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Art knowledge and the social role of the university art department in the aftermath of postmodernism 1988

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ART KNOWLEDGE AND THE SOCIAL ROLE OF THE UNIVERSITY ART DEPARTMENT IN THE AFTERMATH OF POSTMODERNISM by CHERYL L. CLINE A B R A H A M S B.F.A., University of Western Ontario, 1981 B.Ed., Queen's University, 1982 M.A., Simon Fraser University, 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF ' DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Interdisciplinary Studies We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 27 March 1988 © Cheryl L. Cline Abrahams, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulf i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at The University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be al lowed without my written permission. Interdisciplinary Studies The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date: 29 September 1988 ABSTRACT This study presents a socio logy of art knowledge. It explores relationships between art knowledge and institutional structures, making visible how and why certain conceptions of art are hierarchized and generalized so as to be considered essential to the nature of all art. It renders problematic the existing situation in which the art traditionally taught in schools and universities is, for the most part, insular and culturally singular in basis, and examines why this cultural singularity persists in a society which is culturally pluralistic. The thesis is that the university art department has the monopoly on defining, legitimating, and perpetuating this insular and culturally singular art knowledge for transmission through the school ' system to all cultural and social groups. The ways in which the university effects art knowledge are discussed in terms of ' the university's curricular structuring and disciplinary t ies; its social role as patron, producer, definer, legitimator, and social izer in the arts; and in terms of its ability to neutralize "avant-garde" attacks, including the postmodernist incursion of popular culture into the realm of "sacred" culture. The theoretical framework of this crit ical analysis is a soc io logy of knowledge, and the materials for analysis were obtained by reviewing public documents on art programs, pol icy on the arts in postsecondary education, and a cross-d isc ip l inary selection of literature in social theory, educational theory, aesthetics, and art history. ii The institutional structures and norms described throughout the study present significant resistance to the postmodernist commitment to challenge conceptual parameters and hierarchies of art knowledge that hinder a broadening of the cultural base of art. The study makes imperative the need to seriously consider this resistance if educational systems are to embrace the artistic activit ies of a diverse population and if art is to move into a more vital and relevant role in society. It makes imperative for sociological study of art systems (which in the past has concentrated almost exclusively on the role of museums, galleries, cr i t ics, dealers, and art ists' " lofts") to take into account the role of the university art department as a primary institutional basis of art knowledge, and as a definer of cultural knowledge about art. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t ii A c k n o w l e d g m e n t s vi Ded i ca t i on v i i Chapter 1 A r t k n o w l e d g e and the s o c i a l ro le of the un i ve rs i t y art depar tment in the a f te rmath of p o s t m o d e r n i s m 1 N o t e s 10 Chapter 2 A r t in the s o c i a l o rgan iza t i on of k n o w l e d g e 12 Theo re t i ca l f r a m e w o r k : The s o c i o l o g y of k n o w l e d g e 12 The s o c i a l cons t ruc t i on of rea l i ty 14 Fine art k n o w l e d g e as a f in i te p rov ince of mean ing in the macros t ruc tu re of k n o w l e d g e 18 K n o w l e d g e boundar ies and un ive rs i t y depa r tmen ta l i sm 23 S p e c i a l i z a t i o n , subject l o y a l t y , and the s o c i a l order 29 S u m m a r y of art k n o w l e d g e p r i n c i p l e s , and layout of the s tudy 35 N o t e s 38 Chapter 3 The un i ve rs i t y as leg i t imato r of art k n o w l e d g e 42 H o w art k n o w l e d g e inher i ts s tatus 43 A r t k n o w l e d g e as high s ta tus k n o w l e d g e 43 Ar t k n o w l e d g e as cul tura l cap i ta l 49 A n amb iguous inher i tance 53 The un i ve rs i t y as " leg i t ima te leg i t ima t ing i ns t i t u t i on " 60 The un i ve rs i t y ' s pursui t of l eg i t ima t ion f r o m the f ine art w o r l d 68 The d i f f i cu l t t r a d e - o f f 73 N o t e s 7 7 Chapter 4 Forg ing the a l l eg iance to art : The art depar tment as e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l i z e r 85 The concep t of s o c i a l i z a t i o n i 87 P r o f i l e of an outcas t popu la t i on 90 The s o c i a l paraphernal ia fo r recru i tment . 99 A r t i s t i c ident i ty f o r m a t i o n in ch i l dhood and a d o l e s c e n c e 99 M o t i v a t i o n to s tudy art 106 The f unc t i on of the art depar tment in p reven t ing " rea l i ty s l i p p i n g " 110 No tes 116 Chapter 5 L e g a c i e s that l eg i t ima te : S o c i a l o r ig ins of the a c a d e m i c i z a t i o n of art . 117 iv The legacy of the art a c a d e m y 119 E m a n c i p a t i o n f r o m the s ta tus of laborer 119 Ar t mee ts a c a d e m i c : The a c a d e m i e s of art 121 The ins t i tu t iona l separa t i on of educa t ion in the f ine arts f r o m educa t ion in the app l ied arts 127 " A r t e s l i b e r a l e s " or the art o f p roduc ing re f ined and b road ly educa ted c i t i zens 130 L ibera l arts va lues as o f f i c i a l j u s t i f i ca t i on for the s tudy of art in un i ve rs i t i es 132 The l ibera l arts as the c l a s s i c a l educa t iona l ideal 138 The l ibera l arts ideal as an i ron ic p roc l ama t i on of d e m o c r a c y 141 P h i l o s o p h i c a l aes the t i c theory as an in te l lec tua l bas i s of art educa t ion 145 S u m m a r y 152 N o t e s 153 Chapter 6 Cha l l enges to the ins t i tu t iona l s t ructur ing ' o f art k n o w l e d g e boundar ies 160 Cha l l enges to the a c a d e m y t rad i t ion 161 The Bauhaus S c h o o l 165 M o d e r n i s m and the p o s t m o d e r n cha l lenge 171 " A v a n t - g a r d i s m " 178 The ear ly avan t -ga rde 179 Marx i s t aes the t i c s , w i th M a r c u s e as prophet of the art s c h o o l a v a n t - g a r d e 181 Ar t s tuden ts as c o n t e m p o r a r y inher i tors of the a v a n t - g a r d e 186 The o f f i c i a l d o m of the a v a n t - g a r d e 190 N o t e s 204 Chapter 7 C o n c l u s i o n : Is a p o s t m o d e r n mode l of art s tudy in un ive rs i t i es p o s s i b l e ? 215 S o c i a l f unc t i ons of the art depar tmen t : A summary of what p o s t m o d e r n i s m is up against 216 T o w a r d a p o s t m o d e r n i s t mode l o f art s tudy 225 N o t e s 232 R e f e r e n c e s 234 v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am especial ly indebted to Professor Ron MacGregor for his support and patience as a mentor and as chairperson of my interdisciplinary dissertation committee. The masterful strokes of his editorial pencil are also appreciated. Thanks also to the members of my dissertation committee, Professors Graeme Chalmers of the Department of Visual and Performing Arts in Education, Serge Guilbaut and Debra Pincus of the Department of Fine Ar ts , and Elvi Whittaker of the Department of Anthropology and Soc io logy. Their expertise in their respective discipl ines provided a most vital and valuable forum. And for his companionship, understanding, and assistance throughout my fits of writ ing, I am, as always, grateful to Mark Abrahams. vi DEDICATION To my new son Max, who's life began upon completion of this endeavor. And to my parents, who offered encouragement and love throughout. vii CHAPTER 1 ART KNOWLEDGE AND THE SOCIAL ROLE OF THE UNIVERSITY ART DEPARTMENT IN THE AFTERMATH OF POSTMODERNISM Art, as traditionally taught in schools and universit ies, has had, for the most part, a singular cultural basis rooted in the "Great Tradit ion" of the western European Renaissance and in western philosophical aesthetics (exemplified in the writing of such influential educators as Broudy, 1972, and Smith, 1982, 1985). Recent writ ings (as evidenced in Foster's anthology on postmodern culture, 1983) have indicated that such a view is limited and ultimately detrimental to art education. The notion of a singular cultural tradition is currently being replaced in some circles with a pluralistic view of social and cultural foundations of art education, embodied in work which has been given the term postmodernist. Postmodernism, in its loose pluralistic sense, holds that there are more world views than those embodied in western fine art and its modernist aesthetic. In the spirit of postmodernism, this study renders problematic traditional conceptual hierarchies of art in education. It does this by exploring relationships between art. knowledge and institutional structures, particularly university art departments. Its method of inquiry is an interpretive/crit ical one, drawing on a range of sources not normally found together, to make connections and make visible a condit ion that is too often experienced as a factici ty. Its theoretical f ramework 1 developed from general principles of the socio logy of knowledge. The study presents a soc io logy of art 1 A r t k n o w l e d g e / 2 k n o w l e d g e — a s o c i o l o g y o f t h e c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s , b e l i e f s , a n d m y t h s a b o u t a r t , a s w e l l a s the f o r m a l a r t m e t h o d s a n d art c o n c e p t s t y p i c a l l y t a u g h t in s c h o o l s a n d u n i v e r s i t i e s . T h e m a t e r i a l s f o r i t s c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s w e r e o b t a i n e d b y r e v i e w i n g r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s o f a r t i s t s a n d t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t , p u b l i c d o c u m e n t s o n i n d i v i d u a l art p r o g r a m s , p o l i c y o n t h e a r t s in p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , a n d a c r o s s - d i s c i p l i n a r y s e l e c t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e in s o c i a l t h e o r y , e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y , a e s t h e t i c s , a n d art h i s t o r y . W h y m u s t a s o c i o l o g y o f ar t k n o w l e d g e , o r a n y a p p r o a c h tha t t a k e s up the p o s t m o d e r n i s t c a u s e o f e x p o s i n g a n d d i s e n g a g i n g h i d d e n v a l u e s a n d a s s u m p t i o n s o f o l d e r c a t e g o r i e s o f f i n e a r t , t a k e i n t o s e r i o u s a c c o u n t t he u n i v e r s i t y ar t d e p a r t m e n t ? T h e t h e s i s is tha t t he u n i v e r s i t y ar t d e p a r t m e n t h a s the m o n o p o l y o n e s t a b l i s h i n g a n d p e r p e t u a t i n g ar t k n o w l e d g e f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n t h r o u g h the s c h o o l s y s t e m t o s o c i e t y . T h e u n i v e r s i t y art d e p a r t m e n t i s t he i n s t i t u t i o n a l a n d c u l t u r a l b a s i s o f art k n o w l e d g e in w e s t e r n s o c i e t y . It d e f i n e s c u l t u r a l k n o w l e d g e . It d e f i n e s a r t i s t i c r e a l i t y . T h i s f u n c t i o n b e c o m e s o f c r i t i c a l c o n c e r n t o p o s t m o d e r n i s t s w h e n c o m b i n e d w i t h the s e c o n d t h e s i s : n o w h e r e h a v e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t u a l h i e r a r c h i e s o f art t ha t e x i s t in w e s t e r n s o c i e t y b e e n at o n c e m o r e p o w e r f u l a n d m o r e s u b t l y d i s g u i s e d t h a n in t he u n i v e r s i t y . B e h i n d t h e a s s e r t i o n t ha t t h e u n i v e r s i t y ar t d e p a r t m e n t is t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a s i s o f a r t k n o w l e d g e a r e s e v e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . b e t w e e n u n i v e r s i t i e s a n d art k n o w l e d g e . O n e i s t ha t c o m p a r t m e n t s o f k n o w l e d g e a re f r a m e d a n d m a i n t a i n e d b y t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l i s m o f u n i v e r s i t i e s . S e c o n d , Ar t k n o w l e d g e / 3 un ive rs i t y art depar tments are the o c c u p a t i o n a l base fo r mos t art teachers in s c h o o l s . That i s , art teachers take into the s c h o o l s y s t e m the s p e c i a l i z e d c o n c e p t s , s k i l l s and i d e o l o g i e s that go a long w i th be ing an ar t is t , wh i ch they aqui red through their B.F.A. or s im i l a r art degree p rog rams . The un ive rs i t y art depar tment o rgan izes those r i tes of p a s s a g e , those e f f e c t i v e f o r m s of s o c i a l i z a t i o n into that s m a l l s p e c i a l i z e d subcul ture in wh ich cer ta in art k n o w l e d g e is pe rce i ved d i f f e ren t l y and va lued to a greater extent than it is in s o c i e t y at large. Th i rd , un i ve rs i t y a d m i s s i o n and graduat ion requ i rements d i rec t l y in f luence cou rse o f f e r i n g s in s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . The s c h o o l cu r r i cu lum s e e m s to be o rgan ized in te rms of the nature of and re la t ive p r io r i t y g i ven to d i f f e r i ng cur r i cu lum areas in un ive rs i t i es (App le , 1979). Four th , because many art c r i t i c s , art h i s to r ians and other art scho la rs are s i tua ted in un ive rs i t y art depa r tmen ts , their d e v e l o p m e n t of theory and ideas about art is bound up w i th un i ve rs i t y p r o c e s s e s and s t ruc tu res . The va lues they br ing to bear in a s s e s s i n g or research ing ind iv idua l w o r k s , a r t i s t s , or s t y l e s u l t ima te ly a f fec t reputa t ions in the art w o r