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Effects of an endurance exercise program on cardiovascular variables of a group of middle-aged men Olafson, Gordon Albert Alexander 1966

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THE EFFECTS OF AN ENDURANCE EXERCISE PROGRAM ON CARDIOVASCULAR VARIABLES OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE-AGED MEN  by GORDON ALBERT ALEXANDER OLAFSON B.P.E. University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION  i n the School of PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming t o the required  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1966  standard:  In presenting this thesis in p a r t i a l  fulfilment  of  the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it available for reference and study.  freely  I further agree that per-  mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his  representatives.,  It  is understood that copying or p u b l i -  cation of t h i s , t h e s i s for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of School of Physical Education and Recreation The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date  / ? ,  ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was to evaluate the e f f e c t s of an endurance exercise program on a group of middle-aged men.  Ten subjects  were tested before and a f t e r seventeen weeks of endurance t r a i n i n g at The University of B r i t i s h Columbia using f i v e t e s t s , three of which were tests of cardiovascular condition. The tests used are as follows: 1.  Schneider Test Variables are:  l y i n g pulse r a t e , standing pulse r a t e , post-exercise  pulse r a t e , time f o r pulse rate to return to standing value, difference between pulse rate l y i n g to standing, and standing to post-exercise d i f f e r e n c e , l y i n g s y s t o l i c blood pressure,  standing  s y s t o l i c blood pressure, the difference between l y i n g and standing s y s t o l i c blood pressure and Schneider index score. 2.  Progressive Pulse Ratio Variables are:  recovery pulse counts f o r rates of 12,  18,  24,  30  and 36 steps per minute, average r a t i o and average angle. 3.  Pulse Pressure Wave.  (Brachial Sphygmograph)  Variables are: A.  Sitting area under the curve, s y s t o l i c amplitude, d i c r o t i c notch amplitude, fatigue r a t i o , d i a s t o l i c amplitude, rest-to-work o b l i q u i t y angle, s y s t o l i c time, d i a s t o l i c time, pulse r a t e , s y s t o l i c blood pressure, d i a s t o l i c blood pressure and pulse pressure.  ratio,  B.  Standing area under the curve, pulse r a t e , s y s t o l i c amplitude, difference between s i t t i n g and standing s y s t o l i c  C.  Post-Exercise systolic  4.  amplitude.  amplitude  Body Fat Measurements Variables are:  cheek f o l d , abdominal f o l d , hip f o l d , front thigh  f o l d , g l u t e a l f o l d , rear thigh f o l d , sum of a l l and 5.  average.  Body Weight Significant  changes at the .05 l e v e l of confidence occurred i n ten  variables of forty-four used i n t h i s study.  A s i g n i f i c a n t reduction  i n body f a t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence occurred i n the abdominal f o l d , front thigh f o l d , g l u t e a l f o l d , sum of a l l and average of a l l , though a reduction i n body weight was not s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence.  S i t t i n g pulse rate, s i t t i n g s y s t o l i c blood pressure,  standing airea under the curve and standing pulse rate of the Pulse Pressure Wave were s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence.  One  variable of the Schneider Test - time f o r the pulse to return to standing value - was  s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence.  s i g n i f i c a n t changes occurred i n the Progressive Pulse Ratio Test variables. Only three c o r r e l a t i o n c o - e f f i c i e n t s were of s u f f i c i e n t size to be considered s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from zero.  These were the  c o - e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n between attendance and average pulse r a t i o , front thigh f a t f o l d and rear thigh f a t f o l d .  No  Although only f i v e of t h i r t y - f i v e cardiovascular variables showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t improvements, the members of the group stated that t h e i r tolerance t o the stress of the endurance exercise program had improved.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  The writer wishes t o express his sincere appreciation t o his advisor, Dr. S.R. Brown, f o r h i s patient guidance, counsel, and invaluable assistance i n the research laboratory.  In addition, I  would l i k e t o express my thanks t o Dr. E.M. Banister who also a s s i s t e d i n the research laboratory.  To Dr. P. Mullins, Dr. N. Watt,  Dr. A. Cox, and Mr. R.F. Osborne, I would l i k e t o extend my appreciation f o r the suggestions and guidance they gave as my Committee.  F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o thank Dr. D. McKie f o r his  advice concerning the s t a t i s t i c a l treatment of t h i s  study.  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER  PAGE 1  I. THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE  11  III. METHODS AND PROCEDURES  29 34  IV. RESULTS  42  V. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS  52  VI. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  56  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES A. FITNESS DATA SHEET  67  B. DIRECTIONS FOR BASAL CONDITIONS  68  C. INSTRUCTIONS FOR SCHNEIDER TEST  69  D. SCHNEIDER SCORE SHEET  72  E. CONDENSED INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CAMERON HEARTOMETER . . . . . .  73  F. PERSONAL COMMUNICATION  75  G. SPECIFICATIONS FOR PROGRESSIVE PULSE RATIO TEST  77  H. INSTRUCTIONS FOR PLOTTING PROGRESSIVE PULSE RATIO  79  I. PULSE PRESSURE WAVE MEASUREMENTS  81  J. STATISTICAL TREATMENT  84  K. SCHNEIDER TEST VARIABLES - PRE-TRAINING RAW SCORES  89  L. SCHNEIDER TEST VARIABLES - POST-TRAINING RAW SCORES  90  M. PROGRESSIVE PULSE RATIO VARIABLES - PRE-TRAINING RAW SCORES  . 91  N. PROGRESSIVE PULSE RATIO VARIABLES - POST-TRAINING RAW SCORES . 92  APPENDICES 0.  •  BODY F A T MEASUREMENTS AND  P. BODY F A T MEASUREMENTS AND  PAGE  BODY WEIGHT - PRE-TRAINING BODY WEIGHT - POST-TRAINING  Q.  P U L S E PRESSURE WAVE V A R I A B L E S  - PRE-TRAINING  R.  P U L S E PRESSURE WAVE V A R I A B L E S  - POST-TRAINING  L I S T OF  RAW  RAW RAW  RAW  SCORES  95  . . .  96  FINAL  MEAN SCORES OF T H E P U L S E PRESSURE WAVE T E S T V A R I A B L E S  . . . .  T H E S I G N I F I C A N C E OF T H E D I F F E R E N C E BETWEEN I N I T I A L AND  FINAL  OF T H E BODY F A T V A R I A B L E S FINAL  MEAN SCORES FOR BODY WEIGHT  37  I V . T H E S I G N I F I C A N C E OF T H E D I F F E R E N C E BETWEEN I N I T I A L AND MEAN SCORES FOR  EACH  OF T H E PROGRESSIVE  PULSE RATIO  FINAL  TEST  VARIABLES  37  V . T H E S I G N I F I C A N C E OF T H E D I F F E R E N C E BETWEEN I N I T I A L AND MEAN SCORES FOR EACH OF T H E SCHNEIDER V I . C O - E F F I C I E N T S OF CORRELATION AND  34  36  T H E S I G N I F I C A N C E OF T H E D I F F E R E N C E BETWEEN I N I T I A L AND  L I S T OF  94  TABLES  MEAN SCORES FOR EACH III.  SCORES  93  . . . .  SCORES  I . T H E S I G N I F I C A N C E OF T H E D I F F E R E N C E BETWEEN I N I T I A L AND  II.  SCORES  FINAL  TEST VARIABLES  38  BETWEEN NUMBER OF ATTENDANCES  'IMPROVEMENT* SCORES  39  FIGURES  I . DIAGRAM OF P U L S E PRESSURE WAVE  81  CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Research on the work capacity of middle-aged men has shown that variables such as age, environment and work  conditions do affect the  level of fitness (1). With the average life-span steadily increasing, the problem confronting physical educators i s how to develop the desire for physical activity since as the average person becomes older, his desire to remain physically active lessens resulting i n a decreased physical work capacity (2). Though research indicates there i s a steady decline i n the physical work capacity of the sedentary middle-aged man, there i s evidence that the capacity to perform a task without undue fatigue can be elevated as a result of participation i n a physical exercise program (3,4)• The question remains as to the kind of exercise programs and the amount of exercise which are best suited to the »average* middle-aged man.  Medical authorities indicate that an exercise program should be  r e a l i s t i c a l l y adjusted to suit the physical condition of the subject. There i s also a problem of selecting a suitable test which w i l l best serve the purpose of evaluating the cardiovascular condition of the subject and w i l l thereby permit the investigator to select an appropriate program of exercise which w i l l result i n maximum cardiovascular improvement i n a minimum amount of time. Investigators are pursuing the question of whether or not exercise i s a prophylaxis against heart disease.  The question whether  or not physical exercise i s beneficial i n reducing the increasing  2 incidence of heart disease and whether or not exercise can be used i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of cardiac patients s t i l l remains unanswered. Physical education has a responsibility to investigate the effects of exercise upon the fitness of middle-aged men and to provide advice on the selection and use of suitable instruments for measuring cardiovascular fitness (5). The Schneider Test, the Progressive Pulse Ratio Test and the Pulse Pressure Wave Test have served as useful indicators of cardiovascular condition i n athletes and non-athletes. These parameters measure certain aspects of circulatory function during rest, exercise and following exercise and r e f l e c t the a b i l i t y of the cardiovascular system to adjust to postural changes and to progressively increasing workloads. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of an endurance exercise program on the cardiovascular fitness of university staff and faculty. THE PROBLEM Statement of Problem The  problem of t h i s study was t o determine the effects of  participation i n an endurance exercise program upon the cardiovascular fitness of a group of middle-aged men as measured by pulse rate, blood pressure and pulse pressure wave t e s t s . Hypothesis That the subjects taking part i n the endurance exercise program  3 w i l l show s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n cardiovascular f i t n e s s . Limitations 1.  V a r i a b l e s outside the t r a i n i n g and experimental environments could not be c o n t r o l l e d although the subjects were asked t o deviate as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e from t h e i r normal d a i l y regime.  2.  The e f f e c t s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l apprehension of the subject on t e s t r e s u l t s were non-controlled.  3.  The t e n subjects used i n t h i s study were F a c u l t y and S t a f f at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  , Assumptions 1.  Cardiovascular c o n d i t i o n i s an important f a c t o r i n the measurement of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and c e r t a i n aspects of i t can be measured by such e x t e r n a l l y monitored phenomena as pulse r a t e , blood pressure, and pulse waves.  2.  The pulse pressure wave as recorded by the Cameron Heartometer r e f l e c t s c e r t a i n hemodynamic phenomena which are capable of being modified by an endurance e x e r c i s e program.  3.  The Progressive Pulse R a t i o Test measures cardiovascular response t o work of a graded i n t e n s i t y through submaximal t o maximal.  4.  The Schneider Test i n d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t s the a c t i o n of the autonomic nervous mechanism i n response of p o s t u r a l changes and t o exercise of very b r i e f d u r a t i o n .  5.  D i u r n a l v a r i a t i o n i n c i r c u l a t o r y measurements was c o n t r o l l e d by t e s t i n g each subject at the same time of the day f o r a l l three t e s t s .  4 6.  Changes i n measurements were due primarily to changes i n cardiovascular fitness and were not due t o learning effects.  This  assumption appeared to be tenable as the tests were separated by considerable periods of time and were only performed twice. 7. The measurements made were a l l r e l i a b l e estimates of the subjects' true scores. Definitions 1. Cardiovascular condition: "both the heart and the blood vessels are muscular organs which are capable of contracting and relaxing i n ways which move the blood continuously around the body. The efficiency with which t h i s i s done i s called cardiovascular condition" (6). This i s also known as cardiovascular f i t n e s s , cardiorespiratory fitness or circulatory endurance. 2.  S i t t i n g Pulse Pressure Wave. A. Area under the curve - reflects somewhat the blood pumped per stroke of the heart and also the a r t e r i a l t o n i c i t y (7). B. Systolic Amplitude - indicates the magnitude of the heart contraction or systole (8). C. Dicrotic Notch Amplitude - indicates the d i a s t o l i c blood pressure which acts as a back pressure to close the semilunar valves.  I t reflects the cardiovascular tone of associated  arteries ( 9 ) . D.  Fatigue Ratio - reflects the relationship between the amplitude of  systole t o the amplitude of the d i c r o t i c notch.  A low  fatigue ratio i s associated with the lowering of the diastolic blood pressure, which may i n  some instances be associated with  apprehension or fear. A high fatigue ratio i s normally associated with good cardiovascular condition (10). E.  Angle of Obliquity - the larger angle i s associated with a slow, sluggish heart action. However, a slow rate i n older subjects may also result i n a larger angle due to a slowing of the heart rate with age.  A smaller angle denotes a fast and more efficient  systole (11). F.  Diastolic Pulse Wave Amplitude - indicates the phase of the cardiac cycle associated with the decline of the diastolic pressure  (12).  G. ^ Diastolic Surge - i s probably caused by reflected pressure wave from the active contraction of the aorta after the lowest point of the Dicrotic Notch.  It i s developed by active athletic  subjects (13). H. Time of Diastole - i s a measure of the time of the diastole after the closing of the semilunar valves (14). I.  Time of Systole - shorter systole i s generally associated with young subjects at rest, as contracted to a slow sluggish systole associated with the unfit (15).  J.  Rest to Work Ratio - i s a comparison of systolic time to diastolic time; the resultant ratio i f i t i s 4 to 1 i s indicative of a strong efficient cardiovascular system whereas a 1.21 to 1 ratio i s indicative of an untrained cardiovascular system (16).  6 3. Standing Pulse Pressure Wave. A. Area under the Curve - reflects the cardiovascular adjustment to postural change. The smaller the difference between the s i t t i n g and standing area under the curve, the better the adjustment (17). B. Systolic Amplitude - The smaller the difference between the s i t t i n g and standing systolic amplitudes, the better the adjustment (18). 4. Post-Exercise Pressure Pulse Wave. Systolic Amplitude - reflects the circulatory adjustment to a one minute run i n place at a frequency of one hundred and eighty steps per minute (19). 5. Pulse Rate - i s the regular rate of heart beat taken i n beats per minute from the pulse wave tracing or by a stethoscope (20).  There  i s a tendency f o r the pulse rate t o be lower i n subjects who are i n good physical condition (21). 6. Recovery Pulse Rate - The time for the heart rate to return to normal after exercise depends on the work load of the exercise period and on the physical condition of the subject.  In men i n good  physical condition recovery occurs more rapidly than i n fatigued or poorly trained subjects. 7. Pulse Ratio - i s the r a t i o of the quiet s i t t i n g pulse rate before exercise divided into the t o t a l pulse count for two minutes taken from ten seconds after the exercise.  The smaller the r a t i o at each  l e v e l of stepping, the more e f f i c i e n t i s the adjustment to the work task (23).  