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The athletic performance at sea level of middle altitude dwelling girls Zeller, Janet Marianne Ringham 1973

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THE ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE AT SEA LEVEL OF MIDDLE ALTITUDE DWELLING GIRLS by .Janet Marianne Ringham Zeller A,B. , University of California, 1958 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF RASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION in the School of Physical Education and Recreation We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January 1973 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Physical Education The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date January 197 3 ABSTRACT With the consideration of extending track competition for girls of a middle altitude community to include the sea level valley nearby, the problem for this investigation evolved. The main question to be answered was, "Is the athletic perform ance of young female athletes, native to middle altitude, impaired when performing at sea level?" Subsidiary problems of the relationship of partial pressure of oxygen to perform ance, and microhematocrit changes in the subjects were also studied. Eight females between the ages of 12 and 14 participated in this experiment having eight treatments. Four treatments were at sea level and four were at middle altitude. Each treat ment included taking a fingertip blood sample for a microhemato crit reading, a 50 yard dash, a 440 yard dash, a softball throw and an 880 yard run. These events were to represent the assort ment found at a track meet. Recordings were also made of temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, and air pollution. It was hypothesized- that; a) the denser air and increased gravitational pull at sea level cause impairment in throwing and short runs; b) with oxygen uptake reduced at altitude, the 8 80 yard run is faster at sea level than at middle altitude; c) if hematocrits are in the upper portion of the normal range for sea level, the resultant increase in the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood does not improve sea level performance. The findings indicated that physical training and learn ing progressed markedly from the start of the experiment to the finish, The only significant altitude effect was found in the 50 yard dash with times being faster at sea level. It is doubt ful that this was a result of the change in altitude, more likely, conditions other than barometric pressure were respon sible for the differences found at the. two testing locations. Wind disadvantage and insufficient warm-up more likely accounted for slower times at altitude. Superior performances occurred in warm weather, and when subjects were psychologically peaked indicating that warm-up and psychological climate may be more important to performance than the change of altitude that was employed. Hematocrits remained within normal ranges for middle altitude dwelling females throughout the experiment. Therefore, a coach of healthy young athletes from middle altitude should have no unusual concerns for competition at a related sea level environment. Concerns should be only those normally attended to at all competitions. PREFACE For a number of years coaches in a mountain community in California have spent time discussing the headaches, dizziness, nausea, and exhaustion experienced by their athletes during competitions at sea level. Were these symptoms the result of hyperventilation and unaccustomed temperatures occurring at sea level? Or, were they mainly due to inadequate training which was partly the result of a short season of good weather at altitude? In 1968 United States track, volleyball, and gymnastic teams trained in this community prior to the Olympics in Mexico City. Little of significance was learned from these training camps to help the local coaches. Since, recent trends have been to include more school competition for girls as well as boys, and pressures have been exerted to extend the geographi cal area included in competition schedules, there was cause to embark on the following experiment. Special thanks is due Dr. Kenneth Smith, a long time resident of Lake Tahoe—a Medical Doctor and researcher on middle altitude. He provided all the facilities and equipment necessary for doing the microhematocrits, and his automobile provided the major share of transportation. As the ultimate token of Dr. Smith's faith he loaned his daughter as a subject. The Jeffries family is also thanked for helping with transpor tation, providing a subject and making a swimming pool available after testing sessions. My parents were a great help to provide lunch, a rest stop and assistance when needed. Finally, the V College of Marin and its Athletic Director Harry Pieper have all my gratitude for allowing the use of their impressive grounds and facilities for the sea level testing. r TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ii PREFACE v LIST OF TABLES viiLIST OF FIGURES OR ILLUSTRATIONS ix Chapter 1. THE PROBLEM 1 DefinitionsDelimitations o 2 Assumptions and Limitations .Hypothesis 2 Significance of the Study 3 2. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 5 Athletic Performance at Altitude and Sea Level 6 The Ventilatory Response 11 Changes in the Blood 4 Cardiac Response 16 Hypertension and Glomeruli Enlargement .... 19 Tissue Level Adaptation 1Summary 21 3. METHODS AND PROCEDURES 24 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 30 Results 3Discussion 43 5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 60 BIBLIOGRAPHY 6vii APPENDICES . 66 Statistical treatments 67 Raw Scores 108 Relative Humidity Chart 112 Personal Communication 3 LIST OF TABLES Table Page I. 2x4 Factorial Design with 5 Dependent Variables . . 28 II. Source of Variance for Each Anova 29 III. 8 80 Yard Run Anova Table 33 IV. 4 40 Yard Dash Anova Table 7 V. 50 Yard Dash Anova Table 40 VI. Softball Throw Anova Table . 42 VII. Hematocrits and Menstrual Records .......... 45 VIII. Hematocrit Anova Table .... 46 IX. Hematocrit Values 58 X. Total Hematocrit for Trials Table ........... 58 LIST OF FIGURES OR ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. 880 Yard - Treatments 31 2. 880 Yard Run - Trials 2 3. 440 Yard Dash - Trials ........ • 35 4 . 440 Yard Dash - Treatments 36 5. 50 Yard Dash - Treatments 9 6. Softball Throw - Treatments *41 7. Hematocrit - Treatments ........ 44 8. Temperature and Relative Humidity Graphed 47 9. Barometric Pressure over Treatments ... 48 10. Barometric Pressure and 50 Yard Dash over Trials . . 54 11. Temperature and 50 Yard Dash over Treatments .... 55 Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM Between the 1955 Pan American Games and the 1958 Olympics in Mexico City the study of altitude acclimatization accelerated. It was important to know the effects of 7,200 feet elevation upon athletes so that better training procedures could be planned. Little attention, however, was given specifically to the adapta tion of females or to the problems of athletes living at middle altitude who frequently compete at sea level. The purpose of this investigation is to determine if the performance of young female athletes, native to middle altitude, is impaired when performing at sea level without benefit of deacclimatization, and possible reasons for any decrement in performance. Problem: What are the differences in performance of selected track events at the two levels of altitude? Subproblems; a. What is the relationship of the two levels of barometric pressure to performance? b. How does hematocrit differ in the subjects from sea level norms? Definitions Middle altitude - generally refers to altitudes between 5,000 and 7,000 feet. Specifically in this study the elevation at which the subjects live is approximately 6,256 feet. Deacclimatization - the process of losing physiological responses which adapt one to altitude conditions and the process of acquiring responses appropriate to sea level conditions. PIC>2 - partial pressure of inspired oxygen. The atmosphere's pressure and density are highest at the surface of the earth and decrease exponentially with altitude. With a constant oxy gen concentration of 20.94% of the dry air, the oxygen pressure of the inspired air in trachea, saturated with water vapor, can be calculated from the formula PI02 = (p bar - 47) 20.94/100. Hematocrit - percent of the cells and other particulate elements of the blood. In this investigation a microhematocrit tech nique was used. Performance - operationally defined as the times or distances achieved by the athletes when tested. Delimitations The universe is limited, to girls 12-14 years of age who live at middle altitude. The sample of eight subjects is fairly small in order to keep testing and transportation within practi cal limits. Assumptions and Limitations A serious limitation was the inability to manipulate the environmental factors of temperature and humidity. Hypotheses a. The denser air and increased gravitational pull at sea level cctuse impairment in throwing and short runs. b» With maximal oxygen uptake reduced at altitude, the 880 yard run is faster at sea level than at middle altitude, c. If hematocrits are in the upper portion of the normal range for sea level, the resultant increase in the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood does not improve sea level performance. Significance of the Study In practical terms, this study may have significance for coaches at middle altitude in deciding whether to include con tests at sea level in the competition schedule. The process of high-altitude deacclimatization has been investigated less than the acclimatization process, yet the studies that have been conducted indicate deacclimatization represents a major transient taking some time to complete. Reynafarje (1958),"'" Dejours, Kellogg, and Pace (1963),^ Daniels 3 and Oldridge (1970) , all reported physiological adjustments of deacclimatization taking from 30.to 120 days to complete. A personal communication from Dr. Nello Pace related, too, that acclimatized individuals who return to sea level may experience a characteristic subjective feeling of lassitude for C. Reynafarje, "The Polycythemia of High Altitudes: Iron Metabolism and Related Aspects," Blood, 14, 19 59, 433-4 55. 2 Pierre Dejours, Ralph Kellogg, and Nello Pace, "Regula tion of Respiration and Heart Rate Response in Exercise during Altitude Acclimatization," J. Appl. Physiol. 18 (I):1963, 10-18. 3 Jack Daniels and Neil Oldridge, "The Effects of Alter nate Exposure to Altitude and Sea Level on World-class Middle-distance Runners," Medicine and Science In Sports, Vol. 2, no. 3, (Fall 1970), 107-1127 a day or two. As far as impairment of athletic performance under these circumstances, statistical data seem to be lacking. Effects on athletic performance differ depending on how long athletes were at altitude, the altitude at which they stayed, the type of training they were involved in, the state of training before the experiment and other conditions of the experiment. Nello Pace, a copy of the referred to communication appears in the appendix. Chapter 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The stimuli for investigating man's adaption to altitude have come from a variety of sources. The wartime need to fly at high altitude, the mountaineers' need to survive on high peaks, and the athletes' need to perform competitively at moderate alti tudes have all prompted research to extend what is' known about men living and working at altitude. There is little information regarding the specifics of female adaption. Indications are that women may respond somewhat differently from men. Physiological studies at middle altitude are scarce and despite the quantities of high altitude work, fac tors contributing to limiting performance at altitude need better definition.''" The main adjustments apparent in man during expo sure to altitude are the result.of the response to diminished oxygen tension. However, the effects of a change of environmen tal temperature and humidity, which are not unique to high alti tude, are also of great importance. Tenney (1968) claims the evidence of effects specific to a reduced barometric pressure is 2 not convincing. Albert B. Craig, "Olympics .1968 : A Post Mortem," Medi cine and Science in Sport, Vol. 1, no. 4, (December 1969), 177-180. 2 S. M. Tenney, "Physiological Adaptations to Life at High Altitude," in E. Jokl (ed.) Medicine and Sport, Exercise and Altitude, (Basel, S. Karger, 19 6 8)", 60:-70. Furthermore there is really no threshold altitude for the so-called "high altitude effects". Altitude acclimatization is a continuous process from sea level to the civilizations resident 3 at very high altitudes, (Tenney, 19 6 8) hence, studies cited of high altitude work may be expected to be exaggerations of the effects of middle altitude. Athletic Performance at Altitude and Sea Level At a symposium in 1966 Balke expressed his theory that training at moderate altitude should be used for improving per-4 lormance at sea level. Such a statement was the result of his study into the effects of altitude upon athletic performance. Balke (1964) trained five men at 2400 meters for ten days and concluded that physical performances greatly dependent upon max imum aerobic capacity were initially reduced at altitude. Exten sive training possibly aided by training at even higher eleva tions seemed to restore "normal" capacity for aerobic work. Fur ther tests were conducted at sea level and then again at altitude. The second altitude tests produced clockings better than the pre vious best altitude performances.^ The occurrence of increasing ly better performances with alternate exposure to altitude and sea level provoked further thought and research by Balke, his 3 Tenney, loc. cit. 4 Bruno Balke, ."Summary of Magglingen Symposium on Sports at Medium Altitude," in R. F« Goddard (ed.) The International Symposium on the Effects of Altitude on Physical Performance, (The Athletic Institute, Chicago, 1966") 106-107. 