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Need fulfillment in work and non-work as related to mental health 1976

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NEED FtJI^niJVENT IN WORK AND NON-WORK AS RELATED TO MENTAL HEALTH by MUHAMMAD JAMAL B . A . (University of the Punjab) 1965 M . A . (University of the Punjab) 1967 M . A . (University of B r i t i s h Columbia) 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n the Faculty of Carmnerce and Business Administration We accept this thesis conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1976 (c) Muhammad Jamal* ̂ 976 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 dedicated to Arreni and Abbu (whose prayers made t h i s possible) Abstract A theoretical model was developed in order to predict an jj^dividual 1s level of mental health on the basis of factors in his work and non-̂ work environments. The model predicted that the individual's level of mental health is related to the degree of his psychological need fulfillment both in work and non^work environments. It was argued that the nature of the relationship between need fulfillment in work and need fulfillment in non-work in an individual's l i f e determines his level of mental health. Four types of relationships between the two need, areas were pro- posed: (1) High need fulfillment in work might be coupled with high need fulfillment in non-work. This type of relationship was called a complementary relationship. (2) High need fulfillment in work might be coupled with low need fulfillment in non-work. This type of relationship was called an expressive relationship. (3) Low need fulfillment in work might be coupled with a high need fulfillment in non-work. This type of relationship was called a compensatory relationship. (4) Low need f u l - fillment in work might be coupled with low need fulfillment in non-work. This type of relationship was called a spill-over relationship. It was hypothesized that the level of mental health will be high when there is a complementary relationship between need fulfillment in the two areas; moderately high when there i s an expressive relationship; moderate when there is a compensatory relationship; and low when there i s a spill-over relationship.• The model also predicted that various technological, organizational and management factors are related to need fulfillment i n work. Five hypotheses (hypotheses 5 to 9) were formulated showing the relationships between technological, organizational and management factors, and need fulfillment. . Data on individual variables were collected through a structured questionnaire -from 403 employees (response rate 45 percent), working i n six industrial organizations i n Western Canada. Data on organizational variables were obtained tlurough personal interviews with at least one senior manager in each of the six participating companies. Hypotheses were tested using one-way-analysis of variance and Spearman rank order correlations. The results on need fulfillment as predictors of mental health showed that the mean scores on mental health were highest for the cxxmplementary relationship; second for the expressive relationship; t h i r d for the compensatory relationship; and lowest for the spill-over relation- ship. Differences between means across the four types of relationships were significant (P>.01) according to the t-test and the Duncan Sign Test. The p a r t i a l correlation (r=.48) between need fulfillment i n work and mental health, controlling for need fulfillment i n non-work, was far greater than the pa r t i a l correlation (r=.20) between need fulfillment i n non-work and mental health, controlling for need fulfillment i n work. - i i i - The results on need fulfillment in work as a dependent variable showed that (1) Both task specialization and technical constraints i n task performance were inversely related to need fulfillment. (2) Need fulfillment was slightly higher under a democratic supervisor than under an authoritarian supervisor. (3) Need fulfillment was slightly higher i n fl a t organization structures than in t a l l organization structures. (4) Need fulfillment was higher in small organizations and sub-units than in large organizations and sub-units for the blue-collar workers but not for the white-collar workers. I t was concluded that i t i s important that future research must include both work and non-work environment factors i n predicting employees* mental health and that serious attention must also be paid to technological variables along with organizational, management and psycho- logical variables in urxierstending employees' job attitudes. i v - Table of Contents Page Abstract i Table of Contents i v L i s t of Tables v i i Acknowledgements v i i i Chapter I : INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Relationship between Work and Non-Work 2 1.2 The Concept of Mental Health 8 1.3 Research on Mental Health 18 1.4 Theoretical Model 21 1.4.1 Need F u l f i l l m e n t and Mental Health 22 1.4.2 Need F u l f i l l m e n t i n Work as Dependent Variable 31 1.4.2 (A) Technological Factors and Need F u l f i l l m e n t 32 1.4.2 (B) Organizational Factors and Need F u l f i l l m e n t 35 1.4.2 (C) Management Factors and Need F u l f i l l m e n t 39 1.5 Research Hypotheses 43 Chapter I I : METHODS AND PROCEDURES 45 2.1 Setting and Subjects 45 2.2 Data C o l l e c t i o n 45 2.3 The Measuring Devices 47 2.3.1 Mental Health 47 - v - 2.3.2 yNeed Fulfillment 57 2.3.3 Technological Variables 60 2.3.4 Supervisory Style 62 2.3.5 Organization Structure 63 2.3.6 Size 64 2.4 Decisions about Analysis 65 2.5 Reliability and Validity of the Measures 66 2.6 Description of the Statistical Procedures 74 Chapter III: RESULTS 76 3.1 Need Fulfillment and Mental Health 76 3.2 Technological Variables, Leadership Style and Need Fulfillment in Work 79 3.3 Organizational Variables and Need Fulfillment in Work 85 Chapter TV: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 91 4.1 Validity of Mental Health Measures 91 4.2 Mental Health Predicted through Need Fulfillment 93 4.3 Need Fulfillment in Work Predicted through Technological Variables and Supervisory Style 97 4.4 Need Fulfillment in Work Predicted through Organizational Variables 100 4.5 Conclusions and Implications - 1 0 2 - v i - REFERENCES APPENDIX A Quality of L i f e Questionnaire APPENDIX B Validation of the Mental Health Measures - v i i - LIST OF TABLES Page 1. Distribution of the sample on demographic and background variables 48 2. Interrelations among component and composite indexes of mental health 67 3. Internal consistency r e l i a b i l i t y estimates of the major independent and dependent variables 68 4. Agreement among cl i n i c i a n s ' estimates of mental health based on the questionnaire records 73- 5. Relationship between c l i n i c i a n s 1 estimates of mental health based on the questionnaire records and the index of mental health 73 6. Types of relationship" between need fulfillment i n work and non-work and the quality of mental health according to Kornhauser's measures (median) 78 7. Types of relationship between need fulfillment i n work and non-work and the quality of mental health according to Kornhauser's measures (mean) 80 8. Spearman rank order correlations of task specialization, technical constraint and leadership style with need fulfillment i n work 82 9. Relationship between need fulfillment i n work and the measures of task specialization and technical constraint 84 10. Relationship between need fulfillment i n work and four organizational variables 86 11. Relationship between need fulfillment i n work and four organizational variables for the blue-collar sample 89 12. Relationship between need fulfillment i n work and four organizational variables for the white-collar sample 90 - v i i i - Acknowledgement This research would not have been completed without the help of several individuals whom I would like to acknowledge and thank. Professor Vance F. Mitchell, my research advisor and the chairman of my Ph.D. Committee, supervised this study from its i n i t i a l planning stages to its completion. His keen interest in the research topic and his insightful guidance at the various stages of this research made things easier for me. Dr. Thad Barnowe assisted me greatly in the collection of data, and offered constructive criticisms of an early draft of this report. I am also indebted to Peter J. Frost, Larry F. Moore and John O'Connor for their help and advice in the completion of this report. Several people in the past served as members of my Ph.D. Committee: Merle E. Ace (Commerce, U.B.C.); George A. Miller (Utah State University); Martin Meissner (Sociology, U.B.C.) and Thomas C. Taveggia (Illinois Institute of Technology) . I would like to thank them for their share in the completion of my program. This research was sponsored by the Institute of Industrial Relations, University of British Columbia. I am thankful to the Institute and to i t s Director, Mark Thompson, for making funds available for this study. My friend, Khurshid Hassan, helped me greatly i n editing this report. If readers find this report easily readable, i t is Khurshid who is responsible for that. - i x - My wife, Saleha, has been a great help throughout the time I was involved i n this research. She always pretended that my study schedules (which normally extended over the weekends) did not disturb the climate of our home. I am thankful to her for her love, patience and under- standing. Last, but not least, I would l i k e to thank the management and the employees of the participating companies without whose cooperation there would have been no project at a l l . CHAPTER I: Introduction One area of concern which has not been well researched in organi- zational behavior i s the relationship between work and non-work activities. Questions such as to what extent, i f any, do the activities which individuals do in their jobs affect their activities in off-job situations have remained virtually unanswered by scholars in organi- zational behavior. The chief reason for this neglect may be that invest- igators in organizational behavior so far have been preoccupied with research on job satisfaction, motivation and leadership. It has been estimated that over five thousand research articles have been published on job satisfaction alone since the Brayfield and Crockett review in 1 9 5 5 . Until very recently, research in the area of work and non-work was left to industrial sociologists whose major focus was the relationship between structural variables in the work environment (such as shift-time, physical isolation at the job, and technical constraints in job perform- ance) and various kinds of off-job activities. In off-job activities their emphasis was limited to such variables as participation in volun- tary organizations, time budget of individuals' off-job activities and the like. Industrial sociologists did not consider i t fruitful to examine the impact of workers' subjective feelings in job activities on their subjective feelings in off-job activities. For this reason, i t was felt that there is a need for research in this area. The following research study attempted to examine the relationship between a worker's psychological need fulfillment in job and off-job activities. Specif- i c a l l y , the research question addressed was as follows: Is need f u l - fillment i n work related to need fulfillment i n non-work, and i s this, i n turn, related to an individual's mental health? 1.1 Relationship between Work and Non-Work Industrial sociologists have long agreed that i n any society the l i f e space of the adult members (especially those who are engaged i n gainful economic pursuits) may be divided into two kinds of l i f e roles; work role and non-work role. By work role, they mean the role which an individual plays as an occupant of a paid job and the a c t i v i t i e s which he undertakes during the hours when he i s engaged i n paid-work. The term non-work role refers to the role which an individual plays outside his job and which could include the a c t i v i t i e s he undertakes i n his home, with his friends, neighbors and the l i k e . Speculation and theorizing concerning the inter-play between work role a c t i v i t i e s and non-work role a c t i v i t i e s have been put forth by writers from Adam Smith and Engels to C.W. M i l l s and from de Tocqueville to Reisman (Meissner, 1971). But the credit must go to Wilensky (1960) for empirically demonstrating two alternative propositions concerning the relationship between work and non-^ork — compensatory and s p i l l - over. The compensatory proposition of work and non-work suggests that workers attempt to compensate i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s for things they can- not achieve at work. In contrast, the spill-over proposition suggests that things which are not achievable at work are also not achievable i n - 3 - non-work a c t i v i t i e s . These propositions, and others related to them, have been used as theoretical guidelines i n several empirical studies concerning the relationship between work and non-work. I t may, therefore, be useful to review the literature on work and non-work from the perspective of the two propositions. A review of the literature on work and non-work suggests three main streams of research. The f i r s t stream, dominated chiefly by industrial sociologists, focuses on the issue of how specific job related factors affect the off-job behavior of workers (Wilensky, 1960; Mott, Mann, McLoughlin and Warwick, 1965; Hagedorn and Labovitz, 1968; Meissner, 1971; Dulz, 1973). A brief examination of this literature i s presented © below. Wilensky (1960) attempted to test the relationship between work and non-work using a sample from the Detroit middle class. The aim of his study was "... to link specific attributes of work situation and career to styles of l i f e and more broadly to variations i n the strength and kinds of ti e s that bind persons and groups to community and society." He observed a spill-over relationship operating between work and non- work i n his sample and concluded that, "To the extent that men are exposed to disciplined work routines yielding l i t t l e gratification and have careers which do not necessitate wide camiunity participation, their retreat from work w i l l be accompanied by a withdrawal from the - 4 - larger canmunal l i f e . " Both Bast (1960) and Mott et a l ^ (1965) observed that workers working on morning shifts were more active i n participating i n volun- tary organizations than workers who were on other s h i f t s . If i t can be assumed that working on a day s h i f t i s a socially accepted norm for the majority of the' people, then the findings of East and Mott et a l . may be interpreted as supporting a spill-over relationship. Hagedorn and Labovitz (1968) observed that the more isolated the individual was on his job the more he would join and participate i n ccmnunity associations. However, i f the individual considered formal and informal contact to be unimportant, he was less l i k e l y to participate i n such a c t i v i t i e s . This latte r finding tends to support a spill-over relationship while the former suggests a compensatory relationship. Meissner (1971) observed that both technical constraints and social isolation at jobs were negatively related to workers' participation i n voluntary organizations. He concluded on the basis of these findings that "The extent to which a man i s used, as a resource i n the organ- ization of work, i s a burden — l i g h t or heavy not easily dropped at the m i l l gate." In a recent study, Dulz (1973) observed a positive but weak relationship between the extent of social interaction at jobs and p a r t i - cipation i n voluntary organizations. Her sample consisted of automobile workers from four nations: USA, Italy, Argentina and India. Again, both the Meissner and Dulz's studies tend to support the existence of a - 5 - spill-over relationship between work and non-work. In summary, the empirical studies i n the f i r s t stream of research on work and non-work clearly support a spill-over relationship between work related factors and the off-job behavior of industrial workers. Workers who were deprived of certain things i n work were unable to compensate for them i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s . The second stream of research i n work and non-work, dominated chiefly by social psychologists, focuses on the interrelationships between job attitudes and overall l i f e satisfaction (Wesley, 1939; Watson, 1942; Weitz, 1952; Friesen, 1952; Brayfield and Wells, 1957; Holmes, 1963; Kornhauser, 1965; Hulin, 1969; I r i s and Barrett, 1972) . A brief review of this literature follows. The e a r l i e s t reported study dealing with the relationship between job satisfaction and l i f e satisfaction i s one by Wesley (1939) wherein the relationship between job satisfaction and general morale of former University of Minnesota students was examined. In two separate invest- igations he found significant positive relationships between attitudes towards one's job and attitudes towards one's l i f e i n general. Simi- l a r l y , Watson (1947) observed a correlation'of .25 between occupational morale and a l i f e satisfaction index with 538 unemployed males. Friesen (1952); using the incomplete sentence technique with a sample of female workers, compared attitudes towards l i f e at work with attitudes towards l i f e away from work and found a small positive correlation - 6 - between the two. Weitz (1952) also found a positive correlation of .39 between job dissatisfaction and l i f e dissatisfaction among a sample of insurance agents. Brayfield and Wells (1957) observed a significant positive relationship between job satisfaction and general l i f e satisfaction among males but no significant relationship was found with females. Kornhauser (1965), i n a sample of Detroit automobile workers, found a positive relationship between job satisfaction and l i f e satisfaction. He also found job satisfaction to be positively related to family and home satisfaction, leisure satisfaction and community satisfaction. Hulin (1969), using a sample of 469 workers i n two company towns, found that the five dimensions of JDI as well as the variables of management response to complaints and working conditions showed sig n i - ficant positive relationships with general l i f e satisfaction i n the male sample only. With females, only one dimension of JDI (co-workers) was found to be positively related to general l i f e satisfaction. I r i s and Barrett (1972) also observed several positive relationships between satisfaction with JDI factors and l i f e satisfaction i n their sample of f i r s t l i n e supervisors. In their study, importance of work, supervision and promotion were also found to be related to l i f e satisfaction. In summary, the results of studies f a l l i n g into the second stream of research on work and non-work are consistent with the interpretation that favourable or unfavourable feelings at work carry over to produce similar feelings i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s . In general, i t has been found that attitudes towards one's job are positively related to attitudes towards one's l i f e . The third and the f i n a l stream of research i n work and non-work focuses on the relative importance of need fulfillment i n areas such as work, home and family, leisure and others. One of the earliest studies which attempted to measure need satisfaction i n work and non-work i s the study by Papanestor (1959). He observed a positive relationship between need fulfillment i n work and need fulfillment i n non-wrk a c t i v i t i e s i n a sample of evening class students at the University of Cincinnati. Burke (1973) used a sample of managers to examine need satisfaction i n five l i f e areas: work, family, friends, leisure, and organizational a c t i v i t i e s . He found that managers who spent more time i n a work role tended to spend less time i n the four other non-work roles. In a sample of business managers and c i v i l servants, Anderson (1974) examined need fulfillment i n three l i f e areas: job, family and home, and other a c t i v i t i e s . Although his results are mixed, he reported the existence of a compensatory relationship i n the lower needs level (physiological) i n work and non-work. In upper level needs (social, esteem and s e l f - actualization) i t appears that a spill-over relationship i s i n operation. Mansfield (1972) collected data on need satisfaction and importance from 58 managers who were, participating i n a week-long course i n the 'Behavioral Sciences at Work' offered by the London Business School. Using Maslow's need hierarchy, he found no differences i n need s a t i s - faction i n work and non-̂ work i n four of the five need areas. The one - 8 - area where a significant difference was" noted was social needs for which a greater dissatisfaction was experienced i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s . However, i t was found that respondents placed greater importance on need satisfaction i n work than non-work i n the need areas of self-actual- ization, autonomy and security. In summary, empirical evidence examining the relative importance of need fulfillment i n different l i f e areas appears to suggest the existence of a spill-over relationship; there seems to be a tendency for higher need fulfillment i n work to be related to higher need fulfillment i n non- work. In conclusion, a l l three streams of research i n the area of work and non-work tend to support the spill-over relationship. However, two studies (Mansfield, 1972; and Anderson, 1974) dealing with need s a t i s - faction i n work and non-work did not clearly support the above conclusion although their data did suggest a spill-over relationship. In not a single study was a compensatory relationship f u l l y documented between work and non-work a c t i v i t i e s . 