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A descriptive case study of selected recreation commissions Gordon, Terence Ian 1970

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A DESCRIPTIVE CASE STUDY OF SELECTED RURAL RECREATION COMMISSIONS by TERENCE IAN GORDON B.A. (P.E.) U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, 1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of Physical Education and Recreation We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1970 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Depar tment o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l no t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depar tment o f Physical Education and Recreation The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Date A p r i l , 1970 ABSTRACT Faced w i t h a c o n s t a n t s t r u g g l e f o r t h e i r e x i s t e n c e , c e r t a i n r u r a l R e c r e a t i o n Commissions i n B r i t i s h Columbia are examining t h e i r purposes and f u n c t i o n s as agencies r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes. T h i s case study o f seven s e l e c t e d r u r a l R e c r e a t i o n Commissions was undertaken to examine and to a n a l y s e c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f the s e commissions i n s e r v i n g s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n s . The Commissions were s e l e c t e d from a l i s t compiled by the Community Programmes Branch C o n s u l t a n t s and which met s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a a s s u r i n g the i n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t each Commission was a c t i v e by Community Programmes Branch s t a n d a r d s , v o l u n t a r i l y o p e r a t e d and r u r a l i n n a t u r e . The Commissions s e l e c t e d c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s l e s s than f i v e hundred and t h r e e w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s o f more than f i v e hundred p e o p l e . A l l Commissions s t u d i e d were i n u n i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s . F o l l o w i n g an i n t e r v i e w i n g procedure d u r i n g the summer o f 1967 wi t h s e l e c t e d members o f each Commission and a second phase c o n s i s t i n g o f a m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e completed by each Commission c o l l e c t i v e l y , case study r e p o r t s were p r e p a r e d . In the analysis a breakdown of elements r e l a t e d to the organizational structure of the Commissions and t h e i r operation was completed. This analysis determined the basic causes of the Commission § 3 shortcomings and whose struggle i s merely a manifestation of greater problems. Suggestions are then made f o r c o r r e c t i n g the p i t -f a l l s that these Commissions have found themselves i n , with s p e c i f i c reference made to proper organizational structure, determining the r e c r e a t i o n a l needs of the people represented, leadership development, and budgeting and finance. F i n a l l y , a suggestion i s outlined f o r a reorgan-i z a t i o n of r u r a l Commissions i n unincorporated areas such as those studied, under the authority of Regional D i s t r i c t s . In t h i s way many problems common to r u r a l r e c r e a t i o n Commissions such as those studied may be overcome. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The w r i t e r wishes t o acknowledge the many t i r e l e s s , v o l u n t e e r l e a d e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, who g i v e o f t h e i r time d a i l y i n p r o v i d i n g r e c r e a t i o n , and r e c r e a t i o n e x p e r -i e n c e s f o r o t h e r s . Many thanks are g i v e n a l s o to the guidance p r o v i d e d by f a c u l t y members i n the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Department and i n the Scho o l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I THE STUDY 1 Introduction . . . o o . . . . . . . 1 The Purpose • 2 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Method 3 Population . . . . . . 3 Selection of Commissions Studied . • 3 Sources of Data . . 5 Interview Schedule. . 5 C o l l e c t i v e Opinion Data Sheet Questionnaire 8 Treatment of Data 8 Subjective Analysis of Data . . . . 8 Limitations of the Study . . . . . 9 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Used 12 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 14 L i t e r a t u r e Pertaining to Recreation Surveys i n the P a c i f i c Northwest . . 14 L i t e r a t u r e Related to Canadian Studies . 27 L i t e r a t u r e Related to Recreation Boards and Commissions - General Purpose and Structure 29'. CHAPTER PAGE L i t e r a t u r e Related to Other Organizations 41 References . . . . . . . o 45 I I I CASE STUDY REPORTS 48 Commissions Serving Populations Up to Five Hundred People . . . . . . . . . 48 Boswell 49 C h e r r y v i l l e 52 Decker Lake . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 White Lake 57 Commissions Serving Populations Over Five Hundred People . . . . . . . . 60 Cherry Creek 60 Lac La Hache • • 62 T h o r n h i l l 64 IV. ANALYSIS 67 Organization 67 Budget and Finance . . . . . . . . . 69 Considering Need . 69 Resources . . . . . . . . . 70 Programme . . . . . . . 73 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 B r i t i s h Columbia Recreation Association . 73 Community Programmes Branch 77 V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 78 CHAPTER PAGE Commission Structure 78 Determining the Needs ' . 8 0 Leadership • 8 1 Budgeting and Finance 8 2 Regional D i s t r i c t s 8 3 References • 8 8 BIBLIOGRAPHY 8 9 APPENDICIES 9 0 A. The Personal Interview Schedule 9 1 B. Guidelines f o r Construction of Personal Interview Schedule 9 3 References 9 6 C. C o l l e c t i v e Opinion Data Sheet Questionnaire • 9 7 D. Master Datai Sheets 1 0 3 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. Commissions Studied . . . . . . . . . 6 I I . Analysis of Structure and Elements of Organization 68 I I I . Analysis of Resources 71 IV. Analysis of Programme 74 V. Analysis of Expressed Problem . . . . 75 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE I Geographical Location of Commissions Studied 7 CHAPTER I I. INTRODUCTION Approximately three hundred and twenty-five communities i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia have established, through p r o v i n c i a l and municipal authority, Recreation Commissions, f o r the purpose of organizing r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . Much of the success of a re c r e a t i o n park department depends on the d i r e c t i o n provided by i t s policy-making board and the administ-r a t i v e s k i l l of i t s executive. Indeed, the governing bodies that c o n t r o l the recre a t i o n s e r v i c e , be they named commissions or boards, have a t r a d i t i o n a l and important part to play i n determining the type and q u a l i t y of public r e c r e a t i o n and park programmes and se r v i c e s . . . . such bodies have degrees of authority, some having complete and independent p o l i c y -making authority, and others having only an advisory function. * The Department of Education of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, has established a separate branch f o r the administration of public programmes. Through t h i s body, the Community Programmes Branch, service i s given to communities e s t a b l i s h i n g public programmes in v o l v i n g r e c r e a t i o n . The Branch also provides professional advice, rendered through Regional Consultants, whose purpose i t i s to stimulate a c t i v e l y the co-operation of the province, and the c i t i z e n s a l i k e . The functions of the Branch, as stated 2 2 i n i t s p u b l i c a t i o n are as follows: (1) To stimulate l o c a l i n t e r e s t i n recre a t i o n of a l l kinds. (2) To a s s i s t communities to develop programmes suited to t h e i r own needs and i n t e r e s t s . ( 3 ) To encourage l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the operation of such programmes, and to ensure a maximum degree of l o c a l c o n t r o l over them. (4) To provide a consultative and advisement service i n re c r e a t i o n matters f o r communities and interested groups within them. Recently, several Recreation Commissions, recog-nized by, and re c e i v i n g f i n a n c i a l assistance from the Community Programmes Branch, and s p e c i f i c a l l y belonging to the B r i t i s h Columbia Recreation Association, have been examining t h e i r purposes. Their concern l i e s i n attempting to delineate problems associated with the operation of t h e i r community re c r e a t i o n programmes. In so d e l i n e a t i n g these problems, i t i s hoped that the Commissions i n question may be able to function more e f f i c i e n t l y i n s a t i s f y i n g the re c r e a t i v e needs of the c i t i z e n s they represent. I I THE PURPOSE The purpose of t h i s study i s to examine a selected number of re c r e a t i o n commissions i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i n order to analyse c e r t a i n aspects of the commission's organization and operation i n serving small populations 3 In examining these commissions, i t i s hoped to determine: a. The organizational structure of the Commissions. b. The Commission's r o l e i n helping people to better f u l f i l l t h e i r r e c r e a t i v e needs. c. Problems i n the operation of programmes. d. How well Commissions i d e n t i f y the needs of the people. I l l PROCEDURE Method 3 The Case Study Method as described by Mouly * was selected f o r t h i s study. Population The population f o r t h i s study consisted of seven rec r e a t i o n commissions, located i n r u r a l areas and i n unorganized or unincorporated t e r r i t o r i e s . S e l e c t i o n of Commissions Studied The Community Programmes Branch, Department of Education, has established seven regions i n the province f o r administrative purposes. With these regions, the Branch i s able to render more e f f e c t i v e l y the services which i t considers e s s e n t i a l i n e f f i c i e n t programme 4 direction,. The regional areas are: Vancouver Island Fraser V a l l e y - Sechelt Okanagan Vall e y Central B r i t i s h Columbia North - West B r i t i s h Columbia North - East B r i t i s h Columbia Kootenays The Community Programmes Branch provides a con-s u l t a t i v e service f o r each of the Communities i n these regions through a Regional Consultant. A l i s t of Commissions from each regional area was compiled with the guidance of the Consultant i n that p a r t i c u l a r region and the f i n a l s e l e c t i o n of the Commissions to be studied was based on the following c r i t e r i a . 1. A subjective appraisal as to the community's a c c e s s i b i l i t y . 2. A minimum of f i v e active members on the Commission. 3. The community e x i s t s i n a r u r a l area, beyond any r e a l influence of a metropolitan area. Influence here means that the c i t i z e n s achieve the majority of r e c r e a t i o n a l pursuits within the community i t s e l f , and do not seek recre a t i o n i n other communities to any great extent. 5 4. The Commission i s a c t i v e , as determined by Community Programme Branch Standards. 5. The Commission does not possess a f u l l - t i m e r e c r e a t i o n d i r e c t o r . The seven selected f o r analysis consisted of four with populations of less than f i v e hundred people, and three with populations of more than f i v e hundred people. A l l seven commissions were from unincorporated com-munities. (Table I, Figure 1) Sources of Data The data f o r the study were gathered by personal v i s i t s to each community and interviews were conducted with selected members of each Commission. The f i e l d work was done i n the summer of 1967. Interview Schedule An Interview Schedule (Appendix A) was constructed to record data c o l l e c t e d from the members of the Recreation Commissions i n each community. Certain guidelines were followed i n the construction of t h i s schedule and these are l i s t e d i n Appendix B. The interviews schedule assured consistency i n the * Active Commissions are those that f i l e quarterly reports with the Branch, and subsequently q u a l i f y f o r quarterly f i n a n c i a l grants. TABLE I COMMISSIONS STUDIED GROUP I: COMMISSIONS SERVING POPULATIONS UP TO FIVE HUNDRED PEOPLE Commission Studied D i s t r i c t Location Population Number of Members Interviewed On Commission Boswell C h e r r y v i l l e Decker Lake White Lake Nelson Kelowna Smithers Kamloops 160 275 350 110 3 5 5 5 5 7 8 5 GROUP I I : COMMISSIONS SERVING POPULATIONS OVER FIVE HUNDRED PEOPLE Commission D i s t r i c t . Number of Members Studied Location Population Interviewed On Commission Cherry Creek Vancouver Island 1,900 4 10 Lac La Hache Kamloops 2,200 5 8 T h o r n h i l l Smithers 2,500 5 9 V F i g u r e I G e o g r a p h i c a l L o c a t i o n o f Commissions S t u d i e d 1 . B o s w e l l 2. C h e r r y v i l l e 3 . Decker Lake 4. White Lake 5 . C h e r r y Creek 6. Lac La Hache 7. T h o r n h i l l BRITISH COLUMBIA MAIN HIGHWAYS, CITIES 8 TOWNS O IQ A3 JD TO DOMINION MAP LIMITED 626 HOWE ST., VANCOUVER B.C. pattern of interviewing and i n the recording of data. Several "open-ended" questions were included i n the Schedule to permit the elaboration of c e r t a i n responses without r e s t r i c t i n g the nature of the information c o l l e c t e d . C o l l e c t i v e Opinion Data Sheet Questionaire Following completion of the interview phase of the study, a questionaire (Appendix C) was constructed, and mailed to each of the Commissions v i s i t e d to get responses r e f l e c t i n g the c o l l e c t i v e opinion of commission members. Each Commission was asked to discuss the quest-ions posed and to check the c o l l e c t i v e response of the commission. This procedure was introduced to provide a check of the c o l l e c t e d opinion of the Commissions against the private opinions of i n d i v i d u a l members i n c e r t a i n matters. Treatment of Data Case Study Reports f o r each community were pre-pared from the data c o l l e c t e d . The compilation of these reports was aided by the use of Master Data Sheets. (Appendix D). Subjective Analysis of Data The data from both the interview schedules and the questionaires were tabulated on Master Data Sheets. In order to determine the primary and secondary problems i d e n t i f i e d by Commission members, a subjective analysis of responses to c e r t a i n questions was made and the pro-blems catagorized and recorded on the Master Data Sheets, Further analysis was completed on the various elements that are considered pertinent to proper Board or Commission functioning under the following headings: 1. Organizational Structure - Forum - Operation - P o l i c i e s - By Laws - Needs of the People Considered 2 . Resources 3. Programme 4 . Budget and Finance 5 . Leadership 6 . Current Problems A comparison of statements by i n d i v i d u a l s with those representing the c o l l e c t i v e opinion of the Commiss-ions as an administrative body produced information that was used i n the construction of the Case Study Reports. L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study Whereas the nature of the study necessitated v i s i t s to remote r u r a l areas of the province, c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s were i n h e r e n t i n i t s c o n c e p t i o n . An u n a n t i -c i p a t e d " F o r e s t F i r e R i s k " d u r i n g the summer o f 1967, caused s e v e r a l d e l a y s and postponements i n p r o c e e d i n g s . S i n c e the study was conducted d u r i n g the summer months c e r t a i n members o f those Commissions s e l e c t e d f o r study were n o t a v a i l a b l e due t o absence from the a r e a . Changes i n Commission p e r s o n n e l , r e s u l t e d i n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h some persons newly e l e c t e d t o the Commission who were not always v e r y knowledgeable about the Commission and i t s s t r u c t u r e and o p e r a t i o n s . Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t l i m i t a t i o n encountered was t h a t d u r i n g the cou r s e o f the study i t became apparent t h a t the Commission members v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o understand and i n t e r p r e t the q u e s t i o n s and t o communicate t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . C o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n t o t h i s l i m i t a t i o n and the d a t a and c o n c l u s i o n s a n a l y z e d are based on the f o l l o w i n g : 1. Responses s t a t e d and expressed by the s u b j e c t s who, by t h e i r n a t u r e and a b i l i t y , were a b l e , t o i n t e r p r e t the q u e s t i o n s and r e c o g n i z e p e r t i n e n t f a c t s . 2. Responses r e c o r d e d t h a t r e v e a l e d i n f o r m a t i o n which were s u b j e c t t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 1 0 Responses recorded that were eventually interpreted by the i n v e s t i g a t o r and sub-sequent a n a l y s i s , to be judged and con-cluded as a f a c t of a p a r t i c u l a r Commission, IV DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED 11 (1) Community Programmes Branch - A Branch of the Depart ment of Education, Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, which i s an agency of the p r o v i n c i a l government, organized to give leadership and assistance i n help-ing communities e s t a b l i s h r e c r e a t i o n programmes. ( 2 ) Community Programmes Branch Consultants - Profes-s i o n a l Personnel, employed by the Community Pro-grammes Branch, who lend advice and assistance to public agencies and communities interested i n Rec-r e a t i o n . (3 ) B r i t i s h Columbia Recreation A s s o c i a t i o n - An organ-i z a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g of member Commissions who have as a common i n t e r e s t , the desire to co-ordinate c e r t a i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s within the province, and which, by i t s organizational nature, i s able to represent the Commissions i n expressing common objec t i v e s , problems, and information, so that c o l l e c t i v e opinions may be expressed. A volunteer organization. (4) Incorporated (unincorporated) Area or T e r r i t o r y 4 " Sec. 9 Municipal Act - The Lieutenant Governor i n Council upon r e c e i p t of a s u f f i c i e n t p e t i t i o n and a f t e r a favourable vote, may be Lette r s Patent incorporate the residents of any area of -12 land i n unorganized t e r r i t o r y i n t o a municipal-i t y . Sec. 17 ( ( D ) Every municipality incorp-orated or reincorporated under t h i s act s h a l l be a corporation under the name of " " as the case may be, with a l l r i g h t s and l i a b i -l i t i e s of a corporation, and has f u l l power to acquire by purchase, lease, or otherwise and to hold r e a l property, and to s e l l or lease r e a l property, subject to the provisions of t h i s act, and like-wise to acquire, hold s e l l or lease personal property and to contract f o r materials and s e r v i c e s . ((2)) Except as other-wise provided i n t h i s or any other act, the powers of a municipality s h a l l be exercised by the c o u n c i l . (5) Community Club A homogeneous group of persons concerned with the development and improvement of recre a t i o n services and f a c i l i t i e s i n a given neighbourhood or d i s t r i c t . Frequently i s s o c i a l i n nature and often supplements, f i n a n c i a l l y and otherwise, the e f f o r t s of a established r e c r e a t i o n authority or agency. ^* REFERENCES Rodney, Lynn S., Administration of Public Recreation, New York, The Ronald Press Company, 1964, p. 95. Department of Education, Community Programmes Branch, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, A. Sutton, P r i n t e r to the Queen's Most Exc e l l e n t Majesty, 1963, p. 4. Mouly, George J . , The Science of Educational Research, New York, American Book Company, 1963, pp. 354-361. Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, Municipal Act, V i c t o r i a , Printed by A. Sutton, P r i n t e r to the Queen's Most Exc e l l e n t Majesty, 1962, Chapter 255. Meyer, Harold D., and B r i g h t b i l l , Charles K., Community Recreation, Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey, P r e n t i c e - H a l l Incorporated, 1956, pp. 480-481. CHAPTER I I 14 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e included an appraisal of research undertaken i n r u r a l r e c r e a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia, and other P a c i f i c North-West regions, l o c a l r e c r e a t i o n commissions and t h e i r basic structure, the structure of Recreation Commissions and Boards, and some examples of volunteer organizations i n other d i s c i p l i n e s . For the purpose of t h i s study, the review of l i t e r a t u r e i s broken down into four d i s t i n c t but r e l a t e d categories. 1. L i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to recrea t i o n surveys and other pertinent work undertaken i n B r i t i s h Columbia and the P a c i f i c North-West. 2. L i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to Canadian studies. 3. L i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to Recreation Commissions and Boards, pertaining to structure, organ-i z a t i o n and purposes. 4. L i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to other organizations. I. LITERATURE PERTAINING TO RECREATION SURVEYS IN THE PACIFIC NORTH-WEST A review of pertinent l i t e r a t u r e has revealed a 15 v a r i e t y of studies pertaining to Recreation Commissions as agencies within s p e c i f i e d communities, both region-a l l y and l o c a l l y within the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. However, these studies represent the e f f o r t s of i n d i v i d u a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s to delineate the problems associated i n given communities r e l a t i n g the Recreation Commission as a s o c i a l force or organizational influence within a community. Since t h i s paper examines a c e r t a i n aspects of the Commission's organization and operation to deter-mine the needs of the commission, i t s r o l e i n helping people to f u l f i l l t h e i r r e c r e a t i v e needs, and other problems i n the operation of programmes, i t was f e l t that s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d studies i n t h i s area were worthy of notation. While many a u t h o r i t i e s have broadly stated basis p r i n c i p l e s pertaining to t h i s aspect of community rec r e a t i o n , only r e l a t e d cases are included herein. In a study pertaining to a l o c a l r e c r e a t i o n sur-vey, Hopkins * concluded that because the c i t i z e n s want rec r e a t i o n , community planning i s e s s e n t i a l . He further concluded that the community expressed a need f o r adequate areas and f a c i l i t i e s , and hence, a "master plan" f o r the development of the community. A study of the recre a t i o n authority i n the C i t y 2 of Edmonton, A l b e r t a by Farina *, revealed a s i g n i f i c a n t 16 f i n d i n g applicable to that c i t y . This f i n d i n g i s the p r i n c i p l e that there should e x i s t one community organiz-ation co-ordinating the r e c r e a t i o n programme of a com-munity, while i t acknowledges the f a c t that more than one agency may e x i s t and which contributes to the com-munity i n t o t a l r e c r e a t i o n . This study r e l a t e s to the r e c r e a t i o n authority within a community of a larger urban area, but i t i s f e l t that the findings are s i g n i f i c a n t i n l i g h t of the f a c t that s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s may occur i n r u r a l communities as w e l l . Another study undertaken i n a B r i t i s h Columbia 3 urban area i n 1956, by Belshaw, C u l l i e and Currie recommended the establishment of a Recreation Commission f o r the purposes of co-ordinating r e c r e a t i o n services within a defined community and d i s t r i c t . A summary of the study's pertinent recommendations i s outlined below, 4* as an aid to the s o l u t i o n of the problems under-taken i n t h i s study. SUMMARY OF MAIN RECOMMENDATIONS 1. That a Recreation Commission be appointed j o i n t l y by the D i s t r i c t and the C i t y , c o n s i s t i n g of members representing the D i s t r i c t Council, the C i t y Council, the e l e c t o r s . « . , the Community Centres, the Community Chest and Council, volun-tary r e c r e a t i o n a l and educational organ-i z a t i o n s , the School Board, and (various) Indian Bands. 2. That such a Commission be charged with the administration of public parks, the super-v i s i o n of Community Centres, l i b r a r i e s , r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes and adult educational ser v i c e s , and with the promotion of co-oper-ation with the School Board i n such matters and of greater co-ordination among voluntary a s s o c i a t i o n s . 3 . In view of the almost complete dearth of pre-school f a c i l i t i e s and of . . . , immediate steps should be taken to expand these where c i t i z e n s agree as to requirements. In e s t a b l i s h i n g a frame of reference f o r the e s t a b l i s h -ment of a Recreation Commission, t h i s report set f o r t h i n i t s recommendations ^* a form of organization which the commission should take, "which would meet most of the points r a i s e d (previously) and would be as: In our view, there should be a Commission, which would be named a Recreation Commission, appointed under the authority of the munici-p a l i t y . A possible form of organization which would meet most of the points r a i s e d i n t h i s report would be as follows: Two members each of the D i s t r i c t and C i t y Council r e s p e c t i v e l y , one of whom to be elected Chairman. Two members to be elected by the e l e c t o r s of (the d i s t r i c t ) , the e l e c t i o n to be c a r r i e d out at the same time as and i n a s i m i l a r way to e l e c t i o n s to the School Board. One member from each of the formally con-s t i t u t e d Community Centres. Two members to be nonimated from North Shore Residents by the Community Chest and Council, on the assumption that Community Chest fund are to be invested i n Community Centres and s i m i l a r r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes. (1) (2) ( 3 ) ( 4 ) 18 (5) Two members nominated tp represent the point of view of voluntary r e c r e a t i o n a l and educat-i o n a l organizations. The Community Programmes Branch suggests an Advisory Council c o n s i s t i n g of delegates from such groups. Our conception would be that the main function of such an Advisory Council would be to e l e c t these members. (6) One member representing the School Board. ( 7 ) One member each representing the (various) Bands of Indians r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t i s our conception that there should be but one Recreation Commission f o r the C i t y , D i s t r i c t , and Indian Reserves combined. We know that there may be p o l i t i c a l and administrative objections to t h i s , but we f e e l that i t i s no longer possible to think i n terms of a s o c i a l separateness of the C i t y and D i s t r i c t . Further, i t cannot be assumed on any grounds that the c i t i z e n s of one w i l l not use, and use h a b i t u a l l y , the f a c i l i t i e s i f the other. Co-ordinated development seems to be the only sensible plan. A possible a l t e r n a t i v e , that i s separate Recreational Commissions with occassional j o i n t meetings, seems an unwieldy half-hearted compromise. The function of such a Commission would be as follows: ( 1 ) To take over the administration of public parks and act as j o i n t Parks Board, with a s i n g l e D i r e c t o r of Parks. (2) To administer the Community Centre Head-quarters and s t a f f , and through i t influence the development of Community Centres on the plan outlined above. (3) To a l l o c a t e funds to Community Centres. (4) To administer l i b r a r y services as part of t h i s plan, or to make f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e to l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s . (5) To seek ways and means of i n t e g r a t i n g the School Board programme with r e c r e a t i o n a l and community services needs. 19 (6) To conduct supervised r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes i n parks. (7) To promote adult educational services, and, i n conjunction with the School Board, such a c t i v i t i e s as hobby classes f o r c h i l d r e n and pre-school centres. (8) To promote greater co-ordination among voluntary groups.and to p u b l i c i z e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . To t h i s end, to maintain an o f f i c e concerned with p u b l i c i t y and to a s s i s t i n the a l l o c a t i o n of sports f a c i l i t i e s , i n s o f a r as these are not covered by the School Board and the Community Centres. The Commission would draw from the following sources: (1) A l l o c a t i o n s placed at i t s d i s p o s a l by the C i t y and D i s t r i c t Councils and by the Councils of the (various) Indian Bands. Such funds would not be earmarked f o r use i n p a r t i c u l a r areas, but would be all o c a t e d to s p e c i f i c projects i n normal municipal budgetary pro-cedure. (2) A l l o c a t i o n s to be expended on behalf of Community Chest and Council. (3) There would be general auditing supervision of l o c a l funds r a i s e d and used by l o c a l Community Centres. (4) There would be powers to accept g i f t s , donations, and bequests from private sources. This would leave the way open, f o r example, fo r service clubs to conduct drives on behalf of the Recreation Commission's pro-gramme. We believe that a Commission on these l i n e s , associated with a Community Centre plan, would be the most e f f e c t i v e way of co-ordinating (a) p u b l i c , volun-tary, and private i n t e r e s t s , and (b) the i n t e r e s t s of d i f f e r e n t neighbourhoods. We also believe that the proposed composition of the Commission would ensure that i t s i n t e r e s t would be i n active programmes and not merely i n physical plant. 20 A study i n the C i t y of Bellingham, Washington, g undertaken by Jones *, which reviewed the nature of that c i t y ' s leadership, both professional and volunteer, suggests methods and practices f o r t r a i n i n g both aggre-gations of r e c r e a t i o n a l personnel. While applicable to larger population centres i n the most part, some of the conclusions reached i n the area of volunteer leadership development are worthy of note and are l i s t e d below. The resources f o r t r a i n i n g leaders i n Bellingham may not be complete but they are worthy using to the utmost. With the a l l -round t r a i n i n g of students i n the school programme, a large group of p o t e n t i a l leaders i s graduating every year. I t may be possible that some of these could be encouraged to go on to college to advance t h e i r t r a i n i n g . But whether they do t h i s or not, before they reach college l e v e l there are opportunities f o r t r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c a l experience i n Bellingham. I t might be possible f o r a leader's t r a i n i n g council to be set up which would use the long experience of the leaders i n the private agencies. A l l the success that these agencies have had i n the c u l t i v a t i o n of leaders could be pooled to the advantage of the e n t i r e community. From such a reorganization of leader t r a i n i n g there might evolve a s p e c i a l group of people who could be used where they are needed most. Then programmes i n (other) areas . . . . could be expanded without placing a f u r t h e r s t r a i n on the over-taxed energies of present leaders. One possible method of s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n -ing would be as follows: The agencies would arrange p e r i o d i c a l courses f o r the t r a i n i n g of leaders. These might be held i n a s e r i e s , once a year. A leader's c o u n c i l , representing a l l the agencies p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the scheme would screen the candidates who could be pro-posed by any of the sources. 21 I t i s not suggested that a l l leaders would take a long, involved course which would touch every agency. Rather, a s a t i s f a c t o r y sequence of study could be worked out by a leader's c o u n c i l which ensure that the candidate f o r a p o s i t i o n as an administrative-or programme leader would be exposed to the best practices that would f i t him f o r the p o s i t i o n he was to hold. The leader would reach the end of the course such as t h i s with valuable information. He would know the o v e r - a l l picture of r e c r e a t i o n i n the c i t y . This would include seeing at f i r s t hand the various agencies, whether tax or public supported. He would know what services were offered by a l l the agencies so that he would not be i n c l i n e d e i t h e r to discourage the development of a new service which was urgently required, or, on the other hand, to encourage the development of a service which was already a v a i l a b l e . . . . Since the leader who i s a Chest o f f i c e r does, and probably w i l l continue to play a very important r o l e i n the planning of r e c -r e a t i o n , h i s should be a t r a i n i n g that enables him to use his a b i l i t i e s i n the r a i s i n g and budgeting of funds. He should also know about the main features of health, welfare, and r e c r e a t i o n . He needs to have an understanding of the purposes of each member agency, and of the non-member agencies. Factual knowledge of who are served, and where they l i v e , would help him to be e f f e c t i v e . I t i s perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t to note that the majority of studies undertaken i n t h i s f i e l d are based on surveys or studies pertaining i n the whole, to s p e c i f i c communities. These studies, based on common and accepted p r i n c i p l e s of a number of a u t h o r i t i e s i n the broad f i e l d of r e c r e a t i o n , confine t h e i r purpose to analyzing i n d i v i d u a l communities and a l l the p a r t i c u l a r circumstances of that community's programme. 22 One such study, undertaken i n a major community i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n that a good deal of e f f o r t was spent i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a proper r o l e f o r the r e c r e a t i o n commission. I t i s worthy of note to include 7 an observation by McDonald and Ramsay, * and t h e i r Summary of Recommendations. The Penticton Recreation Commission deserves congratulations f o r changing i t s r o l e from a f i n a n c i a l provider only to that of a promoter, developer and co-ordinator of programme opportunities for the residents of the community. The f i n a n c i a l p r o v i s i o n f o r leadership t r a i n i n g , i n i t i a t i o n of summer playground programmes, and the i n t r o -duction of outdoor and wilderness programmes, as reported i n Chapter I I I , are a l l commend-able. These a c t i v i t i e s should be encouraged and developed as part of a year-round, com-prehensive community re c r e a t i o n programme. The organization of a community r e c r e a t i o n programme depends upon several f a c t o r s . These include programme i n t e r e s t s and needs, areas and f a c i l i t i e s and t h e i r use, and administrat-ive and leadership p r o v i s i o n s . SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS Leadership and Administration 1. (a)That a Recreation D i r e c t o r be hired i n 1966 on a permanent basis f o r the purpose of e s t a b l i s h i n g a comprehensive community rec r e a t i o n programme i n Penticton; (b)That t h i s person be charged with the r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y of providing the leadership and d i r e c t i o n necessary to achieve the desired objectives of such a programme as described i n t h i s report; 23 (c) That the Recreation D i r e c t o r be appointed as head of a new c i v i c Department of Parks and Recreation. 2, (a) That the present Parks D i v i s i o n of the Engineering Department be taken out of the Engineering Department and be included within the proposed Department of Parks and Recreation as soon as pr a c t i c a b l e a f t e r the establishment of t h i s new Depart-ment ; (b) That the person heading up t h i s new Depart-ment of Parks and Recreation have a profes-s i o n a l t r a i n i n g and demonstrated competence i n municipal park and re c r e a t i o n adminis-t r a t i o n , that he be d i r e c t l y responsible to the C i t y Administrator, and that he also s i t as a member on a newly created Parks  and Recreation Commission. This l a t t e r body would be a representative c i t i z e n body advisory to Council and s i m i l a r i n many respects to the present Recreation Cora-mission. 3. (a) That the present Recreation Commission be abolished and a new Parks and Recreation  Commission be established under Section 632 of the Municipal Act; (b) That t h i s new Commission be empowered by Council to assume the duties and respon-s i b i l i t i e s of the present Recreation Commission, but that i t also have delegated to i t a l l those administrative powers of the Council r e l a t i n g to parks and park property necessary to perform a us e f u l and purposeful r o l e i n the community as an advisory body to Council concerned with a l l aspects of public r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c y . 4. (a) That an interim committee of the present Recreation Commission be established to consider, evaluate, and recommend on the many recommendations contained i n t h i s report; 24 (b) That t h i s Committee a l s o assume the r o l e o f an " a c t i o n committee" t o ensure t h a t the recommendations o f t h i s r e p o r t are ade-q u a t e l y p u b l i c i z e d and debated, and t h a t the recommendations as adopted by the Com-m i s s i o n are p r o p e r l y p r e s e n t e d f o r C o u n c i l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Programme 5 . (a) That v a r i o u s community r e c r e a t i o n programmes be developed w i t h i n a comprehensive programme desig n e d to p r o v i d e e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o a l l people i n the community, r e g a r d l e s s o f s i t u a t i o n ; (b) That c e r t a i n groups r e c e i v e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n : e l d e r l y p ersons, the unemployed, p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , o l d e r t e e n - a g e r s , s i n g l e people over 25, and the handicapped. 6. (a) That the programmes e s t a b l i s h e d i n c l u d e a s u f f i c i e n t l y wide range o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o accommodate a l l r e c r e a t i o n i n t e r e s t s and needs f o r which, i n the o p i n i o n o f the Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Commission, t h e r e i s an apparent demand or need; (b) That these programmes i n c l u d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o l e a r n v a r i o u s a r t s and c r a f t s , t o engage i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , and t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a t h l e t i c s . 7. (a) That p e r s o n a l involvement i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s by i n d i v i d u a l s and groups be a d e q u a t e l y and p r o p e r l y encouraged; (b) That programmes be developed w i t h a view t o becoming s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g and s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g on the b a s i s o f t h e i r i n h e r e n t p o p u l a r i t y . 