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A three part project consisting of graduating essay, student internship report, studio work in painting Weaver, Carla B. 1993

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A THREE PART PROJECT CONSISTING OF: Graduating EssayStudent Internship ReportStudio Work in PaintingByCARLA B. WEAVERB. Comm., The University of Saskatchewan, 1973B.A., The University of British Columbia, 1991SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES(Interdisciplinary Studies)We accept this project as conforming to the requirements:Robert F. KellyMarc I. PessinCraig C. PinderRobert YoungTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAAugust 1993Copyright Carla B. Weaver, 1993In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature) Department of  Graduate Studies Interdisciplinary Degree)The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate^August 31, 1993DE-6 (2/88)AbstractMy interdisciplinary studies have concentrated on the practice of art, the theory of artand the business of art by combining the disciplines of art history, painting and artsadministration through the Faculties of Arts and Commerce and Business Administration. Thisthree part project replaced a traditional thesis in order to best explore these disciplines.Part I is a graduating essay, which discusses a management strategy for the 21st centuryfor public art galleries in Canada. It calls for an interdisciplinary approach to management, sothat Directors can combat the issues of reduced public funding, a work force composed of paidworkers and volunteers, and a heightened awareness that, in order to survive, galleries mustunderstand and communicate with all of their constituents including artists, audiences,volunteers, employees, politicians, private donors and corporate sponsors, and boards ofdirectors.Part II of this paper describes my internship at the Vancouver Art Gallery, which tookplace from October 1992 to April 1993. The internship was part of my Masters programstudies, and involved working on two projects: Day Without Art and Art in Bloom. These twoprojects exposed me to project management within the art gallery context and to working withvolunteers, artists and gallery staff. The report contained within this project describes myinvolvement in these two projects, and offers conclusions and recommendations.Part III of the project involved studio painting. Photos of 23 works that were completedduring my study program are included, along with a description of the work.By studying painting, interning at the Gallery, and conducting research in artsadministration and art history, I was able to gain a multidimensional point of view about the(ii)visual arts, which I believe will be invaluable for a career in the arts, and was an enjoyable andstimulating study program.TABLE OF CONTENTSAbstract^ (ii)Table of Contents^ (iv)List of Tables (ix)List of Figures (x)Acknowledgement^ (xii)PART I: GRADUATING ESSAY^ 11.0^Introduction^ 22.0^The Arts In Crisis 33.0^Managing The Board, It's Responsibilities and It's Relationship With TheDirector^ 103.1^The Role Of The Board^ 123.1.1 Defining The Mission 143.1.2 Planning^ 193.1.2.a^Planning For Excellence^ 193.1.2.b^Defining The Audience 213.1.2.c^Managing By Objectives 253.1.2.d^The Planning Committee^ 283.1.3 Legal And Fiscal Responsibilities 293.1.4 Funding^ 303.1.5 Recruitment And Orientation Of New Trustees^383.1.5.1^Who Should Be On The Board? 393.1.6 Hiring The Director^ 413.2^The Relationship Between The Board And The Director^414.0 The Employee Mix: Volunteers And Paid Staff^ 454.1^The Changing Volunteer Force^ 454.2^Motivation^ 474.2.1 Needs Theory^ 494.2.2 Expectancy Theory 504.2.3 Goal Theory 50(iv)4.2.4 Reinforcement Theory^ 504.2.5 Research About The Motivation Of Volunteers^514.3^Recruiting Volunteers^ 584.4 Managing The Mix: The Volunteer Experience, Training, JobDesign and Work Adjustment^ 614.4.1 Managing The Volunteer Experience^ 614.4.2 Work Adjustment and Paid Staff in The Arts^ 705.0^Visionary Leadership In The Arts: An Interdisciplinary Approach^755.1^What is Visionary Leadership?^ 755.2 And What About The Artists And The Role Of Art?^ 785.3^An Anthropological Approach 855.4^A Multicultural Approach^ 865.5^A Managerial Perspective 885.5.1^Organizational Structure^ 895.5.1.a^The Rigid Bureaucracy 905.5.1.b^The Bureaucracy With A Senior ManagementTeam^ 905.5.1.c^The Bureaucracy With Project Teams and TaskForces 925.5.1.d^The Matrix Organization^ 925.5.1.e^The Project Organization 925.5.1. f^The Loosely Coupled Organic Network^935.5.2^Setting Objectives: The Use of A Performance-StructureModel^ 955.5.2.a^Performance Objectives^ 97(1) Satisfying Interests 97(2) Producing Output^ 98(3) Making Efficient Use of Inputs^99(4) Investing In The System 100(5) Acquiring Resources^ 101(6) Observing Codes 101(7)^Behaving Rationally 1075.5.2.b^Structure Objectives^ 107(v)(1) People^ 107(2) Non-human Resources^108(3) Subsystems 109(4) Internal Relations 109(5) External Relations 110(6) Values^ 110(7)^Guidance Subsystem^ 1135.5.2.c^Strategic Planning 1145.6 Leadership versus Management^ 1146.0^Conclusion^ 115PART II: STUDENT INTERNSHIP REPORT^ 1191.0^Introduction^ 1201.1^The Vancouver Art Gallery, It's Mission and Structure^1201.2^The Volunteer Committee, It's Mission and Structure 1231.2^Description of Student Internship Goals and Responsibilities^1242.0 Project Management: A Management Tool^ 1273.0 Day Without Art Project^ 1293.1^Overview of the Project and Events^ 1293.1.1 Advance Workshops and Community Parade^1303.1.2 Video Screenings^ 1303.1.3 Shrouding of Entrances to the Gallery 1313.1.4 Double Labelling of Art in the Gallery 1313.1.5 Cost of Living Performances^ 1313.1.6 Street Action^ 1323.2^My Role as Student Intern Coordinator of the Events^1323.2.1 Publicity^ 1333.2.2 Execution and Logistics^ 1353.3^Post Mortem^ 137(vi)4.0 Art in Bloom Project^ 1414.1^Overview 1414.2^Objectives of Art in Bloom^ 1434.3 The Art in Bloom Events 1444.3.1 Gala Ball^ 1444.3.2 Garden Symposium/Gourmet Luncheon^ 1454.3.3 Floral Design Exhibit^ 1464.3.4 Marketing and Sponsorship 1474.3.5 Flora Photographica 1474.4^Role of the Student Intern^ 1484.5^Analysis of Art in Bloom 1484.5.1 General Observations^ 1484.5.1.a^Definition of Roles and Responsibilities^1494.5.1.b^Communication^ 1584.5.2 What Went Well?^1614.5.3 What Could Have Been Improved? 1644.5.3.a^The Gala^ 1644.5.3.b^Garden Symposium/Gourmet Luncheon^1724.5.3.c^Floral Design Exhibit^ 1824.5.3.d^Marketing and Sponsorship 1844.6^Were the Objectives Met?^ 1914.7^Conclusions and Recommendations^ 195PART III: STUDIO WORK IN PAINTING 199Bibliography^ 215Appendices 224A. Volunteer Management Certification Programs in Canada^225B. Vancouver Art Gallery Five Year Plan^ 227C. Codes For Education, Abilities, and Physical Demands inTable VI^ 245D. Time Stands Still Flyer^ 248E.^Canada Council Grant Application for Day Without ArtEvents^ 249(vii)F. Press Coverage of Day Without Art^ 255G. Day Without Art Flyer^ 259H. Art in Bloom Garden Symposium Speakers 263I. Art in Bloom Floral Design Program^ 266J. Art in Bloom Budget^ 271K. Definition of Responsibilities for Art in Bloom Project^275L. Art in Bloom Event Sponsors and Donors^ 278M. Malcolm Parry Column^ 284N.^Art in Bloom Brochure 286TABLESI. Board and Staff Functions^ 13II. Vancouver Art Gallery Goals, Objectives and Strategies^ 27III. Individual Donor Behaviour and Motivation^ 33IV. Reasons For Doing Volunteer Work According To Three National U.S. Surveys 53V. Reasons For Continuing To Volunteer According To Three National U.S.Surveys^ 54VI. Qualifications For General Cultural Occupations Estimated From WorkerTrait Requirements^ 71VII. Performance-Structure Model For Setting Objectives in an Arts Organization^102FIGURES1. Organizational Structure Models1902. Vancouver Art Gallery Organization Chart 1223. Newspaper Ad for Day Without Art 1354. Reporting Structure for Art in Bloom Project 1505. Recommended Reporting Structure for Art in Bloom Project 1576. Proposed Marketing Image for Art in Bloom 1687. Selected Marketing Image for Art in Bloom 1698. Marketing Image for Flora Photographica 1709. Starving Child and Field of Wheat 20610. Portrait of a Starving Child 20611. Portrait of a Starving Child 20612. Portrait of a Starving Child 20713. Relief 20614. Mural of Starving Children Against a Fieldof Wheat 20715. Prisoner of Circumstance #1 20816. Prisoner of Circumstance #2 20817. Trains and Farms Are Going Away 20918. The Road Home 20919. Prairie Landscapes 20920. Mountain Reflections 20921. Female Figure in a Landscape 211(x)22. Male Figure in a Landscape 21123. Calla Lilies #2 21024. Calla Lily 21025. Two Calla Lilies #1 21026. Two Calla Lilies #2 21027. L.A. Fire 21028. Forest Diptych 21229. Panda 21230. In Search of Creativity #3 21231. The Source 21332. Panic #1 21333. Panic #2 21334. UBC Landscape 21435. Fiji 214AcknowledgementI would like to thank the following people for their assistance and support during my Mastersdegree studies at UBC, and during the preparation of this three part project:My advisory committee consisting of Dr. Robert F. Kelly (Chair), Marc Pessin, Dr.Craig Pinder and Robert Young. I am grateful to this committee, who provided outstandingguidance and support;Willard Holmes and Judith Mastai of The Vancouver Art Gallery for providing me withthe opportunity to complete an internship at the Gallery, a valuable learning experience, andespecially, Judith for her support and guidance during my internship;The Canadian Federation of University Women for selecting me as a recipient of theAlice E. Wilson Award in 1992, and for providing financial assistance through the award;Deans Michael Goldberg and Peter Lusztig of The Faculty of Commerce and BusinessAdministration and Dr. Ronald E. Foreman of The Faculty of Science for providing me withchallenging and interesting employment during the course of my studies;Dr. Peter Nemetz, who very kindly gave me his mother's art supplies and easel after shepassed away. This gift was very helpful in completing the studio portion of my work, and verymuch appreciated;Gary Schwartz, photographer, who assisted with the photo documentation of the studioportion of the project;Dr. Peter Frost and Dr. Stanley Hamilton of The Faculty of Commerce and BusinessAdministration and fellow student, Megan Doran, for their friendship, guidance and support.(xii)PART I: Graduating EssayA MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR MANAGING PUBLIC ART GALLERIES IN CANADAINTO THE 21ST CENTURY: A Discussion of Some Issues Confronting Our Public Galleries And a Strategy to Overcome Them11.0 IntroductionAs I approached the subject of managing public art galleries, I thought, what can be sodifficult about it? Having had several years of experience in the business world, I thought itwould simply be a matter of applying business management practices to another "industry",namely art galleries. However, as I read the published literature from the museums and artgalleries professionals and from business professionals, I began to realize that managing publicart galleries calls for a special hybrid professional who understands the specific issues of thepublic art gallery, and is able to adapt management practices accordingly. Neither thepublications from the museums professionals, nor current business writings fully applied.Business publications were written by marketeers or management strategists who had littleknowledge about the missions of public museums or about their collections. Museumspublications were written by museums professionals, and many resounded of a fear of losingcontrol, or a misunderstanding about how business and management theory and practice couldwork within their realm. In my opinion, effectively managing public art galleries in Canada hasnot been comprehensively explored from an interdisciplinary perspective, and this is especiallypertinent, given the current state of our economy. Corporations are finding it increasinglynecessary to manage more effectively in order to survive these difficult economic times. Notonly does this affect the ability of corporations to provide corporate sponsorship to our galleriesin a time when public galleries are increasingly turning to the private sector for funding, butit is also a sign that all institutions must restructure to survive. A new professional, who is ableto take an interdisciplinary approach to public gallery management, is required.This paper will explore several human relations-based management issues related to therole of the Board of a public art gallery or museum in Canada, the relationship between the2Board and the Director, the difficulties associated with running an organization comprised of amix of business professionals, arts professionals and volunteers, and issues related to providinginnovative leadership in the arts for the 90's and beyond.2.0 The Arts in Crisis"Not so long ago most art museums were primarily elegant tombs of culture past. The men who ranthem, the museum directors, lived lives of gloved serenity. In the summer they travelled throughEurope in search of acquisitions. In winter they did some discreet social arbitrating among membersof the upper crust, from whom they drew their boards of trustees. It was all very genteel. Thingshad been like that for a long time. The Metropolitan Museum of Art was organized in New Yorkin 1870 by a committee whose avowed purpose was to afford 'to our whole people free and amplemeans for innocent and refined enjoyment', but it was not until twenty-one years later that the Metbothered to stay open on Sundays, the only day most working people had off at that time. There wereno evening hours at the Met until 1968.Today the pace of life for museum directors is geared high. Most of them must deal with a rangeof problems, including severe financial troubles and labour unrest, that would be familiar to anycorporate executive. The cost pressures are so great that many museums are now being forced toshorten their hours again and curtail elaborate exhibitions. The directors even face a culturalequivalent of the consumer movement, with the public demanding greater probity in the waysmuseums buy and sell that noble commodity, art. And just as corporate chief executives mustsometimes reexamine the purposes of the organizations they head, museum directors are having toask themselves what their institutions ought to be."Because these difficult management issues are creeping into the realm of the public artmuseum, tension between Boards and Directors is also increasing, and a new kind of Directoris required. Not only must this new manager be schooled in the connoisseurship of art, but heor she must also be a skilful manager in the areas of human resources, strategy, public relationsand marketing. Further, this individual must be a politician who can lobby for governmentsupport, and a marketeer who can attract corporate sponsorships.It is becoming increasingly difficult for museum directors to keep up with the rising costs1 McQuade, Walter, "Management Problems Enter the Picture at Art Museums", in Borst, Dianeand Montana, Patrick J. (eds.), Managing Nonprofit Organizations,  Amacom, 1977, p. 261.3of operation. They must continually be in search of new sources of revenue. According toWillard Holmes, former Director at the Vancouver Art Gallery, "The largest issue facing theCanadian arts community is survival and transition. You have a combination of circumstancestoday where you have the federal government withdrawing funding for a variety of reasons, withthe provinces being expected to pick up some of the responsibility. At the same time, theprivate sector is being asked to assume more of the burden during a recessionary economy withno tradition of private and corporate philanthropy. I think that what this combination does isput not just the visual arts, but all the arts on a very precarious footing."' This position isexpanded upon by Nello McDaniel and George Thorn in their paper, "The Quiet Crisis in theArts:""What is happening to the arts is also happening to the social service community and to the countryat large. The stress, debt and dysfunction of arts institutions are reflected in all of this country'sprivate and public institutions.To understand the current condition of the arts, we need to examine the condition of the country.We need to take a close unsentimental and non judgmental look at the arts. And, we need tounderstand some of the cause-and-effect relationships between the arts and the political and economicsituations in this country. The problems of the arts community are absolutely connected to theconditions of the country at large, and both have developed over a number of years. Likewise, thesolutions must be connected, and the recovery will take some time. The future depends on our abilityto think large, to work small, and to develop solutions that are long-term, systemic and systematic.And, we must be prepared to make difficult decisions and even more sacrifices."'McDaniel and Thorn have identified several characteristics that are indicative of artsinstitutions that are facing problems today:2 Holmes, Willard, in Wiggins, Caroline (ed.), "Holmes Alone", Artbeat, Young Associates of theVancouver Art Gallery, Vol. 2, No. 2, Spring 1992, p. 8.Although McDaniel and Thorn's paper is American, I believe that it also applies to the arts inCanada.McDaniel, Nello, and Thorn, George, "The Quiet Crisis in the Arts," Western MuseumsConference Newsletter, American Association of Museums, Winter 1991/92(4), p. 2.4(1) they rely heavily on current income to cover their current expenses;(2) they have no endowment or cash in reserve;(3) they have no line of credit, or it is very limited; and(4) they frequently have a large accounts payable, which has grown slowly over anextended period of time.McDaniel and Thorn believe that the arts must fight this crisis on two fronts during the 90's.First, the arts communities must organize a broad effort to make the public understand the needto support the arts. And, secondly they refer to the "quiet crisis," which is the need toovercome increasing debt and organizational dysfunctions within arts institutions. McDaniel andThorn attribute this quiet crisis not to bad management, but to financial shifts in the debt culture;a declining human capital resource in that the baby boomers, who made up much of the workforce in the arts, are now leaving for jobs that can better support their lifestyles; andoverregulation of the arts.Dr. Robert Kelly believes that, although the crisis in the arts is economically based, itis also a political, social and professional crisis. In his paper, "The Crisis In The Arts.. .WithSpecial Reference To Museums," Dr. Kelly suggests that supply has exceeded demand for thearts; that more could be done to increase demand; and that many arts institutions have notcatered to the existing demand. Further, he points out that costs are rising, the public isdemanding better service, and public funding is declining. At the same time, the public has beenconditioned to believe that the arts should be subsidized, and they resent covering the costs ofthe arts through admissions. "And, finally, notwithstanding the profound problems facingmuseums, museum professionals (including critics and academics) refuse to join with5administrators in revenue-generating (especially marketing) activities on behalf of theirorganizations and, on some occasions, they actively seek to frustrate the efforts of theiradministrators. Such persons perceive marketing to be a form of cultural prostitution wheremarket response will be given undue consideration when deciding upon the character of aprogram or exhibition. They are an 'enemy within'; not because they consciously wish to placemuseums in jeopardy, but because of their blind resistance to marketing, in the end, it mayamount to the same thing."5A study of the 27 major arts institutions in Texas by Dr. Pat Clubb' indicated that themajor economic difficulty facing arts organizations today is erratic budgetary growth. Accordingto Dr. Clubb, "The most serious problem with research concerned with the economic difficultiesof the arts is the lack of consideration given to the underlying organizational structure of theindustry -- the nonprofit institution. The economics of the arts cannot be divorced from theorganizational context of the nonprofit structure. However, most authors apply a private-firmmodel or, less often, a bureaucrat-agency model in order to study the industry."' Byconsidering the nonprofit structure of these 27 organizations, Dr. Clubb concluded that it wasnot chronic deficits that are causing the crisis in the arts, but rather, unpredictable budget growthdue to the unpredictability of the behaviour of donors including private patrons, corporate5 Kelly, Robert F., "The Crisis In The Arts.. .With Special Reference To Museums," Presented ata meeting of the Museum Public Relations Committee, International Council on Museums (ICOM),Barcelona, June 1991.6 Dr. Pat Clubb was Administrative Coordinator, Performing Arts, Texas Commission on the Artsin 1986 when this study was conducted.Clubb, Pat, "An Analysis of the Economic Instability of Arts Organizations," The Journal of ArtsManagement and Law, Vol. 17, No. 1, Spring 1987, p. 47-74.6patrons and private foundations.Another phenomenon which adds to the crisis in the arts is that of 'cocooning,' describedby Faith Popcorn in The Popcorn Report. Ms. Popcorn describes the trends of our times andhow they affect consumer behaviour and marketing in the 1990's. 'Cocooning,' which shedescribes as the stay-at-home syndrome, has major implications for the success of the arts. Ifthe trend is toward 'popular' culture, or to stay home and rent videos, to watch television, orto listen to electronically reproduced music, how are our traditional arts institutions to survive?Several key management issues face public art galleries in Canada today, and these mustbe addressed by a new director with an interdisciplinary approach:(1) Not all museums and galleries in Canada have the same mission or purpose. This differsfrom most business organizations, in that their common goal is to earn a profit. Thisimportant organizational structure difference has many implications for building amanagement strategy and for measuring its effectiveness.(2) Boards are comprised of trustees who have frequently been appointed for politicalreasons, and often, they have little or no knowledge about how to run a museum orgallery. As a result, Gallery Directors' roles become more difficult, and their jobsecurity is often in jeopardy.(3) Public museums and galleries depend upon outside sources for the major portion of theirfunding (individual, corporation, foundation or public funding), whereas businessorganizations earn their revenues through the sale of a product or service. This keydifference demands that the Gallery Director be a politician, a public relationsprofessional, and a marketeer in order to attract the required funding.7(4) The mix of people working in the public gallery is often a combination of those whohave been trained in the arts, and those who have been trained in business, and this callsfor strong communication, cooperation, and leadership in human resources management,so that the gallery is able to accomplish its goals by using the unique skills of all of itspeople in the most effective way.(5) Museums and galleries are staffed by a mixture of paid professionals and volunteers, andeach group is motivated differently. A number of management issues arise from thisimportant difference, such as: How do you motivate volunteers? What can be expectedof them? How do you attract the best volunteers to assist in achieving your institution'sgoals? How do you keep your volunteers interested? What is the relationship betweenvolunteers and paid workers, and what impact do they have in a union environment? Dopeople who work in the arts share a common "work personality" that can open the keyto effective human resources practices in the arts?(6) Common business marketing practices are often viewed with scepticism or fear bymuseum professionals. However, these practices do have a place in the arts, and mustbe introduced appropriately, and managed effectively to complement the defined missionof the institution. This scepticism is further complicated by the changing market for thearts. This changing market is characterized by trends toward the preference for popularor entertainment art versus what has been traditionally thought of as high art, and thephenomenon of 'cocooning' (the stay-at-home syndrome).(7) Finally, there are the issues related to being an effective leader in the 21st century.Being a manager is no longer enough; the effective director must be a creative visionary,8who can inspire others in the organization.While it is not within the scope of this paper to deal with all of these issues in depth, severalwill be touched upon. This paper will concentrate on the following human relations-basedissues:(1) Boards are comprised of trustees, who have frequently been appointed for politicalreasons, and often, they have little or no knowledge about how to run a museum orgallery. The roles of the Board and the Director are often confusing, and as a result, theBoard-Director relationship can become tedious, putting Gallery Directors' job securityin jeopardy.(2) Secondly, there are issues related to being an effective leader in the 21st century, whichcall upon management theory from both the profit and not-for-profit sectors. Being amanager is no longer enough; the effective director must be a creative visionary, whocan inspire others in the organization. The mix of people working in the public galleryis often a combination of those who have been trained in the arts, and those who havebeen trained in business, and this calls for strong communication, cooperation, andhuman resources management so that the gallery is able to accomplish its goals by usingthe unique skills of all of its people in the most effective way. Further, museums andgalleries are staffed by a mixture of paid professionals and volunteers, and each groupis motivated differently. A number of management issues arise from this importantdifference, such as: How do you motivate volunteers? What can be expected of them?How do you attract the best volunteers to assist in achieving your institution's goals?How do you keep your volunteers interested? What is the relationship between9volunteers and paid workers, and what impact do they have in a union environment?This paper examines these issues and how they affect the management of public art museumsin Canada. I recommend an interdisciplinary approach to developing a management strategy tocope with these concerns at public art museums.3.0 Managing the Board, Its Responsibilities, and Its Relationship With TheDirector"The Board of Directors is a curious beast. For all its collected heads, it often fails to see straight.Its staple nourishment seems to be the boring meeting; its byproduct, the complicated resolution. Theundisciplined, undomesticated Board tends to prowl around aimlessly, alternately baring its teeth orsettling into a snooze. It has been known to devour its young."Boards are usually the governing body of public galleries in Canada. Their members areappointed, elected, or they volunteer. Regardless of how they came to the Board, they are,nonetheless, unpaid volunteers. Trustees of nonprofit organizations differ from corporatedirectors in the profit sector in that they have increased involvement with administration, andthey have a greater social responsibility because they are considered to be the community's linkwith the organization.The size, structure and function of boards varies considerably. However, it is importantthat they work with the Director to formulate the mission of the gallery and its managementstrategy. Further, the Board must be supportive in attracting the resources to carry out the goalsof the institution. The Board's level of involvement in the day-to-day operations of the galleryor museum varies by institution, and members of the Board may or may not have any8 Setterberg, Fred, and Schulman, Kary, Beyond Profit: The Complete Guide To Managing TheNonprofit Organization, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1985, p. 111 0understanding about art galleries, museums, the collection, or the administration of an artsinstitution.Maurice Gurin, President of The Gurin Group, Inc. has proposed 10 concerns that affectgift-supported organizations, which aptly describe the challenges faced by Boards of Directors:(1) Business professionals often leave their business skills and effectiveness outside whenthey come to function as board members for nonprofit organizations, believing that it isacceptable for nonprofits to operate inefficiently.(2) Many business professionals are asked to sit on boards, and then are not asked toexercise their skills or expertise to offer advice in the planning of the organization.(3) Board Chairpersons often feel threatened by individuals who are recognized for theirinnovative thinking and leadership, and therefore, seek out less effective individuals tosit on their Boards.(4) Capital campaigns are often planned without the full input of all Board members, andthen they are asked to endorse the campaign by soliciting additional support or writinga cheque.(5) Many Boards fail to explore all of the options for raising funds, and jump immediatelyto the idea of a capital campaign, without first fully developing other funding sources andexploring return on invested capital.(6) Many Boards place too much emphasis on technological tools for fund raising, failing torecognize that computers are only a tool to assist in this critical in-person job.(7)^^Many organizations have failed to take advantage of the opportunity to share resourcesor facilities with other organizations in order to reduce operating costs.11(8) Fund raisers are becoming specialists in narrow areas of fund raising, often failing totake a 'generalist' approach to the total needs of the organization's funding.(9) Fund raisers must also donate to the cause for which they work to demonstrate theiradvocacy for the organization.(10) Fund raisers need to focus on their own individual professionalism in their day-to-daycontact with donors.What should be the role of the Board of a public museum or gallery? And, how can theDirector forge the best relationship with the Board? Before considering the relationship betweenthe Board and the Director, let us first understand the role of the Board.3.1 The Role Of The BoardThe literature seems to agree that the main functions of the Board of Trustees for anonprofit organization should be:to define the organization's mission, and to set the overall goals consistent withthat mission including the legal and ethical responsibilities of the organization;to engage in long range planning to establish the organization's future course;- to develop financial policy, including budgeting and financial control;- fund raising;to ensure sound management through the effective selection and evaluation of theDirector; andto develop and maintain a link with the community, and to promote the work ofthe organization within that community.12TABLE 1.—Board and Staff Functions.Board Functions Staff FunctionsGoverningAdvisingAdvocatingAuthorizingDeveloping trusteesHiring/firing CEO andartistic directorPlanningFundingEvaluation and controlAccounting to publicManagingStrategizingMarketingPublicizingTrainingHiring/firing supervisingstaffPreparing plans, budgets, etc.FundraisingInforming the boardPreparing reportsBrann J. Wry labels the trustee "the ultimate volunteer" 9 because of the level ofresponsibility undertaken as the final referee on corporate business decisions, the level ofcommitment to the mission of the organization that is required, and the fact that the Boardmembers are responsible for setting the tone and atmosphere for the entire organization. TheBoard of Trustees functions as both decision maker and leader of the public museum or gallery.The literature supports the idea that the Board should not be involved in the day-to-dayfunctions of the gallery, nor should it hire staff (aside from the Director) or make decisionsrelated to the day-to-day programming of the gallery or museum.TABLE I"Board And Staff Functions9 Wry, Brann J., "The Ultimate Volunteer," The Journal Of Arts Management And Law, Vol. 17,No. 2, Summer 1987, p. 35-47.19 Source: Wry, Brann J., "The Trustee: The Ultimate Volunteer," The Journal Of ArtsManagement And Law, Vol. 17, No. 2, Summer 1987, p. 37.13Table I separates the functions of the Board from those of the Director and staff. TheBoard functions are generally those of evaluation and control, while the staff is responsible foroperations. Jonathan Cook, of the Support Centre in Washington, D.C., is the originator of thismodel, and he warns that, if the Board of Trustees meddles in the functions listed on the right,the organization will experience difficulty that arises from confusion about responsibility.3.1.1 Defining The MissionDefining the mission of the organization is the responsibility of the Board. "The missionis that overall purpose for which the organization was founded. The mission statementarticulates the authentic heart of the organization and attracts volunteers and staff to theundertaking on a basis of shared ideals and social beliefs.' According to Peter Drucker, "Itfocuses the organization on action. It defines the specific strategies needed to attain the crucialgoals. It creates a disciplined organization. It alone can prevent the most common degenerativedisease of organizations, especially large ones: splintering their always limited resources onthings that are 'interesting' or look 'profitable' rather than concentrating them on a very smallnumber of productive efforts."12It seems that the museums of Canada, as a whole, have not agreed upon the role of amuseum or public gallery. Should they be storehouses for collections that describe our culture;institutions of higher learning; entertainment centres; objects of civic or national pride; orresearch centres? Should they be complemented by fine restaurants, retail outlets and theatre" Wry, Brann J., "The Trustee: The Ultimate Volunteer," The Journal Of Arts Management AndLaw, Vol. 17, No. 2, Summer 1987, p. 38.12 Drucker, Peter F., "What Businesses Can Learn From Nonprofits," The Harvard BusinessReview, July-August 1989, p. 89.14facilities? These are issues that have not been resolved, and countless articles in Muse, MuseumNews and many other publications are devoted to this debate. Should they all have the samerole?Canadians take an increasing interest in museums today, and as a result, federal policyis geared to make them as accessible to their audiences as possible. According to Marcel Masse,former Minister of Communications, "Canadians are almost unanimous in saying that museumsmust be accessible to the public. They expect the various levels of government to contribute tothe support of museological institutions, and to the communities and individuals who establishedthem. They also expect governments to play a direct role in establishing, preserving, developingand exhibiting heritage collections. Thus, museums have evolved from being elitist shrines,sacrosanct and inaccessible, to being democratic institutions that are open to all and make a vitalcontribution to the cultural and scientific life of the community."' As a result of this belief,the federal government developed a policy that states that all Canadians should have access totheir museum collections, regardless of their background or where they live. Various programs,such as the Museums Assistance Program" and the Movable Cultural Property Program'',are in place to support this policy. The government's support also extends to the National13 Masse, Marcel, Canadian Museum Policy: Temples of the Human Spirit, Department ofCommunications, Ottawa, p. 9.14 The Museums Assistance Program (MAP) is the Federal Government's main vehicle of supportfor museums. It provides funding for museums and related organizations through the provision ofadvisory services, contributions to organizing exhibits and other programs, upgrading equipment andfacilities, and furthering professional development.This program is in place to facilitate the return of Canadian objects which are held outside ofCanada, and to control the export of Canadian objects outside of the country. The program coversobjects of art, historical artifacts, natural history specimens, archival materials, et cetera.15Gallery, the Museum of Civilization, the Museum of Science and Technology and the Museumof Nature, for which the federal government is responsible.Although federal policy implies that all museums must be accessible to all Canadians, notall Canadian public museums necessarily reflect this philosophy. Public galleries are socialinstitutions, which must be designed to meet the needs of those they serve. As a result, theymay vary in their roles in order to meet the varied needs of their various audiences. Accordingto Sheila Stevenson, Curator of Museum Services at the Nova Scotia Museum, "Any attempt tomake all museums the same, to develop one set of standards for all museums, suggests that theobject is sacred, and that treasure houses, shrines and other such beautified places are the onlytrue museums, is an approach that simply doesn't work for many museums workers or thepublic."'6I believe that each institution must have its own mission statement based on how it seesits role, and these will vary as do the publics that they serve. While I do not believe that it isnecessary for all public galleries and museums in the country to have a unified purpose, it doesmake it more difficult to propose a single solution for managing them, as each must be managedbased on its mission. However, although the specific management strategy may vary frommuseum to museum depending on its mission, I do believe that the same management approachcan be taken.In his article "The Trouble With Canada's Museums," former Director of the RoyalOntario Museum, Peter Swann, suggests that the basis of the problem with our museums may16 Stevenson, Sheila, "Balancing the Scales: Old Views and a New Muse", Muse, Spring 1987, p.30.16very well be that they are expected to be all things to all people." While it is noble for ourfederal government to suggest that our museums must be accessible to all Canadians, how is thisto be achieved? This position is further substantiated by Victor Middleton, Director of VenturesConsultancy Ltd. and Chairman of the Tourism Society, who states: "After a century of claimeddevotion to public service ideals, we know that nine museums out of ten do not serve the generalpublic in any overall sense at all; they serve the better educated middle class, and have little orno appeal to the lower socio-economic groups in their present form. The point is not that publicservice ideals are wrong, only that they are clearly not being achieved."' Becoming accessibleto all suggests that the museum or gallery must become more closely identified as a touristattraction, and this may detract from its goals of research and scholarship. Therefore, it isimportant for each institution to define its goals, by way of a mission statement, and then tomanage toward achieving those goals, whatever they may be. Is the institution's prime goal toeducate, to research, to be accessible to all people? This varies from institution to institution.For example, the Museum of Anthropology at The University of British Columbia has a mandatefor research and education, whereas the Canadian Museum of Civilization in Ottawa is morefocused on being accessible to all Canadians, and to attracting visitors to the capital.In most cases, the mission must strike a balance between scholarship, preserving ourculture, and serving as a social institution which meets the needs of the public. In businesses,where earning a profit is the overall objective, the organization is ruled by the philosophy of"the customer is always right." This model may not work in the case of a public museum or17 Swann, Peter, "The Trouble With Canada's Museums", Muse, Spring 1986, p. 11.18 Middleton, Victor, "Irresistible Demand Forces", Museums Journal, February 1990, p. 31.17gallery, as what the customer wants may not necessarily be in line with the goals of the galleryor museum. (For example, although we might survey our public school students to find outwhat they would like to be taught, we must factor their preferences into overall educationalgoals.) Therefore, the Museum Board and its professionals have a higher responsibility ofdetermining the role the museum or gallery must play in order to be functional in preserving ourculture, educating, researching, advancing art, and meeting the needs of the community. Tostrike this balance, the Board and its management must have a clear understanding about whatrole the gallery is to play, and further, they must clearly understand who their customers are andwhat they want.The mission statement of the Vancouver Art Gallery (V.A.G.), for example, reads asfollows:"The Vancouver Art Gallery exists to serve the many purposes of art. As a public institution, awareof the essential role art plays in shaping and clarifying culture, the Gallery pursues this goal throughthe highest quality collections, exhibitions, programs and the services of its personnel.The focus of these pursuits is contemporary in the conviction that, through such a focus on visual art,the Gallery can contribute locally, regionally, nationally and internationally to the evolution of aliving culture."'The Vancouver Art Gallery states that it intends to fulfil "many purposes of art," focusing oncontemporary art. It goes further to state that it will make contributions at the local, regional,national and international levels; it does not, however, define its customers.The Canadian Museum of Civilization in Ottawa stated in its Vision Statement:"With a truly world-class building at the very heart of Canada, the Canadian Museum of Civilization(CMC) must deliver exhibitions, research, and public interpretive programs worthy of a worldwidereputation for excellence. A project of such magnitude carries with it a special burden ofresponsibility to see a return on investment to the people of Canada.[...] Although CMC is one of19 Holmes, Willard, The Vancouver Art Gallery Association Long Range Plan, Vancouver ArtGallery Association, 1988, p. 3.18numerous attractions in the National Capital Region, this expensive facility must ultimately performas a high-profile attraction far beyond initial projections. [...] CMC's foremost objective is todevelop a new kind of history museum that allows visitors to experience the past in a profoundlymoving way, both emotionally and intellectually. [...] No prototype exists for a major, indoor,human history museum. We intend to develop CMC into that prototype.""Note that the Canadian Museum of Civilization refers to itself as an "attraction", andmakes mention of the notion of attracting travellers to the capital region. The Director, GeorgeMacDonald, sees this institution in a different way than the Vancouver Art Gallery sees itself.The mission statement of the V.A.G. talks about fulfilling the purposes of art and clarifyingculture through quality collections, exhibitions, programs and services, whereas the Museum ofCivilization more closely aligns itself with tourist attractions and implies that it has a publicrelations function for Canada.These issues related to defining the mission of the public gallery make the jobs of boththe Board and the Director ever more challenging, and can give rise to tension in therelationship.3.1.2 PlanningHaving committed itself to a mission statement, whatever that mission may be, the publicgallery's Board must then set out a number of goals that are consistent with its mission, andoutline a strategy that will accomplish those goals.3.1.2.a Planning for ExcellenceArts institutions must first view excellence as one of their prime goals, and must striveto achieve a state of excellence through the planning process. David H. Scott presented eightattributes of excellence in his address to the New England Conference of the AmericanMacDonald, George F., Vision Statement: Canadian Museum of Civilization, National Museumsof Canada, Ottawa, p. 119Association of Museums a few years ago, and I think that these attributes are well worthconsideration by any Board in its planning process: 21(1) A clear understanding of the real purposes of the organization by all of the keypeople involved.(2) A common image of what the organization wishes to become in the long term.(3) An organizational structure which clearly defines responsibility forachieving the basic purposes of the institution.(4) Key operating policies which are congruent with the purposes and plan of theorganization.(5) A realistic assessment of the human, financial, and physical resources necessaryto achieve long-term goals, and a reasonable expectation of obtaining them.(6) Methods of budgeting or allocating these resources rationally in support of thebasic purposes of the organization.(7) Procedures to regularly review purposes, plans, and policies, and to assessprogress in implementation.(8) Physical planning procedures which are fully integrated and compatible withinstitutional planning processes.Scott emphasizes planning for excellence by developing a plan that is both comprehensive andcoordinated, and it must be an on-going process involving all who are affected by the planningprocess. In fact, Scott goes further, and encourages planning for the planning process by21 Scott, David H., "Museums To The Year 2000: Challenge and Response," Presented to the NewEngland Conference of the American Association of Museums, October 28, 1978, p. 4.20developing a "Guidelines for Planning" study, which would summarize the current status of theorganization and identify any key problems that need attention along with suggested solutionsor required processes, policies and personnel to solve these key issues. The benefit of takingthis approach is that it ensures that any planning that takes place will meet the needs of theorganization.3.1.2.b Defining The AudienceIn addition to having an overriding goal of excellence, it is also important that galleriesdefine their audience, and then evaluate whether that audience must be expanded in order toaccomplish its goals. The Board at The Vancouver Art Gallery initiated a visitors' survey, andthe results will be available shortly. The current audience can be better understood byconducting visitor surveys, and this can be accomplished relatively inexpensively by usingvolunteers to survey visitors. If it is determined that the visitor audience must be expanded toaccomplish the gallery's goals, then further research will be required to analyze how newvisitors can be attracted, and to identify the potential audiences. Without a clear profile of itsaudience, a gallery cannot build an effective strategy to fulfil its mission because it will notknow who to target for activities such as public programs, fund raising or advertising.A number of years ago, the Buffalo Philharmonic wanted to broaden its audience.Although they were willing to make some changes to their program, they felt that "Mozart isMozart'', and that it was more important to change the attitudes of their audience. A surveywas conducted in the early 1970's, and it was found that, although some people were interested22 Andreason, Alan R., and Kotler, Philip, Strategic Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations,  PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1991, p. 43.21in attending a concert, they had an expectation that it would be a formal occasion, and they didnot feel comfortable attending. When the management of the Buffalo Philharmonic understoodthis attitude, they were able to design a promotional campaign that appealed to this potentialgroup of customers without compromising the content of their program.In addition to understanding who the gallery's customers are, it is also important tounderstand who is not coming to the museum, in order to initiate plans to attract new targetaudiences. By understanding the characteristics of those who do not visit museums, newprograms and services can be developed to reach new audiences. It is important to realize thatwhen individuals make decisions about how to spend their leisure time, they consider variousalternatives. In her paper, "Why People Choose Not To Visit Museums," Marilyn Hoodidentified six criteria that individuals use in deciding how to spend their leisure time:- social interactiondoing something worthwhile- feeling comfortable and at ease in one's surroundingshaving a challenge or new experience- having an opportunity to learn- participating actively'Ms. Hood led a research project at The Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, Ohio, todetermine the importance of the above six criteria with respect to visiting museums, and todetermine the respondents' preferences for various leisure activities and venues. The results of'3 Hood, Marilyn G., "Staying Away: Why People Choose Not To Visit Museums," MuseumNews, American Association of Museums, Vol. 61, No. 4, April 1983, p. 50-57.22the study showed that there are three audience segments in the body of current and potentialmuseum goers, based on their values and expectations for leisure. She divided the audience intofrequent participants, occasional participants and nonparticipants because each of these groupsexpects different things from their leisure activities. She also concluded that people makedecisions about visiting museums based on how they prioritize the six criteria for measuringleisure activities and on their family values as related to these activities.This study is significant to planning for museums because previously, it was believed thatby understanding the demographics of the people who were already attending museums, thatprograms and exhibits could be targeted at that audience. However, understanding only thedemographics of people who are already visiting museums leaves out the potential audiencesmade up of occasional participants and nonparticipants.Dr. Hood found that museum participants (those who visit museums at least 3 times peryear) value all of the six identified leisure attributes highly, and also believe that visiting amuseum will fulfil these criteria. Most important to this group is having an opportunity to learn,the challenge of a new experience, and doing something worthwhile during their leisure time.In Toledo, this group comprised only 14% of the community. These regular museum visitorshad made a past decision that museums could meet their leisure-time needs, and they continuedto visit museums because of this belief. Therefore, it is important that museums change theirexhibits from time to time to ensure that each visit is a new and rewarding experience for thisaudience segment.The nonparticipant group, 46% of the Toledo community, selects activities that providethem with an opportunity for active participation, social interaction and comfortable surroundings23such as attending sports activities or visiting shopping malls. This group does not perceive thata museum or gallery will provide them with the experience that they are looking for. 40% ofthe Toledo community visited museums occasionally (once or twice a year), and this groupprefers active participation in entertainment or sports activities. The study concluded thatoccasional participants and nonparticipants place a higher priority on family activities than dofrequent museum visitors, and that the occasional participants do not perceive museums toprovide comfortable surroundings or a place where they have a sense of belonging. Therefore,they are more likely to attend only special museum events such as family days, which theyperceive are more likely to provide the experience they desire.Dr. Hood's study provides a valuable basis upon which museum planners can gear theirmarketing and programs because it points to the criteria upon which nonparticipants andoccasional participants make choices about how to spend their leisure time. Hood concludes:"For instance, instead of portraying itself as an educational institution, where the family learns together,the museum seeking to reach occasional participants and nonparticipants might stress that it is a place forexploring and discovering, for enjoying a relaxing family outing, and for having a good time with otherpeople.Discovery workshops that offer the family the opportunity to participate as a unit--to identify insects, fungior fossils in a natural history museum, to work with clay or on a mural in an art museum, to try on ormake facsimile costumes in a history museum--are examples of current museum programs that occasionalvisitors prize. These activities, though, should not be just ends in themselves but utilized as entrees,transitions, into the collections. If skilfully handled they can prepare the occasional visitors to cope withthe "museum code" as well as enhance their positive perceptions of museums as places that meet theircriteria of satisfying leisure locales. If they find their preferred attributes are present, they will choose toreturn. Other museums are providing tours and talks geared to the interests of specific groups--constructionworkers, sports fans, hobbyists of all hues--to demonstrate the relevance of museum collections to personswho do not perceive any connection between museums and their lives."'Dr. Hood emphasizes that museum boards and their directors need not abandon their currentprograms and strategies, but rather, broaden their perspective in order to be able to expand their24 Hood, Marilyn G., "Staying Away: Why People Choose Not To Visit Museums", Museum News,Vol. 61, No. 4, April 1983, p. 56.24audience to include the occasional participants and nonparticipants, and that this must be doneby communicating with these audiences in their own terms. While the specifics of museumprogramming should be left to the Director and staff, understanding the audience is an importantcomponent of the planning process.3.1.2.c Managing By ObjectivesBecause a public gallery does not seek to earn a profit, measuring the success of theinstitution is less tangible than measuring the success of a for-profit organization. How did thegallery fulfil its mission? One of the greatest difficulties in managing a public nonprofitinstitution is first, defining objectives, and secondly, measuring how effectively these objectiveshave been met.In his paper "Applying Management by Objectives to Nonprofit Organizations", Dale D.McConkey suggests that the profit motive is also present in a nonprofit organization:"The profit motive is present in both a profit and nonprofit organization. A business makes profitsdepending on the way it manages the resources (assets) entrusted to it. Business profits are enhanced inone or both of two ways: (1) by realizing a higher return on the same amount of assets, and (2) byrealizing the same or better return on a lesser amount of assets. Nonprofit organizations have the samemission, as illustrated by the following ways used to realize a higher return on resources:Increased productivity from present employees.Increased quality and/or quantity of teaching from present staff.Lower overhead cost of fund raising.