Justification of the Problem With the renewed interest of Canadians i n physical fitness, as exemplified by the establishment  of the Canada Fitness and Amateur  Sport Directorate, Health Spas, and Y.M.C.A. Health Clubs, the middle-aged man i s becoming aware of the need for and benefits of remaining physically fit.  In order to be successful, the university professor must develop  his mental capabilities to the fullest extent.  If he wishes to advance  himself within the academic community, he must concern himself with research, writing and publishing papers, but he often does l i t t l e to develop or maintain a sound, body. Because of his inactive l i f e , his body may rapidly deteriorate resulting i n poor circulation, nervous tension and. over-weight.  The professor thus becomes an office worker who i s  subject to a loss of physical fitness mainly due to a lack of physical exercise (24). Research indicates that daily training w i l l under normal circumstances improve the cardiovascular condition of the middle-aged man.  The  type of program offered w i l l determine the degree of improvement (25). Neuromuscular and psychological factors may, however, also determine and limit the  working capacity of the individual (26).  When the work  i s increased to exhaustion one gets a measure of the w i l l power of the subject and of the maximum a b i l i t y of the muscles to work under anaerobic conditions.  It i s a well-known fact that the trained athlete  displays a slower resting heart rate and has.greater a b i l i t y to sustain a given work task longer than the  non-athlete  (27).  Studies dealing  with the effects of aging have indicated that a decrease  i n work  capacity accompanies the onset and advancement of middler-age. Coronary heart disease and other r e l a t e d cardiac disorders have r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s i n g m o r t a l i t y r a t e i n recent years.  Investigations  i n d i c a t e t h a t there i s a probable r e l a t i o n s h i p between the incidence of coronary heart disease and of p h y s i c a l i n a c t i v i t y (28, 29, 30, 31).  It  seems, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o improvement i n general well-being and f u n c t i o n , r e g u l a r exercise may a l s o o f f e r important p r o p h y l a c t i c b e n e f i t s . ' Some i n d i r e c t evidence of the p o s s i b l e b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s of exercise on the myocardium and blood v e s s e l s may be provided  by  experimental proof of the changes i n cardiovascular c o n d i t i o n which can be produced by exercise programs.  I t i s a l s o important t o know the  most e f f i c i e n t and l e a s t time consuming methods of producing d e s i r a b l e e f f e c t s on the cardiovascular system since the great concern of busy p r o f e s s i o n a l men i s t o obtain maximum b e n e f i t s i n the s m a l l amount of time they can a f f o r d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n exercise programs. achievement of these ends would appear t o j u s t i f y continued  The research.  REFERENCES  9  1. Astrand, P.O., "Human Physical Fitness with Special Reference to Sex and Age", Physiological Reviews, vol. 36, no. 3, (July, 1956), pp. 307-335. 2. Fox, S.M., Skinner J.S., "Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health", The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 14, (December, 1964), p. 735. Raab, W., "Degenerative Heart Disease from Lack of Exercise", Exercise and Fitness, New York, The Athletic Institute, I960, pp. 1-9. 4.  Steinhaus, A.H., "Summary and Conclusions", Exercise and Fitness, New York, The Athletic Institute, I960, pp. 230-235.  5. Fox, Skinner, op. c i t . . p. 743• 6.  Cureton, T.K., "The Nature of Cardiovascular Condition i n Normal Humans (Part I ) " , Journal of the Association for Physical and Mental Rehabilitation, v o l . 11, (November-December, 1957)» pp. 186-196.  7.  Cureton, T.K., Physical Fitness Appraisal and Guidance, St. Louis, C.V. Mosby Co., 1947, pp. 235-236.  8.  Ibid , pp. 236-240.  9.  Ibid , pp. 240-243.  10.  Ibid , pp. 243-244.  11.  Ibid , p. 244.  12. Ibid , p. 247. 13.  Ibid , pp. 247-249.  14. Ibid , p. 249. 15.  Loc. c i t .  16.  Loc. c i t .  17.  Ibid., p. 235.  18. Massey, B.H., Husman, B.F., Kehoe, C.L. "The Effect of Posture on the Brachial Sphygmogram as an Indicator of Cardiovascular Condition", Research Quarterly, v o l . 24, no. 2, (May, 1953), pp. 194-204.  10 19.  Cureton, T.K., S t e r l i n g , L.F., "Factor Analyses of Cardiovascular Test Variables", The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, v o l . 4, no. 1, (March, 1964), p.7*  20.  Cureton, T.K., Physical Fitness Appraisal and Guidance, S t . Louis, C.V. Mosby Co., 1947, p. 244.  21.  Morehouse, L.E., M i l l e r , A.T., Physiology of Exercise. S t . Louis, C.V. Mosby Co., 1963, p. 101.  22.  I b i d . , p.  23.  Cureton, T.K., "The Nature of Cardiovascular Condition i n Normal Humans (Part 3)", The Journal of the Association f o r Physical and Mental R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , v o l . 12. (March-April. 1958).  104.  pp. 41-49.  24.  Cureton, T.K., "Preservation of the Middle-Aged Man", Journal of Physical Education, v o l . 52, no. 2, (November-December, 1954), p. 27.  25.  Cureton, T.K., "Physical Fitness Improvement of a Middle-Aged Man with B r i e f Reviews of Related Studies", Research Quarterly,  v o l . 23, no. 2, (May, 1952), pp. 149-160.  26.  Patterson, J.L., Graybiel, A., Lenhardt, H.F., and Madsen, M.J., "Evaluation and Prediction of Physical F i t n e s s , U t i l i z i n g Modified Apparatus of the Harvard Step Test", The American Journal of Cardiology, v o l . 14, (December, 1964), pp. 811-827.  27. Morehouse, M i l l e r , op. c i t . , p. 243* 28.  Montoye, H.J., "The Role of Exercise i n Preventive Medicine", The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical F i t n e s s , v o l . 2,  no. 4, (December, 1962), pp. 229-232.  29.  Cumming, 0., "The Heart and Physical Exercise", Journal of Canadian  Medical Association, v o l . 88, (June, 1963), pp. 80-85. 30.  Rechnitzer, P.A., luhasz, M.S., Pickard, H.A., Lefcoe, N.M., "The E f f e c t s of a Graduated Exercise Program on Patients with Previous Myocardial I n f a r c t i o n " , Journal of Canadian Medical Association, v o l . 92, ( A p r i l , I965), pp. 858-860.  31.  Morris, J . , Heady, J . , R a f f l e , P., Roberts, C , Parks, J . , "Coronary Heart Disease and Physical A c t i v i t y of Work", Lancet,  v o l . 2, (1953), PP. 1053, 1111.  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE Research on the middle-aged man and h i s response'to p h y s i c a l exercise i s somewhat obscured by  the d i f f i c u l t y of g i v i n g meaning t o  the term 'middle-age». Although most of the l i t e r a t u r e  arbitrarily  assumes middle-age t o begin at t h i r t y , G u i l d (1) defines "middle-age as beginning approximately three years a f t e r c o l l e g e " . There i s general agreement t h a t man's a b i l i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n hard endurance exercise i s l i m i t e d by h i s cardiovascular, r e s p i r a t o r y and neuromuscular performance ( 2 ) .  Although the l a t t e r must be  considered an i n t e g r a l part of the f i r s t two c r i t e r i a , the p h y s i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s of cardiovascular and r e s p i r a t o r y performance have received greater emphasis.  Associated w i t h t h i s research i s the problem of  whether or not the d e c l i n e i n cardiovascular f i t n e s s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o c h r o n o l o g i c a l or p h y s i o l o g i c a l age.  K n u t t i (3) considers  the  decrement t o be r e l a t e d t o changes i n l i v i n g habits and experiences encountered each day.  Brouha and Radford (4) attempt t o c l a r i f y the  problem by s t a t i n g , " i t should be c l e a r l y r e a l i z e d that chronological age i s not the r e a l f a c t o r but t h a t p h y s i o l o g i c a l age i s the one that i n f l u e n c e s the capacity f o r e x e r c i s e " .  At a recent symposium on the  heart and p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e , Dr. I . S t a r r (5)  pointed out t h a t :  When one considers the evidence concerning the e f f e c t of aging on v e l o c i t y and a c c e l e r a t i o n of cardiac performance, the conclusion i s i r r e s i s t i b l e that strength of heart d e c l i n e s as age advances. The heart tends t o l o s e the f i n e co-ordination of i t s c o n t r a c t i o n as age advances. No mention i s made as t o whether age i s p h y s i o l o g i c a l or  12 chronological although as Barry (6) points out, " B i o l o g i c a l aging i s the progressive l o s s of functional capacity of an organism a f t e r i t reaches reproductive  maturity".  Numerous investigations have studied the response of various groups to s p e c i f i c work tasks (7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13). indicate that  age  These studies  there i s a progressive decline i n the capacity t o adjust  t o d i f f e r e n t work tasks as age  increases.  A reduction i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s capacity f o r work as measured by the adjustment of the c i r c u l a t o r y system has been shown by Felzone and Shock (14) and has been supported by other experiments (15, 16,  17).  Larson (18) concluded that there i s a progressive and uniform r e t r o gression i n physical f i t n e s s with an increase i n chronological  age.  Decrements i n cardiovascular f i t n e s s have been shown to r e l a t e t o the onset of age as measured by progressive work task experiments. The components of cardiovascular f i t n e s s have been studied by several noted physical educators (19, 20, 21). S t e r l i n g (22)  More recently Cureton and  concluded that the pressure pulse wave, post-exercise  or  recovery pulse counts, and blood pressure measurements are important indices of cardiovascular f i t n e s s .  The authors point out that there  must be cautious i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these indices because " f u l l agreement cannot always be reached from either the p h y s i o l o g i c a l or psychological point of view"  (23).  The measurement of blood pressure - s y s t o l i c and d i a s t o l i c , has been used as an i n d i c a t o r of improved cardiovascular f i t n e s s f o r some time.  Cureton (24)  states that the u n f i t person usually has a r e s t i n g  13 s y s t o l i c blood pressure below 90 mm.  Hg. and over 160 mm.  a normal healthy man has a r e l a t i v e l y high  Hg. whereas  d i a s t o l i c blood pressure i n .  l y i n g , s i t t i n g and standing positions; both are f a i r l y good indicators of condition. Henry (25) studied t h i r t y male students before and a f t e r a season of competitive a t h l e t i c s and concluded that there was a s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n s y s t o l i c and d i a s t o l i c blood pressures.  Turner (26) found  that a high s y s t o l i c blood pressure i n association with a r e l a t i v e l y low d i a s t o l i c blood pressure r e s u l t s i n a wide pulse pressure which prevents c i r c u l a t o r y  stagnation i n the splanchnic region.  According to  Dawson (27) the s y s t o l i c blood pressure rose more r a p i d l y and much higher i n the trained than i n the untrained.  However, the author noted the  absence of any conspicuous or constant effect of t r a i n i n g upon s y s t o l i c and d i a s t o l i c pressures at l e a s t when exercise i s moderate as represented by h i s experiments.  Cogswell e t . a l . (28) noted an o v e r a l l decrease i n  both s y s t o l i c and d i a s t o l i c blood pressures as a r e s u l t of t r a i n i n g . Using adult i n d u s t r i a l workers Brouha (29) indicated that there was  a  decrease i n the pulse pressure as a r e s u l t of a diminished s y s t o l i c blood pressure or by an increase i n the d i a s t o l i c blood pressure or both. He further stated that when the blood pressure had returned t o the pre-exercise l e v e l , recovery was  complete.  The research study of Michael  and Gallon (30) reported decreased s y s t o l i c and d i a s t o l i c blood pressures as a r e s u l t of a four month t r a i n i n g program. Fraser and Chapman (31) contend that there i s agreement i n the research data that the s y s t o l i c blood pressure does increase but there  14 i s less agreement concerning the corresponding changes i n diastolic pressure. Christensen (32), Simonson and Enzer (33) report that the diastolic blood pressure either remains constant or increases slightly whereas Stevenson (34) found a reduction i n the diastolic pressure two, three and five minutes after cessation of exercise. However, "the physiological significance of pressure changes during recovery are poorly understood but undoubtedly complex" (35). Norris et a l (36) found that the systolic blood pressure levels were higher i n older subjects than i n young people while the diastolic blood pressure levels were similar.  Further, the older subjects  increased their systolic blood pressure levels more after exercise and returned more slowly to pre-exercise levels.  Only one conflicting point  of view negated the value of blood pressure as an indicator of circulatory adjustment to exercise (37). Post-exercise blood pressures "are much more indicative of real capacity than  the quiet blood pressures. • • they reflect the warm-up  capacity or adjustability to hard exercise" (3&).  A summary of research  related to blood pressure changes as a result of exercise i s presented by two authors (39, 40). The pulse pressure wave which has been standardized (41), reflects important aspects of circulatory condition (42). The systolic amplitude and diastolic amplitude of waves taken i n lying, sitting and standing positions have shown to be good measures of circulatory fitness (43). The changes i n the pulse pressure wave attributed to a  15 season of b a s k e t b a l l r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n s y s t o l i c amplitude, pulse wave area, and d i a s t o l i c surge (44)•  Cureton and Massey  (45) concluded t h a t the pulse pressure wave measurements of the area under t h e curve, s y s t o l i c amplitude, d i a s t o l i c amplitude and d i a s t o l i c surge increased with t r a i n i n g whereas a d e c l i n e i n the pulse wave area and d i a s t o l i c  surge p a r a l l e l s f a t i g u e .  A more recent study i n d i c a t e s  the area under the curve and s y s t o l i c amplitude r e f l e c t improved vascular f i t n e s s (46).  cardio-  An endurance program u t i l i z i n g middle-aged  men  r e s u l t e d i n an increase i n the areas of pulse wave, s y s t o l i c amplitude and  d i a s t o l i c amplitude (47).  Several other studies r e i n f o r c e this-  conclusion (48, 49, 50, 51, 52). Tarr (53), who u t i l i z e d the pulse pressure wave as a measure r e f l e c t i n g improved cardiovascular f i t n e s s concluded  t h a t f o u r measures:  i n t r a c k performance,  d i a s t o l i c surge, restr-to-work r a t i o ,  s y s t o l i c blood pressure, and pulse pressure, showed improvement.  A study  on middle-aged men who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a nine week endurance t r a i n i n g program, showed no s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n pulse pressure wave measurements (54) whereas the e f f e c t of c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g on pulse pressure wave measurements r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the area under the curve, s y s t o l i c amplitude, d i c r o t i c notch amplitude, d i a s t o l i c time, rest-to-work r a t i o , pulse r a t e s i t t i n g , standing s y s t o l i c amplitude and standing a r e a under the curve (5'5). Scott (56) studied the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  a twice-weekly t h i r t y minute ^ p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g c l a s s * on  improving cardiovascular c o n d i t i o n , and concluded t h a t improvement i n the area under the curve and rest-to-work r a t i o were s t a t i s t i c a l l y  16 significant. Pulse rate i s • . .the easiest and simplest way t o check c i r c u l o - r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s . . . i t does not represent, however, a complete t e s t of c i r c u l o - r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s but the pulse i s the easiest to measure and i s the most r e l i a b l e of the p h y s i o l o g i c a l variables which r e f l e c t the i n t e r n a l b o d i l y e f f i c i e n c y i n response t o exercise (56). Taylor (57) concurs by stating "the heart rate problem should be evoked upon as a s e n s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r of the trend f o r adaptation to the  exercise".  