8. (a) That an A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l l p u b l i c and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the community i n t e r e s t e d i n r e c r e a t i o n be formed, and t h a t t h i s C o u n c i l e s t a b l i s h a 25 firm and continuous l i a i s o n with the Rec-rea t i o n D i r e c t o r and Parks and Recreation Commission regarding r e c r e a t i o n planning and programming i n the community. Areas and F a c i l i t i e s 9. (a)That a committee of the proposed Parks and Recreation Commission be set up with the express purpose of studying and reviewing programme needs and assessing the current and anticipated demand fo r public r e c r e a t i o n areas and f a c i l i t i e s i n Penticton; (b) That t h i s Committee function on a continuous basis with a view to recommending period-i c a l l y on orders of p r i o r i t y regarding future programming and the development of s p e c i f i c areas and f a c i l i t i e s i n Penticton; (c) That t h i s Committee work continuously with the Recreation D i r e c t o r and consult with other c i v i c o f f i c i a l s p e r i o d i c a l l y to ensure that the anticipated r e c r e a t i o n needs of the community w i l l be met i n the most e f f i c i e n t and economical way po s s i b l e . 10. (a)That a committee of the proposed Parks and Recreation Commission be established with the express purpose of studying and report-ing on l o c a t i o n , space, and design standards fo r public r e c r e a t i o n areas and f a c i l i t i e s ; (b)That t h i s committee be charged with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r evaluating, reviewing, and reporting on the adequacy of a l l r e c r e a t i o n areas and f a c i l i t i e s i n Penticton i n terms of these standards, i n order that the Com-mission may evaluate adequately and advise on a l l future proposals f o r the development of r e c r e a t i o n areas and f a c i l i t i e s i n the C i t y . Reference was made to "Guidelines For Community 8 Self-Surveys i n Recreation" * i n the i n i t i a l phases of 26 t h i s study, and was used as a guide i n developing the 4 Interview Schedule. The s c a r c i t y of r e l a t i v e and pertinent information of the r u r a l r e c r e a t i o n s i t u a t i o n brings attention to the f a c t that an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of such communities may be valuable i n drawing conclusions and recommendations f o r further study i n t h i s area. 9 10 11 While several a u t h o r i t i e s • • • w e r e r e f e r r e d to i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the Interview Schedule and other bases f o r t h i s study, a l i m i t e d number of s p e c i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s appear here. The basic nature of t h i s study appears some-what unique i n the f i e l d of recre a t i o n and i s designed s p e c i f i c a l l y to gather information i n r u r a l r e c r e a t i o n commissions here i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Many of the i n -dependent "surveys" completed i n Recreation i n B.C. are beyond the c r i t e r i a established i n t h i s study. Further-more, these surveys are p a r t i c u l a r to incorporated areas and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , whereas t h i s study focuses on the r u r a l and unincorporated areas. However, some pertinent information was a v a i l a b l e and revealed some i n t e r e s t i n g i n s i g h t into the problems faced by r u r a l areas and t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n commissions. The Interview Schedule may be found i n Appendix A. 27 I I . LITERATURE RELATED TO CANADIAN STUDIES The Ontario Department of Education has completed a study e n t i t l e d A Model For A Regional Recreation Pro-12 gram * i n which many s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s , problems, and c r i t e r i a are i d e n t i f i e d as being r e l a t e d to the s i t u a t i o n that e x i s t s i n the communities undertaken f o r study here. In t h i s paper, the author observes that the s i z e of p o l i t i c a l units should be governed by two f a c t o r s . I t should be large enough so that i t can e f f i c i e n t l y and economically administer the services required, ( i n c l u d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l services) and, i t should be so organized that the voters enjoy easy e l e c t o r a l access to i t s d e c i s -ion makers. I t i s noted that c e r t a i n municipal problems are r e l a t e d to the absence of one of these f a c t o r s . Among the problems expressed i n the study are those a t t r i b u t e d to Recreation. I t i s suggested that by using the Regional idea, problems associated with leadership and financing are more r e a d i l y overcome. The author describes one county i n that province that i s operating s u c c e s s f u l l y and suggests t h a t i t i s i t s county u n i t o r g anizational structure that enables t h i s e f f i c i e n t f u n c t i o n i n g . The paper suggests that t h i s procedure might be applicable i n other r u r a l areas and i s considered 28 pertinent i n l i g h t of t h i s study. The Centre f o r Community Studies, U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, has published a s e r i e s of publications 13 e n t i t l e d Keys To Community. # While not s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d to Recreation Commissions, these publications do examine the processes that smaller and r u r a l communities should follow i n undertaking projects i n v o l v i n g the pop-u l a t i o n of r u r a l areas, and does use f o r exemplary pur-poses, cases pertaining to Recreation. This series of publications i s brought to focus here i n that i t may be conceived or anticipated that the various elements studied herein are i n some form r e l a t e d to the t o t a l community, and that i t i s impossible to look to any s p e c i f i c area f o r analysis without r e l a t i n g another segment of community str u c t u r e . These guides draw t h i s f a c t to the community at t e n t i o n and reveal that the "Keys To Community" involve development, planning, co-ordination of e f f o r t s , self-survey, evaluation and use of resources a v a i l a b l e , both l o c a l l y and p r o v i n c i a l l y . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to note that l i m i t e d information such as t h i s i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 2 9 I I I LITERATURE RELATED TO RECREATION BOARDS AND COMMISSIONS GENERAL PURPOSE AND STRUCTURE The Community Programmes Branch, i n i t s published 14 • Guide To Recreation Commissions has thoroughly out-l i n e d the procedures, processes and steps to be taken i n e s t a b l i s h i n g and operating Recreation Commissions, both i n Organized and Unorganized areas of the province. This "guide" i s assumed' to contain the appropriate and neces-sary information on the functions of Commissions, and should be used extensively by the Commissions i n the Province. A comparison of the advice and procedures out-l i n e d i n t h i s "guide" with other authorative sources may give some i n s i g h t into the current problems of the Rec-r e a t i o n Commissions under i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s study. The "guide", i n advising communities i n Unorgan-ized areas o u t l i n e s the R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and Duties of 15 the Recreation Commission. " The Recreation Commission has been elected to organize, administer, and co-ordinate a sound r e c r e a t i o n programme f o r a l l the people 30 of a l l ages i n the community on a year-round b a s i s . This w i l i require sound study, planning, and co-operation. The following are some of the s p e c i f i c duties of the Recreation Commis-sions :-(a) E s t a b l i s h sub-committees, amongst which might be: ( i ) C o n s t i t u t i o n , ( i i ) Finance, ( i i i ) Public Relations, (iv) Leadership, (v) F a c i l i t i e s and Maintenance, (vi) Promotion and Special Projects, ( v i i ) Surveys. (b) Study and draw up a c o n s t i t u t i o n to s u i t the needs of the community. (c) L i s t a l l the r e c r e a t i o n and community groups and t h e i r programmes. (d) Study the r e c r e a t i o n wants and needs of the community. (e) Provide f o r the enlistment of good leaders and provide f o r t h e i r t r a i n i n g . Study the p o s s i b i l i t y of the employment of aa f u l l - t i m e or part-time D i r e c t o r . (f) Study the matter of financing a good rec r e a t i o n programme i n the community. The Recreation Commission w i l l be i n a p o s i t i o n to draw up a plan which can be put i n t o action when the above information i s a v a i l a b l e . The following are some of the suggested projects and concerns of the Recreation Commission:-(a) Obtain a thorough knowledge of a l l r e c r e a t i o n services i n the community, which w i l l enable the Commission to d i r e c t people to the various a c t i v i t i e s . Such a l i s t should include l i b r a r i e s , museums, concerts, sports events, e t c . L i s t also the natural advantages of the area which can be used f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , 3 1 such as camping and hiking areas, p i c n i c -s i t e s , swimming f a c i l i t i e s , e t c . (b) Let the community groups know the many services a v a i l a b l e through the Community Programmes Branch. Resource material i s also a v a i l a b l e from other sources; f o r instance, the Department of Extension of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, the National Film Board, e t c. (c) Promote programmes where these may be needed, based on the survey. This can be done d i r e c t l y as a Commission e f f o r t or by some already established organization. (d) Arrange f o r film-showings or the s e t t i n g -up of a Film C o u n c i l . (e) Sponsor and promote the v i s i t s of groups or i n d i v i d u a l s f o r concerts, d i s p l a y s , e x h i b i t i o n s , t a l k s , e t c . (f) Promote c l i n i c s or workshops f o r leader-ship t r a i n i n g through the Regional Con-sultant of the Community Programmes Branch. Also stimulate i n t e r e s t i n and f a c i l i t a t e the sending of delegates to the leadership courses, r e c r e a t i o n con-ferences, and c l i n i c s arranged by the Branch. (g) Develop a l o c a l r e c r e a t i o n l i b r a r y . S t a r t with a few good reference books on r e c r e a t i o n . (h) Maintain good public r e l a t i o n s . In a study i n Community Organization f o r Recreation, 1 6 (Edmonton, Alberta) Farina * described the power, en-trusted to the Recreation Commission by the C i t y Council. He then portrayed how adequate "democratic representation" should be accomplished i n forming the Recreation Commission. By-Law 1069 gave the Recreation Commis-sion power to act i n an advisory capacity to Council i n r e l a t i o n to the 'development, maintenance, and extension and use' of a l l r e c r e a t i o n a l grounds owned or c o n t r o l l e d by the C i t y Council including buildings and equipment, and sports and r e c r e a t i o n a l act-i v i t i e s ; to co-operate with and encourage a l l e x i s t i n g organizations promoting any sport or r e c r e a t i o n ; to work i n co-operation with and advise the C i t y Commissioners on the d i r e c t administration of sports and r e c r e a t i o n a l grounds within the C i t y , i n -cluding drawing-up of timetables f o r the most e f f e c t i v e use of such grounds and b u i l d -ings by clubs or teams; to report and r e -commend to Council regarding the furnishing of adequate equipment and f a c i l i t i e s to be d i s t r i b u t e d to r e c r e a t i o n a l grounds and b u i l d i n g s f o r various types of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y ; to co-operate with public and private agencies, c i v i c , s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s organizations, so that the most b e n e f i c i a l and e f f i c i e n t use could be made of a l l r e c r e a t i o n areas and f a c i l i t i e s ; and f i n a l l y to hear and consider representation from any body of c i t i z e n s on any matter r e l a t i n g to r e c r e a t i o n , whether representing an e x i s t i n g organization or not. Any text on community organization or r e c r e a t i o n administration, any r e c r e a t i o n executive, or any successful community rec -r e a t i o n programme, in d i c a t e that the common demominator of success i n the f i e l d of Community organization f o r r e c r e a t i o n i s a democratic approach. The most widely used democratic approach i s that of having pro-f e s s i o n a l leaders work with a representative community group, which acts i n an advisory capacity and a s s i s t s i n determining the needs and resources of the community. The National Recreation A s s o c i a t i o n , on the basis of t h e i r vast experience i n t h i s f i e l d state: "The more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y neighbourhood people f e e l f o r t h e i r community centre the greater w i l l be the success of the centre as a r e a l neigh-bourhood club. For t h i s reason many c i t i e s are organizing groups or councils of neighbour-hood people around each centre to act i n an 33 advisory capacity to the centre's s t a f f , and to put at the disposal of the workers t h e i r knowledge of neighbourhood conditions and of the desires and needs of the people. Indeed, so important i s t h i s advisory committee or c o u n c i l that many a u t h o r i t i e s maintain that the f i r s t step i n promoting community r e -c r e a t i o n i s to obtain such a group. The greatest weakness of the Recreation Commission i s that, aside from the c i t y c o u n c i l and the school boards, the membership does not represent those groups who are most v i t a l l y concerned with r e c r e a t i o n i n the c i t y . (Mr.) recognized t h i s and made several recommend-ations regarding the make-up of the Recreation Commission. He recommended that i n addition to representatives of the c i t y c ouncil and the two school boards, there should be on the Recreation Commission representatives of the Council of S o c i a l Agencies, Edmonton A t h l e t i c Council, Federation of Community Leagues and Arts Council. In addition, he recommended that four members be elected from the general p u b l i c . These recommendations were never f u l l y discussed by the Recreation Commission, and a f t e r a cursory reading were dismissed. There was, however, much merit i n these pro-posals. In t h e i r text Meyer and B r i g h t b i l l * equate Recreation with other known and v i t a l community programmes. Recreation i s an e s s e n t i a l part of community l i v i n g ; i t i s a legitimate community r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on a par with education, health and welfare. In many places i t i s being con-sidered f o r the f i r s t time. In others i t i s an established service i n need of streamlining to meet changing conditions. In every community i t i s e s s e n t i a l . 34 18 F i t z g e r a l d " further adds to the above author's theory by s t a t i n g that: Community organization f o r r e c r e a t i o n means the development and maintenance of leadership, f a c i l i t i e s , and programmes or services that w i l l provide optimum re c r e a t i o n opportunities f o r a l l the people of a com-munity. I t includes r e l a t i o n s h i p s among a l l the r e c r e a t i o n resources of the community that w i l l assure co-operation, co-ordination and community s o l i d a r i t y as a basis f o r the opportunities. I t means developing and maintaining a structure that i s designed to present resources to meet needs and to e s t a b l i s h new resources i f t h e i r need i s i n d i c a t e d . The views toward e f f e c t i v e agency operation at a 19 more sophisticated l e v e l as expressed by Shivers may give the budding commission an i d e a l view-point to s t r i v e f o r . In formulating organizational structure he establishes the following points, as standards. 1. Purpose. V i t a l to the i n i t i a t i o n of every r e c r e a t i o n a l service agency i n any sector of society, or to the transaction of any operation by the agency or i t s u n i t s , i s a c l e a r and d e f i n i t e statement r e l a t i n g to the purposes f o r which the agency i s estab-l i s h e d . This explanation w i l l r e s u l t i n the development of plans and emphasis upon the achievement of the aims therein set f o r t h . The purpose f o r which the agency was established i s the essence of that e n t e r p r i s e . A l l other a c t i v i t i e s are sub-ordinate to the primary purpose and each must serve to substantiate and aid i n the attainment of the c h i e f purpose. 2 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . A comprehensive examination of the e n t i r e range of a c t i v i t i e s , operations, and services to be produced must be made so 35 that each facet of the agency and i t s u n i t s can be i d e n t i f i e d and assigned r e l a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . . . . Recreational service agencies are organized c h i e f l y with the aim of providing experiences of a r e c r e a t i o n a l nature to a l l of the people i n a given com-munity, i f the agency i s of the municipal family, or f o r a p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t e l e . I t would therefore be decidedly f o o l i s h tp e s t a b l i s h the agency without f i r s t deter-mining whether the public wants or i s ready to accept the pr o v i s i o n of public r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e , whether such an agency can employ professional personnel, and whether adequate f i n a n c i a l support w i l l be av a i l a b l e to permit a comprehensive and varied program at a p r i c e which the community i s w i l l i n g to pay. Unless the answers to these questions are p o s i t i v e , a d d i t i o n a l public education and dissemination of information r e l a t i n g to i n d i v i d u a l need f o r re c r e a t i o n a l experiences must be made the f i r s t order of business. 3 . S i m p l i f i c a t i o n . A l l a c t i v i t i e s , t h a t are not e s s e n t i a l to the production of r e c r e a t i o n a l services should be eliminated, and those a c t i v i t i e s that are continued should be managed i n the simplest e f f i c i e n t way. 4. Functional Segregation. The organization should be structured on the primary purpose of the agency and not around personnel. The nature of r e c r e a t i o n a l service determines the ch i e f function of the agency, and thus, of i t s e l f , o f f e r s the c o r r e c t foundation f o r organ-i z a t i o n . . . . Functional segregation d i s t r i -butes work e f f o r t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . S i m i l a r or complementary functions should be grouped so as to form the several major d i v i s -ions of the system . . . . 