- Greater results from volunteer workers.- Lowering the administrative costs of operating the organization."'Now, public and nonprofit organizations are being challenged to take new approaches tomanaging their assets. One way to accomplish this is through managing by objectives. Thismeans first determining the goals of the organization at a Board and Director level, and thenencouraging all personnel to work toward those goals by developing a strategy to achieve them.McConkey, Dale D., "Applying Management by Objectives to Nonprofit Organizations", in Borst,Diane, and Montana, Patrick J. (eds.), Managing Nonprofit Organizations, Amacom, New York, 1977.25Progress must be monitored, and the staff who are responsible for carrying out the strategy,must be accountable for it.The planning function of the Board should involve setting goals and objectives for theshort term, medium term and long term, and these must be based on the defined mission of theorganization. Good goals are quantitative, measurable and achievable.Once the goals and objectives have been defined, an implementation plan should bedeveloped to achieve them. The implementation plan should be developed by the staff under theguidance of the Director, and should be approved by the Board. In conjunction with theimplementation plan, a means of evaluating the achievement of the plan should be agreed uponby the Director and the Board. It is ultimately the responsibility of the Board to direct theorganization toward the achievement of its goals, and therefore, they should have some meansof measuring whether it is going in the appropriate direction. Section 5.5.2 discusses the useof a Performance-Structure Model to facilitate the setting of clear measurable objectives.While The Vancouver Art Gallery's long range plan demonstrates a Management ByObjectives approach, it is vague in its definition of strategies. For example, one of the goalsof the gallery is "to be a leading Gallery through the quality of our collections, exhibitions, andpublic programmes." 26 In order to achieve this goal, the gallery has set out three objectives(see Table II) and a strategy by which each of these objectives can be achieved. The strategies,however, are not specific enough to be able to measure their success. For example, to meet theHolmes, Willard, The Vancouver Art Gallery Association Long Range Plan, Vancouver ArtGallery Association, April 1988, p. 5.261....mtfri-vrfm.„nrmmT.7...•r8FIRVICESGOAL:To be a leading Gallery through the qualityof our collections, exhibitions and publicprogrammes.STRATEGY:Establish a collection of contemporary nationaland international atSTRATEGY:Make the collection known to the public and thenational and international art communities.STRATEGY:Present a Traded programme of exhibitions focusedon internationa/. Canadian and regional contemporaryart and supported by historical exhibitions.STRATEGY:Initiate innovative public programmes and educationalactivities.ACTIONS:• Employ full curatorial staff- Employ conservator;- Establish full data base on collections;- Develop a five year acquisitions.donations and de-accessioning planwith specific targetsACTIONS:• Display significant works in long termInstallations;• Publish selected catalogue of permanentcollection;• Promote exchanges with other museums.- Develop publications and communicationsprogrammeACTIONS:- Employ full curatorial staff• Define focus and establish long rangeexhibitions plan reflecting desired balance;- Identify strengths of in-house personneland organize exhibitions based on theirexpertise;• Contract with scholars and experts toorganize exhibitions in other fields;- Co-organize exhibitions with other institutionsACTIONS:- Identify strengths of existing staff and planprofessional development and recruitment;- Provide direction and resources for volunteers;• Professionalize docent programme;- Establish links and communicate with othercultural organizations. educational institutions.professional associations. and community andneighbourhood associationsTABLE IrVancouver Art Gallery Goals, Objectives and Strategies27 Source: Holmes, Willard, The Vancouver Art Gallery Long Range Plan, The Vancouver ArtGallery Association, April 1988, p. 5.27objective "to develop innovative approaches to the elucidation of art's purposes and valuesthrough public programmes,' the long range plan defines a strategy of "initiating innovativepublic programmes and educational activities which recognize the wide variety of publics whichmake up the Vancouver Art Gallery's audience: programmes which encourage a continuingrelationship with the Gallery.' In order to be more clear, this plan should describe what ismeant by innovative approaches to the elucidation of art's purposes, and what specifically areart's purposes and values, as seen by the Vancouver Art Gallery? Who are the wide variety ofpublics that are to be addressed, and how will they measure whether they have been reached?What is a continuing relationship with the Gallery, and how is it measured? Is it the purchaseof a membership, attendance at two or more public programmes or exhibitions per year, acertain number of gallery visits?3.1.2.d The Planning CommitteeOften, Boards will appoint a subcommittee responsible for planning, and this committeeshould develop a 5 year plan with clear measurable objectives, and commit it to writing. SeeAppendix B for a copy of the 5 year plan of The Vancouver Art Gallery. The committee shouldalso reestablish the organization's goals on an annual basis by reviewing them to see if they arestill appropriate, and revising them as required. The Planning Committee should considerwhether their plan is consistent with the organization's mission, and should also forecast thefinancial consequences of the plans and goals that are developed.Holmes, Willard, The Vancouver Art Gallery Association Long Range Plan, Vancouver ArtGallery Association, April 1988, p. 5.Holmes, Willard, The Vancouver Art Gallery Association Long Range Plan, Vancouver ArtGallery Association, April 1988, p. 5.28Having developed a Mission Statement and a Long Range Plan to carry it out, the Boardmust also be committed to regularly reviewing the progress of implementation by developinga reporting process by the Director on the status of the implementation of each section of theLong Range Plan, along with proposals for further progress. Through this process, it may beseen that certain portions of the Plan require revision, and these changes should then be madewith the approval of the Board.3.1.3 Legal and Fiscal ResponsibilitiesThe Board is also responsible for the legal and fiscal policies of the organization. By thelaws of incorporation, the Board has specific legal obligations to fulfil, such as filing theappropriate documentation with the government, meeting a specified number of times per year,and guaranteeing that the organization works toward its defined purpose, as set out in its articlesof incorporation.In addition, the Board must oversee the financial responsibilities of the organization.Together with the Director, the Board assists in developing the budget, and then approves it.It is imperative that Board members be involved in planning the annual budget, and this is oftenhandled by a Finance Committee. This committee must ensure that revenues will coverexpenses, and must share the responsibility for the budget with the Director and his/her staff bycontinuing to monitor the budget, and to revise it when required. Financial statements andreports are reviewed regularly by the Board to stay in tune with the financial health of theorganization. They should analyze cash flow projections and approve loan authorizations.One of the primary responsibilities of the Board is to evaluate the progress of theorganization, and one of the ways that the Board can best monitor this progress is by having29Board members with specific skills that allow them to do so. Although this evaluation processmay seem insignificant, it is one of the most important Board responsibilities.In the introduction of this paper, I referred to McDaniel and Thorn's paper, "The QuietCrisis In The Arts," which outlined a number of characteristics that indicate an institution thatis in crisis. All of these characteristics related to the financial management of institutions, suchas a reliance on current income to cover current expenses, no endowment or cash in reserve,no line of credit, and a large accounts payable. If the Board is to monitor the financial healthof the organization, then clearly, the Board has the responsibility for trying to alleviate this quietcrisis.In addition to developing, approving and monitoring the budget, the Board must establishfinancial policy related to who approves invoice payments and signs cheques; whether there isa petty cash account, its purpose and who has control of it; and who will audit the books of thegallery or museum. There are stringent rules about managing the finances of a nonprofitorganization, and the Board has a responsibility to ensure that they are adhered to.3.1.4 FundingFund raising is a key responsibility of the Board. The major sources of funds availableto operate a public gallery or museum come from government grants, revenue generated by thegallery, and donations from individuals, corporations and foundations. In today's economy, itis becoming increasingly difficult to generate funds from these sources, as government fundingto the arts is drying up; corporations are becoming more selective about their giving, andincreasingly, they want to realize some return on the funds that they donate; and more and morenonprofit organizations are competing for the limited funds available from government, corporate30and individual sources.One of the most difficult problems facing nonprofit Boards is the increasing effort thatis required to find the financial resources to carry out the mission of their organizations in a timewhen our Federal government is focusing on decreasing its deficit. Further, it is difficult tomake a case for prioritizing increased government funding for the arts when there are so manysocial problems related to the homeless, insufficient medical care, and rising unemployment; andthese issues are seen to be crucial to our society's social well being. The arts do not seem tohold the same importance in our society that they once did.Trustees must also assist in raising money from outside sources for the gallery ormuseum. There are many ways that they can assist including identifying givers, developing andmaintaining a data file of potential and current contributors, writing letters, planning fund raisingevents and developing proposals. "A well-balanced group of influential trustees says somethingto funders about the importance of the organization in the community."'The funding structure of a public arts organization is complex, causing difficulties in longrange planning, an inability to depend on or identify revenue sources over extended periods anda need to plan specific fund raising events to obtain additional funding. Further complicationsarise because most organizations do not have a good understanding of who their donors are, andhow much they will give from year to year.Traditionally, the major funding for the arts has been provided through governmentgrants and programs. However, with increased focus on reducing government deficits, thisWolf, Thomas, Managing A Nonprofit Organization, Prentice Hall Press, New York, 1990, p.39.31funding has been greatly reduced, and the private sector is expected to compensate. This trendis expected to continue throughout the 1990's, and declining government support complicatesthe role of Boards in finding funding for the arts. First, they must become more skilled andknowledgeable about competing in the political arena for the more limited funds available, andsecondly, they must look elsewhere for resources to compensate for reduced governmentfunding.The 1986 study of Texas arts institutions by Dr. Pat Clubb indicated that donors madeinconsistent decisions about how much to give, and this accounted for wide fluctuations in thebudgets of the institutions from year to year. Further, donors seemed to be uninformed aboutthe arts industry's needs in terms of funding. Dr. Clubb found several characteristics about thearts funding environment:(1) "a reliance on key donors for the majority of contributed funds;(2) a lack of long-term financial commitment by donors to the industry;(3) low levels of major donor participation in arts events; and(4) a heavy emphasis by major donors on productions."'It is important that individual Board members demonstrate their commitment to theorganization by giving an annual cash gift. Giving by Board members to the organization shouldbe stated in a policy, and there should be no exceptions, as it is an important external signal ofthe Board's commitment to the organization. While not everyone agrees that this is important,I do believe that it is critical. How much each member is required to give is not important, but31 Clubb, Pat, "An Analysis of the Economic Instability of Arts Organizations," The Journal of ArtsManagement and Law, Vol. 17, No. 1, Spring 1987, p. 54.32it is important that 100% of the trustees contribute. Outside donors will want to know that theBoard members feel committed to the organization, so setting a precedent may lead the way tomore commitment by other donors, and thus more stable budgeting.TABLE III'Individual Donor Behaviour and Motivation— Individual Donor Group BehaviorBoard-member Group Nonboard-member Group^(28.5 percent of^(71.5 percent ofTotal Donor Group)^Total Donor Group)Attend sixteen^33.3%^15.5%or more artsevents annuallyMake contribution^94.6%^99.7%on annualbasis onlyAverage number^2.6 years^6.8 yearsof years donorcontributes to anyone organization= 965.Dr. Clubb's study also found that the arts industry in Texas relies heavily on key donorswho are also board members. The study concluded that Board members tended not to give tothe same organization more than 2.6 years on average, while nonboard members donated for an32 Source: Clubb, Pat, "An Analysis of the Economic Instability of Arts Organizations," The Journal of Arts Management and Law, Vol. 17, No. 1, Spring 1987, p. 56.33average of 6.8 years. According to Table III, 77.9 % of the board member group gave $1,000or more in 1984, while 96.5 % of nonboard members gave $1,000 or less. Therefore, smalldonations are likely to be given repeatedly to the same organization, whereas larger donationsare not as committed to the same organization over the long term. This makes the fundraisingtask ever more challenging for the Board.Dr. Clubb's study also found that individual donors seemed to be motivated to give byspecial performances, exhibitions and events. This places a pressure on the institution's Boardand Director to continually produce events.Many public arts institutions do generate revenue from their admissions, programs,restaurants and gift shops. However, these revenues do not amount to enough to cover theoperation costs of the museum or gallery.In the past, companies often made straight donations to charitable or culturalorganizations as philanthropic gestures. "While the arts continue to represent a good investmentfor the corporation wishing to position itself in the public consciousness, a marked change in artssupport has occurred in recent years. We can expect this pattern to continue into the nextdecade. " 33Today, corporations are turning to corporate event sponsorship, and transferring theresponsibility of this funding to their marketing departments. Although this shift offers newopportunities for funding to the arts, it also presents new problems. According to Roschwalb," Roschwalb, Susanne A., "Corporate Eyes on the Market: Funding the Arts for the 1990's", TheJournal of Arts Management and Law, Vol. 19, No. 4, Winter 1990, p. 73.34"The relationship between art and business centres on the phrase 'enlightened self interest' ."'Both the corporation and the arts institution can benefit from corporate sponsorship. Thecorporation reaches a new audience, and the arts organization finds a new source of funding tooffset reduced government support.Corporations see this sponsorship as a marketing investment because they hope to reapbenefits such as increased sales or public awareness, better relationships with their customersand employees, or entrance into a new marketplace. SCM Corporation in the United Statesadmitted that they sponsored museum exhibitions to get the recognition that would have cost fivetimes more if they had sought recognition through advertising. Hitachi America's policy withrespect to event sponsorship states: "Hitachi America, which targets mid and upper levelmanagers at Fortune 500 companies, will sponsor blue chip cultural events that provide an imageof sophistication and internationalism."' Before, many corporations chose to sponsor sportingevents as a marketing strategy. However, now many companies can't afford to sponsor sportsevents, so they are turning to the arts where they can sponsor events for a lesser cost. This isreferred to as Cause-Related Marketing, where the corporation uses a local cause for its owngain. It is not charitable giving.Although cause-related marketing offers the public art gallery an alternate source offunding, it also has some disadvantages. First, the corporation may have an upper hand in therelationship because it has access to a wider variety of highly trained staff and consultants, who' Roschwalb, Susanne A., "Corporate Eyes On The Market: Funding The Arts For The 1990's,"The Journal Of Arts Management And Law, Vol. 19, No. 4, Winter 1990, p. 74.u Roschwalb, Susanne A., "Corporate Eyes on the Market: Funding the Arts for the 1990's", TheJournal of Arts Management and Law, Vol. 19, No. 4, Winter 1990, p. 75.35can carry out research and provide resources for the event. Secondly, the art gallery mustremember that the corporation is in the event for the marketing not the philanthropy, and theyexpect to get certain returns. Thus, the corporation and the art gallery are working towarddifferent goals. Thirdly, this type of sponsorship will likely only be available to projects thatare considered safe or those that promote an image that is consistent with that which thecorporation wishes to project. Therefore, corporate sponsorship is often difficult to obtain forperformance or controversial exhibitions. As a result, corporate sponsorship must be only onesource in the 'funding mix' because the goals of a public art gallery, such as the Vancouver ArtGallery, may be to present contemporary art and to serve the purposes of art, which will likelyinclude controversial exhibitions. It may be necessary to fund this type of exhibition throughgovernment grants or other sources.Finally, corporate event sponsorship is prey to preferences and personal whims of thecorporate managers who are selecting the event. Shifts in personnel or responsibility within thecorporation may mean shifts in their sponsorship dollars from one organization or 'cause' toanother. And, many of the managers who are responsible for making decisions about corporatesponsorship have had little exposure to the arts, and are therefore, unfamiliar with how to decideon arts funding. This means that the public art gallery or museum must devote time andresources to developing the gallery-corporation relationship, and calls for the gallery Directorand its Board to be salespersons, marketeers and public relations specialists simultaneously.Rather than presenting the corporation with the benefits of the program or exhibition, the Boardand its Director must be able to point out the marketing benefits that the corporation will gainfrom sponsoring the exhibition. This is particularly important because there is a great deal of36competition from cultural and charitable organizations for limited corporate sponsorship dollars.To overcome the pitfalls of corporate event sponsorship and to enjoy the advantage ofthis supplemental funding source, museum Boards and Directors must cultivate the relationshipwith their sponsoring corporations, and the gallery must take a leadership role in managing andcontrolling the exhibition or program so that the quality of the exhibition is not compromisedto meet the advertising or marketing goals of the sponsoring organization.Managing by objectives will allow the arts institution to match the event to theorganization so that both can benefit from this business relationship. Because it is a businessrelationship, the public art gallery must learn to negotiate on its own behalf to ensure that it doesnot compromise its standards or goals.The Glenbow Museum in Calgary has been very successful in matching the museum'sneeds to those of the corporate sponsors, by balancing the need to enhance the sponsors'corporate image, and to offer benefits to its customers with the museum's need for additionalfunding and its desire to expand its audience. For example, the Bank of Montreal sponsored amajor exhibition of Native portraits by Nicholas de Grandmaison. A small brochure announcingthe exhibition was included in all Bank of Montreal bank statements. This brochure offered adiscount off the purchase price of the exhibition catalogue for new museum members. TheGlenbow was able to reach an additional 74,000 potential museum visitors at no additional cost(except staff time) because the Bank of Montreal paid for the production of the promotionalmaterial, and included it in their statements. Further, the banks displayed posters advertisingthe exhibition. This partnership resulted in the museum expanding its marketing reach andultimately, an increase in attendance at the museum.37Charitable giving is another source of funds for arts institutions, and many Boardsorganize campaigns, fund raising events, or raffles to raise funds through charitable giving. TheBoard of The Vancouver Art Gallery, for example, has been quite successful in raising moneythrough raffles of condominiums and automobiles.For each of the different types of fund raising mentioned, different sets of skills arerequired by Board members and the Director in order to be effective in their role. For example,a knowledge about cultural policy and the grant application process is critical for receivinggovernment funding, whereas marketing skills, business contacts, and proposal writing skills areimportant when soliciting corporate sponsorships.3.1.5 Recruitment And Orientation Of New TrusteesOne of the most important responsibilities of the Board of Trustees is to find more'ultimate volunteers'. Boards must establish a nominating committee to undertake a year roundsearch for new Board candidates, and according to Wry', the members of this committeeshould be the busiest members of the Board, who can find others like themselves to be fullycommitted to the mission of the organization. Because these committee members are the busiestmembers, they will also be in a position to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of a goodBoard member.The nominating committee should view the recruitment of Board members in the sameway that any corporation views recruiting for any position. In other words, they should clearlyunderstand what the organization needs; what is required of a Board member, what skills and' Wry, Brann J., "The Trustee: The Ultimate Volunteer," The Journal of Arts Management AndLaw, Vol. 17, No. 2, Summer 1987, p. 35 - 47.38characteristics are required to accomplish the tasks at hand; write a job description; and thenmatch how the needs of the organization can best be met by their recruiting. The Board shouldrecruit by first reviewing the mission of the organization, its goals, objectives andimplementation plan, and then facilitate these by hiring the Board members who can achievethese goals. This is not generally how Board members come to arts organizations today. Boardmembers may be appointed, or they may volunteer. Often, there is no attempt to match theindividual to the organization in any clearly defined way. If a more selective process werefollowed, as it usually is in the profit sector, we would likely find that Boards would be moreeffective because they would be made up of people who have skills and knowledge appropriateto the arts museum that they are directing. The Board would be more likely to achieve its goalsbecause it would be comprised of the people who have the skills to achieve them.Having identified individuals who fit the requirements of the organization, the nominatingcommittee members must then become sales representatives for the organization, impressingupon their candidates why this is a worthwhile and rewarding volunteer opportunity. If thecandidate is interested in making a commitment to the organization, an orientation or trainingphase should follow to initiate the new Board member into the organization by defining themission and its methods of achieveinent. A commitment of time by the nominating committee,the new Board member, the Director and the staff will pay off in the long run because the Boardmembers will be able to function as informed ambassadors for the organization. Who Should Be On The Board?The Board should be made up of a mix of individuals who can bring a broad set of skillsto the gallery. Individuals reflecting a wide set of experience in the areas of arts and museum39management, finance, marketing, and administration will help to round out the Board so thatthey can provide a broad perspective to the Director.The Board members should be recruited to meet the needs of the art gallery or museum,and to fulfil the responsibilities of the Board. If the Board is responsible for defining themission, organizational planning, legal and fiscal responsibilities, fund raising, hiring theDirector, and representing the organization to the community, then the following skills andexperience are required from the Board members collectively:- knowledge about the arts and the community to define and fulfil the mission ofthe gallery;- planning skills to formulate the long range plan, goals and objectives;- financial management skills to develop, approve and monitor the annual budget,and to ensure that the organization does not become part of the 'quiet crisis in thearts';fund raising skills, which may include the ability to deal with the political arena,corporate connections and experience, marketing skills and event planning skills;the ability to give financially to the organization;a knowledge of legal matters both to ensure that the organization fulfils itsobligations with respect to the laws of incorporation, and to guide the Board onlegal matters;public relations and marketing skills to represent the organization positively in thecommunity, and to sell the idea of sponsoring events to corporate leaders andpoliticians alike;40-^recruitment and human resources skills to hire an effective Director and tocontinue to recruit and train new trustees; andcommitment to the mission of the organization.The Board should be balanced so that all of the above skills are covered collectively by thetrustees who make up the Board. Many Boards recruit a Chartered Accountant to provideguidance in financial matters, or a Lawyer to provide legal expertise. For an effective Board,the nominating committee should actively seek individuals who can provide the skills mentionedabove. Trustees should not be appointed for political reasons alone, without having the desiredskill set and the commitment required to carry out the responsibilities of the Board.3.1.6 Hiring The DirectorThe Director becomes the individual who speaks publicly about the gallery or museum,hires the staff, and executes the Board's policies, goals and objectives. Consequently, it isextremely important that the Board hire an individual who can believe in the missionpassionately, and inflame the staff with that same passion. This individual must also be anappropriate ambassador to the community for the organization.First, the Board must be clear about what kind of individual it wants to hire to fill theposition, and all members must agree on that point. Then, they must document theresponsibilities of the Director in a job description, and articulate how the Director'sperformance will be evaluated. The evaluation should take place at least once a year, and allof the trustees should have some input into the evaluation process.3.2 The Relationship Between The Board And The Director"The relationship between the executive director and the Board of Directors forms the41crucial nexus between management and governance--the balance point upon which anorganization either steadies itself or collapses."' Because it is the responsibility of the Boardto select the Director, if they do their job well, this relationship should be a solid one.However, often it is not. It is a complex relationship because the Director reports to the Board,but usually is far more in touch with the performance and direction of the organization. So,although the Director works for the Board, he/she must manage the Board to his/her bestadvantage.The Director must attend all Board meetings and many of the committee meetings to havean ongoing understanding about where the Board is coming from, and thus, to ensure that therelationship with the Board stays on a solid footing. Although, I have expressed a need torecruit a Board of Trustees that is well balanced in skills and expertise to define and carry outthe organization's mission, and then to stay out of the day-to-day operations of the museumwhile the Director manages the gallery and staff, in reality, Boards today are often ill equippedto fulfil this ideal. Frequently, they have been appointed for political reasons, and have noknowledge or experience about the arts or museum management. As a result, the Director findshimself in a precarious position where he is knowledgeable and experienced in the arts, and isattempting to carry out the mission of the organization, but the Board does not understandhis/her ideas and programs, and therefore, is in no position to evaluate his performance. TheDirector, must therefore, manage and train the Board so that he/she can accomplish what theyexpect of him/her. This seems to be a problem unique to Directors of Art Museums and otherSetterberg, Fred, and Schulman, Kary, Beyond Profit: The Complete Guide To Managing TheNonprofit Organization, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1985, p. 15.42arts organizations, where, although the defined roles are of subordinate and superior, theDirector and Board must also have a lateral working relationship that is collaborative in nature.Because the Director has more overall knowledge and understanding about theorganization, its funding and its programs, the Board is also dependent on the Director formaking its decisions. They must, therefore, rely heavily on his/her expertise and develop astrong sense of trust in the Director's abilities.Because trustees have usually donated a large sum of money to the organization, someof them may feel that they have more at stake, or are more committed to the success of theorganization, and therefore, become uneasy with the fact that they must rely so heavily on theexpertise of the Director to formulate their decisions. Conversely, because the Director'sposition is the central activity upon which he/she depends for a livelihood, and the trustees arevolunteers with varying levels of commitment, tension may arise in the relationship. Forexample, the Director may be in strong support of a program that has been proposed by herstaff, and yet she may not be able to plan it without finding additional funding. While the Boardmay have no objection to the program, they may not understand its importance due to a lack ofunderstanding of the arts, or because they place more priority on their own paid career positions.This may result in the Board placing a low priority on finding funding for the program. As aresult, the Director must either convince the Board of the importance of the program, or elsefind a suitable source of funding herself. This type of clash is not uncommon. T h esuccess of the relationship between Board and Director is influenced greatly by the relationshipbetween the Board Chairperson and the Director. When this relationship is a good one, it canset a positive tone for the working relationship with the entire Board.43A clear understanding of the roles of the Board and the Director, and how they differ,will also lead to a stronger working relationship. Many problems can arise when the Board isnot clear about its role and begins to meddle in the day-to-day operations of the gallery, or whenit begins to deal with staff members directly rather than working through the Director. "It isthe function of the Board, with the assistance of the Director, to create an image of what themuseum wants to become, and to provide the resources to realize that image. It is the functionof the Director to manage the museum effectively within this policy framework.' WhenBoard members step over the boundary into the daily operation of the organization orinterrelationship with staff, they do nothing more than undermine the authority of the Director.According to Peter Swann, former Director of the Royal Ontario Museum:"Unlike in Europe, boards of trustees in Canada seem unwilling to recognize museum directors as valuableprofessionals, and seem to delight in treating them like managers of hockey teams. The more dynamic,the more adventurous a director, the more dangerous his position. All suffer from the "one mistake andyou're out" syndrome. It is far safer to risk nothing and do nothing. Unfortunately, the character ofCanadian boards of trustees is such that the more successful a director, the more the boards seem to resenthim. The result is that fewer and fewer will take top jobs and provide leadership.'Swann goes on to say that the insecurity created by this "one mistake and you're out" syndromecauses many competent museum professionals to seek other career opportunities, and it isbecoming more and more difficult to find good Directors for our public museums and galleries.Coupled with the increased demands placed upon Directors, it is important to attract competentindividuals who are able to understand both the arts environment and a business approach.38 Scott, David H., "Museums To The Year 2000: Challenge And Response," Presented to the NewEngland Conference of the American Association Of Museums, October 28, 1978, p. 11.39 Swann, Peter, "The Trouble With Canada's Museums", Muse, Canadian Museums Association,Spring 1986, p. 11.444.0 The Employee Mix: Volunteers and Paid Staff4.1 The Changing Volunteer ForceAs government funding for the arts becomes more scarce, the money for humanresources is reduced, and attracting an effective volunteer force to fill the void becomes moreimportant than ever. At the same time, the face of voluntarism is changing. "It used to be thatthe typical volunteer was a middle-class housewife who had no other job and perceived hervolunteer work as a leisure activity which might enable her to get out of the house, meet people,increase her self-esteem by making her feel that she was 'doing good,' or increase her socialstatus. Today, the middle-class housewife with time on her hands is a vanishing species."4°More and more women perform paid work outside of the home, and volunteering is either notpossible because they have less time available, or else volunteers must provide their time andservices during evenings and weekends. According to Jan Halliday, Volunteer Coordinator atthe Vancouver Art Gallery, "We have had a strong core of volunteers that was largely made upof upper middle class women. What we are seeing now is that, as they grow older, no new coreis coming on to replace them. We have had to actively recruit the under 40 group, so we haveformed the Young Associates Group to attract young professionals. We also note that the newervolunteers are not making a long term commitment. They're interested in short termprojects. u41People volunteer for different reasons today. Although volunteers have work and family4° Burke, Ronald J., and Lindsay, Lary, "Motivation and Goal Setting," in Moore, Larry F.,Motivating Volunteers: How the Rewards of Unpaid Work Can Meet People's Needs, VancouverVolunteer Centre, 1985, p. 101.41 Interview with Jan Halliday, The Vancouver Art Gallery, November 1992.45responsibilities, they volunteer for non-monetary compensation to fulfil some personal objectives,and these objectives vary widely.Volunteers come from all walks of life including students looking for experience orcredentials; professionals; homemakers; people devoted to a cause; people in career transition;people who are recovering from illness, addiction or emotional difficulties; people who have aninterest in a specific field, such as the arts; people who have been sentenced to communityservice through court referral systems; or people who have recently moved to the community.While the number of middle class women available to volunteer is on the decline, thenumbers of elderly men and women volunteers is increasing. And, although the elderlyvolunteers have more time available for volunteering, their physical abilities may be morelimited. The demand for volunteers is increasing, while the available volunteer force isundergoing significant changes. It is, therefore, important for public arts institutions to offera volunteer experience that is competitive with other nonprofit organizations in order to be ableto attract the best volunteer force.Another important change that has occurred in voluntarism is the professionalization ofvolunteer organizations. Volunteer organizations have become more focused on efficiency,effective training, and performance standards. Many organizations, such as the Vancouver ArtGallery, have a paid volunteer manager or coordinator on their staff. This rise inprofessionalism has many causes such as the growing size of voluntary organizations; the needsto meet accountability for government funding in some areas; and the desire to improve thestatus of volunteerism. While this professionalism has led to the certification of volunteer46managers,' increased training of volunteers, a more sophisticated and orderly volunteer force,and an improved ability for organizations to carry out their missions, professionalism also tendsto produce a bureaucracy that can alienate some volunteers by being too rigid or impersonal,and, thereby defeating the very purpose for which the organization was formed. One of the keyconcerns of the Director and Volunteer Manager must be to ensure that the professionalizationof the volunteer force does not interfere with the mission of the organization or the purpose ofthe volunteer force." While every volunteer organization will not necessarily experience allof these changes in their volunteer group, these changes seem to be reflected in the overallvolunteer force in the country.4.2 MotivationDirectors can have different expectations of their paid employees than of their volunteers.Because employees are paid, it is natural to expect a certain standard of excellence andprofessionalism in their performance, and this can be formally evaluated in employeeperformance reviews and monetarily compensated, whereas volunteers are offering their timeand efforts in return for less tangible rewards. They may feel satisfaction from a job well done,from the social exchanges that take place during their work, because they are interested inlearning more about art, or many other possible motivations. By understanding whatmotivates volunteers, the design of appropriate methods for attracting and recruiting new42 See Appendix A for a listing of Canadian certification programs for volunteer management.43 At the Vancouver Art Gallery, the Volunteer Committee has its own mission statement, which iscomplementary to that of the Vancouver Art Gallery. A copy of the Vancouver Art Gallery's Plan is inAppendix B. See Appendix C for The Volunteer Committee's Mission Statement." Paid workers are also motivated by many non-monetary factors. The author does not mean toimply that non-monetary motivations apply only to volunteers.47volunteers and for effectively utilizing and keeping them, can be facilitated."Business managers have long been aware that motivated workers perform better andhave spent much effort in looking for ways to raise the motivation levels of their employees.Improved performance is not the only consequence of understanding and enhancing jobmotivation. Work attendance can be improved, lateness and turnover can be reduced, andoverall work satisfaction can be increased. Obtaining and maintaining high levels of motivationis just as important in a setting where volunteer work is performed as in paid work settings. Infact, securing a high level of motivation in a volunteer work setting may be much more difficultbecause of the absence (by definition) of a monetary incentive."Before exploring what motivates volunteers, I think that it is important to understandwhat we mean by the term "motivation". Craig Pinder, Professor of Organizational Behaviourof the Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration at UBC, has presented the followingdefinition:"...a set of energetic forces that originate both within as well as beyond an individual's being to initiatework-related behaviour and to determine its form, direction, intensity, and duration."'Another definition states that:"..motivation has to do with a set of independent/dependent variable relationships that explain the direction,amplitude, and persistence of an individual's behaviour, holding constant the effects of aptitude, skill andunderstanding of the task, and the constraints operating in the environment."'45 Moore, Larry F., "Motivation in the Context of Volunteerism," in Moore, Larry F. (ed.),Motivating Volunteers: How the Rewards of Unpaid Work Can Meet People's Needs, The VancouverVolunteer Centre, 1985, P. 1.46 ^Craig in Moore, Larry F. (ed.), Motivating Volunteers: How the Rewards of Unpaid Work Can Meet Peoples' Needs, The Vancouver Volunteer Centre, 1985, p. 4.47 Campbell, John P., and Pritchard, Robert D., "Motivation Theory in Industrial and OrganizationalPsychology," in Dunnette, M. D. (ed.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, RandMcNally, Chicago, 1976.48And, the dictionary describes motivation as:"the provision of an inner urge that prompts a person to action with a sense of purpose."'Motivation, then seems to create a sense of purpose, and to solve some inner desire orneed. It also appears to be affected by one's background, experience, personal characteristicsand needs. Larry Moore concludes in his paper, "Motivation in the Context of Volunteerism,""Motivation is a pervasive influence in organizations, and is linked to many work variables incomplex ways, particularly to work performance and satisfaction. Therefore, as administratorsworking within the voluntary sector, we join with managers from industry in sharing a disparateneed for good motivation theories to help us explain and predict reaction and behaviour in ourorganizations."'The discipline of psychology has developed several theories of motivation, and in orderto understand how to manage a volunteer force based upon how they are motivated, I would firstlike to briefly summarize four common theories about motivation:4.2.1 Needs Theory:Maslow is well known for having defined a hierarchy of needs to which human beingsrespond. He theorized that basic needs related to survival must be fulfilled before one pursuesthe fulfilment of needs that are not required for survival. Once a need has been met, it nolonger serves as a motivator, and the individual moves on to fulfilling the next need. Maslow'sfive categories of needs included physiological (food, water, shelter, etc.), safety (security)," The Random House Dictionary, Ballantine Books, New York, 1980, p. 585.49 Moore, Larry F., "Motivation in the Context of Volunteerism," in Moore, Larry F. (ed.),Motivating Volunteers: How the Rewards of Unpaid Work Can Meet People's Needs, The VancouverVolunteer Centre, 1985, p. 6.49social (love, acceptance, friendship), self-esteem (respect from self and others), and self-actualization needs (fulfilling one's highest potential). Other scientists and psychologists havealso put forward theories based on needs, but Maslow is best known. By understanding theoriesbased on needs, managers can identify the motivating need of an individual, and then design aplan of action or reward that may fulfil it.4.2.2 Expectancy Theory:Expectancy theory states that (1) motivation results from the strength of expectation thata specific behaviour will lead to a specific outcome, and that (2) a person attaches a value to thatoutcome. For example, if an individual strongly believes that raising funds for the VancouverArt Gallery will help to enhance the gallery's ability to offer more effective programs to thecommunity and he/she values those programs, then he/she may choose to volunteer as a fundraiser for the art gallery, rather than volunteering elsewhere.4.2.3 Goal Theory:The previous definitions of motivation suggested that the process of motivation fulfils anemptiness or urge within an individual, which offers a feeling of achievement and well being.Goal theory suggests that people are motivated by setting goals and then by achieving them, andthat people can be incented to achieve their goals through various means such as monetaryreward, promotion, recognition, or enhanced opportunities.4.2.4 Reinforcement Theory:Reinforcement theory focuses on rewards and punishments that influence behaviour. Inother words, people will continue to perform behaviour that results in a satisfying result, andwill not continue to perform behaviours or tasks that result in unpleasant outcomes.50Although there are many general theories about motivation, these four seem to bereferred to most commonly. It is likely that by applying a combination of these theories, amanager is more likely to be successful in motivating a volunteer force. Having introducedthese general theories, what then, motivates volunteers? Why do they volunteer, how do theychoose where to volunteer, and why do they continue to volunteer?4.2.5 Research About Volunteer MotivationThe United States federal government undertook national surveys of voluntarism in 1965,1974 and 1981 to investigate the amount and type of work performed by volunteers, and tounderstand what kind of people volunteer and why they volunteer.The 1965 survey was conducted by the Bureau of the Census for the Department ofLabour. 