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The scarlet screen : a survey of the tradition of The Scarlet Letter in film and on television, 1926-1995 Solmes, Jennifer Anne 2001

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T H E S C A R L E T SCREEN: A SURVEY OF T H E TRADITION OF THE SCARLET  LETTER  IN F I L M A N D O N T E L E V I S I O N , 1926-1995 by  JENNIFER A N N E S O L M E S B . A . , The University of Western Ontario, 1993 M . A . , The University of Waterloo, 1995 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E D E G R E E OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Interdisciplinary Studies [English/Theatre/History])  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required 'Standard  T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A May 2001 © Jennifer Anne Solmes, 2001  In  presenting  degree freely  at the  this  thesis  in  University of  available for reference  copying  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  partial  fulfilment  of  the  British Columbia, I agree and study. I further  representatives.  that the  It  is  granted  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  an  advanced  Library shall make  by the  understood  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed permission.  for  agree that permission for  scholarly purposes may be her  requirements  that  it  extensive  head  of  copying  my or  without my written  A B S T R A C T Frequently called the first American classic, and the only American classic never to be out of print, The Scarlet Letter has been indelibly marked on the American consciousness since Nathaniel Hawthorne published it in 1 8 5 0 . Generations have grown up with its characters and their profound struggle against each other, their community, and themselves. Since the earliest days of film, The Scarlet Letter has been re-presented to each of those generations in a series of diverse cinematic adaptations, providing audiences with an opportunity to re-evaluate those characters, their struggle, and the lessons implicit in them. This dissertation surveys those films in order to produce a production history—one that extends beyond the production details and critical reception to consider how the lessons of The Scarlet Letter have been made to contribute to the cultural conversations of the American twentieth century. Following Chapter One's presentation of the method and intent of the study, in Chapter Two I consider the most enduring film in this novel's cinematic tradition, Victor Sjostrom's 1 9 2 6 production starring Lillian Gish. In Chapter Three I examine Robert Vignola's 1 9 3 4 ' B ' movie version in the context of Depression-era sexual politics. In Chapter Four, I unearth two live television plays that come to terms very differently with the Red Scare and the social retrenchment of Eisenhower's America. Chapter Five also presents a comparison of two very different but contemporaneous Scarlet Letters, one an eccentric feature from Wim Wenders ( 1 9 7 2 ) , and the other a prestigious PBS miniseries ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Finally, in Chapter Six I examine the 1 9 9 5 Demi Moore vehicle in the context of the Family Values debates. By identifying the specific re-presentation strategies as rhetorically motivated, and linking them with the most salient social debates of their times, I argue for the ideological flexibility of the novel as a key to its endurance. I also demonstrate the effectiveness of film study, and specifically of a film adaptation production history focusing on one novel, as a tool for understanding emerging cultural attitudes and values.  T A B L EO FC O N T E N T S A b s t r a c t  ii  T a b e l o fC o n t e n t s  iii  C H A P T E RI  I n t r o d u c t i o n : C u l t u r a lP o r t r a i t u r e  C H A P T E RI I  T h eM G M G /s ih Scarlet Letter ( 1 9 2 6 )  C H A P T E RI I I  The Scarlet Letter ( 1 9 3 4 ) , t h eP r o d u c t o in C o d e ,a n d D e p r e s s o in E r aW o m a n h o o d  C H A P T E RI V  The Scarlet Letter o nT e l e v i s i o n in t h e Fifties  C H A P T E RV  The Scarlet Letter in T h eS e v e n t i e s .  C H A P T E RV I  T h e 1 9 9 5 Scarlet Letter  C H A P T E RV I I  C o n c u ls o in :" T h a tI s n ' tH a w t h o r n e s ' H e s t e r " :  B b io i lg r a p h y  1 1 9  6 9 1 0 6 1 4 6 1 7 2 2 0 9 2 1 5  in  Chapter One—Cultural Portraiture H e s t e rP r y n n e is on the s c a f f o l d ,a w a t i n i g the u jd g e m e n t of the m a g s it r a t e s and her p u n s ih m e n t . A m d i the j e e r s and c a t c a l s of the a s s e m b e ld t o w n s f o l k , she can h e a r her b a b yc r y i n g . A g a n is t al e x t r e m i t i e s , she has h e d l f a s t to her p r i n c i p l e s and her l o v e for the f a t h e r of the w a i l n g child, and she has not n a m e d him. Ac o m m o o t in e r u p t s . Ad a r kc o la k e df i g u r ew i t haf l o w i n gm a n e of b a lc kh a i r s t o r m si n t o the s c e n e on h o r s e b a c k ,t h e n flies up the s c a f f o l d and a d d r e s s e s the c r o w d in t o n e s first b r e a t h e ls st h e n rising. He d e m a n d s the r e e la s e of H e s t e r and her f e l o w w o m e nc o n d e m n e d for w i t c h c r a f t (one of w h o m is her b e s t friend, H a r r i e tH i b b i n s ) . A f t e rd e l i v e r i n g an m i p a s s o in e dp l e a for t o l e r a n c e ,D m i m e s d a e l (for t h a t is his n a m e ) o f f e r s to be h a n g e d in t h e i rp l a c e . But at the m o m e n t the n o o s e is f l u n ga r o u n d his n e c k , an I n d i a n war p a r t ya t a c k s and s a c k s the t o w n . L a t e r ,a m d i the a s h e s ,H e s t e r and D m i m e s d a e l r i d e off i n t o the s u n s e tw i t ht h e i r child, t h e i rh e a r t s full of h o p e . If t h i s is not The S c a r l e tL e t t e r as you r e m e m b e r it, how a b o u t this: H e s t e r and D m i m e s d a e l fall in l o v e as c h i l d r e n in E n g a ln d and are s e c r e t l ym a r r e id a b o a r ds h p i on t h e i r way to the new w o r l d . Or p e r h a p s :H e s t e rP r y n n eg v ie sb i r t h to a d a u g h t e r , Pearl, w h o m her h u s b a n d ,R o g e r , will not own ( a t l h o u g h he is the b i o l o g i c a lf a t h e r )b e c a u s e he w s ih e s to p u n s ih H e s t e r for her l u s t f u lt h o u g h t s (but not d e e d s )a b o u ta n o t h e r man. E a c h of t h e s e is The S c a r l e tL e t t e r , or was n it e n d e d to be. E a c h is the p l o t of a film a d a p t a t o i n of the n o v e l( t h o u g ho n y l the first v e r s o in r e c o u n t e dh e r ee v e rr e a c h e d the s c r e e n )n it e n d e d to refit the s t o r y to the n e e d s and d e s r ie s of the f i l m g o i n gc o m m u n y t i— to r e a u t h o r ,r e s h a p e , and r e p r e s e n ti t — i n , in t h e s ec a s e s , 1995  and 1926.  E a c h re-  d e l i v e r y of The S c a r l e tL e t t e r to a p o p u a lr film or t e l e v i s i o na u d e in c e in the t w e n t e it h 1  c e n t u r yr e p r e s e n t sp a r to fa c o n t n iu e dp r o j e c tt oa p p r o p r a it e its c o n s d ie r a b e l c u l t u r a l  c a p t i a — l a sa ni c o no fA m e r c ia n n e s s ,A m e r c ia s ' first s e r o iu sn o v e — l t od i r e c tt h e novels ', a n dt h e novelist's, p r e s u m e da u t h o r i t yt o w a r daf i x e dp o s i t i o n in c o n t e m p o r a r yc u l t u r a l c o n v e r s a t o in s . T h i ss t u d ye x p o lr e sh o w film s e e k st oi n f l u e n c et h en a t i o n a l c o n s c o iu s n e s s . I nt h e s ec a s e s ,f m l i m a k e r sp u r s u et h i sa m i b yb r i n g i n gt o ap o p u a lr  a u d e in c e( a n dt on a t i o n a ld e b a t e s )t h et r e m e n d o u sc u l t u r a la u t h o r i t yo fa c l a s s i ct e x t ,a n r e s h a p n i g it f o rm a x m iu mr h e t o r i c a le f f e c t . I nh i sd s ic u s s o in o fT h eS c a r l e tL e t t e r in P r a c t i c i n gR o m a n c e .R c ih a r dM i li n g t o n  d e s c r b ie sh o wH a w t h o r n ec o n s s it e n t y l r e f r a m e st h es t o r yt oa p p e a lt o a mid-19 c e n t u r y h t  s e n s i b i l t y — f o re x a m p e l, in n a r r a t i v ea p p e a s l t oV i c t o r i a ns e n t i m e n t a l i t y . " T a k e n t o g e t h e r , "h ew r i t e s , t h ee f f e c t so ft h i so n g o n ig c o m p a r s io nb e t w e e nt h e P u r i t a nc o m m u n y t i a n do t h e rc u l t u r a la r r a n g e m e n t s , e s p e c i a l yt h o s eo fh i so w nm d id e lc a ls sA m e r i c a ,a r e c o m p e lx a n dc r u c i a lt oa nu n d e r s t a n d n ig o fw h a tH a w t h o r n e is u pt o in T h eS c a r l e t Letter.. T .h e s ev e r s o in so fc u l t u r a l c o m p a r s io n finally p r o d u c e in t h er e a d e rt h es e n s et h a ta c u l t u r e is a s t r u c t u r eo fm e a n n ig t h a t is n o t" n a t u r a l "o r a u t o m a t c i b u tl o c a ly v a r i a b l e ,h i s t o r i c a ly c h a n g n ig a n dt h u s b o t hn ie s c a p a b e l ( o n e is a w la y s in r e l a t i o nt oo n e s ' c u l t u r a l s y s t e m )a n dh u m a n y l r e v i s a b l ea st h ec h a n g n ig m e a n n ig o f H a w t h o r n e s ' l e t t e rw i t h i nt h eP u r i t a nc o m m u n y t i m a k e sc l e a r . A n dt h e final r e v e r b e r a t o in o fH a w t h o r n e s ' c u l t u r a lp o r t r a i t u r e is this: t h en n ie t e e n t h c e n t u r ym d id e lc a ls sc u l t u r et h a th ew r i t e s f r o ma n d to, a n dm a k e s ap r e s e n c ew i t h i nt h eb o o k , is a s lo r e v i s a b e l a n da w la y sa s lo t h es u b e jc to fT h eS c a r l e tL e t t e r .( 6 8 9 ) T h i ss t u d yr e p r e s e n t sa na t e m p tt oe x t e n dH a w t h o r n e s ' p r o j e c ti n t ot h et w e n t e it h  c e n t u r y . T h ed v ie r s ew a y s in w h c ih h i st e x th a sb e e nm a d ef l e x i b l eb yf m l i m a k e r sf r o 1 9 2 6t o 1 9 9 5 ,f o rc e r t a i nn ic a r n a t o in so ft h eA m e r c ia nc u l t u r e ,e x p o s et h e 'revisability'  o ft h a tc u l t u r ea n d its v a l u e s . W h e l i r e f i t t i n gt h es t o r y s ' v a u le s t r u c t u r et oc o n t e m p o r a r y  2  n o r m s ,s e v e r a lo ft h ef i l m sa s lo u s ear h e t o r i co fc o m p a r s io nt oe i t h e rv a l o r i z ep r o g r e s s b ye m p h a s z in ig our d i f f e r e n c ef r o m they o ft h eP u r i t a np e r i o d ,o r criticize t h ec u r r e n t  c u l t u r eb yl i n k i n g it w i t ht h e" d a r ka g e . " T h u st h i ss t u d ya m i st ob e , like t h en o v e l c u l t u r a lp o r t r a i t u r e . T h es e v e nf e a t u r ea n dt e l e v i s i o nf i l m sIp r o p o s et oe x a m n ie e n g a g et h e i r a u d e in c e s (in 1 9 2 6 , 1 9 3 4 , 1 9 5 0 , 1 9 5 4 , 1 9 7 2 , 1 9 7 9 ,a n d 1 9 9 5 ) in a d s ic u s s o in a b o u t v a r i e t yo fc o n t e m p o r a r yc o n c e r n s — t h ec h a n g n ig r o l eo fw o m e na n ds o c i e t y s ' r e a c t i o nt o it, t h ep a lc eo ft r a d i t i o n a lm o r a l i t y in a m o d e r nA m e r i c a ,t h ec o n f l i c t i n gp u ls o f i n d i v i d u a l i s ma n ds o c i a lo r d e r ,a n dt h ec o n s t a n tr e e x a m n ia t o in o fn a t i o n a ld ie n t t iy — t h r o u g hac u l t u r a ly s p e c i f i cr e d e l i v e r yo ft h ec l a s s i ct e x t . T h eS c a r l e tL e t t e rh a s  r e m a n ie dat o u c h s t o n eo fn a t i o n a lf e e l i n gt h r o u g ht h e s er e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . E a c h film is a b a t e lg r o u n dw h e r ec o n f l i c t i n gd ie a sa b o u tt h en a t i o n a lc h a r a c t e r — e s p e c a iy l in t e r m so f  m o r a lv a l u e s ,s n ic et h a t is t h en o v e s l ' m o s to b v o iu sa p p l i c a t i o na n do n eo fc o n t n iu n ig p o p u a lr a n d political n it e r e s t — o f t e np r o d u c eac o n f u s e da n ds e l f c o n t r a d i c t o r yfilmt h a t  is, a c t u a ly ,a na c c u r a t er e g i s t e ro ft h ec o n f u s o i n in t h ec u l t u r e . A s the c l a s s i cA m e r c ia n n o v e l ,T h eS c a r l e tL e t t e r ,t h r o u g ht h e s ei n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ,a o lw sA m e r c ia n sac h a n c et o i n t e r r o g a t et h e i rv a l u e s . E a c ha d a p t a t o in r e s h a p e st h en o v e lt o its o w nr h e t o r i c a l p r o g r a m ,a n d its o w nc u l t u r e . T a k e nt o g e t h e r ,t h e s er e t e li n g sd e m o n s t r a t et h en o v e s l '  p e c u l i a r ability t os p e a kt oav a r i e t yo fc u l t u r a ld e b a t e sa n dh i s t o r i c a lm o m e n s t a sd v ie a n dc o n t r a d c it o r ya st h e 1 9 2 0 sa n d 1 9 3 0 s ,o rt h e 1 9 5 0 sa n dt h e 1 9 7 0 s . T h eS c a r l e tL e t t e rh a sb e e nr e a d ,b y itsfirstr e v i e w e r s ,m o d e r n critics, a n d c e r t a i n l yf i l m m a k e r s , in o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r yd i r e c t i o n s . S o m e m i te sap a r a b e l o fc r m i e  a n d justice, it h a sb e e na to t h e rt m i e s at r a g e d yo fo v e r z e a o lu sp e r s e c u t o in a n dh y p o c  I th a sa w la y sb e e nar e f l e c t i o no nt h eA m e r c ia nc h a r a c t e r — w h e t h e rt h er e a d e rb e l i e v e s  t h en a t i o n a lc h a r a c t e r is b e s tr e p r e s e n t e d in t h eo u t a lw l o v e r so rt h ep o iu st o w n s f o l k . I  t h en o v e s l ' i d e o l o g i c a l flexibility t h a th a sb e e nc r u c i a lt o its c o n t n iu e ds u c c e s s in b o t h c a ls s r o o ma n dm o v e i h o u s e . R c ih a r dB r o d h e a da r g u e st h a tt h i sa m b g iu t i y is c e n t r a lt o b o t ht h en o v e s l ' a p p e a la n d its d e s i g n . H ea s s e r t s : b e c a u s eh eg v ie ss o little g u d ia n c e ,H a w t h o r n e s ' f o l o w e r s h a v eb e e nf r e et op u th m i t oa n yp u r p o s et h e yh a v er e q u i r e d . T h ei n d e f i n i t e n e s so fh i sd i r e c t i o ne x p a ln is w h yh i st r a d i t i o n , m o s tu n u s u a l y ,h a sb e e nc o m p a t b ie l w i t he v e r yl a t e rp r o j e c t a n dr e s i s t a n tt on o n e . B u tt h ev e r ye u ls v ie n e s st h a tm a k e s H a w t h o r n es oa d a p t a b e l a sam o d e lb u i l d sa n o t h e rt r a i ti n t o t h ee lg a c yh eo f f e r s . As t r o n gh e a do ft r a d i t i o ne s t a b s i lh e sa w a yf o rw o r kt ob ed o n e . .If H a w t h o r n ed o e s little t oc o n s t r a n i h i sf o lo w e r s ,h ed o e s little t o ot oa u t h o r z ie t h ep a ln st h e yt a k e f r o mh i m . T h e yc a np u th m i in t h es e r v c ie o fw h a tp r o j e c tt h e y p l e a s e ,b u th ed o e sn o tt h e r e b yv a l i d a t et h a tp r o j e c t . n Is t e a dh e b r n ig sh i se n g im a t c i o p e n n e s si n s i d et h e i rw o r k ,u n e la s h n ig h i s u n c o n f r im n ig n e s so nt h e i ro w ns e n s eo fm i s s i o n .( B r o d h e a dS c h o o l 16) T h em u l t i p l i c i t yH a w t h o r n en iv o k e s in h i s telling, a n dh i st a l e ' sa b i l i t yt oe m b r a c ea m u t l i u d eo fs o m e t m i e s c o n t r a d c it o r ym e a n n ig s ,h a se n c o u r a g e dt h ef r e e d o mw i t hw h c ih  a d a p t o r sh a v eu s e dT h eS c a r l e tL e t t e r . B e c a u s e it p e r m t i sm a n yr e a d n ig sb u tc o n s e c r a t e s n o n e ,f m l i m a k e r sh a v eb e e nf r e et os e e kac o n s e c r a t o in o ft h e i ro w n , in i n d i v i d u a l r e a d n ig sd e t e r m n ie db yt h ev a u le sa n dp r e u jd c ie so ft h e i rd i f f e r e n ta u d e in c e s . I nt h e i rs t u d yo fT h eL a s to ft h eM o h c ia n so n film, M a r t i nB a r k e ra n dR o g e r  S a b n i b e g n i b yp o s t u l a t i n gat h e o r yt oe x p l a i nh o wC o o p e r s ' n o v e l ,d e s p t i e its a e s t h e t c i  f l a w s ,h a sc o m et ob er e t o l d in c o u n t e ls sc o m c i b o o k s ,p l a y s , film a n dt e l e v i s i o ns e r e i t h r o u g h o u tt h et w e n t e it hc e n t u r y . W h a tq u a l i t yd o e sM o h c ia n sp o s s e s st h a t ,s a y ,h i s  m o r e critically a c c a lm i e dT h eD e e r s a ly e rl a c k s ,t h a tw o u d l e x p l a i n its s t a y n ig p o w e rf o r s u c c e s s v ie g e n e r a t o in s ? B a r k e ra n dS a b n i s u g g e s tt h a t 4  f o rt h es t o r yt os u r v v ie a t all, it h a dt oh a v eq u a l i t i e s w o r k n ig s m i u t l a n e o u s y l in c o n t r a r yd i r e c t i o n s . I th a d t oe ln d itself t ob e n ig r e w o r k e d in m a n yo p p o s e dw a y s . B u t it h a dt oh a v ee n o u g ho fa p 'r e s e n c e , ' a nn in e r s t r e n g t h ,t om a k e it w o r t hr e p e a t e d y l r e t u r n i n g to.. . I t is t h eb o o k s ' v e r ya m b g iu t i e st h a th a v em a d e it s o p l i a b l et oo t h e rp e o p l e s ' u s e s . P r o d u c e do nt h ec u s po f all t h o s e[ e a r l yn n ie t e e n t h c e n t u r y political, social, a n d i d e o l o g i c a l ]c h a n g e s ,t h es t o r yb e c o m e sw h a tw ew o u d l call a f l e x i b l et e m p a lt e . I t is n ic o m p e lt e ,a m l o s tr e q u i r i n g i n t e r p r e t i v ec o m p e lt o in ,a n dt h u se ln d s itself t ob e n ig r e w r i t t e n ,e s p e c i a l y in t h a tm e d u im t h a th a sb e c o m ep r e e m n ie n t y l A ' m e r i c a n , 't h e film. ( 3 2 3 )  T h eS c a r l e tL e t t e rs h a r e st h i s flexibility. T h et m i e e ls sq u a l i t yo f its c o n c e r n s — t h en a t u r e  o fs i na n d guilt, t h er e l a t i o n s h i pb e t w e e ns o c e it ya n dt h ei n d i v i d u a l self, a n dt h er i c h l y s y m b o c i l b u ts t a r k l ys m i p e l s t o r yg i v e it t h ep 'r e s e n c e , 't h ee m o t o in a lp o w e r ,t or e s i s t  b e c o m n ig d a t e d in t h ew a yH a w t h o r n e s ' o t h e ro ln gr o m a n c e sc a nb e . T h eS c a r l e tL e t t  p o s s e s s e st h eq u a l i t yo fm y t h — k i le M o h c ia n s ," i tp r e s e n t ss y m b o l i c a l yr i c hc h a r a c t e r s in  aa ln d s c a p e ,w h o s ea d v e n t u r e sa n de v e n t u a lt r a g i cc o n c u ls o in a r ea s lo rich in s y m b o s l"  ( 5 ) . L i k eo t h e rm y t h s , its r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o nf o rs u c c e s s v ie g e n e r a t o in s in a p o p u a lr f o r m , in t h i sc a s e film, e n s u r e st h eh a n d n ig o no fm e a n n ig sf r o mo n eg e n e r a t o in t ot h en e x t . A sw i t hM o h c ia n s , it is t h ei d e o l o g i c a la m b g iu t i e so fT h eS c a r l e tL e t t e rt h a t  e n s u r e its s t a y n ig p o w e r ,b e c a u s e its u n c o m m e t id n e s sa o lw sf o rf r e ei n t e r p r e t a t i o n in its  r e t e li n gf o rl a t e rg e n e r a t o in s . Ac o n t r a s tw i t han o v e ll i k eS t o w e s ' U n c e l T o m s ' C a b n i  m a k e st h i sp o i n tm o r e explicit. W h e l i t h a tn o v e lw o u d l s e e mt oo f f e rg r e a tc n ie m a t c i p o t e n t i a lb e c a u s eo f its d r a m a t c i p o w e r( a n d its f r e q u e n ts t a g ep r o d u c t o in s in t h e n n ie t e e n t hc e n t u r y ) , it h a sr a r e l yb e e na d a p t e dt o film, b e c a u s e its d a t e dc o n c e r n s , its d i d a c t i c i s m ,a n d its c o m m t e id r h e t o r i c ,t h ev e r yq u a l i t i e st h a te n s u r e d its p h e n o m e n a l  s u c c e s s in t h en n ie t e e n t hc e n t u r y ,m a k e it t o oi n f l e x i b l et ob es h a p e df o rat w e n t e it h 5  c e n t u r y film a u d e in c e . M o h c ia n s ' s e e m n ig y l c o n f u s e dm x ie dm e s s a g e sa b o u tt h em o r a l  v a u le o fc o l o n i z a t i o na n dt h er e l a t i o n s h i pb e t w e e nt h er a c e s ,f o rB a r k e ra n dS a b i n ,r e s u  in a ni d e o l o g i c a lt e n s o in t h a tc r e a t e s" aw e a t l ho fp o s s i b i l i t i e sf o rs u b s e q u e n tu s e " (201). Similarly, T h eS c a r l e tL e t t e r s ' n a r r a t o ra l t e r n a t e l ye n d o r s e sa n dr e j e c t st h eP u r i t a n c o m m u n t i y s ' v a l u e s ,a n dH e s t e r s ' a s well. B a r k e ra n dS a b n i n a m et h i si d e o l o g i c a l i n d e c i s i o nc 'o h e r e n ti n c o h e r e n c e . ' T h ef m l i m a k e rc a ne x p l o i tt h e s ei n c o n s i s t e n c i e s ;t h e y p r o v d ie a c e r t a i n flexibility in i n t e r p r e t i n gt h et e x ta se i t h e rc o n s e r v a t v ie o r liberal,  a c c o r d n ig t ot h ee la n n ig so fh i sa u d e in c e . T h i s is e v d ie n tn o to n y l in t h ef i l m sw h c ih c o m p r s ie t h i ss t u d y ,b u t in t h eb o d yo fa c a d e m c i H a w t h o r n e criticism.  B yw a yo fe x a m p e l o fh o wt h eb o o k s ' k e ys is u e sa r ef l e x i b l ee n o u g ht op e r m r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o no v e rt i m e ,J a n eT o m p k n is o f f e r st w od s ip a r a t er e a d n ig so ft h ec h a r a c t e r  o fC h i l n g w o r t ht h a ts e e m , initially, s i m i l a r . S h eq u o t e saU n i t a r i a nm i n i s t e r s ' r e v e iw o f  t h en e w y l r e e la s e dr o m a n c e ,w h c ih a s s e r t st h a tt h eo l dd o c t o ri lu s t r a t e s" t h ed a n g e ro f c h e r s ih n ig m e r e y l a ni n t e le c t u a li n t e r e s t in t h eh u m a ns o u l "( q t d . in T o m p k n is  S e n s a t o in a l 20). W h e l i t h i ss e e m ss i m i l a rt om o d e r n critic D o n a d l R i n g e s ' a s s e s s m e n to f C h i l n g w o r t ha s" a cold, s p e c u l a t i v e ,i n t e le c t u a lm a nw h oc o m m t s i as i no fi s o l a t i o n w h c ih m u s tu l t i m a t e l yd e s t r o yh i m , "R n ig e is u s n i g 'sin' m e t a p h o r c ia y l t oe x p r e s s C h i l i n g w o r t h s ' r e j e c t i o no fn o r m a le m o o t in a n dc o m m u n y t i n o r m s . T h em i n i s t e r ,  h o w e v e r , is r e f e r r i n gt os i n literally, a sa no f e n s ea g a n is tG o d ,f r o mw h o mt h ed o c t o  willfully t u r n e da w a y . T o m p k n is e x p a ln is t h a tt h e critics u s et h es a m et e r m st od e s c r b i C h i l i n g w o r t h s ' c h a r a c t e r ,b u t t h eC h i l n g w o r t ho f PMLA t r a n s g r e s s e st h es o c i a l a n dp s y c h o o lg c ia ln o r m so fa s e c u a lr h u m a n s im ,w h i l e t h eC h i l n g w o r t ho fH a w t h o r n e s ' e r ad r a m a t z ie s liberal 6  P r o t e s t a n tc o n v c it o in sa b o u tt h es o u s l ' r e l a t i o nt oG o d . T h e s ea c c o u n t so fw h a tH a w t h o r n em e a n tt oc o n v e ya r e n o tn it e r c h a n g e a b e l a n dd on o tt e s t i f yt ot h ee x s it e n c eo f s o m ec e n t r a lt r u t h in H a w t h o r n e s ' t e x tw h c ih b o t h critics h a v eg r a s p e d . W h a tt h e ys h o w is t h a tt h e critic, t h ec o n t e x tw i t h i nw h c ih t h e critic r e a d s ,a n dt h et e x tt h a t is i n t e r p r e t e da r es m i u t l a n e o u s y l f e a t u r e so fa s i n g l eh i s t o r i c a l m o m e n . t A st h ec o n c e p to fs i nc h a n g e sf r o mt h e o l o g i c a l f a c tt om e t a p h o rf o rap s y c h o o lg c ia ls t a t e .. t h et e x to fT h e S c a r l e tL e t t e rc h a n g e sa c c o r d i n g l y .( 2 0 )  I t is in l a r g em e a s u r et h ea m i o ft h i ss t u d yt od s ic u s st h i sp r o c e s s ,a n da n a y lz es i m i e x a m p e lsfromt h es e v e nfilms,o ft h et e x t s ' t r a n s f o r m a t o i n in s u c c e s s v ie i n t e r p r e t i v e h a n d s . W h e l i H e s t e r s ' s t o r y , in 1 9 2 6 , is i n t e r p r e t e dt h r o u g ht h eR o a r n ig T w e n t i e s ' r e a c t i o na g a n is tV i c t o r i a n i s m , in 1 9 5 0 its h te m e so fh d id e ns i na n dp e r s e c u t o in a r e e x a m n ie db ya ne n t e r t a n im e n tn id u s t r yu n d e rp r e s s u r ef r o mt h ef o r c e so fa n t i -  C o m m u n s im . T h e 1 9 3 4filmc o n s t r u c t sH e s t e r in t h em i a g eo f its i d e a lf e m a l e ,a n dt h e 1 9 9 5filmd o e st h es a m ew i t hs t r i k i n g l yd i f f e r e n tr e s u l t s . N ot e x t is s t a b l e ,a sr e a d e r r e s p o n s et h e o r i s t sh a v ea r g u e d . E v e r yt e x t is c r e a t e d  in i n t e r a c t i o nw i t ha ni n d i v i d u a lw h o is s h a p e db yh i so w ne x p e r e in c e s ,a sw e l a sh t m i ea n dp a lc e( D u n n eH a w t h o r n e s ' 1 9 6 ) . J a n eT o m p k n is s e e m st oe c h oB a r k e ra n d  S a b n i w h e ns h ec o n c u ld e st h a tt h e" v e r yd e s c r i p t i o no fT h eS c a r l e tL e t t e ra sat e x tt h  i n v i t e dc o n s t a n tr e d e f i n i t i o nm g ih tb ep u tf o r w a r d , finally, a st h eo n et r u eb a s s i o nw  t of o u n d its c l a i mt oi m m o r t a l i t y . F o rt h eh a m l a r ko ft h ec l a s s i cw o r k is p r e c i s e l yt h a r e w a r d st h es c r u t n iy o fs u c c e s s v ie g e n e r a t o in so fr e a d e r s ,s p e a k n ig w i t he q u a lp o w e rt o p e o p e l o fv a r o iu sp e r s u a s o in s "( S e n s a t o in a l3 5 ) . T h i sc o m m e n t is e q u a l ya p p l i c a b l et o  film a d a p t a t o in sa st oa c a d e m c i criticism. Neil S n iy a r da s s e r t st h a te v e r ya d a p t a t o i n is  critical g o ls so nt h en o v e l( 1 1 7 ) ,a n d it is a tl e a s tc e r t a i n l yar e a d n ig o ft h et e x t , in  7  e s p e c i a l yw i t hT h eS c a r l e tL e t t e r ,i n t e r p r e t a t i o n so ft h en a r r a t i v en e c e s s t i a t em a k n ig  c h o i c e s ,a n dt os o m ed e g r e e ,t a k i n g ap o s i t i o no nt h es is u e so fs i na n d guilt, s o c e it y  t h e self, o re v e nm e r e y l w h e t h e rt h i sn o v e lb e a r s a liberal o rc o n s e r v a t v ie a g e n d a . T h  c h o c ie sa r ea w la y sb a s e do nt h ea t t i t u d e sa n dv a u le so ft h ef i l m m a k e r s ' a u d e in c e ;t h i s  t r u eo ft h e film i n t e r p r e t a t i o ne v e nm o r et h a nt h es c h o l a r l yo n e ,s n ic em o s tH o y lw o o d  films a r em a d et oa p p e a lt om a s st a s t e s . T h es c h o l a r l yc o m m u n y t i is ( l a r g e l y )n o t  t h es a m es t a n d a r d . T h i ss t u d y is t h u sac o m p e n i lg a n ds o m e m i te ss u r p r i s i n gc o m p a n o in t ot h eb o d yo fa c a d e m c i c r i t i c i s mo ft h en o v e l .  M u c ho ft h i ss t u d y will b ed e v o t e dt oad e t a i l e de x a m n ia t o in o fc h a n g n ig p o p u a l a t t i t u d e s ,v a u le sa n dp r e j u d i c e s ,g u d ie db yam e t h o d o o lg yt h a tr e a d sc o n t e x ta n ds e e s i n t e r p r e t a t i o no fa l i t e r a r yt e x t( a n d I will a r g u et h a tfilma d a p t a t o in sc o n s t i t u t e  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s )a s critically e n g a g e dw i t ht h e i rc u l t u r e in a d i s c u r s i v er e l a t i o n s h i p . Ih a v u s e da sm ym e t h o d o o lg c ia lm o d e lS t e v e nM a i lo u x s ' f o r m u a lt o in o f rhetorical hermeneutics, d e v e o lp e d in h i st h r e eb o o k s ,I n t e r p r e t i v eC o n v e n o t in s( 1 9 8 2 ) ,R h e t o r i c a l P o w e r( 1 9 8 9 ) ,a n dR e c e p t o in H i s t o r i e s( 1 9 9 8 ) . M a i l o u xd e f n ie sr h e t o r i c a lh e r m e n e u t c is ,  v e r ys u c c i n c t l y ,a s" u s n ig r h e t o r i ct op r a c t i c et h e o r yb yd o n ig h i s t o r y . " I t will b em y  a r g u m e n tt h a tfilma d a p t a t o in so fT h eS c a r l e tL e t t e rc a nb er e a da sc o n t e x t u a l ys e n s i t i v e politically e n g a g e di n t e r p r e t a t i o n so ft h en o v e lj u s ta sa r er e v e iw so f it in 1 8 5 0a n d critical c o m m e n t a r e is in PMLA. R h e t o r i c a lh e r m e n e u c t is u s e sr h e t o r i ct op r a c t i c eh e r m e n e u c t i t h e o r yb yd o n ig  r e c e p t o in s t u d e is w i t h i nc u l t u r a lh i s t o r y . W i t h i nt h i sc o n t e x t ,r h e t o r i c is d e f n ie da s" t h e s t u d yo ft e x t u a le f f e c t s ,o ft h e i rp r o d u c t o in a n dr e c e p t o in "( M a i l o u xR e c e p t o i n xii), o r  t h ee f f e c to ft e x t so na na u d e in c e ,w h c ih is i n h e r e n t l y political. T h en a t u r eo fc u l t u r e 8  m a k e s it so, a sc u l t u r e is f i g u r e da s" ah e t e r o g e n e o u s ,n it e r c o n n e c t e dt a n g e l o fr h e t o r i c a p r a c t i c e se x t e n d n ig a n dm a n p iu a lt n ig o t h e rp r a c t c ie sa n ds t r u c t u r e s — s o c a i, l political, a n d e c o n o m c i" ( 1 8 6 ) . H e r m e n e u c t i t h e o r y ,d e r v ie df r o mH a n s G e o r gG a d a m e s r ' w o r k , is f o c u s e do nt h ep r o c e s so ft e x t u a li n t e r p r e t a t i o n . G a d a m e ro r i g i n a t e dt h en o t o in o ft h e  h e r m e n e u c t i circle, w h e r e n i ar e a d e ra p p r o a c h e sat e x ta n dd e r v ie sm e a n n ig f r o m it, b u  t h i sm e a n n ig is a w la y sc o n t n ig e n to nw h a t is a r le a d ym e a n n ig f u lt oh m i o rh e rp r i o rt  t h ei n t e r a c t i o n . I no t h e rw o r d s ,m e a n n ig is c r e a t e db yt h ei n t e r p r e t e ra c c o r d n ig t ow h a e e lm e n t s in t h et e x tr e s o n a t e in t h er e a d e r s ' m n id ,w h c ih is i n f l u e n c e db yau n q iu e c o m b n ia t o in o fe x p e r e in c e sa n dp r e d i s p o s i t i o n s . S oh e r m e n e u c t i t h e o r y ,a n dt h u sr h e t o r i c a lh e r m e n e u t c is ,f o c u s e so nt h er e a d e r s '  e x p e r e in c eo fa t e x t ," w h a tt h er e a d e rc o n t r b iu t e st oi n t e r p r e t a t i o nr a t h e rt h a nw h a tt h e t e x tg v ie st h er e a d e rt oi n t e r p r e t "( 4 7 ) . H o w e v e r ,u n l i k et h er e a d e r r e s p o n s et h e o r e is  p r o m u g la t e d in t h eS e v e n t e is b yW o f g la n gI s e r ,t h i sr e a d e r is n o tc o n s d ie r e d in isolation  am n id i n t e r a c t i n g in a v a c u u mw i t hw o r d so nap a g e . R h e t o r i c a lh e r m e n e u c t is p o s i t s h i s t o r i c a ly s i t u a t e d ,c u l t u r a ly i n t e r p o l a t e dr e a d e r ,o rr a t h e r ,f o l o w i n gS t a n e ly Fish, a r e a d n ig c o m m u n t y i. B u tu n l i k e in Fish s ' w o r k ,h e r e it is a fully c o n t e x t u a z i le d c o m m u n t y i t h a tw eo b s e r v ea p p r o a c h n ig t h eh e r m e n e u c t i circle a n df o r m n ig a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o nw h c ih is a w la y si n e x t r i c a b l ef r o mt h es u r r o u n d n ig c u l t u r ea n di n s t i t u t i o n s .  A ss u c h ,t h ei n t e r p r e t a t i o n is a w la y sa" p o l i t i c a ly i n t e r e s t e da c to fp e r s u a s o in " (50). T h e r h e t o r i c a lh e r m e n e u t c is it s t u d e is t h e s ei n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ,t h e s ee v e n t sw i t h i nc u l t u r a lh i s t o r y t h a ta r ec a t a y lz e db yat e x t . S i m i l a r l y , in h i sT h e Political U n c o n s c o iu s .F r e d e r i c J a m e s o np o s i t st h a t w en e v e rr e a ly c o n f r o n tat e x tm i m e d a it e y l, in all its 9  f r e s h n e s sa s a thing-in-itself. R a t h e r ,t e x t sc o m eb e f o r e u sa st h ea l w a y s a l r e a d y r e a d ;w ea p p r e h e n dh te mt h r o u g h s e d m i e n t e dl a y e r so fp r e v o iu si n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ,o r — i ft h et e x t is b r a n d n e w — t h r o u g ht h es e d m i e n t e dr e a d n ig h a b t is a n d c a t e g o r e is d e v e o lp e db yt h o s ei n h e r i t e di n t e r p r e t i v ec o n d i t i o n s . T h i sp r e s u p p o s t i o nt h e nd i c t a t e st h eu s eo fa m e h to d( w h c ih I h a v ee s le w h e r et e r m e d" m e t a c o m m e n t a r y " )a c c o r d n ig t ow h c ih o u ro b e jc to fs t u d y is e ls st h et e x t itself t h a nt h ei n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t h r o u g hw h c ih w ea t e m p tt oc o n f r o n ta n da p p r e c a it e it. (10)  S n ic et h i s is a t h e o r yo fa r e a d e r s ' political u n c o n s c o iu s , it s t a n d st or e a s o nt h a ta m o n g t h es e d m i e n t e dl a y e r so fi n t e r p r e t a t i o nt h a tc o n t r b iu t et ot h ea w l a y s a r le a d y r e a da r et h e l a y e r so fc o n t e x tt h a ta c c r u ef r o mb e i n g i n t h e w o r l d . F o l o w i n gH a n s R o b e r tJ a u s s s ' r e c e p t o in a e s t h e t c i t h e o r y ,r h e t o r i c a lh e r m e n e u c t is  i n v o l v e sd e t a i l e dr e c e p t o in s t u d i e s ," f o c u s n ig o nt h eh i s t o r i c a le f f e c t so ft e x t sf o rs p e c i f i c r e a d n ig c o m m u n e t is "( M a i l o u xR e c e p t o i n xii). M a i l o u xe x p a ln is t h a t in c o n t r a s tt ov a r o iu sf o r m so fr e a d e rt a l kt h a tf o c u s e do na f i c t i o n a l i z e dr e a d e rr e p r e s e n t e d in a t e x to ra ni d e a lr e a d e r i m p l i e db yt h et e x to ra na c t u a lr e a d e rt o d a yr e a d n ig t h et e x t , J a u s s s ' r e c e p t o in a e s t h e t c is a d v o c a t e dt a l k i n ga b o u tp a s t h i s t o r i c a lr e a d e r sw i t h i nt h e i rs p e c i f i ch o r z io n so fe x p e c t a t o in s . S u c ht a l kc o u d l d e v e o lp critical a n a y ls e sa n ds t o r i e so fr e a d n ig o p e nt oar a n g eo ff a c t o r su s u a l yg in o r e d in m o s tr e a d e r o r e in t e d criticism, f a c t o r sc o n s t iu t e db y social, political a n de c o n o m c i c a t e g o r i e s .( 7 7 ) B e c a u s ee v e r ya c to fi n t e r p r e t a t i o n is i n h e r e n t l y political, r h e t o r i c a lh e r m e n e u c t is d e s c r b ie st h ed e b a t e st h a te n s u ef r o mc o n f l i c t i n gi n t e r p r e t a t i o n so fa t e x t ,a n d  c o n t e x t u a z i le se a c hs i d e s ' p o s i t i o nt oa c c o u n tf o r it. F o rr h e t o r i c a lh e r m e n e u t c is ,t h e r e is  n o" c o r r e c t "n it e r p r e t a t o in — at e x th a sn om e a n n ig o u t s d ie o fs p e c i f i ci n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . S o t h es c h o l a r s ' j o b is t op r o d u c eh i s t o r i e so fi n t e r p r e t a t i o n sa n di n t e r p r e t i v ed i s p u t e s ,  a c c o u n t e df o rc o n t e x t u a l y . I n this, M a i l o u xf i n d sh i sd i r e c t i o n in t h en e o P r a g m a s t im o R c ih a r dR o r t y . N e o p r a g m a s t im p o s t is t h a t  10  in a m u l t i p l ew o r d l o fc o n f l i c t i n gp r a c t c ie so ft h i n k i n g a n ds p e a k n ig , it m a k e sn os e n s et ot r yt op r o m u g la t e a lw sf o rh o wt h em n id s h o u d l w o r k ,b e c a u s et od os o w o u d l b et op r o p o s eo n y l a n o t h e rm a n n e ro fi n t e r p r e t i n g a n dt a l k i n ga b o u tt h ew o r l d ,n o tt h ew a yt oe n d all w a y s . C o n s e q u e n t y l, R o r t ya d v i s e s , in o r d e rt oc o m et og r i p s w i t hc e r t a i np e r p e t u a y l v e x n ig p h i l o s o p h i c a lp r o b e lm s , o n es h o u d l n o tt r yt od e v e o lp a nm i p r o v e dm o d e lo fm n id b u ts h o u d l e x a m n ie t h eh i s t o r i c a lr e c o r dt os e eh o wt h e y a r o s e .