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Intrapsychic and interpersonal factors related to hypoactive sexual desire Vogel, Noelle Anne 1990

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I N T R A P S Y C H I C A N D I N T E R P E R S O N A L F A C T O R S R E L A T E D T O H Y P O A C T I V E S E X U A L D E S I R E by NOELLE ANNE VOGEL BA., The University of British Columbia, 1980 M.A., The University of British Columbia, 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Interdisciplinary Studies) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1990 © NOELLE ANNE VOGEL, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Counsel l ing Psychology The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada D a t e .innp i, i q q n : DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T Hypoactive sexual desire is one of the most prevalent psychosexual problems seen by clinicians, yet there is little consensus as to its etiology, maintenance, appropriate therapeutic intervention or prognosis. Sexual disinterest is considered to be difficult to treat due to severe intrapsychic and/or interpersonal conflict. Few empirical studies exist, however, regarding intrapsychic or interpersonal dynamics in couples where one spouse is assigned the diagnosis of hypoactive sexual desire (HSD). The purpose of this study was to develop a clearer understanding of the intrapsychic and interpersonal dynamics of the clinical group diagnosed with hypoactive sexual desire. Individual and interactional data was collected from both diagnosed individuals and spouses. The sample consisted of three groups of subjects and their partners. Twenty-two subjects assigned a DSM-III-R diagnosis of lifelong or acquired, generalized Hypoactive Sexual Desire (HSD) and their spouses were compared on intrapsychic and interpersonal variables with two groups consisting of twenty-one sexually dysfunctional subjects displaying a DSM-III-R arousal or orgasm disorder (SDys) and their spouses, and 19 couples with no reported sexual dysfunction (NSD). Only subjects free from other Axis I disorders, medical illness, or substance abuse were selected. Control subjects met similar criteria but had no reported sexual dysfunction. All partners were sexually functional. Subjects were administered: the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI), the Sexual History Form (SHF), the Medical History Questionnaire (MHQ), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), the Affect Balance Scale (ABS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) ii and the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) over a three week period. Statistical procedures used to analyse the data included Canonical Correlation, A N O V A , Profile Analysis, Hotelling's test (T 2 ) and Student-Newman-Keuls test procedure. The test results measuring intrapsychic phenomena revealed that although all groups had normal MMPI profiles, the affect/anxiety variate was significantly elevated in the HSD and SDys groups. In addition, self concept as measured by the SASB introject was significantly more negative in the HSD and SDys groups as compared to the control group. No significant intrapsychic differences were found between partners in the three groups. The interpersonal measures indicated that HSD subjects and SDys subjects perceived their relationships as less nurturing and affirming than did control subjects. Additionally, HSD subjects and their spouses perceived their relationships as measured by the SASB to be more hostile. The study provides some evidence to support the view that HSD subjects have lower self concepts and higher relationship conflicts than do subjects with arousal or orgasm problems or control subjects. Similar to much of the previous research conducted on nonmedical aspects of human sexuality, the study design was exploratory and descriptive in nature thus removing any possibility of drawing cause and effect conclusions. iii T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S A B S T R A C T ii LIST OF T A B L E S vi LIST O F FIGURES viii A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S ix Chapter I. INTRODUCTION 1 A. Nature of the Problem 1 B. Purpose of the Study 3 C. Significance of the Study 4 D. Definition of Terms 6 E . Overview of the Study 10 F. Research Questions 11 G. Summary 14 Chapter II. REVIEW OF T H E L I T E R A T U R E 15 A. Introduction 15 B. Historical and Current Views of Sexual Response 15 C. Sexual Desire 23 1. Theoretical Views and Concept 23 2. Terminology and Conceptual Descriptions of Sexual Desire 26 3. Incidence of Lack of Sexual Desire 33 D. Factors Related to Hypoactive Sexual Desire 35 1. Organic Factors 35 2. Intrapsychic Factors 42 3. Interpersonal Factors 48 E . Research Hypotheses 53 1. Analysis I: Canonical Analysis and Analysis of Variance 53 2. Analysis II: SASB Profile Analysis 56 F . Summary 58 Chapter III. M E T H O D O L O G Y 59 A. Design of the Study 59 B. Subjects 60 C. Instrumentation 68 1. Instruments Assessing Sexual Functioning 69 2. Instruments Measuring Intrapsychic Domain 71 3. Instruments Measuring Interpersonal Domain 75 4. Variables 82 D. Data Collection Procedure 83 E . Statistical Hypotheses 85 1. Analysis I: Canonical Analysis and Analysis of Variance 85 2. Analysis II: SASB Profile Analysis 87 iv F. Data Analysis 88 1. Canonical Correlation Analysis 89 2. Profile Analysis of the SASB 94 G. Summary 96 Chapter TV. R E S U L T S 97 A. Summary of Descriptive Data 97 B. Results: Canonical Analysis and Analysis of Variance 101 1. Subjects 101 2. Partners of Subjects 124 3. Summary of Results 144 C. Results: Profile Analysis of SASB Data 147 1. Subjects 149 2. Partners of Subjects 164 3. Summary of Results 174 D. Summary 178 Chapter V. DISCUSSION 179 A. Discussion of Demographic Data 179 B. Discussion of Research Hypotheses 181 1. Discussion of the Results of the Canonical Analyses and A N O V A s 181 2. Discussion of the Results of the Profile Analyses .. 191 3. General Discussion 199 Chapter VI. S U M M A R Y A N D CONCLUSIONS 205 A. Summary 205 B. Limitations of the Study 209 C. Implications 210 R E F E R E N C E S 214 APPENDIX A: DSM-III-R DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA 226 APPENDIX B: NOTICE OF S E X U A L I T Y R E S E A R C H P R O J E C T 229 APPENDIX C: C O N S E N T F O R M A N D DEMOGRAPHIC F O R M 233 APPENDIX D: M E D I C A L HISTORY FORMS: M A L E A N D F E M A L E 236 APPENDIX E : SASB A V E R A G E C L U S T E R SCORES FOR 133 N O R M A L S . 245 APPENDIX F: S E X U A L HISTORY F O R M (SHF) 247 APPENDIX G: M E A N S A N D S T A N D A R D DEVIATIONS FOR S U B J E C T S A N D P A R T N E R S ON MMPI, STAI, ABS, DAS A N D DSFI 252 v LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Demographic Characteristics of the Three Groups: Hypoactive Sexual Desire, Sexual Dysfunction, and No Sexual Dysfunction 99 Table 3: Canonical Analysis: Test for Multicollinearity of Variables 104 Table 4: Bartlett's Test for Significance of Canonical Correlation 104 Table 5: Canonical Correlations, Canonical Variable Loadings, Standardized Canonical Weights, Percentage of Variance and Redundancy Between Sexual Functioning and Intrapsychic Variables and Their Corresponding Canonical Variates 106 Table 6: A N O V A Between the Three Groups of Subjects: Hypoactive Sexual Desire, Sexual Dysfunction and No Sexual Dysfunction Based on the Sexual Dysfunction Canonical Variate I l l Table 7: Student-Newman-Keuls Test Results I l l Table 8: A N O V A Between the Three Groups of Subjects: Hypoactive Sexual Desire, Sexual Dysfunction and No Sexual Dysfunction Based on the Affect/Anxiety Canonical Variate 112 Table 9: Student-Newman-Keuls Test Results 113 Table 10: Canonical Analysis: Test for Multicollinearity of Variables 115 Table 11: Bartlett's Test for Significance of Canonical Correlation 117 Table 12: Canonical Correlations, Canonical Variable Loadings, Standardized Canonical Weights, Percentage of Variance and Redundancy Between Sexual Functioning and Interpersonal Variables and Their Corresponding Canonical Variates 118 Table 13: A N O V A Between the Three Groups of Subjects: Hypoactive Sexual Desire, Sexual Dysfunction and No Sexual Dysfunction Based on the Relationship Adjustment Canonical Variate 122 Table 14: Student-Newman-Keuls Test Results 122 Table 15: A N O V A Between the Three Groups of Subjects: Hypoactive Sexual Desire, Sexual Dysfunction and No Sexual Dysfunction Based on the Sexual Functioning Canonical Variate 123 Table 16: Student-Newman-Keuls Test Results 124 Table 17: Canonical Analysis: Test for Multicollinearity of Variables 126 Table 18: Bartlett's Test for Significance of Canonical Correlation 128 vi Table 19: Canonical Correlations, Canonical Variable Loadings, Standardized Canonical Weights, Percentage of Variance and Redundancy Between Sexual Functioning and Intrapsychic Variables and Their Corresponding Canonical Variates 129 Table 20: A N O V A Between the Three Groups of Partners: Hypoactive Sexual Desire, Sexual Dysfunction and No Sexual Dysfunction Based on the Sexual Functioning Canonical Variate 133 Table 21: Student-Newman-Keuls Test Results 134 Table 22: Canonical Analysis: Test for Multicollinearity of Variables 136 Table 23: Bartlett's Test for Significance of Canonical Correlation 138 Table 24: Canonical Correlations, Canonical Variable Loadings, Standardized Canonical Weights, Percentage of Variance and Redundancy Between Sexual Functioning and Interpersonal Variables and Their Corresponding Canonical Variates 139 Table 25: A N O V A Between the Three Groups of Partners: Hypoactive Sexual Desire, Sexual Dysfunction and No Sexual Dysfunction Based on the Relationship Adjustment Canonical Variate 142 Table 26: Student-Newman-Keuls Test Results 142 Table 27: A N O V A Between the Three Groups of Partners: Hypoactive Sexual Desire, Sexual Dysfunction and No Sexual Dysfunction Based on the Sexual Functioning Canonical Variate 143 Table 28: Student-Newman-Keuls Test Results 144 Table 29: Student-Newman-Keuls Test Results 152 Table 30: Student-Newman-Keuls Test Results 155 Table 31: Student-Newman-Keuls Test Results 158 Table 32: Student-Newman-Keuls Test Results 159 Table 33: Student-Newman-Keuls Test Results 163 Table 34: Student-Newman-Keuls Test Results 168 Table 35: Student-Newman-Keuls Test Results 171 vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Cluster Version of Benjamin's SASB Model 78 Figure 2: Names for the Eight Clusters Related to the Three Foci of the SASB: Other, Self, and Introject 81 Figure 3: Design of the Study - Domains of Variables, Groups and Subjects of the Study 82 Figure 4: Flow Chart for Statistical Procedures, Steps I to IV 90 Figure 5: Linearity of Relationship Between the First Pair of Canonical Variates 105 Figure 6: Linearity of Relationship Between the First Pair of Canonical Variates and the Second Pair of Canonical Variates 116 Figure 7: Linearity of Relationship Between the First Pair of Canonical Variates and the Second Pair of Canonical Variates 127 Figure 8: Linearity of Relationship Between the First Pair of Canonical Variates 137 Figure 9: Subject's Introject Profiles 151 Figure 10: Subjects Rate Spouse's Initiating Behaviour 154 Figure 11: Subjects Rate Spouse's Responding Behaviour 157 Figure 12: Subjects Rate Their Own Initiating Behaviour 160 Figure 13: Subjects Rate Their Own Responding Behaviour 162 Figure 14: Partner's Introject Profiles 165 Figure 15: Partners Rate Spouse's Initiating Behaviour 167 Figure 16: Partners Rate Spouse's Responding Behaviour 170 Figure 17: Partners Rate Their Own Initiating Behaviour 173 Figure 18: Partners Rate Their Own Responding Behaviour 175 viii A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S I wish to express my appreciation to my supervisory committee: Dr. Walter Boldt, Dr. John Friesen (Chairman), Dr. Daniel Perlman and Dr. George Szasz for their support, interest and thoughtful suggestions during the preparation and completion of this dissertation. An especially warm thank you is extended to Dr. Walter Boldt who was always accessible for consultation and encouragement. Appreciation is also due to the many couples who responded to the request for volunteers for the Sexuality Research Project. I am sincerely grateful for their time and willingness to participate in the research process. To Wink, my husband, and to my children, Randy, Tracy and Tim, and to my Mother, I extend my love and appreciation. They were my cheering section. To all, I express my warmest thanks. ix C H A P T E R I. I N T R O D U C T I O N A . N A T U R E O F T H E P R O B L E M Hypoactive sexual desire has been recognized in the literature as a distinct clinical entity since 1977 (Kaplan, 1977; Lief, 1977), and as a specific psychosexual disorder since the publication in 1980 of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (D.S.M.-III) (American Psychiatric Association, 1980). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition - Revised (D.S.M.-III-R) (American Psychiatric Association, 1987), provides the current diagnostic criteria for hypoactive sexual desire: A. Persistently or recurrently deficient or absent sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity. The judgment of deficiency or absence is made by the clinician, taking into account factors that affect sexual functioning, such as age, sex, and context of the person's life. B. Occurrence not exclusively during the course of another Axis I disorder (other than Sexual Dysfunction), such as Major Depression, (p. 293) The incidence of hypoactive desire in the general population is not known, yet it is believed to be the most prevalent of all sexual problems presented to clinicians (Crown & D'Ardenne, 1982; Hammond, 1984; Kaplan, 1979; Lief, 1981). Although, historically, lack of sexual desire has been identified as a female issue, present reports suggest a universality of the problem in the general as well as in the clinical population (Hammond, 1984; LaFerla, 1984; Frank, Anderson & Rubenstein, 1978; LoPiccolo, 1980). Factors related to the problem of hypoactive sexual desire have been 1 2 discussed in the literature and there is general agreement in three areas. First, a multiple of determinants, physiological, psychological and sociological are implicated as factors which may affect sexual desire. Second, hypoactive sexual desire constitutes a separate clinical subgroup and specific differences exist (for example, separate neurophysiological systems) between the three phases of the sexual response cycle: desire, arousal and orgasm. Third, hypoactive sexual desire, when treated, does not respond to short term sex therapy treatment strategies (Kaplan, 1979; Lief, 1981; LoPiccolo, 1980). Hypoactive sexual desire is generally regarded as a disorder with a difficult treatment path and a poor prognosis. It is believed by some clinicians that persons suffering from hypoactive sexual desire are afflicted with deeper, more serious intrapsychic, interpersonal or sexual related problems than are persons exhibiting arousal or orgasm disorders (Kaplan, 1979). As pointed out in the review of the literature, although there is much conjecture regarding the differences between persons who develop desire phase disorders and persons who develop arousal or orgasm disorders in terms of intrapsychic and interpersonal factors, there is a lack of empirical evidence to support or refute the nature of these discrepancies. Kaplan (1979), a leading conceptualizer and author in human sexuality, maintains that subjects experiencing hypoactive sexual desire suffer from more profound and tenacious anxieties, more hostile and neurotic personal associations and/or more psychogenic factors such as depression, than do subjects who experience arousal or orgasm disorders. In fact, Kaplan (1979) puts forward the hypothesis that critical levels of intrapsychic or interpersonal conflict may be related to the type of sexual dysfunction experienced. For instance, she suggests that severe intrapsychic or relationship discord appears to be related to desire 3 phase disorders whereas less severe intrapsychic or relationship discord appears to be related to arousal or orgasmic disorders. As yet, there is no empirical data to support or refute this hypothesis. This research was designed to investigate the intrapsychic and interpersonal functioning of individuals currently assigned a diagnosis of hypoactive sexual desire and their spouses. The study explored the view that individuals experiencing hypoactive sexual desire may be afflicted with deeper, more serious intrapsychic and interpersonal problems than persons experiencing dysfunction of arousal or orgasm phases of the sexual response cycle. B. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of the study was to achieve a clearer description and understanding of the intrapsychic and interpersonal functioning of a clinical group assigned a diagnosis of hypoactive sexual desire. To accomplish this task, the objective of the study was to answer the following questions: Do individuals experiencing hypoactive sexual desire differ from individuals experiencing arousal or orgasm dysfunction, or from control group individuals, on intrapsychic or interpersonal functioning? If so, how? Do partners of individuals experiencing hypoactive sexual desire differ from partners of individuals experiencing arousal or orgasm dysfunction, or from control group partners, on intrapsychic or interpersonal functioning? If so, how? Is hypoactive sexual desire related to deeper, more complex and more serious intrapsychic and/or interpersonal problems compared to arousal and orgasm disorders? Does intrapsychic or interpersonal functioning differ in spouses where hypoactive 4 sexual desire is a problem as compared to spouses where arousal or orgasm problems exist? If so, how? The research was designed to address the questions central to the purpose of the study through the use of both individual and interactional data as recommended by several researchers (Hoch, Safir, Peres & Shepher, 1981; Lo Piccolo & Friedman, 1988; McCarthy, 1984). The investigation questioned the strength of the relationship between sexual and intrapsychic functioning and sexual and interpersonal functioning. The research was also designed to explore whether or not the interpersonal marital functioning between spouses differed in relationships where hypoactive sexual desire was a problem as compared to relationships in which arousal or orgasmic dysfunction was a problem or relationships with no sexual dysfunction. C. S I G N I F I C A N C E O F T H E S T U D Y The study has significance for both clinical practice and for theory refinement. For example, treatment methodologies related to hypoactive sexual desire are presently based on untested assumptions. The idea proposed by Kaplan (1979) of sexual problems occuring as a function of degree or level of psychopathology or relationship discord is an interesting and potentially important concept. It has not only theoretical implications but also implications related to the diagnosis and treatment of hypoactive sexual desire. As such it warrants careful research. For instance, supporting evidence for the idea that critical levels of intrapsychic or interpersonal conflict are related to the type of sexual problem experienced, would support the psychodynamic theory of sexual dysfunction. This theory proposes that critical levels of anxiety, regardless of their underlying 5 causes, are related to the development and maintenence of sexual problems (Kaplan, 1979; Masters & Johnson, 1970). Evidence supporting the idea that critical levels of intrapsychic or interpersonal conflict are related to the type of sexual problem experienced would help to direct the course of treatment possibilities for problems related to specific phases of the sexual response cycle. For example, group treatment may be considered more appropriate for sexual problems related to less profound anxieties or relationship conflict while long term individual or couple treatment programs may be better suited to sexual problems associated with more profound neurotic or relationship issues. On the other hand, should no supporting evidence result from the investigation for the relationship between sexual functioning and intrapsychic or relationship discord, the idea that hypoactive sexual desire sufferers are more conflicted, either intrapsychically or interpersonally will be challenged. Here again the findings would be valuable in that inaccurate perceptions of the subject/couple would be challenged and new perceptions and treatment strategies explored. It is important to test the assumptions and models which guide treatment strategies in psychology. Assumptions regarding human sexuality which have provided the basis for treatment of sexual problems have, historically, been inaccurate and misleading. For instance, as Kaplan (1974) points out in her review of the history of treating sexual problems, theoretical speculation once led to the unsubstantiated hypotheses that "vaginal" orgasms expressed normal and healthy functioning while a preference for clitoral stimulation reflected a deep seated neurosis. Unfortunately the misconception not only impaired treatment effectiveness but also led to unnecessary feelings of frustration and shame for many individuals and couples. 6 Although it is not designed to address causal issues, the present study represents an important step in describing and defining the relationship between hypoactive sexual desire, intrapsychic variables and relationship discord. D. D E F I N I T I O N O F T E R M S Sexual Dysfunction is a subclass of Sexual Disorder in the DSM-III-R (American Psychiatric Association, 1987). The essential feature of the sexual dysfunction is inhibition in the appetitive or psychophysiologic changes that characterize the complete sexual response cycle. In keeping with the three phase concept of the sexual response cycle, dysfunctions are organized into the following phases: desire, arousal, and orgasm. Inhibition may occur at one or more of these phases. The study groups were designed to separate sexual dysfunction of the desire phase (hypoactive sexual desire) from arousal and orgasm dysfunctions for comparative purposes. In order not to be confusing or repetitive with the term sexual dysfunction in the dissertation, sexual arousal and orgasm disorders will henceforth be referred to under the general term of sexual dysfunction (SDys) while sexual desire disorder will be referred to separately as hypoactive sexual desire (HSD). Couple. A couple refers to a heterosexual partnership in which subjects are currently living together and are either married or living common law. The word couple in this study is synonymous with a spousal unit or a dyad. Group One: Hypoactive Sexual Desire (HSD). Group One refers to subjects and partners who met the criteria for inclusion in the study with a diagnosis of Hypoactive Sexual Desire. Group Two: Sexual Dysfunction (SDys). Group Two refers to subjects and 7 partners who met the criteria for inclusion in the study with a diagnosis of one of the following four arousal or orgasm disorders: Female Arousal Disorder, Male Erectile Disorder, Premature Ejaculation, or Inhibited Female Orgasm. Group Two subjects and partners were matched according to age with Group One subjects and partners. . Group Three: No Sexual Dysfunction (NSD). Group Three refers to control or comparison subjects who met the study criteria of No Sexual Dysfunction. Group Three subjects and partners were matched according to age with Group One subjects and partners. Hypoactive Sexual Desire (HSD) subjects. For the purpose of this study, HSD subjects were defined as those subjects between the ages of 22 and 50 who were diagnosed as suffering from lifelong or acquired, generalized hypoactive sexual desire disorder according to the criteria found in the DSM-III-R (American Psychiatric Association, 1987) (see Appendix A). The operational definitions of the DSM-III-R criteria for the study were as follows: (a) subject reports lack of desire for sexual activities, (b) subject or partner identify lack of sexual desire as a problem, (c) frequency of intercourse being twice a month or less as reported on the Sexual History Form (SHF), and (d) score of 13 or less on the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI) drive scale. Hypoactive Sexual Desire (HSD) in this investigation is used synonymously with the terms Inhibited Sexual Desire (ISD) and Sexual Disinterest (SD). Please refer to Chapter II, pages 29-32 for the reference as to why these criteria were chosen to operationalize HSD. Interpersonal variables. Interpersonal variables refer to measures of marital adjustment as determined by the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) (Spanier, 1976); and transactional behavior patterns of initiating and responding behavior as 8 indicated by Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) (Benjamin, 1974) interpersonal planes. Intrapsychic variables. Intrapsychic variables refer to clinical characteristics, personality traits, and psychopathology as measured by the ten clinical scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) (Hathaway & McKinley, 1943); affect as measured by the Affect Balance Scale (ABS) (Derogatis, 1975a); trait anxiety and sexual state anxiety as indicated by the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) (Spielberger, Gorsuch & Lushene, 1970); and self concept as measured by the intrapsychic plane of the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) (Benjamin, 1974). No Sexual Dysfunction (NSD) subjects. NSD subjects were defined as those subjects between the ages of 22 and 50 who met the following criteria: (a) subjects score 15 or more on the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI) drive scale, (b) subjects report a frequency of intercourse four times a month or more on the Sexual History Form (SHF) and (c) subjects state that neither spouse suffers from a sexual disorder of desire, arousal or orgasm. Sexual Dysfunction (SDys) subjects. For the purpose of this study, SDys subjects were defined as those subjects between the ages of 22 and 50 who were diagnosed according to the criteria found in the DSM-III-R (American Psychiatric Association, 1987) (see Appendix A) as suffering from one of the following arousal or orgasm disorders: Female Sexual Arousal Disorder, Male Erectile Disorder, Inhibited Female Orgasm or Premature Ejaculation. The orgasm disorder of Inhibited Male Orgasm (Retarded Ejaculation) was not included in study Group 2 for two reasons: inhibited male orgasm tends to be rare as compared to other orgasm disorders and unlike other arousal or orgasm disorders 9 it is viewed as symptomatic of deep seated disturbance (Kaplan, 1979; Apfelbaum, 1988). Subjects in Group 2 (SDys) must score 15 or more on the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI), drive scale. Partner of Subject. Partner of Subject refers to the marital or the common-law spouse of the subject in Group One and Two and the randomly assigned partner in Group Three. For inclusion in the study, partners and subjects must report that the partner's sexual response (desire, arousal and orgasm) was functional. Subject. Subject refers to the hypoactive sexual desire individuals in Group One, the sexually dysfunctional individuals in Group Two and the randomly assigned subjects in Group Three. Operational definitions for the study variables are listed below: Sexual Functioning. Sexual information, experience, drive, attitude, role perception, fantasy, body image, satisfaction, and sexual functioning index scores as measured by the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI). Twenty-eight sexual history question scores as measured by the Sexual History Form (SHF). Intrapsychic Functioning. Hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria, psychopthic deviate, masculinity/femininity, paranoia, psychasthenia, schizophrenia, hypomania and social introversion scores as measured by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Affect score as measured by the Affect Balance Scale (ABS). Trait and sexual state anxiety scores as measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Self Concept scores as measured by the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) intrapsychic plane. 10 Interpersonal Functioning. Marital satisfaction, cohesion, consensus, affection and adjustment scores as measured by the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS). Spousal initiating and responding scores and Self initiating and responding scores as measured by the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) interpersonal planes. E . O V E R V I E W O F T H E S T U D Y In order to answer the questions and hypotheses proposed in this study, three groups of couples were sought. Group One consisted of spouses wherein one partner suffered from a lack of sexual desire (hypoactive sexual desire). Group Two included spouses wherein one partner suffered from an arousal or orgasm dysfunction. Group Three was composed of spouses with no sexual dysfunction. All individuals (subjects and partners) in the three groups were interviewed and completed questionnaires measuring variables in three domains, sexual, intrapsychic and interpersonal functioning. Two separate analyses were undertaken on different data. First, in order to explore the differential importance of the many variables measured which are associated with sexual functioning and hypoactive sexual desire, the multivariate analysis technique of canonical correlation was chosen as the preliminary statistical procedure. Canonical variates generated by the canonical analysis were subsequently employed as criterion variables in analyses of variance (ANOVA) to answer the research questions regarding group difference. The significance of group difference was tested using the Student-Newman-Keuls test procedure. Second, in order to explore whether or not interpersonal marital behavior differed in some way between spouses where hypoactive sexual desire was a 11 problem and spouses where sexual arousal or orgasm dysfunction was a problem, profile analyses were performed on data generated from the battery of questions (INTREX questionnaire form A and B) associated with Benjamin's (1974) Structure Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB). The significance of group profile difference was tested using Hotelling's T 2 procedure. Profiles were further studied using the Student-Newman-Keuls test procedure to identify variables contributing to group differences. F . R E S E A R C H Q U E S T I O N S The research questions for the study arise out of the review of the literature and are organized in the dissertation according to the measures and analyses chosen to answer the research question. Individuals assigned a diagnosis (subjects) were analysed separately from • their partners and will precede the latter in presentation. A. Analysis I a. Subjects 1. What is the maximum strength of the statistical relationship between sexual functioning variables and intrapsychic variables? What is the conceptual nature of this relationship? 2. Is there a statistically significant difference between subjects in the three groups (HSD, SDys, NSD) on the canonical variates obtained in the canonical analyses? Does the group representing hypoactive sexual desire subjects differ significantly from the other two groups of subjects on these variates? 3. What is the maximum strength of the statistical relationship 12 between sexual functioning variables and interpersonal variables? What is the conceptual nature of this relationship? 4. Is there a statistically significant difference between subjects in the three groups (HSD, SDys, NSD) on the canonical variates obtained in the canonical analyses? Does the group representing hypoactive sexual desire subjects differ significantly from the other two groups of subjects on these variates? b. Partners of Subjects 5. What is the maximum strength of the statistical relationship between sexual functioning variables and intrapsychic variables? What is the conceptual nature of this relationship? 6. Is there a statistically significant difference between partners of subjects in the three groups (HSD, SDys, NSD) on the canonical variates obtained in the canonical analyses? Does the group representing partners of hypoactive sexual desire subjects differ significant^  from the other two groups of partners on these variates? 7. What is the maximum strength of the statistical relationship between sexual functioning variables and interpersonal variables? What is the conceptual nature of this relationship? 8. Is there a statistically significant difference between partners of subjects in the three groups (HSD, SDys, NSD) on the canonical variates obtained in the canonical analyses? Does the group representing the partners of hypoactive sexual desire subjects differ significantly from the other two groups of partners on these variates? B. Analysis II a. Subjects 9. Is there a statistically significant difference between the three groups of subjects (HSD, SDys, NSD) on how they respond to the intrapsychic questions associated with Benjamin's (1974) Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB)? 10. Is there a statistically significant difference between the three groups of subjects (HSD, SDys, NSD) on how they respond to the interpersonal questions associated with Benjamin's (1974) Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB)? b. Partners of Subjects 11. Is there a statistically significant difference between the three groups of partners (HSD, SDys, NSD) on how they respond to the intrapsychic questions associated with Benjamin's (1974) Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB)? 12. Is there a statistically significant difference between the three groups of partners (HSD, SDys, NSD) on how they respond to the interpersonal questions associated with Benjamin's (1974) Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB)? The research questions stated above are translated into research hypotheses which appear at the end of Chapter II. 14 G. S U M M A R Y An introduction to the study has been presented in Chapter I. The conceptual foundation for the research is provided in Chapter II which contains a general review of the literature related to sexual desire disorder. Chapter III outlines the methodology and statistical procedures used in the study. Chapter IV reports the results of the investigation and Chapter V provides a discussion of the results in relation to the research questions and current literature. Chapter VI summarizes the research and discusses the limitations of the study. Suggestions for future research conclude the chapter. C H A P T E R II. R E V I E W O F T H E L I T E R A T U R E A . I N T R O D U C T I O N This is a general review of literature relevant to the topic of sexual disinterest. The goal of the literature review was to synthesize and integrate what has been thought and researched in the area of disorders of sexual desire. The general overview nature of the review is necessary because, although clinical literature regarding the problem of hypoactive sexual desire is abundant, empirical literature is limited to four or five studies. The review commences with an historical overview of the evolution in conceptualization of the human sexual response cycle which has led to the recognition of desire phase disorders. This is followed by a theoretical discussion of sexual desire. This section is concerned with current conceptual models and theoretical views of sexual desire. The next section addresses biological, intrapsychic and interpersonal factors believed to be related to desire phase disorders. Clinical data and current research concerning sexual desire problems are presented in this section. The final section of the literature review outlines questions arising from the review which this study has undertaken to answer and then the research hypotheses of the study are presented. B. H I S T O R I C A L A N D C U R R E N T V I E W S O F S E X U A L R E S P O N S E Understanding of human sexuality and the subsequent therapeutic approaches developed to treat sexual dysfunctions have endured a remarkable transformation over the past years precipitated by rapidly expanding knowledge in the domain of human sexuality. The extent of the metamorphosis reflects the 15 16 dramatic reappraisal of the concept of sexuality since the birth of modern medicine in the seventeen century. At that time, for instance, female sexual expression, formerly viewed as immoral became viewed as unhealthy. Some French physicians maintained that any sexual excitement in women was a melancholic affliction while others stigmatized the open display of sexual desire as a sure sign of mental disease (Money, 1985). An idea that masturbation posed a grave medical hazard materialized in the eighteenth century. The treatment for both nymphomania and masturbation was bloodletting from the 'afflicted' individual. This method evolved from the belief that sperm were precious and in need of preservation, whereas the blood of the sick was seen as poisonous and hence in need of elimination (Money, 1985). The doctrine of masturbatory insanity was firmly endorsed by the civilized world until the advent of the revolutionary psychoanalytic theory of sexuality (Freud, 1905). This theory was at once a treatment method and also a model of personality and psychopathology which enabled the understanding and prediction of otherwise inexplicable human behavior. In emphasizing the power of sexuality in human behavior, psychoanalytic theory addressed the importance of childhood experience in shaping adult behavior and destiny and offered the concepts of libido and unconscious motivation as well as the constructs of repression and resistance. This transition in sexual doctrine in the early twentieth century led to the wide acceptance of sexual dysfunctions as symptoms of an individual's general personality and neurotic problems. It was felt that sexual problems reflected the influence of instinctual drives, maturational changes in focus of sexual responsiveness from the oral to the anal to the genital zone, and early childhood experiences (Fenichel, 1945; Freud, 1905). Within this view, treatment of sexual 17 dysfunction was dominated by two major therapies, Freudian Psychoanalysis and Jungian Analytic Psychology. However, not only was no special attention directed toward sexual problems as such, but the subject was treated in isolation with no involvement of the sexual partner. Psychotherapy was an individual, insight-oriented long term treatment process. Psychotherapy from this perspective, although providing the context for personal development and understanding, did not result in the successful treatment of sexual problems per se. In the early twentieth century, the human sexual response was viewed as a unitary event. Little was known, then, of the physiology or emotional concommitants of the sexual response cycle. No distinctions were made between phases of the response cycle, nor were distinctions made between various sexual dysfunctions. For instance, females who reported discomfort during intercourse, lack of orgasm, or disinterest in sexual activity were all diagnosed as frigid. Males who suffered from erectile failure along with those who reported the problem of premature ejaculation, both received the diagnosis of impotence. All sexual dysfunctions were grouped together as a single entity according to the sex of the subject. The unitary view of the sexual response cycle resulted in a unitary diagnosis of the problem followed by a unitary treatment. Failures in treating sexual problems from the conceptual view of the sexual response cycle as a unitary event eventually led to a reconceptualization of the process. For example, James Semans (1956) advanced the understanding and study of the male sexual response when he separated ejaculatory impotence from the catch all diagnosis of male impotence and proposed a specific behavioral treatment for the problem of premature ejaculation. Semans' insightful separation foreshadowed the conceptual separation of the arousal phase from the orgasm phase of the human 18 sexual response (Kaplan, 1974). This two phase conceptualization represented a significant theoretical advance in the understanding and research of human sexuality. Ten years after Semans separated ejaculatory problems from the problem of general impotence, Masters and Johnson (1966) published their pioneer volume on sexual physiology as a result of their research in human sexuality. Human Sexual Response (Masters & Johnson, 1966) provided the first objective, scientific data and description of the physiology of the human sexual response in both males and females. Masters and Johnson identified four distinct physiological phases of the sexual response cycle: excitement, plateau, orgasm and resolution. Observations describing male and female sexual responses led to improved methodology in the therapeutic approach to sexual inadequacy and new behaviorally focused programs were developed to treat human sexual problems (Masters & Johnson, 1970). Thus insight oriented treatments were joined by the more pragmatic and directive view of psychological treatment in which learning or relearning, or the acquisition of healthy habits has been the basic theme. Practical behavioral approaches were based on the theoretical principles of learning derived from laboratory experiments. The publication of Human Sexual Inadequacy by Masters and Johnson in 1970 established a framework and terminology within which specific sexual problems might be perceived and treated. Masters and Johnson (1970) hypothesized a psychosomatic concept of sexual dysfunction. From this point of view, sexual dysfunction is seen as the product of the physiological concomitant of anxiety. The source of sexually disruptive anxiety was believed to be much simpler and more consciously perceived than was postulated by traditional psychoanalysis and psychiatry. A new clinical 19 approach advocated time limited, directive counselling of the couple, rather than the individual. Treatment was aimed at symptom removal rather than attainment of insight, uncovering of repressions or resolution of unconscious conflict. The results of this approach to treatment were positive and many couples experiencing sexual problems were helped. In terms of conceptualization of the stages of the sexual response cycle, theorists continued to debate and redefine the sexual response cycle. For example, in The New Sex Therapy, Kaplan (1974) proposed a biphasic conceptualization of the sexual response cycle in contrast to Masters and Johnson's four phase conceptualization. Kaplan described the four successive physiological stages of the sexual response cycle elucidated b3' Masters and Johnson as a descriptive schema which "...has proven extremely useful for descriptive purposes in that it 'assures inclusion and correct placement of the specifics of the physiological response within the sequential continuum of human response to sexual stimuli'" (p. 13). Kaplan (1974) suggested, however, that clinical and physiological evidence supported the view that the sexual response cycle was biphasic in nature. A biphasic framework proposes two distinct and relatively independent components of the sexual response rather than proposing a single continuous entity. Kaplan (1974) wrote of the two phases: Actually, the underlying separateness of the two phases is so apparent that it is surprising that this has not generally been recognized. First, the two components involve different anatomical structures which are innervated by different parts of the nervous system. Erection is mediated by the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, while ejaculation is primarily a sympathetic function. 20 Furthermore, vasocongestion and orgasm differ with respect to their vulnerability to the effects of physical trauma, drugs and age. Finally, the impairment of erection and ejaculation in the male and of lubrication and orgasm in the female results in distinctly different syndromes which are probably caused by different psychopathological mechanisms and which respond to different treatment procedures, (p. 13) In applying the biphasic model to sexual dysfunctions, it was theoretically and physiologically understood that an arousal stage dysfunction, such as erectile failure would have different underlying mediating factors than an orgasmic dysfunction. These two components of the sexual response cycle are viewed as separate and independent of each other (Kaplan, 1974). Kaplan (1979) later pointed out that Masters' and Johnson's four phase descriptive classification of the sexual response cycle fits into the conceptual model of a biphasic classification system in that the excitement and plateau stages refer to different degrees of the vasodilatory arousal phase while the orgasm stage corresponds to the orgasm phase. Kaplan (1979) suggests that Masters' and Johnson's resolution phase merely refers to the absence of sexual arousal. In her more recent publication, Kaplan (1979) states: The biphasic concept, i.e. the notion that excitement and orgasm disorders are separate syndromes, has been confirmed by clinical observations and is also supported by the response to the specific treatment strategies devised for these dysfunctions. The separation of excitement and orgasm phase dysfunctions has improved the prognosis 21 of the orgasmic disorders of males and females considerably, (p. xiii) In the late 1970's however, due to failures in sex therapy, clinicians and researchers were increasingly aware of an important preliminary stage to sexual arousal or excitement. For example, in 1977 Lief wrote, "Unless there is a readiness for sexual activity, a mental set, a psychic state, in other words, sexual desire, sexual arousal or excitement usually will not ensue even in situations of intense stimulation and provocation" (p. 94). In the same year, as a result of her study regarding treatment failures in sex therapy, Kaplan (1977) wrote, "The sexual response of males and females may be divided into three phases: desire, excitement and orgasm. Desire is an appetite that has its locus in the brain, excitement and orgasm involve autonomic reflexes of the genitals" (p. 13). The resulting triphasic conceptualization of the human sexual response introduced by Kaplan (1977, 1979) and Lief (1977) represents another significant conceptual advance in understanding the complexity of the human sexual response cycle. Prior to it, sexual desire had not been addressed by theorists or therapists. The new synthesis brought the emerging field of sex therapy closer to the actual complexities of sexual life. With the publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1980) in 1980, the desire phase of the human sexual response cycle was recognized as a distinct diagnostic category under psychosexual disorders and Inhibited Sexual Desire (ISD) was recognized as a distinct syndrome. The revised edition, The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition - Revised (American Psychiatric Association, 1987) renamed the disorder Hypoactive Sexual Desire (HSD). 22 The DSM-III classification, however, as Levine (1984) points out, must be viewed in light of several considerations. First, all problems of desire are not deficiencies. Desire problems range on a continuum from total absence (Kaplan, 1979) through incompatible levels (Zilbergeld & Ellison, 1980) to frequent (Barlow & Abel, 1976) and relentless (Levine, 1982). Secondly, as proposed by Kaplan (1979), the inhibitions at the low end of the continuum may have unique etiological sources, both physical and psychological. Levine (1984) concludes: "These simple observations suggest the conclusion that the nature of sexual desire is quantitative, and that quantity can fluctuate. The concept of sexual desire as a quantity is, however, wholly inferential as sexual desire cannot be directly measured" (p. 84). The theoretical framework through which the concept of sexual desire is viewed will influence the dimensions chosen to assess and treat the problem. The following section will focus on the concept of sexual desire and how it is represented in medical and psychological theories. The four perspectives represented in current literature are psychoanalytic theory, learning theory, interpersonal theory and medical theory. Each theory addresses different physical and/or psychological points of view regarding the concept of desire and the etiology and treatment of disorders of sexual desire. 23 C. S E X U A L D E S I R E 1. Theoretical Views and Concept The idea of sexual desire appears simple to grasp, yet the concept is not easy to define. The DSM-III-R (American Psychiatric Association, 1987) lacks a clear diagnostic definition for hypoactive sexual desire. For instance, the terms hypoactive and sexual desire are not clearly defined and what constitutes an objective criteria of low desire is not addressed (Zilbergeld & Ellison, 1980). The lack of a clear definition of both sexual desire and lack of sexual desire is a major concern to many researchers and clinicians interested in investigating and treating desire phase disorders (Bancroft, 1984; Kaplan, 1979; Levine, 1984; LoPiccolo, 1980; Maurice, 1980; Schover & LoPiccolo, 1982; Schover, Friedman, Weiler, Heiman & LoPiccolo, 1982; Zilbergeld & Ellison, 1980). Four theoretical views have contributed valuable conceptualizations to the current understanding of sexual desire and the lack of it. They are, the psychoanalytic view, the learning theory view, the interpersonal view and the medical view. Psychoanalytic View The presence in humans of an innate, biological instinctive drive such as sexual instinct (libido) was proposed by Freud (1905) in Three Essays on the Theory of Female Sexuality. Psychoanalytic theory suggests that libido is innate and is determined by heredity, chemical processes and individual variation in constitution. The traditional psychoanalytic approach to sexual dysfunction is based on an intrapsychic conflict model which postulates that failure to accomplish childhood developmental tasks is associated with the oral, anal and phallic stages of development. For example, the resolution of the oedipal complex has remained 24 the major etiological factor in sexual dysfunctions (Freud, 1905). Low sexual desire from a psychoanalytic viewpoint is conceptualized as a dissociation of the sexual instinct. Such dissociation is the result of excessive defense inhibition during sexual maturation. According to Freud's theory, low sexual desire would be more common in women since he believed women had a greater tendency than men to become anxious and to inhibit and repress sexual drives. Freud also postulated that males possessed a greater intensity of innate libido (Freud, 1905). Learning Theory View The learning theory approach does not propose an innate, biological instinctual sex drive but rather proposes that one's behavior is a tapestry of learned sets of responses. The underlying assumption is that behaviors which lead to orgasm would, under normal conditions, be reproduced due to the pleasure received from the experience. Wolpe (1958) conceptualized sexual dysfunctions as conditioned anxiety responses to the sexual situation. Learning theory does not make reference to unconscious processes. Advocates of this theory would interpret a subject's lack of sexual desire in terms of past and present learning. For instance, low desire could result from a lack of learning as well as from prior learning and conditioning that sexual activity is bad, unhealthy, dangerous or humiliating. Interpersonal View Interpersonal theory views the individual as an integral part of the physical and interpersonal contexts in which he exists rather than a fixed entity (Anchin & Kiesler, 1982). Interpersonal theory was first articulated by H.S. Sullivan (1953). The theory offered an interpersonal alternative to the intrapsychic 25 emphasis that prevails in psychoanalytic theory. Interpersonal explanations of human personality and behavior focus on the study of human transactions (Kiesler, 1982). One assumption of interpersonal theory is that a person's pattern of behavior represents distinct combinations of two or three basic dimensions of interpersonal behavior: control, affiliation and inclusion (Leary, 1957). Problems in living, such as lack of sexual intimacy in a relationship, are defined as resulting from, and being maintained by defeating aspects of the relationship in terms of the three basic dimensions of interpersonal behavior: control, affiliation and inclusion (Keisler, 1982). Although a comprehensive model of sexual desire based on interpersonal theory has yet to emerge (Levine, 1987), one basic assumption, as in psychoanalytic theory, is that sexual desire reflects an innate biological drive. The clinical approach to problems of desire from this theoretical position is from an interpersonal conflict model. Treatment emphasis is focused on the spousal relationship and the interpersonal determinants blocking sexual intimacy. Interpersonal theory views anxiety as an interpersonal phenomenon resulting from malintegrations between people along the dimensions of control (dominance-submission), affiliation (love-hate) and inclusion (Keisler, 1982). In interpersonal literature (LoPiccolo, 1980) it has been identified that the role of the partner 'may be underestimated in sexually dysfunctional couples. In fact, it is suggested that the partners' response pattern may be an important variable in the development of specific sexual problems (Chesney, Blakeney, Chan & Cole, 1981; Cole, Blakeney, Chan, Chesney & Creson, 1979). Medical View From a medical point of view, sexual desire is perceived as an appetite. Like other appetites or drives, sexual desire is studied from a physiological basis, 26 and like other appetites or drives, is thought to be organized so that it is kept in balance by inhibitory and activating mechanisms. Although a clear explanation and understanding of the normal physiology of this appetite is not yet available, researchers believe that sensory and psychic stimuli for instance, auditory, visual, olfactory, gustatory, tactile or imaginative stimuli, reaching the limbic system are involved in the process (Buffum, 1982). Sexual appetite is dependent on testosterone in both males and females (Bancroft, 1984; Kaplan, 1983; Schiavi, 1981) and anything that interferes with testosterone or the balance between estrogen and testosterone or anything which acts as a central nervous system depressant can decrease sexual desire. In varying degrees, the theoretical views discussed above all contribute valuable conceptualizations to the current understanding and treatment of low sexual desire. For example, the understanding that sexual disinterest can result medically from low testosterone levels, psychologically from deep unconscious conflict derived in early childhood as well as from more simple behavioral performance fears or negative past or present relationship dynamics, has resulted in an integrated approach to the understanding and treatment of the problem. 