5 Bruno Balke, J. Faulkner, J. Daniels, "Maximum Perform ance Capacity at Sea-level and at Moderate Altitude Before and After Training at Altitude," Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Sportmedizin, Vol. 14, 1965, 106-117. colleagues, and others. Along these same lines of thinking, W. A. Bynum (1966) hypothesized that natives of high altitude would show an increase in work capacity upon descending to a lower altitude. Bynum's experiment was well controlled using a chamber and tests requir ing maximum oxygen uptake. Conclusions were that upon descending to sea level after altitude acclimatization to an elevation of 5,170 feet, a highly conditioned athlete would probably experi ence the following results: 1. A reduction in resting pulse rate. 2. No change in resting ventilation rate. 3. No change in terminal pulse rate following an all-out tread mill run. 4. He would be able to increase his treadmill run time (or work capacity) without increasing his recovery pulse rate. 5. He would be able to perform at a higher cardiorespiratory work level than he was capable of at altitude.^ This study, too, makes living and training at middle altitude appear advantageous for athletes competing at sea level. However, since environmental conditions were controlled and the performance was of maximum capacity, such conclusions apply only to endurance events held under tolerable conditions. Grover and Reeves (1966) wondered if life long acclimati zation to the chronic hypoxia of altitude would give the native an advantage over the newcomer in terms of exercise performance ^W. A. Bynum, "Work Capacity of Altitude Acclimatized Men at Altitude and Sea Level," in R. F. Goddard (ed.) The Interna-tional Symposium on the Effects of Altitude on Physical Perforra--ance~ (The Athletic Institute, Chicago, 1966) . at medium altitude. In addition, would adaptation to medium altitude modify physical working capacity at low altitude? The five low altitude athletes, on an average, had a 25% decrease in maximum oxygen uptake on the first day of arrival at altitude. On further stay, this did not improve, due to the high level of fitness possessed on arrival. There was no evidence that the so journ at medium altitude improved performance later at sea level In fact, four of the five men had a lower maximum oxygen uptake than originally. The effect of altitude change for the middle altitude residents was virtually the same. The athletes from middle altitude displayed persistent hyperventilation at sea level, they also had a higher pulmonary diffusion capacity which would theoretically give them an advantage at 3,100 meters. Al though both groups had almost identical physical working capac ity, the performance measurements in this study are difficult to interpret since the sea level group had superior skill and com-. '. 7 petition was not on a par. Balke et al. (1965) made a pertinent comment regarding some similar high altitude studies. "For proper high perform ance athletic training one needs adequate facilities--tracks and heated swimming pools. Without them, the essential coordi-g nation for proper pace and rhythm will suffer." So it would seem the physiological advantages of altitude acclimatization do not alone produce superior performances if the facilities 7 Robert Grover, John Reeves, "Exercise Performance of Athletes at Sea Level and 3,000 meters Altitude," The Interna tional Symposium on the Effects of Altitude on Physical Per formance (The Athle'tic Institute, Chicago ,""1966)", 80. g Bruno Balke (1965), loc. cit. 9 and coaching have been inadequate. Another difference in the studies made by Balke et al. (1965) and Grover and Reeves (1965) was that the subjects in the first study were not well trained at the beginning. This, too, may account fox- differences in the results. Daniels and Oldridge (1970) studied effects of alternate exposure to altitude and sea level on world-class middle-distance runners. The most obvious difference found was a higher maximum oxygen uptake on all post altitude tests compared with pre-alti-tude or altitude values. Improvement in ventilatory capacity was noted after altitude training, but'it was not clear whether this improvement was of benefit upon return to sea level. On descending to sea level, Daniels and Oldridge (1970) reported that the hypersensitivity of the respiratory center recedes slowly. During the transient period the athlete breathed more air for any given work intensity than he did at sea level prior to altitude exposure. The additional work involved in moving this greater volume requires more oxygen which is provided at the expense of the oxygen demands of the muscles used in run ning. The result could be a) a performance decrease in the absence of an increase in maximum oxygen uptake; b) a perform ance equal to that previously attained at sea level; c) a better sea level performance if an increase in maximum oxygen uptake could over compensate for the greater ventilatory demands.^ Jack Daniels, Neil Oldridge, loc, cit. 10 Buskirk et al. (1966) as well as Consolazio (1966) stated that their subjects who stayed at altitudes up to about 4,000 meters for four weeks or more did not attain any better results than usual when they returned to sea level. The measured maximum oxygen uptake was not improved. Buskirk, et al. concluded that there is little evidence to indicate that performance on return from altitude is better than before going to high alti-12 tude. Thexr results support the concept that once a person is well trained it is difficult to achieve further significant training effects. As for what actually has occurred in athletic competi tions at various altitudes, Ernst and Peter Jokl (1968) examined world records, Olympic records, and Pan American swimming times. The summarized effect of reduced oxygen tension at altitudes between 5,000 and 7,000 feet upon athletic performance was that contests of between 100 and 400 meters produced slightly better results than at sea level, while running times in middle and long distance races were slower. They figured the handicapping influence of the lowered oxygen pressures becomes statistically valid at 5,350 feet only for distances of 1,500 meters and longer. The Jokls concluded that even though training at alti tude for high altitude competition is useful, it does not nullify E. Buskirk et al. "Physiology and Performance of Track Athletes at Various Altitudes in the United States and Peru," in R. F. Goddard (ed.) The International Symposium on the Effects  of Altitude on Physical Performance, 196 6. 11 C. F. Consolazio, "Submaximal and Maximal Performance at High Altitude," ibid., p. 91. 12 E. Buskirk et al., op. cit. 13 the inhibiting effect of altitude upon endurance. Craig (1969) analyzed the 1963 Olympics and also found winning times in the longer events proportionately slower than world records. But, there were several outstanding efforts which were far better than 14 predicted possible at the altitude of Mexico City. Ventilatory Response Acclimatization to high altitude begins with hyperventi lation in response to hypoxia. This first phase ends several days after arrival upon completion of renal compensation for the resultant respiratory alkalosis. To Hornbein and Roos (19 62) it appeared that the chemoreceptors activity as modified by sym pathetic control of blood supply to the carotid and aortic bodies may be an important determinant of the ventilatory response to exercise. The ventilatory response to exercise is enhanced by very mild hypoxia. This is sufficient to initiate the acclimatization to altitudes so low that resting ventilation 15 on acute exposure is not affected. Tenney (1968) summarized the ventilatory response by calling the lower arterial oxygen tension of high altitude a more potent stimulus. As a consequence, chemoreceptor output increases, ventilation increases, and this response serves to minimize the partial pressure drop from the inspired air to the 13 Ernst and Peter Jokl, "The Effect of Altitude on Ath letic Performance," in E. Jokl (ed.) Medicine and Sport, Exer-ltitude, (Basel, S. Kargi Craig, op. cit., p. 178. cise and Altitude, (Basel, S. Karger, 1968), p. 28. 14 15 Thomas Hornbein and Albert Roos, "Effect of Mild Hypoxia on Ventilation During Exercise," J. Appl. Physiol., 17 (2) 1962, p. 239. alveolar air. During the early period of high altitude adapta tion, there is an extremely important change in this mechanism. The hypoxia-evoked ventilatory response brings about a fall of alveolar carbon dioxide pressure, and this resultant hypocapnia exerts an inhibitory influence on the respiratory centers. So, the final effect in acclimatization is a comparatively small increase in ventilation. The renal response to the uncompen sated respiratory alkalosis results in the conservation of hydrogen ions and the excretion of fixed base in the urine to restore the pH of the blood to normal. This is largely accom plished during the first week of high altitude residence, and during this time there is a gradual shift in the sensitivity of the respiratory centers to carbon dioxide in such a way that once again dominant, but not exclusive respiratory control is exerted by carbon dioxide.^ As previously mentioned, the hypersensitivity of the respiratory center recedes slowly on descent to sea level. Kellogg has shown that the return of the normal C09 sensitivity of the respiratory center requires about 30 days to be com-17 • • pleted. Perhaps because of this relatively slow deacclimati-zation process Dejours, Kellogg, and Pace (1963) found that if an altitude acclimatized individual were suddenly restored to a normal oxygen supply, respiration was immediately reduced, but S. M. Tenney, "Physiological Adaptations to Life at High Altitude," in E. Jokl (ed.), Medicine and Sport, Exercise  and Altitude, 1968, p. 66. 17 Op. cit. Based on personal correspondence between Dr. Nello Pace, Physiology Department, University of California, and the writer. 13 18 not to the pre-altitude level. Daniels and Oldridge (1970) had similar findings from alternate tests at sea level and altitude. On acute exposure to altitude MW and max VE (BTPS) increased proportionately; however, max VE eventually increased slightly more than did MW. Subsequent sea level values for max VE were . . 19 also higher than those reached in initial sea level tests. Max VO2 values initially dropped 14% upon acute exposure to altitude. By the third week at altitude this was improved to a 10% decrement. It remained relatively unchanged until another slight improvement to within 8% of the original sea level values by the subjects who were at altitude for six weeks. Max V02 during the first intermittent and final sea level exposures was slightly higher than the pre-altitude value. They found an obviously higher VO^ at all running speeds during post altitude 20 tests compared with either pre-altitude or altitude values. The ability of the high altitude acclimatized individual to transport oxygen to the cellular level may be enhanced by an increase in alveolar capillary diffusing area. In any case the pulmonary diffusing capacity for oxygen is increased. Tenney (1968) discussed the various pressure gradients and in adapting to the reduced oxygen pressure found at altitude there must be 18 Pierre Dejours, Ralph Kellogg, and Nello Pace, "Regu lation of Respiration and Heart Rate Response in Exercise During Altitude Acclimatization," J. Appl. Physiol., 18 (1), 1963, pp. 10-18. 19 "Jack Daniels and Neil Oldridge, "The Effects of Alter nate Exposure to Altitude and Sea Level on World-class Middle-distance Runners," Medicine and Science in Sports, Vol. 2, no. 3, (Fall 1970), 107-112. 20T, . , Ibid. a compensatory adjustment in a more distal gradient in order to preserve the cellular value needed. The ventilatory changes associated with altitude acclimatization stabilize within the 21 first few days at altitude. Circulatory adjustments to exer cise change comparatively slowly. Other changes such as acid-base adjustments, erythropoietic adjustments, endocrine response, and peripheral tissue changes are far from complete within the first few days. Changes in the Blood Within hours of arrival at altitude there are changes in the blood and its oxygen carrying capacity. Firstly, the numbers of erythrocytes increases, hemoglobin synthesis may be depressed at this time. Hematocrit also increases with relation to figures obtained at sea level, hence shewing a tendency toward microcytosis during the first few days of arrival at altitude. Increase in erythrocytes and hemoglobin is progres sive, requiring ten to fifteen days to acquire values comparable or very close to the ones encountered in those native to high altitude (Merino, 1950).22 Merino (1950) as well as Reynafarje (1.959) found in natives of high altitude who have descended to sea level a marked acceleration of blood destruction occurring during the first hours of descent. (However, this investigator noted on their graphs an increase in red blood cells on the first test 21 S. M. Tenney, loc. cit. 22 C. Merino, "Studies on Blood Formation and Destruction in the Polycythemia of High Altitudes," Blood, 5, 1950, 1-32. taken immediately on arrival at sea level. A decrease followed the first testing. No explanation or comment was available for this initial recording.) The decrease in hemoglobin and red blood cells reaches its maximum between the seventeenth and thirty-fifth days, and this is followed by a gradual increase of the red blood cell and Fe turnover rate until it reaches about the normal rate. This occurs 100 to 120 days after the 23 environmental change (Reynafarje, 1959). Schmidt and Gilbertsen (1955) refute the thought that bone marrow anoxia is directly responsible for increased erythropoiesis in chronic anoxemia. An autopsy of a woman with an arterial shunt affecting only the lower extremities directed their suggestion that anoxemia of the blood stimulates the pro duction or release of a humoral factor which in turn acts as an 24 erythropoietic stimulus. Hornbein (1962) stated that a normal adult male is thought to possess 800-1,500 mg. of iron in storage depots available for hemoglobin synthesis. Hornbein surmised that the sum of pre-existent stores and the currently absorbed iron would roughly parallel the amount required to achieve the poly-25 cythemic response observed in his subjects. C. Reynafarje, "The Polycythemia of High Altitudes: Iron Metabolism and Related Aspects," Blood, 14, 1959, 433-455. 24 R. Schmidt, and A. S. Gilbertsen, "Fundamental Obser vations on the. Production of Compensatory Polycythemia," Blood, 10, 1955, 247-251. 