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Factors influencing the life expectancy of immigrants in Canada and Australia Kliewer, Erich Victor 1979

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FACTORS INFLUENCING THE LIFE EXPECTANCY OF IMMIGRANTS IN CANADA AND AUSTRALIA by ERICH VICTOR KLIEWER B.Sc, The University of Manitoba, 1967 M.Sc, The University of Manitoba, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Interdisciplinary Studies) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard September 1979 (c) Erich Victor Kliewer, 1979 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . / HTEiZ.t>\<=>C{ PM M V S r u 5 { & S D e p a r t m e n t o f T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2 0 7 5 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V 6 T 1W5 Date Oc-T- il , l<m ABSTRACT A conceptual model which relates demographic, s o c i a l , and economic variables to immigrant l i f e expectancy i s developed. The model accounts for the impacts of stressors and coping mechanisms involved i n the adaptation of immigrants to new'environments. From the conceptual model a si m p l i f i e d linear model was derived. The model hypothesizes that the l i f e expectancy change for immigrants i s explained by altered l i v i n g conditions ('Conditions'), the support structure of an immigrant group ('Support'), the brought and acquired s k i l l s of an immigrant group ( ' S k i l l s ' ) , and the length of residence i n the destination ('Time'). The model was tested with Canadian data for 1941. Empirical indices- of the dimensions Support, S k i l l s , and Time were derived from the factor analysis of the characteristics of the immigrant groups. The model was also tested i n part with Australian data for 1911-21 and 1921-33. Only the variable Conditions was included i n the model since other data were not available. The parameters of the equations were obtained through regression techniques. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females. A comparison was also made of the l i f e expectancies of immigrants i n Canada with those of immigrants i n Australia. The variable Conditions contributed'significantly i n accounting for the l i f e expectancy change for male and female immigrants i n Australia and for male immigrants i n Canada. For female immigrants i n Canada Support was the only variable to influence l i f e expectancy change. Support also determined, though to a lesser degree than Conditions, l i f e expectancy change for male immigrants i n Canada. The finding that the support structure i n f l u e n c e s . l i f e expectancy change, especially for females, has important policy implications. I t points to the benefits of a policy of c u l t u r a l pluralism as opposed to one of rapid assimilation. The s i g n i f i c a n t role of the destination conditions indicates that an extensive exploration of the differences i n the environmental, technological, p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and c u l t u r a l systems of the o r i g i n and destination countries has potential for defining s p e c i f i c factors contributing to disease prevalence and mortality. TABLE OF CONTENTS i v . Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . x CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION H Studies of Immigrant Mortality 2 Purpose and Scope 7 Outline of th i s Study 9 2. FACTORS INFLUENCING IMMIGRANT LIFE EXPECTANCY 11 Variable Groupings 11 Variable Linkages 12 L i f e Expectancy i n the Origin Country 13 Destination Country Conditions 14 Adaptation 18 Socioeconomic Status 26 Demographics 31 Conceptual Model 53 Hypotheses 59 3. METHODOLOGY, DATA, AND THE EMPIRICAL MODEL 62 Methods of Mortality Comparison 62 V, Page Time Considerations: Some Problems of Comparability . . . 67 Model Development 68 Dependent Variable 70 Independent Variables 82 Factor Analysis 87 Data Transformation 90 Multiple Regression 91 Testable Model 95 4. RESULTS 96 Immigrant L i f e Expectancy 96 Patterns of Change 96 Amount of Change 102 Comparison of Immigrant L i f e Expectancies i n Canada and Austr a l i a 102 Comparison of Change i n Immigrant L i f e Expectancies i n Canada and Austr a l i a 105 Factor Analysis 109 Males 109 Females 113 Regression Analysis 117 Canada 117 Austra l i a 121 5. DISCUSSION, SUMMARY, AND CONCLUSION 124 Time Trend i n Immigrant L i f e Expectancy 124 Immigrant L i f e Expectancy i n Canada and Austr a l i a . . . . 126 Change i n Immigrant L i f e Expectancy 135 Role of Destination Conditions 135 v i . Page Role of Immigrant Characteristics x 3 8 Sex D i f f e r e n t i a l s 143 Policy Implications 145 Future Studies ». 146 BIBLIOGRAPHY 149 APPENDIXES A. Data sources 165 B. L i f e tables of native-born and immigrant groups, males, Canada 1951 169 C. L i f e tables of native-born and immigrant groups, females, Canada 1951 i 7 4 D. L i f e tables of native-born and immigrant groups, males, Canada 1941 1 7 9 E. L i f e tables of native-born and immigrant groups, females, Canada 1941 1 8 9 F. L i f e tables of native-bom and immigrant groups, males, Australia 1921-33 1 9 7 G. L i f e tables of native-born and immigrant groups, females, Australia 1921-33 . 2 0 7 H. L i f e tables of native-born and immigrant groups, males, Australia 1911-21 o . . . 2 1 6 I. L i f e tables of native-born and immigrant groups, females, Aust r a l i a 1911-21 2 2 5 J. L i f e expectancy changes of immigrant groups, at at 40, by sex, Canada 1941 and 1951, Australia 1911-21 and 1921-33 -. 2 3 3 v i i . LIST OF TABLES Table Page I. Foreign-born i n Canada and Au s t r a l i a , 1911-71 8 I I . Rank of o r i g i n countries according to l i f e expectancy at age 40, by sex, 1911-21, 1922-33, and 1941 69 I I I . Number of German-born i n Canada at various census periods 74 IV. Summary of data transformations, Canada 1941 92 V. Immigrant groups used i n the regression analysis, Canada 1941, A u s t r a l i a 1911-21, 1921-33 94 VI. Percent d i s t r i b u t i o n of immigrant groups by l i f e expectancy change pattern, males, Canada 1941 and 1951, A u s t r a l i a 1911-21 and 1921-33 99 VII. Percent d i s t r i b u t i o n of immigrant groups by l i f e expectancy change pattern, females, Canada 1941 and 1951, A u s t r a l i a 1911-21 and 1921-33 100 VIII. Rank of immigrant groups according to l i f e expectancy at age 40, males, Canada 1941, A u s t r a l i a 1911-21 and 1921-33 106 IX. Rank of immigrant groups according to l i f e expectancy at age 40, females, Canada 1941, Australia 1911-21 and 1921-33 107 X. Rank of immigrant groups according to change i n l i f e expectancy at age 40, males, Canada 1941, A u s t r a l i a 1911-21 and 1921-33 . 108 XI. Rank of immigrant groups according to change i n l i f e expectancy at age 40, females, Canada 1941, Australia 1911-21 and 1921-33o 110 v i i i . ' XII. Varimax rotated factor matrix, males, Canada, 1941 . . . I l l XIII. Varimax rotated factor matrix, females, Canada 1941 . . 114 XIV. Summary of regression equations, males, Canada 1941 118 XV. Summary of regression equations, females, Canada 1941 . . 120 XVI. Summary of regression equations, Australia 1921-33 122 XVII. Summary of regression equations, A u s t r a l i a 1911-21 123 XVIII. Percentage of immigrants never married, by sex, Canada 1921, 1931, and 1941, Aust r a l i a 1921 and 1933 127 XIX. Rank of mortality of male immigrants i n the United States compared to ranks i n Canada and Austr a l i a 129 XX. Rank of mortality of female immigrants i n the United States compared to ranks i n Canada and Aus t r a l i a 130 i x . LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. A conceptual model of immigrant l i f e expectancy 55 2. Patterns of change i n immigrant l i f e expectancy 97 3. Average change i n l i f e expectancy, at age 40, of immigrants from England and Wales, Germany, I t a l y , Scotland, and United States, males, A u s t r a l i a 1911-21 and 1921-33, Canada 1941 and 1951 103 4. Average change i n l i f e expectancy, at age 40, of immigrants from England and Wales, Germany, I t a l y , Scotland, and United States, females, Australia 1911-21 and 1921-33, Canada 1941 and 1951 104 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To Drs. R. F. Kelly and I. B. Vertinsky, with whose support and guidance this thesis was completed, I extend my appreciation and thanks. T am also grateful to the other members of my committee, Drs. J. P. Huzel, B. Macleod, and M. C. Vernier for their valuable suggestions, comments, and cr i t i c i s m s . I wish to thank Dr. A. H. Richmond for affording me the opportunity to come and study with him for two years at York University. Drs. Y. Chang, C. H. Davis, C. Jansen, and C. A. Price reviewed various sections of this study. I am grateful to them for their comments. I am very appreciative of a l l the help provided by Frank Maurer and the other I n s t i t u t e of Animal Resource Ecology o f f i c e s t a f f - Elaine Englar, Michelle Gorosh, and Elizabeth Orne. I am indebted to Carole LeBel and Doris MacKay for typing the thesis. 1 : CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In recent years the study of immigrant mortality has received considerable attention, notably from epidemiologists. This interest has arisen primarily from the growing awareness that the changed l i v i n g conditions of the immigrants provides a quasi experimental setting i n which to investigate various factors influencing disease prevalence and mortality. This study attempts to further these investigations by examining the d i f f e r e n t i a l longevity of immigrants, by country of b i r t h , i n Canada and Australia. I n i t i a l l y a conceptual model of immigrant l i f e expectancy i s developed. The l i f e expectancy changes of the immigrants are then examined i n the context of various hypotheses suggested by the conceptual model. These hypotheses relate not only to the influence of the altered l i v i n g conditions, but also to the d i f f e r e n t i a l a b i l i t y of the immigrants, as determined by their socioeconomic and demographic char a c t e r i s t i c s , to cope with the stress a r i s i n g from immigration. Regression techniques are used to test the hypotheses and to determine the importance of the various variables affecting longevity. The study also recognizes that the factors influencing the l i f e expectancies of male and female immigrants may be diffe r e n t , and therefore treats them separately. 2. Studies of Immigrant Mortality The study of the mortality of a country's immigrants, or foreign-born residents, extends back to the early 1900's. Dublin (1916, 1922) and Dublin and Baker (1920) found that different national groups residing i n the eastern United States varied not only i n their death rates, but also i n their cause of death p r o f i l e s . However, as evidenced by the few follow up studies (Lombard and Doering, 1929; Winslow and Wang, 1931; Calabresi, 1945; Buechley, 1950), the significance of these i n i t i a l works was not realized u n t i l much l a t e r . Perhaps i t was coincidental, but i t was shortly after Eastcott's (1954) findings of reduced cancer r i s k i n immigrants born i n the United Kingdom and l i v i n g i n New Zealand, and Steiner's (1954:3) statement on the potential of migrant studies for cancer research, that immigrant mortality started to receive widespread notice. Steiner wrote: " i t i s impossible, of course, to perform planned experiments on the etiology of cancer i n man. Members of certain races have, however unwittingly performed e t i o l o g i c a l experiments on a large scale by migration from one environment to another. The genetic characteristics of such a population may at f i r s t remain r e l a t i v e l y unchanged, but the new environment may be different from the old i n some respects. Factors such as climate, a l t i t u d e , a i r p o l l u t i o n , humidity, temperature, amount of solar and other types of i r r a d i a t i o n , and intercurrent disease may d i f f e r at once. These factors might affect man both d i r e c t l y and also i n d i r e c t l y through his skin, a i r , food and water supply, and possibly other ways. On the other hand, certain environmental factors, some of which may be c u l t u r a l , change more slowly after migration. The choice of food and culinary practice, occupational exposures, sanitary habits, economic l e v e l , and other factors may gradually change over a period of years." Many of the recent studies have dealt with the incidence or prevalence of a s p e c i f i c disease, rather than the mortality resulting from i t . Since the findings of most of these works are relevant to the study of mortality, they are included i n this review. The existing studie can be divided into the following types. 1. Destination Studies: In the destination studies reference i s not made to the mortality of the o r i g i n population. They can be separated into two categories, depending upon whether or not the characteristics of the immigrants are incorporated into the analysis. (a) In these studies the researchers have presented the mortality rates of the t o t a l foreign-born, or of separate immigrant groups, and have usually compared them to the rates of the t o t a l or native-born population i n the destination (Sauer, 1962 - cardiovascular; Seidman et a l . , 1962 -t o t a l mortality; Jacobson, 1963 - t o t a l mortality; Royston and Modan, 1968 - leukemia and lymphoma; Halevi et a l . , 1971 - cancer; Medalie et a l . , 1973 - heart disease). Although not e x p l i c i t l y tested, most of these studies have offered possible reasons for the v a r i a t i o n i n mortality rates This category also includes those studies i n which the interest i n immigrant mortality i s secondary. The authors are primarily concerned with using the mortality rates to estimate emigration of the foreign-born (Kuznets and Rubin, 1954; George, 1970). Since such studies do not try to relate the changes implied by migration to disease and mortality patterns, they have l i t t l e direct significance i n elucidating the factors influencing disease and mortality. Their main contribution i s i n a c o l l e c t i v e nature, i n that they provide information on the geographical v a r i a t i o n i n the mortality of immigrants. They therefore lay the groundwork for future studies. 4. (b) A few destination studies were expanded to include an examination of the d i f f e r e n t i a l rates of the immigrants i n the context of th e i r r u r a l / urban d i s t r i b u t i o n (Buechley, 1950 - t o t a l m o r t a l i t y ) , r e l i g i o n (Newill, 1961 - cancer), socioeconomic status (Musham, 1965 - t o t a l m o r t a l i t y ) , and both r e l i g i o n and socioeconomic status (Seidman, 1971 - cancer). 2. Origin-destination studies: In these studies, health and mortality experiences of the immigrants are compared not only with the destination population, but also with the o r i g i n population. As with the destination studies, origin-destination studies can be separated into four categories based on the extent to which they examine the characteristics of these groups. (a) By f a r , the majority of research merely presents the mortality rates of the o r i g i n , destination, and immigrant populations, along with some statement as to whether the mortality i s mainly genetically or environmentally controlled. I f the mortality of the immigrant population i s s imilar to that of the o r i g i n i t i s said to be genetic, and i f i t i s s i m i l a r to that of the destination i t i s said to be environmental. Although hypotheses are often put forth with respect to other possible factors influencing the immigrant mortality, they are not tested. The main use of these studies i s i n identifying immigrant groups or geographical locations which have the greatest potential for providing clues, not only to the etiology of s p e c i f i c diseases, but also to the factors determining mortality i n general. Examples of these types of studies are: Mancuso and Coulter, 1958 - cancer; Stamler et a l . , 1960 - cardiovascular-renal; Haenszel, 1961 - cancer; Gordon, 1967 - various; Krueger and Moriyama, 1967 - cardiovascular-renal; L i l i e n f e l d et a l . , 1972 - cancer; Monk and 5. Warshauer, 1975 - cancer; Heenan, 1976 - various. (b) Some of the researchers have divided the immigrants into subgroups according to s p e c i f i c characteristics. By demonstrating that the disease incidence, prevalence, or mortality of the subgroups f a l l s along a gradient between rates of the o r i g i n and destination populations, they have established the importance of a parti c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Among the characteristics so examined have been age at migration (Stenhouse and McCall, 1970 - .cardiovascular disease; , McCall and Stenhouse, 1971 - cancer; Rogot, 1978 - cardiorespiratory disease), period of residence (Stenhouse and McCall, 1970 - cardiovascular disease; P r i c e , 1975 - various), and c u l t u r a l retention (Marmot and Syme, 1976 - coronary heart disease; Yano et a l . , 1979 - coronary heart disease). In a similar type of study, numerous characteristics of immigrants who are suffering from a particular disease are compared with the characteristics of immigrants who are not. In this manner certain factors can be i d e n t i f i e d as contributing to the occurrence of the disease. Haenszel et a l . (1972 - stomach cancer) and Haenszel et a l . (1973 - large-bowel cancer) conducted such studies on f i r s t and second generation Japanese i n Hawaii. (c) In a limited number of studies, comparisons have been made between sp e c i f i c characteristics of the immigrants and those of the o r i g i n or destination populations. Differences i n characteristics are then related to variations i n disease incidence, prevalence, or mortality. In Canada, the diet of Japanese (MacDonald, 1966) and Icelanders (Choi et a l . , 1971) were compared to native-born controls. Variations i n the gastric cancer rate were then examined i n the context of differences i n the diet. The majority of recent studies i n this category have arisen from a continuing,, 6. project on coronary heart disease i n Japanese l i v i n g i n Japan, Hawaii, and mainland United States (Kagan et a l . , 1974; Marmot et a l . , 1975; Nichaman et a l . , 1975; Winkelstein et a l . , 1975; Robertson et a l . , 1977). In one apparently s t i l l on going study, the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s , disease prevalence, and mortality of the migrants are to be compared not only with the o r i g i n and destination populations, but also with the migrant's s i b l i n g s remaining i n the o r i g i n country (Reid, 1966). (d) In the f i n a l category, data on various characteristics of the population,or a sample of the population, i n the o r i g i n country are collected. The health of the non-migrants and subsequent migrants are then monitored over time. I t i s therefore possible to assess the impact on health, not only of any characteristic difference, but also of changes i n the physical, s o c i a l , and c u l t u r a l environment. This type of study has the greatest potential for identifying factors influencing disease and mortality, however, they are almost non-existent (Beaglehole et a l . , 1977; Prior et a l . , 1977). This i s due to the large investment i n time and money that i s required. Although there have been numerous studies on the mortality of the immigrants, the results have been largely fragmentary. The reasons for this are: 1. Almost a l l of the studies have been done by epidemiologists, so they have tended to be disease s p e c i f i c , primarily various forms of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. 2. Many of the studies have dealt with either the t o t a l foreign-born, or with only one particular immigrant group, primarily those born i n the United Kingdom or Japan. 3. The majority of the studies have been on immigrants i n the United 7. States. As a consequence, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine whether the findings are s p e c i f i c to a par t i c u l a r disease, to a par t i c u l a r immigrant group, or to a particular destination country. D i f f i c u l t i e s i n comparing studies have been further compounded by the use of different methodologies, or by the use of different bases to standardize the r e s u l t s . Purpose and Scope Immigration has played an extremely important role i n the growth and structure of the population of Canada and Aus t r a l i a . Both the absolute number of immigrants to these countries and t h e i r percentage of the t o t a l population have been s i g n i f i c a n t (Table I ) . As a result of having not only a large, but also a varied foreign-born population, these two countries are prime areas for the study of immigrant mortality. However, such investigations have been largely neglected i n both Canada (MacDonald, 1966 - gastric cancer; Choi, 1968 - gastro-intestinal tract cancer; Coy et a l . , 1968 - lung cancer; George, 1970 - general mortality; Choi et a l . , 1971 - gastric cancer; Ashley et a l . , 1974 - tuberculosis; Abu-Zeid et a l . , 1978 - heart disease) and Au s t r a l i a (Dean, 1962 - lung cancer; Lancaster, 1962 - cancer; B a i l a r , 1967 - nasopharyngeal cancer; Scott and Atkinson, 1967 - nasopharyngeal cancer; Worth and Valentine, 1967 - nasopharyngeal cancer; Stenhouse and McCall, 1970 - cardiovascular disease; McCall and Stenhouse, 1971 - lung cancer; Staszewski et a l . , 1971 - cancer; B u r v i l l et a l . , 1973 - suicide, motor vehicle accidents, and violent deaths; P r i c e , 1975 - various). I t i s the intention of this thesis to u t i l i z e unpublished Canadian Table I. Foreign-born in Canada and Australia, 1911-1971 . Canada Australia Census Number (1000's) Percent of Total Pop. Number (lOOO's) Percent of Total Pop. 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1,587 1,956 2,308 2,019 2,060 2,844 3,295 22.0 22.3 22.2 17.5 14.7 15.6 15.3 757 840 (1933) 903 (1947) 744 (1954) 1,286 1,779 2,579 17.. 1. 15.5 13.6 9.8 14.3 16.9 20.2 Source: Census publications of Statistics Canada and Australian Bureau of Statistics 00 9. mortality data for the years 1941 and 1951, and published, but hereto unanalyzed, Australian mortality data for the period 1911-1933, i n order to examine the differ-entialmortality of immigrants, by country of b i r t h , i n these two destination countries. This study hopes to serve a number of purposes. A conceptual model of immigrant longevity i s developed by incorporating, and expanding upon, the findings of previous studies and the speculations of other researchers. Attempts are made to s t a t i s t i c a l l y account for the d i f f e r e n t i a l changes i n the l i f e expectancies of numerous immigrant groups within Canada and within A u s t r a l i a , i n terms of hypotheses derived from the conceptual model. These hypotheses r e f l e c t the altered l i v i n g conditions, the characteristics of the immigrant groups as they relate to stress, and the influence of time. The simultaneous comparison of the longevity of numerous groups i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a w i l l also allow for the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of patterns which are unique to a part i c u l a r immigrant group and ones which are unique to a par t i c u l a r country of destination. Aside from providing greater insights into the factors affecting mortality, the study explores the implications of i t s findings for immigration p o l i c i e s . In addition, the study supplies information on the demographic aspects of a population group about which v i r t u a l l y nothing i s known, although contributing extensively to the growth of the population of Canada and A u s t r a l i a . Outline of this Study In the following chapter the factors affecting the longevity of immigrants are examined. A conceptual model of immigrant l i f e expectancy i s developed and on the basis of this model various testable hypotheses are 10. postulated. Chapter 3 discusses the methodologies and data involved i n the study. The model to be used i n the empirical analysis i s also developed. The changes i n the l i f e expectancies of immigrants i n Canada and Aus t r a l i a are presented i n Chapter 4. The patterns of interrelationships of the characteristics of the immigrants i n Canada are explored by factor analysis and indicators of basic dimensions are constructed. Using the indices derived from the factor analysis the model i s tested by means of regression analysis. In the concluding chapter the results are discussed i n the context of the findings of other studies. Implications of the results for immigration policy are examined and suggestions for future research are also given. The data sources are provided i n Appendix A. Appendixes B. through I. contain the l i f e tables of the native-born and immigrant groups i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a . The changes i n the l i f e expectancies of immigrants to Canada and Au s t r a l i a are presented i n figure form i n Appendix J. 11. CHAPTER 2 FACTORS INFLUENCING IMMIGRANT LIFE EXPECTANCY The f i r s t section of this chapter describes the factors influencing immigrant l i f e expectancy and the interactions among the factors themselves. Following the review, a conceptual model i s developed according to the basic theoretical dimensions derived from the literature. The chapter concludes with the formulation of some testable hypotheses. Variable Groupings Like any/other population, the l i f e expectancy of an immigrant group is partially determined by i t s genetic, socioeconomic, and demographic characteristics, as well as by the conditions of the environment in which i t lives. However, immigrant populations are subjected to two additional longevity influencing factors: (1) the residual effects of the factors that determined l i f e expectancy in the origin (2) the stress of the immigration process. Therefore, five variables or variable groupings can be identified as determinants of the l i f e expectancy of the immigrants in the destination country. They incorporate not only the characteristics of the immigrants, but also the external factors operating on the immigrants. 1. Life expectancy in the origin country: This is the l i f e expectancy of the immigrant group prior to migration as determined by the factors in 12. the o r i g i n country. 2. Destination country conditions: Aside from the p h y s i c a l environment, l e v e l of development, and a v a i l a b i l i t y of medical technology, t h i s group of variables includes the s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , and p o l i t i c a l aspects of the receiving society. 3. Adaptation: There i s no one v a r i a b l e synonymous with adaptation. The variables i n the l i t e r a t u r e include s o c i a l , economic, demographic, and health f a c t o r s . In t h i s review, the extent of knowledge about the d e s t i n a t i o n country, the fluency of the language used by the host society, n a t u r a l i z a t i o n , emigration, and mental h o s p i t a l admission rates are used as i n d i c a t o r s of the immigrant group's adaptation to the way of l i f e i n the destination. 4. Socioeconomic status: Education, occupation, and income, i n the destination, are viewed as the factors comprising socioeconomic status. 5. Demographics: The demographics grouping provides a wide range of variables characterizing the immigrant group i n the destination. I t includes age, age at migration, period of residence, sex, sex r a t i o , m a r i t a l status, intermarriage, family s i z e , friends and r e l a t i v e s , r e l i g i o n , rural/urban d i s t r i b u t i o n , segregation, and the s i z e of the immigrant group and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n a l completeness. Variable Linkages Many of the linkages are described i n terms that apply to any population i n general. However, where possib l e , e f f o r t s have been made to show how the linkages are relevant for immigrant populations. The review focuses f i r s t upon the d i r e c t impacts a v a r i a b l e has on mortality and then i t describes i t s secondary impacts. L i f e Expectancy i n the Origin Country 13. Origin L i f e Expectancy and Destination L i f e Expectancy Although an immigrant has l e f t the environment of his country of b i r t h , to varying degrees the influences of the o r i g i n environment w i l l s t i l l be f e l t i n the new land. Cancer provides a good example of t h i s carry over effect. After exposure to certain carcinogens and the subsequent i n i t i a t i o n of cancer, there i s often a considerable passage of time before the cancer becomes overt (Mancuso and Coulter, 1958; Kotin, 1970). Immigrants might, therefore, contract the disease i n their native country, but i t may not manifest i t s e l f u n t i l long after migration. Some of the locations this has been shown to be the case for are: lung cancer i n B r i t i s h immigrants i n Canada and South A f r i c a (Reid, 1975); stomach cancer i n the Polish (Staszweski and Haenzsel, 1965) and Puerto Rican (Monk and Warshauer, 1975) immigrants i n the United States, and P o l i s h immigrants i n A u s t r a l i a (Staszweski, 1976:57); nasopharyngeal cancer i n Chinese immigrants i n Cuba (Steiner, 1954:325). This phenomena i s not confined to cancer. Stamler et a l . , (1960) demonstrated similar findings for cardio-vascular-renal diseases i n the foreign-born i n the United States. The immigrants also carry with them the defense mechanisms or immune states that their bodies developed i n response to the s p e c i f i c diseases present i n their native country. As a consequence, they may not have protection against the different diseases encountered i n the new environment. There i s also the p o s s i b i l i t y that some diseases are genetically linked and therefore mortality levels would remain unchanged upon migration. Aside from the b i o l o g i c a l characteristics, the immigrants also bring their customs, such as dietary habits. The extent to which these customs w i l l affect mortality i n the destination country w i l l depend on how long they are practised. 14. Destination Country Conditions Destination Country Conditions and L i f e Expectancy > The mortality l e v e l of an immigrant group can be altered by the physical, as w e l l as the socioeconomic environment of the i r new land. The immigrants may be exposed to certain infectious diseases which were not present i n their native country. Malaria and yellow fever are more common i n t r o p i c a l lands where the high temperatures are inducive to the propagation of the vectors of in f e c t i o n . On the other hand, diptheria and scarlet fever have low incidences i n these countries (Benjamin, 1965:44). The physical environment can also a l t e r the occurrence of chronic diseases. This has been shown to be true for numerous diseases, p a r t i c u l a r l y some forms of cancer. Immigrants from Japan (Haenszel and Kurihara 1968) and Poland (Staszewski and Haenszel, 1965) to the United States experienced decrease i n the rates of cancer of the colon. Escape from the high a i r p o l l u t i o n of the United Kingdom, has led to a drop i n the lung cancer rates of immigrants i n Australia (Dean, 1962; McCall and Stenhouse, 1971), Canada (Coy et a l . , 1968), and South A f r i c a (Dean, 1964). In f a c t , according to Staszweski (1976:134), "80 percent of a l l malignant tumors are l i k e l y to be conditioned environmentally and i n theory preventable." With respect to coronary heart disease and systematic a r t e r i a l hypertension, Kagan (1970) noted that environmental factors are important determinants i n their prevalence. Dean (1965) went so far as to contend that most diseases are environmentally influenced: "the differences are certainly not genetic because, except for a few r e l a t i v e l y uncommon causes of death such as porphyria variegata, the B r i t i s h and other White immigrants show a pattern of mortality that l i e s between-that of - their countries_of b i r t h . where they spent the f i r s t part of their l i v e s - and their country of 15. adoption .... Environmental factors would appear to play the major role i n accounting for the difference i n the mortality pattern between the United Kingdom and Western Europe, White immigrants to South A f r i c a and the native-born White South Africans." The effects of the physical environment of the destination country on the immigrant's health may be tempered by the socioeconomic and technological development of the country. The socioeconomic development i s reflected i n terms of the levels of l i v i n g , which Balfour (1956) defines as food, clothing, shelter, education, and communications. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of health care and sanitation f a c i l i t i e s are part of the technological development of a country. Although both socioeconomic and technological development play a role i n the mortality rates, technology i s probably the more important of the two. In Japan the decline i n mortality took place without a marked change i n education and food consumption (Balfour, 1956), while i n A f r i c a , Asia' and Latin America the dramatic decrease i n mortality took place after the introduction of disease control, unaccompanied by increases i n socioeconomic levels ( S t o l n i t z , 1955). Destination Country Conditions and Adaptation A theory put forth by numerous authors suggests that the greater the difference between the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l aspects of the immigrant's home society and that of the receiving society, the greater the d i f f i c u l t i e s the immigrant w i l l have i n adapting to the destination society (David, 1970; Fried, 1970; Kuo, 1976). These differences can have serious health effects: "the more 'foreign' the customs and culture of the new country were to thei r own, the more d i f f i c u l t was the t r a n s i t i o n and subsequently the higher the incidence of depression and other psychiatric i l l n e s s and the higher the suicide rate" ( B u r v i l l et a l . , 1973). Several factors may,. 16. however, reduce the culture shock experienced by an immigrant group. The immigrant who has advance knowledge of the conditions i n the destination country, p a r t i c u l a r l y about the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l environment, should be less overwhelmed by the strangeness, than an immigrant who comes t o t a l l y unprepared. Closely related to the information an immigrant has about a country, be i t fact or f i c t i o n , are the expections and aspirations he has about l i f e i n that country. If the conditions i n the destination country allow for the f u l f i l l m e n t or over f u l f i l l m e n t of these expectations the result w i l l be s a t i s f a c t i o n with the new l i f e (Richmond, 1967:31). Satisfaction also increases the probability of becoming a c i t i z e n (Richmond, 1967:210). The difference between a migrant's aspriations and actual achievements has been termed "go a l s t r i v i n g stress" and has been shown to be related to mental i l l n e s s (Parker and Kleiner, 1966; Kuo, 1976). The openness of the government and the people of the destination country to immigration w i l l also help i n mitigating the problems an immigrant faces. Dumon (1977) states that the government can provide aid i n both l e g i s l a t i v e and non-legislative ways. On the l e g a l side he c i t e s such measures as the ease of securing l e g a l rights such as security benefits. Among the non-legislative benefits they may supply are s o c i a l assistance, housing, job information and vocational t r a i n i n g , and language i n s t r u c t i o n . Many of these services could be provided by voluntary organizations. Aside from this direct support, the government could also take i n d i r e c t measures to f a c i l i t a t e the adaptation of immigrants. By informing the native-born people of the benefits of immigration they could reduce the amount of discrimination directed toward the immigrant. This may be . p a r t i c u l a r l y useful i n a time of economic recession, when immigrants are often used as scapegoats for high unemployment. I t may also make the native-born more receptive to befriending the immigrant. 17. The degree of pressure brought to bear on the immigrant to assimilate into the new society may also play a s i g n i f i c a n t role i n their future health. Murphy (1965:26) points out, " i n A u s t r a l i a , at least i n 1950, there was strong o f f i c i a l insistance that the newcomers should spread themselves throughout the land, should learn the l o c a l language and customs as rapidly as possible and should not be treated as d i f f e r e n t i n any other way from other 'New Australians' . That o f f i c i a l policy appeared to r e f l e c t public attitudes, which had e a r l i e r been considerably h o s t i l e to immigrants even of B r i t i s h stock and which, at this date, were prepared to accept the immigration only i f the newcomers made themselves as much l i k e Australians as possible i n the shortest time;!" Such attitudes were also prevalent i n e a r l i e r years i n the United States. In Canada however, because of the p l u r a l i s t i c society, there was much less pressure to conform. When Murphy compared the mental hospital admission rates of the foreign-born i n these countries he found them to be the lowest i n Canada. Although s i m i l a r i t i e s between the sending and receiving societies may reduce the number of problems experienced by an immigrant group, for some this i s not reflected i n their intentions to stay or to become c i t i z e n s . Richmond (1967:265) found that the B r i t i s h immigrants i n Canada "were more l i k e l y to r e t a i n close l i n k s with their former country and were less l i k e l y to regard themselves as permanent s e t t l e r s i n Canada or to want to become Canadian c i t i z e n s Destination Country Conditions and Socioeconomic Status The conditions i n the destination country may have a s i g n i f i c a n t effect on the socioeconomic status of the immigrants. The government assist-the immigrant i n not only finding a job but also i n ret r a i n i n g i f there are few vacancies i n his f i e l d . The extent to which employers can 18. recognize foreign q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and experience w i l l also have bearing on the immigrant's socioeconomic achievement. In terms of income, governments, by implementing minimum wages, and unions, by demanding equality among their members can help a l l e v i a t e the problem of wage discrimination against the immigrants. Destination Country Conditions and Demographics To some degree, intermarriage w i l l r e f l e c t the extent to which the native-born are open to immigration and w i l l i n g to associate with the newcomers. The size of an immigrant group i n a destination country w i l l not only depend on how att r a c t i v e that country i s with respect to other destination countries, but also on how r e s t r i c t i v e the immigration regulations are. If conditions i n the destination country are such that discrimination against immigrants i s tolerated, i t may lead to involuntary segregation and the formation of separate enclaves or neighbourhoods (Hurd, 1965:89; Lee, 1977:28). ADAPTATION Adaptation and L i f e Expectancy Immigration implies a geographic change; often i t also implies a s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l change. Although some migrants may have friends and rela t i v e s i n the destination, most have to establish a whole new s o c i a l network. In the old s o c i a l setting the immigrant may have been accepted as an equal, however, i n the new society he i s often looked down upon and discriminated against. Immigration to another 19. cultural system may not only mean differences in language and symbols, but also in behavioural patterns. Formerly sanctioned social behaviour may not be acceptable and the immigrant may "have to relate to a social environment without knowing and/or understanding the rules of behaviour, the customs and the interrelationship problems" (Gelinek, 1977). Differences may also exist in p o l i t i c a l , educational, and religious institutions, as well as in such things as social services and job standards and practices. According to Fried (1970), "immigration, the process of geographical and social transition from one society to another i s , at best, a drastic experience of cultural change. It requires a shift from embeddedness in the familiar to a constant confrontation with newness and unfamiliarity." The inability to adapt to any stress created by the changes may have serious health consequences. The concept of stress is related to the principle of homeostasis. According to this principle, an organism is continually reacting with i t s environment in an attempt to maintain i t s internal system in a state of relative st a b i l i t y (Dodge and Martin, 1970:39). When this balance i s upset, the organism is said to be in a state of stress. Persistance of the stressful situation has been linked to the occurrence of numerous diseases, particularly chronic diseases of the respiratory, digestive, and cardio-vascular systems (Wolf and Goodell, 1968; Selye, 1976). The stimuli responsible for the stress are referred to as stressors. They may not only be physical in nature, but also social and cultural (Levine and Scotch, 1970; Levi, 1971; Dohrenwend and Dohrenwend, 1974; Kagan and Levi, 1974). The stress arising from change has been implicated in health status. Holmes and Rahe (1967) ranked l i f e events according to the amount of social adjustment required to accommodate them. Although immigration was not included as one of the l i f e events, many of ,the changes brought ;about by migration 20. were. In a l a t e r study, Holmes and Masuda (1974) established a l i n k between the clustering of these events and the onset of i l l n e s s . However, l i f e events do not af f e c t a l l individuals equally. Mechanic (1978:292) conceives of stress as "a discrepancy between the demands impinging on a person - whether these demands be external or i n t e r n a l , whether challenges or goals - and the individual's potential or actual responses to these demands." Therefore, the degree of stress w i l l be a function of this discrepancy. The demands created by immigration w i l l vary from indi v i d u a l to i n d i v i d u a l . Undoubtedly transcultural or transsocial migrations w i l l create more demands than migrations between sim i l a r cultures and so c i e t i e s . On the other hand, individuals w i l l not only vary i n their perceptions of the demands, but also i n the resources upon which they can draw to help them cope with the demands. In the context of this thesis, adaptation does not necessarily imply assimilation or integration into the receiving society, but rather i t i s seen as the reduction of stress to the point where the immigrant feels at ease i n day to day l i v i n g and i s generally s a t i s f i e d with l i f e i n the destination. In order for this to occur for some immigrants, i t may w e l l involve complete r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n and acculturation. For others, perhaps because of the r e a l lack of change brought on by the migration, or perhaps because of such factors as the presence of ethnic neighbourhoods and i n s t i t u t i o n a l completeness, i t may only mean a s l i g h t a l t e r a t i o n of ways. For the purposes of the l i t e r a t u r e review, the following variables are considered to be indicators of the extent of adaptation. 1. Knowledge: The amount of factual knowledge an immigrant has about the destination, and p a r t i c u l a r l y about the area of his residence, may 21. reduce the potential stress of migration. For those who are wel l briefed on the destination s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l conditions, prior to migration, the shock of the new w i l l not be as severe and thus the adaptation w i l l be easier (Fried, 1965; David, 1970). Also, the expectations of such immigrants w i l l be more in:\ accord with the r e a l i t y of the si t u a t i o n . Richmond (1967:171) found that realized expectations were correlated with levels of s a t i s f a c t i o n . With increased f a m i l i a r i t y of the area of residence the immigrant w i l l be more aware of emergency services such as f i r e , police, and ambulance; more aware of s o c i a l services such as health c l i n i c s , housing agencies,. and employment agencies; and more aware of the necessities of day to day l i v i n g such as shops, transportation systems, and recreation areas. A l l of these factors w i l l serve to ease the stress of immigrant l i f e . Aside from stress related diseases, the strangeness of the new land may lead to higher accident rates. However, as the immigrant fam i l i a r i z e s himself with his new home this factor w i l l become less s i g n i f i c a n t . 2. Language: The a b i l i t y to use the language of the destination country i s one of the most important factors i n the adaptation process (Ex, 1966:95; Gelinek, 1977). The greatest number of i n i t i a l adjustment problems of immigrants to Canada, occurred i n those unable to speak English (Richmond, .1974:20). According to Goldlust and Richmond (1977), "the experience of identifying with a new country involves a learning process which has cognitive,conative and evaluative aspects. This learning experience cannot take place without effective communication with members of the receiving society." Although i t has been shown that language knowledge leads to a 22. greater i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with Canada and a greater propensity to define one's own ethnicity as Canadian or hyphenated Canadian (such as French-Canadian) (Richmond, 1976), surprisingly, language fluency was not associated with intentions of becoming Canadian ci t i z e n s (Richmond, 1967:224). 3. Naturalization: Naturalization i s often used as an indicator of adaptation. Before an immigrant can be e l i g i b l e for Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p , he or she must already have made a commitment to the destination country i n terms of time. U n t i l recently Canada had a f i v e year domicile prerequisite; this has now been reduced to three.«. In addition, the requirements for naturalization include a degree of language fluency and knowledge of Canadian symbols. Part of the naturalization ceremony includes the immigrant taking an oath of allegiance, which according to Kalbach (1970:338), i s a "direct voluntary act ... and makes patently clear his s h i f t i n allegiance from his former country of citizenship to a new and p o l i t i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with Canada." The results of Richmond's (1967:206) interviews indicate that for many immigrants naturalization i s representative of adaptation: "the strong sense of belonging to Canada expressed by so many of those who had become or intended to become ci t i z e n s was indicative that they had undergone a profound experience that had transformed their own sense of i d e n t i t y . The attitudes, values, and personality characteristics of an immigrant who decided to become a naturalized c i t i z e n of his new country must have undergone s i g n i f i c a n t changes at the a f f e c t i v e , cognitive, and conative l e v e l s . That i s to say, he must have subscribed to a set of b e l i e f s concerning the way of l i f e of his new country. He must also have :. i d e n t i f i e d himself emotionally with the public of the new country and their c o l l e c t i v e symbols." However, naturalization does not necessarily imply that an ind i v i d u a l has assimilated into the society of the receiving country. 