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A behavioural study of human responses to the arctic and antarctic environments Mocellin, Jane Schneider Pereyron 1988

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A BEHAVIOURAL STUDY OF HUMAN RESPONSES TO THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC ENVIRONMENTS By  JANE SCHNEIDER PEREYRON MOCELLIN  B.A., Pontific Catholic University, Brazil, 1972 M . A . , University of Toronto, 1984  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E DEGREE O F DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Interdisciplinary Studies, Departments of Geography and Psychology)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A January 1988 (e)  Jane Schneider Pereyron Mocellin, 1988  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  copying  of  department publication  thesis  in  University  of  for  this or of  this  British  reference and  thesis by  partial  for  his thesis  fulfilment Columbia,  study.  scholarly  or for  her  of I  I further  purposes  gain  shall  permission.  Department  of  , w T ^ - i / Sg./"^/,^rya y  The University of British 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T Date  DE-6(3/81)  1Y3 ^>-?  ZH  2?  Columbia  ST  requirements  agree  that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  the  be  It not  that  the  Library  permission  granted  is  by  understood be  for  allowed  an  advanced  shall for  the that  without  make  it  extensive  head  of  my  copying  or  my  written  ABSTRACT  This  i s a study  environments. analysis  region  Twenty-seven regions: site  with other  i n Canada,  Methods  included  polar  applied  of data:  explorers, crews  were  as c o n t r o l s  control  group  located group  two  locations.  i n each  experimental  acted  and t h e s o u t h e r n  and t h e  chosen,  of f i f t y - f i v e  the content  i n polar  subjects  in this  which  were  of explorers, psychometric  and  unstructured  the  domain  affection,  stations  and A n t a r c t i c  subjects.  f o r both  at a  polar  semi-isolated  located  i n an  city.  categories  diaries  of polar  of contemporary  a total  a northern  Argentinian  of  four  to the A r c t i c  on t w o s o u r c e s  diaries  evaluation  the l a t t e r ,  polar  response  I t i s based  of o r i g i n a l  behavioural In  o f human  research  included  the design  content  analyzed  from  and o n - s i t e material,  interviews.  of personality, social  stress  procedures.  and  the o r i g i n a l On-site  procedures  participant-observation  Fifteen  behavioural  perception  and community  coding  reports  measures  within  of the environment, behaviour  were  administered.  It  was h y p o t h e s i z e d  both  polar  regions  similarities, women  that  because  and t h a t  i n a negative  t h e human  response  of environmental  the polar  way.  ii  setting  would and  would  be s i m i l a r i n  sociological affect  men a n d  Results  showed t h a t :  as s t r e s s f u l by t h e regions had  was  l e d to the  perspective the  found,  ( i ) t h e p o l a r e n v i r o n m e n t i s not c r e w s - a low a n x i e t y s t a t e a c r o s s  ( i i ) traumatic  perception  p o l a r s i t e s may  e x p e r i e n c e s of t h e  of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i n a  - y e t the w i n t e r  crews r a t h e r  both  polar  explorers  negative  seemed t o be a r e l a x i n g phase f o r  than s t r e s s f u l ,  (iii)  personnel stationed  at  possess s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which d i s t i n g u i s h  them f r o m t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e  population,  c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t , they are anticipated  perceived  - the  not  (iv) although as s t r o n g  cross-  as m i g h t  environment e x e r t s a u n i f y i n g i n f l u e n c e ,  d i f f e r e n c e s i n gender-response are d i f f i c u l t s m a l l number o f women s u b j e c t s , but c o n t r o l s were n o t e d .  iii  t o a s s e s s due  some d i f f e r e n c e s  with  be (v) to  the  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  Abstract  i  List  of Tables  vi  List  of Figures  v i  Acknowledgements CHAPTER 1.1.  1.  1.2  INTRODUCTION  General 1.1.1  Introduction  Scope  The P o l a r  CHAPTER  :.x  2.  and O b j e c t i v e s  2.2  E m p i r i c a l Data Environments  of Existing  Content  3.2  Review  3.3  Research  4.1  4.  Content 4.1.1  4.2  FRAMEWORK  Data  and T h e o r i e s  on N a t u r a l  and  37  Laboratory 39  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY  3.1  CHAPTER  4 6  THE T H E O R E T I C A L  Review  3.  of the Study  Environment  2.1  CHAPTER  1  Analysis  on O r i g i n a l  on R e s e a r c h  Diaries  Measures  47 .... 48  Questions  62  METHOD Analysis Categories  The P o l a r  64 and B e h a v i o u r a l  Experimental  Groups  Group  Dimensions...  67 72  4.2.1  The A r c t i c  4.2.2  The A n t a r c t i c Group  82  4.2.3  Behavioural  88  Categories  iv  77  CHAPTER  5.  RESULTS  5.1  Historical 5.1.1  5.2  Groups  9  Summary  HI  E x p e r i m e n t a l Groups 5.2.1.  Personality  112 and P e r c e p t u a l  Reactions..112  5.2.1.1 P e r s o n a l i t y  113  5.2.1.2 E n v i r o n m e n t a l  5.3  Perception  120  5.2.2  A f f e c t i v e Reactions  132  5.2.3  Community B e h a v i o r and S o c i a l  Summary 6.  6.1  Comparisons Between H i s t o r i c a l and Contemporary Groups  DISCUSSION  6.1.1  Individual Differences Historical Diaries  162  among 167  Comparisons Between t h e A r c t i c and Antarctic  6.3  Stress..138 160  CHAPTER  6.2  5  Groups  Suggestions  178  f o r Future Research  198  REFERENCES  203  APPENDIX  218  v  LIST TABLE  TABLE  4.1  5.1  OF  TABLES  A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c E x p l o r e r s , E x p e d i t i o n s a n d Number o f Y e a r s o f t h e s e E x p e d i t i o n s The P o l a r E x p l o r e r s , t h e i r Reported  and P e r c e n t a g e s  Numbers  5.2  References  TABLE  5.3  Pleasantness  and A r o u s a l  Values  TABLE  5.4  Categories Pleasantness  and A r o u s a l  (%)  TABLE  5.5  5.6  Events  of Events  TABLE  TABLE  of  68  to Natural Beauty  96  97  by  Values  99 100  S i g n i f i c a n t F r e q u e n c i e s on E x t r a v e r s i o n a n d I n t r o v e r s i o n D i m e n s i o n s b a s e d on M y e r s - B r i g g s Type I n d i c a t o r f o r t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p s  116  R u s s e l l Mood S c a l e f o r P e r s o n a n d Environment: Means on P l e a s u r e , A r o u s a l and Dominance f o r t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups  122  TABLE  5.7  E n v i r o n m e n t a l Response I n v e n t o r y : M e a n s on P r i v a c y , S t i m u l u s S e e k i n g a n d P a s t o r a l i s m f o r t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups 124  TABLE  5.8  Sensation-Seeking Scores: Comparison of P o l a r E x p e r i m e n t a l Groups w i t h C o n t r o l s a n d A m e r i c a n Norms  TABLE  TABLE  5.9  5.10  129  Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s on L i f e S t r e s s E v e n t s f o r t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups i n t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c  133  B i o g r a p h i c a l Data: V a r i a b l e s L i s t e d f o r the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups  135  vi  TABLE  TABLE  5.11  5.12  M e a n s a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n on S a t i s f a c t i o n and S o c i a b i l i t y L e v e l s o f t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c E x p e r i m e n t a l Groups  140  H o p k i n s Symptoms Checklist: Mean S c o r e s a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s  155  vii  LIST  FIGURE  1.  Map  OF F I G U R E S  of t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c  and  Continental  Areas  7  FIGURE  1.1  The A r c t i c  Region  FIGURE  1.2  Mean  A i r Temperature  FIGURE  1.3  Mean  Wind  FIGURE  1.4  The L i g h t  Speed  and L o c a t i o n  fo January  i n the A r c t i c  and Dark  of the S i t e s  Cycles  12  and J u l y  Research  i n the A r c t i c  14  Sites....15  Research  Sites  18  FIGURE  1.5  Duration of Daylight Hemispheres  i n the Northern  FIGURE  1.6  The A n t a r c t i c Sites  and L o c a t i o n  FIGURE  1.7  Isotherms  of January  FIGURE  1.8  Mean  Speed  FIGURE  1.9  Diagram  FIGURE  1.10  The L i g h t  Wind  Region  Southern 20  of the Research 24  and J u l y  26  i n the A n t a r c t i c  of Katabatic  Cycle  and  Winds  28  i n the Antarctic  i n the A n t a r c t i c  Research  29  Sites 32  FIGURE  1.11  Human O c c u p a t i o n a n d E x p l o r a t i o n  i n the  FIGURE  5.1  Sleep Patterns (Diaries )  Antarctic  FIGURE  5.2  i n the A r c t i c  and  Antarctic 33  103  A n x i e t y and R e l a x a t i o n (Diaries )  viii  i n the A r c t i c  and  Antarctic 106  FIGURE  5.3  Scott's  FIGURE  5.4  Jaackson's Anxiety  Diary:  Insomnia  Diary  226  and A n x i e t y  i n the A n t a r c t i c :  Insomnia and 228  FIGURE  5.5  S T A I - S t a t e and T r a i t of A n x i e t y f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l G r o u p s i n t h e A r c t i c a n d A n t a r c t i c (Means ) 114  FIGURE  5.6  Sensation-Seeking Levels and C o n t r o l Groups  on P o l a r  Experimental 128  FIGURE  5.7  D i u r n a l V a r i a t i o n on D i s i n h i b i t i o n and A n t a r c t i c E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p s  FIGURE  5.8  B e h a v i o u r a l S e t t i n g s i n Mould Bay, E u r e k a ( A r c t i c ) and E s p e r a n z a ( A n t a r c t i c ) A c c o r d i n g t o O c c u p a n c y Time  ix  of the  Arctic 131  148  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e f o r g u i d a n c e a n d financial a s s i s t a n c e t o my s u p e r v i s o r s , D r . P e t e r S u e d f e l d a n d D r . J o h n K. S t a g e r from t h e D e p a r t m e n t s of P s y c h o l o g y and Geography r e s p e c t i v e l y . To t h e members o f my r e s e a r c h c o m m i t t e e , D r . Olav S l a y m a k e r a n d D r . L a w r e n c e Ward, my t h a n k s f o r t h e i r a d v i c e and c o m m e n t s . I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k D r . T. Oke, from the Geography Department, f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n making the p r e l i m i n a r y c o n t a c t s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d to the s u c c e s s of the northern research. To AES, Atmospheric Environment S e r v i c e , C e n t r a l Region, E n v i r o n m e n t Canada and t o the A n t a r c t i c I n s t i t u t e of A r g e n t i n a , my s i n c e r e a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s f o r t h e e x t e n s i v e l o g i s t i c a l support i n b o t h t h e A r c t i c a n d t h e A n t a r c t i c . I e x t e n d my t h a n k s t o CNPQ, C o n s e l h o N a c i o n a l de D e s e n v o l v i m e n t o C i e n t i f i c o e T e c n o l o g i c o / N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Development of S c i e n t i f i c R e s e a r c h , a n d U n i v e r s i d a d e F e d e r a l do R i o G r a n d e do S u l / F e d e r a l U n i v e r s i t y o f R i o G r a n d e do S u l , B r a z i l , f o r t h e g r a n t s t o undertake t h i s research. I a p p r e c i a t e t h e h e l p o f my p a r e n t s , F e r n a n d o a n d Mafalda M o c e l l i n , who gave the f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t t o p u r s u e the r e s e a r c h ; t o my c o u s i n s , D r . J o s e L a c e r d a a n d h i s w i f e , Y o l a n d a , f o r t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l g u i d a n c e t h r o u g h many h o u r s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f my p o l a r t r i p s . I w o u l d e s p e c i a l l y l i k e t o t h a n k my c h i l d r e n F e r n a n d a a n d F r e d e r i c o , t o whom I am d e d i c a t i n g t h i s s t u d y , f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g d u r i n g our long s e p a r a t i o n s w h i l e I was d o i n g f i e l d w o r k . To a l l my f r i e n d s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f r o m G e o g r a p h y and P s y c h o l o g y , my s i n c e r e  x  the Departments thanks.  of  CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION  1.1 G e n e r a l  The  Introduction  h i s t o r y of p o l a r  psychology i s s t i l l  1987), a s compared w i t h explorations  i n a young phase  t h e h i s t o r y o f A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c  (1777-1987). O b s e r v a t i o n s on human b e h a v i o u r  g r a d u a l l y been r e p l a c e d  by v e i l  controlled scientific  i n f e r e n c e s . As a l s o a r g u e d by Gunderson  (1973), p r i o r  the d a t e o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l G e o p h y s i c a l research Various  was c o m p l e t e d  other  and a r e r e c o r d e d  dimensions a r e portrayed in either their  forms o f c o n t e m p o r a r y d a t a  p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l facilities,  isolation,  original  collection.  f o r both the e a r l y e x p l o r e r s  expeditions.  a c c o u n t s o f some p o l a r p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l  The c i t a t i o n s  explorers  isolation,  environments. by p o l a r d i a r i e s or of  s t r e s s o r s ) of of the and c o n t e m p o r a r y  extracted  from t h e  a t t e s t t o both the e f f e c t s of  as v e i l  as t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l  stressors.  Similarities  contextual  emphasis on t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t on t h e  members o f p i o n e e r  polar  appear  t o 1957,  c o n f i n e m e n t and l i m i t e d  A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s a r e o f t e n p a r t  members o f p o l a r  analytical  Conditions  and c l i m a t i c s e v e r i t y ( e n v i r o n m e n t a l  emotional universe  have  Y e a r , a l m o s t no  on human r e s p o n s e s t o p o l a r  human b e h a v i o u r a l  explorers  (1959-  i n these statements, v i t h  expeditions.  1  strong  R e a d i n g t h e d i a r i e s and e x p l o r a t i o n a c c o u n t s s u g g e s t s t h a t behaviour time  has r e m a i n e d  (1820-1914).  experienced  unchanged  o v e r an h i s t o r i c a l  Even t o d a y , t h e e f f e c t s  by p o l a r  parties are s t i l l  characterized  by t h e same  that  were  i n the past.  Because  of the p a r t i c u l a r  associated  (Gunderson,  extreme,  stressful  is d i f f i c u l t specific  1973; Connors,  environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and u n u s u a l because  by most  1985; T a y l o r e t a l , 1986) a s  and u n u s u a l m i l i e u . Extreme  accessibility.  conditions  polar areas are considered  f o r the unprotected i n d i v i d u a l ;  produce s t r e s s ; difficult  e n v i r o n m e n t a l and human  with i s o l a t i o n ,  scholars  of  period of  of i s o l a t i o n  g e n e r a l t y p e s o f human r e s p o n s e t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t formed  human  because  stressful  survival because  w h i c h may o r may n o t  o f t h e n o v e l t y g e n e r a t e d by  Therefore, the l i n e  of thought  adopted  here attempts t o i d e n t i f y the v a r y i n g degrees of interdependence between t h e e n v i r o n m e n t  To d e f i n e s t r e s s for  stress  and  the s t r e s s  environment  of the s o c i a l  no c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n s  task,  o f t h o u g h t a d o p t e d by t h e of a continuum  a s a s o u r c e o f s t r e s s a t one end, environment  a t t h e o t h e r end, w i t h  a l o n g t h e way. P o l a r e n v i r o n m e n t s may have  enduring c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s stress  upon t h e l i n e  S t r e s s c a n be p l a c e d a t two ends  w i t h the n a t u r a l  to i t .  i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s s t u d y i s a complex  i s dependent  investigator.  and t h e human r e s p o n s e  that  c a n i n f l u e n c e whether  i s produced.  2  or not  Stress  may  be  caused  environmental generated  issues  demands  within  societies. to  It be  situation.  the  social  Observations stress  geographical  are  other  environmental  natural and  fluctuations  hazards,  (Taylor,  psychologists  have  e.g.  1985)  emotional  (Palmai, In  both  1963; cases,  station  life  dictate  the  from  the  focused  attention and  their  and  affective  in polar different  as  a  areas.  of  to  and  physical  isolation  determine  the  group  individual  circumstances.  3  or  about  a  the  and  effects  of  environmental (Barabasz,  i n group  is a  behaviour  et  a l ,  real  stress.  combination to  and  Polar  cope  of  1985).  element  characteristics  ability  polar  magnetic  McCormick  to  in  wind  hypnotizabi1ity,  respond  each  photocycle, ice  and  1941).  1986;  of  experience  cold,  on  are  psychological  the  1982)  Individual  capacity  and  polar  personal concept  of, s o c i a l  or  a  variations  T a y l o r & McCormick, stress  with  attention  memory,  that  behaviour  ionization  (McPherson,  be  peculiarities  both  Arctowiski,  with  micro  stressors  conditions like  1951;  polar  human  effects  radiation,  relationships,  cognition and  on  p e r s p e c t i v e . Geographers emphasized  the  cope  i t may  in general  i t s effects  have  intragroup  physical  to  or  isolated  stress  addressed  people  1987),  according to  traditionally  conditions  of  versus  about  and  of  & Cohen,  relations  investigated  in particular  inability  (Evans  group  i s the  environmental areas  by  seem  in to  Conditions both  with  may  difficult  Frequently,  isolation  geographical, with definition which  has been examined  from two p o i n t s o f v i e w :  i t s c o n c e p t o f r e m o t e n e s s , which by  i s being  f a r from any human c o n t a c t ; and s o c i a l ,  i s represented  p r i m a r i l y by t h e e x t e n t  groups o r members o f g r o u p s a r e r e s t r i c t e d w i t h each o t h e r e i t h e r limits  (Nelson,  from  certain  communicating  by p h y s i c a l l y o r s o c i a l l y  prescribed  1973).  Scope and O b j e c t i v e s  of the Study  T h i s s t u d y i s based on s e v e r a l and s o c i a l  t o which  isolation  investigations  and r e l a t e d  o f how  physical  s t r e s s o r s a f f e c t the  p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e h a v i o u r of s m a l l groups of people i n t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c . T h e r e a r e two major segments. historical  of p o l a r  explorers  i s a c o n t e m p o r a r y segment which  cognitive,  perceptual, affective  human b e h a v i o u r i n s m a l l of t h e r e s e a r c h  and s o c i a l  s t r e s s dimensions of  p o l a r g r o u p s . The h i s t o r i c a l  f o c u s e s upon s i m i l a r i t i e s  e x p e d i t i o n s . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s a n a l y s i s i n t o the changeable or s t a b l e  behaviour  i n polar  (1875-1916); t h e  i n v e s t i g a t e s the  regions  component  and d i f f e r e n c e s i n  e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s by e x p l o r e r s on b o t h A r c t i c  insight  isa  segment which a n a l y s e s t h e e m o t i o n a l and s o c i a l  content of t h i r t e e n d i a r i e s second  The f i r s t  and A n t a r c t i c  i s to provide a better  characteristics  o f human  f o r t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y segment o f t h i s  study.  4  The  contemporary  subjects, The  two  Arctic  r e s e a r c h was  located  conducted u s i n g  i n the A r c t i c ,  research sites  and  two  community  of Mould  The A n t a r c t i c  sites  g r o u p . Both n o r t h and  main o b j e c t  studied  a  the s i t e  semi-isolated group.  o f Marambio, Antarctic  f o r the southern c o n t r o l  s o u t h e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s were  studied  w i n t e r o f 1986/7.  of t h i s  environmental conditions s e p a r a t e d g r o u p s . The  s t u d y i s t o examine whether induce s i m i l a r  similar  responses i n widely  i n v e s t i g a t i o n attempts to i d e n t i f y  c o p i n g p r o c e s s e s and a d a p t a t i o n mechanisms used by i n the group and  Weather  as a c o n t r o l  a t the n o r t h e r n t i p of the  P e n i n s u l a . Buenos A i r e s was  The  Service  were a t t h e A r g e n t i n i a n Bases  and E s p e r a n z a l o c a t e d  d u r i n g the p o l a r  was  Antarctic.  Arctic  Bay and E u r e k a . R e s o l u t e Bay,  i n the H i g h A r c t i c ,  g r o u p s of  i n the  were i n t h e C a n a d i a n  A r c h i p e l a g o a t the Atmospheric Environment Stations  four  the  individuals  t o d e t e r m i n e the p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r i n t h e s e  e n v i r o n m e n t s w i t h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s m a l l g r o u p dynamics.  5  life  1.2  The  Polar  Environment  Background  P e r h a p s one A r c t i c and  of the  first  documented c o m p a r i s o n s between  A n t a r c t i c regions  1966). Greek p h i l o s o p h e r s explaining  t h a t the  were d o m i n a t e d by must be  of A n t i c h t o n the  existence  Rangiora, icebergs  the  the  17th  unknown l a n d  t h u s l e d the  i n 650  (Roberts,  A.D  i n the  sailor,  b o r n as  N o r t h where the  about  U r s a M a j o r or  South. T h i s  reported  continent s i g n s of  1949). T e r r a A u s t r a l i s  C e n t u r y . From t h e s e  theory,  w e l l , Raratongan t a l e s  of a s o u t h e r n  were names d e r i v e d  was  of the  (Hapgood,  from the ancient  the  when ice  astronomical  6  mention Ui-Teand or  schools  of  observations,  l o c a t i o n of a s o u t h e r n  p a r t of p o l a r s c i e n t i f i c  Minor,  existence  Nondan C o g n i t a  geographical  skies  bi-lateral  Greeks t o b e l i e v e i n the  or A n t a r t i k o s . As  a speculative theory continent  lands  Greece  symmetric  c o n s t e l l a t i o n Arktos,  a Polynesian  Antarctica  p r o p o s e d the  inhabited  r e l a t e d t o an  symmetric t h e o r y  came from A n c i e n t  the  ice  h i s t o r y ( F i g . 1).  FIGURE 1 MAPS OF T H E ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC AND CONTINENTAL AREAS  ource: UBC,  Department  of Geography Data Base  The  Problem of D e f i n i t i o n s  There a r e many terms and d e f i n i t i o n s  t o d e s c r i b e t h e A r c t i c and  the A n t a r c t i c . One o f t h e most used terms applies  t o both  c y c l e s of l i g h t precipitation, including  and encompasses h i g h  extensive  isotherm  Circle;  of the southern  the region north  and g l a c i e r s  of the t r e e - l i n e ;  and t h e permafrost  1982).  r e g i o n , has d i f f e r e n t  i t because t h e c o n t i n e n t  s t r o n g temperature  o f t h e 10<>C  boundary o f c o n t i n u o u s  ocean water w i t h major e x t e n s i o n s and  low  (Washburn, 1980; B a i r d ,  A n t a r c t i c , a s an e n v i r o n m e n t a l  to d e l i m i t  solar  absence o f t r e e s , geomagnetic  f o r J u l y ; the region north  (Washburn, 1980; Sugden,  The  long  has a l s o been f u r t h e r d e f i n e d a s t h e r e g i o n  within the A r c t i c  region north  with  frozen sea i c e , i c e sheets  and a u r o r a l phenomena  1964). The A r c t i c located  latitudes  and d a r k , low mean a n n u a l t e m p e r a t u r e s ,  i c e shelves, permafrost,  disturbances  i s ' p o l a r ' which  gradients.  8  i s surrounded  criteria  by a b e l t o f  o f i c e a s s h e l f - and p a c k - i c e  The  term A n t a r c t i c c a n b e s t  Antarctic circle Convergence  (66° 33'S); w i t h i n t h e A n t a r c t i c Ocean  (50° t o 6 2 ° S ) , a n a t u r a l boundary  m e e t i n g o f temperate changes  be d e f i n e d as t h e r e g i o n w i t h i n t h e  i n water  by t h e  and c o l d w a t e r s t h a t p r o d u c e s marked  t e m p e r a t u r e and c o n t a i n t y p i c a l  f a u n a ; t h e r e g i o n c o m p r i s e d o f l a n d and water parallel;  formed  m i c r o and macro  s o u t h o f 60<>S  the r e g i o n s i t u a t e d south of the February isotherm of  -4<>C, which d i v i d e s t h e A n t a r c t i c from t h e S u b - A n t a r c t i c a p p r o x i m a t e l y a t t h e l a t i t u d e o f 62°S.  For  t h e purpose  definition,  of t h i s  research,  the environments  A r c t i c , and s o u t h o f 60°S 'polar'  despite  located north  t h e problems of o f 70°N  f o r the  f o r the A n t a r c t i c are considered  (Fig.l).  The P o l a r E n v i r o n m e n t s  Compared  The A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c d i s p l a y b o t h s t r o n g s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences within their  n a t u r a l environments. Both r e g i o n s  low mean a n n u a l t e m p e r a t u r e s , oceans w i t h s e a s o n a l l y  have  varying  amounts o f s e a - i c e c o v e r , t h e p r e s e n c e o f i c e - s h e e t s and glaciers,  a l t e r n a t e long s o l a r c y c l e s , geomagnetic  and a u r o r a l phenomena Akasofu,  disturbances  (Washburn, 1980; F l e t c h e r & Radok, 1984;  1979).  9  D i f f e r e n c e s between t h e A r c t i c the  p h y s i o g r a p h i c characters of the A r c t i c  A n t a r c t i c Continent^and and  and A n t a r c t i c a r e e v i d e n c e d by  t h e near absence  f l o r a , and t h e c o m p l e t e absence  in Antarctica 1986;  Baird,  (Sugden,  B a s i n and t h e of t e r r e s t r i a l  of an i n d i g e n o u s p o p u l a t i o n ,  1982; Washburn, 1980, Washburn & W e l l e r ,  1969; Govorukha & K r u c h i n i n ,  1981).  There a r e two e n v i r o n m e n t s t o be c o n s i d e r e d ,  ( i ) the regional  environment  and ( i i ) t h e b e h a v i o u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t .  environment  i s characterized  and  i t s climate  precipitation environment  by t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n  ( t e m p e r a t u r e , wind,  and l i g h t  storm  and dark c y c l e s ) .  i n v o l v e s such d i f f e r e n t  and a c c e s s i b i l i t y . These description  fauna  The r e g i o n a l o f l a n d and s e a  conditions, The b e h a v i o u r a l  e l e m e n t s a s human o c c u p a t i o n  issues are addressed through a r e g i o n a l  o f t h e C a n a d i a n High A r c t i c  and A n t a r c t i c  Peninsula  environments.  THE  ARCTIC  The  Arctic  surrounded  region  by c o n t i n e n t a l  characteristics The is the  i s comprised of a b a s i n , landmasses.  of the A r c t i c  northern Canadian  limit  r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e A r c t i c sea-ice  i s 11.7 m i l l i o n  the A r c t i c  Ocean,  One o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t  i s the extension of the s e a - i c e .  o f t h e landmass  and t h e A r c t i c  I s l a n d s . Average square k i l o m e t e r s  10  Ocean  w i n t e r maximum (CIA, 1978).  area  (i)  Regional  D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e R e s e a r c h  Sites  Land and Sea  The  Arctic  Elizabeth  research  (Stager  o f permanent  islands are r o l l i n g  plateaux  T h i s p a r t of the Canadian A r c t i c  tundra  extensions  of sparse  of barren  and s p e c i a l i z e d  or near b a r r e n  is  restricted  in  summer w i t h m i g r a t i o n s  except  areas  some e l e v a t i o n above ice-  surfaces  and McSkimming, 1984). F i g u r e 1.1 shows t h e l o c a t i o n o f  sites.  arctic  extensive  The i s l a n d s have  G e n e r a l l y , e l e v a t i o n s a r e lower towards t h e west, and t h e  c e n t r a l and w e s t e r n  the  the eastern s i d e , with  metres and s u p p o r t i n g  caps.  a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e C a n a d i a n Queen  I s l a n d s , w e l l above t h e t r e e - l i n e .  h i g h mountains a l o n g 1200  sites  a high  vegetation, with  broad  land s u r f a c e s . Faunal  i n terms o f y e a r - r o u n d of a v i a n  supports  populations, fauna.  life  but enriched  F o r most o f t h e y e a r ,  a s h o r t summer, t h e s e a s s e p a r a t i n g t h e i s l a n d s a r e  f r o z e n , so s e a - i c e c a n be c o n s i d e r e d  an e x t e n s i o n  of the land  surface.  Eureka  i s l o c a t e d a t t h e mouth^a f j o r d  (almost  a t sea-level)  s u r r o u n d e d by t h e E u r e k a Upland M o u n t a i n s . Mould Bay and Resolute  Bay, s u r r o u n d e d by h i l l s ,  level.  11  are l o c a t e d almost a t sea  Climate  Temperature  The  basic climate patterns  Islands) are related Therefore, mild  areas  of the Canadian High A r c t i c  (Arctic  t o l o c a t i o n s o f open water and l a n d .  under m a r i t i m e  t e m p e r a t u r e s a s compared  influence experience  relatively  to c o n t i n e n t a l l o c a t i o n s . Figure  1.2 shows t h e mean a n n u a l t e m p e r a t u r e s  f o r J a n u a r y and J u l y .  Winds  In t h e A r c t i c , altitude Arctic  areas.  s t o r m y winds a r e f r e q u e n t Figure  only  i n i n l a n d high  1.3 shows t h e mean wind speed  l o c a t i o n s . G e n e r a l l y , most o f t h e A r c t i c  the A r c t i c  areas,  including  I s l a n d s , show lower mean s p e e d . The e x p l a n a t i o n i s  g i v e n by an i n t e n s e t h e r m a l surrounding cyclones  i n three  zone over t h e  c o n t i n e n t s , which has t h e e f f e c t  northward  accentuating  high-pressure  of d i v e r t i n g  i n t o t h e A t l a n t i c - B a r e n t s S e a , and  the north-south  exchange o f a i r (Sugden,  13  1982).  FIGURE 1.2 MEAN AIR TEMPERATURE FOR JANUARY AND JULY  FIGURE 1.3  MEAN WIND SPEED IN THE ARCTIC (KM/HOUR) 30-  Stormy  Conditions  R e c o r d s o f m o n t h l y means with a s s o c i a t e d wind  o f stormy c o n d i t i o n s c a u s e d by wind  b l o w i n g snow f o r t h e H i g h A r c t i c  speed o f 60 k i l o m e t e r s per hour  show an a v e r a g e  (1976 t o 1 9 8 7 ) . Wind g u s t s  of 158 k i l o m e t e r s p e r hour were r e c o r d e d  i n R e s o l u t e Bay (AES,  1987). A t t h e t i m e o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n maximum wind kilometres Bay of  p e r hour were r e c o r d e d  i n Eureka  g u s t s o f 33  (February).  Mould  ( J a n u a r y ) and R e s o l u t e Bay ( F e b r u a r y ) r e c o r d e d maximum g u s t s 59 and 74 k i l o m e t r e s p e r hour r e s p e c t i v e l y  (AES, 1987).  Precipitation  Precipitation, lowest values  a s snow or r a i n ,  i n the High A r c t i c  (140mm/year) c h a r a c t e r i z i n g a p o l a r  e n v i r o n m e n t . Snow c o v e r i s p e r s i s t e n t  (CIA, 1978). L o c a l l y , t o t h e shape  is light  because the  the m o i s t u r e - b e a r i n g c a p a c i t y of the a i r snow d e p t h s a r e i r r e g u l a r  o f t h e t e r r a i n where t h e wind  surfaces clear  desert  i n t h e w i n t e r - t i m e (see  A p p e n d i x ) . However, t h e amount o f s n o w f a l l low t e m p e r a t u r e s l i m i t  has t h e  and d e p o s i t s t h e snow  1987) .  16  and a r e r e l a t e d  sweeps e x p o s e d  i n protected  a r e a s (AES,  L i g h t and  At the  Dark  high  Cycles  latitude  of the A r c t i c  I s l a n d s , the  e l e v a t i o n which p r o d u c e s l o n g p e r i o d s  Figures  1.4  latitude and  and  1.5  of the  darkness  research  the  first  light  s i t e s and  i n the a r e a s  investigated during Bay,  show the  north  of dark and  and  occurred  has  the v a r i a t i o n  a  low  light.  dark c y c l e a t  the  of  daylight  of 6 0 ° . A l l r e s e a r c h  the dark p e r i o d , e x c e p t  sunset  sun  t h a t of  sites  were  Resolute  d u r i n g the p e r i o d of  data  collection.  (ii)  Behavioural  Environment  Human Occupancy  Human m i g r a t i o n coast  t o the  as much as constitutes  from S i b e r i a  to Alaska  H i g h A r c t i c and  8,000 y e a r s the  ago  Greenland. This peopling  but  Arctic  north  more l i k e l y  indigenous  Bay  of the P a r r y C h a n n e l and  Islands are  ago  and  occupied  Grise Fiord  in  r e l o c a t e d from  c u r r e n t l y , the  High  by a t r a n s i e n t p o p u l a t i o n w o r k i n g a t  c o m m u n i t i e s were t r a n s f e r r e d t o the  and  north  occurred  4,000 y e a r s  people  weather s t a t i o n s or on summer s c i e n t i f i c Inuit  the  oldest recognizable Palaeo-Arctic culture  (McGhee, 1987). S u b s e q u e n t l y , the a r e a  expanded a c r o s s  1953.  17  activities. islands,  at  Two  modern  Resolute  THE QUALITY OF THIS MICROFICHE I S HEAVILY DEPENDENT UPON THE QUALITY OF THE THESIS SUBMITTED FOR MICROFILMING.  LA Q U A L I T E DE C E T T E MICROFICHE DEPEND GRANDEMENT DE LA QUALITE DE LA THESE SOUMISE AU MICROFILMAGE.  UNFORTUNATELY THE COLOURED ILLUSTRATIONS OF THIS THESIS CAN ONLY Y I E L D DIFFERENT TONES OF GREY.  MALHEUREUSEMENT, LES DIFFERENTES ILLUSTRATIONS EN COULEURS DE CETTE THESE NE PEUVENT DONNER QUE DES TEINTES DE G R I S .  F I G U R E 1.4 T H E L I G H T A N D DARK C Y C L E S IN T H E R E S E A R C H S I T E S  MOULD BAY: NORTHERN VIEW, JANUARY 16, 1987, 12 NOON  18  F I G U R E 1.4 T H E L I G H T A N D DARK C Y C L E S IN T H E R E S E A R C H S I T E S  19  Duration of daylight (90°-60°) 90"  I  January February March April May IS 31 IS 28 IS 31 IS30 IS . I 1 :s ...l.,;> v l 1 . i •,  continuousfrj'<-'//1 \ \V •  N  \  R ' T 60  N  i .. i ;. i | i ,. i t  -^1  90*  i. .. i t  ' continuous 1' \rf«)y//oW7r:«*^n'';V.;,j{;':'^/ 1  darkness j^'^y1  O  Actutl /oca/ conditions m»y vtty Itom vtlvcs sno~n.  June July August September October November December '31.IS 30 IS 31 IS 31 IS 30 IS 31 IS 30 15 31  j  v  ^  '  •  | ••' •>•:•••'•-'  '.m^MW  I\  continuous \, ' '^fi darkness 1 '• f  ,>...  :''.'. |  C\;. * i  i/ i i  ii  i\  i  \ ~T^~~i  i t /  i i1  1 1\ ,  1  I  I  -i  X m rn —X.  liclic Ciltlr  z > z o  %  10°  O  33 c 33  •so*-  u\ o\\:•3-.r.'r •»!.'«• ..•;!!• 1 'A ^  H  o  1  33 bi o c  >  60°  o TI  D  I  15 31 15 28 IS January February March  31  31  15 31 IS 30 15 31 IS 30 IS 31 August September October November Oocember  X rn  r;  §:  X  O  CO  "0  X m  33  Source: CIA, Polar A t l a s , 1978.  LEGEND:  EUREKA  (1),  MARA!IBIO  MOULD BAY ( 2 ) ,  (4),  ESFERANZA  (5)  —i  X rn m R E S O L U T E BAY ( 3 )  CO  Accessibility  The  relative  l o c a t i o n and d i s t a n c e t o n e i g h b o u r i n g  i s an i n d i c a t o r in are  of the degree of p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n  the H i g h A r c t i c . the m i l i t a r y  The c l o s e s t  Mould Bay, on t h e o t h e r  provide  occupied  Bases o f U . S T h u l e  (northern t i p of Ellesmere  settlement,  settlements  Resolute  immediate  settlements  (Greenland)  Island) approximately  hand, i s 630 km d i s t a n t  Bay. A l l o f t h e s e  logistical  for stations t o Eureka  and C.F.B. A l e r t 420 km  from  settlements  and emergency s u p p o r t  away.  i t s nearest  are able to t o one  another.  E u r e k a a l s o f u n c t i o n s as a communication (the most n o r t h e r n  m i l i t a r y base  f r e q u e n t l y a base f o r t r i p s to temporary s c i e n t i f i c lower  t o the North  p a r t i e s , and t h u s  period,  increased a i r t r a f f i c  P o l e , and f o r s u p p o r t i t has a  relatively  These m u l t i p l e f u n c t i o n s  e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the l i g h t  i n a d d i t i o n t o the resupply f l i g h t s  weeks. Mould Bay has p r e s e r v e d  f o r C.F.B. A l e r t  i n C a n a d a ) , and i t i s  d e g r e e of p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n .  generate  link  scheduled  i t s p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l  every 3 isolation  l a r g e l y because o f i t s l o c a t i o n away from t h e c r o s s r o a d s o f travel  between o t h e r  scheduled are  f a r northern  sites.  a t 3-week i n t e r v a l s and, e x c e p t  the o n l y p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t s with  year.  21  Supply  f l i g h t s are  f o r emergencies,  the o u t s i d e world  they  d u r i n g the  In c o n t r a s t , R e s o l u t e traffic there  and  i s an  commercial that  charter Inuit  supplies,  isolated  f r e q u e n t l y scheduled A l s o , s h i p s may  to the  C l e a r l y , Resolute  r a t h e r than  ANTARCTIC  The  A n t a r c t i c i s an  square k i l o m e t r e s ) by two  other  changes and  an  Bay  and  i n summer  or  i s best  There  Resolute  High A r c t i c  medical  isolated  are  i s the  settlements  classified  as  1.6  s m a l l e r and  for  semi-  i n a rock  14  million  continental basin. It is coalescing along  the  T r a n s a n t a r c t i c M o u n t a i n s : the E a s t A n t a r c t i c i c e - s h e e t has  is  base  emergency  (approximately  i c e - s h e e t s a b u t t i n g and  maximum t h i c k n e s s of  and  settlement.  ice continent resting  call  airline  from the a i r p o r t .  a t 3-day i n t e r v a l s ,  a i r links  THE  covered  flights.  personnel  evacuations.  has  community 8 km  flights  provides  Bay  4,000 m e t r e s ; t h e West A n t a r c t i c i c e  p a r t l y marine-based  shows the A n t a r c t i c P e n i n s u l a  22  (Antarctic Peninsula). r e g i o n and  research  a sheet Figure  sites.  (i)  Regional  Environment  Regional D e s c r i p t i o n  Land and  The  toward the  beyond the separate  polar  the  sea  i s quite  Sea  reliable  however, i s b o r d e r e d by  (Schwerdtfeger,  Ice-Shelf  southeasterly  on  by  on  the  i n the  Weddell the  summer and  drifting  located,  lands  Sea. west s i d e  of  fall.  east  i c e s h e l f south of  The  64°  from the  side, r e l a t i v e l y  W e d d e l l Sea,  i n the  a plateau  east  sea.  300  Mountains are  and  and  the  south  close  icebergs  Marambio Base on  Seymour  present  23  is located  s o u t h of t h e  on  the  in a  that  metres above s e a - l e v e l . The level,  to  i s surrounded  grounded t a b u l a r  b a s e , E s p e r a n z a , a l m o s t a t sea of Hope Bay.  are  d e g r e e s of l a t i t u d e  i s l a n d s on  during  the  sites  These mountainous  from the  pack-ice  d i r e c t i o n by  ice islands  built  where the  1970).  Marambio i s l o c a t e d  is  Sites  through four  open water t o the  i s u s u a l l y blocked  large  region  ( F i g . 1.6).  Bellingshausen  peninsula  Larsen  the  northeast  circle  A c c e s s i b i l i t y by  side,  Research  Sea  Antarctic Peninsula,  projects  the  of the  form  Island other  the  shores  settlement.  Climate  Temperature  The  A n t a r c t i c c l i m a t e i s d o m i n a t e d by v e r y low  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the  temperatures  i n l a n d p l a t e a u . T h i s phenomenon i s r e l a t e d  p r i m a r i l y t o t h e permanent i c e - s h e e t c o v e r i n g 98% c o n t i n e n t , and The  world's  t o t h e a l t i t u d e of t h e P l a t e a u  lowest a i r temperature  The  A n t a r c t i c Ocean w h i c h s u r r o u n d s  maritime  (4,000  (-88<>c) was  S o v i e t i n l a n d s t a t i o n of V o s t o k , A u g u s t 24,  of  recorded  and  at  the  1960.  the  temperature  r e g i m e s of t h e r e s e a r c h s i t e s c l e a r l y r e f l e c t t h i s  January  metres).  the c o n t i n e n t g i v e s a  c l i m a t e t o t h e c o a s t a l z o n e s , and  (see A p p e n d i x - C l i m a t i c  the  T a b l e ) . F i g u r e 1.7  shows t h e  influence Isotherms of  July.  Winds  The  h i g h a l t i t u d e o f t h e c o n t i n e n t a l s u r f a c e and  t o p o g r a p h y p r o d u c e s a i r o f v e r y low t e m p e r a t u r e ,  i t s ice-sheet w h i c h , when i t  d r a i n s down t h e s l o p e s t o w a r d s t h e c o a s t , c a u s e s t h e h i g h s p e e d " k a t a b a t i c " w i n d s . I n some r e g i o n s , t h e w i n d s r e a c h s p e e d s o f t o 30 m/s  and  (Loewe, 1956;  may  b l o w a l m o s t c o n t i n u o u s l y f o r an e n t i r e  Markov e t a l . ,  1973).  