25 Thomas F. Hornbein, "Evaluation of Iron Stores as Limiting High Altitude Polycythemia," J. Appl. Physiol., 17 (2) , 1962, p. 244. Harmon, Shields, and Harris (1965) on the other hand found that their women subjects did not show the increase in hematocrit expected during acclimatization unless they received iron supplement. Despite the lower hematocrits, these women subjects adapted to altitude rapidly. Indications were that other adjustments played their part in providing oxygen at the 2 6 cellular level. Cardiac Response Grollman (1930) as well as Hannon et al. (1966) found heart rate to increase sharply at first exposure to altitude, then to progressively decrease. Two weeks after subjects returned to sea level significantly depressed values were ob-27 2 8 served. ' Dejours, Kellogg, and Pace (1963) reported exer cise heart rate consistently higher in acute hypoxia than chronic hypoxia. Acclimatization tended to decrease the abso lute heart rate during steady-state exercise. The increment in steady state exercise heart rate over the resting value fell progressively because of the rise in resting values. Heart rate values changed progressively during three weeks at alti-29 tude. The relatively long time course of heart rate adjustment John P. Hannon, Jimmie Shield, and Charles Harris, "High Altitude Acclimatization in Women," in R. F. Goddard (ed.) The International Symposium on the Effects of Altitude on Physi cal Performance, (The Athletic Institute7~Chicago, 1966), p. 37. 2 7 A. Grollman, "Physiological Variations in Cardiac Out put of Man. The Effect of High Altitude on the Cardiac Output and Its Related Functions; an account of experiments conducted on the summit of Pikes Peak, Colorado, "Am. J. Physio., Vol. 93, pp. 19-40. 28 29 Hannon et al. , loc. cit. "Dejours et al. , loc. cit. is not inconsistent with the relatively long time course of changes in cardiac output of sojourners at 14,000 feet described by Grollman (1930)."^ The cardiac output in Grollman's female subject began to increase on the third day at altitude. By the fifth day cardiac output had increased 100%, then subsided to 20-30% above previous sea level measurements. This pattern of response differs from that reported in men by Vogel et al. (1966) They reported essentially normal cardiac output values after 31 three weeks exposure at the same site. Grollman's measure ments on himself concur with Vogel's findings in men, indicating a possible response difference in men and women. Banchero et al. (1966) reported that in spite of hypoxemia of permanent residents at 15,000 feet the oxygen up take, cardiac output, and stroke volume were similar to those found at sea level. These findings were associated with pul monary hypertension which has been principally related to struc tural changes of the pulmonary vasculature. They added that variations in cardiac output and oxygen uptake are related to the intensity of work performed and are independent of the level of altitude. Elevated hemoglobin concentration in the natives of high altitude was of advantage to these people at rest, the arterial oxygen cqntent was higher than the value obtained in sea level residents despite the arterial desaturation. With the same cardiac output similar amounts of oxygen can be transported 3^Grollman, loc. cit. 31J. A. Vogel, H. E. Hansen and C. W. Harris, "Cardio vascular Responses of Man During Rest, Exhaustive Work and Recovery at 4,300m.," (U.S. Army Med. Res. and Ntr. Lab Report, N. 294, 1966). 18 and delivered to the tissues with smaller changes in blood oxygen saturation. This is of special advantage during exercise when changes in blood oxygen saturation are smaller than the changes occurring at sea level in low altitude natives. While at alti tude cardiac output increased during exercise as a result of 32 increased heart rate, stroke volume remained constant. Hecht (1968) stated an increase in right ventricular mass as well as moderate elevations of pulmonary artery pressure compared to sea level values was a normal finding in all species living at 33 heights above 2,000 meters. Several studies have commented on the increase in right ventricular mass. Among them Hultgren, Kelly and Miller (1965) reported three observations in natives living at elevations of over 12,000 feet: a) moderate enlarge ment of the right ventricle in roentgenograms of the chest, b) electrocardiograms demonstrating right ventricular hypertrophy patterns and c) moderate increase in the relative weight of the 34 right ventricle as determined by autopsy study. Yet Hecht (19 68) claims there is no evidence that acute right heart over load due to excessive pulmonary hypertension occurs in man at any altitude. 3 2 "^N. Banchero et al., "Pulmonary Pressure, Cardiac Output and Arterial Oxygen Saturation during Exercise at High Altitude and at Sea Level," Circulation, 33:249, 1966. 33 Hans Hecht, "Certain Vascular Adjustments and Malad justments at Altitudes," in E. Jokl (ed.), Medicine and Sport, Exercise and Altitude, (Basel, S. Karger, 1968), 134-147. 34 H. N. Hultgren, J. Kelly, and H. Miller, "Pulmonary Circulation in Acclimatized Man at High Altitude," J. Appl. Physiol., 20 (2), 1965, p. 233-238. 35 Hecht, op. cit., p. 143. Hypertension and Glomeruli Enlargement Naiye (1965) studied pulmonary and renal abnormalities in young children born at high altitude in the United States. Hypoxia appeared to arrest normal neonatal decrease of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle in some of these children. No abnormali-3 6 ties were found in pulmonary veins or capillaries. Hultgren, Kelly and Miller (1965) also were concerned with pulmonary cir culation. As a result of their study at La Oroya they concluded that there is no relationship between the hematocrit and the 37 pulmonary hypertension or right ventricular hypertrophy. Naiye (1965) thought it likely that the increased pulmonary arterial muscle mass present at high altitude is the cause as 3 8 well as the consequence of the hypertension. A qualitative study by Naiye also demonstrated enlarge ment of renal glomeruli in hypoxic children after the first month of life, apparently due to proliferation of normal glomeruli elements. The renal glomerular changes found in the Leadville children resemble those found in children with cya-39 notic types of congenital cardial malformations. Tissue Level Adaptation Cellular adaptation represents the deepest level in the hierarchy of adaptive functions of the body. In this process reorganization of the cell contents is necessary. Thus compared 3 6 R. L. Naiye, "Children at High Altitude; Pulmonary and Renal Abnormalities," Circulation Res., 16*33, 1965. 37 Hultgren, Kelly, and Miller, loc. cit. 3 8XT . , . 39^,.-Naiye, loc. cit. Ibici. 20 to other functions of higher levels, such as circulation and respiration, longer time periods are required for the new steady state to be achieved. Adaptation on the cellular level is re-40 fleeted in a normalization of functions at higher levels. The existence in high altitude natives, of certain tissue adaptive processes such as an increased action of the DPNH oxi dase system and of mitochondrial transhydrogenase has been 41 reported by Reynafarje (1961). The glycolytic enzymes are not significantly involved in the adaptive processes to high alti tude. Lactic acid level and the oxygen debt are lower in high altitude acclimatized man than non-acclimatized individuals after endurance tests. This is due to better utilization of lactic acid through the increased DPNH oxidase system and Pyridine nucleiotide transhydrogenase (Reynafarje and Velasquez, 42 1966; Tappan and Reynafarje, 1957). Increased myoglobin content may serve as a link to maintain an optimal oxygen gradient between the cell plasma membrane and enzyme systems in 43 the mitochondria (Vaughan and Pace, 1956). Grover (1963) reported a slight increase in BMR at high altitude. He speculated that this was due to acclimatization 40 W. H. Weihe, "Time Course of Adaptation to Different Altitudes at Tissue Level," Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Sportmedizin, Vol. 14, p. 177. 41 B. Reynafarje, "Pyridine Nucleotide Oxydases and Transhydrogenase in Acclimatization to High Altitude," Amer. J. Physio., 200:351-354, 1961. 4 2 C. Reynafarje and Velasquez; Tappan and B. Reynafarje, quoted in W. H. Weihe, op. cit., p. 186. 4 3 Vaughan and Pace. J.95b, as quoted in Weihe, op. cit., to a lower ambient temperature or to a higher energy requirement 44 with increased ventilation rate. There is no increase of BMR at reduced partial pressure of oxygen under standard conditions as long as there is no increase in ventilation rate. Weihe (1966) summarized acclimatization to altitude as depending on various climatic factors in addition to reduced air pressure, with adaptation at the tissue level as the final and 45 decisive stage of acclimatization. Summary In review, the principal findings reported on athletic performance at altitude have been that winning times of runners and swimmers have been systematically affected at middle alti tude. The sprints were often run faster at altitude, while long 4 6 distances were progressively slower. Alternate exposure to altitude and sea level during a training program has been apparently a way to enhance the training effect for men not 47 already in top form. Regarding the physiological basis for the performance findings, the decrease in maximum oxygen uptake as a function of 48 altitude may not alone cause altered performance at altitude. Metabolic adaptation implies a decreased buffer capacity. So, the final pH of the blood may be a factor limiting lactic acid 44 R. F. Grover, "Basal Oxygen Uptake of Man at High Altitude," J. Ap_pl. Physio. , 18:1963, pp. 909-912 . 45 Weihe, op. cit., p. 177. 46Jo.kl, loc. cit. 47Balke, 19 45, loc. cit. Craig, loc. cit. 49 production. On arrival at altitude one of the first changes noted has been an increase in ventilation. Pulmonary hypertension and enlargement of the right ventricle has been reported in altitude 51 residents. Increased heart rate has been found at altitude. After an initial adjustment period of about three weeks cardiac 52 output xn men has returned to normal. RBC count begins to go up within hours of arrival at altitude, hemoglobin values follow 53 in their elevation. Total blood volume increases. Fluid loss from lungs may be large as a result of hyper ventilation in the presence of dry mountain air, and so poste rior pituitary and renal mechanisms are prompted to conserve water. Adaptation at the cellular level has been noted as the final phase of acclimatization. An increase in myoglobin con tent has been thought to aid an optimal oxygen gradient between the cell plasma membrane and the enzyme systems in the mitochon-55 dria. Acclimatization to altitude involves both adaptation to climatic factors as well as reduced air pressure.5^ 49 P. Cerritelli, "Lactacid 0^ Debt in Acute and Chronic Hypoxia," in R. Margaria (ed.) , Exercise at Altitude, 1967 , pp. 58-64. Hornbein and Roos,loc. cit. 3 Hecht, loc. cit. 52 Vogel, Hansen and Harris, loc. cit. 53 54 Merino, loc. cit. Hecht, op. cit., p. 136. 55 Vaughan and Pace, 1956, as quoted in Weihe, loc. cit. ^Weihe, op. cit. As this study is concerned with the performance of alti tude dwellers at sea level, a summary of research on deacclima tization notes that Daniels and Oldridge (1970) found athletes arriving at sea level from higher elevations breathed more air for any given work intensity than they did prior to altitude exposure. This net hyperventilation was due to the cessation of the hypoxic drive coupled with the greater sensitivity of 57 the respiratory center to CO2 acquired at altitude. Although Balke (1964) and Bynum (1966) concluded that natives of high altitude show an increase in work capacity upon descending to 58 59 a lower altitude, ' Grover and Reeves (1966) and Daniels and Oldridge (1970) failed to find performance improvement under . ., • . 60,61 similar circumstances. ' Studies concerned with deacclimatization indicate that it is a major transient taking some time to complete. For example, Reynafarje (1959) found that it took 100-120 days for 6 2 the RBC and Fe turnover rate to reach about the normal rate. And, Dejours, Kellogg, and Pace (19 63) have shown that the return of the CO2 sensitivity of the respiratory center to normal after return of the individual to sea level from altitude, required 6 3 about thirty days to be completed. 57 Daniels and Oldridge, loc. cit. 58Balke (1965), loc. cit. 5^Bynum, loc. cit. ^Grover and Reeves, loc. cit. 61 Daniels and Oldridge, loc. cit. Reynafarje, (1959), loc. cit. 6 3 Dejours, Kellogg, and Pace, (1963), loc. cit. Chapter 3 METHODS AND PROCEDURES Female students at South Tahoe Intermediate School ran three times a week during their Physical Education class. Dis tances of 400m., 800m., and one mile were alternately run. The fastest five girls in each class every day were recorded, and after three weeks of training, volunteers were asked for from the select group. Ten subjects were chosen from the volunteers, mainly on the basis of their responsibility. After one testing session two of the subjects dropped out; one because of difficul ties with auto sickness, and the other because the father thought the distance between testing cites too far. The girls ranged in age from 12 to 14, and in weight from 75 to 130 pounds. All were premenarche but two. During the testing program they con tinued in the school fitness program, running a mile once a week, 800m. once a week and 400m. once a week. Sprints or hurdles were also practiced one day a week. All but one of the subjects also participated in school track meets. Training prior to testing could not begin earlier than the three weeks because of snow on the ground and track. Testing could not start later because the subjects would be out of school and families would be planning vacations. Eight Saturdays in April and May were scheduled for testing at a 400 meter Tartan track at South Tahoe Intermediate School, elevation 6256; and a 44 0 yard All-weather track at the College of Marin in Kentfield, 25 California, elevation approximately sea level. There were four test days at each level of altitude. Repeated measures were used to increase reliability. The testing schedule was varied so that a session at altitude did not always precede a session at sea level. Fingertip blood samples for the microhematocrit were taken at one pm each day of testing. This was done right after a simple lunch and prior to the performance testing which was done gener ally between two and four pm. Refrigerating the blood samples was considered unnecessary because the capillary tubes were treat ed with heparin. However, after the samples were taken they were stored until the following Monday. At that time they were cen trifuged and read in a physicians office at South Lake Tahoe. Each Subject kept her own menstrual records on a two month calendar that was given her for that purpose. Temperature and humidity recordings were made each day of testing between two and three pm. A homemade sling psychrometer provided this information. Barometric pressure was recorded from readings taken at the South Lake Tahoe Airport tower and at Ham ilton Air Force Base. In order to reduce the corrected figures from the Lake Tahoe tower to represent the actual pressure of the inspired air, 1 in. Hg. per 1,000 ft. elevation must be. subtract ed from the pressures the tower reported. The Pollution Control Board Office in San Francisco provided the air pollution index for each day of sea level testing. Their index was based on a scale designating 0-30 as clean air, 30-50 moderate, 50-75 severe and 75-100 heavy pollution.''" ^Information Bulletin Combined Pollutant Index Experience 19 69 included in Appendix. 