2. Terminology and Conceptual Descriptions of Sexual Desire For researchers and practitioners the problem of conceptualizing, defining, and operationalizing sexual desire and lack of sexual desire remains one of the most perplexing and unresolved problem in the literature (Davidson, 1984; Fish, Fish & Sprenkle, 1984; Hammond, 1984; Henker, 1984; LaFerla, 1984; Levine, 1984; LoPiccolo, 1980; Okhowat, 1985). As a pioneer author and conceptualizer in the area of desire phase 27 disorders, Kaplan (1977, 1979, 1983) has been influential in establishing definitions and terminology in the literature. For instance, Kaplan (1979) makes the following distinctions: For conceptual clarity, the term ISD is reserved here for those situations of abnormally low libido in which an etiologic diagnosis has been made, i.e. when it is established that sexual desire is inhibited by psychic factors. The term hypoactive sexual desire (HSD) is preferable when the etiology of low libido has not yet been determined, (p. 58) Later, Kaplan (1983) states: "I use the term impaired sexual desire to designate a deficiency in drive before the differentiation between psychogenic inhibition and organic impairment has been made" (p. 239). Schover, Friedman, Weiler, Heiman and LoPiccolo (1982) disagree with Kaplan's (1979, 1983) terminology and definitions and suggest that a crucial limitation of the existing system is the tendency to confuse etiological hypotheses with behavioral descriptions. Schover et al., (1982) point out that Kaplan attempts to: ...dichotomize between exclusively psychogenic and exclusively organic factors. She divides problems of low desire into the category of inhibited sexual desire when the etiological factor is clearly psychogenic and into the category of hypoactive sexual desire when the etiological factor is unclear, (p. 615) Schover et al. (1982), argue that, "given the great gaps in our knowledge of the 28 interaction of neurological, hormonal and behavioral components of human sexual desire, this dichotomy seems premature" (p. 615). In support of Schover et al.'s (1982) position, Maurice (1980) states a preference for the term sexual disinterest over inhibited sexual desire because it projects a broader concept, is more descriptive and does not imply an etiological understanding of the syndrome. There is an emerging consensus regarding the need for a multidimensional approach to the conceptualization of sexual desire (Leiblum & Rosen, 1988; Levine, 1987; Rosen & Leiblum, 1987). Current articles by Steven Levine (1984, 1988) have addressed the nature of sexual desire and proposed a useful new model of the concept. In defining what sexual desire is, Levine (1988) writes, "Sexual desire is the psychobiological energy that precedes and accompanies arousal and tends to produce sexual behavior. It has two essential characteristics: 1. Its energy fluctuates. 2. Its sources are often personally baffling" (p. 23). Levine (1988) proceeds from this definition to propose a model of sexual desire which consists of three basic elements: 1. Sexual Drive which he defines as the product of the neuroendocrine generator of sexual impulses. The neuroendocrine system is testosterone-dependent and its activity has a frequency or rhythm pattern over one's life C3rcle. Clinically, this is apparent in high, moderate, low, or absent sexual drive. 2. Sexual Wish: Despite the absence or presence of sex drive manifestations, Levine suggests that the wish to behave sexually is a separate component of sexual desire. For example, an individual with a low or absent sex drive component may have a decided wish to behave sexually. Conversely, an individual who is frequently aroused spontaneously (high drive component), may 29 simultaneously wish not to behave sexually. 3. Sexual Motive: Levine suggests that the clinical understanding of sexual motivation requires "an immersion in the individual's and couple's psychodynamics" (p. 27). The major determinants of sexual motivation he proposes are: sexual identity, quality of the relationship, self and partner regulation and transferance from past attachments. Levine (1988) summarizes his model of sexual desire by stating, "Sexual desire is the product of the interaction of the neuroendocrine system that produces drive, the cognitive processes that generate wish, and the motivational processes that result in willingness to behave sexually" (p. 33). Levine's model of sexual desire is a multidimensional approach to the articulation of the concept and provides a clinically useful discription of the complexity of the sexual response. Discrepancies are apparent in the literature concerning the conceptualization and the operational definition of sexual desire and sexual disinterest. For instance, Schover et al., (1982) set forth several criteria for a definition of low sexual desire in their research. The criteria include: 1. a low frequency of sexual activity, for example, less than once every two weeks, unless a higher rate is due to reluctant compliance with spouse for sexual activity; and 2. a subjective lack of desire for sexual activity; desire here includes sexual dreams and fantasies, attention to erotic materials, awareness of wishes for sexual activity, noticing attractive potential partners, and feeling of frustration if deprived of sex (p. 180). An objective measure of sexual behavior and a subjective assessment of one's own erotic cues are what Schover et al. use to operationalize the concept of 30 sexual desire. In contrast to the above definition, Zilbergeld and Ellison (1980) conceptualize desire and low desire as a subjective element of any relationship. For example, they suggest, "It is not that one person has too much desire and another too little on some absolute scale; it is rather a discrepancy in two peoples' styles or interests. Such discrepancies have much in common with other relationship differences" (p. 68). This is an interactional rather than an individual behavioral view of sexual desire. Zilbergeld and Ellison (1980) argue that if sexual appetite is subjective no precise definition of desire or low desire is sensible. Kolodny, Masters and Johnson (1979) make the point that in no way is inhibited sexual desire synonymous with disparate levels of sexual interest in a relationship. Fish, Fish and Sprenkle (1984) expand on Zilbergeld and Ellison's concept of desire discrepancy and propose that the desire phase of the human sexual response cycle is inadequately conceptualized as part of an individual triphasic model and must be reconceptualized as not only part of an individual human sexual response, but as part of an interpersonal system. Kaplan (1979) in addressing the definition issue comments that it is not feasible to wait until more accurate data have been accumulated on normal sexual desire before attending to the needs of the population suffering from inhibited desire. Therefore, Kaplan diagnoses hypoactive sexual desire by comparing the subject's individual and dyadic experience with a sense of what the normal range of sexual desire is and from reports of a subject's desire pattern prior to low desire. The normal range Kaplan (1979) explains, is inferred from various statistical surveys of the frequency of intercourse and orgasm as well as from diverse clinical observations and from personal experience. A useful typology has been proposed by Kaplan (1979) for classifying cases of low desire. Low desire can be primary (a total lack of sexual desire throughout the individual's life) or secondary (desire present at some point but absent now) and situational (lack of desire in particular situations while not in others) or global (no desire regardless of situational variables). This typology is presently reflected in the DSM-III-R (American Psychiatric Association, 1987). Several criteria were employed in this study to operationalize the concepts of sexual desire. An objective measure of sexual behavior and a subjective assessment of one's own erotic nature were employed as well as an interpersonal assessment as to whether or not sexual desire was a problem in the relationship. Derogatis (1979) has developed a drive scale on the DSFI questionnaire which was used in the study as one of the criterion measures of sexual desire. The Derogatis drive scale measures explicit sexual behavior using an approach analagous to that taken by Kinsey, Pomeroy, and Martin (1948) and Kinsey, Pomeroy, Martin and Gebhard (1953). Kinsey et al. (1948, 1953) utilized a composite definition of sexual drive which he termed total sexual outlet. This score reflected contributions from autoerotic. heterosexual and homosexual acitivities. The drive scale of the DSFI is modeled after Kinsey's concept' in that it too is a summary measure composed of five components which reflect frequency of intercourse, masturbation, kissing and petting, sexual fantasies, and the ideal or preferred frequency of intercourse indicated by the individual. Each class of behavior is measured on a 9-point frequency scale and these values are summed to produce a total score. Derogatis (1979) states that although the drive scale does miss some of the more subtle manifestations of sexual drive, it is, 32 "highly correlated with clinical impressions and has revealed high discriminative sensitivity" (p. 250). Although the DSFI (Derogatis, 1979) drive scale was chosen as one of the operational definition components of sexual desire in the study, it is important to point out that the construct measured is sexual behavior, and although sexual behavior may be a manifestation of erotic drive, it can also be a manifestation of other emotion, for instance, anger, jealousy, or revenge. In addition, not all erotic impulses are necessarily translated into explicit sexual behaviors, even if the construct is extended in terms of behavior to include thoughts and fantasies. Cataloging of sexual activities in and of itself, although fundamental to any consideration or understanding of individual sexual drive, does not insure that one is measuring sexual drive accurately. Therefore, an additional subjective criteria of sexual desire similar to that chosen by Schover et al. (1982) and Schreiner-Engel and Schiavi (1986) was employed in the study. For example, subjects in the study had to report their subjective desire or lack of desire for sexual activities. Subjective desire for sexual activity referred to the attention one paid to erotic materials, the generation of sexual dreams or fantasies, one's experience of noticing sexual cues and one's feelings of frustration if deprived of sex. The final criterion in the study, relative to assessing an individual as hypoactive or not in terms of sexual desire was an interpersonal consideration. Both partners in the dyad were asked if the issue of sexual desire was a problem in the relationship. To be assigned to the HSD group, one or both partners had to acknowledge lack of sexual desire as a problem. In summary, sexual desire or the lack of it was operationalized in the study by objective sexual behavior measures, by subjective measures of desire for 3 3 s e x u a l a c t i v i t y a n d b y a n i n t e r p e r s o n a l m e a s u r e o f w h e t h e r o r no t s e x u a l des i re w a s c o n s i d e r e d a p r o b l e m i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p . 3. I n c i d e n c e o f L a c k o f S e x u a l D e s i r e T h e inc idence o f l a c k o f s e x u a l des i r e i n the N o r t h A m e r i c a n p o p u l a t i o n is b e l i e v e d to be h i g h . H o w e v e r , s e x u a l des i r e p r o b l e m s h a v e b e e n a d d r e s s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e u n d e r m a n y d e s c r i p t i v e t e r m s , for e x a m p l e , d i m i n i s h e d l ib ido ( H e n k e r , 1 9 8 3 ) , f r i g i d i t y ( M c G u i r e & S t e i n h i l b e r , 1 9 7 3 ) , s e x u a l a n h e d o n i a ( C h a p m a n , 1 9 8 3 ) , i n h i b i t e d des i r e (L ie f , 1 9 7 7 ) , h y p o a c t i v e d e s i r e ( K a p l a n , 1 9 7 7 ) , l o w s e x u a l des i r e ( L o P i c c o l o , 1 9 8 0 ) , a n d s e x u a l d i s i n t e r e s t ( M a u r i c e , 1 9 8 0 ) . M o s t a u t h o r s , a l t h o u g h no t u n i f i e d on the t e r m i n o l o g y or c r i t e r i a for a s s i g n i n g a d i a g n o s i s o f h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l de s i r e , do agree t h a t t he re is a h i g h inc idence o f i n d i v i d u a l s a n d couples s e e k i n g h e l p for the g e n e r a l p r o b l e m o f s e x u a l d i s i n t e r e s t . F o r e x a m p l e , K a p l a n (1979) s t a t e s , " h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i re i s p r o b a b l y the m o s t p r e v a l e n t o f a l l s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n s " (p. 57) . L i e f (1977) r e v e a l s , " w e a r e d i s c o v e r i n g w i t h i n c r e a s i n g f r e q u e n c y t h a t r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e n u m b e r s o f peop le h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b l e m i n f ee l i ng e n o u g h des i re to i n i t i a t e or to r e s p o n d to s e x u a l c u e s " (p. 94) . S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s a n d c l i n i c i a n s v e r i f y t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w ( H e n k e r , 1 9 8 4 ; K o l o d n y , M a s t e r s & J o h n s o n , 1 9 7 9 , M c C a r t h y , 1 9 8 4 ) . A s t u d y c a r r i e d o u t a t the M a r r i a g e C o u n c i l o f P h i l a d e l p h i a a n d r e p o r t e d b y L i e f (1977) f o u n d t h a t 2 8 . 5 % o f t h e i r s a m p l e (115 subjects) w e r e g i v e n a p r i m a r y d i a g n o s i s o f i n h i b i t e d s e x u a l des i r e ( I S D ) u s i n g the p r o p o s e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m for the D S M - I I I ( A m e r i c a n P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 8 0 ) . A c c o r d i n g to a d i v i s i o n b y sex , 1 8 % o f the m a l e s a n d 3 7 % o f the f e m a l e s w e r e a s s i g n e d the d i a g n o s i s . F r a n k , A n d e r s o n a n d R u b i n s t e i n (1978 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t 3 5 % o f the w o m e n 3 4 a n d 1 6 % o f the m e n i n t h e i r s t u d y o f w e l l ad jus ted m a r r i e d coup les , r e p o r t e d d i s i n t e r e s t i n s e x u a l a c t i v i t y . A c c o r d i n g to age , 2 3 % o f the w i v e s i n t h e i r t w e n t i e s a n d 1 1 % o f the h u s b a n d s i n t h e i r t w e n t i e s r e p o r t e d l a c k o f s e x u a l i n t e r e s t . T h e pe rcen t ages i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y a m o n g w o m e n (28%) a n d m e n (13%) i n t h e i r t h i r t i e s . S e x u a l d i s i n t e r e s t p e a k e d i n the for t ies for b o t h w o m e n (32%) a n d m e n (40%). M e n a n d w o m e n ove r f i f ty r e p o r t e d s e x u a l d i s i n t e r e s t less f r e q u e n t l y t h a n o t h e r age g r o u p s . S tee le (1976) f o u n d a s i m i l a r i nc idence o f l o w des i r e . H e no ted t h a t ou t o f 5 0 0 coup le s seen for i n f e r t i l i t y , 2 0 % r e p o r t e d loss o f l i b ido . I n a s a m p l e o f 3 6 5 h u s b a n d s a n d w i v e s b e t w e e n the ages o f 2 0 to 3 9 , E d w a r d s a n d B o o t h (1976) found t h a t one t h i r d o f the s a m p l e h a d c e a s e d h a v i n g i n t e r c o u r s e for a def inab le p e r i o d of t i m e . A f t e r m a r i t a l d i s c o r d (40%) a n d p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s (20%), d e c l i n i n g i n t e r e s t i n s e x a c c o u n t e d for 1 2 % of the c e s s a t i o n . L o P i c c o l o (1980) m a k e s the c l i n i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t c l i en t s w i t h l o w s e x u a l des i re a r e i n c r e a s i n g i n n u m b e r . H e h y p o t h e s i z e s t h a t t h i s i s due to e i t h e r soc i e t a l p r e s s u r e s to be m o r e s e x u a l l y a c t i v e o r c l i n i c i a n s ' i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n to t h i s p h a s e o f s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . L o P i c c o l o (1980) r e p o r t e d t h a t o u t o f 3 9 c o n s e c u t i v e t r e a t m e n t cases a t the S e x T h e r a p y C e n t r e a t S t o n e y B r o o k , 6 9 % i n c l u d e d a n a s s i g n m e n t o f the d i a g n o s i s o f l o w s e x u a l des i r e i n a t l e a s t one spouse . T h i s i n c l u d e d 6 3 % o f a l l m a l e p a r t n e r s a n d 3 7 % o f a l l f e m a l e p a r t n e r s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t L o P i c c o l o ' s (1980) s t u d y a n d F r a n k et al.'s (1978) s t u d y p r o v i d e ev idence t h a t m a l e s a s w e l l as f e m a l e s suf fe r i n l a r g e n u m b e r s f r o m t h i s p r o b l e m . A l t h o u g h these s tud ie s c o n t a i n v a r i o u s d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n t e r m i n o l o g y a n d 35 definition of lack of desire, they do, nevertheless, provide adequate evidence that great numbers of individuals whether happily married or seeking therapy for marital, sexual or fertility problems, whether recently married or established in wedlock, whether young or old and whether male or female, report problems with the desire phase of their sexual life with increasing frequency. D. FACTORS R E L A T E D TO HYPOACTIVE SEXUAL DESIRE The literature review regarding variables associated with hypoactive sexual desire addresses organic, intrapsychic and interpersonal factors. Organic factors refer to neuroendocrine irregularities, medical illnesses, and medication or alcohol presence in the system. Intrapsychic factors refer to affective variables such as anxiety and depression, while interpersonal factors refer to relationship dynamics such as marital quality and interpersonal communication. In separating the organic, intrapsychic and interpersonal variables identified in the literature as being related to hypoactive sexual desire, it is recognized that in the clinical setting the interactional dynamics of organic, emotional, cognitive and relationship variables are extremely complex and lack of sexual desire may result from many diverse influences as well as from innumerable combinations of these factors. 1. Organic Factors Organic factors related to sexual behavior are presented in the literature review because they are relevant to the understanding of the exclusion criteria of the study (see page 60). In order to screen subjects for organic factors associated with sexual functioning in general, and lack of sexual desire in particular, individuals presenting with evidence of hormonal or medical disorders, or 3 6 p r e s e n t i n g w i t h d e p e n d e n c y on m e d i c a t i o n , d r u g s o r a l c o h o l w e r e e x c l u d e d f r o m the s t u d y . Hormonal Issues S e x u a l appe t i t e i s d e p e n d e n t o n t e s tos te rone i n b o t h m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s ( B a n c r o f t , 1 9 8 4 ; K a p l a n , 1 9 8 3 ; S c h i a v i , 1981) a n d a n y t h i n g t h a t in t e r fe res w i t h t e s tos t e rone and /o r the b a l a n c e b e t w e e n e s t r o g e n a n d t e s tos te rone or a n y t h i n g w h i c h ac t s as a c e n t r a l n e r v o u s s y s t e m d e p r e s s a n t c a n dec rease s e x u a l des i r e . T o da te , m o s t o f the m e d i c a l r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g l o w s e x u a l des i r e h a s focused o n h o r m o n a l l e v e l s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to s e x u a l b e h a v i o r a n d s e v e r a l s tud ies h a v e p r o d u c e d ev idence t h a t a n d r o g e n s a re n e c e s s a r y for s e x u a l d r i v e to occu r ( D a v i d s o n , C a m a r g o & S m i t h , 1 9 7 9 ; K n u s s m a n n , C h r i s t i a n s e n & C o u w e n b e r g s , 1 9 8 6 ) . I n a r e c e n t s t u d y o f m a l e s e x h i b i t i n g h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i r e ( H S D ) , S c h a i v i , S c h r e i n e r - E n g e l , W h i t e a n d M a n d e l i (1988) i n v e s t i g a t e d w h e t h e r o r no t the p i t u i t a r y - g o n a d a l f unc t i on d u r i n g s leep d i f fe red i n these m a l e subjects as c o m p a r e d to c o n t r o l subjects . T h e y f o u n d the t o t a l g r o u p o f H S D m e n h a d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r p l a s m a t e s tos te rone , m e a s u r e d h o u r t y t h r o u g h the n i g h t , t h a n d i d the c o n t r o l g r o u p . N o d i f fe rence w a s found b e t w e e n g r o u p s i n p r o l a c t i n , l u t e i n i z i n g h o r m o n e or e s t r a d i o l . T h i s s t u d y p r e s e n t s some e v i d e n c e t h a t h e a l t h y m e n w i t h H S D m a y d i f fe r i n p i t u i t a r y - g o n a d a l f u n c t i o n . S c h i a v i et al. (1988) c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t i s poss ib le t h a t m e n w i t h a g e n e r a l i z e d l a c k o f s ex d r i v e m a y cons t i t u t e a g r o u p w i t h d i s t i n c t h o r m o n a l p s y c h o - p h y s i o l o g i c a n d p s y c h o l o g i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . R e c e n t h o r m o n a l s tud ies o n f e m a l e p o p u l a t i o n s h a v e focused on the c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s e x u a l des i r e a n d the m e n s t r u a l cyc le ( B a n c r o f t , S a n d e r s , 3 7 D a v i d s o n a n d W a r n e r , 1 9 8 3 ; S t a n i s l a w a n d R i c e , 1988) . B a n c r o f t et al. ( 1983) found t h a t i n w o m e n w i t h a m a r k e d c y c l i c a l m o o d c h a n g e , t he re w a s a n a s s o c i a t e d p a t t e r n o f s e x u a l f ee l ings . H o w e v e r , the a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n p l a s m a tes tos te rone l e v e l s , fee l ings o f w e l l b e i n g a n d s e x u a l des i re w a s no t c l ea r . F o r i n s t a n c e , a l t h o u g h p l a s m a tes tos te rone l e v e l s s h o w e d a s u b s t a n t i v e m i d c y c l e r i s e ( late f o l l i c u l a r a n d e a r l y l u t e a l phases ) , i t d i d n o t s h o w the v a r i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h the m e n s t r u a l c y c l e found w i t h o the r s t e ro ids . I n a d d i t i o n , t he re w a s no ev idence o f p e r i o v u l a t o r y i n c r e a s e i n s e x u a l i n t e r e s t o r a c t i v i t y to c o r r e l a t e w i t h the r i s e i n t e s tos te rone l e v e l . Sub jec t ive s e x u a l i t y for these w o m e n w a s m a x i m a l i n the m i d - f o l l i c u l a r ( p o s t m e n s t r u a l ) a n d l a t e l u t e a l ( p r e m e n s t r u a l ) p h a s e s . A n e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g o f th i s s t u d y w a s t h a t the m e a n t es tos te rone l eve l s w e r e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h m a s t u r b a t i o n f r e q u e n c y b u t n o t w i t h s e x u a l e x p r e s s i o n i n v o l v i n g the p a r t n e r . B a n c r o f t et al. ( 1983) q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r t he re is some di f ference b e t w e e n m a s t u r b a t i n g a n d n o n m a s t u r b a t i n g w o m e n t h a t w o u l d a c c o u n t for t h e i r a p p a r e n t l y d i f f e r en t r e sponse to t e s tos te rone . I n d i s c u s s i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n , B a n c r o f t et al. ( 1983) p o i n t ou t t h a t s o m e s tud ie s h a v e found a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t e s tos te rone l e v e l s a n d l ife s t y l e ( B a n c r o f t , 1 9 8 1 ; P u r i f o y & K o o p m a n n , 1980 ) . T h e y sugges t t h a t i f t e s tos te rone is c a u s a l l y r e l a t e d to, or a consequence o f l i f e s t y l e s u c h effects c o u l d c a u s e or r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d conf l i c t w i t h i n h e t e r o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h e r e b y h o r m o n e s affect b e h a v i o r a n d b e h a v i o r affects h o r m o n e s . A l t h o u g h b a s e d o n l i m i t e d ev idence as ye t , B a n c r o f t et al. ( 1983 ) sugges t a v a l i d a r e a o f e n q u i r y to be the i n t e r a c t i o n a l o r i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y e n q u i r y i n v o l v i n g a n d r o g e n l e v e l s a n d l i f e s ty l e as t h e y r e l a t e to s e x u a l des i re i n w o m e n . I n a m o r e r ecen t s t u d y o f the c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s e x u a l des i r e a n d m e n s t r u a l c y c l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , S t a n i s l a w a n d R i c e (1988) f o u n d t h a t s e x u a l 3 8 des i r e w a s u s u a l l y f i r s t e x p e r i e n c e d a f e w d a y s before the b a s a l b o d y t e m p e r a t u r e ( B B T ) shif t , a r o u n d the e x p e c t e d o v u l a t i o n da te . I n r e l a t i o n s h i p to B a n c r o f t et al. (1983) s t u d y B B T sh i f t p r i o r to o v u l a t i o n occu r s i n the l a te f o l l i c u l a r p h a s e a n d co inc ides w i t h the e l e v a t i o n o f t e s tos te rone l e v e l s . S t a n i s l a w a n d R i c e (1988) sugges t t h a t t h e i r f i n d i n g s s h o u l d n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d as d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t h o r m o n a l f ac to r s a re the sole d e t e r m i n a n t s o f des i re b u t r a t h e r t h a t h o r m o n e s c o n t r i b u t e to the t i m i n g and /o r m a g n i t u d e o f s e x u a l des i re i n w o m e n . I n a d d i t i o n , a l t h o u g h tes tos te rone m a y be i m p l i c a t e d as the s ing le h o r m o n e r e s p o n s i b l e for s e x u a l de s i r e , t h e y c a u t i o n t h a t s e v e r a l h o r m o n e s , no t j u s t a s i ng l e h o r m o n e , m a y m e d i a t e the c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s e x u a l des i re a n d the B B T sh i f t . T h e s e r e s u l t s a re c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a m o d e l i n w h i c h s e x u a l des i re is af fected b y the s a m e h o r m o n a l p rocesses t h a t r e g u l a t e s the m e n s t r u a l c y c l e . H o w e v e r , the role o f r e p r o d u c t i v e h o r m o n e s i n l o w s e x u a l des i re i n w o m e n w a s f u r t h e r s t u d i e d b y S c h r e i n e r - E n g e l , S c h i a v i , W h i t e a n d G h i z z a n i (1989) . S c h r e i n e r - E n g e l et al. ( 1989 ) c o m p a r e d t w o g r o u p s o f subjects w i t h m a r k e d l y d i f f e ren t l e v e l s o f s e x u a l des i r e b u t no o the r c u r r e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r m e d i c a l p r o b l e m . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i r e ( H S D ) w o m e n h a d n o r m a l l y f l u c u a t i n g h o r m o n e s o v e r the m e n s t r u a l c y c l e w h i c h w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e ren t f r o m the c o n t r o l subjects a t a n y p h a s e . N o di f ference w a s de tec ted i n t es tos te rone or p r o l a c t i n l eve l s b e t w e e n subjects w i t h l i f e l o n g v e r s u s a c q u i r e d H S D . T h e s e f i n d i n g s d i d no t p r o v i d e ev idence t h a t r e p r o d u c t i v e h o r m o n e s a re i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f fe rences i n the s e x u a l des i re o f w o m e n . T h e r e s u l t o f r e c e n t h o r m o n a l s tud ies i n the f e m a l e p o p u l a t i o n t h e n a re no t c o n s i s t e n t i n d e f i n i n g the ro le o f h o r m o n e s i n f ema le s e x u a l de s i r e . I t w o u l d 39 a p p e a r f r o m S c h r e i n e r - E n g e l et al. (1989) l a t e s t s t u d y h o w e v e r , t h a t t he re is no d i f ference b e t w e e n H S D w o m e n a n d c o n t r o l w o m e n o n a n y f l u c u a t i n g h o r m o n a l l e v e l w h i c h w o u l d he lp to e x p l a i n l a c k o f s e x u a l des i r e . D e s p i t e sugges t i ons of a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a n d r o g e n l eve l s a n d s e x u a l des i re i n s o m e s tud ies , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the m a l e p o p u l a t i o n , t he r e is no ev idence to da te t h a t p r o b l e m s o f s e x u a l des i r e i n o t h e r w i s e h e a l t h y i n d i v i d u a l s c a n be r e v e r s e d b y a n d r o g e n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I t i s w i d e l y b e l i e v e d for i n s t a n c e t h a t above a p l a s m a t h r e s h o l d o f abou t 3 .0 -3 .5 n g / m l i n m a l e s f u r t h e r c i r c u l a t i n g a n d r o g e n i n c r e a s e s a r e b e h a v i o r a l l y i r r e l e v a n t ( B a n c r o f t , 1 9 8 0 ) . A n d a l t h o u g h t h i s a s s u m p t i o n h a s b e e n c h a l l e n g e d ( O ' C a r r o l l & B a n c r o f t , 1 9 8 4 ) , a t t e m p t s to h e i g h t e n d e s i r e b y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f h i g h l e v e l s o f t e s tos te rone is c u r r e n t l y fe l t to be m e d i c a l l y u n s o u n d a n d e t h i c a l l y q u e s t i o n a b l e (Rosen & L e i b l u m , 1 9 8 7 ; S e a g r a v e s , 1 9 8 8 ) . Medical Issues C h r o n i c d i sease p rocesses m a y p o t e n t i a l l y i n h i b i t s e x u a l des i r e d e p e n d i n g on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p s y c h o s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n to the d i sease . K a p l a n (1983) s t a t e s t h a t c h r o n i c d i s ea se s a re b e l i e v e d to be r e l a t e d to l o w s e x u a l des i re because o f the d i s e a s e s ' g e n e r a l d e b i l i t a t i n g a n d d e p r e s s i n g effect on the i n d i v i d u a l . M a r u t a , O s b o r n e , S w a n s o n a n d H a i l i n g (1981) f o u n d t h a t subjects w i t h c h r o n i c p a i n e x p e r i e n c e d a d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f s e x u a l des i r e e v e n t h o u g h t h e y w e r e n o t i n g e s t i n g a n a l g e s i c s o r n a r c o t i c s . S e v e r a l s y s t e m i c d i seases a l t e r the m e t a b o l i c s t a te o f the i n d i v i d u a l t h r o u g h e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y a f f ec t ing t e s t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n a n d t es tos te rone sec re t i on ( H o r w i t h & I m p e r a t o - M c G i n l e y , 1 9 8 3 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , H o l d s w o r t h , A t k i n s a n d de K r e t s e r (1977) f o u n d t h a t c h r o n i c r e n a l f a i l u r e af fec ted b o t h 4 0 g o n a d o t r o p h i n s e c r e t i o n a n d t e s t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n d e c r e a s e d p l a s m a tes tos te rone l e v e l s . I n subjects w i t h c i r r h o s i s , t e s t i c u l a r a t r o p h y a n d g y n e c o m a s t i a a re c o m m o n . T h i s r e s u l t s i n l o w tes tos te rone l eve l s a n d i n c r e a s e d sex h o r m o n e b i n d i n g g l o b u l i n , the r e s u l t o f w h i c h is a dec rease i n s e x u a l de s i r e . E n d o c r i n e d i seases s u c h as C u s h i n g ' s s y n d r o m e , a d r e n a l i n s u f f i c i e n c y , e s t rogen p r o d u c i n g t u m o r s a n d h y p o t h y r o i d i s m a re a l so a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o w tes tos te rone l e v e l s a n d c o m p l a i n t s o f loss o f s e x u a l des i re ( H o r w i t h & I m p e r a t o -M c G i n l e y , 1 9 8 3 ) . I n m a l e s , a b n o r m a l l y h i g h p r o l a c t i n l eve l s , a h o r m o n e sec re ted b y p i t u i t a r y t u m o r s , m a y i m p a i r s e x u a l i n t e r e s t ( S e g r a v e s , S c h o e n b e r g & Ivanof f , 1983 ) . I n a c o n t r o l l e d case s t u d y o f the b e h a v i o r o f a h y p e r p r o l a c t i n e m i c m a n , B a n c r o f t ( 1984 ) r e p o r t s success i n a s s e s s i n g loss o f s e x u a l des i r e a n d e rec t i l e i m p o t e n c e s e p a r a t e l y . I n i t i a l l y , the subjec t r e c e i v e d a p lacebo toge ther w i t h c o u n s e l l i n g . A t the e n d o f t r e a t m e n t a n d a t a s i x m o n t h f o l l o w u p , t he re w a s a s u b s t a n t i a l i m p r o v e m e n t i n the coup le ' s s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p desp i t e h i s r e m a i n i n g h y p e r p r o l a c t i n e m i c . E r e c t i l e f a i l u r e w a s no l onge r a p r o b l e m a l t h o u g h s e x u a l d i s i n t e r e s t , w h i c h h a d i m p r o v e d s o m e w h a t d u r i n g c o u n s e l l i n g , h a d dec l ined . U p o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f b r o m o c r i p t i n e , the re w a s a s i g n i f i c a n t i m p r o v e m e n t i n h i s l e v e l o f s e x u a l i n t e r e s t . B a n c r o f t e x p l a i n s th i s f i n d i n g i n t e r m s o f the o r i g i n a l dec l ine i n the subjec t ' s p r e v i o u s ( n o r m a l ) l e v e l o f s e x u a l i n t e r e s t . T h e b a s i c dec l ine o f s e x u a l i n t e r e s t c a u s e d t ens ions w i t h i n the m a r r i a g e w h i c h s u b s e q u e n t l y c a u s e d erec t i le f a i l u r e i n the m a l e . C o u n s e l l i n g a d d r e s s e d the i s sue o f the coup le ' s a t t i t ude t o w a r d m a l e a n d f e m a l e i n i t i a t i o n . A n a t t i t ude c h a n g e r e s u l t e d i n h i s w i f e b e c o m i n g m o r e p r e p a r e d to i n i t i a t e l ove m a k i n g . A s the h u s b a n d w a s r e l e a s e d f r o m the p r e s s u r e to i n i t i a t e s e x u a l a c t i v i t y e rec t i le f a i l u r e v a n i s h e d . H i s s p o n t a n e o u s s e x u a l i n t e r e s t r e m a i n e d l o w , h o w e v e r , u n t i l t r e a t e d w i t h b r o m o c r i p t i n e . B r o m o c r i p t i n e l o w e r e d the subjec t ' s p r o l a c t i n l e v e l . T h i s s t u d y offers ev idence t h a t a b n o r m a l l y h i g h p r o l a c t i n l eve l s i n m a l e s i m p a i r s s e x u a l i n t e r e s t b u t m a y no t i m p a i r o the r s tages o f the r e sponse c y c l e . A b n o r m a l h y p o t h a l a m i c - p i t u i t a r y func t ions c a n decrease sec re t ion o f g o n a d o t r o p i n s . T h i s i n t u r n l eads to d e c r e a s e d t e s tos t e rone p r o d u c t i o n and /o r i n c r e a s e d s e c r e t i o n o f p r o l a c t i n ( H o r w i t h & I m p e r a t o - M c G i n l e y , ( 1 9 8 3 ) . O t h e r p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e c r e a s e d p l a s m a - t e s t o s t e r o n e l eve l s o r p r i m a r y t e s t i c u l a r d i sease a re K l i n e f e l t e r ' s s y n d r o m e , t e s t i c u l a r a t r o p h y s e c o n d a r y to a u t o i m m u n e d i sease o r v a s c u l a r i n s u f f i c i e n c y a n d in fec t ious d i seases s u c h as m u m p s i n a d u l t h o o d w h i c h d a m a g e the g o n a d s . Medication, Drug and Alcohol Issues T h e p h a r m a c o l o g y o f d r u g - i n d u c e d s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n s is n o t a w e l l r e s e a r c h e d a r e a w i t h r e g a r d to h u m a n s tud ie s ( B u f f u m , 1 9 8 2 ) . M o s t o f the w o r k p u b l i s h e d r e g a r d i n g c e n t r a l m e c h a n i s m s h a s b e e n r e l a t e d to a n i m a l s tud ie s o r the m a l e s e x u a l r e s p o n s e . F e m a l e d r u g s t ud i e s a re a l m o s t n o n ex i s t en t . D r u g s w h i c h p r o d u c e d y s f u n c t i o n o f the des i re p h a s e o f the s e x u a l r e s p o n s e c y c l e ac t o n c e n t r a l m e c h a n i s m s . C e r t a i n d r u g s b l o c k d o p a m i n e . r e cep to r s , o the r s , s u c h as a n t i a n d r o g e n s ac t to b lock the a c t i o n o f t e s tos te rone ( B u f f u m , 1982 ) . H o w e v e r , a n y d r u g w h i c h affects the c e n t r a l n e r v o u s s y s t e m f u n c t i o n , for e x a m p l e a l c o h o l , the t r i c y c l i c M A O i n h i b i t o r s o r op i a t e s , c a n affect des i re a n d s e x u a l p e r f o r m a n c e . H y p n o t i c s g e n e r a l l y dec rease des i r e a s w i l l a n y d r u g w h i c h causes c h r o n i c c e n t r a l n e r v o u s s y s t e m d e p r e s s i o n ( H o r w i t h & I m p e r a t o - M c G i n l e y , 1 9 8 3 ) . F o r a n e x c e l l e n t r e v i e w o f the effects o f d r u g s o n s e x u a l f u n c t i o n , the r e a d e r is r e f e r r e d to B u f f u m ( 1 9 8 2 ) . 42 2. Intrapsychic Factors Major intrapsychic factors implicated in the literature as co-existing with desire phase disorders are anxiety, psychopathology and depression (LoPiccolo, 1980; Kaplan, 1983). Anxiety Anxiety is considered by many to be a major factor in the etiology and maintenence of sexual dysfunctions (Jehu, 1979; Kaplan, 1974, 1979, 1983; Masters & Johnson, 1970). For example, Kaplan (1979) states, "...the physiological concomitants of anxiety are always the same, no matter what its source or depth of intensity, no matter what the relationship to conscious experience and no matter what the level of insight" (p. 24). Kaplan (1979) suggests that subjects who suffer from lack of sexual desire suffer from more intense anxieties than those subjects whose sexual dysfunctions are associated with arousal and orgasm difficulties. However, although anxiety about sex has been implicated in the etiology of several sexual dysfunctions, for example, erectile failure (Annon, 1975; Cooper, 1969) and premature ejaculation (Cooper, 1968, 1969; Wolpe, 1973), there have been no controlled studies to date focusing on anxiety as a factor related to lack of sexual desire although clinically, anxiety is regarded as the most predominant factor related to the problem. In their review of the literature concerning the role of anxiety in sexual dysfunctions, Norton and Jehu (1984) found that the studies suggested that anxiety is common among people with sexual dysfunctions but the level and nature of the anxiety may vary greatly between individuals. None of the studies reviewed focused on anxiety related to hypoactive sexual desire. Some researchers and clinicians suggest that high levels of generalized neurotic anxiety tend tp 4 3 i m p a i r s e x u a l p e r f o r m a n c e ( P i n d e r h u g h e s , G r a c e & R e y n a , 1 9 7 2 ) , w h i l e o the r s sugges t t h a t a n x i e t y specif ic to s e x u a l b e h a v i o r m a y be m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a n n e u r o t i c a n x i e t y i n the s t u d y o f fac to rs r e l a t e d to s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n (Coope r , 1 9 6 8 , 1 9 6 9 ) . C o o p e r (1968) a t t e m p t e d to c l a r i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n n e u r o t i c a n x i e t y a n d s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n i n m a l e subjects . C o o p e r (1968) s t u d i e d 5 3 m e n d i a g n o s e d w i t h a p o t e n c y d i s o r d e r ( impotence , p r e m a t u r e e j a c u l a t i o n or r e t a r d e d e jacu la t ion) . H i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h o w e d t h a t o n l y 1 0 % o f h i s s a m p l e o f s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l m a l e s c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d as c l i n i c a l l y n e u r o t i c . C o o p e r (1968) conc luded t h a t m o s t p o t e n c y d i s o r d e r s w e r e l i k e l y n o t o f n e u r o t i c o r i g i n . H o w e v e r , d u r i n g a n a t t e m p t to r e p l i c a t e these f i n d i n g s , C o o p e r (1969) s h o w e d t h a t w h i l e o n l y 1 2 % o f h i s subjects w e r e de f ined as c l i n i c a l l y n e u r o t i c , 5 1 % h a d m a r k e d c o i t a l a n x i e t y . C o o p e r (1969) de f ined c o i t a l a s , " a n x i e t y r e l a t e d t e m p o r a r i l y to the ac t o f co i t u s (e i ther i m a g i n e d or ac tua l ) o r s e x u a l o v e r t u r e s a n d s t i m u l a t i o n s (ei ther i m a g i n e d or ac tua l ) s h o r t o f i n t e r c o u r s e , b u t w h i c h the m a l e subject b e l i e v e d a t the t i m e w o u l d c u l m i n a t e i n a c o i t a l a t t e m p t " (p. 1 4 3 - 1 4 4 ) . S o u r c e s o f c o i t a l a n x i e t y w e r e found to be r e l a t e d to f ea r o f f a i l u r e (73%), s e x u a l i n f e r i o r i t y (43 .5%) , a n d fear o f r i d i c u l e (40%). C o o p e r (1969 ) conc luded t h a t c o i t a l a n x i e t y i t s e l f s e l d o m c a u s e d s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n . H e h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p p r o b l e m s a r e r e l a t e d to p e r f o r m a n c e (coital) a n x i e t y w h i c h i n t u r n is r e l a t e d to s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n s . C o o p e r ' s (1969) f i n d i n g s a re i m p o r t a n t because t h e y s u g g e s t t h a t a n x i e t y a n d s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n s o f the a r o u s a l a n d o r g a s m p h a s e s m a y be r e l a t e d to spec i f ic even t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e l a t i o n s h i p d y n a m i c s r a t h e r t h a n to deep-rooted , u n c o n s c i o u s n e u r o t i c conf l i c t s . I n a n o t h e r s t u d y u s i n g the M i n n e s o t a M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y ( M M P I ) , M u n j a c k , K a n n o a n d O z i e l (1978) a t t e m p t e d to d e t e r m i n e i f s e x u a l l y 4 4 d y s f u n c t i o n a l a n d n o n d y s f u n c t i o n a l m a l e s d i f fe red w i t h r e s p e c t to a n x i e t y l e v e l s . M u n j a c k et al. ( 1978) found t h a t s e x u a l l y d j ' s func t ion a l m a l e s e x p e r i e n c e d m o r e a n x i e t y a n d m o r e p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y t h a n d i d n o n d y s f u n c a t i o n m a l e s . F o r e x a m p l e , subjects e x h i b i t i n g r e t a r d e d e j a c u l a t i o n s c o r e d h i g h e r t h a n n o r m a l s on 5 ou t o f 8 m e a s u r e s o f a n x i e t y a n d o n t w o ou t o f t w o m e a s u r e s o f d e p r e s s i o n . I n a s u b s e q u e n t s t u d y , M u n j a c k , O z i e l , K a n n o , W h i p p l e a n d L e o n a r d (1981) found t h a t the l e v e l o f p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y a n d n e u r o t i c a n x i e t y v a r i e d b e t w e e n d i f fe ren t g r o u p s o f s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l m e n d e p e n d i n g o n w h e t h e r t h e y w e r e subjects o f a h o s p i t a l o r a p r i v a t e c l i n i c . A l t h o u g h M u n j a c k et al. ( 1981) s h o w e d t h a t m e n w i t h s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n e x h i b i t m o r e a n x i e t y a n d p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y t h a n n o r m a l s , the a u t h o r s p o i n t o u t t h a t o t h e r fac to rs a s w e l l m u s t be i m p o r t a n t i n m o d u l a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a n x i e t y , p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y a n d s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n . Psychopathology M o s t r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y a n d a n x i e t y a s soc i a t ed w i t h s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n h a s focused o n a m a l e s a m p l e a s s i g n e d a d i a g n o s i s o f a r o u s a l o r o r g a s m d y s f u n c t i o n (see above M u n j a c k et al., 1 9 7 8 , 1 9 8 1 ) . T h e r e i s a p a u c i t y o f r e s e a r c h e x p l o r i n g p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y o r a n x i e t y i n a f e m a l e s a m p l e s u f f e r i n g f r o m a r o u s a l or o r g a s m p r o b l e m s , o r i n m a l e s o r f e m a l e s d i a g n o s e d w i t h s e x u a l des i r e d i s o r d e r s . T w o c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . O n e o f the f i r s t s tud ies to a p p e a r w h i c h a d d r e s s e d i n t r a p s y c h i c v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d to s e x u a l des i r e ( h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i re ) w a s r e p o r t e d b y S t u a r t , H a m m o n d a n d P e t t ( 1986) . T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e d d i f fe rences i n b i o p s y c h o s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b e t w e e n w o m e n w h o c o m p l a i n o f i n h i b i t e d s e x u a l des i re ( I S D ) a n d w o m e n w h o r e p o r t e d n o r m a l s e x u a l de s i r e . U s i n g the M i n n e s o t a M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y ( M M P I ) to gene ra t e g r o u p p ro f i l e s , these r e s e a r c h e r s found no 4 5 s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference b e t w e e n I S D a n d n o n - I S D subjects w i t h r e g a r d to the 10 c l i n i c a l sca les o f the M M P I . B o t h g r o u p prof i l e s w e r e c l a s s e d as s u b c l i n i c a l w i t h no ev idence of s e r i ous p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e . T h e second s t u d y to r e p o r t o n p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y r e l a t e d to s e x u a l des i re d y s f u n c t i o n w a s a u t h o r e d b y S c h r e i n e r - E n g e l a n d S c h i a v i ( 1 9 8 6 ) . T h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s s t u d i e d l i f e t ime p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y i n i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h l o w s e x u a l des i r e . S c h r e i n e r - E n g e l a n d S c h i a v i ( 1986 ) found t h a t , despi te the fac t t h a t a l l I S D subjects i n t h e i r s t u d y h a d n e a r l y n o r m a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l p rof i l e s as m e a s u r e d b y the S C L 9 0 - R ( D e r o g a t i s , 1 9 8 3 ) , m o r e I S D subjects t h a n c o n t r o l s h a d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y e l e v a t e d l i f e t i m e p r e v a l e n c e r a t e o f a f fec t ive d i s o r d e r a s m e a s u r e d b y the S c h e d u l e for A f f e c t i v e D i s o r d e r s a n d S c h i z o p h r e n i a , L i f e t i m e V e r s i o n ( S A D S - L ) ( E n d i c o t t a n d S p i t z e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . T h e y c o n c l u d e d t h a t the r e m a r k a b l e l i f e t i m e r a t e o f a f fec t ive i l l n e s s i n I S D sugges t s t h a t t he r e m a y be a c o m m o n b i o l o g i c a l e t i o logy or t h a t a f fec t ive p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y m a y be c o n t r i b u t i n g to p a t h o g e n i s i s o f the I S D d y s f u n c t i o n . S t u d i e s w h i c h h a v e e v a l u a t e d a n x i e t y l eve l s a n d p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y r e l a t e d to subjects d i a g n o s e d w i t h s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n s h a v e u s e d a w i d e v a r i e t y o f s e l f r e p o r t m e a s u r e s r a t i n g a n x i e t y a n d p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y . S p i e l b e r g e r , G o r s u c h a n d L u s h e n e (1970 ) conc luded t h a t d i f fe ren t m e a s u r e s of a n x i e t y , e v e n those t h a t h a v e b e e n v a l i d a t e d , a p p e a r to m e a s u r e d i f f e r en t c o m p o n e n t s o f a n x i e t y . N o r t o n a n d J e h u (1984 ) i n t h e i r r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g the ro le o f a n x i e t y i n s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n s , r e c o m m e n d t h a t fu tu re s tud ies use s i m i l a r tes ts for e v a l u a t i n g a n x i e t y i n subjects w i t h s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e y sugges t the M M P I be u s e d as a m e a s u r e o f g e n e r a l p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y a n d g e n e r a l i z e d a n x i e t y , a n d the D e r o g a t i s S e x u a l F u n c t i o n i n g I n v e n t o r y ( D S F I ; D e r o g a t i s & 4 6 M e y e r , 1979) o r the S e x u a l A r o u s a l I n v e n t o r y ( S A I ; H o o n , H o o n & W i n c z e , 1976) for m e a s u r i n g c o i t a l a n x i e t y . Depression A n o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e i m p l i c a t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e as b e i n g r e l a t e d to h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i r e i s d e p r e s s i o n . D e c r e a s e d l ib ido is a r e l a t i v e l y c o m m o n f i n d i n g i n p e r s o n s s u f f e r i n g f r o m d e p r e s s i o n ( G a r v e y , 1985 ) . W i n o k u r , C l a y t o n a n d R e i c h (1969) r e p o r t e d t h a t 7 5 % o f subjec ts d i a g n o s e d as d e p r e s s e d su f fe red f r o m loss o f s e x u a l i n t e r e s t . G a r v e y (1985) f o u n d t h a t 5 7 % of 126 d e p r e s s i v e s i n h i s s t u d y su f fe red f r o m loss o f s e x u a l i n t e r e s t . A l t h o u g h the c a u s e o f d e c r e a s e d l ib ido i n d e p r e s s i o n is u n k n o w n , ev idence sugges t s t h a t b i o - c h e m i c a l d e r a n g e m e n t s o f the b r a i n ' s n e u r o t r a n s m i t t e r s y s t e m m a y be the p a t h o g e n i c m e c h a n i s m o f m a n y d e p r e s s i o n s ( G a r v e y , 1 9 8 5 ) . I t i s t h o u g h t t h a t these n e u r a l m a l f u n c t i o n s m a y u n d e r l i e n u m e r o u s s y m p t o m s o f d e p r e s s i o n s u c h as i n s o m n i a , loss o f l i b ido a n d loss o f p l e a s u r e . W h a t c a u s e s t h e o r i g i n a l b i o - c h e m i c a l d e r a n g e m e n t s o f the b r a i n ' s n e u r o t r a n s m i t t e r s y s t e m , h o w e v e r , i s u n k n o w n . H o w e v e r , b e i n g t h a t d e p r e s s i o n is a c o m m o n a n d of ten u n d i a g n o s e d a n d u n t r e a t e d d i s o r d e r i n the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , k n o w l e d g e a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to s e x u a l d e s i r e is i m p o r t a n t . - F o r i n s t a n c e , the a s s o c i a t i o n o f d i v o r c e w i t h ma jo r d e p r e s s i o n i s c o m m o n . B r i s c o , S m i t h a n d R o b i n s (1973) found i n t h e i r s t u d y o f r e c e n t l y d i v o r c e d couples t h a t 4 0 % o f the w o m e n a n d 3 4 % of the m e n suf fe red f r o m a m a j o r d e p r e s s i o n . I n 4 0 % o f these cases , the d e p r e s s i o n a p p e a r e d to be a fac to r c o n t r i b u t i n g to the d i v o r c e a n d n o t m e r e l y a r e s u l t o f i t . T h i s s t u d y sugges t s t h a t i t m a y be i m p o r t a n t to p a y a t t e n t i o n to the s t a t u s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n w h i c h a f fec t ive d i s o r d e r s a r e p r e sen t . G a r v e y (1985) sugges t s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a n d couples w h o p r e s e n t w i t h c o m p l a i n t s o f m a r i t a l p r o b l e m s a n d / o r 47 loss o f s e x u a l des i re need to be a s se s sed for d e p r e s s i o n . C h a p m a n (1983) s t u d i e d 3 9 subjects w h o w e r e u n r e s p o n s i v e to c o n v e n t i o n a l s ex t h e r a p y a n d w h o w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y d i a g n o s e d as s u f f e r i n g f r o m s e x u a l a n h e d o n i a ( lack o f s e x u a l des i re ) , a n d c o m p a r e d t h e m to 3 0 r a n d o m l y se lec ted c o n t r o l subjects w h o w e r e n o r m a l . D e p r e s s i o n w a s a s se s sed b y the J u n g S e l f R a t i n g D e p r e s s i o n S c a l e ( S D S ) i n b o t h the s t u d y g r o u p a n d the c o n t r o l g r o u p . D e p r e s s i o n w a s i n d i c a t e d b y a S D S i n d e x o f . 63 or m o r e . T h e c o n t r o l g r o u p e x h i b i t e d S D S ind i ce s r a n g i n g f r o m .25 to . 43 w h i l e the s t u d y g r o u p e x h i b i t e d a r a n g e o f . 63 to . 9 8 o n the a v e r a g e o v e r m u l t i p l e occas ions o f m e a s u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n fac to r . C h a p m a n ' s (1983) s t u d y c l e a r l y i n d i ca t e s t h a t d e p r e s s i o n is a fac tor c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s e x u a l a n h e d o n i a i n h i s subjects . F u r t h e r , C h a p m a n sugges t s t h a t the d e p r e s s i o n f ac to r rose i n h i s s t u d y g r o u p w h e n e i t h e r r e a l o r i m a g i n e d s e x u a l p r e s s u r e s w e r e e x e r t e d u p o n the i n d i v i d u a l s . P a r t n e r s w i t h h i g h sex d r i v e s b e c a m e a fac to r t h a t affected t h i r t y o f h i s s t u d y g r o u p . A l t h o u g h w h a t c o n s t i t u t e d h i g h sex d r i v e o r l o w des i r e w a s no t spec i f i ed i n the s t u d y , the s t u d y r e m a i n s i m p o r t a n t because a n en d o c r in e s y s t e m a n a l y s i s w a s u n d e r t a k e n on a l l subjects a n d c o n t r o l s . C h a p m a n (1983) d i d no t f i n d t h a t endoc r ine d a t a sugges t ed d i f fe rences b e t w e e n the c o n t r o l g r o u p a n d the s t u d y g r o u p . C h a p m a n c o n c l u d e d t h a t s ince d i m i n i s h e d s e x u a l des i re is no t de f inab le (at t h i s t ime ) o n a h o r m o n a l l e v e l , r e s e a r c h e r s a n d c l i n i c i a n s m u s t focus on i n t e r p e r s o n a l a n d soc i a l f ac to rs w h i c h m a y cause d e p r e s s i o n a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y affect de s i r e , or v i ce v e r s a . M e a s u r e s chosen to a s ses s a n x i e t y , p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y a n d d e p r e s s i o n i n t h i s r e s e a r c h w e r e : the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the 10 c l i n i c a l sca les o f the MMPI a n d the Affect Balance Scale (see p a g e 68 ) . 48 3. Interpersonal Factors Clinically, interpersonal problems of many varieties are frequently related to the lack of sexual desire. Low sexual interest in a relationship may be a symptom of marital discord or a larger relationship dysfunction (Kaplan, 1979), or it may serve as a distance regulator between spouses (Kaplan, 1977; Verhulst & Heiman, 1979; Zilbergeld & Ellison, 1980). Couples contending with anxiety as a result of hostility, resentment, deceit, poor communication, and lack of respect or affection, may experience low sexual desire according to Kolodny, Masters and Johnson (1979). While several authors have focused on the interface between marital conflict and sexual dysfunction (Epstein, 1982; Hartman, 1980), other clinicians have explored interpersonal dynamics in low sexual desire relationships and proposed various interpersonal and systemic treatment paradigms for the problem (Bagarozzi, 1987; McCarthy, 1984; Fish, Fish & Sprenkle, 1984; Lazarus, 1988; LoPiccolo & Friedman, 1988; Regas & Sprenkle, 1984; Verhulst & Heiman, 1988). However, there are few empirical studies to draw on as yet which investigate specific relationship factors that may be related to hypoactive sexual desire. Highly unequal levels of sexual desire (Reckless & Byrd, 1983), and severe marital discord (LoPiccolo & Friedman, 1988; Talmadge & Talmadge 1986), are acknowledged by many authors and clinicians as valid relationship factors which may naturally contribute to a functional lack of sexual desire. However, hypoactive sexual desire in healthy individuals within committed, stable relationships where extremes of desire are not apparent remains an interpersonal mystery and an area nearly void of research. Only two empirical studies have been reported to date which include 4 9 i n t e r p e r s o n a l d a t a . S t u a r t , H a m m o n d a n d P e t t (1987) r e p o r t e d o n t h e i r m u l t i f a c e t e d s t u d y o f i n h i b i t e d s e x u a l des i re i n w o m e n . T h e y e x a m i n e d 5 9 w o m e n w h o c o m p l a i n e d o f i n h i b i t e d s e x u a l des i r e ( I S D ) a n d 3 1 w o m e n w h o e x p r e s s e d n o r m a l s e x u a l des i re ( N o n - I S D ) , o n p e r s o n a l i t y , e n d o c r i n e , r e l a t i o n s h i p a n d s e x u a l d i m e n s i o n s u s i n g the M M P I , the D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e , r a d i o i m m u n o a s s a y o f t e s tos te rone a n d p r o l a c t i n l eve l s a n d a d e m o g r a p h i c , r e l a t i o n s h i p a n d s e x u a l i n f o r m a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n e d for the s t u d y . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i r i n q u i r y s h o w e d n o n s i g n i f i c a n t b e t w e e n - g r o u p d i f fe rences on d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s ( M M P I ) a n d h o r m o n a l e v a l u a t i o n . S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rences w e r e r e p o r t e d b e t w e e n the t w o g r o u p s o n s e x u a l h i s t o r y (i .e. , N o n - I S D w o m e n p e r c e i v e d t h e i r p a r e n t s a t t i t udes t o w a r d sex , a n d t h e i r p a r e n t ' s a f fec t iona te i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h one a n o t h e r to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e pos i t i ve t h a n the I S D g roup ) a n d m a r i t a l i n t e r a c t i o n a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n . I n the l a t t e r finding, I S D w o m e n r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h n e a r l y e v e r y r e p o r t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s u e . S t u a r t et al. (1987) p ropose t h a t s e x u a l des i re for the subjects i n t h e i r s t u d y w a s g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d b y i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the spouse . F o r i n s t a n c e , the t w o v a r i a b l e s i n the s t u d y w h i c h w e r e f o u n d to bes t p r e d i c t I S D or n o n - I S D g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p w e r e the r e s p o n d e n t ' s f ee l i ng o f r o m a n t i c love for the spouse a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h one ' s o w n l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t y . I t a p p e a r s f r o m t h i s s t u d y t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f d i s o r d e r s o f s e x u a l d e s i r e (as de f ined for the r e sea rch ) b e a r s o m e r e l a t i o n s h i p to the q u a l i t y of the m a r r i a g e , a n d v i c e v e r s a . A n o t h e r c u r r e n t s t u d y b y C h u r c h i l l ( 1989) r e p o r t e d o n p e r s o n a l i t y ( M M P I ) a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m a l e s w h o w e r e a s s i g n e d a d i a g n o s i s o f i n h i b i t e d s e x u a l d e s i r e ( I S D ) . T h i r t y I S D m a l e s w e r e c o m p a r e d w i t h t h i r t y m a l e s d i a g n o s e d w i t h a D S M - I I I p s y c h o s e x u a l d i s o r d e r o the r t h a n I S D . T h e r e 5 0 w a s no n o n d y s f u n c t i o n a l c o n t r o l g r o u p i n the s t u d y . C h u r c h i l l ' s (1989) r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference b e t w e e n g r o u p s on p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s m e a s u r e d b y the M M P I . H o w e v e r , the m e a n n u m b e r o f sca les e l e v a t e d above a T score o f 7 0 w a s g r e a t e r t h a n t w o for b o t h g r o u p s . T h i s w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t C h u r c h i l l ' s (1989) s a m p l e o f s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l subjects w a s f r o m a p o p u l a t i o n m o r e d i s t u r b e d t h a n the p o p u l a t i o n f r o m w h i c h the n o r m s w e r e d e r i v e d . C h u r c h i l l ( 1989) conc ludes t h a t i n h i s s a m p l e , I S D subjects r e p o r t e d m o r e d i s t u r b e d object r e l a t i o n s (def ined as less s a t i s f y i n g r e l a t i o n s w i t h b o t h m o t h e r a n d fa ther ) a n d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r inc idence o f e x t r a m a r i t a l a f fa i r s t h a n d i d n o n l S D subjects . B o t h S t u a r t et al. ( 1987 ) a n d C h u r c h i l l (1989) sugges t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h needs to be c o n d u c t e d w i t h i n s t r u m e n t s m o r e s e n s i t i v e to i n t e r p e r s o n a l d y n a m i c s i n o r d e r to a s ses s h o w couple i n t e r a c t i o n m a y be r e l a t e d to s e x u a l de s i r e . I n t h i s s t u d y , i n t e r p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t w a s a s sessed u s i n g the Dyadic Adjustment Scale a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r a l d y n a m i c s w e r e a s se s sed u s i n g the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (see page 75) . K a p l a n (1979) h y p o t h e s i z e s t h a t p e r s o n s w h o suf fe r f r o m des i re p h a s e d i s o r d e r s h a v e m o r e p r o f o u n d a n d t enac ious a n x i e t i e s s t e m m i n g f r o m r e l a t i o n s h i p p r o b l e m s , hos t i l e a n d n e u r o t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s , a n d p s y c h o g e n i c fac to rs s u c h as n e u r o t i c a n x i e t y a n d d e p r e s s i o n t h a n do pe r sons w h o suf fer f r o m a r o u s a l o r o r g a s m p h a s e d i s o r d e r s . F u r t h e r m o r e , K a p l a n (1979) sugges t s a w o r k i n g h y p o t h e s i s t h a t c r i t i c a l l eve l s o f a n x i e t y w h i c h m a y be d r i v e n b y a w i d e s p e c t r u m o f u n d e r l y i n g c a u s e s ( i n t r a p s y c h i c and /o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l ) , r e s u l t i n v a r i a b i l i t y o f s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n . F r o m c l i n i c a l e x p e r i e n c e K a p l a n (1979) sugges t s : A w i d e s p e c t r u m o f u n d e r l y i n g c a u s e s , v a r y i n g i n con ten t a n d r a n g i n g f r o m the m i l d e s t to the deepes t a n d m o s t t enac ious , c a n be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s e x u a l s y m p t o m s . I f a c r i t i c a l l e v e l o f a n x i e t y i s a r o u s e d i n the s e x u a l s i t u a t i o n , d y s f u n c t i o n w i l l r e s u l t i r r e s p e c t i v e o f the u n d e r l y i n g source , a n d the cond i t i ons o f a c q u i s i t i o n or o f the r e a l i t y o f the d a n g e r . W h e n th i s p o p u l a t i o n is s t u d i e d f r o m the p e r s p e c t i v e o f the t r i p h a s i c concept , i t a p p e a r s , t h a t w h i l e the con ten t o f the s e x u a l conf l i c t i s h i g h l y v a r i a b l e , the q u a l i t y o f the u n d e r l y i n g a n x i e t y i s n o t e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d a m o n g the th ree g r o u p s o f d y s f u n c t i o n s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t subjec ts w i t h des i re p h a s e d y s f u n c t i o n s , as a g r o u p , a r e a f f l ic ted w i t h m o r e s e r i ous i n t r a p s y c h i c and /o r m a r i t a l p r o b l e m s , w h i l e the subjects w i t h o r g a s m p r o b l e m s a r e m o r e of ten , b u t n o t i n v a r i a b l y , found to h a v e r e l a t i v e l y m i l d e r a n d less t e n a c i o u s u n d e r l y i n g p r o b l e m s . E x c i t e m e n t p h a s e d i s o r d e r s f a l l i n the m i d d l e o f the s p e c t r u m , (p. 28) T h i s s t u d y w a s d e s i g n e d to e x p l o r e K a p l a n ' s b e l i e f t h a t H S D i s r e l a t e d to deeper m o r e conf l i c t ed i n t r a p s y c h i c a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l d y n a m i c s t h a n is a r o u s a l o r o r g a s m d y s f u n c t i o n . F i n a l l y , R o s e n a n d L e i b l u m (1987) a n d L e i b l u m a n d R o s e n (1988) p o i n t o u t t h a t due to the i n c r e a s e d d e m a n d for t r e a t m e n t , t h e r a p e u t i c a p p r o a c h e s h a v e been deve loped i n the absence o f r e c o g n i z e d t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l s o f s e x u a l des i r e . F o r e x a m p l e , p r e s e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r e a t m e n t a p p r o a c h e s a r e a d a p t e d f r o m p s y c h o d y n a m i c a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s ( A p f e l b a u m , 1 9 8 8 ; L e v i n e , 1 9 8 8 ; S c h a r f f , 1 9 8 8 ) ; f r o m c o g n i t i v e a n d b e h a v i o r a l p e r s p e c t i v e s ( L a z a r u s , 1 9 8 8 ; L o P i c c o l o & F r i e d m a n , 1 9 8 8 ; R o s e n & L e i b l u m , 1 9 8 7 ; Z i l b e r g e l d & H a m m o n d , 1988) ; a n d f r o m s y s t e m s a n d i n t e r a c t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s ( S c h w a r t z & M a s t e r s , 52 1 9 8 8 ; V e r h u l s t & H e i m a n , 1 9 8 8 ) , y e t bas i c e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h o n the top ic o f h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i re h a s been s u r p r i s i n g l y s p a r s e s ince s e x u a l des i re w a s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d a s a n i n i t i a l p h a s e i n the c u r r e n t l y accep ted m o d e l o f the h u m a n s e x u a l r e sponse c y c l e . A f t e r r e v i e w i n g the l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t to s e x u a l des i r e a n d the i s sue o f l a c k o f s e x u a l des i r e , t h ree p r o b l e m s w e r e a p p a r e n t . F i r s t , l a c k o f s e x u a l des i re is a r e l a t i v e l y n e w a r e a o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n w h i c h h a s no t r e c e i v e d m u c h r e s e a r c h a t t e n t i o n , a n d second , a l l s tud ie s to da te , w h e t h e r c o n t r o l l e d o r u n c o n t r o l l e d h a v e u s e d d i f fe ren t c r i t e r i a o r h a v e n o t s t a t e d the c r i t e r i a u s e d to a s s i g n subjects to the lack of sexual desire g r o u p . I n a d d i t i o n , v a r i o u s s t ud i e s h a v e u s e d d i f fe ren t l a b e l l i n g s y s t e m s to i den t i fy t h i s g r o u p . T h i r d , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f t w o r e c e n t s tud ies ( S c h r e i n e r - E n g e l a n d S c h a i v i , 1 9 8 6 ; S t u a r t et al., 1986) a l l o the r n o n m e d i c a l i n v e s i t i g a t i o n s o f l o w s e x u a l des i re h a v e b e e n u n c o n t r o l l e d . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s r e s e a r c h projec t w a s d e s i g n e d w i t h these p r o b l e m s i n m i n d a n d a n a t t e m p t w a s m a d e to c o r r e c t for s o m e o f the p r o b l e m s a p p a r e n t i n t h i s a r e a o f r e s e a r c h . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e t e r m i n o l o g y u s e d , a n d the d i a g n o s t i c c r i t e r i a for the s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n s fo l l ows the p r o c e d u r e o u t l i n e d i n the D S M - I I I - R ( A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 8 7 ) . O p e r a t i o n a l de f in i t i ons o f the D S M - I I I - R c r i t e r i a u s e d i n the s t u d y a re c l e a r l y s t a t e d i n the definition of terms s ec t ion . F i n a l l y , a c o n t r o l or c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p o f s e x u a l l y f u n c t i o n a l coup les w a s i n c l u d e d i n the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n . S e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s a r i s i n g f r o m the r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i re a n d the i n t r a p s y c h i c a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p o p u l a t i o n s u f f e r i n g f r o m the p r o b l e m a r e a d d r e s s e d b y t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , (1) A r e speci f ic i n t r a p s y c h i c o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d to l a c k o f 53 s e x u a l des i r e? (2) Is h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i r e r e l a t e d to deeper , m o r e c o m p l e x a n d m o r e s e r i ous i n t r a p s y c h i c and /o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s c o m p a r e d to a r o u s a l a n d o r g a s m d i s o r d e r s ? (3) D o e s i n t r a p s y c h i c o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l f u n c t i o n i n g di f fer i n i n d i v i d u a l s o r t h e i r p a r t n e r s w h e r e h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i r e is a p r o b l e m as c o m p a r e d to couples w h e r e a r o u s a l or o r g a s m p r o b l e m s e x i s t ? I f so, h o w ? T h i s r e s e a r c h w a s s u b s e q u e n t l y d e s i g n e d to e x p l o r e these q u e s t i o n s . T h e d e s i g n of the s t u d y , the subject se lec t ion c r i t e r i a a n d the s t u d y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e m p l o y e d to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e i n t r a p s y c h i c a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s c a n be f o u n d i n C h a p t e r I I I . T h e f o l l o w i n g sec t ion p r e s e n t s the r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s o f the s t u d y . E . R E S E A R C H H Y P O T H E S E S T h e s t r u c t u r e a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s w a s d e t e r m i n e d b y the m e t h o d chosen to a n a l y s e the d a t a : c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s or p rof i l e a n a l y s i s . D a t a f r o m G r o u p 1, 2 a n d 3 subjects w a s a n a l y s e d s e p a r a t e l y f r o m p a r t n e r d a t a a n d precedes the l a t t e r i n p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h i n e a c h a n a l y s i s . T h e r a t i o n a l e for the r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s conc ludes each sec t ion . 1. Analysis I: Canonical Analysis and Analysis of Variance a. Subjects R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 1: T h e r e w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s as m e a s u r e d b y the S H F a n d D S F I a n d i n t r a p s y c h i c v a r i a b l e s a s m e a s u r e d b y the M M P I , S T A I a n d A B S . 5 4 R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 2 : T h e r e w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n the t h r ee g r o u p s o f subjects ( H S D , S D y s , N S D ) on the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d i n t r a p s y c h i c c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o b t a i n e d i n the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s . R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 3 : T h e r e w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s as m e a s u r e d b y the S H F a n d D S F I a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s a s m e a s u r e d b y the D A S . R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 4: T h e r e w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n the th ree g r o u p s of subjects ( H S D , S D y s , N S D ) on the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o b t a i n e d i n the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s . R a t i o n a l e for R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s e s O n e T h r o u g h F o u r I t i s p r o p o s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t i n t r a p s y c h i c n e u r o s i s o r p a t h o l o g y a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l con f l i c t a re i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s o f s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n ( K a p l a n , 1 9 8 3 , 1979 ) . H y p o t h e s e s one t h r o u g h four a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the w r i t i n g s o f C h a p m a n (1983) , D e r o g a t i s a n d M e y e r (1979) , G a r v e y (1985) a n d K r e u z , R o s e a n d J e n n i n g s (1972 ) c o n c e r n i n g the s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n a n d i n t r a p s y c h i c a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l conf l ic t . T h e conjec ture o f g r o u p d i f fe rence o n c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s is c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the w r i t i n g s o f K a p l a n ( 1 9 8 3 , 1 9 7 9 ) , M a s t e r s a n d J o h n s o n ( 1 9 7 0 , 1966) a n d V e r h u l s t a n d H e i m a n ( 1 9 7 9 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , b a s e d o n the concep t o f s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n o c c u r r i n g i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the t h r ee p h a s e s o f the s e x u a l r e sponse c y c l e , des i r e , a r o u s a l o r o r g a s m , the s e v e r i t y o f i n t r a p s y c h i c o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l conf l i c t i s p roposed to v a r y i n degree a n d i n t e n s i t y f r o m phase to p h a s e w i t h des i r e d i s o r d e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g the m o s t 5 5 i n t e n s e i n t r a p s y c h i c / i n t e r p e r s o n a l conf l ic t , a n d a r o u s a l a n d o r g a s m d i so rde r s r e p r e s e n t i n g less i n t ense i n t r a p s y c h i c / i n t e r p e r s o n a l conf l i c t ( K a p l a n , 1979 ) . I t i s con jec tu red t h a t G r o u p 1 a n d G r o u p 2 w i l l be m o r e con f l i c t ed i n t r a p s y c h i c a l l y o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l l y t h a n G r o u p 3 . I t i s a l so con jec tu red t h a t G r o u p 1 w i l l be m o r e i n t r a p s y c h i c a l l y o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l l y conf l i c t ed t h a n G r o u p 2 . b. Partners of Subjects R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 5: T h e r e w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s as m e a s u r e d b y the S H F a n d D S F I a n d i n t r a p s y c h i c v a r i a b l e s a s m e a s u r e d b y the M M P I , S T A I a n d A B S . R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 6: T h e r e w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference b e t w e e n the th ree g r o u p s of p a r t n e r s ( H S D , S D y s , N S D ) o n the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d i n t r a p s y c h i c c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o b t a i n e d i n the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s . R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 7: T h e r e w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s as m e a s u r e d b y the S H F a n d D S F I a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s a s m e a s u r e d b y the D A S . R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 8: T h e r e w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference b e t w e e n the th ree g r o u p s o f p a r t n e r s ( H S D , S D y s , N S D ) o n the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o b t a i n e d i n the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s . R a t i o n a l e for R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s e s F i v e T h r o u g h E i g h t T h e four h y p o t h e s e s c o n c e r n i n g p a r t n e r s o f d i a g n o s e d i n d i v i d u a l s a re 56 exploratory in nature. The focus on exploring partner dynamics in sexually dysfunctional spousal units is encouraged and supported by the writing of Cooper (1969), Kaplan (1979, 1977) and LoPiccolo (1980), Verhulst and Heiman (1979). For example, LoPiccolo (1980) suggests that the role of the partner may be underestimated in sexually dysfunctional couples. The four hypotheses relating to partners of diagnosed individuals parallel hypotheses 1 through 4 relating to diagnosed subjects. However, it is conjectured that spouses of hypoactive sexual desire subjects will not differ on intrapsychic measures whereas they will differ on interpersonal measures because they are part of the dyadic system. 2. Analysis II: S A S B Profile Analysis a. Subjects Research Hypothesis 9: Profiles of the eight mean cluster scores for the three groups (HSD, SDys, NSD) of subjects generated from SASB questions measuring self concept (Introject) will not be parallel and coincident. Research Hypothesis 10: Profiles of the eight mean cluster scores for the three groups (HSD, SDys, NSD) of subjects generated from SASB questions measuring interpersonal behavior (a. spouse initiates; b. spouse responds; c. self initiates; d. self responds) will not be parallel and coincident. 57 b. Partners of Subjects R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 1 1 : P r o f i l e s o f t h e e igh t m e a n c l u s t e r scores for the th ree g r o u p s ( N S D , S D y s , N S D ) o f p a r t n e r s g e n e r a t e d f r o m S A S B q u e s t i o n s m e a s u r i n g s e l f concep t (Introject) w i l l no t be p a r a l l e l a n d co inc iden t . R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 12: P r o f i l e s o f the e igh t m e a n c l u s t e r scores for the th ree g r o u p s ( H S D , S D y s , N S D ) o f p a r t n e r s g e n e r a t e d f r o m S A S B q u e s t i o n s m e a s u r i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r (a. spouse i n i t i a t e s ; b . spouse r e s p o n d s ; c. s e l f i n i t i a t e s ; d . s e l f r e sponds ) w i l l no t be p a r a l l e l a n d co inc iden t . R a t i o n a l e for R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s e s N i n e to T w e l v e T h e conjec ture t h a t Introject a n d Relationship p ro f i l e s r e s u l t i n g f r o m subjec t s ' r a t i n g s o f the I N T R E X Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i l l d i f fe r , a c c o r d i n g to r e s e a r c h g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p , i s b a s e d o n the r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e . F o r i n s t a n c e , s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s a n d c l i n i c i a n s i d e n t i f y r e l a t i o n s h i p p r o b l e m s a n d the q u a l i t y o f the n o n s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p as c o n t r i b u t i n g f ac to r s to s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n ( K a p l a n , 1 9 7 9 ; L e v i n e , 1 9 8 8 ; V e r h u l s t & H e i m a n , 1 9 8 8 ; Z i l b e r g e l d & E l l i s o n , 1 9 8 0 ) . R e l a t i o n s h i p p r o b l e m s a r e t h o u g h t to be m o r e p r e v a l e n t and /o r m o r e c o n f l i c t u a l i n l o w s e x u a l d e s i r e cases ( V e r h u l s t & H e i m a n , 1 9 8 8 ) . T h e conjec ture t h a t sub jec t s ' r a t i n g s o f t h e i r p a r t n e r s a n d t h e m s e l v e s o n the four r e l a t i o n s h i p su r f ace s w i l l v a r y a c c o r d i n g to d i a g n o s t i c g r o u p is c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the n o t i o n o f i n c r e a s e d i n t e r p e r s o n a l con f l i c t b e i n g r e l a t e d to s e x u a l des i r e d i s o r d e r . T h e p a r a l l e l conjec ture r e g a r d i n g the sub jec t s ' r a t i n g o f t h e m s e l v e s o n the i n t r a p s y c h i c introject s u r f ace (se l f concept) i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h b o t h t h e o r e t i c a l h y p o t h e s e s r e g a r d i n g h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i re ( K a p l a n , 1983) a n d the t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n 5 8 o f the S A S B m o d e l . T h e m o d e l i s b a s e d o n the w o r k o f S u l l i v a n (1953) w h o s u g g e s t e d t h a t w e t r e a t o u r s e l v e s i n the w a y t h a t i m p o r t a n t o the r s h a v e t r e a t e d u s . S e l f concep t i n the S A S B m o d e l i s a n i n t r a p s y c h i c r e f l ec t ion o f h o w a p e r s o n v i e w s the s e l f as a r e s u l t o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e i n g s t ud i ed . T h e prof i l e o f a p e r s o n ' s s e l f concept i s con jec tured to v a r y as a r e s u l t o f the n a t u r e o f the i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w sugges t s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s s u f f e r i n g f r o m l a c k o f s e x u a l des i re h a v e m o r e p r o f o u n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l conf l i c t t h a n do i n d i v i d u a l s w h o s e d y s f u n c t i o n is o f a n a r o u s a l o r o r g a s m i c n a t u r e ( K a p l a n , 1979 ) . F. SUMMARY T h e r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e c o m m e n c e d w i t h a n h i s t o r i c a l o v e r v i e w o f the c o n c e p t u a l a d v a n c e s m a d e i n the s t u d y o f the h u m a n s e x u a l r e sponse . A th ree p h a s e m o d e l o f the s e x u a l r e s p o n s e cyc l e w a s p r e s e n t e d w h i c h c o n c e p t u a l l y a n d p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y s e p a r a t e s des i r e , a r o u s a l a n d o r g a s m in to t h r ee d i sc re te s tages o f s e x u a l r e s p o n s e . T h e focus i n t h i s c h a p t e r sh i f t ed t h e n to s e x u a l des i r e . F i r s t , the v a r i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l v i e w s a n d c o n c e p t u a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f s e x u a l des i re w e r e r e v i e w e d a n d second the t e r m i n o l o g y a n d i n c id en ce o f s e x u a l d i s i n t e r e s t w e r e e x a m i n e d . F i n a l l y , o r g a n i c , i n t r a p s y c h i c a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l f ac to rs r e l a t e d to the s e x u a l d i s o r d e r w e r e d i s c u s s e d . S e v e r a l ques t i ons a r i s i n g f r o m the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w w h i c h t h i s s t u d y a d d r e s s e s w e r e t h e n i den t i f i ed . F i n a l l y , the r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s o f the s t u d y w e r e s t a t e d . C H A P T E R III. M E T H O D O L O G Y T h i s c h a p t e r c o m m e n c e s w i t h a n o u t l i n e of the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n . T h e p o p u l a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t a n d the subject s a m p l e a re t h e n d i s c u s s e d . N e x t the i n s t r u m e n t s e m p l o y e d to m e a s u r e the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g , i n t r a p s y c h i c a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s a re d i s c u s s e d a n d the v a r i a b l e s o f the s t u d y a re iden t i f i ed . D a t a co l l ec t i on p rocedure s a r e o u t l i n e d a n d the s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s e s a r e p r e s e n t e d . A d e s c r i p t i o n of the p r o c e d u r e s u t i l i z e d i n the d a t a a n a l y s i s conc lude the c h a p t e r . A . D E S I G N O F T H E S T U D Y T h i s s t u d y w a s n o n - e x p e r i m e n t a l i n n a t u r e a n d i n v o l v e d a t h ree g r o u p c o m p a r i s o n , e x pos t facto d e s i g n . T h e th ree g r o u p s w e r e : G r o u p O n e , H y p o a c t i v e S e x u a l D e s i r e ( H S D ) ; G r o u p T w o , S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n ( S D y s ) ; a n d G r o u p T h r e e , N o S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n ( N S D ) . G r o u p O n e w a s c o m p o s e d o f i n d i v i d u a l s a s s i g n e d a d i a g n o s i s o f l i f e l o n g or a c q u i r e d , g e n e r a l i z e d H y p o a c t i v e S e x u a l D e s i r e a n d t h e i r spouses . G r o u p T w o w a s c o m p o s e d o f s p o u s a l u n i t s w h e r e i n one subject w a s a s s i g n e d a d i a g n o s i s o f a n a r o u s a l o r o r g a s m d i so rde r . G r o u p T h r e e w a s a c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p o f s e x u a l l y f u n c t i o n a l spouses . T h e th ree s t u d y g r o u p s w e r e m a t c h e d for age . T h e r a t i o n a l e for s e l e c t i n g G r o u p T w o to i n c l u d e a r o u s a l a n d o r g a s m d y s f u n c t i o n s is r e l a t e d to the h u m a n s e x u a l r e sponse c y c l e a n d the p u r p o s e o f the s tud j ' . T h e s e x u a l r e s p o n s e c y c l e is r e f e r r e d to i n t h ree p h a s e s : de s i r e , a r o u s a l a n d o r g a s m . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y w a s to c o m p a r e subjects e x p e r i e n c i n g s e x u a l des i re p r o b l e m s w i t h subjec ts e x p e r i e n c i n g m o r e g e n i t i a l l y r e l a t e d s e x u a l d i s o r d e r s . S e x u a l des i re is a c t i v a t e d b y specif ic n e u r a l s y s t e m s i n the b r a i n w h e r e a s a r o u s a l a n d o r g a s m p h a s e r e sponses i n v o l v e p h y s i o l o g i c a l 5 9 60 reactions, for instance, reflex vasodilation of genital blood vessels and reflex contractions of genital muscles (Kaplan, 1979). This investigation compared subjects experiencing the problem of generalized lack of sexual desire with subjects experiencing problems related to the genital reflex stages of the sexual response cycle. B. SUBJECTS The target population for the study was heterosexual couples, between the ages of 22 and 50 years old in which one spouse was experiencing a psychosexual dysfunction of desire, arousal or orgasm. The population of couples from which the sample was chosen consisted of couples who were living together as husband and wife in a committed, stable relationship for a duration of 18 months or longer. No distinction was made in the study between a marriage or a commonlaw relationship. The subjects in the study were 22 individuals suffering from lifelong or acquired, generalized hypoactive sexual desire and their spouses (Group 1, Hypoactive Sexual Desire); 21 individuals with an arousal or orgasm dysfunction and their spouses (Group 2, Sexual Dysfunction); and 19 sexually functional comparison subjects and their spouses (Group 3, No Sexual Dysfunction). The unequal numbers of subjects can be accounted for by five couples who were accepted into the study and who were subsequently disqualified from participation. Three subjects were disqualified from the control group for the following reasons: one subject refused to complete the questionnaires, one subject was over 50 years old and one subject unknown to his spouse was taking medication for a depressive illness. Group Two was reduced by one couple because both spouses 6 1 suf fe red f r o m s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n . T o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the r e s e a r c h , a l l p a r t n e r s o f h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i re subjec ts a n d s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l subjects , h a d t h e m s e l v e s to be s e x u a l l y f u n c t i o n a l . B e c a u s e the i n v e s t i g a t i o n w a s d e s i g n e d to s t u d y h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i r e i n s p o u s a l u n i t s , subjects a n d t h e i r spouses w e r e i n v e s t i g a t e d a n d gender d i f ferences w e r e no t s tud ied . A l t h o u g h i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n p re f e r ab l e to choose o n l y m a l e o r f e m a l e subjects , the n u m b e r o f subjects r e q u i r e d , the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f subjects a n d t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s l ed to the dec i s ion n o t to cons ide r gende r d i f fe rences . T h i s d e c i s i o n r e s u l t e d i n u n e q u a l gender r a t i o s i n the th ree g r o u p s . T h e s a m p l e s ize r e q u i r e d to s t u d y b o t h s p o u s a l d y n a m i c s a n d gender d i f fe rences h o w e v e r , i s s u c h t h a t d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e ce l l s izes w o u l d a r i s e . T h i s p l ace s a s e r ious r e s t r a i n t o n the f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n a n d a n a l y s i s so the q u e s t i o n o f gender effect cou ld n o t be a d d r e s s e d u n a m b i g u o u s l y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , M e y e r s (1979) sugges t s t h a t i n m u l t i f a c t o r des igns w i t h d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e ce l l f r equenc ies , l i n e a r m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s c a n be h e l p f u l . T h e r e f o r e , i n o rde r to u n d e r s t a n d the effect o f gende r o n the d a t a u s e d to tes t H y p o t h e s e s 2 a n d 4, a d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s e s w e r e p e r f o r m e d . F o l l o w i n g M e y e r s ' ( 1 9 7 9 , p . 3 7 8 ) sugges ted p r o c e d u r e , a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e w e r e c a r r i e d ou t o n a 2 X 3 f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n w i t h d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e ce l l s izes w h e r e g e n d e r w a s one fac to r a n d g r o u p s w a s a second fac to r . T h e r e s u l t s w e r e t h a t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s o f no gende r effects w a s t e n a b l e a t the .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . A n d , i n k e e p i n g w i t h the a n a l y s e s r e p o r t e d l a t e r for H y p o t h e s e s 2 a n d 4 i n C h a p t e r I I I , the r e s u l t s o f t e s t i n g the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s o f no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n g r o u p s w a s u p h e l d . F u r t h e r s u p p o r t for the dec i s ion to focus o n p a r t n e r d y n a m i c s a t the e x p e n s e o f gender d i f ferences comes f r o m L e i b l u m a n d R o s e n (1988) w h o r e p o r t t h a t t he re h a s b e e n a n o v e r a l l t r e n d i n 6 2 the l a s t t w o decades to m i n i m i z e m a l e - f e m a l e d i f ferences i n a l l a spec t s o f s e x u a l r e s p o n s e . A l t h o u g h the d e c i s i o n no t to use gende r a s a v a r i a b l e w a s b a s e d o n p r a c t i c a l g r o u n d s , i t is r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h i s p laces a l i m i t a t i o n o n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . A l l coup le s i n the s t u d y w e r e s a m p l e d f r o m a l a r g e u r b a n a r e a o n the C a n a d i a n W e s t C o a s t a n d w e r e v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a n t s . S o m e subjects w e r e c l i en t s w h o h a d b e e n r e f e r r e d f r o m m e d i c a l o r h e a l t h ca r e p r a c t i t i o n e r s to a s ex t h e r a p y p r a c t i c e o v e r a 15 m o n t h p e r i o d a n d w h o consen ted to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s t u d y . O t h e r subjects r e s p o n d e d to the r e q u e s t for v o l u n t e e r s . C o u p l e s w e r e no t i f i ed o f the s t u d y t h r o u g h pos t e r s , n e w p a p e r a r t i c l e s a n d w o r d o f m o u t h . N o t i f i c a t i o n o f the S e x u a l i t y R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t ( A p p e n d i x B ) w a s s en t to p o t e n t i a l subjec ts b y a l o c a l S e x u a l M e d i c i n e C l i n i c . A n e w s p a p e r i n t e r v i e w r e g a r d i n g the S e x u a l i t y R e s e a r c h P ro j ec t r e s u l t e d i n 3 5 0 t e l ephone e n q u i r i e s a n d m a n y p o t e n t i a l v o l u n t e e r s to the s t u d y . T h e g e n e r a l i n c l u s i o n c r i t e r i a for a l l subjects a n d p a r t n e r s i n the s t u d y w e r e : (a) ages 2 2 to 5 0 y e a r s ; (b) m a r r i e d or l i v i n g t oge the r i n a s t ab le r e l a t i o n s h i p for a t l ea s t 18 m o n t h s a n d (c) spouse ' s s e l f r e p o r t t h a t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w a s s t ab le a n d c o m m i t t e d . T h e g e n e r a l e x c l u s i o n c r i t e r i a for a l l subjects a n d p a r t n e r s w e r e : (a) e v i d e n c e o f a m e d i c a l d i so rde r ; (b) e v i d e n c e o f d r u g i n t a k e or s u b s t a n c e abuse ; (c) p r e s e n c e o f a m a j o r p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y c l a s s i f i ab l e as a D S M - I I I - R , A x i s I d i s o r d e r ; a n d (d) c u r r e n t i n g e s t i o n o f m e d i c a t i o n w h i c h w o u l d i n h i b i t t he c e n t r a l n e r v o u s s y s t e m . S i n c e a l m o s t a n y d i s ea se p rocess o r s u b s t a n c e d e p e n d e n c y h a s the p o t e n t i a l for i n h i b i t i n g the s e x u a l r e s p o n s e , a l l subjects i n c l u d e d i n the s t u d y w e r e s c r e e n e d for s u c h i l l ne s se s ( K a p l a n , 1 9 7 9 , 1 9 8 3 ; K o l o d n y et al., 1 9 7 9 ; 6 3 M u n j a c k et al, 1 9 8 1 ) . T h e speci f ic i n c l u s i o n c r i t e r i a for e a c h s t u d y g r o u p is p r e s e n t e d b e l o w . Group One: Hypoactive Sexual Desire (HSD) Inclusion Criteria: Subjec t s se lec ted for G r o u p O n e ( H S D ) d i s p l a y e d l i f e l o n g or a c q u i r e d , g e n e r a l i z e d h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l de s i r e . Sub jec t s m e t the f o l l o w i n g D S M - I I I - R ( A m e r i c a n P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n , 1987) d i a g n o s t i c c r i t e r i a a n d the s t u d y ' s o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f the D S M - I I I - R c r i t e r i a : Diagnostic Criteria for 302.71 Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder A . P e r s i s t e n t l y o r r e c u r r e n t l y de f ic ien t o r a b s e n t s e x u a l f an t a s i e s a n d des i r e for s e x u a l a c t i v i t y . T h e j u d g m e n t o f de f i c i ency or absence is m a d e b y the c l i n i c i a n , t a k i n g in to a c c o u n t fac to rs t h a t affect s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g , s u c h as age , sex , a n d the c o n t e x t o f the p e r s o n ' s l i fe . B . O c c u r r e n c e n o t e x c l u s i v e l y d u r i n g the cou r se o f a n o t h e r A x i s I d i s o r d e r (other t h a n a S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n ) , s u c h as M a j o r D e p r e s s i o n , (p. 2 9 3 ) T h e D S M - I I I - R c r i t e r i a for h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i re ( H S D ) w e r e o p e r a t i o n a l l y de f ined as : (a) subject r e p o r t s l a c k o f des i r e for s e x u a l a c t i v i t i e s , (b) subjec t a n d / o r p a r t n e r i d e n t i f y l a c k o f s e x u a l des i r e as a p r o b l e m , (c) i n t e r c o u r s e f r e q u e n c y o f t w i c e a m o n t h or l ess a s r e p o r t e d o n the Sexual History Form ( S H F ) , a n d (d) score o f 13 o r less o n the Derogatis Sexual Functioning I n v e n t o r y 6 4 ( D S F I ) d r i v e sca le , I n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t the p resence a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f the d i s o r d e r w a s s o u g h t f r o m b o t h spouses . Group Two: Sexual Dysfunction (SDys) Inclusion Criteria: I n o r d e r for subjects to be a s s i g n e d to G r o u p T w o ( S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n ) one o f the f o l l o w i n g D S M - I I I - R ( A m e r i c a n P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n , 1987) d i agnos t i c c r i t e r i a h a d to be m e t a l o n g w i t h the s t u d y ' s o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f the D S M - I I I - R c r i t e r i a : Diagnostic Criteria for 302.72 Female Sexual Arousal Disorder A . E i t h e r (1) or (2): (1) p e r s i s t e n t o r r e c u r r e n t p a r t i a l o r comple t e f a i l u r e to a t t a i n o r m a i n t a i n the l u b r i c a t i o n - s w e l l i n g r e s p o n s e o f s e x u a l e x c i t e m e n t u n t i l c o m p l e t i o n o f the s e x u a l a c t i v i t y (2) p e r s i s t e n t o r r e c u r r e n t l a c k o f subjec t ive sense o f s e x u a l e x c i t e m e n t a n d p l e a s u r e i n a f e m a l e d u r i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y B . O c c u r e n c e not e x c l u s i v e l y d u r i n g the course of a n o t h e r A x i s I d i s o r d e r (other t h a n a S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n ) , s u c h as M a j o r D e p r e s s i o n , (p. 2 9 4 ) T h e D S M - I I I - R c r i t e r i a for f e m a l e s e x u a l a r o u s a l d i s o r d e r w a s o p e r a t i o n a l l y de f ined for the s t u d y b y the subjec t ' s r e sponse o f (1) 5 0 % o f the t i m e or m o r e a n d / o r (2) 5 0 % o f the t i m e or less to the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s f r o m the Sexual History Form ( S H F ) : (1) Is the v a g i n a so d r y t h a t i n t e r c o u r s e c a n n o t occur? (2) W h e n y o u h a v e sex w i t h y o u r m a t e , i n c l u d i n g f o r e p l a y a n d i n t e r c o u r s e , do y o u no t ice s o m e o f these t h i n g s h a p p e n i n g : y o u r b r e a t h i n g a n d pu l se s p e e d i n g u p , w e t n e s s i n y o u r v a g i n a , p l e a s u r a b l e s e n s a t i o n s i n y o u r b r e a s t s a n d g e n i t a l s ? 6 5 Diagnostic Criteria for 302.72 Male Erectile Disorder A . E i t h e r (1) or (2): (1) p e r s i s t e n t o r r e c u r r e n t p a r t i a l o r c o m p l e t e f a i l u r e i n m a l e to a t t a i n o r m a i n t a i n e r e c t i o n u n t i l c o m p l e t i o n o f the s e x u a l a c t i v i t y (2) p e r s i s t e n t o r r e c u r r e n t l a c k o f sub jec t ive sense o f s e x u a l e x c i t e m e n t a n d p l e a s u r e i n a m a l e d u r i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y B . O c c u r e n c e no t e x c l u s i v e l y d u r i n g the cou r se o f a n o t h e r A x i s I d i s o r d e r (other t h a n a S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n ) , s u c h a s M a j o r D e p r e s s i o n , (p. 294) T h e D S M - I I I - R c r i t e r i a for M a l e E r e c t i l e D i s o r d e r w a s o p e r a t i o n a l l y de f ined for the s t u d y a s a n i n s u f f i c i e n t e r e c t i o n before o r d u r i n g i n t e r c o u r s e s u c h t h a t the s e x u a l e n c o u n t e r w a s a b a n d o n e d on 5 0 % or m o r e o f the occas ions a t t e m p t e d as r e p o r t e d o n t h e Sexual History Form ( S H F ) . Diagnostic Criteria for 302.73 Inhibited Female Orgasm A . P e r s i s t e n t o r r e c u r r e n t d e l a y i n , o r absence of, o r g a s m i n a f e m a l e f o l l o w i n g a n o r m a l s e x u a l e x c i t e m e n t p h a s e d u r i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y t h a t the c l i n i c i a n j u d g e s to be a d e q u a t e i n focus , i n t e n s i t y , a n d d u r a t i o n . S o m e f e m a l e s a re ab le to e x p e r i e n c e o r g a s m s d u r i n g n o n c o i t a l c l i t o r a l s t i m u l a t i o n , b u t a r e u n a b l e to e x p e r i e n c e i t d u r i n g co i tus i n the absence o f m a n u a l c l i t o r a l s t i m u l a t i o n . I n m o s t o f these f e m a l e s , t h i s r e p r e s e n t s a n o r m a l v a r i a t i o n o f the f e m a l e s e x u a l r e sponse a n d does n o t j u s t i f y t h e d i a g n o s i s o f I n h i b i t e d F e m a l e O r g a s m . H o w e v e r , i n s o m e o f these 6 6 f e m a l e s , t h i s does r e p r e s e n t a p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n h i b i t i o n t h a t j u s t i f i e s the d i a g n o s i s . T h i s d i f f i cu l t j u d g m e n t is a s s i s t e d b y a t h o r o u g h s e x u a l e v a l u a t i o n , w h i c h m a y e v e n r e q u i r e a t r i a l o f t r e a t m e n t . B . O c c u r r e n c e no t e x c l u s i v e l y d u r i n g the cou r se o f a n o t h e r A x i s I d i s o r d e r (other t h a n a S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n ) , s u c h as M a j o r D e p r e s s i o n , (p. 2 9 4 ) T h e D S M - I I I - R c r i t e r i a for I n h i b i t e d F e m a l e O r g a s m w a s o p e r a t i o n a l l y def ined for the s t u d y as the i n a b i l i t y to a c h i e v e o r g a s m t h r o u g h m a s t u r b a t i o n or g e n i t a l c a r e s s o r i n t e r c o u r s e as r e p o r t e d o n the Sexual History Form ( S H F ) . I n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t the p r e s e n c e a n d h i s t o r y of the d i so rde r w a s s o u g h t f r o m the subject . Diagnostic Criteria for 302.75 Premature Ejaculation P e r s i s t e n t or r e c u r r e n t e j a c u l a t i o n w i t h m i n i m a l s e x u a l s t i m u l a t i o n or before , u p o n , o r s h o r t l y a f te r p e n e t r a t i o n a n d before the p e r s o n w i s h e s i t . T h i s c l i n i c i a n m u s t t a k e in to a c c o u n t fac to rs t h a t affect d u r a t i o n of the e x c i t e m e n t p h a s e , s u c h as age , n o v e l t y of the s e x u a l p a r t n e r or s i t u a t i o n , a n d f r e q u e n c y o f s e x u a l a c t i v i t y , (p. 295) T h e D S M - I I I - R c r i t e r i a for P r e m a t u r e E j a c u l a t i o n w a s o p e r a t i o n a l l y de f ined for the s t u d y a s , (1) e j a c u l a t i o n before subject w i s h e s ; (2) the subject r e a c h i n g o r g a s m 5 0 % o f the t i m e or m o r e w h i l e t r y i n g to e n t e r the v a g i n a ; (3) i n t e r c o u r s e d u r a t i o n o f l ess t h a n 2 m i n u t e s a s r e p o r t e d o n the Sexual History Form ( S H F ) . I n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t the p resence a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f the d i s o r d e r w a s s o u g h t f r o m the subject . A g e n e r a l i n c l u s i o n c r i t e r i a for a l l G r o u p T w o subjects w a s a score o f 15 or g r e a t e r o n the d r i v e sca l e o f the D S F I ( D e r o g a t i s , 1 9 7 5 b ) . 67 Group Three: No Sexual Dysfunction (NSD) Inclusion Criteria: I n o r d e r for subjects to be a s s i g n e d to G r o u p T h r e e (No S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n ) t he f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a h a d to be m e t : (a) subjects h a d to score 15 or m o r e o n the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory ( D S F I ) d r i v e sca le ; (b) subjects h a d to r e p o r t a f r equency o f i n t e r c o u r s e four t i m e s a m o n t h o r m o r e on the Sexual History Form ( S H F ) ; a n d (c) subjects h a d to s ta te t h a t n e i t h e r spouse su f fe red f r o m a s e x u a l d i s o r d e r o f des i re , a r o u s a l or o r g a s m . G r o u p O n e , G r o u p T w o a n d G r o u p T h r e e subjects w e r e m a t c h e d for age. C o n t r o l subjec ts w e r e a l l v o l u n t e e r s w h o r e s p o n d e d to the S e x u a l i t y R e s e a r c h P ro j ec t ' s a d v e r t i s e m e n t for subjec ts . T w e l v e G r o u p T w o subjects a n d s i x G r o u p O n e subjec ts h a d been a s s e s s e d b y t h e i r p h y s i c i a n a n d r e f e r r e d to a s e x t h e r a p y p r a c t i c e for p s y c h o s e x u a l t h e r a p y . T h e y s u b s e q u e n t l y v o l u n t e e r e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the r e s e a r c h . O f the n ine r e m a i n i n g subjects i n G r o u p T w o , four w e r e r e f e r r e d to the S e x u a l i t y R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t b y o the r h e a l t h ca r e p r a c t i t i o n e r s a n d five r e s p o n d e d t h e m s e l v e s to the a d v e r t i s e m e n t for subjects . O f the s i x t e e n r e m a i n i n g subjects i n G r o u p O n e , th ree w e r e r e f e r r e d to the S e x u a l i t y R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t b y o the r h e a l t h c a r e p r a c t i t i o n e r s a n d t h i r t e e n r e s p o n d e d t h e m s e l v e s to the a d v e r t i s e m e n t for subjects . A s s i g n m e n t o f the p a r t i c i p a t i n g subjects to one o f the th r ee s t u d y g r o u p s w a s u n d e r t a k e n b y the r e s e a r c h e r . T h e spouses ' v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i r s e x u a l p r o b l e m a n d s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g , the r e f e r r i n g m e d i c a l p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m a n d the subject ' s w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e s to the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory ( D S F I ) a n d the Sex History Form ( S H F ) p r o v i d e d d i agnos t i c i n f o r m a t i o n . O n the b a s i s o f the r e f e r r a l i n f o r m a t i o n , the subjec ts d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p r o b l e m , object ive d a t a a n d c l i n i c a l j u d g e m e n t , subjects w e r e a s s i g n e d to one o f the th ree s t u d y g r o u p s . 68 C. I N S T R U M E N T A T I O N T h e choice o f m e a s u r e s se lec ted for the s t u d y w a s p r e d i c a t e d o n a p p r o p r i a t e m e a s u r e m e n t o f i n t r a p s y c h i c , i n t e r p e r s o n a l a n d s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g concep t s i d e n t i f i e d i n the r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e as b e i n g r e l e v a n t i n the d e v e l o p m e n t o f h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l de s i r e . I n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h d i s p l a y e d a h i s t o r y o f r e l i a b i l i t y a n d v a l i d i t y i n m e a s u r i n g the p e r t i n e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s w e r e c h o s e n . C o n s i d e r a t i o n w a s g i v e n to q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w h i c h w e r e f o u n d i n the r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e to be u s e d m o s t c o n s i s t e n t l y i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l a n d h u m a n s e x u a l i t y s tud i e s . P s y c h o p a t h o l o g y a n d d e p r e s s i o n w e r e m e a s u r e d b y the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory ( M M P I ) ; t r a i t a n x i e t y a n d s e x u a l s ta te a n x i e t y w e r e a s se s sed b y The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory ( S T A I ) ; affect w a s i n v e s t i g a t e d b y the Affect Balance Scale ( A B S ) ; a n d s e l f concep t w a s m e a s u r e d b y the i n t r a p s y c h i c p l a n e o f the Structure Analysis of Social Behavior ( S A S B ) . I n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w e r e m e a s u r e d b y the use o f the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior ( S A S B ) . M a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t w a s a s se s sed b y the Dyadic Adjustment Scale ( D A S ) . S e x u a l F u n c t i o n i n g V a r i a b l e s w e r e m e a s u r e d b y the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory ( D S F I ) a n d the Sexual History Form ( S H F ) . 6 9 1. Instruments Assessing Sexual Functioning a. Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI) T h e D S F I ( D e r o g a t i s , 1 9 7 5 b ) is a se l f - r epor t m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n v e n t o r y t h a t i s c o m p r i s e d o f 10 d i s t i n c t sub tes t s d e s i g n e d to m e a s u r e the c u r r e n t l e v e l o f s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . T h e t e n sub tes t s a r e de s igned to s a m p l e b e h a v i o r a l a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s o f s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . T h e sub tes t s i n c l u d e : (1) I n f o r m a t i o n , (2) E x p e r i e n c e , (3) D r i v e , (4) A t t i t u d e s , (5) S y m p t o m s , (6) A f f e c t , (7) G e n d e r R o l e D e f i n i t i o n , (8) F a n t a s y , (9) B o d y I m a g e , a n d (10) S e x u a l S a t i s f a c t i o n . T h e s u b s t a n t i v e d o m a i n s of the D S F I w e r e d e r i v e d f r o m c l i n i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , t h e o r y , a n d e m p i r i c a l m e a s u r e m e n t ( D e r o g a t i s , 1 9 7 5 b ) . T h e D S F I p r o v i d e s a s i n g l e s u m m a r y score o f the subject ' s g l o b a l l e v e l o f s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g en t i t l ed the S e x u a l F u n c t i o n i n g I n d e x ( S F I ) , a n d a q u a l i t a t i v e p rof i l e m e a s u r i n g the subject ' s se l f -pe rcep t ion o f h i s / h e r s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s i n c u r r e n t l e v e l s o f s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g e n t i t l e d the G l o b a l S e x u a l S a t i s f a c t i o n I n d e x ( G S S I ) . I n a d d i t i o n , the sub te s t s m a y be e x a m i n e d for i n d i v i d u a l con ten t i t e m i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e s e i n d i c e s , c o m b i n e d w i t h the t en p r i m a r y d o m a i n scores o f the D S F I p r o v i d e a r e l a t i v e l y comple t e q u a n t i t a t i v e s u m m a r y o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l e v e l o f s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . W e i s (1985) s t a t e s i n the M e n t a l M e a s u r e m e n t Y e a r b o o k t h a t the D S F I i s , " . . . one o f the m o s t t h o r o u g h l y e m p i r i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d i n s t r u m e n t s , a n d be s t compos i t e m e a s u r e o f o v e r a l l s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a v a i l a b l e i n the r e a l m o f s e x u a l r e s e a r c h " (p. 4 5 4 ) . R e l i a b i l i t y for the v a r i o u s sub tes t s o f the D S F I a re r e p o r t e d to be good, w i t h b o t h i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y a n d tes t - re tes t coeff ic ients o v e r a 14 d a y r e t e s t i n t e r v a l r e l a t i v e l y h i g h a n d w i t h i n the accep tab le r a n g e ( D e r o g a t i s , 1 9 7 5 b ; 70 D e r o g a t i s a n d M e l i s a r a t o s , 1979 ) . H o w e v e r , the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y coeff ic ients for i n f o r m a t i o n ( .56), d r i v e ( .60), a n d b o d y i m a g e (.58) a p p e a r to be l o w s ince the m a j o r i t y o f the coeff ic ients a re above . 8 0 a n d . 9 0 . T h e c l i n i c a l a n d t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e s for the se l ec t ion o f i t e m s , as w e l l as the b a s i s for the d e v e l o p m e n t o f s u b t e s t i t e m s h a v e b e e n w e l l d e s c r i b e d ( D e r o g a t i s & M e l i s a r a t o s , 1979 ) . T h e s e o p e r a t i o n s p r o v i d e con t en t v a l i d i t y for the i n v e n t o r y . E v i d e n c e for d i s c r i m i n a t i v e v a l i d i t y i s p r o v i d e d i n s tud ies d e a l i n g w i t h s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l s a n d p a r t n e r s o f s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l s ( D e r o g a t i s & M e l i s a r a t o s , 1979) a n d w i t h m a l e a n d f e m a l e gender ro le d e f i n i t i o n ( D e r o g a t i s , M e y e r & D u p k i n , 1976 ) . N o r m s a re a v a i l a b l e on o v e r 2 0 0 n o r m a l s , p l u s c o m p a r a b l e d a t a o n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 0 0 s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l subjects . I n a r e v i e w o f the D S F I as a se l f - r epor t t e c h n i q u e for a s s e s s i n g s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g , C o n t e (1983 ) found i t u s e f u l for m e a s u r i n g the c u r r e n t s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f a w i d e v a r i e t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s . b. Sexual History Form (SHF) T h e S H F i s a u t h o r e d b y J o s e p h L o P i c c o l o as a p r e - i n t a k e q u e s t i o n n a i r e for the S e x T h e r a p y C e n t r e i n the U n i v e r s i t y o f N e w Y o r k a t S t o n y B r o o k . I t p r o v i d e s c u r r e n t s e x u a l h i s t o r y a n d s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g d a t a t h a t a re c o m p a r e d w i t h n o r m s for w e l l - f u n c t i o n i n g coup les m a t c h e d to the c l i n i c a l p o p u l a t i o n a t S t o n y B r o o k o n d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s . T h e 2 8 ques t i ons a re w r i t t e n i n a l i k e r t sca le f o r m a t u s i n g a r a n g e f r o m never to always, a n d a r e d e s i g n e d to be a s t r u c t u r e d a i d to the i n t e r v i e w a n d d i a g n o s t i c process d u r i n g a s s e s s m e n t . 