25  month  up  FIGURE 1.7 ISOTHERMS FOR JANUARY AND JULY  Mean isotherms at surface, January. July  Source:  O r v i g , 1970  Figure  1.8 shows t h e mean wind speed by month i n Marambio and  Esperanza; and  figure  i t s effect  Two t y p e s  1.9 d i s p l a y s a d i a g r a m o f winds  on t h e A n t a r c t i c P e n i n s u l a  region.  o f s t r o n g winds c a n be i d e n t i f i e d :  c a u s e d by t h e c o l d a i r g e n e r a t e d  circulation  k a t a b a t i c winds  on t h e p l a t e a u , which  flows  down towards t h e c o a s t a t h i g h s p e e d s ; and winds a s s o c i a t e d frontal  cyclones  different  or barometric  low p r e s s u r e  centres  with  c a u s e d by  t e m p e r a t u r e s between t h e i c e - f i e l d s , o r by t h e  t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r a s t between A n t a r c t i c Ocean water and t h e warm w a t e r s from t h e n o r t h air  circulation  region the produced  over  1982). Both wind t y p e s  of the research s i t e s . C y c l o n i c  t h e ocean, move c l o c k w i s e  parallels  40°S t o near t h e A n t a r c t i c C i r c l e the r e s e a r c h  sites  which c o n t a i n s t h e r e s e a r c h on t h e p l a n e t  Stormy  storms,  around t h e c o n t i n e n t a l  c o a s t , r a r e l y p e n e t r a t i n g f a r i n l a n d . They a f f e c t from about  affect  i n the western p a r t of the A n t a r c t i c P e n i n s u l a  location  ;  (Vilella,  the ocean  area  ( w i t h i n which  are located). Therefore,  this  zone,  s i t e s , has t h e s t r o n g e s t winds  found  (CIA, 1978).  Conditions  Specific  monthly data  on s t o r m c o n d i t i o n s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e .  However, Marambio Base r e c o r d e d km/h, w h i l e  Esperanza recorded  Argentinian A i r Force  a maximum wind speed o f 287 333 km/h, a c c o r d i n g  meteorological data  27  (1986).  t o the  F I G U R E 1.8  MEAN WIND SPEED IN THE ANTARCTIC (KM/HOUR) 50  T  FIGURE 1 & DIAGRAM OF KATABATIC WINDS IN THE ANTARCTIC  u r c e : A r g e n t i n i a n A i r F o r c e , B u l l e t i n No 1A,  1986.  It  i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t wind speed and d i r e c t i o n a r e  g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f o b s t a c l e s s u c h as h i l l s and b u i l d i n g s plateau  mountains,  (AES, 1 9 8 7 ) . Marambio B a s e , on t o p o f a  (300 m e t r e s ) , r e c e i v e s t h e f u l l  c i r c u l a t i o n from the Weddell S e a  ;  i m p a c t of t h e w i n d  whereas  Esperanza, located at  n o r t h e r n t i p o f t h e A n t a r c t i c P e n i n s u l a , i s s u r r o u n d e d by m o u n t a i n s and g l a c i e r s e a s t and west o f t h e B a s e .  A t t h e t i m e o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , b o t h E s p e r a n z a and r e c o r d e d s e v e r e wind storms  (above 120 km/h  l e a s t f o u r o c c a s i o n s . Each one l a s t e d  Marambio  w i n d s p e e d ) on a t  f o r an a v e r a g e o f 24-36  hours.  Precipitation  L o c a l w i n d s and t o p o g r a p h y a f f e c t p r e c i p i t a t i o n  i n the  A n t a r c t i c . The common forms o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n a r e i c e and S n o w f a l l i n c r e a s e s from the  snow.  i n l a n d p l a t e a u towards the  c o a s t a l a r e a s . Maximum snow a c c u m u l a t i o n o f 20-80 cm  i s usual,  p a r t i c u l a r l y on t h e humid c o a s t o f t h e A n t a r c t i c P e n i n s u l a where m e a s u r a b l e amounts o f r a i n a r e a l s o r e c o r d e d i n t h e summer ( C I A , 1978) .  Although monthly p r e c i p i t a t i o n data i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r Marambio B a s e , i t has a l m o s t no a c c u m u l a t i o n o f snow b e c a u s e l o c a l wind  conditions.  30  of  L i g h t and Dark  Locations period  Cycles  within the A n t a r c t i c C i r c l e  during  winter-time  experience  a complete  as i n d i c a t e d i n F i g . 1.5. Marambio and  E s p e r a n z a , however, a r e l o c a t e d above t h e A n t a r c t i c C i r c l e 1.10)  (Fig.  and a l w a y s have n i g h t and d a y . A t t h e time o f d a t a  collection  (ii)  dark  i n May, t h e r e  Behavioural  were o n l y  4 hours of s u n l i g h t .  Environment  Human Occupancy  Unlike  the A r c t i c ,  indigenous  the A n t a r c t i c continent  population.  has no e v i d e n c e  o f an  F i g . 1.11 shows e x p l o r a t i o n and human  occupancy b e g i n n i n g  with  continent  s i g h t e d by t h e A m e r i c a n C a p t . Palmer and t h e  Russian  was f i r s t  the e a r l i e s t  C a p t . Von B e l l i n g h a u s e n ,  1970). H i s t o r i c a l l y , tended t o a t t r a c t discovering  both  o f c o n t a c t . The  i n J a n u a r y 1820 (Markov,  t h e absence o f an i n d i g e n o u s  occupancy f o r s c i e n t i f i c  the h y p o t h e t i c a l continent  geographers of 16th t o 17th Centuries Incognita  stages  or T e r r a A u s t r a l i s  the minds o f t h e f i r s t  south  p o p u l a t i o n has  i n q u i r y . The i d e a o f  proposed  by t h e  [Hapgood, 1966, ( T e r r a  of Magellan S t r a i t ) ]  was i n  A n t a r c t i c e x p l o r e r s s u c h a s James Cook  (1777) .  31  F I G U R E 1.10 T H E L I G H T C Y C L E IN T H E A N T A R C T I C RESEARCH SITES MARAMBIO BASE: SOUTHERN VIEW. MAY 24, 1986, 12 NOON  32  FIGURE 1.11 HUMAN OCCUPATION OR EXPLORATION IN THE ANTARCTIC  SOURCE:Scott p o l a r Research I n s t i t u t e , U n i v e r s i t y o f Cambridge - C o l l e c t i o n o f Maps.  •  AREA OF OCCUPATION OR EXPLORATION 0  8  «  o  o  1  i  6  o  o  i  km  Later,  p a r t l y as a r e s u l t  o f economic i n t e r e s t  response t o n a t i o n a l p r i d e scientific  progress,  became i n v o l v e d m i l i t a r y system, agent  o f g e o g r a p h i c d i s c o v e r y and  the navies  i n polar  crew and s c i e n t i s t s  of v a r i o u s  exploration.  introduced  i n the t e s t i n g  b u t more i n  to polar  European  In t h e A n t a r c t i c , t h e regions,  became a p o w e r f u l  o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s among f o r generations  countries  the o f f i c e r s ,  of p o l a r e x p l o r e r s  (Kirwin,  1959).  The  accounts of e x p l o r a t i o n s  (1900/1910), S h a c k l e t o n others,  with  (1772-1775),  (1908/1912), Amundsen  are e p i c adventures  discovery  by Cook,  i n e x p l o r a t i o n and  s e v e r a l episodes of personal  Scott  (1910) and many scientific  h e r o i s m and  sacrifice.  Accessibility  The  Antarctic Peninsula  from South A m e r i c a F i g . 1.1). only other  and i t s a s s o c i a t e d  s i t e s with  separated  by t h e Drake Passage 1000 km a c r o s s ( s e e  The d e g r e e o f p h y s i c a l  in distance  islands are  isolation  but i n the a b i l i t y proper  logistical  i s c o n s i d e r a b l e , not  to provide support.  r e s e a r c h and  Storm t r a c k s  Drake Passage c a u s e r a p i d weather c h a n g e s , and f l i g h t i n and o u t o f t h e P e n i n s u l a  are r e s t r i c t e d .  34  over  operations  In the c a s e km n o r t h w e s t  of an emergency, the South S h e t l a n d A r c h i p e l a g o , 700 of Marambio, can o f f e r  Marambio. T h i s s u p p o r t  support  to both Esperanza  and  i s p r o v i d e d by t h e C h i l e a n A i r F o r c e  Marsh Base and t h e S o v i e t B e l l i n g s h a u s e n S t a t i o n . A i r s u p p o r t l i n k s are maintained  a l l y e a r round  Marambio and E s p e r a n z a ,  with f l i g h t s  intervals.  35  between t h e s i t e s , scheduled  including  a t 4-week  CHAPTER 2.  The  THE  THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK  number o f human groups  environments growing  s u c h as p o l a r a r e a s has  interest  military  i n remote and  unfamiliar  increased  i n unusual s e t t i n g s  activities.  T h e o r e t i c a l and  because  for s c i e n t i f i c  o p e r a t i o n s , r e s o u r c e development, empirical  and  natural of the  work,  recreational  d a t a about  human r e s p o n s e  t o such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , however, have not k e p t up w i t h the natural  s c i e n c e and  e n g i n e e r i n g i n t e r e s t s . Moreover,  of b a l a n c e becomes even comparative  The  polar  Existing  more a c u t e when one  as a framework  attempts  towards  b e h a v i o u r and  shows an absence  for research into  the c o n s t r u c t i o n  response  (1973) and  to every i s o l a t i o n  Zubek  i b i d ) models w i l l  have been s u g g e s t e d  theoretical  isolation.  While  isolation  by S k i n n e r  (1973), the a p p l i c a t i o n  situation  (1969),  of these  i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . Of t h e s e the e c o l o g i c a l  be e x p l a i n e d b r i e f l y  f o c u s e d on  of  of models o f  the b e h a v i o u r a l ( S k i n n e r , i b i d ) and  studies  deals with  Models  guidance  for  lack  studies.  A r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e  Altman  this  isolation.  36  because  studies  models,  (Altman,  of t h e i r  validity  (a) The  e a r l y b e h a v i o r a l model was  ( 1 9 7 4 ) . I t i s based  on t h e t h r e e - t e r m c o n t i n g e n c y a n a l y s i s  o c c a s i o n s , b e h a v i o u r s , and m o t i v a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s . The occasions  expanded by B r a d y e t a l . of  consequences w i t h i n the e m o t i o n a l emotional function i s l i n k e d  ( s t i m u l i a f f e c t i n g e m o t i o n a l s t a t e s ) , and  and  to  the  m o t i v a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n t o consequences (rewards a f f e c t m o t i v a t i o n ) .  (b) An e c o l o g i c a l model i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d p r o c e s s and  p r o d u c t s of s o c i a l  w i t h both  the  interaction. Interpersonal  p r o c e s s e s o c c u r a t s e v e r a l l e v e l s w i t h i n v e r b a l and  non-verbal  communication  props.  and  the m a n i p u l a t i o n of e n v i r o n m e n t a l  L e v e l s of i n t i m a c y , the degree of i n t e r p e r s o n a l  accommodation,  and a t t r a c t i o n and c o n f l i c t a r e p r o d u c t s o f s o c i a l (Altman,  1*1  The  1973).  R e v i e w pf E x i s t i n g p a t a and  Theories  t h e s i s c o n t e x t i s p r i m a r i l y concerned  with microsocieties  formed by s m a l l g r o u p s a t i s o l a t e d p o l a r s i t e s . of a new  interaction  The  development  model or t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g m o d e l s t o  this  t y p e of r e s e a r c h a r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h i s r e v i e w . T h i s i s b e c a u s e e x i s t i n g models do n o t f o c u s on i s o l a t i o n , b u t a p p l y t o t h e g e n e r a l b e h a v i o u r a l d i m e n s i o n . The i s o l a t i o n model f o r n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s stage.  37  t a s k o f d e s i g n i n g an  is s t i l l  i n a very  early  E n v i r o n m e n t a l Taxonomies  Environmental taxonomies r e l e v a n t t o unusual s e t t i n g s constitute analysis. of  seem t o  t h e p r e l i m i n a r y s t a g e a t w h i c h t o b e g i n s u c h an Sells  ( 1 9 6 3 , 1973) was t h e f i r s t  isolated microsocieties,  t o p r o p o s e a taxonomy  based on s i m i l a r i t i e s between g r o u p  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i m e n s i o n s , b u t s i n c e t h e n , few c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o t h e r i s o l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t s have been explained.  After  Sells  (1973), Suedfeld  (1987) s u g g e s t e d  taxonomies adding t o those s t a t e d  alternative  by S e l l s , t h e  characteristics  of t h e s i t u a t i o n , o f t h e s o c i a l s y s t e m and o f t h e personality.  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  comprise i n t e r a c t i v e factors  related  individual  of the s i t u a t i o n would m a i n l y  p a r a m e t e r s . These p a r a m e t e r s a r e made up o f  to person-environment i n t e r a c t i o n s  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n , ease o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n ,  s u c h as physical  r e s t r i c t i o n and d e g r e e o f c o m p l e x i t y i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t .  38  2^2  E m p i r i c a l Data on N a t u r a l and L a b o r a t o r y E n v i r o n m e n t s  The L a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s  On t h e b a s i s o f S m i t h ' s of  (1969) e x t e n s i v e r e v i e w on t h e e f f e c t s  l a b o r a t o r y i s o l a t i o n on s m a l l g r o u p s , some p s y c h o s o c i a l  e f f e c t s a p p e a r e d t o be r e l e v a n t . Boredom, n e g a t i v i t y o f mood, i n t e r p e r s o n a l territoriality,  friction,  irritability, increased  insomnia, a n x i e t y , decrease of task  performance,  and p s y c h o s o m a t i c c o m p l a i n t s a r e among t h e m a i n e f f e c t s o f isolation. to  I t was a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e d  t h a t the l e n g t h of exposure  i s o l a t e d and c o n f i n e d c o n d i t i o n s i n c r e a s e s a n x i e t y i n t h e  s u b j e c t s . A c c o r d i n g t o Zubek  (1973), the c r i t i c a l  chamber e n v i r o n m e n t a p p e a r s t o be t h e f i r s t  period  d a y . Beyond  i n the this  p o i n t , t h e e f f e c t s of t h e low s e n s o r y i n p u t t e n d t o d i m i n i s h .  Zubek (1969, 1973) r e v i e w e d t h e l i t e r a t u r e on r e s t r i c t e d environmental s t i m u l a t i o n  (sensory deprived environments i . e  d a r k chambers and f l o a t a t i o n t a n k s ) and t h i s a r e a was u p d a t e d by Suedfeld  (1980). E a r l y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s suggested  symptoms s u c h a s s t r e s s , a n g e r , l o n e l i n e s s , d i f f i c u l t i e s s p e a k i n g , and l o s s o f s e n s e o f t i m e were t h e most o b s e r v e d and t h a t t h e y were a t t r i b u t e d to  a combination of s o c i a l  in  commonly  to e i t h e r confinement or  i s o l a t i o n and c o n f i n e m e n t .  39  that  In c o n t r a s t , r e c e n t data  that  more r i g o r o u s r e s e a r c h  i n d i c a t e t h a t under s h o r t - t e r m  floatation  tank and  improvement 1987)  and  problem-solving  s t r e s s management i n smoking c e s s a t i o n (Borrie & Suedfeld,  t r e a t m e n t of h y p e r t e n s i o n actualization Metcalfe, by  exposure to  the  (Suedfeld  (Wathney, 1978), and  (Suedfeld  1980), the  & Kristeller,  1987). These e f f e c t s seem t o be  s t a t e of r e l a x a t i o n t h a t o c c u r s  is  (Suedfeld  creativity  current  the  dark chamber e n v i r o n m e n t s , t h e r e  i n m e m o r i z a t i o n and  1987), w e i g h t - l o s s  provides  et a l ,  & Brown,  therapeutic 1982),  (Suedfeld  produced  or  in restricted  self&  mediated stimulation  environments.  The  Natural  Environment  Most b e h a v i o u r a l  field  environments  like  the  responses to  isolation  Studies  research  conducted  in natural  A n t a r c t i c p o l a r s t a t i o n s has similar  t o those  found  isolated  shown human  in laboratory  environments.  Once a g a i n , effects  e a r l y s t u d i e s emphasized  of a p o l a r s e t t i n g .  Gunderson  negative  t h a t symptoms of  depression,  behavioural  Reviews of p o l a r r e s e a r c h  (1968), T a y l o r e t a l . (1968) and  (1984), p o i n t out anxiety,  the  boredom and  40  insomnia,  motivation  v a r i e t y of p s y c h o s o m a t i c c o m p l a i n t s  Harrison  are  by  & Connors  irritability, d e c l i n e , and  common.  a  Buguet & R i v o l i e r  (1974) and Radomski e t a l . (1982) have  emphasized the psychophysiology polar  o f s m a l l human g r o u p s i n b o t h  zones.  In a recent study,  using secondary data, P a l i n k a  addressed the frequency disturbances  (1985)  of a s e r i e s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l  ( t h e w i n t e r m e n t a l syndrome) c o m p r i s e d o f  n i g h t m a r e s , r e d u c e d m o t i v a t i o n and i n t e l l e c t u a l  impairment  (loss  o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n , memory f a i l u r e and p e r c e p t u a l d i s t o r t i o n s ) . concluded  He  t h a t s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s o f s u c h r e s p o n s e s c o u l d be  a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e l e n g t h o f a m i s s i o n and t h e n a t u r e  of the  setting.  The  e f f e c t s of the s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g a r e p o o r l y c o n s i d e r e d .  example i s g i v e n by E v a n s , S t o k o l s & C a r r e r e  An  (1987) i n w h i c h ,  during the polar winter a t the c o a s t a l s t a t i o n of Palmer, located  i n the A n t a r c t i c Peninsula  on t h e s u b j e c t s were l o w e r  region, the l e v e l s of s t r e s s  than expected  ( a s measured by  p h y s i o l o g i c a l and mood t e s t s ) . The a u t h o r s  apparently  consider  c o u l d p o s s i b l y be a  t h a t the l o c a l environment i t s e l f  " r e l a x e d o n e . " I t a l l depends upon t h e n a t u r e particular site  i n a polar  Another study conducted  d i d not  and s e t t i n g o f a  area.  i n a polar s e t t i n g  indicated that  symptoms a r e more p r o n o u n c e d i n l A i d - V J i n t e r r a t h e r t h a n t h e ? r e or ? o s t - W i n t e r  phase ( P a t e r s o n ,  41  1978).  Indeed,  two y e a r s a f t e r  in  polar  settings  in  the second  departure Salmon,  Thus,  the b e g i n n i n g of the t o u r ,  reported  Mid-Winter  that  phase,  (Ayre, L., personal  E., personal  a r e more  tour  than  rather  Expanding Nodin  and remained  communication,  likely  to occur during  problems  associated  laboratory  and  field  submarine with  of l a b o r a t o r y  (Taylor  1985).  t o an  the middle  (Terelak,  e t a l . 1968),  situations  the length  studies  of the  1981).  crews, found  psycho-social  these data  10, 1983;  environments,  nuclear  with  January  Weybrew  of the  are also  consistent  e t a l . 1985;  of both Lugg,  1984) .  Group  size  Despite  the apparent  similarities  isolated  settings,  the  of the group.  size  relatively  large  environments (Smith,  than  specific  groups  of negative response t o  adverse  Theoretical (N=30)  effects  c o m p a r a t i v e l y (N=  1969).  42  might  be  e v i d e n c e h a s shown  perform  better  in  &  increased  as a r e comparisons  (Defayolle  worse  their  to other confined  studying  The r e s u l t s  3,  were  bad u n t i l  negative responses  (1979),  mission.  July  a t i t s b e g i n n i n g or end  the a n a l y s i s  of i s o l a t i o n  communication,  i t c a n be c o n c l u d e d t h a t  environment  symptoms  individuals  linked that  isolated  10-15) s m a l l e r  groups  to  Comparing  i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s with  i s o l a t e d groups, Smith a l s o  f o u n d t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f a companion  s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduces  what he c a l l e d s e n s o r y d e p r i v a t i o n e f f e c t s . D o l l & G u n d e r s o n (1971) and N a r d i n i e t a l . (1962) i n t h e i r c o m p a r i s o n among d i f f e r e n t s i z e s o f A n t a r c t i c bases found t h a t i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y and e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s i n c r e a s e d  as the s i z e o f t h e group  d e c r e a s e d . These s t u d i e s n e g l e c t e d t h e r o l e p l a y e d b y g e n d e r .  Gender R o l e s i n P o l a r  Regions  As a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e c h a n g i n g s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , women a r e g r a d u a l l y becoming D i s c u s s i o n s on t h i s  integrated issue  into a c t i v i t i e s  i n polar settings.  (D. L u g g , i n a p e r s o n a l  communication,  June 14, 1987) i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f one woman w i t h a g r o u p o f men a t a p o l a r s i t e c a n be a d e s t a b i l i z i n g e l e m e n t i n group b e h a v i o u r .  This e f f e c t i s consistent with  l a b o r a t o r y f i n d i n g s where t h e  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f one woman i n t o a male g r o u p g e n e r a t e s t h e same d e s t a b i l i z i n g e f f e c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l a t e d t o h i e r a r c h y and leadership  (Brady & Emurian, 1983). F u r t h e r m o r e , Brady & Emurian  n o t e d t h a t a g r o u p o f a l l women p e r f o r m b e t t e r t h a n a g r o u p o f all  males  in isolation.  43  In c o n t r a s t , f i e l d  experiments a t t h e Amundsen-Scott s t a t i o n a t  t h e S o u t h P o l e , where a woman was p o s t e d the presence of a female s t a b i l i z e d group of males, e s p e c i a l l y  for a year,  the general  show t h a t  behaviour  of a  i n t h e w i n t e r ; t h i s was a t t r i b u t e d t o  t h e n u r t u r i n g needs o f b o t h men and women (D. L u g g ,  personal  c o m m u n i c a t i o n , May 16, 1 9 8 4 ) .  T h e r e have been no b e h a v i o u r a l adaptation a t Esperanza  s t u d i e s focused  on f a m i l i a l  (a s i t e i n t h e A n t a r c t i c  comprising  families).  In t h e A r c t i c ,  o n l y a few W e s t e r n s t u d i e s have f o c u s e d  on b e h a v i o u r a l  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h e s o f m a l e s and f e m a l e s  (with the exception  of native people).  been m i l i t a r y p o s t s  (Warner, 1 9 8 1 ) , a d v a n c e d w a r n i n g s i t e s , and  meteorological s t a t i o n s (unpublished and  s c i e n t i f i c posts  1963;  The r e s e a r c h  strictly  sites  have  r e p o r t , e . g . Freeman, 1983)  ( E i l b e r t & G l a s e r , 1959; W r i g h t e t a l .  Wright e t a l . 1967).  Most s t u d i e s o f p o l a r i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s , s u c h a s m i n i n g , have c e n t r e d isolated 1979;  on b e h a v i o u r a l  environmental  s e t t i n g s and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n  c o n d i t i o n s and n o t g e n d e r i s s u e s  B e t c h e l and L e d b e t t e r ,  1 9 8 0 ) . On t h e o t h e r  under (Cram,  hand,  p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures u s i n g two e x p e d i t i o n a r y g r o u p s o f m a l e s and  females,  et a l .  one a t e a c h p o l a r r e g i o n , were o b t a i n e d  (1987).  44  by L e c r o a r t  Lecroart according  found t h a t t o sex.  psychological  In c o n t r a s t vanguard Antarctic  general acclimatization  These measures were a l s o  tests  but  r e s u l t s are  t o Western s t u d i e s ,  i n the using  number of  g e n d e r . These s t u d i e s  a d a p t a t i o n , but  psychological  adaptation  between the  more s t r e s s f u l e n v i r o n m e n t  Other  yet  focused  on  in physiological  the and  human  attention 1977;  the  to  Matusov,  t h e r e were  Antarctic;  in  both A r c t i c  little  study concluded  by  known.  r e s e a r c h e r s are  have p a i d  A r c t i c and  varied  accompanied  (Derjapa & R j a b i n i n ,  P a l e y e v , 1963). The  differences  Soviet  cold  c o m p a r a t i v e works of  physiological  1971;  not  to  sex  Antarctic  is a  terms.  Studies  The  cold, altitude  and  wind-chill  (blood  p r e s s u r e ) and  combinations  factor, affect physiological  and  of  wind  psychological  human r e s p o n s e .  Data a n a l y z i n g placed  on  station,  a  meteorological  f l o a t i n g i s l a n d , and  consistently  considerably  parameters  windier  show the t h a n the  i n an  Arctic station  Antarctic  Antarctic Arctic site  45  i n an  coastal  coastal s t a t i o n to  (Boriskin,  1973).  be  In  a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a r e a number o f c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s  conducted argued  by D e r y a p a (1987) and D a v i d e n k o  being  (1982) t h a t have  t h e r e a r e magneto- and m e t e o - s u s c e p t i b l e e f f e c t s  ( s e n s i t i v i t y to geomagnetic  field  f l u c t u a t i o n s and  c h a n g e s ) i n b o t h S i b e r i a and t h e A n t a r c t i c , and  weather  those  i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h h i g h s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o both weather  and  geomagnetic  Antarctic  stations  field  perform p o o r l y i n i n t r a c o n t i n e n t a l  ( D e r y a p a and  Davidenko,  On t h e o t h e r hand, p r o n o u n c e d i n t e n s i t y and d u r a t i o n may activities  1986).  p h o t o p e r i o d i c changes i n l i g h t  a f f e c t s l e e p and d i s t u r b  i n b o t h p o l a r z o n e s . A l t h o u g h few c o m p a r a t i v e  have f o c u s e d on d a r k / l i g h t c y c l e s R j a b i n i n , 1977;  ( P a l e y e v , 1963;  Derjapa  studies and  B o g o l o s l o v s k i i , 1973), other s t u d i e s f o r the  most p a r t have i n v e s t i g a t e d n a t i v e p e o p l e 1981;  daily  S i m p s o n and B o l e n , 1 9 7 3 ) .  (Condon, 1983;  Moran,  I n a d d i t i o n , s t u d i e s t h a t have  a n a l y z e d c i r c u m p o l a r p e o p l e were c e n t e r e d on t h e e f f e c t o f t h e p h o t o c y c l e on i n s o m n i a al.,  (Kolmodin-Hedman, 1987;  1985).  46  Lingjaerde et  CHAPTER 3. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY  This chapter  provides  the  design.  research  a r e v i e w of s p e c i f i c Studies  p s y c h o m e t r i c and b e h a v i o u r a l  on c o n t e n t material  c o n t e m p o r a r y segment of t h e r e s e a r c h  3.1  Content A n a l y s i s  Systematic  content  1973;  science,  political  measures  and s o c i a l  i n the are described.  biographical materials  or other  psychology  earlier  historical  material 1980). I t has n o t  diaries.  s t u d i e s have n o t been t h e s u b j e c t One e x c e p t i o n  however  i n which he and h i s a s s o c i a t e s  indicates that  of s y s t e m a t i c  i s given analysed  t h e same  other  expedition.  47  e t a l . (1986)  the w r i t t e n  psychometric data  polar  behavioural  by T a y l o r  n a r r a t i v e s o f members o f an A n t a r c t i c e x p e d i t i o n .  during  tension  on a v a r i e t y o f g e n e r a l  A review of the psychology l i t e r a t u r e  were compared w i t h  (Knutson,  ( D o l l a r d & Mowrer, 1947),  1980; Runyan, 1982; B r i s l i n ,  been a p p l i e d t o p o l a r  s c i e n c e , e.g.  methods o f m e a s u r i n g  a n a l y s i s has been c o n d u c t e d  analysis.  involved  i n many a r e a s o f s o c i a l  i n w r i t t e n documents d e v e l o p e d  (Krippendorf,  a n a l y s i s and t h e  a n a l y s i s of a v a r i e t y of w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s i s  W e t h e r e l e t a l . 1983). U s i n g  content  involved i n  of D i a r i e s  a common p r o c e d u r e used political  literature  personal  The r e s u l t s  collected  b e f o r e and  The  authors concluded that personal n a r r a t i v e s  p e r s o n a l i t y assessments i n d e p e n d e n t l y from  yielded  remarkably c o n s i s t e n t w i t h those d e r i v e d  i n t e r v i e w s and o b s e r v a t i o n s ( p .  One o f t h e i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t s o f t h i s s t u d y c o n c e r n s range  of d i v e r g e n t responses  205).  t h e wide  t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s e x p r e s s when f a c e d  w i t h t h e same e v e n t . T h i s f a c t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c o n t e n t o f narratives  ( e . g . G r a n and C h e r r y - G a r r a r d ) a r e h i g h l y  and  because of t h i s t h e r e i s d i s t o r t i o n  and  n a r r a t i v e of the past events  3.2  The used  Review of Research  m e a s u r e s used  subjective,  i n both the p e r c e p t i o n  (Taylor et a l . i b i d ) .  Measures  i n t h i s s t u d y were c h o s e n b e c a u s e t h e y had been  i n p r e v i o u s p o l a r s t u d i e s and a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e  p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d , e.g..  environmental  s t r e s s , a r o u s a l and p e r c e p t i o n . The domains o f p e r s o n a l i t y , e n v i r o n m e n t a l p e r c e p t i o n , a f f e c t i o n , community b e h a v i o u r and s o c i a l s t r e s s a r e a n a l y z e d as t h e y a p p l y t o t h e p o l a r a r e a s .  48  Personality  Measures  Personality  i s a widely  behaviour  at polar  sites.  researchers  indicate  personality  during  (Schultz, Shurley,  period  Antarctic Hogan easy  (1984).  been  adjustment  level  need  Others  changes  Some  in Antarctic  1962; T a y l o r , have  occur.  (Wright  isolation  1969; T a y l o r  emphasized  These  two  &  an  conclusions  e t a l . 1967; A l d a s h e v a ,  of i n d i v i d u a l  as i n d i c a t o r s  other  results,  i s a function  for social  foci.  o r no c h a n g e o f  differences  of adjustment  s u c c e s s f u l l y demonstrated  Among  psychological  changes.  assessments  have  of a tour  the result  of p e r s o n a l i t y  Personality  is little  inconsistent  and a r e perhaps  instead  there  1984).  i n which  of  a r e two m a j o r  & Gunderson,  1971, P a t e r s o n ,  area  There  the period  not n e c e s s a r i l y  1984),  that  1958, F o r d  adaptation are  investigated  by B i e r s n e r  the authors  of narrow  t o the  suggest  & that  i n t e r e s t s and a low  stimulation.  Anxiety  State study,  of anxiety state  personality  i s not considered  and t r a i t  anxiety  (Spielberger,  a personality  are reviewed  1966).  49  under  trait.  For this  the f i e l d  of  The  trait-state  less et  attention  al.  with  nervous  anxiety  expected.  (STAI,  expeditionary  (1984),  inventory  h a s shown  increased  significantly  (Spielberger, from  The  Generally,  found  high  research  with  subjects.  examining  event with  which  induces  and  In and  trait  two s h i p s  an a n x i e t y  in  response  anxiety  in stressful  1976).  field  two  aboard  for state  increases  in stress  l e v e l s of anxiety  low l e v e l s o f s t a t e  1 9 6 6 ) when  have  events  Anxiety  state  results  tension,  while  anxiety  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which  and E x t r a v e r t  studies  i s unaffected  by  personality Under  on i s o l a t e d A n t a r c t i c  1964; P o l d o l y a n ,  disturbances  of mid-winter  and l e v e l s of s o c i a l low p o l a r  individuals  are less  quiet,  introverted  more  Types  conducted  1971; P a l m a i ,  psychological  1971).  In the  Taylor  situational stress.  Introvert  (Bundzen,  of the m i s s i o n .  the scores  condition  is a personality  transitory  increase  1966, 1976; L a z a r u s ,  a temporary  trait  that  received  an  in a stressful  Conversely,  found  have  environments,  of expeditionary  Spielberger, groups  Antarctic.  t o above,  (1984) measured  i n a group  Mocellin  and a n x i e t y  In l a b o r a t o r y  i n the length  McCormick  fatigue  addition,  of s t r e s s  as r e f e r r e d  increase  situation,  the  than  (1968),  an  measures  successful  season  individuals  depend  adaptation  (Strange  that  the  on  (Ventsenostev,  stimulation,  in their  50  1971) i n d i c a t e  stimulation  environmental  groups  extraverted process  & Youngman,  than  1971).  The on  latter  type  performance  findings  seemed  to  concerning that  the  polar  s i t u a t i o n , but  these more  not  and  from  the  based showed  motor  Campbell  &  predicted  (1985) s t a t e s in  their  inner  own  attention experience were types  the  clarity world.  towards the  constructed (Jung,  the  world on  who  analogue  and  lack  of  withdrawal results  (Eisenck  Diespecker,  view  is  introverts concepts are  offered  indicators  but  by  individuals  and  ideas,  people  to  understand  basis  of  Jung's  by  not  to  Myers  are  order  1973;  the  1975).  interpreted  environment  in  introverted  & Eisenck,  as  subjects  non-volunteers  &  that  for be  extravert-introvert  Another  51  data,  to  might  repetition,  are  (Francis  1921/1971).  responsible  and  As  better  extraverts  by  (ibid)  introverted  self-exploration  sociability  of  more  in  suggest  external  the  that  volunteers  Extraverts  in  adapt  scores  the  Buzden  found  using  dimension  that  factor  strategies  ibid).  with  Extravert-introvert  interests  the  induced  1969).  (1987),  was  Briggs  be  environments  extent  The  Coping  between  correlate  that  could  studies  individuals  type  higher with  adaptation,  introvert  boredom  Francis,  Heller  the  achieve  i n t e r e s t i n g l y , becomes  (Smith,  deprivation 1973;  and  restlessness,  difference  Francis,  Consistent  does  the  laboratory  no  sensory  to  situation  on  1984).  (1981) c o n c l u d e d  monotony.  daydreaming,  (Kay,  Boredom  Smith  susceptible  novelty  only  winter.  changes.  and  introversion  shown  the  better  appraisals  has  during  adapt  with  emphasising  that  and  focus  need  of  their  to  i t . These  theory  &  dimensions  psychological  P e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of e x t r a v e r s i o n interact  with sensation  Extraverts, levels  f o r example,  seeking  t y p e s and  increased  of s t i m u l a t i o n . C o n v e r s e l y ,  situations  which a r e  because t h e s e 1979). F o r  characterized  i n d i v i d u a l s are  the  The  arousal  by  levels  later  p r o p o s e d by  s e e k e r s as  level  has  argued  by  sensation low  high  i n t r o v e r t s might s e a r c h by  low  l e v e l s of  s t u d y the  for  stimulation  (Zuckerman,  Myers & B r i g g s  (1985)  utilized.  novel  of a r o u s a l .  that  by  the  seekers  This  jumping and  defines  search  for  s i t u a t i o n s to maintain argument was  Zuckerman  h i g h - r i s k and  not  high their  supported  intense  novel  (sensory  s t i m u l a t i o n and  scuba d i v i n g ) .  52  in a  (1983).  experiences  preferred  i n v o l v e s a wide range of a c t i v i t i e s ,  l e v e l s of s t i m u l a t i o n  environments) to  Zuckerman i n 1979  p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s who  study conducted  He  very  theory  of s t i m u l a t i o n and  optimal  seeking  c h r o n i c a l l y aroused  p u r p o s e of t h i s  levels.  Seeking T r a i t s  arousal  sensation  introversion  arousal  c o n c e p t s of e x t r a v e r s i o n - i n t r o v e r s i o n a r e  Sensation  and  from  deprivation arousal  (parachute-  According  t o Zuckerman's f i n d i n g s , t h e  a high sensation  seeker  i n d i v i d u a l performance  of  i s a f f e c t e d under monotonous s t i m u l a t i o n  as compared t o low s e n s a t i o n  seekers,  but  not  i n a g r o u p of  two  or more s u b j e c t s .  Arousal  L e v e l s , Sleep  and  Dreams  A v a r i e t y of s t r e s s o r s are  important  t o a r o u s a l and  i n a c o g n i t i v e - o r i e n t e d approach. S t r e s s o r s f a c t o r s s u c h as e x p o s u r e t o l o u d n o i s e , work c y c l e s  (Akersdet  disturbances.  Sanford  i t s causes  i n c l u d e a v a r i e t y of  l o s s of s l e e p ,  & G i l b e r g , 1981a,b) and  circadian cycle  (1985) s u g g e s t e d t h a t s t r e s s o r s  d i r e c t l y a f f e c t arousal,e.g.  clearly  l o s s of s l e e p and  r e l e v a n t t o the coping  According  t o some s t u d i e s  can  sleep loss decreases arousal,  a r o u s a l v a r i e s as a f u n c t i o n of t h e c i r c a d i a n r h y t h m those s t r e s s o r s , the  shift-  (Popkin  (p. 83).  circadian cycles  process i n  and Of  are  isolation.  e t a l . , 1974;  Dubbels, 1984),  l o s s of s l e e p or i n s o m n i a r e m a i n s i n d e p e n d e n t o f c i r c a d i a n c y c l e s , as e x e m p l i f i e d by e x t r e m e v a r i a t i o n s i n l i g h t (photocycle the  as r e f e r r e d t o a b o v e ) , and  isolation  itself.  53  may  conditions  result directly  from  Similar  to  findings  absence  of  natural  not  appear  to  light  affect  hormone  with  Arendt,  1987]).  Sleep  i n submarines  the  disturbances  may  be  to  decreases  laboratory  by  Blake  submarines  have  (Weybrew  to  a  of  shown  the  & Noddin,  crew  [Dubbels,  of  levels  the  as  (a  human  1984,  Broadway  environmental can  be  observed  conducted  in  length  mission  resulting  the  A n t a r c t i c does  melatonin  disturbances  Studies that  i n the  variety  in arousal  (1971).  also  of  capacity  due  diving-chambers,  periods  s t r e s s o r s . These  attributed  motivation  long  production  sleep-inducing  non-environmental  the  for  and  of  in sleep  &  and  also in  nuclear decreases  disturbances  1979).  Dreams  The been  content part  Rivers  dreams  scientific  of  dreaming  this  this  general  allows  historical,  of  remembered  conflict  into  that  are  subjected  but  existing  subject  (Breger, extends  blending roots,  1921  f e a r s and  the  topic  view,  f o r the  people  inquiry since  desires, often  treatment  accepts  aroused  the  (1923) h y p o t h e s i z e d  repressed recent  of  of  and  of  a  for  54  unconscious, a  Hunter the  dream.  1921).  A  more  & Lane,  conflict  1971) that with  i n t e g r a t i o n of symbolic  has  even  hypothesis  current  sometimes  isolation  (Priestley,  of  the  to  the  solutions.  its  The  ongoing  (Rapid theme  Eye of  conflict  dream  Baekeland  (1970)  events  a  by REM  dream  by  be  of  important  finding,  i n c r e a s e d i n amount  deprived  of  certain  are  during  worked  REM  into  of  the  content  1985).  a  previous fact  the  Baekeland  with  suggests  i n c r e a s e of  lucidity  components  known that  This  was  a t h l e t e s * , when d e p r i v e d REM  h y p o t h e s i s can  and  day's  well  drive-discharge function.  an  a  effects  dream  conducted  they displayed this  solutions  the  (LaBerge,  experiments  exercise, basis  emphasized  researchers an  memories  content.  n i g h t ' s s l e e p and  s l e e p has  shown  related  Movement) s l e e p and  the  on  activates  be  when  activity. stated;  the  dreams  individuals  (e.g. water)  On  in their  of  have  would been  waking  hours.  Attempting Yellen  to  explain  (1987) have  processed,  i n an  hallucinations,  dreams  suggested  attempt  to  that  emotional  of  visual  and  of  these  episodes.  emotional (Seligman  are  c o n s t r u c t e d , Seligman  dreams  integrate  unrelated to  generated  two  how  one In  episodes & Yellen,  55  a  are  their and  cognitively  series  another,  with  view,  the  of  visual  internally  the  dream  cognitive  1987, p . l ) .  &  consists  integration  Perceptual  Imagery but  phenomena  data  1983,  is  scholar round  than to  related  a basis  significant  Lugg  an event  to unusual  other  than  t o cope  while  with  with  a  person  hazardous the  first  i n an A n t a r c t i c  (1987) have  year-  reviewed  i n general  presence  has  i s the  another  1 9 7 7 ) was  environments  of coping  imagery  r e s e a r c h . That  (1973,  The s e n s e d  associated  rather  phenomenon  behaviours  the  seems  in certain  situations.  of the review  a powerful  however,  settings.  i n a range  1979, 1980,  shown  or p e r c e p t i o n t h a t  the observer  ones.  investigated,  stimuli.  