26 The equipment needed for the performance testing was a Wilson 100 foot metal measuring tape and an Apollo stop-watch which was taken to the Jewelers for calibration just prior to the first testing session. Every subject participated in every one of the variables. Each subject was tested alone without competition, and all times were taken by the same timer on the same watch. The girls had been instructed to do their best at all times, and on the longer distances they were instructed to pace themselves to get the best time without being absolutely exhausted before the finish. Testing sessions began with a limited warm-up; fifty jumping jacks, fifty mountain climbers and thirty ankle rota tions for each foot. Then, quickly one by one the girls ran the 50 yard dash. Again in the same order they ran the 440. As each girl finished the 440 she went to another area to do her softball throw. Each subject took three throws during each testing session. A partner checked the best throw against the steel tape, and its distance was recorded to the nearest one half foot. A.s each girl finished her softball throw she returned to the track for the 880 yard run. It usually took between an hour and a half to two hours to complete the testing each day. There were five dependent variables---(a softball throw, 50 yard dash, 44 0 yard dash, and an 8 80 yard run, also a hemato crit) . The independent variables were the two altitude levels, A 2 x 4 factorial design was used with repeated measures on each dependent variable. The dependent: variables were chosen because: 1. It has been previously found that short runs and throws are improved at moderate altitude. 2. Long runs are impaired at altitude, but intolerable atmos pheric conditions may also cause impairment. 3. These performance events represent performances in a track meet. 4. The blood determinations imply the adaptation to altitude. For analyzing the data statistically, five anovas were used. • One manova was an alternate choice which would have reduced the type I error rate. However, the statistics were calculated by hand rather than by computer. Using anovas would make computing and interpreting the data easier. To aid inter pretation, temperature, humidity and barometric pressure were recorded at each testing session. The air pollution index was also noted in the metropolitan area of sea level testing. Com ments on the winds were jotted on the data sheets. Menstrua tion records were kept by the subjects in order to have more information relating to the hematocrits. Any physical com plaints of the subjects on testing days were also noted. On the following page is a diagram depicting the 2x4 factorial design with its 5 dependent variables. 28 Indep. testing order dep. Sl 2 Table I ALTITUDE 6,256 ft. SEA LEVEL 1234 1 2 34 temp., (1) (3) (6) (8) (2) (4) (5) (7) humidity, barometric pressure recorded at each trial softball throw 50 yd. dash 440 yd. 8 80 yd. 8 Sl 2 8 Sl 2 8 Sl 2 3 8 Sl 2 Hematocrit Menstruation records, pollution index, winds, health notes were added .incidental information. 29 The source of variance for each Anova is tabled below. Table II. ANOVA TABLE source d.f. subjects 7 treatmentsaltitude 1 trials 3 alt. x trials 3 error 4 9 sub. x alt. 7 sub. x trials 21 sub. x alt. x trials 21 total 6 3 When a significant trials effect was found a post hoc trend analysis was then computed. The predictions were that the four trials at altitude would show steady improvement due to training and learning. The four trials of the softball throw, 50 yard dash and 440 yard run would be impaired at sea level, but would improve over the four trials. It was also predicted that the 880 yard run on the first sea level test would be on a par or better than the aver age of the altitude trials, but would become impaired as summer weather arrived. The hematocrits were expected to remain fairly constant over the testing period, but would vary considerably between subjects. Chapter 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Results An examination of the test results was made in order to help determine if the athletic performance of middle altitude dwelling girls is actually impaired at sea level. For the 880 yard run, times at sea level were on an average faster than at altitude. But, the difference was not sufficient to permit the effect of altitude to be considered significant. The four treatments at sea level were not con sistently faster than the four treatments at altitude. For example, the second altitude runs were faster than the second sea level runs. The second sea level runs proved to be, in fact, the slowest 880 times recorded at sea level. By pairing each sea level treatment with its corresponding altitude treat ment, scores for four trials were calculated. There was a sig nificant effect between these trials at better than the one percent level of significance also. The improvement noted from trial to trial was a significant linear trend. As had been predicted, the first treatment at sea level was better than the previous treatment at altitude. Joint effects of trials and altitude were significant at the one percent level of signifi cance.. Table III 830 YARD RUN ANOVA TABLE Source Subj ects Treatments trials linear altitude trials x art. Error sub x alt sub x trials sub x trials x alt Total SS 18740.21 2513.57 1536.66 1497.31 182.3 794.60 3072.3 471.33 1565.57 1035.39 24326.08 d.f. 7 7 49 21 21 63 ms 2677.17 359.08 512.22 1497.31 182.3 264.87 62.7 67.33 74.55 49.30 3861.44 5.72 sig. 1% 6.87 sig. 1% 20.08 sig. 1% 2.71 no sig. 5.37 sig. 1% F .05 4. 04 .01 (1,49) 7.18 F .05 3.07 .01 (3,21) 4.87 F .05 4.32 .01 (1,21) 8.02 F .05 5.59 .01 (1,7) 12.25 34 Figure 3 illustrates the trend of the trials for the 440. The third trial was the slowest but the fourth was the fastest. To explain this, a look at individual treatments points out the third treatment at sea level was slower than the first treatment at altitude. The fourth treatment at altitude, which was the last in the testing schedule was the best of all treatments at either altitude or sea level. Again there was no significant difference between sea level and altitude performance, although the total times at altitude were faster than total times at sea level. There was a significance interaction of altitude x trials at the one percent level. Factors affecting performance at the two levels of altitude were not consistent or the same. As performance improved at altitude it became worse at sea level and vice versa. As in all the other variables, the subjects proved to perform significantly different from one another on the 50 yard dash. The only significant statistic was the altitude effect. And, here the female subjects were faster at the sea level track, with only a five percent chance that this difference was not truly due to the differences found at the two altitude conditions. The subjects were consistent in their efforts. On such a short run some subjects varied only one tenth of a second in all treatments at a. single track. With such con sistency, the subjects did not appear to get better at this event as the testing program proceeded. In fact, the best Table IV 440 Yard Dash Anova Table Source SS d.f. ms F p Subjects 3408. 66 7 486.95 Treatments 340. 31 7 48.61 trials 139. 88 3 46.63 2.16 no linear 10. 98 1 10.98 quad. 4. 82 1 4.82 cubic 104. 76 1 104.76 4.80 sig. Altitude 31. 50 1 31.50 2.79 no Alt. x trials 168. 92 3 56.30 15.06 sig. Error 610. 81 49 12 .46 sub x alt 78. 87 7 11.26 sub x trials 453. 38 21 21.59 sub x trials x alt 78. 55 21 3.74 Total 4359. 79 63 69.20 F .05 .01 (1,49) 4.04 7.18 F .05 4. .01 (1,21) 8. F .05 3.07 .01 (3,21) 4.87 F .05 5.59 .01 (1,7) 12.25 times were recorded on the first test at sea level. For the softball throw almost random results were attained, particularly from the sea level tests. For sure, the subjects differed, with the best thrower almost doubling the distance of the worst. The effect of trials x altitude was significant at the five percent level. Despite the average length of throw being further at altitude than at sea level, statistically the effects of altitude were nil. Improvement was steadily made at altitude, while such improvement was not so noticeable at sea level. No significance was found in the interactions. As expected, hematocrits were statistically without difference at altitude and sea level. Trials showed no signi ficance at the five percent level, but trials x altitude did. A trend analysis was not performed, but a scrutiny of the data revealed no pattern to the percent hematocrits recorded. A comparison of the two subjects menstrual records to their hematocrits revealed no particular peaks or dips in the hematocrits parallel to monthly rhythms. The lowest recorded hematocrit was a 39.5%, the highest was a 49.5%. The average of all recordings for all the girls was 43.9%. Averages for females at sea level are about 39%. The average' for 100 females in Mexico City was 4 5.5%."^ 'P. Altman, Blood and Other Body Fluids, Federation of .American Societies for Experimental Biology, 1961, p. .19 2. Table V 50 YARD DASH ANOVA TABLE Source Subjects Treatments trials altitude alt. x trials Error sub x alt sub x trials sub x trials x alt. Total SS 9.06 .68 .06 .58 .039 1.36 .59 .16 . 60 11.10 d.f. 7 7 3 1 3 49 7 21 21 63 ms 1.29 .09 .01 .58 .013 .027 .085 .007 .028 .18 2.53 6.83 0.46 no sig no F .05 2.21 .01 (7,49) 3.03 F .05 3.07 .01 (3,21) 4.87 F .05 4.34 .01 (1,21) 8.02 F .05 5.59 .01 (1,7) 12.25 Source Subjects Treatments altitude trials trials x alt. Error sub x alt sub x trials sub x trials x alt. Total Table VI SOFTBALL THROW ANOVA TABLE SS 29182. 31. 792.62 38.28 322.17 1123.61 d.f. 7 7 1 3 432.16 3 2005.03 49 136.81 7 21 744.61 21 31979.96 63 ms 4168.90 113.23 38 . 28 107.38 1.96 2.01 144.056 4.06 40.92 19/54 53.50 35.45 507.61 no nc sig. 5 F .05 2. 21 .01 (7,49) 3.03 F .05 3.07 .01 (3,21) 4.87 F .05 4.32 .01 (1,21) 8.02 F .05 .59 01 (1,7) 12.25 43 The air temperature during the altitude sessions pro gressed from 51° to 66°F, while the sea level sessions followed this order; 82°, 72°, 60°, 66°F. The first altitude session was cold, dry, and windy. A wet bulb reading of only 38°F was taken, hence relative humidity was only 23%. As a contrast the first sea level session was hot and still. The pollution index that day was 30, humidity 30%. All of the subjects had headaches during the first sea level test, but the indisposition did not seem to affect per formance. In fact, the subjects appeared excited about doing the tests. Three subjects experienced severe side aches or stomach cramps during the last three times they ran the 880. The youthfulness and inexperience of the subjects sometimes made it difficult to get an accurate description of their feel ings . DISCUSSION Post hoc examinations of world records at sea level and altitude have shown times to be systematically affected by altitude. True experiments have realized similar results. Since Jokl claimed the handicapping influence of the lowered oxygen pressures becomes statistically valid at 5,350 feet for distances of 1,500m. and longer; and at 7,340 feet for distances 8 00m. and longer, i.t was expected that the times in this inves tigation at 6,256 of the 880 yard run would be statistically Table VII HEMATOCRITS AND MENSTRUAL RECORDS 21 APRIL subject 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 46.5% alt 9 10 11 12 13 / 2-5 4 9%/ / s.l. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 42% alt 23 24 25 2 6 27 28 /2'9 46/ Sol* / / 1 MAY 2 3 4 tr 6 49% . s.l. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 *r 'o alt 14 15 16 17 .18 7^ /' 20 /I -7 g. q 1 21 22 23 24 2 5 26 27 '4 8.5% alt _ 2 APRIL subject 9 3 . 4 5 6 7 8 4 5% alf 9 10 11 12/ / "/ 20 14/ /5 46% / / S.l, / y 17/ V 19 ' 21 22 42.5% alt 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 42.5% S « 1 a 30 1 MAY 4 5 6 47% S.l. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 4 2.5% alt 14 / 15/ / 16 / / 17/ /' 18 / / 19/ 20 4 5% s.l. 21 2 2 2 3 24 25 ' 26 2 7 43.5% . ait 46 Source Subjects Treatments trials altitude alt x trials Error sub x alt sub x trials sub x alt x trials Total Table VIII HEMATOCRIT ANOVA TABLE SS 190.46 57 16. 03 3.07 37.89 163.78 29.58 d.f. 7 7 3 1 49 60.50 21 73.69 21 411.25 63 ms 27.21 8.14 5.34 3.07 12.63 3.34 4. 22 2.88 3.50 6.52 1.85 0.73 3.60 no no sig. 5% F .05 2.21 .01 (7,49) 3.03 F .05 3.07 .01 (3,21) 4.87 F .05 4.32 .01 (1,21) 8.02 F .05 5.59 .01 (1,7) 12.25 slower at altitude. This prediction did not quite hold up. Although average running times were slower at altitude, a Fisher ratio of 2.9 with one degree of freedom does not make this difference significant. When results are graphed, it appears that at altitude fairly steady improvement took place, while at sea level total test scores were erratic; sometimes better than previous altitude tests, but not always. The subjects were involved in a mild training program throughout the two months of testing. So, as long as testing conditions remained pleasant there should have been performance improvement. Continued run ning experience would increase oxygen uptake, and pacing tech niques would become refined. The improvement that was noted in the data was probably the result of this happening. The large difference in times taken at the first treat ment at altitude and the first treatment at sea level must be in part accounted for by the emotional excitement of traveling to the sea level test site and the special attention newly afforded the subjects. For most of the girls this was as far as they had ever traveled before, and probably many had never been so far from their families. The sea level track was situated in a complex of other recreational facilities, all impeccably maintained and very impressive. This new and special treatment stimulated the girls to producing some of their best times so far. In addition, the day of the first sea level tests was hot for individuals who had just come from snow at their mountain home. The warmth of the day possibly in creased metabolic processes and hence aided running times. 