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Need fulfillment in work and non-work as related to mental health Jamal, Muhammad 1976

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NEED FtJI^niJVENT IN WORK AND NON-WORK AS RELATED TO MENTAL HEALTH  by  MUHAMMAD JAMAL B . A . (University of the Punjab) 1965 M . A . (University o f the Punjab) 1967 M . A . (University o f B r i t i s h Columbia) 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  i n the Faculty  of Carmnerce and Business  Administration  We accept t h i s t h e s i s conforming t o the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1976 (c) Muhammad Jamal* ^976  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e the I  Library  further  for  agree  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment  of  at  University  of  Columbia,  the  make  that  it  freely  permission  this  representatives. thesis  for  It  is  financial  for  gain  extensive  of  British  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  by  shall  of  The U n i v e r s i t y  for  the  Columbia  not  the  requirements  reference copying of  Head o f  understood that  written permission.  Department  British  available  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  by h i s of  shall  thesis  I  agree  and  be a l l o w e d  that  study.  this  thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying or  for  or  publication  without  my  dedicated t o  Arreni and Abbu  (whose prayers made t h i s p o s s i b l e )  Abstract A theoretical model was developed i n order to predict an jj^dividual s level of mental health on the basis of factors i n his work 1  and non-^work environments. The model predicted that the individual's level of mental health i s related to the degree of his psychological need fulfillment both i n work and non^work environments. I t was argued that the nature of the relationship between need fulfillment i n work and need fulfillment i n non-work i n an individual's l i f e determines his level of mental health. Four types of relationships between the two need, areas were proposed:  (1) High need fulfillment i n work might be coupled with high need  fulfillment i n non-work. This type of relationship was called a complementary relationship.  (2) High need fulfillment i n work might be  coupled with low need fulfillment i n non-work. This type of relationship was called an expressive relationship.  (3) Low need fulfillment i n work  might be coupled with a high need fulfillment i n non-work. This type of relationship was called a compensatory relationship.  (4) Low need f u l -  fillment i n work might be coupled with low need fulfillment i n non-work. This type of relationship was called a spill-over relationship. It was hypothesized that the level of mental health w i l l be high when there i s a complementary relationship between need fulfillment i n the two areas; moderately high when there i s an expressive relationship; moderate when there i s a compensatory relationship; and low when there i s  a spill-over relationship.• The model a l s o predicted that various technological, organizational and management factors are r e l a t e d to need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work. hypotheses (hypotheses 5 to 9) were formulated  Five  showing the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between technological, organizational and management f a c t o r s , and need fulfillment. . Data on i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s were c o l l e c t e d through a structured questionnaire -from 403 employees (response rate 45 percent), working i n s i x i n d u s t r i a l organizations i n Western Canada.  Data on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  v a r i a b l e s were obtained tlurough personal interviews with a t l e a s t one senior manager i n each o f the s i x p a r t i c i p a t i n g companies.  Hypotheses  were tested using one-way-analysis o f variance and Spearman rank order correlations. The r e s u l t s on need f u l f i l l m e n t as p r e d i c t o r s o f mental health showed that the mean scores on mental health were highest f o r the cxxmplementary r e l a t i o n s h i p ; second f o r the expressive r e l a t i o n s h i p ; t h i r d f o r the compensatory r e l a t i o n s h i p ; and lowest f o r the s p i l l - o v e r r e l a t i o n ship.  Differences between means across the four types of r e l a t i o n s h i p s  were s i g n i f i c a n t (P>.01) according t o the t - t e s t and the Duncan Sign Test. The p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n (r=.48) between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and mental health, c o n t r o l l i n g f o r need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work, was f a r greater than the p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n (r=.20) between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work and mental health, c o n t r o l l i n g f o r need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work.  - iii The results on need fulfillment i n work as a dependent variable showed that (1) Both task specialization and technical constraints i n task performance were inversely related to need fulfillment.  (2) Need  fulfillment was slightly higher under a democratic supervisor than under an authoritarian supervisor.  (3) Need fulfillment was s l i g h t l y higher i n  f l a t organization structures than i n t a l l organization structures. (4) Need fulfillment was higher i n small organizations and sub-units than i n large organizations and sub-units for the blue-collar workers but not for the white-collar workers. I t was concluded that i t i s important that future research must include both work and non-work environment factors i n predicting employees* mental health and that serious attention must also be paid to technological variables along with organizational, management and psychological variables i n urxierstending employees' job attitudes.  iv Table o f Contents Page Abstract  i  Table o f Contents L i s t o f Tables  v i i  Acknowledgements Chapter I :  iv  INTRODUCTION  viii 1  1.1  R e l a t i o n s h i p between Work and Non-Work  2  1.2  The Concept o f Mental H e a l t h  8  1.3  Research on Mental H e a l t h  18  1.4  T h e o r e t i c a l Model  21  1.4.1  Need F u l f i l l m e n t and Mental H e a l t h  22  1.4.2  Need F u l f i l l m e n t i n Work as Dependent V a r i a b l e  31  1.4.2  (A)  T e c h n o l o g i c a l F a c t o r s and Need F u l f i l l m e n t  1.4.2  (B)  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l F a c t o r s and Need F u l f i l l m e n t  35  1.4.2  (C)  Management F a c t o r s and Need F u l f i l l m e n t  39  1.5  Research Hypotheses  Chapter I I : METHODS AND PROCEDURES  32  43 45  2.1  S e t t i n g and Subjects  45  2.2  Data C o l l e c t i o n  45  2.3  The Measuring Devices  47  2.3.1  Mental H e a l t h  47  - v 2.3.2 Need Fulfillment  57  y  2.3.3  Technological Variables  60  2.3.4  Supervisory Style  62  2.3.5  Organization Structure  63  2.3.6  Size  64  2.4  Decisions about Analysis  65  2.5  Reliability and Validity of the Measures  66  2.6  Description of the S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures  74  Chapter III: RESULTS 3.1  Need Fulfillment and Mental Health  3.2  Technological Variables, Leadership Style and  76 76  Need Fulfillment i n Work 3.3  79  Organizational Variables and Need Fulfillment i n Work  85  Chapter TV: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS  91  4.1  Validity of Mental Health Measures  91  4.2  Mental Health Predicted through Need Fulfillment  93  4.3  Need Fulfillment i n Work Predicted through Technological Variables and Supervisory Style  4.4  97  Need Fulfillment i n Work Predicted through Organizational Variables  4.5  Conclusions and Implications  100 -  1  0  2  - vi REFERENCES APPENDIX A  Quality o f L i f e Questionnaire  APPENDIX B  V a l i d a t i o n o f the Mental Health Measures  - viiLIST OF TABLES  Page 1.  2.  3.  4. 5.  6.  7.  8.  9. 10. 11.  12.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the sample on demographic and background variables  48  I n t e r r e l a t i o n s among component and composite indexes o f mental health  67  Internal consistency r e l i a b i l i t y estimates o f the major independent and dependent v a r i a b l e s  68  Agreement among c l i n i c i a n s ' estimates of mental health based on the questionnaire records  73-  Relationship between c l i n i c i a n s estimates of mental health based on the questionnaire records and the index o f mental health  73  Types of relationship" between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and non-work and the q u a l i t y of mental health according to Kornhauser's measures (median)  78  Types o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and non-work and the q u a l i t y of mental health according t o Kornhauser's measures (mean)  80  Spearman rank order c o r r e l a t i o n s of task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , t e c h n i c a l constraint and leadership s t y l e with need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work  82  Relationship between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and the measures of task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t  84  Relationship between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and four organizational v a r i a b l e s  86  Relationship between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and four organizational v a r i a b l e s f o r the b l u e - c o l l a r sample  89  Relationship between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and four organizational v a r i a b l e s f o r the w h i t e - c o l l a r sample  90  1  - viii Acknowledgement This research would not have been completed without the help of several individuals whom I would like to acknowledge and thank. Professor Vance F. Mitchell, my research advisor and the chairman of my Ph.D. Committee, supervised this study from i t s i n i t i a l planning stages to i t s completion.  His keen interest i n the research topic and his  insightful guidance at the various stages of this research made things easier for me.  Dr. Thad Barnowe assisted me greatly i n the collection of  data, and offered constructive criticisms of an early draft of this report.  I am also indebted to Peter J. Frost, Larry F. Moore and John  O'Connor for their help and advice i n the completion of this report. Several people i n the past served as members of my Ph.D. Committee: Merle E. Ace (Commerce, U.B.C.); George A. Miller (Utah State University); Martin Meissner (Sociology, U.B.C.) and Thomas C. Taveggia  (Illinois  Institute of Technology) . I would like to thank them for their share i n the completion of my program. This research was sponsored by the Institute of Industrial Relations, University of British Columbia.  I am thankful to the Institute and to i t s  Director, Mark Thompson, for making funds available for this study. My friend, Khurshid Hassan, helped me greatly i n editing this report. If readers find this report easily readable, i t i s Khurshid who i s responsible for that.  - ixMy wife, Saleha, has been a great help throughout the time I was involved i n t h i s research.  She always pretended that my study  schedules  (which normally extended over the weekends) d i d not d i s t u r b the climate of our home.  I am thankful t o her f o r her love, patience and under-  standing. Last, but not l e a s t , I would l i k e t o thank the management and the employees o f the p a r t i c i p a t i n g companies without whose cooperation there would have been no p r o j e c t a t a l l .  CHAPTER I:  Introduction  One area of concern which has not been well researched i n organizational behavior i s the relationship between work and non-work activities.  Questions such as to what extent, i f any, do the a c t i v i t i e s  which individuals do i n their jobs affect their a c t i v i t i e s i n off-job situations have remained v i r t u a l l y unanswered by scholars i n organizational behavior.  The chief reason for this neglect may be that invest-  igators i n organizational behavior so far have been preoccupied with research on job satisfaction, motivation and leadership.  It has been  estimated that over five thousand research articles have been published on job satisfaction alone since the Brayfield and Crockett review i n 1955.  Until very recently, research i n the area of work and non-work was l e f t to industrial sociologists whose major focus was the relationship between structural variables i n the work environment (such as shift-time, physical isolation at the job, and technical constraints i n job performance) and various kinds of off-job a c t i v i t i e s .  In off-job a c t i v i t i e s  their emphasis was limited to such variables as participation i n voluntary organizations, the like.  time budget of individuals' off-job a c t i v i t i e s and  Industrial sociologists did not consider i t f r u i t f u l to  examine the impact of workers' subjective feelings i n job a c t i v i t i e s on their subjective feelings i n off-job a c t i v i t i e s .  For this reason, i t  was f e l t that there i s a need for research i n this area.  The  following  research study attempted to examine the relationship between a worker's psychological need fulfillment i n job and off-job a c t i v i t i e s .  Specif-  i c a l l y , the research question addressed was as follows:  Is need f u l -  f i l l m e n t i n work r e l a t e d t o need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work, and i s t h i s , i n turn, r e l a t e d t o an i n d i v i d u a l ' s mental health? 1.1  Relationship  between Work and Non-Work  I n d u s t r i a l s o c i o l o g i s t s have long agreed that i n any society the l i f e space o f the adult members (especially those who are engaged i n g a i n f u l economic pursuits) may be divided i n t o two kinds o f l i f e r o l e s ; work r o l e and non-work r o l e .  By work r o l e , they mean the r o l e which an  i n d i v i d u a l plays as an occupant o f a paid job and the a c t i v i t i e s which he undertakes during the hours when he i s engaged i n paid-work.  The  term non-work r o l e r e f e r s t o the r o l e which an i n d i v i d u a l plays outside h i s job and which could include the a c t i v i t i e s he undertakes i n h i s home, with h i s friends, neighbors and the l i k e . Speculation and theorizing concerning the i n t e r - p l a y between work r o l e a c t i v i t i e s and non-work r o l e a c t i v i t i e s have been put f o r t h by writers from Adam Smith and Engels t o C.W. M i l l s and from de Tocqueville t o Reisman (Meissner, 1971).  But the c r e d i t must go t o Wilensky (1960)  for empirically demonstrating two a l t e r n a t i v e propositions the r e l a t i o n s h i p between work and non-^ork — over.  concerning  compensatory and s p i l l -  The compensatory proposition o f work and non-work suggests that  workers attempt t o compensate i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s f o r things they cannot achieve a t work.  In contrast,  the s p i l l - o v e r proposition  suggests  that things which are not achievable a t work are a l s o not achievable i n  - 3 non-work a c t i v i t i e s . These propositions, and others r e l a t e d to them, have been used as t h e o r e t i c a l guidelines i n several empirical studies concerning r e l a t i o n s h i p between work and non-work.  I t may,  the  therefore, be u s e f u l to  review the l i t e r a t u r e on work and non-work from the perspective of the two propositions. A review of the l i t e r a t u r e on work and non-work suggests three main streams of research.  The f i r s t stream, dominated c h i e f l y by i n d u s t r i a l  s o c i o l o g i s t s , focuses on the issue of how  s p e c i f i c job r e l a t e d f a c t o r s  a f f e c t the o f f - j o b behavior of workers (Wilensky, 1960; McLoughlin and Warwick, 1965; 1971;  Dulz, 1973). © below.  Mott, Mann,  Hagedorn and Labovitz, 1968;  Meissner,  A b r i e f examination of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e i s presented  Wilensky (1960) attempted t o t e s t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between work and non-work using a sample from the D e t r o i t middle c l a s s . study was  The aim of h i s  "... to l i n k s p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t e s of work s i t u a t i o n and  career  to s t y l e s of l i f e and more broadly to v a r i a t i o n s i n the strength  and  kinds of t i e s that bind persons and groups to community and society." He observed a s p i l l - o v e r r e l a t i o n s h i p operating between work and work i n h i s sample and concluded that, "To the extent that men  non-  are  exposed t o d i s c i p l i n e d work routines y i e l d i n g l i t t l e g r a t i f i c a t i o n and have careers which do not necessitate wide camiunity p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e i r r e t r e a t from work w i l l be accompanied by a withdrawal from the  - 4 larger canmunal l i f e . " Both Bast (1960) and Mott e t a l ^ (1965) observed that workers working on morning s h i f t s were more a c t i v e i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n voluntary organizations than workers who were on other s h i f t s .  I f i t can be  assumed t h a t working on a day s h i f t i s a s o c i a l l y accepted norm f o r the majority of the' people, then the findings of East and Mott e t a l . may interpreted as supporting a s p i l l - o v e r r e l a t i o n s h i p .  be  Hagedorn and  Labovitz (1968) observed that the more i s o l a t e d the i n d i v i d u a l was  on  h i s job the more he would j o i n and p a r t i c i p a t e i n ccmnunity a s s o c i a t i o n s . However, i f the i n d i v i d u a l considered formal and informal contact t o be unimportant, he was less l i k e l y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n such a c t i v i t i e s .  This  l a t t e r f i n d i n g tends t o support a s p i l l - o v e r r e l a t i o n s h i p while the former suggests a compensatory r e l a t i o n s h i p . Meissner (1971) observed that both t e c h n i c a l constraints and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n a t jobs were negatively r e l a t e d t o workers' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n voluntary organizations.  He concluded on the basis o f these findings  that "The extent t o which a man i s used, as a resource i n the organi z a t i o n o f work, i s a burden — m i l l gate."  l i g h t or heavy not e a s i l y dropped a t the  In a recent study, Dulz (1973) observed a p o s i t i v e but weak  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the extent o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a t jobs and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n voluntary organizations. workers from four nations: USA,  Her sample consisted o f automobile  I t a l y , Argentina and India.  Again,  both the Meissner and Dulz's studies tend t o support the existence o f a  - 5 s p i l l - o v e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between work and non-work. In summary, the empirical  studies i n the f i r s t stream of research  on work and non-work c l e a r l y support a s p i l l - o v e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between work r e l a t e d f a c t o r s and the o f f - j o b behavior of i n d u s t r i a l workers. Workers who  were deprived of c e r t a i n things i n work were unable to  compensate f o r them i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s . The  second stream of research i n work and non-work, dominated  c h i e f l y by s o c i a l psychologists,  focuses on the  interrelationships  between job a t t i t u d e s and o v e r a l l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n (Wesley, Watson, 1942;  Weitz, 1952;  Friesen, 1952;  Holmes, 1963;  Kornhauser, 1965;  1939;  B r a y f i e l d and Wells,  Hulin, 1969;  1957;  I r i s and Barrett, 1972) .  A b r i e f review o f t h i s l i t e r a t u r e follows. The e a r l i e s t reported study dealing with the r e l a t i o n s h i p between job s a t i s f a c t i o n and l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n i s one by Wesley (1939) wherein the r e l a t i o n s h i p between job s a t i s f a c t i o n and general morale of former University of Minnesota students was  examined.  In two  separate i n v e s t -  igations he found s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a t t i t u d e s towards one's job and attitudes towards one's l i f e i n general. l a r l y , Watson (1947) observed a c o r r e l a t i o n ' o f  Simi-  .25 between occupational  morale and a l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n index with 538 unemployed males. Friesen  (1952); using the incomplete sentence technique with a sample of  female workers, compared a t t i t u d e s towards l i f e a t work with a t t i t u d e s towards l i f e away from work and found a small p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n  -  between the two.  6  -  Weitz (1952) also found a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n o f .39  between job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and l i f e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among a sample of insurance agents. B r a y f i e l d and Wells (1957) observed a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between job s a t i s f a c t i o n and general l i f e  satisfaction  among males but no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found with females. Kornhauser  (1965), i n a sample of D e t r o i t automobile workers, found a  p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between job s a t i s f a c t i o n and l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n . He also found job s a t i s f a c t i o n t o be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to family and home s a t i s f a c t i o n , l e i s u r e s a t i s f a c t i o n and community s a t i s f a c t i o n . Hulin (1969), using a sample o f 469 workers i n two company towns, found that the f i v e dimensions o f JDI as w e l l as the variables  of  management response to complaints and working conditions showed s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e relationships sample only.  with general l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the male  With females, only one dimension of JDI (co-workers)  found to be p o s i t i v e l y related to general l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n . Barrett  (1972) also observed several p o s i t i v e relationships  was  I r i s and between  s a t i s f a c t i o n with JDI factors and l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e i r sample of f i r s t l i n e supervisors.  In t h e i r study, importance o f work, supervision  and promotion were also found to be r e l a t e d to l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n . In summary, the r e s u l t s of studies f a l l i n g i n t o the second stream of research on work and non-work are consistent with the  interpretation  that favourable or unfavourable f e e l i n g s a t work carry over t o produce s i m i l a r f e e l i n g s i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s .  In general, i t has been found  that a t t i t u d e s towards one's job are p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o attitudes towards one's l i f e . The t h i r d and the f i n a l stream o f research i n work and non-work focuses on the r e l a t i v e importance o f need f u l f i l l m e n t i n areas such as work, home and family, l e i s u r e and others.  One o f the e a r l i e s t studies  which attempted to measure need s a t i s f a c t i o n i n work and non-work i s the study by Papanestor (1959). He observed a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-wrk a c t i v i t i e s i n a sample o f evening c l a s s students a t the University o f C i n c i n n a t i . Burke (1973) used a sample o f managers t o examine need s a t i s f a c t i o n i n f i v e l i f e areas: activities.  work, family, f r i e n d s , l e i s u r e , and organizational  He found that managers who spent more time i n a work r o l e  tended t o spend l e s s time i n the four other non-work r o l e s .  In a sample  of business managers and c i v i l servants, Anderson (1974) examined need f u l f i l l m e n t i n three l i f e areas: activities.  job, family and home, and other  Although h i s r e s u l t s are mixed, he reported the existence  of a compensatory r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the lower needs l e v e l i n work and non-work.  (physiological)  In upper l e v e l needs ( s o c i a l , esteem and s e l f -  actualization) i t appears that a s p i l l - o v e r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i n operation. Mansfield (1972) c o l l e c t e d data on need s a t i s f a c t i o n and importance from 58 managers who were, p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a week-long course i n the 'Behavioral Sciences a t Work' offered by the London Business School. Using Maslow's need hierarchy, he found no d i f f e r e n c e s i n need s a t i s f a c t i o n i n work and non-^work i n four o f the f i v e need areas.  The one  - 8 area where a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was" noted was  s o c i a l needs f o r which  a greater d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was experienced i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s . However, i t was found that respondents placed greater importance on need s a t i s f a c t i o n i n work than non-work i n the need areas of s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n , autonomy and  security.  In summary, empirical evidence examining the r e l a t i v e importance of need f u l f i l l m e n t i n d i f f e r e n t l i f e areas appears to suggest the existence of a s p i l l - o v e r r e l a t i o n s h i p ;  there seems to be a tendency f o r higher  need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work to be r e l a t e d to higher need f u l f i l l m e n t i n nonwork. In conclusion, a l l three streams of research i n the area of work and non-work tend to support the s p i l l - o v e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . studies (Mansfield, 1972;  and Anderson, 1974)  However, two  dealing with need s a t i s -  f a c t i o n i n work and non-work d i d not c l e a r l y support the above conclusion although t h e i r data d i d suggest a s p i l l - o v e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . s i n g l e study was a compensatory r e l a t i o n s h i p  In not a  f u l l y documented between  work and non-work a c t i v i t i e s .  