1.2 The Concept of Mental Health Although the concept of mental health has been subjected to empirical research by sociologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, occupational therapists and many others, there i s , as yet, l i t t l e consensus as to i t s meaning. Not only i s i t d i f f i c u l t to agree on the - 9 - general application of the term mental health, but i n a single context i t may be used i n many different ways. Yet one conclusion can be reached about mental health as a concept: "It i s not a precise term but an in t u i t i v e l y apprehended idea that i s striving for s c i e n t i f i c status" (Schwartz and Schwartz, 1968). Investigators have defined mental health i n different ways. As early as 1937, Menninger defined mental health as "The adjustment of human beings to the world and to each other with a maximum of effect- iveness and happiness." He saw i t as the a b i l i t y to maintain an even temper, an alert intelligence, socially considerate behavior and a happy disposition. Tollman (1944) conceived good mental health as the a b i l i t y to l i v e with one's fellow men i n reasonable comfort without s e l f - deception and despite recognized shortcoiuings. Sullivan (1954) ident- i f i e s a person's drive towards mental health as those "Processes which tend to improve his efficiency as a human being, his satisfaction, and his success i n l i v i n g . " To Franm (1955), "The mentally healthy person i s the productive and unalienated person; the person who relates himself to the world lovingly, and who uses his reason to grasp r e a l i t y object- ively, who experiences himself as a unique individual entity and at the same time feels one with his fellow man..." Solley and Munden (1962) attempted to operationally define mental health by interviewing fourteen psychiatrists and psychologists who were associated with the Menninger foundation. Their results indicated that people who are considered to be mentally healthy exhibited the following attributes: (1) having a - 10 - variety of sources of gratification i n their relations with others, i n their work and i n their ideas; (2) recognizing and accepting their personal strengths and weaknesses; (3) treating others as individuals and being sensitive to individual differences among people; (4) spon- taneously and naturally using their capacities to f u l f i l l personal needs and i n the service of others; (5) f l e x i b i l i t y under stress. In a similar vein, Himler (1964) suggested three indicators of poor mental health: (1) "Change i n employees' productivity; (2) alterations i n employees' adaptive capacity to co-operate with others i n a work group; (3) mani- fest evidences of emotional i l l health, for example, anxiety, agression, depression or alcoholism." This brief review of the concept of mental health gives a good indication of the multiplicity of measures used i n assessing the term. An excellent comprehensive attempt was made by Jahoda (1958) to summa- rize the multiplicity of c r i t e r i a used i n defining mental health. She labelled certain c r i t e r i a of mental health as unsuitable because they were unsatisfactory for research purposes. "Absence of disease" i s rejected as a criterion, not only because of the d i f f i c u l t y surrounding the term 'disease' but also because the common usage of the term "mental health" now includes more than the mere absence of a negative value. Jahoda summarized what to her are acceptable sets of positive mental health. These include: (1) attitudes toward the sel f , which include accessibility of the self to consciousness, correctness of the self concept, feelings about the self concept (self-acceptance) and a sense - 11 - of identity; (2) growth development and self-actualization, which includes conceptions of self motivational processes, and investment i n living; (3) integration, which refers to the balance of psychic forces i n the individual, a unifying outlook on l i f e , and resistance to stress; (4) autonomy, which refers to the decision making process, regulation from within and independent action; (5) undistorted perception of r e a l - i t y , including empathy or social sensitivity; (6) environmental mastery, including the a b i l i t y to love, adequacy i n interpersonal relations, efficiency i n meeting situation requirements, capacity for adaptation and adjustment, efficiency i n problem solving and adequacy i n love, work and play. Although Jahoda's work represents one of the finest summaries of the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n defining mental health, i t does have numerous problems, many of which are recognized and discussed by her. The primary problem i s that the c r i t e r i a are overlapping and no resul- tant attempt has been made to spell out the relationship between c r i t e r i a — e.g. the degree to which the c r i t e r i a are independent. Secondly, she does not offer a method or methods for identifying satisfactory indexes of the c r i t e r i a . This makes i t impossible to measure the degree of a particular criterion or even to discover i t s presence or absence. Thirdly, no attempt i s made to empirically test the c r i t e r i a which she perceives to be acceptable ones for the concept of mental health. In a similar fashion, Scott (1958) analyzed the c r i t e r i a used i n various studies for assessing mental health. He discussed i n d e t a i l the - 12 - relative advantages and disadvantages of the following six c r i t e r i a : (1) exposure to psychiatric treatment; (2) social adjustment; (3) psy- chiatric diagnosis (of the whole carmunity); (4) subjective unhappiness; (5) objective psychological symptoms and (6) failure of positive adaptation. Like Jahoda, he does not present any data of his own to confirm or reject the relative superiority of some c r i t e r i a over others nor does he offer any method or methods for identifying satisfactory indexes of these c r i t e r i a . However, Scott does present summary findings discussing the interrelationships he noted between various c r i t e r i a used i n studies which employed more than two c r i t e r i a . He concluded that, "The different categories of c r i t e r i a have tended to y i e l d moderate, but not impressive interrelations." An excellent attempt was made by Kornhauser (1965) i n the mid- sixties to conceptualize the concept of mental health and.to arrive at an operational definition of mental health with the help of empirical data. Kornhauser was also interested i n validating his definition of mental health with expert opinion. He conceptualized mental health as "A loose descriptive designation for an overall level of success, personal satisfaction, effectiveness, and excellence of the individual's functioning as a person. I t refers to a combination of psychological and behavioral attributes some of which the person must possess above a required nunimum and others of which signify better mental health the more they are present." Like Jahoda and Scott, Kornhauser (1965) conceived mental health as a multidimensional concept. On an a p r i o r i - 13 - basis, he set forth to extract statements from the literature which would specify the conditions and behaviors which were considered to be indicative of good or poor mental health (e.g. high self-esteem or s e l f - derogation, degree of freedom from anxiety, general trust or distrust of people). He then proceeded to coll e c t information on the selected state- ments from a sample of 407 automobile workers in Detroit by means of personal interview. The purpose of the interview was to secure inform- ation about the respondent's usual feelings, attitudes, and behavior which he f e l t would indicate how the worker was "getting along psycho- logically." On the average, each interview lasted three and a half to four hours and was divided into two equal sessions. From the interview responses obtained, on the basis of face va l i d i t y , six component indexes were combined from the large number of items i n order to provide a general measure of mental health. Each index was considered to be a p a r t i a l indicator of mental health. Taken together the six indexes comprised the operational definition of mental health i n the Kornhauser (1965) study. Each index i n turn was defined by the content of items on which i t was based. The six component indexes were as follows: (1) Index of manifest anxiety and emotional tension. (2) Index of self-esteem, favourable versus negative feelings. (3) Index of h o s t i l i t y - versus trust i n and acceptance of people. (4) Index of sociability and friendship versus withdrawal. (5) Index of overall satisfaction with l i f e . - 14 - (6) Index of personal morale - versus anomie, social alienation, despair. Kornhauser found high internal consistency r e l i a b i l i t i e s for the above indexes. However, he did find positive correlations between various items i n different indexes as well as those between items i n the same index. Agreement between an item of the same index was found to be greater than for a sample of items taken at random from different indexes. He found a median inter-item tetrachoric correlation of .35 for items within the indexes as compared to a median tetrachoric correlation of .17 between items across indexes. Kornhauser validated his six indexes of mental health against the judgment of several highly qualified c l i n i c a l psychologists. He selected forty respondents from his entire sample of 407 for this purpose. For each respondent, c l i n i c a l experts were asked to read through the entire case folder (a forty-four page interview schedule, two check response inventories, and a six page interview with the res- pondent's wife) and to record on a five point scale, an overall estimate of "How good or satisfactory you consider the mental health of the i n d i - vidual rated." Each case was rated by three different experts. Inter- rater agreement was found to be reasonably high: the median inter-rater agreement was observed to be .52 (tau). When the composite ratings by clinicians were correlated with the overall index of mental health (derived by combining the scores on six sub-indexes of mental health), a very high correlation was found between the two. The Pearson correlation -15 - was .76 and the tetrachoric correlation".84. Only 1 out of 14 persons who were high on the index received a rating below the average; 14 out of 17 persons having low scores received such a rating. These findings suggested that the meaning of mental health as measured by quantitative indexes closely corresponded to what the clinicians also conceived to be good or poor mental health. Additional support for the v a l i d i t y of mental health measures was received by comparing scores obtained on the indexes with testimony given by the wives of the respondents. The wife's estimate was based on her own observations of her spouse over long periods of time and over a wide variety of l i f e situations. Two questions i n the interviews with the wives were compared with the husband's responses: (1) her opinion regarding her spouse's overall satisfaction with l i f e ; (2) her opinion about whether or not he i s "ever nervous or i r r i t a b l e . " Wives' responses to both questions were found to correlate well with the husband's own reports. For example, ratings of the man's l i f e satisfaction by himself and by his wife had a correlation of .79 for the younger workers and .51 for the middle-aged workers. Similarly, estimates of "nervousness" correlated .48 and .66 for younger and older workers respectively. When the wives' estimates are compared with the more general indexes of their husbands' mental health, the relationships s t i l l tend to be strongly positive. For example, the correlation between a wife's estimate of her husband's l i f e satisfaction and the husband's mental health score was found to be .50 for younger workers and .53 for middle-aged workers. - 16 - The correlation between the wife's estimate of her husband's nervousness and the husband's mental health was found to be .26 for younger workers and .44 for middle-aged workers. Similarly, the wife's estimate of her husband's nervousness and the husband's "anxiety" scores were found to be correlated significantly for both younger workers (r=.65) and middle- aged workers (r=.66). After documenting the r e l i a b i l i t i e s and v a l i d i t i e s of measures of mental health, Kornhauser correlated the scores on the overall index of mental health with the six sub-indexes of mental health and arrived at the following empirical definition of mental health: "Good mental health means that the persons so labelled have high probability of feeling well satisfied with their l i v e s , definitely positive and favour- able i n their self feelings, relatively free of nervousness and anxiety. With probabilities slightly lower, they also tend to have high morale (trust i n people and society, freedom from "anomie" or social alien- ation) and l i t t l e manifestation of strong h o s t i l i t y . They are likewise somewhat less socially withdrawn. Mental health that i s "not good" or "low" implies the opposite of these characteristics." As already indicated, the meanings of the six sub-indexes were defined by the specific responses on which they were based. Inspection of the response figures under each index led to the following summary characteristics which distinguish a man having high mental health. Anxiety: Those i n good mental health tend to be free of excessive worry, reports of nervousness, insomnia, psychosomatic ailments, heavy - 17 - drinking and concern about health. Self-Esteem: They are free from excessive discouragement and lack of confidence i n their own judgment; they have positive feelings of accom- plishment and control of their future; they are infrequently over- sensitive or given to self blame. Hostility: People do not antagonize them ("get on your nerves so that you want to do the opposite...," "often have to t e l l the people to mind their own business"); they less frequently report "boiling inside," feeling " l i k e smashing things for no good reason;" they less often volunteer bad qualities as the "things you have learned about the people." Sociability (versus withdrawal): Persons of high mental health reject the view that one does not know whom he can count on; they do not prefer being by themselves; they consider i t important to have friends and are more l i k e l y to have good friends, to belong to voluntary organizations and to see friends more often. L i f e Satisfaction: Mental health i s associated with fewer feelings of restlessness /"wanting to be doing something but not knowing what"); with predominantly favourable comments covering their l i f e situation, self ratings of being well satisfied, i n good s p i r i t s , optimistic about their own futures with belief that they have "as much chance to enjoy l i f e as (they) should have." Personal Morale: Those i n good mental health believe that most people can be trusted and that people are not "out for themselves" alone; they are relatively free from generalized pessimism and despair represented - 18 - by such thoughts as "the l o t of the average man i s getting worse," " i t i s hardly f a i r to bring children into the world," "getting ahead i s mostly a matter of luck and p u l l " and that"a person has to l i v e pretty much for today and l e t tomorrow take care of i t s e l f . " In summary, the literature on mental health suggests that the concept has different meanings to different writers. However, no other writer has attempted to spell out the meaning of this concept as clearly as Kornhauser. Since i t was beyond the scope of the present research to develop i t s own measures of mental health, the Kornhauser formulation was adopted i n the present research study. This decision was based on two considerations. F i r s t , the r e l i a b i l i t i e s and v a l i d i t i e s of Kornhauser's measures have been well documented and are high enough, according to the criteri o n set by Nunnally (1967), to ju s t i f y their use i n further research. Secondly, to the best of our knowledge, no study has been reported i n the literature which attempts to retest the relative r e l i a b i l i t i e s and v a l i d i t i e s of Kornhauser's measures. By using the Kornhauser measures, i t was hoped that seme meaningful l i g h t might be shed on this issue. 1.3 Research on Mental Health Mental health as a dependent variable has been the subject of empirical research for a long time. Since no universal definition of mental health existed, a large number of overlapping and interrelated variables were conceived by different investigators to be measures of - 19 - mental health. Notwithstanding these differences, some social and work environment factors have been suggested to be related to mental health. I t has been consistently observed i n a large number of studies that people i n lower classes tend to be mentally i l l more frequently than people i n higher classes. A brief review of the studies on social class and mental health and i l l n e s s follows. The largest body of evidence suggesting relationship between socio-economic status (social class) and mental health comes from a number of studies dealing with the social aspects of mental i l l n e s s . One of the e a r l i e s t studies on this topic was by Faris and Dunham (1939), who found, among other things, a negative association between the socio- economic characteristics of Chicago's census tracts and the f i r s t admission rates of schizophrenia. Both Clark (1948) and Odegard (1956) confirmed the above ecological finding by observing an inverse assoc- iation between occupation or income and admission rates for psychoses, especially schizophrenia. Hollingshead and Redlich (1958), i n their sutdy of social class and mental i l l n e s s i n New Haven, observed that the lower classes have much greater incidence of psychiatric i l l n e s s , and particularly the psychotic disorders. Other evidence collected by Hollingshead and Redlich indicated that diagnosis and treatment favour the higher social classes, the consequence being that members of the lower social classes tend to be diagnosed more readily as psychotics, to receive less individually oriented treatment, and to remain i n custodial care for much longer periods of time. The results of the mid-town - 20 - Manhattan study (Srole, Langer, Michael, Opler and Rennie, 1962; Langer and Michael, 1963), based on a large probability sample of adults, are especially informative i n that a consistent inverse relationship was observed between socio-economic status and poor mental health and a direct relationship between status and absence of significant symptoms of mental pathology. Of. a l l the variables tested, socio-economic status was the one most clearly related to mental health. Moreover, this relationship held whether parental socio-economic status or the person's own socio-economic status was taken as the status measure. The relationship also held when age and sex factors were controlled. Although the impact of social class on mental health has been very well documented, l i t t l e systematic research has been undertaken to examine the impact of work environment factors on an individual's mental health. The scanty empirical evidence which i s available tends to suggest a relationship between job satisfaction.and mental health. Kahn and his associates' (Kahn, Wolf, Quinn, Snoek and Rosenthal, 1964) research suggested a positive relationship between job satisfaction and mental health. Three recent studies by Quinn (1972), Burke (1973) and Gechman and Wiener (1975) also investigated the relationship between job satisfaction and mental health. Both the Quinn (1972) and the Gechman and Wiener (1975) studies reported a moderate positive relationship between job satisfaction and mental health but Burke's study (1973) fa i l e d to find any relationship between need fulfillment i n job and psychological well-being and mental health. - 21 - Mthough the above studies generally suggest a positive relation between job satisfaction and mental health, the amount of relationship found i n these studies i s not very impressive. In a recent review of mental health, Kasl (1974) concluded that the "Correlation between job satisfaction and mental health i s f a i r l y low. The best guess i s that the correlation i s very seldom going to be over .30." I t i s argued by the present author, that the low correlation between job satisfaction and mental health may be due to the omission of some crucial variable (s) i n the past studies. The present research suggested a theoretical model concerning the relationship between various work and non-work environ- mental factors and an individual's mental health. 1.4 Theoretical Model The basic assumption of the present research i s that to the extent that workers are psychologically unhappy and exhibit signs of poor mental health, the sources of this poor mental health may be found i n both the work and non-work environments. I t i s believed that the notion that the work environment i s solely responsible for poor mental health i s one which i s naive. However, at the same time, i t has been accepted that the a c t i v i t i e s undertaken by individuals i n the work environment do affect their a c t i v i t i e s i n non-work environments. The present research therefore accepted the p o s s i b i l i t y of an interaction between work and non-work environments. I t i s argued that the nature of the interaction between work and non-work environments tends to determine the state of - 22 - an individual's mental health. Before we explicate the "nature" of the interaction between work and non-work environments and i t s implication for mental health, we would l i k e to present our theoretical model. The theoretical model i s presented on the next page. In discussing the linkages of the model, we w i l l proceed i n the following order. F i r s t , the relationship between need fulfillment and mental health w i l l be discussed. Second, the impact of technolgical factors on need f u l - fillment i n work w i l l be delineated. Third, the relationship between organizational factors and need fulfillment i n work w i l l be illuminated. Finally, the relationship between management factors and need f u l f i l l - ment i n work w i l l be examined. 1.4.1 Need Fulfillment and Mental Health The concept of need i s basic to Maslow's (1954) theory of human motivation.. Maslow argues that needs are innate and universal, inherent i n human nature: "What I have called the basic needs are probably common to a l l mankind and are therefore shared values." He contends that needs relate to each other in a hierarchical fashion and form a hierarchy of prepotency. The prepotent need i s strongest i n the sense that i t has to be satisfied f i r s t . As soon as i t i s sat i s f i e d to some extent, the next category of needs i n the hierarchy of prepotency emerges, and needs from that category w i l l now be the strongest, i . e . have the stronger influence on the motivated behavior of the individual. Maslow has identified five sets of needs: physiological, safety, social, Figure 1 : Theoretical model for the relationship between work and non-work environment factors and mental health Management Factors i (1) Leadership style j ; Technological Factors | (1) Task specialization | (2) Technical constraints 7< •Oi. Need f u l f i l l - ment i n work Need f u l f i l l - -^ment i n non- ! work ! Mental Health i Organizational Factors (1) Size (2) Structure - 24 - esteem and self-actualization. I t may be useful at this point to give a description of these needs as identified by Maslow. Physiological Needs: In this category f a l l s those needs, the fulfillment of which serves to sustain the organisms; the needs for food, water, sleep, shelter, etc. Maslow argues that undoubtedly these physiological needs are the most prepotent of a l l needs. What this means specially i s that, i n a human being who i s missing everything i n l i f e i n an extreme fashion, i t i s most l i k e l y that the major motivation would be towards meeting physiological needs rather than any others. A person who i s lacking food, safety, love and esteem a l l at the same time would most probably f e e l hunger for food more strongly than anything else. Safety Needs: "If the physiological needs are relatively well satisfied, then there emerges a new set of needs which may be categorized roughly as the safety needs."