7 1 2. Instruments Measuring Intrapsychic Domain a. Affect Balance Scale (ABS) T h e A f f e c t B a l a n c e S c a l e ( A B S ) i s a s e l f r epo r t , ad jec t ive m o o d sca le deve loped b y D e r o g a t i s ( 1 9 7 5 a ) . I t i s c o m p r i s e d o f 4 0 i t e m s w h i c h h a v e been f a c t o r i a l l y d e r i v e d to r e p r e s e n t e igh t p r i m a r y m o o d d i m e n s i o n s w h i c h re f lec t four pos i t i ve a n d four n e g a t i v e p r i n c i p a l m o o d d i m e n s i o n s . T h e p r e m i s e u n d e r l y i n g the A B S is t h a t t he b r i e f adject ive m o o d sca le r e p r e s e n t s a s e n s i t i v e , v a l i d m e c h a n i s m for r e g i s t e r i n g a f fec t ive s t a t u s a n d g e n e r a l w e l l b e i n g . G l o b a l scores a re c o m p r i s e d o f a P o s i t i v e A f f e c t T o t a l , a N e g a t i v e A f f e c t T o t a l a n d the A f f e c t B a l a n c e I n d e x ( A B I ) w h i c h ref lec ts a n a r e a - s t a n d a r d i z e d d i f ference score b e t w e e n the p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e t o t a l scores . T h e A f f e c t B a l a n c e S c a l e ( A B S ) h a s been u s e d for r e s e a r c h a n d c l i n i c a l p u r p o s e s for o v e r t en y e a r s . N o r t h o u s e a n d S w a i n (1987) h a v e s h o w n the A B S to h a v e h i g h p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y i n s tud ie s r e g a r d i n g the e m o t i o n a l s t a t u s o f c a n c e r subjects . I n a d d i t i o n , the m a n u a l r e p o r t s t h a t D e r o g a t i s a n d M e y e r (1979) h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d h i g h s e n s i t i v i t y for t h e A B S a m o n g s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l cohor t s , a n d a l so w i t h i n s a m p l e s o f b o t h m a l e ( D e r o g a t i s , M e y e r & V a z q u e z , 1978) a n d f e m a l e ( D e r o g a t i s , M e y e r & B o l a n d , 1981) gende r d y s p h o r i c subjects . H o e h n - S a r i c ( 1983 ) h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d h i g h d i s c r i m i n a t i v e v a l i d i t y for the A B S i n d r u g t r i a l s w i t h a v a r i e t y o f a n x i e t y d i so rde r s . I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y for the A B S i s r e p o r t e d a t . 94 w h i l e t es t - re tes t r e l i a b i l i t y i s r e p o r t e d a t . 75 ( D e r o g a t i s a n d M e l i s a r a t o s , 1979 ) . 72 b. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory T h e M M P I ( H a t h a w a y & M c K i n l e y , 1943) w a s c h o s e n to o b t a i n a c l i n i c a l p ro f i l e o f e a c h subject w i t h m e a s u r e s o f p e r s o n a l i t y a n d p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y . T h e M M P I w a s d e s i g n e d to a s sess m a j o r p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l i t e r a t e ado lescen t s a n d a d u l t s b y the use o f t en p r i m a r y sca les : (1) H y p o c h o n d r i a s i s , (2) D e p r e s s i o n , (3) H y s t e r i a , (4) P s y c h o p a t h i c D e v i a t e , (5) M a s c u l i n i t y - F e m i n i n i t y , (6) P a r a n o i a , (7) P s y c h a s t h e n i a , (8) S c h i z o p h r e n i a , (9) H y p o m a n i a a n d (10) S o c i a l I n t r o v e r s i o n . O n e r e a s o n for c h o o s i n g the M M P I is due to i t s r e p u t a t i o n for b e i n g a v a l i d m e a s u r e o f p e r s o n a l i t y a n d p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y . D a t a r e p o r t e d o n the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the M M P I i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n m a n u a l i s f r o m four sou rces : H a t h a w a y a n d M c K i n l e y ( 1 9 4 2 ) ; C o t t l e (1950) ; R o s e n (1966) a n d G o c k a ( 1 9 6 5 ) . H a t h a w a y a n d M c K i n l e y (1942) r e p o r t e d t es t - re tes t coeff ic ients r a n g i n g f r o m . 5 7 to . 93 for s i x o f the c l i n i c a l s ca l e s o f the M M P I . C o t t l e (1950) r e p o r t e d t es t - re tes t coeff ic ients r a n g i n g f r o m .56 to .91 for the t en c l i n i c a l sca les o f the M M P I f r o m a s a m p l e o f u n s e l e c t e d n o r m a l s ( n = 1 0 0 ) . R o s e n (1966) a n d G o c k a (1965) r e p o r t e d c o m p a r a b l e d a t a for p s y c h i a t r i c cases . M c K i n l e y a n d H a t h a w a y (1943) i n r e p o r t i n g o n the v a l i d i t y o f the M M P I s ta te t h a t a h i g h score on the sca le h a s b e e n f o u n d to p r e d i c t p o s i t i v e l y the c o r r e s p o n d i n g final c l i n i c a l d i agnos i s o r e s t i m a t e i n m o r e t h a n 6 0 p e r c e n t o f n e w p s y c h i a t r i c a d m i s s i o n s . T h e M M P I n o r m a t i v e d a t a is d e r i v e d f r o m a s a m p l e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y s e v e n h u n d r e d " n o r m a l " i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h a n age r a n g e b e t w e e n s i x t e e n a n d f i f ty - f ive f r o m a c r o s s e c t i o n o f a m e t r o p o l i t a n p o p u l a t i o n . H i s t o r i c a l l y t he re h a v e b e e n s e v e r a l a t t e m p t s i n sex t h e r a p y r e s e a r c h to l i n k p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y to s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n ( M u n j a c k , O z i e l , K a n n o , W h i p p l e & L e o n a r d , 1 9 8 1 ; M u n j a c k & 73 S t a p l e s , 1 9 7 6 ; Roffe & B r i t t , 1 9 8 1 ; S t a p l e s , F i c h e r , S h a p i r o , M a r t i n & G o n i c k , 1 9 8 0 ) . S e v e r a l o f these r e s e a r c h e n d e a v o r s e m p l o y e d the M M P I to m e a s u r e c l i n i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y . T h e s e s tud ies w e r e conduc t ed p r i o r to s e x u a l des i r e b e i n g r ecogn ized as a n i n i t i a l p h a s e i n the s e x u a l r e sponse c y c l e . M o r e r e c e n t l y , t w o s tud ies , S t u a r t , H a m m o n d a n d P e t t ( 1 9 8 6 ) , a n d C h u r c h i l l ( 1989) h a v e r e p o r t e d on p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d to h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i r e i n t h e i r s t u d y s a m p l e s u s i n g the M M P I . I n the i n t e r e s t o f c o n t i n u i t y a n d c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o the r h u m a n s e x u a l i t y r e s e a r c h projec ts , the M M P I w a s c h o s e n as the m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e m e a s u r e . c. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) T h e S T A I is one o f the m o s t w i d e l y u s e d m e a s u r e s o f a n x i e t y because i t m e a s u r e s b o t h the r e l a t i v e l y s t ab le t r a i t a n x i e t y l e v e l o f i n d i v i d u a l s a n d the m o r e s i t u a t i o n a l s ta te a n x i e t y l e v e l o f the i n d i v i d u a l w h i c h m a y f luc tua t e d e p e n d i n g o n the s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l f inds h i m s e l f . S p i e l b e r g e r , G o r s u c h , L u s h e n e , V a g g a n d J a c o b s ( 1 9 6 8 , 1977) deve loped the S T A I i n r e s p o n s e to the n e e d to s e p a r a t e m e a s u r e s o f g e n e r a l l e v e l s o f a n x i e t y f r o m m e a s u r e s o f s i t u a t i o n a l l e v e l s o f a n x i e t y . T h i s i s a n i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n i n t e r m s of a n x i e t y a n d h o w i t ope ra t e s i n s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l s , t he re fo re , t h i s i n s t r u m e n t w a s been c h o s e n as the m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e for the s t u d y to m e a s u r e g e n e r a l l e v e l s o f a n x i e t y as w e l l as s e x u a l s t a t e a n x i e t y . T h e S T A I ( F o r m Y ) w a s u s e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . R e l i a b i l i t y d a t a for f o r m Y is r e p o r t e d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n m a n u a l i n t w o f o r m s : t es t - re tes t a n d i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . Tes t - r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s for the T r a i t A n x i e t y sca le r a n g e d f r o m . 73 to . 8 6 a n d for the S t a t e A n x i e t y sca le f r o m .16 to . 6 2 . S p i e l b e r g e r et 74 al. (1983) r e p o r t s tha t , " . . . r e l a t i v e l y l o w s t a b i l i t y coeff ic ients w e r e e x p e c t e d for the S - A n x i e t y sca le because a v a l i d m e a s u r e o f s t a te a n x i e t y s h o u l d re f lec t the in f luence o f u n i q u e s i t u a t i o n a l f ac to r s t h a t e x i s t a t the t i m e o f t e s t i n g " (p. 13) . T h e f o l l o w i n g i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y a l p h a coeff ic ients [ compu ted b y F o r m u l a K R - 2 0 as m o d i f i e d b y C r o n b a c h (1951)] for n o r m a t i v e s a m p l e s a r e r e p o r t e d b y S p i e l b e r g e r et al. ( 1983) : F o r m Y S - A n x i e t y S c a l e , a l p h a coeff ic ients r a n g e f r o m .86 to . 9 5 a n d for the T - A n x i e t y S c a l e , a l p h a coeff ic ients r a n g e f r o m . 8 9 to . 9 1 . S p i e l b e r g e r et al. (1983) a r g u e t h a t the a l p h a coeff ic ient p r o v i d e s a m o r e m e a n i n g f u l i n d e x o f the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the S - A n x i e t y sca les because o f the t r a n s i t o r y n a t u r e o f a n x i e t y s ta tes . C o r r e l a t i o n o f the T - A n x i e t y sca le w i t h o the r t r a i t a n x i e t y m e a s u r e s p r o v i d e s a m e a s u r e o f c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y . T h e S T A I T - A n x i e t y sca le c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the I P A T A n x i e t y S c a l e ( C a t t e l l & S c h e i e r , 1963) p r o d u c e d a coeff ic ient o f . 75 a n d c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the T a y l o r M a n i f e s t A n x i e t y S c a l e ( T a y l o r , 1953) p r o d u c e d a coeff ic ient o f . 8 0 . d. The Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) T h e I N T R O J E C T p l a n e o f the S A S B p r o v i d e s a m e a s u r e o f s e l f concep t a s p e r c e i v e d b y a n i n d i v i d u a l as a r e s u l t o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e i n g s t ud i ed . F o r fu r t he r i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the S A S B ( I N T R O J E C T ) , p l ea se see S A S B u n d e r i n s t r u m e n t s m e a s u r i n g I n t e r p e r s o n a l D o m a i n . 75 3. Instruments Measuring Interpersonal Domain a. Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) T h e D A S w a s d e v e l o p e d b y G r a h a m B . S p a n i e r i n 1 9 7 6 . T h e D A S is a 3 2 i t e m sca le d e s i g n e d for use w i t h e i t h e r m a r r i e d o r u n m a r r i e d c o h a b i t i n g coup les . T h e o v e r a l l r e s u l t i n g score o f the D A S r a n g e s f r o m 0 - 1 5 1 . S u b - s c o r e s a re d e r i v e d f r o m four s u b s c a l e s m e a s u r i n g d y a d i c c o n s e n s u s , d y a d i c s a t i s f a c t i o n , d y a d i c cohes ion a n d d y a d i c a f f ec t iona l e x p r e s s i o n . S p a n i e r ( 1976 ) v i e w s d y a d i c a d j u s t m e n t as a n e v e r c h a n g i n g process w i t h a q u a l i t a t i v e d i m e n s i o n w h i c h c a n be e v a l u a t e d a t a n y p o i n t i n t i m e on a c o n t i n u u m f r o m w e l l ad jus ted to m a l a d j u s t e d . I t e m s i n the D A S w e r e e v a l u a t e d b y th ree j u d g e s for con t en t v a l i d i t y . I t e m s w e r e i n c l u d e d o n l y i f the j u d g e s c o n s i d e r e d the i t e m s : (1) r e l e v a n t m e a s u r e s o f d y a d i c a d j u s t m e n t for c o n t e m p o r a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , (2) c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the n o m i n a l de f in i t i ons , for a d j u s t m e n t a n d i t s c o m p o n e n t s : s a t i s f a c t i o n , cohes ion , c o n s e n s u s a n d af fec t ion , a n d (3) c a r e f u l l y w o r d e d w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e fixed choice r e s p o n s e s . T h e sca le w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d to a m a r r i e d s a m p l e o f 2 1 8 p e r s o n s a n d a d i v o r c e d s a m p l e o f 9 4 p e r s o n s to a c h i e v e c r i t e r i o n r e l a t e d v a l i d i t y . E a c h o f the 32 i t e m s i n the scale c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h the e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n o f m a r i t a l s t a t u s . S a m p l e A d i f fe red s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m S a m p l e B (p < . 001 ) u s i n g a t - tes t for a s s e s s i n g d i f fe rences b e t w e e n s a m p l e m e a n s ( S p a n i e r , 1976 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , t he m e a n t o t a l s ca l e scores for the m a r r i e d a n d d i v o r c e d s a m p l e s w e r e 1 1 4 . 8 to 7 0 . 7 r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e s e scores a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e ren t a t the p < . 0 0 1 l e v e l . S i n c e a l l the i t e m s w i t h con t en t v a l i d i t y u s e d i n p r e v i o u s m a r i t a l 7 6 a d j u s t m e n t s ca l e s w e r e i n c l u d e d i n the r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t o r i g i n a l l y t e s t ed , i t w a s poss ib l e to co r r e l a t e the D A S w i t h o t h e r m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t sca les to a c h i e v e c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . T h e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the L o c k e W a l l a c e M a r i t a l A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e w a s . 8 6 a m o n g m a r r i e d r e s p o n d e n t s a n d . 8 8 a m o n g d i v o r c e d r e s p o n d e n t s ( S p a n i e r , 1976 ) . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f the f i n a l 32 i t e m s w a s a l so u n d e r t a k e n . F o u r fac to r c o m p o n e n t s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d , d y a d i c s a t i s f a c t i o n , d y a d i c cohes ion , d y a d i c c o n s e n s u s a n d a f f ec t i ona l e x p r e s s i o n . R e l i a b i l i t y coeff ic ients a re a v a i l a b l e for e a c h o f the c o m p o n e n t s o f the sca le a s w e l l a s for the t o t a l sca le . I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y w a s c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g C r o n b a c h ' s Coe f f i c i en t A l p h a . T h e f o l l o w i n g coeff ic ients w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d : T o t a l d y a d i c a d j u s t m e n t sca le , (r = .96 ) ; D y a d i c c o n s e n s u s sca le , (r = . 90 ) ; D y a d i c s a t i s f a c t i o n sca le , (r = .94 ) ; D y a d i c cohes ion sca le , (r = .86 ) ; A f f e c t i o n e x p r e s s i o n sca le , (r = . 73 ) . b. The Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) T h e S t r u c t u r a l A n a l y s i s o f S o c i a l B e h a v i o r ( S A S B ) w a s c h o s e n for t h i s s t u d y i n o r d e r to i n v e s t i g a t e d i f fe rences i n the c o m p l e x i n t e r p e r s o n a l p a t t e r n s o f coup l e s ' b e h a v i o r b e t w e e n the th ree r e s e a r c h g r o u p s . T h e S A S B is a c i r c u m p l e x m o d e l o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r deve loped b y B e n j a m i n (1974) w h i c h offers a c o n c e p t u a l l y c o m p a t i b l e a n d c o m p r e h e n s i v e a s s e s s m e n t s y s t e m p e r m i t t i n g a n a l y s i s o f b e h a v i o r o n a n i n t e r p e r s o n a l / s y s t e m l e v e l . I t ' s m o d e l o f p s y c h o s o c i a l b e h a v i o r a n d se l f -concept i s b a s e d o n the i n t e r p e r s o n a l t h e o r y o f S u l l i v a n (1953) a n d p r i o r c i r c u m p l e x m o d e l s b y L e a r y (1957) a n d S c h a f f e r (1965) . W i g g i n s (1982) d e s c r i b e d the S A S B as " the m o s t d e t a i l e d , c l i n i c a l l y r i c h , a m b i t i o u s a n d c o n c e p t u a l l y d e m a n d i n g o f a l l c o n t e m p o r a r y m o d e l s " (p. 18). P i n s o f f (1981) s t a t e d t h a t 77 " B e n j a m i n h a s d e v e l o p e d a t h e o r e t i c a l l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d , c o m p l e x , d y n a m i c a n d m u l t i - p u r p o s e s y s t e m for a n a l y s i n g a w i d e v a r i e t y o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l a n d i n t r a p s y c h i c t r a n s a c t i o n s " (p. 2 7 3 ) a n d t h a t t h e p o t e n t i a l for i t s u se i n f a m i l y r e s e a r c h i s j u s t b e g i n n i n g to be t a p p e d . T h e S A S B M o d e l (see F i g u r e 1, c l u s t e r v e r s i o n ) cons i s t s o f th ree p l a n e s or su r f aces w h i c h c l a s s i f y i n t e r p e r s o n a l t r a n s a c t i o n s i n t e r m s o f focus . T h e first p l a n e is c a l l e d O t h e r a n d r e p r e s e n t s t r a n s i t i o n a l ac t i ons ( in i t i a t ions ) focused o n a n o t h e r p e r s o n . T h e second p l a n e i s c a l l e d S e l f a n d r e p r e s e n t s i n t r a n s i t i v e s ta tes ( responses) i n r e a c t i o n to a n o t h e r p e r s o n . T h u s , the first t w o p l a n e s , for e x a m p l e , H e I n i t i a t e s a n d S h e R e s p o n d s , a r e c o m p l e m e n t a r y . T h e t h i r d s u r f a c e , the I n t r a p s y c h i c ( I N T R O J E C T ) P l a n e desc r ibes b e h a v i o r s w h i c h re f lec t the p e r s o n ' s se l f -concept i n t e r m s o f the i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d ( B e n j a m i n , 1 9 7 4 ) . E a c h su r f ace i s b a s e d u p o n the s a m e t w o p r i m a r y , o r t h o g o n a l d i m e n s i o n s , t e r m e d a f f i l i a t i o n (hor izon ta l ) a n d i n t e rdependence (ve r t i ca l ) . C o m b i n a t i o n s o f v a r y i n g degrees o f a f f i l i a t i o n a n d i n t e rdependence c h a r a c t e r i z e a n y i n t e r p e r s o n a l o r i n t r a p s y c h i c even t . T h e h o r i z o n t a l a x i s i n the m o d e l i n F i g u r e 1 r e p r e s e n t s the d i m e n s i o n o f a f f i l i a t i o n a n d c o n t a i n s c o m p o n e n t s r a n g i n g f r o m f r i e n d l y o n the r i g h t to hos t i l e o n the left . T h e v e r t i c a l a x i s r e p r e s e n t s a d i m e n s i o n o f i n t e rdependence a n d r a n g e s f r o m i n d e p e n d e n t o r d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n the u p p e r h a l v e s to i n t e r d e p e n d e n t o r e m e s h e d i n the l o w e r h a l v e s . T h e c l o c k w i s e p r o g r e s s i o n a r o u n d a g i v e n su r f ace , t he re fo re , r e p r e s e n t s s t e p w i s e c h a n g e s i n the p r o p o r t i o n s o f u n d e r l y i n g d i m e n s i o n s o f a f f i l i a t i o n a n d i n t e rdependence . B e n j a m i n ' s S A S B m o d e l h a s been tes ted , r e f i n e d a n d r e v i s e d b y the use o f s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o v e r the p a s t 15 y e a r s ( B e n j a m i n , 1 9 7 4 , 1979 ) . C o n s t r u c t 78 I N T E R P E R S O N A L TRANSITIVE-f 0CU8 ON OTHER PRCEMO AND FOROETONO ONORINQ AMO NcaacTMa (132-122) • 1-7 ATTACXJNQ AMO m • REJECTING , KL/TTUHQ „ ANO H A U W (114-113) 1-4 AFFIRMING ANO UNDERSTANDING (112-1*3) LOVING ANO APPROACHING NURTURING AND PROTECTING (147-117) 1-« WATCHING ANO CONTROLLING I N T E R P E R S O N A L INTRANSITIVE-FOCUS ON SELF 077-217) 2-1 ASSERTING ANO SEPARATING 1-4 WALUMO OFF ANO DISTANCING, at (232-222) • PROTESTING ANO RECOUJNQ (234-23* „ 2-* SULKING ANO SCURRYING (214-213) 2-2 DISCLOSING ANO EXPRESSING > (243-2M) . „ 2-J JOYFULLY CONNECTING (243-240) TRUSTING, ANO RELYING (247-237) 2-4 DEFERRING AMD tueunrma I N T R A P S Y C H I C INTROJECTION 3-1 SPONTANEOUS SELF 2-4 DAYDREAMING AND NEGLECTING OF SELF _ (332-322) « 2-7 SCLF-REJECTING . -ANO DESTROYING -(324-313) — SELF-MOCTINO ANO OPPRESSING (314-313) 3-2 SELF-ACCEPTING .. AND EXPLORING (312-442) • ~ 1-1 SELF-LOVING ANO CHERISHING (342-344) 1-4 SELF-NOURISHING ANO ENHANCING (347-317) 3-4 SELF-MONITORING ANO RESTRAINING Figure 1 Cluster Version of Benjamin's SASB Model The top two planes describe complimentary positions for two members of a dyad. The bottom plane describes the intrapsychic result when behaviors described by the top plane are turned inward on the self. Reprinted from Intrex Users Manual (p. 1) by L.S. Benjamin, 1983, Madison, WI: Intrex Interpersonal Institute. Copyright 1983 by Intrex Interpersonal Institute. Reprinted by permission. 79 v a l i d i t y o f the 1 9 8 0 v e r s i o n o f the m o d e l i s s u p p o r t e d b y a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n s , f ac to r a n d c i r c u m p l e x a n a l y s e s , as w e l l as a d i m e n s i o n a l r a t i n g p r o c e d u r e . A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n i s a s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e w h e r e b y the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the i n d i v i d u a l p o i n t s o f the c i r c u m p l e x i s d e t e r m i n e d . T h i s s t a t i s t i c p r o v i d e s a m e a s u r e o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f the c i r c u m p l e x m o d e l ( B e n j a m i n , 1 9 7 4 , 1 9 7 9 , 1 9 8 2 ) . T h e c o r r e l a t i o n coeff ic ients i n w h i c h j u d g e s r e l a t e d i t e m s r e g a r d i n g the degree o f a u t o n o m y a n d a f f i l i a t i o n r a n g e d f r o m . 9 0 to . 9 5 . T h e m o d e l c a n be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e c o n s t r u c t e d b y the use o f f ac to r a n a l y s i s , t h u s v a l i d a t i n g the b a s i c s t r u c t u r e i n t e r m s of a f f i l i a t i o n , a u t o n o m y a n d focus . C a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s o f d i m e n s i o n r a t i n g s s u p p o r t the p r i n c i p l e s o f c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y a n d the in t ro jec t . F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to the v a l i d i t y o f the S A S B m o d e l , the r e a d e r is r e f e r r e d to B e n j a m i n ( 1 9 7 4 , 1982 ) . I N T R E X Q u e s t i o n n a i r e F o r m s A ( I N T R O J E C T ) a n d B ( In te rpe r sona l ) (1983) w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d to the S A S B m o d e l w e r e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . I N T R E X F o r m A cons i s t s o f 3 6 ques t i ons . T h e subject i s a s k e d h o w w e l l (on a sca le f r o m 0 to 100) e a c h q u e s t i o n desc r ibes h i m / h e r s e l f . T h e r a t i n g s f r o m I N T R E X F o r m A c o m p o s e the d a t a for the i n t r a p s y c h i c ( I N T R O J E C T ) p o r t i o n o f the s t u d y . I N T R E X F o r m B cons i s t s o f 1 4 4 q u e s t i o n s . F o r the f i r s t 72 q u e s t i o n s the subjec t i s a s k e d to r a t e h o w w e l l (on a sca le o f 0 to 100) e a c h q u e s t i o n desc r ibes h i s / h e r spouse , a n d for q u e s t i o n s 73 to 144 , h o w w e l l e a c h q u e s t i o n desc r ibes h i m / h e r s e l f i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e r a t i n g s f r o m I N T R E X F o r m B c o m p o s e d the d a t a for the four i n t e r p e r s o n a l p l a n e s o f the s t u d y : S p o u s e I n i t i a t e s , S p o u s e R e s p o n d s , S e l f I n i t i a t e s . a n d S e l f R e s p o n d s . T h u s subjects w e r e a s k e d for t h e i r v i e w s o n h o w t h e y s a w t h e m s e l v e s b e h a v i n g t o w a r d s t h e i r 8 0 p a r t n e r s a n d h o w t h e y i n t u r n r e s p o n d to t h e i r p a r t n e r s . P a r t n e r s w e r e c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y a s k e d h o w t h e y s a w t h e m s e l v e s b e h a v i n g toward t h e i r spouses (the subject g roup) a n d h o w t h e y i n t u r n r e s p o n d e d to t h e i r spouses . I n s t r u c t i o n s o n the I N T R E X f o r m s i n d i c a t e a score of 0 m e a n s t h a t the i t e m n e v e r a p p l i e s , 1 0 0 m e a n s the i t e m a l w a y s p e r f e c t l y app l i e s a n d 5 0 is the d e m a r k a t i o n b e t w e e n t r u e a n d fa l se . T h e use o f a b r o a d r a n g e sca le for s c o r i n g , as opposed to a d i c h o t o m o u s , ye s -no r e sponse , cu t s d o w n o n the a m o u n t o f v a r i a n c e a t t r i b u t e d to the n u i s a n c e fac tor o r acqu ie scence , w h i c h " re f l ec t s i n d i v i d u a l d i f fe rences i n the use o f the r e sponse f o r m a t r a t h e r t h a n d i f ferences i n the p e r c e p t i o n o f s e l f or o t h e r s " (p. 283) ( W i g g i n s , S t e i g e r & G a e l i c k , 1 9 8 1 ) . " T h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s opera te on the a s s u m p t i o n o f good f a i t h a n d a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t o f p r i n c i p l e s o f p s y c h i a t r i c d e f e n s i v e n e s s " (p. 405) ( B e n j a m i n , 1977 ) . T h i s m e a n s t h a t t he re i s no consc ious d i s t o r t i o n o f r a t i n g s . C o m p u t e r s c o r i n g p r o g r a m s a r e r e q u i r e d . F o r the p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , the c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m F i g u r e ( F I G ) w a s u s e d to m a r k the I N T R E X q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . F I G o r g a n i z e d the d a t a in to e i g h t q u a d r a n t s o r c l u s t e r s a c c o r d i n g to focus (self, o the r , in t ro jec t ) . R a t e r a s s i g n e d v a l u e s o n the I N T R E X Q u e s t i o n n a i r e w e r e a v e r a g e d w i t h i n e a c h q u a d r a n t to y i e l d e i g h t m e a n c l u s t e r scores for e a c h o f the five su r f aces o f the S A S B m o d e l . T h e five s u r f a c e s a re : (1) In t ro jec t , (2) S p o u s e I n i t i a t e s , (3) S p o u s e R e s p o n d s , (4) S e l f I n i t i a t e s a n d (5) S e l f R e s p o n d s . T h e e i g h t c l u s t e r n a m e s for e a c h of the five su r f ace s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 2 . B e n j a m i n (1985) s t a t e s t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s c a n i n t e r p r e t i n d i v i d u a l m e a n c l u s t e r scores w i t h conf idence due to the fac t t h a t c l u s t e r scores a re i n d e p e n d e n t o f e a c h o the r . P a t t e r n s a m o n g c l u s t e r s the re fo re a re e n t i r e l y due to o r d e r l i n e s s i n the p e r c e p t i o n o f the r a t e r . 81 F O C U S O T H E R S E L F I N T R O J E C T S e l f I n i t i a t e s S e l f R e s p o n d s S e l f C o n c e p t S p o u s e I n i t i a t e s S p o u s e R e s p o n d s P e r c e p t i o n of S e l f as R e s u l t o f T h i s R e l a t i o n s h i p 1. F r e e i n g - F o r g e t t i n g 1. A s s e r t i n g - S e p a r a t i n g 1. S p o n t a n e o u s se l f 2 . A f f i r m i n g - U n d e r s t a n d i n g 2. D i s c l o s i n g - E x p r e s s i n g 2 . S e l f a c c e p t i n g , e x p l o r i n g 3. N u r t u r i n g - C o m f o r t i n g 3. A p p r o a c h i n g - E n j o y i n g 3. S e l f n o u r i s h i n g , c h e r i s h i n g 4. H e l p i n g - P r o t e c t i n g 4. T r u s t i n g - R e l y i n g 4. S e l f p r o t e c t i n g , e n h a n c i n g 5. W a t c h i n g - M a n a g i n g 5. D e f e r r i n g - S u b m i t t i n g 5. S e l f m o n i t o r i n g , r e s t r a i n i n g 6. B e l i t t l i n g - B l a m i n g 6. S u l k i n g - A p p e a s i n g 6. S e l f i n d i c t i n g , o p p r e s s i n g 7. A t t a c k i n g - R e j e c t i n g 7. P r o t e s t i n g - W i t h d r a w i n g 7. S e l f r e j ec t i ng , d e s t r o y i n g 8. I g n o r i n g - N e g l e c t i n g 8. W a l l i n g O f f - A v o i d i n g 8. S e l f n e g l e c t i n g , d a y d r e a m i n g Figure 2 N a m e s for the E i g h t C l u s t e r s R e l a t e d to the T h r e e F o c i o f the S A S B : O t h e r , Se l f , a n d In t ro jec t B e s i d e s o r g a n i z i n g the d a t a in to e i g h t m e a n c lu s t e r scores for e a c h su r face the F I G p r o g r a m (1) g r a p h s the a v e r a g e c l u s t e r scores for e v e r y r a t i n g , (2) i den t i f i e s a bes t - f i t t h e o r e t i c a l c u r v e t h a t comes closest to d e s c r i b i n g the c u r v e g r a p h e d , a n d (3) co r r e l a t e s the a c t u a l c u r v e w i t h the t h e o r e t i c a l bes t - f i t c u r v e ( p a t t e r n coeff ic ient) a n d p r o v i d e s a t es t o f s t a t i s t i c a l s i gn i f i c ance o f the bes t - f i t c u r v e ( B e n j a m i n , 1984 ) . T h e r e a re 2 1 t h e o r e t i c a l bes t - f i t c u r v e s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e the v a r i o u s p a t t e r n s o f p ro f i l e s g e n e r a t e d f r o m I N T R E X r a t i n g s o f the i n t r a p s y c h i c a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l p l a n e s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l n a m e s o f the 21 bes t - f i t c u r v e s r a n g e f r o m , (1) F r i e n d l y I n i t i a t i v e to (21) A t t a c h m e n t D o u b l e - B i n d on the O t h e r F o c u s , a n d f r o m (1) F r i e n d l y R e s p o n s e to (21) A m b i v a l e n t A t t a c h m e n t on the S e l f F o c u s ( B e n j a m i n , 1 9 8 4 ) . 8 2 I n t h i s s t u d y , P r o f i l e A n a l y s i s w i l l be conduc t ed o n the e i g h t m e a n c l u s t e r scores o f the th ree g r o u p s ( H S D , S D y s , N S D ) for e a c h su r f ace : (1) INTROJECT, (2) Spouse Initiates, (3) Spouse Responds, (4) Self Initiates a n d (5) Self Responds. P a t t e r n coeff ic ients g e n e r a t e d b y p r o g r a m F I G , w h i c h c o r r e l a t e d e a c h o f the g r o u p prof i les to a bes t - f i t p ro f i l e , a r e r e p o r t e d i n the u p p e r r i g h t h a n d c o r n e r s o f F i g u r e s 9 t h r o u g h 18 . F i g u r e s 9 t h r o u g h 18 a re the g r a p h e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s o f the P r o f i l e A n a l y s e s . 4. Variables A f t e r d a t a co l l ec t ion , scores o n v a r i a b l e s i n the th ree s e p a r a t e d o m a i n s w e r e r e c o r d e d for subjects a n d p a r t n e r s . F i g u r e 3 p r o v i d e s a n o v e r v i e w o f the de s ign a n d the v a r i a b l e s o f the s t u d y . D o m a i n S e x u a l F u n c t i o n i n g I n t r a p s y c h i c I n t e r p e r s o n a l D S F I S H F | A B S M M P I S T A I S A S B | D A S S A S B G r o u p 1 Sub jec t • • ( H S D ) P a r t n e r • • G r o u p 2 Sub jec t • • ( S D y s ) P a r t n e r • • G r o u p 3 Sub jec t • • ( N S D ) P a r t n e r • • : : : : • • Figure 3 D e s i g n o f the S t u d y , D o m a i n s o f V a r i a b l e s , G r o u p s a n d Subjec t s o f the S t u d y 8 3 D. D A T A C O L L E C T I O N P R O C E D U R E A l l subjec ts w e r e e i t h e r r e f e r r e d to the r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n or r e s p o n d e d to a d v e r t i s i n g r eques t s for subjects to en t e r the S e x u a l i t y R e s e a r c h Pro jec t . Sub jec t s c o n t a c t e d the r e s e a r c h e r b y phone or i n p e r s o n . T h e r e s e a r c h project a n d s t u d y p r o c e d u r e w e r e e x p l a i n e d to the r e s p o n d e n t s a t t h a t t i m e . R e s p o n d e n t s i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the r e s e a r c h projec t t h e n a g r e e d to, a n d u n d e r w e n t a s c r e e n i n g p r o c e d u r e r e l a t e d to the g e n e r a l c r i t e r i a o f the s t u d y (i .e. , age , r e l a t i o n s h i p s t a t u s a n d d u r a t i o n , s e x u a l o r i e n t a t i o n , s e x u a l p r o b l e m , a n d m a r i t a l q u a l i t y ) . A p p r o p r i a t e subjects w e r e i n v i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s e x u a l i t y r e s e a r c h projec t a n d a n a p p o i n t m e n t t i m e w a s se t for the f i r s t s e s s i o n . T h e s t r u c t u r e o f the f i r s t s e s s i o n w a s e x p l a i n e d to the subjects a n d a n e s t i m a t e o f one a n d one h a l f h o u r s w a s p r o v i d e d for the p r o c e d u r e . S e s s i o n O n e : T h e r e s e a r c h p r o c e d u r e w a s r e v i e w e d for e a c h couple . T h i s w a s f o l l o w e d b y a one h a l f h o u r c l i n i c a l a s s e s s m e n t o f the c u r r e n t p r e s e n t i n g s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n . Sub jec t s f i t t i n g the c r i t e r i a o f the s t u d y w e r e t h e n p r e s e n t e d w i t h w r i t t e n i n f o r m a t i o n abou t the s e x u a l i t y r e s e a r c h projec t . I f t h e y ag reed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s t u d y b o t h spouses w e r e a s k e d to s i g n a consen t f o r m (see A p p e n d i x C ) . F o l l o w i n g th i s p rocedu re , spouses w e r e r e q u i r e d to comple t e the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s : D e m o g r a p h i c F o r m , M e d i c a l H i s t o r y F o r m ( M H F ) , S e x u a l H i s t o r y F o r m ( S H F ) , a n d the D e r o g a t i s S e x u a l F u n c t i o n i n g I n v e n t o r y ( D S F I ) . U p o n c o m p l e t i o n subjects w e r e e a c h g i v e n a n enve lope w h i c h c o n t a i n e d the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to be c o m p l e t e d a t h o m e p r i o r to the n e x t a p p o i n t m e n t : D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e ( D A S ) a n d S t r u c t u r a l A n a l y s i s o f S o c i a l B e h a v i o r ( S A S B ) I N T R E X Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , F o r m A ( i n t r a p s y c h i c ) a n d F o r m B ( in t e rpe r sona l ) . D i r e c t i o n s for c o m p l e t i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e d i s c u s s e d w i t h 8 4 e a c h coup le a n d a n a p p o i n t m e n t t i m e for the second se s s ion w a s b o o k e d . Sub jec t s w e r e a s k e d to r e t u r n t h e i r p a c k a g e o f c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on the f o l l o w i n g s e s s i o n . S e s s i o n T w o b e g a n w i t h a n i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n a d d r e s s i n g a n y ques t i ons the spouses m a y h a v e h a d r e g a r d i n g the s t u d y or the m a t e r i a l t h e y h a d c o m p l e t e d . T h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o m p l e t e d a t h o m e w e r e co l lec ted a t t h i s t i m e . E a c h subject t h e n c o m p l e t e d a S t a t e T r a i t A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r y ( S T A I ) a n d a M i n n e s o t a M u l t p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y ( M M P I ) . U p o n c o m p l e t i o n , o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , e a c h coup le w a s p a i d $ 2 5 . 0 0 for p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the r e s e a r c h . S i x t y - f i v e coup les c o m p l e t e d the s t u d y m a t e r i a l a n d accep ted the $ 2 5 . 0 0 p a y m e n t . Sub jec t s w h o r eques t ed the free f eedback /deb r i e f i ng s e s s ion w e r e g i v e n a n a p p o i n t m e n t t i m e for t w o w e e k s hence . F e e d b a c k S e s s i o n T h e t h i r d s e s s ion b e g a n w i t h a n i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n abou t the s e x u a l i t y r e s e a r c h pro jec t a n d a n o p p o r t u n i t y w a s p r o v i d e d for subjects to d i s c u s s t h e i r r eac t i ons to f i l l i n g ou t the r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l . A l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e m a r k e d i n p r e p a r a t i o n for the s e s s ion a n d feedback o n the s t u d y m a t e r i a l w a s p r o v i d e d on r eques t . E d u c a t i o n a l and /o r r e sou rce i n f o r m a t i o n w a s offered to couples i f r e q u e s t e d . F o r t y coup les r e q u e s t e d a n d r e c e i v e d the feedback s e s s ion (17 f r o m G r o u p O n e , 12 f r o m G r o u p T w o a n d 11 f r o m G r o u p T h r e e ) . S i x t y - s e v e n couples s t a r t e d a n d 6 5 coup les c o m p l e t e d the r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m . T h r e e coup le s w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y d r o p p e d f r o m the s t u d y l e a v i n g 6 2 coup les i n the r e s e a r c h d a t a base . O f the five coup les no t i n c l u d e d i n the s t u d y , t w o w e r e e x c l u d e d a f te r the first s e s s i o n . T h e first couple w a s e x c l u d e d because one subjec t ' s p a r t n e r suf fe red f r o m a t r a n s v e s t i c f e t i sh . T h e second coup le w a s 85 excluded because the partner refused to complete the questionnaires. Three couples completed the research project but were subsequently dropped from the study. In one couple, both partners suffered from sexual dysfunction. In the second couple, one partner was receiving medication for a manic depressive illness. In the third couple, one partner was well over 50 years old. E. STATISTICAL HYPOTHESES 1. Analysis I: Canonical Analysis and Analysis of Variance a. Subjects Statistical Hypothesis 1: * H 0 : R . = 0 cj The canonical correlation between the two sets of variables, sexual functioning and intrapsychic functioning, will not be significantly different from zero at the alpha = .05 level of significance. Statistical Hypotheses 2: * * H 0 : (a) u! = u2 = ix 3 , (y ( 1 ) mean scores) (b) Mi = " 2 = u3, ( x < 1 ) mean scores) There will be no statistically significant difference between the three groups of subjects on each of the canonical variate mean scores. Statistical Hypothesis 3: * H 0 : R^ = 0 The canonical correlation between the two sets of variables, sexual functioning and interpersonal functioning, will not be significantly different from zero at the alpha = .05 level of significance. * see key on page 88 * * 8 6 S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s e s 4: * * H 0 : (a) Mi = "2 = M3> ( y ( 1 ' m e a n scores) (b) M 1 = n2 — M3, ( x ( 1 > m e a n scores) T h e r e w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference b e t w e e n the th ree g r o u p s o f subjec ts on e a c h o f the c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e m e a n scores . 6. Partners of Subjects S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s 5: * H 0 : = 0 T h e c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n the t w o sets o f v a r i a b l e s , s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d i n t r a p s y c h i c f u n c t i o n i n g , w i l l no t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f fe ren t f r o m zero a t the a l p h a = .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s e s 6: * * H 0 : (a) fj, = u2 ~ M3, ( y ( 1 ' m e a n scores) (b) Mi = M 2 = 3 > ( x ( 1 ) m e a n scores) T h e r e w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference b e t w e e n the th ree g r o u p s o f p a r t n e r s on e a c h o f the c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e m e a n scores . S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s 7: * H 0 : R ^ = 0 T h e c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n the t w o sets o f v a r i a b l e s , s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l f u n c t i o n i n g , w i l l n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f fe ren t f r o m zero a t the a l p h a = .05 l e v e l o f s i gn i f i c ance . S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s e s 8: * * H 0 : (a) Mi = U2 = M3> ( y ( 1 ' m e a n scores) (b) Mi = M2 = M3, ( x ( 1 ' m e a n scores) * see k e y o n page 8 8 87 There will be no statistically significant difference between the three groups of partners on each of the canonical variate mean scores. 2. Analysis II: SASB Profile Analysis a. Subjects Statistical Hypothesis 9: * * * H 0 1 : C U , = C M 2 = C M 3 This is a test of whether or not the profiles are parallel. * * * * H 0 2 : 1'M I=1'" 2=1 ,M 3 Given the profiles are parallel, this is a test of whether or not the profiles are coincident. Statistical Hypothesis 10: * * * H 0 1 : C M I = C / U 2 = C M 3 This is a test of whether or not the profiles are parallel. * * * * H 0 2 : 1' M 1 =1'M2 = 1 ' M 3 Given the profiles are parallel, this is a test of whether or not the profiles are coincident. b. Partners of Subjects Statistical Hypothesis 11: * * * * H 0 1 : C M 1 = C M 2 = C M 3 This is a test of whether or not the profiles are parallel. * * * * H 0 2 : l ' M i =1'M2=1 ' M 3 Given the profiles are parallel, this is a test of whether or not the profiles are 88 coincident. Statistical Hypothesis 12: * * * H 0 1 : C M 1 = C # U 2 = C M 3 This is a test of whether or not the profiles are parallel. * * * * H 0 2 : I ' m = 1 ' M 2 = 1'M 3 Given the profiles are parallel, this is a test of whether or not the profiles are coincident. Key R . denotes the population canonical correlation coefficient, cj denote canonical variate pairs resulting from the canonical analysis. The superscript denotes the number of the canonical pair. Bold face letters are used as matrix or vector notations. C denotes a transformation matrix and u y refers to a mean vector on P variables for Group One. Subscript denotes group. 1' denotes the transpose of a unit vector. Bold face is used as matrix notation. Subscript denotes group (Johnson & Wichern, 1988, pp. 244-249). F. DATA ANALYSIS This study was based on a three group ex post facto comparison design. Variables were examined in the domains of sexual functioning, intrapsychic characteristics and interpersonal dynamics. Two multivariate analyses were performed on separate research data to address the hypotheses of the study. * R . cj ** and C M I * * * * i f 89 Analysis I involved a Canonical Correlation Analysis. Analysis II involved Profile Analysis of the SASB data. A flow chart of the statistical procedures used in the study is presented in Figure 4. 1. Canonical Correlation Analysis Canonical correlation analyses were performed initially to determine the strength and complexity of the relationship between sexual functioning and intrapsychic variables as well as sexual functioning and interpersonal variables for subjects and for their partners (Hypotheses 1, 3, 5, 7). The overall objective of canonical correlation is to generate pairs of variable combinations (canonical variates) so that the correlations between them are maximized. The purpose of the Canonical analysis was to reduce the number of variables of the study down to a manageable size while at the same time to achieve conceptual clarity as to the importance and strength of individual variables. Each canonical variate was a new variable generated from the larger set of original variables and as such, the canonical variates measured constructs underlying the original variables. The canonical variates obtained in this study were characterized in terms of the underlying constructs. The underlying constructs were derived from a pattern analysis of the standardized weights given to each variable on the canonical variate and, in addition, on the loadings (structure coefficients) of the original variable on each principal component-like canonical variate. Pattern analysis focused on the relative size of the weights in each variate while structure analysis centered on the structural coefficients or factor-like loadings of the variables on each composite or canonical variate. The canonical variates obtained in the Canonical analysis were then used as the criterion variables for Analysis Variables Step I Step Step Step IV I. Canonical Correlation Analysis HI. Sexual Functioning Domain; SHF; desire arousal orgasm emotion - during sexual activity DSFI: SFI - current sexual functioning Intrapsychic Domain MMPI hypochondrasis, depression hysteria, psychopathic deviate, masculine/femi-nine, paranoia, psych'athenia, schizo-phrenia, hypomania, social intro-version STAI sexual anxiety, trait anxiety ABS affect balance Interpersonal Domain; DAS consensus cohesion affection satisfaction Four Canonical Correlations Subjects 1. Sexual Functioning & Intrapsychic 2. Sexual Functioning &. Interpersonal Partners 3. Sexual Functioning Si Intrapsychic 4. Sexual Functioning & Interpersonal Pattern Analysis Structure Coefficient Analysis A N O V A ; to lest for significance of group difference on canonical variates generated in canonical analysis Student Newman-Keuls test procedure Profile Analysis SASB Intrapsychic Introject (8 cluster scores) SASB Interpersonal Spouse Initiates (8 cluster scores) Spouse Responds (8 cluster scores) Seff Initiates (8 cluster scores) - B f f " Ten Profile Analyses Sub jects Introject Spouse Initiates Spouse Responds Self Initiates Self Responds Group profiles tested for parallelism using Hotelling's test Group profiles tested for coincidence using A N O V A procedures Student Newman-Keuls test procedure Partners 1. Introject (8 cluster scores) 2 Spouse Initiates 3' Spouse Responds 4 Self Initiates 5' Self Responds Figure 4 Flow Chart for Statistical Procedures, Steps I to IV O 9 1 f u r t h e r s t u d y o f g r o u p d i f ferences ( H y p o t h e s e s 2 , 4, 6, 8) b y m e a n s o f a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e ( A N O V A ) . C a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s h a s been t e r m e d m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e for e x a m i n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t w o sets of v a r i a b l e s (Coo ley & L o h n e s , 1 9 7 1 ; G r e e n , 1 9 7 8 ; T h o r n d i k e , 1977 ) . T h e object ive o f c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n i s to g e n e r a t e p a i r s o f v a r i a b l e c o m b i n a t i o n s ( canon i ca l v a r i a t e s ) so t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e m a re m a x i m i z e d . I n t h i s sense , c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n p r o v i d e s us w i t h a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f the o v e r a l l s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d m a g n i t u d e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t w o sets o f v a r i a b l e s . T h e object ive o f the a n a l y s i s i s to d e t e r m i n e the c o m p l e x i t y a n d the n a t u r e o f t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p . A n u m b e r o f b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l i e c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s . N o c o l l i n e a r i t i e s , o r n e a r c o l l i n e a r i t i e s s h o u l d be p r e s e n t i n e i t he r v a r i a b l e set. T h e r e f o r e , v a r i a b l e s h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h i n the s a m e se t s h o u l d no t be i n c l u d e d . S a m p l e s ize s h o u l d be l a r g e c o m p a r e d to the t o t a l n u m b e r o f v a r i a b l e s to e n s u r e t h a t the s o l u t i o n is s t ab le ( M a r a s c u i l o & L e v i n , 1 9 8 3 ) . A l t h o u g h t he r e i s no r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t the v a r i a b l e s be n o r m a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d w h e n c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n i s u s e d d e s c r i p t i v e l y , in fe rences r e g a r d i n g n u m b e r o f s i g n i f i c a n t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e p a i r s p roceeds o n the a s s u m p t i o n o f m u l t i v a r i a t e n o r m a l i t y w h i c h is e n h a n c e d i f u n i v a r i a t e n o r m a l i t y is e s t a b l i s h e d ( T a b a c h n i c k & F i d e l l , 1983 ) . U n i v a r i a t e n o r m a l i t y c a n be d e t e r m i n e d b y a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f s k e w n e s s a n d k u r t o s i s . W i t h m i n i m a l l y s k e w e d v a r i a t e s a n d l a r g e s a m p l e s , the c e n t r a l l i m i t t h e o r e m c a n be i n v o k e d to s p e a k to m u l t i v a r i a t e n o r m a l i t y , w h i c h i n i t s e l f i s d i f f i cu l t to e s t a b l i s h ( T a b a c h n i c k & F i d e l l , 1983) . O u t l i e r s affect c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s a s t h e y do o the r m u l t i v a r i a t e t e c h n i q u e s . U n i v a r i a t e o u t l i e r s c a n be de tec ted a m o n g c o n t i n u o u s v a r i a b l e s b y c h e c k i n g t h a t 92 a l l cases h a v e s t a n d a r d i z e d scores ± 3 . 0 0 . A n y s t a n d a r d score above or b e l o w ± 3 . 0 0 c a n be v i e w e d as a n o u t l i e r a l t h o u g h w i t h a l a r g e s a m p l e s ize one w o u l d a n t i c i p a t e a f e w s t a n d a r d scores i n excess o f ± 3 . 0 0 ( T a b a c h n i c k & F i d e l l , 1 9 8 3 ) . S t a b i l i t y o f the c a n o n i c a l s o l u t i o n for subjects (n = 62) a n d p a r t n e r s (n = 62) w a s F i r s t t e s t ed b y r u n n i n g a c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n for the t o t a l subject s a m p l e ( n = 1 2 4 ) . T h e s o l u t i o n w a s s tab le i n b o t h a n a l y s e s . T w o (n = 62) d a t a se ts w e r e t h e n c h o s e n for f u r t h e r a n a l y s e s to add re s s the f i r s t e i g h t r e s e a r c h ques t i ons . B a r t l e t t ' s t es t o f s t a t i s t i c a l s i gn i f i cance o f the se t s o f c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s w a s a p p l i e d to d e t e r m i n e h o w m a n y s i g n i f i c a n t sets o f v a r i a t e s w e r e g e n e r a t e d i n e a c h c o r r e l a t i o n . B a r t l e t t ' s t e s t i n d i ca t e s the n u m b e r o f c a n o n i c a l v a r i a b l e s n e c e s s a r y to e x p r e s s the d e p e n d e n c y b e t w e e n the t w o se ts o f v a r i a b l e s . T h e n e c e s s a r y n u m b e r o f c a n o n i c a l v a r i a b l e s is the s m a l l e s t n u m b e r o f e i g e n v a l u e s s u c h t h a t the tes t o f the r e m a i n i n g e i g e n v a l u e s is n o n s i g n i f i c a n t . B a r t l e t t ' s t es t i s b a s e d o n p a r t i t i o n i n g the c h i - s q u a r e d s t a t i s t i c a s s o c i a t e d w i t h W i l k ' s L a m b d a s e q u e n t i a l l y to e a c h o f the c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s ( T a b a c h n i c k & F i d e l l , 1 9 8 3 ) . S i g n i f i c a n c e is t h u s d e t e r m i n e d b y e x a m i n i n g the c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s , the e i g e n v a l u e s ( w h i c h r e p r e s e n t the p e r c e n t a g e o f o v e r l a p p i n g v a r i a n c e b e t w e e n the first p a i r o f c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s ) a n d the r e s u l t s o f the c h i - s q u a r e test . C o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h r < . 3 0 a re u s u a l l y no t i n t e r p r e t e d e v e n i f t h e y a re s i g n i f i c a n t because t h e y r e p r e s e n t less t h a n 1 0 % o f the v a r i a n c e ( T a b a c h n i c k & F i d e l l , 1983 ) . T h e s t r u c t u r e coeff ic ients i n d i c a t e the m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s for the d i m e n s i o n s u n d e r l y i n g the v a r i a b l e sets . T h e a v e r a g e a m o u n t o f v a r i a n c e of a c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e t h a t c a n be a t t r i b u t e d to the o r i g i n a l set o f v a r i a b l e s c o n t r i b u t i n g to the v a r i a t e is c a l l e d the pe rcen tage o f v a r i a n c e . F o r e x a m p l e , the 9 3 p e r c e n t a g e o f v a r i a n c e i n the c a n o n i c a l compos i t e y ^ , i s a ccoun ted for b y the v a r i a b l e s u n d e r l y i n g t h a t v a r i a t e . O n the o the r h a n d , the R e d u n d a n c y I n d e x i nd i ca t e s the p r o p o r t i o n o f v a r i a n c e o f the v a r i a b l e s of one se t t h a t i s a c c o u n t e d for b y the l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f the v a r i a b l e s o f the o the r set . I f t he c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n the sets o f v a r i a b l e s is h i g h , p r e d i c t i o n b e t w e e n the sets i s a l so e x p e c t e d to be h i g h ( T h o r n d i k e , 1977 ) . I n the a n a l y s i s o f the c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n , f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n w a s c a r r i e d o u t b y m e a n s o f A N O V A o n the c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e scores af ter the u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t s o f the v a r i a t e s w e r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d . a. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) C o r r e s p o n d i n g to r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s 2, 4, 6, a n d 8, c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s g e n e r a t e d i n the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s w e r e u s e d as c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s i n s u b s e q u e n t A N O V A ' s to d e t e r m i n e i f the th ree g r o u p s d i f fe red s i g n i f i c a n t l y o n the c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s . A N O V A ' s w e r e conduc ted for e a c h c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e g e n e r a t e d f r o m the subjects a n d f r o m the p a r t n e r s d a t a . S i g n i f i c a n c e o f g r o u p d i f fe rences w e r e t e s t ed u s i n g the S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s t es t p r o c e d u r e . C a n o n i c a l A n a l y s e s a n d A n a l y s e s o f V a r i a n c e w e r e u n d e r t a k e n to a n s w e r R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s e s 1 t h r o u g h 8. T h e s e e igh t h y p o t h e s e s a d d r e s s e d the q u e s t i o n as to the s t r e n g t h a n d n a t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s a n d i n t r a p s y c h i c a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s a n d w h e t h e r o r n o t these r e l a t i o n s h i p s v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g to g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p . 