5 . Authority and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y . C e n t r a l i z a t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and wide delegation of authority i n order to f i x the former and render the l a t t e r most e f f e c t i v e i n the production of re c r e a t i o n a l services are necessary . . . . S c i e n t i f i c formulation of work r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s leads to s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of e f f o r t and develops 36 experts i n some p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , with r e s u l t a n t advantages derived from concentrated a t t e n t i o n . Standarization. The s u b s t i t u t i o n of standard operating procedures, i n the routine of d a i l y a f f a i r s of the agency, f o r p o l i c y statements concerning i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s should be made. P a r t i c u l a r techniques of best p r a c t i c e , c a r e f u l l y determined, should be adopted and applied throughout the agency. . . . Unless standards are introduced into the d a i l y oper-ations of the agency, there i s no basis f o r comparison and no sure method f o r understand-ing whether or not the agency's e f f o r t s approximate the aims f o r which the agency was establi s h e d . . . . Properly i n s t i t u t e d standards f u r n i s h incentive to personnel to achieve a l e v e l of competency which they can c l e a r l y perceive rather than being dependent upon some nebulous i d e a l about which there are no means of determination. Planning. The s a t i s f a c t o r y accomplishment of the agency's purpose can be attained only when there i s a l o g i c a l plan by which a l l of the system's personnel and a l l of i t s i n t e r e s t s and functions are guided. Therefore, i n t e l l i g i b l e , sharp, and comprehensive plans are e s s e n t i a l to e f f e c t i v e administration. Planning a s s i s t s achievement of aims. I t defines the r e a l i n t e r e s t s of the system, the goals to be reached, and s p e c i f i c a l l y d e t a i l s the p r i o r i t y , personnel, f a c i l i t i e s , space, material, and money to be used i n t h e i r accomplishment. The aims provide a basis f o r action, s e t t i n g up primary ob j e c t i v e s , and the means and techniques to be u t i l i z e d i n a r r i v i n g at those o b j e c t i v e s . . . . With planning the arrangement of work, the delegation of authority and the f i x i n g of r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y are decided upon, decisions are made as to what should be done, who w i l l do i t , how i t w i l l be performed, and when and where people's needs are continuously being modified. For these reasons, planning i s of utmost s i g n i f i c a n c e i f the agency i s to s a t i s f y demand. 37 20 The A t h l e t i c I n s t i t u t e , ° i n i t s p u b l i c a t i o n di r e c t e d toward community re c r e a t i o n discusses the "board member" and his functions as such; A large share of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r governing the a f f a i r s of community recre a t i o n agencies r e s t s i n boards and committees. Usually members of these boards and committees are leaders of a b i l i t y , influence, and i n t e r g -r i t y . They are also volunteers i n that they are unpaid. Board members help to e s t a b l i s h the p o l i c i e s which are executed by the profes-s i o n a l s t a f f , present the community's point of view, and i n t e r p r e t the work of the agency to the community. Board members represent group thinking i n giving d i r e c t i o n to a v i t a l community s e r v i c e . . . . Unless the board member i s well informed, he i s not l i k e l y to be convinced or convincing. Because the range of recreation choices and i n t e r e s t s i s made, thereby c a l l i n g f o r the use of varie d resources i n the community the board member must know how the rec r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l of the school, the park, the church, and many voluntary, as well as semi-public i n t e r e s t s , can be used to best advantage. S i m i l a r l y , he must understand the r e l a t i v e forces which bear upon the recreation needs of the i n d i v i d u a l - considerations of health, education, welfare, and others. The i n t e r e s t s and concerns of the board member must be direc t e d toward the t o t a l needs of the t o t a l community. Recreation services must be al l o c a t e d on the basis of r e l a t i v e need between and among neighbourhoods. These needs are not s t a t i c . They change constantly and consequently require modification of i n i t i a l plans and adjustment of s e r v i c e s . Only as these needs are continuously and system-a t i c a l l y appraised, i s the board member i n a po s i t i o n to act i n t e l l i g e n t l y . 38 L i s t i n g the p r i n c i p l e s that a board member should 21 follow, t h i s text continues: Board members should understand the sign-i f i a n c e and importance of recrea t i o n i n the community. Board members should be aware of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the re c r e a t i o n service to other community se r v i c e s . Board members should look o b j e c t i v e l y at t h e i r s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as board members and at t o t a l community recre a t i o n needs, and keep abreast of changing conditions, continuously reassessing t h e i r e f f o r t s and reasons f o r s e r v i c e . Board members should have the courage to r e s i s t pressures of a l l types and i n s i s t upon high standards f o r t h e i r agencies, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n regard to competent professional personnel. Board members should be aware of t h e i r r o l e as board members, acting i n concert with t h e i r fellow members without unsurping the functions of the executive. O u t l i n i n g the place of the "club" and of "club 22 a c t i v i t i e s " within the rec r e a t i o n programme, Vannier ' describes the organizational form that such a club should take. An organized club has o f f i c e r s , a written c o n s t i t u t i o n , keeps attendance records,, sets up membership q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and meets r e g u l a r l y i n a s p e c i f i c place. There are numerous kinds of clubs. Each of the broad re c r e a t i o n program areas (dance, music, dram-a t i c s , sports and games, etc.) o f f e r s many p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The Nucleus A group of f i v e or more people interested i n s t a r t i n g a club i s a large enough nucleus. This i n i t i a l group should discuss the te n t a t i v e name, purpose, time and meeting place, and 0 3 9 p o s s i b l e s p o n s o r f o r the a c t i v i t y . N e x t , a t ime and p l a c e s h o u l d be s e t f o r a g a t h e r i n g o f a l l o t h e r s who might be i n t e r e s t e d i n j o i n i n g . A t t e n d a n c e a t t h i s mee t ing can be promoted by t e l e p h o n e , p o s t e r s , b u l l e t i n b o a r d n o t i c e , newspaper i t e m s , o r word o f mouth . One o f t h e i n i t i a l o r g a n i z e r s s h o u l d p r e s i d e a t t h i s f i r s t m e e t i n g . The agenda would p r o b a b l y i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g i tems f o r d i s c u s s i o n : ( 1 ) The purpose o f the c l u b . ( 2 ) M e m b e r s h i p . ( 3 ) Proposed name. (4) Time and p l a c e o f a r e g u l a r m e e t i n g . ( 5 ) D u e s . (6) O f f i c e r s e l e c t e d . E l e c t a p r e s i d e n t , v i c e p r e s i d e n t , s e c r e t a r y , and t r e a -s u r e r a t t h i s m e e t i n g , o r the t e m p o r a r y c h a i r m a n s h o u l d a p p o i n t a n o m i n a t i o n committee to submit c a n d i d a t e s * names a t t h e n e x t m e e t i n g . (7) S p o n s o r . A t emporary s e c r e t a r y s h o u l d be a p p o i n t e d t o s e r v e the group u n t i l an e l e c t e d one takes o v e r . The Sponsor The s p o n s o r chosen by the group s h o u l d d e m o c r a t i c a l l y g u i d e r a t h e r t h a n a u t o c r a t i c a l l y r u l e them. L e a d e r s h i p i s i n f l u e n c i n g o t h e r s t o c o - o p e r a t i v e l y r e a c h a g o a l they e s t a b l i s h • . . The O f f i c e r s A l l c l u b o f f i c e r s s h o u l d be s e l e c t e d and e l e c t e d because o f t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and w i l l i n g n e s s to s e r v e the g r o u p . Y o u t h needs t o l e a r n how t o choose i t s l e a d e r s w i s e l y . Too o f t e n those most p o p u l a r a r e s e l e c t e d r a t h e r t h a n t h o s e most c a p a b l e . The s p o n s o r can a s s i s t i n h e l p i n g the group s e l e c t l e a d e r s w i s e l y by s e r v i n g on the n o m i n a t i n g committee and i n d i r e c t l y g u i d i n g h i s f o l l o w e r s t o submit the b e s t s l a t e o f o f f i c e r s p o s s i b l e . . . . The C o n s t i t u t i o n When c l u b groups f o r m u l a t e and u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r aim and p u r p o s e , t h e y s h o u l d n e x t w r i t e a c o n s t i t u t i o n - the w r i t t e n laws by which they w i s h t o a b i d e . These g o v e r n i n g r u l e s may be p r e c e d e d by a p r e a m b l e , a l t h o u g h t h i s i s 40 o f t e n o m m i t t e d . S e p a r a t e a r t i c l e s to be i n c l u d e d i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n a r e : A r t i c l e I A r t i c l e I I A r t i c l e I I I A r t i c l e IV A r t i c l e V A r t i c l e V I Amendments Name P u r p o s e Membership O f f i c e r s M e e t i n g I t i s u s u a l l y wi se p r o c e d u r e t o a p p o i n t a s m a l l committee t o w r i t e a sample c o n s t i t u t i o n . T h i s p a t t e r n document can then be t a i l o r e d , a p p r o v e d , and adopted to f i t the s p e c i f i c needs o f t h e c l u b . A d o p t i n g the c o n s t i t u t i o n s h o u l d t a k e c a r e -f u l t h o u g h t . E a c h a r t i c l e s h o u l d be r e a d t h o r o u g h s l o w l y a l o u d , d i s c u s s e d , and changed i f the m a j o r i t y p r e s e n t v o t e t o do s o . To a v o i d h a s t y and numerous changes l a t e r , i t i s cus tomary t h a t two r e a d i n g s and t w o - t h i r d s m a j o r i t y v o t e be n e c e s s a r y to amend any p a r t o f the o r i g i n a l document . P a r l i a m e n t a r y T e c h n i q u e s A l l mee t ings s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d i n a b u s i n e s s - l i k e way, R o b e r t ' s R u l e s o f O r d e r i s commonly used as a g u i d e . T h i s book on p a r l i a -mentary p r o c e d u r e i s based upon the m a j o r i t y r u l e s b u t t h a t everyone has e q u a l r i g h t s o f o p i n i o n and v o i c e . E a c h meet ing s h o u l d f o l l o w a p l a n o r an agenda . . . • " E v a l u a t i o n The s p o n s o r , o f f i c e r s , and c l u b members s h o u l d e v a l u a t e y e a r l y , o r more f r e q u e n t l y , the j o b t h e y have done o r f a i l e d to do i n the l i g h t o f t h e i r aim and purpose as s t a t e d i n the c o n -s t i t u t i o n . A s i m p l e c h e c k - l i s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , . • • . can be used t o o b t a i n t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n from a l l members. I t i s sugges ted t h a t no p e r s o n s i g n the paper and t h a t a l l be encouraged to use the ( o p p o r t u n i t y ) f o r w r i t i n g i n t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n s o f how the c l u b might be i m p r o v e d . " IV LITERATURE RELATED TO OTHER ORGANIZATIONS 41 A survey of the l i t e r a t u r e was conducted i n an attempt to e l i c i t some common elements amongst non-recr e a t i o n boards of administration, and to look into some of the current theories of administration so that a comparison might be made. A study was made i n areas of organization and administration theory, business administration, educat-i o n a l administration, and a v a r i e t y of voluntary organ-i z a t i o n s . Katz, " writing i n the Harvard Business Review believes that the approach to a d e f i n i t i o n of the admini-s t r a t i o n process i s based on what a man does rather than what he i s . As used here, a s k i l l implies an a b i l i t y which can be developed, not nec e s s a r i l y i n -born, and which i s manifested i n performance, not merely i n p o t e n t i a l . So the p r i n c i p a l c r i t e r i o n of s k i l l f u l n e s s must be e f f e c t i v e action under varying conditions. This approach suggests that e f f e c t i v e administration r e s t on three basic developable  s k i l l s which obviate the need f o r i d e n t i f y i n g s p e c i a l t r a i t s and which may provide a usefu l way of looking at any understanding the admini-s t r a t i v e process. This approach i s the out-growth of f i r s t h a n d observation of executives at work coupled with study of current f i e l d research i n administration . . . . . 42 Three S k i l l Approach I t i s assumed here that an administrator i s one who (a) d i r e c t s the a c t i v i t i e s of other persons and (b) undertakes the responsi-b i l i t y f o r achieving c e r t a i n objectives through these e f f o r t s . Within t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , success-f u l administration appears to r e s t i n three basic s k i l l s , which we w i l l c a l l t e c h n i c a l , human, and conceptual.* I t would be u n r e a l i s t i c to assert that these s k i l l s are not i n t e r -r e l a t e d , yet there may be r e a l merit i n examin-ing each one separately, and i n developing them independently. In the text by Houle an o u t l i n e i s given f o r proper board membership and succinct duties of board members are l i s t e d . He states: The effectiveness of an organization flows from the wisdom and c l a r i t y with which the board of d i r e c t o r s perform i t s policy-making and leadership r o l e . In order to make his maximum con t r i b u t i o n , each board member should prepare himself f o r board membership . . . . The o v e r - a l l goal of the board i s and must be the same as the goal of the agency or assoc-i a t i o n with which i t i s connected. . . . The board's r e l a t i o n s h i p to i t s i n s t i t u t i o n or service or a s s o c i a t i o n i s one of both co n t r o l and assistance. 25 In describing the board's function he goes on to say: The f i r s t major record i s i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n and by-laws. . . . The c o n s t i t u t i o n states the general purpose of the agency or association and defined the Conceptual - as used here by the author, means, the a b i l i t y to see the enterprise as a whole. 4 3 b a s ic conditions of existence of the board. The by-laws are r u l e established to guide the procedure of the board . . . . The second major record of a board i s i t s statement of p o l i c i e s . From time to time boards make decisions about recurrent problems or issues. These decisions should be recorded and made a v a i l a b l e to a l l who need to know them. 26 On performance he * adds; Moreover, boards must perform a number of executive and j u d i c i a l functions, such as se l e c t i n g an executive, carrying on f i n a n c i a l campaigns, a r b i t r a t i n g serious c o n f l i c t s with-i n the s t a f f , and performing volunteer services f o r the program. The executive, on the other hand, has an important r o l e i n policy-making. When he takes fundamental matters to his board for d e c i s i o n he usually f e e l s an o b l i g a t i o n to recommend the course of action i t should take. In t h i s process, he guides the thought of the board. Furthermore, i n the day-to-day operation of the agency or associ a t i o n , these immediate decisions may be f a r greater than the broad p o l i c i e s which the board lays down . . . . Whenever i t can, the board should t r y to stay at the l e v e l of gen e r a l i t y and s p e c i f i c i t y , to think of categories of problems rather than i n d i v i d u a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , to consider long-range developments, and to put the program i n the larger perspective of the whole community. Concluding with a note on Objectives, he has a measure-27 ment f o r a successful board, and an ultimate t e s t : * Objectives are of two major s o r t s . The f i r s t kind are general statements of purpose, spelled out s u f f i c i e n t l y c l e a r l y so that they may be understood . . . . The second kind of objectives are more s p e c i f i c ; they define p a r t i c u l a r pro-gram emphasis or goals, often f o r an established period of time. Usually they are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the general goals 44 Success can be measured i n only one way: How well were the objectives achieved. . . . The most frequent method of evaluation i s probably the counting of the number of people who p a r t i c i p a t e or the extent of the use of the services provided . . . . The ultimate t e s t i s the success of the program. There i s r e a l l y not very much point i n having a board i f the purpose of the agency or a s s o c i a t i o n i s not achieved. To be sure the success might be i n sp i t e of the board or without any very great contribution from i t , but o r d i n a r i l y good boards are associated with good programs. 28 P f i f f n e r and Sherwood * define and d i f f e r e n t i a t e admini-s t r a t i v e organization i n the "means versus ends" concept i n the following manner. Administration, then, consists of every-thing except the s e t t i n g of these general d i r e c t i o n s . ( s i c - a general d i r e c t i o n as to how to go about thinking when decisions are to be made) In b r i e f e r terms, i t i s often said that p o l i c y i s . t h e formulation of goals and administration involves t h e i r execution. 29. Shaw "defines administration as follows: But to one view, administration i s , f i r s t and foremost, a function - a set of tasks and a c t i v i t i e s - shared by every person i n an (educational) i n s t i t u t i o n from teacher on up or down. Some spend more of t h e i r time at i t than others, but a l l administer. 30 E l u c i d a t i n g on t h i s concept Harlow * states: Administration i s the servant of organiz-a t i o n a l purpose. Purpose pervades an organiz-ation, determining i t s subordinate and super-ordinate r o l e s , i t s governing r o l e expectations and the l i k e . D i v i s i o n of labour and administ-r a t i v e process are determined by organizational purpose. 45 REFERENCES 1. Hopkins, John T., "West Vancouver Recreation Survey, A Study i n Community Organization" (unpublished Master's t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y "of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1950), p. 69. 2. Farina, A l f r e d J.O., "Edmonton Community League" (unpublished Master's t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 1950), p. 43. 3. Belshaw, C , C u l l i e , E., and Curr i e , I., A Study of Recreation i n North Vancouver. A Report Pre-pared by the Group Work D i v i s i o n , S o c i a l Planning Section. (Vancouver: Community Chest and Council, 1956), p. i i i . 4. I b i d . 5. I b i d . , p. 102. 6. Jones, G.V., "Leadership i n Recreation: A Study of the Impact of Leadership on the Recreation Programme i n the C i t y of Bellingham, Washington" (unpublished Master's t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 1950), p. 53. 7. McDonald, David N., and Ramsay, Richard L., Recreation In Penticton, A Community Survey. (Penticton: The South Okanagan Regional Planning Board, 1965), p. 48. 8. Ramsay, Richard L., "Guidelines f o r Community S e l f -Surveys In Recreation" (Vancouver: The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967), pp. 1-15. (mimeo-graphed. ) 9. Garret, Annette, Interviewing, I t s P r i n c i p l e s and Methods, New York Family Welfare Association of America, 1946, pp. 34-93. 10. Kahn, Robert L., and Carmell, Charles F., The Dynamics of Interviewing, New York, John Wylie and Sons, 1957, pp. 121-161. 11. Tenalson, Anne, T., Ferguson, Grace B., and Abrham-son, Arthur C , E s s e n t i a l s i n Interviewing, New York, Harper and Row Limited, 1962, pp. 84-176. 46 12. Kidd, B., A Model fo r a Recreation Programme. A Report Adopted by the Ontario Department of Education, (Toronto: Community Programmes Branch, 1967), pp. 1-4. 13. Boker, H.R., Larson, V.W., and Solomon, D.D., Key to Community, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Centre f o r Community Studies, V o l s . I-V, 1963. 