9,800 individuals from 4,000 households were interviewed, and questionnaires wereleft for household members who were not present for the interview. The respondents wereselected from a sample of 17,500 households who also participated in a monthly labour survey.The response rate was 96%, and the survey examined formally organized volunteer servicesonly.The 1974 survey was also conducted by the Bureau of the Census again interviewinghouseholds, and the sample of 24,795 was drawn from the 1974 Population Survey. For thissurvey, volunteer work was defined as "any unpaid work performed for or through anorganization."The Gallup Organization conducted a national survey in 1981," using personalso They did subsequent surveys in 1985 and 1988, which are not compared in the tables shown. Seepage 54 for further discussion of the subsequent surveys.51interviews. In each household, the youngest man over 18 was interviewed, and if no onemeeting that criteria was available, then the oldest woman over 18 was interviewed. Thismethod was selected in order to approximate the age distribution in the general population. Atotal of 1,601 interviews took place, and this time, voluntarism was defined as "working in someway to help others for no monetary pay." (In other words, it included any volunteer work; itwas not restricted to work for organized volunteer services.)Because sampling and questions were different for each of the three surveys, it is difficultto compare the results. Further, because the definition of volunteer work was very broad, it isdifficult to apply the results specifically to art galleries. And, one must also question whetherCanadians' reasons for volunteering would be the same as or different from the U.S. samples.However, participation in volunteer work increased over the period 1965 to 1981 from 16.1%of people participating in volunteer work in 1965, to 26% in 1974, and to 52% in 1981.Table IV summarizes the reasons for doing volunteer work in each of the three nationalU.S. surveys. The reason most commonly given for volunteering in all three surveys was "tohelp people", followed by "a sense of duty". In 1981, "had interest in activity or work" wasreported as a reason by 35% of the respondents, although this reason was not included in thequestionnaires in the two earlier surveys. From this summary, it appears that the reasons forvolunteering did not change significantly over the period 1965 to 1981, and we could attributevariations to the inconsistency of the 3 surveys in how they formulated the questions and thevariations in the definition of volunteer work.52TABLE IV'Reasons For Doing Volunteer Work According To Three National U.S. SurveysReasons for Doing Volunteer WorkaReasóns for Volunteering Percentage of Respondents1965^1974^1981To help people 37 53 45Sense of duty 33 32 bEnjoy doing volunteer work 31 36 29cHad interest in activity or work — — 35Asked to volunteer; could notrefuse when askedd 7 15Had a child in program — 22 23eHoped would lead to paid job — 3 11Had nothing else to do; had alot of free time' — 4 6Religious concerns — — 21Thought my volunteer work wouldhelp keep taxes or other costs down — — 5Other 4 — 1Don't recall — — 5a Reasons are for any volunteer work in 1965 and in 1981. In 1974reasons are first non-religious volunteer work ever done.b -- indicates that this reason was not reported.Includes "feel needed."d Reasons assumed to have same meaning though reporteddifferently in the two years.e Stated as "had a child, relative, or friend who was involved in theactivity or would benefit from it."' Similar meaning assumed.The top two reasons given, "to help people" and "sense of duty" would appear to bephilanthropic, as they appear not to expect any reward for their volunteer work. In his paper,"Altruism, Volunteers and Volunteerism" (1982), David Horton Smith suggests that although51 Source: Moore, Larry F. (ed.), Motivating Volunteers: How the Rewards of Unpaid Work CanMeet People's Needs, Vancouver Volunteer Centre, 1985, p. 23.53altruism plays a role in volunteerism, it is a minor one. Smith argues that persons who say thatthey volunteer for the betterment of others actually do receive some sense of satisfaction fromhelping others or from contributing to the betterment of society, and therefore, their motivationis not purely altruistic. He suggests that they can be attracted to work in areas where otherpeople are benefited more easily than they can be attracted to work for an agency where thedirect benefits of their work to others are less obvious.TABLE V52Reasons For Continuing To Volunteer According To Three National U.S. SurveysReasons for Continuing to do VolunteerWork During Current YearReasons for Continuing to Volunteer Percent of Respondents1974^1981To help people 60 49Sense of duty 38 _aEnjoy doing volunteer work 49 28bAm interested in the activity 35Could not refuse when asked 11 —Had a child in program; work helpschild, relative or friendc 16 21Hoped would lead to paid job; amgetting job experience 2 6Had nothing else to do; had alot of free timed 2 5Religious concerns 20Work helps keep taxes or othercosts down 4Other 6 1Don't know 9a -- indicates that this reason was not reported.0 Includes "feeling needed."c Similar meaning assumed.d Similar meaning assumed.52 Source: Moore, Larry F. (ed.), Motivating Volunteers: How the Rewards of Unpaid Work CanMeet People's Needs, Vancouver Volunteer Centre, 1985, p. 25.54Table V shows the reasons why volunteers in the 3 surveys indicated that they wouldcontinue to volunteer during the current year. The reasons given did not vary significantly fromthe reasons why they volunteered initially (as indicated in Table IV). We can refer back toExpectancy Theory in analysing these results, by assuming that volunteers expect to get somereward from volunteering (their reason for volunteering), and if they receive the desired results,they will continue to do the same volunteer work (reason for continuing to volunteer in thecurrent year). In other words, if the volunteer experience meets an individual's expectations,then the individual is likely to continue to volunteer.Subsequent surveys were conducted in the U.S. in 1985 and 1988 by the GallupOrganization. Based on a survey of 2,775 Americans 18 years of age or older, it wasdiscovered that 80 million adults gave 19.5 billion hours of volunteer work in 1987. Thisincluded all types of volunteer work, both organized and informal, in various types of areas suchas health, religious, political, social services, arts and cultural, recreational, and communityorganizations. Many of the respondents indicated that they volunteered for more than oneorganization, and the activities varied, including fund raising, office work, church activities, andmany others. The most frequent reasons given for volunteering in these later two surveys were:- "to do something worthwhile"- "thought I would enjoy the work"- "a family member or friend would benefit"- "religious reasons"Although these U.S. National Surveys give us some insights into why people volunteer,and why they continue to volunteer, I believe there is much work to be done in this area of55research. The surveys were not consistent in their methods of sampling, in their definitions ofvolunteer work, or in the questions asked. As a result, we can only tentatively compare theresults. Further, the surveys were conducted in the United States, so can we assume thatCanadians volunteer for the same reasons? And, finally, these questionnaires addressed verybroad definitions of volunteerism, so is it feasible to apply the results to volunteer work in thearts, and more specifically, to public art galleries in Canada? Further research is required tounderstand voluntarism as it applies broadly to Canadians as a whole, and more specifically, tounderstand why people volunteer at public art galleries. It would also be astute for individualpublic art galleries to survey their own volunteer forces to understand why their volunteers havespecifically selected that institution.In his book, Enhancing The Volunteer Experience, Paul J. Ilsley indicates that thechanging awareness and urgency of social issues has a great impact on where people volunteer."As Americans have become more aware of social problems associated with adult illiteracy, theyhave responded by volunteering for tutoring positions with literacy organizations at a greatlyincreased rate since 1985, when the topic of adult illiteracy started to receive large amounts ofmedia attention. Even more striking is the case of volunteer-staffed hospices and independentliving centres for people with AIDS, which proliferated rapidly as more and more people becameconcerned about the sufferers of this devastating disease."53Ilsley's analysis showed that volunteers' motives fell into certain groups, and that thosegroups pointed to certain patterns of involvement. For example, volunteers who had motives53 Ilsley, Paul J., Enhancing the Volunteer Experience, Jossey-Bass Limited, San Francisco, 1990,p. 2.56related to having fun tended to work in leisure centres or corporation-sponsored programs, whilevolunteers whose motives were humanitarian found reward in helping others such as seniors, thesick, prisoners or the illiterate. Ilsley's studies also indicated that motivations change over time.Volunteers initially select an organization that they believe will fulfil their expectations. Overtime, training, experience, and indoctrination with the organization may change their values sothat they become loyal to the organization, and no longer evaluate or question why they continueto volunteer. It is the role of a good volunteer manager to ensure that the volunteers continueto feel satisfied with their choice of organization. This can be done by building flexibility intothe structure of the volunteer organization so that volunteers are able to change roles or jobs tomeet their own expectations.Ilsley also studied volunteer commitment, differentiating commitment from motivationas:"At first glance, commitment may seem hard to distinguish from motivation. Commitment, however, doesnot necessarily inspire overt action, while motivation must. For instance, a woman may feel committedto feminist ideology yet fail to join demonstrations or take any other form of action to express hercommitment. Motivation is the link between commitment and action. " 54Ilsley goes on to describe that commitment requires an object; that one must be committed tosomething, and that it is important in understanding volunteers to understand what that objectis. Ilsley conducted a study, and then categorized volunteers into four groups, based on thenature of the objects of their commitment: volunteer-centred, organization-centred, client-centred, or social vision-centred.Volunteer-centred volunteers were loyal to their fellow volunteers, and tended to make54 Ilsley, Paul J., Enhancing the Volunteer Experience, Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco, 1990,p. 34.57the volunteer group their main focus of commitment. These volunteers seemed to be motivatedby social needs, and these needs were fulfilled by contact with other volunteers.Organization-centred volunteers were more loyal to the organization for which theyvolunteered. This group of volunteers is often found in college alumni organizations, where theyare more loyal to their institution than they might be to the cause of higher learning. Thesevolunteers demonstrate their commitment by strictly following the organization's policies andprocedures and working toward the overall goals of the organization. They are also very awareof the organization's structure, and may be motivated by opportunities for advancement withinthe volunteer organization.Client-centred volunteers are committed to individuals or groups, such as battered womenor persons with AIDS, and because they regard the organization as secondary to the individualsto whom they are committed, they have less regard for rules, policies and mission statements.And, social vision-centred volunteers are dedicated to an ideal such as peace. Thesevolunteers seem to be motivated toward a vision of a better world.Ilsley proposes that by studying the objects of volunteers' commitments, managers cangain understanding about what volunteering means to them, and then use that information to bemore effective as managers. This understanding can be gained through questioning andobservation. He also indicates that commitment varies in intensity from being a casual interestto all-consuming, and that managers must gauge this intensity of commitment to designappropriate programs.4.3 Recruiting VolunteersAccording to Eva Schindler-Rainman and Ronald Lippitt, co-authors of The Volunteer58Community: Creative Use of Human Resources, "Creative use of volunteers is closely relatedto an effective recruitment and orientation process. The recruitment process is actually a linkageprocess, linking a person who wants to give of himself with an organization that needsvolunteers in order to operate; linking a need for self-actualization with an opportunity forexperience; linking a need to learn with opportunities for learning; linking a need to be creativewith an opportunity to give the most creative service possible. Through this linkage(recruitment) the potential volunteer becomes an actual service agent. Because the very basisof volunteer service is built at the time the potential volunteer is first recruited, the recruitmentprocess is crucially important." 55In the planning of a recruitment program, first the volunteer manager must consider whatkind of volunteer is needed by the organization. What kinds of jobs need to be done, and whocan do them best? In order to answer this question, the volunteer manager should carefullyconsider what skills a volunteer should have to best fit into the organization. Secondly, themanager should take time to understand the motivations, needs, commitment, skills andpersonality of each volunteer considered.Clearly defining how volunteers can contribute to the organization is important in usingthem most effectively. Part of the management planning process must be to define wherevolunteers will fit in, and then to clearly define their role, so that it can be explained to themexplicitly and concisely. By having a clear definition about what the organization wants thevolunteers to do and a comprehensive inventory of the skills of the available volunteers, jobs can' Schindler-Rainman, Eva, and Lippitt, Ronald, The Volunteer Community: Creative Use ofHuman Resources, NTL Learning Resources, Inc., 1971, p. 65.59be matched to the volunteers, and an appropriate program can be implemented to recruit newvolunteers. Just as a job description is written for a paid worker or a Board member and thenan appropriate individual is recruited for the position, the same procedure must be applied tofitting volunteers to appropriate jobs. By clearly defining the job before fitting the volunteer tothe position, it will be clear why the job is needed, where it fits into the structure and goals ofthe organization, what the specific duties are, who the supervisor will be, whether there is apotential conflict with the union 56 , and what skills are needed to do the job.One of the most successful ways to recruit new volunteers is through those volunteerswho are already working effectively within the organization. Often, they can refer others, whohave similar motivations, needs and commitments.Because volunteer forces have typically been made up of upper middle class whitewomen, and this resource is no longer so readily available, managers must expand theirrecruiting search to include other groups, and this means developing new networks forrecruiting. The Vancouver Art Gallery was very effective in recruiting almost 300 newvolunteers through its Young Associates Group, which started with a small number of youngervolunteers who seemed bored with the traditional role of volunteers. The Volunteer Coordinatorcalled a meeting of half a dozen of this group to talk about how they could be more interestedin participating within the Gallery, and the Young Associates grew from that meeting. An"English Pub Night" was held in the Gallery in conjunction with a Victorian paintingsexhibition, and over 150 potential volunteers attended. Follow-up by volunteers and thevolunteer coordinator has resulted in a new under-40 professional volunteer force at the Gallery,The issue of conflict between volunteers and unions is dealt with on page 67.60which now numbers almost 300.Each volunteer should be personally interviewed by the volunteer manager or Director,so that the fit of the volunteer to the organization can be measured. Some volunteers simplymay not fit into the organization, or the organization may not be what that individual is lookingfor. It is best to determine this in an initial interview, rather than later in the volunteer-organization relationship.4.4 Managing the Mix: Volunteer Training, and Job Design and Work Adjustment4.4.1 Managing the Volunteer Experience"Although it has been the focus of a few empirical investigations and some conceptualanalysis, the questions of what 'motivates' voluntary work activity has received considerably lessattention from behavioral scientists than has the issue of work motivated by pay and other formsof remuneration."' In his paper, "Needs, Cognitive Factors, and the Motivation to Volunteer,"Craig Pinder explores needs theory and goals, and he makes an important distinction betweenneeds and goals. Needs are internal forces that provoke behaviour in individuals, whereas goalsare the results that individuals seek to achieve in order to fulfil their needs. Pinder goes on todescribe frustration, or the result of not fulfilling goals, and how this applies to voluntarism.Dr. Pinder suggests that people, who are unsatisfied or frustrated in their paid work or with theirleisure time pursuits, may seek voluntary work as a means of fulfilling frustrated needs.Pinder also suggests that it is important for volunteer managers to endeavour to providea volunteer experience that does not end in frustration, or the volunteers will seek other57 Pinder, Craig C., "Needs, Cognitive Factors, and the Motivation to Volunteer," in Moore, LarryF. (ed.), Motivating Volunteers: How the Rewards of Unpaid Work Can Meet People's Needs, TheVancouver Volunteer Centre, 1985, p. 32.61experiences. To do this, managers must understand what causes frustration, and the causes canbe either external or internal. External factors include items such as the organization's structure,rules and regulations, or interpersonal relationships with co-workers and supervisors, whileinternal factors that can cause frustration are an individual's personality, skills, experiences,social status, or race. These are only a few examples of factors that can lead to frustration, asthe list could be endless. And, what frustrates one individual may not have any effect onanother. Although the detection of frustration is difficult, a manager can have more directcontrol over external factors that can cause frustration than he/she does over internal factors.When an individual is frustrated in his/her attempt to fulfil a need, he/she may react inany number of ways. The individual may turn to problem solving in order to determine thecauses of the frustration, and then overcome the problem; or he/she might determine that thecurrent goal is unattainable, and, therefore, set a new goal. Other less constructive means ofdealing with frustration are anger, which may be manifested in gossip or angry interchanges; thefrustrated individual may choose regressive behaviour such as crying or using inappropriatelanguage; or, a person may simply withdraw from the situation, which may be reflected in poorjob performance, absenteeism or attrition.Frustration occurs in both paid and volunteer work situations. A manager or Directormust ensure that frustration is kept to a minimum in the work force, and this has its challenges.The volunteer manager may want to attract volunteers who find themselves frustrated in theirpaid work, while at the same time she is trying to minimize frustration within her own volunteerwork force. And, many of the jobs that are given to volunteers are low skill jobs, and therefore,offer limited potential for one to experience self actualization. Secondly, a person who has62difficulties in paid work due to personality factors or lack of technical competence may bringthese same problems to volunteer work, and therefore, will be just as frustrated in volunteering.By analysing the causes of frustration, volunteer managers can gain valuable insights intomanaging volunteer forces by focusing on recognizing the symptoms of frustration, and thenputting plans in place to minimize it. By paying careful attention to the recruitment, trainingand placement of volunteer workers, managers can attempt to better understand the needs, valuesand goals of their volunteers, and place them in jobs according to those criteria.For volunteers who are already placed within an organization, managers can payparticular attention to watching for the symptoms of frustration by tracking attendance, watchingfor low quality work or low enthusiasm, and when noticed, rotating workers to new positionsthat may be more fulfilling or challenging. This method also applies to paid workers whodisplay symptoms of frustration.Because public art galleries and museums rely heavily on volunteers to carry out theirprograms, and volunteers vary widely in their skill sets, it is important in effectively managingthe organization to match the skills with the job. Within the last two years, the Vancouver ArtGallery undertook a skills survey of all of their volunteers in order to carefully assess theirvolunteer resource and to ensure the best matching of the volunteers to the activities. Volunteersexperience a learning curve before they are completely productive on a new job, in the sameway as paid workers. Time invested in carefully training volunteers will pay off in the long runbecause they will be more confident about what they are doing, and consequently, willexperience more job satisfaction, resulting in higher quality work. Volunteers who have moreexperience can train newer volunteers. And, just as paid employees experience improved morale63when they are promoted, volunteers will feel more positive if they are given more responsibilityas they demonstrate sustained good performance.Once the right volunteers have been recruited and jobs designed, an effective trainingprogram, which includes both an orientation and initial training period and ongoing on-the-jobtraining, should be put in place. Initial training should include information about theorganization's mission, goals and structure, its sources of funding, its role in the community,policies and procedures, as well as training about the specific job to be done. Ongoing trainingis equally important, and should help to build teamwork amongst the volunteers and staff whowork together, and should assist in on-the-job problem solving, as well as keeping volunteersup to date about changing directions, policies and procedures. Ongoing training should besupervised by an experienced volunteer or staff member.Richard Hackman, author of "Work Design Factors in Motivation," asks, "Why havebehavioral scientists not been more successful in their attempts to remedy motivational problemsin organizations and improve the quality of work life of employees? One reason is thatpsychologists (like managers and labour leaders) have traditionally assumed that work itself wasinviolate--that the role of psychologists is simply to help select, train, and motivate people withinthe confines of jobs as they have been designed by others. Clearly, it is time to reject thisassumption and seek ways to change both people and jobs in order to improve the fit betweenthem."'There are a number of ways to reframe tasks as Hackman has suggested. Sometimes,58 Hackman, Richard J., "Work Design Factors in Motivation," in Steers, M.M. and Porter, L.W.,(eds.), Motivation and Work Behaviour, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1983, p. 495.64the motivation to do a task can be enhanced by providing better tools or equipment toaccomplish the job. Or, a job may be made up of several subcomponents. For example,working in the gallery gift shop may involve serving customers, pricing items, stocking shelvesand taking cash. Although a particular volunteer may be interested in part of the task, he/shemay have an aversion to one of the subcomponents of the job, such as working with cash. Or,perhaps the volunteer does not want to stock shelves because he/she has a back problem. Byunderstanding the volunteer, and by breaking the job down into subcomponents, it may be easierto fit the volunteer to the job. Another strategy for reframing volunteer jobs is to enhance orbuild upon the task to make it more interesting. For example, if the task that needs to be doneis rather mundane, such as stuffing envelopes or gift wrapping, the task can be enhanced orbroken up by combining it with another activity such as answering the telephone, or providinginformation to visitors. By developing the task into a more interesting or complex job, avolunteer can get a greater sense of completion or satisfaction than from performing a repetitivemundane task such as stuffing envelopes. Or, by changing the structure or guidelines withinwhich a task may be accomplished, it may become more motivating for volunteers. Forexample, a volunteer may not be willing to go door to door asking for donations, but he/shemight be very willing to do fund raising by telephone or by selling tickets for a raffle. Byremaining open to the structure and rules by which a task can be completed, more volunteersmay be attracted to perform it.Museums are staffed by a combination of professional paid staff and volunteers.Although professionals in the arts are highly trained, their salaries are often low. Many arebecoming unionized, which brings with it a whole new set of management issues. Directors65have not previously had to deal with labour disputes and negotiations, and this requires a newset of skills. Just as the CEO of the 21st century must be able to negotiate and resolve conflict,so must the new arts Director.The volunteer manager must also ensure that he/she develops a strong relationship withthe union and shop steward that allows for effective two way communication. Unions areconcerned that volunteers do not eliminate paid positions by providing the work for free. Asa result, the volunteer manager must keep this in mind when designing jobs to be done byvolunteers. Often, volunteer jobs in a union organization are of a "special project" nature,where they have a defined ending, and therefore, are not part of any union member's job.According to Burke and Lindsay, in their paper, "Motivation and Goal Setting," "If amanager can participate in the goal-setting process of his staff, he may be able to providesatisfying rewards in association with the goals he has set and coordinate organizational goalswith the personal goals of the workers in order to reduce conflicts that might adversely affectmotivation. At the same time, he may educate his staff as to the most effective means ofachieving organizational goals and thus their personal goals." 59A goal is a desired result that is achieved through a course of action. Goal setting formsthe basis of many management styles and motivation methods such as sales incentive plans ormanagement by objectives. Goal setting is an effective motivational technique that can be easilyadapted to most situations and organizational structures. Goals may be set to encompass theoverall strategic objectives of the organization, or they may be related to more routine tasks thatBurke, Ronald J., and Lindsay, Lary, "Motivation and Goal Setting," in Moore, Larry F.,Motivating Volunteers: How the Rewards of Unpaid Work Can Meet People's Needs, VancouverVolunteer Centre, 1985, p. 95.66collectively add up to achieving the overall objectives. Goals at every level of the organization,however, must relate to achieving the overall goals or mission, and they must be clear so thateveryone in the organization understands them.Setting goals helps to clarify what needs to be done, and helps to clarify what is expectedof employees and volunteers. The more clearly the goals are defined, the more easily they areunderstood and carried out, so they may define a quantitative or qualitative result and a timeframe for its accomplishment. It is easier to measure the results of a goal that has been clearlydefined than if the goal is vague and unspecific in its expectation.Goals should be challenging but attainable. People will work harder to achieve a goalthat appears to be a challenge than they will to achieve a goal that appears to be too easy or toohard to achieve. And, it is important to give management feedback that is constructive andpositive regarding the results of the goal achievement. "Attaining goals results in 'psychologicalsuccess', an important element in both work motivation and commitment."'According to Burke and Lindsay, a goal setting program in a volunteer organization canbe implemented in three stages:(1) The volunteers must first be committed to the method, and this can be reinforcedby having the volunteers assist in the goal setting process.(2) There must be an action plan that outlines the goals and the measurement methodsspecifically, and the volunteers must be in agreement with both the goals and themeasurement techniques.' Burke, Ronald J., and Lindsay, Lary, "Motivation and Goal Setting," in Moore, Larry F. (ed.),Motivating Volunteers: How the Rewards of Unpaid Work Can Meet People's Needs,  VancouverVolunteer Centre, 1985, p. 100.67(3)^A review process must be in place to provide feedback and to continue theongoing process of setting new goals, measuring them and providing newfeedback.By implementing a goal setting process, a volunteer manager has the opportunity to makethe volunteer force an integral part of the organization working toward the achievement of itsgoals, while also making the volunteers feel like a part of the organization's success. Thisfeeling of personal achievement that is consistent with the organization's goals not only has amore positive impact on the organization as a whole, but also helps to keep volunteerscommitted to the organization, and makes the organization more competitive in recruiting andkeeping a good volunteer force.In addition to the methods already mentioned, volunteer managers can also enhance thevolunteer experience by doing the following:(1) Include volunteers in problem solving and decision making processes related to volunteerissues;(2) Assign volunteers to work that affords opportunities for personal growth and meaningfulservice;(3) Work out a schedule that is mutually agreeable to the volunteer and the organization thatspecifies a time and resource commitment; and(4) Provide a "career path" within the volunteer organization so that the volunteers can feelthat they grow through their experiences and gain new opportunities for challenge andlearning.Further, it is important to recognize that volunteerism is a valuable resource that not-for-68profit organizations must rely on more and more as funding for additional human resourcesdeclines. Jean Pastore, in her article "Volunteers and Customers: A Service QualityPerspective," argues that "to attract and retain new volunteers, volunteer organizations must stopthinking about volunteers as employees and start thinking about them as customers. In the sameway that for-profit firms provide goods and services that satisfy the wants and needs of theircustomers, nonprofit volunteer organizations must determine first what constitutes a qualityvolunteer experience, and second, how to effectively deliver a quality volunteer experience."'Pastore argues that an organization is not only providing services to the public, but alsoproviding another product - an enriching experience to its volunteers. (We might take this onestep further, and suggest that by providing an enriching experience for paid staff also pays offin the long term because a satisfied staff works more productively and achieves better results.)The customer (the volunteer) purchases this experience with their services, and therefore, theyare shopping around for a high quality volunteer experience, which can be provided by manyvendors (the volunteer organizations). Therefore, it is very important to be competitive as avolunteer organization, in order to attract the best volunteers. By being competitive, anorganization will attract the best volunteers, and this will have positive effects throughout theorganization. It is common knowledge in the marketing world that you must understand yourcompetition and your customers, so I think that Pastore presents a compelling argument in herarticle.61 Pastore, Jean, "Volunteers and Customers: A Service Quality Perspective," Voluntary ActionNews, Volunteer Vancouver, Fall 1992, Vol. 69, p. 1.694.4.2 Work Adjustment And Paid Staff in The ArtsSeveral studies by psychologists and sociologists have established that there is arelationship between a person's interests, values and personality, and vocational development.Members of a given occupation tend to be more like each other and less like people in otheroccupations. Two major bodies of research related personality and occupation.'First, studies by Anne Roe in 1956 related personality characteristics and backgrounddata for scientists, anthropologists, biologists and psychologists to find the differences betweeneach group. She concluded that physical scientists and engineers had a tendency towarddisinterest in other people, and were compulsive, rigid, and anxious. Biologists andanthropologists, on the other hand, were more interested in people. Roe also discovered familydifferences. Psychologists came from family backgrounds of overly protective parents, whilebiologists had experienced various kinds of disruption in their family lives.Roe also showed the relationship between special abilities and membership in variousoccupations. Table VI shows the trait requirements for General Cultural Workers. (SeeAppendix C for key to codes). These workers possess superior general and verbal abilities andmoderate ability in clerical tasks. They are highly educated at all job levels. However, virtuallyno other ability relationships were identified specific to this group.Then, in 1963, Bordin, Nachman and Segal analyzed occupations to determine what typeof gratification they offer. They studied accountants, creative writers, lawyers, dentists, socialworkers and engineers, and found significant differences in such personality characteristics as62 These studies were also concerned with childhood experiences, family background and otherfactors.70aggressiveness, tolerance for ambiguity, emotional control, and compulsivity. They also founddifferences in family backgrounds.TABLE VI'Qualifications For General Cultural OccupationsEstimated From Worker Trait RequirementsOccupations by LevelEducationLevel LengthAbilitiesGVNSPOK FMECPhysical DemandsLevel^Type1. Playwright 6, 5 7, 8, 6 1 1 5.^Historian, Politicalscientist 5, 6 7, 8 1 1 2 5Museum curator 4, 5 6, 7, 8 2 2 3 S, L 4, 5, 6Educational administrators -Deans & Directors 4, 5 6, 7, 8 2 2 3 S, L 4, 5, 62. Clergyman 5, 6 7, 8 1 1 S, L 4, 5, 6Lawyer 5,6 7,8 1 1 4 S, L 5County agent 4, 5 6, 7, 8 1 1 L, M 4, 5, 6Sec. rchool teacher 4, 5, 6 7, 8, 9 1 1 1 3 L, L 4,5Editor 5,6 8,9 1 1 3 5,6Elem. school teacher 5 6, 7 2 2 3 3 4,53. Reporter 5 7 1 1 L 5Law clerks, Librarians 5 7, 6 2 1 2 S 6Technical writers 5 7, 6 2 2 2 S 6Radio announcers 5 4 2 2 S 54.5.6.Source: Zytowski, Donald G., Psychological Influences on Vocational Development, HoughtonMifflin Company, Boston, 1970, p. 48.71The Work Adjustment Project, conducted at the University of Minnesota by René Dawisand Lloyd Lofquist in the 1960's, hypothesized that work is essentially an interaction betweenan individual and the environment in which he or she works. In the work environment, certainactivities must be performed by an individual who has certain skills and abilities that facilitatethe performance of the work. In turn, the individual is compensated monetarily. The workermay require certain other conditions such as safety, a pleasant work environment, competent co-workers and managers, and opportunities for advancement. As long as both worker and workenvironment meet each others' needs, the relationship continues; if the requirements of one orthe other are not met, the relationship is terminated.According to Lofquist and Dawis, "The mutual responsiveness of the individual and thework environment to each other's requirements is a continuing process called work adjustment.The degree to which the requirements of either or both are met is described on a dimensioncalled correspondence. The basic motive of work behaviour is seeking to achieve and maintaincorrespondence."' Correspondence is achieved when the worker is satisfied with the workenvironment, and when the worker is doing a satisfactory job according to the requirements ofthe work.Dawis and Lofquist found that an individual has a work personality, which consists ofthe worker's abilities, mode of relating to the work environment, the pace at which he or sheworks, and endurance level. Conversely, the work environment can be described in terms ofthe abilities or skill set required to accomplish the job. They were able to show that certain64 Dawis, Rend V., and Lofquist, Lloyd H., A Psychological Theory of Work Adjustment,University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1984, p. 56.72personalities adjusted better to some types of work than others.Their findings provide the framework for relating people to their work environments toprovide vocational counselling for career choice, for adjustment to jobs, and for job change.From an organizational point of view, selection and placement of personnel, employee training,job analysis, and job design can be facilitated via the work adjustment framework.The Strong Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB) identifies interest differences among thoseoccupations that college students usually enter by providing an index of the similarity betweena person's interests and those of successful people in a range of occupations. The purpose ofthe SVIB is to guide a student into selecting an occupation where he or she would be most likelyto experience job satisfaction. It does not necessarily indicate job success.Generally, work behaviour is the result of interaction between the worker (his abilities,skills, aptitudes, attitudes,opinions and beliefs) and the work environment (made up of traditions,customs, rules, other individuals, social roles). "Human behaviour is not only a function of thekind of individual the person happens to be, but is also a function of what is happening tohim. "65If we conclude from the above research that individuals in different occupations havedifferent sets of skills, abilities and personality characteristics, and that an individual's workpersonality and adjustment to work is the result of the interaction between the individual and hisor her work environment, then it follows that workers in the arts may, indeed, have specificwork personalities that are similar to each other's, but different from the work personalities of' Neff, Walter S., Work and Human Behaviour, Aldine Publishing Company, New York, 1985,p. 126.73those, say in for-profit organizations, or in different industries.Although this has not been the focus of any empirical studies, my perception through myown work experience in arts organizations are as follows:(1) Workers in arts organizations have a tendency to prefer working on their ownversus taking a team approach;(2) They seem more in need of nonmonetary recognition or acknowledgement fortheir work (in addition to monetary compensation) than do workers in the for-profit sector;(3) Workers in the arts seem to be freer to outwardly express their emotionalresponses to work situations than are workers in non-arts related organizations;(4) Although they seem to be more concerned with the concept of performingexcellent work, arts workers do not always seem to know how to go about it.I believe that it would be a valuable and interesting research project to study work personalitiesof arts workers and workers in not-for-profit organizations, and to compare them with samplesfrom both other industries (ie. as opposed to the 'arts' industry) and to a sample from workersin the for-profit sector. The results could prove extremely helpful to personnel managers anddirectors in the arts for the purposes of recruiting, personnel training, job design and developingcareer paths within the arts.If my observations are, indeed, true for all arts organizations, appropriate training toinclude team building workshops, recognition plans and conflict resolution workshops could bedeveloped. Further, guidance in strategy and approaches to the appropriate use of managementtools could be offered.745.0 Visionary Leadership in the Arts: An Interdisciplinary ApproachWe demand of our artists the utmost in creativity and quality in their approaches to theirart. Why, then, do we not expect the same of the administrators who manage the institutionsthat display this same art? New, contemporary and revolutionary approaches to art are praised,and yet, many of our arts institutions are run using dated approaches to management andobsolete or inadequate tools to do the job. While one could argue that our institutions do nothave the funds, I pose the question: does leading-edge managerial thinking cost money or savemoney?While corporations in the world of commerce are focusing on restructuring to survivethe chaotic changes of the 90's that are related to changing demands, increasing costs of doingbusiness, and increased competition, arts organizations face parallel problems. If 'high' art isto survive, it must somehow be elevated into a place of greater importance in our fast pacedchanging society. It no longer holds the place of importance that it once held, and fine artistshave less power in our society than they once exerted. Conversely, if the direction of art istoward popular culture, then our arts institutions must recognize this change, and adjust theirdirections accordingly.5.1 What is Visionary Leadership?Martin Luther King, one of the great leaders of our time had a 'dream' , but, mostimportantly, he was able to communicate that dream to others. Not only is an effective Directorable to manage effectively on an operational level, but he/she must also be able to look to thefuture...to be a visionary, and be able to impart that vision to others.First, what is leadership? "Good leadership moves people in a direction that is genuinely75in their real long-term best interests."' According to John P. Kotter and his colleagues atHarvard Business School, effective leaders demonstrate the following characteristics:(1) a vision which takes into account the interests of all constituents;(2) a comprehensive strategy for achieving the vision;(3) a powerful network of resources to implement that strategy; and(4) a group of highly motivated key people who are committed to achieving thevision.Much literature has been devoted to what is required of leaders, managers and CEO'sto survive the tough times leading to the 21st century. Visionary leadership has been describedin countless publications, and is essential to attracting and maintaining effective staff, volunteersand clients. "To provide visionary leadership requires that we not only dream dreams, butachieve them."' This visionary leadership must come from the Board, the Director, theVolunteer Manager, and all senior managers in the organization. Our organizations arebecoming more culturally diverse, and this change in demographics must be reflected in ourboards, committees, management structures, and volunteer forces.Joint research by Korn/Ferry International and the Columbia Graduate School of Businesssays that the CEO of the 21st century will be one who can create strategic plans and know howand when to implement them; will be an effective human resources manager; will be stronglymarketing and sales oriented; and will be a good negotiator and able to resolve conflict. ThisCEO will be a leader who can inspire the organization in a visionary way, and will be creative,66 Kotter, John P., The Leadership Factor, The Free Press, New York, 1988, p. 17.67 Partners Plus, "Leadership Issues for the 90's", Partners in Print Newsletter, Partners Plus, NewYork, July/August 1992, Vol. 4, No. 4, p. 1.76enthusiastic and open-minded. This new visionary leader will also be able to communicate thisvision to the organization and will promote training and development. It is important that artsorganizations pay attention to these characteristics. The Board must share this vision, and TheDirector must attempt to implement these ideas in the day-to-day management of both staff andvolunteers.What skills are required to create the vision and develop the strategy that mark effectiveleadership? "It requires a keen mind, a moderately strong analytical ability, a capacity to thinkstrategically and multidimensionally, and good business judgment to synthesize all thatinformation into a sound agenda. Too often, we fall into the romantic trap of believing thatgreat vision comes from magic or divine grace....Great vision emerges when a powerful mind,working long and hard on massive amounts of information, is able to see (or recognize insuggestions from others) interesting patterns and new possibilities.'In order to attract the necessary resources network to transform vision into reality, aleader must have credibility, and in the museum world, this means not only business sense butalso an understanding of the arts. The Director must have a sound track record, a solidreputation, integrity, strong interpersonal skills, and good communications ability. This is a tallorder, and it requires self confidence, a high energy level and drive to achieve the vision.Some of the most popular current literature about leadership is built upon a philosophyof fear -- fear of not surviving the chaotic 90's--fear that the competition is going to 'get you'.Leading and managing from a place of fear means that it's already too late. You are followinginstead of leading. What is required is a sense of community and teamwork in an organization--Kotter, John P., The Leadership Factor, The Free Press, New York, 1988, p. 29.77a pulling together to achieve the organization's mission according to a set of principles that guidethe public museum to achieve its goals. "Chaos is the pre-condition to creativity, and anyorganization (or any individual) that doesn't have an arena of creative chaos is already half dead.When a leader is so fearful of chaos as not to be able to protect and nurture that arena for otherpeople, there is deep trouble.'5.2 And What About the Artists and the Role of Art?"In our prevailing social consciousness, the roles and functions of 'art' and artistic creativityare essentially marginal and subordinate, despite ostensible recognitions and gestures.Relative to the roles of power, commerce, and control in this consciousness, the role of artis inferior, and the artist is essentially disempowered.Like other `disempowered' groups striving for equality, artists and arts administrators canachieve effective long-term results only if their consciousness is raised to recognize theircurrent low or marginal status, as they come to acknowledge, accept, and assert the centralrole of creativity. Therefore, to establish the equality of artistic expression in relation toother personal and social functions, a radical revision in consciousness is imperative. Thisis necessary before energies focused on art-related issues in any area can be realisticallydirected and before any meaningful definition of the role of professionals in relation to thearts and standards of professional responsibility can be formulated."7°Combined with the fact that our artists have been disempoweretl, elitism has long beenpresent in the world of the arts. "Where once a few very wealthy individuals were the arbitersof taste, this role has been taken on by academicians who, collectively, determine what is andwhat is not art. They also produce and enforce the models by which art is judged. ... Theproducts of this university training populate the museums, theatrical companies, symphonyorchestras and other arts organizations in accordance with the code."' With today's emphasis69 Palmer, Parker J., "Leading From Within," Address to the Indiana Office For Campus Ministries,Indianapolis, IN, October 1990, p. 15.7° Harrow, Gustave, "Creativity and Control," The Journal of Arts Management and Law, Vol. 16,No. 1, Summer 1986, p. 48.7' Kelly, Robert F., "Elitism In The Arts," Presented at the 2nd International Conference on ArtsManagement, Jouy-en-Josas, France, June 1993, p. 2.78on technology and science, most university students no longer study fine arts as part of theirtraining, so the majority of people with a university education do not acquire the code by whichto interpret art, but because museum visiting and art appreciation are considered sociallyacceptable leisure activities, they may still visit museums to say they have been or to be seen.Arts institutions contribute to this elitism through the language in their catalogues andpublications, which is accessible only to those who have the code. Exhibition openings are oftenlavish affairs with expensive catering and expensively dressed patrons, who comprise the eliteof the community -- the well educated, higher income group. Fund raising events are most oftentargeted at the wealthy, and both the average individual and the average artist are excluded bythe price of the event. Over the past few months, several arts organizations in Vancouver haveheld their annual fund raising balls, and to attend one must be prepared to pay $100 or more perperson for the tickets, plus participate in an auction or raffle once at the event. In addition, onemust have expensive attire to 'fit in' at the event. The average artist is not part of this elite.Is this why they created their art? So a few comfortably well off statused individuals couldparticipate in it?What is the artist striving to do? And, are our public arts institutions' goalscomplementary or counter to the artists' goals? Artists seek to express their experiencegenuinely through their own creative processes, and to do so in an environment of total freedomof expression. "Artistic expression is a search for meaning -- a truth-seeking process -- which,by definition means forming 'thoughts of our own'. " 72 Therefore, artistic expression isHarrow, Gustave, "Creativity and Control," The Journal of Arts Management and Law, Vol. 16,No. 1, Summer 1986, p. 50.79invalidated when any type of measurement system or standard is applied whether by elitistinstitutions or elitist patrons, and hence, it can no longer be a process of discovery and creativityfor both the artist and the viewer."As a process and a search for meaning, artistic expression is a search by and for the artist--to make order out of disorder and to resolve the artist's ambiguities, conflicts, and uncertaintiesthrough attributions of meaning to experience. Art, therefore, is intrinsically free, since it hasmeaning only for a discoverer through the process of discovery.In addition to the artist's process of experiencing or receiving art -- observing, hearing,feeling a work of art -- is also a search for meaning and essentially free. The receiver of artparticipates in an artistic experience when the creation induces or stimulates the perceiver's ownactive discovery of meaning."73Following, are comments by artists about the expression of art:"My painting is the natural growth out of a need. I want to express my feelings rather than illustratethem." (Jackson Pollack)"To us, art is an adventure in the unknown world, which can be explored only by those willing totake risks." (Adolph Gottlieb and Mark Rothko)"Folks don't understand the blues. They hear it come out, but they don't understand how it got there.They don't understand that's life's way of talking. You don't sing to feel better. You sing becausethat's a way of understanding life." (Mother of the Blues in Ma Rainey 's Black Bottom)"It may be the deep necessity of art is the examination of self-deception." (Robert Motherwell)"Everyone lives a significant portion of life below the surface. Art records and elaborates this unseendimension." (John Edgar Wideman, author of Brothers and Keepers)"A work of art is a world in itself reflecting senses and emotions of the artist's world. The aim ofart ... has always been the blending of experience gained in life with the natural qualities of the artmedium. Art is a reflection of the spirit, a result of introspection ..." (Hans Hoffman)Artists often hesitate to offer an explanation or meaning for their work because they recognizethat this robs the viewer of their own creative experience of interpretation by imposing eitherthe artist's or the curator's interpretation. However, our arts institutions usually offer aninterpretation, and as mentioned, it is often written in ' artspeak' , excluding the average person' Harrow, Gustave, "Creativity and Control," The Journal of Arts Management and Law, Vol. 16,No. 1, Summer 1986, p. 51.80who does not have the training to decode the message.The controversy from the artist's point of view, is that viewing art as a product of thegallery or museum has the potential to take away from this essential pursuit of truth that isinherent in the creation of the art, and to thereby alienate the artists. Conversely, the artsinstitution also has the ability to elevate the artist to celebrity status, which may then causeconflicts in the making of art because the artist wants to maintain the celebrity status, andunderstands that to do so, she must continue to make art that is measured to be acceptable bythe imposed standards of the institution and its elite group of patrons. Either way, artists oftenbecome alienated.Before I entered into the art world, I had always envied artists for the ability to be ableto create their work free of politics and any type of imposed standards. It was a greatdisappointment to discover that the artist does not operate in a world of total freedom of creativeexpression. And yet, total freedom is a necessary condition for the practice of pure creativity.Visionary arts administrators must recognize this necessary state for the future of art, and muststrive to encourage an atmosphere of freedom. This is no easy task, given the current state ofthe arts world, which is encumbered by unintelligible codes, prevailing elitism, and what wehave been referring to as the quiet crisis."Artists and museums do not have the most cordial of relationships. Perceptions abouteach other's roles usually conflict. Accusations come from both sides about unresponsivenessto each other's needs and desires. This push and pull creates and distance between twoentities which, in theory, are two aspects of one thing, art. The artist creates, the museum81exhibits and preserves."'In the past, there was a clear delineation between the role of the artist and that of the artmuseum. The artists made the art while the museums exhibited and collected. Art was oftennot collected or shown by museums until after the artist had passed away, and thus, themuseums saw themselves as preservers of art history. Time was the test of value for works ofart, and in this environment, museums and curators did not have to deal with artists. Theyconsidered themselves the final arbiters of art. It was accepted that, once a work left the handsof the artist, he no longer had control over it.The process has become more complex as galleries and museums have begun to showmore contemporary work, where context and the wishes of the now living artist must beconsidered. Artists want more control over the exhibition of their work and are, therefore,questioning the traditional roles that museums have played.In order to interpret history, museums must be able to understand contemporary artissues. To do so, they must embrace their relationships with artists. They must build these newrelationships beyond a simplistic concern with art objects themselves, while also maintainingtheir institutional standards.Artists depend on museums and galleries to provide public exposure and credibility fortheir work. Exhibiting work with other artists can provide a new context for work, and thus anew reading. Financial support from arts organizations can make new work possible. Thisinterdependence between artist and museum sets the grounds for what can either be a harmoniousSato, None, "A Question of Edges," in Breaking Down the Boundaries: Artists and Museums,Henry Art Gallery, Seattle, WA, 1989, p. 21.82partnership or a tenuous struggle. In order to ensure that the relationship is one of harmoniouspartnerships, the arts organization must be committed to developing a working relationship withartists, receptive to the idea of participation with artists in the development of new work, andwilling to change. Artists and museum professionals must be able to communicate with eachother as equals, and must develop mutual trust and respect. Artists must be viewed asprofessionals and given freedom in artistic creativity, while the museums professionals must berespected for knowledge and expertise in the field of interpreting and exhibiting work foraudiences.There are several examples of successful collaborations between artists and institutions.Chris Bruce, Senior Curator at the Henry Art Gallery in Seattle says of a collaborativeinstallation with artist, Chris Burden, called Samson, "Being involved in this project clearlychanged the way we related to the shed that houses the art, and it promoted a certain curiosityabout what other interesting opportunities lay in areas museums might normally avoid. Havingsurvived Samson, we became