( A r m s t r o n gq t d . in M a i l o u xR e c e p t o in 6 3 ) R h e t o r i c a lh e r m e n e u c t is t a k e su pt h i sp r a g m a t c i r e j e c t i o no ft h ep o s s i b i l i t yo f a final a n s w e r ,o fa f o u n d a t i o n . M a i l o u xc a ls it a n t i F o u n d a t i o n a l . U n l i k ef o r m a l i s m , it d o e s n o ti n v e s t i g a t e what a t e x tm e a n s . U n l i k ea ln g u a g e b a s e dt h e o r e is l i k es e m i o t i c s ,a n d  u n l i k es o m ef o r m so fr e a d e r r e s p o n s e , it d o e sn o ti n v e s t i g a t e how a t e x tm e a n s . I n s t e a d  it i n v e s t i g a t e s why a t e x tm e a n sc e r t a i nt h n ig st oc e r t a i ng r o u p sa tc e r t a i nm o m e n s t in  t i m e ,a n dh o wt h eg r o u p sr e a c t e d . T h ep r a c t i c eo ft h e o r yr e s d ie s in t h ed o n ig o fh s it o  n o t in a r g u m e n t sa b o u th o wt ofindthe m e a n n ig ,b u tn a r r a t i v e sa b o u tw h ys o m ep e o p e l  f o u n d this m e a n n ig a n do t h e r sd i dn o t . T h ed s ip u t e so v e rat e x t s ' m e a n n ig f o r mp a r t c u l t u r a lc o n v e r s a t o in w h c ih is a r h e t o r i c a lh e r m e n e u t c is it s ' u l t i m a t eo b e jc to fs t u d y . R h e t o r i c a lh e r m e n e u c t is p a lc e s" t h e o r y , criticism, a n dl i t e r a t u r e itself w i t h i nac u l t u r a l c o n v e r s a t o in ,t h ed r a m a t i c ,u n e n d n ig c o n v e r s a t o in o fh i s t o r y "( M a i l o u xR h e t o r i c a l 1 8 ) .  I tr e a d sac u l t u r ea st h ec u l t u r er e a d s at e x t ,a n d it r e a d st h ec u l t u r e s ' r e a d n ig a sa r h e t o r i c a la c tm e a n tt oc o n t r b iu t et oa r g u m e n t sw i t h i nt h a tc u l t u r e . A n dt h ec u l t u r a l c o n v e r s a t o in t ow h c ih M a i l o u xr e f e r s is c o m p o s e do fa r g u m e n t s — t i is a p t ic h e d r h e t o r i c a lb a t t l eo fF o u c a u d la in p o w e r k n o w e ld g e . H ea s s e r t st h a t" w em u s tv e iw t h e c u l t u r a lc o n v e r s a t o in a sac o m p e lx r h e t o r i c a l s t r u g g e l o fe v e r y o n ew i t he v e r y o n e ,a c o n v e r s a t o in t r a v e r s e db yu n e v e np o w e rr e l a t i o n s , ar h e t o r i c a lc o n f l i c ti m p l i c a t e d in  11  s o c i a lf o r m a t o in so fr a c e , class, g e n d e r ,a g ea n dn a t i o n "( 1 4 7 ) .  Iu s er h e t o r i c a lh e r m e n e u c t is in m ys t u d yo fs e v e n film a n dt e l e v i s i o na d a p t a t o in  o f T h eS c a r l e tL e t t e rb yp o s t u l a t i n gt h a t a film a d a p t a t o in o fa n o v e l is a ni n t e r p r e t a t i o o f it, f o rap a r t i c u l a r( f i l m )a u d e in c ea tap a r t i c u l a rm o m e n t in t h eo n g o n ig c u l t u r a l c o n v e r s a t o in sa b o u tn a t i o n ,g e n d e r ,c o m m u n y t i a n dm o r a l i t y . J e a nM it r yw a st h e first h i n ta t a critical a n dc r e a t i v er o l ef o ra d a p t a t o in . C o n t e s t n ig G e o r g eB u le s t o n e s ' l o n g u n c h a e ln g e dd e s c r i p t i o no ft h es u c c e s s f u l film a d a p t a t o in a sat r a n s l a t i o no ft h en o v e l f r o mo n en a r r a t i v em o d et oa n o t h e r ,M i t r ya s s e r t e dt h a t in a d a p t a t i o n , t h em e a n so fe x p r e s s o in in being different w o u d l e x p r e s s d i f f e r e n tt h n ig s — n o tt h es a m et h i n g in d i f f e r e n tw a y s .. W et a l ka s if a na d a p t a t o in w e r eam a t e ro ft r a n s l a t i o n , like p a s s n ig f r o mo n ea ln g u a g et oa n o t h e r ,w h e n in f a c t it is a m a t e ro fp a s s n ig f r o mo n e form t oa n o t h e r ,am a t e ro f t r a n s p o s i t i o n ,o fr e c o n s t r u c t i o n ,( q t d . in Griffith 2 5 , italics M i t r y ' s )  Iw o u d l a d dt h a tt h eq u e s t o in h e r e is n o tm e r e y l s e m o it c i a n dg e n e r i c ,c o n c e r n n ig t h e n a r r a t i v e s ' e s t r a n g e m e n tf r o m its m e a n n ig m a k n ig m o d e ,b u t in t h ec a s eo fm o d e r n  a d a p t a t o in o f classics, t h ea d a p t o r s ' t e m p o r a la n dc u l t u r a ld s it a n c ef r o mt h ep e r o id o ft h n o v e s l ' p r o d u c t o in c r e a t e s ah o s to fh i s t o r i c a ls is u e so fr h e t o r i c a ls i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e  a d a p t o ra si n t e r p r e t e rw o r k sw i t h i nac u l t u r eq u i t ed i f f e r e n tf r o mt h eo n eo fw h c ih t h e n o v e lw a sap a r t . S ot h e r ea r ec o n t e x t b a s e dn if u le n c e sd e t e r m n in ig t h er h e t o r i c a l d i r e c t i o no ft h e film, its a r g u m e n t , its political e f f e c t i v i t y .  Neil S i n y a r d ,w h o s et h e o r yIh a v ea r le a d yt o u c h e do n ,e n a lr g e sM i t r y ' sd ie a s in h i sF i l m i n gL i t e r a t u r e( 1 9 7 9 ) . I nac h a p t e rr a t h e rp o n it e d y l titled " A d a p t a t o in a s Criticism," h ea r g u e st h a t t h eb e s ta d a p t a t o in so fb o o k sf o r film c a no f t e nb eb e s t a p p r o a c h e da sa na c t i v i t yo fl i t e r a r y criticism, n o ta 12  p i c t o r i a l i s a t i o no ft h ec o m p e lt en o v e l ,b u t a critical e s s a y w h c ih s t r e s s e sw h a t it s e e sa st h em a n i t h e m e . L i k e a critical e s s a y ,t h e film a d a p t a t o in s e e lc t ss o m ee p s io d e s ,e x c u ld e s , o f f e r sp r e f e r r e da l t e r n a t i v e s . I tf o c u s e so ns p e c i f i ca r e a so f t h en o v e l ,e x p a n d so rc o n t r a c t s detail, a n dh a sm i a g n ia t v ie f l i g h t so ff a n c ya b o u ts o m ec h a r a c t e r s . I nt h ep r o c e s s , like t h eb e s t criticism, it c a nt h r o wn e wl i g h to nt h e original. ( 1 1 7 )  G o n ig f u r t h e r ,h ec a lm i st h a ts u c h critical a d a p t a t o in ss h o u d l b e" n o ta f r a i dt ok i c kt h e n o v e s l a r o u n d ,t ot a k el i b e r t i e sw i t hc h a r a c t e ra n ds t r u c t u r ew h e nt h e yf e e lt h e yh a v e m o r e convincing r e a d n ig st oo f f e rt h a nt h e original, t oe m p h a s z ie s o m ef e a t u r e sa n d d s ir e g a r do t h e r s "( 1 1 7 , italics m i n e ) . Ie m p h a s z ie " c o n v n ic n ig "r e a d n ig st oh i g h l i g h t  S i n y a r d s ' a s s u m p o t in r e g a r d n ig t h er h e t o r i c a lp u r p o s eo f film a d a p t a t o in a s criticism. A n  a d a p t o ri d e n t i f i e st h es is u e s in t h eo r i g i n a lt e x tt h a th eo rs h ec o n s d ie r sc e n t r a l . E n t e r i n  t h eh e r m e n e u c t i circle, h eo rs h er e a ly i d e n t i f i e st h o s ea s p e c t st h a ta r em o s tm e a n n ig f u t oh m i o rh e r ,t h o s et h a tr e a ly r e g i s t e r . T h e yr e g i s t e rb e c a u s et h e ya o l wt h ea d a p t o r u s et h ei n t e r p r e t a t i o na sa na r g u m e n t in t h ep o w e r k n o w e ld g es t r u g g e l o ft h ec u l t u r a l c o n v e r s a t o in . A n do fc o u r s e ,t h ec u l t u r a lc u r r e n c y ,t h ep r e s u m e da u t h o r i t yo fa c l a s s i c  n o v e l ,e ln d sw e g ih tt ot h ea d a p t a t o in a sar h e t o r i c a lw e a p o n . I nt h ec a s eo fT h eS c L e t t e r ,t o t a ly c o n f l i c t i n gr e a d n ig so f its m e a n n ig e x i s t in d i f f e r e n ta d a p t a t o in sf r o m  d i f f e r e n tp e r o id s in film h i s t o r y ,b u te a c hw a sr e c e v ie da s" H a w t h o r n e s ' s t o r y "b e c a u s e  t h ea u d e in c ef a i l e dt ou n d e r s t a n dt h efilma sa ni n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,n o tat r a n s l a t i o n ,o ft h e  n o v e l . Ia p p r o a c ht h ea d a p t a t o in sa sa t e m p t st oa r g u eas d ie ( o rs o m e m t i e sm o r et h o n es i d e ) in t h ec u l t u r a lc o n v e r s a t o in sa b o u tg e n d e r ,m o r a l i t y , religion, c o m m u n t y i c o n t r o l( i n c l u d i n gc e n s o r s h i p ) ,i n d i v i d u a l i t y ,a n dA m e r c ia ni d e n t i t y , in t h e 1 9 2 0 s , 1 9 3 0 s , 1 9 5 0 s , 1 9 7 0 s ,a n d 1 9 9 0 s . I n d i v i d u a ly ,e a c hc h a p t e rp r o v d ie sad e s c r i p t i o no fo n e  m o m e n t in t h en o v e s l ' r e c e p t o in h i s t o r y ; colectively, t h ep r o j e c tp r o v d ie sah i s t o r yo ft h 13  c u l t u r a lc o n v e r s a t o in ss u r r o u n d n ig t h e s es is u e s in t h et w e n t e it hc e n t u r y — b e c a u s e  colectively, t h i s is w h a tt h ea d a p t a t o in sd o . O fc o u r s e , in e a c h film a f e wo ft h e s es i a r eh i g h l i g h t e da n do t h e r si g n o r e d ,b e c a u s ee a c hi n t e r p r e t e rs e e s in H a w t h o r n e s ' n o v e l  t h es is u e st h a tm o s tr e s o n a t e in t h ec u l t u r e in w h c ih t h e film will p a r t i c i p a t er h e t o r i c a  A n da st h ec u l t u r a lc o n s e n s u sa b o u tt h e s es is u e sc h a n g e so v e rs e v e n t yt u m u t u lo u sy e a r s t h em e a n n ig t h a t is r e a da n do f f e r e d in t h ei n t e r p r e t a t i o nc h a n g e st o o .  T h ew a yIp r o c e e d in e a c hc h a p t e ro fm yr e c e p t o in h i s t o r yo fT h eS c a r l e tL e t t c a nb eq u i c k l ys u m m a r z ie db yM a i lo u x s ' p r e s c r i p t i o nf o rr h e t o r i c a lh e r m e n e u t c is : E m b e dt h ea c to fi n t e r p r e t a t i o n first in its m o s tr e l e v a n t critical d e b a t e s( a n dt h e r em a yb es e v e r a l ) ;t h e nt h ea c t a n d its p a r t i c i p a t i o n in o n g o n ig a r g u m e n t sm u s tb e situa t e d in t h er h e t o r i c a lt r a d i t i o n sw i t h i nr e e lv a n t institut i o n a ld s ic o u r s e s ;a n dt h e nt h ei n t e r p r e t i v ea c t , its a r g u m e n t s ,a n d its f r a m n ig i n s t i t u t i o n sm u s tb ep a lc e dw i t h i n t h ec u l t u r a lc o n v e r s a t o in s ,r e e lv a n ts o c i a lp r a c t i c e s ,a n d c o n s t r a n in ig m a t e r i a lc r ic u m s t a n c e so f its h i s t o r i c a lm o m e n t . A n do fc o u r s et h i sm o m e n th a s its s p e c i f i ct e m p o ral h i s t o r ya n dg e o g r a p h c ia ll o c a t i o nw i t h i nac u l t u r e s ' e v o l v i n g social, political, a n de c o n o m c i f o r m a t o in s . ( M a i l o u xR h e t o r i c a l 1 3 4 )  S oIb e g n i b yc l o s e l yr e a d n ig t h ea d a p t a t o in s ' i n t e r p r e t i v er h e t o r i c ,o r in S i n y a r d s ' t e r m h o w it " k i c k st h en o v e la r o u n d "( 1 1 7 ) ,s e l e c t i n g ,r e a r r a n g i n g ,i n v e n t i n ga n dd e l e t i n g  c h a r a c t e ra n di n c i d e n t ,a s s u m n ig t h a t it d o e ss of o rt h e m a t i c ,r h e t o r i c a lr e a s o n s . T h e n ,b  p r o g r e s s v ie y l w d ie n n ig m yi n v e s t i g a t i o no ft h ea d a p t a t o in s ' c o n t e x t ,Ia t e m p tt oe x p l a i n  w h yt h en o v e lw a si n t e r p r e t e d that way, specificaly. B yw a yo fe x a m p e l, o n eo ft h e a d a p t a t o in sw a sp r o d u c e d in 1 9 3 4 ,d u r n ig t h eD e p r e s s o in ,a n d in t h em d is to ft h e  c o n t r o v e r s yo v e rt h eH a y sC o d et h a tr e s u l t e d in s t r i c tc e n s o r s h p i o fH o y lw o o d film. T h  film p a r t i c i p a t e d in d e b a t e sc o n c e r n n ig t h er i s eo fs o p h s it c ia t e dc h a r a c t e rd r a m a( w i t ht h e  14  c o m n ig o fs o u n d ) , film c e n s o r s h p i, t h er e t u r no ft h ec u l to fm a t e r n t i ya n dw o m a n y l s h a  w i t ht h er e j e c t i o no ft h ey o u t h f u lf l a p p e ra saf e m n in i e ideal, a nn ic r e a s n ig a p p r e c i a t i o n  o ff e m a e l s t r e n g t ha n da u o tn o m ya ss om a n ym e n fell i d l e in t h eD e p r e s s o in ( a n da  c o n c u r r e n tb a c k a ls ha g a n is t it f o rt h es a m er e a s o n ) ,a n dt h em o r a y lc o n s e r v a t v ie t u r no f  p o s t C r a s h ,p o s t R o a r n ig T w e n t e is A m e r c ia . T h e film a d a p t o r sr e a dT h eS c a r l e tL e t t e ra s  a nn id c it m e n to fc o m m u n t y i r e p r e s s o in a n dap a e nt ot h er e s o u r c e so fm o t h e r s . H e s t e r  p r e s e n t e d ,c o n s e q u e n t y l, a sas y m p a t h e c t i v i c t i mo fa c o r r u p t ,r e p r e s s v ie r e g m i ea n da s  d o t n ig a n d( r e l a t i v et oh e rp r e d e c e s s o rG i s h )s h a p e y l m o t h e r . T h i s is t h em e a n n ig t h e  a d a p t o r sf o u n d in t h en o v e l ,b e c a u s et h a t is w h a tt h e yw e r el o o k i n g for. M ys u m m a r y t h ec u l t u r a lc o n v e r s a t o in s in w h c ih t h e film p a r t i c i p a t e dr e v e a s l t h ew a y ,f o l o w i n g M a i lo u x s ' p r e s c r i p t i o n ,Iw d ie nm ys c o p ep r o g r e s s i v e l y — f i r s td e a l i n gw i t hi n s t i t u t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n s like c o n v e n t o in s ,a n di n s t i t u t i o n a ld s ic o u r s e s like t h eH a y sc e n s o r s h p i d e b a t e  t h a ta r ep a r t i c u l a rt oH o y lw o o da st h ef i l m / i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ' f r a m n ig i n s t i t u t i o n . T h e nt h i s  film a n dH o y lw o o dp r a c t i c e in g e n e r a la r er e a d in t e r m so fl a r g e rc u l t u r a lc o n v e r s a t o in s w h c ih i n f l u e n c et h e m . M a i l o u xo f f e r sr h e t o r i c a lh e r m e n e u c t is a saw a yo u to ft h e o r e t i c a ld e b a t e so v e r  t h em e a n n ig o fm e a n n ig , aw a yt or e c o n c e p t u a z i le o u rs t u d yo fc u l t u r e . Ih a v eu s e d aw a yt oh i s t o r i c i z ea n d politicize film a d a p t a t i o n ,a n daw a yo u to f film a d a p t a t o in  t h e o r y s ' p a r t i c u l a rt h e o r e t i c a ld e b a t ea b o u tt h el i m i t so f fidelity a n dj u s tw h a t a film o f n o v e ls h o u d l b e . M ys t u d yo ft h e political e f f e c t i v i t yo ft h e film a n dt e l e v i s i o n a d a p t a t o in sh e r ep r e s e n t e dr e s t s , in p a r t ,b o t ho nt h eb e l i e ft h a t" o s t e n s i b l yA m e r c ia n m o v e is h a v eb e e nd e d c ia t e dt ot h er e n if o r c e m e n to fm d id e lc a ls sm o r a l i t y . C e r t a i n l y  t h e yh a v ed o n et h e i rs h a r et os t r e n g t h e nc a p i t a l i s m ,c h a u v n is im ,r a c i s m ,s e x s im a n ds o  o n "( S c h e ls n ig e r xii) a n d ,a sA r t h u rS c h e ls n ig e r Jr. a r g u e sa n dm ys t u d y will s h o w , film is a n o t a b y l a m b g iu o u s ,e v e nd u p l i c i t o u sa r t . I t st e s t m i o n y is h a r dt od e c p ih e r . I t sm a n f i e s tc o n t e n to f t e nh e a d s in o n e d i r e c t i o n , its l a t e n tc o n t e n t in q u i t ea n o t h e r . T h ei m p l i c i t m e a n n ig a n df o r c eo f a film m a yo f t e nb ea tw a rw i t h its e x p l i c i t m o r a l . M o r e o v e r ,t h ea u d e in c e ,s u p p o s e d y l p a s s v ie in t h e s h r o u d e dt h e a t e r , is a c t u a l ya na c t i v ec o l a b o r a t o r ,s e i z i n gf r o m t h em o v e i w h a t it n e e d sf o r its o w np u r p o s e so ft u t e a lg ea n d f a n t a s y , (xii)  Film's r e m a r k a b e l a b i l i t yt os h a p ep u b l i co p n io in e v e nw h e l i it is b e n ig s h a p e db yp u b o p i n i o nh a sm a d e it a p o w e rw a t c h e dj e a l o u s l yb yc o n s e r v a t v ie s o c i a lf o r c e s like t h e L e g o in o fD e c e n c y ,H U A C ,a n dt h ec o n t e m p o r a r yR e l i g i o u sR i g h t ,a sIs h a le x p l o r e .  T h es t u d yo f a film in its c u l t u r a lm o m e n tp r e s e n t sac h a e ln g n ig p u z z e l f o rt h e r h e t o r i c a lh e r m e n e u t c is it ,s n ic e t h efilmd o c u m e n tm u s tb ea n a y ls e dw i t hr e f e r e n c et ob o t h its s u r f a c e a n d its d e e p e ri m p l i e dm e a n n ig s . I tm u s tb ec o n s d ie r e d in r e l a t i o nt ot h es p e c i f i cc o n d t i o n sw h c ih l e dt o its p r o d u c t o in ( s t u d i o rivalry, d i r e c t o r s ' t a s t e ,s t a r availability,financiallimita t i o n s ) ,t h eb r o a d e rs o c i a la n d political c o n t e x tf r o mw h c ih it t o o ks h a p e( t h ee r ao fp r o h i b i t i o n ,t h eC o d l W a r ,o rt h eb i c e n t e n n i a l y e a r ) ,a n dt h ea u d e in c ef o rw h c ih it w a sn it e n d e d[ p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u lw h e nw et u r nt ot e l e v i s i o n ] .( J o h n E. O C 'o n n o rx i x ) F r e d e r i cJ a m e s o nc o n s t r u e si n t e r p r e t a t i o na s" a ne s s e n t i a l ya le g o r i c a la c t ,w h c ih  c o n s s it s in r e w r i t i n gag v ie nt e x t in t e r m so fap a r t i c u l a ri n t e r p r e t i v em a s t e rc o d e " (10). I na d a p t n ig T h eS c a r l e tL e t t e rt o film, t h ef i l m m a k e r s ' r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o no ft h en o v e l is  filtered t h r o u g ht h ec n ie m a t c i m ' a s t e rc o d e , 't h a t is, t h ep e c u l i a r i t i e so fm a k n ig a c a nc o n s t r a n i o re v e n make m e a n n ig t h e m s e v le s — p r o d u c o t in c o n d i t i o n s ,t h em a r k e t ( f e a t u r eo r 'B'film,c o m m e r c a il o rp u b l i ct e l e v i s i o n ) ,a n dc o n t e m p o r a r y tastes a sm u c h  a so v e r a r c h n ig c u l t u r a lv a l u e s . T h i ss t u d ya t e m p t st oa c c o u n tf o r all o ft h e s em e a n n ig  m a k n ig c o n d i t i o n s . T h eu n q iu ef e a t u r eo ft h i ss t u d y in t h ed e u lg eo fc u l t u r a ls t u d e is is 16  n o to n y l m yu s eo fr h e t o r i c a lh e r m e n e u c t is b u tt h ed e c i s i o nt ol i m i tm y s e f lt oa d a p t a t o i  o fo n en o v e l . B e c a u s e all o ft h ef i l m sd s ic u s s e dh e r ea r eo s t e n s b iy l r e t e li n go ft h es a m  s t o r y ,t a k i n ga st h e i rs o u r c em a t e r i a lo n en o v e l ,o n ef l e x i b l et e m p l a t e ,t h ev a r i e t yo ft h  f i l m st h a th a v er e s u l t e d is a s t o n s ih n ig a n dat e s t a m e n tt ot h e flexibility o ft h et e m p l a t e  T h et e m p a lt e is s t a b e l e n o u g h ,h o w e v e r ,t op r o v d ie a s o l i db a s s i f r o mw h c ih t oc o m p  t h ei n t e r p r e t a t i o n st h a tr e s u l tb o t ha g a n is tt h en o v e la n da g a n is to n ea n o t h e r . M o s ts o c h i s t o r i e so fA m e r c ia n film p r o v d ie a r a n g eo fd i f f e r e n te x a m p e ls ,f i l m s telling v e r y d i f f e r e n ts t o r i e s . W h e l i m a n yo ft h e s es t u d i e s ,s u c ha sM o l yH a s k e l s ' c l a s s i cF r o m  R e v e r e n c et oR a p e ,a r ee x t r e m e y l e v o c a t i v e ,Ib e l i e v et h a t it is o n y l w h e nc o m p a r n ig  ( a p p a r e n t ) like t o like, c o m p a r n ig f i l m so fd i f f e r e n te r a st h a to s t e n s b iy l s p r n ig f r o mt h e  s a m es o u r c e ,t h a tw ec a nm a k er e l i a b l ea s s e s s m e n s t o ft h ee v o l u t i o no ft h e film a r ta t h es o c i a lh i s t o r yo fw h c ih it is a p a r t . B ys t a r t i n gw i t ht h en o v e la n dd o c u m e n n t ig a d d i t i o n s ,d e l e t i o n sa n dr e f o r m u a lt o in s( s oo f t e nf r u s t r a t i n gt ot h el o v e r so ft h en o v e l ) ,  a n de x a m n in ig t h e ms y m p t o m a t c ia y l, it is p o s s b ie l t op r o d u c ea na n a y ls s i o fp r e c i s i o n . A n dw h i l eaf e wH a w t h o r n es c h o a lr s — S a c v a nB e r c o v i t c h ,B r u c eD a n i e l s ,M i c h a e l  D u n n ea n dm o s tr e c e n t l yJ a m e i B a r o lw e — h a v ec o n s d ie r e dt h e film h i s t o r yo fT h eS c a r l e L e t t e rw i t h i nt h e i rl a r g e rp r o j e c t s ,n oo n es t u d yh a st a k e nd e t a i l e da c c o u n to ft h e a d a p t a t o in s colectively. T h i ss t u d yp r e s e n t saf r e s hp e r s p e c t v ie o na d a p t a t o in sw e l k n o w nt oH a w t h o r n es c h o l a r s ,s u c ha st h ec l a s s i cG s ih S /o js t r o m film o f1 9 2 6 ,a n d u n c o v e r sv e r s o in st h a th a v eb e e ng in o r e do rp e r h a p su n k n o w n — h te t w of a s c i n a t i n g  t e l e v i s i o na d a p t a t o in sf r o mt h e 1 9 5 0 s . T h i s is t h u st h e first s t u d yt of o c u se x c l u s i v e l y  f i l m so fT h eS c a r l e tL e t t e r ,t oc o n s d ie r all o ft h ee x t a n t films, a n dt om a k eu jd g e m e n T h eS c a r l e tL e t t e r is n o tt h ee a s e is tn o v e lt o film, n o rc e r t a i n l yt h e m . o s t 17  c o m m e r c a iy l v i a b l es t o r y . T h eP u r i t a nd o c t r n i e is h a r dt oc o m m u n c ia t e ,a n dt h eg r a v i t y  o ft h es i no ft w ol o v e r s is difficult t o sell t o a film a u d e in c ea c c u s t o m e dt om u c hm  e x p l i c i tf a r e — e v e n in t h eT w e n t e is . T h ef m l i m a k e r sw h oh a v ec o n f r o n t e dt h ee n o r m o u s c h a e ln g eo fa d a p t n ig t h i sn o v e lt oav i s u a la n dc o m m e r c a iy ld r v ie np o p u a lr m e d u im , w h e t h e r film o rt e l e v i s i o n ,w e r em o t v ia t e db yt h eb e l i e ft h a tH e s t e r s ' s t o r yc o u d l b e m e a n n ig f u lt ot h e i ra u d e in c e sa n dc o n t r b iu t et ot h ep o p u a lr m i a g n in ig so ft h e i rt i m e .  T h e yb e l i e v e dt h ep a s tc o u d l b em a d et os p e a kt ot h e i rt i m e . If o n y l it c o u d l b em p a l a t a b l e ,a c c e s s i b l e , its r e e lv a n c ew o u d l b e c o m ec l e a r . W h a t is m o s tf a s c i n a t i n ga b o u t t h i s is t h a tt h ee ls s o n st h e yd r e wf r o mt h en o v e la n dt h e np r o p a g a t e da r ea w la y s d f ie r e n t — e v e nc o n t r a d i c t o r y . U n d e r s t a n d n ig t h en o v e s l ' a p p e a lt of m l i m a k e r s is o n e  g o a lo ft h i ss t u d y ,b u tm o r et h a na n y t h i n g , it is f o u n d e do nt h es a m eb e l i e ft h a td r o v S o js t r o m ,W e n d e r s ,a n dt h er e s t — t h a tt h ep a s tc a ns p e a k . T h e i rf i l m ss p e a kv o u lm e s  a b o u tt h ee m e r g n ig a n dm a t u r n ig film n id u s t r ya n d its r o l e( a n db e l i e f in its r o l e ) in c u l t u r a lc o n v e r s a t o in so fa s o c i e t y . W eh a v et h eu lx u r yo fh n id s g ih tt om e a s u r et h e s u c c e s so fe a c h film a sar h e t o r i c a li lu s t r a t i o no fa c e r t a i nk i n do fA m e r c ia — t h e r i s u c c e s s in c o n t n iu n ig H a w t h o r n e s ' o w ni n t e r r o g a t i o no ft h eA m e r c ia n soul.  18  C h a p t e rT w o — " N o tH a w t h o r n e s ' H e s t e rP r y n n e ,B u tY o u r sa n dM i n e " :T h e M G M G / s ih Scarlet Letter ( 1 9 2 6 ) A m l o s ta ss o o na st h em o v e is b e g a nd e p i c t i n g fictional n a r r a t i v e s ,t h e yb e g a n d e p i c t i n gN a t h a n i e lH a w t h o r n e s ' a fm o u s tale.' S o m eo ft h ee a r l ys i l e n tv e r s i o n s ,w h c ih u n f o r t u n a t e y l a r en o w lost, c o u r t e dc o n t r o v e r s y ,w h i l eo t h e r sa v o d ie d it. R o b e r tS k l a r  r e c o r d sa ne a r l ye p s io d e in C h c ia g o , in 1 9 1 4 ,w h e nc o n t r o v e r s yo v e r a film o fT h eS  L e t t e rr e s u l t e d in t h ed e v e o lp m e n to ft h e first f i l mr a t i n gs y s t e m ,c o n s s it n i g in t h ei s s u i n  o fp n ik s l i p sf o rt h ea d m t i a n c eo fa d u t l so n y l ( M o v e iM a d e2 8 3 0 ) . E v e na tt h i sp o i n t  t h en o v e lw a sao lc u so fs is u e ss u r r o u n d n ig c o m m u n y t i c o n t r o la n dm o r a l i t y . M o s te a a d a p t o r s ,h o w e v e r ,r e w r o t et h es t o r ys oa sn o tt og v ie o f f e n s e . O n e film f e a t u r e da m a r r e id H e s t e ra n dA r t h u r( W a g e n k n e c h t5 4 ) ! T h ef i l m sr e s u l t i n gfromt h e s ee a r l y  a t e m p t st oa tm et h et a l ew e r eu n r e m a r k a b e l, a c c o r d n ig t ot h e critics w h oa r eo u ro n w t i n e s s e s . T h e 1 9 1 1 v e r s o in w i t hK i n gB a g g o tp r o v o k e de n t h u s a is mf r o m Moving Picture World o n y l a sar e s u l to fD m i m e s d a e ls ' s p e c t a c u a lr d e a t h fall f r o mt h es c a f f o l d ,  w h c ih w a s" ap e r i l o u sf e a t "a n da" h a z a r d o u sp e ic eo fb u s n ie s s " . A c c o r d n ig t oM i c h a e  D u n n e ,t h e first v e r s i o nt ob ew d ie y l r e v e iw e dw a saW i l i a mF o xp r o d u c t o in d i r e c t e d C a r lH a r b a u g h ,r e e la s e d in 1 9 1 7 ,w h c ih a Variety r e v e iw p r o n o u n c e d" s u b d u e d "a n d " a c c e p t a b e l if u n e x c e p t o in a " l ( q t d . in D u n n e" N i n e t y "3 1 ) . N e v e r t h e e ls s ,M G Mr e m a d e t h ew e l w o r np r o p e r t y in 1 9 2 6 ,w i t h Lillian Gish. T h er e s u l t is b o t h aa ln d m a r k in  A m e r c ia n film a n daf a s c i n a t i n gr e a c t i o nt ot h es w i f t l yc h a n g n ig m o v e i n id u s t r ya n dt h t r u l yr e v o l u t i o n a r yc u l t u r eo ft h eT w e n t e is . T h es t o r yo fh o w Lillian G s ih c o n v n ic e dL o u s i B. M a y e rt om a k et h e film is e lg e n d a r y . H a v n ig c o m et oM G Ma f t e rat w o f i l md e a lw i t hI n s p i r a t i o nP c it u r e s( t o  19  w h o ms h eh a dg o n ea f t e rl e a v i n gD W . . Griffith), G s ih p o s s e s s e dt h ec l o u tn e e d e dt o  film m a d e . S h er e c o r d s in h e ra u t o b o ig r a p h yt h a tM a y e rr e s i s t e dt h ei d e a ,b e c a u s et h e  n o v e lw a so nt h e" b a lc k list" ( 2 8 5 ) . G s ih r e p o r t st h a ts h ew a ss h o c k e dt oh e a ra b o u n o v e s l ' s t a t u s ,a n dp r o t e s t e dt h a t it w a sa nA m e r c ia n classic. I t sc u l t u r a ls t a t u sc o u d l  p r o t e c tt h en o v e lf r o mg r o u p sw h ow o u d l p r e f e rt h i ss t o r yo fA m e r c ia n o tt ob e told  in t h ee n d ,M a y e rp r o m s ie dt om a k et h e film if G s ih c o u d l s e c u r ea p p r o v a lf r o mt h e w o m e n s ' a n dc h u r c hg r o u p st h a tm g ih to p p o s e it. S h em e tw i t hh te ma n dp r o m s ie d  t h efilmw o u d l n o tb em i m o r a , lw o u d l n o tc o n t r a v e n et h e i rs h a r e ds t a n d a r d s . B e c a u s eo  h e rr ir e p r o a c h a b e l r e p u t a t i o n ,a n db e c a u s et h e s eg r o u p sw e r es op e la s e dw i t ht h em e s s a o fh e rr e c e n tfilm,The White Sister ( 1 9 2 3 , in w h c ih s h ep a ly e dan u n ) ,t h eg r o u p s  a p p r o v e dt h ep i c t u r e( 2 8 6 ) . W h e l i G s ih e n d st h es t o r yt h e r e ,t h es t u d o i w a s , in fact,  c o n t i n u a l yb u s yr e a s s u r n ig t h eg r o u p sd u r n ig p r o d u c t i o n ,o f f e r i n gt o u r so ft h es e t ,s c r i p t  a p p r o v a l ,a n ds p e c i a lp r e v e iw sB (e a u c h a m p 1 7 8 ) . G s ih a s lo c a lm i st h a t it w a sa g r e e da  t h eo u t s e tt h a ts h ea n dF r a n c e sM a r o in w o u d l a d a p tt h ep r o p e r t y . I n fact, I r v i n gT h a a s s g in e dt h ej o bt os e v e r a ln ih o u s eM G Ms c r i p t w r i t e r sb e f o r eM a r i o n , av e t e r a nw h o  w o r k e dc l o s e l yw i t hM a r yP i c k f o r d ,w a sg v ie nt h e job. T h ee f f o r t so ft h eM G Mw r i t e w e r eu n e v e n ,b u td os u g g e s tM G M s ' d s ic o m f o r tw i t h" b l a c k l i s t "m a t e r i a l . I na d e s p e r a t ea t e m p tt ol e g i t i m i z et h er e l a t i o n s h i pb e t w e e nH e s t e ra n dh e rp a s t o r , t h ew r i t e r sh a dt u r n e dc r e a t i v e . O n eo p e n e dt h es t o r y in E n g a ln d ,w h e r eH e s t e ra n dD m i m e s d a e l h a v ek n o w n e a c ho t h e rs n ic ec h d l ih o o da n da r es e p a r a t e db yac r u e l a c to ff a t e" w h c ih d r i v e sH e s t e ri n t oal o v e l e s sm a r r a ig e a n dD m i m e s d a e l i n t ot h eP u r i t a nm i n i s t r y . " A n o t h e r p r o p o s e dt h a tP e a r lw a st h ec h i l do fa s e c r e tm a r r a ig e b e t w e e nH e s t e ra n dD m i m e s d a e l w h e nt h e yt h o u g h t H e s t e r s ' f a t h e rw a sd e a d . I tw a se v e ns u g g e s t e dt h a tP e a r l b eP r y n n e s ' child, w h o mh er e f u s e dt oa c k n o w e ld g e" t o 20  p u n s ih h i sw i f ef o rb e n ig u n f a i t h f u lt oh m i in t h o u g h t if n o t in d e e d " . T h eq u i n t e s s e n t i a le x a m p e l o ft h ee ln g t ht h e y w e r ew i li n gt og ot op e la s em o d e r n d a yP u r t i a n sw a s W y n d h a mG i t t e n s s ' s u g g e s t o in t h a tt h e yg e ta r o u n dt h e m e a n n ig o ft h el e t t e rAo nH e s t e r s ' b r e a s tw i t h" a n o t h e r t e r mo fr e p r o a c he ls ss h o c k n ig t h a na d u t l e r e s s or, failing as u i t a b l ew o r d ,b yc h a n g n ig t h es y m b o lt oa n o t h e rl e t t e r w h c ih will p e r m t io ft h i se n v s io i n [sic]." All t h es c e n a r o is p r o p o s e dh a p p ye n d n ig sw i t h" P e a r lh a p p y l i w a k ln ig d o w n t h es t r e e tw i t hb o t hh e rp a r e n t s "o r "all t h r e es a i l i n ga w a y o nas h i p . "( 1 7 5 6 ) W h a t e v e rt h e final film's faults, F r a n c e sM a r i o n s ' s c r i p tn e v e rr e a c h e st h e s eh e g ih t so f  a b s u r d i t y . T h e film w a sh a i l e da s a classic, a n d is u n q iu ea m o n gt h ea d a p t a t o in su n d c o n s d ie r a t o i n in t h i ss t u d y in its c o n t e m p o r a r ys u c c e s sa n d its m o d e r ns t a t u sa sa m a s t e r p e ic e . I r o n i c a l l y ,c o n s d ie r n ig t h er e j e c t e di d e a s ,t h eo n y l m a o jr c r i t i c i s mo ft h e film, b o t h in its o w nt m i ea n dt o d a y , is l e v e l e da tt h e script. A c o n t e m p o r a r y  c o m m e n t a t o r in t h e New York Review n o t e dt h a t" t h es c e n a r o i w h c ih w a sd r a w nu pb y F r a n c e sM a r o in d e v a it e sc o n s d ie r a b y l f r o mt h e original. I ts e e m st h a tt h efirstt h i n ga  s c e n a r s it s a y sw h e nal i t e r a r ym a s t e r p e ic e is p u t in h i so rh e rh a n d s is H 'o wc a nI t h i sa r o u n d ? . 'T .h a n kg o o d n e s st h e yd i d n t ' a d dah a p p ye n d n ig "( q t d . in B e a u c h a m p 1 7 9 ) . Critical c h a r g e so ft e x t u a l infidelity p a lg u ee v e r y film v e r s o in o ft h en o v e l ;t h i s a t t e s t st ot h ec u l t u r a ls t a t u so fT h eS c a r l e tL e t e r — e a c hg e n e r a t o in s ' filmcritics c o n s d ie r  it i n v i o l a b l e . T h efilmis still w d ie y l p r a s ie da n dd s ic u s s e d ,a t l h o u g hr a r e l ys e e n . I t sl a c  o f fidelity t oH a w t h o r n e is still a lm e n t e db ys o m e critics, a n dM G M is h e d l r e s p o n s i b  M a r kE s t r i ni n s i s t st h a t "it w a sd o o m e df r o mt h es t a r t — d o o m e db yt h es t u d i o s ' d e s r ie  t h a t it s h o u d l in n ow a yg i v eo f e n s et oa n yg r o u ps t r o n ge n o u g ht oa f f e c t its c o m m s u c c e s s ,t h a t it s h o u d l s w e e t e nt h eb i t t e rv i s i o no fN a t h a n i e lH a w t h o r n e "( 1 0 1 ) . I t is  o b v o iu st h a tt h e film w a s , in p a r t ,s h a p e db ys t u d o i p o l i t i c sa n dt h ep r e s s u r et or e f l e 21  m o r a l i t yo f a vocal, c o n s e r v a t v ie s e g m e n to ft h ea u d e in c e . B u tt h ee f f e c t is n o tt h e " s u b d u e d "m i p r e s s o in g v ie nb yF o x s ' e f f o r t ,n o rt h en e u t e r e do f f e r i n g so ft h eM G M  s c r i p td e p a r t m e n t ,a tl e a s t if w em e a s u r eb yc o n t e m p o r a r y critical r e a c t i o n . W h e l i it m a y s t r e a m n i le t h es is u e s in H a w t h o r n e s ' n o v e l , it r e m a n is h i g h l yu n c o n v e n t o in a l in its  m o r a l i t ya n d its t o n e . O v e r a l, t h e film u s e sas y m b o lo ft h eV i c t o r i a no l do r d e r , Lillia Gish, t oc r i t i q u e its c o n s t r u c t o in o ff e m a e ln e s sa n d its r e p r e s s v ie n e s s ,a g a n is tw h c ih t h e J a z zA g er e b e le d .  Al o to ft h ec r e d i tf o rt h e film's s u c c e s sb e o ln g st o its d i r e c t o r ,V i c t o rS o js t r o m . W h e l i M G M s ' The Scarlet Letter is u s u a l yc o n s d ie r e dG i s h s ' film e n t i r e l y , its a r t i s t r y is u n m s it a k a b y l S j o s t r o m s '. A v e t e r a nd i r e c t o rw h e nh ec a m et oA m e r c ia f r o mS w e d e n ,  S o js t r o md i r e c t e de i g h tH o y lw o o df i l m s in t h em d iT w e n t e is b e f o r er e t u r n i n gt oS w e d e n  w i t ht h ec o m n ig o fs o u n d . T h e s eA m e r c ia nf i l m s" a r es os t a r ka n da u s t e r et h a t , if it  w e r e n t ' f o rt h ep r e s e n c eo f Lillian Gish, G a r b o ,a n do t h e rH o y lw o o dn a m e s ,t h e yc o u d l p a s sa sS w e d s ih m i p o r t s "( E v e r s o n3 1 9 ) . S o js t r o mw a sa p p a r e n t y l h a n d p c ik e df o rt h e  p r o j e c tb y Lillian Gish, a sw a sh e rc o s t a rL a r sH a n s o n ,a n o t h e rS w e d e( h ew a s initial s u g g e s t e db yM a y e r . ) G s ih a s s e r t st h a ts h ec h o s eS o js t r o mb e c a u s e" S c a n d n ia v a in sa r e c o ls e r in f e e l i n gt oN e wE n g a ln dP u r t i a n st h a na r ep r e s e n t d a yA m e r c ia n s "( 2 8 6 ) . I n  fact, t h ep o w e ro ft h e film t h a tS o js t r o mc r e a t e df r o mH a w t h o r n e s ' n o v e l is m o r ed i r e a t t r i b u t a b l et oh i se x p e r e in c ew i t hs e x u a lh te m e sa n ds e l f / s o c i e t y conflicts, in b o t hh i s  S w e d s ih f i l m sm ( a n yb a s e do n fiction b yS e m l aL a g e r l o f f )a n dA m e r c ia ne f f o r t s like H Who Gets Slapped a n d Name the Man ( b o t h1 9 2 4 ) . M a n yo fh te mf e a t u r es t o r i e s f o c u s n ig o n" s e x u a l guilt, p u b l i cp r e s s u r ea n dp e r s e c u t i o n ,s h a m e ,r e p e n t a n c ea n d r e c o n c i la t i o n "( P e t r i e 1 3 6 ) . Name the Man, m a d ef o rS a mG o d lw y n , is e s p e c i a l y  e v o c a t v ie o f The Scarlet Letter. I t is t h es t o r yo f Victor, t h es o no f au jd g ew h o is a pillar o ft h ec o m m u n t y i, w h oq u a r r e s l w i t hh i sg i r l f r i e n dF e n n e a l a n dh a sab r i e f a f f a i rw i t hB e s s i e ,ay o u n g girl f r o mt h ec o u n t r y s d ie . B e s s e i b e c o m e sp r e g n a n t ,d o e sn o t tell V i c t o rw (h oh a s m e a n w h e l i r e c o n c i l e dw i t hF e n n e l a )a n d kills t h eb a b y . V i c t o rr e p a lc e sh i sf a t h e ra s au jd g ea n dh i s first c a s e is t ot r yB e s s e i f o rc h i l d m u r d e r . S h er e f u s e st on a m eV i c t o r a st h ef a t h e r ,b u tF e n n e l a ,a n d Victor's b e s tf r i e n dw (h o is a c t i n ga sB e s s i e s ' l a w y e r ) ,g u e s st h et r u t ha n da r eh o r r i f i e d w h e nV i c t o r is t o oc o w a r d y l t oa d m t ih i sg u i l ta n dc o n d e m n s B e s s e i t od e a t h . E x t a n tp r i n t so ft h e film e n da tt h i sp o i n t ; o r i g i n a ly it w e n to nt os h o wV i c t o rh e p ln ig B e s s e i t oe s c a p e f r o mp r i s o n( a c c o m p a n e id b yh i s friend, w h oh a sf a le n in l o v ew i t hh e r ) ,t h e nc o n f r o n t n ig a ne n r a g e dm o b in t h et o w n s q u a r et oc o n f e s sb o t hh i sp a r t in t h ee s c a p ea n dh i so r i g i n a l r e s p o n s i b i l t yf o rB e s s i e s ' p l i g h t . H e is t h r o w ni n t op r i s o n , b u th i sa c t i o nr e g a n is h m i F e n n e l a s ' r e s p e c ta n dl o v e .