The quiet s i t t i n g pulse rate i s a useful index as an i n d i c a t o r of c i r c u l a t o r y adjustment, when interpreted before and a f t e r an program.  exercise  Changes i n pulse rate a t t r i b u t e d to a l t e r a t i o n of posture, which  assumes that any external influences upon heart rate are minimal, has also been used as an i n d i c a t o r of improved cardiovascular f i t n e s s . A reduction i n the t o t a l beats per minute r e f l e c t s improved f i t n e s s . As Rodahl points  (58)  out,  When a person i s undergoing physical t r a i n i n g h i s pulse rate declines as h i s state of t r a i n i n g and f i t n e s s improves. What t h i s a c t u a l l y means i s that a f i t person can do a given amount of work without having to increase his heart rate as much as an u n f i t person. Heart rate increases between ten and sixteen beats, a t t r i b u t e d to changes i n posture, are i n d i c a t i v e of good c i r c u l a t o r y adjustment  (59).  Heart rate i s d i r e c t l y affected by c i r c u l a t o r y changes such as d i s s i p a t i o n of heat and the supply of oxygen t o the muscles, and i s therefore considered as an index of the fatigue r e s u l t i n g from muscular activity  (60).  As a predictor of c i r c u l a t o r y adjustment during submaximal work, pulse rate has been thoroughly investigated.  Rowell et a l (61) point  17 out the l i m i t a t i o n of the capacity t o perform acreobic work i s dependent upon the combined capacity of the r e s p i r a t o r y and cardiovascular systems t o t r a n s f e r oxygen t o the working muscles.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p  between heart rate and oxygen consumption has been thoroughly investigated  (62, 63, 64, 65, 66). The decline of the r e s t i n g pulse rate as a r e s u l t of a t r a i n i n g program has been investigated on a number of occasions.  A l l results  indicate a slower post-exercise pulse rate as being i n d i c a t i v e of improved c i r c u l a t o r y f i t n e s s (67, 68, 69, 70, 71). Pulse rate recovery a f t e r a s p e c i f i c work task has been studied by many workers i n an attempt t o r e l a t e the increase i n pulse rate during exercise and the time taken f o r i t t o return to, r e s t i n g l e v e l s . When the t o t a l pulse recovery i s lower a f t e r an exercise program than that recorded p r i o r t o the t r a i n i n g program, the subject w i l l be able t o withstand the stress of the work task f o r a longer period of time.  Cureton  and S t e r l i n g (72), Morehouse and Tuttle (73), Michael and Gallon (74), Cureton and P h i l l i p s (75), Durnin et a l (76) a l l i n d i c a t e that the higher the recovery pulse count, usually over a two minute period, the poorer the adjustment t o that work task.  Rodahl (77) reinforces t h i s  point by s t a t i n g that "the person who has the lowest pulse rate at a given work load i s the f i t t e s t person".  Maxfield and Brouha (78) conclude  that . . . f o r the i n d i v i d u a l the higher the pulse rate, the more slowly i t returns t o i t s r e s t i n g l e v e l . Likewise, f o r a s p e c i f i c work load, the better the physical condition of the i n d i v i d u a l the smaller the increase i n heart rate and the more rapid the return t o i t s r e s t i n g value.  18 The authors (79) i n another study'confirmed the v a l i d i t y of heart rate as an i n d i c a t o r of the p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t r a i n induced by work.  Rechnitzer  et a l (80) noted that the recovery pulse counts of four male cardiac patients was lower a f t e r a t r a i n i n g program than the recovery pulse of normal adults.?iln another study, non-athletes  had higher recovery  rates  than athletes as a r e s u l t of standardized work (81). In order t o determine the various working capacities i n a group of i n d i v i d u a l s , various working i n t e n s i t i e s must be employed. work loads increase, the discrepancies w i l l be accentuated.  As the  Pulse rate  i s roughly l i n e a r t o the work load but as the work rate and work load become exhausting, as usually indicated by a heart rate of 170-200, the work load i s said t o be maximal (82, 83, 84, 85). Other studies indicate the following:  the athlete i s able t o sustain a given work load  at a much slower pulse rate (86); the pulse rate of middle-aged men at any given work task can be reduced by t r a i n i n g (87); and the exercise pulse rate w i l l gradually increase with the speed of the work.  The speed  of increase a l s o a f f e c t s the speed at which the pulse rate returned t o normal (88). Several investigators have studied the r e l a t i o n s h i p between chronological age and pulse r a t e .  S h e f f i e l d (89) noted a steady decline  i n heart rate with an increase i n age, but also stated that the general e f f e c t of p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g i s t o decrease the heart rate although the maximum rate possible i s not m a t e r i a l l y affected, rather the e f f o r t required t o produce i t i s increased.  Norris, Shock and Yiengst (90)  further emphasize that a f t e r exercise the heart rate increased more and  19 reached post-exercise levels later i n older subjects than i n younger subjects.  Further evidence emphasizes that as man becomes older his  pulse rate recovery to a specific work task i s slower than that of a younger person (91, 92). The test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y of the pulse pressure wave has been studied by Willet (93), and Cureton (94), who concluded that when the testing was conducted on two consecutive days, the following r e l i a b i l i t y values were obtained: Measure  Willet  Diastolic Pulse Wave Amplitude Systolic Pulse Waye Amplitude Obliquity Angle Area of a Single Cycle Diastolic Surge Work to Rest Ratio Pulse Pressure Pulse Rate Systolic Blood Pressure Dicrotic Notch Amplitude Diastolic Blood Pressure Meeland (95) determined  .818 .818 .757 .811 .783 .719 .818 .928 .808 .755 .764  Cureton  .768 .909 .788 .864 .878 .640 .794 .996 .765 .823 .794  the test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y to be very satisfactory  when the heartometer i s used by a trained operator.  Cureton (96) outlines  a number of r e l i a b i l i t y studies which have been conducted on the pulse pressure wave at the University of I l l i n o i s . A r e l i a b i l i t y study of the pulse ratio test conducted by Henry and Farmer (97) did not resolve any conclusive results, whereas a study by Cureton (98) indicated the step test to be a reliable test with co-efficients of r e l i a b i l i t y between .87 and .95. McCurdy and Larson (99) made a careful study of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the Schneider Index and found acceptable r e l i a b i l i t i e s for blood pressure  20 measurements.  The s y s t o l i c blood pressure r e l i a b i l i t y ranged from  .718 t o .952.  McFarland and Huddleson (100) reported the r e l i a b i l i t y  of the Schneider Index as .89 which was considerably better f o r the separate items constituting the Index:  l y i n g pulse (.79), standing  pulse (.71), post-exercise pulse (.58), l y i n g s y s t o l i c blood pressure (.63), and standing s y s t o l i c blood pressure (.51).  Studies conducted on  the r e l i a b i l i t y of the Schneider Index on over 800 u n i v e r s i t y students indicated the following r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r the t e s t items Item Pulse Rate Lying Pulse Rate Standing Pulse Rate Lying t o Standing Pulse Rate, After 15" Exercise Pulse Rate Change, Standing t o Post-exercise Time f o r Pulse t o Recuperate t o Standing Rate Lying S y s t o l i c Blood Pressure Standing S y s t o l i c Blood Pressure  (101):  Reliability .79 .91 .70 .60 .58 .80 .85 .82  Morehouse and Tuttle (102) demonstrated that the r e l i a b i l i t y of the pulse rate a f t e r exercise was better when the exercise was r e l a t i v e l y more strenuous. Steps  20 30 40 50  Reliability  .070 .205 .720 .781  21 REFERENCES 1.  Guild, W.R., "Fitness for Adults", The Journal of Sports Medicine" and Physical Fitness, vol. 3 , no. 2-3, (June-September, 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 1 0 1 .  2.  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Cureton, T.K., "Relationship of Physical Fitness t o A t h l e t i c Performance and Sports", Journal of the American Medical Association, v o l . 162, (November, 1956), pp. 1139-1151•  50.  Cureton, T.K., "What the Heartometer Measures that i s of Special Interest and Importance t o Physical Educators and Physical Fitness Directors", Physical Education Today, v o l . 7, (March, i960), pp. 10-14.  51.  Cureton, T.K., "Rating Cardiovascular Condition by the Heartometer Pulse Wave Tests", Physical Fitness Appraisal and Guidance, St. Louis, C.V. Mosby Co., 1947, pp. 232-280.  52.  Cureton, T.K., "The Nature of Cardiovascular Condition i n Normal. Humans", (Part 4), op. c i t . , pp. 113-114.  53.  l a r r , A.D., "The Relationship of Brachial Pulse Wave Measurements to the Performance of Cross Country Runners", Unpublished Master»s Thesis, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963.  25 54.  Olenick, N.F.E., "The Effects of Endurance Training Upon Brachial Pulse Wave and Heart Rate Measurements of a Group of MiddleAged Men", Unpublished Master»s Thesis, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965.  55*  Simmons, R., "The E f f e c t of C i r c u i t Training Upon Cardiovascular Condition and Motor Performance", Unpublished Master»s Thesis, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965.  56.  Cureton, T.K., Physical Fitness Appraisal and Guidance, St. Louis, C.V. Mosby Co., 1947, p. 162.  57.  Taylor, C , "Some Properties of Maximal and Submaximal Exercise with Reference to Physiological V a r i a t i o n and the Measurement of Exercise Tolerance", The American Journal of Physiology, v o l . 142, (August-December, 1944), p. 210.  58.  Rodahl, K., "International Aspects of Comparative F i t n e s s " , Proceedings and Research Papers, Saskatoon, Canadian Association f o r Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 1963, p. 29.  59*  Cureton, T.K.,  60.  LeBlanc, J.A., "Use of Heart Rate as an Index of Work Output", Journal of Applied Physiology, v o l . 10, no. 2, (1957), pp. 275-280.  61.  Rowell, L.B., Taylor, H.L., Wang, Y., " l i m i t a t i o n s of P r e d i c t i o n of Maximal Oxygen Intake", Journal of Applied Physiology,  op. c i t . , p.  166.  v o l . 19, no. 5, (1964), p. 919. 62.  Astrand, P.O., Ryhming, I . , "A Nomogram f o r Calculation of Aerobic Capacity (Physical Fitness) From Pulse Rate During Submaximal Work", Journal of Applied Physiology, v o l . 7, (July-May, 1954-1955), pp. 218-221.  63.  Rowell et a l , op. c i t . , p.  64.  Andersen, K.L., Hermansen, L., "Aerobic Work Capacity i n Middle-Aged Norwegian Men", Journal of Applied Physiology, v o l . 20, no. 3,  921.  (1965), pp. 432-436. 65.  Hermansen, L., Andersen, K., "Aerobic Work Capacity i n Young Norwegian Men and Women", Journal of Applied Physiology, v o l . 20,  (1965), pp. 425-431. 66.  Nagle, F.J., Bedecki, T.G., "Use of the 180 Heart Rate Response as a Measure of C r i t i c a l Respiratory Capacity", Research Quarterly, v o l . 34, no. 3, (October, 1963), pp. 361-369.  26 67.  Michael, E.D., Gallon, A.J., "Periodic Changes i n the C i r c u l a t i o n During A t h l e t i c Training.as Reflected by a Step Testy Research Quarterly, v o l . 30, no. 3, (October, 1959), p. 3H«  68.  Henry, op. c i t . , p.  69.  Cogswell, Henderson, Berryman, op. c i t . , p.  70.  Dawson, op. c i t . , p.  71.  Henderson, Y., Haggard, H.W., Dolley, F.S., "The E f f i c i e n c y of the Heart and the Significance of Rapid and Slow Pulse Rates", American Journal of Physiology, v o l . 82, (September-November, 1927),  40. 428.  460.  pp. 512-529. 72.  Cureton, T.K., S t e r l i n g , L.F., "Factor Analysis of Cardiovascular Test Variables", The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical F i t n e s s , v o l . 4, no. 1, (March, 1964), p. 7.  73.  Morehouse, L.E., T u t t l e , W.W., "A Study of the Post-Exercise Heart Rate", Research Quarterly, v o l . 13, no. 1, (March, 1942), pp. 1-9.  74.  Michael, Gallon, op. c i t . , pp. 303-311.  75.  Cureton, P h i l l i p s , op. c i t . , p.  76.  Durnin, J.V.G.A., Brockway, J.M., Whitcher, H.W., " E f f e c t s of a Short Period of Training of Varying Severity on Some Measurements of Physical F i t n e s s " , Journal of Applied Physiology, v o l . 15,  89.  no. 1, (I960), pp. 161-lIf.  77.  Rodahl, op. c i t . , p. 29.  78.  Maxfield, M.E., Brouha, L., " V a l i d i t y of Heart Rate as an Indicator of Cardiac S t r a i n " , Journal of Applied Physiology, v o l . 18,  (1963), p. 1102. 79.  Brouha, L., Maxfield, M.E., Smith, P.E., Stopps, G.T., "Discrepancy Between Heart Rate and Oxygen Consumption ^uring Work i n the Warmth", Journal of Applied Physiology, v o l . 18, (1965),  pp. 1095-1098.  80.  Rechnitzer, P.A., Yuhasz, M.S., Pickard, H.A., Lefcoe, N.M., "The E f f e c t s of a Graduated Exercise Program on Patients With Previous Myocardial I n f a r c t i o n " , Journal of Canadian Medical Association, v o l . 92, ( A p r i l , 1965j, pp. 858-860.  81.  Faulkner, J.A., " E f f e c t of Cardiac Conditioning on the Anticipatory, Exercise and Recovery Heart Rates of Young Men", The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical F i t n e s s , v o l . 4, no. 2, (June, 1964), pp. 79-86. '  27 82.  Wahlund, H., "Determination of the Physical Working Capacity"^ Acta Medica Scandinavica, Supplementum. v o l . 215, (1948), p. 51.  83.  B i e r r i n g , E., Larson, K., Nielson, E., "Some Cases of Slow Pulse Associated with Electrocardiographic Changes i n Cardiac Patients a f t e r Maximal Work on the Krogh Ergometer", American Heart Journal, v o l . 11, (1936), p. 416.  84.  Schneider, E.C., "A Study of Responses To Work Oij a B i c y c l e Ergometer", American Journal of Physiology, v o l . 97, ( A p r i l - J u l y , 1931), pp. 353-364.  85.  Van Lingen, B. Seaward, P.D., Odendaal, W.A., "Work Speed as a Measure of an Equivalent Exercise Stress i n Subjects of Different Weights", C i r c u l a t i o n , v o l . 32, no. 6, (December, 1965), pp. 940-947.  86.  Cumming, op. c i t . , p.  87.  Waxman, W.W., "Physical Fitness Developments f o r Adults i n the I.M.C.A.", Exercise and F i t n e s s , New York, The A t h l e t i c  82.  Institute, I960, pp. 183-192.  88.  Le Blanc, op. c i t . , p.  279.  89.  S h e f f i e l d , L.T., Holt, J.H., Reeves, T.J., "Exercise Graded by Heart Rate i n Electrocardiographic Testing f o r Angina Pectoris", C i r c u l a t i o n , v o l . 32, no. 4, (October, 1965), pp. 622-629.  90.  N o r r i s , Shock, Yiengst, op. c i t . . p.  91.  Davies, C.T.M., H a r r i s , E.A., "Heart Rate During T r a n s i t i o n from Rest to Exercise i n Relation to Exercise Tolerance", Journal of Applied Physiology, v o l . 19, no. 5, (1964), pp. 857-862.  92.  Skinner, J.S., Holloszy, J.O., Cureton, T.K., " E f f e c t s of a Program of Endurance Exercises on Physical Work", The American Journal of Cardiology, v o l . 14, (December, 1964), pp. 747-753.  93*  W i l l e t , A.E., " P r e d i c t i o n of Treadmill Running from Heartometer Measurements", Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , 1949.  94.  Cureton, T.K., Physical Fitness Appraisal and Guidance, S t . Louis, C.V. Mosby Co., 1947, p. 268.  95.  Meeland, T., "Technical Accuracy of the Heartometer", Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , 1947.  523.  28 96.  Cureton, op. c i t . . pp. 2 5 0 - 2 5 9 .  97.  