further interested in participating in the artistic process and makingit more immediately discernible."'The Henry Art Gallery has undertaken several innovative programs in collaboration withartists to further artistic research and to develop a stronger partnership with artists. Their 15thAvenue Studio Projects combined the creative process of the artists with exhibition spaces bybringing several artists into residence and providing funding for projects that were created onsite in the gallery as studio space. Although not all of the individual artists' projects were75 Bruce, Chris, "What Boundaries?", in Breaking Down the Boundaries: Artists and Museums, TheHenry Art Gallery, Seattle, WA., 1989, p. 5.83successful, the overall project accomplished successful interaction between artists and thegallery. In conjunction with 15th Avenue Studio Project #2, the gallery also sponsored asymposium, "Breaking Down the Boundaries: Artists and Museums" at which artists andmuseums professionals discussed these issues. In order for projects such as these to besuccessful, both artist and institution must be flexible and willing to undergo change.While these collaborative efforts have a positive impact on the relationships of artist andmuseum, they also signal a change in the roles of museum curators, who have begun to envisionthemselves as part of the creative process, part of a new "leading edge" curatorship that leavesbehind the idea of traditional exhibitions that exhibit the work of local and regional artists.While this leading edge curatorship is a required part of institutional leadership, it is alsoimportant to exhibit the work that has been created in the artists' studios. Because curators' jobsare scarce, they seem to feel a pressure to perform, to out-create their competitors, andtherefore, they neglect more traditional exhibitions. For example, at one time, the VancouverArt Gallery held an annual show of work by Vancouver artists. Today, one must attendARTROPOLIS to see what's going on in the artists' studios of the Lower Mainland.ARTROPOLIS grew from the 1983 Warehouse Show which opened the same night that theVancouver Art Gallery opened its new gallery in the old courthouse with a retrospective showof Vancouver artists. The Warehouse Show was a reaction by artists who were discontent withthe Vancouver Art Gallery's policy toward supporting local and emerging artists.It is imperative that our institutions focus on raising the consciousness of the role ofcreativity and free expression in our society. To accomplish this, they must actively involveartists in their Boards and in the development of their missions. The need for the involvement84of artists goes much deeper. Our school systems and political systems do little today to elevatethe role of art, so it will take a long time to raise the consciousness of the importance of art andcreativity in our society. It is critical that our arts institutions play a leadership role toward thischange. One way of infiltrating the school system and reaching our youngest potential audiencesis through school programs in our galleries. The Vancouver Art Gallery, for example, has astrong school program component through its Public Programs Division.Further, it is within the power of our public galleries and museums to begin to breakdown the established elitism that pervades the system. While this is a delicate operation, giventhat many of the volunteer forces which are integral to the operation of the galleries arecomprised mainly of the elite and the largest balance of donations also comes from this group,a visionary director can begin to break down these barriers. Catalogues and publications canbe geared toward a less elite audience; presentations and tours can be developed for everyone,whether they have understand `artspeak,' or not."The truly professional arts administrator combines managerial talents with artisticsensitivity. What, then, is the principal mission of the professional arts administrator? It is tofacilitate the work of the artist(s); to create, provide, and sustain the resources, environment,and atmosphere in which artists can develop and flourish.'5.3 An Anthropological Approach"Managers Can Learn From Anthropologists" is the title of an interesting article, thatsuggests that applying the way an anthropologist thinks to the management process can help76 Raymond, Thomas J.C., and Greyser, Stephan A., "The Business Of Managing The Arts,"Harvard Business Review, p.132.85management to integrate mini-cultures that may arise at the department, branch or individuallevel into the overall corporate culture. This can be accomplished by viewing these mini-cultures (the micro-cosm) as building blocks of the overall corporate culture (the macro-cosm).The article suggests that sometimes managers have a tendency to be too focused on statisticalanalysis, while ignoring the significance of what might seem, at first glance, like insignificantinformation.A more qualitative view is important in understanding organizational culture and itshuman element, and this applies as much to volunteer resources as it does to paid workers. Howdo we find out how our volunteers and staff are motivated and what they are committed to? Bytalking to them. According to Canape's article, "Anthropologists strive to shun categoricalthinking. They prefer to study individuals face-to-face, gauging reactions one-on-one."' And,secondly, anthropologists gather small details, and then look for patterns to draw conclusions.So, although Ilsley, Moore, Pinder and other authors referenced earlier in this paper describevarious categories of volunteer motivations, needs and commitments, it is important to alsorecognize that this research provides only some of the tools to be utilized in managing acombination of volunteers and paid staff, and not to lose sight of the fact that every volunteerforce and staff will also be characterized by the individuals that make it up, and the culture ofthe organization to which it is attached.5.4 A Multicultural ApproachMuriel James, author of The Better Boss in Multicultural Organizations describes "goodn Canape, Charlene, "Managers Can Learn From Anthropologists," Working Smart Newsletter,National Institute of Business Management, Inc., New York, April 15, 1991.86and better bosses," and I believe that her description, although meant to describe managers ingeneral terms, also aptly applies to how arts managers ought to conduct themselves. In additionto the methods that have been outlined above, volunteer managers and Directors with thefollowing characteristics will achieve more effective results managing volunteers and staff:"Good bosses are continually in the process of evaluating themselves so that they can become moreeffective. They are committed to what they consider to be worthwhile work. They are doers as well asdreamers, pioneers as well as planners. Their work is part of their identity and contributes to their ownwell-being and that of others.Better bosses are those who become leaders. Whether they supervise a small group of employees ormanage a division within a large organization, they envision goals, affirm values and motivate others toaccept similar positive goals and encourage their subordinates to succeed.They are also experts at dealing with change. They recognize and appreciate cultural diversity andcontinually update their own skills and those of their employees to be more effective in coping with andinstigating change. Updating requires attention to details.Good and better bosses know and value cultural diversity and update their own skills, as well as the skillsof subordinates, so that they can be more effective in dealing with change. They know recognizing globalchange is essential to good management.These kinds of bosses see that even among employees of the same race, gender, and ethnicity there is awide diversity. Words, gestures, facial expressions, and work styles reveal time and again that everyindividual is unique. They are different because of what is inherited genetically, what is passed downculturally from generation to generation, and the social conditioning that is experienced throughout life.Better bosses, who are always in the process of updating themselves, recognize that even people who livein the same large city often have different subcultural values. From one part of the city people may speakand dress in one way, while those from another part may look and act according to a different subculture.Everybody brings their own subculture to work.Better bosses are also aware that every organization has its own unique culture which includes traditionsof how to behave toward superiors, subordinates and peers, whether to take initiative or just wait fororders, whether to work intensely or casually, and many other expectations, including how to dress. Whenemployees do not understand and value cultural diversity, discrimination may flourish. The better bossesdiscourage discrimination in any form.Better bosses often take time and energy to explore their own cultural values as well as those of others.They become increasingly aware of how these values affect behaviour. They honour diversity. Theybecome leaders who do not wait passively for things to happen. Instead, they motivate others, initiatechange, and constantly are concerned with establishing fair practices and building morale. They use theirtime creatively and productively and separate the important from the unimportant. "' s78 James, Muriel, The Better Boss in Multicultural Organizations,  Marshall Publishing Company,Walnut Creek, CA, 1991, p. 3.87What Muriel James describes as a 'better boss' is one who can deal with change. This is animportant skill for arts managers today, as their organizations undergo dramatic changes insources of funding, which impacts all areas of operation, as well as changes to the demographicsof the volunteer force and audience.James also talks about the various subcultures that exist in a community. Today,Canada's cities are becoming more and more multicultural, and our government stronglysupports multiculturalism. It is important for a strong museum Director to have a multiculturalperspective because museums have many potential audiences of varying cultural backgrounds andmany employees of various cultures. Further, James refers to changes in cultural diversity andthe fact that each organization has its own culture, so she recognizes the importance of both ananthropological view to management and organizations, and the ability to be open to newmethods of management. She recognizes that each organization has a culture which is integralto its operation.5.5 A Managerial PerspectiveWhile we have drawn upon organizational behaviour as it relates to volunteermanagement, psychology, and anthropology, we have not delved into management theory as itrelates to directing arts organizations generally.Although it is widely recognized that the arts seem to lack good management practicestoday, no tradition of professional management approaches has been established in artsorganizations. "Because of the mystique of the artistic temperament and the distinctive mix offactors involved in the artistic 'product,' arts administrators have tended to view their job as a88phenomenon apart from business management.' There are, however, several similaritiesbetween arts organizations and businesses:(1) Both seek to survive;(2) Both have an organizational purpose or mission;(3) Both cater to a set of constituents such as their employees, audiences/customers;or financial supporters;(4) They need planning and financial management;(5) Both have a necessity for marketing to develop the audience or target market;(6) Both take a sympathetic and understanding approach to human resources andlabour issues; and(7)^Both need a sound management system.Because of the above similarities, it seems sensible to look at some management tools andpractices in depth, and to apply them to arts management.5.5.1 Organizational StructureGareth Morgan describes six models for organizations (see Table VII) , varying from the'rigid bureaucracy' to what he describes as a 'loosely coupled organic network'. In my twentyyears of experience in the for-profit sector, I have experienced the organizations where I wasemployed transforming themselves from one organizational structure to another as the businessclimate dictated. For-profit companies are managed and staffed by individuals who have beenformally educated in organizational behaviour and management strategy, and they pay close' Raymond, Thomas J.C., and Greyser, Stephen A., "The Business Of Managing The Arts,"Harvard Business Review, July-August 1990, p. 124.89attention to the organizational form as it relates to their organization's goals. However, the artshave typically been managed by those who have education and experience in the particularartform of that institution, such as music, theatre or visual art. As a result, they are neithertrained nor interested in organizational forms as they relate to the achievement of theirorganization's mission. Yet, in today's environment, we see the corporate world restructuringto survive the 90's, and it is critical that arts directors also become attuned to theirorganization's structure and whether it is the most effective model for achieving theorganization's mission. Following, is a brief description of Morgan's six models:5.5.1.a Model 1: The Rigid BureaucracyThe traditional organizational model can be described as a Rigid Bureaucracy. Underthe control of the chief executive, its organization chart is pyramid shaped. It is run accordingto a set of codes or rules that attempt to cover all possible situations, and it has cleardepartmental divisions. Everyone understands the clear and simple hierarchy of command, andmeetings are kept to a minimum because the rules and codes are clearly understood.5.5. 1 . b Model 2: The Bureaucracy With a Senior Management TeamIn a less stable environment than the Rigid Bureaucracy, unusual situations occur thatmake it difficult to predefine a set of rules for every contingency. Therefore, the chief executiveofficer creates a management team to meet on a regular basis to handle these issues. Typically,this management team is comprised of department heads and the CEO, and each team memberhas a very clearly defined role related to the department that he/she manages.90FIGURE 18°Organizational Structure ModelsREADINGS, STORIES, AND OTHER RESOURCESEXHIBIT 27.2 Schematic illustrations of the six modelsSource: Morgan, Gareth, "From Bureaucracies to Networks: The Emergence of NewOrganizational Forms" Creative Organization Theory, Sage Publications, 1989.915.5.1.c Model 3: The Bureaucracy With Project Teams And Task ForcesWhen the management team is unable to handle issues requiring a cross-departmentperspective, project teams or task forces may be appointed to involve staff from lower levels ofthe organization to meet these challenges. Because the hierarchical structure remains intact, theproject teams look at special tasks, but each acts as a representative of the department throughwhich he or she reports, and that is where loyalty remains because departmental divisions arethe overriding forces in the organizational structure.5.5.1.d Model 4: The Matrix OrganizationIn a Matrix Organization, equal priority is given to all functional departments. Peoplework on project teams that cut across functional areas, and therefore, they have a dual focuswhich may relate to a function such as finance or marketing, while also focusing on a businessunit with responsibility for a specific product or program. This allows an organization to focuson projects or key issues related to problems of the organization or the industry. Theorganization may relate to products, services, programs, projects, geographical regions, etcetera.5.5.1.e Model 5: The Project OrganizationThis type of organization has a project focus, and each staff member is part of a projectteam. If there are functional departments such as finance or marketing, they play a supportingrole, rather than a central one. The key focus is on the project teams. This type of organizationis more like a network than a hierarchy in structure, and is less formal in its approach to rulesand regulations. Each team exists to provide innovative solutions to meet the needs of thespecific project. The concept of self managed work teams fits into this model, which has92become popular in North American organizations because of its flexibility to meet the demandsof the changing environment in the 90's.5.5.1.f Model 6: The Loosely Coupled Organic NetworkThis organizational structure operates as a subcontracting network with few permanentstaff members, who perform key functions, and a pool of contracted individuals. The small coreof permanent staff provides the strategy, while the contractors are operational in their focus.This organization is purely a network of smaller entities providing ideas and activities, and thereis no clearly defined structure.Most arts organizations have never examined whether their structure is appropriate totheir mission. Largely, this is due to the fact that Directors have not been trained to considerthe most appropriate structure to accomplish their mission." However, if the gallery ormuseum focuses solely on programming special events and exhibitions, it may be moreappropriate to operate under a structure similar to Models 3, 4 or 5, whereas an organizationthat is fairly static in its exhibitions or directs itself at educational goals may find Models 2 or3 more appropriate. It is important for a visionary Director to understand that there are manyways of organizing the gallery work environment, and to determine the most effective model forworking toward the organization's goals.For example, it is my experience, having interned at The Vancouver Art Gallery, thatit functions as a Bureaucracy With A Senior Management Team. However, the daily operationof the gallery centres around programs and exhibitions which are, in effect, projects. Perhaps81 Most Directors come from a background in curating, art history or other arts-related training andexperience, and therefore, have not been attuned to organizational culture and theory, and how it appliesto their work environment.93it would be appropriate for the new Director to review the organizational structure to determinewhether organizing as a Matrix Organization or a Project Organization might not better suit theV.A.G.'s overall goals.I do not mean to suggest that any organization should select one model, and that it willbe the panacea for management, or that it will be appropriate indefinitely. Nor, are these theonly models from which to choose. But, having been employed at IBM Canada Ltd. for manyyears, I saw that organization move through all of these models, depending on the customerenvironment, the economic climate, the company's overall objectives, and the issues related tomeeting those objectives at any given time. What I am arguing is that arts directors must becognizant of their organization's structure, and be flexible enough to restructure as required tomeet the 'business' needs'. Generally, our public art galleries do not have the 10,000employees of IBM, but, their smaller size should be an advantage in making them more flexiblefor change.Kersti Krug" found, in studying the characteristics of well-run arts organizations, thatstructure was usually "flat, flexible and lean". A flat organization structure allows greaterflexibility while keeping administrative costs at a minimum.While skilful managers do not reorganize for the sake of reorganization, they are awareof their organization's structure, they look for simple effective solutions to organizationalproblems, and they take a hands-on approach to solving key problems.I use the term business needs in the context of those needs of the organization that will lead tofulfilment of the defined mission.83 Krug, Kersti, "Excellence in Arts Management: In Search of Characteristics Common to Well-Run Arts Organizations," Muse, Spring 1992, p. 52.945.5.2 Setting Objectives: The Use of a Performance-Structure ModelDirectors must also be integrally involved in the development of the organization'sstrategy. Section 3.1.2 covered planning and strategy as the role of the Board. The Director,however, is the one with a finger on the pulse of the organization's day-to-day operations andmust, therefore, provide the leadership for the planning process. The Director should have astrategic vision that is consistent with the gallery's mission, and this vision must include a clearunderstanding of the audience and the museum's role in the community. The Director must becommitted to better serving the audience and to providing an excellent 'product' (the exhibitions,programs, and the experience of visiting the museum) by first building upon the organization'sstrengths, and then by focusing on areas that can be improved.In discussing the role of the board, I focused on a "Management By Objectives"approach, which emphasizes the importance of planning by setting objectives consistent withmeeting the goals of the organization, as defined in the mission statement. Because it is difficultto set clear measurable objectives, it is beneficial to use a model for doing so, particularly inthe case of a not-for-profit organization, where profitability does not provide the acid test ofsuccess. Earlier, I referenced Pat Clubb's article, "An Analysis of the Economic Instability ofArts Organizations." In the article, she states that one of the faults of research related tomanaging the arts is the application of private-firm models to public not-for-profit organizations.Bertram Gross, a professor of Political Science at the Maxwell Graduate School of Citizenshipand Public Affairs at Syracuse University, several years ago developed a "General SystemsModel", which I have adapted for arts organizations to provide a comprehensive planning toolfor setting objectives.95"The performance of any organization or unit thereof consists of activities to (1) satisfy the varyinginterests of people and groups by (2) producing outputs of services or goods, (3) making efficient use ofinputs relative to outputs, (4) investing in the system, (5) acquiring resources, and (6) doing all these thingsin a manner that conforms with various codes of behaviour and (7) varying conceptions of technical andadministrative rationality. [...] The structure of any organization or unit thereof consists of (1) people and(2) non-human resources, (3) grouped together in differentiated subsystems that (4) interrelate amongthemselves and (5) with the external environment, (6) and are subject to various values and to such centralguidance as may help to provide the capacity for future performance.""I have adapted this general systems framework to develop a model for public arts organizationsto use in formulating their strategy and building objectives. Any plans to manage or change theperformance in an organization necessitate looking at all of these structural and performancesubcomponents. Gross suggests that managers often err by planning for major performancechanges without considering structural components of the organization and their part in theoverall ability of the organization to carry out its mission, and conversely, they often plan forstructural changes without considering how those changes may affect the overall performanceof the organization. The use of a 'Performance-Structure' Model to set the objectives of anorganization provides a comprehensive approach to understanding every facet of the organizationbefore narrowing in on the most strategic objectives.Previously, I referenced a presentation by David H. Scott, who recommended planningfor the planning process via a "Guidelines for Planning Study," in order to achieve excellencein arts management. Scott emphasized that, through this approach to planning, all key issueswould be identified, and thus, planning would more likely provide effective solutions to theorganization's problems. In effect, the following proposed model provides the guidelines forplanning.The Director of a public art gallery is essentially the General Manager, and as such, must" Gross, Bertram M., "What Are Your Organization's Objectives? A General Systems ApproachTo Planning," Human Relations, Tavistock Publications, London, Vol. 18, 1965, p. 195-216.96focus on the key responsibilities of general management: developing the organization, mouldingthe working environment, formulating strategy, grooming managers, allocating resources andmanaging operations, and the planning for all of these facets of operation can be facilitatedthrough the use of the model. While it could be the subject of an entire book to adapt Gross'smodel to the management of arts organizations, and is therefore beyond the scope of this paper,I would like to discuss the basic structure of the model as it could apply to providing the basisfor excellence in leadership and management of a public arts institution.5.5.2.a Performance Objectives(1) Satisfying InterestsSatisfying the many goals of individuals within an organization, including all of thevaried parties such as the board, management and staff, volunteers, artists, sponsors and donors,and the audience, is the most difficult objective of all because the needs of all of these groupsare difficult to identify, and not always consistent. The needs of these groups may include needsfor recognition or adequate monetary compensation on behalf of staff members, social needs onthe part of volunteers, the need to increase audience attendance on the part of the board, or theneed for new and stimulating programs and exhibitions on the part of the audience. Manyindividuals make up the organization, and their interests and motivations are varied.Further, it is difficult to determine how to measure the satisfaction of each of thesegroups. How does the Director ascertain whether the goals have been met? Audienceparticipation can be measured by attendance or revenue generated through admissions; employeesatisfaction may be measured through employee surveys, increased productivity or thetemperature of employee morale. The achievement of goals related to the performance of97human needs is often difficult to measure.The work environment, which includes the performance standards that are expected, theorganization's principles and its personnel policies, is shaped by the Director's vision. ADirector who expects excellence will set the standard for everyone. "High standards are thusthe principal means by which top general managers exert their influence and leverage theirtalents across the entire business," says Andra11 E. Pearson in his article, "Six Basics ForGeneral Managers."85 He goes on to assert that top managers set a personal example bydemonstrating their commitment to achieving the organization's goals in all that they do, andthey reinforce those standards in others by recognizing their efforts. An effective Directorunderstands the mission of the organization and defines the roles that all staff and volunteers willplay in working toward that mission, and he/she also understands what kind of people arerequired to accomplish the mission. For example, an organization that is very communityfocused on public programs and is 'customer driven' may require a different type of individualthan a museum that is more focused on supporting a purely education-focused mission.(2) Producing OutputWhat is the output of a public art museum? It is the 'product', which is made up notonly of the exhibitions and programs, but of the total experience of visiting the museum. Thegift shop, restaurant, washrooms and service all add up to provide an experience. For each'output' or 'product', quantifiable and measurable objectives must be set, and the quality of thisoutput is difficult to measure for several reasons. First, the quality of an 'experience' has many" Pearson, Andrall E., "Six Basics For General Managers," Harvard Business Review, July-August1989, p. 94.98aspects because an experience is somewhat intangible and visitor satisfaction is difficult tomeasure, so objectives might be set to measure attendance or to survey visitor satisfaction.Section 3.1.2 discussed the importance of understanding the audience and potentialaudiences and how those can be measured. Producing output goals should include specifictargets with respect to audience expansion or program and exhibition attendance.(3) Making Efficient Use of InputsBecause financial resources in the arts are a scarce commodity, it is critical to makeefficient use of them. In the for-profit sector, profitability is the easiest measure of this input-output balance, but it does not apply for public museums. Earlier in this paper, I referred toDale McConkey's article, "Applying Management By Objectives to Nonprofit Organizations,"in which he suggests that the profit motive is, in fact, present in nonprofit organizations becausethey are able to achieve higher returns on their resources by increasing employee productivity,increasing the quality of teaching provided, lowering overhead costs of fundraising oradministrative costs, or achieving better results from volunteers.A good Director will have a good sense of the organization's best functioning areas, andwill work on improving the other areas of the organization one thing at a time. Further,resourceful Directors should understand the financial picture, and be in control of the 'bottomline'. "Time after time, managers, board members, and supporters of non-profit organizationsfind themselves frustrated by a simple but fundamental problem: the lack of clear goals for theirorganizations. Without a shared understanding of goals, leaders and supporters of even the mostwell-meaning nonprofit will almost inevitably find themselves drawn into activities that diminishand divide the organization, undermining its effectiveness and undercutting its performance. The99lesson for nonprofit managers, board members and donors is clear--nonprofits need a bottomline."" In the case of nonprofits, that 'bottom line' is not the profit figure, but clearmeasurable achievements of the goals that have been determined through the planning process.Effective management of the organization's resources means that the Director has a clearunderstanding of the mission, the goals, the expected results, the skills of the staff andvolunteers, and how to match these altogether.(4) Investing in the System"In addition to producing current output, an organization must invest in its capacity forfuture production. Investment objectives involve the expansion, replacement, conservation, ordevelopment of assets. They are essential not only for survival, but to prevent decline orpromote growth." In the case of a public museum, this involves investment in the buildingfor replacement or expansion, conservation of the collection, development of data bases for fundraising, or development of monetary assets such as endowments or fund raising efforts.Investing in the system also involves investment in people such as training programs forstaff and volunteers, external relations with the community, building relationships with artists,and development of the management structure. No organization can be successful without ateam effort by the entire staff, both paid and volunteer. As a result, it is critical for the Directorto develop strong leaders within the organization, and this requires regular reviews of allpersonnel to ensure that the high standards of excellence that have been set are maintained by' Harvey, Philip D., and Snyder, James D., "Charities Need a Bottom Line Too," Harvard BusinessReview, January-February 1987, p. 14." Gross, Bertram M., "What Are Your Organization's Objectives? A General-Systems Approachto Planning," Human Relations, Vol. 18, 1965, p. 206.100everyone. Challenging project assignments can help to train those who show high potential forfuture management, and help to keep employees interested in the opportunities in theorganization. It is well recognized that the arts seem to offer little room for advancement andpromotion, and many employees in the arts move on to another organization when they getbored because they see no opportunity for advancement. Strong Directors will find a way tokeep their valued staff challenged and committed to the organization. Compensation in the artstends to be lower than in the for-profit sector, so complementary ways of rewarding andmotivating staff must be utilized.Building objectives to invest in these assets can cause conflicts with the goals developedfor efficient outputs, so a visionary Director must balance the two areas to ensure thatinvestment in the future and the provision of a quality product are both considered.(5) Acquiring ResourcesThe acquisition of resources is an important aspect of running any organization, and inthe case of a public art museum, this encompasses the areas of fundraising, applying for grantsand government funding, investment and financial management, revenue generation through giftshops or admissions, and acquisitions for the collection.(6) Observing CodesAll organizations and many professions have some code of ethics or principles accordingto which they operate. These may be professional standards or legal and ethical principles, andit is important that goals be set in accordance with these principles. In the case of an artsmuseum, the codes may have to do with standards related to the conservation and preservationof the collection and the moral and ethical example to be set in the community.101TABLE VIIPerformance-Structure Model for Planning in Arts OrganizationsPerformance Objectives^ Structure Objectives(1) Satisfying Interests^ (1)^PeopleInterest Groups:^Some Sample Needs:^Kind of Skills, Experience, Education,Personality CharacteristicsManagement^Opportunity for AdvancementStaff^Monetary Compensation^Organizational Structure Models:Volunteers^Social Needs^ Rigid BureaucracyArtists^Recognition Bureaucracy With Senior Management TeamAudience^Intellectual Stimulation Through Programs^Bureaucracy With Project Teams and TaMembership^New Programs^ ForcesSponsors^Corporate Recognition Matrix OrganizationDonors^Personal Recognition^ Project OrganizationLoosely-Coupled Organic NetworkManagement Tools:^ Management Tools:AttendanceRevenue GenerationEmployee Satisfaction SurveysIncreases in ProductivityEmployee MoraleManagement Leading By ExamplePerformance EvaluationsTraining ProgramsRecruiting ProgramsJob Descriptions(2) Producing Output^ (2)^Non-human Resources102Museum Product:^ Physical Facilities:Exhibitions BuildingPrograms^ Restaurant'The Experience' - including restaurant, gift shop,^ Gift Shopservice^ GalleriesStorage/vaultData Processing Resources:Computer equipmentData bases (membership, donors, collectionregistration)Financial Resources:EndowmentsGrantsDonationsManagement Tools:^ Management Tools:Visitor surveysAudience participation and attendance measurementsMarketing Plan including analysis of Marketing MixMeasures of Revenue Generation from Admissions, GiftShop, Restaurant, etc.BudgetPhysical planningAccounting practices(3)^Making Efficient Use of Inputs^ (3)^SubsystemsEmployee ProductivityQuality of Education/TeachingOverhead Costs of FundraisingAdministrative CostsVolunteer ProductivityDepartmentsCommitteesTask ForcesSubculturesMicrocosms103Management Tools:^ Management Tools:BudgetQuality control measurementsQuality circlesProductivity AnalysisOutput measurementsJob descriptionsPerformance ReviewsSubsystem Objectives and Meas-urement (ie. departmental goals)(4)^Investing In The System^ (4)^Internal RelationsExpansion, Replacement, Development, Conservation of Assets:BuildingCollectionData ProcessingMonetary AssetsFundraisingDevelopment of People:Lines of communication for conflictresolutionRelationship with Union, if presentDevelopment of Career PathsClearDefinitionofSubsystetnResponsibilitiesEmployee SatisfactionManagement Tools:Training^ Organization ChartRecruiting Labour Relations GuidelinesBuilding Relationships^ Personnel PracticesClear definition of responsibilitiesManagement Tools:^ RecognitionandRewardsSystemsTraining ProgramsRecruiting ProgramsBuilding relationships with artists, employees, volunteersand the outside community through public relationsDevelopment of Management Structure104Development of Career PathsBudget(5)^Acquiring Resources^ (5)^External RelationsFundraising^ Constituents:Grant Applications Publics/audienceInvestment and Financial Management^ Government AgenciesRevenue Generation^ Corporate SponsorsAcquisitions Private DonorsArtistsManagement Tools:^ Communitybudgetdata processing systemsaccounting practicesmarket research -- identify target audiencedirect marketing programs for fund raisingManagement Tools:Public Relations and media relationsPromotionRelationships with Artists(6) Observing Codes^ (6)^ValuesCuratorial professional standards^ Conformity versus individualismConservation standards and practices Innovation and risk taking versus adherenceto rulesMoral and ethical examples in the community^ Internal versus external focusResponsibilities to artists and art^ Elitist versus customer focus(7) Rationality^ (7)^Guidance SubsystemUse of best management planning and evaluation systems^ Board/Management105Centralization versus decentralizationManagement Tools:^ Management Tools:Mission Statement^ Planning ProcessOrganization Philosophy Organization ChartMission StatementOrganization Philosophy106(7) Behaving RationallyRationality is an important goal in the operation of any organization, and it depends uponthe use of the best methodologies to guide the management of the organization. "[Administrativerationality] involves the use of the best methods of guiding or managing organizations. Thisinvolves the interrelated processes of planning, activating, and evaluating with respect to allsignificant dimensions of both performance and structure."" Structure Objectives(1) PeopleStructural goals should be struck in terms of what types of people are required, what theirskills are and how many people are needed, including experience and education requirements,personality characteristics and salary requirements.Further, Morgan's models of organizational structure should be considered as a meansof understanding the organization's structure, and how the structure can serve as the mosteffective vehicle toward the achievement of the mission statement.Strong managers make organizational decisions around the people that they are workingwith by turning over key business problems to the individuals who have the right skills toaccomplish the task at hand. People are given the responsibility to manage the situation, andare measured based on the results that they achieve. In a public arts organization, people mustbe measured based on how they achieve their tasks in line with the overall organizational goalsrelated to achieving the mission." Gross, Bertram M., "What Are Your Organization's Objectives? A General-Systems Approachto Planning," Human Relations, Vol. 18, 1965, p. 207.107(2) Non-human ResourcesInvestment objectives must also deal with the structure of physical facilities and dataprocessing resources. The building is of particular importance to an art gallery because thephysical surroundings make up part of the total product offered. As product is one of the "fourP's"" of the marketing mix, it is a very important aspect of planning. According to RobertKelly, "Product, to museum publics, embraces the whole of the museum experience. Themuseum experience includes, but is not confined to, interaction with a museum's collection. Infact, a significant proportion of museum visitors may not visit the galleries at all. The publicitysurrounding a museum event, the manner in which a museum communicates with its publicsinside the museum and out, food or beverages, or visitor services provided, or goods displayedin a museum catalogue or shop - even the manner in which an approach is made to a fundingsource - are all integral to the museum product/experience."' Dr. Kelly also emphasizes theimportance of the symbolic product of the museum or gallery. In other words, some visitorsmay only attend the gallery to say they have been or to be seen there. This makes the physicalsurrounding as important as the collection itself.Data processing resources are critical for the management and registration of thecollection; for the general productivity of the staff who rely on automated office systems toenhance the productivity of the heavy volume of writing that makes up their workload; and forfund raising and communication with various publics such as the membership or educational" The "4 P's" of Marketing (also called the Marketing Mix) refers to Price, Product, Place andPromotion. Adjustment of one P affects all of the others. The goal is to develop the most effectivecombination of the 4 P's to achieve an organization's marketing objectives.9° Kelly, Robert F., "Marketing in Museums," Muse, 1993.108institutions which may participate in the various programs developed by the museum.(3) SubsystemsWithin any overall organizational structure, subsystems exist, whether they be made upof functional departments, committees, project teams and task forces, or individuals. Thesesubsystems may be organizational in nature; they may be subcultures such as those mentionedby Muriel James in The Better Boss in Multicultural Organizations; or, they might be the micro-cosms operating within the macro-cosm that Canape refers to in "Managers Can Learn FromAnthropologists."The role or function of each subsystem is defined by its output. For example, the role(or output) of the Public Programs Division might be to provide excellent public programs, orthe role of the receptionist is to answer the telephone and greet visitors in a way that enhancestheir visit to the museum. Objectives should be set for each subsystem so that the achievementof goals is measurable. One of the many ways to set subsystem objectives is throughcomprehensive job descriptions, which are tied to an annual performance evaluation system.This assists in measuring performance of roles or subsystems which are made up of oneindividual. In the same way, project teams, committees and departments should have definedobjectives that can be reviewed on a regular basis.(4) Internal RelationsWhile all organizations are made up of many subsystems, it is important that all of thosesubsystems work together toward the overall achievement of the mission statement. Therefore,it is important that a strong internal relations system be developed so that all subsystems cometogether to function as a unified whole.109The overall management structure of the organization, whether it be hierarchical (suchas in the bureaucracy models 1, 2 and 3) or team-related models (such as models 4 and 5), mustprovide lines of communication that facilitate conflict resolution. In an organization where aunion is present, these lines of communication must be more clearly defined and formal than ina non-union environment.Opportunities for career advancement, a clear understanding of the responsibilities ofeach subsystem, open lines of communication, formal conflict resolution systems, and methodsof measuring employee satisfaction fall into the category of internal relations, and goals mustbe set for each of these categories.(5) External RelationsThe relationship between any organization and its external constituents must also beconsidered in goal setting. The museum's various 'publics', or the consumers of its product,the government agencies, corporate sponsors and private donors that provide funding, the artistswhose work is exhibited in the gallery and who participate in the museum programs all comprisethese constituents, and the Director must set goals related to building, developing andmaintaining these relationships.(6) ValuesThe values that underlie the subculture of an organization must be considered whenmaking any structural changes or setting objectives. For example, the culture of someorganizations may place a high value on conformity, whereas other organizations may prizeindividualism. The armed forces, the civil service, or conservative business organizations suchas IBM place high values on conformity. For example, companies like IBM and Xerox, which110have a dress code (whether enforced or implied) are representative of organizations that haveconformist values. This type of organization has predefined and accepted ways of doing things.Customer proposals may always be written in the same format; manufacturing specifications maybe highly specific; or personnel issues may always be handled according to a set of specifiedvalues. Other organizations may treat every situation differently, or view individualism as thehighest ideal, and therefore, look at each personnel issue as a unique situation. Individualcreativity and initiative in writing customer proposals may be rewarded. Whether employeesare encouraged to be innovative and creative versus following rules and regulations, or whetherthey are motivated to take risks or to comply with company standards also represent theorganization's values.Gross also discusses internally versus externally oriented organizations. I believe thatthis is an area that warrants close examination within the arts. For-profit organizations, bynecessity, are customer-focused because they depend on their publics' acceptance of theirproducts and services to survive. Arts organizations, however, often tend to be internallyfocused, neglecting the preferences or needs of their audience in deference to an elitist approach."One need only read a review of or the catalogue supporting a contemporary visual artsexhibition to confirm the self-aware exclusion of large segments of a society from participationin that arts experience. One need only attempt a discussion with a professor of fine arts' torealize the frequency with which they exhibit contempt for those who concern themselves withquestions of the accessibility of art. And, one need only read the newspaper account of theopening of any new exhibition to realize that who attends, with whom, how they arrived, andI am sure Dr. Kelly did not mean anyone on my Advisory Committee.111what they wore, are seen as being more important than the art being exhibited."'The presentation of the exhibitions, publications and catalogues, the type of staff who arehired, the allocation of budgets and resources all reflect the orientation and values of theorganization.In studying characteristics common to well-run arts organizations, Kersti Krughypothesized that philosophy would support the organizations' missions. She found that, "Aparticular philosophy is neither better nor worse than another; what is crucial is that thephilosophy be intrinsic, understood, coherent, and 'bought into' by all parties concerned.'Some organizations operate according to a philosophy or a set of basic beliefs which areintegral to how they intend to accomplish their mission. IBM operates according to three basicbeliefs:(1) To practice respect for the individual.(2) To achieve the best customer service of any organization.(3) To accomplish everything in a superior, and therefore, excellent manner.By developing a philosophy, an organization is able to instill in all of its employees, its basisfor operation. So, while IBM is in the business of manufacturing and selling computerequipment, they intend to be successful at it by respecting individuals, offering superiorcustomer service and carrying on everything that they do in a superior and excellent manner.Any business undertaking which cannot be achieved according to the company's92 Kelly, Robert F., "Elitism In The Arts," Presented to the Second International Conference on ArtsManagement, Jouy-en-Josas, France, June 1993, p.4.Krug, Kersti, "Excellence in Arts Management: In Search of Characteristics Common to Well-Run Arts Organizations," Muse, Spring 1992, p. 52.112philosophy, should not be undertaken. Having an organizational philosophy guides the Board,volunteers, managers and staff in how to proceed with every task that they tackle. Thephilosophy is designed to bring together all activities of any organization by providing guidelinesfor conduct and priorities. The philosophy of the organization is not the same as the missionstatement. The mission statement describes the overriding goal or purpose of the organization,whereas the philosophy provides guidelines or values by which the mission is to be achievedsuch as according to standards of excellence in the example of IBM.(7) Guidance SubsystemManagement structure is what is referred to as the guidance subsystem. It is thatsubsystem which coordinates the overall activities of the organization. This subsystem is madeup of a network of managers extending from the Board and the Director at the top of theorganization, down through all levels of management and supervisors. All managers andsupervisors play a role in guiding the organization toward its goals through their variousmanagement roles.One important aspect of the guidance subsystem is the level of centralization ofresponsibility for decision making. Depending on the size of the museum, it may be necessaryfor the Director to delegate greater decision making authority to middle managers than in asmaller organization. If more decisions are delegated, then a structure and guidelines must bein place through the planning process, so that the various managers have enough information andauthority to make decisions consistent with the mission statement.The level of support that the Director and the management team receive from the Board,membership, volunteers, staff, government agencies, artists, sponsors and donors directly relates113to the effectiveness of this guidance subsystem.5.5.2.c The Strategy of PlanningThe Performance-Structure Model outlined in the preceding pages sets up a series ofinterrelated categories for which objectives should be set. "The essence of planning is theselection of strategic objectives in the form of specific sequences of action to be taken by theorganization."' Although the model offers a comprehensive system for detail, selectivity isthe key to strategically leading the organization. Having selected the strategic elements ofperformance and structure, other elements will be handled within detailed subsystem plans.Gross emphasizes, however, that strategic objectives can only be selected when management isaware of all possible objectives. In other words, the model acts as a tool to prepare forplanning.5.6 Leadership Versus ManagementIn this paper, I have not made a distinction between the terms management andleadership because I believe that applying management principles is not enough. "Managementis more a set of explicit tools and techniques, based on rational reasoning and testing, that aredesigned to be used in remarkably similar ways across a wide range of business decisions." 95Today's Director must also demonstrate leadership, which means utilizing the tools ofmanagement to motivate committed people and to build a comprehensive strategy to achieve avision. I believe that effectively utilizing the tools of management is integral to strongleadership.Gross, Bertram M., "What Are Your Organization's Objectives? A General-Systems ApproachTo Planning," Human Relations, Vol. 18, 1965, p. 212.95 Kotter, John P., The Leadership Factor, The Free Press, New York, 1988, p. 22.1146.0 ConclusionsThe issues facing public gallery and museum administrators in the 90's require aninterdisciplinary approach to management. This calls for a new museum professional who isboth schooled in the arts and in business management theory, and who can marry the two in thefollowing ways:(1) To work with the Board to state the mission of the museum, and then to buildobjectives, goals and strategies to carry out that mission. This involves knowing andunderstanding the specific gallery's audience and its collection, and determining how to bestreach that audience through appropriate programs and exhibits. It also means understandingwhether the gallery's audience must be expanded to meet its goals, and if so, developingprograms to accomplish this expansion. In order to expand the gallery audience, it is importantto understand who the audience is and also who is not visiting the museum. The museumprofessional must know enough about the audience, the collection, and the role of the institutionto strike the appropriate balance between scholarship, preserving our culture, and serving as asocial institution that meets the needs of the public, and must assist the Board to do the same.Because defining the mission is a Board responsibility, the Director must be able to communicatehis/her arts management expertise to the members of the Board, who may have little knowledgein that field.(2) The museum professional must be able to balance the many areas of responsibilitywithin the institution such as day-to-day operations, fund raising, financial management,curatorial functions, government relations, personnel and marketing. In most cases, galleryDirectors agree that all of these areas are important aspects of managing the gallery. Marketing115is the bridge between the museum and the outside world. It plays a role in attracting valuedvolunteers, expanding the gallery audience, attracting corporate sponsorships, and even inattracting qualified Board members. The marketing plan must be developed in concert with themuseum's overall directive, and must be used as a means to achieve a desired end.