UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The pre-conquest Roman penetration of south-eastern Britain Millar, Roderick J. O. 1991

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THE  PRE-CONQUEST ROMAN PENETRATION OF SOUTH-EASTERN BRITAIN by Roderick J . 0. M i l l a r B.Sc.(Eng), The U n i v e r s i t y o f London 1950 Banff School o f Advanced Management, 1966 B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1987 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Studies (Anthropology/Classical Studies)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to t h e r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 24 1991 (c). Roderick J . 0. M i l l a r , 1991  In  presenting  degree  this  at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  British Columbia,  of  the  I agree  requirements  for  an  advanced  that the Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying  of  department  this or  thesis by  for scholarly  his  or  publication of this thesis  her  purposes  may  representatives.  It  be is  granted  by the head of  understood  for financial gain shall not be allowed without  permission.  (Signature)  R.3.0.  Department of  Graduate  Studies  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  D a t e  DE-6 (2/88)  May 1 1991  that  Millar  copying  my or  my written  ii AESIEACI  T h i s t h e s i s i s concerned w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the i n t e r a c t i o n between a s t a t e l e v e l s o c i e t y , t h a t o f Rome i n the p e r i o d o f the L a t e R e p u b l i c and E a r l y E m p i r e , and a n e i g h b o u r i n g group o f c h i e f d o m s , those i n the part of B r i t a i n .  I n t h i s p e r i o d the s o c i a l ,  south-eastern economic and  p o l i t i c a l systems i n s o u t h e r n B r i t a i n appear t o have gone t h r o u g h p r o c e s s e s o f major s t r e s s and change.  The study  t e s t s the g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t i n the p e r i o d between e x p e d i t i o n s o f Caesar i n 55 and 54 BC and the f i n a l  the  Claudian  conquest i n AD 4 3 , the s o u t h - e a s t o f B r i t a i n went t h r o u g h an e v o l u t i o n from a number o f s m a l l independent  chiefdoms  competing w i t h each, o t h e r t o a p r o t o - s t a t e .  This evolution  was t r i g g e r e d and a c c e l e r a t e d by the i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h Rome. To t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s the p u b l i s h e d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e p o r t s on the e x c a v a t i o n s i n t h r e e a r e a s o f s o u t h - e a s t e r n were a n a l y z e d .  The a r e a s around S t . A l b a n s , B r a u g h i n g and  S k e l e t o n G r e e n , and C o l c h e s t e r were u s e d .  The a n a l y s i s  compares a number o f s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f a r t i f a c t s , features,  Britain  and b u r i a l s from a l l t h r e e a r e a s .  certain  The g e n e r a l  w e i g h t o f the e v i d e n c e , d e s p i t e some minor i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s , shows t h a t i n the a p p r o x i m a t e l y n i n e t y y e a r s between 55 BC and AD 43 power s h i f t e d from s e v e r a l c e n t r e s :  the S t . A l b a n s  a r e a , B r a u g h i n g , Welwyn and H e r t f o r d t o one c e n t r e Colchester.  at  Under the dominance o f C o l c h e s t e r , S t . A l b a n s  and p r o b a b l y o t h e r f o r m e r l y independent c h i e f d o m s , became  i i i satellite c e n t r e was  centres  accompanied by  stratification, increasing features.  to Colchester. a marked  This  shift  increase  demonstrated i n the e l i t e  range of e l i t e  goods, and  i n the in  social  burials,  larger  power  the  and more  complex  iv  ABSTRACT  i i  L i s t of Tables  vi  L i s t of Figures  v i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  viii  Chapter I.  INTRODUCTION  1  Chapter I I .  THE BACKGROUND  6  Chapter I I I .  Chapter IV. Chapter V.  Chapter V I .  Chapter V I I .  A REVIEW OF THE THEORETICAL CONCEPTS 1. The H i s t o r i c a l Background i n Southern B r i t a i n . 2. A l t e r n a t i v e T h e o r e t i c a l Concepts.  14  THE SITUATION IN SOUTH-EASTERN BRITAIN FROM THE EARLY FIRST CENTURY BC TO AD 43...23 RESEARCH QUESTIONS, HYPOTHESES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS: A MODEL 28 1. General Research Questions. 2. General Hypothesis f o r t h i s T h e s i s . 3. S p e c i f i c Hypotheses t o T e s t the V a l i d i t y o f the General Hypothesis. 4. I m p l i c a t i o n s o f the S p e c i f i c Hypotheses. 5. S p e c i f i c A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Research Questions. 6. A T h e o r e t i c a l B a s i s f o r the Model. 7. The Model. 8. S p e c i f i c I m p l i c a t i o n s from the Model. THE SOURCES OF THE DATA 1. The L i t e r a r y Sources. 2. The A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Record. 3. A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Source M a t e r i a l (Monographs, A r t i c l e s and Publications). THE ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 1. Problems w i t h the Data. 2. S e l e c t i o n o f the Data. 3. A n a l y s i s and comparison o f the T a b u l a t e d Data. 4. The L i t e r a r y Sources. 5. S t a t i s t i c a l Analyses.  Chapter V I I I . ANALYSIS OF THE POTTERY  . . 52  57  67  V  Chapter IX.  ANALYSIS OF THE AMPHORAE.  84  Chapter X.  ANALYSIS OF THE COINS  89  Chapter XI.  ANALYSIS OF THE BROOCHES  99  Chapter X I I . ANALYSIS OF THE BURIALS  102  Chapter X I I I . ANALYSIS OF THE FEATURES AND BUILDINGS  114  Chapter XIV.  THE LITERARY AND NUMISMATIC EVIDENCE  124  Chapter XV.  THE TRADING PATTERNS  128  Chapter XVI  STATISTICAL ANALYSIS  132  Chapter XVII. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS  137  Chapter XVIII AN EVALUATION AND PROPOSALS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH  151  G l o s s a r y 1.  L i s t o f S i t e Names and Areas  156  G l o s s a r y 2.  Names o f B r i t i s h T r i b e s and R u l e r s  157  G l o s s a r y 3.  T e c h n i c a l Terms Used i n t h i s T h e s i s  158  Bibliography,  and References C i t e d  160  Appendix A.  References t o B r i t a i n i n C l a s s i c a l Literature  183  Burial Sites  185  Appendix B.  vi LIST OF TABLES Table 1.  Imported P o t t e r y , A r r e t i n e  72  Table 2.  Imported P o t t e r y , South G a u l i s h  72  Table 3.  Imported P o t t e r y , G a l l o - B e l g i c  73  Table 3a.  Summary, Imported P o t t e r y , G a l l o - B e l g i c . . . 7 3  Table 4.  Native Pottery  77  Table 4a.  Summary, Native P o t t e r y  78  Table 4b.  Summary, G a l l o - B e l g i c and Native P o t t e r y Types f o r the Key S i t e s  79  Table 4c.  G a l l o - B e l g i c and Native Types i n % f o r the Key S i t e s  79  Table 5.  Amphorae  85  Table 5a.  Summary, Amphorae  86  Table 5b.  O r i g i n , Contents and Dates o f Amphorae.... 87  Table 5c.  Chart o f Amphorae Dates  87  Table 6.  Coins  90  Table 6a.  Summary Table o f Coins  90  Table 7.  Brooches  99  Table 8.  Rich Burials  Table 9.  Grave Goods from Intermediate and Plain Burials Intermediate and P l a i n B u r i a l s . Presence o r Absence o f Grave Goods  Table 9a. Table 10.  S t a t i s t i c a l Tabulations  109 110 I l l 135  vii LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1.  South-Eastern B r i t a i n , Showing the Principal Sites  187  F i g u r e 2.  T r i b e s o f Southern B r i t a i n  188  F i g u r e 3.  The C o l c h e s t e r Area  189  F i g u r e 4.  The Braughing Area  190  F i g u r e 5. F i g u r e 6.  The S t . Albans Area 191 B u r i a l S i t e s i n the S t . Albans, Welwyn, Wheathampstead, H e r t f o r d and Braughing Areas 192  F i g u r e 7.  R e l a t i v e Chronology o f the S i t e s  193  F i g u r e 8a.  C l u s t e r Diagram, 17 V a r i a b l e s . Wheathampstead, Prae Wood, S k e l e t o n Green, Camulodunum  194  F i g u r e 8b.  C l u s t e r Diagram, 17 V a r i a b l e s . Prae Wood, S k e l e t o n Green, Camulodunum..195  F i g u r e 8c.  C l u s t e r Diagram, 15 V a r i a b l e s . Prae Wood, S k e l e t o n Green, Camulodunum..196  viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  On the t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s my h e a r t f e l t thanks go t o P r o f e s s o r M i c h a e l Blake f o r h i s u n f a i l i n g p a t i e n c e and h e l p i n a s s i s t i n g me t o c l a r i f y my thoughts on the t h e o r e t i c a l parts o f the t h e s i s .  In d e v e l o p i n g a c l e a r p r e s e n t a t i o n o f  the t h e o r e t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s both Dr. Blake and Dr. R i c h a r d Pearson made i n v a l u a b l e c r i t i c i s m s and s u g g e s t i o n s .  Dr.  Blake a l s o a c t e d as my a d v i s o r f o r the f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s o f my M.A. programme.  Dr. Pearson gave me many v a l u a b l e h i n t s  on p o s s i b l e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparisons and s i m i l a r i t i e s . P r o f e s s o r E. Hector W i l l i a m s served on my committee throughout,  and took over as a d v i s o r f o r the l a s t year,  while Dr. Blake was absent on s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e .  Dr.  W i l l i a m s , as w e l l as g i v i n g me a very s o l i d background on the Graeco-Roman world, a l s o p r o v i d e d me w i t h f o u r long seasons  of excavation at h i s s i t e at Mytilene.  This  p r a c t i c a l f i e l d experience, w h i l e the data was not d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e t o my t h e s i s , g r e a t l y helped i n my a n a l y s i s o f other e x c a v a t o r s ' r e p o r t s . P r o f e s s o r Anthony B a r r e t t , the e x t e r n a l examiner, p r o v i d e d a most h e l p f u l c r i t i q u e on the nomenclature t h a t I used f o r the B r i t i s h t r i b a l groups i n s o u t h - e a s t e r n  Britain.  P r o f e s s o r R.G. Matson, who c h a i r e d the committee a t my o r a l defence o f the t h e s i s , made a number o f h e l p f u l suggestions on the p r e s e n t a t i o n and l a y o u t o f the m a t e r i a l i n the t a b l e s and s t a t i s t i c a l work.  1 I.INTRODUCTION T h i s t h e s i s e x p l o r e s the i n t e r a c t i o n between a s t a t e l e v e l s o c i e t y , t h a t o f Rome i n the p e r i o d o f the Late R e p u b l i c and E a r l y Empire, chiefdoms,  and a neighbouring group o f  those i n the s o u t h - e a s t e r n p a r t o f B r i t a i n .  At  the same time the t h e s i s i s concerned w i t h the i n t e r a c t i o n among t h i s group o f chiefdoms, by, the Roman presence from about  i n c o n t a c t w i t h , and a f f e c t e d  i n Gaul.  The time p e r i o d examined i s  120 BC t o AD 43, the year o f the C l a u d i a n  i n v a s i o n and conquest  o f the southern p a r t o f the i s l a n d .  A  p a r t i c u l a r l y d e t a i l e d study has been made o f the almost n i n e t y y e a r s from t h e f i r s t by J u l i u s Caesar conquest The  i n v a s i o n s and withdrawals made  i n each o f the years 55-54 BC t o the f i n a l  i n AD 43. i n t e r a c t i o n and r e l a t i o n s h i p i n v o l v e d t r a d e ,  p o l i t i c s and diplomacy, warfare, and f i n a l l y  dynastic struggles i n B r i t a i n ,  i n AD 43 the conquest  o f the southern  and e a s t e r n p a r t s o f the country. During t h i s p e r i o d the B r i t i s h p o l i t i c a l and s o c i o economic systems were going through processes o f major s t r e s s and change . 1  In B r i t a i n t h i s culminated i n t h e  1 The name Catuvellaunl f o r the dominant t r i b e i n e a s t e r n and southern B r i t a i n i s w i d e l y used i n p u b l i s h e d works. There i s , however, v e r y l i t t l e evidence f o r i t s use a t the time o f the Roman conquest. Caesar and T a c i t u s do not mention the name. D i o uses the name f o r the t r i b e i n the area (LX 20,2), and Ptolemy mentions Salinae a polls o f the Catuvellaunl ( I I 3, 21), but l o c a t e s i t near the Wash, o u t s i d e the area normally a s s i g n e d t o the Catuvellaunl. Two i n s c r i p t i o n s from Hadrian's W a l l mention clvitate Catuwellaunorum  and natione  Catvallauna  respectively.  t h i s t h e s i s C a t u v e l l a u n i i s used, as i n other p u b l i s h e d  In  2 establishment o f the hegemony o f the C a t u v e l l a u n i a n kingdom over much o f southern and e a s t e r n B r i t a i n . The s p e c i f i c o b j e c t o f the paper i s an examination of the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic changes i n s o u t h - e a s t e r n B r i t a i n , from the l a t e second c e n t u r y B.C. by Rome i n A.D.  43,  t o the conquest  and an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the f o r c e s and  s t r e s s e s , i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l , t h a t caused the  changes.  Both the h i s t o r i c a l and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d s suggest major upheavals and r e s t r u c t u r i n g i n the  political  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s o u t h - e a s t e r n B r i t a i n a t t h i s time.  Without  s t r e s s the s o c i e t y would be expected to remain s t a b l e , or t o change o n l y s l o w l y over time w i t h " c u l t u r a l d r i f t " .  In  systems terminology i t would be s t a b l e , and w i t h n e g a t i v e feedback damping out f o r c e s t r y i n g t o change i t .  In f a c t i t  was u n s t a b l e , w i t h p o s i t i v e feedback pushing i t f a r t h e r away from i t s p r e v i o u s c o n d i t i o n .  The type of f o r c e s and  t h a t can t r i g g e r t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n c l u d e both n a t u r a l man-made ones.  N a t u r a l f o r c e s , such- as drought,  stress and  climatic  change or shortage o f food or other r e s o u r c e s do not seem to have been c r i t i c a l .  Man-made f o r c e s and s t r e s s e s were  probably the primary ones.  On the Roman s i d e these i n c l u d e d  f o r c e s such as expansion i n s e a r c h of secure f r o n t i e r s ;  an  a p p e t i t e f o r a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n and tax base t o e x p l o i t ; a need f o r l a r g e r imports o f raw m a t e r i a l s i n exchange f o r s u r p l u s l u x u r y a g r i c u l t u r a l products, such as wine and oil;  olive  and symbolic f o r c e s such as C l a u d i u s ' need t o show  work, as a convenient name f o r the dominant p o l i t y i n southe a s t e r n B r i t a i n at the time o f the conquest.  3 m i l i t a r y prowess.  On t h e B r i t i s h s i d e the f o r c e s and  s t r e s s e s would be s i m i l a r .  There was a search  for security  by e n l a r g i n g one's t e r r i t o r y ; a d e s i r e t o a c q u i r e  prestige  goods, and t o c o n t r o l the a c q u i s i t i o n o f them; and a need t o i n c r e a s e wealth by c r e a t i n g s u r p l u s e s products and raw m a t e r i a l s .  i n basic a g r i c u l t u r a l  These s u r p l u s e s  c o u l d then be  used both t o trade f o r the imported p r e s t i g e goods, the symbols o f power, and f o r b u i l d i n g s t a t u s symbols, earthworks and a c a p i t a l or oppidum. On both s i d e s there r u l i n g group t o i n c r e a s e  i s an obvious i n t e n t i o n by the i t s power and wealth by the  e x p l o i t a t i o n o f o t h e r s , both t h e i r own s u b j e c t s and the peoples o f a d j o i n i n g  polities.  In B r i t a i n a t t h i s time e x t e r n a l f o r c e s and s t r e s s e s o r i g i n a t e w i t h Rome or from the European mainland, p a r t i c u l a r l y Gaul and the lower Rhine area.  Internal  f o r c e s , which may be l i n k e d t o the e x t e r n a l ones, a r e p r i m a r i l y those o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n s o c i e t y i n south-eastern Britain.  Even without t h e pressure  o f Roman expansionism,  Late Iron Age s o c i e t y i n B r i t a i n was under s i g n i f i c a n t internal stress. The  source m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l be  p r i m a r i l y t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d , complemented by the l i m i t e d Roman and Greek l i t e r a r y evidence.  The paper w i l l  focus on : 1.  The changing socio-economic and p o l i t i c a l scene i n  south-eastern  B r i t i s h s o c i e t y i n the p e r i o d from ca.120 BC  4 to AD 43, and the f o r c e s and processes  l e a d i n g t o the  change. 2.  The pre-conquest Roman economic and p o l i t i c a l  i n t e r a c t i o n with B r i t a i n from c.120 BC t o AD 43, l e a d i n g t o a marked t r a d i n g p e n e t r a t i o n o f Roman goods i n t o  southern  B r i t a i n , and f i n a l l y conquest by Rome i n AD 43. The  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the r e s e a r c h undertaken i n t h i s  t h e s i s i s as f o l l o w s : 1.  Many o f the t r a d i t i o n a l views o f the h i s t o r y o f B r i t a i n  i n the Late Iron Age have been s e r i o u s l y c h a l l e n g e d or overturned  by new r e s e a r c h and e x c a v a t i o n  to t e n y e a r s .  T h i s upheaval i s s t i l l  i n the past  i n progress.  five  This  paper w i l l examine a p a r t i c u l a r aspect o f Late Iron Age B r i t a i n , the changes i n the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic o r g a n i z a t i o n , and the causes o f these changes i n B r i t i s h s o c i e t y i n the south-east years p r e c e d i n g 2.  p a r t o f the i s l a n d i n the 160  the Roman conquest.  Much o f the r e c e n t r e s e a r c h has been concerned w i t h  e l u c i d a t i n g the problems o f the B r i t i s h L a t e r Bronze Age and Iron Age, p r i o r t o s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h Rome.  This  paper, by c o n t r a s t , w i l l d e a l w i t h the p e r i o d o f a c t i v e t r a n s i t i o n from the l a s t stages o f the B r i t i s h Iron Age t o the conquest and a b s o r p t i o n by Rome, and the c a u s a l processes  o f e v o l u t i o n and change t a k i n g  south-eastern  B r i t a i n from an independent secondary p r o t o - s t a t e t o a component o f a much l a r g e r and more complex s o c i e t y , the Roman Empire.  5  3.  A p a r t from the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f p r o c e s s e s and causes  work i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d , the  at  research  p r o v i d e s a case s t u d y w i t h a g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n t o  other  s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s , and h e l p s i l l u m i n a t e some o f the t h e o r e t i c a l concepts described i n chapter 4.  3.  The p a r t i c u l a r a r e a and time p e r i o d were s e l e c t e d f o r  research a)  because:-  There i s a r e a s o n a b l e amount o f good r e c e n t work  p u b l i s h e d on b o t h the t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t s , and on r e l e v a n t s i t e s and e x c a v a t i o n s . b)  There are two s o u r c e s o f e v i d e n c e , l i t e r a r y and the  archaeological record.  These can be compared,  contrasted  and e v a l u a t e d . c)  The t a k e o v e r o f B r i t a i n by Rome was s u c c e s s f u l and  long-lasting. d)  T h i s i s about the b e s t example i n the c l a s s i c a l w o r l d  o f t h i s t y p e o f p e n e t r a t i o n and c o n q u e s t , pre-conquest  i n v o l v i n g a long  c o n t a c t p e r i o d , a seaborne a s s a u l t  into  r e l a t i v e l y unknown t e r r i t o r y , and a s u c c e s s f u l l o n g - t e r m c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f the t e r r i t o r y g a i n e d .  On Rome's  M e d i t e r r a n e a n f r o n t i e r s , where new p r o v i n c e s had been conquered, the s u b j u g a t e d s o c i e t i e s were u s u a l l y a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d s t a t e s , w i t h an e x i s t e n c e and h i s t o r y as complex s o c i e t i e s , c e n t u r i e s o r m i l l e n i a l o n g e r t h a n t h a t o f Rome.  Examples are E g y p t , Greece and the  s t a t e s o f A s i a M i n o r and the Near E a s t .  Hellenistic  6  I..L...JUiE_.JBACKQE.QUlffi t  In  the p a t t e r n o f c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n i n B r i t a i n  north-west  Europe t h e r e i s a steady t r e n d from  l a t e M e s o l i t h i c h u n t e r - g a t h e r s and N e o l i t h i c  and  egalitarian  farmer-  p a s t o r a l i s t s , t o the ranked and s t r a t i f i e d Bronze and Iron Age  s o c i e t i e s , c u l m i n a t i n g i n the H a l l s t a d t and La Tene  cultures. Between the s i x t h and f o u r t h m i l l e n i a BC the hunterg a t h e r e r s were d e v e l o p i n g a more s e t t l e d way  of l i f e , and i n  B r i t a i n t h e r e i s a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence f o r the probable exchange o f c e r t a i n l i t h i c between r e g i o n s (Care 1979;  items, such as stone axes, D a r v i l l 1987:45-46, 49).  By the  e a r l y t h i r d m i l l e n i u m BC farming was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , combining 1983). of  c e r e a l c u l t i v a t i o n and animal h e r d i n g (Fowler  Evidence from the m e g a l i t h i c tombs and long barrows  t h i s p e r i o d suggests a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of s m a l l s c a l e  e g a l i t a r i a n groups, c l a i m i n g a c e r t a i n d e f i n e d t e r r i t o r y . Exchange o f both u t i l i t a r i a n and p r e s t i g e goods continued, e i t h e r as raw m a t e r i a l s or as f i n i s h e d a r t i f a c t s . for  c r o s s Channel  Evidence  i n t e r - r e g i o n a l t r a d e o c c u r s i n the more  than 100 j a d e i t e axes found from Cornwall t o the  Orkneys,  w i t h the source o f the j a d e i t e i d e n t i f i e d i n the A l p s , kilometres distant warfare was  ( D a r v i l l op.cit.:72).  common.  Small s c a l e  A number of defended e n c l o s u r e s have  been i d e n t i f i e d , and s k e l e t o n s w i t h embedded arrowheads have been found. r a n k i n g appears.  1200  flint  By about 2500 BC more o v e r t  S i n g l e grave b u r i a l s , w i t h v a r i a t i o n s i n  7 the  number and q u a l i t y o f grave goods occur.  developed by 2000 BC.  Metalworking  By t h i s time a s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t y had  evolved (Shennan 1982).  Trade i n a r t i f a c t s and i d e a s w i t h  both c o n t i n e n t a l Europe and I r e l a n d was w e l l  established.  Metalworking techniques and t r a d i t i o n s p a r a l l e l e d those o f n o r t h e r n France ( D a r v i l l op.  cit.:100).  Contact and exchange between B r i t a i n and  Europe  remained v i g o r o u s f o r the p e r i o d from about 1500  to 600  BC,  and s p e c i f i c communal exchange s i t e s have been l o c a t e d , f o r example at Ram's H i l l 1981).  ( B r a d l e y and E l l i s o n 1975:  Ellison  By the end o f t h i s p e r i o d a d e f i n i t e h i e r a r c h y o f  settlement e x i s t e d , from s m a l l open s e t t l e m e n t s to l a r g e defended s i t e s , w i t h these autonomous or semi-autonomous u n i t s forming l a r g e l o o s e r e g i o n a l groupings ( D a r v i l l  op.  cit.:132). By about 650 BC i n southern B r i t a i n , the h i l l f o r t  based  s o c i e t y s t a r t e d to appear, w i t h a t r e n d f o r g r e a t e r l o c a l self-sufficiency.  F o r e i g n t r a d e and c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t s  continued w i t h n o r t h e r n Europe, both a c r o s s the channel and along the western seaways.  In the f i f t h and e a r l y  fourth  c e n t u r i e s imports i n c l u d e d i r o n swords, f i b u l a e brooches, and bronze v e s s e l s o f H a l l s t a d t D provenance. time Mediterranean goods from the emerging  At the same  classical  c i v i l i z a t i o n s , E t r u s c a n , Greek and Roman, began t o appear i n Britain.  L a t e r i n the p e r i o d La Tene s t y l e metalwork  appeared i n c e n t r a l and southern B r i t a i n .  8 For some unknown reason t r a d e and exchange along a l l r o u t e s d i m i n i s h e d g r e a t l y i n the t h i r d and second c e n t u r i e s BC, and o n l y recovered i n the l a t e second and e a r l y  first  centuries BC .  society  1  In t h i s p e r i o d o f i s o l a t i o n B r i t i s h  developed w e l l marked r e g i o n a l groups, w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n c o n f l i c t , and d i f f i c u l t y  i n s u p p o r t i n g the e l i t e  s u p e r s t r u c t u r e (Bradley 1984:138-144). developed  Social organization  f u r t h e r , w i t h t r i b a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the n o r t h ,  and chiefdoms w i t h a w a r r i o r e l i t e and w e l l d e f i n e d t e r r i t o r y i n the south and e a s t .  T h i s s o c i e t y had marked  s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , c h i e f s , w a r r i o r s , probably s p e c i a l i z e d craftsmen and craftsmen/farmers  priests, (Cunliffe  1983:165-171; D a r v i l l op. c i t . : 1 6 0 - 1 6 1 ) . In to  g e n e r a l , over the p e r i o d from the f o u r t h m i l l e n i u m  the l a t e f i r s t m i l l e n i u m BC i n B r i t a i n , t h e r e was an  e v o l u t i o n from s i m p l e r t o more complex and s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t i e s , and a p a r a l l e l growth i n exchange and t r a d i n g c o n t a c t s w i t h Europe, and l a t e r w i t h the c l a s s i c a l  world.  There was a l s o growth i n i n t e r - r e g i o n a l trade and exchange within B r i t a i n . S t a r t i n g about 120 BC t h e r e was a r e v i v a l i n c o n t a c t and t r a d e between southern B r i t a i n and the C o n t i n e n t .  This  c o i n c i d e d w i t h the b e g i n n i n g o f a major change i n the s o c i o p o l i t i c a l organization i n south-eastern B r i t a i n .  At t h i s  1 One p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t w i t h the d e v e l o p i n g use o f i r o n f o r weapons and t o o l s , the need f o r a t r a d e i n bronze , or i t s c o n s t i t u e n t metals, d i m i n i s h e d . I r o n i s e a s i l y smelted from ores o c c u r r i n g w i d e l y i n B r i t a i n . Society i n general may have become more l o c a l l y s e l f s u f f i c i e n t .  9 time the h i l l f o r t s f e l l q u i t e a b r u p t l y i n t o d i s u s e as c e n t r e s o f power, and were r e p l a c e d by more open s i t e s i n the v a l l e y s , or on the f l a n k s o f the h i l l s . p a r t o f the f i r s t developed  In the  later  century BC a number of these v a l l e y  sites  i n t o oppida, l a r g e and o f t e n undefended s i t e s o f  30 ha or more, f r e q u e n t l y much more.  They are u s u a l l y  l o c a t e d on, or v e r y c l o s e t o , t r a d e r o u t e s , and  especially  on n a v i g a b l e r i v e r s ( C o l l i s 1976:10, C u n l i f f e 1976:142-156). T h i s development i n B r i t a i n i s p a r a l l e l e d a t an e a r l i e r i n c e n t r a l and e a s t e r n Gaul time t h e r e was  (Nash 1976:98-99).  date  At the same  a r e d u c t i o n i n the number o f s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l  u n i t s , w i t h the f o r m a t i o n o f a s m a l l number o f l a r g e r p o l i t i e s , based on the new  t e r r i t o r i a l oppida as t h e i r  c e n t r e s o f power ( B r a d l e y 1984:147). p r o t o - s t a t e s minted  t h e i r own  t h e i r oppida had s a t e l l i t e These powerful new  These kingdoms or  coinage, and i n some cases  'towns' ( C u n l i f f e 1976:151).  groups became 'core' areas, r e c e i v i n g  imports from Gaul and n o r t h e r n Europe, keeping some f o r t h e i r own  use, and t r a d i n g o t h e r s w i t h p e r i p h e r a l t r i b e s f o r  metals, s l a v e s and other items, t o be passed back t o Gaul t o balance the imports In  the l a t e second c e n t u r y BC the Roman p e n e t r a t i o n and  conquest Gallia  ( B r a d l e y 1984:144-156).  o f Gaul s t a r t e d .  Transalpina,  was  In 124-120 BC the southern p a r t ,  conquered, and i n 58-51  Caesar conquered the remainder. Caesar made two  BC  Julius  During the G a l l i c wars  e x p e d i t i o n s t o B r i t a i n , reconnaissances i n  f o r c e , i n 55 and 54  BC.  10 Up to the time o f Caesar's i n v a s i o n s i n 55-54 BC, general s i t u a t i o n  i n southern B r i t a i n was  the  one of numerous  s m a l l p o l i t i c a l u n i t s engaged i n continuous c o m p e t i t i o n and conflict.  However, i n the p e r i o d a f t e r Caesar's  incursions,  t h e r e i s a dramatic change i n the l a t e r p a r t o f the  first  century BC, w i t h the e v o l u t i o n o f a s m a l l number of much l a r g e r t e r r i t o r i a l u n i t s based on the oppida (Bradley op.cit.,  Darvill op.cit.).  T h i s type o f change i s not  unusual when a number o f s m a l l p o l i t i e s are t h r e a t e n e d by a major e x t e r n a l enemy.  Small s t a t e s or chiefdoms  will  f e d e r a t e , or come t o g e t h e r i n some other manner f o r s e l f preservation.  An example i s the temporary  a l l i a n c e o f the  Greek c i t y s t a t e s i n f a c e o f the P e r s i a n t h r e a t i n the e a r l y 5 t h . c e n t u r y BC. A l l a v a i l a b l e h i s t o r i c a l and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence suggests t h a t the Catuvellauni,  who  had become the dominant  power i n southern and e a s t e r n B r i t a i n by the time of the Roman conquest  i n AD 4 3 , used economic p e n e t r a t i o n by t r a d e  and exchange t o t h i s end.  They may  a l s o have made  a  s u c c e s s i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l l y modest m i l i t a r y conquests to build their position. a l l i e s were exposed  C o n c u r r e n t l y they and t h e i r s m a l l e r  to a growing volume o f t r a d e w i t h Gaul  and the Roman empire.  To pay f o r t h i s t r a d e and t o pay f o r  t h e i r imports they needed t o expand f u r t h e r t h e i r sources of wealth, both i n terms o f a g r i c u l t u r a l catchment  l a n d , and i n t h e i r  area f o r items such as s l a v e s and metals, not  a v a i l a b l e i n t h e i r core a r e a .  11 At the same time Roman I t a l y , and t o a l e s s e r  extent  Roman Gaul and Spain had a g r i c u l t u r a l s u r p l u s e s , such as wine, f o r which they u r g e n t l y needed o u t l e t s ( C u n l i f f e 1988:75) . 2  There i s no p a r t i c u l a r evidence  f o r population  p r e s s u r e , o r l i m i t a t i o n s on r e s o u r c e s i n t h e i r core d r i v i n g the Catuvellaunian  expansion  area,  at t h i s period.  But  t h e i r e l i t e wanted the items which c o u l d o n l y come from t r a d e w i t h Gaul and Rome.  They probably  a l s o needed  a d d i t i o n a l amounts t o s a t i s f y t h e i r f o l l o w e r s and supporters i n t h e i r core  area.  From the b r i e f review o f the c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence  above, i t i s apparent t h a t B r i t a i n ,  d e s p i t e the b a r r i e r o f the Channel, had been i n v o l v e d i n e x t e n s i v e t r a d e and exchange networks w i t h c o n t i n e n t a l Europe f o r many c e n t u r i e s .  The i n t e n s i t y o f t h i s exchange  and t r a d e had v a r i e d c y c l i c a l l y over the p r e v i o u s two millenia.  About 100 BC t h e r e seems t o have been a major  upsurge i n t r a d i n g a c t i v i t y .  There were a l s o  dramatic  s o c i a l and s t r u c t u r a l changes i n B r i t a i n i n t h i s Late Age p e r i o d , p a r a l l e l i n g and probably  Iron  l i n k e d t o the changes  i n the p a t t e r n o f exchange and t r a d e . By the f i r s t century BC s t r o n g l o c a l and i n t e r - r e g i o n a l exchange and t r a d e networks had operated w i t h i n B r i t a i n f o r  2. An a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t more wine and o l i v e o i l were produced t o meet expanding markets, but a s u r p l u s seems more l i k e l y .  12 c e n t u r i e s , some between e q u a l l y powerful t r i b a l groups, some between minor or subordinate t r i b e s and a major  and  group.  With the renewal and expansion of a major c r o s s - c h a n n e l trade w i t h pre-Roman and Roman Gaul i n the f i r s t c e n t u r y BC, the r u l e r s o f the dominant t r i b a l groups i n southern and s o u t h - e a s t e r n B r i t a i n i n c r e a s e d t h e i r i n t e r n a l power, and f i n a l l y i n the y e a r s immediately p r e c e e d i n g the Roman conquest of AD 43, one t r i b e , the Catuvellauni,  acquired a  dominant p o s i t i o n . What appears t o have happened i n southern B r i t a i n i n the p e r i o d c.120  BC t o AD 43 was  the simultaneous f o r m a t i o n  of a secondary s t a t e , t h a t o f the Catuvellauni, 3  and the  p e n e t r a t i o n and f i n a l l y the conquest o f t h a t s t a t e by.the l a r g e r and more s o p h i s t i c a t e d p o l i t y , Rome. o f t h i s secondary s t a t e was  The f o r m a t i o n  dependent on the e x i s t e n c e of  the adjacent Roman s t a t e . The t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r i c a l view i s t h a t the i n v a s i o n of AD 43 took p l a c e to s a t i s f y , the need o f the Roman emperor C l a u d i u s f o r a m i l i t a r y triumph, and t o remove a p o t e n t i a l l y troublesome  frontier  ( F r e r e 1987:45-46).  This explanation,  however, f a i l s t o take account of important  socio-political,  demographic and economic f a c t o r s , a c t i n g both w i t h i n Britain,  i n Roman dominated  Gaul, and i n the western p a r t o f  the Roman empire. 3. A secondary s t a t e i s d e f i n e d as a s t a t e formed adjacent t o , and as a r e s u l t o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h an e x i s t i n g s t a t e . T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h a primary s t a t e e v o l v i n g from a complex chiefdom, w i t h no i n f l u e n c e from any other s t a t e l e v e l society.  13 In p a r t i c u l a r , exchange and  trade were major causes  both i n the e v o l u t i o n o f a more complex type o f s o c i e t y i n southern and  e a s t e r n B r i t a i n , and  conquest o f B r i t a i n .  i n the f i n a l Roman  By the conquest the Romans were able  to i n t e n s i f y both a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n procurement.  The  new  province  provided  and  resource  much l a r g e r  q u a n t i t i e s o f metal, p a r t i c u l a r l y l e a d and  s i l v e r , as w e l l  as corn, h i d e s and manpower. A f t e r the C l a u d i a n B r i t a i n i n AD  43,  invasion  and conquest o f southern  trade expanded f u r t h e r .  For the next  350  years, B r i t a i n became p a r t o f the Roman i m p e r i a l t r a d i n g network.  T h i s s i t u a t i o n ended i n the f i f t h century  With the departure of the Roman g a r r i s o n and i n AD  410,  and  the subsequent i n c r e a s e  in  AD.  administration  barbarian  i n v a s i o n s , the e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i n g network d i s i n t e g r a t e d . The  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of c i v i l i z a t i o n ,  towns and  town l i f e  and  the c e n t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a l l decayed q u i t e r a p i d l y , and were not r e - e s t a b l i s h e d u n t i l the l a t e r medieval p e r i o d .  14 I I I . A REVIEW OF THE THEORETICAL CONCEPTS  In c o n s i d e r i n g the p e r i o d and p l a c e d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , t h e r e appear t o be two p a r a l l e l and i n t e r a c t i n g processes o c c u r r i n g , one i n t e r n a l t o s o u t h - e a s t e r n between the Catuvellauni subjugated,  and the s m a l l e r t r i b e s  they  and one between the Romans and the  and t h e i r a l l i e s .  There are s i m i l a r i t i e s ,  Britain  Catuvellauni  i n t h a t i n both  cases, a l a r g e r and more powerful e n t i t y p e n e t r a t e s and f i n a l l y conquers a l e s s developed  group.  However, t h e r e are  also significant differences. The  Catuvellauni  i n the f i r s t century BC were one o f a  number o f chiefdoms contending  f o r predominance i n a  r e s t r i c t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l area.  Even i f v e r y s u c c e s s f u l i n  t h e i r p a t t e r n o f conquest,  they l a c k e d the i n t e r n a l s t a t e  o r g a n i z a t i o n , and probably the r e s o u r c e s , t o s u s t a i n a d e v e l o p i n g p r o t o - s t a t e over a long p e r i o d o f time.  In  Wright's terms they were " e x t e r n a l l y but not i n t e r n a l l y s p e c i a l i z e d " , w i t h the d e c i s i o n making process o p e r a t i n g a t o n l y two l e v e l s , the c e n t r a l and the l o c a l , and w i t h no subd i v i s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , o r " s p e c i a l i z a t i o n a t the central level  (Wright  1977:381) . 1  The Catuvellauni  were not  1. The evidence f o r t h i s i s d i s c u s e d i n chapter IV. Put i n simple terms the Catuvellaunian kingdom i n the p e r i o d covered i n t h i s paper was too l a r g e f o r a l l d e c i s i o n s t o emanate from the c a p i t a l a t Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) . There would be c o n s i d e r a b l e l o c a l autonomy. D e c i s i o n s i n v i l l a g e s and s e t t l e m e n t s on such matters as crops, h a r v e s t i n g , and small s c a l e manufacturing o f common use items would be made locally. Thus the chiefdom was e x t e r n a l l y s p e c i a l i z e d . The c a p i t a l would o n l y make.decisions about the d e c i s i o n s made at the lower l e v e l , and would not be d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n  15 a primary s t a t e as d e f i n e d by Wright not form from an i s o l a t e d developed  o r Spencer. chiefdom,  but evolved  w h i l e i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h an e x i s t i n g s t a t e , Rome. c l a s s i c case o f a secondary extant s t a t e s "  s t a t e forming  They d i d  This i s a  "on the margin o f  (Wright and Johnson 1975:267).  By c o n t r a s t t h e Romans, by the l a t e 1st. century BC, had a developed  state l e v e l o f organization, with a c e n t r a l  d e c i s i o n making body, the emperor a s s i s t e d by the Senate, p r o v i n c i a l governors w i t h s u b s t a n t i a l d e l e g a t e d a u t h o r i t y , and permanent subordinate s t a f f i n both Rome and the provinces.  The Senate as a c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y had a h i s t o r y  going back t o the s i x t h c e n t u r y BC. a l r e a d y , u s i n g Spencer's  T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n was  terminology, h i g h l y " i n t e r n a l l y  s p e c i a l i z e d " and " e x t e r n a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d " 1982:2).  (Spencer  During the p e r i o d from about 50 BC t o AD 100 t h i s  process continued, c u l m i n a t i n g by the e a r l y second  century  AD i n a s t a t e w i t h a complex c i v i l and m i l i t a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system, and w i t h a c a r e e r ' c i v i l almost  i n t h e modern sense  service',  (Cary and S c u l l a r d 1978:428-29).  The Romans i n the 2nd. and 1st. c e n t u r i e s BC were b u i l d i n g t h e i r empire l a r g e l y by the "agglomeration o f extant s t a t e s "  (Wright and Johnson i b i d ) , the conquest,  d e c i s i o n s about p r o d u c t i o n and exchange a t the l o c a l l e v e l . There i s almost no evidence f o r i n t e r n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . I n t e r n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i m p l i e s the d i v i s i o n o f the c o n t r o l and d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s i n t o more than one "department" at the c e n t r a l l e v e l , w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g branch "departments" a t the subordinate l e v e l s . The e x c e p t i o n i s the p o s s i b l e concurrent e x i s t e n c e o f two c e n t r e s f o r m i n t i n g c o i n s , one a t St. Albans and one a t C o l c h e s t e r . A t h i r d c e n t r e may have e x i s t e d a t Gatesbury.  16 annexation and a b s o r p t i o n and  of existing states.  Spain, Gaul  B r i t a i n i n the west were added t o the Roman Empire i n  t h i s period,  and i n the east Egypt and the H e l l e n i s t i c  kingdoms o f A s i a Minor and the Near East (Cary and S c u l l a r d 1978:212-312). Thus t h e r e would appear t o be these two s u p e r f i c i a l l y s i m i l a r p r o c e s s e s happening s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , and o b v i o u s l y i n t e r a c t i n g , c r e a t i n g a r a t h e r complex s i t u a t i o n . cases an e s t a b l i s h e d and  s o c i e t y was t r y i n g t o extend i t s power  i n f l u e n c e , and g a i n c o n t r o l o f more r e s o u r c e s .  they were o p e r a t i n g Catuvellaunl evolving  However,  from q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t base l e v e l , the  from a complex chiefdom i n the p r o c e s s o f into a proto-state,  developed s t a t e l e v e l 2.  In both  and the Romans from a f u l l y  society.  Alternative Theoretical  Concepts  In r e v i e w i n g the l i t e r a t u r e on the t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s o f s t a t e f o r m a t i o n t h e r e would appear t o be no ready made model f o r t h i s s e t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Rostovtzeff Polanyi's  P o l y a n i and  produced c o n f l i c t i n g economic models, w i t h  concepts b e i n g expanded and m o d i f i e d by Jones and  more r e c e n t l y F i n l e y ( F i n l e y 1973, Jones 1974, P o l y a n i 1957;1977, R o s t o v t z e f f  1957).  C u r t i n , H i r t h , Hodges and  Webb have examined t h e r o l e o f t r a d e i n the i n t e r a c t i o n between s o c i e t i e s , and the p e n e t r a t i o n  o f one group by  another ( C u r t i n 1984, H i r t h 1978, Hodges 1982, Webb 1973). C a r n e i r o and Webster have examined the r o l e o f warfare (Carneiro  1970, Webster 1977; 1975).  Wright, Flannery, and  17 Friedman and  Rowlands have c o n s i d e r e d  i n s t a t e f o r m a t i o n (Flannery 1977,  Wright 1977).  i n t e r a c t i o n ' and 1984b), and  Friedman and  'peer p o l i t y  the e a r l y s t a t e module (Renfrew  propose the  involved  Rowlands  C o l i n Renfrew's concept o f  Barbara P r i c e ' s  ( P r i c e 1977)  1972,  the p r o c e s s e s  1986,  ' c l u s t e r i n t e r a c t i o n model'  i d e a o f group i n t e r a c t i o n as a  necessary p r e r e q u i s i t e i n s t a t e formation, but as p a r t of a 'normal' e v o l u t i o n a r y  a l s o see i t  p r o c e s s , l e a d i n g to a  number of s i m i l a r s t a t e based s o c i e t i e s . While these authors do p r o v i d e u s e f u l and i n s i g h t s on v a r i o u s  interesting  a s p e c t s o f the growth o f s t a t e s , these  i n s i g h t s i n themselves do not appear to p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r a good model f o r the s u b j e c t  of t h i s t h e s i s .  A model  p r o p o s i n g t h a t the e v o l u t i o n from a chiefdom t o a s t a t e i s a matter o f slow q u a n t i t a t i v e and  cumulative change,  rather  than a r a p i d q u a l i t a t i v e as w e l l as q u a n t i t a t i v e change, simply does not Spencer has  f i t the known f a c t s o f t h i s case. advanced a somewhat d i f f e r e n t concept, t h a t  o f "the more g e n e r a l  punctuated e q u i l i b r i a i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  macroevolution" (Gould 1980:119-130; Gould and 1977:115-151; Spencer 1982:257). chiefdoms and  Eldredge  His conclusions  are  that  the s t a t e are q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t , and  t h a t i n p a r t i c u l a r the s t a t e needs i n t e r n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and  administrative  d e c e n t r a l i z e d d e c i s i o n making, a  quite  d i f f e r e n t s e t o f c o n t r o l l i n g p r o c e s s e s from those used i n a chiefdom (Spencer 1982:257).  18 T h i s suggests an e v o l u t i o n a r y  t r a j e c t o r y with quite  sharp d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s i n i t s progress. hypothesis, fit  As a  generalized  e v o l u t i o n w i t h d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s would appear to  some cases i n both b i o l o g i c a l and  In the b i o l o g i c a l f i e l d ,  cultural  evolution.  sudden g e n e t i c mutations i n both  wheat and maize have been suggested from the evidence i n the archaeological record G a l i n a t 1985). the past few  (Flannery  1986:7-8; 1973:  In the growth o f c u l t u r e s and  282,  290-6;  s o c i e t i e s over  thousand y e a r s , both the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and  h i s t o r i c a l records  the  suggest p e r i o d s o f r e l a t i v e s t a b i l i t y ,  slow change or gradual  or  s u b s t i t u t i o n , a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h marked  d i s r u p t i o n s or d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s , l e a d i n g to a q u a l i t a t i v e l y different society.  Examples are the c o l l a p s e and  re-  emergence o f ' c i v i l i z a t i o n ' i n the e a s t e r n Mediterranean ca. 1200-900 BC, and  the so c a l l e d  "Dark Ages", and  c u l t u r a l changes observable from the  record  i n B r i t a i n and  p e r i o d , and  I r e l a n d d u r i n g the L a t e r N e o l i t h i c  (Sandars 1985:10-11, Megaw and  formation  archaeological  c a r r y i n g on i n t o the Bronze and  Spencer, who  was  the sharp s o c i a l  Iron Ages  Simpson 1979:345-7,417).  d e a l i n g w i t h a case o f primary s t a t e  i n Mesoamerica, a s t a t e developing  s o c i e t i e s without the  from  adjacent  i n f l u e n c e of another s t a t e , concluded  t h a t i n t e r r e g i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n , a campaign o f conquest o f adjacent  areas by the Zapotec, f o r c e d them i n t o the  development o f s t a t e l e v e l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and systems.  regulatory  These systems were f i r s t a p p l i e d to the newly  conquered t e r r i t o r i e s , and  o n l y l a t e r implemented i n the  19 o r i g i n a l h e a r t l a n d o f the Zapotec, the Oaxaca v a l l e y . Spencer b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s s t r a t e g y was both more c o s t e f f e c t i v e and l e s s p o l i t i c a l l y hazardous than attempting t o s t a r t the s t a t e l e v e l system i n the v a l l e y op.cit.:255-6) . 2  T h i s development  (Spencer  occurred i n a r e l a t i v e l y  s h o r t timespan, c a . f i r s t c e n t u r y AD. An a l t e r n a t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r a group o f s o c i e t i e s going through a r a p i d change,  involving  d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and r e g u l a t o r y systems has been suggested by G a i l e y and P a t t e r s o n ( G a i l e y and P a t t e r s o n 1988, 1989).  Patterson  They d i s a g r e e w i t h the i d e a t h a t a l l s o c i e t i e s i n a  r e g i o n pass through the same stages from e g a l i t a r i a n bands to chiefdoms, and f i n a l l y to s t a t e s , as proposed by P r i c e w i t h " c l u s t e r i n t e r a c t i o n " or Renfrew w i t h "peer p o l i t y interaction" "combined  ( P r i c e 1977; Renfrew  and uneven development  Marxist/Neo-Marxist approach.  1986).Their concept o f " i s based on a  They do not see s t a t e  f o r m a t i o n as a smooth p r o g r e s s i o n from simple t o more complex  s o c i e t i e s , from s u b s i s t e n c e h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r s t o  l a r g e urban based c i v i l i z a t i o n s .  Rather the p r o c e s s o f  2. Spencer concluded t h a t the e x t e n s i o n o f Zapotec t e r r i t o r y and the a c q u i s i t i o n o f a new s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n r e q u i r e d d e c e n t r a l i z e d d e c i s i o n making, and i n t e r n a l administrative specialization. These are s t a t e l e v e l characteristics. The s t a t e l e v e l systems were needed immediately i n the newly conquered area, and the c o s t c o u l d be d e f r a y e d from the t r i b u t e exacted from i t . In the Oaxaca v a l l e y the s e t t l e d Zapotec p o p u l a t i o n c o u l d c o n t i n u e to f u n c t i o n w i t h the e x i s t i n g system at no e x t r a c o s t , and need not be u n s e t t l e d p o l i t i c a l l y at t h a t time by the i m p o s i t i o n of hew systems and burdens.  20 s t a t e formation i n v o l v e s the development o f c l a s s - b a s e d p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n and consumption systems. formation i n t h e i r view appears concerned w i t h r e p r o d u c t i o n or continuance class relations.  o f dominant and  State  the  exploitative  S t a t e formation, an h i s t o r i c a l process, i s  probably never u n i d i r e c t i o n a l .  S t a t e s evolve, may  p o s i t i o n o f dominance, then weaken, and may d i s i n t e g r a t e completely.  S t a t e formation  r i s e to a  even  i s often a  r e g i o n a l phenomenon, the emerging s t a t e b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n r e l a t i o n s o f dominance or s u b o r d i n a t i o n w i t h i t s neighbours, and  i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e towards i n c r e a s i n g  s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , or b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d by them.  State  formation i s u s u a l l y a r a p i d a f f a i r , o f a few months or y e a r s , r a t h e r than decades, and  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by marked  d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s or 'jumps' i n the process of c u l t u r a l evolution.  The  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n to a s t a t e l e v e l of s o c i e t y  c r e a t e s a q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l and  cultural  structure.  political  Whether the s t a t e , a c e n t r a l i z e d  power, emerges to p r o t e c t p r e - e x i s t i n g  socio-economic  s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and e x p l o i t a t i o n , or whether the process s t a t e f o r m a t i o n c r e a t e s or m a g n i f i e s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n e x p l o i t a t i o n , i s an i n t e r e s t i n g dilemma.  G l e d h i l l 1988,  essential  ( G a i l e y and P a t t e r s o n  P a t t e r s o n 1989).  and  C e r t a i n l y an  i n t e r a c t i o n between d i f f e r e n t groups seems an component o f s t a t e f o r m a t i o n  of  1988,  P a t t e r s o n proposes uneven  development, w i t h s o c i e t i e s i n a r e g i o n b e i n g at s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f s o c i a l and  political  21 organization.  He  and G a i l e y take a h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s t  view, s e e i n g the t r a n s i t i o n "from kin-based s o c i e t i e s to c l a s s based s t a t e s o c i e t i e s i s contingent  not on any  laws, but  on h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s "  Patterson  op.cit.:86).  from h i s M a r x i s t  Patterson  draws t h r e e  t h e o r e t i c a l approach, and  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f two Andes and Peru, and  case s t u d i e s , one the other the Han  natural  (Gailey  and  conclusions  from  u s i n g the  Central  p e r i o d i n China  and  the Yamato p e r i o d i n Japan. He  contends t h a t :  S t a t e formation i s always p a r t o f h i s t o r i c a l developments t h a t occur i n l a r g e r r e g i o n s . ... E a r l y s t a t e s have appeared i n r e g i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by uneven s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l economic development. ... They c o n s o l i d a t e very r a p i d l y i n a matter o f months or a few years. ( P a t t e r s o n op. c i t . : 1 4 ) Patterson's formation,  examples are l a r g e l y o f secondary s t a t e  i n r e g i o n s where other  e x i s t e d , or had  state l e v e l s o c i e t i e s  existed.  T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h the  'uneven' development proposed  by G a i l e y , where contiguous groups of e x i s t i n g s o c i e t i e s w i l l have d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l and  p o l i t i c a l - economic  s t r u c t u r e s , w i t h s h i f t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f dominance subordination.  In t h i s d i a l e c t i c a l view s t a t e  formation  w i l l occur i n r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t ways, depending on h i s t o r i c a l context  and  the  and  the  l i n k a g e s between the d i f f e r e n t  societies. In d e v e l o p i n g  a t h e o r e t i c a l model f o r the  matter o f t h i s paper, two considered,  subject  q u i t e d i f f e r e n t concepts w i l l  c u l t u r a l evolution with d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s ,  be  22 exemplified  by Spencer's  punctuated  e q u i l i b r i u m , and  Gailey  and P a t t e r s o n ' s h y p o t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g combined and uneven development.  23 IV.  THE SITUATION IN SOUTH-EASTERN  BRITAIN FROM THE EARLY  FIRST CENTURY BC t o AD 43' In the complex s i t u a t i o n i n south-east B r i t a i n i n the p e r i o d from the f i r s t century  BC t o AD 43, change may have  been t r i g g e r e d by i n t e r n a l f o r c e s and s t r e s s e s w i t h i n the s o c i e t y , by the t r a d i t i o n a l ' B e l g i c ' invaders  (but probably i l l u s o r y ) waves o f  from c o n t i n e n t a l Europe, by the contact  with Rome, o r by some combination o f two o r more o f these phenomena.  T r a d i t i o n a l l y i t was thought t h a t change was  caused by a major ' B e l g i c ' p e n e t r a t i o n from Gaul p r i o r t o Caesar's a t t a c k s  o f south-east  Britain  i n 55-54 B.C., e i t h e r by  an e l i t e group or by l a r g e r t r i b a l i n v a s i o n s from B e l g i c Gaul.  In the past  f i f t e e n y e a r s t h i s view has come under  i n c r e a s i n g a t t a c k , and i s now not g e n e r a l l y accepted. was based l a r g e l y on the r e a d i n g and  It  o f a passage from Caesar,  the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d was made t o f i t t h i s passage.  Recent work on the d a t i n g o f the Late Iron Age A y l e s f o r d Swarling  type cremation cemeteries, and on other  new  cremation p r a c t i c e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s c r i b e d t o ' B e l g i c ' invaders,  has shown t h a t the changes a t t r i b u t e d t o the  ' B e l g i c i n v a s i o n s ' took p l a c e a f t e r Caesar's a t t a c k i n 55-54 B.C.  I t i s now g e n e r a l l y ,  i f not u n i v e r s a l l y , thought t h a t  trade and c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t s were the s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n the p r o c e s s o f change, r e f l e c t i n g o u t s i d e than d i r e c t immigration o r i n v a s i o n .  influence  rather  In t h i s paper t h i s  view o f B e l g i c i n f l u e n c e , r a t h e r than B e l g i c immigration i s accepted, and the changes i n B r i t i s h s o c i e t y w i l l be  24 examined from the aspect o f i n t e r n a l f o r c e s at work, p l u s the e f f e c t o f c o n t a c t and  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h Rome and  I t appears p o s s i b l e t h a t e i t h e r the concept  Gaul.  of  'combined and uneven development' or Spencer's h y p o t h e s i s punctuated  equilibrium, evolution with d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s ,  apply to the p o l i t i e s contending  of  may  f o r dominance i n south-  e a s t e r n B r i t a i n , w i t h the s i t u a t i o n f u r t h e r m o d i f i e d i n f l u e n c e d by the p r o x i m i t y o f the Roman s t a t e , and  and the  trading a c t i v i t y with that state. In B r i t a i n t h i s a r e a and time p e r i o d seem to have had an u n u s u a l l y complex p r o c e s s o f development, w i t h power s h i f t i n g between a number of groups i n the space o f hundred y e a r s .  At t h i s time t h r e e p o s s i b l e c e n t r e s of power  are known or suspected,  i n the C o l c h e s t e r area a t  Camulodunum, i n the Braughing Gatesbury,  and  area a t S k e l e t o n Green and  i n the area o f St. Albans a t  Verulamium,  Wheathampstead and Prae Wood, a l l l e s s than 100 km The  one  apart . 1  sequence o f o c c u p a t i o n o f the s i t e s seems to have been  t h a t the S t . Albans area was time o f Caesar's  probably a power c e n t r e at the  i n v a s i o n s i n 55 and 54 BC,  C o l c h e s t e r a r e a and p a r t i c u l a r l y dominant c e n t r e o f the Catuvellauni C l a u d i a n conquest  i n AD 43.  and t h a t the  Camulodunum had become the by the time o f the  Braughing,  on a d i r e c t l i n e between the other two  l y i n g more or  less  appears t o have grown  1. Over the past twenty y e a r s t h e r e has been a remarkable i n c r e a s e i n the number o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s d i s c o v e r e d of a l l p e r i o d s , from the N e o l i t h i c to the M e d i e v a l . It i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t o t h e r c e n t r e s o f power w i l l be found i n south-eastern B r i t a i n , and t h i s may r e q u i r e a r e v i s i o n o f the sequence proposed here.  25 and decayed d u r i n g the middle In  f i f t y years o f t h i s p e r i o d .  the f i n a l stages p r i o r t o the Roman conquest,  and p o s s i b l y Braughing  St. Albans  seem t o have r e v i v e d as r e g i o n a l  c e n t r e s f o r the r u l i n g dynasty a t Camulodunum. I f t h i s sequence o f development i s c o r r e c t , then, as f i g u r e 7 shows, the c e n t r e o f power s h i f t e d from an i n t e r i o r s i t e t o a r i v e r s i t e , and f i n a l l y t o a c o a s t a l s i t e w i t h i t s much g r e a t e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r overseas t r a d e and exchange. Haselgrove has examined the f u n c t i o n o f t r a d e r e l a t i o n s w i t h the Roman empire i n both i n c r e a s i n g  social  s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and p o l i t i c a l expansionism  i n t h i s area and  period.  He notes t h a t a new f e a t u r e i s the c o n t a c t w i t h an  "organized commercial economy", the Roman one (Haselgrove 1982:80).  He sees the t r a d e w i t h Rome as a new source o f  p r e s t i g e goods, which enabled one group, through c o n t r o l o f t h i s t r a d e t o move t o dominance from a s i t u a t i o n o f comparative Cunebolinus,  e q u a l i t y w i t h o t h e r groups.  In p a r t i c u l a r  w i t h h i s c a p i t a l a t Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) i n  the e a r l y f i r s t c e n t u r y AD, e s t a b l i s h e d c o n t r o l over the p r e v i o u s l y dominant c e n t r e s a t Verulamlum  ( S t . Albans) i n  H e r t f o r d s h i r e , and over areas t h a t had been subordinate t o the H e r t f o r d s h i r e e l i t e  (Haselgrove 1982)  D a r v i l l has suggested  t h a t one r e s u l t o f Caesar's  e x p e d i t i o n s was the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f "formal t r a d i n g between Rome and s o u t h - e a s t e r n B r i t a i n .  links"  In t h i s core zone  from the f i r s t c e n t u r y BC t o t h e e a r l y f i r s t  century AD the  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d shows marked changes i n the settlement  26 p a t t e r n s , b u r i a l customs and  the growth o f imports.  produced g o l d , s i l v e r and bronze coinages both a p r e s t i g e use  develop,  Locally implying  f o r g o l d c o i n s and a f u n c t i o n a l use  t r a d e f o r bronze coinage.  in  Oppida develop as a focus f o r  c r a f t a c t i v i t i e s , t r a d e , and the e x e r c i s e o f power. b u r i a l s s t a r t to occur, u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  Rich  oppida.  g e n e r a l , the p e r i o d a f t e r Caesar i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h marked s o c i a l and economic changes ( D a r v i l l  In  very  1987:162-171).  P a r t r i d g e has proposed t h a t a f t e r Caesar's e x p e d i t i o n s the power o f Cassivellaunus, off sharply . 2  h i s p r i n c i p a l opponent, dropped  Concurrently  a group o f s m a l l  tribes  mentioned by Caesar, but not a t t e s t e d d i r e c t l y i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d , the Bibroci  and  Cassl,  Cenimagni,  Segontiaci,  Ancalites,  grew r a p i d l y i n wealth and power.  He  l o c a t e s these t r i b e s between Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) i n Essex, the c a p i t a l at t h a t time o f the Trinovantes, Cassivellaunus'  probable  oppida  and  i n the St. Albans area.  f u r t h e r suggests t h a t a f e d e r a t i o n o f these s m a l l  tribes  based i t s e l f on the S k e l e t o n Green (Braughing) area, u l t i m a t e l y under Tasciovanus,  Cunobelinu3,  and  known from the legends on h i s  c o i n s , became dominant i n the south-east. successor,  He  His  probable  known from both h i s coinage and  the  h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d , moved the c a p i t a l to the east to Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) .  T h i s was  probably  a l s o the  2. A f t e r Caesar's i n v a s i o n C a s s i v e l l a u n u s d i s a p p e a r s from the h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d . P a r t r i d g e h y p o t h e s i z e s t h a t he l o s t a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f h i s young nobles and w a r r i o r s i n the b a t t l e s w i t h the Romans, and t h a t t h i s undermined h i s power base ( P a r t r i d g e 1981:354).  27 c a p i t a l o f Caratacua,  the son o f Cunebolinus,  who  B r i t i s h f o r c e s a g a i n s t the Roman invaders i n AD 43 ( P a r t r i d g e 1981:351-356).  l e d the  28  RESEARCH_QUESTIONSj, HYPOTHESES AND ~  "  :  ~  ~  A MODEL  THEIR IMPLICATIONS:  ' "  "  ~  In t h i s t h e s i s an attempt has been made to answer the g e n e r a l and  s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s s e t out below.  t h i s end a g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s has been developed, i t s implications.  To  along w i t h  From t h i s g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s  three  s p e c i f i c hypotheses were evolved, together w i t h  their  consequences. Four s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s and a model have been propounded f o r t e s t i n g a g a i n s t the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and  l i t e r a r y data  X•  Clej3^al_._R^^  a)  available.  What were the c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n a r y or other  processes,  d e t e c t a b l e i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d , at  work i n t r a n s f o r m i n g the Late Iron Age i n south-east Cunebolinus, and AD  43,  punctuated  s m a l l t r i b a l groups  England i n t o a dominant p r o t o - s t a t e , t h a t o f between the 55/54 BC e x p e d i t i o n s o f Caesar,  the conquest by Rome?  Was  t h i s an example of a  equilibrium, c u l t u r a l evolution with  ' d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s , or a case of "combined and uneven development"? b)  Was  t h i s a l o c a l l y engendered phenomenon, r e s u l t i n g  from i n t e r n a l s t r a i n s and t e n s i o n s , was augmented by o u t s i d e f o r c e s , or was the two  influences?  Can  i t initiated  or  i t a combination  of  l o c a l e f f e c t s and o u t s i d e f o r c e s  be d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l record? There would c e r t a i n l y appear to have been the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r s o c i a l change and e v o l u t i o n based l a r g e l y  on  29 i n t e r n a l f o r c e s , as happened i n the t h i r d and f o u r t h c e n t u r i e s BC (Bradley 1984). Change due t o d i r e c t Roman i n f l u e n c e might be felt  i n both the economic ( t r a d e ) and p o l i t i c a l  fields.  There i s s u b s t a n t i a l evidence f o r t r a d e , but was t h i s a cause or an e f f e c t o f i n t e r n a l change?  I f the Romans were  a g g r e s s i v e l y p u r s u i n g new markets i n B r i t a i n , t h i s tends t o suggest  t r a d e as a cause o f s o c i a l change.  hand, the B r i t i s h e l i t e were promoting  I f , on the other  trade t o strengthen  or s u s t a i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n , then i t i s an e f f e c t . On t h e p o l i t i c a l f r o n t the Romans might d e s i r e t o extend t h e i r i n f l u e n c e t o B r i t a i n , e i t h e r t o s t a b i l i z e f r o n t i e r , or as a prelude t o expansion.  their  In B r i t a i n the  l o c a l e l i t e s might wish t o o b t a i n Roman h e l p i n t h e i r  inter-  e l i t e c o n f l i c t s , or might r e g a r d Rome as the g r e a t e s t t h r e a t , and wish t o minimize  Roman p o l i t i c a l  Were the Romans t h r u s t i n g themselves  influence.  i n t o B r i t a i n , or  were they b e i n g drawn i n r e l u c t a n t l y a t the behest o f British chiefs?  In the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d i t may be  p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h the two cases. Romans were pushing political  Put simply, i f the  i n , one would expect Roman t r a d e and  i n f l u e n c e t o show i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d  over most o f the area a c c e s s i b l e t o them, the south and south-east o f B r i t a i n .  I f , on the other hand, some  p a r t i c u l a r e l i t e s were s e e k i n g Roman trade o r p o l i t i c a l h e l p , then Roman a r t i f a c t s and c u l t u r a l t r a i t s should appear predominantly,  or a t l e a s t more f r e q u e n t l y , i n the area o f  30 those e l i t e s .  A c o m p l i c a t i o n c o u l d be t h a t both  processes  were going on a t the same t i m e . 1  The  l i t e r a r y evidence i s i n c o n c l u s i v e on t h i s p o i n t ,  and i f a n y t h i n g suggests t h a t both processes were o p e r a t i n g . There a r e accounts o f d i s p l a c e d B r i t i s h c h i e f t a i n s a p p e a l i n g to Rome f o r h e l p , but t h e r e a r e a l s o  accounts o f unsought  honours and f r i e n d s h i p accorded t o B r i t i s h k i n g s .  The  nature o f the t r a d i n g c o n t a c t s a r e s p e l t out by Strabo i n some d e t a i l , and tend t o suggest t h a t the Romans were a c t i v e l y seeking c e r t a i n B r i t i s h products.  The two a c t i v e  Roman i n t e r v e n t i o n s w i t h f o r c e b e f o r e the f i n a l were Caesar's  i n v a s i o n s o f 55/54 BC.  conquest  Broadly the B r i t i s h o f  southern and e a s t e r n B r i t a i n seem t o have been h o s t i l e c a . 55/54 BC, then i n g e n e r a l f r i e n d l y f o r about e i g h t y years u n t i l the death o f Cunebolinus, h i s s u c c e s s o r s , Caratacus  and then h o s t i l e again under  and Togodumnua (Caesar B.G.:IV,  20-37, V 9-23; Strabo 11,5,8, IV,5,3; Suetonius, Claudius:17; Tac i t u s , Ann.:2.24) . 2  1. In e i t h e r case W i l l e y ' s t r a i t - u n i t i n t r u s i o n s B l and B2 seem t o occur ( W i l l e y 1956). For coinage t h e B2 t r a i t - u n i t , f u s i o n w i t h dominance o f the corresponding p a r t o f the receiving c u l t u r e o c c u r s . On the other hand f o r p o t t e r y the B l t r a i t - u n i t , adoption without m o d i f i c a t i o n and without f u s i o n happens. For the p e r i o d covered i n t h i s paper imported and l o c a l p o t t e r y remain l a r g e l y .separate and m a i n t a i n t h e i r own t r a d i t i o n s , although l o c a l c o p i e s o f imports were made. 2. T h i s i s a b r o a d l y c o r r e c t but somewhat s i m p l i f i e d picture. For example the southern Atrebatea, under t h e i r s u c c e s s i v e r u l e r s , Tincommiua, Epplllua, Verica and Cogidubnus, remained f r i e n d l y t o Rome throughout. Cogidubnua, the l a s t o f the l i n e , remained a c l i e n t k i n g i n Roman B r i t a i n u n t i l h i s death, probably i n the mid 60s AD ( B a r r e t t 1979: F r e r e 1987:29-30).  31  ^TTA..&.>->..........^i^.^^,!^^.^^  The  r^^T.^ff  ^^J^^USr^^^  •••  .^jfc^l.3e..fa^—..!JL'.33i.Q..^..X  f o l l o w i n g general hypothesis  w i l l be t e s t e d i n t h i s  paper: Between the e x p e d i t i o n s o f Caesar 55/54 BC, and the C l a u d i a n conquest by Aulus P l a u t i u s i n AD 43, the south-east o f B r i t a i n went through an e v o l u t i o n from "small s c a l e p o l i t i c a l u n i t s engaged i n c o n t i n u a l c o m p e t i t i o n " 1984:147), t o a p r o t o - s t a t e l e v e l s o c i e t y . not as a smooth e v o l u t i o n a r y process,  (Bradley  T h i s took p l a c e ,  but as a s u c c e s s i o n o f  sharp d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s i n the s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y , a manifestation  o f e i t h e r punctuated e q u i l i b r i u m i n c u l t u r a l  e v o l u t i o n , o r o f "combined and uneven development", r e s u l t i n g from t e n s i o n s , s t r e s s and i n t e r a c t i o n between the t r i b a l groups i n the area, w i t h q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f sophistication i n their social structures.  The Roman  i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the area i n 55/54 BC was probably t r i g g e r i n g event, and the e a r l i e r Roman trade helped  a c c e l e r a t e the p r o c e s s .  dominance o f the Catuvellaunl  T h i s culminated l e d by Caratacus,  a  penetration i n the based on h i s  oppidum a t Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) . In order t o v a l i d a t e t h i s g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s the f o l l o w i n g changes and processes a)  must be demonstrated:  S o c i e t y changed from an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a number o f  chiefdoms o f approximately equal power t o one where a paramount c h i e f o r k i n g r u l e d over a l a r g e p a r t o f southeastern  Britain.  32 b)  T h i s r u l e r ' s t e r r i t o r y and  s o c i e t y should show  evidence o f i n c i p i e n t s t a t e l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f power, and  the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c o n t r o l  mechanisms. c)  The  changes d i d not  one  c e n t r e , but  from one  i n v o l v e a steady  growth based  on  i n v o l v e d w e l l marked s h i f t s i n c o n t r o l  c e n t r e to another as s u c c e s s i v e groups a c q u i r e d  at l e a s t a temporary mastery. d)  The  processes  i n c l u d e d Roman t r a d e  penetration,  expansion o f the t e r r i t o r y c o n t r o l l e d by the paramount c h i e f s i n southern B r i t a i n , and  successive  e x p l o i t a t i o n by  the r u l e r o f both the t e r r i t o r y under h i s d i r e c t c o n t r o l , and 3L.  o f the h i n t e r l a n d to the n o r t h and west.  Spjej3.i£i.G„Hypoi.]i^  HypotliesJLs The a)  s p e c i f i c hypotheses to be t e s t e d are:  In south-east  Verulamium see Map  1.,  England, i n the zone between the  ( S t . Albans) area and  Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) ,  a number o f s m a l l and middle- s i z e d  independent chiefdoms were drawn together s t a t e between c a . 55 BC  and AD  43.  into a proto-  In t h i s process  two  groups s u c c e s s i v e l y rose to dominance, the f i r s t based S k e l e t o n Green, near Braughing, H e r t f o r d s h i r e , and second based on  Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) i n Essex.  c e n t r e s r e p l a c e d the p r e v i o u s  on  the These  c e n t r e at Wheathampstead,  33 near St. Albans,  which was dominant p r i o r t o Caesar's  r a i d s o f 55/54 B.C. b)  There was a temporal and s p a t i a l change i n the c e n t r e  of power, t h e c e n t r e o f t r a d e and exchange, both i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l .  The c e n t r e moved s u c c e s s i v e l y from  Wheathampstead i n the p e r i o d b e f o r e 55 B.C., t o Braughing by the end o f the millenium,  and t o C o l c h e s t e r on an  e a s t e r n c o a s t a l e s t u a r y by the e a r l y f i r s t century A.D. c)  The growth o f the dominance o f the group based on  C o l c h e s t e r , the Catuvellauni,  l e d by Cunebolinus,  was  b u i l t on e x p l o i t a t i o n o f both the i n t e r n a l r e s o u r c e s o f the kingdom, i n c r e a s e d exchange and t r i b u t e e x a c t i o n s from the l e s s o r g a n i z e d  and s t r u c t u r e d p e r i p h e r e a l areas t o the  n o r t h and west, and the e x t e n s i o n o f t r a d e w i t h Rome. 4.  I m p l i c a t i o n s o f the S p e c i f i c Hypotheses When a number o f s m a l l e r chiefdoms a r e p u l l e d together  i n t o a p r o t o - s t a t e , the development o f a major c e n t r a l p l a c e or c a p i t a l would be expected, as a focus f o r both the r i t u a l s surrounding  and r e i n f o r c i n g the s t a t u s o f the k i n g ,  and as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c o n t r o l l i n g c e n t r e . founding  The  and growth o f such a c e n t r e should be p e r c e p t i b l e  i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d .  The former s m a l l c e n t r a l  p l a c e s o f the chiefdoms c o u l d remain about t h e same s i z e , i f the c h i e f had made a w i l l i n g submission  t o the new o v e r l o r d .  However, a change i n e l i t e a r t i f a c t s should occur, as the new s u b j e c t c h i e f r e c e i v e d p r e s t i g e goods from the o v e r l o r d . For example a sudden appearance o f g o l d c o i n s , minted by the  34 k i n g , i n the s u b j e c t c h i e f ' s c a p i t a l , suggests a new relationship.  For chiefdoms which had r e s i s t e d a b s o r p t i o n ,  and whose c h i e f had been d i s p l a c e d , two a l t e r n a t i v e outcomes are p o s s i b l e .  The peasants might be g i v e n a new o v e r l o r d , a  r e t a i n e r o f the s u c c e s s f u l k i n g , o r they might become l i t t l e more than s l a v e s on a k i n g ' s e s t a t e .  In the f i r s t  case  there should be a break i n the e l i t e d w e l l i n g s and a r t i f a c t s at  the s i t e , as the ' f o r e i g n ' e l i t e takes over.  In the  second case the former chiefdom's c e n t r a l p l a c e would d e c l i n e i n s i z e and complexity,  and e l i t e  items would  disappear. Thus, i n summary, w i t h the s c e n a r i o d e s c r i b e d i n the hypotheses above, one would expect t o f i n d a new c a p i t a l , or a much expanded o l d c e n t r a l p l a c e f u n c t i o n i n g as the new c a p i t a l , w i t h concurrent v a r y i n g changes i n the s m a l l e r c e n t r e s w i t h i n the new p r o t o - s t a t e .  In p a r t i c u l a r the S t .  Albans area should show a d e c l i n e from about 54 BC, w h i l e c o n c u r r e n t l y the s i t e a t Braughing wider range o f e l i t e goods. century AD, the Braughing  should grow and a c q u i r e a  S i m i l a r l y i n the e a r l y  first  s i t e should show a d e c l i n e and,  p o s s i b l y even abandonment, as C o l c h e s t e r expands.  There  c o u l d a l s o be other changes i n the s o c i a l , economic and c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s , f o r example, subordinate r e g i o n a l c e n t r e s might develop and a v e r y probable change would be the p r a c t i c e o f e l i t e b u r i a l s f o r the new k i n g l y f a m i l i e s . Again t h i s should be d e t e c t a b l e i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l record.  35 With power and c o n t r o l o f trade ( i n t r a - c h i e f d o m , i n t e r n a l B r i t i s h , and overseas t r a d e ) moving from the St. Albans area t o C o l c h e s t e r , as proposed h y p o t h e s i s b ) , two  in specific  e f f e c t s should be expected.  In  s u c c e s s i o n each area would develop workshops, and the d e b r i s o f workshops, making goods f o r t r a d e and exchange, and possibly a mint . 3  T h i s g e n e r a l phenomenon i s w e l l a t t e s t e d  at a number o f Late Iron Age major c e n t r e s i n B r i t a i n , Hengistbury Head, Mountbatten, Camulodunum, and Green ( C u n l i f f e 1989a, 1987; P a r t r i d g e 1981).  Hawkes and H u l l  Skeleton 1947;  The workshops would expand and d e c l i n e i n  p a r a l l e l w i t h the p o l i t i c a l and economic importance centre.  of the  Secondly, as each a r e a becomes a t r a d i n g c e n t r e , a  s c a t t e r o f low and medium l e v e l v a l u e l o c a l c o i n s should appear, e i t h e r as the s t a t e ' s payment f o r low  level  s e r v i c e s , or as the medium o f exchange f o r the s m a l l e r transactions.  L o c a l l y minted B r i t i s h coinage  should  predominate but some G a u l i s h and Roman c o i n s might probably be used.  The presence  o f medium and h i g h e r v a l u e  c o i n s might a l s o be expected  i f overseas t r a d e  'foreign'  developed . 4  A c o r o l l a r y t o the use o f c o i n s i s t h a t , because the m i n t i n g 3. Coin moulds have been r e c o v e r e d from s e v e r a l Late I r o n Age oppida s i t e s i n s o u t h - e a s t e r n B r i t a i n ( P a r t r i d g e 1981) 4. Evidence on t h i s p o i n t i s c o n t e n t i o u s . In the f i r s t few c e n t u r i e s a f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f coinage i n the Mediterranean the coinage o f the t r a d i n g c i t y s t a t e s of Greece, Magna G r a e c i a and the H e l l e n i s t i c world tended to have a r e s t r i c t e d c i r c u l a t i o n w i t h i n t h e i r geographic boundaries (Kraay 1976). However, the s i l v e r coinage of 5th. c e n t u r y Athens appears t o have been used over much of the Aegean. The low v a l u e Athenian coinage, the obol was used to pay c i t i z e n s f o r s e r v i c e s to the s t a t e , such as s e r v i c e i n the t r i r e m e s ( R u t t e r 1983:31-35).  