( 1 2 8 )  V i c t o r is t o r nb e t w e e nt h ep r e s s u r et oc o n f o r mt oc o m m u n y t i s t a n d a r d sa n dh i sp e r s o n  m o r a l i t y . I nt h ee n d ,h em a k e sw h a tw ew o u d l d e e mt h e 'right' c h o i c e ,a n d is p e r s f o r it. S o js t r o m s ' r e l a t i v en ie x p e r e in c ew i t hH o y lw o o dp o l i t i c sm a ya c c o u n tf o rh i s a b i l i t yt om a n it a n i H a w t h o r n e s ' v i s i o no fh e r o c i a n dd o o m e di n d i v i d u a l i s m . T h e  S w e d s ih d i r e c t o rm a yh a v eb e e ne ls st h a n fully a w a r eo ft h ep o w e r f u lf o r c et h a tw a s  A m e r c ia nP u r t i a n s im still, a n dt h eh o d l t h a ti n t e r e s tg r o u p sh a do nt h es t u d i o s . B u th w o u d l s o o nl e a r n . A f t e rah a p p ye n d n ig w a si n s i s t e du p o nf o rh i sa r le a d y c o m p e lt e d s e c o n d film w i t h Gish, The Wind ( 1 9 2 9 ) ,S o js t r o m left H o y lw o o df o r e v e r . S o js t r o m s ' film b e g n is w i t ht h es a m em i a g et h a tb e g n is H a w t h o r n e s ' n o v e — l t h e r o s e b u s h . H o w e v e r its m e a n n ig is o b s c u r e d in t h e film, s n ic e its p r e s e n t a t o i n is n o t  f o l o w e db yH e s t e r s ' g in o m n io iu sm a r c ht ot h es c a f f o l d ,b u tr a t h e rb yt h eb e g n in n ig o f b a c k g r o u n ds t o r yt h a tl a s t sf o rn e a r y l h a l ft h e film. T h eb a c k s t o r yn it r o d u c e st h e c h a r a c t e r sa n dt h ec o m m u n t y i, b u tm o s tm i p o r t a n t y l it d e s c r b ie st h e 'courting,' if o n e 23  m a y call it t h a t ,o fH e s t e ra n dD m i m e s d a e l; t h eb a c k s t o r ym i p o s e sar o m a n t i c ,  m e o ld r a m a t c i c o n s t r u c to nt h en a r r a t i v e . T h es e c o n ds h o t is o fa m a n in a c a g e ,a n d g r o u po fp e o p e l g o n ig t om e e t n ig . T h em i le uo fr e l i g i o u sc o n f o r m t i ya n dh a r s h p u n s ih m e n t is e s t a b s i lh e dw i t h i no n y l af e ws h o t s . C o u p e ls m a r c h stoicaly, a m l o s t m a r t i a ly ,t ot h es e r v i c e ,w i t hf i r mg r a s p so nt h e i rc h i l d r e n . T h e ya r em o d e n i lg a p p r o p r a it ec o u p e l b e h a v i o r ;H e s t e ra n dD m i m e s d a e l will b ep r e s e n t e da sd e v i a n t , in  t h e i rf a i l u r et os u p p r e s st h e i rn a t u r a li n s t i n c t sa n dr e l a t et oe a c ho t h e ra c c o r d n ig t ot h e c o m m u n t i y s ' c o d e s .D m i m e s d a e ls ' d i f f e r e n c e is m a r k e d in h i s first s c e n e ,b u t it is h i s  i n t e r a c t i o nw i t has n in e ro fh i so w ng e n d e r ,n o tw i t hao lv ei n t e r e s t ,t h a t is p r e s e n t e d  Am a nb e a r n ig a p a lc a r dr e a d n ig " w a n t o ng o s p e l e r "s i t sd o w n in a p e w ,a n dm i m e  its o t h e ro c c u p a n t sm o v ea w a y . H o w e v e rD m i m e s d a e l, s e e n ig this, a p p r o a c h e st h em a n ,  e v e nt o u c h e sh i m ,a n da s s u r e sh m i o fh i s( D m i m e s d a e ls ') h o p et h a tt h r o u g hd s ic u s s o in c a nh e p l t h em a nt oo n c ea g a n i b e" o n ew i t hu s in spirit." A ne x p l i c i tc o n n e c t o in  d r a w nh e r eb e t w e e nD m i m e s d a e l a n dC h r i s ta m o n gt h el e p e r s . F o rt h ew a n t o ng o s p e e l is a s o c i a ll e p e r ,a st h e film m a k e sc l e a r in p r e p a r a t o in f o rH e s t e r s ' s t o r y . H e s t e r is first s h o w na r r a y i n gh e r s e l ff o rc h u r c h ,a n dh e rd i f f e r e n c ef r o mt h e  c o m m u n t y i is o b v o iu s . S h ew e a r sw h i t e ,w h i l ee v e r y o n ee s le is d r e s s e d in b l a c k . T h i s  e f f e c t is p a r t i c u l a r l ye v o c a t v ie w h e ns h ee n t e r st h em e e n t ig h o u s e late, a n dt h er e s to ft h  c o n g r e g a t o i n is a r le a d ys e a t e d . S h ea t e m p t st ob e ln d in, b u t it is m i p o s s b ie l f o rh e rt o  s o in t h i sw o r l d . H e rc o n t r a v e n t o in o ft h es o c i e t y s ' a lw s is m i m e d a it e y l s g in a e ld in h e  c o t a g eb yt h ep r e s e n c eo fh e rm i r r o r ,h d id e nb yap e ic eo fn e e d e lw o r kt h a tr e a d s" V a  is a n evil d i s e a s e . " H e s t e r is t h eo n y l P u r i t a nw i t ha na p p r e c a it o in f o ri r o n y ,a n dt h e o n ew i l l i n gt ob e n dt h ec o m m u n t y is ' r e p r e s s v ie a lw s in f a v o ro fh e rn in a t en a t u r e . 24  S a t i s f i e dw i t hh e ra p p e a r a n c e ,s h es t o p st ol i s t e nt oh e r bird. P a s s n ig t o w n s p e o p e l h e a r  t o o ,b u tn is t e a do ft a k i n gp e la s u r e in t h es o n ga ss h ed o e s ,t h e yp r o n o u n c et h ec r e a t u  w h c ih is o fc o u r s eo n y l f o l o w i n g its n a t u r e ," w a n t o n "f o rs n ig n ig o nt h eS a b b a t h . W h t h eb i r ds u b s e q u e n y t l e s c a p e sa n dH e s t e rr u n st ot h ef o r e s ta f t e r it, t h eo b s e r v n ig  t o w n s p e o p e l d r a wa n 'X' o nh e rd o o rw i t hc h a l k . H e s t e rh a sb e e nm a r k e da sd e v a in t f r o mt h ec o m m u n t y i in o n y l t h es e c o n ds c e n e ,a n dt h em a r kf o r e s h a d o w sh e rl a t e r  b r a n d n ig . H e s t e rc h a s e st h e bird, b u tt h e nh u r r i e so f ft oc h u r c ha f t e rh e a r n ig t h e final b e ls e v e n in t h ed e p t h so ft h ef o r e s t . O r d e rp e n e t r a t e se v e n its d e p t h s . H e rh a i r is  flowing, h a v n ig e s c a p e dt h ec o n f n ie so fh e rc a pw h e ns h er a ni n t ot h ef o r e s t( t h ec o n f n ie so ft h et o w n ) ,a n ds h em u s tq u i c k l yr e s t r a i n it, a n dh e re x u b e r a n tn a t u r e ,  b e f o r eg o n ig t om e e t n ig . H e s t e ra r r i v e sl a t ea n d is c a le do u ta n dp u n s ih e dw i t ht m i e  t h es t o c k s ,b u te v e na f t e rD m i m e s d a e l c h d ie sh e rf o rr u n n n ig a n ds k p ip n ig o nt h eS a b  ( f o rs oh eh a sb e e ni n f o r m e d ) ,h e re y e sb e g n i t om e t lh i sr g ih t e o u sr e s o l v e . H eb r n ig  w a t e ra ss h es i t s in t h es t o c k s ,r e e la s e sh e r ,a n dw a k ls h e rh o m e . T h ev e r yb i r dt h a l e dh e ri n t ot h ef o r e s ta n dm s ib e h a v o ir is, s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,w a i t i n g ,p e r c h e do nh i sc a g e . H e s t e rk s is e st h em i n i s t e r s ' h a n da n dh et e a r sh m i s e f la w a yf r o mh e rr e l u c t a n t l ya n d t e m p o r a r i l y .  I nt h en e x ts c e n e ,c o m m u n y t i c o d e sr e g a r d n ig s e x u a l i t ya r ef u r t h e rd e s c r b ie db ya  s h o to fa p a g e in t h ea lw b o o k ,w h c ih f o r b i d st h ed i s p l a yo fu n d e r g a r m e n t sb e f o r et h e  o p p o s t i es e x . T h e nt h ew o m e no ft h et o w na r es h o w nb e s d ie t h ep o n d ,w a s h n ig ,o f  c o u r s e ,t h e i ru n d e r g a r m e n t s . I t is j u s tt h e nt h a tap a s s n ig D m i m e s d a e l d s ic o v e r sH e s t e r .  H e ra t e m p t st om o d e s y t l c o n c e a lh e ra lu n d r ye la dt oac o m c i c h a s et h r o u g ht h ef o r e s  a n dh e rp r o v o c a t v ie s u g g e s t o in t h a ts h ew o u d l e n o jy w a k ln ig b e s d ie h m i a n dh e a r n ig h 25  c o n d e m nh e rf o rh e r sins. T h i sP u r i t a nc o m e o n is s u c c e s s f u l ,a n dt h e yw a k l o f f s c r e e n t o g e t h e r ,H e s t e rh a v n ig h a p h a z a r d y l t h r o w nh e ru n d e r w e a ro n t oac o n v e n e in tb u s h . T h e  c o u p e l is n e x ts e e ne m e r g n ig f r o mb e h n id t h eb u s h , in l o v ea n dh o d ln ig h a n d s . A tt h  e n do ft h e i rw a l k ,t h e ye n g a g e in a v e r ym i p o r t a n te x c h a n g ew h i l es i t t i n gu n d e rat r e e S h es a y s :" Ih a v et o l dt h e em yt h o u g h t s — t h o ud o s ts a yt h e ya r es n if u — l b u tw h y ?  a r ew et a u g h tt ob ea s h a m e do fl o v e ? " H ed e c a lr e st h a th eh a sf o u g h th i sf e e l i n gf u n s u c c e s s f u l y ,a n dn id e e do lv e sh e rt o o . T h e ye m b r a c e . W h e l i t h i ss c e n ef o l o w sa fairly s t a n d a r dm e o ld r a m a c t i f o r m u a l o fr o m a n t c i d e c l a r a t i o n ,H e s t e r s ' q u e s t o in sa r e  e x t r e m e y l s i g n i f i c a n t . H e s t e r is, o rp a ly sa tb e i n g ,u n c o n s c o iu so fs i n( t h a t is, t h es i no  p a s s o in o ru n s a n c o t in e dl o v e ) . H e rq u e s t o in sr e s o u n dw i t hac r i t i q u eo fh e rs o c i e t y ,a n d b ye x t e n s i o n ,o ft h eV i c t o r i a nr e p r e s s o in a g a n is tw h c ih t h ea u d e in c e s ' A m e r c ia w a s in o p e nr e v o l t . T h i se x t r a t e x t u a la p p l i c a t i o n will b ee x a m n ie dl a t e r ;f o rn o w ,w em u s t c o n s d ie rt h ee f f e c to ft h e s el i n e so nt h ea u d e in c e s ' p e r c e p t o in o fh e rc h a r a c t e ra n d  s i t u a t i o n . N e i t h e rt h ea u d e in c en o rD m i m e s d a e l ( n o rt h ec o m m u n t y i) is a w a r et h a tH e s t e is m a r r i e d . T h ef m l i m a k e r sw s ih t od r a wt h ea u d e in c e s ' s y m p a h ty t ot h e( p r e s u m e d )  i d e a ll o v e r s ,a n dd i r e c t its o u t r a g ea g a n is tt h ec o m m u n y t i w h o s ev a u le sm a yd e s t r o yt h e  r o m a n t c i c o u p l e . H e s t e ra n dt h ea u d e in c eo ft h eT w e n t e is a g r e et h a tp a s s o i n is n o t sin  a n dn o tam a t e rf o rs h a m e . T h en in o c e n c eo fh e rp a s s o in is u n q u e s o t in e da tt h i sp o n i  a f t e r all, t h el o v e r is Lillian Gish, a n dt h eb e o lv e d is a m n is it e rw h oh a sa r le a d yb e e  c o m p a r e dt oC h r i s th i m s e l f ! T h i ss c e n eb u i l d su pa ni d e n t i f i c a t i o nw i t ha n das y m p a h t f o rt h er o m a n t c i c o u p l e ,a n de s p e c i a l yH e s t e r ,t h a te v e nt h er e v e l a t i o no fh e rs e c r e t c a n n o td e s t r o y .  T h es c e n e in w h c ih H e s t e rr e v e a s l t h et r u t hr a s ie sal o to fu n a n s w e r e dq u e s t o in s 26  u n a n s w e r a b e l w i t h i nt h ew o r d l o ft h e film. D m i m e s d a e l a r r i v e sa th e rh o m ee x c i t e da t  t h en e w st h a th e is t ot r a v e lt oE n g a ln da sac o l o n i a le n v o y ,a n ds h e is t o join h w i f e . T h i s is a nm i p o r t a n tp l o tn in o v a t o i n in t h e film, b e c a u s eD m i m e s d a e ls ' t r i p  p r o v d ie sa ne x c u s ef o rh i si n a c t i o no nh e rb e h a f lw h e ns h e is d s ic o v e r e dt ob ep r e g n  a n dm i p r s io n e d . I nt h en o v e l ,o fc o u r s e ,am u c he ls sn o b e l D m i m e s d a e l s t a n d sb ya n  a o lw sh i sp r e g n a n tl o v e rt ob ep u n s ih e d . H e s t e r is o jy o u sf o ram o m e n tw h e ns h ee l o fD m i m e s d a e ls ' p l a n s ,t h e nh a r d e n sh e rf a c ea n dr e v e a s l h e rp r e v o iu sm a r r a ig eb y  s h o w n ig h i m , silently, t h er i n gs h eh a sk e p th d id e n . S h ep r o t e s t st h a ts h ew a s" n e v e  t oh m i "( m e a n n ig h e rh u s b a n d ) ,a st h e ym a r r e id o nt h ev e r yd a ys h es a i l e df o rB o s t o  H e s t e rm a yb em a n yt h i n g s ,b u ts h e is n o tp r o m s ic u o u s . D m i m e s d a e l is t h eo n y l m a n h a se v e rk n o w n . H ee la v e sa n ds h e is m i s e r a b l e ,b u tg v ie nt h er o m a n t c i f o r m u a l o f  s t o r ys o far, t h es c e n es e e m st op r e s e n tt h ec o n v e n t o in a lm i p e d m i e n to rm s iu n d e r s t a n d n ig t h a tf o r m st h em d id e l p o i n to ft h eb o y m e e t s g i r l , boy-loses-girl, b o y r e g a i n s g i r lp l o t  s t r u c t u r eW ( e x m a n 4). T h eq u e s t o in o fh o wH e s t e rc a nj u s t i f yh e rd e c e p t i o n ,m u c he ls s h e ra d u l t e r y , is g o ls s e do v e r — s h ec a lm i ss h ew a sa f r a i dt oo ls eh i so lv e — n i G i s h s '  p s y c h o l o g i c a l yr a t h e rs m i p e l p o r t r a y a lo fh e ra sav r it u o u sm a d ie nr u n ie db y love, a n d p e r s e c u t e du n j u s t l y . D m i m e s d a e l a s lo e s c a p e sr e a ls c r u t n iy a s am i n i s t e rw h o ,a t l h o u g h d u p e di n t oa d u l t e r y ,d o e sc o m m t if o r n i c a t i o nc o n s c i o u s l y , if n o te n t i r e l y willingly. S o m et m i ee a lp s e sb e t w e e nt h i ss c e n ea n dt h en e x t — t h ed u r a t o in o fH e s t e r s '  p r e g n a n c ya n dD m i m e s d a e ls ' m s is o in t oE n g a ln d . H er e t u r n so nt h ed a ys h e is c a le d t h es c a f f o l d . B u tb e f o r et h e first s c a f f o l ds c e n e ,D m i m e s d a e l r u s h e st oH e s t e r s ' s i d e , u p o nl e a r n i n gw h a th a st r a n s p r ie d in h i sa b s e n c e . H eo f f e r st os t a n db e s d ie h e r in  a d m s is o in o fh i sc u l p a b i l i t y ,b u ts h ef o r b i d s it, u r g n ig h m i ( a sh e rc o u n t e r p a r t in 1 9 3 4 27  1 9 9 5 will d o )t oh d ie h i sg u i l ta n dc o n t n iu em i n i s t e r i n gt ot h ec o m m u n t y i. S h eu r g e s  t oa t o n ef o rb o t ho ft h e i r sins, i g n o r i n gt h ef a c tt h a th i sw a sm o r ea nu n w i t t i n gm s i  T h e first s c a f f o l ds c e n ef o l o w st h en o v e lc l o s e l y . I n t e r e s t i n g l y ,t h i ss c e n e is p u n c t u a t e d  b yt h eu s eo fm o r ei n t e r t i t l e st h a n in a n yo t h e rs c e n e . F r a n c e sM a r o in s e e m st ow a  n ic u ld ea sm u c ho fD m i m e s d a e ls ' s p e e c ha sp o s s i b l e ,t oh e g ih t e nt h ed r a m ao fH e s t e r s '  e v e n t u a ls i l e n tr e f u s a lt on a m eh i m . A tt h ee n do f it, H e s t e rd s ip a ly sh e rb a d g e . W h  o fc o u r s e ,t h ef m l i m a k e r sh a d little c h o c ie b u tt ok e e pt h eo r i g i n a l A, it c o n t r a d c it st h e  s t o r yt h e yh a v e built. If H e s t e r s ' m a r r a ig e is a s e c r e t ,s h es h o u d l b eb r a n d e dw i t ha n a saf o r n i c a t o r ,r a t h e rt h a nt h eAo fa na d u l t e r e s s .  T h es c e n ed e t e r m n in ig P e a r l s ' c u s t o d y is m o v e du pt of o l o wt h es c a f f o l ds c e n e .  P e a r l is still a ni n f a n t ,s oh e rb e h a v o ir d o e sn o tm o t v ia t et h ec o n f r o n t a t i o n ;o n y l H e s t e  p r e s u m e du n f t in e s s in t h ee y e so ft h ec o m m u n y t i is a ti s s u e . T h eb a b y is c a le da" t h e devil," a n d is l a t e rp r o n o u n c e dp o s s e s s e d ,b u tt h i sa s p e c to fH a w t h o r n e s ' n o v e l is  d o w n p a ly e d . W h e l i t h e r e is a M s it r e s sH b ib n i s in t h e film, s h e is n o taw i t c ha n da  s y m b o lo fa lw e ls s n e s s ,a s in t h en o v e l ,b u tr a t h e rag o s s p i a n daz e a l o t . T h es u p e r n d m i e n s o in is i g n o r e d . D m i m e s d a e l d e f l e c t st h ec u s t o d ys is u eb yb a p t i z i n gP e a r ld u r n ig  t h es c e n e . T h i sa c t i o ns u b s t i u t e sf o rh i sd e f e n s e , in H a w t h o r n e s ' t e x t ,o ft h ef i t n e s so f  p r e s e r v n ig t h eb o n db e t w e e ns n in n ig m o t h e ra n dc h i l do f sin. I t is a m o r ed r a m a t i c a l y  e c o n o m c ia lw a yo fc o m m u n c ia n t ig h i se n d u r n ig p a s s o in f o rh i sf a m i l y ,a n d will b eu s e d a g a n i in 1 9 9 5 . I t se f f e c t v ie n e s sr e s d ie sn o to n y l in t h ed r a m a t i c ,r i t u a l i z e da c t i o n ,b u t  its d i r e c ta s s o c a it o in o ff a t h e ra n dd a u g h t e r ,a sh eh o d ls h e r ,n a m e sh e r ,a n dr e s c u e s  f r o mt h ec o m m u n t y i, all a tc o n s d ie r a b e l r i s kt oh i sr e p u t a t i o n . C o m m u n y t i v a u le sh a v e p r e v e n t e dt h en a t u r a lp a i rf r o ml o v i n ge a c ho t h e ro p e n l y . T h ec o m m u n t y is ' u n n a t u r a l  v a u le sa r ee x p o s e d in its a t e m p tt os e v e ra n o t h e rn a t u r a lb o n d ,t h eo n eb e t w e e np a r e n a n d child. P e a r lg r o w si n t oay o u n g girl, b u td s ip a ly sn o n eo ft h et o r t u r i n gb e h a v o ir o f H a w t h o r n e s ' elf-child, e x c e p tf o ro n c ed r a w n ig a n 'A' in t h es a n d . T h i sa c t is, s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,n o tf o l o w e db ya ni n q u i r yb yt h ec h i l di n t ot h em e a n n ig o ft h eb a d g e . title p r o c a lm i st h em o t h e ra n dc h i l d" O u t c a s t s ! S h u n n e da n dD e s p s ie d ! "b u ta d d st h a t  " H e s t e r s ' h a p p yc h i l dr e f l e c t e dt h eh o p et h a t still l a y in h e rm o t h e r s ' h e a r t . " H a w t h o r n  P e a r lr e f l e c t sh e rm o t h e r s ' h d id e na lw e ls s n e s s ,b u tt h i sw o u d l b em i p o s s b ie l in t h e film  g v ie nG i s h s ' p e r s o n aa n dt h ew a yt h ec h a r a c t e r is c o n s t r u c t e d . I n all, t h e r ea r ef e ws  w i t hP e a r l . H e s t e r is d e f n ie d in t h e film p r i m a r i l ya sal o v e r ,n o tam o t h e r (in 1 9 3 4  will b er e v e r s e d ,t or e f l e c tt h ec h a n g n ig n o t o in o fw o m e n ) . H o w e v e r ,h e rm a t e r n a ln a t u  is p r e s e n t e dd u r n ig P e a r l s ' i ln e s s crisis. T r a n s p a ln t e df r o mt h ee a r l yp a r to ft h en o v e l ,  P e a r l s ' i ln e s ss h o w s , in a ne f f e c t i v ee c o n o m c ia lw a y ,H e s t e r s ' o lv ef o rt h ec h i l d( a sd  h e rf e r o c i t yd u r n ig t h ec u s t o d ys c e n e ) . B u te v e nh e r ep r o v i d i n gap r e t e x tf o rm a t e r n a l d i s p l a y is n o tt h ep r m i a r yf u n c t i o no fP e a r l s ' i ln e s s in t h e film. T h e crisis a s lo  f o r e g r o u n d st h en a t u r a lh u m a n t y i o fG i l e s( w h c ih I will a d d r e s sl a t e r in m yd s ic u s s o in t h es u b p o lt )a n ds e t su pt h eD m i m e s d a e lC /h n i lg w o r t h H /e s t e rc o n f r o n t a t i o n . D m i m e s d a e l h u r r i e st oH e s t e r s ' c o t a g ew h e nh eh e a r st h a tP e a r l is ill. W e p r e s u m et h a tt h e yh a v er a r e l ys p o k e n in t h ei n t e r v e n i n gy e a r s ,b e c a u s eaf e ws c e n e s  e a r l i e rh es t o o dl o o k i n gl o n g i n g l ya th e rw n id o ww i t hh i sB i b l eo v e rh i sh e a r t( ac l e v  e v o c a t o in o ft h e i rl o v e s ' m i p e d m i e n t )b u td i dn o te n t e r ,a n ds k u k le da w a ya tt h ea p p r o o fa w a g o n . P e a r ld r a w st h ea u d e in c e s ' a t t e n t i o nt oh i sg e s t u r eb ya s k n ig w h yt h e m i n i s t e ra w la y sk e e p sh i sh a n do v e rh i sh e a r t . D m i m e s d a e l h a sb e e ns h o w n , earlier, 29  b r a n d n ig h i m s e l fb y firelight. T h ei n t e r t i t l ea c c o m p a n y n ig t h a ts e g m e n tr e a d s :" t h e  t o r t u r e dh e a r t — d o u b y l t o r t u r e db yt h el o v ea n dv e n e r a t o in o fh i sp e o p l e . " B u tt h i s is n  s t r o n g y l p r e s e n t e d in t h e film. C h i l n g w o r t ho n y l a r r i v e sv e r yl a t e in t h ea c t i o n ,s ot h e a u d e in c e ,l a c k i n gt h en o v e s l ' d a io lg u e sb e t w e e nt h em e n ,c a n n o t fully a p p r e c a it et h e  d e p t h so fD m i m e s d a e ls ' g u i l ta n ds u f f e r i n g . S o js t r o ma n dF r a n c e sM a r o in a s lo d e e lt et h e m d in g ih t vigil s e q u e n c e ,w h c ih p r o v d ie ss u c hi n s i g h tf o rt h er e a d e ri n t oD m i m e s d a e ls ' p s y c h o o lg ya n dh i sc o n f l i c t e da t t i t u d et o w a r dh i sf a m i l y ,h i sn in e rs t r u g g e l w i t h  c o m m u n t y i v a u le sa n dn a t u r a lm o r a l i t y( l o v e ) . I n s t e a d ,t h eb r a n d n ig s c e n es e e m so u to  p a lc ea n de x t r e m e ,a n dD m i m e s d a e ls ' r u s ht oH e s t e r s ' s d ie d u r n ig P e a r l s ' i ln e s sa p p e a r s m o r ec o n s i s t e n t ,g v ie no u rn o t o in o fh m i a san o b e l r o m a n t c i l o v e r . O fc o u r s e ,t h em n is it e rr e v e a s l h i si d e n t i t ym i m e d a it e y l u p o ne n t e r n ig H e s t e r s ' c o t t a g e ,t ot h ed e l i g h to ft h er e c e n t l y a r r i v e dC h i l i n g w o r t h . H e s t e rm i m e d a it e y l  i d e n t i f i e st h eo l dm a na sh e rh u s b a n d ,a n dt h el o v e r sc l i n gt e n a c o iu s y l b u tf e a r f u ly t o a n o t h e r , in a c o n v e n t o in a lm e o ld r a m a c t i w a y . T h et o t a le l i m i n a t i o no fC h i l i n g w o r t h s ' s o lw p s y c h o o lg c ia lt o r t u r eo ft h eu n s u s p e c n t ig m n is it e rk e e p st h ef o c u so nt h el o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p ,m a k n ig t h ep l o te ls st r i a n g u l a ra n dc o m p e lx . T h e r e is o n y l H e s t e r D m i m e s d a e l t oc o n s i d e r ,n o tH e s t e r C h i l n g w o r t ho rC h n i lg w o r t h D m i m e s d a e l  ( H i g a s h i2 1 ) . T h i sf o c u so nt h er o m a n t c i p a i r is r e i n f o r c e d in t h ef o r e s ts c e n e , in w h H e s t e ro u t l i n e sh e rp l a nf o rt h e i re s c a p e . A g a n i h e r e ,t h er o m a n t c i c o u p e l c a n n o tb e  d i l u t e db yt h et r i a n g u l a t i o n ,s oP e a r l s ' r o l e in t h es c e n e is m n im i z ie d . S h ea p p e a r so n  a tt h ee n d ,t or e s t o r et oh e rm o t h e rh e rl e t t e ra n dc a p ,n o n c h a a ln t y l a n dw t i h o u tc o m  T h eE l e c t i o nD a ys e q u e n c ef o lo w s . D m i m e s d a e l is s h o w ne n t e r n ig t h ec h u r c h in at r a n c e ,b u tC h i l n g w o r t ha n dH e s t e r s ' m o v e m e n s t a r et h ef o c u s ,u n t i lt h es e r m o n 30  b e g i n s . As t u d yo ft h ev a r o iu sE l e c t i o nD a ys e r m o n sp r e s e n t e d in t h e film a d a p t a t o in s The Scarlet Letter w o u d l m a k ef o raf a s c i n a t i n gi n v e s t i g a t i o na l o n e . H a w t h o r n e ,o f c o u r s e ,d o e sn o tr e v e a lt h et e x to ft h es e r m o n ,b u to n y l its p o w e r f u le f f e c to nt h e l i s t e n e r s . I n a film, h o w e v e r ,t h ew o r d sa r ee s s e n t i a l . M a r o in s u m su pD m i m e s d a e ls '  s p e e c hw i t ho n y l o n e title, r e a d i n g :" P u r g ey o u r s e v le so fi n t o l e r a n c e ! J u d g en o t ,f o ro n  t h ee y e so fG o dm a ys e ei n t ot h eh e a r to fa s i n n e r ! " H i se y e ss e e mn e v e rt om o v o n eo ft h ec o n g r e g a t o in — C h n i lg w o r t h . W h e nh eh a sf i n i s h e d ,t h ec o n g r e g a t o in p r a s ie s t h ee o lq u e n c eo ft h es e r m o n — r io n c ia y l, s n ic e it is t h e i rn it o e lr a n c et h a tm o v e s D m i m e s d a e l t ow r i t e it, a n dt h e i rn it o e lr a n c et h a t( t h e film a r g u e s )c a u s e st h ee n s u n ig t r a g e d y .  C h i l n g w o r t ha p p r o a c h e sh m i a f t e rt h es e r v i c e ,a n dw a r n sh m i t h a th et o o is t o  sail o nt h es h i p . H ea s k s ," D o s tt h i n kt h o us h a l te v e rh a v eh a p p n ie s s ? I will a w la y s  f o l o wt h e e ! " T h i sw o u d l s e e mt ob et h ef u l f i lm e n to fh i sv o w ,p r o n o u n c e de a r l i e r in  H e s t e r s ' c o t t a g e ,t h a th i s" r e v e n g e will b e infinite." T h ee f f e c to ft h i sl a t e s tw a r n n ig o n D m i m e s d a e l is p r o f o u n d . H ea p p e a r s in t h ed o o r w a yo ft h em e e n t ig h o u s ew i t h C h i ln g w o r t hd i r e c t l yb e h n id h i m ,w h s ip e r n i g in h i se a r . I t is a tt h i sp o i n tt h a t  D m i m e s d a e l r e a l i z e st h a t in a s o c i a lw o r l d , it is m i p o s s b ie l t oe s c a p et h ec o m m u n t y i a n  its o r d e r . T h e r e is n os p a c ef o rn a t u r a lb o n d s in a s o c i e t y . H e s t e rs t a r e sa tt h ep a i r  o b v o iu sa l a r m ,b u tD m i m e s d a e l d o e sn o tr e t u r nh e rg a z e . H eo lo k so n y l a tt h e pillory  a n da s c e n d s it w i t hH e s t e rr i g h tb e h n id h i m . S i g n i f i c a n t l y ,a g a i n ,P e a r l is n o tn ic u ld e d t h e final t a b l e a u . T h i s is t h er o m a n t c i c o u p l e s ' m o m e n . t H e s t e rs u p p o r t sh i sh e a d , c r e a t i n gt h ep i e t a l i k ea r r a n g e m e n tt h a tm a n yo f t h el a t e rf i l m s will c o p y . D m i m e s d a e ls ' l a s tw o r d sc o n s t i t u t et h eq u e s t i o n ,t oH e s t e r , "is t h i sn o tab e t t e rf r e e d o m ? " — ap o i n t  31  f a m i l i a rt or e a d e r so ft h en o v e l . B u tG i s h s ' H e s t e r is n o tg v ie nt h er e s p o n d n ig l i n et h a  c a s t sd o u b to nD m i m e s d a e ls ' r e a s o n n ig :" Ik n o wn o t . " T h en o v e s l ' D m i m e s d a e l a s s e r t s  in h i sd y n ig s p e e c h ,t h a tm o r a la lw is n ie s c a p a b e l e v e n in d e a t h ,b u tf o rt h e film t h e r e a ly is a f r e e d o mt ob eg a n ie d in d e a h t— af r e e d o mf r o me x t e r n a ls o c i a lc o n s t r a i n t s .  T h em i n i s t e r s ' l a s ta c t is t or e m o v eH e s t e r s ' b a d g eo fs h a m ea n da o l w it t o fall o n b r a n d e dc h e s t ,d i r e c t l yo nt h eb r a n d itself. W t i ht h i sg e s t u r e ,D m i m e s d a e l a b s o v le s H e s t e ro fh e rs o c i a l sin, t h ei m p l i c a t i o nb e n ig t h a ts h e will live o nu n b u r d e n e da sa  o fh i sp r e s e n c eo nt h es c a f f o l d . H eh a sd o n ew h a ts h er e q u e s t e db e f o r eh e r first e x p t op u b l i ch u m i l a t i o nt h e r e :h eh a sa t o n e df o rh te mb o t h . D e s p t i eM o r d a u n t Hall's c o m p a ln it , in t h e New York Times, t h a t" T h eR e v e r e n d D m i m e s d a e l s t r i k e so n ea sb e n ig a p e c u l i a r l ys p n ie e ls sp e r s o n ,w a v e r n ig b e t w e e na c o n f e s s o in o fh i ss i na n dc l i n g i n gt oh i sp o s i t i o na sam i n i s t e r , "L a r sH a n s o n s ' D m i m e s d a e l is c o n s d ie r a b y l s t r o n g e rt h a nh i sl i t e r a r yp r e d e c e s s o r . B r i a nM c F a r a ln e a s s e r t st h a t t h ev e n e r a t e dm n is it e r is s e e n :( a )a st r y i n gt or e s i s th i s f e e l i n g sf o rh e r (cf. h i ss t e r n n e s s in r e p r o v n ig h e r , first in c h u r c h ,l a t e r in t h ew o o d s ) ;a n d( b )a s lo a sh u m a n e y l s y m p a t h e t c i t o w a r dh e rw h e ns h e is t r e a t e du n k n id y l b y t h ec o m m u n t y i. A film in 1 9 2 6( a n df o rm a n ys u b s e q u e n t y e a r s )w o u d l b eu n l i k e l yt or i s kw i t h its a u d e in c eah e r oa s w e a ka n dc o w a r d y l a sH a w t h o r n e s ' D m i m e s d a e l; a n d S o js t r o m s ' m a e l s t a r ,L a r sH a n s o n , is g v ie no p p o r t u n t ie is t oa p p e a rh a n d s o m e , virile, a n ds y m p a t h e t c i. F u r t h e r ,h i s is p r e s e n t e da sap a s s o in f o raw o m a nw h oh a sb e e ne s t a b l i s h e d :( a )a se s s e n t i a l yn in o c e n ta n d playful, filled w i t ha d e l i g h t in life w h c ih is a to d d sw i t ht h ec o m m u n t y i; a n d( b ) a sa c t i v e l y , if i n n o c e n t l y ,t h ep u r s u e r in t h es i t u a t i o n . I n fact, s h e literally p u r s u e sh m i in t h ef o r e s ts c e n ew h e r e ,w e a s s u m e ,t h e y finally m a k el o v e . S u c hw a st h ee f f e c to f Lillian G i s h s ' p e r s o n at h a t , in s t r u c t u r a lt e r m s ,t h e film c a na f f o r dt o p r e s e n th e ra st h ep u r s u e rw t i h o u ta n yd a n g e ro fa o ls so f  32  s y m p a h ty f o rh e r ,a n dt h i sr e d u c e sD m i m e s d a e ls ' g u i l t in t h e m a t t e r . H eb e c o m e sas t r o n gm a nb e g u e l id b yo lv e in t h e f o r mo f a girl w h o s en in o c e n t y l b e g u i l n gq u a l i t ya u d e in c e s c o u d l b ec o u n t e do nt oe n d o r s e . (43)  I n fact, t h e film c o n s t a n t y l j u g g l e sh i ss t r e n g t ha n dw e a k n e s s . H ec a lm i st oh a v ef o u g  h i sa t t r a c t i o nt oH e s t e r ,b u t it e x c e e d e dh i ss t r e n g t h . H e is, in a w a y ,o v e r p o w e r e db y  girl w h o s ev e r yn in o c e n c eb e g u i l e s .S h es e d u c e sh m i w i t hh e ro lo k sa n dh e rw o r d s ,s u  a sh e rr e p e a t e dq u e s t o in n ig o ft h eb a s s i o ft h ep r o h i b i t i o na g a n is tl o v e . S h e is t h ev o  o ft h en a t u r a l self, r e b e li n ga g a n is ts o c i e t y . T h i ss e n s eo fh i sw e a k n e s s will r e t u r na t  e n do ft h e film, w h e nh ep u t sh i s life in h e rh a n d s in t h ef o r e s t ,a n dt h e nc l i n g st s t r e n g t ho nt h es c a f f o l d . T h eh d id e nr e s o u r c e so fs t r e n g t h in G i s h s ' H e s t e r ,a b s e n t in m o s to fh e rp r e v o iu s roles, a r eo b v o iu s in t h ef o r e s ts c e n e , in w h c ih s h eo f f e r s  D m i m e s d a e l h o p ew i t hn o to n y l w o r d so fl o v eb u tac o n c r e t ep l a nf o re s c a p e . I t is H w h ot h e nm a k e sa r r a n g e m e n t sw i t ht h e sailors. If H e s t e r is s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l ya n t i -  c o m m u n t a ir a in ( s h eh a ss h o w nt h i s in b e t r a y n ig h e rm a r r a ig ea n dq u e s t o in n ig t h eb a s s i f o rs o c i a lc o n t r o l ) ,t h e nt h es e l f / s o c i e t ys t r u g g e l is D m i m e s d a e ls '— a n ds o c e it y is w i n n i n g . B u tD m i m e s d a e l is s t r o n gw h e nm e o ld r a m ad e m a n d s it. U p o nh e a r n ig o fh e r  d i s g r a c e ,h eb u r s t s in m a n f u l y . H ei n s i s t so ns h o u d le r n ig t h eb a lm e . B u ta g a i n ,H e s t e  c o n v n ic e sh m i t of o l o wh e ri n s t r u c t i o n s . A s ar e s u l t ,h ea p p e a r sn e v e rt ob ea t faul M c F a r l a n e s ' r e m a r k sa b o u t Lillian G i s h s ' u n q iu ea b i l i t yt op a ly a s e d u c t r e s sw i t h  c o m p e lt en in o c e n c e will b ei n v e s t i g a t e d in t h en e x ts e c t o in o ft h i sc h a p t e r ,b u th e r e it  m i p o r t a n to n y l t on o t et h ee f f e c to ft h i so na na u d e in c e s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o no fD m i m e s d a e l.  