/ These needs include those for an understandable, well ordered, predictable situation, for certainty about the future, satisfaction of the physiological needs, for personal safety, and the l i k e . In industrialized societies, most of these safety needs are believed to be very well satisfied for a large number of people. However, as Maslow states, we can perceive the expressions of safety needs i n western societies only i n such phenomena as, for instance, the common preference for a job with tenure and protection, the desire for a savings account, and for insurance of various kinds (medical, dental, unemployment, d i s a b i l i t y , old age). Other broader aspects of the attempt to seek safety and s t a b i l i t y i n the world are seen i n the - 25 - very common preference for familiar rather than unfamiliar things, or for the known rather than the unknown. The safety needs are very often referred to i n the literature as security needs. Social Needs: Mien both the physiological and the safety needs are f a i r l y well satisfied, there w i l l emerge the needs of love and affection and belonging. The individual w i l l f e e l keenly, as never before, the absence of friends, or a sweetheart, or a spouse or children. He w i l l hunger for affectionate relations with people i n general, for a place i n his group, and he w i l l strive with great intensity to achieve this goal. Esteem Needs: This need category becomes dominant when the above three needs are rel a t i v e l y well s a t i s f i e d . Maslow argues that a l l people i n our society (with a few pathological exceptions) have a need or desire for a stable, firmly based, usually high evaluation of themselves for self-respect, or self-esteem and for the esteem of others." Thus this category of need includes both a need for personal feelings of achieve- ment or self-esteem as well as a need for recognition or respect from others. Self-Actualization Needs: Maslow c a l l s this category of needs growth needs and refers to i t as the "Desire to become more and more what one i s , to become everything that one i s capable of becoming." The needs for self-actualization seldom manifest themselves to their f u l l extent i n the average person. Most individuals never progress through the above four needs but function primarily at the level of social and the - 26 - esteem needs. However, since the more prepotent needs do not have to be f u l f i l l e d completely or permanently for a less prepotent need to emerge, the needs for self-actualization may be seen to operate i n most i n d i v i - duals to a certain extent i n such forms as the desire to do a good job, to be creative i n doing things or to use whatever capacities one has. I t has been argued by the present author that need fulfillment i n an individual's l i f e i s related to his state of mental health. Since mental health has been defined as an overall level of success, personal satisfaction, effectiveness, and excellence of the individual's func- tioning as a person, i t can be said that an individual whose psycho- logical needs are gratified, tends to appear to be a satisfied and effective person i n his daily l i f e . Maslow himself attempted to relate his theory of need hierarchy to the mental health of the individual. He states that, "It i s clear that, other things being equal, a man who i s safe and belongs and i s loved w i l l be healthier (by any reasonable definition) than a man who i s safe and belongs, but who i s rejected and unloved. And i f i n addition, he wins respect and admiration, and because of this, develops his s e l f - respect, then he i s s t i l l more healthy, s e l f - actualizing or f u l l y human." Maslow also attempted to delineate the negative consequences of the - 27 - ungratification of basic needs. He states that, "A man who i s thwarted i n any of his basic needs may f a i r l y be envisaged simply as a sick'man. This i s a f a i r p a r a l l e l to our designation as sick of the man who lacks vitamins or minerals. Who w i l l say that a lack of love i s less important than a lack of vitamins?" Thus the theory of the hierarchy of needs seems to clearly suggest, that the ultimately complete gr a t i f i c a t i o n of basic needs i s synonymous with ideal mental health. As Maslow expresses i t , "It would seem that the degree of need grati f i c a t i o n i s positively correlated with the degree of psychological health." Maslow1s theory of need hierarchy has enjoyed wide acceptance i n the literature of organizational behavior. I t has been used to explain such diverse issues as deficiencies i n need fulfillment among managers and military personnel (Porter, 1961; Porter & Mitchell, 1967), why pay can become unimportant, and why self-actualization seems to be so imp- ortant to the people of today. However, so far as we know, the theory has never been used to explain differences i n psychological and mental health. In the present research study, an attempt has been made to use need hierarchy theory to predict individuals' mental health i n order to furnish evidence upon which one can accept or reject the proposition suggested by Maslow concerning the relationship between need gratification and mental health. - 28 - As stated previously, i n d u s t r i a l s o c i o l o g i s t s tend to divide the l i f e space of adult members i n a society i n t o two kinds of l i f e r o l e a c t i v i t i e s ; work r o l e a c t i v i t i e s and non-work r o l e a c t i v i t i e s . Empirical evidence, as reviewed e a r l i e r , indicated that there e x i s t s a s p i l l - o v e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between work a c t i v i t i e s and non-work a c t i v i t i e s . For example, in d i v i d u a l s who were s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r work a c t i v i t i e s also tended to be s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r non-work a c t i v i t i e s and i n d i v i - duals who were not s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r work a c t i v i t i e s also tended to be d i s s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r non-work a c t i v i t i e s . Although Maslow d i d not suggest e x p l i c i t l y where to measure need g r a t i f i c a t i o n i n an ind i v i d u a l ' s l i f e i n order to predict h i s mental health, i t was considered reasonable, given the presence of empirical evidence, to measure need g r a t i f i c a t i o n i n both work and non-work a c t i v i t i e s . In s p l i t t i n g an in d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e space into work and non- work a c t i v i t i e s , i t i s assumed that i n both work and non-work a c t i v i t i e s , an i n d i v i d u a l can p o t e n t i a l l y s a t i s f y h i s psychological needs. I t i s argued that the nature of the re l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s can determine the state of psychological and mental health of the i n d i v i d u a l . I t i s proposed that four kinds of possible relationships may e x i s t between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work a c t i v i t i e s and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non- work a c t i v i t i e s : (1) High need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work a c t i v i t i e s may be coupled with high need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s . This type of - 29 - relationship i s called a camplementary relationship. (2) High need fulfillment i n work a c t i v i t i e s may be coupled with low need f u l f i l l - ment i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s . This relationship i s referred to as an expressive relationship. (3) Low need fulfillment i n work a c t i v i t i e s may be coupled with high need fulfillment i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s . This kind of relationship i s called a compensatory"*" relationship. (4) Finally, low need fulfillment i n work a c t i v i t i e s may be coupled with low need fulfillment i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s . This relationship i s referred to as a spill-over . relationship. I t i s argued by the author that the four kinds of relationship between need fulfillment i n work and need fulfillment i n non-work act- i v i t i e s lead to four different kinds of predictions about the mental health of the individuals. When the relationship between need f u l f i l l - ment i n work and need fulfillment i n non^work a c t i v i t i e s i s complemen- tary, mental health tends to be highest. The rationale for the above prediction i s as follows. Mental health refers to an overall state of excellence,, satisfaction, and effectiveness of the individual. I t i s generally believed that an individual's functioning as an effective human being i n a given area of l i f e depends to a large extent on the In the previous studies "compensatory relationship" generally refers to an individual's tendency to achieve sanething i n one l i f e area which was not attainable i n the other l i f e area without any mention of the direction of the relationship. In the present study, "compensatory relationship" refers to the situation in which an individual unable to achieve something i n work a c t i v i t i e s does achieve the same thing i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s . - 30 - degree to which his basic needs are ful f i l l e d in that particular area of l i f e . Therefore when an individual has high need fulfillment in both work and non-work activities, i t is expected that his overall effective- ness as an individual in both kinds of activities is enhanced and he thus exhibits a high level of mental health. It is argued that when the relationship between need fulfillment in work and need fulfillment in non-work activities is expressive, mental health tends to be somewhat high, but is lower in comparison to the situation in which the relationship was complementary between two l i f e areas. The reason for a somewhat high mental health associated with an expressive relationship may be due to the importance of paid work in an individual's l i f e . Work alone is the only single activity in which a majority of adults in industrialized societies spend more time than in any other activity, except sleeping. Since an individual spends most of his wakeful time in doing paid work and since paid work is usually the only activity where failure and success tend to be important for the individual,, i t may be the case that an individual who experiences high need fulfillment in work activities alone may s t i l l exhibit a relatively high level of overall effectiveness and satisfaction (mental health). It is argued that when the relationship between need fulfillment in work activities and need fulfillment in non-work activities is compen- satory, mental health tends to be moderate. Although there is very . l i t t l e support available in the literature for a compensatory relation- - 31 - ship between work and non-work activities, this relationship tends to be theoretically valid in our model. Moreover, scholars such as Dubin (1956) and Taveggia (1971) have argued that for the majority of industrial workers, the relationships in non-work activities are more satisfactory than in any other kind of activities. Thus, higher need fulfillment in non-work activities alone may appear important enough to give an indivi- dual some feelings of overall effectiveness and satisfaction. The indi- vidual may, therefore, exhibit a moderate degree of mental health. It is argued that when the relationship between need fulfillment in work activities and need fulfillment in non-work activities is s p i l l - over, mental health tends to be at its lowest. As stated earlier, for an individual to be effective in a given area of his l i f e , i t is crucial that his basic needs be relatively f u l f i l l e d in that particular area of l i f e . When the individual, for some reason, cannot f u l f i l l his basic needs in different areas of l i f e , he is likely to become highly frus- trated and may thus exhibit poor mental health. 1.4.2 Need Fulfillment in Work as Dependent Variable Previous research has indicated that several factors in the work environment affect various kinds of job attitudes such as job satis- faction, organizational cranmitment, work alienation, work attachment and company satisfaction. If need fulfillment in work may be considered as one kind of job attitude, then i t could be argued that some of the work environment factors may also be related to need fulfillment in work. - 32 - Our model proposes that c e r t a i n technological, management and organi- zat i o n a l factors d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a f f e c t the extent of need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work. 1.4.2 (A.) Technological Factors and Need F u l f i l l m e n t Technological factors included i n our model are 'task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ' i n job and 'technical constraints' i n job performance. I t i s argued that both task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and technical constraints negatively a f f e c t the degree of need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work. Task s p e c i a l - i z a t i o n r e f e r s to the condition i n which the components of a work process are divided i n t o nunute tasks and only limited, number of tasks are assigned to an i n d i v i d u a l job (Jamal, 1972) . I t i s generally agreed that t h i s process has three t y p i c a l components; task s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , task r e p e t i t i o n and task fragmentation. I t i s argued that the three compon- ents of task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n inversely a f f e c t the degree of need f u l f i l l - ment i n work. For example, task s i m p l i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t s i n reducing the learning time of a job to a great extent. In most cases task s i m p l i f i - cation makes the job so simple that i t can be learned i n a matter of hours or even minutes (Dubin, 1958). This excessive s i m p l i f i c a t i o n i n job makes the worker an e a s i l y replaceable commodity and thus incurs i n him the fe e l i n g of in s e c u r i t y about h i s job. In the same way, task r e p e t i t i o n requires a worker to perform one or a few small operations over and over again i n a short cycle of time with l i t t l e or no change. This makes the worker so busy on the job that he cannot possibly free - 33 - himself to talk to his fellow workers who may physically be very close to his work station. Thus, task repetition may restrict his oppor- tunities of socializing at the work place. Similarly, task fragmen- tation requires a worker to work only on a small and tiny portion of the total work process and thereby restricts his knowledge about the final product. This may limit the worker's chances to take initiative and show originality in work activities and thus may affect his feelings of esteem and self-actualization. Technical constraints in task performance refer to those factors which stem from the production technology employed in getting the work done and which restrict the area of discretion of the worker at the work place. Previous research (Hedley, 1971; Kornhauser, 1965) has identi- fied the following technical constraints which workers may face in task performance: (1) pacing at the job; (2) lack of variety on the job; (3) attention required to perform the job; (4) lack of opportunity to talk with fellow workers on the job; (5) lack of opportunity to think about other things while working; (6) unavailability of slack periods on the job; (7) lack of opportunity to get relief for personal emergencies on the job; (8) lack of opportunity to move freely on the job. It is argued that the degree of technical constraint an individual experiences in work activities is negatively related to the degree of need fulfillment in those activities. Technical constraints in work activities restrict an individual's freedom to act according to his own - 34 - judgment and make ram a slave of the technical demands of the work processes or some other impersonal objects. The individual is treated as an infant in /Argyris' terminology (1957) and his basic needs as a human being are threatened. Thus, individuals who experience a high degree of technical constraint in their job, may tend to be indivi- duals whose basic needs are least f u l f i l l e d . Empirical evidence also tends to be supportive of the negative consequences of a high degree of technical constraint in jobs. Walker and Guest (1952) in their study of automobile workers observed that "pacing" on the job was one of the most disliked features of work for the majority of workers in their sample. Both Walker and Marriott (1951) and Chinoy's (1955) studies indicated that technical constraints in jobs were negatively related, to workers' job satisfaction. Turner (1955) found that a large number of workers in his sample did not like "pacing" on the job, and that "pacing" was negatively related to attitudes toward the company. Crompton and Wedderburn (1970) observed that variety in tasks, freedom of movement in the work place and the possibilities of social interaction with fellow workers at the job were among the main sources of workers' satisfaction/dissatisfaction with their jobs. Hedley (1971) in a study of over 5,000 British factory workers found a negative relationship between technical constraint and job satisfaction. In a recent study, Jamal (1976) also observed that technical constraints were negatively related to organizational commitment and job satisfaction in a sample of 377 blue-collar workers. - 35 - 1.4.2 (B) Organizational Factors and Need Fulfillment Our model suggests that two organizational factors - size and structure of the organization - may affect the degree of need f u l f i l l - ment in work activities. It is argued that the size of the organi- zation inversely affects need fulfillment in work. Small size organ- ization represents a relatively more simple social system than does the large size organization. There are few people, fewer levels in the organization hierarchy, and a less minute subdivision of labor (Worthy, 1.950). The organization operates primarily through the face-to-face relationships of its members and only secondarily through impersonal, institutionalized relationships. However, as size increases, there tends to be a decrease in the amount of the interpersonal control method used at lower levels by top management, which, in turn, at lower levels of the organization, places more reliance upon impersonal (bureaucratic, inflexible) forms of control (Indik, 1963). The reliance on bureau- cratic, inflexible controls over workers' behavior creates a work environment in which i t is difficult for workers to satisfy their basic needs. The contention that organization size affects workers' attitudes is by no means a new one. Durkheim in his book Division of Labor (1953) stated that, "...small scale industry (organization) where work is less divided displays a relative harmony between worker and employer. It is only in a large scale industry that these relations are in a sickly - 36 - state." However, i t wasn't until the f i f t i e s that investigators started to systematically examine the relationship between organizational size and workers' attitudes. In most of the empirical studies available on this subject to date, investigators have made comparisons across differ- ent sized sub-units of larger organizations rather than across independent total organizations. Irrespective of whether total organ- ization size or sub-unit size were measured, there is a remarkable consistency in the findings of these studies. In general, workers in larger organizations or sub-units appeared to be less satisfied than workers in smaller organizations or sub-units (Kerr, Koppelmeir and Sullivan, 1951; Barrett and Parker, 1961; Porter, 1963; Cummings and ElSlami, 1970) . Thus, in conclusion, the empirical evidence tends to support the negative consequences of increased organization size on workers' job attitudes. This adds weight to our argument concerning organization size and need fulfillment in work. Organization structure refers to the relatively fixed relation- ships that exist among the employees of an organization (Gibson, Ivancevich and Donnelly, 1973). Two kinds of organization structure have been identified in the literature - t a l l and flat. Tallness and fl a t - ness of organization structures are generally distinguished on the basis of the number of levels in the organization relative to the total size of the organization. A flat organization structure is one in which there are few levels relative to the total size of the organization and a t a l l organization structure is one in which there are many levels relative to - 37 - the total size of the organization. Another way of stating this i s to say that the degree to which a structure i s t a l l or f l a t i s determined by the average span of control within the organization. It has been argued that need fulfillment i n work tends to be greater i n f l a t organization structures than i t i s i n t a l l organization structures. Since f l a t organizations have a large average span of control, subordinates usually enjoy greater freedom and autonomy to make decisions about work a c t i v i t i e s . Chances of making decisions i n work a c t i v i t i e s enhance subordinates' feelings of responsibility and they i n turn receive greater need fulfillment i n work a c t i v i t i e s . Mthough the empirical evidence does not support equivocally the superiority of f l a t organization structures, i t does tend to suggest the relationship between organization structure and workers' attitudes. Worthy's (1950) study i s the oldest empirical study to suggest that f l a t organization structures may be related to higher morale among employees. Meltzer and Salter (1962) published a study that reported the job attitudes of 704 physiologists i n relation to the type of organization structure i n which they worked. They found l i t t l e support i n their data to indicate that f l a t organization structures were superior to t a l l structures i n terms of employee attitudes. Porter and Siegel (1965) studied about 3,000 middle and top level managers i n a wide variety of sizes and