14. Community Programmes Branch, A Guide To Recreation  Commissions, Department of Education ( V i c t o r i a : A. Sutton, P r i n t e r to the Queen's Most Exc e l l e n t Majesty i n the Right of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964), p. 13. 15. I b i d . , p. 15. 16. Farina, op. c i t . , p. 62. 17. Meyer, Harold D., and B r i g h t b i l l , Charles K., Community Recreation, Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey, P r e n t i c e - H a l l Incorporated, 1956, p. 199. 18. F i t z g e r a l d , as quoted by Meyer, Harold D., and B r i g h t b i l l , Charles K., Community Recreation, Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey, Prentice-Hall Incorporated, 1956, p. 200. 19. Shivers, Jay S., Leadership i n Recreation Service, New York, The MacMillan Company, 1963, p. 243. 20. P a r t i c i p a n t s i n a National Recreation Workshop, Recreation f o r Community L i v i n g , Chicago, The A t h l e t i c I n s t i t u t e , 1952, p. 23. 21. I b i d . , p. 24, 22. Vannier, M. Methods and Materials i n Recreation Leadership. P h i l a d e l p h i a , W.B. Saunders Company, 1956, p. 239-41. 23. Katz, Robert C , " S k i l l s of an E f f e c t i v e Adminis-t r a t o r " . Harvard Business Review, January-February, 1955. V o l . 33 No. 1, p.p. 33-42. 24. Houle, C y r i l 0., The E f f e c t i v e Board, New York, New York, Association Press, 1960, p. 50. 47 25.. I b i d . , p. 86. 26. I b i d . , p. 116. 27. I b i d . 28. P f i f f n e r , John M., and Sherwood, Frank P., Administrative Organization, Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey, 1960, p. 82. 29. Shaw, Archibald B., Selected Readings: Educational Administration. Boston, Edited by Hack, Ramseyer, Gephart and Heck. A l l y n and Bacon, Incorporated, 1965, pp. 25-28. 30. Harlow, James G., Selected Readings: Educational Administration. Boston, Edited by Hack, Ramseyer, Gephart and Heck. A l l y n and Bacon Incorporated, 1965, pp. 28-38. CHAPTER I I I CASE STUDY REPORTS I . COMMISSIONS SERVING POPULATIONS UP TO FIVE HUNDRED PEOPLE Many B r i t i s h Columbia communities w i t h p o p u l -a t i o n s approximating f i v e hundred have made some attempt a t o r g a n i z i n g t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes. With the a i d o f the Community Programmes Branch and i t s R e g i o n a l C o n s u l t a n t s , a d v i c e i s g i v e n on e s t a b l i s h i n g a R e c r e a t i o n Commission and on an o p e r a t i n g r e f e r e n c e o r c o n s t i t u t i o n from which t o c a r r y on i t s a f f a i r s . In many o f these communities, the r e c r e a t i o n programmes are s t r u g g l i n g f o r t h e i r v e r y e x i s t e n c e . Y e t the people i n these communities u n t i r i n g l y g i v e o f t h e i r time and e f f o r t t o promote r e c r e a t i o n f o r young and o l d , r e g a r d l e s s o f the redundant f a i l u r e they p e r p e t u a t e . Here are Case Study r e p o r t s o f f o u r s e l e c t e d commissions w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s l e s s than f i v e hundred, whose hope i s t h a t today's s t r u g g l e w i l l r e a l i z e the s u c c e s s f u l commission o f tomorrow. 4 9 1. B o s w e l l D i s t r i c t L o c a t i o n : N e l s o n P o p u l a t i o n : One hundred and s i x t y Bo swell., a s m a l l r a t h e r s c a t t e r e d and w i d e l y s p r e a d community, i s l o c a t e d on the E a s t e r n shore o f Kootenay Lake i n the s o u t h - e a s t e r n a r e a o f the P r o v i n c e . I s o l a t e d i n p a r t , because o f the Lake, t h i s once f l o u r i s h i n g f r u i t and v e g e t a b l e a r e a has d i m i n i s h e d i n a f f l u e n c e because o f i t s i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the l a r g e r r u r a l c e n t r e s o f Nelson and C r e s t o n , and now depends on summer v a c a t i o n e r s and t o u r i s t s as i t s main source o f income. Access t o the community i s by highway and f e r r y a c r o s s Kootenay Lake, and by P r o v i n c i a l Highway 3A from the s o u t h . The p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f o l d e r r e t i r e d o r semi-r e t i r e d p ersons, and the m a j o r i t y , t y p i c a l l y , own the l a n d on which they l i v e . The R e c r e a t i o n Commission c o n s i s t s o f f i v e p e o p l e , one male and f o u r female members. The male i s the incum-bent P r e s i d e n t . The Commission i s s t r u c t u r e d from a Community Club concept, whose e x e c u t i v e s e r v e s o f f i c i a l l y as the Commission. 50. The Community Club has a voluntary membership of twenty-five persons who pay a small annual membership fee. By c o n s t i t u t i o n , the Commission meets r e g u l a r l y i n the winter months, and i r r e g u l a r l y i n the summer. This Commission i s a member of the B r i t i s h Columbia Recreation Association and receives a grant from the Community Programmes Branch. The operation of the Commission i s c a r r i e d out on a regular meeting b a s i s , and i s of an "ad hoc" nature. Meetings are informal and centre around a review of the past month's a c t i v i t i e s , t h e i r f i n a n c i a l status and plans f o r future program. A l l age groups are served, and some in t e g r a t i o n with neighbouring communities takes place when p r a c t i c a l . The primary resources of the community are a Community H a l l constructed i n the e a r l y " f i f t i e s " and a t r a c t of private land s u i t a b l e f o r outdoor games, p i c n i c s and d i s p l a y s . Some other aspects of the pro-gramme such as bingos, card and table games are c a r r i e d on i n member's homes. There are no schools or service clubs i n t h i s community and a church provides some r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y f o r the younger people. 51 While the Commission follows a simple c o n s t i t u t -ion, there are no by-laws or written p o l i c i e s to d i r e c t the executive. The primary sources of revenue are the Community Programmes Branch q u a l i f y i n g grants and the membership dues of Community Club members. This Com-mission has no budget, although f i n a n c i a l records are kept by a treasurer. A "pay-as-we-go" philosophy i s followed, with an attempt to r a i s e funds through bingos, bake sales and other programme e f f o r t s . The Commission i s incorporated under the S o c i e t -i e s Act. A c t i v i t i e s and programmes centre around the more senior c i t i z e n s i n the community, although some emphasis i s given to the "teen-age" group. The greatest portion of the programme i s focused on the small com-munity h a l l , and i n the summer a c t i v i t y s h i f t s outdoors. Clubs, formed when an i n t e r e s t group organizes, approach the Commission f o r recognition and sponsorship. Here they are given assistance, status and l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l help. The c o n t i n u i t y of such clubs i s contingent on the groups l a s t i n g i n t e r e s t and many clubs fade a f t e r a f l o u r i s h i n g i n i t i a l e f f o r t . Leadership, as such, i s very l i m i t e d i n Boswell. The primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e s t s with the President 52 whose e f f o r t s sustain the Commission. This "one man" organizer supervises, coaches, d i r e c t s and invigorates most of the a c t i v i t y . I n d i v i d u a l l y , the members expressed Leadership as t h e i r primary problem, the nature of the population and lack of s u f f i c i e n t f a c i l i t i e s as t h e i r secondary problems. C o l l e c t i v e l y , they expressed "organizing" and communicating with the small and scattered popu-l a t i o n as t h e i r major problems. The Boswell Commission r e g u l a r l y q u a l i f i e s f o r t h e i r Community Programmes Branch grant and provides a minimum re c r e a t i o n programme f o r i t s c i t i z e n s . In i t s present state, l i t t l e consideration i s given f o r any change i n i t s current format and operation. 2 . C h e r r y v i l l e D i s t r i c t Location: Kelowna Population: Two hundred and seventy-five Located east of Vernon and Lumby, B r i t i s h Columbia, C h e r r y v i l l e i s a scattered community on the edge of the Monashee Mountain Range. I t remains somewhat i s o l a t e d on the f r i n g e of the "Okanagan". I t i s orientated t o -wards ranching and f o r e s t r y . 53 A Community Club, incorporated under the S o c i e t i e s Act, with a membership of seventy holds the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a l l community a c t i v i t i e s . A token fee e n t i t l e s one to membership. The Recreation Commission i s composed of the Chairmen of s p e c i f i c "clubs". These represent i n t e r e s t groups within the Community Club. Thus, the Commission i s a "committee" of the Community Club with a membership of seven ( s i x males and one female) members. To become a member of the Recreation Commission a club approaches the Community Club presenting i t s "case" on the basis of organization - meaning a s l a t e of o f f i c e r s , a purpose, and plans f o r operation. The Community Club then makes a recommendation that w i l l allow the Chairman of the group o f f i c i a l representation on the Commission. The Commission follows a l i m i t e d c o n s t i t u t i o n . I t meets once a month except August. S p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s f o r the promotion of r e c r e a t i o n are followed and r u l e s f o r club organization and operation are s t r i c t l y adhered to . Many successful fund r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s , together with the Community Programmes Branch quarterly grant, are the main sources of revenue. No formal budget i s presented, but accurate accounting procedures are follow-ed by both the Commission and the sponsored clubs. 54 The C h e r r y v i l l e c i t i z e n s u t i l i z e a Community H a l l , complete wi t h a new a d d i t i o n d e d i c a t e d as a C e n t e n n i a l p r o j e c t , and the s c h o o l b u i l d i n g when the p o l i c y o f the c u r r e n t s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a l l o w s i t . In a d d i t i o n , a p r o v i n c i a l park ( C l a s s I I I ) i s a c c e s s -i b l e t o the community, but used s p a r i n g l y , C h e r r y v i l l e Day, an annual s p o r t , a c t i v i t y and outdoor " c a r n i v a l " i s the primary p r o j e c t o f the Com-m i s s i o n and a f i n a n c i a l n e c e s s i t y . T h i s t o g e t h e r w i t h the a c t i v i t i e s o f the c l u b s , i s supplemented by an a c t i v e c o n s e r v a t i o n program promoted by the Commission, One p o l i c y i s t o p r o v i d e r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t -u n i t i e s f o r those not d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the s c h o o l ' s a t h l e t i c and r e c r e a t i o n programme. With the o p p o r t u n i t y p r e s e n t e d by the c l u b con-c e p t , l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n t o a s c e r t a i n i n g the needs o f the p e o p l e . A l l members are g i v e n an oppor-t u n i t y t o p r e s e n t t h e i r i d e a s through s e l f - r e p r e s e n t -a t i o n . L e a d e r s h i p i s promoted i n the sense t h a t once one i s r e c o g n i z e d he i s g i v e n o p p o r t u n i t y and support t o f u r t h e r h i s a b i l i t i e s through attendance a t c l i n i c s , workshops and c o n f e r e n c e s . Many o f these e d u c a t i o n a l s e s s i o n s are sponsored by the Community Programmes Branch and the B r i t i s h Columbia R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , o f which t h i s Commission i s a member. ....... 55 A s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n , the C h e r r y v i l l e R e c r e a t i o n Commission i s f r u s t r a t e d by one major problem, and t h a t c u r r e n t l y i s the a c q u i s t i o n and e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s t o a t r a c t o f l a n d . The e x e c u t i v e i s p e r p e t u a l l y concerned w i t h the proper development o f l e a d e r s and f o r g r e a t e r membership i n the Community C l u b . 3. Decker Lake D i s t r i c t L o c a t i o n : Smithers P o p u l a t i o n : Two hundred The s m a l l community o f Decker Lake i s l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t t o Burns Lake, i n the h e a r t o f the B u l k l e y V a l l e y a r e a , i n the c e n t r a l , n o rth-western p o r t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia. L y i n g on the shore o f Decker Lake, t h i s community f i n d s i t s e l f e c o n o m i c a l l y dependent on the p u l p and paper i n d u s t r y , and on b u s i n e s s d e r i v e d from t o u r i s t s a t t r a c t i o n i n the nearby Burns Lake-Tweedsmuir Park a r e a . The o r g a n i z a t i o n t o which a l l c i t i z e n s o f Decker Lake a u t o m a t i c a l l y b e l o n g (by r e s i d e n c y ) i s the Community H a l l A s s o c i a t i o n . The R e c r e a t i o n Commission i s formed on the e l e c t i o n o f e i g h t o f f i c e r s by the Community H a l l A s s o c i a t i o n . C u r r e n t l y the Commission c o n s i s t s o f f o u r female and f o u r male members. An i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , 56 The Commission has no c o n s t i t u t i o n , p o l i c i e s o r by-laws and meets monthly p r e s e n t i n g minutes o f p a s t meeting, and d i s c u s s i n g new b u s i n e s s . The a t t e n t i o n o f the Commission i s f o c u s e d on two primary concerns: t h e i r f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s , and t h e i r r e quirements t o q u a l i f y f o r Community Programmes Branch g r a n t s . The l a t t e r i s the main source o f revenue w i t h some revenue gained by fund r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s . R e c e n t l y these a c t i v i t i e s have been d i s a p p o i n t i n g and l i t t l e has been gained by t h e i r o c c u r -r a n c e . Resources are l i m i t e d and c o n s i s t o f a v a c a n t , o l d e r s c h o o l b u i l d i n g , an ou t d a t e d Community H a l l , and d u r i n g the summer months a beach-park a r e a which the Commission has spent c o n s i d e r a b l e e n e r g i e s d e v e l o p i n g . The programme i s l i m i t e d t o a few s p o r t s and games, some s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s such as b i n g o s and dances, and the a q u a t i c programme. T h i s l a t t e r a c t i v i t y i s a i d e d by the a d d i t i o n o f a p a i d " l i f e g u a r d - i n s t r u c t o r " who undertakes w a t e r - s a f e t y and s u p e r v i s o r y a c t i v i t i e s . Many problems e x i s t i n the Decker Lake Com-m i s s i o n . Burdened w i t h f i s c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i s p r i m a r l y concerned w i t h revenue p r o -d u c i n g c o n c e p t s . Poor Commission s t r u c t u r e , l a c k i n g d i r e c t i o n , p r o v i d e s l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o n s i d e r i n g 57 p e o p l e ' s needs, r e s o u r c e a n a l y s i s and improvement, l e a d e r s h i p development, and c r e a t i v e programming d e s i g n e d to c a p t u r e the c i t i z e n ' s i n t e r e s t , 4 . White Lake D i s t r i c t L o c a t i o n : Kamloops P o p u l a t i o n : One hundred T h i s s m a l l community i s l o c a t e d near a s m a l l f r e s h w a t e r - s p r i n g f e d l a k e , between Kamloops and Salmon Arm on the Trans-Canada Highway. The community proper i s l o c a t e d around the l a k e , which i s a s h o r t d i s t a n c e from the Western Shore o f the north-arm o f Shuswap Lake. The people are dependent on nearby p u l p and paper m i l l s f o r t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d . A committee o f the Community A s s o c i a t i o n and S o c i e t y , the R e c r e a t i o n Commission i s composed o f f i v e members, ( f o u r males and one f e m a l e ) . The Community A s s o c i a t i o n and S o c i e t y i s a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n , composed o f the m a j o r i t y o f c i t i z e n s i n the White Lake a r e a . There i s a nominal membership f e e to q u a l i f y . F o l l o w i n g an o l d e r c o n s t i t u t i o n (undergoing r e v i s i o n ) , the commission meets a t l e a s t once per month throughout the y e a r . T r a d i t i o n and p a s t e x p e r i e n c e , w i t h simple by-laws, are the g u i d e l i n e s f o l l o w e d i n 58 p o l i c y r e f e r e n c e . M e e t i n g s are i n f o r m a l and d e c i s i o n s are made on a simple m a j o r i t y v o t e . A l t h o u g h the f i n a n c i a l accounts are a u d i t e d y e a r l y , t h e r e i s no f o r m a l a l l o t m e n t o f f u n d s . "We f o l l o w a haphazard-hit-and-miss procedure i n spending our money. A v o t e taken by telephone i s s u f f i c i e n t t o a u t h o r i z e an e x p e n d i t u r e . " T h i s was the comment made by a member w i t h a t l e a s t t e n y e a r ' s e x p e r i e n c e . Revenue i s r e a l i z e d through the Community Programmes Branch g r a n t s and t o a l e s s e r degree from membership and p r o f i t s from programme e v e n t s . T h i s community has l i m i t e d p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , u t i l i z i n g an outdated community h a l l f o r l i m i t e d • p r o -gramme. However, t h i s f a c i l i t y i s c o s t l y t o o p e r a t e and i s used p r i m a r i l y f o r l a r g e r g a t h e r i n g s such as an i n f r e q u e n t " b i n g o " o r dance. An outdoor p i c n i c and l a k e s i d e a r e a has been s e t a s i d e f o r the commission*s use. Access t o t h i s a r e a i s troublesome as i t passes through p r i v a t e l a n d , and has become a sore p o i n t amongst p r o p e r t y owners. There are no churches, o r s e r v i c e c l u b s i n the White Lake a r e a , and the n e a r e s t s c h o o l i s t h r e e m i l e s . These i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n n e i g h -b o u r i n g communities, l i m i t the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r White Lake people t o s p e c i a l events a t C h r i s t m a s , E a s t e r and 59 the occasional summer camp. Consequently, programme emphasis i s on "hobby" r e c r e a t i o n . Several hobby groups are guided by the Commission, and include lapidary, ceramics and l e a t h e r - c r a f t clubs. Some informal a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s are given very l i m i t e d support. Most people i n White Lake have some opportunity f o r recreation, although the young pre-school c h i l d r e n are overlooked i n t h i s Commission's e f f o r t s . Several times informal and simple surveys have been thwarted i n an attempt to determine the people's wishes. Poor response to such e f f o r t s has discouraged further attempts. Consequently, r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i s c a r r i e d on a year to year basis with l i t t l e change or innovation. An attempt f o r creative programming through leadership development of the younger members i s made through attendance at regional conferences. This commission frequently sponsors i t s young people at c l i n i c s , workshops, and other Community Programmes Branch and B r i t i s h Columbia Recreation Association gatherings. In t h i s , they attempt to perpetuate t h e i r present pro-gramme. Responsible to a small and scattered population, t h i s Commission faces a perpetual problem with finances. They are lacking i n f a c i l i t i e s and other resources, and l i t t l e change i n t h i s respect i s foreseen. 