94 2. Profile Analysis of the S A S B G r o u p P r o f i l e A n a l y s e s w e r e u n d e r t a k e n to a n s w e r R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s e s 9 t h r o u g h 12 . T h e s e h y p o t h e s e s a d d r e s s e d the q u e s t i o n as to w h e t h e r o r n o t i n t e r p e r s o n a l m a r i t a l b e h a v i o r a n d s e l f concep t d i f fers i n some w a y i n spouses w h e r e h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i re i s a p r o b l e m as c o m p a r e d to spouses i n w h i c h a r o u s a l or o r g a s m d i f f i cu l t i e s o c c u r o r spouses w i t h no s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n a t a l l . T h e d a t a for the prof i l e a n a l y s e s w e r e g e n e r a t e d f r o m subjec ts ' r a t i n g s o f 1 8 0 ques t i ons c o m p r i s i n g I N T R E X f o r m s A ( I n t r a p s y c h i c ) a n d B ( in t e rpe r sona l ) w h i c h a re the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e l a t i n g to the S A S B m o d e l ( B e n j a m i n , 1983 ) . I N T R E X f o r m A , for e x a m p l e , i s c o m p o s e d o f 3 6 ques t i ons e a c h o f w h i c h r e l a t e s to one o f the e i g h t c l u s t e r po in t s o n the S A S B m o d e l . T h e r e a r e 4 or 5 q u e s t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a c h c l u s t e r po in t . T h e subjec ts ' r a t i n g s o f the 4 o r 5 q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n e d w i t h one speci f ic p o i n t a r e a v e r a g e d to p r o v i d e a m e a n score for t h a t c l u s t e r . T h e r e a re 8 m e a n c l u s t e r scores per p ro f i l e . T h e 144 q u e s t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n t e r p e r s o n a l I N T R E X f o r m B a r e d i v i d e d in to 4 i n t e r p e r s o n a l su r f ace s c o m p o s e d o f 3 6 ques t i ons p e r su r f ace . T h e r e a r e 8 m e a n c l u s t e r scores for e a c h i n t e r p e r s o n a l su r face a n d the re a re 4 i n t e r p e r s o n a l su r faces : spouse initiates, spouse responds, self initiates a n d self responds., G r o u p p ro f i l e a n a l y s e s w e r e p e r f o r m e d on the one i n t r a p s y c h i c a n d fou r i n t e r p e r s o n a l s u r f a c e s o f the S A S B for sub jec t s ' a n d for p a r t n e r s ' d a t a . P r o f i l e a n a l y s i s is a p p r o p r i a t e i n s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e a b a t t e r y o f ques t i ons is a d m i n i s t e r e d to d i f fe ren t g r o u p s o f subjects a n d one w i s h e s to k n o w i f the g r o u p s d i f fer i n s o m e w a y o n t h e i r r e sponse ( J o h n s o n & W i c h e r n , 1 9 8 8 ) . T w o a s s u m p t i o n s o f p ro f i l e a n a l y s i s a re t h a t r e s p o n s e s for the d i f fe ren t g r o u p s a r e i n d e p e n d e n t o f one a n o t h e r , a n d t h a t a l l r e s p o n s e s a r e e x p r e s s e d i n s i m i l a r u n i t s . T h e s e t w o 95 assumptions are true of the SASB data. In profile analysis the question of statistically significant difference between group profiles is formulated in a stepwise fashion. The first question addressed is: Are the profiles parallel in the sense that the line segments of the graphs are parallel? The second question addressed is: Assuming the profiles are parallel, are they coincident, or, are there significant groups differences? Again, assuming parallelism, the third question addressed is: Are the profiles level, for example, are the responses to each question the same? The null hypotheses for step one and two of the analysis are represented by Johnson and Wichern (1988, p. 245) as follows: H 0 , : C M I = C M2 = C M 3 test for parallel profiles H 0 2 - l * M i = 1' M 2 = 1' M 3 test for coincident profiles The symbols are to be interpreted as follows: Bold faced letters are used as matrix notations. Subscript notations denote group membership. In H 0 , , C denotes a transformation matrix and M refers to a mean vector on p variables. In H 0 2 , 1' denotes the transpose of a unit vector (Johnson & Wichern, 1988). In this study, the third test for level profiles will not be undertaken. The rationale for this decision lies in the circumplex nature of the SASB model. The circumplex order of the model results in a curved graph output of mean cluster scores for every surface, which precludes a flat or level profile. Profile coefficients for the best-fit theoretical curve from the SASB model, however, will be reported as discussed in Chapter III. To review, SASB computer marking program FIG employed in this study, identifies a best-fit theoretical curve that comes closest to describing the data curve graphed. The FIG program correlates the data curve with one of the 21 theoretical best-fit curves of the SASB model 9 6 a n d p r o v i d e s a t es t o f s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the bes t - f i t c u r v e . F o r i n t e r p r e t i v e p u r p o s e s , the S A S B bes t - f i t c o r r e l a t i o n coeff ic ient w i l l be r e c o r d e d a l o n g w i t h the g r a p h i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d r e s u l t s o f the p rof i l e a n a l y s e s . T h e S A S B bes t - f i t c o r r e l a t i o n coeff ic ients a re r e p o r t e d i n the u p p e r r i g h t h a n d c o r n e r o f F i g u r e s 9 t h r o u g h 18 i n C h a p t e r I V . S P S S X profile analysis ( S P S S Inc . , 1 9 8 8 ) w a s c h o s e n to a n a l y s e g r o u p di f ferences i n S A S B d a t a . E a c h o f the f ive su r f ace s of the S A S B w a s a n a l y s e d s e p a r a t e l y . T h e f ive su r faces a g a i n w e r e : (1) Int roject , (2) spouse i n i t i a t e s , (3) spouse r e s p o n d s , (4) s e l f i n i t i a t e s a n d (5) s e l f r e s p o n d s . P r o f i l e s w e r e g e n e r a t e d for e a c h o f the f ive su r f ace s a n d tes ts o f s ign i f i cance a p p l i e d to d e t e r m i n e i f the g r o u p p ro f i l e s d i f fe red s i g n i f i c a n t l y . S P S S X profile analysis g e n e r a t e d tes ts o f s i gn i f i c ance p e r t i n e n t to the h y p o t h e s e s r e l a t e d to p a r a l l e l i s m a n d co inc idence o f p ro f i l e s . T o t e s t the f i r s t n u l l h y p o t h e s i s o f p a r a l l e l p ro f i l e s , H 0 1 , H o t e l l i n g ' s T 2 p r o c e d u r e w a s u s e d a c c o r d i n g to J o h n s o n a n d W i c h e r n ( 1 9 8 8 , p . 2 4 5 ) . T h e second n u l l h y p o t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g c o i n c i d e n t g r o u p p ro f i l e s , H 0 2 , w a s t e s t ed i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h J o h n s o n a n d W i c h e r n ' s p r o c e d u r e ( 1 9 8 8 , p . 2 4 6 ) . I f H 0 , w a s re jec ted , the s econd a n a l y s i s does no t a p p l y . I f H 0 , w a s t enab le , H 0 2 w a s t h e n t e s t ed a n d r e p o r t e d . A n a l p h a l e v e l o f . 05 w a s se t t h r o u g h o u t . G. SUMMARY C h a p t e r I I I h a s p r e s e n t e d the m e t h o d o l o g y o f the s t u d y f r o m d e s i g n a n d subject s e l ec t i on , t h r o u g h to m e t h o d s o f d a t a a n a l y s i s . T h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r p r e sen t s the r e s u l t s o f the d a t a a n a l y s e s . C H A P T E R IV. R E S U L T S T h e r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s e s a re d i v i d e d in to t h r ee sec t ions . T h e first s ec t i on p r e s e n t s a s u m m a r y o f d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a c o n c e r n i n g the th ree g r o u p s : H y p o a c t i v e S e x u a l D e s i r e , S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n a n d N o S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n . S e c t i o n t w o p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s o f the C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n A n a l y s e s a n d the A n a l y s e s o f V a r i a n c e r e l e v a n t to r e s e a r c h a n d s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s e s 1 t h r o u g h 8. S e c t i o n th ree r e p o r t s the r e s u l t s o f the P r o f i l e A n a l y s e s o f the S A S B d a t a r e l e v a n t to r e s e a r c h a n d s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s e s 9 t h r o u g h 12 . A . S U M M A R Y O F D E S C R I P T I V E D A T A A t o t a l o f 62 couples w e r e a s s i g n e d to one o f t h ree g r o u p s a c c o r d i n g to the c r i t e r i a o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r I I I . O n the b a s i s o f the c r i t e r i a , t w e n t y - t w o coup les w e r e a s s i g n e d to the H y p o a c t i v e S e x u a l D e s i r e ( H S D ) g r o u p . O f the 22 subjects i n the H S D g r o u p , 5 (23%) w e r e a s s i g n e d a d i a g n o s i s o f l i f e long , g e n e r a l i z e d H S D a n d 17 (77%) w e r e a s s i g n e d a d i a g n o s i s o f a c q u i r e d , g e n e r a l i z e d H S D . F o u r subjects a s s i g n e d the d i a g n o s i s o f l i f e long , g e n e r a l i z e d H S D w e r e r e f e r r e d to a s ex t h e r a p y c l i n i c for p s y c h o s e x u a l c o u n s e l l i n g b y t h e i r p h y s i c i a n af ter i t w a s c o n c l u d e d t h a t the p r o b l e m w a s no t o r g a n i c a l l y b a s e d . T h e fifth subjec t w h o w a s a s s i g n e d a d i a g n o s i s o f l i f e l o n g , g e n e r a l i z e d H y p o a c t i v e S e x u a l D e s i r e h a d b e e n r e f e r r e d for p s y c h o s e x u a l t h e r a p y b y a p h y s i c i a n af ter a n e x t e n s i v e h o r m o n a l a n a l y s i s . A l l the r e l a t i v e h o r m o n a l v a l u e s w e r e found to be w i t h i n the n o r m a l r a n g e . E i g h t e e n (82%) of the subject g r o u p w e r e f e m a l e a n d 4 (18%) w e r e m a l e . T w e n t y - o n e couples w e r e a s s i g n e d to the S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n ( S D y s ) g r o u p . O f the 2 1 subjects i n the S D y s g r o u p , 9 (43%) w e r e f ema le s a n d 12 (57%) 9 7 9 8 w e r e m a l e s . O f the f ema le s , 7 (33%) w e r e a s s i g n e d a d i a g n o s i s o f i n h i b i t e d f e m a l e o r g a s m , l i f e long , g e n e r a l i z e d , a n d 2 (10%) w e r e a s s i g n e d a d i a g n o s i s o f i n h i b i t e d f e m a l e o r g a s m , l i f e l o n g , s i t u a t i o n a l . O f the m a l e s , 5 (25%) w e r e a s s i g n e d a d i a g n o s i s o f p r e m a t u r e e j a c u l a t i o n , a n d 7 (33%) w e r e a s s i g n e d a d i a g n o s i s o f m a l e e rec t i l e d i s o r d e r , a c q u i r e d , s i t u a t i o n a l . G r o u p 2 w a s m a t c h e d w i t h G r o u p 1 for age. N i n e t e e n couples w e r e a s s i g n e d to c o m p a r i s o n G r o u p 3, e n t i t l e d N o S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n . G r o u p 3 w a s m a t c h e d w i t h G r o u p 1 for age . T h e m e a n age o f G r o u p 1 w a s 3 8 . 0 (sd 6.6); the m e a n age o f G r o u p 2 w a s 3 7 . 2 (sd 7.8) ; a n d the m e a n age o f G r o u p 3 w a s 3 5 . 0 (sd 6 .4) . T h e r e w a s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n the ages o f the subjects i n the th ree g r o u p s [ F ( 2 , 1 2 1 ) = 2 . 0 2 , p > . 0 5 ] i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the age m a t c h i n g p r o c e d u r e w a s adequa t e . S p o u s e s i n G r o u p 3 w e r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d to a subject o r p a r t n e r c a t e g o r y for d a t a a n a l y s i s . T o check for a n y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d sub j ec t / pa r tne r v a r i a b l e scores , t - tests w e r e p e r f o r m e d o n the D S F I , D A S , M M P I a n d S T A I scores a n d d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a . T h e r e w a s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n the r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d sub j ec t / pa r tne r ca tegor ies o n a n y o f the v a r i a b l e s o r d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a . O f the r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d subject g r o u p , 11 (58%) w e r e m a l e a n d 8 (42%) w e r e f ema le . A s r e p o r t e d i n C h a p t e r I I I , m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s o f the A N O V A s r e l e v a n t to H y p o t h e s e s 2 a n d 4 w e r e c a r r i e d o u t to t e s t for g e n d e r effects because of the d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e c e l l f r equenc ies ac ross g r o u p s . T h e r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s e s w e r e t h a t the n u l l h y p o t h e s e s o f no gende r effects w e r e t enab le a t the .05 l e v e l o f s i gn i f i cance i n e a c h i n s t a n c e . D e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the th ree g r o u p s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1. T h e t o t a l s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n w a s c o m p o s e d o f p r e d o m i n a n t l y w h i t e , m i d d l e 99 T a b l e 1 Demographic Characteristics of the Three Groups: Hypoactive Sexual Desire (HSD), Sexual Dysfunction (SDys), and No Sexual Dysfunction (NSD) Demographic Characteristic Group 1 (HSD) n = 44 Group 2 (SDys) n = 42 Group 3 (NSD) n = 38 Age (years) Duration of Relationship (cohabitation) (years) Marital Status (%) Married/ Commonlaw Remarried Education (%)1 Grade 10 or less High School Graduate Post Secondary (2 years) Community College Program Completed University Degree Graduate Degree Religious Affiliation (%) Catholic Protestant Jewish Other x = 38.0 x = 37.2 SD = 6.6 SD = 7.8 range: 24-50 range: 23-50 x = 11.5 SD = 6.4 84.1 15.9 2.3 27.3 13.6 27.3 11.4 18.2 13.6 34.1 0.0 52.2 x = 9.8 SD = 6.2 88.1 11.9 4.8 16.7 16.7 11.9 33.3 16.7 11.9 42.9 0.0 45.2 x = 35.0 SD = 6.4 range: 23-47 x = 5.9 SD = 4.4 92.1 7.9 2.6 15.8 13.2 15.8 44.7 7.9 2.6 15.8 2.6 78.9 ^he percentages given are not additive. class, well educated individuals. All subjects were second generation North Americans and were residents of a westcoast urban Canadian city. The average age of the 124 participants was 36.7 years (sd = 7.0 years). For 81 (65.3%) of the respondents, this was their first marriage. Fifteen (12%) had been married twice while 28 (23%) were living commonlaw. The average length of a relationship was 9.2 years (sd = 6.2 years). Thirteen (10%) of respondents had one child; 26% had two children; 13% had three children; 7% had four children; 2% 1 0 0 h a d 5 c h i l d r e n a n d 3 9 % w e r e c h i l d l e s s . F i f t y p e r c e n t o f r e s p o n d e n t s h a d c h i l d r e n p r e s e n t l y l i v i n g a t h o m e . I n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g r e l i g i o u s p re fe rence i n d i c a t e d t h a t 1 0 % o f the r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e C a t h o l i c ; 3 2 % P r o t e s t a n t ; 1% J e w i s h . F i f t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t o f the r e s p o n d e n t s e i t h e r left the q u e s t i o n u n a n s w e r e d (47%) or i n d i c a t e d a n a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h a n " O t h e r " r e l i g i o n w h i c h w a s u n s p e c i f i e d (10%). R e s p o n d e n t s w e r e g e n e r a l l y w e l l educa t ed . E i g h t e e n r e s p o n d e n t s h a d a t t e n d e d g r a d u a t e schoo l ; 36 h a d c o m p l e t e d a u n i v e r s i t y degree; 2 3 h a d a t t e n d e d col lege w h i l e 18 h a d c o m p l e t e d t w o y e a r s o f pos t s e c o n d a r y t r a i n i n g . T w e n t y - f i v e h a d a c h i e v e d h i g h school g r a d u a t i o n . O n l y 4 h a d c o m p l e t e d g rade 10 or l e s s . A c h i - s q u a r e t e s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t he r e w a s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n the t h r ee g r o u p s o n l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n (x 2 = 1 5 . 3 ; p > . 0 5 ) . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence i n the d u r a t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p , h o w e v e r , b e t w e e n the g r o u p s [ F ( 2 , 1 2 1 ) = 9 . 8 4 , p < . 0 5 ] . S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s t es t p r o c e d u r e i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n the l e n g t h o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s for G r o u p 1 a n d 2 b u t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference b e t w e e n G r o u p 3 a n d the o the r t w o g r o u p s . T h e p r o b a b i l i t y of d i f fe rences b e t w e e n the c o n t r o l g r o u p ( N S D ) a n d the t w o s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l g r o u p s ( H S D , S D y s ) b e i n g due to the di f ference i n the l e n g t h o f r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the g r o u p s w a s i n v e s t i g a t e d u s i n g the a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e p r o c e d u r e i n w h i c h the c o v a r i a t e w a s l e n g t h o f r e l a t i o n s h i p a n d the i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e w a s g r o u p s . T h e r e s u l t s s h o w e d t h a t the a s s u m p t i o n o f e q u a l i t y o f s lope for the a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e p r o c e d u r e w a s t enab le a n d t h a t the a m o u n t o f v a r i a n c e i n the dependen t v a r i a b l e s ( i .e . , t he c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s r e l a t i v e to H y p o t h e s e s 2 a n d 4) w a s n e v e r m o r e t h a n 3 % . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , a n a d j u s t m e n t o f the m e a n s for the d i f ferences on the c o v a r i a t e s b e t w e e n the g r o u p s w a s u n d e r t a k e n a n d a tes t for the s ign i f i cance o f the g r o u p di f ference o n the 101 ad jus ted m e a n s w a s c a l c u l a t e d . T h e ad jus ted m e a n s w e r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the . 0 5 l e v e l as i n d i c a t e d i n the l a t e r a n a l y s e s ( A N O V A s ) r e p o r t e d for t e s t i n g H y p o t h e s e s 2 a n d 4 . T h e m e a n s a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f the s t u d y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c a n be f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x G . A s the v a r i a b l e s w e r e t r a n s f o r m e d for the d a t a a n a l y s e s i n the s t u d y the d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s o f the s t u d y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a re not p r e s e n t e d i n the m a i n body o f the d i s s e r t a t i o n . B. R E S U L T S : C A N O N I C A L A N A L Y S I S A N D A N A L Y S I S O F V A R I A N C E I n the f o l l o w i n g s ec t ion , the r e s e a r c h a n d s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s e s a re r e s t a t e d for c l a r i t y o f p r e s e n t a t i o n . S e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l subjects w e r e a n a l y s e d s e p a r a t e l y f r o m t h e i r p a r t n e r s a n d precede the l a t t e r i n p r e s e n t a t i o n . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s r e l e v a n t to the r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s w i l l conc lude e a c h sec t ion . 1. Subjects Research Hypothesis 1 T h e r e w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s a s m e a s u r e d b y the S H F a n d D S F I a n d i n t r a p s y c h i c v a r i a b l e s as m e a s u r e d b y the M M P I , S T A I a n d A B S . Statistical Hypothesis 1 H o : R c j = 0 T h e c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n the t w o sets o f v a r i a b l e s , s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d i n t r a p s y c h i c f u n c t i o n i n g , w i l l n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e ren t f r o m zero a t the a l p h a = . 0 5 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . 102 i . Resu l t s o f T e s t i n g Stat i s t ica l H y p o t h e s i s 1 A canonical correlation analysis was performed between a set of sexual functioning variables and a set of intrapsychic variables using BMDP6M (Dixon, 1985). The sexual functioning set included frequency of feelings of sexual desire (desire), feelings of sexual arousal with mate (arousal) , ability to achieve orgasm (orgasm), and affective state during sexual activity with mate (emotion) as measured by the Sexual History Form (SHF), and a measure of the subjects' current level of sexual functioning (SFI) as measured by the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI). The intrapsychic set included personality characteristics, as measured by the 10 clinical scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI): h y p o c h o n d r i a s i s , d e p r e s s i o n , hys ter ia , p s y c h o p a t h i c deviate , m a s c u l i n i t y / f e m i n i n i t y , p a r a n o i a , p s y c h a s t h e n i a , s c h i z o p h r e n i a , h y p o m a n i a , and soc ia l i n t r o v e r s i o n ; affect as measured by the Affect Balance Scale (ABS); and s e x u a l anx ie ty and tra i t anx ie ty as measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). In the sexual functioning variable set, increasingly large positive numbers reflect increasing levels of sexual functioning (SFI) and decreasing frequency of sexual des i re , a r o u s a l and o r g a s m , and the expression of negative emot ions during sexual activity. Large negative numbers on the same measures reflect decreasing levels of current sexual functioning (SFI), and increased frequency of sexual des ire , a r o u s a l and o r g a s m as well as the absence of negative emot ions during sexual activity with partner. In the intrapsychic variable set, increasingly large positive numbers reflect increasingly higher T-score values on the MMPI scales, increasing levels of s e x u a l anx ie ty and tra i t anx ie ty and positive affect balance while increasingly large negative numbers reflect negative 103 affect b a l a n c e as m e a s u r e d b y the Affective Balance Scale ( A B S ) . i i . Assumptions A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f u n i v a r i a t e n o r m a l i t y i n d i c a t e d n o n e x c e s s i v e s k e w n e s s a n d k u r t o s i s o f e a c h v a r i a b l e . T h e a s s u m p t i o n o f n o n - m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y w a s u p h e l d (see T a b l e 3) s ince the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f e v e r y v a r i a b l e i n e a c h se t w i t h a l l o the r v a r i a b l e s i n the s a m e set w e r e l ess t h a n . 9 9 ( T a b a c h n i c k & F i d e l l , 1 9 8 3 ) . T h e p lo t i n F i g u r e 5 i nd i ca t e s t h a t the a s s u m p t i o n o f a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the f i r s t p a i r o f c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s w a s r e a s o n a b l e . A l l s t a n d a r d i z e d score v a l u e s w e r e w i t h i n + 3 . 0 0 s t a n d a r d score u n i t s w h i c h i n d i c a t e s no se r ious o u t l i e r s . T h e r e w e r e no m i s s i n g d a t a . i i i . Results T h e c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n d the r e s u l t s o f the x 2 t e s t for s t a t i s t i c a l s i gn i f i c ance o f the c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n T a b l e 4. T h e f i r s t c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n w a s . 8 3 . S u b s e q u e n t x 2 tes ts w e r e no t s i g n i f i c a n t . T h e e i g e n v a l u e i s the s q u a r e o f the c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n coef f ic ien t a n d i nd i c a t e s the p r o p o r t i o n o f v a r i a n c e s h a r e d b y the t w o sets o f v a r i a b l e s . T h e r e s u l t s s h o w t h a t 7 0 % o f the v a r i a n c e is s h a r e d b y the t w o sets o f v a r i a b l e s . T h e f i r s t c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n there fore accoun t s for the s i g n i f i c a n t l i n k a g e b e t w e e n the t w o se ts o f v a r i a b l e s . C a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s e x c e e d i n g . 8 0 a re c o n s i d e r e d to be s t r o n g w h i l e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n . 6 0 a n d . 7 9 a re cons ide red to be m o d e r a t e . C a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s o f . 5 9 a n d l o w e r a re c o n s i d e r e d to be w e a k ( T h o m p s o n , 1984 ) . A n a l y s e s o f the f i r s t p a i r o f c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s [ y ( 1 } a n d x ( 1 ' ] a p p e a r i n T a b l e 5. T h e p e r c e n t a g e o f v a r i a n c e , r e d u n d a n c y f igu res a n d the s ize o f the c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n coeff ic ient i n d i c a t e t h a t the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s w a s eff ic ient . 104 T a b l e 3 C a n o n i c a l A n a l y s i s : T e s t for M u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y o f V a r i a b l e s S q u a r e d m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f e a c h v a r i a b l e i n second se t w i t h a l l o the r v a r i a b l e s i n second se t Variable R-Squared M M P I 1 H y p o c h o n d r i a s i s . 71 2 D e p r e s s i o n .64 3 H y s t e r i a . 8 0 4 P s y c h o p a t h i c d e v i a t e . 6 9 5 M a c u l i n i t y / f e m i n i n i t y . 1 4 6 P a r a n o i a . 61 7 P s y c h a s t h e n i a . 7 8 8 S c h i z o p h r e n i a . 8 6 9 H y p o m a n i a . 4 2 10 S o c i a l i n t r o v e r s i o n . 5 5 S e x u a l A n x i e t y . 5 4 A f f e c t B a l a n c e S c a l e .73 T r a i t A n x i e t y .71 S q u a r e d m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f e a c h v a r i a b l e i n f i r s t se t w i t h a l l o the r v a r i a b l e s i n f i r s t se t Variable R-Squared D e s i r e 0 . 3 8 A r o u s a l 0 . 46 O r g a s m 0 . 0 8 E m o t i o n 0 .38 S F I 0 . 4 0 T a b l e 4 B a r t l e t t ' s T e s t for S i g n i f i c a n c e o f C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n Eigenvalue Canonical Correlation X 2 DF P . 7 0 .83 1 1 7 . 6 0 6 5 0 . 0 0 B a r t l e t t ' s t e s t i n d i c a t e s the n u m b e r o f c a n o n i c a l v a r i a b l e s n e c e s s a r y to e x p r e s s the d e p e n d e n c y b e t w e e n the t w o sets o f v a r i a b l e s . T h e n e c e s s a r y n u m b e r o f c a n o n i c a l v a r i a b l e s is the s m a l l e s t n u m b e r o f e i g e n v a l u e s s u c h t h a t the tes t o f the r e m a i n i n g e i g e n v a l u e s i s n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . BMDP6M N=62 CANONICAL ANALYSIS 13. GROUP 1 . 2 . 3 . PATIENTS «• • • • * • . . 1 1 1.8 • 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 C N .90 • 1 1 1 1 V 1 1 1 1 H - 1 F 1 - 1 1 1 1 - 1 1 1 . 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 . 0 • 1 1 .90 * 1 1 12 * 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - 1 - 1 1 1 . . • • • • • • • . . - 1.8 - .60 .60 I.S - 1 . 2 0 . 0 1.2 CNVRS1 Figure 5 Linearity of Relationship Between the First Pair of Canonical Variates 106 Table 5 C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n s , C a n o n i c a l V a r i a b l e L o a d i n g s ( S t r u c t u r e Coef f i c i en t s ) , S t a n d a r d i z e d C a n o n i c a l W e i g h t s , P e r c e n t a g e o f V a r i a n c e a n d R e d u n d a n c y B e t w e e n S e x u a l F u n c t i o n i n g a n d I n t r a p s y c h i c V a r i a b l e s a n d T h e i r C o r r e s p o n d i n g C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s First Canonical Variates Structure Coefficient or Dependent Variable Set Canonical Variable Standardized Canonical Sexual Functioning Set [ y ( 1 } ] Loading Weight D e s i r e .64 . 07 A r o u s a l .84 . 5 0 O r g a s m - .00 - .20 E m o t i o n - d u r i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y .81 . 36 S F I - c u r r e n t s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g -.77 - .32 P e r c e n t o f V a r i a n c e . 47 R e d u n d a n c y .33 Independent Variable Set Intrapsychic Set [ x ( 1 ) ] M M P I 1 H y p o c h o n d r i a s i s .32 . 04 2 D e p r e s s i o n .28 - .23 3 H y s t e r i a .43 . 13 4 P s y c h o p a t h i c d e v i a t e .53 . 24 5 M a s c u l i n i t y / f e m i n i n i t y - .17 - .06 6 P a r a n o i a . 21 . 1 0 7 P s y c h a s t h e n i a .31 . 02 8 S c h i z o p h r e n i a .35 - .21 9 H y p o m a n i a - .10 - .27 10 S o c i a l i n t r o v e r s i o n . 1 8 .07 S e x u a l A n x i e t y .90 . 64 A f f e c t B a l a n c e S c a l e -.80 - .28 T r a i t A n x i e t y .63 .11 P e r c e n t o f V a r i a n c e . 2 2 R e d u n d a n c y . 1 5 C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n . 83 E i g e n v a l u e . 7 0 C a n o n i c a l v a r i a b l e l o a d i n g s g r e a t e r t h a n .30 a r e h i g h l i g h t e d w i t h bo ldface t y p e a n d a re c o n s i d e r e d m e a n i n g f u l ( T a b a c h n i c k & F i d e l l , 1 9 8 3 ) . 107 I n i n t e r p r e t i n g the p a i r o f c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s , e a c h v a r i a t e r e p r e s e n t s a d i m e n s i o n u n d e r l y i n g one set o f v a r i a b l e s o r is s een a s a w e i g h t e d l i n e a r c o m p o s i t e o f one se t o f v a r i a b l e s t h a t i s h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a d i m e n s i o n , o r w e i g h t e d l i n e a r c o m p o s i t e o f the o t h e r se t o f v a r i a b l e s . O n e i n t e r p r e t s the p a t t e r n o f w e i g h t s i n e a c h l i n e a r c o m p o s i t e o r c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e . P a t t e r n a n a l y s i s focuses on the r e l a t i v e s izes o f the w e i g h t s i n e a c h v a r i a t e w h i l e s t r u c t u r e a n a l y s i s c en t e r s o n the s t r u c t u r a l coeff ic ients o r f ac to r - l i ke l o a d i n g s o f the v a r i a b l e s o n e a c h c o m p o s i t e or c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e . L o a d i n g s o f . 32 r e p r e s e n t 1 0 % o f the v a r i a n c e a n d , a l t h o u g h g i v e n as a cu to f f p o i n t for i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a r e c o n s i d e r e d r a t h e r poor l o a d i n g s . L o a d i n g s o f . 4 5 a re c o n s i d e r e d f a i r ; . 55 a re c o n s i d e r e d good; . 63 v e r y good a n d .75 a n d above a r e c o n s i d e r e d e x c e l l e n t ( T h o m p s o n , 1 9 8 4 ) . W i t h the cu to f f c o r r e l a t i o n o f . 3 0 , the s t r u c t u r e coeff ic ients a n d the s t a n d a r d i z e d c a n o n i c a l w e i g h t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the f i r s t d i m e n s i o n u n d e r l y i n g the Y - v a r i a b l e se t i s p r i m a r i l y a s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n c o n s t r u c t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y l o w des i r e a n d a r o u s a l f r e q u e n c y , n e g a t i v e t h o u g h t s d u r i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y a n d a l o w s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g i n d e x . I n o r d e r o f m a g n i t u d e , the four h i g h e s t s t r u c t u r e coeff ic ients w e r e arousal ( .84), emotion ( .81), SFI (-.77) a n d desire ( .64). T h e f i r s t d i m e n s i o n u n d e r l y i n g the X - v a r i a b l e set i s p r i m a r i l y a n a n x i e t y / a f fec t ive d i m e n s i o n w i t h s e x u a l a n x i e t y p l a y i n g a ma jo r ro le i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p . I n o r d e r o f m a g n i t u d e , the s t r u c t u r e coeff ic ient l oad ings i n excess o f . 3 0 w e r e sexual anxiety ( .90), affect balance (- .80), trait anxiety (.63) a n d M M P I sca les psychopathic deviate ( .53), hysteria ( .43), schizophrenia ( .35), hypochondriasis (.32) a n d psychasthenia ( .31). S i n c e a l l the M M P I T scores w e r e w i t h i n the n o r m a l , n o n c l i n i c a l r a n g e (be tween T score 3 0 a n d 70) i n t r a p s y c h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 108 r e l a t e d to the n o r m a l r a n g e w h i c h m a y a s s i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a re p r o v i d e d . M M P I sca les c o r r e l a t i n g w i t h the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n v a r i a b l e s a re c o n c e r n e d w i t h : c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f m i l d i ndependence a n d n o n c o n f o r m i t y (psychopathic deviate). T h i s M M P I sca le w a s deve loped as a n i n d e x to m e a s u r e p e r s o n a l i t y f ea tu res s u c h as l o w f r u s t r a t i o n t o l e r ance a n d i m p u l s i v i t y ( L a c h a r , 1974 ) . S c a l e hysteria m e a s u r e s p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s r e l a t e d to a n h y s t e r i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y w h i c h i s de sc r ibed as s e l f c e n t e r e d a n d n a i v e a n d d i s p l a y i n g a t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s o m a t i z a t i o n . S c a l e s schizophrenia, hypochondriasis, a n d psychasthenia w i l l no t be i n t e r p r e t e d due to t h e i r b o r d e r l i n e c o n t r i b u t i o n to the v a r i a t e a n d the s u b s e q u e n t d i f f i c u l t y i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T a k e n a s a p a i r , t he c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s i n d i c a t e t h a t those w h o l a c k fee l ings o f s e x u a l a r o u s a l , h a v e n e g a t i v e e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n d u r i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y ( such a s fea r , g u i l t , s h a m e a n d d i sgus t ) , score l o w o n c u r r e n t s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d w h o s e l d o m e x p e r i e n c e s e x u a l des i re a l so t e n d to e x p e r i e n c e s t r o n g s e x u a l a n x i e t y , n e g a t i v e affect a n d e l e v a t e d l eve l s o f g e n e r a l a n x i e t y . T h e c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s sugges t s a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the t w o v a r i a b l e sets (R = . 8 3 ) . c l T h e P e r c e n t o f V a r i a n c e i nd i ca t e s t h a t the o r i g i n a l s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g Y - v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t for 4 7 % o f the v a r i a n c e i n the first c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e [ y ( 1 ' ] a n d the o r i g i n a l i n t r a p s y c h i c X - v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t for 2 2 % o f the v a r i a n c e i n the first c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e [ x ( 1 ' ]. T h e R e d u n d a n c y I n d e x i nd i ca t e s t h a t the o r i g i n a l X - v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t for 3 3 % o f the v a r i a n c e i n the first c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e [ y ( 1 ' ] • T h i s m e a n s t h a t 3 3 % o f the v a r i a n c e o n the y ( ' v a r i a t e i s p r e d i c t a b l e f r o m a l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f the i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e set . T h e R e d u n d a n c y I n d e x i nd i ca t e s t h a t the o r i g i n a l Y - v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t for 1 5 % o f the v a r i a n c e i n the i n t r a p s y c h i c v a r i a b l e set . 1 0 9 A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f the s t a n d a r d i z e d c a n o n i c a l w e i g h t s i n d i c a t e s the r e l a t i v e o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e o f the v a r i a b l e s o n the u n d e r l y i n g d i m e n s i o n . F o r the f i r s t se t o f c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s , p a t t e r n a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d arousal ( .50) , emotion (.36) a n d SFI (-.32) w e r e the t h r ee m o s t i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s to the d i m e n s i o n u n d e r l y i n g the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g se t w h i l e sexual anxiety ( .64), a n d affect (-.28) w e r e the m o s t i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s to the d i m e n s i o n u n d e r l y i n g the i n t r a p s y c h i c v a r i a b l e set. B o t h the s t r u c t u r e coeff ic ients a n d the p a t t e r n a n a l y s i s o f the s t a n d a r d i z e d w e i g h t s sugges t t h a t s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n b e a r s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p to s e x u a l a n x i e t y a n d n e g a t i v e affect. iv. Summary T h e r e s u l t s o f th i s c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s l ed to the re jec t ion o f H 0 s ince R ^ w a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the . 0 5 l e v e l . B o t h p a t t e r n a n a l y s i s a n d the s t r u c t u r e coeff ic ients f r o m the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s sugges t t he r e w e r e four ma jo r v a r i a b l e s w e i g h t e d o n the first l i n e a r c o m p o s i t e o f d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . T h e u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t w a s i n t e r p r e t e d to be one o f s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n p r i m a r i l y o f des i r e a n d a r o u s a l w h i c h i n c l u d e d s t r o n g n e g a t i v e affect d u r i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y . T h e first l i n e a r compos i t e o f the i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w a s w e i g h t e d m o s t h e a v i l y b y s e x u a l a n x i e t y , n e g a t i v e affect , a n d t r a i t a n x i e t y . T h e r e f o r e , t he c o n s t r u c t w a s c o n s i d e r e d to be a n a n x i e t y / a f f e c t i v e d i m e n s i o n w i t h s e x u a l a n x i e t y a s s u m i n g a p r o m i n e n t ro le . S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s 1 w a s re jec ted i n f a v o u r o f the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n the t w o sets o f v a r i a b l e s , s e x u a l a n d i n t r a p s y c h i c f u n c t i o n i n g w a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e ren t f r o m ze ro . T h e r e s u l t o f t h i s a n a l y s i s s u p p o r t s R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 1 w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t 110 relationship will be found between sexual functioning and intrapsychic variables. Research Hypothesis 2 There will be a statistically significant difference between the three groups of subjects (HSD, SDys, NSD) on the sexual functioning and intrapsychic canonical variates obtained in the canonical analysis. Statistical Hypotheses 2 H 0 : (a) ju i = M 2 = M 3, (y ( 1 ' mean scores) (b) u, = n 2 = M 3, (x ( 1 ' mean scores) There will be no statistically significant difference between the three groups of subjects on each of the canonical variate mean scores. i. Results of Testing Statistical Hypothesis 2 A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to the standardized scores on the canonical variates, y ( 1 ' and x 1 1 >, with groups, (HSD, SDys, NSD), as the independent variable, to test if the groups differed significantly on the latent constructs underlying y ( 1 ) and x ( 1 >. (a) Results of ANOVA based on the y( 1 ' Variate (Sexual Dysfunction) The results of the ANOVA based on the y 1 1 ' variate led to the rejection of Statistical Hypothesis 2(a) at F(2,59) = 16.50, p<0.00. Table 6 summarizes the results of the ANOVA. The result of this analysis supports Research Hypothesis 2 which states that statistically significant differences will be found between the three groups of subjects on the sexual functioning canonical variate. I l l Table 6 A N O V A B e t w e e n the T h r e e G r o u p s o f Sub jec t s : H y p o a c t i v e S e x u a l D e s i r e , S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n a n d N o S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n B a s e d o n the S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e Source DF Sum of Squares Mean Squares F P B e t w e e n G r o u p s 2 2 1 . 8 8 1 0 . 9 4 1 6 . 5 0 0 . 0 0 W i t h i n G r o u p s 59 3 9 . 1 2 . 66 T o t a l 61 6 0 . 9 9 A pos t hoc a n a l y s i s w a s conduc ted u s i n g the S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s t es t p r o c e d u r e to e s t a b l i s h w h i c h o f the g r o u p s d i f fe red ' s i g n i f i c a n t l y o n the l a t e n t c o n s t r u c t o f n e g a t i v e s e x u a l - f u n c t i o n i n g . T h e r e s u l t s s h o w e d t h a t a l l th ree g r o u p s d i f fe red s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m e a c h o the r a t a l p h a = .05 l e v e l . T h e r e s u l t s o f t he a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 7. Table 7 S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t R e s u l t s Mean Group Groups 3 2 1 - .83 N S D 3 . 1 0 S D y s 2 * . 6 2 H S D 1 * * * denotes p a i r s o f g r o u p s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f fe ren t a t a l p h a = .05 l e v e l T h e r e s u l t s o f the A N O V A a n d S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s t es t c o n f i r m the di f ference b e t w e e n the th ree r e s e a r c h g r o u p s i n t e r m s o f the l a t e n t c o n s t r u c t i n t e r p r e t e d a s s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y n e g a t i v e fee l ings d u r i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y a n d i n f r e q u e n t s e x u a l des i r e a n d a r o u s a l . H S D subjects re f lec ted the 112 h i g h e s t p o s i t i v e m e a n score o n the l a t e n t c o n s t r u c t w h i l e t h e N S D subjects re f lec ted a h i g h n e g a t i v e m e a n score . I n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e n e g a t i v e n u m b e r s i n the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e se t ref lec t i n c r e a s e d f r e q u e n c y of s e x u a l des i r e , a r o u s a l a n d o r g a s m a n d m o r e p o s i t i v e e m o t i o n s d u r i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y . (b) Results of ANOVA based on the x1 1 ) Variate (Intrapsychic) T h e r e s u l t s o f the A N O V A b a s e d o n the x ( 1 ' v a r i a t e l ed to the re jec t ion o f S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s 2(b) a t F ( 2 , 5 9 ) = 1 2 . 9 3 , p < 0 . 0 0 . T a b l e 8 s u m m a r i z e s the r e s u l t s o f the A N O V A . T h e r e s u l t o f t h i s a n a l y s i s s u p p o r t s R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 2 w h i c h s ta tes t h a t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rences w i l l be f o u n d b e t w e e n the th ree g r o u p s o f subjects o n the i n t r a p s y c h i c c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e . Table 8 A N O V A B e t w e e n the T h r e e G r o u p s o f Sub jec t s : H y p o a c t i v e S e x u a l D e s i r e , S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n a n d N o S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n B a s e d on the S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e Source DF Sum of Squares Mean Squares F P B e t w e e n G r o u p s 2 1 8 . 5 8 9 .29 1 2 . 9 3 0 . 0 0 W i t h i n G r o u p s 59 4 2 . 4 1 . 7 2 T o t a l 61 6 0 . 9 9 A pos t hoc a n a l y s i s w a s conduc t ed u s i n g the S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s t es t p r o c e d u r e to e s t a b l i s h w h i c h o f the g r o u p s d i f fe red s i g n i f i c a n t l y o n the l a t e n t c o n s t r u c t . T h e r e s u l t s s h o w e d t h a t G r o u p 3 d i f fe red s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m G r o u p s 1 a n d 2 a t a l p h a = . 0 5 l e v e l . T h e r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s a re p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 9. 1 1 3 Table 9 S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t R e s u l t s Groups Mean Group 3 2 1 - . 80 N S D 3 . 1 9 S D y s 2 * . 5 1 H S D 1 * * denotes p a i r s o f g r o u p s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e ren t a t a l p h a = .05 l e v e l T h e r e s u l t s o f the A N O V A a n d S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s t es t c o n f i r m the s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference b e t w e e n the c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p ( N S D ) a n d the o the r t w o s t u d y g r o u p s ( H S D , S D y s ) i n t e r m s o f the l a t e n t c o n s t r u c t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y s t r o n g s e x u a l a n x i e t y , n e g a t i v e affect a n d e l eva t ed l eve l s o f g e n e r a l a n x i e t y . A n d a l t h o u g h G r o u p s 1 a n d 2 do n o t d i f fer s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m e a c h o t h e r , i t i s i m p o r t a n t to note t h a t the H S D G r o u p ' s ( G r o u p 1) m e a n score o n the c o n s t r u c t i s c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r t h a n the S D y s G r o u p ' s ( G r o u p 2) m e a n score . H S D subjects re f lec ted the h i g h e s t p o s i t i v e m e a n score on the l a t e n t c o n s t r u c t w h i l e N S D subjects re f lec ted h i g h n e g a t i v e m e a n scores . L a r g e n e g a t i v e n u m b e r s r e f l ec t i n c r e a s i n g f r e q u e n c y o f s e x u a l des i r e , a r o u s a l a n d o r g a s m a n d m o r e p o s i t i v e affect d u r i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y . Research Hypothesis 3 T h e r e w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s as m e a s u r e d b y the S H F a n d D S F I a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s as m e a s u r e d b y the D A S . Statistical Hypothesis 3 H o : R c j = 0 T h e c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n the t w o sets o f v a r i a b l e s , s e x u a l 1 1 4 f u n c t i o n i n g a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l f u n c t i o n i n g , w i l l n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r en t f r o m zero a t the a l p h a = . 0 5 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . i . Results of Testing Statistical Hypothesis 3 A c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s w a s p e r f o r m e d b e t w e e n a set o f s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s a n d a se t o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s u s i n g B M D P 6 M ( D i x o n , 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g se t i n c l u d e d f r e q u e n c y o f fee l ings o f s e x u a l des i re (desire), fee l ings o f s e x u a l a r o u s a l w i t h m a t e (arousal), a b i l i t y to a c h i e v e o r g a s m (orgasm), a n d affec t ive s t a te d u r i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y w i t h m a t e (emotion) as m e a s u r e d b y the Sexual History Form ( S H F ) , a n d a m e a s u r e o f the subjec ts ' c u r r e n t l e v e l o f s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g (SFI) a s m e a s u r e d b y the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory ( D S F I ) . T h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e se t i n c l u d e d d y a d i c consensus, d y a d i c satisfaction, d y a d i c cohesion a n d d y a d i c affection as m e a s u r e d b y the Dyadic Adjustment Scale ( D A S ) . I n the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e set , i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e p o s i t i v e n u m b e r s r e f l ec t i n c r e a s i n g l eve l s o f s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g (SFI) a n d d e c r e a s i n g f r e q u e n c y o f s e x u a l desire, arousal a n d orgasm a n d the e x p e r i e n c e o f n e g a t i v e emotions d u r i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y . L a r g e n e g a t i v e n u m b e r s o n the s a m e m e a s u r e s ref lec t d e c r e a s i n g l eve l s o f c u r r e n t s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g (SFI), a n d i n c r e a s i n g f r equency o f s e x u a l desire, arousal a n d orgasm as w e l l as the absence o f n e g a t i v e emotions d u r i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y w i t h p a r t n e r . I n the i n t e r p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e se t i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e p o s i t i v e n u m b e r s re f lec t h i g h e r scores o n m e a s u r e s o f m a r i t a l consensus, satisfaction, cohesion, a n d affection. i i . Assumptions A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f u n i v a r i a t e n o r m a l i t y i n d i c a t e d n o n e x c e s s i v e s k e w n e s s a n d k u r t o s i s o f e a c h v a r i a b l e . T h e a s s u m p t i o n o f n o n - m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y w a s u p h e l d 115 (see Table 10) since the multiple correlations of every variable in each set with all other variables in the same set were less than .99 (Tabachnick & Fidell, 1983). The plot in Figure 6 indicates that the assumption of a linear relationship within the two pairs of canonical variates was reasonable. Table 10 Canonical Analysis: Test for Multicollinearity of Variables Squared multiple correlations of each variable in second set. with all other variables in second set Variable R-Squared Desire Arousal Emotion Orgasm SFI 0.38 0.46 0.38 0.08 0.40 Squared multiple in first set correlations of each variable in first set with all other variables Variable R-Squared Consensus Satisfaction Cohesion Affection 0.40 0.59 0.51 0.43 All standardized score values were within ±3.00 standard score units which indicates no serious outliers. There were no missing data. iii. Results The canonical correlation and the results of the X 2 test for statistical significance of the canonical correlations are contained in Table 11. Canonical correlations exceeding .80 are considered to be strong while correlations between 116 BMDP6U CANONICAL ANALYSIS CA PATIENTS 2 8 C N V 1.4 I 12 I I I I 1 1 I 1 1 1 111 I 11 I I 1 I I I I 1 1 I 1 I I 1 2 1 .10 .70 2.1 0.0 1.4 1 4 0 . 0 CNVflSZ Figure 6 L i n e a r i t y o f R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n the F i r s t P a i r o f C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s a n d the S e c o n d P a i r o f C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s 117 .60 and .79 are considered to be moderate. Canonical correlations of .59 and lower are considered to be weak (Thompson, 1984). The first canonical correlation was moderate at .65, the second canonical correlation was weak at .49. Subsequent x 2 tests were not significant. The eigenvalue is the square of the canonical correlation coefficient and indicates the proportion of variance shared by the two sets of variables. The results show that 42% of the variance is shared by the two sets of variables in the first canonical solution and 24% of the variance is shared by the two sets of variables in the second canonical solution. The first two canonical correlations therefore account for the significant linkages between the two sets of variables. Table 11 Bartlett's Test for Significance of Canonical Correlation Eigenvalue Canonical Correlation X 2 DF P .42 .65 52.22 20 0.00 .24 .49 21.93 12 0.04 Bartlett's test indicates the number of canonical variables necessary to express the dependency between the two sets of variables. The necessary number of canonical variables is the smallest number of eigenvalues such that the test of the remaining eigenvalues is non-significant. Analyses of the first and second pair of canonical variates [y ( 1 ' , x ( 1 ' and y ( 2 > , x ( 2 ) ] appear in Table 12. With a cutoff correlation of .30, the structure coefficients and the standardized canonical weights indicate that the first dimension underlying the first Y-variable set is primarily one of relationship adjustment characterized by affection, satisfaction and cohesion. In order of magnitude, the structure coefficients of the three most significantly weighted 118 Table 12 C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n s , C a n o n i c a l V a r i a b l e L o a d i n g s ( S t r u c t u r e Coef f i c i en t s ) , S t a n d a r d i z e d C a n o n i c a l W e i g h t s , P e r c e n t a g e o f V a r i a n c e a n d R e d u n d a n c y B e t w e e n S e x u a l F u n c t i o n i n g a n d I n t e r p e r s o n a l V a r i a b l e s a n d T h e i r C o r r e s p o n d i n g C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s First Canonical Second Canonical Variates Variates Standardized Standardized Structure Canonical Structure Canonical Dependent Variable Set Coefficient Weight Coefficient Weight Total Interpersonal Set [ y ( 1 >] [ y ( 2>] D y a d i c C o n s e n s u s . 07 - . 49 .13 . 2 0 S a t i s f a c t i o n .41 . 1 9 - .10 1.11 C o h e s i o n .34 - .24 .66 1.31 A f f e c t i o n .90 1.16 .21 - . 00 P e r c e n t o f V a r i a n c e . 27 .13 . 4 0 R e d u n d a n c y . 1 1 . 03 .14 Independent Variable Set Sexual Functioning Set [x< 1 >] [x< 2 ) ] D e s i r e - .26 .44 -.61 - .78 A r o u s a l -.69 - .34 . 1 0 . 6 2 O r g a s m -.73 - . 39 . 16 . 5 2 E m o t i o n - d u r i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y -.39 - .25 - .09 - .18 S F I - c u r r e n t s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g .79 . 63 .54 . 68 P e r c e n t o f V a r i a n c e . 37 .14 .51 R e d u n d a n c y .15 .15 . 3 0 C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n .65 . 4 9 E i g e n v a l u e .42 .24 C a n o n i c a l v a r i a b l e l o a d i n g s g r e a t e r t h a n . 3 0 a r e h i g h l i g h t e d w i t h bo ldface t y p e a n d a r e c o n s i d e r e d m e a n i n g f u l ( T a b a c h n i c k & F i d e l l , 1 9 8 3 ) . v a r i a b l e s w e r e : affection ( .90), satisfaction (.41) a n d cohesion ( .34). T h e f i r s t d i m e n s i o n u n d e r l y i n g the first X - v a r i a b l e se t i s p r i m a r i l y a s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g d i m e n s i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y p o s i t i v e s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . I n o r d e r o f m a g n i t u d e , the s t r u c t u r e coeff ic ients o f the fou r m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t l y w e i g h t e d v a r i a b l e s w e r e : SFI (.79), orgasm (- .73), arousal (-.69) a n d emotion (-.39). 1 1 9 T a k e n as a p a i r , the f i r s t set o f c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s i n d i c a t e t h a t the e x p e r i e n c e o f a f fec t ion , s a t i s f a c t i o n a n d cohes ion i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p is m o d e r a t e l y r e l a t e d to the t e n d e n c y o f b e i n g s e x u a l l y f u n c t i o n a l , a n d e x p e r i e n c i n g s e x u a l a r o u s a l a n d o r g a s m d u r i n g a pos i t i ve e m o t i o n a l s t a te . T h e s t r u c t u r e coeff ic ients a n d the s t a n d a r d i z e d c a n o n i c a l w e i g h t s o f the second p a i r o f v a r i a t e s [ y ( 2 ' , x ( 2 ' ] i n d i c a t e t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p c o h e s i o n is s o m e w h a t r e l a t e d to the e x p e r i e n c e of s e x u a l des i r e a n d f u n c t i o n i n g . I n the second Y - v a r i a b l e se t v a r i a b l e cohes ion (.66) w a s the s ing l e v a r i a b l e r e c e i v i n g a s t r u c t u r e coef f ic ien t l o a d i n g g r e a t e r t h a n . 3 0 . I n the X - v a r i a b l e set, desire (-.61) a n d SFI (.54) w e i g h t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y o n the v a r i a t e . T h e c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s sugges t s a m o d e r a t e l y s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the d e p e n d e n t a n d i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s ( R c ^ = . 65 ) , a n d a s e c o n d w e a k r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the d e p e n d e n t a n d i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s (R = . 