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Phlebotomy and its effect on the work output of athletes Dennison, John David 1960

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PHLEBOTOMY AND ITS EFFECT ON THE WORK OUTPUT OF ATHLETES  by  JOHN DAVID DENNISON Diploma of P.E. Sydney Teachers' College, 19J>5. B.P.E. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 19!?9.  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , I960.  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the  University  o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t freely  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  study.  I further  c o p y i n g of t h i s  be g r a n t e d by the Head o f  Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  Department o f  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  P h y s i c a l Education  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada.  my  I t i s understood  that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r g a i n s h a l l not  thesis  financial  permission.  ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was to determine the e f f e c t of blood donation upon the work output of University athletes.  Further, t o determine whether  the e f f e c t i s p h y s i o l o g i c a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s u i t a b l e c o n t r o l s were exercised over the subjects.  A suitable  t e s t item representing a s p e c i f i c measure of work output was predetermined f o r the study. Twenty members of various U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia a t h l e t i c teams were s e l e c t e d and equated i n t o two groups of ten u s i n g t h e i r performance on the test item as a b a s i s f o r d i v i s i o n .  The t e s t item consisted  of making as many pedal r e v o l u t i o n s as p o s s i b l e over a two minute p e r i o d on a standard b i c y c l e ergometer set at a r e s i s t a n c e of l i | kilograms. Both groups were taken to the Blood Donation C l i n i c where the c o n t r o l group had 500 cc of blood removed. The experimental  group underwent an i d e n t i c a l procedure  but no blood was drawn.  C a r e f u l c o n t r o l s at the c l i n i c  ensured that n e i t h e r group was aware of what occurred. Later questioning i n d i c a t e d that both groups b e l i e v e d a l l subjects had given  blood.  A l l subjects were r e t e s t e d under standard  conditions  two hours, twenty-four hours and seven days a f t e r blood  donation.  Results were subjected to standard s t a t i s t -  i c a l analysis. The c o n t r o l group showed, a s i g n i f i c a n t gain i n performance i n the t e s t item i n a l l subsequent t e s t s . The experimental group also showed a s i g n i f i c a n t gain i n performance i n the t e s t item i n a l l subsequent t e s t s . At no stage was any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found to e x i s t between the two groups. I t was concluded that under the c o n d i t i o n s of the study, blood donation does not d e l e t e r i o u s l y a f f e c t the performance of a t h l e t e s i n an item i n v o l v i n g a short p e r i o d of muscular work.  I n f a c t , the mean performance  was s i g n i f i c a n t l y improved.  No p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t  was found i n the group which b e l i e v e d that i t had donated blood.  TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER  PAGE  I  STATEMENT OP THE PROBLEM  1  II  REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE  Ij.  METHODS AND PROCEDURE.  16  RESULTS  21  V  DISCUSSION  29  VI  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  3k  •Ill IV  BIBLIOGRAPHY  36  APPENDICES A.  STATISTICAL TREATMENT  38  B.  TIME TABLE FOR PROCEDURE  C.  INDIVIDUAL SCORE SHEET  k5  D.  RAW SCORES FOR GROUP A  lj.6  E.  RAW SCORES FOR GROUP B  1+7  LIST OP TABLES I II III IV V VI VII  E f f e c t of Blood Donation on Work Output Comparison of Results Between Control Score and Test 3 Comparison of Results Between Test 3 and Test h, Comparison of Results Between Control Score and Test [j. Comparison of Results Between Test 1+ and Test $ Comparison of Results Between C o n t r o l Score and Test $ Comparison of Results Between Test 3 and Test 5  6 22 23 2l| Z$ 26 26  LIST OF TABLES (Cont'd.) VIII IX X  Comparison of Group A and Group B on Test 3 Comparison of Group A and Group B on Test Lj. Comparison of Group A and Group B on Test 5  PAGE  . 27 28 28  i  CHAPTER I STATEMENT OP THE PROBLEM s W i t h i n the f i e l d of p h y s i c a l education and a t h l e t i c s i n general, there has been much conjecture as to whether the g i v i n g of blood by an a t h l e t e w i l l i n any way a f f e c t h i s performance i n a c t i v i t y i n v o l v i n g muscular work. Karpovich (1) reported that a t h l e t e s . a s s e r t that blood donation w i l l not s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t them, while coaches are d e f i n i t e l y against the p r a c t i c e .  Jones, Widing and  Nelson (2) reported one i n s t i t u t i o n i n which a student was permitted t o give blood only once a semester because one student became s e r i o u s l y i l l f o l l o w i n g blood donation. In a l l , very few studies have been conducted t o determine the e f f e c t s of donation.  Most were concerned  with items other than muscular work and found no i l l e f f e c t s of donation with normal healthy subjects provided a short r e s t i n g p e r i o d was allowed a f t e r the venesection. However, i n none of these reported studies was any p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l e x e r c i s e d over the subjects.  I n each  case the a t h l e t e s were aware of g i v i n g blood and that t h e i r subsequent performance was being measured.  On no occasion  was an experimental group set up which i n v o l v e d a t h l e t e s who thought that they had given blood but i n f a c t had not done so.  2  This study w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e whether performance i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by blood donation.  I f so,  i s the group who a c t u a l l y gave blood more or l e s s a f f e c t e d than the group who believed they had done so? These f i g u r e s w i l l give some i n d i c a t i o n as to whether the e f f e c t on performance i s a c t u a l l y  physiological  or a r e s u l t of the b e l i e f that blood had a c t u a l l y been removed. Performance i n t h i s study w i l l be measured i n terms of work output i n a predetermined time  period.  Work output w i l l be c a l c u l a t e d by the performance of the subject on a standard b i c y c l e ergometer. In view of the v a r i e d opinions h e l d by  athletes  as to whether blood donation w i l l or w i l l not prejudice t h e i r performance at t h e i r chosen sport, i t seems appropriate that some i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the e f f e c t of t h i s p r a c t i c e be made.  Moreover, to i s o l a t e the a l l  important p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t of the donation, the psychological  aspects of the preconceived b e l i e f i n  what w i l l occur must be s u i t a b l y c o n t r o l l e d .  3  REFERENCES  Karpovich, P.V. and Millman, N., "Athletes as Blood Donors", Research Quarterly, 13, 19^2, pp.166168. : Jones, H.W., Widing, H., and Nelson, L., "A Study of the E f f e c t in,Donors of Repeated Blood Loss", Journal of the American Medical A s s o c i a t i o n , 96, 1931, PP. 1297-1300.  