i n polar  Suedfeld & Mocellin  only the polar  unusual  is  in polar  expedition.  have  Most  help  t o document such  phenomenon  1979) have  to real  attention  (the f e e l i n g  p r e s e n t a n d may  situation)  (Barabasz,  p e r c e p t u a l phenomenon  little  presence  are not well  and h y p n o t i z a b i l i t y ,  i n EEG a m p l i t u d e s  received  sensed  & Gregson,  in suggestibility  interesting  also  settings  i n the A n t a r c t i c  1984; B a r a b a s z  reduction  One  i n polar  collected  increases a  Image  argue  sufficient  on t h e l i t e r a t u r e  indicates  component f o r t h e phenomenon. that  human o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l  e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e phenomenon.  56  that  Suedfeld stress  human &  does  stress  Mocellin, not  offer  Environmental  A  central  and S o c i a l  component  relationships human  of t h i s  of the polar  branch  study,  controls,  with  McCormick  within  et a l .  relationships in  environment  affective  conducted  a stressful test  cognitive  part  regions  studies.  of  i s an  A well  designed  & McCormick  (1985),  a landmark f o r  environment  measures  performance,  on  a n d human  stress  symptomatology,  and b e h a v i o u r a l  change  conducted.  the greater  stress  groups,  as measured  b y t h e amount  field  psychologist,  psychometric stress  symptoms  coping  McCormick  et a l .  affected  found.  as measured  (1985),  of repression.  Nelson  (1964),  arguing  differences Subjects'  They that  own  observed across  their  repression  instruments.  on i n d i v i d u a l  included  argument  a  to  great  On G u n d e r s o n  (and t h e r e f o r e  m e a s u r e s ) was a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f A n t a r c t i c  57  denoted  s i t u a t i o n . According  strategies  based  based  by a  a l l the  reports  by the p s y c h o m e t r i c  to the f i e l d these  the experimental  of s t r e s s o r s  by the a u t h o r s  applied  amount  stress  were  was g i v e n  strategies  which  no s i g n i f i c a n t  measures  One e x p l a n a t i o n  on  i n polar  by T a y l o r  Despite  low  as an a c t i v e  (1985) c o n s t i t u t e s  between  changes,  stress  behavioural  the A n t a r c t i c . Repeated  were  d i s s e r t a t i o n i s t o examine t h e  s t r e s s . Environmental  undeveloped  and  Stress  low  &  scores  life.  Reviewing that  the paper  the 'repression'  without which  Once  the strong  makes  more,  their  would  emphasis  another  demands  sophisticated  stressful  When  activates  environmental  reasons  f o r wide  identical  threatened  the  responses  stressors  tend  that,  over  (Lazarus  In t h e i r  of an u n d e s i r a b l e  a second  aimed  appraisal i s  aspects  This  of the  perception  of  & Folkman,  1984).  to explain the  i n responses to  the greater  the s e v e r i t y of  the a n t i c i p a t o r y of cues  The a b i l i t y  to individual  58  judging  at reducing  as a consequence  t o be r e l a t e d  there i s  the setting,  (1987) a t t e m p t e d  event).  in this  and coping  1966; L a z a r u s  the greater  & Cohen, 1987)  to potentially  stressors.  view,  with  argument,  and t h e t h r e a t e n i n g  mechanisms  are given,  stress  stress  individual differences  event,  seems  1983; Evans  to appraise  After  suggested  e t a l (1985),  i n coping  a r e exposed  & Neufeld  stressors.  the  nearness  coping  Paterson  & Baum,  noted  misleading.  i n explaining  control  threats  clearly  on g e n e r a l  they  t h e danger  situation,providing  Recently,  view  i t was  i t by McCormick  to the 'repression'  of s t r e s s o r s .  made, w e i g h t i n g  danger  (Singer  (1964),  superficially  of the i n d i v i d u a l  individuals  situations,  severity  was o n l y  given  element  In contrast  strategies.  & Nelson  interpretation  be a p o w e r f u l  analysis.  argument  the a b i l i t y  environmental  the  of Gunderson  stress  (when  i n d i c a t i n g the  and t o respond t o  differences.  Community  Behaviour  Motivation  There  are  polar  settings.  areas  rather  and  the  has  been  few  as  which have  working  beautiful the  than  to  studies  the  Antarctic are  shown  that  of  a  a  free  first  and  opportunities  as  an  or  repelling  to  a  need  a t t r a c t i n g force  darkness,  factors  in addition  to  the  the  from  as  low  to  high  research  the  the  new  in working  He  Canada  of job  adventure, for  the  conditions, Lotz  depersonalization  also  costs  et  of  advancement.  urban  or  Nickels  northern  call  a  reason  zone.  of  mentions  temperatures  living  perception  availability  young,  move N o r t h .  such  polar  occupational  escape  as  remote  northern  i n which  here  life,  improvements  to to  fields  either  of  in  Motivation,  attractiveness  for  for  behaviour  circumpolar  ones.  outdoor  job  wages,  the  is defined  consist  higher  (1970) r e f e r s  the  to  main  a t t r a c t s people  unemployed, greater  the  Motivation  landscape,  community  related  environment  provision  of  are  life  conducted.  (1976) a  Most  q u a l i t y of  influence al.  relevant  and  and  lack  negative  seasonal of  urban  amenities.  In and  the  Antarctic,  performance  motivational  criteria  as  studies  part  59  of  a  were set  of  linked  to  clinical  adaptation measures.  Positively-motivated improvement  and  perform  better  Nardini  et  the  the in  individuals challenge  their  a l . 1972).  desire  to  escape  jobs  of in  (financial  reward,  an  experience)  isolation  Occasionally from  unusual  (Gunderson,  personnel  familial  or  professional  are  marital  seem  to  1973;  motivated  problems  by  (Palinka,  1985).  Behavioural  The  Setting  Behavioural  recording during  a  the  Setting total  specific  comprised  of  behaviour  time  events  business,  appearance,  physical  and  Behavioural  social Setting  observation,  and  to  use.  the  ten  days'  next  of  period.  grouped  aesthetics,  religion  Technique  education,  contact.  The  observing  individual in a  the  following  government,  The  original  required  (1977) a d a p t e d  specific  a  procedures  chapter.  60  categories:  year  of  be  the  of  technique  will  personal  recreation,  version  the  place  are  nutrition,  full  and  given  patterns  professionalism,  Technique  Bechtel  an  of  Behavioural  under  health,  consists  to  a  discussed  week in  Perception  and Q u a l i t y  Perception  and t h e q u a l i t y  analyzed between as  by N i c k e l s levels  indicated  Mathieson  settings,  of l i f e  i n remote  e t a l . (1976a).  by t h e t i m e  that  are important  people  that  that  camps  without  less  satisfaction  Lack  of adequate  than  an  full  (Siemens,  1973).  among  Siemens  mental  home-makers  of a l i e n a t i o n ,  community  and  p r o s p e c t i v e m i g r a t i o n found  and  southern  residents  of four  contrast, suggests  the lack  stress  as  no  of j o b  i n remote females  extreme  depression,  e t a l . (1971),  satisfaction,  mining  61  In  experienced  symptoms  no d i f f e r e n c e  Canada.  i n remote  and s i n g l e  especially  and p r o m i s c u i t y . Jackson  recreation  camps  with  of community  problems  time,  camps.  when c o m b i n e d  defined these  health  mining  facilities  facilities  association  the winter  and  of the year.  recreation  were  indoors.  of l i f e  isolated  t o symptoms  particularly  alcoholism  on f o u r  recreation,  leads  spend  to the q u a l i t y  major  settings,  loneliness,  found  entertainment  r e g a r d l e s s of the season  opportunities,  They  settings  o f a n x i e t y and d e p r e s s i o n d u r i n g  (1969) a n a l y s i s  measures  Life  (1970) s u g g e s t e d  facilities  Cram's  of  using  past  between  communities  migration northern  located  in  Familial  Adaptation  Few s t u d i e s assessment (Spanier, George  couples  The  Three  2.  highly  purpose  similar  polar  she s t u d i e d  She c o n c l u d e d  performance  dyads  example  i s g i v e n by  a s m a l l mixed that  and e f f e c t i v e  group  " t h e two working  on a n  male-female teams" as  o f t h e two s i n g l e  of t h i s  thesis  circumstances  environments  males.  physical cold  to discover  i n the A r c t i c of  response  were  differences  to significantly  was  responses  r e g a r d i n g human  Cross-cultural  performance  a r e a s . One m i n o r  environmental  hypotheses  photocycles,  and s i m i l a r  and t h e  Questions  environmental  Such  on d y a d i c a d j u s t m e n t ,  of marriage  stable  t o the poor  separated  lead  expedition.  principal  induce  1.  i n which  Research  similar  conducted  1976) i n p o l a r  were  compared  been  of the q u a l i t y  (1984),  Antarctic  3.3  have  variables  and wind  a negative  o f human  Antarctic  subjects.  to these  widely  experimental  groups  results.  environmental have  and  developed:  among p o l a r  different  whether  groups.  62  as s e a s o n a l impact  upon  overall  3.  The d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e r e s p o n s e s o f men  the  e n v i r o n m e n t a r e more p r o n o u n c e d  urban s e t t i n g s .  63  i n polar  and women t o  s e t t i n g s than i n  CHAPTER  This  4.  chapter  design.  Two  historical original field  deals  component  phase  the procedures  of the study,  while  of data  by t h i s  the second  collection,  refers  i . e . the content refers  research  to the analysis  of  to the contemporary  i.e, polar  experimental  and  Analysis  explorer  diaries  have  biographers  who  experiences  and a t t i t u d e s .  biographical systematic mainly  adopted  groups.  Content  Polar  with  s e c t i o n s a r e d e s c r i b e d . The f i r s t  diaries,  control  4.1.  METHOD  analyze  been  studied primarily  the events These  of explorers'  published  m a t e r i a l are not usually  or a n a l y t i c  account  lives,  versions  of polar  written to provide  of events.  as n a r r a t i v e s f o r p u b l i c  by  Instead  consumption  of  they  a  serve  experienced  events.  In  an attempt  environment material Century  t o determine  occurred,  of s e l e c t e d Arctic  1856;  Nares,  1917;  Byrd,  Huntford,  what  human  responses  t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l and b i o g r a p h i c a l members  and l e a d e r s  and A n t a r c t i c  expeditions  1878; W i l s o n ,  of 1 9 t h and was  1902, 1911; S c o t t ,  1938; C h e r r y - G a r r a r d ,  1980,  to the  1985).  64  20th  examined 1913;  1952; S i l v e r b e r g ,  (Kane,  Shackleton, 1966;  Emotional  and  expeditions  Following British in  the  social  was  this  Navy's  behaviour  of  the  members  of  past  identified.  phase,  the  interest  discovery  of  the  sources  of  in northern Northwest  data  were  polar  identified.  travel  Passage  and  was  in  The  primarily  scientific  research.  As  a  major  naval  countries, Antarctic of the  and  the  diaries  British  of  also  polar  of  the  University  of  Cambridge  examination  of  a  The  Scott  wide  S e l e c t i o n of  the  Diaries  The  s e l e c t i o n of  the  diaries  the  SPRI,  and  was  influenced  Research was  of  for of  content  what  institution.  65  the  analysis original  main  and  selection is  from  material  (SPRI), site  in  was  at  the  for  material.  a n a l y s i s was  material  Arctic  Manuscripts  Institute the  other  the  biographical polar  for by  most  L i b r a r y and  (England),  The  at  The  over  Therefore,  availability  of  lead  conducted  period.  Polar  range  the  expeditions  considered.  Collection  took  navy  in this  experience.  was  Britain  British  expeditions  original  English  power,  completed  available  at  The  -  choice  length  the  was  also  based  of the e x p e d i t i o n  phases  departure  i.e. at least  of the expedition from  the polar  A preliminary  reading  at  significant  least  upon t h e f o l l o w i n g :  four  (departure  two from  years port  away, a n d until  environment).  of the d i a r i e s phases  indicated  within  that  the period  there  were  of a  voyage:  (i)  The A b o a r d  voyage  after  phase  refers  to the f i r s t  the expedition  had s a i l e d  two  from  months  of the  the port  of  departure. (ii)  The A r r i v a l  expedition  after  (iii)  The M i d d l e  winter  period.  (iv) to two  phase  i t sarrival of Winter  the Departure  the departure cases,  where  3 to 6 years, noted  that  continuously  phase  the f i r s t  on t h e  refers  two  t o t h e two  of the e x p e d i t i o n  the expeditions the winter  had a  phase  of the accounts  were  documented.  66  months  of the  site.  r e f e r r e d t o t h e two  or r e l i e f  only  some  comprises  was  long  months w i t h i n  month from  period  incomplete  prior  the s i t e .  duration  coded.  the  In  period^ i . e .  I t should or not  be  Considering  these  4.1).  Of  these  (i.e.  T.  Gran's)  published coding  limitations,  original was  version  of a ship  eliminated  the  lower  number  To  data for  from  only  a book  Another  were  one  selected  Antarctic  which  was  exception  by L e i g h - S m i t h .  the s t a t i s t i c a l  the  (Table  diary first  involved  However,  analysis  the  this log  because  of  citations.  ^nd B e h a v i o u r a l Dimensions  analysis  of r e f e r e n c e s  i t was  necessary  material  to both  to review  and d e t e r m i n e  environment  and  the  categories  social-  response.  process  was  h e a v i l y dependent  of the author,  i n the r e s u l t s .  solutions  was  presented  upon t h e judgment  indeed,  was  the b i a s ,  to the research  Environmental  discussion  and c o n s e n s u s ,  to  and  To r e d u c e  Restricted  reduced  from  the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l  experience bias  from  the content  the types  personal  This  of  Categories  perform  coded  log, written  later  4,1,1.  materials,  in English.  was  13 d i a r i e s  Stimulation the f i n a l  forty-six.  67  i n danger a range  group  of the  Laboratory. number  of  On  and of p o t e n t i a l structured UBC the basis  of c a t e g o r i e s  was  of  TABLE 4.1 THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC EXPLORERS EXPEDITIONS AND NUMBER OF YEARS Explorers ARCTIC  Expeditions  Number of Years  Adams  Telegraph Western  1 (1865-7)  Jaackson  Jaackson Expedition  3 (1894-7)  Lelgh-Smlth  'Eire,' Fifth Arot. Voyage  1 (1881-2)  Nares  Nares Arotio Exped.  1 (1875-6)  Smith  Telegraph Western  2 (1865-7)  Steffanson Exped.  6 (1906-12)  Steffanson  ANTARCTIC Bernaoohi  British Antarotlo 'Southern Cross' Exped.  2 (1898-1900)  British Antarotio Expedition 'Terra Nova'  2 (1910-13)  British Antarctic Expedition "Terra Nova'  2 (1910-13)  Orde-Lees  British Imperial Trans. Expedition 'Enduranoe'  1 (1915-16)  Soott  British Antarotio Expedition "Terra Nova'  2 (1910-12)  Spencer-Smith  British Imperial Trans. Expedition "Aurora'  1 (1914-16)  Worsley  British Imperial Trans. Expedition 'Endurance*  2 (1914-18)  Cherry-Garrard Gran  68  Examples  of the eliminated  perceptual  phenomena  hallucinations were: made  to phrases  entries. wind of  These  and dark  when  exploration, serenity.  statements,  insights  the  referred  pleasure  at a given  pleasant  feeling  Sensitivity awareness  grandeur  were  s e l f - e s t e e m and of  these  when  the writer  including  self-  of the w r i t e r ' s  and group  own  activities.  i n execution  of  when  Personal  tasks  or the w r i t e r .  when t h e e n t r y  task,  while  of peace  to physical  experienced  symptoms  S e l f - d i s c i p l i n e was c o d e d  to the l i m i t a t i o n s  was c o d e d  cold,  as a g u i d e l i n e f o r  was c o d e d  nature,  named  self-  autonomy,  implication  to the regulations  by t h e l e a d e r  Self-esteem  and  growth.  of  aspects of  were  units  and headache  was p r o v i d e d  i n r e l a t i o n to the tasks referred  effects  feelings  personal  references  as coding  psychological  of a p h i l o s o p h i c a l  and p e r s o n a l  autonomy  sleep  self-exploration  appraisal  where  the d i r e c t  a d e f i n i t i o n of each  denoted  imposed  effects,  of the subjective  F o r example,  conduct  categories  denoted  self-discipline,  coding.  entry  The  fatigue,  the entries  Because  (see Appendix).  paragraphs,  ( i i ) Positive  i n the physical  concerned  on a p p e t i t e ,  mostly  and  environmental  entries  were  visual, auditory  dreams  and e v e n t u a l l y  the d i a r i s t s ,  identified  area^e.g,  and l u c i d  ( i )P h y s i c a l  categories  serenity  pervaded  stimuli  referred  was r e c o r d e d  the writer's  was r e l a t e d  by t h e e x p l o r e r s  of a polar  landscape.  69  to f e e l i n g s of when a  emotions, ( i i i )  to l e v e l s of  facing  the magnificence  This  entry  related  environment^ when  (iv)  musical  psychological anxiety,  group  recitals  effects  members  boredom,  a paragraph  anxiety  i n most  cases  conditions  rather  some  the phrase  cases  threatening coded  when a s i m i l a r  always  monotonous..."  phenomena  included  experiences analysed  A vivid  coded  dream i t s  when  mentioned  Sensed  was  coded  content  the entries  presence  helped  was  or f e e l i n g the w r i t e r  that  to the i c e  of the i n d i v i d u a l .  general  fears.  Boredom  entered..."  In  life  nothing  was  t o do, i t  (vi) Perceptual  or transcendental phenomena.  Dreams  were  and v i v i d n e s s .  the writer recognized  and d e s c r i b e d  coded  F o r example,  to  content  conveyed  o f words and  linked  presence  when  God o r a S u p e r i o r  perception  was  (RTE) and sensed  units.  denoted  decline,  was  (Cherry-Garrard),  to their  motivation  state  dreams, r e l i g i o u s  according  recalled  and o t h e r  identified  Negative  t o be r e l a t e d  anxious"  phrase  was  when d i a r y e n t r i e s  the coding  the emotional  situations  (v)  hygiene,  were  " I am  stimuli  The s u b j e c t i v e e l e m e n t  appeared  than  of the n a t u r a l  interacted socially in  considered  of a l e r t n e s s or apathy. within  to social  and l e c t u r e s ,  were  irritability,  phrases  have  to the perception  Sensitivity  the e x p e d i t i o n a r y  parties,  lack  mostly  i t in detail.  spiritual  t h e dream,  R T E was  thoughts  also  which  Force.  when  references  another  t o cope w i t h  70  person  were was  made  to the  present  a hazardous  that  situation.  may  is  The  Content  The  categories  feeling For  of the  displayed  dimension  example,  Categories  with  boredom  a pair  of words;  opposite  each  directions  was d i v i d e d  into  pair  along  showed  a  the continuum.  'boredom',  'no e f f e c t ' a n d  'stimulation . 1  When t h e w r i t e r  mentioned  specifically  affected  by boredom,  negative  d i r e c t i o n ; when t h e s u b j e c t  to  a f e e l i n g of monotony  was  affected  effect.  i.e.  Frequency-count of  occurrence  meaning It  and A r o u s a l  analysis  o f words  located  was a s s u m e d  could  offer  event  revealing  drinking,  from  i nthe reference  stating  as having  by e n t r i e s  t h e boredom  that  he no  which  situation,  and w r i t i n g  letters.  Values  phrases  the frequency  a representative  'boredom'  contextual  to i d e n t i f y the frequency leading  i n o n e o f t h e 45 c a t e g o r i e s that  being  was c o n s i d e r e d  reading  was e m p l o y e d  within  as  he was  but without  the entry  of withdrawal  singing,  Pleasantness  made  d i r e c t i o n was d e t e r m i n e d  any form  walking,  was c o d e d  or boredom  by t h e event,  Positive  explained  The  the entry  that  to a  as i n d i c a t e d  of references  measure  certain above.  to certain  of the magnitude  words  of the  the i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the writer.  71  Eighty-seven satisfied,  words  were  misery,  identified  alarming.  within  These  words  phrases  within the areas  diarist  r e f e r e n c e . To o b t a i n a mean  to  100  i n pleasantness  students  analysis within  data  The l o w e s t  arousal  was  allowed  a close  the  Arctic  4.2  The P o l a r  This  section  then  the averaged  64.68  value  and  ranging  from  rated  Experimental  addresses  to the content  replaced means  t h e words (%)  were  of e x p e d i t i o n s and p o l a r for pleasantness  ( % ) . The l o w e s t was  was  percentual  70.98.  of the degree  This  14.25  (%)  value f o r  procedure  of i n t e n s i t y  of  writer in  Groups  the general  issues related  of the experimental The f i e l d  and A r c t i c  field  t o the order  (reverse  t h e phase  72  to the  and t h e o p e r a t i o n a l segment  the t r a n s l a t i o n  phases that  groups  or contemporary  i n two p h a s e s ,  0  t h e words  Antarctic.  was d i v i d e d  refers  t o each  Psychology  transferred  mean v a l u e  by phases  mean  using  This  identification  of the study.  Antarctic  text,  percent  from  and a r o u s a l w i t h i n t h e c a t e g o r i e s by e a c h  characteristics  Arctic  was  selected  The s t u d e n t s  then  48.48 a n d t h e h i g h e s t  pleasantness  study  were  (see Appendix).  the highest  phases  values  and c a l c u l a t e d  explorers.  value  and a r o u s a l , a t e s t  the the o r i g i n a l  combined  and  and t h e s e  were  and c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g  a s s u b j e c t s was c o n d u c t e d .  accordingly  the categories,e.g.  phase  of A n t a r c t i c was  of  this  and t h e and  conducted).  Difficulties phases  of various  of the research  Distinctions were  considered.  Arctic  groups  civilian  Atmospheric (Canada). support  (Mould  unit  polar  ina l l  comprised  sample  of the National  group  were  Directorate  (Marambio and  personnel  staff  Department  groups, the  of Canadian  ones  military  t o permanent  Service,  and n a t i o n a l i t y  experimental  and t h e A n t a r c t i c  belonged  The s o u t h e r n  experienced  background  of Argentinian  Environment  been  mentioned.  the four  (N=16);  sample  have  Bay and E u r e k a )  comprised  northern  were  which  on o c c u p a t i o n a l  Among  employees  Esperanza) The  based  sorts  (N=39).  of the  of Environment  part  of the  logistical  of A n t a r c t i c  (Argentina).  The  Translation  Phase  Because  of these  cross-cultural differences, particularly in  idioms,  a l l the research  instruments,  questionnaires,  psychological  were  from  not  translated available  Fifteen  from  research  questionnaires, available English  English  tests  i.e.  and u n s t r u c t u r e d  to Spanish,  s p e c i a l i z e d sources  tools, were  i n Spanish  standardized  when  Of t h e s e ,  only  i n the equivalent  versions.  73  the material  was  i n Spanish.  i.e. psychological  used.  interviews,  t e s t s and s i x instruments  forms  were  to the o r i g i n a l  The  remaining  professional language for  tests  equivalence,  a group  subjects  which  presented  interpretation  o f words  related This and  to items  problem  Spielberger  second was  method,  Versions  group  worked  translated  received on t h e i r  their  interchanged form  was  in  with  different  'feeling  their  final  to a professional i n psychometric  fluent  I t i s convenient  in Spanish  research  phases  and  material.  an  74  was  a  1970),  given  that  while  After  in a  i s ,a the  each  second  group  versions  had  were  produced.  This  translator  were  that  research.  the t e s t s  already  the author  indispensable  behavioural  were  Fortunately,  ones,  t o mention  English,  of t h i s  test  bilingual  as t h e p e r s o n a l i t y and a n x i e t y  Spanish.  in English  of each  (in English).  (Brislin,  the Spanish-English  form  particularly  e t a l . (1971)  subjects;  i n Spanish.  i n South  difficulty,  and E n g l i s h  versions  versions  this  procedure  to the b i l i n g u a l  subjects  i n the  by S p i e l b e r g e r  i n Spanish  cross-  countries  language  To s o l v e  to a  chosen.  connotations'  in idiomatic  (1972).  versions,  and a  sent  specializing such  order  bilingual  a d d i t i o n a l problems  emphasized  & Sharma  counterbalanced group  also  from  sent  establish  t r a n s l a t i o n were  the b a c k - t r a n s l a t i o n  attempted.  first  of v o l u n t e e r  came  expressed  was  t r a n s l a t i o n were  t r a n s l a t o r . To  the preliminary  bilingual  America,  required  English-Spanish  answering  These  which  tool  available is  for a l l  the  Once  the  translation  completed, covering  a  work  items  with  by  human by  each  this  phase  Antarctic  The  field  the  author's  It  was  phase  any  Division  of  Permission  UBC, the  was  of  a  of  form  were  The  consent  form  was  of  to  the  the  initiated  this  at  with  the  procedures  some read  of  the  and  principal  translation  phase  as  well  sites.  the  the  granted  Antarctic  Antarctic  association  Department  of  would which  of  External and  later  in their  sites.  However,  logistical  the  necessary  permission  Affairs  Chile,  other  are  by  of  caused  constraints,  site),  were  Chilean site  from  75  the  causes  of  to by  including  at  main  Academic  Canada.  (e.g. r e s e a r c h p e r m i s s i o n the  was  the  nature  the  channels  Argentina,  problems  of  countries.  S t u d i e s , from  by  and  Treaty  because  facilitate  Research  Graduate  sites  social  the  a  Phase  Faculty  mail  commander  withdrawal  consent  returned  of  by  investigators,  a  research project.  research  questions  project,  beginning  accompanied  was  English.  d i p l o m a t i c procedures  international  Base  that  Antarctic by  and  letter.  acquaintance  thought  requested  conduct  was  research procedures  prepared,  the  i n each  Field  international to  of  s u b j e c t and  as  The  the  s u b j e c t s and  i n the  field  of was  in Spanish  investigator the  tests  description  covered  signed  of  letter  A detailed of  set  phase  from  the  research design.  the  The  Antarctic  field  phase  at  conducted  during  three  weeks  April  May  1986.  An  and  utilized control  at  of  Buenos  Aires  Arctic  Field  Phase  The  Arctic  field  phase  of  had  isolation,  personnel  permission  was  early  sites,  southern  period  of  was winter  twenty  f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  required a  to  have  and  required  a  had  The  first  attempt  in early  and  support  Island,  and  use  the  the  in  days  tests  was  to  the  Environment permission project.  UBC,  Service and  The  comparable isolation  of  With  to and  the (AES)  partial  of  the  to  such  had  The as  time.  some sites  physical  Research  involved,  help  Arctic was  obtain Mine  National  and  of  on  financial  Arctic  Weather  the  Arctic  sites  Little  Defense,  professors  contacted  parameters,  research  Operations  High  human  stations.  observation agencies  that  arranged.  1986  Department  sites  characteristics  the  be  of  Antarctic  Cominco/Polaris  unsuccessful.  Geography  to  choice  winter  from  support  to  the  similar  financial  of  the  additional  comparability with  themselves  were  of  Argentinian  group.  The  degree  the  support  of  was  in seasonal  76  not  Cornwallis  C.F.B. of  the  the  time  Department  of  granted AES,  Alert,  Atmospheric  in October  s t a t i o n s of  were  permission  1986, for  and  the  while  of  comparable  the in  year, latitude.  The  latitude  therefore, sites  human  during  a t ranges three  a t both  Arctic  Mould  from  Stations,  early  range  while the A n t a r c t i c The r e s e a r c h  January u n t i l  were  conducted  sites.  used  two e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s  Patrick  Island)  a n d one c o n t r o l  and E u r e k a group  located  (Ellesmere  a t the Island)  a t R e s o l u t e Bay  Island).  High A r c t i c  The  Human E n v i r o n m e n t  of Mould  Bay  The  human e n v i r o n m e n t  of Mould  Bay c o m p r i s e d  one  female,  Stations  in addition  twenty-three  who  was  sites  t h e end o f F e b r u a r y ,  The  isolation  f o r the A r c t i c  Group  research  (Cornwallis  on t h e p h o t o c y c l e and,  of 63° t o 64°S.  Arctic  Bay ( P r i n c e  Weather  an e f f e c t  76° and 80°N  weeks  4.2.1. The A r c t i c  The  have  r e s p o n s e s . The l a t i t u d e  was b e t w e e n  located  1987  would  was  to the researcher.  to f i f t y - f i v e 2.44 m o n t h s ,  had n o t p r e v i o u s l y  years.  T h e mean  including  Ages  ranged  period  two members  e x p e r i e n c e d an i s o l a t e d  77  eight  males  and  from  of exposure t o of the group  environment.  The  following  means  stressors  of p a r t i c i p a n t  acting  on t h e g r o u p  observation  reports  were  and  identified  by  personal  interviews:  (i)  the prolonged  (ii)  the extreme  (iii)  The  mainly  of the Christmas  settings  i s not optimal  isolation  The  Complex  barracks.  which  may  a t Mould  Bay were  (meteorological The l o c a t i o n  have  aggravated  located  office,  dining-  of the r e c r e a t i o n the  social  effect.  Human E n v i r o n m e n t  At  Eureka  in  addition  the group  forty-two  members  only  seven  of Eureka  was c o m p o s e d  to the researcher.  years  Two  exposure  season.  identified  a t the Operations  TV-room) and s t a f f  hall  of d a y l i g h t .  cold.  the nearness  behavioural  and  absence  with  a mean  of the group of the group  to isolation  of eight  Ages  o f 32.14  males  ranged  from  was  2.57  were  months.  78  female  twenty-two t o  years.  d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e of subjects  a n d one  i n t h e s t u d y and  tested.  T h e mean  Only  five  of the s u b j e c t s  locations, in  one had none  a semi-isolated  (i)  the dark  had p r e v i o u s  experience  and t h e r e m a i n i n g  environment.  i n remote  one h a d o n l y  Stressors  identified  a  summer  were:  period.  ( i i ) the c o l d . (iii)  the absence  communication subjects'  were  office with  families  s e t t i n g s , where identified  among  At  Mould  Bay and Eureka  through  observations  tested  interviews, measures. period  the subjects  a t each  spend  measures  most  facilitated  members. T h i s  and r e p o r t s ,  were  79  of the  increase i n  sites,  of Eureka.  subjects  were  unstructured  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  administered  site.  their  a t Eureka,  most  i n the r e c r e a t i o n h a l l  experimental  of  the meteorological  The b u i l d i n g d e s i g n  structured questionnaires  These  reinforcement  needs.  group  was e v i d e n t  frequent  as a constant  connected,  socialization  both  f r e e and  as t h e d i n i n g - r o o m ,  of t h e modules  interaction  since  acted  and t h e r e c r e a t i o n h a l l .  some  social  ones,  emotional-affective  Behavioural time,  with  of loved  during  a  three-week  of  Data  collection  researcher subjects' to  3 t o 4 days  began  at the s i t e s ; confidence  be a c q u i r e d  introductory  i n the research  with  were  according  to the a v a i l a b i l i t y  the  answered daily  sealed  the  box p l a c e d  tests.  a  which  data  week  required  F o r example, normally  on a n  gathering  informal  was  of each  five-day  conducted was  with  The l a t t e r  tests.  An  where a l l  organized  subject,  period,  room  had shown,  and a l l t e s t s  the exception  were  deposited  and c o l l e c t e d  of in a  by the  daily.  two t o t h r e e - h o u r  second  administering  a time-table  i n the d i n i n g  of the s u b j e c t s  (CPI)  a  Then  a p p l i c a t i o n measures.  researcher  Some  during  of the  and t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r needs  before  the group  inquiries  were  answered.  the a r r i v a l  as the A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i e n c e  and c o n s o l i d a t e d  meeting  after  talks  the C a l i f o r n i a  takes  one h o u r  period. individual  using with  a longer  period  Psychological  to complete,  Interviews  were  t h e members  week  t o answer Inventory answered i n during the  was  used f o r  S e t t i n g T e c h n i q u e and  of the group.  80  was  recorded  b a s i s . The t h i r d  the Behavioural  of time  The  Human E n v i r o n m e n t  Resolute Because  of Resolute  Bay i s t h e s i t e  of the control  i t has f r e q u e n t l y s c h e d u l e d  southern  Canada  and t h e presence  kilometres  from  classified  as an i s o l a t e d  the a i r p o r t  necessary groups Almost  ranged  from  semi-isolated  sites  AES  personnel  was  for  t h e MOT  control  staff  group  environmental the  majority  established experimental was  9.72  Environment  was  persons; (from  to provide  N=5  MOT  28 t o 60 y e a r s  with  a mean  except  four  months,  while  not e n t i r e l y  satisfactory  the r e l a t i v e l y  members,  the d i s t i n c t i o n s groups.  i t was  o f 41.46  f o rthe years.  in isolated  or  the job assignment  c o n s i s t e d of e i g h t months.  of group  increase  (N=9). Ages  experience  of  one s u b j e c t . T h e j o b a s s i g n m e n t f o r  to five  parameters,  a  t o N=13)  from  had p r e v i o u s  were  S e r v i c e and M i n i s t r y  subjects  a l l individuals  eight  research  of subjects  t o i n c l u d e some  community  for this  c o n s i s t e d of f i v e number  of an I n u i t  with  one. S u b j e c t s  (MOT).  the small  a i r connections  phase.  i s not  Transport  in  for this  the s i t e  of the Atmospheric  AES s t a f f  group  facilities,  employees  The  Bay  T h e mean  Although  i n human a n d  permanent  in association  between period  months.  81  the  northern  c h a r a c t e r of  with  afcessibility,  control  of exposure  to  and isolation  Some o f  (i)  the  being  (ii)  The  job  away  their  quarters  of  Operational  recreation the  from  same  hall,  Complex  TV-room  an  i n t r o d u c t o r y meeting,  with  4.2.2  The at  site,  data  sessions  were  afternoons  of  AES  located  within  i n h a b i t a t i o n a l modules,  and  collection  gymnasium  facilities  the  with  located  the within  completed subjects  These  days.  in  were  sessions  Interviews  four  days.  selected  demanded were  After and  most  conducted  of only  of  the  researcher's  time c o n s t r a i n t s .  included  two  experimental  groups  A n t a r c t i c Group  Marambio  at  four  because  A n t a r c t i c groups  (northern  was  volunteer  initiated. the  personnel  The  located  were  complex.  this  the  families.  a l l subjects  At  test  were:  dissatisfaction.  living  Airport  stressors identified  Base  t i p of Buenos  (Seymour  Island)  and  Antarctic Peninsula) Aires.  82  at and  Esperanza one  stationed  Base  control  group  The  Antarctic Stations  The  Human E n v i r o n m e n t  of  Marambio  The  human  of  Marambio  with  environment  fifty-two  Ministry support  of  tests help  permanent medical  At  position  'permanent'  on  the  Base  of  subjects group  holiday, social  of  the  an  were  there  (to preserve the  group  had  which  could  have  the  to  since  to  was  be  those  These  remaining  who  were  isolation  minor  isolation.  83  a  no  the  flight  to  the  research  for a  one-year  Although  were stationed  selection  'permanent'  exposure),  effect  air  was  subjects  i n the  Force  the  With  personnel  from  With  design,  applied  recently returned a  year.  concerning  had  chosen.  for  Air  logistical  modified.  temporarily.  had  main the  waiting  who  the  social  of  research  a l l inquiries  only  confined  the  staff  introductory meeting  subjects,  ones,  the  during  had  researcher  meeting  masculine,  planned  i n A n t a r c t i c a , were  was  of  essentially  provides  subjects  Thirteen  called  members  Base  officer,  the  this  answered.  staff  The  part  A n t a r c t i c Operations  whilst  Esperanza.  job  as  f o r women w i t h i n  the  organized  were  the  using of  working  Argentina.  for  facilities  men  was  four  a  one  month  upon  the  subjects'  Following  the  selection  measurements  were  be  of  i n charge  period.  The  answered  monitoring  weeks  researcher  and  which  Ages The  ranged  an  from  mean p e r i o d and  28 of  tests the  officer of  Marambio  average  to  44  of  had  daily  medical  were  application officer  the  two  to  semi-isolated environments.  the  identify daily  to  and  over  three  hours  with  the  mean a t  isolation  be  correct  the  any  The  four  every  sessions  evening.  34.84  experience  from  between  situation  S t r e s s o r s were  to  researcher  measures.  answered  previous  agreed  three-week  maintained  to  the  had  of  were  to  a  scheduled  return  were  years  exposure  a l l subjects  the  contacts  application at  the  a p p l i c a t i o n s over  on  radio  medical  tests  demanded  months or  the the  psychological  the  later,  Meanwhile,  with  and  psychometric  Esperanza.  problems  subjects,  distributed  other  three  of  years. was  in  identified  1.4  isolated as  follows:  (i)  prolonged  (ii)  The  the  wind  absence  building  containing  storms.  of  loved  design  the  and  living  room.  The  operations  which  was  attached  to  ones.  layout  consisted  quarters, complex the  attached  recreation hall,  was  main  of  located  central  84  in a  modules  dining-and  secondary  structure.  wing  TV-  The  Human E n v i r o n m e n t  Esperanza  was  composition, (N=26) o f families This  The  location  (N=8)  and  group  nursing  station,  were  remaining  houses.  visitors.  Each  by and  the  made  mess.  out  of  the  groups  members  composed children both  two  (N=8)  married  and  the  school,  allocated  according  house had  was a  these  (roommates)  to  their  on  weekends wind  conditions rather  which  times.  85  on  persons.  quarters.  (three  operations, station,  arrival.  Single  preferences for  in  guests  area,  and  the  and  other  meals  or  could  be  storms,  human  traffic  complex  people  than  personnel.  living  houses  kitchen  operations  community,  single  their  group  four  unmarried  reserved  complete  frequent  mess a n d  units:  broadcasting  houses  also  residents of  for  i t s group permanent  buildings, i.e.  chapel,  were  The  plus  aggregated  other  of  major  thirteen  house  the  of  of  Because  of  building layout.  houses  A  Under  because  separate  grouped  by  site  had  mess,  houses,  restricted. small  was  units  personnel  be  and  i n a d d i t i o n to  Families  could  research  their  consisted  bedrooms)  Esperanza  included  personnel  site  etc.  unique  Esperanza  latter  Station  a  of  spent  developing occurred  is  in  often  more a  supplied  time  rapport  during  normal  in with meal  The  group  years.  s t a t i o n e d a t Esperanza  T h e women h a d a n a v e r a g e  had an average a g e o f 33.75  28  t o 41 y e a r s .  24  t o 44 y e a r s .  Of  the four  women, o n l y  one had p r e v i o u s  Antarctica,  f o ra year,  but another  mountain in had  environment;  isolated  had p r e v i o u s  previous average boys)  experience  experience  isolation  Because  4 years  forchildren  of the s i z e and comprised  be m o d i f i e d  aged  and c o m p o s i t i o n  in  the researcher's  the completed  the d a i l y  time-table  according  experience  or s e m i - i s o l a t e d old,  had  i n A n t a r c t i c a . The (two g i r l s  and s i x  T h e mean e x p o s u r e t o  of the group,  the help with  application  The m e d i c a l to their  86  c o l l e c t i o n had  of the medical  on t h e s i t e .  