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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A behavioural study of human responses to the arctic and antarctic environments Mocellin, Jane Schneider Pereyron 1988

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A BEHAVIOURAL STUDY OF HUMAN RESPONSES TO THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC ENVIRONMENTS By JANE SCHNEIDER PEREYRON MOCELLIN B.A., Pontific Catholic University, Brazil, 1972 M.A. , University of Toronto, 1984 A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN PARTIAL F U L F I L L M E N T OF T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR T H E D E G R E E O F D O C T O R OF PHILOSOPHY in T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Interdisciplinary Studies, Departments of Geography and Psychology) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A January 1988 (e) Jane Schneider Pereyron Mocellin, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of , w T ^ - i / S g . / " ^ / , ^ r y a y ST The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date ^ > - ? ZH 2 ? DE-6(3/81) ABSTRACT T h i s i s a s t u d y of human r e s p o n s e t o the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s . I t i s based on two s o u r c e s of d a t a : t h e c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s of o r i g i n a l d i a r i e s of p o l a r e x p l o r e r s , and t h e b e h a v i o u r a l e v a l u a t i o n of c o n t e m p o r a r y crews i n p o l a r l o c a t i o n s . In t h e l a t t e r , f o u r p o l a r s t a t i o n s were c h o s e n , two i n each p o l a r r e g i o n w i t h a t o t a l of f i f t y - f i v e e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s . Twenty-seven o t h e r s u b j e c t s a c t e d as c o n t r o l s f o r b o t h p o l a r r e g i o n s : a n o r t h e r n c o n t r o l group l o c a t e d a t a s e m i - i s o l a t e d s i t e i n Canada, and the s o u t h e r n group l o c a t e d i n an A r g e n t i n i a n c i t y . Methods a p p l i e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h i n c l u d e d t h e d e s i g n and c o d i n g of c a t e g o r i e s which were c o n t e n t a n a l y z e d from t h e o r i g i n a l d i a r i e s of e x p l o r e r s , and o n - s i t e p r o c e d u r e s . O n - s i t e p r o c e d u r e s i n c l u d e d p s y c h o m e t r i c m a t e r i a l , p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n r e p o r t s and u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s . F i f t e e n b e h a v i o u r a l measures w i t h i n t h e domain o f p e r s o n a l i t y , p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , a f f e c t i o n , s o c i a l s t r e s s and community b e h a v i o u r were a d m i n i s t e r e d . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e human r e s p o n s e would be s i m i l a r i n b o t h p o l a r r e g i o n s because of e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s , and t h a t t h e p o l a r s e t t i n g would a f f e c t men and women i n a n e g a t i v e way. i i R e s u l t s showed t h a t : ( i ) the p o l a r environment i s not p e r c e i v e d as s t r e s s f u l by the crews - a low a n x i e t y s t a t e a c r o s s both p o l a r r e g i o n s was found, ( i i ) t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e s of the e x p l o r e r s had l e d to the p e r c e p t i o n of the environment i n a n e g a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e - y e t the w i n t e r seemed t o be a r e l a x i n g phase f o r the crews r a t h e r than s t r e s s f u l , ( i i i ) p e r s o n n e l s t a t i o n e d a t p o l a r s i t e s may possess s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which d i s t i n g u i s h them from the m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n , ( i v ) a l t h o u g h c r o s s -c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t , t hey are not as s t r o n g as might be a n t i c i p a t e d - the environment e x e r t s a u n i f y i n g i n f l u e n c e , (v) d i f f e r e n c e s i n gender-response are d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s due t o the s m a l l number of women s u b j e c t s , but some d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h c o n t r o l s were noted. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i L i s t of T a b l e s vi L i s t of F i g u r e s v i Acknowledgements :.x CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. G e n e r a l I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1.1.1 Scope and O b j e c t i v e s of the S t u d y 4 1.2 The P o l a r E n v i r o n m e n t 6 CHAPTER 2. THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2.1 Review of E x i s t i n g Data and T h e o r i e s 37 2.2 E m p i r i c a l Data on N a t u r a l and L a b o r a t o r y E n v i r o n m e n t s 39 CHAPTER 3. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 3.1 C o n t e n t A n a l y s i s on O r i g i n a l D i a r i e s 47 3.2 Review on R e s e a r c h Measures .... 48 3.3 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 62 CHAPTER 4. METHOD 4.1 C o n t e n t A n a l y s i s 64 4.1.1 C a t e g o r i e s and B e h a v i o u r a l D i m e n s i o n s . . . 67 4.2 The P o l a r E x p e r i m e n t a l Groups 72 4.2.1 The A r c t i c Group 77 4.2.2 The A n t a r c t i c Group 82 4.2.3 B e h a v i o u r a l C a t e g o r i e s 88 iv CHAPTER 5. RESULTS 5.1 H i s t o r i c a l Groups 9 5 5.1.1 Summary H I 5.2 Experimental Groups 112 5.2.1. P e r s o n a l i t y and Perceptual Reactions..112 5.2.1.1 P e r s o n a l i t y 113 5.2.1.2 Environmental Perception 120 5.2.2 A f f e c t i v e Reactions 132 5.2.3 Community Behavior and S o c i a l Stress..138 5.3 Summary 160 CHAPTER 6. DISCUSSION 6.1 Comparisons Between H i s t o r i c a l and Contemporary Groups 162 6.1.1 I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s among H i s t o r i c a l D i a r i e s 167 6.2 Comparisons Between the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c Groups 178 6.3 Suggestions for Future Research 198 REFERENCES 203 APPENDIX 218 v LIST OF TABLES TABLE 4.1 A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c E x p l o r e r s , E x p e d i t i o n s and Number of Years of t h e s e E x p e d i t i o n s 68 TABLE 5.1 The P o l a r E x p l o r e r s , t h e i r Numbers of E v e n t s R e p o r t e d and P e r c e n t a g e s of E v e n t s 96 TABLE 5.2 R e f e r e n c e s t o N a t u r a l B e a u t y 97 TABLE 5.3 P l e a s a n t n e s s and A r o u s a l V a l u e s by C a t e g o r i e s 99 TABLE 5.4 P l e a s a n t n e s s and A r o u s a l (%) V a l u e s 100 TABLE 5.5 S i g n i f i c a n t F r e q u e n c i e s on E x t r a v e r s i o n and I n t r o v e r s i o n D i mensions based on M y e r s - B r i g g s Type I n d i c a t o r f o r the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c E x p e r i m e n t a l Groups 116 TABLE 5.6 R u s s e l l Mood S c a l e f o r P e r s o n and E n v i r o n m e n t : Means on P l e a s u r e , A r o u s a l and Dominance f o r the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups 122 TABLE 5.7 E n v i r o n m e n t a l Response I n v e n t o r y : Means on P r i v a c y , S t i m u l u s S e e k i n g and P a s t o r a l i s m f o r t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups 124 TABLE 5.8 S e n s a t i o n - S e e k i n g S c o r e s : C o m p a r i s o n of P o l a r E x p e r i m e n t a l Groups w i t h C o n t r o l s and A m e r i c a n Norms 129 TABLE 5.9 Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s on L i f e S t r e s s E v e n t s f o r the E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups i n the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c 133 TABLE 5.10 B i o g r a p h i c a l Data: V a r i a b l e s L i s t e d f o r t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups 135 v i TABLE 5.11 Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n on S a t i s f a c t i o n and S o c i a b i l i t y L e v e l s of t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c E x p e r i m e n t a l Groups 140 TABLE 5.12 Hopkins Symptoms C h e c k l i s t : Mean S c o r e s and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s 155 v i i L I S T OF FIGURES FIGURE 1. Map of the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c and C o n t i n e n t a l A r e a s 7 FIGURE 1.1 The A r c t i c R e g i o n and L o c a t i o n of the S i t e s 12 FIGURE 1.2 Mean A i r Temperature f o J a n u a r y and J u l y 14 FIGURE 1.3 Mean Wind Speed i n the A r c t i c R e s e a r c h S i t e s . . . . 1 5 FIGURE 1.4 The L i g h t and Dark C y c l e s i n t h e A r c t i c R e s e a r c h S i t e s 18 FIGURE 1.5 D u r a t i o n of D a y l i g h t i n t h e N o r t h e r n and S o u t h e r n Hemispheres 20 FIGURE 1.6 The A n t a r c t i c R e g i o n and L o c a t i o n of t h e R e s e a r c h S i t e s 24 FIGURE 1.7 I s o t h e r m s of J a n u a r y and J u l y 26 FIGURE 1.8 Mean Wind Speed i n the A n t a r c t i c 28 FIGURE 1.9 Diagram of K a t a b a t i c Winds i n t h e A n t a r c t i c 29 FIGURE 1.10 The L i g h t C y c l e i n t h e A n t a r c t i c R e s e a r c h S i t e s 32 FIGURE 1.11 Human O c c u p a t i o n and E x p l o r a t i o n i n t h e A n t a r c t i c 33 FIGURE 5.1 S l e e p P a t t e r n s i n the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c ( D i a r i e s ) 103 FIGURE 5.2 A n x i e t y and R e l a x a t i o n i n t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c ( D i a r i e s ) 106 v i i i FIGURE 5.3 FIGURE 5.4 FIGURE 5.5 FIGURE 5.6 FIGURE 5.7 FIGURE 5.8 S c o t t ' s D i a r y : Insomnia and A n x i e t y 226 J a a c k s o n ' s D i a r y i n the A n t a r c t i c : Insomnia and A n x i e t y 228 S T A I - S t a t e and T r a i t of A n x i e t y f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups i n the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c (Means ) 114 S e n s a t i o n - S e e k i n g L e v e l s on P o l a r E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups 128 D i u r n a l V a r i a t i o n on D i s i n h i b i t i o n of t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c E x p e r i m e n t a l Groups 131 B e h a v i o u r a l S e t t i n g s i n Mould Bay, E u r e k a ( A r c t i c ) and E s p e r a n z a ( A n t a r c t i c ) A c c o r d i n g t o Occupancy Time 148 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e f o r g u i d a n c e and f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o my s u p e r v i s o r s , Dr. P e t e r S u e d f e l d and Dr.John K. S t a g e r from th e Departments of P s y c h o l o g y and Geography r e s p e c t i v e l y . To t h e members of my r e s e a r c h committee, Dr. O l a v Slaymaker and Dr. Lawrence Ward, my t h a n k s f o r t h e i r a d v i c e and comments. I would l i k e t o thank Dr. T. Oke, from t h e Geography Department, f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n making the p r e l i m i n a r y c o n t a c t s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o the s u c c e s s of t h e n o r t h e r n r e s e a r c h . To AES, A t m o s p h e r i c E n v i r o n m e n t S e r v i c e , C e n t r a l R e g i o n , E n v i r o n m e n t Canada and t o the A n t a r c t i c I n s t i t u t e of A r g e n t i n a , my s i n c e r e acknowledgements f o r t h e e x t e n s i v e l o g i s t i c a l s u p p o r t i n b o t h the A r c t i c and t h e A n t a r c t i c . I e x t e n d my t h a n k s t o CNPQ, C o n s e l h o N a c i o n a l de D e s e n v o l v i m e n t o C i e n t i f i c o e T e c n o l o g i c o / N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Development of S c i e n t i f i c R e s e a r c h , and U n i v e r s i d a d e F e d e r a l do R i o Grande do S u l / F e d e r a l U n i v e r s i t y of R i o Grande do S u l , B r a z i l , f o r t h e g r a n t s t o u n d e r t a k e t h i s r e s e a r c h . I a p p r e c i a t e t h e h e l p of my p a r e n t s , F e r n a n d o and M a f a l d a M o c e l l i n , who gave the f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t t o p u r s u e t h e r e s e a r c h ; t o my c o u s i n s , Dr. J o s e L a c e r d a and h i s w i f e , Y o l a n d a , f o r t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l g u i d a n c e t h r o u g h many hours of c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s of my p o l a r t r i p s . I would e s p e c i a l l y l i k e t o thank my c h i l d r e n F e r n a n d a and F r e d e r i c o , t o whom I am d e d i c a t i n g t h i s s t u d y , f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g d u r i n g our l o n g s e p a r a t i o n s w h i l e I was d o i n g f i e l d work. To a l l my f r i e n d s , p a r t i c u l a r l y from the D epartments o f Geography and P s y c h o l o g y , my s i n c e r e t h a n k s . x CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 General I n t r o d u c t i o n The h i s t o r y of polar psychology i s s t i l l i n a young phase (1959-1987), as compared with the h i s t o r y of A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c e x p l o r a t i o n s (1777-1987). Observations on human behaviour have g r a d u a l l y been replaced by v e i l c o n t r o l l e d s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y t i c a l i n f e r e n c e s . As a l s o argued by Gunderson (1973), p r i o r to 1957, the date of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Geophysical Year, almost no research was completed on human responses to polar environments. Various human behavioural dimensions are portrayed by polar e x p l o r e r s and are recorded i n e i t h e r t h e i r o r i g i n a l d i a r i e s or other forms of contemporary data c o l l e c t i o n . C onditions of p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n , confinement and l i m i t e d f a c i l i t i e s , and c l i m a t i c s e v e r i t y (environmental s t r e s s o r s ) of A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c environments are of t e n part of the emotional universe f o r both the e a r l y e x p l o r e r s and contemporary members of polar e x p e d i t i o n s . The c i t a t i o n s e x t r a c t e d from the accounts of some polar e x p l o r e r s a t t e s t to both the e f f e c t s of p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n , as v e i l as to environmental s t r e s s o r s . S i m i l a r i t i e s appear i n these statements, v i t h strong contextual emphasis on the e f f e c t s of the environment on the members of pioneer polar e x p e d i t i o n s . 1 Reading the d i a r i e s and e x p l o r a t i o n accounts suggests that human behaviour has remained unchanged over an h i s t o r i c a l period of time (1820-1914). Even today, the e f f e c t s of i s o l a t i o n experienced by polar p a r t i e s are s t i l l c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the same general types of human response to the environment that were formed i n the past. Because of the p a r t i c u l a r environmental and human c o n d i t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with i s o l a t i o n , polar areas are considered by most sc h o l a r s (Gunderson, 1973; Connors, 1985; Tay l o r e t a l , 1986) as extreme, s t r e s s f u l and unusual m i l i e u . Extreme because s u r v i v a l i s d i f f i c u l t f o r the unprotected i n d i v i d u a l ; s t r e s s f u l because of s p e c i f i c environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which may or may not produce s t r e s s ; and unusual because of the n o v e l t y generated by d i f f i c u l t a c c e s s i b i l i t y . Therefore, the l i n e of thought adopted here attempts to i d e n t i f y the va r y i n g degrees of interdependence between the environment and the human response to i t . To d e f i n e s t r e s s i n the context of t h i s study i s a complex task, for s t r e s s i s dependent upon the l i n e of thought adopted by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . S t r e s s can be placed at two ends of a continuum with the n a t u r a l environment as a source of s t r e s s at one end, and the s t r e s s of the s o c i a l environment at the other end, with no c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n s along the way. Polar environments may have enduring c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that can i n f l u e n c e whether or not s t r e s s i s produced. 2 S t r e s s may be c a u s e d by the i n a b i l i t y of p e o p l e t o cope w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l demands (Evans & Cohen, 1987), or i t may be g e n e r a t e d w i t h i n group r e l a t i o n s of i s o l a t e d p o l a r m i c r o s o c i e t i e s . I t i s t h e s o c i a l v e r s u s p h y s i c a l s t r e s s o r s t h a t a r e i s s u e s t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of each s i t u a t i o n . O b s e r v a t i o n s about s t r e s s i n g e n e r a l and about e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t r e s s and i t s e f f e c t s on human b e h a v i o u r i n p o l a r a r e a s i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e a d d r e s s e d from b o t h a p s y c h o l o g i c a l and g e o g r a p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Geographers w i t h p o l a r e x p e r i e n c e t r a d i t i o n a l l y have emphasized the e f f e c t s of c o l d , wind and o t h e r n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s l i k e t h e p h o t o c y c l e , i c e c o n d i t i o n s and h a z a r d s , r a d i a t i o n , i o n i z a t i o n and m a g n e t i c f l u c t u a t i o n s ( T a y l o r , 1951; A r c t o w i s k i , 1941). P o l a r p s y c h o l o g i s t s have f o c u s e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on t h e e f f e c t s of i n t r a g r o u p r e l a t i o n s h i p s , (McPherson, 1982) e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o g n i t i o n e.g. a t t e n t i o n and memory, h y p n o t i z a b i 1 i t y , ( B a r a b a s z , 1985) and e m o t i o n a l and a f f e c t i v e v a r i a t i o n s i n group b e h a v i o u r ( P a l m a i , 1963; T a y l o r & McCormick, 1986; McCormick e t a l , 1985). In b o t h c a s e s , s t r e s s as a p e r s o n a l c o n c e p t i s a r e a l element i n s t a t i o n l i f e i n p o l a r a r e a s . I n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s seem t o d i c t a t e the d i f f e r e n t c a p a c i t y t o r e s p o n d t o s t r e s s . C o n d i t i o n s of, s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n or a c o m b i n a t i o n of b o t h may d e t e r m i n e the group or i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h d i f f i c u l t c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 3 Frequently, i s o l a t i o n has been examined from two p o i n t s of view: geographical, with i t s concept of remoteness, which by d e f i n i t i o n i s being f a r from any human contact; and s o c i a l , which i s represented p r i m a r i l y by the extent to which c e r t a i n groups or members of groups are r e s t r i c t e d from communicating with each other e i t h e r by p h y s i c a l l y or s o c i a l l y p r e s c r i b e d l i m i t s (Nelson, 1973). Scope and Obje c t i v e s of the Study This study i s based on s e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of how p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n and r e l a t e d s t r e s s o r s a f f e c t the p s y c h o l o g i c a l behaviour of small groups of people i n the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c . There are two major segments. The f i r s t i s a h i s t o r i c a l segment which analyses the emotional and s o c i a l content of t h i r t e e n d i a r i e s of polar e x p l o r e r s (1875-1916); the second i s a contemporary segment which i n v e s t i g a t e s the c o g n i t i v e , p e r c e p t u a l , a f f e c t i v e and s o c i a l s t r e s s dimensions of human behaviour i n small polar groups. The h i s t o r i c a l component of the research focuses upon s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n emotional responses by ex p l o r e r s on both A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c e x p e d i t i o n s . The purpose of t h i s a n a l y s i s i s to provide a b e t t e r i n s i g h t i n t o the changeable or s t a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of human behaviour i n polar regions for the contemporary segment of t h i s study. 4 The contemporary research was conducted using four groups of s u b j e c t s , two loca t e d i n the A r c t i c , and two i n the A n t a r c t i c . The A r c t i c research s i t e s were i n the Canadian A r c t i c Archipelago at the Atmospheric Environment S e r v i c e Weather St a t i o n s of Mould Bay and Eureka. Resolute Bay, a s e m i - i s o l a t e d community i n the High A r c t i c , was studied as a c o n t r o l group. The A n t a r c t i c s i t e s were at the A r g e n t i n i a n Bases of Marambio, and Esperanza l o c a t e d at the northern t i p of the A n t a r c t i c P e n insula. Buenos A i r e s was the s i t e f o r the southern c o n t r o l group. Both north and south experimental groups were s t u d i e d during the polar winter of 1986/7. The main object of t h i s study i s to examine whether s i m i l a r environmental c o n d i t i o n s induce s i m i l a r responses i n widely separated groups. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n attempts to i d e n t i f y the coping processes and adaptation mechanisms used by i n d i v i d u a l s in the group and to determine the patterns of behaviour i n these environments with the understanding of small group l i f e dynamics. 5 1.2 The Polar Environment Background Perhaps one of the f i r s t documented comparisons between the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c regions came from Ancient Greece (Hapgood, 1966). Greek philosophers proposed the symmetric theory, e x p l a i n i n g that the inhabited lands of the North where the s k i e s were dominated by the c o n s t e l l a t i o n Arktos, Ursa Major or Minor, must be r e l a t e d to an unknown land i n the South. This b i - l a t e r a l symmetric theory thus led the Greeks to b e l i e v e i n the existence of Antichton or A n t a r t i k o s . As w e l l , Raratongan t a l e s mention the e x i s t e n c e i n 650 A.D of a southern continent when Ui-Te-Rangiora, a Polynesian s a i l o r , reported s i g n s of i c e and icebergs (Roberts, 1949). Terra A u s t r a l i s Nondan Cognita or A n t a r c t i c a were names derived from the geographical schools of the 17th Century. From these ancient astronomical observations, a s p e c u l a t i v e theory about the l o c a t i o n of a southern i c e continent was born as part of polar s c i e n t i f i c h i s t o r y ( F i g . 1). 6 FIGURE 1 MAPS OF THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC AND CONTINENTAL AREAS ource: UBC, Department of Geography Data Base The Problem of D e f i n i t i o n s There are many terms and d e f i n i t i o n s to d e s c r i b e the A r c t i c and the A n t a r c t i c . One of the most used terms i s 'polar' which a p p l i e s to both and encompasses high l a t i t u d e s with long s o l a r c y c l e s of l i g h t and dark, low mean annual temperatures, low p r e c i p i t a t i o n , extensive frozen sea i c e , i c e sheets and g l a c i e r s i n c l u d i n g i c e she l v e s , permafrost, absence of t r e e s , geomagnetic disturbances and a u r o r a l phenomena (Washburn, 1980; B a i r d , 1964). The A r c t i c has a l s o been f u r t h e r d e f i n e d as the region loc a t e d w i t h i n the A r c t i c C i r c l e ; the region north of the 10<>C isotherm f o r J u l y ; the region north of the t r e e - l i n e ; and the region north of the southern boundary of continuous permafrost (Washburn, 1980; Sugden, 1982). The A n t a r c t i c , as an environmental region, has d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a to d e l i m i t i t because the continent i s surrounded by a b e l t of ocean water with major extensions of i c e as s h e l f - and pack-ice and strong temperature g r a d i e n t s . 8 The term A n t a r c t i c can best be defined as the reg i o n w i t h i n the A n t a r c t i c c i r c l e (66° 33'S); with i n the A n t a r c t i c Ocean Convergence (50° to 62°S), a n a t u r a l boundary formed by the meeting of temperate and c o l d waters that produces marked changes i n water temperature and cont a i n t y p i c a l micro and macro fauna; the region comprised of land and water south of 60<>S p a r a l l e l ; the re g i o n s i t u a t e d south of the February isotherm of -4<>C, which d i v i d e s the A n t a r c t i c from the Sub-Antarctic approximately at the l a t i t u d e of 62°S. For the purpose of t h i s research, d e s p i t e the problems of d e f i n i t i o n , the environments loca t e d north of 70°N f o r the A r c t i c , and south of 60°S for the A n t a r c t i c are considered 'polar' ( F i g . l ) . The Polar Environments Compared The A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c d i s p l a y both strong s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n t h e i r n a t u r a l environments. Both regions have low mean annual temperatures, oceans with s e a s o n a l l y v a r y i n g amounts of se a - i c e cover, the presence of ic e - s h e e t s and g l a c i e r s , a l t e r n a t e long s o l a r c y c l e s , geomagnetic distu r b a n c e s and a u r o r a l phenomena (Washburn, 1980; F l e t c h e r & Radok, 1984; Akasofu, 1979). 9 D i f f e r e n c e s between the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c are evidenced by the physiographic characters of the A r c t i c Basin and the A n t a r c t i c Continent^and the near absence of t e r r e s t r i a l fauna and f l o r a , and the complete absence of an indigenous population, i n A n t a r c t i c a (Sugden, 1982; Washburn, 1980, Washburn & Weller, 1986; B a i r d , 1969; Govorukha & Kr u c h i n i n , 1981). There are two environments to be considered, ( i ) the r e g i o n a l environment and ( i i ) the behavioural environment. The r e g i o n a l environment i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the d i s t r i b u t i o n of land and sea and i t s climate (temperature, wind, storm c o n d i t i o n s , p r e c i p i t a t i o n and l i g h t and dark c y c l e s ) . The behav i o u r a l environment in v o l v e s such d i f f e r e n t elements as human occupation and a c c e s s i b i l i t y . These issues are addressed through a r e g i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the Canadian High A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c Peninsula environments. THE ARCTIC The A r c t i c r e g i o n i s comprised of a basin , the A r c t i c Ocean, surrounded by c o n t i n e n t a l landmasses. One of the most important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the A r c t i c i s the extension of the s e a - i c e . The northern Canadian l i m i t of the landmass and the A r c t i c Ocean i s represented by the A r c t i c I s l a n d s . Average winter maximum area the s e a - i c e i s 11.7 m i l l i o n square kilometers (CIA, 1978). 10 ( i ) Regional D e s c r i p t i o n of the Research S i t e s Land and Sea The A r c t i c research s i t e s are located i n the Canadian Queen E l i z a b e t h I s lands, well above the t r e e - l i n e . The i s l a n d s have high mountains along the eastern s i d e , with some e l e v a t i o n above 1200 metres and supporting extensive areas of permanent i c e -caps. G e n e r a l l y , e l e v a t i o n s are lower towards the west, and the c e n t r a l and western i s l a n d s are r o l l i n g plateaux s u r f a c e s (Stager and McSkimming, 1984). Figure 1.1 shows the l o c a t i o n of the s i t e s . This part of the Canadian A r c t i c supports a high a r c t i c tundra of sparse and s p e c i a l i z e d v e g e t a t i o n , with broad extensions of barren or near barren land s u r f a c e s . Faunal l i f e i s r e s t r i c t e d i n terms of year-round p o p u l a t i o n s , but enriched i n summer with migrations of avian fauna. For most of the year, except a short summer, the seas s e p a r a t i n g the i s l a n d s are frozen, so s e a - i c e can be considered an extension of the land s u r f a c e . Eureka i s lo c a t e d at the mouth^a f j o r d (almost at sea-level) surrounded by the Eureka Upland Mountains. Mould Bay and Resolute Bay, surrounded by h i l l s , are l o c a t e d almost at sea l e v e l . 11 Climate Temperature The b a s i c climate patterns of the Canadian High A r c t i c ( A r c t i c Islands) are r e l a t e d to l o c a t i o n s of open water and land. Therefore, areas under maritime i n f l u e n c e experience r e l a t i v e l y mild temperatures as compared to c o n t i n e n t a l l o c a t i o n s . Figure 1.2 shows the mean annual temperatures f o r January and J u l y . Winds In the A r c t i c , stormy winds are frequent only i n i n l a n d high a l t i t u d e areas. Figure 1.3 shows the mean wind speed i n three A r c t i c l o c a t i o n s . Generally, most of the A r c t i c areas, i n c l u d i n g the A r c t i c I s l ands, show lower mean speed. The ex p l a n a t i o n i s given by an intense thermal high-pressure zone over the surrounding c o n t i n e n t s , which has the e f f e c t of d i v e r t i n g cyclones northward i n t o the A t l a n t i c - B a r e n t s Sea, and accentuating the north-south exchange of a i r (Sugden, 1982). 13 FIGURE 1.2 MEAN AIR TEMPERATURE FOR JANUARY AND JULY FIGURE 1.3 MEAN WIND SPEED IN THE ARCTIC (KM/HOUR) 30-Stormy Conditions Records of monthly means of stormy c o n d i t i o n s caused by wind with a s s o c i a t e d blowing snow for the High A r c t i c show an average wind speed of 60 kilometers per hour (1976 to 1987). Wind gusts of 158 kilometers per hour were recorded i n Resolute Bay (AES, 1987). At the time of data c o l l e c t i o n maximum wind gusts of 33 kilometres per hour were recorded i n Eureka (February). Mould Bay (January) and Resolute Bay (February) recorded maximum gusts of 59 and 74 kilometres per hour r e s p e c t i v e l y (AES, 1987). P r e c i p i t a t i o n P r e c i p i t a t i o n , as snow or r a i n , i n the High A r c t i c has the lowest values (140mm/year) c h a r a c t e r i z i n g a polar d e s e r t environment. Snow cover i s p e r s i s t e n t i n the winter-time (see Appendix). However, the amount of snowfall i s l i g h t because the low temperatures l i m i t the moisture-bearing c a p a c i t y of the a i r (CIA, 1978). L o c a l l y , snow depths are i r r e g u l a r and are r e l a t e d to the shape of the t e r r a i n where the wind sweeps exposed surfaces c l e a r and d e p o s i t s the snow i n protected areas (AES, 1987) . 16 L i g h t and Dark Cycles At the high l a t i t u d e of the A r c t i c I s l ands, the sun has a low e l e v a t i o n which produces long periods of dark and l i g h t . F igures 1.4 and 1.5 show the l i g h t and dark c y c l e at the l a t i t u d e of the research s i t e s and the v a r i a t i o n of d a y l i g h t and darkness i n the areas north of 60°. A l l r e s e a r c h s i t e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d d u r i n g the dark p e r i o d , except that of Resolute Bay, the f i r s t sunset occurred during the p e r i o d of data c o l l e c t i o n . ( i i ) Behavioural Environment Human Occupancy Human migration from S i b e r i a to Alaska expanded across the north coast to the High A r c t i c and Greenland. This p e o p l i n g occurred as much as 8,000 years ago but more l i k e l y 4,000 years ago and c o n s t i t u t e s the o l d e s t recognizable P a l a e o - A r c t i c c u l t u r e (McGhee, 1987). Subsequently, indigenous people r e l o c a t e d from the area north of the Parry Channel and c u r r e n t l y , the High A r c t i c Islands are occupied by a t r a n s i e n t p o p u l a t i o n working at weather s t a t i o n s or on summer s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t i e s . Two modern I n u i t communities were t r a n s f e r r e d to the i s l a n d s , at Resolute Bay and G r i s e F i o r d i n 1953. 17 THE QUALITY OF THIS MICROFICHE IS HEAVILY DEPENDENT UPON THE QUALITY OF THE THESIS SUBMITTED FOR MICROFILMING. LA QUALITE DE CETTE MICROFICHE DEPEND GRANDEMENT DE LA QUALITE DE LA THESE SOUMISE AU MICROFILMAGE. UNFORTUNATELY THE COLOURED MALHEUREUSEMENT, LES DIFFERENTES ILLUSTRATIONS OF THIS THESIS ILLUSTRATIONS EN COULEURS DE CETTE CAN ONLY YIELD DIFFERENT TONES THESE NE PEUVENT DONNER QUE DES OF GREY. TEINTES DE GRIS. FIGURE 1.4 THE LIGHT AND DARK CYCLES IN THE RESEARCH SITES MOULD BAY: NORTHERN VIEW, JANUARY 16, 1987, 12 NOON 18 FIGURE 1.4 THE L IGHT AND DARK CYCLES IN THE RESEARCH SITES 19 Duration of daylight (90°-60°) 9 0 " N O R 6 0' T H 1 0 ° 6 0 ° January February March April I IS 31 IS 28 IS 31 IS May 30 IS '31. Actutl /oca/ conditions m»y vtty Itom vtlvcs sno~n. June July August September October November December IS 30 IS 31 IS 31 IS 30 IS 31 IS 30 15 31 . I 1 s:...l.,;> continuous frj '<-'//1 darkness j^'^y1 v l 1 . i •, i .. i ;. i | it,. i - ^ 1 i . t . . i \ \V • ' continuous 1' \ rf«)y//oW7r:«*^n'';V.;,j{;':'^ / 1 \ N j v ^ ' • | ••' •>•:•••'•-' '.m^MW I \ continuous \, 'f '^fi darkness 1 '• ,>... :''.'. | u\ o\\: 'A ^ C.;\ %* •3-.r.'r •»!.'«• .•;!• 1 i i/ i i i i i \ i \ ~T^~~i i t / i i 1 1 1 1 \ , I I 1 9 0 * •so*-l i c l i c C i l t l r I 15 31 15 28 IS 31 January February March 31 15 31 IS 30 15 31 IS 30 IS 31 August September October November Oocember Source: CIA, Polar Atlas, 1978. LEGEND: EUREKA ( 1 ) , MOULD BAY ( 2 ) , R E S O L U T E BAY (3) MARA!IBIO ( 4 ) , E S F E R A N Z A (5) o 33 -i X rn 33 z > z o X rn §: CO "0 X m 33 rn CO O c 33 m —X. bi o c > o T I D r; O X —i X m A c c e s s i b i l i t y The r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n and distance to neighbouring settlements i s an i n d i c a t o r of the degree of p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n for s t a t i o n s i n the High A r c t i c . The c l o s e s t occupied settlements to Eureka are the m i l i t a r y Bases of U . S Thule (Greenland) and C.F.B. A l e r t (northern t i p of Ellesmere Island) approximately 420 km away. Mould Bay, on the other hand, i s 630 km d i s t a n t from i t s nearest settlement, Resolute Bay. A l l of these settlements are able to provide immediate l o g i s t i c a l and emergency support to one another. Eureka a l s o f u n c t i o n s as a communication l i n k f o r C.F.B. A l e r t (the most northern m i l i t a r y base i n Canada), and i t i s f r e q u e n t l y a base f o r t r i p s to the North Pole, and f o r support to temporary s c i e n t i f i c p a r t i e s , and thus i t has a r e l a t i v e l y lower degree of p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n . These m u l t i p l e f u n c t i o n s generate increased a i r t r a f f i c e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the l i g h t p e r i o d , i n a d d i t i o n to the resupply f l i g h t s scheduled every 3 weeks. Mould Bay has preserved i t s p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n l a r g e l y because of i t s l o c a t i o n away from the crossroads of t r a v e l between other f a r northern s i t e s . Supply f l i g h t s are scheduled a t 3-week i n t e r v a l s and, except f o r emergencies, they are the only p h y s i c a l contacts with the outside world d u r i n g the year. 21 In c o n t r a s t , Resolute Bay has f r e q u e n t l y scheduled a i r l i n e t r a f f i c and c h a r t e r f l i g h t s . Also, ships may c a l l i n summer and there i s an I n u i t community 8 km from the a i r p o r t . There are commercial f l i g h t s at 3-day i n t e r v a l s , and Resolute i s the base that provides a i r l i n k s to the other High A r c t i c settlements f o r s u p p l i e s , personnel changes and medical or emergency evacuations. C l e a r l y , Resolute Bay i s best c l a s s i f i e d as semi-i s o l a t e d rather than an i s o l a t e d settlement. THE ANTARCTIC The A n t a r c t i c i s an i c e continent (approximately 14 m i l l i o n square kilometres) r e s t i n g i n a rock c o n t i n e n t a l b a s i n . I t i s covered by two i c e - s h e e t s a b u t t i n g and c o a l e s c i n g along the T r a n s a n t a r c t i c Mountains: the East A n t a r c t i c i c e - s h e e t has a maximum thi c k n e s s of 4,000 metres; the West A n t a r c t i c i c e sheet i s smaller and p a r t l y marine-based ( A n t a r c t i c P e n i n s u l a ) . Figure 1.6 shows the A n t a r c t i c Peninsula r e g i o n and r e s e a r c h s i t e s . 22 ( i ) R e g i o n a l E n v i r o n m e n t Regional D e s c r i p t i o n of the Research S i t e s Land and Sea The A n t a r c t i c Peninsula, the region where the s i t e s are l o c a t e d , p r o j e c t s toward the northeast through four degrees of l a t i t u d e beyond the polar c i r c l e ( F i g . 1.6). These mountainous lands separate the Bellingshausen Sea from the Weddell Sea. A c c e s s i b i l i t y by open water to the i s l a n d s on the west s i d e of the peninsula i s q u i t e r e l i a b l e during summer and f a l l . The east s i d e , however, i s bordered by the i c e s h e l f south of 64° and the sea i s u s u a l l y blocked by pack-ice d r i f t i n g from the south (Schwerdtfeger, 1970). Marambio i s l o c a t e d on the east s i d e , r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e to the Larsen Ice-Shelf i n the Weddell Sea, and i s surrounded i n a s o u t h e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n by grounded t a b u l a r icebergs that form large ice i s l a n d s i n the sea. Marambio Base on Seymour Island i s b u i l t on a p l a t e a u 300 metres above s e a - l e v e l . The other base, Esperanza, almost at sea l e v e l , i s l o c a t e d on the shores of Hope Bay. Mountains are present south of the settlement. 23 C l i m a t e Temperature The A n t a r c t i c c l i m a t e i s dominated by v e r y low temperatures p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the i n l a n d p l a t e a u . T h i s phenomenon i s r e l a t e d p r i m a r i l y t o the permanent i c e - s h e e t c o v e r i n g 98% of the c o n t i n e n t , and t o the a l t i t u d e of the P l a t e a u (4,000 m e t r e s ) . The world's lowest a i r temperature (-88<>c) was r e c o r d e d a t the S o v i e t i n l a n d s t a t i o n of Vostok, August 24, 1960. The A n t a r c t i c Ocean which surrounds the c o n t i n e n t g i v e s a maritime c l i m a t e t o the c o a s t a l zones, and the temperature regimes of the r e s e a r c h s i t e s c l e a r l y r e f l e c t t h i s i n f l u e n c e (see A p p e n d i x - C l i m a t i c T a b l e ) . F i g u r e 1.7 shows the Isotherms of January and J u l y . Winds The h i g h a l t i t u d e of the c o n t i n e n t a l s u r f a c e and i t s i c e - s h e e t topography produces a i r of v e r y low temperature, which, when i t d r a i n s down the s l o p e s towards the c o a s t , causes the h i g h speed " k a t a b a t i c " winds. In some r e g i o n s , the winds r e a c h speeds of up t o 30 m/s and may blow almost c o n t i n u o u s l y f o r an e n t i r e month (Loewe, 1956; Markov e t a l . , 1973). 25 FIGURE 1.7 ISOTHERMS FOR JANUARY AND JULY Mean isotherms at surface, January. J u l y S o u r c e : O r v i g , 1970 Figure 1.8 shows the mean wind speed by month i n Marambio and Esperanza; f i g u r e 1.9 d i s p l a y s a diagram of winds c i r c u l a t i o n and i t s e f f e c t on the A n t a r c t i c Peninsula r e g i o n . Two types of strong winds can be i d e n t i f i e d : k a t a b a t i c winds caused by the c o l d a i r generated on the p l a t e a u , which flows down towards the coast at high speeds; and winds a s s o c i a t e d with f r o n t a l cyclones or barometric low pressure centres caused by d i f f e r e n t temperatures between the i c e - f i e l d s , or by the temperature c o n t r a s t between A n t a r c t i c Ocean water and the warm waters from the north ( V i l e l l a , 1982). Both wind types a f f e c t a i r c i r c u l a t i o n i n the western part of the A n t a r c t i c Peninsula r e g i o n ; t h e l o c a t i o n of the research s i t e s . C y c l o n i c storms, produced over the ocean, move clockwise around the c o n t i n e n t a l coast, r a r e l y p e n e t r a t i n g f a r i n l a n d . They a f f e c t the ocean area from about 40°S to near the A n t a r c t i c C i r c l e ( w i t h i n which p a r a l l e l s the research s i t e s are l o c a t e d ) . Therefore, t h i s zone, which contains the research s i t e s , has the st r o n g e s t winds found on the planet (CIA, 1978). Stormy Conditions S p e c i f i c monthly data on storm c o n d i t i o n s are not a v a i l a b l e . However, Marambio Base recorded a maximum wind speed of 287 km/h, while Esperanza recorded 333 km/h, acc o r d i n g to the Arg e n t i n i a n A i r Force meteorological data (1986). 27 FIGURE 1.8 MEAN WIND SPEED IN THE ANTARCTIC (KM/HOUR) 50 T FIGURE 1& DIAGRAM OF KATABATIC WINDS IN THE ANTARCTIC u r c e : A r g e n t i n i a n A i r F o r c e , B u l l e t i n No 1A, 1986. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t wind speed and d i r e c t i o n are g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by the presence of o b s t a c l e s such as mountains, h i l l s and b u i l d i n g s (AES, 1987). Marambio Base, on top of a p l a t e a u (300 m e t r e s ) , r e c e i v e s the f u l l impact of the wind c i r c u l a t i o n from the Weddell Sea ; whereas E s p e r a n z a , l o c a t e d a t n o r t h e r n t i p of the A n t a r c t i c P e n i n s u l a , i s surrounded by mountains and g l a c i e r s e a s t and west of the Base. At the time of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , both Esperanza and Marambio recorded severe wind storms (above 120 km/h wind speed) on a t l e a s t f o u r o c c a s i o n s . Each one l a s t e d f o r an average of 24-36 hours. P r e c i p i t a t i o n L o c a l winds and topography a f f e c t p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n the A n t a r c t i c . The common forms of p r e c i p i t a t i o n a re i c e and snow. S n o w f a l l i n c r e a s e s from the i n l a n d p l a t e a u towards the c o a s t a l a r e a s . Maximum snow a c c u m u l a t i o n of 20-80 cm i s u s u a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y on the humid c o a s t of the A n t a r c t i c P e n i n s u l a where measurable amounts of r a i n are a l s o r ecorded i n the summer (CIA, 1978) . Although monthly p r e c i p i t a t i o n data i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r Marambio Base, i t has almost no a c c u m u l a t i o n of snow because of l o c a l wind c o n d i t i o n s . 30 L i g h t and Dark Cycles Locations w i t h i n the A n t a r c t i c C i r c l e experience a complete dark period during winter-time as i n d i c a t e d i n F i g . 1.5. Marambio and Esperanza, however, are locat e d above the A n t a r c t i c C i r c l e ( F i g . 1.10) and always have night and day. At the time of data c o l l e c t i o n i n May, there were only 4 hours of s u n l i g h t . ( i i ) Behavioural Environment Human Occupancy Unlike the A r c t i c , the A n t a r c t i c continent has no evidence of an indigenous p o p u l a t i o n . F i g . 1.11 shows e x p l o r a t i o n and human occupancy beginning with the e a r l i e s t stages of co n t a c t . The continent was f i r s t s i g h t e d by the American Capt. Palmer and the Russian Capt. Von Bellinghausen, both i n January 1820 (Markov, 1970). H i s t o r i c a l l y , the absence of an indigenous p o p u l a t i o n has tended to a t t r a c t occupancy f o r s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y . The idea of d i s c o v e r i n g the h y p o t h e t i c a l continent proposed by the geographers of 16th to 17th Centuries [Hapgood, 1966, (Terra Incognita or Terra A u s t r a l i s south of Magellan S t r a i t ) ] was i n the minds of the f i r s t A n t a r c t i c e x p l o r e r s such as James Cook (1777) . 31 FIGURE 1.10 T H E L I G H T CYCLE IN T H E ANTARCTIC RESEARCH S ITES MARAMBIO BASE: SOUTHERN VIEW. MAY 24, 1986, 12 NOON 32 FIGURE 1.11 HUMAN OCCUPATION OR EXPLORATION IN THE ANTARCTIC SOURCE:Scott polar • AREA OF OCCUPATION OR EXPLORATION Research I n s t i t u t e , 0 8 o o 1 6 o o University of Cambridge « i i km -Collection of Maps. L a t e r , p a r t l y as a r e s u l t of economic i n t e r e s t but more i n response to n a t i o n a l pride of geographic d i s c o v e r y and s c i e n t i f i c progress, the navies of various European c o u n t r i e s became involved i n polar e x p l o r a t i o n . In the A n t a r c t i c , the m i l i t a r y system, introduced to polar regions, became a powerful agent i n the t e s t i n g of human r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the o f f i c e r s , crew and s c i e n t i s t s f o r generations of polar e x p l o r e r s (Kirwin, 1959). The accounts of e x p l o r a t i o n s by Cook, (1772-1775), Scott (1900/1910), Shackleton (1908/1912), Amundsen (1910) and many others, are e p i c adventures i n e x p l o r a t i o n and s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r y with s e v e r a l episodes of personal heroism and s a c r i f i c e . A c c e s s i b i l i t y The A n t a r c t i c Peninsula and i t s a s s o c i a t e d i s l a n d s are separated from South America by the Drake Passage 1000 km across (see Fig. 1.1). The degree of p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r a b l e , not only i n distance but i n the a b i l i t y to provide research and other s i t e s with proper l o g i s t i c a l support. Storm t r a c k s over Drake Passage cause r a p i d weather changes, and f l i g h t operations i n and out of the Peninsula are r e s t r i c t e d . 34 In the case of an emergency, the South Shetland Archipelago, 700 km northwest of Marambio, can o f f e r support to both Esperanza and Marambio. This support i s provided by the C h i l e a n A i r Force Marsh Base and the Soviet Bellingshausen S t a t i o n . A i r support l i n k s are maintained a l l year round between the s i t e s , i n c l u d i n g Marambio and Esperanza, with f l i g h t s scheduled at 4-week i n t e r v a l s . 