Henry, F.M., Farmer, D., "Functional Tests I I : ' The R e l i a b i l i t y of the Pulse Ratio Test", Research Quarterly, v o l . 9 , no. 2 , (May,  1938),  pp.  81-87.  98.  Cureton, T.K., Huffman, W.J., Welser, L., K i r e i l i s , R.W., Latham, D.E., Endurance of Young Men. Washington, D.C., Society for-Research i n Child Development, National Research Council, 1 9 4 5 , p. 1 9 3 *  99.  McCurdy, J.H., Larson, L.A., "The R e l i a b i l i t y and O b j e c t i v i t y ofBlood Pressure Measurements", Research Quarterly Supplement, vol.  100.  6,  (May,  1 9 3 5 ) , pp.  3-28.  McFarland, R.A., Huddleson, J.H., "Neurocirculatory Reactions i n the Psychoneuroses Studied by the Schneider Method", American Journal of Psychiatry, v o l . 9 3 , (November, 1 9 3 6 ) , PP.  567-599.  101.  Cureton, et a l , op. c i t . , p. 2 1 4 .  102.  Morehouse, T u t t l e , l o c . c i t .  CHAPTER III METHODS AND PROCEDURES Subjects Ten male subjects who voluntarily participated i n the Physical Fitness Program for Middle-Aged Men at The University of British Columbia were chosen on the basis of regular attendance i n the previous year s f  program. The age range was from twenty-seven to fifty-one years. A l l subjects were employed i n a professional capacity either as a Faculty or a Staff member. Training Program In September, 1964, a mimeographed brochure (1) was sent to a l l Faculty and Staff members acquainting them with the fitness program which became operational i n November, 1964.  The sessions were conducted  each day Monday through Friday from 12:30 P.M. to 1:30 P.M.,  excepting  university holidays, i n the New Education Gymnasium until April 2,  1965.  The i n i t i a l sessions of the fitness program were generally informal and consisted of a warm-up period of approximately fifteen minutes during which time general calisthenics involving the use of ropes, medicine balls, benches, walking and f l e x i b i l i t y exercises were combined i n a non-stop rhythmical manner. As the general level of fitness improved, the emphasis was placed on endurance running i n the gymnasium for a maximum of thirty minutes.  Cross country running was emphasized i n the  spring when weather permitted going outside.  One session, usually on  Wednesday, was devoted to circuit training i n the Memorial Gymnasium. At the conclusion of the thirty minute endurance exercise period, the  30 members of the fitness class participated i n a game of v o l l e y b a l l for up to t h i r t y minutes after which  the hour was concluded with a shower.  Each session was conducted alternately by two members of the School of Physical Education Research Staff assisted by two graduate students. The attendance r o l l was kept as e f f i c i e n t l y as possible, although there can be no guarantee of absolute accuracy, since the class members themselves were sometimes responsible for checking the attendance l i s t . Attendances were totalled f o r each subject and these totals were correlated with the improvement scores f o r each variable.  The purpose  of this procedure was to determine whether or not attendance was related to improvements i n f i t n e s s . Testing Procedures 1.  Pre-training Tests Each subject was tested individually and the measurements were recorded on the subject's fitness data sheet (see Appendix A). The subject arrived at the Fitness Laboratory according to a pre-arranged time, i n a near basal state (see Appendix B), changed into his gymnasium dress and then rested f o r t h i r t y minutes.  After  the rest period, the Schneider Test was administered (see Appendix C) and recorded (see Appendix D). The subject was then tested with the Cameron Heartometer - the pulse pressure wave t e s t .  The pressure cuff was applied over the  l e f t brachial artery and the subject remained quiet s i t t i n g f o r three minutes, after which the tracings were completed s i t t i n g , standing  31 and after one minute run-in-place according to the directions outlined by the Cameron Heartometer Corporation (2) and by T.K. Cureton (3).  One notable exception to the directions was  used (see Appendices E and F). At the conclusion of the Pulse Pressure Wave Test, the subject»s body fatimeasurements and weight were recorded as outlined by Cureton (4). The Progressive Pulse Ratio Test was completed at a pre-arranged time one week later as per the enclosed directions (see Appendix G). The Schneider Test and the Pulse Pressure Wave Test were conducted between 7:00 A.M. and 9:30 A.M., whereas the Progressive Pulse Ratio Test was administered at a convenient pre-arranged time. 2. Post-training The test times were identical for each subject on q,n tests. The same test procedures were followed as previously outlined. The fitness program, from pre-training to post-training, lasted seventeen weeks• Measurements The variables of the Pressure Pulse Wave were measured according to the directions as outlined i n Cureton (5). Calculations for the Schneider Test are outlined i n Appendix C. The plotting of the Progressive Pulse Ratio Test was completed as outlined i n Appendix H. Analysis of Data The data collected from the three tests were analyzed on the  32 basis of a non-random, dependent sample as described by Ferguson (6). The s t a t i s t i c a l method used was the »Difference Method*. Garrett (7) states " . . . when groups are small the difference method i s often to be preferred. . . ." This method determines the significance of the mean of the differences between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l performances. The statistical treatment as outlined i n Ferguson (8) was applied to each of the variables comprising the Schneider Test, Progressive Pulse Ratio Test, Pulse Pressure Wave Test, body fat measurements and body weight. A one-tailed test with an arbitrarily chosen (.05) level of confidence was used.  The t value for nine degrees of freedom was 1.833,  i f the t observed was greater than or equal to the table value of t , the result was considered significant. A table was prepared showing co-efficients of correlation between improvements and the number of attendances for each s ubject.  33 REFERENCES 1.  Brown, S.R., "The Physical Fitness Program f o r Middle-Aged Men at The University of B r i t i s h Columbia", Unpublished Program Outline, School of Physical Education and Recreation, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964.  2.  Cameron, A.S., and Cameron, W.J., V i s u a l and Graphic Methods of Cardiovascular Diagnosis, Chicago, The Cameron Heartometer Corp., 1954, pp. 5-7.  3.  Cureton, T.K., Physical Fitness Appraisal and Guidance, S t . Louis,  C. V. Mosby Co., 1947, pp. 266-267. 4.  Ibid., p. 144.  5. Cureton, op. c i t . , pp. 235-250 6. 7.  Ferguson, G.A., S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis i n Psychology and Education, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1959, p. 138. Garrett, H.E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education. New York, D. MacKay Co., 1962, pp. 227-228.  8. Ferguson, op. c i t . . pp. 138-139.  CHAPTER IV RESULTS Ten male subjects, a l l Faculty and Staff members at The University of British Columbia, participated i n a seventeen week endurance exercise program. Pre-training and post-training cardiovascular tests included the Schneider Test, the Progressive Pulse Ratio Test, and the Pulse Pressure Wave Test. Body fat and body weight were also measured. The results of the study are summarized i n Tables I, I I , III, IV, V, VI under the headings of Pulse Pressure Wave Test, Body Fat, Body Weight, Progressive Pulse Ratio Test, Schneider Test, and Co-efficients of Correlation Between Number of Attendances and Improvement Scores.  Using individual pre-training and post-training  raw scores for a l l variables, the group means were calculated and tested for the significance of the difference using a one-tailed test with a five per cent level of confidence (t*=  1.833).  The  correlation  co-efficients were tested for significance using a one-tailed test at the .05 level of confidence (v = .558).  TABLE  I  THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INITIAL AND FINAL MEAN SCORES FOR EACH OF THE PULSE PRESSURE WAVE TEST VARIABLES Variable Sitting Area Under the Curve  X  X I  0.314  F  0.361  d  t  0.047  1.153 (cont'd)  X  I  X  F  d  t  Sitting Rest to Work Ratio  2.786  2.797  0.011  0.030  Sitting Systolic Time  0.275  0.276  -0.001  0.046  0.728  0.721  -0.007  0.165  0.698  0.773  0.075  1.105  0.6?8  0.675  -0.003  0.047  0.733  0.818  O.O85  I.46I  22.290  22.080  -0.210  0.258  59.800  55.600  -4.200  2.436*  1.048  1.211  O.I63  1.322  116.400  112.300  -4.100  2.088*  75.500  69.300  -6.200  1.550  44.800  43.000  -1.800  O.678  0.295  O.356  0.061  2.397*  66.800  61.800  -5.000  2.677*  1.044  1.097  0.053  Sitting Diastolic Time Sitting Dicrotic Notch Amplitude Sitting Fatigue Ratio Sitting Diastolic Amplitude Sitting Obliquity Angle Sitting Pulse Rate Sitting Systolic Amplitude Sitting Systolic Blood Pressure Sitting Diastolic Blood Pressure Sitting Pulse Pressure Standing Area Under the Curve Standing Pulse Rate Standing Systolic Amplitude  0.669 (cont'd)  36 X  X  I  t  F  Difference Between Systolic Amplitude Sitting and Standing  0,108  0.152  0.044  1.128  Post-Exercise Systolic Amplitude  1.331  1.391  0.060  0.475  * Significant at the .05 level Table I indicates significant changes occurred i n sitting pulse rate (t = 2.436), sitting systolic blood pressure (t = 2.088), standing area under the curve (t = 2.397)» and standing pulse rate (t = 2.677) at the five per cent level of confidence.  TABLE II THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INITIAL AND FINAL MEAN SCORES FOR EACH OF THE BODY FAT VARIABLES Variable  Xp  d'  t  9.600  10.000  0.400  0.768  Abdominal Fold  14.700  12.650  -2.050  1.836*  Hip Fold  17.100  14.650  -2.450  1.114  Front Thigh Fold  13.200  9.800  -3.400  3.285*  Rear Thigh Fold  10.500  8.050  -2.450  1.307  Gluteal Fold  21.400  16.750  -4.650  4.131*  Sum of A l l  86.500  72.050  -14.450  2.883*  Average of A l l  14.416  12.031  -2.385  2.836*  Cheek Fold  X  I  * Significant at the .05 level  Table II indicates significant changes occurred i n abdominal fold (t = 1.836), front thigh fold (t = 3-285), gluteal fold (t = 4.131), sum of a l l (t = 2.883) and the average of a l l (t = 2.836) at the five per cent level of confidence.  TABLE III THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INITIAL AND FINAL MEAN SCORES FOR BODY WEIGHT Variable Body Weight  Xj  d  168.625  168.375  -0.250  t 0.172  Table III indicates the mean body weight of the group decreased 0.250 pounds. The mean difference was not significant at the five per cent level of confidence.  TABLE IV THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INITIAL AND FINAL MEAN SCORES FOR EACH OF THE PROGRESSIVE PULSE RATIO TEST VARIABLES Variable  I  I I  d  t  F  Total Recovery Pulse Counts 12 Steps  134.000  135.800  1.800  0.327  144.600  I4I.9OO  -2.700  0.567  151.700  156.800  5.100  0.896  Total Recovery JPvO_2€ Counts  18 Steps Total Recovery Pulse Counts 24 Steps  (cont'd)  38  K  K  -I  Total Recovery Pulse Counts 30 Steps  t  d  F  175.200  176.600  1.400  0.209  211.200  203.600  -7.600  1.011  Average Ratio  2.503  2.511  0.008  0.127  Average Angle  39-350  39.350  0  0  Total' Recovery Pulse Counts 36 Steps  Table I? indicates that no significant changes occurred at the five per cent level of confidence i n any of the recovery pulse counts for 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 steps per minute. No significant change occurred  i n the average ratio and the average angle at the five per  cent level of confidence. TABLE V THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INITIAL AND FINAL MEAN SCORES FOR EACH OF THE SCHNEIDER TEST VARIABLES Variable  X  X I  Index Score  d  t  F  16.500  16.400  0.100  0.015  115.300  112.300  -3.000  1.686  117.500  -1.400  0.51?  6.600  -1.000  0.457  14.000  -1.400  0.399  Lying Systolic Blood Pressure  Standing Systolic Blood Pressure 118.900 Difference Between Lying and Standing Systolic Blood Pressure 7.600 Difference i n Pulse Rate Standing Immediately Following Exercise  15.400  (cont'd)  39  X  d  t  I  X,,  7.000  11.100  4.100  78.000  54.000  -24.000  2.058*  Exercise Pulse Rate  80.000  79.400  -0.600  0.156  Standing Pulse Rate  64.600  66.200  1.600  0.529  L y i n g Pulse Rate  57.200  55.200  -2.000  0.736  Difference i n Pulse Rate Lying t o Standing Time f o r Pulse t o Return t o Standing Value  F  T  1.011  Immediate Post-  * S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l Table V i n d i c a t e s only one v a r i a b l e , time f o r pulse t o r e t u r n t o standing value ( t = 2.058), was s i g n i f i c a n t a t the f i v e per cent l e v e l of confidence. TABLE  VI  CO-EFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION BETWEEN NUMBER OF ATTENDANCES AND 'IMPROVEMENT' SCORES Variable  Correlation with Attendance  Schneider Index Test Index Score  Difference Between Lying and Standing S y s t o l i c Blood Pressure Standing S y s t o l i c Blood Pressure  Variable  Correlation with Attendance  Progressive Pulse R a t i o Test +0.007  +0.383  +0.131  T o t a l Recovery Pulse Counts 18 Steps  +0.238  T o t a l Recovery Pulse Counts 18 Steps  -0.254  T o t a l Recovery Pulse Counts 24 Steps  -0.234 (cont'd)  40 Correlation with Attendance Lying S y s t o l i c Blood Pressure  Correlation with Attendance  -0.131  Total Recovery Pulse Counts 30 Steps  -0.270  Difference i n Pulse Rate Lying t o Standing +0.383  Total Recovery Pulse Counts 36 Steps  +0.186  Average Ratio  -0.639*  Average Angle  -0.351  Difference i n Pulse Rate Standing Immediately Following Exercise Time f o r Pulse t o Return t o Standing  Value  -0.203  -0.201  Body Fat Measurements Immediate PostExercise Pulse Rate  -0.197  Standing Pulse Rate  +0.028  Lying Pulse Rate  +0.129  Body Weight  -0.151  Cheek Fold  -0.330  Abdominal Fold  -0.305  Hip Fold  +0.637*  Front Thigh Fold  +0.631*  Rear Thigh Fold  -0.047  Gluteal Fold  -0.041  Sum of A l l  -0.412  Average of A l l  -0.421  (cont'd)  Variable  --  Correlation with Attendance  Pulse Pressure Wave Test S i t t i n g Area Under Curve  -0.189  S i t t i n g Rest/Work Ratio  +0.312  S i t t i n g S y s t o l i c Time  -0.425  S i t t i n g D i a s t o l i c Time  +0.216  S i t t i n g D i c r o t i c Notch Amplitude  -0.001  S i t t i n g Fatigue Ratio  -0.247  S i t t i n g D i a s t o l i c Amplitude  -0.059  S i t t i n g Angle of Obliquity  -0.435  S i t t i n g Pulse Rate  -0.437  S i t t i n g S y s t o l i c Blood Pressure  +0.158  S i t t i n g D i a s t o l i c Blood Pressure  -0.221  S i t t i n g Pulse Pressure  +0.395  S i t t i n g S y s t o l i c Amplitude  +0.213  Standing Area Under Curve  +0.206  Standing Pulse Rate  +0.024  Standing S y s t o l i c Amplitude  +0.261  Difference Between S y s t o l i c Amplitude S i t t i n g and Standing  -0.099  Post-Exercise S y s t o l i c Amplitude  +0.147  * S i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l Table VI indicates only three variables, average r a t i o (0.639)> hip f o l d (0.637) and front thigh f o l d (0.631) s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e per cent l e v e l of confidence.  CHAPTER V  DISCUSSION OF RESULTS  S i g n i f i c a n t improvements were made i n only ten variables of f o r t y - f o u r used i n t h i s study.  S i g n i f i c a n t changes at the f i v e per cent  l e v e l of confidence (t =  were observed i n the following body f a t  1.833)  measurements: abdominal f o l d , front thigh f o l d , g l u t e a l f o l d , sum of a l l and average of a l l .  Four variables of the Pulse Pressure Wave Test  were s i g n i f i c a n t , namely, s i t t i n g pulse r a t e , s i t t i n g s y s t o l i c blood pressure, standing area under the curve and standing pulse r a t e .  One  v a r i a b l e , time f o r the pulse t o return t o standing value, of the Schneider Test was s i g n i f i c a n t . For each t e s t v a r i a b l e , only the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the difference was  tested between the pre-training and post-training t e s t s .  