The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n f l o w s from the wisdom and c l a r i t y w i t h which the board o f d i r e c t o r s perform i t s p o l i c y - m a k i n g and l e a d e r s h i p r o l e . In o r d e r to make h i s maximum c o n t r i b u t i o n , each board member s h o u l d prepare h i m s e l f f o r board membership . . . . The o v e r - a l l g o a l o f the board i s and must be the same as the g o a l o f the agency or a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h which i t i s c o n n e c t e d . . . . The board's r e l a t i o n s h i p to i t s i n s t i t u t i o n or s e r v i c e o r a s s o c i a t i o n i s one o f both c o n t r o l and a s s i s t a n c e . 25 In d e s c r i b i n g the board's f u n c t i o n he goes on and  The f i r s t major r e c o r d by-laws. . . .  to  say:  is i t s constitution  The c o n s t i t u t i o n s t a t e s the g e n e r a l purpose o f the agency o r a s s o c i a t i o n and d e f i n e d the  C o n c e p t u a l - as used here by the author, means, the a b i l i t y to see the e n t e r p r i s e as a whole.  4 3 b a s i c c o n d i t i o n s o f e x i s t e n c e o f the b o a r d . The by-laws a r e r u l e e s t a b l i s h e d t o guide the procedure o f the board . . . . The second major r e c o r d o f a board i s i t s statement o f p o l i c i e s . From time t o time boards make d e c i s i o n s about r e c u r r e n t problems o r i s s u e s . These d e c i s i o n s s h o u l d be r e c o r d e d and made a v a i l a b l e t o a l l who need t o know them. 26 On  performance  he  * adds;  Moreover, boards must perform a number o f e x e c u t i v e and j u d i c i a l f u n c t i o n s , such as s e l e c t i n g an e x e c u t i v e , c a r r y i n g on f i n a n c i a l campaigns, a r b i t r a t i n g s e r i o u s c o n f l i c t s w i t h i n t h e s t a f f , and p e r f o r m i n g v o l u n t e e r s e r v i c e s f o r t h e program. The e x e c u t i v e , on the o t h e r hand, has an important r o l e i n p o l i c y - m a k i n g . When he takes fundamental matters t o h i s board f o r d e c i s i o n he u s u a l l y f e e l s an o b l i g a t i o n t o recommend t h e c o u r s e o f a c t i o n i t s h o u l d t a k e . In t h i s p r o c e s s , he g u i d e s the thought o f the b o a r d . Furthermore, i n the day-to-day o p e r a t i o n o f t h e agency o r a s s o c i a t i o n , these immediate d e c i s i o n s may be f a r g r e a t e r than t h e broad p o l i c i e s which the board l a y s down . . . . Whenever i t can, t h e board s h o u l d t r y t o s t a y a t t h e l e v e l o f g e n e r a l i t y and s p e c i f i c i t y , to t h i n k o f c a t e g o r i e s o f problems r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , t o c o n s i d e r long-range developments, and t o put the program i n the l a r g e r p e r s p e c t i v e o f the whole community. C o n c l u d i n g w i t h a note on O b j e c t i v e s , he has a measure27 ment f o r a s u c c e s s f u l board, and an u l t i m a t e t e s t :  *  O b j e c t i v e s a r e o f two major s o r t s . The f i r s t k i n d a r e g e n e r a l statements o f purpose, s p e l l e d out s u f f i c i e n t l y c l e a r l y so t h a t they may be understood . . . . The second k i n d o f o b j e c t i v e s are more s p e c i f i c ; they d e f i n e p a r t i c u l a r p r o gram emphasis o r g o a l s , o f t e n f o r an e s t a b l i s h e d p e r i o d o f t i m e . U s u a l l y they a r e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the g e n e r a l g o a l s  44  How  Success can be measured i n o n l y one w e l l were the o b j e c t i v e s a c h i e v e d .  way: . . .  The most f r e q u e n t method of e v a l u a t i o n i s p r o b a b l y the c o u n t i n g o f the number o f people who p a r t i c i p a t e o r the e x t e n t o f the use o f the s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d . . . . The u l t i m a t e t e s t i s the success o f the program. There i s r e a l l y not v e r y much p o i n t i n having a board i f the purpose o f the agency o r a s s o c i a t i o n i s not a c h i e v e d . To be sure the s u c c e s s might be i n s p i t e o f the board or w i t h o u t any v e r y g r e a t c o n t r i b u t i o n from i t , but o r d i n a r i l y good boards are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h good programs. 28 Pfiffner  and Sherwood  * d e f i n e and d i f f e r e n t i a t e  s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the "means v e r s u s ends"  admini-  concept  i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , then, c o n s i s t s o f e v e r y t h i n g except the s e t t i n g o f these g e n e r a l directions. ( s i c - a g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n as to how to go about t h i n k i n g when d e c i s i o n s are t o be made) In b r i e f e r terms, i t i s o f t e n said that p o l i c y i s . t h e formulation of goals and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n v o l v e s t h e i r e x e c u t i o n . 29. Shaw " d e f i n e s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as f o l l o w s : But t o one view, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s , f i r s t and foremost, a f u n c t i o n - a s e t o f t a s k s and a c t i v i t i e s - shared by every person i n an ( e d u c a t i o n a l ) i n s t i t u t i o n from t e a c h e r on up o r down. Some spend more o f t h e i r time a t i t than o t h e r s , but a l l a d m i n i s t e r . 30 E l u c i d a t i n g on t h i s concept Harlow  * states:  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s the s e r v a n t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l purpose. Purpose pervades an o r g a n i z a t i o n , d e t e r m i n i n g i t s s u b o r d i n a t e and supero r d i n a t e r o l e s , i t s governing r o l e expectations and the l i k e . D i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e process are determined by o r g a n i z a t i o n a l purpose.  45 REFERENCES 1.  Hopkins, John T., "West A Study i n Community M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , The Columbia, Vancouver,  Vancouver R e c r e a t i o n Survey, Organization" (unpublished U n i v e r s i t y "of B r i t i s h 1950), p. 69.  2.  F a r i n a , A l f r e d J.O., "Edmonton Community League" ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 1950), p. 43.  3.  Belshaw, C , C u l l i e , E., and C u r r i e , I . , A Study o f R e c r e a t i o n i n N o r t h Vancouver. A Report P r e pared by the Group Work D i v i s i o n , S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n . (Vancouver: Community Chest and C o u n c i l , 1956), p. i i i .  4.  Ibid.  5.  I b i d . , p. 102.  6.  Jones, G.V., " L e a d e r s h i p i n R e c r e a t i o n : A Study o f the Impact o f L e a d e r s h i p on the R e c r e a t i o n Programme i n the C i t y o f B e l l i n g h a m , Washington" ( u n p u b l i s h e d Master's t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 1950), p. 53.  7.  McDonald, David N., and Ramsay, R i c h a r d L., R e c r e a t i o n In P e n t i c t o n , A Community Survey. ( P e n t i c t o n : The South Okanagan R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, 1965), p. 48.  8.  Ramsay, R i c h a r d L., " G u i d e l i n e s f o r Community S e l f Surveys In R e c r e a t i o n " (Vancouver: The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967), pp. 1-15. (mimeographed. )  9.  G a r r e t , A n n e t t e , I n t e r v i e w i n g , I t s P r i n c i p l e s and Methods, New York F a m i l y W e l f a r e A s s o c i a t i o n o f America, 1946, pp. 34-93.  10.  Kahn, Robert L., and C a r m e l l , C h a r l e s F., The Dynamics o f I n t e r v i e w i n g , New York, John Wylie and Sons, 1957, pp. 121-161.  11.  T e n a l s o n , Anne, T., Ferguson, Grace B., and Abrhamson, A r t h u r C , E s s e n t i a l s i n I n t e r v i e w i n g , New York, Harper and Row L i m i t e d , 1962, pp. 84176.  46 12.  K i d d , B., A Model f o r a R e c r e a t i o n Programme. A Report Adopted by the O n t a r i o Department of E d u c a t i o n , ( T o r o n t o : Community Programmes Branch, 1967), pp. 1-4.  13.  Boker, H.R., L a r s o n , V.W., and Solomon, D.D., Key t o Community, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, C e n t r e f o r Community S t u d i e s , V o l s . I-V, 1963.  14.  Community Programmes Branch, A Guide To R e c r e a t i o n Commissions, Department o f E d u c a t i o n ( V i c t o r i a : A. S u t t o n , P r i n t e r to the Queen's Most E x c e l l e n t M a j e s t y i n the R i g h t o f the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964), p. 13.  15.  I b i d . , p.  16.  F a r i n a , op. c i t . ,  17.  Meyer, H a r o l d D., and B r i g h t b i l l , C h a r l e s K., Community R e c r e a t i o n , Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1956, p.  15. p.  62.  199.  18.  F i t z g e r a l d , as quoted by Meyer, H a r o l d D., and B r i g h t b i l l , C h a r l e s K., Community R e c r e a t i o n , Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1956, p. 200.  19.  S h i v e r s , Jay S., L e a d e r s h i p i n R e c r e a t i o n S e r v i c e , New York, The M a c M i l l a n Company, 1963, p. 243.  20.  P a r t i c i p a n t s i n a N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n Workshop, R e c r e a t i o n f o r Community L i v i n g , Chicago, The A t h l e t i c I n s t i t u t e , 1952, p. 23.  21.  I b i d . , p.  22.  V a n n i e r , M. Methods and M a t e r i a l s i n R e c r e a t i o n Leadership. P h i l a d e l p h i a , W.B. Saunders Company, 1956, p. 239-41.  23.  K a t z , Robert trator". February,  24.  Houle, C y r i l 0., The E f f e c t i v e Board, New York, New York, A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1960, p. 50.  24,  C , " S k i l l s o f an E f f e c t i v e A d m i n i s Harvard B u s i n e s s Review, J a n u a r y 1955. V o l . 33 No. 1, p.p. 33-42.  47 25..  I b i d . , p. 86.  26.  I b i d . , p. 116.  27.  Ibid.  28.  P f i f f n e r , John M., and Sherwood, Frank P., A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n , Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , 1960, p. 82.  29.  Shaw, A r c h i b a l d B., S e l e c t e d Readings: Educational Administration. Boston, E d i t e d by Hack, Ramseyer, Gephart and Heck. A l l y n and Bacon, I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1965, pp. 25-28.  30.  Harlow, James G., S e l e c t e d Readings: E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Boston, E d i t e d by Hack, Ramseyer, Gephart and Heck. A l l y n and Bacon I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1965, pp. 28-38.  CHAPTER I I I  CASE STUDY  I.  COMMISSIONS  REPORTS  SERVING POPULATIONS UP TO F I V E HUNDRED PEOPLE  Many B r i t i s h ations  approximating f i v e  at organizing aid  Columbia communities  their  with  popul-  h u n d r e d h a v e made some a t t e m p t  recreational  programmes.  With the  o f t h e Community Programmes B r a n c h and i t s R e g i o n a l  Consultants,  advice  i s g i v e n on e s t a b l i s h i n g  Commission  and o n an o p e r a t i n g  from which  t o c a r r y on i t s a f f a i r s .  reference or constitution  I n many o f t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s , programmes a r e s t r u g g l i n g  f o r their  the people i n these communities t i m e and e f f o r t regardless  commissions  very existence.  t o promote r e c r e a t i o n  they  with populations  less  today's struggle w i l l  commission o f tomorrow.  and o l d ,  perpetuate.  than f i v e  Yet  give of their  f o r young  a r e Case Study r e p o r t s o f f o u r  whose h o p e i s t h a t successful  the recreation  untiringly  o f the redundant f a i l u r e  Here  a Recreation  selected hundred,  r e a l i z e the  49  1.  Boswell District  Location:  Population:  Nelson One h u n d r e d  and  sixty  Bo s w e l l . , a s m a l l r a t h e r s c a t t e r e d and w i d e l y spread  community,  i s l o c a t e d on t h e E a s t e r n  Kootenay Lake i n the south-eastern Isolated  area o f the Province.  