l d . These aesthet ic va lues b e c o m e part of the s tuden ts ' k n o w l e d g e of art and , in turn, a f fec t their a c t i o n s , inc lud ing what v i sua l images they produce or what careers they s t r i ve fo r . F i f t h , because of the vas t e c o n o m i c suppor t o f the arts w i th in Nor th A m e r i c a n u n i v e r s i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y dur ing the 1960s and ear ly 1970s, un ive rs i t i es have a s s u m e d the ro le of pa t ron of the ar ts . They exert i n f l uence on art k n o w l e g e in much the same w a y as have dea le r s , ga l l e r i es , m u s e u m s , the ear l ier s y s t e m s of c o m m i s s i o n s f r o m ind iv idua l a r i s toc ra t i c pa r tons , ' or exh ib i t ing in e ighteenth and n ineteenth century European A c a d e m i e s . Ar t k n o w l e d g e / 4 U n i v e r s i t i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f fec t art k n o w l e d g e a l so in their p red ic tab le ab i l i t y to abso rb and e m p t y o r ig ina l l y o p p o s i t i o n a l art s t y l e s of their s u b v e r s i v e qua l i t i es . O r i g i na l l y o p p o s i t i o n a l , m o d e r n i s m is n o w part o f the a c c e p t e d cu l ture. 2 The once scanda lous mode rn i s t pa in t ings by P i c a s s o are n o w part o f the canons taught in s c h o o l s and un i ve rs i t i es . Once es tab l i shed in s c h o o l s and un i ve r s i t i e s , a s t y l e or aes the t i c c o m e s to be regarded as c l a s s i c or a c a d e m i c by a new genera t ion of a r t i s ts and" w r i t e rs on art. Put another w a y , the po in t in t ime when m o d e r n i s m lost i ts s u b v e r s i v e n e s s is the point in t ime when it b e c a m e ins t i t u t i ona l i zed in s c h o o l s and un i ve rs i t i es ( J a m e s o n , 1983). D o e s it f o l l o w that p o s t m o d e r n i s m w i l l l ose its e m a n c i p a t o r y po ten t ia l to shake up o lder ca tego r i es of art k n o w l e d g e at the point at wh i ch it is i ncorpora ted into the un ive rs i t y cur r icu lum? Can a b roaden ing of the cul tural base that p o s t m o d e r n i s m demands ever be p o s s i b l e in art s tudy w i th in ins t i tu t ions w h i c h have t rad i t i ona l l y had a v e s t e d interest in p rese rv ing a rea lm of h igh or " s a c r e d " cul ture against the sur round ing env i ronment of " k i t s c h " (Greenberg , 1961) " s c h l o c k " , and the " P h i l i s t i n i s m of . . . T V se r ies and Reader's Digest cu l tu re " ( J a m e s o n , 1983, p.. 112)? Is the art ins t i tu t ion ever l i ke l y to accept p o s t m o d e r n i s m s that inc lude that w h o l e landscape of adve r t i s i ng and m o t e l s , of the Las V e g a s s t r i p , o f the late s h o w and G r a d e - B H o l l y w o o d f i l m , of s o - c a l l e d para l i terature w i th its a i rpor t paperback ca tego r i es of the go th ic and the r o m a n c e , the popular b i o g r a p h y , the murder m y s t e r y and the s c i e n c e f i c t i on or f an tasy n o v e l . They no longer "quo te " such " t ex t s " as J o y c e might have done , or a Mah le r ; they incorpora te Ar t k n o w l e d g e / 5 t h e m , to the point where the l ine be tween high art and c o m m e r c i a l f o r m s s e e m s inc reas ing l y d i f f i cu l t to d raw. ( J a m e s o n , 1983, p. 112) Not su rp r i s i ng l y , p o s t m o d e r n i s t cha l lenges have s o far been less than e f f e c t i v e in s i g n i f i c a n t l y chang ing the cul tural base of art i ns t ruc t ion . W a r h o l ' s h i g h - p r o f i l e a t tempts to b roaden the boundar ies and blur the d i s t i nc t i on be tween c o m m e r c i a l and f ine arts are n o w taught as " c l a s s i c s " . Even many punk art f o r m s have been abso rbed w i th in the u n i v e r s i t i e s ' s e l f - a p p o i n t e d ro le of suppor t ing d e v e l o p m e n t s p e r c e i v e d as be ing on the f ron t ie rs of k n o w l e d g e . Wh i l e it has yet to be seen if a more ex tens i ve i nco rpo ra t i on of p o s t m o d e r n i s t art f o r m s into the un ive rs i t y cur r icu lum w i l l be e f f e c t e d and , if s o , what it might look l i ke , another man i f es ta t i on of the p o s t m o d e r n i s t sh i f t is cur rent ly opera t ing out of un i ve rs i t i es . Inc reas ing ly w i th in the last f i f t een y e a r s , a t ype of d i s c o u r s e , a new " con tempo ra ry t h e o r y " ( J a m e s o n , 1983, p. 113), has been c o m i n g out of depar tmen ts of s o c i o l o g y , a n t h r o p o l o g y , art h i s t o r y , f i l m s tud ies , l i terary s t u d i e s , and modern h i s to ry . One of the more recent add i t i ons has been the se r i ous cha l lenge moun ted by seve ra l art educa to rs aga ins t the dom inance and uncr i t i ca l accep tance w i th in e lemen ta ry and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s of the t rad i t iona l cu l tu ra l ly s ingu lar sub jec t mat ter of art i ns t ruc t ion , as w i t n e s s e d in the found ing of the Caucus for Social Theory and Art Education and the Journal of Multi-Cultural and Cross-Cultural Issues in Art Education. Educa to rs of th is Art knowledge / 6 persuasion describe art education as including the study of popular, folk and ethnic arts, mass media, the built environment, and other visual forms that lie outside or on the fringe of the dominant tradition. Popular f i lms, quilts, weaving, television advertising, and housing design, are all seen to have a valid place alongside expressionist painting and Renaissance "masterpieces" in the dialogue of art. Bersson (1982) and Nadaner (1983) have stressed the educational and social implications of the increasing proliferation and penetration of society by the mass media and popular culture. Rather than accepting all visual forms within popular culture and mass media as equally valid for study, they advocate that education in art should assume a role of social cr i t icism and social reform. The proliferation of visual forms in which the message is often mil i tarist ic, c lassist , racist, or sexist 3 demands crit ical inquiry and critical understanding on the part of children and the public. Education must no longer limit its subjects of study to those which have been sanctioned by western elite traditions. But neither can it depend on the existing modernist aesthetic as a model of cr i t ic ism. It is not enough to simply be able to identify the color and texture relationships in a magazine or televis ion advertisement that uses sexual imagery to sell luxury cars. What is required is the identif ication of the social context, the cultural values of the targetted audience, the value system underlying the work, the social and cultural implications of this value system, the language of delivery and its relationships to the meaning of work, and so on. Other art educators within the postmodernist discourse (Andrews, 1984; Art knowledge / 7 Chalmers, 1984; Stanley, 1985, for example) take a different emphasis. For them, pluralism necessitates broadening the boundaries to include the study of not only the popular culture and mass media that reflect the dominant culture, but the visual forms of many cultures. They believe that in a society in which several ethnic groups exist, a multicultural approach to art study helps dissolve ethnic stereotypes and cultural misunderstandings. Such socio logica l ly based challenges to the parameters of existing art knowledge in schools may offer some insight into art study in postsecondary institutions, even though perceptible change in the cultural base of art instruction in school c lassrooms (Chapman, 1981; Muth, 1985) 4 has been no greater than it has been in university art studios. What is more disturbing than a lack of change is that contemporary change could very well be toward, rather than against, intensif ication of the existing singular cultural basis. An example is the recent highly organized promotion in the United States of the wealthy J . Paul Getty Foundation's "d isc ip l ine-based" model of art instruction. Discip l ine-based models have been used in Canada in several local curriculum guides (for example, the British Columbia elementary fine arts curriculum guide and resource book, 1985). Compatible with what occurs in general education, this curriculum model, in its original form, is based primarily on sequenced, academic study of " legit imated" master works of the "Great Tradit ion". Furthermore, it is modelled on the traditional university-based fine arts profess ions—those of the art historian, the aesthetician, the art cri t ic, as well as the artist; it does not adequately incorporate the sociological or Ar t k n o w l e d g e / 8 the an th ropo log i ca l s tudy of art, fo r e x a m p l e , wh i ch car r ies cr i t i ca l t o o l s fo r l ook ing at art i n c l us i ve l y rather than e x c l u s i v e l y . A s a c a d e m i c content a s s u m e s a more p rominen t ro le in art s tudy and as art educa to rs cont inue their e f f o r t s to ra ise the leve l o f art know ledge in m a i n s t r e a m , p lu ra l i s t i c s o c i e t y , the c r i t i ca l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the pa ramete rs , s o c i a l f unc t i ons and ins t i tu t iona l bas is of the art k n o w l e d g e p romu lga ted in educa t ion b e c o m e s of i nc reas ing c o n c e r n . C o n s i d e r a t i o n of these s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s , e s p e c i a l l y the in te r re la t ionsh ip of art k n o w l e d g e and un i ve r s i t i e s , b e c o m e s even more impe ra t i ve , if w e accept the thes is that the un i ve rs i t y art depar tment has the. m o n o p o l y on de f in ing and perpetuat ing art k n o w l e d g e fo r t r a n s m i s s i o n through the s c h o o l s y s t e m to the pub l i c . It is un l i ke ly that change in art educa t ion in s c h o o l s and , con t i ngen t l y , change in the at t i tude of the publ ic t owa rd art is l i ke ly to occu r w i thou t s o m e k ind of s imu l t aneous change in art ins t ruc t ion in un i ve r s i t i e s . But as yet there is l i t t le ind ica t ion in the l i terature of any major e f f o r t s t o w a r d s , or even concen t ra ted d i s c u s s i o n about , change in un i ve rs i t y art i ns t ruc t ion . In f ac t , research and i n fo rma t i on concern ing the genera l sub jec t o f art i ns t ruc t ion at the p o s t s e c o n d a r y leve l is sparse and s p o r a d i c . 5 Of what l i t t le there i s , m o s t ei ther pa in ts a p s y c h o m e t r i c por t ra i t o f art s tuden ts (Barron, 1972; G e t z e l s & C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , 1976), their career a t t i tudes and p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t ( A d a m s & K o w a l s k i , 1980; Madge & W e i n b e r g e r , 1973; W h i t e s e l , 1980), or their pa in t ing s t y l e s (Mon ta l t o , 1983); o r , in ear l ier d e c a d e s , endo rses the p lace of f ine art c o u r s e s in general un i ve rs i t y educa t i on (Dennis & J a c o b , 1970; G r i s w o l d et a l . , 1965; M a h o n e y , Ar t k n o w l e d g e / 9 1970). There is a d is t inc t lack of l i terature that q u e s t i o n s , as th is s tudy d o e s , the p r e m i s e s of the ins t i tu t iona l and k n o w l e d g e s t ruc tures o f art ins t ruc t ion in p o s t s e c o n d a r y educa t ion f r o m a c r i t i ca l s o c i o l o g i c a l pe r spec t i ve or in l ight of the i ssues sur round ing p o s t m o d e r n i s m . Research wh ich m o s t d i rec t l y a d d r e s s e s the re la t i onsh ip be tween art k n o w l e d g e and ins t i tu t ions is found w i th in the s o c i o l o g y of art. 6 H o w e v e r , t hose w h o have d e v e l o p e d accoun ts of art s y s t e m s (A lb rech t , 1968; Becke r , 1982; M a n f r e d i , 1982; S i m p s o n , 1981; W o l f f , 1981b) e i ther neg lec t or g ive mere l y supe r f i c i a l men t ion to the s o c i a l ro le of p o s t s e c o n d a r y art ins t i tu t ions in their proper but a l m o s t exc lus i ve concen t ra t i on on the in f luence of c r i t i c s , dea le r s , ga l l e r i es , m u s e u m s , and " l o f t s " upon de f i n i t i ons of art and , u l t ima te l y , at t i tudes about educat ion in art. G i v e n the ro le of p o s t s e c o n d a r y educa t ion as pa t ron , p ro tec to r , . de f iner , p roducer , and educator in the ar ts , th is neg lec t is unwar ran ted . By s h o w i n g how un ive rs i t y art depar tmen ts p lay a s ign i f i can t ro le in de f i n i ng , l eg i t ima t i ng , and t ransmi t t i ng art k n o w l e d g e , this s tudy a t tempts to add a key p iece to the i ncomp le te s o c i o l o g i c a l account of art s y s t e m s and art k n o w l e d g e and , u l t ima te l y , to sugges t future d i rec t i ons fo r art s tudy in the a f te rmath of p o s t m o d e r n i s m . Wh i le c o m m i t t e d to the search fo r add ing to our unders tand ing of art s y s t e m s , there is a po l i t i ca l p o s i t i o n e m b o d i e d in th is s tudy wh ich embraces and de fends e th ica l idea ls of a s o c i e t y of i nd iv idua ls w h o " respec t , r eve re , and ce lebra te ind iv idua l d i f f e r e n c e s and cul tura l d i v e r s i t y " (Blandy & C o n g d o n , 1987, p. 2). Such a s o c i e t y cannot be rea l i zed un less its educa t iona l s y s t e m s honor and p rov ide for the ar t is t ic ac t i v i t i es and Ar t know ledge / 10 con t r i bu t i ons of a d i ve rse popu la t i on . The agenda of th is s tudy is c lea r : to make v i s i b l e that wh i ch impedes th is i dea l . The s tudy argues that the t rad i t i ons , no rms and ins t i tu t iona l s t ruc tures of un ive rs i t i es present res i s tance to a genuine b roaden ing of the cul tural base of art. A thorough recogn i t i on of th is res i s tance and the w a y s in w h i c h it impedes or dom ina tes is the f i rs t s tep t oward r e f o r m . Ind iv iduals cannot change that of wh i ch they are unaware. NOTES 1 The theore t i ca l f r amework rema ined ma l leab le throughout the p r o c e s s of c r i t i ca l a n a l y s i s . It w a s r e w o r k e d as the c o m p l e x i t y of the i ssues inc reased w i th the gradual c o l l e c t i o n of i n f o rma t i on and w i th the o rgan iza t ion of i deas . A l t hough a f o c u s d e v e l o p e d as mater ia ls were c o l l e c t e d , the research w a s not approached to accept or reject a h y p o t h e s i s . Rather, the research w a s conduc ted i nduc t i ve l y . To use Bogdan and B ik len ' s (1982) ana logy of qua l i ta t ive resea rch , the p r o c e s s of induct ive ana l ys i s is l ike a funne l . Th ings are more open at the beg inn ing or t op , and more d i rec ted and s p e c i f i c at the b o t t o m . The resu l t ing theore t i ca l f r amework of the s tudy and the o rgan iza t ion of chapters is s u m m a r i z e d at the end of chapter 2. 