35 CHAPTER 2. THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The number of human groups i n remote and u n f a m i l i a r n a t u r a l environments such as polar areas has increased because of the growing i n t e r e s t i n unusual s e t t i n g s for s c i e n t i f i c work, m i l i t a r y operations, resource development, and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . T h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l data about human response to such circumstances, however, have not kept up with the n a t u r a l science and engineering i n t e r e s t s . Moreover, t h i s lack of balance becomes even more acute when one deals with comparative polar s t u d i e s . The E x i s t i n g Models A review of the l i t e r a t u r e shows an absence of t h e o r e t i c a l guidance as a framework for research i n t o i s o l a t i o n . While attempts towards the c o n s t r u c t i o n of models of i s o l a t i o n behaviour and response have been suggested by Skinner (1969), Altman (1973) and Zubek (1973), the a p p l i c a t i o n of these s t u d i e s to every i s o l a t i o n s i t u a t i o n i s questionable. Of these models, the behavioural (Skinner, i b i d ) and the e c o l o g i c a l (Altman, i b i d ) models w i l l be explained b r i e f l y because of t h e i r v a l i d i t y f o r s t u d i e s focused on i s o l a t i o n . 36 (a) The e a r l y b e h a v i o r a l model was expanded by Brady e t a l . (1974). I t i s based on the t h r e e - t e r m c o n t i n g e n c y a n a l y s i s of o c c a s i o n s , b e h a v i o u r s , and consequences w i t h i n the e m o t i o n a l and m o t i v a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s . The e m o t i o n a l f u n c t i o n i s l i n k e d t o o c c a s i o n s ( s t i m u l i a f f e c t i n g e m o t i o n a l s t a t e s ) , and the m o t i v a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n t o consequences (rewards a f f e c t m o t i v a t i o n ) . (b) An e c o l o g i c a l model i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h both the process and p r o d u c t s of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . I n t e r p e r s o n a l processes occur a t s e v e r a l l e v e l s w i t h i n v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l communication and the m a n i p u l a t i o n of e n v i r o n m e n t a l props. L e v e l s of i n t i m a c y , the degree of i n t e r p e r s o n a l accommodation, and a t t r a c t i o n and c o n f l i c t are products of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n (Altman, 1973). 1*1 Review pf E x i s t i n g pata and T h e o r i e s The t h e s i s c o n t e x t i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h m i c r o s o c i e t i e s formed by s m a l l groups a t i s o l a t e d p o l a r s i t e s . The development of a new model or the a p p l i c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g models t o t h i s type of r e s e a r c h are not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s r e v i e w . T h i s i s because e x i s t i n g models do not focus on i s o l a t i o n , but a p p l y to the g e n e r a l b e h a v i o u r a l dimension. The task of d e s i g n i n g an i s o l a t i o n model f o r n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s i s s t i l l i n a v e r y e a r l y s t a g e . 37 E n v i r o n m e n t a l Taxonomies En v i r o n m e n t a l taxonomies r e l e v a n t t o unusual s e t t i n g s seem t o c o n s t i t u t e the p r e l i m i n a r y stage a t which t o b e g i n such an a n a l y s i s . S e l l s (1963, 1973) was the f i r s t t o propose a taxonomy of i s o l a t e d m i c r o s o c i e t i e s , based on s i m i l a r i t i e s between group and e n v i r o n m e n t a l dimensions, but s i n c e t h e n , few comparative s t u d i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h other i s o l a t e d environments have been e x p l a i n e d . A f t e r S e l l s (1973), S u e d f e l d (1987) suggested a l t e r n a t i v e taxonomies adding t o those s t a t e d by S e l l s , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s i t u a t i o n , of the s o c i a l system and of the i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s i t u a t i o n would m a i n l y comprise i n t e r a c t i v e parameters. These parameters are made up of f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o person-environment i n t e r a c t i o n s such as a v a i l a b i l i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n , ease of communication, p h y s i c a l r e s t r i c t i o n and degree of c o m p l e x i t y i n the environment. 38 2^2 E m p i r i c a l Data on N a t u r a l and L a b o r a t o r y Environments The L a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s On the b a s i s of Smith's (1969) e x t e n s i v e r e v i e w on the e f f e c t s of l a b o r a t o r y i s o l a t i o n on s m a l l groups, some p s y c h o s o c i a l e f f e c t s appeared t o be r e l e v a n t . Boredom, i r r i t a b i l i t y , n e g a t i v i t y of mood, i n t e r p e r s o n a l f r i c t i o n , i n c r e a s e d t e r r i t o r i a l i t y , i nsomnia, a n x i e t y , decrease of t a s k performance, and psychosomatic c o m p l a i n t s are among the main e f f e c t s of i s o l a t i o n . I t was a l s o demonstrated t h a t the l e n g t h of exposure to i s o l a t e d and c o n f i n e d c o n d i t i o n s i n c r e a s e s a n x i e t y i n the s u b j e c t s . A c c o r d i n g t o Zubek (1973), the c r i t i c a l p e r i o d i n the chamber environment appears to be the f i r s t day. Beyond t h i s p o i n t , the e f f e c t s of the low se n s o r y i n p u t tend t o d i m i n i s h . Zubek (1969, 1973) reviewed the l i t e r a t u r e on r e s t r i c t e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t i m u l a t i o n ( s e nsory d e p r i v e d environments i . e dark chambers and f l o a t a t i o n t anks) and t h i s a r e a was updated by Su e d f e l d (1980). E a r l y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s suggested t h a t symptoms such as s t r e s s , anger, l o n e l i n e s s , d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s p e a k i n g , and l o s s of sense of time were the most commonly observed and t h a t t hey were a t t r i b u t e d t o e i t h e r confinement or to a c o m b i n a t i o n of s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n and confinement. 39 In c o n t r a s t , recent and more rigorous research provides c u r r e n t data that i n d i c a t e that under short-term exposure to the f l o a t a t i o n tank and dark chamber environments, there i s improvement i n memorization and problem-solving (Suedfeld et a l , 1987) s t r e s s management i n smoking c e s s a t i o n (Suedfeld & Brown, 1987), weight-loss ( B o r r i e & Suedfeld, 1980), the t h e r a p e u t i c treatment of hypertension (Suedfeld & K r i s t e l l e r , 1982), s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n (Wathney, 1978), and c r e a t i v i t y (Suedfeld & Metcalfe, 1987). These e f f e c t s seem to be produced or mediated by the s t a t e of r e l a x a t i o n that occurs i n r e s t r i c t e d s t i m u l a t i o n environments. The Natural Environment Studies Most behavioural f i e l d research conducted i n n a t u r a l i s o l a t e d environments l i k e the A n t a r c t i c polar s t a t i o n s has shown human responses to i s o l a t i o n s i m i l a r to those found i n l a b o r a t o r y environments. Once again, e a r l y s t u d i e s emphasized the negative b e h a v i o u r a l e f f e c t s of a polar s e t t i n g . Reviews of polar research by Gunderson (1968), Taylor et a l . (1968) and H a r r i s o n & Connors (1984), point out that symptoms of insomnia, i r r i t a b i l i t y , a nxiety, depression, boredom and motivation d e c l i n e , and a v a r i e t y of psychosomatic complaints are common. 40 Buguet & R i v o l i e r (1974) and Radomski et a l . (1982) have emphasized the p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g y of s m a l l human groups i n both p o l a r zones. In a r e c e n t s t u d y , u s i n g secondary d a t a , P a l i n k a (1985) addressed the frequency of a s e r i e s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e s (the w i n t e r mental syndrome) comprised of nightmares, reduced m o t i v a t i o n and i n t e l l e c t u a l impairment ( l o s s of c o n c e n t r a t i o n , memory f a i l u r e and p e r c e p t u a l d i s t o r t i o n s ) . He concluded t h a t s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s of such responses c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o the l e n g t h of a m i s s i o n and the na t u r e of the s e t t i n g . The e f f e c t s of the s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g are p o o r l y c o n s i d e r e d . An example i s g i v e n by Evans, S t o k o l s & C a r r e r e (1987) i n which, d u r i n g the p o l a r w i n t e r a t the c o a s t a l s t a t i o n of Palmer, l o c a t e d i n the A n t a r c t i c P e n i n s u l a r e g i o n , the l e v e l s of s t r e s s on the s u b j e c t s were lower than expected (as measured by p h y s i o l o g i c a l and mood t e s t s ) . The au t h o r s a p p a r e n t l y d i d not c o n s i d e r t h a t the l o c a l environment i t s e l f c o u l d p o s s i b l y be a " r e l a x e d one." I t a l l depends upon the nature and s e t t i n g of a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e i n a p o l a r a r e a . Another s t u d y conducted i n a p o l a r s e t t i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t symptoms are more pronounced i n lAid-VJinter r a t h e r than the ? r e -or ? o s t - W i n t e r phase ( P a t e r s o n , 1978). 41 Indeed, two y e a r s a f t e r the b e g i n n i n g of t h e t o u r , i n d i v i d u a l s i n p o l a r s e t t i n g s r e p o r t e d t h a t symptoms of i s o l a t i o n were worse i n t h e s e c o n d M i d - W i n t e r phase, and remained bad u n t i l t h e i r d e p a r t u r e ( A y r e , L., p e r s o n a l communication, J a n u a r y 10, 1983; Salmon, E., p e r s o n a l communication, J u l y 3, 1985). Thus, i t can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e s t o an e n v i r o n m e n t a r e more l i k e l y t o o c c u r d u r i n g t h e m i d d l e of t h e t o u r r a t h e r t h a n a t i t s b e g i n n i n g or end ( T e r e l a k , 1981). E x p a n d i n g t h e a n a l y s i s t o o t h e r c o n f i n e d e n v i r o n m e n t s , Weybrew & Nod i n (1979), s t u d y i n g n u c l e a r submarine crews, found i n c r e a s e d p s y c h o - s o c i a l p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l e n g t h of t h e m i s s i o n . The r e s u l t s of l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s a r e a l s o c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e s e d a t a ( T a y l o r e t a l . 1968), as a r e c o m p a r i s o n s of b o t h l a b o r a t o r y and f i e l d s i t u a t i o n s ( D e f a y o l l e e t a l . 1985; Lugg, 1984) . Group s i z e D e s p i t e t h e a p p a r e n t s i m i l a r i t i e s of n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e t o i s o l a t e d s e t t i n g s , s p e c i f i c a d v e r s e e f f e c t s might be l i n k e d t o the s i z e of t h e g r o u p . T h e o r e t i c a l e v i d e n c e has shown t h a t r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e g r o u p s (N=30) p e r f o r m b e t t e r i n i s o l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t s t h a n c o m p a r a t i v e l y (N= 10-15) s m a l l e r g r o u p s ( S m i t h , 1969). 42 Comparing i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i s o l a t e d groups, Smith a l s o found t h a t the presence of a companion s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduces what he c a l l e d s e n s o r y d e p r i v a t i o n e f f e c t s . D o l l & Gunderson (1971) and N a r d i n i e t a l . (1962) i n t h e i r comparison among d i f f e r e n t s i z e s of A n t a r c t i c bases found t h a t i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y and e m o t i o n a l problems i n c r e a s e d as the s i z e of the group decreased. These s t u d i e s n e g l e c t e d the r o l e p l a y e d by gender. Gender Rol e s i n P o l a r Regions As a r e f l e c t i o n of the changing s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , women are g r a d u a l l y becoming i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a c t i v i t i e s i n p o l a r s e t t i n g s . D i s c u s s i o n s on t h i s i s s u e (D. Lugg, i n a p e r s o n a l communication, June 14, 1987) i n d i c a t e t h a t the presence of one woman w i t h a group of men a t a p o l a r s i t e can be a d e s t a b i l i z i n g element i n group b e h a v i o u r . T h i s e f f e c t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h l a b o r a t o r y f i n d i n g s where the i n t r o d u c t i o n of one woman i n t o a male group generates the same d e s t a b i l i z i n g e f f e c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l a t e d t o h i e r a r c h y and l e a d e r s h i p (Brady & Emurian, 1983). Furthermore, Brady & Emurian noted t h a t a group of a l l women perform b e t t e r than a group of a l l males i n i s o l a t i o n . 43 In c o n t r a s t , f i e l d experiments a t the Amundsen-Scott s t a t i o n a t the South P o l e , where a woman was posted f o r a y e a r , show t h a t the presence of a female s t a b i l i z e d the g e n e r a l behaviour of a group of males, e s p e c i a l l y i n the w i n t e r ; t h i s was a t t r i b u t e d t o the n u r t u r i n g needs of both men and women (D. Lugg, p e r s o n a l communication, May 16, 1984). There have been no b e h a v i o u r a l s t u d i e s focused on f a m i l i a l a d a p t a t i o n a t Esperanza (a s i t e i n the A n t a r c t i c c o m p r i s i n g f a m i l i e s ) . In the A r c t i c , o n l y a few Western s t u d i e s have focused s t r i c t l y on b e h a v i o u r a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l approaches of males and females ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of n a t i v e p e o p l e ) . The r e s e a r c h s i t e s have been m i l i t a r y p o s t s (Warner, 1981), advanced warning s i t e s , and m e t e o r o l o g i c a l s t a t i o n s ( u n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t , e.g. Freeman, 1983) and s c i e n t i f i c p o s t s ( E i l b e r t & G l a s e r , 1959; Wright e t a l . 1963; Wright e t a l . 1967). Most s t u d i e s of p o l a r i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s , such as m i n i n g , have c e n t r e d on b e h a v i o u r a l s e t t i n g s and job s a t i s f a c t i o n under i s o l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s and not gender i s s u e s (Cram, 1979; B e t c h e l and L e d b e t t e r , 1980). On the ot h e r hand, p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures u s i n g two e x p e d i t i o n a r y groups of males and females, one a t each p o l a r r e g i o n , were o b t a i n e d by L e c r o a r t e t a l . (1987). 44 L e c r o a r t found that general a c c l i m a t i z a t i o n to c o l d v a r i e d according to sex. These measures were a l s o accompanied by p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s but r e s u l t s are not yet known. In c o n t r a s t to Western s t u d i e s , Soviet researchers are i n the vanguard i n the number of comparative works of both A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c using gender. These stu d i e s focused on human p h y s i o l o g i c a l adaptation, but have paid l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n to p s y c h o l o g i c a l adaptation (Derjapa & R j a b i n i n , 1977; Matusov, 1971; Paleyev, 1963). The study concluded there were sex d i f f e r e n c e s between the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c ; the A n t a r c t i c i s a more s t r e s s f u l environment i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l terms. Other Studies The c o l d , a l t i t u d e (blood pressure) and combinations of wind and w i n d - c h i l l f a c t o r , a f f e c t p h y s i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l human response. Data a n a l y z i n g m e t e o r o l o g i c a l parameters i n an A r c t i c s t a t i o n placed on a f l o a t i n g i s l a n d , and i n an A n t a r c t i c c o a s t a l s t a t i o n , c o n s i s t e n t l y show the A n t a r c t i c c o a s t a l s t a t i o n to be c o n s i d e r a b l y windier than the A r c t i c s i t e ( B o r i s k i n , 1973). 45 In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e are a number of comparative s t u d i e s b e i n g conducted by Deryapa (1987) and Davidenko (1982) t h a t have argued t h e r e are magneto- and m e t e o - s u s c e p t i b l e e f f e c t s ( s e n s i t i v i t y to geomagnetic f i e l d f l u c t u a t i o n s and weather changes) i n both S i b e r i a and the A n t a r c t i c , and those i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h h i g h s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o both weather and geomagnetic f i e l d perform p o o r l y i n i n t r a c o n t i n e n t a l A n t a r c t i c s t a t i o n s (Deryapa and Davidenko, 1986). On the other hand, pronounced p h o t o p e r i o d i c changes i n l i g h t i n t e n s i t y and d u r a t i o n may a f f e c t s l e e p and d i s t u r b d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s i n both p o l a r zones. Although few comparative s t u d i e s have focused on d a r k / l i g h t c y c l e s ( P a l e y e v , 1963; Derjapa and R j a b i n i n , 1977; B o g o l o s l o v s k i i , 1973), o t h e r s t u d i e s f o r the most p a r t have i n v e s t i g a t e d n a t i v e people (Condon, 1983; Moran, 1981; Simpson and B o l e n , 1973). In a d d i t i o n , s t u d i e s t h a t have a n a l y z e d c i r c u m p o l a r people were c e n t e r e d on the e f f e c t of the p h o t o c y c l e on insomnia (Kolmodin-Hedman, 1987; L i n g j a e r d e e t a l . , 1985). 46 CHAPTER 3. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY This chapter provides a review of s p e c i f i c l i t e r a t u r e i n v olved i n the research design. Studies on content a n a l y s i s and the psychometric and behavioural m a t e r i a l involved i n the contemporary segment of the research measures are d e s c r i b e d . 3.1 Content A n a l y s i s of D i a r i e s Systematic content a n a l y s i s of a v a r i e t y of w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s i s a common procedure used i n many areas of s o c i a l s c i e n c e , e.g. p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e , p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l psychology (Knutson, 1973; Wetherel et a l . 1983). Using methods of measuring t e n s i o n i n w r i t t e n documents developed e a r l i e r ( D o l l a r d & Mowrer, 1947), content a n a l y s i s has been conducted on a v a r i e t y of general b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l s or other h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l (Krippendorf, 1980; Runyan, 1982; B r i s l i n , 1980). I t has not been a p p l i e d to polar d i a r i e s . A review of the psychology l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s that polar s t u d i e s have not been the subject of systematic behavioural a n a l y s i s . One exception however i s given by Taylor et a l . (1986) i n which he and h i s a s s o c i a t e s analysed the w r i t t e n personal n a r r a t i v e s of members of an A n t a r c t i c e x p e d i t i o n . The r e s u l t s were compared with other psychometric data c o l l e c t e d before and during the same e x p e d i t i o n . 47 The a u t h o r s concluded t h a t p e r s o n a l n a r r a t i v e s y i e l d e d p e r s o n a l i t y assessments remarkably c o n s i s t e n t w i t h those d e r i v e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y from i n t e r v i e w s and o b s e r v a t i o n s (p. 205). One of the i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t s of t h i s s t u d y concerns the wide range of d i v e r g e n t responses t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s e x p r e s s when fa c e d w i t h the same event. T h i s f a c t i n d i c a t e s t h a t the c o n t e n t of n a r r a t i v e s (e.g. Gran and Ch e r r y - G a r r a r d ) are h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e , and because of t h i s t h e r e i s d i s t o r t i o n i n both the p e r c e p t i o n and n a r r a t i v e of the past events ( T a y l o r e t a l . i b i d ) . 3.2 Review of Research Measures The measures used i n t h i s s t u d y were chosen because t h e y had been used i n p r e v i o u s p o l a r s t u d i e s and are a p p l i c a b l e t o the p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d , e.g.. e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t r e s s , a r o u s a l and p e r c e p t i o n . The domains of p e r s o n a l i t y , e n v i r o n m e n t a l p e r c e p t i o n , a f f e c t i o n , community behaviour and s o c i a l s t r e s s are a n a l y z e d as they a p p l y to the p o l a r a r e a s . 48 P e r s o n a l i t y Measures P e r s o n a l i t y i s a w i d e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d a r e a of p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e h a v i o u r a t p o l a r s i t e s . T here a r e two major f o c i . Some r e s e a r c h e r s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e or no change o f p e r s o n a l i t y d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d of a t o u r i n A n t a r c t i c i s o l a t i o n ( S c h u l t z , 1958, F o r d & Gunderson, 1962; T a y l o r , 1969; T a y l o r & S h u r l e y , 1971, P a t e r s o n , 1984). O t h e r s have em p h a s i z e d an a d a p t a t i o n p e r i o d i n which changes o c c u r . These two c o n c l u s i o n s a r e n ot n e c e s s a r i l y i n c o n s i s t e n t ( W r i g h t e t a l . 1967; A l d a s h e v a , 1984), and a r e p e r h a p s t h e r e s u l t of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t e a d of p e r s o n a l i t y c hanges. P e r s o n a l i t y a s s e s s m e n t s as i n d i c a t o r s of a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e A n t a r c t i c have been s u c c e s s f u l l y d e m o n s t r a t e d by B i e r s n e r & Hogan ( 1 9 8 4 ) . Among o t h e r r e s u l t s , t h e a u t h o r s s u g g e s t t h a t e a s y a d j u s t m e n t i s a f u n c t i o n of narrow i n t e r e s t s and a low l e v e l need f o r s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n . A n x i e t y S t a t e of a n x i e t y i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d a p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t . F o r t h i s s t u d y , s t a t e and t r a i t a n x i e t y a r e r e v i e w e d under t h e f i e l d of p e r s o n a l i t y ( S p i e l b e r g e r , 1966). 49 The t r a i t - s t a t e measures of s t r e s s and a n x i e t y have r e c e i v e d l e s s a t t e n t i o n t h a n e x p e c t e d . In l a b o r a t o r y e n v i r o n m e n t s , T a y l o r e t a l . (1968), as r e f e r r e d t o above, found an i n c r e a s e i n s t r e s s w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n t h e l e n g t h of t h e m i s s i o n . In t h e f i e l d s i t u a t i o n , McCormick (1984) measured h i g h l e v e l s o f a n x i e t y and ne r v o u s f a t i g u e i n a group of e x p e d i t i o n a r y s u b j e c t s . In a d d i t i o n , M o c e l l i n ( 1 9 8 4 ) , found low l e v e l s of s t a t e and t r a i t a n x i e t y (STAI, S p i e l b e r g e r , 1966) when e x a m i n i n g two e x p e d i t i o n a r y g r o u p s i n a s t r e s s f u l e v e n t a b o a r d two s h i p s i n th e A n t a r c t i c . C o n v e r s e l y , r e s e a r c h w i t h an a n x i e t y r e s p o n s e i n v e n t o r y has shown t h a t the s c o r e s f o r s t a t e a n x i e t y have i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h i n c r e a s e s i n s t r e s s f u l e v e n t s ( S p i e l b e r g e r , 1966, 1976; L a z a r u s , 1976). A n x i e t y s t a t e r e s u l t s from a t e m p o r a r y c o n d i t i o n which i n d u c e s t e n s i o n , w h i l e a n x i e t y t r a i t i s a p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w hich i s u n a f f e c t e d by t r a n s i t o r y s i t u a t i o n a l s t r e s s . The I n t r o v e r t and E x t r a v e r t Types G e n e r a l l y , s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d on i s o l a t e d A n t a r c t i c g r o u p s (Bundzen, 1971; P a l m a i , 1964; P o l d o l y a n , 1971) i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e s of m i d - w i n t e r s e a s o n depend on p e r s o n a l i t y and l e v e l s of s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n ( V e n t s e n o s t e v , 1971). Under low p o l a r e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t i m u l a t i o n , e x t r a v e r t e d i n d i v i d u a l s a r e l e s s s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r a d a p t a t i o n p r o c e s s t h a n q u i e t , more i n t r o v e r t e d i n d i v i d u a l s ( S t r a n g e & Youngman, 1971). 50 The l a t t e r t y p e seemed t o adapt b e t t e r and a c h i e v e h i g h e r s c o r e s on p e r f o r m a n c e a p p r a i s a l s (Kay, 1984). C o n s i s t e n t w i t h th e f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g i n t r o v e r s i o n and a d a p t a t i o n , Buzden ( i b i d ) has shown t h a t n o t o n l y does the i n t r o v e r t t y p e a d a p t b e t t e r t o the p o l a r s i t u a t i o n , but i n t e r e s t i n g l y , becomes more i n t r o v e r t e d d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r . Boredom c o u l d be t h e f a c t o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s e c h a n g e s . Smith (1981) c o n c l u d e d t h a t e x t r a v e r t s might be more s u s c e p t i b l e t o the boredom i n d u c e d by r e p e t i t i o n , l a c k of n o v e l t y and monotony. C o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s a r e found i n d a y d r e a m i n g , motor r e s t l e s s n e s s , s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n and w i t h d r a w a l from the s i t u a t i o n ( S m i t h , i b i d ) . As a n a l o g u e d a t a , r e s u l t s based on l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s u s i n g e x t r a v e r t - i n t r o v e r t s u b j e c t s showed no d i f f e r e n c e between v o l u n t e e r s and n o n - v o l u n t e e r s i n s e n s o r y d e p r i v a t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t s ( F r a n c i s & D i e s p e c k e r , 1973; F r a n c i s , 1973; F r a n c i s , 1969). A n o t h e r v i e w i s o f f e r e d by C ampbell & H e l l e r (1987), who s u g g e s t t h a t i n t r o v e r t e d i n d i v i d u a l s c o r r e l a t e w i t h s o c i a b i l i t y i n d i c a t o r s but not t o the e x t e n t t h a t was p r e d i c t e d ( E i s e n c k & E i s e n c k , 1 9 75). The E x t r a v e r t - i n t r o v e r t d i m e n s i o n as i n t e r p r e t e d by Myers & B r i g g s (1985) s t a t e s t h a t i n t r o v e r t s a r e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n t e r e s t s i n the c l a r i t y of c o n c e p t s and i d e a s , e m p h a s i s i n g t h e i r own i n n e r w o r l d . E x t r a v e r t s a r e p e o p l e t h a t f o c u s t h e i r a t t e n t i o n towards the e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t and need t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e w o r l d i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d i t . These d i m e n s i o n s were c o n s t r u c t e d on t h e b a s i s of Jung's t h e o r y of p s y c h o l o g i c a l t y p e s (Jung, 1921/1971). 51 P e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of e x t r a v e r s i o n and i n t r o v e r s i o n i n t e r a c t with sensa t i o n seeking types and a r o u s a l l e v e l s . E x t r a v e r t s , for example, increased a r o u s a l by seeking high l e v e l s of s t i m u l a t i o n . Conversely, i n t r o v e r t s might search for s i t u a t i o n s which are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by low l e v e l s of s t i m u l a t i o n because these i n d i v i d u a l s are c h r o n i c a l l y aroused (Zuckerman, 1979). For the purpose of t h i s study the Myers & Briggs (1985) concepts of e x t r a v e r s i o n - i n t r o v e r s i o n are u t i l i z e d . Sensation Seeking T r a i t s The a r o u s a l theory proposed by Zuckerman i n 1979 d e f i n e s sensation seekers as p e r s o n a l i t y types who search f o r high l e v e l s of s t i m u l a t i o n and novel s i t u a t i o n s to maintain t h e i r optimal l e v e l of a r o u s a l . This argument was not supported i n a l a t e r study conducted by Zuckerman (1983). He has argued that the h i g h - r i s k and novel experiences p r e f e r r e d by s e n s a t i o n seekers in v o l v e s a wide range of a c t i v i t i e s , from very low l e v e l s of s t i m u l a t i o n (sensory d e p r i v a t i o n environments) to intense s t i m u l a t i o n and a r o u s a l (parachute-jumping and scuba d i v i n g ) . 52 A c c o r d i n g to Zuckerman's f i n d i n g s , the i n d i v i d u a l performance of a high s e n s a t i o n seeker i s a f f e c t e d under monotonous s t i m u l a t i o n as compared t o low s e n s a t i o n s e e k e r s , but not i n a group of two or more s u b j e c t s . A r o u s a l L e v e l s , Sleep and Dreams A v a r i e t y of s t r e s s o r s are important to a r o u s a l and i t s causes i n a c o g n i t i v e - o r i e n t e d approach. S t r e s s o r s i n c l u d e a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s such as exposure to loud n o i s e , l o s s of s l e e p , s h i f t -work c y c l e s (Akersdet & G i l b e r g , 1981a,b) and c i r c a d i a n c y c l e d i s t u r b a n c e s . Sanford (1985) suggested t h a t s t r e s s o r s can d i r e c t l y a f f e c t a r o u s a l , e . g . s l e e p l o s s d e c r e a s e s a r o u s a l , and a r o u s a l v a r i e s as a f u n c t i o n of the c i r c a d i a n rhythm (p. 83). Of those s t r e s s o r s , the l o s s of s l e e p and c i r c a d i a n c y c l e s are c l e a r l y r e l e v a n t t o the c o p i n g process i n i s o l a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g to some s t u d i e s (Popkin et a l . , 1974; Dubbels, 1984), l o s s of s l e e p or insomnia remains independent of c i r c a d i a n c y c l e s , as e x e m p l i f i e d by extreme v a r i a t i o n s i n l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s ( p h o t o c y c l e as r e f e r r e d t o above), and may r e s u l t d i r e c t l y from the i s o l a t i o n i t s e l f . 53 S i m i l a r t o f i n d i n g s i n s u b m a r i n e s and d i v i n g - c h a m b e r s , th e absence of n a t u r a l l i g h t f o r l o n g p e r i o d s i n t h e A n t a r c t i c does not appear t o a f f e c t t h e p r o d u c t i o n of m e l a t o n i n (a human hormone w i t h s l e e p - i n d u c i n g c a p a c i t y [ D u b b e l s , 1984, Broadway & A r e n d t , 1 9 8 7 ] ) . S l e e p d i s t u r b a n c e s may be due t o a v a r i e t y o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l and n o n - e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t r e s s o r s . These d i s t u r b a n c e s can be a l s o a t t r i b u t e d t o d e c r e a s e s i n a r o u s a l l e v e l s as o b s e r v e d i n l a b o r a t o r y by B l a k e (1971). S t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d i n n u c l e a r s u b m a r i n e s have a l s o shown t h a t t h e l e n g t h o f m i s s i o n d e c r e a s e s the m o t i v a t i o n of t h e crew r e s u l t i n g i n s l e e p d i s t u r b a n c e s (Weybrew & N o d d i n , 1979). Dreams The c o n t e n t of t h e dreams of p e o p l e s u b j e c t e d t o i s o l a t i o n has been p a r t of s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y s i n c e 1921 ( P r i e s t l e y , 1921). R i v e r s (1923) h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t f e a r s and u n c o n s c i o u s , even r e p r e s s e d d e s i r e s , o f t e n a r e the s u b j e c t o f a dream. A more r e c e n t t r e a t m e n t of t h i s t o p i c ( B r e g e r , Hunter & Lane, 1971) a c c e p t s t h i s g e n e r a l view, but e x t e n d s th e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t d reaming a l l o w s f o r t h e b l e n d i n g of a c u r r e n t c o n f l i c t w i t h i t s h i s t o r i c a l , remembered r o o t s , and f o r t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f the a r o u s e d c o n f l i c t i n t o e x i s t i n g sometimes s y m b o l i c s o l u t i o n s . 54 The o n g o i n g c o n f l i c t a c t i v a t e s r e l a t e d memories d u r i n g REM ( R a p i d Eye Movement) s l e e p and s o l u t i o n s a r e worked i n t o t h e theme of the dream c o n t e n t . B a e k e l a n d (1970) emphasized the e f f e c t s of t h e p r e v i o u s day's e v e n t s on a n i g h t ' s s l e e p and dream c o n t e n t a f a c t w e l l known by dream r e s e a r c h e r s ( L a B e r g e , 1985). B a e k e l a n d s u g g e s t s t h a t REM s l e e p has an i m p o r t a n t d r i v e - d i s c h a r g e f u n c t i o n . T h i s was shown by e x p e r i m e n t s c o n d u c t e d w i t h a t h l e t e s * , when d e p r i v e d of e x e r c i s e , t h e y d i s p l a y e d an i n c r e a s e of REM a c t i v i t y . On t h e b a s i s of t h i s f i n d i n g , a h y p o t h e s i s can be s t a t e d ; dreams would be i n c r e a s e d i n amount and l u c i d i t y when i n d i v i d u a l s have been d e p r i v e d o f c e r t a i n components ( e . g . w a t e r ) i n t h e i r waking h o u r s . A t t e m p t i n g t o e x p l a i n how dreams a r e c o n s t r u c t e d , S e l i g m a n & Y e l l e n (1987) have s u g g e s t e d t h a t dreams a r e c o g n i t i v e l y p r o c e s s e d , i n an a t t e m p t t o i n t e g r a t e a s e r i e s of v i s u a l h a l l u c i n a t i o n s , u n r e l a t e d t o one a n o t h e r , w i t h i n t e r n a l l y g e n e r a t e d e m o t i o n a l e p i s o d e s . In t h e i r view, t h e dream c o n s i s t s of v i s u a l and e m o t i o n a l e p i s o d e s and the c o g n i t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e s e two ( S e l i g m a n & Y e l l e n , 1987, p . l ) . 55 P e r c e p t u a l Image Imagery phenomena i n p o l a r s e t t i n g s a r e not w e l l i n v e s t i g a t e d , but d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n t h e A n t a r c t i c ( B a r a b a s z , 1979, 1980, 1983, 1984; B a r a b a s z & Gregson, 1979) have shown s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s i n s u g g e s t i b i l i t y and h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r e d u c t i o n i n EEG a m p l i t u d e s t o r e a l s t i m u l i . One i n t e r e s t i n g p e r c e p t u a l phenomenon o t h e r t h a n i m a g e r y has a l s o r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i n p o l a r r e s e a r c h . T h a t i s t h e se n s e d p r e s e n c e ( t h e f e e l i n g or p e r c e p t i o n t h a t a n o t h e r p e r s o n i s p r e s e n t and may h e l p t h e o b s e r v e r t o cope w i t h a h a z a r d o u s s i t u a t i o n ) i n p o l a r s e t t i n g s . Lugg (1973, 1977) was t h e f i r s t s c h o l a r t o document s u c h an e v e n t w h i l e i n an A n t a r c t i c y e a r -round e x p e d i t i o n . S u e d f e l d & M o c e l l i n (1987) have r e v i e w e d t h e phenomenon r e l a t e d t o u n u s u a l e n v i r o n m e n t s i n g e n e r a l r a t h e r t h a n o n l y t h e p o l a r ones. The s e n s e d p r e s e n c e phenomenon seems t o have a b a s i s i n a range of c o p i n g b e h a v i o u r s i n c e r t a i n u n u s u a l s i t u a t i o n s . Most of the r e v i e w on t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t human s t r e s s i s a p o w e r f u l component f o r the phenomenon. S u e d f e l d & M o c e l l i n , however, ar g u e t h a t human or e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t r e s s does n o t o f f e r s u f f i c i e n t e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the phenomenon. 56 E n v i r o n m e n t a l and S o c i a l S t r e s s A c e n t r a l component of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s t o examine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s of t h e p o l a r e n v i r o n m e n t as an a c t i v e p a r t of human s t r e s s . E n v i r o n m e n t a l s t r e s s i n p o l a r r e g i o n s i s an un d e v e l o p e d b r a n c h w i t h i n b e h a v i o u r a l s t u d i e s . A w e l l d e s i g n e d s t u d y , w i t h c o n t r o l s , c o n d u c t e d by T a y l o r & McCormick (1985), and McCormick e t a l . (1985) c o n s t i t u t e s a landmark f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a s t r e s s f u l e n v i r o n m e n t and human s t r e s s i n t h e A n t a r c t i c . R e p e a t e d t e s t measures on symptomatology, a f f e c t i v e c h a n g e s, c o g n i t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e , and b e h a v i o u r a l change were c o n d u c t e d . D e s p i t e t h e g r e a t e r s t r e s s which a f f e c t e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s , as measured by t h e amount of s t r e s s o r s o b s e r v e d by a f i e l d p s y c h o l o g i s t , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a c r o s s a l l t h e p s y c h o m e t r i c measures were f o u n d . S u b j e c t s ' own r e p o r t s d e n o t e d low s t r e s s symptoms as measured by t h e p s y c h o m e t r i c i n s t r u m e n t s . One e x p l a n a t i o n was g i v e n by the a u t h o r s based on i n d i v i d u a l c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s a p p l i e d t o t h e f i e l d s i t u a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o McCormick e t a l . ( 1 9 8 5 ) , t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s i n c l u d e d a g r e a t amount of r e p r e s s i o n . They based t h e i r argument On Gunderson & N e l s o n (1964), a r g u i n g t h a t r e p r e s s i o n (and t h e r e f o r e low s c o r e s on s t r e s s measures) was a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of A n t a r c t i c l i f e . 57 R e v i e w i n g the paper of Gunderson & N e l s o n ( 1 9 6 4 ) , i t was n o t e d t h a t the ' r e p r e s s i o n ' argument was o n l y s u p e r f i c i a l l y s u g g e s t e d w i t h o u t the s t r o n g emphasis g i v e n i t by McCormick e t a l (1985), which makes t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c l e a r l y m i s l e a d i n g . Once more, t h e a b i l i t y of t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n c o p i n g w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l demands ( S i n g e r & Baum, 1983; Evans & Cohen, 1987) would be a p o w e r f u l element i n e x p l a i n i n g s t r e s s i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . In c o n t r a s t t o the ' r e p r e s s i o n ' argument, t h e r e i s a n o t h e r s o p h i s t i c a t e d view on g e n e r a l s t r e s s and c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s . When i n d i v i d u a l s a r e exposed t o p o t e n t i a l l y s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s , t h e y t e n d t o a p p r a i s e t h e s e t t i n g , j u d g i n g the s e v e r i t y of s t r e s s o r s . A f t e r t h a t , a s e c o n d a p p r a i s a l i s made, w e i g h t i n g t h e danger and the t h r e a t e n i n g a s p e c t s of t h e s i t u a t i o n , p r o v i d i n g c o n t r o l over s t r e s s o r s . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n of danger a c t i v a t e s c o p i n g mechanisms aimed a t r e d u c i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l t h r e a t s ( L a z a r u s 1966; L a z a r u s & Folkman, 1984). R e c e n t l y , P a t e r s o n & N e u f e l d (1987) a t t e m p t e d t o e x p l a i n t h e r e a s o n s f o r wide i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s p o n s e s t o i d e n t i c a l s t r e s s o r s . In t h e i r view, t h e g r e a t e r t h e s e v e r i t y of the t h r e a t e n e d e v e n t , the g r e a t e r the a n t i c i p a t o r y s t r e s s (when the r e s p o n s e s a r e g i v e n , as a consequence o f cues i n d i c a t i n g t h e n e a r n e s s of an u n d e s i r a b l e e v e n t ) . The a b i l i t y and t o r e s p o n d t o s t r e s s o r s seems t o be r e l a t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . 58 Community B e h a v i o u r M o t i v a t i o n There a r e few r e l e v a n t s t u d i e s of community b e h a v i o u r i n remote p o l a r s e t t i n g s . Most a r e r e l a t e d t o the c i r c u m p o l a r n o r t h e r n a r e a s r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e A n t a r c t i c ones. M o t i v a t i o n , p e r c e p t i o n and t h e q u a l i t y of l i f e a r e the main f i e l d s i n which r e s e a r c h has been c o n d u c t e d . M o t i v a t i o n i s d e f i n e d h e r e as t h e r e a s o n or i n f l u e n c e which a t t r a c t s p e o p l e t o e i t h e r p o l a r zone. N i c k e l s e t a l . (1976) have shown t h a t t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of n o r t h e r n Canada as a w o r k i n g e n v i r o n m e n t c o n s i s t of t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f b e a u t i f u l l a n d s c a p e , a f r e e o u t d o o r l i f e , t h e c a l l o f a d v e n t u r e , the p r o v i s i o n of a f i r s t j o b f o r the young, a new j o b f o r t h e unemployed, h i g h e r wages, improvements i n w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , and g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l advancement. L o t z (1970) r e f e r s t o a need t o e s c a p e from urban d e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n as an a t t r a c t i n g f o r c e t o move N o r t h . He a l s o m e n t i o n s n e g a t i v e or r e p e l l i n g f a c t o r s s u c h as low t e m p e r a t u r e s and s e a s o n a l d a r k n e s s , i n a d d i t i o n t o h i g h l i v i n g c o s t s and l a c k of u r b a n a m e n i t i e s . In t h e A n t a r c t i c , m o t i v a t i o n a l s t u d i e s were l i n k e d t o a d a p t a t i o n and p e r f o r m a n c e c r i t e r i a as p a r t of a s e t of c l i n i c a l measures. 59 P o s i t i v e l y - m o t i v a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s ( f i n a n c i a l r e w a r d , p r o f e s s i o n a l improvement and the c h a l l e n g e of an u n u s u a l e x p e r i e n c e ) seem t o p e r f o r m b e t t e r i n t h e i r j o b s i n i s o l a t i o n ( Gunderson, 1973; N a r d i n i e t a l . 1972). O c c a s i o n a l l y p e r s o n n e l a r e m o t i v a t e d by t h e d e s i r e t o e s c a p e from f a m i l i a l or m a r i t a l p r o b l e m s ( P a l i n k a , 1985). B e h a v i o u r a l S e t t i n g The B e h a v i o u r a l S e t t i n g T e c h n i q u e c o n s i s t s o f o b s e r v i n g and r e c o r d i n g the t o t a l b e h a v i o u r of an i n d i v i d u a l i n a g i v e n p l a c e d u r i n g a s p e c i f i c t i m e p e r i o d . B e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n s a r e c o m p r i s e d of e v e n t s grouped under the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : a e s t h e t i c s , b u s i n e s s , e d u c a t i o n , government, n u t r i t i o n , p e r s o n a l a p p e a r a n c e , p h y s i c a l h e a l t h , p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m , r e c r e a t i o n , r e l i g i o n and s o c i a l c o n t a c t . The o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n of t h e B e h a v i o u r a l S e t t i n g T e c h n i q u e r e q u i r e d a f u l l y e a r o f o b s e r v a t i o n , and B e c h t e l (1977) a d a p t e d the t e c h n i q u e t o a week t o t e n d a y s ' u s e . The s p e c i f i c p r o c e d u r e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . 60 P e r c e p t i o n and Q u a l i t y of L i f e P e r c e p t i o n and t h e q u a l i t y of l i f e i n remote s e t t i n g s were a n a l y z e d by N i c k e l s e t a l . (1976a). They found an a s s o c i a t i o n between l e v e l s of a n x i e t y and d e p r e s s i o n d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r t i m e , as i n d i c a t e d by t h e time t h a t p e o p l e spend i n d o o r s . M a t h i e s o n (1970) s u g g e s t e d t h a t e n t e r t a i n m e n t and r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s a r e i m p o r t a n t t o the q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n remote s e t t i n g s , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e s e a s o n of the y e a r . In c o n t r a s t , Cram's (1969) a n a l y s i s on f o u r i s o l a t e d m i n i n g camps s u g g e s t s t h a t camps w i t h o u t major r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s e x p e r i e n c e d no l e s s s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a n f u l l f a c i l i t i e s camps. Lack of adequate r e c r e a t i o n , when combined w i t h t h e l a c k of j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s , l e a d s t o symptoms of community s t r e s s i n remote s e t t i n g s , p a r t i c u l a r l y among home-makers and s i n g l e f e m a l e s (Siemens, 1973). Siemens d e f i n e d t h e s e symptoms as extreme l o n e l i n e s s , m e n t a l h e a l t h problems e s p e c i a l l y d e p r e s s i o n , a l c o h o l i s m and p r o m i s c u i t y . J a c k s o n e t a l . ( 1 9 7 1 ) , u s i n g measures of a l i e n a t i o n , community s a t i s f a c t i o n , p a s t m i g r a t i o n and p r o s p e c t i v e m i g r a t i o n found no d i f f e r e n c e between n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n r e s i d e n t s of f o u r m i n i n g communities l o c a t e d i n Canada. 61 F a m i l i a l A d a p t a t i o n Few s t u d i e s have been c o n d u c t e d on d y a d i c a d j u s t m e n t , and t h e asse s s m e n t of the q u a l i t y of m a r r i a g e and s i m i l a r dyads ( S p a n i e r , 1976) i n p o l a r a r e a s . One minor example i s g i v e n by George (1984), i n which she s t u d i e d a s m a l l mixed gr o u p on an A n t a r c t i c e x p e d i t i o n . She c o n c l u d e d t h a t " t h e two m a l e - f e m a l e c o u p l e s were h i g h l y s t a b l e and e f f e c t i v e w o r k i n g teams" as compared t o the poor p e r f o r m a n c e of t h e two s i n g l e m a l e s . 