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Effect of elevation of the legs on recovery time of Varsity ice hockey players Thomas, Norman Raymond 1968

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THE EFFECT OF ELEVATION OF THE LEGS ON RECOVERY TIME OF VARSITY ICE HOCKEY PLAYERS by NORMAN RAYMOND THOMAS B.A. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard:  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AUGUST, 1968  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements  f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  that  the L i b r a r y s h a l l  Study.  thesis  I further  I agree  make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e  agree that  permission  and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my  Department or by h.iis r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  or p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s t h e s i s  without my w r i t t e n  Department of  It i s understood that  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  permission.  P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Vancouver 8 , Canada Date  Columbia,  August, 1968  Columbia  shall  copying  not be allowed  ABSTRACT  The purpose of t h i s study was as follows: 1.  To determine i f the recovery heart rate of i c e hockey players i s affected by elevation of the legs;  2.  To determine the subjective recovery time and to calculate the c o r r e l a t i o n between subjective and objective recovery times;  3.  To determine the heart rate at four and one-half minutes a f t e r exercise.  Eight of an i n i t i a l twelve members of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia V a r s i t y Ice Hockey Team, ranging i n age from twenty to twenty-seven years, participated i n the study.  Age, weight, height and  position played were obtained f o r a l l subjects. Through radio telemetry, i n conjunction with an electrocardioscribe and a heart rate monitor, the following data was obtained: a) resting heart rate b) terminal heart rate c) recovery heart rate d) recovery half-time e) post-exercise recovery rate f) subjective recovery time Each subject was required to skate s i x times:  three t r i a l s as  a control subject, which recovered i n normal s i t t i n g position, and three times as an experimental subject, which recovered i n the recumbent position with the legs raised on a bench twenty inches high.  R e l i a b i l i t y measurements performed using the Pearson ProductMoment Method resulted i n an r = 0.420 f o r resting heart rates, and an r = 0.649 for terminal heart rates.  A c o r r e l a t i o n between recovery  half-times and the subjective recovery times for each of the s i x t r i a l s was calculated.  A " t " test for correlated samples was performed  between the means of the t r i a l s of the control group and between the means of the t r i a l s of the experimental group recovery half-times. " t " test was then performed  A  to determine the significance of the  difference between the mean of the means of the recovery half-times of the control and experimental groups. A t value of 2.79, s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence was found. F i n a l l y a test of significance was performed on the postexercise recovery heart rates of the control and experimental groups. On the basis of the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis and with respect to the small sample studied, the following conclusions appear warranted: 1.  Elevation of the legs s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced the recovery time at the .05 l e v e l of confidence.  2.  The r e l i a b i l i t i e s of resting and terminal heart rates were too low to be of s i g n i f i c a n t value.  3.  The subjects were not able to predict, with any degree of accuracy, when they had recovered s u f f i c i e n t l y to begin another skating period.  4.  Elevation of the legs and normal s i t t i n g produced no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the heart rates at the end of the four and one-half minute recovery period.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER I  II  PAGE STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Introduction  1  The Problem  1  Importance o f the Study  1  N u l l Hypothesis  2  Assumptions  2  Definitions  3  References  5  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  6  Use o f T e l e m e t r y  6  Heart Rate and F i t n e s s  8  R e s t i n g , E x e r c i s e , and Recovery Heart Rate F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g Heart Rate References III  1  . . . . . . . . .  METHODS AND PROCEDURES Subjects Experiment or 8 Preparation o f Subjects  . . .  9 18 ..21 26 26 .26 ..26  Method o f R e c o r d i n g Heart Rates  27  Measurement o f Recovery H a l f - T i m e  29  E x p e r i m e n t a l Design  29  T e s t Procedure  30  Subject O r i e n t a t i o n  30  CHAPTER  PAGE S t a t i s t i c a l Treatment  . . . . .  .31  References IV  32  RESULTS Descriptive  33 Statistics  33  R e l i a b i l i t y o f R e s t i n g and T e r m i n a l Heart R a t e s  . . . . . . .  33  C o r r e l a t i o n Between Recovery H a l f - T i m e and S u b j e c t i v e Recovery Time Tests of Significance Test of Significance  34  f o r Recovery H a l f - T i m e s  . . . . . . . .  f o r Mean o f Means  .37  P o s t - E x e r c i s e Recovery Heart Rates References V  .38 . . . . . . . . . 4 1  DISCUSSION Descriptive  35  42 Statistics  42  R e l i a b i l i t y o f R e s t i n g and T e r m i n a l Heart Rates  42  C o r r e l a t i o n Between Recovery H a l f - T i m e s and S u b j e c t i v e Recovery Time . . . Tests of Significance  f o r Recovery H a l f - T i m e s  T e s t o f S i g n i f i c a n c e f o r Mean o f Means  VI  46 . . . . . . . .  46 47  P o s t - E x e r c i s e Recovery H e a r t R a t e s  . 48  References  .50  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary Conclusions Recommendations  53 53 .53 55  CHAPTER  PAGE  BIBLIOGRAPHY  56  APPENDICES  61  A  S T A T I S T I C A L TREATMENT  61  B  SAMPLE DATA SHEET  63  C  RAW SCORES  64  D  HEART RATE C A L I B R A T I O N CHART  67  LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE  PAGE  I  The Skating Pattern  II  Electrocardiogram Telemetry System  4 . . . .  . . . . 28  LIST OF TABLES TABLE  PAGE  I  Population Means, Standard Deviation and Ranges  .'  II  Test-Retest R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s of Resting  and  • 33  Terminal Heart Rates, Means and Variance . . . . . . . . . . III  C o r r e l a t i o n Between Recovery Half-Time and Subjective Recovery Time of Control and Experimental T r i a l s  IV  35  Signifiance of the Difference Between the Mean Recovery Half-Times of the Control Group T r i a l s  V  36  Significance of the Difference Between the Mean Recovery Half-Times of the Experimental Group T r i a l s . . . .  VI  34  36  Significance of the Difference Between the Mean of the Means of the Recovery Half-Times of the Experimental  VII  and Control Groups  .  37  Means, Standard Deviations, and Ranges of the Post-Exercise Recovery Heart Rates of the Control and  Experimental  Groups VIII  Heart Rate Means for Control and Experimental Groups i n the Post-Exercise Recovery Period  IX  38  ..39  Significance of the Difference Between the Mean of the Means of the Post-Exercise Recovery Heart Rates of the Control and Experimental Groups  .40  CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM INTRODUCTION Many of the techniques and practices i n the game of hockey have resulted from i n d i v i d u a l preference and have been maintained by t r a d i t i o n . The analysis of strategy involved i n hockey, such as l i n e changes, methods of recovery,  shooting, skating, and development of plays have not  been studied s c i e n t i f i c a l l y .  This experiment has attepted to study a  new method of recovery, elevation of the legs, mainly as a coaching technique, with reference to some of the physiological p r i n c i p l e s involved during  recovery.  THE PROBLEM  The purpose of t h i s study was as follows: 1.  To determine i f the heart rate of i c e hockey players i s affected by elevation of t h e i r legs.  2.  To determine the subjective recovery time and to c a l c u l a t e the c o r r e l a t i o n between subjective and objective times.  3.  To determine the heart rate at four and one-half minutes a f t e r exercise. IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY  The game of hockey i s such that i t requires recovery between playing times.  periods  I f these recovery periods could be reduced, the  players would be able to return to the i c e sooner.  2 The exact amount of time a player needs to recover a f t e r a certain playing time on the i c e i s not known.  I f t h i s could be determined,  a more accurate estimate of player changes could be made. The average amount of time a player i s on the i c e per s h i f t i s approximately two minutes (1); however, at the 1968 Winter Olympic Games i n Grenoble, both the Canadian National Hockey Team and the Russian National Hockey Team worked on l i n e changes at i n t e r v a l s of approximately one minute (2).  NULL HYPOTHESIS The following n u l l hypothesis was chosen as a basis from which to work throughout t h i s experiment.  Elevation of the legs has no effect  on the recovery heart rate of i c e hockey players. Ho : u  x  = u  (3)  2  ASSUMPTIONS In order to carry out t h i s experiment i t was necessary to make the following assumptions: 1.  Ice conditions would be r e l a t i v e l y the same f o r each testing period.  2.  Players would cooperate and perform with maximum e f f o r t during the t e s t .  3.  The test i t s e l f would not provide additional conditioning to a f f e c t the r e s u l t s .  3 DEFINITIONS P r a c t i c a l Recovery Time - a period of four and one-half minutes a f t e r the skating period i n which the subject rests.  This  figure was chosen as the cut-off point and corresponds to the time normally a l l o t t e d a player under a t y p i c a l game s i t u a t i o n to recover before his next s h i f t on the i c e .  This time period also included l i n e  changes and play stoppages. Resting Heart Rate - the heart rate a f t e r the subject has rested i n normal s i t t i n g p o s i t i o n for f i v e minutes before the skating session. Terminal Heart Rate - the heart rate of the subject at the end of the one-minute skating period. Skating Period - the subject skates continuously, with maximum e f f o r t and without g l i d i n g or stopping, for one minute. Radio Telemetry - an electronic device used for measuring the heart rate.  The e l e c t r i c a l impulses from the heart of the subject are  relayed by means of a transmitter strapped on the waist of the subject, to a receiving apparatus situated i n the general area of a c t i v i t y . are no wires connecting  There  the subject with the receiving equipment and thus  the subject i s able to move f r e e l y ( 4 ) . Recovery Half-Time - the time for the heart rate a f t e r exercise to decrease to a rate half-way between the terminal heart rate and the resting heart rate ( 5 ) .  ^  Skating Pattern - the skating pattern consisted of the subject skating counterclockwise  around the goals.  FIGURE I SKATING PATTERN  5 REFERENCES 1.  P e r c i v a l , L., The Hockey Handbook, Toronto:  The Copp Clark Publishing  Co., 1965, p. 263. 2.  Hindmarch, R.G.,  3.  Ferguson, G.A., S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis i n Psychology and Education, New York, London, Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1959. Caceres, CA., Bio-Medical Telemetry, New York and London: Academic Press. 1965.  4. 5.  Personal Communication, June,  1968.  Denolin, H., Messin, R., Degne, S., "Testing of the Work Capacity of Cardiac Patients," i n Physical A c t i v i t y and the Heart, Springfield, I l l i n o i s : Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, 1967. p. 29.  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  The review of the l i t e r a t u r e has been divided into the following four sections: A.  Use of Telemetry,  B.  Heart Rate and Fitness,  C.  Resting, Exercise, and Recovery Heart Rates, and  D.  Factors A f f e c t i n g Heart Rate. A.  USE OF TELEMETRY  At the P.R. Lesgaft I n s t i t u t e of Physical Culture, Vasileva (1) analyzed the telemetered  heart rate recordings of 24 male subjects  during training sessions when they ran distances of 100, 4 0 0 , 800, 1500, and 10,000 meters. beats per minute.  