i n p a r t , because o f t h e Lake, t h i s  flourishing  fruit  and v e g e t a b l e  shore o f  once  a r e a has d i m i n i s h e d i n  a f f l u e n c e because o f i t s i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the l a r g e r rural  centres o f Nelson  summer v a c a t i o n e r s income.  Access  and t o u r i s t s  i s b y h i g h w a y and  and b y P r o v i n c i a l  ferry  H i g h w a y 3A f r o m  south.  The retired land  one  population consists of older retired  persons,  on w h i c h The  they  live.  R e c r e a t i o n Commission  President.  Community C l u b  or semi-  and t h e m a j o r i t y , t y p i c a l l y , own t h e  m a l e a n d f o u r f e m a l e members.  bent  as  and now d e p e n d s o n  as i t s main s o u r c e o f  t o t h e community  across Kootenay Lake, the  and C r e s t o n ,  The C o m m i s s i o n concept,  t h e Commission.  consists of five  people,  The m a l e i s t h e i n c u m -  i s s t r u c t u r e d from  whose e x e c u t i v e  serves  a  officially  50. The twenty-five  Community Club has persons who  pay  a v o l u n t a r y membership o f  a s m a l l annual membership  fee. By c o n s t i t u t i o n , the Commission meets r e g u l a r l y i n the w i n t e r months, and  i r r e g u l a r l y i n the summer.  T h i s Commission i s a member o f the B r i t i s h  Columbia  R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n and r e c e i v e s a g r a n t from  the  Community Programmes B r a n c h . The  o p e r a t i o n o f the Commission i s c a r r i e d  on a r e g u l a r meeting b a s i s , and M e e t i n g s are i n f o r m a l and  i s o f an "ad hoc"  c e n t r e around a review  out nature.  of  the  p a s t month's a c t i v i t i e s , t h e i r f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s and  plans  f o r f u t u r e program.  some  A l l age  groups are s e r v e d , and  i n t e g r a t i o n with neighbouring  communities takes  place  when p r a c t i c a l . The  primary  r e s o u r c e s o f the community are a  Community H a l l c o n s t r u c t e d i n the e a r l y " f i f t i e s "  and  a t r a c t o f p r i v a t e l a n d s u i t a b l e f o r outdoor games, p i c n i c s and d i s p l a y s .  Some o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e  gramme such as b i n g o s , c a r d and on i n member's homes.  t a b l e games are  procarried  There are no s c h o o l s o r s e r v i c e  c l u b s i n t h i s community and  a church  r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y f o r the younger  p r o v i d e s some people.  51 While t h e Commission f o l l o w s a simple  constitut-  i o n , t h e r e a r e no by-laws o r w r i t t e n p o l i c i e s t o d i r e c t the e x e c u t i v e .  The primary  sources o f revenue are t h e  Community Programmes Branch q u a l i f y i n g g r a n t s and t h e membership dues o f Community C l u b members.  T h i s Com-  m i s s i o n has no budget, a l t h o u g h f i n a n c i a l r e c o r d s are kept by a t r e a s u r e r .  A "pay-as-we-go" p h i l o s o p h y i s  f o l l o w e d , w i t h an attempt t o r a i s e funds bake s a l e s and o t h e r programme The  through  bingos,  efforts.  Commission i s i n c o r p o r a t e d under t h e S o c i e t -  ies Act. A c t i v i t i e s and programmes c e n t r e around the more s e n i o r c i t i z e n s i n the community, although some emphasis i s g i v e n t o t h e "teen-age" group.  The g r e a t e s t  p o r t i o n o f the programme i s f o c u s e d on t h e s m a l l community h a l l ,  and i n the summer a c t i v i t y s h i f t s  outdoors.  C l u b s , formed when an i n t e r e s t group o r g a n i z e s , approach the Commission f o r r e c o g n i t i o n and s p o n s o r s h i p . they a r e g i v e n a s s i s t a n c e , s t a t u s and l i m i t e d help.  Here  financial  The c o n t i n u i t y o f such c l u b s i s c o n t i n g e n t on  the groups l a s t i n g i n t e r e s t and many c l u b s fade a f t e r a flourishing i n i t i a l  effort.  L e a d e r s h i p , as such, The  i s very l i m i t e d i n Boswell.  primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e s t s w i t h the P r e s i d e n t  52 whose e f f o r t s s u s t a i n the Commission.  T h i s "one  o r g a n i z e r s u p e r v i s e s , coaches, d i r e c t s and most o f the  invigorates  activity.  I n d i v i d u a l l y , the members expressed as t h e i r primary problem, the nature and  lack of s u f f i c i e n t f a c i l i t i e s  problems.  man"  o f the  as t h e i r  C o l l e c t i v e l y , they expressed  and communicating w i t h the s m a l l and  Leadership population secondary  "organizing"  s c a t t e r e d popu-  l a t i o n as t h e i r major problems. The  Boswell  Commission r e g u l a r l y q u a l i f i e s f o r  t h e i r Community Programmes Branch g r a n t  and  provides  minimum r e c r e a t i o n programme f o r i t s c i t i z e n s . present  2.  In i t s  s t a t e , l i t t l e consideration i s given f o r  change i n i t s c u r r e n t format and  any  operation.  Cherryville D i s t r i c t Location:  Kelowna  Population:  Two  Located  hundred and  seventy-five  e a s t o f Vernon and Lumby, B r i t i s h  Columbia,  C h e r r y v i l l e i s a s c a t t e r e d community on the edge o f Monashee Mountain Range. on  a  I t remains somewhat i s o l a t e d  the f r i n g e o f the "Okanagan".  wards r a n c h i n g  the  and f o r e s t r y .  I t i s orientated to-  53  A Community C l u b , i n c o r p o r a t e d under the Act, of  w i t h a membership o f seventy h o l d s the  a l l community a c t i v i t i e s .  membership.  Societies  responsibility  A token f e e e n t i t l e s one  to  The R e c r e a t i o n Commission i s composed o f the  Chairmen o f s p e c i f i c " c l u b s " .  These r e p r e s e n t i n t e r e s t  groups w i t h i n the Community C l u b .  Thus, the Commission  is  a "committee" o f the Community Club w i t h a membership  of  seven  ( s i x males and one  female) members.  To become  a member o f the R e c r e a t i o n Commission a c l u b approaches the Community Club p r e s e n t i n g i t s "case" on the b a s i s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n - meaning a s l a t e o f o f f i c e r s , and  plans f o r o p e r a t i o n .  a  purpose,  The Community Club then makes  a recommendation t h a t w i l l a l l o w the Chairman o f the group o f f i c i a l  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the Commission.  The Commission f o l l o w s a l i m i t e d I t meets once a month except August.  constitution.  Specific  policies  for  the promotion  o f r e c r e a t i o n are f o l l o w e d and  for  c l u b o r g a n i z a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n are s t r i c t l y  rules adhered  to. Many s u c c e s s f u l fund r a i s i n g  activities,  together  w i t h the Community Programmes Branch q u a r t e r l y g r a n t , are the main sources o f revenue.  No f o r m a l budget i s  p r e s e n t e d , b u t a c c u r a t e a c c o u n t i n g procedures ed by both the Commission and  the sponsored  are f o l l o w -  clubs.  54 The Hall,  complete with  Centennial policy In  Cherryville  of the current  school  as a  administration allows i t .  park  (Class I I I ) i s access-  t o t h e community, b u t used s p a r i n g l y ,  Day, a n a n n u a l  outdoor  "carnival"  mission  and a f i n a n c i a l  activities  conservation  unities  little  i s recognized  not d i r e c t l y  involved i n the school's  presented  their  ideas  i s promoted he i s g i v e n  to ascertaining the an o p p o r -  i n t h e sense t h a t opportunity  and  attendance  Many o f t h e s e  a r e s p o n s o r e d b y t h e Community  o f which t h i s  con-  through s e l f - r e p r e s e n t -  through  w o r k s h o p s and c o n f e r e n c e s .  and t h e B r i t i s h  by the c l u b  A l l members a r e g i v e n  further his abilities  Branch  with  r e c r e a t i o n a l opport-  consideration i s given  Leadership  sessions  This together  i s s u p p l e m e n t e d b y an a c t i v e  the opportunity  to present  ation.  necessity.  i s to provide  needs o f t h e people. tunity  p r o j e c t o f t h e Com-  and r e c r e a t i o n programme. With  cept,  s p o r t , a c t i v i t y and  program promoted by t h e Commission,  f o r those  athletic  i s the primary  of the clubs,  One p o l i c y  to  a Community  p r o j e c t , and t h e s c h o o l b u i l d i n g when t h e  Cherryville  one  utilize  a new a d d i t i o n d e d i c a t e d  addition, a provincial  ible  the  citizens  once  support  at c l i n i c s ,  educational  Programmes  Columbia Recreation A s s o c i a t i o n ,  Commission  i s a member.  .......  55  A successful operation, Commission currently tract with  i s f r u s t r a t e d b y one m a j o r  of land.  The  the proper  Decker  executive  development  i n t h e Community  The  this the  Smithers  from  Two  i n the heart  i n the c e n t r a l , Lying  attraction  Tweedsmuir Park  automatically belong  Hall  Association.  the e l e c t i o n  female  and  north-western portion of  economically  Lake,  dependent  i n the nearby Burns  o r g a n i z a t i o n t o which  Association.  Bulkley  on  derived Lake-  area.  Lake  on  of the  p a p e r i n d u s t r y , and o n b u s i n e s s  tourists  The  i s located  on t h e shore o f Decker  community f i n d s i t s e l f and  hundred  community o f D e c k e r L a k e  to Burns Lake,  Columbia.  pulp  and f o r g r e a t e r  Club.  Location:  small  area,  British  that  i s perpetually concerned  of leaders  Population:  Valley  p r o b l e m , and  Lake  District  adjacent  Recreation  i s t h e a c q u i s t i o n and e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s t o a  membership  3.  the C h e r r y v i l l e  a l lcitizens  (by r e s i d e n c y )  The R e c r e a t i o n  An  i s formed  t h e Community  C u r r e n t l y the Commission  f o u r m a l e members.  i s t h e Community  Commission  o f e i g h t o f f i c e r s by  o f Decker  consists of  informal  Hall four  organization,  56 The  C o m m i s s i o n h a s no c o n s t i t u t i o n ,  policies  b y - l a w s and m e e t s m o n t h l y p r e s e n t i n g m i n u t e s  of past  meeting,  and d i s c u s s i n g new  the Commission  i s focused  s t a t u s , and t h e i r  Community  Programmes  raising  requirements  Branch g r a n t s .  o f revenue with  activities.  disappointing  concerns:  these  The l a t t e r  activities  has been gained  their  to qualify f o r i s the  some r e v e n u e g a i n e d  Recently  and l i t t l e  The a t t e n t i o n o f  o n two p r i m a r y  financial  main source  business.  or  by  fund  have been  by t h e i r  occur-  rance.  Resources are l i m i t e d older during  school building,  The  and by  an o u t d a t e d  some s p e c i a l  i s limited  p r o j e c t s such  t h e a q u a t i c programme. the a d d i t i o n  undertakes  Burdened w i t h  ducing  direction,  as b i n g o s  and s u p e r v i s o r y  and d a n c e s ,  activity  fiscal  little  who  activities.  responsibility,  Poor Commission  provides  i s aided  i n t h e D e c k e r L a k e Com-  i s p r i m a r l y concerned  concepts.  and  developing.  of a paid "lifeguard-instructor"  water-safety  organization  Hall,  t o a few s p o r t s and  This latter  Many p r o b l e m s e x i s t mission.  vacant,  area which the  considerable energies  programme  of a  Community  t h e summer months a b e a c h - p a r k  Commission has spent  games,  and c o n s i s t  with revenue structure,  this pro-  lacking  opportunity f o r considering  57  people's needs, resource leadership designed  4.  development,  to capture  White  analysis  and c r e a t i v e  This  Location:  small  fresh water-spring  Kamloops One  located  hundred  community  i s located  fed lake,  between  on t h e T r a n s - C a n a d a Highway.  from  programming  the c i t i z e n ' s i n t e r e s t ,  Population:  is  improvement,  Lake  District  Arm  and  Kamloops  small and  The community  around the l a k e , which i s a s h o r t  Salmon  proper  distance  t h e W e s t e r n S h o r e o f t h e n o r t h - a r m o f Shuswap L a k e .  