3.3 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s The p r i n c i p a l p u r p o s e of t h i s t h e s i s was t o d i s c o v e r whether s i m i l a r e n v i r o n m e n t a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c i n d u c e s i m i l a r e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e s p o n s e s of s u b j e c t s . T hree h y p o t h e s e s r e g a r d i n g human r e s p o n s e t o t h e s e w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d p o l a r e n v i r o n m e n t s were d e v e l o p e d : 1. C r o s s - c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s among p o l a r e x p e r i m e n t a l groups l e a d t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . 2. Such p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s as s e a s o n a l p h o t o c y c l e s , c o l d and wind have a n e g a t i v e impact upon o v e r a l l p e r f o r m a n c e of human g r o u p s . 62 3. The d i f f e r e n c e s between the responses of men and women t o the environment are more pronounced i n p o l a r s e t t i n g s than i n urban s e t t i n g s . 63 CHAPTER 4. METHOD T h i s c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h the p r o c e d u r e s a d o p t e d by t h i s r e s e a r c h d e s i g n . Two s e c t i o n s a r e d e s c r i b e d . The f i r s t r e f e r s t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l component of t h e s t u d y , i . e . t h e c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s o f o r i g i n a l d i a r i e s , w h i l e the second r e f e r s t o t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y f i e l d phase of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , i . e , p o l a r e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s . 4.1. C o n t e n t A n a l y s i s P o l a r e x p l o r e r d i a r i e s have been s t u d i e d p r i m a r i l y by b i o g r a p h e r s who a n a l y z e t h e e v e n t s o f e x p l o r e r s ' l i v e s , e x p e r i e n c e s and a t t i t u d e s . These p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n s of p o l a r b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l a r e not u s u a l l y w r i t t e n t o p r o v i d e a s y s t e m a t i c or a n a l y t i c a c c o u n t of e v e n t s . I n s t e a d t h e y s e r v e m a i n l y as n a r r a t i v e s f o r p u b l i c c o n s u m p t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e d e v e n t s . In an a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e what human r e s p o n s e s t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t o c c u r r e d , the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l and b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l of s e l e c t e d members and l e a d e r s of 1 9 t h and 20th C e n t u r y A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c e x p e d i t i o n s was examined (Kane, 1856; N a r e s , 1878; W i l s o n , 1902, 1911; S c o t t , 1913; S h a c k l e t o n , 1917; B y r d , 1938; C h e r r y - G a r r a r d , 1952; S i l v e r b e r g , 1966; H u n t f o r d , 1980, 1985). 64 E m o t i o n a l and s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r of the members of p a s t e x p e d i t i o n s was i d e n t i f i e d . F o l l o w i n g t h i s phase, the s o u r c e s of d a t a were i d e n t i f i e d . The B r i t i s h Navy's i n t e r e s t i n n o r t h e r n p o l a r t r a v e l was p r i m a r i l y i n t h e d i s c o v e r y of t h e Northwest Passage and i n s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h . As a major n a v a l power, B r i t a i n took th e l e a d o v e r o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , and t h e B r i t i s h navy c o n d u c t e d most of t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c e x p e d i t i o n s i n t h i s p e r i o d . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s e l e c t i o n of o r i g i n a l d i a r i e s o f p o l a r e x p e d i t i o n s f o r a n a l y s i s i s from the B r i t i s h e x p e r i e n c e . The a v a i l a b i l i t y of o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l i n E n g l i s h was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d . The L i b r a r y and M a n u s c r i p t s C o l l e c t i o n of t h e S c o t t P o l a r R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e ( S P R I ) , a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Cambridge ( E n g l a n d ) , was the main s i t e f o r e x a m i n a t i o n of a wide range of b i o g r a p h i c a l p o l a r m a t e r i a l . The S e l e c t i o n of t h e D i a r i e s The s e l e c t i o n of t h e d i a r i e s f o r c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s was c o m p l e t e d a t SPRI, and was i n f l u e n c e d by what m a t e r i a l was a v a i l a b l e a t the i n s t i t u t i o n . 65 The c h o i c e was a l s o based upon the f o l l o w i n g : - l e n g t h of the e x p e d i t i o n i . e . a t l e a s t two y e a r s away, and the phases of t h e e x p e d i t i o n ( d e p a r t u r e from p o r t u n t i l d e p a r t u r e from t h e p o l a r e n v i r o n m e n t ) . A p r e l i m i n a r y r e a d i n g of the d i a r i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were a t l e a s t f o u r s i g n i f i c a n t phases w i t h i n t h e p e r i o d of a voyage: ( i ) The Aboard phase r e f e r s t o the f i r s t two months o f t h e voyage a f t e r t h e e x p e d i t i o n had s a i l e d from t h e p o r t o f d e p a r t u r e . ( i i ) The A r r i v a l phase c o m p r i s e s the f i r s t two months o f t h e e x p e d i t i o n a f t e r i t s a r r i v a l on the s i t e . ( i i i ) The M i d d l e o f W i n t e r r e f e r s t o the two months w i t h i n t h e w i n t e r p e r i o d . ( i v ) the D e p a r t u r e phase r e f e r r e d t o the two month p e r i o d p r i o r t o the d e p a r t u r e or r e l i e f of t h e e x p e d i t i o n from t h e s i t e . In two c a s e s , where t h e e x p e d i t i o n s had a l o n g d u r a t i o n p e r i o d ^ i . e . 3 t o 6 y e a r s , o n l y t h e w i n t e r phase was c o d e d . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t some of t h e a c c o u n t s were i n c o m p l e t e or n o t c o n t i n u o u s l y documented. 66 C o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s , 13 d i a r i e s were s e l e c t e d ( T a b l e 4.1). Of t h e s e o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l s , o n l y one A n t a r c t i c d i a r y ( i . e . T. Gran's) was coded from a book which was t h e f i r s t p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n i n E n g l i s h . A n o t h e r e x c e p t i o n i n v o l v e d t h e c o d i n g of a s h i p l o g , w r i t t e n by L e i g h - S m i t h . However, t h i s l o g was l a t e r e l i m i n a t e d from the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s b ecause o f the lower number of c i t a t i o n s . 4,1,1. C a t e g o r i e s ^nd Behavioural Dimensions To p e r f o r m t h e c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s i t was n e c e s s a r y t o r e v i e w t h e d a t a from the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l and d e t e r m i n e c a t e g o r i e s f o r t h e t y p e s of r e f e r e n c e s t o b o t h e n v i r o n m e n t and s o c i a l -p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s e . T h i s p r o c e s s was h e a v i l y dependent upon t h e judgment and e x p e r i e n c e of the a u t h o r , and i n d e e d , was i n danger o f p o t e n t i a l b i a s i n t h e r e s u l t s . To r e d u c e the b i a s , a range of s t r u c t u r e d s o l u t i o n s was p r e s e n t e d t o the r e s e a r c h g r o u p o f t h e UBC R e s t r i c t e d E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t i m u l a t i o n L a b o r a t o r y . On t h e b a s i s of d i s c u s s i o n and c o n s e n s u s , the f i n a l number of c a t e g o r i e s was r e d u c e d t o f o r t y - s i x . 67 TABLE 4.1 THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC EXPLORERS EXPEDITIONS AND NUMBER OF YEARS Explorers ARCTIC Expeditions Number of Years Adams Telegraph Western 1 (1865-7) Jaackson Jaackson Expedition 3 (1894-7) Lelgh-Smlth 'Eire,' Fifth Arot. Voyage 1 (1881-2) Nares Nares Arotio Exped. 1 (1875-6) Smith Telegraph Western 2 (1865-7) Steffanson Steffanson Exped. 6 (1906-12) ANTARCTIC Bernaoohi British Antarotlo 'Southern Cross' Exped. 2 (1898-1900) Cherry-Garrard British Antarotio Expedition 'Terra Nova' 2 (1910-13) Gran British Antarctic Expedition "Terra Nova' 2 (1910-13) Orde-Lees British Imperial Trans. Expedition 'Enduranoe' 1 (1915-16) Soott British Antarotio Expedition "Terra Nova' 2 (1910-12) Spencer-Smith British Imperial Trans. Expedition "Aurora' 1 (1914-16) Worsley British Imperial Trans. Expedition 'Endurance* 2 (1914-18) 68 Examples of the e l i m i n a t e d c a t e g o r i e s were m o s t l y i n t h e p e r c e p t u a l phenomena a r e a ^ e . g , v i s u a l , a u d i t o r y and p h y s i c a l h a l l u c i n a t i o n s and l u c i d dreams (see A p p e n d i x ) . The c a t e g o r i e s were: ( i ) P h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t s , where r e f e r e n c e s were made t o p h r a s e s and e v e n t u a l l y p a r a g r a p h s , as c o d i n g u n i t s named e n t r i e s . These e n t r i e s c o n c e r n e d the d i r e c t e f f e c t s of c o l d , wind and dark on a p p e t i t e , f a t i g u e , s l e e p and headache symptoms of the d i a r i s t s , ( i i ) P o s i t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d when t h e e n t r i e s d e n o t e d f e e l i n g s o f s e l f -e x p l o r a t i o n , s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e , p e r s o n a l autonomy, s e l f - e s t e e m and s e r e n i t y . Because of the s u b j e c t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n of t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s , a d e f i n i t i o n of each was p r o v i d e d as a g u i d e l i n e f o r c o d i n g . F o r example, s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n was coded when t h e w r i t e r d e n o t e d i n s i g h t s of a p h i l o s o p h i c a l n a t u r e , i n c l u d i n g s e l f -a p p r a i s a l and p e r s o n a l growth. S e l f - d i s c i p l i n e was coded when the e n t r y r e f e r r e d t o the r e g u l a t i o n s of t h e w r i t e r ' s own c o n d u c t i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t a s k s and group a c t i v i t i e s . P e r s o n a l autonomy r e f e r r e d t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n s i n e x e c u t i o n of t a s k s imposed by t h e l e a d e r or the w r i t e r . S e l f - e s t e e m was coded when the e n t r y r e f e r r e d t o f e e l i n g s of p l e a s u r e a t a g i v e n t a s k , w h i l e s e r e n i t y was r e c o r d e d when a p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g of peace p e r v a d e d the w r i t e r ' s e m o t i o n s , ( i i i ) S e n s i t i v i t y t o p h y s i c a l s t i m u l i was r e l a t e d t o l e v e l s o f awareness e x p e r i e n c e d by the e x p l o r e r s f a c i n g t h e m a g n i f i c e n c e and g r a n d e u r of a p o l a r l a n d s c a p e . 69 T h i s e n t r y r e l a t e d m o s t l y t o the p e r c e p t i o n of t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t ^ ( i v ) S e n s i t i v i t y t o s o c i a l s t i m u l i was i d e n t i f i e d when the e x p e d i t i o n a r y group members i n t e r a c t e d s o c i a l l y i n p a r t i e s , m u s i c a l r e c i t a l s and l e c t u r e s , (v) N e g a t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s were c o n s i d e r e d when d i a r y e n t r i e s d e n o t e d a n x i e t y , i r r i t a b i l i t y , boredom, h y g i e n e , m o t i v a t i o n d e c l i n e , l a c k of a l e r t n e s s or a p a t h y . The s u b j e c t i v e e l e m e n t of words and p h r a s e s w i t h i n a p a r a g r a p h were the c o d i n g u n i t s . F o r example, a n x i e t y i n most c a s e s a p p e a r e d t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e i c e c o n d i t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n t h e e m o t i o n a l s t a t e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . In some c a s e s t h e p h r a s e "I am a n x i o u s " was l i n k e d t o l i f e t h r e a t e n i n g s i t u a t i o n s and o t h e r g e n e r a l f e a r s . Boredom was coded when a s i m i l a r p h r a s e was e n t e r e d . . . " n o t h i n g t o do, i t i s always monotonous..." ( C h e r r y - G a r r a r d ) , ( v i ) P e r c e p t u a l phenomena i n c l u d e d dreams, r e l i g i o u s or t r a n s c e n d e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e s (RTE) and s e n s e d p r e s e n c e phenomena. Dreams were a n a l y s e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r c o n t e n t and v i v i d n e s s . A v i v i d dream was coded when the w r i t e r r e c o g n i z e d t h e dream, r e c a l l e d i t s c o n t e n t and d e s c r i b e d i t i n d e t a i l . RTE was a l s o coded when t h e e n t r i e s c onveyed s p i r i t u a l t h o u g h t s which mentioned God or a S u p e r i o r F o r c e . Sensed p r e s e n c e was coded when r e f e r e n c e s were made t o t h e p e r c e p t i o n or f e e l i n g t h a t a n o t h e r p e r s o n was p r e s e n t t h a t may have h e l p e d the w r i t e r t o cope w i t h a h a z a r d o u s s i t u a t i o n . 70 The C o n t e n t of t h e C a t e g o r i e s The c a t e g o r i e s d i s p l a y e d a p a i r of words; each p a i r showed a f e e l i n g d i m e n s i o n w i t h o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s a l o n g t h e co n t i n u u m . F o r example, boredom was d i v i d e d i n t o 'boredom', 'no e f f e c t ' and ' s t i m u l a t i o n 1 . When the w r i t e r m e n t i o n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t h a t he was b e i n g a f f e c t e d by boredom, the e n t r y was coded as 'boredom' i n t h e n e g a t i v e d i r e c t i o n ; when the s u b j e c t made c o n t e x t u a l r e f e r e n c e t o a f e e l i n g of monotony or boredom but w i t h o u t s t a t i n g t h a t he was a f f e c t e d by t h e e v e n t , t h e e n t r y was c o n s i d e r e d as h a v i n g no e f f e c t . P o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n was d e t e r m i n e d by e n t r i e s w hich e x p l a i n e d any form of w i t h d r a w a l from t h e boredom s i t u a t i o n , i . e . w a l k i n g , s i n g i n g , d r i n k i n g , r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g l e t t e r s . The P l e a s a n t n e s s and A r o u s a l V a l u e s F r e q u e n c y - c o u n t a n a l y s i s was employed t o i d e n t i f y t h e f r e q u e n c y of o c c u r r e n c e of words w i t h i n p h r a s e s l e a d i n g t o a c e r t a i n meaning l o c a t e d i n one of the 45 c a t e g o r i e s as i n d i c a t e d above. I t was assumed t h a t t h e f r e q u e n c y of r e f e r e n c e s t o c e r t a i n words c o u l d o f f e r a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e measure of the magnitude of the e v e n t r e v e a l i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e w r i t e r . 71 E i g h t y - s e v e n words were i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n t h e c a t e g o r i e s , e.g. s a t i s f i e d , m i s e r y , a l a r m i n g . These words were s e l e c t e d from p h r a s e s w i t h i n t h e a r e a s and c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o each d i a r i s t r e f e r e n c e . To o b t a i n a mean v a l u e p e r c e n t r a n g i n g from 0 to 100 i n p l e a s a n t n e s s and a r o u s a l , a t e s t u s i n g P s y c h o l o g y s t u d e n t s as s u b j e c t s was c o n d u c t e d . The s t u d e n t s r a t e d t h e words a c c o r d i n g l y and t h e s e v a l u e s were t h e n t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s d a t a (see A p p e n d i x ) . T h i s mean v a l u e r e p l a c e d t h e words w i t h i n t h e t h e o r i g i n a l t e x t , t h e n the a v e r a g e d means (%) were combined and c a l c u l a t e d by phases of e x p e d i t i o n s and p o l a r e x p l o r e r s . The l o w e s t mean v a l u e f o r p l e a s a n t n e s s was 14.25 (%) and the h i g h e s t was 64.68 (%). The l o w e s t p e r c e n t u a l v a l u e f o r a r o u s a l was 48.48 and the h i g h e s t was 70.98. T h i s p r o c e d u r e a l l o w e d a c l o s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the degr e e o f i n t e n s i t y of p l e a s a n t n e s s and a r o u s a l w i t h i n t h e c a t e g o r i e s by e a c h w r i t e r i n the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c . 4.2 The P o l a r E x p e r i m e n t a l Groups T h i s s e c t i o n a d d r e s s e s t h e g e n e r a l i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s and t h e o p e r a t i o n a l phases of the s t u d y . The f i e l d or c o n t e m p o r a r y segment o f t h i s s t u d y was d i v i d e d i n two phas e s , the t r a n s l a t i o n phase and t h e A n t a r c t i c and A r c t i c f i e l d phases ( r e v e r s e of A n t a r c t i c and A r c t i c r e f e r s t o t h e o r d e r t h a t t h e phase was c o n d u c t e d ) . 72 D i f f i c u l t i e s of v a r i o u s s o r t s which have been e x p e r i e n c e d i n a l l phases of the r e s e a r c h were mentioned. D i s t i n c t i o n s based on o c c u p a t i o n a l b ackground and n a t i o n a l i t y were c o n s i d e r e d . Among t h e f o u r p o l a r e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s , t h e A r c t i c g r o u p s (Mould Bay and Eureka) c o m p r i s e d of C a n a d i a n c i v i l i a n employees (N=16); and the A n t a r c t i c ones (Marambio and E s p e r a n z a ) c o m p r i s e d of A r g e n t i n i a n m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l (N=39). The n o r t h e r n sample b e l o n g e d t o permanent s t a f f o f t h e A t m o s p h e r i c E n v i r o n m e n t S e r v i c e , Department of E n v i r o n m e n t (Canada). The s o u t h e r n sample group were p a r t of t h e l o g i s t i c a l s u p p o r t u n i t of t h e N a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r a t e of A n t a r c t i c ( A r g e n t i n a ) . The T r a n s l a t i o n Phase Because of t h e s e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n i d i o m s , a l l t h e r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t s , i . e . s t a n d a r d i z e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s and u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s , were t r a n s l a t e d from E n g l i s h t o S p a n i s h , when t h e m a t e r i a l was not a v a i l a b l e from s p e c i a l i z e d s o u r c e s i n S p a n i s h . F i f t e e n r e s e a r c h t o o l s , i . e . p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , were used. Of t h e s e , o n l y s i x i n s t r u m e n t s were a v a i l a b l e i n S p a n i s h i n the e q u i v a l e n t forms t o the o r i g i n a l E n g l i s h v e r s i o n s . 73 The r e m a i n i n g t e s t s which r e q u i r e d t r a n s l a t i o n were s e n t t o a p r o f e s s i o n a l E n g l i s h - S p a n i s h t r a n s l a t o r . To e s t a b l i s h c r o s s -language e q u i v a l e n c e , a group of v o l u n t e e r b i l i n g u a l s u b j e c t s f o r a n s w e r i n g t h e p r e l i m i n a r y t r a n s l a t i o n were c h o s e n . These b i l i n g u a l s u b j e c t s came from d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s i n South A m e r i c a , which p r e s e n t e d a d d i t i o n a l p r o b l e m s i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of words w i t h ' f e e l i n g c o n n o t a t i o n s ' p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l a t e d t o items e x p r e s s e d i n i d i o m a t i c l a n g u a g e ( i n E n g l i s h ) . T h i s p r o b l e m was a l s o emphasized by S p i e l b e r g e r e t a l . (1971) and S p i e l b e r g e r & Sharma (1972). To s o l v e t h i s d i f f i c u l t y , a second method, t h e b a c k - t r a n s l a t i o n p r o c e d u r e ( B r i s l i n , 1970), was a t t e m p t e d . V e r s i o n s i n S p a n i s h and E n g l i s h were g i v e n i n a c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d o r d e r t o the b i l i n g u a l s u b j e c t s ; t h a t i s , a f i r s t group r e c e i v e d t h e i r v e r s i o n s i n E n g l i s h w h i l e t h e s e c o n d group worked on t h e i r v e r s i o n s i n S p a n i s h . A f t e r e a c h group had t r a n s l a t e d t h e i r v e r s i o n s , the S p a n i s h - E n g l i s h v e r s i o n s were i n t e r c h a n g e d and a f i n a l form of each t e s t was p r o d u c e d . T h i s form was s e n t t o a p r o f e s s i o n a l b i l i n g u a l t r a n s l a t o r s p e c i a l i z i n g i n p s y c h o m e t r i c m a t e r i a l . F o r t u n a t e l y , t h e t e s t s s u c h as the p e r s o n a l i t y and a n x i e t y ones, were a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e i n S p a n i s h . I t i s c o n v e n i e n t t o mention t h a t t h e a u t h o r i s f l u e n t i n S p a n i s h and E n g l i s h , an i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o o l f o r a l l t h e r e s e a r c h phases of t h i s b e h a v i o u r a l r e s e a r c h . 74 Once the t r a n s l a t i o n phase of the r e s e a r c h p r o c e d u r e s was c o m p l e t e d , a s e t of t e s t s was p r e p a r e d , accompanied by a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r i n S p a n i s h and E n g l i s h . A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e p r o j e c t , i n v e s t i g a t o r s , p r o c e d u r e s of work w i t h human s u b j e c t s and a c o n s e n t form were some of t h e items c o v e r e d by t h i s l e t t e r . The c o n s e n t form was r e a d and s i g n e d by each s u b j e c t and r e t u r n e d t o the p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r i n t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e t r a n s l a t i o n phase as w e l l as the f i e l d phase i n each of the s i t e s . The A n t a r c t i c F i e l d Phase The f i e l d phase was i n i t i a t e d a t the A n t a r c t i c s i t e s because of the a u t h o r ' s a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h the A n t a r c t i c T r e a t y c o u n t r i e s . I t was t h o u g h t t h a t t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n would f a c i l i t a t e t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i p l o m a t i c p r o c e d u r e s which a r e n e c e s s a r y c h a n n e l s t o any A n t a r c t i c r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . R e s e a r c h p e r m i s s i o n was r e q u e s t e d by UBC, F a c u l t y of Graduate S t u d i e s , from t h e Academic D i v i s i o n of the Department of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s of Canada. P e r m i s s i o n was g r a n t e d by C h i l e , and l a t e r by A r g e n t i n a , t o c o n d u c t r e s e a r c h i n t h e i r s i t e s . However, p r o b l e m s c a u s e d by i n t e r n a t i o n a l m a i l and o t h e r l o g i s t i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s , i n c l u d i n g q u e s t i o n s of a s o c i a l n a t u r e ( e . g . r e s e a r c h p e r m i s s i o n from t h e Base commander a t t h e s i t e ) , were the main c a u s e s of t h e w i t h d r a w a l of the C h i l e a n s i t e from the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n . 75 The A n t a r c t i c f i e l d phase a t the A r g e n t i n i a n s i t e s , was c o n d u c t e d d u r i n g t h r e e weeks of the e a r l y s o u t h e r n w i n t e r i n A p r i l and May of 1986. An a d d i t i o n a l p e r i o d of t w e n t y days was u t i l i z e d a t Buenos A i r e s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e t e s t s t o t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . The A r c t i c F i e l d Phase The A r c t i c f i e l d phase r e q u i r e d a c h o i c e of s i t e s t h a t had some degre e of c o m p a r a b i l i t y w i t h the A n t a r c t i c s t a t i o n s . The s i t e s t h e m s e l v e s had t o have s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h as p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n , p e r s o n n e l and a w i n t e r o b s e r v a t i o n t i m e . R e s e a r c h p e r m i s s i o n was r e q u i r e d from the a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d , and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t had t o be a r r a n g e d . The f i r s t a t t e m p t i n e a r l y 1986 t o o b t a i n r e s e a r c h p e r m i s s i o n and s u p p o r t t o use C o m i n c o / P o l a r i s Mine on L i t t l e C o r n w a l l i s I s l a n d , and t h e Department of N a t i o n a l D e f e n s e , C.F.B. A l e r t , were u n s u c c e s s f u l . With the h e l p of p r o f e s s o r s of t h e Department of Geography of UBC, t h e A r c t i c O p e r a t i o n s of t h e A t m o s p h e r i c E n v i r o n m e n t S e r v i c e (AES) was c o n t a c t e d i n O c t o b e r o f 1986, and p e r m i s s i o n and p a r t i a l f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t was g r a n t e d f o r t h e p r o j e c t . The H i g h A r c t i c Weather s t a t i o n s of AES, w h i l e comparable t o t h e A r c t i c s i t e s i n s e a s o n a l t i m e of t h e y e a r , i s o l a t i o n and human p a r a m e t e r s , were not c o m p a r a b l e i n l a t i t u d e . 76 The l a t i t u d e would have an e f f e c t on the p h o t o c y c l e and, t h e r e f o r e , human r e s p o n s e s . The l a t i t u d e range f o r t h e A r c t i c s i t e s was between 76° and 80 °N w h i l e the A n t a r c t i c s i t e s were l o c a t e d a t r a n g e s of 63° t o 6 4 ° S . The r e s e a r c h was c o n d u c t e d d u r i n g t h r e e weeks from e a r l y J a n u a r y u n t i l t h e end of F e b r u a r y , 1987 a t bo t h A r c t i c s i t e s . 4.2.1. The A r c t i c Group The A r c t i c r e s e a r c h used two e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s l o c a t e d a t t h e Mould Bay ( P r i n c e P a t r i c k I s l a n d ) and E u r e k a ( E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d ) Weather S t a t i o n s , and one c o n t r o l group a t R e s o l u t e Bay ( C o r n w a l l i s I s l a n d ) . The High A r c t i c S t a t i o n s The Human E n v i r o n m e n t of Mould Bay The human e n v i r o n m e n t of Mould Bay c o m p r i s e d e i g h t males and one f e m a l e , i n a d d i t i o n t o the r e s e a r c h e r . Ages r a n g e d from t w e n t y - t h r e e t o f i f t y - f i v e y e a r s . The mean p e r i o d of e x p o s u r e t o i s o l a t i o n was 2.44 months, i n c l u d i n g two members of t h e grou p who had not p r e v i o u s l y e x p e r i e n c e d an i s o l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t . 77 The f o l l o w i n g s t r e s s o r s a c t i n g on the group were i d e n t i f i e d by means of p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n r e p o r t s and p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s : ( i ) the p r o l o n g e d absence of d a y l i g h t . ( i i ) the extreme c o l d . ( i i i ) t he n e a r n e s s of the C h r i s t m a s s e a s o n . The b e h a v i o u r a l s e t t i n g s i d e n t i f i e d a t Mould Bay were l o c a t e d m a i n l y a t t h e O p e r a t i o n s Complex ( m e t e o r o l o g i c a l o f f i c e , d i n i n g -and TV-room) and s t a f f b a r r a c k s . The l o c a t i o n of t h e r e c r e a t i o n h a l l i s not o p t i m a l which may have a g g r a v a t e d t h e s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n e f f e c t . The Human E n v i r o n m e n t of E u r e k a At E u r e k a t h e group was composed of e i g h t males and one female i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r . Ages r a n g e d from twenty-two t o f o r t y - t w o y e a r s w i t h a mean of 32.14 y e a r s . Two members of t h e group d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y and o n l y s e v e n of the group of s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d . The mean exp o s u r e t o i s o l a t i o n was 2.57 months. 78 O n l y f i v e of the s u b j e c t s had p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n remote l o c a t i o n s , one had none and the r e m a i n i n g one had o n l y a summer i n a s e m i - i s o l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t . S t r e s s o r s i d e n t i f i e d were: ( i ) the dark p e r i o d . ( i i ) the c o l d . ( i i i ) t he absence of l o v e d ones, s i n c e f r e e and f r e q u e n t communication w i t h f a m i l i e s a c t e d as a c o n s t a n t r e i n f o r c e m e n t of s u b j e c t s ' e m o t i o n a l - a f f e c t i v e needs. B e h a v i o u r a l s e t t i n g s , where the s u b j e c t s spend most of t h e i r t i m e , were i d e n t i f i e d as t h e d i n i n g - r o o m , t h e m e t e o r o l o g i c a l o f f i c e and the r e c r e a t i o n h a l l . The b u i l d i n g d e s i g n a t E u r e k a , w i t h some of t h e modules c o n n e c t e d , f a c i l i t a t e d most of t h e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n among group members. T h i s i n c r e a s e i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n was e v i d e n t i n the r e c r e a t i o n h a l l o f E u r e k a . At b o t h Mould Bay and E u r e k a e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t e s , s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d t h r o u g h o b s e r v a t i o n s and r e p o r t s , u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s , s t r u c t u r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l measures. These measures were a d m i n i s t e r e d d u r i n g a three-week p e r i o d a t each s i t e . 79 Data c o l l e c t i o n began 3 t o 4 days a f t e r the a r r i v a l of the r e s e a r c h e r a t the s i t e s ; as the A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i e n c e had shown, s u b j e c t s ' c o n f i d e n c e i n the r e s e a r c h and t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r needs t o be a c q u i r e d and c o n s o l i d a t e d b e f o r e a d m i n i s t e r i n g t e s t s . An i n t r o d u c t o r y m e e t i n g w i t h the group was c o n d u c t e d where a l l i n q u i r i e s were answered. Then a t i m e - t a b l e was o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of each s u b j e c t , and a l l t e s t s were answered d u r i n g a f i v e - d a y p e r i o d , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of the d a i l y a p p l i c a t i o n measures. The l a t t e r were d e p o s i t e d i n a s e a l e d box p l a c e d i n the d i n i n g room and c o l l e c t e d by the r e s e a r c h e r d a i l y . Some of the s u b j e c t s r e q u i r e d a l o n g e r p e r i o d of t i m e t o answer the t e s t s . F o r example, the C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l I n v e n t o r y (CPI) which n o r m a l l y t a k e s one hour t o c o m p l e t e , was answered i n a two t o t h r e e - h o u r p e r i o d . I n t e r v i e w s were r e c o r d e d d u r i n g the second week on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . The t h i r d week was used f o r d a t a g a t h e r i n g u s i n g the B e h a v i o u r a l S e t t i n g T e c h n i q u e and i n f o r m a l t a l k s w i t h t h e members of the g r o u p . 80 The Human E n v i r o n m e n t of R e s o l u t e Bay R e s o l u t e Bay i s the s i t e of the c o n t r o l group f o r t h i s phase. Because i t has f r e q u e n t l y s c h e d u l e d a i r c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h s o u t h e r n Canada and t h e p r e s e n c e of an I n u i t community e i g h t k i l o m e t r e s from the a i r p o r t f a c i l i t i e s , t he s i t e i s not c l a s s i f i e d as an i s o l a t e d one. S u b j e c t s f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h were employees of the A t m o s p h e r i c E n v i r o n m e n t S e r v i c e and M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t (MOT). The AES s t a f f c o n s i s t e d of f i v e p e r s o n s ; t o p r o v i d e a i n c r e a s e i n the s m a l l number of s u b j e c t s (from N=5 t o N=13) i t was n e c e s s a r y t o i n c l u d e some s u b j e c t s from MOT (N=9). Ages f o r t h e groups r a n g e d from 28 t o 60 y e a r s w i t h a mean of 41.46 y e a r s . Almost a l l i n d i v i d u a l s had p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n i s o l a t e d or s e m i - i s o l a t e d s i t e s e x c e p t one s u b j e c t . The j o b a s s i g n m e n t f o r AES p e r s o n n e l was f o u r t o f i v e months, w h i l e t h e j o b a s s i g n m e n t f o r the MOT s t a f f c o n s i s t e d of e i g h t months. A l t h o u g h t h e c o n t r o l group was not e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y i n human and e n v i r o n m e n t a l p a r a m e t e r s , the r e l a t i v e l y permanent c h a r a c t e r of the m a j o r i t y of group members, i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a f c e s s i b i l i t y , e s t a b l i s h e d t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s between n o r t h e r n c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s . The mean p e r i o d of e x p o s u r e t o i s o l a t i o n was 9.72 months. 81 Some of the s t r e s s o r s i d e n t i f i e d were: ( i ) b e i n g away from t h e i r f a m i l i e s . ( i i ) j o b d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . The l i v i n g q u a r t e r s of a l l s u b j e c t s were l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e A i r p o r t O p e r a t i o n a l Complex i n h a b i t a t i o n a l modules, w i t h t h e r e c r e a t i o n h a l l , TV-room and gymnasium f a c i l i t i e s l o c a t e d w i t h i n the same complex. At t h i s s i t e , d a t a c o l l e c t i o n was c o m p l e t e d i n f o u r d a y s . A f t e r an i n t r o d u c t o r y m e e t i n g , v o l u n t e e r s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d and t e s t s e s s i o n s were i n i t i a t e d . These s e s s i o n s demanded most of the a f t e r n o o n s of t h e f o u r d a y s . I n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d o n l y w i t h AES p e r s o n n e l because of the r e s e a r c h e r ' s t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s . 4.2.2 The A n t a r c t i c Group The A n t a r c t i c groups i n c l u d e d two e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s s t a t i o n e d a t Marambio Base (Seymour I s l a n d ) and a t E s p e r a n z a Base ( n o r t h e r n t i p of A n t a r c t i c P e n i n s u l a ) and one c o n t r o l group l o c a t e d a t Buenos A i r e s . 82 The A n t a r c t i c S t a t i o n s The Human E n v i r o n m e n t of Marambio The human e n v i r o n m e n t of Marambio was e s s e n t i a l l y m a s c u l i n e , w i t h f i f t y - t w o men w o r k i n g as p a r t of the s t a f f of the A i r F o r c e M i n i s t r y of A r g e n t i n a . The Base p r o v i d e s t h e main l o g i s t i c a l a i r s u p p o r t f o r the A n t a r c t i c O p e r a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e y e a r . With no f a c i l i t i e s f o r women w i t h i n the p l a n n e d r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , t h e t e s t s u s i n g permanent s u b j e c t s had t o be m o d i f i e d . With th e h e l p of the m e d i c a l o f f i c e r , an i n t r o d u c t o r y m e e t i n g was o r g a n i z e d w h i l s t the r e s e a r c h e r was w a i t i n g f o r a f l i g h t t o E s p e r a n z a . At t h i s m e e t i n g a l l i n q u i r i e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e s e a r c h were answered. T h i r t e e n s u b j e c t s , who had a p p l i e d f o r a o ne-year j o b p o s i t i o n i n A n t a r c t i c a , were c h o s e n . These s u b j e c t s were c a l l e d 'permanent' ones, s i n c e the r e m a i n i n g p e r s o n n e l s t a t i o n e d on the Base were t h e r e o n l y t e m p o r a r i l y . A l t h o u g h s e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s was c o n f i n e d t o t h o s e who were i n t h e 'permanent' s t a f f group ( t o p r e s e r v e s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n e x p o s u r e ) , f o u r members of t h e g r o u p had r e c e n t l y r e t u r n e d from a one month h o l i d a y , which c o u l d have had a minor e f f e c t upon the s u b j e c t s ' s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n . 83 F o l l o w i n g the s e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s , the d a i l y a p p l i c a t i o n measurements were d i s t r i b u t e d and the m e d i c a l o f f i c e r a g r e e d t o be i n c h a r g e of m o n i t o r i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n s o v e r a three-week p e r i o d . The o t h e r p s y c h o m e t r i c t e s t s were s c h e d u l e d t o be answered t h r e e weeks l a t e r , on the r e t u r n o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r from E s p e r a n z a . Meanwhile, r a d i o c o n t a c t s were m a i n t a i n e d between the r e s e a r c h e r and t h e m e d i c a l o f f i c e r t o i d e n t i f y and c o r r e c t any problems w i t h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e d a i l y m easures. The p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s a t Marambio were answered over f o u r s e s s i o n s which demanded an a v e r a g e of two t o t h r e e h o u r s e v e r y e v e n i n g . Ages r a n g e d from 28 t o 44 y e a r s w i t h t h e mean a t 34.84 y e a r s . The mean p e r i o d of e x p o s u r e t o the i s o l a t i o n s i t u a t i o n was 1.4 months and a l l s u b j e c t s had had p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n i s o l a t e d or s e m i - i s o l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t s . S t r e s s o r s were i d e n t i f i e d as f o l l o w s : ( i ) p r o l o n g e d wind s t o r m s . ( i i ) the absence of l o v e d ones. The b u i l d i n g d e s i g n and l a y o u t c o n s i s t e d of a t t a c h e d modules c o n t a i n i n g the l i v i n g q u a r t e r s , r e c r e a t i o n h a l l , d i n i n g - a n d TV-room. The o p e r a t i o n s complex was l o c a t e d i n a s e c o n d a r y wing which was a t t a c h e d t o the main c e n t r a l s t r u c t u r e . 84 The Human E n v i r o n m e n t of E s p e r a n z a E s p e r a n z a was a unique r e s e a r c h s i t e because of i t s group c o m p o s i t i o n , l o c a t i o n and b u i l d i n g l a y o u t . The permanent group (N=26) of E s p e r a n z a was composed of two major u n i t s : f o u r f a m i l i e s (N=8) and t h e i r c h i l d r e n (N=8) p l u s s i n g l e p e r s o n n e l . T h i s l a t t e r group i n c l u d e d b o t h m a r r i e d and u n m a r r i e d p e r s o n s . S t a t i o n p e r s o n n e l had s e p a r a t e houses f o r t h e i r l i v i n g q u a r t e r s . The s i t e c o n s i s t e d of t h i r t e e n a g g r e g a t e d houses ( t h r e e bedrooms) i n a d d i t i o n t o o t h e r b u i l d i n g s , i . e . o p e r a t i o n s , n u r s i n g s t a t i o n , mess, c h a p e l , s c h o o l , b r o a d c a s t i n g s t a t i o n , e t c . F a m i l i e s u n i t s were a l l o c a t e d houses on a r r i v a l . S i n g l e p e r s o n n e l were grouped a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s i n the r e m a i n i n g h o u s e s . A house was a l s o r e s e r v e d f o r g u e s t s and o t h e r v i s i t o r s . E a ch house had a complete k i t c h e n a r e a , and meals c o u l d be made by t h e r e s i d e n t s on weekends or c o u l d be s u p p l i e d by the mess. Because of f r e q u e n t wind s t o r m s , human t r a f f i c i n and out of h o u s e s , mess and o p e r a t i o n s complex i s o f t e n r e s t r i c t e d . Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s p e o p l e s p e n t more time i n s m a l l groups (roommates) r a t h e r t h a n d e v e l o p i n g a r a p p o r t w i t h the members of the community, which o c c u r r e d d u r i n g normal meal t i m e s . 85 The group s t a t i o n e d a t E s p e r a n z a had an a v e r a g e age of 31.98 years. The women had an av e r a g e age of 33.75 y e a r s , r a n g i n g from 28 t o 41 y e a r s . The men's age a v e r a g e d 30.22 y e a r s , r a n g i n g from 24 t o 44 y e a r s . Of t h e f o u r women, o n l y one had p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e of l i v i n g i n A n t a r c t i c a , f o r a y e a r , but a n o t h e r had l i v e d i n a semi - i s o l a t e d m ountain e n v i r o n m e n t ; the r e m a i n i n g two women had no e x p e r i e n c e i n i s o l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t s . Of the twe n t y - two men, a l l of them had had p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n i s o l a t e d or s e m i - i s o l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t s , and two c h i l d r e n aged 12 and 10 y e a r s o l d , had p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e of l i v i n g f o r one y e a r i n A n t a r c t i c a . The averag e age of the c h i l d r e n was 7.6 y e a r s (two g i r l s and s i x boys) r a n g i n g from 4 y e a r s t o 12 y e a r s . The mean e x p o s u r e t o i s o l a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s was 4.5 months. Because of t h e s i z e and c o m p o s i t i o n of the gr o u p , mixed i n gender and c o m p r i s e d of a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n , d a t a c o l l e c t i o n had t o be m o d i f i e d a c c o r d i n g l y . With the h e l p of t h e m e d i c a l o f f i c e r , an i n t r o d u c t o r y m e e t i n g w i t h t h e a d u l t s was a r r a n g e d two days a f t e r t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s a r r i v a l on t h e s i t e . A t t h e end of t h i s m e e t i n g the d a i l y a p p l i c a t i o n measures were d i s t r i b u t e d and t h e c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d e p o s i t e d i n a box l o c a t e d i n the d i n i n g - r o o m . The m e d i c a l o f f i c e r o r g a n i z e d t h e s u b j e c t ' s t i m e - t a b l e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r work s h i f t s . 86 As a l l the women p e r f o r m e d j o b s a t the b r o a d c a s t i n g s t a t i o n and s c h o o l , two groups were o r g a n i z e d over f o u r t e s t s e s s i o n s . The f i r s t group was s c h e d u l e d t o answer the t e s t s d u r i n g mornings and the sec o n d i n the a f t e r n o o n s . A l s o , i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d o n l y w i t h the f a m i l y members and the s u b j e c t s who had e x p e r i e n c e d "sensed p r e s e n c e " phenomena (N=5) . The f o l l o w i n g s t r e s s o r s were i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n r e p o r t s : ( i ) the s t r o n g wind s t o r m s . ( i i ) t he c e l l s of s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n . ( i i i ) t he l a c k of s o c i a l c o n t a c t between men and women as members of t h e gr o u p . The C o n t r o l Group i n Buenos A i r e s The c o n t r o l group c o m p r i s e d of sev e n m a r r i e d c o u p l e s , s e v e n men and s e v e n women who had been p r e - s e l e c t e d by A n t a r c t i c O p e r a t i o n s t o spend a y e a r i n A n t a r c t i c a . T h i s f a c t was jud g e d as a p o s i t i v e one because b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups had been s e l e c t e d w i t h t h e same p r o c e d u r e . The o n l y d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e s e two group s was the ex p o s u r e t o t h e p o l a r e x p e r i e n c e of the e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s . Men b e l o n g e d t o t h e Army and most of t h e i r wives p e r f o r m e d j o b s i n d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s o u t s i d e the Army e n v i r o n m e n t . 87 T e s t s were c o n d u c t e d over two a f t e r n o o n s e s s i o n s and no d a i l y t e s t s were g i v e n t o t h e s u b j e c t s . Ages ranged from 2 4 t o 37 y e a r s f o r the e n t i r e group and ranged from 24 t o 36 y e a r s f o r the women and 31 t o 35 y e a r s o l d f o r men. The a v e r a g e age f o r women was 31.42 y e a r s w h i l e f o r the men i t was 33 y e a r s . Thus the a v e r a g e age f o r t h e whole group was 32.21 y e a r s . None of t h e s u b j e c t s had p r e v i o u s l y been exposed t o i s o l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t s and o n l y two of t h e s u b j e c t s had had a s h o r t e x p e r i e n c e i n a semi - i s o l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t . 4.2.3. B e h a v i o u r a l C a t e g o r i e s The b e h a v i o u r a l components of t h i s r e s e a r c h were d e s i g n e d t o c o v e r many a r e a s . P e r s o n a l i t y was cho s e n as p a r t of an a t t e m p t t o u n d e r s t a n d the human mind i n i s o l a t i o n . E n v i r o n m e n t a l p e r c e p t i o n , a f f e c t i o n , community b e h a v i o u r and s o c i a l s t r e s s were c h o s e n t o f a c i l i t a t e t he u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the complex r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d i v i d u a l s and u n u s u a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . B e h a v i o u r a l components and the i n s t r u m e n t s w i t h which t h e y were a n a l y z e d a r e d i s c u s s e d below. 