2 Un less ind ica ted o t h e r w i s e , the te rm "cu l ture" is not used in th is s tudy as it is o f ten used in o rd inary language. A n ind iv idua l o f culture is popu la r l y desc r i bed as one w h o , in the w o r d s of the A m e r i c a n an th ropo log i s t C l y d e K luckhohn (1949, p. 29) "can speak languages other than his o w n , w h o is fami l i a r w i th h i s to r y , l i terature, p h i l o s o p h y , or the f ine ar ts . " That Nor th A m e r i c a n s speak of go ing to un ive rs i t y to b e c o m e "cu l tu red" or that they refer to the f ine arts as "h igh" cul ture as o p p o s e d to " l o w " cu l ture , p r o m o t e s a c o n c e p t i o n of f ine art as the d o m a i n of a p r i v i l eged s o c i a l c l a s s . It is a c o n c e p t i o n that cons t ra ins p e o p l e s ' p e r c e p t i o n s , in terpre ta t ions and behav io r , and a f f e c t s the s t ruc tures and func t i on ing of o rgan i za t i ons , inc lud ing the ins t i tu t ion of art ins t ruc t ion in p o s t s e c o n d a r y educa t i on . Th is i ssue is dealt w i th further in chapter 3 in d i s c u s s i o n s of "cul tural c a p i t a l " and "high s ta tus k n o w l e d g e " . 3 John Berger (1972) w o u l d say that the f ine arts lead the w a y in c o n v e y i n g such m e s s a g e s . 4 One reason w h y change ove ra l l in art ins t ruc t ion in c l a s s r o o m s has Art knowledge / 11 been almost imperceptible is that for c lassroom teachers, teaching art has consisted of picking up examples of formula "school art" or free se l f -express ion activity from their own teacher education in art, rather than, for example, the critical discussion of art in society. A second reason has to do with the institutional structure of schooling being such that it is diff icult to move away from the conventional model in which the production aspects of art have functioned for students, teachers, principals and parents as a desired and expected relief from the academic school routine (Efland, 1976). This lack of research has been ascertained by surveying literature within the general areas of art education, visual arts, and soc io logy. This survey included a computer-accessed ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) search. The socio logy of art as a scholarly tradition and body of knowledge dates only from the mid-s ix t ies , with Arnold Hauser's (1959) study of the social history of art. Yet, its inquiry into the nature of art as a social entity is rooted in Marx's systematic analysis of society and theory of ideology. CHAPTER 2 ART IN THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF KNOWLEDGE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK: THE SOCIOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE Formal education in art, or in any endeavor, deals with the select ion, management and transmission of knowledge. Knowledge is structured so that some is "intentioned" knowledge, a term used by Esland (1971b, p. 84) to describe what a society considers important and purposeful knowledge. Other knowledge is considered spurious, or peripheral, or is totally overlooked. The formal curriculum of schools and universities is made up of a set of arrangements of intentioned knowledge, or what a society considers important and purposeful knowledge. The select ion of this stock of knowledge is less an intentional manipulation of minds by educators than it is a process of selection based on what is taken to be the significant past, the tradition. By looking at art as a special ized discipline of curriculum knowledge, we can consider how that one col lect ion of knowledge is selected from an almost unlimited number of combinations, and why it is considered important enough to be transmitted through the school system to society. Some broad theoretical groundwork in the socio logy of knowledge, especial ly knowledge appropriated for education, is sketched out in this chapter in order to facil itate the more particular task of understanding why we have the highly special ized and insular forms of art study that we do. 12 Art in the social organization of knowledge / 13 The intent is to facil itate an understanding of the mechanics of art knowledge, the social ly accepted rules, assumptions, and institutional mechanisms that make certain traditions and conceptions of art important and others relatively unimportant. The socio logy of knowledge puts up for questioning knowledge that may otherwise be taken as f ixed, predetermined, and statically hierarchical. This study does not treat fine art knowledge as an unquestioned virtue sanctioned by tradition. Nor does it question whether art knowledge is social ly produced, but rather in what ways and to what extent. This chapter sketches out the general nature and organization of knowledge, f i rst, in broad theoretical terms that describe the distinctions and relationships between formal educational knowledge and the knowledge of the everyday wor ld , and next, in terms of the organization of formal educational knowledge constituting the curricula of most North American schools and universit ies. From this framework of the organization of knowledge, some concepts and basic theoretical principles as they might apply to art knowledge in particular are derived as a basis for the basic arguments in subsequent chapters. Of particular interest is the strength and extent of maintenance of the boundaries of knowledge categories, for, this, it wi l l be argued, determines not only what counts as art knowledge, but also the status and legitimation of art knowledge in education and society, and, subsequently, its ability to perpetuate itself in the face of changing social circumstances and postmodern challenges. Art in the social organization of knowledge / 14 The social construction of reality The term "art knowledge" is used in this study to represent not only the art methods and art concepts which are formally taught during class t ime, but all forms of thought involving art. The kinds of cultural practices, myths, values, norms, resources, symbols , beliefs and attitudes that are selected and organized within schools and university art departments can be considered as art knowledge. Such broad coverage is consistent with an attempt to chart a framework of the nature and organization of knowledge and introduce, in the most general terms, the posit ion of art knowledge within it. In the socio logy of knowledge literature, the term "knowledge" has been so broadly conceived that it has often come to be equated with the term "culture". As Robert Merton (1957) notes, Not only the exact sciences but ethical convict ions, epistemological postulates, material predications, synthetic judgements, polit ical bel iefs, the categories of thought, eschatological doxies, moral norms, ontological assumptions, and observations of empirical fact are more or less indiscriminately held to be "existentially condit ioned." (p. 467) For Berger and Luckmann (1966), the socio logy of knowledge must concern itself with such a broad array; it must concern itself with whatever passes for "knowledge" in a society, regardless of its ultimate validity or Ar t in the s o c i a l o rgan iza t ion of k n o w l e d g e / 15 inva l id i t y by wha teve r c r i t e r i a 1 . The s o c i o l o g y of k n o w l e d g e must seek to unders tand the p r o c e s s e s by wh ich all human know ledge is d e v e l o p e d , t ransmi t ted and ma in ta ined in s o c i a l s i t ua t i ons , such that the t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d " rea l i t y " o f the "man in the s t ree t " is u n d e r s t o o d . The s o c i o l o g y of k n o w l e d g e i s , fo r Berger and Luckmann , c o n c e r n e d w i th the a n a l y s i s of the s o c i a l cons t ruc t i on o f " rea l i t y " . This is where their unders tand ing of the f i e l d d i f f e r s f r o m what had genera l l y been meant s i nce the te rm for the f i e l d "the s o c i o l o g y of k n o w l e d g e " w a s f i rs t c o i n e d in 1924 w i th the pub l i ca t i on of the Ge rman ph i l osopher Max S c h e l e r ' s e s s a y "P rob leme einer S o z i o l o g i e des W i s s e n s " (Sche le r , 1960, c i t ed in Berger & L u c k m a n n , 1966). For Berger and L u c k m a n n , and for th is s tudy , " i d e a s " or theore t i ca l thought is on l y part of the sum of what p a s s e s fo r k n o w l e d g e or what is " r e a l " fo r m e m b e r s of a s o c i e t y in their e v e r y d a y l i v e s . Theore t i ca l f o r m u l a t i o n s of s o c i e t y , whether they be s c i e n t i f i c , p h i l o s o p h i c a l , m y t h i c a l , or aes the t i c , do not exhaust what m e m b e r s of a s o c i e t y " k n o w " . It is "the s o c i a l cons t r uc t i on of r ea l i t y " that must ins tead be the centra l f o c u s for the s o c i o l o g y of k n o w l e d g e , b e c a u s e this is what cons t i t u tes the fab r i c of mean ings in a s o c i e t y by wh i ch that s o c i e t y ac t s . Berger and Luckmann adm i t t ed l y o w e their rede f in i t i on of k n o w l e d g e to A l f r e d Schu tz . Schu tz ' s (1962, 1964) f i e l d of inquiry w a s the st ructure of the c o m m o n s e n s e w o r l d of e v e r y d a y l i f e . H is f o c u s w a s a p h e n o m e n o l o g y of the natural at t i tude or , in other w o r d s , the d i s c o v e r y in fu l l depth of the p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , s t ruc tures and s i g n i f i c a t i o n of the c o m m o n - s e n s e w o r l d . A l t h o u g h he did not e labora te a s o c i o l o g y of k n o w l e d g e per se, he d id Art in the social organization of knowledge / 16 state that the socio logy of knowledge is misnamed and should focus on all typi f icat ions of "common-sense thinking". 2 Common-sense thinking occurs, as Schutz (1964) wri tes, in this way: We rely upon the fact that our fe l low-men wi l l react as we anticipate if we act toward them in a speci f ic way, that institutions such as governments, schools, courts, or public util it ies wi l l function, that an order of laws and mores, of religious and polit ical bel iefs, wi l l govern the behaviour of our fe l low-men as it governs our own. In terms of the social group we may say with Scheler that any in-group has a relatively natural concept of the world which its members take for granted. (P. 121) There is a zone of things taken-for-granted that, at a given t ime, does not seem to need further inquiry, even though we do not have a clear and distinct understanding of its structure. The fact that we do not understand the Why and the How of their working and that we do not know anything of their origin does not hinder us from dealing undisturbed with situations, things, and persons. We use the most complicated gadgets prepared by a very, advanced technology without knowing how the contrivances work . . . The man in the street has a . . . knowledge of recipes indicating how to bring forth in typical Art in the social organization of knowledge / 17 situations typical results by typical means (Schutz, 1964, p. 120). Schutz contrasts, on the one hand, the "man in the street" who has a working knowledge of many f ields wi th, on the other hand, the experts' knowledge, which is restricted to a limited field but therein is clear and distinct. According to Schutz, all our possible questioning of the unknown presupposes the existence of and arises only within a world of taken-for-granted things. 