No  analysis of i n d i v i d u a l improvement i s considered f o r each t e s t v a r i a b l e . No s p e c i f i c r e l i a b i l i t y t e s t s were carried out i n t h i s study. Previous investigators have found a l l variables t o be quite r e l i a b l e and i t was assumed they were r e l i a b l e i n t h i s study. Subcutaneous f a t was reduced as a r e s u l t of the exercise program. Rechnitzer ( 1 ) has shown a s i g n i f i c a n t reduction i n body f a t i n cardiac patients as a r e s u l t of physical exercise.  S i m i l a r l y a reduction i n  body f a t was found t o be associated with a hard t r a i n i n g program ( 2 ) . Though changes i n f i v e variables of body f a t were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , body weight did decline but t h i s was not s i g n i f i c a n t at the . 0 5 l e v e l of confidence.  Brozek ( 3 ) and others have found that  physical t r a i n i n g does reduce body weight.  Since f a t free weight and  43 lean body mass were not determined, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to construct any logical conclusion as to the reason why the changes i n body weight did not parallel the changes i n the body fat measurements. Research has shown that a slower post-exercise rate i s indicative of improved circulatory fitness (4, 5). When the heart rate i s reduced "a f i t person can do a given amount of work without having to increase his heart rate as much as an unfit person" (6). With training there i s a small but consistent reduction i n the resting heart rate (7). The postural change of the body as reflected by a small increase i n the heart rate sitting to standing may be interpreted as a favorable circulatory adjustment.  Several studies indicate that the trained  person's heart rate from sitting to standing i s lower than the untrained. An increase of ten to sixteen beats per minute reflects a good circulatory adjustment (8). However, Morehouse and Millar point out " i t s value a3 a component of physical fitness i s very doubtful" (9). A resting systolic blood pressure below 9© mm. Hg. and over 160 mm. Hg. may be associated with an unfit person (10). A significant reduction i n the systolic blood pressure as a result of training has been noted i n a number of experiments (11, 12). to note that the lying  However, i t i s interesting  systolic blood pressure of the Schneider Test  was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant at the .05 level of confidence, whereas the sitting systolic blood pressure of the Pulse Pressure Wave Test was significant.  No explanation can be advanced for this  difference. A s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant increase i n the standing area under the curve of .063 square centimetres was obtained.  According to Cureton  and S t e r l i n g (13)  the standing area of the pulse wave has a f a c t o r  loading of .62 associated with the component blood e j e c t i o n v e l o c i t y proportional to the pulse wave.  The authors have also noted "...that  some large waves are associated with a slow pulse r a t e . . . . " (14)•  The  f a c t that the standing pulse rate showed a s i g n i f i c a n t decrease at the .05  l e v e l may  have some bearing upon the increase of the standing  under the curve being s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05  l e v e l of  area  confidence.  The adaptation of the body to the performance of a s p e c i f i c work load i s dependent somewhat upon the i n d i v i d u a l ' s state of t r a i n i n g . The  changes observed i n the performance of a cardiovascular t e s t must  bear some r e l a t i o n s h i p to the type of t r a i n i n g program used and i s i n d i c a t i v e of the e f f e c t of the s p e c i f i c type of t r a i n i n g upon cardiovascular f i t n e s s .  I f t h i s premise i s correct, the f a c t that only f i v e  of t h i r t y - s i x cardiovascular variables improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y , leads to the conclusion that the program was  i n s u f f i c i e n t to produce a general  improvement i n cardiovascular condition. by  the subjects was  The frequency of p a r t i c i p a t i o n  neither uniform nor consistent and t h i s may  have  played a decisive r o l e i n producing the small number of s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t cardiovascular variables (15)•  Rodahl (16)  points  out:  I t does not take more than a couple of half-hour t r a i n i n g sessions a week...to m a t e r i a l l y improve the maximal work capacity within a month....the exercise must be s u f f i c i e n t l y intense to increase the heart rate to more than 130 beats per minute. Experience has shown that when t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t y i s l e s s vigorous than that, no improvement i n physical work capacity occurs. The p o s s i b i l i t y that the t r a i n i n g program did not produce the of exercise heart rate of 130  stimulus  beats per minute or more with s u f f i c i e n t  45 frequency may have been the important factor i n producing a large number of non-significant results i n the cardiovascular variables. A greater degree of improvement might have been possible had the subjects participated on a more regular basis.  To substantiate  t h i s point of view, the average attendance of the group was  1.74  sessions per week which represents i n t o t a l approximately thirty-nine per cent actual attendance of the possible t o t a l attendance. There may be a variety of reasons why the subjects did not come but there was  no  single overriding reason why the subjects came infrequently. The recovery pulse rate parallels the intensity of the work task (17).  Rowell states  (18):  . . .the emotional state of the subject . . . the degree of physical conditioning, elapsed time after the previous meal, t o t a l circulating hemoglobin, the degree of hydration of the subject, alterations i n the ambient temperature, and hydro-statically induced changes resulting from prolonged erect posture . . . w i l l affect the performance of an individual during a submaximal work task.  With the possible exception of t h i r t y - s i x steps per minute,  which may be assumed to approach a maximal work task, the tests used were submaximal and according to Rowell subject to the aforementioned factors.  However, only the emotional factor and the degree of physical  training can be considered as possible factors affecting this study. Astrand and Ryhming (19)  suggest that:  When testing circulatory-respiratory fitness a type of work must be chosen which engages large groups of muscles and the l e v e l of work must be r e l a t i v e l y high. The duration of the work must be long enough to permit the adjustment of circulation and v e n t i l a t i o n to the l e v e l of exercise usually requiring f i v e to s i x minutes. Hypothetically, then, the tests u t i l i z e d were not d i f f i c u l t enough nor  46 long enough t o permit the subject t o a t t a i n a 'steady s t a t e which i s 1  noted as a pulse rate between 125 and 170 beats per minute (20).  Wahlund  (21) suggests that a number of work tasks of increasing i n t e n s i t y should be incorporated i n the determination of the p h y s i c a l work capacity of the i n d i v i d u a l .  These discrepancies between i n d i v i d u a l members of a  group w i l l be accentuated when  work tasks are increased.  As pointed  out e a r l i e r , the actual working time employed i n a test i s often too short f o r r e l i a b l e determinations  of submaximal work capacity.  Andersen  (22) substantiates t h i s by s t a t i n g : The duration of the exercise at submaximal rates should be 8-10 minutes, the r e s p i r a t o r y and c i r c u l a t o r y measurements being taken during the l a s t minutes, a f t e r the subject has reached a "steady s t a t e " . The emotional state of the subject may, as pointed out by Hickam (23), "have a profound effect on the c i r c u l a t i o n causing changes i n the heart r a t e " .  This point of view i s substantiated by Brouha and  Radford (24) and Henderson (25).  Faulkner (26) adds support t o t h i s  premise by s t a t i n g : Human subjects respond t o an unknown minimal work i n t e n s i t y with an increased heart rate i n a n t i c i p a t i o n and an overshoot i n heart rate during the i n i t i a l stages to adjustment t o exercise. On the basis of t h i s opinion, the i n i t i a l pulse r a t i o s could have been affected by the subject's pulse rate r i s i n g r a p i d l y p r i o r t o and during the lower work loads thereby causing succeeding pulse r a t i o s at the higher work rates to be d i s t o r t e d . Morehouse and Tuttle (27) state that the pulse r a t i o t e s t i s subject t o c e r t a i n problems:  The r e l i a b i l i t y of the pulse rate f o r two minutes a f t e r exercise i s d i r e c t l y related to the strenuousness of the exercise. Thus, i f the response of the heart i s to be measured, the exercise must be strenuous enough ( 4 0 - 5 0 steps/minute) to overshadow environmental stimuli which a f f e c t the pulse rate a f t e r l i g h t exercise ( 2 0 - 3 0 steps/minute) to such an extent that successive readings are u n r e l i a b l e . There was  some considerable v a r i a t i o n i n the number of  attendanced made by the subjects, i . e . attendances ranged from 1 7 to 4 5 with a median of 3 0 . 5 .  I t was  considered possible,  therefore,  that the number of attendances might have had a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p the amount of change made by i n d i v i d u a l subjects between t e s t s . assumption was  tested by c o r r e l a t i n g attendance with the  between test one and t e s t two correlation c o - e f f i c i e n t was  scores.  to  This  differences  The hypothesis that  the  s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from zero  was  tested i n each instance by the conventional s t a t i s t i c a l method using a one-tailed  t e s t at the  It was  . 0 5 l e v e l of confidence.  apparent that a ' d i r e c t ' r e l a t i o n s h i p between attendance  and improvement would, i n some instances, produce a c o r r e l a t i o n with a negative sign and i n other instances a c o r r e l a t i o n with a p o s i t i v e This was  taken i n t o account when applying the one-tailed  sign.  t e s t to each  correlation co-efficient. Only three c o r r e l a t i o n c o - e f f i c i e n t s were of s u f f i c i e n t s i z e to be considered s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from zero.  These were the  c o - e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n between attendance and average pulse r a t i o (0.639),  front  thigh f a t f o l d (O.63I) and rear thigh f a t f o l d  With the exception of the average pulse r a t i o , none of the  (0.637).  correlations  between the cardiovascular variables and attendance approached  significance.  The values of  these c o - e f f i c i e n t s ranged from 0.001  to 0.637 with a median of 0.240. 'The remaining s i x of the eight correlations between f a t measurements and attendance ranged from 0.042 to 0.421, with a median value of 0.306.  There was no  r e l a t i o n s h i p between l o s s of body weight and number of attendances by the  subjects. I t i s apparent that i n d i v i d u a l differences i n improvement of  cardiovascular condition were not related to attendance.  It i s  obvious, therefore, that f a i l u r e to show s i g n i f i c a n t differences between mean scores of the majority of variables cannot be attributed to a high v a r i a b i l i t y i n the attendance record of the group of ten subjects. seems reasonable, therefore, that any search f o r possible  It  explanations  why the majority of variables d i d not show s i g n i f i c a n t mean improvements must be directed elsewhere.  There are several other possible reasons:  the submaximal t e s t s may have not been s u f f i c i e n t l y r e l i a b l e t o y i e l d stable r e s u l t s ; the subjects on the whole may not have participated s u f f i c i e n t l y frequently nor i n t e n s i v e l y i n order to make adequate improvements i n cardiovascular condition; the variables may not have been s u f f i c i e n t l y s e n s i t i v e to show the changes which d i d occur as a r e s u l t of the subjects' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the exercise program.  49 REFERENCES 1.  Rechnitzer, P.A., luhasz, M.S., Pickard, H.A., Lefcoe, N.M., "The Effects of a Graduated Exercise Program on Patients with Previous Myocardial Infarction", Journal of Canadian Medical Association, vol. 92, (April, 1965), pp. 858-860.  2.  Cureton, T.K., "The Value of Hard Endurance Exercises and Tests to Produce Changes i n Weight, Fat, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Condition", Vigor, v o l . 11, no. 4, (September, 1958), pp.1-6.  3.  Brozek, J., "Changes of Body Composition i n Man During Maturity and Their Nutritional Implications", Proceedings of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, vol. 11, (1952), p. 704.  4.  Michael, E.D., Gallon, A.J., "Periodic Changes i n Circulation During Athletic Training As Reflected by a Step Test", Research Quarterly, vol. 30, no. 3, (October, 1959), P« 3H«  5.  Henry, F.M., "Influence of Athletic Training oh the Resting Cardiovascular System", Research Quarterly, vol. 25, no. 1, (March, 1954), pp. 28-41.  6. Rodahl, K., "International Aspects of Comparative Fitness", Proceedings and Research Papers. Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, 1963, p. 29. 7.  Morehouse, L.E., Miller, A.T., Physiology of Exercise, St. Louis, C.V. Mosby Co., 1963, p. 260.  8. Cureton, T.K., Physical Fitness Appraisal and Guidance, St. Louis, C.V. Mosby Co., 1947, p. 166. 9. Morehouse, Miller, op. c i t . , p. 102. 10. 11.  12.  Cureton, T.K., Physical Fitness Appraisal and Guidance, St. Louis, C.V. Mosby Co., 1947, pp. 199-201. Cogswell, R.C, Henderson, CP., Berryman, G.H., "Some Observations of the Effects of Training on Pulse Rate, Blood Pressure and Endurance i n Humans Using the Step Test (Harvard), Treadmill and Electrodynamic Brake Bicycle Ergometer", American Journal of Physiology, vol. 146, (1946), pp. 422-430. Yarr, A.D., "The Relationship of Brachial Pulse Wave Measurements to the Performance of Cross Country Runners", Unpublished Master's Thesis, The University of British Columbia, 1963.  50 13.  Cureton, T.K., Sterling, L.F., "Factor Analyses of Cardiovascular Test Variables", The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, v o l . 4, no. 1, (March, 1964), p. 4.  14.  Ibid., p. 18.  15.  Morehouse, Miller, op. c i t . . pp. 102-104.  16.  Rodahl, op. c i t . , p. 30.  17.  Morehouse, L.E., Tuttle, W.W., "A Study of the Post-Exercise Heart Rate", Research Quarterly, vol. 13, no. 1, (March, 1942), pp. 3-9.  18.  Rowell, L.B., Taylor, H.L., Wang, Y., "Limitations to Prediction of Maximal Oxygen Intake", Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 19, no. 5, (1964), p. 920.  19.  Astrand, P.O., Ryhming, I., "A Nomogram for Calculation of Aerobic Capacity (Physical Fitness) from Pulse Rate During Submaximal Work", Journal of Applied Physiology, v o l . 7, (September, 1954), p. 221.  20.  Loc. c i t . , p. 221.  21.  Wahlund, H., "Determination of the Physical Working Capacity", Acta Medica Scandinavica. Supplementurn, v o l . 215, (1948), p. 16.  22.  Andersen, K.L., "Measurement of Work Capacity", The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, v o l . 4, no. 4, (December, 1964), pp. 236-240.  23.  Hickam, J.B., Cargill, W.H., Golden, A., "Cardiovascular Reactions to Emotional Stimuli Effect on the Cardiac Output, Arteriovenous Oxygen Difference, Arterial Pressure and Peripheral Resistance", Journal of Clinical Investigation, v o l . 27, (1948), p. 296.  24.  Brouha, L., Radford, E.P., "The Cardiovascular System i n Muscular Activity", Science and Medicine of Exercise and Sports, edited by W.R. Johnson, New York, Harper and Brothers, I960, p. 187.  25.  Henderson, Y., Haggard, H.W., Dolley, F.S., "The Efficiency of the Heart and the Significance of Rapid and Slow Pulse Rates", American Journal of Physiology, vol. 82, (September-November, 1927), p. 514.  51  26.  Faulkner, J.A., "Effect of Cardiac Conditioning on the Anticipatory Exercise and Recovery Heart Rates of Young Men", The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, vol. 4, no. 2, (June, 1964), p. 83.  27.  Morehouse, Tuttie, op. c i t . , p. 8.  