H e is c l e a r l yb a lm e e ls s :w ek n o wh ew a sd e c e v ie db yH e s t e rr e g a r d n ig h e rp r i o rm a  a n dm a n p iu a lt e db yh e ri n t oc o n c e a n i lg h i s guilt. H e is a v r it u o u sm a nt r a n s f i x e db y  33  p u r e ,n a t u r a l ,t r u l ym o r a ll o v et h a tc o n f l i c t sw i t hh i ss o c i e t y s ' 'false' m o r a l i t y . Ae ls s r o m a n t i c ,h e r o c i D m i m e s d a e l w o u d l b er e j e c t e db yt h ea u d e in c ea sal e a d i n gm a n ,a c o m p a s s o in a t ef i g u r e ,a n dam a t c hf o r Lillian Gish. B u tae ls sn in o c e n tf i g u r et h a n  G i s h s ' H e s t e rc o u d l n e v e rr e t a i nt h ee n d o r s e m e n to ft h a ta u d e in c ed e s p t i eh e r sins. T h e film c o n s t r u c t st h o s es n is a s only social; n o ta na f f r o n tt om o r a l i t y ,t h e yn is t e a da r e a s s e r t o in so fn a t u r eo v e rs o c i e t y ,n a t u r a lm o r a l i t yo v e rs o c i a lc o n t r o l . H e s t e r is n in o c e n t o fc o r r u p t i o nb ys o c i e t y ;h e rn in o c e n c er e s d ie s in h e rn a t u r a n le s s . W h e r eH a w t h o r n e  c o ls e sh i sn o v e lw i t hH e s t e r s ' r e s u m p o t in o ft h eb a d g el a t e in life, S o js t r o me n d st h e  w i t hh e ro ls so f it o nt h es c a f f o l d . T h en o v e s l ' m e s s a g eo f sins ' p e r s s it e n c e is i n v e r t e d b e c a u s e in t h e film t h e r e is n ou n i v e r s a l ya g r e e du p o nn o t o in o fs n if u n le s s — t i is i d e o l o g i c a la n dc o n t e s t e db yc o m p e n t ig m o r a ls y s t e m s . W h o is left t ob a lm ef o rt h e i rt r a g e d y ? T h ec o m m u n y t i itself s t a n d sa c c u s e da t  t h ee n d ,a o ln gw i t ht h ec u c k o d le dh u s b a n d . T h r o u g ht h ei n v e n t i o no ft h eb a c k s t o r ya n t h er e c o n s t r u c t o in o fc h a r a c t e r s ," t h ea u d e in c e is c o m f o r t e di n t ob e l i e v i n gt h a t it is  s o m e h o wr e m o t ef r o ma n df a ra b o v et h em o r a ll e v e lo fa g r o u pb e h a v n ig b a d y l in t h  film it is v i e w i n g ,a n dt h em ' e s s a g e ' is r e d u c e dt ot e r m st h a ta r ed e n i le a t e d in t h ec p o s s b ie l e x t r e m e s :H e s t e r L i li a n is g ' ood;' D m i m e s d a e l is g ' ood;' C h i l n g w o r t h is 'bad;' t h ef r o w n i n g ,s o m e m t i e s silly P u r t i a n sw h ow a n tt ot a k eH e s t e r s ' b a b yfromh e r a r e 'bad' " ( J u l i a nS m t i h1 1 8 ) . W h e l i C h i l n g w o r t hw e a r st h eb a lc kh a ta n dt h e m e n a c n ig s c o w l ,t h et r u e villain o ft h ep e ic e is a n n o u n c e d in t h e first title, in w h c ih P u r t ia n sa r ec o n d e m n e da s" as t e r n ,u n f o r g i v i n gp e o p l e , "a n ds u b s e q u e n ts c e n e so f f e r t h e ma sh y p o c r i t i c a l ,b g io t e da n db u f f o o n i s h . T h eo u t r a g ed i r e c t e da tt h eP u r i t a n  c o m m u n t y i b yt h e film's r e v e iw e r s is g u d ie db o t he x p l i c i t l ya n di m p l i c i t l yb yt h e film. 34  C h i li n g w o r t h s ' t h r e a t sa r en o t h n ig c o m p a r e dt ot h e evil o fa c o m m u n t y i t h a t Variety c h a r a c t e r z ie da s" f a n a t i c s "a n dt h e New York Times a s" g in o b e l b i g o t s . " B u t is t h e  c o m m u n t y i, in t h ee n d ,s ou n f o r g v in ig ? T h e i ra t t i t u d et o w a r dH e s t e rn e v e rs o f t e n s ,a si d o e s in t h en o v e la n d in s o m el a t e r film v e r s i o n s . T h ed u n k n ig o fM s it r e s sH i b b i n s , in t h e film, is a s a t i s f y i n gm o m e n tf o rt h ea u d e in c eb o t hb e c a u s eo fh e rp e r s o n a l  o f e n s v ie n e s sa n dh e rs t a t u sa st h em o s tc l e a r l yd r a w nr e p r e s e n t a t v ie o ft h ec o m m u n t y i  a n d its v a l u e s . T h e film d o e sn o ta d d r e s st h ec h a n g n ig p e r c e p t o in o fH e s t e rw i t h i nt h e c o m m u n t y i, n o rh e rg o o dw o r k s ,s n ic et h ec o m m u n t y is ' c a p a c t i yt oa c c o m m o d a e t t h e  o u t c a s t is left u n e x p o lr e d . T h ep o s t io in so ft h en a t u r a ls e l fa n dt h eu n n a t u r a ls o c e it ya r  m o r ep o l a r i z e da n di r r e c o n c i l a b l e in t h e film. B u tt h eg e s t u r ea tt h ee n do ft h e film  D m i m e s d a e l lies d y i n g ,t h er e m o v a lo fh a t sa n dt h es t u n n e d ,s o r r o w f u ll o o k s ,p o i n t , if o b l i q u e l y ,t oac a p a c t iy f o rs y m p a t h y . A n dt h em i n i s t e r s ' C h r i s t l i k eg e s t u r e ,t h e  a s s u m p o t in o fH e s t e r s ' b a d g ea sw e la sh i so w nb r a n d ,s u g g e s t st h ep o s s i b i l i t yo fn o o n y l s p i r i t u a lb u ta s lo s o c i a lr e d e m p t o in . W h e l i t h efilmd m i n is ih e st h ec o m p e lx t i yo f its r o m a n t c i pair, it a s lo s i m p l i f i e s  C h i l n g w o r t hb ya s s g in n ig t oh m i all o ft h eq u a l i t i e so ft h es t o c k villain o fm e o ld r a m a  I nh i sa p p e a r a n c e ,h i sg e s t u r e s ,a n dh i sp a lc e m e n ts ol a t e in t h es t o r y( a sas o r to f b o lw t ot h ec o u p l e s ' c h a n c e sa th a p p n ie s s ) ,a sw e la s in t h ee l i m i n a t i o no ft h e C h n i lg w o r t h D m i m e s d a e l plot, it is c l e a rt h a t" t h es c r i p t is e ls sc o n c e r n e dt or e a l i z e  C h i l i n g w o r t h s ' c o m p e lx t i yt h a nh i sc a p a c t i yf o rf r i g h t e n i n gt h ea u d e in c ea sh et e r r o r i z e s Lillian G s ih a n dL a r sH a n s o n "( 1 1 6 ) . T h ei n c l u s i o no ft h eC h n i lg w o r t h D m i m e s d a e l p l o tw o u d l p r e s e n td i s t r a c t i n gc o m p e t i o nf o rt h er o m a n c e plot. T h ee n a lr g e m e n to f  C h i l n g w o r t hm g ih ta s lo d r a ws y m p a h ty a w a yf r o mD m i m e s d a e l— a f t e r all, it is t h eo l d 35  d o c t o r ,n o tt h em i n i s t e r ,w h o is h e rh u s b a n d ,a n dh eh a sb e e nc u c k o d le d . I n s t e a d , m e o ld r a m ad e m a n d sac r u d e y l d r a w n villain. Variety c o m p a ln ie dt h a t" H e n r y B.  W a l t h a lp a ly st h eh u s b a n dw i t ham a k e u ps u g g e s t v ie o fS h y o lc ka n dm a n n e r s im m u c h t h es a m e ,t h o u g ht h er e a s o nf o rt h i s is f a rf r o me x p a ln ie d "( 1 5 ) . B u tt h er e a s o n is  o b v o iu sa n dt h ee f f e c t ,e s p e c i a l y in t h es c e n e in H e s t e r s ' c o t a g e in w h c ih h ef r i g h t e n  a n dt h r e a t e n st h ec o u p l e , is p e r f e c tm e o ld r a m a . All h en e e dd o is t i eH e s t e ru pa n d h e rb o u n do nar a i l r o a dt r a c k ! T h e i r" u n n a t u r a lr e l a t i o n , "a sH a w t h o r n e s ' C h i l n g w o r t h c a ls t h e i rm a r r a ig e , is m o n s t r o u s ,a t l h o u g hs o c i a ly l e g i t i m a t e ,a n ds oh em u s tb e m o n s t r o u st o o . W h e l i r e c o n s t r u c t n i g The Scarlet Letter i n t oad r a m at h a t fits m e o ld r a m a c t i  e x p e c t a t o i n s ,S o js t r o m is a s lo a b e l t om o d f i y a film c o n v e n t o in t h a tc o u d l h a v ed i s t r a c t e  f r o mt h em a n i a c t i o na n dn is t e a dm a k e it p r o v d ie a u s e f u lc o m m e n a tr yo nt h es i t u a t i o  S o js t r o mu s e sas u b p o lt c o n c e r n n ig a b a r b e rn a m e d Giles, m e a n tt op r o v d ie c o m c i relie t oe x p o s et h eu n n a t u r a n le s so ft h ec o m m u n t y is ' r e s t r i c t i o n so n love, a n d i t sh y p o c r i s y . G i l e s is a c t u a l yc e n t r a lt ot w os u b p o lt s — h s i c o u r t s h p i a n dh i sf e u dw i t hM s it r e s s H i b b i n s . Giless ' r e l a t i o n s h i pw i t hh i sp r u d s ih f a in c e ep r o v d ie sak n o w n ig c o m c i c o u n t e r p o n it t ot h eH e s t e r D m i m e s d a e l r e l a t i o n s h i p . A f t e rt h e film v e iw e r is i n s t r u c t e d  t h a tk i s s i n g is f o r b d id e nu n t i lm a r r a ig e ,G i l e s is s h o w na tt h eh o m eo fh i sf i a n c e e ,n o a c c i d e n t a l yn a m e dP a t e in c e( av i r t u et h a tc o n t r a d c it sp a s s i o n ) ,c o n v e r s n ig w i t hh e r  t h r o u g ht h ei n t e r p o l a t i o no fa o ln gs p e a k n ig t u b e ,a st h e y sit a to p p o s t i ee n d so fa t a  a n du n d e rt h ew a t c h f u le y eo fh e rp a r e n t s . W h e nG i l e sg e t su pt ol e a v e ,h ea t e m p t s e m b r a c eP a t e in c ea n d is r e b u f f e d . S h er u n st oh e rp a r e n t s ,p r o t e s t n ig t h a ts h ec a n n o t m a r r yam a no fs u c he x c e s s v ie " p a s s o in s " . T h en e x ts c e n es h o w sH e s t e ra n d 36  D m i m e s d a e l, u n w a t c h e da n d in t h en a t u r a l( a so p p o s e dt od o m e s t c i) s p a c eo ft h ef o r e s  e m b r a c n ig . G i l e sc h a f e sa g a n is tt h er e p r e s s v ie n e s so fP u r i t a nc o u r t s h i p ,b e c a u s eh e is a n a t u r a lm a n — h te c o u n t e r p a r to fH e s t e r . H ed o e sn o tu n d e r s t a n dw h yh es h o u d l b e a s h a m e do fl o v ee i t h e r . L i k eH e s t e r ,h e is p u n s ih e de a r l y in t h e film f o r a trivial  n if r a c t o in — s n e e z n ig . T h eb o n db e t w e e nG i l e sa n dH e s t e r is r e i n f o r c e db yh i sd e f e n s eo  h e rw h e ns h e is c h d ie db yM s it r e s sH b ib n is o ns e v e r a lo c c a s o in s ,a n dh i sc o n c e r no v  h e r child's ilness. G i l e s is t h eo n y l p e r s o nt ow h o mH e s t e rc a nt u r nd u r n ig t h a t cris H i sf e u dw i t hM s it r e s sH i b b i n s ,w h c ih e n d s in h i sd u n k n ig h e r in t h ep o n dp u b l i c l y  s h r e w dp a r a le lt ot h es c a f f o l dp u n s ih m e n to fH e s t e r ) ,p r o v e sn o to n y l h i sa l e g i a n c et o H e s t e rp e r s o n a l y ,b u th i ss e n s eo fm o r a lr g ih t n e s st h a tt r a n s c e n d s ,a n da tt m i e se v e n c o n t r a d i c t s ,t h ec o m m u n t i y s ' m o r a l i t yo fl a w ,n o ta f f e c t i o n . S o js t r o ma n dM a r o in m a k e o ft h e i rc o m c i relief f i g u r eaf o c u sf o rt h ea u d e in c e s ' i d e n t i f i c a t i o n :" t h ea l A m e r i c a n  b o y n e x t d o o rw h o s ep u p p y d o gc r u s ho nH e s t e r ,e v e na f t e rh e r fall f r o mg r a c e , is u s e d  t od i r e c tt h ea u d e in c e s ' a t t i t u d et o w a r dH e s t e ra n dt h em e a n n ig o fh e rs t o r y "( E s t r i n1 E v e nD m i m e s d a e ls ' r e d e m p t v ie f u n c t i o n is r e f l e c t e d in t h es u b p o lt — " t h ed e a t ho f  D m i m e s d a e l in H e s t e r s ' a r m s will b eg i lh t e n e da n dc o u n t e r p o n it e db ya ni n t e r c u tt ot h o n c e p r u d s ih P a t e in c et a k i n g Giless ' h a n d in p 'r o o ft h a tt h ei n t o l e r a n tt o w n s p e o p e l a r e  m o v e da n dh u m a n z ie db yt h et r u im p ho fo lv et h a ta o lw sH e s t e rt ol e a dh te m in p r a f o rD m i m e s d a e l" ( 1 0 4 ) . W h e l i s o c i a ld e v a in c eo ft h em a g n t u id eo fH e s t e r s ' a n d D m i m e s d a e ls ', b e n ig a c o u p e l c o n s e c r a t e do n y l b yn a t u r ea n dp a s s o in ,c a nn e v e rb e  i n t e g r a t e di n t ot h ec o m m u n t y i, t h es u g g e s t o in is t h a tn a t u r a lm e na n dw o m e n like G i l e  a n dH e s t e rc a nc r e a t ec h a n g e in t h ec o m m u n y t i t h r o u g ht h e i re x a m p e l o fa f f e c t i o na n d o p e n n e s s ,a n dc a nt r u im p ho v e rt h eh e a r t e ls s n e s so ft h eo l do r d e r . 37  Lillian G s ih left H o y lw o o ds o o na f t e rb o t hS o js t r o ma n dh e rc o s t a r in The Scarlet Letter a n d The Wind, L a r sH a n s o n . W h e l i t h ed e b a c e l o v e r The Wind's e n d n ig  c e r t a i n l yc o n t r b iu t e dt oh e rd e p a r t u r e ,t h e r ea r em o r ec o m p e lx r e a s o n sf o r it, a n d in t h e  h e rr o l e in The Scarlet Letter p a ly sap a r t . Lillian G s ih b e c a m e am o v e i s t a rw h i l e sti  t e e n a g e r in A m e r c ia n film's v e r ye a r l yd a y s . S h eh a dk n o w nM a r yP i c k f o r dw h i l eb o t h  w e r eo nt h es t a g ea sc h i l d r e n ,a n d it w a sw h i l ev i s i t i n gP i c k f o r da taN e wY o r ks t u  t h a ts h em e tD W . . Griffith. H e ra s s o c a it o in w i t h Griffith w o u d l l a s ti n t ot h eT w e n t e is . T h r o u g hh e r ,l a r g e l y ,h ed e v e o lp e dh i sm e o ld r a m a c t i f o r m u a l o fi m p e r i l e dv i r t u ea n d ( u s u a l y )l a s tm n iu t er e s c u e , in Birth of a Nation ( 1 9 1 4 )a n do t h e rf i l m s in t h eT 'e e n s .  G s ih w a st h ea p o t h e o s s i o ft h e Griffith h e r o i n e ; "Griffith f o u n dh e ra n g e l i c ,f r a g i l eb e a u  t ob eap e r f e c te x p r e s s o in o fh i sv e iw o ft h ei d e a lw o m a n :s t r o n g in a d v e r s t iy b u tm  a tt h em e r c yo fm e na n dt h e i rs e f ls ih n e s s "( S o c h e n" N e w " 6). T h er o m a n t c i S o u t h e r n b o r nd i r e c t o rw a sag r e a tt e c h n i c a ln in o v a t o ra n ds t o r y t e le r ,b u th i sn o t o in o fw o m e n u n m s it a k a b y l V i c t o r i a n . A f t e rt h ew a r ,a u d e in c e sb e g a nt or e j e c tt h eo u t r i g h tm o r a l i z i n g  a n dt h eo f t e nf o r c e dh a p p ye n d n ig s Griffith p r o v i d e d . F o raw h i l e ,h ew a sa b e l t oa  t oc h a n g n ig t a s t e s . Broken Blossoms ( 1 9 1 9 ) , in w h c ih G s ih p a ly sac h i l db e a t e nt od e a  b yh e rf a t h e r ,a n d Way Down East ( 1 9 2 0 ) in w h c ih t h en in o c e n th e r o n ie ( a g a i nG i s h ) is  t r i c k e db ya nu p p e r c a ls sc a di n t oaf a l s em a r r a ig ea n db e c o m e sa nu n w e dm o t h e r ,w h i sg r e a t e s ta r t i s t i ca n df i n a n c i a ls u c c e s s e sa f t e r Birth of a Nation. B u t Griffith w o u d l n e v e rh a v eas u c c e s sa f t e r Way Down East, a n dh a dt or e e la s e Lillian G s ih w h e nh e n oo ln g e ra f f o r dt op a yh e r . F o rI n s p i r a t i o nP i c t u r e s ,G s ih t h e nm a d e The White Sister ( 1 9 2 3 ) ,a n d Romola  ( 1 9 2 4 ) . I nb o t hf i l m ss h er e m a n is v e r ym u c h Griffith's G s ih — t h ev i r t u o u ss u f f e r e r ,t h e 38  V i c t o r i a nt r u ew o m a n . I n The White Sister, s h eo ls e sh e rf i a n c e ,o rs os h et h i n k s ,b u t  a ss h eh a st a k e nh e rv o w sa san u n ,h er e a p p e a r s . D e s p t i eh e rl o v ef o rh i m ,s h eh  h e rv o w s . H et r i e st ok d in a ph e ra n d fails, a n d is killed in a v o l c a n i ce r u p t i o n . I n  Romola, a d a p t e df r o mG e o r g e Eliot, s h ee n d u r e sh e rh u s b a n d s ' a f f a i ra n de n d su pr a i s i n  h i s child a f t e rh i sd e a t ha n dt h a to fh i sm i s t r e s s . S h e is r e w a r d e dw i t ham o r ed e s e m a t e . W h e ns h eb e g a nm a k n ig La Boheme f o rM G Mt h en e x ty e a r ,t h e r e is a s t o r y  s h ea t e m p t e dt oc o n v n ic ed i r e c t o rK n ig V i d o ra n dc o s t a rJ o h nG i l b e r tt h a tt h el o v es t  w o u d l p l a yb e s tw t i h o u ta n yp h y s i c a lc o n t a c tb e t w e e nt h el o v e r s( H i g a s h i2 0 ) . I nt h e d r i v e nH o y lw o o do ft h em i d 2 0 s ', t h i sw a sah o p e e ls s y l o d lf a s h o in e di d e a ,b u tv e r y  c o n s s it e n tw i t hh e rm i a g e in H o y lw o o d . F r o mr e p o r t so fh e ro f f s c r e e n life a n dc e r t a i n  h e rc h o c ie o f roles, b u te v e n in t h en a t u r eo fh e ra c t i n g itself, o n et h i n g is c l e a r :" w  a sL u c yw i t hh e rh e a do nt h eY e o lw M a n s ' p i lo w (Broken Blossoms), o rt h eb e c o w e ld  n u n in The White Sister, o rM i m i in l o v ea n dd y n i g (La Boheme), Lillian Gish, in s t a s  [ h a d ] am o r a lq u a l i t y , ab u r d e no fs i n c e r i t ya n dt h o u g h t , am e a n n ig ,a n das e n s eo f c h a r a c t e rt h a t[ c o u l d ]b ea r t i c u l a t e da n dt r a n s l a t e d . S h e is v i r t u e "( A f f r o n9 0 ) . I na  s o c e it ys t r u g g l i n gt ob r e a kf r e eo fV i c t o r i a n i s m ,e s p e c i a l y in s e x u a lm a t t e r s ,s h ew a sa  s y m b o lo fa p a s tt ob ee s c a p e d ,e v e ns h u n n e d . S h ew a st h ea n t i t h e s i so fs e x . S u m k H i g a s h ia s s e r t st h a tb yt h em i d 1 9 2 0 s ', a t l h o u g ht h em o v e i a u d e in c e still a d m r ie dA m e r c ia n g i r l h o o d ,t h a tg i r l h o o dw a sn oo ln g e rs y n o n y m o u sw i t h t h eq u a l i t i e sw h c ih Lillian G s ih p r o e jc t e do nt h es c r e e n . P e r h a p st h ev e r ya r t i s t r yw i t hw h c ih s h eh a dp o r t r a y e d t h es e n t m i e n t a lh e r o n ie h a do n y l s u c c e e d e d in d e f i n i n g h e rl i m i t a t i o n sa saw o m a n . S h ew a sa tt h eh e g ih to fh e r p o p u l a r i t yd u r n ig a n ds h o r t l ya f t e rt h ew a ra n df o raw h i l e c o m p e e td s u c c e s s f u y l w i t hm o r ed a r n ig h e r o i n e s ,s u c ha s t h ev a m pa n dt h e" N e wW o m a n " . A st h eJ a z zA g ep r o -  39  g r e s s e d ,h o w e v e r ,t h eV i c t o r i a nh e r o n ie b e c a m ei n c r e a s i n g l yo u t m o d e d . T h ev a u le s t r u c t u r eo ft h ew o r d l in w h c ih s h ef u n c t o in e dh a db e g u nt oc o l a p s e . T h ep o p u a lr m i a g e o fw o m e nc h a n g e da n dw i t h it, c o n c e p t so fm o r a l i t yb a s e d o nw o m a n s ' p u r i t ya n dn in o c e n c e .( 2 6 )  T h e critics h a dt u r n e dh a r s he v e nb e f o r eG s ih l e f t Griffith. O n ed e f n ie da no p t i m i s ta  p e r s o nw h o will g ot ot h et h e a t r ee x p e c t n ig t os e eaD W . . Griffith p r o d u c t o i n in w h  Lillian G s ih is n o ta t a c k e db yt h e villain in t h e fifth r e e l "( q t d . in S l i d e9 5 ) . B yt h  T w e n t e is t h e yw e r ev i c i o u s . J a m e sQ u r ik w r o t eo f Gish, in Photoplay, " I nt h el a s tt w e  y e a r ss h eh a sb e e ns a v e dj u s t in t h en i c ko ft m i ef r o mt h eb r u t a la t a c k so f4 0 ,0 0G  s o l d i e r s ,2 0 ,0 0b o r d e rr u f f i a n s ,a n d9 9 9c o n s c e in c e e ls sm e na b o u tt o w n . S o m e d a yIh o  t h eA m e r c ia nh e r ob r e a k sal e ga n d fails t og e tt h e r eb e f o r et h eG e r m a ns o l d i e rs m a in t h ed o o r "( q t d . ibid). F e o lw a c t r e s sL o u s ie B r o o k sl a t e rc h a r a c t e r z ie dt h ep r e s s s ' t r e a t m e n to fG s ih a sap u b l i ce x e c u t o in ( 5 1 ) . Q u i r k s ' c o m m e n tw a sw r i t t e n in 1 9 2 6 ,w h c ih w a saw a t e r s h e dy e a rf o r H o y lw o o da n df o r Gish. A s d ie f r o mb e n ig t h ey e a ro f The Scarlet Letter's r e l e a s e , it w a sa s lo t h ey e a rt h a tG r e t aG a r b oa r r i v e d in A m e r c ia . T o d a y it is h a r dt om i a g n ie  s u c hd i f f e r e n ts y m b o s l o fi d e a lw o m a n h o o da sG s ih a n dG a r b oc o e x i s t i n go nt h eM G  lot. B u t in fact, G a r b os p e n tm a n yd a y so nt h es e to f The Scarlet Letter, in p a r tb e c a  h e rc o u n t r y m e nS o js t r o ma n dH a n s o nw e r et h e r e ,b u ta s lo b e c a u s es h ew a n t e dt os t u d Gish. S h eo n c ec o m m e n e td t h a ts h ec o u l d n t ' w a t it ob e ab i gs t a r like Lillian G s ih  s h ec o u d l d ow h a t e v e rs h e liked, b u ts h er e a dt h a ts i t u a t i o nw r o n g . I tw a s in p a r tG a r r i v a lt h a tf o r c e d Lillian G s ih t oc o n f r o n tt h ep r o b e lm o fh e rm i a g e ,a n da t e m p tt o  c o n f o r mt op u b l i ct a s t e s . H e ra s s u m p o t in o ft h er o l eo fH e s t e rP r y n n ew a sa na t e m p t c o m p c i la t eh e rm i a g e ,b u tn is t e a dh e rm i a g es i m p l i f i e dH e s t e r ,a sw eh a v es e e n . 40  G a r b oa r r i v e do nt h es t r e n g t ho fh e rw o r k in M a u r c ie Stiller's Gosta Berlings Saga ( 1 9 2 4 ) in S w e d e n . S h ew a sm i m e d a it e y l p u ln g e di n t ot h es e x yv a m pr o l e st h a t w a sn e v e rt oe s c a p e . J u s ta sV a l e n t i n oh a de c l i p s e dt h ep o p u l a r i t yo f Griffith h e r o  R c ih a r dB a r t h e m l e s s ,G a r b ow o u d l e c l i p s e Gish. G s ih w a sh i r e db yM G M s ' N e wY o r k  office, b yt h eE a s tC o a s tb u s n ie s s m e nw h ol i k e dh e rp r o v e nb a n k a b i l i t y ,f o rs i xp i c t u r e s a tas a a lr yo f$ 8 0 0 0 ,0 0f o rt w oy e a r s( R o b n is o n1 4 7 ) . G r e t aG a r b ow a sh i r e df o ra  f r a c t i o no ft h a ts u mb yt h eW e s tC o a s to f f i c e sc o n t r o l e db yM a y e r ,w h o s ej o ba n dt a it w a st oa n t i c i p a t ef u t u r ep u b l i ct a s t e s . U n l i k et h ep a s s i v e ,d o m n ia b e l Gish, w h o m Griffith h a ds u b e jc t e dt om a e l m a n p iu a lt o in a n dv i o l e n c e ,G a r b ow a sa w la y sm o r e  p o w e r f u lt h a nh e rc o s t a r s ,e v e np h y s i c a ly , in f i l m ss u c ha s Wild Orchids a n d The Sing Standard ( b o t h1 9 2 9 ) . AG a r b oc h a r a c t e r s ' i n e v i t a b l e fall w a sa w la y st h er e s u l to fh e r  n a t u r ea n dF a t e ,n o tt r i c k e r yo rf o r c e . S h ew a sa ni n d i v i d u a la n da no u t s d ie r in h e r  A sav a m ps h es t o o da p a r tf r o ms o c e it ya n d its r u l e s ,a n d it a b u s e dh e r . T h em o r e s o p h s it c ia t e dh e r o n ie w a s ap e r f e c t fit f o rt h eJ a z zA g e ,e s p e c i a l yo n ew h or e b e l e d a g a n is tV i c t o r i a ns o c i a lc o d e s in f a v o ro fa p e r s o n a lm o r a l i t yo ft h eh e a r t . T h o s e  a c t r e s s e sw h oc o u d l n o tb e like G a r b oc o u d l n o ts u r v v ie l o n g . L o u s ie B r o o k sr e c a ls t " t h ep r o d u c e r sw e r ed r i v i n ga c t r e s s e so u to ft h e i rm n id s — d r e s s n ig B a r b a r aL a M a r r in  n u n s ' v e i l st om a k eh e rs y m p a t h e t c i a n ds t i c k i n gar o s et h r o u g ht h et e e t ho fH o y lw o o m o s tc e e lb r a t e ds c r e e n virgin, L o i sW i l s o n ,t om a k eh e ro lo ks e x y "( 1 5 ) . T h eo l d  v i r g i n / w h o r eb n ia r yw a s in d e c l i n e . W h a tG a r b oc o u d l d ow a sp r o j e c t" s e x u a l i t y in a vivid w a y ,o fc o u r s e ,b u tw i t ha nu n d e r y ln i g spirituality: t h ev e r yc o m b n ia t o in t h a t  M G M ,a n dt h er e s to fH o y lw o o d ,h a db e e ns e e k n ig "( A e lx a n d e rW a k le r 1 0 6 ) . S h ed i d  n o te n o jy h e r fall, a n ds h es u f f e r e dm u c h ,b u ts h ew a se m o t o in a y l r a t h e rt h a np h y s i c 41  v u l n e r a b l e ,a n da b o v e all, p s y c h o l o g i c a l yc o m p e lx . U n l i k e Lillian Gish, s h ed i dn o t  r e f l e c tt h ed o m n ia n to r d e r s ' m o r a l i t y ,a n dw a s in c o n f l i c tw i t h it, w h c ih is w h a tm a d e s oc o m p e n i lg f o rt h eJ a z zA g e . Lillian G s ih w a sa w a r eo ft h ec h a n g e s in t h e film h e r o i n e ,e s p e c i a l ya f t e rs h e  a r r i v e da tM G Mf o l o w i n gh e rt w oy e a r sa b r o a d . T h e Griffith-like h e r o n ie so fh e rf i l m s  f o rI n s p i r a t i o nP c it u r e sw o u d l n oo ln g e rs u f f i c e . A n d it w a so b v o iu st h a tt h eW e s tC o o f f i c eh a dn oi n t e r e s t in h e r . S h er e p o r t st h a tt h es t u d o i w e c lo m e dm ew i t hg r e a tb a n n e r ss t r u n ga c r o s st h es t r e e t s o fC u v le r City, p r o c a lm i n ig t h a t Lillian G s ih w a sn o wa n M G Ms t a r . L o o k n ig a tt h e m ,Ih a ds a d i as i l e n tp r a y e r t h a tt h e yw o u d l b ee q u a y l w a r m in f a r e w e l. T h e n I disc o v e r e dt h a tn op r e p a r a t o in sh a db e e nm a d ef o rm e ,n o s t o r i e s( n o te v e ni d e a s ) ,n od r ie c t o r s — n o t h n ig . Ih a db e e n s g in e d in t h eE a s tb yN i c kS c h e n c ka n dt h eb u s n ie s s office. A sIe la r n e dl a t e r ,t h e r ew a sas t r u g g e l g o n ig o nf o rp o w e r a c r o s st h o s e3 0 ,0 0m i l e s . Iw a sd r a w n ig a b i gs a a lr ym e a n t i m e ,a n dt h a tt r o u b e ld m e .( G i s h2 7 7 ) A f t e rc o m p e lt n i g La Boheme ( t h efilmin w h c ih s h ew a sf o r c e dt ok i s sJ o h nG i l b e r t a g a n is th e ri n c l i n a t i o n ) ,s h em a d e The Scarlet Letter. I tw a sa b o u tt h i st m i et h a ts h e r e p o r t sh a v n ig a na r g u m e n tw i t hM a y e ra n dT h a l b e r g . M a y e rw a n t e dt ot a k eh e ro f f s a a lr yu n t i lt h e yh a dap r o j e c tf o rh e r (i.e., i n d e f i n i t e l y ) ,a n dw h e ns h er e f u s e d ,h e t h r e a t e n e dt or u i nh e r . T h a b le r gh a das u g g e s t o in . G s ih recals, I r v i n gs p o k ea b o u tr e n e w n ig m yc o n t r a c t . " W ew o u d l like t oh a v ey o uw i t h us," h e said, " b u tt h e r e is s o m e t h n ig w e t h i n kw o u d l b ew s ie t o do.. . Y o us e e ,y o ua r ew a yu pt h e r e o nap e d e s t a l .a .n dn o b o d yc a r e s . If y o uw e r ek n o c k e do f f t h ep e d e s t a l ,e v e r y o n ew o u d l care. . L e tm ea r r a n g eas c a n d a l f o ry o u . " W h a tk i n do fs c a n d a ld i dI r v i n gw a n tt oa r r a n g e ? Iw o n d e r e d . Ar o m a n t c i s c a n d a , lId e c d ie d — b u tf o rw h a t ? T o sell p c it u r e s ? H a dt h ep u b l i cc h a n g e ds om u c h ? .. .Mr. Griffith h a da w la y sm a n it a n ie dt h a to n et o u c ho fs c a n d a l w o u d l finishy o u in p i c t u r e s . W h a th a dh a p p e n e dt oc h a n g e 42  t h i s ? .. . 1t o l dI r v i n gm yd e c i s i o n ,k n o w n ig t h a tm yd a y sa t M G Mw e r en u m b e r e d .( 2 9 4 5 )  T h ec o m m u n t y i w o u d l n oo ln g e rr e j e c t its m o v e i i d o l sf o rb r e a k n ig f a i t hw i t hV i c t o r i a n i d e a l so ff e m n in it i y — t h es e xr e b e li o n ,a n dt h ea n t ic o m m u n t ia r a in ,i n d i v i d u a l i s tm i p u s le it r e p r e s e n t e d ,w a st h en e w ideal. G s ih r e l a t e st h i ss t o r y in h e ra u t o b o ig r a p h y m i m e d a it e y l a f t e rd s ic u s s n ig h e r first e n c o u n t e rw i t hG r e t aG a r b o ,o nt h es e to f The Scarlet Letter. T h ei m p l i c a t i o n is c l e a r . A n dw h e n La Boheme a n dG a r b o s ' A m e r c ia n d e b u t , The Torrent, o p e n e dt h es a m ew e e k in F e b r u a r yo f1 9 2 6 ,G i s h s ' p r o b e lm w a s o b v o iu s — t ib e c a m eaq u e s t o in o fn u m b e r s . L o u s ie B r o o k sr e c o r d st h a t" Z a Boheme, a  g r e a ts t o r yw i t hag r e a td i r e c t o r ,K i n g Vidor, a n dt w og r e a ts t a r s , Lillian G s ih a n dJ o Gilbert, d i da v e r a g eb u s n ie s sa tt h eE m b a s s yT h e a t r e[ o nB r o a d w a y ] . Lillian G s ih g o t  $ 4 0 0 0 ,0 0ay e a r . The Torrent, a s e n s e e ls ss t o r yw i t h a fair d i r e c t o ra n dR c ia r d oC o r t e z  c o m c i V a l e n t i n ot y p ee la d n ig m a n ,a n da nu n k n o w na c t r e s s ,G a r b o ,d i dt o pb u s n ie s sa t h eC a p i t o lT h e a t r e . G a r b og o t$ 1 6 0 ,0 0ay e a r "( 1 7 ) . A n o t h e rm e a n s p r it ie d Photoplay article, in 1 9 2 5 ,m a d e it c l e a rw h a tG s ih n e e d e dt od ot or e m a n i as t a r : W h a td o e st h ef u t u r eh o d l f o r Lillian G s ih ? C r i t i c i s m h a s its f a d sa n df a n c e is a n d it h a s in t h ep a s tf e wy e a r s b e c o m ef a s h o in a b e l t oa lu dh e ra st h eD u s eo ft h es c r e e n , y e t ,s n ic es h e left M r . Griffith's s t u d i o s ,n o t h n ig h a s a p p e a r e dw h c ih s h o u d l g v ie h e ra r t i s t i cp r e f e r e n c eo v e r o t h e ra c t r e s s e sw h oh a v ee a r n e dh g i h places.. S h eh a s a w la y sp a ly e dt h e frail girl c a u g h t in t h ec r u e lm a e s lt r o m o f life, b a t t l i n gh e l p l e s s l yf o rh e rh o n o ro rh e rh a p p i n e s s . S h eh a st h es o u n d n e s so fb u s n ie s su jd g e m e n tw h c ih h a s e n a b e ld h e rt oc a p i t a l i z eo nh e rs c r e e np e r s o n a l i t yw i t ho n e o ft h el a r g e s t salaries... W o u d ln t ' it b ei n t e r e s t i n gt os e e G s ih p a ly a B a r b a r aL a M a r r[ v a m p ] role, f o rD u s ew a sa v e r s a t i l ea c t r e s s , if t h e r ee v e rw a so n e .( q t d . in B r o o k s 1 6 )  A n ds ot h ea c t r e s sw h or e j e c t e dt h ed ie ao fa d a p t n ig a no p e r a in 1 9 2 5b e c a u s e" i t s  43  s u b j e c t ,f r e e love, w a sat o u c h yo n e "( G i s h2 7 7 )p o r t r a y e do n eo fl i t e r a t u r e s ' g r e a t e s t a d u t l e r e s s e s in 1 9 2 6 . T or e s p o n dt ot h en e wm o r a l i t yo fp e r s o n a lf u l f i lm e n ta n dl a c k  r e s t r a i n t( a n dr e m a n i p o p u l a r ) ,t h es y m b o lo ft h eo l dc o d eo fd u t ya n dr e p r e s s i o n ,t h e  p r o t o t y p i c a lT r u eW o m a n ,h a dt or e b e l . If s h ew a su n s u c c e s s f u l in t h ee n d e a v o r ,b o t h p l a y i n gt h ec h a r a c t e ra n dr e m a k n ig h e rm i a g e , it is b e c a u s et h ea u d e in c er e j e c t e dh e r r e v e r s a l ,a n dc o u d l n o ta c c e p th e ra sa n y t h n ig o t h e rt h a nt h es y m b o lo fV i c t o r i a n i s m . I t is t e m p t n ig t ot h i n kt h a tG s ih c h o o s eS o js t r o mn o tf o rh i sP u r i t a n l i k e  S c a n d n ia v a in t e m p e r a m e n tb u tf o rh i s facility w i t hs e x u a lt h e m e s ,o re v e nb e c a u s ea sa  S c a n d n ia v a in h em g ih tb ea b e l t ot r a n s f e rs o m eo ft h em a g c i G a r b op o s s e s s e do n t oh e  c h a r a c t e r . B u ta s I will s h o w in f u r t h e rc h a p t e r s ,G s ih is o n y l o n eo fs e v e r a la c t r e s s e  w h oh a v et a k e nt h ep a r to fH e s t e r in a na t e m p ta tm i a g e r e n o v a t o in . T h ei r o n yw i t h G s ih is t h a t ,a sm e n o t in e de a r l i e r in t h i sc h a p t e r ,s h eu s e dh e rm i a g eo fp u r i t ya n d  u p r g ih t n e s st oc o n v n ic et h ei n t e r e s tg r o u p st oa o l wt h e film t ob em a d e . Ag r e a t e ri r o is t h a th e rm i a g ec o n t n iu e dt oh a v ea ne f f e c to nt h ew a ys h ep a ly e dt h er o l ea n d c h a r a c t e rw a sr e c e i v e d ,r a t h e rt h a nt h ec h a r a c t e rh a v n ig a ni n f l u e n c eo nt h ew a yh e r  m i a g ew a si n t e r p r e t e d . T h i s will a s lo b et h ec a s ew i t hC o l e e nM o o r e , in 1 9 3 4 ,a n d  M o o r e , in 1 9 9 5( w es e e it e ls sw i t ht h et e l e v i s i o na d a p t a t o in s ,w h e r et h ea c t r e s s e sh a d m i a g et om a n it a n i o ro v e r c o m e ) . G s ih w a st h ep e r f e c tV i c t o r i a nh e r o i n e ,o u to fp a lc e  film d e v o t e dt oac r i t i q u eo fV i c t o r i a nv a l u e s . O n y l G s ih c o u d l m a k et h ep u r s u i ta n d  r u i n a t i o no fa m i n i s t e rs e e mw h o e ls o m e ,w h c ih is w h yt h e film p a s s e dt h ec e n s o r s ,a n  w h yh e rp e r f o r m a n c e is u n c o n v n ic n ig a tt i m e s . T h e final i r o n y is t h a t in a c l i m a t eo f u n r e s t r a n ie ds e xp i c t u r e ss u c ha sD e M i le s ' m a r r a ig ef a r c e s ,H a w t h o r n e s ' a d u t l e r e s s is d e c d ie d y l u n s h o c k n ig f o rt h eo v e r s e x e dJ a z zA g e . 44  G i s h s ' H e s t e r ,d e s p t i eb e n ig a na d u l t e r e s s , is still t h e" f r a g i l e girl c a u g h t in t h e  c r u e lm a e s lt r o mo f life" t h a t Photoplay criticized, b e c a u s eG s ih " u n d e n a ib y l m o d e e ld h e r r o l em o r eo nh e ro w np e r s o n a l i t yt h a to nt h en o v e s l ' H e s t e rP r y n n e "( F o r s u ln d2 1 0 ) . T h i sw a sm i m e d a it e y l a p p a r e n tt or e v i e w e r s . E d w a r dW a g e n k n e c h s t ' a fm o u st r i b u t et o h e rc o n t a n is t h i sa s s e s s m e n t :" H e rH e s t e rP r y n n e is n o tp r e c i s e l yH a w t h o r n e s ' H e s t e r : s h e is Lillian's H e s t e r . T h i sp o i n th a ss o m e m i te sb e e nc i t e da g a n is th e r ;a sam a t e r fact, it is t h eh g ih e s tp r a s ie t h a tc o u d l b e given. . I s it n o tb e t t e rt ob e g n i u n d e r  H a w t h o r n e s ' s p e lb u tt og oo nfromt h e r en id e p e n d e n t y l t ow o r ko u th e ro w nc o n c e p  a sh ed i dh i s ? "( 2 4 9 ) . T h em e r t i so ft h i sp o i n ta r ed e b a t a b e l, b u th i st o n er e v e a s l h o  e v e na sa na d u l t e r e s s ," s h es e e m e da w la y sb e y o n dr e a c ha n dm e a n tt ob ew o r s h p ip e d  f r o ma f a r , "t h eV i c t o r i a ni d e a l( H i g a s h i2 4 ) . W h e l i t h e New York Sun a p p r o v e do fh e r  a t e m p tt og r o w ,c o m m e n n t ig t h a t" M s is Gish, f o rt h e first t i m e . .. p l a y sam a t u r ew o m  aw o m a no fd e p t h ,o ff e e l i n ga n dw s id o ma n dn o b e l spirit," it a c k n o w e ld g e dt h a t" s h e n o tH a w t h o r n e s ' H e s t e rP r y n n e ,b u ts h e is y o u r sa n dm n ie "( q t d . in G s ih 2 9 0 ) .  Photoplay, a su s u a l ,w a su n m i p r e s s e d ,a s s e r t i n g : "Lillian G s ih w e a r st h er e dl e t t e ro fs  w i t hh e rs t o c kv i r g i n a ls w e e t n e s s , failing t og r a s pt h ef o r c eo fH e s t e rP r y n n e s ' w p l io w e  a n di n t e li g e n c e . S h e is a b e a t e n child, n o tac o u r a g e o u sw o m a n "( 5 3 ) . I t is w o r t hn  t h a tt h e New York Sun r e v e iw is t h eo n y l o n ef r o mw h c ih s h eq u o t e s in h e rd s ic u s s o i t h e film's r e c e p t o i n in h e ra u t o b o ig r a p h y . I tw a st h eo n y l r e v e iw t h a tg o tt h ep o i n t !  Variety, w h c ih l i k e dt h e film, d s im s is e dh e rc h a r a c t e ra s" t h e little E n g l i s hP u r i t a nm a d i ( 1 1 ) . H a r d y l a fitting d e s c r i p t i o no fH e s t e rP r y n n e !  