1.2  The Concept of Mental Health Although the concept of mental health has been subjected to  empirical research by s o c i o l o g i s t s , psychologists, p s y c h i a t r i s t s , occupational t h e r a p i s t s and many others, there i s , as yet, l i t t l e consensus as to i t s meaning.  Not only i s i t d i f f i c u l t t o agree on the  - 9 -  general a p p l i c a t i o n o f the term mental health, but i n a s i n g l e context i t may be used i n many d i f f e r e n t ways.  Yet one conclusion can be  reached about mental health as a concept:  " I t i s not a precise term but  an i n t u i t i v e l y apprehended idea that i s s t r i v i n g f o r s c i e n t i f i c status" (Schwartz and Schwartz, 1968). Investigators have defined mental health i n d i f f e r e n t ways.  As  e a r l y as 1937, Menninger defined mental health as "The adjustment o f human beings t o the world and t o each other with a maximum o f e f f e c t iveness and happiness."  He saw i t as the a b i l i t y t o maintain an even  temper, an a l e r t i n t e l l i g e n c e , s o c i a l l y considerate behavior and a happy d i s p o s i t i o n .  Tollman (1944) conceived good mental health as the  a b i l i t y t o l i v e with one's fellow men i n reasonable comfort without s e l f deception and despite recognized shortcoiuings.  S u l l i v a n (1954) ident-  i f i e s a person's d r i v e towards mental health as those "Processes which tend t o improve h i s e f f i c i e n c y as a human being, h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , and h i s success i n l i v i n g . "  To Franm (1955), "The mentally healthy person  i s the productive and unalienated person; the person who r e l a t e s himself to the world l o v i n g l y , and who uses h i s reason t o grasp r e a l i t y objecti v e l y , who experiences  himself as a unique i n d i v i d u a l e n t i t y and a t the  same time f e e l s one with h i s f e l l o w man..."  S o l l e y and Munden (1962)  attempted t o o p e r a t i o n a l l y define mental health by interviewing fourteen p s y c h i a t r i s t s and psychologists who were associated with the Menninger foundation.  Their r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t people who are considered t o  be mentally healthy exhibited the following a t t r i b u t e s :  (1) having a  - 10 v a r i e t y of sources of g r a t i f i c a t i o n i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s with others, i n t h e i r work and i n t h e i r ideas; (2) recognizing and accepting t h e i r personal strengths and weaknesses; (3) t r e a t i n g others as i n d i v i d u a l s and being s e n s i t i v e to i n d i v i d u a l differences among people;  (4) spon-  taneously and n a t u r a l l y using t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s to f u l f i l l personal needs and i n the s e r v i c e of others; (5) f l e x i b i l i t y under s t r e s s . vein, Himler  In a s i m i l a r  (1964) suggested three i n d i c a t o r s of poor mental health:  (1) "Change i n employees' p r o d u c t i v i t y ; (2) a l t e r a t i o n s i n employees' adaptive capacity to co-operate with others i n a work group; (3) manif e s t evidences of emotional i l l health, f o r example, anxiety, agression, depression or alcoholism." This b r i e f review of the concept of mental health gives a good i n d i c a t i o n of the m u l t i p l i c i t y of measures used i n assessing the term. An e x c e l l e n t comprehensive attempt was made by Jahoda (1958) to summar i z e the m u l t i p l i c i t y of c r i t e r i a used i n d e f i n i n g mental health.  She  l a b e l l e d c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a of mental health as unsuitable because they were unsatisfactory f o r research purposes.  "Absence of disease" i s  rejected as a c r i t e r i o n , not only because of the d i f f i c u l t y  surrounding  the term 'disease' but a l s o because the common usage of the term "mental health" now  includes more than the mere absence of a negative value.  Jahoda summarized what to her are acceptable sets of p o s i t i v e mental health.  These include:  (1) a t t i t u d e s toward the s e l f , which include  a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the s e l f to consciousness, correctness of the s e l f concept, f e e l i n g s about the s e l f concept  (self-acceptance) and a sense  - 11 -  of i d e n t i t y ; (2) growth development and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n , which includes conceptions o f s e l f motivational processes, living;  and investment i n  (3) i n t e g r a t i o n , which r e f e r s t o the balance o f psychic forces  i n the i n d i v i d u a l , a u n i f y i n g outlook on l i f e , and resistance t o s t r e s s ; (4) autonomy, which r e f e r s t o the decision making process,  regulation  from within and independent a c t i o n ; (5) undistorted perception o f r e a l i t y , including empathy o r s o c i a l s e n s i t i v i t y ;  (6) environmental mastery,  including the a b i l i t y t o love, adequacy i n interpersonal r e l a t i o n s , e f f i c i e n c y i n meeting s i t u a t i o n requirements, capacity f o r adaptation and adjustment, e f f i c i e n c y i n problem solving and adequacy i n love, work and play. Although Jahoda's work represents one o f the f i n e s t summaries o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n d e f i n i n g mental health, i t does have numerous problems, many o f which are recognized and discussed by her. The primary problem i s that the c r i t e r i a are overlapping and no r e s u l tant attempt has been made t o s p e l l out the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c r i t e r i a —  e.g. the degree t o which the c r i t e r i a are independent.  Secondly, she  does not o f f e r a method or methods f o r i d e n t i f y i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y indexes of the c r i t e r i a .  This makes i t impossible t o measure the degree o f a  p a r t i c u l a r c r i t e r i o n or even t o discover i t s presence or absence. T h i r d l y , no attempt i s made t o e m p i r i c a l l y t e s t the c r i t e r i a which she perceives t o be acceptable ones f o r the concept o f mental health. In a s i m i l a r fashion, Scott (1958) analyzed the c r i t e r i a used i n various studies f o r assessing mental health.  He discussed i n d e t a i l the  - 12 -  r e l a t i v e advantages and disadvantages of the following s i x c r i t e r i a : (1) exposure to p s y c h i a t r i c treatment; (2) s o c i a l adjustment; (3) psyc h i a t r i c diagnosis  (of the whole carmunity);  (5) objective psychological symptoms and adaptation.  (4) subjective unhappiness;  (6) f a i l u r e of p o s i t i v e  Like Jahoda, he does not present any data of h i s own  to  confirm or r e j e c t the r e l a t i v e s u p e r i o r i t y of some c r i t e r i a over others nor does he o f f e r any method or methods f o r i d e n t i f y i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y indexes of these c r i t e r i a .  However, Scott does present summary findings  discussing the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s he noted between various c r i t e r i a used i n studies which employed more than two c r i t e r i a .  He concluded that,  "The d i f f e r e n t categories of c r i t e r i a have tended t o y i e l d moderate, but not impressive  interrelations."  An e x c e l l e n t attempt was made by Kornhauser (1965) i n the  mid-  s i x t i e s to conceptualize the concept of mental health and.to a r r i v e a t an operational d e f i n i t i o n of mental health with the help of empirical data.  Kornhauser was a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n v a l i d a t i n g h i s d e f i n i t i o n of  mental health with expert opinion.  He conceptualized mental health as  "A loose d e s c r i p t i v e designation f o r an o v e r a l l l e v e l of  success,  personal s a t i s f a c t i o n , effectiveness, and excellence of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s functioning as a person.  I t r e f e r s to a combination of psychological  and behavioral a t t r i b u t e s some of which the person must possess above a required nunimum and others of which s i g n i f y better mental health the more they are present."  L i k e Jahoda and Scott, Kornhauser (1965)  conceived mental health as a multidimensional  concept.  On an a p r i o r i  - 13 -  basis, he set f o r t h to e x t r a c t statements from the l i t e r a t u r e which would s p e c i f y the conditions and behaviors which were considered to be i n d i c a t i v e of good or poor mental health (e.g. high self-esteem or s e l f derogation, degree of freedom from anxiety, general t r u s t or d i s t r u s t of people).  He then proceeded to c o l l e c t information on the selected s t a t e -  ments from a sample of 407 automobile workers i n D e t r o i t by means of personal interview.  The purpose of the interview was t o secure inform-  a t i o n about the respondent's usual f e e l i n g s , a t t i t u d e s , and which he f e l t would i n d i c a t e how the worker was logically."  behavior  "getting along psycho-  On the average, each interview lasted three and a h a l f to  four hours and was divided i n t o two equal sessions. From the interview responses obtained, on the basis of face v a l i d i t y , s i x component indexes were combined from the large number of items i n order to provide a general measure of mental health.  Each  index was considered to be a p a r t i a l i n d i c a t o r of mental health.  Taken  together the s i x indexes comprised the operational d e f i n i t i o n of mental health i n the Kornhauser (1965) study.  Each index i n turn was defined  by the content of items on which i t was based.  The s i x component  indexes were as follows: (1)  Index of manifest anxiety and emotional tension.  (2)  Index of self-esteem, favourable versus negative f e e l i n g s .  (3)  Index of h o s t i l i t y - versus t r u s t i n and acceptance of people.  (4)  Index of s o c i a b i l i t y and f r i e n d s h i p versus  (5)  Index of o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n with l i f e .  withdrawal.  - 14 -  (6)  Index o f personal morale - versus anomie, s o c i a l a l i e n a t i o n , despair. Kornhauser found high i n t e r n a l consistency r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r the  above indexes.  However, he d i d f i n d p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between  various items i n d i f f e r e n t indexes as w e l l as those between items i n the same index.  Agreement between an item o f the same index was found t o be  greater than f o r a sample o f items taken a t random from d i f f e r e n t indexes.  He found a median inter-item t e t r a c h o r i c c o r r e l a t i o n o f .35  f o r items within the indexes as compared t o a median t e t r a c h o r i c c o r r e l a t i o n o f .17 between items across indexes. Kornhauser validated h i s s i x indexes o f mental health against the judgment o f several highly q u a l i f i e d c l i n i c a l psychologists.  He  selected f o r t y respondents from h i s e n t i r e sample o f 407 f o r t h i s purpose.  For each respondent, c l i n i c a l experts were asked t o read  through the e n t i r e case f o l d e r (a f o r t y - f o u r page interview schedule, two check response inventories, and a s i x page interview with the r e s pondent's wife) and t o record on a f i v e point scale, an o v e r a l l estimate of "How good o r s a t i s f a c t o r y you consider the mental health o f the i n d i v i d u a l rated."  Each case was rated by three d i f f e r e n t experts.  r a t e r agreement was found t o be reasonably high: agreement was observed t o be .52 (tau).  Inter-  the median i n t e r - r a t e r  When the composite ratings by  c l i n i c i a n s were correlated with the o v e r a l l index o f mental health (derived by combining the scores on s i x sub-indexes o f mental health), a very high c o r r e l a t i o n was found between the two. The Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n  -15 was  -  .76 and the tetrachoric correlation".84.  Only 1 out o f 14 persons  who were high on the index received a r a t i n g below the average; of  17 persons having low scores received such a r a t i n g .  14 out  These findings  suggested that the meaning o f mental health as measured by quantitative indexes c l o s e l y corresponded t o what the c l i n i c i a n s also conceived t o be good o r poor mental health. Additional support f o r the v a l i d i t y o f mental health measures was received by comparing scores obtained on the indexes with testimony given by the wives o f the respondents.  The wife's estimate was based on  her own observations o f her spouse over long periods o f time and over a wide v a r i e t y o f l i f e s i t u a t i o n s .  Two questions i n the interviews with  the wives were compared with the husband's responses:  (1) her opinion  regarding her spouse's o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n with l i f e ;  (2) her opinion  about whether o r not he i s "ever nervous o r i r r i t a b l e . "  Wives' responses  to both questions were found t o c o r r e l a t e w e l l with the husband's own reports.  F o r example, r a t i n g s o f the man's l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n by himself  and by h i s wife had a c o r r e l a t i o n o f .79 f o r the younger workers and .51 for  the middle-aged workers.  S i m i l a r l y , estimates o f "nervousness"  correlated .48 and .66 f o r younger and older workers r e s p e c t i v e l y .  When  the wives' estimates are compared with the more general indexes o f t h e i r husbands' mental health, the r e l a t i o n s h i p s s t i l l tend t o be strongly positive.  For example, the c o r r e l a t i o n between a wife's estimate o f her  husband's l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n and the husband's mental h e a l t h score was found t o be .50 f o r younger workers and .53 f o r middle-aged  workers.  - 16 -  The c o r r e l a t i o n between the wife's estimate o f her husband's nervousness and the husband's mental health was found t o be .26 f o r younger workers and .44 f o r middle-aged workers.  Similarly, the wife's estimate o f her  husband's nervousness and the husband's  "anxiety" scores were found t o  be c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r both younger workers (r=.65) and middleaged workers (r=.66). A f t e r documenting the r e l i a b i l i t i e s and v a l i d i t i e s o f measures o f mental health, Kornhauser c o r r e l a t e d the scores on the o v e r a l l index o f mental health with the s i x sub-indexes o f mental health and a r r i v e d a t the following empirical d e f i n i t i o n o f mental health:  "Good mental  health means that the persons so l a b e l l e d have high p r o b a b i l i t y o f f e e l i n g w e l l s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r l i v e s , d e f i n i t e l y p o s i t i v e and favourable i n t h e i r s e l f f e e l i n g s , r e l a t i v e l y free o f nervousness and anxiety. With p r o b a b i l i t i e s s l i g h t l y lower, they a l s o tend t o have high morale (trust i n people and society, freedom from "anomie" or s o c i a l a l i e n ation) and l i t t l e manifestation o f strong h o s t i l i t y . somewhat l e s s s o c i a l l y withdrawn.  They are likewise  Mental health that i s "not good" o r  "low" implies the opposite o f these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . " As already indicated, the meanings o f the s i x sub-indexes were defined by the s p e c i f i c responses on which they were based.  Inspection  o f the response f i g u r e s under each index l e d t o the following summary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which d i s t i n g u i s h a man having high mental health. Anxiety: worry,  Those i n good mental health tend t o be free o f excessive reports o f nervousness, insomnia, psychosomatic ailments, heavy  - 17 drinking and concern about health. Self-Esteem:  They are free from excessive discouragement  and lack of  confidence i n t h e i r own judgment; they have p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s of accomplishment and c o n t r o l of t h e i r future; they are infrequently overs e n s i t i v e or given t o s e l f blame. Hostility:  People do not antagonize them ("get on your nerves so that  you want t o do the opposite...," "often have to t e l l the people to mind t h e i r own business"); they l e s s frequently r e p o r t " b o i l i n g i n s i d e , " f e e l i n g " l i k e smashing things f o r no good reason;" they l e s s o f t e n volunteer bad q u a l i t i e s as the "things you have learned about the people." S o c i a b i l i t y (versus withdrawal):  Persons of high mental health r e j e c t  the view that one does not know whom he can count on; they do not p r e f e r being by themselves; they consider i t important to have friends and are more l i k e l y to have good f r i e n d s , t o belong t o voluntary organizations and to see friends more often. L i f e Satisfaction:  Mental health i s associated with fewer f e e l i n g s of  restlessness /"wanting to be doing something but not knowing what"); with predominantly favourable comments covering t h e i r l i f e s i t u a t i o n , s e l f ratings of being w e l l s a t i s f i e d , i n good s p i r i t s ,  o p t i m i s t i c about  t h e i r own futures with b e l i e f that they have "as much chance to enjoy l i f e as (they) should have." Personal Morale:  Those i n good mental health b e l i e v e that most people  can be trusted and that people are not "out f o r themselves" alone; they are r e l a t i v e l y free from generalized pessimism and despair represented  - 18 by such thoughts as "the l o t o f the average man i s getting worse,"  "it  i s hardly f a i r t o bring c h i l d r e n i n t o the world," "getting ahead i s mostly a matter of luck and p u l l " and that"a person has to l i v e pretty much f o r today and l e t tomorrow take care of i t s e l f . " In summary, the l i t e r a t u r e on mental health suggests that the concept has d i f f e r e n t meanings t o d i f f e r e n t w r i t e r s .  However, no other  w r i t e r has attempted to s p e l l out the meaning o f t h i s concept as c l e a r l y as Kornhauser.  Since i t was beyond the scope o f the present research t o  develop i t s own measures of mental health, the Kornhauser formulation was adopted i n the present research study. two considerations.  This decision was based on  F i r s t , the r e l i a b i l i t i e s and v a l i d i t i e s of  Kornhauser's measures have been w e l l documented and are high enough, according t o the c r i t e r i o n s e t by Nunnally (1967), t o j u s t i f y t h e i r use i n further research.  Secondly, t o the best of our knowledge, no study  has been reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e which attempts t o r e t e s t the r e l a t i v e r e l i a b i l i t i e s and v a l i d i t i e s of Kornhauser's measures.  By  using the Kornhauser measures, i t was hoped that seme meaningful l i g h t might be shed on t h i s issue.  1.3  Research on Mental Health  Mental health as a dependent v a r i a b l e has been the subject of empirical research f o r a long time.  Since no u n i v e r s a l d e f i n i t i o n o f  mental health existed, a large number o f overlapping and i n t e r r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s were conceived by d i f f e r e n t investigators t o be measures of  - 19  mental health.  -  Notwithstanding these d i f f e r e n c e s , some s o c i a l and work  environment f a c t o r s have been suggested to be r e l a t e d to mental health. I t has been c o n s i s t e n t l y observed i n a large number of studies that people i n lower classes tend to be mentally i l l more frequently than people i n higher c l a s s e s .  A b r i e f review of the studies on s o c i a l c l a s s  and mental health and i l l n e s s follows. The l a r g e s t body of evidence suggesting r e l a t i o n s h i p between socio-economic status ( s o c i a l class) and mental health comes from a number of studies dealing with the s o c i a l aspects of mental i l l n e s s . One of the e a r l i e s t studies on t h i s topic was by F a r i s and Dunham (1939), who  found, among other things, a negative a s s o c i a t i o n between the socio-  economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Chicago's census t r a c t s and the f i r s t admission rates of schizophrenia.  Both Clark (1948) and Odegard (1956)  confirmed the above e c o l o g i c a l f i n d i n g by observing an inverse associ a t i o n between occupation or income and admission rates f o r psychoses, e s p e c i a l l y schizophrenia.  Hollingshead and Redlich  sutdy of s o c i a l c l a s s and mental i l l n e s s i n New  (1958), i n t h e i r  Haven, observed that the  lower c l a s s e s have much greater incidence of p s y c h i a t r i c i l l n e s s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y the psychotic disorders.  Other evidence c o l l e c t e d by  Hollingshead and Redlich indicated that diagnosis and treatment favour the higher s o c i a l classes, the consequence being that members of the lower s o c i a l classes tend to be diagnosed more r e a d i l y as psychotics, t o receive l e s s i n d i v i d u a l l y oriented treatment, and to remain i n c u s t o d i a l care f o r much longer periods of time.  The r e s u l t s o f the mid-town  - 20 Manhattan study (Srole, Langer, Michael, Opler and Rennie, 1962; Langer and Michael,  1963), based on a large p r o b a b i l i t y sample of adults, are  e s p e c i a l l y informative i n that a consistent inverse r e l a t i o n s h i p was observed between socio-economic status and poor mental health and a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between status and absence of s i g n i f i c a n t symptoms of mental pathology.  Of. a l l the v a r i a b l e s tested, socio-economic status  was the one most c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o mental health.  Moreover, t h i s  r e l a t i o n s h i p held whether parental socio-economic status or the person's own socio-economic status was taken as the status measure.  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p a l s o held when age and sex f a c t o r s were c o n t r o l l e d . Although the impact of s o c i a l c l a s s on mental health has been very w e l l documented, l i t t l e systematic  research has been undertaken to  examine the impact of work environment factors on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s mental health.  The scanty empirical evidence which i s a v a i l a b l e tends to  suggest a r e l a t i o n s h i p between job satisfaction.and mental health. Kahn and h i s associates'  (Kahn, Wolf, Quinn, Snoek and Rosenthal, 1964)  research suggested a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between job s a t i s f a c t i o n and mental health.  Three recent studies by Quinn (1972), Burke (1973) and  Gechman and Wiener  (1975) a l s o investigated the r e l a t i o n s h i p between job  s a t i s f a c t i o n and mental health. and Wiener  Both the Quinn (1972) and the Gechman  (1975) studies reported a moderate p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p  between job s a t i s f a c t i o n and mental health but Burke's study (1973) f a i l e d t o f i n d any r e l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n job and psychological well-being and mental health.  - 21 -  Mthough the above studies generally suggest a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n between job s a t i s f a c t i o n and mental health, the amount o f r e l a t i o n s h i p found i n these studies i s not very impressive.  In a recent review o f  mental health, K a s l (1974) concluded that the "Correlation between job s a t i s f a c t i o n and mental health i s f a i r l y low.  The best guess i s that  the c o r r e l a t i o n i s very seldom going t o be over .30."  I t i s argued by  the present author, that the low c o r r e l a t i o n between job s a t i s f a c t i o n and mental health may be due t o the omission of some c r u c i a l v a r i a b l e (s) i n the past studies.  The present research suggested a t h e o r e t i c a l model  concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p between various work and non-work environmental f a c t o r s and an i n d i v i d u a l ' s mental health. 1.4  T h e o r e t i c a l Model  The basic assumption of the present research i s that to the extent that workers are psychologically unhappy and e x h i b i t signs of poor mental health, the sources o f t h i s poor mental health may be found i n both the work and non-work environments.  I t i s believed that the notion  that the work environment i s s o l e l y responsible f o r poor mental health i s one which i s naive.  However, a t the same time, i t has been accepted that  the a c t i v i t i e s undertaken by i n d i v i d u a l s i n the work environment do a f f e c t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n non-work environments.  The present research  therefore accepted the p o s s i b i l i t y of an i n t e r a c t i o n between work and non-work environments.  I t i s argued that the nature of the i n t e r a c t i o n  between work and non-work environments tends t o determine the state of  - 22 an i n d i v i d u a l ' s mental health.  Before we e x p l i c a t e the "nature" of the  i n t e r a c t i o n between work and non-work environments and i t s implication f o r mental health, we would l i k e to present our t h e o r e t i c a l model. The t h e o r e t i c a l model i s presented on the next page.  In discussing  the linkages of the model, we w i l l proceed i n the following order. F i r s t , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t and mental health w i l l be discussed.  Second, the impact of t e c h n o l g i c a l f a c t o r s on need f u l -  f i l l m e n t i n work w i l l be delineated.  T h i r d , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  organizational f a c t o r s and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work w i l l be illuminated. F i n a l l y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between management f a c t o r s and need f u l f i l l ment i n work w i l l be examined.  1.4.1  Need F u l f i l l m e n t and Mental Health  The concept of need i s basic to Maslow's (1954) theory of human motivation..  Maslow argues that needs are innate and u n i v e r s a l , inherent  i n human nature:  "What I have c a l l e d the basic needs are probably  common to a l l mankind and are therefore shared values."  He contends  that needs r e l a t e to each other i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l fashion and form a hierarchy of prepotency.  