4 9 ) . T h e P e r c e n t a g e o f V a r i a n c e i nd i c a t e s t h a t the o r i g i n a l Y - v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t for 2 7 % of the v a r i a n c e i n the f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e [ y ( 1 ' ] a n d 1 3 % o f the v a r i a n c e i n the second c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e [ y ( 2 ' ]• T h e o r i g i n a l X - v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t for 3 7 % o f the v a r i a n c e i n the f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e [ x 1 1 ' ] a n d 1 4 % o f the v a r i a n c e i n the second c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e [ x ( 2 ' ]. T h e R e d u n d a n c y I n d e x i nd i c a t e s t h a t for the f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e [ y ( 1 ' ] 1 1 % o f the v a r i a n c e i s a c c o u n t e d for b y the v a r i a b l e s i n the i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e se t ( o r g a s m , S F I , a r o u s a l , emot ion ) . H o w e v e r , for the second c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e [ y ( 2 ' ] o n l y 3% o f the v a r i a n c e is a c c o u n t e d for b y the v a r i a b l e s i n the i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e set. T h i s m e a n s t h a t o n l y 3 % o f the v a r i a n c e o n the i n t e r p e r s o n a l sub tes t s set [for y ( 2 ' ] i s p r e d i c t a b l e f r o m l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f the i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e set o n the second c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t he r e 1 2 0 w i l l be no f u r t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the second c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e ; o n l y v a r i a t e s w i t h a R e d u n d a n c y I n d e x o f > 1 0 % w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d for f u r t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f the s t a n d a r d i z e d c a n o n i c a l w e i g h t s i nd i ca t e s the r e l a t i v e o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e o f the v a r i a b l e s o n the u n d e r l y i n g d i m e n s i o n . F o r the first se t o f c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s p a t t e r n a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d affection (1 .16) a n d consensus (-.49) w e r e the t w o m o s t i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s to the d i m e n s i o n u n d e r l y i n g the i n t e r p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e set w h i l e SFI ( .63), desire ( .44), orgasm (-.39) a n d arousal (-.34) w e r e the m o s t i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s to the d i m e n s i o n u n d e r l y i n g the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e set . B o t h the s t r u c t u r e coeff ic ients a n d the p a t t e r n a n a l y s i s o f the s t a n d a r d i z e d c a n o n i c a l w e i g h t s s u g g e s t t h a t s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g b e a r s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p to m a r i t a l a f fec t ion a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n . iv. Summary T h e r e s u l t s o f the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s l ed to the re j ec t ion o f H 0 s ince R ^ a n d R ^ w e r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l . B o t h p a t t e r n a n a l y s i s a n d the s t r u c t u r e coeff ic ients f r o m the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e t h ree ma jo r v a r i a b l e s w e i g h t e d o n the first l i n e a r c o m p o s i t e o f d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . T h e u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t w a s i n t e r p r e t e d to be one o f r e l a t i o n s h i p a d j u s t m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y af fec t ion , s a t i s f a c t i o n a n d cohes ion . T h e first l i n e a r compos i t e o f the i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w a s w e i g h t e d m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t l y b y four s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s w h i c h i n c l u d e d the a b i l i t y to become m o r e f r e q u e n t l y a r o u s e d a n d o r g a s m i c a n d feel p l e a s u r e d u r i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o u t e x p e r i e n c i n g n e g a t i v e affect . S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s 3 w a s rejected i n f a v o u r o f the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n the t w o sets o f v a r i a b l e s , s e x u a l a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l f u n c t i o n i n g w a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e ren t f r o m ze ro . T h e r e s u l t o f th i s a n a l y s i s s u p p o r t s R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 3 w h i c h s ta tes 121 that a statistically significant relationship will be found between sexual functioning and interpersonal variables. Research Hypothesis 4 There will be a statistically significant difference between the three groups of subjects (HSD, SDys, NSD) on the sexual functioning and interpersonal canonical variates obtained in the canonical analysis. Statistical Hypotheses 4 H 0 : (a) ju , = u 2 = M 3, (y( 1 5 mean scores) ( b ) M i = M 2 = M 3 > ( x ( 1 ) mean scores) There will be no statistically significant difference between the three groups of subjects on each of the canonical variate mean scores. i . Results of Testing Statistical Hypothesis 4 A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to the standardized scores on the canonical variates, y ( 1 } and x ( 1 ' , with groups, (HSD, SDys, NSD), as the independent variable to test if the groups differed significantly on the latent constructs underlying y 1 1 } and x ( 1 '. (a) Results of ANOVA Based on the y' 1 ' Variate (Interpersonal) The results of the ANOVA based on the y ( 1 ' variate led to the rejection of Statistical Hypothesis 4(a) at F(2,59) = 5.29, p<0.01. Table 13 summarizes the results of the ANOVA. The result of this analysis supports Research Hypothesis 4 which states that statistically significant differences will be found between the three groups of subjects on the interpersonal canonical variate. 122 Table 13 A N O V A Between the Three Groups of Subjects: Hypoactive Sexual Desire, Sexual Dysfunction and No Sexual Dysfunction Based on the Relationship Adjustment Canonical Variate Source DF Sum of Squares Mean Squares F P Between Groups 2 9.27 4.61 5.29 0.01 Within Groups 59 51.73 .88 Total 61 61.00 A post hoc analysis was conducted using the Student-Newman-Keuls test procedure to establish which of the groups differed significantly on the latent construct. The results showed that Group 3 differed significantly from both Group 1 and Group 2 on the latent construct interpreted as relationship adjustment characterized by affection, satisfaction and cohesion. The results of the analysis are presented in Table 14. Table 14 Student-Newman-Keuls Test Results Groups Mean Group 1 2 3 -.31 HSD 1 -.20 SDys 2 .58 NSD 3 * * * denotes pairs of groups significantly different at alpha = .05 level The results of the A N O V A and Student-Newman-Keuls test confirm the difference between the three groups in terms of the latent construct interpreted as positive relationship affection/adjustment. The NSD group differed significantly 123 f r o m the o the r t w o s tud} ' g r o u p s ( H S D , S D y s ) i n d i c a t i n g a h i g h e r degree o f a f f ec t i ona l e x p r e s s i o n , s a t i s f a c t i o n a n d cohes ion . T h e r e w a s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n the H S D a n d the S D y s g r o u p s o n the v a r i a b l e . (b) Results of ANOVA Based on the x( ' Variate (Sexual Functioning) T h e r e s u l t s o f the A N O V A b a s e d o n the x ( 1 ' v a r i a t e l ed to the re jec t ion o f S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s 4(b) a t F ( 2 , 5 9 ) = 6 . 4 1 , p < 0 . 0 0 . T a b l e 15 s u m m a r i z e s the r e s u l t s o f the A N O V A . T h e r e s u l t o f t h i s a n a l y s i s s u p p o r t s R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 4 w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference w i l l be f o u n d b e t w e e n the th ree g r o u p s o f subjects o n the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e . Table 15 A N O V A B e t w e e n the T h r e e G r o u p s o f Subjec t s : H y p o a c t i v e S e x u a l D e s i r e , S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n a n d N o S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n B a s e d o n the S e x u a l F u n c t i o n i n g C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e Source DF Sum of Squares Mean Squares F P B e t w e e n G r o u p s 2 1 2 . 8 1 6 . 4 1 7 .85 0 . 0 0 W i t h i n G r o u p s 5 9 4 8 . 1 8 . 8 2 T o t a l 6 1 6 0 . 9 9 A pos t hoc a n a l y s i s w a s c o n d u c t e d u s i n g the S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s t es t p r o c e d u r e to e s t a b l i s h w h i c h o f the g r o u p s d i f fe red s i g n i f i c a n t l y on the l a t e n t c o n s t r u c t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y p o s i t i v e a r o u s a l , o r g a s m a n d s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . T h e r e s u l t s s h o w e d t h a t G r o u p 3 d i f f e red s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m G r o u p 1 a n d G r o u p 2 a t a l p h a = . 0 5 l e v e l . T h e r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 16 . 124 Table 16 S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t R e s u l t s Mean Group 1 Groups 2 3 - . 3 0 H S D 1 - . 3 0 S D y s 2 - .68 N S D 3 * * * denotes p a i r s o f g roups s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f fe ren t a t a l p h a = . 0 5 l e v e l T h e r e s u l t s o f the A N O V A a n d S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s t es t c o n f i r m the dif ference b e t w e e n the N S D g r o u p ( G r o u p 3) a n d the o t h e r t w o s t u d y g r o u p s ( H S D a n d S D y s ) on the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g c ons t ruc t . T h e r e w a s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference b e t w e e n the H S D a n d S D y s g r o u p s o n the v a r i a b l e . 2. Partners of Subjects Research Hypothesis 5 T h e r e w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s as m e a s u r e d b y the S H F a n d D S F I a n d i n t r a p s y c h i c v a r i a b l e s a s m e a s u r e d b y the M M P I , S T A I a n d A B S . Statistical Hypothesis 5 H 0 : R c j = 0 T h e c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n the t w o sets o f v a r i a b l e s , s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d i n t r a p s y c h i c f u n c t i o n i n g , w i l l no t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r en t f r o m zero a t the a l p h a = .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . 1 2 5 i . Results of Testing Statistical Hypothesis 5 A c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s w a s p e r f o r m e d b e t w e e n a set o f s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s a n d a se t o f i n t r a p s y c h i c v a r i a b l e s u s i n g B M D P 6 M ( D i x o n , 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g se t i n c l u d e d f r e q u e n c y o f fee l ings o f s e x u a l des i r e (desire), f ee l ings o f s e x u a l a r o u s a l w i t h m a t e (arousal), a b i l i t y to a c h i e v e o r g a s m (orgasm), a f fec t ive s ta te d u r i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y w i t h m a t e (emotion) as m e a s u r e d b y the Sexual History Form ( S H F ) a n d a m e a s u r e o f subjects c u r r e n t l e v e l o f s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g (SFI) as m e a s u r e d b y the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory ( D S F I ) . T h e i n t r a p s y c h i c set i n c l u d e d p e r s o n a l i t j ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s m e a s u r e d b y the 10 c l i n i c a l sca les o f the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory ( M M P I ) : hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria, psychopathic deviate, masculinity/femininity, paranoia, psychasthenia, schizophrenia, hypomania, social introversion; affect as m e a s u r e d b y the Affect Balance Scale ( A B S ) ; a n d sexual anxiety a n d trait anxiety as m e a s u r e d b y the (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory ( S T A I ) . I n the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e set, i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e p o s i t i v e n u m b e r s re f lec t i n c r e a s i n g l eve l s o f s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g ( S F I ) a n d d e c r e a s i n g f r e q u e n c y o f s e x u a l desire, arousal a n d orgasm, a n d the e x p r e s s i o n o f n e g a t i v e emotions d u r i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y . L a r g e n e g a t i v e n u m b e r s o n the s a m e m e a s u r e s re f lec t d e c r e a s i n g l e v e l s o f s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g , a n d i n c r e a s e d f r e q u e n c y o f s e x u a l de s i r e , a r o u s a l a n d o r g a s m as w e l l as the absence o f n e g a t i v e e m o t i o n s d u r i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y w i t h p a r t n e r . I n the i n t r a p s y c h i c v a r i a b l e set , i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e p o s i t i v e n u m b e r s re f lec t i n c r e a s i n g l y h i g h e r T-score v a l u e s on the M M P I sca l e s , i n c r e a s i n g l eve l s o f s e x u a l a n x i e t y a n d t r a i t a n x i e t y a n d p o s i t i v e affect b a l a n c e w h i l e i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e n e g a t i v e n u m b e r s re f lec t n e g a t i v e a f fec t ive b a l a n c e as m e a s u r e d 126 b y the Affective Balance Scale ( A B S ) . i i . Assumptions A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f u n i v a r i a t e n o r m a l i t y i n d i c a t e d n o n e x c e s s i v e s k e w n e s s a n d k u r t o s i s o f e a c h v a r i a b l e . T h e a s s u m p t i o n o f n o n - m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y w a s u p h e l d (see T a b l e 17) s ince the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s of e v e r y v a r i a b l e i n e a c h set w i t h a l l o the r v a r i a b l e s i n the s a m e set w e r e l ess t h a n . 9 9 ( T a b a c h n i c k & F i d e l l , 1983 ) . T h e p lo t i n F i g u r e 7 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the a s s u m p t i o n o f a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p Table 17 C a n o n i c a l A n a l y s i s : T e s t for M u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y o f V a r i a b l e s S q u a r e d v a r i a b l e s m u l t i p l e co r r e l a t i ons o f e a c h v a r i a b l e i n s econd se t i n second se t w i t h a l l o t h e r Variable R-Squared M M P I 1 H y p o c h o n d r i a s i s . 5 4 2 D e p r e s s i o n . 77 3 H y s t e r i a . 64 4 P s y c h o p a t h i c d e v i a t e . 47 5 M a c u l i n i t y / f e m i n i n i t y . 44 6 P a r a n o i a . 5 9 7 P s y c h a s t h e n i a . 82 8 S c h i z o p h r e n i a . 7 0 9 H y p o m a n i a . 4 0 10 S o c i a l i n t r o v e r s i o n .71 S e x u a l A n x i e t y . 44 A f f e c t B a l a n c e S c a l e . 77 T r a i t A n x i e t y . 8 6 S q u a r e d m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f e a c h v a r i a b l e i n first set w i t h a l l o the r v a r i a b l e s i n first se t Variable R-Squared D e s i r e 0 . 0 7 A r o u s a l 0 . 5 2 O r g a s m 0 .51 E m o t i o n 0 .13 S F I 0 . 06 127 B10P6U CANONICAL ANALYSIS PARTNERS 1 1 1 I 1 1 I 2 1 1 1 1 II 2 I II I I 11 I I 1 11 I I 1 C 1.4 N V R F 2 .70 I I I I 1 1 I 1 I I I 1 l I 111 I 112 I 12 I 1 I I I 1 I 1 2 I I I I •2.1 -.70 7 0 -1.4 00 CNVRS1 - J ; - JO 90 - i . a o.o ' a Figure 7 L i n e a r i t y o f R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n the F i r s t P a i r o f C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s a n d the S e c o n d P a i r o f C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s 128 within the two pairs of canonical variates was reasonable. All standardized score values were within +3.00 standard score units which indicates no serious outliers. There were no missing data. i i i . Results The canonical correlation and the results of the X 2 test for statistical significance of the canonical correlations are contained in Table 18. Canonical correlations exceeding .80 are considered to be strong while correlations between .60 and .79 are considered to be moderate. The first canonical correlation was .80, the second canonical correlation was .71. Subsequent x 2 tests were not significant. The eigenvalue is the square of the canonical correlation coefficient and indicates the proportion of variance shared by the two sets of variables. The results show that 64% of the variance is shared by the two sets of variables in the first canonical solution and 51% of the variance is shared by the two sets of variables in the second canonical solution. Table 18 Bartlett's Test for Significance of Canonical Correlation Eigenvalue Canonical Correlation X 2 DF P .64 .80 125.52 65 0.00 .51 .71 73.36 48 0.01 Bartlett's test indicates the number of canonical variables necessary to express the dependency between the two sets of variables. The necessary number of canonical variables is the smallest number of eigenvalues such that the test of the remaining eigenvalues is non-significant. Analysis of the first and second pairs of canonical variates [y ( 1 }, x ( 1 ' ] and [y ( 2 ) , x ( 2 ) ] appear in Table 19. With a cutoff correlation of .30, the 1 2 9 Table 19 C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n s , C a n o n i c a l V a r i a b l e L o a d i n g s ( S t r u c t u r e Coef f i c i en t s ) , S t a n d a r d i z e d C a n o n i c a l W e i g h t s , P e r c e n t a g e o f V a r i a n c e a n d R e d u n d a n c y B e t w e e n S e x u a l F u n c t i o n i n g a n d I n t r a p s y c h i c V a r i a b l e s a n d T h e i r C o r r e s p o n d i n g C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s First Canonical Second Canonical Variates Variates Standardized Standardized Structure Canonical Structure Canonical Dependent Variable Set Coefficient Weight Coefficient Weight Total Sexual Functioning Set [ y ( [ y ( 2 ) J D e s i r e - .25 - .12 .41 . 32 A r o u s a l -.50 - .27 .78 . 74 O r g a s m -.47 - .16 .64 . 13 E m o t i o n - d u r i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y - .15 . 16 . 2 0 . 0 0 S F I - c u r r e n t s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g .91 . 86 .37 . 56 P e r c e n t o f V a r i a n c e . 28 .27 . 5 5 R e d u n d a n c y . 1 8 .14 . 3 2 Independent Variable Set Intrapsychic Set Lx< [x< 2 , ] M M P I 1 H y p o c h o n d r i a s i s - . 20 - .06 -.53 - .37 2 D e p r e s s i o n -.59 - .59 - .17 . 8 0 3 H y s t e r i a - .15 . 18 - .25 - .47 4 P s y c h o p a t h i c d e v i a t e - .20 - .18 - .08 .07 5 M a c u l i n i t y / f e m i n i n i t y .45 . 41 - .24 - .59 6 P a r a n o i a -.36 - .14 .21 .27 7 P s y c h a s t h e n i a -.43 . 3 9 - .06 .23 8 S c h i z o p h r e n i a -.41 - .16 - . 00 .31 9 H y p o m a n i a . 18 - .31 . 0 5 - .11 10 S o c i a l i n t r o v e r s i o n -.66 - .09 - . 19 - .50 S e x u a l A n x i e t y -.64 - .25 . 3 0 .58 A f f e c t B a l a n c e S c a l e .85 . 57 .33 - .91 T r a i t A n x i e t y -.75 . 26 - . 29 .35 P e r c e n t o f V a r i a n c e .25 . 06 .31 R e d u n d a n c y . 1 6 .03 . 1 9 C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n . 8 0 .71 E i g e n v a l u e .64 . 5 1 C a n o n i c a l v a r i a b l e l o a d i n g s g r e a t e r t h a n . 3 0 a re h i g h l i g h t e d w i t h bo ldface t y p e a n d a re c o n s i d e r e d m e a n i n g f u l ( T a b a c h n i c k & F i d e l l , 1983 ) . 1 3 0 s t r u c t u r e coef f ic ien ts a n d the s t a n d a r d i z e d c a n o n i c a l w e i g h t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the d i m e n s i o n u n d e r l y i n g the first dependen t Y - v a r i a t e set i s p r i m a r i l y a s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g c o n s t r u c t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y p o s i t i v e s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . I n o r d e r o f m a g n i t u d e , the th ree h i g h e s t s t r u c t u r e coeff ic ient l o a d i n g s a re SFI ( .91), arousal (-.50) a n d orgasm (-.47). T h e d i m e n s i o n u n d e r l y i n g the first i n d e p e n d e n t X - v a r i a b l e se t i s p r i m a r i l y a n a f fec t ive d i m e n s i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y p o s i t i v e affect b a l a n c e a n d l o w s e x u a l a n d t r a i t a n x i e t y . S t r u c t u r e a n a l y s i s i den t i f i ed n i n e s i g n i f i c a n t l o a d i n g s . I n o r d e r o f m a g n i t u d e , t he s t r u c t u r e coeff ic ient l oad ings w e r e affect balance ( .85), trait anxiety (- .75), sexual anxiety (-.64) a n d five sca les f r o m the M M P I : social introversion (- .66), depression (- .59), masculinity/femininity ( .45), psychasthenia (- .43), schizophrenia (-.41) a n d paranoia (-.36). S i n c e a l l M M P I sca les w e r e w i t h i n the n o r m a l , n o n c l i n i c a l r a n g e (be tween T score 3 0 a n d 70) , i n t r a p s y c h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t e d to the n o r m a l r a n g e , w h i c h m a y a s s i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a r e p r o v i d e d . M M P I sca les c o r r e l a t i n g w i t h the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s a re c o n c e r n e d w i t h the c a p a c i t y to m a i n t a i n r e w a r d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s : social introversion; a n a v e r a g e b a l a n c e o f o p t i m i s m a n d p e s s i m i s m , depression; a n a v e r a g e m a l e / f e m a l e v o c a t i o n a l a n d a v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t p a t t e r n , masculinity/ femininity; a c a p a c i t y for w o r k a n d l i v i n g w i t h o u t u n d u e w o r r y a n d se l f -doubt , psychasthenia; a n d b a s i c a l l y n o r m a l i n t e r e s t s , schizophrenia ( L a c h a r , 1974 ) . T a k e n as a p a i r , the first set o f c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s i nd i ca t e t h a t those w h o score h i g h o n the i n d e x o f s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d r e c o r d h i g h e r f r e q u e n c y o f a r o u s a l a n d o r g a s m a lso t e n d to score i n the h i g h p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n o n affect b a l a n c e a s w e l l a s score l o w o n s e x u a l a n x i e t y a n d t r a i t a n x i e t y . T h e s t r u c t u r e coeff ic ients a n d the s t a n d a r d i z e d c a n o n i c a l w e i g h t s o f the 131 second p a i r o f v a r i a t e s [ y ( 2 ' , x ( 2 > ] i n d i c a t e a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l o w s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y d e c r e a s e d f r e q u e n c y o f s e x u a l arousal ( .78), orgasm ( .68), desire ( .41) a n d SFI ( .37); a n d hypochondriasis (-.53) a n d affect balance ( .33). A l t h o u g h the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s sugges t s a m o d e r a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the d e p e n d e n t a n d i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e set (R 9 = .71) , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i l l n o t proceed due to the l o w pe rcen tage o f v a r i a n c e a n d r e d u n d a n c y coeff ic ients for the x ( 2 ' c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s (.06 a n d . 0 3 , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . I n the f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e p a i r , the P e r c e n t o f V a r i a n c e i nd i c a t e s t h a t the o r i g i n a l Y - v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t for 2 8 % o f the v a r i a n c e i n the y ( 1 ' v a r i a t e . T h e o r i g i n a l X - v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t for 2 5 % o f the v a r i a n c e i n the x ( 1 } v a r i a t e . T h e R e d u n d a n c y Index i n d i c a t e s t h a t for the f i r s t y ( 1 ' c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e , 1 8 % o f the v a r i a n c e i s a c c o u n t e d for b y the v a r i a b l e s i n the X - i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ( i n t r a p s y c h i c ) set, w h e r e a s i n the x ( 1 ' v a r i a t e , 1 6 % o f the v a r i a n c e i s accoun ted for b y the Y - v a r i a b l e ( s e x u a l func t ion ing) set. A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f the s t a n d a r d i z e d c a n o n i c a l w e i g h t s i n d i c a t e s the r e l a t i v e o rde r o f i m p o r t a n c e o f the v a r i a b l e s on the u n d e r l y i n g d i m e n s i o n . F o r the f i r s t set o f c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s , p a t t e r n a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d c u r r e n t s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g SFI (.86) a n d arousal (-.27) w e r e the t w o m o s t i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s to the d i m e n s i o n u n d e r l y i n g the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g se t w h i l e affect balance ( .57), depression (-.59), masculinity/femininity (.41) a n d psychasthenia (-.43) w e r e the m o s t i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s to the d i m e n s i o n u n d e r l y i n g the i n t r a p s y c h i c v a r i a b l e set. 132 iv. Summary T h e r e s u l t s o f th i s c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s l ed to the re jec t ion o f H 0 s ince R a n d R £ 2 w e r e s t a t i s t i c a l ^ s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l . B o t h p a t t e r n a n a l y s i s a n d the s t r u c t u r e coeff ic ients f r o m the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s sugges t t he r e w e r e th ree v a r i a b l e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w e i g h t e d o n the first l i n e a r c o m p o s i t e o f the d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e set . T h e u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t w a s i n t e r p r e t e d to be one o f p o s i t i v e s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . T h e first l i n e a r compos i t e o f the i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e set w a s w e i g h t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b y n i n e v a r i a b l e s . T h e u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t w a s i n t e r p r e t e d to be p r i m a r i l y a n af fec t ive d i m e n s i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y p o s i t i v e affect . S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s 5 w a s re jected i n f a v o u r o f the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n the t w o se ts o f v a r i a b l e s , s e x u a l a n d i n t r a p s y c h i c f u n c t i o n i n g w a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f fe ren t f r o m zero . T h e r e s u l t o f t h i s a n a l y s i s s u p p o r t s R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 5 w h i c h s ta tes t h a t a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l be found b e t w e e n s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d i n t r a p s y c h i c v a r i a b l e s . Research Hypothesis 6 T h e r e w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference b e t w e e n t h e th ree g r o u p s o f p a r t n e r s ( H S D , S D y s , N S D ) on the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d i n t r a p s y c h i c c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o b t a i n e d i n the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s . Statistical Hypotheses 6 H 0 : (a) M i = "2 = M 3 > ( y ( 1 ' m e a n scores) ( b ) M i = M 2 = u 3 , ( x ( 1 ) m e a n scores) T h e r e w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n the th ree g r o u p s o f p a r t n e r s o n e a c h o f the c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e m e a n scores . i . Results of Testing Statistical Hypothesis 6 A o n e - w a y a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e ( A N O V A ) w a s a p p l i e d to the s t a n d a r d i z e d 133 scores on the c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s , y ( 1 ' a n d x ( 1 1 , w i t h g r o u p s , ( H S D , S D y s , N S D ) , as the i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e to t e s t i f the g r o u p s d i f f e red s i g n i f i c a n t l y o n the l a t e n t c o n s t r u c t s u n d e r l y i n g y ( 1 ' a n d x ( 1 1 . (a) Results of ANOVA Based on the y ( 1 ' Variate (Sexual Functioning) T h e r e s u l t s o f the A N O V A o f the y ( 1 ) v a r i a t e l e d to the re jec t ion o f S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s 6 a a t F ( 2 , 5 9 ) = 2 . 8 7 , p = 0 . 0 5 . T a b l e 2 0 s u m m a r i z e s the r e s u l t s o f the A N O V A . T h e r e s u l t o f t h i s a n a l y s i s does n o t s u p p o r t R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 6 w h i c h s ta tes t h a t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rences w i l l n o t be found b e t w e e n the th ree g r o u p s o f p a r t n e r s on the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e . Table 20 A N O V A B e t w e e n the T h r e e G r o u p s o f P a r t n e r s : H y p o a c t i v e S e x u a l D e s i r e , S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n a n d N o S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n B a s e d o n the S e x u a l F u n c t i o n i n g C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e Source DF Sum of Squares Mean Squares F P B e t w e e n G r o u p s 2 5 .74 2 .87 3 .06 0 . 0 5 W i t h i n G r o u p s 5 9 5 5 . 2 6 . 9 4 T o t a l 6 1 6 1 . 0 0 A pos t hoc a n a l y s i s w a s conduc ted u s i n g the S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s t es t p r o c e d u r e to e s t a b l i s h w h i c h o f the g r o u p s d i f fe red s i g n i f i c a n t l y o n the l a t e n t c o n s t r u c t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y p o s i t i v e s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . T h e r e s u l t s s h o w e d t h a t G r o u p 1 ( H S D ) a n d G r o u p 2 ( S D y s ) d i f f e red s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m the N S D g r o u p ( G r o u p 3) o n the l a t e n t cons t ruc t . T h i s r e s u l t w a s i n t e r p r e t e d to m e a n t h a t a l t h o u g h p a r t n e r s o f H S D subjects a n d S D y s subjects w e r e t h e m s e l v e s s e x u a l l y 134 f u n c t i o n a l , t he i n t e r p e r s o n a l s e x u a l d y n a m i c s b e t w e e n p a r t n e r s a n d spouses w e r e d y s f u n c t o n a l a s c o m p a r e d to the N S D g r o u p ( G r o u p 3) . T h e r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s a re p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 2 1 . Table 21 S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t R e s u l t s Groups Mean Group 2 1 3 - . 39 S D y s 2 . 0 6 H S D 1 . 36 N S D 3 * * * denotes p a i r s o f g r o u p s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e ren t a t a l p h a = . 0 5 l e v e l T h e r e s u l t s o f the A N O V A a n d S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s tes t c o n f i r m the d i f fe rence b e t w e e n the N S D g r o u p ( G r o u p 3) a n d the o t h e r t w o s t u d y g r o u p s ( H S D a n d S D y s ) i n t e r m s o f the l a t e n t c o n s t r u c t i n t e r p r e t e d as p o s i t i v e s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . T h e r e w a s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n the H S D a n d S D y s g r o u p s o n the v a r i a b l e . (b) Results of ANOVA Based on the x1 1 ' Variate (Intrapsychic) T h e r e s u l t s o f the A N O V A b a s e d o n the x ( 1 ' v a r i a t e (pos i t ive affect) l ed to the accep tance o f S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s 6(b) s ince t he r e w a s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference b e t w e e n the p a r t n e r g r o u p s a t a l p h a = .05 l e v e l o n the v a r i a t e . R e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s s u p p o r t R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 6 w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ferences w i l l n o t be found b e t w e e n the th ree g r o u p s o f p a r t n e r s o n the i n t r a p s y c h i c c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e . 1 3 5 Research Hypothesis 7 T h e r e w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s as m e a s u r e d b y the S H F a n d D S F I a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s as m e a s u r e d b y the D A S . Statistical Hypothesis 7 H o : R c j = 0 T h e c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n the t w o sets o f v a r i a b l e s , s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l f u n c t i o n i n g , w i l l n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e ren t f r o m ze ro a t the a l p h a = . 0 5 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . i . Results of Testing Statistical Hypothesis 7 A c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s w a s p e r f o r m e d b e t w e e n a se t o f s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s a n d a set o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s u s i n g B M D P 6 M ( D i x o n , 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g set i n c l u d e d f r e q u e n c y o f fee l ings o f s e x u a l des i re (desire), f ee l ings o f s e x u a l a r o u s a l w i t h m a t e (arousal), a b i l i t y to a c h i e v e o r g a s m (orgasm), a n d af fec t ive s ta te d u r i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y w i t h m a t e (emotion) as m e a s u r e d b y the Sexual History Form ( S H F ) a n d a m e a s u r e o f the sub jec t s ' c u r r e n t l e v e l o f s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g (SFI) as m e a s u r e d b y the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory ( D S F I ) . T h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e set i n c l u d e d d y a d i c consensus, d y a d i c satisfaction, d y a d i c cohesion a n d d y a d i c affection as m e a s u r e d b y the Dyadic Adjustment Scale ( D A S ) . I n t he s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e set , i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e p o s i t i v e n u m b e r s re f lec t i n c r e a s i n g l eve l s o f s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g (SFI) a n d d e c r e a s i n g f r e q u e n c y o f s e x u a l desire, arousal a n d orgasm, a n d the e x p e r i e n c e o f n e g a t i v e emotions d u r i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y . L a r g e n e g a t i v e n u m b e r s o n the s a m e m e a s u r e s re f lec t d e c r e a s i n g l e v e l s o f c u r r e n t s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g (SFI), a n d i n c r e a s e d f r e q u e n c y o f s e x u a l desire, arousal a n d orgasm, a s w e l l a s the absence o f n e g a t i v e 136 emotions d u r i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y w i t h p a r t n e r . I n the i n t e r p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e set i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e p o s i t i v e n u m b e r s re f lec t h i g h e r scores o n m e a s u r e s o f m a r i t a l consensus, satisfaction, cohesion, a n d affection. i i . Assumptions A n e x a m i n a t i o n of u n i v a r i a t e n o r m a l i t y i n d i c a t e d n o n e x c e s s i v e s k e w n e s s a n d k u r t o s i s o f e a c h v a r i a b l e . T h e a s s u m p t i o n o f n o n - m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y w a s u p h e l d (see T a b l e 22) s ince the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f e v e r y v a r i a b l e i n e a c h se t w i t h a l l o t h e r v a r i a b l e s i n the s a m e se t w e r e less t h a n .99 ( T a b a c h n i c k & F i d e l l , 1983) . T h e p lo t i n F i g u r e 8 i nd i ca t e s t h a t the a s s u m p t i o n o f a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the f i r s t p a i r o f c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s w a s r e a s o n a b l e . A l l s t a n d a r d i z e d score v a l u e s w e r e w i t h i n ± 3 . 0 0 s t a n d a r d score u n i t s w h i c h i nd i c a t e s no s e r i ous o u t l i e r s . T h e r e w e r e no m i s s i n g d a t a . Table 22 C a n o n i c a l A n a l y s i s : T e s t for M u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y o f V a r i a b l e s S q u a r e d m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f e a c h v a r i a b l e i n second se t w i t h a l l o the r v a r i a b l e s i n s econd set Variable R-Squared D e s i r e 0 . 0 7 A r o u s a l 0 . 5 2 E m o t i o n 0 . 5 1 O r g a s m 0 .13 S F I 0 . 06 S q u a r e d m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f e a c h v a r i a b l e i n f i r s t se t w i t h a l l o the r v a r i a b l e s i n f i r s t set Variable R-Squared C o n s e n s u s 0 .45 S a t i s f a c t i o n 0 . 6 6 C o h e s i o n 0 . 4 8 A f f e c t i o n 0 .56 B M D P 6 M CANONICAL ANALYSIS CA PARTNERS 2- 1 • 1 1 1 1 1 . 4 * ) • 1 1 1 1 1 1 C - 1 1 N .70* 1 1 1 V " 1 1 R - 1 1 2 1 F • 1 1 1 1 - 1 1 1 1 0.0 • 11 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -.70 • 1 1 1 - 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 -1.4 • 1 1 1 •2.1 + 1 ..• • • • • • -2.1 -.70 .70 2.1 •1.4 0.0 1.4 CNVRS1 Figure 8 L i n e a r i t y o f R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n the F i r s t P a i r o f C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s 138 i i i . Results T h e c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n d the r e s u l t s o f the x 2 t es t for s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n T a b l e 2 3 . T h e f i r s t c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n w a s . 6 0 . S u b s e q u e n t x 2 t es ts w e r e no t s i g n i f i c a n t . T h e r e s u l t s s h o w t h a t 3 6 % o f the v a r i a n c e i s s h a r e d b y the t w o se ts o f v a r i a b l e s . T h e f i r s t c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n the re fore a c c o u n t s for the s i g n i f i c a n t l i n k a g e b e t w e e n the t w o sets o f v a r i a b l e s . C a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s e x c e e d i n g . 8 0 a re c o n s i d e r e d to be s t r o n g w h i l e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n . 6 0 a n d . 7 9 a r e c o n s i d e r e d to be m o d e r a t e ( T h o m p s o n , 1984 ) . Table 23 B a r t l e t t ' s T e s t for S i g n i f i c a n c e o f C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n Eigenvalue Canonical Correlation X 2 DF P . 3 6 . 6 0 4 4 . 0 6 2 0 0 . 0 0 B a r t l e t t ' s t es t i nd i ca t e s the n u m b e r o f c a n o n i c a l v a r i a b l e s n e c e s s a r y to e x p r e s s the d e p e n d e n c y b e t w e e n the t w o sets o f v a r i a b l e s . T h e n e c e s s a r y n u m b e r o f c a n o n i c a l v a r i a b l e s i s the s m a l l e s t n u m b e r o f e i g e n v a l u e s s u c h t h a t the tes t o f the r e m a i n i n g e i g e n v a l u e s i s n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . A n a l y s i s o f the f i r s t p a i r o f c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s [ y ' 1 ' , x ( 1 ' ] a p p e a r i n T a b l e 2 4 . W i t h a cu to f f c o r r e l a t i o n o f . 3 0 , the s t r u c t u r e coeff ic ients a n d the s t a n d a r d i z e d c a n o n i c a l w e i g h t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the f i r s t d i m e n s i o n u n d e r l y i n g the Y - v a r i a b l e se t i s p r i m a r i l y one o f r e l a t i o n s h i p ad ju s tmen t , c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y d y a d i c a f fec t ion , c o h e s i o n a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n . I n o r d e r o f m a g n i t u d e , t he s t r u c t u r e coeff ic ients o f the th ree m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t l y w e i g h t e d v a r i a b l e s w e r e : affection ( .91), cohesion (.76) a n d satisfaction ( .69). T h e first d i m e n s i o n u n d e r l y i n g the i n d e p e n d e n t X - v a r i a b l e set i s p r i m a r i l y a s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g d i m e n s i o n 1 3 9 Table 24 C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n s , C a n o n i c a l V a r i a b l e L o a d i n g s ( S t r u c t u r e Coef f i c ien t s ) , S t a n d a r d i z e d C a n o n i c a l W e i g h t s , P e r c e n t a g e o f V a r i a n c e a n d R e d u n d a n c y B e t w e e n S e x u a l F u n c t i o n i n g a n d I n t e r p e r s o n a l V a r i a b l e s a n d T h e i r C o r r e s p o n d i n g C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s First Canonical Variates Structure Coefficient o r Dependent Variable Set Canonical Variable Standardized Canonical Interpersonal Set [ y ( 1 ' ] Loading Weight D y a d i c C o n s e n s u s . 26 - .47 S a t i s f a c t i o n .69 . 22 C o h e s i o n .76 . 36 A f f e c t i o n .91 . 77 P e r c e n t o f V a r i a n c e . 48 R e d u n d a n c y . 17 Independent Variable Set Sexual Functioning Set [ x ( 1 ' ] D e s i r e . 0 5 .17 A r o u s a l - .16 . 1 9 O r g a s m -.52 - .39 E m o t i o n d u r i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y - .18 - .12 S F I - c u r r e n t s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g .92 . 87 P e r c e n t o f V a r i a n c e . 23 R e d u n d a n c y .08 C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n . 6 0 E i g e n v a l u e . 3 6 C a n o n i c a l v a r i a b l e l o a d i n g s g r e a t e r t h a n . 3 0 a r e h i g h l i g h t e d w i t h boldface t y p e a n d a r e c o n s i d e r e d m e a n i n g f u l ( T a b a c h n i c k & F i d e l l , 1 9 8 3 ) . c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y p o s i t i v e s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . I n o r d e r o f m a g n i t u d e , the s t r u c t u r e coeff ic ients o f the t w o m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t l y w e i g h t e d v a r i a b l e s a r e : SFI (.91) a n d orgasm (- .52). T a k e n a s a p a i r , the c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s i n d i c a t e t h a t p o s i t i v e s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p i s r e l a t e d to r e l a t i o n s h i p a f fec t ion , cohes ion a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h e c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s sugges t s a m o d e r a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the 1 4 0 d e p e n d e n t a n d i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e se ts ( 1 1 ^ = .60) . T h e P e r c e n t a g e o f V a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t the o r i g i n a l Y - v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t for 4 8 % o f the v a r i a n c e i n the f i r s t c a n o n i c a l [ y ( 1 1 ] v a r i a t e , a n d the R e d u n d a n c y I n d e x i n d i c a t e s t h a t for the f i r s t c a n o n i c a l [ y ( 1 ' ] v a r i a t e , 1 7 % o f the v a r i a n c e i s a c c o u n t e d for b y the v a r i a b l e s i n the i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e set. A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f the s t a n d a r d i z e d c a n o n i c a l w e i g h t s i n d i c a t e s the r e l a t i v e o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e o f the v a r i a b l e s o n the u n d e r l y i n g d i m e n s i o n . F o r the f i r s t se t o f c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s , p a t t e r n a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d SFI (.87) a n d orgasm (-.39) w e r e the t w o m o s t i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s to the d i m e n s i o n u n d e r l y i n g the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g se t w h i l e affection ( .77), consensus (-.47) a n d cohesion (.36) w e r e the m o s t i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s u n d e r l y i n g the i n t e r p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e set. iv. Summary T h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s l ed to the re jec t ion o f H 0 s ince w a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l . B o t h p a t t e r n a n a l y s i s a n d the s t r u c t u r e coeff ic ients f r o m the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e t h ree v a r i a b l e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w e i g h t e d on the f i r s t l i n e a r c o m p o s i t e o f the d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e set . T h e u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t w a s i n t e r p r e t e d to be one o f r e l a t i o n s h i p a d j u s t m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y af fec t ion , c o h e s i o n , a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h e f i r s t l i n e a r compos i t e o f the i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w a s w e i g h t e d m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t l y b y t w o s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s . T h e u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t w a s i n t e r p r e t e d to be one o f p o s i t i v e s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s 7 w a s re jected i n f a v o u r o f the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n the t w o sets o f v a r i a b l e s , s e x u a l a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l f u n c t i o n i n g w a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e ren t f r o m ze ro . T h e r e s u l t o f t h i s a n a l y s i s s u p p o r t s R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 7 w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t 141 relationship will be found between sexual functioning and interpersonal variables. Research Hypothesis 8 There will be a statistically significant difference between the three groups of partners (HSD, SDys, NSD) on the sexual functioning and interpersonal canonical variates obtained in the canonical analysis. Statistical Hypotheses 8 H 0: (a) M 1 = M 2 = M 3» (y ( mean scores) ( b ) M i = M 2 = : M 3 , ( x ( 1 ) mean scores) There will be no statistically significant difference between the three groups of partners on each of the canonical variate mean scores. i. Results of Testing Statistical Hypothesis 8 A one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) was applied to the standardized scores of the canonical variates, y 1 1 1 and x ( 1 1, with groups, (HSD, SDys, NSD), as the independent variable to test if the groups differed significantly on the latent constructs underlying y ( 1 5 and x ( 1 '. (a) Results of ANOVA Based on the y{ 1 ) Variate (Interpersonal) The results of the ANOVA based on the y c 1 ' variate led to the rejection of Statistical Hypothesis 8(a) at F(2,59) = 7.43, p<0.00. Table 25 summarizes the results of the ANOVA. The result of this analysis supports Research Hypothesis 8 which states that statistically significant differences will be found between the three groups of partners on the interpersonal canonical variate. 142 Table 25 A N O V A B e t w e e n the T h r e e G r o u p s o f P a r t n e r s : H y p o a c t i v e S e x u a l D e s i r e , S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n a n d N o S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n B a s e d o n the R e l a t i o n s h i p A d j u s t m e n t C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e Source DF Sum of Squares Mean Squares F P B e t w e e n G r o u p s 2 1 4 . 8 5 7 .43 9 . 4 9 0 . 0 0 W i t h i n G r o u p s 5 9 4 6 . 1 6 . 7 8 T o t a l 6 1 6 1 . 0 1 A pos t hoc a n a l y s i s w a s conduc t ed u s i n g the S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s t es t p r o c e d u r e to e s t a b l i s h w h i c h o f the g r o u p s d i f fe red s i g n i f i c a n t l y o n the l a t e n t c o n s t r u c t . T h e r e s u l t s s h o w e d t h a t G r o u p 3 d i f fe red s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m b o t h G r o u p 1 a n d G r o u p 2 a t a l p h a = . 0 5 l e v e l o n the l a t e n t c o n s t r u c t i n t e r p r e t e d as r e l a t i o n s h i p a f fec t ion a n d a d j u s t m e n t . T h e r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 2 6 . Table 26 S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t R e s u l t s Groups Mean Group 1 2 3 - .43 H S D 1 - .21 S D y s 2 .72 N S D 3 * * * denotes p a i r s o f g r o u p s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e ren t a t a l p h a = . 0 5 l e v e l T h e r e s u l t s o f the A N O V A a n d S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s t es t c o n f i r m the di f ference b e t w e e n the r e s e a r c h g r o u p s o f p a r t n e r s i n t e r m s o f the l a t e n t 143 c o n s t r u c t i n t e r p r e t e d as p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p a d j u s t m e n t . T h e c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p , G r o u p 3 ( N S D ) , d i f fe red s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m the o the r t w o s t u d y g r o u p s ( H S D a n d S D y s ) i n d i c a t i n g a h i g h e r degree o f a f f ec t iona l e x p r e s s i o n , cohes ion a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n . (b) Results of ANOVA Based on the x( 1 ' Variate (Sexual Functioning) T h e r e s u l t s o f the A N O V A b a s e d o n the x ( 1 ' v a r i a t e l ed to the re jec t ion o f H y p o t h e s i s 8(b) a t F ( 2 , 5 9 ) = 6 . 1 9 , p < 0 . 0 0 . T a b l e 2 7 s u m m a r i z e s the r e s u l t s o f the A N O V A . T h e r e s u l t o f th i s a n a l y s i s s u p p o r t s R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 8 w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rences w i l l be f o u n d b e t w e e n the t h r ee g r o u p s o f p a r t n e r s o n the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a t e . Table 27 A N O V A B e t w e e n the T h r e e G r o u p s o f P a r t n e r s : H y p o a c t i v e S e x u a l D e s i r e , S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n a n d N o S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n B a s e d on the S e x u a l F u n c t i o n i n g C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e Source DF Sum of Squares Mean Squares F P B e t w e e n G r o u p s 2 1 2 . 3 8 6 .19 7 .51 0 . 0 0 W i t h i n G r o u p s 5 9 4 8 . 6 2 .82 T o t a l 61 6 1 . 0 0 A p o s t hoc a n a l y s i s w a s conduc t ed u s i n g the S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s tes t p r o c e d u r e to e s t a b l i s h w h i c h o f the g r o u p s d i f fe red s i g n i f i c a n t l y o n the l a t e n t c o n s t r u c t . T h e r e s u l t s s h o w e d t h a t G r o u p 3 d i f fe red s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m G r o u p s 1 a n d 2 a t a l p h a = . 0 5 l e v e l . T h e r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 2 8 . 144 Table 28 S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t R e s u l t s Groups Mean Group 2 1 3 - .41 S D y s 2 - .18 H S D 1 . 66 N S D 3 * * * denotes p a i r s o f g r o u p s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e ren t a t a l p h a = . 0 5 l e v e l T h e r e s u l t s o f the A N O V A a n d S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s t e s t c o n f i r m the d i f ference b e t w e e n the c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p o f p a r t n e r s ( G r o u p 3) a n d the o t h e r t w o s t u d y g r o u p s o f p a r t n e r s ( G r o u p s 1 a n d 2) o n the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g c o n s t r u c t . 3. Summary of Results a. Subjects T e s t i n g o f s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s e s 1, 2 , 3 a n d 4 l ed to re jec t ion o f the n u l l h y p o t h e s e s i n e a c h i n s t a n c e . T h e r e s u l t s o f t e s t i n g s t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s 1 i n d i c a t e d a s t r o n g s i g n i f i c a n t c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d i n t r a p s y c h i c v a r i a b l e s (Rc = .83) . T h e r e s u l t s o f t e s t i n g s t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s 2 i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p d i f ferences o n b o t h the s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n v a r i a t e a n d the i n t r a p s y c h i c v a r i a t e . I n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , a l l g r o u p s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f fe ren t f r o m e a c h o the r o n the s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n m e a s u r e w i t h the H S D g r o u p ( G r o u p 1) r e c o r d i n g the h i g h e s t m e a n score o n the v a r i a t e f o l l o w e d b y the S D y s g r o u p ( G r o u p 2). T h e N S D g r o u p ( G r o u p 3) m e a n score w a s i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d to the concep t o f s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n . O n the i n t r a p s y c h i c affect v a r i a t e , the m e a n scores o f G r o u p O n e ( H S D ) a n d G r o u p T w o ( S D y s ) , a l t h o u g h no t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e ren t f r o m e a c h 145 o the r , w e r e s i g n f i c a n t l y d i f f e ren t f r o m the m e a n score o f the N S D g r o u p ( G r o u p 3). T h e H S D a n d S D y s g r o u p s d i d no t d i f fe r s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( s t a t i s t i c a l l y ) on the i n t r a p s y c h i c affect v a r i a t e . H o w e v e r , t h e y d i d dif fer n o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the d i r e c t i o n p r o p o s e d b y K a p l a n ( 1 9 7 9 ) . F o r i n s t a n c e , K a p l a n (1979) p roposed t h a t i f s t u d i e d f r o m the p e r s p e c t i v e o f a t r i p h a s i c concep t o f the s e x u a l r e sponse c y c l e , a n x i e t y w o u l d no t be e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d a m o n g the th ree g r o u p s o f d y s f u n c t i o n s . K a p l a n s ta tes , " I t a p p e a r s t h a t subjects w i t h des i re p h a s e d y s f u n c t i o n , a s a g r o u p , a re af fec ted w i t h m o r e s e r i ous i n t r a p s y c h i c . . . p r o b l e m s , w h e r e the subjects w i t h o r g a s m p r o b l e m s a r e . . . f o u n d to h a v e r e l a t i v e l y m i l d e r a n d less t e n a c i o u s u n d e r l y i n g p r o b l e m s . E x c i t e m e n t p h a s e d i s o r d e r s f a l l i n the m i d d l e o f the s p e c t r u m " (p. 28) . A l t h o u g h the r e s u l t o f t e s t i n g H y p o t h e s i s 2 d i d no t offer s t a t i s t i c a l s u p p o r t for t h i s p o s i t i o n , the H S D g r o u p ' s m e a n score on the i n t r a p s y c h i c / a f f e c t v a r i a t e w a s c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r (.51) t h a n t h a t o f the S D y s g r o u p (.19) w h i c h i m p l i e s a g r e a t e r degree o f a n x i e t y i n the H S D g r o u p . H o w e v e r , t h i s d i f ference w a s n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . T h e r e s u l t o f t e s t i n g S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s 3 i n d i c a t e d a m o d e r a t e l y s t r o n g a n d s i g n i f i c a n t c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s (Rc = .65) . T h e r e s u l t s o f t e s t i n g s t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s 4 i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p d i f fe rences o n b o t h the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a t e a n d the i n t e r p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t v a r i a t e . I n b o t h i n s t a n c e s , G r o u p 3 (No S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n ) m e a n scores w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n the m e a n scores o f G r o u p 1 ( H y p o a c t i v e S e x u a l D e s i r e ) o r G r o u p 2 ( S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n ) . T h e r e w a s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference b e t w e e n the H S D g r o u p a n d the S D y s g r o u p o n the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a t e or the i n t e r p e r s o n a l - a f f e c t i o n v a r i a t e . T h e r e s u l t o f t e s t i n g s t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s 4 146 suggested that the experience of sexual intimacy without negative thoughts, and the experience of affection and satisfaction in a relationship differ significantly between the NSD group (Group 3) and sexually dysfunctional groups (HSD and SDys) but not between the two groups with sexual problems (HSD and SDys). c. Partners of Subjects Testing of statistical hypothesis 5, 6, 7 and 8 led to rejection of the hypothesis in each instance. The result of testing statistical Hypothesis 5 indicated a strong, significant canonical correlation between sexual functioning and intrapsychic variables (Rc = .80). The results of testing statistical Hypothesis 6 indicated significant group differences on the sexual functioning variate but no significant group differences on the intrapsychic variate for partners of Group 1 (HSD, Group 2 (SDys) and Group 3 (NSD). The results of testing statistical Hypothesis 7 indicated a moderate canonical correlation between sexual functioning variables and interpersonal variables (Rc = .60). The results of testing statistical Hypothesis 8 indicated significant group difference on both the sexual functioning variate and the interpersonal adjustment variate. In both instances Group 3 (NSD) mean scores were significantly higher than Group 1 (HSD) or Group 2 (SDys) mean scores. There was no significant difference between the Group 1 partners (HSD) and the Group 2 partners (SDys) on the sexual functioning variate or the interpersonal-affection variate. 