50 The significant interaction of trials and altitude that occurred in both the 880 and 440 run may be difficult to inter pret. On improvement from trial to trial that occurred in part because of a change in altitude Daniels and Oldridge (1970) also had to comment. There is also a possibility that the desire at altitude to equal normal sea-level performance motivated the sub jects to push closer to max VO2 for a longer period of time than normal, an attitude they carried over into post-altitude runs. If so, then training at altitude would benefit subsequent sea-level performance as the runners attained an ability to withstand more discomfort than usual. This would presumably be reflected by greater utilization of the anaerobic capacity in altitude and post-altitude runs, a possibility not investigated.1 The 440 yard dash being a middle distance for young girls or a lengthy sprint, and considered extremely taxing in competition was expected to be a balance point in this experi ment. Times were predicted to be only slightly better at alti tude than sea level, but showing the effects of training from start to finish. These predictions were fairly accurate. Astrand (1970) wrote that with a work time of up to two minutes the anaerobic power is more important than the aerobic; at about two minutes there is a 50:50 ratio, and with longer work time 2 the aerobic power becomes gradually more dominating. The sub jects 440 times ranged from 1:14.8 to 1:46.1, so for the most part anaerobic power was more important, but for some the 50:50 mark was close. Jack Daniels and Neil Oldridge, "The Effects of Alter nate Exposure to Altitude and Sea Level on World-class Middle-Distance Runners," Medicine and_ Science in Sports, (Fall 19 70) , Vol. 2, No. 3, p. 111. 2 Per-Olof Astrand, Kaa.re Rodahl, Textbook of Work " Physiology, (McGraw-Hill Book Company, N.Y., 1970), p. 304. 51 Grover and Reeves (196 6) found some of their male sub jects performing this event better at sea level, others at alti-3 tude. On an average the girls m this experiment ran the 44 0 faster at altitude, but with a Fisher ratio of 2.5 and 1 degree of freedom this difference could not be considered significant. Improvement was generally noted from start to finish. (One sub ject became progressively slower). The more this distance was run at full effort, the greater was the mechanical efficiency, and tolerance of lactic acid in the muscles increased. Astrand (1970) has said "the highest blood lactate values so far are in samples drawn from well-trained athletes at the end of competi tive events of one to two minutes duration...during training, the blood lactate concentration for a given work load is lower, but the values attained during maximal physical effort are 4 usually higher." During treatments 4, 5, 6, 7 there was a slump in per formance. This may have been the result of a psychological low. During the second and third treatments there was the thrill of a new experience and travel. The last treatment was the last chance to better all previous times. With the results of the 50 yard dash producing a sur prise reverse of previous studies, a look at all influencing factors must be made. First of all, did changes in altitude really make a substantial change in air pressure? To answer 3 Robert Grover, John Reeves, "Exercise Performance of Athletes at Sea Level and 3,000 meters Altitude," The Interna tional Symposium on the Effects of Altitude on Physical Per formance , (19 66) , p. 80*. 4 Astrand, op. cit., p. 298. that, the pressures at altitude averaged 79% of the pressures recorded at sea level. An important consideration is the fact that at the altitude track the subjects faced into the prevail ing air currents, while at sea level the 50 yard dash was run with the wind. It also seemed that when air temperature was really warm, better results were achieved. The 50 yard dash was the first test administered during each testing session. The degree of success in this event more than the others was related to effectiveness of the warm-up and body core temperature. Since the warm-up was the same at each testing session it was less effective in 51° weather than in 82° weather. At a higher temperature metabolic processes in a cell can proceed at a higher rate, since these processes are temperature dependent. The exchange of oxygen from the blood to the tissues is faster at a higher temperature. A reduction in conductance of the tissue occurs when the skin is chilled. This is partly because of vasoconstriction of the skin's blood vessels causing a reduc tion in blood flow, and partly because the blood in the veins of the extremities is detoured from the superficial to the deep veins.^ Furthermore, the nerve messages travel faster at higher 6 temperatures. Hobert and Lynggren (1947) examined the effects of active and passive warm-up on the speed of running. In the 100m. dash the improvement after a proper warm-up was in the order of 0.5 to 0.6 seconds, corresponding to three to four Astrand, op. cit., p. 224. Astrand, op. cit., p. 496. 53 7 percent compared with the results without any warm-up. This information would point out that the warm-up employed was evi dently insufficient for performing the 50 yard dash optimally in the cooler temperatures. It would be foolish to try to presume which were more important, barometric pressure or temperature, to the 50 yard dash performance. The two factors are mutually dependent weather wise. They were uncontrollable by the experimenter. Previous studies which have controlled these factors did not lend insight into coaching strategy. A coach cannot control barometric pressure, but he can prescribe warm-ups and pre-competition activity in correct dosages considering his athletes and the temperatures of the day. Reports vary on the effects of altitude upon jumping and throwing events. Jokl has praised Bob Beamor,1 s record long jump at Mexico City. One of the factors he attributes for making this record jump possible was the reduced air resistance S at the altitude of Mexico City. Reduced air resistance should be a factor in throwing events as well. Astrand (1970) has stated that with the force of gravity reduced at a greater dis tance from the earth's surface there may be a favorable effect in the case of athletic events involving jumping or throwing at 9 high altitudes. Cervantes and Karpoviteh (19 64) in a report on 7 Hoberg and Lyndgren (1947) as quoted in Astrand, op. cit., p. 496. g Ernst Jokl, "A Report on Bob '3 earn on• s World Record Long Jump, and His Subsequent Collapse at Mexico City, October 18, 1968 ," The Physical Educator, (May 1970), p. 69". 9 Astrand, op. cit., p. 563. the effect of altitude on athletic performance stated that field event results have been inconsistent. "^ The effects of altitude upon throwing were not significant in this experiment. The throws at sea level were erratic from testing session to testing session. - For one thing, during the first session at sea level throwing was done on a packed earth surface and at the following sessions throwing was done on greens such as was the case at altitude. Perhaps another reason for erratic performance was the fact that several of the girls did not throw very well and were learning the proper skill sequence. Fitts and Posner (1967) referred to the second stage of skill learning as the phase when error, wrong sequences of acts and. responses to wrong cues are gradually eliminated."''''' The learning process was more consistent at the altitude location, the place where they were accustomed to throwing and learning. As expected hematocrits varied among the subjects within the normal range. Healthy individuals differ widely with respect to blood formulas. These differences are associated, to a small extent, with individual differences in body weight, stature and surface area, the red cell count, hemoglobin and volume of packed red cells tending to be higher in heavier and taller individuals. Despite the fact that most of these girls were premenarche their hematocrit average was more typical of women living at moderate: altitude than men. Wintrobe (1961) "^J. Cervantes, P, V. Karpovitch, "Effect of Altitude on Athletic Performance," Research Quarterly, (1964), Vol. 35, 3 (2), pp. 446-448. ''"''"Paul Fitts, Michael Posner, Human Performance, (Wads-worth Publishing Company, Belmont, Calif.,~1967), p. 12. stated it is noteworthy that the difference in red corpuscles between males and females does not become manifest until 12 puberty- No relationship was noted between subjects menstrual cycles and hematocrits, but the sampling was small. Wintrobe (1961) has commented that it has not been shown conclusively that there is any correlation between normal menstrual periods and fluctuations in the erythrocytes or hemoglobin. Although, a premenstrual decrease has been observed in some women possibly as a manifestation of hydremia which sometimes precedes the onset of menstruation.^ Some subjects did have higher hematocrits at sea level than altitude. This concurs with graphs in studies by Reyna-farie (1959) and Merino (1950) which also showed a rise some times immediately on arrival at sea level and prior to the de-14 15 crease that follows. ' Although, the literature is lacking in an explanation, it is reasoned that subjects became somewhat dehydrated during travel. A reduction in plasma fluid would then elevate the percent of cellular matter. Because temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, winds and air pollution were uncontrollable, such weather data was recorded only for the purpose of lending additional insight into the results. Due to the uncontrollability of these factors 12 Maxwell Wintrobe, Clinical Hematology, (Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1961), p. 107. 13Ibid. 14 C. Reynafarje, "The Polycythemia of High Altitudes: Iron Metabolism and Related Aspects," Blood, 14, 1959, 433-455. 15 C. Merino, "Studies on Blood Formation and Destruction in the Polycythemia of High Altitudes," Blood, 5, 19 50, 1-3 2. 58 Table IX HEMATOCRIT VALUES16 All subjects were residents of the given locale. Hematocrit Altitude No. of ml RBC/100 ml m Country- Place subjects blood < 1 395 Peru Lima 14c" 45. 0 (40.0-49. 0) 2 20^ 46. 0 (43.5-50. 0) 3 15? 39. 8 (26.0-41. 0) 4 1524 U.S. Denver 40^ 48. 4 (43.8-53. 6) 5 40<? 43. 2 (37.1-46. 1) 6 1830-1890 India Coonoor and 8 Oof 49. 0 (38.0-65. 0) Wellington 7 2300 India Ootacamumd 20** 49. 4 (46.0-53. 0) 8 Mexico Mexico City 23# 21? ' 43. 0 (37.5-49. 0) 9 100(? 51. 2 (45.0-58. 5) 10 100$ 45. 5 (41.5-50. 0) 11 3730 Peru Oroya 40^ 54. 1 (47.8-65. 4) 12 4540 Argentina Mina Aguilar 81 59. 5 (50.5-73. 6) 13 Peru Morococha 32 59. 9 (48.7-71. 1) 14 11 57. 0 (46.0-71. 0) C) ages 4-6 1900 U.S. South Lake Tahoe 8o» 43. 9 (39.5-49. 5) (") ages 12-14 Table X TOTAL HEMATOCRIT FOR TRIALS TABLE Tl T2 T3 T4 Alt. 361 341 344.5 352.5 S.L. 343.5 350 358.5 361 704.5 691 703.0 713.5 P. Altman, Blood and Other Body Fluids, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 1961, p. 192. 5S not a great deal can be conclusively commented. The main thing noted and already mentioned was the superior performances on the warmest testing day. Chapter 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS In order to resolve the problem of whether or not middle altitude dwelling girls experience performance impairment at sea level, eight females—interested in track and living at medium altitude—were selected for this experiment. These girls, 12, 13, 14 years of age, participated in eight treatment sessions. Four sessions were at an altitude of 6,256 feet and four were at approximately sea level. At each treatment session all subjects had a fingertip blood sample taken for a hematocrit reading. At each treatment session all subjects participated separately and v/ithout competition in a 50 yard dash, 440 yard dash, softball throw, and 880 yard run. These events were to represent the assortment found at a track meet. Recordings were made of the temperature, humidity, barometric pressure and air pollution. Also, notes were taken concerning physical complaints of the subjects and winds. The 88 0 and. softball throw demonstrated the effects of training and learning over the eight weeks of testing. The 50 yard dash was the only event with a significant altitude effect. And, surprisingly, superior performances were made at sea level. A combination of factors caused this reversal from the findings in previous investigations. 1. The 50 yard dash was the first event each day, and so most reflecting the quality of the warm-up. 61 2. A beautiful warm day on the first sea level test aided performance. 3.. High barometric readings at altitude left less of a pressure difference with sea level than expected. 4. At the altitude track the subjects usually ran into the wind while they ran with it at sea level. Although, no altitude significance at the five percent level of significance was found for the 440, 880, and softball throw; the 440 was run faster at altitude, and the 880 was faster at sea level. About all that can be said.about the softball throw at the two levels, is that the throws were more consistent at altitude in a linear trend toward improvement. Except for the 50 yard dash, the results fell fairly close to the predictions which were: 1) Improvement would be noted over the eight weeks of testing due to training and learn ing. 2) The softball throw, 50 yard dash, and 440 yard run would be impaired at sea level. 