The  p e o p l e a r e d e p e n d e n t on n e a r b y p u l p  for  their  o f t h e Community A s s o c i a t i o n  Society,  the Recreation  members,  ( f o u r males  Association composed area.  and p a p e r m i l l s  livelihood.  A committee  Commission  and one  and S o c i e t y  of the m a j o r i t y  i s composed  female).  The  i s a voluntary of citizens  T h e r e i s a n o m i n a l membership Following  an o l d e r  t h e c o m m i s s i o n meets  throughout  the year.  of  and five  Community  organization,  i n the White  Lake  fee to q u a l i f y .  constitution  revision),  with  near a  (undergoing  a t l e a s t o n c e p e r month  T r a d i t i o n and p a s t  simple by-laws, are the g u i d e l i n e s  experience, followed  in  58 policy  reference.Meetings  a r e made on  follow  the f i n a n c i a l  t h e r e i s no  formal  authorize  A vote an  taken by  at least  Revenue i s r e a l i z e d Branch  g r a n t s and  profits  from  utilizing gramme. and  an o u t d a t e d  infrequent lakeside use.  primarily  a r e a has  school bouring Lake  limited  for larger An  has  communities,  people  There  from  Programmes membership  physical for  i s costly  resources,  limited•proto  operate  g a t h e r i n g s such outdoor  picnic  as  an  and  commission*s as  a r e no  i t passes  churches,  a r e a , and  the  These i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  limit  to special  comment made  become a s o r e p o i n t  c l u b s i n the White Lake i s three miles.  to  experience.  area i s troublesome  l a n d , and  spending  events.  facility  amongst p r o p e r t y o w n e r s . service  the  been s e t a s i d e f o r the  to t h i s  private  degree  in  "We  is sufficient  t h e Community  "bingo" or dance.  Access  through  ten year's  community h a l l  However, t h i s  i s used  T h i s was  to a lesser  T h i s community has  procedure  telephone  through  programme  are audited  allotment of funds.  expenditure."  a member w i t h  and  accounts  a haphazard-hit-and-miss  o u r money.  by  i n f o r m a l and d e c i s i o n s  a simple majority vote.  Although yearly,  are  or  nearest  i n neigh-  the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r White  events  at Christmas,  Easter  and  59 the o c c a s i o n a l summer camp.  Consequently,  emphasis i s on "hobby" r e c r e a t i o n . are guided by the Commission, and  programme  S e v e r a l hobby groups include lapidary,  ceramics and l e a t h e r - c r a f t c l u b s .  Some i n f o r m a l a t h l e t i c  a c t i v i t i e s are g i v e n v e r y l i m i t e d s u p p o r t . in  Most people  White Lake have some o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e c r e a t i o n ,  a l t h o u g h the young p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n are o v e r l o o k e d i n t h i s Commission's  efforts.  S e v e r a l times i n f o r m a l and been thwarted wishes.  i n an attempt  Poor response  f u r t h e r attempts.  simple surveys have  t o determine  the  people's  to such e f f o r t s has d i s c o u r a g e d  Consequently,  recreational  is  c a r r i e d on a year t o y e a r b a s i s w i t h l i t t l e  or  innovation.  through is  An attempt  for creative  activity change  programming  l e a d e r s h i p development o f the younger members  made through  attendance  at r e g i o n a l  conferences.  T h i s commission f r e q u e n t l y sponsors i t s young people a t c l i n i c s , workshops, and o t h e r Community Programmes and B r i t i s h Columbia In  t h i s , they attempt  Branch  Recreation Association gatherings. to perpetuate t h e i r present pro-  gramme. R e s p o n s i b l e t o a s m a l l and  scattered population,  t h i s Commission f a c e s a p e r p e t u a l problem They are l a c k i n g i n f a c i l i t i e s little  with f i n a n c e s .  and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s , and  change i n t h i s r e s p e c t i s f o r e s e e n .  60 I I . COMMISSIONS SERVING POPULATIONS OVER FIVE HUNDRED PEOPLE Apparent d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n communities o f populations  ( l e s s than f i v e hundred) and  those  (over f i v e hundred) i n terms o f i n t e r e s t s , dependency and  larger  economic  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a b i l i t y o f t h e i r r e c -  r e a t i o n commissions are n e g l i g i b l e . occupation,  small  education,  Similarities in  l e i s u r e time p u r s u i t s , a n d  the  v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n o f people i n u n i n c o r p o r a t e d  areas  a l l o w a comparative view o f t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n commissions. Yet,  t h e r e appears to be  a more v i g o r o u s  attitude, a  g r e a t e r c a p a c i t y f o r the s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n o f similar administrative  these  bodies.  For comparative purposes, a review o f s l i g h t l y l a r g e r communities and  these  t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n commis-  sions follows. 1.  Cherry  Creek  D i s t r i c t Location:  Vancouver I s l a n d  Population:  N i n e t e e n Hundred  T h i s i s l a n d community i s s i t u a t e d a d j a c e n t but p h y s i c a l l y separated p a r t o f Vancouver I s l a n d . orated  (now  under one  to,  from P o r t A l b e r n i i n the c e n t r a l As neighbours o f the  municipal  incorp-  authority) area of  . A l b e r n i and  P o r t A l b e r n i , the c i t i z e n s o f C h e r r y  are i d e n t i f i e d and  61  s e p a r a t e l y due  community r e s o u r c e s .  Creek  to the p h y s i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s  These people  are dependent  on  a v a r i e t y o f economic f a c t o r s f o r t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d .  The  primary  pulp  and  occupations  paper products The  are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o n g s h o r i n g , and  the f o r e s t r y i n d u s t r y .  r e c r e a t i o n commission i s a C h a r t e r e d  Assoc-  i a t i o n under the a u t h o r i t y o f the A l b e r n i V a l l e y Water District.  Representation  t e n people  i n c l u d i n g an e x e c u t i v e o f f o u r by the  i n the water d i s t r i c t .  i s based on the e l e c t i o n  As  of  people  a chartered organization t h i s  Commission f o l l o w s a c o n s t i t u t i o n which i n c l u d e s by-laws for  policy reference.  Regular  are r e l a t i v e l y f o r m a l and s t r i c t agenda and  meetings, h e l d monthly,  f o l l o w a constant pattern.  parliamentary  T i g h t c o n t r o l o f f i n a n c e s and  procedure are  A  followed.  good book-keeping  are  e v i d e n t from a l l r e s p o n s e s . The of  C h e r r y Creek Commission u t i l i z e s  physical resources.  utilize  a hall,  In the community proper  the l o c a l s c h o o l and f o u r  ground a r e a s , one  a variety  park-play-  o f which i s f u l l y developed.  m i s s i o n , working w i t h s e v e r a l c i t i z e n groups o t h e r r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t course,  i c e c e n t r e and  they  The utilize  including a golf  service club f a c i l i t i e s .  com-  62 Programme a t t e n t i o n i s f o c u s e d on s u c c e s s f u l fund r a i s i n g  p r o j e c t s such as r e g u l a r b i n g o s e s s i o n s ,  d i n n e r s , dances and t u r k e y s h o o t s . s u c c e s s f u l i n nature, d i s t r a c t  These a c t i v i t i e s ,  from o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s .  Regular r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s e x i s t  as "sub-commit-  t e e s " and succeed when f i n a n c i a l l y supported by the commission.  Athletic  programmes f a l l from s p e c i a l are sponsored provincial  groups,  hobby c l u b s and c h i l d r e n ' s  i n this category.  interest  groups.  L e a d e r s h i p grows  Once i d e n t i f i e d , l e a d e r s  a t c l i n i c s and workshops, promoted by  agencies.  Among problems c i t e d  t i n u e d development o f q u a l i t y l e a d e r s .  i s the con-  The s o l u t i o n o f  a b e t t e r f i n a n c i a l f o r m u l a and f u r t h e r f a c i l i t y  develop-  ment a r e o t h e r problems o f the C h e r r y Creek Commission.  2. L a c L a Hache D i s t r i c t Location:  Kamloops  Population:  Twenty-two hundred  L o c a t e d i n the s o u t h e r n p o r t i o n o f the C a r i b o o , south o f W i l l i a m s Lake, t h i s community r e l i e s on t o u r i s t t r a d e and r a n c h i n g f o r i t s means o f economic  support.  A v e r y a c t i v e community, i t i s c o n s t a n t l y aware o f i t s p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e t o u r i s t t r a d e , and a cons c i o u s n e s s o f p e r p e t u a l development f o r t h i s end i s the aim o f i t s c i t i z e n s .  63 The  r e c r e a t i o n commission i s the e x e c u t i v e o f  the Community C l u b , Together  ( v o l u n t a r y membership o f s e v e n t y ) •  t h e s e two b o d i e s meet once per month  out the y e a r .  Meetings are i n f o r m a l and  proper b u s i n e s s p r o c e d u r e s .  There i s no  and g u i d e l i n e s f o r o p e r a t i o n are based past experience.  The  through-  a t times l a c k constitution  on t r a d i t i o n  commission a c t s as a c l e a r i n g  house f o r r e c r e a t i v e i n t e r e s t s , c o - o r d i n a t i n g the of  s e r v i c e c l u b s , church a c t i v i t i e s ,  nized  and  efforts  and o t h e r r e c o g -  groups. An adequate h a l l i s the primary p h s i c a l r e s o u r c e ,  and  the commission has c o n s t r u c t e d an outdoor  and  a beach-park a r e a .  for  the "beach" d u r i n g the summer months.  The  ice rink  commission employs a d i r e c t o r Hence the  m a j o r i t y o f the r e c r e a t i o n programme i s c e n t e r e d i n these f a c i l i t i e s .  Organized  n i z e d by t h e commission.  a t h l e t i c events are r e c o g -  However, these are  o r g a n i z e d and d e v e l o p when l e a d e r s h i p and facilities The  are  informally  appropriate  available.  annual water show and r e g a t t a i s the  u n d e r t a k i n g o f the community.  Direction for this  primary event  i s g i v e n by the commission, but i n v o l v e s a l l segments of  the community to some e x t e n t .  64  The  financial  status i s questionable,  as a p e r -  p e t u a l e f f o r t e x i s t s i n q u a l i f y i n g f o r the Community Programmes Branch g r a n t . donations are s o l i c i t e d  When revenue i s r e q u i r e d , and a dinner-dance o r bingo i s  planned t o "see us over t h e h u r d l e " .  Perhaps, member-  s h i p i n the B r i t i s h Columbia R e c r e a t i o n some p e r t i n e n t a d v i c e  A s s o c i a t i o n and  i n many areas o f c o n c e r n would  h e l p t h i s Commission. F r u s t r a t e d with  f i n a n c i a l burdens, and inadequate  f a c i l i t y development, the Commission c i t e s apathy, a f a i l i n g membership and l i m i t e d concerns.  l e a d e r s h i p as i t s prime  T h i s however, i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n  o f poor  o r g a n i z a t i o n , l a c k o f d i r e c t i o n and an i g n o r a n c e o f r e c reation.  The people o f L a c L a Hache a s p i r e t o a m u n i c i -  p a l concept o f r e c r e a t i o n , b u t r e q u i r e ability 3.  and r e c r e a t i o n a l  organization  education.  Thornhill D i s t r i c t Location:  Smithers  Population:  T w e n t y - f i v e Hundred  A c r o s s t h e Kitsumkalum r i v e r from T e r r a c e , western B r i t i s h Columbia i s T h o r n h i l l .  i n north-  T h i s "new" community i..  i s a r a p i d l y expanding d i s t r i c t dependent'on the l o g g i n g , pulp of  and paper i n d u s t r i e s , and r e l a t e d s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s  Terrace.  65 The Commission i s a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n o f n i n e people  ( s i x male and t h r e e female) w i t h a s e l f  appointed executive o f f i v e .  A c o n s t i t u t i o n e x i s t s and  meetings w h i l e i n f o r m a l , a r e conducted l i k e manner. and  D e c i s i o n s a r e reached  i n a business-  after discussion  a v o t e when a quorem i s p r e s e n t .  