36 of  l o c a l coinage o n l y s t a r t e d i n the Late Iron Age  Britain, coinage  i t would be expected  in  t h a t the amount of low value  i n use would i n c r e a s e as the p r o t o - s t a t e became more  c e n t r a l i z e d , and w i t h t i g h t e r c o n t r o l over economic activities. The  s p e c i f i c i m p l i c a t i o n s o f h y p o t h e s i s c) are t h a t the  range o f types o f goods and the volume o f goods exchanged w i t h , or exacted as t r i b u t e from, the l e s s o r g a n i z e d p e r i p h e r e a l t r i b a l groups should expand. types and volume of goods imported  Similarly  from overseas  the  should  increase. IL,  JapejCiifJ^^  a)  Is t h e r e evidence  i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d which  w i l l demonstrate the p e r i o d and  i n t e n s i t y of occupation at  the t h r e e areas, St. Albans, Braughing i n p a r t i c u l a r evidence  and C o l c h e s t e r , and  f o r s u c c e s s i v e occupations as power  c e n t r e s between the e a r l y f i r s t century BC and AD b)  Is t h e r e evidence  f o r the expansion  43?  o f the sphere  i n f l u e n c e o f these areas, s u c c e s s i v e l y or  of  simultaneously,  and f o r the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the peripheral c)  areas?  I s t h e r e evidence  Braughing,  f o r the growth of a power c e n t r e at  by the f e d e r a t i o n or c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f s e v e r a l  s m a l l e r groups, and then f o r a s h i f t of the power c e n t r e to C o l c h e s t e r under the Catuvellauni?  Is t h e r e  f o r a r e v i v a l o f St. Albans and Braughing c e n t r e s l a t e r i n the p e r i o d ?  evidence  as r e g i o n a l  37 d)  I s t h e r e evidence f o r i n c r e a s i n g t r a d e between B r i t a i n  and the Roman world, I t a l y , Gaul, the Rhineland and Spain, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the l a t e r 1 s t c e n t u r y BC and on up t o AD 43?  Evidence f o r i n c r e a s i n g t r a d e would be l a r g e r amounts  o f s p e c i f i c imports, amphorae, G a u l i s h and Roman p o t t e r y , glassware and l u x u r y items such as j e w e l l r y . An a f f i r m a t i v e answer t o q u e s t i o n a) w i l l s p e c i f i c hypothesis a).  support  A f f i r m a t i v e answers t o q u e s t i o n s b)  and d) w i l l support s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s i s c ) , and an a f f i r m a t i v e answer t o q u e s t i o n c) w i l l support  specific  hypothesis b ) . 6.  A T h e o r e t i c a l B a s i s f o r the Model A b r i e f summary o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l background  t o the  s i t u a t i o n i n s o u t h - e a s t e r n B r i t a i n has been g i v e n i n chapter 3, as p a r t o f the review o f t h e o r e t i c a l concepts which might be used.  In t h i s s e c t i o n t h e p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s  f o r the model t o be used i s developed. The p o l i t i c a l changes i n southern and e a s t e r n B r i t a i n i n the p e r i o d 55 BC t o AD 43 most probably r e f l e c t a case o f secondary p r o t o - s t a t e f o r m a t i o n i n the shadow o f the Roman Empire.  The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and l i t e r a r y evidence suggests  s e v e r a l sharp d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s i n t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s i n t h e hundred  year p e r i o d .  However they were  more i n the form o f the r a p i d development o f l a r g e r  social  u n i t s , p r o t o - s t a t e s , and t h e r i s e and f a l l o f s u c c e s s i v e e l i t e s , r a t h e r than d r a s t i c changes i n the peasant f a m i l y or s m a l l community l e v e l o f s o c i e t y as a whole.  In g e n e r a l the  38 p i c t u r e i s o f p o l i t i e s i n southern and e a s t e r n B r i t a i n contending f o r dominance.  These groups were a t a more  s o p h i s t i c a t e d l e v e l o f s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  organization  than the t r i b e s i n the p e r i p h e r a l areas and h i n t e r l a n d . Although the apparent sequence of events i n B r i t a i n might  seem t o f i t e i t h e r Spencer's or P a t t e r s o n ' s model,  t h e r e are d i f f i c u l t i e s .  One  s t a t e r a t h e r than a s t a t e was  i s that i n B r i t a i n a protodeveloping.  gone on t o a c q u i r e the " i n t e r n a l  I t might have  administrative  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n " t h a t Spencer proposes f o r a s t a t e , but the evidence suggests a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and r e g u l a t i o n from c e n t r e , Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) , w i t h p o s s i b l y  one  limited  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n t o the S t . Albans and Braughing areas. p o t e n t i a l was  cut s h o r t by the Roman conquest.  The  Its  evidence  f o r p u b l i c or ceremonial b u i l d i n g s i n the c a p i t a l i s s l i g h t , p a r t l y because  o f the probable timber, wattle-and-daub,  thatched c o n s t r u c t i o n , and p a r t l y because l i m i t e d area has been excavated. v e r y massive  earthworks,  and  only a very  However, t h e r e are the  the 'dykes',  v o l u n t a r y communal e f f o r t or a corvee.  implying either The  evidence i n d i c a t e s t h a t the dykes were b u i l t  stratigraphic in a fairly  s h o r t p e r i o d , and not over decades or c e n t u r i e s .  Coinage  was minted and c i r c u l a t e d , and the evidence f o r manufacture and t r a d e suggests an i n c i p i e n t m e r c a n t i l e s o c i e t y , producing a t l e a s t some commodities r a t h e r than  consumption.  or goods f o r exchange  39 The c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n w i t h punctuated e q u i l i b r i u m approach o f Spencer  i s one t h a t a l l o w s a f a i r l y  generalized  t h e o r e t i c a l approach, which should be w i d e l y a p p l i c a b l e . With the neo-Marxist / h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s t h y p o t h e s i s proposed by P a t t e r s o n and G l e d h i l l , the s i t u a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d unique, moulded and a f f e c t e d by the c o n s t r a i n t s and f o r c e s o f i t s h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t . I t appears t h a t both concepts can have v a l i d i t y , but i n r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t time frames.  The e v o l u t i o n a r y concept i s  e s s e n t i a l l y a longer c y c l e phenomenon, e i t h e r proceeding as a smooth continuum w i t h minute  increments o f change  o c c u r r i n g a l l the time, or more probably as a s e r i e s o f long p e r i o d s o f r e l a t i v e s t a b i l i t y w i t h l i t t l e change, punctuated by sharp d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s and s h o r t p e r i o d s o f i n t e n s i v e change.  The s h o r t p e r i o d s o f i n t e n s i v e change w i l l  be  unique events i n t h e i r temporal and l o c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t s . Depending  on the h i s t o r i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s and s t r e s s e s , the  course o f events may  have more than one p o s s i b l e  trajectory.  The a c t u a l outcome w i l l be determined by the s e t o f c o n d i t i o n s i n the p a r t i c u l a r time and p l a c e , and not n e c e s s a r i l y by a g e n e r a l t h e o r y .  Once the s h o r t p e r i o d o f  i n t e n s i v e change d i e s out, then another p e r i o d o f p r e d i c t a b l e s t a b i l i t y w i l l resume.  One problem w i t h the  approach o f P a t t e r s o n and G l e d h i l l i s t h a t i t does not r e a l l y account f o r p r e c e e d i n g and subsequent most e a s i l y used a f t e r the f a c t .  events, and i s  40 In the case d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s paper, i t would appear t h a t a case o f i n t e n s i v e change i n a b r i e f time frame i s o c c u r r i n g , but embedded w i t h i n a longer c y c l e e v o l u t i o n a r y framework.  There had been some marked changes i n the  social  and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e i n the p r e v i o u s few c e n t u r i e s as B r i t i s h s o c i e t y moved from the Late Bronze Age E a r l y and Middle  through the  Iron Ages, but not changes o f the  and s c a l e t h a t happened between 55 BC and AD  43.  rapidity These  p e r i o d s of change were preceeded by m i l l e n i a of r e l a t i v e stability,  punctuated  by o c c a s i o n a l s h o r t p e r i o d s of  i n t e n s i v e change, throughout the P a l e o l i t h i c and  Neolithic  epochs. The  t h e o r e t i c a l model used i n t h i s paper w i l l employ  the concepts paper.  advanced by Spencer and drawn from Gould i n h i s  H i s a p p l i c a t i o n i s i n b i o l o g y and botany, but  broad concepts  the  are e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e to c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n .  As Gould sees i t : E v o l u t i o n i s a h i e r a r c h i c a l process w i t h complementary, but d i f f e r e n t modes o f change at i t s t h r e e major l e v e l s , v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n p o p u l a t i o n , s p e c i a t i o n , and p a t t e r n s of macroevolution. S p e c i a t i o n i s not always an e x t e n s i o n of g r a d u a l adaptive a l l e l i c s u b s t i t u t i o n to g r e a t e r e f f e c t , , but may r e p r e s e n t as Goldschmidt argued, a d i f f e r e n t s t y l e o f g e n e t i c change-rapid r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the genome, perhaps non-adaptive. Macroevolutionary t r e n d s do not a r i s e from the gradual a d a p t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n s , but u s u a l l y from a h i g h e r order s e l e c t i o n o p e r a t i n g upon groups of s p e c i e s , .... A new and g e n e r a l theory of e v o l u t i o n w i l l embody t h i s n o t i o n o f h i e r a r c h y and s t r e s s a v a r i e t y o f themes e i t h e r ignored or e x p l i c i t l y r e j e c t e d by the modern s y n t h e s i s : p u n c t u a t i o n a l change at a l l l e v e l s , important non-adaptive change at a l l l e v e l s , c o n t r o l of e v o l u t i o n not only by s e l e c t i o n , but e q u a l l y by c o n s t r a i n t s of h i s t o r y , development and a r c h i t e c t u r e -  41 thus r e s t o r i n g to e v o l u t i o n a r y theory organism. (Gould 1980) The  s i t u a t i o n i n south-eastern  54 BC and AD  43 appears to be one  a concept of  B r i t a i n between ca.  o f punctuational  55-  change,  w i t h " c o n t r o l o f e v o l u t i o n . . . e q u a l l y by c o n s t r a i n t s of h i s t o r y , development and a r c h i t e c t u r e . . . . " In the long c h a i n o f c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n i n B r i t a i n ,  the  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d shows evidence f o r s t a b l e huntergatherer  s o c i e t i e s s u r v i v i n g over s e v e r a l m i l l e n i a up to ca.  3500 BC  T h i s was  f o l l o w e d by three phases o f N e o l i t h i c  farming communities, showing i n c r e a s i n g complexity of o r g a n i z a t i o n and  improving technology, f o l l o w e d by  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f bronze and bronze weapons ( D a r v i l l By about 600  BC,  w i t h i r o n i n common use,  social  the 1987).  a more t u r b u l e n t  p e r i o d emerged, w i t h the development o f a h i l l f o r t based society.  S o c i e t y broke up  i n t o s m a l l e r groups w i t h d i s t i n c t  r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( D a r v i l l op. l a t e second and  e a r l y f i r s t century  h i l l f o r t s went out o f use  and  inter-chiefdom  position.  i n the  are succeeded by  r e l a t i v e l y undefended s e t t l e m e n t s . intense  BC  cit.:133).  By  the  south-east, oppida,  large  At the same time an  s t r u g g l e developed f o r a dominant  S t a b i l i t y i n s o c i e t y ends, and  south-eastern  B r i t a i n moves i n t o a p e r i o d o f punctuated change, or a l t e r n a t i v e l y o f combined and uneven development.  42 7~.* The M.Q.de.1 The model, based on P a r t r i d g e ' s h y p o t h e s i s 1981:353-6), i s o f a group o f chiefdoms, Segontiaci, two  Ancalites,  l a r g e chiefdoms,  Bibroci  and  Cassl,  Cenimagni,  sandwiched between  t h a t o f Catuvellaunua  based a t S t . Albans, and the Trinovantes n o r t h Essex.  the  (Partridge  t o the west, t o the east i n  Caesar s t a t e d t h a t these s m a l l t r i b e s made  peace w i t h Rome, presumably i n p a r t as a s h i e l d from more powerful n e i g h b o u r s . 6  Catuvellaunua'  kingdom, a f t e r  h i s d e f e a t by Caesar was weak, and the Trinovantes east were not w a r l i k e .  their  to the  T h i s temporal s i t u a t i o n , and  l o c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n o f the s m a l l chiefdoms  i n the  the  Braughing  area, between S t . Albans and Essex, allowed them t o expand t h e i r i n f l u e n c e , c o n s o l i d a t e i n t o one group, move f i r s t  to  the west t o take over the S t . Albans area and l a t e r to the east t o take c o n t r o l o f n o r t h Essex from the F i n a l l y a new  c a p i t a l was  Trinovantes.  e s t a b l i s h e d a t Camulodunum  ( C o l c h e s t e r ) , w i t h the b e g i n n i n g s of the development of a p r o t o - s t a t e , w i t h r e g i o n a l c e n t r e s e s t a b l i s h e d at S t . Albans, and probably a t  Braughing.  5. Caesar's statement i s the o n l y evidence f o r the e x i s t e n c e o f these t r i b e s . To date there i s no a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence. The Trinovantes are the group f o r which t h e r e i s the most s o l i d evidence, l i t e r a r y and archaeological. The chiefdom o f Cassivellaunus i s mentioned s e v e r a l times i n Caesar. A number of s i t e s i n H e r t f o r d s h i r e , i n c l u d i n g Wheathampstead and Prae Wood, have been proposed as a p o s s i b l e c a p i t a l f o r him, but the evidence i s c i r c u m s t a n t i a l , not d e f i n i t e . One by-product of t h i s t h e s i s c o u l d be a f i r m e r p o s i t i o n f o r the e x i s t e n c e of these s m a l l e r t r i b a l groups.  43 The broad a)  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the model a r e :  In the S t . Albans a r e a t h e r e should be a s i t e o r s i t e s  of a chiefdom,  p o s s i b l y Wheathampstead, showing  of p r e - C a e s a r i a n o c c u p a t i o n  , f o l l o w e d by a d e c l i n e .  may have a s s o c i a t e d c h i e f l y b u r i a l s . C l a u d i a n conquest  evidence This  By the time o f the  t h e r e may be one or more s i t e s  d e v e l o p i n g as r e g i o n a l c e n t r e s , a t Prae Wood,  Verulamium  (St. Albans) o r S k e l e t o n Green, t o the c a p i t a l a t Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) .  A s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  regional  c e n t r e o r c e n t r e s should be r i c h i n t e r m e d i a t e b u r i a l s w i t h the post C a e s a r i a n A y l e s f o r d - S w a r l i n g cremation b)  In the Braughing  a r e a t h e r e should be a s i t e  rite . 6  later  than Wheathampstead and showing r a p i d growth as the minor chiefdoms c o n c e n t r a t e d t h e i r power, and then a d e c l i n e t o a r e g i o n a l c e n t r e when the c a p i t a l moved t o Camulodunum (Colchester). intermediate c)  There should be some evidence o f e l i t e and A y l e s f o r d - S w a r l i n g type cremation  In the C o l c h e s t e r area, when Braughing  burials.  and S t . Albans  d e c l i n e d , the l a r g e s t s i t e o f the t h r e e , Camulodunum should develop as the c a p i t a l o f the emerging p r o t o - s t a t e . T h i s s i t e should e x i s t up t o the Roman conquest and probably Again  i n AD 43,  i n a Romanized form a f t e r the conquest . 7,  Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) should show evidence f o r  l a t e and probably r i c h e r r o y a l and e l i t e cremation than e a r l i e r  burials  sites.  6. The e l i t e o r r o y a l b u r i a l s should appear a t Camulodunum. 7. Roman towns and c e n t r e s i n B r i t a i n are f r e q u e n t l y on the s i t e o f , o r adjacent t o , pre-Roman oppida or major v a l l e y s e t t l e m e n t s (Corney 1984; F u l f o r d 1986,1984; Wacher 1978).  44 8. S p e c i f i c i m p l i c a t i o n s from t h e Model S p e c i f i c i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the model f o r the archaeological  r e c o r d have been d e f i n e d  a r t i f a c t or feature/structure,  f o r each type o f  including pottery  (Roman,  G a l l o - B e l g i c and n a t i v e wares), amphorae, c o i n s , brooches, earthworks and b u i l d i n g s , and b u r i a l s .  Other c l a s s e s o f  a r t i f a c t noted i n the e x c a v a t i o n r e p o r t s , g l a s s , i r o n and bronze metalwork, j e w e l l e r y and m i s c e l l a n e o u s items  occurred  e i t h e r i n q u a n t i t i e s which were t o o small f o r meaningful inter-site  comparison, i n an u n d e f i n a b l e form ( f o r example  "piece o f b r o n z e " ) , or o c c u r r e d al  only a t one s i t e ,  Poitery. The  p o t t e r y can be s u b d i v i d e d  i n t o three c l a s s e s , Roman  ( A r r e t i n e and South G a u l i s h ware, or terra  sigillata),  G a l l o - B e l g i c imports from Gaul (mostly t e r r a n i g r a , t e r r a rubra and mica-dusted wares, and m o r t a r i a ) , wares.  I f the model i s v a l i d  the f o l l o w i n g  and n a t i v e patterns  should appear:-  These should be minimal o r n o n - e x i s t a n t a t Wheathampstead, should appear a t Braughing and Prae Wood (St.  Albans),  and be most p l e n t i f u l  at Colchester.  These should f o l l o w a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n t o the Roman imports.  45 X..3J  Es&±veJitlajc.gg, These should be predominant a t Wheathampstead, and  s t i l l make up the bulk o f the p o t t e r y a t the other two sites.  L o c a l c o p i e s o f imports should b e g i n t o appear a t  Prae Wood and Braughing, percentage b)  and should be present as a h i g h e r  o f the t o t a l n a t i v e wares a t C o l c h e s t e r ,  Amphorae Amphorae were used as c o n t a i n e r s f o r wine, o l i v e  oil,  f i s h sauce and other l u x u r y c o m e s t i b l e s t r a d e d t o B r i t a i n . In the p e r i o d covered imported.  i n t h i s t h e s i s they were a l l  Roman amphorae have d i s t i n c t s t y l i s t i c  changes  depending on the p e r i o d and t h e i r p l a c e o f manufacture. The  amphorae from the e x c a v a t i o n s were o r i g i n a l l y  c l a s s i f i e d under a number o f d i f f e r e n t systems, D r e s s e l , H a l t e r n , Loeschcke, P a s c u a l , Hofheim and Camulodunum. For the purposes o f t h i s paper, and t o make comparisons p o s s i b l e , they have been r e c l a s s i f i e d i n t o one system, t h a t proposed by Peacock and W i l l i a m s i n Amphorae and the Roman Economy (Peacock and W i l l i a m s 1986).  In g e n e r a l no  amphorae, o r o n l y e a r l y ones, such as D r e s s e l I o r C l a s s 4, should be present a t Wheathampstead.  Braughing  should  have more amphorae, and p o s s i b l y from more than one source.  C o l c h e s t e r should have the l a r g e s t number, both  i n v a r i e t y , and i n the number o f sources from which they came.  46 c)  Coins By the middle o f the time p e r i o d examined i n t h i s paper, B r i t i s h Iron Age coinage was u s u a l l y  inscribed  e i t h e r w i t h the name o f the r u l e r , or the name o f the t r i b e , and sometimes w i t h the name o f the mint.  In some  cases both the r u l e r ' s name and the mint appear.  The  p r o d u c t i o n and use o f coinage should i n c r e a s e w i t h increasing s o c i a l complexity . 8  The geographic  spread o f  the coinage should r e f l e c t t h e area r u l e d by, a l l i e d t o , or under the i n f l u e n c e o f the r u l e r i s s u i n g the coinage. Coin d i s t r i b u t i o n s may a l s o i n d i c a t e t r a d i n g p a t t e r n s . B r i t i s h Iron Age c o i n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s c r i b e d c o i n s should be minimal  o r n o n - e x i s t e n t a t Wheathampstead,  should be i n reasonable supply a t Braughing,  especially i n  the l a t e r pre-Roman phases, and a t C o l c h e s t e r should be more p l e n t i f u l , and r e f l e c t the predominance o f one r u l e r Cunebolinus. A f u r t h e r e x p e c t a t i o n from the c o i n f i n d s would be t h a t the o v e r a l l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the c o i n s would i n c r e a s e , as the area governed by one r u l e r expanded. Braughing  Coins o f the  r u l e r o r r u l e r s should have a f a i r l y  local  8. In t h e C l a s s i c a l world c o i n s f i r s t appeared about the 8th. c e n t u r y BC i n A s i a Minor. They were t e c h n i c a l l y and a r t i s t i c a l l y of high q u a l i t y , with a l i m i t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n and were almost c e r t a i n l y p r e s t i g e items. By the l a t e 1 s t . century BC coinage was i n everyday use i n the Roman world i n both h i g h and low v a l u e denominations. One p r i n c i p a l use was f o r army pay. In B r i t a i n a t t h i s p e r i o d low v a l u e p o t i n and bronze c o i n s were i n c i r c u l a t i o n , and t h i s suggests a more complex economy and s o c i e t y .  47 d i s t r i b u t i o n , w h i l e those o f Cunebolinus recovered from a much wider  should be  area.  There should a l s o be changes i n the grouping o f the d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s of coins, gold, s i l v e r , p o t i n bronze.  9  and  E a r l i e r c o i n s would tend t o be g o l d or s i l v e r ,  f o r use as p r e s t i g e items or payments among the  elite.  For t h i s p e r i o d t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n might i d e n t i f y p o s s i b l e c e n t r e s o f the e l i t e c l a s s .  As s o c i e t y became more  complex, low v a l u e c o i n s would appear, e i t h e r t o pay f o r subordinate l e v e l s e r v i c e , or or f o r use i n t r a d e and exchange.  At the same time the g o l d and s i l v e r  coinage  would tend t o c o n c e n t r a t e a t the c a p i t a l and r e g i o n a l c e n t r e s , the home base o f the k i n g and h i s  immediately  subordinate e l i t e group, d)  Brooches One  l a r g e f i n d has been p u b l i s h e d , 237 brooches  the 472 b u r i a l s a t King Harry Lane ( S t . Albans) Rigby  1989).  Of the 237,  from  (Stead and  50 were from c o n t e x t s t h a t can  be f i r m l y dated to the p e r i o d under study.  Only  thirty-  t h r e e brooches were r e c o v e r e d from d a t a b l e c o n t e x t s a t a l l the o t h e r  excavations.  manufactured  Some were imported,  and some were  locally.  9. P o t i n coinage was a low v a l u e u s u a l l y u n i n s c r i b e d c a s t t i n and bronze a l l o y coinage, o c c u r r i n g i n areas i n southern B r i t a i n , but w i t h the l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n a l o n g the Thames v a l l e y . When new they had a s i l v e r y appearance. They probably e v o l v e d from G a u l i s h types, which i n t u r n were d e r i v e d from the bronze coinage o f Massilia (Marseilles) ( A l l e n 1960:122).  48 In  g e n e r a l , w i t h i n c r e a s i n g s o c i a l complexity,  hypotheses  appear p o s s i b l e .  In one the  two  increasing  complexity and s i z e o f the s o c i a l u n i t , and the i n c r e a s e i n t r a d e might both be r e f l e c t e d i n i n c r e a s i n g v a r i e t y i n the types o f brooches used by d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s , and a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f p r e s t i g e imports.  With the  a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s , w h i l e p r e s t i g e imports would  still  be numerous, the v a r i e t y of types might be r e s t r i c t e d by sumptuary laws or customs.  C o n c e i v a b l y both  hypotheses  c o u l d be v a l i d , but at d i f f e r e n t time p e r i o d s .  For the  s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t a i n a t t h i s time the f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s i s c o n s i d e r e d more l i k e l y ,  i n p a r t because o f the f l u i d  r a p i d l y changing s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t for  new  and time  sumptuary customs t o become e s t a b l i s h e d .  The p a t t e r n should be a minimum o f v a r i e t y and at Wheathampstead, more at Braughing,  imports  and the most a t  Colchester. eJ.  JB.ur_i.als. P r i o r t o Caesar's i n v a s i o n s o f 55-54 BC, f l a t graves was  the normal r i t e .  inhumation i n  S h o r t l y a f t e r 55-54 BC,  cremation f o l l o w e d by b u r i a l i n a f l a t  grave w i t h some  grave goods became the u s u a l p r a c t i c e i n s o u t h - e a s t e r n Britain.  The e x c a v a t i o n s a t A y l e s f o r d  (Evans 1890), and  S w a r l i n g (Bushe-Fox 1925), e s t a b l i s h e d the type s i t e f o r this burial The  practice.  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the s p e c i f i c hypotheses  are t h a t  p r e - C a e s a r i a n Wheathampstead i s most u n l i k e l y t o have  49 a s s o c i a t e d cremation  burials.  Cremation b u r i a l s o f the  A y l e s f o r d - S w a r l i n g type and e l i t e b u r i a l s should be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Braughing s i t e . Prae Wood and Verulamium  ( S t . Albans) as a p o s s i b l e l a t e r r e g i o n a l  c e n t r e may have cremation  b u r i a l s o f the A y l e s f o r d -  Swarling type, and p o s s i b l y some middle l e v e l burials.  C o l c h e s t e r should have the r i c h e s t  b u r i a l s , as w e l l as cremation Swarling f)  elite elite  b u r i a l s o f the A y l e s f o r d -  type,  Earthworks From the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence  the main p a r t o f each  of the earthworks a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s study, b u i l t a t d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s , was b u i l t  although  i n a relatively  s h o r t space o f time, perhaps t e n t o f i f t e e n y e a r s .  In  g e n e r a l t h e i r s i z e would have r e q u i r e d a communal e f f o r t , e i t h e r v o l u n t a r y , o r a corvee.  Those a t Prae Wood ( S t .  A l b a n s ) , Braughing and C o l c h e s t e r are on the f l a n k s o f hills,  o r s p r e a d i n g out onto p l a i n s o r low p l a t e a u s .  As  group they d e f i n e an area r a t h e r than e n c l o s e i t . Wheathampstead's earthworks probably had a d e f e n s i v e purpose, but the impression a t the other s i t e s i s more o f stock e n c l o s u r e s , o r boundary d e l i n e a t i o n .  Those a t  Camulodunum may have made a statement o f p r e s t i g e , as wel as s e r v i n g f u n c t i o n a l purposes. I f earthworks f o r a l l these purposes, d e f e n s i v e , boundary markers, stock e n c l o s u r e , or a statement o f p r e s t i g e , were a common c u l t u r a l t r a i t throughout the  50 p e r i o d , then one h y p o t h e s i s  would be t h a t they  i n c r e a s e i n s i z e and complexity  with time.  functions are obviously d i f f e r e n t . defensive,  should  However t h e i r  Some a r e p u r e l y  some are j u s t p a r t o f the animal husbandry  system, some a r e boundary markers, and some have elements o f more than one f u n c t i o n . The  s p e c i f i c i m p l i c a t i o n s proposed a r e based on a  change i n the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . Wheathampstead enclosed  At the  area, where the s u r v i v i n g work was  s e c t i o n e d by Wheeler i n the 1930s, i t proved t o be a d i t c h 40m wide and 12m deep, w i t h the e a r t h and s p o i l  spread  mainly on the i n n e r l i p , w i t h only a s m a l l amount on the outer  l i p . T h i s suggests the Late Iron Age h i l l f o r t  l o c a l chiefdom, a d e f e n s i v e p e r i o d when Cassivellaunus sphere o f c o n t r o l while  structure, appropriate  of a  to a  was a g g r e s s i v e l y expanding h i s surrounded by h o s t i l e neighbours.  A f t e r h i s defeat by Caesar, the power s t r u g g l e i n southe a s t e r n B r i t a i n was i n i t i a l l y among s m a l l e r operating Rome.  groups,  i n p a r t under the p r o t e c t i o n o f t r e a t i e s  These had n e i t h e r the r e s o u r c e s ,  need f o r a d e f e n s i v e enclosures.  enclosure,  the time, nor the  but d i d need  With the supremacy o f Cunebolinus  by the beginning  with  stock established  o f the f i r s t century AD, and the founding  of a new c a p i t a l a t Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) , there were both the r e s o u r c e s  and the need t o b u i l d a massive s e r i e s  of earthworks, some d e f e n s i v e , and  some t o d e f i n e  territory  some t o demonstrate p r e s t i g e , as w e l l as the more  51 mundane requirement f o r stock c o n t r o l .  The i m p l i c a t i o n s  f o r t h i s s c e n a r i o are a d e f e n s i v e e n c l o s u r e i n the Wheathampstead phase, s t o c k c o n t r o l e n c l o s u r e s a t Prae Wood and S k e l e t o n Green, and boundary markers and p r e s t i g e monuments i n the Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) phase, w i t h some l e s s e r earthworks f o r stock enclosure' w i t h i n the boundary markers. £1_ Buildings For b u i l d i n g s the i m p l i c a t i o n s from the hypotheses are: (1)  I n c r e a s i n g s o c i a l complexity  from Wheathampstead  through Prae Wood, Verulamium, S k e l e t o n Green and Camulodunum should be r e f l e c t e d i n a wider range o f s i z e s and types o f d w e l l i n g , as a r e s u l t o f more s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and c l a s s e s i n s o c i e t y . (2)  At Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) and p o s s i b l y a t  Braughing and Verulamium  ( S t . A l b a n s ) , one o r more q u i t e  d i f f e r e n t h i g h s t a t u s b u i l d i n g s should appear as r o y a l residences.  52 VI.  THE SOURCES OF THE DATA  There are two p r i n c i p a l sources f o r the p e r i o d 55 BC to AD 43 i n B r i t a i n , the p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t s on the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d and the a n c i e n t l i t e r a r y sources. l.»  I!h^._Li±ej_-.ar„y SQU.r.C„e,3 In the p a s t t h e r e has been a g r e a t tendency  to regard  the l i t e r a r y sources as a c c u r a t e , and t o t r y t o f i t or match the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f a c t s t o the h i s t o r i c a l accounts.  A  match between the two sources has been r a r e , or i s made " o f t e n a t the c o s t o f severe d i s t o r t i o n "  (Megaw and Simpson  1979:347). How  'hard' i s the l i t e r a r y evidence?  I t was w r i t t e n  most commonly by people i n an e l i t e group, or by people a t t a c h e d t o the i n t e r e s t s o f an e l i t e group.  Much o f i t i s  f a v o u r a b l e o r unfavourable r e p o r t i n g , or o u t r i g h t propaganda, f o r or a g a i n s t a person or i n t e r e s t .  The  authors were often- completely u n c r i t i c a l i n u s i n g the work of e a r l i e r w r i t e r s , and v e r y f r e q u e n t l y gave no a t t r i b u t i o n f o r m a t e r i a l t h a t was o u t s i d e t h e i r p e r s o n a l knowledge. example Caesar's Gallic  For  Wars were probably intended t o  p r e s e n t him i n a f a v o u r a b l e l i g h t to the people, and p o s s i b l y the senate, i n Rome.  T a c i t u s ' work on A g r i c o l a ,  h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w , i s an eulogy, intended t o p r e s e n t a p i c t u r e o f a b r i l l i a n t and s e l f l e s s g e n e r a l , thwarted by a c r u e l and v i n d i c t i v e emperor.  A f u r t h e r problem i s t h a t  s t y l e was o f t e n regarded as more (Mann and Penman 1977:4-6).  important than content  53 Is the l i t e r a r y evidence then of any v a l u e to the archaeologist?  The answer i s probably "yes", but not as a  primary source of evidence.  In u s i n g the l i t e r a r y  the standard q u e s t i o n s must be asked, who f o r what purpose?  A contemporary  sources  wrote i t , when and  account by a p a r t i c i p a n t  i s l i k e l y t o be more a c c u r a t e about what he saw, thought, or what he b e l i e v e d he saw,  d i d or  d i d or thought, than an  account w r i t t e n tens or even hundreds o f y e a r s a f t e r the events.  Was  interest?  a " h i s t o r y " w r i t t e n t o promote or defend an  Can the r e l i a b i l i t y of the author be  a g a i n s t other n o n - l i t e r a r y  checked  evidence?  Probably the c h i e f v a l u e of the l i t e r a r y sources i s t h a t they can p r o v i d e a broad background,  as w e l l as  i n f o r m a t i o n or h i n t s on s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  organization,  r e l i g i o u s customs and r i t u a l s and other c u l t u r a l t r a i t s  that  may  leave l i t t l e or no t r a c e i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d .  One  caveat w i t h most o f the Roman and Greek l i t e r a r y  i s t h a t we  sources  do not have the o r i g i n a l s , but o n l y medieval  c o p i e s , o f t e n i n s e v e r a l v e r s i o n s , and f r e q u e n t l y or fragmentary.  incomplete  The e x c e p t i o n s are the i n t a c t , or  s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n t a c t i n s c r i p t i o n s t h a t have s u r v i v e d p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , monuments, a l t a r s and tombstones, the res gestae  divi  Augusti,  from such as  t o g e t h e r w i t h the o c c a s i o n a l  graffiti. In t h i s paper the l i t e r a r y sources w i l l be used o n l y as secondary evidence, and then p r i m a r i l y i n the d i s c u s s i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s to a m p l i f y or c l a r i f y the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  54 data.  In a few  evidence.  cases the l i t e r a r y evidence i s the  For example, Strabo's statement t h a t  s u i t a b l e f o r hunting"  only  "dogs  were p a r t of the e x p o r t s from B r i t a i n  i s the o n l y evidence f o r t h i s " f a c t "  (Strabo  IV,5,2).  I n s c r i b e d coinage has been e x t e n s i v e l y s t u d i e d reported.  D i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s as another source f o r w r i t t e n  evidence, mainly g i v i n g r u l e r s ' names, t i t l e s , i n c l u d e d w i t h the review and Chapter  and mints i s  e v a l u a t i o n o f the c o i n f i n d s i n  X.  A l i s t o f the l i t e r a r y sources,  with a b r i e f  d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r contents i s given 2_=  and  i n Appendix A.  Ihe„jy^haep lojgjcalJFtejc^&d, Obviously  l o c a t i o n and  the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  ' f a c t s ' , the  shape,size,  s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of a r t i f a c t s , structures  b u i l d i n g s are f a i r l y  'hard' evidence, p r o v i d e d  excavator has been s k i l f u l and archaeologist's  competent.  that  and the  However, the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the m a t e r i a l i s o f t e n  unavoidably q u i t e s u b j e c t i v e , depending on h i s 'school', h i s t h e o r e t i c a l , s c h o l a s t i c and  personal  biases.  and  Quite  o f t e n d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed c o n c l u s i o n s w i l l be drawn from the same s e t o f  'hard' a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f a c t s , as i n Hodder's  and B i n f o r d ' s disagreement over the approach (Hodder 1986:171).  Nevertheless,  a consensus or s i g n i f i c a n t m a j o r i t y be  "post-processual" i n the  long  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n can  run, often  reached. The  archaeological record,  f e a t u r e s , a r t i f a c t s and  i n a d d i t i o n to the normal  e c o f a c t s recovered  during  55 e x c a v a t i o n , may  include c e r t a i n a r t i f a c t s carrying  a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , f o r example i n s c r i b e d and c o i n s or o b j e c t s w i t h d e d i c a t o r y 3.  datable  inscriptions.  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Source M a t e r i a l (Monographs, A r t i c l e s  and  Eubj_ts.ai„imisl The m a t e r i a l used i n t h i s t h e s i s f a l l s broad c a t e g o r i e s .  Apart, from the  into several  literary-historical  sources d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 1 above, the f o l l o w i n g  sources  were used: a)  Excavation  r e p o r t s f o r the main s i t e s :  (1) Wheathampstead, Prae Wood, King Harry  Lane,  Verulamium, and Welwyn i n the St. Albans area, (2) S k e l e t o n Green, Gatesbury and Wickham H i l l i n the Braughing area. (3) Camulodunum, Sheepen and Gosbecks Farm i n the Colchester b)  area.  Excavation  r e p o r t s f o r a number o f minor p e r i p h e r e a l  s i t e s and e x c a v a t i o n s  have a l s o been u t i l i z e d .  Many of  these have been done by l o c a l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s o c i e t i e s , are r e p o r t e d b r i e f l y i n s l i g h t l y obscure county p u b l i c a t i o n s , but are f a r more r e c e n t than the main excavations c)  done i n the 1930s.  S p e c i a l i s t s t u d i e s on p o t t e r y , c o i n s , amphorae,  brooches, earthworks, b u i l d i n g s and d)  burials.  Recent works o f s y n t h e s i s or summary and review f o r  the p e r i o d and area b e i n g s t u d i e d .  As noted e a r l i e r  has been a r e v i s i o n i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the  Late  there  56 B r i t i s h Iron Age i n the l a s t t e n years or so.  Earlier  works have been r e f e r r e d t o , but used s e l e c t i v e l y when t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s a r e s t i l l These p r i n c i p a l  and only  valid.  sources are d i s c u s s e d and e v a l u a t e d at  more l e n g t h a t the a p p r o p r i a t e p o i n t s i n the t h e s i s . In answering the s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s most r e l i a n c e has been p l a c e d on the p r i n c i p a l  excavation  r e p o r t s , and the more r e c e n t a d d i t i o n a l work and r e e v a l u a t i o n done on the s i t e s , supplemented by s p e c i a l i s t monographs and a n a l y s e s on types o f a r t i f a c t s .  57  XII  .THE_.ilJiaLXSI.S.