88 P e r s o n a l i t y and P e r c e p t i o n The p e r s o n a l i t y and p e r c e p t u a l a r e a d e a l s w i t h a v a r i e t y of p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , from e m o t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t t o a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s . The f o l l o w i n g t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d : S t a t e - T r a i t A n x i e t y (STAI, S p i e l b e r g e r , 1970), C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l I n v e n t o r y (CPI, Gough, 1975) and M y e r s - B r i g g s Type I n d i c a t o r (MBTI, Myers & C a u l l e y , 1986). STAI a n a l y s e s t h e t e m p o r a r y and s t a b l e l e v e l s of a n x i e t y , w h i l e CPI measures s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e t e n d e n c i e s a c r o s s t w e n t y s u b s c a l e s . CPI a l s o y i e l d e d i n d i c e s on l e a d e r s h i p c a p a b i l i t i e s , work o r i e n t a t i o n , management p o t e n t i a l and s o c i a l m a t u r i t y . MBTI i d e n t i f i e s the b a s i c p r e f e r e n c e s of t h e group and i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h r e g a r d t o p e r c e p t i o n and judgment a c r o s s f o u r s c a l e s of I n t r o v e r s i o n - E x t r o v e r s i o n , S e n s i n g -I n t u i t i o n , T h i n k i n g - F e e l i n g , and J u d g i n g - P e r c e p t i o n . E n v i r o n m e n t a l P e r c e p t i o n E n v i r o n m e n t a l p e r c e p t i o n was chosen t o show how t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i s p e r c e i v e d by s u b j e c t s who f a c e p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n and u n u s u a l a s p e c t s of o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s . The t e s t s used were: the P e r s o n and E n v i r o n m e n t Mood S c a l e (RMS/P; RMS/E, M e h a r a b i a n & R u s s e l l , 1974); the E n v i r o n m e n t a l Response I n v e n t o r y (ERI, McKechnie, 1974), and the S e n s a t i o n S e e k i n g S c a l e (SSS, Zuckerman, 1979 ) . 89 RMS a n a l y z e s the p e r c e i v e d a s p e c t s of a p e r s o n i n an e n v i r o n m e n t , and ERI r e l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i s p o s i t i o n s , i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and how a s u b j e c t r e a c t e d t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . SSS s e a r c h e d f o r b e h a v i o u r a l t r a i t , which appear i n some i n d i v i d u a l s who r e q u i r e v a r i e d , n o v e l and complex e x p e r i e n c e s t o m a i n t a i n an o p t i m a l l e v e l of a r o u s a l . A f f e c t i v e B e h a v i o u r and Emoti o n s T h i s a r e a d e a l s w i t h the g e n e r a l f e e l i n g s and e m o t i o n s of t h e s u b j e c t s over t i m e . L i f e S t r e s s E v e n t s ( L i n d e n , 1984) and B i o g r a p h i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n ( R i v o l i e r , 1975) were the t e s t s a p p l i e d . L i f e S t r e s s E v e n t s s e a r c h f o r i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o u r and changes r e l a t e d t o t h e s i t u a t i o n s e x p e r i e n c e d . B i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a i n c l u d e d emographic v a r i a b l e s and f a m i l y c o m p o s i t i o n . Community B e h a v i o u r Community b e h a v i o u r d e a l s w i t h an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of how s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l i s o l a t i o n a f f e c t s community a d a p t a t i o n t o s o c i a l c hanges, s u c h as a d j u s t m e n t , p e r c e p t i o n and q u a l i t y o f l i f e . S a t i s f a c t i o n & S o c i a b i l i t y (S & S, N i c k e l s , 1976), B e h a v i o u r S e t t i n g S u r v e y (BSS, B e c h t e l & L e d b e t t n e r , 1976) and L e i s u r e A c t i v i t i e s Blank (LAB, McKechnie, 1975) were t e s t e d . 90 S & S, which was a p p l i e d d a i l y over a three-week p e r i o d , measures the f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t s u b j e c t s e x p e r i e n c e d from l i v i n g and w o r k i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n . BSS c o n s i s t s of t h e o b s e r v a t i o n and r e c o r d i n g of t h e t o t a l b e h a v i o u r of an i n d i v i d u a l i n a g i v e n p l a c e d u r i n g a s p e c i f i c time p e r i o d . The c a t e g o r i e s coded were a e s t h e t i c s , b u s i n e s s , e d u c a t i o n , government, n u t r i t i o n , p e r s o n a l a p p e a r a n c e , p h y s i c a l h e a l t h , p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m , r e c r e a t i o n and s o c i a l c o n t a c t . LAB i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e s u b j e c t ' s p a s t , p r e s e n t and f u t u r e l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o h i s / h e r p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . S o c i a l S t r e s s Measures of s o c i a l s t r e s s i n v e s t i g a t e c e r t a i n r e a c t i o n s t o s o c i a l and i n d i v i d u a l s t r e s s , caused by p r o l o n g e d p r e s e n c e i n an i s o l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t . The t e s t s were Mood & S l e e p (MS, IBEA, 1984), S t r e s s & A r o u s a l (SA, Cox & Mackay, 1985), Hopkins ( D e r o g a t i s e t a l . 1974) and I m a g i n a t i o n I n v e n t o r y ( B a r b e r & W i l s o n , 1979). MS a n a l y z e s s l e e p p a t t e r n s and the g e n e r a l mood of t h e s u b j e c t s on a d a i l y b a s i s f o r three-week p e r i o d . SA and H o p k i n s measure the l e v e l s of p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e s t r e s s and a r o u s a l , w h i l e the I m a g i n a t i o n I n v e n t o r y i s a measure of i m a g e r y phenomena. 91 Other Methods Because of the p r e s e n c e of f a m i l i e s a t t h e A n t a r c t i c s i t e of E s p e r a n z a , an a d d i t i o n a l p s y c h o m e t r i c i n s t r u m e n t , t h e m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t s c a l e ( S p a n i e r , 1976) was used. T h i s aimed t o a s s e s s the q u a l i t y of a m a r r i a g e and s i m i l a r dyads f o r t h e c o u p l e s i n the A n t a r c t i c and i n the c o n t r o l g r o u p . In a d d i t i o n t o p s y c h o m e t r i c measures, p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n and i n t e r v i e w s were a l s o used i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . The p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e c o n s i s t e d of k e e p i n g a d i a r y of t h e b e h a v i o u r a l e v e n t s c o n c e r n i n g g r o u p b e h a v i o u r , i n t r a - g r o u p p r o b l e m s and p e r s o n n e l a d j u s t m e n t and c o m p a t i b i l i t y . I n t e r v i e w s i n t h e A r c t i c and the A n t a r c t i c were based on two f o r m a t s , u n s t r u c t u r e d and i n f o r m a l t a l k s . The d i s c u s s i o n d u r i n g t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s f a c i l i t a t e d t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s e n s e d p r e s e n c e phenomena and o v e r a l l community b e h a v i o u r . Sensed p r e s e n c e phenomena was i d e n t i f i e d p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h t h e i n f o r m a l t a l k s and t h e n r e p o r t s of f i v e c a s e s were c o n f i r m e d by the m e d i c a l o f f i c e r . The complete d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e e v e n t ( d a t e , f r e q u e n c y , n a r r a t i v e , weather c o n d i t i o n s , e m o t i o n a l s t a t e of the s u b j e c t ) f o r each i n d i v i d u a l was i n t h e r e c o r d e d r e p o r t s . 92 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s The number of o b s e r v a t i o n s u s i n g t h e same s u b j e c t s , t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s of p s y c h o m e t r i c t e s t s and o t h e r measures, the f r e q u e n c y of t h e s e measures and the p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t of t h e s t u d y , e.g. c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s , were the d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r s i n c h o o s i n g th e v a r i o u s s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s . C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e major purpose of t h e a n a l y s i s was t o a s s e s s the a s s o c i a t i o n among a group of dependent v a r i a b l e s , the most a p p r o p r i a t e t e s t s f o r t h e p s y c h o m e t r i c m a t e r i a l was Anova ( U n i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e ) and Manova ( M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e ) . The purpose of Manova and Anova i s t o t e s t whether mean d i f f e r e n c e s among groups a r e l i k e l y t o have o c c u r r e d by c h a n c e , and t e s t i f the mean d i f f e r e n c e s a r e r e l i a b l e . T h i s r e s e a r c h shows more t h a n one i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ( e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s ) and s e v e r a l dependent v a r i a b l e s ( d i m e n s i o n s of a n a l y s i s of s e v e r a l t e s t s ) , t h e r e f o r e , the need f o r M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e . Even w i t h i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y , by m e a s u r i n g s e v e r a l dependent v a r i a b l e s , i n s t e a d of o n l y one, the o v e r a l l a n a l y s i s would improve the chance of d i s c o v e r i n g changes p r o d u c e d by d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t s , i . e . s e r i e s of Anovas f o r one of each dependent v a r i a b l e . The p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t Type I E r r o r i s r e l a t i v e l y g u a r a n t e e d . 93 I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t some of the Manova t e s t s ( W i l k s Lambda) have shown s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n , a l t h o u g h w i t h no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s i n some of t h e a n a l y z e d d i m e n s i o n s of t h e t e s t s . Even i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e U n i v a r i a t e F's f o r each of the dependent v a r i a b l e s , and t e s t i n g Anova main e f f e c t , t h e s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e s e F v a l u e s can be m i s l e a d i n g . As r e f e r r e d t o above, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o c o n s i d e r the s m a l l number of s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y (N=82), an e v e n t which c o u l d p r o b a b l y cause c o n f o u n d i n g e f f e c t s i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e r e s u l t s . 94 CHAPTER 5. RESULTS The r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n two s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t i s the c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s of h i s t o r i c a l d i a r i e s . The s e c o n d s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s the f i n d i n g s from the c o n t e m p o r a r y p s y c h o m e t r i c m a t e r i a l and i n t e r v i e w s . To f a c i l i t a t e the e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e r e s u l t s , a summary i s p r e s e n t e d a t the end of e ach s e c t i on. 5.1 H i s t o r i c a l Groups Comparisons were made between the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c g r o u p s of e x p l o r e r s . I n d i v i d u a l a s s e s s m e n t s were a l s o o b t a i n e d , a l t h o u g h o n l y some of the r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s d i s p l a y e d ; f u r t h e r a n a l y s e s on i n d i v i d u a l o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e A p p endix ( C o n t e n t A n a l y s i s ) . Over two t h o u s a n d v e r b a l u n i t s ( u s i n g c o d i n g u n i t s as words, p h r a s e s and p a r a g r a p h s i n the d i a r i e s ) were coded, and d i s t r i b u t e d a c r o s s the c a t e g o r i e s . T a b l e 5.1 shows t h e e x p l o r e r s , t h e i r f r e q u e n c y of r e c o r d e d e v e n t s ( c o d i n g u n i t s ) and p e r c e n t a g e of f r e q u e n c y of e v e n t s . Data r e f l e c t i n g t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h which p a r t i c u l a r e v e n t s , as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 5.2, were n o t e d by the p o l a r e x p l o r e r s a r e p r e s e n t e d . 95 TABLE 5.1 THE POLAR EXPLORERS Number of Events reported and Percentages of Events EXPLORER FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE ARCTIC ADAMS 140 6.10 JAACKSON 290 12.70 NARES 180 7.90 SMITH 69 3.00 STEFFANSON 224 9.80 ANTARCTIC BERNACCHI 60 2.80 CHERRY-GARRARD 173 7.60 GRAN 259 11.40 ORDE-LEES 164 7.20 SCOTT 384 16.80 SPENCER-SMITH 152 7.70 WORSLEY 156 6.80 TOTAL 2256 100 96 TABLE 5.2 REFERENCES TO NATURAL BEAUTY PHASES ABOARD ARRIVAL MID-WINTER DEPART. TOTAL EXPLORERS ARCTIC ADAMS 2 17 2 21 JAACKSON 1 24 26 NARES 11 3 41 1 66 SMITH 6 3 4 13 STEFFANSON 12 31 9 62 EXPLORERS ANTARCTIC BERNACCHI 2 8 3 13 C-GARRARD 4 6 9 GRAN 7 26 33 5 70 ORDE-LEES 30 1 31 SCOTT 18 33 26 18 96 SPENCER-SMITH 9 1 3 13 WORSLEY 8 33 41 97 P l e a s a n t n e s s and A r o u s a l T a b l e 5.3 shows the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from t h e r a t i n g of p l e a s a n t n e s s and a r o u s a l v a l u e s e x t r a c t e d from t h e e x p l o r e r s ' d i a r i e s . P e r h a p s as a r e f l e c t i o n of the extreme n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s of some of the A n t a r c t i c d i a r i s t s , t h e r e a r e few r e c o r d s of p l e a s a n t n e s s or a r o u s a l r e l a t e d t o p o s i t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s . In the A n t a r c t i c , the a r e a of s e n s i t i v i t y t o s o c i a l s t i m u l i showed few p l e a s a n t n e s s or a r o u s a l r e c o r d s . P l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s were d e s c r i b e d i n a s i m i l a r manner by the e x p l o r e r s when th e A r c t i c (M =39.52, out of 100) and A n t a r c t i c (M=40.89) r e g i o n s were compared. The f i g u r e s f o r a r o u s a l i n d i c a t e d a s l i g h t l y lower mean v a l u e f o r t h e A r c t i c r e g i o n (M=47.69) t h a n f o r t h e A n t a r c t i c (M=49.13). As r e f e r r e d t o above, t h e mean range (%) f o r p l e a s a n t n e s s was 14.25 t o 64.68 and f o r a r o u s a l , 48.48 t o 70.98. T a b l e 5.4 show t h e p l e a s a n t n e s s and a r o u s a l v a l u e s a c r o s s the phases of the e x p e d i t i o n s . I t can be n o t e d t h a t M i d - W i n t e r i n the A r c t i c was c o n s i d e r e d by the d i a r i s t s as a p l e a s a n t s e a s o n ; the l o w e s t p l e a s a n t n e s s v a l u e was f e l t i n the phase A b o a r d . In the A n t a r c t i c , t h e most p l e a s a n t phase of the e x p l o r e r ' s e x p e d i t i o n s was a l s o a t M i d - W i n t e r , and a g a i n t h e l o w e s t p l e a s a n t n e s s v a l u e was f e l t A b o a r d . In the A r c t i c , f i g u r e s f o r a r o u s a l showed a h i g h mean v a l u e (63.3) a t the B e g i n n i n g of t h e e x p e d i t i o n s , d e c r e a s i n g a r o u s a l i n Mid-W i n t e r and D e p a r t u r e p h a s e s . 98 TABLE 5.3 PLEASANTNESS AND AROUSAL (P), (A), VALUES (%) BY CATEGORIES AREAS PHYSICAL Scale-.0-100% Mean-50% POSITIVE SENS. SOCIAL NEGATIVE SOCIAL STRESS EXPLORERS ARCTIC P A P A P A P A P A ADAMS 16.2 45.0 61.5 45.4 40.4 50.3 24.8 65.0 JAACKSON 16.6 49.3 21.0 24.1 62.0 62.6 38.6 64.3 44.0 64.3 NARES 50.2 71.4 70.7 51.9 55.9 61.3 66.5 46.8 72.7 56.8 SMITH 16.2 60.7 73.7 49.4 35.9 69.1 36.1 52.7 STEFFANSON 41.2 49.3 24.1 62.3 37.1 74.6 EXPLORER8 ANTARCTIC BERNACCHI C-GARRARD 30.8 56.6 79.3 55.4 76.0 68.9 42.4 62.3 62.7 62.6 GRAN 27.2 48.6 66.6 47.9 64.6 61.3 44.8 43.7 59.2 63.2 ORDE-LEES 39.0 47.1 64.2 66.6 34.6 60.8 14.6 31.5 SCOTT 29.7 55.6 62.8 54.9 33.7 64.3 67.1 64.8 S-SMITH 36.6 50.3 63.7 56.3 38.2 47.0 63.4 61.0 WORSLEY 47.3 36.7 67.6 69.4 63.7 63.9 77.5 68.4 TABLE 5.4 PLEASANTNESS AND AROUSAL VALUES (%) IN THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC BY PHASES OF THE EXPEDITIONS REGIONS ARCTIC ANTARCTIC PHASE8 P A P A ABOARD 19.6 22.4 16.6 26.1 BEGINNING 35.9 63.3 32.4 41.0 MID-WINTER 34.6 43.1 46.7 47.7 DEPARTURE 28.4 43.1 38.6 48.7 NOTE: P - PLEASURE A - AROUSAL 100 The A n t a r c t i c a r o u s a l v a l u e s were l o w e s t Aboard (M=25.1), i n c r e a s i n g s t e a d i l y towards the D e p a r t u r e phase (M=48.7). A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s ' r a t i n g s and t e m p o r a l phases of the e x p e d i t i o n s was i n c l u d e d i n the Appendix ( C o n t e n t A n a l y s i s ) . C omparison of t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c R e g i o n s For the c o m p a r i s o n of the two r e g i o n s , d a t a was w e i g h t e d i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e t o t a l number of r e f e r e n c e s and t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e f e r e n c e s made by each e x p l o r e r . Data were s t a t i s t i c a l l y a n a l y z e d u s i n g f r e q u e n c y t a b l e s . As r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , the c a t e g o r i e s u t i l i z e d were: p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t and p s y c h o s o m a t i c f a c t o r s , p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s , s o c i a l s t r e s s and p e r c e p t u a l phenomena. Emotions and c o g n i t i o n were a l s o a n a l y z e d by the degr e e of the i n t e n s i t y of a d j e c t i v e s used by each d i a r i s t . E n v i r o n m e n t and P s y c h o s o m a t i c F a c t o r s Because of t h e manner i n which d e s c r i p t i o n s were w r i t t e n i n t h e e x p l o r e r s ' n a r r a t i v e s , i n d i c a t i n g a c l e a r a s s o c i a t i o n of t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s w i t h p s y c h o s o m a t i c f a c t o r s , t h e s e two c a t e g o r i e s were c o n s i d e r e d i n t e r a c t i v e . 101 For example, c o l d was r e p o r t e d as r e s u l t i n g i n w e i g h t - g a i n and f a t i g u e . Heat, and i n some c a s e s , c o l d were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h headaches. The p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s mentioned i n c l u d e c o l d , 50 and 58 r e f e r e n c e s from the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c r e s p e c t i v e l y , h e a t or h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e ( w i t h i n s m a l l e n c l o s e d or open s p a c e s because of changes of weather and s e a s o n s of the y e a r ) : 11 and 15, d a r k : 27 and 21, l i g h t : 6 and 19, h i g h winds: 49 and 84, c a l m : 5 and 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y . There were 10 r e c o r d e d comments about the l o s s of a p p e t i t e i n the A r c t i c , but o n l y 3 comments of good a p p e t i t e and 3 of w e i g h t g a i n . The A n t a r c t i c f i g u r e s a r e 18, 0 and 1 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Among s p e c i f i c m e d i c a l or p s y c h o s o m a t i c c o m p l a i n t s , s l e e p d i s t u r b a n c e s were the most common. There were 23 A r c t i c and 44 A n t a r c t i c r e f e r e n c e s t o i n s o m n i a , but o n l y 3 A r c t i c and 8 A n t a r c t i c d i a r i s t s r e f e r r e d t o e x c e s s i v e s l e e p (see F i g . 5.1). O n l y 10 mentions were made of headaches, o c c u r r i n g i n b o t h r e g i o n s . F a t i g u e ( c a u s e d by c o l d or t a s k s p e r f o r m e d o u t s i d e ) was m entioned 11 t i m e s i n A r c t i c d i a r i e s and 34 t i m e s i n t h e A n t a r c t i c . 102 FIGURE SLEEP 5.1 PATTERNS IN THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC (%) TOTAL NUMBER OF REFERENCES: 20 FOR THE ARCTIC AND 51 FOR THE ANTARCTIC P o s i t i v e A s p e c t s Among p o s i t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of the e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e r e were 2 i n s t a n c e s of s e r e n e f e e l i n g s c i t e d i n t h e A n t a r c t i c and 10 c i t e d i n the A r c t i c . R e l a x a t i o n (a s t a t e o f low t e n s i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by absence of em o t i o n s ) was me n t i o n e d o n l y t w i c e i n A r c t i c d i a r i e s , but 15 t i m e s i n the A n t a r c t i c d i a r i e s . Thus, i t a p p e a r s t h a t e x p l o r e r s f i n d the n o r t h e r n p o l a r r e g i o n t o be a more p e a c e f u l e n v i r o n m e n t t h a n the A n t a r c t i c . S o u t h e r n e x p l o r e r s , however, f e l t more r e l a x e d t h a n t h e i r n o r t h e r n c o u n t e r p a r t s . S t r o n g s e n s i t i v i t y t o p h y s i c a l s t i m u l i - e.g. t h e m a g n i f i c e n c e of the n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t - p r o d u c e d 66 e n t r i e s s p l i t e v e n l y between the two r e g i o n s . Such p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s as s e l f - e s t e e m and s e l f - c o n t r o l were mentioned o n l y once i n e a c h r e g i o n . S e v e n t e e n r e p o r t s of s e l f - i n s i g h t and s e l f - d e v e l o p m e n t ( s e l f - g r o w t h ) were made by A r c t i c d i a r i s t s , compared t o 10 from A n t a r c t i c s o u r c e s . N e g a t i v e A s p e c t s N e g a t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s were i m p l i e d by many v a r i a b l e s . For example, d e c l i n e i n h y g i e n e was o b s e r v e d by 2 A r c t i c and 7 A n t a r c t i c w r i t e r s . R e l a t e d t o t h i s a r e the e n e r g y l e v e l s of i n d i v i d u a l s . F o r example, ' f e e l i n g p h l e g m a t i c ' was m e n t i o n e d 46 ti m e s i n A r c t i c d i a r i e s , but o n l y 13 t i m e s i n A n t a r c t i c mater i a l s . 104 M i s s i n g one's home was mentioned i n 6 A r c t i c d i a r y e n t r i e s and m i s s i n g u s u a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s was n o t e d i n 5 d i a r y e n t r i e s . The f i g u r e s f o r t h e A n t a r c t i c show a s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r a s t . T h e r e were 14 e n t r i e s f o r m i s s i n g home and 22 e n t r i e s f o r m i s s i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A n x i e t y i s note d on 63 o c c a s i o n s i n t h e A r c t i c . The number of i n s t a n c e s of a n x i e t y i n t h e A n t a r c t i c , 105 r e f e r e n c e s , f a r s u r p a s s e s the number i n the A r c t i c (63 r e f e r e n c e s ; see f i g u r e 5.2). There were 20 A r c t i c and 48 A n t a r c t i c r e f e r e n c e s t o i r r i t a b i l i t y . T h e r e was o n l y one a l l u s i o n i n t h e A r c t i c m a t e r i a l t o f e e l i n g a l a r m e d , i n c o m p a r i s o n t o 15 i n t h e A n t a r c t i c d i a r i e s . N e g a t i v e c o g n i t i v e symptoms i n c l u d e o c c a s i o n s of d e c l i n e i n a l e r t n e s s , of which 6 i n s t a n c e s were r e p o r t e d i n t h e A r c t i c and 4 i n the A n t a r c t i c . There were 2 r e f e r e n c e s i n the A n t a r c t i c d i a r i e s t o h y p e r a l e r t n e s s ( p e rhaps r e f l e c t i n g h i g h a r o u s a l l e v e l ) . S o c i a l S t r e s s The p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the p o l a r e n v i r o n m e n t were a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d by the c a t e g o r y of s o c i a l s t r e s s . R e f e r e n c e s a r e made t o l a c k of p r i v a c y (5 t i m e s from t h e A r c t i c , o n l y ) ; and t o c o n f i n e m e n t (7 r e f e r e n c e s 2 of which a r e from t h e A r c t i c ) . F o u r t e e n A r c t i c and 12 A n t a r c t i c r e f e r e n c e s were made by the d i a r i s t s c o n c e r n i n g boredom. 105 FIGURE 5.2 ANXIETY AND RELAXATION IN THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC (%) TOTAL NUMBER OF REFERENCES: 63 FOR THE ARCTIC AND 106 FOR THE ANTARCTIC > In c o n t r a s t , comments about f e e l i n g s t i m u l a t e d ( a t t e m p t i n g t o escape from the boredom s i t u a t i o n ) o c c u r 62 and 35 t i m e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . Group dynamics were not o f t e n e v a l u a t e d . O n l y one mention each i s found of group d i s a g r e e m e n t and c o h e s i v e n e s s . There were, however, 56 e f f e c t i v e l y n e u t r a l remarks about group i d e n t i t y . T here were v e r y few e x p l i c i t m e n t i o n s o f e i t h e r s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n (1 and 3) or s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n (10 and 2 ) . P e r c e p t u a l Phenomena C o n c e r n i n g t r a n s p e r s o n a l a l t e r e d s t a t e s and s i m i l a r t o p i c s , t h e r e was one r e f e r e n c e t o v i s u a l h a l l u c i n a t i o n s i n t h e A r c t i c , and two i n t h e A n t a r c t i c . As one might e x p e c t g i v e n t h e c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t , the e x p l o r e r s seldom r e f e r r e d t o what may be termed anomalous p s y c h o l o g i c a l e v e n t s . One e x c e p t i o n i s S t e f f a n s o n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of an e x p e r i e n c e t h a t he c l a s s i f i e d as an h a l l u c i n a t i o n ( e n t r y of Aug. 23, 1906). He saw smoke and h e a r d s h o t s , i n t e r p r e t i n g t h i s as a r e s p o n s e t o the monotony of the j o u r n e y . He a l s o r e p o r t e d a s t r a n g e b l u e c o l o u r , a l t h o u g h i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e what was b e i n g d e s c r i b e d . S h a c k l e t o n and h i s two companions r e p o r t e d t h e " s e n s e d p r e s e n c e " of a n o t h e r p e r s o n t r a v e r s i n g South G e o r g i a w i t h them ( c f . S u e d f e l d and M o c e l l i n , 1987), though S h a c k l e t o n had not mentioned t h i s phenomenon i n any o r i g i n a l document (C. H o l l a n d , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , June 31, 1985). 107 Another example which may be confounded w i t h h a l l u c i n a t o r y imagery was found i n the n a r r a t i v e s of Orde-Lees and C h e r r y G a r r a r d . Both were a n x i o u s c l o s e t o t h e i r d e p a r t u r e , w h i l e w a i t i n g f o r the r e l i e f s h i p , t h a t on many o c c a s i o n s t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d a v i v i d image of a gh o s t s h i p on t h e i c y h o r i z o n . Dreams R e p o r t s of dreams were made by r e l a t i v e l y few of t h e d i a r i s t s . The A n t a r c t i c d i a r i e s c o n t a i n o n l y 7 r e f e r e n c e s t o v i v i d dreams. Assuming t h a t t h i s does not r e f l e c t an a c t u a l l a c k o f d r e a m i n g , i t may be i n f e r r e d t h a t the e x p l o r e r s e i t h e r d i d n o t remember t h e i r dreams or d i d not c o n s i d e r them worth r e c o r d i n g , a t l e a s t compared t o o t h e r e v e n t s o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g the voyage. They may a l s o have s e l f - c e n s o r e d s u c h r e p o r t s because o f c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n i n g or t h e d e s i r e t o keep the e x p e r i e n c e s p r i v a t e . P e rhaps t h i s i s a l s o the ca s e f o r the A r c t i c d i a r i s t s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of S t e f f a n s o n who r e p o r t e d a v i v i d dream r e l a t e d t o h i s work w i t h the I n u i t . In the A n t a r c t i c , the r e l i g i o u s and m y s t i c a l Gran, t h e Norwegian who accompanied S c o t t ' s l a s t e x p e d i t i o n , r e p o r t e d v i v i d dreams d u r i n g t h e time of a r r i v a l i n the A n t a r c t i c . Most of h i s dreams, s u c h as t h e one of w h i t e - p e t a l l e d c h e r r y t r e e s of Norway, conveyed h o m e s i c k n e s s . 108 Gran's most famous dream was a p s y c h i c one d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : " L a s t n i g h t I dreamed t h a t Amundsen had r e a c h e d t h e P o l e . I dreamed I had a t e l e g r a m r e a d i n g , 'Amundsen r e a c h e d P o l e 15-20 December. 1 I l a y i n t h e t e n t d o z i n g i n a k i n d of h a l f - s l e e p . S u d d e n l y , i t a p p e a r e d as though a p i c t u r e m a t e r i a l i z e d on the t e n t canvas of f o u r men, a t d a y - b r e a k , i n f r o n t of a t e n t w i t h low f l a g s f l u t t e r i n g . The p i c t u r e v a n i s h e d i m m e d i a t e l y and i n s t e a d , t h e r e was a t e l e g r a m on which was i n s c r i b e d , 'Amundsen r e a c h e d P o l e 15 December'. I jumped up and G r i f f i t h T a y l o r awoke....'The Norwegians have got t o t h e P o l e t h i s m i n u t e . . . ' T a y l o r h u r r i e d l y g o t h o l d of the c h r o n o m e t e r , and t h e ne x t moment n o t e d t h e e x a c t time on the parchement of h i s s c i e n t i f i c d i a r y " (Gran, 1984, p. 1 5 3 ) . Amundsen's team, had i n f a c t , a r r i v e d a t t h e South P o l e on December 1 5 t h , 1912. A c c o r d i n g t o C h e r r y - G a r r a r d ' s d i a r y ( O r i g i n a l v e r s i o n ) , t h e dream o c c u r r e d p r i o r t o t h e a r r i v a l of Amundsen a t t h e P o l e , b u t G r i f f i t h T a y l o r , who was s l e e p i n g i n the same t e n t as Gran a t t h e t i m e , r e c o r d e d t h i s i n h i s f i e l d book on Dec. 20. C h e r r y - G a r r a r d , t h e y o u n g e s t man i n the S c o t t E x p e d i t i o n , was p r o l i f i c i n h i s dream m a t e r i a l , a c c o r d i n g t o h i s o r i g i n a l d i a r y . One dream, o m i t t e d from h i s p u b l i s h e d j o u r n a l s , was on b o a r d s h i p on the way t o A n t a r c t i c a and d e a l t w i t h t h e s h i p g o i n g o f f c o u r s e . 109 A n o t h e r , a l s o u n p u b l i s h e d ( G a r r a r d , 1922), d e a l t w i t h b e i n g a b o a r d s h i p and s u f f o c a t i n g , a " n i g h t t e r r o r " dream. In t h i s dream, G a r r a r d was awakened by h i s companions w i t h p a r t of h i s head emerging from one of the s h i p ' s p o r t h o l e s . L a t e r , h i s dreams were c o n c e r n e d w i t h f o o d and equipment s h o r t a g e s . S p e n c e r - S m i t h of S h a c k l e t o n ' s group, d i e d of s c u r v y w h i l e a w a i t i n g the r e l i e f s h i p . B e f o r e he d i e d , he r e c o r d e d a number of n i g h t m a r e s , some c e n t r i n g on h o m e s i c k n e s s , w i t h f o o d as a n o t h e r r e c u r r i n g theme. One dream was of S h a c k l e t o n and W o r s l e y coming t o r e s c u e him. R e l i g i o n P e r haps an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e s u f f e r i n g due t o t h e l a c k of adequate equipment, f o o d , communication and u n c e r t a i n t y of r e s c u e o f many of the S o u t h e r n e x p l o r e r s , were the number of r e l i g i o u s r e f e r e n c e s i n the d i a r i e s . The A n t a r c t i c j o u r n a l s c o n t a i n 41 s u c h e n t r i e s , w h i l e o n l y 6 e n t r i e s o c c u r r e d i n t h e A r c t i c m a t e r i a l . S p e n c e r - S m i t h , f o r example, was a v e r y r e l i g i o u s p e r s o n . The r e l i g i o u s r e f e r e n c e s i n h i s d i a r i e s r e f l e c t the t orment he was u n d e r g o i n g w i t h h i s body wracked by s c u r v y and s u f f e r i n g a slow p r o c e s s of d e b i l i t a t i o n . The f r e q u e n c y of e n t r i e s c o n c e r n i n g God r e a c h e d a c l i m a x when he was a l o n e i n a t e n t f o r many days a w a i t i n g the u n c e r t a i n a r r i v a l of h i s companions. 110 Summary A c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s of the d i a r i e s of A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c e x p l o r e r s o f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l e i n s i g h t i n t o the t h o u g h t s and b e h a v i o u r of t h e s e men. F i r s t l y , no e v i d e n c e emerges t o s u g g e s t t h a t w i n t e r was a s t r e s s f u l p e r i o d i n the e x p l o r e r s ' l i v e s (see A p p e n d i x ) . There was a l m o s t no a n x i e t y on b o a r d s h i p . The c u r v i l i n e a r i t y of the d i s t r i b u t i o n i s n o t e w o r t h y , s i n c e one would have e x p e c t e d a h i g h l e v e l of a n x i e t y i n M i d - W i n t e r . T h i s d i d not o c c u r . V i e w i n g a n x i e t y and r e l a x a t i o n d a t a t o g e t h e r , i t seems t h a t i n t h e M i d - W i n t e r p e r i o d , A n t a r c t i c e x p l o r e r s e x p e r i e n c e d r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l s of a n x i e t y (even w i t h more s t r e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e s ) . S e c o n d l y , i n s o m n i a was common i n b o t h p o l a r r e g i o n s . T h i r d l y , when e x p l o r i n g s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n i n c o m p a r i s o n t o boredom, the a p p a r e n t l y low s t i m u l a t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t of a p o l a r s i t e ( perhaps i n d u c i n g boredom) seems most c o m p e l l i n g t o t h e o u t s i d e o b s e r v e r , but a c c o u n t e d f o r v e r y few e n t r i e s made by the d i a r i s t s . I l l 5.2 E x p e r i m e n t a l Groups T h i s s e c t i o n a d d r e s s e s the f i n d i n g s from p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s . The r e s e a r c h s i t e s a r e not i n d i v i d u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d , s i n c e t h e d a t a were grouped by A r c t i c (Mould Bay and E u r e k a ) and A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l (Marambio and E s p e r a n z a ) and c o n t r o l g r o u p s ( R e s o l u t e Bay f o r the A r c t i c and Buenos A i r e s f o r t h e A n t a r c t i c ) . 5.2.1 P e r s o n a l i t y and P e r c e p t u a l R e a c t i o n s To i d e n t i f y p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s of i n d i v i d u a l s who choose p o l a r r e g i o n s as work e n v i r o n m e n t s , p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s s u c h as C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l I n v e n t o r y and M y e r s - B r i g g s Type I n d i c a t o r and S e n s a t i o n S e e k i n g S c a l e were a d m i n i s t e r e d . S e l f -a p p r a i s a l s on a n x i e t y , e.g. S t a t e - T r a i t A n x i e t y were a l s o c o n s i d e r e d as a measure of p e r s o n a l i t y ( T r a i t ) . T e s t s t o gauge r e a c t i o n s t o the e n v i r o n m e n t i n c l u d e d the E n v i r o n m e n t a l Response I n v e n t o r y and t h e R u s s e l l Mood S c a l e s f o r P e r s o n and E n v i r o n m e n t . 112 5.2.1.1. P e r s o n a l i t y The r e s u l t s a r e as f o l l o w s : STAI S t a t e - T r a i t A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r y -R e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d by M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e (Manova) and U n i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e ( A n o v a ) . Comparisons w i t h A m e r i c a n norms were c a l c u l a t e d by H o t e l l i n g - T -s q u a r e t e s t , a t e s t s i m i l a r t o Manova, which c a l c u l a t e d an o v e r a l l c o m p a r i s o n of two g r o u p s , and t h e s e g r o u p s i n c l u d e d more t h a n one dependent v a r i a b l e . The mean-norms v a l u e s a r e i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 5.5. The A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l group s c o r e d a t a low l e v e l of s t a t e -a n x i e t y and somewhat low l e v e l i n t r a i t . The c o n t r o l g r o u p s c o r e d a t normal l e v e l f o r s t a t e - a n x i e t y and somewhat h i g h l e v e l s f o r t r a i t a n x i e t y ( W i l k s Lambda=.982, MVF(2,26)=.232, p=.794). Comparing A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s , no s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s were found ( W i l k s Lambda=.999, MVF(2,47)=.0185, p=.982). Comparing the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found ( W i l k s Lambda=.995, MVF(2,51)=.126, p=.881). F i g u r e 5.5 shows the r e s u l t s and c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h the A m e r i c a n norms. Comparing the A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups w i t h norms f o r s t a t e and t r a i t a n x i e t y , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d . 113 FIGURE 5.5 STAI-STATE AND TRAIT OF ANXIETY FOR EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS IN THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC (MEANS) 40 35 30 25 CO 2 : < 2 0 -LLI 15 -10-5 -ANXIETY A - T r a i t 37•68 Mean N o r m — A - S t a t e 36-99 Vm EXPERIMENTAL • i CONTROL A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l groups were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the American norms ( t h e r e were no S p a n i s h norms) f o r s t a t e and t r a i t a n x i e t y : H o t e l l i n g - T - s q u a r e = 1 4 . 7 0 , F ( 2 , 3 2 ) , p<.0027. C o n t r o l s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t o n l y i n s t a t e - a n x i e t y as f o l l o w s : H o t e l l i n g -T-square=6.96, F ( 2 , 4 . 3 ) , p=.16; f o r s t a t e -a n x i e t y t=-2.66, df=6, p=.037. There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between males and f e m a l e s i n t h e A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s ( W i l k s Lambda=.986, MVF(2,45)=.312, p=.733). MBTI-Myers-Briggs Type I n d i c a t o r -Because of t h e f o r m a t i n which M y e r s - B r i g g s norms were p u b l i s h e d , u s i n g a l p h a b e t i c l e t t e r s i n which t h e o r d e r of t h e l e t t e r s d e t e r m i n e s th e f u n c t i o n s and dominance of e a c h p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e , i . e . Dominant, A u x i l i a r y , T e r t i a r y and I n f e r i o r ( I S T J ) , t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s based on f r e q u e n c y t a b l e s was u s e d . T h i s p r o c e d u r e was a p p l i e d t o i d e n t i f y the dominant p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e i n each p o l a r g r o u p . As i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h i s t e s t measures f o u r d i m e n s i o n s : E x t r a v e r t -i n t r o v e r t ; S e n s i n g - I n t u i t i o n ; T h i n k i n g - F e e l i n g and Judgment-P e r c e p t i o n . T a b l e 5.5 d i s p l a y s the f r e q u e n c i e s of s c o r e s by e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s and t h e i r r e g i o n s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a p p e a r e d on t h e EI d i m e n s i o n , a l t h o u g h h i g h e r e x t r a v e r t s s c o r e s i n the A n t a r c t i c as opposed t o i n t r o v e r t s i n the A r c t i c ( T a b l e 5.5) were shown. 115 TABLE 5.5 FREQUENCIES ON EXTRAVERSION AND INTROVERSION DIMENSIONS BASED ON MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR FOR THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS (%) REGIONS GROUPS ARCTIC EXPER. CONTROL ANTARCTIC EXPER. CONTROL EXTRWERSION 31.3 N-6 23.1 N-3 56.4 N-22 50.0 N-7 INTROVERSION 68.8 N-11 76.9 N-10 43.6 N-17 50.0 N-7 STATISTICS FOR EXPERIMENTAL ARCTIC & ANTARCTIC GROUPS: CHI-SQUARE-.195 and .287, DF-1, P-.16 and .090 respectively 116 S e n s i n g and F e e l i n g t y p e s a p p e a r s t o have an a u x i l i a r y f u n c t i o n ( a c c o r d i n g t o the M y e r s - B r i g g s format) i n i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n the two r e g i o n s , s i n c e no s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e was n o t e d . As f a r as sex d i f f e r e n c e s a r e c o n c e r n e d , the s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t ( w i t h o n l y 4 women i n t h e A n t a r c t i c ) was not s t r o n g enough t o s u p p o r t the p r e d i c t e d h y p o t h e s i s (sex d i f f e r e n c e s a r e more pronounced i n p o l a r s e t t i n g s ) . C P I - C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l I n v e n t o r y -The s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t used was based on Manova and Anova. H o t e l l i n g - T - S q u a r e was c a l c u l a t e d t o p r o v i d e a c o m p a r i s o n of the r e s u l t s w i t h A m e r i c a n norms. The mean-norms a r e d e s c r i b e d below i n b r a c k e t s [M=] (Gough, 1975). There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s on any s u b s c a l e s of the CPI ( W i l k s Lambda=.2G2, MVF(10,18)=1.56, p=.238; dominance [M=26, 27.99], c a p a c i t y f o r s t a t u s [M=36.11, 34.92], s o c i a b i l i t y [M=32.67, 31.42], s o c i a l p r e s e n c e [M=30.93, 27.07], s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e [M=21.18, 20.76], s e n s e of w e l l b e i n g [M=35.03, 34.76], r e s p o n s i b i l i t y [M=23.93, 27.92], s o c i a l i z a t i o n [M=31.09, 33.07], s e l f - c o n t r o l [M=25.88, 31.46], t o l e r a n c e [M=19.25, 18 . 8 0 ] , good i m p r e s s i o n [M=16.25, 20.07], communality [M=25.12, 24.84], a c h i e v e m e n t v i a conformance [M=25.50, 26.15], a c h i e v e m e n t v i a independence [M=18.50, 18.69], i n t e l l e c t u a l e f f i c i e n c y [M=36.32, 36.73], p s y c h o l o g i c a l mindedness [M=11.87, 11.07], f l e x i b i l i t y 117 [M=7.80, 6.07] and m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y [M=15.81, 1 7 . 9 2 ] ) . The d i f f e r e n c e s between the e x p e r i m e n t a l s and c o n t r o l s i n the A n t a r c t i c were s i g n i f i c a n t ( W i l k s Lambda=.507, MVF(18,33)=1.78, p=.073) o n l y on communality ( h i g h e r f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l s ; M=24.18 and 22.07 r e s p e c t i v e l y ; F(1,50)=12.470, p<.001). The A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( W i l k s Lambda=.217, MVF(3,35)=.699, p=.001) from t h e A r c t i c i n s o c i a l p r e s e n c e F(1,52)=17.38, p<.001); r e s p o n s i b i l i t y F(1,52)=14.93, p<.001); s o c i a l i z a t i o n F(1,52)=21.57, p<.001; s e l f - c o n t r o l F ( l , 5 2 ) = 11.41, p=.001; s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e F(1,52)=9 .16, p=.004; t o l e r a n c e F(1,52)=4.29, p=.043; and good i m p r e s s i o n F ( l , 5 2 ) = 9 . 7 1 , p=.003. Comparison w i t h t h e norms E x p e r i m e n t a l A r c t i c g roups were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t o v e r a l l from the A m e r i c a n norms ( H o t e l l i n g - T - s q u a r e = 58759.17, F ( 1 3 , l ) , p=.041). These d i f f e r e n c e s were as f o l l o w s : c a p a c i t y f o r s t a t u s , t=67.54, df=13, p<.001; s o c i a b i l i t y , t=6.82, df=13, p<.001; s o c i a l p r e s e n c e , t=-2.33, df=13, p=.036; r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t=-4.51, df=13, p=.006; s o c i a l i z a t i o n , t=-5.21, df=13, p=.002; s e l f - c o n t r o l , t=-3.31, df=13, p=.005; t o l e r a n c e , t=-2.40, df=13, p=.035 and f e m i n i n i t y , t=-7.80, df=13, p<.001. 118 The A r c t i c c o n t r o l group a l s o showed d i f f e r e n c e s from the norms as f o l l o w s ( H o t e l l i n g - T - s q u a r e = 66799.437, F ( 1 2 , l ) , p=.036): c a p a c i t y f o r s t a t u s , t=76.34, df=12, p<.001; s o c i a b i l i t y , t=3.92, df=12, p=.002; s o c i a l p r e s e n c e , t=-3.48, df=12, p=.004; r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t=-2.67, df=12, p=.02; s o c i a l i z a t i o n , t=-2.72, df=12, p=.018; t o l e r a n c e , t=-2.20, df=12, p=.048; f l e x i b i l i t y , t=-3.22, df=12, p=.07 and f e m i n i n i t y , t=-5.23, df=12, p=.002. E x p e r i m e n t a l A n t a r c t i c groups were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the norms ( H o t e l l i n g - T - s g u a r e = 58759.175, F ( 1 3 , l ) , p=.041) i n the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : c a p a c i t y f o r s t a t u s , t=67.54, df=13, p<.001; s o c i a b i l i t y , t=6.82, df=13, p<.001; s o c i a l p r e s e n c e , t = -2.33, df=13, p=.03; r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t=-4.51, df=13, p=.006; s o c i a l i z a t i o n , t=-5.21, df=13, p=.002; s e l f - c o n t r o l , t=-3.31, df=13, p=.005; t o l e r a n c e , t=-2.40, df=13, p=.031 and f e m i n i n i t y , t=-7.80, df=13, p<.001. The c o n t r o l g r o u p i n t h e A n t a r c t i c showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s from t h e norms as i n d i c a t e d by H o t e l l i n g - T - s q u a r e = 58759.1758, F ( l , 1 3 ) , p=.041. The d i f f e r e n c e s on s i n g l e v a r i a b l e s were: c a p a c i t y f o r s t a t u s t=-67.54, df=13, p<.001, s o c i a b i l i t y , t=6.82, df=13, p<.001; s o c i a l p r e s e n c e , t=-2.33, df=13, p=.03; r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t=-4.51, df=13, p=.006; s o c i a l i z a t i o n , t=-5.21, df=13, p=.02, s e l f - c o n t r o l , t=-3.31, df=13, p=.05; t o l e r a n c e , t=-2.40, df=13, p=.03 and f e m i n i n i t y , t=-7.80, df=13, p<.001. 119 There were no s p e c i f i c p a t t e r n s i n the d i r e c t i o n (above or below the mean) of t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s i n each s c a l e . Sex d i f f e r e n c e s There were o n l y two s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s d e n o t i n g sex d i f f e r e n c e s between e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s i n the A n t a r c t i c ( W i l k s Lambda=.520, MVF(18,31}=31.00, p=.126). These v a r i a b l e s were: c a p a c i t y f o r s t a t u s , F(1,48)=5.303, p=.02 (means s l i g h t l y h i g h e r f o r c o n t r o l women th a n men), and communality, F(1,48)=4.707, p=.03 (means s l i g h t l y h i g h e r f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l women t h a n men). 5.2.1.2 E n v i r o n m e n t a l P e r c e p t i o n E n v i r o n m e n t a l p e r c e p t i o n was a n a l y z e d t h r o u g h t h e f o l l o w i n g t e s t s : RMS/P - R u s s e l l Mood S c a l e / P e r s o n -Manova and Anova were used. There were no norms a v a i l a b l e . The t e s t measured the p e r c e p t i o n and f e e l i n g s of a p e r s o n i n an e n v i r o n m e n t . Three s c a l e s ( p l e a s u r e , a r o u s a l and dominance) were used . 120 R e s u l t s showed no d i f f e r e n c e between the s c o r e s of e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l A r c t i c groups ( W i l k s Lambda=.954, MVF(3, 21)=.333, p=.801). Comparing the s c o r e s of the two p o l a r e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s , no s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s were found ( W i l k s Lambda=.992, MVF(3,52)=.134, p=.939). T a b l e 5.6 shows the r e s u l t s of t h e A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s . The d i f f e r e n c e s o b s e r v e d ( W i l k s Lambda=.735, MVF(3,50)=6.32, p=.001) were on the p l e a s u r e d i m e n s i o n [ F ( l , 5 2 ) = 6 . 