measures deposited  officer  work  data  mixed i n  t h e a d u l t s was  arrival  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were  the dining-room.  i n a semi - i s o l a t e d  two men, a l l o f t h e m  of a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n ,  after  and  of l i v i n g i n  a n d a d u l t s was 4.5 m o n t h s .  a c c o r d i n g l y . With  meeting  from  12 a n d 10 y e a r s  t o 12 y e a r s .  two  this  years,ranging  two women h a d no  was 7.6 y e a r s  an i n t r o d u c t o r y meeting  of  from  experience  f o r one y e a r  officer, days  years, ranging  had l i v e d  in isolated  of l i v i n g  age o f t h e c h i l d r e n from  30.22  Of t h e t w e n t y -  a n d two c h i l d r e n  ranging  gender  the remaining  environments.  environments,  to  T h e men's a g e a v e r a g e d  a g e o f 31.98  were  A t t h eend distributed  i n a box l o c a t e d  organized  shifts.  arranged  the subject's  As  a l l t h e women  school, first and  two g r o u p s  group  conducted  only  experienced  were  (i)  (iii)  with  t o answer  presence"  were  Also,  wind  of s o c i a l  contact  were who h a d  (N=5).  through  between  participant  men a n d women a s  of the group.  Aires  The  control  comprised  of seven  and  seven  group  women who h a d b e e n  Operations  t o spend  a positive  these  with  in Antarctica. both  outside  procedure.  groups.  performed  t h e Army  couples,  This  experimental  was t h e e x p o s u r e  of the experimental wives  married  seven  men  p r e - s e l e c t e d by A n t a r c t i c  t h e same  two g r o u p s  of t h e i r  categories  a year  one b e c a u s e  selected  experience most  mornings  isolation.  i n Buenos  and  during  storms.  the lack  between  s e s s i o n s . The  reports:  of s o c i a l  been  s t a t i o n and  and t h e s u b j e c t s  identified  C o n t r o l Group  had  test  interviews  phenomena  The  as  four  the tests  t h e f a m i l y members  the c e l l s  members  over  i n the afternoons.  "sensed  the strong  (ii)  at the broadcasting  organized  following stressors  observation  jobs  was s c h e d u l e d  the second  The  performed  jobs  was  and c o n t r o l The o n l y  judged groups  distinction  to the polar  Men b e l o n g e d  t o t h e Army  in different  occupational  environment.  87  fact  Tests  were  conducted  tests  were  given  years  for the entire  the  over  two a f t e r n o o n  t o t h e s u b j e c t s . Ages group  and ranged  women a n d 31 t o 35 y e a r s  women was 3 1 . 4 2 y e a r s the  average  while  age f o r t h e whole  sessions ranged  from  f o r t h e men group  was 3 2 . 2 1 y e a r s .  and  two o f t h e s u b j e c t s  had had a s h o r t  The  to  Behavioural  t h e human m i n d  affection,  were  to facilitate  relationship Behavioural analyzed  of this  research  P e r s o n a l i t y was c h o s e n  perception, chosen  to isolated  Thus  None  ofthe  environments  experience  ina  Categories  components  many a r e a s .  understand  for  environment.  behavioural  cover  age  i t was 33 y e a r s .  exposed  4.2.3.  2 4 t o 37  o l d f o r men. T h e a v e r a g e  had p r e v i o u s l y been  semi - i s o l a t e d  from  daily  24 t o 36 y e a r s f o r  subjects only  a n d no  between  are discussed  as p a r t  in isolation.  community  behaviour  below.  88  to  of an attempt  and s o c i a l  stress  o f t h e complex  and unusual  and t h e i n s t r u m e n t s  designed  Environmental  the understanding  individuals  components  were  environments.  with  which  they  were  Personality  The  and  Perception  personality  and  perceptual  personality  traits,  values.  The  following tests  Anxiety  (STAI,  Inventory  Myers  stable  levels  Gough,  of  tendencies  across  leadership  capabilities,  and  social  maturity.  the  group  across  four  Intuition,  twenty  work  Environmental  p e r c e p t i o n was  aspects the &  of  Person  s u b j e c t s who  other and  attitudes  and  State-Trait Psychological Type  Indicator  the  CPI  measures  socially desirable  CPI  yielded  also  the  regard  to  temporary  indices  management  basic  and  on  potential  preferences  p e r c e p t i o n and  of  judgment  Introversion-Extroversion, Sensing-  Perception  by  of  analyses  orientation,  with  variety  to  Myers-Briggs  T h i n k i n g - F e e l i n g , and  perceived  California  identifies  Environmental  is  a  adjustment  subscales.  MBTI  with  STAI  while  individuals  s c a l e s of  and  1986).  anxiety,  deals  were a d m i n i s t e r e d :  1975)  & Caulley,  and  emotional  S p i e l b e r g e r , 1970),  (CPI,  (MBTI,  from  area  chosen face  environmental  Environment  Judging-Perception.  Mood  to  show  physical  variables. Scale  how  The  (RMS/P;  1974);  the  Environmental  Response  McKechnie,  1974),  and  the  Seeking  Zuckerman,  1979 ) .  89  environment  isolation  Russell,  Sensation  the  tests  and used  RMS/E,  were:  Meharabian  Inventory Scale  unusual  (SSS,  (ERI,  RMS  analyzes  the p e r c e i v e d  environment, individual  a n d ERI  some  SSS  experiences  who  Behaviour  This  deals  subjects  over  Biographical applied.  Life  time.  include  demographic  life.  feelings  Stress Events (Rivolier, search  to the s i t u a t i o n s variables  behaviour  deals  Setting  Activities  with  isolation  such  Satisfaction  Leisure  trait,  novel  level  to the  and  which  appear  of a r o u s a l .  and  emotions  (Linden,  1975)  were  and  family  of the  1984) and the  for individual experienced.  an  tests behaviour  and  B i o g r a p h i c a l data  composition.  investigation  affects  as adjustment,  & Sociability Survey Blank  in  complex  Behaviour  changes,  Behaviour  the general Life  socio-psychological social  reacted  Emotions  Stress Events  related  Community  optimal  i n an  dispositions,  for behavioural  an  Information  changes  Community  and  with  a subject  require varied,  to maintain  Affective  of a person  environmental  a n d how  searched  individuals  area  related  differences  environment.  aspects  (S & S,  and  Nickels,  quality  1975)  to of  1976),  & Ledbettner,  (LAB, M c K e c h n i e ,  90  how  community a d a p t a t i o n  perception  (BSS, B e c h t e l  of  were  1976) and tested.  S  & S,  which  measures or  was  the  applied  factors  dissatisfaction  working  BSS  in a  time  of  period.  education, health,  contributing  that  the  an  individual in a  The  observation  categories  government,  professionalism,  recreational  activities  of  and  isolated  the  level  experienced  and  period,  of  satisfaction  from  recording  given  coded  past,  related  place  were  living  and  the  during  and  total  a  specific  business,  appearance,  social  present to  of  aesthetics,  personal  recreation  subject's  social  stress  and  his/her  physical  contact.  future  LAB  leisure  personality  and  traits.  investigate certain reactions  i n d i v i d u a l s t r e s s , caused  environment.  Stress  (Derogatis Wilson,  three-week  Stress  Measures  1984),  a  to  nutrition,  the  social  subjects  of  investigates  Social  over  particular location.  consists  behaviour  daily  et  The  t e s t s were  & Arousal  (SA,  a l . 1974)  and  Cox  by  prolonged  Mood  & Mackay,  Imagination  &  Sleep 1985),  Inventory  to  presence (MS,  in  an  IBEA,  Hopkins (Barber  &  1979).  MS  analyzes  on  a daily  sleep basis  the  levels  of  the  Imagination  patterns for  and  three-week  p o s i t i v e and Inventory  the  period.  negative is a  general  of  the  SA  and  Hopkins  stress  and  arousal,  measure  91  mood  of  imagery  subjects measure while  phenomena.  Other  Methods  Because  of  the  presence  Esperanza,  an  adjustment  scale  the  quality  the  Antarctic  In  additional  of  addition  a  marriage  and  i n the  to  The  participant the  intra-group Interviews formats, these  also  1976) and  was  similar  control  measures,  used  in this  observation technique  behavioural events problems  i n the  and  Arctic  u n s t r u c t u r e d and  the  the  overall  presence  phenomena  was  identified  medical  officer.  frequency, subject)  r e p o r t s of The  narrative,  f o r each  five  complete weather  individual  This  dyads  site  the  aimed  f o r the  participant  of  marital to  assess  couples  in  c o n s i s t e d of group  adjustment  community  The  based  of  through  confirmed  conditions,  emotional  92  two  the  recorded  during  sensed  of  i n the  on  discussion  behaviour.  were  a  compatibility.  description  was  keeping  behaviour,  and  were  primarily  cases  observation  research.  understanding  and  then  used.  Antarctic  phenomena  and  instrument,  informal talks.  interviews facilitated  Antarctic  concerning  personnel and  the  group.  presence  talks  at  psychometric  psychometric  i n t e r v i e w s were  of  families  (Spanier,  and  diary  of  Sensed the by  event  informal the (date,  state  reports.  of  the  Statistical  The  Analysis  number  of  observations  types  of  psychometric  these  measures  and  analysis,  various  statistical  Considering the  that  association  the  major  among  (Univariate  Analysis  Analysis  Variance).  whether  occurred  by  the  same  other  subjects,  measures,  aspect  determining  of  the  the  the  various  frequency  study,  factors  of  e.g.  in choosing  the  procedures.  tests  test  and  particular  were  appropriate  of  the  tests  the  content  using  a  for  purpose  group  the of  The  material Manova  of  Manova  among  groups  i f the  was  to  variables,  and  purpose  test  analysis  dependent  Variance)  and  the  psychometric  mean d i f f e r e n c e s chance,  of  of  was  assess  the  most  Anova  (Multivariate and  are  Anova  is  likely  mean d i f f e r e n c e s  to  to have  are  reliable.  This  research  shows  (experimental variables the  need  and  more  control  (dimensions for  of  complexity,  instead  only  chance i.e.  of  discovering  series  protection  one,  of  Anovas  against  one  independent  g r o u p s ) and analysis  Multivariate  increasing of  than  by  the  of  Analysis measuring overall  several several  of  analysis  produced  for  of  Type  one  I Error  93  each  dependent tests),  Variance.  several  changes  variable  by  therefore,  Even  with  dependent  would  improve  different  dependent  is relatively  variables, the  treatments,  variable.  guaranteed.  The  It  i s important  Lambda)  have  shown  statistically dimensions for  each  effect,  Even  As r e f e r r e d  number  effects  variables,  significance to above,  cause  94  with  no  the Univariate  of these  Anova  F values  i t i s important study  (Wilks  of the analyzed  and t e s t i n g  confounding  of the r e s u l t s .  tests  although  i n some  investigating  of s u b j e c t s i n t h i s  probably  interpretation  o f t h e Manova  interaction,  s i g n i f i c a n t main  the s t a t i s t i c a l  could  some  significant  of the dependent  small  which  that  of the t e s t s .  misleading. the  t o note  main c a n be  to consider  (N=82), a n  effects  F's  i n the  event  CHAPTER  The  5.  RESULTS  r e s u l t s are  content  presented  analysis  describes  the  material  and  results,  a  of  historical  findings  from  interviews.  summary  i n two  sections.  diaries.  the  To  The  The  second  contemporary  facilitate  i s presented  at  the  first  is  the  section  psychometric  the  explanation  end  of  of  the  each  s e c t i on.  5.1  Historical  Comparisons explorers. only  some  were  Groups  made  Individual of  the  on  (Content  Analysis).  Over  thousand  phrases  distributed  verbal  units  in  across  categories.  the  percentage  of  with  p a r t i c u l a r events,  the  frequency  the  frequency  polar  of  of  are  95  obtained,  included  coding  Table  recorded  as  Antarctic  Data  in  units  presented.  as  shows  the  (coding  reflecting  indicated  the  and  events  in  Table  of  further  coded,  5.1  groups although  is displayed;  d i a r i e s ) were  events.  explorers  also  are  (using  paragraphs  their  by  were  information  explorers,  noted  A r c t i c and  i n d i v i d u a l observations  and  which  the  assessments  relevant  analyses  two  between  Appendix  words,  units)  the 5.2,  and  frequency were  TABLE 5.1  THE POLAR EXPLORERS  Number of Events r e p o r t e d and Percentages of Events  EXPLORER  FREQUENCY  PERCENTAGE  ADAMS  140  6.10  JAACKSON  290  12.70  NARES  180  7.90  SMITH  69  3.00  224  9.80  BERNACCHI  60  2.80  CHERRY-GARRARD  173  7.60  259  11.40  ORDE-LEES  164  7.20  SCOTT  384  16.80  SPENCER-SMITH  152  7.70  WORSLEY  156  6.80  2256  100  ARCTIC  STEFFANSON  ANTARCTIC  GRAN  TOTAL  96  TABLE  5.2  PHASES  REFERENCES TO NATURAL BEAUTY  ABOARD  ARRIVAL  MID-WINTER  DEPART.  TOTAL  2  21  EXPLORERS ARCTIC ADAMS  2  17  JAACKSON  1  24  NARES  11  SMITH  6  26  41  1  66  3  4  13  31  9  62  3  13  4  6  9  33  5  70  30  1  31  33  26  18  96  SPENCER-SMITH  9  1  3  13  WORSLEY  8  33  STEFFANSON  3  12  EXPLORERS ANTARCTIC BERNACCHI  2  8  C-GARRARD GRAN  7  26  ORDE-LEES SCOTT  18  97  41  Pleasantness  Table  5.3  and  shows  pleasantness diaries.  and a r o u s a l  Pleasant  aspects.  stimuli  when  indicated  (M=47.69) t h a n above,  t h e mean r a n g e  for arousal,  and  arousal noted  diarists felt  48.48  values  that  (%)  across  Mid-Winter  as a p l e a s a n t  i n the phase  Aboard.  phase  of the e x p l o r e r ' s  again  the lowest  Arctic, the  figures  Beginning  Winter  for arousal  value  showed  of the e x p e d i t i o n s , phases.  98  sensitivity records. by the  and  Antarctic  for arousal  was  5.4  show  region  referred 14.25 the  to  to  64.68  pleasantness  of the e x p e d i t i o n s . was  the lowest  expeditions  manner  As  I t can  considered  by the  pleasantness  value  In the A n t a r c t i c ,  pleasantness  and Departure  Table  i n the A r c t i c  season;  of  f o r the A r c t i c  for pleasantness  a r e few  positive  or a r o u s a l  (M=49.13).  the phases  there  the area  figures  mean v a l u e  t o 70.98.  negative  o u t o f 100)  c o m p a r e d . The  lower  to  in a similar  (M =39.52,  f o r the A n t a r c t i c  and  be  described  were  a slightly  related  of  the e x p l o r e r s '  diarists,  few p l e a s a n t n e s s  the A r c t i c  (M=40.89) r e g i o n s  from  of the extreme  In the A n t a r c t i c ,  were  the r a t i n g  extracted  or a r o u s a l  showed  feelings  explorers  values  from  of the A n t a r c t i c  of p l e a s a n t n e s s  social  obtained  as a r e f l e c t i o n  o f some  psychological to  the r e s u l t s  Perhaps  experiences records  Arousal  t h e most  pleasant  was  a l s o a t Mid-Winter,  was  felt  a high  Aboard.  mean v a l u e  decreasing  arousal  was  and  In the (63.3) a t i n Mid-  TABLE 5.3  PLEASANTNESS AND AROUSAL (P), (A), VALUES (%) BY CATEGORIES  PHYSICAL  Scale-.0-100% Mean-50% POSITIVE SENS. SOCIAL  NEGATIVE  P  A  P  A  P  A  P  A  ADAMS  16.2  45.0  61.5  45.4  40.4  50.3  24.8  65.0  JAACKSON  16.6  49.3  21.0  24.1  62.0  62.6  38.6  64.3  44.0  64.3  NARES  50.2  71.4  70.7  51.9  55.9  61.3  66.5  46.8  72.7  56.8  SMITH  16.2  60.7  73.7  49.4  35.9  69.1  36.1  52.7  41.2  49.3  24.1  62.3  37.1  74.6  AREAS EXPLORERS ARCTIC  STEFFANSON  P  A  SOCIAL STRESS  EXPLORER8 ANTARCTIC BERNACCHI C-GARRARD  30.8  56.6  79.3  55.4  76.0  68.9  42.4  62.3  62.7  62.6  GRAN  27.2  48.6  66.6  47.9  64.6  61.3  44.8  43.7  59.2  63.2  ORDE-LEES  39.0  47.1  64.2  66.6  34.6  60.8  14.6  31.5  SCOTT  29.7  55.6  33.7  64.3  67.1  64.8  S-SMITH  36.6  50.3  63.7  56.3  38.2  47.0  63.4  61.0  WORSLEY  47.3  36.7  67.6  69.4  63.7  63.9  77.5  68.4  62.8  54.9  TABLE 5.4 PLEASANTNESS AND AROUSAL VALUES (%) IN THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC BY PHASES OF THE EXPEDITIONS  REGIONS  ARCTIC  ANTARCTIC  PHASE8  P  A  P  ABOARD  19.6  22.4  16.6  26.1  BEGINNING  35.9  63.3  32.4  41.0  MID-WINTER  34.6  43.1  46.7  47.7  DEPARTURE  28.4  43.1  38.6  48.7  NOTE: P - PLEASURE  100  A - AROUSAL  A  The  Antarctic  increasing detailed of  arousal  steadily  towards  description  the expeditions  values  were  lowest  the Departure  of i n d i v i d u a l s '  was  included  Aboard phase  ratings  (M=25.1), (M=48.7). A  and temporal  i n the Appendix  phases  (Content  Analys i s ) .  Comparison  For  of the A r c t i c  the comparison  and A n t a r c t i c  o f t h e two r e g i o n s ,  proportion  to the t o t a l  number  references  made  by each  explorer.  frequency  tables.  analyzed  using  chapter,  the categories  psychosomatic implications perceptual by  factors,  phenomena.  positive  the degree  Emotions  data  was w e i g h t e d i n  of r e f e r e n c e s Data  and t h e i n d i v i d u a l  were  statistically  As r e f e r r e d  utilized  of environmental  Regions  to i n the previous  were: p h y s i c a l and n e g a t i v e  factors,  environment and  psychological  social  s t r e s s and  and c o g n i t i o n  were  also  analyzed  of the i n t e n s i t y of a d j e c t i v e s  used  by each  diar ist.  Environment  Because  o f t h e manner  explorers' physical these  and P s y c h o s o m a t i c  i n which  narratives,  environmental  two c a t e g o r i e s  Factors  descriptions  indicating  a clear  conditions  with  were  considered  101  were  written  association  psychosomatic  interactive.  i nthe  of the factors,  For  example,  fatigue.  cold  Heat,  was  and  reported  in  as  some c a s e s ,  resulting  in  cold  associated  were  weight-gain  and  with  headaches.  The  physical  references high  conditions  from  the  temperature  Arctic  (within  of  changes  of  27  and  light:  21,  mentioned  weather  Antarctic  small  and  6 and  and  include  enclosed  seasons  19,  high  of  50  and  58  respectively, or  the  winds:  cold,  open  year): 49  and  heat  or  spaces  because  11  15,  and  84,  calm:  dark:  5 and  3  respectively.  There the  were  10  Arctic,  recorded  but  only  Antarctic  The  Among  s p e c i f i c medical were  figures  the  Antarctic  references  Antarctic  diarists  Only  10  mentions  regions.  Fatigue  mentioned  11  or  in  good  18,  to of  by  0 and  Arctic  but  diaries  Antarctic.  102  1  tasks and  appetite and  3  of  weight  23  sleep  Arctic  3 Arctic  sleep  and  (see  occurring  times  and  in  in  44  8  Fig.  performed 34  in  respectively.  were  only  headaches, or  of  complaints,  excessive  cold  loss  appetite  common. T h e r e  insomnia,  made  (caused  the  psychosomatic  most to  of  are  referred  were  times  about  3 comments  gain.  disturbances  comments  5.1).  both  outside) the  was  F I G U R E 5.1  SLEEP PATTERNS IN THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC (%)  TOTAL NUMBER OF REFERENCES: 20 FOR THE ARCTIC AND 51 FOR THE ANTARCTIC  Positive  Among were 10  Aspects  positive  psychological  2 instances  cited  of serene  i n the A r c t i c .  characterized  Arctic diaries,  it  appears  more  that  peaceful  explorers,  were  made  Aspects  Negative  psychological  example,  Antarctic  decline  writers.  individuals. times  Thus,  region  t o be a  Southern  their  northern  stimuli  - produced  Such  - e.g. the  66  entries  psychological  mentioned  of s e l f - i n s i g h t  and  by A r c t i c d i a r i s t s ,  twice  only  once  factors i n each  self-development  compared  t o 10  from  sources.  Negative  For  environment  t h e two r e g i o n s .  reports  than  only  diaries.  polar  to physical  a n d s e l f - c o n t r o l were  Seventeen  Antarctic  relaxed  sensitivity  between  (self-growth)  i n the A n t a r c t i c  the A n t a r c t i c .  more  tension  was m e n t i o n e d  than  split  region.  o f low  environment  Strong  self-esteem  (a s t a t e  the northern  felt  there  i n t h e A n t a r c t i c and  find  of the n a t u r a l  as  cited  explorers  magnificence evenly  of the environment,  of emotions)  b u t 15 t i m e s  however,  counterparts.  feelings  Relaxation  by a b s e n c e  in  effects  e f f e c t s were  i n hygiene  Related  F o r example,  in Arctic diaries,  was  to this  implied  b y many  observed  by 2 A r c t i c and 7  are the energy  'feeling phlegmatic' but only  13 t i m e s  mater i a l s .  104  variables.  l e v e l s of  was m e n t i o n e d  in Antarctic  46  Missing  one's  home  missing  usual  social  The  figures  were  f o r missing  relationships.  Arctic.  T h e number  references;  see f i g u r e 5.2).  were  20 A r c t i c  irritability. to  Negative  decline Arctic  Social  to  diaries  cognitive  i n the  i n the Antarctic,  105  references  to  i n the A r c t i c  material  t o 15 i n t h e A n t a r c t i c  symptoms  of which  f o r missing  i n t h e A r c t i c (63  one a l l u s i o n  i n comparison  There  include  6 instances There  to hyperalertness  were  occasions of  were  reported  2 references  (perhaps  i nthe i nthe  r e f l e c t i n g high  level).  Stress  psychological  also  was o n l y  and 4 i n t h e A n t a r c t i c .  arousal  The  t h e number  entries.  contrast.  on 63 o c c a s i o n s  of a n x i e t y  a n d 48 A n t a r c t i c  in alertness,  Antarctic  are  There  f e e l i n g alarmed,  diaries.  i s noted  e n t r i e s and  in 5 diary  home a n d 22 e n t r i e s  of instances  f a r surpasses  was n o t e d  diary  show a s u b s t a n t i a l  Anxiety  references,  There  in 6 Arctic  relationships  f o r the Antarctic  14 e n t r i e s  social  was m e n t i o n e d  represented made  to lack  confinement  implications  of the polar  by t h e c a t e g o r y of privacy  (7 r e f e r e n c e s  Fourteen  Arctic  diarists  concerning  of s o c i a l  (5 t i m e s  from  2 of which  a n d 12 A n t a r c t i c  105  stress.  were  were  References  the A r c t i c ,  a r e from  references  boredom.  environment  only);  and  the A r c t i c ) . made  by t h e  F I G U R E 5.2  ANXIETY AND RELAXATION IN THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC (%)  TOTAL NUMBER OF REFERENCES: 63 FOR THE ARCTIC AND 106 FOR THE ANTARCTIC >  In  c o n t r a s t , comments  escape  from  the  respectively. mention There  each  were,  identity.  about  boredom  Group  of  however,  deprivation  56  were  (1 a n d  situation)  dynamics  i s found  There  feeling  group  few  or  social  Concerning  transpersonal altered  and  two  one  reference  i n the  context,  the  anomalous  Antarctic.  of  an  experience  ( e n t r y of  interpreting He  difficult  also  to  and  of  person  another  mentioned personal  and  as  reported  his  two  a  what  phenomenon  communication,  31,  what  may is  group social  2).  i n the the be  Arctic, cultural  termed  Steffanson's as  an  smoke  to  the  monotony  and  heard of  colour, although  the i t is  described.  Georgia  the with  Shackleton  original 1985).  107  one  topics,  saw  reported  though  and  He  blue  being  either  given  classified  1906).  South  i n any  June  to  exception  he  companions  M o c e l l i n , 1987),  this  One  strange  traversing  of  about  similar  expect  Only  cohesiveness.  s t i m u l a t i o n (10  might  to  times  evaluated.  mentions  response  was  35  hallucinations  that  a  and  n e u t r a l remarks  referred  Aug. 23,  this  determine  Shackleton  Suedfeld  one  e x p l o r e r s seldom  hallucination  journey.  As  (attempting  and  s t a t e s and  visual  p s y c h o l o g i c a l events.  description  shots,  to  often  explicit  Phenomena  was  not  62  disagreement  Perceptual  there  occur  effectively  very  3)  were  stimulated  "sensed them had  document  presence"  (cf. not  (C.  Holland,  Another  example  imagery  was  Garrard. waiting  which  found  Both  may be c o n f o u n d e d  i n the narratives  were  anxious  f o r the r e l i e f  experienced  a vivid  close  ship,  image  with  of Orde-Lees  to their  that  hallucinatory and  departure,  on many o c c a s i o n s  of a ghost  ship  Cherry while they  on t h e i c y h o r i z o n .  Dreams  Reports The  o f dreams  Antarctic diaries  Assuming it  were  contain  only  not r e f l e c t  may be i n f e r r e d  that  the explorers  dreams  also  or d i d not c o n s i d e r  to other  have  events  self-censored  such  conditioning  or t h e d e s i r e  Perhaps  i s also  this  exception his  work  with  t o keep  who  to vivid  lack  d i d n o t remember recording,  of  at  least  They  may  cultural  the experiences  reported  of dreaming,  the voyage.  because  dreams.  private.  diarists,  with the  a vivid  dream  related to  and m y s t i c a l  Gran,  the Norwegian  the I n u i t .  who a c c o m p a n i e d  Scott's  during  of a r r i v a l  t h e time  last  expedition,  reported  i n t h e A n t a r c t i c . Most  a s t h e one o f w h i t e - p e t a l l e d  conveyed  worth  f o r the A r c t i c  the A n t a r c t i c , the r e l i g i o u s  such  either  during  reports  the case  of Steffanson  an a c t u a l  them  occurring  few o f t h e d i a r i s t s .  7 references  does  compared  In  by r e l a t i v e l y  this  their  that  made  homesickness.  108  cherry  trees  vivid  dreams  of h i s dreams,  o f Norway,  Gran's "Last  most night  dreamed  low  flags  reached  telegram  of four  there  was  15  awoke....'The  hurriedly  moment  noted  diary"  (Gran,  was  this  prolific  ship  diary  on  t h e way  Amundsen's  on  December  o f Amundsen  team,  book  from  on D e c .  man  material,  course.  109  minute...' the  next  of h i s  scientific  had  fact,  but  as Gran  in  According  to  occurred  Griffith a t the  Expedition,  to h i s original  journals,  dealt  and  time,  20.  according  and  and  with  'Amundsen  t h e dream  i n the Scott  h i s published  to Antarctica  tent  tent  Taylor  this  1 5 t h , 1912.  at the Pole,  i n t h e same  the youngest  omitted  the parchement  (Original version),  sleeping  i n h i s dream  dream,  Pole  in his field  Cherry-Garrard,  on  of a  Griffith  got to the Pole  15-20  on t h e  inscribed,  up a n d  I  half-sleep.  immediately  of the chronometer,  time  Pole  materialized  was  follows:  the Pole.  of  in front  on w h i c h  as  reached  i n a kind  vanished  I jumped  p.153).  to the a r r i v a l  recorded  One  got hold  reached  a picture  picture  December'.  a t the South  who  The  described  'Amundsen  at day-break,  a telegram  1984,  one  had  dozing  though  men,  the exact  Cherry-Garrard's  Taylor,  Amundsen  N o r w e g i a n s have  Taylor  prior  a psychic  reading,  as  fluttering.  Pole  arrived  that  i t appeared  canvas  instead,  a  was  I l a y i n the tent  1  Suddenly,  dream  I dreamed  I had  December.  tent  famous  with  was  on  the ship  was diary.  board going o f f  Another,  also  unpublished  aboard  ship  dream,  Garrard  head  and  emerging  dreams  were  awaiting of  was  coming  the  of  one  of  a  the  with  relief some  rescue  dealt  terror"  ship's  food  and  being  In  of  scurvy  died,  he  recorded  homesickness,  dream  was  the  suffering  of  of  his  his  shortages.  died  One  this  part  portholes. Later,  group,  c e n t r i n g on  with  equipment  he  with  dream.  h i s companions  ship. Before  theme.  1922),  "night  by  Shackleton's  recurring to  awakened  concerned  nightmares,  another  suffocating,  from  Spencer-Smith  (Garrard,  with  while a  number  food  Shackleton  as  and  Worsley  him.  Religion  Perhaps  an  adequate rescue  equipment,  of  religious contain Arctic  food,  the  references such  i n the  and  in a  The  torment  diaries.  while  suffering of  entries  tent  a  was slow  and  only  The  the  references  concerning  God  of  companions.  110  with  the  of  number  occurred was  in his his  a  of  journals  a  in  the  very diaries  body  debilitation.  reached  awaiting  the  Antarctic  f o r example,  process  lack  u n c e r t a i n t y of  6 entries  undergoing  f o r many d a y s  to  e x p l o r e r s , were  religious  he  due  communication  Southern  entries,  person.  the  frequency  his  of  of  m a t e r i a l . Spencer-Smith,  reflect  alone  many  41  religious  scurvy  indication  climax  wracked  by  The when  he  uncertain arrival  was of  Summary  A content  analysis  explorers  offers  behaviour  of these  that  winter  Appendix).  was  would did  that  polar  environment most few  a high  Viewing  Thirdly,  t o boredom, of a polar  compelling entries  Antarctic  the thoughts  i n the e x p l o r e r s '  no a n x i e t y  level  on b o a r d  anxiety  made  insomnia  when e x p l o r i n g the apparently site  (perhaps  diarists.  Ill  The  since  one This  together,  i t  with  common  more  i n both  stimulation  in  stimulation  inducing  observer,  (see  explorers  (even  was  social low  lives  ship.  data  Antarctic  low l e v e l s o f a n x i e t y Secondly,  suggest  i n Mid-Winter.  and r e l a x a t i o n  period,  to the outside by the  of a n x i e t y  and  emerges t o  of the d i s t r i b u t i o n i s noteworthy,  experiences).  comparison  into  no e v i d e n c e  period  almost  relatively  regions.  insight  Firstly,  i n the Mid-Winter  experienced stressful  men.  was  have e x p e c t e d  not occur.  seems  considerable  a stressful  There  curvilinearity  of t h e d i a r i e s of A r c t i c and  boredom)  but accounted  seems f o r very  5.2  Experimental  This  section  The  research  data  were  Antarct  5.2.1  To  addresses  the  findings  sites  not  individually identified,  grouped  experimental (Resolute  Groups  Bay  are by  Arctic  (Marambio for  the  and  Bay  Esperanza)  A r c t i c and  psychological  and and  Buenos  since  Eureka) control  Aires  for  tests.  and  the  Antarctic  groups the  ic).  Personality  and  Perceptual  identify personality  regions  (Mould  from  as  California Indicator  work  types  environments,  Psychological and  Sensation  appraisals  on  anxiety,  considered  as  a  reactions  to  Inventory  and  of  measure  the the  Reactions  i n d i v i d u a l s who  personality  Inventory Seeking  e.g. of  Scale  personality included  Mood  Scales  Environment.  112  such  Myers-Briggs were  State-Trait  environment Russell  and  tests  choose  polar  as Type  administered.  Anxiety (Trait).  Self-  were  also  Tests  to  the  Environmental  for  Person  and  gauge Response  5.2.1.1. P e r s o n a l i t y  The  results  STAI  are as f o l l o w s :  State-Trait  Results  were  Anxiety  obtained  Inventory  -  by M u l t i v a r i a t e  A n a l y s i s of  (Manova) and U n i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e Comparisons square  test,  overall than in  The  with  American  a test  comparison  one  dependent  Figure  similar o f two  groups,  and  which  by H o t e l l i n g - T -  calculated  an  these  groups  included  The mean-norms  values  are  somewhat  group  low  scored  a t normal  level  levels  for trait  anxiety  Comparing  statistical  experimental  results  the  Arctic  and  trait  and  were  no  more  indicated  The  experimental  control somewhat  high  MVF(2,26)=.232,  found  Lambda=.999,  (Wilks  with  control  significant  and  differences  groups  were  5.5  norms  were  no  found  norms.  with  groups,  Antarctic  p=.881). F i g u r e  differences  113  control  the A r c t i c  the American  state-  group  and  significant  and  of  experimental  MVF(2,51)=.126,  no  low l e v e l  Lambda=.982,  Comparing  comparisons  anxiety,  at a  in trait.  (Wilks  p=.982).  Lambda=.995,  the  level  Antarctic  groups,  scored  f o r s t a t e - a n x i e t y and  differences  MVF(2,47)=.0185,  (Wilks  calculated  t o Manova,  variable.  experimental  and  p=.794).  were  (Anova).  5.5.  Arctic  anxiety  norms  Variance  shows  Comparing for state  found.  FIGURE 5.5  STAI-STATE AND TRAIT OF ANXIETY FOR EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS IN THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC (MEANS) 40  A-Trait Mean  37•68  Norm  —A-State  36-99  35  30  25 CO 2:  <  LLI  20-  15 -  10-  5 Vm EXPERIMENTAL • i  ANXIETY  CONTROL  Antarctic the  experimental  American  trait  norms  anxiety:  groups  (there  were  were  no  Spanish  Hotelling-T-square=14.70,  Controls  were  follows:  H o t e l l i n g -T-square=6.96,  anxiety  There and  females  (Wilks  significantly  t=-2.66,  were  no  of  published, letters  i n the  Inferior  using  type,  used.  previously, introvert; Perception. experimental  this  Table  functions  procedure type  5.5  p<.0027.  in state-anxiety p=.16;  for  differences  as  state-  and  between  control  males  groups  p=.733).  their  i n which  the  dominance  analysis was  were order  of  based  applied  polar  four  group.  the  regions.  appeared  on  EI  scores  i n the  A n t a r c t i c as  Arctic  (Table  5.5)  115  As  were  frequency the  indicated  Extravertand of  It should the  the  and  identify  dimensions:  frequencies  of  each  on  to  Thinking-Feeling  displays  and  norms  Auxiliary, Tertiary  i n each  measures  difference  i n the  and  statistical  test  groups  extraverts  introverts  only  Myers-Briggs  letters  Sensing-Intuition;  significant  higher  i n which  i . e . Dominant,  personality  and  state  Indicator-  alphabetic  This  for  p=.037.  Type  the  from  norms)  F(2,4.3),  MVF(2,45)=.312,  format  (ISTJ),  was  dominant  no  the  different  F(2,32),  A n t a r c t i c experimental  determines the  personality  different  statisticallt significant  MBTI-Myers-Briggs  tables  df=6,  Lambda=.986,  Because  significantly  Judgmentscores  be  noted  dimension, opposed  shown.  by  to  that  although  TABLE 5.5 FREQUENCIES ON EXTRAVERSION AND INTROVERSION DIMENSIONS BASED ON MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR FOR THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS (%) REGIONS  ARCTIC  ANTARCTIC  GROUPS  EXPER.  CONTROL  EXPER.  CONTROL  EXTRWERSION  31.3  23.1  56.4  50.0  N-6  N-3  N-22  N-7  68.8  76.9  43.6  50.0  N-11  N-10  N-17  N-7  INTROVERSION  STATISTICS FOR EXPERIMENTAL ARCTIC & ANTARCTIC GROUPS: CHI-SQUARE-.195 and .287, DF-1, P-.16 and .090 respectively  116  Sensing  and F e e l i n g  (according  to the Myers-Briggs  personalities difference  was  statistical  was  not s t r o n g  differences  noted.  enough  statistical  There and  was  groups  capacity  responsibility self-control impression  independence 36.73],  i n the  [M=25.88,  based  hypothesis (sex  on M a n o v a a n d  of the  are described  between  Arctic  below  dominance  34.92],  sociability  31.46],  27.07],  being  experimental  (Wilks  p=.238;  27.92],  v i a conformance  psychological  Anova.  to provide a comparison  difference  20.07],  [M=18.50,  Antarctic)  1975).  of well  [M=23.93,  [M=16.25,  achievement  was  [M=30.93,  sense  are concerned,  settings).  The mean-norms  [M=36.11,  presence  20.76],  4 women  on a n y s u b s c a l e s o f t h e C P I  for status  [M=21.18,  used  MVF(10,18)=1.56,  social  statistical  Inventory -  norms.  (Gough,  no  i n polar  function  individual  the predicted  calculated  no s i g n i f i c a n t  Lambda=.2G2,  31.42],  was  in  since  only  pronounced  treatment  [M=]  control  (with  to support  with American  brackets  format)  an a u x i l i a r y  f a r as sex d i f f e r e n c e s  Psychological  Hotelling-T-Square  in  As  treatment  a r e more  CPI-California  results  t o have  i n t h e two r e g i o n s ,  the  The  types appears  [M=26,  27.99],  [M=32.67,  self-acceptance  [M=35.03,  socialization  34.76], [M=31.09,  33.07],  tolerance  [M=19.25,  18.80],  communality  [M=25.12,  24.84],  [M=25.50,  18.69], mindedness  26.15],  intellectual [M=11.87,  117  good  achievement v i a  efficiency 11.07],  [M=36.32,  flexibility  [M=7.80, The  6.07]  differences  Antarctic  were  p=.073) o n l y and  and  masculinity  between  (Wilks  communality  22.07 r e s p e c t i v e l y ;  Lambda=.217,  MVF(3,35)=.699,  F(1,52)=17.38,  p<.001);  socialization  F ( l , 5 2 ) = 11.41, tolerance  F(1,52)=4.29,  F(l,52)=9.71,  Comparison  the  self-acceptance p=.043;  Arctic  g r o u p s were  t=67.54,  df=13,  presence, df=13,  p=.035 a n d  the A r c t i c  p<.001;  good  Antarctic  in  social  F(1,52)=14.93, self-control  F ( 1 , 5 2 ) = 9 .16,  p=.004;  impression  p<.001;  t=-3.31,  femininity,  were  as  follows:  s o c i a b i l i t y , t=6.82,  t=-2.33, p=.006;  significantly different  (Hotelling-T-square=  These d i f f e r e n c e s  self-control,  and  The  M=24.18  (Wilks  responsibility  F(1,52)=21.57,  p=.041).  t=-4.51,  MVF(18,33)=1.78,  significantly different  p<.001);  i n the  norms  t h e A m e r i c a n norms  social  controls  p<.001).  p=.001) f r o m  17.92]).  p=.003.  with  Experimental from  p=.001;  and  for experimentals;  F(1,50)=12.470,  g r o u p was  [M=15.81,  Lambda=.507,  (higher  experimental  presence  femininity  the experimentals  significant  on  and  df=13,  p=.036;  socialization, df=13,  p=.005;  t=-7.80,  df=13,  118  58759.17, capacity df=13,  overall F(13,l),  for status, p<.001;  responsibility,  t=-5.21, tolerance, p<.001.  df=13,  p=.002;  t=-2.40,  df=13,  The as  Arctic follows  capacity t=3.92,  control  for status, df=12,  in  2.33,  groups  variables:  sociability,  df=13,  p=.03;  df=13,  tolerance,  p=.005; df=13,  control  showed  F(l,13),  df=13,  p=.02,  t=-2.40,  t h e norms  p<.001;  as i n d i c a t e d  t=-67.54,  social  t=-4.51,  df=13, t=-  p=.006; t=-3.31,  and  femininity,  significant  by  df=13,  presence,  df=13,  self-control,  df=13,  p=.041)  presence,  df=13,  p=.031  Hotelling-T-square=  p=.041. The d i f f e r e n c e s  for status  responsibility,  different  t=67.54,  self-control,  i n the Antarctic  58759.1758,  df=13,  p=.002.  F(13,l),  social  t=-4.51,  df=13,  from  t=6.82,  flexibility,  significantly  p<.001;  p=.002;  t=-2.72,  df=12,  for status,  p=.004;  p<.001.  group  capacity  t=-5.23,  t=-2.40,  differences  were:  df=13,  df=12,  p=.048;  58759.175,  df=13,  norms  p=.036):  socialization,  also  responsibility,  t=-5.21,  The  were  the  sociability,  t=-3.48,  df=12,  capacity  t=6.82,  socialization,  t=-7.80,  t=-2.20,  (Hotelling-T-sguare=  the following  p<.001;  p=.02;  from  F(12,l),  p<.001;  p=.07 a n d f e m i n i n i t y ,  Antarctic  t h e norms  66799.437,  presence,  df=12,  tolerance,  differences  df=12,  social  t=-2.67,  df=12,  Experimental from  showed  t=76.34,  p=.002;  p=.018;  t=-3.22,  also  (Hotelling-T-square=  responsibility, df=12,  group  p=.006;  t=-3.31,  p=.03 a n d f e m i n i n i t y ,  119  on s i n g l e  p<.001,  t=-2.33,  sociability,  df=13,  socialization,  df=13,  p=.05;  t=-7.80,  variables  p=.03; t=-5.21,  tolerance,  df=13,  p<.001.  There  were  no  specific  the  mean) o f  Sex  differences  There  were  these  only  differences  variables  were:  women t h a n  5.2.1.2  i n each  and  (above  for control  denoting  control  p=.03  (means  slightly  below  sex  groups  MVF(18,31}=31.00,  women t h a n  or  scale.  variables  experimental  Lambda=.520,  direction  men),  higher  in  the  p=.126).  c a p a c i t y for s t a t u s , F(1,48)=5.303,  higher  F(1,48)=4.707,  i n the  significant  between  (Wilks  slightly  differences  two  Antarctic  patterns  and for  These  p=.02  (means  communality, experimental  men).  Environmental  Environmental  Perception  p e r c e p t i o n was  analyzed  through  the  following  tests:  RMS/P - R u s s e l l Manova test  and  Mood  Anova  measured  environment.  Scale/Person-  were  the Three  used.  There  p e r c e p t i o n and scales  were  no  feelings  norms of  (pleasure, arousal  used.  120  a  available. person  and  in  The  an  dominance)  were  Results and  showed  control  p=.801). groups,  Arctic  Comparing no  5.6  control  groups  (Wilks  the r e s u l t s  groups.  The  MVF(3,50)=6.32,  p=.003].  results  Antarctic  sites  satisfied  than  RMS/E - R u s s e l l comparable  were their  Mood  Scale  and  control;  control  arousal  (Wilks  the pleasure  indicated and,  and  Lambda=.735,  dimension  that  [F(1,52)=9.54, personnel  interestingly,  i n the  more  p=.479), mean  results  only 5.6  two  test  dimensions,  shows  results  is  pleasure  and  f o r the  groups.  not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  a high  on  experimental  f o r Environment - This  experimental  showed  (Wilks  controls.  