(3) The members comprising the governing body, the Board, are often diverse in theirbackgrounds, and frequently, there is no experience or knowledge of arts administration amongstthe members of the Board. As a result, communication and strategy conflicts can occur betweenBoard and Director, with a tendency to fire the Director. This calls for a conscious effort totry to balance the skills on the board to include more arts administration experience, and aDirector, who is able to communicate with all of the varied board members. He/she must bepolitician, business person, arts professional, public relations professional and marketeer rolledinto one. Further, this calls for a clear understanding of the role of the Board, so thatresponsibilities of Board, Director and Staff are clearly understood by all, and each can play theappropriate role in working to carry out the gallery's mission.(4) During recessionary times, government funding is restrained, and corporations arebecoming extremely selective about where they place their sponsorship dollars. Responsibilitywithin corporations for event funding is shifting to marketing departments, and philanthropy isbeing turned into "cause related marketing". As a result, Directors and Boards must be able todevelop a mutually beneficial relationship with corporate sponsors as a complement to othersources of funding. This relationship calls for ensuring that the corporate sponsor is able toachieve its goals without compromising the goals of the art gallery. Further, in order to attractthe sponsor in the first place, the Board and the Director must be able to make a high quality116business presentation to the potential sponsor to gain the commitment of the sponsor whenhundreds of other organizations are competing for the same dollars. Corporate sponsorship mayonly be a complement to the institution's funding, because corporations will only want tosponsor programs and exhibitions that are consistent with the public image that they want toportray. As a result, this means that only "safe" exhibitions will be sponsored in this way, andthe gallery must seek alternate means for funding more controversial exhibitions. In acorporation-public gallery event partnership, the corporation may have the upper hand becauseit is providing the money. The museum professional must be able to take charge and ensure thatthe event takes place with the museum's goals in mind.(5) The organization of unions amongst paid staff in museums and the mix ofvolunteers and paid staff calls for a manager who can deal with a diversity of labour issues,motivating paid staff and volunteers, assessing volunteers' skills and matching them to theappropriate jobs. This requires an ability to integrate the philosophies of sociology, artsadministration, anthropology, psychology and organizational behaviour, which involvesunderstanding motivation, needs, commitment and goal setting.An understanding of corporate/organizational culture, and understanding how smallergroups, departments and individuals (the micro-cosm) function within the larger corporateculture (the macro-cosm), combined with the abilities to understand people and to gather factsand search for patterns is also valuable. Changing demographics within volunteer organizationsrequires that the "better boss" be able to deal with change and to understand cultural diversity.These changing demographics and a shortage of volunteers to be shared amongst the manyorganizations that compete to provide a positive volunteer experience call upon our organizations117to treat volunteers as customers and valued employees. This requires an understanding ofmarketing, personnel, recruiting and training practices. And, our volunteer managers anddirectors must also be able to effectively negotiate and resolve conflict, and have anunderstanding of labour practices to effectively deal with the interrelationships between unionsand volunteer organizations.Additionally, research indicates that workers have work personalities, and anunderstanding of the work personality of arts workers could provide the basis for developinginnovative human resources practices for the arts.(6) Finally, there are issues related to being an effective leader in the 21st century,which call upon management theory from both the profit and not-for-profit sectors. Being amanager is no longer enough; the effective director must be a creative visionary, who can inspireothers in the organization. This visionary leader must understand the arts and the artsorganization, and develop strong working relationships with artists. He must have a vision thatconsiders all constituents of the gallery, a comprehensive strategy for achieving that vision, apowerful network of resources for implementation of the strategy, and a group of highlymotivated people who are committed to achieving the vision. A performance-structure modeladapted for arts organizations may provide the key for setting objectives to carry out thevisionary director's strategy.118PART IIA REPORT OF A STUDENT INTERNSHIPAT THE VANCOUVER ART GALLERY(October 1992 - April 1993)1191.0 Introduction1.1 The Vancouver Art Gallery: Its Mission and StructureEstablished in 1931, the Vancouver Art Gallery moved in 1983 to its present location inthe old court house. This neoclassical building was built in 1910 by Francis Rattenbury, whoalso designed the Parliament Buildings and the Empress Hotel in Victoria. The courthouse wasrenovated by Arthur Erickson in 1983 to become the present art gallery, a four story buildingof 41,400 square feet of Gallery exhibition space. The annex building also includes offices fora staff of over 50, over 300 volunteers, a board room, 3 meeting rooms, a library, Gallery Shopand The Gallery Café.The collection focuses on contemporary art, and some of the highlights of the permanentcollection are works by B.C. Binning, Paul-Emile Borduas, Robert Rauschenberg, JackShadbolt, Michael Snow, Andy Warhol and Joyce Weiland. In addition, the predominant worksof Emily Carr's paintings, drawings and watercolours are owned by The Vancouver Art Gallery.The fundamental goals of the Gallery, as stated in its long range plan are:1. Pride in its collections, exhibitions, programs, staff and facilities;2. To demonstrate leadership and innovation in encouraging an understanding of art; and3.^Commitment to excellence in scholarship and professionalism.With the above goals in mind, the Gallery has been operating according to the following MissionStatement since 1988:"The Vancouver Art Gallery exists to serve the many purposes of art. As a public institution, awareof the essential role art plays in shaping and clarifying culture, the Gallery pursues this goal throughthe highest quality collections, exhibitions, programmes and the services of its personnel.The focus of these pursuits is contemporary in the conviction that through such a focus on visual art,the Gallery can contribute locally, regionally, nationally and internationally to the evolution of a120living culture. "96The objectives and strategies of the Gallery are further developed in the Long Range Plan. (SeeAppendix B).The Gallery is organized into seven divisions, which all report to the Director who, inturn, reports to the Board of Trustees. Figure 1 shows the organization chart of the Gallery.Following, is a description of the divisions:1. Under the supervision of two Senior Curators, the Curatorial Division is responsible forthe functions of curators, conservation, and publications.2. The Museum Services Division envelopes all roles related to preparation, installation,audio-visual and photography requirements for exhibitions, as well as registration,collection database management, and the library. Museum Services is under thesupervision of the Head of Museum Services.3. Under the supervision of the Head of Public Programmes, The Public ProgrammesDivision develops and coordinates special education events, programs and exhibitions andcommunity outreach programs and events.4. The Marketing and Development Division, under the supervision of the Head ofMarketing and Development, is responsible for marketing, public relations andpromotions, development, donor database management and facilities rentals.' The Vancouver Art Gallery Association, Long Range Plan, April 14, 1988.121AssistantcuratorJ. ey DirectorW. Holmes^ pommel Officer FTIM. StOdOb 4.-ISIgtgatFicri d IM. Zentek Phat°graPherVm rit _I AV Tech III IA. Brown _1 NetwcxkCoordinatorR. Bogcbnov _I^Courier ID. NgPr FhotrrruscP.R. and IPromotionsC. Duclos marketing ICoordhator 1L Swenerton fond Database'CoordhatorK. Chcrcria ratingaaediS.Wade Facilities— CoordgaentortchlR. Nalmon Gl!kacleneyd ICustodian/BSW IIBuldh^ICleaner-IM. Pacheco PT G. HalderkaPreparator IIPcreaorattehelor IIM. lteviilonB. WiedidcP. O'Keefe/DvAght KossSszawillySecurffySupervisorL Kemy SeMlistc. &banter.T. CoWn S=1D. BonoAttendantSecurttYG Febiger PT IAdmissions 1Clerk 11D. Metcdfe AcImail,ssItkonsiG. Feblger Fr Mame abdAantddraitenFebruary 23 1993LStribmger IAccountingClerksA. Rivas0 Arneson PT Galery Shop IAnt. Mgr.S.kedbla abdMaktiaramosM.E. Fisher Hood of IFiance^ Head 4:1 Bic.ng.1nance ^MahtencnceC. Lcrforiune flankslirba ardDevacamareMeredand Dvipmnt.Jcnet redth ead of Whig.' I -I C. WoburArn IShop AssistcnisCrottrelVM1 CowanS.M. Russel PTJ. JacidwThomasReceptionist I%beardN. Lernekert Pr --I of Volunteers IJ. Hdliday Ourdabd^0.4tomarn Services Mac ProgramMuseurn Services IN. Kbpatrick^1115astal Head of^1Head of PubllramsSenior CuratorContemporaryG. Dufour Senior CuratorHistoricalI Thom Clic. Steno MAngela MahAssistantCuratorJalchgrchon..Conservator IM. SmtinConservcrtiontechnicianR Nib typktaefkli^Ivoccnt Iirs°45=1Acting iIAssistantJr=TFT LbraryClerkR. Emery1 Clerk Steno IvacantTPT ^Coordha or I^Generd ProgB. Foreman 1 CoordhatorChildretv ProgiS. Ram tub. &grams!B. Oayton 1 114311HimVANCOUVER ART GALLERY5. The Head of the Finance and Administration Division oversees accounting, financialmanagement, the running of The Gallery Shop and reception. This division is now alsoresponsible for Volunteer coordination. Previously, the Volunteer Coordinator reportedto the Head of Public Programmes.6. In addition, there are divisions related to Building Maintenance, which overseescustodial and preparatory work, and7. Security, which is responsible for both security and admissions.1.2 The Volunteer Committee To The Vancouver Art Gallery: Its Mission andStructureThere are two groups of volunteers at the Vancouver Art Gallery: The VolunteerCommittee To The Vancouver Art Gallery and The Young Associates Of The Vancouver ArtGallery.The Volunteer Committee is 50 years old this year, while the Young Associates is only2 years old. The Young Associates was started two years ago by the Volunteer Coordinator toencourage young volunteers (of the under 40 age group) to participate at the Gallery.The Volunteer Committee has 380 volunteers, and in 1992 they put in over 23,000 hoursat the Gallery in the areas of Art Rental and Sales, the Docent Programme, The Gallery Shop,the slide library, admissions and memberships desks, and on committees related to specialprojects, publicity and fund raising."The Volunteer Committee to the Vancouver Art Gallery exists to support and promotethe interests of the Vancouver Art Gallery," reads the Committee's mission statement. TheCommittee's objectives are to expand and develop all areas of the Volunteer Committee; to123increase volunteer membership through publicity and special events; to ensure sound leadershipthrough an effective volunteer board; to be more professional in the area of volunteermanagement; to establish more effective fundraising programs; to offer improved supportservices to the Gallery; and to offer more educational opportunities for volunteers and thepublic.'The Young Associates Group has approximately 300 members, and their goals are toexpand their membership; to become established as a volunteer organization within theVancouver Art Gallery; and to support young artists.Both groups have elected Volunteer Board Executives.1.3 My Student Internship Goals and ResponsibilitiesMy study is, broadly speaking, an interdisciplinary study of art, combining the practiceof art, the history of art, and the business of art. Specifically, my purpose has been to acquirea unique set of skills that builds upon my previous business degree (BComm, University ofSaskatchewan, 1973) and twenty years of experience in the business world; and on my recentdegree in Art History (BA, Fine Arts, The University of British Columbia, 1991). My goal isto cross over from a pure business environment to a career in arts management. Uponcompletion of my academic work, it is my goal to work in an arts organization in management.Over time, I hope to gain the experience and expertise required to be a consultant to artsinstitutions, and to write and conduct research about arts management. To do so effectively, Ibelieve that an understanding of the practice of art, the theory of art, and the business of art,' Volunteer Committee to the Vancouver Art Gallery, Mission Statement, November 1992. SeeAppendix B.124their issues and interrelationships is critical.Further, as obtaining funding for the arts becomes more and more competitive, itbecomes more critical for arts institutions to operate as viable businesses. In order toaccomplish this successfully, arts managers must have an understanding of the issues of arthistorians and curators, artists, volunteers and staff. That is why my interdisciplinary programis unique. Currently, specific graduate programs exist to individually address the needs oftraining artists, art historians or arts administrators. No single program, however, addresses allthree disciplines and their interrelationships, and hence, I have undertaken interdisciplinarystudies.An internship at an arts institution was included in my program to give me on-the-jobexperience working with artists, volunteers and paid staff in a visual arts institution. I selectedThe Vancouver Art Gallery for the following reasons:1. My interest is in the visual arts, and The Vancouver Art Gallery is the most wellestablished public art museum in the Vancouver area.2. I wanted to learn about the issues associated with running a public institution, as opposedto a private gallery, because I believe that my previous business experience has given mea good understanding of working in for-profit enterprises.3. The Vancouver Art Gallery has a large and established volunteer group and a full timevolunteer manager, and I wanted to learn about the issues related to managing volunteersand running an organization with a mixture of paid staff and volunteers.4. I believed that I could benefit from interning at an institution that was large enough toexpose me to various departments such as Public Programs, Marketing, Exhibitions, et125cetera.After reviewing my application, Willard Holmes, then Director of the Gallery, referredmy application to Judith Mastai, Head of Public Programmes. Judith and I agreed that workingon Day Without Art would expose me to the various functional divisions within the Gallery,would give me some experience in coordinating a Public Programmes Event, and would offerme the opportunity to work directly with artists and performers and, that working with theVolunteer Coordinator on Art in Bloom would further expose me to the various functions of theGallery and would give me the opportunity to learn about managing volunteers.As a result, I began my internship on October 1, 1992, working 2 days per week at theGallery until April 30th on the above-mentioned projects. I reported to Judith Mastai, Head ofPublic Programmes. We agreed on two days a week because it allowed me to continue my parttime job at the University, as the internship was unpaid.The purpose of this report is as follows:1. To outline for my advisory committee at UBC, my role in the Day Without Art and Artin Bloom projects, and to provide a critical analysis as part of the requirements for myMaster of Arts Degree; and2. To provide documentation and recommendations about the two projects to TheVancouver Art Gallery.Following, is a description of the two projects, my role as student intern coordinator, andrecommendations.1262.0 Project Management: A Management ToolBefore discussing the specific projects that I was assigned during my internship, I believethat it is important to review the basics of project management; to define what it is, and whatconstitutes a successful project.Project management is an effective management tool for overseeing the fulfilment of aseries of objectives to fulfil a project. A project has a set of well defined goals; has a finite andspecified duration; has a project manager who is responsible for ensuring that the goals are metwithin the specified time of the project's life, and has the authority to carry out this mission; anda project team who are committed to work on the project to meet its objectives. A projectplaces a unique set of demands upon the organization in that it is not part of its everydayoperation. Additionally, a project requires top management focus and their delegation of theauthority to accomplish it.Priority must be placed on staffing a project appropriately, and the project manager mustbe respected as a competent leader by both the project team and the organization's seniormanagement staff. It is critical that a project manager must not only have the authority to carryout his or her responsibilities, but also the resources to do so.Planning must begin by identifying the objectives and requirements of the project, andthen setting a plan to achieve them. This plan should be specific with respect to an action planto achieve the objectives, schedules for completion of the action plan and a budget; and, theproject manager must be responsible for overseeing the action plan, schedule and budget. Amethod for keeping control of the plan should be firmly in place, and the project manager mustmeasure the progress of the project using this methodology.127It is important to understand that a project requires added measures and focus frommanagement in order to be carried off smoothly. "Introducing project management does notmean that all project requirements go suddenly to the top of the priority list, that functionalorganizations are subordinate to projects, or that existing departmental controls are abandonedin favour of project controls. It does mean that a new dimension is added to managementdecision making in the areas of concern to the project. Conflicting policies, requirements, anddemands for resources are readily brought to the surface, and an orderly means is establishedfor resolving such conflicts in the organization's decision-making process in accordance with theoverall goals and priorities of top management.'Projects have a number of elements in common. First, every project has an identifiablecustomer, and the success of the project depends upon meeting the requirements of thatcustomer. Secondly, it is important to remember that a project affects almost everyone in theorganization, whether it be through the use of the people resources of various departments; theuse, change or adaptation of facilities and equipment; the requirements of time; the schedulingof other events within the organization; or the way in which decisions are made. Theimplementation of project management always involves change, which includes the focus of theproject manager and project team on the achievement of goals of the project rather than onfunctional departmental objectives; new decision-making processes; or new interpersonalinteractions.Finally, a project should be subdivided into phases. Charles C. Martin, in Project98 Martin, Charles C.,  Project Management: How To Make It Work, Amacom, New York, 1976,P- 3.128Management: How To Make it Work, defines the following phases:(1) Concept Phase: During this phase, the management team of the organization broadlydefines the objectives of the project, estimates the required resources, and decides to goahead with the project.(2) Organization Phase: At this stage, management decides on the organization of theproject, the specific goals, tasks and resources of the project, makes key staffappointments, and develops a schedule and plan for the next phase of the project.(3) Operational Phase: This phase involves the major steering of the project to accomplishits objectives.(4) Completion Phase: During completion, any ongoing activities are assigned to functionaldepartments within the organization, project personnel are reassigned, an assessment ofthe success of the project is undertaken, and activities are wound down to completion.Following, is a brief overview of the two projects that were undertaken during myinternship at The Vancouver Art Gallery. I begin by describing the nature of the projects andtheir objectives, and then by analysing how effectively the projects were managed, and howsuccessful they were in achieving their goals. Day Without Art was a smaller project than wasArt in Bloom, and it was also more successful, when measured against its objectives.3.0 Day Without Art Project3.1^OverviewDecember 1 is World Aids Day, and the 1992 theme was "AIDS: A CommunityCommitment". The Vancouver Art Gallery joined other local, national and international arts129organizations to recognize Day Without Art. The purpose of the observance was to celebrate theachievements and lives of colleagues and friends from the arts community, and, at the sametime, to mourn the losses sustained by creative communities due to AIDS.The Public Programmes Division at The Vancouver Art Gallery planned several DayWithout Art events to fulfil the following objectives:(1) to celebrate the achievements and lives of those who had died of AIDS, and tomourn the losses to creative communities due to AIDS, and(2) to make the public more aware of the impact of AIDS on our community, and tooffer information about how to help.Under the supervision of Judith Mastai, Head of Public Programmes, I was responsiblefor coordinating the publicity and logistics of the following Day Without Art activities:3.1.1 Advance Workshops and Community ParadeIt was planned that Dolly Hopkins and the Public Dreams Society would lead acommunity parade to celebrate the lives of people with AIDS on Saturday, November 28th, andthat three preparatory workshops to prepare a portrait of a friend or family member would takeplace on Saturday afternoons November 7th, 14th and 21st. Susan Rome, Coordinator of FamilyProgrammes, had arranged to have art educators available to lead the workshops, which requiredno prior art experience. However, we were unable to generate sufficient interest in these events,and, therefore, they were cancelled.3.1.2 Video ScreeningsThis afternoon screening on Sunday, November 29th featured a selection of artists' videosproduced since 1989. The program ran from 1 to 5 pm at the Pacific Cinematheque, 1131130Howe Street. The purpose of the videos was to provide a better understanding of the challengeswhich face people who are living with AIDS.3.1.3 Shrouding of Entrances to the GalleryEvelyn Roth, a local artist, shrouded the Hornby and Howe Street Gallery entrances andthe entrance to the Gallery Café with black video tape as a symbol of mourning the losses to thearts community due to AIDS.3.1.4 Double Labelling in the GalleryArtworks on display throughout the gallery were double labelled with labels containinginformation about AIDS.3.1.5 Cost of Living PerformancesWith the assistance of the Canada Council Explorations Program, the public was invitedto performances of Cost of Living, an award winning theatre piece for a solo actor and multiplevideo screens, written and directed by Morris Panych, and produced by Green Thumb Theatrefor Young People. Mike Stack starred in the play, which is about a teen's first awareness ofAIDS. Post performance discussion was led by Rick Waines.Cost of Living is geared for both young people (suggested age 12+) and adults.Admission was by donation, and the B.C. Ministry of Health assisted in funding the event. Twopublic performances took place in the Annex Gallery on Thursday, December 3 at 7:30 pm andSaturday, December 5 at 2 pm.Under the supervision of Susan Rome, Coordinator of Family Programmes, Cost ofLiving was also presented for school children in several performances during the first week ofDecember.131Attendance at all performances was high. The December 3rd evening public performancewas largely attended by adults, whereas the Saturday afternoon public performance was attendedprimarily by families. Most of the school performances were fully booked.3.1.6 Street ActionApproximately 200 Vancouver artists and performers participated in Time Stands Still onthe streets surrounding the Vancouver Art Gallery at noon on December 1. Time Stands Stillwas devised and coordinated by Morris Panych, Ken MacDonald, Dennis Foon and PatriciaLaNauze. Participants handed out flyers (see Appendix D) describing the Vancouver ArtGallery's Day Without Art events, and containing information about how individuals can helpboth AIDS victims and AIDS research.At noon, a mixture of black banners and Day Without Art banners by Joe Average wereunfurled from the roof of the gallery to mark Day Without Art, and to coincide with the streetaction.Following the street action, a lunch was held at the gallery to thank the participants.Over 200 artists and performers attended, and informally discussed the street action event.3.2 My Role as Student Intern Coordinator of the EventsWhen my internship began in October, all of the aforementioned events had beenplanned, and a grant had been applied for and received from the Canada Council Explorations"Program. Under the direction of Judith Mastai, I was to coordinate the publicity, execution andlogistics of the projects.99 See Appendix E for copy of Canada Council Explorations Grant application.1323.2.1 PublicityMy first responsibility was to develop a publicity plan with Chris Duclos, PublicRelations and Promotion Coordinator at the Vancouver Art Gallery. We agreed that thepublicity should be directed at the local Vancouver community including the arts and theatrecommunities, and the AIDS community. There was a minimal budget, so we concentrated onpublicity-generating activities. Together, we wrote press releases and I designed a newspaperad. We developed the following plan:1. Press releases were sent to selected newspapers, radio stations and communitynewsletters, as follows:Z.95 RadioThe WestenderKitsilano NewsVancouver CourierVancouver SunAnglesPreviewWhere VancouverGeorgia StraitPersons With Aids Society NewsletterAIDS Vancouver NewsletterRogers Cable Public Service AnnouncementsBritannia Community NewsletterWestend Community Newsletter(See Appendix F for copies of ads, articles and public service listings that appeared inthe press.)2. We identified and called a number of Gallery contacts who could spread the informationthrough word-of-mouth and internal newsletters, and also provided them with a supplyof flyers that described the planned events (see Appendix G for sample flyer):Actors Equity133Public Dreams SocietyPersons With AIDS SocietyAIDS VancouverVancouver Cultural AllianceAIDS Quilt OrganizersWestend Community CentreBritannia Community CentreKen MacDonaldMorris PanychDennis FoonAids Care Unit, St. Paul's HospitalHead of HIV Nursing Care, St. Paul's HospitalHaemophiliac SocietyDowntown Eastside Residents' AssociationPastor, St. Paul's Anglican ChurchNative Aids NetworkVancouver Public Health DepartmentHIV Drug Trials NetworkingVancouver Women's HIV - AIDS Support Network3. I did a direct mailing to the following:All public art galleries in the lower mainlandSelected commercial art galleries in the lower mainlandSelected book storesPublic Dreams Society Mailing List4. I identified and distributed Flyers to the following public places:Vancouver Art Gallery admissions deskVancouver Art Gallery reception deskBritannia Community CentreWestend Community CentrePersons With Aids SocietyAIDS VancouverVancouver Public Health DepartmentSt. Paul's HospitalGay and Lesbian Counselling CentreOpus FramingUBC - Fine Arts Building and Museum of AnthropologyEmily Carr College of Art5.^I designed and placed an ad in the Vancouver Courier (Figure 3).1343.2.2 Execution and LogisticsIn addition to the publicity plan'', I was also responsible for coordinating the eventsas follows:1.^Draping of Gallery Entrances- liaison with artist, Evelyn Roth, to arrange installation- providing information to the admissions desk so that they could answer visitors'questions about the Day Without Art events.FIGURE 3Newspaper Ad for Day Without ArtA DAY WITHOUT ARTTo celebrate the achievements and lives of colleaguesand friends and, at the same time, to mourn the lossessustained by creative communities due to the AIDSpandemic, The Vancouver Art Gallery will joinhundreds of arts organizations and community groupsto recognize A DAY WITHOUT ART on December 1,1992. The public is invited to participate in:A Community ParadeDolly Hopkins and the Public Dreams Society will lead acommunity parade to celebrate the lives of peoplewith AIDS on Saturday, November 28.Advance WorkshopsPrepare for the parade by attending 1 of 3 freecommunity workshops to create a portrait of a friendor family member to carry in the parade. No previousart experience is necessary. (Saturdays 12:00 to 4:00p.m. November 14, November 21.)Please call 682-4668 for more information and to register.Assisted by The Canada Council Explorations Program.VANCOUVER ART GALLERY750 Hornby St., Vancouver, B.C. (604) 682-4668100 See Appendix D for copies of all publicity and ads.1352. Double Labelling in the Gallerycoordinating with the Preparations Coordinator to have the labels put up firstthing on the morning of December 1.3. Cost of Living Performances_^to ensure that all performances were fully booked, I telephoned schools to follow-up on a letter that had been sent by Susan Rome._^having signs made for the gallery to direct visitors to the performance location4.^Time Stands Still Street Action- coordinating with Marketing and the Building Maintenance Superintendent to havethree Day Without Art banners unfurled from the roof of the gallery at noon.- coordinating with volunteers to have 250 red ribbons cut and pinned for theparticipating performers- coordinating logistics of the street action event with Morris Panych, the director- preparation of team captain packages which included red ribbons, lunchinvitations, instructions and flyers- booking of rooms for the team captains' briefing meeting and lunch- arranging catering and set up of luncharranging signage to direct team captains and participants to the lunchcoordination with the creator of the flyers and arranging to have them printed- preparation of an Event Plan and arrangement of securityI was also responsible for:- preparation and circulation of a memo from Judith Mastai to all staff outlining the136activities that would take place at the gallery on Day Without Artarranging for a photographer to be present on Day Without Art to document theevents3.3 Post MortumAlthough a relatively small project, Day Without Art was managed well according to therequirements of project management. The goals were clearly defined and well communicatedto everyone who was involved in the project. It was clear that Day Without Art was December1, and all activities were geared toward leading up to that date. Some events occurred prior toDecember 1, and the Cost of Living performances continued throughout the following week.Judith Mastai was clearly understood to be the Project Manager, and she had the authority withinthe Vancouver Art Gallery to make appropriate decisions related to the Day Without Art events.She had a plan, schedule and budget, and she managed them. Judith's public programmes staff,as well as representatives from other functional areas of the Gallery, understood their roles withrespect to Day Without Art, and carried out their responsibilities.The project unfolded according to the phases described by Charles Martin (see p. 118).Although there were aspects of the project that could have been improved, Day Without Art metits objectives on time and within the specified budget. Although some events were cancelled,it was felt that Day Without Art met its objective to raise the visibility in the community of theimpact of AIDS on the arts community. Following the project, a meeting was held to discussways to improve Day Without Art for next year, and a report was written. Following, is a moredetailed analysis.Judith Mastai (Head, Public Programmes), Susan Rome (Coordinator, Family137Workshops), Brian Foreman (Coordinator, General Programmes), Chris Duclos, (Publicity andPromotions Coordinator) and I met to discuss which aspects of our program went well, and whatwe could have done to execute the events more smoothly. The following suggestions weremade:1. Although the Community Parade and workshops received ample publicity, it was felt thatthe AIDS community is not yet ready to parade with portraits of loved ones. Thesuccess of the "aids quilt," for example, had to do with the fact that it was more private.It was also felt that there may be some fear of retribution from the straight communityas a result of parading, given the frequent occurrences of gay bashings in the city. 1012. It was suggested that next year we might include a day of education at the Gallery, whichwould include videos and other information about AIDS. Information about artists whoare living with AIDS might also be included. This would help to fulfil the objective ofmaking the public more aware of the impact of AIDS on the cultural community.3. It was generally agreed by all members of the committee who had observed the streetaction that the one minute observed during Time Stands Still was too short, and that itcould have been five or ten minutes long to be more effectively noticed by more passersby. Further, 12 noon was a little too early, as we observed that the lunch time officeworkers were not out on the street in full force until approximately 12:10. Some of theperformers handed out their leaflets before Time Stands Still took place, and it was moreappropriate to hand them out after because the moment of silence and stillness grabbed101 This input came from participants on the committee who had spoken to members of the gay andAIDS communities to solicit feedback.138the public's interest, and caused them to focus on why actors were observing thismoment of silence.4. It was embarrassing that NAFTA was holding a demonstration on the Gallery steps atnoon on the same day, and this interfered with our own street action, even though theywere quiet during our one minute of stillness.5. Several members of the press arrived at the gallery to cover the Time Stands Still eventbecause they had been contacted by Morris Panych. No one at the Gallery was awarethat they were coming, and as a result, we had not planned for a contact to meet them,and Judith Mastai was not readily available. She was located, and the interview wentwell, but the Public Programmes staff felt that it could have been smoother if we hadknown that they were coming.6. The lunch following Time Stands Still was appreciated by the participants, as it providedan opportunity for them to gather together and discuss the preceding event. We couldhave had more food, and no one seemed interested in drinking the wine. It would alsohave been better to have had the lunch on the ground floor, as not all of the 250participants arrived back at the gallery at the same time, and it required someone to standon the main floor to let them through the security doors and direct them upstairs.7. It was agreed that it was important to have a coordinator for these events, as there werea lot of small details to oversee.8.^The Cost of Living performances went very well, and the schools were very satisfied.Green Thumb Theatre for Young People was also pleased with the venue, which waseasily accessible by attendees.1399. We felt that the shrouding of the entrances by Evelyn Roth looked somewhat amateurish,but the concept was good.10. Attendance of the videos at Cinematheque was very low. It was suggested that thevideos should have been shown at the Gallery on Day Without Art (ie. December 1) withno admission charge. (Cinematheque charged $5.00 admission). To be moreeducational, the videos could also have been organized into themes such as "Women andAIDS" or "Ethnic Communities and AIDS", etc.11. It was suggested that on December 1st, the Gallery could display art from the collectionby artists who have lost their lives to AIDS, and this would further make an impressionabout how AIDS has impacted the arts community.12. There was some confusion about what information was supposed to be on the leaflets forTime Stands Still, and they had to be redesigned at the last minute. This occurredbecause the flyer was delegated to someone outside the Gallery, and all of theinformation did not get communicated. As well, there were a few other small details thatdidn't get communicated clearly because both Judith Mastai and I were ill the day beforeDay Without Art. A project meeting with everyone involved one week before DayWithout Art would have been a good idea for improved communication.13. Morris Panych independently sent out a press release, which we did not see at theGallery. It would have been a good idea if we had seen it first, so that we could havebeen better informed and had more control over what was sent to the press.14. We should have planned earlier to have a photographer available to document the events.We were able to get someone, but it was a detail that had been overlooked until the last140minute.As an initial project during my internship, Day Without Art worked well. Myresponsibilities were publicity, coordination and logistics, which allowed me to become familiarwith the organizational structure of the Vancouver Art Gallery. It was an excellent orientationproject, and I learned a lot under the guidance of Judith Mastai, Head of Public Programmes,and working with Susan Rome, Coordinator of Family Workshops, and Chris Duclos, Publicityand Promotions Coordinator. I was also given an opportunity to work with artists, performersand their organizations (Evelyn Roth, Morris Panych, Patricia LaNauze, Public Dreams Society,Green Thumb Theatre) on this project, and this was experience that I did not have prior to theinternship.Further, although I had not started my internship when the Canada Council grantapplication was prepared, the documentation was available for my review, and this was helpful,given that many of the activities in the arts community rest on funding through grants.4.0 Art in Bloom4.1 OverviewArt in Bloom has been held at several art museums in North America as a fund raisingvehicle. The series of events associated with Art in Bloom has varied from museum to museum,but generally, it has been concerned with having floral designers use flowers to interpret worksof art. The Boston Museum of Art, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Victoria Art Galleryand Edmonton Art Gallery have all run successful versions of Art in Bloom. The BostonMuseum of Art has had an annual Art in Bloom event for the past 17 years, which is a highly141successful fund raiser; and in San Francisco, the Art in Bloom gala is considered the social eventof the year, with ticket prices set at $250 per person.The Vancouver Art Gallery and its Volunteer Committee were looking for a way to buildan annual volunteer committee fund raising event, and also a way to celebrate the 50thanniversary of the Volunteer Committee. Members of the Volunteer Committee Board and theVolunteer Coordinator gathered information about Art in Bloom at a conference over a yearearlier, and Judith Mastai, Head of Public Programmes, had attended an Art in Bloom at one ofthe U.S. galleries, and helped to sell the Director on the idea of doing a version of it at theVancouver Art Gallery.When I began my internship, Art in Bloom had been under discussion at the Gallery forseveral months, but no real action had been undertaken to get it started. There had been somemeetings a few months earlier, but the Volunteer Committee's Art in Bloom Chair hadwithdrawn from the project, and I heard rumblings that there had been some dissension aboutwhat form Art in Bloom should take.As well, the Volunteer Committee Board seemed divided in their support of the project.Then President (Judy Daughny) did not seem to support the project, although the Past President(Sheila Mingie) and the first and second Vice Presidents (Phyllis Buell and Fran Schooley) werein full support of the project.The Volunteer Coordinator, Jan Halliday, and I reviewed the status of the project, andshe recommended that we have three committee chairs (Gala, Garden Symposium and FloralDesign Exhibit), and that Fran Schooley (Second Vice President) and I (Student Intern), alongwith her guidance, would work with each of the committees for liaison and coordination. I142recommended also forming a Marketing Committee to oversee marketing and public relationsfor all three events, as I felt that there should be a consistent marketing plan for all of theevents. I also believed that it was important to recruit people for the committees, who had someexpertise in the work that they were being asked to do. This would allow us to recruit peoplewho had skills in event planning for the gala committee; those with gardening knowledge for thegarden symposium committee; logistics and floral design for the floral design committee; andmarketing and public relations for the marketing committee, where this experience was available.As a first step in getting organized, I reviewed the minutes of the initial few meetingsthat had taken place, and contacted participants who had initially been involved in the project.I found a mixed reaction--some withdrew, and did not want to work on Art in Bloom at all,whereas others were still enthusiastic. Their enthusiasm, however, did not go so far as wantingto take responsibility for chairing any of the committees.By the end of December 1992, we had recruited the core of the four committees, and hadchairs for two of them.' It was, however, extremely difficult to find chairs for the FloralDesign and Gala Committees. Joan Bawlf had agreed early on to chair the Garden SymposiumCommittee, and Samantha Kramer agreed to chair the Marketing Committee, although she wasconcerned that she had no experience in either chairing a committee or working with thevolunteer committee at the V.A.G., as she was a new member. Therefore, I agreed to serveas co-chair to assist Samantha.Recruiting was mainly from the Volunteer Committee and not the Young Associates. Idid call a few Young Associates, but the Volunteer Coordinator preferred that I recruit from the102 See Figure 4 for a list of committees and their members.143Volunteer Committee to make it primarily their event. The Young Associates were working onthe Masque Ball, and she did not want to diffuse their efforts.Jan, Fran and I also set the dates for the events so that they could be listed in the JuniorLeague Calendar and the Vancouver Art Gallery Members' Calendar. The dates were selectedwith consideration for Mothers' Day and Easter weekend, as those are peak times for florists,and we wanted to ensure their participation.4.2^Objectives of Art in Bloom '931. To develop a prototype for an annual fund raising event for the Volunteer Committee tothe Vancouver Art Gallery2. To raise money for the Gallery. (It was intended that the first year of Art in Bloomshould at least break even, and if possible, make some money for the Gallery, but theprimary objective was to plan it well in the first year, and to learn for future years.)3. To expand the Gallery's current audience by targeting the florist industry and peopleinterested in floral design and gardening; and4. To celebrate the 50th anniversary of volunteering at The Vancouver Art Gallery4.3 The Art in Bloom EventsArt in Bloom was a series of events set out to meet the objectives described above, asfollows:4.3.1 Gala BallThe Gala was to have taken place on April 17th in the East Gallery, Rotunda andForecourt of the Gallery. Its purpose was to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of volunteering atThe Vancouver Art Gallery, and to kick off Art in Bloom. Tickets were $125.00 per person,144and the event was to be a sit down dinner followed by dancing. A silent auction was plannedfor fund raising. Thomas Hobbs of Thomas Hobbs Florist Ltd. was to do the decorations.Music was to be provided by Mark Hasselbach and orchestra, and catering was to be by TheGallery Café.Considerable discussion focused on the format of the event, and the preference of thecommittee was a dinner and dance. The committee also made every effort to try to keep theticket price under $100 per person, but this was not possible with the projected expenses ofstaging the event. Unfortunately, the gala was cancelled because ticket sales were not sufficientto cover expenses. This will be discussed in further detail in Section 4.6.3.a of this paper.. 4.3.2 Garden Symposium/Gourmet LuncheonThe Garden Symposium was a day of lectures/presentations about Gardening and Art anda Gourmet Luncheon. The main purpose of the Symposium and Luncheon was to raise moneyfor the Gallery. It was originally planned for two Tuesdays (April 27 and May 11), but theCommittee felt that they could plan a one day session more effectively. This event was to bethe main fundraising event of Art in Bloom.Pricing for this event was $35.00 for the morning lectures (Thomas Hobbs and SusanRyley); $45.00 for the Gourmet Luncheon and Sinclair Philip; $35.00 for the afternoon lecture(Maijorie Harris); $25.00 for the evening lecture and wine reception (Glenn Lewis). Or, a daypass could be purchased to three of the four portions of the day for $95. Initially, GST was tobe charged in addition to these prices. After the tickets had been printed and offered for sale,however, the Volunteer Coordinator overturned this decision, and GST was then included in theprice. This made a difference of approximately $1,010. to the revenue generated by this event145(based on 152 day passes at $95).Initially, this event was planned to take place in the 4th floor meeting room, or in oneof the galleries at the V.A.G. The morning and afternoon lectures, however, took place in theRobson Square Conference Centre (Judge McGill Theatre), which seats 350 people. Theluncheon took place in the Forecourt and Rotunda of the Gallery, which seats 152 for lunch; andthe evening lecture and wine reception took place in Meeting Room 3, Gallery Annex, 4thFloor, which seats 125. Attendance was approximately 150 at the morning and afternoonlectures, 144 at lunch, and approximately 25 in the evening.The luncheon was catered by The Gallery Café.See Appendix H for a description of the speakers.4.3.3 Floral Design ExhibitOver 50 local floral designers were invited to interpret a work of art in the Gallery withflowers for the exhibit, which was held May 27 to 30th. The designs were displayed throughoutthe Gallery on floors 1, 3 and 4. In addition, exhibits were arranged for the lobby and rotundaof the Gallery. See appendix I for a copy of the program listing the floral designers whoparticipated.An opening reception was held on the first night to kick off the event. Initially, theFloral Design Committee discussed holding an opening, but decided that the floral designerswould not attend, as most operate businesses that are open on Thursday evenings. As a result,no opening reception was included in the original budget.Approximately three weeks prior to the Floral Design Exhibit, the Volunteer Coordinatorasked Fran Schooley to plan this opening. As I was not involved in this planning, I do not know146who was invited or what expenses were incurred, and a final financial statement for Art inBloom has not been made available to me. This event, however, was well attended, andtherefore, considered a success by the Volunteer Committee and its Coordinator. Over 1,000people visited the Gallery on that evening. However, this did not generate any direct revenue,as admission to the Gallery is free on Thursday nights, and there was no admission charged forthe opening. I am also not aware of any publicity generated by this event, aside from word-of-mouth.4.3.4 Marketing and SponsorshipIn addition to the committees assigned to plan the above three Art in Bloom events, aMarketing and Sponsorship Committee was organized to oversee the following:1. Design and distribute promotional materials for all of the Art in Bloom events, includinga poster, brochures and flyers, and gala invitations and tickets;2. In conjunction with the event committee chairs, to develop a plan to sell tickets/attractattendees to the three events;3. Develop and implement a publicity plan for the events;4. Secure sponsors to underwrite the costs of the events and/or to make donations to theevents as required;5.^If appropriate, to assess whether to develop/order merchandise for Art in Bloom to besold through the Gallery Shop and to oversee, if appropriate.4.3.5 Flora PhotographicaAt the same time as Art in Bloom, the Gallery presented Flora Photographica, anexhibition of over 160 photographic works presenting an anthology of photographic imagery of147flowers. Works in a variety of photographic media, and by almost every major photographicfigure of the past 150 years were included in the exhibition.4.4 What Was The Role Of The Student Intern?1. As a student intern, to learn about volunteer management, and the organization andprocedures of a public arts institution.2. As Coordinator, to act as liaison/coordinator between the four Art in Bloom planningcommittees and the Gallery, under the guidance of the Volunteer Coordinator, and toassist her in overseeing the project.3.^To offer guidance and experience in project management, as appropriate.4.5 An Analysis of the Project4.5.1General ObservationsArt in Bloom did not meet all of its objectives. As a prototype for an annual event, itserved as a good learning experience, but we learned a lot about how not to do Art in Bloom inthe future. As a fund raiser, I cannot comment, as I have requested a copy of the FinancialStatement several times, and it has not been made available to me. However, given myknowledge about the budget, and knowing that several substantial unbudgeted expenses wereincurred, it is unlikely that Art in Bloom earned any significant profit, if it made a profit at all.Although new groups, specifically the floral design and gardening communities, were involvedin these activities, several key individuals were offended by the poor management of the project,and the main event to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Volunteer Committee, the Gala, wascancelled due to lack of ticket sales.148I believe that the main problem with Art in Bloom was organizational in nature, and I willdescribe these difficulties in detail. However, my general observations about the Art in BloomProject and its difficulties relate to the following:1. The definition of roles and responsibilities was not clear to everyone involved inthe project, and the Project Manager had neither the authority, the support ofsenior Gallery management, nor the experience in programming and planningevents to carry out her responsibilities as Project Manager of Art in Bloom.2. The communication and cooperation between the Gallery's Board, Staff andVolunteer Committee were not effective, and this affected the outcome of theevents.3. Although the Volunteer Committee was willing, they did not have the skills orexperience to hold a series of events of this magnitude without more support fromthe Gallery staff.4. The Volunteer Committee itself does not work as a cohesive team, and muchcould be done to develop an atmosphere of teamwork within the committee.5.