1 8 , p=.0160] and a r o u s a l d i m e n s i o n [F(1,52)=9.54, p=.003]. These r e s u l t s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t p e r s o n n e l i n the A n t a r c t i c s i t e s were more a r o u s e d and, i n t e r e s t i n g l y , more s a t i s f i e d t h a n t h e i r c o n t r o l s . RMS/E - R u s s e l l Mood S c a l e f o r E n v i r o n m e n t - T h i s t e s t i s comparable t o RMS/P a l t h o u g h o n l y two d i m e n s i o n s , p l e a s u r e and a r o u s a l , were measured. T a b l e 5.6 shows r e s u l t s f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s . A l t h o u g h not s t a t i s t i c a l l y m e a n i n g f u l ( W i l k s Lambda =. 9'4 4, MVF(2,26)=.757, p=.479), the s c o r e s of the A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l group showed a h i g h mean on p l e a s u r e as compared t o t h e i r c o n t r o l ; a r o u s a l r e s u l t s showed n e g a t i v e means. 121 TABLE 5.6 RUSSELL MOOD SCALES FOR PERSON AND ENVIRONMENT: MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS SCALES GROUPS P< PLEASURE (P) AROU8AL (P) .037 DOMINANCE <P) ARCTIC (E) 18.93 nsd 30.62 nsd 24.00 nsd SO 7.67 6.94 7.16 ARCTIC (C) 20.66 nsd 31.88 nsd 23.33 nsd SD 13.3 8.66 7.14 ANTARCTIC (E) 19.22 29.76 24.37 nsd SD 8.00 6.32 6.14 ANTARCTIC (C) 13.67 24.36 25.42 nsd SD 4.71 6.41 SCALE: 1 - VERY HAPPY; 9 - VERY UNHAPPY 6.32 P< PLEASURE (E*) .01 AROUSAL <E«) .03 ARCTIC (E) 23.13 nsd -7.63 nsd LEGEND SD 16.46 16.62 P - PERSON ARCTIC (C) 17.87 -4.44 E* - ENVIRONMENT SD 21.06 20.22 C - CONTROL ANTARCTIC (E) 39.63 nsd 12.48 nsd E - EXPERIMENTAL SD ANTARCTIC <C) 19.07 27.23 16.31 18.13 nsd • NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERNECE SD 16.46 26.53 SCALE: 1 - EXTREMELY WRONG; 8 - EXTREMELY RIGHT 122 Comparing the two p o l a r g r o u p s , s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s ( W i l k s Lambda=.727, F(2,48)=8.98, p<.001 were found i n b o t h p l e a s u r e [F(1,49 )=128 . 54, p=.005], and a r o u s a l [F( 1, 49)=17 . 97, p<.001] w i t h h i g h means f o r t h e A n t a r c t i c g r o u p s . Sex d i f f e r e n c e s There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups ( W i l k s Lambda=.946, MVF(2,44)=1.00, p=.373). ERI - E n v i r o n m e n t a l Response I n v e n t o r y -Data was s t a t i s t i c a l l y c a l c u l a t e d by Manova and Anova, w h i l e c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h t h e American norms were c o n d u c t e d u s i n g H o t e l l i n g - T - s q u a r e . T a b l e 5.7 d i s p l a y s the r e s u l t s . The e x p e r i m e n t a l A r c t i c group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e c o n t r o l s [ W i l k s Lambda=.511, MVF(7,21)=2.868, p=.029]; h i g h e r f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l on need f o r s o l i t u d e as measured by t h e v a r i a b l e p r i v a c y [F(1,27)=8.94, p=.006] and s t i m u l u s - s e e k i n g [F(1,27)=.001, p=.012; ( h i g h s e n s a t i o n - s e e k e r s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t e s ) ] . 123 T A B L E 5.7 E N V I R O N M E N T A L R E S P O N S E I N V E N T O R Y : M E A N S O F PRIVACY, S T I M U L U S - S E E K I N G A N D P A S T O R A L I S M F O R T H E A R C T I C A N D A N T A R C T I C E X P E R I M E N T A L A N D C O N T R O L G R O U P S GROUPS STIM. SEEKING PRIVACY PASTORALISM ARCTIC (E) SD 76.87 8.39 67.56 10.55 79.43 8.31 ARCTIC (C) SD 66.16 11.08 44.69 12.63 76.71 9.10 ANTARCTIC (E) 65.98 54.00 72.94 SD 8.94 7.88 7.99 NOTE: THE SIGNIFICANCE LEVEL IS .012 FOR THE ARCTIC C AND E IN STIMULUS-SEEKING AND .006 IN PRIVACY. C • CONTROL GROUP E • EXPERIMENTAL GROUP SCALE: 1 - STRONGLY DISAGREE 5 - STRONGLY AGREE 124 When the A r c t i c groups were compared t o t h e A n t a r c t i c ones, d i f f e r e n c e s ( W i l k s Lambda=.706, MVF(7.47)=2.78, p=.017) were on p a s t o r a l i s m [F(1,53)=7.300, p=.009) h i g h e r i n t h e A r c t i c on s e n s i t i v i t y t o pure e n v i r o n m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e ) ] , and s t i m u l u s -s e e k i n g [F(1,53)=14.45, p<.001), low s e n s a t i o n - s e e k e r s i n t h e A n t a r c t i c ] ; but no d i f f e r e n c e s between A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups was found ( W i l k s Lambda=.772, MVF(7,45)=1.889, p=.094). Comparison w i t h t h e norms The mean-norms v a l u e s were o b t a i n e d from McKechnie (1974) as f o l l o w s : p a s t o r a l i s m (M=77.8), u r b a n i s m (M=57.3), e n v i r o n m e n t a l a d a p t a t i o n (M=68), s t i m u l u s - s e e k i n g (M=68), e n v i r o n m e n t a l t r u s t (M=64.8), a n t i q u a r i a n i s m (M=62.5), need f o r p r i v a c y (M=57.7). Comparing the A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s t o A m e r i c a n norms, no m e a n i n g f u l d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d . E x c e p t i o n s were made f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l a d a p t a t i o n (t=3.67, df=13, p=.002) and s t i m u l u s s e e k i n g (t=3.37, df=13, p=.005). Comparing the A r c t i c c o n t r o l group t o norms, o n l y t h e v a r i a b l e on need f o r p r i v a c y showed s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e (t=-3.73, df=12, p=.002). The A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l groups compared t o norms were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t on a l m o s t a l l s c a l e s but not on a n t i q u a r i a n i s m and s t i m u l u s - s e e k i n g ( H o t e l l i n g - T - s q u a r e = 1 0 1 . 5 6 3 , F ( 7 , 2 8 ) , p<.001). 125 R e s u l t s were as f o l l o w s : p a s t o r a l i s m (t=3.54, df=34, p=.001); ur b a n i s m (t=3.06, df=34, p=.004), e n v i r o n m e n t a l a d a p t a t i o n (t=6.88, df=34, p<.001); e n v i r o n m e n t a l t r u s t (t=-2.23, df=34, p=.03); need f o r p r i v a c y (t=-3.06, df=34; p=.004). A n t a r c t i c c o n t r o l s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from norms o n l y on e n v i r o n m e n t a l a d a p t a t i o n (t=3.51, df=6, p=.012) and need f o r p r i v a c y (t=-2.80, df=6, p=.031). The c o m p a r i s o n of the f i n d i n g s w i t h the norms i n d i c a t e d , i n most of the c a s e s , t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups were s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the norms. There were no s p e c i f i c p a t t e r n s n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . Sex d i f f e r e n c e s The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e found was r e l a t e d t o t h e v a r i a b l e " a n t i q u a r i a n i s m " . O v e r a l l , women were more c o n s e r v a t i v e t h a n men ( W i l k s Lambda=.771, MVF(7,74)=3.13, p=.006, w i t h r e s t r i c t e d a c c e p t a n c e of i n n o v a t i o n s (M=62.75 and 71.46 r e s p e c t i v e l y ; ( F ( 1 , 4 9 ) = 9.737, p=.003). Comparing sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n t he A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s ( W i l k s Lambda=.6 69, MVF(7,43)=3.03, p=.011) the e x p e r i m e n t a l women showed a l e s s c o n s e r v a t i v e a t t i t u d e t h a n the urba n c o u n t e r p a r t s ( p r o b a b l y as an e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t where t h e a d a p t a t i o n p r o c e s s t o the n o v e l e n v i r o n m e n t was a l r e a d y i n p l a c e ) . 126 These d a t a a r e t e n t a t i v e due t o the s m a l l sample s i z e . SSS - S e n s a t i o n - S e e k i n g S c a l e -In an a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y d i u r n a l v a r i a t i o n i n a r o u s a l l e v e l s of the e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s , SSS was a d m i n i s t e r e d t w i c e (morning and e v e n i n g ) over t h e r e s e a r c h p e r i o d . S t a t i s t i c s were Manova and Anova. Means-norms were drawn i n F i g u r e 5.6 a c c o r d i n g t o Zuckerman (1979). A m e r i c a n norms a r e a l s o d i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e 5.8. O v e r a l l , Manova r e s u l t s between A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l s ( W i l k s Lambda=.735, MVF(4,24)=2.157, p=.105) i n d i c a t e no s i g n i f i c a n c e i n s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s . However, t h e r e were h i g h e r s c o r e s i n t h e s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g s c a l e s of T h r i l l - a n d A d v e n t u r e - S e e k i n g [ ( T A S ) , F ( l , 2 7 ) = 8 . 4 4 0 , p=.007)] and E x p e r i e n c e - S e e k i n g [ ( E S ) , F(1,27)=4.304, p=.048)], among the A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l group than among c o n t r o l s ; w h i l e no d i f f e r e n c e was found i n D i s i n h i b i t i o n (DIS) or Boredom S u s c e p t i b i l i t y ( B S ) . E x p e r i e n c e - S e e k i n g (ES) had h i g h e r s c o r e s f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l A n t a r c t i c group t h a n c o n t r o l s ( W i l k s Lambda=.752, F ( 4 , 4 7 ) , p=.009; F ( l , 5 0 ) = 4 . 6 7 9 , p=.035) r e s p e c t i v e l y . 127 FIGURE 5.6 j SENSATION-SEEKING LEVELS FOR EXPERIMENTAL ! AND CONTROL GROUPS IN THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC (MEANS) 128 TABLE 5.8 SENSATION-SEEKING SCORES: COMPARISON OF POLAR EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS WITH URBAN AND AMERICAN CONTROLS GROUPS AMERICAN SUBSCALES TAS SD 7.8 7.1 ARCTIC 7.5 2.2 ANTARCTIC 6.29 2.6 URBAN 6.26 2.9 ES SD 4.7 4.7 6.87 2.0 3.48 1.4 4.63 1.8 DIS SD 6.6 4.3 5.68 2.3 2.64 1.9 1.8 0.86 BS SD 3.1 2.4 3.66 2.2 1.35 1.1 1.73 1.4 NOTE: TAS - THRILL - AND ADVENTURE-SEEKING; ES - EXPERIENCE SEEKING; DIS - DISINHIBITION; BS - BOREDOM SUSCEPTIBILITY THE DIFFERENCE OF ES BETWEEN THE ANTARCTIC AND URBAN GROUPS IS SIGNIFICANT AT THE P - .035 LEVEL. MAXIMUM SCORES FOR ALL SUBSCALES: 10 129 Comparison w i t h t h e norms O v e r a l l , A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s were lower s e n s a t i o n s e e k e r s t h a n t h e A r c t i c g r o u p s , and a l s o lower t h a n the norms, as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 5.8. D i f f e r e n c e s i n a l l s c a l e s , but not i n TAS, between the p o l a r e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s were n o t e d ( W i l k s Lambda=.516, F(4,48)=11.22, p<.001). These r e s u l t s were as f o l l o w s : ES ( F ( l , 5 1 ) = 2 3 . 0 5 , p<.001; DIS d(1,51)=24.14, p<.001; BS F ( l , 5 1 ) = 2 2 . 3 9 , p<.001. A n a l y z i n g b o t h t h e morning and a f t e r n o o n p e r i o d s o f a p p l i c a t i o n of t he t e s t , e x c e p t f o r D i s i n h i b i t i o n , no e v i d e n c e of d i u r n a l v a r i a t i o n of a r o u s a l was found ( W i l k s Lambda=.813, MVF(4,47)=2.685, p=.043; F ( l , 5 0 ) = . 6 0 6 , p=.015 (see F i g u r e 5.7). Sex d i f f e r e n c e s Comparing sex d i f f e r e n c e s of the A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s , men i n t h e A n t a r c t i c s c o r e d h i g h e r i n o v e r a l l s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g t r a i t s t h a n women (M=13.66 and 9.00 r e s p e c t i v e l y ; MVF(1,84)=4.16; p=.044). There were no s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between s c o r e s of men and women i n t h e c o n t r o l g roup. 130 131 5.2.2. A f f e c t i v e R e a c t i o n s A f f e c t i v e r e a c t i o n s were measured by L i f e - S t r e s s E v e n t s and B i o g r a p h i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n . S t a t i s t i c s used were Manova and Anova f o r the f o r m e r , and C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n t a b l e s f o r the l a t t e r . R e s u l t s were as f o l l o w s : L i f e S t r e s s E v e n t s — T h i s t e s t has been u s i n g as norms, an a d a p t e d v e r s i o n o b t a i n e d from L i n d e n (1984) of s t r e s s e v e n t s . The f o l l o w i n g s t r e s s v a l u e s were c o n s i d e r e d as c o m p a r a t i v e norms: S t r e s s S evere High Moderate Average Low P o i n t s Above 800 650-799 500-649 270-499 L e s s t h a n 270 T a b l e 5.9 d i s p l a y s t h e f i n d i n g s based on means of s t r e s s f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s . The A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l group showed moderate s t r e s s l e v e l , w h i l e t h e c o n t r o l group had av e r a g e s t r e s s l e v e l [F(1,27)=5.55; p=.026]. T h e r e were no s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s on l e v e l s of s t r e s s between the A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l ( a v e r a g e ) and c o n t r o l (low) g r o u p s ( F ( l , 5 1 ) = 2 . 6 9 , p=.107). 132 T A B L E 5.9 M E A N S A N D S T A N D A R D D E V I A T I O N S O N L I F E S T R E S S E V E N T S F O R T H E E X P E R I M E N T A L A N D C O N T R O L GROUPS IN T H E A R C T I C A N D ANTARCTIC REGIONS ARCTIC ANTARCTIC GROUPS *,b b EXPERIMENTAL 534.81 350.89 SD 240.84 211.28 a CONTROL 330.16 261.00 SD 221.66 139.16 NOTE: (a) significant difference p - .007 (b) significant difference p - .020 133 The A r c t i c groups were under more s t r e s s t h a n t h e A n t a r c t i c ones, r a n g i n g from a v e r a g e t o moderate l e v e l s [ F ( 1 , 53 ) =7 . 924, p=.007]. Sex d i f f e r e n c e s There was no s t a t i s t i c a l e v i d e n c e of sex d i f f e r e n c e s on l i f e -s t r e s s e v e n t s f o r A n t a r c t i c groups (F(1,49)=.113, p=.737). Demographic and B i o g r a p h i c a l -Demographic and b i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a c o m p r i s e d of age, e d u c a t i o n a l -l e v e l , m a r i t a l - s t a t u s , p l a c e of o r i g i n , m o t i v a t i o n and p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n remote l o c a t i o n s . S t a t i s t i c s were based on l i s t i n g and c o u n t f r e q u e n c y of r e s p o n s e s t o each of t h e q u e s t i o n s . T a b l e 5.10 d i s p l a y s the r e s u l t s f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s . Because of the s m a l l sample s i z e , d a t a on women were not c o n s i d e r e d . A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l groups c o m p r i s e d m o s t l y of younger p e o p l e , 20-30 y e a r s , and mature s u b j e c t s i n t h e 31-40 y e a r s r a n g e ; A n t a r c t i c groups c o m p r i s e d m o s t l y of mature i n d i v i d u a l s and younger ones. A r c t i c c o n t r o l s a l s o c o m p r i s e d m o s t l y of more mature p e o p l e (45-65 r a n g e ) ; w h i l e i n t h e A n t a r c t i c mature s u b j e c t s were p r e v a l e n t (31-40 r a n g e ) . 134 T A B L E 5.10 B I O G R A P H I C A L DATA: V A R I A B L E S L I S T E D F O R T H E A R C T I C A N D A N T A R C T I C E X P E R I M E N T A L A N D C O N T R O L G R O U P S VARIABLES ARCTIC (E) % (C) % ANTARCTIC (E) % (C) % AGE (Yrs.) 20 - 30 62.6 23.1 31.6 14.3 31 - 40 18.8 23.1 62.6 86.7 40 & UP 18.8 53.8 16,8 EDUCATION HIGH-SCH. OR LESS 25.0 61.6 66.3 42.9 TECHNICAL SCH. 37.5 23.1 36.8 14.3 UNIVERSITY 37.5 16.4 7.9 42.9 MARITAL STATUS SINGLE 62.5 89.2 26.3 MARRIED 31.3 23.1 73.7 100 DIVORCED 6.3 7.7 ORIGINS BIG CITY 62.6 46.2 66.3 60.0 SMALL TOWN 25.0 23.1 42.1 42.9 RURAL FLAT 6.3 30.8 2.6 7.1 RURAL MOUNTAIN 6.3 N - 16 N - 13 N > 39 N - 14 135 Fewer of t h e A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l group (compared t o N=16), had h i g h - s c h o o l d i p l o m a s , but e d u c a t i o n a l - l e v e l i n c r e a s e s among the c o n t r o l s ( p e r h a p s because of t h e h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of more mature s u b j e c t s ) . A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s c o m p r i s e d m o s t l y of s u b j e c t s w i t h a h i g h - s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n and t e c h n i c a l d i p l o m a s . C o n t r o l s showed s i m i l a r p e r c e n t a g e s of b o t h h i g h - s c h o o l and u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e s . A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s c o m p r i s e d m o s t l y of s i n g l e s u b j e c t s , w h i l e most A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l s and c o n t r o l s were m a r r i e d . G e o g r a p h i c a l o r i g i n , the p l a c e where the s u b j e c t s s p e n t most of t h e i r c h i l d h o o d and a d u l t l i f e , p r o v e d t o be m a i n l y b i g c i t i e s ; 55% of the e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s came from b i g c i t i e s , w i t h 37% from s m a l l towns. Among e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s , 62% o f t h e A r c t i c ones came from a b i g c i t y and 25% from a s m a l l town; f o r t h e A n t a r c t i c , t h e f i g u r e s were 55% and 42% r e s p e c t i v e l y . C o n t r o l s i n b o t h the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c f o l l o w e d t h e same t e n d e n c y of t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s . The a v e r a g e l e n g t h of time t h a t e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s had e x p e r i e n c e d remote l o c a t i o n s showed the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s : 31% of the A n t a r c t i c p e r s o n n e l had l i v e d an a v e r a g e o f 6 months i n i s o l a t i o n w h i l e a n i l v a l u e was o b s e r v e d i n t h e same c a t e g o r y f o r the A r c t i c p e o p l e ( R e s o l u t e Bay i s c o n s i d e r e d a s e m i -i s o l a t e d s i t e ) . 136 The a v e r a g e time of e x p o s u r e t o an i s o l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t (see G l o s s a r y ) f o r p e r s o n n e l i n the A r c t i c r anged from 4 t o 14 months. F o r example, i n t h e A r c t i c the h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e was 18 (N=3) i n the c a t e g o r y of 12 months e x p o s u r e ; and one p e r s o n (6%) each a t 4,7,8, and 14 months of e x p o s u r e . F o r c o n t r o l s , the a v e r a g e time of e x p o s u r e t o i s o l a t i o n r a n g e d from 4 t o 18 months. In c o n t r a s t , 13% (N=5) of the t o t a l number of A n t a r c t i c s u b j e c t s were a t the 12 month p e r i o d of e x p o s u r e , which meant t h a t s u b j e c t s had a l r e a d y been exposed t o 12 months i n i s o l a t i o n . Other s u b j e c t s were i n o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s , up t o 68 months of e x p o s u r e t o i s o l a t i o n ( i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h many y e a r s i n the A r c t i c or A n t a r c t i c ) f o r b o t h r e g i o n s . None of the s u b j e c t s of t h e A n t a r c t i c c o n t r o l group had e x p e r i e n c e i n remote e n v i r o n m e n t s . Data which a n a l y z e d p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e of s u b j e c t s i n e x t r e m e l y i s o l a t e d , i s o l a t e d and semi - i s o l a t e d l o c a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t 56% of t h e A r c t i c p e r s o n n e l had p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e High A r c t i c ( e x t r e m e l y i s o l a t e d s i t e s ) , 6% had e x p e r i e n c e d i s o l a t e d l o c a t i o n s , and t h e r e s t had been exposed t o s e m i - i s o l a t e d l o c a t i o n s . The f i g u r e s f o r the A n t a r c t i c were 80% i n i s o l a t e d as opposed t o 20% i n s e m i - i s o l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t s . None of t h e s u b j e c t s had e x p e r i e n c e d e x t r e m e l y i s o l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t s . 137 Data on m o t i v a t i o n f o r g o i n g t o p o l a r r e g i o n s showed t h a t 83% of the e x p e r i m e n t a l A r c t i c group and the m a j o r i t y of c o n t r o l s were p r e v i o u s l y unemployed or t h e y d i d not have o t h e r a v a i l a b l e j o b s t o p e r f o r m i n t h e i r p l a c e of o r i g i n ; none of t h e A n t a r c t i c s u b j e c t s had been unemployed. The h i g h s a l a r y p a i d f o r p o l a r d u t i e s was the main m o t i v a t i o n f o r 28% of the A r c t i c and 71% of the A n t a r c t i c p e o p l e , but not f o r n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n c o n t r o l s . E x p e r i e n c i n g the e n v i r o n m e n t was judged t o be as i m p o r t a n t as money i n the two p o l a r r e g i o n s (by 6 A r c t i c and 8 A n t a r c t i c s u b j e c t s ) . I t was f o l l o w e d by a d v e n t u r e (6 A r c t i c and 13 A n t a r c t i c s u b j e c t s ) . C a r e e r development as a m o t i v a t i o n t o go t o b o t h p o l a r r e g i o n s was not c o n s i d e r e d t o be a p r i o r i t y by t h e s u b j e c t s . 5.2.3 Community B e h a v i o u r and S o c i a l S t r e s s T h i s s e c t i o n c o m p r i s e s two segments. One r e f e r s t o t h e measures of community b e h a v i o u r , which i n c l u d e l e v e l s of s a t i s f a c t i o n , s o c i a b i l i t y and r e c r e a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r . B e h a v i o u r s e t t i n g s w i t h i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t e s was a l s o i d e n t i f i e d . The s e c o n d segment r e f e r s t o f i n d i n g s on the s o c i a l s t r e s s d i m e n s i o n . I s s u e s s u c h as m o o d - s t a t e s , s l e e p - h a b i t s , s t r e s s and a r o u s a l s t a t e s and i m agery phenomena were a d d r e s s e d . 138 Because E s p e r a n z a i s composed of f a m i l i e s , f a m i l i a l a d a p t a t i o n was a l s o a n a l y z e d . ( i ) Community B e h a v i o u r S o c i a b i l i t y R a t i n g S h e e t s -These measures were a d m i n i s t e r e d o n l y t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s over a three-week p e r i o d . Some of t h e s u b j e c t s d i d not comp l e t e t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i t h i n t h i s p e r i o d . T h i s f a c t r e s u l t e d i n d i f f e r e n t f r e q u e n c i e s of r e s p o n s e s . Thus, s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s was p r i m a r i l y c o n d u c t e d by a d j u s t i n g the p r o p o r t i o n s (means) over the d i f f e r e n t number of days i n which t h e d a t a was r e c o r d e d . A f t e r t h i s t r e a t m e n t , d a t a were s u b m i t t e d t o Manova and Anova. There were no a v a i l a b l e norms f o r t h i s t e s t . The r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d here r e f e r t o 19 v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . Some of the v a r i a b l e s were o m i t t e d from s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . One of them i s "my n e i g h b o u r h o o d " , s i n c e t h i s q u e s t i o n was not a p p l i c a b l e t o the two A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l and p a r t of the A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l groups nor t o one of the A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l groups (Marambio had l i v i n g q u a r t e r s i n a t t a c h e d modules where the sens e of n e i g h b o u r h o o d was not a p p l i c a b l e ) . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 5.11. A l l of the f a c t o r s measured can be found i n t h e A p p e n d i x . 139 TABLE 5.11 MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS ON SOCIABIL ITY L E V E L S OF THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS GROUPS ARCTIC EXP. ANTARCTIC EXP. P f VARIABLES WEATHER 4.94 6.16 .001 SD .91 .64 FRIENDS 4.69 6.08 .006 SD .09 .90 SPOUSE 4.86 6.06 .007 SD .36 .79 OLD CHILD 4.46 6.22 .001 3D .18 .71 MYSELF 4.89 6.07 .007 SD .37 .79 OTHERS 3.44 6.02 .001 SD 1.08 .81 FAMILY 3.73 6.08 .001 3D 2.03 .99 NOTE: THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN POLAR EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS ARE SIGNIFICANT AS ABOVE, F(1,30) SCALE: 1 • VERY DISSATISFIED! 6 • VERY SATISFIED 140 Data on c o n t r o l s were a b s e n t because of t h e d a i l y a p p l i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e of t h i s t e s t . There was a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n ( T a b l e 5.11), a l t h o u g h not e v i d e n t by W i l k s Lambda t e s t ( W i l k s Lambda=.238, MVF(19,12)=.108), of h i g h e r l e v e l s of s a t i s f a c t i o n and s o c i a b i l i t y i n t h e A n t a r c t i c t h a n i n t h e A r c t i c g r o u p s F ( l , 3 0 ) . Sex d i f f e r e n c e s S a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s were not s i g n i f i c a n t between men and women ( W i l k s Lambda=.332, MVF(12,19)=1.268, p=.343). L e i s u r e A c t i v i t i e s -The r e c r e a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r of the s u b j e c t s was i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h a t e s t named L A B - L e i s u r e A c t i v i t i e s Blank ( M c k e c h n i e , 1975). T h i s r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t i n v e s t i g a t e d l e i s u r e b e h a v i o u r . I t was used f o r i d e n t i f y i n g p r e v i o u s and p l a n n e d ( p a s t and f u t u r e ) a c t i v i t i e s of the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s . The LAB c o m p r i s e s 2 segments: t h e p a s t s c a l e s ( m e c h a n i c s , c r a f t s , i n t e l l e c t u a l , s l o w l i v i n g , s p o r t s and glamour s p o r t s ) ; and t h e f u t u r e s c a l e s ( a d v e n t u r e , m e c h a n i c s , c r a f t s , e a s y - l i v i n g , i n t e l l e c t u a l , e g o - r e c o g n i t i o n , s l o w - l i v i n g and c l e a n - l i v i n g ) . 141 Each of t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s c o n t a i n s a s e r i e s of l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s (see A p p e n d i x ) . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s was based on Manova and Anova. O v e r a l l r e s u l t s ( W i l k s Lambda=.36 8, MVF(14,14)=.163) showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s . However, glamour s p o r t s ( s k i i n g , c a n o e i n g , mountain c l i m b i n g , t e n n i s ) were judged as more h i g h l y p r e f e r r e d p a s t a c t i v i t i e s by t h e A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l group (M=28.87) [ F ( l , 2 7 ) = 6 . 7 0 , p=.015] t h a n by t h e i r c o n t r o l s (M=22.30). A c t i v i t i e s s u c h as a d v e n t u r e (camping, b i k i n g , s k i n - d i v i n g , w a t e r - s k i i n g (F(1,27)=10.391, p=.003), M=55.12 and 41.69; c r a f t s (weaving, l e a t h e r w o r k , sewing F(1,27)=5.353, p=.029, M=23.56 and 18.46, and e g o - r e c o g n i t i o n ( a c t i n g , modern dance, j u d o , s q u a s h , w r i t i n g p o e t r y , w e i g h t - l i f t i n g F ( l , 2 7 ) =4.351, p=.047, M=18.81 and 15.46) were r a t e d h i g h e r by t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l A r c t i c group as a c t i v i t i e s t o be d e v e l o p e d i n t h e f u t u r e . In the A n t a r c t i c , ( W i l k s Lambda=.359, MVF(14,38)=4.837, p<.001), a c t i v i t i e s s u c h as mechanics ( a u t o - r e p a i r , c a r p e n t r y , h u n t i n g , wood w o r k i n g , M=43.97 and 37.07, F(1,51)=5.504, p=.023); s p o r t s ( f o o t b a l l , j o g g i n g , t a b l e - t e n n i s , v o l l e y b a l l , M=26.69 and 21.35 r e s p e c t i v e l y F(1,51)=8.489, p=.005) were more h i g h l y r a t e d by the e x p e r i m e n t a l group t h a n by the c o n t r o l s as p a s t l e i s u r e b e h a v i o u r . 142 A c t i v i t i e s s u c h as c r a f t s (M=27.93 and 31.50, F ( 1 , 5 1 ) = 4 . 301, p=.043) were h i g h l y r a t e d by c o n t r o l s b u t n o t by e x p e r i m e n t a l s . S l o w - l i v i n g ( d i n i n g - o u t , v i s i t i n g f r i e n d s , w i n d o w - s h o p p i n g , g a r d e n i n g , M=41.58 and 37.85 f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l r e s p e c t i v e l y , F ( 1 , 5 1 ) = 4 . 5 8 8 , p=.035) and c l e a n - l i v i n g ( b a s e b a l l , b o w l i n g , c h i l d - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s F ( 1 , 5 1 ) = 4 . 0 1 6 , p=.050) were h i g h c h o i c e s f o r f u t u r e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . The d i f f e r e n c e s o f t h e two p o l a r e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s , i n l e i s u r e b e h a v i o u r were n o t e d ( W i l k s Lambda=.484, MVF(14,40)=3.036, p=.003). A c t i v i t i e s s u c h as i n t e l l e c t u a l (M=33.0 and 27.58 f o r A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l s r e s p e c t i v e l y , F ( 1 , 5 3 ) = 9 . 8 6 9 , p=.003); s p o r t s (M=31.81 and 26.69 r e s p e c t i v e l y , F ( 1 , 5 3 ) = 9 . 3 5 6 ) , and g l a m o u r s p o r t s (M=28.87 and 21.89, F ( 1 , 5 3 ) = 2 3 . 8 5 2 , p<.001) were r a t e d h i g h l y by A r c t i c p e r s o n n e l as p a s t a c t i v i t i e s . O n l y a d v e n t u r e (M=55.12 and 47.97 r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l s , F ( 1 , 5 3 ) = 7 . 2 2 6 , p=.010) was h i g h l y r a t e d and d e s i r e d as a f u t u r e a c t i v i t y by t h e same g r o u p . 143 Sex d i f f e r e n c e s Sex d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t e d ( W i l k s Lambda=7.797, MVF(14,36)= 20.051, p<.001). Women i n b o t h c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l A n t a r c t i c g r o u p s had a h i g h e r d e s i r e t h a n men t o be i n v o l v e d i n c r a f t s a c t i v i t i e s (M f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l men=23.14, women=34.25, F ( l , 4 9 ) = 3 1 . 9 0 4 , p<.001); (M f o r c o n t r o l men=19.85, women=33.42). M e c h a n i c a l (M=45.85 and 27.50 f o r men and women r e s p e c t i v e l y , F ( l , 4 9 ) = 2 9 . 4 1 8 , p<.001), and s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s ( [ p a s t ] M=27.42 and 20.25 r e s p e c t i v e l y , F ( 1 , 4 9 ) = 5 . 1 5 1 , p=.028) were more p r e f e r r e d i n t h e p a s t and f u t u r e ( [ m e c h a n i c a l , f u t u r e ] M=41.17 and 27.25 r e s p e c t i v e l y , F ( 1 , 4 9 ) = 1 2 . 9 8 2 , p=.001) by men w i t h i n t h e A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p t h a n by women. S p o r t s were p l a y e d i n t h e p a s t more by men t h a n by women i n t h e A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s . B e h a v i o u r a l S e t t i n g S u r v e y — The p r o c e s s i n g o f d a t a c o n c e r n i n g b e h a v i o u r a l s e t t i n g s was m o d i f i e d b e c a u s e o f t h e p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f t h e s i t e s . The o r i g i n a l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e ( B a r k e r and W r i g h t , 1955) had been m o d i f i e d by B e c h t e l & L e d b e t t e r (1980) f o r t h e N a n i s i v i k Mine p r o j e c t on h a b i t a b i l i t y i n remote s e t t i n g s . F o r t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , a n o t h e r a d a p t a t i o n had t o be made due t o t h e s m a l l s i z e o f p o l a r s t a t i o n s and t h e r e d u c e d o f f - s i t e and w i t h i n - s i t e t r a n s i e n t p e r s o n n e l d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r s e a s o n . 144 T h e r e f o r e , i n d i c e s s u c h as " g e n e r a l r i c h n e s s " , p r e s s u r e - r a t i n g s , w e l f a r e r a t i n g , and d e m o g r a p h i c e t h n i c d a t a were n o t co n s i d e r e d . Data were c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h o u t s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s c o n d u c t e d w i t h t h e p e r s o n i n c h a r g e of t h e s e t t i n g and t h e n coded i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m s (see A p p e n d i x ) . A c t i v i t i e s w h i c h t o o k p l a c e i n s i d e t h e s e t t i n g d u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r were n o t e d . L i s t s o f b e h a v i o u r a l s e t t i n g s ( s e t t i n g s where any f o r m o f human b e h a v i o u r was p e r f o r m e d ) were p r e p a r e d . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e o p e r a t i o n c o m p l e x of a p o l a r s t a t i o n g e n e r a l l y i n c l u d e d t h r e e o r f o u r rooms ( b e h a v i o u r a l s e t t i n g s ) . The s e t t i n g s were t h e n c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t y p e o f a c t i o n p a t t e r n s u s e d by B a r k e r ( 1 9 6 8 ) . A c t i o n p a t t e r n s were d e f i n e d by B a r k e r as b e i n g l a r g e d i v i s i o n s of d a i l y b e h a v i o u r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s : A e s t h e t i c s : A c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h s e t t i n g s i m p r o v e t h e a p p e a r a n c e or c l e a n - u p t h e e n v i r o n m e n t were s c o r e d as a e s t h e t i c s , e.g. l a u n d r y - r o o m . B u s i n e s s : A c t i v i t i e s w h i c h i n v o l v e d t h e b u y i n g and s e l l i n g o f a r t i c l e s of m e r c h a n d i s e , e.g. p o s t - o f f i c e and s o u v e n i r s a v a i l a b l e i n p o l a r s t a t i o n s . P r o f e s s i o n a l i s m : When l e a d e r s i n a s e t t i n g were p a i d f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s , t h e s e t t i n g was s c o r e d f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m . 145 E d u c a t i o n ; S e t t i n g s i n which t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g were per f o r m e d were s c o r e d f o r e d u c a t i o n , e.g. s c h o o l i n E s p e r a n z a . Government: S e t t i n g s i n which laws were e n f o r c e d or obeyed were s c o r e d f o r government. N u t r i t i o n : The p r e p a r a t i o n or consumption of f o o d p r o v i d e d by the s e t t i n g was s c o r e d f o r n u t r i t i o n . P e r s o n a l Appearance: When p a r t i c i p a n t s d r e s s up or groom t h e m s e l v e s , a s e t t i n g was s c o r e d f o r p e r s o n a l a p p e a r a n c e , e.g. a b a r b e r - s h o p . P h y s i c a l H e a l t h : S e t t i n g s which had b e h a v i o u r t h a t promoted or r a i s e d p h y s i c a l h e a l t h were s c o r e d f o r t h i s a c t i o n p a t t e r n . S i n c e many of the e x e r c i s e c l a s s e s , swimming, and games were c o n s i d e r e d as a i d s t o the improvement of p h y s i c a l h e a l t h , s u c h s e t t i n g s were s c o r e d a c c o r d i n g l y . R e c r e a t i o n : B e h a v i o u r t h a t p r o v i d e d immediate g r a t i f i c a t i o n t o the p e r f o r m e r s was s c o r e d as r e c r e a t i o n a l . R e l i g i o n ; Any s e t t i n g i n which the p e r f o r m e d b e h a v i o u r was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w o r s h i p was s c o r e d as r e l i g i o n , e.g. c h a p e l i n E s p e r a n z a . 146 S o c i a l C o n t a c t : I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of a n y k i n d were s c o r e d as s o c i a l c o n t a c t . D a t a o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s u r v e y were s t a t i s t i c a l l y t r e a t e d , t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e number of h o u r s i n p e r c e n t a g e s t h e b e h a v i o u r a l s e t t i n g s were most u s e d , i . e . o c c u p a n c y t i m e . F i g u r e 5.8 shows t h e b e h a v i o u r a l s e t t i n g s a c c o r d i n g t o t i m e of o c c u p a n c y of t h e s e t t i n g i n e a c h c a t e g o r y of a c t i o n p a t t e r n s . I t c a n be n o t e d t h a t t h e a c t i o n p a t t e r n " a e s t h e t i c s " was s c o r e d l o w e s t and was r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r f o r a l l t h r e e p o l a r s i t e s . " B u s i n e s s " and " p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m " were p r o m i n e n t a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c t i o n p a t t e r n s i n E u r e k a and M o u l d Bay. B o t h of t h e s t a t i o n s a r e g o vernment s i t e s c o l l e c t i n g w e a t h e r d a t a f o r p u b l i c c o n s u m p t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , E u r e k a p e r f o r m s a v a r i e t y of e x t r a a c t i v i t i e s s u p p o r t i n g s c i e n t i f i c and t o u r i s t p a r t i e s t r a v e l l i n g t o t h e P o l e , and s u p p l y i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n l i n k s f o r t h e DND ( D e p a r t m e n t of N a t i o n a l D e f e n s e ) . B e c a u s e o f t h e d i r e c t g overnment s u p p o r t i n a l l p o l a r s i t e s , " g o v e r n m e n t " a c t i o n p a t t e r n s were h i g h l y r a t e d . P e r s o n a l a p p e a r a n c e had l o w e r s c o r e s f o r E s p e r a n z a , p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e of t h e e n f o r c e d use o f u n i f o r m s d u r i n g t h e work d a y s . O t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s , r e l a t e d t o h a b i t a b i l i t y and d e s i g n , between t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c s i t e s were n o t e d . 147 FIGURE 5.8 BEHAVIOUR SETTINGS IN EUREKA. MOULD BAY AND ESPERANZA ACCORDING TO OCCUPANCY TIME 1 0 0 -m V, I si £3 AESTHETIC •• BUSINESS PROFES CD EDUCAT GOVERNT EUREKA M O U L D BAY ESPERANZA 8 0 -t - 60-] o z t < i LU EUREKA M O U L D BAY ESPERANZA 148 In the A r c t i c , Mould Bay and E u r e k a had a s i m i l a r number of f a c i l i t i e s ( p o w e r - p l a n t , o p e r a t i o n complex, warehouse, g a r a g e , t r a n s i e n t b a r r a c k s , e l e c t r o n i c l a b o r a t o r y and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s , r e c r e a t i o n - h a l l , e t c . ) but were a r r a n g e d i n t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t l a y o u t s . At Mould Bay, t h e o p e r a t i o n s complex c o n t a i n e d the TV-room, but not the r e c r e a t i o n - h a l l . The TV-room was t h e b e h a v i o u r a l f o c a l p o i n t of the group (measured by t h e number of hours i n which t h e s e t t i n g was u s e d ) . The b e h a v i o u r a l s e t t i n g s most used by s t a t i o n p e r s o n n e l d u r i n g the w i n t e r s e a s o n were t h e d i n i n g - r o o m , weather o f f i c e and the O.I.C's ( o f f i c e r i n c h a r g e ) o f f i c e . In c o n t r a s t , because of t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e r e c r e a t i o n - h a l l a t t a c h e d t o the d i n i n g - and TV-room, r e s u l t i n g i n more f r e q u e n t s o c i a l c o n t a c t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e c r e a t i o n and p l e a s u r e ( a t l e a s t a t meal t i m e s ) , E u r e k a had a more s a t i s f a c t o r y b u i l d i n g l a y o u t . The o p e r a t i o n s complex, ( p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e r e c r e a t i o n h a l l ) was the b e h a v i o u r a l f o c a l p o i n t of a c t i v i t i e s a t t h e s t a t i o n . The b e h a v i o u r a l f o c a l p o i n t a t the A n t a r c t i c s i t e , E s p e r a n z a , was the d i n i n g / r e c r e a t i o n - r o o m . T h i s s e t t i n g was l o c a t e d i n i t s own s e p a r a t e b u i l d i n g , p h y s i c a l l y d i s t a n t from th e l i v i n g -q u a r t e r s . Thus, crews had a t e n d e n c y t o s o c i a l i z e p r i m a r i l y a t meal t i m e s . They a l s o used the s e t t i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . 149 ( i i ) Soc i a 1 S t r e s s MS." Mood and S l e e p _ These s e l f - r e p o r t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s d a i l y , o v e r a t h r e e - w e e k p e r i o d . Mood and S l e e p was a n a l y z e d a d j u s t i n g t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o v e r t h e d i f f e r e n t number of d a y s (means) i n w h i c h t h e d a t a were r e c o r d e d . A l l t h e d i c h o t o m i z e d v a r i a b l e s (Yes and No) were s u b j e c t e d t o t h i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t . The means of t h e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s , open-ended q u e s t i o n s , were b a s e d on t h e f r e q u e n c y of d a t a r e c o r d e d i n e a c h of t h e c a t e g o r i e s . A f t e r t h i s t r e a t m e n t , d a t a was s u b m i t t e d t o Manova and Anova. B e c a u s e of t h e f o r m a t of t h e Mood and S l e e p s e l f r e p o r t , c o m p r i s e d of two s e c t i o n s (mood and s l e e p ) , t h e r e s u l t s were e x p l a i n e d as f o l l o w s : Mood R e s u l t s showed a g e n e r a l mood t h a t was s l i g h t l y d i s t u r b e d f o r t h e p o l a r e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s , a l t h o u g h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l ( W i l k s Lambda=.087, MVF(9,43)=2.19, p=.104; M=4.64 and 3 . 2 2 ) ; A n t a r c t i c g r o u p s were more p e r t u r b e d by p r e v a i l i n g w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s [M=2.51 and 2.87 r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c g r o u p s , F ( 1 , 5 1 ) = 5 . 8 1 5 , p=.020] and were s l i g h t l y more s o c i a b l e (M=4.60 and 5.10 r e s p e c t i v e l y , F ( 1 , 5 1 ) = 7 . 7 2 8 , p=.009); [ p o s s i b l y a c u l t u r a l e f f e c t ] t h a n t h e A r c t i c o n e s . 150 L i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s (M=3 .48 and 3.73 f o r t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c r e s p e c t i v e l y i n a s c a l e of v e r y b o t h e r e d = l and n o t a t a l l b o t h e r e d = 4 ; [ F ( 1 , 5 1 ) = 4 . 7 0 3 , p=.035] i n t h e A r c t i c were p e r c e i v e d , s l i g h t l y , as a c o n c e r n e d f a c t o r by t h e A r c t i c c r e w s . The same t r e n d was n o t e d f o r p e r s o n a l work (M=3.53 and 3.78 r e s p e c t i v e l y , F ( 1 , 5 1 ) = 6 . 5 2 2 , p=.014) and t h e r o l e o f t h e c r e w s as s u b j e c t s (M=3.59 and 3.87 r e s p e c t i v e l y , F ( 1 , 5 1 ) = 6 . 5 2 2 , p=.014). These r e s u l t s p r o b a b l y a r e e x p l a i n e d by t h e t y p e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e A n t a r c t i c s i t e s by m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l ( w i t h more r i g i d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r u l e s , and t h e b u i l d i n g d e s i g n of t h e s i t e h o u s e s ) . I n E s p e r a n z a t h e h o u s e s were i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s r a t h e r t h a n a t t a c h e d m o d u l e s . T h i s had an e f f e c t o f g r o u p i n g t h e f a m i l i e s i n s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l e n v i r o n m e n t . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e A n t a r c t i c g r o u p , c o m p r i s i n g mature and e x p e r i e n c e d i n d i v i d u a l s , c o u l d a l s o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . S l e e p and Dreams There was no e v i d e n c e o f i n s o m n i a i n e i t h e r t h e A r c t i c o r A n t a r c t i c g r o u p s . I s o l a t e d c a s e s o f i n s o m n i a were d e t e c t e d o n l y i n two i n d i v i d u a l r e p o r t s . B o t h p o l a r g r o u p s r a t e d s l e e p q u a l i t y (M=3.55 and 3.77 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) f r o m a v e r a g e t o good ( s e e A p p e n d i x f o r t h e s c a l e ) . 151 The l e n g t h of t h e i r s l e e p was 6.86 hours f o r t h e A r c t i c crews and 6.40 hours f o r the A n t a r c t i c p e r s o n n e l . Among the d i s t u r b i n g f a c t o r s were n i g h t s h i f t s and e m e r g e n c i e s f o r b o t h p o l e s . D u r i n g s l e e p , A r c t i c groups were more d i s t u r b e d (M=.32 and .12, F( 1, 51) =8.227, p=.006) t h a n the A n t a r c t i c ones bi-s e x u a l a r o u s a l [M=.36 and.18, F(1,51)=4.430, p=.040)], r e s t l e s s n e s s [M=.060 and .071, F(1,51)=7.528, p=.008)], e v e n t s of the day [M=.082 and .028, p(1,51)=12.186, p=.001)] and h e a t or c o l d [M=.094 and .005, F(1,51)=4.080, p = . 0 4 9 ) ] . A n a l y s i s o f dream m a t e r i a l shows t h a t the A r c t i c g r o u p s r e p o r t e d CM=.48 and .25, F(1,51)=8.740, p=.005] (but d i d n o t r e c a l l ) more dreams t h a n the A n t a r c t i c g r o u p s . Dreams f a l l between t h e c a t e g o r i e s of d i s a g r e a b l e t o n e u t r a l f o r b o t h r e g i o n s . The c o n t e n t of dreams were: s e x u a l f o r b o t h r e g i o n s (M=.075 and .067, {nsd}; f a m i l y (more i n t h e A n t a r c t i c , M=.16 and .53 r e s p e c t i v e l y , F(1,51)=10.06, p=.003); f r i e n d s (no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e - n s d ) ; games ( n s d ) ; unknown p l a c e s (more i n t h e A r c t i c , M=.185 and.020 r e s p e c t i v e l y , F(1,51)=11.51, p=.001); and, s u n l i g h t f o r t h e A r c t i c g r o u p s , showing t h e e f f e c t of t h e dark s e a s o n (M=.125 and .001 r e s p e c t i v e l y , F(1,51)=5 . 258, p=.026). 152 Sex d i f f e r e n c e s There were no e v i d e n c e s of s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women i n the p o l a r s i t e s ( W i l k s Lambda=.166 / MVF(9,43)=1.04, p=.510. S t r e s s and A r o u s a l S t r e s s and A r o u s a l — T h i s t e s t measured r e a c t i o n s of s t r e s s and a r o u s a l a c c o r d i n g t o the r a t i n g s of s p e c i f i c a d j e c t i v e s as i n d i c a t e d below. Data were grouped i n f o u r d i m e n s i o n s : s t r e s s p o s i t i v e , s t r e s s n e g a t i v e , a r o u s a l p o s i t i v e and a r o u s a l n e g a t i v e (Cox and Mackay, 1985). Data were t r e a t e d by Manova and Anova t o p r o v i d e a c o m p a r i s o n w i t h the r e s u l t s as t h e r e were no norms a v a i l a b l e . R e s u l t s showed t h a t A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s f e l t s l i g h t l y more s t r e s s t h a n the A n t a r c t i c ones but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y more t h a n t h e c o n t r o l s . T h i s s t r e s s was i n d i c a t e d by s e l f - r a t i n g s s uch as f e e l i n g t e n s e , u n c o m f o r t a b l e , u n p l e a s a n t and c o n c e r n e d . The e x p e r i m e n t a l A r c t i c group was a l s o s l i g h t l y more a r o u s e d ( p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n ; a l e r t , awake, a t t e n t i v e and l i v e l y ) t h a n the c o n t r o l s but a t no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l . 