23. An individual may choose to become a c i t i z e n i n order to take advantage of the benefits citizenship brings, and not because he feels a strong sense of attachment to the country. Some of these benefits include the rights to vote, to run for public o f f i c e , to j o i n the government service, to qualify for s o c i a l welfare, to sponsor relatives as immigrants, to obtain a passport, to obtain diplomatic assistance abroad, and to reduce the reasons for possible deportation (Richmond, 1967:197). Regardless of the reason for taking out citizenship papers, "the mere fact that an immigrant wishes to become a c i t i z e n i s usually an assurance of his permanent interest i n the country and may normally be taken as an indication that the assimilative process has proceeded to a moderate extent at l e a s t " (Hurd, 1965:113). I t i s unlikely that an immigrant w i l l have this permanent interest i f he does not f e e l at ease i n his new home. 4. Emigration: Return migration to one's country of b i r t h or:.remigration . to another country i s often considered to be an indicator of f a i l u r e or unsuccessful adaptation i n the destination country. An example of such thoughts were given by Beijer et a l . (1961:300) : "altogether the present data lead to the impression that return to Holland, and thus the complete f a i l u r e of the emigration, i s primarily determined by adjustment d i f f i c u l t i e s . " Other research has shown,that for some groups subsequent migration does not necessarily imply f a i l u r e . Richmond (1967:243), i n a study of return migrants from Canada to B r i t a i n , found that 38 percent were merely f u l f i l l i n g their o r i g i n a l plans of returning. Generally the economic and s o c i a l experiences of these returnees were favourable, i n that their income was as high as the remaining Bri t a i n s and the native-born Canadians (:234), 24. and they also had more native-born friends than those who stayed (:240). The single most important reason for returning to Britain was homesickness, which according to Richmond (1967:251) arose from a lack of identification with Canada. In the mind of Price (1968:22), "such loss measures lack of assimilation in that such persons are not sufficiently well dug-in to Australia to resist the lure and c a l l of the old world." 5. Mental Illness: Although i t i s thought that stress enhances susceptability to disease in general, i t is most often associated with mental ill n e s s . According to Mechanic (1978:245), "there is no known disease outside the psychiatric disorders in which stress is clearly a necessary condition for occurrence .... In contrast, i t is f a i r l y clear from many studies that stress is often a contributory factor in disease." In migrant studies mental illness has often been associated with an inability to cope with the stress.arising from the migration process. Therefore, in this thesis, i t has been used as an indicator of adaptation. Struening et a l . (1970) summarized the findings of their review of the literature on migration and mental illness as, "almost a l l studies show higher rates of mental illness as measured by hospitalization rates for migrant or immigrant groups than for the non-migrant native-born." Among the exceptions were Murphy (1965), who found that in Canada the immigrants had lower rates than: the native-born, and Locke and Duvall (1964), who had similar results for immigrants to Ohio. Part of the discrepancy in these findings no doubt arises from the v a r i a b i l i t y of the composition of the foreign-born group under study. The results of Malzberg (1966:284) indicated that the admission rates for the foreign-born broken down by the country of birth varied considerably. According to Struening 25. et a l . (1970), much of the development of mental i l l n e s s i n immigrants i s related to the interaction of the immigrants with the receiving society. As a r e s u l t , "some ethnic groups or na t i o n a l i t y groups may have more favourable rates (of mental hospital admissions) than others because of density, or other factors of integration which may help i n maintaining the psychological health of the groups" (Sauna, 1970). These factors are discussed i n other sections. Adaptation and Socioeconomic Status Adaptation to l i f e i n the destination country w i l l generally have a positive influence on the socioeconomic status of the immigrant. Gradually he becomes aware of services open to him, such as employment agencies, which w i l l help him f i n d a job suitable to his q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The development of fluency i n the language used by the host society also has a s i g n i f i c a n t affect on the socioeconomic we l l being of an immigrant. I t i s a prerequisite for many jobs, p a r t i c u l a r l y those of management positions, where r e s p o n s i b i l i t y has to be delegated to employees who are often native-born. The a b i l i t y to speak the language also allows the immigrant to compete more successfully with the native-born for jobs. Beijer et a l . (1961:292) found that unemployment was lower among men who knew the language upon a r r i v a l . According to Richmond (1974:22), "largely as a consequence of language problems and non-recognition of q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , immigrants from other countries were more l i k e l y than those from B r i t a i n to experience i n i t i a l downward mobility and less l i k e l y to make a f u l l recovery." He (1967:142) also found that of those immigrants who spoke English with d i f f i c u l t y , over f i f t y percent were i n unskilled occupations, while this was true of only a t h i r d who spoke English f l u e n t l y . Fluency 26. in French was also positively related to occupational status. With respect to income, only 9 percent of those not fluent in one of Canada's two o f f i c i a l languages earned over $3,000 in the f i r s t year, whereas 20 percent of the fluent succeeded in doing this (Richmond, 1967:73). Lanphier and Morris (1974) confirmed these results, but found additionally, that those who occasionally spoke the ethnic language had a slightly higher income than those who never used i t . Controlling for education and occupational status, Goldlust and Richmond (1973a) found that those immigrants with a greater knowledge of Canadian society tended to earn more money. Adaptation and Demographics Fluency in the language used in the destination allows an immigrant to develop social relationships with the native-born which may lead to intermarriage. Richmond's (1967:151) results showed that only 47 percent of the non-fluent immigrants, compared with 68 percent of the fluent immigrants, had Canadian-born close friends. Similarily, the non-fluent immigrants tended to confine their close friendships to their former country-men to a greater extent than the fluent immigrants. Language fluency w i l l also mean that the immigrant w i l l not have to rely as much on the services provided by the immigrant community, and this may lead to desegregation. Socioeconomic Status To a large extent the socioeconomic status of the immigrants in the destination country w i l l have been predetermined in the origin country. At the time of arrival the majority of the immigrants are adults, and therefore have not only completed their formal education but have also already been actively engaged i n an occupation. However, the socioeconomic status w i l l be influenced to some degree by conditions i n the destination country, demographic factors, and the degree of adaptation. Socioeconomic status, or class, i s most often determined by one of, or a combination of, three variables - education, occupation, and income. Duncan (1961) has summarized the linkage between these variables as, "education q u a l i f i e s the ind i v i d u a l for p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n occupational l i f e , and pursuit of an occupation yields him a return i n the form of income." The relationship between these variables and mortality are described below. Socioeconomic Status and L i f e Expectancy Antonovsky (1967), i n his review of 30 or so studies, concluded that "despite the m u l t i p l i c i t y of methods and indices used ... and despite the variegated populations surveyed, the inescapable conclusion i s that class influences one's chances of staying a l i v e . Almost without exception, the evidence shows that classes d i f f e r on mortality rates." Individuals with low educational attainment have been found to be less knowledgeable about the symptoms of various diseases and health i n general (Feldman, 1966:102, 110). They are more l i k e l y to rely upon f o l k remedies (Koos, 1954:142) and consequently make less use of medical services. According to Twaddle (1977:121), "education r e f l e c t s the l e v e l of knowledge about alternative courses of action available, as well as s k i l l s i n u t i l i z i n g s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s . " I t i s not surprising therefore, that numerous studies have found mortality rates to vary inversely with the l e v e l of education (Benjamin, 1965:50; Kitagawa and Hauser, 1973:11). 28. With respect to occupation and health, Benjamin (1965:25) wrote: " i t i s now well recognised that the manner i n which a man gains his l i v e l i h o o d and the surroundings i n which he spends the greater part of his working hours must have an important influence upon his health." As early as 1851 Farr had established that there existed certain high r i s k occupations (Kitagawa and Hauser, 1973:37). In more recent years, studies on occupational mortality have tended to group the occupations into broad categories, however d i f f e r e n t i a l s s t i l l e x i s t . Moriyama and Guralnick (1956), showed that there was a general increase i n the mortality l e v e l as the occupation l e v e l decreased, however, with the exception of the lowest class, labourers, the differences were small. Kitagawa and Hauser (1973: 41) found that a s i m i l a r trend existed i n the United States i n 1960, although there were some divergences. Benjamin (1965:33,34) examined the mortality of wives whose husbands were i n various occupations. The finding that their mortality rates, paralleled those of their husbands indicates that i t i s not so much the hazards of the occupation that creates the mortality d i f f e r e n t i a l s but rather the varying economic and s o c i a l situations associated with the occupations. Immigrants often f i n d themselves i n occupations different from the ones they engaged i n their homeland (Goldlust and Richmond, 1973a). For them the occupational hazards may be compounded by the newness of the job and the d i f f i c u l t y of understanding the safety precautions because of language problems. Stockwell's (1961) review of numerous American studies demonstrated that low income groups consistently had higher mortality rates than high income groups. Kitagawa and Hauser (1973:17) established that t h i s relationship held true even i f education was controlled f o r . The reverse 29 relationship existing between these two variables also contributed to the d i f f e r e n t i a l . That i s , the individuals with poor health are often forced to quit work or reduce thei r work hours and thus reduce thei r income. Socioeconomic Status and Adaptation Socioeconomic status and i t s comprising variables of education, occupation, and income, display an inconsistent relationship with the indicators of adaptation. Language fluency has been demonstrated to be highly dependent on education (Richmond, 1967:141). For those immigrants i n Canada whose mother tongue was not English, i t has been shown that education i s important not only for language fluency, but also for the knowledge of Canadian symbols, personalities, and i n s t i t u t i o n s . (Goldlust and Richmond, 1978). In the 1967 Richmond study(:212, 215), a l l three socioeconomic variables were negatively related to citizenship intentions. However, Richmond did not f e e l that i t implied a sense of f a i l u r e . Rather, he thought that because of thei r occupational s k i l l s they were i n demand on the international market, and therefore remained highly mobile. He used the word " t r a n s i l i e n t " to describe these immigrants (:252). Goldlust and Richmond (1977) devised an index of Canadian i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , which among other things included the immigrant's intention to s e t t l e permanently and the intention to take out citize n s h i p . They were unable to establish a clear cut relationship between the index and the socioeconomic variables. More recently, George (1978) found the naturalization rate to be highest for the most educated immigrants. The relationship, however, was not a linea r one, as the least educated immigrants had the next highest naturalization rates. In the United States, immigrants with high education, occupation, and income le v e l s , were more l i k e l y to become ci t i z e n s 30. (Bernard, 1967). The negative or inconsistent Canadian findings may r e f l e c t the plura l i s t i c nature of the Canadian society and the subsequent greater tolerance of an immigrant retaining some of his s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . Liem and Liem (1978) concluded from thei r review of the l i t e r a t u r e on socioeconomic status and mental i l l n e s s that "the weight of existing evidence strongly indicates that s o c i a l class i s related i n important ways to mental disorder." Kuo (1976) found the low status foreign-born Chinese i n the United States to have adjustment problems and to be under more psychological stress than the high status immigrants. In I s r a e l , the low status immigrants from A f r i c a and Asia had a greater incidence of mental hospital admissions than either the native-born or the higher status immigrants from Europe and North America (Murphy, 1965). A l l the immigrant groups studied by Goldlust and Richmond (1973a) experienced an i n i t i a l decline i n occupational status. There may, therefore, have existed an inconsistency between their educational and occupational statuses. Jackson (1962) has suggested that status inconsistency creates c o n f l i c t i n g expectations, not only of an individual's expectations of others and himself, but also of others expectations of him. He f e l t that the resulting f r u s t r a t i o n and uncertainty increased psychological d i s t r e s s . Jackson's views were confirmed by Abramson (1966), who found that immigrants with greater status discrepancy experienced more emotional disorders. .Socioeconomic Status and Demographics When one examines two of the three indicators of socioeconomic status, education and occupation, there i s a clear negative relationship between them and family size (Petersen, 1961:20; Spiegelman, 1968:270, 271). However, 31. with income this i s only p a r t i a l l y true. There i s a general decline i n family size with an increase i n income, but at the highest income levels family size increases. This may be because the r i c h can afford more children. I t may also r e f l e c t the reverse relationship discussed e a r l i e r . Status inconsistency has been linked to s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n (Lenski, 1956; Zaleznik et a l . , 1958:366). This may a r i s e from the c o n f l i c t i n g expectations associated with status inconsistency. Ferguson (1970) thought that educated immigrants working i n unskilled occupations did not have common interests with their colleagues. This also could lead to s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n . With respect to native-born friends, Richmond (1967:148, 150) found i t was p o s i t i v e l y related to education, as was belonging to a Canadian club. Jones (1967) i n Australia and Lee (1977:112) i n England, have established that r e s i d e n t i a l segregation of immigrants decreases with an increase i n occupational status. S i m i l a r i l y i n Canada, the preference for l i v i n g close to relatives decreased with higher occupational status (Richmond and Goldlust, 1977:14). Demographics Age 1. Age and l i f e expectancy "In view of the very close r e l a t i o n between age and the r i s k of death, age may be considered the most important demographic variable i n the analysis of mortality. No other generalcharaeterlsticiof the decedent or of the event offers so d e f i n i t e a clue as to the r i s k of mortality" (Shryock et a l . , 1975:393). A t y p i c a l curve of age-specific death rates takes a U-shaped 32. form, with rates high in the f i r s t year of l i f e , then dropping to a low at about ages 5 to 14 and then rising again to high rates in the older age groups. The longevity of an immigrant group w i l l , therefore, largely be a function of i t s age structure. 2. Age and socioeconomic status According to Nam and Powers (1965), peak status in education, occupation, and income occur at different ages. Overall however, the relationship between age and socioeconomic status i s a curvilinear one, with those individuals in the middle ages having a higher average status than either the young or the old. The lower status of the young arises from their unfinished education and training or from the fact that they are just starting out in their occupational careers. On the other hand, the low status of the aged i s a reflection of their higher illness rates and subsequent income loss and also.of their retirement from the labour force. In the United States, in 1960, the 25-44 year olds were the age group with the largest proportion of i t s members in the highest socioeconomic bracket (Spiegelman, 1968:290). Nam and Powers (1965) broke the age groups down further, and found that for family heads, the peak status was attained at ages 35-44. In Canada, the native-born males reached their maximum average earnings when 35-44 years old. However, the foreign-born, probably as a result of the disruption of the status attainment process, did not reach their peak average earnings u n t i l the ages 45-54 (Canada, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 1970:60). „ 3. Age and demographics With respect to the other demographic variables,age i s related to marital status and family size (Spiegelman,. 1 9 6 8 : 2 2 7 , 2 6 7 ) . 33. Age at Migration 1. Age at migration and l i f e expectancy The age at which an indiv i d u a l migrates can have a s i g n i f i c a n t effect on his health. "Escape from noxious environmental influences such as a i r po l l u t i o n may have a different significance for the state of r i s k of a 15-year-old from that of a 50-year-old" (Wessen, 1971). Cultural exposure may also be important.- Yano et a l . (1979), found that Japanese immigrants i n Hawaii who had a greater exposure to Japanese culture during childhood, tended to have lower rates of coronary heart disease. Although most studies have not examined the consequences of age at migration, some of the diseases for which i t has been found to be a s i g n i f i c a n t factor are lung cancer (Eastcott, 1954; Dean, 1961; McCall and Stenhouse, 1971; Borrie et a l . , 1973), cardiovascular disease (Stenhouse and McCall, 1970), cardio-respiratory (Rogot, 1978), and coronary heart disease (Yano et a l . , 1979). These studies have also shown that age at migration can influence mortality regardless i f one i s moving from a high r i s k to a low r i s k environment or from a low r i s k to a high r i s k environment. 2 . Age at migration and adaptation Social and c u l t u r a l patterns are less l i k e l y to be fixed i n the young than i n the old. Consequently, those migrating at a young age should fi n d i t easier to adapt to the new society (Kotin, 1970;. Wessen, 1971; Lee, 1977). Arriving as a c h i l d should be p a r t i c u l a r l y advantageous i n that not only would the school setting provide the c h i l d with information about his new home land, i t would also provide for interaction and friendship with the native-born children. This would f a c i l i t a t e the learning of new customs, behaviour patterns, and language. Goldlust and Richmond (1973b) 34. found that a r r i v a l at a young age, p a r t i c u l a r l y as a c h i l d , was associated with more rapid acculturation. Immigrants a r r i v i n g over the age of t h i r t y are also less l i k e l y to assume a Canadian id e n t i t y (Richmond, 1976). 3. Age at migration and socioeconomic status Several Canadian studies have examined the relationship between age at migration and income (Goldlust and Richmond, 1973a; Lanphier and Morris, 1974; Tandon, 1978). Although they a l l found that immigrants a r r i v i n g i n the late r years of adulthood had lower incomes than those a r r i v i n g i n the early adult ages, there were some discrepancies with respect to the income levels of those who came as children. Goldlust and Richmond (1973a) found that those immigrants i n Toronto who had arrived under the age of sixteen, had higher incomes than any other age at a r r i v a l group. On the other hand, the study by Lanphier and Morris (1974), which involved immigrants i n Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg, Edmonton, and Vancouver, found those a r r i v i n g as children to have lower incomes than those a r r i v i n g as young adults. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to account for this curvilinear relationship. As Goldlust and Richmond (1973a) point out, "someone who arrives i n the country at a mature age w i l l lack the advantage of having his education and training here and may experience d i f f i c u l t y i n having his q u a l i f i c a t i o n s recognized. I n i t i a l l y , he w i l l lack 'Canadian experience' and be handicapped by language and other problems. Furthermore, by not growing up i n Canada the immigrant i s less l i k e l y to have access to important communication networks open to the Canadian-born that include members of various e l i t e groups i n government, education, industry and business." One would therefore expect the relationship to be more of a linear nature. The contradictory findings i n the two studies may have been due to different 35. period of residence structures of the populations involved. 4. Age at migration and demographics Age at migration i s related to the demographic variables of i n t e r -marriage and friends and r e l a t i v e s . Migration as a c h i l d increases the propensity of marriage with the native-born and of having native-born friends (Goldlust and Richmond, 1973b). Period of Residence 1. Period of residence and l i f e expectancy If the environmental factors are influencing l i f e expectancy, i t would follow that the longer one i s exposed to the environment i n the destination country, the closer the l i f e expectancy of the immigrant group should be to that of the native-born. This has been documented i n A u s t r a l i a (Price, 1975; Stenhouse and McCall, 1970), but i t has been d i f f i c u l t to obtain widespread support for this theory since few countries record length of residence on thei r death c e r t i f i c a t e s . As was noted i n the section on l i f e expectancy i n o r i g i n , for.certain diseases, p a r t i c u l a r l y some cancers, a change i n environment w i l l have l i t t l e e f fect. The carry over of the o r i g i n environmental conditions may mean that regardless of period of residence i n the destination country the l i f e expectancy of the immigrant group w i l l approximate that of the o r i g i n population. Again, this has been. shown to be the case for stomach cancer (Staszewski and Haenszel, 1965; Borrie et a l . , 1973). 2. Period of residence and adaptation I t would seem reasonable to assume that as the immigrant's length of 36. residence i n the destination country increases, he would not only become more fluent i n the country's language, but also more knowledgeable, more comfortable and s a t i s f i e d , and more i d e n t i f i e d and committed with l i f e i n the destination. A three year longitudinal study by the Canadian Department of Manpower and Immigration (1.9 74a: 102) has shown that knowledge of the English language increases with increased period of residence. The most substantial increase occurred between 6 months and 2 years residence. Richmond (1967: 141) found the l e v e l of English or French fluency to increase for the f i r s t 10 years (0-5, 6-10), but to decrease after that. According to Goldlust and Richmond (1973b), for those immigrants whose mother tongue was English, knowledge of Canadian personalities, symbols and i n s t i t u t i o n s was predominantly a function of length of residence. They combined this cognitive acculturation with language fluency and usage into a general acculturation index. For those immigrants whose mother tongue was non-English, period of residence was associated with t h i s index, but education was the main determinant. Stromberg et a l . (1974), studying int e r n a l Iranian migrants to Teheran, found that the recent a r r i v a l s u t i l i z e d health services less often than long term residents. Although the s p e c i f i c reason for this d i f f e r e n t i a l u t i l i z a t i o n was not determined, they did relate i t to the adaptation process. Perhaps i t was due to a lack of awareness of existing f a c i l i t i e s and services on the part of the newer migrants. Smith and McCulloch (1977) did f i n d that period of residence i n B r i t a i n affected the knowledge and use of s o c i a l service agencies. In both Au s t r a l i a (Jones, 1967) and Canada (Richmond, 1967:206) the taking out of citizenship was d i r e c t l y related to length of residence. In part this r e f l e c t s the waiting period required by the Citizenship Act. 37. With respect to emigration, B r i t i s h migrants who had resided i n Canada the longest, were the least l i k e l y to return home (Richmond, 1967:231). Goldlust and Richmond (1977); devised an index of Canadian i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , which among other things, was based on the immigrant's sense of belonging i n Canada, intentions to s e t t l e permanently and to take out ci t i z e n s h i p . The most important determinant of th i s index was length of residence. The early d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced by immigrants i n adapting to conditions i n their new home have also been reflected i n their mental i l l n e s s rates. Malzberg and Lee (1956) found that i n t e r n a l American migrants to New York State, with less than f i v e years residency, had considerably higher mental hospital admission rates than either the migrants with longer residency or the native-born New Yorkers. In Ontario, the more recent foreign-born a r r i v a l s generally had the higher f i r s t admission rates (Malzberg, 1964). 3. Period of residence and socioeconomic status Although numerous studies have established a l i n k between period of residence and socioeconomic status, undoubtedly much of this association depends on the degree of adaptation. Upon a r r i v a l i n a destination country, immigrants are often forced to take the f i r s t job open to them. For reasons of language d i f f i c u l t i e s , unfamiliarity with the services of employment agencies and h i r i n g practices, lack of recognition of foreign q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , lack of Canadian experience, and discrimination, the f i r s t jobs are often lower i n status than those held i n the o r i g i n country. With time however, some of these problems disappear, and thus allows the immigrant to continue his upward occupational mobility. This time pattern of occupational status has been reflected i n the findings of Richmond (1967:118), 38. Goldlust and Richmond (1973a), and Eaton and Lasry (1978). With respect to income among postwar immigrants to Canada there was a continuous gain with an increase i n the number of years spent i n Canada (Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , 1970:59). The income was lower for pre World War I I immigrants, but this was probably a result of the influence of old age. Similar incremental findings were reported by Kalbach (1970: 300), Canada's Department of Manpower and Immigration (1974:51), and Tandon (1978). In the study by Lanphier and Morris (1974), however, income was found to vary l i t t l e over the f i r s t 20 years of residence. In the United States, Kuo (1976), studying the foreign-born Chinese, found a s i g n i f i c a n t relationship between period of residence and o v e r a l l socioeconomic status. 4. Period of residence and demographics Length of residence i n the destination has been found to be negatively related to the degree of r e s i d e n t i a l segregation (Lieberson, 1963:48; Jones, 1967). Not surprisingly therefore, i t has been shown to increase the l i k e l i h o o d of having native-born friends (Beijer et a l . , 1961: 285; Richmond 1967:150), to increase the t i e s with the native community (Breton, 1964), and to increase the extent of intermarriage with the native-born (Kalbach, 1970:332). Sex 1. Sex and l i f e expectancy Shryock et a l . (1975:401) considered that next-to age, sex was the most important variable i n the analysis of mortality. A United Nations survey (1973:115) stated that "expectation of l i f e at b i r t h i s almost 39. universally higher for females than for males, both in developed countries with low mortality and in developing countries with higher mortality levels. Ceylon, India and Pakistan appear to be the exceptions." El-Badry (1969: 869) reported that in India this arose from the preferential treatment given to male children and also to the excessive female mortality in the reproductive years. 2. Sex and adaptation Generally, females experience greater d i f f i c u l t i e s in adapting to the new environment than the males. This i s often related to their marital status. The male, by usually being the family breadwinner, comes into contact with the native-born and the new ways of l i f e in the course of his work. Also, i f he wishes to compete successfully with the native-born on the labour market he is often compelled to learn the language. Married immigrant females on the other hand, often spend the majority of time in the confines of their own home tending to children and household chores. For some immigrant groups, social customs may not even allow the women to leave home in the evening to attend language classes (Canada, Royal Commission on the Status of Women, 1970). This insular existence may lead to d i f f i c u l t i e s , as Richmond (1974:28) points out: "immigrant housewives ... tend to be socially isolated and much less l i k e l y to learn one of the o f f i c i a l languages of Canada. In turn, this retards their acculturation in other ways and may bring conflicts between them and other members of their own family, particularly children growing up in Canada and being exposed to different values and expectations from those approved by parents." Gelinek (1977) feels that as a result of such isolation a woman "may develop a sense of inferiority and insecurity in her relationships with people in her new country, and become severely depressed." The d i f f i c u l t i e s 40. for immigrant females has been v e r i f i e d by Kuo (1976) who found that among the foreign-born Chinese i n America, the females experienced more problems i n acculturation and adjustment than did the males. In New York Malzberg and Lee (1956:68) and Malzberg (1966:12) both reported that the mental hospital admission rates were higher for the native-born males than females. However, i n the migrant populations to New York the d i f f e r e n t i a l s were often reduced, and i n some instances the females had higher rates than the males. Odegaard (1932) and Abramson (1966) had simi l a r findings. 3. Sex and socioeconomic status Women are generally concentrated i n the lower status occupations. In Canada i n 1961, of the top twenty-five female occupations (in;terms of numbers) only two were i n the professional category. The largest female occupation was stenographer closely followed by sales (Ostry, 1967:27). Armstrong and Armstrong (1975) found that although the female labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate had increased dramatically over the 30 year period studied, the concentration of women i n a r e l a t i v e l y few occupations remained stable. According to Boyd (1975), immigrant women are even more concentrated i n the less s k i l l e d occupations. The lower wages of women compared to men also r e f l e c t s that "there are not only women's jobs, there are also women's wages" (Armstrong and Armstrong, 1975). They found that i n every occupation women had incomes lower than the i r male counterparts. S i m i l a r l y , i n a Canadian survey, single, divorced, or widowed females had lower incomes, at every age, than the i r male counterparts. (Canada, Dominion Bureau of St a t i s t i c s , , 1970:61). 41. 4. Sex and demographics U n t i l recently, immigration streams to North America were dominated by males (Boyd, 1975; George, 1978). As a consequence of this imbalance i n the sex r a t i o some of the male immigrants would have had to seek wives among the native-born females. On the other hand, immigrant females had a greater opportunity to marry someone from thei r home land. Since i n t e r -marriage f a c i l i t a t e s the learning of English and the acquiring of knowledge of Canadian society (Goldlust and Richmond,1973b), the male dominated sex r a t i o may serve to further the differences i n the adaptation l e v e l between male and females. Marital Status 1. M a r i t a l status and l i f e expectancy Married persons have consistently had lower death rates than single, divorced, or widowed persons (Kitagawa and Hauser, 1973:108; Gove, 1973). This d i f f e r e n t i a l results partly from "... the selective force of marriage i t s e l f . . . " , with the more f i t l i k e l y to marry, and partly from "... the contentment and happiness of married l i f e (as we l l as the protection and d i s c i p l i n e ) . . . " (Benjamin, 1965:42). Gove (1973) and Korbin and Hendershot (1977) hypothesize that the lack of close personal and s o c i a l t i e s that marriage provides and the resulting isolated existence of the single contribute to the d i f f e r e n t i a l . The s o c i a l support provided by the wife and family have been shown to be important i n recovery from i l l n e s s (Hyman, 1972) and i n mortality (Berkman and Syme, 1979). Also, according to Retherford (1975:104) married l i f e provides a "stronger motivation to safeguard health for the sake of partners and dependents." 42. 2. Marital status and adaptation Although being married has been shown to help the male i n the adaptation process this i s not the case for females (See discussion of Sex and adaptation). However, George (1978:82) did f i n d that both married males and females had the highest propensity to become Canadian c i t i z e n s . Also, i n Richmond's(1967:238) study of return migration to the United Kingdom, "single people were far more l i k e l y to return than those who were married, and that those with three or more children, were most l i k e l y to remain i n Canada." 3. Marit a l status and socioeconomic status In terms of marital status, divorced, separated, or never married males have been found to have lower occupational achievements than other males (Blau and Duncan, 1967:339). The results of Duncan et a l . (1972:233) showed that men l i v i n g with their wives were i n occupations with a mean socioeconomic score 7 points higher than that of the occupations of the divorced or separated men. According to Blau and Duncan (1967:339), " i t i s possible that lack of occupational success i s a prelude to the disruption of a marriage or, on the other hand, that such a disruption has a : disorganizing effect on the occupational career." The income differences among the various marital statuses r e f l e c t s the respective occupational achievements. In both Canada (Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , 1970:61) and the United States (Spiegelman, 1968:372) the income of married men was higher than for any other group. On the other hand, married females had the lowest income of a l l the groups. This undoubtedly arises from the singles, widowed, divorced, or separated need for self-support. 43. The d i f f e r e n t i a l s i n socioeconomic achievement between the married and never married males, may i n part derive from the selective nature of marriage. Intermarriage Marriage to a native-born person would appear to have no direct linkage with mortality, however, there are several i n d i r e c t ones. 1. Intermarriage and adaptation Intermarriage may increase the speed and extent of the adaptation process. Through the native-born spouse the immigrant w i l l have a greater opportunity to meet other native-born, learn the language and also f a m i l i a r i z e himself with the culture and society of the new land (Goldlust and Richmond, 1973b). Richmond (1967:238) has also shown intermarriage to be a strong deterrent against emigration. 2. Intermarriage and demographics Although i t i s not clear i f intermarriage affects segregation or vice versa, the relationship between the two variables has been reported to be a negative one (Lieberson, 1963:157; Jones, 1967). Family Size 1. Family size and l i f e expectancy Gove (1973) reported that the greatest disparity i n mortality rates between the married and single occurred during the ages when most families have young children i n the home. More d i r e c t l y , Korbin and Hendershot 44. (1977) found that the mortality rates were much higher for individuals without children than for those with children. Gove (1973) suggested that " i t may be as Durkheim indicated, that children provide a form of ? 'protection' (through their effect on the concerns and behavior of parents)." Hyman (1972) cited several studies which indicated that having a caring family increased the speed of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n from i l l n e s s . A large number of children can, however, have a negative impact on health. This may be p a r t i c u l a r l y true for the mother who has to endure the numerous pregnancies (Kiser, 1967). I t may also bring about crowding which has been associated with poor health (Gove et a l . , 1979). 2. Family size and adaptation The adaptation of adults may be enhanced by the presence of children. The children provide for the potential development of communication and friendship with the parents of their native-born playmates (Ex, 1966). 3. Family size and socioeconomic status Spiegelman (1968:391) has shown that an increase i n the number of children ever born i s also related to a decrease i n socioeconomic status. However, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine to what extent family size influences socioeconomic status and to what extent socioeconomic status influences f e r t i l i t y . Duncan et a l . (1972:243) found that f e r t i l i t y had a negative relationship with occupational status but a positive relationship with income. In an attempt to explain this apparent incongruity they write: "... men with many children are constrained to seek jobs that enhance thei r incomes, even at the expense of a s a c r i f i c e of occupational prestige. I t has been observed, moreover, that multiple job holding ... i s more common 45. among men with large numbers of children. This would be reflected i n higher incomes, r e l a t i v e to the status of the primary job" (Duncan et a l . , 1972:253).-Friends and Relatives 1. Friends and relatives and l i f e expectancy The number of friends and rela t i v e s one has, and the frequency of seeing them, has been related to mortality i n general (Berkman and Syme, 1979). Also, studies cited by Hyman (1972), K i r i t z and Moos (1974), and Cobb (1976) have shown that i t i s associated with numerous s p e c i f i c diseases and causes of death as wel l as with recovery from i l l n e s s . Friends and r e l a t i v e s function as one of the main providers of support. Consequently, they primarily influence l i f e expectancy through the adaptation variables. 2. Friends and relatives and adaptation The support friends and rel a t i v e s provide may take the form of material and informational aid, behavioural feedback and/or emotional aid. As such, i t may act either "as an antecedent factor that reduces the li k e l i h o o d of (undesireable) l i f e changes occurring, or as a buffering factor, following the occurrence of l i f e changes, that controls interpretations of the events and emotional responses to them" (Lin. et a l . , 1979). For immigrants, the ' l i f e change' w i l l have occurred. Therefore, support of friends and rela t i v e s w i l l serve to help the immigrant cope with, and adapt to, any stressors a r i s i n g from migration. With respect to South Asians i n Canada, Buchignani (1978) stated: "such s o c i a l networks cl e a r l y serve to mitigate the necessary alienating aspects of immigration, which among other groups has led to high levels of anxiety and depression." 46. Beijer et a l . (1961:295) found that the Dutch who regretted migration had l e s s . s o c i a l interaction. I t would seem reasonable to assume that having native-born among your friends would enhance the adaptation process by providing a greater opportunity to learn the language as well as the customs of the host society. 3. Friends and rel a t i v e s and socioeconomic status Although friends and rel a t i v e s may help i n economically establishing the immigrant, they may also have a negative impact on his status and status mobility. According to L i (1977:487) the aid provided by the friends and rel a t i v e s obligates the immigrant to them. He often repays the friends pr rela t i v e s by working for them for less money or by staying on the job when other immigrants are improving their status. Religion 1. Religion and immigrant l i f e expectancy The impact of r e l i g i o n or church attendance on mortality has seldom been examined. Berkman and Syme (1979) found church members to have lower mortality rates. Cornstock and Partridge (1972) did report that church attenders had lower r i s k s of dying for several causes of death, p a r t i c u l a r l y a r t e r i o s c l e r o t i c disease. With respect to s p e c i f i c r e l i g i o u s groups, there appears to be no clear cut findings. Seidman (1970), examining 1949-51 cancer s t a t i s t i c s for New York City, found that for males, Catholics had high mortality rates, Protestants had intermediate rates and Jews had low rates. The order was reversed i n females. He found these rankings to hold for each of the three socioeconomic status groupings. Newill (1961) undertook a similar examination of the 1953-58 data. His results showed a s i m i l a r ranking for the females, but i n the males the Protestants now had the highest mortality rates, with the Catholics i n the intermediate position. In the study by Wardell et a l . (1963), Catholics had the lowest rates for cardiovascular mortality, followed by the Jews and the Protestants. - I t would seem, therefore, that the benefits of r e l i g i o n come not so much from which denomination one belongs to, but rather that one i s an active church member. Thus, much of the advantage afforded churchgoers i s undoubtedly derived from the support that i t provides. 2. -Religion and adaptation According to Caplan (1974:25), the church provides "a range of opportunities for th e i r members, to become friends and to id e n t i f y with each other .... Members are usually enjoined to help each other, especially i n times of acute need; re l i g i o u s ceremonials as wel l as service programs are provided to accomplish t h i s , especially at predictable c r i s i s times such as b i r t h , marriage, i l l n e s s , and death. These organized s o c i a l supports are s i g n i f i c a n t l y buttressed by the inte r n a l supports of a meaningful value system and a set of guidlines for l i v i n g . " For the immigrant, belonging to a church, p a r t i c u l a r l y one that i s well established i n the destination, offers further advantages i n reducing the stress-of migration. " I f he belongs to a large denomination he i s l i k e l y to fi n d a welcoming congregation with f a m i l i a r r i t u a l s and traditions i n any new and strange place he may go. This w i l l protect him u n t i l he learns the l o c a l feedback cues and w i l l support his adjustment even i f the general s o c i a l structure i s disorganized" (Caplan, 1974:26). Kuo and L i n (1977) found that being a Christian f a c i l i t a t e d Americanization. Also, Dutch migrants who l a t e r returned home had fewer church contacts than those who stayed (Beijer et a l . , 1961:299). 48. ;3. Religion and socioeconomic status The findings of numerous studies dealing with the relationship between r e l i g i o n and socioeconomic status have been summarized by Warren (1970): " l i t t l e agreement was found among studies that compared only Protestants and Catholics with regard to socioeconomic achievement. On the other hand, i n those studies that considered s p e c i f i c Protestant denominations, as well as Catholic and other r e l i g i o u s groups, a high degree of consensus was found i n the rankings of re l i g i o u s groups on several ' measures of socioeconomic achievement. Most researchers found that with regard to educational achievement, occupational achievement, and income the Jews, Episcopalians, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians rank at the top; Baptists at the bottom; and Catholics, Methodists, and Lutherans, and 'other r e l i g i o n s ' are i n the middle." The socioeconomic status of the various immigrant groups w i l l therefore be affected by their religious make up. 4. Religion.and demographics Religion has been related to several other demographic variables. Although f e r t i l i t y rates and thus family size have been shown to vary according to reli g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n , much of the v a r i a t i o n i s thought to arise from the underlying demographic, socioeconomic and psychological factors (Petersen, 1961:221, 223; Spiegelman, 1968:271). Kuo and Lin (1977) thought that the church enhanced the opportunity for interaction with the native-born. In time this would lead to having more native-born as friends. However, i f the church, even though part of 49. the predominant denomination i n the destination, i s an ethnic one, i t may increase the support aspects but decrease the interaction with the native-born (Breton, 1964). Religious groups also vary i n the degree of their segregation (Darroch and Marston, 1969). According to Lee (1977:44), "where the orthodox r e l i g i o n of the immigrant group i s a l i e n to the host society, r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s and practices may encourage t e r r i t o r i a l as wel l as c u l t u r a l unity." Rural/Urban D i s t r i b u t i o n 1. Rural/Urban d i s t r i b u t i o n and immigrant l i f e expectancy Although the United Nations (1973:132) has reported that there has been a gradual convergence i n the urban and r u r a l mortality rates, the urban areas have, t r a d i t i o n a l l y had lower l i f e expectancies. Part of this d i f f e r e n t i a l arose from the poor sewage disposal and the contamination of drinking water which created breeding grounds for the vectors of infectious diseases. The high population density of urban areas allowed for the rapid spread of these diseases. Other factors included the higher i n d u s t r i a l p o l l u t i o n l e v e l s , higher crime rates and l i f e which i s "beset by tensions and anxieties " (Kammeyer, 1977). 2. Rural/Urban distribution' and adaptation . :: As opposed to r u r a l immigrant groups, i n highly urbanized groups, fellow countrymen can gather together more read i l y , and therefore are i n a better position to provide support to each other. Also, given the greater s o c i a l and economic opportunities i n urban areas than i n r u r a l areas, i t would seem reasonable to assume that adaptation would be more rapid for 50. urban immigrants. Although the l i t e r a t u r e provides l i t t l e support for this hypothesis, Kalbach (1970:381) did demonstrate that the citizenship rate was s l i g h t l y higher for immigrants i n metropolitan areas than for immigrants i n r u r a l areas. 3. Rural/Urban d i s t r i b t u i o n and socioeconomic status The 1960 United States census results showed, that compared to r u r a l dwellers, urban residents had a greater percentage of their numbers i n the highest socioeconomic bracket (Spiegelman, 1968:391). Powers (1978) demonstrated that this relationship also held for the foreign-born. Elder (1965) thought that r u r a l residents were doubly handicapped, i n that not only did they have less access to education, but that the education they did receive was of a lower quality. According to Blau and Duncan (1967:285), men with r u r a l backgrounds were overrepresented i n occupations at the low end of the status scale. They f e l t that this was an indication of the r e s t r i c t e d occupational.opportunities i n r u r a l areas (:249). Income figures have confirmed the lower status of the r u r a l residents (Spiegelman, 1968:375; Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , 1970:46). 