60 I I . COMMISSIONS SERVING POPULATIONS OVER FIVE HUNDRED PEOPLE Apparent differences within communities of small populations (l e s s than f i v e hundred) and those larger (over f i v e hundred) i n terms of i n t e r e s t s , economic dependency and the organizational a b i l i t y of t h e i r r e c -r e a t i o n commissions are n e g l i g i b l e . S i m i l a r i t i e s i n occupation, education, l e i s u r e time pursuits,and the voluntary association of people i n unincorporated areas allow a comparative view of t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n commissions. Yet, there appears to be a more vigorous a t t i t u d e , a greater capacity for the successful operation of these s i m i l a r administrative bodies. For comparative purposes, a review of these s l i g h t l y larger communities and t h e i r recreation commis-sions follows. 1 . Cherry Creek D i s t r i c t Location: Vancouver Island Population: Nineteen Hundred This i s l a n d community i s situated adjacent to, but p h y s i c a l l y separated from Port A l b e r n i i n the c e n t r a l part of Vancouver Island. As neighbours of the incorp-orated (now under one municipal authority) area of . 61 A l b e r n i and Port A l b e r n i , the c i t i z e n s of Cherry Creek are i d e n t i f i e d separately due to the physical d i f f e r e n c e s and community resources. These people are dependent on a v a r i e t y of economic f a c t o r s f o r t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d . The primary occupations are associated with longshoring, pulp and paper products and the f o r e s t r y industry. The r e c r e a t i o n commission i s a Chartered Assoc-i a t i o n under the authority of the A l b e r n i V a l l e y Water D i s t r i c t . Representation i s based on the e l e c t i o n of ten people including an executive of four by the people i n the water d i s t r i c t . As a chartered organization t h i s Commission follows a c o n s t i t u t i o n which includes by-laws f o r p o l i c y reference. Regular meetings, held monthly, are r e l a t i v e l y formal and follow a constant pattern. A s t r i c t agenda and parliamentary procedure are followed. Tight c o n t r o l of finances and good book-keeping are evident from a l l responses. The Cherry Creek Commission u t i l i z e s a v a r i e t y of physical resources. In the community proper they u t i l i z e a h a l l , the l o c a l school and four park-play-ground areas, one of which i s f u l l y developed. The com-mission, working with several c i t i z e n groups u t i l i z e other resources within the d i s t r i c t including a g o l f course, i c e centre and service club f a c i l i t i e s . 62 Programme attention i s focused on successful fund r a i s i n g projects such as regular bingo sessions, dinners, dances and turkey shoots. These a c t i v i t i e s , successful i n nature, d i s t r a c t from other a c t i v i t i e s . Regular r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s e x i s t as "sub-commit-tees" and succeed when f i n a n c i a l l y supported by the commission. A t h l e t i c groups, hobby clubs and children's programmes f a l l i n t h i s category. Leadership grows from s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups. Once i d e n t i f i e d , leaders are sponsored at c l i n i c s and workshops, promoted by p r o v i n c i a l agencies. Among problems c i t e d i s the con-tinued development of q u a l i t y leaders. The s o l u t i o n of a better f i n a n c i a l formula and further f a c i l i t y develop-ment are other problems of the Cherry Creek Commission. 2. Lac La Hache D i s t r i c t Location: Kamloops Population: Twenty-two hundred Located i n the southern portion of the Cariboo, south of Williams Lake, t h i s community r e l i e s on t o u r i s t trade and ranching f o r i t s means of economic support. A very active community, i t i s constantly aware of i t s p o s i t i o n with respect to the t o u r i s t trade, and a con-sciousness of perpetual development f o r t h i s end i s the aim of i t s c i t i z e n s . 63 The recr e a t i o n commission i s the executive of the Community Club, (voluntary membership of seventy)• Together these two bodies meet once per month through-out the year. Meetings are informal and at times lack proper business procedures. There i s no c o n s t i t u t i o n and guidelines f o r operation are based on t r a d i t i o n and past experience. The commission acts as a c l e a r i n g house f o r r e c r e a t i v e i n t e r e s t s , co-ordinating the e f f o r t s of service clubs, church a c t i v i t i e s , and other recog-nized groups. An adequate h a l l i s the primary p h s i c a l resource, and the commission has constructed an outdoor i c e rink and a beach-park area. The commission employs a d i r e c t o r f o r the "beach" during the summer months. Hence the majority of the r e c r e a t i o n programme i s centered i n these f a c i l i t i e s . Organized a t h l e t i c events are recog-nized by the commission. However, these are informally organized and develop when leadership and appropriate f a c i l i t i e s are a v a i l a b l e . The annual water show and regatta i s the primary undertaking of the community. D i r e c t i o n f o r t h i s event i s given by the commission, but involves a l l segments of the community to some extent. 64 The f i n a n c i a l status i s questionable, as a per-petual e f f o r t e x i s t s i n q u a l i f y i n g f o r the Community Programmes Branch grant. When revenue i s required, donations are s o l i c i t e d and a dinner-dance or bingo i s planned to "see us over the hurdle". Perhaps, member-ship i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Recreation Association and some pertinent advice i n many areas of concern would help t h i s Commission. Frustrated with f i n a n c i a l burdens, and inadequate f a c i l i t y development, the Commission c i t e s apathy, a f a i l i n g membership and l i m i t e d leadership as i t s prime concerns. This however, i s a manifestation of poor organization, lack of d i r e c t i o n and an ignorance of r e c -r e a t i o n . The people of Lac La Hache aspire to a munici-pal concept of rec r e a t i o n , but require organization a b i l i t y and r e c r e a t i o n a l education. 3 . T h o r n h i l l D i s t r i c t Location: Smithers Population: Twenty-five Hundred Across the Kitsumkalum r i v e r from Terrace, i n north-western B r i t i s h Columbia i s T h o r n h i l l . This "new" community i.. i s a r a p i d l y expanding d i s t r i c t dependent'on the logging, pulp and paper i n d u s t r i e s , and r e l a t e d service i n d u s t r i e s of Terrace. 65 The Commission i s a voluntary organization of nine people ( s i x male and three female) with a s e l f appointed executive of f i v e . A c o n s t i t u t i o n e x i s t s and meetings while informal, are conducted i n a business-l i k e manner. Decisions are reached a f t e r discussion and a vote when a quorem i s present. No p o l i c i e s e x i s t although the c o n s t i t u t i o n has by-laws f o r p o l i c y d i r e c t -i o n . There i s no formal budget presented. Revenue i s derived from programme a c t i v i t i e s , the Community Pro-grammes Branch grants, and s o l i c i t e d donations. The current physical resources are the l o c a l school and i t s play-ground. The school administration co-operates f u l l y with the Commission i n the multiple use of f a c i l i t i e s , but a concern of expenses, mainten-ance and supervision e x i s t s i n t h i s respect. The programme consists of many a c t i v i t i e s f o r a l l age groups, and a t o t a l community e f f o r t on fund r a i s i n g p r o j e c t s . Emphasis i s given the ten to twenty-two year old age group, and "old age pensioners". In i t s infancy, t h i s commission faces many-growing pains. The primary concern i s f i n a n c i a l , as many resources are required. Currently, a Master Plan Concept i s being constructed. This Master Plan i n -cludes a pr o j e c t i o n of costs, estimated f a c i l i t i e s and other resources required, and a plan f o r leadership development, which they r e a l i z e i s required i f there programme i s to evolve. As a new e n t i t y , the commission i s ambitious. Presently, there i s a good expression of willingness to serve i n any aspect of the programme. With proper J guidance, assistance and advice, t h i s commissxon has the p o t e n t i a l to be a Model f o r other commissions. CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS Common socio-economic elements of the seven areas selected included unincorporated areas, dependent on l o c a l economic f a c t o r s , r e c r e a t i o n a l l y independent of urban influence, voluntary organization, and f i n a l l y , recognized by and re c e i v i n g assistance from the Com-munity Programmes Branch. An analysis of several aspects of the Commissions and t h e i r operation demonstrated common short-comings i n a l l . A lack of organizational structure (Table II) with a burdensome concern f o r finances r e s u l t s i n many cases of poor programming and an apathetic s p i r i t of re c r e a t i o n i n the community. Herein, i s a breakdown of elements studied and an i n s i g h t into the performance of the Commissions studied. Organization Of the seven selected Commissions, a l l but two were formed from community "associations", " s o c i e t i e s " or "clubs". These are a "sub-committee" f o r a larger membership and are responsible to the membership only. In the other two examples one was formed by the e l e c t i o n TABLE I I ANALYSIS OP STRUCTURE AND ELEMENTS OF ORGANIZATION GROUP I Form Member-Commission s h i p Exec-u t i v e Frequency o f Meeting C o n s t i -t u t i o n Budget W r i t t e n P o l i c i e s B «C • R • A* Membershi BOSWELL E x e c u t i v e o f Community Club 20 5 Monthly Yes No No Yes CHE RRYVILLE Committee 70 7 Monthly Yes No Yes Yes DECKER LAKE E x e c u t i v e o f Community A s s o c i a t i o n 350 8 Monthly No No No No WHITE LAKE Committee o f Community A s s o c i a t i o n 100 5 I r r e g u l a r on a monthly b a s i s Yes No No Yes GROUP I I CHERRY CREEK E l e c t e d R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f A s s o c i a t i o n Water D i s t . 10 4 Monthly Yes No No Yes LAC LA HACHE E x e c u t i v e o f Community Club 78 8 Monthly No No No No THORNHILL S e l f .Appointed R e c r e a t i o n Commission 9 5 Monthly No No No Yes 00 69 of i t s members from the population of the e n t i r e d i s t r i c t and the other was a self-appointed organization. Re-presentation i s l i m i t e d to d i s t i n c t segments of the popul-a t i o n . In some Commissions p a r t i c u l a r groups are excluded. In a l l but one Commission c e r t a i n ethnic groups and public school personnel (teachers and trustees) were not on the Commission. The number of executives ranged from four to eight members. Four Commissions have some form of written con-s t i t u t i o n . However, only one was considered adequate and the others were e i t h e r outdated or of l i t t l e use on which to formulate p o l i c y or p r i n c i p l e s of operation. A l l Commissions met monthly but three of these adjourn f o r a s i x week period during the summer and two others met " i f there was a necessity to do so". Budgets and Finance Budgets and finance were two concepts poorly understood. No Commission presents a formal annual bud-get. The a c t i v i t i e s of a l l Commissions are contingent on two f a c t o r s : revenue produced through fund r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s and the q u a l i f y i n g quarterly giants from the Community Programmes Branch. 70 Considering Needs Consideration of the needs of the people they represent i s badly neglected by a l l but one Commission. Adequate surveys of people's needs, wants and desires are poorly attempted - i f at a l l . One Commission with i t s " s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t Club" concept allows the people to create t h e i r own programmes. In the other cases, oppor-t u n i t i e s f o r recrea t i o n are ava i l a b l e on three premises: (a) What t h e i r finances w i l l allow; (b) What fund r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i l l produce revenue; (c) What we "can do" with what we have. Resources Community h a l l s are av a i l a b l e i n a l l but one community. (Table III) In the l a t t e r , a new community, no h a l l i s av a i l a b l e but plans are to have one con-structed when funds are a v a i l a b l e . In four of the communities these h a l l s were out-dated, although these have been added to or renovated as Centennial projects with money availa b l e through Centen-n i a l Grants from the Federal and P r o v i n c i a l Governments. One Community has what can be considered "a multiple use" f a c i l i t y i n i t s h a l l , and t h i s too was a r e s u l t of the Centennial p r o j e c t . TABLE I I I ANALYSIS OF RESOURCES P r o v i n c i a l P r i m a r y GROUP I F a c i l i t y Secondary F a c i l i t y H a l l S c h o o l C h u r c h Park Beach Park A c c e s s i b l e O t h e r BOSWELL H a l l P r i v a t e Land Yes No Yes No No No P r i v a t e Land CHERRYVILLE H a l l S c h o o l Yes Yes No No No Yes P r i v a t e L a n d DECKER LAKE H a l l S c h o o l Grounds Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No WHITE LAKE H a l l No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No GROUP I I CHERRY CREEK H a l l S c h o o l Yes Yes No Yes NO Yes No LAC LA HACHE H a l l No Yes No No Yes Yes NO No THORNHILL S c h o o l No No Yes No Y e s No No No (park) 72 Four communities make l i m i t e d use of the l o c a l school or school grounds and the use of these f a c i l i t i e s i s contingent on co-operation with school o f f i c i a l s . The community lacking a h a l l has optimal use of the school, but the future of t h i s concept i s questionable. I t should be pointed out that a l l of the commissions studied have ex c e l l e n t access to natural surroundings f o r rec r e a t i o n but only one can be considered to make use of t h i s un-l i m i t e d resource. Personnel resources or leadership i s a problem i n f i v e of the communities. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r many programme aspects f a l l s on a few, and l i t t l e success i s achieved i n the development of "new blood". In these r u r a l areas, the majority of young people are mobile, often leaving the area when they mature as leaders. In other cases, young " q u a l i f i e d " or natural leaders are concerned with t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s at home and f i n d " l i t t l e time f o r the things the commission i s doing". Two commissions employ aquatic leaders or d i r e c t o r s f o r a l i m i t e d time during the summer. In other communities int e r e s t e d people are sponsored at regional c l i n i c s or workshops i n an attempt to educate f o r programme develop-ment. Other resources such as churches, or service club organizations are n e g l i g i b l e i n the selected cases. 73 Programme The programme content of these commissions varie d g r e a t l y from a t h l e t i c a l l y orientated programmes to hobby groups and fund r a i s i n g p r o j e c t s . Table IV indicates the v a r i e t y of programme content. The age groups served by the Commissions also varied and s p e c i f i c e f f o r t s to provide opportunities f o r pensioners, teen-agers and the "post f o r t y " age groups were made i n four of the seven cases. Problems An analysis of the problems l i s t e d by the Commissions (Table V) indicated that four problems were common to a l l Commissions: (1) Sound f i n a n c i a l status. (2) Acquiring and maintaining f a c i l i t i e s . (3) Developing personnel and leadership. (4) Developing i n t e r e s t i n the programmes. B r i t i s h Columbia Recreation Association Membership Five Commissions belong to the As s o c i a t i o n . However, only two derive immediate benefit from t h e i r membership. The others f e e l they "should belong, but r e a l l y don't know why" they should belong. TABLE IV ANALYSIS OF PROGRAMME - PHASE I GROUP I A Aquatic C T I V Indoor E Outdoor Dance Special Club Groups P A S S Hobbies I V E Games Binqo Filmi BOSWELL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No CHERRYVILLE No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes DECKER LAKE Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No WHITE LAKE No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No GROUP II CHERRY CREEK No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No LAC LA HACHE Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No THORNHILL No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No GROUP I Member A TABLE V ANALYSIS OF EXPRESSED PROBLEM Member B Member C Member D Member E BOSWELL L e a d e r s h i p F a c i l i t i e s Scant p o p u l a t i o n s e r v e d . L a c k o f young peop le B o a t m a r i n a New h a l l Swimming i n s t r u c t o r CHERRY-V I L L E A c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n d f o r Commiss ion A c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n d f o r Commiss ion C o m p l e t i o n o f h a l l e x p a n s i o n U n r e s t r i c t e d l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n A c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n d w i t h no r e s t r i c t i o n s A c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n d f o r e x c l u s i v e use DECKER LAKE L e a d e r s h i p Money f o r c a p i t a l e x -p e n d i t u r e - O l d S c h o o l b u i l d i n g & grounds S k a t i n g r i n k Beach & park development S p o r t a r e n a C a p i t a l funds f o r l a n d & park d e v e l o p -ment R i d i n g S c h o o l A c q u i r i n g & d e v e l o p i n g s c h o o l ( o l d ) p r o p e r t y H a l l r e n o v -a t i o n Money f o r swimming programme & p r o p e r t y WHITE LAKE Development o f swimming programme Money f o r pro-grammes F a c i l i t i e s H a l l r e n o v a t i o n T V , a g e / h e a l t h T u r n o v e r i n p o p u l a t i o n Money f o r c a p -i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e P o o l Completed h a l l Swimming f a c i -l i t y Young p e o p l e to a t t e n d W i n t e r f a c i l -i t y Swimming f a c i l i t y Park deve lop-ment M a i n t e n a n c e o f h a l l cn GROUP I I Member A Member B CHERRY Lease o f 7 acre M u l t i p u r p o s e CREEK park f a c i l i t y Money f o r Swimming development f a c i l i t y P o o l P r o f e s s i o n a l S e n i o r C i t i z e n s p e r s onnel LAC LA Ignorance HACHE Money C o o r d i n a t i n g a l l r e s o u r c e s M u l t i p u r p o s e f a c i l i t y Land; t o t a l a rea & f a c i -l i t y I n c r e a s e d membership THORNHILL M u l t i p u r p o s e c e n t r e Land a c q u i s i -t i o n Horse show development Rapid p o p u l -a t i o n i n c r e a s e P a r i t y i n a t h l e t i c s Need people with r e c r e a t i o n knowledge Completion o f park p r o j e c t Conception o f a master p l a n Memher C Member D Member E F u l l y c o o r d i n -ated program wit h s c h o o l s Completion o f p r e s e n t p r o -j e c t s Q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n n e l Completion o f beach Completion or improvement t o e x i s t i n g f a c i -l i t i e s Money f o r c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e New H a l l Swimming po o l P o o l Money f o r la n d purchase L i q u o r Park a c q u i s i t i o n & complete development o f i t . C o n f l i c t w i t h people -escaped r u l e s & r e g u l a t i o n s Taxes i n T e r r a c e - but needed f o r r e c r e a t i o n Community c e n t r e C a p t i a l funds F u l l time r e c r e a t i o n p e r s o n n e l 77 Community Programmes Branch I t i s evident from an analysis of these seven Commissions that a l l have mutual areas of success and concern. A l l had opinions pertaining to the Community Programmes Branch and i t s Regional Consultants. The consensus i s that the Community Programmes Branch should provide more money and the consultants should