No p o l i c i e s  a l t h o u g h the c o n s t i t u t i o n has by-laws f o r p o l i c y ion.  There i s no f o r m a l budget p r e s e n t e d .  d e r i v e d from programme a c t i v i t i e s ,  The  Pro-  donations.  c u r r e n t p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s are t h e l o c a l  s c h o o l and i t s p l a y - g r o u n d . co-operates  direct-  Revenue i s  the Community  grammes Branch g r a n t s , and s o l i c i t e d  exist  The s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  f u l l y w i t h the Commission i n t h e m u l t i p l e  use o f f a c i l i t i e s , b u t a concern o f expenses, maintenance and s u p e r v i s i o n e x i s t s i n t h i s r e s p e c t . The all  programme c o n s i s t s o f many a c t i v i t i e s f o r  age groups,  and a t o t a l community e f f o r t on fund  raising projects.  Emphasis i s g i v e n t h e t e n t o twenty-  two y e a r o l d age group, and " o l d age p e n s i o n e r s " . I n i t s i n f a n c y , t h i s commission f a c e s manygrowing p a i n s .  The primary concern  many r e s o u r c e s a r e r e q u i r e d . Concept i s b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d .  i s f i n a n c i a l , as  C u r r e n t l y , a Master P l a n T h i s Master P l a n i n -  c l u d e s a p r o j e c t i o n o f c o s t s , e s t i m a t e d f a c i l i t i e s and  o t h e r r e s o u r c e s r e q u i r e d , and a p l a n f o r l e a d e r s h i p development, which they r e a l i z e  i s required i f there  programme i s t o e v o l v e . As a new e n t i t y ,  the commission i s a m b i t i o u s .  P r e s e n t l y , t h e r e i s a good e x p r e s s i o n o f w i l l i n g n e s s t o s e r v e i n any aspect o f the programme.  With  proper  J g u i d a n c e , a s s i s t a n c e and a d v i c e , t h i s commissxon has the potential  t o be a Model f o r o t h e r commissions.  CHAPTER  IV  ANALYSIS Common socio-economic elements o f t h e seven a r e a s s e l e c t e d i n c l u d e d u n i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s , dependent on l o c a l economic  f a c t o r s , r e c r e a t i o n a l l y independent  o f urban i n f l u e n c e , v o l u n t a r y recognized  organization,  and f i n a l l y ,  by and r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e from t h e Com-  munity Programmes Branch. An a n a l y s i s o f s e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e Commissions and t h e i r o p e r a t i o n all.  demonstrated common short-comings i n  A lack o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e (Table II) with  a burdensome c o n c e r n f o r f i n a n c e s  r e s u l t s i n many c a s e s  o f poor programming and an a p a t h e t i c  s p i r i t of recreation  i n t h e community. H e r e i n , i s a breakdown o f elements s t u d i e d and an i n s i g h t i n t o the performance o f t h e Commissions studied. Organization Of t h e seven s e l e c t e d Commissions,  a l l b u t two  were formed from community " a s s o c i a t i o n s " , " s o c i e t i e s " or " c l u b s " .  These a r e a "sub-committee"  membership and a r e r e s p o n s i b l e In t h e o t h e r two examples  for a larger  t o t h e membership  only.  one was formed by the e l e c t i o n  TABLE I I ANALYSIS OP STRUCTURE AND ELEMENTS OF ORGANIZATION Form Commission  GROUP I  Membership  Executive  Frequency of Meeting  Constitution  Budget  Written Policies  B «C • R • A* Membershi  BOSWELL  Executive o f Community Club  20  5  Monthly  Yes  No  No  Yes  CHE RRYVILLE  Committee  70  7  Monthly  Yes  No  Yes  Yes  DECKER  Executive o f Community Association  350  8  Monthly  No  No  No  No  Committee o f Community Association  100  5  Yes  No  No  Yes  Elected Representative of Association Water D i s t . 10  4  Monthly  Yes  No  No  Yes  78  8  Monthly  No  No  No  No  9  5  Monthly  No  No  No  Yes  LAKE  WHITE LAKE  Irregular on a monthly basis  GROUP I I CHERRY CREEK LAC L A HACHE  Executive of Community Club  THORNHILL  S e l f .Appointed Recreation Commission  00  69  o f i t s members from the p o p u l a t i o n and  the o t h e r was  presentation ation.  o f the e n t i r e d i s t r i c t  a self-appointed organization.  i s l i m i t e d to d i s t i n c t  segments o f the  In some Commissions p a r t i c u l a r groups are  In a l l but one school  The  (teachers  and  popul-  excluded.  Commission c e r t a i n e t h n i c groups and  personnel  Commission.  Re-  public  t r u s t e e s ) were not on  number of e x e c u t i v e s  the  ranged from f o u r  t o e i g h t members. Four Commissions have some form o f w r i t t e n c o n stitution. and  However, o n l y one  was  considered  adequate  the o t h e r s were e i t h e r o u t d a t e d o r of l i t t l e use  which to f o r m u l a t e  p o l i c y or p r i n c i p l e s o f  A l l Commissions met adjourn  f o r a s i x week p e r i o d d u r i n g  o t h e r s met  " i f t h e r e was  Budgets and  understood.  on two  The  operation.  t h r e e o f these  the summer and  a n e c e s s i t y to do  two  so".  Finance  Budgets and  get.  monthly but  on  No  f i n a n c e were two  concepts  poorly  Commission p r e s e n t s  a formal  annual bud-  a c t i v i t i e s o f a l l Commissions are  f a c t o r s : revenue produced through fund  a c t i v i t i e s and  contingent raising  the q u a l i f y i n g q u a r t e r l y g i a n t s from  Community Programmes Branch.  the  70 C o n s i d e r i n g Needs C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the needs o f the people  they  r e p r e s e n t i s b a d l y n e g l e c t e d by a l l b u t one Commission. Adequate surveys o f people's needs, wants and d e s i r e s are p o o r l y attempted its  - i f at a l l .  One Commission w i t h  " s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t C l u b " concept a l l o w s the people t o  c r e a t e t h e i r own programmes.  I n the o t h e r c a s e s , oppor-  t u n i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a r e a v a i l a b l e on t h r e e (a)  What t h e i r f i n a n c e s w i l l  (b)  What fund r a i s i n g  premises:  allow;  activities  will  produce  revenue; (c)  What we "can do" w i t h what we have.  Resources Community h a l l s a r e a v a i l a b l e i n a l l b u t one community. ( T a b l e I I I ) no h a l l  In the l a t t e r ,  a new community,  i s a v a i l a b l e b u t p l a n s a r e t o have one con-  s t r u c t e d when funds a r e a v a i l a b l e . In  f o u r o f the communities these h a l l s were o u t -  d a t e d , a l t h o u g h these have been added t o o r renovated as C e n t e n n i a l p r o j e c t s w i t h money a v a i l a b l e through  Centen-  n i a l G r a n t s from t h e F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments. One Community has what can be c o n s i d e r e d "a m u l t i p l e use" f a c i l i t y  in its hall,  the C e n t e n n i a l p r o j e c t .  and t h i s too was a r e s u l t o f  TABLE  III  ANALYSIS OF RESOURCES Secondary Facility  Provincial Park Accessible  GROUP I  Primary Facility  BOSWELL  Hall  Private Land  Yes  No  Yes  No  No  No  Private Land  CHERRYVILLE  Hall  School  Yes  Yes  No  No  No  Yes  Private Land  DECKER LAKE  Hall  School Grounds  Yes  Yes  No  Yes  Yes  Yes  No  WHITE LAKE  Hall  No  Yes  Yes  No  Yes  No  Yes  No  CHERRY CREEK H a l l  School  Yes  Yes  No  Yes  NO  Yes  No  LAC L A HACHE H a l l  No  Yes  No  No  Yes  Yes  NO  No  No  Yes  No  Yes  No  No  No  GROUP  Hall  School  Church  Park  Beach  Other  II  THORNHILL  School  No (park)  72  Four communities make l i m i t e d  use o f t h e l o c a l  s c h o o l o r s c h o o l grounds and t h e use o f these i s c o n t i n g e n t on c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h s c h o o l The  facilities  officials.  community l a c k i n g a h a l l has o p t i m a l use o f the s c h o o l ,  b u t t h e f u t u r e o f t h i s concept  i s questionable.  I t should  be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a l l o f t h e commissions s t u d i e d have e x c e l l e n t access t o n a t u r a l s u r r o u n d i n g s  for recreation  but o n l y one c a n be c o n s i d e r e d t o make use o f t h i s unlimited  resource. P e r s o n n e l r e s o u r c e s o r l e a d e r s h i p i s a problem  i n f i v e o f t h e communities.  The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  many programme a s p e c t s f a l l s on a few, and l i t t l e i s achieved rural  i n the development o f "new b l o o d " .  a r e a s , the m a j o r i t y o f young people  success  I n these  are mobile,  o f t e n l e a v i n g t h e a r e a when they mature as l e a d e r s .  In  o t h e r c a s e s , young " q u a l i f i e d " o r n a t u r a l l e a d e r s a r e concerned "little  with t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  a t home and f i n d  time f o r t h e t h i n g s t h e commission i s d o i n g " .  Two commissions employ a q u a t i c l e a d e r s o r d i r e c t o r s f o r a limited  time d u r i n g t h e summer.  i n t e r e s t e d people  a r e sponsored  In other  communities  at regional c l i n i c s or  workshops i n an attempt t o educate f o r programme  develop-  ment. Other r e s o u r c e s such as churches, club organizations are n e g l i g i b l e  or service  i n the s e l e c t e d c a s e s .  73 Programme The  programme c o n t e n t o f these  v a r i e d g r e a t l y from to  commissions  a t h l e t i c a l l y o r i e n t a t e d programmes  hobby groups and fund r a i s i n g p r o j e c t s .  i n d i c a t e s the v a r i e t y o f programme c o n t e n t .  Table IV The age  groups s e r v e d by t h e Commissions a l s o v a r i e d and s p e c i f i c e f f o r t s to provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r pensioners, and  teen-agers  t h e "post f o r t y " age groups were made i n f o u r o f the  seven  cases.  Problems An  a n a l y s i s o f t h e problems l i s t e d by t h e Commissions  ( T a b l e V) i n d i c a t e d t h a t f o u r problems were common t o a l l Commissions: (1)  Sound f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s .  (2)  A c q u i r i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g  facilities.  (3) D e v e l o p i n g  p e r s o n n e l and l e a d e r s h i p .  (4) D e v e l o p i n g  i n t e r e s t i n t h e programmes.  B r i t i s h Columbia R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n Membership F i v e Commissions b e l o n g  t o the A s s o c i a t i o n .  However, o n l y two d e r i v e immediate b e n e f i t from membership.  their  The o t h e r s f e e l they "should b e l o n g , b u t  r e a l l y don't know why" they should  belong.  TABLE IV ANALYSIS OF PROGRAMME - PHASE I  A C T I V E  P A S S  I V E  GROUP I  Aquatic  Indoor  Outdoor  Dance  Special Club Groups  BOSWELL  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  No  CHERRYVILLE  No  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  No  Yes  Yes  DECKER LAKE  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  No  Yes  No  No  WHITE LAKE  No  Yes  Yes  No  Yes  Yes  No  Yes  No  CHERRY CREEK  No  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  No  Yes  Yes  No  LAC LA HACHE  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  No  Yes  No  THORNHILL  No  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  No  Yes  Yes  No  Hobbies  Games  Binqo  Filmi  GROUP I I  TABLE V ANALYSIS OF EXPRESSED PROBLEM GROUP  I  Member A  Member C  Member B  Member D  Member E  BOSWELL  Leadership Facilities  Scant population served. L a c k o f young people Boat marina  New h a l l Swimming instructor  CHERRYVILLE  Acquisition of land for Commission  Acquisition land for Commission  Completion of h a l l expansion Unrestricted land acquisition  Acquisition of land w i t h no restrictions  Acquisition of land for exclusive use  Skating rink Beach & park development Sport arena  C a p i t a l funds for land & park d e v e l o p ment Riding School  Acquiring & developing school (old) property Hall renovation  Money f o r swimming programme & property  Facilities Hall renovation TV, a g e / h e a l t h Turnover i n population  Money f o r c a p i t a l expenditure Pool Completed h a l l  Swimming f a c i lity Young p e o p l e to attend Winter f a c i l ity  Swimming facility Park development Maintenance of h a l l  DECKER LAKE  WHITE LAKE  Leadership Money f o r capital expenditure -Old School building & grounds Development of swimming programme Money f o r p r o grammes  of  cn  GROUP I I  Member  A  Member  B  Memher  C  Member  D  Member  E  CHERRY CREEK  Lease o f 7 acre park Money f o r development Pool Senior Citizens  Multipurpose facility Swimming facility Professional personnel  Fully coordinated program with schools  Completion o f present projects Qualified personnel  LAC L A HACHE  Ignorance Money Coordinating a l l resources Multipurpose facility  Land; t o t a l area & facility Increased membership  Completion o f beach Completion or improvement t o existing facilities  Money f o r capital expenditure New H a l l Swimming p o o l  Pool Money f o r land purchase Liquor  THORNHILL  Multipurpose centre Land a c q u i s i tion H o r s e show development Rapid population increase Parity i n athletics  Need p e o p l e w i t h recreation knowledge Completion o f park p r o j e c t Conception o f a master plan  Park a c q u i s i t i o n & complete development o f i t .  