3) The 880 yard run on the first sea level test would be on a par or better than the average of the altitude test, but would be impaired if there was hot weather toward summer. There was no hot weather in May, so performances continued to be better. Although little statistically conclusive has been said about any of the variables investigated, some important conclu sions can be made. First, the altitude factor of reduced air pressure does not stand alone, but is accompanied by its relative climatic conditions. The difference in partial pressure was of border line importance and to young female athletes posed no particular problems specific to them. Decided gains were made, training and learning may have exceeded what would have occurred with training at only one altitude. The hematocrit readings were in the upper normal ranges related to sea level norms and were similar to readings obtained from women residing at similar altitudes. They did fluctuate randomly from test to test which is normally due to daily changes in the amount of activity and/ or absorption of water or dehydration. To the coach these conclusions warrant saying that healthy, young female athletes from middle altitude should be able to compete at various altitudes if proper care is given to getting adequate rest. Unusual care should be made in dosing warm-ups appropriate to conditions, and the activity to follow. Attention should be given to insuring adequate fluid intake also. The young human body has a marvelous facility for meet ing and dealing with change. Despite the intensive work which has been done in alti tude physiology, there are still questions regarding sea level performance by athletes dwelling and training at altitude. These questions center around the hypersensitive respiratory response of these individuals and resultant pH changes in the blood. Additional insight into ventilation, 0^ debt, and blood lactate levels by the collection of energy metabolism data, including blood acid-base parameters, during and after running events would add considerably to the body of knowledge in this area. BIBLIOGRAPHY Astrand, Per-Olof and K. Rodahl, Textbook of Work Physiology, New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1.970. Altman, P. Blood and Other Body Fluids, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 19 61. Balke, B., Daniels, J., and B. Falkner, "Maximum Performance Capacity at Sea-level and Moderate Altitude Before and After Training at Altitude," Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur  Sportmedizin, Vol. 14 (1965). Balke, B., "Summary of Magglingen Symposium on Sports at Medium Altitude," The International Symposium on the Effects of  Altitude on Physical Performance, ed. R. F. Goddard (Chicago: The Athletic Institute, 1966). Banchero, N. and others, "Pulmonary Pressure, Cardiac Output and Arterial Oxygen Saturation during Exercise at High Altitude and at Sea Level," Circulation, Vol. 33, 1966. Buskirk,^E. and others, "Physiology and Performance of Track Athletes at Various Altitudes in the United States and Peru," The International Symposium on the Effects of Alti tude on Physical Performance, ed. R. F. Goddard, Chicago: The Athletic Institute, 1966. Bynum, W. A. "Work Capacity of Altitude Acclimatized Men at Altitude and Sea Level," The International Symposium on the  Effects of Altitude on Physical Performance, ed. R. F. Goddard, Chicago: The Athletic Institute, 1966. Cerretelli, P. "Lactacid O2 Debt in Acute and Chronic Hypoxia," Exercise at Altitude, ed. R. Margaria, Excerpta Medica Foundation, 1967. Cervantes, J. and P. V. Karpovitch, "Effect of Altitude on Athletic Performance," Research Quarterly, Vol. 35, 3 (2), 1964. Consolazio, C. F. "Submaximal and Maximal Performance at High Altitude," The International Symposium on the Effects of  Altitude on Physical Performance, ed. R. F. Goddard, Chicago: The Athletic Institute, 1966. Craig, Albert B. "Olympics 1968: A Postmortem," Medicine and Science in Sport, Vol. 1, no. 4, December .1969. Daniels, Jack and Neil Oldridge, "The Effects of Alternate Exposure to Altitude and Sea Level on World-class Middle-distance Runners," Medicine and Science in Sports, Vol. 2 no. 3, Fall 1970. 64 Dejours, Pierre, Kellogg, R. H. and Nello Pace, "Regulation of Respiration and Heart Rate in Exercise During Altitude Acclimatization," J. Appl. Physiol., Vol. 18, 1963. Fitts, Paul and Michael Posner, Human Performance, Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1967. Grollman, A., "Physiological Variations in Cardiac Output of Man. The Effect of High Altitude on the Cardiac Output and Its Related Functions: An Account of Experiments Conducted on the Summit of Pikes Peak, Colorado," Am. J. Physio., Vol. 93, 1930. Grover, R. F., "Basal Oxygen Uptake of Man at High Altitude," J. Appl. Physio., Vol. 18, 1963. Grover, Robert and John Reeves, "Exercise Performance of Ath letes at Sea Level and 3,000 Meters Altitude," The Interna  tional Symposium on the Effects of Altitude, ed. R. F. Goddard, Chicago: The Athletic institute, 1966. Hannon, John P., Shield, Jimmie, and Charles Harris, "High Alti tude Acclimatization in Women," The International Symposium  on the Effects of Altitude on Physical Performance, ed. R. F. Goddard, Chicago: The Athletic Institute, 19 66. Hecht, Hans, "Certain Vascular Adjustments and Maladjustments at Altitudes," Medicine and Sport, Exercise and Altitude, ed. E. Jokl, Basel and New York: S. Karger, 1968. Hornbein, Thomas, and Albert Roos, "Effect of Mild Hypoxia on Ventilation During Exercise," J. Appl. Physiol., 17 (2), Hornbein, Thomas, "Evaluation of Iron Stores as Limiting High Altitude Polycythemia," J. Appl. Physiol., 17 (2), 1962. Hultgren, H. N., Kelly, J., and H. Miller, "Pulmonary Circula tion in Acclimatized Man at High Altitude," J. Appl. Physiol., 20 (2), 1965. Jokl, Ernst, "A Report on Bob Beaumon's World Record Long Jump, and His Subsequent Collapse at Mexico City, October 18, 1968, The Physical Educator, (May 1970), 68-70. Jokl, Ernst and Peter Jokl, "The Effect of Altitude on Athletic Performance," Medicine and Sport, Exercise and Altitude, ed. E. Jokl, Basel and New York: . S~. Karger, 1968. Merino, C, "Studies on Blood Formation and Destruction in the Polycythemia of High Altitudes," Blood, (5, 1950), 1-32. Naiye, R. L. "Children at High Altitude; Pulmonary and Renal Abnormalities," Circulation Res. , .16, 33, 1965. t * * 65 Reynafarje, C, "The Polycythemia of High Altitudes; Iron Metabolism and Related Aspects," Blood, (14 , 1959) , 433-455. Reynafarje, C., "Pyridine Nucleotide Oxydases and Transhydroge-nase in Acclimatization to High Altitude," Amer. J. Physio., 200, 1961, 351-354. Schmidt, R., and A. S. Gilbertsen, Fundamental Observations on the Production of Compensatory Polycythemia," Blood, (10, 1955), 247-251. Tenney, S. M. "Physiological Adaptations to Life at High Alti tude," Medicine and Sport, Exercise and Altitude, Basel and New York: S. Karger, 1968. University of California at Berkeley, Physiology Department, personal communication between Dr. Nello Pace and the writer, March 15, 1971. Vogel, J. A., Hansen, J. E. and C. W. Harris, "Cardiovascular Responses of Man During Rest,.Exhaustive Work and Recovery at 4,300m.," U.S. Army Med. Res. and Ntr. Lab Report, No. 294, 1966. Weihe, W. H. "Time Course of Adaptation to Different Altitudes at Tissue Level," Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Sport-medizin, Vol. 14, 1966. Wintrobe, M. Clinical Hematology, Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1961. APPENDIX Statistical Treatments 68 HEMATOCRIT % Volume Altitude sl s^ 2162.25 1764 1764 2352.25 2 46.5 42 42 48.5 S3 s. 2070.25 1936 1892.25 1936 4 45.5 44 43.5 44 sr 1892.50 1681 2070.25 1936 5 43. 5 41 45.5 44 1849 1600 1849 1849 6 43 40 43 ': 43 2450.25 2401 2025 1849 7 49.5 49 45 43 1849 1681 1640.25 1806.25 8 43 41 40.5 42.5 2025 1806.25 1806.25 1892.50 9 45 42. 5 42.5 43.5 S10 2025 45 1722.25 41.5 1806.25 4 2. 5 1936 44 Zx 361 1 341 3 344.5 6 352. 5 8 E 1399 (lx)2 Alt. 1957201 130321 116281 118680.25 124256.25 ^x2 16323.25 14591.50 14853.25 15557 HEMATOCRIT % Volume Sea Level sl s„ 2401 2116 2401 2209 2 49 46 49 47 S3 s, 1640.25 1892.25 1936 1980.25 4 40.5 43.5 44 44.5 Sr 1849 1806.25 1681 1892.25 5 43 42. 5 41 43.5 s^ 1560.25 1681 1936 1849 6 39. 5 41 44 43 S-, 2 070.25 2256.25 2256.25 2256.25 7 45.5 47.5 47.5 47.5 So 1600 160 0 1806.25 1849 8 40 40 42.5 43 srt 2116 1806.25 2209 2025 9 46 42.5 47 45 S10 1600 40 2209 47 1892.25 43.5 2256.25 47 .5 Z* 343.5 2 350 4 358.5 5 361 7 117992.25 122500 128522. 25 130321 ix2 14836.75 15367 16117. 75 16316.75 70 HEMATOCRIT (Continued) £x EX2 sl S2 • 37 0 136900 17169.50 S3 Sd 4 349.5 122150.25 15283.25 S^ D 344 118336 14808.25 Sfi b 336.5 113232 14.173. 25 S7 / 374.5 140250.25 17564.25 S8 332.5 110556.25 13831.75 S9 354 125316 15686.25 S10 351 123201 15447 £x EX 2812 Subj ects (Ex)2 989941.75 Ux)2 I 1413 (Ex)2 S.L. 1996569 Ux)z 7907344 ix2 EXZ 71 HEMATOCRIT Subjects X Altitudes s 32041 36481 68522 2 179 191 370 S „ 31329 29756.25 61085.25 4 177 172.5 349.5 S^ 30276 28900 59176 5 174 170 344 S^ 28561 28056.25 56617 .25 6 169 167. 5 336.5 s_ 34782.25 35344 70126.25 7 186.5 188 374.5 s„ 27889 27390.25 55279.25 8 167 165.5 332. 5 S„ 30102.25 32580.25 62682.5 9 173.5 180.5 354 S10 29929 173 31684 178 61613 351 244909.5 250192 495101.5 495101.5 4 - -^rr— = 123775.375 64 - 123552.25 = 223.125 72 HEMATOCRIT Sub X Trials Tl T2 T3 T4 sl o 9120. 25 7744 8281 9120.25 S2 95. 5 88 91 95.5 " 34265. 5 S3 S4 7396 7656. 25 7656. 25 7832.25 86 87. 5 87. 5 88.5 30540. 75 c 7482. 25 6972. 25 7482. 25 7656.25 S5 86. 5 83. 5 86. 5 87 .5 29593 Q 6806. 25 6561 7569 7396 S6 82. 5 81 87 86 28332. 25 c 9025 9312. 25 8556. 25 8190.25 S7 95 96. 5 92. 5 90.5 35083. 75 S8 6889 6561 6889 7310.25 83 81 83 85.5 27649. 25 c 8281 7225 8010. 25 7832.25 S9 91 85 89. 5 88. 5 31348. 50 c 7225 7832. 25 7396 8372.25 S10 85 88. 5 86 91.5 30825. 50 62224. 75 59864 61840 63709.75 247638. 5 247638.5 123552.25 = 123819.25 - 123552.25 = 267 SS Subjects = 190.4675 136900 122150.25 1183 36 113232 140250.25 8 8 8 8 8 110556. 25 . 1253.16 . 123201 7907344 _ —_ 8 " 8 . 64 123742.7175 - 123552.25 = 190.4675 SS Altitude = 3.075 1957201 32 1996569 32 7907344 64 123555.325 - 123552.25 = 3.075 HEMATOCRIT (Continued) SS trials = 16.0312 496320.25 ^ 477481 . 494209 ^ 509082. 25 oc _ + + — + _ - 123552.25 16 16 16 16 12356.82812 - 123552.25 = 16.0312 SS treatments = 57 130321 116281 118680.25 124256.25 117992.25 122500 88 8 8 8 8 128522.25 130321 7907344 8 8 ~ 64 123609.25 - 123552.25 = 57 SS trials x alt. = SS treatments - SS trials - SS alt = 37.8929 57 - 16.0312 = 3.075 = 37.8929 SS error = 163.7825 411.25 - 190.4675 - 57 = 163.7825 total subjects treatments SS total = 411.25 Ix2 ~ -^IV 2 123963.5 - 123552.25 = 411.25 b H Sub X trials = SS. . . - SS - SS trials total s 267 - 190.4675 - 16.0312 = 60.5013 Sub X Alt = SS total - SS - SS Alt s 223.125 - 190.4675 - 3.075 = 29.5825 SS^ X trials X Alt = SS error - SS„ . , - SS _ n . s s x Trials s x alt. 163.7825 - 60.5013 - 29.5825 = 73.6987 74 Source Subjects Treatments trials altitude alt x trials Error sub x alt sub x trials sub x alt x trials Total Table VIII HEMATOCRIT ANOVA TABLE SS 190.46 57 16.03 3.07 37.89 163.78 29.58 60.50 d.f. 7 n i 3 1 49 21 73.69 21 411.25 63 ms 27.21 8.14 5.34 3.07 12.63 3.34 4.22 2.88 3.50 6.52 1.85 0.73 no no 3.60 sig. 5% F .05 2.21 .01 (7,49) 3.03 F .05 3o07 .01 (3,21) 4.87 F .05 4.32 .01 (1,21) 8.02 F .05 5.59 .01 (1,7) 12.25 75 SOFTBALL THROW Altitude S2 5625 4096 4489 4692.25 75 64 67 68.5 s„ 5929 6084 6889 7744 4 77 78 83 88 4096 4096 3364 2916 5 64 64 58 54 5329 6400 7744 9604 6 73 80 88 98 S_ 5929 6241 7482.25 7921 7 . 77 79 86.5 89 So 4356 5329 7744 6724 8 66 73 88 82 So 16900 16900 17556.25 18769 9 130 130 132.5 137 S10 8281 91 12100 110 12769 113 14884 122 653 1 678 3 716 6 738.5 8 S 2785.5 (EX)2 alt 7759010.25 (Ex)2 426409 459684 512656 545382.25 EX2 56445 61246 68037.5 73254.25 SOFTBALL THROW Sea Level 4489 3721 4761 6084 2 67 61 69 78 s,, 7225 7225 6561 6889 4 85 85 81 83 sc 3025 3025 2916 2601 5 55 55 54 51 S, 6724 7921 4761 9401 6 82 89 69 97 S-, 7921 6889 4624 6724 7 89 83 68 82 s„ 5041 6724 6241 6561 8 71 82 79 81 s„ 16641 17424 0 15625 14161 9 129 132 125 119 c 10816 14161 11449 11025 S10 104 119 107" 105 Ex 682 706 652 696 2 4 5 7 (EX)2 465124 498436 425104 484416 EX2 61882 67090 56938 63446 SOFTBALL THROW ix dx)2 Ix2 S2 549.5 301950.25 37957.25 S4 660 435600 54546 o 455 207025 26039 S6 676 456976 57884 S7 653.5 427062.25 53731.25 S8 622 386884 48720 S9 1034.5 1070190.25 133976.25 S10 871 758641 95485 ix ix 5.521.5 dx)2 Z 2736 Ux)2 S.L. 7485696 ix2 ixz 508338.75 SOFTBALL THROW Subject X Trials Tl T2 T3 T4 sl s„ 20164 15625 18496 21462. 25 75747.25 2 142 125 136 146. 5 549.5 S3 • s. 26244 26569 26896 29241 108950 4 162 163 164 171 660 sr 14161 14161 12544 11025 51891 5 • 119 119 112 105 455 S^ 24025 28561 24649 38025 115260 6 155 169 157 195 676 S-, 27556 26244 23870.25 29241 106911.25 7 166 162 154.5 171 653. 5 s0 18769 24G25 27889 26569 97252 8 137 155 167 163 622 s„ 67081 68644 66306.25 65536 267567.25 9 259 262 257.5 256 1034.5 38025 52441 48400 51529 190395 S10 195 229 220 227 871 236025 256270 249050.5 272628. 25 1013973.75 1013973.75 2 - dx)2 = 506986.875 -- 476358. 7851 = 30628.089: SOFTBALL THROW Subjects X Altitudes Alt S.L. ix S„ 75350.25 75625 150975.25 2 274.5 275 549.5 S . 106276 111556 217832 4 326 334 660 s_ 57600 46225 103825 5 240 215 455 s^ 114921 113569 228490 6 339 337 676 109892.25 103684 213576.25 7 331.5 322 653.5 s„ 95481 97969 193450 8 309 313 622 S„ 280370.25 255025 535395.25 9 529.5 505 1034.5 c 190096 189225 379321 S10 436 435 871 1029986.75 992878 2022864.75 2022864.75 _ (Ex)2 _ 4 64 ^ 1 1 505716.1875 - 476358.7851 = 29357.4024 SS Subjects = 29182.3086 301950.25 435600 207025 456976 427062.25 386884 8 8 8 8 1070190.25 758641 30486962.25 8 8 ~ 64 505541.0937 - 476358.7851 = 29182.3086 SS treatments = 792.6211 426409 , 459684 . 512656 . 545382.25 , 465124 ^ 498436 _,_ + ^ + s + ^ + 7. + 7* + 8 8 425104 , 484416 + 8 8, - 476358.7851 8 8 477151.4062 - 476358.7851 = 792.6211 80 SOFTBALL THROW (Continued) SS trials = 322.168 1782225 . 1915456 . 1871424 2057790. 25 ' Anr~r.Q notL, _— + + __ + __ _ 476358.7851 16 x6 16 lb 476680.9531 - 476358.7851 = 322.168 SS Altitude = 38.2849 77^9010^25 + 7485696 _ 476358.7851 476397.07 - 476358.7851 = 38.2849 SS Alt. X Trials = 432.1682 792.6211 - 322.168 - 38.2849 = 432.1682 treatments trials altitude SS total = 31979.9649 508338.75 - 476358.7851 = 31979,9649 , . • , = 1123.6133 sub x trials 30628.0899 - 29182.3086 - 322.168 = 1123.6133 SS total -SS , - SS,. . • sub trials Sub X Alt = 136.8089 29357.4024 - 29182.3086 - 38.2849 = 136.8089 SS total -SSsub -SSalt gub X trials X alt = 744.613 2005.0352 - 1123.6133 - 136.8089 = 744.613 SS error - SS . , - SS sub sub x alt Source Subjects Treatments altitude trials trials x alt. Error sub x alt sub x trials sub x trials x alt. Total Table VI SOFTBALL THROW ANOVA TABLE SS 29182.31 792.62 38.28 322.17 d.f. 7 7 1 3 432.16 3 2005.03 49 136.81 7 1123.61 21 744.61 21 31979.96 63 ms 4168.90 113.23 38.28 107.38 1.96 2.01 144.056 4.06 40.92 19.54 53.50 35.45 507.61 no no sig. 5% F .05 2.21 .01 (7,49) 3.03 F .05 3.07 .01 (3,21) 4.87 F .05 4.32 .01 (1,21) 8.02 F .05 5.59 .01 (1,7) 12.25 50 YD. DASH Altitude s„ 59. 29 60. 84 56.25 60. 84 2 7.7 7.8 7.5 7.8 53.29 60. 84 64.00 59. 