^^There was not enough time to plan these events well, given that the work was tobe done primarily by volunteers.4.5.1.a Definition of Roles and ResponsibilitiesFrom its outset, there were difficulties with the Art in Bloom project. It seemed asthough the Gallery management was more committed to the idea of Art in Bloom than was theVolunteer Committee. This problem might have been overcome if the Gallery's seniormanagement and staff had remained involved in and committed to the project throughout its149The Vancouver Art GalleryArt in BloomOrganization ChartV.A.G. Director(Acting - NancyKirkpatrick)Administra-tion ManagerMaly EllenFischerHead, PublicProgrammesJudith MastaiVolunteerCoordinatorJan HallidayVolunteerCommitteeExecutiveStudent InternCoordinatorCarla WeaverCLa•0■-• •0a0•-,0cr)2ca.CD■-• •rD0cr■-• •0Chair, Floral DesignExhibitDaphne GordonTreasurerLynne DunlopChair,Gala CommitteeFran SchooleyCo-Chairs,Marketing &SponsorshipSamanth KramerCarla WeaverVirginia AlexandorValerie LawtonMary MclllwraithSarah QuonAnna Marie AlparCaroline MasonAlaria PercyCynthia LevyCathy ScottCarol MacKenzieDorothy ReynoldsChair, GardenSymposium &GourmetLuncheonJoan Bawlf Carol MahonyClaire StordySheahan McGavinLorna BakerSheilaSouthworth LogisticsPat ShortJoyce AndersonJoyce TaylorLucy LewisSheila MingleJoan RussellDiane St. JohnPenny MoulDagmar Gabay1)nrrahl ,Jan Halliday, Volunteer Coordinator, was responsible from a staff point of view formanaging Art in Bloom, and as student intern, I was to work on the project under her guidance.At the beginning of the project, Jan reported to Judith Mastai, Head of Public Programmes.There seemed to be some dissension in this working relationship, and shortly after I began myinternship, this reporting structure changed, and the Volunteer Coordinator began reporting tothe Head of Administration, Mary Ellen Fischer. I believe that this change in reporting structurehad severe ramifications on the outcome of Art in Bloom. Art in Bloom was, essentially, apublic program--especially, the Garden Symposium and Floral Design Exhibit. The guidanceand experience of the Public Programmes Division staff could have made an importantcontribution to the project, whereas the Head of Administration took a purely "hands off"approach, and allowed the Volunteer Committee to proceed without much interaction with theGallery management. Further, when this organizational change took place, I was instructed bythe Volunteer Coordinator that I should no longer involve Public Programmes in decision makingrelated to Art in Bloom. This placed me in an awkward position, as I technically reported to theHead of Public Programmes. Hence forward, I informed Judith Mastai only about what Ithought was relevant to her as it related to personnel management of me and about aspects ofArt in Bloom that directly related to her division. In retrospect, this was a mistake, as I believethat Judith is a strong manager, and had she been better informed, she could have stepped in tooffer overall guidance on the project and involved other senior managers, where appropriate.From a marketing and development point of view, I also informed the Head of Marketing aboutissues only as they related to the marketing of the event. It became evident to me that the staffof the Gallery did not seem to get involved in the volunteers' special events, and the Volunteer151Committee functioned quite separately from the staff. This was a major problem for Art inBloom.I am not sure when this difficulty of working together originated. Members of theVolunteer Committee seemed not to expect any support on the project from the staff of theGallery, and the Volunteer Coordinator did not seem to want involvement from the PublicProgrammes Division. However, I believe that the Gallery Director, Public Programmes andMarketing should have been integrally involved in the planning of Art in Bloom. This was notobvious to me during the planning phase, or I would have drawn it to the attention of theVolunteer Coordinator and the Heads of Public Programmes and Marketing.Figure 4 shows an organization chart for the Art in Bloom project, illustrating how theproject reported into the Vancouver Art Gallery's organization (see Figure 2 for theV.A.G.Organization chart).Although I felt clear about the organization, roles and responsibilities during the project,it became evident after the project had ended, that there was confusion. For example, followingthe project the Volunteer Coordinator said that she did not consider herself the Project Managerfor Art in Bloom. Although she conducted herself as the project manager, there were timesduring the project when I wondered why she did not take more responsibility for events,budgeting and planning. For example, she did not attend a single meeting of the MarketingCommittee, although the actions of the marketing committee were integral to the success of theevents.Secondly, although the Treasurer of the Volunteer Committee made a budget with inputfrom Jan, Fran and I, Jan made several decisions that directly impacted the budget without any152consideration for the bottom line. It was unclear who had responsibility for managing thebudget. Responsibility for managing the budget seemed to be delegated to the committee chairsand the student intern, but, the Volunteer Coordinator made decisions to include GST in theticket prices for the Garden Symposium; to move the location of the Garden Symposium fromthe Gallery to Robson Square Conference Centre; to fly Marjorie Harris from Toronto and coverher expenses to speak at the Garden Symposium; and to add an opening reception for the FloralDesign Exhibit; all items which had not originally been included in the budget.' Because shewas the senior staff person involved, I believe that she should have been more cognizant of theimpact of these decisions on the budget, as none of these expense items generated additionalrevenue. They came directly off the bottom line. Appendix J shows the Art in Bloom budget,a revised version which includes travel expenses and the Floral Design Opening.If the Student Intern and the Committee Chairs were to be delegated responsibility forthe budget, then they should have had the authority to manage it. Conversely, if the VolunteerCoordinator had the authority to make decisions related to the budget, then she should have beenaccountable for the bottom line.' Even without decisions such as the ones indicated, the Artin Bloom budget was in jeopardy because this was the first Art in Bloom, and there were otheritems that had been overlooked in the budgeting process.103 While the Volunteers were involved in these decisions and supported them, there was noconsideration for the budget in the decision process.Managing of the Art in Bloom budget is a precarious issue, as the Volunteer Committee has itsown budget and funds that are separate from the Vancouver Art Gallery. The Committee operates as anentirely separate organization, so I am not sure that it is appropriate from that standpoint for a staffperson to manage their Art in Bloom budget. I believe that the Volunteer Committee should be moreintegrally connected to the Gallery both organizationally and financially. The financial aspect may havealready been addressed by the Gallery.153There was also confusion about my role as Student Intern. Some volunteers saw me asthe Project Manager; some viewed my role as that of Assistant Project Manager; some saw meas a Volunteer Chair Person; others thought I was a staff assistant to perform a clerical function.Therefore, my responsibilities seemed unclear to others. My understanding was that I was tofunction much as an assistant project manager, working directly with the Volunteer Coordinator,and that was how I conducted myself, standing in for the Volunteer Coordinator at committeemeetings, keeping her informed about the status of planning for the events, and carrying outmany of the functions of liaison between the Art in Bloom planning committees and the Gallerymanagement and staff. I informed the Volunteer Coordinator of all activities via daily updateswhen I was in the Gallery, supplemented by written memos and minutes of meetings.While I believe that I carried out this role well, there was confusion about my role, andthus, volunteers did not undertake some tasks that they expected were my responsibility.Further, my commitment was to two days per week, and it was impossible to do all that seemedto be expected in that time. As a result, I worked many evenings and weekends on the project,and also spent considerable time during my work days at UBC, undertaking Art in Bloomresponsibilities. The confusion about my role may also be attributable to the fact that I took onmore than was necessary for a student intern, and it caused both higher expectations andconfusion on the part of the volunteers. As well, the Volunteer Coordinator was not supportiveof my position, and I believe that this may relate to her unfamiliarity with my study programor similar university graduate programs. She did not have clear expectations with respect to myinternship.In future, I would not recommend using a student intern on the Art in Bloom project.154Rather, there should be a separate Art in Bloom Project Manager from the staff of the VancouverArt Gallery, and I recommend that this person be drawn from Public Programmes, Marketingor Special Events because experience in these areas is important to managing Art in Bloom.Further, the Project Manager must have credibility with the senior management team at theGallery, and must be available to work on the project five days per week. Although JanHalliday is respected by the senior management team for her skills related to recruiting andtraining volunteers and for her negotiation skills, I do not believe that she is recognized forproject management expertise. Figure 5 shows a recommended organization chart for Art inBloom.The Volunteer Committee Board was well represented on the Art in Bloom project, withmembers on the Gala, Garden Symposium and Floral Design Committees. Initially, it wasplanned that Fran Schooley (2nd Vice President of the Volunteer Committee) would play aleadership role in Art in Bloom by working with the Volunteer Coordinator and Student Internto coordinate all activities. When a Chair could not be found for the Gala Committee, Franstepped into that role, and no one replaced her as overall coordinator. There should also havebeen a member of the Volunteer Committee Board responsible for working in a coordinating roleon Art in Bloom, and this person should have had responsibility for attending VolunteerCommittee Board meetings to offer updates to the Board on the status of all Art in Bloom events,and for working with the three event planning chairs and the marketing committee to coordinatethe events from a volunteer point of view. Better communication between committees and theVolunteer Committee Board would have enhanced the operation of the project. Unfortunately,when Fran took on responsibility for the gala, she was unable to fulfil both roles. She did retain155some of the coordinator responsibilities, and Phyllis Buell (1st Vice President) picked up someof this role. However, for better communication and coordination, this role would have beenbetter filled by one person. Also, Phyllis Buell became President of the Volunteer Committeemid-project, so she was preoccupied with assuming her new responsibilities.It would also have been better if a 'Steering Committee' had met regularly to update eachother on the various activities being undertaken by the four committees. As it was, thecommittees never met as one group, and there was some overlap in planning in areas such asdecorations and marketing. The Volunteer Coordinator and Student Intern attempted to informthe committees, but this was not optimal. For future years, I recommend a steering committeecomprised of the chairs for the Gala, Floral Design Exhibit, Garden Symposium, and Marketingcommittees, the Volunteer Coordinator, a representative from the Volunteer Committee Board,the Volunteer Committee Board Treasurer and the Project Manager.There was also some overlap and confusion amongst committees with respect to theirresponsibilities. Appendix K is a copy of a handout describing the various responsibilities ofthe committees that was given to all volunteers on the project. However, the Gala and GardenSymposium committees did not seem comfortable in letting the Marketing committee take theirinput and develop the promotional materials. They wanted to have more control overpromotion, rather than leave it separate from the event planning. There was also some overlapbetween the Floral Design and Gala committees regarding decorations for the lobby and rotundaarea, and this should have been more clearly defined at the outset. A steering committee anda strong project manager would be able to sort out issues such as these.156VolunteerCommitteeA.I.B.CoordinatorFran SchooleyFull Time Art in BloomCoordinatorART IN BLOOM STEERING COMMITTEEAnna Marie Alpar, CarolineMason, Maria Percy, CynthiaLevy, Cathy Scott, CarolMacKenzie, Dorothy ReynoldsRepresentatives from theV.A.G. Board, Fundraising staff andYoung AssociatesCarol MahonyClaire StordySheahan McGavinLorna BakerSheila SouthworthRep. from V.A.G.Marketing DivisionChair, Floral DesignExhibitDaphne GordonJoyce Anderson, JoyceTaylor, Lucy Lewis, SheilaMingie, Joan Russell, DianeSt. John, Penny Moul,Dagmar Gabay, DorothyReynoldsMary McIllwraithSarah QuonVirginia Alexandor2 - 3 additional volunteercommittee membersRepresentative fromV.A.G. MarketingLogisticsPat ShortTreasurerLynne Dunlopt=1V.A.G. DirectorBrooks JoynerHead PublicProgrammesJudith MastaiChair, OpeningVolunteer or BoardMember with Community/Social ConnectionsChair, GardenSymposium &GourmetLuncheonJoan BawlfChair, Marketing& SponsorshipExperiencedVolunteerVolunteer CoordinatorJan HallidayThe Vancouver Art GalleryArt in BloomRecommended Organization Chart For Future Planning4.5.1.b^Communication and Cooperation Amongst the Board, The GalleryStaff and The Volunteer CommitteeI also recommend that the senior management team of the Vancouver Art Gallery becomeintegrally involved in the project. The Project Manager should report to the Gallery Director,to the Head of Public Programmes, or to the Head of Marketing and Development.Additionally, the Project Manager should attend the weekly senior management meetings, andkeep the management team abreast of the status of the planning. Art in Bloom, if well managed,has the potential to develop into a significant fund raising event. This year's project sufferedfor the fact that the Director had resigned, and left just before Art in Bloom. I also think thatit suffered because the planning was handled very much as an event separate from the Gallery.I believe that it may well have been the intention of the Head of Public Programmes to remainmore involved in the project, but politics and organizational changes prevented her from doingSO.Several issues arose because the senior management team was not involved in the project.For example, the volunteers, through the Volunteer Coordinator, sought approval from the Headof Museums Services and Acting Director to have a display prepared by one of the floral designconsultants for the Gallery rotunda. This was approved. However, the morning that the displaywas to be set up, the Acting Director had second thoughts about whether it was appropriate tohave the display. She then instructed the Volunteer Coordinator that the display could not beplaced in the rotunda, and must go in the lobby instead. I understand that the reasoning had todo with a fear before seeing the display that it "might be tacky". Hence, the display was set inthe lobby, and I believe that the Volunteer Coordinator was able to tactfully negotiate the158situation.On another occasion, one of the floral designers was asked to make four designs for fourniches in the rotunda. The Gallery's Publicity Coordinator had reviewed the requirements withhim, but on installation, one of the four designs was a two dimensional one, which the PublicityCoordinator had asked him not to include. The Acting Director had two of the designsremoved, and one was damaged in the process. The floral designer had spent considerable timemaking them, and floral products in the designs were valued at $5,000, so he was very offendedthat they were removed. Given that one of the objectives of Art in Bloom was to draw a newgroup (floral designers and the gardening community) into the Gallery, I think that the decisionto remove the two displays from the rotunda did more harm than good. While I agree that thetwo dimensional design could be described as "tacky," taking down the two displays offendedthe designer, the consultant who was working with us, and several other contacts in the floralindustry, and from a public relations point of view, they should have been left up.Early in the planning process, we had requested a copy of the exhibitions plan becausethe floral designers were interpreting works of art for the Floral Design Exhibit. Considerableplanning took place around this schedule because it was necessary to assign each designer a workto interpret, to schedule time for them to come into the Gallery to view the work, and to arrangeset up and take down of the exhibit. The committee also considered the floor plan of theGallery, security and aesthetics for a balanced exhibition, all based on the exhibition planprovided, and the dates and logistics of the event had been reviewed with the Head of MuseumServices and Acting Director. However, the exhibitions staff decided to change some of the artthat was planned for display two weeks prior to Art in Bloom. In my opinion, this does not159demonstrate support for the project or a teamwork atmosphere. The Volunteer Coordinator wasable to persuade the Acting Director not to change the exhibitions.We also asked the Marketing and Public Programmes Division to plan a Family Day inthe Gallery for Sunday, May 30th to draw people into the Gallery for the Floral Design Exhibit.Both Divisions agreed to plan a Family Day. However, several weeks later, both PublicProgrammes and Marketing were asking who's budget the Family Day was to come from. AsI was a student intern, I felt that they should have known better than I who had the budget forFamily Days, and whether they could afford to have one during Art in Bloom. When Marketingrealized that they had to pay for Family Day, they decided not to have it. Later, the VolunteerCoordinator was able to talk them into rescheduling Family Day.Neither was the V.A.G. Board supportive of this project. It is my understanding that theVolunteer Committee President (Phyllis Buell) distributed literature about the events at a Boardmeeting because I prepared the materials for her. Further, the events were advertised in themembers' calendar, and there were pamphlets and posters throughout the Gallery. Pamphletsabout Art in Bloom were also available at the V.A.G. annual general meeting, and invitationsto the gala were mailed to all board members. However, only two board members purchasedtickets to the gala, and I am told that the Chair of the Board denied ever having heard of theevent until after the gala had been cancelled. Further, one board member had been asked tochair or co-chair the gala committee, but did not ever return telephone calls when I called to findout her answer. As the board has a mandate for fund raising, I find this lack of support quiteappalling.Further, the Chairman of the Board was asked to attend the Gourmet Luncheon to present160the Volunteer Committee with a plaque in appreciation of their 50 years of volunteer service atthe Gallery. Although he attended the luncheon, he left before the presentation, which was thenhandled by the Acting Director.I believe that the board members could have been more supportive of Art in Bloom bypromoting the gala and garden symposium events in their respective business and socialcommunities.In some instances, there was also a sense that the volunteers wanted to do something ontheir own and to be appreciated for a significant accomplishment. Although I have faulted theGallery management team and Board for not having been more involved in Art in Bloom, therewere times when their efforts to offer guidance and leadership were resisted by the VolunteerCoordinator and the volunteers. For example, on one occasion, the Gallery's PublicityCoordinator reviewed the publicity plan with the volunteer who was looking after the publicity.He offered suggestions for change to the content of the press releases and appropriate timing,and also requested a copy of the list of press contacts. I also requested this list, and althoughwe were given a brief look at it, a copy was never provided. The Gallery's PublicityCoordinator has built strong relationships with the press, and was willing to offer his support,but the volunteer seemed intent on completing these activities unassisted.A more detailed analysis follows.4.5.2 What Went Well?1. The Gourmet Luncheon:This portion of the Garden Symposium day went well. The menu and set up were welldone, and the service was good, although a little slow. However, because all of the attendees161seemed to be enjoying themselves, I'm not sure that they noticed the slow service, and becausethe event was billed as a Gourmet Luncheon, it would not have been appropriate to rush theservice. Rather, more time should have been allowed for the luncheon in planning the agenda,as the day ran significantly over schedule, partially due to difficulties at Robson SquareConference Centre', and partially due to the length of time it takes to serve a four coursegourmet luncheon. It would also have been better if the Gallery Café staff had arrived earlierto set up the tables, and if the committee had prepared the "menu scrolls" the day before. Toomuch was left for the last minute. In general, however, the luncheon came off well.2. Glenn Lewis Lecture and Wine Reception:The organization of the Glenn Lewis lecture and wine reception went very well. Thiswas the last lecture on the day of the Garden Symposium, so there was time to learn from whathad not gone well earlier in the day. In the late afternoon, the Volunteer Coordinator and Iensured that the room was set up, delivered the wine to the meeting room, and ensured thatsigns directing guests to the event were up in all appropriate locations in the Gallery.Committee members arrived just before the event.' From feedback that I received, Iunderstand that Glenn Lewis was the best speaker of the day. However, I was not able to listento any of the speakers due to other responsibilities.The facilities difficulties are discussed in further detail in a later section of this paper.Here, however, is an example of role responsibility confusion. The Volunteer Coordinator andI checked to ensure that the room was ready, and discovered that the wine was not in the meeting room.It was locked in the Gallery Cafe's wine storage locker. Had we not discovered this before 5 p.m., thecommittee would have arrived to discover that there was no wine for the wine reception. They must haveassumed that Jan and I would take care of the wine, but we happened upon this oversight purely byaccident.1623. Involvement of the Floral Design Community in the Floral Design Exhibit:Joyce Anderson, founding member of the Canadian Professional Floral Designers'Association and an active floral designer and consultant in Vancouver, was instrumental ingetting the floral designers to support this event. Without her enthusiastic participation andstrong connections in the Vancouver floral industry, the Floral Design Exhibit could not havebeen as successful as it was.4. Planning the Floral Design Exhibit:The entire Floral Design Committee, chaired by Daphne Gordon, did an outstanding jobof contacting potential participants by telephone to "sell" the event and to solicit theirparticipation. This was followed up by a letter of invitation accompanied by information aboutthe exhibit and a response form for them to return. Joyce Anderson (Floral Design Consultant)and Pat Short (Volunteer responsible for coordinating logistics) then made a floor plan markedwith all of the locations for floral displays, and the spaces were allocated via a draw in acommittee meeting. Participating florists then received a package containing a confirmationletter, floor plan, brochure, and a form telling them about their committee contact. Eachcommittee member was given approximately 8 florists to contact and explain the exhibitionguidelines, and how and when to set up and take down their displays.I believe that the success of this event relates to two things:(i) There was more time to plan this event, as it was several weeks later thanthe Gala and Garden Symposium, and(ii) This committee was extremely thorough in their discussion of details.They analyzed all of the possibilities from the very beginning. Before any163contacts were made to confirm florists' participation, they had decided onmost of the details that related to the type of arrangements that could beentered in the exhibit, how and when they would be set up and takendown, where they would be located, and how many floral designs wereneeded to ensure a quality exhibition. They also continually checked backwith the gallery conservator and Head of Museum Studies to ensure thattheir plans were acceptable, and well understood by the Gallery.5. Involvement of Sponsors/Donors:Members of the Marketing and Gala Committees were very successful in attractingdonations of door prizes; beverages for the gala, wine reception and gourmet luncheon; hotelrooms for our guest speakers; and various other donations to support all of the events. In all,door prizes valuing over $1,500 were donated through these efforts. The use of a Jamie Evrardprint was also donated by the artist for use on promotional materials.In addition, The United Flower Growers Co-op Association, Thomas Hobbs Florist Ltd.,Hazeldine Press Limited and Gary Schwartz (photographer) supplied products and services forthe events in return for being listed as event sponsors. (See Appendix L for a complete list ofdonors and sponsors.)4.5.3 What Could Have Been Improved Upon/Recon-unendations for Improvement4.5.3.a^The Gala:Unfortunately, the Gala was cancelled one week before the event because not enoughtickets had been sold to break even. At the time of cancellation, 45 tickets had been sold andpaid for; a total of 90 had been committed; and approximately 140 were needed to break even.164(The objective was to sell at least 175, and we had seating capacity for 250.)Having worked in the business world for many years, I am still stunned by the processvia which the gala was cancelled. I was called at home by the Gala Committee Chair to ask myopinion, and I indicated that the gala should not be cancelled without first consulting with theVolunteer Coordinator, who was on holidays. This was a high profile event that had beenpublicized in the community, and yet, the Volunteer Coordinator, in a telephone conversationfrom home, empowered the volunteers to make the decision to cancel, without managementinvolvement, one week prior to the event. Later that same day, a message was left on myanswering machine indicating that they had decided to cancel. In my opinion, the seniormanagement of the Gallery, the Acting Director and the Vancouver Art Gallery Board shouldhave been involved in this decision. As the Volunteer Committee is a separate organization, itfunctioned on its own in this instance also.The main objective of the Gala was to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of Volunteeringat The Gallery. Although it was also billed as a fundraiser, the projected earnings from theevent were minimal, and the main Art in Bloom fund raiser was to be the GardenSymposium/Gourmet Luncheon. We did not, however, want to lose money on the gala.Several problems led to the failure of this event:1. TimingWe were late in starting to plan this event (as well as the other events). The firstmeeting was held in mid-January, and at that time, a chairperson had still notbeen identified for the committee. It was very difficult to find a chair for thisevent, and the Head of the Marketing Division for the Gallery asked one of the165Board members to chair or co-chair the gala. However, the Board member didnot respond to our follow-up calls, so, at the last minute, Fran Schooley agreedto chair this committee. Although it is possible to plan a dinner and dance inthree months, the timing was extremely tight to make all planning decisionsrelated to times, music, agenda and price, in time to adequately market andpublicize the event, given that the event was being planned by volunteers, whoare not available on a full time basis. Further, due to the late start, not enoughsponsorship was solicited to defray the costs of the gala.2. Other Galas:Several other fund raising galas were planned during April and May, includingThe Firemen's Ball, The Black and White Ball, Night of 1,000 Dinners, and afund raising ball for Autism, and the same community is targeted for most ofthese events. Because the Art in Bloom ball was a new function, it could notdepend on a loyal following from the past. I think that only a unique format orexceptional marketing could have helped our gala to compete with others. Forexample, Leslie Diamond (Volunteer Committee member) suggested that tablesbe placed throughout the four floors of the gallery for intimate dinners amongstthe Art in Bloom and Flora Photographica exhibits, and that the gala be held onthe first night of the exhibits so that attendees get a "sneak preview."Unfortunately, this idea came too late in our planning process, but a unique themeis needed to compete with the myriad of spring balls that take place inVancouver. A second option is to scale down the event to a cocktail party format166similar to Art After Dark so that expenses and therefore, ticket prices can be keptlower.3.^Promotional Materials:The Marketing Committee, in conjunction with the Marketing Department of theGallery, selected an image of Calla Lilies from the Flora Photographica catalogueto use as a marketing image for all of the Art in Bloom promotion (see Figure 5).This image was complementary to the image that the Gallery was using topromote Flora Photographica (see Figure 7). However, in a meeting of the galacommittee, some of the volunteers decided that they didn't like the image, so theycalled Jamie Evrard, an artist whose work is represented in the Gallery's ArtRentals Department, to arrange to use one of her images instead. This was donewithout consultation with the Volunteer Coordinator, Student Intern Coordinatoror Marketing Committee (the Marketing Committee had the responsibility toselect the image.) Although Jamie Evrard has some beautiful floral paintings,most of them were unsuitable for reproduction in a small size in black andwhite' so, one of her black and white prints was selected instead. (See Figure7) This change of the image delayed the preparation of the poster, galainvitations and tickets by approximately two weeks. 108 A further complicationarose with the printing of the invitations and tickets because the large solid black107 The Art in Bloom budget did not allow for printing in full colour this year, as four colourprocess printing is very costly.1 ' It was necessary to contact Jamie Evrard, and then her gallery to see the work. Then, the workhad to he taken out of the frame and photographed before any promotional materials could be produced.167area in the new image took longer than anticipated to dry, further delaying thedelivery. In the end, many of the volunteers and sponsors did not like the Evrardimage and design either. The critical issue here for the gala, however, was thedelay in getting the invitations in the mail.FIGURE 6Proposed Marketing Image for Art in Bloom168FIGURE 7Selected Image for Art in BloomART IN BLOOM4. The Mailing List/Target Invitation List:Although the Volunteer Committee has had several successful galas andsimilar events in the past, it was surprising to learn that their mailing list wascomprised only of the volunteer committee (approximately 300 members), theBoard (30) and gallery benefactors (less than 50). The invitations were alsomailed to participating floral designers, Art in Bloom sponsors and suppliers, anda few "friends of the gallery". However, to attract 175 - 250 responses, amailing list of this small number is not adequate. I think that this is the mostimportant reason why the gala failed. Not enough effort has been made todevelop a mailing list for fund raising and supporting events sponsored by the169Volunteer Committee. One of the main goals of fund raising is to broaden thebase of people targeted for funds, and to attract new supporters. If the committeecontinues to look to its own membership without expanding its scope, efforts toraise funds will become ever more difficult.FIGURE 8Marketing Image for Flora PhotographicaThe V.A.G. membership (both corporate and individuals) was nottargeted, and I was told by the Volunteer Coordinator that the membership listwas too big. In my opinion, the cost of an additional 1,000 invitations for the galacould have been justified if it had generated an additional 100 ticket sales.The Volunteer Coordinator and I located a list of attendees from aprevious gala, and also had invitations mailed to them, as well as a few othersmall lists of Gallery supporters and people in the arts community. However, Ibelieve that in the future, it is critical for the Volunteer Committee to worktoward developing a more clearly defined plan to mail more invitations to anappropriately defined target list. This list should be developed over time incooperation with the Board (which has a mandate for fund raising) and theGallery. As the V.A.G. has both a Sustaining Fund Coordinator and a DonorData Base Coordinator on staff, I am sure that the Volunteer Committee and theGallery could work together to make better use of their data.5. Ticket SalesTickets for the gala were available through the volunteer office, and could becharged to a major credit card. For a social event like a fund raising ball, itseems that tickets are sold through word-of-mouth. People attend because theyhave been invited to attend with a group. Only three or four members of theVolunteer Committee made a concerted effort to sell a group of tickets to theevent. Many of the volunteers were not planning to attend at all.In addition to the limited target mailing list mentioned above, I believe171that there were two other problems related to ticket sales:(a) Not enough of the volunteers were excited about the event as a celebrationof their 50th anniversary. Perhaps, another year, earlier planning willallow more input from more members of the Volunteer Committee toensure that more volunteers want to participate. If the volunteers are notsupporting their own event, it is unlikely that the public will support iteither.(b) The ticket price was high in a poor economy. Many of the people whocan afford to attend these events were more conscious than usual of theirspending, and for the average person, $125.00 per person is veryexpensive. Earlier planning next year should also include an effort toadjust the format and expenses of the event to keep the ticket priceslower, so that the general V.A.G. membership and the Young Associatesgroups can also afford to attend. Earlier planning would also allow timeto solicit more sponsorship for the event, which would also help to keepthe ticket prices lower.4.5.3.b The Garden Symposium/Gourmet Luncheon:When I arrived at the Gallery on the morning of this event, the Volunteer Coordinatorwas in the Rotunda setting up tables for the luncheon, several committee members were rollingup little menu scrolls and tying them with ribbon, no catering staff were on the premises, andone of the volunteers was yelling about the fact that we didn't have signs on the street outsidethe Gallery. I went over to Robson Square Conference Centre, where one of the speakers was172creating complete chaos about the lighting in the lecture theatre, the person responsible forlogistics was dealing with the speaker's emotional outburst, the Chair of the Committee wasarguing with the Robson Square Conference staff, one of the Gallery's public programmes staffwas hauling water for a flower arranging demonstration, and a long line up of attendees wasforming outside the theatre waiting to be admitted.The Garden Symposium and Gourmet Luncheon was targeted to be the major fund raisingevent of Art in Bloom. This event did take in the largest amount of revenue (approximately$11,000, as I recall). However, expenses got out of hand, and as you can imagine from theabove description, the event was not executed smoothly. Following, is an analysis of some ofthe difficulties of this event:1. Tickets, Ticketmaster and PricingTickets to this event were offered for sale through Ticketmaster. Thereason for using Ticketmaster was to make tickets available throughout the lowermainland, as we were trying to attract a new audience to the Gallery. We hadpromoted the event through garden clubs and florists in the lower mainland,Northern Washington and Vancouver Island.Samantha Kramer, Co-chair of the Marketing Committee investigated threeticket vendors, and decided on Ticketmaster because they are better known in thisarea, and because they have more outlets. She made the arrangements withTicketmaster to have our tickets printed, to make them available for sale throughTicketmaster, and to have some tickets also available for sale at the Gallerythrough the Volunteer office.173There were difficulties in dealing with Ticketmaster. The tickets that wereto be available for sale through the Gallery were not delivered on time, and whenthey did arrive, they were incorrect. Ticketmaster had understood that theThomas Hobbs and Susan Ryley lectures were two separate events at $35.00each, instead of a single event. Therefore, those tickets had to be reprinted.Tickets were charged by phone, and Ticketmaster was to have FAXed us a listof people who had paid, so they could be admitted to the event. However, wedid not receive a FAX, and many people arriving at the event had paid, but wehad no record. Volunteers took the names of those attendees, but it was not asmooth process. In addition, the Ticketmaster ticket sellers seemed confusedabout the pricing of the event.The pricing of the tickets was very confusing.^Following is a summaryof the pricing:Thomas Hobbs and Susan Ryley $35.00Gourmet Luncheon and Sinclair Philip $45.00Marjorie Harris $35.00Glenn Lewis and Wine Reception $25.00Or, any 3 of the above 4 (day pass) $95.00Considerable^discussion^surrounded^the pricing^of this^event, with^littleconsideration for how easy it would be to advertise the price structure. Further,the committee agreed not to include GST in the prices, and then after the ticketswere printed and offered for sale, the Volunteer Coordinator changed this policy174to include GST in the prices. Further, the volunteer who was looking afterpublicity mentioned a price of $25.00 for the Glenn Lewis and Wine Receptionportion of the event in the Volunteer Committee Newsletter. This price had beendiscussed, but we had later agreed to charge $35.00. Once the event had beenadvertised at $25.00, the Volunteer Coordinator felt that it would cause harmfulpublicity if we corrected the price.Because of the experience with Ticketmaster, the volunteers on the GardenSymposium Committee concluded that using an outside ticket vendor was not agood idea. I do not agree with their conclusion, however. One of the objectivesof Art in Bloom was to attract new people to the Gallery. The volunteers lookedat this from a narrow point of view ... they thought it was easier to buy ticketsthrough the Gallery. This is true, if you are already going to the Gallery on aregular basis. But, Ticketmaster and other ticket vendors make tickets easilyaccessible to people living anywhere in the city. If it is difficult to purchase aticket to an event, people may elect not to attend. While Ticketmaster haddifficulties understanding the structure and pricing of the event, I do not believethat was entirely their fault. The pricing and structure of the event wereconfusing. Another year, clear pricing and ample time to proof the tickets couldmean a smoother relationship with Ticketmaster or a competitive vendor.2. TeamworkThis committee did not work as well together as did others. There wasa core group on this committee that worked well together. However, this group175did not make any effort to include some of the other volunteers working with thecommittee in planning. Although this may seem a minor point, one of themembers of this committee was responsible for planning the logistics of the event.She was to arrange for volunteers to take tickets at the door, and she made all ofthe arrangements with Robson Square Conference Centre. She was a key playerin this event, but she was left on the outside. This lack of teamwork created agreat deal of difficulty on the day of the event. Had a greater effort been madeby the Volunteer Coordinator and the Chair of this committee to work with theperson planning the logistics, and to review the logistics in greater detail prior tothe event, it would have unfolded in a more orderly and organized fashion.This committee also did not work well with other committees when therewere areas of overlap to be worked out together. For example, the Chair of theGarden Symposium/Gourmet Luncheon Committee was extremely demanding ofthe Chair of the Marketing Committee and caused some dissension betweencommittees. She then included one of the marketing committee members in latermeetings and post mortum meetings of Art in Bloom, but did not include theMarketing Committee Chair, the Volunteer Coordinator or the Student Intern, allkey players in planning and promoting this event. Members of this committeealso spent considerable time focused on blaming other volunteers and staffmembers for problems related to the execution and success of their event. Thiswas not constructive for anyone involved in the project, and caused hard feelingsamongst some volunteers. As a result of this dissension, I am aware of some176volunteers who indicated that they will not participate at the Gallery again.3.^Planning DetailsThe Garden Symposium Committee had a great deal of difficulty makingdecisions. At each meeting, they seemed to revisit every decision that they hadmade since the beginning of the project, and this makes progress difficult,particularly when there is a short lead time for planning.Early in the planning stages, they felt that they could plan a large scaleevent, and draw a large audience for their speakers. They considered severalspeakers, and then settled on Thomas Hobbs, Susan Ryley, Glenn Lewis andSinclair Philip. They decided to hold the lectures in the Gallery to avoid theexpense of renting space. They had considered bringing in a big name speakerfrom another city, but decided against it. Then, after this decision had beenmade, one afternoon in a meeting, they called Marjorie Harris in Toronto andinvited her to speak, and agreed to pay her travel expenses to Vancouver. Theyalso changed the venue for the Symposium to Robson Square, at a fee of$350.00. The Volunteer Coordinator was in full support of these decisions. Noconsideration was given for the budget, and yet these new expenses added toalmost $1,000. No cost analysis was undertaken to estimate how many ticketsthey might sell, given they had added Marjorie Harris as a speaker, or to considerthe extra cost of her expenses and the expenses of renting Robson SquareConference Centre.Small details were overlooked by this committee. For example, I do not177believe that an agenda was planned for the luncheon. There was to be a plaquepresented to the Volunteer Committee by the Chairman of the Board; a guestspeaker (Sinclair Philip) was to be introduced; and sponsors needed to beacknowledged and thanked. However, the committee had not arranged for aMaster of Ceremonies, and the Volunteer Coordinator kept the presentation of theplaque a secret from everyone who was involved in planning. At the last minute,Fran Schooley was asked to act as Master of Ceremonies without any preparation.4. Execution of LogisticsAt the very beginning meetings of Art in Bloom, Pat Short (Volunteer) hadbeen involved in working out the logistics of the various events. I was not awareof her early contribution, so did not include her in the initial planning meetings.However, a couple of months into the project, the Volunteer Coordinator wasreminded of her involvement, and we asked her to continue to participate byplanning the overall logistics of the events. We felt that her major contributioncould be made in assisting to organize the set up and take down of the FloralDesign Exhibit and the assignment of the participants to specific exhibit locations,and in interfacing with Robson Square Conference Centre and arranging to havevolunteers available to take tickets at the Luncheon and Symposium.The Floral Design Committee worked well with Pat and appreciated herguidance and expertise in planning the exhibit. However, communication withthe Garden Symposium Committee was more strained. Pat made all of thearrangements with Robson Square Conference Centre to rent the lecture theatre,178and arranged for volunteers to take tickets at the door for the lectures and theluncheon. However, the volunteers were not given ample orientation about whatthey were to do. It would have been advisable to have a meeting of thesevolunteers earlier to cover their responsibilities. Although they arrived early onthe morning of the event for a briefing, the briefing was rushed because other lastminute items took precedence.There were also difficulties with Robson Square Conference Centre. Wehad not arranged to pay to have an Audio Visual Technician dedicated to ourevent, as our audio visual requirements involved only a slide projector.However, when the slide projector and lighting were not operable, Robson Squarestaff indicated that we had not paid for a technician, so they could not help us.We had, however, paid for appropriate stage lighting and an operating slideprojector. Eventually, a technician was sent to take care of our needs, but in theafternoon, there was no technician on the premises because he had a dentalappointment. We crossed our fingers, and hoped that the equipment would notfail again.When the Symposium began in the morning, the east doors to RobsonSquare Conference Centre were blocked off due to construction. Our attendeesleft through the West entrance, and walked over to the Gallery for lunch. Whenthey returned to the West door after lunch, it was boarded up, and they had tocircle around the outside of Robson Square Conference Centre to enter throughthe East doors. Robson Square is in the business of letting space for conferences,179and there were at least two large events taking place in their facilities that day.It was, therefore, inappropriate for them to have major construction going on attheir entrances.The Public Programmes Division at the Gallery organizes events similarto the Garden Symposium as a matter of routine. They are also familiar withRobson Square Conference Centre, and I believe that it would have been veryuseful to have had the assistance and input of the Public Programmes Staff for thearrangement of this event. During my internship, I regularly attended the weeklyPublic Programmes Division meetings, and heard Judith Mastai review thelogistics of various upcoming Public Programmes events with her staff. They areexperienced, organized and professional in their approach, and the volunteerscould have benefited from their guidance in planning this event.5. The SpeakersSome of the speakers that were hired for this event had temperamentalpersonalities, and this caused some difficulties on the day of the event. Forexample, Thomas Hobbs, while an entertaining and informative speaker, wasdifficult to deal with. He created chaos while setting up at Robson SquareConference Centre. He had staff members fetching water, and volunteers andparticipants who had paid to attend the event dealing with the Conference Centreabout the lighting.Susan Ryley was also very difficult. While I understand herembarrassment at standing in front of an audience attempting to show slides of180her garden with a projector that wasn't functioning, she was very difficult to dealwith.For future events, I recommend that the committee assign one of itsmembers to each speaker to ensure that they are met when they arrive and to seethat their needs are met. The committee did appoint someone to sit with each ofthe speakers at lunch. However, they needed help in finding out where they weresupposed to go and in setting up.When Sinclair Philip arrived at the luncheon, he did not have a carouselfor his slides. Someone had to locate a carousel and demonstrate the slideprojector to him. His appointed hostess was in the lecture hall at Robson Square,and was mainly concerned with entertaining him over lunch. However, that wasnot the critical issue.Another year, I recommend approaching speakers who might be a littleeasier to deal with. Although both Thomas and Susan were excellent speakers,both created such a fuss in the lecture theatre during their set up time in front ofpaying patrons, that the event seemed very unprofessional, in my opinion.Originally, we had hoped that the speakers would not require anhonorarium, as the event was a fund raiser. I am not experienced in the handlingof this type of issue. However, on the recommendation of Judith Mastai, weoffered Glenn Lewis an honorarium comparable to what the Canada Councilwould pay ($200), and he accepted. Then, the committee decided that it wouldbe fair to pay each of the speakers $200, and not to ask them to donate their181services. Later, when Marjorie Harris was asked to participate, she asked for$300, so the committee decided to raise the honorarium for all of the speakers to$300. In my opinion, it was not necessary to pay all of them the same amount.And, if some were willing to waive their honorarium in the spirit of fund raising,then I believe we should have seized that opportunity.Marjorie Harris spoke at a Vancouver Parks Board Seminar only a fewweeks before the Art in Bloom Garden Symposium. Although she had mentionedto the committee that she would be in town in March, I am told that she did notindicate that tickets would be sold to a similar event just prior to ours. Had weknown that she was speaking in Vancouver earlier, this would have affected ourdecision to bring her out to speak at the Garden Symposium.4.5.3.c Floral Design Exhibit:Generally, the Floral Design Exhibit went very well, and I do not meanto diminish its success by dwelling on negatives, but there is always room forimprovement on anything that is done, so I would like to make the followingrecommendations:1. Rotunda and Lobby DisplaysAs mentioned earlier in this paper, the Acting Director of the Gallery wasinconsistent in her approval to have displays in the rotunda of the Gallery, andthe display which had been approved in concept, was then shifted to the lobby onthe morning of installation. While the display looked fine in the lobby, and itwas really irrelevant whether it was located in the lobby, forecourt or rotunda,182this change did have its potential to offend the sponsors who had donated thematerials for the display and the designer/consultant who created it. As one ofthe prime objectives of Art in Bloom was to court new patronage, the Galleryshould be careful not to offend the potential new audience.I have already mentioned the difficulty with the floral designs that werecreated for the four niches in the rotunda. This incident also had the potential tooffend members of the local floral industry. While I recognize that the Galleryhas certain standards that it wishes to uphold, it must be flexible and offer anatmosphere conducive to the creative process, if it is to undertake events such asArt in Bloom. Clear guidelines must be given to participating artists, and acollaborative relationship developed with participating floral designers.2. Opening ReceptionIf there is to be an opening reception planned for the Floral DesignExhibit, then it should be included in the original planning process, andspecifically, must be included in the budget. The Floral Design Committee wasnot even aware that this opening was being planned for their event. Some ofthem found out when they received their invitations in the mail. Some of thecommittee members did not receive invitations.The budget for this event (see Appendix J) indicates revenue from ticketsales. To my knowledge, there was no admission charged for this event, andtherefore, no revenue generated.1833. Take Down - Movie FilmingBetter communication must take place between the Gallery staff and theArt in Bloom project. The Floral Design Committee had arranged to have thefloral designers take down their exhibits on the Monday morning following theweekend show. The Special Events department of the Gallery arranged for amovie crew to be filming in the Gallery that same day. The Floral DesignCommittee found out about the movie on the weekend during the exhibit, so therewas no time to change the arrangements for either the take down of the floraldesign show or the movie filming. As I had already formally completed myinternship, I was not involved in finding a solution to this problem, so I am notcertain how it was handled.4.5.3.d Marketing and SponsorshipThis committee was responsible for developing and implementing a marketing plan forall of the Art in Bloom activities, and it was a very hard working committee. Its members werespecifically recruited for their training and experience in the marketing, publicity and designfields. However, all but one of the volunteers on this committee were new volunteers to theV.A.G., most of whom had never volunteered on a large project before. Further, they receivedno guidance from the Gallery staff. As mentioned earlier in this paper, the VolunteerCoordinator/Project Manager did not attend a single marketing committee meeting, nor did sheoffer any assistance to this committee. The Head of the Marketing Division was asked to attendtheir first meeting to offer assistance, but she was unable to attend. She asked one of her staffmembers to attend, and she was not able to attend either.184While I believe that the members of this committee were perhaps more skilled than anyof the other committees in their work experience, most of them did not have experience workingwith the Volunteer Committee at the V.A.G. and