measured. Table  group  observed  aroused  t o RMS/P a l t h o u g h  MVF(2,26)=.757,  found  21)=.333,  experimental  arousal dimension  a r o u s a l , were  Although  experimental  p=.939).  clearly  more  were  of  MVF(3,  polar  of the A n t a r c t i c  p=.001) w e r e p=.0160] and  These  o f t h e two  differences  [F(l,52)=6.18,  the scores  Lambda=.954,  differences  MVF(3,52)=.134,  shows  between  the scores  statistical  Lambda=.992,  Table  no d i f f e r e n c e  meaningful  the scores on p l e a s u r e showed  (Wilks  of the A r c t i c as compared  negative  121  Lambda =. 9'4 4,  means.  experimental to  their  TABLE 5.6 RUSSELL MOOD SCALES FOR PERSON AND ENVIRONMENT: MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS SCALES GROUPS P< ARCTIC (E) SO ARCTIC (C) SD ANTARCTIC (E) SD ANTARCTIC (C)  PLEASURE (P)  AROU8AL (P)  DOMINANCE <P)  .037 18.93 nsd  30.62 nsd  7.67  24.00 nsd  6.94  7.16  31.88 nsd  20.66 nsd 13.3  8.66  19.22  29.76  8.00  6.32  13.67  24.36  23.33 nsd 7.14 24.37 nsd 6.14 25.42 nsd  SD 4.71 6.41 SCALE: 1 - VERY HAPPY; 9 - VERY UNHAPPY P< ARCTIC (E) SD ARCTIC (C) SD ANTARCTIC (E) SD ANTARCTIC <C) SD  6.32  PLEASURE (E*) .01  AROUSAL <E«) .03  23.13 nsd  -7.63  16.46  16.62  17.87  -4.44  E* - ENVIRONMENT  21.06  20.22  C - CONTROL  39.63 nsd  12.48 nsd  19.07  16.31  27.23  18.13  16.46  26.53  nsd  LEGEND P - PERSON  E - EXPERIMENTAL  nsd •  NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERNECE  SCALE: 1 - EXTREMELY WRONG; 8 - EXTREMELY RIGHT  122  Comparing (Wilks  the  high  significantly  F(2,48)=8.98,  means  p<.001 w e r e  p=.005],  for the  was  no  significant  experimental  MVF(2,44)=1.00,  and  and  found  arousal  Antarctic  in  results both  [ F ( 1, 4 9 ) = 1 7 . 97,  groups.  was  control  Response  statistically  comparisons  differences groups  between (Wilks  with  the  Inventory  calculated  American  by  norms  Manova were  5.7  d i s p l a y s the  experimental  group  was  significantly  Arctic  [Wilks  Lambda=.511,  experimental privacy  [F(1,27)=.001, experimental  women f o r  Lambda=.946,  on  need  for solitude  as  The from  p=.029]; by  the  higher  the  stimulus-seeking  (high sensation-seekers  123  while  using  different  measured  p=.006] and  sites)].  Anova,  results.  MVF(7,21)=2.868,  [F(1,27)=8.94,  p=.012;  and  conducted  Table  variable  and  -  Hotelling-T-square.  controls  men  p=.373).  ERI - E n v i r o n m e n t a l  for  different  differences  There  Data  groups,  [ F ( 1 , 4 9 )=128 . 54,  p<.001] w i t h  the  polar  Lambda=.727,  pleasure  Sex  two  in  the  T A B L E 5.7  ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE INVENTORY:  M E A N S O F PRIVACY, S T I M U L U S - S E E K I N G A N D PASTORALISM FOR THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS  GROUPS  STIM. SEEKING  PRIVACY  PASTORALISM  ARCTIC (E)  76.87  67.56  79.43  SD  8.39  10.55  8.31  ARCTIC (C)  66.16  44.69  76.71  SD  11.08  12.63  9.10  ANTARCTIC (E)  65.98  54.00  72.94  SD  8.94  7.88  7.99  NOTE: THE SIGNIFICANCE L E V E L IS .012 FOR THE ARCTIC C AND E IN STIMULUS-SEEKING AND . 0 0 6 IN PRIVACY. C • CONTROL GROUP  E • EXPERIMENTAL GROUP  SCALE: 1 - STRONGLY DISAGREE  124  5 - STRONGLY AGREE  When  the  Arctic  groups  were  differences  (Wilks  pastoralism  [F(1,53)=7.300,  sensitivity  to  seeking  and  groups  control  no  MVF(7,45)=1.889,  Comparison  with  mean-norms  follows:  the  values  (M=68),  were  the  norms,  meaningful  Arctic  environmental  control showed  to  antiquarianism F(7,28),  experimental difference  norms,  on  stimulusin  the  experimental  Lambda=.772,  different and  only  groups on  from  and  for privacy groups  Comparing  variable  on  compared  need  df=12, to  norms  p<.001).  125  American  were  made  and the  for  Arctic  privacy  p=.002).  a l l s c a l e s but  stimulus-seeking  to  p=.002)  p=.005).  trust  (M=57.7).  Exceptions  df=13,  as  environmental  environmental  control  (t=-3.73,  almost  (1974)  (M=57.3),  found.  (t=3.67,  the  McKechnie  (M=68), need  was  df=13,  difference  experimental  significantly  Antarctic  urbanism  (M=62.5),  (t=3.37,  statistical  Antarctic  obtained  adaptation  seeking group  (Wilks  stimulus-seeking  Comparing  stimulus  Arctic  sensation-seekers  between  (M=77.8),  antiquarianism  for  i n the  on  norms  (M=64.8),  no  low  ones,  p = . 0 1 7 ) were  e x p e r i e n c e ) ] , and  p<.001),  found  Antarctic  p=.094).  pastoralism  adaptation  the  p=.009) h i g h e r  differences was  to  MVF(7.47)=2.78,  environmental  [F(1,53)=14.45, but  The  Lambda=.706,  pure  Antarctic];  compared  The  were not  on  (Hotelling-T-square=101.563,  Results  were  as f o l l o w s : p a s t o r a l i s m  urbanism  (t=3.06,  (t=6.88,  df=34,  p=.03);  need  Antarctic on  The of  p=.004),  p<.001);  c o n t r o l s were  (t=-2.80,  comparison the cases,  (t=-3.06,  df=6,  different  from  direction  of these  differences  The  only  with  the experimental There  were  sex d i f f e r e n c e  variable  "antiquarianism". Overall,  than  (Wilks  restricted  in  Lambda=.6 69, a less  (probably process  (t=-2.23,  df=34,  p=.004).  different df=6,  from  norms  only  p=.012) a n d n e e d f o r  t h e norms groups  indicated,  were  i n most  statistically  no s p e c i f i c  experimental  MVF(7,43)=3.03,  patterns  to the novel  was r e l a t e d  women w e r e  n the  more  conservative  p=.006,  Comparing  and c o n t r o l  environment  groups  than  (Wilks  the urban  where  women  counterparts  the adaptation  was a l r e a d y  126  with  sex differences  p=.011) t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  effect  tothe  (M=62.75 a n d 7 1 . 4 6  p=.003).  conservative attitude  as an environmental  found  MVF(7,74)=3.13,  of innovations  ( F ( 1 , 4 9 ) = 9.737,  the Antarctic  showed  Lambda=.771,  acceptance  respectively;  adaptation  differences.  significant  men  p=.001);  p=.031).  t h e norms.  Sex  df=34;  (t=3.51,  of the findings that  trust  statistically  adaptation  df=34,  environmental  environmental  forprivacy  environmental  privacy  df=34,  (t=3.54,  i n place).  These  data  are tentative  SSS - S e n s a t i o n - S e e k i n g In  an a t t e m p t  the  Anova.  over  Zuckerman 5.8.  groups,  (1979).  Overall,  controls  (Wilks  scores  were  was  Susceptibility  p=.009;  drawn  [(ES),  group  group  found  size.  in arousal  administered  in Figure  norms  results  [(TAS),  5.6  are also  were  (morning Manova  of and  and  according to  d i s p l a y e d i n Table  between A r c t i c  experimental  MVF(4,24)=2.157, differences.  p=.105)  However,  scales  F(l,27)=8.440,  twice  levels  of  p=.007)]  and  indicate there  were  Thrill-and and  F ( 1 , 2 7 ) = 4 . 3 0 4 , p = . 0 4 8 ) ] , among t h e than  among  in Disinhibition  controls; (DIS) or  while  no  Boredom  (BS).  Experience-Seeking Antarctic  variation  i n the sensation seeking  experimental  sample  period. Statistics  in statistical  Experience-Seeking  difference  was  Lambda=.735,  Adventure-Seeking  Arctic  SSS  American  Manova  no s i g n i f i c a n c e higher  diurnal  the research  Means-norms  to the s m a l l  Scale -  to i d e n t i f y  experimental  evening)  due  (ES) had  than  F(l,50)=4.679,  higher  controls p=.035)  scores  (Wilks  f o r the  Lambda=.752,  respectively.  127  experimental F(4,47),  FIGURE 5.6  j SENSATION-SEEKING LEVELS FOR EXPERIMENTAL ! AND CONTROL GROUPS IN THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC (MEANS)  128  TABLE 5 . 8 SENSATION-SEEKING SCORES: COMPARISON OF POLAR EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS WITH URBAN AND AMERICAN CONTROLS GROUPS  AMERICAN  ARCTIC  ANTARCTIC  URBAN  7.8  7.5  6.29  6.26  7.1  2.2  2.6  2.9  4.7  6.87  3.48  4.63  4.7  2.0  1.4  1.8  6.6  5.68  2.64  1.8  4.3  2.3  1.9  0.86  3.1  3.66  1.35  1.73  2.4  2.2  1.1  1.4  SUBSCALES TAS SD  ES SD  DIS SD  BS SD  NOTE: TAS - THRILL - AND ADVENTURE-SEEKING; ES - EXPERIENCE SEEKING; DIS - DISINHIBITION; BS - BOREDOM SUSCEPTIBILITY  THE DIFFERENCE OF ES BETWEEN THE ANTARCTIC AND URBAN GROUPS IS SIGNIFICANT AT THE P - .035 LEVEL. MAXIMUM SCORES FOR ALL SUBSCALES: 10  129  Comparison  Overall,  with  t h e norms  Antarctic  sensation  seekers  e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l than  the Arctic  the  norms,  but  n o t i n TAS, between  (Wilks  Lambda=.516,  follows: BS  ES  p=.043;  Sex  both  the test,  variation  i n Table  and a l s o  5.8. D i f f e r e n c e s  the polar  experimental  F(4,48)=11.22, p<.001).  (F(l,51)=23.05,  F(l,51)=22.39,  Analyzing of  as i n d i c a t e d  groups,  groups  p<.001;  were lower  than  i n a l l scales,  groups  These  lower  were  results  DIS d ( 1 , 5 1 ) = 2 4 . 1 4 ,  noted were a s  p<.001;  p<.001.  t h e morning  except  and a f t e r n o o n p e r i o d s o f a p p l i c a t i o n  forDisinhibition,  of arousal  was f o u n d  F(l,50)=.606,  p=.015  no e v i d e n c e  ( W i l k s Lambda=.813,  of d i u r n a l MVF(4,47)=2.685,  (seeFigure 5.7).  differences  Comparing control  sex differences  groups,  men  sensation-seeking respectively; differences  of the A n t a r c t i c  i n the Antarctic  traits  than  MVF(1,84)=4.16;  between s c o r e s  women  scored  There  o f men a n d women  130  higher  in overall  (M=13.66 a n d 9.00  p=.044).  group.  e x p e r i m e n t a l and  were  no  statistical  i n the control  131  5.2.2.  Affective  Affective  reactions  Biographical for  were  were  m e a s u r e d by L i f e - S t r e s s  Information.  the former,  Results  Reactions  and  as  Life  Stress  This  test  from  Linden  were  considered  Statistics  used  were  Cross-Tabulation tables  Events  has been u s i n g  as norms,  (1984) of s t r e s s  an adapted  events.  as comparative  The  stress  values  Points Above  800  Moderate  500-649  Average  270-499  Low  Less  displays  experimental  and  the findings  control  moderate s t r e s s stress  statistical Antarctic  obtained  norms:  650-799  average  Anova  latter.  version  following  High  showed  f o r the  and  —  Severe  5.9  Manova  and  follows:  Stress  Table  Events  level  The  while  [F(1,27)=5.55;  differences  experimental  (F(l,51)=2.69,  based  groups.  level,  than  on  levels  (average)  270  on means Arctic  of s t r e s s and  p=.107).  132  control  f o r the  experimental  the c o n t r o l p=.026].  of s t r e s s  group  There  group  had  were  no  between the (low) groups  TABLE 5.9 M E A N S A N D STANDARD DEVIATIONS ON LIFE STRESS EVENTS FOR T H E EXPERIMENTAL A N D C O N T R O L G R O U P S IN T H E A R C T I C A N D A N T A R C T I C  REGIONS  ARCTIC  ANTARCTIC  GROUPS *,b  EXPERIMENTAL SD  b  534.81  350.89  240.84  211.28  a CONTROL SD  330.16  261.00  221.66  139.16  NOTE: (a) significant difference p - .007 (b) significant difference p - .020  133  The  Arctic  ones,  groups  ranging  were  from  under  average  more  to  stress  moderate  than  levels  the  Antarctic  [ F ( 1 , 53 ) =7 . 924,  p=.007].  Sex  differences  There  was  stress  no  statistical  events  evidence  for Antarctic  groups  Demographic  and  Biographical -  Demographic  and  b i o g r a p h i c a l data  level,  m a r i t a l - s t a t u s , place  experience and  count  5.10  i n remote frequency  d i s p l a y s the  Because  of  the  considered. younger years  people,  range;  individuals mostly  small  of  Antarctic  more  mature  mature  to  each  (45-65  s u b j e c t s were  and  and  of  Table  groups.  not  i n the  while  (31-40  listing  mostly  subjects  range);  on  control  women w e r e  mostly  previous  questions.  controls also  prevalent  134  the  life-  educational-  based  comprised  mature  Arctic  age,  were  of  on  comprised  ones.  people  groups  and  groups  data  of  on  p=.737).  motivation  Statistics  experimental  younger  (F(1,49)=.113,  comprised  size,  20-30 y e a r s ,  and  differences  for experimental  sample  Antarctic  sex  origin,  responses  results  Arctic  of  locations. of  of  of 31-40  mature comprised in  the  range).  TABLE  5.10  B I O G R A P H I C A L DATA:  VARIABLES LISTED FOR THE ARCTIC AND EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL VARIABLES  ARCTIC (E) %  (C) %  ANTARCTIC  GROUPS  ANTARCTIC (E) %  (C) %  AGE (Yrs.) 20 - 30  62.6  23.1  31.6  14.3  31 - 40  18.8  23.1  62.6  86.7  40 & UP  18.8  53.8  16,8  HIGH-SCH. OR LESS  25.0  61.6  66.3  42.9  TECHNICAL SCH.  37.5  23.1  36.8  14.3  UNIVERSITY  37.5  16.4  7.9  42.9  SINGLE  62.5  89.2  26.3  MARRIED  31.3  23.1  73.7  100  DIVORCED  6.3  7.7  BIG CITY  62.6  46.2  66.3  60.0  SMALL TOWN  25.0  23.1  42.1  42.9  RURAL FLAT  6.3  30.8  2.6  7.1  6.3 N - 16  N - 13  N > 39  N - 14  EDUCATION  MARITAL STATUS  ORIGINS  RURAL MOUNTAIN  135  Fewer  of  the  high-school controls mature of  Arctic  diplomas,  (perhaps  subjects with showed  university comprised  55%  of  the  from  small  ones  came  in  both  subjects, while  place  from  towns.  experimental  city  figures  Arctic  and  and  were  locations  mostly  diplomas. and  groups  Antarctic  be  a  42%  spent  mainly  big  big  cities, 62%  small  of  town;  the  same  of  cities; with  the for  respectively.  followed  most  37%  Arctic the  Controls  tendency  of  groups.  Antarctic  Arctic  most  subjects,  from  and  Antarctic  remote  while  25%  55%  experienced  technical  control  the  more  comprised  subjects  came  of  isolated  the  subjects  length  the  where  experimental  big  had  married.  to  Among  N=16),  high-school  and  proved  a  adult  average  for  both  single  The  isolation  of  and  experimental  experimental  the  groups  education  percentages  the  to  p r o p o r t i o n of  experimental  the  of  higher  life,  the  the  the  c o n t r o l s were  and  (compared  Arctic  origin,  from  Antarctic,  of  and  childhood  of  high-school  similar  mostly  Geographical their  a  group  e d u c a t i o n a l - l e v e l i n c r e a s e s among  Antarctic  degrees.  experimentals  but  because  subjects).  Controls  experimental  time  personnel a  n i l value  people  that  experimental  showed  had was  (Resolute  lived  the an  observed Bay  site) .  136  subjects  had  following results: average i n the  of  6 months  same  is considered  a  31% in  category semi-  The  average  Glossary) months. (N=3) each  time  of exposure  For example,  a t 4,7,8,  and  14 m o n t h s  time  months.  In c o n t r a s t ,  subjects  months  of  of exposure  were  isolation.  the  i n the A r c t i c  i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f 12 m o n t h s  subjects  isolated  f o r personnel i n the A r c t i c  average  that  t o an  had a l r e a d y subjects  of exposure  Arctic  (N=5)  the A n t a r c t i c  control  exposure;  period  4 t o 14  percentage  and  one  ranged  4 to  number  of  of exposure,  were  i n other categories,  group  18  (6%)  the 18  Antarctic  which  exposed  was  person  from  been  meant  t o 12 m o n t h s i n  (individuals  f o r both  (see  For controls,  of the t o t a l  to isolation  or A n t a r c t i c )  from  the highest  of exposure.  a t t h e 12 m o n t h  Other  ranged  to isolation  13%  environment  regions.  up  to  68  w i t h many y e a r s i n  None  of the  subjects  had e x p e r i e n c e i n r e m o t e  environments.  Data  which  isolated, 56%  a n a l y z e d p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e of s u b j e c t s isolated  of the A r c t i c  Arctic  and  semi - i s o l a t e d  locations,  and t h e r e s t  locations.  The  subjects  t o 20%  indicated  that  p e r s o n n e l had p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e  (extremely isolated  opposed  locations  i n extremely  figures  sites),  had been  6%  had e x p e r i e n c e d  exposed  f o r the A n t a r c t i c  in semi-isolated  to  were  137  isolated  isolated  semi-isolated  environments.  had e x p e r i e n c e d e x t r e m e l y  High  80% None  in isolated of the  environments.  as  Data the  on  motivation  experimental  for  Arctic  previously  unemployed  to  in  perform  subjects duties the  had  was  their been  the  Antarctic  going  to  showed  and  the  majority  they  did  not  have  or  of  o r i g i n ; none  unemployed.  The  motivation  people,  regions  group  place  main  polar  but  not  high  for for  of  other of  available  jobs  Antarctic  paid  of  Arctic  northern  and  of  were  the  the  83%  controls  salary  28%  that  for  polar  and  71%  of  southern  controls.  Experiencing  the  environment  money  two  polar  in  the  subjects). Antarctic both  It  was  polar  regions  regions  followed  subjects).  by  Career  was  was  not  judged (by  to  be  6 Arctic  as  and  important 8  adventure  (6  Arctic  development  as  a  considered  to  be  Antarctic and  13  motivation a  as  priority  to by  go  to  the  subjects.  5.2.3  This of  Community  section  community  sociability within segment  the  comprises behaviour, and  such  states  and  as  two  and  to  which  on  mood-states,  imagery  phenomena  Stress  One  include  refers  levels  behaviour.  sites  findings  Social  segments.  recreational  experimental  refers  Issues  Behaviour  also  the  social  stress stress  addressed.  measures  settings  i d e n t i f i e d . The  sleep-habits,  138  the  satisfaction,  Behaviour  was  were  of  to  second  dimension. and  arousal  Because was  Esperanza  also  (i)  Sociability  over  Rating  measures  Anova.  The  results  There  presented  analysis.  question part  Antarctic attached  5.11.  period. This Thus,  fact  data  refer  Some  were  norms  the data submitted  for this  t o 19 v a r i a b l e s  of the v a r i a b l e s  One o f t h e m  i s "my  modules  where  experimental  groups  (Marambio  the sense  Significant  A l l of the f a c t o r s  measured  139  (means) was t o Manova  related  were  to  omitted  neighbourhood",  groups  had l i v i n g  are presented  c a n be f o u n d  from since  experimental  n o r t o one o f t h e  of neighbourhood  differences  analysis  test.  was n o t a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e two A r c t i c  experimental  resulted i n  statistical  i n which  no a v a i l a b l e  of the A n t a r c t i c  applicable).  this  of days  here  groups  of the s u b j e c t s d i d not complete  treatment,  were  to the experimental  by a d j u s t i n g t h e p r o p o r t i o n s  number  this  only  of responses.  satisfaction.  statistical this  administered  conducted  After  and  personal  adaptation  -  p e r i o d . Some  the d i f f e r e n t  recorded.  and  were  frequencies  primarily  over  Sheets  questionnaires within  different was  familial  Behaviour  a three-week  their  of f a m i l i e s ,  analyzed.  Community  These  i s composed  quarters i n was n o t i n Table  i n the Appendix.  T A B L E 5.11 M E A N S A N D STANDARD D E V I A T I O N S O N S O C I A B I L I T Y L E V E L S OF T H E A R C T I C A N D A N T A R C T I C EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS GROUPS VARIABLES WEATHER  ARCTIC EXP.  ANTARCTIC EXP.  4.94  6.16  .91  .64  4.69  6.08  SD  .09  .90  SPOUSE  4.86  6.06  .36  .79  4.46  6.22  .18  .71  4.89  6.07  SD  .37  .79  OTHERS  3.44  6.02  SD  1.08  .81  FAMILY  3.73  6.08  3D  2.03  .99  SD FRIENDS  SD OLD CHILD 3D MYSELF  Pf .001  .006  .007  .001  .007  .001  .001  NOTE: THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN POLAR EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS ARE SIGNIFICANT AS ABOVE, F(1,30) SCALE: 1 • VERY DISSATISFIED! 6 • VERY SATISFIED 140  Data  on c o n t r o l s  were  absent  procedure  of t h i s  test.  There  a clear  indication  by  was  Wilks  higher  Lambda  levels  test  i n the A r c t i c  Sex  differences  (Wilks  Leisure The a  This  It  future) LAB  were  Lambda=.332,  of the d a i l y  5.11),  Lambda=.238,  application  although  not evident  MVF(19,12)=.108),  and s o c i a b i l i t y i n t h e  of  Antarctic  F(l,30).  not s i g n i f i c a n t  MVF(12,19)=1.268,  between  men  a n d women  p=.343).  Activities -  named  used  behaviour  LAB-Leisure  research  was  groups  levels  recreational  test  (Table  of s a t i s f a c t i o n  than  Satisfaction  (Wilks  because  instrument  of the subjects  A c t i v i t i e s Blank investigated  for identifying  previous  2 segments:  intellectual,  slow  future  (adventure,  scales  intellectual,  living,  the past sports  ego-recognition,  and c o n t r o l  and glamour  slow-living  141  (past  1975).  and  groups.  (mechanics,  crafts,  through  behaviour.  and p l a n n e d  scales  mechanics,  identified  (Mckechnie,  leisure  a c t i v i t i e s of the experimental  comprises  was  sports);  The  crafts, and t h e  easy-living,  and  clean-living).  Each  of these  (see  categories contains a series  results  analysis  (Wilks  significant groups.  activities  differences  water-skiing crafts  squash,  p=.047, Arctic  leatherwork,  poetry,  as a c t i v i t i e s  such  working,  (football,  (Wilks  as mechanics  jogging,  respectively  experimental  group  than  M=55.12 a n d 4 1 . 6 9 ;  F(1,27)=5.353, (acting,  p=.029,  modern  F(l,27)  higher  =4.351,  i n the future.  MVF(14,38)=4.837,  p=.005) w e r e  more  by t h e c o n t r o l s  142  dance,  by t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  volleyball,  behaviour.  past  skin-diving,  F(1,51)=5.504,  table-tennis,  F(1,51)=8.489,  mountain  (auto-repair, carpentry,  M=43.97 a n d 3 7 . 0 7 ,  control  (M=22.30).  biking,  t o be d e v e l o p e d  Lambda=.359,  and  (M=28.87)  weight-lifting rated  no  preferred  controls  and e g o - r e c o g n i t i o n  writing  canoeing,  group  p=.003), sewing  showed  highly  (camping,  (F(1,27)=10.391,  the A n t a r c t i c ,  activities  the  by t h e i r  Overall  experimental  (skiing,  a s more  M=18.81 a n d 1 5 . 4 6 ) w e r e group  Arctic  experimental  as adventure  M=23.56 a n d 1 8 . 4 6 , judo,  sports  p=.015] t h a n  (weaving,  and Anova.  MVF(14,14)=.163)  judged  by t h e A r c t i c  such  on M a n o v a  between  glamour  t e n n i s ) were  [F(l,27)=6.70, Activities  was b a s e d  Lambda=.36 8,  However,  climbing,  wood  activities  Appendix).  Statistical  In  of l e i s u r e  hunting,  p=.023);  M=26.69 highly  as past  p<.001),  sports  a n d 21.35 rated  leisure  by  Activities  such as c r a f t s  p=.043) were  highly  Slow-living gardening,  M=41.58 a n d  (baseball,  bowling, high  experimental  group.  differences  behaviour p=.003). Arctic  p=.003); and were  were  o f t h e two noted  sports  rated  highly  such as  intellectual  experimentals  by A r c t i c p e r s o n n e l  Antarctic  experimentals,  desired  as a  future  MVF(14,40)=3.036, (M=33.0 a n d  as p a s t  F(1,53)=7.226,  F(1,53)=9.869, F(1,53)=9.356), p<.001)  activities.  f o r the A r c t i c  p = . 0 1 0 ) was  b y t h e same g r o u p .  143  27.58 f o r  F(1,53)=23.852,  47.97 r e s p e c t i v e l y  activity  of the  groups, i n l e i s u r e  respectively,  21.89,  control  F(1,51)=4.016,  26.69 r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  (M=28.87 a n d  (M=55.12 a n d  and  clean-living  experimental  Lambda=.484,  experimentals.  window-shopping,  activities  (Wilks  adventure  and  p=.035) and  polar  (M=31.81 a n d  sports  friends,  for future  F ( 1 , 5 1 ) = 4 . 301,  but n o t by  37.85 f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l  choices  Antarctic  glamour  visiting  31.50,  child-related activities  Activities  and  by c o n t r o l s  F(1,51)=4.588,  p=.050) were  The  rated  (dining-out,  respectively,  (M=27.93 a n d  Only and  highly  rated  Sex d i f f e r e n c e s  Sex d i f f e r e n c e s were 20.051,  p<.001).  Antarctic crafts  ( W i l k s Lambda=7.797,  Women i n b o t h  g r o u p s had a h i g h e r  activities  F(l,49)=31.904, Mechanical  c o n t r o l and d e s i r e than  (M f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l  p<.001);  p<.001),  i n the past  and f u t u r e  i n the past  experimental  Behavioural  m o r e b y men  than  of data  because  p = . 0 0 1 ) b y men  b y women. S p o r t s  within were  b y women i n t h e A n t a r c t i c  concerning  behavioural  of the p e c u l i a r i t i e s procedure  by B e c h t e l  (Barker  & Ledbetter  on h a b i t a b i l i t y  (1980)  i n remote  size  s t a t i o n s and t h e reduced  of polar  personnel  adaptation  during  The  1955) had  f o r the Nanisivik  settings.  another  s e t t i n g s was  of the s i t e s .  and W r i g h t ,  dissertation,  transient  f u t u r e ] M=41.17  S e t t i n g Survey —  collection  project  group than  more  groups.  processing  modified  women=33.42).  ( [ p a s t ] M=27.42  ([mechanical,  A n t a r c t i c experimental  data  women=34.25,  p=.028) were  the  modified  t o be i n v o l v e d i n  and s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s  27.25 r e s p e c t i v e l y , F ( 1 , 4 9 ) = 1 2 . 9 8 2 ,  The  men  (M f o r c o n t r o l m e n = 1 9 . 8 5 ,  and  played  experimental  men=23.14,  20.25 r e s p e c t i v e l y , F ( 1 , 4 9 ) = 5 . 1 5 1 ,  preferred  MVF(14,36)=  (M=45.85 a n d 2 7 . 5 0 f o r men a n d women r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  F(l,49)=29.418, and  noted  For  original been Mine  this  h a d t o be made d u e t o t h e s m a l l  the winter  144  off-site season.  and  within-site  Therefore, welfare  indices  rating,  such as " g e n e r a l  richness",  and d e m o g r a p h i c e t h n i c  data  pressure-ratings,  were  not  cons i d e r e d .  Data were c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h o u t with  the person  appropriate inside  forms  of  p e r f o r m e d ) were a polar  according Action  daily  prepared.  to the type  included  were d e f i n e d  behaviour  according  patterns  by B a r k e r  Activities  or  t h e e n v i r o n m e n t were s c o r e d  clean-up  then  of  behaviour  used  complex  rooms  classified by B a r k e r  as b e i n g  i n which s e t t i n g s  Lists  o f human  or four  to the f o l l o w i n g  Aesthetics:  place  the operation  three  s e t t i n g s were  of a c t i o n  took  were n o t e d .  For example,  conducted  coded i n  which  ( s e t t i n g s where any f o r m  s e t t i n g s ) . The  patterns  Activities  the past year  station generally  (behavioural  of  (see Appendix).  settings  interviews  of t h e s e t t i n g and t h e n  the s e t t i n g during  behavioural was  i n charge  structured  large  (1968).  divisions  definitions:  improve  the appearance  as a e s t h e t i c s ,  e.g.  laundry-room.  Business: articles available  Activities  of m e r c h a n d i s e , i n polar  Professionalism: services,  which  involved  the buying  e.g. p o s t - o f f i c e and  and s e l l i n g  of  souvenirs  stations.  When l e a d e r s  t h e s e t t i n g was  i n a s e t t i n g were  scored  paid  for professionalism.  145  for their  Education;  Settings  performed  were  Government: scored  scored  Settings  teaching  for education,  i n which  laws  and l e a r n i n g e.g. school  were  were  in  enforced  Esperanza.  or obeyed  were  f o r government.  Nutrition: the  i n which  The p r e p a r a t i o n  setting  Personal  was  scored  Appearance:  themselves,  or consumption  of food  by  for nutrition.  When p a r t i c i p a n t s d r e s s  a setting  provided  was  scored  up o r g r o o m  f o r personal  appearance,  e.g. a  barber-shop.  Physical raised Since  Health:  physical health many  settings  as a i d s  were  Recreation:  associated  were  Behaviour was  scored  for this  that  promoted  action  pattern.  c l a s s e s , swimming,  a n d games  or  were  of p h y s i c a l h e a l t h ,  such  accordingly.  that  scored  Any s e t t i n g with  had b e h a v i o u r  t o t h e improvement  scored  performers  Religion;  which  of the e x e r c i s e  considered  the  Settings  provided as  was  gratification  to  recreational.  i n which  worship  immediate  the performed  scored  Esperanza.  146  behaviour  as r e l i g i o n ,  was  e.g. chapel  in  Social  Contact:  scored  as  Data  social  obtained  transforming settings  Figure  Interpersonal  in this the  shows t h e the  can  that  noted  lowest  s u r v e y were s t a t i s t i c a l l y  number  o c c u p a n c y of be  of  hours  behavioural  the  "Business"  and  "professionalism"  associated  with  activities  the  DND  the  (Department  government support patterns for  Other the  of  and  the  work  probably  because  and  and  collecting  and  of  sites.  Bay.  weather  tourist  Because  Both  data  for of  of  links  for  the  direct  action  had  lower  use  of  scores  uniforms  days.  Antarctic sites  habitability were  147  noted.  and  of  parties  "government"  enforced  It  activities  Mould  appearance  the  time  scored  polar  communication  sites,  of  to  performs a v a r i e t y  Defense).  Personal  d i f f e r e n c e s , r e l a t e d to  Arctic  i n Eureka  supplying  in a l l polar  behavioural  action patterns.  were p r o m i n e n t  scientific  National  were h i g h l y r a t e d .  Esperanza,  during  Pole,  the  " a e s t h e t i c s " was  In a d d i t i o n , Eureka  supporting  of  for a l l three  government s i t e s  consumption.  to  similar  action patterns  s t a t i o n s are  travelling  were  treated,  settings according  action pattern  relatively  extra  kind  time.  s e t t i n g i n each category  was  public  i n percentages  i . e . occupancy  and  the  any  contact.  were most u s e d ,  5.8  r e l a t i o n s h i p s of  design,  between  FIGURE 5.8  BEHAVIOUR SETTINGS IN EUREKA. MOULD BAY AND ESPERANZA ACCORDING TO OCCUPANCY TIME 100-  m V,  I si  EUREKA  M O U L D BAY  ESPERANZA  EUREKA  M O U L D BAY  ESPERANZA  80-  t-  o z  <  LU  60-]  t  i  148  £ 3 AESTHETIC • • BUSINESS PROFES CD EDUCAT GOVERNT  In  the  Arctic,  facilities transient  Mould  room,  barracks,  At  but  most  used  operation  electronic  had  Bay,  the  operations  arranged  recreation-hall. point  the  similar  other  different  (measured  was  the  group  setting  was  used).  The  behavioural  during  the  winter  by  station  personnel  dining-room,  weather  office  and  because  of  the  location  of  d i n i n g - and  TV-room,  resulting  O.I.C's  by  the  TV-  the  of  the  garage,  contained  TV-room  of  facilities,  in totally  complex  The  number  warehouse,  l a b o r a t o r y and  were  focal  a  complex,  but  the  i n which  Eureka  etc.)  Mould  not  behavioural hours  and  (power-plant,  recreation-hall, layouts.  Bay  the  number  settings  season  (officer  of  were  in  the  charge)  office.  In  contrast,  attached social least  the  contacts at  layout. hall)  to  meal The  was  associated  times),  operations  the  with  Eureka  behavioural  focal  recreation-hall  r e c r e a t i o n and  had  complex,  the  a  more  of  frequent  pleasure  satisfactory  (particularly point  i n more  the  (at  building  recreation  activities  at  the  station.  The  behavioural  was  the  own  separate  point  at  dining/recreation-room.  quarters. meal  focal  They  crews also  had used  a  Antarctic site,  This  building, physically  Thus,  times.  the  was  d i s t a n t from  tendency the  setting  to  setting  activities.  149  located  the  socialize  Esperanza, in i t s  livingp r i m a r i l y at  for r e c r e a t i o n a l  ( i i ) Soc i a 1 S t r e s s  MS."  Mood a n d  Sleep _  These s e l f - r e p o r t s daily,  over  adjusting  a three-week  the  (Yes  the  and  treatment.  The  questions,  were based  of  the  on  results  other  the  Anova. Because of  two  were e x p l a i n e d as  was  number  A l l the  variables,  analyzed of  days  dichotomized  open-ended  of d a t a  treatment,  of the  Sleep  groups  to t h i s p r o p o r t i o n a l  frequency  this  experimental  different  were r e c o r d e d .  means o f t h e  r e p o r t , comprised  the  were s u b j e c t e d  categories. After  Manova and self  data  No)  to the  p e r i o d . Mood a n d  p r o p o r t i o n s over  (means) i n w h i c h variables  were a d m i n i s t e r e d  format  data  recorded was  of the  i n each  submitted  Mood a n d  s e c t i o n s (mood a n d  to  Sleep  sleep),  the  follows:  Mood  Results the  s h o w e d a g e n e r a l mood t h a t was  polar experimental  groups,  slightly  although  at  no  disturbed for  significant  ( W i l k s L a m b d a = . 0 8 7 , M V F ( 9 , 4 3 ) = 2 . 1 9 , p = . 1 0 4 ; M=4.64 a n d Antarctic  g r o u p s w e r e more p e r t u r b e d  conditions Antarctic sociable [possibly  [M=2.51 a n d groups,  2.87  by  respectively  prevailing f o r the  F ( 1 , 5 1 ) = 5 . 8 1 5 , p=.020] and  (M=4.60 a n d a cultural  5.10  respectively,  effect]  than  150  the  3.22);  weather  Arctic  and  were s l i g h t l y  F(1,51)=7.728,  Arctic  ones.  level  more  p=.009);  Living  conditions  respectively  ( M = 3 . 4 8 a n d 3.73 f o r t h e A r c t i c  i n a scale  of very  bothered=4;[F(1,51)=4.703, slightly,  The  as a concerned  same t r e n d  respectively, subjects These  of  results  the s i t e  buildings  work  of the A n t a r c t i c  rather  than attached  Antarctic  group,  also  be r e s p o n s i b l e  t h e houses were This  conditions  of the crews as p=.014).  personnel design  individual  had an e f f e c t to their  of  original  characteristics  mature and e x p e r i e n c e d  f o r these  3.78  and t h e b u i l d i n g  the i n d i v i d u a l  comprising  (M=3.53 a n d  by m i l i t a r y  modules.  in similar  In addition,  crews.  F(1,51)=6.522,  rules,  In Esperanza  perceived,  by t h e t y p e o f  sites  organizational  the families  were  p=.014) a n d t h e r o l e  probably are explained  houses).  environment.  could  by t h e A r c t i c  f o r personal  F(1,51)=6.522,  more r i g i d  grouping  factor  Antarctic  and not a t a l l  p=.035] i n t h e A r c t i c  (M=3.59 a n d 3.87 r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  administration (with  was n o t e d  bothered=l  and  of the  individuals,  differences.  S l e e p and Dreams  There  was no e v i d e n c e  Antarctic in  of insomnia  i n either  groups.  Isolated  cases  two i n d i v i d u a l  reports.  Both polar  (M=3.55 a n d 3.77 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) Appendix  of insomnia  151  or  were d e t e c t e d  groups rated  from average  f o r the scale).  the A r c t i c  sleep  t o good ( s e e  only  quality  The  length  and  6.40  and  factors  During  .12,  sexual  of  the day  or  cold  dreams  o f dream  categories  .067,  .25,  Arctic,  material  of d i s a g r e a b l e  family  respectively, difference  .005,  the A n t a r c t i c  {nsd};  and,  sunlight  dark  season  shows  (nsd);  f o r the A r c t i c  fall  .001  152  groups  heat  reported  The  (M=.075 and  more  the  regions.  M=.16  places  and  .53  (no s i g n i f i c a n t (more  F(1,51)=11.51,  i n the p=.001);  showing the e f f e c t  respectively,  p=.026).  events  and  between  regions  friends  unknown  groups,  p=.001)]  f o r both  f o r both  respectively,  p=.008)],  (but d i d not r e c a l l )  Dreams  p=.003);  o n e s bi-  p=.040)],  the A r c t i c  p=.005]  (M=.32  p=.049)].  i n the A n t a r c t i c ,  F(1,51)=10.06,  (M=.125 a n d  the A n t a r c t i c  that  groups.  the  disturbed  p(1,51)=12.186,  to neutral  (more  M=.185 a n d . 0 2 0  more  F(1,51)=4.080,  crews  emergencies f o r both  F(1,51)=4.430,  sexual  - n s d ) ; games  Among  .071, F ( 1 , 5 1 ) = 7 . 5 2 8 ,  .028,  were:  and  g r o u p s were  F(1,51)=8.740,  of dreams  personnel.  p=.006) t h a n  [M=.060 a n d  [M=.082 a n d  than  content  Arctic  hours f o r the A r c t i c  shifts  [M=.36 a n d . 1 8 ,  [M=.094 a n d  CM=.48 a n d  6.86  night  F ( 1, 51) =8.227,  restlessness  was  Antarctic  were  sleep,  arousal  Analysis  sleep  hours f o r the  disturbing poles.  of t h e i r  of the  F ( 1 , 5 1 ) = 5 . 258,  Sex  differences  There and  were  women  no  evidences  i n the polar  of s t a t i s t i c a l sites  (Wilks  differences  Lambda=.166  between  men  MVF(9,43)=1.04,  /  p=.510.  Stress  and  Stress  and A r o u s a l  This the  test  Arousal  measured r e a c t i o n s  ratings  i n four  arousal  positive  dimensions:  Data  were  with  the r e s u l t s  treated  showed  by Manova as there  that  stress  than  the c o n t r o l s .  such  as  feeling  experimental  (positive the  than  tense, Arctic  direction;  controls  below. Data  stress  to provide  no n o r m s  a  to were  negative, 1985).  comparison  available.  subjects  felt  slightly  o n e s b u t n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y more was  indicated  uncomfortable, group  according  (Cox and Mackay,  experimental  stress  alert,  b u t a t no  positive,  and Anova  the A n t a r c t i c This  and a r o u s a l indicated  negative  were  Arctic  as  stress  and a r o u s a l  more  The  of s t r e s s  of s p e c i f i c a d j e c t i v e s  grouped  Results  —  was  unpleasant  also  awake,  153  slightly  attentive  statistically  by  and  significant  self-ratings and more  concerned. aroused  lively) level.  than  Comparing  Antarctic  statistical did  differences  not i n d i c a t e  MVF(4,48)=1.678, significantly 4.16  following uneasy,  noted.  control Although  differences  aroused  the A r c t i c  adjectives:  ones  tense,  distressed  Wilks  (Wilks  according worried,  values  Lambda=.877, groups  direction;  respectively,  no  Lambda  experimental  ( i n a negative  and A n t a r c t i c  groups,  were  M=3.25 a n d  F ( 1 , 5 1 ) = 4 . 73,  to the r a t i n g s apprehensive,  of the bothered,  etc.).  differences  With  respect  statistical  t o sex d i f f e r e n c e s , differences  MVF(4,44)=1.248,  The  and  p=.17) t h e A n t a r c t i c  more  nervous,  were  statistical  f o r the A r c t i c  p=.034) t h a n  Sex  experimental  Hopkins  Hopkins  sensitivity, Antarctic (IBEA, shown  Symptom  (Wilks  no  evidences  of  Lambda=.898,  Checklistsymptoms  somatization, depression  experimental  International i n Table  found  more,  p=.304).  identified  dimensions:  were  once  of t e n s i o n and  obsessive-compulsive,  and a n x i e t y . and  stress  control  Biomedical  Scores  groups  Expedition  5.12.  154  over  5  interpersonal  f o r the A r c t i c  as w e l l  as  the  and  norms  i n the Antarctic)  are  TABLE  5.12  HOPKINS SYMPTOMS CHECKLIST:  M E A N SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS  GROUPS  ARCTIC CONTROL  ANTARCTIC CONTROL NORM8 I BE A  SUBSCALES SOMATIZATION  17.12  17.61  14.76  16.36  14.42  3.6  4.1  3.2  1.9  2.6  12.43  11.84  10.07  9.42  11.68  2.0  3.4  2.6  2.1  3.8  INTERPERSONAL 11.87 SENSITIVITY SD 2.9  11.69  9.42  9.14  9.26  2.9  2.2  1.8  2.3  DEPRESSION  16.06  16.09  14.23  14.00  14.17  3.1  4.6  2.3  2.4  2.9  8.78  8.69  7.13  7.67  7.33  2.1  2.7  1.6  1.3  1.7  88.23  72.47  73.06  74.08  20.1  12.3  8.8  16.6  SD OBSESSIVE" COMPULSIVE SD  SD ANXIETY SD  TOTAL SYMPTOM 90.12 SCORES SD 16.8  NOTE: STATISTICAL DIFFERENCE FOR ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC GROUPS SOMATIZATION F(1,62) - 6.492, P - .023 (48) MAXIMUM SCORE OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE F(1,62) • 11.061, P - .002 (40) INTERPERSONAL SENSIT. F(1.62) • 10.847, P - .002 (28) DEPRESSION F(1,52) - 6.876, P - 021 (44) ANXIETY F0.62) - 10.132, P - .002 (24) SCALE: 1 - NOT AT ALL; 4 - EXTREME 155  No s t a t i s t i c a l  differences,  when c o m p a r i n g  Arctic  MVF(32,5)=.492,  and  (Wilks  Comparing were  both  noted  relatively  lower  experimental  Sex  women  level  groups  and A n t a r c t i c  than  groups  was s c o r e d  the A r c t i c  ones  found  (Wilks  experimental  p=.731).  statistical  MVF(5,48)=2.845,  of s t r e s s  no s t a t i s t i c a l  sex d i f f e r e n c e s  p=.083).  (experimental  differences  p=.025). A  by the A n t a r c t i c  across  higher  higher  score  a l l dimensions.  Measures ability  women than  dimension.  Men  f o r women  (Wilks  Lambda=.806,  b e t w e e n men a n d was  related  i n the control  i n the experimental  [for experimental:  men M=8.85,  Imagination  noted  and c o n t r o l ) f o r t h e A n t a r c t i c  f o r men  observed  control:  than  were  The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e  the obsessive-compulsive  scored  of  experimental  Lambda=.771,  groups  MVF(5,44)=2.106,  was  p=.778);  were  differences  Overall,  to  and c o n t r o l  Lambda=.9 42, M V F ( 4 6 , 5 ) = . 