The prepotent need i s strongest i n the sense  that i t has to be s a t i s f i e d f i r s t .  As soon as i t i s s a t i s f i e d to some  extent, the next category of needs i n the hierarchy of prepotency emerges, and needs from that category w i l l now  be the strongest, i . e .  have the stronger influence on the motivated behavior of the i n d i v i d u a l . Maslow has i d e n t i f i e d f i v e sets of needs:  p h y s i o l o g i c a l , safety, s o c i a l ,  Figure 1 :  Theoretical model f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between work and non-work environment factors and mental health  Management Factors (1) Leadership s t y l e  ; Technological Factors | (1) Task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n | (2) Technical constraints  i j  7<•Oi.  Organizational Factors (1) Size (2) Structure  Need f u l f i l l Need f u l f i l l ment i n work -^ment i n non! work  ! Mental Health  i  - 24 esteem and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n .  I t may be u s e f u l a t t h i s p o i n t to give a  d e s c r i p t i o n of these needs as i d e n t i f i e d by Maslow. P h y s i o l o g i c a l Needs:  In t h i s category f a l l s those needs, the f u l f i l l m e n t  of which serves to sustain the organisms; the needs f o r food, water, sleep, s h e l t e r , e t c .  Maslow argues t h a t undoubtedly these p h y s i o l o g i c a l  needs are the most prepotent of a l l needs. that, i n a human being who  What t h i s means s p e c i a l l y i s  i s missing everything i n l i f e i n an extreme  fashion, i t i s most l i k e l y t h a t the major motivation would be towards meeting p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs rather than any others.  A person who i s  l a c k i n g food, safety, love and esteem a l l a t the same time would most probably f e e l hunger f o r food more strongly than anything e l s e . Safety Needs:  " I f the p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs are r e l a t i v e l y w e l l s a t i s f i e d ,  then there emerges a new set of needs which may be categorized roughly as the safety needs."/ These needs include those f o r an understandable, w e l l ordered, p r e d i c t a b l e s i t u a t i o n , f o r c e r t a i n t y about the future, s a t i s f a c t i o n of the p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs, f o r personal safety, and the like.  In i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t i e s , most of these safety needs are  believed t o be very w e l l s a t i s f i e d f o r a large number of people. However, as Maslow states, we can perceive the expressions of safety needs i n western s o c i e t i e s only i n such phenomena as, f o r instance, the common preference f o r a job with tenure and protection, the d e s i r e f o r a savings account, and f o r insurance of various kinds (medical, dental, unemployment, d i s a b i l i t y , o l d age).  Other broader aspects of  the attempt t o seek safety and s t a b i l i t y i n the world are seen i n the  - 25 very common preference f o r f a m i l i a r rather than unfamiliar things, or f o r the known rather than the unknown. The safety needs are very o f t e n r e f e r r e d to i n the l i t e r a t u r e as s e c u r i t y needs. S o c i a l Needs:  Mien both the p h y s i o l o g i c a l and the safety needs are  f a i r l y w e l l s a t i s f i e d , there w i l l emerge the needs of love and a f f e c t i o n and belonging.  The i n d i v i d u a l w i l l f e e l keenly, as never before, the  absence of f r i e n d s , or a sweetheart, or a spouse or c h i l d r e n .  He w i l l  hunger f o r a f f e c t i o n a t e r e l a t i o n s with people i n general, f o r a place i n h i s group, and he w i l l s t r i v e with great i n t e n s i t y to achieve t h i s g o a l . Esteem Needs:  This need category becomes dominant when the above three  needs are r e l a t i v e l y w e l l s a t i s f i e d .  Maslow argues that a l l people i n  our s o c i e t y (with a few p a t h o l o g i c a l exceptions) have a need or d e s i r e f o r a stable, f i r m l y based, u s u a l l y high evaluation of themselves f o r s e l f - r e s p e c t , or self-esteem and f o r the esteem of others."  Thus t h i s  category of need includes both a need f o r personal f e e l i n g s of achievement or self-esteem as w e l l as a need f o r recognition or respect from others. S e l f - A c t u a l i z a t i o n Needs:  Maslow c a l l s t h i s category of needs growth  needs and r e f e r s to i t as the "Desire to become more and more what one i s , to become everything that one i s capable of becoming."  The needs  f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n seldom manifest themselves to t h e i r f u l l extent i n the average person.  Most i n d i v i d u a l s never progress through the  above four needs but function p r i m a r i l y a t the l e v e l of s o c i a l and the  - 26 esteem needs.  However, since the more prepotent needs do not have to be  f u l f i l l e d completely or permanently f o r a l e s s prepotent need to emerge, the needs f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n may be seen to operate i n most i n d i v i duals to a c e r t a i n extent i n such forms as the d e s i r e to do a good job, to be c r e a t i v e i n doing things or t o use whatever c a p a c i t i e s one  has.  I t has been argued by the present author that need f u l f i l l m e n t i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e i s r e l a t e d to h i s state of mental health.  Since  mental health has been defined as an o v e r a l l l e v e l of success, personal s a t i s f a c t i o n , e f f e c t i v e n e s s , and excellence of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s funct i o n i n g as a person, i t can be s a i d that an i n d i v i d u a l whose psychol o g i c a l needs are g r a t i f i e d , tends to appear to be a s a t i s f i e d and e f f e c t i v e person i n h i s d a i l y l i f e . his  Maslow himself attempted to r e l a t e  theory of need hierarchy t o the mental health of the i n d i v i d u a l .  He states that, " I t i s c l e a r that, other things being equal, a who  man  i s safe and belongs and i s loved w i l l be  h e a l t h i e r (by any reasonable d e f i n i t i o n ) than a who  i s safe and belongs, but who  unloved.  man  i s r e j e c t e d and  And i f i n a d d i t i o n , he wins respect and  admiration, and because of t h i s , develops h i s s e l f respect, then he i s s t i l l more healthy, s e l f a c t u a l i z i n g or f u l l y human."  Maslow a l s o attempted to delineate the negative consequences of the  - 27 u n g r a t i f i c a t i o n of basic needs. "A man  who  He states that,  i s thwarted i n any of h i s basic needs may  f a i r l y be envisaged simply as a sick'man.  This i s  a f a i r p a r a l l e l to our designation as s i c k of the man  who  lacks vitamins or minerals.  Who  will  say  that a lack of love i s l e s s important than a lack of  vitamins?"  Thus the theory of the hierarchy o f needs seems t o c l e a r l y suggest, t h a t the u l t i m a t e l y complete g r a t i f i c a t i o n of basic needs i s synonymous with i d e a l mental health.  As Maslow expresses i t , " I t would seem that  the degree of need g r a t i f i c a t i o n i s p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with the degree of psychological health." Maslow s theory of need hierarchy has enjoyed wide acceptance i n 1  the l i t e r a t u r e of organizational behavior.  I t has been used to explain  such diverse issues as d e f i c i e n c i e s i n need f u l f i l l m e n t among managers and m i l i t a r y personnel (Porter, 1961;  Porter & M i t c h e l l , 1967), why  pay  can become unimportant, and why  s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n seems to be so imp-  ortant t o the people of today.  However, so f a r as we know, the  theory  has never been used to explain d i f f e r e n c e s i n psychological and mental health.  In the present research study, an attempt has been made to use  need hierarchy theory to p r e d i c t i n d i v i d u a l s ' mental health i n order to f u r n i s h evidence upon which one can accept or r e j e c t the proposition suggested by Maslow concerning and mental health.  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between need  gratification  - 28 As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , i n d u s t r i a l s o c i o l o g i s t s tend t o d i v i d e the l i f e space o f a d u l t members i n a s o c i e t y i n t o two kinds o f l i f e  role  a c t i v i t i e s ; work r o l e a c t i v i t i e s and non-work r o l e a c t i v i t i e s . E m p i r i c a l evidence, as reviewed e a r l i e r , i n d i c a t e d  t h a t there e x i s t s a  s p i l l - o v e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between work a c t i v i t i e s and non-work a c t i v i t i e s . For example, i n d i v i d u a l s who were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r work a c t i v i t i e s a l s o tended t o be s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r non-work a c t i v i t i e s and i n d i v i duals who were not s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r work a c t i v i t i e s a l s o tended t o be d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r non-work a c t i v i t i e s . Although Maslow d i d not suggest e x p l i c i t l y where t o measure need g r a t i f i c a t i o n i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  l i f e i n order t o p r e d i c t h i s mental  h e a l t h , i t was considered reasonable, given the presence o f e m p i r i c a l evidence, t o measure need g r a t i f i c a t i o n i n both work and non-work activities.  I n s p l i t t i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  l i f e space i n t o work and non-  work a c t i v i t i e s , i t i s assumed t h a t i n both work and non-work a c t i v i t i e s , an i n d i v i d u a l can p o t e n t i a l l y s a t i s f y h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs.  It is  argued t h a t the nature o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s can determine the s t a t e o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l and mental h e a l t h o f the i n d i v i d u a l . I t i s proposed t h a t f o u r kinds o f p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s  may e x i s t  between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work a c t i v i t i e s and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n nonwork a c t i v i t i e s :  (1) High need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work a c t i v i t i e s may be  coupled w i t h h i g h need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s . This type o f  - 29 r e l a t i o n s h i p i s c a l l e d a camplementary r e l a t i o n s h i p .  (2) High need  f u l f i l l m e n t i n work a c t i v i t i e s may be coupled with low need f u l f i l l ment i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s . expressive r e l a t i o n s h i p .  This r e l a t i o n s h i p i s r e f e r r e d t o as an  (3) Low need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work a c t i v i t i e s  may be coupled with high need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s . kind o f r e l a t i o n s h i p i s c a l l e d a compensatory"*" r e l a t i o n s h i p .  This  (4) F i n a l l y ,  low need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work a c t i v i t i e s may be coupled with low need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s .  This r e l a t i o n s h i p i s r e f e r r e d t o as a  spill-over . relationship. I t i s argued by the author that the four kinds o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s lead t o four d i f f e r e n t kinds o f predictions about the mental health o f the i n d i v i d u a l s .  When the r e l a t i o n s h i p between need  fulfill-  ment i n work and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non^work a c t i v i t i e s i s complementary, mental health tends t o be highest. p r e d i c t i o n i s as follows.  The r a t i o n a l e f o r the above  Mental health r e f e r s t o an o v e r a l l state o f  excellence,, s a t i s f a c t i o n , and effectiveness  o f the i n d i v i d u a l .  generally believed that an i n d i v i d u a l ' s functioning  It is  as an e f f e c t i v e  human being i n a given area o f l i f e depends t o a large extent on the  In the previous studies "compensatory r e l a t i o n s h i p " generally r e f e r s to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s tendency t o achieve sanething i n one l i f e area which was not attainable i n the other l i f e area without any mention o f the d i r e c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p . In the present study, "compensatory r e l a t i o n s h i p " r e f e r s t o the s i t u a t i o n i n which an i n d i v i d u a l unable t o achieve something i n work a c t i v i t i e s does achieve the same thing i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s .  - 30 -  degree to which his basic needs are f u l f i l l e d i n that particular area of life.  Therefore when an individual has high need fulfillment i n both  work and non-work activities, i t i s expected that his overall effectiveness as an individual i n both kinds of activities i s enhanced and he thus exhibits a high level of mental health. It i s argued that when the relationship between need fulfillment i n work and need fulfillment i n non-work activities i s expressive, mental health tends to be somewhat high, but i s lower i n comparison to the situation i n which the relationship was complementary between two l i f e areas.  The reason for a somewhat high mental health associated with an  expressive relationship may be due to the importance of paid work i n an individual's l i f e .  Work alone i s the only single activity i n which a  majority of adults i n industrialized societies spend more time than i n any other activity, except sleeping.  Since an individual spends most of  his wakeful time i n doing paid work and since paid work i s usually the only activity where failure and success tend to be important for the individual,, i t may be the case that an individual who experiences high need fulfillment i n work a c t i v i t i e s alone may s t i l l exhibit a relatively high level of overall effectiveness and satisfaction (mental health). It i s argued that when the relationship between need fulfillment i n work activities and need fulfillment i n non-work activities i s compensatory, mental health tends to be moderate. Although there i s very . l i t t l e support available i n the literature for a compensatory relation-  - 31 ship between work and non-work activities, this relationship tends to be theoretically valid i n our model. Moreover, scholars such as Dubin (1956) and Taveggia (1971) have argued that for the majority of industrial workers, the relationships i n non-work activities are more satisfactory than i n any other kind of a c t i v i t i e s .  Thus, higher need fulfillment i n  non-work activities alone may appear important enough to give an i n d i v i dual some feelings of overall effectiveness and satisfaction. vidual may,  The i n d i -  therefore, exhibit a moderate degree of mental health.  It i s argued that when the relationship between need fulfillment i n work activities and need fulfillment i n non-work activities i s s p i l l over, mental health tends to be at i t s lowest.  As stated earlier, for  an individual to be effective i n a given area of his l i f e , i t i s crucial that his basic needs be relatively f u l f i l l e d i n that particular area of life.  When the individual, for some reason, cannot f u l f i l l his basic  needs i n different areas of l i f e , he i s likely to become highly frustrated and may thus exhibit poor mental health. 1.4.2  Need Fulfillment in Work as Dependent Variable Previous research has indicated that several factors i n the work  environment affect various kinds of job attitudes such as job satisfaction, organizational cranmitment, work alienation, work attachment and company satisfaction.  If need fulfillment in work may be considered  as one kind of job attitude, then i t could be argued that some of the work environment factors may also be related to need fulfillment i n work.  - 32 Our model proposes t h a t c e r t a i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l , management and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f a c t o r s d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a f f e c t the extent o f need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work. 1.4.2 (A.) Technological F a c t o r s and Need F u l f i l l m e n t Technological f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d i n our model a r e 'task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ' i n j o b and ' t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s ' i n job performance. I t i s argued t h a t both task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t the degree o f need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work.  Task s p e c i a l -  i z a t i o n r e f e r s t o the c o n d i t i o n i n which the components o f a work process are d i v i d e d i n t o nunute tasks and only l i m i t e d , number o f tasks are assigned t o an i n d i v i d u a l j o b (Jamal, 1972) .  I t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t  t h i s process has three t y p i c a l components; task s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , task r e p e t i t i o n and task fragmentation.  I t i s argued t h a t the three compon-  ents o f task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n v e r s e l y a f f e c t the degree o f need f u l f i l l ment i n work.  F o r example, task s i m p l i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t s i n reducing the  l e a r n i n g time o f a j o b t o a great extent.  I n most cases task s i m p l i f i -  c a t i o n makes the j o b so simple t h a t i t can be learned i n a matter o f hours o r even minutes (Dubin, 1958).  This excessive s i m p l i f i c a t i o n i n  job makes the worker an e a s i l y replaceable commodity and thus i n c u r s i n him the f e e l i n g o f i n s e c u r i t y about h i s job.  I n the same way, task  r e p e t i t i o n r e q u i r e s a worker t o perform one o r a few s m a l l operations over and over again i n a short c y c l e o f time w i t h l i t t l e o r no change. This makes the worker so busy on the j o b t h a t he cannot p o s s i b l y f r e e  - 33 himself to talk to his fellow workers who may physically be very close to his work station.  Thus, task repetition may r e s t r i c t his oppor-  tunities of socializing at the work place.  Similarly, task fragmen-  tation requires a worker to work only on a small and tiny portion of the total work process and thereby restricts his knowledge about the f i n a l product.  This may limit the worker's chances to take i n i t i a t i v e  and show originality i n work activities and thus may affect his feelings of esteem and self-actualization. Technical constraints i n task performance refer to those factors which stem from the production technology employed i n getting the work done and which restrict the area of discretion of the worker at the work place.  Previous research (Hedley, 1971; Kornhauser, 1965) has identi-  fied the following technical constraints which workers may face i n task performance:  (1) pacing at the job; (2) lack of variety on the job;  (3) attention required to perform the job; (4) lack of opportunity to talk with fellow workers on the job; (5) lack of opportunity to think about other things while working; (6) unavailability of slack periods on the job; (7) lack of opportunity to get r e l i e f for personal emergencies on the job; (8) lack of opportunity to move freely on the job. It i s argued that the degree of technical constraint an individual experiences i n work activities i s negatively related to the degree of need fulfillment i n those a c t i v i t i e s .  Technical constraints i n work  activities r e s t r i c t an individual's freedom to act according to his own  - 34 judgment and make ram a slave of the technical demands of the work processes or some other impersonal objects.  The individual i s treated  as an infant i n /Argyris' terminology (1957) and his basic needs as a human being are threatened.  Thus, individuals who experience a high  degree of technical constraint i n their job, may tend to be i n d i v i duals whose basic needs are least f u l f i l l e d . Empirical evidence also tends to be supportive of the negative consequences of a high degree of technical constraint in jobs.  Walker  and Guest (1952) i n their study of automobile workers observed that "pacing" on the job was one of the most disliked features of work for the majority of workers i n their sample.  Both Walker and Marriott (1951)  and Chinoy's (1955) studies indicated that technical constraints i n jobs were negatively related, to workers' job satisfaction.  Turner (1955)  found that a large number of workers i n his sample did not like "pacing" on the job, and that "pacing" was negatively related to attitudes toward the company. Crompton and Wedderburn (1970) observed that variety i n tasks, freedom of movement i n the work place and the possibilities of social interaction with fellow workers at the job were among the main sources of workers' satisfaction/dissatisfaction with their jobs. Hedley (1971) i n a study of over 5,000 British factory workers found a negative relationship between technical constraint and job satisfaction. In a recent study, Jamal (1976) also observed that technical constraints were negatively related to organizational commitment and job satisfaction in a sample of 377 blue-collar workers.  - 35 -  1.4.2  (B) Organizational Factors and Need Fulfillment Our model suggests that two organizational factors - size and  structure of the organization - may affect the degree of need f u l f i l l ment i n work a c t i v i t i e s .  I t i s argued that the size of the organi-  zation inversely affects need fulfillment i n work. Small size organization represents a relatively more simple social system than does the large size organization.  There are few people, fewer levels i n the  organization hierarchy, and a less minute subdivision of labor (Worthy, 1.950).  The organization operates primarily through the face-to-face  relationships of i t s members and only secondarily through impersonal, institutionalized relationships. However, as size increases, there tends to be a decrease i n the amount of the interpersonal control method used at lower levels by top management, which, i n turn, at lower levels of the organization, places more reliance upon impersonal (bureaucratic, inflexible) forms of control (Indik, 1963).  The reliance on bureau-  cratic, inflexible controls over workers' behavior creates a work environment i n which i t i s d i f f i c u l t for workers to satisfy their basic needs. The contention that organization size affects workers' attitudes i s by no means a new one.  Durkheim i n his book Division of Labor (1953)  stated that, "...small scale industry (organization) where work i s less divided displays a relative harmony between worker and employer.  It i s  only i n a large scale industry that these relations are i n a sickly  -  state."  36  -  However, i t wasn't u n t i l the f i f t i e s that investigators started  to systematically examine the relationship between organizational size and workers' attitudes. In most of the empirical studies available on this subject to date, investigators have made comparisons across d i f f e r ent sized sub-units of larger organizations rather than across independent total organizations.  Irrespective of whether total organ-  ization size or sub-unit size were measured, there i s a remarkable consistency i n the findings of these studies.  In general, workers in  larger organizations or sub-units appeared to be less satisfied than workers i n smaller organizations or sub-units (Kerr, Koppelmeir and Sullivan, 1951; Barrett and Parker, 1961; Porter, 1963; Cummings and ElSlami, 1970) .  Thus, i n conclusion, the empirical evidence tends to  support the negative consequences of increased organization size on workers' job attitudes. This adds weight to our argument concerning organization size and need fulfillment i n work. Organization structure refers to the relatively fixed relationships that exist among the employees of an organization (Gibson, Ivancevich and Donnelly, 1973). Two kinds of organization structure have been identified i n the literature - t a l l and f l a t .  Tallness and f l a t -  ness of organization structures are generally distinguished on the basis of the number of levels i n the organization relative to the total size of the organization.  A f l a t organization structure i s one i n which there  are few levels relative to the total size of the organization and a t a l l organization structure i s one i n which there are many levels relative to  - 37 -  the t o t a l s i z e of the organization.  Another way  of s t a t i n g t h i s i s to  say that the degree to which a structure i s t a l l or f l a t i s determined by the average span of c o n t r o l w i t h i n the organization. I t has been argued that need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work tends to be greater i n f l a t organization structures than i t i s i n t a l l structures.  organization  Since f l a t organizations have a large average span o f  c o n t r o l , subordinates  u s u a l l y enjoy greater freedom and autonomy to  make decisions about work a c t i v i t i e s . work a c t i v i t i e s enhance subordinates'  Chances of making decisions i n f e e l i n g s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  they i n turn receive greater need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work a c t i v i t i e s . Mthough the empirical evidence does not support equivocally the s u p e r i o r i t y of f l a t organization structures, i t does tend to suggest the r e l a t i o n s h i p between organization structure and workers' attitudes.  Worthy's (1950) study i s the o l d e s t e m p i r i c a l study t o  suggest that f l a t organization structures may morale among employees.  be r e l a t e d t o higher  Meltzer and S a l t e r (1962) published a study  that reported the job a t t i t u d e s of 704 p h y s i o l o g i s t s i n r e l a t i o n to the type of organization structure i n which they worked.  They found l i t t l e  support i n t h e i r data to i n d i c a t e that f l a t organization structures were superior t o t a l l structures i n terms of employee a t t i t u d e s .  