29 4 7.3 7,8 8.0 7.7 sr 67 .24 67.24 59.29 62.41 5 8.2 8.2 7.7 7.9 S^ 47.61 47.61 44.89 49.00 6 6.9 6.9 6.7 7.0 S-, 57.76 57 .76 62.41 60. 84 7 7.6 7.6 7.9 7.8 Sr, 56. 25 60. 84 62. 41 54.76 8 7.5 7.8 7.9 7.4 s„ 51. 84. 51.84 50. 41 50.41 9 7.2 7.2 7.1 7.1 Q 51.84 51.84 47.61 49.00 S10 7.2 7.2 6.9 7.0 E 239 .5 ix 59.60 60. 50 59.70 59.70 dx)2 Alt 1 3 6 8 57360 .25 dx)2 3552.16 3660.25 3564.09 3564.09 ix2 445.12 458.81 447.27 446.55 50 YD. DASH Sea Level s_ 54.76 51. 84 56.25 56.25 2 7.4 7.2 7.5 7.5 s „ 54. 76 56.25 54. 76 . 57.76 4 7.4 7.5 7.4 7.6 S r-6 0.84 59.29 64. 00 62.41 5 7.8 7.7 8.0 7.9 S6 42. 25 6.5 46. 24 6.8 42.25 6.5 46. 24 6.8 s7 57. 76 7.6 57.76 7.6 57.76 7.6 59.29 7.7 s„ 53.29 57.76 56. 25 56.25 8 7.3 7.6 7.5 7.5 s„ 47.61 50.41 49.00 51. 84 9 6.9 7.1 7.0 7.2 S10 50. 41 7.1 47 . 61 6.9 46. 24 6.8 42.25 6.5 Ex • 58.00 2 58.40 4 58.30 5 58.70 7 (EX)2 3364 3410.56 3398.89 3445.69 EX2 421.68 427.16 426.51 432.29 50 YD. DASH ix hx)2 Ix2 S2 60.4 3648.16 456.32 S4 60.7 3684.49 460.95 S5 63.4 4019.56 502.72 S6 54.1 2926.81 366.09 S7 61.4 3769.96 471.34 S8 60.5 3660.25 457.81 SQ y 56.8 3226.24 403.36 S10 55. 6 3091.36 386.80 ix ix 472. 9 dx)2 Ex S.L. 2334 dx)2 54475.56 ix2 ix' 3505.39 85 50 YD. DASH Subject X Trials Tl T2 T3 T4 So 228.01 225 225 234.09 912.1 2 15.1 15.0 15.0 15.3 60.4 s„ 216.09 234.09 237.16 234.09 921.43 4 14.7 15.3 15.4 15.3 60.7 256.0 252.81 246.49 249.64 1004.94 5 16.0 15.9 15.7 15. 8 63.4 S^ 179.56 187.69 174.24 190.44 731.93 6 13. 4 13.7 13.2 13. 8 54.1 '231.04 231.04 240.25 240.25 942.58 7 15.2 15. 2 15.5 15. 5 61.4 219.04 237.16 237.16 222.01 915.37 8 14. 8 15. 4 15.4 14.9 60.5 Sn 198.81 204.49 198.81 204.49 806.6 9 14.1 14.3 14.1 14.3 56.8 S10 204.49 14.3 198.81 14.1 187.69 13.7 182.25 13.5 773.24 55.6 1733.04 1771.09 1746.8 1757.26 7008.19 7008.19 (EX)2 2 64 = total 3504.095 - 3494 .2876562 = 9 .807763 50 YD. DASH Subjects X Altitudes Alt. S.L. E S2 948.64 30.8 876.16 29.6 1824.8 60.4 S4 948.64 30.8 894.01 29.9 1842.65 60.7 S5 1024. 32 985.96 31.4 2009.96 63.4 S6 756.25 27. 5 707.56 26.6 1463.81 54.1 S- 954.81 930.25 1885.06 7 30.9 - 30.5 61.4 srt 936.36 894 .01 1830.37 O 30.6 29.9 60. 5 SQ 817.96 795.24 1613.2 y 28.6 28.2 56.8 c 800.89 745.29 1546.18 S10 28.3 27.3 55. 6 7187.55 6828.48 14016.03 - (EX)2 = 3504.0075 - 3494.2876562 = 9.719844 total SS subjects = 9.066094 3648.16 3684.49 4019.56 2926.81 3769.96 3660.25 888 888 3226.40 3091.36 223634.41 8 8 " 64 3503.35375 - 3494.2876562 = 9.066094 SS treatments = . 6785938 3552.16 3600.25 3564.09 3564.09 3364 3410.56 8 8 8 "H 8 8 3398.89 223634.41 8 ~ 64 3494.96625 - 3494.2876562 = .6785938 50 YD. DASH (Continued) SS trials = . 581406 13829.76 , 14137.21 ^ 13924 . 14018.56 .... OQ^cr-co -j- — + —— + zr-? - 3494.2876562 = 16 16 x6 lb 3494.345625 - 3494.2876562 = .581406 SS Alt X trials = .0392090 .6785938 - .0579788 - .581406 = .039209 treatments - trials - alt SS Altitude = .581406 57360.25 54475.56 223634.41 32 32 64 3494.869062 - 3494.2876562 = .581406 SS Error = 1.3576562 11.102344 - 9.066094 - .6785938 = 1.3576562 total - subjects - treatments SS total = 11.102344 _ 2 (ZX)2 X N ~ 3505.39 - 3494.287656 = 11.102344 SS , . , = 9.807763 - 9.066094 - .581406 = .160263 subxtrials gg _gg _gg total sub L trials SS , = 595771? sub x Alt — 9.719844 - 9.066094 - .0579788 = .5957712 SS, . . SS , SS Alt. total sub SS sub x trials X Alt 1.3576562 - .160263 - .5957712 = .601622 SSerror °Ssub X trials S°sub X Alt Table V 50 YARD DASH ANOVA TABLE Source SS d.f. ms F Subjects 9.06 7 1.29 Treatments .68 7 .09 trials .06 3 .01 2. 53 altitude .58 1 .58 6. 83 alt. x trials .039 3 .013 0. 46 Error 1.36 49 .027 sub x alt .59 7 •;.035 sub x trials .16 21 .007 sub x trials x alt. .60 21 .028 Total 11.10 63 .18 F .05 2.21 F .05 4.34 .01 (7,49) 3.03 .01 (1,21) 8.02 F .05 3.07 .01 (3,21) 4.87 F .05 5.59 .01 (1,7) 12.25 89 88C YD. RUN Altitude 37597. 21 34447.36 33379. 29 32616. 36 2 193. 9 185. 6 182. 7 180. 6 S„ 50850. 25 50805.16 47961 41209 4 225. 5 225. 4 219 203 sr 61951. 21 49729 59000. 41 52441 5 248. 9 223 242. 9 229 35268. 84 34410.25 32292. 09 38769. 61 6 187. 8 185. 5 179. 7 196. 9 s_ 56453. 76 55648.81 43681 44100 7 • 237. 6 235.9 209 210 s„ 57456. 09 50131.21 46483. 36 46483. 36 8 239. 7 223.9 215. 6 215. 6 47742. 25 37908.09 41534. 44 39601 9 218. 5 194.7 203. 8 199 S10 45369 213 37869.16 194. 6 36442. 190. 41 9 34521. 185. 64 8 ix 1764.9 1 1668.6 3 1643 6 1619.9 8 Ex 6697 (Ex)2 alt 44849809 dx)2 3114872. 01 2784225.96 2701420. 96 2524076. 01 ix2 392688. 61 350949.04 340774 329741. 97 880 YD. RUN Sea Level s„ 34373. 16 37403. 56 32797. 21 34894.24 2 185. 4 193. 4 181. 1 186.8 S , 43388. 89 50625 46139. 04 40561.96 4 208. 3 225 214. 8 201.4 sr 50625 56169 50086. 44 49773.61 5 225 237 223. 8 223.1 S^ 32112. 64 34856. 89 30940. 81 33051.24 6 179. 2 186. 7 175. 9 181.8 s_ 515-7-4. 41 52120. 39 50760. 09 48929.44 7 227. 1 228. 3 225. 3 221.2 46268. 01 60762. 25 51483. 61 40561.96 8 215. 1 246. 5 226. 9 201.4 s„ 38064. 01 37713. 64 35231. 29 36252.16 9 195. 1 194. 2 187. 7 19 0.4 S10 45753. 213. 21 9 38927. 197. 29 3 40000 200 36062.01 189.9 ix 1649.1 2 1708.4 4 1635.5 5 1596 7 dx)2 2719530. 81 2918630. 56 2674860. 25 2547216. ix2 342159. 33 368578. 52 337438. 49 320086.62 91 880 YD. RUN EX (EX)2 EX2 S2 1489.5 2218610.25 277508.39 S4 1722.4 2966661.76 371540.30 S5 1852.7 3432497.29 429775.67 S6 1473.5 2171202.25 271702.37 S7 1794.4 3219871.36 403268.40 S8 1784.7 3185154.09 399629.85 S9 1583.4 2507155.56 314046.88 S10 1585.4 2513493.16 314944.72 Ex EX 13286 (EX)2 (Ex)2 17517796 Zx S.L. 6589 (EX)2 43414921 EX2 Ex' 2782416.58 92 880 YD. RUN Subject X Trials s„ 143868. 49 143641 132350. 44 134982. 76 554842. 69 2 379. 3 379 363. 8 367. 4 1489. 5 s. 188182. 44 202860. 16 188182. 44 163539. 36 742764. 4 4 433. 8 450. 4 433. 8 404. 4 1722. 4 Sc 224581. 21 211600 217808. 89 204394. 41 858384. 51 5 473. 9 460 466. 7 452. 1 1852. 7 s^ 134689. 138532. 84 126451. 36 143413. 69 543086. 89 6 367 372. 2 355. 6 378. 7 1473. 5 215946. 09 215481. 64 188616. 49 185933. 44 805977. 66 7 464 . 7 464. 2 434. 3 431. 2 1794. 4 Sn 206843. 04 221276. 16 195806. 25 173889 797814. 45 8 454. 8 470. 4 442. 5 417 1784. 7 171064. 96 151243. 21 153272. 25 151632. 36 627212. 78 9 413. 6 388. 9 391. 5 389. 4 1583. 4 c 182243. 61 153585. 61 152802. 81 141150. 49 629782. 52 S10 426. 9 391. 9 390. 9 375. 7 1585. 4 1467418. 84 1438220. 62 1355290. 93 1298935. 51 5559865. 9 5559865. 2 9 2758090. 5 = 2779932. 95 - 2758090 .5 = 21842.45 • total Trials Table TI T2 T3 T4 Alt 1764. 9 1 1668. 6 3 1643. 6 6 1619. 9 8 S.L. 1649. 1 2 1708. 4 4 1635. 5 5 1596 7 3414 3377 3279. 1 3215. 9 11655396 11404129 10752496.81 10342012.81 iii§403_4^62 _ 2758o90.5 16 2759627.163 - 2758090.5 = 1536.663 880 YD RUN Sub X Alt Alt S.L. z s„ 551751. 84 557560. 89 1109312. 73 2 742. 8 746. 7 1489. 5 s „ 761954. 41 721650. 25 1483604. 66 4 872. 9 849. 5 1722. 4 sr 890758. 44 826099. 21 1716857. 65 5 943. 8 908. 9 1852. 7 S^ 562350. 01 523596. 96 1085946. 97 6 749. 9 723. 6 1473. 5 s„ 796556. 25 813426. 61 1609979. 86 7 892. 5 901. 9 1794. 4 So 800667. 04 791922. 01 1592589. 05 8 894. 8 889. 9 1784. 7 s„ 665856 588902. 76 1254758. 76 9 816 767. 4 1583. 4 Q 615126. 49 641761. 21 1256887. 7 S10 784. 3 801. 1 1585. 4 5645020. 48 5464916. 9 11109937. 38 11109937-38 - 2758090.5 2777484.34 - 2758090.5 = 19393.84 94 880 YD. RUN (Continued) SS Subjects = 18740.21 2218610. 25 ^ 2966661. 76 _,_ 3433979. 61 . 2171202.25 . 3219871. 36 . _ + _ + _____ + g + __ + 3185154.09 2507155.56 2513493.16 (13286)2 8 8 8 64 2221465.72 176517796 8 64 SS treatments = 2513.57 = 2776830.71 - 2758090.5 = 18740.21 3114872.01 J 2784225.96 ^ 2701420.96 ^ 2624076.01 ^ 2719530.81 . _ + _ + _ + _ + _ + 2918630.56 , 2674860.25 ^ 2547216.0 --_on«n e _ + _ + _ _ 2/Douyu.o 22084832.56 _ 2758090.5 = 2760604.07 - 2758090.5 = 2513.57 o SS trials = 1536.663 441R4034 62 :f - - 2758090.5 = 2759627.163 - 2758090.5 = 1536.663 16 SS Altitude = 182.3 44849809 43414921 ^ + —32 " 2758090.5 = 2758272.8 - 2758090.5 = 182.3 SS Alt X Trials = 794.607 2513.57 - 1536.663 - 182.3 = 794.607 treatments - trials - altitude SS Error = 24326.08 - 18740.21 - 2513.57 = 3072.3 total - subjects - treatments SS total = Ex2 (EX) N 2782416.58 - 2758090.5 = 24326.08 SS , v = 471.33 sub X Alt 19393.84 - 18740.21 - 182.3 = 471.33 total -S3 . -SS,,. sub Alt 880 YD. RUN (Continued) SS . . . , = 1565.577 sub X trxal 21842.45 - 18740.21 - 1536.663 = 1565.577 total - SS , -S3,. . , sub trxals SSSub X Trials X Alt = 1035-393 3072.3 - 1565.577 - 471.33 = 1035.393 error -S3gub x Tr±als ~SSSub x Alt 96 ONLY SIGNIFICANT TRIALS EFFECT Linear Trend Analysis 880 yd. run SS trials 1536.663 SS linear 1497.3151 Al fcl A2 fc2 A3 fc3 A4 H [(-3)3414 + (-1)3377 + (1)3279.1 + (3)3215.912 16(20) n EA12 [(-10242) + (-3377) + 3279.1 + 9647.7]2 320 [(-13619) + 12926.8]2 _ (692.2)2 _ 479140.84 _ ,AO_ _1 320 320 3~20 ±4y/.ji.i Table III 880 YARD RUN ANOVA TABLE Source Subjects Treatments trials linear altitude trials x alt. Error sub x alt sub x trials sub x • trials x alt Total SS 18740.21 2513.57 1536.66 1497.31 182.3 794.60 3072.3 471.33 1565.57 1035.39 24326.08 d.f, 7 7 3 1 3 49 7 21 21 63 ms 2677.17 359.08 5X2•2 2 1497.31 182.3 264.87 62.7 67.33 74.55 49.30 3861.44 F p 5.72 sig. 1% 6.87 sig. 1% 20.08 sig. 1% 2.71 no sig. 5.37 sig. 1% F .05 4.04 .01 (1,49) 7.18 F .05 3.07 .01 (3,21) 4.87 F .05 4.32 .01 (1,21) 8.02 F .05 5.59 .01 (1,7) 12.25 440 YD. DASH Altitude s„ 6938. 89 5821.62 6177.96 5836.96 2 83. 3 76.3 78.6 76.4 S. 7921 8226.49 8760.96 7242.01 4 89 90.7 93.6 85.1 sr 9940 8704.89 9840.64 9196.81 5 99. 7 93.3 99.2 95.9 s^ 6068. 41 5640.01 6642.25 6464.16 6 77. 9 75.1 81.5 80.4 s_ 8930. 25 7832.25 10020.01 7673.76 7 94. 5 88.5 100.1 87.6 sn 10404 8281 9940.09 6872.41 8 102 91 99.7 82.9 7089. 64 6416 6577.21 6496.36 9 84. 2 80.1 81.1 80.6 S10 7039. 83. 21 9 6115.24 78.2 6256.81 79.1 5655.04 75.2 ix 714.5 1 673.2 3 712.9 6 664.1 8 E 2764,7 (EX)2 Alt 7643566.09 dx)2 510510. 25 453198.24 508226.41 441028.81 EX2 64331.4 57037.57 64215.93 55437.51 440 YD. DASH Sea Level So 6625.96 6691.24 6674.89 6512.49 2 81.4 81.8 81.7 80.7 s„ 7796.89 8226.49 8742.25 7638.76 4 88.3 90.7 93. 5 87.4 sc 9820.81 10629.61 10836.81 11257.21 5 99.1 103.1 104.1 106.1 s^ 5595.04 6162.25 6006.25 7761.61 6 74.8 78.5 77.5 88.1 S7 7191.04 8704.89 9101.16 8046.09 84.8 93.3 95.4 89.7 s0 8537.76 8873.64 10060.09 7621.29 8 92.4 94.2 100.3 87 .3 S- 6593.44 7140.25 6496.36 7039.21 9 81.2 84.5 80.6 83.9 S10 7276.09 85.3 6336.16 79.6 6707.61 81.9 6146.56 78.4 EX 687.3 2 705.7 4 715 5 701.6 7 (EX)2 472381.29 498012.49 511225 492242.56 EX2 59437.03 62764.53 64625.42 62023.22 440 YD. DASH EX (EX)2 IX2 S2 640.2 409856.04 51280.08 S4 718.3 515954.89 64554.85 S5 800.5 640800.25 80226.78 S6 633.8 401702.44 50339.98 S7 733.9 538609.21 67499.45 S8 749. 8 562200.04 70590.28 S9 656.2 430598.44 53848.47 S10 641.6 411650.56 51532.72 Ex Ex 5574.3 (EX)2 Z X S.L. 2809. 6 (EX)2 7893852.16 EX2 EX" 489872.61 440 YD. DASH Subject X Trials TI T2 T3 • T4 Z So 27126. 09 24995. 61 25696. 09 24680. 41 102498. 2 2 164. 7 158. 1 160. 3 157. 1 640. 2 s„ 31435. 29 32905. 96 35006. 41 29756. 25 129103. 91 4 177. 3 181. 4 187. 1 172. 5 718. 3 39521. 44 38572. 96 41330. 89 40804 160229. 29 5 198. 8 196. 4 203. 3 202 800. 5 23317. 29 23592. 96 25281 28392. 25 100583. 5 6 152. 7 153. 6 159 168. 5 633. 8 S-, 32148. 49 33051. 24 38220. 25 31435. 29 134855. 27 7 179. 3 181. 8 195. 5 177. 3 733. 9 So 37791. 36 34299. 04 40000 28968. 04 141058. 44 8 194. 4 185. 2 200 170. 2 749. 8 Sn 27357. 16 27093. 16 26146. 89 27060. 25 107657. 46 9 165. 4 164. 6 161. 7 164. 5 656. 2 Q 28628. 64 24900. 84 25921 23592. 96 103043. 44 S10 169. 2 157. 8 161 153. 6 641. 6 247325. 76 239411. 77 257602. 53 234689. 45 97902951 979029. 51 _ UxJi. = tQtal ss 2 64 totai Sbsubx trials 489514.755 - 485512.8201 =4001.9349 total Trials Table TI T2 T3 T4 Alt 714.5 673.2 712.9 664.1 2764.7 2809 6 S.L. 687.3 705.7 715 701.6 5574 3 1401.8 1378.9 1427.9 1365.7 1965043.24 1901365.21 2038898.41 16 16 16 1865136.49 7770443.35 _ (£X)2 16 16 64 485652.7093 - 485512.8201 = 139.8892 440 YD. DASH Sub X Alt Alt S.L. S„ 98973. 16 106015. 36 204988. 52 2 314. 6 325. 6 640. S . 128450. 56 129528. 01 257978. 57 4 358. 4 359. 9 718. 3 Sr. 150621. 61 170073. 76 320695. 37 5 '388. 1 412. 4 800. 5 s^ 99162. 01 101697. 21 200859. 22 6 314. 9 318. 9 633. 8 s_ 137418. 49 131914. 24 269332. 73 7 370. 7 363. 2 733. 9 s„ 141075. 36 140025. 64 281101. 8 375. 6 374. 2 749. 8 S„ 106276 109032. 04 215308. 04 9 326 330. 2 656. 2 S10 100108. 316. 96 4 105755. 325. 04 2 205864 641. 6 962086. 15 994041. 3 1956127. 45 1956127.45 _ 485512.8201 489031.86 - 485512.8201 = 3519.0399 103 ONLY SIGNIFICANT TRIALS EFFECT Linear Trend Analysis 440 yd. dash SS trials = 139.8892 SS linear = 10.98903125 Al tl A2 fc2 A3 fc3 A4 fc4 [(-3)1401.8 + (-1) 1378.9 + (1)1427.9 + (3)1365.7]2 16 (20) n ZA^ [(-4205.4) + (-1378.9) + 1427.9 + 4097.I]2 320 [(-5584.3) + 5525J2 = (_-g>3)2 . 3516^49 _ 10.98903125 320 v , 104 440 YARD DASH (Continued) SS Subjects = 3403.5636 409856.04 515954.89 640800.25 401702.44 538609.21 8 8 8 8 8 562200.04 430598.44 411650.56 (5574.3)2 8 8 8 "64 488921.4837 - 485512.8201 = 3408.6636 SS treatments =340.311 510510.25 453198.24 508226.41 441028.8 472381.29 8, 8 8 8 8 i_8012^9 + 511225 + 492242.56 _ 485512.8201 485853.1312 - 485512.8201 = 340.3111 SS trials = 139.8892 196543.24 . 1901365.21 J 2038898. 41 ^ 1865136.49 AOccn _ ^ _ + + — 485512. 8201 485652.7093 - 485512.8201 = 139.8892 SS altitude = 31.5002 7j5J3566^09 + 7893852.16 _ 485512.82Q1 485544.3203 - 485512.8201 = 31.5002 SS. Trials X Alt = 168.9216 340.311 - 139.8892 - 31.5002 = 168,9216 SS treatments - SS trials - SS Alt SS Error = 6.10. 8152 4359.7899 - 3408.6636 - 340.3111 = 610.8152 total subjects treatments SS total = 4359.7899 489872.61 - 485512.8201 - 4359.7899 SS , v ,,=78.8761 sub X alt 3519.0399 - 3408.6636 - 31. 5002 = ZfLJlQ SS total -SS sub - SS Alt 44 0 YARD DASH (Continued) SS . v . . , = 453.3821 sub X trials 4001.9349 - 3408.6636 - 139.8892 = 453.3821 SS total -SSsub "SStrials SS = sub X trials X alt 610.8152 - 453.3821 - 78.8761 = 78.5570 error - sub X trials - sub X alt Table IV 440 Yard Dash Anova Table Source Subjects Treatments trials linear quad, cubic Altitude trials Error sub x alt sub x trials sub x trials x alt Total SS 3403.66 340,31 139.88 10.98 4.82 104.76 31.50 168.92 610.81 78.87 453.38 78.55 4359.79 d.f. 7 7 3 1 1 1 49 21 21 63 ms 486.95 48.61 46.63 10.98 4.82 104.76 31.50 56.30 12.46 11.26 21.59 3.74 69.20 2.16 no 4.80 2.79 sig. 5% no 15.06 sig. 1% F .05 4.04 .01 (1,49) 7.18 F .05 3.07 .01 (3,21) 4.87 F .05 4.32 .01 (1,21) 8.02 F .05 5.59 .01 (1,7) 12.25 107 CUBIC TREND ANALYSIS SS Cubic 104.767531 [(-1)1401.8 + (3)1378.9 - 3(1427.9) + 1(1365.7)]2 (-183.1)2 16 (20) 320 33532061 = 104.767537 QUADRATIC TREND ANALYSIS SS quad = 4.826531 [(1)1401.8 - (1)1378.9 - 1(1427.9) + 1(1365.7)]2 _ (-39.3)2 16(20) 320 1544 49 320 = 4.826531 Raw Scores HEMATOCRITS Subjects 1 4/8 Altitude 3 6 4/21 5/13 2 4/15 Sea 4 4/28 Level 5/20 Erin 2 Kenney 46.5 42 42. 