147 C . R E S U L T S : P R O F I L E A N A L Y S I S O F S A S B D A T A D a t a a n a l y s i s o f the S A S B w a s conduc t ed i n th ree s teps . T h e f i r s t s tep i n c l u d e d the c r e a t i o n o f the e i g h t m e a n c l u s t e r s scores for e a c h prof i l e . T h i s w a s a c h i e v e d b y a v e r a g i n g the S A S B I N T R E X i t e m s p e r t i n e n t to e a c h c l u s t e r to p r o d u c e e i g h t m e a n c l u s t e r scores pe r p ro f i l e . F o r e x a m p l e , the first m e a n c l u s t e r score on the Introject p rof i l e w a s c r e a t e d b y the s u m o f scores on five S A S B i t e m s (#317, # 3 1 8 , # 3 2 0 , # 3 2 7 a n d #328) d i v i d e d b y five. M e a n c l u s t e r scores o f the p ro f i l e s a r e g i v e n n a m e s . I n the case o f c l u s t e r score 1 o f the Introject prof i l e m e n t i o n e d above , the n a m e is spontaneous self. T h e n a m e ref lec ts t he p s y c h o l o g i c a l concep t u n d e r l y i n g the o r i g i n a l five q u e s t i o n s ( B e n j a m i n , 1 9 7 4 ) . T h e second s tep i n the d a t a a n a l y s i s w a s to c o n d u c t p rof i l e a n a l y s e s u s i n g S P S S X P r o f i l e A n a l y s i s ( S P S S Inc . , 1988) o n the e i g h t m e a n c l u s t e r scores a c ro s s the t h r ee g r o u p s for e a c h o f the five p ro f i l e s : Introject, spouse initiates, spouse responds, self initiates, self responds. I n p ro f i l e a n a l y s i s , the q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g the e q u a l i t y o f m e a n vec to r s i s d i v i d e d in to t w o p o s s i b i l i t i e s a s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I I I ( D a t a A n a l y s i s ) . T o r e v i e w , the first p o s s i b i l i t y i s H 0 , : A r e the th ree p rof i l e s p a r a l l e l ? H o t e l l i n g ' s T 2 p r o c e d u r e , as d e s c r i b e d b y J o h n s o n a n d W i c k e r n ( 1 9 8 8 , p . 2 4 5 ) , p r o v i d e s the t e s t for H 0 1 . I f t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f p a r a l l e l i s m i s t enab le , the second p o s s i b i l i t y , H 0 2 : A r e the g r o u p prof i les co inc iden t , is t es ted u s i n g H o t e l l i n g ' s T 2 p r o c e d u r e a s d e s c r i b e d b y J o h n s o n a n d W i c k e r n ( 1 9 8 8 , p . 246 ) . I f s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p di f ference i s e s t a b l i s h e d , the final s tep i n the p r o c e d u r e , pos t hoc c o m p a r i s o n s o f m e a n s for p a r t i c u l a r c l u s t e r scores w a s u n d e r t a k e n u s i n g S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s t es t p r o c e d u r e . 1 4 8 a. Assumptions T w o a s s u m p t i o n s speci f ic to p ro f i l e a n a l y s i s w e r e m e t : a l l r e sponses w e r e e x p r e s s e d i n s i m i l i a r u n i t s a n d r e sponses for d i f f e ren t g r o u p s w e r e i n d e p e n d e n t o f e a c h o the r . T h e m u l t i v a r i a t e a p p r o a c h used c o n s i d e r s the m e a s u r e m e n t s o n the subjec ts s a m p l e to be a s a m p l e f r o m a m u l t i v a r i a t e n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . A l t h o u g h the a s s u m p t i o n of m u l t i v a r i a t e n o r m a l i t y i s u n t e s t a b l e , u n i v a r i a t e n o r m a l i t y p r o v i d e s a c o n s e r v a t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t o f the v a r i a b l e o v e r a l l for m u l t i v a r i a t e p r o c e d u r e s ( T a b a c h n i c k & F i d e l l , 1983 ) . T h e K o l m o g o r o v - S m i r n o v t e s t w a s conduc t ed o n e a c h v a r i a b l e to t e s t for n o r m a l i t y o f d i s t r i b u t i o n . T h e tes t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d the scores for e a c h v a r i a b l e w e r e n o r m a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h m e a n s r a n g i n g f r o m 1 0 . 2 2 to 6 6 . 8 6 a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s r a n g i n g f r o m 1 2 . 7 0 to 2 4 . 2 0 . A n a l p h a l e v e l o f . 0 5 w a s se t t h r o u g h o u t the a n a l y s e s . R e s u l t s o f the h y p o t h e s i s t e s t i n g for e a c h S A S B prof i l e w i l l be r e p o r t e d first. T h i s w i l l be fo l l owed b y a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s t a k i n g in to c o n s i d e r a t i o n the S A S B m o d e l . T o a s s i s t the r e a d e r i n f o l l o w i n g the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t he p ro f i l e s a f e w p o i n t s r e g a r d i n g the S A S B m o d e l i t s e l f w i l l be h e l p f u l . F i r s t , subjec ts a s s i g n r a t i n g v a l u e s to the I N T R E X ques t ions r a n g i n g on a sca le f r o m 0 to 1 0 0 . A score o f 5 0 or above o n the p ro f i l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t the r e s p o n d e n t s c o n s i d e r i t e m s i n the c l u s t e r to be , i n d i f f e ren t degrees , t r u e abou t t h e m s e l v e s o r t h e i r spouses . A score b e l o w 5 0 ind i ca t e s the r e s p o n d e n t cons ide r s the i t e m s to be, i n s o m e degree fa lse . S e c o n d l y , t w o c e n t r a l d i m e n s i o n s o f the S A S B m o d e l a re a f f i l i a t i o n a n d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e . T h e a f f i l i a t i o n d i m e n s i o n r a n g e s f r o m e x t r e m e l y f r i e n d l y to e x t r e m e l y hos t i l e . I n t e r m s o f the p ro f i l e , c l u s t e r s 2 , 3 a n d 4 c a n be v i e w e d as " f r i e n d l y " c l u s t e r s w h i l e c l u s t e r s 6, 7 a n d 8 c a n be v i e w e d as " h o s t i l e " c l u s t e r s . 149 Profiles from the normative sample progressively increase in ratings from Cluster 1 to 3 (the friendly attachment pole) and decrease ratings in an orderly fashion to reach a minimum at Cluster 7 (the hostile pole) (Benjamin, 1984). The second dimension of the S A S B model is interdependence. The interdependence dimension ranges from independent behavior to dependent behavior. In terms of the profiles, Cluster 1 is interpreted as the range of response available on the concept of independence while Cluster 5 is interpreted as the range of response available on the concept of dependence. Profiles of the normative sample indicate a score between 40 and 55 on Cluster 1 and between 20 and 30 on Cluster 5 reflect autonomous noncontrolling relationships. Appendix E provides the profiles of average cluster scores for 133 normals rating their relationship with their mate at best and at worst on the self initiates and self responds surfaces. Results of the profile analyses are reported for sexually dysfunctional subjects first followed by their partners' results. 1. Subjects Research Hypothesis 9 Profiles of the eight mean cluster scores for the three groups of subjects (HSD, SDys, NSD) generated from ' S A S B questions measuring self concept (Introject) w i l l not be parallel and coincident. Statistical Hypothesis 9 H 0 C m = C u 2 =CM 3 This is a test of whether or not the profiles are parallel. H 0 2 : l ' M i = l ' " 2 = l ' " 3 Given the profiles are parallel, this is a test of whether or not the profiles are coincident. 150 Results: Hypothesis 9, Introject Profile H 0 ,: C M I =CUZ = C M 3 The result of Hotelling's T 2 analysis indicates the hypothesis of parallel profiles is tenable since F(7,53) = 1.58, < .95 F(7.53) = 2.17. Assuming the profiles are parallel, H 0 2 was tested. H 0 2 : I ' M , = l ' u 2 = l ' M 3 The hypothesis of coincident introject profiles was rejected in favor of the conclusion that the profiles, overall, are significantly different and separate F(2,59) = 6.12, p<.05 (see Figure 9). Post hoc analysis indicates significant group difference at three points along the profile: Cluster 3, self nourishing and cherishing; Cluster 4, self protecting and enhancing; and Cluster 6, self indicting and oppressing (see Table 29). 151 The correlation between data points and theoretical points of the SASB model within each group is represented by the profile coefficient and its corresponding profile. Coefficient > .80 are significant at alpha = .05 level or better. 100 90 80 70 f 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Key: A Group 1: Hypoactive Sexual Desire • Group 2: Sexual Dysfunction n Group 3: No Sexual Dysfunction * Significant group difference SASB Profile Coefficients Group l:r = .86(8) Group 2: r= 90(1) Group 3: r=.93(1) CO OO S~i o c 3 e a ao c • c C L X UJ T 3 OO C •a ex <L> 8 —I— 3 OO '5 JS u oo .5 JZ OO to c c «J c PJ -a oo c •a o oo oo c '5 •a ta c/a u OS •a e «» oo c C o '5 o oo oo c: oo e o T3 e ea oo c •a o •-3 .5 oo OO c on oo oo J oo u t3 S3 o oo oo .s E s •a >•> Q Figure 9: Subjects' Introject Profiles. Subject profiles of SASB mean cluster scores for Group 1: Hypoactive Sexual Desire (n=22), Group 2: Sexual Dysfunction (n=21) and Group 3: No Sexual Dysfunction (n=19) from Introject ratings. 152 T a b l e 2 9 S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t R e s u l t s C l u s t e r 3 S e l f - n o u r i s h i n g / C h e r i s h i n g Mean Group Groups 1 2 3 4 5 47 6 3 1 2 3 C l u s t e r 4 S e l f p r o t e c t i n g / E n h a n c i n g Mean Group Groups 2 3 52 57 72 1 2 3 C l u s t e r 6 S e l f - i n d i c t i n g / O p p r e s s i n g Groups Mean Group 2 3 1 16 2 22 3 3 1 1 denotes p a i r s o f g r o u p s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e ren t a t a l p h a = . 0 5 l e v e l A s c a n be seen f r o m the I n t r o j e c t p ro f i l e , the H y p o a c t i v e S e x u a l D e s i r e G r o u p ( G r o u p 1) a n d the S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n G r o u p ( G r o u p 2) r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l ess self nourishing and cherishing ( C l u s t e r 3) a n d self protecting and enhancing ( C l u s t e r 4) t h a n d i d G r o u p 3 (No S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n ) . I n a d d i t i o n , H S D subjec ts ( G r o u p 1) r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e self indicting and oppressing ( C l u s t e r 6) t h a n d i d the S D y s g r o u p . T h e S A S B m o d e l v i e w s the I n t r o j e c t p ro f i l e as a n i n t r a p s y c h i c m e a s u r e o f one ' s s e l f concep t as a r e s u l t o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e i n g m e a s u r e d . I t w o u l d a p p e a r f r o m the d a t a t h a t H S D subjects ( G r o u p 1) a n d S D y s subjects ( G r o u p 2) a r e i n t r a p s y c h i c a l l y m o r e conf l ic ted i n t e r m s o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a n a re N S D subjects ( G r o u p 3). H y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i re subjec ts ( G r o u p 1) a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e s e l f i n d i c t i n g a n d o p p r e s s i n g t h a n S D y s subjects ( G r o u p 2) w h i c h m a y c o n t r i b u t e to a m o r e 153 v u l n e r a b l e s e l f concep t for H S D subjects a s c o m p a r e d to subjects w i t h a r o u s a l o r o r g a s m p r o b l e m s . Research Hypothesis 10 P r o f i l e s o f the e i g h t m e a n c l u s t e r scores for the t h r ee g r o u p s o f subjec ts ( H S D , S D y s , N S D ) g e n e r a t e d f r o m S A S B ques t ions m e a s u r i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r (a . spouse initiates; b . spouse responds; c. self initiates; d . self responds) w i l l no t be p a r a l l e l a n d co inc iden t . Statistical Hypothesis 10 H 0 , : C M I = C J U 2 =Cn3 T h i s i s a tes t o f w h e t h e r o r no t the p ro f i l e s a r e p a r a l l e l . H 0 2 : 1 ' M I = 1 ' M 2 = 1 ' M 3 G i v e n the prof i l e s a re p a r a l l e l , t h i s i s a tes t o f w h e t h e r or no t the prof i l e s a r e co inc iden t . Results: Hypothesis 10a, Spouse Initiates P r o f i l e H 0 , : C M I = C J U 2 = C M 3 T h e r e s u l t o f H o t e l l i n g ' s T 2 a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s the h y p o t h e s i s o f p a r a l l e l p ro f i l e s is t enab le s ince F ( 7 , 5 3 ) = 1.79, < . 9 5 F ( 7 , 5 3 ) = 2 . 1 7 . A s s u m i n g the p ro f i l e s a r e p a r a l l e l , H 0 2 w a s tes ted . H 0 2 : 1 ' M , = 1 ' M 2 = 1 ' M 3 T h e h y p o t h e s i s o f co inc iden t g r o u p p ro f i l e s (spouse initiates) w a s re jected i n f a v o r o f the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the prof i l e s a r e , o v e r a l l , s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e ren t a n d s e p a r a t e , F ( 2 , 5 9 ) = 7 .28 , p < . 0 5 (see F i g u r e 10). T h e S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s t es t i d e n t i f i e d s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p d i f ferences a t four po in t s a l o n g the prof i l e : C l u s t e r 2 , affirming and understanding; C l u s t e r 3 , nurturing and comforting; C l u s t e r 6, belittling and blaming; a n d C l u s t e r 7, 154 The correlation between data points and theoretical points of the SASB model within each group is represented by the profile coefficient and its corresponding profile. Coefficient > .80 are significant at alpha = .05 level or better. Figure 10: Subjects Rate Spouse's Initiating Behavior. Subject profiles of SASB mean cluster scores for Group 1: Hypoactive Sexual Desire (n=22), Group 2: Sexual Dysfunc-tion (n=21) and Group 3: No Sexual Dysfunction (n=19) from rating Spouse's initiating behavior. 155 attacking and rejecting (see T a b l e 30) . T a b l e 3 0 S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t R e s u l t s C l u s t e r 2 A f f i r m i n g / U n d e r s t a n d i n g Mean Group Groups 2 3 C l u s t e r 3 N u r t u r i n g / C o m f o r t i n g Mean Group Groups 2 1 3 5 2 5 7 6 8 1 2 3 4 5 5 7 6 5 2 1 3 C l u s t e r 6 B e l i t t l i n g / B l a m i n g Mean Group Groups 3 2 1 C l u s t e r 7 A t t a c k i n g / R e j e c t i n g Mean Group Groups 3 2 1 14 17 3 3 8 8 18 3 2 1 * denotes p a i r s o f g r o u p s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r en t a t a l p h a = . 0 5 l e v e l A s c a n be seen f r o m the p ro f i l e s o f h o w subjec ts r a t e t h e i r s p o u s e ' s i n i t i a t i n g b e h a v i o r , t he re i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n G r o u p s 1 a n d 2 ( H S D , S D y s ) a n d the c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p ( N S D ) . V i e w i n g the " f r i e n d l y " c l u s t e r s f i r s t (2, 3 , a n d 4), the H S D subjects r a t e d t h e i r spouses as s i g n i f i c a n t l y l ess affirming and understanding ( C l u s t e r 2) t h a n d i d N S D subjects . O n the o the r h a n d , subjects w i t h s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n s ( S D y s ) r a t e d t h e i r spouses s i g n i f i c a n t l y less nurturing ( C l u s t e r 3) t h a n d i d N S D subjec ts . H o w e v e r , the H y p o a c t i v e S e x u a l D e s i r e G r o u p a n d the S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n G r o u p ( G r o u p s 1 a n d 2) w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f fe ren t f r o m e a c h o the r i n h o w t h e y p e r c e i v e d t h e i r spouses a f f i r m i n g a n d n u r t u r i n g b e h a v i o r . R e g a r d i n g the " h o s t i l e " c l u s t e r s (6, 7 a n d 8) 156 the result is different. Hypoactive sexual desire subjects rate their spouses significantly more belittling and blaming (Cluster 6) and attacking and rejecting (Cluster 7) than do either of the other two groups. Results: Hypothesis 10b, Spouse Responds Profile H 0 , : Cju i = C M 2 = C M 3 The result of Hotelling's T 2 analysis indicates the hypothesis of parallel profiles is tenable since F(7,53) = 1.39, < .95 F(7,53) = 2.17. Assuming the profiles are parallel, H 0 2 was tested. H 0 2 : l l Mi=l lM2=l' /*3 The hypothesis of coincident group profiles (spouse responds) was rejected in favor of the conclusion that the profiles are significantly different and separate, F(2,59) = 7.05, p<.05 (see Figure 11). The Student-Newman-Keuls test identified significant group differences at three points along the profile: Cluster 2, disclosing and expressing; Cluster 3, approaching and enjoying; and Cluster 4, trusting and relying (see Table 31). 157 The correlation between data points and theoretical points of the SASB model within each group is represented by the profile coefficient and its corresponding profile. Coefficient > .80 are significant at alpha = .05 level or better. Figure 11: Subjects Rate Spouse's Responding Behavior. Subject profiles of SASB mean cluster scores for Group 1: Hypoactive Sexual Desire (n=22), Group 2: Sexual Dysfunc-tion (n=21) and Group 3: No Sexual Dysfunction (n=19) from rating Spouse's respond-ing behaviour. 1 5 8 T a b l e 3 1 S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t R e s u l t s C l u s t e r 2 D i s c l o s i n g / E x p r e s s i n g Mean Group Groups 2 1 3 C l u s t e r 3 A p p r o a c h i n g / E n j o y i n g Mean Group Groups 2 1 3 4 9 51 6 6 2 1 3 4 7 5 9 6 8 2 1 3 5 0 57 6 3 C l u s t e r 4 T r u s t i n g / R e l y i n g Mean Group Groups 2 1 2 2 1 3 denotes p a i r s o f g r o u p s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e ren t a t a l p h a = . 0 5 l e v e l A s c a n be seen f r o m the p ro f i l e s o f h o w subjects r a t e d t h e i r s p o u s e ' s r e s p o n d i n g b e h a v i o r , the re a r e s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p d i f ferences on the " f r i e n d l y " c lu s t e r s o f the prof i le a n d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rences b e t w e e n g r o u p s o n the " h o s t i l e " c l u s t e r s o f the p ro f i l e . T h e H S D a n d S D y s g r o u p s r a t e d t h e i r spouses r e a c t i o n to t h e m as less open , for e x a m p l e , l ess disclosing and expressing ( C l u s t e r 1) t h a n d i d the N S D g r o u p . G r o u p 2 subjects ( S D y s ) a l so r a t e d t h e i r p a r t n e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r on b e h a v i o r s o f approaching and enjoying ( C l u s t e r 3) a n d trusting and relying ( C l u s t e r 4) t h a n d i d the H S D g r o u p o r the N S D g r o u p . E x c e p t for r a t i n g p a r t n e r s as less d i s c l o s i n g t o w a r d s t h e m s e l v e s , H S D subjects d i d no t find t h e i r spouses ' r e s p o n d i n g s t y l e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r en t f r o m h o w the N S D g r o u p ( G r o u p 3) r a t e d t h e i r s p o u s e s ' r e p o n d i n g s t y l e . 1 5 9 R e s u l t s : H y p o t h e s i s 10c, S e l f I n i t i a t e s P r o f i l e H 0 C M I = C U 2 = C M 3 T h e r e s u l t o f H o t e l l i n g ' s T 2 a n a l y s i s o f p a r a l l e l i s m b e t w e e n s e l f i n i t i a t e p rof i l e s w a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , F ( 7 , 5 3 ) = 2 . 8 9 , p < . 0 5 . T h e h y p o t h e s i s o f p a r a l l e l g r o u p prof i l e s w a s rejected i n f a v o r o f the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the prof i l e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r en t (see F i g u r e 12) . T h e S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s t e s t i den t i f i ed s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p d i f ferences a t t h r ee p o i n t s a l o n g the p ro f i l e : C l u s t e r 3 , nurturing and comforting; C l u s t e r 4 , helping and protecting; a n d C l u s t e r 6, belittling and blaming (see T a b l e 32) . T a b l e 3 2 S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t R e s u l t s C l u s t e r 3 N u r t u r i n g / C o m f o r t i n g Mean Group Groups 1 2 3 C l u s t e r 4 H e l p i n g / P r o t e c t i n g Mean Group Groups 1 2 3 4 7 54 7 4 1 2 3 5 0 5 3 6 4 14 15 2 6 C l u s t e r 6 B e l i t t l i n g / B l a m i n g Mean Group Groups 3 2 1 3 2 1 * denotes p a i r s o f g r o u p s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e ren t a t a l p h a = . 0 5 l e v e l 160 The correlation between data points and theoretical points of the SASB model within each group is represented by the profile coefficient and its corresponding profile. Coefficient > .80 are significant at alpha = .05 level or better. 100} 90 80 70 60 50 40 t 30 20 10 0 Key: A Group 1: Hypoactive Sexual Desire • Group 2: Sexual Dysfunction «J Group 3: No Sexual Dysfunction * Significant group difference SASB Profile Coefficients Group l:r = .92(l) Group 2: r = .97 (1) Group 3: r=. 98(1) b O .S <d U) i-. o u_ -a § bO .5 CO a * too c '6 o o CJ •a b O C •d toO .5 o CL> O £ bO .s * 1 5 I 6 too bO •H .S Man 5 •o and gan toO .5 .S *2 JS o —t— 7 toO .5 o CO 57 OC T 3 § bO C < too .S too o bo •s o Figure 12: Subjects Rate Their Own Initiating Behavior. Subject profiles of SASB mean cluster scores for Group 1: Hypoactive Sexual Desire (n=22), Group 2: Sexual Dysfunc-tion (n=21) and Group 3: No Sexual Dysfunction (n=19) from rating their own initiating behaviour. 1 6 1 O n r a t i n g t h e i r o w n b e h a v i o r t o w a r d s t h e i r spouses , G r o u p 1 ( H S D ) a n d G r o u p 2 ( S D y s ) subjects w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e ren t f r o m c o n t r o l subjects o n C l u s t e r 3 , nurturing and comforting a n d C l u s t e r 4, helping and protecting. T h e y r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y less n u r t u r i n g a n d h e l p i n g t o w a r d s t h e i r spouses t h a n d i d the N S D group . O n the " h o s t i l e " C l u s t e r 6, h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i re subjects r a t e d t h e i r o w n b e h a v i o r as s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e belittling and blaming ( C l u s t e r 6) t h a n d i d e i the r the S D y s o r N S D subjects . R e s u l t s : H y p o t h e s i s l O d , S e l f R e s p o n d s P r o f i l e H 0 1 : C M I = C M 2 = C M 3 T h e r e s u l t o f H o t e l l i n g ' s T 2 a n a l y s i s o f p a r a l l e l i s m b e t w e e n s e l f r e s p o n d s prof i l e s w a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , F ( 7 , 5 3 ) = 3 . 0 8 , p < . 0 5 . T h e h y p o t h e s i s o f p a r a l l e l g r o u p p ro f i l e s w a s re jec ted i n f a v o r o f the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the p ro f i l e s a re s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e ren t (see F i g u r e 13) . T h e S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s t e s t i d e n t i f i e d s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p d i f ferences a t t h ree p o i n t s a l o n g the p ro f i l e : C l u s t e r 2 , disclosing and expressing; C l u s t e r 3 , approaching and enjoying; a n d C l u s t e r 4, trusting and relying (see T a b l e 33) . 162 The correlation between data points and theoretical points of the SASB model within each group is represented by the profile coefficient and its corresponding profile. Coefficient > .80 are significant at alpha = .05 level or better. 100 90 80 70 60 501 40 301 20 10 0 Key A Group 1: Hypoactive Sexual Desire • Group 2: Sexual Dysfunction Group 3: No Sexual Dysfunction Significant group difference SASB Profile Coefficients Group 1: r = .91 (1) Group 2: r = .95 (1) Group 3: r = .97(1) OO c •a I cx oo OO c •fi CO OO c cn cn 1> t i CX X W •o c cd 60 T3 cn . <—< Q OO C o w 60 c IS o ca O i _ CX cx < 60 c -A C cd 60 C C/3 s oo c s a on T3 C cd OO c "E ID Q oo c cn ca <D cx cx < - a c c d oo c on oo c % •a - a oo o ft 00 c '•§ 'S > < •a c cd 443 O 00 c cd Figure 13: Subjects Rate Their Own Responding Behavior. Subject profiles of SASB mean cluster scores for Group 1: Hypoactive Sexual Desire (n=22), Group 2: Sexual Dys-function (n=21) and Group 3: No Sexual Dysfunction (n=19) from rating their own re-sponding behaviour. 1 6 3 Table 33 S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t R e s u l t s C l u s t e r 2 D i s c l o s i n g / E x p r e s s i n g Mean Group Groups 2 1 3 C l u s t e r 3 A p p r o a c h i n g / E n j o y i n g Mean Group Groups 2 3 5 9 6 3 76 2 1 3 50 56 78 52 5 6 6 6 C l u s t e r 4 T r u s t i n g / R e l y i n g Mean Group Groups 2 * denotes p a i r s o f g r o u p s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r en t a t a l p h a = .05 l e v e l T h e r e s u l t s of the pos t hoc a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n the H S D subjects a n d the S D y s subjects on t h e i r o w n r a t i n g o f h o w t h e y r e s p o n d o r r e a c t to t h e i r spouses . B o t h g r o u p s , h o w e v e r , r a t e t h e m s e l v e s l ess f r i e n d l y i n t h e i r r e sponse to spouses t h a n d id the c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p . G r o u p 1 a n d G r o u p 2 subjects v i e w t h e m s e l v e s as s i g n i f i c a n t l y l ess disclosing and expressing ( C l u s t e r 2) a n d approaching and enjoying ( C l u s t e r 3) i n r e a c t i o n to t h e i r spouses t h a n do G r o u p 3 subjects . I n a d d i t i o n , H S D subjects r a t e t h e m s e l v e s a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y less trusting and relying ( C l u s t e r 4) i n r e s p o n s e to t h e i r s p o u s e s t h a n d i d N S D subjects . 164 2. Partners of Subjects Research Hypothesis 11 P r o f i l e s o f the e i g h t m e a n c l u s t e r scores for the t h r ee g r o u p s ( H S D , S D y s , N S D ) o f p a r t n e r s g e n e r a t e d f r o m S A S B q u e s t i o n s m e a s u r i n g s e l f concep t (Introject) w i l l be p a r a l l e l a n d co inc iden t . Statistical Hypothesis 11 H 0 , : C M 1 = C M 2 = C M 3 T h i s i s a t e s t o f w h e t h e r o r n o t the p ro f i l e s a r e p a r a l l e l . H 0 2 : 1 ' M I = 1 ' M 2 = 1 ' M 3 G i v e n the p ro f i l e s a r e p a r a l l e l , t h i s i s a t e s t o f w h e t h e r o r n o t the pro f i l e s a r e co inc iden t . Results: Hypothesis 11, Introject P r o f i l e H 0 , : C M , = C M 2 = C M 3 T h e r e s u l t o f H o t e l l i n g ' s T 2 a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s the h y p o t h e s i s o f p a r a l l e l p ro f i l e s i s t enab le s ince F ( 7 , 5 3 ) = . 9 5 , < .95 F ( 7 . 5 3 ) = 2 . 1 7 . A s s u m i n g the prof i les a re p a r a l l e l , H 0 2 w a s tes ted . H 0 2 : 1 ' M I = 1 ' M 2 = 1 ' M 3 T h e r e s u l t o f H o t e l l i n g ' s T 2 a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s the h y p o t h e s i s o f co inc iden t introject p ro f i l e s i s t enab le s ince F ( 2 , 5 9 ) = .35 < .95 F ( 2 , 5 9 ) = 3 . 1 5 (see F i g u r e 14). T h e r e s u l t s o f the p ro f i l e a n a l y s i s o f m e a n c l u s t e r scores o n self concept m e a s u r e s i n d i c a t e the prof i l e s a r e p a r a l l e l a n d no t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e ren t i n o v e r a l l m e a n r e s p o n s e ac ro s s a l l c l u s t e r po in t s . I t w a s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t he r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n G r o u p 1, 2 , a n d 3 p a r t n e r s o n t h e i r r e sponse to q u e s t i o n s m e a s u r i n g s e l f concept . 165 T h e c o r r e l a t i o n be tween data points and theoret ical points o f the S A S B m o d e l w i t h i n each g roup is represented b y the p ro f i l e coef f ic ien t and its co r r e spond ing p rof i l e . C o e f f i c i e n t > .80 are s ign i f i can t at a l p h a = .05 l e v e l o r better. 100 90 + 80 70-60 + 50 40 30-20 -10 0 Key: A Group 1: Hypoactive Sexual Desire • Group 2: Sexual Dysfunction n Group 3: No Sexual Dysfunction * Significant group difference S A S B P ro f i l e Coef f i c i en t s G r o u p 1 : r= . 9 0 ( 1 ) G r o u p 2:r = . 9 4 ( 1 ) G r o u p 3: r = . 9 6 ( 1 ) <D C O 8. o o 2 M l X M l C •a ex ID < O O 3 M > •5 C J - a M > .S 3 o Z <D O O 4 D O c U J - a M t e • a o CO 0 0 5 C O c "S "I c/3 ID -o C c o o 00 M l S o ti & fi M ) C •o o 5 (D C O M ) C M l CD z 23 S u c a c o M I - a s .s <D O O -3 >-. ca Q Figure 14: Partner's Introject Profiles. Partner profiles of SASB mean cluster scores for Group 1: Hypoactive Sexual Desire (n=22), Group 2: Sexual Dysfunction (n=21) and Group 3: No Sexual Dysfunction (n=19) from Introject ratings. 166 Research Hypothesis 12 Profiles of the eight mean cluster scores for the three groups (HSD, SDys, NSD) of partners generated from SASB questions measuring interpersonal behavior (a. spouse initiates; b. spouse responds; c. self initiates; d. self responds) will not be parallel and coincident. Statistical Hypothesis 12 H 0 1 : C M I =Cju2 =Cu 3 This is a test of whether or not the profiles are parallel. H 0 2 : 1 ' M I = 1 ' M 2 = 1 ' M 3 Given the profiles are parallel, this is a test of whether or not the profiles are coincident. Results: Hypothesis 12a, Spouse Initiates Profile H 0 , : C>ii = C u 2 = C u 3 The result of Hotelling's T 2 analysis indicates the hypothesis of parallel profiles is not tenable since F(7,53) = 2.80, p < .05. The hypothesis of parallel group profiles was rejected in favor of the conclusion that group profiles resulting from how partners rated their spouses' initiating behavior are, overall, significantly different and separate (see Figure 15). The Student-Newman-Keuls test identified significant group differences at six points along the profile: Cluster 2, affirming and understanding; Cluster 3, nurturing and comforting; Cluster 4, helping and protecting; Cluster 6, belittling and blaming; Cluster 7, attacking and rejecting; and Cluster 8, ignoring and neglecting (see Table 34). 167 The correlation between data points and theoretical points of the SASB model within each group is represented by the profile coefficient and its corresponding profile. Coefficient > .80 are significant at alpha = .05 level or better. Figure 15: Partners Rate Spouse's Initiating Behavior. Partner profiles of SASB mean cluster scores for Group 1: Hypoactive Sexual Desire (n=22), Group 2: Sexual Dysfunc-tion (n=21) and Group 3: No Sexual Dysfunction (n=19) from rating Spouse's initiating behaviour. 1 6 8 T a b l e 34 S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s T e s t R e s u l t s C l u s t e r 2 A f f i r m i n g / U n d e r s t a n d i n g Groups Mean Group 1 2 3 4 9 6 0 72 1 2 3 C l u s t e r 4 H e l p i n g / P r o t e c t i n g Groups Mean Group 2 1 3 C l u s t e r 3 N u r t u r i n g / C o m f o r t i n g Groups Mean Group 1 2 3 3 9 5 1 74 1 2 3 C l u s t e r 6 B e l i t t l i n g / B l a m i n g Groups Mean Group 3 2 1 4 9 5 0 6 4 2 1 3 C l u s t e r 7 A t t a c k i n g / R e j e c t i n g Mean Group Groups 2 3 1 16 17 3 3 3 2 1 C l u s t e r 8 I g n o r i n g / N e g l e c t i n g Groups Mean Group 3 2 1 7 2 12 3 9 3 16 2 16 1 * 2 7 1 ^ * denotes p a i r s o f g roups s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e ren t a t a l p h a = . 0 5 l e v e l A s i n d i c a t e d b y the p ro f i l e s , p a r t n e r s o f G r o u p 1 ( H S D ) a n d G r o u p 2 ( S D y s ) subjects r a t e d t h e i r s p o u s e s ' i n i t i a t i n g b e h a v i o r s i g n i f i c a n t l y less affirming and understanding ( C l u s t e r 2) , nurturing and comforting ( C l u s t e r 3) a n d helping and protecting ( C l u s t e r 4) a n d s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e belittling and blaming ( C l u s t e r 6) , attacking and rejecting ( C l u s t e r 7) a n d ignoring and neglecting ( C l u s t e r 8) t h a n d i d p a r t n e r s i n the c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p ( G r o u p 3). B e t w e e n G r o u p s 1 a n d 2 , t he r e w a s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence 169 between partner ratings on the "friendly" clusters. However, on the hostile clusters partners of HSD spouses rated the behavior of their mates as significantly more belittling and blaming (Cluster 6), attacking and rejecting (Cluster 7) and ignoring and neglecting (Cluster 8). The results of the analyses of how partners experience the initiating behavior of their spouses indicate less friendly and more hostile interaction in the hypoactive sexual desire (Group 1) couples and less friendly but not hostile interaction in sexual dysfunction (Group 2) couples and friendly not hostile interaction in the no sexual dysfunction (Group 3) couples. Results: Hypothesis 12b, Spouse Responds Profile H 0 1 : C M 1 = C M 2 = C M 3 The result of Hotelling's T 2 analysis indicates the hypothesis of parallel profiles is tenable since F(7,53) = 1.51, < .95 F(7,53) = 2.17. Assuming the profiles are parallel, H 0 2 was tested. H 0 2 : l'Mi = 1 ' U 2 = 1 ' M 3 The hypothesis of coincident group profiles (spouse responds) was rejected in favor of the conclusion that the profiles are significantly different and separate, F(2,59) = 5.30, p<.05 (see Figure 16). The results of profile analysis of the mean cluster scores generated from partners rating their spouses' responding behavior showed that while the profiles could be viewed as parallel, there is a significant difference between the level of the profiles across the three groups. Post hoc analysis indicates significant group difference at five points along the profile: Cluster 2, disclosing and expressing; Cluster 3, approaching and 1 7 0 The correlation between data points and theoretical points of the SASB model within each group is represented by the profile coefficient and its corresponding profile. Coefficient > .80 are significant at alpha = .05 level or better. Figure 16: Partners Rate Spouse's Responding Behavior. Partner profiles of SASB mean cluster scores for Group 1: Hypoactive Sexual Desire (n=22), Group 2: Sexual Dysfunc-tion (n=21) and Group 3: No Sexual Dysfunction (n=19) from rating Spouse's respond-ing behaviour. 171 enjoying; Cluster 6, sulking and appeasing; Cluster 7, protesting and withdrawing; and Cluster 8, walling off and avoiding (see Table 35). Table 35 Student-Newman-Keuls Test Results Mean Cluster 2 Disclosing/Expressing Group Groups 2 3 Cluster 3 Approaching/Enjoying Mean Group Groups 2 51 55 75 1 2 3 43 52 74 1 2 3 Cluster 6 Sulking/ Appeasing Groups Mean Group 3 2 1 Cluster 7 Protesting/Withdrawing Mean Group Groups 3 2 1 14 20 27 3 2 1 9 9 19 3 2 1 17 18 34 Cluster 8 Walling off/Avoiding Mean Group Groups 2 3 2 1 * denotes pairs of groups significantly different at alpha=.05 level As can be seen from the profiles, partners of HSD and SDys spouses (Group 1 and 2) rated their spouse's responding behavior as significantly less friendly than the NSD group (Group 3) on Cluster 2, disclosing and expressing and Cluster 3, approaching and enjoying. There was no significant difference 172 between Group 1 (HSD) or Group 2 (SDys) on these mean cluster scores. On the "hostile" clusters, the HSD subjects (Group 1) were rated by their spouses as significantly more sulking and appeasing (Cluster 6), protesting and withdrawing (Cluster 7) and walling off and avoiding (Cluster 8) than the N S D group (Group 3) and with the exception of Cluster 6, than the SDys group (Group 2). The results of the analysis regarding how partners of subjects experience their spouses' responding behavior indicated less friendly and more hostile interaction in HSD (Group 1) couples; less friendly but not as hostile reactions in SDys (Group 2) couples, and friendly with no hostile reactions in the N S D (Group 3) couples. Results: Hypothesis 12c, Self Initiates Profile H 0 1 : C M I = C U 2 = C U 3 The result of Ho telling's T 2 analysis indicates the hypothesis of parallelism is tenable since F(7,53) = 1.32 < .95 F(7,53) = 2.17. Assuming the profiles are parallel, H 0 2 was tested. H 0 2 : 1 , / I 1 = 1 ' M 2 = 1 ,M3 The result of Hotelling's T 2 analysis indicates the hypothesis of coincident profiles is tenable since F(2,59) = 2.83 < .95 F(2,59) = 3.15. The results of the profile analysis of mean cluster scores generated from partners rating their own initiating behavior indicates the profiles of the three groups are parallel and not significantly different in overall mean response across all cluster points (see Figure 17). It was concluded that there was no overall statistically significant difference between Group 1, 2 and 3 partners on their 173 The correlation between data points and theoretical points of the SASB model within each group is represented by the profile coefficient and its corresponding profile. Coefficient > .80 are significant at alpha = .05 level or better. 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 201 10 0 Key: cy. A Group 1: Hypoactive Sexual Desire • Group 2: Sexual Dysfunction Group 3: No Sexual Dysfunction Significant group difference SASB Profile Coefficients Group 1: r = .97(1) Group 2: r = .94(1) Group 3: r = .96 (1) bO .5 <o so 5 U L , T 3 toO .s B bO .5 T3 C bo .s 3 4 bO bO .5 _C t; o o CD c! o o CJ "O T 3 5 g an bo .5 .s _& CO urti z; 5 bO •a at s -a too .5 JS o 6 bo i s T3 bo -S "5 CQ — t — 7 bo •S o <o ' a ? T3 bO C a < 8 bO .s o JO too CO z; O O o Figure 17: Partners Rate Their Own Initiating Behavior. Partner profiles of SASB mean cluster scores for Group 1: Hypoactive Sexual Desire (n=22), Group 2: Sexual Dysfunc-tion (n=21) and Group 3: No Sexual Dysfunction (n=19) from rating their own initiating behaviour. 174 r e sponse to q u e s t i o n s r a t i n g t h e i r o w n i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n i t i a t i n g b e h a v i o r . R e s u l t s : H y p o t h e s i s 12d, S e l f R e s p o n d s P r o f i l e H 0 C M I = C U 2 = C U 3 T h e r e s u l t o f H o t e l l i n g ' s T 2 a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s the h y p o t h e s i s o f p a r a l l e l p ro f i l e s is t enab le s ince F ( 7 , 5 3 ) = 1.24 < .95 F ( 7 , 5 3 ) = 2 . 1 7 . A s s u m i n g the p rof i l e s a re p a r a l l e l , H 0 2 w a s tes ted . H 0 2 : 1 ' M 1 = 1 , M 2 = 1 ' M 3 T h e r e s u l t o f H o t e l l i n g ' s T 2 a n a l y s i s i nd i ca t e s the h y p o t h e s i s o f co inc iden t p ro f i l e s is t enab le s ince F ( 2 , 5 9 ) = 2 . 1 0 < .95 F ( 2 , 5 9 ) = 3 . 1 5 . T h e r e s u l t s o f the p rof i l e a n a l y s i s o f m e a n c l u s t e r scores g e n e r a t e d f r o m p a r t n e r s r a t i n g t h e i r o w n r e s p o n d i n g b e h a v i o r i n d i c a t e the p ro f i l e s o f the th ree g r o u p s a r e p a r a l l e l a n d no t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e ren t i n o v e r a l l m e a n r e sponse ac ro s s a l l c l u s t e r p o i n t s (see F i g u r e 18). I t w a s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t he r e w a s no o v e r a l l s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference b e t w e e n G r o u p 1, 2 a n d 3 p a r t n e r s on t h e i r r e sponse to q u e s t i o n s r a t i n g t h e i r o w n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e s p o n d i n g b e h a v i o r . 3. S u m m a r y o f R e s u l t s a. Subjects T h e i n t r o j e c t prof i le o f the S A S B i s a n i n t r a p y s c h i c m e a s u r e o f s e l f concep t r e s u l t i n g f r o m the i n t e r p e r s o n a l d y n a m i c s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e i n g m e a s u r e d . T h e r e w a s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n the t w o s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l g r o u p s a n d the c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p o n t h i s p ro f i l e a n d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference b e t w e e n the H S D a n d S D y s g r o u p s o n the " h o s t i l e " c l u s t e r s o f the 175 The correlation between data points and theoretical points of the SASB model within each group is represented by the profile coefficient and its corresponding profile. Coefficient > .80 are significant at alpha = .05 level or better. Figure 18: Partners Rate Their Own Responding Behavior. Partner profiles of SASB mean cluster scores for Group 1: Hypoactive Sexual Desire (n=22), Group 2: Sexual Dys-function (n=21) and Group 3: No Sexual Dysfunction (n=19).from rating their own re-sponding behaviour. 176 p ro f i l e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , G r o u p 1 ( H S D ) a n d G r o u p 2 ( S D y s ) subjects r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l ess self nourishing a n d self protecting t h a n d i d the s e x u a l l y f u n c t i o n a l subjec ts ( G r o u p 3). H y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i re subjects ( G r o u p 1) r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e self indicting a n d self oppressing t h a n the S D y s g r o u p ( G r o u p 2) . I n s u m m a r y , G r o u p 1 a n d G r o u p 2 w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l ess " f r i e n d l y " to t h e m s e l v e s t h a n the N S D g r o u p ( G r o u p 3) bu t , i n a d d i t i o n , the H S D subjects w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e " h o s t i l e " o r s e l f o p p r e s s i n g t h a n w e r e the o the r subjects (see T a b l e 29) . T h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l p rof i l e s r e f l ec ted h o w a n i n d i v i d u a l expe r i ences h i s / h e r p a r t n e r ' s b e h a v i o r f r o m t w o p o i n t s o f v i e w . F i r s t , subjec ts r a t e d h o w t h e i r spouse i n i t i a t e d b e h a v i o r t o w a r d t h e m , a n d s e c o n d l y h o w t h e i r spouse r e s p o n d e d o r r e a c t e d b e h a v i o r a l l y to t h e m . T h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p d i f fe rences i n these e x p e r i e n c e s . F o r e x a m p l e , G r o u p 1 ( H S D ) subjects e x p e r i e n c e d t h e i r p a r t n e r s as s i g n i f i c a n t l y less affirming and understanding a n d disclosing t h a n the N S D g r o u p ( G r o u p 3), b u t a l so m o r e belittling and blaming a n d attacking and rejecting t h a n e i t h e r o f the o t h e r t w o g r o u p s ( G r o u p s 2 a n d 3). T h e s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n g r o u p ( G r o u p 2) d i d n o t r a t e t h e i r spouses s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f fe ren t f r o m the c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p ( G r o u p 3) o n a n y o f the " h o s t i l e " c l u s t e r s . G r o u p 2 ( S D y s ) subjects d i d e x p e r i e n c e s i g n i f i c a n t l y less nurturing and comforting b e h a v i o r a n d less disclosing and approaching b e h a v i o r as c o m p a r e d to G r o u p 3 ( N S D ) subjects (see T a b l e s 3 0 a n d 31) . T h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference b e t w e e n the H S D g r o u p ( G r o u p 1) a n d the S D y s g r o u p ( G r o u p 2) w a s i n i n c r e a s e d h o s t i l i t y , for e x a m p l e , belittling and attacking b e h a v i o r , e x p e r i e n c e d b y the H S D g r o u p ( G r o u p 1). 177 T h e second p e r s p e c t i v e re f lec ted b y t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l p ro f i l e s i s h o w a n i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e d h i s o r h e r o w n b e h a v i o r i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p f r o m the s a m e t w o p e r s p e c t i v e s : i n i t i a t i n g b e h a v i o r t o w a r d s a spouse a n d r e a c t i n g o r r e s p o n d i n g b e h a v i o r to a spouse . A g a i n , t he re w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p d i f fe rences b e t w e e n the t w o s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l g r o u p s ( G r o u p 1 a n d 2) a n d the no s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n g r o u p ( G r o u p 3). G r o u p 1 a n d G r o u p 2 subjects e x p e r i e n c e d t h e m s e l v e s as s i g n i f i c a n t l y l ess nurturing, comforting, helping a n d protecting i n t h e i r i n t i t i a t i n g b e h a v i o r a n d s i g n i f i c a n t l y less disclosing, expressing, approaching, enjoying a n d trusting i n t h e i r r e s p o n d i n g b e h a v i o r t h a n d i d G r o u p 3 subjects . I n a d d i t i o n , H S D subjects ( G r o u p 1) e x p e r i e n c e d t h e m s e l v e s as s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e belittling and blaming i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a n d i d e i t h e r o f the o the r t w o g r o u p s ( G r o u p s 2 a n d 3) o f subjects . b. Partners of Subjects T h e r e w a s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence o v e r a l l b e t w e e n G r o u p s 1, 2 a n d 3 p a r t n e r s o n t h r ee o f the five p ro f i l e s : t he in t ro jec t (se l f concept ) p rof i l e a n d the t w o i n t e r p e r s o n a l p rof i l e s w h i c h r a t e d h o w p a r t n e r s e x p e r i e n c e d t h e i r o w n i n i t i a t i n g a n d r e s p o n d i n g b e h a v i o r i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p . R e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s o f the o t h e r t w o prof i l e s , p a r t n e r s r a t i n g h o w t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d t h e i r spouses b e h a v i o r ( i n i t i a t i n g a n d r e spond ing ) i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p d i f ference . G r o u p 1 ( H S D ) p a r t n e r s r a t e d t h e i r h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i re spouses as s i g n i f i c a n t l y less f r i e n d l y a n d m o r e hos t i l e i n b o t h b e h a v i o r s a s c o m p a r e d to the N S D g r o u p ( G r o u p 3) . B e t w e e n G r o u p s 1 ( H S D ) a n d G r o u p 2 ( S D y s ) t he r e w e r e no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rences o n m e a n scores o f the " f r i e n d l y " c l u s t e r s for e i t h e r 178 i n i t i a t i n g or r e s p o n d i n g b e h a v i o r s . H o w e v e r , p a r t n e r s o f H S D spouses r a t e d t h e i r m a t e s ' b e h a v i o r a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e belittling and blaming, attacking and rejecting, protecting and withdrawing a n d avoidant t h a n d i d the S D y s g r o u p ( G r o u p 2) (see T a b l e s 3 4 a n d 35 ) . D . S U M M A R Y T h i s c h a p t e r h a s p r e s e n t e d the r e s u l t s o f the C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n A n a l y s e s a n d P r o f i l e A n a l y s e s p e r t i n e n t to the h y p o t h e s e s p r o p o s e d i n the s t u d y . T h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l d i s c u s s the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a n d h y p o t h e s e s i n l i g h t o f the s t u d y f i n d i n g s . C H A P T E R V . DISCUSSION T h e d i s c u s s i o n c h a p t e r e x a m i n e s the d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s i n v i e w o f the s t u d y f i n d i n g s a n d i n t e g r a t e s these r e s u l t s w i t h c u r r e n t c l i n i c a l a n d t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . A . DISCUSSION O F D E M O G R A P H I C D A T A T h e 1 2 4 subjects w h o p a r t i c p a t e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n w e r e sc reened for a l c o h o l a n d s u b s t a n c e abuse , m e d i c a t i o n i n t a k e , ev idence o f s eve re m e d i c a l i m p a i r m e n t a n d the p resence o f m a j o r p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y . Sub jec t s w e r e a l so s c r e e n e d r e g a r d i n g : age r a n g e ( 2 2 - 5 0 y e a r s ) , r e l a t i o n s h i p s t a t u s ( m a r r i e d a n d c o m m o n l a w ) , c o h a b i t a t i o n d u r a t i o n (18 m o n t h s o r longer ) a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p c o m m i t t m e n t (s table a n d c o m m i t t e d ) . Subjec ts a n d t h e i r p a r t n e r s w e r e t h e n a s s i g n e d to one o f th ree s t u d y g r o u p s a c c o r d i n g to p r e s e t c r i t e r i a o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r I I I . T h e s t u d y r e s u l t s a r e b a s e d o n the f o l l o w i n g g r o u p p a r t i c i p a t i o n : H y p o a c t i v e S e x u a l D e s i r e (n = 44 ) , S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n (n = 42) a n d N o S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n (n = 38 ) . A l l p a r t n e r s i n the s t u d y m e t the a d d i t i o n a l s t u d y c r i t e r i a o f d i s p l a y i n g s e x u a l des i re (score o f 15 or m o r e o n the D S F I ) a n d b e i n g s e x u a l l y f u n c t i o n a l . T h e th ree s t u d y g r o u p s w e r e m a t c h e d for age . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e a n d c h i - s q u a r e s t a t i s t i c a l p rocedure s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t he re w a s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n the t h r ee s t u d y g r o u p s on age , r e l a t i o n s h i p s t a t u s or e d u c a t i o n l e v e l (see T a b l e 1). T h e r e w a s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence , h o w e v e r , b e t w e e n the con t ro l g r o u p ( N S D ) a n d t h e o the r t w o s t u d y g r o u p s ( H S D a n d S D y s ) o n d u r a t i o n o f c o h a b i t a t i o n . G r o u p 3 subjects ( N S D ) r e p o r t e d a n a v e r a g e r e l a t i o n s h i p d u r a t i o n o f 5 .9 y e a r s ( S D = 4 .4 y e a r s ) w h e r e a s G r o u p 1 ( H S D ) subjects r e p o r t e d a n a v e r a g e 1 7 9 1 8 0 d u r a t i o n o f 1 1 . 5 y e a r s ( S D = 6.4 y e a r s ) a n d G r o u p 2 ( S D y s ) subjects a n a v e r a g e d u r a t i o n o f 9 .8 y e a r s ( S D = 6.2 y e a r s ) . T h e d i f fe rence c a n be a c c o u n t e d for b y the b r o a d e r r a n g e o f ages i n G r o u p 1 (24 to 5 0 y e a r s ) a n d G r o u p 2 (23 to 5 0 y e a r s ) as c o m p a r e d to G r o u p 3 (23 to 4 7 y e a r s ) . A l t h o u g h the m e a n age o f the subjects i n the th ree g r o u p s w a s no t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f fe ren t , the age r a n g e i n G r o u p 1 s p a n n e d 26 y e a r s a n d i n G r o u p 2 s p a n n e d 27 y e a r s , w h e r e a s i n G r o u p 3, t h e age r a n g e s p a n n e d 2 4 y e a r s . T h e p r o b a b l e effects o f the d i f fe rence i n l e n g t h o f r e l a t i o n s h i p w a s e x a m i n e d b y a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e . T h e t e s t for s ign i f i cance o f g r o u p di f ference o n the ad jus ted m e a n s w a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l i n d i c a t i n g no effect o f l e n g t h o f r e l a t i o n s h i p o n the r e s u l t s . T h e r e s u l t s f r o m th i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n w e r e d e r i v e d , the re fo re , f r o m a g r o u p o f subjects w h o m e t s t r i c t o p e r a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a for i n c l u s i o n i n the s t u d y . T h e h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i re g r o u p i n a d d i t i o n m e t the r e s t r i c t e d c r i t e r i a for l i f e l o n g or a c q u i r e d g e n e r a l i z e d loss o f s e x u a l d r i v e for s e x u a l a c t i v i t y a n d t h o u g h t as opposed to l i f e l o n g or a c q u i r e d , s i t u a t i o n a l loss o f s e x u a l des i r e . M o s t d i s c u s s i o n s abou t loss o f s e x u a l des i re i n the l i t e r a t u r e do n o t d i f f e ren t i a t e b e t w e e n g e n e r a l i z e d a n d s i t u a t i o n a l h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l de s i r e . F o r e x a m p l e , i n m u c h o f the l i t e r a t u r e d i s t i n c t i o n s a re no t m a d e b e t w e e n l a c k o f des i re for a n y f o r m o f s e x u a l e x p r e s s i o n a n d l a c k o f d e s i r e for one ' s s e x u a l p a r t n e r ( S c h r e i n e r - E n g e l a n d S c h i a v i , 1 9 8 6 ) . T h i s i s a n i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n i n the a s s e s s m e n t o f s e x u a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h h a s been o v e r l o o k e d i n m o s t e m p i r i c a l s t ud i e s to da t e . I n a d d i t i o n , the s t u d y subjects w e r e sc reened c a r e f u l l y for s eve re m e d i c a l a n d p s y c h i a t r i c i m p a i r m e n t i n a n a t t e m p t to c o n t r o l for o r g a n i c p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d to the i n t e r r u p t i o n o f s e x u a l f u n c t i o n . C u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e sugges t s t h a t h o r m o n a l fac tors do n o t p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t ro le i n the p a t h o g e n e s i s o f s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n i n 181 otherwise healthy females (Schreiner-Engel et al., 1989) and males (Bancroft, 1980). B. DISCUSSION O F R E S E A R C H H Y P O T H E S E S 1. Discussion of the Results of the Canonical Analyses and A N O V A s Research Hypothesis 1: There will be a statistically significant relationship between sexual functioning variables as measured by the SHF and DSFI and intrapsychic variables as measured by the MMPI, STAI and ABS. Research Hypothesis 2: There will be a statistically significant difference between the three groups of subjects (HSD, SDys, NSD) on the sexual functioning and intrapsychic canonical variates obtained in the canonical analysis. When no physiological disorder can be detected, sexual dysfunction is often attributed to psychological (i.e., intrapsychic) causes, and there remains a belief that sexual dysfunction is related to deep-rooted psychological conflict and/or affective illness (Kaplan, 1979). The nature of the relationship between psychological adjustment and sexual dysfunction remains equivocal in that a number of studies report a significant relationship between sexual dysfunction and psychopathology (Derogatis, Meyer and King, 1981; Munjack, Kanno and Oziel, 1978; Maurice and Guze, 1970) while others find no such relationship (Munjack and Staples, 1976). Three current studies have addressed psychopathology specifically in the HSD population (Churchill, 1989; Schreiner-Engel and Schiavi, 1986; Stuart, Hammond and Pett, 1987) and have reported conflicting results. 