Porter  and  S i e g e l (1965) studied about 3,000 middle and top l e v e l managers i n a wide v a r i e t y of s i z e s and types of organizations i n t h i r t e e n countries. They found that i n organizations of 5,000 employees, f l a t structures were c o r r e l a t e d with greater s a t i s f a c t i o n ; i n organizations of 5,000  - 38 employees and over, there was  no d i f f e r e n c e between managers' s a t i s -  f a c t i o n i n t a l l and f l a t structures.  Carpenter (1971) compared t a l l ,  medium and f l a t structures i n s i x p u b l i c school systans i n r e l a t i o n to the l e v e l of job s a t i s f a c t i o n of 120 teachers.  He found that  teachers  i n f l a t organizations perceived higher job s a t i s f a c t i o n than teachers i n medium and t a l l organizations.  Lawler, H a l l and Oldham (1974)  studied the impact of organization structure and process on organiz a t i o n a l climate i n order t o p r e d i c t organization performance and employee job s a t i s f a c t i o n i n research and development organizations. Their r e s u l t s showed l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n organizational climate v a r i a b l e s under f l a t and t a l l s t r u c t u r e s .  Ivancevich and Donnelly (1975)  investigated the r e l a t i o n s h i p between organization structures and  job  s a t i s f a c t i o n among 295 trade salesmen i n three insurance companies. They found that salesmen i n f l a t structures were more s a t i s f i e d with respect to s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n and autonomy needs than salesmen i n t a l l structures.  However, they a l s o found that organization structure  not r e l a t e d to s a t i s f a c t i o n s with pay, action and  was  s e c u r i t y needs, s o c i a l i n t e r -  innovativeness.  The above review of the empirical studies on organization structure and workers' a t t i t u d e s , though inconclusive, y e t suggests the r e l a t i o n ship between the two.  By i n v e s t i g a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  organization structure and need f u l f i l l m e n t , i t i s hoped that the study may  help i n c l a r i f y i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between them.  present  - 39 1.4.2  (C) Management Factors and Need F u l f i l l m e n t The only management f a c t o r included i n our model which may a f f e c t  need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work i s that o f leadership s t y l e . s c i e n t i s t s have long recognized explaining human behavior.  Behavioral  the importance o f leadership s t y l e s i n  Puttman (1930) i n discussing the r e s u l t s o f  the program o f interviewing i n the Hawthorne works o f the Western E l e c t r i c Company concluded that, "The comments from employees have convinced us that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between f i r s t l i n e supervisors and the i n d i v i d u a l workman i s o f more importance i n determining the a t t i t u d e , morale, general happiness and e f f i c i e n c y o f that employee than any other single factor." Due t o the impact o f Hawthorne's studies, a large number o f research studies have been conducted t o examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between leadership s t y l e s and employees' a t t i t u d e s and behavior.  Investigators  who have studied leadership s t y l e s have sought t o c l a s s i f y and categorize d i f f e r e n t approaches t o leadership and d i f f e r e n t ways o f exercising the leadership r o l e .  In studies o f t h i s kind, the two leader-  ship s t y l e s which have most often been i d e n t i f i e d and compared are those u s u a l l y described as employee-oriented o r considerate to employees on the one hand and production centered o r i n i t i a t i n g structure on the other hand (Likert, 1961; Fleishman, 1957).  - 40 -  The employee oriented leader i s generally more s e n s i t i v e to the needs and f e e l i n g s of h i s people.  He i s supportive of h i s subordin-  ates, h e l p f u l to them and concerned f o r t h e i r well-being. the production oriented leader i s i n c l i n e d to perceive h i s as more hands to get the work out.  In contrast, subordinates  He i s noted f o r having neither concern  f o r t h e i r welfare nor consideration f o r t h e i r f e e l i n g s and needs.  In  h i s view, technical work f a c t o r s take precedence over human work f a c t o r s . The supervisory s t y l e s of these two types of leaders are quite d i f f e r e n t from each other. be done and why  The employee-centered leader tends to state what i s t o i t has t o be done and then allows employees a c e r t a i n  amount of d i s c r e t i o n i n doing the job as they think best, as long as i t meets organizational requirements.  On the other hand, the  production  centered leader more often than not gives d e t a i l e d orders and demands s t r i c t adherence to s p e c i f i e d procedures.  The employee-oriented leader  engages i n general supervision whereas the production-oriented hangs over the shoulders of h i s  leader  subordinates.  Empirical evidence i s unequivocal  i n showing the negative conse-  quences of c e r t a i n kinds of leadership s t y l e s on employees' a t t i t u d e s and behavior  (Vroom, 1964;  Beer, 1966;  Sales, 1966).  leader's consideration or employee-orientation related to employees' s a t i s f a c t i o n .  In general,  tends to be p o s i t i v e l y  In a study o f 742 c l e r i c a l workers,  Morse (1953) found that general supervision was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to employees' s a t i s f a c t i o n .  Fleishman, H a r r i s and Buret  (1955) observed a  p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the consideration of foremen and the morale  -  of t h e i r subordinates.  41  -  In a study o f 29 a i r c r a f t commanders, Halpin  and Winer (1957) found a strong p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between leader's consideration and crew member s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r commander. Seeman (1957) found a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the consideration o f school superintendents and the job s a t i s f a c t i o n o f elementary school teachers.  L i k e r t ' s (1961) research indicated that job s a t i s f a c t i o n was  higher among employees who perceived t h e i r supervisors as showing employee-oriented behaviors than among those who d i d not perceive t h e i r supervisors as employee-oriented persons.  Parker (1962) found a p o s i -  t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between leader's consideration and worker a t t i t u d e s . Sadler  (1970), i n a study o f over 15,000 employees, found that job  s a t i s f a c t i o n was higher under consultive (employee-oriented) leadership than among a u t h o r i t a r i a n leadership.  In a recent study.// Green (1973)  also found leader's consideration t o be r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y t o employee satisfaction. However, there i s a d e f i n i t e lack o f research studies which have investigated the r e l a t i o n s h i p between leadership s t y l e and need f u l f i l l ment i n Maslow's sense.  Only two studies have been found which attempted  to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between leader's consideration or employeeo r i e n t a t i o n and employee need s a t i s f a c t i o n i n jobs.  The f i r s t study was  conducted by Beer (1966) using a sample o f 129 c l e r i c a l workers.  He  found some support f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between leader's consideration and employee need s a t i s f a c t i o n .  Leader's consideration appeared t o be  s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o s e c u r i t y , s o c i a l , esteem and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n  - 42 needs. The second study was  conducted by H i l l and Hunt (1973) among  employees of a county h o s p i t a l .  They a l s o found some support f o r the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between leader's consideration and employee need s a t i s faction.  In t h e i r study, leader's consideration was  r e l a t e d to autonomy and  found to be  self-actualization.  Since both studies dealing with need s a t i s f a c t i o n were conducted among n o n - i n d u s t r i a l samples, i t was  f e l t that there i s a need to t e s t  the r e l a t i o n between leader's employee-orientation f u l f i l l m e n t among i n d u s t r i a l workers.  and employee need  Keeping i n mind the a v a i l a b l e  empirical evidence on the subject, i t i s argued that a leader's employee-orientation  or consideration towards employee i s p o s i t i v e l y  r e l a t e d to employee need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work. allow subordinates  to contribute to and p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e c i s i o n making  practices i n work a c t i v i t i e s . subordinates  Employee-centered leaders  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n making provides  the opportunities to know t h e i r fellow workers, to make use  of t h e i r c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s , and to perceive themselves as important elements i n the t o t a l organization.  These i n turn give them high need  f u l f i l l m e n t i n work a c t i v i t i e s . In summarizing the d i s c u s s i o n on the linkages of our t h e o r e t i c a l model, i t has been shown that the model generates various predictions regarding the r e l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t and mental health and about the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between technolgoical, management and  - 43 -  organization factors and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work.  These predictions have  been accepted as research hypotheses i n the present study and are presented i n the next section.  1.5  Research Hypotheses  I t may be r e c a l l e d that our model postulated four types o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s .  These four types o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s lead t o four  d i f f e r e n t kinds o f predictions about the state o f workers' mental health and, thus, become the f i r s t four hypotheses o f the present study.  These  hypotheses are l i s t e d below: (H^)  When the r e l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s i s complementary, mental health tends t o be highest.  C^)  When the r e l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s i s expressive, mental health tends t o be somewhat high.  (H^)  When the r e l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work a c t i v i t i e s i s compensatory, mental health tends t o be moderate.  (H^)  When the r e l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work a c t i v i t e s i s s p i l l - o v e r , mental health tends t o be low.  - 44 When need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work was  taken as a dependent v a r i a b l e ,  the model suggested the following hypotheses: (H,.)  Task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n work tends to be negatively r e l a t e d need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work.  (Hg)  Perceived t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s i n task performance tend to be inversely  (H^)  r e l a t e d to need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work.  Need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work tends to be higher under employeecentered supervisors than under production-centered supervisors .  (H_)  Need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work tends to be higher i n f l a t organi-  o  zation structures than i n t a l l organization structures. (H ) Q  There i s an inverse r e l a t i o n s h i p between organization s i z e and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work.  to  - 45 CHAPTER I I :  Methods and Procedures  On the basis of the t h e o r e t i c a l model described previously, a questionnaire was developed to assess need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and  non-  work, i n d i v i d u a l s ' q u a l i t y of mental health, task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and technical constraints i n task performance, supervisory s t y l e and department/unit s i z e .  perceived  The responses to t h i s questionnaire, and an anal-  y s i s of organization s i z e and structure of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g companies based on interview data, provided the basis f o r t h i s study. 2.1  Setting and  Subjects  The sample f o r the present study was  drawn from manufacturing  companies i n Greater Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia.  Of the 30 companies  i n i t i a l l y contacted by telephone, 17 companies engaged i n further personal discussion, and 9 t e n t a t i v e l y agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e .  I n i t i a l data  were obtained from many of these companies, but extenuating  circumstances  reduced the f i n a l sample f o r which complete data were a v a i l a b l e to s i x companies. ees.  The companies range i n s i z e from 100 employees to 300 employ-  These companies represent cement products, manufacturers of  e l e c t r i c a l equipment, wood work manufacturers and a d v e r t i s i n g industry. A l l the rank-and-file employees i n the s i x companies were included i n the sample of t h i s study.  2.2  Data C o l l e c t i o n  Data were c o l l e c t e d i n two ways.  A structured questionnaire  was  - 46 -  used t o obtain information regarding i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s , and personal interviews were used to obtain information regarding organizational variables.  The i n d i v i d u a l questionnaires were admiriistered personally  by the researcher i n a l l s i x companies.  Approximately  one week before  the adtninistration of questionnaires, the management i n the p a r t i c i pating companies informed the employees through department heads that a doctoral student from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia would be conducting a survey i n t h e i r p l a n t s .  A notice d e s c r i b i n g the nature and  purposes o f the research and mentioning the approval of both management and union f o r the survey was a l s o posted on several b u l l e t i n boards i n each company.  The questionnaires were d i s t r i b u t e d i n sealable envelopes  on company premises during working hours.  Employees were asked t o take  the questionnaires home and return the f i l l e d - i n questionnaires d i r e c t l y to the researcher i n the self-addressed stamped envelopes..  Out o f a  t o t a l of 895 employees i n s i x companies who were given questionnaires, 403 employees (45%) returned usable questionnaires.  Response r a t e v a r i e d  from 35 percent t o 68 percent across companies. There were 299 male and 100 female respondents i n the f i n a l sample: 250 b l u e - c o l l a r employees.and 150 w h i t e - c o l l a r employees.  One hundred  and twenty-four of these employees had up to grade 10 education; 184 had grade 11 o r 12 education and 90 had sane c o l l e g e education.  One hundred  and two of these employees were between the ages o f 18 t o 25 years; 168 were between 26 t o 35 years and 127 were over 35 years of age.  One hun-  dred and forty-three of the employees had been with t h e i r companies f o r  - 47 -  l e s s than 2 years; 132 between 2 to 5 years and 125 over 5 years.  The  majority (68%) of them were married, were working on morning s h i f t  (77%)  and had been r a i s e d i n large c i t i e s  (50%) .  More d e t a i l s on the char-  a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample can be found i n Table 1. At l e a s t one representative of the top management i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g companies was interviewed to obtain information concerning the number and s i z e of work departments and the s i z e and structure of the organization.  These interviews were c a r r i e d out s h o r t l y a f t e r the  questionnaires were administered i n the company and v a r i e d i n length from 15 minutes to an hour.  In a l l cases, the adrrdnistration of the question-  naire and the interviews with the management personnel were c a r r i e d out within a one week period.  2.3  The Measuring Devices This section describes i n d e t a i l the measures that were used i n  tapping various constructs.  Copies of these measures may  be found i n  Appendix A.  2.3.1  Mental Health . Mental health was assessed by using the measures developed  Kornhauser (1965).  by  As noted previously, Kornhauser discovered the  following s i x dimensions of mental health:  (1) manifest anxiety and  emotional tension; (2) s e l f esteem (3) h o s t i l i t y ; (5) o v e r a l l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n ; and  (4) s o c i a b i l i t y ;  (6) personal morale.  Kornhauser used  - 48 TABLE 1:  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s a m p l e on d e m o g r a p h i c and  background  variables  Variables  Frequency  Percentage  Colour of C o l l a r Blue  -  250  63%  150  37%  (400)  (100%)  102  26%  26 - 35  168  42%  36 +  127  32%  (397)  (100%)  Male  299  75%  Female  100  25%  (399)  (100%)  Up t o 10 Grade  12 4  31%  11 -  184  46%  90  23%  (398)  (100%)  97  24%  Married  270  68%  Others"*"  32  8%  White (Total) Age 18 - 25  years  (Total) Sex  (Total) Education 12 Grade  13 and more (Total) Marital  Status  Single  (399)  (100%)  U n d e r $ 800  123  32%  $800 -$1000  131  34%  $1000 +  136  35%  (391)  (101%)  (Total Income p e r month  (Total)  Continued... .  - 49 (TABLE 1: C o n t i n u e d ) Variables  '  Frequency  Percentage  Place of S o c i a l i z a t i o n Farm  -•  51  13%  Town  66  16%  Small C i t y  83  21%  Large C i t y  200  50%  (400)  (100%)  143  36%  132  33%  125  31%  (400)  (100%)  Unskilled  101  25%  Semi-skilled  148  37%  Skilled  150  38%  (399)  (100%)  304  77%  23  6%  (Total) Length o f S e r v i c e Less than 2 - 5  2 years  years  Over 5 y e a r s (Total) Skill  - Level  (Total) Shift-time" Morning Afternoon Night  6  Rotating  Shift  .  2%  63  16%  (396)  (101%)  Member  213  53%  Non-member  186  47%  (399)  (100%)  144  69%  47  23%  17  8%  (Total) Union  Membership  (Total) Type o f J o b Line Job Staff  Job  Line/Staff  Job (Total)  1.  Others  include  (208)  s e p a r a t e d , widowed a n d d i v o r c e d .  (100%)  - 50 semi-stxuctured interviews to c o l l e c t information from h i s subjects. Since the present research was designed as a questionnaire study, i t was necessary t o modify Kornhauser's measures i n almost a l l s i x sub-indexes of mental health i n order t o make them s u i t a b l e f o r a questionnaire type study.  However, the number of items i n each index corresponded t o  Kornhauser's o r i g i n a l study.''" Moreover, no attempt was made t o change the wording of items which were considered to be s u i t a b l e f o r the present study.  Response indicators were shown f o r each group o f questions.  The following eight items were used t o measure the dimension o f s e l f esteem: (1)  I f e e l that I am accomplishing the sorts o f things I would l i k e to i n my l i f e . (1)  Strongly Agree  (2)  Agree  (3)  Neither Agree Nor Disagree  (4)  Disagree  (5)  Strongly Disagree  ( 2 ) I f e e l that I can do much t o make my future what I want i t to be. (3)  I often blame myself and f e e l bad over things I have done.  (4)  I often have a hard time t o make up my mind.  ( 5 ) Saretimes I get so discouraged that I wonder whether anything i s worthwhile.  In Kornhauser's study ( 1 9 6 5 ) , some items on mental health were used i n more titan one dimension. Therefore, readers may f i n d some items repeated across s i x dimensions o f mental health.  - 51 (6) People often hurt my f e e l i n g s . -• (7) How do you f e e l about your chances f o r g e t t i n g ahead?  (1) Very good  (2) Good  (3) Don't Know  (4) Not Good  (8) In general, how do you f e e l about your l i f e ?  (5) ' Not Too Good Would you say you  are  (1) Completely Satisfied  (2) Well Satisfied  (3)  (4)  (5)  Neither S a t i s - A L i t t l e Very f i e d Nor Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Dissatisfied  The dimension o f h o s t i l i t y was assessed with the following seven items: (1) I sometimes b o i l inside without l e t t i n g people know about i t .  (1) Strongly Agree  (2) Agree  (3) Neither Agree Nor Disagree  (4) Disagree  (5) Strongly Disagree  (2) I think that most people can be trusted. (3) I f i n d that many people are so unreasonable that i t i s hard t o t a l k t o them. (4) Sometimes I f e e l l i k e smashing things f o r no good reason. (5) I f i n d that I often have t o t e l l people t o mind t h e i r own business. (6) People often get on my nerves so that I do j u s t the opposite o f what they want me t o do. (7) Over the years there are a l o t o f things a person comes t o learn about people.  - 52 (a) What are seme of the main things you have learned about people? (1) (2) (b) What would you say most people want out o f l i f e ?  (1) (2) The dimension o f personal morale was measured with the following nine items: (1) Getting ahead i n t h i s world i s mostly a matter o f luck and p u l l . (1) Strongly Agree  (2) Agree  (3) Neither Agree Nor Disagree  (4) Disagree  (5) Strongly Disagree  (2) I n s p i t e o f what some people say, the l o t o f the average man i s getting worse, not b e t t e r . (3) These days a person does not r e a l l y know who he can count on. (4) Most people are out f o r themselves and don't care what happens to others. (5) I t ' s hardly f a i r t o bring c h i l d r e n i n t o the world with the way things look f o r the future. (6) Nowadays a person has to l i v e p r e t t y much f o r today and l e t tomorrow take care o f i t s e l f . (7) There i s l i t t l e use i n w r i t i n g t o p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s because o f t e n they are not r e a l l y interested i n the problems o f the average man. (8) I think that most people can be trusted.  - 53 (9) Sore times I get so blue and discouraged that I wonder whether anything i s worthwhile? The dimension o f o v e r a l l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n was assessed with the following nine items: (1) I f e e l that I am accomplishing the sorts o f things I would l i k e to i n my l i f e . (1) Strongly Agree  (2) Agree  (3) Neither Agree Nor Disagree  (4) Disagree  (5) Strongly Disagree  (2) I often f e e l r e s t l e s s , wanting t o be on the move doing something but n o t knowing what. (3) I f e e l i n good s p i r i t s almost a l l the time. (4) I often blame myself and f e e l bad over things I have done. (5) Sometimes I get so blue and discouraged that I wonder whether anything i s worthwhile. (6) I have as much chance t o enjoy l i f e as I should have. (7) How dp you expect things t o turn out f o r you i n the future? (1) Very Good  (2)  (3)  (4)  Good  Don't Knew  Not Good  (5) Not Too Good  (8) Overall, how do you f e e l about the way you spend your time when you are not working? (1) Completely Satisfied  (2) Well Satisfied  (3) Neither Sati s f i e d Nor Dissatisfied  (4) A Little Dissatisfied  (5) Very Dissatisfied  - 54 -  (9) O v e r a l l , how do you f e e l about your l i f e i n general? The following t h i r t e e n items were used t o measure the dimension o f anxiety and emotional tension: (1) How often do you go to a doctor or clergyman o r anyone l i k e that about your personal problems, o r nervousness o r such things? (1) Never  (2) Hardly Ever  (3) Seme o f the Time  (4) Most o f the Time  (5) A l l the Time  (2) How often do you use any s p e c i a l foods o r t o n i c s o r anything l i k e t h a t t o help keep you i n good condition? (3) How often do you take something f o r s l i g h t i l l n e s s l i k e headaches, upset stomach, or things l i k e that? (4) How often do you go t o watch sports events? (5) I am often worried and upset. (1) Strongly Agree  (2) Agree  (3) Neither Agree Nor Disagree  (4) Disagree  (5) Strongly Disagree  (6) I often have trouble g e t t i n g t o sleep o r staying asleep. (7) I worry much about things that might happen t o me. (8) Sometimes I am bothered by nervousness. (9) There are things about my health that bother me. (10) I wake up rested most mornings.  - 55 -  (11) Do you have any p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i c a l o r health problems? (1)  (2)  Yes  No  (12) So f a r as you know, d i d you ever have a nervous breakdown? (13) Are you ever bothered with headaches, i n d i g e s t i o n , or any o f the common ailments.  Please put a mark against those which ever  bother you. Headaches  Neuralgia  Indigestion or stomach upset  _  Hemorrhoids o r p i l e s  Constipation or diarrhea  _  Nose, throat, o r sinus trouble  Sleeplessness  Many colds or coughs  Tiredness without knowing why  Other  (please specify)  Heartburn Backaches High blood pressure The dimension o f s o c i a b i l i t y was assessed with the following f i f t e e n items: (1) How o f t e n do you get together with your f r i e n d s (very best ones) as a group? (1) Never  (2) Hardly Ever  (3) Sane o f the Time  (4)  (5)  Most o f the Time  A l l the Time  (2) How o f t e n do you g e t together with j u s t one o r two o f your friends?  - 56 (3) Hew often do you get together with your r e l a t i v e s ? (4) These days a person does n o t r e a l l y know who he can count on. (1)  (2)  Strongly Agree  Agree  (3) Neither Agree Nor Disagree  (4)  (5)  Disagree  Strongly Disagree  (5) When things go wrong, I am u s u a l l y w i l l i n g t o leave i t t o others t o work matters out. (6) People often hurt my f e e l i n g s . (7) On the whole, I u s u a l l y l i k e to be by myself rather than with other people. (8) How important i s i t t o you t o have friends? (1)  (2)  Very Important  Pretty Important  (3) Important  (4)  (5)  Not Important  Not very Important  (9) How many s p e c i a l l y good f r i e n d s do you have? (10) Do you have other f r i e n d s (other than s p e c i a l l y good friends) whom you see often? (1)  (2)  Yes  No  (11) How many organizations such as church and ethnic groups, labour unions or s o c i a l and c i v i c clubs do you belong to? (12) In how many such organizations d i d you hold i n the past or are presently holding any kind o f executive p o s i t i o n ( i . e . president, secretary, v i c e president, treasurer)? (13) O v e r a l l , how many meetings o f the various organizations d i d you  - 57 attend i n the l a s t two months? (14) In the l a s t four weeks, approximately  how many hours d i d you  spend i n attending the meetings of various organizations? (15) Over the years there are a l o t of things a person comes to l e a r n about people. (a) What are some of the main things you have learned about people? (1) (2) (b) What would you say most people want out of l i f e ? (1) (2) 2.3.2  Need F u l f i l l m e n t  Need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work was assessed by using the scale developed by M i t c h e l l and Moudgill (1976).  