be a v a i l -able more often. However, the terms of reference of the Community Programmes Branch contradict t h i s and in d i c a t e that the Branch i s f u l f i l l i n g i t s purpose as a Resource within i t s own l i m i t a t i o n s . CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The success of volunteer Recreation Commissions i n r u r a l areas i s dependent on the organized e f f o r t s of many people toward a goal - the e f f i c i e n t and successful operation of programmes. The problems ascertained i n t h i s study are symptoms of greater problems, perhaps honest misjudgement or ignorance by these Commissions. A review of these symptoms and some suggestions f o r the improvement of the r u r a l r e c r e a t i o n organization are outlined below. Commission Structure The Community Programmes Branch book "A Guide to 1 Recreation Commissions" * ou t l i n e s very s u c c i n c t l y the process and structure f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g r e c r e a t i o n com-missions i n unorganized areas. One community studied has, i n our opinion, followed t h i s advice properly and e f f e c t -i v e l y . A chartered a s s o c i a t i o n , with the free e l e c t i o n of Commission members by a l l the people i n the area i s an e f f e c t i v e manner i n which to s e l e c t the members. In t h i s way, the Commission i s independent and responsible to the t o t a l population and not to a minority such as we witnessed i n the s i x other Commissions. McDonald and 2 Ramsay, i n t h e i r Penticton study, * congratulate the 79 Commission there f o r taking t h i s step f o r independence and autonomy. The next step i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a workable Commission i s to e s t a b l i s h i t s frame of reference f o r operation. While several of these Commissions had c o n s t i t u t i o n s , none showed that they used t h i s reference properly. None had s p e c i f i c by-laws which c l e a r l y give d i r e c t i o n f o r policy-making. This i n essence, becomes the whole purpose, the reason f o r being of the Commission. In t h i s respect, 3. Houle * guides the Board i n i t s function. In summary he believes that the c o n s t i t u t i o n states the general purpose of the agency or association and defines the basic conditions of existence. The by-laws are r o l e s established to guide the procedure of the board. Re-corded statements of p o l i c i e s should follow and should be a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l who require access to them. The functions that these boards or commissions perform are many and v a r i e d . To some extent they are dependent on the s i z e of the population served, the resources a v a i l -able and the extent of programme. In any event the executive of the Commission should delegate the s p e c i f i c duties and functions to be c a r r i e d out to as many r e -source people as p r a c t i c a l . In t h i s respect, the exec-ut i v e allow themselves to concentrate on other necessary p r i o r i t i e s , such as revenue, planning, and leadership t r a i n i n g . 80 Determining The Needs - Programme Much can be e f f i c i e n t l y accomplished f o r many Commissions through the use of a properly constructed 4 and properly conducted survey. In many cases these surveys can be c a r r i e d out by the Commission, and i n larg e r communities, perhaps the Commission should seek professional advice. A comprehensive survey, undertaken at regular i n t e r v a l s , can a s s i s t the Commission i n : (1) determining the wants, needs and desires of the people i t serves, (2) determining i t s physical resources, (3) determining personal resources, (4 ) determining i t s f i n a n c i a l resources, (5) ascertaining the extent of mutual and i n t e r -r e l a t e d resources, and the multiple use of several of these resources. When these aspects are determined, or to a l e s s e r extent, when the data are a v a i l a b l e , the use of the Com-munity Programmes Branch Consultant becomes more p r a c t i -c a l . These people are trained to a s s i s t such Commissions i n programme design, and leadership and educational resources. Regardless of where these Commissions receive t h e i r guidance, the data from properly conducted surveys, i f c o r r e c t l y c o l l e c t e d can gre a t l y a s s i s t a Commission 81 to a successful operation. Leadership The leadership s i t u a t i o n i n many Commissions studied i s poor. Leadership i n many areas of both the Commission's operation and the programme i s maintained by a few ambitious people. Their competence i n these areas i s questionable. However, through the co-ordinated e f f o r t s of the Community Programmes Branch and the B r i t i s h Columbia Recreation Association, much i s a v a i l -able f o r the volunteer leader i n s e l f education. Regional conferences, c l i n i c s , and a c t i v i t y workshops are a l l a v a i l -able and necessary f o r the r u r a l Commission i f i t wishes 5 to improve i t s programmes content. Meyer and B r i g h t b i l l * suggest the means to which such Commissions should go i n d i r e c t i n g t h e i r leadership development and they summarize by adding that " I t i s an accepted axiom i n rec r e a t i o n that programs depend upon the q u a l i t y of leadership. No program can function long without i t . . . The q u a l i t y of leaders, both professional and volunteer, t h e i r know-ledge of s k i l l s , the number needed and ava i l a b l e and the a b i l i t y of leaders to t r a n s l a t e a c t i v i t i e s into accomp-l i s h e d o b j e c t i v e s , are fundamental. The l i m i t a t i o n s of leadership should also be 82 The l i m i t a t i o n s of leadership should be recognized. No leader can run the whole program, nor d i r e c t a l l the s k i l l s . Many leaders are necessary f o r a balanced program." The question of part-time or the sharing of professional leaders by a group of communities i s discussed i n the section on Regional D i s t r i c t s . Budgeting and Finance Budgeting and finance was one of the greatest problems faced by each of the selected Commissions. F i r s t of a l l , the term "budget" was generally misunder-stood i n nearly a l l cases. The d e f i n i t i o n and purpose of budgets are outlined by Meyer and B r i g h t b i l l : * Public r e c r e a t i o n services can no more be s e l f supporting than can public education. The basic f l o o r of services must be financed through tax funds i f they are to be adequate and continuing. The two most common ways of supporting public r e c r e a t i o n are: ( ( D ) appropriations from the general funds of the municipality and ((2)) s p e c i a l tax levy. Equally as important are the matters of sound budgeting and accounting i n r e c r e a t i o n . Budgeting r e f e r s to the method of making  f i n a n c i a l estimates f o r a given period -usually one f i s c a l year - based upon need  and a l l o c a t i n g funds f o r various purposes. I t i s through the budget that expenditures are resolved with income and from which sound planning and services r e s u l t . Account-ing i s the administrative companion of budgeting and means simply an orderly pro-cedure of numerically explaining and r e -porting income and expenditures. I t i n -dicates the q u a l i t y of f i n a n c i a l steward-ship and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and i s indispensable i n the f i n a n c i a l p i c t u r e . 83 The second p r i o r i t y to be set f o r t h by a l l the selected Commissions, i s a sound basis f o r i t s f i n a n c i n g . Nearly a l l Commission a c t i v i t i e s concentrated on the need fo r r a i s i n g funds through appropriate a c t i v i t i e s . There-fore, i n determining the programme, a pro j e c t i o n of f i n a n c i a l needs, resources (revenues and c a p i t a l funds) and expenditures must be undertaken. These projections must be r e a l i s t i c a l l y appraised and reviewed with an honest and d e l i b e r a t e view to accomplishment. A budget then, becomes a short-hand f o r long range planning and enables the Commission to stay within i t s r e a l i s t i c l i m i t s . Again, the r e s u l t s of surveys w i l l inform the Commission i f the people are w i l l i n g and able to pay f o r the services and programme provided by the Commission. Consideration can be given i f the people can be "taxed" f o r the r e -cre a t i o n services d i r e c t l y , or through i n d i r e c t methods of taxation. A concept and discussion on a formula f o r r u r a l r e c r e a t i o n a l financing are discussed below i n the section on Regional D i s t r i c t s . Regional D i s t r i c t s Recently i n B r i t i s h Columbia, enabling l e g i s l a t i o n has provided f o r the creation of Regional D i s t r i c t s as 7 corporate bodies, " f o r the purpose of co-ordinating the e f f o r t s of the people toward a common goal or o b j e c t i v e : the planning of and arranging f o r f i n a n c i a l resources and 84 the e f f i c i e n t governing of the people within these d i s t r i c t s . I t i s pur contention that t h i s formula can serve the causes of r u r a l r e c r e a t i o n twofold: (1 ) Provide a sound f i n a n c i a l basis f o r r u r a l commissions. (2) Allow these r u r a l commissions the mutual use of; (a) physical resources, (b) professional help. Currently these services are not e f f i c i e n t l y or r e a l i s t i -c a l l y appreciated by a small r u r a l area. I f i t can be determined that the people i n these regions want organized r e c r e a t i o n , and that they are w i l l -ing to pay f o r services and f a c i l i t i e s , then t h i s concept may provide the means to t h i s end. In several areas, the e f f i c i e n t employment of a professional d i r e c t o r , serving each of several small communities on a part-time b a s i s , could be accomplished. This person would be responsible f o r a s s i s t i n g the Commissions i n proper leadership develop-ment, programming and planning. The establishment of f e a s i b l e , w o r k a b l e and p r a c t i c a l budgets by many commissions would then be accomplished with the assistance and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Regional D i s t r i c t . T h e financing of Volunteer Organ-i z a t i o n s i n t h i s country can be, and i s being done. The 85 g Report of the United Nations * by the Government of Canada summarized i n t h i s way: Local Government There i s i n Canada a strong t r a d i t i o n of l o c a l self-government. Municipal governments are subordinate governments and carry out those tasks assigned to them by the respective p r o v i n c i a l governments under statutes which govern t h e i r structure and functions, and which are subject to change at the d i s c r e t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l government. In most provinces varying functions are performed by l o c a l governments depending upon t h e i r status, whether r u r a l , village-town, c i t y or metropolitan areas. In some provinces sparsely s e t t l e d areas do not have organized m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . They are administered by o f f i c i a l s appointed by the Department of Municipal A f f a i r s . For example, s p e c i a l d i s t r i c t a u t h o r i t i e s ( i r r i g a t i o n d i s t r i c t s , greater water and sewage d i s t r i c t s , health units) may provide services f o r a number of area m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . In general, however, m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are responsible i n whole or i n part f o r p o l i c e and f i r e protection, public health and s a n i t a t i o n , municipal roads and s t r e e t b u i l d i n g and maintenance, public u t i l i t i e s , educational f a c i l i t i e s , h o s p i t a l s , l i b r a r i e s , r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and welfare s e r v i c e s . A wide range of matters comes within the scope of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of l o c a l governments. There i s considerable use of boards and commissions, some of which are appointed. Matters coming within the scope of boards or commissions include s p e c i a l i z e d functions such as transport-ation, public l i b r a r i e s , public u t i l i t i e s and education. Public school boards are autonomous and t h e i r members are elected independently of the municipal c o u n c i l . The major source of revenue avail a b l e to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s the taxation of r e a l property. They also derive revenue from taxation of business and personal property, p o l l taxes, 8 6 permits, l i c e n c e s , rents, concessions, f i n e s , e t c . A l l provinces give f i n a n c i a l aid to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the form of unconditional subsidies or grants-in-aid of s p e c i f i c services that are a municipal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . B. Pattern and l e v e l of programmes and services i n f u n c t i o n a l f i e l d s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . Recreation The r e c r e a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s of l o c a l govern-ments tend to assume a large measure of responsi-b i l i t y f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n , development, main-tenance and operation of f a c i l i t i e s i ncluding parks and playgrounds, f o r the recruitment, t r a i n i n g , and supervision of volunteer and part-time leadership and f o r advisory services and the municipal r e c r e a t i o n a l programme i n com-munities over 30,000 population i s generally supported on a tax basis sometimes with add-i t i o n a l support from g i f t s and s p e c i a l funds. In the smaller centres and r u r a l areas, tax ' funds are not so frequently the c h i e l f source of f i n a n c i a l support; instead, i t may be s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups, churches, a g r i c u l t u r a l organ-i z a t i o n s or service clubs. A s u b s t a n t i a l proportion of organized r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes i n Canada i s maintained by voluntary associations. Boys and G i r l s Clubs, youth-serving agencies, a t h l e t i c clubs, ethmic associations, churches, welfare agencies and service clubs, i n a v a r i e t y of ways provide opportunities f o r r e c r e a t i o n . These organiz-ations are sometimes a f f i l i a t e d with p r o v i n c i a l or national associations which seek to improve personnel and programme standards and to a s s i s t the branches i n developing a c t i v i t i e s adapted to l o c a l needs. P r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l services, however, have tended to develop unevenly, with the more pro-gressive programmes developing i n those pro-vinces with the greater economic resources and higher per c a p i t a incomes. Also, i t might be said that i n general m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have i n -adequate resources to provide the necessary services, i n part because of t h e i r l i m i t e d tax base. Grants from higher l e v e l s of government have tended to improve standards of serv i c e s , and i t i s anticipated that extended f e d e r a l aid under the Canada Assistance Plan w i l l do much to improve the adequacy of services across the country. Also, increased f e d e r a l aid under a.number of other f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l shared -cost programmes and the current emphasis on a multi-programme approach to the a l l e v i a t i o n of poverty w i l l have the general e f f e c t of r e -l i e v i n g many problems associated with lack of resources. Currently the demand f o r Regional D i s t r i c t s i n t h i s province i s a r e s u l t of such p r i o r i t i e s as h o s p i t a l s , water and f i r e protection,education and p o l l u t i o n . We beli e v e i t i s the duty of the volunteer r e c r e a t i p n i s t and concerned professionals everywhere i n B r i t i s h Columbia to make t h i s cause known, and the p r i o r i t y of recre a t i o n i n the Regional D i s t r i c t concept weill known. I t i s at t h i s time, the only workable arrangement to elevate the e f f o r t s of r e c r e a t i o n i s t s i n a l l r u r a l areas. 88 REFERENCES 1. Community Programmes Branch, A Guide To Recreation Commissions, Department of Education, ( V i c t o r i a , A. Sutton, P r i n t e r to the Queen's Most Exc e l l e n t Majesty i n the Right of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964), p. 13. 2. McDonald, David N., and Ramsay, Richard L,, Recreation In Penticton, A Community Survey. (Penticton: The South Okanagan Regional Planning Board, 1965), p. 48. 3. Houle, C y r i l 0., The E f f e c t i v e Board, New York, New York, A s s o c i a t i o n Press, 1960, p. 50. 4. Ramsay, Richard L., "Guidelines f o r Community S e l f -Surveys i n Recreation" (Vancouver: The Univer-s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967), pp. 1-15. (Mimeographed.) 5. Meyer, Harold D., and B r i g h t b i l l , Charles K., Recreation Administration, Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey, P r e n t i c e - H a l l Incorporated, 1961, p. 338.. 6. Meyer, Harold D., and B r i g h t b i l l , Charles K., Community Recreation, Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey, P r e n t i c e - H a l l Incorporated, 1956, pp.470-472. 7. Campbell, D., "Regional D i s t r i c t s " , ( V i c t o r i a : Text of a Speech by the M i n i s t e r of Municipal A f f a i r s , Government of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966), pp. 1-3. (Mimeographed.) 8. United Nations, Rural Government i n Canada, A Report, (New York: Department of Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , Prepared by the Government of Canada, 1967), pp. 13-51. 89 BIBLIOGRAPHY A.. BOOKS Carlson, Reynold E., Deppe, Theodore R., and MacLean, Janet R., Recreation i n American L i f e , Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a , Wadsworth Publishing Company Incorp-orated, 1963. Garrett, Annette, Interviewing. I t s P r i n c i p l e s and Methods, New York, Family Welfare Association of America, 1946. Harlow, James G. Selected Readings; Educational Administration. Boston, Edited by Hack, Ramseyer, Gephart and Heck. A l l y n and Bacon Incorporated, 1965. Houle, C y r i l 0. The E f f e c t i v e Board. New York, New York, Association Press, 1960. Kahn, Robert L., and Cannell, Charles F., The Dynamics of Interviewing, New York, John Wylie and Sons, 195 7. Katz, Robert C. " S k i l l s of an E f f e c t i v e Administrator" Harvard Business Review. January-February, 1955, V o l . 33 No.l. K e r l i n g e r , Fred N. Foundations of Behavioral Research. New York, Holt Rinehart and Winston Incorporated, 1966. Meyer, Harold D., and B r i g h t b i l l , Charles K., Community  Recreation. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey, Prentice-H a l l Incorporated, 1956. Meyer, Harold D., and B r i g h t b i l l , Charles K. Recreation  Administration. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey, P r e n t i c e - H a l l Incorporated, 1956. Mouly, George J . The Science of Educational Research. New York, American Book Company, 1963. 89 a P a r t i c i p a n t s i n a National Recreation Workshop, Recreation f o r Community L i v i n g , Chicago, The A t h l e t i c I n s t i t u t e , 1952. P f i f f n e r , John M., and Sherwood, Frank P. Adminis-t r a t i v e Organization. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey, P r e n t i c e - H a l l Incorporated. 