5 5 8 ,  polar  (Wilks  a l ldimensions,  experimental  Lambda=.903, controls  across  group,  group  but also  i n the experimental  a  group  men M=10.35, women=7.75;  women=10.0,  (F(1,48)=1.158,  p=.039).  Inventory —  were  taken  t o imagine  imaginative  on 3 m a j o r vividly,  involvement.  dimensions:  self-predicted  childhood  play  Data  treated  were  Anova.  156  history  and  history  b y Manova and  There  were  no a v a i l a b l e  norms  to provide  a comparison  with the  findings.  Comparing  the A r c t i c  significant  differences  MVF(13,15)=1.52, groups  (Wilks  significant sensitive  experimental were  p=.225.  found  However,  Lambda=.660,  level,  i n comparison  p=.02) t o e v e n t s  which  and  Comparing  both  groups,  Lambda=.388,  MVF(15,39)=4.084,  higher  F(1,53)=6.184, dimension (in  slightly  higher  (slightly  higher  respectively; between  p<.001).  9.676,  t h e two e x p e r i m e n t a l  were  noted  an e x c i t i n g  sense  respectively;  157  involvement  with  novel  companion being  (also  a n d 2.05 r e s p e c t i v e l y , of physical  memories  M=1.81 a n d 2.74  p=.003) was a n o t h e r groups.  (Wilks  regions  of an imaginary  was c o n c e r n e d  f o r the A n t a r c t i c ,  F ( 1,53)=  and A n t a r c t i c  i n the imaginative  Imaginary  more  curiosity  The two p o l a r  [(M=2.75  a t no  F(1,50)=5.75,  M=3.81 a n d 3.05  reading  even were  intellectual  differences  difference  f o r the Arctic p=.013)].  experimental  controls,  the A r c t i c  included the existence  i n v o l v e d when  F(1,53)=6.538,  their  f o r the A r c t i c ;  c h i l d h o o d ) . Another  emotionally  the Antarctic  control=2.23;  statistical  p=.016) d i f f e r e d  which  no  Lambda=.362,  to their  stimulate  experimental  (slightly  (Wilks  groups,  MVF(15,36)=1.236,p=.291),  (M: e x p e r i m e n t a 1 = 1 . 6 6 ,  imagination.  and c o n t r o l  difference  The d e s i r e the  t o have new p h y s i c a l  Antarctic,  Antarctic,  M=1.93 and 3.07 r e s p e c t i v e l y  F(1,53)=12.651, p=.001) a l s o  both p o l a r  Sex  experiences  (slightly  higher f o r  f o r t h e A r c t i c and  scored  differently in  regions.  differences  Overall,  t h e r e were no s t a t i s t i c a l  differences  indications  ( W i l k s Lambda=.604, MVF(15,34)=1.484,  Comparing e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l imaginative control  of sex  t h a n women  within  g r o u p s , men were r a t h e r  [scale  used was more  imaginative=l,  the context of a s e l f - n a r r a t i v e  o f an  imaginative h i s t o r y  ( F ( 1 , 48)=4. 369, p=.042). The a b i l i t y  experience  memories by men and women was a l s o  physical  differently  l=exactly,  to r e -  rated  (M e x p e r i m e n t a l men=2.71 women=3.0, c o n t r o l  women=2.00; F(1,48)=5.11, p=.028; s c a l e : all;  men=3.42  4=not a t  F(1,48)=5.118, p=.028). Women from t h e c o n t r o l  g r o u p had  more i m a g i n a t i v e memories t h a n women i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l Involvements  including  mountain-climbing, differently for life  more  (M men e x p e r i m e n t a l = l . 6 8 women=1.25;  men=1.71 women=2.00  more r e a l i s t i c = 2  p=.166).  relatively  sky-diving  by men and women  t h e s e n s e of a c h i e v e m e n t ,  high-risk  activities  and s k i i n g were a l s o (scale:  group.  such as  judged  l = n o t engaged, 2=engaged  3=engaged  t o escape  from  everyday  and e n j o y t h e f e e l i n g of e x c i t e m e n t , power and f r e e d o m ) .  158  The  results  were  women = 1.75; p=.  It  M f o rcontrol  men = 1.85  men=2.04  women = 3.00;  F ( 1 , 48 )=4 . 834,  033.  c a n be n o t e d  women  Marital This and  that  Adjustment  mostly  treatment  used.  comparison items,  agree).  occasions  were  rated Three  on w h i c h item  while  control=  experimental  Adjustment  The t e s t  questions  evoked  calmly  group  d i d i t once  control=2.35;  The A r c t i c  always  to provide  a  consisted of responses disagree)  significantly on r e l i g i o u s  discusses  agreed  agree  p<.007).  or twice  to 5  matters, and a  affection. in religious  (M  experimental= Interestingly,  calmly a month  F(1,20)=6.359).  once (M  to  different  something,  t o showing  something  159  groups  was t h e s t a t i s t i c a l  norms  always  3.35, ( F ( l , 2 0 ) = 8 . 9 9 1 , discussed  of the experimental  of 0 (always  or disagreements  c o n t r o l s almost  experimental=4.00  only.  no a v a i l a b l e  ( Y e s o r No) r e l a t e d  controls only  Scale —  s u b j e c t s . Anova  the spouse  couples  as w e l l as  sensation-seekers,  of marriage  on a s c a l e  i n the experimental  groups  characteristics.  the findings.  agreements  dichotomized  while  There  with  somewhat  f o r the Antarctic  of s i n g l e  mostly  responses:  matters,  were  the quality  groups  comprised  Couples  groups  or Dyadic  measured  control  (always  i n the experimental  due t o i n d i v i d u a l  test  4.87,  men  i n the control  probably  32  as f o l l o w s : M f o r experimental  a day, for  Couples not  i n the A n t a r c t i c  show  affection,  Conversely, of  at least  controls  affection  were  of t h e i r  control=.85;  complained  that  their  i n t h e few w e e k s  well-satisfied  partners  with  companions d i d prior the  to the  test.  demonstration  (M f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l =  .37  F(1,20)=3.828, p=.018).  Summary  Among  the r e l e v a n t  regions showed  calls  findings,  f o r an  interesting  explanation. Personality  differences;  sensation-seeking  traits,  South,  as  i n other  t o be  a better  There  as w e l l  seems  satisfaction Perception groups,  levels)  satisfaction noted  the  Arctic  among  and  polar  higher  groups  i n both  characteristics differ  i n the North  and  in  lower  adaptation  ( a s shown  the A n t a r c t i c was  than  similar  by  i n the  higher  the A r c t i c  i n t h e two  the A n t a r c t i c  environment  led to  p l e a s u r e than  the A r c t i c .  A similar  f o r the l i f e - s t r e s s had e x p e r i e n c e d  polar  traits.  of the environment  although  was  the low-anxiety state  events.  more  events  Once  more,  than  groups.  polar  more tendency  personnel i n  personnel  i n the  Antarctic.  The  Hopkins  since  scale  the s c o r e s  little';  most  does were  not i n d i c a t e located  a high-level  i n the range  o f t h e means w e r e  at  160  of  'a l i t t l e  1  of  stress,  'not a t a l l level.  1  t o "a  However, scored  the A n t a r c t i c groups  symptoms.  ability  t o cope  This with  may  the i s o l a t i o n  differences. Stress  negative  stress  were  differences disturbed work  by n o i s e  no w i n d  storms  The  similarities.  (Antarctic).  almost wind  and  aroused.  and  i n the A r c t i c  and  situation,  groups, mood  results  sleep  i n the  individual  as w e l l  whereas  and  lower  as  showed  (Arctic)  results  of data sites,  i n the A n t a r c t i c .  161  and  wind  collection,  and  there  crossmore  the A n t a r c t i c showed  The d i f f e r e n c e s c o n c e r n e d  shift-work  At the time  group  and A r o u s a l  f o r the A r c t i c  more  significantly  demonstrate  cultural  groups  were  were  and  there  both  being shiftwas  exceptional  CHAPTER  This  6.  final  findings. the  DISCUSSION  chapter As  results  than  offers  previously lead  us  to  differences  in  the  Antarctic include  material.  the  effects  upon  human  responses  environmental  demands.  otherwise results  and  they  of  this  interpretations  6.1.  The  Comparisons  research  cope  The  In  The  content  analysis  was  included  the  psychological  this  of  the  widely  the  phenomenon  provide of  small be  human  environments.  162  environments Differences  to  and  and in  overall  the  also and  Arctic  findings  number  of  noted,  discussion  of  the  sections,  given.  and  Contemporary  distributed  original to  adapt  following  and  the  these  them.  analysis  Historical  analysis  study  and  are  of  section,  similarities  individuals's  should  the  each  more  polar  to  research  of  are  to  the  the  with  results  are  content  to  relatively  Between  the  of  subjects  these  considering  in  to  jeopardize  findings  end  there  contributing  related  research. of  the  overall configuration  control  can  of  the  human r e s p o n s e s  be  ability  at  that  similarities  psychological  experimental  conclude  the  may  explanation  summarized  Factors  physical  their  an  the  in  time,  contemporary  d i a r i e s , as a  better  response  Groups  groups.  noted  above,  understanding in  polar  of  Brislin field  (1980) has a r g u e d  research,  training etc).  because  believes,  validity  of f i n d i n g s  combined  approaches  effort  necessary  Suedfeld, and  1987).  contemporary  undertaken  Responses  permission however,  warrant  to conduct Thus,  field  research  from  sorts  (time  at the s i t e s ,  i n t h e range and  expenditure  of  several  of time and  (Brislin,  1980,  methods,  a content  on p o l a r  groups,  analysis  were  the Past  i n the social-emotional groups  relaxation,  of e x p l o r e r s '  were  compared.  and p e r c e p t i o n  reactions  differences on  were  d i a r i e s showed domains Sleep  of s o c i a l  interpretable  of the i n t e r e s t i n g  conducted  gains  replace  for this dissertation.  results  some  of v a r i o u s  research  two r e s e a r c h  empirical  should  the u t i l i z a t i o n  the extra  analysis  emotional  analysis  of the leaders  that  a r i s i n g from  Content  Antarctic  content  of c o n s t r a i n t s  of r e s e a r c h e r s ,  Brislin  that  individual  and p h y s i c a l  areas.  p a r t i c u l a r l y when  profiles.  163  t h e A r c t i c and  and dreams,  i n terms  investigated  present,  when  interesting  anxiety, s t i m u l i and  of arousal Clearly,  levels are individual  the analysis i s  Among more  psychosomatic frequently  latter, lack  complaints,  of such  characteristics. experiences  Orde-Lees  and S p e n c e r - S m i t h ,  analysis  problems  increased,  began.  One  mid-winter,  of  the uncertainty  increased form  with  would  in  expectation  when  a ship  diarists  in their  accounts,  Garrard, North, This sites  because  was  was  level  At that  time,  t h e men's  or f e a r  reached  Orde-Lees, on b o a r d with  of the narrowness  and t h e  anxiety because  emotional anxiety  with  no  other  expectation  of not seeing as recorded  of  one by  accounts.  I n some o f  such  levels  high  that  e.g. ghost-ships  (Cherry-  Original diaries).  In the  ship  approaching  the u n c e r t a i n t y of the  164  sleep Antarctic  of  environment,  and o r i g i n a l state  associated  as o v e r l a n d  a high  f e e l i n g s of a n x i e t y ,  higher  f o r insomnia.  indicates that  and r e l i e f ,  h a l l u c i n a t o r y imagery,  anxiety  and t o  i n the A n t a r c t i c . Probably  (e.g.radio)  Spencer-Smith,  emotion  predicted  phase.  anxious  to the  e.g. Worsley,  be r e s p o n s i b l e  the f a m i l i a r  published  this  the winter,  i n winter,  on t h e i c y h o r i z o n  considerable  generated  could  of s u r v i v a l  fostered  it  have  i n the Departure  In the  be r e l a t e d  of the d i a r i s t s ,  a peak  leaving  during  of e x p e d i t i o n  particularly  of communication  seeing  o f some  by phase  might  recorded  In the A n t a r c t i c , t h e e x t r e m e l y  traumatic  Temporal  were  i n the A r c t i c .  disturbances  of s t i m u l a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y  travel  disturbances  i n the A n t a r c t i c than  the cause  individual  the  sleep  channels.  the A r c t i c .  of r e a c h i n g  the  Nautical  knowledge  extremely  poor,  causing  Original  diaries).  and  settled  In  crew  viewing  winter  Arctic  by t h e f a c t  Two  that  sailed  f o r 1 or 2 y e a r s  strategies  to adjust  excitement  activities activity Antarctic  t o hunt  With  were  the decks,  being  confined  to living-quarters  anxiety  to any extent.  support, the  there  winter  subjected  polar  to a reduced  station,  a  one i s were  o f whom h a d coping  circumstances.  lies  A  bears,  few c h o r e s  i n the degree  highly-exciting and i n t h e  t o perform (e.g.  and r e s t r i c t e d  because  relaxat ion.  165  of  of advanced t e c h n o l o g i c a l t o be p e r f o r m e d  and w e l l - t r a i n e d  or low degree  etc.),  t o r e a d i n g or  the e x p l o r e r s ' f e e l i n g  a r e n o t a s many a c t i v i t i e s  in a polar  (some  snow f o r d r i n k i n g - w a t e r ,  to aggravate Today,  the mid-  had d e v e l o p e d  subjected.  very  i c e from  d i d n o t seem  during  (therefore r e l a x a t i o n ) of  clean  playing  melt  the ship  be s u g g e s t e d :  relaxation,  was t o h u n t  seals.  once  explorers experienced  sailors  waters),  concerning  i n the A r c t i c  Jaackson,  o f t h e e x p e d i t i o n s , who  i n polar  t h e crews  and  together,  could  long-term  or s a t i s f a c t i o n  t o which  data  t o the environmental  explanation  (Nares  was  harbour.  explanations  seasoned  and i c y w a t e r s  decreased  and A n t a r c t i c  t h e crews  experienced,  of  state  a n x i e t y and r e l a x a t i o n  i n anxiety.  other  anxious  anxiety  down a t t h e w i n t e r  mostly  The  channels  constant  This  p e r i o d , both  decrease given  of the A r c t i c  crews  of excitement  during  are also  resulting in  Another  s e t of data  content  and type  quantitative many  relief  The  nightmares  findings Hunter  and Lane  the  were  but a l s o  particularly  supports  conflict.  state,  dreams  (Baekeland,  1970).  the  section  results  disappearance centrality  usual  of those  to fellow  Hopes,  fears,  meals,  crewmen.  The  reflect and  Breger, not only  unconscious  and t h e r e f o r e r e p r e s s e d ) argument  function  sources  Consistent with  c a n be  when  (experimental polar  with  lucidity  view,  o n e may  groups/Mood  t h e homecoming  relationships.  166  up  the explorers  and  dreams, and t h e  made  suggested.  of g r a t i f i c a t i o n  this  or  the occurrence  (1923) and  dreams  i n c r e a s e d i n amount  dealing  (lavish  wish-fulfilment.  Another  of food-centered  food  and b o t h  that  o f a d r i v e - d i s c h a r g e dream of t h e i r  dreams o f  the Rivers,  unacceptable  of the explorers.  deprived  waking  meals),  (1971) h y p o t h e s i s  (sometimes  dreams  Because  study  of the r e p o r t s leads t o  or n i g h t - t e r r o r ,  for lavish  r e p o r t s are not of  recurrent  a r e o b v i o u s l y not merely  of t h i s  frustration desires  search  were  to anxiety i s the  dream  the q u a l i t y  There  and d i s a s t e r ,  dreams  be r e l a t e d  of dreams. Although  interpretations.  frustrated  of  may  significance,  homesickness, a  that  i n the  note i n  & Sleep) the  increasing and  primary  This  change  aspects  c a n be a s s u m e d  of the A r c t i c  half-century, stability  6.1.1.  The  and perhaps  a concomitant  conducted  original  of the published  the explorers.  provides Data  are presented  consistent  with  Generally,  among t h e A r c t i c  the content  analyzed  by n e g a t i v e  irritability afflicted  aspects  are  of the h i s t o r i c a l  the general  i n a general areas  Nares  such  167  behaviour  format  was v e r y  worried  Jaackson  was  a s boredom, and Gran  of the b e h a v i o u r a l  presented:  from t h e  (see Appendix).  and so on. In t h e A n t a r c t i c , S c o t t Some  Diaries  collected  conditions, while  social  by homesickness.  explorers  into  the past  separation.  material  explorers,  p h y s i c a l environmental  perturbed  the  insights  physical  with the  Historical  i n a d d i t i o n to the information  diaries,  during  concern  a prolonged  I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s Among  review  about  the much-improved  and A n t a r c t i c e x p e r i e n c e  of r e l a t i o n s h i p s during  expeditions,  of  to mirror  were  profiles  of  ARCTIC  V.  Steffansson  aspects  of p o l a r  differently. with  - S t e f f a n s s o n E x p e d i t i o n , 1906-1912.  S t e f f a n s s o n was  the I n u i t  person,  exploration affected  he was  (Original very  Being  he d i d n o t f e e l  not  recording, particularly  worth  expedition). tension  In h i s d i a r y  a  anxiety,  there  b y h i s own  about  or p e r h a p s , after  was  work  scientifically-minded  i n h i s comments  (possibly  negative  participants  highly stimulated  diary).  careful  the  The  the f e e l i n g s  h i s second  almost  no  anxiety  year  evidence  were  with  the  of  or a n x i e t y .  ANTARCTIC  Apsley The  Cherry-Garrard  tense  and a l w a y s  enthusiastic category and  wind,  also  searching possibly  probably  diary). due  to the lack  with  He  suffered  what  was  few e n t r i e s  which  nightmares  his sleep.  168  s e v e r e l y from  had been  events  much  i n the  of adequate  they  of p l e a s u r e  with  Expedition,  Cherry-Garrard  of other  afflicted  Antarctic  to the lack  in his diary  f o r a source  particularly in  worried  i n h i s comments  (Original  reported  - British  food  1910-1913. less positive the  cold  equipment. eating  He  probably  r e p r e s e n t s , or  to record.  Garrard  i n Mid-Winter  and  was talking  During  the  dreams  such  (Edward  this  Wilson)  (Original had  winter,  one: had  diary).  argued  Garrard  with  reported  "Providence  some  This  Scott  comment  shows  asked  of  in  second-in-command  According  the  to  nightmares commented  Garrard,  of on  the  from  written  i n the were  instances physical ice  of  Scott "state to  as of  reach  form  or  the  In  his  of  a  of  being high the  very  of  the  known  a  number or  and  Bill  dreams" fears  Wilson) and  have  (Garrard about  his  had  the  1922,  that  1983).  n a r r a t i v e , while  diary. Garrard  due  worst  (not to  were  His  book  the  break-up  of  Garrard  referred  as  being  i n what  he  Pole.  169  of  many  as  days,  because  was  day's  recorded  specified  the  also  of  excitement"  the  confidence  diary, Garrard comments  near-collapse  anxious,  nervous  to  behaviour,  Scott  to  group.  original  i n the  p s y c h o l o g i c a l ) of On  from  Expedition  continuous  daily  f o r us,  Garrard's  (Cherry-Garrard,  state  Barrier.  the  was  overall  book  reported  of  the  his  of  Wilson  group.  Scott's  omitted  events  goals  related  in vivid  advice  accomplishment Wilson,  is looking  enlightenment  and  the  many e v e n t s  to  termed  Amundsen's  the  a  plans  A.  P. S p e n c e r - S m i t h  ("Aurora"), person,  1914-1916.  a n d a member  recorded to  many  the extreme  waiting  were  death rich  and r e f l e c t s  F. S c o t t  However,  such  unloading  the ship  Scott,  Expedition,  with  p o s s i b l y due the church)  something  of meditation  good  and  prayer,  In a p p r a i s i n g h i s  to report.  His dream-content  of c o l d  while  environmental  f o r Spencer-Smith.  He met h i s was  and s c a r c i t y  Antarctic Expedition,  anxiety  as the l o s s  1983),  when  when S c o t t  very  of  food  was  With  Mid-Winter,  the frequency  the s i t u a t i o n  on t h e j o u r n e y  passing  t h e mark  of a n x i e t y under  One  to the Pole  o f 89°S  with  near  sledge f o r (Huntford,  increased  only  c o n t r o l a t t h e Hut  during  decreased,  increase  of the sources was  only of  to  Scott's  the expectation  previously achieved  170  were  Scott  practical  of the ponies  of a n x i e t y  on h i s way t o t h e P o l e .  anxiety  faced  of the mechanical  h i s records  1910-1912.  he a n d h i s p a r t y  and t h e weakness  moderately.  again  religious  he was s u b j e c t e d  hours  of scurvy.  - British  42 e n t r i e s a b o u t deaths.  connection  Expedition  party.  problems,  1979,  to long  found  Sea  of r e s t r i c t e d  the problems  by t h e Ross  Robert  their  he a l w a y s  a strongly  the p o s i t i v e category,  Conditions  positive aids  Transantarctic  Ross  l o n e l i n e s s t o which  as a consequence  faced  made  within  in addition  valuable  situation,  Spencer-Smith,  (and h i s s t r o n g  f o r rescue.  stimulation  Imperial  of Shackleton's  events  h i s background  and  - British  by  of  Shackleton.  Increases  in anxiety  the  he  Pole;  having  This  been  was  considerable comments the  amount  of  temperature  to  was  of  was  high  a l l the  way  were  s t a r v i n g and  away. The  lack  general  sledges.  The  expenditure were  of  located  for  survival.  The  published  addressed Hut  to  the  of  of  other  having  for a  journey  was  energy  not  to  from  of  Shackleton  (previously occupied  party.  the  to  by  food  using  caloric  d i a r y omits  171  in his  enough,  the  team  diary).  intake and  the  Scott  for  the  the  depots  safety  limits  criticisms  over  1900  112  man-hauled  beyond  Scott  men  were  when  (Original  stopped  were  a n x i e t y - l e v e l s , and  each  Scott  the  the  depots  methods,  other,  being  point  but  a  many  as  conditions  man-hauling  Scott's when  on  made  interestingly  than  Pole  generating  this  food  Yet  rations the  Pole.  food  Barrier,  the  issues  of  from  level,  Scott  At  increased  appropriate  using  far apart  version  full  the  stressful,  conversation.  to  to  weather  have  may  motivation  group.  of  topic  food  the  Summit  food  returning  availability  because  discussion shifted  unprepared  of  was  race  the  discouraged  the  was  scarcity  the  the  in favor  for  (+10°C) and  was  decided  lowest  particularly  hunger  from  Scott  i n the  anxiety  the  when  his  Amundsen  frequent  good  km  by  journey  related  cause  noted  experiencing  beaten  overland  were  i n the  Discovery  Expedition).  Scott to  made  references  Shackleton's  were  left  problems and  a  experiences  diary.  another  fact  a  Gran  master  his  on  the  Amundsen  was  also  was  1913,  dropped  - British and  an  sensitivity  mindful  of  others,  various  sorts  dreams  being  the  one  Scott  was  the  past  considered  formal-  negative  were by  still  Scott  published  fresh  as  a  version  to  reflected  He  Amundsen,  was  social  Norwegian  in  rival, of  his  expressing  a  of  showed  expedition,  while  having  As  to  loyalty  172  the  referred  see to  at  Bay  to  anxiety, Amundsen  Scott,  on  in  a being  Homesickness the  by  events  companions,  being  close  was  demonstrated  at  f e e l i n g s of  wishing  his  Gran  polar  number  s t r e s s , Gran of  He  the  in Mid-Winter.  remarkable.  and  high  unhappiness  wintering  dual  a  problems  Scott's  his  outdoorsman.  recorded  the  his  1910-1913.  f a s c i n a t i o n with  Under  accompanying  hand  his  particularly  represented  his  supplies  interpersonal  explorers  adventurous  1984).  p o s i t i v e category.  dream-content  i n which had  These  the  allusion  had  Antarctic Expedition,  through  (Gran,  countryman,  where  from  hostile  1983).  remarkable  His  expedition,  a  disorder  Shackleton  polar  inner-nature  Norwegian  and  people"  the  two  skis  environment  Scott  of  the  that  (Scott,  other  informal-leader.  between  Scott's  Tryggve  Hut.  the  "the  because  previous  Shackleton  diary  group  i n the on  to  of  sole  of  above,  a  fellow  Whales.  his  resulting  from  victorious,  on  the  other.  Frank  Worsley  - British  ("Endurance"), and  1914-1916.  probably the type  comparing was  Shackleton  experiences,  when  still  landscape  1974).  judging  time  from  and W o r s l e y .  during  to appreciate  of  principal  t h e Head  bonhomie  diary  of the expedition  of W i l d . They  affection" Remarks  (Worsley,  such  as w e l l  expedition Scott's  of t h i s  as t h i s  were  i n small  (Orde-Lees,  diary,  boat  towards  Worsley  respect,  and  recorded, leadership  c o n f i d e n c e and  January-February,  i n many  passages  o f t h e o t h e r members  Original  wrote  decreasing  and t h e c h e e r y h a p p i n e s s and  found  those  i n the pack-ice,  i s due t o t h e t a c t  command  Original  a s among  expedition  both  ( c f . Duncan  present,  Shackleton's leadership,  credit  seaman,  "beautiful".  sailing  "the  sheep  u s e o f t h e word  slightly  G e o r g i a . About  on a  of the polar  only South  latter  the grandeur  was a l w a y s  he was  The  h i s boyhood  locked  environmental s e n s i t i v i t y when  when  one o f h i s w o r s t  was  h i s frequent  role  (Weddell Sea,  of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m  This  even  -  he became a m a s t e r  Even  frame-of-mind  a crucial  had s p e n t  the "Endurance"  found  play  of the "Endurance"  degree  Expedition  psychological  of Scott  Worsley  by a h i g h  i n Worsley,  Worsley  master  Zealand. Later  characterized Carse  of l e a d e r s h i p  Expedition).  i n New  Transantarctic  Training,  the a n x i e t y - l e v e l s  the b r i l l i a n t  farm  Imperial  i n such  diary).  None  173  of the Worsley of the  o f t h e members o f  an e n t h u s i a s t i c  leader.  1915).  way a b o u t  their  Scott and  may  well  Garcia,  while  have  1987),  group.  his attention  members  were  above,  mentioned  diaries.  pleasant  Both  leader  background;  a group-oriented  w i t h a l l members in survival  (Fiedler  leader,  of h i s  at Elephant  s y m p a t h e t i c and  helpful  in  level Arctic show  pleasant  and  intensity  and the  arousal  and  at  Mid-Winter  the  Antarctic  y e a r , and  phase.  among  some  of  This of  i n the  data  f o r h i s d e p a r t u r e from  Scott's the  174  obtained  from  reported may  more  be  explorers  showed  that  achieved  in a  the by  Nares  Antarctic. Cherry-Garrard  satisfaction  after  measured  the  ( M i d - W i n t e r ) was  Spencer-Smith level  words  were  explorers  Individual  satisfaction  same  feelings  of s e l e c t e d  Arctic  environment.  of  h i s second time  Feelings  t o coping-mechanisms  low-stimulation  when  of  feelings  attributed  After  Arousal  the degree  not  always  of  to Shackleton's requests.  As  did  affection  group  and  the  and  type  his naval  been  difficulties  Pleasantness  in  t o have  extreme  response  highest  given  Facing  Island,  using  a task-oriented  particularly  Shackleton appears  sharing  the  been  as  death,  Antarctic  his he  companions. was  pleased  approached.  The  In  Arctic:  Pleasant  the A r c t i c ,  relationships background, clearly  with  ailments  frames  The  In the  - even  positive and  way,  temporal  in similar  Pleasant  type. of the  recorded  explorer, also no s t r e s s  in physical  and  of i n s t a l l i n g  viewed  on  group  emotional  telegraph  appraised h i s  because  phases  view  of d i f f e r e n c e s  (summer  of experience  and  in  winter  ( t r a u m a t i c and  environments.  Feelings  satisfaction  and group  he  with  diarist  differently  and t y p e s  of s e n s i t i v i t y  socialization  recorded,  positive  time  Arctic  work  ( A l a s k a ) . Each  or both)  the A n t a r c t i c , area  a more each  another  of the strenuous  (1875-1914),  Antarctic:  satisfied  in a positive  experience  expeditions,  to h i s naval  of the events  E v e n t u a l l y , he r e p o r t e d  because  with h i s  In a d d i t i o n  expressed  Smith,  environment  i n the A r c t i c  pleasant)  very  facts.  environmental time  i n most  pleased  him as a t a s k - o r i e n t e d l e a d e r  feeling  relationships.  not very  members.  i n Mid-Winter,  environmental polar  was  group  identifies  environment,  poles  Jaackson  his attitude,  Steffanson,  the  Feelings  values  to social  were  high,  particularly  stimuli,  which  deals  interaction.  psychological aspects,  was  Cherry-Garrard.  175  Pleasure, emphasized  related  with to  by S c o t t ,  Gran  in  Perhaps,  in association  with  the traumatic  experienced  by O r d e - L e e s  when he was  at  I s l a n d t o be  rescued  Elephant  feelings the  were  Worsley  There  was  the  no  time  and  f o r Worsley  Georgia.  and  no  Bernacchi  adjectives  the crew  by S h a c k l e t o n ,  pleasant  above,  t h e same  t o make d i a r y  However,  sea. Spencer-Smith  difficulties, recorded.  As m e n t i o n e d  with  f o r the n a v i g a t i o n of the s m a l l  t o South  land  later  behind  was  noted  in  diary.  responsible sailing  absent.  left  situations  pleasant seemed  identified  entries boat  he a l w a y s  also  feelings  person;  appraisal  he  was  Caird",  the beauty  of  extreme  of any s o r t  t o be a r e t i c e n t  for pleasant  "James  noted  experienced  while  were none  appeared  of the  in his  narratives.  Arousal  Levels  Comparing feelings more found  pleasant were  and a r o u s a l  slightly  members  pleasant  different.  The  Antarctic  the A r c t i c .  The  reasons  of e x p e r i e n c e s  and  s t r e s s e s t o which  s t i m u l a t i n g than i n the types  between r e g i o n s ,  of the southern  expeditions  176  were  seemed  t o be  probably  could  subjected.  the  be  When a r o u s a l  i s viewed  expeditions,  the  the  Departure  Mid-Winter  phase  at  the  mean  to  the  hypothesis,  The  most  related during a  for  the  the  of  that  end  felt  leave  sad  to  Adaptation Increased  and  explorers'  one  or  two  "culture (Freeman,  shock" 1983,  10%  seems  the  the  lowest  values  for  the  to  did be  being to  of  at  about  absence.  encountered Taylor,  up  the  177  to  on  is  time.  environment.  other  Yet, there  in response  polar  Winter,  play  phase to  tension.  probably  the  to  may  a  the  be  is similar of  to  was the  crew  role. due  civilization  types  almost contrary  high  After  seem  while  and  Antarctic,  phenomenon  1971).  values,  Departure,  feelings  returning  among  the  Arctic  lead  picked  Departure  This  of  inferred  not  near  success  the  be  leaving  now-familiar  levels  can  in pleasant  feeling  of  of  phases  had  expedition.  anxieties  years  low  prior  the  the  arousal  the  just  of  phase  temporal  Mid-Winter  phase  almost  approaching  the  A n t a r c t i c . What  uncertainty  period  decrease  showed  the  stressful to  across  to  after to  travellers  6.2  Comparisons  Perhaps  t h e most  hypothesis: groups  that  despite  low-state  the A r c t i c  general  finding  there  does  p r e v i o u s l y assumed. environment  appraised  as a major  of  issues what  need  (stressful  anxiety both, the  A  literature  1976;  t o cope  of f i e l d  rather Lazarus,  with  Consistent measures  and t h i s  course  than  One  would  ships  extremely  be t o s e a r c h into  refers  178  to the  demands  Mocellin  low l e v e l s  (1984),  of state  ( S p i e l b e r g e r , 1966).  In  conducted i n  isolation.  for explanations  anxiety,  l a b o r a t o r y environments  1976).  t o be  to the evaluation  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were to  as  of the group.  the l a t t e r ,  found  groups  n o t seem  and t h e o t h e r  with  exposure  research  that the  the environmental  also  study,  refers  on t h e  l o c a t i o n s . The  as an  o u t s i d e r s , does  environment  on a l o n g - t e r m  reasonable  i s viewed  two e x p e d i t i o n a r y  the ships  field,  sites,  STAI  aboard  What  general  effects  i n these  s t r e s s o r b y t h e members  ability  t h e same  us t o c o n c l u d e  t o be c o n s i d e r e d .  or n o t ) .  geographical  stress  Groups  the p r e d i c t e d  environmental  a s much  b y most  is a stressful  individual's  using  leads  not induce  stressful  Two  are similar  (STAI)  and A n t a r c t i c  supports  the widely-separated  anxiety  environment usually  Between  particularly  i n the in polar  ( S p i e l b e r g e r 1966,  In  the f i e l d ,  in  a group  as measured  upon  discovering not  lead  Measures  what  react  of conscious  feelings  The a b i l i t y  be o b t a i n e d , with  traits. some  low  rather  i n 1985  participant  on c o g n i t i v e  of  of  indications  the simultaneous  179  does  emotional  and e m o t i o n s . could  of w e l l - p r e p a r e d  However,  measures.  and  fundamentally,  one, which  training,  various  i s attempted.  cognition  than  as  stress  of s t r e s s o r s  are related,  behaviour:  by  low a n x i e t y ,  t o be a s t r e s s f u l e n v i r o n m e n t  for explanations  by t h e i r  anxiety  conducted  tendency: when  of  as measured  of the i m p l i c a t i o n s  i s the physiological study.  study  tests  stress-effects  o f human  personality  consistent  pencil  i s supposed  i s enhanced  perhaps  A later  the action  Because  to s t r e s s f u l events,  1987),  could  indicated  levels  and r e l a t i v e l y  by p s y c h o m e t r i c  the search  in this  tests.  high  subjects,  e t a l . t h e same  the groups.  component  tested  and  reports  components  third  reports,  to measurable  reactions,  two  observation  t o McCormick  observation sorts  expeditionary  by p s y c h o m e t r i c  indicated levels  (1984) r e p o r t e d  of A n t a r c t i c  participant measured  McCormick  personnel  and  i f physiological  application  of  to  (Suedfeld,  professionalism  might  A  n o t be  environments  of s t r e s s  to  be  measures evident  paper-and-  Living  and  winter,  working  has  stressful Palmai,  been  environmental crews  "stressful primarily (Lantis,  to  i n the 1968;  in place, 1973)  Stimulation) the  effects and  by tend  informal  which  the  environment end  of  the  to diminish talks  that  the  first  2 weeks  is  i n the  of  the  first  with  the  first at  week  and  the  up  of  stress  may the  with  with  physical  adaptation  consistent  day.  and  Beyond  1973).  with  Zubek's  The  may this  be  adaptation almost  point,  many  participant  reports  experimental groups,  clearly  process takes place second  sunset  180  one  process  duration,  season.  a  et a l . , 1985).  2 weeks'  The  polar  be  to  Arctic  as  the  some  Environmental  first  the  1963;  participants  t o cope  than  i n the  as  (Restricted  adaptation  after  Any  begins quickly  site.  by  environment"  to the  (Zubek, the  1968,  physical)  rather  Defayolle  i s somewhat  of  described  ability  "stressful  I n REST  and  i s perceived and  related  experiments  indicated  dark  be  particularly  Gunderson,  environment  1975;  findings.  chamber  complete  can  a  be  environment".  social  already  to  (sociological  confuse  Lugg,  yet  training  sociological  argument  to  of  demands  Another  (1969,  others),  Lack  l e d them  environment,  & S h u r l e y , 1975;  among  non-stressful.  polar  widely predicted  (Natani  1963  in a  that  phase marks  in this  during process  the b e g i n n i n g  These cope  data with  Cohen,  once  emphasize  environmental  the a b i l i t y  demands  (Singer  of the  & Baum,  i n d i v i d u a l to  1983;  Evans  &  1987).  Certain  environments with  particularly can  more  develop  stressful means  In a d d i t i o n ,  unusual  s i t u a t i o n s may  Lazarus's  the  with  the  previous  lack  contribute  (1966;  Lazarus  & Folkman,  environmental  of n o v e l t y  1984)  s i t u a t i o n s appear,  This  of  i n the  the  i n t e r e s t i n g argument  coping-mechanisms  threat.  not  person  in  t o a more s a t i s f a c t o r y  an  activates  be  experience  becomes  stressful  may  e s p e c i a l l y i f the i n d i v i d u a l  This  potentially danger  stimulation  or b o r i n g ,  t o cope  milieu.  adaptation.  low  aimed  i s the s t a r t  idea the at  i n view  that  of  when  perception  of  reducing  of an  adaptation  process.  Still  within  the  were  obtained  on  Hopkins  symptoms  arousal  showed  low  levels  McCormick and  Nelson's  and  stress  inventory.  Few  significant I f we  e t a l . ( 1 9 8 5 ) , we across  f o r low (1964)  arousal  the Mackay  of s t r e s s .  arousal  offered  stress  compare find  different  arousal  scale  of the measures  this  similar  These  by McCormick  "repressive  and  d i f f e r e n c e s , but  the poles.  stress  domain,  coping  181  data  on  they  pattern low  (ibid.)  based  strategy".  and  stress  show  the on  the and  relatively  with  levels  confirm  results  those  of  by  stress  explanation Gunderson  &  As  referred  screening eleven  to  procedures  Antarctic  mechanisms  related  to  repression.  McCormick  defense  study  absence  suggest  that  subjects  do  al.  no  accept  generally  view  differences  Results  Hopkins  the  experimental  to as  and  are  apparent  inventory  control  groups  form  experimental  and  But  the  Antarctic  experimental  groups  symptoms  since  English,  French  similarities rather  than  to  the  a l . 1985).  finding,  expedition,  "repression  caution  finding  is  would  that  polar  McCormick's and  N=12).  On  cultural the  the  Arctic  are of  highly a  category, another.  similar  counterpart  one  (Canadian)  182  Arctic  form  an  group  Australian,  would and  (Argentina)  in  interesting  travellers  grounds,  Antarctic  the  groups  included  polar  measures.  homogeneous  constitute  subjects  Argentinian  between between  may  that  control  symptomatology This  in stress  one  Antarctic  et  this  argument.  the  indicate  the  (McCormick  that  contemporary  and  overall  of  'possible'  contrary,  valid  the  basis  Antarcticans"(p.155).  this  the  the  stressful.  Cross-cultural on  data  on  developed  Accepting  by  to  had  about  proposed  used  support  empirical  researchers  as  (1985)  commonly  lends  of  not  environment  et  who  service  speculated  present  the  the  Nelson,  had  psychological  In  for  and  traits,  assumption,  The  Gunderson  personality  defense  a  above,  the and  (IBEA expect IBEA IBEA.  to  find  groups,  There  i s no  evidence  experimental  groups,  slightly  higher.  The  the  season,  to  dark  offer  an  social help  to  symptoms f o r  though  i n the  action  of  the  Antarctic  A r c t i c those  A r c t i c g r o u p was or  environment  these  the  symptoms  such e n v i r o n m e n t a l  explanation;  physical  explain  stress  which  acceptable  and  of  an  stressors  subjected,  interactive effect  upon the  are  Northern  groups  as could  of  the  may  findings.  Personality  Another  implication  personality observed controls) CPI  high  social These to  the  the  Since  presence,  of the  (compared  is related  to  the  the  domain  The  only  Arctic experimental Antarctic  groups.  of  and  They  showed  responsibility, s o c i a l i z a t i o n ,s e l f - c o n t r o l ,  subjected  T h i s may compared  behavioural  be to  outcome. Another  tolerance  reason  for  emphasized  good  the  Antarctic) i n the  183  and  be  the  going  significant Responsibility  is  w e r e made  have c o n t r i b u t e d age  previous  Antarctic).  one  organizations.  A r c t i c - groups may  impression.  before  in m i l i t a r y  this difference  (higher  the  A r c t i c groups.  not  and  personnel-selection  component c o u l d  i n the  remote environments  the  - but  m i l i t a r y personnel,  to  one  traits  Antarctic  mature s u b j e c t s  with  to  self-acceptance,  groups are site.  findings  cross-cultural differences.  were c o n c e r n e d means on  the  the  and  differences  differences of  traits  of  factor  to  (more  experience  up  in  An  interesting  the  Latin  1969).  pertaining  America  These  incidence  better  point  the i n t r o v e r t e d  the t e s t  published control belong  adaptation  scores  norms  t o some  Thus, special  from  may  on  a r e more  for virtually  explain  such  ones  as  (Hall,  the higher  ( A r g e n t i n e crews) and  of Strange  opinion, the personnel  (as i n d i c a t e d  study  i t c a n be s u g g e s t e d  of the  that  these  of which  184  more  groups. from  experimental  with  results)  One  widely  p o p u l a t i o n on w h i c h  based.  