At rest, the subjects' heart rates ranged from 5 2 - 6 0 A f t e r they had changed into track clothing and the  testing equipment had been attached, t h e i r heart rates ranged from 70-80 beats per minute.  While running d i f f e r e n t distances, the subjects' heart  rates increased constantly as they ran and reached a maximum rate at the end of tb)e running e f f o r t .  The heart rates were almost i d e n t i c a l at the  end of a run i r r e s p e c t i v e of the distance involved.  The acceleration of  the heart was p a r t i c u l a r l y rapid when the 100 and 400 meter distances were run.  In the case of the 10,000 meter run, the athlete's maximum heart rate  was not reached u n t i l he had been running  for seven minutes.  In a l l cases  the heart rates had not returned to the resting l e v e l at the end of a ten minute period of rest.  7 Kozar (2) used a t e l e m e t r y  system t o o b t a i n r e c o r d s o f t h e h e a r t  r e a c t i o n f o r R i c h a r d M o n p e t i t , t h e B i g Ten, a l l round champion, d u r i n g performances on gymnastic apparatus. p a r a l l e l b a r s , h i g h bar, Oka  etal  s t u d i e s o f runners, suddenly i n c r e a s e d .  R o u t i n e s were performed on t h e  s i d e h o r s e and t h e s t i l l r i n g s .  (3) found by means o f t e l e m e t r y  i n electrocardiographic  t h a t immediately a f t e r t h e s t a r t o f t h e run, t h e r a t e I n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e run, i t c o n t i n u e d  to increase  g r a d u a l l y , showing some f l u c t u a t i o n s , and reached t h e maximum r a t e b e f o r e t h e end o f a m i l e r u n . Orban e t a l ( 4 ) , employing r a d i o t e l e m e t r y  i n a study a t t h e  U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan, i n v e s t i g a t e d h e a r t r a t e responses t o i n t e r v a l running  on an i n d o o r board t r a c k .  F i v e s u b j e c t s , aged 19-23 y e a r s , r a n  i n t e r v a l 330 y a r d d i s t a n c e s w i t h v a r i o u s r e c o v e r y between them.  intervals interspersed  They found t h a t t h e a b s o l u t e r e c o v e r y v a l u e o f t h e h e a r t  r a t e i n each i n t e r v a l r u n was i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e l e n g t h o f t h e recovery  interval. Howard, B l y t h and T h o r n t o n (5) used t e l e m e t r y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of N o r t h C a r o l i n a t o d i s c o v e r and r e c o r d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n h e a r t when s p e c i f i c  e x e r c i s e r o u t i n e s were performed without  warm-up and f o l l o w i n g warm-up.  rates  a preliminary  S p e c i a l emphasis i n t h e study was g i v e n t o  t h e a n t i c i p a t o r y i n c r e a s e i n h e a r t r a t e , t h e maximum h e a r t r a t e , and t h e decrease i n heart r a t e during recovery  periods.  T e l e m e t e r e d h e a r t measurements o f s u b j e c t s engaged i n v a r i o u s s p o r t s were taken by S e l i g e r (6) o f C h a r l e s U n i v e r s i t y , Prague. measurements were made f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f s k i i n g and canoeing  Telemetric races.  Measurements were a l s o t a k e n f o r p e r i o d s l a s t i n g t e n minutes i n f o o t b a l l ,  8 basketball, and table tennis.  A c t i v i t y patterns were measured for one  and  one-half minutes i n i c e hockey, three minute periods during boxing matches, and for periods of one minute during punching bag  B. HEART RATE AND  exercises.  FITNESS  Among the v a r i a b l e s used i n the testing of f i t n e s s , heart rate has probably been most widely used.  Abrahams (7) suggested that  acceleration of the heart rate due to exercise was than the recovery heart rate.  of less consequence  Darling (8) and Astrand  (9) have expressed  the view that recovery heart rate was a suitable measure of changes of f i t n e s s i n one i n d i v i d u a l , but was  of limited use i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g  between i n d i v i d u a l s . Karvonen (10) has suggested that heart rate i n rest, exercise and recovery may  r e f l e c t mechanisms of the cardio-respiratory  system which are l a r g e l y independent. Tests of physical f i t n e s s using heart rate during exercise have been widely used (11, 12, 13). two ways:  Heart rate i s usually employed i n one of  1. the amount of work which can be performed for a c e r t a i n  heart rate, t y p i f i e d by the physical work capacity test used by Adams (11) and the optimal work capacity test  discussed by Balke and Ware (12); and  2. heart rate response to a given amount of work. two well-established p r i n c i p l e s :  These tests have applied  1. that well-conditioned  subjects have  a lower heart rate at various l e v e l s of work (14, 15) and that t r a i n i n g results i n a decrease i n heart rate for a given work load, or an Increase in the work required to produce a given heart rate (16, 17, 18);  and  2. that a l i n e a r relationship exists between heart rate, work load, and 0-  consumption through submaximal work and up to work r e s u l t i n g i n heart  9 rates as high as 180 beats per minute (9, 19, 20, 21). Recovery heart rate has been shown to reach a lower l e v e l as a r e s u l t of t r a i n i n g (22, 23, 24) and to r e f l e c t the i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l differences i n f i t n e s s i n which respect Andersen (22) found differences associated with age, occupational a c t i v i t y and army t r a i n i n g .  C  RESTING, EXERCISE AND RECOVERY HEART RATES  Cotton (25) reviewed evidence showing that athletes have lower basal heart rates than non-athletes and reported i n h i s own data showing that athletes of d i f f e r e n t c a l i b e r in; the same event were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by basal heart rate.  Cotton performed pulse counts on a group of 80  highly trained swimmers and Olympic swimmers. a f t e r a night's rest.  The pulse counts were taken  A f t e r waking, the subjects remained recumbent i n  bed u n t i l the observations were made.  Champion swimmers were found to  have basal heart rates 7 beats per minute slower than the highly trained swimmers. Bramwell (26), at the 1928 Olympic Games, found i n a study o f 28 distance runners and 28 sprinters, that the marathon runners had resting heart rates 8 beats per minute slower than the sprinters. Rozenblat (27) who monitored heart rate using radio telemetry during short sprints and v a r i a b l e work, and Brouha and Heath (28) i n a study of 265 college students, found no s a t i s f a c t o r y relationship between resting heart rate and performance. Taylor (29) claimed that the l i t e r a t u r e consistently demonstrated no useful relationship between f i t n e s s and resting heart rate.  His view  was supported by the findings of Cook and Pembry (30) and Linde (31).  10 Although absolute resting heart rate enjoyed  l i t t l e favor,  some authors saw f i t to include i t i n f i t n e s s indices i n conjunction with other counts of heart rate, i . e . : - Modified Step Test (32), T u t t l e Pulse-Ratio (33) and c a l c u l a t i o n of cardiac cost according to Brouha (34). Astrand discouraged mixing the heart rates. The average pulse rate measured by Seliger (6) during skiing and canoeing  showed l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n while the maximum values were 188 beats  per minute during skiing and 149 beats per minute during paddling. Maximum average values of pulse beats per minute were 168 i n f o o t b a l l , 125 i n v o l l e y b a l l , and 118 i n table tennis. pulse rate was  177 beats per minute.  the average pulse rate was  During i c e hockey the average  For three minute rounds i n boxing,  171 beats per minute.  Rozar (2) recorded heart rate during two gymnastic routines. In the major routine he found that the heart rate increased to 169  beats  per minute and i n the second routine the heart rate reached a high of 150 beats per minute.  In a l l cases, he found that the heart rates reached  a peak at the end of the event.  Vasileva (1) , Oka  (3) and Orban (4) also  reported t h i s phenomena. Chambers (35), i n a study of four i c e hockey players aged  19-26  years, reported the following data for maximal heart rates achieved during skating periods of one-half, one, and one and one-half minutes respectively, with a period of four and one-half minutes for recovery between skating sessions.  The maximal heart rates achieved ranged from 170-184, 173"-187,  and 170-187 beats per minute for the one-half, one and one and one-half minute skating periods respectively.  11 Heart rate counted i n recovery has enjoyed the widest use i n fitness testing.  It has usually figured i n ratio-type tests such as the  Harvard Step-Test and the Johnson, Brouha and Darling Test (36) i n which heart rate i s related to duration of work.  However, when monitored  following maximal work, there has been l i t t l e evidence that t r a i n i n g a f f e c t s recovery heart rate.  Knehr (37), i n a study on freshman students  at Harvard University, showed that while t r a i n i n g resulted i n a percent  59.6  increase i n work done, maximal heart rate did not change and  recovery curves remained almost i d e n t i c a l .  Cogswell (23) who performed a  battery of physical performance and psychomotor tests, including step tests and b i c y c l e ergometer work, on 7 male volunteers aged 23-28 years, confirmed Knehr's findings. I t should perhaps be emphasized that recovery heart rate provides two  sources of f i t n e s s index which are quite d i s t i n c t .  heart rate may  First,  recovery  r e f l e c t heart rate achieved during work, and secondly, the  study of deceleration during recovery may  be informative.  With respect  to the former, there has been evidence to support the fact that heart rate counted shortly a f t e r an exercise accurately r e f l e c t e d heart rate at the end of exercise* Cotton (25) found that, following work leading to heart rates of 149-167 beats per minute, heart rate for the f i r s t ten seconds a f t e r work was v i r t u a l l y the same as the l a s t ten seconds of exercise. calculated that recovery heart rate may  He  be used to predict exercise  heart rate ". . . with an error whose standard deviation i s less than 3 percent."  E l b e l and Green (38) found that heart rate counted immediately  a f t e r l i g h t work accurately r e f l e c t e d the work load, but that one minute  a f t e r work, heart rate bore l i t t l e r e l a t i o n to work load.  Le Blanc  (39)  reported that heart rate counted up to f i f t e e n seconds a f t e r exercise accurately r e f l e c t e d both i n t e n s i t y and duration of work, and heart rate during work. Astrand  (9) suggested that recovery rate i s of limited use  since i t varied from person to person, even i f f i t n e s s by other c r i t e r i a was  the same.  Brouha (34) while Indicating the value of maximal recovery  heart rate - dependent on the maximal i n exercise - showed no change i n the slope of the recovery curves a f t e r t r a i n i n g , and hence no d e f i n i t e tendency with regard to deceleration.  Taylor's curves (29)  likewise  showed no d e f i n i t e differences i n deceleration for groups of various l e v e l s of f i t n e s s . The behavior of recovery heart rates has been shown to be largely governed by the i n t e n s i t y and duration of the preceeding exercise, and the same factors which influence the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of heart rate during work have appeared to influence heart rate during recovery  (7, 14,  40).  Morehouse and T u t t l e (41), i n t h e i r study on post-exercise heart rates, stated a number of conclusions that are generally agreed upon by other investigators (42, 43, 44, 45). 1.  They reported that:  The r e l i a b i l i t y of the pulse rate for two minutes a f t e r exercise was d i r e c t l y related to the strenuousness of the exercise;  2.  The rate of the f i r s t few heart beats immediately following exercise was d i r e c t l y related to the i n t e n s i t y of the exercise and the resting rate;  13 3.  