C o n f l i c t with people escaped r u l e s & regulations Taxes i n Terrace - but needed f o r recreation  Community centre C a p t i a l funds F u l l time recreation personnel  77 Community Programmes Branch I t i s e v i d e n t from an a n a l y s i s o f these Commissions t h a t a l l have mutual concern.  seven  areas o f success and  A l l had o p i n i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o the Community  Programmes Branch and i t s R e g i o n a l C o n s u l t a n t s . consensus i s t h a t the Community Programmes Branch  The should  p r o v i d e more money and the c o n s u l t a n t s s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e more o f t e n .  However, the terms o f r e f e r e n c e o f  the Community Programmes Branch c o n t r a d i c t t h i s and i n d i c a t e t h a t the Branch i s f u l f i l l i n g Resource w i t h i n i t s own  limitations.  i t s purpose as a  CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The success in rural  areas  of volunteer Recreation  i s dependent on the o r g a n i z e d  many people toward a g o a l - t h e e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n o f programmes. t h i s study  and s u c c e s s f u l  a r e symptoms o f g r e a t e r problems, perhaps  A r e v i e w o f these  outlined  efforts of  The problems a s c e r t a i n e d i n  honest misjudgement o r i g n o r a n c e  improvement  Commissions  by these  Commissions.  symptoms and some s u g g e s t i o n s  f o r the  o f the r u r a l r e c r e a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e  below.  Commission  Structure  The Community Programmes Branch book  "A Guide t o  1 Recreation process missions  Commissions"  * o u t l i n e s very s u c c i n c t l y the  and s t r u c t u r e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g r e c r e a t i o n comi n unorganized areas.  One community  s t u d i e d has,  i n our o p i n i o n , f o l l o w e d t h i s a d v i c e p r o p e r l y and e f f e c t ively.  A chartered  a s s o c i a t i o n , w i t h the f r e e e l e c t i o n  o f Commission members by a l l t h e people i n the a r e a i s an e f f e c t i v e manner i n which t o s e l e c t t h e members. t h i s way, t h e Commission  In  i s independent and r e s p o n s i b l e  to t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n and n o t t o a m i n o r i t y such as we w i t n e s s e d i n the s i x o t h e r Commissions. McDonald and Ramsay, i n t h e i r P e n t i c t o n study, 2 * c o n g r a t u l a t e the  79 Commission t h e r e f o r t a k i n g t h i s and  s t e p f o r independence  autonomy. The next s t e p i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a workable Commission  i s to e s t a b l i s h i t s frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r o p e r a t i o n . While s e v e r a l o f these Commissions had  constitutions,  none showed t h a t they used t h i s r e f e r e n c e p r o p e r l y . None had  s p e c i f i c by-laws which c l e a r l y g i v e d i r e c t i o n f o r  policy-making. the r e a s o n  T h i s i n essence,  becomes the whole purpose,  f o r b e i n g o f the Commission.  In t h i s r e s p e c t ,  3. Houle  * guides  the Board i n i t s f u n c t i o n .  In summary  he b e l i e v e s t h a t the c o n s t i t u t i o n s t a t e s the g e n e r a l purpose o f the agency or a s s o c i a t i o n and d e f i n e s the b a s i c c o n d i t i o n s of e x i s t e n c e . e s t a b l i s h e d to guide corded be  statements  The by-laws are  the procedure  roles  o f the b o a r d .  o f p o l i c i e s should f o l l o w and  a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l who  Reshould  r e q u i r e access to them.  The  f u n c t i o n s t h a t these boards o r commissions perform many and v a r i e d .  To some e x t e n t they are dependent on  the s i z e o f the p o p u l a t i o n s e r v e d , the r e s o u r c e s a b l e and  the e x t e n t o f programme.  In any event  e x e c u t i v e o f the Commission s h o u l d d e l e g a t e the d u t i e s and source  as p r a c t i c a l .  the specific  I n t h i s r e s p e c t , the exec-  u t i v e a l l o w themselves to c o n c e n t r a t e on o t h e r  training.  avail-  f u n c t i o n s to be c a r r i e d out to as many r e -  people  priorities,  are  such  necessary  as revenue, p l a n n i n g , and l e a d e r s h i p  80 Determining  The Needs - Programme  Much can be e f f i c i e n t l y  accomplished  f o r many  Commissions through the use o f a p r o p e r l y c o n s t r u c t e d 4  and p r o p e r l y conducted  survey.  In many cases  these  surveys can be c a r r i e d o u t by the Commission, and i n l a r g e r communities, perhaps professional advice.  the Commission should seek  A comprehensive survey,  undertaken  a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s , can a s s i s t the Commission i n : (1) d e t e r m i n i n g t h e wants, needs and d e s i r e s o f the people i t s e r v e s , (2)  determining i t s p h y s i c a l resources,  (3) d e t e r m i n i n g p e r s o n a l r e s o u r c e s , (4)  determining i t s f i n a n c i a l resources,  (5) a s c e r t a i n i n g the e x t e n t o f mutual and i n t e r r e l a t e d r e s o u r c e s , and the m u l t i p l e use o f s e v e r a l o f these r e s o u r c e s . When these a s p e c t s a r e determined,  or to a l e s s e r  e x t e n t , when the d a t a are a v a i l a b l e , the use o f the Community Programmes Branch C o n s u l t a n t becomes more p r a c t i cal.  These people are t r a i n e d t o a s s i s t such  Commissions  i n programme d e s i g n , and l e a d e r s h i p and e d u c a t i o n a l resources.  R e g a r d l e s s o f where these Commissions r e c e i v e  t h e i r guidance, the d a t a from p r o p e r l y conducted if  surveys,  c o r r e c t l y c o l l e c t e d can g r e a t l y a s s i s t a Commission  81 to a s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n . Leadership The  l e a d e r s h i p s i t u a t i o n i n many Commissions  s t u d i e d i s poor.  L e a d e r s h i p i n many a r e a s o f b o t h t h e  Commission's o p e r a t i o n and the programme i s m a i n t a i n e d by a few ambitious  people.  areas i s q u e s t i o n a b l e .  T h e i r competence i n these  However, through  the co-ordinated  e f f o r t s o f t h e Community Programmes Branch and the B r i t i s h Columbia R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , much i s a v a i l able f o r the volunteer leader i n s e l f education. conferences, c l i n i c s ,  Regional  and a c t i v i t y workshops a r e a l l a v a i l -  a b l e and n e c e s s a r y f o r the r u r a l Commission i f i t wishes 5 to improve i t s programmes c o n t e n t . suggest  Meyer and B r i g h t b i l l  t h e means t o which such Commissions should go i n  d i r e c t i n g t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p development and they by  adding t h a t " I t i s an accepted  summarize  axiom i n r e c r e a t i o n  t h a t programs depend upon the q u a l i t y o f l e a d e r s h i p . program can f u n c t i o n long w i t h o u t  No  i t . . . The q u a l i t y  o f l e a d e r s , both p r o f e s s i o n a l and v o l u n t e e r , t h e i r knowledge o f s k i l l s ,  the number needed and a v a i l a b l e and the  a b i l i t y of leaders to translate a c t i v i t i e s into  accomp-  l i s h e d o b j e c t i v e s , a r e fundamental. The  l i m i t a t i o n s o f l e a d e r s h i p should a l s o be  *  82 The No  be  recognized.  l e a d e r can run the whole program, nor d i r e c t a l l the  skills. The  l i m i t a t i o n s o f l e a d e r s h i p should  Many l e a d e r s are n e c e s s a r y f o r a b a l a n c e d program."  question  l e a d e r s by  of p a r t - t i m e  or the s h a r i n g o f p r o f e s s i o n a l  a group o f communities i s d i s c u s s e d  s e c t i o n on R e g i o n a l B u d g e t i n g and  Districts.  Finance  Budgeting and  f i n a n c e was  problems f a c e d by each of the F i r s t of a l l , stood  i n the  one  greatest  s e l e c t e d Commissions.  the term "budget" was  i n nearly a l l cases.  o f the  The  g e n e r a l l y misunder-  d e f i n i t i o n and  o f budgets are o u t l i n e d by Meyer and  purpose  Brightbill:  *  P u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s can no more be s e l f s u p p o r t i n g than can p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n . The b a s i c f l o o r o f s e r v i c e s must be f i n a n c e d through tax funds i f they are to be adequate and c o n t i n u i n g . The two most common ways o f supporting p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n are: ( ( D ) a p p r o p r i a t i o n s from the g e n e r a l funds o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y and ( ( 2 ) ) s p e c i a l tax l e v y . E q u a l l y as important are the matters of sound b u d g e t i n g and a c c o u n t i n g i n r e c r e a t i o n . Budgeting r e f e r s to the method o f making f i n a n c i a l estimates f o r a given period u s u a l l y one f i s c a l y e a r - based upon need and a l l o c a t i n g funds f o r v a r i o u s purposes. I t i s through the budget t h a t e x p e n d i t u r e s are r e s o l v e d w i t h income and from which sound p l a n n i n g and s e r v i c e s r e s u l t . Accounti n g i s the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e companion o f b u d g e t i n g and means simply an o r d e r l y p r o cedure o f n u m e r i c a l l y e x p l a i n i n g and r e p o r t i n g income and e x p e n d i t u r e s . It ind i c a t e s the q u a l i t y o f f i n a n c i a l stewards h i p and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e i n the f i n a n c i a l p i c t u r e .  The  second p r i o r i t y t o be  s e t f o r t h by a l l the  83  s e l e c t e d Commissions, i s a sound b a s i s f o r i t s f i n a n c i n g . N e a r l y a l l Commission a c t i v i t i e s c o n c e n t r a t e d on the need for raising  funds  through  f o r e , i n determining financial  appropriate a c t i v i t i e s .  the programme, a p r o j e c t i o n o f  needs, r e s o u r c e s  (revenues  and  and e x p e n d i t u r e s must be undertaken.  capital  enables Again, if and  the r e s u l t s  and  o f surveys w i l l i n f o r m the Commission  are w i l l i n g  and  a b l e to pay  programme p r o v i d e d by the Commission.  creation services directly, taxation.  A concept  can be  f o r the s e r v i c e s Consideration  "taxed" f o r the r e -  o r through  indirect  methods  and d i s c u s s i o n on a f o r m u l a f o r  r e c r e a t i o n a l f i n a n c i n g are d i s c u s s e d below i n the  s e c t i o n on R e g i o n a l Regional  Districts.  Districts  R e c e n t l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, e n a b l i n g has  A budget  the Commission to s t a y w i t h i n i t s r e a l i s t i c l i m i t s .  the people  rural  an  f o r long range p l a n n i n g  can be g i v e n i f the people  of  with  and d e l i b e r a t e view to accomplishment.  