they relied on the other committee chairs forinput and guidance. The other chairs did not offer much input and guidance upfront, but somewere quick to suggest that the failure of Art in Bloom was the result of the marketingcommittee's inability to sell the events to the public.Difficulties related to marketing and sponsorship are discussed in more detail, as follows:1. Confusion About The Role of The CommitteeWhile I believe that the members of the Marketing and Sponsorship Committeewere clear about their responsibilities, I do not believe that the other committees andtheir chairs clearly understood the responsibilities of the marketing committee and theirown responsibilities to work with the marketing committee. For example, it was statedon the original handout describing the division of responsibilities (see Appendix K) thatthe Gala Chair was to "work with the Marketing Chair to assemble specific targetmailing lists for the event." She did not, however, undertake this responsibility. Thishandout also indicated that the Chair of the Garden Symposium was to "liaise withMarketing Chair to assemble specific target mailing list and specific event promotion"activities. In both cases, the chairs of these committees left most of the marketingplanning to the Marketing and Sponsorship Committee. But, when it became evident thatticket sales were slow, they began to panic and point fingers at the marketing committeefor not doing a good enough job of promoting their events.When asked for suggestions for mailing lists, the Garden Symposium Committee185did provide a listing of all Lower Mainland Garden Clubs, and did offer suggestionsabout appropriate gardening publications and newsletters where ads and articles could beplaced. The Volunteer Coordinator and I located most of the mailing list for the galainvitations, as mentioned in section 4.6.3.a. That section also described the galacommittee's misunderstanding about their role in designing the invitations and tickets forthe gala.In the past, when the Volunteer Committee has planned events such as galas, theyhave not had a separate marketing committee, and I believe this caused some difficultyin understanding the role of the committee. "You can't teach old dogs new tricks." Thevolunteers are used to having someone responsible for invitations and someoneresponsible for ticket sales, but I believe that most of them don't really understand therole of marketing. This probably also holds true for the Volunteer Coordinator, whoseday-to-day role does not encompass marketing.Because Marketing and Sponsorship requires training and experience, Irecommend that future Art in Bloom marketing and publicity activities should be closelysupervised by the Marketing Division of the Gallery.2. TimingOne of the main difficulties of the Marketing Committee was timing. You can'tpromote and publicize an event until you know what the event is, when and where it willtake place, and how much the tickets will cost. The Marketing and SponsorshipCommittee began to meet as early as did the other committees. However, they wereunable to make any progress in writing press releases or preparing promotional materials186until after the three event planning committees had made most of the planning decisionsrelated to their events. And, decisions by committees are extremely slow in coming.This did not leave enough time at the end to adequately market and promote the events.Also, as a result of this difficulty, some publicity offered incorrect information becauseprices and times changed after publication.The timing was also not adequate for obtaining sufficient sponsorship. While Ithink that this committee did an admirable job of soliciting sponsorship in the short timeavailable to them, had they started a year to eight months before Art in Bloom, theymight have been able to obtain a major corporate sponsor that would have assisted inpublicizing the event and offered cash to help offset some of the expenses of Art inBloom.3. The Marketing Plan and The ImageEarlier, I mentioned that a Calla Lily image had been selected with the MarketingDivision staff to use as an image for promoting Art in Bloom. The Gallery was usinga different Calla Lily as their image for Flora Photographica. I think there would havebeen benefits to having either a complementary marketing campaign, or a combinedmarketing campaign for the two events. When I mentioned to people that I was workingon Art in Bloom at the Gallery, they would usually indicate that they had seen theadvertising. What they had seen was the Calla Lily poster or ad for FloraPhotographica, and they remembered it. However, when questioned, they had notactually seen any Art in Bloom advertising.The Art in Bloom posters were not widely distributed around the city. The187Marketing Committee hand delivered them to art galleries, libraries, florists, sponsors,and public places, such as Granville Island. The Flora Photographica posters wereeverywhere. I believe that the Gallery pays someone for distribution of their posters, andthey get much wider coverage. A single poster advertising Flora Photographica and Artin Bloom would have been much more effective. Perhaps this would have required somerethinking about the naming of the events or the concept, but I believe it could have beenaccomplished with better results than two separate promotional campaigns, one that wasvirtually ineffective.If the Marketing Division staff developed the overall marketing plan and budget,volunteers could participate in executing the plan under the supervision of a staff membersuch as Chris Duclos, who understands marketing Gallery events, has good mediacontacts, and also works well with the volunteers.Whether the Gallery has a special exhibit such as Flora Photographica, or simplyexhibits floral works from the collection during Art in Bloom, a unified marketing planshould be developed that makes better use of resources. The objective is to draw peopleinto the Gallery to see the exhibits, and this could be achieved more effectively with asingle marketing plan.4. TeamworkFor the most part, the marketing committee worked very well together.However, there was one volunteer who always participated enthusiastically at theMarketing meetings, and then went away and created difficulty outside the committee.For example, on more than one occasion, I was told by one of the other committee chairs188that this volunteer had commented that she thought that the Marketing Committee wasnot doing a good job. This was not helpful to the project. If a volunteer does not agreewith the activities of the committee, then she should bring it forward at the meeting ordiscuss it with the Volunteer Coordinator so that the situation can be rectified. I askedthe Volunteer Coordinator to speak to this volunteer during the project, but she didn'tmention her disagreements to the Volunteer Coordinator, so nothing was really resolved.This situation has been discussed with the Volunteer Coordinator, and she has observedthis difficulty in the past, so I am sure she will watch for it in recruiting for futureevents.5. Sale of Art in Bloom MerchandiseThe Marketing Committee selected several stationery items with Art in Bloomlabels to be offered for sale in the Gallery Gift Shop during the period of Art in Bloom.I think it is safe to say that this was an abysmal failure. The Volunteer Coordinatorindicated that the Boston Museum sells Art in Bloom stationery, so the committee decidedto look into possible merchandise for sale. Unfortunately, no one on the committee hadmuch experience in selling retail merchandise, particularly through the Gallery Gift Shop.The shop manager and assistant manager indicated that they would support the VolunteerCommittee by displaying the merchandise and offering it for sale, and we asked for atable or display area near the front of the shop so that the merchandise would be veryvisible and accessible.Two members of the Marketing Committee researched available items andbrought samples to the committee for selection. Several stationery items were selected,189including two different packages of writing stationery, small telephone and address booksand shopping list pads. All of the items had the same floral cover design, and Art inBloom labels were ordered for them. The total outlay of cash for the merchandise andlabels was approximately $1,600, with projected earnings from sales of $900, if all itemssold. It was necessary to order a minimum of 300 pieces. The supplier requiredprepayment of the goods.Purchase of the inventory and labels was not included in the budget, but theintention was that the cost of goods sold would generate a profit for the project.Unfortunately, no profit was earned, and the Committee is left with a large inventory ofthese items.After the order had been placed, I understand that staff from the Gallery GiftShop indicated that 300 items was probably too large an order. It is unfortunate that thiscomment was not made earlier to the Marketing Committee, as the gift shop staff hasmore experience in what items and quantities sell through the shop. I also heard latercomments from members of the Volunteer Committee that they had not had goodexperience in the past with selling items through the gift shop. Unfortunately, theMarketing Committee wasn't made aware of this information until after it was too late.When the inventory arrived, the gift shop did not place it in a prominent displaynear the front of the Gallery. Rather, it was placed near the back of the shop by thewindow. The Gallery offered Flora Photographica T-shirts and various garden items andcards for sale through the shop, and they were prominently displayed on the front walldirectly to the right of the gift shop. In future, I recommend that the Gallery and the190Volunteer Committee work together to select items to be offered for sale, and that onlyone set of items be marketed. The Gallery Marketing Division has more experience inthis area, and could offer better guidance. I did invite the Head of Marketing to attendthe meeting when the merchandise was selected, but she did not have time to attend.Instead, I described the items to her, and she thought they seemed fine. More detailedanalysis, however, was required, as the items did not sell.The Committee did place a table of the items for sale at the Garden Symposiumand Gourmet Luncheon, and also in the lobby of the Gallery on Family Day but this didnot generate any significant sales.4.6 Were the objectives met?1. The first objective of Art in Bloom was to develop a prototype for an annual fund raisingevent for the Volunteer Committee to the Vancouver Art Gallery. While several aspectsof Art in Bloom were not successful, this year's events did serve as a valuable learningexperience for both the Gallery and its Volunteer Committee. I think that the mostimportant thing that was learned was that the Gallery staff and volunteers must developa closer working relationship in order to pull off a set of events of this magnitude. Theyalso learned that more direct guidance and supervisory involvement is required by thesenior management and staff of the Gallery, and that more long term planning is requiredfor the success of Art in Bloom. Clear definition of roles and a dedicated ProjectManager should also be put in place.2. No financial statements for Art in Bloom were made available to me. However,following from the original budget, I am aware that the gala generated no revenue191because it was cancelled. It did incur approximately $1,000 in expenses. The GardenSymposium/Gourmet Luncheon generated approximately $11,000 in revenue, andincurred additional nonbudgeted expenses of the following:Additional Honoraria $1,200.Robson Square Conference Centre 350.GST "1,010.Further, the Marketing Committee incurred the following costs"' for inventory of Artin Bloom merchandise, most of which was not recovered:Merchandise^ $1,300.Labels 300.I expect that Art in Bloom broke even or lost a small amount of money. Therefore, itdid not raise funds for the Gallery in its first year.3.^It is difficult to measure whether the Gallery's audience was expanded, but Ibelieve that the success of the Floral Design Exhibit may have heightened the interest ofVancouver's floral designers. All of them visited the gallery several times in preparationfor the exhibit. The opening night of the Floral Design Exhibit drew over 1,000 peopleinto the Gallery, but we are unable to measure who attended to determine whether it wasa new audience.Through poor management of many aspects of the project, we may have alsodiscouraged some people such as attendees at the Garden Symposium and symposium109 An estimate based on 152 day passes sold at $95.110 These are approximate costs, as I do not have the exact figures available to me.192speakers. For example, several of the speakers at the Garden Symposium left offended.Thomas Hobbs was very annoyed early on in the planning process when he attendedsome meetings. He concluded that the Garden Symposium Committee was composed ofnegative thinkers. In retrospect, it is not a good idea to include speakers and sponsorsin planning meetings of this nature. They should be included in the planning bysoliciting their ideas and by updating them on the plans, but this is better done in shortone-on-one meetings with the Project Manager or Committee Chair.Susan Ryley, Marjorie Harris and Thomas Hobbs were all annoyed by thedifficulties encountered at Robson Square Conference Centre and by the fact that theGarden Symposium agenda fell so far behind. Marjorie Harris' presentation was aboutan hour late in getting started.The Chair of the Garden Symposium Committee and two of the speakers arguedwith the Robson Square Conference Staff at the back of the lecture theatre as attendeeswere being seated, and this was highly unprofessional and did not leave a positiveimpression of the event. Further, the fact that the agenda ran behind was unprofessional.Christopher Sobie (Da Vinci Flowers and Chocolates) and Joyce Anderson (FloralDesign Consultant) were offended by the removal of Mr. Sobie's designs from the nichesin the rotunda. And Joyce participated significantly on the Floral Design ExhibitCommittee, so she was well aware of the lack of support received from Gallerymanagement on occasions such as when Exhibitions planned to change the planned artexhibits two weeks prior to Art in Bloom, and that the Special Events staff had bookeda movie filming on the morning of the take down of the floral design exhibit.193Several participating floral designers were also annoyed and threatened towithdraw their participation from the event because Thomas Hobbs was listed as a majorsponsor and received publicity for the event. Apparently, he is not as well respected byhis competitors as he is by others, and this caused some difficulty.All of our sponsors were listed on all of the advertising for the Gala and theGarden Symposium. One event was cancelled and one was quite unprofessional in itsimplementation. This was embarrassing for sponsors to have their names attached to anevent that generated negative publicity.Several people purchased tickets to the Gala, and then received refunds when itwas cancelled. They were disappointed in the cancellation, and Malcolm Parry ran anegative column about the cancellation (See Appendix M).Therefore, I would conclude that Art in Bloom was not as effective as it couldhave been in attracting a new audience to the Gallery.4. The Gala, which was the main event to celebrate the 50th anniversary of theVolunteer Committee, was cancelled due to poor ticket sales. A poor representationfrom the Volunteer Committee had purchased tickets to the gala, so it would seem thatthey were not excited about this event as a celebration of their service.A plaque recognizing 50 years of service by the Volunteer Committee waspresented to the Volunteer Committee's Chair at the Gourmet Luncheon, and I think thatthe volunteers appreciated this recognition very much. Unfortunately, a majority of thecommittee was not in attendance at this event.In all, the Volunteers worked extremely hard on a very difficult project with little194support from the Gallery staff, for a Project Manager who did not consider herself theproject manager, to earn little if any money for the Gallery. Many were embarrassedthat they had called upon their friends, acquaintances and business contacts forassistance, sponsorship and attendance at the events, only to see the events not come offas smoothly as others they have worked on. The 50th anniversary probably could havebeen celebrated more effectively.4.7 Conclusion and Recommendations1. I learned a great deal about volunteer management and the Vancouver ArtGallery, but it was a difficult learning experience. The learning took place within anunclear reporting structure, and with little communication between the Board, the Gallerystaff and the Volunteer Committee. Having done considerable research about volunteermanagement for Part I of this project, I observed that there was a wide gap betweentheory and practice. The literature emphasizes careful recruiting and screening ofvolunteers with skills to do the jobs for which they are needed; clear and thoroughtraining for the specific work to be performed, and supervision by staff members.The Volunteer Committee at The Vancouver Art Gallery is 50 years old, andmany volunteers have been there for a very long time. The V.A.G. has only had aVolunteer Coordinator on staff for four or five years, and she has inherited an extremelydifficult task. Although she screens all new volunteers, and the volunteers who are therenow have been trained for their specific jobs in the slide library, art rentals, gift shop,docent program, etc., there are volunteers who do not have the skills to do some of thesejobs, and none of the volunteers have been trained by the V. A.G. in project management195and event planning. There is a Special Events Volunteer Committee, but volunteers fromthis committee participated in Art in Bloom in a very small capacity.Further, this "old guard" volunteer committee has done as they pleased for somany years, that the Volunteer Coordinator has a challenge to guide them in newdirections. Her skills lie in the areas of negotiation, arbitration and "volunteerpersonnel" related issues. Project management is neither her area of expertise, norwhere her time is best spent in this organization.I recommend that the Volunteer Coordinator be involved in Art in Bloom only inthe capacity as recruiter, trainer and personnel liaison for the Volunteer Committee. Sheshould sit on the Art in Bloom Committees, and should attend senior managementmeetings that relate to Art in Bloom to best perform this liaison function.2. I recommend that the Gallery select a Project Manager for Art in Bloom from theMarketing, Public Programmes or Special Events staff, and that this person be givenoverall responsibility for managing the project. The Project Manager should attendregular senior management meetings to keep the management team abreast of allactivities related to Art in Bloom. Although this would not be a full time position untilthe two or three months prior to the event, it does require that someone be available atthe Gallery on a daily basis to handle volunteer enquiries and to provide guidance tovolunteers and staff related to the project.3. If a student intern is to be involved in Art in Bloom in the future, more guidanceshould be given related to responsibilities and expectations, and a student intern shouldnot be the project manager. I believe that I fulfilled the role of liaison/coordinator well,196in that I kept the Volunteer Coordinator abreast of everything that transpired within thecommittees. However, the confusion about responsibility for this project rendered thiscommunication and liaison somewhat ineffective. I offered my guidance with respect toproject management wherever I felt it appropriate. However, my experience is withprojects that have been managed much differently from how projects are handled withinthe volunteer organization at The Vancouver Art Gallery, and I often did not understandthe politics or the system well enough to offer guidance, nor did I have the power orauthority to be able to change the way things were being handled. I also believe that,amongst some of the volunteers, more emphasis was placed upon social status than onability or experience, and I often felt that I did not have much credibility in the eyes ofthis small segment of the volunteers.4. Planning for Art in Bloom should begin a year in advance, with identification ofCommittee Chairs, selection of the format and dates for the events, development of abudget and solicitation of sponsorship. This early planning should take place withsignificant involvement of the Gallery Director and senior management from PublicProgrammes, Marketing and Development, Exhibitions and Special Events. TheGallery's exhibitions should be complementary to Art in Bloom, in that floral works fromthe collections or an exhibition with a floral or gardening theme should be on display atthe time of Art in Bloom.Volunteers with appropriate skills and experience should then be recruited for thecommittees, and some orientation and training should take place to ensure that everyoneunderstands the goals of Art in Bloom, the responsibilities of everyone working on the197project, and the format of the events.More supervision and guidance should be offered by the staff in their areas ofexpertise. For example, Marketing should be heavily involved in developing a marketingplan for Art in Bloom, and for supervising the execution of the plan.5. I also recommend that the Art in Bloom events be compressed into a shorter timeperiod, say four or five days. This year, the events were spread over approximately sixweeks; the Gala was planned for April 17th, and the Floral Design Exhibit ended on May30th. An opening could kick off the events on a Thursday evening, with the FloralDesign Exhibit then carrying on until the following Tuesday, with the GardenSymposium and Gourmet Luncheon as a closing event on the Tuesday, for example. Ithink that more sustained excitement about the events on the part of the volunteers, staff,media and potential audience could be generated for a shorter duration.198PART IIISTUDIO WORK IN PAINTING1991.0 IntroductionI have combined the study of Painting, Art History and Arts Administration, and thissection discusses my paintings. They are in oil, and I work with many layers of paint to developa richness of colour and texture. The subject matter varies, but generally the style of paintinginvolves simplifying forms or ideas into flattened shapes. As part of my Masters' degreeproject, I have painted approximately 25 paintings, and they are described in the followingsections. For convenience, I have discussed them in six groups. However, some of them couldjust as easily be grouped with different paintings for a different discussion.2.0 Starving Children SeriesSome of my most recent paintings deal with the devastating situation in Somalia, and arebased on photographs clipped from newspapers. The first in the series, Starving Child and Fieldof Wheat (Figure 9) is a monochrome painting of a child, whose arms and legs have becomesticks, hanging in a sling to be weighed. This small image is juxtaposed over a brilliantlycoloured field of wheat, and raises the question, "Why are children in Somalia starving, whenthere is enough food on earth for everyone?The next four paintings in the series are Portraits of Starving Children, (Figures 10, 11,12, 13). Traditionally, portraits have been painted of people who are comfortable, but theseportraits depict anything but comfort. Many of these children have died because relief systemshave failed. The predominantly monochrome colour schemes are employed to emphasize thepathos of the situation, and they are painted with frames to emphasize that they are portraits.These portraits are mainly studies for the larger Mural of Starving Children Against a Field of200Wheat (Figure 14), showing portraits of starving children being force fed, and a few who havereceived relief, again juxtaposed against an expansive field of wheat.The last two paintings in this series, Prisoners of Circumstance (Figures 15 and 16) showyoung Somalian boys behind bars and a wire fence. In Figure 15, the image is painted on theupper portion of a rectangular canvas, leaving the viewer to decide whether the prison is realor imagined.3.0 LandscapesThese landscapes do not represent an effort to capture a scene nostalgically in thetraditional sense of landscape. Rather, they hold other meanings. Trains and Farms Are GoingAway (Figure 17) is the first of these four paintings, and was painted in response to changingtimes in the prairies related to the significance of farming and the railroad. Elevators markedthe towns on the prairies. Today, many of these historic landmarks have been torn down. Inmy home town of Indian Head, Saskatchewan, a modern concrete elevator structure has replacedthe old elevators, and farmers, who once prospered in the area, struggle to make a living withtoday's high costs and interest rates.The Road Home (Figure 18) is a simplified geometric prairie landscape. The largetriangle in the foreground reads as a road, but the road never meets the horizon, and rises upalmost as a barrier between the viewer and the prairie. The triangle also represents themountains, a physical barrier between British Columbia, my home of today, and Saskatchewan,where I grew up. This landscape is representative of my dilemma about where home is.The same triangle appears at the base of Prairie Landscapes (Figure 19). This painting201is composed of several prairie scenes integrating photography and painting. In today'spostmodern world, we are constantly exposed to multiple images, and this offers a way torepresent the landscape, which is ever changing. It is affected by weather, light, time of day,man, seasons, point of view, etc.The triangle re-emerges in Mountain Reflections (Figure 20). This painting was basedon a photo of mountains reflected in a lake. I thought the lake reflection offered an opportunityto depict the landscape from multiple points of view. A geometrically simplified mountain rangeof a series of triangles is reflected as a slightly more realistically shaped mountain range in thebottom half of the painting. This painting also served as a valuable lesson that not all interestingphotographs necessarily make interesting paintings, and that the painting must evolve to existon its own as a separate thing from the photograph.These landscapes are a continuation of earlier landscapes that I painted at UBC duringmy undergraduate studies, such as UBC Landscape and Fiji (Figures 34 and 35).4.0 Figures in The LandscapeI began these two paintings, Female Figure In A Landscape (Figure 21) and Male FigureIn A Landscape (Figure 22), two or three years ago, and had been unable to finish them becauseI didn't know where to take them. I think that both reflect a sense of loneliness and indecisionthat have pervaded my life since returning to University. Having left my job at IBM, and thenstudied predominantly arts, I have often felt that I didn't fit in in either the worlds of businessor art, and that I didn't know where this change would take me.These two figures in landscapes also reflect my conflicts between living in Saskatchewan202and British Columbia. Although the landscape elements have been simplified, the male figureis painted looking out over a railing at a lake that is near my home in Saskatchewan. Thefemale figure is painted sitting not quite squarely on a stone wall in the city. Both are alone,and neither are making any contact with the viewer.5.0 Calla LiliesI paint flowers because I relate to them. They are delicate but strong; silent, but theworld is a better place because of them. I try to be that way, too. I particularly like CallaLilies because they are not frail, but very strong, simple and beautiful. In all, I have paintedfive calla lily paintings, and four are shown here.Calla Lily (Figure 24) is based on a Robert Mappelthorpe photograph, which was partof Flora Photographica at the Vancouver Art Gallery, and was also the image that was originallyselected for use as an image for promoting Art in Bloom. I think that the main reason I did thispainting was as therapy after the experience of working on Art in Bloom, which was verydifficult.Two Calla Lilies # 1 and #2 (Figures 25 and 26) are also based on a RobertMappelthorpe photograph. I painted it twice because I wasn't quite satisfied with the firstattempt.6.0 L.A. Fire, Forest Diptych, PandaThese three paintings are about my feelings on three issues:L.A. Fire (Figure 27) was painted after the Rodney King verdict last summer. I visited203San Francisco with a friend for a break away from Vancouver, and when we arrived, we wereconfined to our hotel because the streets were being looted. I never expected to come so closeto racial violence and injustice. Although the rioting in San Francisco was handled quickly andwe were able to walk about freely for the remainder of our stay, it was a frightening experience.I would like to think that we could all live together peacefully without bias against race orgender, but unfortunately, that seems not to be the case.Forest Diptych (Figure 28) is meant to show the contrast between a healthy forest anda clear cut forest. I quoted the style of Emily Carr, who worshipped nature and the forest, andused living bright colours. The insert of a clear cut forest, by contrast is predominantly blackand white, and painted with more violent and brisk forms and brush strokes. It is painted ontwo canvases to seem somewhat disjointed or incongruous.Panda (Figure 29), an endangered species is depicted behind bars, sad and hopeless. Thebars on the cage do not meet, to emphasize the senselessness and inhumaneness of this type ofcaptivity.7.0 Abstract Paintings (Landscapes Of The Mind)In Search of Creativity #3 (Figure 30) is a follow-on to In Search of Creativity #1 and#2, which I painted for Peter Frost, professor of organizational behaviour at UBC, as a coverfor his book. Peter's book is about doing exemplary research, and he wanted to depict the ideaof creativity, freedom and open mindedness. We discussed his idea, and he showed me anIndian painting from approximately 1300 as an idea. This third version grew from the first two.After Peter had selected #1, I continued to work this painting out to completion. I learned from204this experience that it is extremely difficult to paint someone else's idea, and this one was forme.The Source (Figure 31) is my most recent painting, and is based on a dream or visionthat I experienced last year when I was camping in the mountains in Alberta. Interestingly, thesame energy forms in the sky of In Search of Creativity also appear in this painting. This workwas completed primarily with my left hand, although I am right handed.Panic #1 and #2 (Figures 32 and 33) are expressions of anxiety and panic...a landscapeof the mind in a state of fear.205Starving Child and Field of WheatFIGURE 9Relief206^FIGURE 13Portrait of a Starving Child #1FIGURE 10Portrait of a Starving Child #2FIGURE 11Portrait of A Starving Child #3FIGURE 12Mural of Starving Children Against AField of WheatFIGURE 14207Prisoner of Circumstance #2FIGURE 16208^Prisoner of Circumstance #1FIGURE 15Trains And Farms Are Going AwayFIGURE 17The Road HomeFIGURE 18Prairie Landscapes^ Mountain ReflectionsFIGURE 19^ FIGURE 20Calla Lilies #2FIGURE 23Two Calla Lilies #1FIGURE 24Two Calla Lilies #2FIGURE 25Calla LilyFIGURE 24Male Figure in a LandscapeFigure 22Female Figure in a LandscapeFIGURE 21211L.A. FireFIGURE 27PandaFIGURE 29Forest DiptychFIGURE 28212:411111111111111111111110Panic #1FIGURE 32 Panic #2FIGURE 33In Search of Creativity #3FIGURE 30The SourceFIGURE 31213214FijiFIGURE 35UBC LandscapeFIGURE 34.BIBLIOGRAPHYAbbey-Livingston, Diane, and Wiele, Bob, Working With Volunteer Boards: A Facilitator's Handbook,Ontario Ministry of Citizenship and Culture, Queen's Printer for Ontario, Toronto, 1983Adams, G. 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Paul, and Fortier, Andre, Review of Federal Policies For the Arts in Canada (1944 - 1988),Canadian Conference of the Arts, Ottawa, 1989Scheier, Ivan H., "Improving Volunteer Motivation Through Job Design," in Moore, Larry F.(ed.),Motivating Volunteers: How the Rewards of Unpaid Work Can Meet People's Needs, VancouverVolunteer Centre, 1985, p. 77-90Schindler-Rainman, Eva, and Lippitt, Ronald, The Volunteer Community: Creative Use of HumanResources, Center for a Voluntary Society, NTL Learning Resources Inc., Washington, D.C., 1971.Schram, Vicki R., "Motivating Volunteers to Participate," in Moore, Larry F., Motivating Volunteers: How the Rewards of Unpaid Work Can Meet People's Needs, Vancouver Volunteer Centre, 1985, p. 13 -31Scott, David H., "Museums To The Year 2000: Challenge And Response," Presented at the NewEngland Conference of the American Association of Museums, October 28, 1978.Scribner, Susan M., How to Ask for Money Without Fainting, Scribner and Associates, Long Beach,Ca., 1990Selby, Cecily Carman, "Better Performance From Nonprofits," Harvard Business Review, September-October, 1978, p. 92-98Setterberg, Fred, and Schulman, Kary, Beyond Profit: The Complete Guide to Managing The NonprofitOrganization, Harper and Row, Publishers, New York, 1985Shulman, Lawrence, Skills of Supervision and Staff Management, F.E. Peacock Publishers, Inc., Itasca,Illinois, 1982Smith, David Horton, "Altruism, Volunteers and Volunteerism," in Harriman, John D. (ed.),Volunteerism In The 80's: Fundamental Issues in Voluntary Action, University Press of America,Washington, D.C., 1982Smith, Gerald (Guest Ed.), ACE/ACIC Management Matters, Association of Cultural ExecutivesQuarterly Newsletter, Toronto, February 1993Smith, Stuart, "Technology And Its Impact on the Voluntary Sector," in A New Era For Voluntarism,Conference Proceedings of a Conference Held in Toronto, United Way, June 1 - 3, 1986222Sperling, Claudia A., Corporate Philanthropy Analysis and Recommendations at The Vancouver ArtGallery, UBC, Faculty of Graduate Studies, Graduating Essay, April 1991Stevenson, Sheila, "Balancing The Scales: Old Views And A New Muse," Muse, Spring 1987, p. 30Swann, Peter, "The Trouble With Canada's Museums," Muse, Canadian Museums Association, Spring1986Tepper, Leslie H. (ed.), Toward the 21st Century: New Direction For Canada's National Museums,Canadian Museum of Civilization, Hull, 1989Tolles, Bryant F. (ed.), Leadership For The Future, American Association for State and Local History,Nashville, Tennessee, 1991Tomasko, Robert M., "Restructuring: Getting it Right," Inside Guide, Skyword Marketing Ltd., Vol.6 No. 4, September/October 1992, p. 31-33Van Buren, Michael P., Reaching Out: America's Volunteer Heritage, W.K. Kellogg Foundation, BattleCreek, Michigan, 1990Vancouver Art Gallery Association, Annual Report 1992, Vancouver, B.C., 1992Wallace, Brenda, "Art Galleries and Canada Council Funding," Parachute, No. 43, June - August 1986,P. 40Warr, Peter B. (ed.), Psychology At Work, Penguin Books, Middlesex, England, 1976West, Andrew, "Museums And The Real World," Museums Journal, February 1990, p 24Wiggins, Caroline (ed.), "Holmes Alone," Artbeat, Young Associates of the Vancouver Art Gallery, Vol.2, No. 2, Spring 1992, p. 8Wolf, Thomas, Managing a Nonprofit Organization, Prentice Hall Press, New York, 1990Wry, Brann J., "The Trustee: The Ultimate Volunteer," The Journal Of Arts Management And Law,Vol. 17, No. 2, Summer 1987, p. 35-47Zytowski, Donald G. (ed.), Contemporary Approaches To Interest Measurement, University of MinnesotaPress, Minneapolis, 1973Zytowski, Donald G., Vocational Behaviour: Readings in Theory and Research, Holt, Rinehart andWinston, Inc., New York, 1968Zytowski, Donald G., Psychological Influences on Vocational Development, Houghton Muffin Company,Boston, 1970223APPENDICES224APPENDIX AVolunteer Management Certification Programs In CanadaAPPENDIX AVolunteer Management Certification Programs in CanadaVoluntary Sector Management ProgramGrant MacEwan Community CollegeEdmonton, AlbertaCertificate Course in Voluntary Sector and Arts ManagementYork UniversityToronto, OntarioNational Certification in Voluntary and Non-Profit Sector ManagementThe Canadian Centre for PhilanthropyOffered at:^Ryerson College^Simon Fraser UniversityToronto, Ontario Burnaby, British ColumbiaNon-Profit Sector Management Certification ProgramsVancouver Community CollegeVancouver, B.C.Volunteer Management Certificate ProgramCamosun CollegeVictoria, B.C.Certification CAVH (Certified Administrator of Volunteer Services in Healthcare)Montreal, QuebecVolunteer Leadership Development ProgramThe United Way of Greater Victoria,Victoria, B.C.226APPENDIX BVancouver Art Gallery Five Year Plan227THEVANCOUVER ART GALLERYASSOCIATIONAdopted: April 14, 1988228TABLE OF CONTENTSPAGEI INTRODUCTION 1II OVERVIEW 2A. Fundamental Values 2B. Environment 2C. Elements Critical for Success 3D. Our Mission 3E. Goals 3III THE LONG RANGE PLAN 4A. Mission Statement 4B. Goals, Objectives and Strategies 4C. Strategies and Actions 9229INTRODUCTIONThe Vancouver Art Gallery's Long Range Plan presented in this document has evolved overseveral months of deliberation and consultation by the Long Range Planning Committee. ThisCommittee, comprising Laing Brown, Ken Cross, Geoff Day, Chris Dikeakos., WillardHolmes, Gerald McGavin, Doris Shadbolt and Carole Taylor, was charged by the VancouverArt Gallery Board of Trustees, at its July 1987 meeting, with developing a report which wouldarticulate the Gallery's sense of purpose and outline the goals and principal objectives to whichit was prepared to commit itself over the coming years.Under the direction of its Chairman, Gerald McGavin, the Committee began identifying theGallery's "stakeholders": that is, those who have an interest or "stake" in the Vancouver ArtGallery. Potential stakeholders include the various levels of government (federal, provincialand civic), and their agencies which fund the Gallery, its staff, the Board, volunteers,members, artists, donors, the museum and academic communities, and its audience. TheVancouver Art Gallery's Long Range Plan recognizes that it is critical that the Gallery meet theneeds of its stakeholders in order to enjoy continued success.The entire Long Range Plan presented here reflects what the Committee feels are the sharedvalues and characteristics critical to the Vancouver Art Gallery's success as a vital andrespected cultural institution.As well, it reflects the Committee's views of the paths we must travel to have collections,exhibitions, programmes and services which fulfill the Mission Statement's ambition that theGallery "..contribute locally, regionally and internationally to the evolution of living culture."The process which the Committee has followed in developing this Long Range Plan has addedimmeasurable strength to the Gallery by providing a forum for discussion, criticism andrenewal of our sense of purpose and direction over the coming years.230OVERVIEWThis report provides an overview of the Vancouver Art Gallery's values, the environment weoperate in and the critical success factors that we must achieve. From these we have developedthe Mission Statement and the key goals. These state the essence of the Gallery's values andaspirations and the direction we must take to ensure our future success.A. FUNDAMENTAL VALUESThe values embodied in the Mission Statement and articulated in the LongRange Plan are few in number but of essential importance to be conveyed to allof the Vancouver Art Gallery's stakeholders. Simply stated, the values are:* Pride in our collections, exhibitions, programmes, staff and facility;* Leadership and innovation in encouraging an interest in, andunderstanding of, art and its purposes;* Commitment to the highest standards of scholarship andprofessionalism.B. ENVIRONMENTThe primary goal of environmental analysis is to identify areas of opportunityfor the Gallery. It is the Gallery's goal to focus itself on those opportunitiesand to identify our own weaknesses in order to eliminate or lessen them. Theissues identified below provide opportunities and challenges to the VancouverArt Gallery.* Our communities are becoming increasingly multi-cultural.* Our communities are questioning many fundamental assumptionsabout the role of art and art institutions in the establishment ofcultural values.* The degree of government support for art galleries and museums andcultural services in general is not at the level of ten to fifteen yearsago.* The Vancouver Art Gallery occupies a place of prime importance inthe geographical heart of downtown Vancouver.231C. ELEMENTS CRITICAL FOR SUCCESSIt is apparent from the planning process that several essential elements arecritical for the success of the Vancouver Art Gallery over the coming years.Accordingly, the Gallery's efforts must be constantly directed towards:* Establishing significant collections of contemporary art reflectingnational and international activities, as well as historical art from thisregion;* Organizing and presenting critically successful and innovativeexhibitions and programmes;*Recruiting, training and providing opportunities for achievement byGallery personnel;* Establishing and maintaining a community interest with our membersand public;* Positioning ourselves in the centre of cultural life in Vancouver;* Communicating effectively with all of our stakeholders.D. OUR MISSIONThe Long Range Plan is developed from the Vancouver Art Gallery's MissionStatement which states the essence of the Gallery's aspirations:"The Vancouver Art Gallery exists to serve the many purposesof art. As a public institution, aware of the essential role artplays in shaping and clarifying culture, the Gallery pursues thisgoal through the highest quality collections, exhibitions,programmes and the services of its personnel.The focus of these pursuits is contemporary in the convictionthat through such a focus on visual art, the Gallery cancontribute locally, regionally, nationally and internationally tothe evolution of a living culture."E. GOALSDuring the evolution of the Long Range Plan, we identified four areas in whichgoals should be established and on which we felt strategies could be built.Achieving these goals will enable the Gallery to fulfill its mission.1. ServicesTo be a leading Gallery through the quality of our collections,exhibitions and public programmes.2. PeopleTo have a critically respected staff and capable and committed Trusteesand volunteers.3. LeadershipTo be a vital and relevant centre of visual arts in this region.4. Fiscal ResponsibilityTo be a soundly managed organization having balanced support fromthe private sector and government which allows expansion andelaboration of collections, exhibitions and public programmes.32 37THE LONG RANGE PLANThe Long Range Plan includes the Mission Statement, goals, objectives and strategies that arenecessary to chart the Vancouver Art Gallery's course. .A. MISSION STATEMENT"The Vancouver Art Gallery exists to serve the many purposesof art. As a public institution, aware of the essential role artplays in shaping and clarifying culture, the Gallery pursues thisgoal through the highest quality collections, exhibitions,programmes and the services of its personnel.The focus of these pursuits is contemporary in the convictionthat through such a focus on visual art, the Gallery cancontribute locally, regionally, nationally and internationally tothe evolution of a living culture."B. GOALS, OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIESDuring the planning process, four areas were identified on which to buildstrategies. Achieving our goals in these areas will fulfill the Vancouver ArtGallery's mission.1. Services2. People3. Leadership4. Fiscal Responsibility233VANCOUVER ART GALLERYGOALS, OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIESPGOAL:To have a critically respected staff and capableand conunitted Trustees and volunteers.f • P75+-nr77.7OBJECTIVE:To have staff who are critically respected forprofessionalism and who are actively engag-ed in the community.OBJECTIVE:To have a Board of Trustees which is capable of,and committed to, actively supporting and promot-ing the Vancouver Art Gallery's goals throughsignificant contribution of financial support andexpertise.OBJECTIVE:To have a corps of volunteers which is capable of andcommitted to, actively supporting and promotingthe Vancouver Art Gallery through their activities.STRATEGY:The Gallery will make every effort to retain andattract the beet qualified personnel committed tothe Gallery'sSTRATEGY:Trustees will be recruited who have demonstrateda significant participation in the cultural life of thecity and region, and who are willing to commitresources and expertise to the Galleryb RATEGY:Volunteers will be attracted who are willing toprovide meaningful participation in the Gallery'sactivities234VANCOUVER ART GALLERYGOALS, OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIESTo be a leading Gallery through thequality of our collections, exhibitionsand public programmes.IOBJECTIVE:To deuelop one of the mostsignificant collections of contemperary art inCanada.OBJECTIVE:To develop a significant and variedexhibitions programmeOBJECTIVE:To develop innoustiue approachesto the elucidation of arts purposes and valuesthrough public programmes.STRATEGY:This will be accomplished by establishinga collection of contemporary national andinternational art while recognizing thehistorical diversity of art in this region.This will be supported by our efforts to MEthe collection known to the public and thenational and international art communitieiSTRATEGY:This will be accomplished by presenting avaried programme of exhibitions focusedon international, Canadian and regionalcontemporary art and supported by histor-ical exhibitions. As with the collections,the Gallery will strive to make theseexhibitions known to the Gallery's variouspublics.STRATEGY:This will be achieved by initiating innovatiupublic programmes and educational activitiwhich recognize (and are genuinely responiue to the needs of) the wide variety of pithwhich make up the Vancouver Art Gellery'saudience: programmes which encourage acontinuing relationship with the Gallery.235VANCOUVER ART GALLERYGOALS,, OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIEStt0.40.0.:GOAL:To be a vital and relevant centre of visualarts in this region.OBJECTIVE:To increase accessibility and make membership andparticipation in the Vancouver Art Gallery desirableto a wide spectrum of the public.OBJECTIVE:To make full use of the premises of the Vancouver ArtGallery, enabling it to become a vital and relevantcentre of cultural life in Vancouver.OBJECTIVE:To be a provincial and regional centre of knowledgeand excellence in the visual arta and art museum fielcLThe Vancouver Art Gallery feels a fundamental oblige-don to increase its activities in areas outside of the LowerMainland- As the major collecting and exhibiting institu-tion in British Columbia, the Gallery acknowledges thatthrough its assistance to and support of visual art through-out the PirvvinGe, contemporary art as well as the heritageof this region will be strengthened.STRATEGY:The Vancouver Art Gallery will broaden the Gallery'sspectrum of membership and attendance from thepopulation in Vancouver and the regionSTRATEGY:The Gallery will continually reassess its use of thecurrent facility to ensure its maximum utilizationSTRATEGY:The Vancouver Art Gallery will establish a leadershiprole in British Columbia and the regional museumcommunity236VANCOUVER ART GALLERYGOALS , OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES FISCALRESPO.GOAL:To be a soundly managed organization havingbalanced support from the private sector andgovernment which allows expansion andelaboration of collections, exhibitions and publicprogrammes.OBJECTIVE:^ STRATEGY:To develop * soundly managed organization. The Gallery will establish consistent and realisticfinancial targets for a 3 - 5 year funding cycles andwill conduct appropriate monitoring. There will bedear responsibility and co-ordination of financialplanning with a direct linkage between operationsand programme budgeting and fund raisingactivities. Importantly, we must improve self-generated revenues and control costs with a goalof operating deficit-freeOBJECTIVE:^ STRATEGY:The Gallery will pursue various innovativeapproaches to individuals, corporate bodies andfoundationsOBJECTIVE:^ 3TRATEGY:To obtain balanced financial support all levels of government The Vancouver Art Gallery will erpand its baseof financial support to include other governmentagencies by using a craative approach to fund raisingTo obtain significant financial support from all segmentsof the private sector.237C. STRATEGIES AND ACTIONSConverting the Gallery's selected strategies into actions requires focusedplanning and implementation at every level of the Vancouver Art Gallery. Overthe last few months, we have identified many important specific actionsnecessary to be taken if the Gallery is to fulfill its mission and achieve itsgoals. The list which follows is not all-inclusive and should not be viewed asa constraint on the Gallery's future ability to adapt to changing circumstances.They are a reference tool only for developing detailed action plans and prioritieswhich can be periodically examined to monitor progress and confirmedcontinued relevance.1.Services2. People3. Leadership4. Fiscal ResponsibilitySuccessful implementation of these actions will require focused planning andeffective execution at every level of the Vancouver Art Gallery. Priorities,resource allocations and execution must capitalize on, and be consistent with,the work done to date in the Long Range Planning Committee.9238VANCOUVER ART GALLERYSTRATEGIES AND ACTIONS,i$FIRVICEGOAL:To be a kading Gallery through the qualityof our collections, exhibitknot and publicprogrammes.STRATEGY:Establish a collection of contemporary nationaland international art.STRATEGY:Make the collection known to the public and thenational and international art communities. •STRATEGY:Present a varied programme of exhibitions focusedon international, Canadian and regional contemporaryart and supported by historical exhibitions.STRATEGY:Initiate innovative public programmes and educationalactivities.ACTIONS:- Employ full curatorial staff- Employ conservator;• Establish full data base on collections;- Develop a five year acquisitions,donations and de-accessioning planwith specific targetsACTIONS:- Display significant works in long terminstallations;• Publish selected catalogue of permanentcollection;- Promote exchanges with other museums.- Develop publications and communicationsprogrammeACTIONS:- Employ full curatorial staft.• Define focus and establish long rangeexhibitions plan reflecting desired balance;- Identify strengths of in-house personneland organize exhibitions based on theirexPertige;- Contract with scholars and experts toorganize exhibitions in other fields;• Co-organize exhibitions with other institutionsACTIONS:- Identify strengths of existing staff and planprofessional development and recruitment;- Provide direction bnd resources for volunteers;• Professionalize doc..*at programme;- Establish links and communicate with othercultural organizations, educational institutions,professional associations, and community andneighbourhood associations239VANCOUVER ART GALLERYSTRATEGIES AND ACTIONSGOAL:To have a critically respected staff and capableand committed Trustees and volunteers. STRATEGY:Retain and attract the best qualified personnel.STRATEGY:Recruit trustees who have demonstrated a significantparticipation in the cultural life of the city and region,and who are willing to committ resources and expertiseto the Gallery.ACTIONS:- Employ full curatorial staff and reorganizeadministrative structure;- Provide opportunity, support and recognition forstaff to excel;- Provide support for professional development andrecognition for excellence and achievement;- Identify Gallery's goals in clear and specific terms;- Articulate the Gallery's goals in dear and specificterms for each division, department and positionACTIONS:- Provide regular "retreat" or workshop for newBoard with senior staff;- Provide Trustees' Handbook;- Establish public recognition of Board's contributionSTRATEGY:Attract volunteers who are willing to provide meaningfulparticipation in the Gallery's activities.ACTIONS:- Conduct volunteer study;- Employ volunteer co-ordinator;- Establish public recognition of volunteer'scontribution240LEADERSHIPGOAL:To be a vital and relevant centre of visualarts in this region.STRATEGY:^ ACTIONS:VANCOUVER ART GALLERYSTRATEGIES AND ACTIONSBroaden the spectrum of membership and attendancefrom the population in Vancouver and the region.