The post-exercise increase i n pulse rate above the resting l e v e l was d i r e c t l y related to the i n t e n s i t y of the exercise, and at mild i n t e n s i t i e s of exercise was  inversely related  to the resting pulse rate; 4.  The rate of pulse deceleration following exercise  was  d i r e c t l y related to the i n t e n s i t y of the exercise and  the  elevation of the pulse rate immediately a f t e r exercise. A f t e r a very l i g h t exercise, i t was  inversely related to  the resting pulse rate. The v a l i d i t y of recovery heart rate as an index of maximal work output appeared to have l i t t l e promise.  Rasch and Pierson (46) found no  c o r r e l a t i o n between heart rate a f t e r submaximal work and f i n i s h i n g positions i n a cross country race.  Heart rate was counted from one minute to one  one-half minutes a f t e r exercise.  Taylor (29) obtained  c o e f f i c i e n t s between recovery heart rate and time run. 0.21  and  low c o r r e l a t i o n The highest  was  for the heart rate counted two minutes a f t e r light exercise -  walking. Test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of pre-exercise  standing  heart rates were calculated for the Terminal Step Test by Bakogeorge (47). From h i s data the following c o e f f i c i e n t s of r e l i a b i l i t y were found: 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0  min. min. min. min.  r r r r  = 0.501 = 0.616 = 0.592 = 0.657  From a c o r r e l a t i o n of performance time and a terminal heart rate of  180  beats per minute Bakogeorge obtained a r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.998 for terminal heart rate on a sample of 30 male freshmen at the University of Alberta.  A l l r's were s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01  l e v e l of  confidence.  From an investigation by Morehouse (48), Bakogeorge calculated the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t for pre-exercise standing heart rate and obtained a Spearman's Rho  of 0.61  for the Morehouse data which  s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01  l e v e l of confidence  was  for 20 subjects.  From Dempsey (49), Bakogeorge reported a pre-exercise standing heart rate r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of r = 0.419. Alderman (50) investigated fatigue on a b i c y c l e ergometer using a t e s t - r e t e s t design i n which f o r t y male subjects were required to pedal against a progressively increasing resistance u n t i l t h e i r heart rates reached 180 beats per minute. the two bouts of work.  Forty-eight hours elapsed between  The raw data obtained was  the amount of time  required by each subject to reach a heart rate of 100 beats per minute during recovery.  Test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s tended to increase  during exercise with a r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.922 for the 180 rate l e v e l .  heart  Alderman presented the following data: Heart Rate (b.p.m.)  R e l i a b i l i t y Coefficient  100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180  0.292 0.499 0.628 0.751 0.818 0.856 0.894 0.888 0.855  Bernauer (51) used telemetry and an electronic counter system and measured beat-to-beat v a r i a t i o n i n resting, exercise and heart rates.  Twenty college women aged 18-22  recovery  years, rested for f i f t e e n  minutes, then were required to run on the spot for two minutes. a ten-minute rest the exercise was  repeated.  The  following  After  15 c o e f f i c i e n t s of r e l i a b i l i t y were calculated: standing heart rate - r = 0.79 exercise heart rate - r = 0.63 recovery heart rate - r = 0.61 -  0.79 0.78  Bengtsson (52) found the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of exercise heart rate during submaximal work by normal children on the b i c y c l e ergometer.  Bengtsson found the following: heart rate (b.p.m.)  130  150  160  170  r  0.70  0.73  0.60  0.77  From raw data presented by Chambers (35), t e s t - r e t e s t coefficents of r e l i a b i l i t y were calculated using the Pearson Product-Moment method. On the four subjects aged 19-26, the r e l i a b i l i t y of resting heart rates was  r = 0.302 and the r e l i a b i l i t y of the terminal heart rates  was  r = 0.407 for the one-minute skating session. The  l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g to the duration of the recovery  in i c e hockey appeared to be v i r t u a l l y non-existent.  period  P e r c i v a l (53)  mentioned that an i c e hockey player was on the i c e for approximately two minutes per s h i f t but the average time spent for recovery on the bench was not indicated. Nocker (54) advocated that the recovery time be computed by taking one-third of the difference between the resting pulse rate and terminal pulse rate and subtracting the quotient obtained maximum pulse rate during exercise.  the  from the  Nocker claimed that h i s was  the  figure at which, a f t e r a sudden drop, the heart rate tended to s t a b i l i z e or descend more slowly, and was the point at which the next e f f o r t began. Almond (54) suggested that the f i r s t phase of recovery took approximately two minutes, while the second phase might last from f i v e  16 minutes t o a few h o u r s i n an u n t r a i n e d s u b j e c t . Ecker  ( 5 4 ) , when d i s c u s s i n g i n t e r v a l t r a i n i n g  i n t r a c k and f i e l d ,  for sprinters  s t a t e d t h a t most coaches worked on t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t  r e c o v e r y should be j u s t , and o n l y j u s t , s u f f i c i e n t t o permit t h e r e q u i r e d speed and number o f f a s t r e p e t i t i o n s a t t h e p r e s c r i b e d d i s t a n c e . maintained  t h a t t h i s was o n l y p a r t i a l r e c o v e r y and t h a t no exact  means had y e t proven p e r i o d f o r each  f u l l y s u c c e s s f u l i n computing t h e c o r r e c t  scientific  recovery  individual.  Lehman (54) contended  t h a t many s h o r t r e s t p e r i o d s should  e f f e c t a more f a v o r a b l e r e c o v e r y than l o n g e r r e s t p e r i o d s w i t h pauses.  Ecker  fewer  He c i t e d t h e e f f o r t s o f two R u s s i a n s , Kuts and B o l o t n i k o v , who  have been known t o c o v e r some s i x t y 400 meter r e p e t i t i o n s i n one s e s s i o n , w i t h a s l i t t l e as a 100 meter j o g r e c o v e r y i n t e r v a l . G e r s c h l e r (54) advocated along with i n t e r v a l t r a i n i n g  t h e u s e o f a r e c o v e r y p u l s e count  f o r runners and f o r m u l a t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g  conclusions: 1.  E l e v a t i o n o f t h e h e a r t r a t e t o 120 beats p e r minute by means o f a p r e l i m i n a r y warm-up;  2.  Ensurance o f a maximan h e a r t r a t e o f 170-180 beats p e r minute by running an a s s i g n e d number o f f a s t f i x e d d i s t a n c e s a t s p e c i f i c speed  s e c t o r s over  t h a t would make t h i s  p o s s i b l e ; and 3.  R e d u c t i o n o f t h e h e a r t r a t e t o about 120 b e a t s p e r minute by an a p p r o p r i a t e r e c o v e r y p e r i o d .  T h i s t h r e s h o l d was more e f f e c t i v e l y a c h i e v e d by s p e l l s o f work not more than t h i r t y seconds i n d u r a t i o n , f o l l o w e d by a r e c o v e r y i n t e r v a l which  17 R e i n d e l l (52) claimed would take between 40 and 90 seconds.  I f the  recovery took longer than 90 seconds, i t was because the e f f o r t demanded was either too long or too v i o l e n t ; i n which case appropriate action could be taken by cutting down the distance or speed of the runs.  I f recovery  took less than 40 seconds the runner should begin running again e a r l i e r . By t h i s method R e i n d e l l , as reported i n Gerschler (54) , thought that the production of l a c t i c acid would be kept to a minimum and one's aerobic capacity would be most e f f e c t i v e l y trained. Muller (40) suggested that what lowered the c o n t r a c t i l e strength of a fatigued muscle was the accumulation of substances which stopped the contraction i n the working muscle.  These substances, mainly  acids, were either oxidized i n the working muscles to CO^ or removed as such, or l e f t the muscle transformed to l a c t i c or pyruvic acid by d i f f u s i o n into the blood to be oxidized.  Up to a c e r t a i n l i m i t of dynamic work,  contractions produced substances which should be oxidized during the following pause for relaxation to enable the work to go on.  I f t h i s was  not the case, longer rest allowances should be provided to get fatigue and recovery between contractions into equilibrium. In these rest pauses, not only were acids removed from the muscle, but also they were used to r e f i l l f u l l stores i n the muscles. These processes were so timed that the time f o r the removal of 'stopping' substances corresponded roughly to the time needed f o r r e f i l l i n g the f u l l stores.  I f the 'stopping' substances were removed faster i t would be  possible to reduce the recovery time.  Two methods of increasing the  removal of 'stopping' substances were massage and elevation of the legs.  18 Very l i t t l e has been written that i s d i r e c t l y related to elevation of the legs i n recovery.  P e r c i v a l (53) has suggested that one  rest with feet elevated as high as possible over the head. position, he suggested, was a bench or against the wall. e f f e c t i v e way  should  An i d e a l  to l i e on the back with the feet propped upon P e r c i v a l believed t h i s method to be an  of getting r i d of venal blood i n the legs and eliminating  congregation of fatigue acids which prolong  recovery.  Morehouse and M i l l e r (45) stated that rest i n a horizontal position, preferably with the legs elevated, should be allowed between bouts of strenuous work. Bevegard, Halmgren and Jonsson (55) used ten healthy adult males and studied stroke volume v i a heart catherization at rest and work i n supine and s i t t i n g positions. on the average was  2.2  i n the supine p o s i t i o n . rest was  f o r t y percent  during  They reported that cardiac output  l i t e r s per minute less i n the s i t t i n g p o s i t i o n than In the s i t t i n g p o s i t i o n , the stroke volume at smaller than i n the supine p o s i t i o n .  I t increased  considerably with mild work, but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y with an even heavier load.  I t never reached the values obtained In the supine position, even  during heavy work.  D.  FACTORS AFFECTING HEART RATE  In h i s textbook on physiology,  Samson Wright (56) stated that  heart rate regulation came from three areas: impulses from the higher centers; r e s p i r a t i o n and reflexes.  The f i r s t referred to emotion and  excitement which increased the heart rate, and sudden shocks which slowed or arrested the heart rate.  During periods of quiet breathing, the heart  19 r a t e was not a l t e r e d ; however, d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f deep b r e a t h i n g , h e a r t r a t e was i n c r e a s e d upon i n s p i r a t i o n and decreased The  with e x p i r a t i o n .  sources o f r e f l e x c o n t r o l o f t h e h e a r t r a t e were l i s t e d  as f o l l o w s : 1.  Sinus and a o r t i c n e r v e s - r e c e p t o r s s e n s i t i v e t o sudden changes i n a r t e r i a l b l o o d  2.  A f f e r e n t s from t h e g r e a t v e i n s - r e c e p t o r s s e n s i t i v e t o changes i n venous b l o o d  3.  pressure;  pressure;  Changes i n b l o o d 0^ and C 0 heart r a t e .  2  - l a c k o f 0^ a c c e l e r a t e d t h e  Excess CC>2> when o f moderate extent  increased  t h e h e a r t r a t e ; however, i n v e r y l a r g e amounts, (X>2 poisoned t h e bundles o f H i s and produced h e a r t b l o c k s and a slow ventricular rate; 4.  Temperature - a r i s e i n body temperature s t i m u l a t e d t h e c a r d i o - a c c e l e r a t o r c e n t e r and a c t e d d i r e c t l y on t h e s i n o a u r i c u l a r node and quickened  5.  I n t r a c r a n i a l pressure  t h e r a t e o f impulse  - a rise,  formation;  i f v e r y l a r g e , as i n l a t e  c a s e s o f c e r e b r a l tumor, d i r e c t l y s t i m u l a t e d t h e vagus c e n t e r and 6.  slowed t h e h e a r t ;  Adrenaline, Thyroxine, Vasopressin  - a d r e n a l i n e and  v a s o p r e s s i n slowed t h e h e a r t , w h i l e t h y r o x i n e a c c e l e r a t e d the h e a r t r a t e ; 7.  