This scale c o n s i s t s of 10 Likert-type  items and, according to M i t c h e l l and Moudgill  (1976), the scale "...tends  to e s t a b l i s h the d e s c r i p t i v e v a l i d i t y of Maslow's need c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme."  The ten items of t h e i r heed f u l f i l l m e n t i n work s c a l e are  presented below. (1) The threat of change which could make one's present s k i l l s or knowledge obsolete (1) Minimum  (2)  (security). (3)  (4)  (5) Maximum  (2) The f e e l i n g of i n s e c u r i t y with one's p o s i t i o n (3) The opportunity to give help to other people (4)  (security). (social).  The opportunity f o r conversation and exchange of ideas with colleagues and co-workers ( s o c i a l ) .  (5) The f e e l i n g of self-esteem a person gets i n one's p o s i t i o n (esteem). (6) Prestige i n s i d e the organization, i . e . regard received from others w i t h i n the organization  (esteem).  (7) The opportunity f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the determination of methods and procedures  (autonomy).  (8) The opportunity f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the s e t t i n g of goals (autonomy). (9) The feelings of worthwhile accomplishment associated with one's position (10)  (self-actualization).  The f e e l i n g s of s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t a person gets i n one's p o s i t i o n (self-actualization).  Need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work was assessed with a modified version of M i t c h e l l and Moudgill's scale of need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work.  This modi-  f i c a t i o n was necessary because a l l the items i n the need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work scale were oriented toward work and work r e l a t e d phenomena.  The ten  items i n the need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work scale are presented on the next page.  - 59 -  (1) The threat of change which could make my present knowledge and s k i l l s i n o f f - j o b a c t i v i t i e s obsolete ( s e c u r i t y ) . (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  Minimum  (5) l^xiraum-'  (2) The f e e l i n g of i n s e c u r i t y i n my o f f - j o b a c t i v i t i e s ( s e c u r i t y ) . (3) The opportunity to give help to other people i n my  off-job  activities (social). (4) The opportunity f o r conversation and exchange of ideas with people i n my o f f - j o b a c t i v i t i e s ( s o c i a l ) . (5) The f e e l i n g of s e l f esteem I get i n my o f f - j o b a c t i v i t i e s ( s e l f esteem). (6) Prestige I receive from people with whom I undertake my activities  off-job  (self esteem) .  (7) The opportunity f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the detentdnation of methods and procedures of my o f f - j o b a c t i v i t i e s (autonomy). (8) The opportunity I receive f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s e t t i n g of goals of my o f f - j o b a c t i v i t i e s (autonomy). (9) The feelings of worthwhile accomplishment I receive from performing my o f f - j o b a c t i v i t i e s ( s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n ) . (10) The feelings of s e l f f u l f i l l m e n t I receive from my activities (self-actualization).  off-job  - 60  2.3.3  -  Technological Variables  Technological variables measured i n t h i s research were task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n jobs and technical constraints i n task performance.  Task  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n jobs was assessed by using three measures of task fragmentation, s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and r e p e t i t i o n . r e p e t i t i o n measures were developed by Lawler s u i t the present research. by the author.  The task fragmentation and (1974) but were modified to  The task s i m p l i f i c a t i o n measure was  developed  The three measures are l i s t e d below:  (1) How much task r e p e t i t i o n i s there i n your job?  (Please put a c i r c l e  around the number which most appropriately describes your job.) (1)  (2)  (3)  Very much; I do pretty much the same things over and over, using the same equipment and procedures a l l the time.  (4)  Moderate degree of repetition.  (5) Very l i t t l e ; I do many things, using a v a r i e t y of equipment and procedures.  (2) How much does your job involve your producing an e n t i r e product or an e n t i r e service?  (Please put a c i r c l e around the number which most  appropriately describes your job.) (1) My job involves doing only a small part of the e n t i r e product or service.  (2)  (3) My job involves doing a moderate 'chunk' of the work.  (4)  (5) My job involves producing the e n t i r e product or service from s t a r t to f i n i s h .  - 61 (3) How long does a person have t o spend"in t r a i n i n g or experience t o be able t o handle a job l i k e yours?  (Please put a c i r c l e around the  number which most appropriately describes your j o b ) . (1)  (2)  Not very long; my job can be learned i n a matter of hours or even minutes.  (3)  (4)  Moderately long; i t can be learned i n a couple o f months.  (5) F a i r l y long. My job can take years t o be learned,  Technical constraints i n task performance were measured with eight items.  These items were developed by Dubin (1968) and were reported by  Hedley (1971).  These items are as follows:  (1) Can you t a l k to people around you when you are working? (1) Never  (2) Hardly Ever  (3) Some o f the Time  (4) Most o f the Time  (5) A l l the Time  (2) -Does your job require you t o work a t a c e r t a i n speed? (3) Can you think about things other than your job when you are working? (4) In your job, can you stop working f o r personal emergencies without waiting f o r a r e l i e f man? (5) In your job, are there slack periods when you can do what you want? (6) Can you move around the factory while doing your job? (7) Does your job require you to do the same things over and over again? (8) Does your job require that you watch your machine o r whatever you are doing?  - 62 2.3.4  Supervisory Style  Supervisory s t y l e was assessed with a t h i r t e e n item scale developed by Bowers and Seashore (1966).  Taylor and Bowers (1972) have recently  observed a high degree of r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of t h i s s c a l e .  The  t h i r t e e n items of the scale are presented below: To what extent i s (does) your immediate supervisor (1)....friendly and very easy to approach? (1)  (2)  To a Very Little Extent  (3)  To a L i t t l e Extent  To Some Extent  (4) To a Great Extent  (5) To a Very Great Extent  (2) ....attentive to what you say? (3) ... . w i l l i n g to l i s t e n to your problem? (4) ....encourage people to give t h e i r best e f f o r t ? (5) ....maintain high standards of performance? (6) ....set an example by working hard himself? (7) ....show you how to improve your performance? (8) . . . . o f f e r new  ideas f o r solving job r e l a t e d problems?  (9) ....encourage subordinates to take a c t i o n without waiting f o r d e t a i l e d review and approval from him? (10) ....provide the help you need so that you can schedule work ahead of him? (11) ....encourage persons who work f o r him to work as a team? (12) ....encourage people who work f o r him to exchange opinions and ideas?  - 63 (13) How often does your immediate supervisor hold group meetings where he and the people who work f o r him can r e a l l y discuss things  together?  (1)  (2)  Never  2.3.5  Once or Twice per Year  Organization  (3) Three to S i x Times per Year  (4)  (5)  About Once per Month  More often than once per Month  Structure  Organization structure was assessed by obtaining information from management about the s i z e o f the organization and the number o f supervisory l e v e l s within the organization.  This information allowed the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f respondents according t o the r a t i o o f the number o f l e v e l s o f supervision i n t h e i r organization t o the t o t a l s i z e o f the organization.  In accordance with Porter and Lawler's research  the following three categories o f structure were adopted; f l a t , mediate and t a l l . Flat:  (1964), inter-  The categories were formulated as follows:  Companies having the fewest l e v e l s r e l a t i v e to t h e i r s i z e were c l a s s i f i e d as f l a t organizations.  Approximately one-  t h i r d (134) o f the respondents i n t h i s study were employed i n f l a t organizations. Intermediate:  Companies having a medium number o f l e v e l s  to t h e i r s i z e were c l a s s i f i e d as intermediate Approximately one-half into this  category.  relative  organizations.  (192) o f the sample o f t h i s study f e l l  - 64 Tall:  Companies having the greatest number of l e v e l s r e l a t i v e to t h e i r s i z e were c l a s s i f i e d as t a l l organizations. Approximately o n e - f i f t h (76) of the sample of the present research were employed i n t a l l organizations.  2.3.6  Size  As stated previously, i n most of the empirical studies i n the area of organization s i z e and workers' a t t i t u d e s , i n v e s t i g a t o r s have made comparisons between d i f f e r e n t s i z e d sub-units  (or departments) of l a r g e r  organizations rather than between independent t o t a l organizations.  For  t h i s reason, the present research used multiple measures of organization s i z e ; one measure pertaining to the s i z e of the t o t a l organization and two measures pertaining to sub-units' s i z e within the organization. T o t a l organization s i z e was measured by the number of f u l l - t i m e management and non-management employees i n the company during the week the survey was  conducted i n the company.  Three s i z e categories were adopted:  large,  250 employees or more; medium, 151-250; and small, l e s s than 150 employees. Sub-unit s i z e was assessed i n two ways.  F i r s t , employees were asked  to give an estimate of how many persons were working i n t h e i r departments. The following question was used to obtain an idea of the employees' perception of sub-unit s i z e : "Approximately how many persons work i n your department or s e c t i o n . " Second, the a c t u a l number of persons working i n each sub-unit was mined from management records.  deter-  Three sub-unit categories were used:  - 65 large, 21 employees or more; medium, 10-20; and small, l e s s than 10 employees.  A c o r r e l a t i o n o f .80 was observed between the two measures o f  sub-unit s i z e .  2.4  Decisions about Analysis  I t i s mandatory f o r every researcher t o make c e r t a i n a r b i t r a r y decisions about a n a l y s i s .  In the present research, two decisions were  made with regard to data a n a l y s i s .  The f i r s t d e c i s i o n concerned the  i n t e r a c t i o n between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work.  I t was argued previously that the i n t e r a c t i o n between the two  need areas tends t o debeririine the state o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s mental health. In order to assess the nature of the i n t e r a c t i o n between the two need areas, i n each need area respondents were divided i n t o high and low need f u l f i l l m e n t groups from the median.  Respondents whose need fulfillment,  i n a need area o f l i f e was greater than the median need f u l f i l l m e n t i n that p a r t i c u l a r area, were considered as having high need f u l f i l l m e n t i n that need area.  Respondents whose need f u l f i l l m e n t i n a given need  area (i.e. work a c t i v i t i e s ) was lower than the median need f u l f i l l m e n t i n that p a r t i c u l a r area.were c l a s s i f i e d as having low need f u l f i l l m e n t i n that need area.  Thus, i n both need areas (work and non-work), r e s -  pondents were e i t h e r high or low depending upon whether t h e i r need f u l f i l l ment scores were greater or l e s s than the median scores i n the need area concerned. The second d e c i s i o n concerned the construct o f mental health. I t  - 66 may be r e c a l l e d that mental health i s composed o f s i x sub-indexes. In each sub-index scores were assigned to the items o f the sub-index i n such a way that a high score on the sub-index indicated a high l e v e l o f mental health.  Scores on a l l negatively worded i.terns were reversed.  Following  Kornhauser, a composite index o f mental health was constructed caiibining the scores on s i x sub-indexes o f mental health.  Table 2 presents the  inter-correlations"'" among sub-indexes and the composite index of mental health.  A l l sub-indexes are highly correlated with the composite index  with an average rank order c o r r e l a t i o n o f .84. These findings are comparable with Kornhauser's findings which showed a mean t e t r a c h o r i c c o r r e l a t i o n o f .68 f o r younger workers and .70 f o r older workers i n h i s sample. Another measure o f mental health was a v a i l a b l e i n the present research.  This measure was developed by researchers a t the University o f  Michigan (Quinn, 1972) and consists o f 21 Likert-type items.  A l l sub-  indexes o f mental health tend t o be moderately correlated with Quinn's scale o f mental health, with an average c o r r e l a t i o n of .56.  Composite  C^rLnn and Kornhauser's indexes were a l s o correlated moderately (:r=.68).  2.5  R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y o f the Measures Since most o f the measures used i n t h i s study were not standard  Throughout t h i s study, c o r r e l a t i o n s w i l l mean the Spearman rank order correlations.  - 67 -  TABLE 2:  I n t e r r e l a t i o n s among component indexes o f mental h e a l t h  and c o m p o s i t e  INDEXES Anxiety  Anxiety  Hostility  Esteem  Sociability  Morale  Life Sat.  .64 *  Esteem  .71  . 66  Sociability  .68  .72  .68  Morale  .67  .73  .67  .69  .60  .61  .83  .61  .61  Index MH  .83  .85  . 85  .88  . 83  .78  Q u i n n MH  .58  . 57  .61  .57  . 47  .57  Sat.  Quinn MH  ' 1.0  Hostility  Life  Index MH  "  All or  1.0 1.0  correlations better.  1.0 1.0  are s i g n i f i c a n t  1.0  a t .001  1.0 . 68  level  1.0  - 68 measures, i t was deemed necessary to examine the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the measures.  Table 3 presents the i n t e r n a l consistency r e l i a b i l i t y  estimates (Cronbach's alpha) of the major independent and dependent variables.  With the exception of two variables, l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n and  s e l f esteem, a l l v a r i a b l e s showed high r e l i a b i l i t y .  Reliability  estimates f o r l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n and s e l f esttem were .60 and .75, r e s p e c t i v e l y , which are acceptable f o r survey research, according to the c r i t e r i a s e t by Nunnally (1967). Since Kornhauser's measures of mental health were s u b s t a n t i a l l y modified to s u i t the present questionnaire study, i t became necessary t o v a l i d a t e the measures of mental health.  This was done i n two ways.  F i r s t , several experienced, highly q u a l i f i e d c l i n i c a l psychologists and p s y c h i a t r i s t s were asked to read the questionnaire responses on the measures of mental health f o r 32 respondents and give t h e i r o v e r a l l evaluation of each i n d i v i d u a l ' s mental health.  Global ratings of  c l i n i c i a n s were correlated with the composite index of mental health. Second, the Quinn measure of mental health was attached t o f i f t y percent of the questionnaires.  The c o r r e l a t i o n between the Quinn measure of  mental health and the modified Kornhauser composite index of mental health was sought as further i n d i c a t i o n o f v a l i d i t y . The f i r s t method of v a l i d a t i o n proceeded as follows:  a subsample  of  32 cases was selected from our t o t a l sample of 403 cases. A nunimum  of  four and a maximum of seven cases were selected from each p a r t i c i -  - 69 TABLE 3:  I n t e r n a l consistency r e l i a b i l i t y estimates of t h e m a j o r i n d e p e n d e n t arid d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s  Variables  Cronbach's  (N)  Need F u l f i l l m e n t Need F u l f i l l m e n t  (work) (NonWork)  # of Items  Alpha  (378) (378)  10 10  .93 .90  Index o f M e n t a l H e a l t h Life Satisfaction Morale Hostility Anxiety Esteem Social Quinn's Mental H e a l t h S c a l e  (360) (380) (381) (380) (380) (368) (370) (176)  64 9 9 8 14 8 16 21  .96 .60 ..83 .84 .89 .75 .92 .91  Technical Constraints Scale Task S p e c i a l i z a t i o n S c a l e  (379) (380)  8 3  Leadership  Style  Scale  ' (379)  13  .82 . 80 .97  - 70 -  pating ccnpany according t o the number o f questionnaire returns from each company.  Three c l i n i c a l psychologists, three p s y c h i a t r i s t s and one  s o c i a l psychologist furnished estimates on the 32 cases, providing seven ratings f o r each case.  For each o f the 32 cases, a six-page f i l e was  prepared from the questionnaire responses on the measures o f mental health.  The c l i n i c i a n s were asked t o read through the e n t i r e case  file  and t o record, on a seven-point scale, an o v e r a l l estimate o f "How good or s a t i s f a c t o r y you consider the mental health o f the i n d i v i d u a l rated." A short d e s c r i p t i v e statement was given the r a t e r s t o i n d i c a t e the meaning attached t o mental health f o r the present research and i n addi t i o n a b r i e f i n g session was held t o explain and c l a r i f y the whole procedure.  The d e s c r i p t i v e statement consisted o f the following d e f i n i t i o n o f  mental health:  "An o v e r a l l l e v e l o f success, personal s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  effectiveness and excellence o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s functioning as a human being." The r a t e r s agreed reasonably w e l l with one another.  Table 4  presents i n t e r - r a t e r agreement (rank order correlation) on c l i n i c i a n s ' estimates of mental health based on the questionnaire records.  Twenty-  one measures of i n t e r - r a t e r agreement were a v a i l a b l e and a l l o f them were s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with one another.  The twenty-one  c o e f f i c i e n t s ranged from .64 t o .91; the mean and median o f a l l twentyone were .74 and .78, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The median i n t e r - r a t e r agreement o f .78 i n t h i s study was much higher than the mediein agreement o f .52 observed by Kornhauser.  Kornhauser d i d not report the mean i n t e r - r a t e r  - 71 TABLE 4:  A g r e e m e n t among c l i n i c i a n s ' - e s t i m a t e s o f m e n t a l h e a l t h b a s e d on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e c o r d s  Clinicians  1.0  1  .83 1.0  2  3  .78  .64  .69  . 82  . 88*  .72  .76  . 83  .79  .89  .72  .69  .78  .87  .0  .66  •71.  . 80  .77  . 86  1.0  4 5  1.0  6  1.0  7  .91 1.0  All  c o r r e l a t i o n s are s i g n i f i c a n t  .001 l e v e l  or better  at the  - 72 agreement f o r h i s study, nor d i d he report the i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r - r a t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s , therefore no comparison was possible i n terms o f mean i n t e r - r a t e r agreement i n the two studies. In order to derive a composite assessment f o r each of the 32 cases, ratings by a l l seven raters were combined f o r each case.  These  composite ratings were then correlated with the composite index of mental health.  The r e s u l t s , presented i n Table 5, showed close  agreement  between composite ratings by c l i n i c i a n s and the composite index o f mental health. indexes was  The rank order c o r r e l a t i o n between the two composite  .87 which i s comparable with the .84 t e t r a c h o r i c c o r r e l a t i o n  between the two indexes obtained i n Kornhauser's study.  In addition,  Table 5 showed substantial agreement between the ratings of i n d i v i d u a l c l i n i c i a n s and the composite index of mental health. order c o r r e l a t i o n s ranged from .68 to .85:  The seven rank  the median of a l l seven was  .79. The second method of v a l i d a t i o n involved the c o l l e c t i o n of data from f i f t y percent of the sample, employing a separate measure o f mental health.  There were 192 respondents i n the f i n a l sample who  furnished  information on Kornhauser's measures of mental health as w e l l as on Quinn's measures of mental health. the two measures was  The rank order c o r r e l a t i o n between  .68 (P>.ool) which suggested a moderate degree of  convergent v a l i d i t y between the two measures. Thus, i t may be s a i d that the measures o f mental health used i n t h i s study were r e l i a b l e and a l s o appeared to be reasonably v a l i d .  TABLE 5:  R e l a t i o n s h i p between c l i n i c a n s ' e s t i m a t e s o f m e n t a l h e a l t h b a s e d on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e c o r d s and t h e index of mental h e a l t h  Rank-order Clinicians  (32)  .85*  2  (32)  .79  3  (32)  .79  4  (32)  .68  5  (32)  .70  6  (32)  .79  7  (32)  .82  (32)  .87  A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s are s i g n i f i c a n t level  Correlation  1  Composite Ratings  *  (N)  or better  at the  .001  - 74 -  2.6  Description of the S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures  Several d i f f e r e n t types o f analyses were performed i n order to explore the hypotheses.  Hypotheses 1 to 4 involved i n t e r a c t i o n between  need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work and thus were tested together. 1 to 4. variance.  Two types of analyses were performed to t e s t hypotheses  The f i r s t type of analysis made use of one-way analysis o f Differences between means, on the v a r i a b l e o f mental health,  under d i f f e r e n t types o f work and non-work r e l a t i o n s h i p s , were tested f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e using the t - t e s t and the Duncan Sign Test (Blalock, 1972) . The second type of analysis to t e s t hypotheses 1 to 4 involved assigning a rank order t o d i f f e r e n t types of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work.  A rank of '4' was assigned f o r  a complementary r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two need areas. A rank of 3' 1  was assigned f o r an expressive r e l a t i o n s h i p . f o r a compensatory r e l a t i o n s h i p .  A rank of '2' was assigned  A rank of '1' was assigned f o r a  s p i l l - o v e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two need areas.  A rank order c o r r e l -  ation was computed between the rank order on need f u l f i l l m e n t and the composite index o f mental health. Hypotheses 5 to 7 had continuous independent and dependent v a r i a b l e s . Rank order c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed t o t e s t hypotheses 5 to 7.  The  s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l was set at .01. Hypotheses 8 and 9 had c a t e g o r i c a l independent v a r i a b l e s and continuous dependent v a r i a b l e s .  Blalock (1972) has recommended the use of  - 75 -  analysis o f variance i n such s i t u a t i o n s .  Therefore, one-way a n a l y s i s o f  variance was the s t a t i s t i c a l technique t o t e s t hypotheses 8 and 9. Differences between means on the v a r i a b l e of need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work were tested using the t - t e s t and the Duncan Sign Test.  - 76 CHAPTER I I I :  Results  In t h i s chapter, we w i l l examine the data relevant to the nine hypotheses of t h i s study. sections.  The chapter has been divided i n t o three  Section one deals with hypotheses 1 to 4, which are concerned  with the r e l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and non-work and the q u a l i t y of mental health.  Section two examines hypotheses 5 to 7,  which are concerned with the r e l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and the technological and management factors.  Section three deals  with hypotheses 8 and 9, which are concerned with the r e l a t i o n s h i p between organizational variables and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work.  3.1  Need F u l f i l l m e n t and Mental Health Hypotheses 1 t o 4 are concerned with the r e l a t i o n s l i i p between need  f u l f i l l m e n t and mental health.  I t was suggested previously that the  nature of the i n t e r a c t i o n between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work determines the r e l a t i o n s h i p between o v e r a l l need f u l f i l l m e n t i n l i f e and mental health.  Hypothesis 1 (Hi) suggests t h a t  i f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two need areas i s complementary, there w i l l be a high l e v e l of mental health.  Hypothesis 2 (H2) suggests that  i f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two need areas i s expressive, there w i l l be a moderately high l e v e l o f mental health.  Hypothesis 3 (H3) suggests  that i f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two need areas i s compensatory, there w i l l be a moderate l e v e l of mental health.  Hypothesis 4 (H4)  suggests that i f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two need areas i s s p i l l - o v e r ,  - 77 -  there w i l l be a low l e v e l of mental health. The f i r s t type of a n a l y s i s performed to t e s t hypotheses 1 to 4 was one-way a n a l y s i s of variance.  Scores on need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and  non-work were d i v i d e d i n t o those of high and low v a r i a t i o n from the median.  The d i v i s i o n of the scores delineates the d i f f e r e n t types of  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two need areas.  I t may be of seme i n t e r e s t to  present, a t t h i s point, the median and mean scores on need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and non-work.  The median scores on need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and  non-work were 32.5 and 36.2, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The mean scores on need  f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and non-work were 30.7 and 34.2,  respectively.  