types of organizations i n thirteen countries. They found that i n organizations of 5,000 employees, f l a t structures were correlated with greater satisfaction; i n organizations of 5,000 - 38 - employees and over, there was no difference between managers' sa t i s - faction i n t a l l and f l a t structures. Carpenter (1971) compared t a l l , medium and f l a t structures i n six public school systans i n relation to the level of job satisfaction of 120 teachers. He found that teachers in f l a t organizations perceived higher job satisfaction than teachers i n medium and t a l l organizations. Lawler, Hall and Oldham (1974) studied the impact of organization structure and process on organi- zational climate i n order to predict organization performance and employee job satisfaction i n research and development organizations. Their results showed l i t t l e difference i n organizational climate variables under f l a t and t a l l structures. Ivancevich and Donnelly (1975) investigated the relationship between organization structures and job satisfaction among 295 trade salesmen i n three insurance companies. They found that salesmen i n f l a t structures were more satisfied with respect to self-actualization and autonomy needs than salesmen i n t a l l structures. However, they also found that organization structure was not related to satisfactions with pay, security needs, social inter- action and innovativeness. The above review of the empirical studies on organization structure and workers' attitudes, though inconclusive, yet suggests the relation- ship between the two. By investigating the relationship between organization structure and need fulfillment, i t i s hoped that the present study may help i n c l a r i f y i n g the relationship between them. - 39 - 1.4.2 (C) Management Factors and Need Fulfillment The only management factor included i n our model which may affect need fulfillment i n work i s that of leadership style. Behavioral scientists have long recognized the importance of leadership styles i n explaining human behavior. Puttman (1930) i n discussing the results of the program of interviewing i n the Hawthorne works of the Western Electr i c Company concluded that, "The comments from employees have convinced us that the relationship between f i r s t line supervisors and the individual workman i s of more importance i n determining the attitude, morale, general happiness and efficiency of that employee than any other single factor." Due to the impact of Hawthorne's studies, a large number of research studies have been conducted to examine the relationship between leadership styles and employees' attitudes and behavior. Investigators who have studied leadership styles have sought to cl a s s i f y and cate- gorize different approaches to leadership and different ways of exercising the leadership role. In studies of this kind, the two leader- ship styles which have most often been identified and compared are those usually described as employee-oriented or considerate to employees on the one hand and production centered or i n i t i a t i n g structure on the other hand (Likert, 1961; Fleishman, 1957). - 40 - The employee oriented leader i s generally more sensitive to the needs and feelings of his people. He i s supportive of his subordin- ates, helpful to them and concerned for their well-being. In contrast, the production oriented leader i s inclined to perceive his subordinates as more hands to get the work out. He i s noted for having neither concern for their welfare nor consideration for their feelings and needs. In his view, technical work factors take precedence over human work factors. The supervisory styles of these two types of leaders are quite different from each other. The employee-centered leader tends to state what i s to be done and why i t has to be done and then allows employees a certain amount of discretion i n doing the job as they think best, as long as i t meets organizational requirements. On the other hand, the production centered leader more often than not gives detailed orders and demands s t r i c t adherence to specified procedures. The employee-oriented leader engages i n general supervision whereas the production-oriented leader hangs over the shoulders of his subordinates. Empirical evidence i s unequivocal i n showing the negative conse- quences of certain kinds of leadership styles on employees' attitudes and behavior (Vroom, 1964; Beer, 1966; Sales, 1966). In general, leader's consideration or employee-orientation tends to be positively related to employees' satisfaction. In a study of 742 c l e r i c a l workers, Morse (1953) found that general supervision was positively related to employees' satisfaction. Fleishman, Harris and Buret (1955) observed a positive relationship between the consideration of foremen and the morale - 4 1 - of their subordinates. In a study of 29 a i r c r a f t commanders, Halpin and Winer (1957) found a strong positive correlation between leader's consideration and crew member satisfaction with their commander. Seeman (1957) found a positive relationship between the consideration of school superintendents and the job satisfaction of elementary school teachers. Likert's (1961) research indicated that job satisfaction was higher among employees who perceived their supervisors as showing employee-oriented behaviors than among those who did not perceive their supervisors as employee-oriented persons. Parker (1962) found a posi- tive relationship between leader's consideration and worker attitudes. Sadler (1970), i n a study of over 15,000 employees, found that job satisfaction was higher under consultive (employee-oriented) leadership than among authoritarian leadership. In a recent study.// Green (1973) also found leader's consideration to be related positively to employee satisfaction. However, there i s a definite lack of research studies which have investigated the relationship between leadership style and need f u l f i l l - ment in Maslow's sense. Only two studies have been found which attempted to examine the relationship between leader's consideration or employee- orientation and employee need satisfaction i n jobs. The f i r s t study was conducted by Beer (1966) using a sample of 129 c l e r i c a l workers. He found some support for the relationship between leader's consideration and employee need satisfaction. Leader's consideration appeared to be significantly related to security, social, esteem and self-actualization - 42 - needs. The second study was conducted by H i l l and Hunt (1973) among employees of a county hospital. They also found some support for the relationship between leader's consideration and employee need sat i s - faction. In their study, leader's consideration was found to be related to autonomy and self-actualization. Since both studies dealing with need satisfaction were conducted among non-industrial samples, i t was f e l t that there i s a need to test the relation between leader's employee-orientation and employee need fulfillment among industrial workers. Keeping i n mind the available empirical evidence on the subject, i t i s argued that a leader's employee-orientation or consideration towards employee i s positively related to employee need fulfillment i n work. Employee-centered leaders allow subordinates to contribute to and participate i n decision making practices i n work a c t i v i t i e s . Participation i n decision making provides subordinates the opportunities to know their fellow workers, to make use of their creative a b i l i t i e s , and to perceive themselves as important elements i n the total organization. These i n turn give them high need fulfillment i n work a c t i v i t i e s . In summarizing the discussion on the linkages of our theoretical model, i t has been shown that the model generates various predictions regarding the relationship between need fulfillment and mental health and about the relationships between technolgoical, management and - 43 - organization factors and need fulfillment i n work. These predictions have been accepted as research hypotheses i n the present study and are pre- sented i n the next section. 1.5 Research Hypotheses It may be recalled that our model postulated four types of relationships between need fulfillment i n work and need fulfillment i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s . These four types of relationships lead to four different kinds of predictions about the state of workers' mental health and, thus, become the f i r s t four hypotheses of the present study. These hypotheses are l i s t e d below: (H^) When the relationship between need fulfillment i n work and need fulfillment i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s i s complementary, mental health tends to be highest. C^) When the relationship between need fulfillment i n work and need fulfillment i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s i s expressive, mental health tends to be somewhat high. (H^) When the relationship between need fulfillment i n work and need fulfillment i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s i s compensatory, mental health tends to be moderate. (H^) When the relationship between need fulfillment i n work and need fulfillment i n non-work activites i s spill-over, mental health tends to be low. - 44 - When need fulfillment i n work was taken as a dependent variable, the model suggested the following hypotheses: (H,.) Task specialization i n work tends to be negatively related to need fulfillment i n work. (Hg) Perceived technical constraints i n task performance tend to be inversely related to need fulfillment i n work. (H^) Need fulfillment i n work tends to be higher under employee- centered supervisors than under production-centered super- visors . (H_) Need fulfillment i n work tends to be higher i n f l a t organi- o zation structures than i n t a l l organization structures. (HQ) There i s an inverse relationship between organization size and need fulfillment i n work. - 45 - CHAPTER II: Methods and Procedures On the basis of the theoretical model described previously, a questionnaire was developed to assess need fulfillment i n work and non- work, individuals' quality of mental health, task specialization and technical constraints i n task performance, supervisory style and perceived department/unit size. The responses to this questionnaire, and an anal- ysis of organization size and structure of the participating companies based on interview data, provided the basis for this study. 2.1 Setting and Subjects The sample for the present study was drawn from manufacturing companies i n Greater Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. Of the 30 companies i n i t i a l l y contacted by telephone, 17 companies engaged i n further per- sonal discussion, and 9 tentatively agreed to participate. I n i t i a l data were obtained from many of these companies, but extenuating circumstances reduced the f i n a l sample for which complete data were available to six companies. The companies range i n size from 100 employees to 300 employ- ees. These companies represent cement products, manufacturers of e l e c t r i c a l equipment, wood work manufacturers and advertising industry. A l l the rank-and-file employees i n the six companies were included i n the sample of this study. 2.2 Data Collection Data were collected i n two ways. A structured questionnaire was - 46 - used to obtain information regarding individual variables, and personal interviews were used to obtain information regarding organizational variables. The individual questionnaires were admiriistered personally by the researcher i n a l l six companies. Approximately one week before the adtninistration of questionnaires, the management i n the p a r t i c i - pating companies informed the employees through department heads that a doctoral student from the University of B r i t i s h Columbia would be conducting a survey i n their plants. A notice describing the nature and purposes of the research and mentioning the approval of both management and union for the survey was also posted on several bulletin boards i n each company. The questionnaires were distributed i n sealable envelopes on company premises during working hours. Employees were asked to take the questionnaires home and return the f i l l e d - i n questionnaires directly to the researcher i n the self-addressed stamped envelopes.. Out of a total of 895 employees i n six companies who were given questionnaires, 403 employees (45%) returned usable questionnaires. Response rate varied from 35 percent to 68 percent across companies. There were 299 male and 100 female respondents i n the f i n a l sample: 250 blue-collar employees.and 150 white-collar employees. One hundred and twenty-four of these employees had up to grade 10 education; 184 had grade 11 or 12 education and 90 had sane college education. One hundred and two of these employees were between the ages of 18 to 25 years; 168 were between 26 to 35 years and 127 were over 35 years of age. One hun- dred and forty-three of the employees had been with their companies for - 47 - less than 2 years; 132 between 2 to 5 years and 125 over 5 years. The majority (68%) of them were married, were working on morning s h i f t (77%) and had been raised i n large c i t i e s (50%) . More details on the char- acteristics of the sample can be found i n Table 1. At least one representative of the top management i n the participating companies was interviewed to obtain information concerning the number and size of work departments and the size and structure of the organization. These interviews were carried out shortly after the questionnaires were administered i n the company and varied i n length from 15 minutes to an hour. In a l l cases, the adrrdnistration of the question- naire and the interviews with the management personnel were carried out within a one week period. 2.3 The Measuring Devices This section describes i n detail the measures that were used i n tapping various constructs. Copies of these measures may be found i n Appendix A. 2.3.1 Mental Health . Mental health was assessed by using the measures developed by Kornhauser (1965). As noted previously, Kornhauser discovered the following six dimensions of mental health: (1) manifest anxiety and emotional tension; (2) self esteem (3) h o s t i l i t y ; (4) sociability; (5) overall l i f e satisfaction; and (6) personal morale. Kornhauser used - 48 - TABLE 1: D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the sample on demographic and background v a r i a b l e s V a r i a b l e s Frequency Percentage Colour of C o l l a r Blue - White - Age 18 - 25 years 26 - 35 36 + Sex Male Female Educat i o n Up t o 10 Grade 11 - 12 Grade 13 and more M a r i t a l S t a t u s S i n g l e M a r r i e d Others"*" Income per month Under $ 800 $800 -$1000 $1000 + (Total) (Total) ( T o t a l ) ( T o t a l ) ( T o t a l ( T o t a l ) 250 150 (400) 102 168 127 (397) 299 100 (399) 12 4 184 90 (398) 97 270 32 (399) 123 131 136 (391) 63% 37% (100%) 26% 42% 32% (100%) 75% 25% (100%) 31% 46% 23% (100%) 24% 68% 8% (100%) 32% 34% 35% (101%) Continued... . (TABLE 1: Continued) - 49 - V a r i a b l e s ' Frequency Percentage P l a c e o f S o c i a l i z a t i o n Farm -• 51 13% Town 66 16% Small C i t y 83 21% Large C i t y 200 50% (Total) (400) (100%) Length of S e r v i c e Less than 2 years 143 36% 2 - 5 years 132 33% Over 5 years 125 31% (Total) (400) (100%) S k i l l - L e v e l U n s k i l l e d 101 25% S e m i - s k i l l e d 148 37% S k i l l e d 150 38% (To t a l ) (399) (100%) Shift-time" Morning 304 77% Afternoon 23 6% Night 6 . 2% R o t a t i n g S h i f t 63 16% (Total) (396) (101%) Union Membership Member 213 53% Non-member 186 47% (Total) (399) (100%) Type o f Job L i n e Job 144 69% S t a f f Job 47 23% L i n e / S t a f f Job 17 8% (To t a l ) (208) (100%) 1. Others i n c l u d e s eparated, widowed and d i v o r c e d . - 50 - semi-stxuctured interviews to colle c t information from his subjects. Since the present research was designed as a questionnaire study, i t was necessary to modify Kornhauser's measures i n almost a l l six sub-indexes of mental health i n order to make them suitable for a questionnaire type study. However, the number of items i n each index corresponded to Kornhauser's original study.''" Moreover, no attempt was made to change the wording of items which were considered to be suitable for the present study. Response indicators were shown for each group of questions. The following eight items were used to measure the dimension of self esteem: ( 1 ) I feel that I am accomplishing the sorts of things I would l i k e to i n my l i f e . ( 1 ) ( 2 ) ( 3 ) ( 4 ) ( 5 ) Strongly Agree Neither Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Nor Disagree Disagree ( 2 ) I feel that I can do much to make my future what I want i t to be. ( 3 ) I often blame myself and feel bad over things I have done. ( 4 ) I often have a hard time to make up my mind. ( 5 ) Saretimes I get so discouraged that I wonder whether anything i s worthwhile. In Kornhauser's study ( 1 9 6 5 ) , some items on mental health were used i n more titan one dimension. Therefore, readers may find some items repeated across six dimensions of mental health. - 51 - (6) People often hurt my feelings. -• (7) How do you feel about your chances for getting ahead? (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Very good Good Don't Know Not Good ' Not Too Good (8) In general, how do you fee l about your l i f e ? Would you say you are (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Completely Well Neither Satis- A L i t t l e Very Satisfied Satisfied f i e d Nor Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Dissatisfied The dimension of h o s t i l i t y was assessed with the following seven items: (1) I sometimes b o i l inside without l e t t i n g people know about i t . (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Strongly Agree Neither Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Nor Disagree Disagree (2) I think that most people can be trusted. (3) I find that many people are so unreasonable that i t i s hard to talk to them. (4) Sometimes I feel l i k e smashing things for no good reason. (5) I find that I often have to t e l l people to mind their own business. (6) People often get on my nerves so that I do just the opposite of what they want me to do. (7) Over the years there are a l o t of things a person comes to learn about people. - 52 - (a) What are seme of the main things you have learned about people? (1) (2) (b) What would you say most people want out of l i f e ? (1) (2) The dimension of personal morale was measured with the following nine items: (1) Getting ahead i n this world i s mostly a matter of luck and p u l l . (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Strongly Agree Neither Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Nor Disagree Disagree (2) In spite of what some people say, the l o t of the average man i s getting worse, not better. (3) These days a person does not really know who he can count on. (4) Most people are out for themselves and don't care what happens to others. (5) It's hardly f a i r to bring children into the world with the way things look for the future. (6) Nowadays a person has to l i v e pretty much for today and l e t tomorrow take care of i t s e l f . (7) There i s l i t t l e use i n writing to public o f f i c i a l s because often they are not really interested i n the problems of the average man. (8) I think that most people can be trusted. - 53 - (9) Sore times I get so blue and discouraged that I wonder whether anything i s worthwhile? The dimension of overall l i f e satisfaction was assessed with the following nine items: (1) I feel that I am accomplishing the sorts of things I would l i k e to i n my l i f e . (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Strongly Agree Neither Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Nor Disagree Disagree (2) I often feel restless, wanting to be on the move doing something but not knowing what. (3) I feel i n good s p i r i t s almost a l l the time. (4) I often blame myself and feel bad over things I have done. (5) Sometimes I get so blue and discouraged that I wonder whether anything i s worthwhile. (6) I have as much chance to enjoy l i f e as I should have. (7) How dp you expect things to turn out for you i n the future? (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Very Good Good Don't Knew Not Good Not Too Good (8) Overall, how do you feel about the way you spend your time when you are not working? (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Completely Well Neither Sat- A L i t t l e Very Satisfied Satisfied i s f i e d Nor Dissat- Dissatisfied Dissatisfied i s f i e d - 54 - (9) Overall, how do you fee l about your l i f e i n general? The following thirteen items were used to measure the dimension of anxiety and emotional tension: (1) How often do you go to a doctor or clergyman or anyone l i k e that about your personal problems, or nervousness or such things? (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Never Hardly Seme of the Most of the A l l the Ever Time Time Time (2) How often do you use any special foods or tonics or anything l i k e that to help keep you i n good condition? (3) How often do you take something for slight i l l n e s s l i k e headaches, upset stomach, or things l i k e that? (4) How often do you go to watch sports events? (5) I am often worried and upset. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Strongly Agree Neither Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Nor Disagree Disagree (6) I often have trouble getting to sleep or staying asleep. (7) I worry much about things that might happen to me. (8) Sometimes I am bothered by nervousness. (9) There are things about my health that bother me. (10) I wake up rested most mornings. - 55 - (11) Do you have any particular physical or health problems? (1) (2) Yes No (12) So far as you know, did you ever have a nervous breakdown? (13) Are you ever bothered with headaches, indigestion, or any of the common ailments. Please put a mark against those which ever bother you. Headaches Indigestion or stomach upset _ Constipation or diarrhea _ Neuralgia Hemorrhoids or piles Sleeplessness Tiredness without knowing why Heartburn Backaches High blood pressure Nose, throat, or sinus trouble Many colds or coughs Other (please specify) The dimension of sociability was assessed with the following fi f t e e n items: (1) How often do you get together with your friends (very best ones) as a group? (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Never Hardly Sane of the Most of the A l l the Ever Time Time Time (2) How often do you get together with just one or two of your friends? - 56 - (3) Hew often do you get together with your relatives? (4) These days a person does not rea l l y know who he can count on. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Strongly Agree Neither Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Nor Disagree Disagree (5) When things go wrong, I am usually w i l l i n g to leave i t to others to work matters out. (6) People often hurt my feelings. (7) On the whole, I usually l i k e to be by myself rather than with other people. (8) How important i s i t to you to have friends? (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Very Pretty Important Not Not very Important Important Important Important (9) How many specially good friends do you have? (10) Do you have other friends (other than specially good friends) whom you see often? (1) (2) Yes No (11) How many organizations such as church and ethnic groups, labour unions or social and c i v i c clubs do you belong to? (12) In how many such organizations did you hold i n the past or are presently holding any kind of executive position (i.e. president, secretary, vice president, treasurer)? (13) Overall, how many meetings of the various organizations did you - 57 - attend i n the last two months? - (14) In the l a s t four weeks, approximately how many hours did you spend in attending the meetings of various organizations? (15) Over the years there are a l o t of things a person comes to learn about people. (a) What are some of the main things you have learned about people? (1) (2) (b) What would you say most people want out of l i f e ? (1) (2) 2.3.2 Need Fulfillment Need fulfillment i n work was assessed by using the scale developed by Mitchell and Moudgill (1976). This scale consists of 10 Likert-type items and, according to Mitchell and Moudgill (1976), the scale "...tends to establish the descriptive val i d i t y of Maslow's need c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme." The ten items of their heed fulfillment i n work scale are presented below. (1) The threat of change which could make one's present s k i l l s or knowledge obsolete (security). (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Minimum Maximum (2) The feeling of insecurity with one's position (security). (3) The opportunity to give help to other people (social). (4) The opportunity for conversation and exchange of ideas with colleagues and co-workers (social). (5) The feeling of self-esteem a person gets i n one's position (esteem). (6) Prestige inside the organization, i.e. regard received from others within the organization (esteem). (7) The opportunity for participating i n the determination of methods and procedures (autonomy). (8) The opportunity for participating i n the setting of goals (autonomy). (9) The feelings of worthwhile accomplishment associated with one's position (self-actualization). (10) The feelings of self-fulfillment a person gets i n one's position (self-actualization). Need fulfillment i n non-work was assessed with a modified version of Mitchell and Moudgill's scale of need fulfillment i n work. This modi- fication was necessary because a l l the items i n the need fulfillment i n work scale were oriented toward work and work related phenomena. The ten items i n the need fulfillment i n non-work scale are presented on the next page. - 59 - (1) The threat of change which could make my present knowledge and s k i l l s i n off-job a c t i v i t i e s obsolete (security). (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Minimum l^xiraum-' (2) The feeling of insecurity i n my off-job a c t i v i t i e s (security). (3) The opportunity to give help to other people i n my off-job a c t i v i t i e s (social). (4) The opportunity for conversation and exchange of ideas with people i n my off-job a c t i v i t i e s (social). (5) The feeling of self esteem I get i n my off-job a c t i v i t i e s (self esteem). (6) Prestige I receive from people with whom I undertake my off-job a c t i v i t i e s (self esteem) . (7) The opportunity for participating i n the detentdnation of methods and procedures of my off-job a c t i v i t i e s (autonomy). (8) The opportunity I receive for participation i n the setting of goals of my off-job a c t i v i t i e s (autonomy). - (9) The feelings of worthwhile accomplishment I receive from performing my off-job a c t i v i t i e s (self-actualization). (10) The feelings of self fulfillment I receive from my off-job a c t i v i t i e s (self-actualization). - 60 - 2.3.3 Technological Variables Technological variables measured i n this research were task special- ization i n jobs and technical constraints i n task performance. Task specialization i n jobs was assessed by using three measures of task fragmentation, simplification and repetition. The task fragmentation and repetition measures were developed by Lawler (1974) but were modified to suit the present research. The task simplification measure was developed by the author. The three measures are l i s t e d below: (1) How much task repetition i s there i n your job? (Please put a c i r c l e around the number which most appropriately describes your job.) (1) (2) (3) Moderate degree of repetition. (4) (5) Very l i t t l e ; I do many things, using a variety of equip- ment and procedures. Very much; I do pretty much the same things over and over, using the same equip- ment and proced- ures a l l the time. (2) How much does your job involve your producing an entire product or an entire service? (Please put a c i r c l e around the number which most appropriately describes your job.) (1) My job involves doing only a small part of the entire pro- duct or service. (2) (3) My job involves doing a moderate 'chunk' of the work. (4) (5) My job involves producing the entire product or service from start to f i n i s h . - 61 - (3) How long does a person have to spend"in training or experience to be able to handle a job li k e yours? (Please put a c i r c l e around the number which most appropriately describes your job). (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Not very long; Moderately F a i r l y long. My my job can be long; i t can job can take years learned i n a be learned to be learned, matter of hours i n a couple or even minutes. of months. Technical constraints i n task performance were measured with eight items. These items were developed by Dubin (1968) and were reported by Hedley (1971). These items are as follows: (1) Can you talk to people around you when you are working? (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Never Hardly Some of Most of the A l l the Time Ever the Time Time (2) -Does your job require you to work at a certain speed? (3) Can you think about things other than your job when you are working? (4) In your job, can you stop working for personal emergencies without waiting for a r e l i e f man? (5) In your job, are there slack periods when you can do what you want? (6) Can you move around the factory while doing your job? (7) Does your job require you to do the same things over and over again? (8) Does your job require that you watch your machine or whatever you are doing? - 62 - 2.3.4 Supervisory Style Supervisory style was assessed with a thirteen item scale developed by Bowers and Seashore (1966). Taylor and Bowers (1972) have recently observed a high degree of r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of this scale. The thirteen items of the scale are presented below: To what extent i s (does) your immediate supervisor (1)....friendly and very easy to approach? (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) To a Very To a L i t t l e To Some To a Great To a Very Great L i t t l e Extent Extent Extent Extent Extent (2) ....attentive to what you say? (3) ... .willing to l i s t e n to your problem? (4) ....encourage people to give their best effort? (5) ....maintain high standards of performance? (6) ....set an example by working hard himself? (7) ....show you how to improve your performance? (8) ....offer new ideas for solving job related problems? (9) ....encourage subordinates to take action without waiting for detailed review and approval from him? (10) ....provide the help you need so that you can schedule work ahead of him? (11) ....encourage persons who work for him to work as a team? (12) ....encourage people who work for him to exchange opinions and ideas? - 63 - (13) How often does your immediate supervisor hold group meetings where he and the people who work for him can really discuss things together? (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Never Once or Twice Three to About Once More often per Year Six Times per Month than once per Year per Month 2.3.5 Organization Structure Organization structure was assessed by obtaining information from management about the size of the organization and the number of supervisory levels within the organization. This information allowed the clas s i f i c a t i o n of respondents according to the ratio of the number of levels of supervision i n their organization to the total size of the organization. In accordance with Porter and Lawler's research (1964), the following three categories of structure were adopted; f l a t , inter- mediate and t a l l . The categories were formulated as follows: Flat: Companies having the fewest levels relative to their size were classified as f l a t organizations. Approximately one- third (134) of the respondents i n this study were employed i n f l a t organizations. Intermediate: Companies having a medium number of levels relative to their size were c l a s s i f i e d as intermediate organizations. Approximately one-half (192) of the sample of this study f e l l into this category. - 64 - T a l l : Companies having the greatest number of levels relative to their size were c l a s s i f i e d as t a l l organizations. Approximately one-fifth (76) of the sample of the present research were employed i n t a l l organizations. 2.3.6 Size As stated previously, i n most of the empirical studies i n the area of organization size and workers' attitudes, investigators have made comparisons between different sized sub-units (or departments) of larger organizations rather than between independent total organizations. For this reason, the present research used multiple measures of organization size; one measure pertaining to the size of the total organization and two measures pertaining to sub-units' size within the organization. Total organization size was measured by the number of full-time management and non-management employees i n the company during the week the survey was conducted in the company. Three size categories were adopted: large, 250 employees or more; medium, 151-250; and small, less than 150 employees. Sub-unit size was assessed i n two ways. F i r s t , employees were asked to give an estimate of how many persons were working i n their departments. The following question was used to obtain an idea of the employees' perception of sub-unit size: "Approximately how many persons work i n your department or section." Second, the actual number of persons working in each sub-unit was deter- mined from management records. Three sub-unit categories were used: - 65 - large, 21 employees or more; medium, 10-20; and small, less than 10 employees. A correlation of .80 was observed between the two measures of sub-unit size. 2.4 Decisions about Analysis It i s mandatory for every researcher to make certain arbitrary decisions about analysis. In the present research, two decisions were made with regard to data analysis. The f i r s t decision concerned the interaction between need fulfillment i n work and need fulfillment i n non-work. It was argued previously that the interaction between the two need areas tends to debeririine the state of an individual's mental health. In order to assess the nature of the interaction between the two need areas, i n each need area respondents were divided into high and low need fulfillment groups from the median. Respondents whose need fulfillment, i n a need area of l i f e was greater than the median need fulfillment i n that particular area, were considered as having high need fulfillment i n that need area. Respondents whose need fulfillment i n a given need area (i.e. work activities) was lower than the median need fulfillment i n that particular area.were c l a s s i f i e d as having low need fulfillment i n that need area. Thus, i n both need areas (work and non-work), res- pondents were either high or low depending upon whether their need f u l f i l l - ment scores were greater or less than the median scores i n the need area concerned. The second decision concerned the construct of mental health. I t - 66 - may be recalled that mental health i s composed of six sub-indexes. In each sub-index scores were assigned to the items of the sub-index i n such a way that a high score on the sub-index indicated a high level of mental health. Scores on a l l negatively worded i.terns were reversed. Following Kornhauser, a composite index of mental health was constructed caiibining the scores on six sub-indexes of mental health. Table 2 presents the inter-correlations"'" among sub-indexes and the composite index of mental health. A l l sub-indexes are highly correlated with the composite index with an average rank order correlation of .84. These findings are comparable with Kornhauser's findings which showed a mean tetrachoric correlation of .68 for younger workers and .70 for older workers i n his sample. Another measure of mental health was available i n the present research. This measure was developed by researchers at the University of Michigan (Quinn, 1972) and consists of 21 Likert-type items. A l l sub- indexes of mental health tend to be moderately correlated with Quinn's scale of mental health, with an average correlation of .56. Composite C^rLnn and Kornhauser's indexes were also correlated moderately (:r=.68). 2.5 R e l i a b i l i t y and Validity of the Measures Since most of the measures used i n this study were not standard Throughout this study, correlations w i l l mean the Spearman rank order correlations. - 67 - TABLE 2: I n t e r r e l a t i o n s among component and composite indexes of mental h e a l t h INDEXES Anx- H o s t i l - Esteem S o c i a - Mo- L i f e Index i e t y i t y b i l i t y r a l e Sat. MH A n x i e t y ' 1.0 H o s t i l i t y .64 * 1.0 Esteem .71 . 66 1.0 S o c i a b i l i t y .68 .72 .68 1.0 Morale " .67 .73 .67 .69 1.0 L i f e Sat. .60 .61 .83 .61 .61 1.0 Index MH .83 .85 . 85 .88 . 83 .78 1.0 Quinn MH .58 . 57 .61 .57 . 47 .57 . 68 Quinn MH 1.0 A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s are s i g n i f i c a n t a t .001 l e v e l or b e t t e r . - 68 - measures, i t was deemed necessary to examine the r e l i a b i l i t y of the measures. Table 3 presents the internal consistency r e l i a b i l i t y estimates (Cronbach's alpha) of the major independent and dependent variables. With the exception of two variables, l i f e satisfaction and self esteem, a l l variables showed high r e l i a b i l i t y . R e l i a b i l i t y estimates for l i f e satisfaction and self esttem were .60 and .75, res- pectively, which are acceptable for survey research, according to the c r i t e r i a set by Nunnally (1967). Since Kornhauser's measures of mental health were substantially modified to suit the present questionnaire study, i t became necessary to validate the measures of mental health. This was done i n two ways. F i r s t , several experienced, highly qualified c l i n i c a l psychologists and psychiatrists were asked to read the questionnaire responses on the measures of mental health for 32 respondents and give their overall evaluation of each individual's mental health. Global ratings of clinicians were correlated with the composite index of mental health. Second, the Quinn measure of mental health was attached to f i f t y percent of the questionnaires. The correlation between the Quinn measure of mental health and the modified Kornhauser composite index of mental health was sought as further indication of va l i d i t y . The f i r s t method of validation proceeded as follows: a subsample of 32 cases was selected from our total sample of 403 cases. A nunimum of four and a maximum of seven cases were selected from each p a r t i c i - - 69 - TABLE 3: I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s of the major independent arid dependent v a r i a b l e s V a r i a b l e s Cronbach's # of (N) Items Alpha Need F u l f i l l m e n t (work) (378) 10 .93 Need F u l f i l l m e n t (NonWork) (378) 10 .90 Index of Mental H e a l t h (360) 64 .96 L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n (380) 9 .60 Morale (381) 9 ..83 H o s t i l i t y (380) 8 .84 A n x i e t y (380) 14 .89 Esteem (368) 8 .75 S o c i a l (370) 16 .92 Quinn's Mental He a l t h S c a l e (176) 21 .91 T e c h n i c a l C o n s t r a i n t s S c a l e (379) 8 .82 Task S p e c i a l i z a t i o n S c a l e (380) 3 . 80 L e a d e r s h i p S t y l e S c a l e ' (379) 13 .97 - 70 - pating ccnpany according to the number of questionnaire returns from each company. Three c l i n i c a l psychologists, three psychiatrists and one social psychologist furnished estimates on the 32 cases, providing seven ratings for each case. For each of the 32 cases, a six-page f i l e was prepared from the questionnaire responses on the measures of mental health. The clinicians were asked to read through the entire case f i l e and to record, on a seven-point scale, an overall estimate of "How good or satisfactory you consider the mental health of the individual rated." A short descriptive statement was given the raters to indicate the meaning attached to mental health for the present research and i n add- i t i o n a briefing session was held to explain and c l a r i f y the whole proced- ure. The descriptive statement consisted of the following definition of mental health: "An overall level of success, personal satisfaction, effectiveness and excellence of the individual's functioning as a human being." The raters agreed reasonably well with one another. Table 4 presents inter-rater agreement (rank order correlation) on cli n i c i a n s ' estimates of mental health based on the questionnaire records. Twenty- one measures of inter-rater agreement were available and a l l of them were significantly correlated with one another. The twenty-one coefficients ranged from .64 to .91; the mean and median of a l l twenty- one were .74 and .78, respectively. The median inter-rater agreement of .78 i n this study was much higher than the mediein agreement of .52 observed by Kornhauser. Kornhauser did not report the mean inter-rater - 71 - TABLE 4: Agreement among c l i n i c i a n s ' - e s t i m a t e s of mental h e a l t h based on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e c o r d s C l i n i c i a n s 3 4 5 6 7 1 1.0 .83 .78 2 1.0 .72 1.0 .64 .69 . 82 . 88* .76 . 83 .79 .89 .72 .69 .78 .87 .0 .66 •71. . 80 1.0 .77 . 86 1.0 .91 1.0 A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s are s i g n i f i c a n t at the .001 l e v e l or b e t t e r - 72 - agreement for his study, nor did he report the individual inter-rater correlations, therefore no comparison was possible i n terms of mean inter-rater agreement i n the two studies. In order to derive a composite assessment for each of the 32 cases, ratings by a l l seven raters were combined for each case. These composite ratings were then correlated with the composite index of mental health. The results, presented i n Table 5, showed close agreement between composite ratings by cl i n i c i a n s and the composite index of mental health. The rank order correlation between the two composite indexes was .87 which i s comparable with the .84 tetrachoric correlation between the two indexes obtained i n Kornhauser's study. In addition, Table 5 showed substantial agreement between the ratings of individual clinicians and the composite index of mental health. The seven rank order correlations ranged from .68 to .85: the median of a l l seven was .79. The second method of validation involved the collection of data from f i f t y percent of the sample, employing a separate measure of mental health. There were 192 respondents i n the f i n a l sample who furnished information on Kornhauser's measures of mental health as well as on Quinn's measures of mental health. The rank order correlation between the two measures was .68 (P>.ool) which suggested a moderate degree of convergent v a l i d i t y between the two measures. Thus, i t may be said that the measures of mental health used i n this study were reliable and also appeared to be reasonably va l i d . TABLE 5: R e l a t i o n s h i p between c l i n i c a n s ' e s t i m a t e s of mental h e a l t h based on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e c o r d s and the index of mental h e a l t h Rank-order C l i n i c i a n s (N) C o r r e l a t i o n 1 (32) .85* 2 (32) .79 3 (32) .79 4 (32) .68 5 (32) .70 6 (32) .79 7 (32) .82 Composite Ratings (32) .87 * A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s are s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .001 l e v e l or b e t t e r - 74 - 2.6 Description of the S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures Several different types of analyses were performed i n order to explore the hypotheses. Hypotheses 1 to 4 involved interaction between need fulfillment i n work and need fulfillment i n non-work and thus were tested together. Two types of analyses were performed to test hypotheses 1 to 4. The f i r s t type of analysis made use of one-way analysis of variance. Differences between means, on the variable of mental health, under different types of work and non-work relationships, were tested for significance using the t-test and the Duncan Sign Test (Blalock, 1972) . The second type of analysis to test hypotheses 1 to 4 involved assigning a rank order to different types of relationships between need fulfillment i n work and need fulfillment i n non-work. A rank of '4' was assigned for a complementary relationship between the two need areas. A rank of 13' was assigned for an expressive relationship. A rank of '2' was assigned for a compensatory relationship. A rank of '1' was assigned for a spill-over relationship between the two need areas. A rank order cor r e l - ation was computed between the rank order on need fulfillment and the composite index of mental health. Hypotheses 5 to 7 had continuous independent and dependent variables. Rank order correlations were computed to test hypotheses 5 to 7. The significance level was set at .01. Hypotheses 8 and 9 had categorical independent variables and cont- inuous dependent variables. Blalock (1972) has recommended the use of - 75 - analysis of variance i n such situations. Therefore, one-way analysis of variance was the s t a t i s t i c a l technique to test hypotheses 8 and 9. Differences between means on the variable of need fulfillment i n work were tested using the t-test and the Duncan Sign Test. - 76 - CHAPTER III: Results In this chapter, we w i l l examine the data relevant to the nine hypotheses of this study. The chapter has been divided into three sections. Section one deals with hypotheses 1 to 4, which are concerned with the relationship between need fulfillment i n work and non-work and the quality of mental health. Section two examines hypotheses 5 to 7, which are concerned with the relationship between need fulfillment i n work and the technological and management factors. Section three deals with hypotheses 8 and 9, which are concerned with the relationship between organizational variables and need fulfillment i n work. 3.1 Need Fulfillment and Mental Health Hypotheses 1 to 4 are concerned with the relationsliip between need fulfillment and mental health. I t was suggested previously that the nature of the interaction between need fulfillment i n work and need fulfillment i n non-work determines the relationship between overall need fulfillment i n l i f e and mental health. Hypothesis 1 (Hi) suggests that i f the relationship between the two need areas i s complementary, there w i l l be a high level of mental health. Hypothesis 2 (H2) suggests that i f the relationship between the two need areas i s expressive, there w i l l be a moderately high level of mental health. Hypothesis 3 (H3) suggests that i f the relationship between the two need areas i s compensatory, there w i l l be a moderate level of mental health. Hypothesis 4 (H4) suggests that i f the relationship between the two need areas i s spill-over , - 77 - there w i l l be a low level of mental health. The f i r s t type of analysis performed to test hypotheses 1 to 4 was one-way analysis of variance. Scores on need fulfillment i n work and non-work were divided into those of high and low variation from the median. The division of the scores delineates the different types of relationship between the two need areas. I t may be of seme interest to present, at this point, the median and mean scores on need fulfillment i n work and non-work. The median scores on need fulfillment i n work and non-work were 32.5 and 36.2, respectively. The mean scores on need fulfillment i n work and non-work were 30.7 and 34.2, respectively. Scores on both need fulfillment i n work and non-work could theoreti- c a l l y vary from a minimum of 10 to a maximum of 40. Results obtained through one-way analysis of variance are presented i n Table 6. It i s clear from Table 6 that the mean scores on mental health are highest for the complementary relationship, second for the expressive relationship, third for the compensatory relationship and lowest for the spill-over relationship. Differences between means across the four types of relationships are s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant"'' according to the t-test as well as according to the Duncan Sign Test. Thus, hypotheses 1 to 4 are supported by the f i r s t type of analysis. Throughout this study, a significance level of .01 has been used i n hypothesis testing. - 78 - TABLE 6: Types of r e l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and non-work and the q u a l i t y of mental h e a l t h a c c o r d i n g t o Kornhausser's measures (median) Types of (N) Mean Score on Standard R e l a t i o n s h i p Mental H e a l t h D e v i a t i o n t - v a l u e F - v a l Complementary (108) 231. 