M u s c u l a r e x e r c i s e - a c c e l e r a t e d t h e h e a r t r a t e due m a i n l y t o t h e venous r e f l e x ; a c c e s s o r y f a c t o r s were impulses  from  the h i g h e r c e n t e r s , r i s e i n CO- t e n s i o n , and temperature.  20 The Taylor  (29).  need f o r c o n t r o l o f t e s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s was emphasized b y He suggested t h a t h e a r t  r a t e c u r v e s d u r i n g work may be  d e f l e c t e d b y such f a c t o r s as meals b e f o r e  the t e s t , f a t i g u e , mechanical  e f f i c i e n c y , h u m i d i t y , temperature and emotion.  Temperature and emotion  appeared t o be o f p a r t i c u l a r importance. According heart  to D i l l  r a t e was n o t a b l e  ( 5 7 ) , when temperature was not c l o s e l y c o n t r o l l e d ,  f o r i t s l a c k o f constancy.  Horvath (14) found s i m i l a r evidence concerning With r e f e r e n c e  L e B l a n c (39) and  temperature.  t o e m o t i o n a l e f f e c t s on h e a r t  suggested t h a t p h y s i o l o g i s t s u s i n g  r a t e , T a y l o r (15)  submaximal work t e s t s made t h e  assumption t h a t t h e s t r e s s o f work o v e r r i d e s t h e e f f e c t o f emotion on the b e h a v i o r o f t h e work and/or r e c o v e r y  pulse.  He took t h e v i e w t h a t  work may m i n i m i z e such e f f e c t s , but gave an example o f t h e d r a m a t i c increase i n heart stumbling.  r a t e during  a t r e a d m i l l run as a r e s u l t o f a subject  He a l s o s t a t e d t h a t maximal h e a r t  r a t e was not a f f e c t e d b y  emotion. ^  Rozenblat  He r e p o r t e d  (27) p r e s e n t e d c o n t r a r y e v i d e n c e t o T a y l o r ' s  that b a s k e t b a l l players during  moderate, m a i n t a i n e d h e a r t  findings.  t r a i n i n g , when t h e e f f o r t was  r a t e s between 180 and 198 b e a t s p e r minute f o r  long p e r i o d s , and a c c r e d i t e d t h i s h i g h  l e v e l t o emotional i n f l u e n c e s .  21 REFERENCES 1.  V a s i l e v a , V.V., "Analyse Teleraetrique de l a frequence cardiaque dans l a course sur differentes distances," Revue de 1'education physique, V o l . 3 (Jan. 1963), pp. 25-30.  2.  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New York: Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., 1959, pp. 108-195.  35.  Chambers, D.L., "The E f f e c t of S p e c i f i c Experimental Variables on Recovery Rate of the Heart of V a r s i t y Ice Hockey Players," Unpublished Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967.  36.  Johnson, R.E., Brouha, L., Darling, R.C., "A Test of Physical Fitness for Strenuous Exertion," Revue Canadienne de Biologie, V o l . 1 (Mar. 1942), pp. 491-503.  37.  Knehr, CA., D i l l , D.B., Neufeld, W., "Training and I t s E f f e c t s on Man at Rest and at Work," American Journal of Physiology, V o l . 136 (Dec. 1942) pp. 148-158.  38.  E l b e l , E.R., Green, E.L., "Pulse Reaction to Performing Step-Up Exercises on Benches of Different Heights," American Journal of Physiology. V o l . 145 (Oct. 1946), pp. 521-527.  39.  Le Blanc, J.A., "Use of Heart Rate as an Index of Work Output," Journal of Applied Physiology. V o l . 10 (July 1956), pp. 275-280.  40.  Muller, E.A., "The Physiological Basis of Rest Pauses i n Heavy Work," Quarterly Journal of Experimental Medicine, V o l . 38 (Jan.-Dec. 1953), pp. 205-215.  41.  Morehouse, L.E., T u t t l e , W.W., "A Study of Post-Exercise Heart Rates," Research Quarterly. V o l . 13:1 (Mar. 1942), p.3.  24 42.  T u t t l e , W.W., S a l i t , E.P., "Relation of Resting Heart to Increase i n Rate Due to Exercise, American Heart Jounral, V o l . 29 (May 1945), p. 594.  43.  Manfield, M.E., Brouha, L., " V a l i d i t y of Heart Rate As an Indicator of Cardiac S t r a i n , " Journal of Applied Physiology. V o l . 18 (Feb. 1963), pp. 573-end.  44.  Braun, G.L., "Pulse Rate Reaction of Children to Graded Exercise," Research Quarterly, V o l . 13:1 (Mar. 1962), p. 79.  45.  Morehouse, L., M i l l e r , A.T., C.V. MosleyCo., 1963.  46.  Rasch, P.J., Pierson, W.R., "Evaluation of a Submaximal Test for Estimating Physical Work Capacity," Ergonomics. V o l . 28 (July 1959), pp. 389-396.  47.  Bakogeorge, A.P., "The Relationship of Selected Anthropometrical and P h y s i o l o g i c a l Variables to the Balke Treadmill Test and Terminal Step Test and Test I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p , " Unpublished Master's Thesis University of Alberta, 1964.  48.  Morehouse, L., "A Study of the Response of the Heart to Various Types of Exercise," Doctoral Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, 1941, Microcard.  49.  Dempsey, J.A., "Anthropometrical and P h y s i o l o g i c a l Observations of Obese and Non-Obese Young Men Undergoing a Program of Vigorous Physical Exercise," Unpublished Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Alberta, 1963.  50.  Alderman, R.B., "The R e l i a b i l i t y of B i c y c l e Ergometer Work and Balke 180 Heart Response Test," Unpublished Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Southern C a l i f o r n i a , 1964, Microcard.  51.  Bernauer, E.M., "The Use of a Telemeter-Electronic Counter System to Measure Beat-to-Beat V a r i a t i o n i n Resting, Exercise, and Recovery Heart Rates," a paper presented to the Southwest D i s t r i c t Conference, A p r i l 21, 1966.  52.  Bengtsson, E., "The Working Capacity i n Normal Children, Evaluated by Submaximal Exercise on the B i c y c l e Ergometer," Acta Medica Scandinavica, V o l . 154:2 (Oct. 1956).  53.  P e r c i v a l , L., The Hockey Handbook, Toronto: Publishing Co., 1965.  54.  Down, M.G., "An Appraisal of I n t e r v a l Training," Track Technique, V o l . 24 (June 1966), pp. 764-766.  Physiology of Exercise.  St. Louis:  the  The Copp Clark  25 55.  Bevegard, S., Halmgren, A., Jonsson, B., "The E f f e c t of Body P o s i t i o n on the C i r c u l a t i o n at Rest and During Exercise, with Special Reference to Stroke Volume," Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, V o l . 49 (Feb. I960), pp. 279 -298.  56.  Wright, Samson, Applied Physiology, London, New York, Toronto: Geoffrey Camberlege, Oxford University Press, 1952.  57.  D i l l , D.B., "Relation of the Heart Rate," i n Work and the Heart. Edited by F.F. Rosenbaum, E.L. Belknap. New York: Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., 1959, pp. 60-73.  CHAPTER I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURES SUBJECTS The subjects consisted of eight male members of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Thunderbird Ice Hockey Team, who possessed a f a i r l y high l e v e l of hockey a b i l i t y and skating s k i l l , as indicated by the coach. The subjects had been practicing and playing hockey for approximately four months.  EXPERT MENTORS The experimentors consisted of the author and one member of the i c e hockey team who assisted by organizing and co-ordinating testing times and recording most of the data during each t r i a l of the experiment. PREPARATION OF SUBJECTS Each subject was f i t t e d with a Parks Transmitter (Model  27-1)  attached to a belt by a metal c l i p (1). The subject was then prepared for the attachment  of two Beckman electrodes; one at the top of the  sternum and one below and beside the l e f t nipple, between the r i b s .  The  skin areas were cleaned with rubbing alcohol and h a i r was shaved from the chest area to provide a good contact and prevent a r t i f a c t s .  Adhesive  d i s c s were attached to the electrodes and chloride j e l l y was forced into the holes of the electrodes with a hypodermic syringe to assure a better contact.  The electrodes were then placed i n position and secured with  adhesive tape.  The electrodes were then connected to the transmitter and  27 to prevent accidental p u l l i n g , the excess electrode wire was secured with adhesive tape to the abdominal region of the subject.  METHOD OF RECORDING HEART RATES The e l e c t r i c a l potentials sent to the surface of the skin with each heart beat was picked up by the electrodes and sent to the transmitter which relayed the signal v i a radio-frequency waves to a Parks Telemetry Receiver (Model RB-27).  The receiver was connected to a General E l e c t r i c  Cardioscribe (Model D.W.B.) and to a Parks Heart Rate Monitor  (Model 504),  (2, 3). The heart rate monitor gave a v i s u a l record of the heart rate during the experiment while the E.C.G. maintained a graphic record from which r e s u l t s were re-checked.  The metered scale of the heart rate monitor  indicated the heart rate by averaging every three beats; so, except f o r records of the terminal heart rate, the monitor was used only as a guide to approximate a subject's heart rate, while the cardioscribe was referred to for more accurate readings. The heart rate from the E.C.G. was calculated by the measurement of the distance of three consecutive heart beats on the graph paper. This was based on the formula: I  heart rate = paper speed x 60 x 3 number of millimeters Most graphic recorders run at a speed of 25 millimeters per second, and three beats i n 25 mms.  represents a heart rate of 180 beats per minute.  A table l i s t i n g a l l heart rates from 50-180 beats per minute can be found i n Appendix D.  ELECTROCARDIOGRAM TELEMETRY SYSTEM  E.C.G.GRAPHIC RECORDER  ANTENNA  ANTENNA  ^7  propigated radio^ waves modulated by E C G waveform  ELECTRODES ON S U B J E C T O-  ^7  — [  HEART R A T E METER & COUNTER  AUIDI B L E TRANSMITTER ON BELT  RECEIVER RF signals demodulated lea ving E C G wavefo r m  -Q  TONE  MAGNETIC COMPUTER TAPE OUTPUT  FIGUBE  II  MEASUREMENT OF RECOVERY HALF-TIME The recovery half-time represented the time taken f o r the heart to return to a rate half-way between the terminal heart rate and the resting heart rate.  The terminal heart rate was read d i r e c t l y from the  heart rate monitor as the subject skated toward the bench during the f i n a l ten seconds of the skating period.  The recovery heart rate was  calculated and the alarm indicator on the heart rate monitor was set at that value.  A stop watch was started immediately a f t e r the subject  stepped o f f the i c e . When the heart rate dropped to within f i v e beats of the calculated recovery heart rate, the E.C.6. was started and when the heart rate f e l l to the desired rate, an alarm buzzer sounded, the watch was stopped, and the time was recorded.  The E.C.6. was allowed  to run for one minute a f t e r the alarm sounded and l a t e r was used to check the r e s u l t s .  EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN A r o t a t i o n a l group design (4) was used f o r the testing  procedure  with four subjects chosen at random to act as the experimental group. A f t e r each member had completed three t r i a l s , the groups were reversed and the experimental group became the controls - recovering i n normal s i t t i n g position, while the control group performed the experimental method - recovery v i a elevation of the legs.  Six separate days were  required for each subject to complete the experiment.  TEST PROCEDURE Each day a subject was required to skate only once.  A subject wore a  sweat s u i t , i c e skates and carried a hockey s t i c k during the skating period.  The radio telemetry apparatus was applied and the subject was  asked to rest i n normal s i t t i n g position for f i v e minutes, a f t e r which the resting heart rate was recorded.  The subject then skated f o r one  minute i n a counterclockwise pattern around the goal posts, and the terminal heart r a t e was recorded as the subject skated to the bench. The recovery heart rate was calculated and the alarm was set on the heart rate monitor.  The moment the subject stepped o f f the i c e two stop-  watches were started simultaneously; one to record the time f o r the heart to reach the recovery rate indicated by the alarm buzzer, and one to record the subjective recovery heart rate time.  Each subject was allowed  to recover f o r a period of four and one-half minutes, a f t e r which the heart rate was recorded again. The control group recovered i n the normal s i t t i n g position a f t e r the skating period while the experimental group recovered i n the supine position with the legs placed on a bench twenty inches high.  