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE  LITERATURE (1)  A study conducted by Karpovich and Millman  gave some i n d i c a t i o n of the e f f e c t of blood l o s s by athletes.  They report that a b i c y c l e r i d e r , who  had been  p r a c t i s i n g on a b i c y c l e ergometer, dropped considerably i n r i d i n g performance a f t e r admitting to a l o s s of 500 of blood. l e v e l was  cc  Three weeks elapsed before h i s performance regained.  A r e p e t i t i o n of the experiment  showed s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . A f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n (1)  by the same experim-  enters upon four subjects involved i n b i c y c l e r i d i n g showed that three of the f o u r decreased i n performance on the day of t r a n s f u s i o n However, the two  and on the f o l l o w i n g  day.  subjects \4tio were involved i n a " s p r i n t "  type of a c t i v i t y q u i c k l y regained t h e i r performance level.  The  " s p r i n t " type of a c t i v i t y involved  a l l out f o r one minute once a day.  Those engaged i n  endurance work s u f f e r e d a ten to eighteen day i n performance a f t e r  riding  reduction  transfusion.  This f a c t i s f u r t h e r supported by Karpovich Millman (1)  who  and  r e v e a l s i m i l a r r e s u l t s from blood donation  by a long distance swimmer, a cross country runner, a s p r i n t e r and a s p r i n t swimmer.  The  f i r s t two  suffered  considerably from the donation while the l a t t e r p a i r equalled t h e i r best performance a few hours l a t e r .  5 Reference i s made to m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s by the i n v e s t i g a t o r s when they r e v e a l that the b i c y c l e r i d e r p r e v i o u s l y mentioned a c t u a l l y increased h i s performance the  day a f t e r donation before admitting t o the l o s s of  blood. the  I t was f e l t that t h i s subject, anxious to prevent  e f f e c t of h i s blood l o s s from being known, t r i e d  harder than usual to produce a good performance. Karpovich and Millman (1) sum up the study by saying (l,p.l68): Performance on the day of l o s s of blood, and the f o l l o w i n g day, was u s u a l l y lowered, but o c c a s i o n a l l y s l i g h t l y increased. This increase was probably due to the summation of the concomitant e x c i t i n g f a c t o r s . In our study the s l i g h t increase i n two cases was probably due t o a f r a n t i c e f f o r t t o prove that l o s s of blood d i d not a f f e c t the subjects seriously. Balke, G r i l l o , Konecci and L u f t (2),  investigating  work capacity a f t e r blood donation, found s l i g h t l y different results. subjects.  These i n v e s t i g a t o r s used fourteen  They were d i v i d e d i n t o two groups of seven  subjects each and t h e i r performance was measured on a treadmill.  A mean performance was e s t a b l i s h e d by t e s t i n g  each group on two separate occasions.  Five hundred cc of  blood was then removed from each subject and the f i r s t group was r e t e s t e d , under the same c o n d i t i o n s , one hour, two days and t e n days a f t e r t r a n s f u s i o n .  S i m i l a r l y , the  second group was r e t e s t e d one hour, three days and eight days a f t e r t r a n s f u s i o n . was found.  I n both groups a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n  An i n i t i a l f a l l i n performance was followed  6  by a r a p i d r e c o v e r y i n two t o three days and an improved performance i n e i g h t t o t e n days.  The r e s u l t s are shown  i n Table I . TABLE I E f f e c t o f B l o o d Donation Subjects  Controls  on Work Outputs-  Blood 1  Blood 2  1 hr.  days days  Group A = 7  970  ,903  Group B = 7  1096  1002  2  Blood 3  3  91+0 1119  1200 +89.3  -93.7  -27  -8  S.D. o f D i f f .  68.78  93.95  58.8  .01  C a l c u l a t i o n i n meter  .5  10  days 1058  Av. D i f f .  P value  8  days  .5  +76.5  ll+.k  57.9  .029  .013  kilograms/minute  These i n v e s t i g a t o r s summarised t h e i r f i n d i n g s by s a y i n g t h a t (2,p.236): Loss o f b l o o d i n amounts customary i n b l o o d d o n a t i o n imposes s i g n i f i c a n t l i m i t a t i o n s on p h y s i o l o g i c a l adjustment t o severe e x e r c i s e w i t h i n the f i r s t few h o u r s a f t e r v e n e s e c t i o n . But t h e r e i s a r a p i d r e c o v e r y o f i n i t i a l work capaci t y i n two t o t h r e e days and a marked improvement i n performance a f t e r an i n t e r v a l o f a week.  1 B a l k e , B., G r i l l o , G.P., K o n e c c i , E.B., and L u f t , V.C., "Work C a p a c i t y A f t e r B l o o d D o n a t i o n " , J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P h y s i o l o g y , 7, 1951)-, p.233.  7  S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were obtained Wiley and Newton (3).  by Spealman, Bixby,  These i n v e s t i g a t o r s studied the  influence of hemorrhage by subjects on t h e i r performance i n the heat.  Using four subjects as a b a s i s of inves-  t i g a t i o n , the i n v e s t i g a t o r s concluded that removal of 500 cc of blood r e s u l t e d i n an immediate and marked decrease i n a b i l i t y to carry out p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . a c t i v i t i e s c o n s i s t e d of a c t i v e and passive standing  These  and  e x e r t i o n on a b i c y c l e ergometer i n a high temperature. Several days elapsed before the c o n t r o l l e v e l of performance was regained again.  Moreover, performance was .affected  but to a l e s s e r degree f o l l o w i n g removal of 200 cc of blood. I n f u s i o n of serum albumin i n q u a n t i t i e s equivalent  to  $00 cc of blood plasma improved performance. Hoffman, L i t w i n s and Sussman (Ij.) i n v e s t i g a t e d e l e c t r o c a r d i o g r a p h i c changes as a r e s u l t of b l o o d l e t t i n g . I t was  s t a t e d , i n summary, that (lj.,p,1052): Our f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e that a complete r e t u r n of the e l e c t r o c a r d iogram to normal can be a n t i c i p a t e d i n a normal healthy donor, even i f exercise i s performed immediately a f t e r the phlebotomy, providing the person i s given a r e s t period of at l e a s t several minutes f o l l o w i n g the blood l e t t i n g . This point i s of importance i n that i t i s the custom of the average healthy donor to r e t u r n immediately to work with a l l i t s attendant e x e r c i s e , a f t e r g i v i n g blood. The p r a c t i c e of a r i s i n g from the bleeding table immediately a f t e r the blood donation should be discouraged and a ten minute r e s t p e r i o d r u l e be required.  8  I t was f u r t h e r found that the heart r a t e , however, was s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater immediately a f t e r the postphlebotomy e x e r c i s e t e s t . Jones, Widing and Nelson (5) i n d i c a t e d v i t a l capacity v a r i e d before and a f t e r blood donation.  Some-  times t o t a l e x p i r e d volume increased, other times i t decreased.  