65 40. 18 E x p r e s s i v e ( 87) 216. 83 23. 60 3. 21* Compensatory ( 83) 186. 61 43. 06 5. 64** S p i l l o v e r (119) 168. 44 26. 40 3. 37** (Total) (397) 2 00. 04 43. 05 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l ** S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .001 l e v e l - 7 9 - The second type of analysis performed to test hypotheses 1 to 4 involved ccmputing a rank order correlation between the assigned rank on four types of work and non-work relationships (see 2.6) and the composite index of mental health. A correlation of .61 (P>.001) was found between the two rank orders which indicated a substantial agreement between the two. Thus hypotheses 1 to 4 are also supported by the second analysis. In order to determine i f the decision of dividing need fulfillment i n work and non-work from the median may have influenced the above results, the same two types of analyses were again performed to test hypotheses 1 to 4 after dividing the scores from the mean. Results obtained from the analysis of variance are presented i n Table 7. Again, a l l hypothesized relationships are i n the predicted direction and are s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. The rank order.correlation between the assigned rank on four types of work and non-work relationships and the composite index of mental health was .62 (P>.001) . Thus, hypotheses 1 to 4 are again supported by the data. 3.2 Technological Variables, Leadership Styles and Need Fulfillment i n Work Hypothesis 5 (H5) predicted that there w i l l be a negative relation- ship between task specialization i n jobs and need fulfillment i n work. I t may be recalled that three measures were used to assess task special- ization i n this study. A composite index of task specialization was constructed by combining the scores on three measures i n such a way that - 80 - TABLE 7: Types of r e l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and non-work and the q u a l i t y o f mental h e a l t h a c c o r d i n g t o Kornhauser's measures (mean) Types of Mean Score on Standard R e l a t i o n s h i p (N) Mental H e a l t h D e v i a t i o n t - v a l u e F-value Complementary (134) 227.83 37.72 E x p r e s s i v e ( 81) 214.82 24.79 3.05* Compensatory ( 9.0.) 184.82 42.11 5.74** 80.36** S p i l l o v e r ( 92) 161.44 25.42 4.52** (Total) (397) 200.04 43.05 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l ** S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .001 l e v e l - 81 - a high score on the index meant a high degree of task specialization i n the job. Rank order correlation was computed between the index of task specialization and need fulfillment i n work. The correlation was -.52 (see Table 8) which shows that there i s a moderate negative relationship between task specialization and need fulfillment i n work in this study. Thus hypothesis 5 i s supported. Hypothesis 6 predicted that the amount of technical constraint an individual experiences i n task performance w i l l be negatively related to his need fulfillment i n work. A composite index of technical constraint was constructed by combining an individual's scores on the eight measures of technical constraint i n such a way that a high score on the index meant a greater amount of technical constraint i n task performance. Scores on negatively worded items were reversed. Rank order correlation was computed between the index of technical constraint and need f u l f i l l - ment in work. The correlation was -.56 (see Table 8) which suggests that technical constraint i n jobs and need fulfillment i n work are moderately related. Thus, hypothesis 6 i s supported. I t may be argued that the measures of task specialization and technical constraint that have been used are concerned with different facets of task specialization and technical constraint, and that, there- fore, i t was not legitimate to combine them into composite indexes. For this reason, a separate analysis was performed between need fulfillment i n work and the measures of task specialization and technical constraints. Table 9 presents the rank order correlations between need fulfillment i n - 82 - TABLE 8: Spearman rank-order c o r r e l a t i o n s of task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t and l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e w i t h need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work Independent Spearman L e v e l of V a r i a b l e s (N) C o r r e l a t i o n S i g n i f i c a n c e * Task S p e c i a l i z a t i o n (402) -.52 .001 T e c h n i c a l C o n s t r a i n t (402) -.56 .001 Le a d e r s h i p S t y l e (402) .32 .001 * Two'tailed t e s t - 83 work and the measures of task specialization and technical constraint. A l l the three measures of task specialization are moderately correlated with need fulfillment i n work. The average correlation between the measures of task specialization and need fulfillment i n work i s -.44 (P>.001) which i s comparable to the correlation of -.52 found between the index of task specialization and need fulfillment i n work. The correlations between need fulfillment and the measures of technical constraint vary from -.21 to-.51. The average correlation between the measures of technical constraint and need fulfillment i n work i s -.38 (P>.001) which i s somewhat lower than the correlation of -.56 found between the index of technical constraint and need fulfillment i n work. However, a l l correlations between the measures of technical constraint and need fulfillment i n work are i n the predicted direction (negative) and are s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. Hypothesis 7 (H7) predicted that need fulfillment i n work w i l l be greater under the democratic supervisor than under the authoritarian supervisor. A scale of 13 Likert-type items was used to assess super- visory style i n this study. A higher score on each item was an indication of democratic supervision whereas a lower score was an indication of authoritarian supervision. An index of supervisory style was constructed by combining scores on thirteen items. Rank order correlation was computed between the index of supervisory style and need fulfillment i n work. The correlation i s .32 (P>.001) which shows that need fulfillment i n work i s sl i g h t l y higher under a democratic supervisor than under an - 84 - TABLE 9: R e l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and the measures of task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t i n task performance. L e v e l of Measures (N) C o r r e l a t i o n S i g n i f i c a n c e Task S p e c i a l i z a t i o n (1) Fragmentation (400) (2) R e p e t i t i o n (399) (3) S i m p l i f i c a t i o n (401) .38 •.45 .50 001 001 001 T e c h n i c a l C o n s t r a i n t (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) Ta l k Think Pacing R e l i e f S lack Move A t t e n t i o n V a r i e t y (402) (401) (402) (402) (402) (398) (398) (402) .51 .28 .32 •.47 -.30 -.46 -.21 -.50 001 001 001 ,001 ,001 , 001 ,001 ,001 1 Two t a i l e d t e s t authoritarian supervisor. Mthough the correlation i s i n the predicted direction and s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant, yet i t accounts for only 10 percent variance i n the dependent variable. Therefore, hypothesis 7 must be considered as only weakly supported. 3.3 Organizational Variables and Need Fulfillment i n Work Hypothesis 8 (H8) predicted that the steepness of organizational structure w i l l be negatively related to the employee need fulfillment i n work. Employees were c l a s s i f i e d according to the structure of the organization i n which they worked, i.e. i n f l a t , intermediate or t a l l organization structures. I t may be recalled that the determination of organization structure involved taking a ratio of the number of levels of supervision i n the organization to the total size of the organization. One-way analysis of variance was performed'to explore the relationship between organization structure and need fulfillment i n work. Results are presented i n the upper part of Table 10. It i s clear from the analysis that need fulfillment i s highest under f l a t structures, moderate under intermediate structures, and lowest under t a l l structures. Differences between means across the three types of organization structures are s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant according to the t-test of significance as well as according to the Duncan Sign Test. Thus, hypothesis 8 i s supported. Hypothesis 9 (H9) predicted that organization size w i l l be negatively related to need fulfillment i n work. Three different measures were used to assess organization size. The f i r s t measure related to total organ- - 86 - TABLE 10: R e l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and f o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Mean Score on Standard V a r i a b l e s (N) Need F u l f i l l m e n t D e v i a t i o n t' -value 1 F - -val O r g a n i z a t i o n S t r u c t u r e F l a t (134) 34. ,55 9. ,36 Intermediate (192) 29. 52 11. 03 4 .43** T a l l ( 76) 25. 83 9. 07 2 .82* 19 .60' O r g a n i z a t i o n S i z e 100 - 150 persons (171) 32. 63 9. 86 151 - 250 (139) 29. 83 10. 66 3, .25** 251 - 3 00 ( 92) 29. 07 11. 26 0. . 16 6, .16" P e r c e i v e d Dept. S i z e 1 - 1 0 persons (138) 31. 65 10. 42 11 - 20 (136) 30. 05 10. 19 1. 29 21 and over (118) 29. 34 11. 37 0. 52 1. ,61 A c t u a l Dept. S i z e 1 - 1 0 persons (115) 31. 18 10. 80 11 - 20 (150) 30. 34 10. 16 0. 65 21 and over (125) 29. 77 11. 18 0. 44 0. 53 Two t a i l e d t e s t * S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l * S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .001 l e v e l - 87 - zation size and the other two related to sub-unit size. One-way analysis of variance was performed to explore the relationship between the three measures of organization size and need fulfillment i n work. Results obtained are presented i n Table 10. I t i s clear from Table 10 that there i s a weak relationship between the total organization size and need f u l - fillment i n work. Need fulfillment i s higher for people working i n small organizations than for people working i n medium-size organizations. The difference between means i n small and medium-size organizations i s significant according to the t-test and the Duncan Sign Test. However, there i s no difference i n need fulfillment for people working i n large or medium-size organizations. Surprisingly, mean need fulfillment i s sl i g h t l y higher for people working i n large organizations than i n medium-size organizations, which i s contrary to the prediction of H9. One-way analysis of variance was performed to examine the relation- ship between the two measures of sub-unit size and need fulfillment i n work. Results are again presented i n Table 10. I t i s clear frcm the analyses that both the measures of sub-unit size exhibit negligible relationships with need fulfillment i n work. However, a l l the relation- ships between the measures of sub-unit size and need fulfillment i n work are i n the hypothesized direction. In both cases, there i s a tendency towards achieving a higher level of need fulfillment i n smaller sub-units. I n i t i a l l y i t was planned to include only blue-collar workers i n the present study. However, because of practical considerations, a l l the rank-and-file workers i n the participating companies were included, which - 88 - increased the heterogeneity of the sample. Porter and Lawler (1965) stated that most of the studies which found negative relationships between organization size variables and job satisfaction were conducted among blue-collar workers and no such relationships have been documented among white-collar workers. In recent years, two studies by ElSalmi and Cumnrings (1968) and Gunnings and ElSalmi (1970) also f a i l e d to find any appreciable relation between organization size and need satisfaction among managers. In order to examine whether or not the heterogeneity of the sample i n this study has restricted the strength of relationships between organization size variables and need fulfillment, separate analyses were performed for blue-collar and white-collar samples. Results for the blue- collar sample are presented i n Table 11 and for the white-collar sample i n Table 12. I t i s clear from Table 11 that the three measures of organi- zation and sub-unit size are significantly related to need fulfillment among blue-collar workers. An examination of the analyses presented i n Table .12 suggests that none of the three measures of organization and sub-unit size are significantly related to need fulfillment among white- collar workers. It may be concluded that the three measures of organization size show a moderate relationship to need fulfillment for blue-collar workers and show no relationship for white-collar workers. Thus, hypothesis 9 must.be considered as weakly supported for the blue-collar sample and not at a l l supported for the white-collar 1 sample. TABLE 11: - 89 -R e l a t i o n s h i p between nepd f „ i f i n - • * ™ o r g a n i M t i o n a l v S ^ . . " ^ - " ^ m p l e . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l V a r i a b l e s ! ? e ^ S G O r e o n Standard N e e d f u l f i l l m e n t D e v i a t i o n t - v a l u e 1 F-valuc O r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e F l a t ( go) Intermediate (117) T a l l ( 42) T o t a l (249) O r g a n i z a t i o n S i z e 100 - 150 persons (117) 151 - 250 ( 80) 251 - 300 ( 52) T o t a l (249) P e r c e i v e d Dept. S i z e 1 - 1 0 persons ( 77) 11 - 20 (106) 21 and over ( 61) T o t a l (244) A c t u a l Dept. S i z e 1 - 1 0 persons ( 65) 11 - 20 (114) 21 and over ( 63) T o t a l (242) 32.71 26.42 22.67 28. 06 30.57 25.60 26.19 28. 06 29.32 29.17 24.15 27.96 28.83 29.22 24.41 27.86 9.77 10.50 7.51 10.45 10. 06 10.40 10.28 10.45 10.65 10.16 10. 03 10.48 10.81 10.26 9.98 10.50 4.45** 2.48* 18.16*' 3.34** -0.32 0.10 3.10* •0.24 3.04* 6. 72* 5.60* Two t a i l e d t e s t * S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l ** S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .001 l e v e l - 90 - TABLE 12 R e l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and l o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s f o r white-collar sample. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l V a r i a b l e s (N) O r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e F l a t I ntermediate T a l l T o t a l O r g a n i z a t i o n S i z e 100 - 150 persons 151 - 250 251 - 300 T o t a l P e r c e i v e d Dept. S i z e 1 - 1 0 11 - 20 21 and over persons T o t a l A c t u a l Dent. S i z e 1 - 1 0 11 - 20 21 and over persons T o t a l ( 44) ( 73) ( 33) (150) ( 54) ( 58) ( 38) (150) ( 61) ( 30) ( 57) (148) ( 50) ( 36) ( 62) (148) Mean Score on Standard Need F u l f i l l m e n t D e v i a t i o n t - v a l u e 1 F-valu. 28.29 34.42 29.42 34 .46 37. 07 33.09 32.84 34.46 34.59 33.17 34.90 34.42 34.24 33.89 35. 21 34.56 7.21 10.10 9.37 9.65 7.79 9.48 11.58 9.65 9.41 9.81 10.08 9.71 10.08 9.06 9.67 9.62 2.41* 2.48* 8.80** 2.44* 0.11 3.19 0.66 •0.77 0.17 •0.68 0.32 0.25 Two t a i l e d t e s t * S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l ** S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .001 l e v e l - 91 - CHAPTER IV: Discussion and Conclusions In this chapter the main findings of this study are discussed i n relation to the empirical evidence i n the relevant areas. The chapter has been divided into five sections dealing with (1) the v a l i d i t y of the mental health measures, (2) the relationship between need fulfillment and mental health, (3) the relationships between need fulfillment i n work, and task specialization, technical constraint and supervisory style, (4) the relationship between organizational variables and need f u l f i l l - ment i n work, and (5) the conclusions and implications of this study. 4.1 Validity of mental health measures Levinson and Weinbaum i n 1970 stated (McLean, 1970) that, "...no one has yet arrived at a universally accepted definition of mental health, although many have tried. Some would argue that there i s no such thing, and others that there i s nothing to be done." Although five years have passed since Levinson and Weinbaum made this statement, unfortunately i t s t i l l holds true. In the last five years, only four studies i n organi- zation behavior (Quinn, 1972; Burke, 1973; Caplan et a l . , 1975; Gechman and Weiner, 1975) have used the construct of mental health as an indepen- dent or dependent variable. None of these four studies has e x p l i c i t l y defined mental health. Three of the four studies (Quinn, 1973; Burke, 1973; Caplan, 1975) employed Quinn's or similar measures of mental health whereas one study (Gechman and Weiner, 1975) made use of Kornhauser's measures of mental health. Only two studies (Quinn, 1972; Caplan et a l . , 1975) reported the r e l i a b i l i t y of their mental health measures and i n no study was the v a l i d i t y of the mental health measures reported. As a result of this regrettable omission i n the research to date, one main objective of this study has been to test the v a l i d i t y of the available measures of mental health. As mentioned previously, no other investigator attempted to spell out the meaning of mental health as clearly as did Kornhauser (1965). Kornhauser not only formulated an empirical definition of mental health, but also systematically checked the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of his measures. I t should be mentioned at this point that to the best of our knowledge, Kornhauser's measures of mental health are the only measures which were subjected to internal as well as external validation. Kornhauser's r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y coefficients are remarkable, but there was a severe problem with his procedure of data collection. It may be recalled that he used unstructured interviews lasting between one and one-half hours to two hours i n each case i n order to obtain information about the mental health of the respondents. This made Kornhauser's measures expensive i n terms of time and money, and hence undesirable i n survey-research. Moreover, the necessity to content analyze and to code data obtained from unstructured interviews inevitably detracts from r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . These considerations may explain why only one study so far has used Kornhauser's measures. The need to have v a l i d measures of mental health which could be readily available to researchers i n survey-type research was the chief - 93 - impetus behind the validation of the mental health measures i n this study. The results presented i n Section 2.4 suggest that we have been f a i r l y successful i n achieving this goal. Our measures of mental health not only show a high degree of internal consistency r e l i a b i l i t y but they also show a reasonable degree of convergent v a l i d i t y . Thus i t may be said that this study has achieved three things regarding the construct of mental health. F i r s t , the unstructured interview measures of mental health have been translated into the structured questionnaire measures. Second, the relative r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the structured measures have been documented with the hope that i t may be a f i r s t step toward the development of a standard measure of mental, health corresponding to the standard measures of job satisfaction and supervisory style. Third, the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the modified version of Kornhauser's measures of mental health have been re-examined i n a different cultural milieu. 