SUBJECT ORIENTATION Each subject was given two practice t r i a l s to f a m i l i a r i z e him with the testing procedure, telemetry equipment, and the recovery methods.  I t was f e l t that practice would help to eliminate any possible  apprehension the subject might have had concerning the experiment and the equipment used.  31 The practice t r i a l s were also b e n e f i c i a l to the experimentors i n that i t gave them a chance to f a m i l i a r i z e themselves with the equipment and to obtain a rough estimate of the terminal heart rates and recovery half-times of each subject.  STATISTICAL TREATMENT A t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y was calculated for the resting and terminal heart rates using the Pearson Product Moment formula (5) while Spearman's Rhb f o r calculating r's was used as a check. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation formula for raw data was used to determine the relationship between subjective and objective recovery times i n each of the s i x t r i a l s . A " t " test was performed according to Ferguson (6) on the means of the recovery times of the experimental t r i a l s - three separate tests on each group. A " t " test between the mean of the means of the control group was performed. Symbolically the test was performed as follows: Control Group Trials  CI CI  C2  C3  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  Experimental Group  Mean  ic. -  z  mm  XC  El  E2  E3  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  Mean  ic, _1 -  XE  32 REFERENCES  1.  Parks E l e c t r o n i c s Laboratory Manual for E.C.G. Radio Telemetry, Beaverton, Oregon, 1965.  2.  General E l e c t r i c Cardioscribe Manual #1199A, X-ray Department, Milwaukee 1, Wisconsin.  3.  Parks Electronics Laboratory Manual for Heart Rate Monitor, Beaverton, Oregon, 1968.  4.  Mouly, G.T., The Science of Educational Research, New York: Book Company, 1963. p. 345.  5.  Gauett, H.E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education, F i f t h E d i t i o n . New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1965. p. 143.  6.  Ferguson, G.A., S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis i n Psychology and Education, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1959.  American  CHAPTER IV  RESULTS DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS The s t a t i s t i c s descriptive of the sample population have been summarized i n Table I. The data f o r a l l observations are presented i n d e t a i l for Appendix C. TABLE I POPULATION MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATION, AND RANGES (N=8)  Variable  Mean  Age (yrs.)  23.00  Height  (m)  Weight (kgs)  Standard Deviation  Range  2.12  20^27  0.08  1.575 - 1.867  8.43  66.74 - 98.97  1.767 80.87  The subjects were i n the age range of 20 to 27 years, \idth a + mean age of 23.00 - 2.12 years.  + The mean height wa3 1.767 - 0.08 meters,  with a range of 1.575 to 1.867 meters.  The mean weight was 80.87 - 8.43  kilograms, with a range of 66.74 to 98.97 kilograms. RELIABILITY OF RESTING AND TERMINAL HEART RATES The Pearson Product-Moment method (1) was used to determine the test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y of the resting and terminal heart rates i n t h i s study.  Spearman's rho was used to check the r e s u l t s .  The obtained  r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s along with t h e i r respective means and variances for Test One and Test Two appear i n Table I I . TABLE I I TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY COEFFICIENTS OF RESTING AND TERMINAL HEART RATES, MEANS AND VARIANCES (N=8)  Variable  Reliability Coefficient  Test One Mean Variance  Test Two Mean Variance  69.25  7.82  64.88  4.52  171.25  9.61  169.00  4.70  Resting Heart Rate (b.p.m.)  0.420  Terminal Heart Rate (b.p.m.)  0.649**  ** r = 0.582; s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence  The test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s for the resting and terminal heart rates were 0.420 and 0.649 respectively.  The terminal  heart rate r e l i a b i l i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from zero at the .05 l e v e l of confidence; while the resting heart rate r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant.  CORRELATION BETWEEN RECOVERY HALF-TIME AND SUBJECTIVE RECOVERY TIME A c o r r e l a t i o n between recovery half-time and the subjective recovery time was performed  f o r each of the s i x t r i a l s of the experiment;  the Pearson Product-Moment method was implemented. i s presented i n Table I I I .  A summary of r e s u l t s  35 TABLE I I I CORRELATION BETWEEN RECOVERY HALF-TIME AND SUBJECTIVE RECOVERY TIME OF CONTROL AND EXPERIMENTAL TRIALS (N=8)  Trial  Control Experimental  1 2 3 1 2 3  Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t  r r r r r r  = = = = = =  0.21 0.13 0.35 -0.06 -0.21 -0.39  The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s from t r i a l s 1, 2 and 3 of the control group were found to be r - 0.21, r = 0.13, and r = 0.35 respectively.  The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s for t r i a l s 1, 2, and 3  of the experimental group were r = -0.06, r = -0.21, and r = -0.39 respectively. TESTS OF SIGNIFICANCE FOR RECOVERY HALF-TIMES A ' t ' test (2) was used to determine the significance of the difference between the three t r i a l means of the control group's recovery half-times and each of the t r i a l means of the experimental group.  The  significance of the difference between t r i a l s was determined at the .05 l e v e l of confidence.  The r e s u l t s are l i s t e d i n Tables IV and V.  36 TABLE IV SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEAN RECOVERY HALF-TIMES OF THE CONTROL GROUP TRIALS (SEC.)  (N=8)  Trials  Cj^ vs  C  2  2 vs  C  3  C  C, vs Co  N  Mean  Mean  X  X  x  Variance  d.f.  S D  (n-1)  2  2  t-ratio  7  96.14  107.57  261.84  6  -1.94  8  112.87  109.75  350.72  7  0.44  7  96.14  101.43  561.98  6  -0.69  TABLE V SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEAN RECOVERY HALF-TIMES OF THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP TRIALS (SEC.)  (N=8)  Trials  1 2 1  vs  E  2  vs  E  3  vs  E  3  N  Mean  Mean  X  X  l  2  Variance  d.f.  S D  (n-1)  2  t-ratio  8  97.38  90.75  92.48  7  1.82  8  90. 75  94.88  243.61  7  -0.70  8  97.38  94.88  250.00  7  0.42  There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .05 l e v e l of confidence f o r the recovery half-time means of the control group as shown i n Table IV.  With reference to Table V, no s i g n i f i c a n t difference  between the mean recovery half-times of the experimental groups was found. TEST OF SIGNIFICANCE FOR MEAN OF MEANS A * t ' test for correlated samples between the mean of the means of the recovery half-times of the combined control group t r i a l s and the combined experimental group t r i a l s was performed.  The mean of the  means for the control group was found by c a l c u l a t i o n of the means of the three t r i a l s for each subject. divided by N.  The means were then summed and  The same method was used for the experimental group  and a t value equal to or greater than 2.36 at the .05 l e v e l of confidence was u t i l i z e d .  TABLE VI SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEAN OF THE MEANS OF THE RECOVERY HALF-TIMES OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS(SEC.) (N=8)  Test  Combined Control Mean X  Combined Experimental Mean Xg  Deviation Variance S D  D.f. (n-1)  t-ratio  108.46  9 4.33  158.78  7  2.79**  Q  2  Control vs Experimental r = 2.36; s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence.  Table VI indicated that the mean recovery half-time of the control group and the mean recovery half-time of the experimental group gave a t r a t i o of 2.79, which was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence.  POST-EXERCISE RECOVERY HEART RATES The means and standard deviations of the heart rates at the end of the four and one-half minute recovery period f o r each t r i a l were calculated, and a summary of the r e s u l t s i s presented i n Table V I I . The data for the observations are presented i n d e t a i l i n Appendix C.  TABLE VII MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS, AND RANGES OF THE POST-EXERCISE RECOVERY HEART RATES OF THE CONTROL AND EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS (b.p.m.) (N=8)  Group  Control  Experimental  Trial  Mean X  Standard Deviation S  1 2 3 1 2 3  100.00 99.62 100.00 102.00 98.37 91.72  13.01 9.79 10.70 9.38 8.46 13.44  Range  85-120 85-116 88-115 92-111 89-117 80-113  The means of the heart rates at the end of the four and one-half minute recovery period f o r the control group t r i a l s were 100.00 - 13.01, 99.62- 9.79, and 100.00 - 10.70 beats per minute respectively.  The  means of the heart rates f o r the experimental group t r i a l s were t r i a l 1, 102.00 - 9.38, t r i a l 2, 98.37 - 8.46, and t r i a l 3, 91.12 - 13.44 heart per minute respectively. The mean of the means of the heart rates at the end of the four and one-half minute recovery period were calculated for both the experimental and control group conditions and the r e s u l t s are presented in Table V I I I . TABLE VIII HEART RATE MEANS FOR CONTROL AND EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS IN THE POST-EXERCISE RECOVERY PERIOD (b.p.m.)  Group  Mean (X)  Standard Deviation S  Control  98.63  9.82  Experimental  98.62  8.32  The combined mean of recovery heart rate for the control group t r i a l s was found to be 98.63 - 9.82 beat s per minute.  The mean  heart rate at the end of the recovery period for the experimental group t r i a l s was 98.62 - 8.32 beats per minute. A ' t ' test was performed on the mean of means for the experimental and control group recovery heart rates and a t value of 2.36 was required for a s t a t i s t i c a l l y l e v e l of confidence.  s i g n i f i c a n t difference at the .05  40 TABLE IX SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEAN OF THE MEANS OF THE POST-EXERCISE RECOVERY HEART RATES OF THE CONTROL AND EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS (N=8)  Test  Combined Control Mean X  Control vs Experimental  c  98.63  Combined Experimental Mean X  E  Deviation Variance SD  98.62  d.f. (n-1)  t-ratio  2  20.09  7  1.69  As indicated by Table IX, a t value of 1.69 was calculated between the mean of means of the control and experimental heart rates at the end of the recovery period.  A t value of 2.36 was necessary for  a s i g n i f i c a n t difference at the .05 l e v e l of confidence.  REFERENCES Garrett, H.E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education, F i f t h E d i t i o n . New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1965. Ferguson, G.A., S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis i n Psychology and Education, New York, London, Toronto; McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1959.  CHAPTER  V  DISCUSSION DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS The sample population used i n t h i s study consisted of eight members of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Thunderbird Team.  Ice Hockey  O r i g i n a l l y , twelve subjects began the experiment but four dropped  out for various reasons and t h e i r incomplete  data was discarded.  The  subjects were chosen on the basis of a v a i l a b i l i t y and combined skating s k i l l and hockey a b i l i t y , as indicated by the coach. variances were found for the following v a r i a b l e s : height - 1.767  + - 0.08  The means and  age - 23.00 - 2.12  + meters, and weight - 80.87 - 8.43 kilograms.  years,  From  the size of the variances i n the reported measures, the sample appeared to be r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous.  This was  expected, since they were  drawn from a s p e c i f i c population - Thunderbird  i c e hockey players.  Although a s p e c i f i c detailed description of comparable samples was not a v a i l a b l e , Chambers (1), whose four subjects were members of the same team one year previous, reported an age range of nineteen to twenty-six years for h i s subjects.  The age range of the sample i n t h i s  study was twenty to twenty-seven years, and one could only assume that the l e v e l of hockey s k i l l was approximately  the same for both groups.  