3 The term "art knowledge" is used in this study in the spirit of this broad definit ion of knowledge addressed by Schutz and detailed by Berger and Luckmann. But there is another reason for looking first to Berger and Luckmann's socio logy of knowledge that is critical to the thesis: With the distinction these authors make between the formal "experts' knowledge" and the taken-for-granted knowledge of everyday reality there is a distinction in status. Knowledge in the former sense, the sense normally conceived of in everyday terms as having to do with "truth", scholarship or wisdom as pursued in academic institutions, signif ies thought forms which are of high status. Possessing such knowledge is thought to represent a desirable and privi leged status for an individual, one which is distinguishable from a state of ignorance. Furthermore, those who possess knowledge of this sort are considered authority f igures; they define and legitimate the behavior and experiences of others. For example, members of the upper ranks of the church have long maintained the right to define what a "state of grace" is and what the nature of sin and salvation is (Berger, 1969). Likewise, Art in the social organization of knowledge / 18 professionals who teach fine art in postsecondary institutions and in schools are involved in defining for their students the range of art experiences thought appropriate to them. Art teachers are social ly designated experts in matters of art knowledge. They assume a professional mandate to impart wisdom and truth, to define artistic abil i ty, and to assess and categorize students. The conceptual disjunction between the art professional and the layperson untutored in the fine arts of western high culture confers legitimacy upon art teaching and learning, and affects the extent to which such art is defended, insulated, and maintained by its exponents in education. Fine art knowledge as a finite province of meaning in the macrostructure of knowledge Given the distinction between knowledge in the everyday world and what Schutz termed "expert" knowledge, in what ways are the two related? In what way is the special ized art knowledge typical of art departments related to the "common stock" of knowledge outside the special ized fine art world? According to Berger and Luckmann (1966), the relationship is this: When compared to everyday reality, all other realities appear as "finite provinces of meaning, enclaves within the paramount reality marked by circumscribed meanings and modes of experience" (p. 24). A l l such "finite provinces of meaning" are characterized by a turning away of attention from the reality of everyday l i fe. While there are, of course, shifts in attention within everyday l i fe, "the shift to a finite province of Art in the social organization of knowledge / 19 meaning is of a much more radical kind . . . In the context of religious experience this is called ' leaping'" (p.25). Art , in the western high culture sense, is one such finite province of meaning in which "leaping" is of a radical kind. The leaping that takes place between aesthetic experience and the world of everyday experience is illustrated well with the case of the theater. The transition between realities is marked by the rising and fall ing of the curtain. As the curtain r ises, the spectator is "transported to another world," with its own meanings and an order that may or may not have much to do with the order of everyday l i fe. As the curtain fa l ls , the spectator "returns to reality," that is, to the paramount reality of everyday life by comparison with which the reality presented on the stage now appears tenuous and ephemeral, however vivid the presentation may have been a few moments previously, (p.25) Berger and Luckmann's notion that the reality of everyday life retains its paramount status even as such leaps take place fo l lows from Schutz (1964, p. 124), who wrote, "It is the zone of things taken for granted within which we have to find our bearings." S o , although some art experiences may involve leaping from everyday reality, they remain an "enclave" within everyday life rather than of their own discrete reality. 4 Berger and Luckmann's treatise about the paramount status of the reality of Ar t in the s o c i a l o rgan iza t i on of k n o w l e d g e / 20 e v e r y d a y exper ience is a reminder that a r t i s t s , even those w h o , in the t rad i t ion of the Roman t i c m o v e m e n t , ho ld the "pures t " a r t is t ic in ten t ions and c l a i m ind i f f e rence to the pub l ic by not w i s h i n g to recogn ize ob l i ga t i ons other than the in t r ins ic demands of a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n , l ive in the rea l i t y of e v e r y d a y l i f e . Ideas about art and ar t i s t i c ac t i v i t y as w e l l as w o r k s of art are f o r m e d in a context o f pub l ic d e f i n i t i o n , no mat ter how e x c l u s i v e this publ ic i s . It is in these te rms that the art is t is de f i ned and that the art ist de f i nes her or h imse l f (Bourd ieu , 1971). Much of the wr i t i ng on art and ar t i s t i c " c r e a t i o n " in the past has , h o w e v e r , a d d r e s s e d f ine art as if it w a s an a u t o n o m o u s rea lm that t ranscends the s o c i a l w o r l d or as if it w a s i m p e r v i o u s to s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s and its a t tempt to s i tuate art in its con tex t . S o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , such as the s o c i o l o g y of k n o w l e d g e and the Marx i s t and p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l app roaches f r o m wh i ch it d e r i v e s , has been s u c c e s s f u l in e x p o s i n g many of the h idden and " s a c r e d " a s s u m p t i o n s in what we n o w iden t i f y as the "Great T r a d i t i o n " of f ine ar ts . A bas i c tenet of the s o c i o l o g y of k n o w l e d g e is that k n o w l e d g e is s o c i a l l y p roduced and s o c i a l l y d e f i n e d . A r t k n o w l e d g e of any sor t is no e x c e p t i o n . 5 Ind iv iduals cons t ruc t their rea l i ty rather than d i s c o v e r i n g a rea l i t y wh i ch is s o m e h o w f i xed and impe rmeab le . K n o w l e d g e is not , con t ra ry to c o m m o n a s s u m p t i o n , s o m e t h i n g external to the i nd i v i dua l , s o m e t h i n g f i x e d , p rede te rm ined , or even c o m m o d i t y - l i k e . Rather, k n o w l e d g e is fundamenta l to an ind iv idua l ' s exper ience o f e v e r y d a y l i f e . In th is b roader v i e w , k n o w l e d g e is seen as pe rmea t ing the ent ire ' f ab r i c ' of a s o c i e t y through the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of i ts m e m b e r s , and as p rov id i ng the f r a m e s of re fe rence by wh i ch al l i nd iv idua ls o rgan ize their l i v e s . Art in the social organization of knowledge / 21 A l l action is, therefore, grounded in knowledge—people act on the basis of what they take account of—that is, what and how they interpret. (Esland, 1971, p.41) The broader definit ion of knowledge, like that put forward by Berger and Luckmann, reminds us also that the finite provinces of meaning, the theoretical knowledge thought to be the domain of the "expert", accounts for only a small part of the knowledge "in use" among individuals in society. And the art knowledge expropriated for education accounts for an even smaller amount. Practical and immediate problems constitute the majority of our everyday knowledge. For most students, this art knowledge remains external to their experience. Little relation exists between the knowledge found in education and the reality of their own daily l ives, especial ly given the diversity of their social and cultural backgrounds in contrast to the cultural exclusiveness of art knowledge typical ly taught in schools and universit ies. This art knowledge w i l l , for most, never be actualized as their own reality but wil l remain that of the art teacher or the artist. For students special izing in fine art, on the other hand, it is much more likely that fine art knowledge wil l constitute their frames of reference. Their special ized art knowledge becomes integrated with their everyday knowledge. This special ized province of meaning becomes such an important part of their culture that it often creates for them an identity in which their everyday actions and beliefs are based. Helen Muth (1985) writes that Ar t in the s o c i a l o rgan iza t i on of k n o w l e d g e / 22 art educa to rs (or fo r that matter a r t i s t s , art h i s t o r i ans , art s tuden ts , and o thers s p e c i a l i z i n g in f ine art) have "dual i den t i t i es " : one w i th in the e v e r y d a y rea l i t y of their r e s p e c t i v e cul tura l a l l i ance , and one w i th in the s p e c i a l i z e d d i sc i p l i ne of f ine art. "D i sc ip l i ne k n o w l e d g e " , the te rm she g i ves the latter ident i ty c o m p o n e n t , is acqu i red through f o rma l t ra in ing in art. Though roo ted in an e v e r y d a y cu l ture , the art p r o f e s s i o n a l has d e v e l o p e d a w o r l d v i e w that is d i s c i p l i n e - o r i e n t e d . "D i sc ip l i ne k n o w l e d g e b e c o m e s the t o o l and the cr i ter ia [sic] to add ress al l s o r t s of i s sues whether w i th in the p rov ince of the d i sc i p l i ne or no t " (p. 28). D i s c i p l i n e k n o w l e d g e b e c o m e s a c r i te r ion fo r "cultural k n o w l e d g e " , a te rm used by Muth and o t h e r s 6 to desc r i be a k n o w l e d g e d o m a i n that is more d i ve rse than d i sc ip l i ne k n o w l e d g e and wh i ch is e m b e d d e d in va r ious s y m b o l s y s t e m s , a r t i f ac t s , and cul tura l ins t i tu t ions of an ind iv idua l ' s e v e r y d a y w o r l d . Once an ind iv idua l b e c o m e s a member of a d i s c i p l i n e , the d i sc i p l i ne has an o rgan iz ing e f fec t on the ind iv idua l ' s w a y of th ink ing : "Its d i s t i nc t i ve mode of th ink ing is not res t r i c ted to p r o b l e m s w h i c h fa l l w i th in the d i sc i p l i ne i t se l f . The d i sc i p l i ne thus b e c o m e s an in tegrated part of a pe rson ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t " (Muth 1985, p. 33). The no t ion of d i s c i p l i ne k n o w l e d g e shap ing an ind iv idua l ' s ident i ty is a general theore t i ca l exp lana t ion that f i t s par t i cu la r ly w e l l w i th desc r i p t i ve s tud ies of f ine art s tudents (chapter 4) where in the ove r r i d ing f ee l i ng is that "art is l i f e " or that "art is a w a y of be ing ou ts ide s o c i e t y " (R idgeway , 1975). Art in the social organization of knowledge / 23 Knowledge boundaries and university departmentalism The extent to which a discipl ine of knowledge becomes an integrated part of an individual's identity and affects that individual's bel iefs, values and routine actions in everyday life is related to the structure and social status of that knowledge discipl ine. One useful way to think about and discuss the structure of a discipline of knowledge and its status and relation to other knowledge domains is to describe knowledge in terms of its boundaries, their nature, and the way in which they are maintained. Knowledge, especial ly that which is appropriated for educational knowledge, is bounded, differentiated, and structured within. Often these boundaries correspond to boundaries of social f rameworks, such as university departments, research special i t ies, or professions (Holzner, 1983). Such social frameworks and .' their attendant social values shape and limit what knowledge domains are considered relevant and which are peripheral, distrusted or rejected. Understanding the nature of art knowledge in education and society requires recognition of this basic relationship between knowledge boundaries and institutions. Principles of knowledge boundaries wi l l be reviewed as a theoretical basis for arguing in subsequent chapters that the nature and maintenance of boundaries relates to the legitimation and status of art knowledge (chapter 3) and to the strength of commitment to the artistic identity and the discipl ine of fine art (chapter 4). The mechanisms for acquiring and maintaining legitimation and for developing a fol lowing of recruits in art are important to the art department's capacity Ar t in the s o c i a l o rgan iza t ion of k n o w l e d g e / 24 to main ta in t rad i t iona l insular c o n c e p t i o n s of art k n o w l e d g e in a p lu ra l i s t i c env i ronmen t . A set of p r i nc ip les of educa t iona l k n o w l e d g e boundar ies w a s d e v e l o p e d by Bas i l Be rns te in (1971), a Br i t i sh s o c i o l o g i s t of educa t i on . Berns te in d e v e l o p e d his f r a m e w o r k in an abst ract w a y , w i th the sugges t i on that we can go into any educat iona l ins t i tu t ion and examine the o rgan iza t i on of t ime in te rms of the re la t i ve status of c o n t e n t s , and whether the c o n c e p t s s tand in an o p e n / c l o s e d re la t i onsh ip to each o ther . I am de l i be ra te l y us ing this ve ry abst ract language in order to emphas i ze that there is no th ing in t r ins ic to the re la t i ve s tatus of va r ious con ten t s , there is noth ing in t r ins ic to the re la t i onsh ips be tween con ten t s , (p. 4 8 - 4 9 ) A key concep t in Berns te in ' s ana l ys i s of the nature of d i f f e ren t i a t i on of f o rma l educa t iona l k n o w l e d g e is "c rass i f i ca t i on " . 7 " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n " is a boundary ma in tenance c o n c e p t : it re fe rs to the re la t i onsh ip be tween k n o w l e d g e ca tego r i es or cur r icu lum con ten ts and the w a y in wh i ch they are d i f f e ren t i a ted . To state Berns te in ' s p r inc ip le of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i m p l y : Where c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is s t r ong , boundar ies are s t rong and con ten ts of k n o w l e d g e are re la t i ve l y pure (unmixed). S t rong boundar ies insulate con ten ts f r o m each other. A k n o w l e d g e a rea , wh i ch may be thought of as a sor t o f concep tua l box , s tands in a c l o s e d re la t ionsh ip to other content a reas . There is l i t t le c o n f u s i o n about wh ich b i ts of k n o w l e d g e f i t in wh i ch box . Where boundar ies be tween con ten ts are weak or b lu r red, in the other ex t reme , Ar t in the s o c i a l o rgan iza t ion of k n o w l e d g e / 25 insu la t ion is reduced and the re la t ionsh ip of contents is o p e n , permi t t i ng a m ix ing of the con ten ts of the b o x e s . The s t rength and nature of boundar ies can be thought of not on l y as they might occur be tween s p e c i a l i z e d k n o w l e d g e a reas , as in the case of the t rad i t iona l s c h o o l cu r r i cu lum, but be tween s p e c i a l i z e d k n o w l e d g e areas and c o m m o n s e n s e or e v e r y d a y k n o w l e d g e . Insulat ion be tween "pure" and " a p p l i e d " k n o w l e d g e is mos t l i ke ly to be s t rong (Berns te in , 1971). In the case of art k n o w l e d g e , th is d o e s not s e e m su rp r i s i ng , g i ven the a u t o n o m y or lack of re la tedness t y p i c a l l y p e r c e i v e d be tween the w o r l d of e v e r y d a y l i fe and the f in i te p rov ince of art d i s c i p l i n e k n o w l e d g e t y p i c a l l y taught in s c h o o l s and un i ve rs i t i es . A s t rong a l l eg iance to ei ther the ident i ty of the f ine art ist or to the app l ied art is t is to be expec ted . Th is is c o n f i r m e d by ev idence f r o m s tud ies of art s tudents where in a l l eg iance to the f ine arts ideal is s o s t rong that, acco rd i ng to one researcher (Gr i f f , 1964, 1970), it ac ts as a menta l b lock p