The greatest increase was found to be 250 cc  but i t was considered doubtful whether the increased v i t a l c a p a c i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t l y so or due to greater s k i l l of operation of the measuring instrument. Studies c a r r i e d out by M a r t i n and Myers ( 6 ) , and f u r t h e r supported by L i t w i n s , Sussman and P e l t e n s t e i n ( 7 ) , i n d i c a t e that 5>00 cc of blood i s a safe and  convenient amount of blood t o remove at any one time f o r t r a n s f u s i o n purposes. However, an experiment conducted by Ebert, Stead and Gibson (8) gave some i n d i c a t i o n as to the e f f e c t s of acute blood l o s s (760 to 1220 c c s ) . These i n v e s t i g a t o r s found i n t e r a l i a , that (8,p.580): The plasma volume began t o increase immediately a f t e r hemorrhage and cont i n u e d to increase f o r the next f o r t y eight to seventy-two hours. At the end of seventy-two hours i t was approximately equal t o the plasma volume before hemorrhage p l u s the volume of r e d c e l l s removed. Furthermore, a f t e r hemorrhage the blood volume was not r e s t o r e d t o normal u n t i l new plasma p r o t e i n had been added to the c i r c u l a t i o n .  9  There appears t o be no doubt from the evidence • c o l l e c t e d , that work output i s a f f e c t e d by blood  donation.  Just how much e f f e c t takes place and f o r how long i t l a s t s i s not c l e a r .  Moreover, there i s no i n d i c a t i o n of  whether the e f f e c t was a c t u a l l y a r e s u l t of the p h y s i c a l l o s s of blood or a b e l i e f , suggested by a f e e l i n g of weakness or nausea, or merely preconceived opinion, that work performance would be a f f e c t e d . Related  Studies  Studies concerned with work output as measured by performance on a b i c y c l e ergometer r e v e a l many and v a r i e d ways of using the ergometer. B a s i c a l l y , Karpovich  states  (9,p.212):  The general formula f o r work i s F x D where F i s force used and D, the distance covered. I n the case of the b i c y c l e , the force obviously i s equal t o the. resistance t o be overcome. Karpovich  (9) suggests that work done i n a given  time may be c a l c u l a t e d i n foot pounds by u t i l i z i n g the r e s i s t a n c e , the number of wheel r e v o l u t i o n s and the circumference of the wheel.  He f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s a  method whereby a s p e c i f i e d amount of work may be done by a d j u s t i n g the l o a d and keeping the pedal r e v o l u t i o n s constant, Karpovich  and Hale (10), while i n v e s t i g a t i n g the  e f f e c t of tobacco smoking on p h y s i c a l performance, had  10  t h e i r subjects perform a p r e s c r i b e d amount of work on the ergometer.  The  amount of work s e l e c t e d  was  comparable to a one mile run on the track i n the shortest p o s s i b l e time.  I t consisted i n making a t o t a l of  1^.25 pedal r e v o l u t i o n s against a load of eight pounds. This r e s u l t e d i n a t o t a l distance covered of 6,116 and lj.8,928 foot pounds of work performed.  feet  The time  range f o r subjects f o r the completion of the work was 3 minutes  seconds to $ minutes 7.8  I n another study, Karpovich  seconds.  and Pestrecov  (11)  asked subjects to work at a rate of 0.506 horsepower at 117 pedal r e v o l u t i o n s per minute.  The maximum time  achieved was 7 minutes 30 seconds. Cogswell, Henderson and Berryman (12), i n a s i m i l a r type of study, measured maximum performance using a l o a d such that each r i d e l a s t e d approximately s i x t y seconds. I t was was  found that a ten minute r e s t period between r i d e s  s u f f i c i e n t to allow f o r recovery. Walters (13) exercised her subjects f o r one minute  at maximum work c a p a c i t y . the determination  In t h i s study the object  of maximum work output.  was  A f i e l d current  of three amperes and a pedal r e v o l u t i o n speed of s i x t y r e v o l u t i o n s per minute on the b i c y c l e ergometer r e q u i r e d a work rate of 0.33 horsepower.  Work was then converted  i n t o kilogram metres per minute d i r e c t l y from a conversion t a b l e .  These i n v e s t i g a t o r s also found that a  11  single p r a c t i c e session three days before t e s t i n g was sufficient. U l r i c h and Burke (11}.) measured work on a b i c y c l e ergometer i n terms of c a l o r i e s per hour.  The work done  was equal to 61.67 foot pounds per wheel r e v o l u t i o n regardless of the speed of peddling.  These i n v e s t i g a t -  ors measured the amount of work done i n one minute by u t i l i z i n g the number of wheel r e v o l u t i o n s . T u t t l e (15) i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t of p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g on capacity t o do work as measured by the b i c y c l e ergometer.  The subjects worked at a rate of  33 horsepower f o r e i t h e r one or two minutes at a wheel rate of s i x t y r e v o l u t i o n s per mimtte.  As a r e s u l t of  t h i s study, T u t t l e f e l t the f o l l o w i n g  conclusions  j u s t i f i e d (16,p.396): (1) The work which an i n d i v i d u a l performs i n one minute of maximum e f f o r t i s as good a c r i t e r i o n of work capacity as the amount accomplished i n two minutes. I n a d d i t i o n , by working only one minute, severe exhaustive r e a c t i o n s are avoided. (2) Maximum work rate i s attained i n approximately 15 seconds but i t i s maintained f o r only a few seconds a f t e r which there i s a gradual decline i n maximum work output. I n p h y s i c a l l y w e l l t r a i n ed subjects t h i s decline continues, on the average, 75 seconds a f t e r which a plateau or f a t i g u e l e v e l of work i s reached and maintained f o r the remainder of the two minute work period.  12  F i n a l l y , Nelson (16), Scott, Moody and Wilson (17), and Scott and Wilson (18) used the ergometer i n d i f f e r e n t ways but gained h i g h l y s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s . In one of these studies (17) the c r i t e r i o n of capacity to do work was estimated by r e q u i r i n g each subject to r i d e the machine f o r two minutes at maximum speed. was set at three amperes.  Resistance  Work capacity was then computed  i n kilogram metres f o r two minutes. In I9I4.8, Scott and Wilson (18) studied p h y s i c a l e f f i c i e n c y t e s t s f o r college women. use of the ergometer they stated  In reference  to the  (l8,p,131)s  The ergometer gives r e l i a b l e and objective scores on the work done, and t h e r e f o r e , i n d i r e c t l y on the capacity of the subject to work hard f o r a b r i e f p e r i o d of time. The generated voltage i s t r a n s l a t e d d i r e c t l y i n t o kilogram metres of work and t h i s i s not p o s s i b l e i n other types of work estimates. The ergometer also y i e l d s a r e l a t i v e l y quick measure of work. Nelson (16) studied the e f f e c t s of a l c o h o l on performance i n s e l e c t e d gross motor tests... .This i n v e s t i g a t o r considered performance on a b i c y c l e ergometer as an endurance item. to perform f o r  The subjects were asked  seconds against a t e n pound r e s i s t a n c e  and found that the mean performance f o r various groups ranged between 220 and 230 r e v o l u t i o n s . Nelson speaks h i g h l y of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the b i c y c l e ergometer used i n t h i s way when he states  (l6,p.320):  13  The timing device used i n the speed and r e a c t i o n t e s t and the b i c y c l e ergometer seemed to be the most p r e c i s e measuring instruments, as evidenced by the small c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n . The foregoing reported studies w i l l be considered as a b a s i s . f o r d e f i n i n g the method of using the b i c y c l e ergometer i n the way best s u i t e d to the needs of t h i s experiment.  1*4.  