CHAPTER VI SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  Summary The purpose of t h i s study was t o evaluate the e f f e c t s of an endurance exercise program upon cardiovascular variables of a group of middle-aged men.  Ten subjects, a l l f a c u l t y and s t a f f members of the  university, participated v o l u n t a r i l y i n the Physical Fitness Program f o r Middle-Aged Men at The University of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Each subject was  tested before and a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a seventeen week program. The p r e - t r a i n i n g and post-training t e s t environments and test procedures were standardized f o r a l l subjects.  A basal condition  i n s t r u c t i o n sheet (see Appendix B) was sent to a l l subjects. The tests were conducted according t o the enclosed appendices and based upon previous i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . Each subject arrived at the Fitness Laboratory i n a near basal state, changed i n t o h i s gymnasium dress and then rested f o r t h i r t y minutes.  The Schneider Test was administered f i r s t a f t e r the t h i r t y  minute rest followed by the Pulse Pressure Wave Test.  Tracings were  completed i n the s i t t i n g , standing and a f t e r one minute run-in-place. At the conclusion of the pulse wave t e s t , the subject's body f a t measurements and weight xirere recorded.  The Progressive Pulse Ratio Test was completed  on a second occasion one week l a t e r . The pre-training - post-training raw scores f o r a l l variables were analyzed on the basis of the significance of the difference between group mean scores using a .05 l e v e l of confidence.  The following  variables were tested: (1)  Schneider Test Variables are:  lying pulse rate, standing pulse rate, post-exercise  pulse rate, time for pulse to return to standing value, difference between pulse rate lying to standing, and standing to post-exercise difference, lying and standing systolic blood pressure and the difference between systolic blood pressure lying and standing. (2)  Progressive Pulse Ratio Variables:  recovery pulse counts for rates of 12, 18, 24, 30 and  36 steps per minute, average ratio and average angle. (3) Pulse Pressure Wave (Brachial Sphygmograph) Variables are: A.  Sitting area under curve, systolic amplitude dicrotic notch amplitude, fatigue ratio, diastolic amplitude, rest to work ratio, obliquity angle, systolic time, diastolic time, pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure.  B.  Standing area under curve, pulse rate, systolic amplitude, difference between sitting and standing systolic amplitude.  C.  Post Exercise systolic amplitude  (4)  Body Fat Measurements Variables are:  cheek fold, abdominal fold, hip fold, front thigh  fold, gluteal fold, rear thigh fold, sum of a l l , and average.  54 (5)  Body Weight The results of this study show the following: the mean bodyfat measurements - abdominal fold, front thigh fold, gluteal fold, sum of a l l and average of a l l - decreased at the .05 level of confidence. Significant changes at the .05 level of confidence were observed  i n four of eighteen variables of the Pulse Pressure Wave Test. The variables were sitting pulse rate, sitting systolic blood pressure, standing area under the curve and standing pulse rate.  Only one variable  of the Schneider Test - time for pulse to return to standing value - was significant at the .05 level of confidence. Ho significant changes were observed at the .05 level on any of the seven variables of the Progressive Pulse Ratio Test. Improvement scores for a l l variables were correlated with the number of attendances made by the subjects. Only three variables - average pulse ratio, front thigh fat fold, rear thigh fat fold - had co-efficients of correlation with attendance which were sufficiently large to be considered s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant from zero. Conclusions The results of the study show the exercise program was capable of producing reduction i n fat measurements without concomitant loss of body weight but that there were few significant mean improvements i n the cardiovascular measurements used. The significant mean improvements were almost exclusively i n those variables measuring resting heart rate. The failure to show significant mean improvements i n the majority  55 of cardiovascular measurements was not related, t o the v a r i a b i l i t y i n •frequency of attendance of the i n d i v i d u a l subjects.  I t seems l i k e l y ,  therefore, that the f a i l u r e to show s i g n i f i c a n t mean improvements i n cardiovascular condition was due to one or more of the following reasons:  the subimximal t e s t s may not have been s u f f i c i e n t l y r e l i a b l e ;  the subjects as a group may not have participated s u f f i c i e n t l y frequently or i n t e n s i v e l y ; the variables may not have been s u f f i c i e n t l y sensitive to r e f l e c t the changes which did occur as a r e s u l t of the exercise program. Recommendations The following recommendations seem j u s t i f i e d on the basis of the r e s u l t s obtained i n t h i s study. middle-aged men  Future studies involving the use of  should incorporate the following points i n the o v e r a l l  design of the study, namely:  a control group, the case study approach,  the use of non-parametric s t a t i s t i c a l analysis, thorough medical examination f o r each subject p r i o r t o engaging i n the study, t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y check of the measuring instruments and an accurate record of compulsory attendance f o r a l l subjects.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Adolph, E.F., "Some Physiological Regulations Illustrated i n Exercise", Science and Medicine of Exercise and Sports, edited by W.R. Johnson, New York, Harper and Brothers, I960, pp. 67-79. Balke, B., "Circulo-Respiratory Responses to Physical Work", Performance Capacity - a Symposium. Chicago, Advisory Board on Quartermaster Research and Development, Department of the Army, February, 1961, pp. 13-19Balke, B., "Physiological Background for the Assessment, Evaluation and Classification of Physical Fitness", Proceedings and Research Papers, Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, June, 1963, pp. 5-14. Bortz, E.L., "Exercise, Fitness and Aging", Exercise and Fitness, Chicago, The Athletic Institute, I960, pp. 1-9. Brouha, L., Radford, E.P., "The Cardiovascular System i n Muscular Activity", Science and Medicine of Exercise and Sports, edited by W.R. Johnson, New York, Harper and Brothers, I960, pp. 178-206. Cameron, A.S., Cameron, W.J., Visual and Graphic Methods of Cardiovascular Diagnosis. Chicago, The Cameron Heartometer Corp., 1954. Campbell, W.G., Form and Style i n Thesis Writing, Boston, HoughtonM i f f l i n Co., 1954. Cureton, T.K., Physical Fitness Appraisal and Guidance. St. Louis, C.V. Mosby Co., 1947. Cureton, T.K., Physical Fitness of Champion Athletes, Urbana, The University of I l l i n o i s Press, 1951. Cureton, T.K., Huffman, W.J., Welser, L., K i r e i l i s , R.W., Latham, D.E., Endurance of Young Men, Washington, D.C., Society for Research i n Child Development, National Research Council, 1945. Ferguson, G.A., Statistical Analysis i n Psychology and Education, Toronto, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1959. Fletcher, J., "Relationship Between Blood Circulation and Physical Fitness", Proceedings and Research Papers, Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, June, 1963, pp. 23-24. Garrett, H.E., Statistics i n Psychology and Education, New York 5th Edition, D. McKay Co., 1961.  57 Henry, F.M., 1963.  Physiology of Work. Berkeley, University of California,  McCloy, C.H., Young, N.D., Tests and Measurements i n Health and Physical Education, 3rd Edition, New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1954. Morehouse, L.E., Miller, A.T., Physiology of Exercise. 4th Edition, St. Louis, C.V. Mosby Co., 1963. Mouly, C.J., The Science of Educational Research. New York, The American Book Co., 1963. Norris, A.H., Shock, N.W., "Exercise i n the Adult Years with Special Reference to the Advanced Years", Science and Medicine of Exercise and Sports, edited by W.R. Johnson, New York, Harper and Brothers, I960, pp. 466-490. Raab, W., "Degenerative Heart Disease from Lack of Exercise", Exercise and Fitness, Chicago, The Athletic Institute, I960, pp. 10-19. Rodahl, K., "International Aspects of Comparative Fitness", Proceedings and Research Papers., Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, June, 1963, pp. 28-30. Rushmer, R.F., Cardiovascular Dynamics, 2nd Edition, Philadelphia and London, W.B. Saunders Co., 1961. Spiegel, M.R., Theory and Problems of Statistics. Schaum's Outline Series, New York, Schaum Publishing Company, 1961. Steinhaus, A.H., "Chronic Effects of Exercise", Toward an Understanding of Health and Physical Education, Dubuque, Iowa, W.C. Brown Co., 1963, pp. 178-201. Steinhaus, A.H., "Summary and Conclusions", Exercise and Fitness, Chicago, The Athletic Institute, I960, pp. 230-235. Taylor, H.L., "Exercise and Metabolism", Science and Medicine of Exercise and Sports, edited by W.R. Johnson, New York, Harper and Brothers, I960, pp. 123-161. Wiggers, C.J., Circulatory Dynamics, New York, Grune and Stratton, 1952. PERIODICALS Andersen, K.L., "Measurement of Work Capacity, The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, vol. 4, no. 4, (December, 1964), pp. 236-240. Andersen, K.L., Hermansen, L., "Aerobic Work Capacity in"Middle-Aged Norwegian Men", Journal of Applied Physiology, v o l . 20, no. 3, (1965), pp. 432-436.  58 Astrand. I., "The Physical Work Capacity of Workers 50-64 Years Old", Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, v o l . 42, (February, 1958), pp. 73-86. Astrand, I., Astrand, P.O., Christensen, E.H., Redman, R., "Circulatory and Respiratory Adaptation to Severe Muscular Work", Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, vol. 50, (December, I960), pp. 254-258. Astrand, P.O., "Human Physical Fitness with Special Reference to Sex and Age", Physiological Reviews, v o l . 36, no. 3, (July, 1956),  pp. 307-335.  Astrand, P.O., Ryhming, I., "A Nomogram for Calculation of Aerobic Capacity (Physical Fitness) from Pulse Rate During Submaximal Work", Journal of Applied Physiology, vo. 7, (September, 1954), pp. 218-221. Becklake, M.R., Frank, H., Dagenais, G.R., Ostiguy, G.L., Guzman, C.A., "Influence of Age and Sex on Exercise Cardiac Output", Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 20, no. 5, (1965), pp. 938-947. Berry, R.G., "Neurological Aspects of Aging", Geriatrics, vol. 14, (December, 1964), pp. 202-210. Beckner, G.L., Winsor, T., "Cardiovascular Adaptations to Prolonged Physical Effort", Circulation, vol. 9, (June, 1954), pp. 835-846. Bierring, E., Larson, K., Nielson, E., "Some Cases of Slow Pulse Associated with Electrocardiographic Changes i n Cardiac Patients After Maximal Work on the Krogh Ergometer", American Heart Journal, vol. 11, (1936), pp. 416-430. Botwinick, J., Shock, N.W., "Age Differences i n Performance Decrement with Continuous Work", Journal of Gerontology, v o l . 17, no. 1, (January, 1952), pp. 41-46. Brouha, L., "Effects of Muscular Work and Heat on the Cardiovascular System", Industrial Medicine and Surgery, vol. 29, (March, I960), pp. 114-120. Brouha, L., Macfield, M.E., Smith, P.E., Stopps, G.T., "Discrepancy Between Heart Rate and Oxygen Consumption During Work i n the Warmth", Journal of Applied Physiology, v o l . 18, (1963), pp. 1095-1098. Chapman, C.B., Mitchell, J.H., "The Physiology of Exercise", Scientific American, v o l . 212, no. 5, (May, 1965), pp. 88-96. 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Fitness LaboratorySchool of Physical Education NAME: AGE: ' I.  Anthropometric Measurements Height Weight:_  II.  jrrs. inches "lbs.  Body Fat Measurements Date: Tester: 1. Cheek Fold 2. Abdominal Fold 3. Hip Fold 4. Front Thigh Fold 5. Gluteal Fold 6. Rear Thigh Fold Sum of A l l Average  III.  _mm _mm _mm _mm _mm _mm _mm" mm  Schneider Index Date: Tester:  (15 sec.count) (beats/min) Lying Pulse Rate x 4 Standing Pulse Rate_ x 4 Immediate Post Exercise Pulse Rate x 4 = Time for Pulse Rate to return to standing value min sec Difference i n Pulse Rate lying to standing x 4 = Difference i n Pulse Rate standing to immediately following exercise_ _x 4 = Lying Systolic Bp_ mm. Hg. Standing Systolic Bp mm. Hg. Difference between mm. Hg. lying and standing Bp. Schneider Index  TIME: IV. Progressive Pulse Ratio Date: Tester:  (30 sec.count) I n i t i a l Pulse Rate Sitting  (BPM) x 2 =  Recovery Pulse Counts (2 minutes) Steps per minute Recovery Counts  12  =  24 30 36  = = =  18  Pulse Ratios  =  12  =  24 30 36  = = =  18  =  Average Ratio = Average Angle = V. Heartometer Date: Tester: Area Sys.Amp. Die.N.Amp., F. Ratio " Dia. Amp. R/W Ratio \ Dbl.Angle  Sitting Cycle T. Sys. T. Dia. T. . Pulse R. Sys.B.p. Dia.B.p. P.Press. Standing Pulse R.  Area Sys.Amp. Diff.Betw.Amp.Sitt. & Stand.. Post Exercise Ampl.  68 APPENDIX B  DIRECTIONS FOR PREPARING FOR TESTS TO BE DONE UNDER BASAL CONDITIONS I.  Evening before the test:1. 2. 3.  4. II.  The morning of the test:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  III.  Eat a light dinner. Spend the evening quietly. Use no stimulants after the evening meal, (i.e. coffee, tea, cokes, tobacco, alcoholic beverages). If you are taking any medication, inquire about i t s use before the test. Retire early. Get at least eight or nine hours of sleep.  Get up i n time to complete preparations without hurrying. Do not take a morning bath or shower. You may wash your face and hands. Do not eat any breakfast or use any stimulants or drugs. Do not take any exercise. You may walk short distances i.e. to your car or to the Fitness Laboratory. Walk slowly. Arrive at the Physical Fitness Laboratory promptly at the appointed time. Remove a l l tight articles of clothing such as: shoes, garters, collars, etc., and l i e down on the bed and relax completely. Cover up sufficiently to be comfortable. Rest until the test i s started. It i s quite a l l right to f a l l asleep but not essential. Complete relaxation i s important.  It i s of the utmost importance to follow the preceding instructions i f the results are to be reliable. If you have a severe cold accompanied by marked congestion of the nose, coughing, or a fever, i t i s advisable to postpone the tests. Advise any cancellation of the appointment as early as possible.  69 APPENDIX C INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE SCHNEIDER TEST The numbers Correspond with Test Sheet. 1.  The subject rests i n the lying position on the back for five minutes or more. If the pulse i s above 70 after five minutes rest, the rest i n the horizontal position should continue for another five minutes at least and then the pulse taken again. The lowest pulse should be inserted on line 1 of the Schneider Score Sheet. Count i s 15 sees, multiplied by four for the count per minute.  2.  The lying systolic blood pressure i s taken with a mercurial sphygmomanometer (see Deaver's Fundamentals of Physical Examination,  1939,  pp. 216-224).  3.  The lying diastolic blood pressure i s taken i n similar manner, reading the sound at the 4th phase when there i s noted a change i n sound from sharp and clear to muffled sounds. This i s somewhat higher on the scale than when the sounds disappear.  4.  The subject i s then asked to get up from the table easily and stand on his feet. At this time the cuff i s disconnected from the instrument but not removed from the arm. The subject i s also told to hold his arm bent so that the cuff w i l l not f a l l off. He must remain i n the relaxed standing position for at least one f u l l minute or two before the standing pulse rate can be taken.  5.  The standing systolic blood pressure i s taken with precautions that the subject i s standing on both feet and i s i n a relaxed state. A iiford to the subject i s helpful as a reminder to stand easily on both feet and to relax.  6.  The standing diastolic blood pressure i s also taken, similarly to lying diastolic.  7.  The standard step-up i s demonstrated as one step up and down i n 3 sees., or 5 times i n 15 sees. The subject i s asked to step up five times at that rate. The pulse i s counted immediately after for 15 sees, and put down on the data sheet as (15x4—60). This w i l l ensure that no error has been made by multiplying i n the head.  8.  