G s ih c o u d l n o th a v eb e e nc o m p e lt e y l s u r p r s ie dt h a th e re x i s t i n gm i a g es h a p e dh e  H e s t e rm o r et h a nH e s t e rc o u d l a l t e rh e rm i a g e . W t i h o u th e rm i a g et h e film w o u d l n o 45  h a v eb e e nm a d e ,a n dh e rp o r t r a y a lc o u d l n o ts w e r v et o of a rf r o me x p e c t a t o in sw t i h o u t u p s e t t n ig t h es p e c i a li n t e r e s tg r o u p sw h oh a ds c r i p ta p p r o v a l . A n dt oa ne x t e n t ,t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o no fa c t r e s sa n dc h a r a c t e rw a si n t e r e s t i n g :" h e rs c r e e nm i a g eo fp u r i t ya n d n in o c e n c e ,h e rm i p e c c a b e l o f f s c r e e n life, m a d et h ec a s t n ig o fM s is G s ih a s a 'fallen w o m a n ' a ne m n ie n t y l e x p l o i t a b l eg a m b t i "( E s t r i n 1 0 1 ) . U s n ig t h ee m b o d m i e n to fa  V i c t o r i a ni d e a lt oc r i t i q u et h a ti d e a lw a s a brilliant s t r o k e . B u tm a n yf a i l e dt og e tt h e  p o n it — e v e n Gish. A t l h o u g hW i l i a mE v e r s o nc o m m e n s t t h a tt h i sw a sa" r o l et h a tw a s  f a rc r yf r o mt h eV i c t o r i a nn in o c e n t ss h ep a ly e df o r Griffith" ( 3 2 0 ) ,G i s h s ' o w nc o m m e  a b o u th e rc o n s t r u c t o in o ft h ec h a r a c t e rb e l i e this. S h ee x p l a i n s ," M yd ie aw a st op r e s e  H e s t e ra st h ev i c t i mo fh a r dc r ic u m s t a n c e s ,s w e p to f fh e rf e e tb y love... T h a tw a sw h s h ew a s ,b u th e rn in a t en in o c e n c em u s tb ea p p a r e n t "( q t d . in M c F a r a ln e4 0 ) . T h i s r e a d n ig o fH e s t e r s ' c h a r a c t e rc o u d l o n y l b em a d ep o s s b ie l t h r o u g ht h ea d d i t i o no fa n  e x t e n d e db a c k s t o r y ,w h c ih t r a c e st h ed e v e o lp m e n to ft h e i rl o v e affair, a n dr e l i e sh e a v i l y a g a i n ,o nt h ea u d e in c e s ' p r e s u m p o t in o fG i s h s ' n in a t en in o c e n c e . H o we s le c o u d l t h e film m a n a g et op r e s e n tas e n t i m e n t a l ,n in o c e n th e r o n ie w h oh a sw i li n g l yc o m m t i e d a d u t le r ya n dc o r r u p t e dt h em o s tp o iu sm a n in t o w n ,h a v n ig a g g r e s s v ie y l p u r s u e da n d t h o r o u g h y l d e c e v ie dh m i ? A f t e r The Scarlet Letter, G s ih p a ln n e da na d a p t a t o in o f Anna Karenina. Clearly,  s h eh a dd e v e o lp e da ni n t e r e s t in p l a y i n gf a le nw o m e n ;s h ec a lm i st h a tw h i l es h ew a  t of o l o wt h en o v e s l ' p l o tc l o s e l y ,I r v i n gT h a l b e r g , ironically, w a n t e dA n n a s ' c h i l d r e nt o  b ea d o p t e d ,n o tn a t u r a l( G i s h2 9 3 ) . I nt h ee n d ,t h er o l ew a sg v ie nn is t e a dt oG r e t a a n dt h e title c h a n g e dt o Love. I t is i n t e r e s t i n gt om i a g n ie Love, w h c ih M G Mr e e la s e d  1 9 2 7 ,w i t hG s ih n is t e a do fG a r b o ,s n ic e it is c o n s d ie r e do n eo ft h el a t t e r ' sc l a s s i cr o l e s 46  ( s h ep a ly e dA n n aa g a n i in 1 9 3 5 ) . T h er e s p o n s et o The Scarlet Letter m a yh a v e i n f l u e n c e dt h ec h a n g e in c a s t i n g . B o t h The Scarlet Letter a n dG i s h s ' n e x t film w i t h S o js t r o m , The Wind ( 1 9 2 9 ) ,w e r ec o n s d ie r e du n c o m m e r c a il a r t films, w h c ih o lw e r e d  G i s h s ' s t o c ka tM G M ,s n ic et h e yw e r ev e r ym u c hu n d e rh e ra r t i s t i cc o n t r o l . S h eh a d  b e e na o lw e dh e ro w nw a y ,a n d failed. B o t hf i l m sw e r ee x p e n s v ie p r e s t g ie p i c t u r e s ,b  " d e s p t ie t h es a tm po fb i gs t u d o i a lv s ih n e s sa n dc a r e in p r o d u c t i o n ,t h e r e is a n o n M G M q u a l i t ya b o u t The Scarlet Letter, a sw e l as... The Wind. B o t hf i l m sa r ed e a d y l s e r i o u s ,  n e i t h e r is d e s g in e dt oa p p e a lt ot h eS a t u r d a yn g ih tm o v e i a u d e in c eo u tf o r a thrill o r a lu g ho rac r y "( A f f r o n7 8 ) . B o t ha r ev e r ys e r o iu sc r i t i q u e so fs o c i e t y s ' r e s t r i c t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l yt h o s ep a lc e do nw o m e n . N e t ih e rw a st h es e xp i c t u r et h ep u b l i cc r a v e d ,  a t l h o u g hb o t hd e a l tw i t hs e x u a lt h e m e s . The Wind is t h es t o r yo fa y o u n gw o m a nw h  a r r i v e s ap a u p e r in T e x a s ,a n d is f o r c e dt om a r r yam a nw h o ms h ed o e sn o t love,  c a ns u p p o r th e r . W h e l i h e is o u td r i v i n gc a t t l e in a w n id s t o r m ,s h e is r a p e d in h e h o m eb ya n o t h e rm a n . S h e kills h i m ,a n db u r e is t h eb o d y in t h es a n d . T h ew n id  c o n t i n u a l yw o r k st ou n c o v e rt h eg r i s l ys i g h t . I nt h eo r i g i n a lv e r s i o n ,s h ew a n d e r si n t o  t h es t o r m ,d r i v e nn is a n e . T h eG s ih S /o js t r o mp c i t u r e sr e f l e c t e da no u t o lo ka n dab u s n ie s  s e n s ew h o s et m i eh a dp a s s e d ,a n d" f o rt h a tr e a s o n[ t h e y ]h a s t e n e dt h ee n do fh e rr e i g  as t a ra tM G M "( 8 3 ) . A f t e rs h eh a d fulfilled h e rc o n t r a c t u a lo b l i g a t i o n ,s h et o o kas h  c o n t r a c tw i t hU Aa tag r e a t l yr e d u c e ds a l a r y ,a n dt h e na b a n d o n e dt h em o v e is . I nL o u  B r o o k s s ' s u m m a o t in ," s t g im a t z ie da sag r a s p n ig , silly, s e x e ls sa n t i q u e ,a tt h ea g eo f3 1 t h eg r e a t Lillian G s ih left H o y lw o o df o r e v e r ,w t i h o u tah e a dt u r n e dt om a r kh e r d e p a r t u r e "( 1 7 ) . H e rp r o p h e c yu p o nh e ra r r i v a la tM G Mh a dc o m et r u e . A s Lillian G s ih d s ic o v e r e d ,H o y lw o o d s ' r e l a t i o n s h i pw i t hm o r a l i t yc h a n g e d 47  c o n s d ie r a b y l in t h e 1 9 2 0 s '. A tt h et m i eo fG i s h s ' arrival, t h ee a r l yT 'e e n s ,H o y lw o o d film's d e p i c t i o no fw o m e nr e i n f o r c e dt h et r a d i t i o n a lb n ia r yo fv i r g i na n dw h o r e . M a r y P i c k f o r da n d Griffith girls like G s ih a n dM a eM a r s hp o r t r a y e di n n o c e n t ,s e x l e s s , childw o m e nw h oi n s p i r e dm e nt ov i r t u ea n de v e nh e r o s im . T h ee a r l yv a m p s ,N i t aN a l d i  e s p e c i a l yT h e d aB a r a ,t e r r o r i z e da n d titillated a sa m o r a ls r ie n sw h ol u r e dm e na w a yf r t h e i rf a m i le sa n dd e s t r o y e dh te mf o rn o t h n ig m o r et h a ns p o r to rm a t e r i a lg a i n . T h e  v i r t u o u sh e r o n ie w a su s u a l yi m p e r i l e db yae lc h e r o u s villain ( o f t e na r r a y e ds i m i l a r l yt o  W a l t h a l s ' C h i li n g w o r t h ,u n e ls saG e r m a ns o l d i e r ) ,a n d in d i r en e e do fr e s c u e . B u tt h e  v a m pw a sb e y o n dr e s c u e ,a n dh e rv i c t i mw a sb e y o n dh o p e . B o t ht h ev i r g i na n dt h e  w h o r ew o u d l u n d e r g o at r a n s f o r m a t o in a f t e rW o r d l W a rO n e ,w h c ih w o u d l r e s u l t in t h a p p e a r n ig m u c hm o r ea l i k e( H i g a s h i8 0 ) .  T h e first s e r o iu sc h a e ln g et ot h eb n ia r yw a st h ef l a p p e rh e r o i n e . P o p u a lr z ie db y  C l a r aB o w ,C o l e e nM o o r e ,a n dJ o a nC r a w f o r d ,t h ef l a p p e rp o s s e s s e dt h es e l f r e l i a n c eo  t h ev a m pw t i h o u th e rs e x u a l i t y . T h ef l a p p e r s ' r e b e li o u s ,n id e p e n d e n t spirit " w a sa ni d e a c c e s s b ie l t om d id e l c a ls sy o u t h "( F i s h b e i n" D e m s ie "6 7 ) . W h e l i t h es e n t m i e n t a l  h e r o n ie so fP i c k f o r da n dG s ih w e r ea l o o fa n di d e a l i z e d ,t h ef l a p p e rw a sar e a l girl w t h es a m ed e s r ie f o re x c t i e m e n ta sh e r real-life c o u n t e r p a r t s . B u tw h i l es h ef l o u t e d  c o n v e n t o in b yd a n c n ig a n ds m o k n ig ,h e rm o r a s l w e r em o r ec o n s e r v a t v ie t h a nt h e ym a y h a v ea p p e a r e d ,g v ie nh e rf l i m s yc l o t h i n g . T h ef l a p p e r s ' f u nw a si n n o c e n t ,a n do f t e n d i r e c t e dt o w a r dh e ru l t i m a t eg o a — l c o n v e n t o in a lm a r r a ig e . H e rl o v ew o u d l n o tb e c o n s u m m a e td u n t i ls o c i a ly s a n c t o in e d .  T h ef l a p p e r s ' g o o dc e la nf u nd i dn o t ,h o w e v e r ,s a t i s f yt h ea u d e in c e s ' i n c r e a s i n g l y  b l a t a n ti n t e r e s t in s e x . I nt h eT 'e e n s ,t h i sd e s r ie t oc o n s u m es e x u a ls t o r i e sw a sc h a n n 48  i n t ot h eo n y l o n e sa v a i l a b l e( a p a r tf r o mB a r ap c it u r e s ) — s e d u c t o in a n dw h t i es a lv e r y  t a l e s . B u tt h e s eo v e r t l yd i d a c t i ca n dm o r a l i s t i cf i l m sw e r er e p a lc e da f t e rt h ew a rb ys e p i c t u r e ss u c ha s The Easiest Way ( 1 9 1 7 )a n dt h em a r r a ig ef a r c e so f Cecil B. D e M i le , b e g n in n ig w i t h The Squaw Man ( 1 9 1 8 )( L e w s i J a c o b s2 7 4 ) . T h et r u en id e xo f1 9 2 0 s '  w o u d lb es e x u a la n a r c h y is t h ed e p i c t i o no ft h ef a le nw o m a n in t h ee r a . T h eT w e n t e i  v a m pw a sn o tt h et h r e a t e n i n g ,a l i e nm a n e a t e rT h e d aB a r ar e p r e s e n t e d ,b u tn is t e a dw a s all t o oh u m a n . W h e l i t h eT 'e e n so f f e r e dv a m p sw h o s es e x u a l i t ya n di n t e n t i o n sa r e  e x p l i c i t l y evil a n dd e s t r u c t i v e ,a n dw i t hw h o mn ow o m a nw o u d l i d e n t i f y ,t h eT w e n t e is o f f e r e d its f a le nw o m e n" a st h ee q u a s l o re v e ns u p e r o ir so ft r u ew o m e n "( F i s h b e i n  " D e m s ie "6 8 ) . H o y lw o o d s ' c o n c e p t o in o fw o m e nb e f o r et h ee n do fW o r d l W a rO n ew  aV i c t o r i a no n e ," b a s e do nas h a r pa n di r r e v o c a b l ed i s t i n c t i o nb e t w e e nt r u ew o m e na n  t h e i rf a le ns i s t e r s . F i l m st h a tb l u r r e dt h ed i s t i n c t i o nt h r e a t e n e dt h em o r a lc l a r i t ye s s e n t i a t ot h ep r e s e r v a t o in o fV i c t o r i a nv a u le s in t h em o d e r nw o r d l" ( 6 8 ) . H o y lw o o d s ' h u m a n z ia t o in a n du l t i m a t e l y its r e c o n s t r u c t o in o ft h ef a le nw o m a na ss o c i e t y s ' victim,  a n de v e na sas a i n tm a r t y r e db yl o v et h a t is o n y l socially u n a c c e p t a b e l, e p t i o m z ie st h e  T w e n t i e s 'r e a c t i o na g a n is tV i c t o r i a ns e x u a lr e p r e s s o in a sm u c ha st h ef l a p p e rd o e s , if n o m o r e . B u tac l i m a t e in w h c ih s h ec o u d l b es u c c e s s f u y l r e n it e g r a t e di n t os o c e it ya f t e r  fall w a ss o lw in c o m n ig . W h e l i s h ec o u d l s u f f e rc r u e ly a n dw t i h o u t fault, a n d in t h i s  w a y" c a m et or e s e m b e l t h ev r it u o u sh e r o i n e , .. . t h es e n s u a t i ly o fs u c haw o m a nd i c t a t e d t r a g e d y . .for h e rp a s s o in c o u d l n e v e rb ec o n t a n ie dw i t h i nad o m e s c t i m e o ld r a m a " ( H i g a s h i8 9 ) . H e ri n d i v i d u a l i s ma n da d h e r e n c et on a t u r ew e r et h r e a t e n n ig t ot h e  c o m m u n t y i, s os h ec o u d l n o tb ea b s o r b e d . M a r yP i c k f o r da t e m p t e dt oc h a n g eh e rm i a  a se a r l ya s 1 9 1 4b yp l a y i n gaw o m a nw h o ,s h p iw r e c k e d ,l i v e sa saw i f et oaf e l o w 49  p a s s e n g e rw h o is t h eo n y l o t h e rs u r v v io ro ft h ea c c d ie n t( i n Hearts Adrift). W h e na  r e s c u es h p i a r r i v e so v e ray e a rl a t e r ,s h eu jm p si n t oav o c la n ow i t hh e rb a b y . I n 1 9  w a sf a rt o oe a r l yf o raf a t eo t h e rt h a nd e a t ht ob eg r a n t e de v e nt h em o s tb a lm e e ls s f a le nw o m e n . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , it is a G r i f f i t h G i s h film, Way Down East ( 1 9 2 0 ) ,t h a t  p r o v d ie so n eo ft h ee a r l i e s te x a m p e ls o fm a n is t r e a md e v i a t i o nf r o mt h i st r a g i ct r a j e c t o r y .  Way Down East tells t h es t o r yo fA n n aM o o r e ,ac o u n t r y girl w h ot r a v e l st ot h e c i t yt om e e th e rc o u s n is . W h e l i in t h e i rc o m p a n y ,s h em e e s t L e n n o xS a n d e r s o n ,a  p l a y b o y ,w h ot r i c k sh e ri n t oaf a l s em a r r a ig ea n dt h e na b a n d o n sh e r . S h eg v ie sb i r t h h i sc h i l d in h i d i n g ,a n dt h eb a b ys o o nd i e s . A n n aw a n d e r st h r o u g ht h ec o u n t r y s d ie  e m o t o in a y l adrift, a n da r r i v e sb yc h a n c ea tt h eB a r t l e t tf a r m . T h ep o iu sB a r t l e t tf a m i l y  t a k e sh e r in, a n ds h eb e g n is a s w e e tr o m a n c e ,a o ln gt h el i n e so ft h o s e in G i s h s ' e a r  w o r k ,w i t ht h ef a r m e r s ' s o n ,D a v i d . S o o n ,h o w e v e r ,t h et o w ng o s s p i u n c o v e r st h es e c  o fh e rp a s t ,a n dt h ef a r m e rc a s t sh e ro u t . S h ew a n d e r so n t oa ni c ef l o et h a t is a b o o v e rt h e falls, a n d is r e s c u e da tt h el a s tm o m e n tb yD a v i d . S h e is r e i n t e g r a t e di n t o f a m i l y . W h e l i it c o n t a n is a l o to fh i sf a m i l i a rf o r m u a lc i e e lm e n t s , Way Down East r e p r e s e n t sam o n u m e n a tl c h a n g ef o r Griffith in t e r m so ft h em o r a ld i d a c t i c i s mo fh i s w o r k ,a n ds t r e t c h e s Lillian G i s h s ' r a n g ec o n s i d e r a b l y . B e f o r e it, Griffith w a sc h i e f  a m o n g" t h eb g ig e rp r o d u c e r s( a n ds t a r s )[ w h o ]p r e f e r r e dn o tt or o c kt h eb o a t ,t op l a y s a f ew i t ht h e i rn e v e r n e v e r a ln dm o r a l i t y ,a n dt oa v o d i c o n t r o v e r s i a ls is u e s "( E v e r s o n  1 5 2 ) . Griffith's c o n s e r v a t s im w a sm o r et h a nf i n a n c i a ly m o t v ia t e d , it w a sar e f l e c t i o no  h i sV i c t o r i a nm o r a le la n n ig sa n dd e v o t o in t oa ni d e a lo ff e m a e ln e s s . C a s t n ig G s ih a s  f a le nw o m a n , if a v e r yn in o c e n to n e ,w a sar i s kt a k e nv e r ys e r i o u s l y . T h e i rp r e v o iu s film, The Greatest Question ( 1 9 1 9 ) ,t o e dt h eV i c t o r i a n line: " a tt h ee n d ,a f t e rc o ls e 50  a s s o c a it o in w i t hd e a t h , an a t e m p t e dr a p e and m u r d e r , Lillian and her b o y f r i e n d( R o b e r t H a r r o n )d e c d ie t h a tt h e yd 'o n t ' k n o we n o u g h to get m a r r i e d , ' and will w a t i aw h i l e . But t h a ts a m ey e a r , in Way Down East, Lillian was m a t u r ee n o u g h to p l a y ac o u n t r y girl b e t r a y e di n t o am o c km a r r a ig e , to h a v e an i le g i t i m a t e child, and t h u s to f e e lh e r s e l f e n t i r e l yu n w o r t h y of g e n u n ie l o v ew h e n it finally a p p e a r s in the p e r s o n of R c ih a r d B a r t h e m l e s s "( 1 5 7 ) . W h e n one c o n s d ie r st h a t in the film b e f o r e Question, Broken Blossoms, G s ih p a ly e d a child, the r e l a t i v es o p h i s t i c a t i o n of her c h a r a c t e r in Way Down East is a p p a r e n t . The n e e d for c h a n g e was o b v o iu se v e n to Griffith, and a h a l f c o n c e s s o in to the new m o r a l i t yp r o o ln g e d his c a r e e r (it was one of his m o s ts u c c e s s f u l f i l m s ) and p r o b a b y l s a v e d Gishs ' . It can o n y l be t e r m e d ah a l f c o n c e s s i o n , of c o u r s e , b e c a u s e Griffith is c e r t a i n l y not a d v o c a t n ig f r e el o v e . In the p r e f a t o r y titles, he l e c t u r e s t h a ts o c i a l ills are c a u s e d by the r o v i n gs e x i n s t i n c t of the n o t q u i t e e v o l v e dm o d e r n man. But the key to the film's m o d e r n t y i is in A n n a s ' r e d e m p o t in and r e i n t e g r a t i o ni n t o the f a m i l yd e s p t i e a fall. The t r a n s i t i o n , in H o y lw o o d , to the new m o r a l i t y "saw  the g r a d u a l  d s ia p p e a r a n c e of t h o s es t a r ss o l i d l yo lc k e di n t o the i n n o c e n t ,a m l o s tV i c t o r i a n s i m p l i c i t i e s of the p r e 1 9 2 0 ' s .. By the 1 9 2 0 s ', m a n y of the n 'i c eg i r l s — ' C l a r a Bow, C o l e e nM o o r e ,M a r o in D a v e is — w e r ee n t e r n ig v a m pt e r r i t o r y ,s e d lo m to do m o r et h a n t e a s e , and u s u a l y for c o m c i p u r p o s e s — b u tn e v e r t h e e ls s , the d i v i d i n gl i n eb e t w e e ng o o d girls and bad was d o w n " (196;  198).  G s ih n e v e re n t e r e dv a m pt e r r i t o r y ,e x a c t l y , but  t h e s et h r e ew e r ea s s o c a it e dw i t hf a lp p e r d o m , and so had e ls s far to fall, so to s p e a k ,t h a n Gish. Her d e s c e n ti n t os e x u a l sin, and r e b e li o n , is g r e a t e rt h a nt h e i r s . A n n aM o o r e s ' e s s e n t i a ln in o c e n c e and g r e a ts u f f e r i n gp u r g e her of the "sin"  of her u n w i t t i n g fall, and  m a k e her s u p e r i o r , in her h u m a n t i y , to the c o m m u n y t i t h a tr e j e c t s her.  D a v d i c h o o s e s her 51  o v e rt h ep u r eb u ts o u e ls sK a t e . T h i sg e s t u r et o w a r di d e n t i f y i n gh e ra sm o r a y l s u p e r o ir  t ot h ec o m m u n t y i c o n n e c t sh e rt ot h es e n t m i e n t a lG s ih h e r o n ie o ft h eT 'e e n s ,f r o mw h s h es h o u d l b ei s o l a t e dt op r e v e n tc o n t a g o in ( F i s h b e i n" H a r l o t s '" 4 2 1 ) . T h i st r e n dw a s  u l t i m a t e l yar e j e c t i o no ft h eb n ia r yo fw o m a n h o o dh e d l s od e a rb yp r e v o iu sg e n e r a t o in s  Way Down East w a sas u c c e s s f u lp l a yf o ro v e rt w od e c a d e sb e f o r e Griffith f i l m e d it. I n  t h et h e a t r e ,t h er e d e m p o t in o ft h ef a le nw o m a nh a db e e np o s s b ie l d u r n ig t h eV i c t o r i a n e r a . B u t in film, p a r t l yb e c a u s eo f its b r o a d e ra u d e in c eb a s e ,a n dc e r t a i n l yb e c a u s eo f  p r e s e n c eo fm o r a lw a t c h d o g s in t h ef o r mo fw o m e n s ' a n dc h u r c hg r o u p s ,t h ei d e ao f  m a r r a ig ea n dh a p p n ie s sf o raw o m a nw h ow a sn o tav i r g i nw a s risky. A t l h o u g h Gr w a sam o r a lc o n s e r v a t i v e ,h ew a su n c o m f o r t a b e l w i t ht h en o t o in t h a tas i n g l ea lp s e s h o u d l s e a law o m a n s ' d o o m , in c a s e sw h e r es h eh a sb e e nt h ev i c t i mo fd u p l i c i t y . C a s t n i g Lillian G s ih a sA n n aa f f i r m st h eh e r o i n e s ' v i r g i n a lm i a g ee v e na f t e rh e r fall.  Griffith u jd g e dt h em o r a lc m i l a t ec o r r e c t l y ,a n dc r e a t e dh i sl a s tb o lc k b u s t e r . A sp a ly e d  b y Lillian Gish, " A n n aM o o r ee m e r g e sa sa na d m r ia b e l w o m a nw h ot r a n s c e n d ss o c i e t y v e iw o fh e r ;s h ea c h e iv e sa nh e r o c i s t a t u r eb e c a u s eo fh e rg o o dw o r k s . T h ew o m a n  s u r v i v o r ,d e s p t i e ill f a t e , is a ne n o r m o u s y l a p p e a n i lg m i a g eo fw o m a nt ow o m e n . S h e d o e sn o tb e c o m e self-pitying, s p i t e f u lo rh o s t i l e "( S o c h e n" N e w " 1 2 ) . H o w e v e r ,h e r  o r d e a lh a sg v ie nh e rs t r e n g t ht h a tt h eG s ih c h a r a c t e r so ft h eT 'e e n sn e v e rp o s s e s s e d . B  s t a n d n ig u pf o rh e r s e l f , in h e rl i m i t e dw a y ,A n n as e t sh e r s e l fa p a r tf r o mp r e v o iu s Griff h e r o i n e s ,a n da n n o u n c e st h ed e a t ho ft h es e x u a ld o u b e l s t a n d a r d ,a n do ft h ed ie ao f  i r r e v o c a b l es t g im af o rt h ef a le nw o m a n . T h i sr e w a r d is a c c e p t a b e l t ot h ea u d e in c e ,a n d s u r e y l t o Griffith h i m s e l f ,b e c a u s eo ft h ep a r t i c u l a rc o n d t i o n so fh e r fall, a n dh e r b e h a v o ir f o l o w i n g it. S h e is c o m p e lt e y l b a lm e e ls s , if a little foolish. S h ee n d u r e s  52  i s o l a t i o n and h a r s ht r e a t m e n td u r n i g her p r e g n a n c y , and the d e a t h of the b a b y . Her m a t e r n a la f f e c t i o n s and s u f f e r i n g are h e a r t w r e n c h n ig ,p a r t i c u l a r l y in the s c e n e in w h c ih she b a p t z ie s her d y n i g child. And a f t e r his d e a t h , she d o e s not d e s c e n di n t op r o s t i t u t i o n as m a n y of her p r e d e c e s s o r s did, but w a n d e r sh a l f d e a d in s e a r c h of h o n e s th a r dw o r k . The f a v o r a b er l e c e p t o i n of Way Down East is e n s u r e d by the f a c tt h a t a u d e in c e s are t r e a t e d to a f a le nw o m a n who isn't r e a ly fallen. Her n in o c e n c e has not b e e nt r u l yt a r n i s h e d . Her p u r i t y and g o o d n e s s still i n t a c t ,A n n am a r r e is n in o c e n t D a v d i at the film's end. T h e i rf u t u r e will be b r i g h t and s u r e as t h e y are s m i p e l and g o o dp e o p e l. The v i r g i n a l M a r y has not r e a ly l o s t her virginity; she d o e s not d e s c e n d i n t o the r o l e of the t e m p t r e s s Eve. The villain S a n d e r s o n is p u n s ih e d and g o o d n e s st r u im p h s . T h u s the m e o ld r a m a , filled w i t h trials and t r i b u l a t i o n s ,e n d sh a p p i l yw i t h the ultim a e t f a n t a s yb e n i g fulfilled: g o o d n e s sd o e sp r e v a i l on e a r t h and the p u r e do a c h e iv eh a p p n ie s s . S o c e it y can f o r g i v e ,o v e r o lo ks u p p o s e d sins, and n ic u ld e in the f o l d the m s it a k e n y l r e j e c t e d .( 9 1 0 ) G s ih t r u l yb e c a m eas t a r in her own r i g h t , not j u s ta s a "Griffith Girl," in Way Down East. She did o n y l one f u r t h e r film for Griffith, Orphans of the Storm ( 1 9 2 1 ) , in w h c ih she r e v e r t e d to her n in o c e n tt y p e . She w o u d l not p l a ya n o t h e rf a le nw o m a na g a n i u n t i l The Scarlet Letter. Way Down East  and The Scarlet Letter b e a rs t r i k i n gs i m i l a r i t i e s and e v e nm o r e  i n t r i g u i n gd i f f e r e n c e s . The Scarlet Letter r e v e r s e s the t r a d i t i o n a le x p e c t a t o in s of the m e o ld r a m a t c i t r i a n g l e by i d e a l i z i n g the a d u t l e r o u sc o u p e l and d e m o n z in ig the c u c k o d le d h u s b a n d ,n is t e a d of the t e m p t e r . A r t h u r and H e s t e r are p r e s e n t e d as the l e g i t i m a t ec o u p l e , and C h i ln g w o r t h is the b l o c k i n gf i g u r e ,t h r e a t e n n i g to d e s t r o yt h e i r" r i g h t "r o m a n c e . The " r i g h t n e s s " of A n n a and D a v i d s ' l o v e is n e v e rq u e s t o in e d , and is s t r e s s e de a r l y in the  film, b e f o r et h e ye v e nm e e t , in a s c e n e in w h c ih D a v d i a w a k e sf r o mas e le pd s it u r b e d 53  an u n k n o w nh o r r o r — u js t as A n n as u c c u m b s to S a n d e r s o n s ' d e c e i t . So b o t hf i l m s set up at r i a n g l e of the h e r o i n e , the a t t r a c t i v ei d e a l i z e dy o u t hw i t hw h o m she n a t u r a l yb e o ln g s , and the o d le rm a e l who h o d ls a s e c r e tw h c ih c o u d l d e s t r o y the c o u p l e , and who has a c l a i m on her b o d yt h a t is u n n a t u r a l . B o t hA n n a and H e s t e r ,s m i p y l by v i r t u e of t h e i r c r e a t o r , Lillian Gish, are i n n o c e n t , but b o t h are r e j e c t e d by s o c e it y on the b a s s i of t h e i r s e x u a l i t y , and s u f f e r its p e r s e c u t o in b r a v e l y . B o t h are m o t h e r sw h o s ed e v o t o i n to t h e i r i le g i t i m a t ec h i l d r e n is o b v o iu s , and l e g i t i m i z e sh te mn a t u r a ly . But w h i l en e i t h e rh e r o n ie dies, t h e i rf a t e s are e n t i r e l yd i f f e r e n t . H e s t e rm u s to ls e her one t r u el o v e ; and her a b s o r p t o in i n t o the c o m m u n t y i, w h i l eh n it e d at, is n e v e re x p l i c i t l yp r e s e n t e d . H e s t e r s ' p r i n c i p a ld i f f e r e n c ef r o mA n n a lies in the s e f l c o n s c o iu s n e s s of her s e x u a l i t y . She p u r s u e sD m i m e s d a e l and d s ip a ly s an a m l o s tp a g a nn ic o m p r e h e n s o in of the m o r a la lw s t h a td e c r e eu n s a n c o t in e dl o v e sinful. A n n a , by c o n t r a s t ,e n t e r si n t o her s i n f u lu n o in u n w i t t i n g l y ,b e l i e v i n g it s a n c t o in e d , and in the b o u d o r i s c e n e she is m o d e s t in her n e g l i g e e , and e v e nf r i g h t e n e d . S i m i l a r l y , her r o m a n c ew i t hD a v d i i n v o l v e sn o n e of the f e a r l e s sa g g r e s s v ie n e s st h a tc o n n e c t sG i s h s ' H e s t e r to the f l a p p e r or e v e n the v a m p . She s m i p y l falls in his p a t h , is r e s c u e d by him, and in the end t h e yk i s sc h a s t e l y . The c o n s u m m a o t in of t h e i rs a n c t o in e dl o v eo c c u r so u t s d i e of the w o r d l of thefilm.A t l h o u g h n a t u r a l ,H e s t e r and A r t h u r s ' o lv e can n e v e r be 'right,' and so it c a n n o ts u r v i v e . W h e l i H e s t e r is a o lw e d to r e t a i n her life, h e r s is a r e d e m p o t in m e d a it e d by s e v e r e p u n s ih m e n t . U n l i k eA n n a of Way Down East or a n o t h e rf a le nA n n a , of Anna  Christie  ( 1 9 2 3 ) , and S a d e i T h o m p s o n in thefilmof the s a m en a m e( 1 9 2 8 ) , who " m e e tg o o d men and, d e s p t i e difficulties, c r e a t ep u r e new l i v e s for t h e m s e v le s " , H e s t e rm u s tc a r r y on a o ln e( R o s e n 104).  But u n l i k eC a m i l e (in twofilmsof t h a t title, in 1921 and 1927) 54  or  A n n aK a r e n n i a (Love, 1 9 2 7 ) ,s h e is n o tp u n s ih e dw i t hd e a t h . O fc o u r s e ,t h el a s th e r o  is p a ly e db yG a r b o ,w h oc o u d l b r i n gt ot h ef a le nw o m a ne x t r a o r d n ia r yp a t h o s ,b u tn n in o c e n c e . A f t e rt h eT w e n t e is ,a n dt h a n k s in p a r tt oG a r b o ,t h ef a le nw o m a nw o u d l h a v et ob en in o c e n tt ob es y m p a t h e t c i.  I nh e ra u t o b o ig r a p h y , Lillian G s ih r e c a ls w o n d e r n ig ,a tt h es u g g e s t o in t h a to n y l a  s c a n d a lw o u d l s a v eh e rc a r e e r ," H a dt h ep u b l i cc h a n g e ds om u c h ? " B y 1 9 2 6 ,a n de v earlier, it h a d . I nd s ic u s s n ig t h em o r a lr e v o l u t i o no ft h eJ a z zA g e ,S u m k io H i g a s h i c a t a o lg u e st h e" a c c e p t e de x p a ln a t o in sf o rt h eh e d o n s it c i 'eat, d r i n k ,a n db em e r r y ' a t m o s p h e r e ,w h e t h e r it w a st y p i c a lo ft h eT w e n t e is o rd s ic e r n a b e l e a r l i e r in t h et 'e e n s [as].. . t h ec o a lp s eo ft h eP r o t e s t a n tw o r ke t h i cu n d e rt h em i p a c to fa c c e e lr a t e d i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o na n du r b a n i z a t i o n ,p r o h i b i t i o n ,a u t o m o b e l is ,m o v e is ,s e xm a g a z n ie s ,  F r e u d a in s im ,a n dp o s t w a rn id u g le n c e "( 1 1 0 ) . I nt h ef a c t o r i e so ft h em a o jr u r b a nc e n t e r s c u t lu r e sa n dg e n d e r sm x ie d( a st h e y did, i n d e e d ,a tt h em o v e i h o u s e s ) . P r o h i b i t i o n n e c e s s t i a t e dt h eg r o w t ho fa nu n d e r g r o u n dc u l t u r e ,a n da u t o m o b e l is p r o m o t e dn o to n y l  t h ee a s ym o v e m e n to fv a s tn u m b e r so fp e o p e l t ot h eu r b a nc e n t e r s ,b u tap r i v a t ee s c a  f o rt h ey o u t h . All o ft h e s ec h a n g e sp r o m o t e dt h ed e v e o lp m e n to fa s e p a r a t ey o u t hc u l t u  t h a tc o u d l e x i s to u t s d ie t h ep u r v e iw o ft h eo d le rg e n e r a t o in . T h i sn e wc u l t u r ed e v e o lp e d  its o w nm a n n e r sa n dm o r a s l, w h c ih t h e ns p r e a do u t w a r dt oe v e r yc o r n e ro ft h ec o u n  a n du p w a r d ,i n f l u e n c i n gt h ed o m n ia n to r d e r . T h ep o w e ro ft h em a n is t r e a m s ' i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  t h ec h u r c ha n dt h es t a t e ,w a sw a n n ig . T h es c a n d a s l o ft h eH a r d n ig a d m i n i s t r a t i o ng a v w a yt ot h e cold, m i p e n e t r a b e l p r e s d ie n c yo fC o o l i d g e ,a n dw i t hp r o h i b i t i o na n dt h e c y n c is im o ft h ep o s t w a re r a ,t h ep o p u a lc e s ' f a i t h in g o v e r n m e n tw a ss h a k e n .  M a n is t r e a mP r o t e s t a n t s im w a sa s lo b e n ig r e n d e r e do u to ft o u c h in t h ee r ao ft h en e w 55  m o r a l i t y ,a s it f a i l e dt or e a c ho u tt oy o u n gp e o p l e ,a n dt h r o u g ht h ei n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o nt h f r a c t u r e dc o m m u n t y i b o n d sa n dp r o m o t e daw o r l d l ym a t e r i a l i s m . Ac o n t e m p o r a r y r e s e a r c h e ro ns o c i a lt r e n d s , C. L u t h e r Fry, n o t e dt h a t " c h u r c hb u i l d i n g sn o wa p p e a r trivial a n du n m i p o r t a n t in c o n t r a s tw i t ht h ee n o r m o u ss k y s c r a p e r so fc o m m e r c e a n df n ia n c e [ a n d ]m g ih tr a i s et h eq u e s t o in w h e t h e rt h i s d e v e o lp m e n t is a s y m b o lo ft h er e c e n tt e n d e n c yo ft h e s e c u a lr t oo v e r s h a d o wr e l i g i o u si n t e r e s t s . " C h u r c ha t t e n d a n c ed e c n i le da sd i dt h en u m b e ro fc e lr g y m e na n dn e w c o n v e r t s ;n ic o m ef o rt h em s is o in sd r o p p e d ;v o u ln t e e r sf o r m s is o in a r yw o r kw e r es c a r c e . T h en ic r e a s n ig c o m p e t i o n f o rt h ec o n g r e g a t o in s ' t m i eb yt h ea u t o m o b e l i, r a d i o ,m o t o in p i c t u r e ,a n dg o l fa n dt e n n s i w a sp a l p a b l e . M o s ts e r i o u s , t h o u g hm i p o s s b ie l t oq u a n t i f y ,w a s" ap e r v a s v ie t h i n n i n g o u to fe v a n g e l i c a ls u b s t a n c e , at e n d e n c yt oi d e n t i f yr e l i g i o n w i t ht h eb u s n ie s s o r e in t e dv a u le so fA m e r c ia n life"... B e y o n d t h ec h a e ln g eo fc o m m e r c a is i lm ,t h eo t h e r" s im s " — s c e in t s im , b e h a v o ir s im ,a n dh u m a n s im — p o s e ds i g n i f i c a n tt h r e a t s . ( B r o w n1 6 8 )  All o v e rA m e r i c a ,b u tp a r t i c u l a r l y in t h eg r o w n ig u r b a na r e a s ," t h ec h u r c hw a s in r u i n  a n dt h em o r et h ec h u r c h e sa d u js t e d ,t h ee ls st h e ys e e m e dt om a t t e r . I nt h es t a b e l w  t h et r a d i t i o n a l i s tr e m e m b e r e d ,t h ec h u r c hh a db e e nt h es e c o n d pillar o fs o c i a lo r d e ra n d  s o c i a lm o r a l i t y . B u tt h ey o u n gh a ds m i p y l t ' h r o w nr e l i g i o no v e r b o a r d ' "( F a s s4 2 ) ,a n d this, in t u r n ,a c c e e lr a t e dt h er e v o l u t i o n in m o r a s l, s n ic e it " g r e a t l yw e a k e n e dr e l i g i o u s  s a n c t o in s . P e o p e l l o s tt h e i rf e a ro f Hell a n da tt h es a m et m i eh a de ls si n t e r e s t in H e  t h e ym a d em o r ed e m a n d sf o rm a t e r i a lf u l f i lm e n to nE a r t h "( L e u c h t e n b e r g 1 5 8 ) . I na n  e r ao fg r e a te c o n o m c i p r o s p e r i t y ,t h ew o r s h p i o fG o dw a sr e n d e r e di r r e l e v a n t in t h ef a c  o ft h ew o r s h p i o fw e a l t h ,a n dc o n s d ie r e da no d lf a s h o in e de n c u m b r a n c e . T h et r a d i t i o n a l  a u t h o r i t yh i tb a c kb ye n a c t n ig a lw s like t h eP r o h i b i t i o n Act, in a na t e m p tt os t e mt h t h a tw a se r o d n ig t h e i rp o w e r . I tw a st h es t a u n c h y l V i c t o r i a no d le rg e n e r a t o in s '  56  d e s p e r a t en o s t a l g i af o ra no l do r d e rw h c ih u n d e r a ly t h e k i n do fr e p r e s s v ie s o c i a ll e g i s l a t i o nt h a tb a lc k e n e dt h e fair, f a c eo ft h ed e c a d e . A m e r c ia n so lo k e dt oa lw in t h eT w e n t e is t op r o v d ie t h ec o n t r o s l o t h e ri n s t i t u t i o n sh a db e e nu n a b e l t o m a n it a n i p r e c i s e l yb e c a u s et h e yb e l i e v e dt h a tt h eo d le rs t r u c t u r e s h a df a i l e da n dc o u d l n o tb er e f o r m e d . T h ea lw c o u d l n o tc o r r e c t s o c i a l i z a t i o n ,b u t it c o u d l c o n s c o iu s y l p u n s ih m s ib e h a v o ir . T h u s t r a d i t i o n a l i s t sh o p e dt od e a lw i t ht h ee f f e c t s ,n o tt h ec a u s e s ,o f i n s t i t u t i o n a lm i s f u n c t i o n . B u tt h ea lw w a s ,a f t e r all, a p r e c a r o iu s b u w la r k in a d e m o c r a t c i s o c e it yw h c ih e x t o l e dl i b e r t ya n do r d e r b a s e do ns h a r e di d e a l sa n di n d i v i d u a lv i r t u er a t h e rt h a no ne x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t . T h et r a d i t i o n a l i s t sw e r er e a ly c o n c e r n e dw i t ht h ek i n d o fa lw e ls s n e s st h a tc a m ef r o mad e t e r i o r a t i o n in a c o m m o nm o r a l i t y a n d in s h a r e dv a l u e s ,n o tf r o ml a w b r e a k i n g . W h e nt h e yt u r n e dt o t h el a w ,t h e ya d m t ie dd e f e a t .( F a s s5 0 )  T h ea lw w a sm a d et oe n f o r c eav a u le s y s t e mt h a tw a sn oo ln g e r in e f f e c t . R e p o r t s  e v e nP r e s d ie n tH a r d n ig c o n t n iu e dt oc o n s u m ea l c o h o ls e c r e t l yi lu s t r a t eh o wo u to ft o u c h  V i c t o r i a nm o r a l i t y ,a n da sar e s u l tt h es t a t e ,h a db e c o m e . T h ee a r l yv e r s o in so ft h eH  C o d e ,f o r b i d d i n gd e p c it o in so fs e x in t h em o v e is ,w e r es i m i l a r l ym o t v ia t e db yi n f l u e n t i a l c h u r c ha n dw o m e n s ' g r o u p sw h or e f l e c t e dam o r a lc o n s e r v a t s im t h a tw a sl o s i n g its i n f l u e n c eo nt h em a n is t r e a mm o r a l i t y .  I nt h eT w e n t e is ,a s" A m e r c ia n st u r n e da w a yf r o mt h ea s c e t c i c o d e so ft h ep a s t t h e yb e g a nt os h e dt h eV i c t o r i a nr e t c ie n c ec o n c e r n n ig s e x "( M a yG r e a t9 2 ) . I nt h e a b s e n c eo ft r a d i t i o n a l religion, p e o p e l s o u g h tt r u t h sf r o mt h er i s i n g field o fp s y c h o o lg y . W t i h o u tar e l i g i o n b a s e dp r o h i b i t i o na g a n is ti m m o r a l i t y ,o rac o n c e p to fm o r a l i t ya t all, m a n yp e o p e l t u r n e dt oF r e u d a in p s y c h o o lg yf o rar a t i o n a l ef o rh u m a nn e e d s ; in fact, " F r e u d s ' p o p u l a r i t yh a da ni n e v i t a b l ee f f e c to nt h er 'e v o l u t i o n in m o r a l s . ' I tw a s  a s s u m e dt h a th ew a sa r g u n ig t h a tu n e ls sy o uf r e e l ye x p r e s s e dy o u rl i b i d oa n dg a v eo  t oy o u rs e xe n e r g y ,y o uw o u d l d a m a g ey o u rh e a l t h ;b yt h ed i s t o r t i o no fh i sw o r k ,a s c i e n t i f i cm i p r m i a t u rw a sg v ie nt os e l f i n d u l g e n c e "( 1 6 5 ) . T h r o u g ht h ep o p u l a r i z a t i o no f 57  h i st h e o r i e s ,a n da s lo t h ew r i t i n g so fT w e n t e is s e x o o lg s it H a v e o lc k Ellis, c o n c e p t ss u c h t h e id a n dt h el i b i d ob e c a m ec o m m o n p a lc e ,a n d" an e wm o r a l i t yb a s e do ng r e a t e r f r e e d o ma n ds e l f e x p r e s s i o n , "g r e a t e ri n d i v i d u a l i s m ,w a su r g e d( W o o lc h3 9 7 ) . K e yt o  t h i sr e v o l u t i o n in m o r a s l, o fc o u r s e ,w a sar a d i c a lr e d e f i n i t i o no ff e m a e ln e s s in A m e r c ia n c u l t u r e . T h ec h a n g e st h a tb e g a nb e f o r et h eG r e a tW a re s c a a lt e da f t e r it, p a r t i c u l a r l yf o r  w o m e n . T h er i g h tt ov o t e is o f t e nc i t e da st h ec a t a l y s tf o rt h ef e m a e l s o c i a lr e v o l u t i o t h eJ a z zA g e .I n fact, t h i sw a t e r s h e de v e n tw a sp a r to fa c o m p e lx c h a n i o ff a c t o r s  o c c u r r n ig o v e rt h es p a no ft h eT 'e e n s . I ns o m ew a y s , it w a san e c e s s t i yo fw a rt h a t  p r o v o k e dt h eg r e a t e s tc h a n g e in t h es t a t u so fw o m e n in A m e r c ia ns o c e it y — t h en e e df o  l a b o r . Y o u n gw o m e n left t h e i rh o m e st ow o r k in t h eu r b a nf a c t o r i e s in r e c o r dn u m b c r e a t i n g an e wc u l t u r eo fu n a t a c h e d ,u n c h a p e r o n e d ,n id e p e n d e n tw o m e n in t h e cities.  T h e r et h e ye n c o u n t e r e dy o u n gm e n in a v e r yd i f f e r e n t ,m o r es o c i a ly n it e n s ee n v r io n m e n t h a na th o m e . T r a d i t i o n a lc o u r t n ig r i t u a l sw e r er e n d e r e di r r e l e v a n tb yt h el a c ko f t r a d i t i o n a ls o c i a ls t r u c t u r e s ,a n dc e r t a i n l yb yt h eu r g e n c yo fw a r t m i e ;" t h ew a rh a d a c c e e lr a t e dt h ec h a n g n ig n a t i o n a la t t i t u d et om a r r a ig e . d Ie a sa b o u tv i r g i n i t ya n d  f a i t h f u l n e s sh a dt ob er e v i s e dw h e nt h ec o u n t r yw a ss e n d n ig its y o u n gm e na w a yt o b a t t l e . A d u l t e r yw a st r e a t e dm o r es y m p a t h e t c ia y l b yj u d g e s ,d v io r c ee v o k e dam o r e  t o l e r a n tr e s p o n s e in t h ec o m m u n t y i. F i l m sn a t u r a l yr e f l e c t e dt h ec h a n g n ig m o r a l i t ya n d ,  in d o n i g so, q u c ik e n e d its p a c ee v e nm o r e "( A e lx a n d e rW a k le r2 8 ) . W h e np e o p e l w e r e f i g h t i n ga n dd y i n g ,s o c i a lp r o p r i e t i e sa n dt h en e c e s s t i yo fp r e s e r v n ig c o n v e n t o in n o o ln g e rs e e m e dr e l e v a n t . Y o u n gp e o p e l w e r em o r ei n t e r e s t e d in f o l o w i n gt h e i rh e a r t s t h a nh e e d n ig t h e i re l d e r s . 