RELIABILITY OF RESTING AND TERMINAL HEART RATES The resting heart rate r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.420 was statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t for the eight subjects studied.  not  In contrast,  Dempsey (2), Morehouse (3), and Bernauer (4) reported r e l i a b i l i t y  43 c o e f f i c i e n t s for pre-exercise standing heart rates of 0.419, 0.61, 0.79  respectively, which were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the  l e v e l of confidence.  Although Bernauer's population s i z e was  and  .01 not  reported, the sample size of Morehouse was twenty, and that of Dempsey was  forty-five.  A c a l c u l a t i o n of resting heart rate values taken i n  normal s i t t i n g p o s i t i o n , using Chamber's data (1) resulted i n a r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.302 for four subjects. As stated by Ferguson (5), i t would appear that the sample size had some e f f e c t on the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t for resting heart rate i n t h i s study. Emotion and temperature (6, 7), environmental conditions (8, 9, 10), meals, time of test, and amount of a c t i v i t y (6, 7) are factors that have been shown to a f f e c t resting heart rates.  The  p r o b a b i l i t y of these factors influencing the r e l i a b i l i t y of resting heart rates appeared quite high and might explain the low values  obtained.  Class schedules and a v a i l a b i l i t y of i c e time resulted i n the performance of test t r i a l s at d i f f e r e n t hours each time. physical education  Since there were several  students studied, the a c t i v i t y classes that they  participated i n p r i o r to the test may  have had some effect on t h e i r  resting heart rate (11). The author observed that during the resting period, any movement by the subject, while i n the normal s i t t i n g position, resulted i n a momentary increase i n the heart rate of between four to eight beats, depending on the type of movement and to duration.  I t was noted that  turning the head or adjusting the arms would increase the heart rate three to four beats per minute.  44 In view of the factors a f f e c t i n g the resting heart rate there appeared to be a d e f i n i t e need for a more comprehensive study of r e l i a b i l i t i e s i n t h i s area. A r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.649 for terminal heart rates, s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence was  found.  This value  was  much lower than the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of 0.998, 0.885, and  0.77  reported by Bakogeorge (12), Alderman (13), and Bengtsson (14) respectively, which were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of confidence.  From Chamber's data (1), a r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.302  was calculated for four subjects. The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of Bakogeorge and Alderman were based on performance time and a terminal heart rate of 180 beats per minute.  From such a basis a high r e l i a b i l i t y would be expected (5). E l b e l and Green (15) found that heart rate counted immediately  a f t e r work accurately r e f l e c t e d the work load, both i n i n t e n s i t y and duration.  This view was held by a number of other investigators  (9, 10, 16, 17, 18, 19). the same - one minute.  In t h i s study, the duration of a l l t r i a l s  was  The amount or i n t e n s i t y of the work, however,  was measured only subjectively; the only c r i t e r i o n was  that the subject  would cooperate and skate with maximum e f f o r t for the entire skating period.  A f l u c t u a t i o n i n the i n t e n s i t y of the subjects' performances  could have resulted i n deviations of the terminal heart rates, which would explain the lower r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t  obtained.  Terminal heart rates i n t h i s study ranged from 158 to beats per minute with a mean rate of 174.80 beats per minute.  185 Seliger  (20) found maximal heart rates during the following a c t i v i t y patterns:  45 skiing - 188 b.p.m., basketball - 180 b.p.m., v o l l e y b a l l - 125 b.p.m. For one and one-half minute periods during hockey a mean terminal rate of 177 b.p.m. was  found.  Chambers (1), during skating periods of  one-  h a l f , one, and one and one-half minutes, found heart rate ranges of 170-184, 173-187, and 170-187 beats per minute respectively. The  terminal  heart rate ranges of t h i s study appeared to compare favorably with the findings of other investigators. In a l l t r i a l s , heart rate was noted to reach a peak at the end of the skating period. (21), Koza (22), Oka  A similar phenomenon was noticed by V a s i l e v a  (23), and Orban (24).  There appeared to be contrary opinion expressed on the effect of emotion on terminal heart rate.  Taylor (25) stated that maximal heart  rate was not affected by emotion; but, Rozenblat (26) maintained that during moderate t r a i n i n g , basketball players maintained heart rates between 180 and 198 beats per minute for long periods, and accredited t h i s high l e v e l to emotion. Possible emotional apprehension due to the presence of spectators and friends during the skating period could have had some effect on the terminal heart rates and such fluctuations could have resulted i n the lower, but s i g n i f i c a n t , r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t . Some error may  have resulted due to the accuracy with which the  experimentor was able to read the scale of the heart rate monitor during the l a s t ten seconds of the skating period.  CORRELATION BETWEEN RECOVERY HALF-TIME AND  SUBJECTIVE RECOVERY TIME  The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between the recovery  half-time  and the subjective recovery time for each of the s i x t r i a l s of the experiment were too low to be of any s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t would be  safe  to state that the subjects tested were not accurate i n judging when they had  recovered. During recovery v i a elevation of the legs one trend  evident.  was  As the recovery half-time decreased the subjective time  increased.  Several subjects stated that they were unable to breathe  e a s i l y i n the recumbent p o s i t i o n with the legs elevated as compared to normal s i t t i n g , and t h i s fact might have caused a longer subjective estimate of  recovery.  TESTS OF SIGNIFICANCE FOR RECOVERY HALF-TIMES A " t " test between the mean recovery half-times of each t r i a l for the control group resulted i n no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between t r i a l means, as shown i n Table IV.  A " t " test for the experimental  group t r i a l s was performed with s i m i l a r r e s u l t s - Table V.  The absence  of s i g n i f i c a n t differences between each of the control group t r i a l s and each of the experimental group t r i a l s served to substantiate the assumption that the testing procedure had no added conditioning e f f e c t upon the r e s u l t s , and that the differences found were due merely to chance (5).  47 TEST OF SIGNIFICANCE FOR MEAN OF MEANS A " t " test for correlated samples between the mean of the means of the recovery half-times o f the control group and the mean o f the means of the experimental group recovery half-times resulted i n a t value of 2.79, and t h i s difference was s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l of confidence.  Chambers (1) found a difference s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05  l e v e l of confidence between the means of the recovery half-times for two subjects who recovered  i n normal s i t t i n g p o s i t i o n and two subjects who  recovered v i a elevation of the legs. Muller (19) suggested that the accumulation of stopping substances i n the form of fatigue ( l a c t i c ) acids reduced the contractions i n the working muscles.  Up t o a c e r t a i n l i m i t of dynamic work,  contractions produced these substances which should be oxidized during the following rest period. substances were recovered time.  Muller believed that i f these stopping faster i t would be possible to reduce the recovery  He suggested that massage or elevation of the legs would hasten  the removal of these fatigue acids.  P e r c i v a l (27) believed that the  position of lying on one's back, with the legs elevated on a bench or against the wall would be an e f f e c t i v e method of removing the venal blood from the legs and would eliminate the congregation of fatigue acids which prolong recovery.  Morehouse and M i l l e r (28) stated that rest i n a  horizontal p o s i t i o n , preferably with the legs elevated, should be allowed between bouts of strenuous work. Of recovery i n the normal s i t t i n g p o s i t i o n Wright (6) stated: gravity a s s i s t s the venous return from parts above the heart, but greatly hinders return from the dependent regions.  Since much of the work i n hockey i s performed by the legs, i t would follow that elevation of the legs would f a c i l i t a t e an  increased  venous return and would enable the fatigue acids to be oxidized more rapidly, thus the recovery time would be reduced. Since a s i g n i f i c a n t difference was  found between recovery  times, i t was necessary to reject the n u l l hypothesis and state, that for  the p a r t i c u l a r sample studied, small though i t may  have been, the  method of elevation of the legs produced a s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n the recovery half-time, from that of normal s i t t i n g , and the difference was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of  confidence.  POST EXERCISE RECOVERY HEART RATES Through a number of " t " t e s t s , no s i g n i f i c a n t difference was found between the heart rates of the experimental and control groups at the end of the four and one-half minute recovery period. stated that recovery was divided into two parts:  Almond  (29)  the f i r s t part which  lasted approximately two minutes; and the second part which lasted from f i v e minutes to several hours, depending on the subject's physical condition. In t h i s study, an i n i t i a l period of recovery which approximated the recovery half-time was  evident, followed by a second phase i n which  the heart rate decreased more slowly.  At no time during the four and  one-half minute recovery period did a subject's heart rate reach h i s resting value. I t was also i n t e r e s t i n g to note, that although elevation of the legs s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced the recovery half-time, i t did not appear  to continually decrease the heart rate faster than the method of normal s i t t i n g , once i t had passed a c e r t a i n point.  I t would appear that the  elevation of legs was a successful method of reducing the recovery half-time, but a f t e r a c e r t a i n point, further recovery was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y affected.  50 REFERENCES  1.  Chambers, D.L., "The E f f e c t of S p e c i f i c Experimental Variables on Recovery Rate of the Heart of V a r s i t y Ice Hockey Players," Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967.  2.  Dempsey, J.A., "Anthropometrical and Physiological Observations of Obese and Non-Obese Young Men Undergoing a Program of Vigorous Physical Exercise," Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of Alberta, 1963.  3.  Morehouse, L., "A Study of the Response of the Heart to Various Types of Exercise^," Doctoral Thesis, University of Iowa, 1941, Microcard.  4.  Bernauer, E.M., "The Use of a Telemeter-Electronic Counter System To Measure Beat-To-Beat V a r i a t i o n i n Resting, Exercise, and Recovery Heart Rates," a paper presented to the Southwest D i s t r i c t Conference, A p r i l 21, 1966.  5.  Ferguson, G.A., S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis i n Psychology and Education, New York, London, Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1959.  6.  Wright, Samson, Applied Physiology, London, New York, Toronto: Geoffrey Camberlege, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1952.  7.  Taylor, C , "Some Properties of Maximal and Submaximal Exercise with Reference to Physiological Variations and the Measurement of Exercise Tolerance," American Journal of Physiology, V o l . 142 (May 1944), pp. 200-212.  8.  D i l l , D.B., "Relation of the Heart Rate," i n Work and the Heart. Edited by F.F. Rosenbaum, E.L. Balknap. New York: Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., 1959, pp. 60-73.  