reven t ing f ine art s tuden ts f r o m s w i t c h i n g a l leg iance to the app l ied arts (chapter 4). Opera t ing on the st rength of bounda r i es , Berns te in i den t i f i es t w o st ructura l t y p e s of educa t iona l cu r r i cu la ; " c o l l e c t i o n c o d e s " and " in tegrated c o d e s . " A c o l l e c t i o n code re fers to any o rgan iza t i on of educa t iona l k n o w l e d g e in w h i c h the con ten ts are c lea r l y bounded and insu la ted f r o m each other and s tand in a c l o s e d re la t ion to each other . Know ledge in a c o l l e c t i o n code tends to re late on l y m i n i m a l l y to e v e r y d a y exper ience . W i th curr icu la of an in tegrated c o d e , on the other hand , the st rength of boundar ies is reduced Ar t in the s o c i a l o rgan iza t ion of k n o w l e d g e / 26 and the con ten ts s tand in an open re la t ion to each other and to c o m m o n - s e n s e k n o w l e d g e . A t t e m p t s to imp lemen t in tegrated code curr icu la are s o m e t i m e s found at the p r imary s c h o o l leve l w h e r e , w i t h on l y one c l a s s r o o m teacher r e s p o n s i b l e fo r a l m o s t all sub jec t s , t hemat i c or c r o s s - d i s i p l i n a r y approaches can be more read i l y i m p l e m e n t e d . Such app roaches , where they ex i s t , tend to blur boundar ies more than d o e s the c o m m o n prac t i ce of teach ing d is t inc t sub jec ts in d is t inc t b l o c k s of t i m e . In s e c o n d a r y and p o s t s e c o n d a r y educa t ion in wes te rn s o c i e t y , the cur r i cu lum is genera l l y of the c o l l e c t i o n t y p e . S u b j e c t s , inc lud ing art, are t y p i c a l l y taught as par ts of a package made up of d is t inc t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s . The day is d i v i ded into units of t i m e , and k n o w l e d g e is. o rgan ized acco rd i ng to this t ime schedu le . The t ime a l l o t ted to the subject usua l l y ind ica tes the educat iona l w o r t h at t r ibuted to it. (As k n o w n s o w e l l , in many s c h o o l s art is a l lo t ted a sma l l unit o f t ime on a Fr iday a f t e r n o o n , o f ten to be rep laced by f i e l d t r ips and H a l l o w e e n par t ies. ) The subject areas of the c o l l e c t i o n code are de f i ned and ma in ta ined by the depa r tmen ta l i sm of un i ve rs i t i es . The un i ve rs i t y depar tment is the k n o w l e d g e base and the occupa t i ona l base of teachers in both s c h o o l s and un ive rs i t i es in the sense that teachers have been t ra ined in , and un i ve rs i t y p r o f e s s o r s are "expe r t s " i n , a par t icu lar d i sc i p l i ne of know lege de f i ned by a t rad i t ion of research and teach ing ac t i v i t i es of a un ive rs i t y depar tment . What a l so w o r k s to main ta in d i sc i p l i ne boundar ies is that admin i s t ra t i on p r o c e s s e s Ar t in the s o c i a l o rgan iza t i on of k n o w l e d g e / 27 such as the a l l o c a t i o n of funds and s t a f f i ng occur on a depar tmenta l b a s i s . The st ructure of k n o w l e d g e wh i ch is p resen ted to s tudents is the st ructure in wh i ch it is o rgan ized w i th in educat iona l i ns t i t u t i ons . Berns te in (1971, p.106) s t a t e s : S o c i a l o rder a r i ses out of the h ierarchal nature of the author i ty r e l a t i o n s h i p s , out o f the s y s t e m a t i c o rder ing of d i f f e ren t ia ted k n o w l e d g e in t ime and s p a c e , out of an exp l i c i t , usua l l y p red ic tab le examina t i on p rocedure . The c o l l e c t i o n code genera tes a p o w e r s y s t e m w i th in educa t iona l ins t i tu t ions (B lack ledge & Hunt, 1985) in wh i ch the depar tment head can a f fec t k n o w l e d g e o rgan iza t i on to a far greater extent than s tuden ts . Wi th in tegra t ion c o d e s , on the other hand, the teacher / s tuden t power st ructure sh i f t s t owa rd c o o p e r a t i o n , as teachers make d e c i s i o n s about k n o w l e d g e and teach ing in con junc t ion w i th s tuden ts . Educa t iona l k n o w l e d g e that is d i s tanced f r o m e v e r y d a y k n o w l e d g e and packaged in a c o l l e c t i o n code tends to be expe r ienced as a f a c t i c i t y . K n o w l e d g e b e c o m e s s o m e w h a t l ike an ob ject or c o m m o d i t y in that it is adve r t i sed as external to the i nd i v idua l , f i x e d , p rede te rm ined , v a l u e - f r e e , and ava i lab le to anyone w i th the m o t i v a t i o n and t i m e . In actual fac t , it is more l ike pr iva te p roper t y to wh i ch on l y a f e w have a c c e s s . Berger and Luckmann desc r i be the ob jec t i ve qua l i ty of k n o w l e d g e and , in a more general s e n s e , the apprehens ion of al l human phenomena that have been ca tego r i zed or c l a s s i f i e d , w i th the te rm "rei f i c a t i o n " . Re i f i ca t i on is an Art in the social organization of knowledge / 28 extreme step in the process of objectivation "whereby the objectivated world loses its comprehensibil i ty as a human enterprise and becomes fixated as a non-humanizable, inert fact ic i ty" (Berger & Luckmann, 1966, p. 83). Reification is the apprehension of human phenomena as if they were things, that is, in non-human or possibly supra human terms. Another way of saying this is that reif ication is the apprehension of the products of human activity as if they were something else than human products—such as facts of nature, results of cosmic laws, or manifestations of divine wi l l . Reif ication implies that man is capable of forgetting his own . authorship of the human world,, and further, that the dialectic between man, the producer, and his products is lost to consciousness. (Berger & Luckman, 1966. p. 83). 8 The socio logy of knowledge, or, in the case of this study, the socio logy of art knowledge, makes knowledge-as- fac t ic i ty problematic. Only then can questions be asked and answers sought regarding the parameters of art knowledge, the social meanings and functions and ultimately the validity of this knowledge for education and society. It is this phenomenon of knowledge experienced as a fact ic i ty which art programs and individuals must make problematic if their artistic activit ies are to do more than reinforce traditional fine arts values. Ar t in the s o c i a l o rgan iza t i on of k n o w l e d g e / 29 Specialization, subject loyalty, and the social order Both c o l l e c t i o n and in tegrated c o d e s g i ve r ise to a se r ies of s u b - t y p e s , each va ry ing in the re la t ive s t rength of their boundar ies and the st rength of ma in tenance of these boundar ies . W i th in cur r icu la of the c o l l e c t i o n c o d e , Berns te in i den t i f i es s p e c i a l i z e d and n o n - s p e c i a l i z e d t y p e s . 9 A s p e c i a l i z e d c o l l e c t i o n c o d e , to wh ich art s tudents b e l o n g as subject s p e c i a l i s t s in the educat iona l s y s t e m in w e s t e r n s o c i e t y , is ind ica ted by "subject l o y a l t y " . W i th each s tep in educa t iona l l i f e , sub ject l oya l t y is s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d e v e l o p e d in s tudents as they s p e c i a l i z e and , is then t ransmi t ted by them as s o m e in turn b e c o m e teachers . S p e c i a l i z a t i o n c rea tes qu ick l y an educa t iona l ident i ty wh ich is c l e a r - c u t and bounded , or wh i ch i s , to use Berger and Luckmann 's (1966) d e s c r i p t i o n of f in i te p r o v i n c e s of m e a n i n g , "marked by c i r c u m s c r i b e d mean ings and m o d e s of e x p e r i e n c e " (p. 24). The deep st ructure of the s p e c i a l i z e d type of c o l l e c t i o n code i s , acco rd i ng to Be rns te i n , " s t rong boundary ma in tenance c rea t ing con t ro l f r o m w i th in through the f o r m a t i o n of s p e c i f i c i den t i t i e s " (p. 56). The educa t iona l ident i ty is "pure" in the sense that educa t iona l k n o w l e d g e is u n c o m m o n s e n s e k n o w l e d g e ; it is h ighly insu la ted f r o m " a p p l i e d " and c o m m o n s e n s e k n o w l e d g e , g i v i ng it s o m e t h i n g of an eso te r i c qua l i ty w i th s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e to those w h o p o s s e s s it. Ve ry ear ly in a ch i ld 's l i fe the f r a m e s of the c o l l e c t i o n code s o c i a l i z e her or him into k n o w l e d g e f r ames wh i ch d i scou rage c o n n e c t i o n s w i th e v e r y d a y rea l i t i es . For the ma jor i t y of s tudents s c h o o l e d in the w e s t e r n w o r l d , the Ar t in the s o c i a l o rgan iza t ion of k n o w l e d g e / 30 f ram ing of educa t iona l k n o w l e d g e is t ight . Educa t ion means s o c i a l i z a t i o n into the ex i s t i ng order and into a s s u m i n g that the boundar ies of the w o r l d ' s educa t iona l k n o w l e d g e are f i xed and i m p e r m e a b l e . Educa t ion has usua l l y meant learn ing to work within a r ece i ved f r ame . It m e a n s , in par t icu lar , learning what ques t i ons can be put at any par t icu lar t i m e . Because of the h ierarch ica l o rder ing of k n o w l e d g e in time, cer ta in ques t i ons ra ised may not enter into a part icular f r a m e . {Bernste in , 1971, p. 57) Berns te in makes the in teres t ing point that when this f rame is o c c a s i o n a l l y re laxed , it is more o f ten for pu rposes of s o c i a l con t ro l o f f o r m s o f dev iance than fo r pu rposes of t ransmi t t i ng k n o w l e d g e that might be more re levant to s tuden ts . When th is w e a k e n i n g of the boundar ies is i n t roduced , it is usua l l y "wi th the less 'ab le ' ch i ld ren w h o m w e have g iven up e d u c a t i n g " (p. 58). Or , i r on i ca l l y , a re laxed f rame is ava i lab le to a se lec t f e w s tudents in the mos t a c a d e m i c a l l y advanced (graduate) leve l of f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n ; here, s tudents may not n e c e s s a r i l y be g iven or accept "a g i ven s e l e c t i o n , o rgan i za t i on , pac ing and t im ing of k n o w l e d g e rea l i zed in the pedagog i ca l f r a m e " (p. 57). A s Berns te in exp la i ns : The u l t imate m y s t e r y of the subject is revea led ve ry late in the educa t iona l l i f e . By the u l t imate m y s t e r y of the sub jec t , I mean its po ten t ia l fo r c rea t ing new rea l i t i es . It is a l so the c a s e , and this is impor tan t , that the u l t imate m y s t e r y of the sub jec t is not cohe rence , but i n cohe rence ; not order , but d i s o r d e r ; not the Ar t in the s o c i a l o rgan iza t ion o f k n o w l e d g e / 31 k n o w n but the unknown . A s th is m y s t e r y , under c o l l e c t i o n c o d e s , is r evea led very late in educa t iona l l i f e — a n d then on l y to a se lec t f e w who have s h o w n the s igns of s u c c e s s f u l s o c i a l i z a t i o n — t h e n on ly the f e w experience in their bones the no t i on that know ledge is p e r m e a b l e , that i ts o rde r ings are p r o v i s i o n a l , that the d ia lec t i c of know ledge is c losu re and o p e n e s s . (p. 57) To sum up Berns te in ' s p r i nc ip les of k n o w l e d g e bounda r i es : the s t ronger the boundary , 1) the more educa t iona l k n o w l e d g e tends to be d i f f e ren t i a ted and s p e c i a l i z e d w i th s t rong insu la t ion be tween "pure" and " a p p l i e d " k n o w l e d g e , 2) the more it is taken for granted and left unques t ioned by teachers and s tuden ts , 3) the s t ronger the sense of sub jec t l oya l t y w h i c h , in turn, w o r k s to ma in ta in boundar ies , 4) the less p o w e r teachers and s tudents have to a f fec t k n o w l e d g e , and, impo r tan t l y , 5) the more r ig id ly k n o w l e d g e areas are h ie ra rch ica l l y ar ranged. K n o w l e d g e , as it ex i s ts in the cur r icu la in mos t North A m e r i c a n s c h o o l s and un i ve r s i t i e s , is marked by s t rong boundar ies charac te r i s t i c o f the c o l l e c t i o n c o d e . Educa t iona l k n o w l e d g e is sharp ly d rawn into a set o f insu la ted and re la t i ve l y unmixed sub jec t areas that are d i v o r c e d f r o m eve ryday l i f e . S tuden ts , art s tudents i nc l uded , are s o c i a l i z e d into the v i e w that what they learn in f o r m a l educa t ion is p rede te rm ined , f i x e d , and unre lated to e v e r y d a y k n o w l e d g e . M o s t s tuden ts never rea l i ze that k n o w l e d g e is not cer ta in and g i v e n , but is capab le o f be ing unde rs tood in d i f fe ren t w a y s and inc ludes k n o w l e d g e of eve ryday l i f e . Ar t in the s o c i a l o rgan iza t ion of k n o w l e d g e / 32 A s Berns te in ' s c r i t i cs have po in ted out , his concep t s of " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " , " f r a m i n g " , " c o l l e c t i o n c o d e " , and " in tegra ted c o d e " are abst ract and s ta t i c (App le & W e x l e r , 1978; B lack ledge & Hunt, 1985). His naming p r o c e s s of the o rgan iza t i on of educa t iona l k n o w l e d g e is part o f a search fo r s o c i a l pat terns and d o e s not exp la in the con t inued ex is tence or the o r ig ins of such a r rangements in s o c i e t y (B lack ledge & Hunt, 1985; G i b s o n , 1977; P r i n g , 1975). Fur the rmore , Berns te in ' s a n a l y s i s takes l i t t le account of v a r i a b l e s , such as the po ten t ia l in f luence that s tudents may exe rc i se in sh i f t i ng a cur r icu lum charac te r i zed as an in tegrated code back to a c o l l e c t i o n code as their c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s asse r t s i t se l f ; or , as another e x a m p l e , the admin is t ra to r w h o , by i m p o s i n g res t r i c t i ons on teache rs , turns a cur r icu lum charac te r i zed by weak f ram ing into one that is s t r ong l y f r a m e d . H o w e v e r , the u s e f u l n e s s of Berns te in ' s set o f p r i n c i p l e s , as w i th any theory of the s o c i o l o g y of k n o w l