58  H o y lw o o d was a c t u a l ys o lw to r e s p o n d to the c h a n g e s in s o c e it yd u r n i g and a f t e r the war.  W h e l i t h o u s a n d s of y o u n gw o m e nw o r k e d in m u n t o in sf a c t o r i e s , cut t h e i rh a i r  and k e p th o u s e for t h e m s e v le s ,M a r yP i c k f o r d and Lillian G s ih k e p t the m y t h of n in o c e n t g i r l h o o da l i v e for w e a r yu r b a np o p u l a t i o n s . W h i l e , as we h a v es e e n , in the e a r l y T w e n t e is the m i a g e of the f a le nw o m a ns h i f t e dd r a m a t i c a ly . .it b o r e little r e l a t i o n to r e a l i t yt h r o u g h o u t and n is t e a d ref l e c t e dp r o f o u n dc u l t u r a la m b v ia e ln c et o w a r d the s h a t t e r i n g of V i c t o r i a n i s m and the e m e r g e n c e of the "New W o m a n " , u r b a n i z a t i o n , the m i m g ir a n t flux, the d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h et r a d i t i o n a lf a m i l y , the c o a lp s e of the d o u b e l s t a n d a r d and the a c c o m p a n y n ig s e x u a l and s o c i a le m a n c p ia t o in of w o m e n — n i s h o r t ,t o w a r d the n e c e s s a r yr e s u l t s of m o d e r n ization. ( F i s h b e i n" H a r l o t s ' " 409) It was o n y l the s o p h s it c ia t e dm a r r a ig ec o m e d e is t h a tc o u d l s u b t y l r e f l e c t the w d ie n n ig d i v i d eb e t w e e nt r a d i t i o n a l and J a z z Age m o r a l i t y . A f t e r the war, new d i r e c t o r s ,i n c l u d i n g E u r o p e a n ss u c h as L u b t is c h and Von S t r o h e m i ,m i p o r t e dam o r es o p h s it c ia t e ds e n s i b i l i t y to the r o m a n c e plot. One of its g r e a tn in o v a t o r s was an A m e r c ia n ,h o w e v e r : Cecil B. D e M i le . A f t e r 1918, "as sex c a m e to p e r v a d em o d e r n life and p u b l i cd s ic o u r s e ,t h e s e s o p h s it c ia t e dp o s t w a rd i r e c t o r ss e r v e d to a r t i c u l a t e the new J a z z Age f r e e d o m by i n t e g r a t i n ge m a n c p ia t e ds e x u a l i t yi n t od a i l ye x s it e n c e "( " D e m s ie " 67).  T h r o u g haf o c u s  on the m a r r e id life of the u p p e rc l a s s e s ," s u c hD e M i l efilmsas Old Wives for New ( 1 9 1 8 ) , Don't Change Your Husband ( 1 9 1 9 ) , Male and Female ( 1 9 1 9 ) and The Affairs of Anatole  ( 1 9 2 1 ) all s u g g e s t e dt h a ta d u t l e r ym g ih t be a n e e d e ds t m i u u l s to u l t i m a t em a r i t a l  h a p p n ie s s ,f o r c i n gs h r e w s ih or s o lv e n y l w o m e n to r e f o r mt h e m s e v le sl e s tt h e i rm a r r a ig e s be s u n d e r e d " (67).  The m e s s a g e of thefilms,t h a tam a k e o v e r and a f e t c h i n g new d r e s s  can s a v eam a r r a ig e , and g o o d n e s s is not e n o u g h to i n s p i r el o v e , was a p o o r one for a  59  g e n e r a t o in l o o k i n gf o ran e wm o r a l i t ya n dan e wd e f i n i t i o no fm a r r a ig ea n df a m i l y . B  t h ef i l m sm a d e it c l e a rt h a tt h eo l dr u l e sw e r et ob er e j e c t e d ,a n dm a r r a ig ec o u d l b e r e d e f i n e d .  T h es h o c k n ig b r e a kw i t hV i c t o r i a nm o r a l i t y in t h e s en e wf i l m sr e s o n a t e dw i t ht h e a u d e in c e sa n dr e f l e c t e dt h ec h a n g n ig n o t o in o fs e x u a lm o r a l i t ya n dr e s p o n s i b i l i t y . D v io r c eh a d , in fact, b e e nr i s i n gs t e a d i l ys n ic et h et u r no ft h ec e n t u r y ,b u tt h er a t e s n ic r e a s e dr a d i c a ly t h r o u g ht h eT w e n t e is . T h ed v io r c er a t e s" t h a th a ds ot r o u b e ld t h e P r o g r e s s v ie g e n e r a t o in s h u d d e r e df o r w a r dd u r n ig t h ep r e s s u r e so fW o r d l W a r1 a n d  c o n t n iu e dt oe s c a a lt e in t h e 1 9 2 0 s '. I n1 9 2 2 ,t h e r ew e r e 1 3 1 d v io r c e sf o re a c h1 0 0 0  m a r r a ig e s ;b y 1 9 2 8 ,t h e r ew e r e 1 6 6p e r1 0 0 0 "( B r o w n1 2 2 ) . M a r r a ig ew a sn oo ln g e r  a sa nu n b r e a k a b e l b o n d , ar e l a t i o nt ob ee n d u r e du n t i ld e a t hf o rt h es a k eo ft h ef a m  " t h en ic r e a s e in d v io r c ep r o b a b y l m e a n te ls sa nn ic r e a s e in m a r i t a lu n h a p p n ie s st h a na  r e f u s a lt og oo nw i t hm a r r a ig e sw h c ih w o u d l e a r l i e rh a v eb e e nt o l e r a t e d "( L e u c h t e n b e r g  1 6 2 ) . W t i ht h er e j e c t i o no fV i c t o r i a nv a u le sc a m ean e wd e f i n i t i o no fm a r r a ig eb a s e d i n d i v i d u a ld e s i r e ,n o tt h es t a b i l i t yo fs o c e it ya n dt h et r a n s f e ro fp r o p e r t y .  W t i hi n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o na n du r b a n i z a t i o n ,t h ef a m i l yc e a s e dt ob eac o r p o r a t ew o r k u n i t ,a s in a g r a r a in s o c i e t y ,a n db e c a m ea na s s o c a it o in o fp e o p e l w h op o s s e s s e d  i n d i v i d u a ld e s t i n i e s . S n ic et h em d in n ie t e e n t hc e n t u r y ," t h es t a t e ,t h ef a c t o r y ,t h es c h o o l ,  a n de v e nm a s sa m u s e m e n s t r o b b e dt h ef a m i l yo ff u n c t o in s it o n c eh a d . T h em o r et h a  s o c i a lu s e f u n le s sw a st a k e na w a yf r o mt h ef a m i l y ,t h em o r em a r r a ig ec a m et od e p e n d t h ep e r s o n a l i t i e so ft h ei n d i v i d u a l s involved... I n1 9 1 4 ,t h en u m b e ro fd v io r c e sr e a c h e d  1 0 0 0 ,0 0f o rt h e first t i m e ; in 1 9 2 9 ,o v e r2 0 5 0 ,0 0c o u p e ls w e r ed v io r c e d in a s i n g l ey  60  ( 1 6 2 ) . P e o p e l w e r ee ls sf a m y l ib o u n d in g e n e r a l in u r b a ns e t t n ig sr a t h e rt h a nf a r m s . T h a n o n y m o u sc i t i e sa n df a c t o r yo jb sf o s t e r e dt h ei n d i v i d u a l i s te t h i c . U n l i k eo nt h ef a r m ,  y o u n gp e r s o n s ' d u t yw a st os u p p o r th m i o rh e r s e l f ,n o tag r o u p . W t i han e ws e n s e  r e l i a n c ea n de m p o w e r m e n ta f t e rt h ew a ry e a r sa n dt h es u c c e s s f u ls u f f r a g es t r u g g l e ,a n d a nn ic r e a s e dd e s r ie f o rp e r s o n a la n de v e ns e x u a lf u l f i lm e n tf u e le db yp o p u a lr F r e u d a in s im ,w o m e nd e m a n d e dm o r eo fm a r r a ig e . T h eb u w la r ko fc o m m u n t y i v a l u e s , t h ei n s t i t u t i o no fm a r r a ig e ,w a su n d e ra t a c kb yt h ef o r c e so fi n d i v i d u a l i s m . I na n i n c r e a s i n g l ys e c u a lr A m e r i c a ,w o m e nw e r eu n a f r a i dt od v io r c e if t h e yd i dn o tg a n i p e r s o n a lf u l f i lm e n tf r o mt h e i rh u s b a n d s . C e r t a i n l y" m a n ya l t e r n a t i v e st om a r r a ig ew e r e  p o s e d in t h e' 2 0 s :o p e np r o m i s c u i t y ,d v io r c ea n dr e m a r r a ig e ,o rs e r i a lm o n o g a m y "( M a r y P .R y a n1 6 0 ) . N e v e t h e e ls s ,D o r o t h yB r o w nr e p o r t st h a t t h e 1 9 2 0c e n s u sr e c o r d e dt h a tA m e r c ia n sd i dr e t a i n 'a r e m a r k a b e l p r o n e n e s st om a r r i a g e ' .. S i x t yp e r c e n to f A m e r c ia nw o m e no v e rt h ea g eo ff i f t e e nw e r em a r r i e d .. G r o v e sa n dO g b u r n ,s c i e n t i f i c a ly a n a y ls n ig t h ec h a n g n ig f u n c t o in so ft h e family... c o n c u ld e dt h a tt h ed i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c t o ro ft h em o d e r nf a m i l yo ft h e 1 9 2 0 sw a sa f f e c t i o n . L o v ea n ds e x u a l i t yp r o v d ie dt h ec o h e s v ie f o r c e . M a r g a r e t S a n g e r , in h e r Happiness in Marriage, i n s i s t e dt h a t" T h e n u p t u a lr e l a t i o nm u s tb ek e p tr o m a n t i c .. D on o tb ea f r a i d t ot a k et h eb r e a k so f fy o u rh e a r t ,t os u r r e n d e ry o u r s e l ft o l o v e . U n c a lm pt h i se m o t o in ;l e t it h a v e full h e a t l h ye x e r c i s e . " ( 1 0 2 3 )  T h ei n f l u e n c eo fF r e u d is c l e a rh e r e — o lv ea n de v e ns e xa r eh e a l t h y . M a r g a r e tS a n g e r  w a sak e yf i g u r e in t h i ss e x u a lr e v o l u t i o n , in h e rw r i t i n g so nr e l a t i o n s h i p sc e r t a i n l y( s h  w a sac o e la g u eo fH a v e o lc k Ellis), b u te v e nm o r es o in h e rp r o m o t o in o fb i r t hc o n t r  A t l h o u g hm o s to fh e rb i r t hc o n t r o lt r e a t i s e se d g e dt o w a r de u g e n c is in t h e i ra s s e r t o in t h a its a v a i l a b i l i t yw o u d l r e d u c et h ep o o rp o p u l a t i o n ,h e rw o r ka s lo r e s u l t e d in t h em d id e l  61  c a ls sw o m a n s ' d s ic o v e r yo fs e x ;h e r" s e x u a le n o jy m e n tw a sf u r t h e re n h a n c e d in t h e 1 9 2 0 s ' a n d '30's b yt h eg r e a t e ra v a i l a b i l i t yo fm o r er e l i a b l em e h to d so fb i r t hc o n t r o l , a m o n gt h e mt h ec o n d o m ,a na c c u r a t er h y t h mm e t h o d ,a n dt h ed i a p h r a g m . B yt h e  1 9 2 0 s ', 7 0t o8 0p e r c e n to ft h eu p p e r -a n du p p e r m d id e l c a ls sw o m e nu s e ds o m em o e ls sr e l i a b l em e a n so fb i r t hc o n t r o l "( M a r yP .R y a n 1 5 9 ) . L o v ea n ds e x in m a r r a ig e c o u l d ,f o rt h efirstt i m e ,b ee x p o lr e dw t i h o u tt h er i s ko fp r e g n a n c y . T h es e x u a lr e v o l u t i o no ft h eT w e n t e is ,w h i l e it r e d e f n ie dm a r i t a lr e l a t i o n s ,w a s  n o tc o n f n ie dt ot h em a r r i e d . A c c o r d n ig t os t u d e is c o n d u c t e da tt h et m i e (it w a sag r e r af o rs t u d i e s ) ," t h e r ea p p e a r st oh a v eb e e na nn ic r e a s e in p r o m i s c u i t y ,e s p e c i a l y in s e x u a le x p e r e in c eb e f o r em a r r a ig ef o rm d id e lc a ls sw o m e n ;t h e r ew a sp r o b a b y l a n n ic r e a s e in e x t r a m a r i t a le x p e r e in c ea s well. W t i he f f e c t i v ec o n t r a c e p t o in t e c h n q iu e s w d ie y l u s e d ,t h ef e a ro fp r e g n a n c yw a sg r e a t l ye ls s e n e d "( L e u c h t e n b e r g 1 7 1 ) . W t ih a n  n ic r e a s e in f r e e d o mf r o mp a r e n t s in t h ec i t i e sa n d in a u t o m o b e l is ,a n das e c u a lr m o r a s i g n i f i c a n tc h a n g e in t h es e x u a la c t i v i t yo fw o m e n o c c u r r e da r o u n d 1 9 2 0 . I n G. I .H a m i l t o n s ' s a m p e l o fm d id e l- a n du p p e r c a ls sw o m e n ,f o re x a m p e l, 2 4 p e r c e n to ft h o s eb o r nb e f o r e 1 8 9 1 h a ds e x u a le x p e r e in c e o u t s d ie o fm a r r a ig e ,w h e l i 6 1 p e r c e n to ft h ew o m e nb o r n a f t e rt h a ty e a rr e p o r t e d illicit s e x u a lb e h a v i o r . K i n s e y s ' m a s s v ie s t u d yo fn e a r y l 8 0 ,0 0s u b e jc t sa s lo i n d i c a t e dt h a t t h eg e n e r a t o in o fw o m e nw h o s es e x u a le x p e r e in c eb e g a n a r o u n d 1 9 2 0e n g a g e d in s e x u a ln it e r c o u r s eo u t s d ie o fm a r r i a g ea ta b o u td o u b e l t h er a t eo ft h e i rm o t h e r s . A n o t h e r m e h to do fg a u g n ig t h es e x u a lp r a c t c ie so ft h ep o p u a lt o in a t l a r g e ,e n c o m p a s s n ig m o r et h a nt h eu p p e rc l a s s e s , is t h ec o m p i l a t i o no fs t a t i s t i c so ni le g i t i m a t eb i r t h s ,w h c ih c o n t n iu e d t o rise. ( M a r yP .R y a n1 6 1 )  T h e s es t u d i e s ,a n dt h eG r o v e sa n dO g b u r ns t u d yp r e v o iu s y l m e n t o in e d ,p r o v d ie m i p o r t a n  d a t a ,b u tw e r en o ta sw d ie y l k n o w n in t h e i ro w nt m i ea s aa ln d m a r ks t u d yc o n d u c t e  62  K a t h e r n ie B e m e n tD a v s i o v e rs e v e r a ly e a r s in the e a r l yp a r t of the d e c a d e , and p u b s i lh e d in 1929,  e n t i t l e d Factors in the Sex-Life of Twenty-Two Hundred Women. B a s e d on  q u e s t o in n a r ie sc i r c u l a t e da m o n gm a r r e id and u n m a r r e id ,p r e d o m n ia n t y l c o e lg e e d u c a t e d w o m e n ,t h i ss t u d y is p a r t i c u l a r l yu s e f u l in its a t e m p t to q u a n t f iy not o n y l s e x u a l b e h a v i o r , but s e x u a la t t i t u d e s . As u b g r o u p of u n m a r r e id w o m e n at l e a s tf i v ey e a r s out of c o l e g e was a s k e dan u m b e r of o p n io in q u e s t o in s ,i n c l u d i n g , "Is a y o u n gw o m a nb e f o r e m a r r a ig ee v e r justified in h a v n i g sex n it e r c o u r s e ? If so, u n d e rw h a tc o n d t io n s ? " 194 . r e s p o n d e d in the a f f i r m a t i v e . In a c o m m e n ts e c t o in p r o v d ie d on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , " v a r o iu sc o n d t io n s are s u g g e s t e d by the m i n o r i t yg r o u p ;f o r e m o s ta m o n gt h e m are t e m p t a t o i n or the s t r a i n and s t r e s s of e x c e p t o in a lc o n d i t i o n s .. S o m ec o n s d ie rl o v e s u f f i c i e n t justification. O t h e r ss u g g e s tt h a to b s t a c e ls to m a r r a ig ew o u d l j u s t i f ye n g a g e d c o u p e ls "( K a t h e r n i e B. D a v s i 350).  The i n f l u e n c e of F r e u d ,H a v e o lc k Ellis, and M a r g a r e t  S a n g e r is e v d ie n t in the c o n c e r n s for h e a l t h f u lr e e la s e of s e x u a le n e r g y . A n o t h e rs e c t o i n of the q u e s t o in n a r ie a s k e d , "Is a h u s b a n de v e rj u s t i f i e d in h a v n i g sex n it e r c o u r s ew i t ha w o m a n or w o m e no t h e rt h a n his w f ie ? If so, u n d e rw h a tc o n d t io n s ? " To this, a s u r p r i s i n g 24.1 p e r c e n ta n s w e r e dp o s i t i v e l y . 20.1 p e r c e n ta s lo b e l i e v e daw i f ec o u d l be s i m i l a r l y justified. In the c o m m e n ts e c t i o n ," e x t r a m a r i t a lr e l a t i o n s for e i t h e rp a r t n e r are justified by the a f f i r m a t i v eg r o u p on a n u m b e r of g r o u n d s :u n s a t s if a c t o r yr e l a t i o n s b e t w e e nh u s b a n d and w i f e ,f r o mw h a t e v e rc a u s e ;s e p a r a t o i n or d i v o r c e , or w h e nd v io r c e is d e s r ie d but c a n n o t be o b t a n ie d . A few r e g a r d the h u s b a n d s ' or w i f e s ' l o v e for a n o t h e r a s justification; or the u n s a t i s f i e dd e s r ie for c h i l d r e n "( 3 5 2 3 ) . T h e s es t a t i s t i c sr e v e a la r e v o l u t i o n in a t t i t u d e s as w e l as a c o t in s — a nn ic r e a s e dt o e lr a n c e for b e h a v o ir t h a t c o n t r a d c it e dt r a d i t i o n a lm o n o g a m yc o d e s and the V i c t o r i a nr e p r e s s o i n of s e x u a li n s t i n c t s .  63  I t is p a r t i c u l a r l yi n t e r e s t i n gt om e ,a n da p p a r e n t y l t oD a v s i a s well, t h a tl o v ec o u d l b e  a d e q u a t ej u s t i f i c a t i o nf o rb o t hf o r n i c a t i o na n da d u l t e r y . I t is c l e a rt h a t" o n eo ft h em a n i  t e n e t so fy o u t h f u lm o r a l i t yw a st h a tl o v em a d es e x right... T h ea c c e p t a n c eo fe r o t i cl o v  b yt h ey o u n g in t h eT w e n t e is m a d et o e lr a n c eo ft h ea c t o in so fo t h e r sp o s s i b l e " ( F a s s  2 7 5 ) . A n o t h e rs t u d y ,t h i so n eb yB a ln c h a r da n dM a n a s s e s ,r e p o r t e dt h a to n y l o n et h i r d  t h e i rs a m p e l o fy o u n gw o m e nw o u d l d s ia p p r o v eo fa f r i e n dw h oh a de x t r a m a r i t a ls e x  e x p e r e in c e ," a n do n y l 1 3 %w o u d l b r e a kt h e i rf r i e n d s h i po nt h eb a s s i o ft h a td s ia p p r o v a ( 2 7 5 ) . O fc o u r s e ,t h ew o m e n in all o ft h e s es t u d e is w o u d l h a v eb e e ne x p o s e dt oa g r o w n ig m e d a i t h a te n d o r s e dt h i sl i b e r a l i z a t i o no fo p i n i o n ,i n c l u d i n g" A m e r c ia n  m a g a z n ie s[ w h c ih ]b e g a nt ov o c ie e d i t o r i a la p p r o v a lo fr e a lx e ds e x u a lm o r e s . B y 1 9 1 8 ,  2 3p e r c e n to ft h em o r ep r e s t g io iu sA m e r c ia np e r i o d i c a l se n d o r s e dt h ed o c t r n ie t h a ts e x u r e e la s ew a sp s y c h o l o g i c a l yh e a t l h yf o rb o t hs e x e s . B y 1 9 2 8 ,4 0p e r c e n to ft h em a s s  m a g a z n ie sc o n c u r r e d "( M a r yP .R y a n1 5 6 ) . Ay o u t hc u l t u r et h a te x a t l e dl o v eo v e ra lw  e n c o u r a g e d a film n id u s t r yw h o s em e o ld r a m a c t i f o r m u a l w a sb a s e do nt h a tv e r yp r e m s i T h em o v e i p a a lc ew a sn o tj u s tap a lc et oi n t e r a c tw i t ht h eo p p o s t i es e xo u to ft h e  o fp a r e n t s — t iw a sap a lc et os e er e f l e c t e do nt h es i l e n ts c r e e nt h en e ws o c i a lc o d e s e n c o u r a g e di n t e r a c t i o n . T h ef i n d i n g so ft h e s en u m e r o u ss t u d e is p r o f o u n d y l m i p a c to u ru n d e r s t a n d n ig o f t h eM G Mt e a m s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o no f The Scarlet Letter, a n dt h e critical r e s p o n s et ot h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . O b v i o u s l y ,t h er o m a n c ep l o t is e n h a n c e dt oe m p h a s z ie t h el o v et h a t e x c u s e sam y r a id o fH e s t e r s ' sins. H e ra d u t l e r y is n e t ih e rs h o c k n ig n o rb a lm e w o r t h y .  W h e nH a w t h o r n ew r o t eh i sn o v e l , it w a sas h o c k n ig a f f r o n tt od e c e n c yt oc l a i mt h a t a d u t le r yw a st h en a t u r a l ,u n d e r s t a n d a b e l c o n s e q u e n c eo fa nu n h a p p ym a r r a ig e ,b u t in 64  1 9 2 6m o s tp e o p e l w o u d l f i n d it a no b v o iu sc o n c l u s i o n . W t i hm a r r a ig er e d e f n ie da sa n e m o t i o n a l ,n o te x c l u s i v e l y social, c o n t r a c t ,aw o m a n in H e s t e r s ' s i t u a t i o nc o u d l s m i p y l  d i v o r c e . M a n yw o u d l i d e n t i f yw i t hH e s t e r s ' c o n f u s o in a tt h ed ie at h a tl o v e is sinful, o c o u d l e v e rb er e g u a lt e db ys o c i e t y . T h ev e r yi d e a ! The Scarlet Letter a s lo o f f e r sas i g n i f i c a n tc a t a l y s tf o rd s ic u s s o in a b o u t c o m m u n t y i, s h a r e dv a l u e s ,a n dn a t i o n a li d e n t i t y . T h ep o s i t i o no ft h ef m l i m a k e r s is c l e a r l ya n n o u n c e d in t h ep r e f a t o r y title: " H e r e is r e c o r d e das t a r ke p s io d e in t h el i v e s  s t e r n ,u n f o r g i v i n gp e o p l e ;as t o r yo fb i g o t r yu n c u r b e da n d its t r a i no fs o r r o w ,s h a m ea n t r a g e d y . " F r a n c e sM a r i o n s ' b o ig r a p h e r ,C a r iB e a u c h a m p ,r e c o r d st h a t "The Scarlet  Letter w a sw e c lo m e da s ap l e af o rt o e lr a n c ea n d Lillian G s ih w a sp a ly e du pa saD  o ft h eA m e r c ia nR e v o u lt o in w h os a wt h e film a sat r i b u t et oh e rP u r i t a na n c e s t o r s "(  T h i ss t a t e m e n ts e e m sp a r a d o x i c a l . T h e title a n n o u n c e st h e film a sa na t t a c ko nP u r i t a n  v a u le sa n d thus a sam o v n ig p l e af o rt o l e r a n c e . T h eP u r i t a na n c e s t o r sf r o mw h o mG a n dA m e r c ia a r ed e s c e n d e d , literally a n ds y m b o l i c a l y ,a r ee x p l i c i t l yr e j e c t e d . T h a tw a s  c e r t a i n l yh o wt h e film w a sr e a db yr e v i e w e r s ,w h ow e r e" r e s p o n d n ig t ot h ev a u le so  o w na n t i P u r i t a n i c a lm t i e s — t h e 1 9 2 0 so fH . L. M e n c k e na n d The Sun Also Rises—ra  t h a nt ot h et m i e so ft h eP u r t i a n so rH a w t h o r n e s ' A m e r c ia "( D u n n e" N i n e t y "3 2 ) . Vari r e p o r t e dt h a t" H e s t e ra n dD m i m e s d a e l r e c e i v e all t h es y m p a h ty o ft h ea u d e in c e ,b u t  p a r t i c u l a r l y in t h e toll t h a tt h e little h e r o n i e is c o m p e e ld t op a yf o rl o v i n g "( 1 5 ) ,a n d  a r g u e dt h a tt h e film " h a sas t r o n gp l e aa g a n is ti n t o l e r a n c e ,f o r it m a k e st h ea lw so ft h C o o ln e is s e e mh i g h l yr i d i c u l o u sa n da lu g h a b e l, a su jd g e db yo u rp r e s e n t d a ys t a n d a r d s .  Still there are fanatics enough who will say that they should still be enforced" ( 1 5 , italics m i n e ) . T h e New York Times c o m m e n e td t h a t" t h ep r u d e r yo ft h eg in o b e l b g io t s in 65  P u r i t a n i c a ld a y s is a d r o i t l y put f o r t h in the p i c t u r i z a t i o n of N a t h a n i e lH a w t h o r n e s ' story... It c a u s e s one to c o n t r a s tt h o s ed a y sw i t h the p r e s e n tt i m e ; the f a s h o in s of the p a s t w i t h the f e m n in ie c r e a t o in s of our g e n e r a t i o n . " R e g a r d n ig C h i l i n g w o r t h s ' d e s r ie for v e n g e a n c ea g a n is t the a d u t l e r o u sc o u p l e , the s a m er e v e iw e rc o m m e n t s :" H e r e one t h i n k s t h a t he has little to say in the m a t t e r ,c o n s d ie r n i g his t r e a t m e n t of H e s t e r . " Two h te m e s can be seen to emerge in the c r t ic is im — t h en ih e r e n tm o r a l Tightness of l o v e and the u n n a t u r a n le s s of the r e p r e s s n i g regime the c o u p e l f a c e s . The e m p a h ty G s ih e v o k e s is c l e a r in Variety's r e f e r e n c e to H e s t e r as a "little" h e r o i n e , and to the audience's t o t a l s y m p a t h yw i t h the c o u p l e . The m f l i m a k e r sh a v es u c c e s s f u y l m a n p iu a lt e d the t a l e and the a u d e in c e . The Times r e v e iw e ri d e n t i f i e sA m e r c ia s ' s y m b o c i l p r o g e n t i o r s as " g in o b e l b i g o t s , " and s m u g y l d e c r e is t h e i rf a s h o in s e n s e . For t h i sw r i t e r ,M o r d a u n t Hall, p r o g r e s s in A m e r c ia is d e f n ie d by the n o t a b e l d f if e r e n c e sb e t w e e n" t h e m " and "us." " T h e i r " c h u r c h and g o v e r n m e n t are t y r a n n i c a l ,w h i l e" o u r s "b a r e y l e x i s t ,m u c he ls si n f l u e n c e s o c i e t y . " T h e i r "f a s h o in s are u n f l a t t e r i n g ,r e f l e c t i n gt h e i rs o c i e t y s ' r e p r e s s v ie n e s s , w h e r e a s" o u r s , " do not e v e nr e q u r ie c o r s e t s( a t l h o u g ht h e y do r e q u i r eb r e a s t b i n d i n g ) . And for "us," a h u s b a n d s ' p e r c e v ie di l t r e a t m e n t of his w i f e is a d e q u a t ej u s t i f i c a t i o n for her b e a r n ig a n o t h e rm a n s ' child, and he is l e f tw t i h o u te v e n the r i g h t to c o m p a ln i! The Variety r e v e iw e rm a k e s an e v e ns t r o n g e rs t a t e m e n t of t h e s et h e m e s . H e s t e r is u n f a i r l yp u n s ih e d , her o n y l c r m i eh a v n ig b e e n "loving." T h i sr e v e iw e re x p l i c i t l y i d e n t i f i e s one of the p e la s u r e sb u i l ti n t o the s c r p it — t h eo p p o r t u n t i y to c o n t r a s t " r i d i c u l o u sa lw s "w i t h" p r e s e n t d a ys t a n d a r d s " — a n d one of the film's m e s s a g e s — h ta t the g h o s t of P u r t i a n s im still h a u n t sJ a z z Age A m e r c ia . W h e l i H e s t e r s ' p u r s u i t of D m i m e s d a e l is, a r g u a b l y ,m o r es e x u a y l a g g r e s s v ie t h a n any t h a tC l a r a Bow w o u d l  66  u n d e r t a k e ,t h e ya m o u n tt ot h es a m et h n ig — t h ey o u n gf o l o wi n s t i n c t ,n o tt h ep r o h i b i t i o n  o ft h eo l do r d e r . I nt h i sw a y ,H e s t e rP r y n n e is m a d eas y m b o lo fy o u n gA m e r i c a ,c a g a n is tt h ec o n s t r a n it so f" g in o b e l b i g o t s "w h oa r em a d e" t h e m " , n o t" u s " — w h oa r e r e n d e r e d un-American. If A m e r c ia in t h eJ a z zA g eb e l i e v e d itself " ad e m o c r a t c i s o c e it y  w h c ih e x t o l e dl i b e r t ya n do r d e rb a s e do ns h a r e di d e a l sa n di n d i v i d u a lv i r t u er a t h e rt h a n o ne x t e r n a lc o n s t r a i n t "( F a s s5 0 ) ,t h e nt h eP u r i t a no r d e r ,a n dc e r t a i n" f a n a t i c s "o ft h e A g eb e n to nm i p o s n ig V i c t o r i a nr e p r e s s o in s ,a r en o tA m e r c ia n . W h e l i ah e g e m o n yo f v a u le sb o u n dt h eP u r i t a na n dV i c t o r i a nA m e r c ia s ,f o rt h eJ a z zA g eo n y l H e s t e r ,  D m i m e s d a e l, a n dG i l e s( t h e" a l A m e r i c a nb o y , "a sM a r kE s t r i nc a le dh m i )p a r t i c i p a t e in  t h e" r i g h t , "" A m e r c ia n "c o m m u n y t i o fs h a r e di d e a l s . H e s t e rb a t t l e dac h u r c h -a n ds t a t e -  s a n c t o in e dp r o g r a mo n y l p o s s b ie l in a t h e o c r a c y . C l a r aB o wc o u d l n e v e re x p e r e in c et h a t  s i t u a t i o n in t h es e c u a lr T w e n t e is ,b u ts h eh e r s e l fw a s in c o n f l i c tw i t ht h o s ew h os o u g h  c h e c kh e re n t h u s a is ma n dh e ra m b t i o nt om a r r yt h eb o s s ,b e c a u s et h e yw e r ec o n t r a r y r e p r e s s v ie c o d e so ff e m a e ln e s sa n dc l a s s . S oC l a r au n d e r s t a n d s . W t i ht h ec h u r c h in full r e t r e a ta n dg o v e r n m e n to v e r s h a d o w e db yb i gb u s n ie s s , H e s t e r s ' c o u n t e r p a r t s in 1 9 2 6m g ih tn o tg r a s pt h en u a n c e so fh e rs i t u a t i o n ,b u tt h e y u n d e r s t a n dr e b e li o na g a n is ts o c i a lc o d e sr e n d e r e di r r e l e v a n tb yt i m e . W h e nH e s t e r  p r o t e s t s ,t oD m i m e s d a e l, h e ri n a b i l i t yt ou n d e r s t a n do lv ea s sinful, s h es p e a k sf o rt h eJ  A g e ,t h er e b e l i o u sh e a t h e nc h i l do ft h eV i c t o r i a ne r a . W h e nD m i m e s d a e l c r i e so u t , in  E l e c t i o ns e r m o n ," P u r g ey o u r s e v le so fi n t o l e r a n c e ! J u d g en o t ,f o ro n y l t h ee y e so fG o d  m a ys e ei n t ot h eh e a r to fa s i n n e r ! "h ep r e a c h e st ot h eV i c t o r i a np a r e n t ,a n dp e r h a p s  w o m e n s ' a n dc h u r c hg r o u p sw h ob l a c k l i s tt h e film p r o p e r t e is t h a ta r en o tu lc k ye n o u g  t ob ec h a m p o in e db yV i c t o r i a nt r a i t o r Lillian Gish. If D m i m e s d a e l is a s a v i o r f i g u r e in 67  the film, t o e lr a n c e is his g o s p e l . His final act is his g r e a t e s tg e s t u r e of r e b e li o na g a n is t the P u r i t a nw o r l d v i e w , and the V i c t o r i a n as well. By h a v n i g hm i r e m o v eH e s t e r s ' b a d g e , the f m l i m a k e r sr e v e r s e the a s s u m p o t in of the p e r m a n e n c e of sin, and the p e r m a n e n c e of the f e m a e l fall. W t i h o u t the A, H e s t e rr e t u r n s to her n a t u r a ln in o c e n c e , r e c e n t l yg m i l p s e d in the f o r e s ts c e n e . L i k eA n n a of Way Down East, she is not f o r e v e r b a lc k e n e d by her fall ( E v e r s o n 158).  The f a c tt h a t the b a d g eg v ie s way so e a s i l ye x p o s e s  its s e c r e tw e a k n e s s :a p p l i e d by a c o m m u n t y i, its p o w e rd e r v ie sf r o m the h e g e m o n y of the c o m m u n t i y s ' s h a r e dv a l u e s . If t h o s ev a u le s are e x p o s e d as " r i d i c u l o u s , " or j u s t m i p e r m a n e n t , the b a d g eo ls e s its grip.  1 have confirmed the existence of 6 versions made prior to 1926. Little is known about most of them. The first was made in 1907, directed by Sidney Alcott. The second was released by IMP, a fairly large firm, on April 22, 1911. It was written by Herbert Brenon, directed by Joseph Smiley and George Tucker, and starred King Baggot. The third starred D.W. Griffith's wife Linda Arvidson, and was released on May 17, 1913. David Miles directed. The next one is the Fox Production mentioned in this section, released in 1917. A one-reeler was made in 1920 by Louis Selznick (David O.'s father), the first in a series of onereelers called "Herbert Kaufman's Weekly." The last pre-1926 version is the most mysterious. The name of the director, Challis Sanderson, has survived, but nothing else is known of it. It was released in 1922. 1  68  C h a p t e rT h r e e — AN e c e s s t i y of the T i m e s : The Scarlet Letter ( 1 9 3 4 ) , the P r o d u c t i o n C o d e , and D e p r e s s i o n E r aW o m a n h o o d  A t l h o u g ho v e r s h a d o w e d in f i l mh i s t o r y by its m i m e d a it ep r e d e c e s s o rm ( a d eo n y l e i g h ty e a r se a r l i e r ) , the first " T a l k i e "f i l ma d a p t a t o i n of H a w t h o r n e s ' n o v e lp r e s e n t s an e q u a l yf a s c i n a t i n gc a s es t u d y in the i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a lp r e s s u r e se x e r t e du p o naf i l m a d a p t a t o i n of c l a s s i c fiction. The Scarlet Letter was r e e la s e d by M a j e s t i cP c it u r e s in S e p t e m b e r 1934.  M a j e s t i c was a m i d d l e s i z e d 'B' s t u d o i o lc a t e d on P 'o v e r t y Row,'  an  a r e ad o m n ia t e d by s m a ln id e p e n d e n tc o m p a n e is , living in the s h a d o w of the m a o jr s t u d i o s , and p r o d u c n ig c h e a p ,m o s t y l g e n r e films. T h e s ec o m p a n e is t e n d e d to o p e n and f o l dq u i c k l y , and M a j e s t i c was out of b u s n ie s sw i t h i n two y e a r s of the r e e la s e of The Scarlet Letter, its b e s t k n o w np r o d u c t . D i r e c t e d by R o b e r tV i g n o l a and s t a r r i n gf o r m e r s i l e n ts t a rC o l e e nM o o r e , The Scarlet Letter e m e r g e df r o m ac m i l a t e of c h a n g n ig n o t o in s a b o u tw o m e n s ' r o l e sp r o m p t e d by the D e p r e s s o in , and a m o r a lr e v o l u t i o n in H o y lw o o d p r o v o k e d by the L e g o i n of D e c e n c yb o y c o tw h c ih r e s u l t e d in a s t r e n g t h e n n i g of the c e n s o r s h p i p o w e r s of the M P P D AP r o d u c t o in C o d e . W o r k n ig w i t h i nt h e s es t r i c t u r e s , V i g n o l a s ' The Scarlet Letter e m e r g e sf r o mo b s c u r t i y as a m o s tf a s c i n a t i n gr h e t o r i c a l o b j e c t : the film s u b v e r t s its c u l t u r e and the M P P D A to p r o d u c e as e a r n ig n id c it m e n t of T h i r t i e sr e p r e s s o i n of b o t hw o m e n and the e n t e r t a n im e n ti n d u s t r y . W h a t is m i m e d a it e y l s t r i k i n g is the film's c o m c i s u b p l o t , the c o u r t s h p i of M s it r e s s C r a c k s t o n e ,w h c ih c o a lp s e s the two s u b p o lt s of S j o s t r o m s ' film: the c o u r t s h p i of the 1  m i p a lc a b e l m a d ie n by G i l e s the b a r b e r , and his p u n s ih m e n t of the g o s s i p . S a m p s o n and B a r t h o e lm e w ,p a ly e d by W i l i a mK e n t and A l a nH a e l as L a u r e l and H a r d yt y p e s ,p r o v d ie c o m c i relief and s o m e m t i e si n s i g h t f u lc o m m e n t in t h e i rs e v e r a ls c e n e s ,e s p e c i a l y in t h e i r 69  r o m a n t c i d e a n i lg sw i t ht h eg o s s i p . T h e film s c r i p tb e n d sH a w t h o r n e s ' p r o s ec l e v e r l yt o  t i et h i sn iv e n t e dp l o tt ot h en o v e la ts e v e r a lp o i n t s . T h em o s ts u r p r i s i n ge x a m p e l o ft s t r a t e g y is t h ec o m c i a p p r o p r a it o in o fH a w t h o r n e s ' n a r r a t o r s ' s p e c u a lt o in a b o u tt h e a t t i t u d eo ft h ep a r s ih o in e r st oD m i m e s d a e ls ' " Ia mu t t e r l yap o lu t i o n "s e r m o n .  H a w t h o r n ed e s c r b ie sh o wt o w n s p e o p e l m g ih tb eh e a r dt oe x c a lm i t oo n ea n o t h e r , "Alas if h ed s ic e r ns u c hs n if u n le s s in h i so w nw h t i e soul, w h a th o r r i ds p e c t a c e l w o u d l h e  b e h o d l in t h i n eo rm n ie ! "( H a w t h o r n e 1 7 3 ) . T h e film a p p r o p r a it e st h i sm o m e n t in t h e t e x tt oc o m c i e n d s ,a s s g in n ig t h el i n et oB a r t h o e lm e wa sf a ra s "in t h i n e , "d i r e c t e d p o i n t e d l ya tS a m p s o n ,w h os u p p e i ls t h ep u n c h n i le b ya n s w e r n ig " o r thine." B a r t h o e lm e wa s lo s p e a k sav e r s o in o ft h ed a io lg u ed e l i v e r e db yt h ey o u n gw i f e  ( " L e th e rc o v e rt h em a r ka ss h e will, t h ep a i no f it will a w la y sb e in h e rh e a r t " )d  first s c a f f o l ds c e n e ,a r t i c u l a t i n gam e r c i f u lv e iw p o n it n (o wn o taw o m a n s ' b u tam a n s ') t h a tc o u n t e r st h a to ft h e( f e m a l e )g o s s p is . W h e l i t h i sr e a r r a n g e m e n tc o n n e c t st h et w o p l o t l i n e s , it a s lo s e r v e sas y m b o c i l f u n c t i o n . M i c h a e lD u n n ee x p a ln is t h a t" t h i sc h a n g e t y p i f i e st h ew a r b e t w e e n t h e s e x e st o n eo ft h e 1 9 3 4v e r s i o n "( D u n n e" N i n e t y "3 2 ) .  F e m a e l i n t o l e r a n c eo nt h es c a f f o l d is b a a ln c e db ym o r ef o r g i v i n gm a e ls ,a ni n v e r s i o no g e n d e rs t e r e o t y p e s( e s p e c i a l yr e g a r d n ig P u r i t a ns o c i e t y ) .  B a r t h o e lm e w s ' d e f e n s eo fH e s t e re s t a b s i lh e sh m i a st h eo n y l c h a r a c t e r in t h e film w h oa r t i c u l a t e sr e a s o n a b e ln e s sa n dp o s s e s s e sn a t u r a la f f e c t i o n s ,u n p e r v e r t e db yd o g m a .  H e is e s t a b s i lh e da sa" n a t u r a l "m a n , like S o js t r o m s ' Giles, m o t v ia t e db yn in a t ef a i r n e s s a n dc o m p a s s o in ,am a nw i t hw h o mt h ea u d e in c ec a ni d e n t i f y . H i se n t r a p m e n ti n t o  m a r r a ig ew i t hM s it r e s sC r a c k s t o n e ,w h oa sa na r c h P u r i t a nw t i h o u tn a t u r a ls y m p a t h e is is  h i so p p o s i t e , is a m s im a t c h rife w i t hc o m c i p o t e n t i a l ;D u n n ea s s e r t st h a td u e in l a r g e 70  to the s u b p l o t ," t h i s is a Scarlet Letter for the m i d t h i r t i e s , as c o ls e to a r o m a n t c i c o m e d y as the m a t e r i a l will a l o w " (33).  The t a v e r ns c e n et y p i f i e s the g e n d e r politics of the s u b -  plot. B a r t h o e lm e w , now a g r o o m t o b e ,b e m o a n s his f a t e as "the s a i l o r s who r e p r e s e n ta w i l da l t e r n a t i v e to the P u r i t a nc o m m u n y t i in H a w t h o r n e s ' t e x th e r ec o m m s ie r a t ew i t ha f e l o wm a e l c a u g h t in the t r a m m e s l of d o m e s t c it iy " (32).  