4.2 Mental Health Predicted through Need Fulfillment Our theoretical model made the prediction that the interaction between need fulfillment i n work and need fulfillment i n non-work determines the quality of an individual's mental health. Results presented i n Section 3.1 supported the above prediction. I t was found that the individuals who had a high l e v e l of need fulfillment both i n work and non-work showed the highest level of mental health. Individuals who had a high level of need fulfillment i n work but had a low level of need fulfillment i n non-work showed a moderately high level - 94 - of mental health. Individuals who had a low level of need fulfillment i n work but had a high level of need fulfillment i n non-work showed a mod- erate level of mental health. Individuals who had a low level of need fulfillment both i n work and non-work showed the lowest level of mental health. The above findings may be interpreted i n the l i g h t of Maslow's theoretical model (1954) on need gratification and psychological health. Maslow1s theory postulated a positive relationship between need g r a t i - fication and psychological health. Our interactional analysis of need fulfillment i n work and non-work, and the guality of mental health shows' a positive relationship between the two and thus lends support to Maslow's theory. Maslow, however, did not indicate clearly i n what area of an individual's l i f e need gratif i c a t i o n was to be assessed i n order to pre- d i c t his mental health. In the present study, therefore, separate correlations were computed between need fulfillment i n different l i f e areas and mental health. The rank order correlation between need f u l - fillment i n work and mental health was +.53 (P>.001) and between need f u l - fillment i n non-work and mental health was +.34 (P>.001). The corr e l - ation between the overall need fulfillment i n l i f e (work + non-work) and mental health was +.57 (P>.001). A l l the above correlations are positive and lend additional support to Maslow's theory. Thus i t may be said that individuals who have most of their psychological needs satisfied i n l i f e , tend to be the ones who experience a high level of mental health. The positive correlation between need fulfillment i n work and mental health i s consistent with the empirical evidence on job sat i s - faction and mental health. The research of Kahn and his associates (1964) suggested a positive relationship between job satisfaction and mental health. Kornhauser (1965) i n his study of Detroit automobile workers observed that workers who were satisfied with their jobs had a higher level of mental health than workers who were not satisfied with their jobs. This finding was confirmed at each separate occupational level. Quinn (1972) observed a strong positive association between job satisfaction and mental health i n a nationally-based probability sample of 1533 American workers. In addition, he found that the association between job satisfaction and mental health was greater among workers who were locked into their jobs than among those not locked into them. In a recent study, Gechman and Weiner (1975) found a positive relationship of .48 between job satisfaction and mental health i n a sample of 53 elem- entary school teachers. Thus i t may be said that the result of this study on need fulfillment i n work and mental health has added to the growing body of evidence supporting a positive relationship between job sat i s - faction and the quality of mental health. The results from the interactional analysis of need fulfillment i n work and non-work and mental health cast doubt upon the notion of the relative superiority of the non-work environment over the work environment i n making workers psychologically happy. In the early sixties, Gurin et a__ (1960) stated: - 96 - "With the a l i e n a t i o n from the job that occurs with i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and increasing automation, with the shortening of the work day and concomitant expanding opportunity f o r a l i f e out- side the job that t h i s allows, the job tends to lose i t s central p o s i t i o n i n a man's l i f e . More energy i s channelled i n t o l i f e outside the work, and the p o s s i b i l i t y arises f o r non-job areas of l i f e to provide the meaning and i d e n t i t y anchors that the job once provided." Many more such statements can be found i n the l i t e r a t u r e which have popularized the notion that what happens to individuals i n the work environment may not be as important to the achievement of s a t i s f a c t i o n and happiness i n l i f e as what happens to them i n the non-^work environ- ment. Our r e s u l t s contradict t h i s notion and suggest that individuals who cannot f u l l y s a t i s f y t h e i r psychological needs i n the work environment show ei t h e r a low or a t test a moderate l e v e l of mental health. On the other hand, individuals who can f u l l y s a t i s f y t h e i r psychological needs i n the work environment show ei t h e r a high or moderately high l e v e l of mental health. Additional evidence against the notion that the non-work environment may be more important than the work environment i n an individual's l i f e was obtained from the p a r t i a l correlations between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and non-work and mental health. The p a r t i a l correlation between need fulfillment i n work and mental health controlling for need fulfillment i n non-work was +.48 (P>.001). The p a r t i a l correlation between need f u l f i l l - ment i n non-work and mental health controlling for need fulfillment i n work was + .20 (P>.001). These results suggest that the independent relationship of need fulfillment i n work to mental health i s stronger than the independent relationship of need fulfillment i n non-work to mental health. If the above results are valid, and we believe they are, then i t may be high time, as stated by Weiner, Akabas and Sommer (1973), "...to use the work setting or work-related variables as a vehicle through which to find the worker i n trouble and to help that worker stay on the job." Our theoretical model made the prediction that the technological variables of task specialization and technical constraint are negatively related to need fulfillment i n work. Results presented i n Section 3.2 confirmed the above prediction. I t was found that workers who experienced a high degree of task specialization i n jobs had a low degree of need fulfillment i n work and the workers who experienced a low degree of task specialization i n jobs had a high degree of need fulfillment i n work. Siiiiilarly, workers who experienced a high degree of technical constraint i n task performance had a low degree of need fulfillment i n work and the workers who experienced a low degree of technical constraint had a high - 98 - degree of need fulfillment i n work. These findings are consistent with the empirical evidence in the area of technological variables and job attitudes, which i n general, suggests a negative relationship between the two types of variables. As early as 1930, Fairchild (1930) found a significant negative relationship between task simplification and job satisfaction. Turner's research (1955) indicated that task repetition was one of the most innportant sources of the workers1 dissatisfaction with work and the company. Blauner (1964), i n a secondary analysis of Roper's (1947) survey data, found that alienation from work was lower among printers and chemical workers, whose jobs have a low degree of task specialization than among"workers i n auto and t e x t i l e industries who experience a high degree of task specialization i n their jobs. Turner and Lawrence (1965) i n their well-documented study found significant negative associations between task simplification and job satisfaction, and 'task complexity 1 and absenteeism. Shepard (1971), i n a sample of office and factory workers, observed negative associations between 'functional special- ization' measured with production - line mechanization and five dimensions of alienation — powerlessness, normlessness, meaninglessness, s e l f - evaluative involvement, and instrumeiital work orientation. In a recent study, Jamal (1975) found significant negative association between task specialization and organizational commitment. In a study of automobile workers in Detroit, Walker and Guest (1952) observed during their .interviews with workers that the technical con- - 99 - straint of 'pacing' was one of the major sources of workers' dis s a t i s - faction with work and the company. Conant and Kilbridge (1965) found that pacing, and variety i n work elements, along with many other job characteristics, affect workers!' attitudes toward work. In a study of Br i t i s h factory workers, Crompton and Wedderburn (1970) found that the technical constraints of task variety, freedom of movement i n the work place, and the opportunity of social interaction with fellow workers on the job were the main source of workers' satisfaction with work. Recently, Jarnal (1976) also found negative relationships between eight technical constraints and organizational commitment and job satisfaction in a sample of 377 blue-col3.ar workers. Thus i t may be said that the results of this study on technological variables and need fulfillment i n work have added support to the evidence on negative relationships between technological variables and job attitudes. Our theoretical model made the prediction that need fulfillment i n work w i l l be higher under a democratic supervisor than under an author- ita r i a n supervisor. This prediction was somewhat supported by our data. I t was found that workers who perceived their supervisor as democratic had a slig h t l y high level of need fulfillment i n work and the workers who perceived their supervisor as authoritarian had a sl i g h t l y low level of need fulfillment i n work. These results are consistent with the empirical evidence on leadership style and job satisfaction (Vroom, 1964; Sales, 1966; Sadler, 1970) as well as with leadership style and need fulfillment - 100 - i n work (Beer, 1966; H i l l and Hunt, .1973; Osborn, Hunt and Pope, 1973) . Thus, i t may be said that the results of this study on supervisory style and need fulfillment i n work have modestly added to the growing body of evidence supporting the relationship between leadership style and sub- ordinates' job attitudes. 4.4 Need Fulfillment i n Work Predicted through Organizational Variables Our theoretical model made the prediction that the organizational variables of 'structure' and 'size' would be di f f e r e n t i a l l y related to need fulfillment i n work. Results presented i n Section 3.3 confirmed the above predictions. It was found .that the workers employed i n f l a t organization structures had a high level of need fulfillment, those employed i n intermediate structures had a moderate level of need f u l - fillment and those employed i n t a l l organization structures had a low level of need fulfillment. In addition, i t was found that there i s a tendency toward a higher level of need fulfillment i n smaller organ- izations and sub-units only i n the blue-collar sample. The finding that structure i s related to need fulfillment i n work i s consistent with the empirical evidence in the area of organization structure and job satisfaction, which, i n general, suggests a negative relationship between the two. As early as 1950, Worthy (1950) i n his study of Sears-Roebuck employees made the observation that morale among employees may be higher i n f l a t organization structures. However, Meltzer and Salter (1962), i n their study of 704 physiologists, found l i t t l e support for the superiority of f l a t structures over t a l l structures 101 - i n terms of employees' s a t i s f a c t i o n . Carpenter (1971) compared t a i l , medium and f l a t structures i n s i x public school systems, i n r e l a t i o n to the l e v e l of job s a t i s f a c t i o n of 120 teachers. Ke found that teachers i n f l a t organizations perceived higher job s a t i s f a c t i o n than teachers i n medium and t a l l organizations. In a recent study of 290 trade salesmen, Ivancevich and Donnelly (1975) also found some support f o r the r e l a t i o n - ship between organization structure and job s a t i s f a c t i o n . Tinas i t may be said that the finding of t h i s study on organization structure and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work has added to the growing body of evidence supporting a negative r e l a t i o n s h i p between structure and job s a t i s f a c t i o n . The tendency toward a higher l e v e l of need f u l f i l l m e n t i n small organizations and sub-units among bl u e - c o l l a r workers i s consistent with the argument of Porter and Lawler (1965) and with the findings of ElSalmi and Cummings (1968) and Cummings and ElSalmi (1970). However, even among blue - c o l l a r workers, most of the relationships between the measures of organization/sub-unit s i z e and need f u l f i l l m e n t are net very strong. We f e e l that t h i s may have happened due to the small range i n s i z e of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g companies i n t h i s study. Both the organization s i z e as w e l l as the sub-unit s i z e categories adopted i n the present study were too small i n comparison to the categories used i n previously published studies i n the area. For example, CumtTiings and ElSalmi (3.970) i n t h e i r study c l a s s i f i e d companies employing less than 500 employees as small organi- zations. In t h i s study, none of the s i x p a r t i c i p a t i n g companies had more than 350 employees. S i m i l a r l y , Cummings and ElSalmi (1970) c l a s s i f i e d - 102 - sub-units having less than 50 employees as small sub-units. In the present study, 95 percent of the employers surveyed had fewer than 50 employees working i n their sub-units. The smallness of the adopted categories of the t o t a l organization and sub-unit sizes may have affected the variation of the dependent variable and hence restricted the strength of the relationship between organization size variables and need fulfillment. The findings that organization size variables are related to need fulfillment for blue-collar workers and are not related for white-collar workers have suggested that i n research on organization size and workers' attitudes i t i s better to treat white-collar and blue-collar workers separately." Failure to do that may result i n misleading conclusions. 4.5 Conclusions and Implications This exploratory attempt at understanding the relationship between need fulfillment and mental health, and between technological, management and organizational variables and need fulfillment i n work provides a number of tentative conclusions. I t has been found that mental health was highest among workers who had high need fulfillment both i n work and non-work; was moderately high among workers who had high need f u l f i l l - ment i n work but low need fulfillment i n non-work; was moderate among workers who had low need fulfillment i n work but high need fulfillment i n non-work and was lowest among workers who had. low need fulfillment botli in work and i n non-work. The immediate implication of these results - 103 - i s that mental health should be considered on a broader lev e l . Previous research focussed either on work environment factors alone or on non-work environment factors alone i n understanding workers* mental health. The results of this study indicate that i t may be more useful to include both work and non-work environment factors i n research on mental health. Future research should address i t s e l f to determining the relative import- ance of different factors i n work and non-work environments which affect individuals 1 mental health. Such research could bring to light factors i n the work environment that are crucial to employees' mental health and hence indicate areas where improvements could be made i n the work envir- onment. It was also found that the technological variables of task specialization and technical constraint were inversely related to need fulfillment i n work; need fulfillment was slig h t l y higher under a demo- cratic supervisor than under an authoritarian supervisor; and the organizational variables of organization structure, total organization size, and sub-unit size were di f f e r e n t i a l l y related to need fulfillment. The fact that, of the above-mentioned variables, the technological variables showed the strongest relationship with need fulfillment leads to the conclusion that technological variables are important i n influencing individuals' behavior at the work s i t e . The implication of the above conclusion i s that serious attention should also be paid to technological variables i n the work environment along with organizational, management and psychological variables. There i s an acute paucity of - 104 - research studies i n organizational behavior which attempt to examine the impact of technolgical variables on workers' attitudes and behavior. Future research should explore the nature of the relationship between technological variables and workers' attitudes and behavior, with the object of determining the relevance of technological variables i n organizational behavior. Since the present study i s a fi.eld study, the results must be treated cautiously. There were only a few significant differences found between the measures of organization variables and need fulfillment i n work. In addition, most of the significant correlations of this study were zero - order correlations, which might have changed with the introduction of moderator variables. Altliough the results reported provide support for many of the hypotheses tested, they cannot validate causal predictions about the variables investigated. 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Relations Industrielles, 1975, 30, 612-627. Jamal, M. On the relationship between technologically based job •characteristics and organizational commitment, work attachment and job satisfaction, paper presented at the Western Division of Academy of Management, Santa Barbara, 1976. Kahn, R. L. f Wolf, D.M., Quinn, R.P., Snoek, J.D., and Rosenthal, R.A. Organizational Stress: Studies i n Role Conflict and Ambiguity. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1964. Kasl, S. Work and mental health. In J.O. Toole (ed.). Work and the Quality of L i f e : Resource Papers for Work i n America, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1974, pp. 171-196. Katzell, R.'A., Barrett, R.S., Parker, T.C. Job satisfaction, job per- formance, and situational characteristics. Journal of Applied N Psychology, 1961, 45, 65-72. Kerr, W.A, Koppelmeier, G.J. and Sullivan, J.J. Absenteeism, turnover, and morale i n a metals fabrication factory. Occupational Psychology,, 1951, 25, 50-55. Kornhauser, A. 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Perceived deficiencies i n need fulfillment as a function of size of company. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1963, 47_, 387-397. Porter, L. and Lawler, E. The effects of t a l l versus f l a t organization structure on managerial job satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 1964, 17, 135-148. Porter, L. and Lawler, E. Properties of organization structure i n relation to job attitudes and job behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 1965, 64, 23-51. Porter, L. and Mitchell, V. Comparative study of need satisfactions i n military and business hierarchies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1967, 51, 139-144. Porter, L. and Steers, R. Organizational,work and personal factors i n employee turnover and absenteeism. Psychological Bulletin, 1973, 80, 151-176. Puttman, M. Improving employee relations. Personnel Journal, 1930, 8, 314-325. Quinn, R. Locking-in as a moderator of the relationship between job satisfaction and mental health. Unpublished paper, University of Michigan, Survey Research Centre, 1972. 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Industrial Jobs and the Worker. Boston: Harvard University Graduate School of Business Administration, 1965. Vroom, V. Work and Motivation, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1964. Wahba, M. and Bridwell, L. Maslow reconsidered: A review of research on the need hierarchy theory. Academy of Management Proceedings, Boston, 1973, 514-520. Walker, C. and Guest, R. The Man on the Assembly-Line. Cambridge; Harvard University Press, 1952. - 113 - Walker, R. and Marriott, R. A study of some attitudes to factory work. Occupational Psychology, 1951, 25, 181-191. Wallace, M. and Berger, P. The r e l i a b i l i t y of different scores: A preliininary investigation of a need deficiency and satisfaction scale. Academy of Management Proceedings, Boston, 1973, 421--427. Watson, G. Morale during unemployment. In G. Watson (ed.). C i v i l i a n Morale, New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1942. Wedderburn, D. and Crompton, R. Workers Attitudes and Technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972. Weiner, H.J., Akabas, S.H. and Sommer, J.J. Mental Health Care i n the World of Work. New York: 'Association Press, 1973. Weitz, J. A neglected concept i n the study of job satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 1952, 5, 201-205. Wesley, S. A quantitative study of job satisfaction i n a sample of former University of Minnesota students. (Unpublished M.A. Thesis, University of Minnesota, 1939.) Wilensky, H. Work, careers, and social integration. International Social Science Journal, 1960, 12, 543-560. Worthy, J. Organizational structure and employee morale. American Sociological Review, 1950, 24, 169-179. - 114 - APPENDIX A Quality of L i f e Questionnaire As a starting point I would l i k e to know a few things about your present job. Please answer the following questions by putting the check mark (/) i n the appropriate category i n each question. Remember, your answers are 'confidential and w i l l always be used i n group s t a t i s t i c s . 