associated  of polar  differ  CPI, ERI) f o r both  members  was  subjects.  nature  and  predominantly  by most  of A r c t i c  the s p e c i a l  the average  time  was  crews).  to their  category,  types  relationships)  the argument  i n the present  (STAI,  groups.  differently  differences  nature  Indicator  i n the Anglo-Saxon  (Canadian  Contrary  be r a i s e d :  more  human  c h a r a c t e r of A n t a r c t i c  overall  should  than  do n o t s u p p o r t  (1971).  was  (allowing  i n the A n t a r c t i c  i n the A r c t i c  extraverted  than  cross-cultural  findings  Youngman  and F r a n c e  Type  Extravert  to important  of e x t r a v e r t s  introverts  These  dimension.  in "contact" cultures  everything  of  on t h e M y e r s - B r i g g s  Extravert-Introvert  common  in  result  Most the  and  people  behave test  norms a r e  The  A  Sensation  strong  Seeking  difference  sensation-seeking  sensation  and  c o n t r o l s were  the  Antarctic  scores group  on  experiences, had in  been  had  addition  to  high  to  their  environments). the  polar  High-risk  and  the  the  perception  normal of  environmental leading  to  apparently  the  a  subscale.  The  an  experience  may  internal  experience  of  attract  polar  source or  may  of not  sensations  prefer.  185  in  physical adventure  living  for trained  group  for at  may  higher  of  control new  (which  least  four  already months  isolated and  social  seekers.  not  individuals. environmental  produce But and  increase arousal that  than  Antarctic  acquisition  experimental  apparent  regions  potential  stress  Seeking  the  were  experimentals  sensation-seekers  i n the  on  high  groups  c o n t r o l s had  the  range  Arctic  was  were  Antarctic  to  nature  groups  experimental  above,  higher  groups  the  previous  Despite  monotony,  beyond  Antarctic  interest  such  polar  experimental  indicated  whilst  opposed  exposed  the  As  Experience  as  experimental  significantly  groups,  have  the  Arctic  whilst  seekers.  the  may  between  levels.  sensation-seekers, low  Traits  stress  the nonlevel  sensation-seekers  The  findings  argument  support,  that  Arctic  by  and  and  free  environmental  this  but  indicated  complaints This  of  decrease  performance  from  low  prefer  are  to  high  one  end  of  by  o b s e r v a t i o n r e p o r t s and  that  30%  decreased of  friction  in task  their  task  mistakes with  performance  a  the  (Environment  while  of  the  previously at  The  the  assessed  areas  Zuckerman's  the  decrease  1983)  sites.  outstanding  and  fully  satisfactory  experimental task  -  scale  -  on  and  unsatisfactory. group  performance  were appraisal  satisfactory.  interpersonal  (1979,  their  the  the  requirements  Arctic  having  fully  for this of  of as  b a s e - l i n e of  reasons  other  subjects  at  and  01/83) w i t h  -  Most  work  on  Form  ( i i ) meets  meet  (based  Canada,  superior,  not  high  a  requirements  does  informal  from  c a t e g o r i e s : ( i ) exceeds  (iii)  of  drawn  following  requirements  low  Arctic  in computerized  was  the  component  performance  co-workers)  (e.g.  continuum.  not  (N=16) o f  diving-  of  very  participant almost  environment  stimulation  the  were  (1983)  (e.g.  measures  assessment  satisfactory,  novel  Preferences  characterized  at  a  stimulation  mountain-climbing).  number  about  would  Zuckerman's  performance  sensation-seekers observations  extent,  stations)  stimulation  task  study,  talks  polar  sensation seekers  Individual  certain  activities  radar  sky-diving  a  sensation-seekers  characterized chambers,  to  i n performance behaviour  theory.  186  and  could  be  friction,  found not  in  only  in  Zuckerman internal  argued  sensations,  environments  high  s t i m u l a t i o n ) . However,  these  high  sensation-seekers  when  in a  "Disinhibition"  of  low  was A  disinhibited  found  cycle  social  interaction  disinhibited  Another  of of  behaviour  the  the  with  (especially  station.  In  experimental adaptation. stationed  at  Seeking the  was  novel  work  tends  of  the  to  diminish  Sensation-  morning and  noted.  arousal  measured  afternoon)  Antarctic The  As  to  reasons  daily  may  activities  i s enhanced  sensation-seeking  "Boredom  boredom the  be and  and  on  BS  groups  of  dark  may  season)  sites  controls.  187  and was  low  of  is  (BS),  in  scores.  would  and  high  indicate  f o r adventure Arctic  had  novelty  relatively  traits  Susceptibility"  susceptibility  lack  i n the  High  (from  activities.  place  c o n t r a s t , the groups  new  increases.  by  monotony  part  Arctic  experimental  low  affected  the  subscale  Antarctic  Individuals adversely  by  of  subjects  take  as  variation  daily  v a r i a b l e which  represented which  a l s o measured  behaviour  groups  prefer  produce  s t i m u l a t i o n environment.  diurnal  experimental i n the  a r o u s a l - l e v e l s and  to  (low  Scale.  increase  sensation-seekers  of  placed  to high  performance  Seeking  that  not  be  environmental  life  in a  polar  scores  of  the  cause  of  poor  experience  by  personnel  one  high  as  compared  Arctic  to  their  Younger  and  more  i n e x p e r i e n c e d group-members  searched  for adventure  controls  (as measured  longer lower  periods at in their  the  wishes  and by  experience;  age  As  to  Arctic  groups  stimulation, sites of  are  are  accentuated  located  r e c e i v e an  this  small  amount  and  finding mood  is highly  and  morale  with  adjusted  mood).  social  may  64°S,  indicated  Antarctic  themselves  consistent  than  with  that  environment  may  188  spending  Bay,  scored  arousal  The  the  the  test  the  results  Arctic  average The  during  day.  more  period  Antarctic  the  per  induced by  of  environmental  sunlight  winter Even  pleasant  scores. groups  were  controls.  This  obtained  from  groups  physical  induce  satisfaction.  low  months. so,  were  the  the  while  Resolute  experimental  experimental  I t seems  data)  where  three  have  sites  mature  photoperiod.  of  high  Reactions  the  80°S  4 hours  as  s l e e p r e p o r t s of  and  and  more  reduced  dark  least  62°  the  the  and  sunlight  enough,  satisfied  at  of  stimulation  Interestingly more  of  the  70°  between  average  to  the  experience.  environment,  by  between  and  of  Pleasantness  due  is n i l during  they  feelings  polar  is probably  located  sunlight  sites  the  experience  for adventure  P e r c e p t i o n and  response  their  semi-isolated site  Satisfaction,  a  and  at  the  (satisfaction, as  well  relatively  as  an  high-levels  of  According  to the  sufficiency  and  Environmental sensitivity  stimulus-seeking on  the  Similarities  across  environmental  effect  there  no  was  The  data  the  need  for  both  on  the  and ERI  and  solitude,  o p e n n e s s may  experimental difference  have  groups.  indicated However,  between c o n t r o l  effect  s e e m s t o be  a characteristic  polar  are  an  since  and  also real  acquired  for  within  or  environment.  shift  was  collection, s t r o n g wind  of  dream-content  wind.  there  was  insomnia being  As  Arctic  Antarctic,  no  being  and  wind  disturbed and  a disturbing  wind  Antarctic.  o f s l e e p was nor  by  mentioned above, at  almost  i n the  onset  similarly,  i n the  In the  storms  or  work  the  a delayed  evidence  affected,  Antarctic.  quality  regions, no  w i t h the  n o i s e and  i n the  sleep  on  isolation not  experiences  Patterns  general  and  this  sleep results  work  both  p e r s o n n e l , and  interacting  Sleep  on  Arctic,  self-  scales.  poles  significant  experimental, urban  i n the  a d a p t a t i o n and  isolation  Inventory,  to environmental  were h i g h e r  Sensation-Seeking  Response  at the  noted,  time  Arctic  Comparing  the  although  shift  factor  the  in of  sites, two  there  was  of d i f f e r e n c e s i n s l e e p - l e n g t h ,  t r o u b l e d by  cold.  189  weather  by  c o n d i t i o n s such  as  These  r e s u l t s are  problems  in  length  environmental factors  period,  after per  and  According  sleep  The  Blake's  case by  which  sleep  the  there  (1987)  findings  under  dreams  of and  dark  season  with  those  on of  was  a  the  low  polar  that  length This  the  be and  events). an  the  (1987)  adjustment at  case  5 in  hours the  groups.  stress  evidence  to  support  subjects  increase  situational  clearly  latter  (1985) and  to  Kolmodin  stabilizes was  that  non-environmental  of  crews.  suggestion  related  level  of  crews  Arctic  LaBerge  no  level  sunlight, the  low  may  experience  cycle.  r e s u l t s of  (1971)  winds,  daily  workers  their  sleep  A n t a r c t i c experimental  when  discussed  worried  night-and-day  to  adventure  in this  night-shift  patterns,  Garcia's  with  q u a l i t y of  factors,  that  duration  sleep  and  (work-shifts,  proposed  Arctic  consistent  These  previously.  190  an  findings  Baekeland  Hicks their  with  and hours  of  stress.  indicate  probably  associated  their  desire  effect are  (1970),  of  for  the  consistent which  were  Perceptual  In  the domain  evidence to  Phenomena  in this  increased  cases  of p e r c e p t u a l  of the  Mocellin,  study  imaging. 'sensed  1987)  occurred  statistical  power,  station's  However, five  who  probably  answers  hours  plant.  prior  phenomena  of i s o l a t i o n  A l l the events  may  The m e c h a n i s m s  phenomenon elsewhere  in polar (Suedfeld  Biographical  and  n o t be a  performance  early  among  and  due  took  function  explanation other  popular  of the personnel  adulthood  environment  in big  that  the  answered  not strong other on  place  of the  leads five  and the of  enough t o  subjects,  shift  within  a  3-  measures.  a combination  'sensed  regions  they  a t the  of the environment even  no  but of  presence'  has been  discussed  1987).  Contributions  literature  personnel  data  was  to the lack  of the  unusual  and M o c e l l i n ,  polar  Biographical  majority  and  Behavioural  s p e c i a l i z e d and  farms.  also  when  to the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  there  ( c f . Suedfeld  were  i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or perhaps  both.  The  to subjects  these  to long  power  period  Imagery of  phenomenon  the d i r e c t i o n of the r e s u l t s . Unlike  exposed  month  imagery,  low s t i m u l a t i o n  presence'  Inventory.  were  a  and  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note  Imagination  change  that  phenomena  who  on p o l a r spent  191  come  groups  most  cities.  both  report from  small  indicate  of t h e i r  better towns  that  childhood  a and  or  Because there  measures  can  be  no  of real  (1975) a r g u m e n t s . lived  on  farms  technical present  test  from  t o do  Antarctic.  In  see  whether  this  Census  reports  show a  (approximately  18  is a  and  statistical  probability  may  sites  communities.  cities  and  may  escape  This  social,  want from  argument Lotz  Arctic)  to  people  the  is consistent individuals  other  factors,  with  p e r s o n n e l who  had  while  did exceptionally  well.  The  of  adaptation  work,  seems  i t might  urban-rural  population  be  to  interesting  of  the  Canada  Canadian  Thus,  the  personnel selected  and  primarily  small  from  towns to  educational  would  migrate  findings  to escape  192  from  areas.  like  from  to  f o r the of  big  environment  (Suedfeld,  to the  urban  opportunities  low-stimulation  the  stationed  compensate  individuals  overload  be  differences.  f o r both  83%).  environment  and  Rivolier's  task,  o t h e r hand,  tension  study,  criterion  from  and  in this  (1973) and  navy  the  originated  experience a  urban  (1970): among  On  on  (23 m i l l i o n ,  cultural  taken  e s t i m a t e d 80%  i s that  have  that  an  to a high-stimulation  restricted  an  would  speculate  migrate  small  Argentina  that  future  urban  million,  not  overall  result  high  population)  One  well  that  to  polar  found  indicates  i n the  were  Gunderson's  big cities  better  at  of  Gunderson  tended  crews  study  performance  of  as  1975).  Nickels  (1976)  North  (Canadian  urban  tension.  The or  issue  of m o t i v a t i o n  southern  polar  when  individuals  move  regions. Positive  motivations  include  financial  reward  regions),  adventure  the  Antarctic).  regions  should  experience,  Overall two  polar  and e x p e r i e n c e  Therefore, be o p t i m a l  unfavourable relationships  to the A r c t i c , and weather  experimental  groups  the  sense  groups's  communication the  social  companions could  o f community.  was e x t r e m e l y  Recreational  But spouses  be e x p l a i n e d  reward, fulfilled.  differences, with  i n the  which a r e familial  of the A n t a r c t i c  married which  complained  which  enhanced  couples,  verbal  c a n be a t t r i b u t e d that  their  to the d e s i r e d extent.  by i n d i v i d u a l  to  This  characteristics.  Behaviour  behaviour  Antarctic,  probably  (knitting,  sewing  rated  frequent,  d i d n o t show a f f e c t i o n  Recreational  leisure  Among  i n polar  similar  satisfaction  c o n d i t i o n s . One  higher i n  were  are consistently  concern  f o r both  for financial  included several families,  isolation.  perhaps  (both  satisfaction  but s i g n i f i c a n t  to northern  high  of p e r s o n n e l  i f the d e s i r e s  and p e r s o n a l  Small  similarly  satisfaction  performance  of s a t i s f a c t i o n  regions.  (rated  and p e r s o n a l  adventure  levels  arises  showed  reflecting  e t c . ) were  activities,  clear  with  differences.  the presence  t h e most  mechanics  second.  193  In the  o f women,  preferred past  (wood  working)  crafts and f u t u r e  and s p o r t s  These  leisure  resources the  behaviours  available  Antarctic  addition,  within  stations  there  d i d not  were  the  had  s k i equipment,  several  hours  i n the  surrounding  station  use  these  the  of  Arctic, activities  ego-recognition  games  which  were  part  is  no  evidence  at  the  also  polar  climbing,  of  intellectual  operational  or  to  or  past  and  Yet,  For  example,  outdoor  improved  i n remote  of  of  In  in  the  time.  In and  weight-lifting) behaviour.  leisure  suggested  would  be  There  behaviour that  preferred  finding  recreational  194  one  intellectual  no  areas.  and  permitted  leisure  leisure  This  etc.  people  on  diversions.  type  example,  effect  recreation  design  and  one  the  which  few  for their  future  of  toboggans  adventurous,  environmental  mechanical  stations  resources  For  sunlight  ( f o o t b a l l , squash  regions.  skiing  contribute  an  of  areas.  emphasized  of  because  environment.  hiking-trips made  change  hiking, to  may  facilities  of  new  Final  The  Remarks  absence  of comparative  domain, aside studies,  The  from  the early Soviet  does n o t a l l o w  basis  b i - p o l a r work  i s the observations  behaviour  i n e n v i r o n m e n t s assumed  stressful  because  of t h e i r  sparce  population.  (A)  The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  questionable. renowned was  after  an absence  arousal Fear  aspects.  experience.  The e x p l o r e r s * of an average  experience, was a l s o  felt  accessibility  the following:  the A n t a r c t i c , are  This  i s as true  have e m p h a s i z e d  Pleasant  and t e n s i o n  return  o f two y e a r s  as i t i s f o r c u r r e n t  o f known a n d unknown d a n g e r s  phase  occurred  exped i t i ons.  195  words  was a p l e a s a n t  Arousal  at the i n i t i a l  today as i t  the positive  and a r o u s a l  winter  imminent  u n u s u a l and  as s t r e s s f u l i s  particularly  of e a r l y explorers.  Departure.  arousing  regions,  i n d i a r i e s indicate that  experience  near  of the environment  results.  o f human  t o be e x t r e m e ,  The r e s u l t s s u g g e s t  negative  other  location, restricted  a g o . Few s c h o l a r s  of the p o l a r  recorded the  for their  a century  side  Polar  psycho-physiological  many c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h  of the research  and  i n the psychological  to  was a n  crews.  phase of appeared  civilization anxiety-  Overall,  of the e x p e d i t i o n . on a l m o s t a l l  This  anxiety  begins  i s followed  during  the f i r s t  by a p r o c e s s month  familiarity  and c o n f i d e n c e  environment  are established.  (B)  Even  though  A) a s w e r e  negative  individual  expeditions,  reality  the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  or  current  by t h e i r  The  environment  same  (Cherry-Garrard negative  content-analysis in  t h e same  similar  when  and Gran)  in this  different  and p h y s i c a l  on b o t h  may  also  (as i n  historical  perceived  be s e e n  perception  as  caused  and  as a distortion  by  experienced  previous  by d i f f e r e n t according  and e x p e r i e n c e s A behavioural  of the contemporary  polar  a n d t h e same  for different  196  people to the  of the  and  scientific  narratives,  (Taylor e t a l . 1986).  differently,  were  (e.g. Cherry-Garrard).  was a p p r a i s e d  environment.  experiences  of the e x p l o r e r s  perceptions  perceptions  conclusions  events  site  realities  negative  or p o s i t i v e  individuals  when  experiences.  of experienced  affected  a t the s i t e  i s sometimes  environmental  negative  Narratives  what  which  per se i s n o t s t r e s s f u l  experiences  at a polar  of  arrival  i n the s o c i a l  the environment  some  contemporary  after  of adaptation,  Each  person  environment  people  results  (Suedfeld,  may  judges lead to  1987).  (C) One  can  personnel from  the  special  argue  segment by  the  characteristics and  sought  by  of  their  basic  similar, Rather,  human  and  complex  human  we  interactions  have  Although  cross-cultural  unifying  be  which  results  volunteered the  basis  general  polar  distinguish  belonged  to a  and  of  them  were  then  their  adventurousness  characteristics  (E. Salmon,  to geographically  not  undergone  evolved  and  has  insights  o f human  available  might  has  new  not  as  on  These  Knowledge  benefits  strong  above  are  personal  1985).  response  possess  They  leaders  response  terms.  the  professionalism,  1959).  5,  of  explorers  leaders  included  environments  psychological time,  June  early  society.  expedition which  basis  characteristics  contemporary  communication,  The  the  p e r s o n . The  experience ( K i r l i n ,  also  (D)  on  possess special average  selected  that  dramatic  become  increased into  the  changes.  more  perceptive  considerably  are  now  the  influence.  19 7  exist,  they are  environment  not  exerts  as a  in  over  major  expeditions.  differences  anticipated;  yet  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  behaviour which  to e a r l y  remote,  the  (E)  Behavioural  assess  because  differences The  differences  issue  of the small  among men a n d women a r e d i f f i c u l t t o number o f f e m a l e  between e x p e r i m e n t a l  of sex d i f f e r e n c e s  subjects,  b u t some  a n d c o n t r o l women w e r e  at polar  stations requires  noted. further  i nvest i gat i on.  6.3  Suggestions  f o rFuture  T h e r e a r e many p o s s i b i l i t i e s behaviour series The  i n polar  phase would  departure include  a t least three  follow-up  These  measures u s i n g examine  f o rthe polar  behavioural  f o rfuture  communities.  of behavioural  first  Research  research  include  responses  the second  applications on-site  v a r i a t i o n s , and t h e t h i r d  after subjects  administering  a  t h e same g r o u p o f s u b j e c t s .  the subject's  environment,  o n human  had r e t u r n e d  phase  prior to would  monitoring  phase would to their  involve  a  normal  environment.  Physiological correlation  m e a s u r e s may p r o v i d e  between e n v i r o n m e n t a l  information  concerning the  and p e r c e i v e d  Physiologically-stressful  environments  chamber, s p a c e - p l a t f o r m s ,  high-altitude polar  198  exist  stress.  (e.g.divingstations).  In  some  vital,  of these  and d i f f e r e n t  additional body,  environments,  problems  the l i f e - s u p p o r t  combinations  (Baddeley, calcium  1972, L o g i e  Bluth,  i n lengthy  1986).  Because  exposure  of g r a v i t y  orbital  and t h e s e v e r e  cold,  (Antarctic  Plateau)  stations  unprotected effects  (Matusov, the  1971).  assumption  environments. Evans, in  stress  impose the  an a s s u m p t i o n  that  element  a station  was  located  physiological  measurements  of measuring  such  of such  would  physiological  stress  can  measures. I f  rather  than  n o t be s e e n  i s stress  environment.  199  of  Antarctica,  physiological  stress-signs  as the s o c i a l  low-stimulation  Station,  relaxing  when t h e r e  by  i n the study of  i s , in fact,  are taken  parameters  sea-level.  r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n environment  with  i s introduced  no e v i d e n c e at  of the  altitude  other  studying  i s evident  to  affected for  among  (1987) a t Palmer there  content  symptoms do o c c u r  rate  by s c h o l a r s  the complexities  physical  source,  a confusing  of the f a c t  stressful, the  However,  and C a r r e r e  a t Palmer,  However,  Physiological  stressors  i n high  i s severely  and h e a r t  of stress  life  o f bone  e t a l . 1985;  i n oxygen  human  pressure  Such  Stokols  spite  polar  individuals.  on b l o o d  (Connors  of the decrease  conditions  The l o s s  are powerful  represent  o f t h e human  to such  1985).  flights  atmosphere  and gas  adaptation  and B a d d e l e y ,  and t h e absence  astronauts  of chemicals  of p h y s i o l o g i c a l  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n long-term  systems are  from  unless  another  For  example,  stress  irritability  There  arise  remains  procedure  could  be m e a s u r e d  between  two g r o u p  an element  i n the f i e l d .  continuous  symptoms.  high  threshold  polar  station  level  of i n t e r p e r s o n a l ,  might  be r e q u i r e d  Experiences  that  emotional  uneven (R.  with  stress  i c e - may  Weber,  would  of  the p a r t i c i p a n t  of  heat,  person's  Thus,  experience  be u n d e r  imbalance  might  considerable  however  a number  of research  projects  Firstly,  the r e p l i c a t i o n of the present  contribution  settings  of s t r e s s  could  or absence  polar  problems  on  participant  15, 1 9 8 7 ) . stress  to  The  body  (e.g. loss  s i t u a t i o n of  as a p l e a s a n t  one i n  mind.  presence  other  in a  high  journeys  the g l o b a l  be a p p r a i s e d  a  a  symptoms.  f o r the  September  have  as c o n t r i b u t i n g  dog-sledding  communication, may  stress  t o an o b s e r v e r  would  the winter,  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  a  develop  thermal-environment,  - e.g. long  energy-expenditure),  physiological the  appear  to  of such needs  people  During  physiological  be a n e n j o y a b l e  personal  trained  response.  emotional  t o evoke  probably  situational stress  a controlled  and  the e f f i c a c y  organism  In a d d i t i o n ,  f o r any s t r e s s  friction  members.  about  The human  or h i g h - i n t e n s i t y  physiological  high  of doubt  when  using  to small-group  be d e r i v e d  i n the natural  only  selected  research.  200  from the  environment.  finding  o f low s t r e s s  subjects  would  be a  in  Secondly, settings  coupled could  be  physiologically physiological the  with  the  located  stressful  data  difficulties  could  shown  previous  environments  i n which  psycho-  Thirdly,  on  collected.  this  as  being  evoked  environment,  or  both,  another  of  these  possibilities group  of  of  findings  stress  as  environmental  are  many s t u d i e s  IBEA  expedition -  Procedures  such  applications, experienced will  processes stations  The  ideal  to  seeking settings  by  personnel  be  most  would  the  perceived  coping  stressful  with  the  use  new  data  mechanisms aspects  a  type  of  individual  of  contribution  including others,  of  and  on  the  imperfectly  perform  the  repeated  trained  perceived  and methods  stress.  The  isolation  in polar  field.  the  traits  better  understood.  201  of  There  psychological adaptation  possessing  will  work  to  settings.  extraversion/introversion who  exposed  with a  with  and  unobstrusive  long-term to  the  measures  of  small  informative.  of  by  sources  of  meaning  in polar  i n t e r v i e w s conducted  researchers  remains  stress  paper-and-penci1  as  of  exception  of  is that  domain  experienced  factors  basis  researchers  the  be  among  the  the the  suggestion  provide  more  physical  of  would  personality,  and  review  - with  on  field  investigation  social  research  p s y c h o l o g i s t , and  provide  the  could  Fourthly, a  unusual not  by  in assessing  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s w i t h i n the  behaviour.  perception  study  perhaps  polar-  and  human s t r e s s  extensions  the  in distinct,  be  by  suggestion,  in  of  and  sensation-  isolated-  The  identification  satisfaction research. their also  and  Further  correlation  of group  performance  composition i s an  leading to  important  s t u d i e s f o c u s i n g on g r o u p to task  p e r f o r m a n c e and  optimal  topic for future r e l a t i o n s h i p s and  motivation  would  be  useful.  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Weybrew, B., & Noddin, E. (1979). P s y c h i a t r i c aspects of a d a p t a t i o n t o l o n g submarine m i s s i o n s . A v i a t i o n , Space & M e d i c i n e , June, 575-580. W i l s o n , E. (1901-1966). Diary London: B l a n d f o r d P r e s s .  of the  Discovery  Expedition.  W o r s l e y , F. A. (1914-16). J o u r n a l kept d u r i n g the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition. L e a d e r by S h a c k l e t o n , S c o t t P o l a r R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e [MS. Cambridge, E n g l a n d . W o r s l e y , F. A. (1974). London: F o l i o .  Shackleton's  boat  Env.  British S i r Ernest 733/1/2],  journey.  W r i g h t , M. W., S i s l e r , G. C , & C h y l i n s k i , J . (1963). P e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s i n the s e l e c t i o n of c i v i l i a n s f o r i s o l a t e d n o r t h e r n s t a t i o n s . J o u r n a l o f A p p l . P s y c h o l . . 47, 24-29. W r i g h t , M. W., C h y l i n s k i , J . , S i s l e r , G. C , & Quarrington, B. (1967). P e r s o n a l i t y f a c d t o r s i n the s e l e c t i o n of c i v i l i a n s for i s o l a t e d northern s t a t i o n . A follow-up study. C a n a d i a n P s y c h o l o g i s t , 8a, 23-31. Zubek, J . P. ( E d . ) , (1969). Sensory d e p r i v a t i o n : F i f t e e n of r e s e a r c h . New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.  years  Zubek, J . P. (1973). B e h a v i o r a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f p r o l o n g e d s e n s o r y and p e r c e p t u a l d e p r i v a t i o n : A r e v i e w . In J . E. Rasmussen (Ed.), Man i n i s o l a t i o n and c o n f i n e m e n t (pp. 9-83). Chicago: A l d i n e . Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation l e v e l of a r o u s a l . Hillsdale,  S e e k i n g : Beyond t h e NJ: E r l b a u m .  optimal  Zusne, L.and Jones, W. (1982). Anomalistic psychology: a s t u d y o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y phenomena o f b e h a v i o u r and experience. H i l l s d a l e : Erlbaum.  217  APPENDIX  218  GLOSSARY ADJUSTMENT AND ADAPTATION: A d j u s t m e n t o c c u r s when t h e i n d i v i d u a l becomes s e n s i t i v e t o new e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . These p r o c e s s e s a f f e c t p h y s i o l o g i c a l and s e n s o r i a l o r g a n i c systems. A d a p t a t i o n i s t h e s h i f t i n t h e a d j u s t m e n t l e v e l so as make t h e e n v i r o n m e n t more t o l e r a b l e ( S u e d f e l d , 1987) .  to  ANXIETY, STATE AND TRAIT: S t a t e A n x i e t y i s b a s e d upon a p a t t e r n o f v a r i a b l e s t h a t changes o v e r o c c a s i o n s o f measurement, i n d i c a t i n g a t r a n s i t o r y c o n d i t i o n . T r a i t a n x i e t y i s a measure o f s t a b l e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n r e l a t i v e l y permanent p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( S p i e l b e r g e r , 1970). ARCTIC: The A r c t i c i s d e f i n e d as t h e a r e a A r c t i c C i r c l e (66*S p a r a l l e l a r e c o n s i d e r e d A n t a r c t i c o r A n t a r c t i c a ( M o c e l l i n , 1982) .  located within as p a r t o f t h e  the  AROUSAL: Or a c t i v a t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o u n d e r - o r o v e r - s t i m u l a t i o n . In b e h a v i o u r a l terms, a r o u s a l r e f e r s t o an i n t e n s i t y d i m e n s i o n r a n g i n g from u n c o n s c i o u s n e s s and s l e e p t h r o u g h d r o w s i n e s s , q u i e t awakening and e x c i t e m e n t t o d i s o r g a n i z e d b e h a v i o r . A s h o r t d e f i n i t i o n o f moderate a r o u s a l r e f e r s t o t h e p h y s i c a l s t a t e i n which one i s a l e r t , i n t e r e s t e d and k e e n l y aware o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ( C h a p l i n , 1983). BI-POLAR: A r c t i c and  That w h i c h r e l a t e s t o o r i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h A n t a r c t i c regions.  both  CIRCADIAN RHYTHM: P e r t a i n i n g t o b i o l o g i c a l c y c l e s o c c u r r i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 24-hour i n t e r v a l s ( C h a p l i n , 1983) .  at  COGNITION: A g e n e r a l c o n c e p t e m b r a c i n g a l l forms o f knowing such as p e r c e i v i n g , i m a g i n i n g , r e a s o n i n g , and j u d g i n g . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , c o g n i t i o n was opposed t o w i l l i n g and a f f e c t i o n o r f e e l i n g ( C h a p l i n , 1983). COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT: The impairment o f human c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s or a c o m b i n a t i o n o f r e d u c t i o n o f f o r g e t f u l n e s s , i n t e l l e c t u a l i n e r t i a and e f f e c t s on a t t e n t i o n . C o g n i t i v e impairment has been c o n s i d e r e d one o f t h e m a j o r n e g a t i v e responses of s m a l l groups i n l o n g term i s o l a t i o n i n n a t u r a l e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t t i n g s (Evans, 1980/ P o p k i n e t a l . 1974) . CONFINEMENT: I m p l i e s a r e s t r i c t i o n o f m o b i l i t y as c a u s e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s ( S e l l s , 1973, Smith, 1969).  or  by  CONTENT ANALYSIS: The s t u d y o f t h e documentary m a t e r i a l s (e.g., d i a r i e s ) i n terms o f t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s e l e c t e d p s y c h o s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s . In t h i s s t u d y , t h e c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e d t h e e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s o f s e l e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l s ( A f t e r C h a p l i n , 1983) .  219  ENVIRONMENT: R e f e r s t o any a s p e c t o f t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l , social and p s y c h o l o g i c a l phenomena which s u r r o u n d o r a f f e c t an i n d i v i d u a l o r g a n i s m o r p a r t o f an o r g a n i s m (Moran, 1982). ENVIRONMENTAL ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION: A t t i t u d e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e and e n d u r i n g p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o behave o r r e a c t i n a c e r t a i n way towards persons, o b j e c t s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , o r i s s u e s i n any g i v e n environment ( C h a p l i n , 1983). Perception occurs i n t h e e x t e r n a l environment o f t h e s u b j e c t s . P e r c e p t i o n i s more t r a n s i t o r y and l e s s s t a b l e t h a n a t t i t u d e s . P e r c e p t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y l i n k e d t o a s p e c i f i c s t i m u l u s , and a t t i t u d e s a r e c o n n e c t e d t o a v a r i e t y o f f e e l i n g s and b e l i e f s . E n v i r o n m e n t a l p e r c e p t i o n i s t h e s u b j e c t ' s p e r s o n a l image o f t h e e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t (Lowenthal, 1967). ENVIRONMENTAL STIMULATION: Includes a l l t h e i n p u t s from t h e e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t a r e s e n s e d o r r e c e i v e d a t some p e r c e p t u a l l e v e l . EXPERIMENTAL GROUP: R e f e r s t o b o t h A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c contemporary groups i n t h e p o l a r s i t e s . EXTRAVERTS: I n d i v i d u a l s who a r e c h r o n i c a l l y u n d e r - a r o u s e d and who attempt t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r a r o u s a l by s e e k i n g h i g h l e v e l s o f s t i m u l a t i o n ( c f . Zuckerman, 1983); a t e n d e n c y t o d i r e c t p e r s o n a l i t y t o w a r d s t h e o u t e r w o r l d . The e x t r a v e r t s t e n d t o f o c u s t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n and judgment on p e o p l e and o b j e c t s ( c f . J u n g , 1971). HALLUCINATION: A p e r c e p t i o n t h a t o c c u r s i n t h e a b s e n c e o f a corresponding o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y . H a l l u c i n a t i o n i s not determined by e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s o r e v e n t s , a l t h o u g h t h e h a l l u c i n a t o r y p r o c e s s may be s u p e r i m p o s e d upon them (such as when r e a l o b j e c t s appear d i s t o r t e d , i n c r e a s e d o r d e c r e a s e d i n s i z e , o r animated) [Zusne and J o n e s , 1982] . HISTORICAL GROUP: R e f e r s t o t h e s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s o f t h e w r i t i n g s o f A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c e x p l o r e r s . HOSTILE ENVIRONMENT: An e n v i r o n m e n t composed o f p o t e n t i a l l y h a r m f u l f a c t o r s . These a r e c l i m a t i c , p h y s i o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l ( R i v o l i e r , 1975). HYPNAGOGIC IMAGERY: A t y p e o f imagery w h i c h o c c u r s i n t h e h y p n a g o g i c s t a t e , a s t a t e which o c c u r s between w a k e f u l n e s s and s l e e p (Zusne and J o n e s , 1982). HYPNOPOMPIC IMAGERY: The image g e n e r a t e d i n a hypnopompic s t a t e , which o c c u r s a f t e r s l e e p i n g and p r i o r t o wakening (Zusne and Jones, 1982) .  220  INTROVERTS: I n d i v i d u a l s who a r e c h r o n i c a l l y a r o u s e d , and seek s i t u a t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a low l e v e l o f s t i m u l a t i o n ( c f . Zuckerman, 1983) . A s e c o n d and more common d e f i n i t i o n i s b a s e d on Jung (1921, 1971); i n t r o v e r t s a r e o r i e n t e d p r i m a r i l y towards t h e i r i n n e r w o r l d s f o c u s i n g t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s and judgements on c o n c e p t s and i d e a s . ISOLATED SITES: Those s i t e s i n t h e N o r t h and S o u t h p o l a r r e g i o n s w i t h i n t h e 60th p a r a l l e l . They a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l i m i t e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y ( p r i m a r i l y by a i r ) and r e s t r i c t e d o u t s i d e c o n t a c t (by r a d i o o r m a i l ) and e v e n t u a l l y t e l e p h o n e ) . They t y p i c a l l y have l i v i n g f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h a r e p h y s i c a l l y i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y ; t h e number o f t r a n s i e n t i n h a b i t a n t s a r e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l ; and no m a j o r human s e t t l e m e n t s c a n be f o u n d i n a r a d i u s o f 200 km. f r o m t h e s i t e . ISOLATION: I t c a n be d e f i n e d i n a number o f ways. Here i t i s d e f i n e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e extent t o which c e r t a i n groups o r members o f g r o u p s a r e r e s t r i c t e d by e i t h e r p h y s i c a l l y o r s o c i a l l y ( t h i s study considers only p h y s i c a l l y ) p r e s c r i b e d l i m i t s from communicating w i t h o t h e r s o u t s i d e t h e immediate group. I s o l a t i o n i s o f t e n , b u t n o t a l w a y s , a c c o m p a n i e d by c o n f i n e m e n t and s e n s o r y r e s t r i c t i o n o r d e p r i v a t i o n (see a l s o s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n , c o n f i n e m e n t and s e n s o r y r e s t r i c t i o n ) ( S e l l s , 1973) . LOW STIMULATION: When t h e o u t e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n p u t i s r e d u c e d or v e r y low. I n t h i s c o n d i t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l s become more aware o f t h e i r i n t e r n a l r e s i d u a l s t i m u l i ( S u e d f e l d and M o c e l l i n , 1987). MONOTONY: A s t a t e o f low a r o u s a l w h i c h a f f e c t s a t t e n t i o n and o c c u r s when i n d i v i d u a l s p e r f o r m t h e same t a s k s f o r l o n g p e r i o d s (Baddeley, 1972).The d e c r e a s e i n a t t e n t i o n ( c a u s e d by monotony) i s a l s o r e l a t e d t o boredom, which o c c u r s as a r e a c t i o n t o t a s k s i t u a t i o n s where t h e p a t t e r n o f s e n s o r y s t i m u l a t i o n i s n e a r l y c o n s t a n t o r h i g h l y r e p e t i t i o u s . An e m o t i o n a l component o f boredom a l s o i n c l u d e s an a v e r s i o n t o monotonous e l e m e n t s o f a s i t u a t i o n t h a t a r e i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l s as t h e s o u r c e o f t h e f e e l i n g . S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s m o t i v a t e d t o change the environment, vary h i s a c t i v i t y o r escape t h e s i t u a t i o n a l t o g e t h e r (Smith, 1981). MONOTONOUS NATURAL ENVIRONMENT: E n v i r o n m e n t s w h i c h a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by subdued c o l o u r s , l o n g p e r i o d s o f d a r k and l i g h t , and homogeneous l a n d s c a p e s . PASTORALISM: A c c o r d i n g t o ERI Manual (McKechnie, 1974), t h e theme " p a s t o r a l i s m " means: o p p o s i t i o n t o l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t ; c o n c e r n about p o p u l a t i o n growth; p r e s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g open space; a c c e p t a n c e o f n a t u r a l f o r c e s as s h a p e r s o f human l i f e ; s e n s i t i v i t y t o p u r e e n v i r o n m e n t a l experiences; s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t (p. 2 ) . 221  PERCEPTUAL PHENOMENA: P e r c e p t i o n i s t h e p r o c e s s whereby i n d i v i d u a l s e x t r a c t i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . P e r c e p t u a l phenomena a r e c o m p r i s e d o f a c l a s s o f e v e n t s (e.g. t r a n s c e n d e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e s , dreams, daydreams and anomalous imagery; Zusne and Jones, 1982). E n v i r o n m e n t s w i t h low s t i m u l a t i o n may i n c r e a s e t h e number and i n t e n s i t y o f p e r c e p t u a l e v e n t s due t o a s h i f t i n a t t e n t i o n t o i n t e r n a l r e s i d u a l r a t h e r than e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i . PERMANENT: Refers to the months at a p o l a r s i t e .  