153 Comparing A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s , no s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t e d . A l t h o u g h W i l k s Lambda v a l u e s d i d not i n d i c a t e s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s ( W i l k s Lambda=.877, MVF(4,48)=1.678, p=.17) the A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a r o u s e d ( i n a n e g a t i v e d i r e c t i o n ; M=3.25 and 4.16 f o r the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c r e s p e c t i v e l y , F(1,51)=4 . 73, p=.034) t h a n the A r c t i c ones a c c o r d i n g t o the r a t i n g s of the f o l l o w i n g a d j e c t i v e s : t e n s e , w o r r i e d , a p p r e h e n s i v e , b o t h e r e d , uneasy, n e r v o u s , d i s t r e s s e d e t c . ) . Sex d i f f e r e n c e s With r e s p e c t t o sex d i f f e r e n c e s , once more, no e v i d e n c e s of s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s were found ( W i l k s Lambda=.898, MVF(4,44)=1.248, p=.304). The Hopkins Symptom C h e c k l i s t -H opkins i d e n t i f i e d symptoms of t e n s i o n and s t r e s s o v e r 5 d i m e n s i o n s : s o m a t i z a t i o n , o b s e s s i v e - c o m p u l s i v e , i n t e r p e r s o n a l s e n s i t i v i t y , d e p r e s s i o n and a n x i e t y . S c o r e s f o r t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups as w e l l as the norms (IBEA, I n t e r n a t i o n a l B i o m e d i c a l E x p e d i t i o n i n t h e A n t a r c t i c ) a r e shown i n T a b l e 5.12. 154 T A B L E 5.12 H O P K I N S S Y M P T O M S C H E C K L I S T : M E A N S C O R E S A N D S T A N D A R D D E V I A T I O N S GROUPS ARCTIC CONTROL ANTARCTIC CONTROL NORM8 I BE A SUBSCALES SOMATIZATION 17.12 17.61 14.76 16.36 14.42 SD 3.6 4.1 3.2 1.9 2.6 OBSESSIVE" 12.43 11.84 10.07 9.42 11.68 COMPULSIVE SD 2.0 3.4 2.6 2.1 3.8 INTERPERSONAL 11.87 11.69 9.42 9.14 9.26 SENSITIVITY SD 2.9 2.9 2.2 1.8 2.3 DEPRESSION 16.06 16.09 14.23 14.00 14.17 SD 3.1 4.6 2.3 2.4 2.9 ANXIETY 8.78 8.69 7.13 7.67 7.33 SD 2.1 2.7 1.6 1.3 1.7 TOTAL SYMPTOM 90.12 88.23 72.47 73.06 74.08 SCORES SD 16.8 20.1 12.3 8.8 16.6 NOTE: STATISTICAL DIFFERENCE FOR ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC GROUPS SOMATIZATION F(1,62) - 6.492, P - .023 (48) MAXIMUM SCORE OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE F(1,62) • 11.061, P - .002 (40) INTERPERSONAL SENSIT. F(1.62) • 10.847, P - .002 (28) DEPRESSION F(1,52) - 6.876, P - 021 (44) ANXIETY F0.62) - 10.132, P - .002 (24) SCALE: 1 - NOT AT ALL; 4 - EXTREME 155 No s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s , a c r o s s a l l d i m e n s i o n s , were found when co m p a r i n g A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s ( W i l k s Lambda=.903, MVF(32,5)=.492, p=.778); and A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l s ( W i l k s Lambda=.9 42, MVF(46,5)=.558, p=.731). Comparing b o t h p o l a r e x p e r i m e n t a l groups s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s were not e d ( W i l k s Lambda=.771, MVF(5,48)=2.845, p=.025). A r e l a t i v e l y lower l e v e l of s t r e s s was s c o r e d by t h e A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s t h a n the A r c t i c ones a c r o s s a l l d i m e n s i o n s . Sex d i f f e r e n c e s O v e r a l l , no s t a t i s t i c a l sex d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t e d ( W i l k s Lambda=.806, MVF(5,44)=2.106, p=.083). The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e between men and women ( e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l ) f o r the A n t a r c t i c was r e l a t e d t o t h e o b s e s s i v e - c o m p u l s i v e d i m e n s i o n . Men i n the c o n t r o l group s c o r e d h i g h e r t h a n women i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , but a l s o a h i g h e r s c o r e f o r men th a n f o r women i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group was o b s e r v e d [ f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l : men M=10.35, women=7.75; c o n t r o l : men M=8.85, women=10.0, (F(1,48)=1.158, p=.039). I m a g i n a t i o n I n v e n t o r y — Measures were t a k e n on 3 major d i m e n s i o n s : s e l f - p r e d i c t e d a b i l i t y t o imagine v i v i d l y , c h i l d h o o d p l a y h i s t o r y and h i s t o r y of i m a g i n a t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t . Data were t r e a t e d by Manova and Anova. 156 There were no a v a i l a b l e norms t o p r o v i d e a c o m p a r i s o n w i t h the f i n d i n g s . Comparing the A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found ( W i l k s Lambda=.362, MVF(13,15)=1.52, p=.225. However, the A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l groups ( W i l k s Lambda=.660, MVF(15,36)=1.236,p=.291), even a t no s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l , i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e i r c o n t r o l s , were more s e n s i t i v e (M: experimenta1=1.66, c o n t r o l = 2 . 2 3 ; F(1,50)=5.75, p=.02) t o e v e n t s which s t i m u l a t e t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y and i m a g i n a t i o n . Comparing b o t h the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s , s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t e d ( W i l k s Lambda=.388, MVF(15,39)=4.084, p<.001). The two p o l a r r e g i o n s ( s l i g h t l y h i g h e r f o r the A r c t i c ; M=3.81 and 3.05 r e s p e c t i v e l y ; F(1,53)=6.184, p=.016) d i f f e r e d i n the i m a g i n a t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t d i m e n s i o n which i n c l u d e d the e x i s t e n c e of an i m a g i n a r y companion ( i n c h i l d h o o d ) . A n o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e was c o n c e r n e d w i t h b e i n g e m o t i o n a l l y i n v o l v e d when r e a d i n g an e x c i t i n g n o v e l ( a l s o s l i g h t l y h i g h e r f o r the A r c t i c [(M=2.75 and 2.05 r e s p e c t i v e l y , F(1,53)=6.538, p=.013)]. I m a g i n a r y sense o f p h y s i c a l memories ( s l i g h t l y h i g h e r f o r the A n t a r c t i c , M=1.81 and 2.74 r e s p e c t i v e l y ; F( 1,53)= 9.676, p=.003) was a n o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e between the two e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s . 157 The d e s i r e to have new p h y s i c a l experiences ( s l i g h t l y higher for the A n t a r c t i c , M=1.93 and 3.07 r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c , F(1,53)=12.651, p=.001) a l s o scored d i f f e r e n t l y i n both polar r e g i o n s . Sex d i f f e r e n c e s O v e r a l l , there were no s t a t i s t i c a l i n d i c a t i o n s of sex d i f f e r e n c e s (Wilks Lambda=.604, MVF(15,34)=1.484, p=.166). Comparing experimental and c o n t r o l groups, men were rather more imaginative than women (M men experimental=l.68 women=1.25; c o n t r o l men=1.71 women=2.00 [scale used was more imaginative=l, more r e a l i s t i c = 2 w i t h i n the context of a s e l f - n a r r a t i v e of an imaginative h i s t o r y (F(1, 48)=4. 369, p=.042). The a b i l i t y to r e -experience p h y s i c a l memories by men and women was a l s o rated d i f f e r e n t l y (M experimental men=2.71 women=3.0, c o n t r o l men=3.42 women=2.00; F(1,48)=5.11, p=.028; s c a l e : l = e x a c t l y , 4=not at a l l ; F(1,48)=5.118, p=.028). Women from the c o n t r o l group had more imaginative memories than women i n the experimental group. Involvements i n c l u d i n g r e l a t i v e l y h i g h - r i s k a c t i v i t i e s such as mountain-climbing, s k y - d i v i n g and s k i i n g were a l s o judged d i f f e r e n t l y by men and women ( s c a l e : l=not engaged, 2=engaged for the sense of achievement, 3=engaged to escape from everyday l i f e and enjoy the f e e l i n g of excitement, power and freedom). 158 The r e s u l t s were as f o l l o w s : M f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l men=2.04 women = 1.75; M f o r c o n t r o l men = 1.85 women = 3.00; F ( 1 , 48 )=4 . 834, p=. 033. I t can be noted t h a t men i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s as w e l l as women i n the c o n t r o l groups were somewhat s e n s a t i o n - s e e k e r s , p r o b a b l y due t o i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . M a r i t a l A d j u s t m e n t or D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e — T h i s t e s t measured t h e q u a l i t y of m a r r i a g e of t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s f o r t h e A n t a r c t i c o n l y . The A r c t i c g r o u p s c o m p r i s e d m o s t l y of s i n g l e s u b j e c t s . Anova was t h e s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t u s e d . There were no a v a i l a b l e norms t o p r o v i d e a c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s . The t e s t c o n s i s t e d of r e s p o n s e s t o 32 i t e m s , m o s t l y r a t e d on a s c a l e of 0 (always d i s a g r e e ) t o 5 (always a g r e e ) . Three q u e s t i o n s evoked s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s e s : agreements or d i s a g r e e m e n t s on r e l i g i o u s m a t t e r s , o c c a s i o n s on which the spouse c a l m l y d i s c u s s e s s o m e t h i n g , and a d i c h o t o m i z e d i t e m (Yes or No) r e l a t e d t o showing a f f e c t i o n . C o u p l e s i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group always a g r e e d i n r e l i g i o u s m a t t e r s , w h i l e c o n t r o l s a l m o s t always a g r e e (M e x p e r i m e n t a l = 4.87, c o n t r o l = 3.35, ( F ( l , 2 0 ) = 8 . 9 9 1 , p<.007). I n t e r e s t i n g l y , e x p e r i m e n t a l c o u p l e s d i s c u s s e d s o m e t h i n g c a l m l y once a day, w h i l e c o n t r o l s o n l y d i d i t once or t w i c e a month (M f o r ex p e r i m e n t a l = 4 . 0 0 c o n t r o l = 2 . 3 5 ; F ( 1,20)=6.359). 159 C o u p l e s i n the A n t a r c t i c c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e i r companions d i d not show a f f e c t i o n , a t l e a s t i n the few weeks p r i o r t o the t e s t . C o n v e r s e l y , c o n t r o l s were w e l l - s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n of a f f e c t i o n of t h e i r p a r t n e r s (M f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l = .37 c o n t r o l = . 8 5 ; F(1,20)=3.828, p=.018). Summary Among the r e l e v a n t f i n d i n g s , t h e l o w - a n x i e t y s t a t e i n b o t h p o l a r r e g i o n s c a l l s f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n . P e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s showed i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s ; p o l a r groups d i f f e r i n s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g t r a i t s , h i g h e r i n the N o r t h and lower i n t h e South, as w e l l as i n o t h e r t r a i t s . T here seems t o be a b e t t e r a d a p t a t i o n (as shown by h i g h e r s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s ) among th e A n t a r c t i c t h a n t h e A r c t i c g r o u p s . P e r c e p t i o n of the e n v i r o n m e n t was s i m i l a r i n the two p o l a r g r o u p s , a l t h o u g h the A n t a r c t i c e n v i r o n m e n t l e d t o more s a t i s f a c t i o n and p l e a s u r e than the A r c t i c . A s i m i l a r t e n d e n c y was n o t e d f o r the l i f e - s t r e s s e v e n t s . Once more, p e r s o n n e l i n the A r c t i c had e x p e r i e n c e d more e v e n t s t h a n p e r s o n n e l i n the A n t a r c t i c . The Hopkins s c a l e does not i n d i c a t e a h i g h - l e v e l of s t r e s s , s i n c e the s c o r e s were l o c a t e d i n the range of 'not a t a l l 1 t o "a l i t t l e ' ; most of the means were a t 'a l i t t l e 1 l e v e l . 160 However, the A n t a r c t i c groups were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower i n t h e s c o r e d symptoms. T h i s may d e m o n s t r a t e group and i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h the i s o l a t i o n s i t u a t i o n , as w e l l as c r o s s -c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . S t r e s s and A r o u s a l r e s u l t s showed more n e g a t i v e s t r e s s f o r the A r c t i c g r o u p s , whereas the A n t a r c t i c g roups were more a r o u s e d . The mood and s l e e p r e s u l t s showed b o t h d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s . The d i f f e r e n c e s c o n c e r n e d b e i n g d i s t u r b e d by n o i s e and s h i f t - w o r k ( A r c t i c ) and wind and s h i f t -work ( A n t a r c t i c ) . At the time of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , t h e r e was a l m o s t no wind i n t h e A r c t i c s i t e s , and t h e r e were e x c e p t i o n a l wind storms i n the A n t a r c t i c . 161 CHAPTER 6 . DISCUSSION T h i s f i n a l c h a p t e r o f f e r s an e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . As p r e v i o u s l y summarized a t the end of each s e c t i o n , the r e s u l t s l e a d us t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e r e a r e more s i m i l a r i t i e s t h a n d i f f e r e n c e s i n the o v e r a l l c o n f i g u r a t i o n of t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c m a t e r i a l . F a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e s e f i n d i n g s i n c l u d e the p h y s i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s of the p o l a r e n v i r o n m e n t s and t h e i r e f f e c t s upon the human r e s p o n s e s t o them. D i f f e r e n c e s i n human r e s p o n s e s may be r e l a t e d t o the i n d i v i d u a l s ' s o v e r a l l p s y c h o l o g i c a l a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h and a d a p t t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l demands. The r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number of e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s s h o u l d be a l s o n o t e d , o t h e r w i s e t h e y can j e o p a r d i z e the a n a l y s i s and d i s c u s s i o n of t h e r e s u l t s of t h i s r e s e a r c h . In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h e s e r e s u l t s a r e g i v e n . 6.1. Comparisons Between H i s t o r i c a l and C o n t e m p o r a r y Groups The r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s a r e w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d i n t i m e , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s and t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y g r o u p s . The c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s of the o r i g i n a l d i a r i e s , as n o t e d above, was i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y t o p r o v i d e a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l phenomenon of human r e s p o n s e i n p o l a r e n v i r o n m e n t s . 1 6 2 B r i s l i n (1980) has ar g u e d t h a t c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s s h o u l d r e p l a c e f i e l d r e s e a r c h , because of c o n s t r a i n t s of v a r i o u s s o r t s (time t r a i n i n g of r e s e a r c h e r s , p e r m i s s i o n of the l e a d e r s a t the s i t e s , e t c ) . B r i s l i n b e l i e v e s , however, t h a t g a i n s i n the range and v a l i d i t y of f i n d i n g s a r i s i n g from the u t i l i z a t i o n of s e v e r a l combined a p p r o a c h e s w a r r a n t the e x t r a e x p e n d i t u r e of time and e f f o r t n e c e s s a r y t o c o n d u c t f i e l d r e s e a r c h ( B r i s l i n , 1980, S u e d f e l d , 1987). Thus, two r e s e a r c h methods, a c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s and c o n t e m p o r a r y e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h on p o l a r g r o u p s , were u n d e r t a k e n f o r t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . Responses from t h e P a s t C o n t e n t a n a l y s i s of e x p l o r e r s ' d i a r i e s showed i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s i n the s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l domains when t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c groups were compared. S l e e p and dreams, a n x i e t y , r e l a x a t i o n , and p e r c e p t i o n of s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l s t i m u l i and e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s i n t e r p r e t a b l e i n terms o f a r o u s a l l e v e l s a r e some of the i n t e r e s t i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d a r e a s . C l e a r l y , i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s were p r e s e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e a n a l y s i s i s c o n d u c t e d on i n d i v i d u a l p r o f i l e s . 163 Among p s y c h o s o m a t i c c o m p l a i n t s , s l e e p d i s t u r b a n c e s were r e c o r d e d more f r e q u e n t l y i n the A n t a r c t i c t h a n i n the A r c t i c . In the l a t t e r , the cause of s u c h d i s t u r b a n c e s might be r e l a t e d t o the l a c k of s t i m u l a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the w i n t e r , and t o i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In the A n t a r c t i c , t h e e x t r e m e l y t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e s of some of the d i a r i s t s , e.g. W o r s l e y , Orde-Lees and S p e n c e r - S m i t h , c o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n s o m n i a . Temporal a n a l y s i s by phase of e x p e d i t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t s l e e p problems i n c r e a s e d , w i t h a peak i n w i n t e r , as o v e r l a n d A n t a r c t i c t r a v e l began. One would have p r e d i c t e d a h i g h l e v e l of a n x i e t y i n m i d - w i n t e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the A n t a r c t i c . P r o b a b l y because of the u n c e r t a i n t y of s u r v i v a l and r e l i e f , and the e m o t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n when l e a v i n g the f a m i l i a r e n v i r o n m e n t , a n x i e t y i n c r e a s e d i n t h e D e p a r t u r e phase. At t h a t t i m e , w i t h no o t h e r form of communication ( e . g . r a d i o ) the men's e x p e c t a t i o n of s e e i n g a s h i p on the i c y h o r i z o n or f e a r of not s e e i n g one f o s t e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e f e e l i n g s of a n x i e t y , as r e c o r d e d by d i a r i s t s i n t h e i r p u b l i s h e d and o r i g i n a l a c c o u n t s . In some of the a c c o u n t s , t h i s a n x i o u s s t a t e r e a c h e d s u c h h i g h l e v e l s t h a t i t g e n e r a t e d h a l l u c i n a t o r y imagery, e.g. g h o s t - s h i p s ( C h e r r y -G a r r a r d , S p e n c e r - S m i t h , O r d e - L e e s , O r i g i n a l d i a r i e s ) . I n t h e N o r t h , a n x i e t y was h i g h e r on board s h i p a p p r o a c h i n g t h e A r c t i c . T h i s e m o t ion was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the u n c e r t a i n t y of r e a c h i n g t h e s i t e s because of the narrowness of the c h a n n e l s . 164 N a u t i c a l knowledge of the A r c t i c c h a n n e l s and i c y w a t e r s was e x t r e m e l y poor, c a u s i n g c o n s t a n t a n x i e t y (Nares and J a a c k s o n , O r i g i n a l d i a r i e s ) . T h i s a n x i o u s s t a t e d e c r e a s e d once t h e s h i p and crew s e t t l e d down a t the w i n t e r h a r b o u r . In v i e w i n g a n x i e t y and r e l a x a t i o n d a t a t o g e t h e r , d u r i n g the mid-w i n t e r p e r i o d , b o t h A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c e x p l o r e r s e x p e r i e n c e d a d e c r e a s e i n a n x i e t y . Two e x p l a n a t i o n s c o u l d be s u g g e s t e d : one i s g i v e n by the f a c t t h a t the crews of the e x p e d i t i o n s , who were m o s t l y e x p e r i e n c e d , s e a s o n e d l o n g - t e r m s a i l o r s (some of whom had s a i l e d f o r 1 or 2 y e a r s i n p o l a r w a t e r s ) , had d e v e l o p e d c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s t o a d j u s t t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The o t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g r e l a x a t i o n , l i e s i n t h e d e g r e e of e x c i t e m e n t or s a t i s f a c t i o n ( t h e r e f o r e r e l a x a t i o n ) of a c t i v i t i e s t o which the crews were s u b j e c t e d . A h i g h l y - e x c i t i n g a c t i v i t y i n the A r c t i c was t o hunt p o l a r b e a r s , and i n the A n t a r c t i c t o hunt s e a l s . With v e r y few c h o r e s t o p e r f o r m ( e . g . c l e a n i c e from the d e c k s , m e l t snow f o r d r i n k i n g - w a t e r , e t c . ) , b e i n g c o n f i n e d t o l i v i n g - q u a r t e r s and r e s t r i c t e d t o r e a d i n g or p l a y i n g d i d not seem t o a g g r a v a t e the e x p l o r e r s ' f e e l i n g of a n x i e t y t o any e x t e n t . Today, because of advanced t e c h n o l o g i c a l s u p p o r t , t h e r e a r e not as many a c t i v i t i e s t o be p e r f o r m e d d u r i n g the w i n t e r i n a p o l a r s t a t i o n , and w e l l - t r a i n e d crews a r e a l s o s u b j e c t e d t o a r e d u c e d or low degree of e x c i t e m e n t r e s u l t i n g i n r e l a x a t i o n . 165 A n o t h e r s e t of d a t a t h a t may be r e l a t e d t o a n x i e t y i s t h e c o n t e n t and t y p e of dreams. A l t h o u g h dream r e p o r t s a r e not of q u a n t i t a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e , the q u a l i t y of the r e p o r t s l e a d s t o many i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . There were r e c u r r e n t dreams of ho m e s i c k n e s s , n i g h t m a r e s or n i g h t - t e r r o r , f o o d ( l a v i s h m eals, or a f r u s t r a t e d s e a r c h f o r l a v i s h m e a l s ) , and b o t h t h e o c c u r r e n c e of r e l i e f and d i s a s t e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o f e l l o w crewmen. The dreams a r e o b v i o u s l y not m e r e l y w i s h - f u l f i l m e n t . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y s u p p o r t s the R i v e r s , (1923) and B r e g e r , Hunter and Lane (1971) h y p o t h e s i s t h a t dreams r e f l e c t n o t o n l y f r u s t r a t i o n but a l s o c o n f l i c t . Hopes, f e a r s , and u n c o n s c i o u s d e s i r e s (sometimes u n a c c e p t a b l e and t h e r e f o r e r e p r e s s e d ) made up the dreams of the e x p l o r e r s . A n o t h e r argument c a n be s u g g e s t e d . Because of a d r i v e - d i s c h a r g e dream f u n c t i o n when t h e e x p l o r e r s were d e p r i v e d of t h e i r u s u a l s o u r c e s of g r a t i f i c a t i o n i n t h e waking s t a t e , dreams i n c r e a s e d i n amount and l u c i d i t y ( B a e k e l a n d , 1970). C o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s view, one may note i n the r e s u l t s s e c t i o n ( e x p e r i m e n t a l p o l a r groups/Mood & S l e e p ) t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e of f o o d - c e n t e r e d dreams, and t h e i n c r e a s i n g c e n t r a l i t y of t h o s e d e a l i n g w i t h the homecoming and p r i m a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 166 T h i s change can be assumed t o m i r r o r the much-improved p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s of the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i e n c e d u r i n g t h e p a s t h a l f - c e n t u r y , and perha p s a c o n c o m i t a n t c o n c e r n w i t h t h e s t a b i l i t y of r e l a t i o n s h i p s d u r i n g a p r o l o n g e d s e p a r a t i o n . 6.1.1. I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s Among H i s t o r i c a l D i a r i e s The r e v i e w c o n d u c t e d of the p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l of the h i s t o r i c a l e x p e d i t i o n s , i n a d d i t i o n t o the i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d from t h e o r i g i n a l d i a r i e s , p r o v i d e s i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e g e n e r a l b e h a v i o u r of t h e e x p l o r e r s . Data a r e p r e s e n t e d i n a g e n e r a l f o r m a t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the c o n t e n t a n a l y z e d a r e a s ( see A p p e n d i x ) . G e n e r a l l y , among t h e A r c t i c e x p l o r e r s , Nares was v e r y w o r r i e d about p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s , w h i l e J a a c k s o n was p e r t u r b e d by n e g a t i v e s o c i a l a s p e c t s s u c h as boredom, i r r i t a b i l i t y and so on. In the A n t a r c t i c , S c o t t and Gran were a f f l i c t e d by h o m e s i c k n e s s . Some of the b e h a v i o u r a l p r o f i l e s of the e x p l o r e r s a r e p r e s e n t e d : 167 ARCTIC V. S t e f f a n s s o n - S t e f f a n s s o n E x p e d i t i o n , 1906-1912. The n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s of p o l a r e x p l o r a t i o n a f f e c t e d the p a r t i c i p a n t s d i f f e r e n t l y . S t e f f a n s s o n was h i g h l y s t i m u l a t e d by h i s own work w i t h the I n u i t ( O r i g i n a l d i a r y ) . B e i n g a s c i e n t i f i c a l l y - m i n d e d p e r s o n , he was v e r y c a r e f u l i n h i s comments a b o u t a n x i e t y ( p o s s i b l y he d i d not f e e l a n x i e t y , or p e r h a p s , the f e e l i n g s were not worth r e c o r d i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r h i s s e c o n d y e a r w i t h t h e e x p e d i t i o n ) . In h i s d i a r y t h e r e was a l m o s t no e v i d e n c e of t e n s i o n or a n x i e t y . ANTARCTIC A p s l e y C h e r r y - G a r r a r d - B r i t i s h A n t a r c t i c E x p e d i t i o n , 1910-1913. The t e n s e and al w a y s w o r r i e d C h e r r y - G a r r a r d was much l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c i n h i s comments w i t h few e n t r i e s i n t h e p o s i t i v e c a t e g o r y ( O r i g i n a l d i a r y ) . He s u f f e r e d s e v e r e l y from the c o l d and wind, p r o b a b l y due t o the l a c k of ad e q u a t e equipment. He a l s o r e p o r t e d i n h i s d i a r y what t h e y had been e a t i n g p r o b a b l y s e a r c h i n g f o r a s o u r c e of p l e a s u r e which f o o d r e p r e s e n t s , or p o s s i b l y t o the l a c k of o t h e r e v e n t s t o r e c o r d . G a r r a r d was p a r t i c u l a r l y a f f l i c t e d w i t h n i g h t m a r e s i n M i d - W i n t e r and t a l k i n g i n h i s s l e e p . 168 D u r i n g t h e w i n t e r , G a r r a r d r e p o r t e d many e v e n t s r e l a t e d t o dreams s u c h t h i s one: " P r o v i d e n c e i s l o o k i n g f o r us, and B i l l (Edward W i l s o n ) had some e n l i g h t e n m e n t i n v i v i d dreams" ( O r i g i n a l d i a r y ) . T h i s comment shows G a r r a r d ' s f e a r s ( G a r r a r d had a r g u e d w i t h S c o t t and asked a d v i c e from W i l s o n ) a b o u t th e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t of t h e g o a l s of the E x p e d i t i o n and h i s c o n f i d e n c e i n W i l s o n , t h e second-in-command of t h e g r o u p . A c c o r d i n g t o G a r r a r d , W i l s o n was known t o have had t h e w o r s t n i g h t m a r e s of the g r o u p . In h i s o r i g i n a l d i a r y , G a r r a r d a l s o commented on S c o t t ' s o v e r a l l b e h a v i o u r , comments t h a t were o m i t t e d from h i s book ( C h e r r y - G a r r a r d , 1922, 1983). H i s book was w r i t t e n i n the form of a c o n t i n u o u s n a r r a t i v e , w h i l e t h e day's e v e n t s were r e p o r t e d d a i l y i n the d i a r y . G a r r a r d r e c o r d e d many i n s t a n c e s of the s t a t e of n e a r - c o l l a p s e (not s p e c i f i e d as p h y s i c a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l ) of S c o t t due t o t h e b r e a k - u p of t h e i c e of the B a r r i e r . On a number of d a y s , G a r r a r d r e f e r r e d t o S c o t t as b e i n g v e r y a n x i o u s , or as b e i n g i n what he termed a " s t a t e of h i g h n e r v o u s e x c i t e m e n t " because of Amundsen's p l a n s t o r e a c h the P o l e . 169 A. P. S p e n c e r - S m i t h - B r i t i s h I m p e r i a l T r a n s a n t a r c t i c E x p e d i t i o n ( " A u r o r a " ) , 1914-1916. S p e n c e r - S m i t h , a s t r o n g l y r e l i g i o u s p e r s o n , and a member of S h a c k l e t o n ' s Ross Sea E x p e d i t i o n , r e c o r d e d many e v e n t s w i t h i n the p o s i t i v e c a t e g o r y , p o s s i b l y due t o h i s background (and h i s s t r o n g c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e c h u r c h ) and the extreme l o n e l i n e s s t o which he was s u b j e c t e d w h i l e w a i t i n g f o r r e s c u e . C o n d i t i o n s of r e s t r i c t e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t i m u l a t i o n i n a d d i t i o n t o l o n g hours of m e d i t a t i o n and p r a y e r , were v a l u a b l e p o s i t i v e a i d s f o r S p e n c e r - S m i t h . In a p p r a i s i n g h i s s i t u a t i o n , he always found s o m e t h i n g good t o r e p o r t . He met h i s d e a t h as a consequence of s c u r v y . H i s d r e a m - c o n t e n t was v e r y r i c h and r e f l e c t s t h e problems of c o l d and s c a r c i t y of f o o d f a c e d by the Ross p a r t y . R o b e r t F. S c o t t - B r i t i s h A n t a r c t i c E x p e d i t i o n , 1910-1912. S c o t t made 42 e n t r i e s about a n x i e t y when he and h i s p a r t y were near t h e i r d e a t h s . However, when S c o t t was f a c e d w i t h p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m s , such as the l o s s of the m e c h a n i c a l s l e d g e f o r u n l o a d i n g the s h i p and the weakness of t h e p o n i e s ( H u n t f o r d , 1979, S c o t t , 1983), h i s r e c o r d s of a n x i e t y i n c r e a s e d o n l y m o d e r a t e l y . With t h e s i t u a t i o n under c o n t r o l a t t h e Hut d u r i n g M i d - W i n t e r , the f r e q u e n c y of a n x i e t y d e c r e a s e d , o n l y t o i n c r e a s e a g a i n on h i s way t o t h e P o l e . One of the s o u r c e s of S c o t t ' s a n x i e t y on t h e j o u r n e y t o the P o l e was the e x p e c t a t i o n of p a s s i n g the mark of 89°S p r e v i o u s l y a c h i e v e d by S h a c k l e t o n . 170 I n c r e a s e s i n a n x i e t y were note d when S c o t t was r e t u r n i n g from the P o l e ; he was e x p e r i e n c i n g h i s l o w e s t m o t i v a t i o n l e v e l , h a v i n g been b e a t e n by Amundsen i n the r a c e t o the P o l e . T h i s o v e r l a n d j o u r n e y was p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r e s s f u l , g e n e r a t i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of a n x i e t y f o r the p a r t y . S c o t t made many comments r e l a t e d t o t h e s c a r c i t y a v a i l a b i l i t y of f o o d as b e i n g t h e cause of f r e q u e n t hunger of the group. At t h i s p o i n t the t e m p e r a t u r e was h i g h (+10°C) and the weather c o n d i t i o n s were good a l l the way from the Summit t o t h e B a r r i e r , but t h e men were s t a r v i n g and d i s c o u r a g e d because th e f o o d d e p o t s were 112 km away. The l a c k of f o o d may have i n c r e a s e d a n x i e t y - l e v e l s , and was the g e n e r a l t o p i c of c o n v e r s a t i o n . Yet i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, the d i s c u s s i o n s h i f t e d t o o t h e r i s s u e s t h a n f o o d when the team d e c i d e d i n f a v o r of h a v i n g f u l l r a t i o n s ( O r i g i n a l d i a r y ) . S c o t t was u n p r e p a r e d f o r a j o u r n e y t o the P o l e u s i n g man-hauled s l e d g e s . The f o o d was not a p p r o p r i a t e on c a l o r i c i n t a k e f o r t h e e x p e n d i t u r e of e n e r g y u s i n g m a n - h a u l i n g methods, and t h e d e p o t s were l o c a t e d f a r a p a r t from each o t h e r , beyond the s a f e t y l i m i t s f o r s u r v i v a l . The p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n of S c o t t ' s d i a r y o m i t s c r i t i c i s m s a d d r e s s e d t o S h a c k l e t o n when S c o t t s t o p p e d over i n t h e D i s c o v e r y Hut ( p r e v i o u s l y o c c u p i e d by S c o t t i n h i s 1900 E x p e d i t i o n ) . 171 S c o t t made r e f e r e n c e s t o "the o t h e r p e o p l e " a h o s t i l e a l l u s i o n t o S h a c k l e t o n ' s group because of the d i s o r d e r i n w hich s u p p l i e s were l e f t i n t h e Hut. S c o t t and S h a c k l e t o n had had i n t e r p e r s o n a l problems on a p r e v i o u s e x p e d i t i o n , where S c o t t was t h e f o r m a l -and S h a c k l e t o n t h e i n f o r m a l - l e a d e r . These p a s t n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s between the two p o l a r e x p l o r e r s were s t i l l f r e s h i n S c o t t ' s d i a r y . Amundsen was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d by S c o t t as a r i v a l , a n o t h e r f a c t t h a t was d ropped from the p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n o f h i s d i a r y ( S c o t t , 1913, 1983). Tryggve Gran - B r i t i s h A n t a r c t i c E x p e d i t i o n , 1910-1913. Gran was a master on s k i s and an a d v e n t u r o u s outdoorsman. He d e m o n s t r a t e d h i s i n n e r - n a t u r e t h r o u g h h i s f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h t h e p o l a r e n v i r o n m e n t (Gran, 1984). He r e c o r d e d a h i g h number of e v e n t s i n the p o s i t i v e c a t e g o r y . Under s o c i a l s t r e s s , Gran showed a r e m a r k a b l e s e n s i t i v i t y t o the problems of h i s companions, b e i n g m i n d f u l of o t h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n M i d - W i n t e r . Homesickness of v a r i o u s s o r t s r e f l e c t e d h i s u n h a p p i n e s s a t b e i n g t h e s o l e Norwegian accompanying S c o t t ' s e x p e d i t i o n , w h i l e h a v i n g a f e l l o w countryman, Amundsen, w i n t e r i n g c l o s e by a t t h e Bay o f Whales. H i s d r e a m - c o n t e n t was r e m a r k a b l e . As r e f e r r e d t o above, h i s dreams r e p r e s e n t e d h i s d u a l f e e l i n g s of a n x i e t y , r e s u l t i n g from h i s b e i n g Norwegian and w i s h i n g t o see Amundsen v i c t o r i o u s , on the one hand e x p r e s s i n g a l o y a l t y t o S c o t t , on the o t h e r . 172 Frank W o r s l e y - B r i t i s h I m p e r i a l T r a n s a n t a r c t i c E x p e d i t i o n ("Endurance"), 1914-1916. T r a i n i n g , p s y c h o l o g i c a l f r a m e - o f - m i n d and p r o b a b l y the t y p e of l e a d e r s h i p p l a y a c r u c i a l r o l e when comparing the a n x i e t y - l e v e l s of S c o t t and W o r s l e y . The l a t t e r was the b r i l l i a n t master of the "Endurance" - ( W e d d e l l Sea, S h a c k l e t o n E x p e d i t i o n ) . W o r s l e y had s p e n t h i s boyhood on a sheep farm i n New Z e a l a n d . L a t e r he became a master seaman, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a h i g h d e g r e e of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m ( c f . Duncan Ca r s e i n W o r s l e y , 1974). Even d u r i n g one of h i s w o r s t e x p e r i e n c e s , when the "Endurance" was l o c k e d i n the p a c k - i c e , W o r s l e y s t i l l f ound time t o a p p r e c i a t e the g r a n d e u r of t h e p o l a r l a n d s c a p e j u d g i n g from h i s f r e q u e n t use of the word " b e a u t i f u l " . T h i s e n v i r o n m e n t a l s e n s i t i v i t y was always p r e s e n t , d e c r e a s i n g o n l y s l i g h t l y even when he was s a i l i n g i n s m a l l b o a t towards South G e o r g i a . About S h a c k l e t o n ' s l e a d e r s h i p , W o r s l e y r e c o r d e d , "the p r i n c i p a l c r e d i t of t h i s i s due t o t h e t a c t and l e a d e r s h i p of the Head of the e x p e d i t i o n and t h e c h e e r y h a p p i n e s s and bonhomie of W i l d . They b o t h command r e s p e c t , c o n f i d e n c e and a f f e c t i o n " ( W o r s l e y , O r i g i n a l d i a r y , J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y , 1915). Remarks s u c h as t h i s were found i n many p a s s a g e s of t h e W o r s l e y d i a r y as w e l l as among t h o s e of the o t h e r members of t h e e x p e d i t i o n ( O r d e - L e e s , O r i g i n a l d i a r y ) . None of the members of S c o t t ' s e x p e d i t i o n wrote i n s u c h an e n t h u s i a s t i c way ab o u t t h e i r l e a d e r . 173 S c o t t may w e l l have been a t a s k - o r i e n t e d t y p e of l e a d e r ( F i e d l e r and G a r c i a , 1987), p a r t i c u l a r l y g i v e n h i s n a v a l b a c k g r o u n d ; w h i l e S h a c k l e t o n a p p e a r s t o have been a g r o u p - o r i e n t e d l e a d e r , s h a r i n g h i s a t t e n t i o n and a f f e c t i o n w i t h a l l members of h i s group. F a c i n g extreme d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s u r v i v a l a t E l e p h a n t I s l a n d , group members were always s y m p a t h e t i c and h e l p f u l i n r e s p o n s e t o S h a c k l e t o n ' s r e q u e s t s . P l e a s a n t n e s s and A r o u s a l F e e l i n g s As mentioned above, p l e a s a n t and a r o u s a l f e e l i n g s were measured u s i n g t h e d e g r e e of i n t e n s i t y of s e l e c t e d words o b t a i n e d from the d i a r i e s . B o th A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c e x p l o r e r s r e p o r t e d more p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s a t the M i d - W i n t e r phase. T h i s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o coping-mechanisms among some of t h e e x p l o r e r s i n a l o w - s t i m u l a t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t . I n d i v i d u a l d a t a showed t h a t t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n ( M i d - W i n t e r ) was a c h i e v e d by Nares i n t h e A r c t i c and S p e n c e r - S m i t h i n t h e A n t a r c t i c . C h e r r y - G a r r a r d d i d not show the same l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n as h i s companions. A f t e r h i s s e c o n d y e a r , and a f t e r S c o t t ' s d e a t h , he was p l e a s e d when time f o r h i s d e p a r t u r e from the A n t a r c t i c a p p r o a c h e d . 174 The A r c t i c : P l e a s a n t F e e l i n g s In the A r c t i c , J a a c k s o n was not v e r y p l e a s e d w i t h h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h group members. In a d d i t i o n t o h i s n a v a l b a ckground, h i s a t t i t u d e , i n most of the e v e n t s r e c o r d e d , c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e s him as a t a s k - o r i e n t e d l e a d e r t y p e . S t e f f a n s o n , i n M i d - W i n t e r , e x p r e s s e d a more p o s i t i v e view of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , f e e l i n g v e r y s a t i s f i e d each time he r e c o r d e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t s . Smith, a n o t h e r A r c t i c e x p l o r e r , a l s o viewed the p o l a r e n v i r o n m e n t i n a p o s i t i v e way, w i t h no s t r e s s on group r e l a t i o n s h i p s . E v e n t u a l l y , he r e p o r t e d i n p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l a i l m e n t s because of the s t r e n u o u s work of i n s t a l l i n g t e l e g r a p h p o l e s i n t h e A r c t i c ( A l a s k a ) . Each d i a r i s t a p p r a i s e d h i s e n v i r o n m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e d i f f e r e n t l y because of d i f f e r e n c e s i n time frames (1875-1914), t e m p o r a l phases (summer and w i n t e r e x p e d i t i o n s , or both) and t y p e s of e x p e r i e n c e ( t r a u m a t i c and p l e a s a n t ) - even i n s i m i l a r e n v i r o n m e n t s . The A n t a r c t i c : P l e a s a n t F e e l i n g s In t h e A n t a r c t i c , s a t i s f a c t i o n v a l u e s were h i g h , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the a r e a of s e n s i t i v i t y t o s o c i a l s t i m u l i , w hich d e a l s w i t h s o c i a l i z a t i o n and group i n t e r a c t i o n . P l e a s u r e , r e l a t e d t o p o s i t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s , was emphasized by S c o t t , Gran and C h e r r y - G a r r a r d . 175 P e r h a p s , i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the t r a u m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s e x p e r i e n c e d by Orde-Lees when he was l e f t b e h i n d w i t h the crew a t E l e p h a n t I s l a n d t o be r e s c u e d l a t e r by S h a c k l e t o n , p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s were a b s e n t . As mentioned above, the same was n o t e d i n the W o r s l e y d i a r y . T here was no time f o r W o r s l e y t o make d i a r y e n t r i e s w h i l e he was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e n a v i g a t i o n of the s m a l l b o a t "James C a i r d " , s a i l i n g t o South G e o r g i a . However, he always n o t e d t h e b e a u t y of the l a n d and s e a . S p e n c e r - S m i t h a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d extreme d i f f i c u l t i e s , and no p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s of any s o r t were r e c o r d e d . B e r n a c c h i seemed t o be a r e t i c e n t p e r s o n ; none of the a d j e c t i v e s i d e n t i f i e d f o r p l e a s a n t a p p r a i s a l a p p e a r e d i n h i s n a r r a t i v e s . A r o u s a l L e v e l s Comparing p l e a s a n t and a r o u s a l between r e g i o n s , p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s were s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t . The A n t a r c t i c seemed t o be more s t i m u l a t i n g t h a n the A r c t i c . The r e a s o n s p r o b a b l y c o u l d be found i n the t y p e s of e x p e r i e n c e s and s t r e s s e s t o which the members of the s o u t h e r n e x p e d i t i o n s were s u b j e c t e d . 176 When a r o u s a l i s viewed a c r o s s the t e m p o r a l phases of t h e e x p e d i t i o n s , t h e M i d - W i n t e r phase had the l o w e s t v a l u e s , w h i l e the D e p a r t u r e phase showed low v a l u e s f o r the A r c t i c and a l m o s t a t the mean f o r the A n t a r c t i c . What can be i n f e r r e d i s c o n t r a r y t o the h y p o t h e s i s , t h a t M i d -Winter d i d not l e a d t o h i g h t e n s i o n . The most s t r e s s f u l phase seems t o be near D e p a r t u r e , p r o b a b l y r e l a t e d t o the u n c e r t a i n t y of b e i n g p i c k e d up on t i m e . Y e t , d u r i n g the p e r i o d j u s t p r i o r t o l e a v i n g t h e A n t a r c t i c , t h e r e was a d e c r e a s e of a l m o s t 10% i n p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e a p p r o a c h i n g end of t h e e x p e d i t i o n . A f t e r t h e W i n t e r , th e crew f e l t sad t o l e a v e the n o w - f a m i l i a r p o l a r e n v i r o n m e n t . A d a p t a t i o n and t h e f e e l i n g of s u c c e s s seem t o p l a y a r o l e . I n c r e a s e d a r o u s a l l e v e l s a t the D e p a r t u r e phase may be due t o the e x p l o r e r s ' a n x i e t i e s about r e t u r n i n g t o c i v i l i z a t i o n a f t e r one or two y e a r s of a b s e n c e . T h i s phenomenon i s s i m i l a r t o " c u l t u r e s h o c k " e n c o u n t e r e d among o t h e r t y p e s of t r a v e l l e r s (Freeman, 1983, T a y l o r , 1971). 177 6.2 Comparisons Between the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c Groups Perhaps the most g e n e r a l f i n d i n g s u p p o r t s the p r e d i c t e d g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s : t h a t t h e r e a r e s i m i l a r e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t s on t h e groups d e s p i t e the w i d e l y - s e p a r a t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n s . The l o w - s t a t e a n x i e t y (STAI) l e a d s us t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e en v i r o n m e n t does not in d u c e as much s t r e s s i n t h e s e groups as u s u a l l y p r e v i o u s l y assumed. What i s viewed as an e x t r e m e l y s t r e s s f u l e n v i r o n m e n t by most o u t s i d e r s , does not seem t o be a p p r a i s e d as a major s t r e s s o r by the members o f t h e g r o u p . Two i s s u e s need t o be c o n s i d e r e d . One r e f e r s t o t h e e v a l u a t i o n of what i s a s t r e s s f u l e n v i r o n m e n t and t h e o t h e r r e f e r s t o the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h the e n v i r o n m e n t a l demands ( s t r e s s f u l or n o t ) . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the l a t t e r , M o c e l l i n (1984), u s i n g t h e same STAI measures a l s o found low l e v e l s o f s t a t e a n x i e t y a b o a r d two e x p e d i t i o n a r y s h i p s ( S p i e l b e r g e r , 1966). In b o t h , the s h i p s and t h i s s t u d y , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were c o n d u c t e d i n the f i e l d , on a l o n g - t e r m e x p o s ure t o i s o l a t i o n . A r e a s o n a b l e c o u r s e would be t o s e a r c h f o r e x p l a n a t i o n s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e of f i e l d r e s e a r c h i n t o a n x i e t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n p o l a r s i t e s , r a t h e r t h a n l a b o r a t o r y e n v i r o n m e n t s ( S p i e l b e r g e r 1966, 1976; L a z a r u s , 1976). 