„..OZ„lH£..mT.A  The a n a l y s i s o f the evidence and data c o l l e c t e d has been d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r p a r t s .  The f i r s t  i n v o l v e d the  t a b u l a t i o n o f the data on a r t i f a c t s and f e a t u r e s and  summarized from the e x c a v a t i o n  reports.  abstracted  From an  examination and a n a l y s i s o f t h e t a b u l a t e d m a t e r i a l i n f e r e n c e s and c o n c l u s i o n s have been drawn. some extent  a subjective analysis.  T h i s was t o  The second was the  a n a l y s i s o f i n f o r m a t i o n from s p e c i a l i s t monographs and s t u d i e s on the f e a t u r e s , a r t i f a c t s and e c o f a c t s , and from the  i n f e r e n c e s and c o n c l u s i o n s drawn by the authors o f the  monographs. specialist  In some cases the excavator  a n a l y s i s , i n o t h e r s he has c a l l e d  s c h o l a r w i t h the a p p r o p r i a t e  from these  Chapters V I I I t o XV.  first  The i n f e r e n c e s and  two approaches are r e p o r t e d i n  The t h i r d approach was the a n a l y s i s o f  the m a t e r i a l i n the l i t e r a r y sources, XIV.  on another  e x p e r t i s e t o c a r r y out the  a n a l y s i s and draw t h e c o n c l u s i o n s . conclusions  has w r i t t e n the  reported  The f o u r t h was use o f some simple  i n Chapter  s t a t i s t i c a l methods  on the t a b u l a t e d data f o r c e r t a i n a r t i f a c t s , p r i n c i p a l l y t o make some i n t e r - s i t e  comparisons.  X_..Px.QbJ,..ejioLs._a? j t hL_ths--J3.a.t..a J  In g e n e r a l t h e r e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t m a t e r i a l from the s i t e s f o r s o p h i s t i c a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l o r mathematical treatment.  Some simple  broad brush s t a t i s t i c a l methods and  a n a l y s e s have been used w i t h the t a b u l a t e d data, and t h i s treatment i s reviewed b r i e f l y i n s e c t i o n 5 below.  Most o f  58 the a n a l y s i s has been based on l e s s r i g o r o u s and more s u b j e c t i v e a n a l y s e s based on l o g i c and common sense.  For  example, the Lexden Tumulus b u r i a l has a s u b s t a n t i a l number of grave goods which do not occur i n any other b u r i a l s o f the p e r i o d .  These grave goods a r e more numerous, r i c h e r and  show major Roman i n f l u e n c e . be i n f e r r e d from t h i s .  S e v e r a l u s e f u l hypotheses can  The b u r i a l i s probably t h a t o f a  paramount c h i e f i n the area, w i t h more r e s o u r c e s and t h e r e f o r e c o n t r o l over a wider t e r r i t o r y than h i s contemporaries,  and w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t l i n k s w i t h Rome, e i t h e r  p o l i t i c a l o r economic.  These hypotheses  a r e strengthened by  work on the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n s c r i b e d coinage, and the p r o p o r t i o n s o f imported p o t t e r y .  Many o f the f i n a l  c o n c l u s i o n s a r e based on t h i s type o f c o r r e l a t i o n o f data from d i f f e r e n t sources, i n which the cumulative weight o f evidence, r a t h e r than a s i n g l e p i e c e , suggests a probable answer. The major problems i n u s i n g both s u b j e c t i v e  analysis  and s t a t i s t i c a l methods w i t h the data t a b u l a t e d from the s i t e s and b u r i a l s a r e t h a t the sample,  statistically  speaking, i s t e r r i b l e , and t h a t f o r a number o f a r t i f a c t types the a c t u a l number i s v e r y s m a l l , i n the ones and twos, r a t h e r than the f i v e t o t e n r e q u i r e d i n each group f o r reasonable r e l i a b i l i t y .  At none o f the s i t e s was complete  e x c a v a t i o n e i t h e r contemplated  or p r a c t i c a b l e .  At none o f  the s i t e s were the e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s l o c a t e d i n accordance w i t h a predetermined  random sample s e l e c t i o n o f u n i t s .  At  59 St. Albans the e x c a v a t i o n s were made on and around s u b s t a n t i a l v i s i b l e f e a t u r e s , the earthworks.  At Braughing  and C o l c h e s t e r the e x c a v a t i o n s were made i n advance o f major p r o j e c t e d road improvements.  Although two seasons o f  e x c a v a t i o n were p o s s i b l e a t Braughing  and t e n y e a r s work was  done a t C o l c h e s t e r , t h e areas excavated were e s s e n t i a l l y l i m i t e d t o those l a t e r covered by the new road systems, r e p r e s e n t i n g l e s s than 1% o f the probable s i t e area. Since the o r i g i n a l e x c a v a t i o n s were completed and published , 1  t h e r e have been a number o f f u r t h e r s m a l l  e x c a v a t i o n s and surveys done, and p u b l i s h e d i n the l o c a l archaeological journals.  These have a m p l i f i e d , c o r r e c t e d  and r e - e v a l u a t e d the e a r l i e r p u b l i c a t i o n s , but have not i n g e n e r a l , extended the a r t i f a c t s . unexcavated,  the areas excavated  or t h e data base f o r  The major p a r t o f a l l the s i t e s remains  and w i t h t h e growth and development o f the  c i t i e s o f St. Albans and C o l c h e s t e r , these unexcavated are now l a r g e l y i n a c c e s s i b l e .  At Braughing  areas  a l i m i t e d amount  o f f u r t h e r work has been done, noted b r i e f l y i n the annual summaries, but i n d e t a i l i t remains unpublished. A further d i f f i c u l t y i s that at a l l three s i t e s there was  a major Roman o c c u p a t i o n l a t e r , o v e r l y i n g  p a r t s o f the Late I r o n Age s i t e .  significant  These Roman l e v e l s  o b v i o u s l y l i e above the Iron Age m a t e r i a l , and have 1. E x c a v a t i o n and p u b l i c a t i o n were done as f o l l o w s : - The St. Albans area i n 1930-34, p u b l i s h e d i n 1936, C o l c h e s t e r i n 1930-39, p u b l i s h e d i n 1947, Braughing i n 1971-72, p u b l i s h e d i n 1981, and King Harry Lane i n 1965-1970, p u b l i s h e d i n 1989.  60 g e n e r a l l y a t t r a c t e d the most a t t e n t i o n .  From r e c e n t  Bondages below Roman S t . Albans, i t has now  become obvious  t h a t a h i t h e r t o unsuspected and major Late Iron Age  s i t e of  the same g e n e r a l date as the adjacent Prae Wood s i t e u n d e r l i e s Roman S t . Albans.  A l l we have t o date i s a  t a n t a l i z i n g glimpse i n t o t h i s a r e a . The c o n c l u s i o n s drawn from both the s u b j e c t i v e and s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the data can thus o n l y be v e r y t e n t a t i v e and q u a l i f i e d , w i l l need support from  independent  sources, and w i l l c e r t a i n l y be s u b j e c t t o r e v i s i o n as m a t e r i a l comes t o l i g h t i n the next 2.  new  decades.  S e l e c t i o n of the Data The data from the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d s u i t a b l e f o r  a n a l y s i s and comparison classes.  can be grouped  i n t o a number o f  Those s e l e c t e d f o r study and a n a l y s i s are p o t t e r y ;  amphorae; c o i n s ; brooches; b u r i a l s ; and earthworks  and  buildings. Other f i n d s i n c l u d e d s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s of bone from domesticated s m a l l oxen, sheep, p i g , horse and dog.  Wild  animal bones were v e r y r a r e , o n l y a few r e d deer and fox bone fragments were found.  B i r d bones i n c l u d e d raven,  heron, buzzard and crow, t o g e t h e r w i t h a few from fowls.  domestic  At Camulodunum alone were l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of o y s t e r  s h e l l s reported.  At S k e l e t o n Green f i s h bones were  i d e n t i f i e d from e e l , roach and chub (freshwater f i s h e s ) , from f l o u n d e r s , p l a i c e and Spanish mackerel marine s p e c i e s ) .  F i s h bones may  ( e s t u a r y and  have been present a t  and  61 Camulodunum, but the e x c a v a t i o n  techniques a t t h i s 1947 d i g  may not have been s u f f i c i e n t l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d t o recover them.  A few g r a i n s o f emmer and s p e l t wheat, and s i x row  b a r l e y were recovered  from Skeleton  Green.  Three fragments  of g l a s s were found i n pre-conquest l e v e l s a t Camulodunum. G l a s s was not recorded  from the other  sites.  Because the  numbers o f these e c o f a c t s and a r t i f a c t s were s m a l l , and u s u a l l y not q u a n t i f i e d i n any c o n s i s t e n t manner, and because they d i d not a l l occur a t most s i t e s , they a r e not s u i t a b l e f o r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , and are o f l i m i t e d use f o r s u b j e c t i v e comparison a c r o s s  sites.  T h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e has  been noted i n the a n a l y s i s where r e l e v a n t . The  raw data on p o t t e r y , amphorae, c o i n s , brooches,  b u r i a l s , b u i l d i n g s and earthworks i s shown i n the t a b l e s i n the subsequent c h a p t e r s .  From these t a b l e s o f raw data,  v a r i o u s summary t a b l e s have been made t o f a c i l i t a t e both s u b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s o f the t a b u l a t e d m a t e r i a l , and s t a t i s t i c a l m a n i p u l a t i o n o f the data. The  l i m i t e d information  from the l i t e r a r y sources i s  d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y below, and reviewed and d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n chapter XIV. 3.  A n a l y s i s and Comparison of  the T a b u l a t e d Data  As noted e a r l i e r , t h i s a n a l y s i s done from an i n s p e c t i o n o f the t a b u l a t e d data,  i s more s u b j e c t i v e than a r i g o r o u s  s t a t i s t i c a l approach.  I t o f t e n uses p i e c e s o f evidence even  l e s s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d than those used i n the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis.  However, used w i t h due c a u t i o n ,  i t i s felt  that  62 the s u b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s i s as r e l i a b l e as the work, perhaps more so. fragmentary  statistical  I t uses a wide range o f o f t e n  sources, but by r i g o r o u s c r o s s - c h e c k i n g between  a l l the sources, and o n l y a c c e p t i n g f i r m i n f e r e n c e s when they are supported by the evidence from s e v e r a l sources, an a c c e p t a b l e degree of c r e d i b i l i t y should be  attained.  The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence from the t h r e e areas, St. Albans, Braughing  and C o l c h e s t e r , has been examined by  class  o f a r t i f a c t and f e a t u r e . Information r e l e v a n t t o t h i s t h e s i s , from the p e r i p h e r a l areas around  south-eastern  B r i t a i n , has been c o l l e c t e d from other e x c a v a t i o n r e p o r t s and monographs.  For example, the d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the  p e r i p h e r e a l areas o f c o i n s minted by the r u l e r s o f southeastern B r i t a i n ,  i s used i n examining  both the coinage,  trade and spheres o f i n f l u e n c e .  Caesar i s the p r i n c i p a l contemporary source, and t h e r e seems t o be no reason t o doubt the r e a l i t y o f h i s two i n v a s i o n s o f B r i t a i n , even though, u n l i k e the C l a u d i a n i n v a s i o n o f AD 43, t h e r e i s no a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence f o r the i n c u r s i o n s o f 55 and 54 BC. h i s evidence i s f i r s t hand.  He was  t h e r e i n person  T a c i t u s , probably the  and  second  most r e l i a b l e source, had second-hand but s t i l l q u i t e r e l i a b l e evidence. law, A g r i c o l a , who  He must have t a l k e d t o h i s f a t h e r - i n campaigned i n B r i t a i n f o r e i g h t  AD 78-85, and probably t o o t h e r v e t e r a n s .  seasons,  63 Evidence from other authors such as Horace, Strabo, Suetonius and F r o n t i n u s , and from the r e s gestae Augustae,  divi  i s p r i n c i p a l l y o f i n t e r e s t i n showing the probable  s t a t e o f p o l i t i c a l and d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s between Rome and B r i t a i n i n the y e a r s from 55 BC t o AD 43. A b r i e f summary o f the sources f o r the l i t e r a r y evidence i s g i v e n i n Appendix A. 5_. Jatatisjfeica,! Analyses, The raw data, as noted above, i s not any s o r t o f random sample.  At a l l three major l o c a t i o n s , C o l c h e s t e r , Braughing  and S t . Albans, s i t e s were excavated because they were a v a i l a b l e , and a t C o l c h e s t e r and Braughing major road works.  i n advance o f  The b u r i a l s were n e a r l y a l l chance f i n d s ,  made i n the course o f c i v i l e n g i n e e r i n g and m u n i c i p a l projects.  The o n l y two excavated completely, and i n a  planned manner by a r c h a e o l o g i s t s , are the King Harry Lane cemetery ( S t . Albans) and the Lexden tumulus A f u r t h e r problem the pre-conquest remains,  (Colchester).  i s t h a t a t a l l the t h r e e p r i n c i p a l  sites,  m a t e r i a l was o v e r l a i n by Roman o c c u p a t i o n  o f t e n o f a v e r y s u b s t a n t i a l nature.  Thus although  v e r y l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f a r t i f a c t s were recovered, f o r example over f o r t y tons o f p o t t e r y a t Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) , v e r y few a r t i f a c t s were found i n , or c o u l d be a s s i g n e d t o pre-conquest  levels.  In most cases t h i s has  g i v e n v e r y s m a l l sample s i z e s in, the raw data.  To h e l p  overcome t h i s d i f f i c u l t y , much o f the raw data has been regrouped  i n t o l a r g e r , but s t i l l  logical, units for  64 s t a t i s t i c a l analysis.  An a d d i t i o n a l problem w i t h the  ceramics i s the d i f f e r e n t methods used by the excavators t o r e p o r t the m a t e r i a l recovered.  For the imported p o t t e r y ,  a l l have r e p o r t e d the range o f types and v a r i a n t s found, and a l l except the Prae Wood e x c a v a t i o n have r e p o r t e d t h e i r estimated number o f v e s s e l s o f each type p r e s e n t .  For the  G a l l o - B e l g i c p o t t e r y Prae Wood uses the i n d e f i n i t e terms "numerous" o r "very numerous". For the n a t i v e p o t t e r y a l l except Gatesbury  (Braughing)  r e p o r t the range o f types and v a r i a n t s , but o n l y Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) r e p o r t s the number o f v e s s e l s . T h i s has r e s t r i c t e d the p o t t e r y a n a l y s i s and comparison,  t o a n a l y s i s and comparison o f the range o f types  and v a r i a n t s .  C o n s i d e r i n g the s e r i o u s weaknesses i n the  sample, t h i s a g g r e g a t i o n o f the data may i n f a c t produce more r e l i a b l e and u s e f u l d i a g n o s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n than a comparison o f a b s o l u t e  quantities.  Amphorae a r e somewhat s i m i l a r .  A l l s i t e s r e p o r t the  f u l l range o f c l a s s e s present a t the s i t e , but Prae Wood (St. A l b a n s ) , Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) and the b u r i a l s r e p o r t the a c t u a l number o f amphorae, w h i l e S k e l e t o n Green and Gatesbury gm.  (Braughing)  j u s t the t o t a l weight o f sherds i n  To make comparisons p o s s i b l e these weights have been  converted, as shown i n Table 5a, i n t o an estimated e q u i v a l e n t number o f v e s s e l s . Coins occur i n numbers a t o n l y two s i t e s , Green (Braughing)  Skeleton  and Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) .  Prae Wood  65 (St. Albans) produced one c o i n , and Wheathampstead, Gatesbury (Braughing) and the b u r i a l s none, except f o r a s m a l l hoard o f t e n c o i n s from one grave a t King Harry Lane (St. A l b a n s ) .  S t a t i s t i c a l use o f the c o i n s i s t h e r e f o r e  r e s t r i c t e d t o a comparison o f these two s i t e s . The sample o f brooches, T a b l e 7, i s o f d o u b t f u l v a l u e for s t a t i s t i c a l analysis.  King Harry Lane cemetery has  produced the l a r g e s t number, f o l l o w e d by S k e l e t o n Green and Camulodunum.  Some i n t e r e s t i n g comments on the r e l a t i v e  p r o p o r t i o n s o f imported and n a t i v e brooches have been made by Mackreth  (Mackreth 1981:131).  The p u b l i s h e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the modest and i n t e r m e d i a t e b u r i a l s was i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r s t a t i s t i c a l analysis.  The r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n o f the 472 b u r i a l s from  the King Harry Lane ( S t . Albans) s i t e , has p r o v i d e d more data.  Of t h e 472 graves excavated, 73 c o u l d be a s s i g n e d t o  the p e r i o d covered i n t h i s paper, and c o u l d be used i n i n t r a - s i t e comparisons, but not f o r i n t e r - s i t e work. The r i c h b u r i a l s can be compared on type, and range and number o f a r t i f a c t s . The s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s used f o u r t e c h n i q u e s : a)  Some e x p l o r a t o r y data a n a l y s i s (EDA) t o s e a r c h f o r  patterning. b)  I n t e r - s i t e comparisons o f s e l e c t e d a r t i f a c t t y p e s , t o  see i f changes  i n s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and economic  activity  between s i t e s can be i n f e r r e d from the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l record.  66 c)  Multi-variate analysis using  c l u s t e r i n g and dendrograms  f o r the complete assemblage o f s e l e c t e d a r t i f a c t s from the three key s i t e s t o see i f they show some s o r t o f r a n k i n g i n complexity, and i f so, whether t h i s r a n k i n g conforms t o the model, and agrees w i t h the s u b j e c t i v e  analysis.  67  1...  Introduction the p o t t e r y recovered from the v a r i o u s s i t e s f a l l s  two groups, types.  into  l o c a l and imported, and each group has two  There  i s l o c a l l y made p o t t e r y , e i t h e r i n l o c a l  shapes and s t y l e s , or made i n i m i t a t i o n o f the s t y l e s and shapes o f imported wares.  There  main types, a r e d g l o s s y Terra  i s imported p o t t e r y o f two  Sigillata  1  i n two v a r i e t i e s ,  and G a l l o - B e l g i c wares w i t h t h r e e v a r i a n t s . 2  Terra  Sigillata  Sigillata  G a u l i s h wares.  In T a b l e s 1 and 2 the  has been separated i n t o A r r e t i n e and South Very few p i e c e s o f South G a u l i s h ware were  found, most o f the Terra  Sigillata  the d i s c u s s i o n below the Terra as one group,  little  was recovered from s t r a t i f i e d d e p o s i t s f o r  the p e r i o d covered by t h i s paper. Terra  Very  coming from A r r e t i u m .  Sigillata  i s largely  In  treated  as South G a u l i s h ware occurs o n l y a t S k e l e t o n  Green, where i t i s r e p r e s e n t e d by three sherds from two 1. The b r i g h t r e d g l o s s y imported fineware t h a t occurs i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s a t post-conquest Romano-British s i t e s was t r a d i t i o n a l l y c a l l e d Samian ware i n B r i t i s h Archaeology. Today Terra Sigillata i s the p r e f e r r e d term. This s t y l e of p o t t e r y was o r i g i n a l l y made a t A r r e t i u m i n I t a l y , and has been c a l l e d A r r e t i n e ware. In the f i r s t c e n t u r y AD the o r i g i n a l A r r e t i n e ware was l a r g e l y r e p l a c e d by s u p e r i o r c o p i e s made i n South Gaul a t La Graufesenque and Montans. P r o d u c t i o n i n South Gaul s t a r t e d between AD 15-25. L a t e r other p r o v i n c i a l c e n t r e s i n A f r i c a and the E a s t attempted t o copy the ware, but w i t h l e s s success. 2. G a l l o - B e l g i c P o t t e r y was made i n t h r e e forms i n Northern Gaul, Terra Rubra w i t h an orange coated cream t o b u f f f i n i s h , Terra Nigra p o l i s h e d grey t o b l a c k v e s s e l s , and Terra Nigra p l u s a mica d u s t i n g t o s i m u l a t e metal v e s s e l s . T h i s p o t t e r y was shipped t o B r i t a i n b e f o r e the conquest, but Terra Rubra was out o f p r o d u c t i o n b e f o r e t h e 50s, and Terra Nigra by ca. AD 80 (Swan 1978:11).  68 vessels.  T h i s s c a r c i t y o f South G a u l i s h ware i s t o be  expected, as p r o d u c t i o n conquest.  o n l y . s t a r t e d a few y e a r s b e f o r e the  The three types o f G a l l o - B e l g i c p o t t e r y have been  grouped together information separation.  i n Tables  3 and 3a, as there i s not enough  i n some o f the e x c a v a t i o n  r e p o r t s t o make a  T h i s i s b e l i e v e d t o be reasonable,  as t o a  l a r g e extent p r o d u c t i o n  o f the v a r i a n t s was contemporaneous,  although  the p r o d u c t i o n  o f Terra  longer.  N a t i v e p o t t e r y , whether o f n a t i v e s t y l e o r n a t i v e  Nigra  l a s t e d a few years  c o p i e s o f imported s t y l e s has a l s o been grouped together i n the t a b l e s .  Native p o t t e r y from Wheathampstead had no  c o p i e s o f imported v e s s e l s .  At Prae Wood about one t h i r d o f  the l o c a l l y made p o t t e r y c o p i e d G a l l o - B e l g i c s t y l e s . Camulodunum and Skeleton Green, although  At  no d e t a i l e d  breakdown o f the p r o p o r t i o n s o f n a t i v e s t y l e and c o p i e s o f imported v e s s e l s f o r l o c a l l y made p o t t e r y i s g i v e n , an examination o f the p u b l i s h e d p r o f i l e s suggests t h a t more than h a l f the s t y l e s were c o p i e s o f imports. 2..«  Kojfce^jQ&jJae^^ The  raw data on p o t t e r y types and number o f v e s s e l s  from the e x c a v a t i o n  r e p o r t s has i n many cases tended t o g i v e  s m a l l or v e r y s m a l l numbers. difficulty,  much o f the raw data has been regrouped i n t o  l a r g e r , but s t i l l statistical  To h e l p overcome t h i s  l o g i c a l , u n i t s f o r both s u b j e c t i v e and  analysis.  T h i s has r e s t r i c t e d the p o t t e r y  69 a n a l y s i s and comparison,  t o a n a l y s i s and comparison o f the  range o f types and numbers o f v e s s e l s , r a t h e r than a v e s s e l by v e s s e l comparison a c r o s s s i t e s .  C o n s i d e r i n g the s e r i o u s  weaknesses i n the sample, d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter V I I , t h i s bunching o f the data w i l l  i n f a c t produce more r e l i a b l e and  u s e f u l d i a g n o s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n than a comparison o f a b s o l u t e quantities.  An a d d i t i o n a l problem w i t h the ceramics i s the  d i f f e r e n t methods used by the e x c a v a t o r s t o r e p o r t the material recovered.  For the imported p o t t e r y , a l l have  r e p o r t e d the range o f types and v e s s e l s found, and a l l except the Prae Wood e x c a v a t i o n have r e p o r t e d t h e i r estimated number o f v e s s e l s o f each type p r e s e n t .  For the  G a l l o - B e l g i c p o t t e r y Prae Wood uses the i n d e f i n i t e terms "numerous" o r "very numerous". For the n a t i v e p o t t e r y a l l except Gatesbury  (Braughing)  r e p o r t the range o f types and v e s s e l s , but o n l y Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) r e p o r t s t h e number o f v e s s e l s . For i n t e r - s i t e comparisons  the a b s o l u t e number o f  v e s s e l s o f each type appears t o be o f dubious v a l u e .  As  noted p r e v i o u s l y i n Chapter V I I , the percentage o f each  site  a c t u a l l y excavated i s s m a l l , and was not based on any sampling procedure. varied widely.  The a c t u a l a b s o l u t e area excavated  The area i n v e s t i g a t e d a t Camulodunum was  about one hundred times l a r g e r than the area excavated a t S k e l e t o n Green.  The a c t u a l number o f v e s s e l s r e c o v e r e d i s  most l i k e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e area excavated, and t o the  70 f o r t u i t o u s occurrence o f v e s s e l s i n a p a r t i c u l a r t r e n c h . The  range of v e s s e l types seems a much b e t t e r f i g u r e f o r  i n t e r - s i t e comparison.  Although i t i s s t i l l not a random  sample, a l a r g e enough area was  excavated at a l l s i t e s f o r  there t o be a f a i r chance t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f v e s s e l were recovered.  Quite  from r u b b i s h p i t s or t i p s , and representative  of most types  a number o f sherds were  these are more l i k e l y to  than sherds from a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y  site,  such as a k i t c h e n , an e l i t e d i n i n g room or a s l a v e ' s Therefore  be  hut.  f o r i n t e r - s i t e comparisons the range o f v e s s e l  types has been the f i g u r e used. For example at Skeleton  Green imported and  p l a t t e r s are e q u a l l y represented, o f the p l a t t e r s are imported.  l o c a l l y made  w h i l e at Camulodunum  One  93%  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f these  f i g u r e s might be t h a t Camulodunum was  a wealthier  community,  where the e l i t e c o u l d a f f o r d more l u x u r i o u s e a t i n g v e s s e l s . For i n t r a - s i t e comparisons the a c t u a l number of v e s s e l s probably has  some s i g n i f i c a n c e .  o f a t o t a l o f 114  For example, at Camulodunum  p l a t t e r s , most are imports, w h i l e from  d r i n k i n g v e s s e l s only 25%  are imports.  One  inference  360  from  t h i s might be t h a t h i g h s t a t u s people used imported p l a t t e r s and  d r i n k i n g v e s s e l s , w h i l e low  made d r i n k i n g v e s s e l s , and and  s t a t u s people used  locally  ate out o f bowls (see T a b l e s 3a  4a). In the p o t t e r y t a b l e s the l e f t h a n d f i g u r e under each  s i t e i s the number o f d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s f o r each type o f  71 v e s s e l , and the r i g h t h a n d f i g u r e i s the a c t u a l number o f v e s s e l s the excavators b e l i e v e d they had found.  For example  i n Table 1 f o r Camulodunum there are nine d i f f e r e n t  styles  o f A r r e t i n e v e s s e l s i n a t o t a l c o l l e c t i o n o f 26+ v e s s e l s . In Table 3 t h e r e are s i x t e e n d i f f e r e n t types o f p l a t t e r i n a c o l l e c t i o n o f 106.  The v e s s e l s were not complete i n  g e n e r a l , but enough v a r i e t i e s o f sherds were found f o r the number o f v e s s e l s t o be i n f e r r e d .  Where t h e r e i s an "x" i n  the t a b l e s , the i n f o r m a t i o n o r data were not recorded i n the published excavation report. Gatesbury,  With the e x c e p t i o n o f  o n l y p o t t e r y from s t r a t i f i e d d e p o s i t s which dated  p r i o r t o AD 43 has been used from Gatesbury,  i n t h i s paper.  The p o t t e r y  a s i t e adjacent t o S k e l e t o n Green, i s i n the  Henderson C o l l e c t i o n , made from a s e r i e s o f c a s u a l e x c a v a t i o n s by a l o c a l farmer, and has no exact provenance or c o n t e x t .  I t has not been used a t a l l i n the s t a t i s t i c a l  work, and o n l y w i t h c a u t i o n i n the other d i s c u s s i o n s . The Gatesbury  s i t e , from more r e c e n t work, was occupied both  b e f o r e and a f t e r the Roman conquest,  and the f i n d s c o u l d be  from e i t h e r p e r i o d . At Camulodunum and S k e l e t o n Green, f a r more p o t t e r y than t h a t l i s t e d here was recovered, but the b u l k o f i t was e i t h e r from u n s t r a t i f i e d and undatable d e p o s i t s , o r post conquest was  layers.  excavated.  At Camulodunum over f o r t y tons o f p o t t e r y  72 ZL,  IfflEPXJlLadJE^  T a b l e s 1 and 2 show the A r r e t i n e and South G a u l i s h v e s s e l s from each s i t e . practically  As would be expected, t h e r e i s  no South G a u l i s h , as i t was  p r o d u c t i o n u n t i l ca. AD  15-25.  not i n f u l l  In these two t a b l e s t h e r e  were too few v e s s e l s t o make a d e t a i l e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  into  the d i f f e r e n t v e s s e l types meaningful. Table 1. Imported P o t t e r y , A r r e t i n e (Number o f S t y l e s and V e s s e l s ) Type Camulo- GatesKing Prae SkelWheathampdunum bury Harry Wood eton stead Lane Green 0 0 A l l Types 9 26 7 14 1 1 4 7 6 12 (Number of S t y l e s and V e s s e l s ) Table 2. Imported P o t t e r y , South G a u l i s h Type  Camulo- Gatesdunum bury  A l l types  0  0  0  King Harry Lane 0 0  Prae Wood 0  0  SkelWheateton hampGreen.,, s t e a d 0 2 3 0 0  S e t t i n g a s i d e the Gatesbury m a t e r i a l f o r the reasons noted above, the Iron Age e n c l o s u r e at Wheathampstead produced no imports, the King Harry Lane s i t e one  vessel,  Prae Wood f o u r types of A r r e t i n e ware, S k e l e t o n Green s i x types of A r r e t i n e ware and two South G a u l i s h , and Camulodunum nine types of A r r e t i n e .  T h i s suggests an  i n c r e a s e i n both the v a r i e t y and volume o f imports w i t h i n c r e a s i n g p o l i t i c a l importance o f the s i t e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the hypotheses 4_.„.  .  This i s  and model i n Chapter XII.  Imp„Qj?ie„4^ The G a l l o - B e l g i c imports are shown i n d e t a i l  3, and i n a summarized form i n Table 3a below.  i n Table  73  Type  Camulo- Gatesbury dunum  Platters Cups Beakers Bowls Jars Stor. Jars Pedestals Jugs Flagons Mortaria  16 106 2 26 8 61 3 3 0 0 1 2 1 1 3 30 0 0 0 0  13 4 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0  TOTAL  34 229  22  T_ab.le_..__3.a, J  Type  122  Wheathampstead 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 14 ' 34^ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 5 11 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 0 2 2  Prae Wood 5 6 2 4 0 1 2 2 2  N N N N N N N N N N  36  33  N  52 174  ~9 12 6 2 4  N N N N N  Skeleton Green 64 15 60 14 14 34 2 2 7 14  33  N  52 174  71  _  0  0  S_umjmrjy .._I^^ J  Camulo- Gatesdunum bury  Platter 16 106 Cup/bkr/ped 11 88 Bowl/jar 3 3 Stor./mort. 1 2 Jug/flagon 3 30 TOTAL  62 12 47 0 1 0 0 0 0 0  Skeleton Green 15 64 8 21 6 39  King Harry Lane ~8" " 16 8 13 10 29 3 3 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 7 0 0  34 229  13 8 1 0 0  62 59 1 0 0  22 122  King Harry Lane 8 16 18 42 4 6 0 0 6 7 36  71  Prae Wood  Wheathampstead 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0  Eotea In making the summary Table 3a, types o f a r t i f a c t were combined as f o l l o w s . 1. Cups, beakers and p e d e s t a l s were made one type. Examination o f the e x c a v a t i o n r e p o r t s showed t h a t almost a l l the p e d e s t a l bases were q u i t e s m a l l , o b v i o u s l y from cup l i k e v e s s e l s . The three types can be c o n s i d e r e d as a group o f small d r i n k i n g or u t i l i t y v e s s e l s . 2. Bowls and j a r s were combined. Bowls and j a r s can be c o n s i d e r e d as food storage and p r e p a r a t i o n v e s s e l s , and a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be s i m i l a r types o f c o n t a i n e r s . 3. Storage and m o r t a r i a were lumped together, as a g e n e r a l c l a s s o f coarse domestic p o t t e r y . 4. Jugs and f l a g o n s were grouped, both b e i n g c o n t a i n e r s f o r liquids. 5. At Prae Wood the number o f v e s s e l s was recorded as "numerous", without s p e c i f i c numbers b e i n g g i v e n . The n o t a t i o n "N" has been used i n the t a b l e s t o i n d i c a t e t h i s . As w i t h the Terra G a l l o - B e l g i c imports.  Sigillata,  Wheathampstead produced no  S k e l e t o n Green shows the g r e a t e s t  74 range o f types, 52, w i t h King Harry Lane, Camulodunum and Prae Wood w i t h 36, 34 and 33 types r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The l a r g e  range at S k e l e t o n Green, w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l a r e a excavated  i s surprising.  Prae Wood and  One  possible explanation i s that  Camulodunum were both e x c a v a t i o n s done i n the  1930s, w h i l e S k e l e t o n Green was  excavated  i n 1971-72, some  t h i r t y f i v e years l a t e r , w i t h p o s s i b l y a g r e a t e r s u b d i v i s i o n of a r t i f a c t types.  An a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t t h i s  i s a r e a l d i f f e r e n c e between S k e l e t o n Green and the other sites.  One  i n t e r e s t i n g p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t i f , as  proposed  i n S p e c i f i c Hypothesis a) on page 32, S k e l e t o n Green was s i t e o f an agglomeration chiefdoms,  the  o f s m a l l and m i d d l e - s i z e d  then the wider range o f imported types  results  from the coming together of s e v e r a l groups w i t h somewhat d i f f e r e n t t a s t e s i n imported p o t t e r y types.  Prae Wood and  King Harry Lane are approximately contemporary, King Harry Lane may  although  date up t o ca. twenty y e a r s l a t e r ,  have a s i m i l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f types.  and  At a l l s i t e s p l a t t e r s  p l u s cups and beakers have both the widest range o f types and the l a r g e s t number o f v e s s e l s .  S k e l e t o n Green has f a r  more G a l l o - B e l g i c bowls and j a r s , both i n types and numbers, than any other 3 i t e . Gatesbury,  The Henderson C o l l e c t i o n  and adjacent s i t e , a l s o shows a preponderance of  p l a t t e r s and d r i n k i n g v e s s e l s . Gatesbury, discussion.  from  The G a l l o - B e l g i c wares from  w i t h some c a u t i o n , can be used i n t h i s Imports o f t h i s ware i n t o B r i t a i n  scarcely  continued i n t o B r i t a i n beyond ca. AD50 f o r Terra  Eubra  and  75 AD 70 f o r Terra  Nigi^a.  From other evidence the Gatesbury  s i t e appears t o have been unoccupied d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , hence the G a l l o - B e l g i c p o t t e r y would be from  and  pre-conquest  provenances. Jugs and f l a g o n s appear a t the f o u r key s i t e s . Camulodunum has t h r e e types, King Harry Lane s i x types, Prae Wood f o u r types and S k e l e t o n Green seven t y p e s .  As w i t h  p l a t t e r s and d r i n k i n g v e s s e l s S k e l e t o n Green has the greatest v a r i e t y . In the King Harry Lane cemetery  jugs and f l a g o n s appear  i n a l l grave types from modest t o r i c h , as do p l a t t e r s drinking vessels.  T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n suggests t h a t  and  imported  G a l l o - B e l g i c v e s s e l s were a v a i l a b l e to most members of t h i s community, a t l e a s t as grave goods.  At a l l s i t e s except  King Harry Lane, the numbers o f p l a t t e r s and v e s s e l s are about the same w i t h i n each s i t e .  drinking T h i s might  imply t h a t i f a person owned an imported p l a t t e r ,  he  probably had an imported d r i n k i n g v e s s e l as w e l l . From the types o f G a l l o - B e l g i c p o t t e r y found, i t i s obvious t h a t t h i s ware was f i n e tableware.  imported p r i m a r i l y i n the form of  At S k e l e t o n Green 20% of the imports were  j a r s and bowls, which were almost absent a t other s i t e s .  If  the occurrence o f t h i s p o t t e r y i n a l l l e v e l s o f b u r i a l at the King Harry Lane cemetery were d u p l i c a t e d among the l i v i n g , then the G a l l o - B e l g i c p o t t e r y would appear t o be a f a i r l y w i d e l y used modest p r e s t i g e item. some a c c e s s to i t .  A l l the e l i t e  S k e l e t o n Green i s anomolous i n the  had group  76 w i t h the wide range o f types present, and t h i s may i n d i c a t e a more mixed and l e s s homogeneous s o c i e t y than a t Prae Wood and  Camulodunum.  An a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t the  assemblage from S k e l e t o n Green i s from two d i f f e r e n t periods.  From other evidence  i t i s known t h a t the s i t e was  p a r t i a l l y abandoned from c a . AD 20 t o AD 35 ( P a r t r i d g e 1981:32).  Thus the g r e a t e r v a r i e t y may r e p r e s e n t changes i n  imported p o t t e r y s t y l e s between the p r e - and p o s t abandonment stages. i n Chapter  From the evidence o f coinage, d i s c u s s e d  X below, i t i s probable t h a t Camulodunum was a  more c e n t r a l i z e d s o c i e t y . imports t h e r e may  The a p p a r e n t l y narrower range o f  r e f l e c t a t i g h t e r c o n t r o l o f imports.  Prae Wood appears  t o predate S k e l e t o n Green, and i s l e s s  a c c e s s i b l e t o t r a d e r s and imports. this site  T h i s c o u l d e x p l a i n why  should have l e s s v a r i e t y . i n i t s imports  Skeleton Green.  than  In g e n e r a l the evidence from the G a l l o -  B e l g i c p o t t e r y suggests t h a t Prae Wood was a somewhat l e s s p o l i t i c a l l y complex s o c i e t y than the other two, and t h a t Camulodunum was a more c e n t r a l i z e d s o c i e t y than S k e l e t o n Green.  At S k e l e t o n Green the wider v a r i e t y o f types  probably r e f l e c t s both a more d e t a i l e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by the excavator, and a l e s s homogeneous s o c i e t y .  fL  Eatly.e.JPQttery The  l o c a l l y made p o t t e r y excavated  i s shown i n d e t a i l  i n Table 4, and i n summary form i n Table 4a.  The data i n  these t a b l e s i s l e s s complete than i n the t a b l e s f o r t h e imported p o t t e r y .  At S k e l e t o n Green and Wheathampstead o n l y  77 the range o f types was r e p o r t e d , and not the a b s o l u t e number of v e s s e l s .  With the Henderson c o l l e c t i o n from  Gatesbury  only the a c t u a l numbers o f v e s s e l s were l i s t e d .  For Prae  Wood the range o f types was g i v e n , but the number o f v e s s e l s was j u s t g i v e n as numerous.  At Camulodunum the range o f  types was g i v e n , but f o r some types o f v e s s e l the numbers present were g i v e n as numerous o r v e r y numerous, r a t h e r than i n a b s o l u t e numbers. complete  Only the King Harry Lane s i t e , the  e x c a v a t i o n o f a cemetery,  has r e p o r t e d the f u l l  range o f types and numbers p r e s e n t . The n a t i v e p o t t e r y from Gatesbury has not been used i n the d i s c u s s i o n o r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s .  With no  i t c o u l d e q u a l l y w e l l be p r e - o r post-conquest.  provenance Wheat-  hampstead has a s m a l l c o l l e c t i o n o f b a s i c v e s s e l s , beakers, bowls and storage v e s s e l s . of e l i t e p o t t e r y .  cups,  There i s no s u g g e s t i o n  At King Harry Lane cemetery  about 70% o f  the j a r s were used f o r cremations, as were some beakers.  