Scores on both need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and non-work could t h e o r e t i c a l l y vary from a minimum of 10 to a maximum of 40.  Results obtained  through one-way a n a l y s i s of variance are presented i n Table 6.  It i s  c l e a r from Table 6 that the mean scores on mental health are highest f o r the complementary r e l a t i o n s h i p , second f o r the expressive r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h i r d f o r the compensatory r e l a t i o n s h i p and lowest f o r the s p i l l - o v e r relationship.  Differences between means across the four types of  r e l a t i o n s h i p s are s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant"'' according to the t - t e s t as w e l l as according to the Duncan Sign Test. supported by the f i r s t type of  Thus, hypotheses 1 to 4 are  analysis.  Throughout t h i s study, a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l of .01 has been used i n hypothesis t e s t i n g .  - 78 -  TABLE  6:  T y p e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between n e e d f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and non-work and t h e q u a l i t y o f m e n t a l h e a l t h a c c o r d i n g t o K o r n h a u s s e r ' s m e a s u r e s (median)  Types o f Relationship  (N)  Complementary  (108)  231. 65  40. 18  Expressive  (  87)  216. 83  23. 60  3. 21*  Compensatory  (  83)  186. 61  43. 06  5. 64**  Spillover  (119)  168. 44  26. 40  3. 37**  (397)  2 00. 04  43. 05  (Total)  Mean S c o r e on Mental Health  *  Significant  a t t h e .01  **  Significant  a t t h e .001  Standard Deviation  level level  t-value  F-val  - 79 The second type of a n a l y s i s performed to t e s t hypotheses 1 to 4 involved ccmputing a rank order c o r r e l a t i o n between the assigned rank on four types of work and non-work r e l a t i o n s h i p s (see 2.6) and the composite index of mental health.  A c o r r e l a t i o n of .61 (P>.001) was found between  the two rank orders which indicated a substantial agreement between the two.  Thus hypotheses 1 to 4 are a l s o supported by the second a n a l y s i s . In order to determine i f the d e c i s i o n of d i v i d i n g need f u l f i l l m e n t  i n work and non-work from the median may have influenced the above r e s u l t s , the same two types of analyses were again performed to t e s t hypotheses 1 to 4 a f t e r d i v i d i n g the scores from the mean.  Results  obtained from the a n a l y s i s of variance are presented i n Table 7.  Again,  a l l hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p s are i n the predicted d i r e c t i o n and are statistically significant.  The rank order.correlation between the  assigned rank on four types of work and non-work r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the composite index of mental h e a l t h was  .62  (P>.001) .  Thus, hypotheses 1 to  4 are again supported by the data.  3.2  Technological Variables, Leadership Styles and Need F u l f i l l m e n t i n Work  Hypothesis 5 (H5) predicted that there w i l l be a negative r e l a t i o n ship between task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n jobs and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work. I t may be r e c a l l e d that three measures were used to assess task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n t h i s study.  A composite index of task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n  was  constructed by combining the scores on three measures i n such a way  that  - 80 TABLE 7:  T y p e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and non-work and t h e q u a l i t y o f m e n t a l h e a l t h a c c o r d i n g t o K o r n h a u s e r ' s m e a s u r e s (mean)  Types o f Relationship  (N)  Complementary  (134)  227.83  37.72  Expressive  ( 81)  214.82  24.79  3.05*  Compensatory  ( 9.0.)  184.82  42.11  5.74**  Spillover  ( 92)  161.44  25.42  4.52**  (397)  200.04  43.05  (Total)  Mean S c o r e on Mental Health  Standard Deviation  *  Significant  a t t h e .01 l e v e l  **  Significant  a t t h e .001 l e v e l  t-value  F-value  80.36**  - 81 -  a high score on the index meant a high degree of task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n the job.  Rank order c o r r e l a t i o n was computed between the index of task  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work.  The c o r r e l a t i o n was  -.52  (see Table 8) which shows that there i s a moderate negative r e l a t i o n s h i p between task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work i n t h i s study. Thus hypothesis 5 i s supported. Hypothesis 6 predicted that the amount o f t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t an i n d i v i d u a l experiences i n task performance w i l l be negatively r e l a t e d to h i s need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work.  A composite index o f t e c h n i c a l constraint  was constructed by combining an i n d i v i d u a l ' s scores on the eight measures of technical c o n s t r a i n t i n such a way that a high score on the index meant a greater amount of t e c h n i c a l constraint i n task performance. Scores on negatively worded items were reversed.  Rank order c o r r e l a t i o n  was computed between the index of technical constraint and need f u l f i l l ment i n work.  The c o r r e l a t i o n was  -.56  (see Table 8) which suggests that  t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t i n jobs and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work are moderately related.  Thus, hypothesis 6 i s supported.  I t may be argued that the measures of task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and technical constraint that have been used are concerned with d i f f e r e n t facets of task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and t e c h n i c a l constraint, and that, therefore, i t was not legitimate to combine them i n t o composite indexes.  For  t h i s reason, a separate analysis was performed between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and the measures of task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s . Table 9 presents the rank order c o r r e l a t i o n s between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n  - 82 TABLE 8:  Spearman r a n k - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t a s k s p e c i a l i z a t i o n t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t and l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e w i t h n e e d f u l f i l l m e n t i n work  Independent Variables  (N)  Task S p e c i a l i z a t i o n  (402)  -.52  .001  Technical  (402)  -.56  .001  (402)  .32  .001  Leadership  Constraint  Style  * Two'tailed  test  Spearman Correlation  Level of Significance*  -  83  work and the measures of task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and t e c h n i c a l constraint. A l l the three measures of task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n are moderately correlated with need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work.  The average c o r r e l a t i o n between the  measures of task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work i s (P .001) which i s comparable t o the c o r r e l a t i o n of -.52 >  -.44  found between  the index o f task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work. The c o r r e l a t i o n s between need f u l f i l l m e n t and the measures of t e c h n i c a l constraint vary from -.21  to-.51.  The average c o r r e l a t i o n  between the measures o f t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work i s -.38 -.56  (P>.001) which i s somewhat lower than the c o r r e l a t i o n of  found between the index of t e c h n i c a l constraint and need f u l f i l l m e n t  i n work.  However, a l l c o r r e l a t i o n s between the measures of t e c h n i c a l  c o n s t r a i n t and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work are i n the predicted d i r e c t i o n (negative) and are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Hypothesis 7 (H7) predicted that need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work w i l l be greater under the democratic supervisor than under the a u t h o r i t a r i a n supervisor.  A scale of 13 Likert-type items was  v i s o r y s t y l e i n t h i s study.  used to assess super-  A higher score on each item was  an i n d i c a t i o n  o f democratic supervision whereas a lower score was  an i n d i c a t i o n of  a u t h o r i t a r i a n supervision.  s t y l e was  An index of supervisory  by combining scores on t h i r t e e n items.  Rank order c o r r e l a t i o n was  computed between the index of supervisory work.  The c o r r e l a t i o n i s .32  constructed  s t y l e and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n  (P>.001) which shows that need f u l f i l l m e n t  i n work i s s l i g h t l y higher under a democratic supervisor than under an  - 84 TABLE 9:  R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and t h e m e a s u r e s o f t a s k s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t i n task performance.  Measures  (N)  Correlation  Level of Significance  Task S p e c i a l i z a t i o n (1)  Fragmentation  (400)  .38  001  (2)  Repetition  (399)  •.45  001  (3)  Simplification  (401)  .50  001  Technical  Constraint  (1)  Talk  (402)  .51  001  (2)  Think  (401)  .28  001  (3)  Pacing  (402)  .32  001  (4)  Relief  (402)  •.47  ,001  (5)  Slack  (402)  -.30  ,001  (6)  Move  (398)  -.46  , 001  (7)  Attention  (398)  -.21  ,001  (8)  Variety  (402)  -.50  ,001  1 Two  tailed  test  a u t h o r i t a r i a n supervisor.  Mthough the c o r r e l a t i o n i s i n the predicted  d i r e c t i o n and s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , yet i t accounts f o r only 10 percent variance i n the dependent v a r i a b l e .  Therefore, hypothesis 7 must  be considered as only weakly supported.  3.3  Organizational Variables and Need F u l f i l l m e n t i n Work  Hypothesis 8 (H8) predicted t h a t the steepness of organizational structure w i l l be negatively r e l a t e d to the employee need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work.  Employees were c l a s s i f i e d according to the structure of the  organization i n which they worked, i . e . i n f l a t , intermediate or t a l l organization structures.  I t may  be r e c a l l e d that the determination  of  organization structure involved taking a r a t i o of the number of l e v e l s of supervision i n the organization to the t o t a l s i z e of the organization. One-way analysis of variance was performed'to explore the r e l a t i o n s h i p between organization structure and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work. presented i n the upper part of Table 10.  Results are  I t i s c l e a r from the analysis  that need f u l f i l l m e n t i s highest under f l a t structures, moderate under intermediate  structures, and lowest under t a l l structures.  Differences  between means across the three types of organization structures are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t according t o the t - t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e as w e l l as according t o the Duncan Sign Test.  Thus, hypothesis 8 i s supported.  Hypothesis 9 (H9) predicted that organization s i z e w i l l be negatively r e l a t e d to need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work. to assess organization s i z e .  Three d i f f e r e n t measures were used  The f i r s t measure r e l a t e d to t o t a l organ-  - 86 TABLE 10:  R e l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and f o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s  Organizational Variables  Organization  (N)  Mean S c o r e on Need F u l f i l l m e n t  Standard Deviation  t'- v a l u e F - -val 1  Structure  Flat  (134)  34.,55  9.,36  Intermediate  (192)  29. 52  11. 03  Tall  (  25. 83  9. 07  (171)  32. 63  9. 86  (139)  29. 83  10. 66  3,.25**  (  29. 07  11. 26  0.. 16  (138)  31. 65  10. 42  (136)  30. 05  10. 19  1. 29  (118)  29. 34  11. 37  0. 52  (115)  31. 18  10. 80  (150)  30. 34  10. 16  0. 65  (125)  29. 77  11. 18  0. 44  Organization 100  - 150  151 -  persons  251 - 3 00  Dept.  1-10  Actual  persons over  Dept.  1-10  Two  92)  6,.16"  1.,61  Size  persons  11 - 20 21 and  19 .60'  Size  11 - 20 21 and  2 .82*  Size  250  Perceived  76)  4 .43**  over  tailed  test  * Significant  a t t h e .01  * Significant  a t t h e .001  level level  0. 53  - 87 -  zation s i z e and the other two r e l a t e d t o sub-unit s i z e .  One-way a n a l y s i s  of variance was performed t o explore the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the three measures o f organization s i z e and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work. obtained are presented i n Table 10.  Results  I t i s c l e a r from Table 10 that there  i s a weak r e l a t i o n s h i p between the t o t a l organization s i z e and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work.  Need f u l f i l l m e n t i s higher f o r people working i n small  organizations than f o r people working i n medium-size organizations. The difference between means i n small and medium-size organizations i s s i g n i f i c a n t according t o the t - t e s t and the Duncan Sign Test.  However,  there i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n need f u l f i l l m e n t f o r people working i n large o r medium-size organizations.  S u r p r i s i n g l y , mean need f u l f i l l m e n t i s s l i g h t l y  higher f o r people working i n large organizations than i n medium-size organizations, which i s contrary to the p r e d i c t i o n o f H9. One-way a n a l y s i s o f variance was performed t o examine the r e l a t i o n ship between the two measures o f sub-unit s i z e and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work.  Results are again presented i n Table 10.  I t i s c l e a r frcm the  analyses that both the measures o f sub-unit s i z e e x h i b i t n e g l i g i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s with need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work.  However, a l l the r e l a t i o n -  ships between the measures o f sub-unit s i z e and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work are i n the hypothesized d i r e c t i o n .  In both cases, there i s a tendency  towards achieving a higher l e v e l of need f u l f i l l m e n t i n smaller sub-units. I n i t i a l l y i t was planned t o include only b l u e - c o l l a r workers i n the present study.  However, because o f p r a c t i c a l considerations, a l l the  rank-and-file workers i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g companies were included, which  - 88 increased  the heterogeneity o f the sample.  Porter and Lawler (1965)  stated that most of the studies which found negative r e l a t i o n s h i p s between organization  s i z e v a r i a b l e s and job s a t i s f a c t i o n were conducted  among b l u e - c o l l a r workers and no such r e l a t i o n s h i p s have been documented among white-collar workers.  In recent years, two studies by ElSalmi and  Cumnrings (1968) and Gunnings and ElSalmi appreciable r e l a t i o n between organization  (1970) a l s o f a i l e d t o f i n d any s i z e and need s a t i s f a c t i o n among  managers. In order t o examine whether or not the heterogeneity o f the sample i n t h i s study has r e s t r i c t e d the strength o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between organization  s i z e variables and need f u l f i l l m e n t , separate analyses were  performed f o r b l u e - c o l l a r and white-collar samples.  Results f o r the blue-  c o l l a r sample are presented i n Table 11 and f o r the white-collar sample i n Table 12.  I t i s c l e a r from Table 11 that the three measures o f organi-  zation and sub-unit s i z e are s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o need f u l f i l l m e n t among b l u e - c o l l a r workers. An examination of the analyses presented i n Table .12 suggests that none o f the three measures o f organization and sub-unit s i z e are s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o need f u l f i l l m e n t among whitec o l l a r workers. I t may be concluded that the three measures of organization  s i z e show  a moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p t o need f u l f i l l m e n t f o r b l u e - c o l l a r workers and show no r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r white-collar workers. Thus, hypothesis 9 must.be considered as weakly supported f o r the b l u e - c o l l a r sample and not a t a l l supported f o r the white-collar sample. 1  TABLE 11:  - 89 between nepd  Relationship  * ™  o  r  g  a  n  i  M  t  i  o  n  a  Organizational Variables  !? ^ e  N  Organization  f „ i f i n -  •  v S ^ . . " ^ - "  l  e  e  d  S  G  O  r  e  o  n  fulfillment  Standard Deviation  ^mple.  t-value  ( go)  Intermediate Tall  32.71  9.77  (117)  26.42  10.50  ( 42)  22.67  7.51  (249)  28. 06  10.45  100 - 150 p e r s o n s  (117)  30.57  10. 06  151 - 250  ( 80)  25.60  10.40  251 - 300  ( 52)  26.19  10.28  (249)  28. 06  10.45  ( 77)  29.32  10.65  11 - 20  (106)  29.17  10.16  0.10  21 and o v e r  ( 61)  24.15  10. 03  3.10*  (244)  27.96  10.48  ( 65)  28.83  10.81  11 - 20  (114)  29.22  10.26  21 and o v e r  ( 63)  24.41  9.98  (242)  27.86  10.50  Total  Dept.  1-10  persons  Dept.  1-10  *  18.16*'  3.34** -0.32  Size persons  Total  Two  2.48*  6. 72*  Size  Total Actual  4.45**  Size  Total Perceived  F-valuc  structure  Flat  Organization  1  tailed  Significant  ** S i g n i f i c a n t  test a t t h e .01 a t t h e .001  level level  •0.24 3.04*  5.60*  - 90 TABLE 12  R e l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work a n d l o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s f o r w h i t e - c o l l a r sample.  Organizational Variables  Organization  (N)  Mean S c o r e on Standard Need F u l f i l l m e n t D e v i a t i o n  t-value  ( 44)  28.29  7.21  Intermediate  ( 73)  34.42  10.10  2.41*  Tall  ( 33)  29.42  9.37  2.48*  (150)  34 .46  9.65  ( 54)  37. 07  7.79  151 - 250  ( 58)  33.09  9.48  251 - 300  ( 38)  32.84  11.58  (150)  34.46  9.65  ( 61)  34.59  9.41  11 - 20  ( 30)  33.17  9.81  0.66  21 and o v e r  ( 57)  34.90  10.08  •0.77  (148)  34.42  9.71  ( 50)  34.24  10.08  11 - 20  ( 36)  33.89  9.06  0.17  21 and o v e r  ( 62)  35. 21  9.67  •0.68  (148)  34.56  9.62  Total  100 - 150  persons  Dept.  1-10  persons  Dent.  1-10  0.11  3.19  0.32  Size persons  Total  Two  2.44*  Size  Total Actual  8.80**  Size  Total Perceived  F-valu.  structure  Flat  Organization  1  tailed  test  * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 ** S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001  level level  0.25  - 91 -  CHAPTER IV:  Discussion and  Conclusions  In t h i s chapter the main findings of t h i s study are discussed i n r e l a t i o n to the empirical evidence i n the relevant areas. has been divided i n t o f i v e sections dealing with  The  chapter  (1) the v a l i d i t y of the  mental health measures, (2) the r e l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t and mental health, (3) the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work, and task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , t e c h n i c a l constraint and supervisory s t y l e , (4) the r e l a t i o n s h i p between organizational v a r i a b l e s and need f u l f i l l ment i n work, and  4.1  (5) the conclusions and implications of t h i s study.  V a l i d i t y of mental h e a l t h measures Levinson and Weinbaum i n 1970  stated (McLean, 1970)  that, "...no one  has yet a r r i v e d a t a u n i v e r s a l l y accepted d e f i n i t i o n of mental health, although many have t r i e d .  Some would argue that there i s no such thing,  and others that there i s nothing to be done."  Although f i v e years have  passed since Levinson and Weinbaum made t h i s statement, unfortunately i t s t i l l holds true. zation behavior and Weiner, 1975)  In the l a s t f i v e years, only four studies i n organi-  (Quinn, 1972;  Caplan e t a l . , 1975;  Gechman  have used the construct of mental health as an indepen-  dent or dependent v a r i a b l e . defined mental health. 1973;  Burke, 1973;  Caplan, 1975)  None of these four studies has e x p l i c i t l y  Three of the four studies (Quinn, 1973;  Burke,  employed Quinn's or s i m i l a r measures of mental health  whereas one study (Gechman and Weiner, 1975) measures of mental health.  made use of Kornhauser's  Only two studies (Quinn, 1972;  Caplan e t a l . ,  1975) reported the r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e i r mental health measures and i n no study was the v a l i d i t y o f the mental health measures reported.  As a  r e s u l t of t h i s regrettable omission i n the research to date, one main objective o f t h i s study has been t o t e s t the v a l i d i t y of the a v a i l a b l e measures o f mental health. As mentioned previously, no other investigator attempted t o s p e l l out the meaning o f mental h e a l t h as c l e a r l y as d i d Kornhauser (1965). Kornhauser not only formulated an empirical d e f i n i t i o n of mental health, but a l s o systematically checked the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f h i s measures.  I t should be mentioned a t t h i s point that to the best of our  knowledge, Kornhauser's measures o f mental health are the only measures which were subjected to i n t e r n a l as w e l l as external v a l i d a t i o n . Kornhauser's r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s are remarkable, but there was a severe problem with h i s procedure of data c o l l e c t i o n .  I t may  be r e c a l l e d that he used unstructured interviews l a s t i n g between one and one-half hours t o two hours i n each case i n order t o obtain information about the mental h e a l t h of the respondents.  This made Kornhauser's  measures expensive i n terms o f time and money, and hence undesirable i n survey-research.  Moreover, the necessity to content analyze and to code  data obtained from unstructured interviews i n e v i t a b l y detracts from r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y .  These considerations may explain why only one  study so f a r has used Kornhauser's measures. The need t o have v a l i d measures o f mental health which could be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to researchers i n survey-type research was the c h i e f  - 93 impetus behind the v a l i d a t i o n of the mental health measures i n t h i s study.  The r e s u l t s presented i n Section 2.4 suggest that we have been  f a i r l y successful i n achieving t h i s goal.  Our measures of mental health  not only show a high degree of i n t e r n a l consistency r e l i a b i l i t y but they a l s o show a reasonable degree of convergent v a l i d i t y .  Thus i t may  be  s a i d that t h i s study has achieved three things regarding the construct of mental health.  F i r s t , the unstructured interview measures of mental  health have been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the structured questionnaire measures. Second, the r e l a t i v e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f the structured measures have been documented with the hope that i t may be a f i r s t step toward the development of a standard measure of mental, health corresponding to the standard measures of job s a t i s f a c t i o n and supervisory s t y l e .  T h i r d , the  r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the modified version of Kornhauser's measures of mental health have been re-examined i n a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l m i l i e u . 4.2  Mental Health Predicted through Need F u l f i l l m e n t  Our t h e o r e t i c a l model made the p r e d i c t i o n that the i n t e r a c t i o n between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work determines the q u a l i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s mental health. i n Section 3.1 supported the above p r e d i c t i o n . I t was  Results presented  found that the  i n d i v i d u a l s who had a high l e v e l of need f u l f i l l m e n t both i n work and non-work showed the highest l e v e l of mental health.  Individuals who  had a high l e v e l of need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work but had a low l e v e l of need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work showed a moderately high l e v e l  - 94 -  of mental health.  Individuals who had a low l e v e l of need f u l f i l l m e n t i n  work but had a high l e v e l o f need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work showed a moderate l e v e l of mental health.  Individuals who had a low l e v e l of need  f u l f i l l m e n t both i n work and non-work showed the lowest l e v e l of mental health. The above findings may be interpreted i n the l i g h t of Maslow's t h e o r e t i c a l model (1954) on need g r a t i f i c a t i o n and psychological health. Maslow s theory postulated a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p 1  f i c a t i o n and psychological health.  between need g r a t i -  Our i n t e r a c t i o n a l  analysis o f need  f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and non-work, and the g u a l i t y of mental health shows' a positive relationship theory.  between the two and thus lends support t o Maslow's  Maslow, however, d i d not indicate c l e a r l y i n what area of an  individual's  l i f e need g r a t i f i c a t i o n was to be assessed i n order to pre-  d i c t h i s mental health.  In the present study, therefore, separate  c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n d i f f e r e n t areas and mental health.  The rank order c o r r e l a t i o n  f i l l m e n t i n work and mental health was +.53  (P>.001).  a t i o n between the o v e r a l l need f u l f i l l m e n t i n l i f e  and  The c o r r e l -  (work + non-work) and  (P>.001). A l l the above c o r r e l a t i o n s are p o s i t i v e  lend a d d i t i o n a l support t o Maslow's theory.  individuals  between need f u l -  (P>.001) and between need f u l -  f i l l m e n t i n non-work and mental health was +.34  mental health was +.57  life  Thus i t may be said that  who have most o f t h e i r psychological needs s a t i s f i e d i n l i f e ,  tend to be the ones who experience a high l e v e l of mental health. The p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and  mental health i s consistent with the empirical evidence on job s a t i s f a c t i o n and mental health.  The research of Kahn and h i s associates  (1964) suggested a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between job s a t i s f a c t i o n and mental health.  