REFERENCES Karpovich, P.V. and Millman, N., "Athletes as Blood Donors", Research Quarterly, 13, 19l|!2, pp. 166168. Balke, B., G r l l l o , G., Konecci, E.B., and L u f t , V.C., "Work Capacity a f t e r Blood Donation", Journal of Applied Physiology, 7, 195k, pp.231-236. Spealman, C.R., Bixby, E.W., Wiley, J.L., and Newton, M., "Influence of Hemorrhage, Albumin I n f u s i o n , Bed Rest and Exposure t o Gold on Performance i n the Heat", Journal of Applied Physiology, 1, 1914-8, pp.2l].2-253.  Hoffman, I . , L i t w i n s , J . , and Sussman, L., " E l e c t r o cardiographic Changes i n Donors during Bloodl e t t i n g " , American Journal of C l i n i c a l Pathology, 21, 1951, pp.1031-10524-. Jones, H.W., Widing, H., and Nelson, L., "A Study of the E f f e c t i n Donors of Repeated Blood Loss", Journal of American Medical A s s o c i a t i o n , 96, 1931,  pp.1297-1300.  M a r t i n , J.W., and Myers, J.T., "The E f f e c t s of Blood Transfusion on Donors", Journal of Laboratory and C l i n i c a l Medicine, 20, 1935, pp.593-597. L i t w i n s , J . , Sussman, L.N., and F e l t e n s t e i n , M., "Hematologic and Chemical Changes i n Donors during Blood L e t t i n g " , American Journal of C l i n i c a l Pathology, 20, 1950, pp.[4.6-14.7. Ebert, R.V., Stead, E.A., and Gibson, J.G., "Response of Normal Subjects to Acute Blood Loss", Archives of I n t e r n a l Medicine, 68, 19*4-1, pp.578-583. Karpovich, P.V., "A F r i c t i o n a l B i c y c l e Ergometer", Research Quarterly, 21, 1950, pp.210-21$. Karpovich, P.V., and Hale, C.J., "Tobacco Smoking and P h y s i c a l Performance", Journal of Applied Physiology, 3, 1951, pp.616-621. Karpovich, P.V., and Pestrecov, K., " E f f e c t of G e l a t i n upon Muscular Work i n Man", American Journal of Physiology, 13k, 19*4-1, pp.300-309.  15  12  Cogswell, R.C., Henderson, C.R., and Berryman, G.H., "Some Observations of the E f f e c t s of T r a i n i n g on Pulse Rate, Blood Pressure and Endurance i n Humans, Using the Step Test (Harvard), Treadm i l l and Electrodyhamic Brake B i c y c l e Ergometer", American Journal of Physiology, II4.6, 1946, pp .422-14.30.  13  Walters, C.E., "A Study of the E f f e c t s of P r e s c r i b e d Strenuous Exercises on the P h y s i c a l E f f i c i e n c y of Women", Research Quarterly, 2 5 , 1953, pp.102111.  14  U l r i c h , C , and Burke, R.K., " E f f e c t of M o t i v a t i o n a l Stress upon P h y s i c a l Performance", Research Quarterly, 2 8 , 1957, pp.403-lj.12.  15  T u t t l e , W.W., " E f f e c t of P h y s i c a l T r a i n i n g on Capacity to do Work as Measured by the B i c y c l e Ergometer", Journal of Applied Physiology, 2, 1950, pp.39339H*:  '  16  Nelson, D.O., " E f f e c t s of E t h y l A l c o h o l on the Performance of Selected Gross Motor Tests", Research Quarterly, 30,. 1959, pp.317-320.  17  S c o t t , M.G., Moody, M., and Wilson, M., " V a l i d a t i o n of Mass Type P h y s i c a l Tests with Tests of Work Capacity", Research Q u a r t e r l y , 16, 1945, pp. 128-138.  18  S c o t t , M.G.., and Wilson, M., " P h y s i c a l E f f i c i e n c y Tests f o r College Women", Research Quarterly, 19, 1948, pp.62-69.  CHAPTER I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURE Twenty u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t e s s e l e c t e d from various a t h l e t i c teams from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia were the subjects f o r t h i s study. A l l subjects met before any t e s t i n g took place and the purpose of the study was o u t l i n e d .  The i n s t r u c t i o n s  given were as f o l l o w s : You w i l l be t e s t e d on a b i c y c l e ergometer, the object being to see how many pedal r e v o l u t i o n s you can perform i n two minutes. You w i l l be given an opportunity to repeat the t e s t one week l a t e r . Seven days a f t e r the second t e s t you w i l l go down t o the Blood Donation Service and have 500 cc of blood removed by the doctor. You w i l l Immediately return t o the gymnasium and repeat the t e s t . Further t e s t s w i l l be conducted on the f o l l o w i n g day and again a week l a t e r . The object of the study i s to determine i f the blood donation w i l l a f f e c t your performance. It is most important that you continue through with the experiment and that you cooperate t o the best of your a b i l i t y at a l l times. The b i c y c l e ergometer used i n the study was manufactured by J.A. Preston Corporation and was f i t t e d w i t h a v a r i a b l e , r e s i s t a n c e and r e v o l u t i o n counter. Henry (1) notes that there i s some element of acquired s k i l l i n performing e f f i c i e n t l y on a b i c y c l e ergometer.  To f a m i l i a r i s e each subject w i t h the apparatus,  17  p r a c t i c e sessions were arranged which enabled each subject to perforin with reasonable s k i l l and to minimise the l e a r n i n g f a c t o r . session was  The end of each p r a c t i c e  devoted to the s u b j e c t s  1  peddling f o r two  minutes with a l i g h t r e s i s t a n c e so as to become accustomed to the time p e r i o d which was employed i n the experiment. In determining  the procedure f o r the t e s t item the  f o l l o w i n g points were 1.  considered:  Work i s measured by the product of force times  distance t r a v e l l e d on the b i c y c l e ergometer. defined as the resistance against which the  Force i s subject  pedals while distance i s the wheel circumference m u l t i p l i e d by the number of r e v o l u t i o n s . W - F S - F x 2 7T r x no. of r e v o l u t i o n s 2.  The r e s i s t a n c e w i l l remain a constant  the circumference of the wheel.  as does  Thus work output v a r i e s  with the number of r e v o l u t i o n s . 3.  I t seems that various p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s must  be c o n t r o l l e d which n a t u r a l l y a f f e c t the study when the subject i s asked to work to exhaustion. then, was  The  asked to work f o r two minutes only.  subject, I t was  f e l t that the two minute time i n t e r v a l would be large enough to obtain a s u i t a b l e range of performance with d i f f e r e n t subjects and short enough to ensure c o n t i n u a l e f f o r t by the subject and s t i l l avoid the e f f e c t s of mental  18  f a t i g u e or boredom.. I4..  The search of the r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e suggested  that constant pedal r e v o l u t i o n s per minute would be d i f f i c u l t t o c o n t r o l whereas maximum r e v o l u t i o n s i n a given time forces no p a r t i c u l a r pace upon the subject but would allow him to extend himself as he desired. 5>. I t was f e l t that most subjects would "give of t h e i r best" f o r a l i m i t e d p e r i o d of two minutes provided they were c o n t i n u a l l y aware how much time had elapsed and how much time remained. One week a f t e r the p r a c t i c e sessions were completed the f i r s t t e s t was given.  The load was predetermined so  as t o b r i n g the subjects close to p h y s i c a l exhaustion at the end of the two minute p e r i o d . lij. k g : l .  The r e s i s t a n c e set was  The i n s t r u c t i o n s given to a l l subjects were  standardised and were as f o l l o w s : I want you to pedal as f a s t as you can f o r two minutes. I w i l l c a l l out the time i n 15 second i n t e r v a l s . You w i l l make as many pedal r e v o l u t i o n s as you can i n t h i s time. I t i s most important that you keep working hard throughout the f u l l two minute period. A f t e r t e s t I the r e s u l t s were analysed and the subjects were p a i r e d on performance i n t o Group A and Group B. (2,p.228).  