then, becomes a short-hand  funds)  These p r o j e c t i o n s  must be r e a l i s t i c a l l y a p p r a i s e d and reviewed honest  There-  legislation  p r o v i d e d f o r the c r e a t i o n o f R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s  as  7 corporate bodies,  " f o r the purpose of c o - o r d i n a t i n g  the e f f o r t s o f the people toward a common g o a l o r o b j e c t i v e : the p l a n n i n g o f and a r r a n g i n g f o r f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s and  84 the e f f i c i e n t g o v e r n i n g o f t h e people w i t h i n these d i s t r i c t s . It  i s pur c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h i s f o r m u l a can s e r v e  the causes o f r u r a l r e c r e a t i o n t w o f o l d : (1)  P r o v i d e a sound f i n a n c i a l b a s i s f o r r u r a l commissions.  (2) A l l o w these r u r a l commissions the mutual use o f ;  (a) p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , (b) p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p .  C u r r e n t l y these s e r v i c e s a r e n o t e f f i c i e n t l y o r r e a l i s t i c a l l y a p p r e c i a t e d by a s m a l l r u r a l a r e a . If  i t c a n be determined  t h a t the people i n these  r e g i o n s want o r g a n i z e d r e c r e a t i o n , and t h a t they a r e w i l l ing  t o pay f o r s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s ,  may p r o v i d e the means t o t h i s end.  then t h i s  concept  In several areas, the  e f f i c i e n t employment o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l d i r e c t o r ,  serving  each o f s e v e r a l s m a l l communities on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s , c o u l d be accomplished. for assisting  T h i s person would be r e s p o n s i b l e  the Commissions i n proper l e a d e r s h i p d e v e l o p -  ment, programming and p l a n n i n g . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f f e a s i b l e , w o r k a b l e and p r a c t i c a l budgets  by many commissions would then be  accomplished w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . T h e izations  f i n a n c i n g o f V o l u n t e e r Organ-  i n t h i s c o u n t r y can be, and i s b e i n g done.  The  85 g Report of the U n i t e d N a t i o n s * by the Government o f Canada summarized i n t h i s way: L o c a l Government There i s i n Canada a s t r o n g t r a d i t i o n o f l o c a l self-government. M u n i c i p a l governments are s u b o r d i n a t e governments and c a r r y out those t a s k s a s s i g n e d to them by the r e s p e c t i v e p r o v i n c i a l governments under s t a t u t e s which govern t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n s , and which are s u b j e c t to change a t the d i s c r e t i o n o f the p r o v i n c i a l government. In most p r o v i n c e s v a r y i n g f u n c t i o n s are performed by l o c a l governments depending upon t h e i r s t a t u s , whether r u r a l , v i l l a g e - t o w n , c i t y or m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . In some p r o v i n c e s s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d areas do not have o r g a n i z e d municipalities. They are a d m i n i s t e r e d by o f f i c i a l s appointed by the Department o f Municipal A f f a i r s . F o r example, s p e c i a l d i s t r i c t a u t h o r i t i e s ( i r r i g a t i o n d i s t r i c t s , g r e a t e r water and sewage d i s t r i c t s , h e a l t h u n i t s ) may p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s f o r a number of area m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . In g e n e r a l , however, m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are r e s p o n s i b l e i n whole o r i n p a r t f o r p o l i c e and f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , p u b l i c h e a l t h and s a n i t a t i o n , m u n i c i p a l roads and s t r e e t b u i l d i n g and maintenance, p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s , educational f a c i l i t i e s , hospitals, l i b r a r i e s , r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . A wide range o f matters comes w i t h i n the scope o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f l o c a l governments. There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e use o f boards and commissions, some o f which are a p p o i n t e d . Matters coming w i t h i n the scope o f boards o r commissions i n c l u d e s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n s such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s , p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s and education. P u b l i c s c h o o l boards are autonomous and t h e i r members are e l e c t e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f the m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l . The major source o f revenue a v a i l a b l e to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s the t a x a t i o n o f r e a l p r o p e r t y . They a l s o d e r i v e revenue from t a x a t i o n o f b u s i n e s s and p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y , p o l l t a x e s ,  86  permits, l i c e n c e s , r e n t s , concessions, f i n e s , e t c . A l l provinces give f i n a n c i a l a i d to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the form o f u n c o n d i t i o n a l s u b s i d i e s or g r a n t s - i n - a i d o f s p e c i f i c s e r v i c e s t h a t are a m u n i c i p a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . B.  Pattern  and  l e v e l o f programmes and  services i n  f u n c t i o n a l f i e l d s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to s o c i a l  '  services.  Recreation The r e c r e a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s o f l o c a l g o v e r n ments tend to assume a l a r g e measure o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n , development, maintenance and o p e r a t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d i n g parks and p l a y g r o u n d s , f o r the r e c r u i t m e n t , t r a i n i n g , and s u p e r v i s i o n o f v o l u n t e e r and p a r t time l e a d e r s h i p and f o r a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s and the m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n a l programme i n comm u n i t i e s over 30,000 p o p u l a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y supported on a tax b a s i s sometimes w i t h addi t i o n a l s u p p o r t from g i f t s and s p e c i a l f u n d s . In the s m a l l e r c e n t r e s and r u r a l a r e a s , tax funds are not so f r e q u e n t l y the c h i e l f source o f f i n a n c i a l support; i n s t e a d , i t may be s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups, c h u r c h e s , a g r i c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s or s e r v i c e c l u b s . A s u b s t a n t i a l proportion of organized r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes i n Canada i s m a i n t a i n e d by v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . Boys and G i r l s Clubs, youth-serving agencies, a t h l e t i c c l u b s , ethmic a s s o c i a t i o n s , c h u r c h e s , w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s and s e r v i c e c l u b s , i n a v a r i e t y o f ways p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n . These o r g a n i z a t i o n s are sometimes a f f i l i a t e d w i t h p r o v i n c i a l o r n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s which seek to improve p e r s o n n e l and programme standards and t o a s s i s t the branches i n d e v e l o p i n g a c t i v i t i e s adapted t o l o c a l needs. P r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , however, have tended to d e v e l o p unevenly, w i t h the more p r o g r e s s i v e programmes d e v e l o p i n g i n those p r o v i n c e s w i t h the g r e a t e r economic r e s o u r c e s and h i g h e r per c a p i t a incomes. A l s o , i t might be s a i d t h a t i n g e n e r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have i n adequate r e s o u r c e s to p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y s e r v i c e s , i n p a r t because o f t h e i r l i m i t e d tax  b a s e . Grants from h i g h e r l e v e l s o f government have tended t o improve standards o f s e r v i c e s , and i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t extended f e d e r a l a i d under the Canada A s s i s t a n c e P l a n w i l l do much t o improve the adequacy o f s e r v i c e s a c r o s s the c o u n t r y . A l s o , i n c r e a s e d f e d e r a l a i d under a.number o f o t h e r f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l shared c o s t programmes and t h e c u r r e n t emphasis on a multi-programme approach t o the a l l e v i a t i o n o f p o v e r t y w i l l have the g e n e r a l e f f e c t o f r e l i e v i n g many problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a c k o f resources. C u r r e n t l y the demand f o r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s i n t h i s province  i s a r e s u l t o f such p r i o r i t i e s as h o s p i t a l s ,  water and f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , e d u c a t i o n and p o l l u t i o n .  We  b e l i e v e i t i s the duty o f the v o l u n t e e r r e c r e a t i p n i s t and concerned p r o f e s s i o n a l s everywhere i n B r i t i s h Columbia t o make t h i s cause known, and the p r i o r i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n i n the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t concept time,  weill known.  I t i s at this  the o n l y workable arrangement t o e l e v a t e the e f f o r t s  of r e c r e a t i o n i s t s i n a l l r u r a l  areas.  88  REFERENCES 1.  Community Programmes Branch, A Guide To R e c r e a t i o n Commissions, Department o f E d u c a t i o n , ( V i c t o r i a , A. S u t t o n , P r i n t e r t o the Queen's Most E x c e l l e n t M a j e s t y i n the R i g h t o f the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964), p. 13.  2.  McDonald, David N., and Ramsay, R i c h a r d L,, R e c r e a t i o n I n P e n t i c t o n , A Community Survey. ( P e n t i c t o n : The South Okanagan R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, 1965), p. 48.  3.  Houle, C y r i l 0., The E f f e c t i v e Board, New York, New York, A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1960, p. 50.  4.  Ramsay, R i c h a r d L., " G u i d e l i n e s f o r Community S e l f Surveys i n R e c r e a t i o n " (Vancouver: The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967), pp. 1-15. (Mimeographed.)  5.  Meyer, H a r o l d D., and B r i g h t b i l l , C h a r l e s K., R e c r e a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1961, p. 338..  6.  Meyer, H a r o l d D., and B r i g h t b i l l , C h a r l e s K., Community R e c r e a t i o n , Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1956, pp.470472.  7.  Campbell, D., " R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s " , ( V i c t o r i a : Text o f a Speech by the M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Government o f the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966), pp. 1-3. (Mimeographed.)  8.  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , R u r a l Government i n Canada, A Report, (New York: Department o f Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , Prepared by the Government o f Canada, 1967), pp. 13-51.  89 BIBLIOGRAPHY  A.. BOOKS  C a r l s o n , Reynold E., Deppe, Theodore R., and MacLean, J a n e t R., R e c r e a t i o n i n American L i f e , Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a , Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Company I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1963. G a r r e t t , Annette, I n t e r v i e w i n g . I t s P r i n c i p l e s and Methods, New York, F a m i l y Welfare A s s o c i a t i o n o f America, 1946. Harlow, James G. S e l e c t e d Readings; E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Boston, E d i t e d by Hack, Ramseyer, Gephart and Heck. A l l y n and Bacon I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1965. Houle, C y r i l 0. The E f f e c t i v e Board. New New York, A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1960.  