Type  Camulo- Gatesbury dunum  3 8 Platters 3 Cups 2 Beakers 8 269 Bowls 14\ 941 Jars 00J 00/ 3 NN S t o r . Ves. 0 Pedestals 0 2 15 Jugs 3 7 Flagons Cook. Pots 10 102 3 18 Urns 2 2 Lids 0 0 Crse. Bowls k  TOTAL  50 518  0 0 0 0 0 0  King Harry Lane 8 9 5 0 2 2 7 11 27 53\ 8 9 00J 18 30 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 7 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0  X  81  X  0 X X X  0 X  54  85  Prae Wood  Skeleton Gre_en_ 16 X 2 X 15 X 88\ X 00J X X 20 27 X 1 X 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 X 11 X  10 6 6 13 11 1 6 0 0 3 3 0 0  N N N N N N N N 0  59  N 197  X X  0 0  X  Wheathampstead 0 0 1 X 0. 0 17\ x 00J X 3 x 4 x 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25  x  78  Tj|j5le_ 4a  StimigQaxXx-..lJa,t, iye,JgQ^k&ej^  Type  Camulo- Gatesdunum bury  Prae Wood  0 0  5 15 53 0 0  King Harry Lane 8 9 13 29 26 39 0 0 7 8  Platters Cups/bkr/pd Bowls/jars Stor./cook Jugs/flag.  ~3 8~ 10 272 17 112 13 102 5 22  X  10~ 18 27 4 0  N N N N 0  TOTAL  48 516  X  73  54  59  N 180  x X  85  Skeleton Green 16 X 44 X 99 X 20 X 1 X X  Wheathampstead 0 0 5 x 17 x 3 x 0 0 25  x  Moteg 1. In t a b l e s 4 and 4a "N" means numerous and "x" means the i n f o r m a t i o n was not g i v e n i n the p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l . 2. In making the summary i n Table 4a, l i d s were dropped from the t a b l e . The e x c a v a t i o n r e p o r t s comment t h a t most were made from broken p i e c e s o f pot, and they do not appear very u s e f u l d i a g n o s t i c a l l y . Other groups were combined as i n Table 3a. As w i t h the G a l l o - B e l g i c wares, S k e l e t o n Green has by f a r the g r e a t e s t v a r i e t y o f n a t i v e p o t t e r y types, except f o r jugs and f l a g o n s .  A l l three s i t e s ,  Camulodunum,  Prae Wood  and S k e l e t o n Green have a good range o f bowls, j a r s , and storage v e s s e l s .  cooking  T h i s r e s u l t might be a n t i c i p a t e d , as  the r e l a t i v e l y cheap l o c a l l y made coarsewares would tend t o dominate i n the k i t c h e n o p e r a t i o n s , f o r s t o r i n g and cooking food.  Camulodunum  has o n l y a s m a l l range o f n a t i v e  p l a t t e r s , but t h i s i s o f f s e t by i t s much more e x t e n s i v e range o f imported  platters.  Some i n t e r e s t i n g comparisons are shown i n Table 4b, where the range o f types f o r G a l l o - B e l g i c imports and l o c a l l y made p o t t e r y , and the t o t a l o f types are shown f o r each s i t e .  Table 4c shows the same data, but w i t h the  number o f s t y l e s i n each type a t the s i t e converted i n t o a  79 percentage o f the t o t a l range o f types and s t y l e s a t t h a t site.  T h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n i n percentages tends t o compensate  f o r p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between excavators i n the number o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s they used f o r each type o f v e s s e l . these two t a b l e s , bowls,  For  j a r s and storage v e s s e l s have been  combined i n t o one type. Table 4b. Summary, G a l l o - B e l g i c and N a t i v e P o t t e r y Types f o r the Key S i t e s Type. Platters Cups/bkrs. Bowls/jars Jugs/flag.  Camiilodiinum GJB NAT 16 3 11 10 4 30 3 5  Pxae__Mo_o_d GE MAT 9 10 12 18 8 31 4 0  SJifi.l£tJ3n_.Grs.s.n SB MAT 15 16 14 44 16 119 7 1  Total  34  33  59  52  P.Ea.e._.Wo_o_d GB .J&AI .TOT 17 27 21 37 30 33 24 53 42 0 12 4  QB 29 27 31 13  48  180  IabJLe__j4j^^  Type. Platters Cups/bkrs. BowIs/jars Jugs/flag. Total  Camu1odunum GB JHA1_ TOT 47 23 6 32 26 21 12 63 41 9 10 10 100  100  100  100  100  100  100  J1AX. 9 24 66 1  JG.r.e TOT 13 25 58 4  100  100  Looking a t the t o t a l s i n Table 4c f i r s t , Camulodunum has the h i g h e s t percentage o f p l a t t e r s i n i t s t o t a l p o t t e r y assemblage, and they are predominantly imported t y p e s . S k e l e t o n Green has the fewest p l a t t e r types, and from Table 4b about 50% a r e imported.  Prae Wood has about the same  percentage o f p l a t t e r s as Camulodunum, but from Table 4b only about 50% are imported.  I f the use o f p l a t t e r s i s  taken as a mark o f s t a t u s and wealth, a reasonable  80 assumption, then Camulodunum appears t o be a wealthy and high status centre.  For S k e l e t o n Green and Prae Wood the  evidence i s somewhat c o n t r a d i c t o r y .  S k e l e t o n Green has a  lower percentage o f p l a t t e r types i n i t s t o t a l  assemblage  than Prae Wood, but an equal p r o p o r t i o n are imports. A g a i n s t t h i s S k e l e t o n Green has the h i g h e s t percentage o f bowls and j a r s , and i f some f i n e bowls were an a l t e r n a t i v e food c o n t a i n i n g v e s s e l , then the percentage o f e l i t e tableware would be q u i t e s i m i l a r a t a l l t h r e e s i t e s .  One  i n f e r e n c e c o u l d be t h a t S k e l e t o n Green had a l e s s homogeneous e l i t e group, s t i l l  r e l a t i v e l y wealthy, but u s i n g  a mixture o f imported p l a t t e r s and imported bowls as food s e r v i c e or p e r s o n a l e a t i n g v e s s e l s .  Prae Wood had an e l i t e  group, but they c o u l d not a f f o r d , or perhaps o b t a i n , the wider range o f imports. D r i n k i n g v e s s e l s a r e a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f the t o t a l assemblage  f o r Prae Wood, w h i l e f o r Camulodunum and S k e l e t o n  Green they a r e about the same.  The f i g u r e f o r Prae Wood i s  h i g h e r l a r g e l y because the f i g u r e f o r j u g s and f l a g o n s i s lower than Camulodunum.  Without t h i s d i s t o r t i o n , a l l s i t e s  would have about the same percentage o f d r i n k i n g v e s s e l s , about 2 5 % . 3  Jugs and f l a g o n s are p r o b a b l y a marker f o r  3. For some i n t e r - s i t e comparisons the percentages i n T a b l e 4c are used, t o minimize the e f f e c t s o f the d i f f e r e n t d e t a i l i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems used by each e x c a v a t o r . For i n t r a - s i t e comparisons, Table 4b, the a c t u a l range o f s t y l e s f o r each type i s used, on the reasonable assumption t h a t f o r t h e i r own s i t e the e x c a v a t o r s are c o n s i s t e n t . T a b l e 4b i s used when comparing the p r o p o r t i o n s o f imports t o n a t i v e p o t t e r y f o r any one type o f v e s s e l , i n both i n t e r - s i t e and i n t r a - s i t e comparisons.  81 modest t o h i g h s t a t u s e l i t e groups, and the numbers from Table 4b suggest more e l i t e a c t i v i t y a t Camulodunum and Skeleton Green.  From T a b l e 4b, l o o k i n g a t each s i t e ,  Camulodunum has about 50% imported d r i n k i n g v e s s e l types, w h i l e Prae Wood and S k e l e t o n Green have 40% and 24% respectively.  As w i t h the p l a t t e r s the evidence from the  cups and beakers suggests t h a t Camulodunum was w e a l t h i e r and of h i g h e r s t a t u s . With bowls, j a r s and s t o r a g e v e s s e l s , the k i t c h e n end of the spectrum, Camulodunum and Prae Wood have j u s t over 40%, w h i l e S k e l e t o n Green has 58% o f the t o t a l p o t t e r y assemblage  i n t h i s form.  However, c o n s i d e r i n g j u s t the  imports, which are more l i k e l y t o be tablewares, S k e l e t o n Green has 31% o f i t s import assemblage  i n bowls and j a r s ,  a g a i n s t 24% f o r Prae Wood and 12% f o r Camulodunum. p o s s i b i l i t y , as suggested above,  One  i s t h a t S k e l e t o n Green used  both bowls and p l a t t e r s f o r e a t i n g d i s h e s . fiL  CJDJXQIUJSJ^^^  D e s p i t e some anomalies and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s the p o t t e r y data tends t o support the s p e c i f i c hypotheses and model proposed i n Chapter V. Terra  Sigillata  The v e r y s m a l l group o f imported  shows the most v a r i e t y a t Camulodunum,  somewhat l e s s a t S k e l e t o n Green and Prae Wood, and i s not r e p r e s e n t e d a t Wheathampstead.  Similarly Gallo-Belgic  imports do not appear a t Wheathampstead, but are w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d a t Camulodunum, Prae Wood and S k e l e t o n Green. Assuming  t h a t p l a t t e r s and imported d r i n k i n g v e s s e l s are  82 markers f o r the presence o f an e l i t e group, then a l l these three s i t e s have evidence f o r an e l i t e .  The data from both  the G a l l o - B e l g i c imports and the n a t i v e p o t t e r y from S k e l e t o n Green shows a wider range o f types than the o t h e r sites.  Two e x p l a n a t i o n s a r e p o s s i b l e .  S k e l e t o n Green,  The f i r s t  i s that at  a modern e x c a v a t i o n , the t y p o l o g y and  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system used was more d e t a i l e d than a t the pre-war e x c a v a t i o n s a t Camulodunum and Prae Wood.  The  second p o s s i b i l i t y , which may s t i l l be v a l i d even i f the first  i s p a r t l y c o r r e c t , i s t h a t the s o c i e t y o f S k e l e t o n  Green was more heterogeneous,  b e i n g made up o f a  c o n f e d e r a t i o n o f the f i v e t r i b e s mentioned  by Caesar, the  Cenimagni,  and Cassi.  Segontiari,  Ancalites,  Bibroci,  This  c o n f e d e r a t i o n c e n t r e would tend t o show c u l t u r a l t r a i t s and p r e f e r e n c e s o f a l l f i v e groups, g i v i n g more v a r i e t y i n the a r t i f a c t s , both i n those made l o c a l l y and i n the imports. The p r o p o r t i o n o f n a t i v e t o imported types goes from about 46% imported types a t Camulodunum, 38% imported types at Prae Wood, 23% imports a t S k e l e t o n Green, Wheathampstead. p a r t l y because  t o none a t  The p r o p o r t i o n f o r S k e l e t o n Green i s low, o f i t s l a r g e range o f n a t i v e t y p e s .  In  a b s o l u t e terms S k e l e t o n Green has more v a r i e t y o f G a l l o B e l g i c imports than Prae Wood, 52 t o 33.  C o n s i d e r i n g the  f i g u r e s as a whole, the i n f e r e n c e i s f o r an i n c r e a s i n g and more complex t r a d e w i t h Roman Gaul. At Camulodunum, Prae Wood and S k e l e t o n Green some l o c a l l y made p o t t e r y c o p i e d imported forms and s t y l e s .  Some  83 o f the c o p i e s are e x c e l l e n t .  T h i s i s most marked a t  Camulodunum. T h i s i m p l i e s both trade and c u l t u r a l influences,  and a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d s o c i e t y w i t h  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n the manufacture o f p o t t e r y .  84  Amphorae a r e found both i n the domestic and communal areas o f t h e p r i n c i p a l  s i t e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s paper, and  associated with b u r i a l s . the  In t h i s chapter o n l y amphorae from  s i t e s i n g e n e r a l a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n the a n a l y s i s .  Amphorae from b u r i a l s a r e d i s c u s s e d w i t h other grave goods i n Chapter XII, ANALYSIS OF THE BURIALS. The amphorae r e c o v e r e d from the f i v e s i t e s and the King Harry Lane cemetery are shown i n d e t a i l i n T a b l e 5, and i n summary i n T a b l e 5a. number o f d i f f e r e n t  The amphorae were c l a s s i f i e d under a  systems i n the e x c a v a t i o n r e p o r t s .  To  make comparisons p o s s i b l e , a l l the amphorae have been i d e n t i f i e d and r e - c l a s s i f i e d  i n t o the system o f 66 c l a s s e s  proposed by Peacock and W i l l i a m s (Peacock and W i l l i a m s 1986).  The range o f dates g i v e n f o r the p e r i o d i n which the  amphorae were produced and used c o u l d be i n e r r o r by a few years, but the mid-range  dates a r e q u i t e r e l i a b l e .  amphorae may t u r n up re-used i n l a t e r  Early  contexts.  As w i t h the p o t t e r y t h e r e are d i f f e r e n c e s i n the methods used by t h e v a r i o u s e x c a v a t o r s f o r r e p o r t i n g amphorae.  A l l s i t e s r e p o r t the f u l l range o f c l a s s e s  p r e s e n t , but Prae Wood ( S t . A l b a n s ) , Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) and the b u r i a l s r e p o r t the a c t u a l number o f amphorae, w h i l e S k e l e t o n Green and Gatesbury (Braughing) j u s t t h e t o t a l weight o f sherds i n gm.  In T a b l e 5a, t o make  comparisons p o s s i b l e these weights have been converted, as  85 shown i n the f o o t n o t e t o t h e t a b l e , i n t o an estimated e q u i v a l e n t number o f v e s s e l s .  EquivalClass & Content .jeirt. 3 Italy Dres.1A (wine) Dres.1BL 4 Italy Cam 181/ (wine) 5 Italy Dres.lC (wine) Dres.6 8 Apulia (wine) 9 Rhodian Cam 184 (wine) Dres.2-4 10 I t a l y Spain Cam 182 Cam 183 (wine) 15 Spain Cam 185A (syrup) 16 Spain Drs.7-11 (fishsauce) Cam 186A 17 Spain (fishsauce) Dres.38 18 Spain (fishsauce) Dres.25 24 Spain (olive o i l ) Dres.20 25 Spain (olive o i l ) 38 A l g e r i a Dres.30 (oil)  Date  Camu  130-50BC  0  75-10BC  5  125-75BC  0  Gates- Prae S k e l King bury Wood Grn. 0 0 15650 > 0  176 > 0  0  0  J  150BCAD100 0  0  0  1800 0  25BC-125AD 1  0  0  0  25BC-150AD 3  0  0  1446 1  1  0  0  0  1  25BC-AD100 0  0  0  1665  1  25BC-AD100 1  404  0  0  0  1-2 Cen AD 0  67  0  0  0  15BC-1C.AD 0  0  1  0  0  30BC-4C.AD 2  8121  0  448  1  3-4 C. AD  566  0  0  0  50BC-AD50  0  0  Rates. 1. To overcome the problem o f the Gatesbury and S k e l e t o n Green f i g u r e s i n Table 5 b e i n g i n weight o f sherds, f o r Table 5a sherd weights were converted t o an e q u i v a l e n t number o f amphora as d e s c r i b e d i n f o o t n o t e l . 1  1. The s t u d i e s by Chase on e s t i m a t i n g whole v e s s e l numbers, weight o r c a p a c i t y from sherd data a r e not o f any a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s case (Chase 1985). In h i s s t u d i e s v a r i o u s types o f pot were d e l i b e r a t e l y broken, and an attempt was made t o c o r r e l a t e v e s s e l p r o p e r t i e s w i t h sherd p r o p e r t i e s . Some c o r r e l a t i o n s were u s e f u l , but v e s s e l weight v e r s u s sherd weight was not, as e s s e n t i a l l y a l l the sherds were recovered from each pot broken. There was n o t h i n g t o c o r r e l a t e . An e m p i r i c a l f i g u r e has been used f o r Table 5a. On the b a s i s t h a t an average empty amphora weighs 10 t o 20 kg, and  86 2. As no amphorae were found a t Wheathampstead, no l i s t i n g f o r t h i s s i t e has been shown i n Table 5. I t i s i n c l u d e d i n the summary t o r e c o r d the absence o f amphorae. XEJ2I&J2&J.  Peacock Class  Camulo- Gatesbury dunum  3-5 8 9 10 15 16 17 18 24 25 38  5 0 1 3 1 0 1 0 0 2 0  TOTAL  13  Sx^mma,rj^„.,AroPllQXae  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0  Skeleton Green 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0  Wheat hampstead 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1  5  0  Prae Wood  3 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 1  King Harry Lane 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0  8  4  The numbers and v a r i e t i e s  o f amphorae i n c r e a s e s from  none a t Wheathampstead, t o one type a t Prae Wood ( S t . A l b a n s ) , f i v e a t S k e l e t o n Green (Braughing) and s i x different  types a t Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) . 2  one type from Spain ( o l i v e o i l ) . e a r l y type from I t a l y  Prae Wood has  S k e l e t o n Green has one  (wine), one l a t e r one from  (wine), one l a t e r one from Spain o r I t a l y  Italy  (wine), one l a t e r  one from Spain ( f i s h sauce), and one l a t e one from Spain (olive o i l ) . from I t a l y  Camulodunum has f i v e amphorae o f e a r l y type  (wine), which Peacock c o n s i d e r s may have been  w i t h the assumption t h a t w i t h l a r g e l y s h a t t e r e d v e s s e l s from r u b b i s h p i t s and dumps, l e s s than h a l f the sherds w i l l be recovered, the f o l l o w i n g c o n v e r s i o n s were used: Up t o 7,500 gm, 1 amphora 7,500 t o 15,000 gm, 2 amphorae Over 15,000 gm 3 amphora. 2. Four from the King Harry Lane cemetery are l i s t e d here but d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y under b u r i a l s .  87 reused  (Haselgrove 1987:168-70, Peacock 1971), one l a t e  Rhodian amphora (wine), t h r e e l a t e r I t a l i a n or Spanish ones (wine), one l a t e r one from Spain (sweet  s y r u p ) , one l a t e one  from Spain ( f i s h sauce), and two l a t e ones from Spain  (olive  oil). The  d a t i n g o f the amphorae can most e a s i l y be seen i n  t a b u l a r form. Table 5b.  Origin  Contents and Dates o f Amphorae  Site.  Num.. 5 1 2 1 1 3  _C.l_a.s_a 4 15 25 17 9 10  Origin Italy Spain Spain Spain Rhodes Italy  Gojit.ejii.s_ Wine Syrup Olive o i l F i s h sauce Wine Wine  75BC-10BC 50BC-AD50 30BC-4th c AD 25BC-AD100 25BC-AD125 25BC-AD150  Prae Wood  1  24  Spain  Olive o i l  15BC-lst c AD  S k e l e t o n Green 1 1 1 1 1  8 4 25 16 10  Apulia Italy Spain Spain Italy  Wine Wine Olive O i l F i s h Sauce Wine  150BC-AD100 75BC-10BC 30BC-4th c AD 25BC-AD100 25BC-AD150  Camulodunum  Site  Camulodunum  XaJal.e___.c___  .G.ha_r___.._oX.A^  __laaaJ_JE_fi  125_J£fiL  4  <  15 25 17 9 10 Prae Wood  15. <  24  S k e l e t o n Gr. 8 4 25 16 10  5_L  BC< >AD 25 jgL..„25___..4j5_ >  < < < < <  <  <  < < <  >  88 From the amphorae t h e r e seems t o be a marked i n c r e a s e i n trade i n e x o t i c and luxury c o m e s t i b l e s from the Prae Wood site  ( S t . A l b a n s ) , t o S k e l e t o n Green, and then  i n c r e a s e a t Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) . luxury food and d r i n k was imported,  another  A greater v a r i e t y of  and was drawn from more  sources, I t a l y , Spain and Rhodes. The i n c r e a s i n g v a r i e t y o f types from none a t Wheathampstead, one a t Prae Wood, f i v e a t S k e l e t o n Green and s i x a t Camulodunum suggests sophistication.  i n c r e a s i n g wealth and  S i m i l a r l y the i n c r e a s e i n the v a r i e t y o f  the c o n t e n t s , and the number o f p o i n t s o f o r i g i n i m p l i e s s u b s t a n t i a l l y g r e a t e r t r a d i n g a c t i v i t y w i t h a wide geographic  area.  middlemen i n Gaul.  Most o f the amphorae probably came through The amphorae from Spain may have come  from the A t l a n t i c r a t h e r than the Channel p o r t s o f Gaul, e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or through  the B r i t i s h p o i n t o f e n t r y a t  Hengistbury. T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the amphorae from the t h r e e  sites  appears t o answer the s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n d) on page 36, and conforms t o the model. The amphorae show i n c r e a s i n g t r a d e between the Roman world and B r i t a i n between the mid f i r s t c e n t u r y BC and the conquest  i n AD 43.  89 X 1_.  ANALYSIS OF THE  COINS AND  COIN MOULDS  Coins Coins occur i n numbers a t o n l y two s i t e s , S k e l e t o n  Green (Braughing) and Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) .  Prae Wood  (St. Albans) produced one c o i n , and Wheathampstead and Gatesbury  (Braughing) none.  The b u r i a l s y i e l d e d none,  except f o r t e n B r i t i s h bronze c o i n s from one grave i n the King Harry Lane cemetery  a t S t . Albans.  Inter-site  s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the c o i n s i s t h e r e f o r e not p r a c t i c a b l e or meaningful, and even f o r comparison two s i t e s simple i n s p e c t i o n o f the t a b l e s seems  of these  adequate.  The c o i n s r e c o v e r e d are shown i n d e t a i l i n Table 6 below, and i n summary i n Table 6a. 1. Mack no. r e f e r s t o the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r B r i t i s h Iron Age coinage developed by R.P. Mack (Mack 1964). Coinage was r e p o r t e d by a number o f o l d e r systems i n the e x c a v a t i o n r e p o r t s , but has a l l been converted t o the Mack numbers t o f a c i l i t a t e comparisons. 2. At Prae Wood and Camulodunum the s o u t h - e a s t e r n i n s c r i b e d coinage was grouped a c c o r d i n g t o i n s c r i p t i o n s . I have not found the i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n the e x c a v a t i o n reports s u f f i c i e n t l y c l e a r to allow c l a s s i f i c a t i o n into the Mack numbers, without expert h e l p . 3. Because o f the wide v a r i a t i o n i n the numbers of c o i n s recovered from the d i f f e r e n t s i t e s , a summary Table 6a has been made to s i m p l i f y the s u b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s . 4. From other evidence Tasciovanus i s thought t o have r e i g n e d from about 20 BC t o AD 5-10, and Cunebolinus from about AD 5-10 t o AD40-41. 5. The mark * i n d i c a t e s other B r i t i s h k i n g s or t r i b e s who i s s u e d coinage. In g e n e r a l t h e i r t e r r i t o r y was adjacent to south-east B r i t a i n , and they had a common border, except f o r the Brigantes who occupied the n o r t h e r n p a r t of the c o u n t r y . 6. P o t i n c o i n s were p e c u l i a r t o Gaul and B r i t a i n . They were made from an a l l o y o f copper and t i n , and can resemble s i l v e r c o i n s i n appearance. The type seems t o have o r i g i n a t e d i n Gaul, was c a r r i e d over t o B r i t a i n , was copied, and f i n a l l y o r i g i n a l B r i t i s h types were s t r u c k .  90 Table 6. Coin Type  Mack Number  GAUL Gallo-Belgic E Gaulish  BRITISH  Tasciovanus  Cunebolinus  Types  Types  Dubnovel1 aunus* Addedomarus* B r i t i s h LX 22 Iceni* Coritani B r i t KB* Brigan tes/ Cori tani* P o t i n , C l a s s I, I I Bronze  27a na  Camulo-• King dunum Harry Lane 0 0  167 168 172 175 177 179 183 189 192  0 0  227 272 274 409 449 na na na  J 116 >  J 3 3 0 1 0 2 0 0 129  0 0  Skeleton Green 1 1  1  1 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 5  0 0 * 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1 2 2 1 2  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  2 0 2 0 1 0 3 0  10  1  37  Gaulish Tasciovanus Cunebolinus Periphereal B r i t i s h Potin/Bronze  Camulo- King dunum Harry Lane 0 0 4 0 116 0 9 0 0 10  TOTALS  129  Coinage  Mack Number  Prae Wood  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  4>  221 245 246 249 251 260/a  TOTAL  Coin Type  Coins  10  Prae Wood  Ske Gr  0 1 0 0 0  2 18 9 5 3  1  37  i n c r e a s e s s h a r p l y from none a t Wheathampstead,  and o n l y one c o i n from Prae Wood ( S t . A l b a n s ) , t o 37 a t  91 S k e l e t o n Green (Braughing) and 129 a t Camulodunum (Colchester).  The p a t t e r n i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t between  Skeleton Green and Camulodunum. c o i n s are those o f Tasciovanus those o f Cunebolinus,  At S k e l e t o n Green, h a l f the  (18 o f 37), a q u a r t e r are  and the remaining q u a r t e r mostly  B r i t i s h c o i n s from p e r i p h e r a l t r i b e s . are c o i n s o f Cunebolinus, those o f p e r i p h e r e a l  At Camulodunum 90%  5% c o i n s o f Tasciovanus  and 5%  tribes.  A study o f the p u b l i s h e d c o i n d i s t r i b u t i o n maps i n CBA Research Report No. 3 8 i ( C u n l i f f e 1978:79-84) suggests t h a t : (1)  The g o l d coinage o f Tasciovanus  c l u s t e r s around S t .  Albans-Braughing as a c e n t r e , w i t h o u t l i e r s i n the p e r i p h e r a l t r i b a l areas t o the n o r t h , west and south. Tasciovanus'  bronze coinage i s much more t i g h t l y  c l u s t e r e d , w i t h o u t l i e r s almost a l l t o the n o r t h . (2)  The g o l d coinage o f Cunebolinus  has an i n n e r c l u s t e r  n o r t h o f the Thames (London and S t . Albans a r e a ) , a c l u s t e r around C o l c h e s t e r , and then a v e r y marked a r c o f f i n d s a l o n g the n o r t h s i d e o f the C h i l t e r n s .  Cunebolinus'  bronze has a wide d i s t r i b u t i o n i n Essex, S u f f o l k and H e r t f o r d s h i r e , again w i t h a f a i r l y marked area o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n n o r t h o f S t . Albans and Braughing. Coins o f Cunebolinus  are c o n c e n t r a t e d more i n Essex and  southern S u f f o l k , and those o f Tasciovanus  more i n the  western r e g i o n o f s o u t h - e a s t e r n B r i t a i n (Haselgrove 1987:163) 1.  Coinage and S o c i e t y i n B r i t a i n and Gaul.  92 I n c r e a s i n g complexity o f s o c i e t y , w i t h s t r o n g e r c e n t r a l c o n t r o l , and a w e a l t h i e r s o c i e t y are suggested by the i n c r e a s e i n the use o f l o c a l l y minted  native coins.  Strong  Roman and Greek i n f l u e n c e i s e v i d e n t i n the designs, and i n the techniques f o r s t r i k i n g  coinage.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s suggest a border zone n o r t h and west o f s o u t h - e a s t e r n B r i t a i n w i t h s e v e r a l e f f e c t s : (1)  Gold c o i n s going out as p r e s t i g e items and f o r h i g h  value trade/exchanges.  In the time o f Tasciovanus  g o l d c o i n s went out t o a more l i m i t e d area than probably mainly  later,  i n p r e s t i g e g i f t exchanges, and mainly  from the S t . Albans/Braughing Cunebolinus  the  zone.  In the r e i g n o f  t h i s outflow o f g o l d c o i n s was spread over a  much l a r g e r area. (2)  Trade  i n a range o f lower value non-luxury  u s i n g bronze  coinage as one medium o f exchange.  t h i s t r a d e i n v o l v i n g bronze  items, Most o f  c o i n s seems t o be i n t r a -  kingdom r a t h e r than export o r i e n t e d , although some may have been used  i n low v a l u e c r o s s - b o r d e r t r a n s a c t i o n s .  Both the use o f c o i n s and t r a d e were much more developed by the r e i g n o f (3)  Cunebolinus.  The p a t t e r n o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n suggests a  c i r c u l a t i o n o f coinage a c r o s s the border zone , going out to buy "hides, corn, s l a v e s and h u n t i n g dogs", and r e t u r n i n g t o buy wine, f i n e p o t t e r y and other luxury imports.  93 (4)  The  c l u s t e r o f Cunebolinus'  coinage i n the London/St.  Albans area suggests a major secondary c e n t r e , while  the  area o f f i n d s along the C h i l t e r n s to the n o r t h i m p l i e s a vigorous  trade or exchange p a t t e r n w i t h the p e r i p h e r a l  t r i b e s , as w e l l as a c o n t i n u a t i o n of p r e s t i g e g i f t s . (5)  The  d a t i n g suggests t h a t the c e n t r e s were dominant i n  the sequence Wheathampstead, then Prae Wood ( S t . A l b a n s ) , f o l l o w e d by Skeleton Green (Braughing),  and  finally  Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) . Haselgrove comments: The e a r l y f i r s t century AD c o i n l o s s e s and imported finewares leave l i t t l e doubt t h a t Braughing was then one o f the most important settlements i n the SouthEast. As a p o i n t e r to i t s s t a t u s p r i o r to t h i s , the q u a n t i t y o f f i r s t century BC c o i n s i s remarkable g i v e n t h a t no bronze was s t r u c k i n the r e g i o n before Phase 7 R e l a t i v e to the e a r l y f i r s t century AD occupation, the l a t e r f i r s t century BC settlement at Braughing can h a r d l y have been l e s s important and c o u l d w e l l have been more so, even i f some e a r l y c o i n s are a c t u a l l y l a t e r a r r i v a l s . ( H a s e l g r o v e 1987:175) T h i s suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y o f more than one dominance f o r Braughing, p o s s i b l y a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h  phase of St.  Albans. 2  .Cj3i,n....JMQ.uLda In the Henderson C o l l e c t i o n from Gatesbury there  many fragments o f c o i n moulds. conquest, as m i n t i n g  are  These are c e r t a i n l y p r e -  o f B r i t i s h s i l v e r c o i n s ceased w i t h  a r r i v a l o f the Romans.  S p e c t r o g r a p h s examination o f  moulds has e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t they were used f o r c a s t i n g  the  the  94 silver alloy flans . 2  No c o i n moulds were found d u r i n g the  e x c a v a t i o n a t S k e l e t o n Green, but the Gatesbury  c o i n moulds  were probably a s s o c i a t e d w i t h S k e l e t o n Green, as the two s i t e s a r e o n l y about 300 m a p a r t .  P o s s i b l y the " i n d u s t r i a l "  a c t i v i t i e s f o r the S k e l e t o n Green r e s i d e n t i a l and farming u n i t s were c a r r i e d on i n the o l d e r s e t t l e d area o f Gatesbury ( P a r t r i d g e 1981:323-326). At Camulodunum t h e r e was d e f i n i t e l y a mint f o r the c o i n s o f Cunebolinus.  An area was excavated w i t h d e b r i s  s u g g e s t i n g i t was e n t i r e l y devoted  t o metal working.  Among  the f i n d s were c r u c i b l e s , s l a g , burnt sand and e a r t h , and c o i n mould fragments.  S p e c t r o g r a p h i c examination  moulds showed the presence tin,  l e a d and z i n c  r e j e c t e d bronze  o f the  o f heavy metals, copper,  (Hawkes and H u l l 1947:129-133).  f l a n s were a l s o  silver, Three  found.  During r e c e n t e x c a v a t i o n s a t Roman Verulamlum Sheppard F r e r e recovered c o i n moulds f o r producing two s i z e s o f blanks, t o g e t h e r w i t h mint d e b r i s , c r u c i b l e s , f i r e - c r a c k e d rock from pre-Roman l e v e l s .  l a d l e s and  The m a t e r i a l was  found a t some seven l o c a t i o n s over a 3 ha area. a r t i f a c t s dated the assemblage t o the time o f the e a r l y p a r t o f the f i r s t century AD.  Associated Cunebolinus,  A British  r e c t a n g u l a r b u i l d i n g w i t h many heat cracked pebbles a d j o i n e d the area.  T e s t s on the moulds showed t h a t powdered s h e l l  was used as a mould r e l e a s e agent.  Some moulds had been  2. F l a n s a r e the c o i n b l a n k s , b e f o r e they a r e s t r u c k w i t h a d i e t o form the m o t i f .  95 used mainly f o r g o l d and s i l v e r b l a n k s , and o t h e r s mainly for  bronze ( F r e r e 1983:30-32).  3...  C o n e l u s i o n s from the Coins and Moulds It  i s g e n e r a l l y accepted t h a t Tasciovanus  Cunebolinus  as a dominant  preceded  r u l e r i n southeastern B r i t a i n .  The coinage o f Tasciovanus  has mint marks or i n s c r i p t i o n s  showing t h a t i t was produced a t both Verulamium Camulodunum . Tasciovanus to  and  There are a l s o i n s c r i b e d c o i n s o f  w i t h no mint marks.  the Verulamium  Some o f these are s i m i l a r  s e r i e s , but o t h e r s are somewhat d i f f e r e n t ,  and p o s s i b l y come from a mint at S k e l e t o n Green/Gatesbury. Cunebolinus'  c o i n s were minted at Camulodunum, based on the  mint marks.  They may  have a l s o been produced a t  Verulamium,  but  t h e r e i s no d i r e c t evidence f o r t h i s .  may  have produced coinage, but no i n s c r i b e d coinage has been  found which can be a s c r i b e d t o him.  Cassivellaunus  C o i n f i n d s i n the area  suggest the coinage used i n h i s p e r i o d i n the a r e a he c o n t r o l l e d was G a l l o - B e l g i c E s t a t e r s , or the u n i n s c r i b e d Whaddon Chase type o f s t a t e r At Wood one  (Mack 1964:55).  Wheathampstead no c o i n s were r e c o v e r e d , and a t Prae Tasciovanus  type.  The King Harry Lane cemetery  produced one group o f 10 bronze B r i t i s h c o i n s . i n f e r e n c e would be t h a t coinage was  still  A reasonable  a relatively  r a r i t y i n the p e r i o d when Wheathampstead was  still  i n active  use, and p r o b a b l y d u r i n g the e a r l i e r p e r i o d o f Prae Wood. From the evidence o f the c o i n moulds from and the c o i n s o f Tasciovanus  w i t h the  Verulamium,  "Ver" mint mark, i t  96 would appear t h a t by the e a r l y f i r s t  c e n t u r y AD  Verulamium  was  a major c e n t r e , and p r o b a b l y remained so up t o and  the  Roman conquest.  after  Coins were a l s o minted i n the  Gatesbury/ S k e l e t o n Green a r e a , but t h e r e i s no evidence f o r when t h i s was for  done, or f o r whom.  I t c o u l d have been e i t h e r  a l o c a l k i n g or group i n the mid f i r s t  c e n t u r y BC, or i t  c o u l d have been a secondary mint f o r Tasciovanus e i t h e r the l a t e f i r s t AD.  i n the  c e n t u r y BC or the e a r l y f i r s t century  From Haselgrove's comments on the importance o f the  Braughing a r e a s i t e s , S k e l e t o n Green and Gatesbury, i n both the  late f i r s t  century BC and and e a r l y f i r s t  c e n t u r y AD, i t  c o u l d be i n f e r r e d t h a t the f i r s t c e n t u r y BC p e r i o d  was  r e l a t e d t o a c o n f e d e r a t i o n o f s m a l l t r i b e s and c h i e f s , the  first  c e n t u r y AD p e r i o d was  connected t o  and  Tasciovanus.  Of the t h i r t y - s e v e n c o i n s found at S k e l e t o n Green, e i g h t e e n are  those o f Tasciovanus,  e l e v e n are Cunebolinus  t y p e s , and  e i g h t are from adjacent kingdoms. From the coinage Cunebolinus the  dominant  f i g u r e at Camulodunum.  t h e r e , 116 are from h i s mint. Tasciovanus  would seem t o have been Of the 129 c o i n s from  There are o n l y f o u r c o i n s o f  and nine from adjacent kingdoms.  From the evidence o f the c o i n s and c o i n moulds the f o l l o w i n g i n f e r e n c e s can be made: a)  Wheathampstead, Prae Wood and the King Harry Lane  cemetery r e p r e s e n t an e a r l i e r phase w i t h minimal use o f coinage.  97  b)  By the e a r l y f i r s t century AD Tasciovanus  had achieved  a dominant p o s i t i o n i n the area, based on the two c e n t r e s Skeleton Green and Verulamium.  By the end o f h i s r e i g n he  may have been e s t a b l i s h i n g h i m s e l f a t Camulodunum.  He had  h i s main mint a t Verulamium and p o s s i b l y a secondary one at S k e l e t o n Green/Gatesbury.  The s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t and  u n i n s c r i b e d s t a t e r s may be a product Gatesbury.  T h i s chronology  o f the mint a t  c o u l d a l s o be r e v e r s e d ,  with  the u n i n s c r i b e d s t a t e r s coming from an e a r l y mint a t Gatesbury, and the Verulamium mint p r o d u c t i o n  starting  l a t e r as he expanded h i s power base t o the west.  The few  c o i n s o f h i s p e r i o d minted a t Camulodunum would r e p r e s e n t the e a r l y output succeeded him. Tasciovanus  o f the mint t h e r e , b e f o r e  Cunebolinus  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the coinage o f  suggests  some t r a d i n g o r exchange  connections  w i t h the adjacent t r i b e s , but w i t h a c o n c e n t r a t i o n t o the north of h i s t e r r i t o r y . c)  Cunebolinus  w i t h probable  secondary c e n t r e s a t S k e l e t o n Green and  Verulamium. coinage,  had h i s p r i n c i p a l c e n t r e a t Camulodunum,  From the e x t e r n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h i s  t r a d e and exchange a c t i v i t i e s i n h i s p e r i o d were  both l a r g e r i n volume and more widespread than those o f Tasciovanus,  but s t i l l maintained  n o r t h and west.  a c o n c e n t r a t i o n t o the  This i s consistent with a pattern of  trade w i t h the p e r i p h e r e a l l e s s developed  areas, t o o b t a i n  raw m a t e r i a l s and s l a v e s i n exchange f o r p r e s t i g e and luxury goods.  98 d)  I f the c o i n moulds from the Henderson C o l l e c t i o n were  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l a t e f i r s t  century BC o c c u p a t i o n at  S k e l e t o n Green, then they c o u l d i n d i c a t e a mint  operated  by. the p o s s i b l e c o n f e d e r a t i o n of chiefdoms i n t h a t area. On balance t h i s seems a s l i g h t l y more probable than t h a t Tasciovanus each o t h e r .  hypothesis  should have t h r e e mints so c l o s e to  An a l t e r n a t i v e s c e n a r i o , however, c o u l d be  t h a t Tasciovanus  was  based f i r s t a t S k e l e t o n Green,  and  expanded h i s area o f c o n t r o l l a t e r to Verulamium, and f i n a l l y to  Camulodunum s h o r t l y b e f o r e h i s death.  then  This i s  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h i s coinage. In g e n e r a l t h e r e are some c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and u n c e r t a i n t i e s i n the a n a l y s i s o f the c o i n d i s t r i b u t i o n . These are reviewed  f u r t h e r i n Chapter  XVII, D i s c u s s i o n and  C o n c l u s i o n s , where the r e s u l t s o f a l l the a n a l y s e s are pulled  together.  99 XL.  _A]^LX.S.IJi.^  Brooches, l i k e c o i n s , have been i n t e n s i v e l y s t u d i e d t o establish typologies.  The Iron Age brooch i s fundamentally  a large' s a f e t y p i n used t o secure garments. by both men and women.  They were used  The King Harry Lane cemetery  e x c a v a t i o n s produced the l a r g e s t c o l l e c t i o n o f brooches from one s i t e , 237, but only 50 o f these a r e from pre-conquest graves.  From s t r a t i f i e d d e p o s i t s a t Camulodunum and  S k e l e t o n Green each s i t e y i e l d e d twelve brooches, w h i l e f o u r came from the Gatesbury s i t e , f o u r from Prae Wood and one from Wheathampstead. The brooch types and s i t e s a r e shown i n T a b l e 7 below. TABLE 7. Type Iron S t r i p Langton Down Nauheim D Plate Aucissa Swarling Penannular Colchester Thistle Rosette Gallic TOTALS TOTAL TYPES  Camulo- Gatesdunum bury  Brooches  0 3 0 0 0 0 1 7 1 0 0  0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 0  King Harry Lane 14 10 2 0 0 0 0 15 6 0 3  12  4  4  2  Prae Wood 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0  Skeleton Green 1 1 5 1 1 0 0 1 0 2 0  50  4  12  1  6  2  7  1  _  Wh< hai St'  0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  100 The  sample o f brooches i n Table 7 i s too s m a l l f o r  u s e f u l s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , as Mackreth has noted f o r brooches i n g e n e r a l , but some c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn from 1  the t a b l e .  The c o l l e c t i o n from S k e l e t o n Green seems e a r l y .  Mackreth comments: The present group from S k e l e t o n Green looks d i s t i n c t l y early. The main f e a t u r e s which g i v e t h i s impression a r e the Rosettes and Aucissa-Hod H i l l types present and the absence o f any C o l c h e s t e r d e r i v a t i v e s (Mackreth 1981:131). The p r o p o r t i o n o f imports i s : Prae Wood: none. S k e l e t o n Green: 1 i n 3. Camulodunum: 2 i n 3. King Harry Lane cemetery: 2 i n 3. From t h i s evidence  i t would seem a reasonable  t h a t S k e l e t o n Green (Braughing)  inference  precedes Camulodunum  ( C o l c h e s t e r ) and, based on the s i m i l a r i t y between  import  r a t i o s a t Camulodunum and King Harry Lane ( S t . A l b a n s ) , the S k e l e t o n Green c o l l e c t i o n Harry Lane cemetery.  i s probably e a r l i e r than the King  T h i s i s supported by t h e h i g h e r  p r o p o r t i o n o f l a t e r types, such as C o l c h e s t e r , C o l c h e s t e r d e r i v a t i v e s and Langton Down a t King Harry Lane, and the h i g h e r number o f e a r l i e r types such as Rosette, Nauheim D and A u c i s s a a t S k e l e t o n Green.  1. "Only the recovery o f more dated specimens r e s o l v e t h i s d i f f i c u l t y , and o n l y l a r g e groups context a r e l i k e l y t o p r o v i d e any k i n d o f f i r m base f o r an e v a l u a t i o n " (Mackreth i n P a r t r i d g e  can h e l p t o from the same statistical 1981:131).  