4. Rural/Urban d i s t r i b t u i o n and demographics One of the most persistant findings i n the demographic l i t e r a t u r e i s that of higher f e r t i l i t y being associated with r u r a l l i v i n g (Petersen, 1961:217; Spiegelman, 1968:269). Segregation The impact of segregation on longevity i s mostly i n d i r e c t . 51. 1. Segregation arid adaptation The stress of migration may be • reduced considerably i f a newly arrived immigrant can i n i t i a l l y settle in an established community comprised of his former countrymen. In such a community the immigrant would be familiar with the language, food,,and social and cultural patterns. Aside from the psychological support provided by these familiar elements, the community members may provide social support and material aid, particularly with respect to housing and employment. I n i t i a l l y therefore, the immigrant community may help to minimize culture shock by acting as a buffer between the newly arrived immigrant and the native-born. It also may help in economically establishing the immigrant. Segregation of immigrants into communities separate from the native-born also has i t s negative aspects. According to Lieberson (1963:6), segregation "accentuates the differences between a group and the remainder of the population by heightening the v i s i b i l i t y of the group, and i t enables the population to keep i t s peculiar traits and group structure." This high v i s i b i l i t y may lead to increased discrimination. Both Duncan and Lieberson (1959:370) and Lieberson (1963:135) found segregation to be inversely related to the a b i l i t y to speak English. The direction of this relationship is not clear, as not being able to speak English may lead to segregation. ; •. . . Segregation also leads to a reduced naturalization rate (Lieberson, 1963: 147). In terms of mental health, for the Chinese at least, the positive aspects of segregation outweigh the negative. Murphy (1965) reported "in British Columbia, the only province that has a real Chinatown, the Chinese have the lowest hospitalisation rate of a l l ethnic minorities. In Ontario, where the Chinese are scattered throughout the province in 'penny' 52, numbers and have no real focus, they have the highest rate of a l l ethnic minorities." 2. Segregation and socioeconomic status In the short term, living among and associating with others of the same birthplace may socioeconomically f a c i l i t a t e the newly arrived immigrant. Even i f they cannot provide him with a. job, they can at least make him aware of agencies which w i l l assist him in his efforts to find employment. However, in the long term, close association with fellow countrymen may be an impediment to socioeconomic mobility. According to Lanphier and Morris (1974) those immigrants who maintained ties with their own ethnic group had slightly lower incomes than those who did not. The income difference was particularly large ($2,300) between those who lived in ethnic neighbourhoods and those who lived in predominately English or French neighbourhoods. 3. Segregation and demographics Hurd (1965:89) pointed out, that "the more evenly spread, the greater is the opportunity and probably also the necessity for inter-marriage with the basic origins of the adopted country." Size/institutional Completeness The influence of the size of an immigrant group on i t s mortality comes mainly from the indirect effects. Although not necessarily the only prerequisite, a large immigrant group has the potential to support i t s own specialized institutions, such as churches, schools, welfare 1 organizations, newspapers, and radio institutions. Breton (1964) termed 53. this " i n s t i t u t i o n a l completeness." The extent of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l completeness has s i g n i f i c a n t ramifications for the immigrants. 1. S i z e / I n s t i t u t i o n a l completeness and adaptation An i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y complete immigrant community would reduce the i n i t i a l c u l t u r a l shock experienced by the newly arrived immigrant, i n that he would have to make l i t t l e use of the i n s t i t u t i o n s of the native-born. The welfare organizations would help i n establishing the newcomers. The ethnic newspapers and radio stations would help i n the acculturation process, by f a m i l i a r i z i n g the immigrant, i n a language he can understand, with the events, symbols, and i n s t i t u t i o n s of his new country. As a result of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l completeness, an immigrant may have l i t t l e opportunity to learn the o f f i c i a l language(s) of the destination country. In this manner i n s t i t u t i o n a l completeness may impede adaptation. 2. S i z e / I n s t i t u t i o n a l completeness and demographics I f an immigrant group i s large, i t increases the lik e l i h o o d that a parti c u l a r immigrant w i l l have friends and rel a t i v e s i n the destination. The s o c i a l clubs existing i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y complete community w i l l also make i t easier for the recently arrived immigrants to make new friends among his already present fellow countrymen. With respect to developing native-born friends, i n s t i t u t i o n a l completeness i s a drawback (Breton, 1964). Conceptual Model The review of the l i t e r a t u r e reveals a complex calculus of immigrant 54. l i f e expectancy. To untangle these r e l a t i o n s h i p s one must s h i f t the analysis into a higher l e v e l of aggregation and choose a s i m p l i f y i n g t h e o r e t i c a l perspective. F i g . 1 outlines the perspective of a model which s i m p l i f i e s the calculus of immigrant l i f e expectancy. The basic components of the conceptual model are: 1. L i f e expectancy i n the o r i g i n country: Some of the factors influencing l i f e expectancy i n the o r i g i n , such as exposure to carcinogens, may have produced an i r r e v e r s i b l e e f f e c t on the immigrant. This e f f e c t w i l l carry over into the destination, and therefore, to some extent the l i f e expectancy of the immigrant may have been predisposed i n the o r i g i n . 2. Destination country conditions: The destination country conditions include environmental, technological, p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s . In times of p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y environmental conditions and the l e v e l and a v a i l a b i l i t y of technology w i l l have the most d i r e c t impact on immigrant l i f e expectancy. The influence of the other variables w i l l be f e l t more through t h e i r impact on the subgroups comprising the immigrant group's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and coping a t t r i b u t e s . 3. Demographics: The age and sex d i s t r i b u t i o n of an immigrant group have an extremely important input into i t s mortality l e v e l . However, i n l i f e tables, age i s standardized, and they are usually calculated separately fo r the sexes. In the model, therefore, the only linkage of demographics with l i f e expectancy i s through the immigrant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and coping a t t r i b u t e s . DEMOGRAPHICS Age Sex IMMIGRANT GROUP CHARACTERISTICS/COPING ATTRIBUTES BROUGHT SKILLS Education Occupation Income PRIMARY SUPPORT Marital Status Family Size Friends, Relatives ACQUIRED SKILLS Knowledge of Destination Language Fluency X SECONDARY SUPPORT Intermarriage Religion Urban/Rural Segregation Size/Institutional Completeness TIME Period of Residence Age at Migration LIFE EXPECTANCY IN ORIGIN LIFE EXPECTANCY IN DESTINATION ADAPTATION/STRESS COPING RESPONSE ADAPTATION INDICATORS Naturalization Mental Hospital Adm. Emigration DESTINATION CONDITIONS Environmental Technological Political Social Cultural Figure 1. A conceptual model of immigrant life expectancy. 56. 4. Immigrant group characteristics and coping attributes: This component contains four highly interrelated subgroups, two dealing with the immigrant's s k i l l s and two dealing with their support structure. They have been grouped together because destination conditions, demographics:,: and time a l l f i l t e r through each subgroup to exert the i r i n d i r e c t influence on longevity, and because c o l l e c t i v e l y , they determine the extent to which an immigrant experiences stress, or conversely, i s adapted to l i f e i n the destination. Aside from the pathway through adaptation and stress, each of the subgroups has a direct impact on l i f e expectancy. (a) Brought s k i l l s : The s k i l l s of education and occupation that most1 immigrants bring with them from their o r i g i n country, are the ones which w i l l help them get economically established. Education includes not only the formal aspects of schooling, but also the informal aspects of past experience with a par t i c u l a r stressor and learned coping s k i l l s . (b) Acquired s k i l l s : These s k i l l s refer to the immigrant's knowledge about conditions i n the destination along with his a b i l i t y to speak the language of the host country. Knowledge about conditions i n the destination includes such things as acceptable behaviour modes and i n s t i t u t i o n s to which one can turn to for support. The above two subgroups relate to the personal resources of the immigrant, whereas the following two subgroups relate to the resources of others. (c) Primary support: I t represents the more immediate support structure that an immigrant can draw upon for material and moral sustenance. The extent to which primary support i s available w i l l be reflected by the immigrant's marital status, family s i z e , and number of friends and r e l a t i v e s . 571 (d) Secondary support: I t represents a more widespread community based support structure. Secondary support r e f l e c t s the relationship between the immigrants and the host society as indicated by intermarriage, rel i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n , s i z e , i n s t i t u t i o n a l and r e s i d e n t i a l segregation, and urban concentration. The immigrant's s k i l l s and supports w i l l help i n shaping ithe action they take i n order to cope with the stress. 5.. Time: Overriding the impact of the destination conditions, demographics, and the immigrant characteristics and coping a b i l i t i e s , i s the time variable. I t takes the form not only of length of residence but also age at migration. 6. Adaptation: The degree of adaptation i s seen as being antonymous with the degree of stress that the immigrants are experiencing. Immigrants w i l l vary i n the amount of stress they are under for several reasons: (a) the amount of change and therefore the number of stressors brought on by migration i s not the same for a l l immigrants (b) the s k i l l s immigrants have, w i l l not only determine their perception of the stressors but also their a b i l i t y to make adaptive coping responses (c) the strength of the support structure w i l l not be the same for a l l immigrants. lack of adaptation, or the existence of stress, may lead to a coping response, which i n turn may a l t e r the immigrant's cha r a c t e r i s t i c s . If the response i s adaptive, the l e v e l of stress w i l l decrease. For example, an immigrant a r r i v i n g i n Canada unable to speak English or French may experience stress. If his response: i s :to learn one of :the languages, i t i s considered to be an adaptive response and stress w i l l be reduced. On 58. the other hand, the immigrant may choose to move into an ethnic neighbourhood where extensive knowledge of English or French may not be necessary. This coping response may also reduce stress, but perhaps not to the degree of the f i r s t response. The degree of stress experienced by an immigrant w i l l have an impact on his l i f e expectancy. With respect to the indicators of adaptation, high stress may have serious implications for the immigrant's mental health; he may also delay i n becoming a c i t i z e n , i n order to see i f conditions improve; or i t may lead to him choosing the f l i g h t part of the "f i g h t or f l i g h t " response, and result i n emigration. In studying immigrants to elucidate factors influencing longevity, one i s interested i n accounting for any change that may occur i n the l i f e expectancy of the immigrant. Thus, the focus of analysis i s not on the immigrant's l i f e expectancy per se, but rather on the change i n l i f e expectancy. Using the concepts presented i n F i g . 1 this can be expressed i n the following general functional form: Ae° = f (CONDITIONS, CHARACTERISTICS, STRESS, TIME) where, Ae° i s the change i n l i f e expectancy, that i s the difference i n longevity of the o r i g i n population and the immigrants. CONDITIONS i s the difference i n conditions i n the o r i g i n and destination countries. CHARACTERISTICS i s the difference i n the characteristics of the o r i g i n population and the immigrants. STRESS i s the degree of stress created by the immigration process. TIME i s the period of residence i n the destination country. 59. Hypotheses Certain hypotheses can be put forth with respect to the variables in the above function. Destination Conditions 1. The direction of change in the l i f e expectancy of an immigrant group w i l l depend on the relative conditions in the origin and destination countries. If the conditions in the destination country are such that they are conducive to a greater l i f e expectancy than the conditions in the origin country, i t is hypothesized that the l i f e expectancy of the immigrant group w i l l increase. Conversely, i t is hypothesized that the immigrant l i f e expectancy w i l l decrease i f the conditions in the origin country are more conducive to a longer l i f e than the conditions in the destination. 2. The degree of change in the l i f e expectancy of an immigrant group w i l l be positively related to the extent that the conditions in the destination country are conducive to a greater l i f e expectancy than the conditions in the origin country. Characteristics It w i l l not be possible to test hypotheses with respect to the impact of the changed characteristics of the immigrants on l i f e expectancy. However, specific hypotheses can be made with respect to the relationship between their role in reducing stress and l i f e expectancy. 60. Stress/Adaptation 1. The stress created by migration w i l l have a deleterious effect on the immigrant's l i f e expectancy. I t i s hypothesized that the stress w i l l be reduced by the immigrant's s k i l l s and supports and therefore they w i l l be p o s i t i v e l y related to l i f e expectancy change. 2. Since the males are primarily responsible for the economic well being of a family, i t i s hypothesized that the s k i l l factor w i l l play a greater role i n reducing stress i n males than i n females, and thus i t w i l l show a stronger relationship to the l i f e expectancy change of males than of females. On the other hand, since many of the females are non-working and isolated i n the home, i t i s hypothesized that the support network w i l l be more important i n reducing stress i n females than i n males, and thus i t w i l l show a stronger relationship to the l i f e expectancy change of females than of males. Time Time affects the influence that both the destination conditions and stress exert on l i f e expectancy. 1. With respect to destination conditions, i t i s hypothesized that the longer the immigrant group i s subjected to the destination conditions, the closer i t s l i f e expectancy w i l l be to that of the native-born. Therefore, depending on the r e l a t i v e conditions i n the o r i g i n and destination countries, i t may have a positive influence for some immigrants and a negative influence for others. 2. I t i s hypothesized that with the passing of time the immigrants w i l l f a m i l i a r i z e themselves with conditions i n the destination and establish themselves both s o c i a l l y and economically, and therefore stress w i l l be 61. reduced. Of the two variables, destination conditions and stress, i t i s hypothesized that destination conditions w i l l be the more important variable i f there i s a large potential for change, that i s , i f there i s a large difference between the conditions i n the o r i g i n and destination conditions. If there i s no such po t e n t i a l , i t i s hypothesized that the stress variables w i l l be more important. The methods for model s p e c i f i c a t i o n and estimation w i l l be presented i n the following chapter. 62. CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY, DATA, AND THE EMPIRICAL MODEL I n i t i a l l y t h i s chapter examines the commonly used methods for comparing the mortality of various populations. Following t h i s , the model to be used for s t a t i s t i c a l estimation and hypothesis testing i s developed and the data to be used i n i t are discussed. Methods of Mortality Comparison Since the mortality l e v e l of a population i s related to i t s age di s t r i b u t i o n , one would i d e a l l y examine the age-specific mortality rates i f comparing the mortality experience of two or more populations. However, when dealing with a large number of populations, as this thesis does, i t would be d i f f i c u l t to comprehend the differences i n so many rates. In order to f a c i l i t a t e comparison, a single figure, which would represent the experience of each group, i s required. A br i e f review of the more commonly used summary measures (crude death rate, direct and indirect standardization, l i f e tables), together with the reason for choosing l i f e tables follows. The crude death rate can be calculated from the equation, CDR = - * 1,000 where D i s the t o t a l number of deaths occurring i n a year and P i s the midyear population. I t i s usually expressed per 1,000 of the population. The crude death rate can also be devised i n the following manner, EM P x x CDR = —: * 1,000 ZP x where M i s the age-specific death rate for a given year and P i s the x x midyear population i n each group. From this l a t t e r equation one can see that this method weights the age-specificdeath rates by the age d i s t r i b u t i o n of the population. Therefore, comparisons of groups with d i f f e r i n g age distr i b u t i o n s could lead to erroneous conclusions. For example, immigrant group A and immigrant group B may have the same age-specific death rates, yet immigrant group A w i l l have a higher crude death rate i f a greater proportion of i t s population i s concentrated i n those age groups exhibiting high death rates. In order to avoid this problem, one may adjust the rates by holding the weights constant. The direct and i n d i r e c t method are two commonly used forms of standardization. The equation for direct standardization, . m p s DSDR = — — * 1,000 EP S x i s similar to that of the crude death rate, however, now the age-specific death rates of the groups to be compared are weighted by a standard population's age d i s t r i b u t i o n ( P S ) , rather than by each population's own age d i s t r i b u t i o n . Although the choice of the standard population i s arbi t r a r y , the results can vary considerably depending on which standard 64. is selected. Shryock et a l . (1975:419) found that when the population of the United States was used as a standard, the standardized death rate was 39 percent higher for El Salvador than for the United States, but when the population of E l Salvador was used, the El Salvador rate was 109 percent higher. If possible, the standard population selected should resemble the age distributions of the populations one i s comparing. This presents a problem for the present study, particularly in the comparison of immigrant groups. The flow of immigrants from country to country varies over time, reflecting the conditions in the origin and destination countries. For example, after World War II immigration virtua l l y ceased from the countries behind the Iron Curtain, while refugees, many of them young, streamed to Canada from other European countries. Since there had been negligible immigration during the war years, the immigrant populations born in the Iron Curtain countries would tend to be older than the immigrant populations born in some of the other European countries. Not only do the immigrant populations differ from each other, but also from the populations in the origin and destination countries. As a result of the varied age distributions that are being dealt with, i t would be extremely d i f f i c u l t to derive a standard population which would adequately reflect a l l of them. For indirect standarization the crude death rate of the standard population (CDR ) is multiplied by a ratio of the total number of deaths in the study population (D) to the total number of deaths that would occur i f i t were subjected to the age-specific mortality rates of the standard population (M )• The equation i s , ISDR = D * CDRS EMSP x x 65. In this method the study population provides the weights, whereas i n direct standardization the standard population provides the weights. As a consequence, the set of weights w i l l vary from immigrant group to immigrant group and thus the standardized rates would not be comparable. That i s , one could compare the standardized rates of immigrant groups A and B and A and C but not B and C (Shryock et a l . , 1975:422). Indirect standardization, therefore, would not be suitable for the purposes of this thesis. In this study, l i f e tables were chosen for the method of mortality comparison. The following discussion on l i f e tables r e l i e s extensively on Shryock et a l . (1975:429-450). The main advantage of the l i f e table as a summary measure of the mortality experience of a population i s , that unlike the crude death rate, i t avoids the use of an actual population d i s t r i b u t i o n , and unlike the standardized rate, i t does not require the selection of a suitable standard population. The weights used i n the l i f e table come from the stationary population (L^ values i n the l i f e table) which i s derived from the age-specific death rates. To some extent t h i s advantage i s also the disadvantage of the l i f e table method. Each set of age-specific death rates generates i t s own unique stationary population and therefore each set of weights i s d i f f e r e n t . However, even with this problem, according to Shryock et a l . (1975:429) l i f e tables provide "acceptable comparisons of levels of mortality i n different populations." Another reason for choosing this method was the a v a i l a b i l i t y of l i f e tables for many or i g i n countries. I f standardized rates had been used, i t would have meant c o l l e c t i n g mortality and population data for each o r i g i n country and for each time period under study. I t i s also easier to grasp the meaning of l i f e expectancy than of an index number. The l i f e tables were derived from the following equations. 66. 5 x = 5 x / 5 x 5 * M ,-q 5 x 5 x = 1 + 2.5CM 5 x 5 x = 5 x * x 1 „ . = 1 - ,d 1 100,000 x+5 x 5 x o 5 Lx " 2 ' 5 ( 1x + 1x+5> L85+ = 1 85+ / M85+ Tx Tx+ 5 + 5 Lx T85+ " L85+ e° = T / 1 x x x where , p 5 x i s the census population in the age group x to x+5 5^x is the number of deaths in the census year in the age group x to x+5 M 5 x is the death rate for the age group x to x+5 5^x is the proportion of the i n i t i a l cohort of 100,000 persons alive at age x, who w i l l die before they reach age x+5 1 is the number of persons out of the i n i t i a l cohort of 100,000 alive at exact age x 5^x is the number of person-years lived by the cohort between the ages x and x+5 d 5 x is the number of deaths occurring between the ages of x and x+5 is the total number of person-years lived by the cohort between the ages x and x+5 e° is the average remaining years of l i f e for those of the cohort who X survived to age x. For the Australian l i f e tables, J 3 was the population in age group x to J X x+5 based on the average of two censuses and D^^  Was the average„annual number of deaths occurring in the intercensus period in the age group x to x+5. Time Considerations: Some Problems Of Comparability Data availability determines the time period for which mortality comparisons can be made. A study of immigrant mortality in Canada is limited to the period 1926-52, for only then were the deaths reported by country of birth. For the purposes of this thesis, the time frame is further reduced, as only for the years 1941-52 were the deaths cross-tabulated by age. Ideally, in order to avoid annual fluctuations i n the mortality data, and also in order to increase the number of cases and therefore the s t a t i s t i c a l r e l i a b i l i t y , a l l the deaths in the intercensus period should be used. However, in 1951, the population data required to calculate the death rates and subsequent l i f e tables were published for only a limited number of immigrant groups. Consequently, separate l i f e tables were calculated for 1941 and 1951. In Australia, deaths were cross-tabulated by age by sex by country of birth for the years 1907-1940. Starting in 1946, immigrants deaths were again published, but not by age. Unpublished cross-tabulations exist 68. back to at least 1961. However, numerous attempts to obtain this data have been unsuccessful. Therefore, the Australian l i f e tables were calculated for the intercensus periods of 1911-21 and 1921-33. Unfortunately for this study, the data for Canada and Aus t r a l i a are not available for si m i l a r time periods. Since most world countries have seen a general increase i n l i f e expectancies, i t i s not v a l i d to d i r e c t l y compare the l i f e expectancies of immigrants i n Canada i n 1941 and 1951 with those i n Australia i n 1911-21 and 1921-33. One solution may be to determine the amount of change that has occurred i n the l i f e expectancy i n Canada and then to increase the l i f e expectancies of immigrants i n A u s t r a l i a proportionately. The other alternative, and the one used i n this study, i s to confine the comparison to the ranking of immigrant groups i n each destination country. However, the assumption s t i l l has to be made that over time the l i f e expectancies of the o r i g i n populations a l l increased about the same, or i f there were d i f f e r e n t i a l increases, they were not of s u f f i c i e n t magnitude to a l t e r the ranks of the o r i g i n countries and therefore of the immigrants. Table II indicates that for both sexes this was i n fact the case. With the exception of Germany and England and Wales the ranks have been very stable. Consequently the ranks were thought to give a f a i r indication as to which groups did better i n Canada and which did better i n Au s t r a l i a . S t i l l , given the crude nature of the ranks, any observations made about changes i n the r e l a t i v e ranking of an immigrant group w i l l be interpreted only on a conjectural basis. They are seen as groundwork for future possible hypothesis development and testing. Model .Development' The model developed i n this thesis takes the form of a single l i n e a r equation, the parameters of which are to be obtained through multiple 69. Table I I . Rank of o r i g i n countries according to l i f e expectancy at age 40, by sex, 1911-21, 1921-33 and 1941. 1 Males 1941 1921-33 1911-21 Norway 1 1 1 Sweden 2 2 2 Denmark 3 3 3 Germany 4 5 8 It a l y 5 4 4 Ireland 6 6 5 United States 7 8 7 Scotland 8 9 9 England, Wales 9 7 6 France 10 10 10 Females 1941 1921-33 1911-21 Norway 1 1 1 Sweden 2 2 2 Germany 3 4 7 France 4 6 5 I t a l y 5 5 4 England, Wales 6 3 3 United States 7 8 8 Scotland 8 7 6 Ireland 9 9 9 1. For source see page 70. 70. regression techniques. I t endeavours to account for the differentialchanges i n l i f e expectancies experienced by immigrant groups i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a . For Canadian immigrants i t attempts to do this i n terms of the degree of change between the conditions i n the o r i g i n and the conditions i n the destination, as well as i n terms of the immigrant groups' characteristics. These characteristics are subjected to factor analysis before they are entered into the model. For immigrants i n A u s t r a l i a , only the variable Conditions i s included i n the model. As was shown i n the previous chapter, the mortality l e v e l of a population i s closely linked to i t s sex r a t i o . In order to overcome this problem separate models are developed for males and females. The f i n a l form of the models are presented at the end of the chapter. Dependent Variable The dependent variable i n the empirical model i s the change i n l i f e expectancy, as measured by the l i f e expectancy difference between the o r i g i n population and the immigrant group i n the destination. The l i f e expectancies i n the o r i g i n countries were obtained from l i f e tables published i n World Health Organization (1952), Keyfitz and Flieger (1968), and Preston et a l . , (1972). Where more than one l i f e table was available the values were averaged. The immigrant l i f e expectancies were taken from the l i f e tables (Appendix B-I) calculated according to the equations given e a r l i e r . For most immigrant groups there were only a few members, and thus only a few deaths, i n the age groups below 40. Since mortality rates based on small populations are not very r e l i a b l e , l i f e expectancy at age 40 was chosen as the point of comparison, rather than the usual l i f e expectancy at b i r t h . I t should be recognized that the strength, and the ordering of independent variables entering the regression equation, may vary somewhat 71. with the choice of comparison points. Possible Data Errors A great deal of this thesis i s based on the l i f e tables which are derived from the death and population figures, cross-tabulated by age, by sex, by country of b i r t h . This section w i l l focus on the possible error i n these two bodies of data, namely the v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s and census data. Part i c u l a r emphasis w i l l be placed on the errors i n the reporting of age and country of b i r t h and how the errors i n these variables compare i n the two data sets. !• Coverage error The extent of underenumeration i n recent Canadian censuses has been estimated by the census authorities using a technique known as the Reverse Record Check. In this procedure, for the 1971 census check, a sample was drawn from those enumerated i n the 1966 census as we l l as those missed (as determined by the 1966 Reverse Record Check). These individuals were then traced to see i f they had been included i n the 1971 census. Such checks estimated that the underenumeration rate i n the Canadian census was 3.3 percent i n 1961, 2.6 percent i n 1966 and 1.9 percent i n 1971(Brackstone and Gosselin, 1973; Brackstone and Gosselin, 1974). The undercoverage rate was not evenly distributed among population subgroups. In 1971 the undernumeration rate for immigrants was s l i g h t l y higher (2.05 percent) than for the t o t a l population. Within the immigrant population, the underenumeration rate was three times greater for the recent a r r i v a l s (1966-71) than for those who had resided i n Canada for at least f i v e years (4.25 percent, 1.43 percent respectively) (Brackstone and Gosselin, 1974). According to Brackstone and Gosselin (1975), the higher rate for new immigrants may possibly be attributed to their higher mobility 72. or i t may have been that they were c l a s s i f i e d as foreign residents and therefore excluded from the census. With respect to age, i n 1971 the highest undercoverage for both sexes was i n the 20-24 year old group (males 4.97 percent, females 4.01 percent) (Brackstone and Gosselin, 1974). Benyon et a l . (1970) reported that i n 1961 the undercoverage rate for the 15-24 year old group was probably closer to 10 percent. This i s i n keeping with the increased percentage for the t o t a l population. Coverage rates for the census of Aus t r a l i a were not available. I t appears that the extent of death r e g i s t r a t i o n has never been examined i n any published study i n Canada. However, according to the Demographic Yearbook (1958), i t i s 90 percent or more complete. In the United States "although there has never been a r e l i a b l e evaluation made of death r e g i s t r a t i o n completeness, i t has always been assumed that v i r t u a l l y a l l deaths are reported i n the United States. I t i s unlikely that more than 1 or 2 percent of the deaths go unrecorded" (United States National Center for Health S t a t i s t i c s , 1964:37). There i s no reason to assume that the figure i s higher for Canada or Aus t r a l i a given the leg a l pressures involved i n reporting deaths and the d i f f i c u l t y i n disposing of a body are sim i l a r i n a l l three countries. As was the case i n the census there may be d i f f e r e n t i a l reporting within population subgroups. "The group whose deaths are most l i k e l y to escape r e g i s t r a t i o n are infants, whose passing often carries less l e g a l and emotional significance than the death of persons at other ages" (Preston et a l . , 1972:29). According to Shryock et a l . (1975:396), deaths of the newborn may also be registered improperly as f e t a l deaths. If i n fact mortality r e g i s t r a t i o n was more complete than the census enumeration.it would have the effect of i n f l a t i n g the death rates i n a l l population sugroups. D i f f e r e n t i a l enumeration i n the census between the 73. native and foreign-born, but r e l a t i v e l y equal coverage i n the mortality s t a t i s t i c s would lead to s l i g h t l y i n f l a t e d rates i n the foreign-born. S i m i l a r l y , within the foreign-born, enumeration v a r i a t i o n would a r t i f i c i a l l y produce s l i g h t variations i n the death rates. Unfortunately the Reverse Record Check did not provide underenumeration rates for immigrants by country of b i r t h . 2. Response error Response errors to questions on the census and death c e r t i f i c a t e may or may not be of an intentional nature. People often w i l l i n g l y l i e about their age. Wolfenden (1954:53) and Preston et a l . (1972:25) both report that i n the census, young people approaching the age of majority tend to overstate their age. There i s also an overstatement of age i n the . : elderly, p a r t i c u l a r l y among those approaching 65, the age of retirement and s o c i a l security benefits. Persons i n the intermediate years generally tend to understate the i r age. With respect to country of b i r t h , war time h o s t i l i t i e s may have led people to purposely give a wrong answer. For example, i n the two Canadian censuses (1921, 1941) that coincided with the World Wars, there was a sharp decline i n the German-born population (Table I I I ) . I t i s extremely doubtful that such a large decrease could be explained by emigration alone. Ryder (1955), i n a study of o r i g i n s t a t i s t i c s of Lunenberg County i n Nova Scotia stated, "here i s a stable population i n which apparently nearly half the Germans decided that for at least one census (1941) i t would be p o l i t i c for them to become B r i t i s h , Dutch, and even possibly French i n o r i g i n . " He also noted that i n Canada as a whole this tendency had been twice as high i n World War I. I t i s not known i f sim i l a r errors exist i n the mortality data. Table l i t . Number of German-born In Canada at various census periods. Census Number 1911 39, 577 1921 25, 266 1931 39, 163 1941 28, 479 1951 42, 693 Source: Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , 1951 Census of Canada, Volume I. Table 44. 75. Many of the errors in'reporting age and country of birth are of an unintentional nature. The respondent may not understand the question or the instructions on how to answer the questions. In reporting age, the respondent has to rely on his memory and therefore may give a round number which approximates his age. As a result, in both the census (Myers, 1954; Norland and Litven, 1975; Shryock et a l . , 1975:204) and the death data (Greville, 1946:120; Wolfenden, 1954:65) there i s heaping at ages ending in 0 and 5. The numerous shifts in the various countries' boundaries has increased the possibility of error in the reporting of country of birth. Even though the respondent may have been asked to give the place of birth according to present geographical boundaries, there was the risk that they were " l i k e l y to report their country of birth according to the boundaries which existed at the time of birth, or at the time of emigration, even though their birthplace may since have become a part of another country" (United Nations, 1949:49). This may have resulted from the respondent overlooking the instructions or not knowing in which country his place of birth was presently included. The Canadian census tried to minimize this error by instructing the enumerators to ask for the province, d i s t r i c t , or nearest city in those instances where there was d i f f i c u l t y in determining the country of birth. The instructions for the Australian census, however, specifically stated that the respondent should give the country and not the town or locality of birth. The accuracy of the reporting in the Canadian and Australian censuses have never been:'examined by follow up interview. Follow up studies conducted in the United States may provide an indication as to the extent of error. In the 1950 Post Enumeration Survey, 6.91 percent of the 55-64 year olds were reported in a different age group in the census. 76. The net error, however, was only 2.18 percent. In the other age groups the errors were smaller. The Content Evaluation Study of the 1960 census showed that the magnitude of the errors in age reporting had decreased CShryock et a l . , 1975:214). For birthplace, the 1950 difference in foreign-born versus native-born reporting was only 0.6 percent. However, for specific countries of birth, there was only a 90 percent similarity (United States Bureau of the Census, 1954:5). This report concluded that, "where there have been boundary changes or changes i n the o f f i c i a l name of the country, classification i s far from accurate. However, in the case of countries which have maintained the same boundaries over a long period of time and the differentiations are clear cut, a reasonably adequate classification i s made." 3. Not stated Although the number of age or birthplace 'not stated' have been less than 1 percent in the various census and death registration periods, omission or wrong inclusion of them could lead to significant errors when dealing with cells containing small numbers as is the case with many of the immigrant groups. The treatment of the 'not stated' has varied from census to census and from country to country. In Canada, starting with the 1941 census, the age 'not stated' were distributed prior to publication according to the laws of probability (Canada, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 1948:121, 123). Birthplace 'not stated' were f i r s t distributed in the 1951 census, in a manner similar to the 1941 age 'not stated' (Canada, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 1953:XVII). In 1941 they were included with the foreign-born tabulations but no reason was given for doing this. It seems unreasonable to think that there were no native-born among the 'not stated'. 77. A United States Bureau of the Census study (1974:50) which reinterviewed a sample of the 1970 census respondents, found that those who had not stated their place of b i r t h were divided proportionately between the native-born and foreign-born. They did not extend the study to include s p e c i f i c countries of b i r t h . The size of the 'not stated' category was larger i n the Australian data. The maximum was s l i g h t l y over 2 percent and was for birthplace 'not stated' i n the death data. In the 1911 and 1921 censuses of A u s t r a l i a , the number of 'not stated' were given i n the tabulations, but i n the summary reports they were distributed proportionately among the various age and country of b i r t h groups. In the 1933 census this was done prior to the publication of the data. In the mortality s t a t i s t i c s neither the Canadian nor the Australian authorities made an attempt to di s t r i b u t e the 'not stated'. Since i n some cases the census 'not stated' had already been assigned to s p e c i f i c age and birthplace groups, i t was necessary to do the same for the other census years and for the mortality data. This was done on a proportionate basis. Although the use of this technique made a l l the Australian figures compatible, i t may have introduced a bias into the Canadian figures, since as was noted, i n some instances the census authorities made use of other information on the return i n order to dist r i b u t e the 'not stated'. However, this error i s probably much smaller than the error that would have resulted i f the 'not stated' had been excluded from the mortality data but included i n the census data. 4. Comparability of information on the death c e r t i f i c a t e and the  census return " I t must be realized, however, that fundamentally we are interested 78. neither i n the death r e g i s t r a t i o n nor the census data, but only i n their r a t i o . Combining the two sets of data gives the user the benefit of what are nearly always p a r t i a l l y compensating errors" (Preston et a l . , 1972:29). The calculation of death rates and the subsequent l i f e tables r e l i e s on information received form the death c e r t i f i c a t e s and the census return. I f the errors are consistent on both records they w i l l compensate each other and therefore have minimal effect on the calculated values. However, i f the errors are not consistent, a s i g n i f i c a n t error could be introduced, especially i f there i s a major discrepancy i n birthplace reporting for immigrant groups with small populations. If any d i f f i c u l t i e s should arise with a census question, the s p e c i f i c member of the household can usually be consulted. On the other hand, the death c e r t i f i c a t e information i s provided by the next of kin who may not know an answer and have no other source for the i r information. In the i r state of g r i e f , the re l a t i v e s may wish to dispense with the formalities as rapidly as possible and therefore may not be completely accurate i n th e i r responses. Also, as was noted by Barclay (1958:81), death " r e g i s t r a t i o n i s carried on as a by-product of an administrative routine, not primarily for the sake of the information (as i s the census). The accuracy of the information assumes a secondary importance." Consequently, the death c e r t i f i c a t e s may contain more errors than the census returns. Several studies have examined the extent of contradiction i n the census return and the death c e r t i f i c a t e , however, none related to Canada. G r e v i l l e (1946:121), using United States data, compared 1935 deaths with the 1940 census. He found that d i g i t a l preference was similar i n both, but that among whites age heaping was more extensive i n the population than i n 79. the deaths, whereas i n the non-whites the reverse was true. By grouping the data into f i v e years age categories., he was able to smooth the i r r e g u l a r i t i e s . For a study by Kitagawa and Hauser (1973) on d i f f e r e n t i a l mortality i n the United States, a large sample of deaths occurring during the four month period of May-August, 1960, were matched to the 1960 census returns. One National Center for Health S t a t i s t i c s study (1968) u t i l i z e d this information to compare age, while another (1969) compared n a t i v i t y and birthplace. With respect to age, there was 69 percent agreement on single years of age and 86 percent agreement when the ages were grouped into f i v e year classes. The extent of agreement was considerably higher for the white population than for the coloured population. Unlike G r e v i l l e (1946:121), they found that heaping was more prominent on the death c e r t i f i c a t e (United States National Center for Health S t a t i s t i c s , 1968:5). The American results were compared with a 1951 B r i t i s h study ( i n United States National Center for Health S t a t i s t i c s , 1968:14) i n which there was 79 percent agreement i n single years of age, with another 4 percent d i f f e r i n g by only one year. In both, agreement tended to decline with increasing age. Where there was a difference, the age on the death c e r t i f i c a t e was often older than on the census. The conclusion for the B r i t i s h and for white Americans was that the differences would probably not appreciably affect the actual age-specific death rates. Since t h i s study uses grouped data and since both Canada and A u s t r a l i a have only a small coloured population, there i s no reason to assume that the same conclusion would not be true for their data. Haenszel (1961:43) compared the birthplace information of 1500 cancer deaths, that occurred i n June, 1950 i n the United States with the 1950 census. In n a t i v i t y reporting (native-born or foreign-born) he found 80. the gross error to be less than 4 percent. Since some of the errors i n n a t i v i t y reporting would have cancelled each other out (some foreign-born reporting as native-born and vice versa) the net error would have been lower. For sp e c i f i c countries of b i r t h the ove r a l l agreement on the two documents was 87 percent, however, the extent of agreement varied among the countries, with Poland, Austria, and Germany having the lowest figures. Haenszel concluded that for the purposes of examining immigrant group va r i a t i o n i n the incidence of cancer, inconsistent reporting was not an important error source. The 1969 National Center for Health S t a t i s t i c s study reported that i n 1960 there was an extremely high concurrence of 98 percent for both the native- and foreign-born (1969:23). The overall match i n country of b i r t h among the white foreign-born was 93 percent (:25), but this figure ranged from 78 percent to 100 percent for s p e c i f i c countries (:26). As i n Haenszel's study, the greatest disparity was found i n those European countries which had experienced extensive boundary changes. The best agreement was for Norway, Sweden, Finland, Canada, Italy, and Mexico. Unfortunately the findings can not be used to adjust the death rates for the various immigrant groups, since the data they used were only for those recorded as foreign-born on the census. They omitted those who were recorded as native-born but may have been foreign-born. Kitagawa and Hauser (1973:107) did calculate ' p a r t i a l l y corrected' death rates for the purposes of warning the reader against "accepting uncorrected d i f f e r e n t i a l s at face value." The corrections did change the r e l a t i v e ranks of some countries but the changes were not excessive. Other errors, such as processing errors, may exist i n the data, but there i s no reason to assume that they are not equally prevalent i n the two data sets. 81. Although no such studies exist for the Canadian and Australian census and mortality data, i t i s l i k e l y that they suffer from similar errors. Given that i t i s not possible to correct the data, one should heed Kitagawa and Hauser's warning when interpreting the re s u l t s , especially those for immigrants from the war torn European countries. In the regression analysis, two sets of equations were derived for the immigrants i n Canada; one included the immigrants from countries with extensive boundary changes and the other did not. In A u s t r a l i a , boundary changes presented a problem for only the German immigrants. Consequently, only one set of regression equations was derived, and i t included the Germans. The immigrant groups used i n the derivation of each equation are outlined i n Table V. 5. Difference and changes, i n the coverage area The 1949 admission of Newfoundland into Confederation broke the continuity of the Canadian census and mortality figures. In order to make the 1951 data compatible with the e a r l i e r data, a l l residents of Newfoundland and people born i n Newfoundland but residing i n one of the other Canadian provinces were omitted from the tabulations. Also, residents of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s and the Yukon were removed from the census data, as they were not included i n the mortality data u n t i l 1956. The area covered by the Australian data sets has been constant over the time period under study. 