Thirty seconds after the exercise the pulse i s again counted for 15 sees. This i s quickly recorded on the data sheet and compared with the standing pulse. If i t i s higher than the standing pulse, another count i s taken at 90 and 120 seconds. On the count which is even with or lower than the standing pulse, the procedure i s stopped and that pulse i s placed i n the corresponding time space of the data sheet.  70  9.  Each of the sections are scored: procedure i s as follows: (a)  A, B, C, D, E, and F.  The  Section A i s scored for reclining pulse rate. The best resting pulse rate i s compared with the table i n Section A and the points immediately after are rung.  (b) Section C i s scored i n l i k e manner for the standing pulse rate. (c) Section B i s scored on the same line as previously rung for the lying pulse rate. , It i s important to stay on this same line as the amount of change i s traced from l e f t to right over to Table B. The amount of change from lying to standing pulse must be subtracted and matched with the headings of Table B. The points earned are rung i n the body of the Table B. A pencil i s used to encircle the points earned. (d) Section D i s scored i n similar manner to Section B. It i s important to stay on the same line as was used on scoring the standing pulse ratio. The horizontal line i s traced from Table C to Table D horizontally across the page from l e f t to right. The amount of pulse rise from the standing rate to the rate after exercise i s noted by subtraction and this amount i s matched with the table headings i n D. The points earned are encircled i n the body of Table D. (e) The return of pulse rate to the standing normal i s now scored, using Table E. The time for the pulse to return to the standing normal i s noted and matched with Table E. The points earned are encircled. (f) The change i n systolic blood pressure i s noted comparing the difference between the lying and standing pressures. The difference i s scored i n Table F. The points earned are encircled. Summation of Total Score (Schneider Index): This i s obtained by adding up the points encircled i n each of the six sections: A, B, C, D, E, F. This result i s placed i n the space provided, under TRIAL I. The date i s inserted just above. Rechecks: It i s recommended that a second or third check be taken by completely repeating the Schneider Test procedure. The index i s very helpful i f i t i s a reliable result. Some people are mentally excited on their f i r s t t r i a l on this test and the pulse rate may be higher than i s truly normal. The best of two or three t r i a l s i s usually preferred as a most reliable result. Diastolic Blood Pressure: This should also be inserted although i t i s not used i n the Schneider Test. A standing diastolic lower than 60 usually means poor endurance i n long continued exertion, such as running or swimmings Good athletes range from 85 to 105 i n standing diastolic blood pressure.  71 Systolic Blood Pressure; It i s usually recommended that any case with systolic blood pressure over 160 or lower than 80 should be referred to a physician for a more complete diagnosis. The pulse pressure (difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures) i s used i n several cardiovascular tests. This i s usually noted. A pulse pressure above 40 indicates an untrained state. This may be the basis of referring the subject to a conditioning class. Original Data Sheets: The original data sheets should be saved because the data may be used i n several ways i n the research. The notations should be carefully made.  APPENDIX D  72  SCHNEIDER INDEX TEST - SCORE SHEET (Cureton Modification) Name  Date  :  Schneider Index  Lying Position:  OBSERVATIONS Pulse Rate Systolic BP  Diastolic BP.  Standing Position:  Pulse Rate  Diastolic BP.  Systolic BP  STEP EXERCISE (5 steps-chair 20" high): Pulse Rate Immediately After Exercise, Pulse Rate After Exercise: 30 sec. 120 sec. 60 sec. 90 sec. A. Reclining Pulse Rate Rate . Points 41-50 4 51-60 3 61-70 3 2 71-80 81-90 1 91-100 0 101-110 -1  SCORING TABLE B. Pulse Rate Increase on Standing 0-10 11-18 19-26 27-34 2 4 3 4 1 2 3 3 0 2 1 3 -1 2 0 2 2 -2 1 -1 l 0 -2 -3 0 -1 -3 -3  35-42 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -3 -3  C. Standing Pulse Rate Rate Points 51-60 4 61-70 3 71-80 3 81-90 2 1 91-100 101-110 1 111-120 0 121-130 0 -1 131-140  ]D. Pulse Rate Increase Immediately After Exercise 41-50 0-10 11-20 31-40 21-30 1 2 4 3 4 0 1 2 3 3 0 0 1 2 3 0 -1 2 1 3 -2 2 0 -1 1 1 0 -2 -1 -3 1 -1 -2 -3 -3 -3 0 -2 -3 -3 0 -3 -3 -3 -3  E.  F. Standing Systolic B.P. Compared with Reclining Systolic B.P.  Return of Pulse Rate to Standing Normal After Exercise Seconds Points 0-30 3 31-60 2 61-90 1 91-120 0 AFTER 120 2 - 1 0 beats -1 above normal AFTER 120 11- 30 beats -2 above normal  4/2/65  Change i n Millimeters Rise 30 and more Rise 21 to 30 Rise 16 to 20 Rise 11 to 15 Rise of 6 to 10 No change greater than 5 F a l l of 6 to 10 F a l l of .11 to 15 F a l l of 16 to 20 F a l l of 21 to 25 F a l l of 26 and more  Points -2 -1 0 1 2 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 1  73 APPENDIX E CONDENSED INSTRUCTIONS FOR BLOOD PRESSURE FINDINGS AND MAKING HEARTOGRAPHS MODEL - 6100 FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS EXACTLY — NO OTHER METHOD WILL FURNISH PROPER RESULTS. 1.  Turn Heartometer so patient can't watch graph being made.  2.  Cuff must be put on tight - snugness i s important. (Instruct patient to remain quiet - they must not move or speak.)  3.  Have clutoh OUT - close a i r valve i n inflation system.  DIASTOLIC 4. Inflate, pause - Inflate, pause - Inflate, pause - etc. (The pause should be for two or three seconds.) Continue inflating and pausing until one light (either) i s flashed by the pulse. This i s the DIASTOLIC point (5th phase). Push clutch i n and mark diastolic pressure. Pull clutch a l l the way OUT stopping the graph. 5.  Inflate quickly until you have fixed light (no flashing) = collapsed artery.  SYSTOLIC 6. Now, deflate, pause - deflate, pause - deflate, pause - etc. (The pause should be for two or three seconds.) Continue deflating and pausing until pulse flashes one (either) light for a count of 10.t This i s the SYSTOLIC point. Push clutch i n and mark systolic pressure. Pull clutch a l l the way OUT stopping the graph. GRAPHING 7. Now, deflate until 10 or 15 mm. below diastolic mark. StopI (Don't deflate to zero.) Now, increase the pressure above diastolic; 1/4 of the pulse pressure (usually 10 to 20 mm. above diastolic*). Push clutch i n to start motor; make Heartograph. Pull clutch a l l the way OUT stopping the graph. Release pressure from cuff promptly. ( t ) When Skipped Beats, F i b r i l l a t i o n , etc. i s present there can never be 10 successive pulses to actuate the lights. The term "COUNT  c  74 OF 10" i s used to cover such cases. 1 Second.)  (Counts should be INTERVALS of  (*) Exceptions to this rule are: In very low diastolic pressure or obliterated cases i n the legs, one may have to make a short graph at different pressures i n order to establish the proper graphing point.  CAMERON HEARTOMETER COMPANY Chicago  Illinois  75 APPENDIX F CAMERON HEARTOMETER CORPORATION  The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, B.C., Canada. Attention:  November 23, 19.64 Air-Mail.  S.R. Brown, Associate Professor, School of Physical Education & Recreation.  Gentlemen: In reply to your letter of November 20, 1964, per enclosed condensed instructions, please note that when one light, (EITHER LIGHT) i s flashed by the pulse, that i s the correct diastolic and systolic level. ALTERNATING LIGHTS, which sometimes take place i n the pulse pressure f i e l d (between the diastolic and systolic levels) are of no diagnostic value. In almost every case, difficulty or inability to obtain correct light action at either or both the diastolic and systolic levels i s caused by the fact that the inflation system i s not on tight and snug. This i s very important. The inflation system cannot be put on too tight. Also, on brachial (arm) findings, the Ace bandage should always be used over the inflation system cuff when the patient has a large flabby arm. By dropping to zero after you have obtained and marked the systolic pressure level, you certainly are not following the correct established operating procedure. DROP DOWN ONLY 10 to 15MM below the NOT DROP DOWN TO ZERO.  diastolic level and then stop. DO  If you l e t out a l l pressure and then re-apply pressure, you w i l l almost certainly obtain a decrease i n graphing pressure which w i l l appear to be a pressure loss from the inflation system. It i s however nothing more than the muscle of the arm fighting the re-application of pressure. By following the established procedure, i f pressures are taken quickly and accurately (which only requires a minute) there can be no venous congestion and you need not worry about that factor entering the picture. The procedure to re-engage the clutch, i f necessary, to make the pen write i n the correct position on the graph has always been mentioned i n the Heartometer Technique Book. Latest book has the information on page 7. It states: "At times, the heart graph pen does not always graph at the same distance from the center of the chart. The position of the pen i s dependent upon the engaging of the clutch at the beginning, middle or  76 end of the cardiac cycle. This has no real diagnostic significance. To change position of pen on chart, pull out clutch and re-engage. The graph on page 10 i s an example of two tracings made at different positions on the paper". A "sagging graph" i s almost always caused because the correct procedure was not followed ( a l l pressure was l e t out and then the Inf. system was re-inflated to graphing level). However, neither of the above could be responsible for the failure of the lights to operate properly. Further, i f you are making a l l Heartographs at 80MM graphing pressure, you are ignoring the fact that pressures vary i n individuals according to age, bio-type, weight, heredity and certainly environment. We have not nor do we intend to suggest that a l l graphs be taken at one pressure. We are not unmindful that (even i n the apparent healthy) there i s wide variation i n pressures. It has been stated for many years and we repeati, " T e l l me where you were born, where your parents were born, and the environment one has or i s passing through, and we should be able to closely evaluate the normal pressure. Send us 1/2 dozen graphs that you have made (which w i l l be returned to you) and we w i l l attempt to supply additional information that w i l l assist you. We suggest that you return your unit for immediate repair. You cannot accurately check diastolic and systolic pressures with any mercury column and stethoscope with any real degree of accuracy. The average error i n trying to use sounds i s from plus 7MM to minus 7MM. Thus, the average error i s 14MM. Also, few can properly identify the correct diastolic level (5th phase) that the Heartometer gives you for diastolic pressure. Fifth phase diastolic pressure i s the only correct phase to use. Very truly yours, CAMERON HEARTOMETER CORP. "Alex W. Cameron" Alex W. Cameron, V.P.-Treas. AWC/em.  77  APPENDIX G SPECIFICATIONS FOR PROGRESSIVE PULSE RATIO TEST (STEPS OR SQUATS)  1. (a) Seat subject 5 Mins. Count sitting pulse for 30 sees. (b) After 30 sees, count sitting pulse for 30 sees, again. (c) If pulse i s stable (± 1 beat), go on with the test. If not, count sitting pulse again and continue until two successive counts are the same. If there i s s t i l l fluctuation, use the average. 2.  Have the subject stand up. Count aloud the timing of the stepping at 5 seconds for each complete t r i p (12/min.), 2g sees. UP and 2g sees. DOWN. Demonstrate. Ask the subject to count the number of trips he makes i n one minute at 12/min. Start the subject on the even minute at the start of one revolution of the minute hand on a stop watch or suitable photo-timer. Count for the subject so that one complete t r i p coincides with 5 sees, on the clock. Continue stepping for exactly one minute. T e l l the subject to s i t down. Then after 10 sees, count pulse for 2 Min. i . e . , begin the pulse count exactly 10 sees, after the even minute.  3.  Compute the pulse ratio and plot the second point while the subject remains seated. Recheck the sitting pulse rate at least twice. Continue until the pulse i s stable (+ 1 beat) and record i n terms of beats/min. Do not wait longer than 5 minutes after stepping. If pulse i s not stable by the end of this period, count pulse, record, and continue stepping.  4.  Count the rate of stepping at 3*33 sees, for one complete t r i p , 18/min. Three trips i n 10 sees. Demonstrate. Ask the subject to count the number of steps or use a pulse counter. Step the subject at this rate for exactly 1 minute. At the end, seat the subject and after 10 sees, count the pulse for 2 mins. Compute the pulse ratio and plot the point.  5.  After 2 or 3 mins., check pulse at least twice for 15 sees. until the pulse rate i s stable. Record the sitting rate.  Continue  6. Explain the rate of stepping at 24 steps/min., 2g sees, per t r i p . Demonstrate. Ask the subject to count his trips. Step the subject for exactly one min. Sit the subject down and after 10 sees., count the pulse for 2 mins. 7. Repeat step 5. 8. Explain to the subject the rate of stepping at 30/min. Demonstrate, one sec. UP and one sec. DOWN. Ask the subject to count the steps (dips). Step the subject for exactly one min. Sit the subject down and after 10 sees., count the pulse for 2 mins. Compute the pulse ratio and plot the 4th point.  Recheck the sitting pulse rate at least twice and continue until the pulse i s stable. Record the sitting rate. Explain the rate of stepping at 36/min. Demonstrate or count out three trips UP and DOWN i n 5 sees. Ask the subject to count the number of steps and step the subject for exactly one minute.  79 APPENDIX H INSTRUCTIONS FOR PLOTTING THE PROGRESSIVE PULSE RATIO Graph Paper: 20 lines to the inch preferred. 1 inch squares i n dark lines. Preparation: Label graph at bottom margin - "Progressive Pulse Ratio". Write subject's name and the date of testing at the top of the graph. Draw ordinate (vertical axis) on one of the dark lines about one-half inch In from the l e f t hand edge. Draw abscissa (horizontal axis) on one of the dark lines about two inches up from the bottom edge. Mark the ordinate scale - 1.8, 2.0, 2.2, 2.4, 2.6, 2.8, 3.0, beginning with 1.8 at the junction of ordinate and abscissa, and working upwards at intervals of one inch. Label these 'Ratios'. Mark the abscissa scale - 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, beginning with 12 at the junction of ordinate and abscissa and working along the abscissa to the right at intervals of one and one-half inches. Label these 'Steps per Minute'. Label and record the pulse rates and ratios obtained as the test progresses. Example: Ratios  1.8 STEPS PER MIN. = 12  18  24  30  36  154  162  178  205  74  74  74  76  76  2.01  2.08  2.19  2.34  2.70  PULSE RATES: 2 MIN. POST EX. = 149 1 MIN.QUIET SIT = RATIOS  PROGRESSIVE PULSE RATIO Procedure 1.  Calculate the ratios as the test progresses. Plot the ratios on the graph and join the points by straight lines.  80 2.  Calculate the average ratio - i . e . Sum the five ratios and divide by five. Plot this ratio on the graph directly above *24 steps per minute* on the abscissa scale. Draw a straight line between this point and the point at 2.0 on the ordinate scale. Project this line to the right side of the graph. Label the point - Average Ratio.  3.  Measure the average angle. Measure, with a protractor, the angle at point 2.0 on the ordinate scale between the horizontal and the average ratio. Record the angle obtained, i n degrees and half-degrees, on the graph and label - Average Angle.  4.  Measure the following angles. Record the values on the graph i n degrees and half-degrees. 1. Angle at ratio for 24 steps per minute. 2. Angle at ratio for 30 steps per minute. One side of the angle i s formed by the horizontal. The other side i s formed by the plotted line joining the respective ratio and the next one to the right - i.e. 24 and 30 steps per minute; 30 and 36 steps per minute. These angles measure the slope of the plotted lines and reflect the amount of increase i n pulse counts as a result of increasing the rate of stepping.  