Kornhauser (1965) i n h i s study o f D e t r o i t automobile  workers observed that workers who were s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r jobs had a higher l e v e l of mental health than workers who were not s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r jobs. level.  This f i n d i n g was confirmed a t each separate occupational  Quinn (1972) observed a strong p o s i t i v e association between job  s a t i s f a c t i o n and mental health i n a nationally-based p r o b a b i l i t y sample of 1533 American workers.  In addition, he found that the association  between job s a t i s f a c t i o n and mental health was greater among workers who were locked i n t o t h e i r jobs than among those not locked i n t o them. recent study, Gechman and Weiner  In a  (1975) found a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f  .48 between job s a t i s f a c t i o n and mental health i n a sample of 53 elementary school teachers.  Thus i t may be s a i d t h a t the r e s u l t o f t h i s study  on need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and mental health has added to the growing body o f evidence supporting a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between job s a t i s f a c t i o n and the q u a l i t y o f mental health. The r e s u l t s from the i n t e r a c t i o n a l analysis o f need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and non-work and mental health cast doubt upon the notion of the r e l a t i v e s u p e r i o r i t y of the non-work environment over the work environment i n making workers psychologically happy. e t a__ (1960) stated:  In the e a r l y s i x t i e s , Gurin  - 96 -  "With the a l i e n a t i o n from the job t h a t occurs w i t h i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and i n c r e a s i n g automation, w i t h the shortening o f the work day and concomitant expanding opportunity f o r a l i f e outs i d e the job t h a t t h i s a l l o w s , the job tends t o l o s e i t s c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n a man's l i f e . More energy i s channelled i n t o l i f e outside the work, and the p o s s i b i l i t y a r i s e s f o r non-job areas o f l i f e t o provide the meaning and i d e n t i t y anchors t h a t the j o b once provided." Many more such statements can be found i n the l i t e r a t u r e which have popularized the notion t h a t what happens t o i n d i v i d u a l s i n the work environment may not be as important t o the achievement o f s a t i s f a c t i o n and happiness i n l i f e as what happens t o them i n the non-^work environment.  Our r e s u l t s c o n t r a d i c t t h i s notion and suggest t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s  who cannot f u l l y s a t i s f y t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs i n the work environment show e i t h e r a low o r a t test a moderate l e v e l o f mental h e a l t h .  On the  other hand, i n d i v i d u a l s who can f u l l y s a t i s f y t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs i n the work environment show e i t h e r a high or moderately high l e v e l o f mental h e a l t h . A d d i t i o n a l evidence against the n o t i o n t h a t the non-work environment may be more important than the work environment i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e was obtained from the p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s between need f u l f i l l m e n t i n  work and non-work and mental health.  The p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n between need  f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and mental health c o n t r o l l i n g f o r need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work was +.48 (P>.001).  The p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n between need f u l f i l l -  ment i n non-work and mental health c o n t r o l l i n g f o r need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work was + .20 (P>.001).  These r e s u l t s suggest that the independent  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work t o mental health i s stronger than the independent r e l a t i o n s h i p o f need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work t o mental health.  I f the above r e s u l t s are v a l i d , and we believe they are, then i t may be high time, as stated by Weiner, Akabas and Sommer (1973), "...to use the  work s e t t i n g o r work-related v a r i a b l e s as a v e h i c l e through which t o  f i n d the worker i n trouble and t o help that worker stay on the job."  Our t h e o r e t i c a l model made the p r e d i c t i o n that the technological variables o f task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t are negatively r e l a t e d t o need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work. confirmed the above p r e d i c t i o n .  Results presented i n Section 3.2  I t was found that workers who experienced  a high degree o f task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n jobs had a low degree o f need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and the workers who experienced a low degree o f task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n jobs had a high degree of need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work. Siiiiilarly, workers who experienced a high degree o f t e c h n i c a l constraint i n task performance had a low degree o f need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and the workers who experienced a low degree o f technical constraint had a high  - 98 degree of need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work.  These findings are consistent with  the empirical evidence i n the area of technological variables and job attitudes, which i n general, suggests a negative r e l a t i o n s h i p two types of  between the  variables.  As e a r l y as 1930, F a i r c h i l d (1930) found a s i g n i f i c a n t negative relationship  between task s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and job s a t i s f a c t i o n .  research (1955) indicated  that task r e p e t i t i o n was one of the most  innportant sources of the workers company.  Turner's  1  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with work and the  Blauner (1964), i n a secondary analysis of Roper's (1947)  survey data, found that a l i e n a t i o n  from work was lower among p r i n t e r s  and  chemical workers, whose jobs have a low degree of task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n than among"workers i n auto and t e x t i l e industries who experience a high degree of task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n t h e i r jobs.  Turner and Lawrence (1965)  i n t h e i r well-documented study found s i g n i f i c a n t negative associations between task s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and job s a t i s f a c t i o n , and and absenteeism.  Shepard  'task complexity  1  (1971), i n a sample of o f f i c e and factory  workers, observed negative associations between 'functional  special-  i z a t i o n ' measured with production - l i n e mechanization and f i v e dimensions of a l i e n a t i o n —  powerlessness, normlessness, meaninglessness,  evaluative involvement, and instrumeiital work o r i e n t a t i o n .  self-  In a recent  study, Jamal (1975) found s i g n i f i c a n t negative association between task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and organizational commitment. In a study of automobile workers i n Detroit, Walker and Guest (1952) observed during t h e i r .interviews with workers that the technical  con-  - 99 s t r a i n t o f 'pacing' was one o f the major sources o f workers' d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with work and the company.  Conant and K i l b r i d g e (1965) found  that pacing, and v a r i e t y i n work elements, along with many other job c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a f f e c t workers!' a t t i t u d e s toward work. B r i t i s h factory workers, Crompton and Wedderburn  In a study o f  (1970) found that the  t e c h n i c a l constraints of task v a r i e t y , freedom o f movement i n the work place, and the opportunity o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n with fellow workers on the job were the main source o f workers' s a t i s f a c t i o n with work. Recently, Jarnal (1976) also found negative r e l a t i o n s h i p s between eight t e c h n i c a l constraints and organizational commitment and job s a t i s f a c t i o n i n a sample o f 377 blue-col3.ar workers. Thus i t may be s a i d that the r e s u l t s o f t h i s study on technological v a r i a b l e s and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work have added support to the evidence on negative r e l a t i o n s h i p s between technological variables and job attitudes. Our t h e o r e t i c a l model made the p r e d i c t i o n that need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work w i l l be higher under a democratic supervisor than under an authori t a r i a n supervisor.  This p r e d i c t i o n was somewhat supported by our data.  I t was found that workers who perceived t h e i r supervisor as democratic had a s l i g h t l y high l e v e l o f need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work and the workers who perceived t h e i r supervisor as a u t h o r i t a r i a n had a s l i g h t l y low l e v e l o f need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work.  These r e s u l t s are consistent with the empirical  evidence on leadership s t y l e and job s a t i s f a c t i o n (Vroom, 1964; Sales, 1966; Sadler, 1970) as w e l l as with leadership s t y l e and need f u l f i l l m e n t  - 100 i n work (Beer, 1966; H i l l and Hunt, .1973; Osborn, Hunt and Pope, 1973) . Thus, i t may be s a i d that the r e s u l t s o f t h i s study on supervisory s t y l e and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work have modestly added t o the growing body o f evidence supporting the r e l a t i o n s h i p between leadership s t y l e and subordinates' job a t t i t u d e s .  4.4  Need F u l f i l l m e n t i n Work Predicted through Organizational Variables  Our t h e o r e t i c a l model made the p r e d i c t i o n that the organizational v a r i a b l e s o f 'structure' and 'size' would be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d t o need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work.  Results presented i n Section 3.3  confirmed  the above p r e d i c t i o n s . I t was found .that the workers employed i n f l a t organization structures had a high l e v e l o f need f u l f i l l m e n t , those employed i n intermediate  structures had a moderate l e v e l o f need f u l -  f i l l m e n t and those employed i n t a l l organization structures had a low l e v e l o f need f u l f i l l m e n t .  In addition, i t was found that there i s a  tendency toward a higher l e v e l of need f u l f i l l m e n t i n smaller organi z a t i o n s and sub-units only i n the b l u e - c o l l a r sample. The f i n d i n g that structure i s r e l a t e d t o need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work i s consistent with the empirical evidence i n the area of organization structure and job s a t i s f a c t i o n , which, i n general, suggests a negative r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two.  As e a r l y as 1950, Worthy (1950) i n h i s  study o f Sears-Roebuck employees made the observation that morale among employees may be higher i n f l a t organization structures.  However,  Meltzer and S a l t e r (1962), i n t h e i r study o f 704 p h y s i o l o g i s t s , found l i t t l e support f o r the s u p e r i o r i t y o f f l a t structures over t a l l structures  101 i n terms o f employees' s a t i s f a c t i o n .  Carpenter (1971) compared t a i l ,  medium and f l a t s t r u c t u r e s i n s i x p u b l i c school systems, i n r e l a t i o n t o the l e v e l o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n o f 120 teachers.  Ke found t h a t teachers i n  f l a t organizations perceived higher j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n than teachers i n medium and t a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Ivancevich and Donnelly  I n a recent study o f 290 trade salesmen,  (1975) a l s o found some support f o r the r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n .  Tinas i t may  be s a i d t h a t the f i n d i n g o f t h i s study on o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work has added t o the growing body o f evidence supporting a negative r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r u c t u r e and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . The tendency toward a higher l e v e l o f need f u l f i l l m e n t i n small o r g a n i z a t i o n s and sub-units among b l u e - c o l l a r workers i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the argument o f P o r t e r and Lawler (1965) and w i t h the f i n d i n g s o f E l S a l m i and Cummings (1968) and Cummings and E l S a l m i (1970).  However, even among  b l u e - c o l l a r workers, most o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the measures o f organization/sub-unit s i z e and need f u l f i l l m e n t a r e n e t very strong. We f e e l t h a t t h i s may have happened due t o the small range i n s i z e o f the p a r t i c i p a t i n g companies i n t h i s study.  Both the o r g a n i z a t i o n s i z e as  w e l l as the sub-unit s i z e c a t e g o r i e s adopted i n the present study were t o o s m a l l i n comparison t o the categories used i n p r e v i o u s l y published s t u d i e s i n the area.  F o r example, CumtTiings and E l S a l m i (3.970) i n t h e i r study  c l a s s i f i e d companies employing l e s s than 500 employees as small o r g a n i zations.  I n t h i s study, none o f the s i x p a r t i c i p a t i n g companies had more  than 350 employees.  S i m i l a r l y , Cummings and E l S a l m i (1970) c l a s s i f i e d  - 102  -  sub-units having l e s s than 50 employees as small sub-units.  In the  present study, 95 percent o f the employers surveyed had fewer than 50 employees working i n t h e i r sub-units.  The smallness of the adopted  categories of the t o t a l organization and sub-unit s i z e s may  have  a f f e c t e d the v a r i a t i o n of the dependent v a r i a b l e and hence r e s t r i c t e d the strength of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between organization s i z e v a r i a b l e s and need fulfillment. The findings that organization s i z e variables are r e l a t e d to need f u l f i l l m e n t f o r b l u e - c o l l a r workers and are not r e l a t e d f o r w h i t e - c o l l a r workers have suggested that i n research on organization s i z e and workers' attitudes i t i s better to t r e a t white-collar and b l u e - c o l l a r workers separately." 4.5  F a i l u r e to do that may  Conclusions and  r e s u l t i n misleading  conclusions.  Implications  This exploratory attempt a t understanding the r e l a t i o n s h i p between need f u l f i l l m e n t and mental health, and between technological, management and organizational v a r i a b l e s and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work provides a number of t e n t a t i v e conclusions. was highest among workers who  I t has been found that mental health  had high need f u l f i l l m e n t both i n work and  non-work; was moderately high among workers who  had high need f u l f i l l -  ment i n work but low need f u l f i l l m e n t i n non-work; was moderate among workers who  had low need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work but high need f u l f i l l m e n t  i n non-work and was  lowest among workers who  botli i n work and i n non-work.  had. low need f u l f i l l m e n t  The immediate implication of these r e s u l t s  - 103 i s that mental health should be considered  on a broader l e v e l .  Previous  research focussed e i t h e r on work environment factors alone o r on non-work environment f a c t o r s alone i n understanding workers* mental health.  The  r e s u l t s o f t h i s study indicate that i t may be more u s e f u l t o include both work and non-work environment factors i n research on mental health. Future research should address i t s e l f t o determining the r e l a t i v e importance of d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s i n work and non-work environments which a f f e c t individuals  1  mental health.  Such research could bring t o l i g h t f a c t o r s  i n the work environment that are c r u c i a l to employees' mental health and hence indicate areas where improvements could be made i n the work e n v i r onment. I t was also found that the technological v a r i a b l e s o f task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and technical constraint were inversely r e l a t e d t o need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work; need f u l f i l l m e n t was s l i g h t l y higher under a democ r a t i c supervisor than under an authoritarian supervisor; and the organizational variables o f organization structure, t o t a l organization s i z e , and sub-unit s i z e were d i f f e r e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d t o need f u l f i l l m e n t . The f a c t that, o f the above-mentioned v a r i a b l e s , the  technological  variables showed the strongest r e l a t i o n s h i p with need f u l f i l l m e n t  leads  to the conclusion that technological variables are important i n influencing i n d i v i d u a l s ' behavior a t the work s i t e .  The implication o f  the above conclusion i s that serious attention should a l s o be paid t o technological variables i n the work environment along with organizational, management and psychological v a r i a b l e s .  There i s an acute paucity o f  - 104 research studies i n organizational behavior which attempt to examine the impact of t e c h n o l g i c a l v a r i a b l e s on workers' attitudes and behavior. Future research should explore the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between technological v a r i a b l e s and workers' attitudes and behavior, with the object of determining the relevance of technological v a r i a b l e s i n organizational behavior. Since the present study i s a fi.eld study, the r e s u l t s must be cautiously.  treated  There were only a few s i g n i f i c a n t differences found between  the measures of organization v a r i a b l e s and need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work. In addition, most of the s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s of t h i s study were zero - order c o r r e l a t i o n s , which might have changed with the introduction of moderator v a r i a b l e s .  Altliough the r e s u l t s reported provide support f o r  many of the hypotheses tested, they cannot v a l i d a t e causal predictions about the v a r i a b l e s investigated.  Nevertheless, our r e s u l t s seem to  suggest that need f u l f i l l m e n t and mental health are r e l a t e d to each other; s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n jobs, t e c h n i c a l constraint i n task performance and v i s o r y s t y l e are r e l a t e d to need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work; and  super-  organization  structure, organization s i z e and sub-unit s i z e are d i f f e r e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d to need f u l f i l l m e n t i n work.  - 105 -  REFERENCES Anderson, J . 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Managerial l e v e l , l e a d e r s h i p and employee need s a t i s f a c t i o n . I n E. Fleishman and J . Hunt (eds.). Current Developments i n the Study o f Leadership. I l l i n o i s : Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1973. Hollingshead,A. and R e d l i c h , F. S o c i a l C l a s s and Mental I l l n e s s : Community Study. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1958.  A  Holmes, B. The r e l a t i o n between r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s on job s a t i s f a c t i o n o f on-the-job and o f f - t h e - j o b f u l f i l l m e n t o f work r e l a t e d needs. D i s s e r t a t i o n Abstracts," 1964, 24, No. 64-1750. H u l i n , C. Sources o f v a r i a t i o n i n the job and l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n : The r o l e o f community and j o b - r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d Psychology, 1969, 5_3, 279-291. Hunt, P., Schupp, D. and Cobb, S. An automated s e l f - r e p o r t technique. Unpublished manuscript, Mental Health and Industry Program Document, I n s t i t u t e f o r S o c i a l Research, Michigan, 1966. Hunt, S.M., Singer, K. and Cobb, S. Components o f depression i d e n t i f i e d from a s e l f - r a t i n g depression inventory f o r survey use. Archives of General P s y c h i a t r y , 1967, 16, 44-447. I n d i k , B. Some e f f e c t s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s i z e on member a t t i t u d e s and behavior. Human R e l a t i o n s , 1953, 16_, 369-384. I n d i k , B. and Seashore, S. E f f e c t s o f Organization S i z e on Member A t t i t u d e s and Behavior. Ann Arbor: U n i v e r s i t y o f Michigan, Survey Research Centre, I n s t i t u t e f o r S o c i a l Research, 1961. I r i s , B. and B a r r e t t , G. Some r e l a t i o n s between job and l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n and job importance. J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d Psychology, 1972, 56, 301-304. Ivancevich, J . and Donnelly, J . R e l a t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e t o job s a t i s f a c t i o n , a n x i e t y s t r e s s , and performance. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Science Q u a r t e r l y , 1975, 20, 272-280. Jahoda, M. Current Concepts o f P o s i t i v e cjental Health. Basic books, 1958. ~~ ;  New York-  - 109 -  Jamal, M. Task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and organizational attachment: An empirical study of i n d u s t r i a l b l u e - c o l l a r workers i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia (Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1972) . Jamal, M. Task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and organizational ccmmitment: An empirical examination among b l u e - c o l l a r workers. Relations I n d u s t r i e l l e s , 1975, 30, 612-627. Jamal, M. On the r e l a t i o n s h i p between technologically based job •characteristics and organizational commitment, work attachment and job s a t i s f a c t i o n , paper presented a t the Western D i v i s i o n of Academy of Management, Santa Barbara, 1976. Kahn, R. L. Wolf, D.M., Quinn, R.P., Snoek, J.D., and Rosenthal, R.A. Organizational Stress: Studies i n Role C o n f l i c t and Ambiguity. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1964. f  Kasl, S. Work and mental health. In J.O. Toole (ed.). Work and the Quality of L i f e : Resource Papers f o r Work i n America, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1974, pp. 171-196. K a t z e l l , R.'A., Barrett, R.S., Parker, T.C. Job s a t i s f a c t i o n , job performance, and s i t u a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Journal of Applied Psychology, 1961, 45, 65-72. N  Kerr, W.A, Koppelmeier, G.J. and S u l l i v a n , J . J . Absenteeism, turnover, and morale i n a metals f a b r i c a t i o n factory. 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Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, I n s t i t u t e f o r S o c i a l Research, Survey Research Centre, 1953. Mott, P.E., Mann, F.C., McLoughlin, Q., and Warwick, D.P. Shift-Work: The S o c i a l , Psychological, and P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Ann Arbor: University o f Michigan Press, 1965. Neel, R. Nervous s t r e s s i n the i n d u s t r i a l s i t u a t i o n . Psychology, 1955, 8, 405-416. Nunnally, J . Psychometric Theory.  New York:  Personnel  McGraw-Hill, 1967.  Odegard, 0. The incidence o f psychoses i n various occupations. International Journal o f S o c i a l Psychiatry, 1956, 2_, 85-104. Osborn, R.N., Hunt, J.G. and Pope, R. L a t e r a l leadership, s a t i s f a c t i o n , and performance. Academy o f Management Proceedings, Boston, 1973. Papanestor, W. A study of job s a t i s f a c t i o n as related t o need s a t i s f a c t i o n , both on the job and o f f the job (Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University o f C i n c i n n a t i , 1958).  - Ill Parker, T. Relationship among measures of supervisory behavior, group behavior and s i t u a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Personnel Psychology, 1963, 16, 319-334. Porter, L. A study of perceived need s a t i s f a c t i o n i n bottom and rniddle management jobs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1961, 45, 1-10. Porter, L. Job a t t i t u d e s i n management: IV. Perceived d e f i c i e n c i e s i n need f u l f i l l m e n t as a function of s i z e of company. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1963, 47_, 387-397. Porter, L. and Lawler, E. The e f f e c t s of t a l l versus f l a t organization structure on managerial job s a t i s f a c t i o n . Personnel Psychology, 1964, 17, 135-148. Porter, L. and Lawler, E. Properties of organization structure i n r e l a t i o n to job a t t i t u d e s and job behavior. Psychological B u l l e t i n , 1965, 64, 23-51. Porter, L. and M i t c h e l l , V. Comparative study of need s a t i s f a c t i o n s i n m i l i t a r y and business h i e r a r c h i e s . Journal of Applied Psychology, 1967, 51, 139-144. Porter, L. and Steers, R. Organizational,work and personal factors i n employee turnover and absenteeism. Psychological B u l l e t i n , 1973, 80, 151-176. Puttman, M. Improving employee r e l a t i o n s . Personnel Journal, 8, 314-325.  1930,  Quinn, R. Locking-in as a moderator of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between job s a t i s f a c t i o n and mental health. Unpublished paper, University of Michigan, Survey Research Centre, 1972. Roper, E. The American f a c t o r y worker: May, 1947.  The Fortune Survey.  Fortune,  Sadler, P. Leadership s t y l e , confidence i n management, and job s a t i s f a c t i o n . 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Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972. Weiner, H.J., Akabas, S.H. and Sommer, J . J . Mental Health Care i n the World o f Work. New York: 'Association Press, 1973. Weitz, J . A neglected concept i n the study of job s a t i s f a c t i o n . Personnel Psychology, 1952, 5, 201-205. Wesley, S. A quantitative study of job s a t i s f a c t i o n i n a sample of former U n i v e r s i t y o f Minnesota students. (Unpublished M.A. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y o f Minnesota, 1939.) Wilensky, H. Work, careers, and s o c i a l integration. S o c i a l Science Journal, 1960, 12, 543-560.  International  Worthy, J . Organizational structure and employee morale. S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 1950, 24, 169-179.  American  - 114 -  APPENDIX A Quality of L i f e Questionnaire  As a s t a r t i n g p o i n t I would l i k e t o know a few things about your present job. Please answer the following questions by putting the check mark (/) i n the appropriate category i n each question. Remember, your answers are 'confidential and w i l l always be used i n group s t a t i s t i c s . 1.  Can you t a l k t o people around you when you are working?  Can you think about things other than, your job when you are working?  Never Hardly ever Seme of the time Most o f the time A l l the time  Never Hardly ever Some of the time Most of the time A l l the time  Does your job require you t o work a t a c e r t a i n speed?  In your job, can you stop working f o r personal emergencies without waiting f o r a r e l i e f man?  Never Hardly ever Some of the time Most o f the time A l l the time  5.  Never Hardly ever Some of the time Most o f the time A l l the time  In your job are there slack periods when you can do what you want?  Can you move around the factory while doing your job? Never Hardly ever Some of the time . Most of the time " A l l the time  Never Hardly everSome of the time Most o f the time A l l the time Does your job require that you watch your machine or what you are doing?  Does your job require you t o do the same thing over and over again? Never Hardly ever Sore o f the time Most of the time A l l the time  Never Hardly ever Some o f the time Most o f the time A l l the time 9.  How do you f e e l about your chances f o r g e t t i n g ahead?  10.  How important i s i t t o you t o have friends? Very important Pretty important Important Not important Not very important  Very good Pretty good Good Not good Not too good  - 116 -  O v e r a l l , how do you f e e l about the way you spend your time when you are not working?  12.  In general, how do you f e e l about your l i f e ? Would you say you are Completely s a t i s f l e d Well s a t i s f i e d Neither s a t i s f i e d nor dissatisfied A l i t t l e dissatisfied Very d i s s a t i s f i e d  Completely s a t i s f i e d Well s a t i s f i e d Neither s a t i s f i e d nor dissatisfied A l i t t l e dissatisfied Very d i s s a t i s f i e d Overall, how do you f e e l about your job?  14.  O v e r a l l , how do you f e e l about working f o r t h i s company?  Completely s a t i s f i e d Well s a t i s f i e d Neither s a t i s i f e d nor dissatisfied A l i t t l e dissatisfied Very d i s s a t i s f i e d  .  Completely satisfied. Well S a t i s f i e d Neither s a t i s f i e d nor dissatisfied A l i t t l e dissatisfied Very d i s s a t i s f i e d  How much task r e p e t i t i o n i s there i n your job? (Please put a c i r c l e around the number which most appropriately' describes your job.) (1) (2) T3) (4) (5) Too much. I do p r e t t y much the same things over and over using the same equipment and procedures a l l the time  Moderate degree of r e p e t i t i o n  Very l i t t l e . I do many things using a v a r i e t y of equipment and procedures.  How much does your job involve your producing an e n t i r e product or an e n t i r e service? (Please put a c i r c l e around the number which most appropriately describes your job.) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) My job involves doing only a small part of the e n t i r e product or service  My job involves doing a moderate sized chunk of the work  My job involves producing e n t i r e product or service from s t a r t to f i n i s h .  How long does a person have to spend i n t r a i n i n g or experience to be able to handle a job l i k e yours? (Please put a c i r c l e around the number which most appropriately describes your job.) (2) (1) (3) (4) (5) Not very long. My job can be learned i n a matter of hours or even minutes  Moderately long. My job can be learned i n a couple of months  - 117 -  F a i r l y long. My job can take years to be learned.  Below you see a number of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or q u a l i t i e s that might be connected with your present job. You are asked to indicate f o r each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c or q u a l i t y of how much i s i t present on your job: (Mirximum)  1 The f e e l i n g of i n s e c u r i t y i n my  job  The opportunity to give help to other people a t my job The f e e l i n g of self-esteem I get i n my  job  Prestige i n s i d e the company ( i . e . , regard received from others within the company) The opportunity f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the determination of methods and procedures at my  job  The opportunity f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the s e t t i n g of goals i n my job The f e e l i n g s of worthwhile accomplishment associated with my job The f e e l i n g of s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t associated with my job The threat of change which could make my s k i l l s or knowledge obsolete a t my job  present  The opportunity f o r conversation and exchange of ideas with colleagues and coworkers a t my job  - 118 -  2  (Maximum)  3  4  5  Below you w i l l see a l i s t of the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or q u a l i t i e s that appeared on the l a s t page. T h i s time would you indicate how much o f each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c you think should be associated with your job. (Miriimum)  1 The f e e l i n g o f i n s e c u r i t y i n my job The opportunity t o give help t o other people a t my job The f e e l i n g o f self-esteem I get i n my job Prestige i n s i d e the company ( i . e . , regard received from others within the company) The opportunity f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the determination o f methods and procedures a t my job The opportunity f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the s e t t i n g of goals i n my job The f e e l i n g o f s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t associated with my job The threat o f change which could make my present s k i l l s or knowledge obsolete a t my job The opportunity f o r conversation and exchange of ideas with colleagues and coworkers a t my job  - 119 -  2  (Maximum)  3  4  5  Below you see a number of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or q u a l i t i e s that might be connected with a c t i v i t i e s you undertake outside your job. By a c t i v i t i e s outside your job, we mean any a c t i v i t y which you might do i n your hare, with your friends, o r anywhere outside your regular job. You are asked t o indicate f o r each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o r q u a l i t y of how much i s i t present i n your o f f - j o b a c t i v i t i e s . (Mnimum) 1 The f e e l i n g o f i n s e c u r i t y i n my o f f - j o b a c t i v i t i e s The opportunity t o give help t o other people i n my o f f - j o b a c t i v i t i e s The f e e l i n g o f self-esteem I get i n my o f f - j o b activities Prestige I receive from people with whan I undertake my o f f - j o b a c t i v i t i e s The opportunity f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the determination o f methods and procedures o f my off-job a c t i v i t i e s The opportunity I receive f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the s e t t i n g o f goals i n my o f f - j o b a c t i v i t i e s The feelings o f worthwhile accomplishment I receive from performing my o f f - j o b a c t i v i t i e s The f e e l i n g o f s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t my o f f - j o b a c t i v i t i e s  I receive from  The opportunity f o r conversation and exchange of ideas with people i n my o f f - j o b a c t i v i t i e s The threat o f change which could make my present knowledge and s k i l l s i n o f f - j o b a c t i v i t i e s obsolete  - 120 -  2  (Maximum) 3  4  5  I am interested to know the way people are f e e l i n g these days. Below you w i l l see a number of statements which may t e l l me the way you f e e l these days. Please i n d i c a t e whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree, or are undecided about each of these statements with a check mark.  I $ a$  |7  iJfe CO  (1) Getting ahead i n t h i s world i s mostly a matter of luck and p u l l . Inspite o f what some people say, the l o t of the average man i s getting worse, not better. These days a person does not r e a l l y know who can count on.  he  Most people are out f o r themselves and don't care what happens t o others. . I t i s hardly f a i r to bring c h i l d r e n i n t o the world •with the way things look f o r the future. Nowadays a person has to l i v e pretty much f o r today and l e t tomorrow take care of i t s e l f . There i s l i t t l e use of w r i t i n g t o p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s because often they are not r e a l l y interested i n the problems of the average man. I believe that most people can be trusted. I sometimes get so blue and discouraged that I wonder whether anything i s worthwhile. I often b o i l i n s i d e myself without l e t t i n g people know about i t . Many people are so unreasonable that i t i s hard to t a l k to them. I have as much chance t o enjoy l i f e as I should have. I sometimes f e e l l i k e smashing tilings f o r no good reason.  - 121 -  fiC  <  'B  -H  4_ -3  D  Q  CO Q  (2) (3) (4)  (5)  I o f t e n have t o t e l l people t o inind t h e i r own business. People often get on my nerves so that I want t o do j u s t the opposite o f what they want me t o do. I wake up rested most mornings. I am often worried and upset. I often have trouble getting t o sleep or staying asleep. I worry much about things that might happen t o me. I am sonetimes bothered by nervousness. I f e e l that I can do much t o make my future what I want i t t o be. I f e e l that I am accomplishing the sorts o f things I would l i k e t o do i n my l i f e . I often blame myself and f e e l bad over things I have done. I often have a hard time t o make up my mind. People often hurt my f e e l i n g s . When things go wrong, I am u s u a l l y w i l l i n g t o leave i t t o others t o work matters out. On the whole, I usually l i k e t o be by myself rather than with other people. I often f e e l r e s t l e s s , wanting t o be on the move doing something but not knowing what. I f e e l i n good s p i r i t s almost a l l the time. There are things about my health that bother me.  - 122 -  L i s t e d below are some more statements which may i n d i c a t e the way you f e e l these days. Please answer a l l statements by putting the check mark (/) i n the appropriate category i n each statement.  (5)  How often do you take scmetliing f o r s l i g h t i l l n e s s e s l i k e headaches, upset stomachs, or things l i k e that? How often do you go t o see a medical doctor f o r s l i g h t i l l n e s s e s l i k e headaches, upset stomachs, etc.? How often do you go t o a doctor o r clergyman or anyone l i k e that about your personal problems, o r nervousness o r such tilings? How o f t e n do you go t o watch sports events? How o f t e n do you use any s p e c i a l foods o r tonics or anything l i k e that t o help keep you i n good condition? How o f t e n do you g e t together with your relatives? How often do you get together with your friends (very best) as a group? How often do you get together with just one or two of your friends?  Please answer the following statements by checking e i t h e r "YES" or "NO" f o r each statement.  Do you have any physical or health problems? So f a r as you know, d i d you ever have a nervous breakdown? Do you have seme friends (other than e s p e c i a l l y good friends) whom you see often?  - 123 -  •  YES  NO  (1)  (2)  Over the years there are a l o t o f things a man canes t o learn about people. a.  What are some o f the main tilings you have learned about people?  (1)  .  (2) b.  ; ;  What would you say most people want out of l i f e ?  (1) (2) Are you ever bothered with headaches, i n d i g e s t i o n , or any o f the common ailments? Please put a mark against those whichever bother you. Headaches Indigestion o r stomach trouble Constipation or diarrhea .. Sleeplessness Tiredness without knowing why Heartburn Backaches High blood pressure How many s p e c i a l l y good friends do you have? friends  Neuralgia Hemorrhoids or p i l e s Nervousness Nose, throat, or sinus trouble Many colds o r coughs Others (Please specify)  How many organizations such as church and ethnic groups, labour unions or s o c i a l and c i v i c clubs do you belong to? Organizations  How do you expect things t o turn out f o r you i n the future? very good good neither good nor bad not good . not very good Taken together, how would you say things are these days — would you say that you are: very happy p r e t t y happy not too happy  In how many such organizations d i d you hold i n the past or are presently holding any kind of executive p o s i t i o n ( i . e . President, Secretary, V i c e President , Treasurer)? Organizations O v e r a l l , how many meetings o f the various organizations d i d you attend i n the l a s t two months? meetings In the l a s t four weeks, approximately how many hours d i d you spend i n attending the meetings o f various organizations? hours  - 124 -  The following statements describe the ways that a supervisor might a c t with subordinates (the people that work and report to him). Please r e a c t t o the following statements as descriptions of the way your immediate supervisor works with subordinates. Q) -P >i -P m M -P QJ *> <U +) H 4J i -P & -P > ,+J r n a _ c o q a -P a nj'-pcu ns v wa) <aa> rd <d <D •P-P -P -P -P CD -P H rH o3 EHS EH ai EH CD § &> C3 (1) J2T~ T I T 14) (5) To what extent i s your immediate supervisor f r i e n d l y and easy t o appx'oach? To what extent i s your immediate supervisor attentive t o what you say? To what extent i s your immediate supervisor w i l l i n g t o l i s t e n t o your problems? To what extent does your immediate supervisor encourage people t o give t h e i r best e f f o r t ? To what extent does your immediate supervisor maintain high standards of performance? To what extent does your immediate supervisor set an example by working hard himself? To what extent does your immediate supervisor show you how t o improve your performance? To what extent does your immediate supervisor o f f e r new ideas f o r solving job-related problems? To what extent does your immediate supervisor encourage subordinates t o take a c t i o n without waiting f o r d e t a i l e d review and approval from him? To what extent does your immediate supervisor provide the help you need so that you can schedule work ahead o f time? To what extent does your immediate supervisor encourage persons who work f o r him t o work as team? To what extent does your immediate supervisor encourage people who work f o r him t o exchange opinions and ideas? How often does your immediate supervisor hold • Never group meetings where he and the people who work _ _ _ Once or twice per year for him can r e a l l y discuss tilings together? 3 t o 6 times per year /About 1 per nionth More often than 1 per _ _25 month  Now I would l i k e t o find out a l i t t l e b i t about you and.the things a t your, work place. Please answer the following questions as accurately as possible. Remember, your answers are c o n f i d e n t i a l and w i l l always be used i n group statistics. 1. How o l d were you cn your l a s t birthday? years o l d 2. Are you: Male Female 3. How many years o f regular school have you completed?  9. How long have you worked f o r t h i s Company: Less than 6 months 6 months t o 2 years 2 years t o 5 years 5 years t o 10 years _ Over 10 years  10. What department or section do you work in?  years 4. How many dependents do you have?  11. How long does a person have t o spend  i n t r a i n i n g o r experience t o be able to handle a job l i k e yours? Less than 1 month 1 - 3 months 4 - 6 months 7 - 1 2 months Over 12 months  5. Are you: Single Married Separated Widowed Divorced 6. On the average, approximately how much do you earn a month before taxes?  12. What s h i f t do you work usually? Morning Afternoon  Night Rotate S h i f t s  13. What i s your present job t i t l e ?  a month 7. Were you brought up mostly i n a Village/Farm Town Small C i t y Large C i t y 8. About, how many miles i s i t from your home to the place where you work?  14. Approximately how many persons work i n your department or section?  15. What is/was the usual occupation of your father or guardian?  Mile(s)  - 126 -  These days l o t s o f people are t a l k i n g about f l e x i b l e work hours and shorter work week ( i . e . 4 days 10 hours work week). How do you f e e l about them? Do you favour, disfavour, or neither favour nor disfavour f l e x i b l e work" hours and shorter work week? 4J  a  al  rH  *J ' op  -P ftf CO fa  o  (C |J4  -H d H  3 O  m  -H  Q  rH  O  o m  -H CO Q  F l e x i b l e Hours Short Work Week 1.  Is there any provision o f working over-time f o r extra money a t your present job? •  6. How does your supervisor r a t e your performance i n comparison to your peers (coworkers)?  Yes No  Much better Better About the same S l i g h t l y low Much too low  I f YES, approximately how many hours do you spend working overtime i n a normal week? Hours  7. In comparison t o your peers, how would you rate your performance?  2 . How would you c l a s s i f y your present job? Would you say i t is a  Much better Better About the same S l i g h t l y low Much too low  Line Job? S t a f f Job? L i n e / S t a f f Job?  8. In general, how do your peers rate your performance i n comparison t o theirs?  3 . Are you doing any kind of paid work i n your spare time? Yes No  Much better Better About the same S l i g h t l y low Much too low  I f YES, what kind o f work i s i t (please s p e c i f y ) . 9.  4. How many times have you been absent from work t h i s month?  I f you have your own way, w i l l you be working f o r your present company two years from now?  Times  Certainly Probably Not sure one way o r the other Probably not C e r t a i n l y not  5. How many times were you absent from work i n the l a s t four months? Times  -  127  -  Please answer t o the following statements.How often i s t h i s true of you?  . . SomeOften times true true (1)  (2)  Rarely true (3)  1. I have d i f f i c u l t y i n making decisions. 2. I f e e l lonely. 3. I get pains i n my heart o r chest. 4. I f e e l hopeless about the future. 5. I f e e l trapped o r caught. 6.  I get heavy f e e l i n g s i n my arms or legs.  7. I have trouble i n concentrating. 8. I blame myself f o r things.  •  9. I f e e l blocked o r stymied i n g e t t i n g things done. Is t h i s true o f you?  True (1)  10. There have been times when I f e l t l i k e smashing things. 11. I am always w i l l i n g t o admit i t when I make a mistake. 12. I can remember "playing s i c k " t o get out o f something. 13. I sometimes f e e l r e s e n t f u l when I don't get my way. 14. A t times I have r e a l l y i n s i s t e d on having my own way.  tilings  15. I am always courteous even t o people who are disagreeable. 16. I never hesitate t o go out o f my way t o help someone i n trouble. 17. I don't f i n d i t p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t to get along with loud-mouthed, obnoxious people. 18. I sometimes t r y t o get even rather than forgive and and forget. 19. There have been times when I was quite jealous o f the good fortune of others. 20. I have never been i r k e d when people expressed ideas very d i f f e r e n t from my own. 21. I never resent being asked to return a favor.  - 128 -  False (4) "  Never true (4)  - 129 -  APPENDIX B V a l i d a t i o n of the Mental Health Measures  I am interested to know the way people are f e e l i n g these days. Below you w i l l see a number of statements which may t e l l me the way you f e e l these days. Please i n d i c a t e whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree, or are undecided about each of these statements with a check mark.  >i rH  | "P  CO) O  0)  _  -P CP CO <  (1) Getting ahead i n t h i s world i s mostly a matter of luck and p u l l . Inspite of what some people say, the l o t of the average man i s getting worse, not better. These days a person does not r e a l l y know who can count on.  he  Most people are out f o r themselves and don't care what happens to others. I t i s hardly f a i r to bring c h i l d r e n i n t o the world with the way things look f o r the future. Nowadays a person has t o l i v e p r e t t y much f o r today and l e t tomorrow take care of i t s e l f . There i s l i t t l e use o f w r i t i n g t o p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s because often they are not r e a l l y interested i n the problems o f the average man. I believe t h a t most people can be trusted. I sometimes g e t so blue and discouraged that I wonder whether anything i s worthwhile. I often b o i l i n s i d e myself without l e t t i n g people know about i t . Many people are so unreasonable t h a t i t i s hard to t a l k t o them. I have as much chance to enjoy l i f e as I should have. I scaiietimes f e e l l i k e smashing tilings f o r no good reason.  - 131 -  CU  'o  0) © tn  ft fcn <C  TJ C D  -iH Q  35  0)  rci CO  (2) (3) (4)  >idl rH 1 CU  S & O (C  H  w  +J - H Q  CO  (5)  I often have t o t e l l people t o mind t h e i r own business. People often get on my nerves so that I want to do jxist the opposite o f what they want me t o do. I wake up rested most nomings. I am often worried and upset. I often have trouble g e t t i n g t o sleep o r staying asleep. I worry much about things that might happen to me. I am sometimes bothered by nervousness. I f e e l that I can do much t o make my future what I want i t t o be. I f e e l that I am accomplishing the s o r t s o f things I would l i k e t o do i n my l i f e . I o f t e n blame myself and f e e l bad over things I have done. I often have a hard time t o make up my mind. People often hurt my f e e l i n g s . When tirings go wrong, I am u s u a l l y w i l l i n g t o leave i t t o others t o work matters out. On the whole, I u s u a l l y l i k e t o be by myself rather than with other people. I often f e e l r e s t l e s s , wanting t o be on the move doing something but not knowing what. I f e e l i n good s p i r i t s almost a l l the time. There are things about my health that bother me.  - 132 -  L i s t e d below are seme more statements which may indicate the way you f e e l these days. Please answer a l l statements by putting the check mark (/) i n the appropriate category i n each statement.  How often do you take something f o r s l i g h t i l l n e s s e s l i k e headaches, upset stomachs, or things l i k e that?  (5) (4)  (3)  (2)  (1)  How often do you go t o see a medical doctor f o r s l i g h t i l l n e s s e s l i k e headaches, upset stomachs, etc.? How often do you go t o a doctor or clergyman or anyone l i k e that about your personal problems, o r nervousness or such things? How often do you go t o watch sports events? How often do you use any s p e c i a l foods or tonics or anything l i k e that t o help keep you i n good condition? How o f t e n do you get together with your relatives? How often do you get together with your friends (very best) as a group? How often do you get together with j u s t one or two o f your friends? Please answer the following statements by checking e i t h e r "YES" or "NO" f o r each statement. YES NO (1) (2) Do you have any p h y s i c a l or health problems? So f a r as you know, d i d you ever have a nervous breakdown? Do you have some friends (other than e s p e c i a l l y good friends) whom you see often?  - 133 -  Over the years there are a l o t o f things a man comes t o learn about people. a.  What are some o f the main things you have learned about people?  (1) (2) b.  ;  What would you say most people want out o f l i f e ?  (1)  ;  (2) Are you ever bothered with headaches, indigestion,- o r any o f the common ailments? Please put a mark against those whichever bother you. Headaches Indigestion o r stomach trouble Constipation o r diarrhea Sleeplessness Tiredness without Jcnowing why Heartburn Backaches High blood pressure How many s p e c i a l l y good f r i e n d s do you have? friends  Neuralgia Hemorrhoids or p i l e s Nervousness Nose, throat, o r sinus trouble Many colds or coughs Others (please specify)  How many organizations such as church and ethnic groups, labour unions or s o c i a l and c i v i c clubs do you belong to? Organizations  How do you expect things t o turn out f o r you i n the future? j  very good good neither good nor bad not good not very good  Taken together, how would you say things are these days — would you say that you are: very happy pretty happy not too happy  In how many such organizations d i d you hold i n the past or are presently holding any kind of executive p o s i t i o n ( i . e . President, Secretary, V i c e President, Treasurer?) Organizations O v e r a l l , how many meetings of the various organizations d i d you attend i n the l a s t two months? Meetings In the l a s t four weeks, approximately how many hours d i d you spend i n attending the meetings o f various organizations? hours  - 134 -  O v e r a l l , how do you f e e l about the way you spend your time when .you are not working?  In general, how do you f e e l about your l i f e ? Would you say you are completely s a t i s f i e d well s a t i s f i e d neither s a t i s f i e d nor d i s s a t i s f i e d a l i t t l e dissatisfied very d i s s a t i s f i e d  completely s a t i s f i e d well satisfied neither s a t i s f i e d nor dissatisfied a l i t t l e dissatisfied very d i s s a t i s f i e d How do you f e e l about your chances f o r getting ahead?  How important i s i t t o you to have friends?  very good pretty good good not good not too good  very important p r e t t y important important not important not very important  You j u s t f i n i s h e d reviewing an i n d i v i d u a l ' s responses t o various measures of mental health. Now, when you had already reviewed responses, you are requested t o give your personal judgement about the psychological and mental health o f the i n d i v i d u a l by answering the following question. t  In my judgement, the l e v e l o f mental health o f t h i s i n d i v i d u a l i s : Excellent Very good Good Average Poor Very poor Worst Thank you very much f o r your cooperation.  Muhammed Jamal MF/mjf  - 135 -  

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