178 In the f i e l d , McCormick (1984) r e p o r t e d h i g h l e v e l s of a n x i e t y i n a group of A n t a r c t i c e x p e d i t i o n a r y s u b j e c t s , as measured by p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n r e p o r t s , and r e l a t i v e l y low a n x i e t y , as measured by p s y c h o m e t r i c t e s t s . A l a t e r s t u d y c o n d u c t e d i n 1985 i n d i c a t e d t o McCormick e t a l . the same t e n d e n c y : low s t r e s s l e v e l s as measured by p s y c h o m e t r i c t e s t s when p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e d the a c t i o n of s t r e s s o r s of v a r i o u s s o r t s upon the g r o u p s . Because of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of d i s c o v e r i n g what i s supposed t o be a s t r e s s f u l e n v i r o n m e n t does not l e a d t o m e a s u r a b l e s t r e s s - e f f e c t s on c o g n i t i v e and e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s , t h e s e a r c h f o r e x p l a n a t i o n s i s a t t e m p t e d . Measures of c o n s c i o u s f e e l i n g s a r e r e l a t e d , f u n d a m e n t a l l y , t o two components of human b e h a v i o u r : c o g n i t i o n and e m o t i o n s . A t h i r d component i s t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l one, which c o u l d n o t be t e s t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The a b i l i t y of w e l l - p r e p a r e d p e r s o n n e l t o r e a c t t o s t r e s s f u l e v e n t s , r a t h e r t h a n e n v i r o n m e n t s ( S u e d f e l d , 1 9 8 7 ) , i s enhanced by t h e i r t r a i n i n g , p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m and perhap s p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . However, i f p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures c o u l d be o b t a i n e d , some i n d i c a t i o n s of s t r e s s might be e v i d e n t and c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the s i m u l t a n e o u s a p p l i c a t i o n of p a p e r - a n d -p e n c i l measures. 179 L i v i n g and w o r k i n g i n a p o l a r e n v i r o n m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the w i n t e r , has been w i d e l y p r e d i c t e d t o be and d e s c r i b e d as s t r e s s f u l ( N a t a n i & S h u r l e y , 1975; Gunderson, 1968, 1963; P a l m a i , 1963 among o t h e r s ) , y e t i s p e r c e i v e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s as n o n - s t r e s s f u l . Lack of t r a i n i n g and a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h the e n v i r o n m e n t a l demands ( s o c i o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l ) of some p o l a r crews l e d them t o c o n f u s e a " s t r e s s f u l e n v i r o n m e n t " w i t h a " s t r e s s f u l s o c i o l o g i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t " . Any s t r e s s may be p r i m a r i l y i n the s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t r a t h e r t h a n t h e p h y s i c a l one ( L a n t i s , 1968; Lugg, 1975; D e f a y o l l e e t a l . , 1985). A n o t h e r argument can be r e l a t e d t o the a d a p t a t i o n p r o c e s s a l r e a d y i n p l a c e , which i s somewhat c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Zubek's (1969, 1973) f i n d i n g s . In REST ( R e s t r i c t e d E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t i m u l a t i o n ) e x p e r i m e n t s of up t o 2 weeks' d u r a t i o n , a d a p t a t i o n to t h e chamber e n v i r o n m e n t b e g i n s q u i c k l y and may be a l m o s t c o m p l e t e by the end of the f i r s t day. Beyond t h i s p o i n t , many e f f e c t s t e n d t o d i m i n i s h (Zubek, 1973). The p a r t i c i p a n t r e p o r t s and i n f o r m a l t a l k s w i t h the A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s , c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t the f i r s t a d a p t a t i o n p r o c e s s t a k e s p l a c e d u r i n g the f i r s t 2 weeks a t the s i t e . The second phase i n t h i s p r o c e s s i s i n t h e f i r s t week a f t e r the s u n s e t t h a t marks th e b e g i n n i n g of the dark s e a s o n . 180 These d a t a once more emphasize the a b i l i t y of t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o cope w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l demands ( S i n g e r & Baum, 1983; Evans & Cohen, 1987). C e r t a i n e n v i r o n m e n t s w i t h low s t i m u l a t i o n may be n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r e s s f u l or b o r i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e i n d i v i d u a l can d e v e l o p means t o cope w i t h the l a c k of n o v e l t y i n t h e m i l i e u . In a d d i t i o n , t h e p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e of t h e p e r s o n i n u n u s u a l s i t u a t i o n s may c o n t r i b u t e t o a more s a t i s f a c t o r y a d a p t a t i o n . T h i s becomes an i n t e r e s t i n g argument i n v i e w of L a z a r u s ' s (1966; L a z a r u s & Folkman, 1984) i d e a t h a t when p o t e n t i a l l y s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s a p p e a r , t h e p e r c e p t i o n of danger a c t i v a t e s coping-mechanisms aimed a t r e d u c i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l t h r e a t . T h i s i s the s t a r t of an a d a p t a t i o n p r o c e s s . S t i l l w i t h i n t h e s t r e s s and a r o u s a l domain, d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d on t h e Mackay s t r e s s and a r o u s a l s c a l e and the Hopkins symptoms i n v e n t o r y . Few of t h e measures on s t r e s s and a r o u s a l showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , but t h e y show r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l s of s t r e s s . I f we compare t h i s p a t t e r n w i t h t h o s e by McCormick e t a l . (1985), we f i n d s i m i l a r low l e v e l s of s t r e s s and a r o u s a l a c r o s s t h e p o l e s . These d a t a c o n f i r m t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f f e r e d f o r low s t r e s s by McCormick ( i b i d . ) based on Gunderson & N e l s o n ' s (1964) " r e p r e s s i v e c o p i n g s t r a t e g y " . 181 As r e f e r r e d t o above, Gunderson and N e l s o n , who had d e v e l o p e d s c r e e n i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r the A n t a r c t i c s e r v i c e on t h e b a s i s of e l e v e n p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , had s p e c u l a t e d a b o u t ' p o s s i b l e ' d e f e n s e mechanisms r e l a t e d t o r e p r e s s i o n . A c c e p t i n g t h i s a s s u m p t i o n , McCormick e t a l . (1985) p r o p o s e d t h a t " r e p r e s s i o n i s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e f e n s e commonly used by A n t a r c t i c a n s " ( p . 1 5 5 ) . The p r e s e n t s t u d y l e n d s no s u p p o r t t o t h i s argument. In the a bsence of e m p i r i c a l d a t a t o the c o n t r a r y , c a u t i o n would s u g g e s t t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s a c c e p t as v a l i d the f i n d i n g t h a t s u b j e c t s do not g e n e r a l l y view the c o n t e m p o r a r y p o l a r e n v i r o n m e n t as s t r e s s f u l . C r o s s - c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e a p p a r e n t i n s t r e s s measures. R e s u l t s on the H opkins i n v e n t o r y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups form one homogeneous c a t e g o r y , and the A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s form a n o t h e r . But t h e A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l groups a r e h i g h l y s i m i l a r i n o v e r a l l symptoms t o the symptomatology of a c o u n t e r p a r t group (McCormick e t a l . 1985). T h i s may c o n s t i t u t e an i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g , s i n c e McCormick's s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e d A u s t r a l i a n , E n g l i s h , F r e n c h and A r g e n t i n i a n p o l a r t r a v e l l e r s (IBEA e x p e d i t i o n , N=12). On c u l t u r a l g rounds, one would e x p e c t t o f i n d s i m i l a r i t i e s between the A r c t i c ( C a n a d i a n ) and t h e IBEA g r o u p s , r a t h e r t h a n between the A n t a r c t i c ( A r g e n t i n a ) and IBEA. 182 T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e of s t r e s s symptoms f o r t h e A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s , t h o u g h i n t h e A r c t i c t h o s e symptoms a r e s l i g h t l y h i g h e r . The a c t i o n of s u c h e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t r e s s o r s as t h e d a r k s e a s o n , t o w h i c h t h e A r c t i c g r o u p was s u b j e c t e d , c o u l d o f f e r an a c c e p t a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n ; or an i n t e r a c t i v e e f f e c t o f t h e s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t upon t h e N o r t h e r n g r o u p s may h e l p t o e x p l a i n t h e s e f i n d i n g s . P e r s o n a l i t y A n o t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e domain o f p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . The o n l y o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e s (compared t o A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l s ) were c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e A n t a r c t i c g r o u p s . They showed h i g h CPI means on r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , s o c i a l i z a t i o n , s e l f - c o n t r o l , s o c i a l p r e s e n c e , s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e , t o l e r a n c e and good i m p r e s s i o n . These g r o u p s a r e s u b j e c t e d t o p e r s o n n e l - s e l e c t i o n b e f o r e g o i n g t o t h e s i t e . T h i s may be one r e a s o n f o r t h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s compared t o t h e A r c t i c g r o u p s . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s one of t h e b e h a v i o u r a l t r a i t s e m p h a s i z e d i n m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . S i n c e t h e A n t a r c t i c - b u t n o t t h e A r c t i c - g r o u p s were made up of m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l , t h i s d i f f e r e n c e may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e outcome. A n o t h e r component c o u l d be t h e age f a c t o r (more mature s u b j e c t s i n t h e A n t a r c t i c ) and p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n r emote e n v i r o n m e n t s ( h i g h e r i n t h e A n t a r c t i c ) . 183 An i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t on the M y e r s - B r i g g s Type I n d i c a t o r was on the E x t r a v e r t - I n t r o v e r t d i m e n s i o n . E x t r a v e r t t y p e s a r e more common i n " c o n t a c t " c u l t u r e s ( a l l o w i n g more time f o r v i r t u a l l y e v e r y t h i n g p e r t a i n i n g t o i m p o r t a n t human r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) s u c h as i n L a t i n A merica and F r a n c e than i n the A n g l o - S a x o n ones ( H a l l , 1969). These c r o s s - c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s may e x p l a i n t h e h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e of e x t r a v e r t s i n the A n t a r c t i c ( A r g e n t i n e crews) and i n t r o v e r t s i n the A r c t i c ( C a n a d i a n c r e w s ) . These f i n d i n g s do not s u p p o r t the argument of S t r a n g e and Youngman (19 7 1 ) . C o n t r a r y t o t h e i r o p i n i o n , t h e p r e d o m i n a n t l y e x t r a v e r t e d c h a r a c t e r of A n t a r c t i c p e r s o n n e l was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b e t t e r o v e r a l l a d a p t a t i o n (as i n d i c a t e d by most of t h e r e s u l t s ) t h a n was the i n t r o v e r t e d n a t u r e of A r c t i c s u b j e c t s . One more p o i n t s h o u l d be r a i s e d : the s p e c i a l n a t u r e o f p o l a r g r o u p s . Most of the t e s t s c o r e s i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y d i f f e r w i d e l y from the p u b l i s h e d norms (STAI, CPI, ERI) f o r b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s . Thus, i t can be s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e b e l o n g t o some s p e c i a l c a t e g o r y , members of which behave d i f f e r e n t l y from the a v e r a g e p o p u l a t i o n on which t e s t norms a r e base d . 184 The S e n s a t i o n S e e k i n g T r a i t s A s t r o n g d i f f e r e n c e between the e x p e r i m e n t a l p o l a r g r o u p s was on s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g l e v e l s . A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s were h i g h s e n s a t i o n - s e e k e r s , w h i l s t the A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l groups were low s e n s a t i o n s e e k e r s . As i n d i c a t e d above, A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l s and c o n t r o l s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r s e n s a t i o n - s e e k e r s t h a n the A n t a r c t i c g r o u p s , w h i l s t the A n t a r c t i c c o n t r o l s had h i g h e r s c o r e s on the E x p e r i e n c e S e e k i n g s u b s c a l e . The A n t a r c t i c c o n t r o l group may have had h i g h i n t e r e s t i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of new e x p e r i e n c e s , as opposed t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p (which a l r e a d y had been exposed t o s u c h an e x p e r i e n c e f o r a t l e a s t f o u r months i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n i s o l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t s ) . D e s p i t e the a p p a r e n t p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l monotony, the p o l a r r e g i o n s a t t r a c t a d v e n t u r e s e e k e r s . H i g h - r i s k and the n a t u r e of p o l a r l i v i n g may n o t p r o d u c e s t r e s s beyond th e normal range f o r t r a i n e d i n d i v i d u a l s . But t h e p e r c e p t i o n of a p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e of e n v i r o n m e n t a l and non-e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t r e s s may or may not i n c r e a s e a r o u s a l l e v e l l e a d i n g t o the i n t e r n a l s e n s a t i o n s t h a t s e n s a t i o n - s e e k e r s a p p a r e n t l y p r e f e r . 185 The f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t , t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , Zuckerman's (1983) argument t h a t s e n s a t i o n - s e e k e r s would p r e f e r a n o v e l e n v i r o n m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c t i v i t i e s from low s t i m u l a t i o n ( e . g . d i v i n g -chambers, r a d a r and p o l a r s t a t i o n s ) t o h i g h s t i m u l a t i o n ( e . g . s k y - d i v i n g and f r e e m o u n t a i n - c l i m b i n g ) . P r e f e r e n c e s of t h e A r c t i c s e n s a t i o n s e e k e r s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by v e r y low e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t i m u l a t i o n a t one end of the c o n t i n u u m . I n d i v i d u a l t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e measures were not a component of t h i s s t u d y , but p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n r e p o r t s and i n f o r m a l t a l k s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l m o s t 30% (N=16) of the A r c t i c h i g h s e n s a t i o n - s e e k e r s d e c r e a s e d t h e i r t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e (based on o b s e r v a t i o n s of number of m i s t a k e s i n c o m p u t e r i z e d work and c o m p l a i n t s about f r i c t i o n w i t h c o - w o r k e r s ) w h i l e a t t h e s i t e s . T h i s d e c r e a s e i n t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e was drawn from a s c a l e on p e r f o r m a n c e a s s e s s m e n t (Environment Canada, Form 01/83) w i t h the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : ( i ) exceeds r e q u i r e m e n t s - o u t s t a n d i n g and s u p e r i o r , ( i i ) meets r e q u i r e m e n t s - f u l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y and s a t i s f a c t o r y , ( i i i ) does not meet r e q u i r e m e n t s - u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . Most of the s u b j e c t s of t h e A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l group were p r e v i o u s l y a s s e s s e d as h a v i n g t h e i r t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e a p p r a i s a l a t the b a s e - l i n e of f u l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s d e c r e a s e i n p e r f o r m a n c e c o u l d be found i n o t h e r a r e a s of i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o u r and f r i c t i o n , n o t o n l y i n Zuckerman's (1979, 1983) t h e o r y . 186 Zuckerman a r g u e d t h a t t o i n c r e a s e a r o u s a l - l e v e l s and produce new i n t e r n a l s e n s a t i o n s , h i g h s e n s a t i o n - s e e k e r s p r e f e r n o v e l e n v i r o n m e n t s (low t o h i g h s t i m u l a t i o n ) . However, work pe r f o r m a n c e of t h e s e h i g h s e n s a t i o n - s e e k e r s t e n d s t o d i m i n i s h when p l a c e d i n a low s t i m u l a t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t . " D i s i n h i b i t i o n " was a l s o measured as p a r t of t h e S e n s a t i o n -S e e k i n g S c a l e . A d i u r n a l v a r i a t i o n (from m o r n i n g t o a f t e r n o o n ) of d i s i n h i b i t e d b e h a v i o u r of the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l groups of s u b j e c t s was n o t e d . The r e a s o n s may be found i n the c y c l e of d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . As d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n t a k e p l a c e a r o u s a l i s enhanced and d i s i n h i b i t e d b e h a v i o u r i n c r e a s e s . A n o t h e r v a r i a b l e which measured s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g t r a i t s i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e s u b s c a l e "Boredom S u s c e p t i b i l i t y " ( B S ) , i n which the A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l groups had low s c o r e s . I n d i v i d u a l s w i t h low boredom s u s c e p t i b i l i t y would not be a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by the l a c k of n o v e l t y and e n v i r o n m e n t a l monotony ( e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e dark s e a s o n ) of l i f e i n a p o l a r s t a t i o n . In c o n t r a s t , the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h s c o r e s of t h e A r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s on BS may i n d i c a t e one c a u s e of poor a d a p t a t i o n . S e e k i n g f o r a d v e n t u r e and e x p e r i e n c e by p e r s o n n e l s t a t i o n e d a t t h e H i gh A r c t i c s i t e s was h i g h as compared t o t h e i r c o n t r o l s . 187 Younger and more i n e x p e r i e n c e d group-members a t t h e h i g h s i t e s s e a r c h e d f o r a d v e n t u r e and e x p e r i e n c e ; t h e i r more mature c o n t r o l s (as measured by age and e x p e r i e n c e d a t a ) w h i l e s p e n d i n g l o n g e r p e r i o d s a t the s e m i - i s o l a t e d s i t e of R e s o l u t e Bay, s c o r e d lower i n t h e i r w i s h e s f o r a d v e n t u r e and e x p e r i e n c e . S a t i s f a c t i o n , P e r c e p t i o n and P l e a s a n t n e s s R e a c t i o n s As a r e s p o n s e t o the p o l a r e n v i r o n m e n t , the low a r o u s a l of t h e A r c t i c groups i s p r o b a b l y due t o the r e d u c e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t i m u l a t i o n , a c c e n t u a t e d by t h e dark p h o t o p e r i o d . The A r c t i c s i t e s a r e l o c a t e d between 70° and 80°S where the a v e r a g e p e r i o d of s u n l i g h t i s n i l d u r i n g a t l e a s t t h r e e months. The A n t a r c t i c s i t e s a r e l o c a t e d between 62° and 64°S, s o , d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r t h e y r e c e i v e an a v e r a g e of 4 hours of s u n l i g h t per day. Even t h i s s m a l l amount of s u n l i g h t may have i n d u c e d more p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s and s t i m u l a t i o n as i n d i c a t e d by t e s t s c o r e s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, the A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s were more s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e m s e l v e s t h a n were the c o n t r o l s . T h i s f i n d i n g i s h i g h l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from t h e mood and s l e e p r e p o r t s of e x p e r i m e n t a l groups ( s a t i s f a c t i o n , morale and mood). I t seems t h a t the p h y s i c a l as w e l l as an a d j u s t e d s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t may i n d u c e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h - l e v e l s of s a t i s f a c t i o n . 188 A c c o r d i n g t o t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l Response I n v e n t o r y , s e l f -s u f f i c i e n c y and s e n s i t i v i t y t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e s and s t i m u l u s - s e e k i n g were h i g h e r i n t h e A r c t i c , b o t h on t h e ERI and on t h e S e n s a t i o n - S e e k i n g s c a l e s . S i m i l a r i t i e s a c r o s s p o l e s on t h e need f o r s o l i t u d e , e n v i r o n m e n t a l a d a p t a t i o n and openness may have i n d i c a t e d an i s o l a t i o n e f f e c t on b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s . However, s i n c e t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l , t h i s i s o l a t i o n e f f e c t seems t o be a l s o r e a l f o r u r b a n p e r s o n n e l , and n o t a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a c q u i r e d w i t h i n or i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e p o l a r e n v i r o n m e n t . S l e e p P a t t e r n s The s l e e p r e s u l t s a r e a f f e c t e d , s i m i l a r l y , by b e i n g d i s t u r b e d by g e n e r a l n o i s e and s h i f t work i n t h e A r c t i c and w i n d and s h i f t work i n t h e A n t a r c t i c . I n t h e A n t a r c t i c , a d i s t u r b i n g f a c t o r i n s l e e p q u a l i t y was t h e w i n d . As m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , a t t h e t i m e of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , t h e r e was a l m o s t no w i n d a t t h e A r c t i c s i t e s , and s t r o n g w i n d s t o r m s i n t h e A n t a r c t i c . C o m p a r i n g t h e two r e g i o n s , a d e l a y e d o n s e t of s l e e p was n o t e d , a l t h o u g h t h e r e was no e v i d e n c e of i n s o m n i a n o r of d i f f e r e n c e s i n s l e e p - l e n g t h , d r e a m - c o n t e n t or b e i n g t r o u b l e d by w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s s u c h as c o l d . 189 These r e s u l t s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h B l a k e ' s (1971) s u g g e s t i o n t h a t problems i n l e n g t h and q u a l i t y of s l e e p may be r e l a t e d t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s , i n t h i s case winds, and n o n - e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s ( w o r k - s h i f t s , w o r r i e d by d a i l y e v e n t s ) . K o l m o d i n (1987) p r o p o s e d t h a t n i g h t - s h i f t workers e x p e r i e n c e an a d j u s t m e n t p e r i o d , a f t e r which t h e i r s l e e p l e n g t h s t a b i l i z e s a t 5 hours d u r a t i o n per n i g h t - a n d - d a y c y c l e . T h i s was t h e c a s e i n t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s . A c c o r d i n g t o the r e s u l t s of low l e v e l of s t r e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s l e e p p a t t e r n s , t h e r e was no e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t H i c k s and G a r c i a ' s (1987) f i n d i n g s t h a t s u b j e c t s i n c r e a s e t h e i r h o u r s of s l e e p when under a low l e v e l of s i t u a t i o n a l s t r e s s . The dreams of t h e p o l a r crews c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h e i r d e s i r e f o r a d v e n t u r e and s u n l i g h t , t h e l a t t e r p r o b a b l y an e f f e c t of t h e dark s e a s o n on t h e A r c t i c crews. These f i n d i n g s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h o s e of LaBerge (1985) and B a e k e l a n d ( 1 9 7 0 ) , which were d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y . 190 P e r c e p t u a l Phenomena In the domain of p e r c e p t u a l phenomena and imagery, t h e r e was no e v i d e n c e i n t h i s s t u d y t h a t a low s t i m u l a t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t l e a d s t o i n c r e a s e d i m a g i n g . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t t h e f i v e c a s e s of the 'sensed p r e s e n c e ' phenomenon ( c f . S u e d f e l d and M o c e l l i n , 1987) o c c u r r e d t o s u b j e c t s who a l s o answered t h e I m a g i n a t i o n I n v e n t o r y . However, p r o b a b l y due t o the l a c k of s t a t i s t i c a l power, t h e s e f i v e answers were n o t s t r o n g enough t o change the d i r e c t i o n of the r e s u l t s . U n l i k e o t h e r s u b j e c t s , t h e y were exposed t o l o n g hours of i s o l a t i o n when on s h i f t a t the s t a t i o n ' s power p l a n t . A l l the e v e n t s took p l a c e w i t h i n a 3-month p e r i o d p r i o r t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e measures. Imagery phenomena may not be a f u n c t i o n of the e n v i r o n m e n t but of i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or p e r h a p s even a c o m b i n a t i o n of b o t h . The mechanisms and e x p l a n a t i o n of the 'sensed p r e s e n c e ' phenomenon i n p o l a r and o t h e r u n u s u a l r e g i o n s has been d i s c u s s e d e l s e w h e r e ( S u e d f e l d and M o c e l l i n , 1987). B i o g r a p h i c a l and B e h a v i o u r a l C o n t r i b u t i o n s The s p e c i a l i z e d and p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e b o t h r e p o r t b e t t e r p e r f o r m a n c e among p o l a r p e r s o n n e l who come from s m a l l towns or farms. B i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a on p o l a r groups i n d i c a t e t h a t a m a j o r i t y of t h e p e r s o n n e l s p e n t most of t h e i r c h i l d h o o d and e a r l y a d u l t h o o d i n b i g c i t i e s . 191 Because measures of p e r f o r m a n c e were not t a k e n i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e can be no r e a l t e s t of Gunderson's (1973) and R i v o l i e r ' s (1975) arguments. Gunderson found t h a t navy p e r s o n n e l who had l i v e d on farms t e n d e d t o do w e l l on the c r i t e r i o n t a s k , w h i l e t e c h n i c a l crews from b i g c i t i e s d i d e x c e p t i o n a l l y w e l l . The p r e s e n t s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t o v e r a l l a d a p t a t i o n seems t o be b e t t e r i n the A n t a r c t i c . In f u t u r e work, i t might be i n t e r e s t i n g t o see whether t h i s i s a r e s u l t of u r b a n - r u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . Census r e p o r t s show a h i g h urban p o p u l a t i o n f o r b o t h Canada ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 18 m i l l i o n , an e s t i m a t e d 80% of t h e C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n ) and A r g e n t i n a (23 m i l l i o n , 8 3 % ) . Thus, t h e s t a t i s t i c a l p r o b a b i l i t y i s t h a t p e r s o n n e l s e l e c t e d and s t a t i o n e d a t p o l a r s i t e s would have o r i g i n a t e d p r i m a r i l y from u r b a n a r e a s . One may s p e c u l a t e t h a t p e o p l e from s m a l l towns would l i k e t o m i g r a t e t o a h i g h - s t i m u l a t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t t o compensate f o r t h e r e s t r i c t e d s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s of s m a l l c o m m u n i t i e s . On t h e o t h e r hand, i n d i v i d u a l s from b i g c i t i e s may want t o e x p e r i e n c e a l o w - s t i m u l a t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t as an escape from u r b a n t e n s i o n and o v e r l o a d ( S u e d f e l d , 1975). T h i s argument i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f i n d i n g s o f N i c k e l s (1976) and L o t z (1970): i n d i v i d u a l s m i g r a t e t o t h e N o r t h ( C a n a d i a n A r c t i c ) among o t h e r f a c t o r s , t o escape from u r b a n t e n s i o n . 192 The i s s u e of m o t i v a t i o n a r i s e s when i n d i v i d u a l s move t o n o r t h e r n or s o u t h e r n p o l a r r e g i o n s . P o s i t i v e m o t i v a t i o n s i n c l u d e f i n a n c i a l reward and e x p e r i e n c e ( r a t e d s i m i l a r l y h i g h f o r bo t h r e g i o n s ) , a d v e n t u r e and p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n ( b o t h h i g h e r i n the A n t a r c t i c ) . T h e r e f o r e , p e r f o r m a n c e of p e r s o n n e l i n p o l a r r e g i o n s s h o u l d be o p t i m a l i f the d e s i r e s f o r f i n a n c i a l r eward, e x p e r i e n c e , a d v e n t u r e and p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n were f u l f i l l e d . O v e r a l l l e v e l s of s a t i s f a c t i o n a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y s i m i l a r i n the two p o l a r r e g i o n s . S m a l l but s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , which a r e u n f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e A r c t i c , c o n c e r n s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and weather c o n d i t i o n s . One of t h e A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a l groups i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s , which enhanced the g r o u p s ' s sense of community. Among m a r r i e d c o u p l e s , v e r b a l communication was e x t r e m e l y f r e q u e n t , which can be a t t r i b u t e d t o the s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n . But sp o u s e s c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e i r companions d i d not show a f f e c t i o n t o the d e s i r e d e x t e n t . T h i s c o u l d p e r h a p s be e x p l a i n e d by i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . R e c r e a t i o n a l B e h a v i o u r R e c r e a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r showed c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e s . I n t h e A n t a r c t i c , p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t i n g the p r e s e n c e of women, c r a f t s ( k n i t t i n g , sewing e t c . ) were t h e most p r e f e r r e d p a s t and f u t u r e l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , w i t h mechanics (wood w o r k i n g ) and s p o r t s r a t e d s e c o n d . 193 These l e i s u r e b e h a v i o u r s d i d not change because of t h e t y p e and r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the e n v i r o n m e n t . F o r example, one of the A n t a r c t i c s t a t i o n s had s k i equipment, toboggans e t c . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e were s e v e r a l hours of s u n l i g h t which p e r m i t t e d h i k i n g - t r i p s i n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s . Y e t , few p e o p l e i n t h e s t a t i o n made use of t h e s e r e s o u r c e s f o r t h e i r l e i s u r e t i m e . In the A r c t i c , a c t i v i t i e s emphasized a d v e n t u r o u s , i n t e l l e c t u a l and e g o - r e c o g n i t i o n games ( f o o t b a l l , squash and w e i g h t - l i f t i n g ) which were a l s o p a r t of p a s t and f u t u r e l e i s u r e b e h a v i o u r . T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e of an e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t on l e i s u r e b e h a v i o u r a t t h e p o l a r r e g i o n s . F o r example, no one s u g g e s t e d t h a t h i k i n g , c l i m b i n g , s k i i n g or o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n would be p r e f e r r e d t o i n t e l l e c t u a l or m e c h a n i c a l d i v e r s i o n s . T h i s f i n d i n g may c o n t r i b u t e t o improved d e s i g n of r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s of new o p e r a t i o n a l s t a t i o n s i n remote a r e a s . 194 F i n a l Remarks The a b s e n c e o f c o m p a r a t i v e b i - p o l a r work i n t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d o m a i n , a s i d e f r o m t h e e a r l y S o v i e t p s y c h o - p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s , does n o t a l l o w many c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h o t h e r r e s u l t s . The b a s i s o f t h e r e s e a r c h i s t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f human b e h a v i o u r i n e n v i r o n m e n t s assumed t o be e x t r e m e , u n u s u a l and s t r e s s f u l b e c a u s e o f t h e i r l o c a t i o n , r e s t r i c t e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y and s p a r c e p o p u l a t i o n . The r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h e f o l l o w i n g : (A) The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t as s t r e s s f u l i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . P o l a r r e g i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e A n t a r c t i c , a r e renowned f o r t h e i r n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s . T h i s i s as t r u e t o d a y as i t was a c e n t u r y ago. Few s c h o l a r s have e m p h a s i z e d t h e p o s i t i v e s i d e of t h e p o l a r e x p e r i e n c e . P l e a s a n t and a r o u s a l words r e c o r d e d i n d i a r i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t w i n t e r was a p l e a s a n t phase o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f e a r l y e x p l o r e r s . A r o u s a l and t e n s i o n a p p e a r e d n e a r D e p a r t u r e . The e x p l o r e r s * imminent r e t u r n t o c i v i l i z a t i o n a f t e r an a b s e n c e o f an a v e r a g e o f two y e a r s was an a n x i e t y -a r o u s i n g e x p e r i e n c e , as i t i s f o r c u r r e n t c r e w s . O v e r a l l , a r o u s a l was a l s o f e l t a t t h e i n i t i a l phase o f t h e e x p e d i t i o n . F e a r o f known and unknown d a n g e r s o c c u r r e d on a l m o s t a l l exped i t i ons. 195 T h i s a n x i e t y i s f o l l o w e d by a p r o c e s s of a d a p t a t i o n , which b e g i n s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t month a f t e r a r r i v a l a t t h e s i t e when f a m i l i a r i t y and c o n f i d e n c e i n the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a r e e s t a b l i s h e d . (B) Even though the e n v i r o n m e n t per se i s not s t r e s s f u l (as i n A) as were some i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s on b o t h h i s t o r i c a l and c o n t e m p o r a r y e x p e d i t i o n s , what i s sometimes p e r c e i v e d as a n e g a t i v e r e a l i t y a t a p o l a r s i t e may a l s o be s e e n as d i s t o r t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s e n v i r o n m e n t a l p e r c e p t i o n c a u s e d by p r e v i o u s or c u r r e n t n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s . N a r r a t i v e s of e x p e r i e n c e d r e a l i t i e s of the e x p l o r e r s were a f f e c t e d by t h e i r n e g a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s ( e . g . C h e r r y - G a r r a r d ) . The same e n v i r o n m e n t when e x p e r i e n c e d by d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e ( C h e r r y - G a r r a r d and Gran) was a p p r a i s e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e n e g a t i v e or p o s i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . A b e h a v i o u r a l and s c i e n t i f i c c o n t e n t - a n a l y s i s of t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y p o l a r n a r r a t i v e s , r e s u l t s i n t h e same c o n c l u s i o n s ( T a y l o r e t a l . 1986). E a c h p e r s o n j u d g e s s i m i l a r e v e n t s d i f f e r e n t l y , and the same e n v i r o n m e n t may l e a d t o d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s f o r d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e ( S u e d f e l d , 1987). 196 (C) One can argue t h a t on the b a s i s of the above r e s u l t s p o l a r p e r s o n n e l p o s s e s s s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which d i s t i n g u i s h them from the a v e r a g e p e r s o n . The e a r l y e x p l o r e r s b e l o n g e d t o a s p e c i a l segment of t h e i r s o c i e t y . They v o l u n t e e r e d and were t h e n s e l e c t e d by the e x p e d i t i o n l e a d e r s on the b a s i s of t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which i n c l u d e d p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m , a d v e n t u r o u s n e s s and e x p e r i e n c e ( K i r l i n , 1959). These g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e a l s o s ought by c o n t e m p o r a r y l e a d e r s (E. Salmon, p e r s o n a l c o mmunication, June 5, 1985). (D) The b a s i c human r e s p o n s e t o g e o g r a p h i c a l l y remote, y e t s i m i l a r , e n v i r o n m e n t s have not undergone d r a m a t i c c h a n g e s . R a t h e r , human r e s p o n s e has e v o l v e d and become more p e r c e p t i v e i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e r m s . Knowledge has i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y o v e r t i m e , and we p o s s e s s new i n s i g h t s i n t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the complex i n t e r a c t i o n s of human b e h a v i o u r which a r e now major b e n e f i t s not a v a i l a b l e t o e a r l y e x p e d i t i o n s . A l t h o u g h c r o s s - c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t , t h e y a r e not as s t r o n g as might be a n t i c i p a t e d ; the e n v i r o n m e n t e x e r t s a u n i f y i n g i n f l u e n c e . 19 7 (E) B e h a v i o u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s among men and women a r e d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s b e c a u s e of t h e s m a l l number o f f e m a l e s u b j e c t s , b u t some d i f f e r e n c e s between e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l women were n o t e d . The i s s u e of s e x d i f f e r e n c e s a t p o l a r s t a t i o n s r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i on. 6 .3 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h There a r e many p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h on human b e h a v i o u r i n p o l a r c o m m u n i t i e s . These i n c l u d e a d m i n i s t e r i n g a s e r i e s o f b e h a v i o u r a l measures u s i n g t h e same g r o u p o f s u b j e c t s . The f i r s t phase w o u l d examine t h e s u b j e c t ' s r e s p o n s e s p r i o r t o d e p a r t u r e f o r t h e p o l a r e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e s e c o n d phase w o u l d i n c l u d e a t l e a s t t h r e e a p p l i c a t i o n s o n - s i t e m o n i t o r i n g b e h a v i o u r a l v a r i a t i o n s , and t h e t h i r d phase w o u l d i n v o l v e a f o l l o w - u p a f t e r s u b j e c t s had r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r n o r m a l e n v i r o n m e n t . P h y s i o l o g i c a l m easures may p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between e n v i r o n m e n t a l and p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s . P h y s i o l o g i c a l l y - s t r e s s f u l e n v i r o n m e n t s e x i s t ( e . g . d i v i n g -chamber, s p a c e - p l a t f o r m s , h i g h - a l t i t u d e p o l a r s t a t i o n s ) . 198 In some of t h e s e e n v i r o n m e n t s , the l i f e - s u p p o r t systems a r e v i t a l , and d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s of c h e m i c a l s and gas r e p r e s e n t a d d i t i o n a l p roblems of p h y s i o l o g i c a l a d a p t a t i o n of t h e human body, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l o n g - t e r m e x p osure t o s u c h c o n d i t i o n s ( B a d d e l e y , 1972, L o g i e and B a d d e l e y , 1985). The l o s s of bone c a l c i u m and the absence of g r a v i t y a r e p o w e r f u l s t r e s s o r s t o a s t r o n a u t s i n l e n g t h y o r b i t a l f l i g h t s (Connors e t a l . 1985; B l u t h , 1986). Because of the d e c r e a s e i n oxygen c o n t e n t of t h e atmosphere and t h e s e v e r e c o l d , human l i f e i n h i g h a l t i t u d e ( A n t a r c t i c P l a t e a u ) p o l a r s t a t i o n s i s s e v e r e l y a f f e c t e d f o r u n p r o t e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l s . P h y s i o l o g i c a l symptoms do o c c u r w i t h e f f e c t s on b l o o d p r e s s u r e and h e a r t r a t e among o t h e r p a r a m e t e r s (Matusov, 1971). However, a c o n f u s i n g element i s i n t r o d u c e d by the a s s u m p t i o n of s t r e s s by s c h o l a r s s t u d y i n g l o w - s t i m u l a t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t s . Such an a s s u m p t i o n i s e v i d e n t i n t h e s t u d y of Evans, S t o k o l s and C a r r e r e (1987) a t Palmer S t a t i o n , A n t a r c t i c a , i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t t h e r e was no e v i d e n c e of p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t r e s s a t Palmer, a s t a t i o n l o c a t e d a t s e a - l e v e l . However, t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s of m e a s u r i n g p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t r e s s c an impose r e s t r i c t i o n s on the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of s u c h measures. I f the p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t i s , i n f a c t , r e l a x i n g r a t h e r t h a n s t r e s s f u l , p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t r e s s - s i g n s would not be se e n u n l e s s the measurements a r e t a k e n when t h e r e i s s t r e s s from a n o t h e r s o u r c e , s u c h as the s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . 199 F o r example, s t r e s s c o u l d be measured when f r i c t i o n and i r r i t a b i l i t y a r i s e between two group members. There r e m a i n s an element of doubt about the e f f i c a c y of such a p r o c e d u r e i n t h e f i e l d . The human o r g a n i s m p r o b a b l y needs c o n t i n u o u s or h i g h - i n t e n s i t y s i t u a t i o n a l s t r e s s t o d e v e l o p p h y s i o l o g i c a l symptoms. In a d d i t i o n , t r a i n e d p e o p l e would have a h i g h t h r e s h o l d f o r any s t r e s s r e s p o n s e . D u r i n g t h e w i n t e r , i n a p o l a r s t a t i o n w i t h a c o n t r o l l e d t h e r m a l - e n v i r o n m e n t , a h i g h l e v e l of i n t e r p e r s o n a l , e m o t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s might be r e q u i r e d t o evoke p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t r e s s symptoms. E x p e r i e n c e s t h a t would appear t o an o b s e r v e r as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o h i g h e m o t i o n a l s t r e s s - e.g. l o n g d o g - s l e d d i n g j o u r n e y s on uneven i c e - may be an e n j o y a b l e e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t (R. Weber, p e r s o n a l c ommunication, September 15, 1987). The body of the p a r t i c i p a n t may be under c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r e s s ( e . g . l o s s of h e a t , e n e r g y - e x p e n d i t u r e ) , however the g l o b a l s i t u a t i o n of p h y s i o l o g i c a l i m b a l a n c e might be a p p r a i s e d as a p l e a s a n t one i n the p e r s o n ' s mind. Thus, a number of r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s c o u l d be d e r i v e d from t h e p r e s e n c e or absence of s t r e s s i n t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . F i r s t l y , t h e r e p l i c a t i o n of the p r e s e n t f i n d i n g of low s t r e s s i n o t h e r p o l a r s e t t i n g s u s i n g o n l y s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t s would be a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s m a l l - g r o u p r e s e a r c h . 200 S e c o n d l y , c o u p l e d w i t h the p r e v i o u s s u g g e s t i o n , t h e p o l a r -s e t t i n g s c o u l d be l o c a t e d i n d i s t i n c t , and p e r h a p s more p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y s t r e s s f u l e n v i r o n m e n t s i n which p s y c h o -p h y s i o l o g i c a l d a t a c o u l d be c o l l e c t e d . T h i r d l y , on t h e b a s i s of the d i f f i c u l t i e s shown by t h i s s t u d y i n a s s e s s i n g t h e s o u r c e s of human s t r e s s as b e i n g evoked by t h e s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , or b o t h , a n o t h e r r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t i o n i s t h a t e x t e n s i o n s of t h e s e f i n d i n g s c o u l d p r o v i d e t h e r e s e a r c h e r s w i t h p o s s i b i l i t i e s of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e domain of s m a l l group b e h a v i o u r . F o u r t h l y , a r e v i e w of t h e meaning and p e r c e p t i o n of s t r e s s as e x p e r i e n c e d by p e r s o n n e l e x p o s e d t o u n u s u a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s would be most i n f o r m a t i v e . There a r e not many s t u d i e s - w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of t h e work of t h e IBEA e x p e d i t i o n - on p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s i n p o l a r s e t t i n g s . P r o c e d u r e s s u c h as p a p e r - a n d - p e n c i 1 measures w i t h r e p e a t e d a p p l i c a t i o n s , f i e l d i n t e r v i e w s c o n d u c t e d by a t r a i n e d and e x p e r i e n c e d p s y c h o l o g i s t , and the use of u n o b s t r u s i v e methods w i l l p r o v i d e r e s e a r c h e r s w i t h new d a t a on p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n of c o p i n g mechanisms and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a d a p t a t i o n p r o c e s s e s t o s t r e s s f u l a s p e c t s of l o n g - t e r m i s o l a t i o n i n p o l a r s t a t i o n s would be a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the f i e l d . The i d e a l t y p e of i n d i v i d u a l p o s s e s s i n g t h e t r a i t s o f p e r s o n a l i t y , i n c l u d i n g e x t r a v e r s i o n / i n t r o v e r s i o n and s e n s a t i o n -s e e k i n g among o t h e r s , who w i l l p e r f o r m b e t t e r i n i s o l a t e d -s e t t i n g s r e m a i n s i m p e r f e c t l y u n d e r s t o o d . 