6. Difference i n inclusion The census of Canada follows the die jure method, enumerating only those people who are permanent residents of Canada. V i s i t o r s who are residents of other countries are excluded, while Canadian residents abroad 82. are included. The Australian census, on the other hand, counts the _e facto population, that is a l l the people who are actually present in Australia at the time of the census regardless of whether or not they are permanent residents. Since few people travel when they are i l l , these visitors w i l l tend to deflate the death rates of the immigrant groups. Another difference in the Canadian and Australian data i s , that in Canada, native Indians and Eskimos are included, even though i t is recognized that their undercoverage rate is high. The Australians, however, did not include the Aborigines in their figures until 1966. These groups have considerably higher death rates than the rest of the native-born. Thus, i f other things were equal, the Canadian native-born death rates would be higher than the Australian ones. Independent Variables One of the factors contributing to the l i f e expectancy change, as we have calculated i t , is the difference in characteristics between the remaining population in the origin country and the immigrant group in the destination country. These differences may result from the reason for migration (voluntary or involuntary), self-selection, selection by the immigration authorities in the destination, and from changes occurring in response to the conditions in the destination. The immigration authorities in Canada and Australia collect : information on the characteristics of the immigrants, but very l i t t l e has been published, and the unpublished material are generally unavailable. Therefore, in order to determine any change in characteristics, one is l e f t with the census data in the origin and destination countries. If one 83. were to undertake the task of co l l e c t i n g the data for each o r i g i n country, one would also be faced with the d i f f i c u l t i e s of standardizing the data for each variable to a common d e f i n i t i o n . Even with this done, the problem of any genetic selection would s t i l l remain. By not incorporating the d i f f e r i n g characteristics of the o r i g i n and immigrant populations into the model, the explanatory power of i t w i l l be reduced by the extent to which these d i f f e r i n g characteristics have affected the longevity of the immigrants. Variable Definitions, Calculations, and Problems The majority of the independent variables are derived from census data and therefore they suffer from errors s i m i l a r to those outlined for the dependent variable. However, the errors assume importance only to the degree of their d i f f e r e n t i a l occurrence among the immigrant groups. Problems s p e c i f i c to a given variable are discussed when the variable i s defined. As was stated e a r l i e r , the model i s to be developed separately for males and females. For some of the variables the census data was not available by sex and therefore the assumption had to be made that the di s t r i b u t i o n was similar for both males and females. Since males have a shorter l i f e expectancy than females, i t was thought that the bias introduced into a single model, by the varying sex r a t i o of the immigrant groups, would be greater than i f the above assumption was made. The following variables related to the t o t a l immigrant group. Language: the percentage of an immigrant group whose o f f i c i a l language i s English, French, or both. Religion: the percentage of an immigrant group belonging to one of the four main reli g i o u s groups i n Canada. (Roman Catholic, Anglican, United Church, Presbyterian). From the l i t e r a t u r e review i t would appear that for health purposes i t does not matter which religious group one belongs to, but rather that one attends church. The main reli g i o u s groups were therefore aggregated i n order to focus on the d i f f i c u l t i e s of minority r e l i g i o n s . If the majority of members of an immigrant group adhere to a minority r e l i g i o n , they may not have easy access to a church of their f a i t h and thus to the benefits i t provides. Segregation; an index of population dispersion based on the var i a t i o n i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of an immigrant group and the t o t a l population i n the counties or census divi s i o n s . This variable was taken from Hurd (1965:93). See his discussion for the methodology behind his calculations. Emigration: the 1931-1941 rate of emigration from Canada. The rates were calculated from the following equation: EMIG fc»t+l POP_ - POP__ + ZIMMIG • - EDEATHS t t+1 tr* t+1 t-»t+l 0.5 (P0P t + POP 1) where, P0P t = 1931 population of the immigrant group P0P t +^ = 1941 population of the immigrant group ZIMMIG^^^ = immigrant group a r r i v a l s i n the intercensal period 1931-1941 E D E A T H S ^ = immigrant group deaths i n the intercensal period 1931-1941. 85. Canada does not keep any emigration records. As a result one i s forced to estimate emigration by crude methods. The residual technique used here i s affected not only by the errors i n the death and population data outlined e a r l i e r , but also by similar errors i n the immigration data. These errors are further compounded by varying d e f i n i t i o n s of immigrants i n the census and immigration data. For example, children born i n a foreign country to Canadian parents are included i n the foreign-born i n the census but they do not appear i n the immigration data, as they are considered to be.Canadian residents. Also, i f landed immigrants leave Canada and return, they may be included i n the immigration s t a t i s t i c s twice, but th i s would not show up i n the census figures. A Department of Citizenship and Immigration Study (1963:9) showed that i n the period 1951-61, these d e f i n i t i o n discrepancies created only a 0.1 percent difference. Unfortunately there i s no way of estimating the t o t a l error i n the emigration rates. When the emigration rates were calculated, many were negative. As a resu l t , this variable was excluded from further analysis. Although data on the following variables were available by sex, i n terms of the theory they made more sense i f the t o t a l population was used. Sex r a t i o : the r a t i o of males to females i n an immigrant group. Children: the percentage of an immigrant group that i s less than 15 years of age. Size: the percentage of the t o t a l population that an immigrant group accounts for. For the following variables the data were separated by sex. Education: the percentage of males and females of an immigrant group, 10 years of age and older, with 5 or more years of formal education. Married: the percentage of '.males and females of an immigrant group, 86. 15 years of age and older, that are married. To some extent this variable i s misleading i n that even though married, many male immigrants come to Canada alone, and either return to their families at a l a t e r date or bring them to Canada after they are sett l e d . Urban: the percentage of males and females of an immigrant group that reside i n urban areas, where urban i s defined as incorporated c i t i e s with a population of 30,000 or more. Period of residence: the average period of residence i n Canada for the males and females of an immigrant group. Nationality: the percentage of males and females of an immigrant group that are Canadian c i t i z e n s . For B r i t i s h subjects this variable i s biased, as they were considered to be cit i z e n s as soon as they had met the required domicile period. Data was available only for the t o t a l B r i t i s h I s l e s . Therefore the same value was assigned for England and Wales, Ireland, and Scotland. Mental hospital admissions: the average annual (1940-42) number of male and female f i r s t admissions to mental hospitals per 100,000 of an immigrant group. Hurd (1965:247), amongst others, has shown that mental i l l n e s s rates increase with age. As a consequence, the crude rates used i n this study w i l l be biased to the extent that the age dis t r i b u t i o n s of the various immigrant groups d i f f e r . Also, the perception of mental i l l n e s s and the use of mental hospitals may vary from immigrant group to immigrant group. This may account for some of the observed d i f f e r e n t i a l s i n mental hospital admissions. 87. Conditions: the difference i n the o r i g i n and destination conditions for males and females. The variable was calculated as the difference between the l i f e expectancy, at age 40, of the native-born i n the destination country and the population i n the immigrant's o r i g i n country. The l i f e tables for the native-born were derived i n the same manner as those for the immigrant groups. The calculation of this variable i s based on the assumption that to a large extent, l i f e expectancy r e f l e c t s the environmental, technological, p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and c u l t u r a l conditions of a country. For data sources see Appendix A. The study years 1911-21 and 1941, included periods of world war. Although the mortality figures excluded the war dead, independent variables may have been affected. For example, many females, even though married, would be l i v i n g a single l i f e . Also, the stress of the times may have increased mental admissions. The extent to which the abnormal conditions created by war has made our results untypical i s not known. Factor Analysis According to Messinger et al . ( 1 9 6 4 ) , "one could compute demographic variables and relate death rates to them d i r e c t l y by multiple regression.... The r e s u l t , though, might be hard to interpret because the demographic variables are so interrelated." They, and Buckatzsch (1947) before them, recommended using factor analysis i n r e l a t i n g demographic conditions to mortality. Factor analysis i s a multivariate technique that examines variations or patterns of relationships i n a data set. I t has many applications 88. (Rummel, 1970:39-32), with one of the more important ones being data reduction. Often much of the v a r i a t i o n i n a data set can be expressed i n terms of a smaller set of components or factors. If so, this reduced set can be used i n place of the o r i g i n a l data. In this study multiple regression techniques w i l l be used to try to account for variations i n changes i n immigrant l i f e expectancy. Since we are dealing with r e l a t i v e l y few immigrant groups a reduction i n the number of independent variables i s necessary. A form of factor analysis known as component analysis i s useful for such purposes (Muliak 1972:1974). In component analysis each of the variables i s described as a lin e a r combination of the new components or factors. The basic model i s : Z. = A..F. A F , A F J ]1 1 + j 2 2 + .... j n n where = o r i g i n a l variable j i n standardized form A = loading of variable j on factor 1 F = factor The component analysis was undertaken using the p r i n c i p l e axis technique. This method orders the factors such that the f i r s t one accounts for the largest share of the variance while each following factor accounts for the largest share of the subsequent residual variance. The number of factors created by component analysis i s generally equal to the number of variables i n the data set, thus the l a s t factors usually account for only t r i v i a l proportions of the variance. Since we are interested i n data reduction a decision has to be made as to how many factors to extract. According to Rummel (1970:169), "factoring usually stops at the point where no additional 89. s i g n i f i c a n t or meaningful variance remains." There i s however, no precise solution as to when to stop factoring (Ehrenberg, 1962:196; Comrey, 1973:101). The eigenvalue one c r i t e r i o n used i n this study appears to be the most frequently used method of l i m i t i n g factors. In t h i s method a l l those factors which account for more than their proportionate share of the variance are included. As was e a r l i e r noted, i n p r i n c i p a l component analysis, the f i r s t factor accounts for the maximum amount of v a r i a t i o n i n the data and the subsequent factors each account for the maximum remaining residual v a r i a t i o n . In doing t h i s , the f i r s t factor i s often inserted between clusters of variables, thus creating a general factor on which most variables may have high loadings (Rummel, 1970:373; Goddard and Kirby, 1976:22). Since the second factor i s inserted orthogonally to the f i r s t , i t tends to be bipolar, that i s some variables have high positive loadings and others have high negative loadings. This often leads to d i f f i c u l t y i n interpreting the factors. Rotation of the factors around the o r i g i n so they a l i g n with variable, clusters, leads to variables being i d e n t i f i e d with one or a ' small proportion of the factors. Such a solution often provides better defined factors and i s referred to as a simple structure solution. The rotations may be either orthogonal or oblique. In an orthogonal rotation the factors are forced to remain uncorrelated, whereas i n an oblique rotation they are not. Since we are interested i n inputting the factor analysis results into a multiple regression analysis, orthogonal rotation has been used. The factor scores (see below) resulting from such a rotation w i l l be l i n e a r l y independent and uncorrelated (Rummel, 1970:386) and thus meet a basic assumption of multiple regression. 90. An orthogonal rotation can be obtained by using various algebraic c r i t e r i a (Gorsuch, 1974:190-195), however, the one most widely used and the one employed i n this study i s the varimax c r i t e r i o n . "As the name implies, t h i s seeks to maximise the variance of the loadings on each factor, that i s to achieve as many high and as many low loadings as possible" (Goddard and Kirby, 1976). The factors are therefore s i m p l i f i e d and thus easier to interpret. The score of a given entity, such as an immigrant group, on a particular factor i s referred to as i t s factor score. In order to calculate i t , the loadings of each variable on a factor are multiplied by the immigrant group's standardized value for that variable. The sum of these products i s the factor score. Unlike c l a s s i c a l factor analysis methods, where the factor scores have to be estimated, the use of p r i n c i p a l components allows for their, exact calculation. The factor scores were used as independent variables i n the regression equations. The factor analysis included a l l the independent variables except Conditions. Data was used for immigrants from the following countries: Austria, Belgium, China, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, England and Wales, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, I t a l y , Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,Roumania, Russia, Scotland, Sweden, United States, and Yugoslavia. Data Transformation Factor analysis i s based on a matrix of correlation coefficients of the variables. These correlation coefficients w i l l be biased i f the di s t r i b u t i o n of the variables includes extreme values, that i s i f the di s t r i b u t i o n i s highly skewed. They w i l l also be biased i f non-linear 91. relationships exist between the variables. According to Rummel (1972:175) one procedure to improve the raw data i s to normalize i t , "£ince two variables having normal distributions increase the li k e l i h o o d of their relationship being l i n e a r . Thus, the closer to normality the distrib u t i o n s are transformed, the more insurance against c u r v i l i n e a r i t y biasing the findings." The data for each variable were subjected to log^Q, square root, arcsin and square transformations. The raw data and the various transformed data for each variable were then tested for normality by use of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test compares the observed and theoretical cumulative frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s . If at any point the deviation between the two distrib u t i o n s i s greater than the c r i t i c a l values provided i n a standard Kolmogorov-Smirnov table, the hypothesis of normality i s rejected. The d i s t r i b u t i o n that best approximated the normal d i s t r i b u t i o n was chosen for use i n the calculation of the correlation c o e f f i c i e n t s . The variables and the transformations used have been summarized i n Table IV.• I t should be noted, that both Messinger et a l . , (1964) and Moser and Scott (1961) found that transformation did not make a substantial difference i n the factor analysis of demographic data. Multiple Regression Multiple regression i s a s t a t i s t i c a l technique which allows one to measure the relationship between a dependent variable and a set of independent variables. The multiple regression model takes the general form: 1 Table IV. Summary of data transformations, Canada 1941. Variable Total Male Female Language Religion Segregation Sex Ratio Children Size Education Married Urban Period of Residence Nationality Mental Hospital Adm. Conditions Dependent SQRD ARCSIN SQRT LOG 10 SQRT LOG 10 ARCSIN SQRD SQRT ARCSIN SQRD LOG 10 RAW RAW ARCSIN SQRD RAW ARCSIN RAW LOG 10 RAW RAW 1. The table gives the name of the FORTRAN function used to transform the data. 93. Y = a + b.x, + b„x„ + + b x + E 1 1 2 2 n n where Y = the dependent variable a = constant b = p a r t i a l regression c o e f f i c i e n t x = independent variable E = residual or error term Essentially the equation shows how to weight the independent variables i n order to obtain the best prediction of the dependent variable. A stepwise solution was used to calculate the equation. In this method, "the computer would enter variables i n single steps from best to worst .... The variable that explains the greatest amount of variance i n the dependent variable w i l l enter f i r s t ; the variable that explains the greatest amount of variance i n conjunction with the f i r s t w i l l enter second, and so on" (Nie et a l . , 1975:345). With each entry, the coefficient of determination (R ) was calculated. I t i s a s t a t i s t i c which indicates how much of the va r i a t i o n i n the dependent variable i s being explained by the independent variables. For each analysis, two equations were calculated, one included a l l of the independent variables and the other included only those that increased the proportion of explained v a r i a t i o n to a s i g n i f i c a n t degree (.05 l e v e l ) . The computer programs for both the factor analysis and the multiple regression were from the S t a t i s t i c a l Package for the Social Sciences (Nie et a l . , 1975). The immigrant groups used i n the regression analysis are outlined i n Table V. Table V. Immigrant groups used i n the regression analysis, Canada 1941, Australia 1911-21, 1921-33. Canada 1941 Australia 1921-33 Australia 1911-21 Males 2 Females Males Females Males Females • 1 Austria Austria"*" Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Belgium England, Wales England, Wales England, Wales England, Wales England, Wales Denmark Finland France France France France England, Wales France Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Finland Greece Ireland Ireland Ireland France ^ Ireland Ireland I t a l y I t a l y I t a l y Germany^ Hungary It a l y I t a l y New Zealand Netherlands New Zealand Norway Netherlands Norway New Zealand Norway Ireland Poland New Zealand Scotland Norway Scotland I t a l y Scotland Norway South A f r i c a Scotland Sweden Norway^ Poland Sweden Scotland Sweden Sweden Switzerland United States South A f r i c a Switzerland Switzerland United States Scotland Spain United States United States Sweden Sweden United States Switzerland United States 1. As a result of extensive boundary changes, a second set of regression equations was calculated omitting these countries. -2. Some of the female immigrant groups were excluded from analysis because of the low number of deaths. 95. Testable Model The model to be tested for immigrant groups i n Canada i s : Ae° = a + b,CONDITIONS + boSUPP0RT + b 0SKILLS + b.TIME 40 1 2 3 4 where Ae^Q i s the difference i n l i f e expectancy between the immigrant group and the population i n the o r i g i n country CONDITIONS i s the difference i n l i f e expectancy between the o r i g i n and destination populations SUPPORT i s the support structure of an immigrant group SKILLS i s the brought and acquired s k i l l s of an immigrant group TIME i s the period of residence i n the destination country The indices for support, s k i l l s , and time are derived from the factor analysis of the independent variables. Although the model i s presented i n an additive form, the estimation of a m u l t i p l i c a t i v e model was also attempted. The results were not as si g n i f i c a n t as those of the additive model. For immigrant groups i n Aus t r a l i a the testable model takes the reduced form of: Ae° = a + b,CONDITIONS 40 1 The reduced form of the model was necessitated by the general lack of census data cross-tabulated by birthplace. CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The f i r s t section of this chapter describes the l i f e expectancy changes immigrant groups experience upon migration to Canada and A u s t r a l i a . Variations i n the patterns of change are examined over time and between the sexes. This i s followed by a comparison of the rankings of l i f e expectancies and l i f e expectancy changes of the immigrant groups present in both destination countries. In the f i n a l sections of the chapter the variable groupings a r i s i n g from the factor analysis are discussed and the results of the regression analysis and the tests of the hypotheses are presented. Immigrant L i f e Expectancy The l i f e expectancies of the immigrant groups, i n r e l a t i o n to those of the o r i g i n and destination native-born populations, are presented i n figure form i n Appendix J. Patterns of Change The l i f e expectancy changes of the immigrant groups exhibited L i f e Expectancy of Origin Population Lower than Destination Native-born Intermediate 0 Pass 0 Opposite 1 ^ 0 L i f e Expectancy of Origin Population Higher than Destination Native-born Intermediate D I <-Pass I <-Opposite Figure 2. Patterns of change i n immigrant l i f e expectancy. 1 0 = D = I = l i f e expectancy of o r i g i n population l i f e expectancy of destination native-born l i f e expectancy of immigrant group 98. three pattern types (Figure 2). 1. Intermediate: the l i f e expectancy of the immigrant group was between that of the o r i g i n population and the destination native-born. 2. Pass: the l i f e expectancy of the immigrant group shifted towards and passed that of the destination native-born. 3. Opposite: the l i f e expectancy of the immigrant group shifted away from that of the destination native-born. Each pattern may represent an increase or decrease i n l i f e expectancy, depending on whether the l i f e expectancy of the o r i g i n population was higher or lower than the l i f e expectancy of the destination population. The percentage of immigrant groups involved i n each pattern have been summarized i n Tables VI and VII. There was considerable v a r i a t i o n i n the l i f e expectancies of the populations i n the o r i g i n countries, however, the majority were below the native-born Canadian and Australian l e v e l s . Generally, the direction of change i n l i f e expectancy experienced by the immigrants reflected the r e l a t i v e l i f e expectancy position of the o r i g i n population and the destination native-born. Where the o r i g i n population's l i f e expectancy was below that of the native-born i n the destination country, the immigrants usually experienced an increase i n l i f e expectancy (males, 78 percent; females, 85 percent). On the other hand, immigrants from those countries where the l i f e expectancies were above the native-born l e v e l , usually showed decreases i n their l i f e expectancies (males, 85 percent; females, 100 percent). These findings generally support the hypothesis that the l i f e expectancy of the immigrant group w i l l s h i f t towards that of the destination native-born. The increases or decreases were often of such magnitude that the l i f e expectancies of the immigrants passed that of Table VI. Percent d i s t r i b u t i o n of immigrant groups by l i f e expectancy change pattern, males, Canada 1941 and 1951, Au s t r a l i a 1911-21 and 1921-33. L i f e Expectancy of Origin Population L i f e Expectancy of Origin Population Lower than Destination Native-born Higher than Destination Native-born Canada Aus t r a l i a Total P 1 I 0 N o 2 I P N 1951 100 5 100 1 1941 50 50 12 33 67 3 1921-33 64 36 11 20 80 5 1911-21 50 50 8 20 20 60 5 31 47 22 36 1.4 2,1 64 14 1. P = Pass, I = Intermediate, 0 = Opposite, N = Number of immigrant groups 2. In these cases opposite represents a gain i n l i f e expectancy and pass a loss. Therefore the order has been reversed. Table VII. Percent d i s t r i b u t i o n of immigrant groups by l i f e expectancy change pattern, females, Canada 1941 and 1951, Aust r a l i a 1911-21 and 1921-33. L i f e Expectancy of Origin Population L i f e Expectancy of Origin Population Lower than Destination Native-born Higher than Destination Native-born P 1 I 0 N o 2 I P N 1951 100 6 Canada 1941 70 20 10 10 50 50 2 1921-33 15 69 15 13 Austr a l i a 1911-21 17 58 25 12 Total 41 44 15 41 50 50 2 1. P = Pass, I = Intermediate, 0 = Opposite, N = Number of immigrant groups 2. In these cases opposite represents a gain i n l i f e expectancy and pass a loss. Therefore the order has been reversed. 101. the destination native-born. The majority of immigrant groups i n Canada had l i f e expectancies higher than both the populations i n their o r i g i n countries and the native-born Canadians. In A u s t r a l i a the predominant pattern was for the l i f e expectancies of the immigrant groups to l i e between those of the o r i g i n and destination countries. There were, however, many cases where the l i f e expectancies were below both those i n the o r i g i n and destination. An interpretation based solely on these patterns might conclude,' that with respect to the native-born, immigrants generally tended to do better i n Canada than i n A u s t r a l i a . However, i t may have just been part of the general time trend which saw a decrease i n the proportion of immigrants whose l i f e expectancies were below those of both the o r i g i n and destination and a corresponding increase i n the proportion with l i f e expectancies above both the o r i g i n and destination. This trend was p a r t i c u l a r l y evident for those groups where the l i f e expectancies i n the o r i g i n were below that of the destination native-born. Although there were only a few cases where the l i f e expectancies i n the o r i g i n were higher than i n the destination, the results for the males did suggest a similar improvement trend. There were d i s t i n c t differences i n the patterning proportions between males and females. In each of the f i r s t three time periods there was a greater concentration of female immigrants i n the intermediate patterns and i n the patterns where the immigrant l i f e expectancy was higher than both the o r i g i n and destination. In 1951, i n both males and females, the l i f e expectancies of a l l the immigrant groups were higher than those of the o r i g i n and destination populations. Amount of Change 102. For the four time periods, i t was possible to compare the average change in l i f e expectancy for immigrants from five countries (England and Wales, Germany, Italy, Scotland, and United States). In the males, the potential for l i f e expectancy change, as measured by the differences in the l i f e expectancies of the origin and destination populations, was very similar i n Canada and Australia, yet, the average gain experienced by the immigrants was much greater in Canada (Figure 3). In each time period there was an increase in the average gain. The origin-destination l i f e expectancy differentials for the females were considerably smaller in Canada than in Australia (Figure 4). There was a corresponding smaller average gain in l i f e expectancy in Canada. Over time, the Australian female immigrants showed a slight decline in average l i f e expectancy gain, whereas the Canadian females showed a slight increase. In Canada the average l i f e expectancies of both male and female immigrants were above the Canadian native-born, but, i n Australia they were both below the native-born. In terms of average gain in l i f e expectancy, the females did much better in Australia than the males. In Canada the average gains i n males and females were f a i r l y similar, but relative to the potential for change, the female gain was greater. It would appear, however, that the dif f e r e n t i a l between the two sexes i s disappearing. Comparison of Immigrant Life Expectancies in Canada and Australia Males With the exception of the Americans and Swedes, the ranking of 34 L i f e Expectancy at Age 40 33 32 31 30 29 28 D I 0 — Origin — Destination —— Immigrants _L 1911-21 1921-33 1941 1951 Au s t r a l i a Canada Figure 3. Average change i n l i f e expectancy, at age 40, of immigrants from England and Wales, Germany, I t a l y , Scotland, and United States, males, Australia 1911-21 and 1921-33, Canada 1941 and 1951. o L i f e Expectancy at Age 40 1911-21 1921-33 1941 Australia Canada Figure 4. Average change i n l i f e expectancy, at age 40, of immigrants, from England and Wales, Germany, I t a l y , Scotland, and United States, females, Australia 1911-21 and 1921-33, Canada 1941 and 1951. o 105. immigrant l i f e expectancies i n Aust r a l i a were f a i r l y stable over the two time periods (Table V I I I ) . A comparison with the Canadian rankings showed some d i s t i n c t differences. The French and the Norwegian immigrants had considerably higher ranks i n Canada, whereas the Danes ranked higher i n Au s t r a l i a . Although there were other consistent rank differences, such as the higher rank for the English and Welsh i n Canada and the higher ranks for I t a l i a n s and Scots i n Au s t r a l i a , the magnitudes of the differences were not great. Females The ranks of the female immigrants i n Australia displayed more vari a t i o n than the males, with the French and the Americans having the largest deviations (Table IX). Consequently, a comparison with the Canadian ranks i s more d i f f i c u l t . In both time periods the French i n Austr a l i a had lower ranks than their Canadian counterparts, however,, by 1921-33 the difference was minimal. The rankings of the other immigrant groups were r e l a t i v e l y similar i n the two countries. Comparison of Change i n Immigrant L i f e Expectancies i n Canada and Australia Males The ranking of the male immigrants i n Aust r a l i a according to the change i n their l i f e expectancies indicated that compared with the Canadian levels the Danes had considerably higher ranks (Table X). In 1921-33 the French had a s l i g h t l y higher rank than their Canadian counter-parts, but i t was much lower i n the 1911-21 period. Other smaller, but consistent differences were the higher rankings of the English and Welsh Table VIII. Rank of immigrant groups according to l i f e expectancy at age 40, males, Canada 1941, Australia 1911-21 and 1921-33. Immigrant Group Canada 1941 Rank L i f e Expec. England, Wales Norway France Germany Denmark Scotland United States Sweden I t a l y Ireland 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 32.63 32.62 3.1.93 31.93 31.75 31.63 31.54 8 31.52 9 31.51 10 30.79 Au s t r a l i a 1921-33 Au s t r a l i a 1911-21 Rank L i f e Expec. Rank L i f e Expec. 3 6 8 2 1 4 10 5 7 9 30.48 29.07 28.81 30.85 31.38 30.09 27.28 29.14 29.05 28.41 3 7 10 2 1 4 5 8 6 9 29.02 27.55 25.92 29.37 30.83 28.40 27.81 27.52 27.64 26.96 107. Table IX. Rank of immigrant groups according to l i f e expectancy at age 40, females, Canada 1941, Au s t r a l i a 1911-21 and 1921-33. Immigrant Canada Aust r a l i a A u s t r a l i a Group 1941 1921-33 1911-21 Rank L i f e Rank L i f e Rank L i f e Expec. Expec. Expec. France 1 36.78 2 33.83 8 30.50 England, Wales 2 34.99 3 33.83 4 32.68 United States 3 34.61 6 32.84 1 33.32 I t a l y 4 34.30 1 34.03 3 32.82 Germany 5 34.29 5 33.26 2 33.06 Scotland 6 34.15 4 33.45 6 32.40 Sweden 7 33.80 7 32.03 5 32.49 Norway 8 33.59 9 31.24 7 31.15 Ireland 9 32.89 8 31.50 9 30.01 108. Table X. Rank of immigrant groups according to change i n l i f e expectancy at age 40, males, Canada 1941, Australia 1911-21 and 1921-33. Immigrant Canada A u s t r a l i a A u s t r a l i a Group 1941 1921-33 1911-21 Rank Change Rank Change Rank Changi England, Wales 1 3.44 3 1.05 3 0.47 France 2 2.78 1 . 1.42 6 -1.38 Scotland 3 2.18 2 1.32 2 0.56 United States 4 2.04 8 -1.71 5 -0.64 Germany 5 0.38 4 0.80 1 1.23 It a l y 6 0.28 6 -1.26 7 -1.84 Ireland 7 0.21 7 -1.57 8 -2.38 Denmark 8 -0.73 5 -0.67 4 0.18 Sweden 9 -1.29 9 -3.15 9 -3.55 Norway 10 -1.50 10 -3.33 10 -4.09 109. and the Americans i n Canada and the higher rankings of the Germans i n A u s t r a l i a . Females The English and Welsh and the French female immigrants had higher ranks i n Canada, whereas i n Australia i t was the I t a l i a n and German immigrants who had higher ranks (Table XI). As was the case i n the males, the 1921-33 rank of the French females i n Au s t r a l i a swas much closer to the Canadian l e v e l than the 1911-21 rank. Factor Analysis Our primary purpose i n using factor analysis was to reduce the number of independent variables to be entered into the multiple regression equation. In doing so, ;factor analysis aggregated the variables according to their underlying pattern of interrelationships. This allowed us to also compare these empirically derived variable aggregations with those i n the conceptual model, which were formulated on the basis of the findings of the l i t e r a t u r e review. Males Three factors had eigenvalues greater than one; together they accounted for 69.5 percent of the t o t a l v a r i a t i o n i n the data. The loadings of the variables on these three factors are given i n Table XII. The number of variables used i n the factor analysis was considerably less than the number used i n the conceptual model. The alignment of the -. 110. . Rank of immigrant groups according to change i n l i f e expectancy at age 40, females, Canada 1941, Australia 1911-21 and 1921-33. Immigrant Canada A u s t r a l i a A u s t r a l i a Group 1941 1921-33 1911-21 Rank Change Rank Change Rank Change France 1 3.35 2 2.71 7 0.12 England, Wales 2 2.10 6 1.63 5 1.54 United States 3 1.98 4 2.21 1 3.50 Scotland 4 1.75 3 2.41 4 2.32 Ireland 5 1.26 7 1.14 6 0.42 I t a l y 6 0.88 1 2.72 3 2.38 Germany 7 0.73 5 1.89 2 3.02 Sweden 8 -0.40 8 -1.32 8 -0.12 Norway 9 -2.39 9 -2.76 9 -1.81 Table XII. Varimax rotated factor matrix, males, Canada 1941. Variable F l Factor Loadings F2 F3 Sex Ratio -.78 -.11 -.20 .66 Urban .78 -.25 .07 .67 Married .77 -.56 .12 .92 Religion .63 .37 -.26 .60 Size .63 .39 .20 .59 Mental Hosp. Adm. -.60 -.25 .16 .45 Language -.11 .94 -.10 .90 Education -.04 .77 -.09 .61 Nationality .43 .73 .32 .81 Segregation -.34 -.65 -.06 .55 Children .19 -.03 -.88 .82 Period of Res. .32 -.05 .81 .77 Percent Total Variance 31.8 24.0 13.6 112. variables i n the factor analysis, however, conformed f a i r l y well to the concepts of support, s k i l l s , and time, which were outlined i n Figure 1. Factor 1 Support Structure The variables loading highly on Factor 1 define a dimension related to the support structure available to the immigrant groups. Four of the variables, Urban, Married, Religion, and Size, demonstrate the wide range of the support structure. Primary support may be provided by one's wife and family and friends. Although the variable Family and Friends was not s p e c i f i c a l l y included i n the factor analysis, i t i s assumed that the large presence of an immigrant group (Size) increases the l i k e l i h o o d of having family and friends i n the destination. The inclusion of Urban i n this factor indicates that family and friends, although not necessarily l i v i n g i n the same neighbourhood, do l i v e i n close proximity, and therefore are easily accessible i n times of need. The large size of an immigrant group and thei r concentration i n urban areas, also increases the opportunity for the group to develop i t s own i n s t i t u t i o n s . These i n s t i t u t i o n s , together with belonging to one of Canada's major r e l i g i o u s groups, describe the immigrant's secondary support structure. As suggested by the high negative loading of Mental Hospital Admissions, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of this extensive support structure serves to mediate the stress .created by migration.'. There i s no apparent l i n k between the sex r a t i o of an immigrant group and the support structure. This variable i s probably included i n th i s factor because of i t s high correlation to Marriage (a large excess of females would make i t easier for males to marry) and Urban (there are generally more female immigrants i n urban areas). 113. Factor 2 S k i l l s The second factor i s one which i s related to the brought and acquired s k i l l s of the immigrants. The s k i l l s are measured by the : immigrants' a b i l i t y to speak one of Canada's two o f f i c i a l languages and by the l e v e l of th e i r education. Immigrants with these s k i l l s are better equipped to cope with the problems created by immigration and also have a greater opportunity to establish themselves both s o c i a l l y and economically. They are not as dependent upon the support provided by l i v i n g within an immigrant neighbourhood and consequently are less segregated. The a b i l i t y of the s k i l l e d immigrants to adapt more readily to the Canadian conditions increases their propensity to become Canadian c i t i z e n s . Factor 3 Time The t h i r d factor, composed of only two variables, i s one related to age or an element of time. Those immigrant groups residing i n Canada for a longer period of time, would generally tend to be older and consequently have a smaller proportion of the i r numbers under the age of f i f t e e n . Females For the females there were four factors that had eigenvalues greater than 1. However, i n order to f a c i l i t a t e comparison with the males only three factors were used. The additional factor arose from the s p l i t t i n g of Factor 1 (Table XIII). The variables comprising the other two factors remained the same but their loadings were s l i g h t l y d i fferent. As a check, however, the regression equations were calculated based on four Table XIII. Varimax rotated factor matrix, females, Canada 1941. Variable F l Factor Loadings F2 F3 h 2 -.17 .83 .18 .57 .03 .59 -.35 .57 .47 .60 -.07 ;74 -.17 .62 .36 .66 -.08 .47 .88 .79 .76 .87 -.63 .44 Segregation Education Married Mental Hosp. Adm. Language Sex Ratio Urban Size Religion Period of Res. Nationality Children -.08 -.21 .13 .28 .08 .33 .07 Percent Total Variance 32.0 17.0 15.5 115. factors, but the results remained very much the same as those based on three factors. The three factors accounted for 64.5 percent of the t o t a l v a r i a t i o n i n the data, s l i g h t l y less than that for the males. Although the three basic dimensions outlined i n the male factors are present i n the female factors, the s h i f t i n g of some of the variables has s l i g h t l y changed the emphasis of the meaning of some of the factors. However, as i n the males, they can s t i l l be related to the groupings i n the conceptual model. Factor 1 S k i l l s / I s o l a t i o n This factor i s similar to the s k i l l factor of males, however, the loss of Nationality and the inclusion of Married and Mental Hospital Admission rates changes the interpretation of the factor somewhat. The emphasis now appears to be more on the i s o l a t i o n of s k i l l e d women. The le v e l of education of the female immigrants and t h e i r . a b i l i t y to speak at least one of Canada's o f f i c i a l languages are measures of their s k i l l s . The i s o l a t i o n aspect of this factor i s derived from the high negative loading for the .variables Segregation and Married. The variable i n t e r -correlations strongly indicate that s k i l l e d women tend to l i v e apart from their fellow countrymen and also tend to be single. Most of these single women would have been i n the labour force. Their experiences would have been quite different from those of the unskilled working women, most of whom were married, and from those of the non-working women. As a resul t of this lack of common shared experience, the s k i l l e d women may also have been isolated from women i n general. Although these women have the s k i l l s to cope with some of the 'stress, created by migration they lack the benefits provided by a support structure. The high correlation of Mental Hospital 116. Admissions with this factor demonstrates the consequences of the i s o l a t i o n of s k i l l e d women. Factor 2 Support The four variables comprising Factor 2 form the basis of the support factor i n the males. The variables can be interpreted i n a si m i l a r manner. This factor d i f f e r s from the males i n that omission of the Married variable puts more emphasis on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of secondary support than on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of primary support. Factor 3 Time The addition of Nationality to Period of Residence and Children serves to enhance the time aspect of t h i s t h i r d factor. As the period of residence increases immigrants would tend to i d e n t i f y more with Canada and i t s way of l i f e . This i s manifested i n the positive loading for N a t i o n a l i t y . I t also r e f l e c t s the mandatory f i v e year residency requirement ( i n 1941) for citizenship e l i g i b i l i t y . With the passing of time comes an increasing of age and thus a low proportion of children. In order to test the v a l i d i t y of the factors, a separate analysis was conducted on a subset of the immigrant groups. Although there was some s h i f t i n g of the variables among the factors, the interpretations remained ess e n t i a l l y the same. The indexes defining the factors were used i n the regression analysis. 117. Regression Analysis Canada For both males and females, two sets of regressions were run. The f i r s t set included a l l those immigrant groups who had s u f f i c i e n t mortality data. In the second set those immigrant groups whose mortality data may possibly have been biased due to problems brought on by World War I I (see Table V ) were eliminated. For each set the equation was determined with a l l the independent variables included and then with only those variables whose inclusion was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . Males The analysis based on f i f t e e n and eleven immigrant groups produced highly s i g n i f i c a n t and somewhat similar results (Table XIV). In both, the most important variable i n accounting for l i f e expectancy change was the altered l i v i n g conditions. The positive sign of the co e f f i c i e n t confirmed the hypotheses that the l i f e expectancies of the immigrant groups w i l l approach that of the destination native-born and that the degree of change i n the l i f e expectancies w i l l be related to the extent of the differences i n the o r i g i n and destination conditions. With respect to the characteristics of the immigrants, the hypothesis that the variable S k i l l s would be more important than Support i n adaptation and reducing stress was not borne out by either equation set. As hypothesized both are p o s i t i v e l y related to l i f e expectancy change, however, only Support proved to be s i g n i f i c a n t and that was only i n the regression based on eleven immigrant groups. 118. Table XIV. Summary of regression equations, males, Canada 1941. Equation 1.1 Estimated Regression Coefficients Conditions Time Support S k i l l s N=15 F=6.95 P=0.01 0.82 0.55 (0.49) (0.25)' .51 1 -0.93 (-0.35) (0.44) .13 0.59 (0.34) (0.37) .10 0.13 (0.05) (0.54) .00 ,74~ 1.2 Conditions N=15 F=13.30 P=0.00 0.27 0.80 (0.71) (0.22) .51 .51 2.1 Conditions Support S k i l l s Time N=ll F=5.69 P=0.03 -0.04 0.62 (0.66) (0.24) .60 0.45 (0.31) (0.38) .16 0.63 (0.22) (0.67) .03 -0.18 (-0.06) (0.57) .00 .79 2.2 Conditions Support N=ll F=12.58 P=0.00 0.43. 0.51 (0.54) (0.19) .60 0.66 (0.46) (0.29) .16 .76 1. standardized regression coeff i c i e n t 2. standard error 3. coeffic i e n t of determination 119. Very l i t t l e can be said about the role of the variable Time, since i t was confounded by the fact that the analysis included immigrants coming from o r i g i n countries where the l i f e expectancies were higher than that of the destination and also from countries where they were lower. According to our hypotheses, Time would have had a positive influence on the l i f e expectancies of some of the immigrant groups and a negative impact on others. This may account for the non-significant contribution of the time variable. A separate regression analysis was done only for those immigrant groups coming from o r i g i n countries where the l i f e expectancies were lower than i n Canada. Time s t i l l had a negative c o e f f i c i e n t and was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . This refuted our hypothesis that the l i f e expectancy of an immigrant would be expected to increase with the longer he resides i n a country i n which the conditions are more conducive to longevity. I t also refuted the hypothesis that increased period of residence i n the destination would lead to adaptation and reduced stress and thus an increase i n l i f e expectancy. The coefficients of determination for both sets of regression equations containing a l l the variables were f a i r l y high. Part of the unexplained v a r i a t i o n l i e s i n the differences i n the characteristics of the o r i g i n and immigrant populations, which were not taken into account i n the model. Females The female regression, results were considerably different from those of the males (Table XV ) . In both sets of equations, that i s the ones based on twelve immigrant groups and the ones based on nine immigrant groups, only one variable, Support, contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n accounting for l i f e expectancy change. This confirmed the hypothesis that for females 120. Table XV. Summary of regression equations, females, Canada 1941. Equation Estimated Regression Coefficients 3.1 Support Time S k i l l s Conditions N=12 F=4.03 P=0.05 0.93 0.91 . (0.67); (0.39)' .64 -0.43 (-0.20) (0.49) .05 0.20 (0.11) (0.41) .01 0.13 (0.09) (0.42) .00 ,70 3.2 Support N=12 F=17.78 P=0.00 0.79 1.09 (0.80) (0.26) ,64 4.1 Support S k i l l s Conditions Time N=9 F=2.65 P=0.18 0.57 0.85.: (0.66) (0.48) .69 0.42 (0.19) (0.63) .02 0.15 (0>12) (0.48) .01 -0.18 (-0.08) (0.65) .01 ,73 4.2 - b p Support N=9 0.63 1.06 F=15.41 ; . (0.83) P=0.01 ; . (0.27) .69 .69 1. standardized regression c o e f f i c i e n t 2. standard error 3. coe f f i c i e n t of determination ^-Support i s more important than S k i l l s i n reducing stress and thus i n increasing l i f e expectancy. As was the case for the males, the variables S k i l l s and Conditions had the hypothesized positive sign. Some of the reason why Conditions was s i g n i f i c a n t for the males and not for the females may relate to the potential for change .