182 F o r e x a m p l e , i n a s a m p l e o f f e m a l e subjects a s s i g n e d the d i a g n o s i s o f i n h i b i t e d s e x u a l des i re ( I S D ) b y S t u a r t et al. ( 1987 ) , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference w a s f o u n d b e t w e e n the I S D a n d N o n l S D g r o u p s o n the 10 c l i n i c a l sca les o f the M M P I . B o t h g r o u p p ro f i l e s w e r e i n t h e n o n c l i n i c a l r a n g e . C h u r c h i l l ( 1 9 8 9 ) , o n the o the r h a n d , i n a s t u d y o f i n h i b i t e d s e x u a l des i re ( I S D ) i n a m a l e s a m p l e , c o m p a r e d the I S D m a l e s w i t h a g r o u p o f s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l m a l e s ( dys f unc t i on o the r t h a n I S D ) a n d found t h a t b o t h g r o u p s d i s p l a y e d c l i n i c a l l y r e l e v a n t M M P I p ro f i l e s (ie., b o t h g r o u p s h a d T scores above 7 0 o n t w o or m o r e c l i n i c a l sca les ) . T h e y c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e i r s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l s a m p l e w a s m o r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d i s t u r b e d t h a n the n o r m a l p o p u l a t i o n . S c h r e i n e r - E n g e l a n d S c h i a v i (1986) m e a s u r e d t h e i r m a l e a n d f e m a l e I S D subjects o n c u r r e n t a n d l i f e t i m e p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y . T h e y f o u n d t h a t a l l o f t h e i r subjects w e r e free o f p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y a n d d i s p l a y e d n o r m a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l p ro f i l e s . H o w e v e r , a l t h o u g h c u r r e n t l y free o f o the r A x i s I d i s o r d e r s spec i f i ed i n the D S M - I I I ( A m e r i c a n P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 8 0 ) , t h e i r s a m p l e h a d a m a r k e d l y e l e v a t e d l i f e t i m e p r e v a l e n c e o f a f fec t ive d i s o r d e r s . S c h r e i n e r - E n g e l a n d S c h a i v i (1986) s u g g e s t t h a t the r e m a r k a b l e r a t e o f a f fec t ive i l l n e s s i n I S D subjects i n d i c a t e s t h a t I S D m a y h a v e a c o m m o n e t io logy w i t h a f fec t ive d i s o r d e r s . T h e i n t r a p s y c h i c s t u d y findings o f t h i s r e s e a r c h a r e d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to these i n t e r e s t i n g , y e t c o n f l i c t i n g findings. R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 1 w a s t es ted b y the c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n m e t h o d w h i c h g e n e r a t e d one c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e p a i r a c c o u n t i n g for 7 0 % o f the v a r i a n c e s h a r e d b e t w e e n s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d i n t r a p s y c h i c f u n c t i o n i n g (Rc = .83 ) . T h e s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a t e w a s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y l o w s e x u a l des i re a n d a r o u s a l a c c o m p a n i e d b y a l o w i n d e x o f s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d n e g a t i v e t h o u g h t s d u r i n g 1 8 3 s e x u a l a c t i v i t y . T h i s w a s i n t e r p r e t e d as a v a r i a b l e d e s c r i b i n g s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n . T h e r e s u l t o f t e s t i n g H y p o t h e s i s 2 i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l l g r o u p s , a s con jec tu red , w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r en t o n t h i s s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n m e a s u r e . T h e d i f fe rence w a s i n t e r p r e t e d to be a f unc t i on o f the d i sc re t e s e x u a l p r o b l e m o f e a c h d i a g n o s t i c g r o u p . T h e i n t r a p s y c h i c v a r i a t e , o n the o t h e r h a n d , d i d n o t d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n the t w o s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l g r o u p s ( H S D a n d S D y s ) as con jec tured a l t h o u g h the H y p o a c t i v e S e x u a l D e s i r e g r o u p a n d the S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n g r o u p w e r e b o t h s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e ren t f r o m the N o S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n g r o u p o n th i s a f fec t ive m e a s u r e . T h e i n t r a p s y c h i c v a r i a t e m e a s u r e d p r i m a r i l y af fect d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y h i g h s e x u a l a n x i e t y a n d g e n e r a l a n x i e t y a n d n e g a t i v e affect b a l a n c e . O f i n t e r e s t to the i n t r a p s y c h i c s o l u t i o n o f the c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n w a s , t h a t ou t o f 13 v a r i a b l e s e n t e r i n g the a n a l y s i s , the h i g h e s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a b l e l o a d i n g s w e r e affect m e a s u r e s o the r t h a n M M P I sca le sco res . T w o M M P I s c a l e s , h y s t e r i a a n d p s y c h o p a t h i c d e v i a t e , d i d l o a d m i l d l y on the v a r i a t e , h o w e v e r , w h i c h l ed to f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f the M M P I to a s s i s t i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s . I t w a s f o u n d t h a t t h e r e w a s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n G r o u p s 1, 2 o r 3 o n M M P I m e a n sca le scores e x c e p t for S c a l e 3 (hys t e r i a ) a n d S c a l e 4 ( p s y c h o p a t h i c dev ia t e ) . G r o u p 1 scores w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n G r o u p 2 o r G r o u p 3 scores o n these sca le s . M i l d e l e v a t i o n s o n M M P I S c a l e 3 ( H y s t e r i a ) m a y i n d i c a t e p e r s o n a l i t y f ea tu re s s u c h as s e l f c en t e redness a n d n a i v i t y w h i l e e l e v a t i o n on S c a l e 4 ( p s y c h o p a t h i c dev ia te ) re f lec t s a r e a s o n a b l e l e v e l o f c o n f o r m i t y to s o c i a l m o r e s a n d a u t h o r i t y ( L a c h a r , 1974 ) . H o w e v e r , a l l the M M P I T scores for a l l t h ree g r o u p s w e r e w i t h i n the n o r m a l r a n g e (i .e. , b e t w e e n T = 3 0 a n d T = 70) a n d , the re fo re , d i d no t r e a c h c l i n i c a l s i gn i f i c ance . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s w h i c h f a i l e d to f i n d a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c u r r e n t p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y a n d s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n h a v e b e e n 184 r e p o r t e d b y S t u a r t , H a m m o n d a n d P e t t ( 1 9 8 7 ) , a n d S c h e i n e r - E n g e l a n d S c h i a v i ( 1 9 8 6 ) . O u t o f the 13 i n t r a p s y c h i c v a r i a b l e s e n t e r i n g the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s , h o w e v e r , s e x u a l a n x i e t y , t r a i t a n x i e t y a n d n e g a t i v e affect w e r e the th ree v a r i a b l e s w h i c h de f ined the v a r i a t e . T h e s t u d y r e s u l t s c l e a r l y i nd i ca t e t h a t h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i r e a n d s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n of a r o u s a l a n d o r g a s m a re a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the concep t u n d e r l y i n g t h i s v a r i a t e w h i c h is i n t e r p r e t e d to be a n a n x i e t y / a f f e c t cons t ruc t . T h i s f i n d i n g s u p p o r t s the v i e w t h a t s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n is r e l a t e d to a n x i e t y a n d affect r a t h e r t h a n p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y ( K a p l a n , 1 9 7 9 ; L e i b l u m & P e r v i n , 1 9 8 0 ) . W h i l e the s t u d y r e s u l t s l e a d to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n a n x i e t y / a f f e c t v u l n e r a b i l i t y , a n d no t to c u r r e n t p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y , t h e y do n o t i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n a f fec t ive f u n c t i o n i n g i n subjects w i t h H S D as c o m p a r e d to subjects w i t h a r o u s a l a n d o r g a s m d y s f u n c t i o n ( S D y s ) . R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 3: T h e r e w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s a s m e a s u r e d b y the S H F a n d D S F I a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s a s m e a s u r e d b y the D A S . R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 4: T h e r e w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference b e t w e e n the th ree g r o u p s o f subjec ts ( H S D , S D y s , N S D ) on the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o b t a i n e d i n the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s . I n the i n t e r p e r s o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , t he r e is s o m e e m p i r i c a l ev idence to s u p p o r t the v i e w o f a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d a spec t s o f 185 the m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . F o r e x a m p l e , open s e x u a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ( B a n m e n a n d V o g e l , 1 9 8 5 ) , fee l ings o f h a p p i n e s s ( G e b h a r d , 1978) a n d t r u s t ( F i e l d s , 1983) h a v e been s h o w n to co r re l a t e w i t h s e x u a l l y w e l l ad jus ted m a r r i a g e s . H o w e v e r , i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the i m p a c t o f conf l ic t , a n g e r , p o w e r s t r u g g l e s , l a c k o f a f fec t ion a n d m a n y m o r e i n t e r p e r s o n a l fee l ings a n d b e h a v i o r s u p o n s e x u a l de s i r e , o r v i ce v e r s a , i s l a r g e l y a n e c d o t a l a n d re l i es h e a v i l y u p o n c l i n i c a l i m p r e s s i o n ( K a p l a n , 1 9 7 9 ) . I n a s s e s s i n g a n d t r e a t i n g s e x u a l des i r e p r o b l e m s some c l i n i c i a n s h a v e r e c e n t l y d r a w n a t t e n t i o n to the i n t e r p e r s o n a l a n d s o c i a l c o n t e x t o f the p r o b l e m a n d deve loped i n t e r p e r s o n a l / s y s t e m i c m o d e l s o f t r e a t m e n t ( A p f e l b a u m , 1 9 8 8 ; L e v i n e , 1 9 8 4 ; L o P i c c o l o a n d F r i e d m a n , 1 9 8 8 ; R e g a s a n d S p r e n k l e , 1 9 8 4 ; T a l m a d g e a n d T a l m a d g e , 1 9 8 6 ; V e r h u l s t a n d H e i m a n , 1 9 8 8 ; a n d Z i l b e r g e l d a n d E l l i s o n , 1 9 8 0 ) . H o w e v e r , e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h d i r ec t ed t o w a r d the s t u d y o f f ac to r s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h m a y be r e l a t e d to s e x u a l des i r e a re few. O n l y th ree r ecen t s t ud i e s h a v e r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s o f s t u d y i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i re ( C h u r c h i l l , 1 9 8 9 ; M u r p h y a n d S u l l i v a n , 1 9 8 1 ; a n d S t u a r t , H a m m o n d a n d Pe t t , 1 9 8 7 ) . A l t h o u g h no t a ma jo r focus o f h e r r e s e a r c h , C h u r c h i l l (1989) s t u d i e d a s a m p l e o f 3 0 m a l e s a s s i g n e d a d i a g n o s i s o f i n h i b i t e d s e x u a l des i re a n d r e p o r t e d t h a t c o m p a r e d to 30 m a l e s w i t h o the r t y p e s o f s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n , the I S D m a l e s r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l ess s a t i s f y i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h b o t h m o t h e r a n d f a the r a n d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i nc idence o f e x t r a m a r i t a l a f f a i r s t h a n d i d n o n - I S D subjec t s . C h u r c h i l l ( 1989 ) i n t e r p r e t e d these r e s u l t s as ev idence o f m o r e d i s t u r b e d object r e l a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the I S D g r o u p as c o m p a r e d to n o n - I S D g r o u p . M u r p h y a n d S u l l i v a n (1981 ) s t u d i e d a g r o u p o f w o m e n a s s i g n e d the d i agnos i s o f I S D a n d c o m p a r e d t h e m o n m e a s u r e s o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n 1 8 6 w i t h a g r o u p o f w o m e n d i s p l a y i n g n o r m a l s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . N i n e t y - o n e p e r c e n t o f the w o m e n i n the n o r m a l g r o u p r a t e d t h e i r p a r t n e r ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n as good c o m p a r e d to 3 5 % o f t h e w o m e n w i t h s e x u a l des i r e d i so rde r . T h e t h i r d s t u d y , b y S t u a r t , H a m m o n d a n d P e t t ( 1 9 8 7 ) , l ooked a t a s a m p l e o f 5 9 m a r r i e d w o m e n w h o c o m p l a i n e d o f l a c k o f s e x u a l des i re a n d c o m p a r e d t h e m on s e v e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p v a r i a b l e s w i t h 31 m a r r i e d w o m e n w h o e x p e r i e n c e d n o r m a l s e x u a l d e s i r e . T h e y f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rences b e t w e e n I S D a n d n o n - I S D g r o u p s o n a v a r i e t y o f m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p f ac to r s , for e x a m p l e , m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t as m e a s u r e d b y t h e c o n s e n s u s , s a t i s f a c t i o n , c o h e s i o n a n d a f f ec t iona l subsca l e s a n d the t o t a l score o n the D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e ( S p a n i e r , 1976) , s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c o m m u n i c a t i o n , f ee l ings o f l ove , r o m a n t i c l ove a n d e m o t i o n a l c loseness . O n a l l t hese d i m e n s i o n s , S t u a r t et al. ( 1987) r e p o r t e d the n o n - I S D g r o u p s h o w e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e s t h a n d i d the I S D g r o u p . T h e s e s tud ies p r o v i d e some ev idence to s u p p o r t the v i e w t h a t the q u a l i t y o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p m a y affect s e x u a l de s i r e , or c o n v e r s e l y , the l a c k o f s e x u a l des i r e affects the q u a l i t y o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l s t u d y f i n d i n g s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e a b o v e s tud ies . H y p o t h e s i s 3 w a s t es ted b y the c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n m e t h o d w h i c h g e n e r a t e d one s i g n i f i c a n t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e p a i r a c c o u n t i n g for 4 2 % o f the v a r i a n c e s h a r e d b e t w e e n s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l f u n c t i o n i n g (Rc = .65 ) . T h e r e s u l t i n g c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s w e r e i n t e r p r e t e d to be p o s i t i v e s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d pos i t i ve r e l a t i o n s h i p a d j u s t m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a f fec t ion a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h e r e s u l t s o f t e s t i n g H y p o t h e s i s 4 i n d i c a t e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n the two s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l g r o u p s ( H S D a n d S D y s ) a n d the c o n t r o l g r o u p o n b o t h the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d the r e l a t i o n s h i p a d j u s t m e n t 187 v a r i a b l e s . T h e r e w a s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference b e t w e e n the H y p o a c t i v e S e x u a l D e s i r e g r o u p a n d the S e x u a l D y s f u n c t i o n g r o u p , h o w e v e r , o n e i t h e r c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e . T h i s r e s u l t s u p p o r t s the v i e w t h a t c o m m i t t e d , s t ab le , r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f G r o u p 1 ( H S D ) a n d G r o u p 2 ( S D y s ) subjects w e r e p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y l ess a f fec t iona te , s a t i s f y i n g a n d cohes ive t h a n w e r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f c o n t r o l subjec ts . S t u a r t et al. ( 1987) r e p o r t e d a s i m i l a r f i n d i n g i n t h e i r s t u d y o f I S D subjects a n d c o n t r o l subjects . H o w e v e r , S t u a r t et al. ( 1987) d i d no t c o m p a r e i n h i b i t e d s e x u a l des i r e subjec ts w i t h subjects h a v i n g o the r t y p e s of s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t a l t h o u g h H S D subjects i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y e x p e r i e n c e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a s less a f fec t ionate a n d s a t i s f y i n g t h a n do the c o n t r o l subjects ( N S D ) , t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e is no d i f f e ren t f r o m t h a t o f o the r subjects w h o suffer f r o m d i f f e ren t s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n ( S D y s ) . T h i s f i n d i n g does not s u p p o r t the v i e w e x p r e s s e d b y K a p l a n (1979) tha t , "des i r e p h a s e d y s f u n c t i o n s , as a g r o u p , a r e a f f l i c t ed w i t h m o r e se r ious . . . m a r i t a l p r o b l e m s , w h i l e the p a t i e n t s w i t h o r g a s m p r o b l e m s a r e m o r e of ten . . . f o u n d to h a v e r e l a t i v e l y m i l d e r a n d less t enac ious u n d e r l y i n g p r o b l e m s " (p. 28) . T h e t o t a l D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e score for subjec ts p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r ev idence t h a t the H S D a n d S D y s g r o u p s a re no d i f fe ren t f r o m e a c h o the r o n p e r c e i v e d m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t . F o r e x a m p l e , the m e a n s a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s for the D A S t o t a l score ac ross g r o u p s w a s : G r o u p 1 ( H S D ) m e a n score , 9 6 . 6 ( S D 14.7) ; G r o u p 2 ( S D y s ) m e a n score , 1 0 0 . 6 ( S D 15.9) ; G r o u p 3 ( N S D ) m e a n score , 1 1 0 . 8 ( S D 13 .9 ) . A n A N O V A b a s e d on the t o t a l D A S scores for the th ree g r o u p s i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n the g r o u p s a t F ( 2 , 5 9 ) = 4 . 8 6 , p < . 0 5 . A S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s t es t p r o c e d u r e e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the c o n t r o l g r o u p w a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f fe ren t f r o m 188 G r o u p s 1 ( H S D ) a n d 2 ( S D y s ) o n the D A S t o t a l score b u t the H S D a n d S D y s g r o u p s w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f fe ren t f r o m e a c h o the r on the s a m e m e a s u r e . W h i l e the s t u d y r e s u l t s l e a d to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n i s r e l a t e d to r e l a t i o n s h i p a d j u s t m e n t ( c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a f fec t ion , s a t i s f a c t i o n a n d cohes ion) , the f i n d i n g does n o t s u p p o r t the v i e w t h a t h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i r e i s r e l a t e d to m o r e s eve re r e l a t i o n s h i p d i s co rd t h a n a r o u s a l o r o r g a s m p r o b l e m s . R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 5: T h e r e w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s as m e a s u r e d b y the S H F a n d D S F I a n d i n t r a p s y c h i c v a r i a b l e s a s m e a s u r e d b y the M M P I , S T A I a n d A B S . R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 6: T h e r e w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference b e t w e e n the th ree g r o u p s o f p a r t n e r s ( H S D , S D y s , N S D ) on the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d i n t r a p s y c h i c c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o b t a i n e d i n the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s . T h e four h y p o t h e s e s c o n c e r n i n g p a r t n e r s o f subjects d i a g n o s e d w i t h s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n w e r e e x p l o r a t o r j ' i n n a t u r e . S e v e r a l a u t h o r s h a v e sugges t ed t h a t the ro le o f p a r t n e r s i n s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l coup les m a y be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d (Cooper , 1 9 6 9 ; K a p l a n , 1 9 7 7 , 1 9 7 9 ; L o P i c c o l o , 1980; . V e r h u l s t & H e i m a n , 1979 ) . T h e s e a u t h o r s e n c o u r a g e r e s e a r c h w h i c h i n c l u d e s p a r t n e r e x p l o r a t i o n a n d s y s t e m i c d y n a m i c s . H y p o t h e s i s 5 w a s t es ted b y the c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n m e t h o d w h i c h g e n e r a t e d one s i g n i f i c a n t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e p a i r a c c o u n t i n g for 6 4 % o f the v a r i a n c e b e t w e e n s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d i n t r a p s y c h i c m e a s u r e s i n the p a r t n e r g r o u p (Rc = .80 ) . T h i s s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n w a s b e t w e e n t w o v a r i a t e s i n t e r p r e t e d to be p o s i t i v e s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d pos i t i ve affect . T h e r e s u l t o f t e s t i n g H y p o t h e s i s 1 8 9 6 i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o n t r o l g r o u p p a r t n e r s ( G r o u p 3) w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e f u n c t i o n a l s e x u a l l y t h a n G r o u p 1 ( H S D ) a n d G r o u p 2 ( S D y s ) p a r t n e r s . T h i s r e s u l t w a s i n t e r p r e t e d as a r e f l ec t ion o f the l a c k o f r e g u l a r , s a t i s f y i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y i n G r o u p 1 a n d G r o u p 2 d y a d s . T h e r e w a s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n a n y o f the g r o u p s o f p a r t n e r s o n the i n t r a p s y c h i c v a r i a t e i n t e r p r e t e d as pos i t i ve affect . T h i s finding l ed to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t p a r t n e r s o f G r o u p 1 ( H S D ) a n d G r o u p 2 ( S D y s ) subjec ts , u n l i k e t h e i r spouses , do n o t d i s p l a y i n t r a p s y c h i c v u l n e r a b i l i t y r e l a t e d to a n x i e t y a n d n e g a t i v e affect . R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 7: T h e r e w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a b l e s as m e a s u r e d b y the S H F a n d D S F I a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s as m e a s u r e d b y the D A S . R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 8: T h e r e w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n the t h r ee g r o u p s o f p a r t n e r s ( H S D , S D y s , N S D ) o n the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o b t a i n e d i n the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s . H y p o t h e s i s 7 w a s t e s t ed b y the c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n m e t h o d w h i c h g e n e r a t e d one s i g n i f i c a n t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e p a i r a c c o u n t i n g for 3 6 % o f the v a r i a n c e b e t w e e n the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l m e a s u r e s i n the p a r t n e r g r o u p ( R c = . 6 0 ) . A l t h o u g h s ign i f i can t , t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n w a s o n l y m o d e r a t e b e t w e e n the t w o v a r i a t e s i n t e r p r e t e d to be p o s i t i v e s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p a d j u s t m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a f fec t ion , c o h e s i o n a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n the C a n o n i c a l V a r i a b l e l o a d i n g s o n the r e l a t i o n s h i p a d j u s t m e n t v a r i a t e s g e n e r a t e d f r o m the sub jec t s ' d a t a (Tab le 12) a n d t h e i r p a r t n e r s ' d a t a (Tab le 24 ) . T h e s t r u c t u r e coef f ic ien t l o a d i n g s o n the sub jec t s ' 1 9 0 d a t a w e r e : a f fec t ion (.90), s a t i s f a c t i o n (.41) a n d cohes ion (.34) a n d o n the p a r t n e r s ' d a t a w e r e : af fec t ion (.91), cohes ion (.76) a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n (.69). T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the concep t u n d e r l y i n g the i n t e r p e r s o n a l v a r i a t e i n the t w o s p o u s a l g r o u p s i s s i m i l a r . T h e r e s u l t o f t e s t i n g H y p o t h e s i s 8 i n d i c a t e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n p a r t n e r s i n G r o u p 1 ( H S D ) a n d G r o u p 2 ( S D y s ) c o m p a r e d to p a r t n e r s i n G r o u p 3 ( N S D ) o n the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a n d the r e l a t i o n s h i p a d j u s t m e n t v a r i a t e . T h e r e w a s no d i f fe rence b e t w e e n t h e G r o u p 1 ( H S D ) a n d G r o u p 2 ( S D y s ) p a r t n e r s on e i t h e r c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e . A g a i n , the d i f ference b e t w e e n the s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l g r o u p s ( H S D , S D y s ) a n d the c o n t r o l g r o u p ( N S D ) on the s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i a t e w a s i n t e r p r e t e d as a r e f l ec t ion o f the l a c k o f r e g u l a r s a t i s f y i n g s e x u a l a c t i v i t y i n G r o u p 1 a n d G r o u p 2 d y a d s . T h e a n a l y s i s o f the i n t e r p e r s o n a l v a r i a t e i nd i c a t e s t h a t p a r t n e r s (as w e l l a s subjects) o f G r o u p 1 ( H S D ) a n d G r o u p 2 ( S D y s ) e x p e r i e n c e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s as less a f fec t iona te , s a t i s f a c t o r y a n d cohes ive t h a n do c o n t r o l subjects . H o w e v e r , t he re i s no ev idence to s u p p o r t the v i e w t h a t h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i re is r e l a t e d to m o r e severe r e l a t i o n s h i p d i s co rd t h a n a r o u s a l o r o r g a s m p r o b l e m s . T h e t o t a l D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e score for p a r t n e r s p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r ev idence t h a t H S D a n d S D y s g r o u p s a re no d i f fe ren t f r o m e a c h o t h e r on p e r c e i v e d m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t as m e a s u r e d b y the D A S . F o r e x a m p l e , the m e a n s a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s for the D A S t o t a l score ac ross g r o u p s for p a r t n e r s w a s : G r o u p 1 ( H S D ) m e a n score, 9 7 . 8 ( S D 17 .3) ; G r o u p 2 ( S D y s ) m e a n score , 9 5 . 7 ( S D 15.9) ; G r o u p 3 ( N S D ) m e a n score , 1 1 0 . 8 ( S D 13 .9 ) . 191 2. Discussion of the Results of the Profile Analyses " S e x u a l des i r e i s a n e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y c o m p l i c a t e d a spec t o f h u m a n l i f e , a n d i t r e q u i r e s a m u l t i f a c e t e d a p p r o a c h to i t s u n d e r s t a n d i n g " (p. v i i ) , w r i t e s H . L i e f i n the f o r w a r d to L e i b l u m a n d R o s e n ' s (1988) book e n t i t l e d Sexual Desire Disorders. I n a c k n o w l e d g i n g the c o m p l e x n a t u r e o f s e x u a l des i r e , t h i s r e s e a r c h s t ud i ed i n t r a p s y c h i c a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d to s e x u a l des i re i n t w o w a y s : f i r s t , s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l subjects a n d t h e i r s e x u a l l y f u n c t i o n a l p a r t n e r s w e r e b o t h subjects i n the s t u d y , a n d second , i n t r a p s y c h i c a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l d a t a w e r e co l l ec ted f r o m b o t h spouses o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d e s i g n e d to e l i c i t i n d i v i d u a l d a t a ( M M P I , S T A I , D A S , A B S ) a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l s y s t e m i c d a t a ( S A S B ) . C o n t e m p o r a r y c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f l a c k o f s e x u a l des i r e i m p l i c a t e d i s t u r b e d m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d i n t r a p s y c h i c v u l n e r a b i l i t y as poss ib le fac to rs r e l a t e d to and /o r m a i n t a i n i n g the d i so rde r ( L e v i n e , 1 9 8 8 ; L o P i c c o l o & F r i e d m a n , 1 9 8 8 ; V e r h u l s t & H e i m a n , 1 9 7 9 , 1 9 8 8 ; Z i l b e r g e l d a n d E l l i s o n , 1 9 8 0 ) . H o w e v e r , e l u s i v e m a r i t a l p rocesses r e l a t e d to d i s t u r b e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h m a y be r e l a t e d to s e x u a l des i r e h a v e no t been def ined . R e s e a r c h e r s i n the f i e ld h a v e f a i l e d to d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t a n y specif ic r e l a t i o n s h i p o r i n t e r a c t i o n a l p a t t e r n i s r e l a t e d to l a c k o f s e x u a l des i r e a l t h o u g h the re i s ev idence t h a t the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f the m a r r i a g e b e a r s s o m e r e l a t i o n s h i p to the d i so rde r ( S t u a r t , 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e S A S B a p p r o a c h p r o v i d e s object ive m e a s u r e m e n t o f c o m p l e x i n t e r p e r s o n a l m a r i t a l b e h a v i o r a n d s e l f concep t ( B e n j a m i n , 1974) w h i c h m a y he lp to def ine m a r i t a l p rocesses r e l a t e d to the q u a l i t y o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p a n d a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l a c k o f s e x u a l des i r e . R e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s 9 a n d 10 (subjects) a n d r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s 11 a n d 12 ( p a r t n e r s o f subjects) w e r e b a s e d o n the S A S B d a t a m e a s u r i n g s u c h c o m p l e x i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r a n d s e l f concept . 1 9 2 R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 9: P r o f i l e s o f the e igh t m e a n c l u s t e r r e s p o n s e s on the In t ro jec t su r face o f the S A S B for the t h r ee g r o u p s o f subjects ( H S D , S D y s , N S D ) w i l l no t be p a r a l l e l a n d co inc iden t . R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 10: P r o f i l e s o f the e i g h t m e a n c l u s t e r r e sponses on the four i n t e r p e r s o n a l su r f ace s o f the S A S B (Spouse I n i t i a t e s , S p o u s e R e s p o n d s , S e l f I n i t i a t e s , S e l f R e s p o n d s ) for the th ree g r o u p s o f subjects ( H S D , S D y s , N S D ) w i l l n o t be p a r a l l e l a n d co inc iden t . T h e r e s u l t s o f t e s t i n g H y p o t h e s e s 9 a n d 10 i n d i c a t e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n the s e l f concep t p rof i l e s a n d the i n t e r p e r s o n a l p rof i l e s o f the t h r ee g r o u p s o f subjects . T h e S A S B s e l f concep t p rof i l e ( introject) i s a n i n t e r a c t i o n a l l y d e r i v e d m e a s u r e o f one ' s s e l f concept . T h e s e l f concep t f r o m a n i n t e r a c t i o n a l p o i n t o f v i e w r e s u l t s f r o m t r e a t i n g the s e l f as s i g n i f i c a n t o the r s h a v e ( B e n j a m i n , 1984 ) . S i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p d i f fe rences w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d b e t w e e n a l l t h ree g r o u p s o n the se l f concep t d i m e n s i o n . T h e H S D a n d S D y s g r o u p s p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s as s i g n i f i c a n t l y l ess s e l f - l o v i n g a s c o m p a r e d to the c o n t r o l subjec ts . H y p o a c t i v e S e x u a l D e s i r e subjec ts , i n t u r n , w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e s e l f - h a t i n g a s c o m p a r e d to subjects i n G r o u p 2 ( S D y s ) . F o r e x a m p l e , i n t e r m s o f se l f - love , G r o u p s 1 a n d 2 subjects r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s less self nourishing and cherishing a n d self-protecting and enhancing t h a n d i d G r o u p 3 subjects . S o m e e x a m p l e s o f the ques t i ons r e l a t e d to self nourishing and cherishing b e h a v i o r a r e : (1) I n a t u r a l l y a n d e a s i l y p r o v i d e for , n u r t u r e a n d t a k e ca re o f m y s e l f ; (2) I l i k e m y s e l f v e r y m u c h a n d feel v e r y good w h e n I h a v e a c h a n c e to be w i t h m y s e l f ; (3) I k e e p m y s e l f o p e n to 193 c o n n e c t i n g w i t h people , p l aces , o r t h i n g s w h i c h w o u l d be v e r y good for m e . S o m e e x a m p l e s o f t h e ques t ions r e l a t e d to self-protecting and enhancing behavior a re : (1) B e c a u s e I w a n t to he lp m y s e l f , I t r y to f i gu re o u t w h a t i s r e a l l y g o i n g o n w i t h i n m e ; (2) I p r a c t i c e a n d w o r k on d e v e l o p i n g w o r t h w h i l e s k i l l s , w a y s o f b e i n g ; (3) I c o m f o r t a b l y look af ter m y o w n in t e r e s t s a n d p ro t ec t m y s e l f . T h e r e s p o n s e s o f the H S D a n d S D y s subjects to these q u e s t i o n s w e r e g e n e r a l l y at , or b e l o w a score o f 5 0 ou t o f 1 0 0 , w h i c h i n d i ca t e s the r e s p o n d e n t s cons ide r the i t e m s to be i n s o m e degree fa lse a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s . C o n t r o l subjects scored b e t w e e n 6 0 a n d 70 o n these s a m e i t e m s . T h e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n the H S D a n d S D y s subjec ts a n d the c o n t r o l subjects o n the se l f - love re f lec t s a l o w e r s e l f concep t i n the f o r m e r g r o u p s as c o m p a r e d to the l a t t e r g r o u p . I n a d d i t i o n to these d i f ferences i n the s e l f concep t p ro f i l e s , H S D subjects ( G r o u p 1) r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f fe ren t f r o m the S D y s subjects ( G r o u p 2) o n self indicting and oppressing b e h a v i o r . S o m e e x a m p l e s o f the ques t i ons r e l a t e d to self indicting and oppressing b e h a v i o r a re : (1) I accuse a n d b l a m e m y s e l f u n t i l I feel g u i l t y , b a d a n d a s h a m e d ; (2) I m a k e m y s e l f do a n d be t h i n g s w h i c h a r e k n o w n n o t to be r i g h t for m e . I fool m y s e l f ; (3) I p u t m y s e l f d o w n , t e l l m y s e l f t h a t I h a v e done e v e r y t h i n g w r o n g a n d t h a t o the r s c a n do be t t e r . T h e con t en t o f the q u e s t i o n s c o m p r i s i n g the s e l f i n d i c t i n g c l u s t e r d e m o n s t r a t e s the m e a s u r e s u s e d to def ine s e l f -hos t i l i t y . T h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n the H S D a n d S D y s subjects on se l f -hos t i l i t y re f lec t s a m o r e conf l i c ted a n d r e s t r a i n e d s e l f concep t for H S D subjects as c o m p a r e d to subjects w i t h a r o u s a l o r o r g a s m p r o b l e m s ( S D y s ) . A c c o r d i n g to S A S B t h e o r y , s e l f concep t i s affected m o r e b y h o w w e e x p e r i e n c e the w o r l d , t h a n b y h o w i t r e a l l y i s ( B e n j a m i n , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e r e f o r e , the S A S B m e a s u r e o f s e l f concep t i s b a s e d on the 194 subjec ts ' p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s / h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e r e s u l t o f the prof i l e a n a l y s i s s u p p o r t s t h e v i e w t h a t H S D subjects g i v e t h e m s e l v e s s u b s t a n t i a l l y s t r o n g e r o r m o r e f r equen t n e g a t i v e m e s s a g e s . S A S B t h e o r y o f i n t r o j e c t i o n s ta tes t h a t a p e r s o n is s e l f - i n d i c t i n g a n d o p p r e s s i n g as a r e s u l t o f the e x p e r i e n c e o f b e l i t t l i n g a n d b l a m i n g b e h a v i o r d i r ec t ed t o w a r d h i m / h e r b y one o r m o r e i m p o r t a n t f igures i n h i s / h e r s o c i a l m i l e a u ( B e n j a m i n , 1 9 8 6 ) . T h e r e s u l t o f n e g a t i v e m e s s a g e s is a m o r e conf l i c t ed , con t ro l l ed a n d p u n i t i v e s e l f concept . T h e prof i l e a n a l y s e s o n the S A S B in t ro jec t r a t i n g s w e r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h , y e t e x t e n d e d , the r e s u l t s o f t e s t i n g R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 2 . F o r i n s t a n c e , s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p d i f fe rence w a s e s t a b l i s h e d o n the s e l f concep t m e a s u r e b e t w e e n the c o n t r o l g r o u p ( N S D ) a n d the t w o s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l g roups ( H S D a n d S D y s ) a n d i n a d d i t i o n , the re w a s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence e s t a b l i s h e d b e t w e e n H S D subjects a n d S D y s subjects o n the s e l f concep t d i m e n s i o n o f se l f -ha te . T h i s r e s u l t p r o v i d e s s o m e ev idence to s u p p o r t K a p l a n ' s (1979) v i e w t h a t H S D is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d i n t r a p s y c h i c conf l i c t or v u l n e r a b i l i t y . T h e S A S B r e l a t i o n s h i p p rof i l e s desc r ibe h o w subjects i n the th ree g r o u p s expe r i ence i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r spouses i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h e r e s u l t s o f t e s t i n g R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s e s 1 0 a to l O d i n d i c a t e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference b e t w e e n a l l the i n t e r p e r s o n a l p ro f i l e s o f the th ree g r o u p s . Subjec t s e n d u r i n g s e x u a l p r o b l e m s ( H S D a n d S D y s ) e x p e r i e n c e d t h e i r m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s as s i g n i f i c a n t l y l ess ' f r i e n d l y ' t h a n d i d c o n t r o l subjects . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e y p e r c e i v e d less a f f i l i a t i o n a n d a f fec t ion i n t h e i r m a r r i a g e s as c o m p a r e d to c o n t r o l subjects . F u r t h e r m o r e , h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i r e subjects r a t e d t h e i r spouses b e h a v i o r t o w a r d t h e m , as s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e hos t i l e t h a n d i d e i t h e r o f the o the r g r o u p s ( S D y s or N S D ) . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e y r a t e d t h e i r spouses as s i g n i f i c a n t l y 195 m o r e belittling and blaming a n d attacking and rejecting. S o m e e x a m p l e s o f ques t ions r e l a t e d to spouse ' s belittling and blaming b e h a v i o r a r e , m y p a r t n e r : (1) P u t s m e d o w n , tells m e m y w a y s a re w r o n g a n d h i s / h e r w a y s a r e be t t e r ; (2) A c c u s e s a n d b l a m e s m e . H e / s h e t r i e s to ge t m e to be l i eve a n d s a y I a m w r o n g ; (3) H a r s h l y p u n i s h e s a n d t o r t u r e s m e , t a k e s r e v e n g e . E x a m p l e s o f ques t ions r e l a t e d to attacking and rejecting b e h a v i o r a r e , m y p a r t n e r : (1) A n g r i l y l e a v e s m e out . C o m p l e t e l y re fuses to h a v e a n y t h i n g to do w i t h m e ; (2) L o o k i n g v e r y m e a n , he / she fo l l ows m e a n d t r i e s to h u r t m e ; (3) A n g r i l y l e a v e s m e to go w i t h o u t w h a t I n e e d v e r y m u c h e v e n w h e n she /he e a s i l y c o u l d g i v e i t to m e . T h e s e b e h a v i o r s i n the S A S B m o d e l a re d e s c r i b e d a s hos t i l e a n d c o n t r o l l i n g . O n the S A S B d i m e n s i o n o f i n t e rdependence , w h i c h r a n g e s f r o m i n d e p e n d e n t o r d i f f e r e n t i a t e d to i n t e r d e p e n d e n t or e n m e s h e d , h i g h r a t i n g s on t h e hos t i l e c l u s t e r s r e p r e s e n t i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o r " e n m e s h m e n t " ( B e n j a m i n , 1984 ) . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i re subjects r a t e d t h e i r p a r t n e r s i n i t i a t i n g b e h a v i o r b u t n o t t h e i r p a r t n e r ' s r e s p o n d i n g b e h a v i o r a s m o r e hos t i l e t h a n d i d the o the r t w o g r o u p s . T h e y d i d , h o w e v e r , r a t e t h e i r p a r t n e r s r e s p o n d i n g b e h a v i o r as s i g n i f i c a n t l y less f r i e n d l y t h a n d i d the o the r t w o g r o u p s , s p e c i f i c a l l y i n terms o f self disclosing and expressive b e h a v i o r . W h e n H S D subjects r a t e d h o w ' t h e y p e r c e i v e d t h e i r o w n b e h a v i o r t o w a r d t h e i r spouses , t h e y r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s as s i g n i f i c a n t l y l ess f r i e n d l y ( i .e . , nurturing and comforting a n d helping and protecting) t h a n d i d the c o n t r o l subjects . M o r e i n t e r e s t i n g , h o w e v e r , is the fac t t h a t t h e y a l so r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s a s m o r e belittling and blaming t o w a r d t h e i r spouses as c o m p a r e d to the o t h e r t w o g r o u p s o f subjects ( S D y s a n d N S D ) . H S D subjects d e s c r i b e d t h e i r o w n hos t i l e b e h a v i o r as s i m i l a r to t h e i r spouses hos t i l e b e h a v i o r . T h i s sugges t s t h a t r a t h e r t h a n 1 9 6 c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y i n the m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f H S D subjec ts t h e r e is m o r e m u t u a l b e l i t t l i n g a n d b l a m i n g a n d h o s t i l i t y t h a n is f o u n d i n t h e o t h e r t w o g r o u p s of c o m m i t t e d coup le s ( S D y s a n d N S D ) . B e n j a m i n (1984) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s m a x i m a l i n s t a b i l i t y i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p i f t w o p e r s o n s a r e t r y i n g to c o n t r o l the r e l a t i o n s h i p b y m u t u a l b l a m i n g or m u t u a l r e j ec t ing . B e n j a m i n (1984 ) a r g u e s t h a t i f b o t h peop le h a v e the s a m e r a t h e r t h a n c o m p l e m e n t a r y focus , t he r e is no " c o n n e c t i o n " a n d s t ab le t r a n s a c t i o n s a re i m p o s s i b l e . S e v e r e l y d i s t r e s s e d coup les a re h i g h l y r e c i p r o c a l i n t h e i r e x c h a n g e s o f n e g a t i v e b e h a v i o r s ( G o t t m a n , 1 9 7 9 ; J a c o b s o n & H o l t z w o r t h - M u n r o e , 1 9 8 6 ) . I f d i s t r e s s c a n be v i e w e d o n a c o n t i n u u m f r o m no d i s t r e s s to s e v e r e d i s t r e s s , i t cou ld be con jec tu red f r o m the a n a l y s i s o f the subject g r o u p s ' d a t a t h a t h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i r e coup le s , a l t h o u g h c o m m i t t e d to t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p , e x p e r i e n c e i n c r e a s e d e x c h a n g e s o f n e g a t i v e b e h a v i o r w h i c h r e s u l t i n a g r e a t e r degree o f m a r i t a l d i s t r e s s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g a n d i n f o r m a t i v e to c o m p a r e t h e H S D sub jec t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p d y n a m i c w i t h t h e i r p a r t n e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f the s a m e r e l a t i o n s h i p d y n a m i c as e x p r e s s e d i n the r e s u l t o f t e s t i n g H y p o t h e s i s 12 . R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 1 1 : P r o f i l e s o f the e igh t m e a n c l u s t e r r e sponses on the In t ro j ec t s u r f a c e o f the S A S B for the th ree g r o u p s o f p a r t n e r s ( H S D , S D y s , N S D ) w i l l n o t be p a r a l l e l a n d co inc iden t . R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 12 : P r o f i l e s o f the e igh t m e a n c l u s t e r r e s p o n s e s o n the fou r i n t e r p e r s o n a l s u r f a c e s o f the S A S B (Spouse I n i t i a t e s , S p o u s e R e s p o n d s , S e l f I n i t i a t e s , S e l f R e s p o n d s ) for the th ree g r o u p s o f p a r t n e r s ( H S D , S D y s , N S D ) w i l l n o t be p a r a l l e l a n d co inc iden t . 197 T h e f i n d i n g s b a s e d o n the S A S B in t ro jec t r a t i n g s a d d r e s s i n g H y p o t h e s i s 11 w e r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r e s u l t s o f H y p o t h e s i s 6. A n a l y s i s o f t h e p a r t n e r p ro f i l e s m e a s u r i n g s e l f concep t i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n G r o u p 1, G r o u p 2 o r G r o u p 3 p a r t n e r s o n s e l f concep t as m e a s u r e d b y S A S B in t ro jec t . T h i s r e s u l t w a s i n t e r p r e t e d to m e a n t h a t p a r t n e r s o f H S D , S D y s a n d N S D subjects d i d not d i f fe r i n a n y p s y c h o l o g i c a l w a y on e i the r o f the t w o i n t r a p s y c h i c m e a s u r e s o f the s t u d y ( i n t r a p s y c h i c c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e o r s e l f concept ) . T h i s f i n d i n g is e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t i n g i n v i e w o f the r e s u l t s o f the i n t e r p e r s o n a l p ro f i l e a n a l y s e s r e l a t e d to H y p o t h e s i s 1 2 a to 12d . I n these a n a l y s e s , i t w a s found t h a t p a r t n e r s o f G r o u p 1 a n d G r o u p 2 subjec ts e x p e r i e n c e d t h e i r spouses as s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s f r i e n d l y a n d a f f i l i a t i v e as c o m p a r e d to c o n t r o l subjects . A s c a n be seen b y F i g u r e s 15 a n d 16 , the d i f ference i n r a t i n g s o n the ' f r i e n d l y ' c l u s t e r s o f the p ro f i l e (c lus te r s 2 , 3 a n d 4) are s u b s t a n t i a l . F o r i n s t a n c e , the H S D a n d S D y s subjects w e r e r a t e d b y t h e i r p a r t n e r s a t or b e l o w a score o f 5 0 o n the b e h a v i o r s of: affirming and understanding, nurturing and comforting, helping and protecting, disclosing and expressing a n d approaching and enjoying. T h e s e r a t i n g s a r e v e r y l o w as c o m p a r e d to scores r a n g i n g f r o m 6 5 to 7 5 for the c o n t r o l g r o u p . T h e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n the g r o u p s o n m e a s u r e s o f ' f r i e n d l y ' b e h a v i o r ref lec ts l ess a f f i l i a t i o n a n d a f fec t ion a n d less o p e n n e s s i n the H S D a n d S D y s g r o u p s as c o m p a r e d to the c o n t r o l g r o u p . M o r e i n t e r e s t i n g y e t i s the f i n d i n g t h a t p a r t n e r s o f H S D subjects ( G r o u p 1), as c o m p a r e d to p a r t n e r s o f S D y s ( G r o u p 2) a n d N S D ( G r o u p 3) sub jec t s , r a t e d t h e i r spouses a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e hos t i l e a s e x p r e s s e d b y belittling and blaming, attacking and rejecting, ignoring and neglecting, sulking and appeasing, protecting and withdrawing a n d walling off and avoiding b e h a v i o r s . A s d i s c u s s e d 198 e a r l i e r , t h i s v i e w , to a l e s se r degree, is a l so the v i e w h e l d b y H S D subjec ts r e g a r d i n g t h e i r o w n b e h a v i o r i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t c o u l d be s u g g e s t e d f r o m t h i s r e s u l t , t h a t H S D subjects a n d t h e i r p a r t n e r s h a v e a s i m i l a r p e r c e p t i o n , a l b e i t v a r y i n g i n degree a n d i n t e n s i t y , o f the l a c k o f a f fec t ion a n d p r e s e n c e o f h o s t i l i t y i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . H o w e v e r , the re is a d i s c r e p a n c y r e g a r d i n g the s p o u s e s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f the source of t h i s l a ck o f a f fec t ion a n d p r e s e n c e of h o s t i l i t y . F o r e x a m p l e , w h e r e a s H S D subjects p e r c e i v e d b o t h t h e i r p a r t n e r ' s b e h a v i o r a n d t h e i r o w n b e h a v i o r as l a c k i n g i n f r i end l i ne s s a n d af fec t ion a n d f o s t e r i n g h o s t i l i t y , t h e i r p a r t n e r s , o n the o t h e r h a n d , p e r c e i v e d t h e i r o w n b e h a v i o r i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p a s r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g i n ' f r i e n d l y ' a n d w e a k i n ' h o s t i l e ' i n t e r a c t i o n s . I n fact , t h e r e w a s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence b e t w e e n the prof i les o f the t h r e e g r o u p s o f p a r t n e r s o n h o w t h e y r a t e d t h e i r o w n b e h a v i o r i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h i s r e s u l t i s c u r i o u s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t p a r t n e r s o f H S D subjects e x p e r i e n c e t h e i r spouses as r e l a t i v e l y u n f r i e n d l y , w i t h o l d i n g a n d hos t i l e i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p b u t do n o t v i e w t h e i r o w n i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r as u n f r i e n d l y or hos t i l e . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p h a s no t i m p a c t e d o n t h e i r s e l f concep t a s m e a s u r e d b y the S A S B . S e x u a l l y d i s i n t e r e s t e d subjec ts ( H S D ) , o n the o the r h a n d , p e r c e i v e b o t h t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e i r spouses as u n f r i e n d l y , w i t h o l d i n g a n d hos t i l e i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p r e l a t i v e to the o the r t w o g r o u p s ( S D y s a n d N S D ) . T h i s p e r c e i v e d d y n a m i c i n t u r n h a s affected the H S D subject ' s s e l f concept i n a n e g a t i v e w a y as i s p ro jec ted b y S A S B t h e o r y . T h e r e s u l t o f t h i s a n a l y s i s r a i s e s s o m e i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s . G i v e n t h a t the p e r c e p t i o n o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r o f H S D coup le s is s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r en t f r o m the o t h e r g r o u p s o f coup le s ( S D y s a n d N S D ) i n t e r m s o f n u r t u r i n g a n d hos t i l e i n t e r a c t i o n s , h o w c a n w e accoun t for the d i f f e r en t p e r c e p t i o n s h e l d b y the 1 9 9 spouses i n v o l v e d r e g a r d i n g the source o f t h i s d y n a m i c ? Is the H S D subject o v e r s e n s i t i v e to i n t e r p e r s o n a l d y n a m i c s ? Is h i s / h e r p a r t n e r i n s e n s i t i v e to o r d e n y i n g n e g a t i v e i n t e r p e r s o n a l ac t ions? A l t h o u g h the a n s w e r s to these q u e s t i o n s a re n o t a d d r e s s e d b y t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n the ques t i ons a r e i m p o r t a n t to e x p l o r e i n o r d e r to def ine the e l u s i v e i n t e r a c t i o n a l a n d i n t r a p s y c h i c d y n a m i c s o p e r a t i n g i n coup les e x p e r i e n c i n g l a c k o f s e x u a l des i r e . 3. General Discussion T h i s sec t ion ref lec ts o n the o v e r a l l r e s u l t s o f the s t u d y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the ques t i ons w h i c h g u i d e d the r e s e a r c h project . T h e t h r ee b a s i c q u e s t i o n s w h i c h gu ided the s t u d y w e r e : (1) A r e specif ic i n t r a p s y c h i c o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d to h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i re? (2) Is h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l d e s i r e r e l a t e d to deeper m o r e c o m p l e x o r m o r e se r ious i n t r a p s y c h i c and /o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s as c o m p a r e d to a r o u s a l o r o r g a s m p r o b l e m s ? a n d (3) D o e s i n t r a p s y c h i c o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l f u n c t i o n i n g d i f fe r i n i n d i v i d u a l s o r t h e i r p a r t n e r s w h e r e h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l d e s i r e is a p r o b l e m as c o m p a r e d to couples w h e r e a r o u s a l o r o r g a s m p r o b l e m s e x i s t ? T h e s t u d y w a s d e s i g n e d to e x p l o r e d i f ferences b e t w e e n h y p o a c t i v e s e x u a l des i r e a n d s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n o f a r o u s a l a n d o r g a s m i n r e s p o n s e to the h y p o t h e s i s o f i n t r a p s y c h i c a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i f fe rences as p r o p o s e d b y K a p l a n (1979) . C o n s i d e r i n g the f i n d i n g s o f a l l the a n a l y s e s o f the s t u d y , t he r e is no t m u c h s u p p o r t for the h y p o t h e s i s w h i c h sugges t s t h a t H S D subjec t s d i f fe r f r o m S D y s subjects on i n t r a p s y c h i c conf l ic t . F i r s t , t he H S D a n d S D y s subjec t g r o u p s d i d no t d i f fe r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m the c o n t r o l g r o u p o n 8 o u t 10 M M P I sca le 2 0 0 scores . A l l 10 o f the M M P I sca le score for a l l g r o u p s w e r e i n the n o n c l i n i c a l r a n g e i n d i c a t i n g n o r m a l f u n c t i o n i n g as opposed to e x t r e m e i n t r a p s y c h i c d i s c o r d o r p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y . T h e c o n s t r u c t u n d e r l y i n g the i n t r a p s y c h i c c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e i n the f i r s t a n a l y s i s w a s a n a n x i e t y / a f f e c t c