The method used was that described by Garrett One week a f t e r t e s t 1, t e s t 2 was given under  the same c o n d i t i o n s .  The r e s u l t s of t e s t 2 were c o r r e l a t -  ed against those of t e s t 1 to e s t a b l i s h a c o e f f i c i e n t of  19  r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the t e s t item.  At no stage i n the study  did subjects know t h e i r own score nor the score of any other subject.  This e l i m i n a t e d the competitive f a c t o r  between i n d i v i d u a l s . A f t e r a week's i n t e r v a l both groups were taken to the Blood Donation Centre.  The procedure undergone by the  two groups while at the Centre was i d e n t i c a l .  All  subjects were t o l d that they were g i v i n g 5>00 cc of blood and l a t e r questioning i n d i c a t e d that a l l were convinced that they had done so.  In a c t u a l f a c t only the c o n t r o l  group, designated as Group B, gave blood.  The  experim-  e n t a l group, designated as Group A, had a needle i n s e r t ion made i n the muscle and no blood was drawn.  At a l l  times before, during and a f t e r the a c t u a l donation p e r i o d , the treatment administered to both groups was identical.  During the venesection the subjects were  prevented from seeing the procedure by the p l a c i n g of a b l i n d f o l d over t h e i r eyes and as an e x t r a precaution, the covering of a l l pieces of apparatus by tape.  The  subjects were t o l d that the b l i n d f o l d was to a l l e v i a t e any p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e i r performance being a f f e c t e d by the sight of blood. As close as p o s s i b l e to two hours a f t e r venesection each subject reported f r o t e s t 3.  This t e s t was  conduct-  ed under the same c o n d i t i o n s except f o r the presence a doctor i n case an emergency arose. Test 1+ w-as administered twenty-four hours a f t e r venesection and t e s t 5 seven days a f t e r .  of  20  REFERENCES Henry, F.M., "Physiology of Work", Associated Students Store, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1951, P.15. G a r r e t t , H.E., " S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education", Longmans, Green and Co., New York, 1958, p.228.  CHAPTER IV RESULTS The data obtained from the experimental group and the c o n t r o l group are summarized i n the accompanying tables.  The experimental group (A) d i d not donate blood  but b e l i e v e d they had done so. The c o n t r o l group (B) d i d a c t u a l l y donate blood. The s t a t i s t i c a l  treatment of the r e s u l t s deals with  the e f f e c t on performance i n the t e s t item i n each group on each of the l a s t four t e s t s ; the comparison between the performance of the two groups on each of the l a s t three t e s t s ; and, i n a d d i t i o n , a c a l c u l a t i o n of the c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t i n g between the r e s u l t s of each subject on the f i r s t two t e s t s i n order t o e s t a b l i s h a c o e f f i c i e n t of r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the t e s t item. Reliability  of the Test Item:  The scores of twenty-  two subjects on the b i c y c l e ergometer i n Test I were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e i r scores i n Test 2. The c a l c u l a t e d c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n was O..98 which showed high r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the test item. Test 3  (Two hours a f t e r donating blood):  I n group  A each subject showed improvement i n performance over h i s c o n t r o l score.  The range of improvement was from one  r e v o l u t i o n to 2$ r e v o l u t i o n s with a mean increase of 10.2  22  revolutions.  I n group B, a l l subjects, except one,  e x h i b i t e d improved performances.  This subject gave the  same performance as i n the c o n t r o l t e s t . ent  The improvem-  ranged from two r e v o l u t i o n s to 28 r e v o l u t i o n s with a  mean increase of 8 . 5 r e v o l u t i o n s . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n the performance l e v e l s of each group two hours a f t e r donating blood are summarised i n Table I I .  Both group A and group B showed d i f f e r e n c e s  between the c o n t r o l scores and the r e s u l t s on Test 3 which were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  The mean improvement of  group A was 1 0 . 2 r e v o l u t i o n s with a t - r a t i o of 3 . 8 .  This  was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence. Group B showed an increase i n mean performance of 8 . 5 r e v o l u t i o n s with a t - r a t i o of 3.4*  This was also .  s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence. TABLE I I Comparison of Results between Control Score Means and Means on Test 3 M  2  SD  Group A  254.8  9.97  Group B  254.3  2  10.88  t  SD3  M3-M1  265.0  13.0  10.2  3.8*  262.8  10.96  8.5  3.4*  M3  * S i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence Test 4  (24 hours a f t e r donating blood):  I n group A  each subject, except one, gave improved performances over the r e s u l t s i n Test 3 .  This subject showed a f a l l  23 The improvements ranged from 17  of two r e v o l u t i o n s .  r e v o l u t i o n s t o one r e v o l u t i o n with a mean improvement of 8,2 r e v o l u t i o n s . In group B eight subjects showed improvement over t h e i r performance i n Test 3.  The improvements ranged  from 17 r e v o l u t i o n s to one r e v o l u t i o n .  Two subjects  showed decreases of ten and s i x r e v o l u t i o n s . improvement was 5 . i | r e v o l u t i o n s .  The mean  Table I I I shows the  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the performance l e v e l s of each group which occurred between two hours and 21}. hours a f t e r g i v i n g blood. Both group A and group B showed mean d i f f e r e n c e s which varied i n significance.  Group A showed a mean improve-  ment of 8.2 r e v o l u t i o n s and a t - r a t i o of I4..I, s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence. Group B showed a mean improvement  of 5.1+- r e v o l u t i o n s and a t - r a t i o o f 1.9  which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant.  TABLE I I I Comparison of Results between Means of Performance on Test 3 and Test I4. M3  SD^  SD3  Group A  265.0  13.0  273.2  Group B  262.8  10.96  268.2  *  15.5 9.38  M^-My  t  8.2  l+.l*  S.k  1.9  S i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence  Table IV shows the d i f f e r e n c e i n performance l e v e l s of each group which occurred between the c o n t r o l performance  2k  and the performance 2k hours a f t e r g i v i n g blood (Test k).  Both group A and group B showed mean d i f f e r e n c e s  which were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  Group A showed a  mean improvement  of 18.1}. r e v o l u t i o n s and a t - r a t i o o f  6.1}., s i g n i f i c a n t  at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence.  Group B showed a mean improvement  of 13.9 w i t h a t - r a t i o  of 5 . 7 , a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence. TABLE IV Comparison of Results between Means of Performances on Control (Test 2) and Test k M  2  SD  Group A  2514..8  9.97  273.2  Group B  25I4-.3  10.88  268.2  «• S i g n i f i c a n t Test 5  SD^  2  15.5 9.38  M^-M  t  18.1}.  