e d g e , l ies in its ab i l i t y to p rovoke c r i t i ca l c o n t e m p l a t i o n , rather than take as g i v e n , the nature of know ledge and h o w it is o rgan i zed . Berns te in ' s concep t of c o l l e c t i o n c o d e — t h e k n o w l e d g e structure m o s t s tudents are s o c i a l i z e d into through their f o rma l e d u c a t i o n — s e e m s to f i t w i th what d e s c r i p t i v e research ( G o o d l a d , 1984, fo r examp le ) te l l s about the nature of educa t i on in genera l . But what does k n o w i n g that educa t ion in general is charac te r i zed by the c o l l e c t i o n code mean in te rms of art k n o w l e d g e in par t icu lar? If art, as part o f the f o rma l cur r i cu lum of s c h o o l s and of u n i v e r s i t i e s , be longs to a c o l l e c t i o n code as Berns te in charac te r i zes it, then the f o l l o w i n g s ta temen ts w o u l d app l y : The boundar ies of art k n o w l e d g e as it is Ar t in the s o c i a l o rgan iza t i on of k n o w l e d g e / 33 taught in un i ve rs i t i es and s c h o o l s are s t r ong . Its content is pure in the sense that there is l i t t le c o n f u s i o n about whether the s tudy of l ine and texture or Cub is t pa in t ings w i l l be found in an art c l a s s or in a p h y s i c s , geog raphy , or dance c l a s s . A r t , s p e c i f i c a l l y i ts s u b - t y p e f ine art, is a s p e c i a l i z e d cur r icu lum sub jec t that is insu la ted f r o m the k n o w l e d g e rea lm of the e v e r y d a y w o r l d . S p e c i a l i z a t i o n in f ine art qu i ck l y c rea tes an a l leg iance to and an ident i ty based on that s p e c i a l i z e d d i sc i p l i ne o f k n o w l e d g e . Th is s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and subject a l l eg iance in turn func t i on to main ta in and perpetuate ex is t i ng k n o w l e d g e boundar ies and h ie ra rch ies . L ike any other subject s p e c i a l t y in educa t iona l i ns t i t u t i ons , art is b l o c k e d into a t ime tab le (al though usua l l y g i ven l i t t le pr io r i ty ) . A r t s tuden ts , l ike s tudents s p e c i a l i z i n g in any d i sc ip l i ne of educa t iona l k n o w l e d g e , have been s o c i a l i z e d throughout their s c h o o l yea rs into a. c o l l e c t i o n code st ructure of k n o w l e d g e . They have c o m e to take k n o w l e d g e and its d i sc i p l i na ry boundar ies as a g i v e n , as p rede te rm ined , f i x e d , and s ta t i ca l l y h ie rarcha l . A t t e m p t s to break through the d i sc i p l i na ry k n o w l e d g e boundar ies f r o m w i th in the d i sc ip l i ne of art are impeded by the fac t that art in un ive rs i t i es and s c h o o l s ex is ts w i th in and is part o f a larger c o l l e c t i o n code of d i f f e ren t i a t ed , i nsu la ted , and h ie ra rch ica l l y arranged sub jec ts . Even within the a r ts , f i ne ar t i s ts insulate and protect their new found occupa t i ona l s ta tus f r o m app l i ed a r t i s t s , w h o are pe r ce i ved to be of l esse r s ta tus (Ad le r , 1979). A t t e m p t s w i th in . any subject s p e c i a l t y to integrate that subject w i th other k n o w l e d g e d o m a i n s , inc lud ing e v e r y d a y k n o w l e d g e , r isk running into s t rong Ar t in the s o c i a l o rgan iza t ion of k n o w l e d g e / 34 boundar ies ma in ta ined through sub jec t a l l eg i ances . D i s c i p l i n e a l l eg iances func t i on as a p o w e r f u l agent in a f f e c t i n g the o rgan iza t i on of educa t iona l k n o w l e d g e . M a n y subject groups have a pe rsona l in terest in the ma in tenance and p ropaga t ion of their o w n d i s c i p l i n e . If you are in te res ted in p ropaga t ing your o w n d i s c i p l i n e , then you do not want s o m e b o d y e l se ' s to enc roach t oo much on it. Those of us w h o work in higher educa t i on are pe r f ec t l y f am i l i a r w i th the p h e n o m e n o n . W e carve out fo r o u r s e l v e s a l i t t le a rea , and if a n y b o d y e l se puts his f oo t on it, then w o e bet ide h i m ! (Fowler , 1977, p.123) Desp i te eve ry th ing that has happened in the p o s t - w a r era t owa rds the in tegra t ion of cur r icu lum sub jec ts in s c h o o l s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , the p o w e r of cur r icu lum p o l i t i c s rema ins as s t rong or perhaps even s t ronger than it ever w a s . D i s c i p l i n a r y boundar ies and m e m b e r s h i p b e c o m e inc reas ing l y r i g id , and in te rd i sc ip l i na ry s tud ies more r e m o t e , w h e n c o m p e t i t i o n fo r sca rce resou rces i n c r e a s e s , as has happened in educa t ion in North A m e r i c a gene ra l l y , s i nce 1970. The s t ruc tures of k n o w l e d g e and the boundar ies of exper ience that have been in p lace for so long in w e s t e r n educat iona l s y s t e m s cons t i tu te a s o c i a l order . That is why Berns te in (1971) s ta tes that if there is "a c r i s i s in s o c i e t y ' s bas i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and f r a m e s " there is " there fore a c r i s i s in i ts s t ruc tures of power and p r i nc ip les of c o n t r o l " (p. 67). Ar t in the s o c i a l o rgan iza t i on of k n o w l e d g e / 35 SUMMARY OF ART KNOWLEDGE PRINCIPLES, AND LAYOUT OF THE STUDY In th is chapter , s o m e theore t i ca l p r i nc ip les regard ing art k n o w l e d g e we re d e v e l o p e d f r o m a s o c i o l o g y of k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k . These can be s u m m a r i z e d as f o l l o w s : 1. A r t k n o w l e d g e , as t rad i t i ona l l y taught in s c h o o l s and un i ve r s i t i e s , is a f in i te p rov ince of m e a n i n g , a s p e c i a l i z e d d i s c i p l i n e , that is h igh ly d i f f e ren t i a ted and insu la ted f r o m other s p e c i a l i z e d d i s c i p l i n e s and f r o m e v e r y d a y k n o w l e d g e . The ve ry fact that art is a subject in the f o r m a l cur r i cu lum of s c h o o l s and un i ve rs i t i es con t r ibu tes to this d i f f e ren t i a t i on and i nsu la t i on . The c o m p a r t m e n t s of cur r i cu lum k n o w l e d g e (or sub jec t s ) are f r a m e d and ma in ta ined by the depa r tmen ta l i sm of un i ve rs i t i es . 2. It is th is ve ry d i f f e ren t i a t i on and insu la t ion f r o m eve ryday k n o w l e d g e that pe rmi ts the "pure" or f ine arts to ma in ta in s i gn i f i can t l y more s tatus than " a p p l i e d " art, but less s ta tus than other k n o w l e d g e d i s c i p l i n e s in educa t i on . In other w o r d s , the l eg i t ima t i on of art in educa t ion is amb iguous . 3. W i th in the general d o m a i n of art k n o w l e d g e , s p e c i a l i z a t i o n occu rs such that the f ine arts are d i f f e ren t i a ted and insu la ted f r o m the app l ied ar ts . S p e c i a l i z a t i o n in f ine art c rea tes qu ick l y an iden t i t y , a s t rong sense of sub ject l o y a l t y , wh i ch f unc t i ons to ma in ta in the ex is t ing d i f f e ren t i a t i on , i nsu la t i on , and h ierarch ica l ar rangement of art k n o w l e d g e c a t e g o r i e s . These p r i nc ip les supp ly a theore t i ca l f r a m e w o r k of art k n o w l e d g e upon wh i ch subsequent chapters are b a s e d . Chapter 3 bu i lds on the f i rs t and s e c o n d p r inc ip les and argues that the insu la t ion of cer ta in nar row Ar t in the s o c i a l o rgan iza t ion of k n o w l e d g e / 36 c o n c e p t i o n s of art k n o w l e d g e f r o m other educat iona l sub jec ts and f r o m e v e r y d a y rea l i t y in i tse l f c o n f e r s s tatus to such art k n o w l e d g e , wh i le at the same t ime main ta in ing art 's per iphera l p o s i t i o n in s o c i e t y and in educa t i on . Fur thermore , it is because f ine or high art has been a c a d e m i c i z e d and inco rpo ra ted into the f o r m a l cur r icu la of un ive rs i t i es rather than left in w o r k s h o p appren t i cesh ip t ra in ing or techn ica l c o l l e g e s that it is able to ma in ta in its s o c i a l l e g i t i m a c y , amb iguous as it may be . L e g i t i m a t i o n is c ruc ia l to a d i s c i p l i n e ' s s u r v i v a l . The extent of s o c i a l l eg i t ima t i on ach ieved by an art ins t i tu t ion he lps de te rm ine that ins t i tu t ion 's ab i l i t y to ma in ta in i ts ro le in de f i n ing and perpetuat ing its art k n o w l e d g e . Rather than r isk further l o s s of l e g i t i m a t i o n , the d i s c i p l i n e of art is l i ke ly to main ta in the l eg i t ima t i on that it has inher i ted f r o m its s o c i a l l y - a c c e p t e d t rad i t i ons and s t rengthened through a c a d e m i c i z a t i o n . It p ro tec ts those boundar ies that have in the past de f i ned it as high s tatus k n o w l e d g e . Wh i l e the d i sc i p l i ne p ro tec t s these boundar ies to keep in art 's s ta tus , it keeps out , at the s a m e t i m e , the arts of less l eg i t ima ted cul tures and s o c i a l g roups . Chapter 4 suppor t s the third p r inc ip le by p rov id ing desc r i p t i ve and emp i r i ca l ev i dence of the c o m m i t m e n t f ine art s tudents d e v e l o p t owa rd their k n o w l e d g e d i s c i p l i n e . It demons t ra tes that the un i ve rs i t y art depar tment is ve ry e f f e c t i v e in s o c i a l i z i n g s tudents into the f ine art subcu l tu re . S o c i a l i z a t i o n is an e f f e c t i v e m e c h a n i s m by w h i c h the un i ve rs i t y art depar tment p r e s e r v e s its s ta tus , amb iguous as it may be , f r o m ou ts ide cha l l enges such as those that the p o s t m o d e r n art w o r l d p resent . Once c o m m i t m e n t is e s t a b l i s h e d , the d i sc i p l i ne is p r o t e c t e d , ma in ta ined , and Ar t in the s o c i a l o rgan iza t ion of k n o w l e d g e / 37 t r ansmi t t ed to o thers through e d u c a t i o n — a s o c i a l p r o c e s s known as "cul tural r e p r o d u c t i o n " . Chapter 5 ou t l i nes t rad i t i ons that have exer ted author i ty in e s t a b l i s h i n g , l eg i t ima t i ng , and in turn, perpetuat ing the insular t ype of art k n o w l e g e dominant in educa t i on . A r t k n o w l e d g e l i ves in t r ad i t i ons . The t rad i t ions ou t l ined in th is chapter are the a c a d e m i e s of (high) art , the un ive rs i t y ' s l iberal arts i d e a l , and the p h i l o s o p h i c a l t rad i t ion of a r t s - f o r - a r t s - s a k e aes the t i c s . W i th the author i ty of these s o c i a l l y - s a n c t i o n e d w e s t e r n t rad i t i ons and their a s s o c i a t i o n w i th p r i v i l eged s o c i a l g roups , the un i ve rs i t y is able to main ta in the R e n a i s s a n c e - d e r i v e d f ine arts as its k n o w l e d g e b a s e . Fur thermore , these t rad i t ions have p rov i ded ar t is ts and art s tudents w i th the m o t i v a t i o n requ i red to pursue art in the face of c o n f l i c t s and e c o n o m i c hardsh ips e n d e m i c to the pursui t . Dur ing the era of the ear ly European a c a d e m i e s , a m o t i v a t i o n w a s the c a p a c i t y b e s t o w e d upon the art ist to d i s c o v e r the l aws of G o d ' s un i ve rse . Th is conce rn w i t h the d iv ine w a s gradua l ly rep laced by the l ibera l arts educa t iona l ideal o f the in te l lec tua l . It w a s the no t ion of the art is t as in te l lec tua l that even tua l l y permi t ted the p roduc t i on of art to a c c o m p a n y the unders tand ing of art in the un ive rs i t y cu r r i cu lum. A c a d e m i c i z a t o n has been an e f f e c t i v e and w e l l - u s e d leg i t imat ing s t ra tegy for s o m e art k n o w l e d g e . A s further suppor t fo r the argument that un ive rs i t i es main ta in and perpetuate cer ta in insular art t r ad i t i ons , chapter 6 p resen ts s o m e cha l l enges w i th in art s c h o o l s to t rad i t iona l art k n o w l e d g e boundar ies , and p o s i t s that Ar t in the s o c i a l o rgan iza t i on of k n o w l e d g e / 38 these cha l l enges have been la rge ly i n e f f e c t i v e in b roaden ing boundar ies . The structure of un i ve rs i t i es is such that, once a b s o r b e d , a v a n t - g a r d e cha l l enges , inc lud ing more recent p o s t m o d e r n i s t a t tempts to expand art boundar ies to inc lude popu lar and c o m m e r c i a l art, have been emp t i ed of their po tent ia l to e f fec t s i gn i f i can t change in b roaden ing the cul tural bas is of art in educa t i on . F i na l l y , chapter 7 b r ie f l y s u m m a r i z e s the s o c i a l f unc t i ons of un ive rs i t y art depar tments in e f f ec t i ng art k n o w l e d g e , and s p e c u l a t e s , in l ight of the un i ve rs i t y ' s p ropens i t y to ma in ta in t rad i t iona l w e s t e r n c o n c e p t i o n s of art, on how p o s t m o d e r n i s t app roaches might best be i nco rpo ra ted in a t tempt ing to b roaden art 's cul tural b a s e . P o s t m o d e r n i s m is not s i m p l y a part icular s t y l e in art but a m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y d i s c o u r s e . A b roaden ing of t rad i t iona l boundar ies of art may be best e f f e c t e d through inc reased d i s c o u r s e be tween the art depar tment and the d i s c i p l i n e s i den t i f i ed as car ry ing the t o o l s fo r c r i t i ca l ana l ys i s and e f f e c t i n g change. NOTES 1 Berger and Luckmann (1966) suspend the i ssue of the u l t imate va l i d i t y of k n o w l e d g e in their s o c i o l o g i c a l i nves t i ga t i on of k n o w l e d g e . A l t hough not taken up in this s tudy , there have been severa l c r i t i c i s m s made of us ing a b road and , fo r s o m e , i nd i sc r im ina te de f i n i t i on of k n o w l e d g e (Holzner , 1983, fo r examp le ) . For d i s c u s s i o n of th is see M e r t o n (1957, p .467-484) . Me r ton takes up in deta i l the ques t ion of whether al l the d i ve rse k inds of " k n o w l e d g e " s tand in the s a m e re la t ionsh ip to their ex is ten t ia l or s o c i a l b a s i s , or whether it is n e c e s s a r y to d i sc r im ina te be tween spheres of k n o w l e d g e p r e c i s e l y because this re la t ionsh ip d i f f e r s fo r the va r ious t y p e s . In re fe rence to the " s y s t e m a t i c a m b i g u i t y " that he c l a i m s e x i s t s , he consu l t s the wr i t i ngs of Marx and E n g e l s , S c h e l e r , W e b e r , Du rkhe im , Grane t , and S o r o k i n . 