(Figure 3, 4) which was considerably higher for the males. The coefficients of determination were f a i r l y similar for a l l of the equations and also s i m i l a r to those of the equations for the males. Australia The regression equations for Australia were based on only one independent variable, Conditions. For both sexes and i n both time periods i t contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n accounting for l i f e expectancy change (Tables XVI, XVII). These findings added further support to the hypotheses that the direction and degree of change w i l l depend on origin-destination l i f e expectancy d i f f e r e n t i a l s . In the regression equations for 1921-33 the coefficients of determination and the significance levels were higher for the males than for the females. The opposite was true of the equations for 1911-21. Table.jXVT. Summary of regression equations, Australia 1921-33. Males Equation Estimated Regression Coefficients 5.1 Conditions N=16 F=24.41 P=0.00 -1.38 0.81 . (0.80); (0.16): .64 - .64 Females Equation Estimated Regression Coefficients 6.1 Conditions N=13 F=15.03 P=0.00 -1.11 1.09 (0.76) (0.28) .58 ,58 1. standardized regression coefficient 2. standard error 3. coefficient of determination Table XVII. Summary of regression equations, Au s t r a l i a 1911-21. Males Equations Estimated Regression Coefficients 7.1 Conditions N=13 F=7.06 P=0.02 -1.47 0.68 . (0.63); (0.26): .39 ' .39 Females Equation Estimated Regression Coefficients 8.1 Conditions N=12 F=12.11 P=0.01 -0.73 0.88 (0.74) (0.25) .55 ,55 1. standardized regression c o e f f i c i e n t 2. standard error 3. coe f f i c i e n t of determination CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION, SUMMARY, AND CONCLUSIONS I n i t i a l l y i n this chapter the time trend i n immigrant l i f e expectancies i s discussed. Following t h i s , the rankings of the immigrant groups according to l i f e expectancies i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a are examined i n the context of the findings of other studies, p a r t i c u l a r l y those conducted i n the United States. The t h i r d section discusses some of the reasons for the d i f f e r e n t i a l changes i n immigrant l i f e expectancies and their possible policy implications. The concluding section outlines the contributions of this study and provides suggestions for future research. Time Trend i n Immigrant L i f e Expectancy The results have shown that with respect to the l i f e expectancy of the native-born i n the destination, the l i f e expectancies of the immigrants have steadily improved. With time, more and more immigrant groups have exhibited l i f e expectancies higher than both the o r i g i n and destination populations. Dublin (1922) found that i n 1910 i n New York State the l i f e expectancies of a limited number of immigrant groups were a l l below that of the native-born New Yorkers. In 1951 i n Chicago, the mortality rates of some of the immigrant groups were lower than that of the native-born (Stamler et a l . , 1960). If i t can be assumed that these areas were representative of the condition i n the United States, i t would appear that a s i m i l a r improvement trend existed there also. There are several possible reasons for the existence of th i s improvement trend. 1. This century has seen a general world wide increase i n l i f e expectancy. If the l i f e expectancies i n the or i g i n countries were to .. increase at a faster rate than those of the destination countries, there would be a corresponding improvement i n the l i f e expectancies of the immigrants r e l a t i v e to the destination native-born. According to our sample of f i v e countries (Figure 3,4) the origin-destination d i f f e r e n t i a l s remained r e l a t i v e l y constant i n the males, however for the females there was a marked decline. Also,in a United Nations study (1963) both Canada and Austr a l i a were among the countries having the smallest average gain i n l i f e expectancy. This could account for part of the time trend. 2. Many of the immigrants i n A u s t r a l i a , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the 1911-21 period, would have arrived i n the 1800's. In those days the sea voyage from Europe to Au s t r a l i a was lengthy and arduous and i t may have had a long l a s t i n g detrimental effect upon the immigrants' health. Improved tr a v e l conditions have removed this health threat. 3. The slowness and d i f f i c u l t y of travel i n the e a r l i e r years meant not only that immigration was generally of a permanent nature, but also that the homeland, friends, and re l a t i v e s were more than l i k e l y never to be seen again. With the advent of modern transportation the native land was often no more than a day's travel away. The potential to easily return home i f things did not work out i n the new land, or the potential to return home for v i s i t s may have served to ease the stress of migration. 126. 4. The characteristics of the immigrants may. have changed. For example, i n Canada i n par t i c u l a r but also i n Australia there has been a reduction i n the percentage of single immigrants (TableXVIII). The death rates of the single are higher than the married (Kitagawa and Hauser, 1973:108). 5. Not only have new medical techniques made i t easier to detect i l l n e s s i n prospective immigrants, but the immigration regulations with respect to medical examinations have become more stringent. The combination of these two factors has undoubtedly improved the health l e v e l of the immigrants. Canada, for example i n s t i t u t e d overseas medical examinations i n the 1920's, and i n 1947 introduced compulsory X-rays for immigrants from a l l countries where the tuberculosis rate was higher than i n Canada (Canada, Department of Manpower and Immigration, 1974b). As a result of the time trend i n immigrant l i f e expectancies i t was not possible to make a direct comparison of the l i f e expectancies of the immigrants i n Canada with those i n A u s t r a l i a . By using r e l a t i v e ranks for comparisons some of the problem was removed. However, the assumption s t i l l had to be made that the ranks of the immigrants were not influenced by d i f f e r e n t i a l gains i n the l i f e expectancies of the o r i g i n populations. As the ranks of the o r i g i n populations were shown to be f a i r l y stable over time i t was f e l t that the ranks of immigrants i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a provided an indication as to which groups fared better i n Canada and which fared better i n A u s t r a l i a . Immigrant L i f e Expectancy i n Canada and Aus t r a l i a Within Canada and Australia there i s considerable v a r i a t i o n i n the l i f e expectancies of immigrant groups. Also, the ranking of immigrant 127. Table XVIII. Percentage of immigrants never married, by sex, Canada 1921, 1931, and 1941, Aust r a l i a 1921, and 1933. Canada Aust r a l i a Males Females Males Females 1941 23.71 15.36 1931 34.61 23.69 (.1933) 33.80 23.23 1921 39.88 29.20 34.32 24.13 Source: Calculated from census publications of Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Commonwealth Bureau of Census and S t a t i s t i c s . 128. groups i n the two destination countries, according to l i f e expectancy at age 40, show some d i s t i n c t variations. Without further study into the differences i n the conditions and into the differences i n the characteristics of the immigrant groups i n these two destination countries, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to account for the va r i a t i o n i n ranks. However, a comparison with the findings of similar studies i n other countries does provide some clues as to why the rank d i f f e r e n t i a l s e x i s t . Tables XIX and XX outline the rankings of male and female immigrant groups i n the United States compared to that of Canada and A u s t r a l i a . The comparative ranks have been determined from the results of various studies covering the period 1900-1961. I t should be noted that i n the American research, the methods of describing immigrant mortality varied from study to study. In pa r t i c u l a r , some studies used crude rates and others used indirect standardization, both of which make comparison hazardous. Therefore, l i t t l e emphasis should be placed upon small rank differences. Even though the rankings are crude, a simultaneous comparison of the findings for Canada, Aus t r a l i a and the United States allows for some interesting speculation with respect to the factors influencing mortality. To some extent the conditions i n Canada overlap the conditions i n the United States as wel l as those i n A u s t r a l i a . For example, as a result of Canada's close proximity to the United States there are certain likenesses i n their physical environment. This closeness also allows for an interchange i n their s o c i a l , cultural,and p o l i t i c a l environments On the other hand, compared to Au s t r a l i a , the Canadian physical environment i s considerably different. However, unlike the United States, Canada and Australia have retained extensive t i e s with Great B r i t a i n . Even today they are s t i l l linked by the fact that they are Commonwealth nations. Ar i s i n g out of th i s common heritage are s i m i l a r i t i e s i n their s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , and p o l i t i c a l environments. As a consequence of Canada's Table XIX. Rank of mortality of male immigrants i n the United States compared to ranks i n Canada and Au s t r a l i a . Canada Australia I 2 2 3a 3b 4 5 6 7 1 2 3a 3b 4 5 6 7 Austria +2 +1 +3 +3 Denmark +2 - i / - i 3 England, Wales +1 0 -4 0 -2 +1/-1 0/0 -2/-2 +1/+1 -1/-1 Finland 0 +1 France +1 +4/+5 Germany -1 -1 0 0 -1 -1 -1 +1 -3/-3 -1/-1 -2/-2 -2/-2 -2/-2 -2/-2 -1/-1 -1/-1 Hungary -1 -1 Ireland -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 0 0 +1 0/0 0/0 0/0 0/0 0/0 0/0 0/0 +1/0 It a l y +5 +3 +1 +2 +6 +1 +1 -1 +3/+1 +1/+1 +1/-1 +2/+2 +6/+4 +1/+1 +1/+1 -2/-2 Norway +1 -1 +1/+1 +3/+3 Poland -5 -1 -4 -4 Scotland -1 -2/-2 -1/-1 Sweden +1 -1 -1/+1 -2/0 For footnotes see page 131. Table XX. Rank of mortality of female immigrants i n the United States compared to ranks in Canada and A u s t r a l i a . Canada Australia I 1 2 3a 3b 4 5 6 7 1 2 3a 3b 4 5 6 7 Austria +2 +1 +1 +4 Denmark o / o 2 England, Wales +1 -1 -4 0 0 +1/+2 0/+1 -3/-2 +1/+2 +1/-1 Finland +1 +2 France 0 +1/+3 Germany -1 +2 +1 +3 -4 +1 0 +1 -2/-3 +1/0 0/-2 +2/0 -21-5 +1/-1 0/-1 +2/-2 Hungary Ireland -2 -1 +1 0 -1 0 0 +1 -1/0 0/0 0/0 0/-1 -1/0 0/0 0/0 +1/+1 It a l y -1 0 +1 -1 -2 -1 0 -3 -2/-1 -1/0 -1/0 -2/-1 -3/-2 -2/-1 0/+1 -5/-4 Norway +4 +5 +4/+3 +6/+5 Poland -5 -2 -5 -5 Scotland +1 +1 0/+2 0/0 Sweden +2 +3 +1/+1 +3/+2 For footnotes see page 131. Footnotes To Tables XIX And XX 131. 1. Canadian data i s for 1941. 2. American data are from the following: 1. Kitagawa and Hauser (1973) - United States, 1959-61 2. Seidman et a l . (1962) - New York City, 1949-51 3. Stamler et a l . (1960) - Chicago, 1951 a) ages 45-54 b) ages 55-64 4. Buechley (1950) - Washington State, 1930 5. Buechley (1950) - New York State, 1930 6. Dublin and Baker (1920) - Pennsylvania, New York State, 1910 7. Davis (1913) - Boston, 1900. The study population was that part of the white population which had foreign-born mothers. 3. F i r s t value i s based on Australian data for 1921-33, while for the second i t i s based on the 1911-21 data. 132. intermediate position, a comparison with the mortality experiences of immigrants i n the United States i s very useful, i n that s i m i l a r i t i e s i n rank between Canada and the United States or between Canada and Aust r a l i a may be explained by factors existing i n the overlap area of the conditions i n the countries. The intermediate position of Canada i s v e r i f i e d by the tables, i n that with few minor exceptions the s i m i l a r i t i e s i n rank are either between Canada and Australia or between Canada and the United States, but not between Australia and the United States. 1. France The French immigrants, p a r t i c u l a r l y the males, had much higher ranks i n Canada than i n A u s t r a l i a . The h i s t o r i c a l presence of the French i n Canada has led not only to the formation of a predominantly French province, but also to the formation of many French communities throughout the rest of Canada. These communities are often i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y complete i n that they provide education, r e l i g i o n , welfare,and s o c i a l organizations. Driedger and Church (1974) for example, found that of the three largest ethnic groups i n Winnipeg, the French were the most complete i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y . As a result of this large French influence, the stress, of adaptation for the newly arrived immigrants from France may be much lower i n Canada than i n A u s t r a l i a . The only study i n the United States to include the French was that of Davis (1916). His results indicated that the ranks i n Boston were simi l a r to that of Canada and therefore much better than that of A u s t r a l i a . In 1900, Massachusetts had the largest concentration (34 percent) of Canadians of French o r i g i n who had migrated to the United States (United 133. States Census Office, 1902). They may have served i n manners similar to the French-Canadians i n Canada i n easing the adaptation process. The comparable ranks may also have arisen from the nearness of Boston to Canada and the ensuing s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the physical environments. 2. England and Wales, Scotland, Ireland Although the ranks of the English and Welsh, Scottish, and I r i s h immigrants fluctuated to some extent from study to study, they were r e l a t i v e l y similar i n a l l three destination countries. There would appear to have been no d i s t i n c t advantage afforded by emigration from the United Kingdom to one of the fellow Commonwealth countries of Canada or A u s t r a l i a , as opposed to emigrating to the United States. One surprising finding was the consistent low rank of the I r i s h i n a l l three destination countries. Heenan (1976) found a similar pattern among the I r i s h females i n New-Zealand. The males did rank somewhat higher, but were s t i l l below that of the t o t a l foreign-born. Not one particular cause of death appeared to be responsible for the excess I r i s h mortality. With respect to his findings for the 1930 United States' data Buechley (1950:46) stated: "whatever the reason for the higher rates of the I r i s h , the rates of the I r i s h are equally high for a l l causes." Dublin (1922), examining the situation i n New York State, found them to have "excessive mortality from every p r i n c i p a l cause of death, but especially so from tuberculosis, pneumonia, and violence." With respect to the I r i s h i n Boston Davis (1916) wrote that i" the reasons for such high rates among the I r i s h i n this country are not f u l l y known, though the severe winters and the excessive use of alcohol are undoubtedly important factors." More recently the I r i s h have been shown to have higher mortality rates for cancer (1950 - Haenszel, 1961; 1960 - L i l i e n f e l d et a l . , 1972) and for cardiovascular-renal diseases 134. (1959-61 - Stamler et a l . , 1960). The high rates of violent deaths found by Davis and the high rates of deaths attributed to alcoholism found by Dublin may be an indication that the I r i s h were having d i f f i c u l t i e s i n adapting to conditions i n the destination countries. The stress caused by the adaptation problems could have led to a general weakening of the body and therefore have accounted for the overall high rates. It may have been that the disadvantage of the I r i s h immigrants arose from their characteristics, but i t seems highly unlikely that such a strong negative selection could have occurred so consistently. Also, an examination of the residuals i n the regression equations showed that although the immigrant characteristics were generally good predictors of l i f e expectancy change, they were not for the I r i s h . Other p o s s i b i l i t i e s were that an element of the environment i n Ireland was having a strong residual influence on the mortality of the I r i s h immigrants, or that there was some common genetic factor within the I r i s h which was affecting their mortality. 3. Norway, Sweden, and Finland (Scandinavia) The Norwegians, Swedes, and Finns, although originating from the same geographic area, had different ranks within s p e c i f i c destination countries. There was, however, a certain patterning i n their ranks, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the females. The ranks of the Swedish and Norwegian females were comparable i n Canada and i n A u s t r a l i a , but for both of these groups they were considerably higher i n the United States. Although the data was not available for the Finnish females i n A u s t r a l i a , they did rank higher i n the United States than i n Canada. In the males the trend for each group to do better i n the United States, although present, was not as pronounced. I t would appear that there existed some loosely defined bond among the Scandinavian immigrants which 135. generally resulted i n their reacting to the conditions i n different destination countries i n a similar manner. Without a more extensive examination of the conditions i n the o r i g i n and destination countries and the characteristics of the immigrants i t i s d i f f i c u l t to conceive of what this bond may have been. 4. Others With respect to the other immigrant groups the studies have shown some d i s t i n c t differences. Compared to Canada and Au s t r a l i a , the Austrians and male I t a l i a n s ranked higher i n the United States, whereas the Poles, the male Germans, and the female I t a l i a n s ranked lower. The reasons for these differences are not readily apparent and w i l l have to wait for further study i n order to be determined. This section has given an indication that the simultaneous comparison of numerous immigrant, groups i n various destination countries has potential for elucidating factors influencing mortality. . Change i n Immigrant L i f e Expectancy The single equation model developed i n Chapters 2 and 3 performed f a i r l y well i n explaining the d i f f e r e n t i a l changes i n the l i f e expectancies of immigrants i n Canada and Aust r a l i a . The chapter now proceeds to interpret the results of the regression analysis. Role of Destination Conditions As hypothesized, i n both Canada and Australia and i n both males and females the l i f e expectancy of the majority of immigrant groups were influenced to some extent by the conditions i n the destination country. 136. These conditions include different aspects of the physical, economic, p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and c u l t u r a l syst ems. The "destinational p u l l " exerted by these conditions was evidenced by the s h i f t i n l i f e expectancy of the immigrant groups towards the l e v e l of the Canadian and Australian native-born. The "destinational p u l l " was found to operate i n either a positive or a negative d i r e c t i o n , as the s h i f t occurred i n immigrants coming both from countries where the l i f e expectancy was below that of the destination native-born and from countries where i t was above that of the destination native-born. However, i t did not affect a l l groups equally. In some cases the l i f e expectancies of the immigrants were between those of the o r i g i n and destination populations (intermediate pattern). In other cases the immigrant l i f e expectancies surpassed (or f e l l below, depending on the r e l a t i v e position of the o r i g i n l i f e expectancy) that of the native-born (pass pattern). In a few cases the immigrant l i f e expectancies even shifted away from that of the destination (opposite pattern). Overall, however, the regression analysis showed that the destination conditions contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n accounting for l i f e expectancy changes i n the male immigrants to Canada (1941) and i n both the male and female immigrants to Australia (1911-21, 1922-33). To some extent, whether the destination conditions contribute s i g n i f i c a n t l y or not, depends upon the s t r u c t u r a l aspects. This i s w e l l . i l l u s t r a t e d by the Canadian females (1941). The average l i f e expectancy d i f f e r e n t i a l between the o r i g i n populations and the Canadian native-born was small, and thus the potential for change i n l i f e expectancy i n terms of differences i n the o r i g i n and destination conditions was also considered to be small. The destination conditions did play a r o l e . In eleven out of the twelve cases the l i f e expectancies of the immigrants approached that 137. of the destination native-born. However, their importance was obscured by the larger changes i n the l i f e expectancies created by the other longevity influencing factors. The majority of studies that have examined the changes i n the mortality experiences of immigrants have been disease s p e c i f i c and therefore not d i r e c t l y comparable to the findings of this study. For example, Mancuso and Coulter, 1958 - lung cancer; Stamler et a l . , 1960 - cardio-vascular-renal; Staszewski and Haenszel, 1965 - cancer; Reid, 1966 -lung cancer; Krueger and Moriyama, 1967 - cardiovascular - renal; Stenhouse and McCall, 1970 - cardiovascular; McCall and Stenhouse, 1971 - lung cancer; Staszewski et a l . , 1971 - cancer; L i l i e n f e l d et a l . , 1972 - cancer; B u r v i l l et a l . , 1973 - violent deaths; Heenan, 1976 - lung cancer, bronchitis, pneumonia. The above studies have indicated that the influence of the destination conditions varies from disease to disease. Dublin (1922), Stamler et a l . , (1960), and Heenan (1976) did examine the ove r a l l change i n immigrant mortality. Although they made no attempt to s t a t i s t i c a l l y determine the influence of the destination conditions, these studies have shown that i n the United States and New Zealand the mortality of the majority of immigrant groups approached and/or surpassed that of the native-born. L i l i e n f e l d et a l . (1972:246-251) were the only authors to make a f a i r l y comprehensive examination of the patterns of change i n the mortality of immigrants; unfortunately i t was only for cancer related deaths. They found that i n the males, of 14 immigrant groups, 5 had mortality rates intermediate to the country of o r i g i n and the United States' native-born, 5 passed the native-born, while 4 moved away from the native-born. In the females, the numbers were 6, 4, and 3 respectively, with 1 other pattern. I t would appear, that with respect to cancer, the "destinational p u l l " 138. operates on most immigrant groups. The findings of these limited number of studies corroborate the results of this thesis. Role of Immigrant Characteristics The role of the immigrant characteristics i n influencing longevity were couched i n terms of stress and adaptation theory; Immigration implies change, and Holmes and Masuda (1974) have linked the stress a r i s i n g from change to health status. Therefore, i f a l l else were equal, the stress created by migration would have a negative impact on the immigrant's health and longevity. However, immigrants vary i n their c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and thus not only i n their perceptions of a potential stressor, but also i n their a b i l i t y to cope with i t and to adapt to i t . Consequently, the d i f f e r e n t i a l change i n the l i f e expectancies of the immigrant groups w i l l , to some extent, be a result of their c h a r a c t e r i s t i c differences. Twelve characteristics were subjected to factor analysis. This resulted i n the formation of three factors which i d e n t i f i e d closely to the dimensions of Support, S k i l l s , and Time outlined i n the conceptual model. The influence of these three factors on the l i f e expectancy change varied considerably between the males and the females. In the males, although overshadowed by the role of the destination conditions, support did contribute s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n accounting for l i f e expectancy change i n the short country l i s t . In the females i t was not the destination conditions but rather the available support structure that best accounted for l i f e expectancy change. This was true for both the long and the short country l i s t . The variables of S k i l l s and Time did not add s i g n i f i c a n t l y to either the male or female equations. 139. Support The hypothesis that a support structure can make a s i g n i f i c a n t contribution to an immigrant's health and longevity has been confirmed. In other populations i t has also been shown to have b e n e f i c i a l aspects. Berkman and Syme (1970) examined the relationship between mortality and four aspects of s o c i a l contact i n C a l i f o r n i a residents. These included marriage, contact with close friends and r e l a t i v e s , church membership, and informal and formal group associations. They found that individuals with such s o c i a l contacts had lower mortality rates than those who were lacking such contacts. Numerous other studies,cited by Cassel (1974), K i r i t z and Moos (1974), and Cobb (1976) have demonstrated a relationship between support and health. Although support has been shown to have a positive effect on a person's health, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to define i t s dimensions. Also, the mechanisms by which support influences health, p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect to stress reduction, are often unclear. Support may come i n the form of material and informational aid such as housing, loans, and jobs or job information. In such instances i t serves to d i r e c t l y remove the stressor. Informational aid provided by a support network may be i n the way of behavioural cues. Immigrants coming from different c u l t u r a l backgrounds are often unaware of the rules of s o c i a l behaviour. According to Derbyshire (1970), "what i s perceived by the stationary population as acceptable role behaviors for self i n r e l a t i o n to migrants and others i s frequently divergent." As a r e s u l t , the immigrant may often meet h o s t i l i t y and aggression. Since "old ways of f e e l i n g , thinking, and acting remain the only c r i t e r i a upon which the migrant can validate new experiences" (Derbyshire, 1970), he may find the coping 140. response he takes to be maladaptive and therefore increase stress. Support systems may assist the immigrant "to interpret, in a balanced reality-based way, feedback cues that would otherwise be incomprehensible to him" (Caplan, 1974:6). The immigrant therefore learns the proper behavioural response to take in order to diffuse the stressful situation. Support systems also provide emotional and psychological sustenance. However in this instance the pathway to reduced stress i s not as apparent. For example, Silverman (1969), reported that new widows found other widows, by virtue of their similar experiences, to be very helpful in easing the anxiety of the situation. The stressor, in this case the death of the husband, could not be removed, but the support provided by the veteran widows served to either alter the new widows perceptions of the death or her coping response to i t , and thus make the death less stressful. Similarily, as a result of their common experiences, newly arrived immigrants may receive support from the immigrants who arrived before them. Given the fact that so many of the immigrant groups had l i f e expectancies higher than both those of the origin population and the destination native-born, support, aside from reducing stress, must also promote good health and longevity. Cobb (1976) conceived of support as providing the individual with information leading him to believe that he is cared for, loved, esteemed, and valued. This long term form of support may have the potential to enhance health. Hyman (1972) cited numerous studies that indicated that socially isolated people were less l i k e l y to seek medical attention. Support was also shown to influence the course of a disease and rehabilitation. It could well be therefore, that support contributed to the high l i f e expectancies of some of the immigrant groups. The importance of support can be summarized by the following 141. statement by Cobb (1976): "the conclusion that supportive interactions among people are important i s hardly new. What i s new i s the assembling of hard evidence that adequate s o c i a l support can protect people i n c r i s i s from a wide variety of pathological states: from low b i r t h weight to death, from a r t h r i t i s through tuberculosis to depression, alcoholism, and other psychiatric i l l n e s s . Furthermore, s o c i a l support can reduce the amount of medication required and accelerate recovery and f a c i l i t a t e compliance with prescribed medical regimens." As was previously shown, the greater significance of s o c i a l support i n females than i n males may to some extent have arisen from st r u c t u r a l differences. That i s , the average origin-destination l i f e expectancy d i f f e r e n t i a l was considerably smaller i n the females and thus the "destinational p u l l " had l i t t l e opportunity to influence change. I t i s possible however, that support i n i t s own ri g h t i s more important i n influencing the l i f e expectancy of females than of males. Males, through their work and subsequent contact with native-born co-workers, not only have the opportunity to learn the language, but also to become accustomed to the new way of l i f e . Female immigrants on the other hand, being mostly married (Table XVIII), w i l l spend much more time within their own homes attending to the household chores. Although these home tie s tend to shelter the women from the negative aspects of the destination conditions, they also tend to lessen the opportunities the females have for coming into contact with the native society. As a consequence of this i s o l a t i o n , they may have a greater d i f f i c u l t y i n learning the language and generally adapting to the new conditions. The i s o l a t i o n has a further negative effe c t , i n that the female has more time to reminisce about the homeland and friends and re l a t i v e s l e f t behind. This alienation and homesickness that females experience have the potential to create a stress situation 142. and thus have an adverse effect on their health. For the females, therefore, i t i s important to have a support structure to turn to. The findings of other studies have also suggested that the females may be more i n need of support than the males. In a study by F i l t e a u (1978), Asian women "complained of the loss of support of the kinship network" and "many experienced loneliness and lack of communication with the world outside their homes." S i m i l a r i l y Buchignani (1978) found that women suffered more than men from the loss of community. In both studies men were thought to be i n less need of so c i a l support because of their economic a c t i v i t i e s . Fried (1963), studying families i n Boston forced to move because of urban renewal, also found women to experience more grief than men as a resul t of the loss of the close s o c i a l network. S k i l l s For both males and females the variable S k i l l s was nonsignificant i n accounting for l i f e expectancy changes. In a study by Goldlust and Richmond (1973a) the highly educated immigrants experienced the largest decline i n occupational status. Also, the immigrants i n the two highest occupational status groupings improved only s l i g h t l y upon thei r substantial i n i t i a l declines. Status inconsistency has been suggested to create c o n f l i c t i n g expectations which could lead to psychological distress,(Jackson, 1962)./ Abramson (1966) found this to be true of immigrants i n I s r a e l . The advantage of the adaptive s k i l l s a r i s i n g from high education, may, therefore, have been p a r t i a l l y offset by the stress created from the status inconsistency. Time The hypotheses that the l i f e expectancy of an immigrant would 143. approach that of the destination native-born with increased period of residence and that stress would be reduced with increased period of residence were not confirmed. The negative influences of Time may have reflected the selectiveness of the immigration process. The characteristics of early immigrants to Canada may have been such that they had a negative impact on longevity. Recent immigration may have seen a reversal of this pattern and consequently could have accounted for the greater change i n l i f e expectancy associated with a shorter period of residence. The depression of the 1930's d r a s t i c a l l y reduced the intake of immigrants into Canada. As a resu l t , i n 1941, the majority of immigrants had been i n Canada for at least ten years. I t may well be that Time has i t s most s i g n i f i c a n t effects i n the f i r s t years following migration, and thus did not prove to be s i g n i f i c a n t i n this study. Price (1975) for example, found that the mortality patterns of immigrants who had resided i n Au s t r a l i a for thirteen years or more closely approximated that of the Australians. In order to f u l l y examine the influence of time on mortality i t would appear to be essential to include the early years of residence. Sex D i f f e r e n t i a l s In each of the f i r s t three time periods, compared to the males, the females had a greater proportion of immigrant groups with l i f e expectancies higher than both the o r i g i n and destination populations. In 1951 the sex d i f f e r e n t i a l no longer existed. The d i f f e r e n t i a l s may be related to the percentage of each sex that was single. In both Canada and Australia the percentage of single males was considerably higher than 144. single females (Table XVIII). As a consequence, more females would have had the support and f a m i l i a r i t y of the family to help them cope with the stress created by the , a l i e n environment. Even within marriage the d i f f i c u l t i e s created by immigration may be greater for males than females. The males are faced with the pressures of finding housing, a job, and generally providing for the family. Also, the males often f i n d themselves i n new occupations and as a consequence are susceptible to job related accidents. On the other hand, the role and duties of the housewife w i l l remain r e l a t i v e l y unchanged. Part of the dif f e r e n t i a l may also arise from differences i n male-female patterns of behaviour. According to Rosenman et a l . (1975) and Matthews et a l . (1977), individuals who are competitive, achievement oriented, ambitious, aggressive, and have a sense of time urgency, exhibit a Type A behaviour pattern. Those who display this behaviour pattern have been shown to have a greater incidence of coronary heart disease. Reid (1975) has suggested that immigrants are often "the more enterprising members of a family." I f this i s true, immigrants w i l l exhibit at least some of the characteristics of the Type A behaviour pattern. The i n i t i a t i v e for migration i s most often taken by the males, whereas the females tend to be more passive, or often, are not even consulted i n the decision making (Odegaard, 1932:85;. Ferguson, 1970; Banchevska, 1974). The Type A behaviour pattern i s , therefore, probably more in d i c a t i v e of the male immigrants than of the female immigrants, and thus contributes to the differences i n the change i n their longevity. As the decision to migrate i s often the male's, i t may also be that the pressure to succeed i n the new country f a l l s more upon him than upon the female This added stress may shorten his l i f e . 145. The disappearance of the sex d i f f e r e n t i a l i n 1951 may r e f l e c t the gradual convergence of the percent males and females that were single. The increased labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate of females probably contributed to the decline i n female superiority. Also, improved transportation and communication may have eliminated the permanency aspect of migration and thus decreased the pressure upon the males to succeed i n the new country. Although other studies have presented results for the males and females (Dublin, 1922; Stamler et a l . , 1960; Heenan, 1976) they have not commented on this aspect of their studies. Of the three immigrant groups examined by Dublin, the l i f e expectancy of one of the male groups f e l l below both that of the o r i g i n and destination, but this did not occur i n any of the female groups. In the other two studies, there were differences between the sexes for s p e c i f i c groups, but o v e r a l l no clear cut pattern could be established. Policy Implications Only two variables, Destination Conditions and Support, were found to have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the l i f e expectancies of the immigrants. Out of the two variables, only Support can be considered within the scope of immigration p o l i c i e s (Clearly, any policy which improves the l i f e expectancy of the t o t a l population w i l l have an impact upon immigrants). 1. In terms of primary support, the Canadian government should continue thei r present policy of attempting to unite family units. Also, i t should be recognized thatthose immigrants a r r i v i n g i n Canada without the benefit of family and/or friends and r e l a t i v e s i n Canada, may experience adaptation d i f f i c u l t i e s . Every e f f o r t should be made to bring these immigrants into 146. contact with their fellow countrymen by informing them of the location of social clubs, churches, organizations, and other institutions that may be maintained by them. 2. Special attention should be paid to the fact that women are more susceptible to a lack of support structure than men. Particular efforts should be made to draw them into contact with their fellow countrymen. Leaders of social organizations or churches should be made aware of the vulnerability of women, as well as those immigrants without benefit of family and/or friends, and should be encouraged to develop social programs directed at these groups. 3. Canada's multicultural policy encourages immigrant and ethnic groups to retain their cultural heritage within a framework of identification and p o l i t i c a l allegiance to Canada. The findings of this thesis have indicated that the institutions required to foster this cultural heritage have had a positive effect on the immigrant's longevity. Consequently, such a policy should be maintained as opposed to those policies which advocate conformation to the dominant society or the development of a melting pot society. Multiculturalism does not imply isolation of immigrant groups. It implies intercultural exchanges from a position of equality. The transition to a new environment and the assimilation of new norms and behavioural patterns is planned as a slow evolutionary process. Future Studies By way of conclusion, I wish to briefly review some of the methodologies and findings of this thesis and show how they may be improved or expanded upon in future studies. 147. 1. This study has found support structure to enhance the l i f e expectancy of the immigrants. For purposes of policy formulation i t would be relevant to know what aspects of support are the most c r u c i a l and whether there i s any change involved over time. 2. Although women i n general have been found to be most i n need of support, future studies should try to iden t i f y which subgroups of the immigrant population benefit the most from support. 3. In order to more f u l l y understand the relationship between the stress created by migration and i t s affect on health, longitudinal studies should be conducted. Such studies would allow one to follow the adaptation process and relate i t to any health changes. In th i s manner i t may be possible to iso l a t e those factors which create the greatest amount of stress. 4. The empirical model did not include differences i n the characteristics between the o r i g i n population and the immigrants. Inclusion of any char a c t e r i s t i c differences would undoubtedly have increased the explanatory power of the model. Also, changes i n the characteristics of the immigrants themselves, such as occupational status decline, were not incorporated into the model. A longitudinal study would allow one to examine the influence of these changes i n immigrant characteristics on health. 5. Destination conditions have been demonstrated to play a s i g n i f i c a n t role i n the immigrant l i f e expectancy change. In this study i t included environmental, technological, p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and c u l t u r a l aspects. In future, attempts should be made to assess the impact of each system and i t s comprising elements separately. 6. This study has demonstrated that examining numerous immigrant groups i n a destination allows one to id e n t i f y factors influencing mortality. I t would be of interest to see i f a similar study conducted i n a different 148. destination country produced similar factors, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the policy of the government was not one of multiculturalism, but rather one of rapid assimilation. 7. Although only limited use was made of the comparison of the immigrant groups i n the two destination countries, the indications are that i t has potential for providing clues to the factors affecting disease and mortality. 8. Errors created by variations i n the census and mortality data may possibly be eliminated by using matched records. A l l of these suggestions could be taken into account i f a study such as the Tokelau Island Migrant Study (Prior et a l . , 1977) were undertaken, but on a larger scale. For such a study i t would be necessary to i d e n t i f y groups of future migrants and non-migrant control groups i n each of several o r i g i n countries. S i m i l a r i l y , i n each of several destination countries a native-born control group would be i d e n t i f i e d . After migration the health of each of these groups along with the changes i n their characteristics would be monitored over time. Although i n terms of identifying the factors influencing mortality the rewards may be a long time i n coming, there would be numerous short term payoffs with respect to the adaptation process and i t s impact on health. 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United States, National Center for Health S t a t i s t i c s . 1964. The change i n mortality trend i n the United States. V i t a l and Health S t a t i s t i c s . Public Health Service Pub. No. 1000-Series 3-No. 1. Washington: Government Pr i n t i n g Office. United States, National Center for Health S t a t i s t i c s . 1968. Comparability of age on the death c e r t i f i c a t e and matching census record, United States, May-August 1960. V i t a l and Health S t a t i s t i c s . Public Health Service Pub. No. 1000-Series 2-No. 29. Washington: Government Pr i n t i n g Office. United States, National Center for Health S t a t i s t i c s . 1969. Comparability of Marit a l Status,Race, N a t i v i t y , and Country of Origin on the Death C e r t i f i c a t e and Matching Census Record, United States, May-August 1960. V i t a l and Health S t a t i s t i c s . Public Health Service Pub. No. 1000-Series 2-No. 34. Washington: Government P r i n t i n g Office. Wardell, W. I . , C. B. Bahnson, and H. S. Caron. 1963. Social and psychological factors i n coronary heart disease. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 4:154-165. Warren, B. L. 1970. Socioeconomic achievement and r e l i g i o n : the American case. Sociological Inquiry 40(2):130-155. Wessen, A. F. 1971. The role of migrant studies i n epidemiological research. Is r a e l Journal of Medical Sciences 7:1584-1591. Winkelstein, W., J r . , A. Kagan, H. Kato, and S. T. Sacks. 1975. Epidemiologic studies of coronary heart disease and stroke i n Japanese men l i v i n g i n Japan, Hawaii and C a l i f o r n i a : blood pressure d i s t r i b u t i o n s . American Journal of Epidemiology 102(6):502-513. Winslow, C. E. A. and P. L. Wang. 1931. The r e l a t i o n between changes i n nationa l i t y stock and increasing death rates i n adult l i f e . American Journal of Hygiene 14:79-88. Wolf, S. and H. G. Goodell (Eds.). 1968. Stress and Disease. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas. Wolfenden, H. H. 1954. Population S t a t i s t i c s and their Compilation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. World Health Organization. 1952. Annual Epidemiological and V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s , 1947-1949. Geneva. Worth, R. M. and R. Valentine. 1967. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma i n New South Wales, Au s t r a l i a . In C. S. Muir and K. Shanmugaratnam (Eds.). Cancer of the Nasopharynx, 73-76. New York: New York Medical Examination Publishing Company. 164. Yano, K., W. C. Blackwelder, A. Kagan, G. G. Rhoads, J. B. Cohen and M. G. Marmot. 1979. Childhood c u l t u r a l experience and the incidence of coronary heart disease i n Hawaii Japanese men. American Journal of Epidemiology 109(4):440-450. Zaleznik, A., C. R. Christensen, and F. J . Roethlisberger, with the collaboration of G. C. Homans. 1958. The Motivation, Productivity, and Satisfaction of Workers. Boston: Harvard University Press. Appendix A. Data sources. Variable L i f e expectancy i n the o r i g i n Canada Deaths -by birthplace by age by sex, 1941 -by birthplace by sex, 1931-1941 Immigrants -by birthplace Population -by birthplace by age by sex, 1951 - by birthplace by age by sex, 1941 Source Key f i t z , N. and W. Flieger. 1968. World Population. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Preston, S. H., N. Keyf i t z , and R. Schoen. 1972. Causes of Death: L i f e Tables for National Populations. New York: Seminar Press. World Health Organization. 1952. Annual Epidemiological and V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s , 1947-1949. Geneva. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s Section. Unpublished data. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s , Annual Reports. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Canada Yearbook, 1931-1941. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Ninth Census of Canada, 1951, Vol. I I , Population - Cros s - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Characteristics, Table 10. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Eighth Census of Canada, 1941, Vol. I l l , Ages of the Population, Table 18, page 258. Population (Cont.) -by birthplace by age by sex, 1931 Education Mental Hospital Admission Segregation Language Married Nationality Religion Urban Period of Residence Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Seventh Census of Canada 1931, Vol. I l l , Ages of the People, Table 23, page 446. Hurd, W. B. 1965. Ethnic Origin and Na t i v i t y of the Canadian People. 1941 Census Monograph, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Table 54, page 231. Ibid., Table 72, page 247. Ibid., Table XLIII, page 93. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Eighth Census of Canada, 1941, Vol. IV, Cross-classification of Characteristics, Table 35, page 798. Ibid., Table 19, page 316. Ibid., Table 33, page 785; Table 34, page 786. Ibid., Table 23, page 544. Ibid., Table 18, page 292. Ibid., Table 26, page 692. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Eighth Census of Canada, 1941, Vol. I, General Review and Summary Tables, XV, page 192. A u s t r a l i a Deaths -by birthplace by age by sex, 1911-1933 Population -by birthplace by age by sex, 1933 -by birthplace by age by sex, 1921 -by birthplace by age by sex, 1911 Commonwealth Bureau of Census and S t a t i s t i c s . Australian Demography, 1911-1933. Commonwealth Bureau of Census and S t a t i s t i c s . Census of the Commonwealth of Au s t r a l i a , 1933, Detailed Tables, Vol. I, Part X, Birthplaces, Table 13, page 752; Table 14, page 756. Commonwealth Bureau of Census and S t a t i s t i c s . Census of the Commonwealth of Australia, 1921, Part I I , Birthplaces, Table 13, page 64; Table 14 page 68. Commonwealth Bureau of Census and S t a t i s t i c s . Census of the Commonwealth of Australia, 1911. Detailed Tables, Vol. I I , Birthplaces, Table 11, page 130; Table 12, page 132. 169. Appendix B. L i f e tables of native-born and immigrant groups, males, Canada 1951. 1951 MALES AGE PP DD M(X) 0(X 1 0 832971 9261 0.011118 0.054087 5 665425 6 54 0.000983 0.004902 10 541901 426 0.000786 0.003923 15 498740 6 74 0.00 13 51 0.006734 20 486005 915 0.001883 0.009369 25 473952 853 0.0018 00 0.008958 30 441639 929 0.002104 0.010463 35 422864 10 76 0.002545 0.012642 40 3 2 84 79 1 347 0.004101 0.020296 45 245681 1646 0.006700 0.032 94 7 50 205637 2223 0.010808 0.052617 55 172236 2 866 0.016640 C.079877 60 147127 3712 0.025230 0. 