6.1}*  13.9  5.7*  2  at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence  (Seven days a f t e r donating blood):  I n group  A, eight subjects gave decreased performances over t h e i r r e s u l t s i n Test I4..  The decreases ranged from 17 r e v o l u t -  ions to f i v e r e v o l u t i o n s . seven and f i v e r e v o l u t i o n s .  Two subjects gave increases of The mean decrease was 6.3  revolutions. In group B, f o u r subjects showed improved performances, f i v e showed decreased performances and one remained the same.  The mean decrease i n performance was two  25  revolutions., Table V shows the d i f f e r e n c e i n performance  l e v e l s of  each group which occurred between the r e s u l t s of Test I4. and Test 5 . Group A showed a mean decrease of 6.3 and a t - r a t i o of 2 . 6 , s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence. Group B showed a mean decrease of two r e v o l u t i o n s and a t - r a t i o of 0.8 which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant.  TABLE V Comparison of Results between Means of Performance on Test I4. and Test 5 SD5  Group A  266.9  19.8  273.2  Group B  266.2  11.-7  268.2  #  Significant  t  Mjj-M^  v 15.5 9.38  6.3  2.6*  2.0  0.8  at the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence  Table VI shows the d i f f e r e n c e i n mean performance found i n the two groups between the c o n t r o l score (Test 2) and the r e s u l t s i n Test 5 . Group A shows a mean increase of 12.1 r e v o l u t i o n s and a t - r a t i o of 2 . 9 , s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence.  Group B shows a mean  increase of 11.9 r e v o l u t i o n s and a t - r a t i o of 1}..9, s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence.  26  TABLE V I Comparison of Results between Means of Performances on Test 2 (Control) and Test 5 M  2  SD 2  M^-M  2  t  Group A  254.8  9.97  266.9  19.8  12.1  2.9*  Group B  254.3  10.99  266.2  11.7  11.9  1+.9*  Significant  at the 1 percent l e v e l of confidence  Table V I I shows the d i f f e r e n c e i n mean performance found i n the two groups between the scores on Test 3 and the scores on Test 5 . Both groups show increases that were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n performance over Test 3 .  Group A shows a  mean improvement of 1.9 r e v o l u t i o n s with a t - r a t i o of 0 . 6 , Group B shows a mean improvement o f 3 . 4 r e v o l u t i o n s with a t - r a t i o of 1 . 5 5 . Both t - r a t i o s are not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. TABLE V I I Comparison o f Results between Means of Performances on Test 3 and Test 5 M3  SD3  M5  SD5  M 5 - M3  t  Group A  265.0  13.0  266.9  19.8  1.9  0.6  Group B  262.8  10.96  266.2  11.7  3.U-  1.55  27  Comparison between Group A and Group B; As the groups were equated on the means of t h e i r performances on Test 1 and Test 2, there was a d i f f e r ence of 0 . 5 of a r e v o l u t i o n between the c o n t r o l mean of Group A and the c o n t r o l mean of Group B. was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  This d i f f e r e n c e  significant.  Comparisons were made of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the means of the two groups on t h e i r r e s u l t s i n t e s t s 3, k- ^ an  5.  i  I t was f u r t h e r determined whether these d i f f e r e n c e s  were s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant.  Table V I I I shows the r e s u l t s of the d i f f e r e n c e between the means of both groups on Test 3.  I t may be seen that  the standard e r r o r of the d i f f e r e n c e i s 5.37 with a mean d i f f e r e n c e of 2.2. This gives a t - r a t i o of 0.I4.I, which i s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant. TABLE V I I I  Comparison of Difference between Group A and Group B or Results of Test 3 M  A  265.0  M  B  262.8  M -M A  2.2  B  SD  D  12.02  SE  D  5.37  t O.J4.I  Table IX shows the r e s u l t s of the d i f f e r e n c e between means of both groups on Test 1|. I t may be seen that the standard e r r o r of the d i f f e r e n c e i s 5.61). with a mean d i f f e r e n c e of f i v e .  This gives a t - r a t i o of 0.88, which  28  was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant. TABLE I X  Comparison o f t h e D i f f e r e n c e between Group A and Group B on R e s u l t s o f Test Ij. %  M  273.2  B  M- M  268.2  5  A  SD  B  SE  D  12.62  t  D  5.64  0.88  Table X shows t h e r e s u l t s o f the d i f f e r e n c e between the means o f b o t h groups on Test 5 .  I t may be seen t h a t  the s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f the d i f f e r e n c e i s 7.35 w i t h a mean difference of 0.7. i s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  T h i s g i v e s a t - r a t i o o f 0 . 0 9 , which significant. TABLE X  Comparison o f the D i f f e r e n c e between Group A and Group B on R e s u l t s o f Test 5 M  A  266.9  M  B  M- M  266.2  0.7  A  B  SD  D  I6.i}4  SE  D  7.35  t 0.09  CHAPTER V DISCUSSION The studies of Karpovich and Millman (1) demonstrated that a d i f f e r e n c e i n the e f f e c t of blood donation may be expected between subjects engaged i n a " s p r i n t " type of a c t i v i t y and those engaged i n endurance work. Both the s p r i n t runner and the s p r i n t swimmer, i n the foregoing experiment, were able t o equal t h e i r best performances  a few hours a f t e r blood donation.  Further-  more, Karpovich and Millman (1) were cognizant of the m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r when they o f f e r e d an explanation f o r the s l i g h t increases i n performance which were obtained from two subjects on the day of donation.  They state  (l,p.l68): In our study, the s l i g h t increase i n two cases was probably due t o a f r a n t i c e f f o r t t o prove that l o s s of blood d i d not a f f e c t the subjects seriously. The experimental studies of Balke, et a l (2) were p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the adaptation of the blood donors to "severe" exercise s h o r t l y a f t e r donation.  A  f a l l i n performance one hour a f t e r donation was obtained. In none of these studies was the p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r suitably controlled. The present study, which involved, u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t e s i n t r a i n i n g , engaged i n a t e s t item which may be considered  30  as a " s p r i n t " type.  Riding f o r two minutes on a b i c y c l e  ergometer against a II4. kilogram r e s i s t a n c e was  shown t o  impose a short burst of strenuous e f f o r t upon the subjects.  A l l subjects were able to complete the  two  minute r i d i n g p e r i o d but i t was observed that a l l displayed evidence of p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t r e s s , eg. increased pulse r a t e , increased breathing, profuse p e r s p i r a t i o n , e t c . Both groups gave s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher performances than t h e i r c o n t r o l e f f o r t s .  Further, the d i f f e r e n c e s  e x h i b i t e d between the two groups were not significant.  statistically  Hence, i t would appear that both group A  and group B were s i m i l a r l y a f f e c t e d by the t e s t . I t i s suggested that e i t h e r one or a l l of three f a c t o r s may  have been responsible f o r the improved  performance of both groups, (1)  A strong p s y c h o l o g i c a l desire to show that the  blood donation had not a f f e c t e d them.  