York,  Kahn, Robert L., and C a n n e l l , C h a r l e s F., The Dynamics o f I n t e r v i e w i n g , New York, John Wylie and Sons, 195 7. K a t z , Robert C. " S k i l l s o f an E f f e c t i v e A d m i n i s t r a t o r " Harvard B u s i n e s s Review. January-February, 1955, V o l . 33 N o . l . K e r l i n g e r , F r e d N. Foundations of Behavioral Research. New York, H o l t R i n e h a r t and Winston I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1966. Meyer, H a r o l d D., and B r i g h t b i l l , C h a r l e s K., Community Recreation. Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , P r e n t i c e H a l l Incorporated, 1956. Meyer, H a r o l d D., and B r i g h t b i l l , C h a r l e s K. R e c r e a t i o n Administration. Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , P r e n t i c e - H a l l Incorporated, 1956. Mouly, George J . The S c i e n c e o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . New York, American Book Company, 1963.  89 a P a r t i c i p a n t s i n a N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n Workshop, R e c r e a t i o n f o r Community L i v i n g , Chicago, The A t h l e t i c I n s t i t u t e , 1952. P f i f f n e r , John M., and Sherwood, Frank P. Administrative Organization. Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , P r e n t i c e - H a l l Incorporated. 1960. S c o t t , M. Gladys, Cureton, Thomas K., e t a l . Research Methods A p p l i e d t o H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and Recreation. Washington, American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , 195 2. Shaw, A r c h i b a l d B. S e l e c t e d Readings: E d u c a t i o n a l Administration. Boston, E d i t e d by Hack, Ramseyer, Gephart and Heck. A l l y n and Bacon, I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1965. S h i v e r s , Jay S. Leadership New York, The M a c M i l l a n  i n Recreation Service. Company, 1963.  T e n a l s e n , Anne T., Ferguson, Grace B e a l s , and Abrahamson, A r t h u r C. E s s e n t i a l s i n I n t e r v i e w i n g . New York, Harper and Row L i m i t e d , 1962. V a n n i e r , M. Methods and M a t e r i a l s i n R e c r e a t i o n Leadership. P h i l a d e l p h i a , W.B. Saunders Company, 1956.  B.  PUBLICATIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT, LEARNED SOCIETIES, AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS  Boker, H.R., L a r s o n , V.W., and Solomon, D.D. Key t o Community. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan: Centre f o r Community S t u d i e s , V o l s . I-V, 1963. Community Programmes Branch, Department o f E d u c a t i o n . A Guide to R e c r e a t i o n Commissions. Victoria: P r i n t e d by A. S u t t o n , P r i n t e r to the Queen's Most E x c e l l e n t M a j e s t y i n the R i g h t o f the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964.  89b »  Department o f E d u c a t i o n . "Community Programmes Branch". V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia: A. S u t t o n , P r i n t e r t o the Queen's Most E x c e l l e n t M a j e s t y , 1963. G r e a t Lakes D i s t r i c t Programme Standards Committee. E v a l u a t i o n of Community R e c r e a t i o n . New York, Research Department, N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c iation, 1965. K i d d , B. A Model f o r a R e c r e a t i o n Programme. A Report Adopted by the O n t a r i o Department o f E d u c a t i o n , Community Programmes Branch, 1967.  *  McDonald, David N., and Ramsay, R i c h a r d L., R e c r e a t i o n In P e n t i c t o n . A Community Survey. P e n t i c t o n : The South Okanagan R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, 1965. P a r t i c i p a n t s i n a N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n Workshop, R e c r e a t i o n f o r Community L i v i n g . Guiding P r i n c i p l e s . Chicago: The A t h l e t i c I n s t i t u t e , 1952. United Nations. R u r a l Government i n Canada, A R e p o r t . New York: Department o f Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , Prepared by the Government of Canada, 1967.  C. ESSAYS AND  ARTICLES IN COLLECTIONS  Belshaw, C , C u l l i e , E., and C u r r i e , I . , A Study o f R e c r e a t i o n i n N o r t h Vancouver. A Report Prepared by the Group Work D i v i s i o n , S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n , Community Chest and C o u n c i l of Vancouver, 1956. Campbell, D. " R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s " . V i c t o r i a : Text of a Speech by the M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Government o f the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966.  89c  D. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Bunn, John A. "Community O r g a n i z a t i o n P r o c e s s i n A R e c r e a t i o n Survey, B e l l i n g h a m , Washington," A Study Conducted i n the C i t y o f B e l l i n g h a m . U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951. F a r i n a , A l f r e d John 0., "Edmonton Community League." U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950. • Hopkins, John Thomas. "West Vancouver R e c r e a t i o n Survey, A Study i n Community O r g a n i z a t i o n . " U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950. Jones, G.V. " L e a d e r s h i p i n R e c r e a t i o n : A Study o f the Impact o f L e a d e r s h i p on the R e c r e a t i o n Programme i n t h e C i t y o f B e l l i n g h a m , Washington." U n p u b l i s h e d Master's t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 1950. Ramsay, R i c h a r d L . " G u i d e l i n e s f o r Community S e l f Survey. A R e c r e a t i o n Handbook f o r S m a l l Comm u n i t i e s . " (Mimeographed Paper, Vancouver, The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967.)  E. NEWSPAPERS » 'JCommunity P l a n n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia," V o l . V I , No. 1, F e b r u a r y , 1966. P u b l i s h e d by the B r i t i s h Columbia D i v i s i o n o f t h e Community P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada, Vancouver.  APPENDICES  91  APPENDIX A  THE PERSONAL INTERVIEW SCHEDULE  Commission  1.  Name o f  C o m m i s s i o n Member  The Commission - how many p e o p l e s e r v e o n y o u r c o m m i s s i o n ? - what g r o u p s a n d / o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d o n . it? - what a r e t h e v a r i o u s a g e s and s e x e s o f t h e members? - i s your commission w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d by a l l f a c e t s o f t h e community? - i s t h e r e a s e c t i o n o r g r o u p s o f p e o p l e who y o u w o u l d l i k e t o s e e r e p r e s e n t e d o n t h e c o m m i s s i o n , and who p r e s e n t l y i s n ' t r e p r e s e n t e d o n t h e c o m m i s s i o n ?  2.  How o f t e n -  3.  what do y o u c o v e r and go o v e r i n a t y p i c a l m e e t i n g ? c o n s i d e r t h e one t h a t was h e l d m o s t r e c e n t l y ? what do y o u r e c a l l was p r e s e n t e d o r c o v e r e d a t t h a t meeting?  What p r o c e d u r e do y o u f o l l o w -  4.  d o e s y o u r c o m m i s s i o n meet?  at your  meetings?  formal? informal? t o what e x t e n t i s t h e r e room f o r d i s c u s s i o n ? how a r e f i n a l d e c i s i o n s a r r i v e d a t ? i n t h e e v e n t t h a t a new i d e a o r e v e n t i s i n t r o d u c e d , what p r o c e d u r e t a k e s p l a c e and how i s i t f i n a l l y d e c i d e d upon? ( e . g . a boat r a c e , or a f i s h i n g derby?)  What r e s o u r c e s d o e s y o u r c o m m i s s i o n u s e i n c o m m u n i t y f o r i t s r e c r e a t i o n programme? -  service clubs? schools? churches?  this  92 5.  T e l l me  about your r e c r e a t i o n programme?  - a c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s or events? - age groups served? ( t h i n k i n g i n terms o f d e f i n i t e age groups - p r e - s c h o o l e r s ; school-aged c h i l d r e n ; young t e e n a g e r s ; o l d e r t e e n a g e r s ; t o twenty y e a r s o f age; young s i n g l e a d u l t s o r young m a r r i e d a d u l t s ; those m a r r i e d c o u p l e s r a i s i n g young f a m i l i e s ; o l d e r p e r s o n s , but not those c o n t e m p l a t i n g r e t i r e ment; p r e - r e t i r e d p e r s o n s ; r e t i r e d persons; and f i n a l l y , p e n s i o n e r s , s e n i o r c i t i z e n s o r the aged?) 6.  In terms o f your programme c o n t e n t , are the needs o f the people i n t h i s community c o n s i d e r e d ? - how? - by survey? - by g e n e r a l f e e l i n g o r word o f mouth?  7.  I n terms o f l e a d e r s h i p , does your commission l e a d e r s h i p a problem i n t h i s community?  consider  - what t u r n - o v e r o r changes i n the y e a r - t o - y e a r p i c t u r e o f your l e a d e r s i s experienced? - what i s the v o l u n t a r y s i t u a t i o n here? - do you have any p a i d v o l u n t e e r s ? - does the commission pay any g r a t u i t i e s o r honorariums? - do you have any p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p a v a i l a b l e ? - do you use, o r has your commission c o n s i d e r e d , a Recreation D i r e c t o r , e i t h e r f u l l - t i m e or parttime, o r shared w i t h another n e i g h b o u r i n g community? 8.  Are you o r the members o f your commission f u l l y aware o f your l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as members o f t h i s r e c r e a t i o n commission?  9.  What i s the commission  doing presently?  - what p l a n s does your commission have f o r the f u t u r e ? - what would your commission l i k e t o do - but c a n ' t do, o r i s unable t o do? - and why not? - what i s the problem o r the b a r r i e r t h a t p r e v e n t s t h i s from t a k i n g p l a c e ? 10.  What would your commission do i f i t were t o r e c e i v e , and was compelled t o spend, one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s ?  93  11.  R e v i e w i n g t h e q u e s t i o n o f a r e a s and f a c i l i t i e s , what o t h e r a r e a o r f a c i l i t i e s does your commission use f o r recreation?  12.  Does y o u r c o m m i s s i o n  have  a budget?  - f o r m a l , and i s i t p l a n n e d y e a r l y ? - what a p p r o x i m a t e l y , i s t h e y e a r l y r e v e n u e o r e x p e n d i t u r e o f your commission? - do y o u r e c e i v e g o v e r n m e n t g r a n t s f o r r e c r e a t i o n ? - what i s t h e sum r e c e i v e d and how o f t e n ? - what o t h e r f o r m s o f r e v e n u e d o e s y o u r c o m m i s s i o n experience? - how a r e t h e e x p e n d i t u r e s o f y o u r c o m m i s s i o n c o n trolled? - whose s i q n a t u r e ( s ) a p p e a r o n c o m m i s s i o n c h e q u e s ? 13.  B r i e f l y , what p a r k s do t h e members o f t h i s community utilize? - town o r c i t y p a r k s ? - l o c a l , neighbourhood parks, (playgrounds)? - large r e g i o n a l parks?  14.  Does y o u r c o m m i s s i o n b e l o n g t o , o r a r e you what t h e B.C.R.A. i s ?  15.  D o e s y o u r c o m m i s s i o n h a v e any d e f i n i t e p o l i c i e s that i t follows?  16.  Do y o u c r e t o comment o n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e l i q u o r laws o f t h i s p r o v i n c e t o r e c r e a t i o n ?  aware o f  written  a  - how  do  t h e s e laws a f f e c t  recreation  here?  17.  Do y o u p e r s o n a l l y , o r d o e s y o u r c o m m i s s i o n h a v e o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n the n a t u r a l s t a t e o f the province?  an of  18.  Do t h e p e o p l e o f t h i s c o m m u n i t y , and y o u r r e c r e a t i o n commission have a c c e s s t o , o r does i t s p o n s o r , movies o f any s o r t ?  19.  F i n a l l y , i s there anything but perhaps t h a t you would  t h a t we h a v e n ' t c o v e r e d , l i k e t o comment on?  94  APPENDIX B GUIDELINES USED IN THE  CONSTRUCTION OF  THE  INTERVIEW SCHEDULE'  C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the elements t o be  analyzed  was  undertaken w i t h the a d v i c e of a f a c u l t y member i n the School o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n sity  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, and  and  R e c r e a t i o n at the  the f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s  were used i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the I n t e r v i e w A.  