118665 65 124578 4349 0.03491C 0. 160538 70 93211 5131 0.055047 0.241940 75 58635 5182 0.088377 0.361922 80 29663 4116 0.138759 0.515105 85 15292 3642 0.238164 I.000000 TOT 5784086 49C26 0.003476 1951 MALES AGE PP DC MIX) 0(X I 0 13609 38 0.002792 0.013865 5 22743 19 0.000835 0.004 168 10 13211 13 0.CC0984 0.004908 15 15962 19 0.001190 0.005934 20 3402 7 57 0.001675 0.008341 25 62120 97 0.001561 0.00777 7 30 55387 89 0.001607 0.008002 35 66170 152 0.002297 0.011420 40 104534 3 60 0.003444 0.017072 45 132081 7 59 0.005 746 0.028325 50 126017 1210 0.009602 0.046 884 55 1 12821 I 767 0.C15662 0.075359 60 110492 2624 0.023743 0.112037 65 974S0 3481 0.035706 0.163900 70 62770 3420 0.054485 0.239764 75 32861 2 8 84 0.087764 0.359 86 1 80 1 50 1 3 1963 0.130710 0.492585 85 6812 1541 0.2262 18 1 .000000 TOT 1084124 2C47C 0.013882 CANADA L ( X) D( X) LLC X) T( X) E( XI AGE 100000 5409 486478 6598566 65.98566 0 94591 464 471797 6112088 64.61574 5 94123 369 4697 15 5640290 59.92174 10 9 37 58 631 467213 51705 75 55. 14788 15 93127 873 463454 4703362 50.50483 20 92254 826 459206 4239909 45.95886 25 91428 957 454748 37807C3 41.35171 30 90471 1144 449498 3325954 36.76249 35 89328 1813 442106 2876457 32.20120 40 87515 2883 430365 2434351 27.81649 45 84631 4453 412024 2003986 23.67901 50 80178 6404 384881 1591962 19.85527 55 73 774 3754 346984 1207081 16.36190 60 65020 10438 299002 860098 13.22829 65 54581 13205 239893 561095 10.27997 70 41376 149 75 169443 321202 7.76300 75 26401 13599 93007 151759 5.74821 80 12802 12802 53752 53752 4. 19879 85 FOREIGN BORN L t X » 01 X) LL( X» T{ XI E (X I AGE 100000 1386 496534 6948467 69 .^8467 0 98614 411 492040 64519 33 65.42644 5 98202 482 439807 5959893 60.68984 10 97720 580 487153 5470086 55.97685 15 97141 810 483678 4982933 51.29608 20 9633G 749 479779 4499255 46.70650 25 95531 765 475994 4019476 42.05299 30 948 16 1083 471375 3543482 37.37 20 5 35 93734 1600 464667 3072108 32.77489 40 92133 2610 454142 2607440 28.30073 45 89524 . 4197 437125 2153298 24.05285 50 85326 6430 410557 1716173 20.11304 55 78896 8843 372 37 3 1305617 16.54852 60 70053 1143 2 321561 933243 13.32196 65 58571 1404 3 257743 611683 10.44339 70 44528 16024 182580 353934 7. 94859 75 2R504 14041 107419 1 71354 6.0 1157 8 0 14463 14453 63936 63936 4.42051 85 1951 MALES AGE PP no M 1 Xt 01X» 0 2684 6 0.002235 0.Oil 115 5 9538 6 0.0006 29 0.003140 10 2528 5 0.001973 0.009841 15 1924 1 0.000520 0.002595 20 3652 8 0.002191 0.010893 25 10135 16 0.001579 0.007862 30 14226 15 0.001054 0.005258 35 16901 31 0.001834 0.009129 40 289C6 65 0.002249 0.011180 45 33507 150 0 .004477 0.022 136 50 32340 299 0.C09246 0.045183 55 31699 495 0 .015616 0.075145 60 36786 798 0.021693 0.102885 65 36489 1208 0.033106 0.152877 7C 25296 I 268 0.050127 0.222722 75 1339 4 1158 0.086457 0.355455 8C 6514 810 0.124348 0.474294 85 2797 590 0.210940 1.000000 TOT 309316 6923 0.022382 1951 MALES AGE PP OD M I X » 0( X » 0 2487 5 0.002010 0.010002 5 1fc23 0 0.0 0.0 10 302 0 0.0 0.0 15 308 0 0.0 0.0 20 844 4 0 .004739 0.023419 25 1301 0 0. 0 0.0 30 1142 2 0.001751 0.008718 35 1040 3 0.002 8 85 0.014320 40 2609 5 0.001916 0.009537 45 3288 16 0.004866 0.024038 50 2181 13 0.005961 0.029365 55 1441 20 0.013879 0.067069 60 1329 21 0.015801 0.076004 65 1306 34 0.02 60 34 0.122214 70 1110 57 0.051351 0.227545 75 690 59 0.085507 0.352239 80 352 38 0.107955 0.425056 85 198 44 0.222222 1.000000 TOT 23550 322 0.013673 ENGLAND,WALES L ( X > IXX » LL ( XI T( X) E(X) AGE 100000 1112 497221 7048141 70.48141 0 98888 311 493666 6550920 66.24553 5 985 73 970 490464 60572 54 61 .44635 10 97608 2 53 487406 5566789 57.03218 15 97355 1061 434121 5079383 52.17408 20 96294 757 479577 4595262 47.72115 25 95537 502 476429 41 15684 43.07951 30 95035 868 473004 36392 56 38.29402 35 94167 1053 468203 3166252 33.62380 40 9 3114 2061 460418 2698049 28.97571 45 91053 4114 444980 2237631 24.57503 50 86939 6533 418362 1792651 20.61965 55 80406 8273 381348 1374289 17.09188 60 72133 11027 333098 992940 13.76534 65 61 106 13610 271505 659842 10.79835 70 47496 16883 195274 383337 8.176 17 75 3061 3 14520 116768 193063 6.30646 00 16094 16094 76295 76295 4.74068 85 GERMANY L ( X ) 0(X ) LLt XI T( XI E(XI AGE 100000 1000 4S7499 7208601 72.08601 0 99000 0 494999 67 11102 67.78904 5 99000 0 494999 6 2 1610 3 62.78904 10 99000 0 494999 5721104 57.78904 15 99 00 0 2313 489203 5226105 52 .78904 20 9 6 6 8 1 0 483407 4736902 48.99502 2 5 96681 84 3 431299 4253495 43.99502 30 95H 38 1 372 475761 37721S6 39.35997 35 94466 901 470073 3296435 34.89546 40 93565 2249 462203 28263 57 30.20738 45 91316 2632 449876 2364155 25 .8398 3 50 886 34 5945 428311 19142 79 21.59745 55 82690 6285 397737 1485968 I 7.97038 60 76405 9338 358681 1083231 14.24292 65 67067 15261 297184 729550 10.87 789 7 0 51 806 18 248 ?11412 43?366 8. 34579 75 33558 14264 132131 2189 54 6.52461 30 19294 H2 94 86323 86323 4.5000 0 05 1951 MALES AGE PP DD MIX) 0(X 1 0 752 2 0.002660 0.013210 5 673 0 0.0 0.0 10 707 1 0.001414 0.00704 7 15 1 139 4 0.003512 0.017406 20 2 594 7 0.002699 0.013402 25 3755 8 0.002130 0.010596 30 2546 6 0.0023 5 7 0.011714 35 3037 4 0.001317 0.006564 40 J303 12 0.003633 0.018002 45 320 1 16 0. 004998 0.024684 50 3594 29 0.008069 0.039547 55 3588 66 0.018395 0.087930 60 3372 85 0.025208 0. 118566 65 2411 89 0.036914 0.168977 70 1197 76 0.063492 0.273973 75 581 50 0.086059 0.354108 80 206 22 0.1067 96 0.421456 85 99 19 0.191919 1 .000000 TOT 36754 496 0.013495 1951 WALES AGE PP DD M(X) 0( X) 0 3 54 0 0.0 0.0 5 873 0 0.0 0.0 10 988 0 0.0 0.0 15 1441 2 0.0013 88 0.006916 20 4428 7 0.001581 0.007873 25 10516 10 0.000951 0.004743 30 76C7 19 0.002493 0.01241 I 35 8524 16 0.0018 77 0.009341 40 1C065 27 0.002683 0.013323 45 135 73 56 0.004126 0.020419 5C 11937 1 13 0.009466 0.046238 55 7936 1C2 0.012853 0.062263 60 5793 134 0.023131 0.109334 65 4466 141 0.031572 0. 146311 70 2522 109 0.043220 0. 195026 75 1199 1 13 0.094245 0.381370 80 48 7 56 0.114990 0.446571 85 275 64 0.2 32 72 7 1 .000000 TOT 92984 96 9 0.010421 ITALY L( X) D< XI LUX) T( X) E IX 1 AGE 100000 1321 496697 6867211 68.67211 0 98679- 0 493395 6370513 64.55795 5 98679 69 5 4916 56 5377118 59.55795 10 97984 1706 485654 5385462 54.96290 15 96278 1290 478164 4899808 50.8922 7 20 94988 1006 472422 4421644 4 6.54 96 5 25 9398 1 1101 467154 3949221 42.02140 30 92880 610 462877 3482068 37.48984 3 5 92271 1661 457201 3019190 32.72103 40 90610 2237 447457 2561990 28.27503 45 88373 3495 433128 2114533 23.92736 50 84878 7463 405732 1681405 19.80965 55 77415 9179 364127 1275673 16.47841 60 68236 11530 312354 911546 13.35872 65 56706 15536 244689 599191 10.56668 70 41170 14579 169403 354502 8.6107 1 75 26591 11207 104939 185099 6.96088 80 15384 15384 80160 80160 5.21053 85 POLAND L I X I D( XI LL ( X) T( XI E ( XI AGE 100000 0 500000 7200701 72 .00701 0 100000 0 500000 6700701 67.00701 5 100000 0 500000 6200701 62.00701 10 100000 692 498271 5700701 57.00701 15 99308 782 494588 5202430 52.38659 20 98527 467 491464 4707842 47.78247 25 98059 1217 4 8 72 54 4216378 42.99828 30 96342 905 481949 3729124 38.50722 35 95938 1278 476492 3247175 33.84675 40 94659 1933 463465 2770683 29.27004 45 92727 4287 452914 2302218 24.82804 50 88439 5507 428429 1849304 20.91048 55 82933 9067 391994 - 1420875 17.13290 60 73865 1030 7 342308 1028880 13.92916 65 63058 12298 284545 6865 7 3 10.88797 70 50760 19358 205404 402028 7.92018 75 3 1402 14023 121951 196624 6.26 159 30 173/9 1 7 3 79 74674 746 74 4.29687 85 1951 MALES AGE PP on M ( X > 0( X ) 0 654 2 0.003058 0.015175 5 1870 3 0.001604 0.007989 10 732 0 0.0 0.0 15 690 1 0.001449 0.007220 20 1698 3 0.001767 0.008795 25 4546 6 0.001320 0.006578 30 5854 7 0.001196 0.005961 35 6949 21 0.003022 0.014997 40 11561 51 0.C04411 0.021816 45 L2902 84 0.006511 0.032032 50 12188 131 0.C10748 0.052335 55 10732 163 0.015188 0.073163 60 12559 291 0.023171 0.109510 65 12064 44 7 0.037052 0.169556 70 8209 463 0.056402 0.247157 75 4C19 352 0.087584 0.359257 80 1762 217 0.123156 0.470818 85 778 175 0.224936 1.000000 TOT 109767 2413 0.021983 1951 PALE S AGE PP DD MIX) OIX ) 0 2102 9 0.004282 0.021 181 5 2094 2 0.000955 0.004754 10 1969 2 0.001016 0.005066 15 2479 4 0.001614 0.008035 20 6558 8 0.001220 0.00603 I 25 7099 13 0.001831 0.009114 30 6532 8 0.001225 C.006105 35 9324 27 0.002896 0.014375 40 14116 59 0.004180 0.020682 45 15133 100 0.006608 0.032503 50 15168 117 0.007714 0.037838 55 14965 2 35 0.015703 0.075551 60 12870 305 0.023699 0.111865 65 9974 335 0.033587 0.15492 8 70 5828 3C1 0.051647 0.228706 75 3514 274 0.077974 0.326268 80 1566 203 0.129630 0.489510 85 607 151 0.24876t 1.000000 TOT 131899 2151 0 .016308 SCOTLAND L(XI DtX) LL(X1 T(X ) E(X) AGE 100000 1517 496206 6904197 69.04197 0 98483 787 490446 6407990 65.06727 5 97696 0 4 8 84 79 5917544 60.57116 10 97696 705 486715 5429066 55.57116 15 96990 853 482819 4942351 50.95713 20 96137 632 479106 4459531 46.38710 25 95505 569 476102 3980426 41 .67768 30 94936 1424 471119 3504324 36.91262 35 93512 2 040 462459 3033205 32.43655 4 0 91472 2930 450034 2570746 28.10423 45 88542 463 4 431125 2120711 23.95151 50 83903 6139 4 04193 1689587 20.13618 55 77769 8516 367554 1285394 16.52835 60 69253 11742 316907 917840 13.25351 65 575 10 14214 252017 600933 10.44911 70 43296 15554 177595 348916 8.05880 75 27742 13061 106056 171321 6.17555 80 14680 14680 65265 65265 4.44571 85 UNITED STATES LI X 1 01 X > LL ( X ( T ( X J E( X) AGE 100000 2118 494705 6905324 69.05324 0 97882 466 488243 6410620 65.49344 5 97416 493 485844 5922 376 60.79499 10 96922 7 79 482663 5436532 56.09181 15 9 614 3 585 479255 4953869 51 .52593 20 95559 871 4756 16 44 74614 46.82587 25 94688 578 471993 3998999 42.23359 30 941 10 I 353 467166 3527006 37.47766 35 92 75 T 1918 458988 3059840 32.98778 4 0 90838 2953 446810 2600852 28.63165 4 5 87886 332 5 431115 2 154042 24.50956 50 8456C 6339 406830 1722927 20.37511 55 78172 3745 368997 1316096 16.83596 60 6942 7 10 756 320245 947099 13.64164 65 5867 I I 1418 259809 626854 10.68424 70 45253 14764 139351 367046 8.11106 75 3 0488 14924 115130 177694 5.82832 80 15564 15564 62565 62565 4.01987 85 174. Appendix C. L i f e tables of native-born and immigrant groups, females, Canada 1951. 1951 FEMALES AGE PP DD M<X) 0( X) 0 799512 7C48 0.0088 15 0.043126 5 637252 433 0.000679 0.003392 10 524028 260 0.0004 96 0.002478 15 495664 409 0.000825 0.004117 20 497799 488 0.000980 0.004890 25 488210 560 0.001147 0.005719 30 455829 682 0 .001496 0.00745 3 35 419746 683 0.002104 0.010463 40 316486 972 0.003071 0.015239 45 239322 1143 0.C04776 0.023598 50 204560 1357 0.006634 0.032628 55 173581 1844 0.010623 0.051742 60 148257 2526 0.017038 0.081709 65 124558 3251 0.026100 0 . 1 2 2 50 8 70 97805 4161 0.C42 544 0. 192269 75 62803 4673 0.074407 0.313635 80 34750 4181 0.120317 C.462474 85 21170 4496 0.212376 1.000000 TOT 5741332 39373 0.006858 1951 FEMALES AGE PP DD M(X) 01X1 0 12416 19 0.001530 0.007622 5 21535 9 0.000418 0.002087 10 12162 3 0.000247 0.001233 15 13200 8 0.000606 0.003026 20 36849 22 0.000597 0.002981 25 74C6 8 64 0.000864 0.004311 30 59521 54 0.000907 0.004526 35 62361 103 0.001652 0.008224 40 94955 254 0.002675 0.013236 45 108582 4 32 0.003979 0.019697 50 109395 666 0.006088 0.029984 55 97362 918 0.009429 0.046058 60 87434 1285 0.014697 0.070880 65 75357 17 31 0.022971 0.108616 70 52714 21 Cl 0. 0398 57 0.181225 75 28873 2036 0.0705 16 0.299738 80 1 4694 1 749 0.119028 0.458658 85 7809 1661 0.212703 I . 0 0 0 0 0 0 TOT 96S286 131C9 0.013524 CANADA L( XJ 01 X) LL(X) T (X 1 E(X ) AGE 100000 4313 489218 7036203 70.36203 0 95687 325 477625 6546984 68.42058 5 95363 2 36 476223 6069359 63.64492 10 95127 392 474654 5593135 53.79679 15 94735 463 472516 5118482 54.02954 20 942 72 539 4700 10 4645965 49.28274 25 93733 699 466916 4175955 44.55182 3 0 93034 973 462736 3709039 39.86759 35 92061 1403 456795 3246303 35.26271 40 90658 2139 447940 2789507 30.76971 45 3851 8 2388 435371 2341568 26.45 29 4 50 85630 4431 417074 1906197 22.26083 55 81 199 6635 389410 1489123 18.33909 60 74565 91 35 349986 1099713 14.74846 65 65430 12580 295699 749727 11.45848 7 0 52850 16578 222803 454028 8.59092 75 362 72 16775 139421 231225 6.37482 80 19497 19497 91804 91804 4.70863 85 FOREIGN BORN L< X) D(X) LL<X) T (X 1 E(X 1 AGE 100000 762 498094 7429524 74.29524 0 992 33 207 495671 6931429 69.84668 5 99031 122 494848 6435758 64.98756 10 98909 299 493795 5940910 60.06468 15 98609 294 492312 5447116 55.23938 20 983 15 424 4905 17 4954804 50.39705 25 97892 443 . 488350 44642 87 45.6 044 3 3 0 97448 301 485239 3975937 40.80041 35 96647 1284 480025 3490698 36.1 I 802 40 95363 1878 4721 19 3010673 31.57068 45 93485 2803 460416 2533554 27. 15478 50 90682 4177 442966 2078139 22.91688 55 86505 6131 417 196 1635172 18.90264 60 80374 87 30 380043 1217976 15.15395 65 71644 12934 325759 837933 1 1.69584 70 . 58660 1 7533 249344 512174 8.73122 7 5 41077 18340 158286 262830 6.39841 80 22237 2?237 104 544 104544 4.70138 35 1 9 5 1 F E M A L E S AGE PP 00 Ml X) 0( X ) 0 2 3 8 4 3 0 . 0 0 1 2 5 8 0 . 0 0 6 2 7 2 5 8 9 8 2 6 0 . 0 0 0 6 6 8 0 . 0 0 3 3 3 4 10 2 3 7 9 3 0 . 0 0 1 2 6 1 C . 0 0 6 2 8 5 15 1782 1 0 . 0 0 0 5 6 1 0 . 0 0 2 8 0 2 20 62C5 3 0 . 0 0 0 4 8 3 0 . 0 0 2 4 1 4 2 5 2 1 9 0 2 2 0 0 . 0 0 0 9 1 3 0 . 0 0 4 5 5 5 3 0 2 0 5 6 7 23 0 . 0 0 1 1 1 8 0 . 0 0 5 5 7 6 35 1 6 3 7 2 28 0 . 0 0 1 7 10 0 . 0 0 8 5 1 5 4 0 2 5 3 6 7 70 0 . 0 0 2 7 5 9 0 . 0 1 3 7 0 3 45 3 0 3 1 9 120 0 . 0 0 3 9 5 8 0 . 0 1 9 5 9 6 5 0 3 5 6 4 7 1 88 0 . 0 0 5 2 7 4 0 . 0 2 6 0 2 7 55 3 3 2 7 7 2 9 8 0 . 0 0 8 9 5 5 0 . 0 4 3 7 9 5 60 3 2 8 C I 4 0 3 0 . 0 1 2 2 8 6 0 . 0 5 9 6 0 0 6 5 3 1 4 2 8 6 3 6 0 . 0 2 0 2 3 7 0 . 0 9 6 3 1 I 7C 2 3 7 1 8 854 0 . 0 3 6 0 0 6 0 . 1 6 5 1 6 5 75 13182 883 0 . 0 6 6 9 8 5 0 . 2 8 6 8 8 4 8 0 6 7 4 7 7 4 3 0 . 1 1 0 1 2 3 0 . 4 3 1 7 5 1 85 3 4 5 1 6 9 6 0 . 2 0 1 6 8 1 I . 0 0 0 0 0 0 TOT 3 1 6 5 1 0 4 9 76 0 . 0 1 5 7 2 1 1 9 5 1 F E M A L E S AGE PP 0 0 M1XI 0( X 1 0 2 4 5 5 I 0 . 0 0 0 4 0 7 0 . 0 0 2 0 3 5 5 1 4 9 3 1 0. 0 0 0 6 7 0 0 . 0 0 3 3 4 3 10 2 8 0 0 0.0 0.0 15 297 0 0.0 0 .0 2 0 9 7 0 0 0.0 0.0 25 1 5 5 9 1 0 . 0 0 0 6 4 1 0 . 0 0 3 2 0 2 30 9 9 4 I 0 . 0 0 1 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 5 0 1 8 3 5 972 1 0 . 0 0 1 0 2 9 0 . 0 0 5 1 3 1 4 0 1574 3 0 . 0 0 1 9 0 6 0 . 0 0 9 4 8 5 45 1810 4 0 . 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 9 3 9 50 1 5 6 3 6 0 . 0 0 3 8 3 9 0 . 0 1 9 0 1 1 55 1163 3 0 . 0 0 2 5 8 0 0 . 0 1 2 8 1 5 6 0 10 1 9 18 0 . 0 1 7 6 6 4 0.08 4 58 6 65 1G19 27 0 . 0 2 6 4 9 7 0 . 1 2 4 2 5 2 7 0 833 27 0.0 322 20 0 . 1 4 9 0 3 9 75 528 45 0 . 0 8 5 2 2 7 0 . 3 5 1 2 8 8 80 290 36 0 . 1 2 4 1 3 3 0 . 4 7 3 6 8 4 85 184 38 0 . 2 0 6 5 2 2 I.OOOCOO TOT 1 9 0 0 7 2 13 0 . 0 1 1 2 0 6 ENGLAND,WALES L ( X ) Dt X) L L ( X» T( X) E I XI AGE 1 0 0 0 0 0 6 2 7 4 9 8 4 3 2 7 4 7 6 4 1 9 7 4 . 7 6 4 1 9 0 9 9 3 7 3 331 4 9 6 0 3 6 6 9 7 7 9 8 7 7 0 . 2 2 0 3 1 5 9 9 0 4 1 6 2 3 4 9 3 6 5 1 6 4 8 1 9 5 2 6 5 . 4 4 6 8 8 10 9 8 4 1 9 276 4 9 1 4 0 5 5 9 8 8 3 0 1 6 0 . 8 4 5 0 2 15 9 8 1 4 3 2 3 7 4 9 0 1 2 3 5 4 9 6 8 9 6 5 6 . 0 0 8 9 6 20 9 7 9 0 6 4 4 6 4 8 8 4 1 6 5 0 0 6 7 7 2 5 1 . 1 3 8 4 7 25 9 7 4 6 0 543 4 8 5 9 4 2 4 5 1 8 3 5 6 4 6 . 3 6 1 0 5 3 0 96 917 3 2 5 4 8 2 5 2 1 4 0 3 2 4 1 4 4 1 . 6 0 6 9 8 35 9 6 0 9 2 1317 4 7 7 1 6 6 3 5 4 9 8 9 3 3 6 . 9 4 2 8 3 4 0 9 4 7 7 5 1857 4 6 9 2 3 1 3 0 7 2 7 2 8 3 2 . 4 2 1 3 6 4 5 9 2 9 1 8 2 4 1 8 4 5 8 5 4 2 2 6 0 3 4 9 6 2 8 . 0 1 9 4 0 50 9 0 4 9 9 3 9 6 3 4 4 2 5 8 8 2 1 4 4 9 5 4 2 3 . 7 0 133 5 5 8 6 5 3 6 5158 4 1 9 7 8 5 1 7 0 2 3 6 6 1 9 . 6 7 2 3 8 6 0 8 1 3 7 8 7 8 3 8 38 7297 1 2 8 2 5 8 1 1 5 . 7 6 0 7 2 65 7 3 5 4 1 1 2 1 4 6 3 3 7 3 3 8 8 9 5 2 8 3 1 2 . 1 7 3 9 9 70 6 1 3 9 4 17613 2 6 2 9 3 9 5 5 7 9 4 6 9 . 0 8 7 9 0 75 43 781 1 8 9 0 3 1 7 1 6 5 0 2 9 5 0 0 7 6 . 7 3 8 1 9 80 2 4 8 7 9 2 4 8 7 9 1 2 3 3 5 7 1 2 3 3 5 7 4 . 9 5 8 3 3 85 GERMANY L ( X ) DIX 1 LL 1 X ( T( X» E ( X I AGE 1 0 0 0 G 0 2 0 3 4 9 9 4 9 1 7 6 0 3 8 7 9 7 6 . 0 3 8 7 9 0 9 9 7 9 7 334 4 9 8 149 7 1 0 4 3 8 8 7 1 . 1 8 8 7 2 5 9 9 4 6 3 0 4 9 7 3 1 4 6 6 0 6 2 3 9 6 6 . 4 1 9 1 4 10 9 9 4 6 3 0 4 9 7 3 1 4 6 1 C 8 9 2 5 6 1 . 4 1 9 1 4 15 9 9 4 6 3 0 4 9 7 3 1 4 5 6 1 1 6 1 I 5 6 . 4 1 9 1 4 20 9 9 4 6 3 318 4 9 6 5 1 8 5 I 14296 5 1 . 4 1 9 1 4 25 9 9 1 4 4 4 9 7 4 9 4 4 7 8 4 6 1 7 7 7 8 4 6 . 5 7 6 2 9 3 0 9 8 6 4 7 506 49 1969 4 1 2 3 3 0 0 41 . 7 9 8 5 6 35 9 8 1 4 1 9 3 1 4 8 8 3 77 3 6 3 1 3 3 0 3 7 . 0 0 1 2 3 4 0 9 7 2 1 0 1063 4 8 3 3 7 9 3 1 4 2 9 5 3 3 2 . 3 3 1 6 0 4 5 9 6 1 4 2 1828 4 7 6 1 3 9 2 6 5 9 5 7 4 2 7 . 6 6 3 0 6 50 9 4 3 1 4 1209 4 6 8 5 4 8 2 1 8 3 4 3 5 2 3 . 1 5 0 7 2 55 9 3 1 0 5 7875 4 4 5 8 3 8 I 7 1 4 8 8 7 1 8 . 4 1 8 7 9 60 8 5 2 3 0 1 0590 3 9 9 6 7 4 1 2 6 9 0 4 9 1 4 . 8 8 9 7 3 6 5 7 4 6 4 0 11128 3 4 5 3 7 9 8 6 9 3 7 5 11 .64 760 70 6 3 5 1 2 2231 1 2 6 1 7 8 2 5 2 3 9 9 6 8 . 2 5 0 3 6 75 4 1201 1 9 5 1 6 1 5 7 2 1 4 2 6 2 2 1 4 6. J 6 4 2 7 30 2 1 6 8 5 2 1 6 3 5 1 0 5 0 0 0 1050CC 4 . 8 4 2 1 1 35 1 9 5 1 F E M A L E S AGE PP C D M( XI 0 ( X ) 0 6 7 9 0 0.0 0.0 5 6 1 2 0 0.0 0.0 10 6 1 3 0 0.0 0.0 15 72 5 0 0.0 0.0 20 1 1 1 0 1 0 . 0 0 0 9 0 1 0 . 0 0 4 4 9 4 25 1 8 3 2 1 0 . 0 0 0 5 4 6 0 . 0 0 2 7 2 6 30 1287 2 0 . 0 0 1 5 5 4 0 . 0 0 7 7 4 0 35 1 6 0 7 5 0 . 0 0 3 1 1 1 0 . 0 1 5 4 3 7 4 0 1916 4 0 . 0 0 2 0 8 8 0.0 10334 45 2 1 4 1 8 0 . 0 0 3 7 3 7 0 . 0 1 8 5 1 0 5 0 2 4 0 4 15 0 . 0 0 6 2 4 0 0 . 0 3 0 7 1 9 55 2 0 8 8 19 0 . 0 0 9 1 0 0 0 . 0 4 4 4 8 6 60 1 6 6 3 34 0 . 0 2 0 4 4 5 0 . 0 9 7 2 5 4 65 1 2 1 7 46 0 . 0 3 7 7 9 8 0.172 673 70 6 3 6 32 0 . 0 5 0 3 14 0 . 2 2 3 4 6 4 75 2 6 9 16 0 . 0 5 9 4 8 0 0 . 2 5 8 9 0 0 80 134 10 0 . 0 7 4 6 2 7 0 . 3 1 4 4 6 5 85 73 12 0 . 1 6 4 3 8 4 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 TOT 2 1 C 0 6 2 0 6 0 . 0 0 9 8 0 7 1 9 5 1 F E M ALES AGE PP D D M ( X ) 0 ( X I 0 351 0 0.0 0.0 5 8 5 0 0 0.0 0.0 10 1 0 3 0 0 0.0 0 .0 15 1462 0 0.0 0.0 20 4 9 9 7 3 0 . 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 . 0 0 2 9 9 7 2 5 9 5 7 0 8 0 . 0 0 0 8 3 6 0 . 0 0 4 1 7 1 30 4 7 8 5 2 0 . 0 0 0 4 18 0 . 0 0 2 0 3 8 35 5 6 9 3 7 0 . 0 0 1 2 3 0 0 . 0 0 6 1 2 9 4 0 9 3 8 5 29 0 . 0 0 3 0 9 0 0 . 0 1 5 3 3 2 4 5 9 7 2 1 26 0 . 0 0 2 6 7 5 0 . 0 1 3 2 8 4 50 7 1 9 6 42 0 . 0 0 5 8 3 7 0 . 0 2 8 7 6 3 55 54 38 43 0 . 0 0 7 9 0 7 0 . 0 3 8 7 7 0 6 0 4 0 9 0 76 0.0 18 5 8 2 0 . 0 8 8 7 8 5 65 3 0 5 3 72 0 . 0 2 3 5 8 3 0 . 1 1 1 3 5 2 70 1951 78 0 . 0 3 9 9 7 9 0 . 1 8 1 7 3 3 75 9 6 8 56 0 . 0 5 7 8 5 1 0 . 2 5 2 7 0 3 80 4 5 3 53 0. 1 1 6 9 9 8 0 . 4 5 2 6 0 5 85 283 65 0 . 2 2 9 6 8 2 1 . o o o c o o TOT 7 1 2 7 6 562 0 . 0 0 7 8 8 5 I TALY L ( X I 0(X> L L ( X ) T J X ) E<X) AGE 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 7 4 4 6 2 4 4 7 4 . 4 6 2 4 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 9 4 6 2 4 4 69 . 4 6 2 4 4 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 4 4 6 2 4 4 6 4 . 4 6 2 4 4 10 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 9 4 6 2 4 4 5 9 . 4 6 2 4 4 15 1 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 9 4 9 8 8 7 6 5 4 4 6 2 4 4 5 4 . 4 6 2 4 4 2 0 9 9 5 5 1 2 7 1 4 9 7 0 7 4 4 9 4 7 3 6 8 4 9 . 6 9 7 0 3 25 9 9 2 7 9 768 4 9 4 4 7 5 4 4 5 0 2 9 3 4 4 . 8 2 6 0 2 30 9 8 5 1 1 1521 4 8 8 7 5 2 3 9 5 5 8 1 8 4 0 . 1 5 6 1 8 35 9 6 9 9 0 1007 4 3 2 4 3 3 3 4 6 7 0 6 6 3 5 . 7 4 6 5 9 4 0 9 5 9 8 3 1777 4 7 5 4 7 3 2 9 8 4 6 3 3 3 1 . 0 9 5 4 5 4 5 9 4 2 0 6 2 8 9 4 4 6 3 7 9 7 2 5 0 9 1 6 0 2 6 . 6 3 4 7 3 5 0 9 1 3 1 2 4 0 6 2 4 4 6 4 0 7 2 0 4 5 3 6 3 2 2 . 3 9 9 6 2 55 8 7 2 5 0 3485 4 1 5 0 3 8 1 5 9 8 9 5 6 1 8 . 3 2 6 0 9 60 7 8 7 6 5 13601 3 5 9 8 2 3 1 1 8 3 9 1 9 1 5 . 0 3 1 0 5 6 5 65 164 145 6 2 2 8 9 4 1 7 8 2 4 0 9 6 1 2 . 6 4 6 4 3 70 5 0 6 0 2 1 3 1 0 1 2 2 0 2 6 0 5 3 4 6 7 9 10 . 5 6 6 2 6 75 3 7 5 0 1 1179 3 1 5 8 0 2 5 3 14419 8 . 3 8 4 1 7 80 2 5 7 0 9 2 5 7 0 9 1 5 6 3 94 1 5 6 3 9 4 6 . 0 8 3 3 3 8 5 POLAND L ( X) 0 ( X 1 L L ( X 1 T ( X I 6 ( X ) AGE 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 7 5 5 8 5 3 2 7 5 . 5 8 5 3 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 5 3 5 3 2 7 0 . 5 3 5 3 2 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 5 5 8 5 3 2 6 5 . 5 8 5 3 2 10 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 5 8 5 3 2 6 0 . 5 8 5 3 2 15 1 0 0 0 0 0 300 4 9 9 2 5 1 5 5 5 8 5 3 2 5 5 . 5 8 5 3 2 2 0 9 9 7 0 0 4 1 6 4 9 7 4 6 2 5 0 5 9 2 8 1 5 0 . 7 4 4 9 1 25 9 9 2 8 4 2 0 7 4 9 5 9 0 4 4 5 6 1 8 2 0 4 5 . 9 4 6 9 8 30 9 9 0 7 7 6 0 7 4 9 3 8 6 8 4 0 6 5 9 1 6 4 1 . 0 3 7 8 8 3 5 9 8 4 7 C 1510 4 8 8 5 7 5 3 5 7 2 0 4 8 3 6 . 2 7 5 5 3 4 0 9 6 9 6 0 1288 4 8 1 5 8 1 3 0 8 3 4 7 3 3 1 . 8 0 1 4 4 4 5 9 5 6 7 2 2 7 5 2 47 1481 2 6 0 1 8 9 2 27 . 1 9 5 9 2 50 9 29 20 3603 4 5 5 5 95 2 1 3 0 4 1 1 2 2 . 9 2 7 2 9 55 8931 8 7 9 3 0 4 2 6 7 6 4 1 6 7 4 8 1 6 1 8 . 7 5 1 2 1 6 0 8 1 3 8 8 9 0 6 3 3 8 4 2 8 2 1 2 4 8 0 5 2 1 5 . 3 3 4 6 6 65 7 2 3 2 5 1 3 1 4 4 3 2 8 7 6 5 8 6 3 7 7 1 1 1 . 9 4 2 9 0 70 5 9 1 8 L 14 956 2 5 8 5 1 7 5 3 5 0 0 5 9 .0401 3 75 4 4 2 2 6 2 0 0 1 7 I 7 1 0 8 6 2 7 6 4 8 8 6 . 2 5 1 7 6 8 0 2 4 2 0 9 2 4 2 0 9 1 0 5 4 0 2 1 0 5 4 0 2 4 . 3 5 3 8 5 85 1 9 5 1 F E M A L E S A G E P P G D M ( X ) 0 ( X 1 0 6 5 5 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 1 8 5 7 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 6 9 8 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 5 6 4 2 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 0 2 4 3 5 1 0 . 0 0 0 4 1 1 0 . 0 0 2 0 5 1 2 5 7 2 2 1 9 0 . 0 0 1 2 4 6 0 . 0 0 6 2 1 2 3 0 7 1 1 1 7 0 . 0 0 0 9 8 4 0 . 0 0 4 9 1 0 3 5 7 3 9 4 1 3 0 . 0 0 1 7 5 8 0 . 0 0 8 7 5 2 4 0 1 1 5 2 9 3 6 0 . 0 0 3 1 2 3 0 . 0 1 5 4 9 2 4 5 1 3 0 7 2 5 7 0 . 0 0 4 3 6 0 0 . 0 2 1 5 6 7 5 0 1 3 2 4 5 8 9 0 . 0 0 6 7 2 0 0 . 0 3 3 0 4 3 5 5 1 2 3 0 5 1 1 6 0 . 0 0 9 4 2 7 0 . 0 4 6 0 5 0 6 0 1 2 3 1 5 1 7 3 0 . C 1 4 0 4 8 0 . 0 6 7 8 5 6 6 5 1 0 6 3 8 2 3 4 0 . 0 2 1 9 9 7 0 . 1 0 4 2 5 0 7 0 7 5 5 2 2<56 0 . C 3 9 1 9 5 0 . 1 7 8 4 3 5 7 5 3 8 0 3 2 6 5 0 . 0 6 9 6 8 2 0 . 2 9 6 7 1 9 8 0 1 9 5 4 2 3 4 0 . 1 1 9 7 5 4 0 . 4 6 0 8 1 1 8 5 1 0 4 0 2 1 3 0 . 2 0 4 8 0 8 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T O T 1 1 5 4 6 6 1 7 4 3 0 . 0 1 5 0 9 5 1 9 5 1 F E M A L E S A G E P P DO M I X ) 0 ( X I 0 1 8 6 6 7 0 . 0 0 3 7 5 1 0 . 0 1 8 5 8 2 5 1 9 8 3 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 1 8 5 2 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 5 2 7 7 0 3 0 . 0 0 1 0 8 3 0 . 0 0 5 4 0 1 2 0 8 6 9 8 6 0 . 0 0 0 6 9 0 0 . 0 0 3 4 4 3 2 5 8 8 4 5 9 0 . 0 0 1 0 1 8 0 . 0 0 5 C 7 5 3 0 8 5 5 5 4 0 . 0 0 0 4 6 8 0 . 0 0 2 3 3 5 3 5 1 1 6 8 4 1 9 0 . 0 0 1 6 2 6 0 . 0 0 8 0 9 8 4 0 1 7 1 9 4 5 1 0 . 0 0 2 9 6 6 0 . 0 1 4 7 2 2 4 5 1 7 7 0 6 7 0 0 . 0 0 3 9 5 } 0 . 0 1 9 5 7 4 5 0 1 7 5 2 2 1 1 5 0 . 0 0 6 5 6 3 0 . 0 3 2 2 8 6 5 5 1 6 2 1 0 1 4 4 0 . 0 0 8 8 8 3 0 . 0 4 3 4 5 2 6 0 1 2 8 2 8 1 7 4 0 . 0 1 3 5 6 4 0 . 0 6 5 5 9 6 6 5 9 3 0 0 2 3 0 0 . 0 2 4 7 3 1 0 . 1 1 6 4 5 6 7 0 5 5 3 5 2 2 0 0 . 0 3 9 7 4 7 0 . 1 8 0 7 7 2 7 5 3 4 5 5 2 3 9 0 . 0 6 9 1 7 5 0 . 2 9 4 8 3 0 8 0 1 6 9 6 2 2 1 0 . 1 3 0 3 0 7 0 . 4 9 1 4 3 9 8 5 7 9 8 1 9 2 0 . 2 4 0 6 0 2 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T O T 1 4 8 4 9 7 I 7 C 2 0 . 0 1 1 4 6 2 S C O T L A N D L ( X I D ( X I 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 5 9 9 7 9 5 6 2 0 9 9 1 7 5 4 8 7 9 8 6 8 8 8 6 4 9 7 3 2 4 1 5 1 5 9 6 3 0 9 2 0 7 7 9 4 2 3 2 3 1 1 4 9 1 1 1 8 4 1 9 6 8 6 9 2 2 5 8 9 8 8 1 0 2 4 3 4 4 7 7 2 5 7 7 1 2 9 5 4 5 9 6 2 3 1 7 6 9 1 4 1 9 3 2 1 9 3 2 3 2 2 6 0 9 2 2 6 0 9 U N I T E D S T A T E S L ( X ) 0 ( X ) 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 8 5 8 9 8 1 4 2 0 9 8 1 4 2 0 9 8 1 4 2 5 3 0 9 7 6 1 2 3 3 6 9 7 2 7 6 4 9 4 9 6 7 3 2 2 2 6 9 6 5 5 6 7 3 2 9 5 7 7 4 1 4 1 0 9 4 3 6 4 1 8 4 7 9 2 5 1 7 2 9 8 7 8 9 5 3 0 3 8 9 0 8 5 6 4 0 5 6 1 3 8 0 0 2 2 9 3 1 9 7 0 7 0 3 1 2 7 3 1 5 7 9 2 2 1 7 0 3 3 4 0 8 4 2 2 0 0 7 1 2 0 7 7 1 2 0 7 71 L L < X ) T ( X I E ( X I A G E 5 0 0 0 0 0 7 5 1 3 0 0 4 7 5 . 1 3 0 0 4 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 1 3 0 0 4 7 0 . 1 3 0 0 4 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 5 1 3 0 0 4 6 5 . 1 3 0 0 4 1 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 1 3 0 0 4 6 0 . 1 3 0 0 4 1 5 4 9 9 4 8 7 5 5 1 3 0 0 4 5 5 . 1 3 0 0 4 2 0 4 9 7 4 2 4 5 0 1 3 5 1 7 5 0 . 2 3 8 2 2 2 5 4 9 4 6 5 7 4 5 1 6 0 9 3 4 5 . 5 3 6 6 5 3 0 4 9 1 2 8 0 4 0 2 1 4 3 5 4 0 . 7 4 9 0 0 3 5 4 3 5 3 3 2 3 5 3 0 1 5 5 3 6 . 0 8 6 7 2 4 0 4 7 6 3 5 1 3 0 4 4 8 2 3 3 1 . 6 1 5 2 3 4 5 4 6 3 3 7 4 2 5 6 8 4 7 2 2 7 . 2 5 7 0 1 5 0 4 4 5 1 0 0 2 1 0 5 0 9 8 2 3 . 1 0 3 0 0 5 5 4 1 9 8 6 4 1 6 5 9 9 9 8 1 9 . 0 9 7 5 6 6 0 3 8 4 0 0 2 1 2 4 0 1 3 4 1 5 . 3 0 5 8 0 6 5 3 3 0 5 0 0 8 5 6 1 3 2 1 1 . 7 9 6 1 8 7 0 2 5 3 8 8 7 5 2 5 6 3 1 8 . 8 1 5 9 0 7 5 1 6 1 3 5 2 2 7 1 7 4 4 6 . 4 8 0 6 3 8 0 I 1 0 3 9 2 1 1 0 3 9 2 4 . 3 8 2 6 3 3 5 L U X 1 T I X 1 E ( X ) A G E 4 9 5 3 5 4 7 3 3 8 0 8 0 7 3 . 3 8 0 8 0 0 4 9 0 7 0 9 6 8 4 2 7 2 6 6 9 . 7 2 2 3 8 5 4 9 0 7 0 9 6 3 5 2 0 1 7 6 4 . 7 2 2 8 8 1 0 4 8 9 3 8 4 5 8 6 1 3 0 8 5 9 . 7 2 2 8 8 1 5 4 8 7 2 1 8 5 3 7 1 9 2 5 5 5 . 0 3 3 5 9 2 0 4 8 5 1 4 4 4 8 8 4 7 0 6 5 0 . 2 1 5 1 0 2 5 4 3 3 3 4 5 4 3 9 9 5 6 2 4 5 . 4 5 8 4 7 3 0 4 8 0 8 2 5 3 9 1 6 2 1 7 4 0 . 5 5 9 0 2 3 5 4 7 5 3 4 6 3 4 3 5 3 9 2 3 5 . 8 6 9 7 3 4 0 4 6 7 2 0 3 2 9 6 0 0 4 6 3 1 . 3 6 8 3 3 4 5 4 5 5 1 1 8 2 4 9 2 8 4 3 2 6 . 9 4 4 6 7 5 0 4 3 7 9 2 5 2 0 3 7 7 2 5 2 2 . 7 6 0 2 3 5 5 4 1 4 1 5 5 1 5 9 9 3 0 0 1 8 . 6 8 0 5 7 6 0 3 7 6 8 1 3 1 1 8 5 6 4 5 1 4 . 8 1 6 4 6 6 5 3 2 1 5 6 3 8 C 8 8 3 2 1 1 . 4 3 9 8 3 7 0 2 4 6 9 1 0 4 8 7 2 6 9 8 . 4 1 2 5 1 7 5 1 5 4 0 3 1 2 4 0 3 5 9 5 . 8 8 5 1 I 8 0 8 6 3 2 3 3 6 3 2 3 4 . 1 5 6 2 5 8 5 179. Appendix D. L i f e tables of native-born and immigrant groups, males, Canada 1941. 1 9 4 1 MALES AGE PP DO Ml X) 0 ( X ) 0 5 3 0 9 3 3 1 0 6 5 2 0 . 0 2 0 0 6 3 0 . 0 9 5 5 2 3 5 5 2 3 2 0 2 878 0 . 0 0 1 6 7 8 0 . 0 0 8 3 5 6 10 5 3 7 3 2 9 758 0 . 0 0 1 4 1 1 0 . 0 0 7 0 2 9 15 5 2 9 8 8 3 1 0 4 9 0 . 0 0 1 9 3 0 0 . 0 0 9 8 5 0 2 0 4 8 3 1 7 3 1 1 7 4 0 . 0 0 2 4 3 0 0 . 0 1 2 0 7 6 2 5 4 4 2 0 4 7 1 1 6 8 0 . 0 0 2 6 4 2 0 . 0 1 3 1 2 5 30 3 3 8 2 0 0 9 7 2 0 . 0 0 2 8 7 4 0 . 0 1 4 2 6 8 35 2 6 3 5 9 1 t o n 0 . 0 0 3 8 3 5 0 . 0 1 8 9 9 5 4 0 2 1 7 0 1 0 1 1 1 5 0 . 0 0 5 1 3 8 0 . 0 2 5 3 6 4 4 5 2 0 0 6 1 5 1 4 7 0 0 . 0 0 7 3 2 7 0 . 0 3 5 9 7 8 50 1 7 8 4 7 0 1 9 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 6 4 6 0 . 0 5 1 8 5 0 55 1 5 3 1 3 4 2 5 1 8 0 . 0 1 6 4 4 3 0 . 0 7 8 9 6 9 6 0 1 2 8 8 4 1 3 068 0 . 0 2 3 8 1 2 0 . 1 1 2 3 7 2 65 10 3 2 7 5 3 809 0 . 0 3 6 8 3 2 0.168 842 70 7 3 9 7 8 42 76 0 . 0 5 7 8 0 1 0 . 2 5 2 5 1 6 75 4 6 8 5 2 4 5 6 1 0 . 0 9 7 3 4 9 0 . 3 9 1 4 7 2 8 0 2 4 7 6 6 3 6 6 6 0 . 1 4 8 0 2 6 0 . 5 4 0 2 1 4 85 1 1 6 3 2 2 798 0 . 2 4 0 5 4 3 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 TOT 4 7 8 7 0 2 0 4 6 8 6 5 0 . 0 0 9 7 9 0 1 9 4 1 MALES AGE PP DD Ml XI 0( X) 0 186 3 15 0 . 0 0 8 0 5 2 0 . 0 3 9 4 6 3 5 4 8 6 7 9 0 . 0 0 1 8 4 9 0 . 0 0 9 2 0 3 10 1 8 0 3 3 29 0 . 0 0 1 6 0 8 0 . 0 0 8 0 0 9 15 3 4 2 8 0 66 0 . 0 0 1 9 2 5 0 . 0 0 9 5 8 0 2 0 3 3 3 0 9 147 0 . 0 0 4 4 1 3 0 . 0 2 1 8 2 5 2 5 4 4 4 0 6 148 0 . 0 0 3 3 3 3 0 . 0 1 6 5 2 7 30 9 1 3 5 0 2 3 5 0 . 0 0 2 5 7 3 0 . 0 1 2 7 8 0 35 1 3 C 8 9 8 4 8 1 0. 0 0 3 6 7 5 0 . 0 1 8 2 0 6 4 0 1 2 9 6 3 2 6 2 0 0 . 0 0 4 7 8 3 0 . 0 2 3 6 3 1 4 5 I 3 0 0 6 1 9 4 3 0 . 0 0 7 2 5 0 0 . 0 3 5 6 0 7 50 1 3 5 5 8 6 1 4 3 7 0 . 0 1 0 5 9 8 0 . 0 5 1 6 2 4 55 1 2 0 5 6 6 1 8 5 9 0 . 0 1 5 4 1 9 0 . 0 7 4 2 3 3 6 0 8 8 5 4 2 2 1 9 8 0 . 0 2 4 8 2 4 0. 1 1 6 8 6 9 65 5 8 3 0 7 2 2 2 1 0 . 0 3 8 0 9 1 0. 1 7 3 8 9 7 70 3 6 5 9 6 2 1 8 4 0 . C 5 9 6 7 9 0 . 2 5 9 6 5 4 75 19968 1 8 2 7 0 . 0 9 1 4 9 6 0 . 3 7 2 3 1 8 80 9 1 5 0 1 3 3 5 0 . 1 4 5 9 0 2 0 . 5 3 4 5 3 5 85 4 2 6 0 10 37 0 . 2 4 3 4 2 7 1.000 00 0 TOT 1 0 9 1 5 8 5 1 6 7 7 2 0 . 0 1 5 3 6 5 C A N A D A L ( X ) D ( X I L L 1 X I T ( X ) E I X ) AGE 1 0 0 0 0 0 9552 4 7 6 1 1 9 6 1 7 6 0 0 2 6 1 . 7 6 0 0 2 0 9 0 4 4 8 756 4 5 0 3 4 9 5 6 9 9 3 8 2 6 3 . 0 1 8 5 3 5 8 9 6 9 2 6 3 0 4 4 6 8 8 4 5 2 4 9 5 3 3 5 8 . 5 2 8 4 6 10 8 9 0 6 2 877 4 4 3 1 1 5 4 8 0 2 6 4 9 5 3 . 9 2 5 0 5 15 8 8 1 8 4 1065 4 3 8 2 6 0 4 3 5 9 5 3 5 4 9 . 4 3 6 6 1 2 0 8 7 1 1 9 1143 4 3 2 7 3 9 3 9 2 1 2 7 5 4 5 . 0 1 0 3 2 2 5 8 5 9 7 6 1227 4 2 6 8 1 4 3 4 8 8 5 3 6 4 0 . 5 7 5 6 7 30 8 4 7 4 9 1610 4 1 9 7 2 2 3 0 6 1 7 2 3 3 6 . 1 2 6 7 8 3 5 8 3 1 4 0 2 1 0 9 4 1 0 4 2 6 2 6 4 2 0 0 0 3 1 . 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C 8 8 8 0 3 0 . 3 6 3 3 4 9 8 0 1 1 6 1 7 0 . 1 4 6 5 5 2 0 . 5 3 6 2 7 8 8 5 4 3 1 1 0 . 2 5 5 8 1 4 I . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T O T 2 5 1 8 3 3 2 4 0 . 0 1 2 8 6 6 I R E L A N D L ( X » o m L L ( X » 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 5 8 4 9 6 8 5 5 9 8 7 4 2 1 0 2 6 4 9 1 1 4 6 9 7 7 1 6 4 7 6 4 8 7 3 9 2 9 7 2 4 1 1 2 1 0 4 8 3 1 7 8 9 6 0 3 1 1 4 9 3 4 7 6 4 2 1 9 4 5 3 8 1 8 2 6 4 6 8 1 2 5 9 2 7 1 2 2 9 1 6 4 5 6 2 7 1 8 9 7 9 6 5 3 8 5 4 3 5 5 1 8 8 4 4 1 1 5 9 5 6 4 0 7 1 6 4 7 8 4 5 5 1 1 0 0 8 3 6 4 7 5 4 6 7 4 4 7 1 4 2 5 7 3 0 1 5 9 1 5 3 1 9 0 1 6 8 2 2 2 2 3 8 9 3 3 6 3 6 8 1 4 6 4 0 1 4 5 2 3 8 2 1 7 2 3 1 2 8 1 0 7 6 6 1 3 8 9 1 8 3 9 1 8 3 1 2 5 6 I T A L Y L ( X ) D ( X ) L U X » 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 9 7 4 9 3 5 0 6 9 7 4 0 3 0 4 8 7 0 1 3 9 7 4 0 3 7 2 1 4 8 5 2 1 1 9 6 6 8 2 2 0 7 2 4 7 8 2 2 8 9 4 6 1 0 1 2 6 9 4 6 9 8 7 5 9 3 3 4 0 2 1 0 1 4 6 1 4 4 8 9 1 2 3 9 2 4 4 6 4 5 0 0 7 9 8 8 7 9 3 2 3 1 3 4 3 3 1 8 2 8 6 4 8 0 4 0 7 1 4 2 2 2 2 3 8 2 4 0 9 6 3 5 5 3 9 6 L 5 8 7 6 0 5 4 9 6 9 9 3 5 6 0 2 4 6 6 3 5 6 1 1 1 2 4 3 0 3 9 6 7 5 5 2 3 1 1 8 4 4 3 2 3 0 0 4 9 3 6 7 8 8 1 3 3 6 7 I 5 0 5 2 4 2 3 4 2 1 1 2 5 6 0 3 5 7 0 6 1 0 8 6 1 1 0 8 6 1 4 2 4 5 7 T 1 X I E ( X t A G E 6 8 4 5 4 1 5 6 8 . 4 5 4 1 5 0 6 3 4 5 4 1 5 6 3 . 4 5 4 1 5 5 5 8 4 5 4 1 5 5 8 . 4 5 4 1 5 1 0 5 3 4 5 4 1 5 5 3 . 4 5 4 1 5 1 5 4 8 4 8 5 6 0 4 9 . 1 3 3 2 5 2 0 4 3 5 7 4 1 5 4 4 . 5 9 2 6 1 2 5 3 8 7 0 0 2 3 3 9 . 7 9 8 4 4 3 0 3 3 8 6 8 4 5 3 5 . 2 6 8 4 3 3 5 2 9 1 0 4 2 4 3 0 . 7 8 5 7 9 4 0 2 4 4 2 2 9 9 2 6 . 3 4 2 8 2 4 5 1 9 8 6 0 2 9 2 2 . 1 1 7 0 9 5 0 1 5 5 0 5 1 1 1 8 . 3 6 8 6 0 5 5 1 1 4 3 3 4 7 1 4 . 5 7 3 3 3 6 0 7 7 8 5 9 2 1 1 . 5 4 3 7 7 6 5 4 7 7 0 0 1 8 . 9 6 7 9 5 7 0 2 5 3 1 0 8 6 . 9 5 9 6 9 7 5 1 0 7 8 7 0 4 . 9 6 4 6 2 8 0 3 1 2 5 6 3 . 5 0 4 9 5 8 5 T ( X t E ( X t A G E 6 7 5 0 6 5 1 6 7 . 5 0 6 5 1 0 6 2 5 0 6 5 1 6 2 . 5 0 6 5 1 5 5 7 5 0 6 5 1 5 7 . 5 0 6 5 1 1 0 5 2 5 7 1 4 4 5 3 . 9 7 3 3 5 1 5 4 7 7 0 1 3 1 4 8 . 9 7 3 3 5 2 0 4 2 8 4 9 2 1 4 4 . 3 1 9 9 0 2 5 3 8 0 6 6 9 3 4 0 . 2 3 5 8 0 3 0 3 3 3 6 8 1 8 3 5 . 7 4 8 9 4 3 5 2 8 7 5 3 7 0 3 1 . 5 1 4 7 5 4 0 2 4 2 5 2 9 1 2 7 . 3 1 4 0 5 4 5 1 9 8 7 1 0 8 2 2 . 9 7 7 6 1 5 0 1 5 6 4 8 8 5 1 8 . 9 3 9 2 5 5 5 1 1 6 8 7 2 7 1 5 . 3 6 7 0 1 6 0 8 1 2 7 0 2 1 2 . 2 4 7 7 0 6 5 5 0 8 7 3 6 9 . 2 1 1 0 3 7 0 2 7 8 6 8 7 7 . 5 7 5 4 1 7 5 1 2 8 1 6 3 5 . 4 7 2 0 4 8 0 4 2 4 5 7 3 . 9 0 9 0 9 8 5 1 9 4 1 M A L E S A G E P P D O M I X ) O C X ) 0 5 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 6 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 7 3 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 5 3 5 0 1 0 . 0 0 2 8 5 7 0 . 0 1 4 1 3 4 2 0 3 6 4 1 1 0 . 0 3 0 2 2 0 0 . 1 4 0 4 3 5 2 5 3 8 1 5 0 . 0 1 3 1 2 3 0 . 0 6 3 5 3 2 3 0 1 4 9 2 5 0 . 0 0 3 3 5 1 0 . 0 1 6 6 1 7 3 5 2 4 9 9 7 0 . 0 0 2 8 0 1 0 . 0 1 3 9 0 8 4 0 1 9 5 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 5 6 4 1 0 . 0 2 7 8 1 3 4 5 1 8 0 7 1 5 0 . 0 0 8 3 0 1 0 . 0 4 0 6 6 1 5 0 2 3 5 8 2 6 0 . 0 1 1 0 2 6 0 . 0 5 3 6 5 2 5 5 2 2 3 5 3 2 0 . 0 1 4 3 1 8 0 . 0 6 9 1 1 4 6 0 1 6 6 9 4 0 0 . 0 2 3 9 6 6 0 . 1 1 3 0 5 8 6 5 1 0 6 1 2 7 0 . 0 2 5 4 4 3 0 . 1 1 9 6 2 8 7 0 6 9 8 2 6 0 . 0 3 7 2 4 9 0 . 1 7 0 3 8 0 7 5 4 3 0 4 1 0 . 0 9 5 3 4 9 0 . 3 8 4 9 7 7 8 0 2 0 4 3 5 0 . 1 7 1 5 6 9 0 . 6 0 0 3 4 3 8 5 1 1 0 2 4 0 . 2 1 8 1 8 2 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T O T 1 7 6 9 2 3 0 7 0 . 0 1 7 3 5 2 1 9 4 1 M A L E S A G E . P P D D MC X ) O C X ) 0 9 1 I 0 . 0 1 0 9 8 9 0 . 0 5 3 4 7 6 5 3 5 6 1 0 . 0 0 2 8 0 9 0 . 0 1 3 9 4 7 1 0 2 4 5 0 3 0 . 0 0 1 2 2 4 0 . 0 0 6 1 0 4 1 5 5 0 5 5 1 4 0 . 0 0 2 7 7 0 0 . 0 1 3 7 5 2 2 0 2 0 0 2 2 0 . 0 0 0 9 9 9 0 . 0 0 4 9 3 3 2 5 3 0 3 4 5 0 . 0 0 1 6 4 8 0 . 0 0 8 2 0 6 3 0 7 3 9 1 1 3 0 . 0 0 1 7 5 9 0 . 0 0 8 7 5 6 3 5 1 4 4 7 3 4 7 0 . 0 0 3 2 4 7 0 . 0 1 6 1 0 6 4 0 1 3 8 3 5 6 3 0 . 0 0 4 5 5 4 0 . 0 2 2 5 1 2 4 5 1 1 8 2 2 8 5 0 . 0 0 7 1 9 0 0 . 0 3 5 3 1 5 5 0 9 4 7 6 7 0 0 . 0 0 7 3 8 7 0 . 0 3 6 2 6 6 5 5 6 7 7 9 9 6 0 . 0 1 4 1 6 1 0 . 0 6 8 3 8 6 6 0 4 5 2 6 9 8 0 . 0 2 1 6 5 3 0 . 1 0 2 7 0 4 6 5 3 0 6 6 9 3 0 . 0 3 0 3 3 3 0 . 1 4 0 9 7 3 7 0 1 7 1 8 7 7 0 . 0 4 4 8 2 0 0 . 2 0 1 5 1 8 7 5 9 9 3 7 8 0 . 0 7 8 5 5 0 0 . 3 2 8 2 8 3 8 0 4 4 2 5 2 0 . 1 1 7 6 4 7 0 . 4 5 4 5 4 5 8 5 2 1 7 4 7 0 . 2 1 6 5 9 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T O T 8 7 7 1 7 8 4 5 0 . 0 0 9 6 3 3 N O R W A Y L ( X ) O C X ) L L C X I T ( X ) E C X ) A G E 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 5 5 8 8 8 6 1 . 5 5 8 8 8 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 6 5 5 8 8 8 5 6 . 5 5 8 8 8 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 5 5 8 8 8 5 1 . 5 5 8 8 8 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 8 4 9 6 4 5 4 4 6 5 5 8 8 8 4 6 . 5 5 8 8 8 1 5 9 8 5 8 2 1 3 8 4 9 4 5 8 2 8 5 4 1 5 9 4 3 4 4 2 . 1 9 2 8 2 2 0 8 4 7 3 2 5 3 3 3 4 1 0 2 0 3 3 7 0 1 1 5 0 4 3 . 6 8 0 5 1 2 5 7 9 3 4 9 1 3 1 9 3 9 3 4 4 9 3 2 9 0 9 4 6 4 1 . 4 7 4 3 0 3 0 7 8 0 3 1 1 0 3 5 3 8 7 4 3 9 2 8 9 7 4 9 7 3 7 . 1 3 2 8 7 3 5 7 6 9 4 5 2 1 4 0 3 7 9 3 7 6 2 5 1 0 0 5 8 3 2 . 6 2 1 3 5 4 0 7 4 8 0 5 3 0 4 2 3 6 6 4 2 2 2 1 3 0 6 8 2 2 8 . 4 8 3 0 7 4 5 7 1 7 6 4 3 8 5 0 3 4 9 1 9 2 1 7 6 4 2 6 0 2 4 . 5 8 4 3 6 5 0 6 7 9 1 3 4 6 9 4 3 2 7 8 3 2 1 4 1 5 0 6 8 2 0 . 8 3 6 4 2 5 5 6 3 2 1 9 7 1 4 7 2 9 8 2 2 8 1 0 8 7 2 3 7 1 7 . 1 9 7 8 3 6 0 5 6 0 7 2 6 7 0 8 2 6 3 5 9 0 7 8 9 0 0 8 1 4 . 0 7 1 3 5 6 5 4 9 3 6 4 3 4 1 1 2 2 5 7 9 4 5 2 5 4 1 8 1 0 . 6 4 3 7 1 7 0 4 0 9 5 4 1 5 7 6 6 1 6 5 3 5 2 2 9 9 6 2 4 7 . 3 1 6 1 9 7 5 2 5 1 8 7 1 5 1 2 1 8 8 1 3 4 1 3 4 2 7 1 5 . 3 3 0 9 0 8 0 1 0 0 6 6 1 0 0 6 6 4 6 1 3 7 4 6 1 3 7 4 . 5 8 3 3 3 8 5 P O L A N D L ( X ) D I X ) L L C X I T C X I E I X ) A G E 1 0 0 0 0 0 5 3 4 8 4 8 6 6 3 1 6 6 4 8 7 1 0 6 6 . 4 8 7 1 0 0 9 4 6 5 2 1 3 2 0 4 6 9 9 6 2 6 1 6 2 0 7 9 6 5 . 1 0 2 1 9 5 9 3 3 3 2 5 7 0 4 6 5 2 3 7 5 6 9 2 1 1 7 6 0 . 9 8 7 6 5 1 0 9 2 7 6 3 1 2 7 6 4 6 0 6 2 4 5 2 2 6 8 8 0 5 6 . 3 4 6 8 4 1 5 9 1 4 8 7 4 5 6 4 5 6 2 9 5 4 7 6 6 2 5 6 5 2 . 0 9 7 6 9 2 0 9 1 0 3 1 7 4 7 4 5 3 2 8 8 4 3 0 9 9 6 2 4 7 . 3 4 6 0 6 2 5 9 0 2 8 4 7 9 1 4 4 9 4 4 4 3 8 5 6 6 7 4 4 2 . 7 1 7 1 1 3 0 8 9 4 9 4 1 4 4 1 4 4 3 8 6 4 3 4 0 7 2 3 0 3 8 . 0 7 2 3 6 3 5 8 8 0 5 2 1 9 8 2 4 3 5 3 0 5 2 9 6 3 3 6 6 3 3 . 6 5 4 6 8 4 0 8 6 0 7 0 3 0 4 0 4 2 2 7 5 0 2 5 2 8 0 6 1 2 9 . 3 7 2 1 9 4 5 8 3 0 3 0 3 0 1 1 4 0 7 6 2 4 2 1 0 5 3 1 0 2 5 . 3 5 5 9 3 5 0 8 0 0 1 9 5 4 7 2 3 8 6 4 1 5 1 6 9 7 6 8 7 2 1 . 2 1 6 0 1 5 5 7 4 5 4 7 7 6 5 6 3 5 3 5 9 4 1 3 1 1 2 7 1 1 7 . 5 8 9 8 7 6 0 6 6 3 9 1 9 4 3 0 3 1 0 8 7 9 9 5 7 6 7 7 1 4 . 3 1 7 0 4 6 5 5 7 4 6 1 I 1 5 7 9 2 5 3 3 5 6 6 4 6 7 9 8 1 1 . 2 5 6 3 1 7 0 4 5 8 8 2 1 5 0 6 2 1 9 1 7 5 2 3 8 8 4 4 2 8 . 4 6 6 2 0 7 5 3 0 8 1 9 1 4 0 0 9 1 1 9 0 7 5 1 9 6 6 9 0 6 . 3 8 2 0 1 8 0 I 6 8 1 1 1 6 3 1 1 7 7 6 1 5 7 7 6 1 5 4 . 6 1 7 0 2 8 5 1 9 4 1 M A L E S A G E P P D D M ( X ) O C X ) 0 5 5 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 1 5 4 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 6 9 6 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 5 2 7 2 1 6 0 . 0 0 2 2 0 5 0 . 0 1 0 9 6 5 2 0 4 5 6 7 1 0 0 . 0 0 2 1 9 0 0 . 0 1 0 8 8 9 2 5 5 7 4 5 9 0 . 0 0 1 5 6 7 0 . 0 0 7 8 0 2 3 0 1 0 9 2 7 1 9 0 . 0 0 1 7 3 9 0 . 0 0 8 6 5 6 3 5 1 3 3 6 1 4 2 0 . 0 0 3 1 4 3 0 . 0 1 5 5 9 5 4 0 1 2 7 4 1 7 4 0 . 0 0 5 8 0 8 0 . 0 2 8 6 2 4 4 5 1 2 6 2 5 1 1 7 0 . 0 0 9 2 6 7 0 . 0 4 5 2 8 7 5 0 1 5 4 4 3 1 7 2 0 . 0 1 1 1 3 8 0 . 0 5 4 1 8 0 5 5 1 4 9 3 2 2 2 3 0 . 0 1 4 9 3 4 0 . 0 7 1 9 8 4 6 0 1 1 2 3 8 2 5 9 0 . 0 2 3 0 4 7 0 . 1 0 8 9 5 6 6 5 6 9 5 4 2 4 5 0 . 0 3 5 2 3 2 0 . 1 6 1 8 9 8 7 0 4 1 0 7 2 3 3 0 . 0 5 6 7 3 2 0 . 2 4 8 4 2 7 7 5 2 4 6 3 2 3 6 0 . 0 9 5 8 1 8 0 . 3 8 6 5 0 5 8 0 1 1 6 6 1 7 1 0 . 1 4 6 6 5 5 0 . 5 3 6 5 5 5 8 5 6 1 7 1 5 8 0 . 2 5 6 0 7 8 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T O T 1 2 0 5 0 3 1 9 7 2 0 . 0 1 6 3 6 5 1 9 4 1 M A L E S A G E P P D D M ( X » O I X ) 0 2 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 1 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 3 7 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 1 5 2 0 9 3 0 . 0 1 4 3 5 4 0 . 0 6 9 2 8 4 2 0 2 1 3 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 5 2 8 3 2 0 . 0 0 7 0 6 7 0 . 0 3 4 7 2 2 3 0 1 3 7 1 6 0 . 0 0 4 3 7 6 0 . 0 2 1 6 4 5 3 5 2 3 0 2 1 0 0 . 0 0 4 3 4 4 0 . 0 2 1 4 8 7 4 G 2 0 4 9 1 0 0 . 0 0 4 8 8 0 0 . 0 2 4 1 0 8 4 5 2 0 5 2 2 4 0 . 0 1 1 6 9 6 0 . 0 5 6 8 1 8 5 0 2 5 1 1 2 3 0 . 0 0 9 1 6 0 0 . 0 4 4 7 7 3 5 5 2 3 3 4 3 7 0 . 0 1 5 8 5 3 0 . 0 7 6 2 4 2 6 0 1 8 2 1 4 7 0 . 0 2 5 8 1 0 0 . 1 2 1 2 2 8 6 5 1 3 8 1 5 7 0 . C 4 1 2 7 4 0 . 1 8 7 0 6 9 7 0 8 9 5 5 5 0 . 0 6 1 4 5 3 0 . 2 6 6 3 4 4 7 5 5 7 7 5 1 0 . 0 8 8 3 8 8 0 . 3 6 1 9 5 9 8 0 2 4 2 3 4 0 . 1 4 0 4 9 6 0 . 5 1 9 8 7 8 8 5 9 2 1 5 0 . 1 6 3 0 4 1 I . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T O T 1 8 3 7 1 3 7 6 0 . 0 2 0 4 6 7 S C O T L A N D L ( X 1 • ( X ) L U X ) T I X ) E I X ) A G E 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 9 3 3 2 6 6 6 9 . 3 3 2 6 6 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 4 3 3 2 6 6 6 4 . 3 3 2 6 6 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 9 3 3 2 6 6 5 9 . 3 3 2 6 6 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 9 6 4 9 7 2 5 9 5 4 3 3 2 6 6 5 4 . 3 3 2 6 6 1 5 9 8 9 0 4 1 0 7 7 4 9 1 8 2 5 4 9 3 6 0 0 7 4 9 . 9 0 7 3 0 2 0 9 7 8 2 7 7 6 3 4 8 7 2 2 5 4 4 4 4 1 8 2 4 5 . 4 2 9 1 8 2 5 9 7 0 6 3 8 4 0 4 8 3 2 1 6 3 9 5 6 9 5 7 4 0 . 7 6 6 7 6 3 0 9 6 2 2 3 1 5 0 1 4 7 7 3 6 4 3 4 7 3 7 4 1 3 6 . 1 0 0 9 1 3 5 9 4 7 2 3 2 7 1 1 4 6 6 8 3 4 2 9 9 6 3 7 7 3 1 . 6 3 3 2 1 4 0 9 2 0 1 I 4 1 6 7 4 4 9 6 3 8 2 5 2 9 5 4 3 2 7 . 4 9 1 7 1 4 5 8 7 8 4 4 4 7 5 9 4 2 7 3 2 2 2 C 7 9 9 0 5 2 3 . 6 7 7 2 0 5 0 8 3 0 8 5 5 9 3 1 4 0 0 4 7 2 1 6 5 2 5 8 2 1 9 . 8 9 0 3 1 5 5 7 7 1 0 4 8 4 0 1 3 6 4 5 1 8 1 2 5 2 1 1 0 1 6 . 2 3 9 2 4 6 0 6 8 7 0 3 1 1 1 2 3 3 1 5 7 0 8 8 8 7 5 9 3 1 2 . 9 1 9 2 7 6 5 5 7 5 3 0 1 4 3 0 4 2 5 2 1 4 0 5 7 1 8 8 5 9 . 9 3 1 9 8 7 0 4 3 2 7 6 1 6 7 2 6 1 7 4 5 6 3 3 1 9 7 4 5 7 . 3 8 8 5 7 7 5 2 6 5 4 9 1 4 2 4 5 9 7 1 3 4 1 4 5 1 8 3 5 . 4 6 8 4 0 8 0 1 2 3 0 4 1 2 3 0 4 4 8 0 4 9 4 8 0 4 9 3 . 9 0 5 0 6 8 5 S W E D E N L ( X 1 D ( X ) L L ( X ) T ( X ) E I X ) A G E 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 4 9 5 4 1 4 6 4 . 9 5 4 1 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 9 9 5 4 1 4 5 9 . 9 5 4 1 4 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 4 9 5 4 1 4 5 4 . 9 5 4 1 4 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 6 9 2 8 4 8 2 6 7 9 4 9 9 5 4 1 4 4 9 . 9 5 4 1 4 1 5 9 3 0 7 2 0 4 6 5 3 5 8 4 5 1 2 7 3 5 4 8 . 4 8 6 7 1 2 0 9 3 0 7 2 3 2 3 2 4 5 7 2 7 9 4 0 4 7 3 7 7 4 3 . 4 8 6 7 1 2 5 8 9 8 4 0 1 9 4 5 4 4 4 3 3 8 3 5 9 0 0 9 8 3 9 . 9 6 1 0 5 3 0 8 7 8 9 5 1 8 3 9 4 3 4 7 5 5 3 1 4 5 7 6 0 3 5 . 7 8 9 8 4 3 5 8 6 0 0 7 2 0 7 3 4 2 4 8 5 0 2 7 1 1 0 0 5 3 1 . 5 2 0 8 4 4 0 8 3 9 3 3 4 7 6 9 4 0 7 7 4 4 2 2 8 6 1 5 5 2 7 . 2 3 7 7 6 4 5 7 9 1 6 4 3 5 4 4 3 8 6 9 6 1 1 8 7 8 4 1 1 2 3 . 7 2 7 9 8 5 0 7 5 6 2 0 5 7 6 5 3 6 3 6 8 6 1 4 9 1 4 5 0 1 9 . 7 2 2 9 8 5 5 6 9 8 5 5 8 4 6 8 3 2 8 1 0 2 1 1 2 7 7 6 4 1 6 . 1 4 4 4 6 6 0 6 1 3 8 6 1 1 4 3 3 2 7 8 2 2 2 7 9 9 6 6 2 1 3 . 0 2 6 7 3 6 5 4 9 9 0 3 1 3 2 9 1 2 1 6 2 8 6 5 2 1 4 3 9 1 0 . 4 4 9 1 I 7 0 3 6 6 1 I 1 3 2 5 2 1 4 9 9 2 8 3 0 5 1 5 4 8 . 3 3 4 9 2 7 5 2 3 3 6 0 1 2 1 4 4 8 6 4 3 8 1 5 5 2 2 6 6 . 6 4 5 0 6 8 0 1 1 2 1 5 1 1 2 1 5 6 8 7 8 8 6 8 7 8 8 6 . 1 3 3 3 3 8 5 CO 1941 MALES AGE PP 0 857 5 2162 10 8182 15 8338 20 6874 25 9285 30 14514 35 16370 40 16670 45 17781 50 16085 55 12992 60 8660 65 6413 70 3994 75 1974 80 1042 85 461 TOT 152646 DD M(X» 13 0.015169 4 0.001850 17 0.002078 19 0.002279 44 0.006401 34 0.003662 46 0.003169 64 0.003910 75 0.004499 116 0.006524 168 0.010445 195 0.015009 250 0.028868 255 0.039763 254 0.063595 200 0.101317 149 0.142994 116 0.251627 2016 0.013207 0< XI 0 .073075 0.009208 0.010335 0.01 1329 0.031501 0.018143 0.015722 0.019359 0.022245 0.032096 0.050894 0.072332 0.134626 0.180838 0.274357 0.404204 0.526688 I.000000 UNITED STATES L(X> D(X ) LL( XI Tlx > E( X) A^E 100000 7307 481731 6166837 61.66837 0 926 93 854 461329 5685106 61.33295 5 91839 949 456822 5223777 56.87972 10 90890 103 0 451875 4766955 52.44 761 15 89860 2331 442224 4315080 48.01995 20 87030 1579 431200 3872856 44.50049 25 85451 1343 42 3894 3441656 40.27659 30 84107 1628 416465 3017762 35.88001 35 82479 1835 407807 2601297 31.53896 40 80644 2 588 396750 2193490 27. 19963 45 78056 3973 380347 1796740 23.01867 50 74083 5359 357020 1416393 19.11894 55 68725 92 52 3 2 0493 1059373 15.41475 60 5 9473 10755 2704 75 733880 12.42389 65 48718 13366 210173 468405 9.61469 70 35352 142 89 141035 258232 7.30467 75 21062 11093 77579 117197 5.56429 80 9969 9969 39618 39618 3.97414 85 oo oo 189. Appendix E. L i f e tables of native-born and immigrant groups, females, Canada 1941. 1 9 4 1 F E M A L E S A G E P P D O M ( X ) 0 ( X ) 0 5 1 4 9 2 9 8 0 0 3 0 . 0 1 5 5 4 2 0 . 0 7 4 8 0 3 5 5 1 1 1 4 9 6 6 4 0 . 0 0 1 2 9 9 0 . 0 0 6 4 7 4 1 0 5 2 5 8 5 8 5 2 1 0 . 0 0 0 9 9 1 0 . 0 0 4 9 4 2 1 5 5 2 C 5 9 5 7 7 8 0 . 0 0 1 4 9 4 0 . 0 0 7 4 4 4 2 0 4 8 0 1 8 3 9 7 8 0 . 0 0 2 0 3 7 0 . 0 1 0 1 3 2 2 5 4 3 3 0 0 2 1 0 9 8 0 . 0 0 2 5 3 6 0 . 0 1 2 5 9 9 3 0 3 2 5 8 3 3 9 5 1 0 . 0 0 2 9 1 9 0 . 0 1 4 4 8 8 3 5 2 5 5 5 2 6 9 6 3 0 . 0 0 3 7 6 9 0 . 0 1 8 6 6 8 4 0 2 1 6 4 5 4 1 0 5 6 0 . 0 0 4 8 7 9 0 . 0 2 4 0 9 9 4 5 1 9 4 6 5 6 1 2 1 6 0 . 0 0 6 2 4 7 0 . 0 3 0 7 5 4 5 0 1 7 2 9 4 2 1 3 9 5 0 . 0 0 8 0 6 6 0 . 0 3 9 5 3 4 5 5 1 4 5 1 0 4 1 8 3 8 0 . 0 1 2 6 6 7 0 . 0 6 1 3 9 0 6 0 1 2 2 8 8 0 2 3 2 3 0 . 0 1 8 9 0 5 0 . 0 9 0 2 5 7 6 5 9 9 4 8 8 3 0 9 4 0 . 0 3 1 0 9 9 0 . 1 4 4 2 7 9 7 0 7 4 9 7 1 3 6 0 7 0 . 0 4 8 1 1 2 0 . 2 1 4 7 3 2 7 5 5 0 2 6 3 4 0 1 3 0 . C 7 9 8 4 0 0 . 3 3 2 7 7 8 8 0 2 8 0 8 4 3 7 3 6 0 . 1 3 3 0 2 9 0 . 4 9 9 1 4 5 8 5 1 4 9 3 2 3 4 0 2 0 . 2 2 7 8 3 3 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T O T 4 6 8 6 8 6 3 3 9 6 3 7 0 . 0 0 8 4 5 7 1 9 4 1 F E M A L E S A G E P P D D M I X ) Q U I 0 1 9 5 4 1 2 0 . 0 0 6 1 4 1 0 . 0 3 0 2 4 2 5 4 5 8 8 6 0 . 0 0 1 3 0 8 0 . 0 0 6 5 1 7 1 0 1 7 8 0 0 1 5 0 . 0 0 0 8 4 3 0 . 0 0 4 2 0 5 1 5 3 3 0 7 4 4 4 0 . 0 0 1 3 3 0 0 . 0 0 6 6 3 0 2 0 3 2 5 1 0 6 1 0 . 0 0 1 8 7 6 0 . 0 0 9 3 3 8 2 5 4 3 6 7 5 6 9 0 . 0 0 1 5 8 0 0 . 0 0 7 8 6 8 3 0 8 4 4 9 9 1 9 2 0 . 0 0 2 2 7 2 0 . 0 1 1 2 9 7 3 5 1 0 5 8 2 0 2 7 0 0 . 0 0 2 5 5 2 0 . 0 1 2 6 7 7 4 0 1 0 9 6 9 3 4 0 0 0 . 0 0 3 6 4 7 0 . 0 1 8 0 6 8 4 5 1 0 6 2 7 5 5 9 3 0 . 0 0 5 5 8 0 0 . 0 2 7 5 1 5 5 0 1 0 1 3 8 0 8 1 6 0 . 0 0 8 0 4 9 0 . 0 3 9 4 5 1 5 5 8 5 2 3 6 9 9 9 0 . 0 1 1 7 2 0 0 . 0 5 6 9 3 4 6 0 6 4 6 9 3 1 1 4 4 0 . 0 1 7 6 8 4 0 . 0 8 4 6 7 4 6 5 4 4 9 6 9 1 2 9 1 0 . 0 2 8 7 0 9 0 . 1 3 3 9 3 1 7 0 3 0 4 2 4 1 3 5 7 0 . 0 4 4 6 0 3 0 . 2 0 0 6 4 2 7 5 1 7 8 4 0 1 4 1 3 0 . C 7 9 2 0 4 0 . 3 3 0 5 6 5 8 0 9 1 9 5 I 1 5 4 0 . 1 2 5 5 0 3 0 . 4 7 7 6 4 9 8 5 4 8 1 8 1 1 1 9 0 . 2 3 2 2 5 4 I . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T O T 8 9 8 4 2 8 1 0 9 5 2 0 . 0 1 2 1 9 0 C A N A D A L I X ( 0 1 X t L L C X » TC X » E t X I A G E 1 0 0 0 0 0 7 4 8 0 4 8 1 2 9 9 6 5 1 6 6 6 2 6 5 . 1 6 6 6 2 0 9 2 5 2 0 5 9 9 4 6 1 1 0 1 6 0 3 5 3 6 3 6 5 . 2 3 3 2 9 5 9 1 9 2 1 4 5 4 4 5 8 4 6 8 5 5 7 4 2 6 2 6 0 . 6 4 2 0 8 1 0 9 1 4 6 6 6 8 1 4 5 5 6 3 0 5 1 1 5 7 9 4 5 5 . 9 3 0 8 2 1 5 9 0 7 8 6 9 2 0 4 5 1 6 2 8 4 6 6 0 1 6 4 5 1 . 3 3 1 5 7 2 0 8 9 8 6 6 1 1 3 2 4 4 6 4 9 8 4 2 0 8 5 3 6 4 6 . 8 3 1 3 9 2 5 8 8 7 3 3 1 2 8 6 4 4 0 4 5 4 3 7 6 2 0 3 8 4 2 . 3 9 7 0 5 3 0 8 7 4 4 8 1 6 3 2 4 3 3 1 5 9 3 3 2 1 5 8 5 3 7 . 9 8 3 5 7 3 5 8 5 8 1 5 2 0 6 8 4 2 3 9 0 7 2 8 8 8 4 2 6 3 3 . 6 5 8 5 6 4 0 8 3 7 4 7 2 5 7 6 4 1 2 2 9 8 2 4 6 4 5 1 9 2 9 . 4 2 8 0 0 4 5 8 1 1 7 2 3 2 0 9 3 9 7 8 3 6 2 0 5 2 2 2 1 2 5 . 2 8 2 4 3 5 0 7 7 9 6 3 4 7 8 6 3 7 7 8 4 8 1 6 5 4 3 8 4 2 1 . 2 2 0 1 9 5 5 7 3 1 7 7 6 6 0 5 3 4 9 3 7 1 1 2 7 6 5 3 6 1 7 . 4 4 4 5 8 6 0 6 6 5 7 2 9 6 0 5 3 0 8 8 4 7 9 2 7 1 6 4 1 3 . 9 2 7 2 7 6 5 5 6 9 6 7 1 2 2 3 3 2 5 4 2 5 3 6 1 8 3 1 7 1 0 . 8 5 3 9 6 7 0' 4 4 7 3 4 1 4 8 8 7 1 8 6 4 5 5 3 6 4 0 6 4 8 . 1 3 8 3 5 7 5 2 9 8 4 8 1 4 8 9 8 I 1 1 9 9 3 1 7 7 6 0 9 5 . 9 5 0 4 8 8 0 1 4 9 4 9 1 4 9 4 9 6 5 6 1 6 6 5 6 1 6 4 . 3 8 9 1 8 8 5 F O R E I G N B O R N L I X ) 0 1 X 1 L L C X I TC X I E C X I A G E 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 4 4 9 2 4 4 0 6 9 4 6 9 4 2 6 9 . 4 6 9 4 2 0 9 6 9 7 6 6 3 2 4 8 3 2 9 9 6 4 5 4 5 0 3 6 6 . 5 5 7 8 7 5 9 6 3 4 4 4 0 5 4 8 0 7 0 6 5 9 7 1 2 0 4 6 1 . 9 7 8 1 0 1 0 9 5 9 3 9 6 3 6 4 7 8 1 0 3 5 4 9 0 4 9 8 5 7 . 2 2 9 2 4 1 5 9 5 3 0 3 8 9 0 4 7 4 2 8 8 5 0 1 2 3 9 4 5 2 . 5 9 4 5 0 2 0 9 4 4 1 3 7 4 3 4 7 0 2 0 6 4 5 3 8 1 0 6 4 8 . 0 6 6 6 9 2 5 9 3 6 7 0 1 0 5 8 4 6 5 7 0 4 4 0 6 7 9 0 0 4 3 . 4 2 8 0 6 3 0 9 2 6 1 2 1 1 7 4 4 6 0 1 2 3 3 6 0 2 1 9 6 3 8 . 8 9 5 7 0 3 5 9 1 4 3 8 1 6 5 2 4 5 3 0 5 8 3 1 4 2 0 7 3 3 4 . 3 6 3 0 0 4 0 8 9 7 8 6 2 4 7 0 4 4 2 7 5 2 2 6 8 9 0 1 4 2 9 . 9 4 9 3 0 4 5 8 7 3 1 5 3 4 4 5 4 2 7 9 6 4 2 2 4 6 2 6 3 2 5 . 7 2 5 9 5 5 0 8 3 8 7 0 4 7 7 5 4 0 7 4 1 4 1 8 1 8 2 9 9 2 1 . 6 7 9 8 6 5 5 7 9 0 9 5 6 6 9 7 3 7 8 7 3 3 1 4 1 0 8 8 5 1 7 . 8 3 7 7 7 6 0 7 2 3 9 8 9 6 9 6 3 3 7 7 4 9 1 0 3 2 1 5 1 1 4 . 2 5 6 6 2 6 5 6 2 7 0 2 1 2 5 8 1 2 8 2 0 5 7 6 9 4 4 0 2 I 1 . 0 7 4 6 9 7 0 5 0 1 2 1 1 6 5 6 8 2 0 9 1 8 5 4 1 2 3 4 5 8 . 2 2 6 9 7 7 5 3 3 5 5 3 1 6 0 2 6 1 2 7 6 9 8 2 0 3 1 6 0 6 . 0 5 4 9 3 8 0 1 7 5 2 6 1 7 5 2 6 7 5 4 6 2 7 5 4 6 2 4 . 3 0 5 6 3 8 5 o 1 9 4 1 F E M A L E S A G E P P O D M l X ) O C X ) 0 1 2 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 3 4 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 1 2 5 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 5 3 1 3 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 0 1 9 1 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 5 4 8 3 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 3 0 1 7 2 1 2 0 . 0 0 1 1 6 2 0 . 0 0 5 7 9 4 3 5 2 7 4 2 7 0 . 0 0 2 5 5 3 0 . 0 1 2 6 8 3 4 0 3 0 0 7 1 3 0 . 0 0 4 3 2 3 0 . 0 2 1 3 8 5 4 5 3 6 7 7 2 4 0 . 0 0 6 5 2 7 0 . 0 3 2 1 1 1 5 0 2 9 5 1 2 9 0 . 0 0 9 8 2 7 0 . 0 4 7 9 5 8 5 5 2 1 8 9 3 3 0 . 0 1 5 0 7 5 0 . 0 7 2 6 3 9 6 0 1 4 5 1 2 7 0 . 0 1 8 6 0 8 0 . 0 8 8 9 0 4 6 5 1 1 5 9 4 1 0 . 0 3 5 3 7 5 0 . 1 6 2 5 0 5 7 0 7 4 5 44 0 . 0 5 9 0 6 0 0 . 2 5 7 3 1 0 7 5 4 0 3 3 3 0 . 0 8 1 8 8 6 0 . 3 3 9 8 5 6 8 0 1 9 2 2 6 0 . 1 3 5 4 1 7 0 . 5 0 5 8 3 7 8 5 9 6 2 1 0 . 2 1 8 7 5 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T O T 2 1 4 9 2 3 0 1 0 . 0 1 4 0 0 5 1 9 4 1 F E M A L E S A G E P P D D M I X ) O C X ) 0 5 1 9 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 9 6 4 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 2 1 9 5 3 0 . 0 0 1 3 6 7 0 . 0 0 6 8 1 0 1 5 4 8 8 5 7 0 . 0 0 1 4 3 3 0 . 0 0 7 1 3 9 2 0 9 4 6 0 1 3 0 . 0 0 1 3 7 4 0 . 0 0 6 8 4 8 2 5 1 0 6 4 8 1 1 0 . 0 0 1 0 3 3 0 . 0 0 5 1 5 2 3 0 2 2 6 0 9 3 9 0 . 0 0 1 7 2 5 0 . 0 0 8 5 3 8 3 5 2 9 6 6 9 6 2 0 . C 0 2 0 9 0 0 . 0 1 0 3 9 4 4 0 3 5 4 4 7 1 0 6 0 . 0 0 2 9 9 0 0 . 0 1 4 8 4 1 4 5 3 5 9 2 0 1 8 5 0 . 0 0 5 1 5 0 0 . 0 2 5 4 2 4 5 0 3 7 5 6 5 2 7 1 0 . 0 0 7 2 1 4 0 . 0 3 5 4 3 2 5 5 3 4 8 3 7 3 6 3 0 . 0 1 0 4 2 0 0 . 0 5 0 7 7 7 6 0 2 8 6 6 4 4 6 7 0 . 0 1 6 2 9 2 0 . 0 7 8 2 7 3 6 5 1 9 4 1 1 5 2 5 0 . 0 2 7 0 4 7 0 . 1 2 6 6 6 8 7 0 1 3 2 6 0 5 8 6 0 . 0 4 4 1 9 3 0 . 1 9 8 9 8 1 7 5 7 6 4 0 5 6 0 0 . 0 7 3 2 9 3 0 . 3 0 9 7 3 5 8 0 3 8 6 3 4 9 1 0 . 1 2 7 1 0 3 0 . 4 8 2 2 7 1 8 5 1 9 9 4 4 7 5 0 . 2 3 8 2 1 5 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T O T 2 9 9 5 4 4 4 1 6 3 0 . 0 1 3 8 9 8 A U S T R I A L ( X ) D I X ) L L ( X 1 T I X ) E I X ) A G E 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 7 2 1 6 6 8 0 7 2 . 1 6 6 8 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 7 1 6 6 8 0 6 7 . 1 6 6 8 0 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 2 1 6 6 8 0 6 2 . 1 6 6 8 0 I 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 7 1 6 6 8 0 5 7 . 1 6 6 8 0 1 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 2 1 6 6 8 0 5 2 . 1 6 6 8 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 4 7 1 6 6 8 0 4 7 . 1 6 6 8 0 2 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 5 7 9 4 9 8 5 5 2 4 2 1 6 6 8 0 4 2 . 1 6 6 8 0 3 0 9 9 4 2 1 1 2 6 1 4 9 3 9 5 1 3 7 1 8 1 2 8 3 7 . 3 9 7 9 6 3 5 9 8 1 6 0 2 0 9 9 4 8 5 5 5 0 3 2 2 4 1 7 8 3 2 . 8 4 6 2 7 4 0 9 6 0 6 0 3 0 8 5 4 7 2 5 9 1 2 7 3 8 6 2 7 2 8 . 