1. Can you talk to people around you when you are working? Never Hardly ever Seme of the time Most of the time A l l the time Can you think about things other than, your job when you are working? Never Hardly ever Some of the time Most of the time A l l the time Does your job require you to work at a certain speed? Never Hardly ever Some of the time Most of the time A l l the time In your job, can you stop working for personal emergencies without waiting for a r e l i e f man? Never Hardly ever Some of the time Most of the time A l l the time 5. In your job are there slack periods when you can do what you want? Never Hardly ever- Some of the time Most of the time A l l the time Can you move around the factory while doing your job? Never Hardly ever Some of the time . Most of the time " A l l the time Does your job require that you watch your machine or what you are doing? Never Hardly ever Some of the time Most of the time A l l the time Does your job require you to do the same thing over and over again? Never Hardly ever Sore of the time Most of the time A l l the time 9. How do you feel about your 10. chances for getting ahead? Very good Pretty good Good Not good Not too good How important i s i t to you to have friends? Very important Pretty important Important Not important Not very important - 116 - Overall, how do you feel about 12. the way you spend your time when you are not working? Completely satisfied Well sati s f i e d Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied A l i t t l e dissatisfied Very dissatisfied Overall, how do you feel about 14. your job? Completely satisfied Well satisfied Neither satisifed nor dissatisfied A l i t t l e d issatisfied Very dissatisfied In general, how do you feel about your l i f e ? Would you say you are Completely satisfled Well sati s f i e d Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied A l i t t l e dissatisfied Very dissatisfied Overall, how do you fe e l about working for this company? Completely satisfied. Well Satisfied Neither sati s f i e d nor dissatisfied . A l i t t l e d i s s a tisfied Very dissatisfied How much task repetition i s there i n your job? (Please put a c i r c l e around the number which most appropriately' describes your job.) (1) (2) T3) (4) (5) Too much. I do pretty much the same things over and over using the same equipment and pro- cedures a l l the time Moderate degree of repetition Very l i t t l e . I do many things using a variety of equipment and procedures. How much does your job involve your producing an entire product or an entire service? (Please put a c i r c l e around the number which most appropriately describes your job.) (1) (2) (3) (4) My job involves doing only a small part of the entire product or service My job involves doing a moderate sized chunk of the work (5) My job involves producing entire product or service from start to f i n i s h . How long does a person have to spend i n training or experience to be able to handle a job lik e yours? (Please put a c i r c l e around the number which most appropriately describes your job.) (1) (2) (3) (4) Not very long. My job can be learned i n a matter of hours or even minutes Moderately long. My job can be learned i n a couple of months (5) Fai r l y long. My job can take years to be learned. - 117 - Below you see a number of characteristics or qualities that might be connected with your present job. You are asked to indicate for each characteristic or quality of how much i s i t present on your job: (Mirximum) (Maximum) 1 2 3 4 5 The feeling of insecurity i n my job The opportunity to give help to other people at my job The feeling of self-esteem I get i n my job Prestige inside the company (i.e., regard received from others within the company) The opportunity for participating i n the determination of methods and procedures at my job The opportunity for participating i n the setting of goals i n my job The feelings of worthwhile accomplishment associated with my job The feeling of self-fulfillment associated with my job The threat of change which could make my present s k i l l s or knowledge obsolete at my job The opportunity for conversation and exchange of ideas with colleagues and coworkers at my job - 118 - Below you w i l l see a l i s t of the same characteristics or qualities that appeared on the la s t page. This time would you indicate how much of each characteristic you think should be associated with your job. (Miriimum) (Maximum) 1 2 3 4 5 The feeling of insecurity i n my job The opportunity to give help to other people at my job The feeling of self-esteem I get in my job Prestige inside the company (i.e., regard received from others within the company) The opportunity for participating i n the determination of methods and procedures at my job The opportunity for participating i n the setting of goals i n my job The feeling of self-fulfillment associated with my job The threat of change which could make my present s k i l l s or knowledge obsolete at my job The opportunity for conversation and exchange of ideas with colleagues and coworkers at my job - 119 - Below you see a number of characteristics or qualities that might be connected with a c t i v i t i e s you undertake outside your job. By a c t i v i t i e s outside your job, we mean any acti v i t y which you might do i n your hare, with your friends, or anywhere outside your regular job. You are asked to indicate for each characteristic or quality of how much i s i t present i n your off-job a c t i v i t i e s . (Mnimum) (Maximum) 1 2 3 4 5 The feeling of insecurity i n my off-job a c t i v i t i e s The opportunity to give help to other people i n my off-job a c t i v i t i e s The feeling of self-esteem I get i n my off-job a c t i v i t i e s Prestige I receive from people with whan I undertake my off-job a c t i v i t i e s The opportunity for participating i n the determination of methods and procedures of my off-job a c t i v i t i e s The opportunity I receive for participating i n the setting of goals i n my off-job a c t i v i t i e s The feelings of worthwhile accomplishment I receive from performing my off-job a c t i v i t i e s The feeling of self-fulfillment I receive from my off-job a c t i v i t i e s The opportunity for conversation and exchange of ideas with people i n my off-job a c t i v i t i e s The threat of change which could make my present knowledge and s k i l l s i n off-job a c t i v i t i e s obsolete - 120 - I am interested to know the way people are feeling these days. Below you w i l l see a number of statements which may t e l l me the way you feel these days. Please indicate whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree, or are undecided about each of these statements with a check mark. |7 I $ a$ i J f e 'B -H 4_ -3 CO fiC < D Q CO Q Getting ahead i n this world i s mostly a matter of luck and p u l l . Inspite of what some people say, the l o t of the average man i s getting worse, not better. These days a person does not really know who he can count on. Most people are out for themselves and don't care what happens to others. . It i s hardly f a i r to bring children into the world •with the way things look for the future. Nowadays a person has to l i v e pretty much for today and l e t tomorrow take care of i t s e l f . There i s l i t t l e use of writing to public o f f i c i a l s because often they are not really interested in the problems of the average man. I believe that most people can be trusted. I sometimes get so blue and discouraged that I wonder whether anything i s worthwhile. I often b o i l inside myself without letting people know about i t . Many people are so unreasonable that i t i s hard to talk to them. I have as much chance to enjoy l i f e as I should have. I sometimes fe e l l i k e smashing tilings for no good reason. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) - 121 - I often have to t e l l people to inind their own business. People often get on my nerves so that I want to do just the opposite of what they want me to do. I wake up rested most mornings. I am often worried and upset. I often have trouble getting to sleep or staying asleep. I worry much about things that might happen to me. I am sonetimes bothered by nervousness. I feel that I can do much to make my future what I want i t to be. I feel that I am accomplishing the sorts of things I would l i k e to do i n my l i f e . I often blame myself and feel bad over things I have done. I often have a hard time to make up my mind. People often hurt my feelings. When things go wrong, I am usually w i l l i n g to leave i t to others to work matters out. On the whole, I usually li k e to be by myself rather than with other people. I often f e e l restless, wanting to be on the move doing something but not knowing what. I feel i n good s p i r i t s almost a l l the time. There are things about my health that bother me. - 122 - Listed below are some more statements which may indicate the way you feel these days. Please answer a l l statements by putting the check mark (/) i n the appropriate category i n each statement. How often do you take scmetliing for slight illnesses l i k e headaches, upset stomachs, or things l i k e that? How often do you go to see a medical doctor for slight illnesses l i k e headaches, upset stomachs, etc.? How often do you go to a doctor or clergyman or anyone l i k e that about your personal pro- blems, or nervousness or such tilings? How often do you go to watch sports events? How often do you use any special foods or tonics or anything l i k e that to help keep you i n good condition? How often do you get together with your relatives? (5) How often do you get together with your friends (very best) as a group? How often do you get together with just one or two of your friends? Please answer the following statements by checking either "YES" or "NO" for each statement. YES NO (1) (2) Do you have any physical or health problems? So far as you know, did you ever have a • nervous breakdown? Do you have seme friends (other than especially good friends) whom you see often? - 123 - Over the years there are a l o t of things a man canes to learn about people. a. What are some of the main tilings you have learned about people? (1) . ; (2) ; b. What would you say most people want out of l i f e ? (1) (2) Are you ever bothered with headaches, indigestion, or any of the common ailments? Please put a mark against those whichever bother you. Headaches Indigestion or stomach trouble Constipation or diarrhea .. Sleeplessness Tiredness without knowing why Heartburn Backaches High blood pressure Neuralgia Hemorrhoids or piles Nervousness Nose, throat, or sinus trouble Many colds or coughs Others (Please specify) How many specially good friends do you have? friends How do you expect things to turn out for you i n the future? very good good neither good nor bad not good . not very good Taken together, how would you say things are these days — would you say that you are: very happy pretty happy not too happy How many organizations such as church and ethnic groups, labour unions or social and c i v i c clubs do you belong to? Organizations In how many such organizations did you hold i n the past or are presently holding any kind of executive position (i.e. President, Secretary, Vice- President , Treasurer)? Organizations Overall, how many meetings of the various organizations did you attend i n the last two months? meetings In the last four weeks, approximately how many hours did you spend i n attending the meetings of various organizations? hours - 124 - The following statements describe the ways that a supervisor might act with subordinates (the people that work and report to him). Please react to the following statements as descriptions of the way your immediate supervisor works with subordinates. Q) To what extent i s your immediate supervisor friendly and easy to appx'oach? To what extent i s your immediate supervisor attentive to what you say? To what extent i s your immediate supervisor willi n g to l i s t e n to your problems? To what extent does your immediate supervisor encourage people to give their best effort? To what extent does your immediate supervisor maintain high standards of performance? To what extent does your immediate supervisor set an example by working hard himself? To what extent does your immediate supervisor show you how to improve your performance? -P >i -P m M -P QJ *> <U +) H 4J i -P & -P > ,+J r n a _ c o q a -P a nj'-pcu ns v wa) <aa> rd <d <D •P-P -P -P -P CD -P H rH o3 EHS EH ai EH CD § &> C3 (1) J2T~ T I T 14) (5) To what extent does your immediate supervisor offer new ideas for solving job-related problems? To what extent does your immediate supervisor encourage subordinates to take action without waiting for detailed review and approval from him? To what extent does your immediate supervisor provide the help you need so that you can schedule work ahead of time? To what extent does your immediate supervisor encourage persons who work for him to work as team? To what extent does your immediate supervisor encourage people who work for him to exchange opinions and ideas? How often does your immediate supervisor hold • Never group meetings where he and the people who work _ _ _ Once or twice per year for him can really discuss tilings together? 3 to 6 times per year /About 1 per nionth More often than 1 per _ _25 - month Now I would l i k e to find out a l i t t l e b i t about you and.the things at your, work place. Please answer the following questions as accurately as possible. Remember, your answers are confidential and w i l l always be used in group s t a t i s t i c s . 1. How old were you cn your l a s t birthday? years old 2. Are you: Male Female 9. How long have you worked for this Company: Less than 6 months 6 months to 2 years 2 years to 5 years 5 years to 10 years _ Over 10 years 3. How many years of regular school have you completed? years 4. How many dependents do you have? 10. 11. 5. Are you: Single Married Separated Widowed Divorced 6. On the average, approximately how much do you earn a month before taxes? a month 7. Were you brought up mostly i n a Village/Farm Town Small City Large City 8. About, how many miles i s i t from your home to the place where you work? Mile(s) What department or section do you work in? How long does a person have to spend i n training or experience to be able to handle a job li k e yours? Less than 1 month 1 - 3 months 4-6 months 7-12 months Over 12 months 12. What sh i f t do you work usually? Morning Afternoon Night Rotate Shifts 13. What i s your present job t i t l e ? 14. Approximately how many persons work in your department or section? 15. What is/was the usual occupation of your father or guardian? - 126 - These days lots of people are talking about flexible work hours and shorter work week (i.e. 4 days 10 hours work week). How do you feel about them? Do you favour, disfavour, or neither favour nor disfavour flexible work" hours and shorter work week? Flexible Hours Short Work Week 4J a rH al *J ' o p o -H m o m -P ftf (C d - H -H CO fa |J4 H Q CO Q 3 O rH O 1 . Is there any provision of working over-time for extra money at your present job? • Yes No If YES, approximately how many hours do you spend working over- time i n a normal week? Hours 2 . How would you cl a s s i f y your present job? Would you say i t i s a Line Job? Staff Job? Line/Staff Job? 3 . Are you doing any kind of paid work i n your spare time? Yes No If YES, what kind of work i s i t (please specify). 6. How does your supervisor rate your performance in comparison to your peers (coworkers)? Much better Better About the same Slightly low Much too low 7. In comparison to your peers, how would you rate your performance? Much better Better About the same Slightly low Much too low 8. In general, how do your peers rate your performance i n comparison to theirs? Much better Better About the same Slightly low Much too low 4. How many times have you been absent from work this month? T i m e s 5. How many times were you absent from work i n the la s t four months? T i m e s 9. If you have your own way, w i l l you be working for your present company two years from now? Certainly Probably Not sure one way or the other Probably not Certainly not - 1 2 7 - Please answer to the following statements.- . . Some- How often i s this true of you? Often times Rarely Never true true true true (1) (2) (3) (4) 1. I have d i f f i c u l t y i n making decisions. 2. I feel lonely. 3. I get pains i n my heart or chest. 4. I feel hopeless about the future. 5. I feel trapped or caught. 6. I get heavy feelings i n my arms or legs. 7. I have trouble i n concentrating. 8. I blame myself for things. • 9. I feel blocked or stymied i n getting things done. Is this true of you? True False (1) (4) " 10. There have been times when I f e l t l i k e smashing things. 11. I am always willi n g to admit i t when I make a mistake. 12. I can remember "playing sick" to get out of something. 13. I sometimes feel resentful when I don't get my way. 14. At times I have really insisted on having tilings my own way. 15. I am always courteous even to people who are disagreeable. 16. I never hesitate to go out of my way to help someone i n trouble. 17. I don't find i t particularly d i f f i c u l t to get along with loud-mouthed, obnoxious people. 18. I sometimes try to get even rather than forgive and and forget. 19. There have been times when I was quite jealous of the good fortune of others. 20. I have never been irked when people expressed ideas very different from my own. 21. I never resent being asked to return a favor. - 128 - - 129 - APPENDIX B Validation of the Mental Health Measures I am interested to know the way people are feeling these days. Below you w i l l see a number of statements which may t e l l me the way you feel these days. Please indicate whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree, or are undecided about each of these statements with a check mark. >i | 0) > id l rH " P © rH CU C O ) CU 'o tn S1 & O 0) 35 0) rci O (C _ ft TJ CO H w -P CP fcn C -iH +J -H CO < <C D Q CO Q Getting ahead i n this world i s mostly a matter of luck and p u l l . Inspite of what some people say, the l o t of the average man i s getting worse, not better. These days a person does not re a l l y know who he can count on. Most people are out for themselves and don't care what happens to others. I t i s hardly f a i r to bring children into the world with the way things look for the future. Nowadays a person has to l i v e pretty much for today and l e t tomorrow take care of i t s e l f . There i s l i t t l e use of writing to public o f f i c i a l s because often they are not re a l l y interested i n the problems of the average man. I believe that most people can be trusted. I sometimes get so blue and discouraged that I wonder whether anything i s worthwhile. I often b o i l inside myself without letting people know about i t . Many people are so unreasonable that i t i s hard to talk to them. I have as much chance to enjoy l i f e as I should have. I scaiietimes f e e l l i k e smashing tilings for no good reason. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) - 131 - I often have to t e l l people to mind their own business. People often get on my nerves so that I want to do jxist the opposite of what they want me to do. I wake up rested most nomings. I am often worried and upset. I often have trouble getting to sleep or staying asleep. I worry much about things that might happen to me. I am sometimes bothered by nervousness. I f e e l that I can do much to make my future what I want i t to be. I fe e l that I am accomplishing the sorts of things I would l i k e to do i n my l i f e . I often blame myself and fee l bad over things I have done. I often have a hard time to make up my mind. People often hurt my feelings. When tirings go wrong, I am usually will i n g to leave i t to others to work matters out. On the whole, I usually l i k e to be by myself rather than with other people. I often feel restless, wanting to be on the move doing something but not knowing what. I feel i n good s p i r i t s almost a l l the time. There are things about my health that bother me. - 132 - Listed below are seme more statements which may indicate the way you feel these days. Please answer a l l statements by putting the check mark (/) i n the appropriate category i n each statement. How often do you take something for slight (5) (4) (3) (2) (1) illnesses l i k e headaches, upset stomachs, or things l i k e that? How often do you go to see a medical doctor for slight illnesses l i k e headaches, upset stomachs, etc.? How often do you go to a doctor or clergyman or anyone l i k e that about your personal pro- blems, or nervousness or such things? How often do you go to watch sports events? How often do you use any special foods or tonics or anything l i k e that to help keep you i n good condition? How often do you get together with your relatives? How often do you get together with your friends (very best) as a group? How often do you get together with just one or two of your friends? Please answer the following statements by checking either "YES" or "NO" for each statement. YES NO (1) (2) Do you have any physical or health problems? So far as you know, did you ever have a nervous breakdown? Do you have some friends (other than especially good friends) whom you see often? - 133 - Over the years there are a l o t of things a man comes to learn about people. a. What are some of the main things you have learned about people? (1) (2) ; b. What would you say most people want out of l i f e ? (1) ; (2) Are you ever bothered with headaches, indigestion,- or any of the common ailments? Please put a mark against those whichever bother you. Headaches Indigestion or stomach trouble Constipation or diarrhea Sleeplessness Tiredness without Jcnowing why Heartburn Backaches High blood pressure Neuralgia Hemorrhoids or piles Nervousness Nose, throat, or sinus trouble Many colds or coughs Others (please specify) How many specially good friends do you have? friends How many organizations such as church and ethnic groups, labour unions or social and c i v i c clubs do you belong to? How do you expect things to turn out for you i n the future? very good j good neither good nor bad not good not very good Taken together, how would you say things are these days — would you say that you are: very happy pretty happy not too happy Organizations In how many such organizations did you hold i n the past or are presently holding any kind of executive position (i.e. President, Secretary, Vice- President, Treasurer?) Organizations Overall, how many meetings of the various organizations did you attend i n the l a s t two months? Meetings In the last four weeks, approximately how many hours did you spend i n attending the meetings of various organizations? hours - 134 - Overall, how do you feel about the way you spend your time when .you are not working? completely satisfied well satisfied neither satisfied nor dissatisfied a l i t t l e d i s s a tisfied very dissatisfied How do you feel about your chances for getting ahead? very good pretty good good not good not too good In general, how do you feel about your l i f e ? Would you say you are completely satisfied well satisfied neither satisfied nor dissatisfied a l i t t l e dissatisfied very dissatisfied How important i s i t to you to have friends? very important pretty important important not important not very important t You just finished reviewing an individual's responses to various measures of mental health. Now, when you had already reviewed responses, you are requested to give your personal judgement about the psychological and mental health of the individual by answering the following question. In my judgement, the level of mental health of this individual i s : Excellent Very good Good Average Poor Very poor Worst Thank you very much for your cooperation. Muhammed Jamal MF/mjf - 135 -

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