48.5 49 46 49 47 Wendy 4 Mclialf f ey 4,5.5 44 43.5 44 40.5 43.5 44 44.5 Connie 5 Smith 43.5 41 45.5 44 43 42.5 41 43.5 Danyll 6 Ayrault 43 40 43 43 39.5 41 44 43 Marty 7 Jeffries 49.5 49 45 43 45.5 47.5 47.5 47.5 " Stacey 8 Ayrault 4 3 41 40.5 42.5 40 40 42.5 43 Debbie 9 Beach 45 | .42.5 42.5 43.5 46 42.5 47 45 Julie 10 VanKleeck 45 | 41.5 42. 5 44 40 47 43.5 47.5 Temp 51 | 54 64 66 82 72 60 66 Humidity 38/51 23% I42/54 23% 48/62 32% 56/66 53% 62/82 30% 54/72 28% 52/60 58% 56/66 53% Bar.Press. 30.05 30. 23 , 30.08 30.23 30.03 30.10 30.05 30.01 Air Pollution ! 30 26 19 14 Windy Slight Breeze Still Breeze High wind Windy South Tahoe Airport Hamilton Air Force Base 110 Altitude - Sea Level Subjects 4/8 4/21 5/13 5/27 4/15 4/28 5/6 5/20 880 ! j 3:07.8;3:05.5 2:59.7 3:16.9 2:59.2 3:06.7 2:55.9 3:01.8 440 Danyll 6 1:17.9!1:15.1 1:21.5 1:20.4 1:14.8 1:18.5 1:17.5 1:28.1 Ayrault. 50 1 i 6.91 6.9| 6.7 7.0 6.5 6.8 6.5 6.8 SB j j 73'j 80'! 88* 98» 82 ' 89 ' 69' 97 • 880 3:57.6 i 3:55.9j 3:29 3:30 3:47.1 3:48.3 3:45.3 3:41.2 440 ! i Marty 7 1:34.5; 1:28.5j1:40 .1 1:27.6 1:24.8 1:33.3 1:35.4 1:29.7 Jeffries • 50 ! i 7.6! 7.6! 7.9 7.8 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.7 SB j | 77*| 79' 1 86 ' 6" 89' 89' 83 ' 68' 82' 880 3:59.7 i 3:43.913:35.6 3:35.6 3:35.1 4:06.5 3:46.9 3:21.4 440 Stacey 8 1:42 1:31 1:39.7 1:22.9 1:32.4 1:34.2 1:40.3 1:27.3 Ayrault 50 7.5 7.8 7.9 7.4 7.3 7.6 7.5 7.5 SB 66' i 73' i 88' 82 ' 71' 82 ' 79 ' 81' 880 3:38.5 I cramp 3:14.7 |3:23.8 3:19 3:15.1 3:14.2 3:07.7 3:10.4 440 Debbie 9 1:24.2 i 1:20.1 !l:21.1 1:20.6 1:21.2 1:24.5 1:20.6 1:23.9 Beach 50 7.2 7.2 7.1 7.0 6.9 7.1 7.0 7.2 SB 130 ' 130' 132,6" 137' 129 ' 132' 125' 119 ' 880 3:33 3:14.6 3:10.9 3:05.8 3:33.9 3:17.3 3:20 3:09.9 Julie 10 440 Van 1:23.9 1:18.2 1:19.1 1:15.2 1:25. 3 1:19.6 1:21.9 1:18.4 Kleeck 50 7.2 7.2 | 6.9 7.0 7.1 6.9 6.8 6.5 SB 91s i 110' ! 113' 122 ' 104' 119 ' 107' 105' Debbie, Wendy, Marty - stomach cramps on 880 - last four trials All headaches 1st time sea level after running Stacey - stomachache 2nd sea level Ill Altitude Sea Level Subjects 4/8 4/21 5/13 5/27 4/15 4/28 5/6 5/20 880 3:13.9 3:05.6 3:02.7 3:00.6 3:05.4 3:13.4 3:01.1 3:06.8 440 Erin 2 1:23.3 1:16.3 1:18.6 1:16.4 1:21.4 1:21.8 1:21.7 1:20.7 Kenney 50 7.7 7.8 t 7.5! 7.8 7.4 7.2 7.5 7.5 SB 75' 64' 67' 68'6" 67' 61' 69' 78' 880 3:45.5 3:45.4 3:39 3:23 3:28.3 3:45 3:34.8 3:21.4 440 Wendy 4 1:29 1:30.7 1:33.6 1:25.1 1:28.3 1:30.7 1:33.5 1:27.4 McHalffey 50 7.3 7.8 8.0 7.7 7.4 7.5 7.4 7.6 SB 77' 78 ' 83* 88* 85' 85' 81' ..83' 880 4:08.9 3:43 4:02.9 3:49.4 3:45 3:57 3:43.8 3:43.1 440 Connie 5 1:39.7 1:33.3 1:39.2 1:35.9 1:39.1 1:43.1 1:44.1 1:46.1 Smith 50 8.2 8.2 7.7 7.9 7.8 7.7 8.0 7.9 SB 64' 64' 58' 54' 55' 55 ' 54' 51' RELATIVE HUMIDITY  Dry-bulb Thermometer Differences Between Dry-bulb and Wet-bulb Thermometers Degrees Fahrenheit 1° 2° 3° 4° 5° 6° 7° 8° 9° 10° 11° 12° 13° 14° 15° 16° 17° 18° 50 93 87 80 74 67 61 55 50 44 38 33 27 22 16 11 6 1 0 52 94 87 81 75 69 63 57 51 46 40 35 30 24 20 15 10 5 0 54 94 88 82 76 70 64 59 53 48 43 38 32 28 23 18 13 8 4 56 94 88 82 77 71 65 60 55 50 44 40 35 30 25 21 16 12 8 58 94 89 83 78 72 67 61 56 51 46 42 37 33 28 24 19 15 11 60 94 89 84 78 73 68 63 58 53 48 44 39 34 30 26 22 • 18 14 62 95 89 84 79 74 69 64 59 54 50 45 41 37 32 28 24 20 16 - 64 95 90 85 79 74 70 65 60 56 51 47 43 38 34 30 27 23 19 65 95 90 85 80 75 71 66 61 57 53 49 45 40 36 32 29 25 22 68 95 90 85 81 76 71 67 63 58 54 50 46 42 38 34 31 27 24 7 0 95 90 86 81 77 72 68 64 60 55 52 48 44 40 36 33 29 26 72 95 91 86 82 77 73 69 65 61 57 53 49 45 42 38 35 31 28 74 95 91 87 82 78 74 70 66 62 58 54 50 47 43 40 3 6 33 30 76 95 91 87 82 7 8 74 70 66 63 59 55 52 48 45 41 38 35 31 78 96 9.1 87 83 79 75 71 67 63 60 56 53 49 45 43 39 35 33 80 96 92 87 83 79 75 72 68 64 61 57 54 51 47 44 41 38 35 82 96 92 88 84 80 76 73 69 65 62 58 55 52 48 45 42 40 37 Taken from George Mallinson and Fred Meppelink Jr., "Science in Modern Life, Ginn & Company, N. Y., 1964, p. 276. pp-~ i BAY .AREA AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DISTRICT V'" "\ \j . SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA 941 OS . ..... •\ -; 1 ' INFORMATION BULLETIN 5-70 COIIBINED POLLUTANT INDEX EXPERIENCE 1965 By TECHNICAL SERVICES DIVISION Summary A combined pollutant index for the Bay Area has been developed which includes the major contaminants emitted or formed in the atmosphere: oxidant, carbon monoxide;, nitrogen dioxide and visibility reducing particulates. The oxidant and particulate components" have been weighted because of their contribution to air pollution effects. Values are calculated each day from maximum levels of these contaminants in the north, central and south areas of the District, and three separate index values are released at 4:00 p.m. The 1969 experience shows percentage occurrences in the "heavy" air pollution category as 0.5% north, 17o central and 4% south. The percentage occurrence of "clean" air was 45% in the north and central areas and 30% in the south. ns COMBINED POLLUTANT INDEX EXPERIENCE 1969 1. Introduction In 1968, the Bay Area Air Pollution Control District estab lished a Combined Pollutant Index to better describe the concen tration of air contaminants present in the atmosphere on any given day - summer or winter. As explained in Information  Bulletin 10-68, this index is designed to inform the public of gross pollutant levels, and has no intrinsic scientific meaning. Its primary purpose is to provide a numerical value to the total quantity of air pollutants experienced in the Bay Area, of which the previously emphasized oxidant index is only a part. The -widespread use of the word "smog" as a synonym for oxidant has led to public misunderstanding and confusion, par ticularly in the winter when substantial visibility reduction can occur without oxidant being present. On such days, members of the public and the press are confused to learn that the "smog reading" (the popular term for oxidant readings) is low even when visibility-reducing air pollution is obviously present. Although there are numerical values assigned to contaminants other than oxidant, they have not been widely publicized or understood. This is due to the fact that adverse levels vary widely between these pollutants, and are related to cumulative effects over different time periods. For example, the State Air -2-(Mo Resources Board has defined the adverse oxidant level as .10 ppm high-hour values occurring on 3 consecutive days or on 7 days in a 90-day period, while the adverse level for nitrogen dioxide is .25 ppm for one hour, and the adverse level for carbon monoxide is 20 ppm averaged over 8 consecutive hours. Thus a simple daily index appeared a highly desirable service to the public interest. 2. Choice of Contaminants The contaminants included in the combined index are oxidant, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulates (as measured by coefficient of haze). As the definitive element of photochem ical smog, oxidant is included and given double weight. Two other gaseous contaminants for which State standards have been established, NO2 and CO, are included. (Sulfur dioxide is a problem in only one section of the District, and would be mis leading in comparable area-wide indexes.) The State standard for particulate matter is 60 jig/m3 annual geometric mean, or 100 u.g/m3 24-hour average, but these measurements require laboratory analysis and are not available the same day. Thus the District has employed the Coefficient of Haze (COH) as the best available measurement of particulate pollution for which direct and objective readings are available. All of the contaminants selected have identifiable health effects and two of them, WO2 and particulate matter, contribute to visibility effects. -3-3. Calculation of index Each day indexes are calculated for three geographic parts of the District: NACPI - North Area Combined Pollutant Index San Rafael, Richmond and Pittsburg stations CACPI - Central Area Combined Pollutant Index San Francisco and Oakland stations SACPI - South Area Combined Pollutant Index Redwood City and San Jose stations. When full stations are activated in Livermore and Walnut Creek in future years, a fourth area index will be inaugurated: EACPI - East Area Combined Pollutant Index. The formula for the index is: CPI - 2 (Ox) + (N02) + (CO) +' 10 (COH) where Ox is the high-hour oxidant in pphm N02 " " " " N02 " " CO " n " " CO " ppm COH is 8-12 a.m. coefficient of haze value For each area the greatest high-hour value of oxidant, CO and N02 reported by any station in that area is used. The 0800-1200 COH value is used. Since this is an informational rather than a research tool, only those values available by 4:00 p.m. in the afternoon telephone round-up are incorporated. 4. Combined Pollutant Index Data Since the Combined Pollutant Index became fully opera tional late in 1968 on a seven-day-a-week basis, 1969 provides the first full year of CPI data. The monthly and annual minimum average, and maximum CPI values for the three sectors are summarized in Table 1. Monthly minimums range from 11 to 22, with annual lows of 11 for all three sectors. Monthly av erages range from 21 in the North area for June to 57 for the South area in November. The annual averages are 28 North, 30 Central, and 35 South. Monthly maximums range from 36 in the North in June to 121 in the Central area in September, with annual maximums of 93 North, 121 Central, and 100 South. 5. Classification of CPI Levels An arbitrary scale oi values was tentatively set for interpreting the CPI levels. This scale was as follows: 0-25 Clean Air 26 - 50 Light Air Pollution 51 - 75 Moderate Air Pollution 76 - 100 Heavy Air Pollution 101 or greater Severe Air Pollution The percentage occurrences in these categories for the North, Central, and South areas in 1969 are given in Table 2. It may be noted that one severe category day in a 30-day month gives 3.33% occurrence and one in a 365-day year gives 0.27% -5-occurrence. One September day in the Central area reached a "severe" level, giving the percentages shown. Percentage occurrences in the "heavy" category were 0.57o North, 1% Central and 4% South. In the "moderate" category they were 6% North, 8% Central, and 17% South. Thus the totals of significant pollution at a moderate or greater level were 6.5% North, 9% Central, and 21% South. Only in October did the Central area exce'ed the South in its "moderate or greater" occurrence, although on September 25th it did have the single most adverse day. The percentage occurrence of "clean air" was 46% in the North and Central areas, and 30% in the South. The "light" category occurred at frequencies of 48%, North, 45%, Central, and 49% South. The "light" category, however, is the least well established, as well as the most frequent category. Since in dividual contaminants are log-normally distributed, the CPI values were expected to be similarly distributed. A log-proba bility graph demonstrated that they were so distributed, and that over 307o of total days show CPI values between 26 and 35. Such days generally have lew to moderate values of individual contaminants, dc not approach any adverse levels, and show little if any visibility reduction. If this largest portion of the distribution curve were more properly classed as "clean air", the days in the "clean air" category would reach 76% in (2<> the North and Central areas, and 60% in the South area. The actual contaminant levels which go to make up one of our "heavy" or "severe" CPI days is also a matter of interest. In 1969 there were 9 days with a CPI of 76 or greater (8 of them occurring in the fall season). The average contaminant levels in adversely affected sectors of the District on these days were as follows: Oxidant .13 ppm Nitrogen dioxide .23 ppm Carbon monoxide 16 ppm Coefficient of 2.3 Haze This oxidant level is above the nevj .10 ppm State standard, the nitrogen dioxide level is slightly below the .25 ppm standard, and the carbon monoxide level is well below the standard of 20 ppm for 8 hours. The coefficient of haze value cannot be directly translated to the suspended particulates daily standard of 100 n.g/m3, since it records only the darker particulates. In addition, suspended particulates are measured over a 24-hour period whereas the COH value is taken over a 4-hour period. However, measurements for suspended particulates on 7 of the 9 days showed an average of 114 |jug/m3, which is above the standard of 100 M-g/m3. -7-Since health effects are associated with long-term exposures to contaminants above the air quality standards, one cannot make definitive statements concerning health effects associated with these 9 occurrences in 1969. However, one can reasonably conclude that CPI values greater than 76 are associ ated with one or more contaminants above the air quality s tandard. JSS:fm 4/23/70 -8-TABLE 1 MINIMUM, AVERAGE, AND MAXIMUM VALUES OF COMBINED POLLUTANT INDEX BY MONTH FOR NORTH, CENTRAL, AND' SOUTH DISTRICTS 1959 Min. Avg., Max. N C S N C S N C S Jan H 16 11 24 27 28 48 52 52 Feb 11 15 15 24 25 22 41 43 49 Mar 16 16 17 27 28 31 58 57 69 Apr 16 13 18 26 22 27 41 49 49 May 14 11 16 25 24 30 52 48 69 Jun 11 14 13 21 23 24 36 37 43 Jul 12 12 20 26 25 37 72 68 77 Aug 14 18 18 33 34 44 58 64 74 Sep 14 16 20 32 34 45 69 121 84 Oct is ; 19 22 38 40 41 93 88 84 Nov 18 1 20 20 39 46 57 57 87 100 Dec 13 ; 16 : 14 27 31 34 64 84 77 Annual : 11 11 11 28 30 35 93 121 100 TABLE 2 Clean Nl C S Jan 61 39 48 Feb 61 68 75 Mar 48 45 48 Apr 53 77 43 May 61 71 32 Jun 77 73 43 Jul 52 71 3 Aug 23 23 . 7 Sep 27 23 13 Oct 19 6 10 Nov 10 10 i i Dec 61 42 42 Annual 46 46 30 PERCENTAGE OCCURRENCE OF COMBINED POLLUTANT INDEX CATEGORIES FOR NORTH, CENTRAL AND SOUTH DISTRICT 1969 Moderate Light Heavy Severe N C S 39 58 42 39 32 25 49 52 45 4? 23 57 | 36 29 H 23 27 57 42 22 84 70 67 52 56 73 33 55 65 67 73 40 •7 1 33 42 39 48 45 49 N C S N JC . S 0 3 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 •3 -> 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 13 3 0 0 7 10 36 0 0 7 7 3 47 0 0 7 23 23 10 3 7 13 17 43 73 0 7 17 7 13 13 0 3 7 6 8 17 0.5 1 4 N C s 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 #» 0 Less than 0.5% 

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