101 Apart from t h i s the brooches do not appear t o o f f e r much a s s i s t a n c e i n answering the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . The evidence from the brooches arid c o i n s i s s i m i l a r f o r Prae Wood and S k e l e t o n Green.  From both these a r t i f a c t s  S k e l e t o n Green appears t o be l a t e r .  I t has a g r e a t e r  v a r i e t y o f imported brooches, and a more v a r i e d coinage collection.  The King Harry Lane cemetery tends t o  c o n t r a d i c t t h i s chronology, but i t i s a l a t e cemetery as evidenced by the f a c t t h a t only 73 graves out o f 472 are d e f i n i t e l y pre-Roman. It  i s probable t h a t a t S t . Albans, the Prae Wood s i t e  dates t o the e a r l y second h a l f o f the f i r s t  c e n t u r y BC,  w h i l e the e a r l y graves i n the King Harry Lane cemetery, which abuts, but does not c u t i n t o the Prae Wood earthworks, date t o the second q u a r t e r o f t h e f i r s t  c e n t u r y AD.  would e x p l a i n the d i f f e r e n c e i n the brooch t y p e s .  This Similarly  at  S k e l e t o n Green, the excavator has p o s t u l a t e d two p e r i o d s  of  o c c u p a t i o n , w i t h a h i a t u s i n o c c u p a t i o n spanning the l a t e  f i r s t c e n t u r y BC and e a r l y f i r s t  century AD.  102  XU.._MALXSIS..J).E...Jm_^UEIALS. JL  Xn£rpAuc.t±o_r), Prior  without  to the p e r i o d covered  i n t h i s paper inhumation  grave goods appears to have been the normal r i t e .  T h i s i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t to d e t e c t i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d (Whimster 1981).  Sometime v e r y s h o r t l y  Caesar's i n v a s i o n s o f 55-54 BC,  cremation  after  appears to have  been adopted as the b u r i a l r i t e i n south-east  Britain.  Flat  graves were the norm f o r both e l i t e and common b u r i a l s . Only t h r e e tumuli o f t h i s p e r i o d have been found. In t h i s s o u t h - e a s t e r n p a r t of B r i t a i n , from C o l c h e s t e r i n the east to St. Albans i n the west, and as f a r n o r t h Cambridge, Whimster, who  has compiled  Iron Age b u r i a l s recorded Late Iron Age  a g a z e t t e e r of a l l  i n B r i t a i n up to 1981,  lists  b u r i a l s i t e s , r e p o r t e d between 1729  and  Most o f these s i t e s are v e r y s k e t c h i l y r e p o r t e d and a r t i f a c t s are  as  86 1981.  the  lost.  In the S t . Albans,  Braughing and C o l c h e s t e r  areas  twelve b u r i a l s i t e s have been r e p o r t e d or p u b l i s h e d i n some d e t a i l s i n c e 1912.  A f u r t h e r e i g h t have been r e p o r t e d w i t h  enough d e t a i l to p l a c e them i n e i t h e r the Welwyn or Lexden phase.  These s i t e s are l i s t e d w i t h t h e i r key data i n  Appendix B.  At Braughing t h e r e are no r e p o r t e d s i t e s i n the  immediate v i c i n i t y , but t h r e e p o o r l y r e p o r t e d s i t e s , excavated  i n 1729,  g e n e r a l area.  1799  and  1886  r e s p e c t i v e l y , are i n the  In a d d i t i o n t h e r e are e l e v e n s i t e s i n the  Welwyn and H e r t f o r d areas, r e s p e c t i v e l y about 7 km  and  15  km  103 d i s t a n t from Wheathampstead.  These i n c l u d e seven  b u r i a l s and f o u r modest/plain ones.  rich  T r a d i t i o n a l l y they have  tended t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Wheathampstead, p a r t l y because no other Late I r o n Age  oppidum s i t e has so f a r been  i d e n t i f i e d i n the Welwyn-Hertford area.  I t seems probable  t h a t they should r e a l l y belong t o an as y e t u n i d e n t i f i e d oppidum f u r t h e r n o r t h i n the Welwyn area, and t h a t  elite  b u r i a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h S t . Albans, i f they e x i s t , have yet to be found.  However, the Welwyn group has been i n c l u d e d i n  t h i s study because t h e i r grave goods s l o t them i n t o the time p e r i o d used i n t h i s paper, and they can l e g i t i m a t e l y be compared w i t h Braughing and C o l c h e s t e r .  N e v e r t h e l e s s they  are aoifc evidence f o r e l i t e b u r i a l s at Wheathampstead. Whimster has proposed b u r i a l s (Whimster 1981).  three  c l a s s e s o f cremation  These a r e : -  Modest/Plain: s i n g l e c i n e r a r y urn 1-5 a d d i t i o n a l p o t s . G a l l o - B e l g i c popular, w i t h some n a t i v e and Samian ware. Late La Tene I I I bow brooches. Intermediate: s i m i l a r t o modest/plain but w i t h 6-8 i r o n or bronze bound wooden bucket bronzework, s i l v e r w a r e , s h a l e ornaments. Rich  pots  or Welwyn Type: Many n a t i v e and imported pots (36 i n one c a s e ) . Amphorae S i l v e r and bronze cups and s t r a i n e r s . Gaming counters, wooden v e s s e l s , h e a r t h f u r n i t u r e , iron spits, glassware . 1  In the e x c a v a t i o n s a t A y l e s f o r d  (Evans 1890)  and  Swarling (Bushe-Fox 1925), and a t the more r e c e n t 1. Weapons, food and d r i n k , and a r t i c l e s f o r p e r s o n a l adornment, other than brooches, are extremely r a r e , a c o n t r a s t w i t h the Bronze Age  104 e x c a v a t i o n s o f the l a r g e cemetery a t King Harry Lane on the edge o f Prae Wood near S t . Albans (Stead and Rigby 1989), i t was observed t h a t t h e r e was a marked tendency f o r a r i n g o f modest/plain graves t o c l u s t e r around an i n t e r m e d i a t e  level  one, w i t h the whole c l u s t e r i n a square or r e c t a n g u l a r p l o t , o f t e n d e f i n e d by shallow d i t c h e s (Stead and Rigby op. c i t . ) . Recent a e r i a l survey i n Essex has i d e n t i f i e d a l a r g e number of m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y s i m i l a r e n c l o s u r e s (Whimster op. cit:157).  T h i s suggests a h i g h degree o f c u l t u r a l  u n i f o r m i t y i n b u r i a l p r a c t i c e s a t t h i s p e r i o d i n southeastern B r i t a i n . For  e l i t e graves, whether  o f the f l a t or tumulus type,  Stead has i d e n t i f i e d two phases i n the p r a c t i c e , a Welwyn phase s t a r t i n g about 50-40 BC, and about 15-10 BC (Stead 1976).  Lexden phase  starting  The key markers f o r  c l a s s i f y i n g the b u r i a l s a r e : -  W.elwyjxJ?.kase  Lexdea_JPJaasje.  ca.  c a . 15-10 BC t o conquest.  50-40 t o 15 BC  E a r l y La Tene I I I brooches (trumpet headed brooches)  Late La Te^ne I I I brooches ( C o l c h e s t e r , t h i s t l e , Langton)  D r e s s e l IB amphorae  L a t e r amphorae  Bronze wine j u g s  Imported I t a l i a n and Samian pottery.  Oenochoe, Kelheim type Bronze  strainers  Imported s i l v e r cups. The evidence from the b u r i a l s v a r i e s w i d e l y i n reliability. to  As noted above i n the p e r i o d from about 50 BC  AD 43 and on i n t o the Roman p e r i o d , the r i t e was  105 cremation w i t h ashes p l a c e d i n an urn, wooden c o n t a i n e r or j u s t l a i d i n the ground.  B u r i a l was i n f l a t graves, mostly  w i t h a v e r y modest p r o v i s i o n o f grave goods. not p a r t o f the grave goods.  Weapons were  These f l a t graves have no  s u r v i v i n g markers f o r e i t h e r r i c h or modest b u r i a l s , and 2  most have been found i n the course o f m u n i c i p a l e x c a v a t i o n s f o r water mains, sewers and other c i v i l s t r u c t u r e s , o r by chance.  engineering  For example, the King Harry Lane  cemetery a t S t . Albans abuts Wheeler's dyke e x c a v a t i o n o f the e a r l y 1930s, but was not d i s c o v e r e d u n t i l the 1970s. At a l l the s i t e s t h e r e i s o f t e n no p o s i t i v e between the s i t e s and the b u r i a l s .  correlation  Reasonable p r o x i m i t y and  a s i m i l a r date are the main reasons f o r a s s o c i a t i n g and b u r i a l s . below.  sites  The s i t u a t i o n f o r each s i t e i s d e s c r i b e d  Whimster's 1981 g a z e t t e e r o f B r i t i s h Iron Age  b u r i a l s has been used as the p r i n c i p a l source f o r l o c a t i n g graves, augmented  by new p u b l i c a t i o n s s i n c e 1981.  2__  CjQr_r_e__^  a)  Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) The Lexden tumulus i s the r i c h e s t Late Iron Age grave  found i n B r i t a i n .  I t l i e s i n s i d e the Lexden dyke, one o f  the major earthworks surrounding Camulodunum. date t o the e a r l y f i r s t century AD.  Some s c h o l a r s have  suggested t h a t i t might be e i t h e r the grave o f or a member o f h i s f a m i l y .  The contents  Cunebolinus,  The b u r i a l can be f i r m l y  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the oppidum o f Camulodunum.  One other  2. The one e x c e p t i o n i s the Lexden tumulus a t Camulodunum near C o l c h e s t e r . T h i s i s d i s c u s s e d under the r i c h graves.  106 s i m i l a r tumulus e x i s t s i n the same area, was 1910,  but was  found to have been completely  i n the Roman p e r i o d .  excavated robbed,  in  probably  North o f the Lexden tumulus f o u r t e e n  f l a t graves have been d i s c o v e r e d . These have yet to be published.  One  r i c h f l a t grave was  D r i v e , and excavated tumulus and bJ.  i n 1940.  The  found at St. C l a r e contents o f the Lexden  St. C l a r e D r i v e b u r i a l s are shown i n Table  8.  Prae„Wjpjai,„_jfer No r i c h b u r i a l s comparable w i t h the Lexden tumulus or  the H e r t f o r d and Welwyn b u r i a l s have yet been found immediate v i c i n i t y of St. Albans. l a r g e cemeteries been made, one  Two  i n the  recent d i s c o v e r i e s of  w i t h i n t e r m e d i a t e to p l a i n b u r i a l s have  at Verulam H i l l s F i e l d j u s t o u t s i d e the  London Gate o f Veralumium, and one  at King Harry  Lane,  adjacent to the Prae Wood e x c a v a t i o n The Verulam H i l l s F i e l d s i t e , a salvage  excavation  a f t e r an a c c i d e n t a l d i s c o v e r y , produced twenty-one pre-Roman burials.  The  cemetery may  have been much l a r g e r but  so f a r been p o s s i b l e to excavate  i t has  only a s m a l l p a r t o f i t .  Of the twenty-one b u r i a l s , n i n e t e e n were p l a i n and two were intermediate.  The  t h r e e G a l l o - B e l g i c v e s s e l s found  of the i n t e r m e d i a t e graves  suggest  q u a r t e r of the f i r s t century AD, c o i n s found  a date  i n the  i n one  first  as do a number o f bronze  i n the area o f the b u r i a l s , but not  directly  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them. The  King Harry Lane s i t e has j u s t been p u b l i s h e d  and Rigby 1989).  The  cemetery i s immediately  beside  (Stead the  107 1930s Prae wood e x c a v a t i o n , and was  found by chance d u r i n g a  salvage e x c a v a t i o n , w h i l e examining extramural s e t t l e m e n t s of the Roman p e r i o d .  I t has been completely excavated, and  472 b u r i a l s were found, making i t one o f the l a r g e s t C e l t i c cemeteries t o be excavated.  Of the 472 b u r i a l s , 73 were  a s s i g n e d by the e x c a v a t o r s t o Phase I, the pre-conquest period.  These 73 graves and t h e i r c o n t e n t s are the ones  l i s t e d and d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s paper. for  The b u r i a l p a t t e r n  was  a somewhat r i c h e r i n t e r m e d i a t e grave i n a banked  e n c l o s u r e , surrounded by p l a i n b u r i a l s both i n s i d e o u t s i d e the e n c l o s u r e .  and  The r i c h e s t grave had t e n p o t s , p l u s  some o t h e r grave goods. c)  S k e l e t o n Green, Gatesbury  (Braughing)  So f a r no pre-Roman b u r i a l s have been found a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Braughing a r e a .  There are t h r e e s m a l l l a t e r  Romano-British cremation c e m e t e r i e s . excavated, p r o d u c i n g 52 b u r i a l s .  One was  completely  The o t h e r two were found  d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the bypass, and were p a r t l y excavated under d i f f i c u l t  salvage c o n d i t i o n s , y i e l d i n g f i v e and  cremation b u r i a l s r e s p e c t i v e l y .  These  109  Romano-British  b u r i a l s a l l date from the l a t e f i r s t c e n t u r y t o the l a t e second c e n t u r y AD,  and are o u t s i d e the scope o f t h i s paper.  Only t h r e e other Iron Age b u r i a l s have been r e c o r d e d i n the  district,  one a t L i t t l e Hadham excavated i n 1886,  which  produced one type 3 amphora, one at Gatesbury excavated i n 1799 w i t h t h r e e amphorae "with p o i n t e d ends and c o n t a i n i n g  108 ashes", and one at W e s t m i l l "excavated"  i n 1729,  which gave  three probable type 4 amphorae. E s s e n t i a l l y , f o r the purpose  o f t h i s paper t h e r e i s no  u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n on b u r i a l s f o r the Braughing area.  Iron  Age graves from p l a i n t o r i c h almost c e r t a i n l y e x i s t e d , but have e i t h e r not been d i s c o v e r e d as y e t , or have been d e s t r o y e d by l a t e r dl  activity,  Wiie.aihamp_s_t.e-ad As noted p r e v i o u s l y no b u r i a l s were r e c o v e r e d from  Wheathampstead i t s e l f , but f i v e r i c h and e i g h t p l a i n inhumation excavated  flat  cremation graves o f the p e r i o d have been i n the Welwyn and H e r t f o r d areas, about 7-15  from Wheathampstead.  km  From the p o t t e r y and other a r t i f a c t s  they appear t o belong t o the same p e r i o d and c u l t u r a l group as Wheathampstead.  These b u r i a l s have been l i s t e d  i n Tables  8 and 9 below, but must be viewed w i t h some c a u t i o n . may  They  be d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Wheathampstead, but there i s  no evidence f o r t h i s .  They may  e q u a l l y w e l l belong t o some  as y e t u n d i s c o v e r e d oppidum i n the Welwyn/Hertford area, while f l a t  inhumation b u r i a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Wheathampstead  e x i s t , but s t i l l  3...  await d i s c o v e r y .  The__J}ujc.ia.lj3.^ A l l the b u r i a l s were cremations, and as f a r as c o u l d be  a s c e r t a i n e d , t h e r e were no m u l t i p l e cremations i n one  grave.  R i c h graves have been d e f i n e d as those w i t h a range of grave goods, i n t e r m e d i a t e graves as those w i t h f i v e or more pots  109 but o n l y one or two other items, and p l a i n graves as those w i t h f o u r o r fewer p o t s per grave, i n c l u d i n g the u r n . T a b l e s 8 and 9 below show the grave goods a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the b u r i a l s . Tabled  Ri.cli.._B.ux_ia_Ls.  Area > Artifact Type....  C o l c h e s t e r H e r t f o r d Area We lwvn Area Lexden St. CI H e r t . L i t t l e Welwyn Welwyn Welwy A G.C.I Tumul. D r i v e Heath Amwell B  Amphorae D r e s s e l IB D r e s s e l 2-4  6 11  0 0  1 0  1 0  1 0  5 0  5 0  E.Q±_texY Samian South Gaul. Gallo-Belgic Native Wares  0 0 3 2  0 2 10 0  0 0 0 11  0 0 0 8  0 0 0 2  1 0 0 2  3 0 0 33  Bowl Bead(s) Roundels Fragments  0 0 0 P  0 0 8 3  1 1 21 0  1 1 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0  Dish Jug/Pot Toilet Art. Pins Studs Strainer Ring Sheet  0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0  0 0 0 5 0 0 0 2  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0 P 0 0 0  1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0  1 1 1 0 48 1 0 0  Iron Palette Knife Shears Nails/clamps F i r e Dogs  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 65 0  0 1 1 0 0  0 1 1 0 0  0 0 0 0 2  1 0 0 0 4  0 1 0 10 0  QJ_b.e.r_ S i l v e r Cup Brooches Bracelets Wood V e s s e l Wood Board Gaming P i e c e  0 0 0 0 0  0 10 2 1 0  0 0 0 2 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 .0 . .... 0  2 0 0 0 0 g>  1 0 0 3 1 .... J24  3.  ..... je>„ ..  110 Note The f o l l o w i n g a d d i t i o n a l items were r e c o v e r e d from Lexden Tumulus, the r i c h e s t b u r i a l r e p o r t e d i n the literature. 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 1 2 61 216 1  the  bronze f i g u r i n e s bronze masks, ca. 4x2.8 cm, curved t o f i t a s u r f a c e about 11.7 cm i n diameter (a wooden v e s s e l ? ) bronze escutcheons (from f u r n i t u r e ? ) bronze p e d e s t a l bronze stand ( f o r c a n d e l a b r a , from Campania) bronze p a l s t a v e (axe) bronze buckle wooden casket iron-bound chest iron pins i r o n s t o o l frame s i l v e r ornaments silver stars ) probably d e c o r a t i n g v e r y s m a l l s i l v e r b a r s ) a p i e c e of t e x t i l e m e d a l l i o n w i t h p o r t r a i t o f Augustus g o l d t i s s u e , probably from a t e x t i l e decorated c h a i n m a i l o f i r o n l i n k s  £abJLe___!iL,  .Qraye-JSoods from Iht.ejgme,djLaJ^  Site> NQL,Jur_iala  King Harry Laae Z..3  Verulam Hills Field 21  1 71 85  0 3 25  Welwyn C  Welwyn D  1  1  0 0 4  0 0 3  Welwyn Garden Cjjby__. J E L _ _  Eojfcjtery  Samian Gallo-Belgic N a t i v e Wares  Brooches  5.0.  3.  &  0 0 6  SL _ _ f i  N..o_fc£: The f o l l o w i n g a d d i t i o n a l items were r e c o v e r e d i n t e r m e d i a t e b u r i a l s at the King Harry Lane s i t e : Amphorae Bracelets T o i l e t Instruments Knives S p i n d l e Whorls Iron A r t i f a c t s  4 1 1 6 1 6  Coins Mirrors Spoons Shears Bone O b j e c t s  from 10 1 1 2 2  Ill  Ajaaen.ce_Q.f_....Gria^e_ G___Qd.s. Grave Goods  Terra Sig. Gallo-Belgic Native Wares Brooches Other A r t i f .  King Harry Lane  Verulam Hills __.FJ.eld  Welwyn C  P P P P P  A P P P A  A  Welwyn D  Welwyn Garden City_ r  A P A A  A A P A  A  A A P A A  JS.Q-t.ei3 JL-  K i n g Hargy bane. a) More than h a l f the graves had o n l y one pot, o t h e r s two to f o u r , w i t h a maximum o f t e n i n one p a r t i c u l a r b u r i a l b) Brooches were predominantly C o l c h e s t e r , Langton Down and T h i s t l e , a l l l a t e types. The s i x graves i n the group were found i n the v i c i n i t y o f a r i c h b u r i a l , but t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i t , o r w i t h other p o s s i b l e common b u r i a l s i n the a r e a i s unknown. The Lexden tumulus a t Camulodunum i s o u t s t a n d i n g l y the  r i c h e s t , and i s dated f i r m l y t o the e a r l y f i r s t The  century AD.  S t . C l a r e D r i v e b u r i a l , a l s o a t Camulodunum, i s o f the  same p e r i o d . At S t . Albans Phase I o f the King Harry Lane cemetery has been dated t o the p e r i o d AD 1 t o 40, about f o r t y t o f i f t y y e a r s l a t e r than the Prae Wood e n c l o s u r e s .  The  Verulam H i l l s F i e l d cemetery i s o f about the same p e r i o d as the King Harry Lane s i t e , the f i r s t h a l f o f the f i r s t century AD. 4_, GjQnj2lM..aiojia The  l a c k o f evidence f o r b u r i a l s a t S k e l e t o n Green and  Gatesbury,  and the v e r y weak a s s o c i a t i o n between  Wheathampstead and the H e r t f o r d and Welwyn b u r i a l s makes i n t e r - s i t e comparison d i f f i c u l t .  S t a t i s t i c a l analysis i s  112 i m p r a c t i c a b l e , and has not been attempted.  However some  s u b j e c t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s can be a r r i v e d a t . Lexden tumulus and the adjacent robbed r e p r e s e n t both a d i s t i n c t change i n e l i t e graves t o a prominent  tumulus  b u r i a l s , from  flat  tomb/mausoleum, and i n the Lexden  tumulus a much r i c h e r type o f b u r i a l than the e a r l i e r Welwyn and H e r t f o r d f l a t graves. was  T h i s suggests t h a t Camulodunum  both w e a l t h i e r and had more marked s t a t u s d i f f e r e n c e s  than Wheathampstead, Prae Wood and of  Verulamium.  t u m u l i i n the S k e l e t o n Green and Gatesbury,  n e g a t i v e evidence, suggests t h a t t h i s area was the f l a t grave t r a d i t i o n .  The  absence  although s t i l l using  The E n g l i s h p r o p e n s i t y , from the  16th. c e n t u r y on, f o r d i g g i n g i n t o every mound i n s i g h t would s u r e l y have l e f t some r e c o r d i f tumuli had  existed.  No p e r c e p t i b l e ones are v i s i b l e today, and none are shown on the 1/50,000 Ordnance Survey maps. The v a r i a t i o n s i n the grave goods accompanying the b u r i a l s at King Harry Lane and Verulam H i l l s  F i e l d imply a  s o c i e t y w i t h s t a t u s d i f f e r e n c e s , and w i t h a t l e a s t two and p o s s i b l y up t o f o u r .  ranks  The e n c l o s u r e s w i t h one or more  i n t e r m e d i a t e graves, surrounded by t h e i r c l u s t e r s of satellite  plain burials,  imply some i n t e r n a l groups i n the  s o c i e t y , f a m i l i e s or c l a n s . of  about equal s t a t u s .  These groups seem t o have been  No s e t o f b u r i a l s i s much l a r g e r or  r i c h e r than the o t h e r s , although t h e r e are moderate d i f f e r e n c e s between the  groups.  113 For Wheathampstead, i f the Welwyn/Hertford graves can be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h , or be c o n s i d e r e d s i m i l a r t o what should be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the oppidum, the p i c t u r e suggested  from  the v e r y s m a l l sample, f i v e r i c h b u r i a l s and e i g h t p l a i n ones, i s o f a s o c i e t y w i t h r a t h e r more " b a r b a r i c " c h i e f s than the e l i t e a t Camulodunum, and then commoners, w i t h no s o c i a l c l a s s e s i n between. C o n s i d e r i n g the hypotheses  and model i n Chapter V, the  evidence from the b u r i a l s tends t o support the i m p l i c a t i o n s of  the model, except f o r the S k e l e t o n Green/ Gatesbury  from which t h e r e i s no evidence a t a l l .  area  The King Harry Lane  and Verulam H i l l s F i e l d cemeteries have i n t e r m e d i a t e and p l a i n b u r i a l s , w h i l e Camulodunum  has the r i c h e s t  elite  b u r i a l s i n the same p e r i o d , the e a r l y f i r s t century AD.  The  absence o f r i c h b u r i a l s a t Verulamium a t t h i s p e r i o d suggests a s u b s i d i a r y c e n t r e without a dominant l o c a l head, r a t h e r than a c a p i t a l . The  s c e n a r i o suggested  i s f o r a chiefdom based on  Wheathampstead i n the mid f i r s t century BC, surrounded by other s i m i l a r chiefdoms.  At Camulodunum  by the f i r s t  q u a r t e r o f the f i r s t century AD there was the c a p i t a l o f a kingdom, v e r g i n g on a p r o t o - s t a t e , w i t h a s u b s i d i a r y c e n t r e at  Verulamium., and p o s s i b l y another a t S k e l e t o n Green/  Gatesbury, for  although t h e r e i s no evidence from the b u r i a l s  the p o i n t .  114  1.  Introduction The p r i n c i p a l  f e a t u r e s a t Wheathampstead, Prae Wood and  Camulodunum are the earthworks o r dykes, comprising massive ditch  sytems, w i t h the s p o i l d e p o s i t e d on one or both s i d e s ,  forming a mound.  These should not be termed  "ramparts"  without s t r o n g evidence f o r a d e f e n s i v e f u n c t i o n . the  Based on  evidence o f post h o l e s a t Prae Wood ( S t . Albans) t h e r e  were p a l i s a d e s i n c e r t a i n p a r t s , but these appear t o have been separate f e a t u r e s from t h e main earthworks.  At  Wheathampstead, S t . Albans and C o l c h e s t e r p a r t s o f the dykes were i n c l u d e d i n the areas excavated.  At Braughing, as w e l l  as the s m a l l v i s i b l e earthwork a t t h e Gatesbury s i t e , other dyke systems a r e c l e a r l y  identifiable  photographs and crop marks.  from r e c e n t  aerial  They l i e some 600 t o 1000 m  from the s i t e a t S k e l e t o n Green, and have not been excavated. Identifiable  b u i l d i n g remains a r e minimal t o non-  existant at a l l sites.  No evidence f o r b u i l d i n g s was found  at Wheathampstead, but t h i s selective At the  i s probably l a r g e l y  due t o t h e  e x c a v a t i o n b e i n g c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e earthworks.  S t . Albans the evidence f o r b u i l d i n g s i s so f a r s l i g h t a t Prae Wood and Verulamium s i t e s .  Two ovens were found a t  Prae Wood, d a t i n g t o the end o f the f i r s t c e n t u r y BC. At the Verulamium s i t e and the modern town o f S t . Albans, the Late Iron Age s e t t l e m e n t s l i e below the Roman Evidence from sondages  levels.  i n d i c a t e s o c c u p a t i o n , but no  115 b u i l d i n g s have y e t been recovered.  At Braughing, the  e x c a v a t i o n s a t Skeleton Green produced evidence f o r d w e l l i n g s w i t h s e v e r a l phases o f o c c u p a t i o n between about 15 BC and AD 30-40. and  At C o l c h e s t e r some round huts were found,  from the a r t i f a c t s c a t t e r the presence o f a l a r g e h i g h  s t a t u s b u i l d i n g was i n f e r r e d .  In a d d i t i o n r e c e n t  aerial  (  photographs have i d e n t i f i e d a l a r g e "homestead" i n a s u b s t a n t i a l e n c l o s u r e on the west s i t e o f the s i t e a t Gosbeck's Farm. excavation  T h i s may be another  e l i t e d w e l l i n g , but  i s needed t o p r o v i d e d e f i n i t e c o n f i r m a t i o n .  2^^Jrhe.-Ear.tb,worka al  Wheathampstead Wheathampstead, about 8 km n o r t h - e a s t o f Prae Wood (St.  A l b a n s ) , appears t o be a Late Iron Age defended e n c l o s u r e o f about 40 ha, roughly contemporary w i t h the l a t e r occupations  hillfort  i n other p a r t s o f southern and e a s t e r n B r i t a i n .  I t can be c o n s i d e r e d : ....a h i l l - f o r t o f the k i n d found on the low eminences o f e a s t e r n England i n the Iron Age, and seems t o have been succeeded by the 'oppidum' o f Prae Wood:" (Thompson 1979:178). The  d i t c h e s are massive, about 40 m wide by 12 m deep,  w i t h the mound o f s p o i l on the inner l i p . 1  On the b a s i s o f the p o t t e r y , " c l e a r l y  typologically  e a r l i e r and more c r u d e l y made than the Prae Wood p o t t e r y , " (Thompson o p . c i t . : 1 5 9 ) , Thompson proposes a C a e s a r i a n  date,  1. F o r d e f e n s i v e works a l l , o r the m a j o r i t y o f the s p o i l from the d i t c h i s g e n e r a l l y p l a c e d on the i n s i d e o f the d i t c h , i n order t o p r o v i d e a h i g h and s u b s t a n t i a l rampart. In Gaul such ramparts were o f t e n t i e d together by through beams, and f r e q u e n t l y had a stone t o e w a l l .  116 ca. 60-50 BC.  However, c o n s i d e r i n g the n a t i v e p o t t e r y from  the s i t e , occupation second century.  c o u l d have s t a r t e d as e a r l y as the mid  The absence o f G a l l o - B e l g i c wares makes i t  e a r l i e r than any o f the other earthworks, and suggests i t was  out o f use by the l a s t q u a r t e r o f the f i r s t  century B C .  Its  a c t i v e l i f e c o u l d have been about 100 t o 125 years, and  2  c o n s t r u c t i o n seems t o have taken p l a c e l a r g e l y i n one phase. bj  Prae Wood ( F i g u r e 5) In t h e o r i g i n a l work a t Prae Wood i n the e a r l y 1930s,  Mortimer Wheeler excavated a complex o f d i t c h e s , earthworks and  enclosures  i n and around Prae Wood.  He estimated  that  the o r i g i n a l area enclosed was about f o u r times t h a t i n s i d e the v i s i b l e works, f o r a t o t a l o f about 50 ha.  In c r o s s -  s e c t i o n none o f the d i t c h e s and earthworks were on the massive s c a l e o f those a t Wheathampstead.  The m a t e r i a l  excavated from the d i t c h e s was g e n e r a l l y p l a c e d on the outer edge, o r about e q u a l l y on both s i d e s . as a stock e n c l o s u r e The  This implies a role  or boundary markers, not a rampart.  d i t c h e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y modest, about 4 m wide and 1.5 m  deep. More r e c e n t surveys and s t u d i e s by Hunn (Hunn, 1980:2130), have r e - a p p r a i s e d  and extended Wheeler's work.  He has  2. The d a t i n g o f the earthworks and the estimated maximum c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d a r e based on the d a t i n g o f t h e a s s o c i a t e d p o t t e r y f i n d s . Care must be used not t o get i n t o a c i r c u l a r argument here, but t h i s appears t o the only r e l i a b l e method o f d a t i n g these works reasonably c l o s e l y . Radio carbon o r other ' s c i e n t i f i c ' dates a r e not a v a i l a b l e , and even i f they were, t h e +/- range i n the date would be much l a r g e r than the e r r o r s from p o t t e r y d a t i n g . No timbers were recovered, thus making t r e e r i n g d a t i n g i m p o s s i b l e .  117 i d e n t i f i e d Phase I and  II works d a t i n g to the Iron Age,  Phases I I I to V probably d a t i n g to the medieval and medieval p e r i o d s .  and  post-  Hunn notes the s i m i l a r i t y of some o f the  d i t c h e s to those at C o l c h e s t e r , and from a number of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s suggests k r a a l system (Hunn  a p a s t o r a l f u n c t i o n as a communal  ibid).  The Phase I and  II Prae Wood e n c l o s u r e s were i n use  from about 15 BC up to the conquest, g i v i n g a maximum c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d o f about 55 cjL_J5kjel^^ The  years. ( F i g u r e 4)  earthworks at S k e l e t o n Green and Gatesbury form  three d i s t i n c t groups.  The v i s i b l e e n c l o s u r e at Gatesbury,  about 3 ha i n area, i s almost c e r t a i n l y E a r l y Iron Age, pre-dates  the p e r i o d d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s paper.  and  I t c o u l d be  a  s m a l l d e f e n s i v e s t r u c t u r e or a stock e n c l o s u r e , but most probably  the former.  Other than t h i s e n c l o s u r e no  defensive  works have been i d e n t i f i e d i n the area, a p o i n t noted  with  some s u r p r i s e by s e v e r a l s c h o l a r s ( P a r t r i d g e 1981:28). the n o r t h o f the Gatesbury earthwork r e c e n t  To  aerial  photographs have shown an e x t e n s i v e area o f d i t c h e s and e n c l o s u r e s , which seem to be more " . . . . r e m i n i s c e n t of the e n c l o s u r e and boundary d i t c h e s at Prae Wood ( P a r t r i d g e  ibid).  There are a l s o t r a c e s o f s i m i l a r simple  earthworks  on Wickham H i l l , west o f the R i v e r Rib, between the and the S k e l e t o n Green e x c a v a t i o n s .  Partridge  river  estimates  t h a t the S k e l e t o n Green s i t e must have covered more than ha  (Partridge  ibid).  100  1.18 Assuming t h a t the S k e l e t o n Green and  Gatesbury  earthworks were c o n s t r u c t e d i n the e a r l y l i f e o f the they would have been b u i l t between the mid and  10 BC,  d.l  Gmrnlodimiim  century  BC  about a 40 year p e r i o d ( F i g u r e 3)  Camulodunum w i t h i n i t s dykes was the s i t e s , c o v e r i n g about 4,000 ha. b u i l t up,  first  site,  by f a r the l a r g e s t of Not a l l o f t h i s  was  q u i t e l a r g e areas b e i n g g i v e n over t o a g r i c u l t u r e  and stock r a i s i n g .  The main bounding earthworks l i e along  the western s i d e o f the s i t e , extending f o r over 6 km. p l a c e s the dykes are doubled  or t r i p l e d .  The n o r t h  and  south s i d e s o f the s i t e are bounded and defended by  the  Colne and Roman r i v e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y .  In  On the east s i d e an  earthwork runs n o r t h from the Roman r i v e r f o r j u s t over 3 b e f o r e t r e n d i n g away to the east towards the lower of  the Colne.  km  reaches  I n s i d e the main bounding earthworks are a  complex o f other d i t c h e s and banks, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Gosbecks a r e a .  From r e c e n t a e r i a l survey, and from p l o t t i n g  crop-marks, Crummy has shown t h a t a l a r g e homestead e n c l o s e d by a bank and d i t c h and a surrounding f i e l d  system occupied  the Gosbecks area (Crummy 1980:8) The  d a t i n g evidence  suggests t h a t the earthworks were  s t a r t e d i n the e a r l y f i r s t c e n t u r y AD, u n t i l the Roman conquest.  and continued i n use  A f t e r the conquest  they were  s l i g h t e d i n c e r t a i n p l a c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y at gateways, but otherwise were l e f t  to decay n a t u r a l l y  119  Camulodunum had by f a r the most e x t e n s i v e over 18 km o f major works.  earthworks,  Except f o r Wheathampstead i t  a l s o had the most s u b s t a n t i a l d i t c h e s and mounds i n c r o s s section.  Table  10 below g i v e s some comparisons between the  sites. Table„JL0_,„ Dimension  CamuloI, I,.  Width Depth Length ¥.oJLimie„ 2  4  i e^\it^\3jm  12m *6m 18,000m Zfi  Key Dimensions of-t&e^Dltche.a Gatesbury  Prae  Wheathamp-  J%j^^..3n..c<^fc...c?_iitX...—_j^?.e^j^_c^—  * * *2,850m L  1  —.  4m 1.5m 9,500m _ a^.a__  3  40m 12m 2,520m Zl  E9_fc.e_s_L 1. A * i n d i c a t e s the i n f o r m a t i o n i s not a v a i l a b l e , o r i s an estimate o r best guess from the inadequate i n f o r m a t i o n i n the p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l . 2. The l e n g t h s are f o r the major earthworks, i g n o r i n g minor d i t c h e s . T h i s dimension was measured o f f the s m a l l s c a l e p l a n s and maps i n the e x c a v a t i o n r e p o r t s . I t i s not very a c c u r a t e , but the r e l a t i v e v a l u e s are o f the r i g h t order. 3. On the b a s i s o f Wheeler's statement t h a t he f e l t the area excavated and surveyed was o n l y about one q u a r t e r o f the whole, i t has been assumed t h a t the works shown on the p l a n ( F i g u r e 5) are approximately the n o r t h e a s t quadrant. The l e n g t h measured was m u l t i p l i e d by f o u r t o o b t a i n a f i g u r e f o r the whole 4. T h i s i s v e r y approximate r e l a t i v e volume. I t assumed t h a t a l l d i t c h e s were o f the same shape, and were o f uniform s i z e throughout t h e i r l e n g t h . Both assumptions are o b v i o u s l y not c o r r e c t , but the f i g u r e s g i v e some rough i d e a o f the r e l a t i v e amount o f labour need f o r the d i f f e r e n t works. I t was obtained by m u l t i p l y i n g the c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f the d i t c h e s by t h e i r l e n g t h , and u s i n g the s m a l l e s t f i g u r e , t h a t o f Skeleton Green as the u n i t . The c a l c u l a t i o n o f the r e l a t i v e volumes o f s o i l moved i n c o n s t r u c t i n g the works g i v e s a measure o f the r e l a t i v e resources  i n v e s t e d i n each.  These approximate c a l c u l a t i o n s  suggest t h a t Gatesbury/Skeleton Green r e q u i r e d the l e a s t investment, Prae Wood ( S t . Albans) somewhat more, and  120 Wheathampstead and largest.  Camulodunum ( C o l c h e s t e r ) by f a r the  Wheathampstead's volume i s l a r g e because o f the  a p p a r e n t l y enormous s i z e o f the d i t c h and dyke c r o s s sections.  In r e a l i t y the volume moved may  have been  c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s , because the b u i l d e r s took advantage o f n a t u r a l hollows f o r the d i t c h e s .  The  i n f o r m a t i o n i n the  p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l does not a l l o w f o r a c o r r e c t i o n f o r t h i s effect.  A f u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n at Wheathampstead occurs  e n c l o s u r e was  not complete.  There i s some evidence  t h a t the  dyke o n l y e n c l o s e d the west and east s i d e s , w i t h the s i d e p r o t e c t e d by a r i v e r . one  The  i f the  north  dyke on the south s i d e , i f  ever e x i s t e d , has been l o s t .  Even a l l o w i n g f o r a l l  these u n c e r t a i n t i e s , the Wheathampstead r e l a t i v e volume would s t i l l be twenty to t h i r t y times t h a t o f the Gatesbury/Skeleton  The  Green complex.  common Late Iron Age  dwelling i n B r i t a i n ,  has been e s t a b l i s h e d by a number o f e x c a v a t i o n s past twenty y e a r s , was  over the  the double r i n g round house, w i t h  inner r i n g o f p o s t s to c a r r y the r o o f r a f t e r s , and an r i n g forming  as  the w a l l (Megaw and  Simpson 1979:380).  b u i l d i n g s c o u l d be round, r e c t a n g u l a r or  an  outer Minor  sub-rectangular.  C o n s t r u c t i o n would be wooden p o s t s f o r the main members, w i t h wattle-and-daub w a l l s and thatched post h o l e s these may  roofs.  Other than  leave almost no t r a c e i n the  archaeological record.  121 At Wheathampstead t h e r e i s no evidence but t h i s i s probably due was  to the excavator's o b j e c t i v e , which  to examine the earthworks,  enclosed.  Evidence  for buildings,  and not the area they  i s v e r y s l i g h t at Prae Wood, w i t h  p o s s i b l e d w e l l i n g i n or b e s i d e Wheeler's e n c l o s u r e where the two  ovens were found.  main r e s i d e n t i a l area was  one  "A",  I t seems probable t h a t the  f u r t h e r down the h i l l s i d e , under  the Roman and modern towns.  Sheppard F r e r e ' s Bondages  through the Roman l e v e l s have g i v e n t a n t a l i z i n g h i n t s of a major I r o n Age  settlement.  At S k e l e t o n Green e i g h t r e c t a n g u l a r b u i l d i n g s , each o f about 30 m  2  f l o o r area, were excavated.  suggests domestic  or farm b u i l d i n g s .  Their small s i z e  They were dated by  excavator to the p e r i o d from about 15 BC to AD  the  40, w i t h a  d i s t i n c t break i n o c c u p a t i o n about AD 25, and low  level  occupation a f t e r that. At Camulodunum, on the Sheepen p a r t o f the s i t e ,  there  were " . . . . s u b s t a n t i a l but s c a t t e r e d s i t e s " o f n a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n , s m a l l c l a y f l o o r e d huts f i v e to s i x metres i n diameter.  T r a c e s o f other b u i l d i n g s w i t h o v a l or  r e c t a n g u l e r f l o o r p l a n s were a l s o noted. the Sheepen s i t e t h e r e was  a "....uniquely high proportion  of imports", p l u s c l a y and wood-lined pits.  At the c e n t r e o f  c e l l a r s or storage  The excavators t e n t a t i v e l y i n f e r r e d an e l i t e or r o y a l  r e s i d e n c e over t h i s complex o f c e l l a r s and storage (Hawkes and H u l l 1947:46-47). been surmised  pits  Another major r e s i d e n c e  has  from r e c e n t a e r i a l photography showing t r a c e s  122 of a s u b s t a n t i a l d w e l l i n g and l a r g e defended enclosure  associated buildings within  around Gosbecks Farm i n the  southwest quadrant o f the s i t e  (Crummy op cifc:8-10).  From the earthworks the evidence tends to c o n f i r m specific V.  i m p l i c a t i o n s and  Wheathampstead was  the model put  w a r r i n g chiefdom.  Skeleton  Green were Late Iron Age  farming, manufacturing and  o f a Late  Prae Wood/Verulamium  and  oppida, undefended  trading centres  secure f e d e r a t i o n , w h i l e Camulodunum was  The  the  forward i n Chapter  the f o r t i f i e d s t r o n g h o l d  Iron Age  powerful  a  i n a reasonably  the c a p i t a l  of a  proto-state. evidence f o r the b u i l d i n g s i s very  slight.  