201 The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g r o u p c o m p o s i t i o n l e a d i n g t o o p t i m a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and p e r f o r m a n c e i s an i m p o r t a n t t o p i c f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . F u r t h e r s t u d i e s f o c u s i n g on g r o u p r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n t o t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e and m o t i v a t i o n w o u l d be a l s o u s e f u l . 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H i l l s d a l e : Erlbaum. 217 A P P E N D I X 218 GLOSSARY ADJUSTMENT AND ADAPTATION: Adjustment occurs when the i n d i v i d u a l becomes s e n s i t i v e to new environmental c o n d i t i o n s . These processes a f f e c t p h y s i o l o g i c a l and s e n s o r i a l organic systems. Adaptation i s the s h i f t i n the adjustment l e v e l so as to make the environment more t o l e r a b l e (Suedfeld, 1987) . ANXIETY, STATE AND TRAIT: State Anxiety i s based upon a p a t t e r n of v a r i a b l e s that changes over occasions of measurement, i n d i c a t i n g a t r a n s i t o r y c o n d i t i o n . T r a i t a n xiety i s a measure of s t a b l e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n r e l a t i v e l y permanent p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Spielberger, 1970). ARCTIC: The A r c t i c i s d e f i n e d as the area l o c a t e d w i t h i n the A r c t i c C i r c l e (66*S p a r a l l e l are considered as p a r t of the A n t a r c t i c or A n t a r c t i c a (Mocellin, 1982) . AROUSAL: Or a c t i v a t i o n i s r e l a t e d to under-or o v e r - s t i m u l a t i o n . In behavioural terms, arousal r e f e r s to an i n t e n s i t y dimension ranging from unconsciousness and sleep through drowsiness, quiet awakening and excitement to d i s o r g a n i z e d behavior. A short d e f i n i t i o n of moderate arousal r e f e r s to the p h y s i c a l s t a t e i n which one i s a l e r t , i n t e r e s t e d and keenly aware of the environment (Chaplin, 1983). BI-POLAR: That which r e l a t e s to or i s a s s o c i a t e d with both A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c regions. CIRCADIAN RHYTHM: P e r t a i n i n g to b i o l o g i c a l c y c l e s o c c u r r i n g at approximately 24-hour i n t e r v a l s (Chaplin, 1983) . COGNITION: A general concept embracing a l l forms of knowing such as p e r c e i v i n g , imagining, reasoning, and judging. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , c o g n i t i o n was opposed to w i l l i n g and a f f e c t i o n or f e e l i n g (Chaplin, 1983). COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT: The impairment of human c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s or a combination of r e d u c t i o n of f o r g e t f u l n e s s , i n t e l l e c t u a l i n e r t i a and e f f e c t s on a t t e n t i o n . C o g n i t i v e impairment has been considered one of the major negative responses of small groups i n long term i s o l a t i o n i n n a t u r a l or experimental s e t t i n g s (Evans, 1980/ Popkin et a l . 1974) . CONFINEMENT: Implies a r e s t r i c t i o n of m o b i l i t y as caused by environmental c o n d i t i o n s ( S e l l s , 1973, Smith, 1969). CONTENT ANALYSIS: The study of the documentary m a t e r i a l s (e.g., d i a r i e s ) i n terms of the frequency of s e l e c t e d p s y c h o s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s . In t h i s study, the c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e d the emotional r e a c t i o n s of s e l e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l s ( A f t e r Chaplin, 1983) . 219 ENVIRONMENT: Refers to any aspect of the geographical, s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l phenomena which surround or a f f e c t an i n d i v i d u a l organism or part of an organism (Moran, 1982). ENVIRONMENTAL ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION: A t t i t u d e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e and enduring p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o behave or react i n a c e r t a i n way towards persons, o b j e c t s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , or issues i n any given environment (Chaplin, 1983). Pe r c e p t i o n occurs i n the e x t e r n a l environment of the s u b j e c t s . Perception i s more t r a n s i t o r y and l e s s s t a b l e than a t t i t u d e s . P e r c e p t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y l i n k e d to a s p e c i f i c stimulus, and a t t i t u d e s are connected to a v a r i e t y of f e e l i n g s and b e l i e f s . Environmental p e r c e p t i o n i s the subject's personal image of the e x t e r n a l environment (Lowenthal, 1967). ENVIRONMENTAL STIMULATION: Includes a l l the inputs from the environment that are sensed or r e c e i v e d at some p e r c e p t u a l l e v e l . EXPERIMENTAL GROUP: Refers to both A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c contemporary groups i n the p o l a r s i t e s . EXTRAVERTS: I n d i v i d u a l s who are c h r o n i c a l l y under-aroused and who attempt t o increase t h e i r a r o u s a l by seeking high l e v e l s of s t i m u l a t i o n ( c f . Zuckerman, 1983); a tendency to d i r e c t p e r s o n a l i t y towards the outer world. The e x t r a v e r t s tend to focus t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n and judgment on people and objects (cf.Jung, 1971). HALLUCINATION: A perc e p t i o n that occurs i n the absence of a corresponding o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y . H a l l u c i n a t i o n i s not determined by e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s or events, although the h a l l u c i n a t o r y process may be superimposed upon them (such as when r e a l objects appear d i s t o r t e d , i n c r e a s e d or decreased i n s i z e , or animated) [Zusne and Jones, 1982] . HISTORICAL GROUP: Refers to the subjects i n c l u d e d i n the content a n a l y s i s of the w r i t i n g s of A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c e x p l o r e r s . HOSTILE ENVIRONMENT: An environment composed of p o t e n t i a l l y harmful f a c t o r s . These are c l i m a t i c , p h y s i o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l , o c cupational and p s y c h o l o g i c a l ( R i v o l i e r , 1975). HYPNAGOGIC IMAGERY: A type of imagery which occurs i n the hypnagogic s t a t e , a s t a t e which occurs between wakefulness and sleep (Zusne and Jones, 1982). HYPNOPOMPIC IMAGERY: The image generated i n a hypnopompic s t a t e , which occurs a f t e r s l e e p i n g and p r i o r to wakening (Zusne and Jones, 1982) . 220 INTROVERTS: I n d i v i d u a l s who are c h r o n i c a l l y aroused, and seek s i t u a t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a low l e v e l of s t i m u l a t i o n ( c f . Zuckerman, 1983) . A second and more common d e f i n i t i o n i s based on Jung (1921, 1971); i n t r o v e r t s are o r i e n t e d p r i m a r i l y towards t h e i r inner worlds f o c u s i n g t h e i r p erceptions and judgements on concepts and ideas. ISOLATED SITES: Those s i t e s i n the North and South p o l a r regions w i t h i n the 60th p a r a l l e l . They are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l i m i t e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y ( p r i m a r i l y by a i r ) and r e s t r i c t e d outside contact (by r a d i o or mail) and e v e n t u a l l y telephone). They t y p i c a l l y have l i v i n g f a c i l i t i e s which are p h y s i c a l l y i n c l o s e proximity; the number of t r a n s i e n t i n h a b i t a n t s are r e l a t i v e l y small; and no major human settlements can be found i n a radius of 200 km. from the s i t e . ISOLATION: I t can be defi n e d i n a number of ways. Here i t i s defin e d with respect to the extent to which c e r t a i n groups or members of groups are r e s t r i c t e d by e i t h e r p h y s i c a l l y or s o c i a l l y ( t h i s study considers only p h y s i c a l l y ) p r e s c r i b e d l i m i t s from communicating with others o u t s i d e the immediate group. I s o l a t i o n i s often, but not always, accompanied by confinement and sensory r e s t r i c t i o n or d e p r i v a t i o n (see a l s o s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n , confinement and sensory r e s t r i c t i o n ) ( S e l l s , 1973) . LOW STIMULATION: When the outer environmental input i s reduced or very low. In t h i s c o n d i t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l s become more aware of t h e i r i n t e r n a l r e s i d u a l s t i m u l i (Suedfeld and M o c e l l i n , 1987). MONOTONY: A s t a t e of low arousal which a f f e c t s a t t e n t i o n and occurs when i n d i v i d u a l s perform the same tasks f o r long periods (Baddeley, 1972).The decrease i n a t t e n t i o n (caused by monotony) i s a l s o r e l a t e d to boredom, which occurs as a r e a c t i o n t o task s i t u a t i o n s where the pa t t e r n of sensory s t i m u l a t i o n i s ne a r l y constant or h i g h l y r e p e t i t i o u s . An emotional component of boredom al s o i n c l u d e s an aversion to monotonous elements of a s i t u a t i o n that are i d e n t i f i e d by the i n d i v i d u a l s as the source of the f e e l i n g . Simultaneously, the i n d i v i d u a l i s motivated t o change the environment, vary h i s a c t i v i t y or escape the s i t u a t i o n a l t o g e t h e r (Smith, 1981). MONOTONOUS NATURAL ENVIRONMENT: Environments which are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by subdued colours, long p e r i o d s of dark and l i g h t , and homogeneous landscapes. PASTORALISM: According to ERI Manual (McKechnie, 1974), the theme "pa s t o r a l i s m " means: o p p o s i t i o n t o land development; concern about p o p u l a t i o n growth; p r e s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l resources, i n c l u d i n g open space; acceptance of n a t u r a l f o r c e s as shapers of human l i f e ; s e n s i t i v i t y to pure environmental experiences; s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n the n a t u r a l environment (p. 2). 221 PERCEPTUAL PHENOMENA: Perception i s the process whereby i n d i v i d u a l s e x t r a c t information from the environment. Perceptual phenomena are comprised of a c l a s s of events (e.g. transcendental experiences, dreams, daydreams and anomalous imagery; Zusne and Jones, 1982). Environments with low s t i m u l a t i o n may increase the number and i n t e n s i t y of p e r c e p t u a l events due to a s h i f t i n a t t e n t i o n to i n t e r n a l r e s i d u a l r a t h e r than e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i . PERMANENT: Refers to the residence of s u b j e c t s during 12-14 months at a p o l a r s i t e . PLEASANTNESS: A p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g a s s o c i a t e d with the d e s i r e to prolong the e x c i t i n g c o n d i t i o n s (Chaplin, 1983). POLAR BASE: A settlement i n a p o l a r region, s t a f f e d by a small group of people, f o r l o g i s t i c a l and /or s t r a t e g i c purposes. S c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y i s conducted s e c o n d a r i l y . POLAR STATION: A settlement i n a p o l a r r e g i o n which i s comprised of a small group of people under c i v i l i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and i s mainly dedicated to s c i e n t i f i c o p e rations. SELF-ACTUALIZATION: The tendency to develop one's t a l e n t and c a p a c i t i e s (Chaplin, 1983) . SELF-INSIGHT: Insight i n t o the reasons f o r one's own behaviour (Chaplin, 1983) . SENSATION-SEEKERS: Those i n d i v i d u a l s who need v a r i e d , novel and complex experiences i n order to maintain an optimal l e v e l of arousal (Zuckerman, 1979). SENSORY RESTRICTION: Sensory r e s t r i c t i o n occurs when the s t i m u l a t i o n i s reduced as a r e s u l t of decreased environmental v a r i a t i o n (e.g., darkness, s i l e n c e or monotonous environmental input) [Zubek, 1969]. SOCIAL MALADJUSTMENT: Lack of the r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s necessary f o r success i n s o c i a l l i v i n g (Chaplin , 1983). SOCIAL ISOLATION: I n d i v i d u a l s or groups of i n d i v i d u a l s who are separated from core s o c i e t i e s by vast geographical d i s t a n c e s . I s o l a t i o n i s the c o n d i t i o n of being i s o l a t e d (Chaplin, 1983). S o c i a l i s o l a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the absence of usual s o c i a l contacts or supports ( s o c i a l network); or i n the case of t h i s study, t h i s contact i s r e s t r i c t e d to small groups. STRESS: A s t a t e of imbalance e i t h e r p h y s i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l or b e h a v i o u r a l which i s e l i c i t e d by a l a c k of i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a p a c i t y i n coping with the environmental demands (Stokols, 1979). 222 STRESSFUL ENVIRONMENT: An environment where p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s are severe and compromise the s u r v i v a l of a unprotected i n d i v i d u a l (see a l s o h o s t i l e environment). STRESSORS: P h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the environment that can damage the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l balance of i n d i v i d u a l s (e.g., wind noise, temperature, r a d i a t i o n , a l t i t u d e and photoperiod). TRANSIENT: Refers to the temporary residence of s u b j e c t s under study i n the p o l a r areas. The term i s a p p l i c a b l e to subjects who r o t a t e every 4 to 6 months i n t e r v a l s , t o and o f f s i t e s . THRESHOLD: A p o i n t on a stimulus continuum at which there i s a t r a n s i t i o n i n a s e r i e s of sensations and judgments. For example, when environmental inputs are very low, human beings become much more s e n s i t i v e t o r e s i d u a l s t i m u l i and t h e r e f o r e e x h i b i t a lower sensory t h r e s h o l d (Chaplin, 1983). UNUSUAL ENVIRONMENT: Not the customary environments; i n t h i s study i m p l i e s that people are cut o f f from the outside world, f a r from t h e i r usual sphere. VIVID and LUCID DREAMS: A v i v i d dream i s when the dreamer i s aware of i n t e r n a l events (thoughts; but he/she i s f u l l y aware that " t h i s i s a dream"), r a t h e r than the e x t e r n a l events produced i n the awake l i f e . V i v i d dreams are u s u a l l y i n c o l o u r and can evoke p o s i t i v e or negative e f f e c t s (e.g., nightmares). L u c i d dreams occurs when the i n d i v i d u a l not only recognizes that he/she i s i n a dream s t a t e but acquires c o n t r o l over the dream content. L u c i d dreams u s u a l l y are p o s i t i v e l y valenced; nightmares are absent (LaBerge, 1985). 223 CONTENT ANALYSIS The I n d i v i d u a l Records P h y s i c a l E f f e c t s : Because of the a s s o c i a t i o n of p h y s i c a l symptoms with the environment, these observations were conducted together. During t h e i r e x p l o r a t i o n A r c t i c e xplorers r e f e r r e d to elements of the p h y s i c a l environment with quite d i f f e r e n t f r e q u e n c i e s . Nares, f o r example, noted f a t i g u e (7 times), c o l d (14 e n t r i e s ) and dark (10 times), a l l at Mid-Winter phase. Jaackson reported insomnia (14 times), lack of a p p e t i t e (9 times) and the e f f e c t s of darkness (14) at Mid-Winter phase. Steffanson mentioned c o l d (17; 14 at Mid-Winter), hot (10; 4 at Beginning and 4 at Departure), and windy c o n d i t i o n s (26). Adams reported having no problems with s l e e p i n g , he noted with 11 references (4 at the Beginning and the end of the expedition) that he f e l t the c o l d (18; 7 and 5 at Beginning and end) and wind (14; 10 at the end). Smith reported windy c o n d i t i o n s (15; 8 at Mid-Winter). P h y s i c a l e f f e c t s were a l s o r e p o r t e d by e x p l o r e r s i n the A n t a r c t i c . Scott recorded windy c o n d i t i o n s 37 times (12 at Beginning and 15 at Mid-Winter) and he made 22 comments r e f e r r i n g to the c o l d (17 during the r e t u r n from the Pole, cl o s e to h i s death). Gran reported 6 events of insomnia (4 at the Beginning of h i s t o u r ) , 11 of c o l d (6 at Beginning and 3 at Mid-Winter) and 12 of windy c o n d i t i o n s (throughout the e x p e d i t i o n ) . Cherry-Garrard recorded 11 instances of insomnia and 16 of f a t i g u e (6 and 6 at Beginning and 2 and 7 at Mid-Winter, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Cold and windy c o n d i t i o n s were repo r t e d 11 and 7 times r e s p e c t i v e l y ; of these, 7 and 3 were at the Beginning phase and 3 times were f o r windy c o n d i t i o n s at the Mid-Winter phase. Orde-Lees recorded 8 occurrences of insomnia (6 at Mid-Winter and 2 at Departure); 6 cases of f a t i g u e at Mid-Winter; 7 cases of c o l d and 9 of hot d i s t r i b u t e d across a l l phases; 8 of dark c o n d i t i o n s at Mid-Winter and Departure phases and 18 cases of windy c o n d i t i o n s (17 at Mid-Winter). Worsley r e p o r t e d 3 instances of i n c r e a s e d a p p e t i t e and only 2 episodes of insomnia, both near Departure, 4 cases of c o l d (2 Aboard and 1 Mid-Winter) and 6 of dark (5 at Mid-Winter). Spencer-Smith recorded 7 cases of insomnia (6 at Beginning), 6 of f a t i g u e (5 at Mid-Winter); 6 of windy c o n d i t i o n s (4 and 2 at Beginning and Departure r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Bernacchi t e l l s of 4 cases of insomnia Aboard and at Beginning phases and 5 of windy c o n d i t i o n s (4 at Beginning and 1 at Departure). 224 P o s i t i v e P s y c h o l o g i c a l E f f e c t s : There are few recorded instances of p o s i t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s f o r the A r c t i c e x p l o r e r s . Nares and Jaackson recorded 2 e n t r i e s of s e l f - i n s i g h t and of s e r e n i t y , both at Mid-Winter phase. Steffanson gave a higher frequency, with 6 and 3 instances of s e l f - i n s i g h t and self-growth r e s p e c t i v e l y , both near Departure. Adams recorded 3 cases of s e l f - i n s i g h t , of which 2 were at Mid-Winter phase. For A n t a r c t i c e x p l o r e r s , the same low frequency of p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s can be noted i n the record. Scott, f o r example, gave only 2 r e p o r t s of s e l f - i n s i g h t , both at Mid-Winter. In co n t r a s t , Gran mentioned 7 periods of s e r e n i t y (4 at Mid-Winter); 6 of alarm (1 Aboard and 5 at Departure phase) f o l l o w e d by 3 mentions of s e l f - i n s i g h t (across a l l phases except Mid-Winter). Cherry-Garrard recorded 1 entry of s e l f - i n s i g h t at Mid-Winter and 4 of s e r e n i t y (1 Aboard and 3 at Departure). Orde-Lees and Worsley reported no items of t h i s type. Spencer-Smith had only one entry f o r each of the ca t e g o r i e s of s e l f - i n s i g h t , s e lf-growth and s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e at the Beginning phase Bernacchi r e p o r t e d two times on s e r e n i t y , once Aboard and once at the Departure phase. Negative P s y c h o l o g i c a l E f f e c t s : The r e s u l t s of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e a negative view of the p o l a r experience. In the A r c t i c , Nares recorded 13 references to anxiety, of which 7 are at Mid-Winter, and there were 4 e n t r i e s of boredom, a l s o at Mid-Winter. Jaackson recorded anxiety 27 times (8 at Mid-Winter and 13 at Departure); i r r i t a b i l i t y was entered 13 times at Mid-Winter and during Departure; being phlegmatic, 65 times at Mid-Winter (out of 70 r e f e r e n c e s ) . S e n s i t i v i t y to s o c i a l s t i m u l i (group s o c i a l i z a t i o n ) occurred 6 times, of which 5 were at Mid-Winter. Steffanson reported only 2 cases of anxiety (one each at Beginning and Departure phases); he mentioned boredom twice at Mid-Winter and once at Departure. Because of h i s a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l work with the I n u i t , and the problems that emerged during the course of h i s research at Mid-Winter he recorded 17 e n t r i e s of i n c r e a s e d s e n s i t i v i t y to s o c i a l s t i m u l i . D i f f e r e n t data were reported by Adams, with 4 references to anxiety (2 at Mid-Winter), 7 t o i r r i t a b i l i t y (5 at Mid-Winter), 3 to boredom (at Mid-Winter). Smith experienced anxiety (10 times, of which 7 were Aboard and 2 were at Mid-Winter) . Boredom was reported only 3 times Aboard and s t i m u l a t i o n 5 times (of which 4 were Aboard). In S cott's A n t a r c t i c d i a r y , 68 re f e r e n c e s t o anxiety were noted. These were d i s t r i b u t e d as 2, 18, 6, and 42 across the ex p e d i t i o n phases (see Table 5.3). I r r i t a b i l i t y was reported 7 times (4 at 225 F I G U R E 5.3 SCOTT'S DIARY: INSOMNIA AND ANXIETY (%) 10 oo UJ OS h-Z LU U_ o INSOMNIA =8 • i EXCESS SLEEP INSOMNIA CO LU CY. 60 50 40 Lu 30 H O a-? 20 H 10 68 ^ ANXIETY 8 • • RELAXED ANXIETY N o t e : Numbers a r e t o t a l s o f e n t r i e s 226 Beginning, 2 at Mid-Winter and 1 near the end). Boredom was recorded 7 times of which 4 were at Mid-Winter. Gran reported 13 references of anxiety (6, 2, and 5 at the l a s t phases), 6 cases of boredom (8 at Mid-Winter) and 12 cases of s e n s i t i v i t y to s o c i a l s t i m u l i (6 at Beginning and 5 at Departure phases). Cherry-Garrard reported 19 cases of anxiety (1,9,5, and 4 r e s p e c t i v e l y across the phases); 5 of i r r i t a b i l i t y (3 at Beginning); and 5 of s e n s i t i v i t y to s o c i a l s t i m u l i (4 at Mid-Winter). Orde-Lees also demonstrated a high frequency of anxiety; the 12 times were concentrated at Mid-Winter phase probably due to the u n c e r t a i n t y of rescue at Elephant I s l a n d . Worsley, who s a i l e d with Shackleton t o South Georgia, reported no anxiety except once i n the Aboard phase; but he entered 13 references i n the phlegmatic category (9 at Beginning and 4 at Mid-Winter); 7 of increased s e n s i t i v i t y t o s o c i a l s t i m u l i (6 at Mid-Winter). Spencer-Smith made 10 references to anxiety (6 at Departure) and 4 to i r r i t a b i l i t y i n the Beginning phase. Bernacchi had only 5 references to anxiety, of which 5 were i n the Departure phase; and 8 of i n c r e a s e d s e n s i t i v i t y to s o c i a l s t i m u l i , of which 5 were i n the the Beginning phase. S o c i a l S t r e s s : S o c i a l s t r e s s i s r e l a t e d to an i n c r e a s e d s e n s i t i v i t y to group members. For the A r c t i c e x p l o r e r s , Nares re p o r t e d only 1 entry i n the s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n category as opposed to 11 of s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n , a l l i n Mid-Winter. Homesickness was reported twice, again at the middle of winter. Nares r e p o r t e d l a c k of p r i v a c y and confinement (5 and 2 cases) at Mid-Winter. Jaackson had 15 n e u t r a l cases of s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n and 1 of homesickness (the 10 instances of each occurred at Mid-Winter) (see Table 5.4). The frequency of group cohesiveness i s i n t e r e s t i n g , with 35 times i n the n e u t r a l category (of which 26 were at Mid-Winter). Adams reported 2 events of s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n and 4 of homesickness (for f a m i l y ) , each during the Mid-Winter phase. The A n t a r c t i c e x p l o r e r s reported more s o c i a l s t r e s s . S o c i a l s t r e s s i n c l u d e s group a c t i v i t i e s to escape or withdraw from the borin g s i t u a t i o n , l i k e p a r t i e s and p l a y i n g cards. Scott, f o r example, reported 14 events of s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n i n the Aboard phase ( p a r t l y d e s c r i b i n g h i s stopover i n New Zealand where he was i n v i t e d to s e v e r a l p a r t i e s ) and one of s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n i n the winter. Group cohesiveness was repo r t e d 1, 3, 1 and 2 times across the phases. Gran reported 21 cases of s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n , 10 at Mid-Winter; 15 cases of s e n s i t i v i t y t o s o c i a l s t i m u l i , 8 at Mid-Winter. He had 1 case of homesickness (family) at the Departure phase, 2 were on board f o r 'other s o c i a l ' category ( s o c i a l l i f e and recr e a t i o n ) and 15 e n t r i e s deemed non- s o c i a l 227 F I G U R E 5.4 JAACKSON'S DIARY: INSOMNIA AND ANXIETY (%) 30-i ANXIETY 228 Numbers a r e t o t a l s (colours, smell, trees) balanced across the phases. Cherry-Garrard reported 9 cases of s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n , 4 at Mid-Winter, and a few cases of homesickness, 4 f o r fa m i l y at Mid-Winter and Departure 2 reports were other s o c i a l and 1 was n o n - s o c i a l . Orde-Lees recorded 7 cases Mid-Winter s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n . For homesickness, 6 cases were r e l a t e d to s o c i a l l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n at Mid-Winter phase. Worsley 18 instances of s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n across the phases; 10 cases of homesickness f o r s o c i a l l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n at Beginning and Mid-Winter; and 9 of group cohesiveness (8 at Mid-Winter). P r i v a c y and confinement i n n e u t r a l c a t e g o r i e s were 3 and 1 at Mid-Winter r e s p e c t i v e l y . Spencer-Smith reported 8 cases of n e u t r a l s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n , 3 i n the Beginning and 7 near Departure; and 10 cases of homesickness (4 f o r family, 1 f o r r e c r e a t i o n , 3 f o r colo u r s and smells) across both the Beginning and Departure phases. Group cohesiveness i n the n e u t r a l category was repo r t e d 4 times at the Beginning and 2 i n the Departure phases. Bernacchi, remarkably, had almost no problems i n t h i s area, c i t i n g only 2 instances of homesickness f o r family and 1 f o r colo u r s and smel l s . Although many expl o r e r s searched f o r s p i r i t u a l comfort, p a r t i c u l a r l y when they were experiencing traumatic events (as i n d i c a t e d i n the n a r r a t i v e s of the d i a r i e s ) , there are few pub l i s h e d records of t h e i r quests. In the A r c t i c , f o r example, Nares recorded 4 instances of r e l i g i o u s and tr a n s c e n d e n t a l experiences (RTE). Two were Aboard and two were at Mid-Winter. Jaackson and Steffanson reported one ins t a n c e each, i n the Mid-Winter and near Departure r e s p e c t i v e l y . Adams and Smith a l s o reported only one instance each, both i n the near Departure phase. In the A n t a r c t i c , perhaps as a r e f l e c t i o n of Scot t ' s traumatic experiences i n h i s e f f o r t to reach the Pole, he reported 13 occasions of s p i r i t u a l comfort i n the p e r i o d near h i s death. At Mid-Winter there was only one r e p o r t of a r e l i g i o u s s o r t . Gran mentions one v i s u a l h a l l u c i n a t i o n near h i s Departure from A n t a r c t i c a , plus 2 v i v i d dreams i n the the Beginning of h i s adventure and 2 RTE at Beginning and Mid-Winter phases. Cherry-Garrard r e p o r t e d 2 v i s u a l h a l l u c i n a t i o n s i n the Beginning and i n Mid-Winter, 4 v i v i d dreams while s t i l l Aboard and i n the Beginning phase, 1 normal (non-vivid) dream Aboard, and one event of t a l k i n g i n h i s sleep i n the Beginning phase. Worsley r e g i s t e r e d one case of h a l l u c i n a t i o n (sensed presence type) and 4 n e u t r a l r e l i g i o u s experiences, a l l of them at the Departure phase (Departure from Elephant Island, boat journey and South Georgia t r a v e r s e ) . Spencer-Smith of the Shackleton E x p e d i t i o n , a man with a strong r e l i g i o u s background, r e p o r t e d 39 cases of RTE and one of a v i v i d dream, a l l i n the beginning phase; and 6 cases of dreaming i n the n e u t r a l category near h i s death i n A n t a r c t i c a . Bernacchi reported one case of s p i r i t u a l comfort, near departure. 229 CONTENT ANALYSIS PROGRAM COLUMN 1-2 Subject ID (1-13) 3-4 Month 5-8 Year (1800-1900) 9 Time ( 0 no s p e c i f i c a t i o n , Begin 1, Middle 2, End 3) * i n one month 10 Location (Aboard, 2 Sledge; 3 Hut) 11 P e r i o d (0 on Board; 1 Begin; 2 Middle; 3 Departure) 12-13 Document # (1-22) 14 Continent (1 A r c t i c ; 2 A n t a r c t i c ) 15-22 P h y s i c a l e f f e c t s 15 Sleep (0 no e f f e c t ; 1 insomnia; 2 excess of sleep) DGW 16 Headaches (0 no e f f e c t ; 1 headaches; ) DGW 17 Ap p e t i t e (0 no e f f e c t ; 1 in c r e a s e i n a p p e t i t e ; 2 wei decrease; 3 weight increase; 4 decrease i n a p p e t i t e 18 Fatigue ( 0 no e f f e c t ; 1 f a t i g u e , 2 r e s t o r a t i o n ) 19 Cold ( 0 no e f f e c t ; 1 c o l d ; 2 hot) DGW 20 Dark ( 0 no e f f e c t ; 1 darkness; 2 l i g h t ) 21 Wind ( 0 no e f f e c t ; 1 wind; 2 calm) 22-28 General P o s i t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l Aspects 22 S e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n (0 no e f f e c t , 1 s e l f - i n s i g h t , 2 self-growth) DGW 23 S e l f - d i s c i p l i n e (0 no e f f e c t ; 1 d i s c i p l i n e ; 2 l o s s of control ) 24 Personal autonomy (0 no e f f e c t , 1 pers o n a l autonomy; 2 dependency on others) 25 Self-Esteem (0 no e f f e c t , 1 s e l f - p r a i s e ; 2 s e l f -c r i t i c i s m ) 26 S e r e n i t y (0 no e f f e c t , 1 s e r e n i t y ; 2 e x c i t a t i o n ) DGW 230 27 S e n s i t i v i t y to p h y s i c a l s t i m u l i (Nature) ( 0 no e f f e c t ; 1 increased s e n s i t i v i t y ; 2 decreased s e n s i t i v i t y ) DGW 28 - 34 General Negative P s y c h o l o g i c a l Aspects 28 Anxiety (0 no e f f e c t ; 1 anxiety; 2 relaxed) DGW 29 I r r i t a b i l i t y (0 no e f f e c t ; 1 i r r i t a b i l i t y ; 2 phlegmatic ) DGW 30 Boredom (monotony) ( 0 no e f f e c t ; 1 boredom; 2 stimulation) DGW 31 Hygiene ( 0 no e f f e c t ; 1 hygiene; 2 compulsive c l e a n l i n e s s ) 32 M o t i v a t i o n (0 no e f f e c t , 1 reduced motiva t i o n ; 2 overdrive) 33 A l e r t n e s s (0 no e f f e c t ; 1 d e c l i n e i n a l e r t n e s s ; 2 hyper-ale r t n e s s ) 34 S e n s i t i v i t y to s o c i a l s t i m u l i (0 no e f f e c t ; 1 i n c r e a s e d s e n s i t i v i t y ; 2 decreased s e n s i t i v i t y ) DGW 35-41 S o c i a l Stress 35 S o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n (0 no e f f e c t ; 1 s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n ; 2 s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n ) DGW 36 Group tendency (0 no e f f e c t ; 1 n a t u r a l group; 2 imposed group) 37 Group cohesiveness (0 no e f f e c t , 1 group cohesiveness; 2 group f r i c t i o n ) 38 Homesickness Family (0 no e f f e c t ; 1 missing f a m i l y 39 Homesickness, other s o c i a l ( s o c i a l - l i f e , r e c r e a t i o n ) (0 no e f f e c t , 1 missing other s o c i a l ) 40 Homesickness n o n - s o c i a l ( c o l o u r s , smell) (0 no e f f e c t , 1 missing non-social) 41 P r i v a c y (0 no e f f e c t ; 1 lack of p r i v a c y ; 2 too much alone) 42 Confinement (0 no e f f e c t ; 1 confinement; 2 freedom) 43 - 45 Perceptual Phenomena 231 43 Dreams ( 0 no dreams r e p o r t e d ; 1 v i v i d dreams/ f o o d ; 2 v i v i d dreams /home, l a n d s c a p e ;3 v i v i d dreams / f a m i l y & f r i e n d s ; 4 t a l k i n g i n s l e e p ; 5 n i g h t m a r e s ; 6 o t h e r s ) 44 R e l i g i o u s / T r a n s c e n d e n t a l E x p e r i e n c e s (0 no e f f e c t ; 1 RTE 45 H e l p e r s / Superhuman E n t i t i e s (0 no e f f e c t ; 1 H e l p e r s ) 46 H a l l u c i n a t i o n s ( 0 no e f f e c t s ; 1 h a l l u c i n a t i o n s LEGEND: DGW = DEGREE OF INTENSITY OF WORD 2 32 N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y o f Canada B i b l i o t h & q u e n a t i o n a l e du Canada Canadian Theses S e r v i c e S e r v i c e des th£ses cana d i e n n e s NOTICE AVIS The q u a l i t y o f t h i s m i c r o f i c h e i s h e a v i l y dependent upon the q u a l i t y o f the t h e s i s s u b m i t t e d f o r m i c r o f i l m i n g . P l e a s e r e f e r t o the N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y o f Canada t a r g e t ( s h e e t l f frame 2) e n t i t l e d : La q u a l i t y de c e t t e m i c r o f i c h e depend grandement de l a qualit§ de l a t h e s e s o u m i s e a u m i c r o f i l m a g e . V e u i l l e z c o n s u l t e r l a c i b l e de l a B i b l i o t h S q u e n a t i o n a l e du Canada ( m i c r o f i c h e 1, image 2) intitul§e: NOTICE AVIS Table 1 LAB Scale Descriptions HIGH SCOKEItS are often described as: SCALE and Representative Activities: UJW SCOURK$ are nftpn flcsrrll'-d as* Ambitious, coarse, confident, extravertcd, fick-le, hard-headed, masculine, methiwllcnl, <»pp«>r -iuni*itc, practical, realistic, robust, self-accept -ing. *hy, Hocluble. LAW Past Scales Mechanics (ME) Auto repair, billiards, boxing, car-pi'ntry, hunting, marksmanship, me-chanics, woodworking. Aesthetically responsive, affectionate-, appreci-ative, confused, friuinlito, Introverted, Irrita-ble, mannerly, prudish, responsible, trusting, understanding. Affectionate, care less, compassion ate, defensive, distractfble, emotional, fickle, frivolous, flexi-ble, I mlcpendenl-minded, spunky, tolerant. Craits (CR) Ceramics .cooking, designing clothes, fl owe r ar rang! ng, Je we 1 r y - maki ug, knitting, needlework, weaving. Calm, deliberate, dignified, formal, Intolerant, logical, n>onnerly, masculine,persevering, plan-ful, precise, stolid, unemotional. Active, assertive, dominant, efficient, gloomy, impailnnt. Intellectual, intelligent. Interests wide, selfish, sophisticated, unrealistic. Intellectual (IN) Attending concerts or plays, political activities, reading, visiting museums, writing poetry or stories, civic or con-servation organizations. Cautious, commonplace, conservative, easy -going, friendly, Jolly, leisurely, mild, opportu-nistic, patient, quiet, retiring, simple. Attractive, business-minded, efficient, energet-ic, extranunatlvo, healthy. Independent, pcrse-vcrintt, planful, self-accepting, serious, severe, *ell-nd|u»ted. Slow Living (SL) Gardening, going to movies, social drinking, sunbathing talking on tele-phone, visiting friends, wtnduwshop-plng, writing letters. Awkward, contented, dull, gene reus, Intrapunl -live, Jolly, slipshod, self-denying, self-tlepre-cotlng, self-pi tying, spineless, undeserving. Aggressive, ambitious, confident, dominant, forceful, initiative, masculine, outgoing, perse-vering, restless, sociable, spontaneous r Sports (SP) Badminton, baseball, basketball, foot-ball, jogging, squash, ping pong, vol-leyball. Artistic, confused, despondent, fearful, femi-nine, fussy, ingenious, introverted, self-pitying, slow, worrying. Attractive, daring, efficient, flexible, healthy, high-brow. Intelligent, loyal, o|>timiotic, psycho-Uyically-minded, resilient, resourceful, spon-taneous, tolerant. Glamour Sports (GS) Archery, canoeing, horseback riding, motor boating* motorcycling, moun-tain climbing, sailing, skiing, tennis. Hitter, blustery, despondent, fearful, foolish, g l iMimv , preoccupied, self-denying, unexcltable, weak, withdrawn. Adventurous-, alert, ambitious, flirtatious, good-looking, impulsive, intelligent, opportunistic, outgoing, pleasure-seeking, sexy, sociable, tol-erant. LAB Riture Scales Adventure (AD) Bicycling, camping, canoeing, horse-back riding, sailing, skiing, skindiv-ing, watcrskiing. Absent-minded, awkward, conservative, fussy, moralistic,obliging, retiring,rigid, slow, stern, stolid, unchanging, unemotional. S o u r c e : McKec l i n i e , 1975 233 Table 1 L A B Scale Descriptions (cont.) HIGH SCUllEKS are often described as: SCALE and Representative Activities: LOW SCOHEKS are often described as: Ambitious,daring, deceitful, easy-going, friend-ly, handsome, musculinu, op|»t»riunUUc, plea-sure-seeking, show-off, sociable. Mechanics (MK) Auto repair, carpentry, electronics , marks manship, mechanics, metal -work, itiode llmi Idintf • woodworking. Aesthetically-ruspunHive, anxious, confused, du-pressed, dignified, fi'iiiiiunv, introverted, l»*y, prudish, ius|*>nsiMe, untie r-com rolled, «eak. Affectionate, dlstractlblc, emotional, enthusias-tic, feminine, flexible, idealistic. Introspective, nagging, sensitive, sexy, tolerant, undependable. Crafts (CR) Designing clothes, flower arranging, jewelry-making, knitting, leatherwork, needlework, sewing, weaving. Autocratic, blustery, conservative, deliberate, industrious, mannerly, masculine, methodical, moralistic, practical, rational, self-accepting, stern, stolid. Adaptable, cheerful, commonplace, dominant, extraverted, gregarious, optimistic, orderly, outgoing, practical, realistic, reasonable, soci-able, stable. Easy Living (EL) Social dancing, casino gambling, horseraces, nightclu bs, motorboat-ing, poker, social drinking, watching team sports. Aloof, confused, curious, fearful, flexible, in-dependent, lntros|x>ctive, introverted, preoccu-pied, quitting, unconventional, undependable , withdrawn. Active, alert, energetic, foresightcd, healthy, imaginative, insightful, optimistic, outgoing, planful, poised, tactful, verbally fluent. Intellectual (IN) Attending concerts, bird watching , civic or conservation organizations, going to plays, bridge,political activ-ities, travel abroad. Awkward, defensive, evasive, inert, meek, re-tiring, silent, simple, sensitive, unintelligent. Adventurous, deceitful, energetic, flirtatious , frivolous, good-looking, impulsive, opportunis -tic, optimistic, pleasure-seeking, rude, self-accepting, sexy, sociable, uninhibited. Ego Recognition (EH) Acting, modern dunce, football, judo, squash, weightliftlng, wrestling, writ-ing poetry. Calm, conservative, deliberate, depressed, dig-nified, formal, introverted, lazy, manner Iv, ma-ture, moderate, stolid. Attractive, conforming, gentle, good-looking, healthy, industrious, mannerly, nurturant, or-derly, practical, self-controlled, well-adjusted. Slow Livin*^ (SL) Dining out, gardening, going to mov-ies, reading magazines, visiting friends, visiting museums, window-shopping, writing letters. Absent-minded, aggressive, awkward, content-ed, forgetful, obliging, retiring, self-deprecat-ing, self-ptt\lng, spendthrift, undeserving, weak. Conforming, energetic, enthusiastic, extravert-ed. friendly, optimistic, outgoing, plavfui, so-ciable, soft-hearted, subniissivo, thoughtful, wholesome, witty. Clean Living (CL) Baseball, basketball, bowling, check-ers, child-related activities, jigsaw puzzles, rollerskating, ping pong. Absent-minded, aloof, artistic, cold, confused, depressed, dignified, indifferent, intolerant, in-troverted, lazy, reflective, stern. 234 SATISFACTION AND SOCIABILITY EATING SHEETS My Work Sht/t today (If nppllcnblo) eoi I Fil led Ou; Thla TUttng Sheet Irom: AM IjM at; AM P M (time) to: AM PM on: Th l i Ruling l i For — ^ — — — U A T l N l i S I I K E T day m o n t h ye:»r I n s t n a m e ( I r a l nojno D I H K C T I O N S FOIl PAIfrS I A N U 2: M a r k i n " X " In one of Ihc a c v e n b o x c e to c o m p l e t e eat:h a c n u ; n c e b e l o w . P A R T 1 v e r y d i s e u t i s f l c d w i t h , f r u s t r a t e d t o w a r d , o r d e p r e s s e d abou t * b o r e d w i t h , v e r y s a t i s f i e d w i t h , c o m f o r t a b l e t o w a r d , o r e x c i t e d a b o u t o r Ind i f fe ren t about T o d a y I f e l t : • • • • • • • t o d a y ' s w e a t h e r . T o d a y 1 l e l t : • • • • • • • the t o w n l a w h i c h I l i v e . T o d a y I ( e l f . • • • • • • • m y d a l l y d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T o d a y I Cel t : a • • • • • m y Job (If e m p l o y e d ) . T o d a y I f e l t : • • • • • • ray f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n . T o d a y I (a l t : i • • • • • • • m y h o u s e , a p a r t m e n t , o r o t h e r l i v i n g q u a r t e r s . T o d a y I l e l t : i • • • • • • • m y p e t s (If a n y ) . T o d a y I f e l t : • • • • • • m y n e i g h b o u r h o o d . T o d a y I f e l t : • • • • • • • m y n e i g h b o u r s . T o d a y I f e l t : • • • • • • • m y c l o s e s t f r i e n d o r f r i e n d s . T o d a y 1 f e l t : • • • • • • • m y y o u n g e s t c h i l d (11 m o r e t h a n o n e ) . T o d a y I f e l t : • • • • • • m y o l d e s t ( o r o n l y ) c h i l d . T o d a y I f e l t : • • • • • • • m y h u s b a n d o r w i f e . T o d a y I f e l t : 1 • • • • • • • m y s e l f . T o d a y I fe l t : • • • • • • ray o u t l o o k f o r the f u t u r e . P A R T t D u r i n g M y W a k i n g l l u u r i a l m o s t n r v e r v e r y s e l d o m s e l d o m about h a l f tbe t i m e of ten v e r y o f ten a l m o s t a l w a y s I w a a : • • • • • • • ! w i t h o t h e r s . I w a a : • • • • • • • w i t h m y f a m i l y . I waa: • • • • • • • w i t h m y f a m i l y AJTO o t h e r a . Iwma: • • • • • • • by m y s e l f . C O M M E N T S : C e r t a i n e v e n t s ( I l l n e s s , t o u j news o r a o n j c L h l n c c l s « ) i . i . i y h a v e I n f l u e n c e d y o u r r a t i n g , f o r I n d . i y , R i a c e yo . i m- iy wajit li» p u l n l m i l ln»v Uii:.«c e v e n t s a f f e c u - . l -..'lesc r a t l n , ; . i , a s p a c e Is p r u v M e i l In »f>»r 3t.y c o m m e n t s y w i - A : J I Ic m a k e . 235 SELF-REPORT OF MOOD AND SLEEP NAME or PLACE: NUM9ER DATE ... I SECTION TO BE FILLED IN AT END OF DAY (Put a cross In iho box corresponding to your answer) V How did you feel today 7 m mi «c «t «g _ *. Not fit | | 1 1 1 Fi. Low morale | | | Good morale Non-eociable | | | Sociable 2 On the whole this day has been : Very Good Q Fairly Good f j Average (_] Rather Bad Q Very Bad Q 3. The weather today has been : Very Good Q Fnir Q Average f j Not So Good • Bad Q 4 Were you bothered by the fol lowing t o d a y : - J € * — the cl imate (cold, wind) | " — the physical exert ion | — living condit ions (camping, tasks) j — your personal work j — your role as '* subject " j — something else (give details) j TOMORROW MORNING YOU SHOULD DETACH THIS PAGE AND FILL IN THE OTHER SIDE. IBEA |1.24| Contd II. SECTION TO BE FILLED IN NEXT MORNING ON AWAKING (Put a cross in the box corresponding to your answer) 5. Quality of your sleep : Very bad • Bad • Average Q Good • Excellent • 6. Length of sleep : <$3h • «£4h • i £ 5 h • «£6h • $ 7 h • j $ 8 h • >8h • 7. Did you find It difficult to go to sleep 7 Yes • No • If yes, Why 7 8. Were you disturbed during your sleep 7 Yes Q No Q If yes, why 7 9. Do you leel tired at the moment 7 Yes • No • 10. Did you dream last night Yes Q No • 11. If yea, do you remember your dream 7 Yes f j No Q 12. Was the dream: Very Disagreeable • Disagreeable Q Neutral • Plaasant • Very Pleasant • 11 What was the theme of the dream 7 HAND THIS PAPER IN TO THE PERSON IN CHARGE. 236 . APPENDIX B Name of BEHAVIOR SETTING aenoty&e Number Authority System No. of Occurrences Sehavior Settino Number Class of Authority Svstpm Total duration Occupancy Time of Grouo Subgroups No. P. O.T. On Bass Child - f 1 -ftdult SM C SM lales C SM Females C Inuit Wnites lOn -Site SM  [Total C LT f f -S i t e otal C SM jrand fotal Social C. O.T.| i ! j 1 I I ! n i 1 1 I V 1 1 I (A + B+C) D«<s« _ 100 ZZ Gen R i c h f Max.Pene. of Subgroups Group Children Adult Males Females Inuit Whites Social C. Pen. L. I 11 III IV Total Performers (number )l On Base I Total C 1 Off Base Total C 1 P«rf Total T T T T 1 parf/pop ratio Y "I Whitje_Perf.. TJujTt~w"errT" \CTION PATTERN RATE Aes. Bus. Prof. Educ. Govt. Nutr. PersAD PhysH. Rec. Rel. Soc. MECHANISM RATTT jffB. iGroMot. tent p. {Think. Pressure Rating! Child. Ado!, Welfare Rating | jW r r  Child. lAdol • Autonomy Rating! wtd: £« 0 or I Jan. Febr. March TT--.-2c — :- LG2_ inly.. Auq._ "Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. 1979 h«biubiiit7 beta^or * K t i n j data m*.t for NANISIVIK. NWT [Building No. TTTT O U . S . G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G O F F I C E : 1 9 8 0 — 6 0 2 - 9 8 2 / 3 9 1 237 - Temperatures and R a i n f a l l in the A r c t i c Research S i t e s (monthly means) EUREKA Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun J u l Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Dayl. Max. -32 .8 -3k.5 -34.1 -23.4 -7 -2 4.3 8.4 5.7 -5 .5 -18.3 -27 .9 -31.4 Dayl. Min. -39-9 -41.4 -40.7 -31 -9 -14.2 - 0 . 8 2.4 0.8 -11.1 - 2 5 - 9 -35 .0 -38.2 E x t r . Max. -1 .1 -1.1 -13.3 -2 .8 5.6 17. 8 19.4 16.7 6.1 -1 .7 - 1 . 7 -2.1 E x t r . Min. -53-3 -55-3 -52 .8 -48 . 9 -31 . 1 -13 .9 -22 - 9 . 5 -31 .7 -41 .7 -46 .1 -51 .7 Ra i n f a l 1 (mm) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 3. 2 11.0 9.0 0.2 0.0 0, .0 0.0 MOULD BAY Dayl. Max. -29 -7 -31 .8 -29.1 - - 19 -8 -8 .0 2. 1 6.5 3-7 - 4 .0 -14.1 -23 .0 -27 .6 Dayl. Min. -37-2 -38.8 -36.4 -28 .3 -14 .4 -2.< 6 1.2 -0 .8 - 9 . 0 -21.1 -30, .2 -34.8 E x t r . Max. -5-3 - 8 . 9 - 6 . 7 - 1 . 7 5 .6 13 .3 16.1 14.4 7.8 2.5 -1 , .7 - 9 .4 E x t r . Min. -52.2 -53 - 9 -50.0 - 43 . 9 -28 .9 -14 .4 - 3 . 9 - 1 0 . 9 - 2 6 . 1 -36.1 -44, .4 -52 .8 R a i n f a l 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 .2 3 • 3 11.4 12.6 2.1 T 0 .0 0.0 (mm) RESOLUTE BAY Dayl. Max. - 2 8 . 4 -29 .6 -27 .8 - 1 9 - 9 - 7 .7 1 • 7 6.8 4.7 - 2 . 9 -12 .0 -20, • 9 - 2 5 .7 Dayl. Min. -35.7 -36.8 -35.0 -27 .0 -14 . 1 -2 • 9 1 .4 -0.1 -7.2 -18.3 -28 .0 - 32 . 9 E x t r . Max. -0 .8 - 3 - 9 - 6 . 7 0.0 4 .4 13 • 9 18.3 15.0 9.4 0.0 -2, .8 -6.1 E x t r . Min. -52 .2 - 5 2 .0 -51 .7 -41 .7 -29 .4 -16 • 7 -2 .8 -8 .3 -20.6 -35.0 -42, .8 -46.1 R a i n f a l 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 5 .3 24.6 3.7 T 0.0 0, .0 0.0 (mm) Source: Atmospheric Environment S e r v i c e (19 8 6 - 7 ), Environment Canada. T=Trace of r a i n ; Temperatures are i n C e l s i u s . A v a i l a b l e data on Temperatures of Marambio Base, A n t a r c t i c . Monthly temperatures a r e i n C e l s i u s . MARAMB10 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun J u l Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Dayl . Max. -0.5 -0.6 -3-7 -9-3 -9-9 -1 1 . .it -12. .5 -12.1 -8.3 -1.1 -0.9 0.* Dayl . Min. -k.2 -5-3 -9-9 -16.3 -17.1 -19. 5 -20. .2 -20.9 -17-3 -9.0 -6.3 -3.7 E x t r . Max. -12.0 10.9 1.3 6.5 8. ,h 10. .5 5.3 6.2 11.7 9.8 15-2 E x t r . Min. 9-5 -15.6 -23-5 -30.3 -31.9 -37. .6 -35. .0 -38.3 -32.6 -20.6 -16.2 -9.0 SOURCE: A r g e n t i n i a n A i r F o r c e , B u l l e t i n No \U, 1986. 

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