2 Berger and Luckmann (1966, p .15-16) quote t w o p a s s a g e s f r o m Schutz Ar t in the s o c i a l o rgan iza t ion of know ledge / 39 (1962, 1964) in wh i ch he dea ls m o s t d i rec t l y w i th the s o c i o l o g y of k n o w l e d g e : A l l t yp i f i ca t ions of c o m m o n - s e n s e th ink ing are t h e m s e l v e s integral e lemen ts of the conc re te h is to r i ca l s o c i o - c u l t u r a l Lebenswelt w i th in wh i ch they p reva i l as taken fo r granted and as s o c i a l l y a p p r o v e d . Their s t ructure de te rm ines among other th ings the s o c i a l d i s t r i bu t ion of k n o w l e d g e and its re la t i v i t y and re levance to the conc re te s o c i a l env i ronment of a conc re te group in a conc re te s o c i a l env i r onmen t . Here are the leg i t imate p r o b l e m s of r e l a t i v i s m , h i s t o r i c i s m , and of the s o - c a l l e d s o c i o l o g y of k n o w l e d g e (Schutz , 1962, p. 149). K n o w l e d g e is s o c i a l l y d is t r ibu ted and the m e c h a n i s m of this d i s t r ibu t ion can be made the subject mat ter of a s o c i o l o g i c a l d i s c i p l i n e . T rue , w e have a s o - c a l l e d s o c i o l o g y of k n o w l e d g e . Y e t , w i t h very f e w e x c e p t i o n s , the d i sc ip l i ne thus m i s n a m e d has approached the p rob lem of the soc ia l d i s t r i bu t ion of k n o w l e d g e m e r e l y f r o m the angle of the i d e o l o g i c a l f ounda t i on of truth in i ts dependence upon s o c i a l and , e s p e c i a l l y , e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s , or f o r m that of the s o c i a l imp l i ca t i ons of educa t i on , or that of the s o c i a l ro le of the man of k n o w l e d g e . Not s o c i o l o g i s t s but e c o n o m i s t s and ph i l osophe rs have s tud ied s o m e of the many other theore t i c aspec t s of the p rob lem (Schutz , 1964, p.121). A l s o cent ra l to S c h u t z ' (1962) th ink ing is the p r o p o s i t i o n that there are "mul t ip le r ea l i t i e s " . There are as many rea l i t ies or s o c i a l w o r l d s of exper ience as there are i nd i v idua ls . Th is sugges t s that s o c i a l i n te rac t ions and s o c i a l cons t ruc t s are to be app roached s u b j e c t i v e l y , f r o m the the p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l rea l i t y o f i nd i v idua ls . Wh i l e recogn iz ing th is no t i on of mu l t ip le rea l i t i es and the d i f f i cu l t i e s the a s s o c i a t e d s u b j e c t i v e n e s s cou ld entai l fo r inqu i ry , th is s tudy de l i be ra te l y b racke ts and f o r m a l i z e s one "paramount r e a l i t y " (Schutz , 1962, p. 341), a rea l i ty that is paramount t o , a l though o f t en t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d b y , f ine art s tuden ts , and is e m b o d i e d in their s o c i a l i n te rac t ions . When s ing led out f r o m the f l o w of expe r ience , as this s tudy in tends , the rea l i ty of th is s o c i a l group b e c o m e s an ob ject of a w a r e n e s s , it b e c o m e s p r o b l e m a t i c and u l t ima te ly in a p o s i t i o n where it can be c o n t e m p l a t e d in t e rms of s o c i a l change. Language is one fac to r in th is . E v e r y d a y rea l i t y is g rounded in language. Language p r o v i d e s the mach inery by w h i c h k n o w l e d g e , no mat ter h o w tenuous or e p h e m e r a l , can be o rgan ized in our c o n s c i o u s n e s s and c o n v e y e d back into the order of e v e r y d a y l i fe . The " m e a n i n g " of a v i sua l work of art or a d ream can be made a c c e s s i b l e to eve ryday exper ience by integrat ing it l i ngu i s t i ca l l y , back Ar t in the s o c i a l o rgan iza t ion of k n o w l e d g e / 40 into the order of e v e r y d a y l i f e . Language is capab le a l so of cons t ruc t i ng s y m b o l s in art that are h igh ly abs t rac ted f r o m e v e r y d a y expe r i ence . Language " soa rs into reg ions that are not on ly de facto but a priori unava i lab le to e v e r y d a y expe r ience , " hence cons t ruc t i ng " i m m e n s e e d i f i c e s of s y m b o l i c rep resen ta t ions that appear to t o w e r ove r the rea l i ty of e v e r y d a y l i fe l ike g igant ic p resences f r o m another w o r l d " (Berger & L u c k m a n , 1966 p. 38). A r t be longs to an h i s t o r i c a l l y impor tant s y m b o l s y s t e m o f th is k i nd , as does re l i g i on , s c i e n c e , and p h i l o s o p h y . But even th is is brought back to e v e r y d a y rea l i ty as many of these highly abs t rac ted s y m b o l s are re ta ined and accumu la ted in "a s o c i a l s t ock of k n o w l e d g e " w h i c h is t ransmi t ted f r o m genera t ion to genera t ion and wh i ch is ava i lab le to the ind iv idua l as real e l emen ts in e v e r y d a y l i fe . A n i ssue that is a d d r e s s e d in s o m e s o c i o l o g i c a l w r i t i ng on art (B i rd , 1979; Hauser , 1983; W o l f f , 1983) conce rns the reduc t i on , e s p e c i a l l y by s o m e o r thodox Marx i s t a n a l y s i s , o f mat te rs of aes the t i c va lue to en t i re ly s o c i a l or i d e o l o g i c a l exp lana t i ons . The p rob lem is t h i s : On the one hand , the Marx is t doc t r i nes of h i s to r i ca l ma te r i a l i sm and c l a s s s t rugg le are v i e w e d as a va l i d me thod of ana l ys i s of s o c i e t y and of e x p o s i n g many of the e x t r a - a e s t h e t i c e lemen ts such as the va lues held by va r ious c l a s s e s or the i n f l uences of p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c , or mora l i dea l s . On the other hand , a need is p e r c e i v e d to rescue the concep t of the aes the t i c and the concep t o f ind iv idua l sub jec t i v i t y f r o m the " d e s a c r a l i z i n g " s o c i o l o g i c a l reduc t ion of po l i t i ca l w o r t h . Yet w h e n th is rescue is a t tempted it is d i f f i cu l t to de fend w i thout reso r t i ng to re l a t i v i t y , n o s t a g l i a , or u n i v e r s a l , t i m e l e s s aes the t ic qua l i t y . Th is s tudy d o e s not set out to r e s o l v e th is i s sue , nor s i m p l y d i s p o s e of it. Rather , it takes a s tance s im i l a r to that of Howard Becke r ' s (1983 P.36): By obse rv i ng how an art w o r l d makes those d i s t i n c t i ons rather than t ry ing to make them o u r s e l v e s , we can unders tand much of what g o e s on in that w o r l d . Becke r approaches his research on "art w o r l d s " as he w o u l d w i th any other o c c u p a t i o n . To v i e w art and the art c o m m u n i t y through the lens of the s o c i o l o g y pf o c c u p a t i o n s or o rgan i za t i ons i s , as LaChape l l e (1984, p.36) w r i t e s , "a use fu l w a y to a v o i d a s t rong p ropens i t y that ex i s t s to rank a r t i s t s , t ypes of art, art p e r i o d s , and a lmos t eve ry th ing that has to do w i th art h ie ra rch ica l l y and then to wr i te on l y about the top of that h ie rarchy . " L i k e w i s e , th is s o c i o l o g y of art k n o w l e d g e a d d r e s s e s art as a k n o w l e d g e ca tego ry in the same sense that one w o u l d add ress m a t h e m a t i c s , geog raphy , or even l i fe s k i l l s . Muth b o r r o w s the term f r o m D. H. Fe ldman ' s wo rk in the f i e l d of cul tura l geography (1980), Beyond universals in cognitive development. C l i f f o r d G e e r t z ' (1973, 1983) w r i t i ngs in in terpret ive an th ropo logy are Ar t in the s o c i a l o rgan iza t i on of k n o w l e d g e / 41 no tab le examp les of the no t ion of cul tural k n o w l e d g e . In con junc t ion w i th the concep t of " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " , Berns te in uses the concep t of " f r a m i n g " to re fer to the re la t ionsh ip be tween teacher and s tudent , in par t icu lar , to the degree of con t ro l ava i l ab le to the teacher and the s tudent . Berger and Luckmann (1966) use the examp le of marr iage to i l lus t ra te that both c o m p l e x theore t i ca l s y s t e m s and menta l cons t ruc t i ons can be d e s c r i b e d as r e i f i c a t i o n s ; Mar r i age , fo r i ns tance , may be re i f i ed as an im i ta t ion of d iv ine acts of c rea t i v i t y , as a un ive rsa l mandate of natural l aw, as the n e c e s s a r y c o n s e q u e n c e of b i o l o g i c a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l f o r c e s , or , fo r that mat ter , as a func t iona l impera t i ve of the s o c i a l s y s t e m . What all these re i f i ca t i ons have in c o m m o n is their o b f u s c a t i o n of marr iage as an ongo ing human p roduc t i on . A s can be read i l y seen in th is e x a m p l e , the re i f i ca t i on may occur both t heo re t i ca l l y and p re theo re t i ca l l y . Thus the m y s t a g o g u e can c o n c o c t a h igh ly s o p h i s t i c a t e d theory reaching out f r o m the conc re te human event to the far thest co rners of the d iv ine c o s m o s , but an i l l i terate peasant coup le be ing marr ied . may apprehend the event w i th a s i m i l a r l y r e i f y i ng shudder o f m e t a p h y s i c a l d read. Through r e i f i c a t i o n , the w o r l d of ins t i tu t ions appears to merge w i t h the w o r l d of nature. It b e c o m e s n e c e s s i t y and fa te , and is l i ved through as s u c h , happ i ly or unhappi ly as the case may be. (p , 84) Nor th A m e r i c a n p o s t s e c o n d a r y educa t ion is less s p e c i a l i z e d , mean ing that a range of sub jec ts and a va r ie ty of c o m b i n a t i o n s can be taken and " s t r e a m i n g " into an educa t iona l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n d e l a y e d longer , than in Eng land , fo r examp le (Berns te in , 1971). But even s tudents w h o have not s p e c i a l i z e d into a d i sc i p l i ne s e e m to k n o w where they are tend ing t owa rds in te rms of the s c i e n c e s or the ar ts , or be tween the pure or the app l i ed , or even be tween hav ing or not hav ing a s p e c i f i c educa t iona l sub ject emphas i s or occupa t i ona l ident i t y . They may harbor s o m e under ly ing concep t or v i s i o n of t h e m s e l v e s as the " w e l l - r o u n d e d ' and 'cu l tu red ' l ibera l arts t y p e , or the s k i l l e d , e m p l o y m e n t o r ien ted t y p e . CHAPTER 3 THE UNIVERSITY AS LEGITIMATOR OF ART KNOWLEDGE The very insu la t ion or concep tua l d i s junc t ion d e s c r i b e d in the p reced ing chapter be tween art k n o w l e d g e , in the t rad i t iona l w e s t e r n high cul ture s e n s e , and e v e r y d a y k n o w l e d g e c o n s i g n s art to the rea lm of " h i g h - s t a t u s " k n o w l e d g e and main ta ins its p lace in the f o r m a l cu r r i cu lum. But at the s a m e t i m e , i r on i ca l l y , th is d i s junc t ion f unc t i ons to i so la te such art k n o w l e d g e and mainta in its per iphera l s tatus in educa t ion and in s o c i e t y . A m b i g u o u s as it may be , the s o c i a l l eg i t ima t i on that such art k n o w l e d g e en joys is due in large part to the fact that art is n o w a subject taught in the un i ve rs i t y . The un i ve rs i t y , it is a rgued, is a leg i t ima t ing ins t i t u t i on . Once c l o i s t e r e d w i th in the un i ve rs i t y , art can remain a s p e c i a l i z e d p rov ince of mean ing insu la ted and e leva ted f r o m " lower s t a t u s " app l ied k n o w l e d g e areas and e v e r y d a y k n o w l e d g e , and , subsequen t l y , not taken to be a v i ta l or re levant f o r c e in s o c i e t y . Th is chapter desc r i bes how t rad i t iona l c o n c e p t i o n s of art have their s tatus and leg i t ima t ion c o n f e r r e d , and w h y th is s tatus is enough to ma in ta in art 's p lace in educa t ion but not enough to permi t it to s e r i o u s l y c o m p e t e in cur r icu lum p o l i t i c s w i th a c a d e m i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y - r e l a t e d educa t iona l sub jec ts . A r t ' s s t i f f c o m p e t i t i o n w i th other k n o w l e d g e areas for l im i ted resou rces in educa t ion un fo r tuna te ly tends to cause k n o w l e d g e boundar ies and d i sc i p l i na r y t ies to s t reng then , rather than l o o s e n to include less l eg i t ima ted but more s o c i a l l y and cu l tura l ly re levant ar ts . If the arts of popular cu l ture , indus t ry , and ethnic c o m m u n i t i e s we re incorpora ted w i th in the educa t iona l con tex t , as has been 42 The un ive rs i t y as leg i t ima to r of art k n o w l e d g e / 43 happening w i th in the p o s t m o d e r n art w o r l d , both on a w ide r sca le and in an i n f o r m e d , c r i t i ca l w a y , perhaps art w o u l d be in a more v i ta l and less amb iguous p o s i t i o n . HOW ART KNOWLEDGE INHERITS STATUS Art knowledge as high status knowledge The p o s s e s s i o n of f ine art k n o w l e d g e , or any d i sc ip l i ne of k n o w l e d g e in educa t i on , is thought to represent a des i rab le and p r i v i l eged s t a t u s — o n e wh i ch is d i s t i ngu ishab le f r o m ignorance . D i s c i p l i n e k n o w l e d g e , as d e s c r i b e d in the p rev ious chapter , imp l i es theore t i ca l thought and ideas con t r ibu ted by the s o - c a l l e d "exper t " , as d is t inc t f r o m the cul tural be l i e f s and va lues of the t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d rea l i ty of the " p e r s o n - i n - t h e - s t r e e t " . The a s s u m p t i o n is that the thought s y s t e m s of educa t iona l k n o w l e d g e are super io r to c o m m o n sense and the thought s y s t e m s of those w h o have not been or are to be educa ted . Th is a s s u m p t i o n is imp l i c i t in f o r m a l educa t i on . It sus ta ins the h ie rarch ies imp l i c i t in e d u c a t i o n : of teacher ove r s tudent , o f seconda ry s c h o o l s over e lementa ry s c h o o l s , o f un i ve rs i t i es over app l i ed c o l l e g e s , of f ine arts over app l ied ar ts . Th is qual i ty of abs t rac tness and the unre la tedness of a k n o w l e d g e area to e v e r y d a y rea l i ty are t w o c l o s e l y re la ted cha rac te r i s t i cs wh i ch M i c h a e l Y o u n g (1971) uses to desc r i be what he ca l l s "high s tatus k n o w l e d g e " . 