At  Wheathampstead and Prae Wood e x c a v a t i o n s to date have found no b u i l d i n g s .  There may  be some under the Roman and modern  towns, but planned e x c a v a t i o n  i s impractible.  small r e c t a n g u l a r  at Skeleton  structures  The  Green do  eight not  conform t o the norm of round h u t s i n the Late Iron Age,  but  some r e c t a n g u l a r  such  as Danebury.  The  s t r u c t u r e s are known from other  sites,  most t h a t can be s a i d i s t h a t they  unusual f o r Late Iron Age Camulodunum has  are  buildings.  the remains o f a range of b u i l d i n g s ,  from the s m a l l round huts,  through o v a l and  rectangular  b u i l d i n g s , up to l a r g e r and more complex s t u c t u r e s w i t h a range o f r i c h a r t i f a c t s .  Two  p o s s i b l e "palace"  been proposed, one by Hawkes and H u l l and The  one  s i t e s have  by Crummy.  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence at Camulodunum remains r a t h e r  123 weak.  No complete f l o o r p l a n s have been recovered,  f o r the s m a l l round h u t s .  except  The l a r g e r b u i l d i n g s have been  i n f e r r e d from t r a c e s , o r s l i g h t remains o f f o u n d a t i o n s .  If  the Camulodunum b u i l d i n g s were confirmed, then i t would be d e f i n i t e evidence f o r a s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t y , w i t h a t l e a s t t h r e e or f o u r l e v e l s .  From the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d about  the o n l y reasonable c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t Camulodunum had a h i g h e r degree o f s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n than Prae Wood and S k e l e t o n Green.  124 XIV  THE LITERARY AND NUMISMATIC EVIDENCE  W r i t t e n evidence three sources,  about Iron Age B r i t a i n comes from  the s u r v i v i n g works o f the c l a s s i c a l  inscriptions  such as the r e s gestae  inscriptions  on B r i t i s h coinage.  authors,  o f Augustus and  Coinage, modeled on Greek  and Roman o r i g i n a l s , was i n t r o d u c e d t o B r i t a i n from Gaul between about 120 and 50 BC.  By the l a t e r p a r t o f the f i r s t  century BC, a number o f B r i t i s h mints were d y n a s t i c o r t r i b a l coinage, A number o f i s s u e s c a r r i e d  copying  producing  the c o n t i n e n t a l types.  the name o f the r u l e r , and i n a  few cases the p l a c e where the c o i n was s t r u c k . had  j u s t a t r i b a l name.  The main i n f o r m a t i o n  Some i s s u e s obtainable  from the coinage i s the name o f a r u l e r or t r i b e , and some indication  o f where they were based.  distributions,  Studies of coin  which are not dependent on i n s c r i p t i o n s , but  j u s t r e q u i r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the type from the o v e r a l l design, a r e g e n e r a l l y more u s e f u l than d y n a s t i c Of the l i t e r a r y s o u r c e s contemporary source,  1  information.  Caesar i s the p r i n c i p a l  and t h e r e seems t o be no reason t o  doubt the r e a l i t y o f h i s two i n v a s i o n s o f B r i t a i n , though, u n l i k e the C l a u d i a n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence  i n v a s i o n o f AD 43, there i s no  f o r the i n c u r s i o n s o f 55 and 54 BC.  He was t h e r e i n person and h i s evidence T a c i t u s , probably  even  i s f i r s t hand.  the second most r e l i a b l e source, had  second-hand but s t i l l q u i t e r e l i a b l e evidence.  He must have  1. See Appendix A f o r a f u l l l i s t o f the a n c i e n t l i t e r a r y references to B r i t a i n  125 t a l k e d to h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w , B r i t a i n f o r e i g h t seasons, AD  A g r i c o l a , who  campaigned i n  78-85, and probably to  other  veterans. Both Caesar and T a c i t u s provide  considerable  d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the geography, economy, i n h a b i t a n t s , o r g a n i z a t i o n and routes  and  customs o f B r i t a i n .  the types of goods traded.  such as Horace, Strabo, Suetonius and the res  gestae  divi  Augustae,  Strabo d e s c r i b e s  to AD  43,  trade  Evidence from authors Frontinus,  and  from  i s p r i n c i p a l l y of i n t e r e s t i n  showing the probable s t a t e o f p o l i t i c a l and r e l a t i o n s between Rome and  social  diplomatic  B r i t a i n i n the y e a r s from 55  i n c l u d i n g comments on the p o l i t i c a l and  BC  economic  advantages o f conquering B r i t a i n . Probably the p r i n c i p a l value  of the  l i t e r a r y sources i s  t h a t they g i v e a much more complete p i c t u r e o f the s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t a i n , and between B r i t a i n and be  political  Rome, than  i n f e r r e d from the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d alone.  can  For  example, without them we would have no knowledge of Caesar's two  invasions.  No evidence f o r these i n v a s i o n s has  been turned up  i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d .  p i c t u r e may  i n c o r r e c t , may  be  The  literary  be b i a s e d by the p o l i t i c s  p o s i t i o n of the w r i t e r i n the. Roman system, or may propaganda e x e r c i s e .  l i t e r a r y evidence can  cases, be t e s t e d a g a i n s t the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d hypotheses  be  and  a  I f t r e a t e d as a s e r i e s of hypotheses  r a t h e r than proven f a c t s , the  other  so f a r  i n some like  126 The o v e r a l l impression from the l i t e r a r y evidence i s o f g e n e r a l l y u n f r i e n d l y or h o s t i l e r e l a t i o n s between Rome and southern B r i t a i n a t the time o f Caesar's i n v a s i o n s .  In the  f o l l o w i n g n i n e t y years the g e n e r a l tenor appears t o have v a r i e d from u n f r i e n d l y but not a c t i v e l y h o s t i l e t o q u i t e f r i e n d l y , w i t h the f r i e n d l y p e r i o d s normally  predominating.  In g e n e r a l Rome appears t o have f o s t e r e d s t a b i l i t y by remaining on good terms w i t h the r u l e r s i n power i n B r i t a i n , even i f they had deposed and e x i l e d p r e v i o u s r u l e r s to Rome.  allied  The Romans r e c o g n i z e d the de f a c t o s i t u a t i o n , and  maintained t h e i r t r a d e and d i p l o m a t i c c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h whichever stability.  l e a d e r was capable o f m a i n t a i n i n g order and From time t o time some Romans c o n s i d e r e d the  d e s i r a b i l i t y o f conquering B r i t a i n , but u n t i l AD 43, a t any p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n t e i t h e r t h e w i l l , the r e s o u r c e s , o r both were l a c k i n g .  With the advent o f C l a u d i u s r e s o u r c e s were  a v a i l a b l e , and the emperor needed a m i l i t a r y success t o e s t a b l i s h h i s a u t h o r i t y and c r e d i b i l i t y . a t t i t u d e o f Cunebolinus'  The h o s t i l e  s u c c e s s o r s , Cai^atacus and  Tognodumus, p r o v i d e d the casus  belli.  As f a r as the q u e s t i o n s , hypotheses  and model put  forward i n t h i s paper, the l i t e r a r y evidence p r o v i d e s some d i r e c t s u p p o r t i n g evidence.  Caesar i d e n t i f i e s the f i v e  s m a l l t r i b e s occupying the t e r r i t o r y between i n H e r t f o r d s h i r e and the Trinovantes d e s c r i b e s the imports from B r i t a i n ,  i n Essex.  Catuvellaunus Strabo  i m p l y i n g q u i t e an a c t i v e  t r a d i n g c o n n e c t i o n , both f o r h i s own p e r i o d and e a r l i e r .  A  127 number o f w r i t e r s g i v e accounts showing t h a t southern and e a s t e r n B r i t a i n were going through a p e r i o d o f p o l i t i c a l instability  and change between Caesar's i n v a s i o n s and the  f i n a l conquest, w i t h the replacement o f a number o f s m a l l e r chiefdoms by much l a r g e r p r o t o - s t a t e l e v e l The numismatic  groups.  evidence i s h e l p f u l i n l o c a t i n g and  naming the p r i n c i p a l l e a d e r s o f the B r i t i s h i n southern and eastern  Britain.  128 XV  THE TRADING PATTERNS  Trade between B r i t a i n , Gaul and the r e s t o f the Roman world has been touched on i n the e a r l i e r c h a p t e r s on p o t t e r y , amphorae, c o i n s , brooches and b u r i a l s .  In t h i s  chapter a b r i e f overview i s g i v e n o f the s h i f t i n g  trading  p a t t e r n s o f t r a d e over time, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis p e r i o d from 55/54 BC t o AD 43.  on the  No attempt has been made t o  go i n t o e x t e n s i v e d e t a i l s o f the t r a d e , as t h i s  information  i s not e s s e n t i a l f o r answering the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s posed in this thesis.  The s u b j e c t i s v a s t .  I t i s the s u b j e c t o f  a l a r g e number o f s p e c i a l i s t papers and monographs, as w e l l as g e n e r a t i n g a number o f t h e s e s .  These sources have been  used i n c o m p i l i n g t h i s overview. Trade between B r i t a i n and c o n t i n e n t a l Europe goes back a long way.  B r i t a i n became an i s l a n d about 6,000 BC d u r i n g  the land and sea l e v e l adjustments a f t e r the l a s t Ice Age. Exchange w i t h the C o n t i n e n t was  o c c u r r i n g as e a r l y as the  t h i r d m i l l e n i u m BC, w i t h stone axes coming ( D a r v i l l 1987:70).  i n from B r i t a n n y  Exchange w i t h Europe on a modest s c a l e  c o n t i n u e d i n t o the second m i l l e n i u m .  From the  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d the e x t e n t o f t r a d e and c o n t a c t i n the l a t e r second and f i r s t m i l l e n i a BC appears t o have v a r i e d q u i t e w i d e l y over time.  Between about 1,300  t o 1,100  BC  there were c l o s e t i e s between southern England and the areas around the the mouths o f the Rhine.  P o t t e r y and metalwork  i n both areas were s i m i l a r , and imported p o t t e r y from Cornwall ( T r e v i s k e r ware) has been found i n the Pas de  129 Calais.  Trade or exchange i n bronze weapons and ornaments  took p l a c e i n both d i r e c t i o n s , w i t h Welsh bronze weapons found  i n H o l l a n d , and c o n t i n e n t a l bronzework i n B r i t a i n .  A  complex exchange system was needed t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r the raw m a t e r i a l s f o r bronze,  copper,  t i n and l e a d .  These do not  occur t o g e t h e r n a t u r a l l y and were t r a d e d over d i s t a n c e s o f hundreds o f k i l o m e t r e s .  By the m i d - f i r s t  m i l l e n i u m BC,  there was a v i g o r o u s c r o s s - c h a n n e l t r a d e from the B r i t t a n y a r e a t o the t r a d i n g p o i n t s o f e n t r y a t Hengistbury  Head, the  P o r t l a n d area, and Mountbatten near Plymouth, on the western p a r t o f the south coast o f B r i t a i n . By about the end o f t h e f o u r t h century BC, c r o s s channel c o n t a c t and t r a d e dropped o f f markedly, and d i d not recover u n t i l the l a t e second century B C .  During  1  this  p e r i o d o f i s o l a t i o n and r e g i o n a l development the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n southern B r i t a i n was based on a number o f defended h i l l f o r t settlements. farmsteads  s i t e s , surrounded  by w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d open  These s e t t l e m e n t s v a r i e d i n s i z e from s i n g l e  t o hamlets o f f i v e o r s i x households.  B r i t a i n i n t h i s p e r i o d t h e r e were few h i l l f o r t s , numbers o f v i l l a g e s , hamlets and i s o l a t e d  In e a s t e r n but l a r g e r  farmsteads.  were enclosed, but most were open ( C u n l i f f e  Some  1989a,1988,1987,  D a r v i l l 1987b, Macready and Thompson 1984). In the l a t e second c e n t u r y BC the c r o s s - c h a n n e l t r a d e recovered, marked by a g r e a t i n c r e a s e i n a c t i v i t y a t 1. One reason f o r t h i s may have been the i n c r e a s i n g use o f i r o n , ores o f which a r e r e l a t i v e l y common and p l e n t i f u l i n both B r i t a i n and Europe.  130 Hengistbury, imports,  and the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a wide range o f new  I t a l i a n amphorae, g l a s s , G a u l i s h coinage,  p o t t e r y , and e x o t i c f o o d s t u f f s such as f i g s .  Armorican  This trade  moved v i a Narbonne and the R i v e r Garonne, and M a s s a l i a and the R i v e r L o i r e t o B r i t t a n y . the south c o a s t .  From t h e r e goods t r a v e l l e d t o  T h i s t r a d e route remained a c t i v e u n t i l the  i n v a s i o n s o f Caesar i n 55-54 BC, when i t d e c l i n e d although remaining  i n use on i n t o the Roman p e r i o d .  In the same  p e r i o d a major new t r a d i n g route developed.  T h i s r a n from  n o r t h - e a s t e r n Gaul and the Low C o u n t r i e s , v i a the Rhone Seine and Rhine, t o e a s t e r n B r i t a i n , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o Kent, the Thames e s t u a r y area, and the Essex r i v e r s (Macready op. cit.) In the t r a d e t o the east coast o f B r i t a i n , Camulodunum, on the evidence  from the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d , appears t o  have been the p r i n c i p a l c e n t r e f o r the import  and export o f  goods i n v o l v e d i n the t r a d e w i t h Rome and Gaul 1984,  C u n l i f f e , D a r v i l l , Macready op. c i t . ,  (Bradley  Haselgrove  1982). In summary, w i t h the s h i f t  i n the t r a d i n g a x i s from the  B r i t t a n y - H e n g i s t b u r y route t o the n o r t h Gaul-Camulodunum approach i n the p e r i o d between about 50 BC and AD 43, the r u l e r s o f Camulodunum gained c o n t r o l over the i m p o r t a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l u x u r y and e l i t e goods t o t h e i r area, and the p e r i p h e r e a l zone around i t .  core  T h i s change and  growth i n the t r a d i n g p a t t e r n supports the s p e c i f i c  131 hypotheses, r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n and model put forward i n Chapter  5.  132 XVI  STATISTICAL ANALYSIS  Because o f the problems noted w i t h the data i n Chapter VII,  the t e r r i b l e nature o f the samples and v e r y s m a l l  numbers o f many a r t i f a c t s ,  i t was f e l t t h a t the main  a n a l y s i s should be s u b j e c t i v e . statistical  D e t a i l e d and s o p h i s t i c a t e d  a n a l y s i s o f a s e r i o u s l y flawed sample would g i v e  e i t h e r meaningless o r completely u n r e l i a b l e output. However some simple t e s t s on data t h a t can be compared a c r o s s s i t e s might  support the c o n c l u s i o n s reached i n the  subjective analysis.  T h i s i s the purpose o f t h i s chapter.  The f i r s t requirement was t o put the data i n t o some s o r t o f form t h a t would minimize the e f f e c t s o f the v a r y i n g s i t e s i z e s , areas excavated and sample  reliability.  E s s e n t i a l l y a l l the a r t i f a c t s and f e a t u r e s r e c o v e r e d from d a t a b l e and c o n t r o l l e d s t r a t i g r a p h i c s i t u a t i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d t o be the "sample". complete cemetery.  The o n l y case i n which the  " p o p u l a t i o n " was r e c o v e r e d was the King Harry Lane To compensate f o r the wide v a r i a t i o n s i n areas  excavated, and t h e r e f o r e i n sample s i z e , both i n a b s o l u t e terms, and as a percentage o f the t o t a l s i t e o r " p o p u l a t i o n " no a b s o l u t e numbers o f a r t i f a c t s were used, but v a r i o u s percentages o r r a t i o s .  For example, w i t h the p o t t e r y , the  number o f each major type o f v e s s e l p r e s e n t as a percentage of  the whole assemblage was used.  Thus whether the "sample"  s i z e was an assemblage 10, 100 o r 1000, i f 2, 20 and 200 p l a t t e r s were r e s p e c t i v e l y p r e s e n t , then a l l t h r e e cases have 20% p l a t t e r s .  In other cases f o r i n t e r - s i t e  133 comparisons the r a t i o s between s i t e s were used. w i t h the l e a s t number o f occurrences f e a t u r e would be g i v e n the v a l u e one,  The  o f an a r t i f a c t  site or  and v a l u e s f o r other  s i t e s would be c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g t h e i r number o f occurrences  by t h a t of the s i t e w i t h the l e a s t number.  the r a t i o s and percentages are o f course  Both  dimensionless  numbers In c o n s i d e r i n g what s t a t i s t i c a l techniques main c o n s i d e r a t i o n was comparisons.  the  inter-site  A major t h r u s t o f t h i s t h e s i s i s to look f o r  s i m i l a r i t i e s and s i t e s , and  the need to do  t o use,  to use  d i f f e r e n c e s between the f o u r p r i n c i p a l these to e x p l a i n the processes  involved i n  the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic changes i n B r i t a i n .  To  t h i s end the a n a l y s i s should be aimed at c o n f i r m i n g ,  not  confirming,  the model and hypotheses, and at answering the  research questions. a n a l y s i s was  or  As a p r e l i m i n a r y some e x p l o r a t o r y  data  done, s e a r c h i n g f o r p a t t e r n i n g i n the data f o r  both i n t r a - s i t e and  inter-site situations.  This  was  f o l l o w e d by some i n t e r - s i t e comparisons o f s e l e c t e d a r t i f a c t types,  such as p o t t e r y .  The  r e s u l t s were i n g e n e r a l e i t h e r  unproductive or brought out p o i n t s which were obvious from a simple  i n s p e c t i o n o f the t a b u l a t e d m a t e r i a l .  Looking at  the  data as a whole a m u l t i v a r i a t e type o f a n a l y s i s appeared the most a p p r o p r i a t e . a n a l y s i s was  A f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g the data, c l u s t e r  s e l e c t e d as the most p r a c t i c a b l e approach.  SYSTAT computer programme was recent  literature  used.  (Shennan 1988)  and  A f t e r reviewing the  some  SYSTAT manual i t  The  134 was decided t o use normalized E u c l i d e a n d i s t a n c e m e t r i c s and the Ward l i n k a g e .  These a l l o w c l u s t e r i n g o f d i f f e r e n t  sample s i z e s w i t h m i s s i n g data and tend t o produce reasonably compact c l u s t e r s . The  f o u r p r i n c i p a l s i t e s , Wheathampstead, Prae Wood,  S k e l e t o n Green and Camulodunum were used analysis.  initially  i n the  In the f i n a l i n t e r - s i t e comparisons t e s t s were  run both w i t h and without Wheathampstead.  I t s a r t i f a c t and  f e a t u r e c o l l e c t i o n had so many m i s s i n g v a l u e s t h a t i t s i n c l u s i o n d i s t o r t e d the proper comparison between the other three s i t e s . In the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s the f o u r s i t e s were t r e a t e d as cases and the a r t i f a c t s and f e a t u r e s as variables.  Thus the i n f o r m a t i o n shown i n Table 10 below was  transposed i n the s t a t i s t i c a l work. An examination  o f the data suggested  t h a t some types o f  a r t i f a c t s and f e a t u r e s might j u s t i f y examination  o f the  v a r i a b i l i t y o f one type o f a r t i f a c t o r f e a t u r e a c r o s s the four s i t e s .  P r e l i m i n a r y t a b u l a t i o n s were made o f G a l l o -  B e l g i c and n a t i v e p o t t e r y , amphorae and coinage, by range o f types and percentage  o f range o f types.  Cluster analysis  was then done on these f o u r types o f a r t i f a c t s . were were not p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l .  Satisfactory  The r e s u l t s clusters  were o b t a i n e d , but they showed no more than c o u l d be obtained by a c u r s o r y examination  o f the t a b l e s .  r e s u l t s have not been i n c l u d e d i n t h i s paper,  as they  c o i n c i d e w i t h the more obvious c o n c l u s i o n s noted chapters.  The simply  i n previous  135 A l l v a r i a b l e s t h a t c o u l d be assigned a meaningful numerical v a l u e f o r the f o u r s i t e s were then t a b u l a t e d i n some d i m e n s i o n l e s s form, see Table 10 below.  Initially a l l  f o u r s i t e s and s i x t e e n v a r i a b l e s were t a b u l a t e d and used i n the c l u s t e r i n g .  C l u s t e r i n g was then repeated a f t e r  dropping  the Wheathampstead case from the t a b u l a t i o n , on the b a s i s t h a t i t s l a r g e number o f "0" v a l u e s d i s t o r t e d the r e s u l t . F i n a l l y two o f the weakest v a r i a b l e s , e l i t e and other d w e l l i n g s were dropped, l e a v i n g f o u r t e e n v a r i a b l e s , and c l u s t e r i n g was then repeated j u s t f o r the t h r e e cases o f Prae Wood, S k e l e t o n Green and Camulodunum. The t h r e e c l u s t e r s r e s u l t i n g a r e shown i n F i g u r e 8. I_ab.le-..JL0..„  SITE>  SjJt_aa _jS_r^^ J  Wheathamp Prae Wood S k e l e t o n stead Green.  ABTIEACI Sigillata Gallo-Belgic Pottery Native P o t t e r y Amphorae, I t a l i a n Spanish Other Coins, Cunebolinus Tasciovanus Other Coin Moulds Burials, Rich Other Dykes Dwellings, E l i t e Other Brooches  0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.67 1.0 20.0 0 0 1.0  1.0 1.0 2.36 0 1.0 0 0 1 0 1.0 0 9.1 3.3 0 1.0 8.0  1.5 1.58 7.2 1.0 2.0 0 1.0 18.0 1.1 1.0 1.0 0 1.0 0 2.0 7.0  Camulo2.25 1.03 1.92 2.66 4.0 1.0 12.89 4.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0 76.0 1.0 3.0 4.0  Notes, t o the Table 1. A l l the f i g u r e s except those f o r c o i n moulds and other dwellings are r a t i o s . The s i t e w i t h the s m a l l e s t number o f a r t i f a c t s o r f e a t u r e s , other than zero, was taken as u n i t y , and the f i g u r e s f o r the other s i t e s were then d i v i d e d by the number from the s i t e w i t h the s m a l l e s t c o l l e c t i o n . This g i v e s d i m e n s i o n l e s s numbers o f moderate s i z e , and as f a r as  136 p o s s i b l e minimizes the problems of w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t sample size. 2. For c o i n moulds, a l l the s i t e s except Wheathampstead r e p o r t e d some broken fragments. The S k e l e t o n Green ones were from the Gatesbury area, and a t Prae Wood they were found below Roman Verulamium. Only Camulodunum had them i n a f i r m c o n t e x t . Reviewing the d i s c u s s i o n on c o i n moulds i n Chapter X, i t was f e l t proper t o a s s i g n an equal v a l u e t o a l l t h r e e s i t e s w i t h fragment. 3. For o t h e r d w e l l i n g s t h e r e was one p o s s i b l e a t Prae Wood, e i g h t d e f i n i t e s m a l l b u i l d i n g s , not n e c e s s a r i l y d w e l l i n g s , at S k e l e t o n Green, and an u n s p e c i f i e d number o f d e f i n i t e or probable d w e l l i n g s at Camulodunum. The t h r e e s i t e s were simply ranked i n the order o f the number o f d w e l l i n g s . The  first  c l u s t e r , w i t h f o u r cases and s i x t e e n  v a r i a b l e s , shows Camulodunum as markedly d i f f e r e n t from other s i t e s , and the uniqueness i n the other two  clusters.  the  of t h i s s i t e i s maintained  In the f i r s t  cluster  Wheathampstead and Prae Wood are c l o s e s t , w i t h some modest d i f f e r e n c e from S k e l e t o n Green. case removed the other two  With the Wheathampstead  c l u s t e r s show t h a t Prae Wood and  Skeleton Green are much c l o s e r t o each o t h e r than e i t h e r i s to Camulodunum. Taking the known r e l a t i v e chronology o f the f o u r s i t e s i n t o account,  these r e s u l t s from the c l u s t e r i n g tend t o  c o n f i r m t h a t Camulodunum r e p r e s e n t s a more complex s o c i e t y than the e a r l i e r s i t e s , probably a p r o t o - s t a t e , r a t h e r than a chiefdom  or paramount chiefdom.  Wood and S k e l e t o n Green f i t s having two  The c l o s e n e s s o f Prae  i n w i t h the h y p o t h e s i s o f both  stages o f o c c u p a t i o n , w i t h f i r s t  then the o t h e r .  one dominant  From o t h e r evidence S k e l e t o n Green  probably the s t r o n g e r u n i t i n the l a t e f i r s t  AD.  was  century BC,  Prae Wood/Verulamium i n the f i r s t h a l f o f the f i r s t  and  and  century  137 CHAPTER XVII  DISCUSSION AND  CONCLUSIONS  As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter V the g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n examined i n t h i s t h e s i s i s what were the f o r c e s at work i n the r a p i d l y changing s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n southe a s t e r n B r i t a i n between 55-54 BC and AD 43.  Were they  f o r c e s i n t e r n a l t o B r i t i s h s o c i e t y , or were they a t l e a s t i n p a r t f o r c e s r e l a t e d t o the c o n t a c t w i t h Rome? g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c hypotheses  put forward, and the  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , a model was a number o f minor chiefdoms  From the  developed  i n the Braughing/Skeleton  area coming together i n t o a f e d e r a t i o n s h o r t l y Caesar's i n v a s i o n s i n 55 and 54 BC.  of  Green  after  From t h e i r base at  S k e l e t o n Green the f e d e r a t i o n moved west t o dominate the S t . Albans area.  The f e d e r a t i o n came t o be c o n t r o l l e d by  s u c c e s s i v e powerful r u l e r s ,  Tasciovanus  and  two  Cunebolinus,  and  they e s t a b l i s h e d a p r o t o - s t a t e w i t h i t s f i n a l c a p i t a l at the new  s i t e o f Camulodunum. Evidence from a range o f a r t i f a c t s and f e a t u r e s has  been analysed, and some simple s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s done. The evidence from the p o t t e r y , the amphorae, the coinage the earthworks  and  ranks the sequence o f the f o u r main s i t e s i n  a c h r o n o l o g i c a l order, w i t h Wheathampstead the e a r l i e s t Camulodunum the l a t e s t .  S k e l e t o n Green and  Wood/Verulamium come i n between.  and  Prae  The probable sequence f o r  Prae Wood/Verulamium and S k e l e t o n Green i s not so c l e a r . seems l i k e l y that both s i t e s were occupied more or l e s s c o n t i n u o u s l y d u r i n g the p e r i o d covered i n t h i s t h e s i s , but  It  138 t h a t the i n t e n s i t y o f the o c c u p a t i o n and t h e r e l a t i v e importance  o f the s i t e s v a r i e d .  On the b a s i s o f the  a r t i f a c t evidence Prae Wood was probably i n use e a r l y i n the p e r i o d , but on a f a i r l y modest s c a l e .  Shortly after  S k e l e t o n Green became a major c e n t r e f o r the a r e a . late f i r s t Tasciovanus  century BC and the e a r l y f i r s t appears  By t h e  century AD,  t o have achieved a dominant p o s i t i o n i n  the south-east, and the c o i n evidence suggests t h a t h i s p r i n c i p a l c e n t r e was a t Verulamium, l e a v i n g S k e l e t o n Green i n a p o s i t i o n o f d i m i n i s h e d importance.  E i t h e r towards the  end o f h i s r e i g n o r e a r l y i n t h a t o f h i s successor Cunebolinus,  a new c a p i t a l was e s t a b l i s h e d a t Camulodunum.  Verulamium appears centre.  t o have remained an important  secondary  S k e l e t o n Green, a f t e r a p e r i o d o f low a c t i v i t y ,  r e v i v e d and a l s o achieved a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e as another major secondary  c e n t r e by the b e g i n n i n g o f the second  q u a r t e r o f the f i r s t c e n t u r y AD. The a n a l y s i s o f the p o t t e r y g e n e r a l l y supports scenario.  this  The p r o p o r t i o n s o f e l i t e and imported p o t t e r y  types i s h i g h e s t a t Camulodunum, f o l l o w e d by S k e l e t o n Green and Prae Wood.  S k e l e t o n Green has more v a r i e t y i n i t s  imported p o t t e r y types, but the range has fewer e l i t e  type  v e s s e l s , s u g g e s t i n g a s o c i e t y w i t h l e s s extreme rank d i f f e r e n c e s than Camulodunum.  Camulodunum on the other hand  has more l o c a l l y made c o p i e s o f imported wares, and these c o p i e s were made t o a more uniform and h i g h e r standard at  other s i t e s .  than  T h i s i m p l i e s both a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and  139 a more c e n t r a l i z e d manufacturing i n d u s t r y than a t the other sites. The amphorae show a marked i n c r e a s e i n the import o f luxury food items a t S k e l e t o n Green,  and an even g r e a t e r  v a r i e t y a t Camulodunum.  The evidence from Prae Wood i s f o r  a l e s s complex s o c i e t y .  Evidence f o r p o t t e r y and amphorae  from  Verulamium i s not a v a i l a b l e .  The Late Iron Age  settlement appears from the odd sondage t o l i e below the Roman town o f Verulamium, and has not been e x c a v a t e d . 1  The evidence from the c o i n s i s h i g h l y s u g g e s t i v e .  The  c o i n s found at the s i t e s , and the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i d e n t i f i a b l e c o i n types i n the p e r i p h e r a l areas p l a c e Cunebolinus'  c a p i t a l f i r m l y a t Camulodunum, w i t h an  e x t e n s i v e t r a d e or exchange system extending i n t o the p e r i p h e r a l areas to the n o r t h , west and south.  The wide  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h i s bronze coinage w i t h i n h i s core area suggests an o r g a n i z e d i n t e r n a l t r a d i n g system u s i n g a s t a n d a r d i z e d low v a l u e coinage as the b a s i s of exchange i n at l e a s t some normal d a i l y t r a n s a c t i o n s .  Tasciovanus'  coinage i s c e n t r e d more on S t . Albans and S k e l e t o n Green, and w i t h a more r e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the p e r i p h e r a l areas than t h a t o f Cunebolinus.  H i s bronze coinage al3o has  1. A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n e x i s t e d at S i l c h e s t e r u n t i l the l a s t few y e a r s . The Roman s i t e had been q u i t e e x t e n s i v e l y excavated, but the I r o n Age s i t e was almost unknown. Recent work, so f a r o n l y p u b l i s h e d i n the annual summaries i n Britannia, has shown t h a t a q u i t e s o p h i s t i c a t e d I r o n Age settlement w i t h a g r i d p l a n and d e f i n e d s t r e e t s l i e s beneath the Roman l a y e r s . A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n seems h i g h l y probably at Verulamium.  140 a more l i m i t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n .  The evidence from the coinage  supports the model q u i t e s t r o n g l y . The presence o f c o i n moulds, c r u c i b l e s and c a s t i n g d e b r i s a t Camulodunum, S k e l e t o n Green/Gatesbury and Verulamium i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l l t h r e e s i t e s had mints, and were p r o b a b l y " c a p i t a l s " , o r a t l e a s t major secondary c e n t r e s , a t some time i n the p e r i o d .  The p r o d u c t i o n o f a  s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s c r i b e d coinage tends t o be a t i g h t l y c o n t r o l l e d s t a t e monopoly. s t a t e s o f Tasciovanus a time seems u n l i k e l y .  For the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p r o t o -  and Cunebolinus,  more than one mint at  The c a p i t a l o f Cunebolinus  was  c e r t a i n l y a t Camulodunum, but the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the c o i n s and c o i n moulds suggest a more p e r i p a t e t i c model f o r Tasciovanus,  w i t h h i s c a p i t a l moving from S k e l e t o n Green t o  Verulamium, and p o s s i b l y l a t e i n h i s r e i g n t o Camulodunum, as he expanded and c o n s o l i d a t e d h i s area o f c o n t r o l . The brooch c o l l e c t i o n s from the s i t e s g e n e r a l l y support the c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence  proposed and the model.  The  group from the King Harry Lane cemetery b e s i d e Prae Wood i s by f a r the l a r g e s t , and i t appears t o be l a t e r than the Skeleton Green c o l l e c t i o n .  However i t seems probable from  the o v e r a l l evidence o f the a r t i f a c t s from the King Harry Lane cemetery t h a t i t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l a t e s t Iron Age settlement a t Verulamium, i n the e a r l y f i r s t c e n t u r y AD, r a t h e r than w i t h the m i d - f i r s t c e n t u r y BC Prae Wood s i t e . Only about 15% o f the b u r i a l s are pre-Roman i n date, and the  141 cemetery continued i n use f o r n a t i v e b u r i a l s w e l l i n t o the Roman p e r i o d . The b u r i a l evidence burials  i s v e r y l i m i t e d a t some s i t e s .  o f the p e r i o d under study have been recovered  the Braughing  No  from  area, o r from the immediate v i c i n i t y o f  Wheathampstead.  Camulodunum has produced o n l y e l i t e and  intermediate b u r i a l s , plain burials.  and Verulamium o n l y i n t e r m e d i a t e and  The very r i c h Lexden tumulus b u r i a l a t  Camulodunum does suggest the other s i t e s .  a more s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t y than a t  There i s evidence  Verulamium i n the v a r i a t i o n  f o r ranking at  i n the grave goods present i n  the King Harry Lane and Verulam H i l l s F i e l d cemeteries, but no s u g g e s t i o n o f extremely h i g h s t a t u s , or r o y a l l i k e the Lexden tumulus.  burials,  What evidence t h e r e i s from the  b u r i a l s g e n e r a l l y supports the model. B u i l d i n g remains are v e r y s l i g h t a t a l l s i t e s , but a t Camulodunum t h e r e are s t r o n g suggestions f o r two h i g h s t a t u s r e s i d e n t i a l areas, one i n the Sheepen area and one a t Gosbecks Farm.  The major v i s i b l e f e a t u r e s a t a l l s i t e s are  the earthworks,  but t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t a t  the d i f f e r e n t  sites.  Wheathampstead i s q u i t e c l e a r l y a  m a s s i v e l y f o r t i f i e d s t r o n g h o l d , q u i t e s i m i l a r t o many other Late I r o n Age h i l l f o r t s i n southern B r i t a i n .  At Prae Wood  and S k e l e t o n Green the earthworks are g e n e r a l l y not f o r t i f i c a t i o n s , but boundary w a l l s or stock e n c l o s u r e s . Camulodunum has by f a r the most e x t e n s i v e system o f earthworks,  and they appear t o be o f t h r e e t y p e s .  Some are  142 s u b s t a n t i a l f o r t i f i c a t i o n s w i t h d e f i n e d gateways, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Sheepen a r e a and s t r e t c h i n g down t o Gosbecks farm.  Some are e n c l o s u r e s f o r s t o c k , o r f o r  farming o r i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s , and some are probably t e r r i t o r i a l boundary markers.  The earthworks  a t Camulodunum  d e f i n e and defend a l a r g e a r e a c o n t a i n i n g a wide v a r i e t y o f s p e c i a l i z e d manufacturing  and farming a c t i v i t i e s .  The  evidence supports the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t Camulodunum c o n t a i n e d a much l a r g e r , more complex, more v a r i e d and,more s t r a t i f i e d s o c i a l group than the other s i t e s . The s m a l l amount o f l i t e r a r y evidence from the a n c i e n t authors does not c o n f l i c t w i t h the model proposed.  In f a c t  the o n l y evidence f o r the group o f f i v e s m a l l e r t r i b e s w i t h a base i n the Braughing  a r e a comes from Caesar.  The  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d shows an o c c u p a t i o n w i t h some degree o f complexity a t Braughing, f o r more than one group.  but p r o v i d e s no d i r e c t  evidence  The o n l y a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence  f o r more than one group i s the e x c e p t i o n a l l y wide range o f types o f imported G a l l o - B e l g i c p o t t e r y , s u g g e s t i n g the coming t o g e t h e r o f groups w i t h d i f f e r e n t t a s t e s i n t h i s imported ware. From the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d , the overseas t r a d i n g p a t t e r n s w i t h Rome and Gaul appear t o have changed markedly d u r i n g the p e r i o d from Caesar's i n v a s i o n s t o the C l a u d i a n conquest.  P r i o r t o t h i s p e r i o d Hengistbury Head on the  south c o a s t had been the main p o r t o f e n t r y f o r imported goods.  By the time o f the C l a u d i a n conquest  Camulodunum had  143 become the major c e n t r e c o n t r o l l i n g the imports Continent  to south-eastern  from the  B r i t a i n , g i v i n g the r u l e r s t h e r e  c o n t r o l over both the i m p o r t a t i o n and  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  goods, and over the exports needed to pay  f o r these  luxury  imports.  Trade a l s o i n c r e a s e d i n t h i s p e r i d , both i n volume and variety.  in  From the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d at the f o u r s i t e s  examined i n t h i s t h e s i s , imported p o t t e r y , amphorae and brooches i n c r e a s e d i n both numbers and range o f The  simple  Chapter XVI  and  a r t i f a c t s and  types.  i n t e r s i t e c l u s t e r analysis described i n shown i n F i g u r e 8 , u s i n g a number of  f e a t u r e s supports  the model.  I t shows  Camulodunum t o be q u i t e markedly d i f f e r e n t from the  other  s i t e s , and Prae Wood/Verulamium and Skeleton Green to be fairly  similar.  In summary the evidence at  from the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d  the s i t e s appears to p r o v i d e a f f i r m a t i v e answers to the  four s p e c i f i c archaeological research questions, g e n e r a l to support  the s p e c i f i c hypotheses put  On the q u e s t i o n o f the processes  and  forward.  and mechanics i n v o l v e d  i n the q u i t e d r a s t i c change i n s o c i a l and  political  organization i n eastern B r i t a i n during t h i s period, a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d i s r a t h e r obscure. establishment was  process  l e v e l s , the Camulodunum  l e v e l , and the secondary c e n t r e s l e v e l at Verulamium Skeleton Green.  I t was  the  By the time of the  o f Camulodunum, the d e c i s i o n making  c e r t a i n l y o p e r a t i n g at two  in  and  almost c e r t a i n l y o p e r a t i n g at a  t h i r d l e v e l as w e l l , t h a t of the l o c a l Iron Age  village  or  144 homestead group.  The evidence f o r Wright's  "internal  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n " , the d i v i s i o n o f the c o n t r o l and d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s i n t o more than one department a t the c a p i t a l , w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g branch is slight.  "departments" a t the l o c a l  I f the c o i n moulds from  level  Camulodunum, S k e l e t o n  Green and Verulamium were taken as evidence f o r t h r e e mints c o n c u r r e n t l y , t h i s would c e r t a i n l y suggest the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l over l o c a l departments producing coinage.  