Further, a l l but  two of the subjects stated a f t e r the t e s t that t h e i r performance had not been a f f e c t e d , although several complained of various e f f e c t s , eg, s t i f f n e s s , t i r e d n e s s , numbness, e t c . , a f t e r the two minute r i d e . (2)  An improvement i n the technique of r i d i n g a  b i c y c l e ergometer. (3)  An improvement i n performaro e as a r e s u l t of the  training factor.  31  On being t e s t e d , twenty-four hours a f t e r donation, both groups showed f u r t h e r improvement, although group A, which had not given blood, showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t improvement, while i n the case of group B, which gave the blood, the improvement was not significant.  statistically  I t i s p o s s i b l e that the l o s s of blood  have shown i t s e f f e c t s at t h i s stage.  may  I f one accepts the  a c t u a l blood donation of group B as the only v a r i a t i o n between the groups then t h i s premise i s reasonable. On being r e t e s t e d a f t e r s i x days of normal a c t i v i t y , group A showed a s i g n i f i c a n t f a l l i n performance.  The  r e s u l t s of t h i s t e s t , however, remained s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than the c o n t r o l l e v e l .  Group B, on the other  hand, showed a f a l l i n the s i x day p e r i o d which was  not  s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y , but nevertheless, remained s i g n i f i c a n t l y above the c o n t r o l l e v e l . Continual reference must be made to the f a c t that the t e s t item was h i g h l y s p e c i f i c .  The required time of  r i d i n g was only two minutes, and t h i s cannot be  accepted  as an a l l - o u t e f f o r t , nor does i t suggest the requirement of great endurance. ive  I t i s impossible to o f f e r any conclus-  explanation f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s that occurred i n  performance.  P o s s i b l y the aforementioned p s y c h o l o g i c a l  drive d e t e r i o r a t e d during the seven day p e r i o d .  However,  even a f t e r seven days, the subjects seemed s u f f i c i e n t l y  32  motivated to maintain t h e i r performance s i g n i f i c a n t l y above the c o n t r o l l e v e l .  Further p o s s i b i l i t i e s are the  b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s of the t r a i n i n g and l e a r n i n g f a c t o r s which, i n themselves, could improve performance. I t may be observed, furthermore, that at no stage was any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the performances of the two groups observed.  I t i s , therefore, suggested,  t h a t , under the conditions of t h i s experiment, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l occur between a group that gives blood and a group that does not. In a d d i t i o n , again under the l i m i t a t i o n s of the study, i t appears that a blood donation of 500 cc w i l l not d e l e t e r i o u s l y a f f e c t the performance of a t h l e t e s on r i d i n g f o r two minutes on a b i c y c l e ergometer against a resistance of llj. kilograms.  33  REFERENCES Karpovich, P.V., and Millman, N., "Athletes as Blood Donors", Research Quarterly, 13, 1942, pp.166168. Balke, B., G r i l l o , G.P., Konecci, E.B., and L u f t , V.C., "Work Capacity a f t e r Blood Donation", Journal of Applied Physiology, 7, 1954, pp.231'  CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Twenty-six U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia a t h l e t e s , engaged i n various s p o r t s , were s e l e c t e d and t e s t e d . The t e s t item c o n s i s t e d of r i d i n g a b i c y c l e ergometer f o r two minutes against a r e s i s t a n c e of lij. kilograms.  The  maximum number of r e v o l u t i o n s performed i n t h i s time was recorded.  On the b a s i s of the t e s t r e s u l t s , the subjects  were d i v i d e d i n t o two equated groups.  Both groups were  taken t o a blood donation c l i n i c where each person i n one group donated 500 cc of blood. The other group underwent the  same procedure, but the needle i n s e r t i o n was made i n  the  muscle and no blood was drawn.  As both groups were  b l i n d f o l d e d , n e i t h e r had any knowledge of what was occurring,  other than that they were g i v i n g blood. The t e s t  item was given to a l l subjects two hours, twenty-four hours and seven days a f t e r donation. The d i f f e r e n c e s i n mean performances were c a l c u l a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y  within  each group and a comparison of t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was made between the groups. On the b a s i s of s t a t i s t i c a l treatment the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were evident: 1.  The group which donated blood showed a s i g n i f i c a n t  gain i n performance i n the t e s t item, two hours (t=3.*J-), twenty-four hours (t=5.7) and seven days (t«lj..9) a f t e r the  35  time of donation. 2.  The group which d i d not donate blood also showed  a s i g n i f i c a n t gain i n performance i n the t e s t item, two hours ( t = 3 . 8 ) , twenty-four hours (t=6.!{.), and seven days (t«2.9) a f t e r the time of donation. 3.  At none of the three stages was any s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e found to e x i s t between the two groups,. On the b a s i s of these r e s u l t s , evidence i s provided which i n d i c a t e s that a blood donation of 500 cc does not d e l e t e r i o u s l y a f f e c t the performance of a t h l e t e s on r i d i n g a b i c y c l e ergometer f o r two minutes against a r e s i s t a n c e of II4. kilograms. i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y improved.  In f a c t , the. mean performance The improvement i s maintained  two hours, twenty-four hours and, to a l e s s e r degree, seven days a f t e r donation.  The p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t of the  b e l i e f t h a t blood donation w i l l a f f e c t performance i s not evident under the c o n d i t i o n s of the study.  No d e l e t e r i o u s  p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t was obtained i n the performance of the group which b e l i e v e d that i t had given blood. I t must be concluded, t h e r e f o r e , that blood donation of 500 cc w i l l not d e l e t e r i o u s l y a f f e c t u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t e s i n r i d i n g a b i c y c l e ergometer f o r two minutes against a llj. kilogram r e s i s t a n c e , e i t h e r p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y or p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y at stages of two hours, twenty-four hours or seven days a f t e r donation.  36  BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS G a r r e t t , H.E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education, New York, Longmans, Green, 1958. Henry, P.M., Psychology of Work, Berkeley, Associated Students Store, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1951. Karpovich, P.V., Physiology of Muscular A c t i v i t y , P h i l adelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1959.  PERIODICALS Balke, B., G r i l l o , G., Konecci, E.B., and L u f t , V.C., "Work Capacity A f t e r Blood Donation", Journal of A p p l i e d Physiology, 7, 195k,. pp.231^236": Cogswell, R.C.., Henderson, C.R., and Berryman, G.H., "Some Observations of the E f f e c t s of T r a i n i n g on Pulse Rate, Blood Pressure and Endurance i n Humans, Using the Step Test (Harvard), Treadm i l l , and Electrodynamic Brake B i c y c l e Ergome t e r " , American Journal of Physiology, IJ4.6, I9I4.6, pp.!;22-1130~ Ebert, R.V., Stead, E.A., and Gibson, J.C., "Response of Normal Subjects to Acute Blood Loss", Archives of I n t e r n a l Medicine, 68, 19*1-1, pp.578-583. Hoffman, I . , L i t w i n s , J . , and Sussman, L., " E l e c t r o c a r d iographic Changes i n Donors during B l o o d l e t t i n g " , •American Journal of C l i n i c a l Pathology, 21, 195l, pp. 1031-1051f..  