9.  Horvath, S.M., "Cardiac Performance," i n Muscle As A Tissue. Edited by K. Rodahl and S.M., Horvath. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962, pp. 243-258.  10.  Le Blanc, J.A., "Use of Heart Rate as an Index of Work Output," Journal of Applied Physiology, V o l . 10 (July 1956), pp. 275-280.  11.  Andersen, K.L., "Performance and Recovery Pulse Rate Studies i n the Norwegian Army," M i l i t a r y Medicine, V o l . 116 (Jan.-June 1955), pp. 32-26.  12.  Bakogeorge, A.P., "The Relationship of Selected Anthropometrical and Physiological Variables to the Balke Treadmill Test and Terminal Step Test I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p , " Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of Alberta, 1964.  51 13.  Alderman, R.B., "The R e l i a b i l i t y of B i c y c l e Ergometer Work and the Balke 18U Heart Response Test." Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of Southern C a l i f o r n i a , 1964, Microcard.  14.  Bengtsson, E., "The Working Capacity i n Normal Children, Evaluated by Submaximal Exercise on the B i c y c l e Ergometer," Acta Medica Scandinavica, V o l . 154:2 (Oct. 1956).  15.  E l b e l , E.R., Green, E.L., "Pulse Reaction to Performing Step-Up Exercises on Benches of Different Heights," American Journal of Physiology. V o l . 145 (Oct. 1946), pp. 521-527.  16.  Cotton, F.S., "Relation of A t h l e t i c Status to Pulse Rate i n Men and Women," Journal of Physiology. V o l . 76 (Sept. 1932), pp. 39-51.  17.  Morehouse, L.E., T u t t l e , W.W., "A Study of Post-Exercise Heart Rates," Research Quarterly, V o l . 13:1 (Mar. 1942), p. 3.  18.  Abrahams, A., "Tests for A t h l e t i c E f f i c i e n c y , " Lancet, V o l . 117 (July-Dec. 1939) pp. 309-312.  19.  Muller, E.A., "The Physiological Basis of Rest Pauses i n Heavy Work," Quarterly Journal of Experimental Medicine, V o l . 38 (Jan.-Dec. 1953), pp. 205-215.  20.  Seliger, V., "Pulse May Be Used to Gauge Exertion Levels, Tests Show," Medical Tribune and Medical News, V o l . 8 (June 1965), p. 8.  21.  Vasileva, V.V., "Analyse Telemetrique de l a frequence cardiaque dans l a course sur d i f f e r e n t e s distance," Revue de 1'education physique, V o l . 3 (Jan. 1963), pp. 25-30.  22.  Kozar, A.J., "Telemetered Heart Rates Recorded During Gymnastic Routines," Research Quarterly, V o l . 34 (Jan. 1963), p. 102.  23.  Oka, Y., Utsyama, Noda, K., Kimura, M., "Studies of Radio Telemetering on E.K.G. and Respiratory Movements during Running, Jumping and Swimming," Medical Electronics and B i o l o g i c a l Engineering, V o l . 1 (Oct.-Dec. 1963), pp. 578-579.  24.  Orban, W.A.R., B a l l y , D.A., Holmlund, B., Merriman, J.E., "Heart Rate Responses to Interval Running Using Radio Telemetry," Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, V o l . 3 (Dec. 1963), pp. 252-253.  25.  Taylor, H.L., Wang, Y., Powell, L., Blomquist, G., "The Standardization and Interpretation of Submaximal and Maximal Tests of Working Capacity," P e d i a t r i c s , V o l . 32 Supplement (July-Dec. 1963), pp. 703-722.  52 26.  Rozenblat, V.V., "Heart Rate i n Man During Natural Muscular A c t i v i t y , " Federation Proceedings Translation Supplement, V o l . 22, (July 1963), pp. 761-766.  27.  P e r c i v a l , L., The Hockey Handbook, Toronto: Co., 1965.  28.  Morehouse, L., M i l l e r , A.T., Physiology of Exercise, St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Co., 1963.  29.  Down, M.G., "An Appraisal of Interval Training," Track Technique, V o l . 24 (June 1966), pp. 764-766.  The Copp Clark Publishing  CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The purpose of t h i s study was as follows: 1.  To determine i f the recovery heart rate of i c e hockey players i s affected by elevation of the legs;  2.  To determine the subjective recovery time and to calculate the c o r r e l a t i o n between subjective and objective recovery times;  3.  To determine the heart rate at four and one-half minutes a f t e r exercise.  Eight of an i n i t i a l twelve members of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia V a r s i t y Ice Hockey Team, ranging i n age from twenty to twenty-seven years, participated i n the study.  Age, weight, height and  position played were obtained for a l l subjects. Through radio telemetry, i n conjunction with an electrocardioscribe and a heart rate monitor, the following data was obtained:  a) resting.heart rate b) terminal heart rate c) recovery heart rate d) recovery half-time e) post-exercise recovery rate f) subjective recovery time  Each subject was required to skate s i x times:  three t r i a l s  as a control subject, which recovered i n normal s i t t i n g position, and three times as an experimental subject, which recovered i n the recumbent position with the legs raised on a bench twenty inches high.  R e l i a b i l i t y measurements performed using the Pearson ProductMoment Method resulted i n an r = 0.420 for resting heart rates, and an r = 0.649 for terminal heart rates.  A c o r r e l a t i o n between recovery  times f o r each of the six t r i a l s was calculated. A " t " test f o r correlated samples was performed to determine the significance of the difference between the mean of the means of the recovery half-times of the control and experimental groups. A t value of 2.79, s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence was found. F i n a l l y a test of significance was performed on the postexercise recovery heart rates o f the control and experimental group. On the basis of the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis and with respect to the small sample studied, the following conclusions appear warranted: 1.  Elevation of the legs s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced the recovery time at the .05 l e v e l of confidence.  2. The r e l i a b i l i t i e s of resting and terminal heart rates were too low to be of s i g n i f i c a n t value. 3.  The subjects were not able to predict, with any degree of accuracy, when they had recovered s u f f i c i e n t l y to begin another skating period.  4.  Elevation of the legs and normal s i t t i n g produced no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the heart rates at the end of the four and one-half minute recovery period.  RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY A similar study with double the number of subjects involved. The study should be performed under game conditions. A similar study with a change i n the procedure of the player's estimation of h i s own recovery time.  To test h i s effectiveness and  h i s subjective recovery time the player would be required to skate when he f e l t he was ready. A similar study with more t r i a l s per testing period.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Cacers, CA., Big-Medical Telemetry, New York arid London: Press, 1965.  Academic  Ferguson, G.A., S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis i n Psychology and Education, New York, London, Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1959. Garrett, H.E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education, F i f t h E d i t i o n . New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1965 Horvath, S.M., "Cardiac Performance," i n Muscle As A Tissue. Edited by K. Rodahl and S.M. Horvath. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962, pp. 243-258. Morehouse, L., M i l l e r , A.T., C.V, Mosby Co., 1963.  Physiology of Exercise.  St. Louis:  Mouly, G.J., The Science of Educational Research, New York: Book Company, 1963. p. 345. P e r c i v a l , L., The Hockey Handbook, Toronto: Co., 1965.  American  The Copp Clark Publishing  Wright, Samson, Applied Physiology, London, New York, Toronto: Camberlege, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1952.  Geoffrey  PERIODICALS Abrahams, A., "Tests for A t h l e t i c E f f i c i e n c y , " Lancet, V o l . 117 (JulyDec. 1939) pp. 309-312. Adams, F.H., Linde, L.M., Mikele, H., "The Physical Working Capacity of Normal School Children," P e d i a t r i c s, V o l . 28 (July-Dec. 1961), pp. 55-64. Andersen, K.L., "Performance and Recovery Pulse Rate Studies i n the Norwegian Army," M i l i t a r y Medicine, V o l . 116 (Jan.-June 1955) pp. 32-36. Astrand, P.O., "Human Physical Fitness with Special Reference to Sex and Age," P h y s i o l o g i c a l Revue, V o l . 36 (July 1956), pp. 307-335. Astrand, P.O., Ryhming, I . , "A Nomogram f o r Calculation of Aerobic Capacity (Physical Fitness) from Pulse Rate During Submaximal Work," Journal of Applied Physiology, V o l . 7 (May 1954), pp. 218-221.  57 Balke, B., Ware, R.W., "An Experimental Study of Physical Fitness of A i r Force Personnel," U.S. Armed Forces Medical Journal, V o l . 10 (June 1959), pp. 675-688. Bengtsson, E., "The Working Capacity i n Normal Children, Evaluated by Submaximal Exercise on the B i c y c l e Ergometer," Acta Medica Scandinavica, V o l . 154:2 (Oct. 1956) Bernauer, E.M., "The Use of a Telemeter-Electronic Counter System to Measure Beat-to-Beat V a r i a t i o n i n Resting, Exercise, and Recovery Heart Rates," a paper presented to the Southwest D i s t r i c t Conference, A p r i l 21, 1966. Berven, H., "The Physical Work Capacity of Healthy Children," Acta P e d i a t r i c a Scandinavica, V o l . 52 (Mar. 1963), pp. 148. Bevegard, S., Holmgren, A., Jonsson, B., "The E f f e c t of Body Position on the C i r c u l a t i o n at Rest and During Exercise, with Special Reference to Stroke Volume," Aeta Physiologica Scandinavica, V o l . 49 (Feb. 1960), pp. 279-298. Bliven, F.E., Culpepper, B.W., Rivers, J.L., Goodwin, H.N., "Physical Working Capacity: A Stress Test of D i s a b i l i t y , " Surgical Forum, V o l . 15 (July-Dec. 1963), pp. 454-455. Bramwell, C , "The A r t e r i a l Pulse i n Health and Disease," Lancet, V o l . 115:2 (July-Dec. 1937), pp. 239 -247. Braun, G.L., "Pulse Rate Reaction of Children to Graded Exercise," Research Quarterly, V o l . 13:1 (Mar. 1962), p. 79. Brouha, L., "The E f f e c t s of Work on the Heart," i n Work and the Heart, Edited by F.F. Rosenbaum and E.L. Belknap. New York: Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., 1959, pp. 108-195. Brouha, L., Heath, C.W., "Resting Pulse and Blood Pressure Values i n Relation to Physical Fitness i n Young Men," New England Journal of Medicine, V o l . 228 ( A p r i l 1943), pp. 473-477. Brouha, L., Savage, B.M., " V a r i a b i l i t y of P h y s i o l o g i c a l Measurements i n Normal Young Men At Rest and During Work," Revue Canadienne de Biologie, V o l . 4 (Mar. 1945), pp. 134-143. Cogswell, R.C., Henderson, CR., Berryman, G.H., "Some Observations of the E f f e c t s of Training on Pulse Rate," American Journal of Physiology, V o l . 146 (Feb. 1946), pp. 422-430. Cook, F., Pembry, M. S., "Observations on the E f f e c t s of Muscular Exercise Upon Man," Journal of Physiology, V o l . 45 (Feb. 1913), pp. 429-446.  58 Cotton, F.S., "Relation of A t h l e t i c Status to Pulse Rate i n Men and Women," Journal of Physiology, V o l . 76 (Sept. 1932), pp. 39-51. Darling, R.C., "The Significance of P h y s i c a l Fitness," Archives of Physical Medicine, V o l . 28 (1947), pp. 140-145. Denoline, H., Messin, R., Degne, S., "Testing of the Work Capacity of Cardiac Patients," i n Physical A c t i v i t y and the Heart, S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s : Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, 1967. p. 29. D i l l , D.B., "Relation of the Heart Rate," i n Work and the Heart. Edited by F.F. Rosenbaum, E.L. Balknap. Net-? York: Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., 1959, pp. 60-73. D i l l , D.B., Horvath, S.M., Craig, F.N., "Responses to Exercise as Related to Age," Journal of Applied Physiology. V o l . 12 (Dec. 1956), pp. 195-196. Down, M.G., "An Appraisal of Interval T r a i n i n g , " Track Vol. 24 (June 1966), pp. 764-766.  Technique,  E l b e l , E.R., Green, E.L., "Pulse Reaction to Performing Step-Up Exercises on Benches of D i f f e r e n t Heights," American Journal of Physiology, Vol. 145 (Oct. 1946), pp. 521-527.. F r i c k , M.H., Kontinnen, A., Sarajas, H.S., " E f f e c t s of Physical Training on C i r c u l a t i o n at Rest and During Exercise," American Journal of Cardiology, V o l . 12 (May 1963), pp. 142-147. Hettinger, T., Rodahl, K., "A Modified Step Test," Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, V o l . 