However, as noted e a r l i e r the mints are more  l i k e l y t o have operated c o n s e c u t i v e l y , although the s t r a t i g r a p h i c and d a t i n g evidence them i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r .  i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o rank  Trade  i s another  activity  which might have r e q u i r e d l o c a l "departments", p a r t i c u l a r l y the i n t e r n a l B r i t i s h trade between the core and the p e r i p h e r a l areas.  Imports t o and exports from e a s t e r n  B r i t a i n would be c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the r i v e r s i d e p o r t area a t Camulodunum, but the i n t e r n a l t r a d e and exchange network would have operated a t a number o f p o r t s o f e n t r y along the 500 k i l o m e t r e long perimeter o f the core a r e a .  There i s a  s u g g e s t i o n a t Verulamium i n the King Harry Lane cemetery t h a t the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e r e a t the end o f the p e r i o d c o n t a i n e d a number o f people o f about equal middle s t a t u s , t o g e t h e r w i t h a l a r g e r number o f people o f l e s s e r p o s i t i o n , grouped t o g e t h e r i n t o some s o r t o f extended relationship.  family  T h i s s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n would be c o n s i s t e n t  w i t h a number o f merchants or t r a d e r s and t h e i r workmen/support s t a f f s p e c i a l i z i n g i n a number o f d i f f e r e n t  145 commodities.  In t h i s s c e n a r i o a l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the  c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y might w e l l be needed t o r e g u l a t e t h e trade w i t h the p e r i p h e r a l areas,  i n order t o secure  the r u l e r ' s  c o n t r o l over i t . T h i s evidence i s , however, d i s t i n c t l y tenuous, and c e r t a i n l y s u b j e c t t o other i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , such as a group o f extended f a m i l y r u n farms s h a r i n g a common cemetery.  I t seems t h a t " e x t e r n a l  was  " i n t e r n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n " being  c e r t a i n , with  to probable,  t h a t the a n c i e n t  tribal  possible  but there i s no s o l i d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence  f o r the " i n t e r n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n " .  Claudian  specialization"  One i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t i s  l i t e r a r y evidence a v a i l a b l e about the  conquest does suggest a s t a t e l e v e l r a t h e r than a  l e v e l o f society i n eastern  Britain.  On balance the o v e r a l l weight o f evidence f o r the kingdom based on Camulodunum does suggest a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n more complex and s o p h i s t i c a t e d than the t r a d i t i o n a l paramount chiefdom, and one t h a t c o u l d be termed a p r o t o - s t a t e . standard  properly  C e r t a i n l y the r e g u l a r use o f  minted coinage i m p l i e s a s t a t e l e v e l s t r u c t u r e .  T h i s p r o t o - s t a t e was d e f i n i t e l y a secondary s t a t e forming " on the margin o f extant 1975:267).  s t a t e s " (Wright and Johson  The e l i t e and luxury goods imported, both t o  meet t h e p e r s o n a l needs o f the r u l e r s a t Camulodunum, and t o extend t h e i r c o n t r o l and e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the p e r i p h e r a l areas through exchange and t r a d e , were o n l y o b t a i n a b l e the Roman Empire. different  from  In t h i s r e s p e c t the Roman imports were  i n k i n d from the e a r l i e r Iron Age t r a d e w i t h the  146 Continent.  In t h i s e a r l i e r t r a d e , i n weapons, p o t t e r y ,  brooches and raw m a t e r i a l s , the type and q u a l i t y of t r a d e d goods c o u l d be and were made l o c a l l y , as w e l l as For the imports and  from the Roman area, Terra  l u x u r y foods, t h e r e was  o n l y one  Sigillata  source, and  immediate p o s s i b i l i t y o f l o c a l p r o d u c t i o n .  imported.  The  pottery  no trade  through Camulodunum c o n t r a s t s w i t h the e a r l i e r phases of t r a d e through Hengistbury Roman goods was  Head, where the p r o p o r t i o n of  much lower.  Thus the development of the  t r a d i n g p a t t e r n s and consequent s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n e a s t e r n B r i t a i n seems to have been h i g h l y dependent on Roman  the  presence. Looking  at the apparent sequence o f events and  the  s h o r t time span i n which they occurred, a mere n i n e t y y e a r s , i t would appear t h a t the processes Spencer's concept  o f punctuated  i n v o l v e d might f i t i n t o  equilibrium, cultural  e v o l u t i o n w i t h d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s , or w i t h  Patterson's  h y p o t h e s i s on combined and uneven development. The  e a r l y c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f power i n the  Braughing/Skeleton weakening  Green area, f o l l o w i n g the s e r i o u s  o f Cassivellaunus'  power and the  Trinovantes  a f t e r Caesar's i n v a s i o n s , seems to have g i v e n a window of o p p o r t u n i t y to the group of s m a l l e r t r i b e s around Braughing. These s m a l l p o l i t i e s had the chance to come together a now  d i m i n i s h e d t h r e a t from t h e i r l a r g e r and more  neighbours.  against  powerful  With Caesar's withdrawal they had a l i m i t e d  time to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r s e c u r i t y and then t h e i r hegemony i n  147 eastern B r i t a i n . Cassivellaunus they had,  C a p i t a l i z i n g on the weakness o f  and the unwarlike nature o f the  by the time o f Tasciovanus,  eastern B r i t a i n .  Tasciovanus  area, but to m a i n t a i n  grasped c o n t r o l o f  rose to dominance w i t h i n  t h i s p o s i t i o n he had  resouces o f a l a r g e r area.  Trinovantes,  He moved f i r s t  to e x p l o i t the to the west  a g a i n s t the p o t e n t i a l l y more dangerous opponent, the kingdom o f Cassivellaunus, Verulamium/Wheathampstead c a p i t a l to  Verulamium.  the  former  e s t a b l i s h i n g h i s c o n t r o l over the area, and p o s s i b l y moving h i s Towards the end o f h i s r e i g n he  e s t a b l i s h e d , or s t a r t e d to e s t a b l i s h a new  c a p i t a l at  Camulodunum, to c o n s o l i d a t e c o n t r o l o f the t r a d e e s s e n t i a l to h i s c o n t i n u i n g s u r v i v a l . Cunebolinus,  With h i s  successor,  both the pace o f change and  the complexity  the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n c r e a s e d . stage Cunebolinus  society. warring  At an e a r l y  established a proto-state l e v e l  s o c i e t y , a sharp break w i t h the p r e v i o u s  of  of  s t r u c t u r e of  T h i s marked break w i t h the e a r l i e r t r a d i t i o n of l o c a l Iron Age  chiefdoms i n B r i t a i n e s t a b l i s h e d a  q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t type o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . 2  complex s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e was  T h i s more  r e q u i r e d both to manage the  l a r g e area under h i s s u z e r a i n t y , and the t r a d i n g p a t t e r n w i t h Rome and  to c o n t r o l and  the Continent  expand  on which i t  depended. 2. At about the same time i t seems l i k e l y t h a t a s i m i l a r p r o t o - s t a t e l e v e l o f o r g a n i z a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d i n southern B r i t a i n , w i t h i t s c a p i t a l a t C h i c h e s t e r , i n i t i a l l y r u l e d by Verica, and l a t e r by the most famous of the B r i t i s h c l i e n t k i n g s , Cogidubnus.  148 T h i s sequence  o f events seems t o f i t ,  at l e a s t i n p a r t ,  the model proposed by G a i l e y and P a t t e r s o n . f i n a l l y developed i n t o Cunebolinus'  The p o l i t y  that  kingdom s t a r t e d o f f i n  r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o i t s r e g i o n a l neighbours p r i o r t o Caesar's i n v a s i o n s .  A f t e r the withdrawal o f Caesar  and h i s l e g i o n s i t moved i n t o a p o s i t i o n o f dominance, and by the time o f Tasciovanus  had evolved i n t o an  increasingly  s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t y to p r o t e c t the socio-economic p o s i t i o n o f the new  r u l e r , and the e l i t e  immediately dependent  To expand and m a i n t a i n the e l i t e c o n t r o l  on  him.  required  e x p l o i t a t i o n not o n l y o f the people i n h i s core area, but more i m p o r t a n t l y the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the peoples i n the p e r i p h e r a l zone. was  E x p l o i t a t i o n o f the p e r i p h e r a l  districts  a s a f e r course than too h i g h a degree o f i n t e r n a l  exploitation.  Cunebolinus  appears t o have i n c r e a s e d the  „ s i z e o f the e x p l o i t e d p e r i p h e r a l zone s i g n i f i c a n t l y , w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n c r e a s i n g t r a d e , and c o n s o l i d a t i n g the s o c i e t y he i n h e r i t e d i n t o a p r o t o - s t a t e l e v e l o f complexity, a l l w i t h i n a few y e a r s .  In t h i s case the c e n t r a l i z e d  p o l i t i c a l power o f the p r o t o - s t a t e appears t o have both p r o t e c t e d the s t a t u s and e x p l o i t a t i v e stance achieved by Tasciovanus,  and to have f u r t h e r m a g n i f i e d the  s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and e x p l o i t a t i o n .  T h i s a l s o appears t o have  been an " h i s t o r i c a l " p r o c e s s , both the g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s had to be f a v o u r a b l e , and then one or two persons w i t h c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s had t o be p r e s e n t .  149 In summary a model very c l o s e to t h a t proposed by G a i l e y and P a t t e r s o n  appears t o f i t the known or i n f e r r e d  circumstances i n south-eastern  B r i t a i n at t h a t time.  v a r i a n t from the e x p l o i t a t i v e hypotheses proposed by and P a t t e r s o n  might be an even c l o s e r f i t .  A Gailey  They r a i s e the  p o i n t of whether e x p l o i t a t i o n i s a cause or r e s u l t of stratification.  I would suggest t h a t e x p l o i t a t i o n i s a  cumulative phenomenon, w i t h the f i r s t t i n y p i e c e e x p l o i t a t i o n preceeding s t r a t i f i c a t i o n .  of  Then t o p r o t e c t  t h a t s m a l l advantage the e x p l o i t e r i s compelled to e x p l o i t f u r t h e r , s t e a d i l y widening the d i f f e r e n c e between h i m s e l f and h i s former peer group.  At some q u i t e e a r l y p o i n t i n  t h i s c h a i n , s t r a t i f i c a t i o n becomes i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d , continues  and  to grow u n t i l e i t h e r an o u t s i d e f o r c e or i n t e r n a l  upheaval i n s o c i e t y breaks i t a p a r t .  With a t r u l y complex  s o c i e t y i t probably r a r e l y r e v e r t s back to a t r u e  simple  e g a l i t a r i a n c o n d i t i o n , but  reforms w i t h a new  e x p l o i t e r s and  Caesar's i n v a s i o n seems to have  exploited.  accelerated a s i t u a t i o n that already Late Iron Age goods was  set o f  involved e x p l o i t a t i o n .  B r i t a i n w i t h i t s e l i t e b u r i a l s and  f a r from an e g a l i t a r i a n s o c i e t y .  e s t a b l i s h e d chiefdoms and  stratification.  h i s t o r i c a l event, i n the s o c i a l context  It  prestige  had  That p a r t i c u l a r  o f B r i t a i n at  the  time, s e t o f f an e x p l o s i v e c h a i n o f events which produced a s o c i e t y t h a t moved from a chiefdom l e v e l o f complexity t o one  approaching the s t a t e l e v e l of complexity w i t h i n  than n i n e t y y e a r s .  In i t s t u r n t h i s new  proto-state  less  150 c o l l a p s e d under the s t r e s s o f o u t s i d e  f o r c e s , the C l a u d i a n  i n v a s i o n , and a new s e t o f e x p l o i t e r s took over. Spencer's c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n model o f punctuated e q u i l i b r i u m seems t o f i t more c l o s e l y  c o n d i t i o n s where  primary s t a t e f o r m a t i o n i s t a k i n g p l a c e , Zapotec.  as w i t h the  In B r i t a i n i t probably f i t s a s l i g h t l y  p e r i o d and longer  time span b e t t e r .  earlier  For example i n the  century o r two p r i o r t o Caesar's i n v a s i o n , b e f o r e B r i t a i n had  come i n t o contact  w i t h an e s t a b l i s h e d s t a t e  level  s o c i e t y , Iron Age s o c i e t y went through s e v e r a l marked d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s i n i t s socio-economic and p o l i t i c a l development.  151 C.HAP_T£E.„XVJLII J  A&JSLVALUA^^ EESJEAE.CH  In answering the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s and t e s t i n g the hypotheses and model put forward  i n t h i s t h e s i s , one o f the  weakest p o i n t s i s the a v a i l a b l e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data. are s e v e r a l s e r i o u s problems w i t h them.  There  One has been  mentioned on a number o f o c c a s i o n s i n e a r l i e r chapters, the p o s s i b l e t o h i g h l y probable u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e nature o f the data. and  Only q u i t e s m a l l p a r t s o f the s i t e s were  excavated,  i n most cases the areas excavated were not even  judgemental samples, but were f o r c e d on the excavators by the imminence o f new c i v i l e n g i n e e r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n works, roads and by-passes.  T h i s s i t u a t i o n w i l l be d i f f i c u l t t o  r e c t i f y i n the f u t u r e , as a t both C o l c h e s t e r and S t .  Albans  other unexcavated p a r t s o f the s i t e s a r e now l a r g e l y  built  over w i t h r e c e n t developments.  These a r e l i k e l y t o remain  u n d i s t u r b e d f o r many y e a r s , o r even a century o r two. Wheathampstead i s s t i l l  an open country s i t u a t i o n , as are  some v e r y l i m i t e d areas around Braughing/Skeleton  Green.  Another major d i f f i c u l t y has been comparing t h e e x c a v a t i o n s i n the t h r e e main areas.  They span the p e r i o d from the  e a r l y 1930s f o r Prae Wood and Wheathampstead t o the 1980s f o r S k e l e t o n Green and King Harry Lane.  A l l the e x c a v a t i o n s  were done i n the l i g h t o f the techniques and knowledge a v a i l a b l e a t the time, but t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n both what was c o n s i d e r e d important m a t e r i a l , and i n the way  i n which a r t i f a c t s and e c o f a c t s were r e c o r d e d and  152 classified. excavations  In a few  cases the m a t e r i a l from o l d e r  has been r e - s t u d i e d and r e - e v a l u a t e d ,  notably i n  the case o f the Lexden Tumulus and the Prae Wood and Wheathampstead earthworks.  More c o u l d be done along  l i n e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h the n a t i v e Iron Age Prae Wood, Wheathampstead and p o t t e r y from the s i t e s s t i l l  these  p o t t e r y from  Camulodunum -. Much o f t h i s 1  exists,  although  not i n a v e r y  a c c e s s i b l e form, i n the storerooms o f v a r i o u s l o c a l museums. I t would be most time consuming to l o c a t e t h i s p o t t e r y from a l l three s i t e s , i d e n t i f y i t c o r r e c t l y , and c l a s s i f y i t i n t o one uniform aspects would need c a r e f u l  and then  system.  re-study  The c o s t / b e n e f i t  e v a l u a t i o n b e f o r e committing time  and r e s o u r c e s to a p r o j e c t o f such magnitude. The  problem of d i f f e r i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and  is particularly difficult  typologies  f o r non-Roman p o t t e r y , the G a l l o -  B e l g i c wares, n a t i v e c o p i e s o f these and the  indigenous  native pottery.  i t was  necessary  This i s reflected  i n the way  to group and aggregate d i f f e r e n t  tables i n this thesis.  types  found  i n the  There i s simply not enough  i n f o r m a t i o n i n the p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t s , except the most r e c e n t , t o make a f i n e breakdown o f types. lesser d i f f i c u l t y .  Amphorae were a  These were r e p o r t e d u s i n g a number o f  d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes, but by u s i n g Peacock's r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d proposed standard p o s s i b l e to f i t them a l l i n t o one  groupings i t was  scheme.  Coinage  and  1. The f i r s t reasonably complete study o f B r i t i s h Iron p o t t e r y was not p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1990 (Gibson and Woods 1990).  Age  153 brooches have w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d c l a s s i f i c a t o r y systems and g e n e r a l l y were not a problem. Lack o f i n f o r m a t i o n on I r o n Age gap  i n the evidence.  Verulamium, excavated  was  Verulamium  i s a serious  Prae Wood, adjacent to and p a r t of  used i n t h i s study because i t had been  and p u b l i s h e d .  However, i t appears to be e a r l y i n  the p e r i o d , and a more s a t i s f a c t o r y comparison would have been between Verulamium  proper and S k e l e t o n Green.  There i s  some p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t f o l l o w i n g on from P r o f e s s o r F r e r e ' s e x t e n s i v e e x c a v a t i o n s o f Roman Verulamium, redevelopment o f the town c e n t r e may e x c a v a t i o n of i t s Iron Age excavated  further  a l l o w some salvage  predecessor.  A few q u i t e modest  areas c o u l d p r o v i d e a great d e a l more evidence f o r  or a g a i n s t the hypotheses and model proposed here. S k e l e t o n Green t h e r e are two  needs.  One  At  i s f o r some f u r t h e r  modest s c a l e e x c a v a t i o n s i n other areas o f the  site,  p a r t i c u l a r l y to r e c o v e r more b u i l d i n g s , and a more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample o f a r t i f a c t s from the pre-Roman period.  The  second i s to t r y and  l o c a t e and excavate  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group o f Late Iron Age At Camulodunum but not e s s e n t i a l .  a  burials.  f u r t h e r e x c a v a t i o n would be  interesting  O v e r a l l t h e r e i s a much c l e a r e r p i c t u r e  o f the nature of t h i s s i t e ,  i t s extent, a r t i f a c t s and d a t i n g  than t h e r e i s f o r the o t h e r s .  The main need w i t h t h i s  site  i s probably to r e - s t u d y and c l a s s i f y the s u r v i v i n g n a t i v e  154 p o t t e r y , most o f which i s i n the storerooms o f the 2  C o l c h e s t e r Museum. With a l l these d e f i c e n c i e s i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d , how sound are the c o n c l u s i o n s reached previous The  i n the  chapters? c o n c l u s i o n s on the r e l a t i v e chronology  o f the s i t e s  are g e n e r a l l y sound, and i n l i n e w i t h most p r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d work, although the p e r i o d s o f importance and d e c l i n e f o r Verulamium and S k e l e t o n Green need f u r t h e r clarification, particularly f i r s t century AD.  i n the second q u a r t e r o f the  The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the p o l i t y based on  Camulodunum as e x h i b i t i n g a p r o t o - s t a t e l e v e l o f complexity i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d reasonably secure, as i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f both  Verulamium and S k e l e t o n Green as important  c e n t r e s i n t h e i r own r i g h t i n the e a r l y p a r t o f the p e r i o d , and as important  secondary  c e n t r e s a f t e r the r i s e o f  Camul odun um. The p o i n t t h a t remains h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e and h y p o t h e t i c a l i s why S k e l e t o n Green developed t h a t i t d i d between Caesar's conquest.  t o the extent  i n v a s i o n s and the C l a u d i a n  Other than b e i n g f a i r l y c e n t r a l l y p l a c e d i n the  area concerned,  on a n a v i g a b l e r i v e r and reasonably  a c c e s s i b l e by a n c i e n t land r o u t e s , i t has no other n a t u r a l advantages compared w i t h  Verulamium.  of Camulodunum, i n the circumstances  obvious  The l o c a t i o n  o f o f the e a r l y  first  2. Over f o r t y tons o f p o t t e r y was recovered from the Sheepen s i t e , but only a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t i o n appears t o have been kept and p u b l i s h e d .  155 century AD, o f f e r s much more o p p o r t u n i t y f o r domination and control of eastern B r i t a i n .  The h y p o t h e s i s put forward i n  t h i s t h e s i s o f f e r s one e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the founding and growth o f Skeleton Green, but the support a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d f o r t h i s case o n l y evidence  from the  i s modest a t b e s t .  f o r the e x i s t e n c e o f the f i v e s m a l l  t r i b e s i s i n Caesar's w r i t i n g s .  The  founding  O v e r a l l i t has t o be s a i d  t h a t the h y p o t h e s i s and model proposed f o r the e v o l u t i o n o f Skeleton Green i s p o s s i b l e , i s not s e r i o u s l y c o n t r a d i c t e d by the evidence  a v a i l a b l e , but t h a t there i s not a g r e a t d e a l  o f p o s i t i v e evidence  for i t either.  156 GLQJ3J5AEY__1  L i s t o f S i t e Names and Areas The s i t e names are those used by the e x c a v a t o r s , and are those which appear on the c u r r e n t Ordnance Survey maps. Other than Camulodunum and Verulamium they are g e n e r a l l y medieval t o modern, and have no c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the p r e h i s t o r i c s i t e names. The s i t e names o c c u r r i n g i n t h i s paper are l i s t e d below. They have been d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e groups, c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the f i v e p r i n c i p a l areas i n v e s t i g a t e d . In the t e x t the modern name o f the major town or s i t e has been used t o i n d i c a t e the p r i n c i p a l a r e a s . The N a t i o n a l G r i d map r e f e r e n c e t o the k i l o m e t r e square on which the s i t e i s c e n t r e d i s g i v e n , t o g e t h e r w i t h the county. Braugkin&Jkrea ( H e r t f o r d s h i r e , TL4025) Sites  Braughing Gatesbury L i t t l e Hadham S k e l e t o n Green Wickham H i l l Westmill C o l c h e s t e r Area (Essex, TL9925) Camulodunum  C o l c h e s t e r , Roman name Camulodunum Gosbecks Farm Lexden Grange (Lexden B) Lexden Tumulus (Lexden C) St. C l a r e D r i v e St. C l a r e Road Sheepen St. Albans Area ( H e r t f o r d s h i r e , TL1307) St. Albans, Roman Name Verulamium. King Harry Lane Prae Wood Verulam H i l l s F i e l d Verulamium  Welwvn Area ( H e r t f o r d s h i r e , TL2416) Attimore Road Brickwall H i l l Datchworth Grubs Barn H e r t f o r d Heath L i t t l e Amwell Mardleburg Welwyn Welwyn Garden C i t y jQQP_s£e_ad ( H e r t f o r d s h i r e , TL1914)  157  tiers  T r i b e s (see F i g u r e Name Atrebates Cantiaci Catuve11auni Coritani Dobunni Durotriges Iceni Trinovantes Rulers Cassivellaunus Andoco(mius) Addedomaros Tasciovanus Cunebolinus Caratacus Tognodumus Commius Tincommius Eppillus Verica Cogidubnus  Kent  Dubnove1launus  2.) C e n t r a l southern England Kent H e r t f o r d s h i r e , spreading t o Essex Lincolnshire West c e n t a l B r i t a i n , G l o u c e s t e r s h i r e Dorset North East A n g l i a Essex  158 QLQ.S.Si_.EY..-.3.  Arretine ( I t a l i a n Sigillata) i s the p r e f e r r e d term now.  Roman p o t t e r y made a t Arretium (Arezzo)in Italy. Glossy b r i g h t r e d s l i p p e d ware, e x t e n s i v e l y c o p i e d throughout the Roman Empire. A loose B r i t i s h term f o r Roman and p r o v i n c i a l Terra Sigillata.  le.rra,..S.igil.l3Jha  i.au.Lisji  G.aJJLo-J3.e.ligi.c  C o l l e c t i v e term f o r I t a l i a n Sigillata or A r r e t i n e ware and p r o v i n c i a l c o p i e s , and f o r t h e e a r l i e r E a s t e r n S i g i l l a t a . Terra Sigillata made i n southern Gaul, at f i r s t around Lyons and l a t e r a t a number o f l o c a t i o n s . La Graufesenque and Montans were two major c e n t r e s o f production. G a l l o - B e l g i c P o t t e r y was made i n t h r e e forms i n Northern Gaul, Terra Rubra w i t h an orange coated cream t o b u f f f i n i s h , Terra Nigra p o l i s h e d grey t o b l a c k v e s s e l s , and Terra Nigra p l u s a mica d u s t i n g t o simulate metal v e s s e l s . This p o t t e r y was shipped t o B r i t a i n b e f o r e the conquest, but Terra Rubra was out o f p r o d u c t i o n b e f o r e the 50s, and Terra Nigra by ca. AD 80 (Swan 1978:11).  Mic.a.....Dus±e.d.._War.e.  See  Gallo-Belgic.  .T~e_r^^.a—N ffra  See  Gallo-Belgic.  Ie..rjCj8, JS.u.b_r_a See  Gallo-Belgic.  Q.tJae_r.._..T_e..c.hn±.Q.a.l .Terms. Amphora ( P l u r a l Amphorae) Large earthenware c o n t a i n e r s f o r the storage and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f l i q u i d and s o l i d c o m e s t i b l e s . There a r e many c l a s s e s , v a r y i n g w i d e l y i n s i z e and shape, depending on the c o n t e n t s and the p o i n t o f o r i g i n .  159  Iron Age brooches were produced i n a wide range o f designs,shapes and d e c o r a t i v e forms, i n both bronze and iron. They were made i n both B r i t a i n and Europe, and were traded widely. They a r e i n e f f e c t l a r g e ' s a f e t y p i n s " f o r s e c u r i n g garments.  Dykes.  The term i s used t o d e s c r i b e a u s u a l l y f r e e s t a n d i n g d i t c h and bank c o n s t r u c t i o n , c r e a t e d by p i l i n g excavated m a t e r i a l from the d i t c h on one o r both l i p s . I f used as a stock e n c l o s u r e the d i t c h i s u s u a l l y on t h e i n s i d e . I f used as a d e f e n s i v e rampart the d i t c h i s on the o u t s i d e Flan The f l a t d i s c o f metal on which the c o i n design was s t r u c k t o make a c o i n . 0.pm.&um ( P l u r a l , Oppida) A l a r g e Late Iron Age settlement i n n o r t h e r n Europe and B r i t a i n , o f t e n s i t u a t e d a t an important node i n a trade route, and o f t e n c l o s e t o water t r a n s p o r t , sea, e s t u a r y or river. They were q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y f o r t i f i e d , but not always. 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Spence, M i c h a e l 1981 O b s i d i a n P r o d u c t i o n and the S t a t e i n American Antiquity 46:769-788. Stead, 1985  I.M. Celtic  Art.  at Welwyn,  Academic  Teotihuacan.  B r i t i s h Museum P u b l i c a t i o n s , London.  1976 The E a r l i s t B u r i a l s of the A y l e s f o r d C u l t u r e . In Problems in Economic and Social Archaeology. e d i t e d by G. de G. S i e v e k i n g , I.H. Longworth and K.E. Wilson, pp.401-416. Duckworth, London. 1969  Verulamium 1966-68.  Antiquity  43:45-52.  1967 A La Tene I I I B u r i a l at Welwyn Garden C i t y . Archaeologica 101:1-62.  180  Stead, I.M., and V. Rigby 1989 Verulamium: The King Harry Lane Site. English H e r i t a g e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Report No. 12. H i s t o r i c B u i l d i n g s and Monuments Commission f o r England, London. Strabo 1923 The Geography. T r a n s l a t e d by Horace Leonard Jones, Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y . V o l 2. o f 8. Heinemann. London. 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B r i t i s h A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Reports, No. 108, Oxford. \ Thompson, I. 1979 Wheathampstead R e v i s i t e d . Univ. London 16:159-185.  Bull.  Inst.  Tierney, J . J . 1960 The C e l t i c Ethnography o f P o s i d o n i u s . Irish Academy. 60:189-275. Todd, Malcolm 1987 The South-West  to AD 1000.  Archaeol.  Proc.  Longman, London.  Royal  181  1973  The Coritani.  Duckworth,  London.  Ucko, P.J. 1988 Foreword. In State and Society, e d i t e d by John G l e d h i l l , Barbara Bender and Mogens T r o l l e Larsen. pp. v i i - x i i . Unwin Hyman, London. Upton, Graham J.G. 1978 The Analysis York.  of Cross Tabulated  Van A r s d e l l , Robert 1989 Celtic Coinage  of Britain.  Wacher, John 1978 The Towns of Roman Britain.  Data.  Wiley,  New  Spink and Son, London. Batsford,  London.  Webb, Malcolm C. 1973 The F l a g Follows Trade. In Ancient Civilization and Trade, e d i t e d by Jeremy A. S a b l o f f and C.C. LambergKarlovsky. pp.155-209. U n i v e r s i t y o f New Mexico P r e s s , Albuqerque. Webster, David 1977 Warfare and the E v o l u t i o n o f Maya C i v i l i z a t i o n . In Origins of Maya Civilization. e d i t e d by R i c h a r d E.W. Adams. pp.335-372. U n i v e r s i t y o f New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. 1975 Warfare and the E v o l u t i o n o f the S t a t e : A Reconsideration. American Antiquity 40:464-470. Webster, Graham 1980 The Roman Invasion  of Britain.  Batsford,  London.  W e l l s , P e t e r S. 1988 Industry and S o c i e t y i n Late P r e h i s t o r i c Europe. In Tribe and Polity in Late Prehistoric Europe, e d i t e d by D. B l a i r Gibson and M i c h a e l N. G e s e l o w i t z . ppl79-192. Plenum P r e s s , New York. 1980  Culture Contact and Culture Change: Early Iron Age Central Europe and the Mediterranean World. Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge.  Wheeler, R.E.M., and T.V. Wheeler 1936 Verulamium: A Belgic and Two Roman Cities. Reports o f the Research Committee o f the S o c i e t y o f A n t i q u a r i e s o f London No.11, London.  182 Whimster, Rowan 1981 Burial Practices in Iron Age Britain. Vols. I & I I . B r i t i s h A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Reports ( B r i t i s h S e r i e s ) No. 90. B.A.R., Oxford. White, G.M. 1934 P r e h i s t o r i c Remains from Selsey B i l l . Journal 14:40-52.  Antiq.  Whittaker,C.R. 1983 Trade and F r o n t i e r s o f the Roman Empire. In Trade and Famine in Classical Antiquity. e d i t e d by Peter Garnsey and C.R. Whittaker. pp.110-127. Cambridge P h i l o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , Cambridge. Wightman, E d i t h Mary 1985 Gallia Belgica.  B a t s f o r d , London.  W i l l e y , Gordon R., C h a r l e s C. D i Peso, W i l l i a m A. R i t c h i e , I r v i n g Rouse, John H. Rowe and Donald W. Lathrop 1956 C u l t u r e Contact S i t u a t i o n s . In Memoirs o f the S o c i e t y f o r American Archaeology, No. 11. Seminars i n Archaeology 1955. American Antiquity 22.2, P a r t 2:5-30. Wilson, D.R. 1971 Roman B r i t a i n i n 1970. 1964  Roman B r i t a i n i n 1963.  Britannia  2:272.  JRS 54:166.  Wright, Henry T. 1977 Recent Research on the O r i g i n o f the S t a t e . Annual Review of Anthropology 6:379-97.  In  Wright, E.V. 1978 A r t e f a c t s from the Boat S i t e a t North F e r r i b y , Humberside, England. PPS 44:187-202.  183 HESMDIJLJi References t o B r i t a i n i n the C l a s s i c a l to:  Literature  In t h i s paper the f o l l o w i n g passages w i l l be r e f e r r e d  Glcexa..Jjc^_10.6jrA3_..IL.£L.) L e t t e r s t o A t t i c u s : I V , 1 5 , 1 0 ; IV.16,7; comments on Caesar's i n v a s i o n .  IV,18,5.  Brief  From The G a l l i c Wars: IV,20. B r i t o n s a i d the Gauls ( e a r l y 50s B.C.). Caesar q u e s t i o n s many t r a d e r s about the numbers, t r i b e s and customs of the B r i t o n s , and about s u i t a b l e harbours. IV,21. E m i s s a r i e s from some B r i t i s h t r i b e s make f r i e n d l y overtures. IV,27. B r i t o n s seek peace. IV,30. They break the t r u c e , a t t a c k , but are r e p u l s e d . IV,33. B r i t i s h manner o f f i g h t i n g w i t h c h a r i o t s . IV, 36. Peace r e e s t a b l i s h e d . Two B r i t i s h t r i b e s send hostages. V, l l . (Campaign o f 5 4 B . C ) . B r i t a i n s e n t r u s t supreme command to Cassivellaunus, "whose t e r r i t o r i e s are d i v i d e d from the maritime s t a t e s by the r i v e r c a l l e d Thames, about e i g h t y m i l e s from the sea. H i t h e r t o there had been continuous wars between t h i s c h i e f and the o t h e r s t a t e s , but our a r r i v a l had moved the B r i t o n s t o appoint him commanderi n - c h i e f f o r the conduct o f the whole campaign." V,12. D e s c r i p t i o n o f B r i t a i n , the people, a g r i c u l t u r e , customs, coinage, mining and c l i m a t e . V,14. I n l a n d e r s are p a s t o r a l i s t s . Marriage customs. V,18. Caesar c r o s s e s the Thames, d e f e a t s the B r i t o n s . V,20. Trinovantes seek Caesar's p r o t e c t i o n . V,21. L e s s e r t r i b e s s u r r e n d e r t o Caesar. Caesar a t t a c k s and c a p t u r e s the " s t r o n g h o l d " o f Cassivellaunus. (Wheathampstead?) V,22. Cassivellaunus, alarmed by d e f e c t i o n o f other t r i b e s , sues f o r peace. Caesar s e t s number o f hostages and the annua1 t r i b u t e . Horace ( c 6 5 - 8 B.C.) Odes 111,5, 1-4. "Augustus w i l l be r e c o g n i z e d as a god upon e a r t h when he has added the B r i t o n s t o the empire". W r i t t e n about 27 B.C.  184 Strabo ( c . 63 B.C.-A.D.21 o r l a t e r ) Geography: 11,5,8. Comments on the pros and cons f o r conquering Britain. IV,5,2. D e s c r i p t i o n o f t r a d e r o u t e s and goods t r a d e d . D e s c r i p t i o n s o f c l i m a t e , a g r i c u l t u r e and warfare. D e s c r i p t i o n s o f appearance o f B r i t o n s and Gauls. IV,5,3. D e s c r i p t i o n o f Caesar's r a i d s i n 55 and 54 B.C. VI,32. kings  "there f l e d t o me as s u p p l i a n t s v a r i o u s from the B r i t o n s Dumnobellaunus and Tincommius.  JjasejEihia^ Jewish War 111,1,2. B r i e f comment on Vespasian's p a r t i n the conquest o f B r i t a i n . F r o n t i n u s ( c . A.D. 30-104) Stratagems 11,13,11. Commius, f l e e i n g from Caesar, goes from Gaul t o B r i t a i n .  Xac.lfajs_tc.__.A. D 56,5..Znll.Q .Q.r.-laJier_l  Annals 11,24. F r i e n d l y k i n g s o f B r i t a i n r e t u r n shipwrecked Roman t r o o p s , c. A.D.16. A g r i c o l a 10,11,12,13. D e s c r i p t i o n o f geography, i n h a b i t a n t s and customs o f B r i t a i n . L i v e s o f the Caesars. The D e i f i e d J u l i u s 25,2. B r i e f comments on Caesar's r a i d s C l a u d i u s 17,1. B r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f the i n v a s i o n o f A.D.43. D.lQ„..LA...D_^.lS£lr22.9J.  49,38,2. 53,22,5. 53,25,2. Comment on Augustus' i n t e n t i o n to campaign i n B r i t a i n i n 34,27 and 26 B.C. D i d not because of t r o u b l e s i n Gaul. Notes: (RJOM) 1. Augustus probably made an accommodation w i t h the B r i t i s h t r i b e s , l a c k i n g the r e s o u r c e s t o campaign i n B r i t a i n and Gaul s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , and not w i s h i n g t o invade B r i t a i n without a secure c o n t i n e n t a l base. 2. Dio wrote 200 y e a r s a f t e r the events he d e s c r i b e s . O b v i o u s l y he c o p i e d from o r paraphrased e a r l i e r writers. D i d he have access t o o l d i m p e r i a l r e c o r d s ?  185  AEEMBHLB Burial  Sites  The b u r i a l s i t e s used i n t h i s paper a r e l i s t e d below, twelve i n the group o f adequately p u b l i s h e d s i t e s , and e i g h t i n the group r e p o r t e d w i t h s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l t o p l a c e them i n e i t h e r the Welwyn o r Lexden phase.  1,  Pjibliahed. Sites  M . Q Siie.  Map.__B.eJL.  Type.  46  Lexden Tumulus  TL975247  49  St. Clare Drive  TL967250  Very r i c h Laver 1926 Stead 1967 F o s t e r 1986 Rich H u l l 1942  b.l..„.JHe_l__yji._.i_r.s..a na H e r t f o r d Heath 102 L i t t l e Amwell 106 Welwyn A Welwyn B Welwyn C Welwyn D 109 Welwyn Garden C i t y l Welwyn Gard. 2-7  TL3310 TL252113 TL232159  TL254131  Rich Rich Rich Rich Plain Plain Rich Plain  E.\™3.1icmt..iQ.n_§.  Hussen 1983 Holmes 1959 ) Smith 1912 ) B i r c h a l l 1965 ) Stead 1967 ) Stead 1967, Stead 1967  St -. Albans Area 104  King Harry Lane  TL133065  105  Verulam H i l l s F i e l d TL140066  472 b u r i a l s P l a i n t o intermediate. Stead and Rigby 1989 21 b u r i a l s Anthony 1968  2_. Ee^ojc_t_ejd_.J3JJ;.e_s No.,.. S.i±j_.  D_ai_e Map__.Eej£_.. Xy_p_e.  R-L)Ie_r_eji(__s  tester Area St. C l a r e Road 1922 TL975250  Intermediate  48  Lexden Grange  1904 TL975250  Intermediate  95 103 110  Gatesbury L i t t l e Hadham Westmill  1799 TL390250 1886 TL440227 1729 TL380271  Rich Rich Rich  Whimster 1981 Whimster 1981 Whimster 1981  G..1 ielw_yn__Ar_e„a 97 Datchworth 107 Mardlebury 108 Attimore Road  1971 TL265185 1905 TL253175 1938 TL226124  Rich Rich Plain  Peacock 1971 Whimster 1981 Stead 1976  Birchall 1965 Birchall 1965  186  M.o_te_3 (i) The numbers assigned to the b u r i a l s i t e s are those used by Whimster i n h i s g a z e t t e e r (Whimster 1981). I f a s i t e i s not numbered, i t has been p u b l i s h e d s i n c e Whimster p u b l i s h e d his gazetteer. (ii) The dates g i v e n f o r the r e p o r t e d s i t e s are those of the f i r s t d i s c o v e r y or r e p o r t . The r e f e r e n c e s g i v e n f o r these s i t e s are those reasonably a c c e s s i b l e today. (iii) The r e f e r e n c e s f o r a l l s i t e s are the p r i n c i p a l ones. Other r e f e r e n c e s are g i v e n i n the body o f the paper where appropriate, and Whimster has a f u l l l i s t o f r e f e r e n c e s .  187  Fig.  1.  South-Eastern Principal  Sites  Britain  1 88  F i g . 2.  Tribes of Southern  ( A f t e r C u n l i f f e 1978,  figs.  7.10  Britain and  8.3)  189  1 90  191  F i g . 5.  The S t . A l b a n s  ( A f t e r Wheeler, 1936, f i g u r e s 1, 2 a n d 3 )  Area  f i g u r e 1, a n d H u n n  1980,  1 92  F i g . 6. and  Burial  Sites  Welwyn Garden C i t y  i n the St. Albans, Areas  Wheathampstead,Weiwyn,  193 EI.GJJEE....1. RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY OF THE SITES  LEGEND Nv  \ \^\ v  I r o n Age O c c u p a t i o n F 'rababIe, I r o n Age O c c u p a t i o n :  Roman O c c u p a t i o n  194 FIGURE 8a C l u s t e r diagram, 16 V a r i a b l e s Wheathampstead, Prae Wood, Skeleton Green, Camulodunum. DISTANCE METRIC IS EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE WARD MINIMUM VARIANCE METHOD TREE DIAGRAM DISTANCES 0.000 SKELETON GR WHEATHAMP PRAE WOOD CAMULODUNUM  .  195 FIGURE 8b C l u s t e r Diagram,  16 V a r i a b l e s  Prae Wood, S k e l e t o n Green, Camulodunum. DISTANCE METRIC IS EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE WARD MINIMUM VARIANCE METHOD TREE DIAGRAM 0.000 SKELETON GR PRAE WOOD CAMULODUNUM  DISTANCES ,  196 FIGURE 8 c C l u s t e r Diagram,  14 V a r i a b l e s  Prae Wood, S k e l e t o n Green, Camulodunum. DISTANCE METRIC IS EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE WARD MINIMUM VARIANCE METHOD TREE DIAGRAM 0.000 SKELETON GR PRAE WOOD CAMULODUNUM  DISTANCES ,  

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