We l a s t see the b e e la g u e r e d  n a t u r a l man e n m e s h e d in a f a m i l ys t r u c t u r e he c h a f e sa g a n is tw i t h aw i f e he c a n n o tl o v e . In t h i sl a s ts e n s e , the c o m c i s u b p o l t not o n y l e x p l o i t sa u d e in c et a s t e s and c o m m e n s t on c o n t e m p o r a r ys o c i a li s s u e s , but a s lo p r e s e n t s a foil t r i a n g l e and a foil s i t u a t i o nw h e n set b e s d ie t h a ti n v o l v i n gH e s t e r ,D m i m e s d a e l, and C h i li n g w o r t h . H i s t o r i c a lp e c u l i a r i t i e ss u c h as the c o u r t n ig t r u m p e t and the p r o h i b i t i o na g a n is t a man s e e n ig a w o m a n s ' n 'e t h e r g a r m e n t s ' e s t r a n g e the a u d e in c ef r o mh i s t o r y , and h i g h l i g h t the r e p r e s s v ie n e s s and s o c i a lc o n t r o l of the P u r i t a nc o m m u n t y i. The film a r g u e st h a t if love, the m o s tn a t u r a lh u m a nh a b i t , is a l i e n a t e d and l e g i s l a t e d by s o c i e t y , the r e s u l t can o n y l be u n h a p p ym a t c h e s like t h o s eB a r t h o e lm e w (and H e s t e r )m u s te n d u r e . The n a t u r a l a f f e c t i o n of H e s t e r and D m i m e s d a e l, u n c o n s e c r a t e d by s o c i a ll e g i s l a t i o n , has n o t h n i g to do w i t hc o u r t n ig t r u m p e t s and p r u d e r y . The film o p e n sw i t hap r e f a t o r y title, f o l o w e d by two c o m c i v g in e t t e s of p u n s ih m e n t for i n f r a c t i o n s . The first d e p c it s the p u n s ih m e n t of a g o s s p i ( i n t e r e s t i n g l y , the film d e p c it ss u c hw o m e n as s o c i a ly p o w e r f u l in the c o m m u n t y i, not c e n s u r e d by  it).  The s e c o n dv i g n e t t en it r o d u c e s the a u d e in c e to the c o m c i s u b p l o t ,w i t hS a m p s o n in the s t o c k s for a lu g h n i g on the S a b b a t h , and b e n ig h d id e nu n s u c c e s s f u y l by B a r t h o e lm e w from M s it r e s sC r a c k s t o n e ,w i t hw h o mS a m p s o n is in l o v e . She s c o d l s hm i for m s id e e d s and w a r n s hm i to h e e d the t e a c h n ig s of M a s t e rD m i m e s d a e l ( e s t a b l i s h i n g his 71  his  m o r a la u t h o r i t y in t h ec o m m u n t i y ) .  A f t e rt h e first s c a f f o l ds e q u e n c e ,t h es c e n ec h a n g e st oH e s t e r s ' c o t a g e( s h e is n o h e l d in p r i s o n ,b u t is n is t e a dm i m e d a it e y l a s s o c a it e dw i t ht h ed o m e s c t i h e a r t h )w h e r e D m i m e s d a e l visits h e r . T h i ss c e n e ,w h c ih r e p r e s e n t st h e film's o n y l s i g n i f i c a n ta d d i t i o n t ot h ee s s e n t i a l plot, a o lw st h ea u d e in c et oi d e n t i f yh e rl o v e rm i m e d a it e y l, m i p o r t a n t  s n ic et h e film c a n n o te a s i l yr e p r o d u c et h en o v e s l ' e n u n c a it o r ys t r a t e g yw h c ih s u b e jc t st h e r e a d e rt oag r a d u a lr e c o g n i t i o no fD m i m e s d a e ls ' guilt. T h es c e n ea s lo e x p l o i t s m e o ld r a m a t c i c o n v e n t o in sa n de s t a b s i lh e st h ep a i r s ' e n d u r n ig l o v e ,h e rc o m m m t i e n tt o  h i m ,a n dh e rs u f f e r i n g ,w h c ih a r e , in t h en o v e l ,s o lw y l r e v e a e ld a n dm u s e do v e rb yt n a r r a t o r . M e o ld r a m a t c i c o n v e n t o in is s h o r t h a n d .D m i m e s d a e l is c o n s t r u c t e da st h e  c o n v e n t o in a l film l o v e r ;t h es c e n eo p e n sw i t hh i sp a n t o m m i c i e n t r a n c ea f t e rk n o c k n ig a t t h ed o o r like a t y p i c a ls u i t o r . S h ew o r d e ls s y l a t e n d st ot h eb a b y . T h i sp a r to ft h e e m b r a c e sas i l e n t film a c t i n g style, s t r e s s n ig g e s t u r e in p a lc eo fd i a l o g u e ,p e r h a p s in d e f e r e n c et oM o o r e s ' ( a n dV i g n o l a s ') a p p a r e n td s ic o m f o r tw i t hs o u n d . T h ee m o t v ie m u s c i r e i n f o r c e s this, w i t h its h e a d y ,r o m a n t c i s t r i n g ss i g n a l i n gal o v es c e n e ,w h c ih is  r e p a lc e dw i t ha ne x c h a n g eo fm e o ld r a m a c t i d a io lg u en iv e n t e df o rt h e film. D m i m e s d a e l, as t r o n gt r a d i t i o n a ll o v e rf i g u r e in t h i se a r l ys c e n e ,p r o t e s t sH e s t e r s ' i n j u n c t i o nt h a th e  r e m a n i s i l e n ta b o u th i sp a r t in h e rs h a m e ,a n dp e la d st ob ea o lw e dt oa s s u m e ,o ra s h a r e ,h e rb u r d e n . T h e film a s s g in sH e s t e rt h ep o s i t i o ne x p r e s s e d in t h en o v e lb y  D m i m e s d a e l, t h a tt or e v e a lh i sg u i l tw o u d l b et od e p r v ie t h ec o m m u n y t i o fa n e e d e d  s p i r i t u a ll e a d e r . S h ei m p l i e st h a th i sd u t yt ot h ec o m m u n y t i is g r e a t e rt h a nh i sd u t yt o  a n dt oh i m s e l f . S h es a y s :" T od e s t r o yt h e i rf a i t hw o u d l b eag r e a t e rs i na n d it w o u d  s h a t e rt h el o v ew eb e a re a c ho t h e r ! N oA r t h u r , it c a n n o tb e , "a n do lo k sa w a y wist 72  M o o r e s ' h i g h l yc o n v e n t o in a ls p e e c h ,d e l i v e r e dw i t hm e o ld r a m a c t i flourish( s h ea d d s :  " M ys a l v a t i o na n dy o u r sc a nc o m eo n y l f r o mH e a v e n .O . u r sm u s tb e a living p e n a n  e s t a b s i lh e sH e s t e r b o t ha sa nh e i rt ot h es i l e n t film m e o ld r a m a c t i h e r o n ie ( w i t hg e s t u r e a n di n t e r t i t l e sr e p a lc e db ye q u a y l s t i l t e dd a io lg u e )a n da sa1 9 3 0 s ' s u f f e r e r in t h e ( d e g r a d e d )m o u d l o fG a r b o . F r u s t r a t e d ,t h ee n e r g e t c i D m i m e s d a e l e la v e sh e rt or e f l e c t t e a r f u ly o nh e r" t r y i n gd a y . " F o l o w i n gab r i e fs c e n e in w h c ih C h i l n g w o r t h is e s t a b s i lh e d in t o w na n d in o ld g n ig sw i t hD m i m e s d a e l is a ni n t e r v i e wb e t w e e nH e s t e ra n dh e rh u s b a n dt h a t stylistically p a r a le l st h ep r e v o iu ss c e n e in h e rc o t t a g e . C h i li n g w o r t h ,w i t hh i sc o o n s k n i  h a t ,b a lc kc a p ea n do ln gb e a r d ,h i sp i e r c i n ge y e sh e a v i l yb r o w e d ,r e s e m b e ls a s i l e n t film  s t o c k villain. A n dw e lh es h o u d l in t h i sc a s e ,a sH e n r y B. W a l t h a lh e r er e p r i s e sh i s  ( a n dd u p c i la t e s it a m l o s te x a c t l ya f t e re g ih ty e a r s )f r o mS o js t r o m s ' film. H i se n t r a n c e ,s t ot h r e a t e n n ig m u s c i, a n dh i sa p p r o a c ht ot h em o t h e ra n d child, a r eh a n d e ld in  p a n t o m m i e ,w i t hC h i l n g w o r t ha d v a n c n ig s o lw y l a c r o s st h er o o ma n dH e s t e rb a c k n ig u p  i n t oag e s t u r eo fp r o t e c t i o no fh e rb a b y . T h ed a io lg u eh e r e ,t h o u g h ,a m l o s tr e p r o d u c e s  t h a to ft h en o v e s l ' f o u r t hc h a p t e r ,a t l h o u g ht h es c e n e is n o ws e t in h e rh o m en is t e a d p r i s o nt or e i n f o r c et h es e n s eo fC h i l i n g w o r t h s ' v i o l a t i o no ft h ed o m e s c t i o r d e r .  T h en e x ts i g n i f i c a n ts c e n eo c c u r sa f t e rt h ep a s s a g eo ff i v ey e a r s ,a n dc o n c e r n st h f e m a e l m e m b e r so ft h ec o m m u n y t i ( i n c l u d i n gt h eg o s s p is f r o mt h es c a f f o l ds c e n e ) , a l o w i n ga ne l a b o r a t i o no ft h ec o m m u n t y is ' p e r s p e c t v ie o nH e s t e ra n dd e s c r b in i g its  g e n e r a ls y s t e mo fv a l u e s . T h i ss c e n e ,a n dt h o s er e l a t i n gt ot h ec o m c i s u b p l o t , fill o u t 2  a u d e in c e s ' s e n s eo ft h es t o r y s ' c o n t e x t ,w h c ih is a s lo o f t e nt h ef u n c t i o no fH a w t h o r n e s '  n a r r a t o r . H e s t e r is w a s h n ig c o lt h e sa tt h ew a t e r s ' e d g e ,a tad s it a n c ef r o mt h eo t h e r s , 73  w es e ef o rt h e first t m i eh e r ev i s u a ly r e p r e s e n t e dh e re x c u ls o in f r o mt h ee v e r y d a y life  t h ec o m m u n t y i. T h i s is u n d e r c u ts o m e w h a t in t h en e x ts c e n e , in w h c ih a c h e e r f u lH e  is w e c lo m e du n r e s e r v e d y l a tB a r t h o e lm e w s ' s h o p . P e a r la t e m p t st o join in p l a y i n gw i t h  ag r o u po fc h i l d r e n ,w h or e j e c th e ra n dp e l th e rw i t hm u d ,b u tt h e film fails t oe x c o n n e c tt h eb e h a v o ir o ft h ec h i l d r e nw i t ha nu n d e r s t a n d n ig o fP e a r l s ' p o s i t i o n in t h e c o m m u n t y i. T h es c e n eb e c o m e so n eo ft y p i c a lc h d l ih o o d bulying, r a t h e rt h a na  s t a t e m e n ta b o u tt h em o t h e ra n d child's o s t r a c s im . S i g n i f i c a n t l y ,t h eh e a do ft h ec h i l d i s h g a n ga n ds p e a k e rf o rt h a tc 'o m m u n t i y ' is M s it r e s sC r a c k s t o n e s ' s o n ,s ob yi m p l i c a t i o n s h e is p o s t io in e dh e r ea st h es o u r c eo fH e s t e r s ' p e r s e c u t o in ( s i m i l a rt oS o js t r o m s '  M s it r e s sH i b b i n s ) ,a sw e l a sa tt h ew a t e r s ' e d g e , in t h em a r k e t p a lc e in t h e first s c a f f s c e n e ,a n dl a t e ra tt h eg o v e r n o r s ' m a n s o in . C r a c k s t o n ea w la y sa r t i c u l a t e sc o m m u n t y i  d i s a p p r o v a l ,a n dt h ei m p l i c a t i o n is n o ts om u c ht h a ts h es t a n d sf o rt h ew d ie rv e iw o H e s t e r ,b u tt h a ts h e is a g o s s p i h e r s e l f in n e e do fp u n s ih m e n t . A f t e rad o m e s c t i s c e n eo fs o l i d a r i t yb e t w e e nt h ep e r s e c u t e dm o t h e ra n d child, H e s t e r is s u m m o n e dt ot h eg o v e r n o r s ' m a n s o in f o rt h ec u s t o d y trial s c e n e ,w h c ih is r e p r e s e n t e da st h ec a t a l y s tf o rC h i l i n g w o r t h s ' r e a l i z a t i o nr e g a r d n ig P e a r l s ' p a r e n t a g e .  T h ev e iw e r is g v ie nt ou n d e r s t a n dt h a tD m i m e s d a e l h a su n d o n eh i m s e l fa n ds e a e ld h i s  o w nf a t e in a na t e m p tt oh e p l h i sf a m i l y . I t is d e t e r m n ie d in t h es c e n et h a tD m i m r a t h e rt h a nW i l s o n , will i n s t r u c tP e a r l in t h ec a t e c h s im . T h i su n s u r p r s in ig s w t i c ht h e n a o lw sf o rat o u c h n ig l a t e rs c e n eb e t w e e nf a t h e ra n dd a u g h t e r in w h c ih D m i m e s d a e l  a n s w e r sh e rc o m p a ln it t h a ts h ew a n t sa ne a r t h l yf a t h e rb ye n c o u r a g n ig h e rt oc o n s d ie r  h m i a sh e ro w n . U n l i k e in t h en o v e l ,D m i m e s d a e l d o e sn o t s h r n ik f r o mh i s child, n d o e ss h e" m a k es t r a n g e " in h i sp r e s e n c e . T h i sr e i n f o r c e st h ea u d e in c e s ' s e n s eo ft h e 74 .  n a t u r a n le s so ft h e i rf a m i l i a lr e l a t i o n ,w h c ih H a w t h o r n ed i s r u p t s . A f t e rab r i e fs e q u e n c ea tt h em e e n t ig h o u s e , in w h c ih D m i m e s d a e l d s ip a ly sh i s  n ic r e a s n ig s e n s eo fg u i l ta n de m o t o in a l instability, H e s t e rw a t c h e sa tt h eb e d s d ie o ft h e ailing M s it r e s s Alerton, a s u b s t i t u t i o nf o rt h ed y n ig G o v e r n o rW n it h r o p . M s it r e s s A le r t o n is c o n s t r u c t e da st h ev o c ie o fc o m m u n y t i r e c o n c i l i a t i o n ,a ni n c a r n a t i o no ft h e  g r a d u a ls h i f t in a t t i t u d et o w a r dH e s t e rt h a tH a w t h o r n ed e s c r b ie s in t h el a t e rp a r to ft h e  n o v e l . S h ea p o o lg z ie sf o rh e rc o n d e m n a o t in o fH e s t e r( o n ea s s u m e ss h ew a sa m o n gt h " g o s s p i c h o r u s " )a n di d e n t i f i e sh e rn e wr o l ea sc o m m u n y t i a n g e lo fm e r c y . M s it r e s s A le r t o ne v e na s c r b ie st oH e s t e r s ' c a r eo fh e rt h eh e a l i n gp r o p e r t e is o fD m i m e s d a e ls '  p r a y e r s . H e s t e r is s h o w n ,a s in t h en o v e l ,a s ap r a g m a t c i m y s t c i c o n n e c t e dt ot h ee a f r o mw h c ih D m i m e s d a e l a n dt h eP u r i t a np a t r i a r c h yh a v ee s t r a n g e dt h e m s e v le st h r o u g h  a s c e t c is im a n dl a w . T h i si m p l i e dc o n t r a s tb e t w e e nt h et w ol o v e r sc o n t n iu e s in t h en e x s c e n e ,t h es e c o n ds c a f f o l ds c e n e , in w h c ih a c o m p o s e dH e s t e rp r e a c h e sr e a s o na n d m o d e r a t o in in t h ef a c eo fD m i m e s d a e ls ' t o r m e n t e dr a n t . F o l o w i n gt h ei n t e r v i e wb e t w e e nC h i l n g w o r t ha n dH e s t e r in w h c ih s h e a n n o u n c e sh e ri n t e n t i o nt or e v e a lC h i l i n g w o r t h s ' i d e n t i t y( t h es c e n eo c c u r s ,o n c ea g a i n ,  in H e s t e r s ' h o m e ,n o ta m o n gt h er e e d sa s in t h en o v e l ,t oa g a n i m a r kC h i l i n g w o r t h s ' a l i e n a t i o nfroma n di n t r u s i o ni n t oh e rd o m e s c t i s p a c e ) ,t h ef o r e s ti n t e r v i e wb e t w e e n H e s t e ra n dD m i m e s d a e l o c c u r s . I nt o n e ,t h i ss c e n ep a r a le l st h el o v e r s ' first i n t e r v i e w , w i t ht h ed e c a lm a t o r y ,m e o ld r a m a c t i d e l i v e r ya n ds t r i n ga c c o m p a n m i e n tt h a tt y p i f i e sa l o v es c e n e . B u tt h i ss c e n e is a s lo a ni n t e r e s t i n gr e v e r s a lo ft h e first l o v es c e n e . D m i m e s d a e l h a sw e a k e n e dc o n s d ie r a b y l b o t hp h y s i c a l ya n de m o t o in a y l o v e rt h ef i v e  y e a r s ,a n dH e s t e rh a sb e c o m es t r o n ga n dr e s o l u t e . W h e r e a s in t h ep r e v o iu ss c e n es h e 75  a r g u e df o rd u t ya n d life-long e x p i a t i o n ,s h en o wa d v o c a t e se s c a p ea n df r e e d o m ." B e g n i life a n e w ! "s h es a y s ," T h e r e s ' h a p p n ie s sb e y o n d ! " W h e l i t h ee a r l yD m i m e s d a e l w a s e a g e rt oc h a e ln g es o c e it ya n dm a r r yH e s t e ro p e n l y ,h en o wp e la d sw e a k n e s sa n d  i n c a p a c i t y . C o n v n ic e dt ol e a no nt h es t r o n g e rH e s t e rf o rs u p p o r t ,h ea g r e e st og ow i t h a n dt h es c e n ee n d s in a ne m b r a c e , in c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o nt ot h e first s c e n e s ' e n d i n g , in w h c ih t h e yt u r n e da w a yf r o mo n ea n o t h e ra n dp a r t e d . T h eE l e c t i o nD a ys e q u e n c eb e g n is w i t hac o m c i s c e n e ,a n dt h e nf o l o w i n gt h e sailor's r e v e l a t i o nt oH e s t e rt h a tC h i l n g w o r t hs a i l sw i t ht h e m ,t h e film c o n c u ld e sw i t h t h es c a f f o l ds c e n e . D m i m e s d a e ls ' p s y c h o o lg y is s i m p l i f i e d in t h e film t h r o u g h o u t ,b u t p a r t i c u l a r l yh e r e . n Is t e a do fa t e m p t n ig t or e p r e s e n th i sg r a d u a lr e j e c t i o no fw o r l d l y  e s c a p ed u et oh i si n t e r n a l i z e do r t h o d o x y ,h i sd e c s io in t oc o n f e s s is s e e nt ob ee x p l i c i t m o t v ia t e db yC h i l i n g w o r t h s ' r e v e l a t i o nt h a th e will t r a v e lw i t ht h e m . F o rt h e film v e iw e ru n a c q u a n it e dw i t ht h en o v e l ,t h et i m i n gm a ys u g g e s tt h a tD m i m e s d a e l c o n f e s s e s  o n y l t oe s c a p ef r o mt h es t o c k villain in t h eo n y l p o s s b ie l w a y ,a n dn o ta sar e s p o n s  d e m a n d so fh i sn a t u r e( a s in t h en o v e l ) . C h i l n g w o r t hc a nb eg m i l p s e ds t a l k i n ga w a y t h e film's c o n c u ld n ig o ln gs h o t ,w h c ih d e p c it sH e s t e rc r a d l i n gh e rd e a dl o v e ro nt h e s c a f f o l d ,s u r r o u n d e db yt h ek n e e n i lg c o m m u n y t i ( t h i sp i e t aa r r a n g e m e n t is c o p e id f r o m S o js t r o m s ' film). V i g n o l aa d h e r e sc l o s e l yt oH a w t h o r n e s ' d a io lg u et h r o u g h o u tt h e film ( t h en o v e s l '  s p a r s e n e s sm a k e st h i sp o s s i b l e )b u tm a k e sa ne n o r m o u sc h a n g e in t h i sl a s ts c e n e . B y r e p r e s e n t n ig t h ed e n o u m e n t ,H e s t e r s ' l a t e r life, a n db ye x c i s i n gD m i m e s d a e ls ' d y n ig  s p e e c h ,V i g n o l ab u ln t sH a w t h o r n e s ' m e s s a g es i g n i f i c a n t l y . T h i s final s p e e c h in t h en o v e  m u s tb eq u o t e da te ln g t hf o ra nu n d e r s t a n d n ig o ft h es i g n i f i c a n c eo ft h e film's o m s is o i 76  t ob ec l e a r . O nt h es c a f f o l d ,H e s t e ra s k s ," S h a lw en o ts p e n do u rm i m o r t a ll i v e s  t o g e t h e r ? S u r e l y ,s u r e l y ,w eh a v er a n s o m e do n ea n o t h e r ,w i t h all t h i sw o e ! T h o uo lo  f a ri n t oe t e r n i t y ,w i t ht h o s eb r i g h td y n ig e y e s ! T h e n tell m ew h a tt h o us e e s t ? "( 3 1 2 ) . D m i m e s d a e l r e s p o n d s : H u s h ,H e s t e r ,h u s h .T .h ea lw w eb r o k e !t h es i nh e r e s oa w f u l yr e v e a e ld ! — e lt t h e s ea o ln eb e in t h yt h o u g h t s ! If e a r ! If e a r ! I tm a yb e ,t h a t ,w h e nw ef o r g o to u rG o d , — w h e nw ev i o l a t e do u rr e v e r e n c ee a c hf o rt h eo t h e r s ' soul, — t iw a st h e n c e f o r t hv a i nt oh o p et h a tw ec o u d l m e e t h e r e a f t e r , in a ne v e r l a s t i n ga n dp u r er e u n i o n . G o dk n o w s ; a n dh e is m e r c i f u l ! H eh a t hp r o v e dh i sm e r c y ,m o s to f all, in m y afflictions. B yg i v i n gm et h i sb u r n n ig t o r t u r et ob e a r u p o nm yb r e a s t ! B ys e n d n ig y o n d e rd a r ka n dt e r r i b l eo l d m a n ,t ok e e pt h et o r t u r ea w la y sa tr e d h e a t ! B yb r i n g i n g m eh i t h e r ,t od i et h i sd e a t ho ft r u im p h a n tg in o m n iy b e f o r e t h ep e o p l e ! H a de i t h e ro ft h e s ea g o n e is b e e nw a n t n ig ,Ih a d b e e nl o s tf o r e v e r ! F a r e w e l ! ( 3 1 2 3 1 3 ) T h e film p r e s e r v e sm o s to fH e s t e r s ' lines. B u tt oh e rq u e s t i o n ,V i g n o l a s ' D m i m e s d a e l  r e p l i e so n y l " P e a c e ,H e s t e r ,p e a c e " . W h e l i t h i sr e p l i c a t e st h es y n t a x of, a n dt h u sc a nb i d e n t i f i e dw i t h ,t h e first l i n eo fD m i m e s d a e ls ' s p e e c h( " H u s h ,H e s t e r ,h u s h " ) ,h es e e m s  b ei m p l y i n gm o r et h a nt h a tH e s t e rs h o u d l h 'o l dh e rp e a c e . ' " P e a c e " , a sar e s p o n s et o q u e s t i o n ,i m p l i e st h a tt h es u f f e r i n go fD m i m e s d a e ls ' life, a n db yi m p l i c a t i o nH e s t e r s ', will e n d ,a n dt h a ta ss h es u g g e s t e d in t h e first c o t a g ei n t e r v i e w ,t h e i r" s a l v a t i o nc a n  o n y l f r o mH e a v e n " . T h u st h e film e n d so nap o w e r f u lm i a g e ,a t its c m i l a x( b yi g n o  h e rl a t e r life), a n do nah o p e f u ln o t e . T h ec o u p l e ,s e p a r a t e d in life b yr e p r e s s v ie f o r c  will b eu n t i e d in d e a t hb yG o d , in r e c o g n i t i o no ft h en a t u r a n le s so ft h e i ru n i o n . T h i s  i m p l i c a t i o n is in d i r e c to p p o s t i o nt oD m i m e s d a e ls ' o r i g i n a ls p e e c h ,a n dt h eo m s is o in o f H e s t e r s ' life-long s e f lm i p o s e de x i l er e s i s t sH a w t h o r n e s ' m e a n n ig a n de v e ni m p l i e sh e r p o s s b ie l h a p p yr e i n t e g r a t i o ni n t ot h ec o m m u n t y i. T h en o v e s l ' d e t a i lr e g a r d n ig h e rl a t e r 77  life c o ls e so u tt h i sa m b g iu t i ya n dr e j e c t sh o p e . H a w t h o r n e s ' u s eo fD m i m e s d a e ls ' l a s t  s p e e c ha n dt h en o v e s l ' c o n c u ld n ig c h a p t e rr e i n f o r c e sh i sr e f u s a lo f relief f o rc h a r a c t e ro r r e a d e r ,w h c ih H o y lw o o dt h e nd e l i v e r s . Ar e v e iw e rf o rt h e Motion Picture Herald w e n t e v e nf u r t h e rt h a nV i g n o l ah i m s e l f ,r e p o r t i n gt h a ta f t e rD m i m e s d a e ls ' c o n f e s s o in a n d  d e a t h ," o l dB o s t o nr e m e m b e r st h eg o o dt h a t is t h e girl's, all t h e sacrifice, s e r v c ie a n d  f o r t i t u d et h a tw a sh e r s ,a n dr e c e v ie sh e ra g a n i w i t hh o n o u r "( 4 2 ) . W h e l i Ih a v en o t  a b e l t od s ic o v e rw h e t h e rt h i sc o n s t iu t e s ar e v i e w e r s ' w i s h f u l f i lm e n tf a n t a s yo rt h eo n y l  r e c o r do f a final s c e n el a t e rc u tf r o mt h efilm,e i t h e rw a y it d e m o n s t r a t e st h en e e do f f i l m m a k e r s ,o ro f afilm-goeru s e dt oac e r t a i nf o r m u l a ,t oc o r r e c tH a w t h o r n e s ' e n d n ig . H e s t e r s ' c h a r a c t e r is r e s h a p e dm o r ef u n d a m e n t a y l t h a ne v e nD m i m e s d a e ls ', t o  t y p i f yt h es u f f e r i n gc n ie m a t c i h e r o n ie o ft h e 1 9 3 0 s . C o l e e nM o o r e ,a b o u tw h o m Variet  c o m m e n e td t h a t "it w o u d l b e difficult t ofinda m o r eh a p p yc h o c ie f o rH e s t e r "( q t d . in  D u n n e" N i n e t y "3 2 ) ,p a ly sh e ra s "all m e t l n ig e y e sa n dm a t e r n a li n s t i n c t s "( 3 2 ) ,r a t h e r  t h a nt h eh e a d s t r o n ga n ds o m e m i te so r n e r yH e s t e ro fH a w t h o r n e . S h e is c e r t a i n l yn o t ,a  H a r o d l B o lo mh a sd e s c r b ie dH e s t e r , ap r i m a r i l ys e x u a lb e n ig — s h e is b a r e y l s e x u a la ta ( B o lo m" I n t r o . " 1 ) .M o o r e s ' a c t i n g ,a n dt h efilm'sc o n s t r u c t o in o ft h ec h a r a c t e r ,c a n n o t  c a p t u r et h ew i l dp a s s o in a t en a t u r eo ft h en o v e s l ' h e r o i n e ,o rt h ep r i d et h a ti s o l a t e sh e r f r o mt h er e c o n c i l a t o r ye e lm e n t s in t h ec o m m u n t y i; H a w t h o r n e s ' H e s t e r is b e y o n dt h e s c o p eo fM o o r e s ' s i l e n t e r ap a n t o m m i c i e m o t o in a t i ly a n dH o y lw o o d s ' n o t o in o fa  'heroine'. M i c h a e lD u n n en o t e st h eb l u n t i n go fH e s t e r s ' n a t u r e in t h efilmin t h es c e n e M s it r e s sA le r t o n s ' b e d s d ie . A s ar e p r e s e n t a t v ie o ft h ec o n c i l a t o r ye e lm e n t s in t h e c o m m u n t y i, s h eb e g sf o r g v ie n e s sf o ro s t r a c i z i n gH e s t e r ,w h or e p l i e so n y l w i t ha n n id u g le n t" H u s h ! " ,r e f l e c t i n gt h ef i l m m a k e r s ' r e j e c t i o no fH e s t e r s ' s c o r nf o r 78  r e c o n c i la t i o na n dt h e official e f f o r t st or e s c n id h e rp u n s ih m e n t .( M o o r e s ' H e s t e rs c o f f s  o f f h a n d e d y l a tt h es u g g e s t o in t h a tt h ea u t h o r i t i e sm a yr e m o v eh e rb a d g e ,a s if it w e r e triviality.) T h ed e p i c t i o no fh e rh e r e t i c a ls p e c u a lt o in s ,s om i p o r t a n t in t h en o v e la n d c e n t r e d in A 'n o t h e rV e iw o fH e s t e r , ' a r ea b s e n t ,n o to n y l b e c a u s es u c hd i s c u r s i v e p a s s a g e sw o u d l b e difficult t od e p i c t ,b u tb e c a u s et h e yd e s t a b i l z et h ee s s e n t i a l y m a r t y r i s t i cc o n s t r u c t o in o f H e s t e ra sat r a g i c film h e r o n i e in t h e 1 9 3 0 s ' H o y lw o o d m o d e . I n fact, w h i l eH a w t h o r n e s ' o ln gd e s c r p it o in so fH e s t e r s ' m e n t a ls t a t e sa r e u n c n ie m a t c i, t h en o v e ld o e sp r o v d ie a c o n v e n e in ts y m b o lf o rt h ew i l d e r ,a n t i s o c i a l  t e n d e n c yo fh e rn a t u r e ,w h c ih c o u d l b eu s e dt og r e a te f f e c t in t h e film: t h ef o r e s t . W  e s s e n t i a l yao lc u so fn a t u r a lm i p u s le sb yd a y ,t h ef o r e s t in t h en o v e l is t h es o u r c eo s t r a n g en o s ie sa n df e a r f u ls p e c u a lt o in a f t e rd a r k . T h en o v e s l ' M s it r e s sH b ib n is b o t h  s y m b o z i le sa n da r t i c u l a t e st h ec o m m u n t y is ' f e a ro fw i t c h c r a f t ,w h c ih H a w t h o r n ep o s i t sa s ap o t e n t i a lo u t l e tf o rH e s t e r s ' t r a n s g r e s s v ie m i p u s le s . V i g n o l ad e e lt e sH b ib n is a n da n y s u g g e s t o in o fw i t c h c r a f t ,a n dt h u sh i s film, like S j o s t r o m s ', s h o w s itself m o r en it e r e s t e d in t h es o c i a lp e r s e c u t o in o f H e s t e rb yas m u g ,a u s t e r ec o m m u n y t i a to d d sw i t hn o r m a l f e e l i n g s ,t h a n in t h ed a r k e rr e p r e s s o in st h a ts u c har e g m i e m a ye n j o i n . I ta s lo r e d u c e st h er e s o n a n c eo ft h en o v e s l ' s y m b o c i l u s eo ft h ef o r e s t :n oo ln g e rt h es c e n eo fg a t h e r n i g s , in t h e film it b e c o m e sm o r es m i p y l as y m b o lo ff r e e d o m f r o mr e s t r a i n t .( M c F a r a ln e4 6 ) H o w e v e r ,t h ef o r e s t s ' s y m b o c i l f u n c t i o n is s oc u r t a i l e dt h a tH e s t e r is d e p r v ie do fh e r m o m e n s t ' relief in its s h a d ef r o mt h eb u r d e no ft h el e t t e r — i nt h e film s h ed o e sn o t r e m o v e it, o rh e rc a p . H a w t h o r n e s ' H e s t e r is c o n n e c t e dt ot h ef o r e s tt h r o u g hh e r p a s s o in a t ec o n n e c t o in t oN a t u r e ;f o rV i g n o l a s ' H e s t e r , it is o n y l ab a c k d r o p . P e a r l s ' 79  s y m b o c i l v a u l e is a s lo b u ln t e d in the film. L i k e the f o r e s t , she is c o n n e c t e d to a lw e ls s p a s s o i n in the n o v e l , but s n ic e the film e m i l n ia t e sH e s t e r s ' t r a n s g r e s s v ie w i lf u l n e s s , it is not r e p r o d u c e d and m a g n f i e d in her child. Any s u g g e s t o in of P e a r l s ' q u a s i d e m o n c i n a t u r e is e f f a c e d as C o r a Sue C o li n sp a ly s her as a s w e e t dol who c a n n o tu n d e r s t a n d why the o t h e rc h i l d r e ns h u n her s o c i e t y . E v e n her a n s w e r to the c a t e c h s im t e s t ,t h a t she was p u lc k e df r o m ar o s e b u s h ,s e e m sm o r e of an h o n e s tm s iu n d e r s t a n d n ig t h a no b s t i n a c y . The Scarlet Letter's S e p e tm b e r 1934  r e e la s ep a lc e s the film s q u a r e y l in the m d is t  of the H o y lw o o dc e n s o r s h p i c o n t r o v e r s yt h a te n d e dw i t h the e s t a b s i lh m e n t of the M o t o in P i c t u r eP r o d u c t o in C o d e ,e n f o r c e df r o m 1934  u n t i l the m i d 1 9 6 0 s ' . The C o d e , aq u a s i -  l e g a ld o c u m e n t listing r u l e sr e g a r d n i g the d e p i c t i o n of s u b e jc tm a t e r in film, was a c t u a l y w r i t t e n in 1930.  It was the c u m l n ia t o i n of the i n d u s t r y s ' e f f o r t s to s e l f r e g u l a t ec o n t e n t ,  o r g a n z ie dt h r o u g h an arm of the M o t o in P i c t u r eP r o d u c e r s ' and D i s t r i b u t o r s 'A s s o c i a t i o n t h a t was k n o w n as the H a y s Office. H e a d e d by f o r m e rP o s t m a s t e rG e n e r a l Will H a y s , the " S t u d o i R e l a t i o n s " office, l a t e rc a le d the P r o d u c t o in C o d eA d m i n i s t r a t i o n office, was f o r m e d in 1921  as a r e s p o n s e to p u b l i co u t c r ya g a n is tH o y lw o o d s ' p r e s u m e dm o r a l  laxity. The H a y sO f f i c ep r o p o s e ds e v e r a lp r e C o d ec e n s o rg u d ie s for the M P P D A s ' m e m b e r st h o u g h the T w e n t e is ,i n c l u d i n g the 1924  " F o r m u a l" and the 1927  Be C a r e f u l s " list. T h e s ew e r ee a lb o r a t e d in the 1930  C o d e . Until 1934,  " D o n t ' and h o w e v e r , the  new g u i d e l i n e sw e r el a r g e l yg in o r e d and b a r e y l e n f o r c e d . F m l i m a k e r sc o m p a ln ie dt h a t the r u l e sc o n f l i c t e dw i t ha u d e in c et a s t e s , and w e r et h u sf i n a n c i a ly u n d e s i r a b l e ;g v ie n the p o p u l a r i t y of g a n g s t e rf i l m s and Mae W e s tp i c t u r e s ,c o n t a n in ig c o n t e n tt h a t the C o d e w o u d l d i s a lo w ,t h e i rp o i n t is c l e a r l y valid. H o w e v e r , by 1932  p u b l i co u t c r y ,e s p e c i a l y  c o n c e r n n ig the m o r a li n f l u e n c e of m o v e is on the y o u n g and the p o o r ,b e g a n to e x e r t an 80  i n f l u e n c ea g a i n . AS e n a t ei n v e s t i g a t i o ni n t oH o y lw o o d s ' a b i l i t y to s e l f r e g u l a t e was p r o p o s e d in F e b r u a r y ,b r i n g i n gw i t h it the t h r e a t of g o v e r n m e n t a lr e g u l a t i o n of the i n d u s t r y ,w h c ih H a y s and the M P P D As o u g h t to a v o i d . In M a r c h of 1933  the n id u s t r y  f o r m a l yr e n e w e d its c o m m m t i e n t to the d i c t a t e s of the C o d e , and a l t e r e d its m e h to d of e n f o r c e m e n t by n it r o d u c n i g stiff p e n a l t i e s for n o n c o m p a i ln c e and r e f u s i n g to r e e la s e p i c t u r e si n t ot h e a t r e sc o n t r o l e d by the a s s o c a it o in w t i h o u t the new P r o d u c t o in C o d e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n s ' s e a l of a p p r o v a l . But the p a c e of r e f o r m was not s w i f te n o u g h to a v o d i f u r t h e rp r o t e s t , and in N o v e m b e r of 1933  the L e g o i n of D e c e n c y , am o s t y l C a t h o l i co lb b y n ig g r o u p , was  o r g a n z ie d to p r e s s u r e the n id u s t r y to c o n f o r m to the c e n s o r s h p i of the C o d e or r i s ka b o y c o t by t h e i rm e m b e r s h p i. The m o v e m e n t was s p u r r e d in p a r t by a n e w y l r e e la s e d s e r e is of s o c i o l o g i c a ls t u d i e s ,c o m m s is o in e d by the P a y n eF u n d ,w h c ih f o c u s e d on the i n f l u e n c e offilmd e p c it o in s of c r i m i n a l i t y and s e x u a l i t y on y o u n ga u d e in c e s and  the  p o o r , the two g r o u p sc o n s d ie r e dm o s ts u s c e p t b ie l to H o y lw o o d s ' m o r a ls w a y . The L e g o in b e g a n its b o y c o tc a m p a g in in April of 1934,  and the P r o d u c t o in C o d e  A d m i n i s t r a t i o nn ic r e a s e d its p r e s s u r e on p r o d u c e r s ,r e f u s i n g to g r a n t its s e a l of a p p r o v a l ( w t i h o u tw h c ih a film c o u d l not be s h o w n ) and r e q u i r i n gc u t s and r e w r i t e s . It was i n t o 3  t h i sc o n t e n t o iu se n v r io n m e n tt h a t The Scarlet Letter was r e e la s e d six m o n h ts a f t e r the b o y c o t t , to an a u d e in c e (the p u b l i c and the PCA)  on g u a r da g a n is t the s l i g h t e s ts u g g e s t o in  of s e x u a lt r a n s g r e s s o in . The L e g o i n of D e c e n c y , the P a y n eF u n d , and the PCA f o c u s e dt h e i re f f o r t s p r i m a r i l y on two of the m o s tp o p u a lrfilmc y c e ls of the e a r l y 1 9 3 0 s ' : the g a n g s t e rp i c t u r e and the 'fallen w o m a n ' film. W h e l i p u b l i cp r e s s u r ee v e n t u a y l f o r c e dan e a re x t i n c t i o n of 81  t h eS c a r f a c es t y l eg a n g s t e r film, t h es e xp i c t u r ec y c l ep r o v e d difficult t oh a l t ,a t l h o u g h  d e p i c t i o no ff e m a e l s i nw a sc o n s d ie r e dm o r et e m p t n ig ,a n dt h u sm o r ed a n g e r o u s ,t h a n  c r m i ea n dv i o l e n c eo fH o y lw o o dg a n g s t e r s . L e aJ a c o b sd e f n ie st h ef a le nw o m a n film d e p i c t i n g aw o m a nw h oc o m m t s i as e x u a lt r a n s g r e s s o in s u c h a sa d u t l e r yo rp r e m a r i t a ls e x . I nt r a d i t i o n a lv e r s o in s o ft h e plot, s h e is e x p e l e df r o mt h ed o m e s c t i s p a c e o ft h ef a m i l ya n du n d e r g o e s ap r o t r a c t e dd e c l i n e . A o ln eo nt h es t r e e t s ,s h eb e c o m e sa no u t c a s t ,o f t e na p r o s t i t u t e ,s u f f e r i n gv a r o iu sh u m i l a t i o n sw h c ih u s u a l y c u m l n ia t e in h e rd e a t h . I no t h e rv a r i a n t so ft h es t o r y , h o w e v e r ,t h em o v e m e n ta w a yf r o mt h ef a m i l yd o e sn o t l e a dt oad e c l i n e in c l a s s .( J a c o b sW a g e sx )  T h eP C Aa n d its s u p p o r t e r ss o o nr e a l i z e dt h a t it w a st h i sc r u c i a ld i f f e r e n c e ,t h eh a p p y  t r a g i cc o n s e q u e n c e so ft h e fall, n o tt h ef a c to f t h e fall itself, t h a tr e p r e s e n t e dt h et h r e a m o r a lo r d e ra m o n gt h ey o u n ga n dm i p r e s s o in a b e l. T h et r e n dt o w a r dr e w a r d n ig t h e  s n in n ig w o m a nw i t hu lx u r yr a t h e rt h a ns u f f e r i n gh a db e e nn o t e dw i t ha a lr mf o ry e a r s .  