Jones, H.W., Widing, H., and Nelson, L., "A Study of the E f f e c t i n Donors of Repeated Blood Loss", Journal of American Medical A s s o c i a t i o n , 96, 1931,  pp.1297-1300.  Karpovich, P.V.., "A P r i c t i o n a l B i c y c l e Ergometer", Research Quarterly, 21, 1950, pp.210-215. Karpovich, P.V., and Hale, C.J., "Tobacco Smoking and P h y s i c a l Performance", Journal of A p p l i e d Physiology, 3, 195l, pp76"l6-631.  37  PERIODICALS (Cont'd) Karpovich, P.V., and Millman, N., "Athletes as Blood Donors", Research Quarterly, 13, 191+2, pp. 166-168.  Karpovich, P.V., and Pestrecov, K., " E f f e c t of G e l a t i n Upon Muscular Work i n Man", American Journal of P h y s i o l o g y , 134, 1941» pp.300-309.  L i t w i n s , J . , Sussman, L.N., and P e l t e n s t e i n , M., "Hematologic and Chemical Changes i n Donors during Blood L e t t i n g " , American Journal of C l i n i c a l Pathology, 20, 1950, pp. 1+6-47. M a r t i n , J.W., and Myers, J.T., "The E f f e c t s of Blood Transfusion on Donors", Journal of Laboratory and C l i n i c a l Medicine, 20, 1935, pp.593-597. Nelson, D.O., " E f f e c t s of E t h y l Alcohol on the Performance of Selected Gross Motor Tests", Research Quarte r l y , 30, 1959, pp.317-320.  Scott, M.G., Moody, M., and Wilson, M., " V a l i d a t i o n of Mass Type P h y s i c a l Tests with Tests of Work Capacity", Research Quarterly, 16, 191+5, pp. 128-138.  Scott, M.G., and Wilson, M., " P h y s i c a l E f f i c i e n c y Tests f o r College Women", Research Quarterly, 19, 1948, pp.62-69.  Spealman, C.R., Bixby, E.W., Wiley, J.L., and Newton, M., "Influence of Hemorrhage, Albumin, I n f u s i o n , Bed Rest and Exposure t o Cold on Performance i n the Heat", Journal of Applied Physiology, 1, 191+8, pp.2l;2l253:  T u t t l e , W.W., " E f f e c t of P h y s i c a l T r a i n i n g on Capacity t o Work as Measured by the B i c y c l e Ergometer", Journal of Applied Physiology, 2, 1950, pp.393U l r i c h , C , and Burke, R.K., " E f f e c t of M o t i v a t i o n a l Stress Upon P h y s i c a l Performance", Research Quarterly, 28, 1957, pp.lj.03-412. Walters, C.E., "A Study of the E f f e c t s of Prescribed Strenuous Exercises on the P h y s i c a l E f f i c i e n c y of Women", Research Quarterly, 25, 1953, pp. 102-111.  APPENDIX A STATISTICAL TREATMENT Study Design Two Groups  One Test  -  A  Experimental (N = 10)  B  Control  (N = 10)  performance of b i c y c l e ergometer. administered  f i v e times t o each  subject. Procedure  (1)  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t e s t 1 to a group of subjects.  (2)  Placement of subjects i n t o two groups equated on performance i n t e s t 1.  (3)  Test 2 administered  to Group A  and Group B. (I4.)  C a l c u l a t i o n of r e l i a b i l i t y coe f f i c i e n t between t e s t 1 and test 2 .  (5)  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t e s t 3.  (6)  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t e s t I4..  (7)  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t e s t 5 .  39  Test 1 Group A  Group B  Test 2  Test 2  Test 3  Test 3  Test I4.  Test I}.  Test 5  Test 5  General S t a t i s t i c a l Outline 1.  C o r r e l a t i o n of r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t between t e s t 1 and t e s t 2.  2.  S i g n i f i c a n c e of d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance of group A and group B on t e s t s 3, I4., (Pour c a l c u l a t i o n s )  3.  S i g n i f i c a n c e of d i f f e r e n c e i n performance of group A on t e s t s 2, 3, k» 5 .  (Six calculations)  S i g n i f i c a n c e of d i f f e r e n c e i n performance of group B on t e s t s 2, 3  t  k-» 5 .  (Six calculations)  Procedure and Formulae 1.  C o r r e l a t i o n of r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t between r e s u l t s of t e s t 1 and t e s t 2. Tabulation of data ( G a r r e t t , l,p.226) 1.  No. of subjects.  2.  Mean score  3.  Standard d e v i a t i o n  -77" ' /V- /  U.0  ij..  Standard e r r o r of means  S.£"-^. -  ~^  5.  Difference between means M1-M2  6.  C o r r e l a t i o n between i n i t i a l and f i n a l results. J T  =  i.e. Test 1 Group A  J<  Test 2  2.  Group B Test 2  S i g n i f i c a n c e of difference i n performance of group A and group B on t e s t s 2, 3, k> 5 . ( c a l c u l a t i o n s 2, 3, *J-> 5) Difference of two independent means, Ma  - mean of group A  Mb  - mean of group B  C5~ ma -  standard d e v i a t i o n of group A  (T~mb -  standard d e v i a t i o n of group B  Differences i n means t ratio  =  » Ma - Mb  Ma - Mb  and w i l l be acceptable at the 5 perc l e v e l of confidence.  ij-l  i.e. Group A  Group B  Test 2  Test 2  Test 3  Test 3  Test Ij. •  Test 1+  Test 5 "  Test 5  S i g n i f i c a n c e of d i f f e r e n c e i n performance of group A on t e s t s 2, 3, k>  (Calculations  6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11)  Method of d i f f e r e n c e ( G a r r e t t , l,p.227) MD  a Mean of difference between t e s t 2 and t e s t 3.  SDD  Standard D e v i a t i o n of mean of  s  difference. S.E.jyjD t  =  Standard E r r o r of mean of d i f f e r e n c e . M  and w i l l be acceptable at the  D  SEMD  5 percent l e v e l of confidence. S i m i l a r s t a t i s t i c a l procedure f o r group B. i.e.  Group A Test 2 lb Test 3 7 Test ]\ I8  Test  5  >J.2  Thus i n Summary we have.  Test 1 Group A  Group B  Test h Test 17 Test  I'  2  Test 2 l Test 3 i I Test 1 I 5 Test fc  3 1+  ,  Test 5  7  8  O  k3  REFERENCE 1  G a r r e t t , H.E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education, New York, Longmans, Green and Co., 1958, pp. 226-227.  APPENDIX B  TIME TABLE FOR PROCEDURE  P r a c t i c e sessions  -  on days to be arranged.  Day  1  -  l a s t p r a c t i c e session.  Day  8  -  Test 1  Day 15  -  Test 2  Day 22  -  Test 3  Day 23  -  Test 1;  Day 30  -  Test 5  - two hours a f t e r venesection.  APPENDIX C INDIVIDUAL SCORE SHEET  NAME ADDRESS PHONE HEIGHT WEIGHT SPORT FACULTY GROUP -  Date  Time  Test Number  Re s u i t s  Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 1+ Test 5  Did you b e l i e v e that blood donation a f f e c t e d you i n this test?  • Have you ever given blood before?  APPENDIX D RAW SCORES FOR GROUP A  Subject  1  2  Mean  3  k  5  A  276  278  277  286  295  300  B  261  258  260  261  276  269  C  256  257  257  268  282  271  D  256  257  257  282  290  297  E  253  256  255  270  281  267  F  2^8  258  253  284  285  267  G  21+8  260  254  255  272  268  H  246  249  248  251  256  247  I  247  250  249  252  250  245  J  238  238  238  251  255  238  254.8  265.0  273.2  266.9  9.97  13.0  15.5  19.8  3.15  4.1  Mean SD  1 & 2  k.9  6.3  APPENDIX E RAW SCORES FOR GROUP B  1  2  Mean  3  1*  5  A  276  276  276  278  279  281*  B  267  263  265  271  282,  280  C  256  255  256  266  268  260  D  258  251*  256  261*  281  267  E  256  251*  255  258  266  272  F  252  255  251*  251*  259  258  G  250  251*  252  263  257  276  H  250  250  250  278  268  276  I  239  21*1*  2I(.2  21*9  262 •  262  J  236  237  237  21*7  260  21*8  251*. 3  262.8  268.2  266  > ject  Mean SD  1 & 2  10.88 3.1*1*  10.96  9.38  11,  3.1*7  2.97  3,  

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