85 (Jan. 1960), pp. 553-558. Howard, G.E., Blyth, C.S., Thornton, W.E., "A Study of the Continuously Recorded Telemetered Heart Rate of Track Athletes During Exercise," a paper presented to the Research Section of the National Convention of A.A.H.P.E.R., Washington, D.C., May 1964. Johnson, R.E., Brouha, L., Darling, R.C., "A Test of P h y s i c a l Fitness for Strenuous Exertion," Revue Canadienne de Biologie, V o l . 1 (Mar. 1942), pp. 491-503. Jones, D.M., Chadwick, S., Rodahl, K., "Effect of Rope Skipping on Physical Work Capacity," Research Quarterly, V o l . 33 (Oct. 1962), pp. 326-338. Karvonen, M.J., "Problems of Training the Cardiovascular System," Ergonomics, V o l . 28 (July 1959), pp. 207-215. Knehr, CA., D i l l , D.B., Neufeld, W., "Training and I t s E f f e c t s on Man at Rest and at Work," American Journal of Physiology, V o l . 136 (Dec. 1942):, pp. 148-158.  Le Blanc, J.A., "Use of Heart Rate as an Index of Work Output," Journal of Applied Physiology, V o l . 10 (July 156), pp. 275-280. Linde, L.M., "An Appraisal of Exercise Fitness Tests," P e d i a t r i c s , V o l . 32 Supplement (July-Dec. 1963), pp. 656-659. Malhatra, M.S., "Pulse Count As a Measure of Energy Expenditure," Jounral of Applied Physiology, V o l . 18 (July 1963), pp. 994-996. Manfield, M.E., Brouha, L., " V a l i d i t y of Heart Rate As an Indicator of Cardiac S t r a i n , " Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 18 (Feb. 1963), pp. 573-end. Morehouse, L.E., T u t t l e , W.W., "A Study of Post-Exercise Heart Rates," Research Quarterly, V o l . 13:1 (Mar. 1942), p. 3. Muller, E.A., "The P h y s i o l o g i c a l Basis of Rest Pauses i n Heavy Work, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Medicine, V o l . 38 (Jan.-Dec. 1953), pp. 205-215. Oka, Y., Utsuyama, N., Noda., K., Kimura, M., "Studies of Radio Telemetering on E.K.G. and Respiratory Movements during Running, Jumping and Swimming," Medical E l e c t r o n i c s and B i o l o g i c a l Engineering, V o l . 1 (Oct.-Dec. 1963), pp. 578-579. Orban, W.A.R., B a i l y , D.A., Holmlund, B., Merriman, J.E., "Heart Rate Responses to I n t e r v a l Running Using Radio Telemetry," Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, V o l . 3 (Dec. 1963), pp. 252-253. Rasch, P.J., Pierson, W.R., "Evaluation of a Submaximal Test for Estimating Physical Work Capacity," Ergonomics, V o l . 28 (July 1959), pp. 389-396. Rozenblat, V.V., "Heart Rate i n Man During Natural Muscular A c t i v i t y , " Federation Procedings T r a n s l a t i o n Supplement. V o l . 22 (July 1963), pp. 761-766. Seliger, V., "Pulse May Be Used to Gauge Exertion Levels, Tests Show," Medical Tribune and Medical News, V o l . 8 (June 1965), p. 8. Taylor, C., "Some Properties of Maximal and Submaximal Exercise with Reference to P h y s i o l o g i c a l V a r i a t i o n s and the Measurement of Exercise Tolerance," American Journal of Physiology, V o l . 142 (May 1944). pp. 200-212. Taylor, H.L., Wang, Y., Powell, L., Blomquist, G., "The Standardization and Interpretation of Submaximal and Maximal Tests of Working Capacity," P e d i a t r i c s , V o l . 32 Supplement (July-Dec. 1963), pp. 703-722.  60 T u t t l e , L., "The Use o f P u l s e R a t i o f o r R a t i n g P h y s i c a l Research Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . (June 1931), pp. 15-17. T u t t l e , W.W., Rate Due p. 594.  Efficiency,"  S a l i t , E.P., " R e l a t i o n o f R e s t i n g Heart t o I n c r e a s e i n t o E x e r c i s e , " American Heart J o u r n a l , V o l . 29 (May 1945),  V a s i l e v a , V.V., "Analyse T e l e m e t r i q u e de l a frequence c a r d i a q u e dans l a c o u r s e due d i f f e r e n t e s d i s t a n c e s , " Revue de 1'education physique. V o l . 3 ( J a n . 1963), pp. 25-30.  UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL Alderman, R.B., "The R e l i a b i l i t y o f B i c y c l e Ergometer Work and t h e B a l k e 180 Heart Response T e s t , " U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Southern C a l i f o r n i a , 1964, M i c r o c a r d . Bakogeorge, A.P., "The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f S e l e c t e d A n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l and P h y s i o l o g i c a l V a r i a b l e s t o t h e B a l k e T r e a d m i l l T e s t and T e r m i n a l Step T e s t and T e s t I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p , " U n p u b l i s h e d Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1964. Chambers, D.L., "The E f f e c t o f S p e c i f i c E x p e r i m e n t a l V a r i a b l e s on Recovery Rate o f t h e H e a r t o f V a r s i t y I c e Hockey P l a y e r s , " U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967. Dempsey, J.A., " A n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l and P h y s i o l o g i c a l O b s e r v a t i o n s o f Obese and Non-Obese Young Men Undergoing a Program o f V i g o r o u s P h y s i c a l E x e r c i s e , " Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1963. Morehouse, L., "A Study o f the Response o f t h e Heart t o V a r i o u s Types o f E x e r c i s e , " D o c t o r a l T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa, 1941, M i c r o c a r d .  PAMPHLETS G e n e r a l E l e c t r i c C a r d i o s c r i b e Manual # 1199A, X r a y Department, Milwaukee 1, W i s c o n s i n . P a r k s E l e c t r o n i c s L a b o r a t o r y Manual f o r Heart R a t e M o n i t o r , Oregon, 1968.  PERSONAL INTERVIEW Hindmarch, R.G.,  P e r s o n a l Communication, June,  1968.  Beaverton,  APPENDIX  A  STATISTICAL TREATMENT  61 STATISTICAL TREATMENT Test R e l i a b i l i t i e s .  R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were obtained using the  Pearson product moment method.  r =  N ^ X Y  The formula used was:  -£X£Y  l / & _ f x 2 - (£x)2 Where  N£Y2 - ( £ Y ) 2 ]  (1)  N = the number of subjects X = the i n i t i a l test score Y = the retest score = summation sign  Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s .  Pearson product moment method was used to  determine the c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n i n t h i s study. Rho was used as a procedure to check the r e s u l t s .  Spearman's  The formula was:  P = 1 - 6fd (N (N2-1) 2  Where  N = the number of subjects d = difference between ranks <_ = summation sign  Significance of the Difference. A " t " test for correlated samples was used to determine the significance of the difference between tests i n t h i s study.  The formulae  for c a l c u l a t i o n were: 1.  Group Mean, using o r i g i n a l scores X = ^.X N  2.  where  N = number of subjects X = raw scores  The Mean Difference between raw scores D = _.D N  where  D = difference between paired scores. N = number of subjects  62 3.  The variance of the difference S D2 = _ J _ - D N 2  where  2  D _ D N  2  2  4.  An estimate of the variance of the sampling d i s t r i b u t i o n of D S  = S D N-1  where S D  2  2  N 5.  = squared difference between paired scores = square mean difference = number of subjects  = the variance of the difference = number of subjects  The appropriate t r a t i o t = D S D  = / S D"' V N-1  P  where —  D S D N  2  = the mean difference = the estimate of the variance = number of subjects  APPENDIX  B  SAMPLE DATA SHEET  SAMPLE DATA SHEET  Weight  Height (in.)  Age  Name  Position  (lbs.)  Group:  Experimental  Control Trials  1 Time of Test Time of A r i s i n g Size of Breakfast Size of Lunch Number of Classes Amount of A c t i v i t y  Testing Data Resting Heart Rate Terminal Heart Rate Recovery Heart Rate Recovery HaIf-Time Heart Rate of 4% Minutes Subjective Recovery Time  2  3  1  2  APPENDIX  C  COMPLETE RAW SCORES  Variable  Subiect  Experimental  Control  E, I  E„ 2  E„ 3  T, 1  T~ 2  T„ 3  Resting Heart Rate (b.p.m.)  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  70 64 60 75 70 70 65 75  76 65 54 75 70 64 65 88  58 68 60 75 70 80 62 74  70 65 57 75 72 65 53 85  60 65 60 75 65 67 65 65  70 66 52 75 68 65 62 75  Terminal Heart Rate (b.p.m.)  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  175 166 175 180 176 170 175 175  180 170 177 175 185 165 175 175  165 165 175 180 180 180 180 175  170 150 180 175 180 165 158 170  165 165 175 165 175 167 180 165  170 168 175 165 175 170 175 175  Recovery Heart Rate (b.p.m.)  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  115 123 118 127 122 120 120 125  117 127 115 125 130 114 120 131  113 112 118 127 125 130 123 125  115 120 118 125 126 115 106 123  115 110 118 120 120 116 123 115  117 120 115 120 121 118 123 125  Recovery HalfTime (min.sec)  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  :50 1:25 2:38 1:02 2:00 1:36 1:30 1:58  :58 1:13 2:29 :42 2:01 1:36 1:29 1:38  :48 1:21 2:30 1:19 2:12 1:31 1:38 1:20  1:23 1:22 1:16 2:11 1:44 1:32 1:35  1:48 1:48 2:30 1:33 2:41 1:32 1:22 2:09  1:22 1:42 2:48 :50 2:34 1:22 1:39 2:21  I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  92 86 104 95 108 111 105 115  96 89 104 92 117 94 90 105  80 91 104 104 109 113 88 104  90 88 104 120 115 88 85 110  90 95 105 100 116 106 85 100  90 91 105 101 115 88 95 115  Heart Rate at 4% Minutes (b.p.m.)  -  65 Subject  Variable  Subjective Recovery Time (Min: Sec)  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  Control  Experimental E, 1  E„ 2  E„ 3  T, 1  T„ 2  1:42 1:20 1:47 2:38 2:00 2:34 2:46 2:23  1:41 2:02 1:55 2:33 :30 1:45 3:21 4:00  2:02 1:15 1:45 2:10 :52 1:27 2: 28 3:53  1:03 1:40 1:16 1:07 1:32 2:22 2:47 1:00  2:32 2:04 1:02 1:40 1:46 1:51 2:43 3:47  T  3  2:08 1: 48 2: 17 1:59 1:50 1: 36 3: 12 3:57  DESCRIPTIVE DATA Time of Test  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  11:00 9:30 9:45 10:10 11:30 11:30 11:45 11:15  *  P.M.  Variable  Subject  10:30 10:30 9:45 11:45 12:00* 11:30 10:10 11:00  12:20* 1:30* 12:00* 10:00 11:40 11:00 10:00 11:00  10:00 10:00 9:00 10:00 11:30 11:15 10:15 10:40  10:05 1:00* 9:45 9:45 11:15 10:30 10:00 10:45  Experimental  Control  E, 1  E„ 2  E„ 3  C, 1  8:45 7:15 7:30 8:30 7:30 8:15 7:00 7:15  7:35 7:15 7:30 7:30 7:30 8:00 7:15 7:05  Time of A r i s i n g (A.M.)  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  7:30 7:15 7:30 8:45 10:00 8:30 7:00 7:20  7:35 7:30 7:30 7:30 7:30 8:30 7:00 8:15  Size of Breakfast (S.M.L.)  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  M S M S  -  M L M L S  S s s  S s  -  10:40 10:00 9:45 11:00 10:50 10:15 11:00 10:30  _  S M L S S S M  S L S L S S S S  2  0  3  9:00 10:40 7:15 7:00 7:30 7:30 7:30 8:30 7:30 7:30 8:15 8:30 7:00 7:00 7:20 7:30 _  S L S S S  -  s  M s L S S S S M  Variable  Subject  -Experimental E,  E„  1  Size of Lunch (S.M.L.)  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  Number of Classes before Test  1 2 3 4 5J c.  o  7 8  Amount of A c t i v i t y before Test  2  -  mm -  1 1  1 1  -Control  3  -  mm mm  _  1  -  -  -  2 2  1 2  2  _  1 _  1 2 3 4 5 6  mm  -  S M  -  S -  8  M  M  M  mm  -  7 /  c.  C„  L -  -  3 2 1  _,  1  2  2  -  C  3  mm _  1  1  -  1  1  1  L S  -  -  -  mm  mm  M  -  -  2  2  S  -  mm  M  Variable Subject  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Subject 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  Age (yrs.)  20 27 23 21 24 24 24 21 P o s i t i o n Played Defense Forward Defense Center Forward Center Forward Defense  Height (m)  1.803 1.778 1.867 1. 778 1.727 1.803 1.575 1.803  Weight (Kgs)  81.72 81.72 81.72 79.49 74r91 98.97 66.74 81.72  APPENDIX D HEART RATE CALIBRATION CHART  HEART RATES Three beat complex - heart rate = paper speed x 60 x 3 number of mm. Paper speed = 24 mm/sec. 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 34 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66  = = = = = = = s  = = = SS  =s  = = =  = = =  = = =  = = = 55 SS SS  = = = =5  = = S3 S3 SS  =  180 beats/min. 173 166 160 154 149 144 139 135 131 127 123 120 117 114 111 108 105 103 100 98 96 94 92 90 88 86 85 83 82 80 79 77 76 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66  Paper speed = 25 mm/sec. 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67  = 180 beats/min. S3 =3 S3  =  = = S3  = = S=  = = S3 33  = =  = = —  = =  = = =5  = S3 S3  = = = = = = =3 =3 S3 S3  = S3 S3  173 167 161 156 150 145 141 136 132 128 125 122 119 115 112 110 107 105 102 100 98 96 94 92 90 88 87 85 83 82 80 79 78 76 75 74 73 71 70 69 68 67  Paper speed 67 68 69 70  = = -  65 64 63 62  Paper speed 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75  = = -  66 65 64 63 62 61 61 60  

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