5 0 9 4 1 4 5 9 2 9 7 6 4 4 5 9 4 5 3 7 3 2 2 2 6 6 0 3 7 2 4 . 3 7 2 3 2 5 0 8 8 5 1 7 6 4 3 0 4 2 6 5 1 0 1 8 1 2 3 0 5 2 0 . 4 7 4 1 0 5 5 8 2 0 8 7 7 2 9 3 3 9 2 1 9 1 1 3 8 5 7 9 4 1 6 . 8 8 1 9 9 6 0 7 4 7 8 9 1 2 1 5 4 3 4 3 5 6 2 9 9 3 6 0 3 1 3 . 2 8 5 3 7 6 5 6 2 6 3 6 1 6 1 1 7 2 7 2 8 8 6 6 5 0 0 4 1 1 0 . 3 7 8 1 3 7 0 4 6 5 1 9 1 5 8 1 0 1 9 3 0 7 0 3 7 7 1 5 5 8 . 1 0 7 5 6 7 5 3 0 7 0 9 1 5 5 3 4 1 1 4 7 1 1 1 8 4 0 8 4 5 . 9 9 4 4 4 8 0 1 5 1 7 5 1 5 1 7 5 6 9 3 7 3 6 9 3 7 3 4 . 5 7 1 4 3 8 5 E N G L A N D , W A L E S H X ) O C X ) L L C X ) T ( X I E I X ) A G E 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 7 2 8 2 9 6 5 7 2 . 8 2 9 6 5 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 7 8 2 9 6 5 6 7 . 8 2 9 6 5 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 6 8 1 4 9 8 2 9 7 6 2 8 2 9 6 5 6 2 . 8 2 9 6 5 1 0 9 9 3 1 9 7 0 9 4 9 4 8 2 2 5 7 8 4 6 6 8 5 8 . 2 4 3 3 4 1 5 9 8 6 1 0 6 7 5 4 9 1 3 6 1 5 2 8 9 8 4 5 5 3 . 6 4 4 1 6 2 0 9 7 9 3 5 5 0 5 4 8 8 4 1 2 4 7 9 8 4 8 4 4 8 . 9 9 6 7 9 2 5 9 7 4 3 0 8 3 7 4 3 5 0 5 9 4 3 1 0 0 7 2 4 4 . 2 3 7 5 8 3 0 9 6 5 9 3 1 0 0 4 4 8 0 4 5 7 3 8 2 5 0 1 3 3 9 . 5 9 9 1 2 3 5 9 5 5 8 9 1 4 1 9 4 7 4 4 0 0 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 3 4 . 9 8 3 7 9 4 0 9 4 1 7 1 2 3 9 4 4 6 4 8 6 8 2 8 7 0 1 5 6 3 0 . 4 7 8 2 2 4 5 9 1 7 7 7 3 2 5 2 4 5 0 7 5 3 2 4 0 5 2 8 8 2 6 . 2 0 8 1 0 5 0 8 8 5 2 5 4 4 9 5 4 3 1 3 8 6 1 9 5 4 5 3 5 2 2 . 0 7 8 9 8 5 5 8 4 0 3 0 6 5 7 7 4 0 3 7 0 5 1 5 2 3 1 4 9 1 8 . 1 2 6 3 2 6 0 7 7 4 5 2 9 8 1 1 3 6 2 7 3 5 1 1 1 9 4 4 4 1 4 . 4 5 3 3 1 6 5 6 7 6 4 2 I 3 4 5 9 3 0 4 5 6 0 7 5 6 7 0 9 1 1 . 1 8 7 0 1 7 0 5 4 1 3 2 1 6 7 8 2 2 2 8 9 5 6 4 5 2 1 4 9 8 . 3 4 4 9 6 7 5 3 7 4 0 0 1 8 0 3 7 1 4 1 9 0 8 2 2 3 1 9 3 5 . 9 6 7 7 0 8 0 1 9 3 6 3 1 9 3 6 3 8 1 2 8 4 8 1 2 8 4 4 . 1 9 7 8 9 8 5 1 9 4 1 F E M A L E S A G E P P D C M ( X ) Q U I 0 4 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 7 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 9 9 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 5 3 4 8 1 0 . 0 0 2 8 7 4 0 . 0 1 4 2 6 5 2 0 2 6 9 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 5 4 5 5 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 3 0 1 5 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 1 3 3 2 0 . 0 0 6 6 4 0 3 5 1 8 6 7 8 0 . 0 0 4 2 8 5 0 . 0 2 1 1 9 8 4 0 1 6 8 8 4 0 . 0 0 2 3 7 0 0 . 0 1 1 7 7 9 4 5 1 1 0 3 1 0 0 . 0 0 9 0 6 6 0 . 0 4 4 3 2 6 5 0 1 0 5 1 1 0 0 . 0 0 9 5 1 5 0 . 0 4 6 4 6 8 5 5 8 0 3 1 7 0 . 0 2 1 1 7 1 0 . 1 0 0 5 3 2 6 0 5 1 4 1 0 0 . 0 1 9 4 5 5 0 . 0 9 2 7 6 4 6 5 2 8 8 8 0 . 0 2 7 7 7 8 0 . 1 2 9 8 7 0 7 0 1 3 6 9 0 . 0 6 6 1 7 6 0 . 2 8 3 9 1 2 7 5 7 2 9 0 . 1 2 5 0 0 0 0 . 4 7 6 1 9 0 8 0 2 3 5 0 . 2 1 7 3 9 1 0 . 7 0 4 2 2 5 8 5 1 1 2 0 . 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T O T 1 0 2 3 9 9 5 0 . 0 0 9 2 7 8 1 9 4 1 F E M A L E S A G E P P D D M ( X » 0 ( X I 0 1 9 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 3 1 1 0 . 0 3 2 2 5 8 0 . 1 4 9 2 5 4 1 0 7 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 5 1 3 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 0 1 5 5 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 5 1 8 4 1 0 . 0 0 5 4 3 5 0 . 0 2 6 8 1 0 3 0 4 1 8 1 0 . 0 0 2 3 9 2 0 . 0 1 1 8 9 1 3 5 6 3 4 1 0 . 0 0 1 5 7 7 0 . 0 0 7 8 5 5 4 0 8 0 4 4 0 . 0 0 4 9 7 5 0 . 0 2 4 5 7 0 4 5 8 3 9 0 . 0 0 4 7 6 8 0 . 0 2 3 5 5 7 5 0 8 2 5 7 0 . 0 0 8 4 8 5 0 . 0 4 1 5 4 3 5 5 7 6 0 5 0 . 0 0 6 5 7 9 0 . 0 3 2 3 6 2 6 0 6 2 3 9 0 . 0 1 4 4 4 6 0 . 0 6 9 7 1 3 6 5 4 3 8 6 0 . 0 1 3 6 9 9 0 . 0 6 6 2 2 5 7 0 3 3 6 1 2 0 . 0 3 5 7 1 4 0 . 1 6 3 9 3 4 7 5 1 9 3 1 8 0 . 0 9 3 2 6 4 0 . 3 7 8 1 5 1 8 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 . 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 4 0 0 0 0 0 8 5 5 6 7 0 . 1 2 5 0 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T O T 6 6 2 4 8 7 0 . 0 1 3 1 3 4 F I N L A N D L ( X I D { X I L L ( X I T ( X I E ( X I A G E 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 9 9 0 6 1 4 6 9 . 9 0 6 1 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 4 9 0 6 1 4 6 4 . 9 0 6 1 4 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 9 9 0 6 1 4 5 9 . 9 0 6 1 4 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 2 7 4 9 6 4 3 4 5 4 9 0 6 1 4 5 4 . 9 0 6 1 4 1 5 9 8 5 7 3 0 4 9 2 8 6 7 4 9 9 4 1 8 1 5 0 . 6 6 4 5 5 2 0 9 8 5 7 3 0 4 9 2 8 6 7 4 5 0 1 3 1 3 4 5 . 6 6 4 5 5 2 5 9 8 5 7 3 6 5 5 4 9 1 2 3 1 4 0 0 8 4 4 6 4 0 . 6 6 4 5 5 3 0 9 7 9 1 9 2 0 7 6 4 8 4 4 0 6 3 5 1 7 2 1 5 3 5 . 9 1 9 6 7 3 5 9 5 8 4 3 1 1 2 9 4 7 6 3 9 4 3 0 3 2 8 1 0 3 1 . 6 4 3 4 3 4 0 9 4 7 1 4 4 1 9 8 4 6 3 0 7 6 2 5 5 6 4 1 5 2 6 . 9 9 0 7 9 4 5 9 0 5 1 6 4 2 0 6 4 4 2 0 6 5 2 0 9 3 3 3 9 2 3 . 1 2 6 7 2 5 0 8 6 3 1 0 8 6 7 7 4 0 9 8 5 7 1 6 5 1 2 7 5 1 9 . 1 3 1 9 2 5 5 7 7 6 3 3 7 2 0 2 3 7 0 1 6 1 1 2 4 1 4 1 7 1 5 . 9 9 0 8 5 6 0 7 0 4 3 1 9 1 4 7 3 2 9 2 9 0 8 7 1 2 5 6 1 2 . 3 7 0 2 8 6 5 6 1 2 8 4 1 7 3 9 9 2 6 2 9 2 4 5 4 1 9 6 7 8 . 8 4 3 4 6 7 0 4 3 8 8 5 2 0 8 9 8 1 6 7 1 8 1 2 7 9 0 4 3 6 . 3 5 8 4 8 7 5 2 2 9 8 7 1 6 1 8 8 7 4 4 6 6 1 1 1 8 6 1 4 . 8 6 6 2 0 8 0 6 7 9 9 6 7 9 9 3 7 3 9 5 3 7 3 9 5 5 . 5 0 0 0 0 8 5 I A N C E L ( X I D ( X I L L < X I T l X I E ( X ) A G E 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 4 6 2 8 8 4 6 4 . 6 2 8 8 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 9 2 5 4 6 2 6 8 7 5 9 6 2 8 8 4 5 9 . 6 2 8 8 4 5 8 5 0 7 5 0 4 2 5 3 7 3 5 5 0 0 1 9 7 6 4 . 6 5 1 4 4 1 0 8 5 0 7 5 0 4 2 5 3 7 3 5 0 7 4 8 2 4 5 9 . 6 5 1 4 4 1 5 8 5 0 7 5 0 4 2 5 3 7 3 4 6 4 9 4 5 1 5 4 . 6 5 1 4 4 2 0 8 5 0 7 5 2 2 3 1 4 1 9 6 7 1 4 2 2 4 0 7 8 4 9 . 6 5 1 4 4 2 5 8 2 7 9 4 9 8 4 4 1 1 5 0 8 3 8 0 4 4 0 7 4 5 . 9 5 0 3 8 3 0 8 1 8 0 9 6 4 3 4 0 7 4 4 0 3 3 9 2 8 9 9 4 1 . 4 7 3 2 5 3 5 8 1 1 6 7 1 9 9 4 4 0 0 8 4 8 2 9 8 5 4 5 9 3 6 . 7 8 1 8 3 4 0 7 9 1 7 2 1 8 6 5 3 9 1 1 9 9 2 5 8 4 6 1 1 3 2 . 6 4 5 3 5 4 5 7 7 3 0 7 3 2 1 2 3 7 8 5 0 8 2 1 9 3 4 1 2 2 8 . 3 7 2 6 2 5 0 7 4 0 9 6 2 3 9 8 3 6 4 4 8 4 1 8 1 4 9 0 4 2 4 . 4 9 4 0 3 5 5 7 1 6 9 8 4 9 9 8 3 4 5 9 9 3 1 4 5 0 4 2 0 2 0 . 2 2 9 6 2 6 0 6 6 7 0 0 4 4 1 7 3 2 2 4 5 5 1 1 0 4 4 2 6 1 6 . 5 5 8 2 3 6 5 6 2 2 8 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 3 5 8 8 6 7 8 1 9 7 2 1 2 . 5 5 5 2 7 7 0 5 2 0 7 2 1 9 6 9 1 2 1 1 1 3 3 4 9 6 0 8 6 9 . 5 2 6 8 9 7 5 3 2 3 8 1 1 2 9 5 2 1 2 9 5 2 4 2 8 4 9 5 3 8 . 8 0 0 0 0 8 0 1 9 4 2 9 1 9 4 2 9 1 5 5 4 2 9 1 5 5 4 2 9 8 . 0 0 0 0 0 8 5 1 9 4 1 F E M A L E S A G E P P D D M{ X I O I X I 0 1 2 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 2 4 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 2 3 3 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 5 6 1 8 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 0 4 1 3 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 5 5 0 9 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 3 0 1 0 5 0 5 0 . 0 0 4 7 6 2 0 . 0 2 3 5 2 9 3 5 1 3 9 5 2 0 . 0 0 1 4 3 4 0 . 0 0 7 1 4 3 4 0 1 2 7 3 2 0 . 0 0 1 5 7 1 0 . 0 0 7 8 2 5 4 5 9 8 4 7 0 . 0 0 7 1 1 4 0 . 0 3 4 9 4 8 5 0 9 1 7 1 3 0 . 0 1 4 1 7 7 0 . 0 6 8 4 5 7 5 5 9 0 5 6 0 . 0 0 6 6 3 0 0 . 0 3 2 6 0 9 6 0 9 2 2 1 5 0 . 0 1 6 2 6 9 0 . 0 7 8 1 6 6 6 5 7 2 5 1 9 0 . 0 2 6 2 0 7 0 . 1 2 2 9 7 7 7 0 5 5 5 2 5 0 . 0 4 5 0 4 5 0 . 2 0 2 4 2 9 7 5 4 2 8 4 1 0 . 0 9 5 7 9 4 0 . 3 8 6 4 2 8 8 0 2 6 4 4 1 0 . 1 5 5 3 0 3 0 . 5 5 9 3 4 5 8 5 1 4 9 2 4 0 . 1 6 1 0 7 4 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T O T 1 1 3 7 3 2 0 0 0 . 0 1 7 5 8 6 1 9 4 1 F E M A L E S A G E P P D D M l X I O I X » 0 2 3 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 4 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 3 1 5 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 5 1 1 3 2 1 0 . 0 0 0 8 8 3 0 . 0 0 4 4 0 7 2 0 1 3 0 1 5 0 . 0 0 3 8 4 3 0 . 0 1 9 0 3 3 2 5 1 8 7 9 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 3 0 3 5 0 7 6 0 . 0 0 1 7 1 1 0 . 0 0 8 5 1 8 3 5 3 9 5 9 1 5 0 . 0 0 3 7 8 9 0 . 0 1 8 7 6 6 4 0 4 3 6 7 1 8 0 . 0 0 4 1 2 2 0 . 0 2 0 3 9 9 4 5 4 4 4 6 2 7 0 . 0 0 6 0 7 3 0 . 0 2 9 9 1 0 5 0 4 7 7 2 3 6 0 . 0 0 7 5 4 4 0 . 0 3 7 0 2 2 5 5 3 9 3 5 5 7 0 . 0 1 4 4 8 5 0 . 0 6 9 8 9 6 6 0 3 2 2 4 7 3 0 . 0 2 2 6 4 3 0 . 1 0 7 1 4 8 6 5 2 3 1 0 7 5 0 . 0 3 2 4 6 8 0 . 1 5 0 1 5 0 7 0 1 8 5 0 9 0 0 . 0 4 8 6 4 9 0 . 2 1 6 8 6 7 7 5 1 2 2 2 1 2 5 0 . 1 0 2 2 9 1 0 . 4 0 7 2 9 9 8 0 6 5 7 9 2 0 . 1 4 0 0 3 0 0 . 5 1 8 6 0 2 8 5 3 7 8 1 1 2 0 . 2 9 6 2 9 6 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T O T 3 9 3 1 5 7 3 3 0 . 0 1 8 6 4 4 G E R M A N Y L I X I D I X I L L I X I T ( X ) E l X> A G E 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 7 3 0 4 6 6 9 7 3 . 0 4 6 6 9 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 8 0 4 6 6 9 6 8 . 0 4 6 6 9 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 3 0 4 6 6 9 6 3 . 0 4 6 6 9 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 8 0 4 6 6 9 5 8 . 0 4 6 6 9 1 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 3 0 4 6 6 9 5 3 . 0 4 6 6 9 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 4 8 0 4 6 6 9 4 8 . 0 4 6 6 9 2 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 5 3 4 9 4 1 1 8 4 3 0 4 6 6 9 4 3 . 0 4 6 6 9 3 0 9 7 6 4 7 6 9 7 4 8 6 4 9 2 3 8 1 0 5 5 1 3 9 . 0 2 3 7 2 3 5 9 6 9 5 0 7 5 9 4 8 2 8 5 1 3 3 2 4 0 6 0 3 4 . 2 8 6 4 8 4 0 9 6 1 9 1 3 3 6 2 4 7 2 5 5 1 2 8 4 1 2 0 8 2 9 . 5 3 7 1 6 4 5 9 2 8 2 9 6 3 5 5 4 4 8 2 6 0 2 3 6 8 6 5 8 2 5 . 5 1 6 2 6 5 0 8 6 4 7 5 2 8 2 0 4 2 5 3 2 3 1 9 2 0 3 9 8 2 2 . 2 0 7 6 8 5 5 8 3 6 5 5 6 5 3 9 4 0 1 9 2 6 1 4 9 5 0 7 5 1 7 . 8 7 1 9 8 6 0 7 7 1 1 6 9 4 8 3 3 6 1 8 7 0 1 0 9 3 1 4 9 1 4 . 1 7 5 4 3 6 5 6 7 6 3 2 1 3 6 9 I 3 0 3 9 3 4 7 3 1 2 7 9 1 0 . 8 1 2 5 7 7 0 5 3 9 4 2 2 0 8 4 5 2 1 7 5 9 6 4 2 7 3 4 4 7 . 9 2 2 3 6 7 5 3 3 0 9 7 1 8 5 1 3 1 1 9 2 0 3 2 0 9 7 4 8 6 . 3 3 7 3 7 8 0 1 4 5 8 4 1 4 5 8 4 9 0 5 4 5 9 0 5 4 5 6 . 2 0 8 3 3 8 5 I R E L A N D L I X ) D I X I L L ( X I T I X I E I X I A G E 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 7 0 7 7 2 7 0 . 7 0 7 7 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 5 7 0 7 7 2 6 5 . 7 0 7 7 2 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 7 0 7 7 2 6 0 . 7 0 7 7 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 1 4 9 8 8 9 8 5 5 7 0 7 7 2 5 5 . 7 0 7 7 2 1 5 9 9 5 5 9 1 8 9 5 4 9 3 0 5 9 5 0 7 1 8 7 4 5 0 . 9 4 3 2 6 2 0 9 7 6 6 4 0 4 8 8 3 2 2 4 5 7 8 8 1 5 4 6 . 8 8 3 1 7 2 5 9 7 6 6 4 8 3 2 4 8 6 2 4 2 4 0 9 0 4 9 3 4 1 . 8 8 3 1 7 3 0 9 6 8 3 2 1 8 1 7 4 7 9 6 1 9 3 6 0 4 2 5 1 3 7 . 2 2 1 5 2 3 5 9 5 0 1 5 1 9 3 8 4 7 0 2 3 1 3 1 2 4 6 3 2 3 2 . 8 8 5 5 8 4 0 9 3 0 7 7 2 7 8 4 4 5 8 4 2 5 2 6 5 4 4 0 1 2 8 . 5 1 8 3 2 4 5 9 0 2 9 3 3 3 4 3 4 4 3 1 0 8 2 1 9 5 9 7 5 2 4 . 3 2 0 5 3 5 0 8 6 9 5 0 6 0 7 7 4 1 9 5 5 8 1 7 5 2 8 6 7 2 0 . 1 5 9 4 2 5 5 8 0 8 7 3 3 6 6 5 3 8 2 7 0 1 1 3 3 3 3 0 9 1 6 . 4 8 6 4 9 6 0 7 2 2 0 7 1 0 8 4 2 3 3 3 9 3 2 9 5 0 6 0 9 1 3 . 1 6 4 9 6 6 5 6 1 3 6 5 1 3 3 0 8 2 7 3 5 5 7 6 1 6 6 7 6 1 0 . 0 4 9 2 3 7 0 4 8 0 5 7 1 9 5 7 4 1 9 1 3 5 2 3 4 3 1 1 9 7 . 1 3 9 7 9 7 5 2 8 4 8 4 1 4 7 7 2 1 0 5 4 8 9 1 5 1 7 6 7 5 . 3 2 8 2 1 8 0 1 3 7 1 2 1 3 7 1 2 4 6 2 7 8 4 6 2 7 8 3 . 3 7 5 0 0 8 5 1 9 4 1 F E M A L E S A G E P P D O M < X ) 0 1 X ) 0 2 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 3 4 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 1 7 6 1 0 . C 0 5 6 8 2 0 . 0 2 8 0 1 1 1 5 6 7 3 2 0 . 0 0 2 9 7 2 0 . 0 1 4 7 4 9 2 0 5 7 2 I 0 . 0 0 1 7 4 8 0 . 0 0 8 7 0 3 2 5 8 9 6 1 0 . 0 0 1 1 1 6 0 . 0 0 5 5 6 5 3 0 1 3 7 9 6 0 . 0 0 4 3 5 1 0 . 0 2 1 5 2 1 3 5 1 9 1 8 4 0 . 0 0 2 0 8 6 0 . 0 1 0 3 7 3 4 0 2 2 7 5 1 0 0 . 0 0 4 3 9 6 0 . 0 2 1 7 3 9 4 5 2 C 8 9 1 0 0 . 0 0 4 7 8 7 0 . 0 2 3 6 5 2 5 0 1 8 1 6 1 3 0 . 0 0 7 1 5 9 0 . 0 3 5 1 6 4 5 5 1 4 6 3 1 8 0 . 0 1 2 3 0 3 0 . 0 5 9 6 8 2 6 0 8 6 3 1 1 0 . 0 1 2 7 4 6 0 . 0 6 1 7 6 3 6 5 4 7 3 1 5 0 . 0 3 1 7 1 2 0 . 1 4 6 9 1 5 7 0 2 6 4 1 3 0 . 0 4 9 2 4 2 0 . 2 1 9 2 2 4 7 5 1 5 9 1 6 0 . 1 0 0 6 2 9 0 . 4 0 2 0 1 0 8 0 7 2 1 0 0 . 1 3 8 8 8 9 0 . 5 1 5 4 6 4 8 5 5 4 9 0 . 1 6 6 6 6 7 I . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T O T 1 5 2 2 8 1 4 0 0 . 0 0 9 1 9 4 1 9 4 1 F E M A L E S A G E P P D O M l X 1 0 ( X ) 0 6 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 9 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 7 4 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 5 3 5 3 1 0 . 0 0 2 8 3 3 0 . 0 1 4 0 6 5 2 0 2 8 5 1 0 . 0 0 3 5 0 9 0 . 0 1 7 3 9 1 2 5 2 6 9 1 0 . 0 0 3 7 1 7 0 . 0 1 8 4 1 6 3 C 6 2 8 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 3 5 9 3 8 5 0 . 0 0 5 3 3 0 0 . 0 2 6 3 0 2 4 0 1 0 3 3 4 0 . 0 0 3 8 7 2 0 . 0 1 9 1 7 5 4 5 1 0 3 0 5 0 . 0 0 4 8 5 4 0 . 0 2 3 9 8 1 5 0 1 1 2 3 7 0 . 0 0 6 2 3 3 0 . 0 3 0 6 3 8 5 5 1 0 4 3 1 5 0 . C 1 4 3 8 2 0 . 0 6 9 4 1 2 6 0 8 0 7 1 5 0 . 0 1 8 5 8 7 0 . 0 8 8 8 1 0 6 5 5 7 4 1 9 0 . 0 3 3 1 0 1 0 . 1 5 2 8 5 0 7 0 3 9 0 1 7 0 . 0 4 3 5 S 0 0 . 1 9 6 5 3 2 7 5 2 b 2 2 3 0 . 0 8 7 7 8 6 0 . 3 5 9 9 3 7 8 0 1 6 5 3 1 0 . 1 8 7 8 7 9 0 . 6 3 9 1 7 5 3 5 6 5 1 7 0 . 2 6 1 5 3 8 I . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T O T 9 0 5 3 1 6 1 0 . 0 1 7 7 8 4 I T A L Y L ( X I D I X I L L I X ) T I X I E I X 1 A G E 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 9 8 7 4 4 6 6 9 . 8 7 4 4 6 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 4 8 7 4 4 6 6 4 . 8 7 4 4 6 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 8 0 1 4 9 2 9 9 7 5 9 8 7 4 4 6 5 9 . 8 7 4 4 6 1 0 9 7 1 9 9 1 4 3 4 4 3 2 4 1 0 5 4 9 4 4 4 9 5 6 . 5 2 7 9 1 1 5 9 5 7 6 5 8 3 3 4 7 6 7 4 3 5 0 1 2 0 3 9 5 2 . 3 3 6 7 1 2 0 9 4 9 3 2 5 2 8 4 7 3 3 3 8 4 5 3 5 2 9 6 4 7 . 7 7 4 2 6 2 5 9 4 4 0 4 2 0 3 2 4 6 6 9 3 9 4 0 6 1 9 5 8 4 3 . 0 2 7 6 1 3 0 9 2 3 7 2 9 5 8 4 5 9 4 6 4 3 5 9 5 0 1 9 3 8 . 9 1 8 9 8 3 5 9 1 4 1 4 1 9 3 7 4 5 2 1 0 0 3 1 3 5 5 5 5 3 4 . 3 0 0 7 3 4 0 8 9 4 2 6 2 1 1 5 4 4 1 8 4 4 2 6 8 3 4 5 5 3 0 . 0 0 7 4 1 4 5 8 7 3 1 1 3 0 7 0 4 2 8 8 8 1 2 2 4 1 6 1 1 2 5 . 6 7 3 7 7 5 0 8 4 2 4 1 5 0 2 8 4 0 8 6 3 7 1 8 1 2 7 3 0 2 1 . 5 1 8 3 5 5 5 7 9 2 1 3 4 8 9 2 3 3 3 8 3 6 1 4 0 4 0 9 3 1 7 . 7 2 5 4 3 5 0 7 4 3 2 1 1 0 9 1 9 3 4 4 3 0 8 1 0 2 0 2 5 7 1 3 . 7 2 7 7 1 6 5 6 3 4 0 2 1 3 8 9 9 2 3 2 2 6 3 6 7 5 9 4 9 1 0 . 6 6 1 3 0 7 0 4 9 5 0 3 1 9 9 0 1 1 9 7 7 6 3 3 9 3 6 8 7 7 . 9 5 2 8 1 7 5 2 9 6 0 2 1 5 2 5 9 1 0 9 8 6 4 1 9 5 9 2 4 6 . 6 1 8 5 6 8 0 1 4 3 4 3 1 4 3 4 3 8 6 0 6 0 8 6 0 6 0 6 . 0 0 0 0 0 8 5 N O R W A Y L I X I 0 1 X I L L C X I T C X I E C X I A G E 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 1 9 8 8 4 7 0 . 1 9 8 8 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 5 1 9 8 8 4 6 5 . 1 9 8 8 4 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 1 9 8 8 4 6 0 . 1 9 8 8 4 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 0 6 4 9 6 4 8 4 5 5 1 9 8 8 4 5 5 . 1 9 8 8 4 1 5 9 8 5 9 4 1 7 1 5 4 8 8 6 8 1 5 0 2 3 4 0 0 5 0 . 9 5 0 6 0 2 0 9 6 8 7 9 1 7 3 4 4 7 9 9 3 4 4 5 3 4 7 1 9 4 6 . 8 0 8 1 4 2 5 9 5 0 9 5 0 4 7 5 4 7 4 4 0 5 4 7 8 5 4 2 . 6 3 9 4 3 3 0 9 5 0 9 5 2 5 0 1 4 6 9 2 2 1 3 5 7 9 3 1 I 3 7 . 6 3 9 4 3 3 5 9 2 5 9 4 1 7 7 6 4 5 8 5 2 9 3 1 1 0 0 9 1 3 3 . 5 8 8 6 4 4 0 9 0 8 1 8 2 1 7 8 4 4 8 6 4 5 2 6 5 1 5 6 2 2 9 . 1 9 6 4 3 4 5 8 8 6 4 0 2 7 2 0 4 3 6 4 0 0 2 2 0 2 9 1 6 2 4 . 8 5 2 3 6 5 0 8 5 9 2 0 5 9 6 4 4 1 4 6 9 0 1 7 6 6 5 1 6 2 0 . 5 6 0 0 3 5 5 7 9 9 5 6 7 1 0 1 3 8 2 0 2 8 1 3 5 1 8 2 7 1 6 . 9 0 7 1 3 6 0 7 2 8 5 5 1 1 1 3 6 3 3 6 4 3 5 9 6 9 7 9 9 1 3 . 3 1 1 3 3 6 5 6 1 7 1 9 1 2 1 3 0 2 7 8 2 7 0 6 3 3 3 6 4 1 0 . 2 6 2 0 9 7 0 4 9 5 8 9 1 7 8 4 9 2 0 3 3 2 3 3 5 5 0 9 4 7 . 1 6 0 7 3 7 5 3 1 7 4 0 2 0 2 3 7 1 0 7 9 8 2 1 5 1 7 7 1 4 . 7 8 1 6 9 3 0 I 1 4 5 3 1 1 4 5 3 4 3 7 8 9 4 3 7 8 9 3 . 8 2 3 5 3 8 5 1 9 4 1 F E M A L E S A G E P P O D M U I 0 I X » 0 9 2 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 3 7 0 1 0 . 0 0 2 7 0 3 0 . 0 1 3 4 2 3 1 0 2 3 5 4 2 0 . 0 0 0 8 5 0 0 . 0 0 4 2 3 9 1 5 4 8 3 9 4 0 . 0 0 0 8 2 7 0 . 0 0 4 1 2 5 2 0 2 0 8 8 7 0 . 0 0 3 3 5 2 0 . 0 1 6 6 2 3 2 5 3 9 1 0 6 0 . 0 0 1 5 3 5 0 . 0 0 7 6 4 3 3 0 9 0 3 3 2 3 0 . 0 0 2 5 4 6 0 . 0 1 2 6 5 1 3 5 1 1 0 8 8 1 9 0 . 0 0 1 7 1 4 0 . 0 0 8 5 3 1 4 0 8 3 2 7 3 0 0 . C 0 3 6 0 3 0 . 0 1 7 8 5 3 4 5 7 4 6 0 4 6 0 . 0 0 6 1 6 6 0 . 0 3 0 3 6 3 5 0 5 9 9 4 3 9 0 . 0 0 6 5 C 7 0 . 0 3 2 0 1 2 5 5 4 1 1 8 5 2 0 . 0 1 2 6 2 7 0 . 0 6 1 2 0 5 6 0 2 8 5 9 5 5 0 . 0 1 9 2 3 7 0 . 0 9 1 7 7 4 6 5 2 2 2 9 5 9 0 . 0 2 6 4 6 9 0 . 1 2 4 1 3 2 7 0 1 4 5 6 5 1 0 . 0 3 5 0 2 7 0 . 1 6 1 0 3 6 7 5 8 6 9 6 5 0 . 0 7 4 7 9 9 0 . 3 1 5 0 7 5 3 0 4 0 0 3 6 0 . 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 . 3 6 7 3 4 7 8 5 1 7 9 3 5 0 . 1 9 5 5 3 1 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T O T 6 7 6 6 5 5 3 1 0 . 0 0 7 8 4 7 1 9 4 1 F E M A L E S A G E P P D D M l X t 0 1 X t 0 6 4 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 1 4 3 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 7 7 5 I 0 . 0 0 1 2 9 0 0 . 0 0 6 4 3 1 1 5 2 6 3 6 3 0 . 0 0 1 1 3 8 0 . 0 0 5 6 7 4 2 0 4 2 0 4 7 0 . 0 0 1 6 6 5 0 . 0 0 8 2 9 1 2 5 5 4 7 6 7 0 . 0 0 1 2 7 8 0 . 0 0 6 3 7 1 3 0 1 0 6 9 8 2 8 0 . 0 0 2 6 1 7 0 . 0 1 3 0 0 1 3 5 1 3 1 7 6 3 8 0 . 0 0 2 8 8 4 0 . 0 1 4 3 1 7 4 0 1 3 6 2 0 5 1 0 . 0 0 3 7 4 4 0 . 0 1 8 5 4 9 4 5 1 3 4 2 9 7 6 0 . 0 0 5 6 5 9 0 . 0 2 7 9 0 2 5 0 1 4 3 9 6 9 8 0 . C 0 6 8 0 7 0 . 0 3 3 4 6 8 5 5 1 2 2 1 0 1 6 0 0 . 0 1 3 1 0 4 0 . 0 6 3 4 4 2 6 0 9 1 6 7 1 5 3 0 . 0 1 6 6 9 0 0 . 0 8 0 1 0 9 6 5 5 8 6 1 1 7 9 0 . 0 3 0 5 4 1 0 . 1 4 1 8 7 2 7 0 3 8 4 3 1 9 3 0 . 0 5 0 2 2 1 0 . 2 2 3 0 9 6 7 5 2 3 6 3 1 8 b 0 . 0 7 9 5 6 0 0 . 3 3 1 8 0 4 8 0 1 3 1 0 1 6 9 0 . 1 2 9 0 0 8 0 . 4 8 7 7 3 4 8 5 7 3 8 1 7 0 0 . 2 3 0 3 5 2 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T O T 1 1 4 1 0 8 1 5 2 3 0 . 0 1 3 3 4 7 P O L A N D L < X t D ( X t L L ( X » T t X t E ( X ) A G E 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 7 1 8 1 7 3 2 7 1 . 8 1 7 3 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 " 1 3 4 2 4 9 6 6 4 4 6 6 8 1 7 3 2 6 6 . 8 1 7 3 2 5 9 3 6 5 8 4 1 8 4 9 2 2 4 3 6 1 8 5 0 8 8 6 2 . 6 9 2 3 8 1 0 9 8 2 3 9 4 0 5 4 9 0 1 8 5 5 6 9 2 8 4 5 5 7 . 9 4 8 6 3 1 5 9 7 8 3 4 1 6 2 6 4 8 5 1 0 6 5 2 0 2 6 6 0 5 3 . 1 7 8 2 8 2 0 9 6 2 0 8 7 3 5 4 7 9 2 0 2 4 7 1 7 5 5 4 4 9 . 0 3 4 9 5 2 5 9 5 4 7 3 1 2 0 8 4 7 4 3 4 4 4 2 3 8 3 5 3 4 4 . 3 9 3 3 7 3 0 9 4 2 6 5 8 0 4 4 6 9 3 1 4 3 7 6 4 0 0 9 3 9 . 9 3 0 1 4 3 5 9 3 4 6 1 1 6 6 9 4 6 3 1 3 2 3 2 9 4 6 9 5 3 5 . 2 5 2 2 1 4 0 9 1 7 9 2 2 7 8 7 4 5 1 9 9 3 2 8 3 1 5 6 3 3 0 . 8 4 7 5 6 4 5 8 9 0 0 5 2 8 4 9 4 3 7 9 0 2 2 3 7 9 5 7 0 2 6 . 7 3 5 2 3 5 0 8 6 1 5 6 5 2 7 3 4 1 7 5 9 6 1 9 4 1 6 6 8 2 2 . 5 3 6 7 0 5 5 8 0 8 8 3 7 4 2 3 3 8 5 8 5 6 1 5 2 4 0 7 2 1 8 . 8 4 3 0 1 6 0 7 3 4 6 0 9 1 1 9 3 4 4 5 0 2 1 1 3 8 2 1 6 1 5 . 4 9 4 4 2 6 5 6 4 3 4 1 1 0 3 6 1 2 9 5 8 0 2 7 9 3 7 1 4 1 2 . 3 3 6 0 6 7 0 5 3 9 8 0 1 7 0 0 8 2 2 7 3 8 0 4 9 7 9 1 2 9 . 2 2 4 0 5 7 5 3 6 9 7 2 1 3 5 8 2 1 5 0 9 0 7 2 7 0 5 3 2 7 . 3 1 7 2 0 8 0 2 3 3 9 1 2 3 3 9 1 1 1 9 6 2 6 1 1 9 6 2 6 5 . 1 1 4 2 9 8 5 S C O T L A N D L I X t out L L 1 X t T C X I E ( X ) A G E 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 7 1 6 8 4 2 4 7 1 . 6 8 4 2 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 6 6 8 4 2 4 6 6 . 6 3 4 2 4 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 6 4 3 4 9 8 3 9 2 6 1 6 8 4 2 4 6 1 . 6 8 4 2 4 1 0 9 9 3 5 7 5 6 4 4 9 5 3 7 5 5 6 7 0 0 3 2 5 7 . 0 6 7 3 1 1 5 9 8 7 9 3 3 1 9 4 9 1 9 1 8 5 1 7 4 6 5 7 5 2 . 3 7 8 7 1 2 0 9 7 9 7 4 6 2 4 4 8 8 3 1 0 4 6 8 2 7 3 9 4 7 . 7 9 5 7 0 2 5 9 7 3 5 0 1 2 6 6 4 8 3 5 8 5 4 1 9 4 4 2 9 4 3 . 0 8 6 1 4 3 0 9 6 0 8 4 1 3 7 6 4 7 6 9 8 2 3 7 1 0 8 4 4 3 8 . 6 2 0 7 7 3 5 9 4 7 0 9 1 7 5 7 4 6 9 1 5 1 3 2 3 3 8 6 2 3 4 . 1 4 5 4 2 4 0 9 2 9 5 2 2 5 9 4 4 5 8 2 7 5 2 7 6 4 7 1 2 2 9 . 7 4 3 5 0 4 5 9 0 3 5 8 3 0 2 4 4 4 4 2 3 1 2 3 0 6 4 3 7 2 5 . 5 2 5 4 7 5 0 8 7 3 3 4 5 5 4 1 4 2 2 3 1 9 1 8 6 2 2 0 6 2 1 . 3 2 2 7 7 5 5 8 1 7 9 4 6 5 5 2 3 9 2 5 8 7 1 4 3 9 3 8 6 1 7 . 5 9 7 8 1 6 0 7 5 2 4 1 1 . 3 6 7 5 3 4 9 5 1 9 1 0 4 6 8 0 0 1 3 . 9 1 2 6 0 6 5 6 4 5 6 7 1 4 4 0 5 2 8 6 8 2 1 6 9 7 2 8 1 1 0 . 7 9 9 4 2 7 0 5 0 1 6 2 1 6 6 4 4 2 0 9 2 0 0 4 1 0 4 5 9 8 . 1 3 2 6 7 7 5 3 3 5 1 8 1 6 3 4 3 1 2 6 7 2 1 2 0 1 2 5 9 6 . 0 0 4 5 0 8 0 1 7 1 7 0 1 71 7 0 7 4 5 3 9 7 4 5 3 9 4 . 3 4 1 1 8 8 5 1 9 4 1 A G E P P D D M I X ) 0 1 0 0 . 0 5 3 0 0 . 0 1 0 4 3 0 0 . 0 1 5 1 8 3 0 0 . 0 2 0 2 1 1 1 0 . 0 0 4 7 3 9 2 5 2 4 7 1 0 . 0 0 4 0 4 9 3 0 5 9 1 3 0 . 0 0 5 0 7 6 3 5 8 8 2 2 0 . 0 0 2 2 6 8 4 0 8 5 5 5 0 . 0 0 5 8 4 8 4 5 9 3 0 7 0 . 0 0 7 5 2 7 5 0 1 1 5 2 1 6 0 . 0 1 3 8 8 9 5 5 1 0 5 6 1 6 0 . 0 1 5 1 5 2 6 0 8 9 2 1 8 0 . 0 2 0 1 7 9 ' 6 5 6 3 8 2 1 0 . 0 3 2 9 1 5 7 0 4 3 3 1 6 0 . 0 3 6 9 5 2 7 5 3 1 4 1 5 0 . 0 4 7 7 7 1 8 0 1 4 4 1 5 0 . 1 0 4 1 6 7 8 5 6 5 1 1 0 . 1 6 9 2 3 1 T O T 8 6 3 9 1 4 7 0 . 0 1 7 0 1 6 1 9 4 1 A G E P P D D M ( X ) 0 8 6 5 1 1 0 . 0 1 2 7 1 7 5 2 0 3 1 3 0 . 0 0 1 4 7 7 1 0 8 0 3 3 7 0 . 0 0 0 8 7 1 1 5 8 1 9 6 1 4 0 . 0 0 1 7 0 8 2 0 7 7 5 6 2 0 0 . 0 0 2 5 7 9 2 5 1 1 1 0 2 2 6 0 . 0 0 2 3 4 2 3 0 1 7 3 0 1 4 0 0 . 0 0 2 3 1 2 3 5 1 8 9 3 2 4 3 0 . 0 0 2 2 7 1 4 0 1 9 0 9 6 7 3 0 . 0 0 3 8 2 3 4 5 1 8 8 4 2 1 0 0 0 . 0 0 5 3 0 7 5 0 1 5 5 3 0 1 4 6 0 . C 0 9 4 0 1 5 5 1 1 3 6 4 1 1 8 0 . 0 1 0 3 3 4 6 0 7 4 8 9 1 2 9 0 . 0 1 7 2 2 5 6 5 5 6 8 5 1 6 7 0 . 0 2 9 3 7 6 7 0 3 7 2 0 1 3 7 0 . 0 3 6 8 2 3 7 5 1 8 3 7 1 4 1 0 . 0 7 6 7 5 6 8 0 1 0 2 3 1 1 8 0 . 1 1 5 3 4 7 8 5 5 1 6 1 3 2 0 . 2 5 5 8 1 4 T O T 1 5 9 3 1 7 1 4 2 7 0 . 0 0 3 9 5 7 F E M A L E S S W E D E N O I X ) L ( X I D I X I 0 . 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 - 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 • 0 0 . 0 2 3 4 1 9 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 4 2 0 . 0 2 0 0 4 0 9 7 6 5 8 1 9 5 7 0 . 0 2 5 0 6 3 9 5 7 0 1 2 3 9 9 0 . 0 1 1 2 7 4 9 3 3 0 2 1 0 5 2 0 . 0 2 8 8 1 8 9 2 2 5 1 2 6 5 9 0 . 0 3 6 9 3 9 8 9 5 9 2 3 3 0 9 0 . 0 6 7 1 1 4 8 6 2 8 3 5 7 9 1 0 . 0 7 2 9 9 3 8 0 4 9 2 5 8 7 5 0 . 0 9 6 0 5 1 7 4 6 1 7 7 1 6 7 0 . 1 5 2 0 6 4 6 7 4 5 0 1 0 2 5 7 0 . 1 6 9 1 3 3 5 7 1 9 3 9 6 7 3 0 . 2 1 3 3 7 1 4 7 5 2 0 1 0 1 3 9 0 . 4 1 3 2 2 3 3 7 3 8 0 1 5 4 4 6 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 9 3 4 2 1 9 3 4 F E M A L E S U N I T E D S T A T E S O I X ) L I X I 0 1 X I 0 . 0 6 1 6 2 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 6 2 0 . 0 0 7 3 5 8 9 3 8 3 8 6 9 0 0 . 0 0 4 3 4 8 9 3 1 4 7 4 0 5 0 . 0 0 8 5 0 4 9 2 7 4 2 7 8 9 0 . 0 1 2 8 1 1 9 1 9 5 3 1 1 7 3 0 . 0 1 1 6 4 1 9 0 7 7 5 1 0 5 7 0 . 0 1 1 4 9 4 8 9 7 1 9 1 0 3 1 0 . 0 1 1 2 9 2 8 8 6 8 7 1 0 0 1 0 . 0 1 8 9 3 3 8 7 6 8 6 1 6 6 0 0 . 0 2 6 1 8 9 8 6 0 2 6 2 2 5 3 0 . 0 4 5 9 2 6 8 3 7 7 3 3 8 4 7 0 . 0 5 0 6 0 5 7 9 9 2 5 4 0 4 5 0 . 0 8 2 5 7 1 7 5 8 8 1 6 2 6 6 0 . 1 3 6 3 2 9 6 9 6 1 5 9 5 2 5 0 . 1 6 8 6 1 5 6 0 0 9 0 1 0 1 3 2 0 . 3 2 1 9 9 1 4 9 9 5 8 1 6 0 8 6 0 . 4 4 7 6 4 8 3 3 8 7 2 1 5 1 6 3 1 . O O O O J O 1 8 7 0 9 1 3 7 0 9 L U X ) T I X I E I X 1 A G E 5 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 3 1 6 3 2 7 0 . 3 1 6 3 2 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 5 3 1 6 3 2 6 5 . 3 1 6 3 2 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 3 1 6 3 2 6 0 . 3 1 6 3 2 1 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 3 1 6 3 2 5 5 . 3 1 6 3 2 1 5 4 9 4 1 4 5 5 0 3 1 6 3 2 5 0 . 3 1 6 3 2 2 0 4 8 3 3 9 8 4 5 3 7 4 8 7 4 6 . 4 6 3 0 0 2 5 4 7 2 5 0 9 4 0 5 4 0 8 9 4 2 . 3 6 2 0 3 3 0 4 6 3 8 8 3 3 5 8 1 5 8 0 3 8 . 3 8 6 7 7 3 5 4 5 4 6 0 7 3 1 1 7 6 9 8 3 3 . 7 9 5 9 6 4 0 4 3 9 6 8 7 2 6 6 3 0 9 1 2 9 . 7 2 4 6 3 4 5 4 1 6 9 3 6 2 2 2 3 4 0 4 2 5 . 7 6 8 8 6 5 0 3 8 7 7 7 1 1 8 0 6 4 6 8 2 2 . 4 4 2 8 8 5 5 3 5 5 1 6 5 1 4 1 3 6 9 8 1 9 . 0 1 3 1 8 6 0 3 1 1 6 0 6 1 0 6 3 5 3 2 1 5 . 7 6 7 8 3 6 5 2 6 1 7 8 1 7 5 1 9 2 7 1 3 . 1 4 7 2 0 7 0 2 1 2 2 5 0 4 9 0 1 4 5 1 0 . 3 1 4 5 7 7 5 1 4 8 2 8 6 2 7 7 8 9 5 7 . 4 3 4 2 6 8 0 1 2 9 6 1 0 1 2 9 6 1 0 5 . 9 0 9 0 9 8 5 L L I X ) T ( X ) E I X ) A G E 4 8 4 5 9 4 6 7 0 8 3 4 6 6 7 . 0 8 3 4 6 0 4 6 7 4 6 1 6 2 2 3 7 5 2 6 6 . 3 2 4 7 6 5 4 6 4 7 2 3 5 7 5 6 2 9 1 6 1 . 7 9 7 8 9 1 0 4 6 1 7 3 9 5 2 9 1 5 6 8 5 7 . 0 5 6 8 1 1 5 4 5 6 8 2 2 4 3 2 9 8 2 9 5 2 . 5 2 4 7 7 2 0 4 5 1 2 3 5 4 3 7 3 0 0 7 4 8 . 1 7 3 9 4 2 5 4 4 6 0 1 5 3 9 2 1 7 7 2 4 3 . 7 1 1 9 1 3 0 4 4 0 9 3 3 3 4 7 5 7 5 7 3 9 . 1 9 1 0 9 3 5 4 3 4 2 7 9 3 0 3 4 8 2 4 3 4 . 6 1 0 1 5 4 0 4 2 4 4 9 7 2 6 0 0 5 4 4 3 0 . 2 2 9 8 2 4 5 4 0 9 2 4 6 2 1 7 6 0 4 8 2 5 . 9 7 5 5 7 5 0 3 8 9 5 1 6 1 7 6 6 8 0 2 2 2 . 1 0 5 6 2 5 5 3 6 3 7 4 1 1 3 7 7 2 8 6 1 8 . 1 5 0 6 3 6 0 3 2 4 2 6 3 1 0 1 3 5 4 5 1 4 . 5 5 9 2 2 6 5 2 7 5 1 1 9 6 8 9 2 8 2 1 1 . 4 7 0 8 4 7 0 2 0 9 5 7 4 4 1 4 1 6 3 8 . 2 9 0 2 4 7 5 I 3 1 4 5 3 2 0 4 5 8 9 6 . 0 4 0 0 7 8 0 7 3 1 3 6 7 3 1 3 6 3 . 9 0 9 0 9 8 5 197. Appendix F. L i f e tables of native-born and immigrant groups, males, Australia 1921-33. Deaths (DD) include the t o t a l number of deaths i n the period 1921-33. 1 9 2 1 - 3 3 M A L E S A G E pp n o M( X 1 0 ( X ) 0 2 9 6 4 6 3 6 3 1 6 1 0 . 0 1 7 7 5 4 0 . C 8 4 9 9 7 5 3 0 4 9 0 9 6 2 4 5 C . 0 0 1 7 0 7 0 . C C 8 4 < ; 7 I C 2 7 7 5 3 1 4 8 5 9 0 . 0 0 1 4 5 9 0 . C C 7 2 6 9 1 5 2 5 6 8 6 9 6 4 7 7 0 . 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 . C 1 0 4 5 1 2 0 2 3 1 6 8 5 7 3 7 9 C . 0 C 2 6 5 4 C . G 1 3 1 8 4 2 5 2 1 0 2 9 0 7 4 9 4 C . 0 C 2 9 7 C 0 . 0 1 4 7 4 0 3 0 1 9 2 3 0 9 8 5 1 4 C . 0 0 3 6 9 0 C . C 1 8 2 7 9 3 5 1 6 6 9 0 0 1 0 2 6 4 0 . 0 0 5 1 2 5 0 . 0 2 5 ? 9 9 A O 1 5 3 2 5 5 1 1 6 5 6 C . 0 C 6 3 3 8 0 . 0 3 1 1 9 5 4 5 1 3 0 9 6 2 1 3 5 1 4 C . 0 0 8 5 9 9 0 . C 4 2 C 9 1 5 0 t c e < ; 7 < ; 1 6 0 8 4 0 . 0 1 2 2 9 9 0 . 0 5 9 6 6 0 5 5 8 3 4 1 7 1 e 7 4 7 G . 0 1 8 7 2 8 0 . C e S 4 5 2 6 0 6 6 2 0 3 2 2 1 1 8 0 . 0 2 7 8 4 ? C . 1 3 C 1 5 0 6 5 4 2 6 7 4 2 2 4 4 6 0 . 0 4 3 8 3 3 0 . 1 9 7 5 2 1 7 0 2 5 1 9 5 1 7 6 2 7 0 . 0 5 8 3 0 1 C . 2 5 4 4 2 2 7 5 1 2 C 9 6 1 1 2 8 1 0 . 0 7 7 7 2 0 0 . 3 2 5 3 BO 8 0 3 2 4 7 5<586 C . 1 5 3 6 0 8 0 . 5 5 4 9 3 5 8 5 1 1 4 7 2 9 9 1 0 . 2 1 7 2 8 3 1 . C C C C C O T n r 2 5 6 4 1 3 1 2 5 6 8 4 2 0 . 0 0 8 3 4 7 1 9 2 1 - 3 3 M A L E S Af-F. P P n o M ( X 1 C ( X I 0 3 i 0 . 0 3 3 2 0 1 C . 1 5 3 2 8 0 5 1 C 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 1 3 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 5 2 1 I C . 0 0 3 9 5 7 0 . 0 1 9 5 9 1 2 0 6 6 6 C . 0 0 7 6 4 9 0 . 0 3 7 5 2 7 2 5 1 9 2 1 0 0 . 0 0 4 1 7 9 0 . C 2 C 6 R 0 3 0 2 5 4 1 0 0 . 0 0 3 3 4 0 0 . 0 1 6 5 6 0 3 5 2 8 0 1 6 0 . 0 0 4 6 2 9 0 . 0 2 2 8 8 2 4 0 3 3 8 2 9 0 . O C 7 C 6 4 0 . C 3 4 7 C 8 4 5 3 2 3 3 6 G . 0 C 9 2 5 1 0 . 0 4 5 2 1 1 5 0 3 6 9 5 1 0 . 0 1 1 4 0 3 0 . C 5 5 4 3 5 5 5 3 7 8 6 1 0 . 0 1 3 5 2 ? 0 . C 6 5 4 C O 6 0 4 2 8 1 2 8 C . 0 2 4 8 2 8 0 . 1 1 6 8 8 5 6 5 4 ? 9 ? ? 6 0 . 0 4 3 S 6 6 0 . 1 9 8 C 6 I 7 C 3 5 6 2 5 0 0 . 0 5 8 6 5 7 0 . 2 5 5 7 7 6 7 5 2 6 9 2 6 8 0 . 0 8 3 2 5 6 C . 3 4 4 5 6 ? 8 0 1 4 0 2 0 ? C . l ? 0 ? 3 3 C . 4 6 2 2 2 7 e 5 5 ^ 1 7 C 0 . 2 4 ? 5 5 1 I . c o c o o o T P T 3 9 2 7 1 4 6 5 0 . 0 3 1 C 8 4 A U S T R A L1A L ( X I n ( x i L L ( X ) T I X ) E I X ) A G E 1 C O O 0 0 8 5 0 0 4 7 8 7 5 1 6 1 2 4 2 3 7 6 1 . 2 4 2 3 7 C 9 1 5 0 C 7 7 8 4 5 5 5 5 8 5 6 4 5 4 8 7 6 1 . 6 9 9 1 1 5 9 C 7 2 3 6 5 9 4 5 1 9 6 5 5 1 8 9 9 2 9 5 7 . 2 C 6 4 6 1 0 9 0 0 6 3 9 4 1 4 4 7 9 6 4 4 7 3 7 9 6 3 5 2 . 6 C 7 O 0 1 5 8 9 1 2 ? 1 1 7 5 4 4 2 6 7 3 4 2 9 0 0 0 0 4 8 . 1 3 6 1 9 2 0 8 7 9 4 7 1 2 9 6 4 3 6 4 9 5 3 8 4 7 3 2 6 4 3 . 7 4 5 8 9 2 5 8 6 6 5 1 1 5 8 4 4 2 9 2 9 5 3 4 L 0 8 3 1 3 9 . 3 6 2 9 3 3 0 6 5 C 6 7 2 1 5 2 4 1 9 9 5 4 2 9 8 1 5 3 7 3 5 . 0 4 9 2 9 3 5 8 2 9 1 5 2 5 8 7 4 0 8 1 0 3 2 5 6 1 5 8 2 3 0 . 8 9 4 1 5 4 0 8 0 3 2 8 3 3 8 1 3 9 3 1 8 9 2 1 5 3 4 7 5 2 6 . 8 0 8 4 3 4 5 7 6 9 4 7 4 5 9 1 3 7 3 2 5 9 1 7 6 0 2 8 6 2 2 . 8 7 6 5 5 5 0 7 2 3 5 6 6 4 7 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 1 3 8 7 0 2 7 1 9 . 1 6 9 3 5 5 5 6 5 8 8 4 8 5 7 5 3 C 7 9 8 3 1 0 4 1 4 2 6 1 5 . 8 0 6 9 5 6 0 5 7 3 C 9 1 1 3 2 0 2 5 8 2 4 7 7 3 3 4 4 3 1 2 . 7 9 7 9 9 6 5 4 5 < ; 8 9 1 1 7 0 1 2 0 0 6 9 5 4 7 5 1 9 6 1 0 . 3 3 2 7 1 7 0 3 4 2 8 9 1 1 1 5 7 1 4 3 5 5 1 2 7 4 5 C 0 8 . 0 0 5 5 6 7 5 2 3 1 3 2 1 2 8 3 7 3 3 5 6 8 1 3 0 9 4 9 5 . 6 6 C 9 8 8 0 I C 2 S 5 1 0 2 9 5 4 7 3 8 1 4 7 3 8 1 4 . 6 0 2 2 9 8 5 D E N M A R K H X 1 0 1 X 1 L U X ) T I X I E I X ) A G E 1 C C C C G 1 5 3 2 8 4 6 1 6 8 0 5 6 5 8 0 1 0 5 6 . 5 8 0 1 0 0 8 4 6 7 ? 0 4 2 3 3 6 0 5 1 9 6 3 3 0 6 1 . 3 7 0 1 3 5 8 4 6 7 2 0 4 2 3 3 6 0 4 7 7 2 9 7 1 5 6 . 3 7 0 1 3 1 0 8 4 6 7 2 1 6 5 9 4 1 9 2 1 3 4 3 4 9 6 1 1 5 1 . 3 7 0 1 3 1 5 3 3 0 1 3 3 1 1 5 4 0 7 2 7 8 3 9 3 0 3 9 8 4 7 . 3 4 6 6 7 2 0 7 9 8 S 9 1 6 5 2 3 9 5 3 5 9 3 5 2 3 1 2 0 4 4 . 0 9 5 2 6 2 5 7 8 2 4 6 1 2 S 6 3 8 7 9 8 9 3 1 2 7 7 6 1 3 9 . 9 7 3 6 2 3 0 7 6 S 5 0 1 7 6 1 3 8 0 3 4 7 2 7 3 9 7 7 2 3 5 . 6 0 4 6 3 3 5 7 5 1 8 9 2 6 1 0 3 6 9 4 2 1 2 3 5 9 4 2 5 3 1 . 3 7 9 8 9 4 0 7 2 5 7 9 3 2 8 1 3 5 4 6 9 4 1 9 9 C 0 0 4 2 7 . 4 1 8 2 9 4 5 6 9 2 9 8 3 8 4 2 3 3 6 8 8 6 1 6 3 5 3 1 0 2 3 . 5 9 8 2 0 5 0 6 5 4 5 6 4 2 8 1 3 1 6 5 8 0 1 2 9 8 4 2 4 1 9 . 8 3 6 4 3 5 5 6 1 1 7 6 7 1 5 0 2 8 8 0 0 2 9 8 1 8 4 3 1 6 . 0 4 9 5 7 6 0 5 4 C 2 5 1 0 7 0 0 2 4 3 3 7 5 6 9 3 8 4 1 1 2 . 8 4 2 9 3 6 5 4 3 3 2 5 1 1 C 8 1 1 8 8 9 2 1 4 5 0 4 6 6 1 0 . 3 9 7 4 0 7 0 3 2 2 4 3 11 1 1 0 1 3 3 4 4 ? 2 6 1 5 4 5 8 . 1 1 1 5 9 7 5 2 1 1 3 4 < H 6 9 8 1 2 4 7 1 2 8 1 0 3 6 . 0 6 1 5 9 8 0 1 1 3 6 5 1 1 3 6 5 4 6 8 5 6 4 6 8 5 6 4 . 1 2 2 8 4 8 5 1 9 2 1 - 3 3 M / H F S F h O L A N C . W A L E S S C F PP D O M < X ) 0 ( X 1 L ( X ) D ( X t L L ! X) T ( X t E I X 1 A G E o 1 3 7 4 1 0 6 C . C C 6 4 3 6 0 . C 3 1 6 6 9 1 C C C C 0 3 1 6 7 4 9 2 0 8 3 6 3 6 7 3 3 9 6 3 . 6 7 3 3 9 0 5 3 1 2 2 1 0 6 0 . 0 0 2 8 2 6 0 . 0 1 4 0 3 0 •56 6 3 3 1 3 5 9 4 8 C 7 6 9 5 8 7 5 2 5 6 6 0 . 6 7 4 0 3 5 in S 5 3 C 111 C . C C C 9 6 6 0 . 0 0 4 8 1 9 9 5 4 7 5 4 6 0 4 7 6 2 2 3 5 3 9 4 4 e 7 5 6 . 5 0 1 8 2 I C 1 5 9 4 8 0 4 1 9 0 . 0 0 3 6 8 4 0 . C 18 2 5 0 9 5 C 1 5 1 7 3 4 4 7 0 7 3 7 4 9 1 8 2 6 4 5 1 . 7 6 3 3 0 1 5 2 0 1 5 4 S 6 6 3 4 0 . 0 0 3 4 0 7 0 . 0 1 6 8 < ; 3 9 3 2 6 0 1 5 7 6 4 6 2 4 6 3 4 4 4 7 5 2 7 4 7 . 6 7 9 0 8 2 0 2 = 2 2 1 C 9 8 3 2 C . 0 C 3 1 3 6 0 . 0 1 5 5 5 9 9 1 7 0 5 1 4 2 7 4 5 4 9 5 6 3 9 8 5 0 6 4 4 3 . 4 5 5 4 0 2 5 3 0 2 4 8 1 4 9 5 1 0 . 0 0 3 1 9 3 0 . C 1 5 9 3 7 S C 2 7 8 1 4 3 0 4 4 7 3 1 5 3 5 3 0 1 C 7 3 9 . 1 0 2 6 9 3 0 3 5 2 4 6 6 8 1 4 2 4 0 . 0 0 4 8 1 2 0 . 0 2 3 7 7 4 8 8 8 4 8 2 1 1 2 4 3 8 9 6 0 3 0 8 2 2 9 3 3 4 . 6 9 1 7 1 3 5 4 0 2 5 2 0 9 1 9 7 7 0 . 0 0 6 S 3 6 0 . C 3 2 1 5 7 8 6 7 3 6 2 7 8 9 4 2 6 7 0 6 2 6 4 3 3 3 3 3 0 . 4 7 5 6 8 4 0 4 5 2 4 6 2 2 2 6 4 4 0 . C G 8 9 5 0 0 . 0 4 3 7 6 8 6 3 S 4 7 3 6 7 4 4 1 0 5 4 8 2 2 1 6 6 2 6 2 6 . 4 0 5 1 7 4 5 5 0 2 3 4 5 8 3 2 4 9 C . 0 1 1 5 4 0 0 . 0 5 6 C 8 3 8 0 2 7 2 4 5 0 2 3 9 0 1 0 8 1 8 0 6 0 7 9 2 2 . 4 9 9 3 5 50 5 5 2 0 7 3 8 4 3 1 5 C . 0 1 7 3 3 8 C . C 8 3 0 9 0 7 5 7 7 1 6 2 9 6 3 6 3 1 1 3 1 4 1 5 9 7 1 18.68761 5 5 6 C 1 8 3 1 8 6 2 2 4 0 . 0 2 8 3 1 6 0 . 1 3 2 2 2 1 6 < ; 4 7 5 9 1 8 6 3 2 4 4 0 9 1052e58 15.15453 6 0 6 5 1 6 3 2 7 8 3 2 9 0 . 0 4 2 5 1 2 0 . 1 9 2 1 4 1 6 0 2 8 9 1 1 5 8 4 2 7 2 4 8 4 7 2 B 4 4 9 1 2 . 0 8 2 6 7 6 5 7 0 1 2 5 6 4 9 9 1 4 0 . 0 6 5 7 5 9 0 . 2 8 2 3 7 2 4 6 7 C 5 1 3 7 5 3 2 C 9 1 4 2 4 5 5 9 6 5 9 . 3 6 1 8 2 7 0 7 5 7 9 7 2 1 0 0 2 9 C . I C 4 8 3 3 0 . 4 1 5 3 1 9 3 4 9 5 2 1 4 5 1 6 1 3 8 4 6 9 2 4 6 8 2 3 7.C6180 7 5 8 0 4 3 0 5 7 7 6 4 C . 1 5 0 2 8 6 C . 5 4 6 2 C 9 2 0 4 3 6 I t 1 6 2 7 4 2 7 3 1 0 8 3 5 4 5 . 3 0 2 2 0 8 0 8 5 2 0 8 7 6 8 1 6 0 . 2 7 2 1 0 3 I . C C C C O O 9 2 7 4 9 2 7 4 3 4 0 8 1 3 4 0 8 1 3 . 6 7 5 0 8 8 5 T P T 2 6 6 2 * 3 6 5 6 4 4 C . 0 2 0 6 0 9 1 9 2 1 - ^ 3 M A L E S F R A N C E A G F P P on M < X I C ( X ) L ( X ) c t x ) ' L L ( X 1 T < X » E ( X ) A G E 0 1 3 1 C . 0 0 4 7 7 5 0 . 0 2 3 5 9 2 K C C C O 2 3 5 9 4 9 4 1 0 2 6 3 3 2 5 1 9 6 3 . 3 2 5 1 9 0 5 1 5 1 C . 0 C 5 7 1 6 0 . 0 2 8 1 7 5 9 7 6 4 1 2 7 5 1 4 8 1 3 2 7 5 8 3 8 4 1 7 5 9 . 7 9 4 8 3 5 1 0 2 7 0 0 . 0 C . C •;48«;c C 4 7 4 4 4 9 5 3 5 7 0 9 1 5 6 . 4 5 5 9 3 1 0 1 5 5 2 1 0 . 0 0 1 5 9 1 0 . 0 0 7 9 2 5 9 4 6 9 0 7 5 2 4 7 2 5 6 9 4 8 3 2 6 4 2 5 1 . 4 5 5 9 3 1 5 2 0 6 2 3 0 . 0 0 3 3 6 4 0 . C 1 6 6 7 9 9 4 1 3 8 1 5 7 0 4 6 6 7 6 4 4 4 1 0 0 7 3 4 6 . 8 4 6 9 9 2 0 2 5 1 0 2 3 0 . 0 C 2 4 9 5 0 . C 1 2 3 9 9 9 2 5 £ 8 1 1 4 8 4 5 9 9 6 9 3 9 4 3 3 0 9 4 2 . 5 9 9 1 8 2 5 3 C I 1 8 2 C . 0 0 1 4 3 6 0 . C 0 7 1 5 6 9 1 4 2 0 6 5 4 4 5 5 4 6 4 3 4 8 3 3 4 0 3 8 . 1 0 2 6 3 3 0 3 5 1 1 7 4 C . 0 0 2 9 0 4 0 . C 1 4 4 1 6 < ; C 7 e 6 1 3 C 8 4 5 0 5 5 3 3 0 2 7 8 7 6 3 3 . 3 5 9 2 3 3 5 4 C 1 2 8 P C . C C 5 1 2 4 0 . 0 2 5 2 9 4 8 9 4 5 7 2 2 6 3 4 4 1 6 2 S 2 5 7 7 3 1 8 2 8 . 8 1 0 6 1 4 0 4 5 1 3 0 1 5 0 . 0 0 9 7 1 3 0 . C 4 7 4 1 6 8 7 1 9 5 4 1 3 4 4 2 5 6 3 7 2 1 3 5 6 8 9 2 4 . 4 9 3 3 8 4 5 5 0 1 3 7 2 2 0 . 0 1 3 6 8 3 0 . 0 6 « 1 5 0 6 3 C ( C 5 4 9 4 4 0 1 5 6 4 1 7 1 0 0 5 2 20.58813 5 0 5 5 1 < 2 3 4 C . 0 2 0 1 8 8 0 . C 9 6 0 9 3 7 7 5 6 6 7 4 5 3 3 6 9 1 9 5 1 3 0 8 4 8 8 1 6 . 8 6 9 4 2 5 5 6 0 1 5 9 5 9 0 . 0 3 0 8 3 6 0 . 1 4 3 1 4 6 7 C 1 1 2 1 0 C 3 6 3 2 5 4 7 0 9 3 9 2 9 3 1 3 . 3 9 7 0 0 6 0 f 5 1 3 6 1 0 3 0 . 0 6 3 0 5 6 0 . 2 7 2 3 4 8 6 C C 7 6 1 6 3 6 2 2 5 9 4 7 6 6 1 3 8 2 3 I C . 2 1 7 4 5 6 5 7 0 1 0 6 1 0 4 0 . C P 1 8 8 4 0 . 3 3 9 6 4 8 4 3 7 1 4 1 4 8 5 6 1 8 1 4 3 I 3 5 4 3 4 7 8 . 1 0 5 9 7 7 0 7 5 7 ? 1 2 3 0 . 1 4 1 3 4 0 C . 5 ? 2 1 P 7 2 6 6 5 8 1 5 C 6 9 1 0 6 6 1 7 1 7 2 9 1 6 5 . 9 9 1 9 4 7 5 P C 3 6 8 2 0.ie9C89 0 . 6 4 1 9 6 8 1 3 7 8 9 R 8 5 2 4 6 3 1 4 6 6 2 9 9 4 . 8 0 8 1 7 8 0 8 5 2 1 6 5 C . 2 5 3 3 6 ' ! l . C C C C C O 4<53 7 4 9 3 7 1 9 4 8 5 1 9 4 9 5 3 . 9 4 6 8 1 8 5 TfT 1 5 1 5 6 3 0 0 . 0 3 3 3 1 4 2 0 0 . 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C C 2 9 0 5 0 . 0 1 4 4 1 9 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 4 2 4 9 6 M 5 4 7 4 7 6 5 4 4 7 . 4 7 6 5 4 15 ? 0 1 0 2 1 2 0 . C 0 9 9 9 C C . C 4 8 7 3 2 9 8 5 5 8 4 80 3 4 8 C 7 8 3 4 2 5 1 2 5 9 4 3 . 1 3 4 5 4 2 0 2 5 ? C 7 1 3 O . 0 C 5 1 4 7 0 . 0 2 5 4 0 6 9 3 7 5 5 2 3 8 2 4 6 2 8 2 I 3 7 7 C 4 7 6 4 0 . 2 1 6 2 0 25 3 0 242 1 9 0 . 0 0 6 5 0 2 0 . 0 3 1 9 9 0 9 1 3 7 3 2 9 2 3 4 4 9 5 5 9 3 3 0 7 6 5 5 3 6 . 1 9 9 3 9 3 0 3 5 2 2 7 31 0 . 0 1 1 4 3 5 0 . 0 5 5 5 8 9 8 8 4 5 0 4 9 1 7 4 2 9 9 5 9 2 8 5 8 0 9 6 3 2 . 3130 5 35 4 0 2 3 1 2 4 C.00e626 0 . 0 4 2 2 1 9 8 3 5 3 3 3 5 2 7 4 0 8 8 5 1 2 4 2 8 1 3 7 2 9 . 0 6 7 8 3 4 0 4 5 212 3 0 0.01 1 6 7 2 0 . C 5 6 7 0 6 9 C C C 7 4 5 3 7 3 8 8 6 9 2 2 0 1 9 2 8 6 2 5 . 2 3 8 9 2 4 5 5 0 2 0 9 30 0 . 0 1 1 9 3 0 O . C 5 7 9 ? 4 7 5 4 7 0 4 3 7 2 3 6 6 4 2 I 1 6 3 0 5 9 4 2 1 . 6 0 5 8 7 5 0 5 5 2 3 8 5 R 0 . 0 2 0 4 0 5 0 . C S 7 C 7 3 7 1 C 9 8 6 9 0 2 3 3 8 23 8 1 2 6 4 1 7 3 1 7 . 7 8 0 6 1 55 6 0 2 3 6 9 2 0 . 0 3 2 4 2 8 0 . 1 4 9 9 8 2 6 4 1 9 7 9 6 2 8 2 9 6 9 1 2 9 2 5 9 3 6 1 4 . 4 2 3 4 3 60 6 5 212 131 0 . 0 5 1 3 2 1 0 . 2 2 7 4 2 7 5 4 5 6 8 1 2 4 1 0 2 4 1 8 1 6 6 2 9 0 2 3 1 1. 5 2 7 2 6 6 5 7 0 153 1 4 4 0 . 0 7 8 2 4 7 0 . 3 2 7 2 2 4 4 2 1 5 8 1 3 7 9 5 1 7 6 3 0 2 3 8 7 2 0 7 9 . 1 3 4 6 7 70 7 5 1 0 0 115 0 . 0 9 5 8 9 2 0 . 3 8 6 7 4 6 2 8 3 6 3 1 C 9 6 9 114 3 9 1 2 1 0 9 0 5 7 . 4 3 5 9 6 75 8 0 * 1 81 C . 1 6 3 2 7 1 0 . 5 7 9 7 2 6 1 7 3 9 4 1 0 0 8 4 6 1 7 5 9 9 6 5 1 4 5 . 5 4 8 8 0 80 8 5 15 38 0 . 2 1 0 3 3 6 1 . c c o o o o 7 3 1 C 7 3 1 0 3 4 7 5 4 3 4 7 5 4 4 . 7 5 4 3 0 85 T P T 2 4 8 1 8 1 9 0 . 0 2 7 4 9 7 1 9 2 1 - 3 3 M A L F S S C O T L A r v D A G P PP 0 0 M I X 1 C ( X ) 1_( X 1 0 { X 1 I K X I T { X , E ( X ) A G E 0 1 9 6 2 3 0 . 0 0 9 8 0 6 0 . C 4 7 J 5 8 K C C C C 47e6 4 8 9 0 3 6 6 2 1 8 4 1 8 6 2 . 1 8 4 1 8 0 5 8 6 7 2 4 0 . 0 0 ? 3 1 0 0 . 0 1 1 4 9 6 9 5 2 1 4 1 0 9 4 4 7 3 3 3 7 5 7 3 0 3 8 2 6 0 . 1 8 4 0 9 5 1 0 2 5 9 0 3 3 0 . 0 0 1 0 7 2 0 . C C 5 3 4 8 9 4 1 2 1 503 4 6 9 3 4 5 5 2 5 7 0 4 5 5 5 . 8 5 4 3 5 10 1 5 2 4 5 9 9 6 0 . 0 C 3 ? 5 6 O . C 1 6 1 5 1 9 3 6 1 7 1512 4 6 4 3 0 7 4 7 8 7 7 0 0 51.14119 15 ? C 3 7 5 1 = 2 0 1 C . C C 4 4 4 8 0 . 0 2 1 1 9 5 9 ? 1 0 5 2026 4 5 5 4 6 2 4 3 2 3 3 9 4 4 6 . 9 3 9 6 7 20 2 5 5 4 8 9 2 3 9 0 . 0 0 3 6 3 6 0 . C 1 8 C 1 4 9 C C 7 9 1 6 2 3 4 4 6 3 4 I 3 8 6 7 9 3 2 4 2 . 9 3 9 1 0 25 3C 6 7 C P 25? 0 . 0 0 3 1 3 4 0 . 0 1 5 5 4 8 8 8 4 5 7 1 375 4 3 8 8 4 5 3 4 2 1 5 9 1 3 8 . 6 8 C 9 5 30 3 5 6 2 7 2 3 9 ? 0 . 0 0 5 2 1 0 0 . C 2 5 7 1 6 8 7 C 8 I 2 2 3 9 4 2 9 9 0 9 2 9 8 2 7 4 6 3 4 . 2 5 2 3 8 3 5 4 0 6 1 ? 9 5 2 4 0 . 0 0 7 1 2 7 0 . 0 3 5 0 0 9 8 4 8 4 2 2 « . 7 C 4 1 6 7 8 5 2 5 5 2 9 3 7 3 0 . 0 9 0 4 7 4 0 4 5 6 0 7 3 7 0 0 C . 0 0 9 6 C 2 0 . C 4 6 9 8 7 8 1 8 7 2 3 8 3 9 3 9 9 7 6 2 2 1 3 6 1 5 2 2 6 . C 9 1 4 3 4 5 5 0 5 6 9 4 7 9 ? 0 . 0 1 1 6 1 9 0 . C 5 6 4 5 7 7 8 C 3 3 4 4 0 6 3 7 9 1 5 2 1 7 3 6 3 9 0 2 2 . 2 5 1 9 7 50 5 5 5 2 6 2 1 1 0 7 0 . 0 1 7 5 3 3 0 . C 8 3 9 9 ? 7 3 6 2 8 6 1 8 3 3 5 2 6 7 9 1 3 5 7 2 3 8 I 8 . 4 3 3 8 3 55 6 0 4 6 0 7 1 6 2 2 0 . 0 2 9 3 4 1 0 . 1 3 6 6 7 7 6 7 4 4 4 9 2 1 8 3 1 4 1 7 6 1 0 0 4 5 5 9 1 4 . 8 9 4 6 8 6 0 6 5 4 0 3 6 ? ? 4 2 0 . 0 4 6 2 9 0 C . 2 C 7 4 4 3 5 8 2 2 6 1 2 C 7 9 2 6 C 9 3 4 6 9 0 3 9 3 11 . 8 5 6 9 5 6 5 7 C 3 ' 6 7 ? 5 7 9 C . 0 6 5 7 8 2 0 . 2 8 2 4 6 0 4 6 1 4 7 1 3 0 3 5 1 9 8 150 4 2 9 4 5 0 9 . 3 C 6 0 2 7 0 7 5 2 0 0 4 2 5 9 6 0 . I C 7 9 8 C 0 . 4 2 5 1 3 3 3 3 1 1 3 1 4 C 7 7 1 3 0 3 7 0 2 3 1 2 9 9 6 . 9 8 5 2 1 7 5 9 0 1 1 3 5 ? 0 5 9 0 . 1 5 1 1 1 4 0 . 5 4 8 3 9 6 1 9 C 3 5 ! C « 3 9 6 9 0 8 0 1 0 0 9 2 9 5 . 3 0 2 1 3 8 0 P 5 5 6 ? 1 8 2 3 C . 3 6 9 9 1 0 1 . o o o c o o 8 5 9 6 8 5 9 6 3 I 3 4 9 .3 1 8 4 9 3 . 7 C 4 9 4 8 5 T CT 6 7 0 9 7 1 7 3 0 5 0 . 0 2 1 4 9 3 l<.2I - 3 3 A O F PP 0 0 M ( X 1 0 ( X ) 0 3 1 ? C . 0 0 6 1 2 5 0 . C 3 C 1 6 5 5 1 0 5 ? C O O 1 5 8 0 0 . 0 0 7 8 7 1 t c 3 C 5 ? C . 0 C C 5 5 C 0 . 0 0 2 7 4 5 1*5 3 7 4 1 5 0 . 0 0 3 4 1 2 0 . C 1 6 9 1 7 ? C 3 5 1 2 ? n . 0 0 5 ? ? 6 0 . 0 2 5 7 9 2 2 5 5 2 < 1 8 0 . 0 C 2 8 8 1 0 . C 1 4 3 C 4 3 0 3 1 5 1 8 0 . C C 4 7 3 C 0 . C 2 3 3 7 5 3 5 2 7 6 1 9 0 . 0 0 5 6 9 6 0 . C 2 8 0 8 0 4 0 1 8 0 2 3 C . 0 1 C 7 6 8 0 . 0 5 2 4 2 7 4 5 1 5 2 2 8 0 . 0 1 5 3 8 6 C . 0 7 4 C 7 8 5 0 1 4 1 2 C C . 0 1 2 0 3 9 0 . 0 5 8 4 3 7 5 5 8 2 2 1 C . 0 ? C 8 ? 6 0 . C S 8 C 7 5 6 0 6 7 3 0 0 . 0 3 7 9 3 ? 0 . 1 7 3 2 3 4 6 5 5 3 3 5 C . 0 5 4 7 9 1 0 . 2 4 C « ; 5 l 7 0 3 9 2 8 0 . 0 6 1 0 4 1 0 . 2 6 4 7 9 6 7 5 1 6 3 ? C . 1 7 0 1 8 6 0 . 5 9 6 9 4 8 n o 1 1 1 6 0 . 1 2 8 6 2 3 C . 4 6 6 6 3 5 8 5 5 Q n . 1 4 2 1 2 8 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T O T 3 0 3 1 3 4 2 0 . 0 0 9 3 9 1 1 9 2 1 - 3 3 M A L E 5 * C E PP D O M I X ) C ( X ) 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 5 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 1 3 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 5 2 4 1 0 . 0 0 3 4 8 4 0 . 0 1 7 2 6 8 2 0 4 3 5 0 . 0 0 9 3 2 8 C . 0 4 5 5 7 9 2 5 1 0 7 4 0 . 0 0 2 9 6 3 0 . C 1 4 7 0 4 3 0 1 0 5 9 C . 0 0 6 8 3 4 0 . 0 3 3 5 9 5 3 5 9 2 7 0 . 0 0 6 4 2 9 0 . C 3 1 6 3 6 4 C 1 1 0 6 0 . 0 0 4 8 5 5 0 . 0 2 3 9 8 3 4 5 7 7 5 0 . 0 C 5 7 S 7 0 . 0 2 8 5 7 1 5 0 5 9 1 3 0 . 0 1 8 5 0 3 C . C 6 S 4 2 4 5 5 3 0 c C . 0 2 5 6 7 5 0 . 1 2 0 6 . 3 4 6 0 3 1 1 0 0 . 0 2 7 4 2 4 0 . 1 2 8 3 2 1 6 5 2 ? 1 4 0 . 0 5 3 7 1 0 0 . 2 3 6 7 6 1 7 0 q 1 4 C . 1 . 3 1 4 7 7 0 . 4 9 4 7 6 . 1 7 5 9 1.6 0 . 1 5 3 2 2 9 0 . 5 5 3 S 4 4 R C 4 9 0 . ? n - n 5 6 0 . 6 7 4 9 6 1 8 5 p 5 0 . 2 7 9 6 0 5 I . C C C O O O T T 7 4 ? 1 2 7 C . 0 1 4 3 0 ? S C U T H f F R I C f N U N I O N L I X ) D I X ) L U X) T l X ) E I X ) A G F 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 7 4 9 2 4 5 9 6 1 4 2 6 9 5 6 1 . 4 2 6 9 5 C 9 6 S 6 3 7 6 3 4 8 3 C 0 9 5 6 5 0 2 3 6 5 8 . 2 5 9 7 8 5 9 6 2 2 0 2 6 4 4 8 0 4 4 0 5 1 6 7 2 2 7 5 3 . 7 C 2 1 4 1 0 9 5 S 5 6 1 6 2 3 4 7 5 7 2 ? 4 6 8 6 7 8 7 4 8 . 8 4 3 0 6 1 5 3 3 3 2 4 3 3 4 6 5 5 8 1 4 2 1 1 0 6 5 4 4 . 6 4 0 5 5 2 0 9 1 9 0 0 1 3 1 5 4 5 6 2 1 2 3 7 4 5 4 8 4 4 0 . 7 5 6 2 2 2 5 S C 5 8 5 2 1 1 7 4 4 7 6 3 2 3 2 8 9 2 7 2 3 6 . 3 1 1 3 9 3 0 8 8 4 6 8 2 4 8 4 4 3 6 1 2 8 2 8 4 1 6 3 9 3 2 . 1 2 0 6 3 3 5 8 5 9 6 4 4 5 0 8 4 1 8 6 4 3 2 4 0 5 5 1 1 2 7 . 9 7 6 4 2 4 0 8 1 4 7 6 6 C 3 6 3 9 2 2 8 9 1 9 8 6 8 6 3 2 4 . 3 8 5 9 7 4 5 7 5 4 4 0 4 4 0 8 3 6 6 1 7 9 1 5 9 4 5 7 4 2 1 . 1 3 6 9 5 5 0 7 1 C 3 2 7 C 3 C 3 3 7 5 8 2 1 2 2 8 3 9 5 1 7 . 2 9 3 6 3 5 5 6 4 0 0 I noe7 2 S 2 2 8 8 8 9 C 8 1 2 1 3 . 9 1 8 6 7 6 0 5 2 S 1 4 1 2 7 5 0 2 3 2 6 9 6 5 9 8 5 2 4 1 1 . 3 1 1 2 5 6 5 4 0 1 6 4 1 0 6 3 5 1 7 4 2 3 3 3 6 5 8 2 8 9 . 1 0 8 2 8 7 0 2 9 5 2 9 1 7 6 2 7 1 0 3 5 7 7 1 9 1 5 9 5 6 . 4 8 8 3 7 7 5 1 I S C 2 5 7 9 2 4 5 0 2 9 8 8 0 1 8 7 . 3 9 5 4 1 8 0 6 1 1 C 6 1 1 C 4 2 9 8 9 4 2 9 8 9 7 . 0 3 5 9 2 8 5 S P A I N L ( X ) r. ( X ) L U X ) T ( X ) F I X ) A G E I C C C C O 0 5 C 0 0 0 0 6 2 7 C 1 7 8 6 2 . 7 0 1 7 8 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 7 7 0 1 7 8 5 7 . 7 0 1 7 8 5 I C O C C C C 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 2 7 0 1 7 8 5 2 . 7 0 1 7 8 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 7 2 7 4 9 5 6 8 3 4 7 7 0 1 7 8 4 7 . 7 0 1 7 8 1 5 9 8 2 7 3 4 4 7 9 4 8 0 1 6 8 4 2 7 4 4 9 5 4 3 . 4 9 6 0 5 2 0 9 3 7 < 4 1 3 7 9 4 6 5 5 2 2 3 7 9 4 3 2 7 4 0 . 4 5 3 8 4 2 5 9 2 4 1 5 3 1 0 5 4 5 4 3 1 2 3 3 2 8 8 0 5 3 6 . 0 2 0 2 5 3 0 8 9 3 1 0 2 8 2 5 4 3 9 4 8 7 2 8 7 4 4 9 3 3 2 . 1 8 5 5 1 3 5 8 6 4 8 5 2 0 7 4 4 2 7 2 3 8 2 4 3 5 0 C 6 2 8 . 1 5 5 3 4 4 0 8 4 4 1 1 2 4 1 2 4 1 6 0 2 3 2 0 0 7 7 6 8 2 3 . 7 8 5 7 5 4 5 9 1 9 9 9 7 2 5 1 3 9 1 9 6 3 1 5 9 1 7 4 4 1 9 . 4 1 1 7 8 5 0 7 4 7 4 3 9 0 1 7 3 5 1 1 9 8 U 9 S 8 7 6 1 6 . 0 5 2 2 5 5 5 6 5 7 3 1 8 4 3 5 3 0 7 5 6 9 8 4 8 6 7 8 1 2 . 9 1 1 3 8 6 0 5 7 2 < 6 1 3 5 6 6 2 5 2 5 6 8 5 4 11 1 0 9 . 4 4 4 0 5 6 5 4 3 7 3 1 2 1 6 3 6 1 6 4 5 6 3 2 8 8 5 4 2 6 . 5 9 8 1 3 7 C 2 2 C < . 5 1 2 2 3 9 7 9 3 7 5 1 2 3 9 7 8 5 . 6 1 1 2 8 7 5 9 6 5 5 6 6 5 2 3 2 6 4 7 4 4 1 0 4 4 . 4 7 5 0 9 8 0 3 2 0 3 3 2 0 3 1 1 4 5 7 1 1 4 5 7 3 . 5 7 6 4 7 8 5 1 9 2 1 - 3 3 M I E S S W E C E N A G E PO 0 D D M ( X 1 O I X ) L ( X 1 n m L L ! XJ T I X ) E ( X I A C E 0 2 1 0 . 0 5 5 5 5 6 0 . ? 4 3 9 C ? K C C C C 2 4 3 9 C 4 3 9 0 2 4 4 4 1 4 8 9 9 4 4 . 1 4 8 9 9 0 c 4 1 0 . 0 2 0 7 8 1 0 . 0 9 8 7 7 5 7 5 6 1 C 7 4 6 8 3 5 9 3 7 8 3 9 7 5 8 7 5 5 2 . 5 8 4 1 5 5 1 0 9 0 C O 0 . 0 6 8 1 4 1 0 3 4 0 7 0 7 3 6 1 6 4 S 7 5 3 . 0 7 3 4 2 1 0 1 5 2 3 2 0 . 0 C 5 9 3 3 0 . C 2 S 2 3 3 6 8 l < 1 1 9 9 ? 3 3 5 7 2 7 3 2 7 5 7 9 C 4 8 . 0 7 3 4 2 1 5 ? r 3 3 7 C . O 0 7 C 7 ? 0 . 0 3 4 7 4 6 6 6 1 4 9 2 2 9 8 3 2 5 0 0 1 2 9 4 C C 6 3 4 4 . 4 4 5 7 9 2 0 ? 5 1 8 4 5 0 . 0 0 2 4 2 0 0 . C 1 2 0 2 8 6 3 6 5 1 7 6 8 3 1 7 3 3 5 2 6 1 5 0 6 2 4 0 . 9 5 5 6 8 2 5 3 0 2 9 7 2 ? 0 . 0 0 6 1 5 5 0 . 0 3 0 3 1 0 6 3 ( 8 3 1 9 1 2 3 1 0 6 3 5 2 2 9 7 7 2 7 3 6 . 4 2 3 8 5 3 0 3 5 3 0 1 3 9 C . 0 1 C 7 4 6 0 . 0 5 2 3 2 6 6 1 1 7 1 3 2 0 1 2 9 7 8 5 3 1 9 8 7 0 9 2 3 2 . 4 8 4 2 3 3 5 4 0 3 5 6 4 4 0 . 0 1 0 3 2 4 0 . C 5 C 3 2 0 5 7 « . 7 0 2 9 1 7 2 8 2 5 5 8 1 6 8 9 2 3 9 2 9 . 1 3 9 8 2 4 0 4 5 3 5 6 5 7 0 . 0 1 3 3 2 6 0 . 0 6 4 4 8 4 5 5 0 5 3 3 5 5 0 2 6 6 3 9 0 1 4 0 6 . 6 8 1 2 5 . 5 5 1 3 5 4 5 5 0 4 0 5 5 4 C . 0 1 1 0 5 1 0 . C 5 3 7 6 3 5 1 5 0 3 2 7 6 9 2 5 0 5 9 ? 1 1 4 0 2 9 1 2 2 . 1 4 0 2 5 5 0 5 5 4 8 0 1 1 1 C . 0 1 9 2 6 5 0 . 0 9 1 8 9 R 4 6 7 3 4 4 4 7 9 2 3 2 4 7 3 8 8 9 6 9 8 1 8 . 2 5 6 2 7 5 5 6 0 4 5 ? 1 8 2 C . C 3 3 4 8 ? 0 . 1 5 4 4 7 8 4 4 2 5 5 6 8 3 6 2 0 4 1 8 5 6 5 7 2 2 5 1 4 . 8 5 C 7 8 6 0 6 5 4 2 0 2 4 6 0 . 0 4 8 7 9 1 0 . 2 1 7 4 3 4 3 7 4 1 9 8 1 3 6 1 6 6 7 5 4 4 5 3 0 4 0 1 2 . 1 0 7 2 8 6 5 7 C 3 3 0 ' 6 7 0 . 0 6 7 5 3 0 0 . 2 8 8 8 8 0 2 9 2 8 3 6 4 5 9 1 2 5 2 6 6 2 8 6 2 8 6 9 . 7 7 6 6 3 7 0 7 5 2 0 4 2 1 3 C . 0 8 7 0 3 5 0 . 3 5 7 4 C 9 2 0 8 2 4 7 4 4 3 8 5 5 1 I 1 6 1 0 2 1 7 . 7 3 2 6 4 7 5 S O 8 1 1 4 1 0 . 1 4 6 1 9 3 0 . 5 3 5 3 1 5 1 3 3 8 1 7 1 6 3 4 8 9 9 7 7 5 5 0 9 5 . 6 4 3 0 4 8 0 8 5 3 4 9 5 0 . 2 3 4 5 3 2 I . C O O O O O 6 2 1 8 6 2 1 8 2 6 5 1 2 2 6 5 1 2 4 . 2 6 3 8 1 8 5 TPT 4 0 2 7 1 4 8 8 C . 0 3 C 7 9 4 1 9 2 1 - 3 3 M A L E S S W ! T Z E R L A N O A C E p p n o M I X ) C < X ) L I X ) D I X I L U X ) T I X ) E I X ) A G E 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 I C O C C O C 5 C 0 O O 0 6 5 5 9 0 8 3 6 5 . 5 9 0 8 3 0 5 4 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 C O C C 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 5 9 0 8 3 6 0 . 5 9 0 8 3 5 1 0 2 1 1 0 . 0 0 2 0 2 3 C . C 1 0 G 6 ? I C C C C O 1 0 0 6 4 9 7 4 8 4 5 5 5 9 0 3 3 5 5 . 5 9 0 8 3 1 0 1 5 1 4 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 9 8 « « 4 C 4 9 4 9 6 9 5 0 6 1 5 9 9 5 1 . 1 3 0 4 8 1 5 2 0 2e 3 0 . O C 7 6 0 0 0 . G 3 7 2 9 4 9 8 9 9 4 3 6 9 2 4 8 5 7 3 9 4 5 6 6 6 3 0 4 6 . 1 3 0 4 8 2 0 2 5 1 1 4 5 0 . 0 0 3 7 4 3 O . C i e 5 ? 9 9 5 3 C 2 I 7 6 7 4 7 2 0 9 3 4 0 8 0 8 9 1 4 2 . 8 2 0 6 5 2 5 3 0 1 7 7 4 C . 0 0 1 6 7 2 0 . 0 0 P 3 2 6 9 3 5 3 5 7 7 9 4 6 5 7 2 9 3 6 0 6 7 9 8 3 8 . 5 8 2 2 8 3 0 3 5 1 2 4 9 0 . 0 0 5 9 9 3 0 . C 2 9 5 2 1 9 2 7 5 6 2 7 3 8 4 5 6 9 3 6 3 1 4 3 0 6 9 3 3 . 8 8 5 2 3 3 5 4 0 1 1 9 9 0 . 0 0 6 2 7 R 0 . 0 3 C 9 0 7 9 0 C 1 8 2 7 8 2 4 4 3 1 3 5 2 6 8 6 1 3 3 2 9 . 8 3 9 9 4 4 0 4 5 1 2 2 1 6 0 . 0 1 C 8 5 0 0 . 0 5 2 8 1 6 8 7 2 3 6 4 6 0 7 4 2 4 6 6 I 2 2 4 2 9 9 9 2 5 . 7 1 1 8 8 4 5 5 0 9 1 1 7 0 . 0 1 5 8 3 0 C . C 7 6 1 3 8 8 2 6 2 8 6 2 9 1 3 9 7 4 1 4 1 8 1 8 3 3 8 2 2 . C 0 6 2 0 5 0 5 5 9 3 1 9 0 . 0 1 6 7 3 8 0 . 0 R 0 3 3 0 7 6 3 3 7 6 1 3 2 3 6 6 3 5 6 1 4 2 C 9 2 4 1 8 . 6 1 3 7 7 5 5 6 0 9 9 3 0 0 . O 2 5 3 7 C 0 . 1 1 9 2 8 6 7 0 2 C 5 8 3 7 4 3 3 0 0 8 9 1 0 5 4 5 6 8 1 5 . 0 2 1 2 4 6 0 6 5 P R 4 5 0 . 0 4 2 1 6 7 0 . 1 9 0 7 3 0 6 1 6 3 1 1 1 7 9 3 2 7 9 6 7 1 7 2 4 4 7 9 1 1 . 7 1 7 1 5 6 5 7 0 7 0 6 2 0 . C 7 3 1 5 1 0 . 3 1 2 0 6 3 5 C 0 3 8 1 5 6 1 5 2 1 1 1 5 1 4 4 4 8 0 8 8 . 8 8 9 4 6 7 0 7 5 4 9 6 4 0 . 1 . 0 9 5 5 1 0 . 4 2 C 9 8 9 3 4 4 2 3 1 4 8 0 1 1 3 5 1 1 0 2 3 3 6 5 7 6 . 7 8 7 8 6 7 5 R C 3 1 5 7 0 . 1 5 2 1 9 2 0 . 5 5 1 2 3 0 1 9 6 2 1 1 C R 1 6 7 1 C 6 7 9 8 5 4 7 5 . 0 2 2 4 1 8 0 P 5 1 5 5 6 0 . 3 2 0 4 3 9 1 . C C C C C O 8 8 0 5 R 8 0 5 2 7 4 7 9 2 7 4 7 9 . 3 . 1 2 0 7 2 8 5 T O T 1 2 6 0 3 9 6 C . 0 2 6 2 2 5 1 9 2 1 - 3 3 P A L P S L N I T f C ST AT FS AG F PP 00 MIX 1 C (X > L ( X 1 D I X I L L I XI TI XI F ( X I AGE 0 33 2 C . 0 0 5 1 0 ? C . C 2 5 1 9 6 ICC C C C 2 5 1 9 4 9 3 7 0 3 6 2 5 5 7 9 0 6 2 . 5 5 7 9 0 0 5 93 1 0 . o o o ^ o o 0 . 0 0 4 4 9 2 9 7 4 8 I 438 4 8 6 3 1 2 5 7 6 2 C 8 7 5 9 . I C 9 6 3 5 10 130 2 0 . 0 0 1 2 8 5 C . C C 6 4 0 3 9 7 C 4 3 6 2 1 4 8 3 6 6 4 5 2 7 5 7 7 5 5 4 . 3 6 5 0 6 10 15 133 3 0 . 0 0 1 8 8 3 0 . CC C'369 96< 1 2 SC3 4 7 9 85? 4 7 9 2 1 1 I 4 9 . 6 9 9 2 7 15 20 226 7 0 . 0 0 2 5 2 5 0 . 0 1 2 5 4 5 9 5 5 19 1 198 4 7 4 5 9 8 4 3 1 2 2 5 8 4 5 . 1 4 568 20 25 2<J9 13 0 . 0 0 3 6 1 8 0 . 0 1 7 9 2 9 94 320 1691 4 6 7 3 7 4 33 3 7 6 6 1 4 0 . 6 8 7 4 9 25 30 3 3 6 15 0 . 0 0 3 7 3 5 0 . 0 1 8 5 0 3 9 2 6 2 9 1714 4 5 8 8 6 2 3 3 7 0 2 8 6 3 6 . 3 8 4 6 5 3 0 35 3 79 2 3 C . C C 5 C 3 9 0 . 0 2 4 8 7 9 9 G 9 1 5 2 2 6 2 4 4 8 9 2 2 2 9 1 1 4 2 4 3 2 . 0 2 3 4 3 35 4 0 3 7 3 3 9 C . 0 C 8 6 9 7 0 . C 4 2 5 6 0 ee«54 3 7 7 3 4 3 3 3 3 5 2 4 6 2 5 0 2 2 7 . 7 7 6 6 9 4 0 45 4 0 9 51 0 . 0 1 0 2 9 2 0 . 0 5 0 1 6 9 84ReO 4 2 5 8 4 1 3 7 5 6 2 0 2 8 6 6 7 2 3 . 9 0 0 2 9 4 5 50 3 4 7 87 C . 0 2 0 9 5 6 0 . C 9 9 5 6 3 8 0 6 2 2 8 0 2 7 3 8 3 0 4 3 16 1 4 9 1 1 2 0 . 0 3 0 6 3 50 55 3 2 2 9 9 0 . 0 2 5 6 3 6 0 . 1 2 0 4 6 0 725<;5 8 7 4 5 3 4 1 1 1 3 1 2 3 1 8 6 8 1 6 . 9 6 9 0 2 55 60 2 6 3 103 C . C 3 2 4 7 C 0 . 1 5 0 1 5 9 63F.50 9 5 8 8 2 9 5 2 8 2 8 9 0 7 5 4 1 3 . 9 5 0 6 7 60 6 5 224 1 4 5 0 . 0 5 3 8 9 1 0 . 2 3 7 4 6 0 54 2c 3 1 2 8 8 5 2 3910 0 5 9 5 4 7 2 1 0 . 9 7 3 8 9 65 7C 131 147 0 . 0 9 3 8 6 5 0 . 3 8 0 1 2 3 •513 77 15728 1 6 7 5 6 6 3 5 6 3 7 2 8 . 6 1 2 7 2 7 0 75 89 115 0 . 1 0 8 3 5 1 0 . 4 2 6 2 8 5 2 5 6 4 9 1 0 9 3 4 1 0 0 9 1 0 1 8 8 8 0 6 7.361L 8 7 5 80 49 85 0 . 1 4 4 1 5 6 0 . 5 3 1 4 5 ? 1 4 7 1 5 7 8 20 5 402 5 8 7 8 9 6 5 . 9 7 3 1 6 80 85 24 59 0 . 2 C 3 5 5 9 1.COOOOO 6 8 9 5 6 8 9 5 3337 1 3387 1 4 . 9 1 2 5 9 8 5 TOT 3 R 60 9 9 6 0 . 0 2 1 5 0 4 207. Appendix G. L i f e tables of native-born and immigrant groups, females, Aust r a l i a 1921-33. Deaths (DD) include the t o t a l number of deaths i n the period 1921-33. 1921-33 F E r - A L F S A G F p p n o M I X ) C ( X ) 0 2 8 5 C 6 8 4 8 7 7 9 0 . 0 1 4 2 5 9 C . C 6 8 e 4 3 c. 2 9 6 C 5 7 4 9 I 1 0 . 0 0 1 3 8 ? 0 . 0 0 6 8 8 7 1 0 2 6 9 9 5 4 3 5 2 2 0 . 0 0 1 0 3 7 0 . C C 5 4 2 1 1 5 2 5 7 0 4 8 5 0 9 I 0 . 0 0 1 6 9 3 C . C C 8 3 e O 2 0 2 3 7 3 6 3 7 3 7 8 C . 0 C 2 5 9 0 0 . 0 1 2 8 6 9 2 5 2 1 9 2 8 8 8 3 3 1 C . 0 C 3 1 6 6 C . C 1 5 7 C 5 3 C 1 9 9 1 3 7 3 8 4 0 0 . 0 0 3 6 ° 9 0 . 0 1 9 3 2 7 3 5 1 7 8 8 6 2 I C 2 3 1 C . 0 0 4 7 6 7 0 . 0 2 3 5 5 2 A O 1 6 1 0 8 8 9 8 0 1 0 . O 0 5 C 7 0 0 . 0 2 5 0 3 4 4 5 1 3 4 9 8 3 1 0 5 2 5 0 . 0 0 6 4 9 8 0 . 0 3 1 9 6 8 5 0 1 1 C 2 9 C 1 1 6 0 5 0 . 0 C 8 7 6 9 0 . 0 4 2 9 0 2 5 5 8 5 8 2 6 1 3 3 3 9 G . O 1 2 9 5 2 0 . C 6 2 7 2 3 6 0 7 0 4 8 9 1 61 C 9 C . 0 1 9 0 4 4 0 . 0 9 C 8 9 2 6 5 4 6 2 2 2 1 7 7 0 3 0 . 0 3 1 9 1 7 0 . 1 4 7 7 9 2 7 0 2 8 3 C * . 1 5 0 1 2 0 . 0 4 4 1 9 1 0 . 1 9 8 9 7 1 7 5 1 4 5 6 2 1 C 7 4 5 C . 0 6 1 4 9 1 0 . 2 6 6 4 8 7 8 0 4 2 4 0 6 2 3 8 0 . 1 2 3 5 8 1 0 . 4 7 2 C 6 1 8 5 1 6 6 4 3 8 5 2 0 . 1 9 2 9 1 5 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T O T 2 5 9 5 4 5 0 2 1 2 0 6 0 C . 0 0 6 8 C 9 1 9 2 1 - 3 3 F E M A L E S A G F P P O D M ( X ) c m 0 2 1 1 5 1 5 1 0 . 