1960. Scott, M. Gladys, Cureton, Thomas K., et a l . Research  Methods Applied to Health, Physical Education and  Recreation. Washington, American Association f o r Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 195 2. Shaw, Archibald B. Selected Readings: Educational Administration. Boston, Edited by Hack, Ramseyer, Gephart and Heck. A l l y n and Bacon, Incorporated, 1965. Shivers, Jay S. Leadership i n Recreation Service. New York, The MacMillan Company, 1963. Tenalsen, Anne T., Ferguson, Grace Beals, and Abrahamson, Arthur C. E s s e n t i a l s i n Interviewing. New York, Harper and Row Limited, 1962. Vannier, M. Methods and Materials i n Recreation Leadership. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Company, 1956. B. PUBLICATIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT, LEARNED SOCIETIES, AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS Boker, H.R., Larson, V.W., and Solomon, D.D. Key to  Community. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan: Centre f o r Community Studies, Vols. I-V, 1963. Community Programmes Branch, Department of Education. A Guide to Recreation Commissions. V i c t o r i a : Printed by A. Sutton, P r i n t e r to the Queen's Most Exc e l l e n t Majesty i n the Right of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964. 89b » Department of Education. "Community Programmes Branch". V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia: A. Sutton, P r i n t e r to the Queen's Most Exc e l l e n t Majesty, 1963. Great Lakes D i s t r i c t Programme Standards Committee. Evaluation of Community Recreation. New York, Research Department, National Recreation Assoc-i a t i o n , 1965. Kidd, B. A Model f o r a Recreation Programme. A Report Adopted by the Ontario Department of Education, Community Programmes Branch, 1967. * McDonald, David N., and Ramsay, Richard L., Recreation  In Penticton. A Community Survey. Penticton: The South Okanagan Regional Planning Board, 1965. P a r t i c i p a n t s i n a National Recreation Workshop, Recreation f o r Community L i v i n g . Guiding P r i n c i p l e s . Chicago: The A t h l e t i c I n s t i t u t e , 1952. United Nations. Rural Government i n Canada, A Report. New York: Department of Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , Prepared by the Government of Canada, 1967. C. ESSAYS AND ARTICLES IN COLLECTIONS Belshaw, C , C u l l i e , E., and C u r r i e , I., A Study  of Recreation i n North Vancouver. A Report Prepared by the Group Work D i v i s i o n , S o c i a l Planning Section, Community Chest and Council of Vancouver, 1956. Campbell, D. "Regional D i s t r i c t s " . V i c t o r i a : Text of a Speech by the M i n i s t e r of Municipal A f f a i r s , Government of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966. 89c D. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Bunn, John A. "Community Organization Process i n A Recreation Survey, Bellingham, Washington," A Study Conducted i n the C i t y of Bellingham. Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , The Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951. Farina, A l f r e d John 0., "Edmonton Community League." Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , The Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950. • Hopkins, John Thomas. "West Vancouver Recreation Survey, A Study i n Community Organization." Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , The Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950. Jones, G.V. "Leadership i n Recreation: A Study of the Impact of Leadership on the Recreation Programme i n the C i t y of Bellingham, Washington." Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , The Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 1950. Ramsay, Richard L. "Guidelines f o r Community S e l f -Survey. A Recreation Handbook f o r Small Com-munities." (Mimeographed Paper, Vancouver, The Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967.) E. NEWSPAPERS » 'JCommunity Planning i n B r i t i s h Columbia," V o l . VI, No. 1, February, 1966. Published by the B r i t i s h Columbia D i v i s i o n of the Community Planning Association of Canada, Vancouver. APPENDICES 91 APPENDIX A THE PERSONAL INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Commiss ion Name o f Commiss ion Member 1 . The Commiss ion - how many p e o p l e s e r v e on y o u r commiss ion? - what groups a n d / o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d on . i t ? - what a r e the v a r i o u s ages and sexes o f the members? - i s y o u r commiss ion w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d by a l l f a c e t s o f the community? - i s t h e r e a s e c t i o n o r g r o u p s o f p e o p l e who y o u would l i k e t o see r e p r e s e n t e d on the c o m m i s s i o n , and who p r e s e n t l y i s n ' t r e p r e s e n t e d on the commiss ion? 2 . How o f t e n does y o u r commiss ion meet? - what do y o u c o v e r and go o v e r i n a t y p i c a l meet ing? - c o n s i d e r the one t h a t was h e l d most r e c e n t l y ? - what do you r e c a l l was p r e s e n t e d o r c o v e r e d a t t h a t meet ing? 3 . What p r o c e d u r e do you f o l l o w a t y o u r mee t ings? - f o r m a l ? - i n f o r m a l ? - t o what e x t e n t i s t h e r e room f o r d i s c u s s i o n ? - how a r e f i n a l d e c i s i o n s a r r i v e d a t? - i n the e v e n t t h a t a new i d e a o r e v e n t i s i n t r o d u c e d , what p r o c e d u r e t a k e s p l a c e and how i s i t f i n a l l y d e c i d e d upon? ( e . g . a b o a t r a c e , o r a f i s h i n g d e r b y ? ) 4. What r e s o u r c e s does y o u r commiss ion use i n t h i s community f o r i t s r e c r e a t i o n programme? - s e r v i c e c l u b s ? - s c h o o l s ? - c h u r c h e s ? 92 5. T e l l me about your r e c r e a t i o n programme? - actual a c t i v i t i e s or events? - age groups served? (thinking i n terms of d e f i n i t e age groups - pre-schoolers; school-aged c h i l d r e n ; young teenagers; older teenagers; to twenty years of age; young si n g l e adults or young married adults; those married couples r a i s i n g young f a m i l i e s ; older persons, but not those contemplating r e t i r e -ment; p r e - r e t i r e d persons; r e t i r e d persons; and f i n a l l y , pensioners, senior c i t i z e n s or the aged?) 6. In terms of your programme content, are the needs of the people i n t h i s community considered? - how? - by survey? - by general f e e l i n g or word of mouth? 7. In terms of leadership, does your commission consider leadership a problem i n t h i s community? - what turn-over or changes i n the year-to-year pi c t u r e of your leaders i s experienced? - what i s the voluntary s i t u a t i o n here? - do you have any paid volunteers? - does the commission pay any g r a t u i t i e s or honor-ariums? - do you have any pr o f e s s i o n a l leadership available? - do you use, or has your commission considered, a Recreation D i r e c t o r , e i t h e r f u l l - t i m e or part-time, or shared with another neighbouring community? 8. Are you or the members of your commission f u l l y aware of your l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as members of t h i s r e c r e a t i o n commission? 9. What i s the commission doing presently? - what plans does your commission have f o r the future? - what would your commission l i k e to do - but can't  do, or i s unable to do? - and why not? - what i s the problem or the b a r r i e r that prevents t h i s from taking place? 1 0 . What would your commission do i f i t were to receive, and was compelled to spend, one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s ? 93 11. Reviewing the q u e s t i o n o f areas and f a c i l i t i e s , what o t h e r a r e a o r f a c i l i t i e s does your commission use f o r r e c r e a t i o n ? 12. Does your commission have a budget? - f o r m a l , and i s i t planned y e a r l y ? - what a p p r o x i m a t e l y , i s the y e a r l y revenue o r expen-d i t u r e o f your commission? - do you r e c e i v e government g r a n t s f o r r e c r e a t i o n ? - what i s the sum r e c e i v e d and how o f t e n ? - what o t h e r forms o f revenue does your commission e x p e r i e n c e ? - how are the e x p e n d i t u r e s o f your commission con-t r o l l e d ? - whose s i q n a t u r e ( s ) appear on commission cheques? 13. B r i e f l y , what parks do the members o f t h i s community u t i l i z e ? - town o r c i t y parks? - l o c a l , neighbourhood p a r k s , ( p l a y g r o u n d s ) ? - l a r g e r e g i o n a l parks? 14. Does your commission b e l o n g t o , o r are you aware o f what the B.C.R.A. i s ? 15. Does your commission have any d e f i n i t e w r i t t e n  p o l i c i e s t h a t i t f o l l o w s ? 16. Do you c a r e t o comment on the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the l i q u o r laws o f t h i s p r o v i n c e t o r e c r e a t i o n ? - how do t h e s e laws a f f e c t r e c r e a t i o n here? 17. Do you p e r s o n a l l y , o r does your commission have an o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the n a t u r a l s t a t e o f the p r o v i n c e ? 18. Do the people o f t h i s community, and your r e c r e a t i o n commission have a c c e s s t o , o r does i t sponsor, movies o f any s o r t ? 19. F i n a l l y , i s t h e r e a n y t h i n g t h a t we haven't c o v e r e d , bu t perhaps t h a t you would l i k e t o comment on? 94 APPENDIX B GUIDELINES USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE INTERVIEW SCHEDULE' Consideration of the elements to be analyzed was undertaken with the advice of a f a c u l t y member i n the School of Physical Education and Recreation at the Univer-s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and the following guidelines were used i n the construction of the Interview Schedule.* A. As r e l a t e d to aspects of the operation of the programmes of r e c r e a t i o n : Do Recreation Commissions i n d i c a t e a need f o r : i . Areas and f a c i l i t i e s ? i i . Leadership (voluntary, part-time, possibly f u l l - t i m e ) ? i i i . Appreciation of programme scope? B. As r e l a t e d to the way i n which the Commission con-ceives i t s r o l e i n the community and the degree to which i t has knowledge and understanding of i t s functions as a constituted body: i . Do the commissions in d i c a t e a need to formulate and determine policy? Considerable time was spent with Dr. Richard L. Ramsay, Associate Professor, School of Physical Education and Recreation, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n the con-s t r u c t i o n of the Interview Schedule. 95 i i . Do the Commissions indicate a need to nego-t i a t e with others agencies, public groups and pet i t i o n e r s ? i i i . Do the Commissions indicate a need f o r a know-ledge of l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the broad f i e l d of recreation? i v . Do the Commissions indicate a need to c o n t r o l budget and f i n a n c i a l plans? v. Do the Commissions indicate a need f o r pro-gramme appreciation i n the following areas: - knowledge of good programme character-i s t i c s ? - use of leaders? - operation and development of areas and f a c i l i t i e s ? - studies of community needs and int e r e s t s ? - public r e l a t i o n s ? Further more, two s p e c i f i c references were consulted to aid the in v e s t i g a t o r i n developing the Schedule. The f i r s t has i d e n t i f i e d c e r t a i n " i n e q u a l i t i e s " i n Recreation that may be used i n determining those aspects which can be re l a t e d to the e f f e c t i v e planning of community rec-r e a t i o n and i t s programmes. They are: 9 6 a. Opportunities f o r a l l b. Geographical areas c. Races and N a t i o n a l i t i e s d. Age c l a s s i f i c a t i o n e. Rural and urban l i f e f . Communities and neighborhoods g. The sexes h. Economic and s o c i a l s t r a t a i . Recreation i l l i t e r a c y -j • Knowledge about recr e a t i o n k. L e g i s l a t i v e enactments 1 . Adequate funds m. Seasonal approach n. Types of a c t i v i t i e s o. Areas and f a c i l i t i e s p. Leadership and t r a i n i n g q. Unity of i n t e r e s t s The other author * c i t e d several " P i t f a l l s i n Planning" that were used as reminders i n the construction of the Interview Schedule of what may be the case i n the Commissions selected i n t h i s study. The t y p i c a l p i t f a l l s are: i . The t r a d i t i o n a l approach i i . Current pra c t i c e s i i i . Expressed desires i v . Best guess. REFERENCES Meyer, Harold D„, and B r i g h t b i l l , Charles K., Community Recreation, Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey, Pr e n t i c e - H a l l Incorporated, 1956, pp. 68-75. Carlson, R.E., Deppe, T.R., and MacLean, R., Recreation  i n American L i f e , Belmont C a l i f o r n i a , Wadsworth Publishing Company Incorporated, 1963, pp. 91-94. APPENDIX e RECREATION COMMISSION CHECK LIST November, 1967. NAME OF RECREATION COMMISSION _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ NAME OF PERSON SUBMITTING QUESTIONNAIRE Please complete the following c h e c k l i s t on the basis that the selected answer i s the opinion of the Commission as an e n t i t y and not that of an i n d i v i d u a l whose opinion may d i f f e r from that of the Commission as a whole. C i r c l e the best answer. 1. Composition of the Recreation Commission. Is your Commission (the body c o n t r o l l i n g R'creation) s o l e l y a Recreation Commission, or i s i t combined with a Community Club - Municipal Council or other c i v i c body: A. Solely a Recreation Commission? B. Combined with another body or group? 2. How often does your Commission meet; A. Once per month r e g u l a r l y - winter and summer? B. Once per month i r r e g u l a r l y ? i . more often? i i . l e s s often? C. When required - not on a regular basis? 3. How many members are there on your Recreation Commission: A. 3 to 5? B. 6 to 8? C. more than 8? 4. Do a l l of these members attend meetings: A. Regularly? B. I r r e g u l a r l y ? 5. Age d i s t r i b u t i o n of members. (Please state age/or close approximation): A. Male - Youngest - Oldest B. Female - Youngest - Oldest 6. Does your Commission have a written c o n s t i t u t i o n that i t follows c l o s e l y ? A. Yes ' B„ Nco: 99 - 2 -7. What i s the primary resource of your Commission's a c t i v i t y : A. Hall? B. School? C. Church? D. Other?- explain 8. What i s the primary f a c i l i t y ? What i s the secondary f a c i l i t y ? (include parks, beaches, p l a y f i e l d s , etc.) 9. Does your Commission have a formal budget? A. Yes B. Nc 10. Does your Commission have a budget that i s planned yearly, and followed? A. Yes B. No 11. What i s your Commission's main source of revenue? 12. What are the main age groups that your Commission's a c t i v i t i e s serve: A. Pre-school children? B. Children to 12 years of age? C. Young teenagers? D. Older teenagers ( i . e . 15 to 19)? E. Young adults? F. Adults to 45 years of age? G. Adults 46 to 60 years of age? H. Adults over 60 years of age? 100 - 3 -13. Below you w i l l f i n d l i s t e d a v a r i e t y of recreation a c t i v i t i e s , a t h l e t i c and non-athletic. C i r c l e those a c t i v i t i e s which your "commission" takes an active part i n t h i s year, 1967-68. REGULARLY SCHEDULED COMMISSION ACTIVITIES A t h l e t i c Non-Athletic and Passive Badminton Baseball ( S o f t b a l l ) Basketball Bowling Gymnastics Hockey Fo o t b a l l Wrestling Tennis Archery R i f l e r y Golf Horseshoes Swimming-Aquatics V o l l e y b a l l Dance Judo Fitness Skiing Others Bingo Lapidary (Rock Hounding) Leather Crafts Ceramics Music Drama Horse and/or Pony Club - 4H Dog and/or Kennel Clubs F i e l d or Community Days Barbecues Socials Boating Car or Auto Clubs Film or Movie Clubs - Photography Other 14. What, i n the opinion of the Commission members, i s the biggest problem that your Commission i s facing i n carrying out i t s immediate or long-range plans? I f t h i s problem i s related to an extreme d i f f i c u l t y i n financing, attempt to explain simply, what the biggest problem i n financing i s . ( i . e . People of community are not w i l l i n g or able to provide support f o r your Commission's a c t i v i t i e s ) . 15. Is your Commission an ac t i v e member of the B r i t i s h Columbia Recreation Association (B.C.R.A.)? ( i . e . Have you paid your membership dues t h i s present year?) 101 - 4 -16. Does membership i n t h i s organization (B.C.R.A.) aid your Recreation Commission i n any way? Yes No If not, explain what you think the problem i s . If yes, i n what way - d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y ? 17. Do members of your community and/or your Commission attend functions, c l i n i c s , workshops, meetings, etc. sponsored by the B.C.R.A.? Yes No 18. S i m i l a r l y , do members of your Commission attend functions sponsored by the Community Programmes Branch? Yes No 19. Can you foresee, i n r e a l i s t i c terms, the establishment of a Regional D i s t r i c t i n your area that would include your community? Yes No 20. Do you think that a Regional D i s t r i c t w i l l aid your Recreation Programme? Yes No If so, i n what way? 102 21. Did your Recreation Commission receive any f i n a n c i a l a i d , d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , from a Centennial Grant? Yes No 22. What was your Centennial project? 23. Would or could your Recreation Commission u t i l i z e a Recreation Director? If so: A. Part-time? B. Full-time? C. Share a Recreation Director with another community? 24. Does your Commission own any l i a b i l i t y insurance, or does your c o n s t i t u t i o n , by-laws or the p o l i c i e s (written( provide immunity for the members of your Commission from l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s associated with any a c t i v i t y of the Commission or programme? 25. Is your community using, i n whole or i n part, the resources (buildings, grounds or personal help) of your D i s t r i c t School Unit? Yes No If so, to what extent? If not, why not? 26. Does your D i s t r i c t School Unit provide for any Adult Education courses that could be construed by persons attending as a Recreation A c t i v i t y ? Yes No - 6 -27. GENERAL COMMENTS. P l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o nake any comments o r s u g g e s t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e o r t o yo u r r e c r e a t i o n scene i n g e n e r a l . 103 The f o l l o w i n g i t e m s a r e n o t a p a r t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . However, t h e s e t o p i c s were mentioned so many t i n e s t h a t we would a p p r e c i a t e y o u r a d v i c e and comments, i f you f e e l t h a t t h e t o p i c s a f f e c t r e c r e a t i o n i n y o u r community. A. PROBLEMS RELATING TO LIQUOR LAWS AND THE CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL, ESPECIALLY IN PUBLIC PLACES. - B . THE EFFECTS ( i f any) ON CENTENNIAL GRANTS AND SPECIAL PROJECTS. DATE S i g n a t u r e o f Respondent o APPENDIX. D COMMISSION DISTRICT POPULATION NO. OF MEMBERS TYPE OF COMMISSION INCORPORATED YES NO PRIMARY ECONOMIC INFLUENCE SUBJECT: 1. Groups and Organizations Represented POSITION: 2. Age, Sex and Interests of Members Group or Association NOT Represented 4 . Frequency of Meetings 5. Procedure at Meetings Final Authority Held by: 7. Resources in Community Utilized a. Schools b. Service Clubs c. Churches Primary Facility Secondary 9a. Financial Status Budget Annual Budget and Expenditures 9b. Main Sources of Revenue Taxation 10. Legal Awareness of Member 11. Policies - Written - Followed 12. Needs of People Considered By: 13. Parks Situation a. Playgrounds b. City or Town c. Regional 14. The Programme Proper Athletic ii . Hobbies Dance Others 15. Age Groups Served Pre School i i . i i i . iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. Secon-Young Teen Post Early dary Middle Pre-6-12 Teens Agers Teens Adult Adult Aged Retired Retired DATE INTERVIEWED: 16. Leadership 17. Major Problem (as of this date) 18. Conservation Opinion 19. B.C.R. A. 20. Regional District a. Voluntary b. Part Time Professional c.Pro-Rec Director -Full Time 

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