Univer-  Schedule.*  As r e l a t e d to a s p e c t s o f the o p e r a t i o n o f the programmes of r e c r e a t i o n : Do R e c r e a t i o n Commissions i n d i c a t e a need f o r : i. ii.  A r e a s and  facilities?  Leadership  (voluntary, part-time, p o s s i b l y  full-time)? iii. B.  A p p r e c i a t i o n o f programme scope?  As r e l a t e d  to the way  i n which the Commission c o n -  c e i v e s i t s r o l e i n the community and  the degree to  which i t has knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of i t s  f u n c t i o n s as a c o n s t i t u t e d body: i.  Do  the commissions i n d i c a t e a need t o  formulate  and determine p o l i c y ?  C o n s i d e r a b l e time was spent w i t h Dr. R i c h a r d L. Ramsay, A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r , School o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, i n the cons t r u c t i o n o f the I n t e r v i e w Schedule.  95  ii.  Do t h e Commissions i n d i c a t e  a need t o nego-  t i a t e w i t h o t h e r s a g e n c i e s , p u b l i c groups and petitioners? iii.  Do t h e Commissions i n d i c a t e a need f o r a knowledge o f l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t h e broad field  iv.  of  recreation?  Do t h e Commissions i n d i c a t e a need t o c o n t r o l budget and f i n a n c i a l p l a n s ?  v.  Do t h e Commissions i n d i c a t e gramme a p p r e c i a t i o n  a need f o r p r o -  i n the f o l l o w i n g  - knowledge o f good programme  areas:  character-  istics? - use o f l e a d e r s ? - o p e r a t i o n and development o f areas and facilities? -  studies  - public  o f community  needs and i n t e r e s t s ?  relations?  F u r t h e r more, two s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s were c o n s u l t e d t o aid  the i n v e s t i g a t o r  first  i n d e v e l o p i n g the Schedule.  The  has i d e n t i f i e d c e r t a i n " i n e q u a l i t i e s " i n R e c r e a t i o n  t h a t may be used i n d e t e r m i n i n g those a s p e c t s which can be r e l a t e d reation  t o the e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g o f community  and i t s programmes.  They a r e :  rec-  96  a.  Opportunities f o r a l l  b.  G e o g r a p h i c a l areas  c.  Races and N a t i o n a l i t i e s  d.  Age  e.  R u r a l and urban  f.  Communities and neighborhoods  g.  The  h.  Economic  i.  Recreation  j•  Knowledge about  k.  Legislative  1 .  Adequate  funds  m.  Seasonal  approach  n.  Types o f a c t i v i t i e s  o.  Areas and f a c i l i t i e s  p.  L e a d e r s h i p and t r a i n i n g  q.  Unity of i n t e r e s t s  classification life  sexes and s o c i a l  The o t h e r author  strata  illiteracyrecreation  enactments  * cited  several " P i t f a l l s i n  P l a n n i n g " t h a t were used as reminders i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of  the I n t e r v i e w Schedule o f what may be the case i n the  Commissions s e l e c t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . are:  i . The t r a d i t i o n a l  approach  ii.  Current practices  iii.  Expressed d e s i r e s  i v . B e s t guess.  The t y p i c a l  pitfalls  REFERENCES  Meyer, H a r o l d D „ , and B r i g h t b i l l , C h a r l e s K., Community R e c r e a t i o n , Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1956, pp. 68-75. C a r l s o n , R.E., Deppe, T.R., and MacLean, R., R e c r e a t i o n i n American L i f e , Belmont C a l i f o r n i a , Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Company I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1963, pp. 91-94.  APPENDIX e RECREATION COMMISSION CHECK LIST NAME OF RECREATION COMMISSION NAME OF PERSON SUBMITTING  November, 1967. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  QUESTIONNAIRE  P l e a s e complete the f o l l o w i n g c h e c k l i s t on t h e b a s i s t h a t the s e l e c t e d answer i s the o p i n i o n o f the Commission as an e n t i t y and not t h a t o f an i n d i v i d u a l whose o p i n i o n may d i f f e r from t h a t o f the Commission as a whole. C i r c l e the best answer. 1.  Composition o f the R e c r e a t i o n  Commission.  Is your Commission (the body c o n t r o l l i n g R ' c r e a t i o n ) s o l e l y a R e c r e a t i o n Commission, o r i s i t combined w i t h a Community Club - M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l o r o t h e r c i v i c body:  2.  3.  4.  A.  Solely a Recreation  B.  Combined  A.  Once p e r month r e g u l a r l y - w i n t e r and summer?  B.  Once p e r month i r r e g u l a r l y ?  A. B. C.  3 t o 5? 6 t o 8? more than 8?  i . more o f t e n ? ii. l e s s often? C. When r e q u i r e d - not on a r e g u l a r b a s i s ? How many members a r e t h e r e on your R e c r e a t i o n Commission:  Do a l l o f these members a t t e n d meetings: Regularly? Irregularly?  Age d i s t r i b u t i o n of members.  A. B.  6.  w i t h another body o r group?  How o f t e n does your Commission meet;  A. B. 5.  Commission?  ( P l e a s e s t a t e age/or c l o s e approximation):  Male - Youngest - Oldest Female - Youngest - Oldest  Does your Commission have a w r i t t e n c o n s t i t u t i o n t h a t i t follows closely ? A. B„  Yes ' Nco:  99 - 2 7.  8.  What i s t h e p r i m a r y r e s o u r c e o f your Commission's A.  Hall?  B. C. D.  School? Church? Other?- e x p l a i n  What i s the primary What i s t h e secondary playfields, etc.)  9.  facility? facility?  ( i n c l u d e p a r k s , beaches,  Does your Commission have a f o r m a l budget? A. B.  10.  activity:  Yes Nc  Does your Commission have a budget t h a t i s planned y e a r l y , and f o l l o w e d ? A. B.  Yes No  11.  What i s your Commission's main source o f revenue?  12.  What a r e the main age groups t h a t your a c t i v i t i e s serve: A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H.  Commission's  Pre-school children? C h i l d r e n t o 12 y e a r s o f age? Young teenagers? O l d e r teenagers ( i . e . 15 t o 19)? Young a d u l t s ? A d u l t s t o 45 y e a r s o f age? A d u l t s 46 t o 60 y e a r s o f age? A d u l t s over 60 y e a r s of age?  100 - 3 13.  Below you w i l l f i n d l i s t e d a v a r i e t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , a t h l e t i c and n o n - a t h l e t i c . C i r c l e those a c t i v i t i e s which your "commission" t a k e s an a c t i v e p a r t i n t h i s y e a r , 1967-68. REGULARLY SCHEDULED COMMISSION Athletic Badminton Baseball (Softball) Basketball Bowling Gymnastics Hockey Football Wrestling Tennis Archery Riflery Golf Horseshoes Swimming-Aquatics Volleyball Dance Judo Fitness Skiing Others  ACTIVITIES  N o n - A t h l e t i c and P a s s i v e Bingo L a p i d a r y (Rock Hounding) Leather C r a f t s Ceramics Music Drama Horse and/or Pony Club - 4H Dog and/or Kennel C l u b s F i e l d or Community Days Barbecues Socials Boating Car or Auto C l u b s F i l m o r Movie Clubs - Photography Other  14.  What, i n the o p i n i o n o f the Commission members, i s the b i g g e s t problem t h a t your Commission i s f a c i n g i n c a r r y i n g out i t s immediate o r long-range p l a n s ? I f t h i s problem i s r e l a t e d t o an extreme d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n a n c i n g , attempt t o e x p l a i n s i m p l y , what the b i g g e s t problem i n f i n a n c i n g i s . ( i . e . People of community are not w i l l i n g or a b l e t o p r o v i d e support f o r your Commission's a c t i v i t i e s ) .  15.  I s your Commission an a c t i v e member of the B r i t i s h Columbia R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n (B.C.R.A.)? ( i . e . Have you p a i d your membership dues t h i s p r e s e n t y e a r ? )  101 - 4 16.  Does membership i n t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n R e c r e a t i o n Commission i n any way?  (B.C.R.A.) a i d your  Yes No I f n o t , e x p l a i n what you t h i n k the problem i s .  I f yes, i n what way  17.  - directly  or i n d i r e c t l y ?  Do members of your community and/or your Commission a t t e n d f u n c t i o n s , c l i n i c s , workshops, meetings, e t c . sponsored by the B.C.R.A.? Yes No  18.  S i m i l a r l y , do members of your Commission a t t e n d sponsored by the Community Programmes Branch?  functions  Yes No 19.  Can you f o r e s e e , i n r e a l i s t i c terms, t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i n your a r e a t h a t would i n c l u d e your community? Yes No  20.  Do you t h i n k t h a t a R e g i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n Programme? Yes No If  so, i n what way?  District  w i l l a i d your  102  21.  Did your R e c r e a t i o n Commission r e c e i v e any f i n a n c i a l a i d , d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , from a C e n t e n n i a l Grant? Yes No  22.  What was  23.  Would or c o u l d your R e c r e a t i o n Commission u t i l i z e R e c r e a t i o n D i r e c t o r ? I f so: A. B. C.  your C e n t e n n i a l p r o j e c t ?  Part-time? Full-time? Share a R e c r e a t i o n D i r e c t o r w i t h another  a  community?  24.  Does your Commission own any l i a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e , o r does your c o n s t i t u t i o n , by-laws or the p o l i c i e s ( w r i t t e n ( p r o v i d e immunity f o r the members of your Commission from l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h any a c t i v i t y of the Commission o r programme?  25.  Is your community u s i n g , i n whole or i n p a r t , the r e s o u r c e s ( b u i l d i n g s , grounds or p e r s o n a l h e l p ) of your D i s t r i c t School U n i t ? Yes No I f so, to what  I f n o t , why 26.  extent?  not?  Does your D i s t r i c t School U n i t p r o v i d e f o r any A d u l t E d u c a t i o n courses t h a t c o u l d be c o n s t r u e d by persons a t t e n d i n g as a Recreation A c t i v i t y ? Yes No  - 6 27.  103  GENERAL COMMENTS. P l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o n a k e a n y comments or suggestions w i t h respect t o t h i s questionnaire o r t o your r e c r e a t i o n scene i n g e n e r a l .  The f o l l o w i n g i t e m s a r e n o t a p a r t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . However, t h e s e t o p i c s w e r e m e n t i o n e d s o many t i n e s t h a t we w o u l d a p p r e c i a t e y o u r a d v i c e a n d comments, i f y o u f e e l t h a t t h e t o p i c s a f f e c t r e c r e a t i o n i n y o u r community. A.  -B.  PROBLEMS RELATING TO LIQUOR LAWS AND THE CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL, E S P E C I A L L Y I N P U B L I C P L A C E S .  THE EFFECTS  ( i f a n y ) ON CENTENNIAL GRANTS AND  SPECIAL PROJECTS.  DATE Signature  o f Respondent  o  APPENDIX. D  COMMISSION  DISTRICT  POPULATION  NO. OF MEMBERS  INCORPORATED  TYPE OF COMMISSION  YES  SUBJECT:  1.  Groups and Organizations Represented  2.  Age, Sex and Interests of Members  Group or Association NOT Represented  4.  Frequency of Meetings  5.  Procedure at Meetings  Final Authority Held by:  7.  Resources in Community Utilized  a. b. c.  Schools Service Clubs Churches  PRIMARY ECONOMIC INFLUENCE  NO  Primary Facility Secondary  9a.  Financial Status Budget Annual Budget and Expenditures  9b.  Main Sources of Revenue Taxation  POSITION: 10.  Legal Awareness of Member  Policies  11.  12.  - Written - Followed  Needs of People Considered By:  13.  Parks Situation  15.  14.  Age Groups Served  The Programme Proper a. b. c.  Playgrounds City or Town Regional  ii. ii. Athletic  Hobbies Dance  Others  Pre School 6-12  iii. Young Teens  iv.  v.  vi.  vii. viii. ix. SeconTeen Post Early dary Middle PreAgers Teens Adult Adult Aged Retired Retired  DATE INTERVIEWED:  17.  16. Leadership a.  b. Voluntary  Part Time Professional  c.Pro-Rec Director Full Time  Major Problem (as of this date)  18. Conservation Opinion  19.  20. B.C.R. A.  Regional District  

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