• Promote the Vancouver Art Gallery's resources,exhibitions and programmes;- Reassess Gallery opening hours and admissioncharges;- Provide some tours and services in languages °thethan English;• Increase attention to family programmes;• Establish advisory committees with representa-tives of new audiencesACTIONS:• Reorganize exhibition halls;- Monitor and improve services such as the Bookstore,library, and Restaurant;- Expand library to include archives section;- Study options for auditorium space;- Study potential of perm anent print and drawingstudy room and gallery;- Make use of building exterior and grounds inexhibition programmeACTIONS:- Study needs and wants of B.C. museum/gallerycommunity;- Have staff travel in region;• Establish internship programme with regionalinstitutions;- Initiate cooperative ventures, hoot regionalconferences, special interest group meetingsSTRATEGY:Reassess use of the current facility to ensure its maximumutilization.STRATEGY:Establish a leadership role in British Columbia and theregional museum community.241VANCOUVER ART GALLERYSTRATEGIES AND ACTIONSAL RESPONSEBFLITIYGOAL:To be a soundly managed organization havingbalanced support front the private sector andgovernment which allows expansion andelaboration of collections, exhibitions and publicprogrammes.STRATEGY:Establish consistent and realistic financial targetsfor a 3 - 5 year funding cycles and conduct appropriatemonitoring.STRATEGY:Pursue various innovative approaches toindividuals, corporate bodies and foundations. ,STRATEGY:Expand the base of financial support from alllevels of government.ACTIONS:- Set targets;- Monitor performance;- Improve self generated revenues from buildingrentals, restaurant and shopACTIONS:- Broaden number of fundraisers;- Broaden base of corporate sponsorship;- Increase membership;- Mount effective annual private sector fund drive;- Develop plans for new fund raising opportunitiesACTIONS:- Develop plans for new fundraising opportunities;- Broaden base of all government sponsorship242VOLUNTEER COMMITTEE TO THEVANCOUVER ART GALLERYMISSION STATEMENTTHE VOLUNTEER COMMITTEE TO THE VANCOUVER ART GALLERY EXISTS TOSUPPORT AND PROMOTE THE INTERESTS OF THE VANCOUVER ART GALLERY.OUR OBJECTIVESEXPANSION -- To expand and further develop all areas of the Volunteer CommitteeINCREASE VOLUNTEER MEMBERSHIP- To increase volunteer membership through publicity and special eventsSOUND LEADERSHIP- To ensure sound leadership through an effective volunteer boardVOLUNTEER MANAGEMENT- To be more professional in the area of volunteer managementFUNDRAISING PROGRAMMES- To establish more effective fundraising programmesSUPPORT SERVICES- To offer improved support services to the GalleryEDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES- To offer more educational opportunities for volunteers and the public243750 HORNBY STREET, VANCOUVFR RPrricu11 1 1 111 1^1 1 11 1 11 1VOLUNTEER COMMITTEE TO THEVANCOUVER ART GALLERYPURPOSES OF THE VOLUNTEER COMMITTEE TO THE VANCOUVER ART GALLERYa) To support and promote the interests and undertakingsof the Vancouver Art Gallery Associationb) To operate in accordance with the policy of VancouverArt Gallery Associationc) To foster the cultural interest in the community anddevelop a public awareness in the Arts244750 HORNBY STREET, VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA V6Z 2H7^TEL: (604) 682-4464^FAX- 1rM l CO1 Inn,APPENDIX CCodes For Educational Abilities, andPhysical Demands in Table VI245Appendix CCodes For Educational Abilities, and Physical Demands in Table VI1Educational Level1. Apply common sense understanding to carry out simple one and two step instruction;perform addition and subtraction, copy accurately; take oral instruction/make oralrequests.2. Apply common sense to problems with uninvolved but detailed instruction, use fourarithmetic operations.3. Apply common sense understandings, carry out instruction, solve problems involvingdecimals, fractions, percentages; comprehend and express to a level to be a clerk, guide,etc.4. Apply a system, such as bookkeeping, ship sailing, etc., solve practical problems;perform math as complex as algebra; read, interview, etc.5. Apply principles, interpret extensive technical instructions, and deal with abstract andconcrete variables.6. Highest level of development, requires ability to apply principles, analyze, synthesize,deal with symbolic concepts.Education Length1. Short demonstration only. 5. From 6 months to 1 year.2. Between short demonstration and 6. From 1 to 2 years.30 days. 7. More than 2, up to 4 years.3. From 30 days to 6 months. 8. Between 5 and 10 years.4. From 3 to 6 months. 9. More than 10 years.AbilitiesG.^Intelligence, general learning ability.V.^Verbal ability -- understand words and use language effectively.N.^Numerical -- perform arithmetic quickly and accurately.S.^Spatial -- comprehend forms in space.P. For Perception -- see detail and make judgments of differences in shape, shading, line,size, etc.Q. Clerical perception -- perceive pertinent detail.K.^Motor Coordination -- coordinate eyes, and hands and fingers.F.^Finger Dexterity -- manipulate small objects with fingers.M.^Manual Dexterity -- work with hands in placing and turning motions.E.^Eye-hand-foot Coordination - move hand and foot in accordance with visual information.Source: Zytowski, Donald G., Psychological Influences on Vocational Development, HoughtonMifflin and Company, Boston, 1970, p. 37.246C.^Colour Discrimination -- abilities to discriminate differences in colours and shades.Ability Levels1. Top 10 percent of the population.2. Between highest third and top 10 percent.3. The middle third of the population.4. Lowest third, except for lowest 10 percent.5.^Lowest 10 percent of the population.Physical Demands, LevelS.^Sedentary -- mostly seat work, occasionally lifting up to 10 lbs.L. Light -- lifting up to 20 lbs., or frequent lifting, carrying of 10 lbs. or less.M. Medium -- lifting up to 50 lbs. occasionally, or regular lifting of up to 25 lbs.H.^Heavy -- lifting up to 100 lbs. occasionally, or regular lifting of up to 50 lbs.V.^Very Heavy -- lifting objects over 100 lbs., or frequent lifting and carrying of more than50 lbs.Physical Demands, Type1. Lifting, carrying, pushing and/or pulling.2. Climbing and/or balancing.3. Stooping, kneeling, fingering and/or feeling.4. Reaching, handling, fingering and/or feeling.5. Talking and/or hearing.6. Seeing.APPENDIX DTIME STANDS STILL FLYER248APPENDIX ECANADA COUNCIL GRANT APPLICATION249Judith Mastai1.^Person responsible for project:^ SurnameGiven names (underline initials or names normally used)Address in Canada:^Apt no^Street addressCityVancouverProvince^ Postal code1^B . C . V6H 2A9Home telephone Business telephone 2. Year of birth (optional)I (  I 19453. Citizenship status:^ Canadian Citizen^ Landed immigrantn since 194. Present occupation or activity:Cultural WorkerThis form it is for individualsand groups only. Pleaserefer to the Guidelines on thefacing page before complet-ing the form. All informationmust be typed or clearlyprinted in black ink so thatit will photocopy clearlyExplorations ProgramGrant ApplicationThe Canada Council5.^Co-applicant(s), If applicable:Name^ SurnameMorris PanychHome telephone^ Business telephoneI( Name^ SurnameDennis I FoonHome telephone^ Business telephone^ ( 6. Previous applications:If you or your co-applicant(s) have previously applied or are presently applying for assistance to the Canada Council please state under what name.year, and program:Mastai^1986^ExplorationsFoon 1992^Short Term Grant1989^B GrantPanych^1991^B Grant7. Appraisers whom you have approached:Name^ Area of expertiseLarry Lillo^ I TheatreAddress Telephone^I Name^ Area of expertiseLinda Milrod^ I Visual ArtsAddress^ Telephone^ (Name^ Area of expertiseDolly Hopkins^ I Street Performance Address Telephone  I s.^Title of project:Three Interventions for Day Without Art9.^Number of months for which assistance is desired:^ months^beginning(maximum 9 months after announcement date of grant)^2 ^October 1, 1992250Application10. Summary of project (use only the space provided):This project will be a collaboration amongst a group of artists whose personalexperiences of the trauma associated with AIDS have galvanized them to envisionwork which begins to approach the scale of the crisis. The suffering that has beenendured by individuals has created communities, often silent. This project seeksto organize activities for that community - to mourn and to demonstrate theirsolidarity. The goal of the project is to provide formats for people to gather andto share their feelings, thoughts and ideas through action. As part of a largernumber of activities being planned by institutions in Vancouver for the Day WithoutArt (December 1), this group seeks to develop and implement large-scale inter-ventions (known as art in public places) involving artists as citizens of the widercommunity, together with people from many walks of life, who are anxious to be heard,to have their losses remembered and to seek acknowledgement of the world-wide crisisof this disease.11. Detailed project description (attach additional sheets if needed)The objectives of the project are: to develop and produce three interdisciplinaryperformance interventions for Day Without Art (DWA), December 1, which is also WorldAIDS Day; to involve many citizens with artists; and to raise awareness of the needfor action and education about AIDS as well as seeking acknowledgement for the griefwhich many feel who are themselves afflicted or who have relatives and friends withAIDS or are HIV positive.The innovations which we are attempting in this project are interdisciplinary. Welook forward to stretching our present levels of skill and knowledge in three ways:by shifting the scale of presentation„ to use the city as the stage; by developingforms which will allow for the participation of hundreds of people; and, for thewriters especially, to develop non-verbal formats, in collaboration with visualartists.All three interventions will take place on December 1st. The first has the workingtitle: "Time Stands Still" and refers metaphorically to interrupted lives. A verylarge number of people, including artists and members of organizations such asPersons With AIDS, as well as any citizens who would like to take part by respondingto advertised calls for participation, will stage the first intervention at 12 noonon Tuesday, December 1.Initially, an organizational meeting will be called to outline the plan and, throughadvertising and wort-of-mouth, we hope that at least 100 persons will participate.These people, in all sorts of "ordinary" dress, will "freeze" for one minute in themiddle of a planned walk on the busy daytime streets. We would like to arrange forthe horn which sounds from the top of the B.C. Hydro building at noon to be programmedto blow twice that day, if possible - once at noon and once a minute later to givethe illusion that a minute has vanished, extending the metaphor of the life which hasbeen abruptly stopped, mid-way.The second intervention will be a parade of light and image at twilight on December 1stinvolving anyone who would like to participate. A series of weekend workshops will beadvertised and held at community locations in different parts of the city in the weeksleading up to December 1st. At these open workshops, people will be able to preparea "portrait" of a loved one lost to AIDS, with the assistance of trained art educators.These will be made to be hand-held and could be snapshots, collages, objects,drawings, banners, or whatever. They will also be given a hanging device as, atthe end of the parade, the marchers will proceed to the Annex Gallery of theVancouver Art Gallery where their portraits will be hung and remain on display fora week.It is our hope that the third intervention will take place in the middle of everyperformance in the city on the evening of Tuesday, December 1st. With the assistanceof the Vancouver Cultural Alliance and by prior arrangement with local companiesand announcements in programs and through flyers, every performing arts activity -music, dance and theatre - will be interrupted (for instance, to observe a minuteof silence) in honour of those who have been affected by AIDS.Application12.^Prolect timetable:Jan-Sept '92Sept '92Oct 17-Nov 28Nov 2 - Nov 7• Nov 29.'92City-wide planning team meets to discuss many projects for DayWithout Art for VancouverProject team for "interventions" meets to establish projectlogistics under Judith Mastai. Publicity plan presented forimplementation by C. Duclos.'92 Saturday portrait workshops in 6 community locations, in co-operatiwith the Parks Board and community organizations. S. Rome andR. MacDonald will organize workshops and hire art educators.'92 First organizational meeting for participants in "Time Stands Stillorganized by M. Panych, D. loon and P. MacDonald.D. Foon and J. Mastai work with Vancouver Cultural Alliance to setup meetings with performing arts organizations to organizeinterruptions to performances on December 1.Final organizational meeting for "Time Stands Still" ?,,PO&Aeid^egins13.^Give a brief outline of any work done y others whic , in your opinio c se yrintend to use it:ClThe group's research (see attachments in Appendix 1) included investigatingcollaborations between theatre workers and visual artists doing large-scale streetwork such as Vancouver's Public Dreams, the Bread and Puppet Theatre, the SanFrancisco Mime Troupe and the work of Rosa Marquez and Antonio Martorell from PuertoRico. We also looked at projects especially about AIDS such as playwright MichaelMcMillan's residency in Newcastle and the work of Gran Fury in New York (of whichDonald Moffat is a member). After considering inviting some of these people hereto provide leadership, we decided to develop the project on our own for a numberof reasons. First, we found Gran Fury's projects too confrontational forordinary citizens to participate. Marquez and Martorell's projects are built verysimply and involve non-artists, but appeared to us "simplistic" when we saw the videothey sent us. We liked the more experimental, "rough and ready" feel of early Breadand Puppet work and felt that we could create a project ourselves well-suited tothe needs. We decided that we know Vancouver as well as anyone could and, together,we had all the skills and desire to collaborate to create something unique to ourcity and our times.14.^Please attach a personal résumé or give any data, such as past experience or achievements which relate to the work proposed:See attached curriculum vitae for the three principals.252Administrative services donated Fc-1^n 1 5,000 estimated valueFl ^Inestimable valueri^riVolunteer participationApplication15. How will your proposed work be made accessible to the public? If any commitments have been made by a producer. distributor. exhibitor. orpublisher. etc.. please specify:As these projects will be realized in public places in various locations throughoutthe city and involve the participation of hundreds of people who may self-selectthemselves by responding to publicity, the projects will be very accessible.Participation is completely open to anyone who wants to be involved. As well,community workshops will facilitate participation by non-artists and willhopefully serve as a means to inform people in various parts of the city. The workdisplayed at the Vancouver Art Gallery is in the Annex Gallery, a place that onemay visit without paying an admission fee.16. What steps have you taken to seek other forms of assistance. technical help or services-in-kind for your project? Please attach any relevantdocumentation:It is extremely difficult to assess all of the in-kind services we will use.As the project team have affiliations with many organizations and institutions,we will be receiving administrative support and in-kind services, such asphotocopying, use of telephones, clerical support, transportation and the like.As the project's success depends on voluntary participation, we will seekto involve community organizations and civic institutions, including groupsin the existing AIDS awareness, prevention and support network, as the projectmembers have broad affiliations.17.^Project Budget SummaryAmount requested from Explorations $ 3,500Anticipated revenue from other sourcesSource^ In ^Being sought $Core personnel services donated^r7,1 pi 12,000 estimated valuen^n iTotal anticipated revenue from other sources $117,000 +Total cost of project(This total should equal the sum of amount requested from Explorations and the anticipated revenue from other sources)1 20,500 +Name^ Work to be performed^ Monthly Period of$ rate^employmentCo-ordifiator^Stage manage events on Dec. 1st^1 monthplus prior and follow-up mtgs part timeand logistics^ honar rium $ 1, 000Workshop Leaders @ $150/day^ honor rium 6X150^900Sub-total 1,900q) Travel-related expensesDescription (mode, places, duration. etc.)^$ RateWorkshop materialsPublicity/Mailing Cost3$ 5001,100Grant requested (totals of a. b. c and d)19.^I certify that to trte best of My knMay 14, 1992Date^ SignatuVe f person responsible or the project^Co-applicant - if applicable3,50018.^List of expenses to be covered by the Explorations programa) Subsistence allowanceName No. of^Monthlymonths $ raleSub-totalb) Other personnel costsSub-totalc) MiscellaneousDescription (materials, rentals, photocopying, etc.)^$ RateSub-total^1,600254APPENDIX FPRESS COVERAGE OF DAY WITHOUT ARTTime stands stilloutside the VAGTime will stand still indowntown Vancouver today.Exactly at noon, 250 Van-couver artists and performersare set to freeze in their tracksin the four blocks surroundingthe Vancouver Art Gallery.The participants will remainstock still for a minute amidthe crowds of rushing shoppers.At the same time bannerswill drop down the sides of thegallery to let the people knowthat AIDS affects everyone inVancouver.The bit of street theatre,Time Stands Still, is part of thefourth annual Day WithoutArt, in which North Americanartists draw attention to theloss of artistic and creativetalent to AIDS.— Peter Wilson11/44 4004/4/ $54,4%.,^744.81 . bet.. 1/42-THE GEORGIA STRAIGHT + NOVEMBER 13-20, 1992 31>- Just AnnouncedSTREET ACTION As part of Day Without Art, Inconjunction with World AIDS Day, 250 Vancouverartists and performers win participate In an actioncalled 'Time Stands Stir on the streets surrcundinithe Vancouver Art Gallery. Event devised andcoordinated by Morris Panych, Ken MacDonald,Dennis Foon, and Patricia LaNauze. Dec 1, noon,Vancouver Art Gartery(750 Homby). Info 251.2006Vancouver's free Arts Notilne provides up-to-clatfInformation on professional theatre, dance, music,opera, museums and visual-art eldlibitrons. Dap884-ARTS.256Day ,without^screen, streetDay without Art takes it to the peopleLike the loop Of red ribbon, the bay WithOtii Art is a U.S. groundswell response to theAIDS crisis that has caught on internationally'. Some galleries in Vancouver have been observ-ing the day (Dec. 1st) for years, but events connected with it have grown until we can nowwatch Canada Council Explorations funds being spent on public manifestations of concerit -abOut AIDS.'Parade: On Saturday NoVember 28, Dolly Hopkins and the Public Dreams Society will lead'scommunity parade to celebrate the lives of people with AIDS The public is invited to parr::ticipate in this downtown procession. Assembly begins at 1200 noon in front of the Georgiaentrance to the Vancouver Art Gallery, with the parade starting at 1230.Advance workshops are 'Offered free at the Gallery (November 7), West End CommunityCentre (November 14), and Biittenia Community Centre (November 21) for members of thepublic to create portraits Of friends or family members to carry in the parade, Supplies ireprovided. Preregistration for the Saturday noon-4PM workshops is requested. Call 6824668.VideosArtists' videos on the challenges facing people with AIDS will be screened from 1-5PMon Sunday, November 29th at Pacific Cinematheque. For more info, call 682-4668,Street Action^•^-Op the Day without Art, Tuesday Dec. 1, 250 Vancouver artists and fperfon-ners will par-ticipate in an action called Time Stands Stir' on the streets surrounding the Vancouver Art Gal-lery at noon. At the same moment, hundreds of people in the four blocks surrounding theGallery will freeze in their tracks and remain stock still for a minute among the rushingcrowds of shoppers and office workers. Banners will be dropped from the Gallery to put theaction in the context of the Day without Art. Participant's in the action are being sought by theorganizing group of Morris Panych, Ken MacDonald, Dennis Foon, and Patricia LaNauze. In-terested people should call 251-2006.TheatreTwo public performances of Morris Panych's mixed media piece Cost of Living will begiven at the Vancouver Art Gallery, Dec. 3 at 7:30 PM, and December 5 at 2:00 PM. Admis-sion is by donation; suggested suitability for ages 12+. This award winning piece deals with ateen's first awareness of AIDS.Dome AdsA separate Canada Council grant is still under consideration for another Day Without Artevent. If approval comes in time, the electronic sign at B.C. Place Stadium will carry artist-designed AIDS-awareness graphics for the month of Decemller amongst the usual corporateadvertising. The designs are already done, and if funding comes through the material will becryptic and surprising to its drive-by audience audienceUNITY CO IT ENU71 p ro!)atiQUCe tt ur SVANCOUVER WORLD AIDS DAY ACTIVITIESPacific Cinemathequre will feature artists' videos on the challenges facing people with AIDS.Sunday, November 29th, 1 -5 pm, Pacific Cinematheque.The Vancouver World AIDS Group (VWAG) is pleased to present this evening of art, designand AIDS Awareness. Vancouver is one of the lucky destinations of the "round the world"exhibition of AIDS awareness posters from almost every country. Also on display, VWAG'scontribution to the exhibition, Vancouver artist Richard Tetraults' World AIDS Day poster.Speakers (individuals tba) representing the Chinese, Latin American and First Nations com-munities will be on hand.November 30th to December 3rd, 840 Howe Street.Part of "Day without Art" includes the artists initiated project "Time Stands Still". Over onethousand Vancouver artists and performers will participate on the streets surrounding theVancouver Art Gallery. Participants will all freeze at the sound of the noon bell for oneminute, amid the rush of noon-hour traffic in that area.Tuesday, December 1st, Noon, outside Vancouver Art GalleryMorris Panych's mixed media, award winning piece "Cost of Living" will take place at theVancouver Art Gallery "Cost of Living" deals with a teen's first awareness of AIDS. Admis-sion by donation.Thursday, December 3rd, 7:30 pm and December 5th, 2 pm.For more information, call: Kellie Benz, AIDS Vancouver, 893-2210258APPENDIX GDAY WITHOUT ART FLYERS259DAY WITHOUT ARTThe theme of this years World AIDS Day is"AIDS: A Community Commitment" and onceagain the Vancouver Art Gallery viii be joining withhundreds of other local, national, andinternational arts organizations and communitygroups to recognize DAY WITHOUT ART onDecember 1, 1992.The purpose of this observance is to celebratethe achievements and lives of colleagues andfriends— and at the same time mourn the lossessustained by creative communities due to theAIDS pandemic. With the assistance of theCanada Council Explorations Program, the publicis invited to participate in the following project:A Community ParadeDolly Hopkins and the Public Dreams Society willlead a community parade to celebrate the lives ofpeople with AIDS on Saturday, November28. Everyone is invited to participate in thisdowntown procession. Assembly begins at12:00 noon in front of the Georgia Streetentrance to the Gallery, with the parade starting at12:30.Advance workshopsYou are invited to prepare for the parade byattending one of three advance workshops tocreate a portrait of a friend or family member tocarry in the parade. No previous artexperience Is necessary . Communityportrait workshops will be held on Saturdays from12:00-4:00 pm on:November 7 (Vancouver Art Gallery)November 14 (West End Community Centre)November 21 (Brittania Community Centre)Admission to the workshops is free, however pre-registration is requested by calling PublicProgrammes at the Vancouver Art Gallery12 682-4668. Supplies will be provided.We gratefully acknowledge the assistanceof the Canada Council Explorations Program.Special thanks to Ken MacDonald.AR1111117)VANCOUVER ART GALLERYDAY WITHOUT ARTThe theme of this years World AIDS Day is"AIDS: .4 Community Commitment' and onceagain the Vancouver Art Gallery will be joining withhundreds of other local, national, andinternational arts organizations and communitygroups to recognize DAY WITHOUT ART onDecember 1, 1992.The purpose of this observance is to celebratethe achievements and lives of colleagues andfriends— and at the same time mourn the tossessustained by creative communities due to theAIDS pandemic. With the assistance of theCanada Council Explorations Program, the publicis invited to participate in the following project:A Community ParadeDolly Hopkins and the Public Dreams Society willlead a community parade to celebrate the lives ofpeople with AIDS on Saturday, November28. Everyone is invited to participate in thisdowntown procession. Assembly begins at12:00 noon in front of the Georgia Streetentrance to the Gallery, with the parade starting at12:30.Advance workshopsYou are invited to prepare for the parade byattending one of three advance workshops tocreate a portrait of a friend or family member tocarry in the parade. No previous artexperience Is necessary . Communityportrait workshops will be held on Saturdays from12:00-4:00 pm on:November 7 (Vancouver Art Gallery)November 14 (West End Community Centre)November 21 (Brittania Community Centre)Admission to the workshops is free, however pre-registration is requested by calling PublicProgrammes at the Vancouver Art Gallery11 682-4668. Supplies will be provided.We gratefully acknowledge the assistanceof the Canada Council Explorations Program.Special thanks to Ken MacDonald.11111 III^11111111VANCOUVER ART GALLERYDAY WITHOUT ARTThe theme of this year's World AIDS Day is "AIDS: A Community Commitment'and once again the Vancouver Art Gallery will be joining with hundreds of otherlocal, national, and international arts organizations and community groups torecognize DAY WITHOUT ART on December 1, 1992.The purpose of this observance is to celebrate the achievements and lives ofcolleagues and friends -- and at the same time to mourn the losses sustained bycreative communities due to the AIDS pandemic. With the assistance of theCanada Council Explorations Program, the public is invited to participate in thefollowing projects:Community ParadeSaturday, November 28Dolly Hopkins and the Public Dreams Society will lead a community parade tocelebrate the lives of people with AIDS on Saturday, November 28. Everyone isinvited to participate in this downtown procession. Assembly begins at 12:00noon in front of the Georgia Street entrance to the Gallery, with the paradestarting at 12:30.Advance WorkshopsYou are invited to prepare for the parade by attending one of three advanceworkshops to create a portrait of a friend or family member to carry in the parade.Community portrait workshops will be held on Saturdays from 12:00-4:00 pm on:November 7 (Vancouver Art Gallery)November 14 (West End Community Centre)November 21 (Brittania Community Centre)No previous art experience is necessary to participate, and supplies will beprovided. Admission to the workshops is free, however pre-registration isrequested by calling Public Programmes at the Vancouver Art Gallery ir 682-4668.Video Screenings Sunday, November 29To provide a better understanding of the challenges which face people who areliving with AIDS, this afternoon screening features a selection of artist's videosproduced since 1989. Programme runs from 1:00 - 5:00 pm at the PacificCinemathéque, 1131 Howe Street. For further information, call Public Programmes,Vancouver Art Gallery Tr 682-4668.261^ more...Day Without Art - VAG  (cont)Street Action Tuesday, December 1Two hundred and fifty Vancouver artists and performers will participate in anaction called "Time Stands Still" on the streets surrounding the Vancouver ArtGallery at noon on December 1. Devised and co-ordinated by Morris Panych, KenMacDonald, Dennis Foon, and Patricia LaNauze.For further information, please telephone Headlines Theatre 251-2006.Public PerformancesThursday, December 3 730 pmSaturday, December 5 2:00 pm"Cost of Living" is a brilliant, award-winning theatre piece for a solo actor andmultiple video screens, written and directed by Vancouver artist Morris Panych, andproduced by Green Thumb Theatre for Young People. Mike Stack stars in this workabout a teen's first awareness of AIDS. Post-performance discussion led by RickWaines. Two public performances have been scheduled at the Vancouver ArtGallery."Cost of Living is suitable for young people and adults. Suggested ages 12+.Admission is free and seating is limited. We gratefully acknowledge the assistanceof the B.C. Ministry of Health.We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the Canada Council Explorations Program.262APPENDIX HART IN BLOOM GARDEN SYMPOSIUM SPEAKERS263APPENDIX HThomas Hobbs: Flower Arranging DemystifiedThomas Hobbs first opened his florist shop in an old bank building in Kerrisdalein 1975, and since then, his passion for plants and flowers has earned him widerespect in the floral industry. He has demonstrated his flower arranging methodsin New York and San Francisco, and created floral designs for visiting royalty.In 1989, he opened "HOBBS", and in '92, he took over Southlands Nursery. Atthe Garden Symposium, Thomas demonstrated flower arranging, focusing onarrangements that an inexperienced arranger can make at home. He made severalarrangements during his demonstration, which were given as door prizes duringthe Gourmet Luncheon.Susan Ryley: Designing a Garden With an Artistic EyeBorn in Victoria to an English gardening family, Ms. Ryley has always beeninterested in gardening. She developed her abilities in design, and, paired withher knowledge of flora, she has become a sought after garden design consultant.Her designs have been illustrated in Country Life, Horticulture and Gardens andCountrysides, and her own garden in Victoria is considered one of the mostbeautiful private gardens in the world.Sinclair Philip: Edible FlowersAn expert on the special touches that make good food marvellous, Sinclair Philipbelieves that "to get good food, you must grow it yourself if you have to." In hisgardens, grow the herbs and flowers that enhance the menus at the romantic264Sooke Harbour House. Owners, Sinclair and his wife, Frederica, continually insearch for new taste delights, and their research into the edibility of tuberousbegonias has resulted in a new addition to the Sooke Harbour House's menu.Marjorie Harris: The Painterly LandscapeWell known journalist and author, Ms. Harris lives and gardens in Toronto. Shehas a weekly column that appears in The Globe and Mail, and she has publisheda number of books including Sciencescape with David Suzuki, Everyday Law withher husband, Jack Batten, and her most recent, The Canadian Gardeners' Year.When she isn't writing, Marjorie spends her time in her 20' by 100' garden.Glenn Lewis: Mythology of Paradise in GardensCurrently a resident of Sechelt, B.C., Mr. Lewis is a multi-faceted artist. Afterreceiving his teaching certificate from UBC, Glenn studied ceramics in Cornwall,returning to teach in B.C. later. In the late 1970's, he undertook a global projectof photographing the world's gardens. His commissions include the CanadianPavilion at Osaka for Expo '70; the Great Wall of 1984 for the National ResearchLibrary in Ottawa; and, his own garden in Sechelt, B.C.APPENDIX IART IN BLOOM FLORAL DESIGN EXHIBIT PROGRAM266ART IN BLOOMFloral Design ExhibitMay 27 - 30, 1993Participating Floral DesignersB.C. Guild of Flower ArrangersCapilano Flower Arranging ClubTerry Alexander604-988-6859David BaldwinD.B. Designs661 - 1755 Robson StreetVancouver, B.C. V6G 3K7604-685-0731Megghan BishopMandeville Garden Centre4746 S. Marine DriveBurnaby, B.C. V5J 3G6604-576-7852Eva CameronGEK'CO3675 West 28th AvenueVancouver, B.C. V6S 1S3604-222-4012Canadian Professional FloralDesigners AssociationHilma DohertyVicky CookEllen LaljiLucy LaBarbara MatthewsJacquie NevilleJulie PettitAudrey SchothJudy Zurek604-731-0733Floral Designer North Vancouver, B.C. V7R 2N9 Vancouver, B.C. V6K 3B1Patricia Lee 5412 Meadfield Lane 604-988-3877 604-731-3313Sogetsu Ikebana, Vancouver West Vancouver, B.C. V7W 3G3Branch 604-922-4461 Audrey Schoth Jack Trewren6750 Oak Street Orchid Florist Ltd. Eclectic StudioVancouver, B.C. V6P 3Z2 David MacLean 1804 Lonsdale Avenue 111 - 8475 Ontario Street604-263-8950 Terra Plants and Flowers North Vancouver, B.C. V7R 2N9 Vancouver, B.C. V5X 3E8228 - 5300 No. 3 Road 604-987-9351 604-325-0800Renee Levesque Richmond, B.C. V6X 2X9Knapps Gardenworks 604-278-3921 Flowers By Grayce VBGA6250 Lougheed Highway Robin Schafer Floral CommitteeBurnaby, B.C. V5B 2Z9 Penny Moul & Diane St. John 2503 East Hastings Street VanDusen Botanical Garden604-298-4314 Volunteer Committee to the Vancouver, B.C. V5K 1Z2 5251 Oak StreetVancouver Art Gallery 604-253-3101 Vancouver, B.C. V6N 4H1Diane Levings 604-266-7194Full Bloom Flowers Mariola Pasnicka Susan Smith, Consultant351 E. 20th Avenue Grayce Florists 1710 Victoria DriveVancouver, B.C. V5V 1M4 900 West Georgia Street Vancouver, B.C. V5N 4T8 Twan Vuig 604-873-6133 Hotel Vancouver 604-254-6232 My FloristVancouver, B.C. V6C 2W6 933 Denman StreetFloral Works 604-683-5932 Vancouver, B.C. V6G 2L9Ferdinando Lopresti Chris Sobie 604-688-1717604-734-8345 Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Garden Da Vinci Flowers and ChocolatesEmma Elizabeth Peelstreet 13 - 200 Burrard StreetLaura Low 578 Carrall Street at Pender Vancouver, BC. V6C 3L6 Susan de Wolf WilliamsKits Market Vancouver, B.C. V6B 2J8 604-688-8770 The Flower Show1575 Yew Street 604-662-3207 4430 West 10th AvenueVancouver, B.C. Vancouver, B.C. V6R 2H9604-731-1441 Julie Pettit Dal Stogrin 604-224-3711Sickelmore's Flowers Diverse Floral of VancouverAnn Marie Mayers 2633 Granville Street 201 - 1045 Haro StreetBCCW Beginnings Flowers Vancouver, B.C. V6H 3H2 Vancouver, B.C. V6E 3Z8 Sally Yukawa7900 Fraser Park Drive 604-733-9188 604-689-9888 Sogetsu Ikebana, VancouverBurnaby, B.C. V5J 5H1 Branch604-436-6020, local 173 Gerhard Rost Michael Tham 5213 Hollywood DriveVillage Bouquet Floral Design Arbutus Florist Richmond, B.C. V7E 4V3Mamie McDiarmid 3164 Edgemont Boulevard 2111 West 16th Avenue 604-271-1363Margaret CharltonFriends of The University ofBritish Columbia Botanical Garden6804 S.W. Marine DriveVancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4604-929-5706June DeMetzBCCW Beginnings Flowers7900 Fraser Park DriveBurnaby, B.C. V5J 5H1604-436-6020, local 173/221ART IN BLOOMFLORAL DESIGN EXHIBITCOMMITTEE•Christina Chu, DesignerFlowers Unlimited580 Davie StreetVancouver, B.C. V6B 204604-685-6078Denis DoucetteJoyce `N Petal People895 West BroadwayVancouver, B.C. V5Z 139877-0303Stephan CrainMayhew-Sherwood Flowers Ltd.3691 West BroadwayVancouver, B.C.604-736-6565Brad CrouseMagic Moments Florists851 Homby StreetVancouver, B.C. V6Z 1T9604-688-2222Faith DambroughSogetsu School of Ekebana550 Southborough DriveWest Vancouver, B.C. V7S 1M1604-926-4208Casey DeMetzBCCW Beginnings Flowers7900 Fraser Park DriveBurnaby, B.C. V5J 5H1604-436-6020, local 173/221Suzanne DouglasGarden Club of Vancouver6305 McCleery StreetVancouver, B.C. V6N 105604-263-4620Trish DuMoulin & Dee HootenT & D Consultants6187 Mackenzie StreetVancouver, B.C. V6N 1H4604-261-8143Pat EdgarBarbara SteevesMichaela LawrenceJeanne WasalibhinAnne VonderlindeHerta Flowers Ltd.5650 Dunbar StreetVancouver, B.C.604-266-4811Daphne Gordon, ChairJoyce AndersonPat ShortSheila MingieJoyce TaylorLucy LewisPenny MoulDiane St. JohnDorothy ReynoldsJoan RussellDagrnar GabayCarla Weaver, Student InternJan Halliday, Volunteer CoordinatorWayne FaraciRomance Florist Ltd.2827 - 2829 West BroadwayVancouver, B.C. V6K 2G6604-733-7887Flowers By GrayceTom Finley2503 East Hastings StreetVancouver, B.C. V5K 1Z2604-253-3101Patricia FruchierGarcia Flowers3714 West 10th AvenueVancouver, B.C. V6R 2G4604-222-0202Wayne Gilliam AIFDSatsuki's33253 First Avenue.Mission, B.C. V2V 1G4604-826-1110Hollis HoSogetsu Ikebana, VancouverBranch7640 Berkley StreetBurnaby, B.C. V5E 4H7604-522-4016Summerhill Estate WineryEvent SponsorsThe Gallery CaféThe United FlowerGrowers Co-op Association Donors:Joyce Anderson, Consultant^A Kettle of FishJamie Evrard, Artist^Arts 'N Lites Studio Ltd.Hallmark Cards of Canada^Brock House RestaurantHazeldine Press Limited^Chocolate Mousse KitchenwareHotel Georgia^First ToursHyatt Regency Vancouver^Harrison Hot Springs HotelJohn Ramsay Contemporary^Industrial RevolutionArt, Inc.Rain City GrillKoala Beverage LimitedSaltimboccaOkanagan Spring BrewerySprinklersPedersen's Rentals and SalesGary Schwartz, PhotographerART IN BLOOMSPONSORS AND DONORSMichael EvisorilLinda PatersonWest Vancouver Garden Club4087 Rosa CrescentWest Vancouver, B.C. V7V 2N6604-926-2892Pitu KarimSogetsu Ikebana, VancouverBranch7640 Berkley StreetBurnaby, B.C. V5E 4H7604-522-4016Lois KeaneLois Keane Flowers1531 Haywood AvenueWest Vancouver, B.C. V7V 1W4604-922-5186Jean KuerArtistry in Flowers816 Howe StreetVancouver, B.C. V6Z 1N4604-682-6222Annette LaBoucaneInexterior Design7120 64 AvenueSurrey, B.C. V3S 1Y4604-576-7852Rachelle LaForgeJoyce `N Petal People895 West BroadwayVancouver, B.C. V5Z 1J9604-877-0303Wendy LaneOrchid Florist Ltd.1804 Lonsdale AvenueNorth Vancouver, B.C. V7M 2J9604-987-9351APPENDIX JART IN BLOOM BUDGET271REVENUE:TICKET SALES 16,500 18,750 25,000 31,250EXPENSES:FIXED COSTS:BARTENDER 200 200 200 200CLEAN UP 100 100 100 100COAT CHECK 100 100 100 100LIGHTING/DECORATION 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000r...)....InaLIQUOR LICENSEMARKETING2002,000---'s2002,0002002,0002002,000MUSIC/ENTERTAINMENT 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000SECURITY 600 600 600 6008,200 8,200 8,200 8,200VARIABLE COSTS:DISH RENTAL 660 750 1,000 1,250TABLE RENTAL 264 300 400 500CHAIR RENTAL 396 450 600 750FOOD 5,280 6,000 8,000 10,000WINE 1,650 1,875 2,500 3,1258,250 9,375 12,500 15,62516,450 17,575 20,700 23,82550 1,175 4,300 7,425REVENUE:7VTICKETS30LUNCHEONWVTICKETS40LUNCHEONIJVTICKETS50LUNCHEONTICKET SALES 2,250 2,500 3,750EXPENSES:FIXED COSTS:r..)-.4CLEAN UP .'^100 100 100ca HONORARIUMS 300 300 300MARKETING (''.50.0.: 500 500SECURITY 200 200 200TRAVEL 750 750 7501,850 1,850 1,850VARIABLE COSTS:DISH RENTAL 150 200 250TABLE RENTAL 60 80 100CHAIR RENTAL 90 120 150FOOD 300 400 500WINE 150 200 250750 1,000 1,2502,600 2,850 3,100(350) (350) 650FLORAL DESIGN RECEPTIONREVENUE:260PERSONS300PERSONSTICKET SALES 1300 1500EXPENSES:FIXED COSTS:N3.....j CLEAN UP 100 100-P MARKETING 500 500SECURITY 200 200800 800VARIABLE COSTS:F000 300 300WINE 200 200500 500TOTAL COSTS 1300 1300NET INCOME 0 200APPENDIX KART IN BLOOM DEFINITION OF RESPONSIBILITIES275THE VANCOUVER ART GALLERY"ART IN BLOOM"Division of ResponsibilitiesPROJECT LEADER (Carla Weaver) - Coordinate committee activities- Approve committee plans and budgets- Procure Volunteer Committee approval for budgetarymattersMonitor critical points and timelines- Function as central liaison for eventsSPONSORSHIP COMMITTEE- Develop sponsorship proposal packages- Procure sponsors to underwrite costs of events- Develop sponsor recognition and media exposure strategieswith Project Leader and Marketing ChairpersonTREASURER- Develop overall budget- Work with committee chairs to develop budget for eachevent- Develop monitoring systhm for event budgets- Monitor ticket salesSECRETARY- Responsible for taking the minutes of meetingsProvide general secretarial functions for Project leaderand chairsGALA CHAIR- Planning and coordination of Gala Ball/Dinner on April 17including catering, music, facilities, set upWork with Treasurer to develop budget for Gala event- Contact committee to organize the gala and delegateresponsibilities- Liaise with Project Leader- Work with Volunteer Chair to provide required resources- Work with Marketing Chair to assemble specific targetmailing lists for event- Work with Marketing Chair for tickets, invitations,publicity, etc. that are appropriate for the event- Develop ticket pricing for event276LECTURE SERIES CHAIR (Joan Bawlf) - Planning and coordination of Lecture Series on April 27and May 11 including catering, lunch, facilities, set up,security, arranging topics and lecturers, etc.- Work with Treasurer to develop budget for Lecture Series- Contact committee to organize lecture series and delegateresponsibilities- Liaise with Marketing Chair to assemble specific targetmailing list and specific event promotion- Work with Volunteer Chair to provide required resourcesDevelop ticket pricing for event- Liaise with Project LeaderFLORAL DESIGN EXHIBIT CHAIR- Planning and coordination of Floral Design Exhibit May 27to 30 including selection and invitation of floraldesigners to participate, set up, security, facilities,docents- liaison with supplier of floral products for requirements- Work with treasurer to develop budget for Lecture Series- Contact committee to organize Floral Design Exhibit anddelegate responsibilities- Liaise with Marketing Chair to assemble specific targetmailing list and event promotionWork with Volunteer Chair to provide required resources- Liaise with Project LeaderMARKETING/PUBLICITY CHAIR (Samantha Cramer) - Develop advertising budget with Treasurer- Develop advertising and media blitz plans- Ensure multi media saturation (ie. TV and radiointerviews, public service announcements, articles, etc.)- Coordinate development of press releases, press kits,etc.- Liaise with Sponsorship chair- Compile target mailing list for overall event and workwith Event Chairs to compile specific mailing lists asrequired- Develop general invitation package- Develop poster- Develop invitations, tickets and programs for the variousevents working with the appropriate chair persons- Work with Volunteer Chair to provide required resources- Work with individual chairs to properly promote eachevent277APPENDIX LART IN BLOOM SPONSORS AND DONORS278April 22, 1993^ART IN BLOOMDOOR PRIZES AND/OR SILENT AUCTION ITEMSPrize^ DonorMr. Ken BogasSaltimbocca2201 West 1st AvenueVancouver, B.C.V6K 1E9Mr. Harry KambolisRaincity Grill1193 DenmanVancouver, B.C.V6G 2N1Telephone: 685-7337Mr. Danny WongBrock House Restaurant3875 Point Grey RoadVancouver, B.C.V6R 1B3Telephone: 224-3317Mr. Alan WilsonIndustrial Revolution2306 Granville StreetVancouver, B.C.Ms. Bonita P.W. KanArts 'N Lites Studio Ltd.2342 Granville StreetVancouver, B.C.V6H 3G3Mr. Jim MitchellHarrison Hot Springs HotelHarrison Hot Springs, B.C.VOM 1K0Telephone: 521-8888$150 dinner gift certificate$80 dinner gift certificateBrunch for Four (food only)Candlestick Holder ($180 value)Lamp ($100 value)Kreighoff Collectors' Plate2 nights double accommodation atthe Harrison Hot Springs Hotel2792 adult boat-train tickets for TheRoyal Hudson4 hour yacht cruiseArt in Bloom box of stationeryFramed Art in Bloom PosterMs. Felicia Hui1st ToursNo. 1 - North Foot of Denman StreetVancouver, B.C.V6G 2W9Telephone: 688-7246Mr. & Mrs. T. Buell486 Tsawwassen Beach RoadDelta, B.C.V4M 2J2Telephone: 948-0842Volunteer CommitteeVancouver Art Gallery750 Hornby StreetVancouver, B.C.Contact: Ginny Alexandor$20 lunch gift certificate$50 dinner gift certificatepillow sets$50 housewares gift certificateSprinklers5251 Oak StreetVancouver, B.C.V6M 4H1Riley AndersonA Kettle of Fish900 Pacific StreetVancouver, B.C.V6Z 1C2Maxwell Fabrics188 Victoria DriveVancouver, B.C.Telephone: 253-7744Ms. Jane TennantChocolate Mousse Kitchenware1610 Robson StreetVancouver, B.C.V6G 1C7Telephone: 682-8223lunch for two^ Ms. Joan Peaker280Gallery CafeVancouver Art Gallery750 Hornby StreetVancouver, B.C.V6Z 2H7Art in Bloom box of stationery^Volunteer Committee750 Hornby StreetVancouver, B.C.Contact: Ginnie Alexandor281ART IN BLOOMEvent  Sponsorsflower arrangements and decorationsfor gala and luncheonconsultation regarding Floral DesignexhibitsJamie Evrard artwork image for useon Art in Bloom advertisingassistance with Jamie Evrard artworkbeer for galaSponsorMr. Henk GrasmeyerThe United Flower Growers Co-op Association4085 Marine WayBurnaby, B.C.V5J 5E2Telephone: 430-2211Mr. Thomas HobbsThomas Hobbs' Florist Ltd.2127 West 41st AvenueVancouver, B.C.andSouthlands Nursery6550 BalaclavaVancouver, B.C.Telephone: 261-6411Mrs. Joyce Anderson, Consultant108 - 1750 Maple StreetVancouver, B.C.V6J 3S6Telephone: 731-0733Ms. Jamie Evrard, Artist909 West 22ndVancouver, B.C.Mr. John RamsayJohn Ramsay Contemporary Art, Inc.1065 Cambie StreetVancouver, B.C.Telephone: 685-5570Mr. Buko Von KrosigkSecretary TreasurerOkanagan Spring Brewery3535 Foster AvenueVancouver, B.C.V5R 4X3Donation$2000 value flower products28215 cases Koala springs mineral waterdiscount on catering and rentalspartial donation of wine & champagnediscount on printing and design ofinvitations, posters, tickets, brochuresMr. Dennis MacDonaldKoala Beverage LimitedVancouver, B.C.FAX: 689-2689Ms. Joan PeakerThe Gallery Cafe750 Hornby StreetVancouver, B.C.V6Z 2H7Ms. Deborah InnesSales RepresentativeSummerhill Estate Winery4870 Chute Lake RoadRR 4, S-1, C-22Kelowna, B.C.VlY 7R3Mr. Rob HazeldineHazeldine Press Ltd.1645 East Kent AvenueVancouver, B.C.Telephone: 324-0611hotel rooms for speakers^Mr. Mark S. AndrewHyatt Regency Vancouver655 Burrard StreetVancouver, B.C.V6C 2R7hotel rooms for speakers^Mr. Herb QuongHotel Georgia801 W.Georgia StreetVancouver, B.C.V6C 1P7photography of Jamie Evrard artwork^Gary Schwartz1245 Fulton AvenueWest Vancouver, B.C.Telephone: 925-9275discount on rentals of tables, dishes^Pedersen's Rentals and Sales8739 Heather StreetVancouver, B.C.283APPENDIX MMALCOLM PARRY COLUMN284ALL SMILES: Janice Lotzkar, Andy Crimp and Barrie Mowatt (left); Mark Pretty, GregPricharrd and Kirk Smith (middle); Cate Jones, Suzanne Andersen and Erik AndersenLOWER MAINLANDTOWN TALKFundraisers stunned as VAG gala bombsHE BEST OF TASTE ....T Gala organizers shud-dered this week as theVancouver Art Gallery's$125-per-person Art in Bloomgala, scheduled for tonight, wasabruptly cancelled.Some spoke of post-Glen Clarkbudget blues. Others feared adeeper blow to fund raising andvolunteerism generally.But Cora Wills' $95 Black andWhite Ball to benefit the Vancou-ver Museum seems on track forMay 8. And Janice Lotakar. Bar-rie Mowatt and Andy Crimp's $85Taste of the Nation was a sma-sheroo Thursday.John Hemsworth had dreamedof leaving the Hotel Vancouverwith $70,000 to help Food Run-ners carry unserved restaurantdishes to needy recipients.Instead, he received $148,000plus a $25,000 pledge from JacquiCohen's Face the Nation Founda-tion for another driver.Umeeda Switlo's CommunityBox Offices signed up 1,000-plus$85 attendees, and TON's 74 foodand beverage booths, auction andmany live entertainment contru-buted an air of youthful, confi-dent energy.As the hoopla wound down,unemployed Mitra Remy endedweeks of volunteer work.MALCOLM PARRY"I'm helping Food Runners,"Remy said, "because when I waspastry chef at CinCin, I was sopleased to see that our breadwouldn't be wasted."You see, I grew up in a third-world country where peopledidn't get enough food. That'swhy I learned to cook."•C Wednesday, April 14, 1993ART IN BLOOMThe Vancouver Art GalleryAssociation is celebrating its 50thanniversary with Art in Bloom —a display of 1,000 freshly cut flow-ers at the gallery on Saturday.A fund-raising gala will be heldthat evening in the marblerotunda of the heritage building. Itwill be a black-tie, sit-down din-ner and dancing affair for 250.Tickets are $125. For more infor-mation, call 6824464.APPENDIX NART IN BLOOM BROCHURE286? N ' 1 MISS ANY OF 'IfiESE UPCOMING EVENTS!Celebrating the Fiftieth Anniversaryof the Volunteer Committee to theVancouver Art GalleryOPENING GALAA gala dinner and danceat the Vancouver Art Gallery:Saturday APfilCocktails'7;00^Dancing to, follow+i2Q per person^GAItt^JUNI. •T(;0:- ; A day-long series of lectUreS'abtitif floral desigii,gardening, and art includicw,Thot(0 AA ner, Thomas Ilobbs, Florist :4,13 (I^NurseSusan Ityley (World Re ttri\“ictiGlenn Lewis (ArtistJ ;IntlMarijori0 iiarris (Author of The ratiariitvt Hardee^ Ypor)()EiliAlET LUNCIIEitwstiay, .\pril 27golirmet litin -ibt.ion Cate 1 -t, (I b the Galierk"Carti^in tilt: rot..unda^forticonrt of the GaietyEl:ORAL 1)ESIGNLXI1 II'S()potting. Nlay^zit 5:00 pm, through to 14a) :101^1 nk,^\lainiand's top proli - ;isional tlnr l designersivive twain invited to rriiite 4 designor'•i nl ort^Ciitlier. Four ,in^ohlytFor tickets orf^.\,jAMI£Celebrating- Sorolunteermg-atthe rancourer art aller,earsSponsored by: Hazeldine Press Limited John D. Ramsay In(Contemporary Art Joyce Anderson Consultant Koala SprinBeverage Limited Okanagan Spring Brewery SouthlanrkSummerhill EstatAFLORAL^ART IN BLOCDFSIGNExt-11B1TIONOpening May 27th at 5:00 p.m.Continuing to May 30thFree with Gallery AdmissionOver 50 Lower Mainland FloralDesigners will interpret a work ofart in flowers in The VancouverArt Gallery. These spectacularfloral designs will be on displaynear the artworks that inspiredthem from May 27th to 30thinclusive.ApriltoMay '30th1993FLORAPHOTOGRAPThe Flower in Photographyfrom CUM vet1835 to the PresentFlora Photographica is an exhibition of over160 photographic works presenting an anthol-ogy of photographic imagery in which theflower is a significant element. Flowers, orfloral attributes, are dealt with in aesthetic,scientific (botanical), symbolic, and allegoricalterms. Works in a variety of photographicmedia and by almost every major photographicfigure of the past 150 years are included.GARDEN SYMPOSIUMMorning Session:Thomas Hobbs (9:45 a.m. to 11:00 a.m.)c..,:lowcr 4:At-rang-mg- ceemrstyiedTi llamas Hobbs first opened his florist shop inan old bank building in Kerrisdale in 1975,and since then, his unique knowledge andconsuming passion for plants and flowers havepropelled him to the forefront of his profession. Hehas demonstrated his flower arranging methods inNew York and San Francisco, and created floraldecor for visiting royalty. In 1989, "HOBBS" wasopened, and in '92, he took over SouthlandsNursery and transformed it into a mecca of unusualflora. Complete with orchids and jasmine, it's herethat he shares his enthusiasm and knowledge forgrowing things and "seeing beauty.")LoSusan Ryley (11:00 a.m. to 12 noon)ccatirgmwg-a- -L*Arrden 3Ver)tlt ,47.1G-ktilstre acveorn in Victoria to an English gardening family,Ryley was raised to appreciate a well-tendedplot of soil. She honed her abilities in design, and,paired with her innate knowledge of flora, shebecame a much sought after garden designconsultant. Her designs have graced the pages ofsuch magazines as Country Life, Horticulture andgardens and ('ountrysides, and her own garden inVictoria is considered one of the most beautiful)rivate gardens in the world.obson Square Conference Centre, 800 Robson;treet, Vancouver, British ColumbiaIckets $35.00 per person available at licketmaster280-4444) and The Vancouver Art Gallery (682-464)'ruesday, April 27th — A series of lectures:A pass for admission to any three of the foursymposium events is available for $95.00 throughlicketmaster or The Vancouver Art Gallery.Gourmet Luncheon (12 noon):A gourmet luncheon with a floral theme catered by TheGallery Café in the forecourt and rotunda of TheVancouver Art Gallery. Featuring guest speaker...Sinclair Philipa Me &lowersA n expert on the special touches that make goodfood marvellous, Sinclair Philip insists that "to getgood food, you must grow it yourself if you have to."In his gardens, grow the anise hyssop, and the herbsand flowers that enhance the menus at the romanticSooke Harbour House. Owners, Sinclair and his wife,Frederica, remain relentless in their search for new tastedelights, and their research into the edibility of tuberousbegonias has resulted in a new addition to the SookeHarbour House's menu.Tickets $45.00 per person available at licketmaster(280-4444) and The Vancouver Art Gallery (682-4464)Afternoon Session (2:30 p.m.):Marjorie HarrismdfaixWell known journalist and author, Ms. Harris nowlives and gardens in Toronto. She has a weeklycolumn that appears in The Globe and Mall, and she haspublished a number of books including Sciencescapewith David Suzuki, and Everyday Law with herhusband, Jack Batten. Her most recent book is TheCanadian Gardeners Year. When her pen is not inhand, she is contemplating the charms and conundrumsof her 20' by 100' garden.Followed by a guided tour of Flora Photographica atThe Vancouver Art Gallery.Robson Square Conference Centre, 800 Robson Street,Vancouver, British ColumbiaTickets $35.00 per person available at Ticketmaster(280-4444) and The Vancouver Art Gallery (682-4464)Evening Session:Glenn LewisCf r.irra-dise in çhrrden.c7:00 p.m. Wine reception and private tour of FloraPhotographica8:00 p.m. Guest speaker, Glenn Lewisr urrently a resident of Sechelt, B.C., Mr. Lewis is amulti-faceted artist. After receiving his teachingcertificate from UBC, Glenn studied ceramics inCornwall, returning to teach at his alma mater someyears later. In the late 1970's, he undertook a globalproject of photographing the world's gardens. Hiscommissions include the Canadian Pavilion at Osaka forExpo '70; the Great Wall of 1984 for the NationalResearch Library in Ottawa; and, of course, his owngarden in Sechelt, B.C.Meeting Room 3, The Vancouver Art Gallery, 750Flornby Street, Vancouver, British ColumbiaTickets $25.00 per person available at licketmaster(280-4444) and The Vancouver Art Gallery (682-4464)


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