5.  Consult the standard score tables for the Progressive Pulse Ratio test. Write along side each of the raw measures the appropriate standard score. Enclose the standard score i n parenthesis - i . e . (55), to ensure differentiation between raw scores and standard scores.  *Angle of Break*. Is the angle between the horizontal and the plotted line where i t f i r s t breaks sharply upward from i t s previously f a i r l y uniform slope. *Angle of Inclination*. Is the angle between the horizontal and the plotted line between 24 and 30 steps per minute. *Terminal Angle*. Is the angle between the horizontal and the plotted line between 30 and 36 steps per minute. Caution;  With older individuals and with anyone who i s very unfit, the Progressive Pulse Ratio test should be administered before any *all-out» tests like the Harvard Step test. If a subject reacts badly i n the Progressive Pulse Ratio test, administration of the Harvard Step test i s contraindicated.  81 APPENBJJC I PULSE PRESSURE WAVE MEASUREMENTS  Figure 1 Diagram of Pulse' Pressure Wave  82 DESCRIPTION OF PULSE PRESSURE WAVE VARIABLES 1. AREA UNDER THE CURVE (ABOFCA) Two adjacent mitral valve closing points are connected for a single cycle. The area enclosed i s traced with a polar planimeter. Each cycle i s traced ten times, constituting one reading. The average area for three readings for three cycles i s then determined. 2. SYSTOLIC PULSE WAVE AMPLITUDE (AB) The measurement i s made with vernier calipers i n cms. and hundredths, nearly vertically and parallel to the blue time lines. 3. DICROTIC NOTCH AMPLITUDE (ED) The measurement i s made with vernier calipers i n cms. and hundredths almost vertical and parallel to the blue time lines; from a baseline joining points A and C. 4. FATIGUE RATIO (DE/AB) This measurement i s the ratio of the amplitude of the dicrotic notch to the amplitude of the systole. The measurements are made as previously described. 5. ANGLE OF OBLIQUITY (ABO) The angle i s measured from the maximum systolic point of the graph. One line i s drawn from point B to the centre of the hole i n the graph. The other line i s drawn almost tangentially to the upward systolic stroke line, through point A. Three sets, each made up of three cycles, i s measured and the average angle i s calculated. A protractor i s used to measure the angles. 6.  PULSE RATE The regular rate of the heart i s determined i n beats per minute from the heartogram by counting the heart beats made on the graph i n fifteen seconds then multiplying by four. The fractional part of a beat i s estimated to the nearest tenth of a beat by inspection before multiplication.  7. DIASTOLIC PULSE WAVE AMPLITUDE (FG) The part of the total heartograph i n a single cycle which occurs after the semilunar valves close i s represented by the diastolic pulse wave. It i s measured by vernier calipers from the peak of the diastolic wave to the base line of the cycle, parallel to the blue lines.  83 8. DIASTOLIC SURGE (FH) The measurement of the diastolic surge i s made with vernier calipers, parallel to the blue lines from a baseline drawn parallel to the cycle baseline (AC) to the maximum point of the diastolic amplitude. 9. DIASTOLIC TIME (EC) A horizontal measurement taken with vernier calipers from the Diastolic Surge to the end of the cycle. The measurement i s taken i n linear cms. and hundredths for convenience without conversion to seconds. 10.  SYSTOLIC TIME (AE) The measurement i s taken horizontally from the start of the systole to the close of the semilunar valves. The result i s proportional to the time of systole and i s taken i n linear cms. and hundredths for convenience without conversion to seconds.  11.  REST TO WORK RATIO (AE/EC) This measurement i s the ratio of the systole contraction (from the start of the systolic stroke to the point of closing of the semilunar valves) to the overall time of diastole (from the point of closing of the semilunar valves to the start of the next systole). Measurements are described i n nine and ten.  12.  DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE This measurement i s taken directly from the heartograph by reading the properly made line against the scale provided on the graph. The reading i s i n millimeters.  13.  SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE This measurement i s taken from the heartograph, as i n twelve.  14.  PULSE PRESSURE The difference between twelve and thirteen i s determined by subtraction.  84 APPENDIX J STATISTICAL TREATMENT Study Design Single Group, Test - Retest Experiment (N = 10) Pre-training Test Group Mean Post-training Test Mean (Pre-training Test) - Experimental Factor (Endurance Exercise Program) - X = Difference F Procedure 1. 2. 3.  4.  Selection of subjects based upon attendance i n previous year's fitness program. Administration of cardiovascular tests to obtain pre-training scores. Voluntary participation of subjects i n the University of B.C. Physical Fitness Class held each day 12:30 to 1:30, Monday to Friday i n the New Education Gymnasium. The program lasted seventeen weeks. Administration of cardiovascular tests to obtain post-training scores.  Cardiovascular Fitness Tests 1.  Schneider Test - Variables are:  2.  Progressive Pulse Ratio - Variables are: recovery pulse counts for rates of 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 steps per minute, average ratio and average angle.  lying pulse rate, standing pulse rate, postexercise pulse rate, time for pulse rate to return to standing value, difference between pulse rate lying to standing, and standing to post-exercise difference, lying and standing systolic blood pressure and the difference between systolic blood pressure lying and standing, index score.  85 3.  Pulse Pressure Wave (Brachial Sphygmograph) - Variables are: A. Sitting area under curve, systolic amplitude, dicrotic notch amplitude, fatigue ratio, diastolic amplitude, rest-to-work ratio, obliquity angle, systolic time, diastolic time, pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. B. Standing area under curve, pulse rate, systolic amplitude, difference between sitting and standing systolic amplitude. C. Post Exercise systolic amplitude. In addition, the following measurements were made on a l l subjects: 1.  Body Fat Measurements - Variables are: cheek fold, abdominal fold, hip fold, front thigh fold, gluteal fold, rear thigh fold, sum of a l l , and average.  2.  Body Weight  General Statistical Outline The significance of the mean difference between pre-training and post-training test scores was determined for a l l variables. Test of significance of correlation co-efficient. H: f> = 0 _ H: f> =fi 0 The value of y  one-tailed test 0.05 level of confidence degrees of freedom N-2 = 8 necessary to reject H = 0.558  Formulae 1.  Group Mean A. X = E X 1  X = Raw Scores for Pre-Training Tests 1  N B. x " = E X„ F F N  X = Raw Scores for F Post-Training Tests N = 10  86 2. The Mean Difference Between Raw Scores  3»  X -X = d * F  d = Difference Between Pre-Training and Post-Training Raw Scores  d = L d N  N = 10  The Variance of the Difference 2 — 2 2 5 2 = I d -d d = Squared Difference Between N Pre-Training and Post-Training Raw Scores _ 2 d  = Squared Mean Difference  N = 10 4. An Estimate of the Variance of the Sampling Distribution of d S=32 S 2 d d d = The Variance of the Difference N-l 2  N-l = 9 5«  t ratio t = Sd cT  d = The Mean Difference =  S d2 ,d _  S o ~ The estimate of the variance cf-  N-l = 9  87 KEY TO APPENDICES K to R K - L  Schneider Test Variables 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10,  M - N  Progressive Pulse Ratio Test. Variables  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  0 - P  Schneider Index Score Difference Between Lying and Standing Systolic Blood Pressure Standing Systolic Blood Pressure Lying Systolic Blood Pressure Pulse Rate Difference Standing - Post Exercise Pulse Rate Difference Lying to Standing Time for Pulse to Return to Standing Value Post-Exercise Pulse Rate Standing Pulse Rate Lying Pulse Rate  Total Recovery Total Recovery Total Recovery Total Recovery Total Recovery Average Ratio Average Angle  Pulse Pulse Pulse Pulse Pulse  Counts Counts Counts Counts Counts  -  Body Fat Variables and Body Weight 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  Cheek Fold Abdominal Fold Hip Fold Front Thigh Fold Rear Thigh Fold Gluteal Fold Sum of A l l Average of A l l Body Weight  12 18 24 30 36  Steps Steps Steps Steps Steps  88 Q - R  Pulse Pressure Wave 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17* 18.  Sitting Area Under the Curve Sitting Rest to Work Ratio Sitting Systolic Time Sitting Diastolic Time Sitting Dicrotic Notch Amplitude Sitting Fatigue Ratio Sitting Diastolic Amplitude Sitting Obliquity Angle Sitting Pulse Rate Sitting Systolic Blood Pressure Sitting Diastolic Blood Pressure Sitting Pulse Pressure Sitting Systolic Amplitude Standing Area Under the Curve Standing Pulse Rate Standing Systolic Amplitude Difference Between Sitting and Standing Systolic Post-Exercise Systolic Amplitude  Amplitude  APPENDIX K PRE-TRAINING SCHNEIDER TEST VARIABLES RAW SCORES Variable  1  Variable  2  Variable  Variable  Variable  3  4  5  mm  mm  mm  Variable  6  Variable  7  seconds  Variable 8 1 min  Variable  Variable  1 min  10 1 min  9.  A  15  14  114  128  18  14  60  86  68  54  B  13  5  112  107  16  14  60  100  84  70  C  16  3  120  117  24  0  120  88  64  64  D  15  6  110  116  16  8  60  . 88  72  60  E  20  8  120  112  16  4  60  64  48  44  F  16  8  136  128  16  2  120  80  64  62  G  15  5  112  107  12  12  60  92  80  68  H  18  18  124  106  18  0  120  60  42  42  I  18  2  136  134  14  6  30  78  64  58  J  19  7  105  98  4  10  90  64  60  50  7.6  118.9  115.3  15.4  78.0  80.0  64.6  57.2  Mean 16.5  7.0  APPENDIX L POST-TRAINtNG SCHNEIDER TEST VARIABLES RAW SCORES Variable  1  Variable  Variable  mm  mm  mm  2  3  Variable  4  Variable  5  Variable  6  Variable  7  seconds  Variable  8 1 min  Variable  9 1 min  Variable  10 1 min  A  14  4  118  122  12  24  60  96  84  60  B  13  15  120  105  24  8  60  96  72  64  C  17  4  116  112  4  36  30  76  80  44  D  17  3  114  117  14  2  60  76  62  60  E  17  12  129  117  34  0  60  82  48  48  F  19  2  117 ,  115  4  14  60  68  64  50  G  16  2  112  110  8  13  30  84  76  64  H  19  6  114  108  12  2  90  60  48  46  I  14  6  131  125  14  6  30  84  70  64  J  18  12  104  92  14  6  60  72  58  52  Mean  16.4  54.0  79.4  66.2  55.2  6.6  117-5  112.3  14.0  11.1  NO  o  APPENDIX M PRE-TRAINING PROGRESSIVE PULSE RATIO TEST VARIABLES RAW SCORES Variable  1  Variable  2  Variable  Variable  3  4  Variable  Variable  Variable  5  6  200  247  2.59  42.0  162  170  243  2.54  44.5  145  149  169  207  2.29  26.0  156  169  178  213  234  2.54  42.0  E  101  106  112  119  129  2.70  49.5  F  138  153  160  190  218  2.40  33.5  G  154  170  186  226  281  2.59  44.5  H  124  128  135  147  182  2.50  40.0  I  140  142  149  158  170  2.37  31.5  J  129  133  142  160  201  2.51  40.0  Mean  134.0  144.6  151.7  175.2  211.2  2.503  39.35  Subject  12 steps  18 steps  24 steps  A  139  151  144  B  140  149  C  119  D  30 steps  7  degrees  36 steps  APPENDIX N POST-TRAINING PROGRESSIVE PULSE RATIO TEST VARIABLES RAW SCORES Variable i.iect  1  Variable  2  Variable  Variable  3  Variable  4  5  Variable  6  Variable  7  12 steps  18 steps  24 steps  30 steps  36 steps  A  151  161  172  207  234  2.45  47.0  B  153  153  169  207  224  2.64  40.0  146  160  181  198  2.27  24.0  C  degrees  D  136  143  166  190  222  2.62  46.0  E  131  131  148  148  178  2.42  35.0  F  123  130  139  163  188  2.55  42.5  G  156  169  107  205  253  2.45  37.0  H  111  121  129  144  177  2.94  56.5  I  138  143  157  161  185  2.31  27.O  J  116  122  131  160  177  2.46  37.5  Mean  135.8  141.9  156.8  176.6  203.6  2.511  39.35  APPENDIX 0 PRE-TRAINING BODY FAT VARIABLES RAW SCORES AND BODY WEIGHT  ).ject  Variable 1 mm  Variable 2 mm  Variable 3 mm  Variable 4 mm  Variable 5 mm  Variable 6 mm  Variable 7 mm  Variable 8 mm  Variable 9 pounds  A  13.0  10.0  16.0  18.0  17.0  28.0  102.0  17.00  161.25  B  12.0  14.0  28.0  22.0  15.0  18.0  109.0  18.17  171.00  C  9.5  21.0  5.0  14.0  7.0  24.0  80.5  13.42  174.00  D  9.0  18.0  25.0  9.0  9.0  28.0  98.0  16.33  186.00  E  10.0  14.0  18.0  9.0  18.0  8.0  77.0  12.83  156.00  F  10.0  21.0  30.0  19.0  11.0  25.0  116.0  19.33  214.75  G  5.5  13.0  8.0  7.0  5.0  20.0  58.5  9.75  150.50  H  8.0  9.0  15.0  10.0  5.0  18.0  65.O  10.83  160.25  I  8.0  16.0  12.0  8.0  6.0  22.0  72.0  12.00  175.50  J  11.0  11.0  14.0  16.0  12.0  23.0  87.0  14.50  137.00  14.70  17.10  13.20  10.50  21.40  86.50  14.416  168.625  Mean  9.60  APPENDIX P POST-TRAINING BODY FAT VARIABLES RAW SCORES AND BODY WEIGHT  Subject  Variable 1 mm  Variable 2 mm  Variable 3 mm  Variable 4 mm  Variable 5 mm  Variable 6 mm  Variable .7 mm  Variable 8 mm  Variable 9 pounds  A  13.0  8.0  16.0  11.0  10.0  15.5  73.5  12.25  159.00  B  10.0  8.5  24.5  14.5  13.5  18.0  89.0  14.83  168.00  C  9.0  14.0  6.0  10.0  7.0  18.0  64.0  10.67  172.00  24.0  93.5  15.83  183.50  D  10.5  15.0  25.0  8.5  9.0  E  13.0  12.0  7.0  4.0  0  3.0  39.0  6.50  156.00  F  9.0  18.0  L4.0  12.0  13.0  17.0  83.0  13.83  227.00  G  8.0  16.0  17.0  7.5  6.0  18.0  72.5  12.08  152.00  H  8.0  8.0  17.0  6.0  6.0  14.0  59.0  9.83  158.50  I  7.0  13.0  10.0  8.0  6.0  20.0  64.0  10.66  173.00  J  12.5  14.0  10.0  16.5  10.0  20.0  83.0  13.83  134.75  Mean  10.00  12.65  14.65  16.75  72.05  12.031  168.375  9.80  8.05  APPENDIX Q POST-TRAINING PULSE PRESSURE WAVE VARIABLES RAW SCORES Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. 1 2 8 10 11 12 18 16 4 5 6 7 3 9 14 15 17 13 Subj. sq cms deg 1 min mm mm mm cms cms cms cms cms sq 1 min cms cms cms cms 1.63 0.30 0.49 0.55  0.696 0.62 22.6  64  115  80  35  0.79 0.18  64  0.77  0.02 0.80  0.40 0.65 0.84 0.739 0.87 21.5  62  115  75  40  1.14 0.20  80  0.90  0.24 1.25  C  0.47 2.60 0.25 0.65 0.86 0.494 0.87 21.6  60  105  65  40  1.74 0.49  64  1.40  0.34 1.76  D  O.46 3.12  0.26 0.81 0.84 0.950 0.89 25.1  56  105  64  41  1.11 0.30  64  0.99  0.12 1.40  E  0.49 4.65 0.23 1.07 0.77  O.505 0.94 20.8  40  124  66  58  1.53  0.59  42  1.54  0.01 1.72  F  0.34 4.83 0.18  0.87 0.78 0.598 0.78 21.8  54  114  51  63  1.30 0.26  64  .96  0.34 1.60  G  0.33  2.11  0.68 0.698 0.70 22.5  64  102  80  ZZ  0.97 0.49  68  1.02  0.05 1.40  H  0.37  3.50 0.26 0.91 0.90 0.846 0.93  23.1  42  104  67  37  1.07 0.29  48  1.13  0.06 1.32  I  0.33  1.96 0.27  19.8  62'  142  75  67  1.23 0.44  72  1.30  0.07 1.64  J  0.38 1.94 0.34  97  70  27  1.23  0.32  52  0.96  0.27 1.02  A  0.14  B  0.30 1.63  Mean  0.27 0.57  0.53  0.69 0.560 0.73  0.66 0.82  O.669 0.85 22.0  O.36I 2.797 0.276 0.721 0.773 O.676 0.818 22.08  52 55.6  112.3 69.3  43.0 1.211 0.356 61.8 1.097 0.152 1.391  APPENDIX R PRE-TRAINING' PULSE PRESSURE WAVE VARIABLES RAW SCORES Var. 1 sq Sub.i. cms  Var. 2  Var. 3 cms  Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. Var. 8 10 11 12 16 18 9 6 7 15 4 5 13 14 17 cms deg m m m m m m cms 1 min cms cms cms sq 1 min cms cms cms  A  0.19  3.27 0.22  0.72  0.62 0.809 0.63  20.4  68  128  88  40  0.76 0.12  72  0.67  0.09 0.76  B  0.28  1.47  0.43  0.63  0.80 0.730 0.81 21.6  64  112  72  40  1.09 0.22  76  0.85  0.24 1.02  C  0.42  1.11  0.36  0.40  0.70 0.824 0.68  23.1  72  111  79  32  .82 0.43  72  1.02  0.20 1.58  D • 0.33  1.91 0.35  0.67  0.70 0.665 0.75  22.3  56  118  82  46  1.06  0.28  72  0.97  0.09 1.08  E  0.55  3.06 0.24  1.07  1.18 0.600 1.27 21.5  44  130  84  46  1.96 0.55  48  2.10  0.14 2.69  F  0.08  4.53 0.19  0.86  0.37 0.454 0.40  26.1  68  117  78  68  .82 0.09  76  0.68  0.14 1.31  G  0.30  2.39 0.28  0.67  0.60 0.694 0.60  27.0  68  105  80  25  .83 0.28  80  0.83  0  H  0.38  4.52 0.21  0.95  0.71 0.746 0.72 22.0  48  111  55  56  .95 0.31  48  1.05  0.10 1.28  I  0.47  2.21 0.24  0.53  0.49 0.387 0.63  17.6  58  137  72  65  0.33  68  1.28  0.02 1.53  J  0.14  3.39 0.23  0.78  0.81 0.874 0.84  21.3  52  95  65  30  .93 0.34  56  0.99  0.06 1.14  Mean 0.314  2.786 0.275 0.728 0.698 0.678 0.733 22.29 59.8 116.4 75.5  1.26  44.8 1.048 0.295  0.92  66.8 1.044 0.108 1.331  

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