1 9 3 1 , Variety's y e a r b o o kf e a t u r e da na r t i c l e titled " S i n f u l Girls L e a d in 1 9 3 1 " . R e f e r r i n g  t oap o p u a lr C o n s t a n c eB e n n e tp i c t u r er e e la s e dt h a ty e a r ,t h er e v e iw e rc o m m e n e td t h a t  "The Easiest Way w a st h ee a s e is tw a yt ob . o . [ b o xo f f i c e ] s u c c e s s in 1 9 3 1 . m I p o r t a n t  l a d i e so ft h es c r e e n ,t h o s ew h o s en a m e sm e a nd r a w n ig p o w e r ,f o u n ds m a s hf i l m st h e  w a g e so fc n ie m a t c i sin. T h eG r e a tG o dP u b l i c ,f o r m e r y l c o n s d ie r e da saP u r i t a nc e n s o v o c ie d its a p p r o v a lw i t ha d m s is o in f e e st h a t fully e n d o r s e dt h eh e r o n ie so fe a s y virtue.. . P u b l i ct a s t es w t i c h e dt og a lm o r o u ss h a m e f u ll a d i e s ,c o d d e ld b yl i m o u s i n e s ,  c o lt h e d in c o u t u r i e rs m a r t n e s s "( q t d . in S h n id e lr 2 2 ) . A t l h o u g hM a eW e s t is m o s tc l o s e  a s s o c a it e dw i t ht h ee a r l y 1 9 3 0 s ' s e xp i c t u r e ,t h ee r a s ' list o fc n ie m a t c i p r o s t i t u t e sc o u d l  b o a s t all o ft h em a o jr s t a r s ,a s Variety c l a i m s ,i n c l u d i n gB e n n e t t ,J o a nC r a w f o r d (Rain), 82  G r e t aG a r b o (Susan Lenox), M a r e ln eD i e t r i c h (Dishonored, Blonde Venus, Shanghai  Express), a n dJ e a nH a r o lw (Red Dust, Red-Headed Woman). W h e l i m a n yo ft h e s ef i l m s 4  o f f e r e dp l o t st h a tc o n f o r m e dt oJ a c o b s ' f o r m u a lt o in o ft h et r a d i t i o n a lf a le nw o m a n s ' t r a j e c t o r y ,s o m e ,i n c l u d i n gW e s s t ' p i c t u r e s ,t h eB e n n e t film d s ic u s s e db y Variety, H a r l o w s ' Red-Headed Woman, a n dm o s ts c a n d a o lu s y l B a r b a r aS t a n w y c k s ' Baby Face,^ v i o l a t e dt h et r a d i t i o n a lp a t t e r nb yr e w a r d n ig t h e i rh e r o n ie sw i t hw e a t l ha n de v e nl o v e . t h e s e films, ( s e x u a l )c r m i ed o e sp a y . B e c a u s eo f its h a p p ye n d n ig , Red-Headed Woman w a ss i n g l e do u tb yM a r t i nQ u i g l e y ,a u t h o ro fD e c e n c y in M o t o in P c it u r e s( 1 9 3 7 )a n d  p r o m n ie n tL e g i o n n a i r e ,a s" a ne x p o s t io in o ft h et h e o r yt h a tt h ew a g e so fs i na r ew e a l t  l u x u r y ,a n ds o c i a lp o s i t i o n ,t h eo n y l d e s d ie r a t ab e n ig p h y s i c a lc h a r ma n dt h ew i l n g n e s s t oa c c e p tt h ep r o f f e r e dp r i c e s "( q t d . in M a t l b y" B a b y "3 1 ) . F a le nw o m a nf i l m st h a t s u b v e r t e dt h et r a d i t i o n a l fall a n dc o n s e q u e n c e st h r e a t e n e ds o c i a la n a r c h y ,a sp a r e n t s w o n d e r e dh o wt h e yc o u d l k e e pt h e i r" d a u g h t e r so nt h es t r a i g h ta n dn a r r o wp a t ht h e y h e a r dp r e a c h e d in S u n d a ys e r m o n s ,w h e nt h er e s to ft h ew e e ka tt h en e g ih b o u r h o o d  t h e a t e rt h e yc o u d l s e ef o rt h e m s e v le so v e ra n do v e ra g a n i t h a tt h ew a g e so fs i nw e r e  d e a t hb u taP a r kA v e n u ep e n t h o u s e "( D o o e ly 1 6 ) . B yt h i sp o n it e v e r y o n ea g r e e dw i t h P a y n eS t u d i e s :m o v e is ,f o rb e t t e ro rw o r s e ,i n f l u e n c e ds o c i e t y . I th a db e c o m en o ta q u e s t o in o f whether t h e yt a u g h t ,b u th o wt oc o n t r o l what t h e yt a u g h t . T h eC o d e s ' r e g u a lt o in so ns e xp c it u r e sr e f l e c t e dt h er e c o g n i t i o nt h a tt h es u b e jc t  m a t e rw a sn o td a n g e r o u s itself, a n dc o u d l a c t u a l yb em o r a y l i n s t r u c t i v e ,p r o v d ie dt h a  t h em a t e r i a lw a sh a n d e ld in a c c o r d a n c ew i t h t r a d i t i o n a ln n ie t e e n t hc e n t u r yp a t t e r n s . S o t h eC o d ed i dn o t forbid t h ed e p i c t i o no fs e x u a l sin, b u tr e g u a lt e d it t oe n s u r et h a t d e v a it o in sf r o mt h ep a t t e r n like t h a to f Red-Headed Woman w e r ec u r t a i l e d . T o 83  a c c o m p s i lh this, t h eC o d er e q u r ie dt h ei n j e c t i o no f " c o m p e n s a n t ig m o r a lv a l u e s . " J a s o n  J o y ,a ne x e c u t v ie o ft h eP C A ,e x p a ln ie dt h a tt h es t r a t e g yw i t hs e xp i c t u r e sw a s" t oe l  t h ea u d e in c ew i t ht h ed e f i n i t ec o n c u ls o in t h a tm i m o r a t i l y is n o t justifiable, t h a ts o c e it y is n o tw r o n g in d e m a n d n ig c e r t a i ns t a n d a r d so f its w o m e n ,a n dt h a tt h eg u i l t yw o m a n ,  t h r o u g hr e a l i z a t i o no fh e re r r o r ,d o e sn o tt e m p to t h e rw o m e n in t h ea u d e in c et of o l o w c o u r s e "( q t d . in J a c o b sW a g e s3 ) . A sa ly e do u t in P C As t a f f e rO g la M a r t i n s ' b o o k , H o y lw o o d s ' M o v e i C o m m a n d m e n s t, c o m p e n s a n t ig m o r a lv a u le st o o kf o u rf o r m s :t h e  first w a st h e" v o i c eo fm o r a l i t y , "r e p r e s e n t e db yag 'o o d ' c h a r a c t e r in t h ew o r d l o ft h e film, w h oc o n d e m n st h eh e r o i n e s ' s e x u a ls i n explicitly. T h i sc h a r a c t e r s ' f u n c t i o n is 6  e x p l i c i t l yd d ia c t c i— h eo rs h ee x i s t st o" m a k ea r t i c u l a t et h em o r a lp r i n c i p l e si n v o l v e d in  t h es is u ew h c ih is b e n ig d r a m a t z ie do nt h es c r e e n "( O l g aM a r t i n 99). T h es e c o n d , thi 7  a n df o u r t hv e h i c l et ob eu s e df o rc o m m u n c ia n t ig c o m p e n s a n t ig m o r a lv a u le sc u r bt h e  t r a j e c t o r yo ft h en a r r a t i v e itself a n dr e f l e c tt h er e l i a n c eo nt h et r a d i t i o n a lp a t t e r n . N u m b T w o is " S u f f e r i n g . " M a r t i ne x p a ln is t h a t w r o n g d o n ig ,w h e t h e ri n t e n t i o n a lo ru n i n t e n t i o n a l ,m u s t b es h o w nt ob r i n gs u f f e r i n gt ot h ew r o n g d o e rt oe s t a b l i s h t h ef a c tt h a t it is i n e v i t a b l yp a i n f u l ,u n p e la s a n t ,u n p r o f i t a b l e , a n dp r o d u c t v ie o fu n h a p p n ie s s . O b v o iu s y l o n ec a n n o tb r e a k t h et a b o o so fs o c e it ya n dt h em o r a la lw sw t i h o u ti n c u r r i n gt h e p e n a l t i e sa s s o c a it e dw i t hs u c hl a w b r e a k i n g . S u f f e r i n gf o rw r o n g d o n ig m a yc o m et h r u[ s i c ]m a n yw a y s , ie, s e f lc o n d e m n a t o in , c o n s c e in c e ,s o c i a lo s t r a c s im ,p h y s i c a l disability, l e g a lr e t r i b u t i o n , p e r s o n a ll o s s .. ( 1 0 0 ) T h et h i r dr e q u r ie m e n t is " R e f o r ma n dR e g e n e r a t o in " , w h i c h ,i n t e r e s t i n g l y ,c a ns u f f i c e in  as e xp i c t u r et o" c a n c e lo rp a r d o nas i no raw r o n g . R e g e n e r a t o in i m p l i e sad e s r ie o p a r to ft h ew r o n g d o e rt od ow h a t is r i g h t . N o tu n t i lt h e r e is e v d ie n c eo fr e p e n t a n c e  t h ew r o n gw h c ih h a sb e e nd o n e ,a n das n ic e r ee f f o r t is m a d et or i g h tt h ew r o n g ,c 84  w r o n gd o e rb es h o w nt ob er e l i e v e do ft h es u f f e r i n gw h c ih t h ew r o n g d o n ig h a sb r o u  u p o nh m i [ o rh e r ] "( 1 0 0 ) . R e p e n t a n c e is t h em o s ta c c e p t a b e l e n df o rt h ef a le nw o m  s n ic e it is a " m o r eo re ls sn a t u r a lr e a c t i o nw h e ns u c hc h a r a c t e r sd s ic o v e rt h a tt h e yh a  b e e ng u i l t yo fv i o l a t i n gac o d eo fm o r a s l o re t h i c s "( 1 0 1 ) ;b u t failing t h a t ,t h es t o r ym c o n c u ld ew i t ht h ef o u r t hr e q u r ie m e n t ," P u n s ih m e n ta n dR e t r i b u t i o n . " T h e s eg u d ie n i le sc o n f n ie t h et r a j e c t o r yo ft h e fall t ot h ep r e s c r b ie dn n ie t e e n t h c e n t u r yp a t t e r no f sin, s u f f e r i n g ,a n dr e t r i b u t i o n . T h e yw e r en it e n d e dt oc o ls eo u tt h e  " d e b a t ea r o u n dt h ef a le nw o m a ng e n r ea t a c h e dt ou p d a t e dv a r i a n t so ft h ep l o tw h c ih criticized o r trivialized t r a d i t i o n a li d e a l so ff e m a e l p u r i t y "( J a c o b sW a g e s 1 0 )b y  q u e s t o in n ig t h ei n e v i t a b i l i t yo rm o r a ln e c e s s t i yo fs u f f e r i n g( c a u s e db yas h i f t in v a u le s  o c c a s o in e db yt h er i s eo ft h eN e wW o m a n ) . T h er e v e r s o in t ot h eo d le rp a t t e r no ft h e w a s ap e r f e c ts o l u t i o nf o rt h eP C A ,d u et o its c o n c e r n sa b o u tt h e film's f u n c t i o na s  f o rm o r a ld i d a c t i c i s m ,s n ic e" t h et r a j e c t o r yo ft h e fall p r o v d ie dam e a n so fe x t e n d n ig t h  m o r a ls i g n i f i c a n c eo fa s t o r yb e y o n dt h ec o n f n ie so ft h ee n d n ig t ot h en a r r a t i v ea sa w h o e l" ( 1 1 5 ) . S n ic ec o n t e m p o r a r yl i t e r a r ys o u r c e st o oo f t e nr e f l e c t e dt h em o r a y l a m b g iu o u ss e x u a la t t i t u d e so ft h e 1 9 2 0 s ,t h eP C Ae n c o u r a g e dt h eu s eo fo d le rl i t e r a r y  s o u r c e s . T h en n ie t e e n t hc e n t u r yn o v e lw a sa no b v o iu sc h o c ie s n ic e it w o u d l r e f l e c tt h e C o d e a p p r o v e dp a r a d g im t h r o u g h its i n t e r n a ln a r r a t i v e logic, a n dt h u st h er e s u l t i n g film w o u d l n o tr e q u i r ee x t e n s v ie r e w r i t e so rc u t s( 9 ) . O nt h es u r f a c e ,V i g n o l a s ' film c o n f o r m st ot h er u l e so fc o m p e n s a n t ig m o r a l  v a l u e s ,a n da s ar e v e r e dn n ie t e e n t hc e n t u r yn o v e lT h eS c a r l e tL e t t e rw o u d l h a v eb e e n  f a v o r e db yt h eC o d eA d m i n i s t r a t i o n , in t h a t it n id e e ds e e m st oc o n f o r mt ot h e letter.  8  A t l h o u g hc e n s o r sh a dh a da nu n f r i e n d l yr e l a t i o n s h i pw i t hH a w t h o r n e s ' n o v e l in t h ep a s 85  ( c u l m i n a t i n g in Lillian G i s h s ' difficulty g e t t i n ga p p r o v a lf o rh e r film), t h eC o d e s ' s t r a t e g y of, a sH a w t h o r n e s ' s e x t o nw o u d l s a y ,b r i n g i n gi n i q u i t yo u ti n t ot h eo p e n ,t o s h o w its e f f e c t s ,m a k e st h i sn o v e las e e m n ig y l p e r f e c t fit f o rt h eP C A . M s it r e s s C r a c k s t o n ev o c ie ss t e r nm o r a lr e b u k et h r o u g h o u tt h efilm,w h e l i H e s t e r is c e r t a i n l ys e e n t os u f f e rf o rh e r sins, d e m o n s t r a t e sar 'e f o r m e d ' c h a r a c t e r in h e rs e r v c ie t ot h e  c o m m u n t y i, a n d is initially p u n s ih e dw i t hs o c i a lo s t r a c s im a n du l t i m a t e l yt h eo ls so fh e l o v e r . H o w e v e r ,u p o nc o ls e ri n s p e c t i o n ,t h efilm'sfidelity t ot h el e t t e ro ft h eC o d e is  b e l i e db yas u b v e r s o in o f its spirit. T h em o s to b v o iu se x a m p e l is t h e film's c o n s t r u c t o i  o ft h e" v o i c eo fm o r a l i t y " ,M s it r e s sC r a c k s t o n e . Initially s e tu pa sar e p r e s e n t a t v ie o ft h c o m m u n t y i, a n dn id e e dv o i c i n gt h ea t t i t u d e so fH a w t h o r n e s ' P u r i t a nc o l o n y ,s h e is  u n d e r c u tb yt h efilm.W h e l i H a w t h o r n ec o n s t r u c t so u rs e n s eo ft h ec o l o n y s ' u n e q u v io c a l r e v u l s i o na tH e s t e r s ' s i na n d its t o t a lr e j e c t i o no fh e r ,t h efilmm u s ta t e m p tt oa d a p t  e e lm e n tq u i c k l ya n ds i m p l y ,s oC r a c k s t o n em u s ts t a n df o r all o ft h ec o l o n i s t s . H o w e v e b e c a u s es h ea n dh e rc r o n e sa r ep r e s e n t e du n a t t r a c t i v e l y( i nc o n t r a d i c t i o nt ot h eC o d e ) , t h e y fail t o" a r o u s es y m p a h ty f o rt h er i g h tc o n d u c t "( O l g aM a r t i n9 9 ) . O u rs e n s eo f  C r a c k s t o n e is r a t h e rt h a ts h ec a r r i e sap e r s o n a lv e n d e t aa g a n is tH e s t e r ,n o tar e v u l s i o n m o t v ia t e db yh e ro w np i e t y . W h ye s le w o u d l s h e( a n d it s e e m s like o n y l s h e ,n o t  c o m m u n t y i) c o n s p r ie t os e p a r a t eac h i l df r o mam o t h e rs oo b v o iu s y l g i f t e da sH e s t e r ? F u r t h e r ,C r a c k s t o n e s ' l u s t yp u r s u t i o fB a r t h o e lm e wu n d e r c u t sh e rm o r a la u t h o r i t y ,a n d  h e r railing a g a n is tH e s t e r s ' m o t h e r n ig skills, w h e nt h efilm'sP e a r l is a na n g e l i cf i g u r ei s h a r pc o n t r a s tw i t ht h eC r a c k s t o n eb r a t s ,r e v e a s l h e r" h y p o c r i s y ,s m u g n e s s , [ a n d ]b l u e n o s e ds e v e r i t y "( 9 9 ) ,q u a l i t i e sf o r b d id e n in t h ep o r t r a y a lo ft h em o r a lv o i c e . I n s t e a d , H e s t e r f r i e n d l yB a r t h o e lm e we m e r g e sa st h et r u em o r a lv o c ie (if a h a p e ls so n e in a 86  s o c e it yw i t hw h c ih h e is o u to fs t e p ) ,c o n t r a d i c t i n gt h eg o s s p is a n dp r o f e s s n ig s y m p a h ty a n du n d e r s t a n d n ig . T h eo t h e rt h r e ev e h i c l e so c f 'o m p e n s a t n ig m o r a lv a l u e s , ' s u f f e r i n g ,r e d e m p t o in , a n dp u n s ih m e n t ,a r eh a n d e ld in t h e film a san e g o t i a t i o nb e t w e e nH a w t h o r n ea n d  H o y lw o o d . O u rs e n s eo fH e s t e r s ' o s t r a c s im a n dt h es u f f e r i n ge n g e n d e r e db yt h eb a d g e  o fs h a m ea r er e d u c e d in t h e film. A sa1 9 3 0 s ' m e o ld r a m ah e r o i n e ,H e s t e rs e e m st r u l y  s u f f e ro n y l a sar e s u l to fh e rs e p a r a t o in f r o mD m i m e s d a e l, first b yd u t ya tt h ec o t t a g e  t h e nb yd e a t ho nt h es c a f f o l d . S h eo ls e sh m i t h e r e ,b u th i sd e a t h is s e e nn o ta sa  p u n s ih m e n tf o rt h e i rs i n( d e s p t ie its s o u r c e in h i st o r m e n t )s om u c ha st h ec o n s e q u e n c e  t h em a c h n ia t o in so ft h e villain, a n dac r u e lt w i s to ff a t e in t h a tt h ed e a t hf o l o w so n h e e s l o ft h ee s c a p e plan. T h e film's d e v e o lp m e n to fH e s t e r s ' r e f o r m ,a t l h o u g hd i f f e r e n t 9  f r o mH a w t h o r n e s ', p r o d u c e st h es a m es e n s eo fa m b g iu t iy . T h en o v e ld e n i le a t e s H a w t h o r n e s ' i n t e r n a lr e s s it a n c et ot h ec o m m u n t y is ' m o r a ls t r i c t u r e s ,a n dd e m o n s t r a t e s  h o wt h el e t t e rh a sn o td o n e its office, e v e nb e f o r eh e rr e j e c t i o no f it a n dt h ec o m m t h ef o r e s ti n t e r v i e w . T h ec o m m u n t y is ' e f f o r t sa tr e c o n c i la t i o na r ear e s p o n s et oh e r  p u b l i cs e r v c ie ( a s in t h e film), n o th e ri n t e g r a t i o ni n t ot h e i rv a u le st h r o u g hr e p e n t a n c e(  t h eP C Ad e m a n d s ) . A tt h ee n do ft h en o v e l ,H e s t e rr e s u m e sh e rp u n s ih m e n tm o r e in r e c o g n i t i o nt h a t it is h e rf a t et h a nb e c a u s eo fa b e l i e f in its justice. V i g n o l a s ' H e s t e r ,  t h en iv e n t e dc o t a g ei n t e r v i e ww i t hD m i m e s d a e l, m o u h ts p l a t i t u d e sa b o u tt h en e c e s s t i yo f life-long p e n a n c e ,b u tt h i ss c e n e s ' m e o ld r a m a c t i c o n s t r u c t o in a s s o c a it e sh e rc o m m e n s t w i t ht h o s eo fa n yc n ie m a t c i l o v e rf o r c e dt od e n yh e ro w nh a p p n ie s s ,a c c o r d n ig t o H o y lw o o dc o n v e n t o in , in f a v o u ro ft h eg r e a t e rg o o d . H e rc o m p e lt er e v e r s a lo ft h i s s e n m t i e n t in t h ef o r e s ti n t e r v i e wo b l i t e r a t e st h em i p a c to fh e re a r l i e rg u i l t r i d d e ns p e e c h ; 87  V i g n o l a s ' d e c i s i o nt oe x c s ie D m i m e s d a e ls ' l a s ts p e e c ha s lo p o n it st oh i sl a c ko fi n t e r e s t in h e rr e f o r m a t o in o rc o n c e r nw i t hP C Av a u le sb e y o n dh i ss u r f a c eg e s t u r e st ot h e m . T h eC o d eb r e a k sd o w ni n t os p e c i f i cp r o h i b i t i o n sa g a n is ts p e c i f i cs u b j e c t s ,f r o m  v i o l e n tc r m i et om s ic e g e n a t o in . T h es e c t o in o na d u t l e r y is p a r t i c u l a r l ye l a b o r a t e . M a r t i n  c o m m e n s t t h a t fully 8 0 %o fs t o r i e sc e n t r e do na d u t l e r ya r er e j e c t e db yt h eP C A( s h e w r i t i n g in 1 9 3 7 )b e c a u s eo fc o n c e r n sa b o u tt h eg a lm o r z in ig o rj u s t i f y i n go ft h i ss e x u a l c r i m e . T h eC o d e lists s e v e nr e g u a lt o in sr e g a r d n ig t h ed e p i c t i o no fa d u l t e r y : I .  A d u l t e r ym u s tn e v e ra p p e a rt ob e justified.  I I . I I I .  T h es i n f u lr e l a t i o n s h i pm u s tn o tb ec o n d o n e d . N od i a l o go ra c t i o ns h o u d l i n d i c a t ea n yd s ir e s p e c to f m a r r a ig eb e y o n dt h en e c e s s a r yp o r t r a y a lo ft h e sin. I V . D v io r c es h o u d l n o tb es h o w nt ot a k ep a lc ee x c e p tf o rs o u n d r e a s o n s ,a n da sal a s tr e s o r t . V. B e d r o o ms c e n e ss h o u d l b ea v o d ie d ;a n dp h y s i c a lc o n t a c t b e t w e e nt h ep r i n c i p a l ss h o u d l b er e d u c e dt ot h ea b s o u lt e m n im i u m . VI. A d u t le r ym u s tn o tb ep r e s e n t e da sa t t r a c t i v ea n da l u r i n g — t h e r em u s tb en om o r eg a lm o u ra n du lx u r yt h a n is c o n s o n a n t w i t ht h e plot. V I I . R e g e n e r a t o in o rr e t r i b u t i o ns h o u d l b es a t i s f a c t o r yt oc o m p e n s a e t f o rt h ew r o n g .( 1 5 6 ) W h e l i m o s to ft h e s ep r o h i b i t i o n sa r es e l f e v i d e n t ,t h e first, t h a ta d u t l e r ym u s tn o tb e justified, is g v ie nap a r t i c u l a r l ye a lb o r a t ee x p a ln a t o in b yM a r t i n ,p r e s u m a b y l b e c a u s e it w a st h o u g h tt or e q u i r er e f i n i n g : A d u l t e r y ,r e p r e s e n t n ig a s it d o e s ,ag r o s sv i o l a t i o no f t h em a r r a ig ep a c t ,a w la y sr e q u r ie ss o m ee x p a ln a t o in f o r its o c c u r r e n c e . T h em o t i v e , in n o v e s l a tl e a s t ,h a s f o u n dj u s t i f i c a t i o nu n d e rn u m e r o u sp l a u s i b l eg u i s e s . T h ep r o v o c a t i o n ,a c c o r d n ig t ot m i e h o n o r e dd r a m a t c i d e v i c e s , is o r d i n a r i l ya t t r i b u t a b l et ot h er e b e li o no fa h u s b a n do raw i f ea g a n is tt h ei n d i f f e r e n c e ,t h en e g l e c t , t h ec o d ln e s s ,a n d ,e v e n ,t h ec r u e l t yo fa s p o u s e . T h e i n v a l i d i s mo ri n s a n i t yo ft h em a r r a ig ep a r t n e r in t h e m s e v le sc o n s t t iu t en o tu n u s u a , lt h o u g hs o m e w h a tm e o l-  88  d r a m a t i c ,m o t v ie sf o rt h ec o m m s is o in o fa d u l t e r y . T h e b e w t ic h e r y ,c h a r ma n db a ln d s ih m e n t so ft h et h i r dp a r t y , t o o ,a r er e c o u n t e da sp o t e n tf a c t o r s in e n c h a n t n ig t h e r e a s o no ft h ei n t r a c t a b l es p o u s e . I nas c r e e ns t o r yt h e r e is n oo b j e c t i o nt os t a r t i n go u tw i t ha n yo n eo ft h e s em a r i t a l a n dd o m e s c t i c o n d i t i o n s . B u tw h e nas t o r y ,s t a r t i n gf r o m a n yo ft h e s ep r e m s ie s ,s e e k st oj u s t i f ya d u t l e r ya sa n e x p e d e in t ,a sr e v e n g e ,o rm e r e y l a s a relief f r o mt h ec a r e s a n dr e s p o n s i b i l t i e sm i p o s e db ym a t r m i o n y ,t h e nt h es t o r y v i o l a t e st h eC o d ep r o v i s i o nr e q u i r i n gt h a ta 'd u l t e r yn e v e r b e justified.' T oa v o d i aj u s t i f i c a t i o no fa d u l t e r y ,t h ea d u l t e r o u sm a e t s h o u d l n o tb es h o w n in t o os y m p a t h e c t i a light; a n d ,c o n t r a r i w i s e ,t h en in o c e n tm a e t s h o u d l n o tb em a d et o a p p e a rt o ou n s y m p a t h e c t i ac h a r a c t e r . If a u d e in c es y m p a t h y is t o os t r o n g y l a r o u s e df o rt h et r a n s g r e s s o r ,t h es p e c t a t o r w o u d l u n c o n s c o iu s y l t e n dt oc o n d o n et h es u b s e q u e n ta d u l t e r y .( 1 5 8 )  T h eC o d ei n s i s t st h a t like t h ev o c ie o fm o r a l i t yf i g u r e( h e r e ,C r a c k s t o n e ) ,t h e 'faithful,' 'victimized' p a r t n e r( h e r e ,C h i l n g w o r t h )n o tb ep r e s e n t e du n s y m p a t h e t c ia y l, l e s tt h e  w h o e l n o t o in o fn in o c e n c ea n dg u i l to nw h c ih t h ed i d a c t i cm i p a c to ft h eC o d e s a n c t o in e s e xp i c t u r ed e p e n d sb ec o m p r o m s ie d . F u r t h e r ,t h et r a n s g r e s s v ie s p o u s em u s tn o tb e  p r e s e n t e d in s u c haw a ya st og e n e r a t es y m p a h ty s n ic et h a tw o u d l c r e a t e" a n t p ia t h yf o  t h eg o o dc h a r a c t e r sw h o s ed u t y it is t oh a l t[ h e r ]c a r e e r . E x a g g e r a t e ds y m p a h ty f o rt h e a d u t l e r o u sw i f em a k e su sh a t et h ef a i t h f u lh u s b a n d "( P C Ah e a dB r e e nq t d . in J a c o b s  W a g e s 1 1 8 ) . T ou n d e r s t a n d h o wV i g n o l a s ' film p r o b e lm a t z ie st h en o t o in o fc o u p e lh o o d n in o c e n tv i c t i m s ,a n ds e x u a l sin, w em u s t first r e t u r nt ot h en o v e la n de x a m n ie t h e c o m p r o m s ie b e t w e e n it a n dm e o ld r a m a c t i c n ie m a t c i e x p e c t a t o in s . H a w t h o r n e s ' n o v e lw a sc e r t a i n l yc r i t i c i z e da tt h et m i eo f its p u b l i c a t i o nf o r its p o r t r a y a lo fa na d u t l e r o u s relationship, b u tC a r o lB e n s c ik a r g u e st h a t it b e o ln g st oa 0 1  c y c l eo fn o v e l s ,a l u d e dt o in M a r t i n s ' r e f e r e n c et on o v e l i s t i cc o n v e n t o in a b o v e ,t h a t  p r e s e n t e dac h a e ln g et ot h en o t o in t h a tt h el e g a ly m a r r e id p a i rm u s ta w la y sb ep r e s e  89  a st h e' l e g i t i m a t e 'c o u p l e . S h ea s s e r t st h a tt h es is u eo fa d u t l e r y in H a w t h o r n e s ' n o v e l  " m a k e sas o lw t r a n s i t i o nf r o mt h es p h e r eo fm y s t e r yt ot h es p h e r eo fm a r i t a ls o c i o l o g y  n oo ln g e raf a t e f u lt r a g e d yt ob er i t u a l l ys u f f e r e d ,a d u t l e r ye m e r g e sa sap r a c t i c a lh u m p r o b e lm t h a tt h ei n d i v i d u a l si n v o l v e dh a v e ,a o ln gw i t ht h e i rs o c i e t y , ac o m m o n o b l i g a t i o nt oa d d r e s s "( B e n s c ik 1 4 6 ) . M a r r a ig e sm a d ef o rr e a s o n so t h e rt h a n love,  e s p e c i a l yb e t w e e ny o u n gw o m e na n dm u c ho d le rm e n ,a r et h eu n n a t u r a lu n o in s . T h e  w i f e s ' l o v ea f f a i r is c o m p a r a t v ie y l an a t u r a lu n o in a n da no b v o iu sc o n s e q u e n c eo fs u c h m a r r a ig e ;H a w t h o r n es e e k st oc o m m u n c ia e" t t h e inevitability, if n o tt h ep o s i t i v e justice,  in h e rp o s i t i o n "( 1 4 9 ) . T h ed e p i c t i o no fH e s t e r s ' m e e n t ig w i t hD m i m e s d a e l in t h ef o r e s an a t u r a ls e t t i n go p p o s e dt ot h es o c i a lo p p r e s s o in o ft h et o w n ,r e i n f o r c e st h er e a d e r s ' s e n s eo f their (if n o tH a w t h o r n e s ') b e l i e f in G o d s ' o rN a t u r e s ' c o n s e c r a t o in o ft h e i r p a i r i n g . C h i l n g w o r t h is d e p r v ie do fh i sp o s i t i o na sh u s b a n da n d is r e e lg a t e dt ot h e s t a t u so fi n t e r l o p e ra n db l o c k i n ga g e n t . C h i l n g w o r t hh i m s e l fv o c ie st h i ss e n m t i e n t in h i s first m e e n t ig w i t hH e s t e r ,c o n c u ld n ig t h a tt h e i rm a r r a ig ew a si lc o n c e i v e da n dt h u s b e t w e e nt h e m" t h es c a e ls h a n g fairly b a a ln c e d "( H a w t h o r n e8 9 ) .  T h e film r e p r o d u c e st h ed a io lg u eb e t w e e nC h i l n g w o r t ha n dH e s t e r in t h i ss c e n e t or e i n f o r c eH a w t h o r n e s ' p o i n t explicitly. B u tV i g n o l a s ' m e o ld r a m a c t i h a n d n i lg o ft h e  l o v et r i a n g l ep l o t is m o r ee x p l i c i t( l e s sa m b v ia e ln t )t h a nt h en o v e lw h e n it c o m e st od l e g i t i m i z i n gt h eP r y n n em a r r a ig ea n dc 'o n s e c r a t i n g 't h eH e s t e r D m i m e s d a e l u n i o n . A sI  h a v ea r le a d yd e s c r b ie da b o v e ,t h i ss c e n eh a sb e e nm o v e df r o mt h e jail t ot h ec o t t a g e h a st h e i r final i n t e r v i e w( m o v e df r o mt h er e e d s )t oe m p h a s z ie v i s u a ly C h i l i n g w o r t h s '  o b v o iu se s t r a n g e m e n tf r o mt h ed o m e s c t i s c e n e ,a n dv i o l a t i o no f its s a n c t i t y . B yc o n t r a s D m i m e s d a e l fits n a t u r a l yi n t oh e rd o m e s c t i s p a c e ,t ot h ea c c o m p a n m i e n to fs t r i n g  90  a r r a n g e m e n t s . ThefirstH e s t e r D m i m e s d a e l i n t e r v i e w in thefilml e g i t i m i z e st h e i rs t a t u s as a r o m a n t c i c o u p e l to a d e g r e et h a tH a w t h o r n en e v e rd o e s ,u s n ig c l i c h em u s c i, s i l e n t e r a p a n o tm m i e and d a io lg u et h a te s t a b s i lh e st h e i rc o n t n iu n ig i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e m s e v le s as a c o u p e l ( D m i m e s d a e l b e g s her to m a r r y him; she is f e a r f u l of s h a t t e r n i g "the l o v e[ t h e y ] b e a re a c ho t h e r " ) . H e s t e r is s o f t e n e di n t o as t r o n g but g e n t e l m o t h e rf i g u r e to s i m p l i f y the a u d e in c e s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p to her.  U n l i k e in the b o o k , in thefilmH e s t e r is  u n q u e s t o in a b y l g o o d and s y m p a t h e t c i, w h i l eC h i l n g w o r t h is her d i r e c to p p o s i t e , evil and u n s y m p a t h e t c i. He is c o n s t r u c t e dt h i s way v i s u a ly by his v i la i n o u sa p p e a r a n c e , and as Joe B r e e nf e a r e d ,a u d e in c es y m p a h ty for the h e r o n ie m a k e s us h a t e him.  The  r e c o n s t r u c t o i n of P e a r l as a p e r f e c tc h i l dr a t h e rt h a nah e li o nr e f l e c t s the s e r e n t iy and r 'i g h t n e s s ' of t h e i ru n i o n ,r a t h e rt h a n its a lw e ls s n e s s . V i g n o l ar e i n f o r c e s the child's c o n n e c t o i n to her f a t h e r and the p o t e n t i a l for i d e a lf a m i l yh a r m o n y by a s s g in n ig D m i m e s d a e l the r o l e of her s p i r i t u a li n s t r u c t o r , and g i v i n g the p a i r as c e n e in w h c ih t h e y i n t e r a c tw a r m y l ( w h e r e a s the n o v e s l ' f a t h e r and d a u g h t e r are at t u r n sh o s t i l e and f e a r f u l of e a c ho t h e ru n t i l the  end).  W h e l i V i g n o l a s ' The Scarlet Letter c o n f o r m s to s o m e of the C o d e s ' p r e s c r i p t i o n s r e g a r d n i g the p r e s e n t a t o i n of a d u t l e r y( t h e r e is no d i v o r c e , no sex d e p i c t e d , and c e r t a i n l y no g a lm o u rb e y o n dt h a t of the s t a r ) , thefilma p p r o p r a it e s and e n a lr g e s the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of a d u t le r yB e n s c ik i d e n t i f i e s in the n o v e l , as we h a v es e e n . H o w e v e r ,s t r i c t l ys p e a k n ig , it tells the s t o r y of a t r a g e d yr e s u l t i n gf r o ma d u t l e r y in w h c ih no one e n d sh a p p i l y , so it did not c h a e ln g e the P C A s ' d i d a c t i cp r o g r a m as o p e n y l as Red-Headed Woman or The Easiest Way. T h i sq u e s t o i n of the t r a g i ce n d n ig is p a r t i c u l a r l ym i p o r t a n t ; ah a p p ye n d n ig like t h a t of Blonde Venus ( P C A m i p o s e d ) ,c o n c u ld n ig w i t har e c o n c i la t i o n of the m a r i t a l 91  c o u p l e ,c a ne x i s tb e c a u s et h ec o u p e l f o r m e d is " t h el 'e g i t i m a t e ' o n e ,p u r g e do ft h et a i n a d u t le r yt h r o u g ht h en a r r a t i v el o g i co fp u n s ih m e n ta n dr e d e m p t o in "( J a c o b sW a g e s2 6 ) . V i g n o l a s ' film d o e s , in fact, e n dw i t ht h ef o r m a t o in o fa c o u p l e ,B a r t h o e lm e wa n d  C r a c k s t o n e ,r e s o l v i n gt h es u b p o lt c o m i c a l ya n dm a k n ig a c o m m e n to nt h ep o s s i b i l i t yo n a t u r a ll o v ea n dh a p p yu n o i n in t h e i rs o c i e t y . H a v n ig a c c i d e n t a l ys e e nh e r u n d e r g a r m e n t s ,B a r t h o e lm e w is c o e r c e di n t om a r r a ig ew i t ht h es h r e w s ih g o s s p i according to the law, a sr e p a r a t o in f o rh i sp r e s u m e ds e x u a lt r a n s g r e s s o in . Ap o s s b ie l  i m p l i c a t i o n is t h a tt h em s im a t c h e dc o u p e l u n t ie da c c o r d n ig t oa lw a n dn o tl o v em a yb  t h ec y c l eo fs i na g a i n ,a st h ee a r t h yB a t h o e lm e wm a ys t r a ye v e nf u r t h e rt h a nt ot h e  t a v e r n . P o t e n t i a lr a d i c a l i s m is c o n t a n ie d ,e v e nt h o u g h it is t h r o u g hal o v e l e s su n i o n ,a n d  if it c a n n o tb e ,s u c ha s in t h ec a s eo ft h ep r o t a g o n i s t s ,t h e n it m u s tb ed e s t r o y e d . H c o n s t r u c t e dt h en a t u r a ll o v eo ft h et w oa d u t le r e r sa si d e a la n d legitimate, t h e film is  c o m p e e ld t of r u s t r a t ea u d e in c ee x p e c t a t o in sf o rr o m a n t c i f u l f i lm e n t in o r d e rt o e a r n its  P C A seal. T h e film d u p e st h ea u d e in c eb ye n d n ig t h ef o r e s ti n t e r v i e ww i t ha ne m b r a s w e l i n gm u s c i, a n dt h ep r o m s ie o fa h a p p ye n d n ig b e y o n d" t h ec o n f n ie so fy o n d e r  t o w n " , a tw h c ih p o i n tt h em e o ld r a m a s ' a u d e in c ew o u d l t y p i c a ly e x p e c tac o ls e u po ft h  kiss, a n d a title a n n o u n c n ig T 'h e End.' H o w e v e r ,t h i s is 1 9 3 4a n dah a p p yr e s o l u t i o n  t h em a n n e ro ft h ep r e C o d es e xp c it u r e s is i m p o s s i b l e . O fc o u r s e , it w o u d l a s lo v i o l a t e  t h es o u r c em a t e r i a l ,b u tt h i s is n o tam a o jr c o n c e r nf o rH o y lw o o dp r o d u c e r s . V i g n o l a s '  H e s t e rc a n n o ts u b v e r tt h em o r a lo r d e ro rt h ef a le nw o m a np a t t e r nb yb e n ig r e w a r d e d w i t hh a p p n ie s s like t h ep r e C o d ec h a r a c t e r sp a ly e db yJ e a nH a r o lw o rC o n n e i B e n n e t t . S on is t e a do fh a v n ig h e rc o n q u e rt h es o c i a lo r d e ro v e r t l yl i k et h e s et r a n s g r e s s v ie p r e d e c e s s o r s ,t h e film f o l o w st h en o v e s l ' l e a db yp l a c i n gh e rm o r a y l above t h es o c i a l  92  o r d e ra n de x p o s n ig its p r e t e n s e s ,w h i l ea l o w i n g it, a n dt h eP C A ,t or e s t r i c th e ro nt h s u p e r f i c i a ll e v e lt h r o u g hp r o h i b i t i o n sa n df o r c e dr e p r e s s o in s . V i g n o l a s ' film is a s lo c l e a r l yi n f l u e n c e db yav a r i a n to ft h ef a le nw o m a n film, m a t e r n a lm e o ld r a m a ,e s p e c i a l y in its s u b v e r s o in o fc o n s e r v a t v ie v a l u e s . C h r i s t i a n Viviani c o m m e n s t t h a t" t h em a t e r n a lm e o ld r a m ap a ly s — s o m e m t i e sw i t hac e r t a i n  c u n n n ig ,o nt w o levels. I ts e e m so u t w a r d y l a t a c h e dt ot h eo l dm o r a lc o d eb ym a k n ig m o t h e rp a yf o rh e r 'sin.' B u t it i m p l i c i t l yc o n d e m n st h eo l ds y s t e mo fv a u le s "( 1 4 ) . V i g n o l ap a ly so nm a t e r n a lm e o ld r a m a c t i t e c h n q iu ee s p e c i a l y in t h es c e n e in w h c ih  H e s t e rp e la d st ob ea o lw e dt or e t a i nc u s t o d yo fP e a r l . I tf o l o w sah a p p yd o m e s c t i s  h i g h l i g h t i n gh e rn u r t u r n ig q u a l i t i e s . T h i ss o r to fs c e n ew o u d l h a v es t r u c kac h o r dw i t h t h eD e p r e s s o in a u d e in c e ,w h e nf o r e c o ls u r e sa n dd e s t i t u t i o nw e r et h r e a t e n n ig t os e p a r a t e f a m i l i e s . B y 1 9 3 4 ,t h eA m e r c ia ne c o n o m yw a ss o lw y l b e g n in n ig t or e c o v e r( h a v n ig h i t r o c kb o t o m in 1 9 3 2 ) ,b u tt h et r e m e n d o u ss o c i a le f f e c t so ft h eD e p r e s s o in w e r e still u n f o l d i n g . T h eD e p r e s s o in w a sm o r et h a naf i n a n c i a lc r i s i s — i tp r o v o k e dan a t i o n a l  s p i r i t u a la n dm o r a l crisis a s well. T h ep o p u l a r i t yo f t h ef a le nw o m a n film, a sw e l a s  g a n g s t e r film, in t h es o c i a ly c h a o t c i e a r l yD e p r e s s o in y e a r s" g v ie sac l e a ri n d i c a t i o nt h a t h e crisis in n a t i o n a l life b r o u g h to nb yt h eo n s e to ft h eD e p r e s s o in w a so v e r t u r n n ig c o n v e n t o in a la t t i t u d e s "( S h i n d l e r2 2 ) . "B y 1 9 3 4 ,t h ec u l t u r ew a sa t e m p t n ig t os t a b i l i z e itself w i t har e t u r nt ot h ec o n s e r v a t s im o ft h ep r e v o iu sg e n e r a t o in .  S o c i a lv a u le sh a db e e n in f l u xs n ic eV i c t o r i a ns t r u c t u r e sh a dc o a lp s e dw i t hW o  W a rO n e ,a n dt h ec h a n g n ig m i a g eo ft h ee a r l yfilmh e r o n ie r e f l e c t s this. A sIh a v e  s k e t c h e d in t h ep r e v o iu sc h a p t e r , in t h ed e c a d eb e f o r et h eT w e n t e is , "fiction a n d film 93  s h a r e dt h ea s s u m p o t in so ft h e[ V i c t o r i a n ]C u l to fT r u eW o m a n h o o d ,n a m e y l t h a tt h eT r u W o m a ne m b o d e id t h ev i r t u e so fp u r i t y ,p i e t y ,s u b m s is v ie n e s sa n dd o m e s t c it i ya n dt h a t  a n y fall, e s p e c i a l yt h a to c c a s o in e db yas e x u a ll a p s e ,w a sa ni r r e v o c a b l eo n e . I r o n i c a l  t h e s ew o r k sc o n ic d ie dw i t ht h ea p p e a r a n c eo ft h eN 'e wW o m a n ', a sw o m e n .. g a i n e dn f r e e d o m in m a n n e r sa n dm o r a s l" ( F i s h b e i n" H a r l o t s '" 4 0 9 ) . E v e n t u a l y ,t h es e x u a l l i b e r a t i o no ft h eT w e n t e is f o u n dac o n v e n e in tv e h i c l e in t h eF a lp p e r( o fw h c ih C o l e e n M o o r ew a st h el e a d i n ge x a m p e l, e s p e c i a l ya f t e r Flaming Youth). B u tt h ef l a p p e r s ' s e x  r e b e li o nw a sa c t u a l ya ss t u n t e da sh e rh e m n i le s . C o l e e nM o o r e s ' c h a r a c t e r in Flaming  Youth, f o re x a m p e l, " t e a s e sa n dw g ig e ls h e rr u m p ,s h ed a n c e sa n dm n ig e ls w i t hs w e ls  b u tam e r ek i s sf r o ma na d m r ie rt r i g g e r sr a g e . T h i sn i 'd e p e n d e n t ' P a t ,t h i s 'thinker,' m r e b e lr e g a r d n i g nail p o l i s ho rh e m n i le s ,b u th e rs e x u a la n dm o r a le la n n i g is v i o l e n t l y V i c t o r i a n "( R o s e n7 6 ) .  A f t e rt h e initial s h o c ko ft h eC r a s h ,s o c i a la t t i t u d e sb o o m e r a n g e dt os o m ee x t e n t , a n d" o n ee a r l yc a s u a t l yw a st h ec a r e f r e es e l f c o n f i d e n c et h a th a dc h a r a c t e r z ie dt h e  p r o s p e r o u s 1 9 2 0 s . N e v e rh a dad e c a d eb e e ns n u f e do u ts oq u i e t l ya st h e 1 9 2 0 s : it w a m l o s ta s if p e o p e l felt t h a tt h eD e p r e s s o in w a sp u n s ih m e n tf o rt h ee x c e s s e so ft h e  p r e v o iu sd e c a d e "( W a r e xi-xii). A n dc n ie m a t c i h e r o n ie sw o u d l p a yf o r it. E x p l a i n i n gt h e  H a y s Offices ' p o s i t i o no nt h eT w e n t i e s 'e f f e c t s ,O g la M a r t i nr e m a r k st h a t" t h es c r e e n in r e c e n ty e a r sh a sb e e nr e f l e c t i n gt h em ' o r a l s 'o fa d e c a d e n tp e r i o d .O b v i o u s l y ,t h e  u n s a n c o t in e dc u s o tm so ft h i sp e r o id w e r en o tt h ec u s o tm so fa s t a b e l s o c i e t y ,a n d ,h e n  d i dn o tr e p r e s e n ta na u t h o r i t a t i v ec o d eo fm o r a s l" ( 7 3 ) . T of u r t h e rs u p p o r th e ra n a l y s i s ,  s h ea s lo q u o t e sa na r t i c l e in The New York Times w h c ih a s s e r t st h a t" t h es c r e e np u ln g  f r o mt h eu n b r d ie ld f e r o c i t ya n de