residence  of subjects  during  PLEASANTNESS: A p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o l o n g t h e e x c i t i n g c o n d i t i o n s ( C h a p l i n , 1983).  the  12-14 desire  to  POLAR BASE: A s e t t l e m e n t i n a p o l a r r e g i o n , s t a f f e d by a s m a l l group o f p e o p l e , f o r l o g i s t i c a l and / o r s t r a t e g i c p u r p o s e s . S c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y i s conducted s e c o n d a r i l y . POLAR STATION: A s e t t l e m e n t i n a p o l a r r e g i o n w h i c h i s c o m p r i s e d o f a s m a l l g r o u p o f p e o p l e under c i v i l i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and i s mainly dedicated to s c i e n t i f i c operations. SELF-ACTUALIZATION: c a p a c i t i e s (Chaplin,  The t e n d e n c y t o d e v e l o p one's t a l e n t 1983) .  SELF-INSIGHT: Insight ( C h a p l i n , 1983) .  i n t o the  r e a s o n s f o r one's own  and  behaviour  SENSATION-SEEKERS: Those i n d i v i d u a l s who n e e d v a r i e d , n o v e l complex e x p e r i e n c e s i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n an o p t i m a l l e v e l o f a r o u s a l (Zuckerman, 1979).  and  SENSORY RESTRICTION: S e n s o r y r e s t r i c t i o n o c c u r s when t h e s t i m u l a t i o n i s r e d u c e d as a r e s u l t o f d e c r e a s e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a t i o n (e.g., d a r k n e s s , s i l e n c e o r monotonous e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n p u t ) [Zubek, 1969]. SOCIAL MALADJUSTMENT: Lack o f t h e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s s u c c e s s i n s o c i a l l i v i n g ( C h a p l i n , 1983).  necessary  for  SOCIAL ISOLATION: I n d i v i d u a l s o r g r o u p s o f i n d i v i d u a l s who are s e p a r a t e d f r o m c o r e s o c i e t i e s by v a s t g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t a n c e s . I s o l a t i o n i s t h e c o n d i t i o n o f b e i n g i s o l a t e d ( C h a p l i n , 1983). S o c i a l i s o l a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e a b s e n c e o f u s u a l s o c i a l c o n t a c t s or supports ( s o c i a l network); or i n the case of t h i s study, t h i s c o n t a c t i s r e s t r i c t e d to s m a l l groups. STRESS: A s t a t e o f i m b a l a n c e e i t h e r p h y s i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r b e h a v i o u r a l w h i c h i s e l i c i t e d by a l a c k o f i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a p a c i t y i n c o p i n g w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l demands ( S t o k o l s , 1979).  222  STRESSFUL ENVIRONMENT: An environment where p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s a r e s e v e r e and compromise t h e s u r v i v a l o f a u n p r o t e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l (see a l s o h o s t i l e e n v i r o n m e n t ) . STRESSORS: P h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t can damage t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l b a l a n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l s (e.g., wind n o i s e , t e m p e r a t u r e , r a d i a t i o n , a l t i t u d e and p h o t o p e r i o d ) . TRANSIENT: R e f e r s t o t h e temporary r e s i d e n c e o f s u b j e c t s under s t u d y i n t h e p o l a r a r e a s . The t e r m i s a p p l i c a b l e t o s u b j e c t s who rotate e v e r y 4 t o 6 months i n t e r v a l s , t o and o f f s i t e s . THRESHOLD: A p o i n t on a s t i m u l u s c o n t i n u u m a t w h i c h t h e r e i s a t r a n s i t i o n i n a s e r i e s o f s e n s a t i o n s and judgments. F o r example, when e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n p u t s a r e v e r y low, human b e i n g s become much more s e n s i t i v e t o r e s i d u a l s t i m u l i and t h e r e f o r e e x h i b i t a l o w e r s e n s o r y t h r e s h o l d ( C h a p l i n , 1983). UNUSUAL ENVIRONMENT: Not t h e c u s t o m a r y e n v i r o n m e n t s ; i n t h i s s t u d y i m p l i e s t h a t p e o p l e a r e c u t o f f from t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d , f a r from t h e i r u s u a l s p h e r e . VIVID and LUCID DREAMS: A v i v i d dream i s when t h e dreamer i s aware o f i n t e r n a l e v e n t s ( t h o u g h t s ; b u t he/she i s f u l l y aware t h a t " t h i s i s a dream"), r a t h e r t h a n t h e e x t e r n a l e v e n t s p r o d u c e d i n t h e awake l i f e . V i v i d dreams a r e u s u a l l y i n c o l o u r and can evoke p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s (e.g., n i g h t m a r e s ) . L u c i d dreams o c c u r s when t h e i n d i v i d u a l n o t o n l y r e c o g n i z e s t h a t he/she i s i n a dream s t a t e b u t a c q u i r e s c o n t r o l o v e r t h e dream c o n t e n t . L u c i d dreams u s u a l l y a r e p o s i t i v e l y v a l e n c e d ; n i g h t m a r e s a r e a b s e n t (LaBerge, 1985).  223  CONTENT ANALYSIS The  Individual  Physical  Records  Effects:  Because o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l symptoms w i t h t h e environment, t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s were c o n d u c t e d t o g e t h e r . D u r i n g t h e i r e x p l o r a t i o n A r c t i c e x p l o r e r s r e f e r r e d t o elements o f t h e p h y s i c a l environment with q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r e q u e n c i e s . Nares, f o r example, n o t e d f a t i g u e (7 t i m e s ) , c o l d (14 e n t r i e s ) and d a r k (10 t i m e s ) , a l l a t M i d - W i n t e r p h a s e . J a a c k s o n r e p o r t e d i n s o m n i a (14 t i m e s ) , l a c k o f a p p e t i t e (9 t i m e s ) and t h e e f f e c t s o f d a r k n e s s (14) a t M i d - W i n t e r p h a s e . S t e f f a n s o n mentioned c o l d (17; 14 a t M i d - W i n t e r ) , h o t (10; 4 a t B e g i n n i n g and 4 a t D e p a r t u r e ) , and windy c o n d i t i o n s ( 2 6 ) . Adams r e p o r t e d h a v i n g no p r o b l e m s w i t h s l e e p i n g , he n o t e d w i t h 11 r e f e r e n c e s (4 a t t h e B e g i n n i n g and t h e e n d o f t h e e x p e d i t i o n ) t h a t he f e l t t h e c o l d (18; 7 and 5 a t B e g i n n i n g and end) and wind (14; 10 a t t h e e n d ) . Smith r e p o r t e d windy c o n d i t i o n s (15; 8 at M i d - W i n t e r ) . P h y s i c a l e f f e c t s were a l s o r e p o r t e d by e x p l o r e r s i n t h e A n t a r c t i c . S c o t t r e c o r d e d windy c o n d i t i o n s 37 t i m e s (12 a t B e g i n n i n g and 15 a t Mid-Winter) and he made 22 comments r e f e r r i n g t o t h e c o l d (17 d u r i n g t h e r e t u r n from t h e P o l e , c l o s e t o h i s d e a t h ) . Gran r e p o r t e d 6 e v e n t s o f i n s o m n i a (4 a t t h e B e g i n n i n g o f h i s t o u r ) , 11 o f c o l d (6 a t B e g i n n i n g and 3 a t M i d W i n t e r ) and 12 o f windy c o n d i t i o n s ( t h r o u g h o u t t h e e x p e d i t i o n ) . C h e r r y - G a r r a r d r e c o r d e d 11 i n s t a n c e s o f i n s o m n i a and 16 o f f a t i g u e (6 and 6 a t B e g i n n i n g and 2 and 7 a t M i d - W i n t e r , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . C o l d and windy c o n d i t i o n s were r e p o r t e d 11 and 7 t i m e s r e s p e c t i v e l y ; o f t h e s e , 7 and 3 were a t t h e B e g i n n i n g phase and 3 t i m e s were f o r windy c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e M i d - W i n t e r phase. O r d e - L e e s r e c o r d e d 8 o c c u r r e n c e s o f i n s o m n i a (6 a t M i d - W i n t e r and 2 a t D e p a r t u r e ) ; 6 c a s e s o f f a t i g u e a t M i d - W i n t e r ; 7 c a s e s o f c o l d and 9 o f h o t d i s t r i b u t e d a c r o s s a l l p h a s e s ; 8 o f dark c o n d i t i o n s a t M i d - W i n t e r and D e p a r t u r e p h a s e s and 18 c a s e s of windy c o n d i t i o n s (17 a t M i d - W i n t e r ) . W o r s l e y r e p o r t e d 3 i n s t a n c e s o f i n c r e a s e d a p p e t i t e and o n l y 2 e p i s o d e s o f i n s o m n i a , b o t h n e a r D e p a r t u r e , 4 c a s e s o f c o l d (2 A b o a r d a n d 1 M i d - W i n t e r ) and 6 o f d a r k (5 a t M i d - W i n t e r ) . S p e n c e r - S m i t h r e c o r d e d 7 c a s e s of i n s o m n i a (6 a t B e g i n n i n g ) , 6 o f f a t i g u e (5 a t M i d - W i n t e r ) ; 6 of windy c o n d i t i o n s (4 and 2 a t B e g i n n i n g and D e p a r t u r e r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . B e r n a c c h i t e l l s o f 4 c a s e s o f i n s o m n i a A b o a r d and at B e g i n n i n g p h a s e s and 5 o f windy c o n d i t i o n s (4 a t B e g i n n i n g and 1 a t D e p a r t u r e ) .  224  Positive Psychological  Effects:  There a r e few r e c o r d e d i n s t a n c e s o f p o s i t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s f o r the A r c t i c explorers. N a r e s and J a a c k s o n r e c o r d e d 2 e n t r i e s o f s e l f - i n s i g h t and o f s e r e n i t y , b o t h a t M i d - W i n t e r p h a s e . S t e f f a n s o n gave a h i g h e r f r e q u e n c y , w i t h 6 and 3 i n s t a n c e s o f s e l f - i n s i g h t and s e l f - g r o w t h r e s p e c t i v e l y , b o t h n e a r D e p a r t u r e . Adams r e c o r d e d 3 c a s e s o f s e l f - i n s i g h t , o f which 2 were a t M i d - W i n t e r p h a s e . F o r A n t a r c t i c e x p l o r e r s , t h e same low f r e q u e n c y o f p o s i t i v e effects can be n o t e d i n t h e r e c o r d . S c o t t , f o r example, gave o n l y 2 r e p o r t s o f s e l f - i n s i g h t , b o t h a t M i d - W i n t e r . In c o n t r a s t , Gran m e n t i o n e d 7 p e r i o d s o f s e r e n i t y (4 a t M i d - W i n t e r ) ; 6 o f a l a r m (1 A b o a r d and 5 a t D e p a r t u r e phase) f o l l o w e d by 3 m e n t i o n s of s e l f - i n s i g h t ( a c r o s s a l l phases e x c e p t M i d - W i n t e r ) . C h e r r y G a r r a r d r e c o r d e d 1 e n t r y o f s e l f - i n s i g h t a t M i d - W i n t e r and 4 o f s e r e n i t y (1 A b o a r d and 3 a t D e p a r t u r e ) . O r d e - L e e s and W o r s l e y r e p o r t e d no i t e m s o f t h i s t y p e . S p e n c e r - S m i t h h a d o n l y one e n t r y f o r each o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f s e l f - i n s i g h t , s e l f - g r o w t h and s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e a t t h e B e g i n n i n g p h a s e B e r n a c c h i r e p o r t e d two t i m e s on s e r e n i t y , once Aboard and once a t t h e D e p a r t u r e phase. Negative P s y c h o l o g i c a l  Effects:  The r e s u l t s o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e a n e g a t i v e view o f t h e p o l a r e x p e r i e n c e . I n t h e A r c t i c , N a r e s r e c o r d e d 13 r e f e r e n c e s t o a n x i e t y , o f w h i c h 7 a r e a t M i d - W i n t e r , and t h e r e were 4 e n t r i e s o f boredom, a l s o a t M i d - W i n t e r . J a a c k s o n recorded a n x i e t y 27 t i m e s (8 a t M i d - W i n t e r and 13 a t D e p a r t u r e ) ; i r r i t a b i l i t y was e n t e r e d 13 t i m e s a t M i d - W i n t e r and d u r i n g D e p a r t u r e ; b e i n g p h l e g m a t i c , 65 t i m e s a t M i d - W i n t e r (out o f 70 r e f e r e n c e s ) . S e n s i t i v i t y t o s o c i a l s t i m u l i (group s o c i a l i z a t i o n ) o c c u r r e d 6 t i m e s , o f which 5 were a t M i d - W i n t e r . S t e f f a n s o n r e p o r t e d o n l y 2 c a s e s o f a n x i e t y (one e a c h a t B e g i n n i n g and D e p a r t u r e p h a s e s ) ; he mentioned boredom t w i c e a t M i d - W i n t e r and once a t D e p a r t u r e . Because o f h i s a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l work w i t h t h e I n u i t , and t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t emerged d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f h i s r e s e a r c h a t M i d W i n t e r he r e c o r d e d 17 e n t r i e s o f i n c r e a s e d s e n s i t i v i t y t o s o c i a l s t i m u l i . D i f f e r e n t d a t a were r e p o r t e d by Adams, w i t h 4 r e f e r e n c e s t o a n x i e t y (2 a t M i d - W i n t e r ) , 7 t o i r r i t a b i l i t y (5 a t M i d - W i n t e r ) , 3 t o boredom (at M i d - W i n t e r ) . S m i t h e x p e r i e n c e d a n x i e t y (10 t i m e s , o f which 7 were A b o a r d and 2 were a t M i d W i n t e r ) . Boredom was r e p o r t e d o n l y 3 t i m e s A b o a r d and s t i m u l a t i o n 5 t i m e s (of which 4 were A b o a r d ) . In S c o t t ' s A n t a r c t i c d i a r y , 68 r e f e r e n c e s t o a n x i e t y were noted. These were d i s t r i b u t e d as 2, 18, 6, and 42 a c r o s s t h e expedition p h a s e s (see T a b l e 5 . 3 ) . I r r i t a b i l i t y was r e p o r t e d 7 t i m e s (4 a t 225  FIGURE  5.3  SCOTT'S DIARY: INSOMNIA AND ANXIETY (%) 10  oo UJ  OS hZ LU U_  o  INSOMNIA =8 • i EXCESS SLEEP INSOMNIA  60  50  CO LU CY.  40  Lu 30 H O a-?  20 H  10 68 8  ANXIETY Note:  Numbers  are t o t a l s  of  226  entries  ^  ANXIETY  • •  RELAXED  B e g i n n i n g , 2 a t M i d - W i n t e r and 1 n e a r t h e e n d ) . Boredom was r e c o r d e d 7 t i m e s o f which 4 were a t M i d - W i n t e r . Gran r e p o r t e d 13 r e f e r e n c e s o f a n x i e t y (6, 2, and 5 a t t h e l a s t p h a s e s ) , 6 c a s e s of boredom (8 a t Mid-Winter) and 12 c a s e s o f s e n s i t i v i t y t o social stimuli (6 a t B e g i n n i n g and 5 a t D e p a r t u r e p h a s e s ) . C h e r r y - G a r r a r d r e p o r t e d 19 c a s e s o f a n x i e t y (1,9,5, and 4 r e s p e c t i v e l y a c r o s s t h e p h a s e s ) ; 5 o f i r r i t a b i l i t y (3 a t B e g i n n i n g ) ; and 5 o f s e n s i t i v i t y t o s o c i a l s t i m u l i (4 a t M i d - W i n t e r ) . Orde-Lees a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e d a h i g h f r e q u e n c y o f a n x i e t y ; t h e 12 t i m e s were c o n c e n t r a t e d a t M i d - W i n t e r p h a s e p r o b a b l y due t o t h e u n c e r t a i n t y o f r e s c u e a t E l e p h a n t I s l a n d . Worsley, who s a i l e d w i t h S h a c k l e t o n t o S o u t h G e o r g i a , r e p o r t e d no a n x i e t y e x c e p t once i n t h e A b o a r d p h a s e ; b u t he e n t e r e d 13 r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e p h l e g m a t i c c a t e g o r y (9 a t B e g i n n i n g and 4 a t Mid-Winter); 7 of increased s e n s i t i v i t y t o s o c i a l s t i m u l i (6 a t Mid-Winter). S p e n c e r - S m i t h made 10 r e f e r e n c e s t o a n x i e t y (6 a t D e p a r t u r e ) and 4 t o i r r i t a b i l i t y i n t h e B e g i n n i n g p h a s e . B e r n a c c h i had o n l y 5 r e f e r e n c e s t o a n x i e t y , o f w h i c h 5 were i n t h e D e p a r t u r e phase; and 8 o f i n c r e a s e d s e n s i t i v i t y t o s o c i a l s t i m u l i , o f w h i c h 5 were i n the t h e B e g i n n i n g phase. Social  Stress:  S o c i a l s t r e s s i s r e l a t e d t o an i n c r e a s e d s e n s i t i v i t y t o group members. F o r t h e A r c t i c e x p l o r e r s , N a r e s r e p o r t e d o n l y 1 e n t r y i n t h e s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n c a t e g o r y as o p p o s e d t o 11 o f s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n , a l l i n M i d - W i n t e r . H o m e s i c k n e s s was r e p o r t e d twice, again at the middle of w i n t e r . Nares r e p o r t e d l a c k o f p r i v a c y and c o n f i n e m e n t (5 and 2 c a s e s ) a t M i d - W i n t e r . J a a c k s o n had 15 n e u t r a l c a s e s o f s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n and 1 o f h o m e s i c k n e s s (the 10 i n s t a n c e s o f each o c c u r r e d a t M i d - W i n t e r ) (see T a b l e 5.4). The f r e q u e n c y o f group c o h e s i v e n e s s i s i n t e r e s t i n g , w i t h 35 t i m e s i n t h e n e u t r a l c a t e g o r y (of w h i c h 26 were a t M i d - W i n t e r ) . Adams r e p o r t e d 2 e v e n t s o f s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n and 4 o f homesickness ( f o r f a m i l y ) , each d u r i n g t h e M i d - W i n t e r p h a s e . The A n t a r c t i c e x p l o r e r s r e p o r t e d more s o c i a l s t r e s s . S o c i a l s t r e s s i n c l u d e s group a c t i v i t i e s t o e s c a p e o r w i t h d r a w from t h e b o r i n g s i t u a t i o n , l i k e p a r t i e s and p l a y i n g c a r d s . Scott, f o r example, r e p o r t e d 14 e v e n t s o f s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n i n t h e A b o a r d phase ( p a r t l y d e s c r i b i n g h i s s t o p o v e r i n New Z e a l a n d where he was i n v i t e d t o s e v e r a l p a r t i e s ) and one o f s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n i n t h e w i n t e r . Group c o h e s i v e n e s s was r e p o r t e d 1, 3, 1 and 2 t i m e s across the phases. Gran r e p o r t e d 21 c a s e s o f s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n , 10 a t M i d - W i n t e r ; 15 c a s e s o f s e n s i t i v i t y t o s o c i a l s t i m u l i , 8 a t M i d - W i n t e r . He h a d 1 c a s e o f h o m e s i c k n e s s (family) at the D e p a r t u r e phase, 2 were on b o a r d f o r ' o t h e r s o c i a l ' c a t e g o r y ( s o c i a l l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n ) and 15 e n t r i e s deemed non- s o c i a l 227  FIGURE  5.4  JAACKSON'S DIARY: INSOMNIA AND ANXIETY (%) 30-i  ANXIETY 228  Numbers a r e  totals  (colours, smell, t r e e s ) balanced across t h e phases. C h e r r y - G a r r a r d r e p o r t e d 9 cases o f s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n , 4 at M i d - W i n t e r , and a few c a s e s o f h o m e s i c k n e s s , 4 f o r f a m i l y a t M i d - W i n t e r and D e p a r t u r e 2 r e p o r t s were o t h e r s o c i a l and 1 was n o n - s o c i a l . Orde-Lees r e c o r d e d 7 c a s e s M i d - W i n t e r s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n . F o r homesickness, 6 c a s e s were r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n a t M i d - W i n t e r p h a s e . W o r s l e y 18 i n s t a n c e s o f s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n a c r o s s t h e p h a s e s ; 10 c a s e s o f h o m e s i c k n e s s f o r s o c i a l l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n a t B e g i n n i n g and M i d - W i n t e r ; and 9 o f group c o h e s i v e n e s s (8 a t M i d - W i n t e r ) . P r i v a c y and c o n f i n e m e n t i n n e u t r a l c a t e g o r i e s were 3 and 1 a t M i d - W i n t e r r e s p e c t i v e l y . Spencer-Smith r e p o r t e d 8 cases o f n e u t r a l s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n , 3 i n t h e B e g i n n i n g and 7 n e a r D e p a r t u r e ; and 10 c a s e s o f homesickness (4 f o r f a m i l y , 1 f o r r e c r e a t i o n , 3 f o r c o l o u r s and s m e l l s ) a c r o s s b o t h t h e B e g i n n i n g and D e p a r t u r e p h a s e s . Group c o h e s i v e n e s s i n t h e n e u t r a l c a t e g o r y was r e p o r t e d 4 t i m e s a t t h e B e g i n n i n g and 2 i n t h e D e p a r t u r e p h a s e s . B e r n a c c h i , r e m a r k a b l y , had a l m o s t no p r o b l e m s i n t h i s a r e a , c i t i n g o n l y 2 i n s t a n c e s o f h o m e s i c k n e s s f o r f a m i l y and 1 f o r c o l o u r s and s m e l l s . A l t h o u g h many e x p l o r e r s s e a r c h e d f o r s p i r i t u a l c o m f o r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e y were e x p e r i e n c i n g t r a u m a t i c e v e n t s (as i n d i c a t e d i n t h e n a r r a t i v e s o f t h e d i a r i e s ) , t h e r e a r e few p u b l i s h e d r e c o r d s o f t h e i r q u e s t s . I n t h e A r c t i c , f o r example, Nares r e c o r d e d 4 i n s t a n c e s o f r e l i g i o u s and t r a n s c e n d e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e s (RTE). Two were A b o a r d and two were a t M i d - W i n t e r . J a a c k s o n and S t e f f a n s o n r e p o r t e d one i n s t a n c e each, i n t h e M i d W i n t e r and n e a r D e p a r t u r e r e s p e c t i v e l y . Adams and S m i t h a l s o r e p o r t e d o n l y one i n s t a n c e each, b o t h i n t h e n e a r D e p a r t u r e phase. I n t h e A n t a r c t i c , p e r h a p s as a r e f l e c t i o n o f S c o t t ' s t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e s i n h i s e f f o r t t o r e a c h t h e P o l e , he r e p o r t e d 13 o c c a s i o n s o f s p i r i t u a l c o m f o r t i n t h e p e r i o d n e a r h i s d e a t h . A t M i d - W i n t e r t h e r e was o n l y one r e p o r t o f a r e l i g i o u s sort. Gran m e n t i o n s one v i s u a l h a l l u c i n a t i o n n e a r h i s D e p a r t u r e from A n t a r c t i c a , p l u s 2 v i v i d dreams i n t h e t h e B e g i n n i n g o f h i s a d v e n t u r e and 2 RTE a t B e g i n n i n g and M i d - W i n t e r p h a s e s . C h e r r y G a r r a r d r e p o r t e d 2 v i s u a l h a l l u c i n a t i o n s i n t h e B e g i n n i n g and i n M i d - W i n t e r , 4 v i v i d dreams w h i l e s t i l l A b o a r d and i n t h e B e g i n n i n g phase, 1 normal ( n o n - v i v i d ) dream Aboard, and one event o f t a l k i n g i n h i s s l e e p i n t h e B e g i n n i n g p h a s e . W o r s l e y r e g i s t e r e d one c a s e o f h a l l u c i n a t i o n ( s e n s e d p r e s e n c e t y p e ) and 4 n e u t r a l r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s , a l l o f them a t t h e D e p a r t u r e phase ( D e p a r t u r e from E l e p h a n t I s l a n d , b o a t j o u r n e y and South Georgia t r a v e r s e ) . Spencer-Smith of t h e S h a c k l e t o n E x p e d i t i o n , a man w i t h a s t r o n g r e l i g i o u s background, r e p o r t e d 39 c a s e s o f RTE and one o f a v i v i d dream, a l l i n t h e b e g i n n i n g p h a s e ; and 6 cases o f dreaming i n t h e n e u t r a l c a t e g o r y near h i s death i n Antarctica. B e r n a c c h i r e p o r t e d one c a s e o f s p i r i t u a l c o m f o r t , near departure.  229  CONTENT ANALYSIS PROGRAM COLUMN 1-2 S u b j e c t ID (1-13) 3-4 Month 5-8 Year (1800-1900) 9 Time ( 0 no s p e c i f i c a t i o n , B e g i n 1, M i d d l e 2, End 3) * i n one month 10 L o c a t i o n (Aboard, 2 S l e d g e ; 3 Hut) 11 Period (0 on Board; 1 Begin; 2 Middle; 3 Departure) 12-13 Document # (1-22) 14 C o n t i n e n t (1 A r c t i c ; 2 A n t a r c t i c ) 15-22  Physical  15 S l e e p (0 sleep) DGW 16  effects  no e f f e c t ;  Headaches  17 Appetite decrease; 3  (0 no e f f e c t ;  Fatigue  (  0  19  Cold  (  0  no  20  Dark  ( 0  21  Wind  no  effect; effect;  ( 0 no e f f e c t ;  General P o s i t i v e  23 Self-discipline control)  25 Self-Esteem criticism)  excitation)  (0  (0  1  fatigue,  1 cold;  2 hot)  1 darkness;  )  DGW  (0  2 restoration) DGW  2 light)  1 wind; 2 calm) p s y c h o l o g i c a l Aspects  (0 no e f f e c t ,  24 P e r s o n a l autonomy dependency on o t h e r s )  Serenity  1 headaches;  no e f f e c t ;  22 Self-exploration 2 self-growth) DGW  26  2 excess o f  (0 no e f f e c t ; 1 i n c r e a s e i n a p p e t i t e ; 2 wei weight i n c r e a s e ; 4 d e c r e a s e i n a p p e t i t e  18  22-28  1 insomnia;  no e f f e c t ;  1 self-insight, 1  (0 no e f f e c t , no e f f e c t ,  no e f f e c t ,  DGW  230  1  1  discipline; 2  loss of  1 p e r s o n a l autonomy; 2 self-praise;  serenity;  2  2 self-  27 S e n s i t i v i t y t o p h y s i c a l s t i m u l i (Nature) ( 0 no e f f e c t ; increased s e n s i t i v i t y ; 2 decreased s e n s i t i v i t y ) DGW 28  - 34  General Negative P s y c h o l o g i c a l  28  Anxiety  (0 no  29 DGW  Irritability  30 Boredom stimulation)  effect; (0  no  1 anxiety;  effect;  (monotony) DGW  (  0  31 Hygiene ( cleanliness)  0 no  32  (0 no  effect,  (0 no  effect;  Motivation  33 Alertness alertness)  effect;  1 no  Aspects  2 relaxed)  DGW  irritability; effect;  1 hygiene;  2  1  2 phlegmatic )  boredom;  Social  36 Group t e n d e n c y group)  (0  (0 no DGW no  37 Group c o h e s i v e n e s s group f r i c t i o n )  39 no  Homesickness  (0  Family  effect;  effect; no  (0  no  41  Privacy  42  Confinement - 45  hyper-  increased  1 social deprivation;  1 n a t u r a l group; 2  effect, effect;  (0 no  effect;  (0 no  Perceptual  ( colours,  1 missing  Phenomena  231  imposed  1 confinement;  (0 no 2 too 2  2  family  recreation  smell)  1 lack of p r i v a c y ;  effect;  2  1 group c o h e s i v e n e s s ;  Homesickness, other s o c i a l (social-life, e f f e c t , 1 missing other s o c i a l )  40 Homesickness n o n - s o c i a l missing non-social)  43  1  overdrive)  Stress  35 Social deprivation social stimulation )  38  2  in alertness; 2  34 S e n s i t i v i t y to s o c i a l s t i m u l i (0 no e f f e c t ; s e n s i t i v i t y ; 2 decreased s e n s i t i v i t y ) DGW 35-41  2  compulsive  1 reduced motivation; 1 decline  1  )  effect,  (0 1  much a l o n e )  freedom)  43 Dreams ( 0 no dreams r e p o r t e d ; 1 v i v i d d r e a m s / f o o d ; 2 vivid dreams /home, landscape ;3 v i v i d dreams / f a m i l y & friends ; 4 talking i n sleep; 5 nightmares; 6 others) 44  Religious/Transcendental Experiences  45  Helpers/  46  Hallucinations (  LEGEND:  DGW  Superhuman  Entities  0 no e f f e c t s ;  = DEGREE OF  INTENSITY  2 32  (0 n o 1  (0  no  effect;  effect; 1  hallucinations  OF WORD  1 RTE  Helpers)  National Library o f Canada Canadian Theses S e r v i c e  Biblioth&que nationale du C a n a d a S e r v i c e d e s th£ses  NOTICE  canadiennes  AVIS  The q u a l i t y o f t h i s microfiche i s h e a v i l y d e p e n d e n t upon t h e q u a l i t y of the t h e s i s submitted for microfilming.  q u a l i t y de c e t t e m i c r o f i c h e g r a n d e m e n t de l a qualit§ de l a these soumise au microfilmage.  Please r e f e r to the National L i b r a r y o f Canada t a r g e t ( s h e e t l f r a m e 2) e n t i t l e d :  Veuillez consulter l a cible la BibliothSque nationale Canada ( m i c r o f i c h e 1, image intitul§e:  f  NOTICE  La  depend  AVIS  de du 2)  Table 1 LAB Scale Descriptions  SCALE  HIGH SCOKEItS are often described as:  and Representative Activities:  UJW SCOURK$ are nftpn flcsrrll'-d as*  LAW Past Scales Mechanics (ME) Ambitious, coarse, confident, extravertcd, fickle, hard-headed, masculine, methiwllcnl, <»pp«>r iuni*itc, practical, realistic, robust, self-accept ing. *hy, Hocluble.  Auto repair, billiards, boxing,  car-  pi'ntry, hunting, marksmanship, mechanics, woodworking.  Aesthetically responsive, affectionate-, appreciative, confused, friuinlito, Introverted, Irritable, mannerly, prudish, responsible, trusting, understanding.  Craits (CR) Affectionate, care less, compassion ate, defensive, distractfble, emotional, fickle, frivolous, flexible, I mlcpendenl-minded, spunky, tolerant.  Ceramics .cooking, designing clothes, fl owe r  ar rang! ng,  knitting, needlework,  Intellectual Active, assertive, dominant, efficient, gloomy, impailnnt. Intellectual, intelligent. Interests wide, selfish, sophisticated, unrealistic.  Je we 1 r y - maki ug, weaving.  Calm, deliberate, dignified, formal, Intolerant, logical, n>onnerly, masculine,persevering, planful, precise, stolid, unemotional.  (IN)  Attending concerts or plays, political activities, reading, visiting museums, writing poetry or stories, civic or con-  Cautious, commonplace, conservative, easy going, friendly, Jolly, leisurely, mild, opportunistic, patient, quiet, retiring, simple.  servation organizations.  Slow Living (SL) Attractive, business-minded, efficient, energetic, extranunatlvo, healthy. Independent, pcrsevcrintt, planful, self-accepting, serious, severe, *ell-nd|u»ted.  Gardening,  going to movies,  social  drinking, sunbathing talking on telephone, visiting friends,  wtnduwshop-  Awkward, contented, dull, gene reus, Intrapunl live, Jolly, slipshod, self-denying, self-tleprecotlng, self-pi tying, spineless, undeserving.  plng, writing letters.  Sports Aggressive, ambitious, confident, dominant, forceful, initiative, masculine, outgoing, persevering, restless, sociable, spontaneous r  (SP)  Badminton, baseball, basketball, football, jogging, squash, ping pong, volleyball.  Glamour Sports Attractive, daring, efficient, flexible, healthy, high-brow. Intelligent, loyal, o|>timiotic, psychoUyically-minded, resilient, resourceful, spontaneous, tolerant.  (GS)  Archery, canoeing, horseback riding, motor boating*  motorcycling,  moun-  tain climbing, sailing, skiing, tennis.  LAB  Artistic, confused, despondent, fearful, feminine, fussy, ingenious, introverted, self-pitying, slow, worrying.  Hitter, blustery, despondent, fearful, foolish, gliMimv, preoccupied, self-denying, unexcltable, weak, withdrawn.  Riture Scales  Adventure (AD) Adventurous-, alert, ambitious, flirtatious, goodlooking, impulsive, intelligent, opportunistic, outgoing, pleasure-seeking, sexy, sociable, tolerant.  Bicycling, camping, canoeing, horseback riding, sailing, skiing, skindiving,  watcrskiing.  S o u r c e : M c K e c l i n i e , 1975  233  Absent-minded, awkward, conservative, fussy, moralistic,obliging, retiring,rigid, slow, stern, stolid, unchanging, unemotional.  Table 1 L A B Scale Descriptions (cont.)  HIGH SCUllEKS are often described as:  SCALE and Representative Activities:  LOW SCOHEKS are often described as:  Mechanics (MK) Ambitious,daring, deceitful, easy-going, friendly, handsome, musculinu, op|»t»riunUUc, pleasure-seeking, show-off, sociable.  Auto repair, carpentry, electronics , marks manship, work,  mechanics,  itiode llmi Idintf •  metal -  woodworking.  Aesthetically-ruspunHive, anxious, confused, dupressed, dignified, fi'iiiiiunv, introverted, l»*y, prudish, ius|*>nsiMe, untie r-com rolled, «eak.  Crafts (CR) Affectionate, dlstractlblc, emotional, enthusiastic, feminine, flexible, idealistic. Introspective, nagging, sensitive, sexy, tolerant, undependable.  Designing clothes,  flower arranging,  jewelry-making, knitting, leatherwork, needlework, sewing,  weaving.  Autocratic, blustery, conservative, deliberate, industrious, mannerly, masculine, methodical, moralistic, practical, rational, self-accepting, stern, stolid.  Easy Living (EL) Adaptable, cheerful, commonplace, dominant, extraverted, gregarious, optimistic, orderly, outgoing, practical, realistic, reasonable, sociable, stable.  Social  dancing,  horseraces, ing,  casino  gambling,  nightclu bs,  motorboat-  poker, social drinking, watching  Aloof, confused, curious, fearful, flexible, independent, lntros|x>ctive, introverted, preoccupied, quitting, unconventional, undependable , withdrawn.  team sports.  Intellectual Active, alert, energetic, foresightcd, healthy, imaginative, insightful, optimistic, outgoing, planful, poised, tactful, verbally fluent.  (IN)  Attending concerts, civic or conservation  bird watching , organizations,  Awkward, defensive, evasive, inert, meek, retiring, silent, simple, sensitive, unintelligent.  going to plays, bridge,political activities, travel abroad.  Ego Recognition (EH) Adventurous, deceitful, energetic, flirtatious , frivolous, good-looking, impulsive, opportunis tic, optimistic, pleasure-seeking, rude, selfaccepting, sexy, sociable, uninhibited.  Acting, modern dunce, football, judo, squash, weightliftlng, wrestling, writing poetry.  Calm, conservative, deliberate, depressed, dignified, formal, introverted, lazy, manner Iv, mature, moderate, stolid.  Slow Livin*^ (SL) Attractive, conforming, gentle, good-looking, healthy, industrious, mannerly, nurturant, orderly, practical, self-controlled, well-adjusted.  Dining out, gardening, going to movies,  reading  friends,  magazines,  visiting museums,  visiting window-  Absent-minded, aggressive, awkward, contented, forgetful, obliging, retiring, self-deprecating, self-ptt\lng, spendthrift, undeserving, weak.  shopping, writing letters.  Clean Living (CL) Conforming, energetic, enthusiastic, extraverted. friendly, optimistic, outgoing, plavfui, sociable, soft-hearted, subniissivo, thoughtful, wholesome, witty.  Baseball, basketball, bowling, checkers,  child-related activities,  puzzles,  rollerskating,  234  jigsaw  ping pong.  Absent-minded, aloof, artistic, cold, confused, depressed, dignified, indifferent, intolerant, introverted, lazy, reflective, stern.  SATISFACTION AND SOCIABILITY EATING SHEETS My Work Sht/t today (If nppllcnblo) e o i Irom: AM IjM to: AM PM T h l i Ruling l i For  I Filled Ou; Thla TUttng Sheet at; AM P M (time) on: — ^ — — —  UATlNli day  month  DIHKCTIONS  FOIl  SIIKET  ye:»r  PAIfrS  Inst name  I A N U 2:  Mark in  " X " In o n e  to c o m p l e t e  o f Ihc  eat:h a c n u ; n c e  acven  (Iral  nojno  boxce  below.  PART 1 very diseutisflcd  with,  frustrated  toward,  or depressed  about  • • •  T o d a y I felt:  Today 1 lelt:  Today I (elf.  T o d a y I Celt:  a  T o d a y I felt:  •  T o d a y I (alt:  i  •  Today I lelt:  i  •  T o d a y I felt:  T o d a y I felt:  Today I felt:  • • •  T o d a y 1 felt:  Today I felt:  T o d a y I felt:  T o d a y I felt:  • • •  1  T o d a y I felt:  •  •  comfortable o r Indifferent  • • • • • • • • • • • • • •  •  • • • • • • •  • •  • • • • •  • •  •  • • • • • • • • • • • • •  I waa:  Iwaa:  I  waa:  Iwma: COMMENTS: for  Ind.iy,  p r u v M e i l In  toward,  o r excited about  about  • • • • • • • • • • • • •  • • • • • • • • • • • • •  • • • • • • •  today's weather.  the t o w n l a w h i c h I l i v e . m y d a l l y duties and responsibilities. m y J o b (If e m p l o y e d ) .  ray  financial  my house,  situation.  apartment,  or other living quarters. m y p e t s (If a n y ) .  •  • • • • • •  my  neighbourhood.  my  neighbours.  m y closest friend or friends. m y youngest child (11 m o r e t h a n o n e ) . m y oldest (or only) child. m y husband o r wife.  myself.  ray  outlook for  the  future.  t  PART about  During My Waking lluuri  very satisfied with,  bored with,  *  almost  very  nrver  seldom  • • • •  half seldom  • • • • • •  tbe  time  • • •  C e r t a i n events  (Illness,  t o u j news or  very  almost  often  always  • • •  •  make.  235  •! • • •  aonjcLhlnc c l s « ) i.i.iy have  li» p u l n l m i l l n » v Uii:.«c e v e n t s a f f e c u - . l  »>»r 3t.y c o m m e n t s y w i - A : J I Ic f  • • • •  • • •  R i a c e y o . i m - i y wajit  often  -..'lesc  with others.  with my family.  with my family AJTO o t h e r a . by  myself.  Influenced  ratln,;.i,  your  a space  rating, Is  SELF-REPORT OF MOOD AND SLEEP NAME o r  PLACE: DATE ...  NUM9ER  I  SECTION TO BE FILLED IN AT END OF DAY (Put a cross In iho box corresponding to your answer) V  How did you feel today 7 m Not fit Low morale  2  |  |  Non-eociable |  |  «t  «g _ *.  1  1  1 |  |  Fi. G o o d morale Sociable  Q  Fairly G o o d  Average  f j  (_]  Rather Bad Q  Very Bad  Q  The weather today has been :  Very Good Q 4  «c  |  On the whole this day has been :  Very Good 3.  mi  |  Fnir  Q  Average  Not So G o o d  f j  •  Bad  -  Were you bothered by the following t o d a y :  J  —  the climate (cold, wind)  |  —  the physical exertion  |  —  living conditions ( c a m p i n g , tasks)  j  —  your personal w o r k  j  —  your role as '* subject "  j  —  something else (give details)  j  €  Q  *  "  TOMORROW MORNING YOU SHOULD DETACH THIS PAGE AND FILL IN THE OTHER SIDE.  IBEA |1.24| Contd  II.  SECTION TO BE FILLED IN NEXT MORNING ON AWAKING (Put a cross in the box corresponding to your answer)  5. Quality of your sleep : Very bad • Bad •  Average Q  6. Length of sleep : <$3h • «£4h • i£5h • «£6h 7. Did you find It difficult to go to sleep 7  •  Good •  Excellent  •  >8h No  • •  Yes Q  No  Q  Yes •  No  •  Yes Q  No  •  $7h • Yes •  j$ 8h •  If yes, Why 7 8. Were you disturbed during your sleep 7 If yes, why 7 9. Do you leel tired at the moment 7 10. Did you dream last night 11.  If yea, do you remember your dream 7  12.  Was the dream:  No  Q  Very Disagreeable •  Yes f j  Disagreeable  Q  Plaasant •  Very Pleasant  •  Neutral • 11  What was the theme of the dream 7 HAND THIS PAPER IN TO THE PERSON IN CHARGE.  236  .  APPENDIX  B  Name of BEHAVIOR SETTING  aenoty&e Number Sehavior Settino Number  Authority System Class of Authority  Occupancy Time of Grouo On Bass  Subgroups No. P.  O.T.  1  lales  Svstpm  Max.Pene. of Subgroups Group  \CTION PATTERN RATE Aes. Bus. Prof. Educ. Govt. Nutr. PersAD PhysH. Rec. Rel. Soc.  Children  Child - f ftdult  No. of Occurrences Total duration  SM  C  Adult  SM  Males Females  C  Inuit  SM  Females C  Whites  Inuit Wnites  Social C. Pen. L. I  MECHANISM RATTT jffB. iGroMot.  11  III IV lOn -Site SM [Total C  LT  {Think.  Total  Pressure Rating! Child. Ado!, jWelrar Welfare Rating | Child. lAdol •  Performers (number )l On Base I Total C 1 Off Base Total C 1  ffSM  Site otal  tent p.  C  jrand fotal  TTTT1  P«rf Total  Autonomy Rating! wtd: £« 0  parf/pop  Social C. O.T.| i II ni IV  ! !  Y  1  (A + B+C)  100 1979  1 1 1 I1 j  D«<s«  _  ratio  Jan. Febr. March  "I  TT--.-  2c — :- LG2_  Whitje_Perf.. TJujTt~w"errT"  ZZ Gen  or I  inly.. Auq._ "Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.  Rich f  h«biubiiit7 beta^or * K t i n j data m*.t OU.S.  f o r NANISIVIK. NWT  GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE:  237  [Building No. 1980 — 60 2-982/391  TTTT  - T e m p e r a t u r e s and R a i n f a l l  in the A r c t i c  Research S i t e s  ( m o n t h l y means)  EUREKA  Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  May  Jun  Jul  Aug  Sep  Oct  Nov  Dec  D a y l . Max.  -32.8  -3k.5  -34.1  -23.4  -7-2  4.3  8.4  5.7  -5.5  -18.3  -27 .9  -31.4  Dayl. Min.  -39-9  -41.4  -40.7  -31 -9  -14.2  -0. 8  2.4  0.8  -11.1  -25-9  - 3 5 .0  -38.2  E x t r . Max.  -1 .1  -1.1  -13.3  -2.8  5.6  17. 8  19.4  16.7  6.1  -1 .7  -1.7  -2.1  Extr. Min.  -53-3  -55-3  -52.8  -48.9  -31 . 1  -13 .9  -22  -9.5  -31 .7  -41.7  -46 .1  -51 .7  0.0  0.0  T  3. 2  11.0  9.0  0.2  0.0  0,.0  0.0  D a y l . Max.  -29-7  -31.8  -29.1  --19-8  -8.0  2. 1  6.5  3-7  -4.0  -14.1  -23 .0  -27.6  Dayl. Min.  -37-2  -38.8  -36.4  -28.3  -14 .4 -2.< 6  1.2  -0.8  -9.0  -21.1  -30, .2  -34.8  E x t r . Max.  -5-3  -8.9  -6.7  -1.7  7.8  2.5  - 1 , .7  -9.4  Extr. Min.  -52.2  -53-9  -50.0  -43.9  Ra i n f a l 1 (mm)  0.0  0.0  MOULD BAY  Rainfal1  13 .3  16.1  14.4  - 2 8 .9 -14 .4  -3.9  -10.9  -26.1  -36.1  -44, .4  -52.8  0 .0  0.0  5 .6  0 .2  3•3  11.4  12.6  2.1  T  7 .7  1• 7  6.8  4.7  -2.9  -12.0  -20,• 9  -25.7  -27.0  -14 . 1  -2 • 9  1 .4  -0.1  -7.2  -18.3  -28 .0  -32.9  -6.7  0.0  4 .4  13 • 9  18.3  15.0  9.4  0.0  - 2 , .8  -6.1  -52.0  -51.7  -41.7  - 2 9 .4 - 1 6 • 7  -2.8  -8.3  -20.6  -35.0  -42, .8  -46.1  0.0  0.0  0.0  24.6  3.7  0.0  0,.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  D a y l . Max.  -28. 4  -29.6  -27.8  -19-9  -  Dayl. Min.  -35.7  -36.8  -35.0  E x t r . Max.  -0.8  Extr. Min.  -52.2 0.0  (mm) RESOLUTE BAY  Rainfal1  -3-9  T  5 .3  (mm)  Source: Atmospheric Environment S e r v i c e  (1986-7), Environment  T=Trace o f r a i n ; T e m p e r a t u r e s a r e i n C e l s i u s .  Canada.  T  A v a i l a b l e d a t a on T e m p e r a t u r e s o f Marambio B a s e , A n t a r c t i c . Monthly temperatures are in C e l s i u s .  MARAMB10 Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  May  Dayl . Max.  -0.5  Dayl . M i n .  -k.2  -12.0 9-5  -3-7 -9-9 1.3 -23-5  -9-3 -16.3 6.5 -30.3  -9-9 -17.1  E x t r . Max.  -0.6 -5-3 10.9 -15.6  E x t r . Min.  SOURCE: A r g e n t i n i a n A i r F o r c e , B u l l e t i n  -31.9  No  \U,  Jun  Jul  Aug  -1 1.it. -12..5 -12.1 -19. 5 -20..2 -20.9 8.,h 10..5 5.3 -37..6 -35..0 -38.3  1986.  Sep  Oct  -1.1 -8.3 -17-3 -9.0 6.2 11.7 -32.6 -20.6  Nov  Dec  0.* -0.9 -6.3 -3.7 9.8 15-2 -16.2 -9.0  

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