0 0 5 9 4 0 0 . 0 2 9 2 6 4 5 6 0 4 7 1 2 2 0 . 0 0 1 6 8 6 0 . 0 C 8 3 9 7 1 0 1 5 5 4 1 1 4 1 0 . 0 0 0 7 5 6 0 . C C 3 7 7 3 1 5 1 5 0 8 ? 3 1 1 C . O O l 7 1 9 0 . 0 0 8 5 6 1 2 0 2 7 1 2 7 6 7 9 C . 0 0 2 C 8 5 0 . C 1 0 3 6 9 2 5 3 7 1 7 8 1 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 2 2 5 4 0 . 0 1 1 2 0 6 3 0 3 8 8 3 9 1 3 8 8 C . 0 0 2 5 7 8 0 . 0 1 4 7 7 8 3 5 3 8 7 2 9 1 6 3 6 0 . 0 0 3 5 2 0 0 . C 1 7 4 4 5 A C 4 0 0 3 5 l ° 6 7 0 . 0 0 4 0 9 5 0 . 0 2 0 2 6 8 A 5 4 0 1 5 7 2 5 7 9 0 . 0 0 5 3 5 2 0 . C 2 6 4 0 7 5 0 3 7 2 7 8 3 3 5 2 0 . 0 0 7 4 9 3 0 . C 3 6 7 7 4 5 5 3 2 4 5 0 4 1 9 5 C . 0 1 C 7 7 ? 0 . 0 5 2 4 5 2 6 0 2 9 3 1 9 6 1 7 7 0 . 0 1 7 5 5 7 0 . C e 4 C « . 3 6 5 2 7 5 2 1 8 6 9 7 0 . 0 2 6 3 3 5 0 . 1 2 3 5 4 1 7 0 2 3 3 5 3 1 1 9 3 8 C . 0 4 2 6 0 2 0 . 1 9 2 5 C 8 7 5 1 5 5 5 1 1 4 6 5 4 0 . G 7 8 5 3 C 0 . 3 2 8 2 1 4 8 0 8 6 8 7 1 4 0 9 9 0 . 1 3 5 2 4 4 0 . 5 0 5 3 5 4 8 5 4 5 3 2 1 5 5 4 2 0 . 2 9 5 7 9 8 1 . C C C G C O T O T 4 3 9 5 3 9 9 3 6 3 4 0 . 0 1 6 3 0 4 A L S T R Cl I A L I X 1 D I X t L L I X ) T I X ) F I X ! A C E 1 C C C C 0 6 8 8 4 4 8 2 7 8 9 6 5 2 9 9 5 4 6 5 . 2 9 9 5 4 C 9 3 1 1 6 6 4 1 4 6 3 9 7 5 6 0 4 7 1 6 5 6 4 . 9 4 2 5 1 5 9 2 4 7 4 5 0 1 4 6 1 1 1 3 5 5 8 3 1 9 0 6 0 . 3 7 5 5 5 1 0 9 1 S 7 3 7 7 1 4 5 7 9 3 8 5 1 2 2 0 7 2 5 5 . 6 9 1 0 I 1 5 9 1 2 C 2 1 1 7 4 4 5 3 0 7 7 4 6 6 4 1 3 3 5 1 . 1 4 0 5 3 2 0 9 0 C 2 9 1 4 1 4 4 4 6 6 0 8 4 2 1 1 0 5 6 4 6 . 7 7 4 6 3 2 5 8 8 6 1 5 1 6 2 4 4 3 9 0 1 3 3 7 6 4 4 4 8 4 2 . 4 8 1 0 7 3 0 8 6 9 9 1 2 0 4 9 4 2 9 8 3 1 3 3 2 5 4 3 4 3 8 . 2 2 7 4 8 3 5 8 4 9 4 2 2 1 2 6 4 1 9 3 9 3 2 8 9 5 6 0 3 3 4 . 0 8 9 2 4 4 0 8 2 8 1 5 2 6 4 7 4 0 7 4 5 e 2 4 7 6 2 1 0 2 9 . 9 C 0 3 7 4 5 8 0 1 6 8 3 4 3 9 3 9 2 2 4 I 2 0 6 8 7 5 2 2 5 . 8 0 5 2 4 5 0 7 6 7 2 9 4 8 1 3 3 7 1 6 1 0 1 6 7 6 5 1 1 2 1 . 8 4 9 9 1 5 5 7 1 9 1 5 6 5 3 7 3 4 3 2 3 6 1 3 0 4 9 0 1 1 8 . 1 4 4 9 2 6 0 6 5 3 7 9 9 6 6 2 3 0 2 7 3 8 9 6 1 6 6 5 1 4 . 7 0 9 0 9 6 5 5 5 7 1 6 1 1 C 8 6 2 5 C 8 6 7 6 5 8 9 2 6 1 1 . 8 2 6 4 2 7 0 4 4 6 3 0 1 1 8 9 3 1 9 3 4 1 9 4 0 8 0 5 9 9 . 1 4 3 0 5 7 5 3 2 7 3 7 1 5 4 5 4 1 2 5 0 5 I 2 1 4 6 4 0 6 . 5 5 6 4 9 8 0 1 7 2 8 3 1 7 2 8 3 8 9 5 8 9 8 9 5 8 9 5 . 1 8 3 6 2 8 5 F O R E I G N Ft OR N L I X ) 0 ( X I L L I X J T I X ) E ( X l A G E 1 C C C C 0 2 9 2 6 4 9 2 6 8 4 6 8 9 2 0 9 6 6 8 . 9 2 0 9 6 0 9 7 C 7 4 8 1 5 4 8 3 3 3 0 6 3 9 9 4 1 2 6 5 . 9 2 3 3 0 5 = 6 2 5 8 3 6 3 4 8 0 3 8 5 5 9 1 6 C 8 2 6 1 . 4 6 0 3 7 1 0 9 5 8 5 5 8 2 1 4 7 7 4 2 4 5 4 3 5 6 5 8 5 6 . 6 8 3 6 5 1 5 9 5 C 7 4 9 8 6 4 7 2 9 0 8 4 9 5 8 2 7 3 5 2 . 1 5 1 5 0 2 0 S 4 C 6 9 1 0 5 4 4 6 7 8 0 7 4 4 8 5 3 6 6 4 7 . 6 7 1 7 I 2 5 9 3 0 3 4 1 3 7 5 4 6 1 7 3 4 4 0 1 7 5 5 8 4 3 . 1 8 3 6 6 3 0 <.16 5 9 1 5 9 9 4 5 4 3 0 0 3 5 5 5 8 2 4 3 8 . 7 9 3 8 9 3 5 9 C C 6 C 1 8 2 5 4 4 5 7 3 9 3 1 0 1 5 2 5 3 4 . 4 3 8 2 6 4 0 8 8 2 3 5 2 3 3 0 4 3 5 3 5 0 2 6 5 5 7 8 6 3 0 . C 9 8 9 8 4 5 8 5 9 C 5 3 1 5 9 4 2 1 6 2 8 2 2 2 0 4 3 6 2 5 . 8 4 7 5 5 5 0 8 2 7 4 6 4 3 4 0 4 0 2 8 7 9 I 7 9 8 8 C 8 2 1 . 7 3 8 9 2 5 5 7 8 4 C 6 6 5 9 3 3 7 5 5 4 5 1 3 9 5 9 2 9 1 7 . 8 0 3 9 1 6 0 7 1 8 1 2 8 8 7 2 3 3 6 8 8 3 1 0 2 0 3 8 4 1 4 . 2 C 9 0 2 6 5 6 2 9 4 1 1 2 1 1 7 2 8 4 4 1 2 6 8 3 5 0 1 1 0 . 8 5 9 4 6 7 0 5 C 6 2 4 1 6 6 8 1 2 1 2 4 1 7 3 9 9 C 8 9 7 . 8 5 2 3 7 7 5 3 4 1 4 3 1 7 2 5 4 1 2 7 5 7 9 1 8 6 6 7 2 5 . 4 6 7 3 7 8 0 1 6 8 8 9 1 6 8 8 9 5 9 0 9 3 5 9 0 9 3 3 . 4 9 3 9 8 8 5 1 9 2 1 - 3 3 FFN «L FS AC-F PP no W ( X ) C (X 1 0 2 0 0.0 o . c 5 I 2 0 0 . 0 0.0 1 1 21 l 0 . 0 0 3 0 3 0 C . 0 1 5 C 3 4 1 5 15 0 0 . 3 0 .0 2C 3 P 1 C . C C 2 1 7 8 0 . C I C 8 ? 9 25 44 2 C . 0 0 3 7 6 2 C . C 1 8 c 3 6 30 54 ? 0 . 0 0 2 7 0 9 O.C 1 3 4 5 2 35 73 2 0 . C 0 2 3 C 7 0 . C 1 1 4 6 8 4 0 34 3 0 . 0 0 3 0 2 ? 0 . C 1 4 9 9 7 45 115 5 C . 0 C 3 4 6 0 0 . 0 1 7 1 5 4 50 131 15 0 . 0 0 9 7 9 4 0.C477C.9 55 142 I P 0 . 0 1 0 4 1 ? O . C 5 C 7 3 7 60 159 38 0 . 0 2 0 1 8 0 0 . C 9 6 C 5 6 65 158 35 0 . 0 1 8 5 5 4 C . C 6 6 6 5 6 7C 135 91 C . 0 5 6 1 6 3 0 . 2 4 6 2 4 1 75 81 92 0 . 0 9 4 9 5 1 0 . 3 8 3 6 7 7 80 48 6 4 0.110°43 0 . 4 3 4 2 6 8 35 21 4P C l 8 9 7 8 0 I . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T T 1 3 3 3 4 1 8 0 . C 2 6 1 0 4 1 9 2 1 - 3 3 F E M A L E S AGF PP CO MC X ) c m 0 1 3 6 5 79 C . 0 0 4 6 2 4 0 . C 2 3 8 3 0 5 2 9 9 8 55 0 . 0 0 1 5 1 7 0 . C C 7 5 5 7 IC 9 0 4 0 88 0 . 0 0 0 8 0 3 0 . C C 4 C 3 3 15 8 4 3 5 173 0 . 0 0 1 7 0 5 0 . C C 6 4 8 7 20 1 3 6 2 5 38 I C . 0 C 2 3 3 1 0 . C U 5 8 7 25 1 58«;p 56 7 C . 0 0 2 9 7 2 0 . 0 1 4 7 5 3 30 1 8 2 9 0 P53 C . 0 0 3 F 8 7 0 . C 1 9 2 4 6 35 2 1 3 3 6 96 2 0 . 0 0 3 7 4 8 0 . 0 1 8 5 6 6 40 1 9 9 5 9 I t 3C C . C C 4 7 1 9 0 . 0 2 3 3 2 0 4 5 19361 1446 0 . 0 0 6 2 2 4 C . C 3 0 6 4 2 50 I 7 9 5 4 1 8 4 4 0 . 0 0 8 5 6 1 0 . 0 4 1 9 1 0 c c 1 5 6 5 1 2 1 7 2 0 . 0 1 1 5 6 8 C . C 5 6 2 1 2 60 1 3 6 9 3 2 9 9 ? 0 .0 182 1 I C . C 6 7 C 9 0 65 12476 4 2 9 7 C.02 8 6 9 6 0 . 1 3 3 P 7 4 7 0 1 0 4 3 9 6 0 4 8 0 . 0 4 8 2 8 3 C. 2'154 13 7 5 7 2 2 9 74-59 0 . 0 8 5 9 8 6 0 . 3 5 3 P 6 2 80 4 6 5 * 6 9 3 C C.123<;54 0 . 4 7 2 1 4 3 35 2 6 9 3 7 4 3 2 C.2 31C9 5 1 .CCCCCO TPT 21 51 57 4 4 9 5 R 0 . 0 1 7 4 1 3 rEMMARK L ( X 1 0 t X 1 L LI X) T< XI F I X ) AGE 1CCCC0 c 5 0 0 0 0 0 7 1 3 8 0 4 3 7 1 . 3 8 0 4 3 0 1.CCCC0 0 5CC0O0 6 6 3 8 0 4 3 6 6 . 3 8 0 4 3 5 ICOCOO 1 5 0 3 49624 ? 6 1 3 8 0 4 3 6 I . 3 8 0 4 3 10 9 8 4 S 7 0 4 9 ? 4 8 3 5 6 4 1 8 0 1 5 7 . 2 7 9 1 5 15 9 8 4 9 7 1067 4 8 9 8 1 7 5 1 4 9 3 1 9 5 2 . 2 7 9 1 5 20 9 7 4 3 0 1 816 4 8 ? 6 1 I 4 6 5 9 5 0 2 4 7 . 8 2 4 0 9 25 9 5 c 14 1 2 6 6 4 7 4 85 6 4 1 7 6 8 9 1 4 3 . 6 8 4 7 8 3 0 94 32 8 1082 4 6 8 9 3 6 3 7 0 2 0 3 5 3 9 . 2 4 6 3 6 35 93 246 139 8 4 6 2 7 3 6 3 2 3 3 0 9 9 3 4 . 6 7 2 6 6 4 0 9 1 8 4 8 1 5 7 6 4 5 5 3 0 1 2 7 7 0 3 6 3 3 0 . 1 6 2 5 2 45 . 9 0 2 7 2 4 3 1 5 4 4 0 5 7 4 2 3 1 5 0 6 3 2 5 . 6 4 5 3 2 5 0 P5« 5 7 4 3 6 1 4 1888 4 1 8 7 4 4 8 8 2 1 . 8 C 7 1 8 55 8 1 5 9 6 7 8 3 8 3 8 8 3 8 6 1 4 5 5 6 0 4 1 7 . 8 3 912 60 7 3 7 5 8 6 5 3 9 3 5 2 4 4 4 106 7 2 1 8 1 4 . 4 6 9 1 1 6 5 6 7 2 1 9 1 6 5 5 2 2 9 4 7 1 6 7 1 4 7 7 4 1 0 . 6 3 3 4 7 70 5 0 6 6 7 1 9 4 4 0 2 0 4 7 3 6 4 2 0 0 5 8 8 . 2 9 0 5 5 75 3 1 2 2 7 13561 1 2 2 2 3 4 2 1 5 3 2 2 6 . 8 9 5 3 2 8 0 1 7 6 6 6 1 7 6 6 6 9308 8 9 3 0 8 8 5 . 2 6 9 2 6 85 ENGLANCfWALES L( X 1 DIXI LLCXI T(XI ECXI AGE 10OO00 2 3 8 3 4 9 4 0 4 2 ' 6 8 3 6 7 8 4 6 8 . 3 6 7 8 4 0 9 7 6 1 7 7 3 8 4 8 6 2 4 I 6 3 4 2 7 4 1 6 4 . 9 7 5 8 1 5 966 79 3 9 1 4 8 3 4 2 0 5 8 5 6 5 C I 6 0 . 4 5 1 5 5 10 9 6 4 8 9 819 4 8 0 3 9 5 5 3 7 3 0 8 1 5 5 . 6 8 6 2 0 15 S 5 6 7 C 1 109 4 7 5 5 7 7 4 8 9 2 6 8 6 5 1 . 1 4 1 4 8 20 9 4 5 6 I 1 3 9 5 4 6 9 3 1 8 44 1 7 1 0 9 4 6 . 7 1 1 6 8 2 5 93 166 1 7 9 3 4 6 1 3 4 3 3 9 4 7 7 9 1 4 2 . 3 7 3 6 9 30 9 1 3 7 3 1 6 9 6 4 5 2 6 2 4 3 4 8 6 4 4 3 3 8 . 1 5 6 1 4 3 5 8 9 6 7 7 2 0 9 1 4 4 3 1 5 5 3 0 3 3 8 1 9 3 3 . 8 3 0 6 5 4 0 87 56 5 2 6 84 4 3 1 2 1 7 2 5 9 0 6 6 4 2 9 . 5 7 8 7 4 45 8 4 9 C 2 3 5 5 8 4 1 5 6 1 2 2 1 5 9 4 4 7 2 5 . 4 3 4 7 2 5 0 8 1 3 4 3 4 5 7 2 3 9 5 2 8 5 1 7 4 3 8 3 5 2 1 . 4 3 7 9 6 55 7 6 7 7 1 6 6 8 6 3 6 7 1 3 9 1 3 4 8 5 4 9 1 7 . 5 6 5 9 1 6 0 7CC6 5 9 3 8 3 3 2 6 9 6 8 9 814 1C 1 4 . 0 0 3 1 6 65 6 C 7 C ? 1 3 0 7 6 27032 2 6 5 4 4 4 2 1 0 . 7 9 1 1 6 70 47 ( 26 1 6 8 5 2 1 9 599 9 38 36 20 8 . C 5 4 8 0 75 3 0 7 7 3 1 4 5 6 0 1 1746 5 1 8 7 6 2 2 6.C9694 80 16J 13 1 6 2 1 3 7015 7 7 0 1 5 7 4 . 3 2 7 2 2 85 210. 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C 1 9 3 1 5 0 . 0 9 2 1 2 7 6 5 4 1 2 0 0 . 0 4 1 1 3 7 C . 1 6 6 5 C 3 7 0 2 8 1 6 0 . 0 4 8 4 8 6 0 . 2 1 6 2 2 1 7 5 2 1 3 0 C . 1 1 9 8 1 1 c . 4 6 c < ; e o 8 0 1 2 2 1 C . 1 5 0 3 7 3 C . 5 4 6 4 4 1 8 5 7 2 1 C . 2 7 T 3 1 8 1 . O C O O P Q T C T 5 4 6 1 4 0 0 . 0 2 1 3 8 C s i» E r E N -L l X I D ( X » L U X I I C O O O O 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 C C C 1 2 = 8 7 4 6 7 5 * 2 9 7 0 1 3 0 4 3 5 0 6 5 8 7 C 1 3 0 4 3 5 3 6 5 8 7 C 1 3 C 4 3 5 0 6 5 8 7 C 1 3 0 4 3 5 0 6 5 9 7 C 1 3 2 5 9 4 4 2 8 5 7 9 8 4 4 1 9 4 7 9 1 4 1 0 1 1 5 7 9 6 2 8 2 8 5 0 3 9 1 0 1 2 7 6 7 7 7 4 4 4 9 3 7 2 7 6 4 7 2 3 2 8 4 1 4 5 3 5 1 2 8 0 6 8 1 8 4 4 8 1 2 3 2 8 3 8 8 6 3 3 7 1 6 8 8 4 2 9 9 6 4 6 5 6 4 8 7 7 1 1 6 2 6 4 6 4 5 4 9 3 7 1 5 4 5 1 2 3 3 2 2 6 4 3 9 2 0 1 9 6 8 6 1 7 0 3 8 4 2 4 2 3 4 1 2 1 7 1 9 0 7 4 3 1 2 0 6 3 1 2 C 6 3 4 8 1 8 1 S M T Z E R L A N D L ( X 1 D I X I L L t X I I C C C C C 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 I C O C O O 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 i c o r c c 0 5 G C 0 0 0 1 0 0 C C 0 1 7 1 1 4 9 5 7 2 2 9 9 2 8 9 1 0 0 0 4 8 3 9 4 3 9 7 2 6 ? I 1 8 5 4 8 3 4 8 C 9 6 1 0 4 1 5 5 6 4 7 6 6 2 9 = 4 5 4 9 2 3 1 1 4 6 6 9 6 3 9 2 2 3 7 3 0 3 8 4 5 3 5 9 2 8 9 1 9 9 2 3 5 8 4 4 0 1 0 2 8 6 6 4 1 4 5 3 2 4 2 2 8 7 6 8 2 3 0 9 7 5 8 3 3 9 2 5 8 3 7 4 1 th 1 3 9 3 7 3 3 3 7 8 9 6 0 7 9 0 1 3 1 4 4 2 7 1 C 8 9 4 7 6 4 6 2 1 9 6 4 1 8 3 3 1 9 2 5 6 6 ? 1 4 C 3 4 9 3 3 2 5 1 1 f. 4 9 1 1 6 4 8 4 2 6 1 8 T ( X I E ( X I A G E 6 0 9 7 2 5 5 6 0 . 9 7 2 5 5 0 5 5 9 7 2 5 5 5 5 . 9 7 2 5 5 5 5 1 2 9 7 2 2 5 8 . 9 5 3 5 3 1 0 4 6 9 4 6 5 3 5 3 . 9 5 3 5 3 1 5 4 2 5 9 5 9 3 4 8 . 9 5 3 5 3 2 0 3 8 2 4 5 2 8 4 3 . 9 5 3 5 3 2 5 3 3 8 9 4 6 3 3 8 . 9 5 3 5 3 3 0 2 9 6 0 8 8 4 3 5 . 0 7 3 8 7 3 5 2 5 5 0 7 6 9 3 2 . 0 3 3 7 4 4 0 2 1 5 9 7 5 6 2 8 . 1 3 0 1 2 4 5 1 7 8 6 9 9 2 2 4 . 7 0 6 7 1 5 0 1 4 3 5 7 1 3 2 1 . 0 5 6 5 7 5 5 1 1 0 6 8 2 5 1 7 . 4 6 5 6 9 6 0 8 0 7 1 7 9 1 4 . 2 8 9 6 4 6 5 5 4 2 5 3 5 1 0 - 9 8 8 9 7 7 0 3 C 9 3 0 8 7 . 0 4 2 5 7 7 5 1 3 8 9 2 4 5 . 7 3 2 6 3 8 0 4 8 1 8 1 3 . 9 9 4 1 2 8 5 T ( X ) E « X » A G E 7 0 5 0 0 3 3 7 0 . 5 0 0 3 3 0 6 5 5 0 0 3 3 6 5 . 5 0 0 3 3 5 6 0 5 0 0 3 3 6 0 . 5 O 0 3 3 I C 5 5 5 0 0 3 3 5 5 . 5 0 0 3 3 1 5 5 0 5 0 0 3 3 5 0 . 5 C 0 3 3 2 0 4 5 5 4 3 1 1 4 6 . 3 3 6 0 5 2 5 4 0 6 5 3 6 8 4 1 . 7 8 6 7 9 3 0 3 5 8 1 8 9 9 3 7 . 2 7 1 1 4 3 5 3 1 0 5 2 6 0 3 2 . 8 4 3 2 4 4 0 2 6 3 8 2 S 7 2 8 . 6 0 3 3 9 4 5 2 1 8 4 7 0 5 2 4 . 4 9 2 3 6 5 0 1 7 4 4 6 0 3 2 0 . 0 9 9 5 2 5 5 1 3 2 1 7 2 7 1 6 . G 5 8 1 0 6 0 9 2 9 1 3 9 1 2 . 4 3 3 9 2 6 5 5 9 C 3 5 C 9 . 7 1 1 3 8 7 0 3 1 9 2 6 ? 6 . 7 0 0 7 7 7 5 1 3 5 9 4 3 5 . 2 9 3 3 5 8 0 4 2 6 1 8 3 . 6 5 8 7 4 8 5 1 9 2 1 - 3 3 F E P i M . E S U N t T E C S T A T E S A r , c p p O C M ( X ( 0 ( X ) L ( x ) 0 ( X ) L L ( X) T< X ) E ( X ) A C E 0 2 = 1 0 . 0 0 2 8 5 8 C . C 1 4 1 8 8 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 9 4 9 6 4 5 3 6 7 1 7 6 2 6 6 7 . 1 7 6 2 6 0 5 9 ? -j 0 . 0 0 3 0 6 7 0 . 0 1 5 2 1 7 9 8 5 6 1 1 5 0 0 4 8 9 1 5 6 6 2 2 1 1 7 3 6 3 . 1 0 7 0 7 5 I C l i r 0 C O 0 . 0 9 7 C 8 1 0 4 8 5 4 0 6 5 7 3 2 C 1 7 5 9 . C 4 3 5 8 1 0 1 5 1 1 5 3 0 . 0 0 2 1 9 ? 0 . C 1 C 8 7 5 9 7 C 9 I 1 C 5 6 4 8 2 7 6 6 5 2 4 6 6 U 5 4 . 0 4 3 5 8 1 5 2 0 1 6 6 6 0 . 0 0 3 0 2 5 0 . 0 1 5 0 1 4 9 6 C 2 5 1 4 4 2 4 7 6 5 2 3 4 7 6 3 8 4 5 4 9 . 6 1 0 2 7 2 0 2 5 2 0 A 1 1 C . C C 4 4 9 6 0 . 0 2 2 2 3 0 9 4 5 8 4 2 1 0 3 4 6 7 6 6 2 4 2 8 7 3 2 2 4 5 . 3 2 8 3 5 2 5 3 0 2 1 2 1 1 0 . 0 0 4 4 2 4 0 . C 2 1 8 7 7 9 2 4 e i 2 0 2 3 4 5 7 3 4 8 3 8 1 9 6 6 0 4 1 . 3 0 2 0 5 3 0 3 5 21 e 1 0 0 . 0 0 3 8 4 3 0 . 0 1 9 0 3 3 9 0 4 5 8 1 7 2 2 4 4 7 9 8 5 3 3 6 2 3 1 3 3 7 . 1 6 9 9 1 3 5 A O 2 0 8 1 2 C . 0 0 4 8 3 2 0 . 0 2 3 8 7 0 8 8 7 3 6 2 1 1 8 4 3 8 3 8 6 2 9 1 4 3 2 7 3 2 . 8 4 2 5 8 4 0 A 5 2 6 6 1 6 0 . 0 0 4 8 9 9 0 . 0 2 4 2 0 0 8 6 6 ie 2 C 9 6 4 2 7 8 5 0 2 4 7 5 9 4 1 2 8 . 5 8 4 5 6 4 5 5 0 1 8 3 2 2 C . 0 1 0 1 9 8 0 . 0 4 9 7 2 4 8 4 5 2 2 4 2 0 3 4 1 2 1 0 3 2 0 4 8 0 9 1 2 4 . 2 3 1 4 5 5 C 5 5 1 9 6 3 0 0 . 0 1 1 3 2 6 C . C 6 4 A R 3 8 0 3 1 9 5 1 7 9 3 8 3 6 4 8 1 6 3 5 9 8 8 2 0 . 3 6 8 5 8 5 5 6 0 1 8 2 3 8 0 . 0 1 7 3 4 9 0 . 0 8 H 1 3 9 7 5 1 4 C 6 2 4 7 3 6 0 0 8 2 1 2 4 7 3 4 0 1 6 . 6 0 0 2 2 6 0 6 5 1 A 3 5 6 0 . 0 3 2 4 2 0 0 . 1 4 9 9 4 7 6 8 8 9 3 1 0 3 3 0 3 1 8 6 3 9 8 8 7 2 5 8 1 2 . 8 7 8 8 1 6 5 7 0 9 ? 7 6 0 . 0 7 6 4 7 6 C . 3 2 1 C C 6 5 6 5 6 3 1 8 7 9 9 2 4 5 8 1 6 5 6 8 6 1 9 9 . 7 0 9 6 0 7 0 7 5 5 6 6 7 0 . C 9 8 6 3 9 0 . 3 9 5 6 3 3 3 9 7 6 4 1 5 7 3 2 1 5 9 4 8 9 3 2 2 8 C 4 8 . 1 1 8 0 6 7 5 8 0 3 2 4 1 0 . 1 0 6 1 1 0 0 . 4 1 9 3 1 6 2 4 G 3 2 1 G 0 7 7 9 4 9 6 7 1 6 3 3 1 5 6 . 7 9 5 7 8 8 0 8 5 1 2 2 8 0 . 2 0 4 1 7 4 I . 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 9 5 5 1 3 9 5 5 6 8 3 4 8 6 8 3 4 8 4 . 6 9 7 7 9 8 5 TOT 2 4 8 7 4 3 1 0 . 0 1 4 4 2 1 Appendix H. L i f e tables of native-born and immigrant groups, males, Aust r a l i a 1911-21. Deaths (DD) include the t o t a l number of deaths i n the period 1911-21. 1 9 1 1 - 2 1 V f, L F S A G F P P o n P ( X ) C ( X t 0 2 8 3 3 2 0 6 7 C 9 5 0 . 0 2 3 6 7 8 0 . 1 1 1 7 7 5 •5 7 6 0 3 5 9 5 6 A 6 0 . 0 0 2 1 6 8 0 . 0 1 0 7 8 4 1 0 2 3 1 5 9 1 3 9 2 3 0 . 0 0 1 6 5 1 0 . C C 8 2 2 1 1 5 2 1 8 2 5 9 5 A 8 A 0 . C C 2 5 1 3 0 . 0 1 2 4 8 5 ? 0 2 0 1 9 3 7 7 C 8 6 C . 0 0 3 5 C 9 0 . 0 1 7 3 9 2 ? 5 1 7 9 5 7 3 7 9 2 4 0 . 0 0 4 4 1 3 0 . C ? i e 2 3 3 C 1 5 9 8 2 5 7 8 5 7 0 . 0 0 4 9 4 7 0 . 0 2 4 4 3 2 3*5 1 3 2 A A 9 e 5 3 8 0 . 0 0 6 4 4 6 0 . 0 3 1 7 2 1 A O 1 1 3 9 0 1 3 9 4 A 0 . 0 0 7 6 5 2 0 . C 3 e 5 C 6 4 5 9 3 9 6 3 1 0 5 2 6 0 . 0 1 1 2 0 2 0 . C 5 4 A 8 3 5 0 7 7 3 2 3 1 1 0 3 0 0 . 0 1 4 2 6 5 0 . 0 6 8 8 6 8 5 5 5 1 5 3 2 1 0 6 4 A 0 . 0 2 0 6 5 5 0 . C 9 8 2 0 A A C 3 3 A 7 6 8 6 2 7 C . 0 2 5 7 7 0 0 . 1 2 1 0 5 2 6 5 1 7 0 7 2 6 4 5 3 0 . 0 3 7 7 9 7 0 . 1 7 2 6 6 9 7 C 7 2 2 3 4 9 2 5 0 . 0 6 6 8 O 3 0 . 2 6 6 2 1 6 7 5 3 3 A 7 3 1 5 8 0 . 0 9 4 3 3 8 0 . 3 8 1 6 7 4 8 0 9 0 6 1 1 7 0 C . 1 2 9 1 9 3 0 . 4 6 8 2 3 5 8 5 2 6 ? 6 2 7 C . 2 3 8 4 3 4 I . 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 6 5 3 1 9 1 7 9 4 4 5 C . 0 0 8 6 8 8 1 9 U - 2 1 M A I E S A C E P P o n M l X I c m 0 3 7 8 1 3 5 3 C . C C 9 3 2 7 0 . C 4 5 5 7 1 5 5 8 6 3 2 3 1 C . 0 C 3 9 3 3 0 . C 1 9 4 7 2 1 0 1 C R 9 9 1 9 3 0 . 0 0 1 7 7 0 0 . 0 C 8 8 1 3 1 5 1 3 0 1 8 4 3 5 C . 0 0 3 3 3 8 0 . 0 1 6 5 5 3 2 0 2 3 0 2 7 1 3 9 3 0 . 0 0 6 0 4 7 0 . C 2 9 7 8 6 2 5 3 3 5 7 3 2 1 7 3 0 . 0 0 6 4 7 2 O . 0 3 1 B 4 5 3 0 A 1 0 A O 2 8 2 4 C . 0 0 6 8 8 2 0 . C 3 3 8 2 7 3 5 A 2 A 7 0 3 2 9 C 0 . 0 0 7 7 4 6 0 . 0 3 7 9 9 4 A O A A 1 1 A 3 8 3 ? C . O C 8 6 9 0 0 . 0 4 2 5 2 6 A 5 A 5 A 2 0 5 4 9 3 0 . 0 1 2 C 9 4 0 . C 5 8 6 S 6 5 C A 5 2 0 1 7 7 5 4 0 . 0 1 7 1 5 5 0 . 0 8 2 2 4 6 5 5 A 2 9 3 9 9 5 6 4 0 . 0 2 2 2 7 4 C . 1 0 5 4 9 5 6 0 3 7 7 7 6 1 2 2 8 7 0 . 0 3 2 5 2 6 0 . 1 5 C 4 0 1 6 5 3 1 2 7 A 1 4 5 2 9 0 . 0 4 6 4 5 7 0 . 2 0 8 1 1 4 7 0 2 4 1 3 0 1 6 6 1 8 C . 0 6 8 9 7 0 0 . 2 9 3 7 7 1 7 5 1 5 9 6 5 1 9 2 5 8 0 . 1 1 4 3 6 1 0 . 4 4 4 6 7 ? 8 0 8 3 3 6 1 5 1 7 6 C . 1 8 2 C 8 1 0 . 6 2 5 6 2 0 8 5 3 8 0 9 1 1 2 7 3 C . 2 9 6 C 6 7 1 . C C C C C O T C T A 7 2 6 3 A 1 2 5 6 7 9 0 . 0 2 6 5 9 1 A I S T R A L I A L ( X 1 0 ( X t L L ( X » T ( X t F I X ) A G E I C C C C O 1 1 1 7 7 4 7 2 0 5 6 5 7 8 4 6 2 8 5 7 . 8 4 6 2 8 0 88 8 2 3 9 5 8 4 4 1 7 1 8 5 3 1 2 5 7 2 5 9 . 8 1 1 0 8 5 9 7 8 6 5 7 2 2 4 3 7 5 1 8 4 8 7 0 8 5 4 5 5 . 4 3 5 8 5 I C 6 7 14 2 1 C P 8 4 3 2 9 9 ? 4 4 3 3 3 3 6 5 0 . 8 7 4 6 4 1 5 8 6 C 5 4 1 4 9 7 4 2 6 5 3 C 4 0 0 0 3 4 4 4 6 . 4 e 6 2 3 2 C 6 4 5 5 9 I 8 4 5 4 1 8 1 7 6 3 5 7 3 8 1 4 4 2 . 2 6 4 7 7 2 5 8 2 7 1 2 2 C 2 1 4 C 8 5 1 0 3 1 5 5 6 3 8 3 8 . 1 5 1 8 9 3 0 8 C 6 9 2 2 5 6 0 3 9 7 0 5 9 2 7 4 7 1 2 8 3 4 4 0 4 4 7 5 3 5 7 8 1 3 2 3 C 0 9 3 8 3 U 9 2 3 5 0 0 6 8 3 0 . 0 7 8 1 5 4 0 7 5 1 2 3 4 0 9 3 3 6 5 3 8 5 1 9 6 6 9 3 0 2 6 . 1 8 2 6 1 4 5 7 1 C 3 1 4 8 9 2 3 4 2 9 2 3 1 6 0 1 5 4 4 2 2 . 5 4 7 2 6 5 0 6 6 1 3 9 6 4 9 5 3 1 4 4 5 6 1 2 5 8 6 2 1 1 9 . 0 3 0 0 0 5 5 5 9 6 4 4 7 2 2 0 2 8 0 1 6 8 9 4 4 1 6 5 1 5 . 8 3 0 0 9 6 0 5 2 < 2 4 9 0 5 2 2 3 9 4 8 9 6 6 3 9 9 6 1 2 . 6 6 5 9 6 6 5 4 3 3 7 2 1 2 4 1 4 1 8 5 6 2 5 4 2 4 5 0 8 9 . 7 8 7 6 5 7 0 3 0 9 5 8 1 1 8 1 6 1 2 5 2 5 I 2 3 8 6 8 3 7 . 7 0 9 8 7 7 5 1 9 14 2 9 3 4 6 7 2 3 4 6 1 1 3 4 3 2 5 . 9 2 5 7 7 8 0 9 7 5 6 9 7 9 6 4 1 0 8 6 4 1 C 8 6 4 . 1 9 4 0 4 8 5 F O R E I G N B O R N L ( X ) D I X ) L L ( X ) T ( X I E I X ) A G E I O O C 0 0 4 5 5 7 4 8 8 6 0 7 5 8 6 2 9 4 0 5 8 . 6 2 9 4 0 C 9 5 4 4 3 1 8 5 8 4 7 2 5 6 8 5 3 7 4 3 3 3 5 6 . 3 0 9 4 0 5 9 3 5 6 4 6 2 5 4 6 5 8 6 1 4 9 0 1 7 6 4 5 2 . 3 7 7 9 7 1 0 9 2 7 6 0 1 5 3 5 4 5 9 9 6 0 4 4 3 5 9 0 4 4 7 . 8 2 1 4 3 1 5 9 1 2 2 4 2 7 1 7 A A 9 3 2 9 3 9 7 5 9 4 4 4 3 . 5 8 4 2 5 2 0 P . R 5 C 7 2 8 1 9 4 3 5 4 8 9 3 5 2 6 6 1 5 3 9 . 8 4 5 5 4 2 5 6 5 6 8 9 2 8 9 9 A 2 1 1 9 6 3 0 9 1 1 2 6 3 6 . 0 7 3 9 5 3 0 8 2 7 9 C 3 1 4 6 4 0 6 0 8 6 2 6 6 9 9 2 9 3 2 . 2 4 9 4 3 3 5 7 9 6 4 4 3 3 8 7 3 8 9 7 5 5 2 2 6 3 8 4 3 2 8 . 4 2 4 3 8 4 0 7 6 2 5 8 4 4 7 6 3 7 0 0 9 8 1 8 7 4 0 8 3 2 4 . 5 7 5 7 9 4 5 7 1 7 6 ? 5 5 0 A 3 4 4 1 4 8 1 5 0 3 9 9 1 2 0 . 9 5 2 3 4 5 0 6 5 8 7 8 6 9 5 0 3 1 2 0 1 4 1 1 5 9 8 4 3 1 7 . 6 0 5 9 7 5 5 5 8 9 2 8 8 8 6 3 2 7 2 4 8 3 8 4 7 8 2 8 1 4 . 3 8 7 5 2 6 0 5 0 C 6 5 1 0 A 1 9 2 2 4 2 7 8 5 7 5 3 4 5 1 1 . 4 9 1 9 2 6 5 3 9 6 4 6 1 1 6 A 7 1 6 9 1 1 2 3 5 1 0 6 8 8 . 8 5 5 0 8 7 0 2 7 9 9 9 1 2 A 5 0 I C 8 8 6 9 1 9 1 9 5 5 6 . 4 9 8 6 I 7 5 1 5 5 4 9 9 7 2 8 5 3 4 2 4 7 3 0 8 6 4 . 7 0 0 4 6 8 0 5 9 2 1 5 8 2 1 1 9 6 6 I 1 9 6 6 1 3 . 3 7 7 6 1 8 5 1 9 1 1 - 2 1 M A L E S O E i N V A P K A G E P P O D M l X > C ( X » L I X ) C ( X ) L U X ) T I X 1 F I X ) A G F 0 4 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 I C O C C O 0 5 C C O O 0 6 2 6 7 0 7 5 6 2 . 6 7 0 2 5 0 5 1 4 I C . 0 0 7 3 8 6 0 . 0 3 6 2 5 8 1 C 0 0 C 0 3 6 2 6 4 9 0 9 3 5 5 7 6 7 0 2 5 5 7 . 6 7 0 2 5 5 1 0 I P I 0 . 0 0 5 6 9 9 0 . C 2 8 C 9 0 9 6 3 7 4 2 7 C 7 4 7 5 1 0 3 5 2 7 6 0 9 9 5 4 . 7 4 5 8 8 1 0 1 5 4 5 1 0 . 0 0 2 7 5 9 0 . 0 1 1 2 3 2 9 3 6 6 7 1 C 5 2 4 6 5 7 0 5 4 8 C C 9 8 6 5 1 . 2 5 5 8 8 1 5 2 0 1 5 ? 5 C . 0 0 3 3 2 0 0 . 0 1 6 4 6 3 9 2 6 1 5 1 5 2 5 4 5 9 2 6 3 4 3 3 5 2 8 1 4 6 . 8 0 9 7 0 2 C 2 5 2 6 6 6 0 . 0 C 2 3 1 0 0 . C 1 1 4 8 4 9 1 C 9 0 1 0 4 6 4 5 2 8 3 6 3 8 7 6 0 1 8 4 2 . 5 5 1 3 6 2 5 3 0 3 2 7 2 7 C . 0 0 8 1 5 1 0 . 0 3 9 9 4 2 9 0 0 4 4 3 5 9 7 4 4 1 2 3 0 3 4 2 3 1 8 1 3 8 . 0 1 6 6 6 3 0 3 5 3 1 6 2 6 0 . 0 0 8 1 7 7 0 . C 4 C C 6 4 8 6 4 4 8 3 4 6 3 4 2 3 5 8 0 2 9 8 1 9 5 2 3 4 . 4 9 4 3 0 3 5 4 0 3 5 3 I 9 0 . 0 0 5 2 8 4 0 . 0 2 6 C 7 3 8 2 9 8 4 2 1 6 4 4 C 9 5 1 2 2 5 5 8 3 7 2 3 0 . 8 7 9 6 2 4 0 4 5 3 8 2 4 C C . 0 1 C 3 5 R 0 . 0 5 0 4 8 4 8 C 8 2 1 4 0 8 0 3 9 3 9 0 2 2 1 4 8 8 6 0 2 6 . 5 8 8 0 5 4 5 5 0 4 9 9 6 5 0 . 0 1 2 9 7 7 0 . C 6 2 9 4 5 7 6 7 4 G 4 8 2 3 3 7 1 6 4 5 1 7 5 4 9 5 8 2 2 . 8 6 8 7 7 5 0 5 5 5 2 3 1 0 1 0 . 0 1 9 7 0 8 0 . 0 9 1 6 3 8 7 1 9 1 9 6 5 9 C 3 4 3 1 1 2 1 3 8 3 3 1 3 1 9 . 2 3 4 6 9 5 5 6 0 5 1 9 1 4 1 0 . 0 2 7 I 2 R C . 1 2 7 C 2 4 6 5 3 2 7 8 2 9 8 3 0 5 8 9 I 1 0 4 0 2 0 1 1 5 . 9 2 2 9 2 6 0 6 5 4 2 7 1 7 5 0 . 0 4 C 9 4 7 C . i e 5 7 ? 3 5 7 C 2 9 1 0 5 9 ? 2 5 8 6 6 7 7 3 4 3 1 0 1 2 . 8 7 6 0 5 6 5 7 0 2 8 4 1 7 2 0 . 0 6 0 4 3 1 0 . 2 6 2 4 9 7 4 6 4 3 8 1 2 1 9 0 2 C 1 7 1 3 4 7 5 6 4 3 1 0 . 2 4 2 6 5 7 0 7 5 1 7 2 1 5 0 0 . 0 8 7 1 7 1 0 . 3 5 7 8 6 5 3 4 2 4 8 1 2 2 5 6 1 4 0 5 9 9 2 7 3 9 3 0 7 . 9 9 8 4 7 7 5 R O 7 8 1 2 0 0 . 1 5 3 2 4 5 0 . 5 5 3 9 8 5 2 1 9 9 2 1 2 1 8 3 7 9 5 0 1 1 3 3 3 3 1 6 . C 6 2 8 0 8 0 R 5 ? 4 6 1 C . l R 2 2 1 3 1 . O O O C C O 9 8 C 9 9 8 0 9 5 3 9 3 1 5 3 8 3 1 5 . 4 8 3 0 8 8 5 T C T 4 4 1 4 1 1 0 9 0 . 0 2 5 1 2 C 1 9 1 1 - 2 1 M A L E S F N G L A N C , W A L E S A G P P P n o M l X I O I X ) L I X ) D I X ) L U X ) T I X 1 F I X ) A G E 0 2 1 3 8 2 2 7 C . 0 1 C 6 3 2 C . C 5 1 7 8 3 I C O O C O 5 1 7 8 4 8 7 0 5 4 5 9 3 7 7 8 0 5 9 . 3 7 7 8 0 C 5 3 1 0 6 1 3 9 0 . 0 0 4 4 8 6 0 . C 2 2 1 7 9 9 4 e 2 ? 2 1 0 3 4 6 8 8 5 I 5 4 5 0 7 2 6 5 7 . 4 8 3 9 4 5 I C 6 4 P 7 1 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 6 9 R 0 . C C 8 4 C 5 9 2 7 1 9 7 7 9 4 6 1 6 4 5 4 9 8 1 8 7 5 5 3 . 7 3 1 0 8 1 0 1 5 7 3 C 8 7 0 7 0 . 0 0 2 8 2 8 C . C 1 4 C 4 3 9 1 9 3 9 1 2 9 1 4 5 6 4 6 9 4 5 2 0 2 3 0 4 9 . 1 6 5 3 1 1 5 2 0 1 1 8 1 ? 5 4 9 0 . 0 0 4 6 4 6 0 . G 2 2 9 6 2 9 C 6 4 9 2 0 8 1 4 4 8 0 3 8 4 0 6 3 7 6 0 4 4 . 8 2 9 9 5 2 0 2 5 1 7 1 4 C 9 5 5 C . C C 5 5 7 4 0 . C 2 7 4 9 9 R R 5 6 7 2 4 3 5 4 3 6 7 4 8 3 6 1 5 7 2 3 4 0 . 8 2 4 7 8 2 5 3 0 2 0 7 5 6 1 2 4 1 C . 0 C 5 9 8 0 0 . C 2 9 4 6 1 9 6 1 3 2 2 5 3 8 4 2 4 3 1 7 3 1 7 8 9 7 5 3 6 . 9 0 8 0 8 3 0 3 5 2 1 4 0 9 1 4 7 5 0 . 0 0 6 9 9 2 0 . 0 3 3 8 7 6 8 3 5 9 5 2 8 3 2 4 1 C 8 9 4 2 7 5 4 6 5 8 3 2 . 9 5 2 5 6 3 5 4 0 2 1 3 6 C 1 6 7 2 0 . 0 0 7 8 3 0 0 . C 3 8 3 9 6 R 0 7 6 3 3 1 0 1 3 9 6 0 6 1 2 3 4 3 7 6 4 2 9 . 0 2 0 3 5 4 0 4 5 2 1 6 9 2 7 3 3 7 0 . 0 1 1 0 0 5 7 7 6 6 2 4 1 5 9 3 7 7 9 1 2 1 9 4 7 7 0 3 2 5 . 0 7 9 3 0 4 5 5 C 2 1 3 0 1 3 3 4 3 C . 0 1 5 6 9 3 C . C 7 5 5 0 4 7 3 5 C 3 5 5 5 0 3 5 3 6 4 1 1 5 6 9 7 9 I 2 1 . 3 5 6 8 2 5 0 5 5 2 1 0 R 2 4 4 2 7 G . 0 2 C 9 9 6 0 . C 5 9 7 4 6 6 7 9 5 3 6 7 7 8 3 2 2 3 2 I 1 2 1 6 1 5 0 1 7 . 8 9 6 8 6 5 5 6 0 1 R 5 1 1 5 R 3 ? 0 . 0 3 1 5 0 6 0 . 1 4 6 C 2 7 6 1 1 7 5 8 9 3 3 2 8 3 5 4 3 8 9 3 3 2 9 1 4 . 6 0 2 8 0 6 0 6 5 1 5 4 1 3 7 3 4 1 C . 0 4 7 6 7 4 0 . 2 1 7 7 8 7 5 2 2 4 2 11 1 1 6 2 3 3 4 1 9 6 0 9 7 9 6 1 1 . 6 7 2 3 5 6 5 7 0 1 1 6 5 2 7 6 R 3 0 . 0 6 5 9 3 7 C . 2 8 3 0 3 0 4 1 1 2 6 1 1 6 4 C 1 7 6 5 2 9 3 7 6 3 6 8 9 . 1 5 1 6 8 7 0 7 5 7 6 9 P R l 3 5 0 . 1 0 5 6 7 9 0 . 4 1 7 9 6 9 2 9 4 8 6 1 2 3 2 4 I 1 6 6 1 9 1 9 9 9 3 9 6 . 7 7 7 4 8 7 5 R O 4 1 1 R 7 0 5 0 0 . 1 7 1 2 0 9 0 . 5 9 9 4 6 1 1 7 1 6 ? 1 0 2 8 8 6 0 0 8 9 8 3 2 2 I 4 . 8 4 J 2 3 8 0 R 5 1 9 5 5 5 5 1 3 0 . 7 9 7 1 6 1 I . C C C C O O 6 £ 1 4 6 8 7 4 7 3 1 3 7 2 3 1 3 2 3 . 3 6 5 1 8 8 5 T r - T 2 3 4 8 4 C 5 8 7 8 6 C . 0 2 4 8 2 0 1 9 1 1 - 2 1 M A L E S A G E P P 0 0 M ( X I C ( X ) C 1 3 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 I C 0 0 . 0 o . c 1 0 1 9 0 c . 0 0 . 0 1 5 6 7 3 0 . 0 0 4 4 7 5 0 . 0 2 2 1 2 6 2 0 8 9 9 C . 0 1 0 2 6 3 C . C 5 C 0 3 3 2 5 1 3 7 1 2 C . 0 0 8 9 5 3 0 . C 4 3 7 8 3 3 0 1 3 8 ? C C . C 1 4 C 9 1 0 . 0 6 8 0 5 6 3 5 1 3 7 1 3 0 . 0 0 9 8 3 2 0 . C 4 7 9 8 1 A C 1 5 6 1 8 0 . 0 1 1 2 9 9 0 . 0 5 4 9 4 2 4 5 1 7 0 2 9 0 . 0 1 7 1 6 8 0 . C 8 2 3 0 8 5 0 1 9 8 4 1 0 . 0 2 0 5 7 1 0 . 0 = 7 6 2 4 5 5 1 9 2 5 7 C . 0 2 9 7 5 3 0 . 1 3 8 4 6 5 6 0 2 1 2 7 8 0 . 0 3 6 9 2 1 0 . 1 6 9 0 C 4 6 5 1 6 4 9 4 0 . 0 5 7 5 5 5 0 . 2 5 1 5 7 6 7 0 1 1 4 1 1 5 0 . 1 0 1 2 5 8 0 . 4 0 4 0 1 4 7 5 7 0 8 8 0 . 1 2 6 7 5 3 0 . 4 P 1 2 6 1 8 C 3 3 6 3 0 . 1 9 1 2 0 9 0 . 6 4 6 8 4 0 8 5 1 9 5 1 0 . 2 7 C 7 7 2 1 . c c c c o o T O T 1 9 3 8 6 9 2 C . 0 3 5 7 0 6 1 9 1 1 - 2 1 " A l F S A G F P P n p M ( X I 0 ( X ) 0 3 8 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 8 7 6 0 . 0 0 6 8 8 3 O . C 3 3 P 3 4 1 0 1 3 6 2 C . 0 0 1 4 8 2 0 . 0 0 7 3 8 0 1 5 3 2 7 1 2 0 . 0 0 3 6 9 4 0 . 0 1 8 3 0 0 2 0 6 6 4 3 4 0 . 0 0 5 0 5 9 0 . 0 2 4 9 7 9 2 5 9 2 2 7 9 C . C C 6 5 5 4 0 . 0 4 1 9 7 4 3 0 1 2 0 7 8 6 0 . 0 0 7 1 3 6 C . C 3 5 0 5 6 3 5 1 3 ? 0 1 0 5 0 . 0 0 7 9 2 9 0 . 0 3 8 8 7 3 4 0 1 4 9 7 1 2 7 0 . 0 0 8 4 5 6 0 . C 4 1 4 0 7 4 5 1 6 5 ? 1 9 3 0 . 0 1 1 6 7 8 0 . 0 5 6 7 3 ? 5 0 1 6 5 1 2 6 6 0 . 0 1 4 3 4 8 O . C 6 9 ? 5 7 5 5 1 8 7 0 3 7 7 0 . 0 2 0 1 4 6 0 . C 9 5 S C ? 6 C I 9 4 9 5 0 9 0 . 0 7 7 5 5 6 0 . 1 2 8 9 0 0 6 5 1 6 5 1 7 1 8 0 . 0 4 3 5 0 6 0 . 1 9 6 1 = 1 7 0 1 3 3 6 9 0 0 0 . 0 6 4 9 2 6 C . 2 7 9 2 9 7 7 5 9 5 S 1 0 ? 5 0 . 1 0 6 9 5 6 0 . 4 2 1 9 5 4 8 0 4 6 " P ? 4 C . 1 7 5 5 7 6 C . 6 I C C 6 9 9 5 773 5 9 4 0 . 2 6 6 5 4 7 I . O C C O C O T P T 1 8 1 C 7 5 6 5 6 C . 0 3 2 3 4 0 F R A N C E U X I C ( X ) L U X ) T < X ) E < X I A G E K C C C C 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 8 0 1 4 2 6 5 8 . 0 1 4 2 6 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 3 0 1 4 2 6 5 3 . 0 1 4 2 6 5 I C C C C G 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 4 8 0 1 4 2 6 4 8 . 0 1 4 2 6 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 3 4 9 4 4 6 8 4 3 0 1 4 2 6 4 3 . 0 1 4 2 6 1 5 9 7 7 8 7 4 8 9 3 4 7 6 7 0 5 3 8 0 6 9 5 8 3 8 . 9 3 0 9 7 2 0 9 2 6 = 5 4 C 6 7 4 5 4 3 0 6 3 3 3 0 2 5 2 3 5 . 8 4 9 7 1 2 5 8 8 8 2 8 6 0 4 5 4 2 9 0 2 5 2 8 7 5 9 4 6 3 2 . 3 7 6 7 0 3 0 , 8 2 7 6 2 3 9 7 ? 4 0 3 9 8 2 2 4 4 6 9 2 1 2 9 . 5 5 8 4 7 3 5 7 8 8 I C 4 3 3 0 3 e 3 2 2 7 2 0 4 2 9 3 9 2 5 . 9 2 2 2 0 4 0 7 4 4 8 0 6 1 3 0 3 5 7 0 7 6 1 6 5 9 7 1 2 2 2 . 2 8 3 8 7 4 5 6 8 3 5 0 6 6 6 6 3 2 5 0 3 5 1 3 0 2 6 3 6 1 9 . 0 5 8 3 0 5 0 6 1 6 6 4 8 5 3 8 2 8 6 9 7 3 9 7 7 6 0 1 1 5 . 8 5 3 7 3 5 5 5 3 1 2 5 8 S 7 8 2 4 3 1 8 I 6 9 0 6 2 8 1 2 . 9 9 9 9 3 6 0 4 4 1 4 7 1 1 1 0 6 1 9 2 9 6 9 4 4 7 4 4 6 1 0 . 1 3 5 3 6 6 5 3 3 0 4 1 1 3 3 4 9 1 3 1 8 3 1 2 5 4 4 7 7 7 . 7 0 1 9 2 7 0 1 9 6 9 2 9 4 7 7 7 4 7 6 7 1 2 2 6 4 6 6 . 2 2 8 2 6 7 5 1 0 2 1 5 6 6 0 7 3 4 5 5 6 4 7 8 7 9 4 . 6 8 7 1 7 8 0 3 6 C 7 3 6 0 7 1 3 3 2 3 1 3 3 2 3 3 . 6 9 3 1 5 8 5 G E R M A N Y L ( X I n ( x i L L ( X) T f X I E I X ) A G E 1 C C C C 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 0 6 4 8 0 6 1 . 0 6 4 8 0 0 1 0 0 C C 0 3 3 8 3 4 9 1 5 4 ? 5 6 0 6 4 8 0 5 6 . 0 6 4 8 0 5 9 6 6 1 7 7 1 3 4 8 1 3 0 1 5 1 1 4 9 3 3 5 2 . 9 4 0 5 4 1 0 9 5 9 C 4 I 7 5 5 4 7 5 1 3 0 4 6 3 3 6 3 7 4 8 . 3 1 5 5 8 1 5 9 4 1 4 9 2 3 5 2 4 6 4 8 6 3 4 15 8 5 0 7 4 4 . 1 6 9 6 5 2 0 9 1 7 9 7 3 8 4 4 4 4 9 3 7 4 3 6 9 3 6 4 4 4 0 . 2 3 7 1 9 2 5 8 7 = 5 3 3 C 8 3 4 3 2 0 5 6 3 2 4 4 2 7 0 3 6 . 8 8 6 4 7 3 0 8 4 6 7 0 3 2 9 9 4 1 6 1 0 0 2 8 1 2 2 1 4 3 3 . 1 3 5 7 2 3 5 8 1 5 7 0 3 3 7 8 3 9 9 4 0 3 2 3 9 6 1 1 4 2 9 . 3 7 4 7 8 4 0 7 8 I S 3 4 4 3 6 3 7 9 8 7 4 1 9 9 6 7 0 6 2 5 . 5 3 5 6 4 4 5 7 3 7 5 7 5 1 0 9 3 5 6 0 1 4 1 6 1 6 8 3 1 2 1 . 9 2 1 1 0 5 0 6 6 6 4 9 6 5 8 4 3 2 6 7 8 5 1 2 6 0 8 1 7 1 8 . 3 6 6 2 3 5 5 £ 2 C 6 5 8 C C C 2 9 0 3 2 5 9 3 4 0 3 3 1 5 . 0 4 9 2 3 6 0 5 4 0 6 5 1 0 6 0 7 2 4 3 3 0 7 6 4 3 7 0 8 1 1 . 9 0 6 1 9 6 5 4 3 4 5 9 1 ? 1 3 8 1 8 6 9 4 5 3 9 9 9 0 0 9 . 2 0 2 0 1 7 0 3 1 3 2 0 1 3 2 1 6 1 2 3 5 6 2 2 1 2 9 5 5 6 . 7 9 9 2 7 7 5 I P 1 C 5 1 1 0 4 5 6 2 9 0 9 8 9 3 9 3 4 . 9 3 7 6 0 8 0 7 C 5 9 7 C 5 9 2 6 4 8 4 2 6 4 8 4 3 . 7 5 1 6 8 8 5 IS I 1-2 L MALFS x IRELAND AGF PC 00 M( XI C (X) L( X I C (X ) LL(X) T (X) FIXI AGE C 73 1 3 0 .0179?5 0.085781 1 cor, co 8578 478555 5444276 54.44276 0 5 155 2 0.001287 C.006414 91422 586 455643 4965722 54.31655 5 10 253 6 0.00238C C .C 11831 9C 836 1075 451491 4510078 49.65105 10 1 5 414 21 C.005109 0.025221 8976 1 2264 44 314 4 405B5e7 45.21557 15 20 1235 75 0.0C6C99 O.C30036 87497 2 62 8 430914 3615443 41.32080 20 25 2410 231 0 .009566 0 .046715 84569 3965 4 1443 3 3184529 37.52294 25 30 3251 ?66 C.OC3170 0.040033 30904 3239 39642 4 2770096 34.23922 30 35 3823 371 0.009702 0.G47359 77665 3678 37913 I 2373672 30.56233 35 40 4980 5 4 ? 0.010879 O.05?955 73= f 7 3918 36014 1 1994541 26.95794 40 45 6499 935 0.014390 0.06=453 7CC69 4867 33817 9 1634400 23.32554 45 50 7168 1499 0.020913 C.C";937? 65 20 3 6479 3C981 5 1296221 19.87988 50 55 70 13 16 6 8 C.026635 0.1?4861 5P723 7332 275286 986406 16.79751 55 60 6747 2282 C.03381 8 0.155909 513SI 8012 236924 711120 13.83742 60 65 63CR ?86? 0.045376 0.203765 4 3 3 79 8 8 39 194796 474195 1G.93152 65 70 5459 4330 C.C79312 0.330941 34540 11431 14412 2 279400 8.C8924 70 75 3765 5110 0. 135712 0.506661 231C9 117C8 8637 4 135278 5.85388 75 PC 1876 3 0 4 ? 0.210100 • 0.688741 U4CI 7852 3737 3 49003 4.29832 80 85 852 ?599 0.305106 1.CCOOOO 3549 3549 1163 I 11631 3.27755 85 TPT 62292 26954 0.043771 1911-21 fftLFS ITALY AGF PP OD MIX) 0( X 1 L( XI DIXI LLIXl Tt XI e m AGE 0 13 2 C.C15503 0. C74621 1C0CC0 7462 48134 5 5567357 55.67357 0 5 42 3 0.007180 0. 035 ?67 92.38 3264 45453 0 5086012 54.96142 5 10 92 C 0.0 0 .0 89 2 74 0 44637 1 4631482 51. 87923 10 15 279 CJ 0.003280 C.016266 89 274 1452 44274 I 4185110 46.87923 15 20 573 36 0 .006?85 0.030939 878 22 2717 432318 3742369 42.61304 20 25 e72 44 0.005103 0.025194 85 105 2144 4 2016 5 3310051 38.89372 25 30 "06 81 0.009t53 0 .C447 39 82 = 6 1 3712 40552 6 2889886 34.8 343 2 30 35 777 68 C.0C876? 0.042870 79249 3397 38775 3 2484361 31.34867 35 40 643 74 0.011582 0.C5628? 756 5 ? 4269 368587 2096608 27.64081 40 45 480 87 0.018701 C .08704 3 71583 6231 34233 7 1728021 24.14019 45 50 4C7 75 0.018413 0.CPP014 65352 5752 3 12380 1385684 21.20340 50 55 237 46 0.016083 C .C773C6 596 CC 460? 26648 2 1073304 18.00843 55 6 0 223 66 0.029790 0 . 138625 54993 7623 25590 5 786822 14.30776 60 65 169 6 6 0. 038953 0.1774ei 47369 8407 21532 9 5 309 17 1 1.20804 65 70 103 76 0.074416 0.313717 38 = 6 2 12223 164 25 3 315089 8 .08703 70 75 6 6 R? C.123659 0.472289 26739 12629 102124 150835 5.64100 75 80 2 1 61 C.77 1714 C.8C9017 14 1 1 t 11416 4201 3 4 97 1 I 3.4521 I 80 P5 7 ? Q 0.4O?364 1.CCCCOO 26=5 2695 6 69 8 6698 2.48531 85 TPT 596? 9 10 C.015755 1 9 1 1 - 7 1 V A L E S N E T H E R L A N D S AO E P P 0 9 M ( X ) O I X ) L ( X ) c m L U X ) T ( X ) E I X ) A G E C 2 C C O 0 . 0 I C O C C O 0 5 C C 0 O C 6 4 4 0 5 9 6 6 4 . 4 0 5 9 6 C 5 6 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 K C C C C 0 5 0 0 3 0 0 5 9 4 0 5 9 6 5 9 . 4 0 5 9 6 5 1 0 2 ? c 0 . 0 0 . 0 K C C C C c 5 C C C O 0 5 4 4 C 5 9 6 5 4 . 4 0 5 9 6 1 0 1 5 3 * c 0 . 0 0 . 0 I C C c e o 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 4 9 4 0 5 9 6 4 9 . 4 C 5 9 6 1 5 ? 0 8 ? 5 0 . 0 C 6 1 9 7 O . C 3 C 5 1 1 K C C C O 3 0 5 1 4 9 2 3 7 2 4 4 4 C 5 9 6 4 4 . 4 0 5 9 6 2 0 2 5 1 0 ? 9 0 . 0 0 9 0 ? 1 0 . 0 4 4 1 1 2 9 6 9 4 9 4 2 7 7 4 7 4 0 5 3 3 9 4 8 2 2 4 4 0 . 7 2 4 7 7 2 5 3 0 1 A 0 9 0 . 0 0 6 5 9 7 0 . 0 3 2 4 5 0 9 2 6 7 2 3 0 0 7 4 5 5 8 4 3 3 4 7 4 1 7 1 3 7 . 4 8 8 7 7 3 0 3 5 1 0 5 6 0 . 0 0 5 9 0 5 0 . 0 2 9 C 9 7 8 9 6 6 5 2 6 0 9 4 4 1 8 0 3 3 0 1 8 3 2 7 3 3 . 6 6 2 2 3 3 5 A O 7 ? ? C . 0 0 4 . 2 8 7 0 . C 2 1 2 0 9 8 7 C 5 6 1 8 4 6 4 3 0 6 6 5 2 5 7 6 5 2 4 2 9 . 5 9 6 1 3 4 0 A 5 5 3 5 0 . 0 0 9 8 4 5 C . C 4 8 C 4 3 8 5 2 1 0 4 C 9 4 4 1 5 3 1 4 2 1 4 5 8 6 0 2 5 . 1 8 3 2 7 4 5 5 0 A 7 5 0 . 0 1 0 9 9 9 0 . 0 5 3 5 2 2 9 1 1 1 6 4 3 4 1 3 9 4 7 2 6 1 7 3 C 0 4 5 2 1 . 3 2 8 0 3 5 0 5 5 A 5 5 0 . 0 1 1 6 3 . 3 0 . C 5 6 5 1 9 7 6 7 7 5 4 3 3 9 3 7 3 0 2 5 1 3 3 5 3 1 9 1 7 . 3 9 2 7 3 5 5 6 0 3 8 1 7 0 . 0 4 3 8 4 9 0 . 1 5 7 5 8 4 7 2 * 3 5 1 4 3 1 2 3 2 6 3 9 6 9 6 2 2 9 4 1 3 . 2 8 4 8 9 6 0 6 5 2 9 2 1 0 . C 7 1 5 8 7 0 . 3 0 3 5 9 9 5 3 1 2 3 1 7 6 4 6 2 4 6 5 0 1 6 3 5 8 9 8 1 0 . 9 4 0 5 1 6 5 7 0 3 1 2 C 0 . 0 6 3 4 4 3 0 . 2 7 3 7 9 0 4 0 4 7 7 1 1 C 8 2 1 7 4 6 8 0 3 8 9 3 9 7 9 . 6 2 0 1 8 7 0 7 5 ? 6 1 7 0 . 0 6 6 7 5 6 0 . 2 8 6 0 4 3 2 9 3 9 5 8 4 0 8 1 2 5 9 5 4 2 1 4 7 1 7 7 . 3 0 4 5 7 7 5 R 0 1A 3 3 C . 2 7 9 2 8 0 0 . 7 2 8 7 0 6 2 0 9 8 7 1 5 2 9 3 6 6 7 0 1 8 8 7 6 3 4 . 2 2 9 5 0 8 0 R 5 7 1 9 0 . 2 5 8 C 6 5 1 . C C C C C O 5 6 5 4 5 6 9 4 2 2 0 6 3 2 2 0 6 3 3 . 8 7 5 0 0 8 5 T O T 8 5 6 1 7 A 0 . 0 2 0 3 3 7 1 9 1 1 - 2 1 M A L E S N F W Z E A L A N D A G E P P o n • M X > C ( X ) L t X 1 O I X ) I I I X ) T ( X ) E I X ) A G E 0 5 8 6 3 0 0 . 0 0 5 1 2 6 C C 2 5 3 0 4 K C C C C 2 5 3 0 4 9 3 6 7 4 6 2 7 1 0 1 1 6 2 . 7 1 0 1 1 0 5 8 3 0 2 2 0 . 0 0 2 6 5 7 0 . 0 1 3 1 9 7 9 7 4 7 0 1 2 8 6 4 8 4 1 3 2 5 7 7 7 3 3 7 5 9 . 2 7 3 2 I 5 1 0 1C7<? 2 1 0 . 0 0 1 9 5 5 0 . C C 9 7 3 0 9 6 1 8 3 9 3 6 4 7 8 5 7 7 5 2 9 3 2 0 5 5 5 . 0 3 2 4 7 I C 1 5 9 7 6 ? C C . 0 0 7 C 6 7 0 . 0 1 0 2 9 1 9 5 2 4 7 9 7 9 4 7 3 7 8 9 4 3 1 4 6 2 8 5 0 . 5 4 8 6 2 1 5 2 0 I A 2 5 5 7 C . 0 C 4 G 0 1 0 . 0 1 9 8 0 7 9 4 2 6 8 1 8 6 7 4 6 6 6 7 3 4 3 4 C 8 3 8 4 6 . 0 4 7 7 1 2 0 2 5 2 0 0 5 8 4 C . 0 0 4 1 8 9 0 . C 7 C 7 3 0 9 2 4 C I 1 9 1 5 4 5 7 2 1 7 3 8 7 4 1 6 5 4 1 . 9 2 7 7 1 2 5 3 C 2 5 5 3 1 7 5 0 . 0 0 6 8 7 ? 0 . 0 3 3 7 7 9 9 0 4 E 6 3 C 5 6 4 4 4 7 8 7 3 4 1 6 9 4 8 3 7 . 7 6 2 3 4 3 0 3 5 2 A 6 3 1 9 6 0 . 0 0 7 9 5 2 0 . C 3 8 9 8 4 R 7 4 2 9 3 4 0 8 4 2 8 6 2 5 2 9 7 2 1 6 2 3 3 . 9 9 5 1 0 3 5 A O 2 4 1 0 2 0 0 C . 0 0 9 7 8 9 C . C 4 C 5 9 8 8 4 0 2 1 3 4 1 1 4 1 1 5 7 6 2 5 4 3 5 3 7 3 0 . 2 7 2 7 2 4 0 A 5 1 6 6 3 ? 1 9 0 . 0 1 3 1 7 ? 0 . C 6 3 7 5 8 8 0 6 1 0 5 1 4 0 3 9 0 1 9 9 2 1 3 1 9 6 1 2 6 . 4 4 7 9 7 4 5 5 0 1 2 0 6 1 9 3 C 0 1 6 C 4 7 0 . C 1 7 1 4 0 7 5 4 7 C 5 8 2 2 3 6 2 7 9 6 1 7 4 1 7 6 2 2 3 . 0 7 3 8 2 5 0 5 5 7 4 8 1 1 3 0 . 0 1 5 1 2 0 0 . 0 7 2 8 4 6 6 9 6 4 8 5 C 7 4 3 3 5 5 5 8 1 3 7 8 9 6 5 1 9 . 7 9 8 9 6 5 5 6 0 2 9 ? 7 4 0 . 0 2 5 2 8 2 0 . 1 1 8 8 9 6 6 4 5 7 5 7 6 7 8 3 0 3 6 8 0 1 0 4 3 4 0 8 1 6 . 1 5 8 1 3 6 0 6 5 1 6 8 6 4 0 . 0 3 8 7 5 6 0 . 1 7 4 5 8 5 5 6 8 5 7 9 9 3 3 2 5 9 6 5 ? 7 3 9 7 2 9 1 3 . 0 0 1 1 6 6 5 7 C 7 1 4 7 0 . 0 6 5 6 5 8 0 . 2 8 7 0 0 ? 4 6 * 6 4 1 3 2 4 4 2 C 1 7 0 S 4 8 C C 1 6 1 0 . 2 2 2 2 8 7 0 7 5 3 r ? 7 C . 0 7 0 0 1 1 0 . 2 9 7 9 1 0 3 3 7 2 0 1 0 0 4 5 1 4 3 4 3 5 2 7 8 3 6 7 8 . 2 5 5 3 0 7 5 8 0 q 9 0 . 1 0 6 9 7 1 C . 4 2 1 5 3 3 7 3 6 7 4 9 9 8 0 9 3 4 2 3 I 3 4 P 8 2 5 . 6 9 7 3 9 8 0 R 5 2 5 C . 3 ^ 0 3 2 3 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 6 9 5 1 3 6 9 5 4 1 4 5 9 4 1 4 5 5 3 . 0 2 7 3 4 8 5 T O T 1 R 5 3 2 1 5 5 R C . C C 8 4 C 6 1 9 1 1 - 2 1 V A L E S A G E pp n o M ( X ) O O ) 0 3 c 0.0 0 .0 5 3 0 0 .0 0.0 i n 1 0 l 0 . 0 1 0 4 9 3 0 . 0 5 1 1 2 5 15 91 5 0 . 0 0 5 5 7 5 0 . 0 2 7 4 9 0 2 0 199 13 C . 0 C 6 6 7 4 C . C 2 2 6 2 3 25 2 4 5 24 0 . 0 0 9 6 5 4 0 . 0 4 7 1 3 1 30 262 2 0 0 . 0 0 7 4 6 0 0 . C 3 6 6 1 7 35 227 ? 3 0 . 0 1 0 0 7 3 0 . 0 4 9 l ? 6 4 0 245 ?4 C. 0 0 9 7 9 5 0 . 0 4 7 8 0 3 45 306 4 4 0 . 0 1 4 3 6 7 0 . C 6 9 3 4 ? 50 333 7 3 0 . 0 2 2 0 4 5 0 . 1 0 4 4 7 0 55 3 1 0 6 9 0 . 0 2 2 1 6 0 0 . 1 C 4 S 8 5 6 0 251 103 0 . 0 4 0 9 2 0 0 . 1 8 5 6 1 2 65 176 78 C . 0 4 4 2 2 3 0 . 1 9 9 1 0 2 70 100 59 0 . 0 5 9 0 4 4 0 . 2 5 7 2 4 9 75 59 71 0 . 1 1 9 8 6 8 0 . 4 6 1 1 4 9 eo 21 4C C . 1 8 7 1 8 5 0 . 6 3 7 5 6 8 85 8 17 0 . 2 1 3 4 4 7 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T P T 2 8 4 = 6 6 4 0 . 0 2 3 3 0 8 1 9 1 1 - 2 1 M A L E S A G E P P 00 M ( X > c m 0 4 0 5 32 0 . 0 C 7 9 0 4 0 . 0 3 8 7 5 7 5 7 0 7 34 0 . 0 0 4 8 1 8 0 . 0 2 3 8 0 6 10 1 5 5 5 29 0 . 0 0 1 8 7 3 0 . C C 9 3 2 3 15 1652 4 0 0 . 0 0 2 4 4 1 C C 1 2 1 3 0 20 2 6 9 4 124 C . 0 C 4 6 1 C 0 . 0 2 2 7 9 6 25 3 8 6 0 ? ? 4 C . 0 0 5 8 0 8 0 . 0 2 8 6 2 5 30 5 0 3 0 341 0 . 0 0 6 7 6 9 0 . 0 3 3 2 8 ? 35 5 C 9 9 411 C . 0 0 8 0 8 1 0.03 C.6C3 4 0 5 0 6 ? 4 6 6 0 . 0 0 9 2 0 5 0 . 0 4 4 9 9 I 45 5 4 1 1 6 3 6 C . 0 1 1 7 5 5 0 . 0 5 7 0 9 7 50 5 4 5 8 9 7 9 0 . 0 1 7 9 4 7 C . C 6 5 8 6 1 5 5 5 4 1 6 1 ? 3 3 0 . 0 ? 7 7 6 1 0 . 1 0 7 6 7 9 60 4 8 8 6 1629 0 . 0 3 3 3 4 5 0. 1 5 3 8 9 5 65 • 3 9 8 2 1 8 1 9 0 . 0 4 5 6 6 5 0 . 7 0 4 9 3 1 7C 3 1 4 0 2032 C . C 6 4 7 C 7 0 . 7 7 8 4 8 6 75 2 1 1 5 2 3 1 4 C . 1 0 9 - 2 7 C . 4 2 9 6 C 7 e o 1 1 7 3 7 0 6 5 0 . 1 7 6 0 1 8 0 . 6 1 1 1 5 5 85 1 77C C . 3 1 C 8 1 8 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T r T 5 8 1 9 0 1 6 1 2 9 0 . 0 2 7 7 1 7 N O R W A Y L ( X ( D ( X ) L L ( X ) T ( X I E ( X J A G E IOOOC0 0 5CCOO0 5 8 0 8 0 0 4 5 8 . C 8 0 0 4 0 1 0 0 C C 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 3 0 8 0 0 4 5 3 . 0 8 0 0 4 5 1 C C C C 0 5112 4 8 7 2 1 9 4 8 O 8 C 0 4 4 8 . 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D ( X 1 L L ( X ) T ( X » E ( X ) A G E 1COCC0 3 8 76 4 9 0 3 1 1 5 9 3 0 1 4 5 5 9 . 3 0 1 4 5 0 9 6 1 2 4 2 2 6 9 4 7 4 9 0 1 5 4 3 9 8 3 4 5 6 . 5 9 1 6 3 5 9 3 8 3 6 875 4 6 6 9 9 3 4 9 6 4 9 3 3 5 2 . 9 1 0 7 2 10 9 2 < ( 1 I 128 4 6 1 9 8 7 4 4 9 7 9 4 0 4 8 . 3 8 5 1 4 15 9 1 8 3 4 2 0 9 2 45 393 6 4 0 3 5 9 5 3 4 3 . 9 4 8 5 7 20 e 9 7 4 l 2 5 6 9 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 5 8 2 0 1 6 3 9 . 9 1 5 0 2 25 87 172 2 9 0 1 4 2 8 6 0 8 3 1 3 9 733 3 6 . 0 1 7 6 0 30 3 4 2 7 1 3 3 3 7 4 1301 1 2 7 1 1 1 2 5 3 2 . 17 154 35 8 C S 3 4 3 6 4 1 3 9 5 5 6 5 2 2 9 8 U 4 2 8 . 3 9 5 0 8 40 7 7 2 9 2 4 4 1 3 3 7 5 4 2 9 1 9 0 2 5 5 0 2 4 . 6 1 5 0 0 45 7 2 8 7 9 6 2 5 9 34874 9 1 5 2 7 1 2 1 2 0 . 9 5 4 1 7 50 6 6 6 2 0 7 174 2 1516 7 1 1 7 8 3 7 3 I 7 . 6 8 7 9 2 55 5 9 4 4 7 9 1 4 9 2 7 4 3 6 2 8 6 3 2 0 6 1 4 . 5 2 C 6 9 6 0 5 C 7 9 3 1 0 3 C ? 22572 I 5 8 P 8 4 4 1 1 . 7 0 7 0 9 65 3 9 9 9 0 1 1 1 3 7 1 7 2 1 1 0 3 6 3 1 2 3 9 . C 3 0 2 3 70 2 P P 5 4 1.2396 I 1 3 2 7 9 1 9 1 0 1 2 6 . 6 2 0 0 3 75 U 4 5 8 10C56 5 7 1 4 4 7 7 7 3 3 4 . 7 2 3 1 5 80 6 4 00 6 4 0 0 2 0 5 8 9 2 0 5 9 9 3 . 2 1732 85 i<;ii-20 P O L E S S V E C E I V A G E P P DO M < X ) 0( X 1 L ( X ) 0( X I L L ( X ) T( X » E ( X » A G E 0 3 0 0.0 0.0 1COC00 0 5C000 0 5822454 58.22454 C 5 6 0 CO 0.0 1C0CCC C 5CC000 5322454 53.22454 5 10 12 1 C.CC8673 0 .042445 100CC0 4244 48938 9 4822454 48.22454 10 15 57 I 0.001 758 0.CC8750 95756 838 4 7668 3 4333065 45.25133 15 ?C 213 24 0.011443 0.055626 94918 52PC 4 6 138 8 3856382 40.62872 20 75 297 23 0.007574 0.C37166 89638 3331 439860 3394994 37.87459 25 30 394 35 O.0C9848 0 .C43294 86 3C6 37 36 422192 2955134 34.24008 30 35 3 84 49 0.01266C 0.C61360 82571 5067 4CC18 7 2532941 30.67606 35 AO 466 50 0.010681 0.C52015 775C4 4031 377442 2132755 27.51796 40 45 573 9? 0.014351 0.069271 7347 3 5C9C 354640 1755313 23.89067 45 50 6C7 134 C.022 COT 0.104297 68383 7132 32408 6 1400673 20.48270 50 55 634 155 0.024519 0. 1 15509 612 51 7C75 28956 8 1076587 17.57664 55 f-C 488 164 0.033561 0 . 154815 54 176 8387 249912 788020 14.54555 60 65 329 145 0.044031 0.198324 45789 9081 20624 1 538108 11.75193 65 70 218 138 0.063328 C.273360 367C 8 10C34 15845? 331867 9.04080 70 75 103 136 C.13194C 0.495787 26673 13224 1C0306 173414 6.50142 75 «0 5 4 95 0.177859 0.615578 13449 8279 4654 3 73109 5.43599 80 85 19 37 0.194650 I.OCOOCO 5 1 7C 5 170 26 56 1 2656 1 5.13741 85 T O T 4857 1268 0.026116 1911-21 M A L E S S U T Z EP L A N D A G E P P no. M ( X ) C ( X ) L ( X 1 C « X 1 L L I X J T C X ) E ( X I A G E 0 2 0 0 .0 O.C 100CCC C 5C0000 6244237 62.44237 0 5 •a 0 0.0 0.0 100000 0 50000 0 5744237 57.44237 5 10 q 0 0.0 O.C ICOCCC 0 50000 0 52442 37 52.44237 10 15 11 o 0.0 0.0 100000 0 5CC000 4744237 47. 4423 7 15 20 43 2 0.004725 0.023351 1CCCC0 2335 49416? 4244237 42.44237 20 25 79 5 0 .006487 0.03 1919 576 6 5 3117 48C53I 375C075 38.39736 25 30 116 13 C.C11487 0.055830 94548 5279 45954 1 3269544 34.58093 30 35 10P o 0.00e647 C.C4 23 19 89 269 3 778 43690 0 28 10002 31 .47793 35 40 99 a 0.00R397 0.041 120 85491 3515 4 18667 2373102 27.75844 40 45 109 16 0.014334 CC69192 81576 5672 39569 9 1954434 23.84160 45 50 IIP 19 0 . 0 1 5 e 9 5 0.C76352 76 3 C4 5829 366946 1558735 20.4280 3 50 55 IIP 3C C.025406 0. 11944? 70475 8419 33 1330 1191789 16.9108 6 55 60 120 47 0.039080 0.178CIO 62057 11 C47 2 8266 9 860459 13.86560 60 65 104 52 0.049R08 0.22146? 51C IC 11297 276809 577791 11.32694 65 70 9 9 60 0. C6C5C4 0.264282 397 13 10496 172328 35C981 8.83784 70 75 71 9 ? 0 .129063 C.487894 792 13 14255 110451 178653 6.11450 75 PC 3P 67 0.176230 C.611664 14963 9 152 5 193 3 68201 4.55 811 80 R 5 12 4 ? 0.357167 1.CCCCCO 5911 5811 16763 16263 2.799 3 1 85 T f T 1757 462 0.036755 1 9 1 1 - 2 1 K A I . F S " L M T R C S T A T E S A G E PP 0 D M I X ) 0 ( X ) U X I r (x» L L ( X t T i X I F ( X t A C E 0 A P 5 C . 0 1 0 3 9 4 C . C 5 C 6 C 7 1 C C C C C 5 C 6 1 4 8 7 3 4 3 5 9 0 4 4 2 0 5 9 . 0 4 4 2 0 0 8 ? 2 0 . 0 0 2 4 4 3 0 . 0 1 ? 1 3 9 9 4 5 3 9 I 1 5 2 4 7 1 3 1 5 5 4 1 7 C 7 1 5 7 . C 5 3 2 8 5 I C i c e 3 0 . 0 0 2 R O O 0 . C 1 3 9 0 1 9 3 7 6 7 1 3 0 4 4 6 5 6 7 5 4 9 4 5 2 5 6 5 2 . 7 2 8 6 5 I C 1 5 1 2 7 6 0 . 0 0 4 7 4 9 0 . 0 2 3 4 6 5 9 2 4 6 3 2 1 7 0 4 5 6 9 9 0 4 4 7 9 5 3 1 4 8 . 4 3 6 7 8 1 5 2 C 2 7 7 6 0 . 0 0 2 2 0 5 0 . 0 1 0 9 6 4 9 0 3 1 3 9 9 0 4 4 9 C 8 9 4 0 2 2 5 9 2 4 4 . 5 4 0 6 1 2 0 2 5 • A O A I R 0 . 0 0 4 5 5 6 0 . 0 2 2 5 2 2 8 9 3 2 3 2 0 1 2 4 4 1 5 8 4 3 5 7 3 5 0 3 4 0 . 0 0 6 6 4 2 5 3 0 A 3 7 ?? 0 . 0 0 4 9 3 0 0 . 0 2 4 3 4 8 8 7 3 1 1 2 1 2 6 4 3 1 2 4 1 3 1 3 1 9 1 8 3 5 . 8 7 0 8 2 3 0 3 5 5 C C 3 7 C . 0 C 7 4 5 2 0 . C 3 6 5 7 7 8 5 1 8 5 3 1 1 6 4 1 8 1 3 6 2 7 0 0 6 7 8 3 1 . 7 0 3 6 0 3 5 A O 4 2 5 A 7 0 . 0 1 0 9 9 0 0 . C 5 3 4 8 3 8 2 C 6 9 A 3 8 9 3 9 9 37 4 2 2 8 2 5 4 1 2 7 . 8 1 2 3 3 4 0 A 5 A 3 6 A 9 0 . 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 . 0 5 4 6 3 3 7 7 6 8 0 4 2 4 4 3 7 7 7 9 1 1 8 8 3 1 6 7 2 4 . 2 4 2 6 0 4 5 5 0 3 9 3 6 6 0 . 0 1 6 7 3 8 0 . C 8 C 3 2 9 7 3 4 3 6 5 8 9 9 3 5 2 4 3 3 1 5 0 5 3 7 7 2 0 . 4 9 9 1 I 5 0 5 5 3 A 5 fl R 0 . 0 2 5 5 2 4 0 . 1 1 5 5 6 7 6 7 5 3 7 R 1 0 2 3 1 7 4 3 0 1 1 5 2 9 4 3 1 7 . 0 7 1 2 4 5 5 6 0 2 6 1 1 C 3 C . C 3 9 4 8 4 0 . 1 7 9 6 8 2 5 9 4 3 5 1 0 6 7 9 2 7 0 4 7 6 8 3 5 5 1 3 1 4 . C 5 7 5 9 6 0 6 5 2 0 5 I O C O . C 4 9 0 3 8 0 . 2 1 8 4 1 5 4 6 7 5 6 1 0 6 4 9 2 1 7 1 5 6 5 6 5 0 3 6 1 1 . 5 8 9 1 6 6 5 7 0 1 3 C 8 5 0 . 0 6 5 1 8 5 0 . 2 8 0 2 5 5 3 8 1 C 7 1 C 6 8 C 1 6 3 8 3 4 3 4 7 8 8 1 9 . 1 2 9 1 4 7 0 7 5 7 7 5 3 C . 1 2 1 6 C 5 0 . 4 6 6 2 7 1 2 7 4 2 7 1 2 7 8 8 1 0 5 1 6 4 1 8 4 0 4 7 6 . 7 1 0 4 1 7 5 R O A 7 6 5 0 . 1 3 6 4 6 7 C . 5 C E 7 6 3 1 4 6 3 9 7 4 4 8 5 4 5 7 4 7 8 8 8 3 5 . 3 8 8 6 7 8 0 F.5 ? A 7 ? 0 . 2 9 5 8 2 3 I . 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 1 9 1 7 1 9 1 2 4 3 0 9 2 4 3 0 9 3 . 3 8 0 4 0 8 5 T C T A 3 2 5 8 6 7 C . 0 2 0 0 4 0 225. Appendix I. L i f e tables of native-born and immigrant groups, females, Australia 1911-21. Deaths (DD) include the t o t a l number of deaths i n the period 1911-21. F E M A L E S AGE P P D O M I X ) O I X ) 0 2 7 3 4 5 4 5 3 1 4 3 C . 0 1 9 4 3 4 0 . C 5 2 6 6 7 5 2 5 3 8 8 1 4 9 9 ? 0 . 0 0 1 9 6 6 0 . C 0 9 7 8 4 I C 2 2 6 9 C 1 3 1 5 6 C . 0 0 1 4 C 8 O . C 0 7 0 1 7 1 5 2 1 5 8 3 0 4 6 5 0 0 . 0 0 2 1 5 5 0 . 0 1 C 7 1 5 2 0 2 1 0 8 0 0 7 3 7 ? 0 . 0 0 3 4 9 7 0 . 0 1 7 3 3 5 2 5 1 9 1 5 4 2 8 5 0 7 0 . 0 0 4 4 4 1 0 . 0 2 1 5 6 3 3 0 1 6 5 6 0 1 7 7 1 8 C . 0 C 4 6 6 1 C . C 2 3 C 3 6 3 5 1 3 6 3 2 8 7 6 C 3 C . 0 0 5 5 7 7 0 . 0 2 7 5 0 1 4 0 1 1 4 4 9 1 7 0 3 ? 0 . 0 0 6 1 4 3 C . C 3 0 2 5 0 4 5 9 3 7 7 1 7 3 0 9 0 . 0 0 7 7 9 4 O . 0 3 9 ? ? 6 5 0 7 5 6 6 2 7 6 5 0 0 . 0 1 0 1 1 0 C . C 4 9 3 0 5 5 5 5 1 0 2 7 7 3 5 1 C . 0 1 4 4 0 6 C . C 6 5 5 ? 8 6 0 3 4 6 7 8 6 0 4 4 C . 0 1 7 4 2 8 0 . 0 8 3 5 0 1 6 5 1 8 0 2 7 4 9 1 5 0 . 0 2 7 2 6 6 0 . 1 2 7 6 3 0 7 0 7 7 5 6 4 2 1 I 0 . 0 5 4 ? 9 6 0 . 2 3 9 0 3 2 7 5 3 9 5 2 2 8 8 5 C . C 7 3 C C 6 0.3C86e8 8 0 1 1 2 4 1 2 3 6 0 . 1 0 9 9 6 1 0 . 4 3 1 2 5 3 8 5 3 3 4 7 4 5 0 . 2 2 2 9 5 1 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T O T 2 0 7 5 1 6 1 1 4 6 5 6 C C . 0 0 7 0 6 3 1 9 1 1 - 2 1 F EPA L E S A G E p p n o M l X I c m 0 3 5 5 5 ? a 3 0 . 0 0 7 8 7 7 0 . 0 3 8 6 2 5 5 5 6 3 2 2 0 2 0 . 0 0 3 5 9 2 0 . C 1 7 8 0 1 1 0 1 0 3 3 4 1 4 3 0 . 0 0 1 3 8 8 0 . 0 0 6 9 1 7 1 5 1 0 1 1 9 1 9 5 0 . 0 0 1 9 7 0 0 . 0 0 9 8 0 2 2 0 1 5 3 5 9 4 7 5 0 . 0 0 3 1 1 7 C . C l 5 4 6 5 2 5 2 1 5 5 4 9 8 3 0 . 0 0 4 5 5 1 0 . 0 2 ? 5 C l 3 0 2 5 4 1 2 1 3 5 6 C . 0 0 5 3 3 4 0 . 0 2 6 3 1 9 3 5 2 8 7 4 9 1 6 6 3 0 . 0 0 5 7 8 6 O . C ? e 5 1 7 4 0 2 8 7 5 6 1 7 4 9 0 . 0 O 6 0 B 4 0 . 0 2 9 9 6 ? 4 5 2 R 6 3 2 2 2 4 0 0 . 0 0 7 8 2 3 0 . C 3 8 3 6 6 5 0 2 6 9 4 1 3 0 ? 6 0 . 0 1 1 2 3 1 0 . 0 5 4 6 2 3 5 5 2 7 4 C 8 3 9 7 7 C . 0 1 4 5 1 1 C . C 7 0 0 1 4 6 0 2 6 8 4 0 , 5 9 6 5 0 . 0 ? 2 2 ? 3 C . 1 0 5 2 6 7 6 5 2 4 8 2 3 8 ^ 6 5 0 . 0 3 5 3 1 1 0 . 1 6 2 2 3 6 7 0 2 1 3 C 4 1 1 5 6 ? 0 . 0 5 4 2 7 2 C . 2 3 8 9 4 0 7 5 1 4 6 0 5 1 4 0 9 8 0 . 0 9 6 5 2 5 C . 3 8 9 9 C ? a c 7 9 5 3 1 2 2 ? 5 C . 1 5 3 7 1 C 0 . 5 5 5 2 0 1 . 8 5 4 2 0 2 1 0 4 3 3 C . 2 4 B 3 1 8 1 . C C C C C O T T T 3 3 2 2 5 7 7 9 3 4 9 0 . 0 2 3 8 8 ? A U S T P / H I A L ( > ) D I X ) L L t X ) T ( X I E I X ) A G E 1 C C C C O 9 2 6 7 4 7 6 3 3 3 6 1 9 5 4 1 3 6 1 . 9 5 4 1 3 C 9 0 1 3 3 8 8 8 4 5 1 4 4 7 5 7 1 8 5 8 0 6 3 . 0 2 6 2 3 5 9 9 8 4 6 6 3 C 4 4 7 6 5 2 5 2 6 7 1 3 3 5 8 . 6 2 4 2 7 1 0 8 9 2 1 5 5 5 6 4 4 3 6 8 6 4 8 1 9 4 8 1 5 4 . 0 2 0 8 9 1 5 E E 2 5 9 1 5 3 C 4 3 7 4 7 I 4 3 7 5 7 9 5 4 9 . 5 7 8 9 2 2 0 6 6 7 2 9 1 9 0 5 4 2 8 8 8 4 3 9 3 8 3 2 4 4 5 . 4 0 9 4 3 2 5 8 4 8 2 4 1 9 5 4 4 1 9 2 3 7 3 5 0 9 4 4 0 4 1 . 3 7 3 0 0 3 0 8 2 8 7 0 2 2 7 9 4 0 3 6 5 4 3 0 9 0 2 0 3 3 7 . 2 8 9 5 9 3 5 8 C 5 9 I 2 4 3 8 3 9 6 8 6 2 2 6 8 1 5 4 9 3 3 . 2 7 3 4 0 4 0 7 8 1 5 3 2 9 B 8 3 8 3 2 9 8 2 2 8 4 6 6 7 2 9 . 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 7 5 1 6 6 3 7 0 6 3 6 6 5 6 5 1 9 0 1 3 8 8 2 5 . 2 9 5 8 7 5 0 7 1 4 6 0 4 5 6 8 3 4 4 8 7 8 1 5 3 4 8 2 4 2 1 . 4 7 8 1 2 5 5 6 6 4 5 1 5 5 5 2 3ie57 7 1 1 8 9 9 4 5 1 7 . 8 9 6 2 2 6 0 6 C 9 3 9 7 7 7 8 2 8 5 2 5 3 8 7 1 3 6 8 1 4 . 2 9 8 9 5 6 5 53 1 ( 2 1 2 7 C 7 2 3 4 0 4 0 5 8 6 1 1 6 1 1 . C 2 5 1 6 7 0 4 0 4 5 4 1 2 4 8 8 1 7 1 0 5 2 3 5 2 0 7 6 8 . 7 0 3 0 5 7 5 2 7 5 6 7 1 2 0 6 1 1 C 9 6 8 I 1 8 1 0 2 4 6 . 4 7 2 8 6 8 0 1 5 9 C 6 1 5 9 0 6 7 1 3 4 3 7 1 3 4 3 4 . 4 8 5 2 9 8 5 F O R E I G N 9 C R N L ( X ) D I X ) L L ( X ) T I X ) E I X ) A G E I C O O O O 3 8 6 3 4 5 C 3 4 4 6 3 7 5 7 8 9 6 3 . 7 9 7 8 9 0 9 6 1 3 7 1 7 1 1 4 7 6 4 0 9 5 8 8 9 4 4 5 6 1 . 2 6 0 6 6 5 9 4 4 2 6 6 5 3 4 7 C 4 9 9 5 4 1 3 0 3 6 5 7 . 3 2 5 6 0 1 0 9 3 7 7 3 9 1 9 4 6 6 5 6 7 4 9 4 2 5 3 8 5 2 . 7 C 7 4 7 1 5 5 2 6 5 4 1 4 3 6 4 6 0 6 7 9 4 4 7 5 9 7 1 4 8 . 2 0 4 5 0 2 0 9 1 ' 1 8 2 C 5 7 4 5 1 9 4 7 4 0 1 5 2 5 2 4 3 . 9 2 2 4 0 2 5 8 9 3 6 1 ? 3 5 ? 4 4 0 9 2 5 3 5 6 3 3 4 5 3 9 . 8 7 5 8 8 3 0 6 7 C C 9 ? 4 9 1 4 2 9 8 4 2 3 1 2 2 4 2 0 3 5 . 8 8 6 1 8 3 5 8 4 5 2 9 2 5 3 3 4 16 3 0 7 2 6 9 3 5 7 8 3 1 . 8 6 6 2 0 4 0 8 l ° 9 5 3 1 4 6 4 0 2 1 1 I 2 2 7 7 2 7 1 2 7 . 7 7 3 2 5 4 5 7 8 6 4 9 4 3 0 7 3 8 3 4 7 9 1 8 7 5 1 6 0 7 3 . 7 8 1 5 9 5 0 7 4 5 4 2 5 2 1 9 3 5 9 6 6 4 1 4 9 1 6 8 1 2 0 . 0 1 1 2 1 5 5 6 5 3 2 3 7 ? 9 7 3 2 9 3 7 3 1 1 3 2 0 1 7 1 6 . 3 2 9 5 4 6 0 6 . 7 C 2 6 . 1 0 0 6 3 7 8 4 9 7 2 8 0 3 6 4 5 1 2 . 5 5 6 6 1 6 5 5 1 5 6 3 1 ? 4 1 6 2 2 8 7 7 5 5 1 8 6 7 2 9 . 9 8 1 5 6 7 0 3 9 5 4 7 1 5 3 7 6 1 5 9 ? 9 5 2 8 9 R 9 7 7 . 3 3 0 4 5 7 5 2 4 1 7 1 1 3 4 7 0 8 1 3 0 6 1 3 C 6 Q 2 5 . 4 0 3 2 5 8 0 I C 7 5 1 1 C 7 5 1 4 3 2 9 6 4 3 7 1 6 4 . 0 2 7 1 0 8 5 1 9 1 1 - 2 1 F E M A L E S A G F P P D O M I X • C ( X 1 0 4 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 1 5 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 2 6 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 5 1 8 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 0 4 C 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 5 6 6 3 0 . 0 0 4 5 6 5 0 . 0 2 2 5 6 9 3 C 9 0 3 0 . 0 0 3 7 6 1 0 . C 1 8 6 2 9 3 5 1 2 0 9 0 . 0 0 7 5 5 8 0 . C 3 7 C R 9 4 0 1 3 0 6 0 . 0 0 4 6 7 8 0 . 0 2 2 1 2 1 4 5 1 5 5 1 2 C . 0 0 7 8 3 9 0 . 0 3 8 4 4 1 5 0 1 6 4 2 1 C . 0 1 2 9 3 7 0 . C 6 2 6 5 9 5 5 1 6 9 2 3 0 . 0 1 3 7 6 8 0 . 0 6 6 5 4 8 6 0 1 6 3 2 3 C . C 1 4 2 6 5 C . C 6 8 8 6 8 6 5 1 3 3 3 9 0 . 0 2 8 8 8 1 C . 1 3 4 6 8 0 7 C = 7 3 9 0 . 0 4 0 5 1 3 0 . 1 8 3 9 2 6 7 5 5 6 3 8 0 . 0 6 6 9 5 7 0 . 2 8 6 7 6 3 8 0 2 1 3 9 0 . 1 8 0 0 7 5 C . 6 2 C E 6 8 8 5 1 3 2 4 C . 1 9 0 6 6 7 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 T O T 1 4 7 2 2 8 0 0 . 0 1 8 9 8 9 1 9 1 1 - 2 1 F E M A L E S A G E P P 0 0 M ( X ) Q ( X ) C 2 0 6 9 i e 5 C . C C 8 9 4 7 0 . 0 4 3 7 5 5 5 2 9 4 7 1 2 6 0 . 0 0 4 2 8 1 0 . 0 2 1 1 8 0 1 0 6 1 8 0 8 9 0 , 0 0 t 4 4 5 0 . C 0 7 1 9 9 1 5 5 9 9 1 1 1 6 0 . C C 1 9 4 0 0 . 0 0 9 6 5 1 2 0 9 1 7 8 2 5 9 0 . 0 0 2 8 2 6 O . C 1 4 0 3 2 2 5 1 2 4 0 2 5 3 3 0 . 0 0 4 2 9 8 0 . 0 2 1 2 6 1 3 0 1 4 5 4 5 7 4 6 0 . 0 0 5 1 2 9 0 . C 2 5 3 2 3 3 5 1 6 2 3 0 9 1 I 0 . 0 0 5 6 1 2 0 . C 2 7 6 7 3 4 0 1 5 7 C C 8 7 7 0 . 0 0 5 5 8 7 0 . 0 2 7 5 4 9 4 5 1 4 8 9 9 1 0 6 5 0 . 0 0 7 1 5 0 0 . C 3 5 1 2 0 5 0 1 3 7 6 6 1 3 4 7 0 . 0 0 9 7 4 5 0 . 0 4 7 5 6 6 5 5 1 4 2 2 0 1 9 6 1 C . 0 1 3 7 9 1 0 . 0 6 6 6 5 7 6 0 1 3 6 0 2 7 9 4 3 0 . 0 2 1 6 3 5 G . I C 2 6 2 3 6 5 1 2 3 5 9 4 7 0 8 0 . 0 3 4 0 4 9 0 . 1 5 6 8 9 1 7 0 1 0 2 9 9 5 0 0 8 0 . 0 4 8 6 7 2 0 . 2 1 6 = 6 0 7 5 6 9 7 6 6 0 6 0 0 . 0 8 7 4 9 3 0 . 3 5 8 9 5 1 8 0 3 9 1 ? . 5 3 2 7 C . 1 3 5 = 8 5 0 . 5 C 7 4 7 0 8 5 2 1 0 1 5 0 4 6 C . 2 4 0 1 6 7 1 . C C C O C J -T T 1 7 7 3 7 1 3 6 8 0 3 C . 0 7 0 7 5 5 D E N M A R K L I X I D I X I 1 C C C C 0 0 1 0 0 C O O 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 l O O C C O 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 C C C C 0 2 2 5 7 = 7 74 3 1 8 2 1 9 5 9 2 2 3 5 5 8 9 7 3 6 5 2 1 3 6 9 0 2 2 9 3 4 6 8 8 6 7 6 0 5 4 3 6 8 1 3 ^ 4 5 4 1 2 7 5 9 1 2 5 2 2 8 7 C 6 8 4 9 5 2 0 6 1 1 6 4 1 1 2 5 0 4 9 9 1 4 1 4 3 1 4 3 5 6 0 1 2 ? 1 C 3 1 3 4 9 7 1 3 4 9 7 E N G L A N C . W A L E S L < X ) 0 ( X I l O O C C O 4 2 7 6 9 5 6 2 4 2 0 2 5 9 3 5 = 9 6 7 4 9 2 9 2 5 8 9 7 9 2 0 2 9 1 2 9 1 9 0 7 3 7 1 9 2 9 8 8 8 0 8 2 2 4 9 6 6 5 5 9 2 3 9 5 8 4 1 6 4 2 3 1 9 8 1 6 4 5 2 8 7 4 7 8 = 7 1 3 7 5 6 7 5 2 1 4 5 0 1 4 7 C 2 C I 7 2 0 4 6 2 9 9 7 9 8 8 4 5 3 1 1 3 1 1 5 2 3 4 1 5 = 0 1 4 9 7 9 7 6 6 6 I 1 3 5 2 8 1 3 1 3 3 1 3 1 3 3 L L ( X I T ( X I E ( X » A G E 5 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 4 2 6 2 7 7 0 . 4 2 6 2 7 0 5 C 0 0 0 0 6 5 4 2 6 2 7 6 5 . 4 2 6 2 7 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 4 2 6 2 7 6 0 . 4 2 6 2 7 1 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 4 2 6 2 7 5 5 . 4 2 6 2 7 1 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 4 2 6 2 7 5 0 . 4 2 6 2 7 2 0 4 9 4 3 5 8 4 5 4 2 6 2 7 4 5 . 4 2 6 2 7 2 5 4 8 4 1 6 3 4 0 4 8 2 6 9 4 1 . 4 1 7 4 6 3 0 4 7 0 7 1 7 3 5 6 4 1 0 6 3 7 . 1 5 6 2 2 3 5 4 5 6 4 8 4 3 0 9 3 3 8 9 3 3 . 4 9 1 1 0 4 0 4 4 2 4 7 3 2 6 3 6 9 C 6 2 9 . 2 2 4 6 2 4 5 4 2 0 2 1 I 2 1 9 4 4 3 2 2 5 . 2 9 3 0 1 5 0 3 9 3 0 9 1 1 7 7 4 2 2 1 2 1 . 8 1 6 6 7 5 5 3 6 6 4 9 I 1 3 8 1 1 3 1 1 8 . 1 9 3 8 1 6 0 3 2 9 6 2 7 1 0 1 4 6 4 0 1 4 . 3 5 4 5 5 6 5 2 7 7 6 9 6 6 e 5 0 1 8 1 1 . 1 9 9 6 1 7 0 2 1 3 7 8 7 4 0 7 3 2 2 8 . 1 6 0 4 5 7 5 1 2 7 7 4 5 1 9 3 5 3 5 5 . 4 3 6 2 9 8 0 7 C 7 9 C 7 C 7 9 0 5 . 2 4 4 7 6 8 5 L L ( X I T ( X I E ( X » A G E 4 8 9 0 6 1 6 4 1 2 6 9 8 6 4 . 1 2 6 9 8 C 4 7 3 0 5