1 The app l i cab i l i t y o f these cr i ter ia to art k n o w l e d g e s e e m s c lear , g i ven Berger The un ive rs i t y as leg i t imates of art k n o w l e d g e / 44 and Luckmann 's (1966) concep t of f in i te p r o v i n c e s of mean ing and Berns te in ' s (1971) p r i nc ip les of k n o w l e d g e bounda r i es . A r t , perhaps , more than m o s t other sub jec ts in the cur r i cu lum of s c h o o l s and un i ve r s i t i e s , is f requen t l y charac te r i zed as abst ract and r e m o v e d f r o m e v e r y d a y rea l i t y . There are, in add i t i on , t w o other cha rac te r i s t i c s w h i c h Y o u n g uses to desc r i be h i gh -s ta tus k n o w l e d g e : " l i t e racy " and " i n d i v i d u a l i s m " . Y o u n g argues that much of the k n o w l e d g e wh ich is es tab l i shed in the cur r icu lum as " h i g h - s t a t u s " d i s p l a y s these four (what he ca l l s ) " cons i s ten t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " . Y o u n g ' s c r i te r ia of the s ta tus of k n o w l e d g e areas are used here to desc r ibe the s tatus that t rad i t iona l c o n c e p t i o n s of art k n o w l e d g e in par t icu lar ma in ta ins in educa t i on . Once this s ta tus has been e s t a b l i s h e d , the m e c h a n i s m s and p r o c e s s e s m a y be iden t i f i ed by wh i ch such art k n o w l e d g e is able to secure and leg i t ima te this s ta tus . The issue of the s ta tus or the " s t r a t i f i c a t i o n " of k n o w l e d g e is a c ruc ia l s t ructura l d i m e n s i o n of the o rgan iza t i on of k n o w l e d g e . It is a c ruc ia l d i m e n s i o n in the o rgan iza t ion of art k n o w l e d g e , of the p o w e r s t ruc tures of t r ad i t i ona l , s ingular w a y s of th ink ing about art ve rsus p lura l is t or p o s t m o d e r n i s t w a y s of th ink ing about art. It is d i f f i cu l t to c o n c e i v e of the p o s s i b i l i t y of a cur r icu lum of k n o w l e d g e w h i c h is d i f f e ren t i a ted w i thou t be ing h ie ra rch ica l l y ,a r ranged . A s s u m p t i o n s about the s t r a t i f i ca t i on of k n o w l e d g e are imp l i c i t in our ideas of what educa t ion i s , and what k n o w l e d g e is wo r t hy of cons t i t u t i ng f o r m a l educa t i on . By c o n s i d e r i n g to what extent and by what c r i te r ia d i f fe ren t k n o w l e d g e areas are s t r a t i f i e d , w e are led to cons i de r the s o c i a l base of d i f fe ren t k inds o f The un ive rs i t y as leg i t imato r of art k n o w l e d g e / 45 k n o w l e d g e and we can beg in to ra ise ques t i ons about re la t ions be tween p o w e r s t ruc tures and cu r r i cu la , the a c c e s s to k n o w l e d g e and the oppor tun i t i es to l eg i t im i ze it as " supe r i o r " and the re la t ion be tween k n o w l e d g e and its f unc t i ons in d i f fe ren t k inds of s o c i e t y . (Young, 1971, p. 35 -36 . ) The latter t w o cha rac te r i s t i cs in Young ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of h i gh - s ta tus k n o w l e d g e — i n d i v i d u a l i s m and l i t e r a c y — f i t w i th what is genera l l y thought of as art k n o w l e d g e . I nd i v i dua l i sm, or what Y o u n g c o n s i d e r s the avo idance of group work or c o o p e r a t i v e n e s s , is a charac te r i s t i c c o m m o n l y equated w i th c rea t i v i t y and ar t is t ic ac t i v i t y in this cen tury . The f ine art w o r l d is o f t en charac te r i zed as the m e c c a of i nd i v i dua l i s t s . M a n y wr i t e rs argue that a r t i s t i c p roduc t ion is an ind iv idua l and so l i t a r y act o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , and that educa t ion in art shou ld fac i l i t a te or in i t ia te , not in ter fere w i th or inh ib i t , th is pr ivate i nd i v idua l i zed p r o c e s s . N e w i c k ' s (1982) ar t ic le in the Journal of Aesthetic Education ent i t led "The exper ience of a l o n e n e s s and the mak ing of ar t " is i l l us t ra t i ve . S o is the p h e n o m e n o n of the art ins t ructor as the cu r r i cu lum, s o fam i l i a r in p o s t s e c o n d a r y educa t ion (Barron, 1972) and in s c h o o l s (Gray & M a c G r e g o r , 1987). Fur thermore , where art teach ing has inco rpora ted the s tudy of the h i s to ry and p h i l o s o p h y of art, it has been a s tudy of a r t i s t s , as r e f l ec ted in an interest in b iog raph ies and a l so in v i s i t i ng ar t i s ts w h o , as the art c r i t i c Mar tha Ros ie r (1981, p.31) put it, l ike "env iab le m e t e o r s , l ight up the campus for awh i l e , and then streak o f f on their t ra jec to r ies of f a m e . " The un ive rs i t y as leg i t ima to r o f art k n o w l e d g e / 46 A r t teach ing has f requen t l y neg lec ted to s i tua te the ind iv idua l in the s o c i a l w o r l d . It has neg lec ted to account fo r the va r ious s t ructures and ins t i tu t ions of a r t is t ic p roduc t i on and the numerous other peop le that make the p roduc t i on of any wo rk of art p o s s i b l e . It has neg lec ted to s h o w that art is " c o l l e c t i v e l y p r o d u c e d " (to b o r r o w H o w a r d Becke r ' s 1982 term). The f o c u s on the art ist as sup reme ind i v idua l i s t , as ind iv idua l c rea to r , emerged in the Rena i ssance (chapter 5) in re la t ion to the bou rgeo i s i d e o l o g y of the ind iv idua l as genius wh ich d e v e l o p e d c o n c o m m i t a n t l y w i th the r ise of c a p i t a l i s m in Europe . (Bar thes, 1977; H a d j i n i c o l a o u , 1978; W o l f f , 1981b). It is a s o c i a l t ype that is m i s l e a d i n g . The ident i ty of " i nd i v i dua l i s t " is me re l y an abs t rac t i on that can , in M i c h a e l A p p l e ' s (1979, p. 10) w o r d s , 2 act as "an i d e o l o g i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n that keeps us f r o m es tab l i sh ing any genuine sense of a f f i l i a t i on w i th those w h o p roduce our c o m f o r t s , thus mak ing it even more d i f f i cu l t to o v e r c o m e the a t roph ica t ion of c o l l e c t i v e c o m m i t m e n t . " The f ina l charac te r i s t i c that Y o u n g uses to t y p i f y high s ta tus k n o w l e d g e is an e m p h a s i s on wr i t ten as o p p o s e d to oral or other f o r m s of p r e s e n t a t i o n — " l i t e r a c y " as he te rms it. Sub jec t s requi r ing f o r m a l w r i t t en examina t i ons p lace e m p h a s i s on l i te racy rather than oral e x p r e s s i o n and are more h igh ly l eg i t ima ted than cou rses in s tud io w o r k , where f o r m a l w r i t t en exams are s e l d o m g i ven and the on l y f o r m a l eva lua t ion may be verba l c l a s s c r i t i ques of s tudent wo rk or grad ing of p o r t f o l i o s . Young m e n t i o n s , in c i t ing W e b e r (1952), that what counts as k n o w l e d g e depends on whether it can be o b j e c t i v e l y a s s e s s e d . Impl ic i t in educa t i on is the idea that if it The un ive rs i t y as leg i t imato r o f art k n o w l e d g e / 47 cannot be eva lua ted , it 's not wor th k n o w i n g . There is a l o n g - s t a n d i n g c o n v i c t i o n ma in ta ined by many a r t i s ts and art ins t ruc to rs that the " o b j e c t i v e " eva lua t i on of a r t i s t i c ac t i v i t y is unsu i tab le or even i m p o s s i b l e . In fac t there has been a great deal o f s u s p i c i o n t owa rd any verba l f o r m of ana ly t i c or in te l lec tua l ac t i v i t y p rac t i ced by ar t i s ts (Nay lo r , 1981). H o w e v e r , th is may be chang ing w i th the sh i f t in many p o s t s e c o n d a r y art depar tmen ts to concep tua l art and verba l p rocedures (Madge & W e i n b e r g e r , 1973; M o n t a l t o , 1983), and w i th the sh i f t in art educa t i on in s c h o o l s f r o m " c rea t i v i t y " and f ree e x p r e s s i o n to " d i s c i p l i n e - b a s e d " ac t i v i t y . A r t as a subject s p e c i a l t y may n o w be a l ign ing more c l o s e l y w i th its a c a d e m i c context and its cha rac te r i s t i cs of l i t e racy and eva lua t i on , wh i ch Y o u n g c l a i m s t y p i f i e s h i gh -s ta tus k n o w l e d g e . If th is sh i f t t owa rd concep tua l art and d i sc ip l i ne based art educa t ion is taken into accoun t , art k n o w l e d g e sus ta ins to va ry ing degrees all four of the cha rac te r i s t i c s of h i g h - s t a t u s k n o w l e d g e that Y o u n g i d e n t i f i e s : a b s t r a c t n e s s , insu la t ion f r o m rea l i t y , i n d i v i d u a l i s m , and l i t e racy . It shou ld be made c lear that these cha rac te r i s t i cs pers is t not because k n o w l e d g e is in any mean ing fu l w a y best made ava i l ab le acco rd i ng to these c r i te r ia , but because "they are c o n s c i o u s or u n c o n s c i o u s cul tural c h o i c e s wh ich a c c o r d w i th the va lues and b e l i e f s of dominan t groups at a par t icu lar t i m e " (p. 38). They can be v i e w e d as s o c i a l de f i n i t i ons of educa t iona l va lue . They are s p e c i f i c h i s to r i ca l c o n s e q u e n c e s of an educa t ion s y s t e m based on a h igh ly va lued mode l of " b o o k i s h l ea rn ing " (Young , 1971, p.38), f i rs t in tended fo r med ieva l p r i e s t s , later ex tended to l awye rs and d o c t o r s , and s i nce The un ive rs i t y as leg i t imato r of art k n o w l e d g e / 48 i nc reas ing l y rep lac ing the appren t i cesh ip mode l o f t ra in ing for v o c a t i o n s in indust r ia l s o c i e t i e s — t h e prepara t ion of a r t i s ts be ing an e x a m p l e . The a c a d e m i c mode l has b e c o m e s o ins t i t u t i ona l i zed that it has c o m e to p rov ide a s tandard against wh i ch al l other f o r m s of k n o w l e d g e and k n o w l e d g e acqu i s i t i on are c o m p a r e d . High s ta tus k n o w l e d g e has c o m e to be a s s o c i a t e d w i th that w h i c h is t rad i t i ona l l y taught in un i ve rs i t i es to the a c a d e m i c a l l y ab les t s tuden ts . It is in t e rms of these s tandards that a s tudent 's educa t iona l s u c c e s s or fa i lu re is d e f i n e d . C o u r s e s in " l o w s t a t u s " k n o w l e d g e areas are a s s o c i a t e d w i th t hose w h o have a l ready f a i l ed acco rd i ng to a c a d e m i c de f i n i t i ons of k n o w l e d g e . Even s u c c e s s in " l ow s t a t u s " k n o w l e d g e area c o u r s e s is de f i ned in these te rms as fa i lu re . 3 It is not su rp r i s ing that un i ve rs i t y art depar tmen ts make great e f f o r t s to d i spe l the popular be l ie f that the art s tudent popu la t ion is made up large ly of those w h o are unable to "make the g r a d e " in a c a d e m i c sub jec t s . A c c o r d i n g to M a d g e and We inbe rge r ' s (1973) s tudy , 4 many f ine art s tudents d e m o n s t r a t e d po ten t ia l fo r careers in f i e l d s other than art, such as E n g l i s h , s c i e n c e and math . "Few if any of them were the ' d r o p - o u t s ' of the an t i -a r t s tudent s t e r e o t y p e s " (p. 271). That art p rog rams attract a c a d e m i c a l l y able s tudents is a c o n c l u s i o n des igned to p rov ide further suppor t fo r the charac te r i za t ion of art as a h i gh - s ta tus d i sc i p l i ne of k n o w l e d g e , wo r t hy of more p r io r i t y in the cur r i cu lum than it cur rent ly r e c e i v e s . The university as legitimator of art knowledge / 49 Art knowledge as cultural capital The status of traditional conceptions of art knowledge in education and in society can be described another way: We can say that this art knowledge is a form of what some socio logis ts call "cultural capital" . Cultural capital includes a famil iarity with those aspects of culture which are considered part of an elite life style. The French socio logis t , Pierre Bourdieu (1968, 1973) describes cultural capital as the advantage that the upper and middle-upper classes have: the language, ski l ls and mannerisms that are rewarded but not generally provided in education. Cultural capital includes an awareness of the mechanics of the education system and its value as a means to an end. It is tacitly preserved in schools , which take it as a natural rather than a social gift. Bourdieu asks his readers to think of cultural capital as they would economic capital. Cultural capital affords advantages to those who possess it. Cultural capital, like economic capital, is unequally distributed throughout society and this distribution is dependent in large part on the division of labor and power in that society. As so many sociological studies demonstrate, the apparently open and meritocratic North American system is predisposed to favor those who have this cultural capital. (See, for example, the papers published in Brown's, 1973, anthology.) A major component of cultural capital, as Bourdieu describes it, is attendance at art galleries and theatres, where the cultural basis is usually The un i ve rs i t y as leg i t imator of art k n o w l e d g e / 50 s ingu lar . D i M a g g i o and U s e e m (1982) demons t ra te just h o w cruc ia l the f ine or "h igh" arts are as a f o r m of cul tura l cap i t a l , e s p e c i a l l y fo r the upper c l a s s e s . They argue that the high arts are a p rerequ is i te fo r ascent into the top of the c l a s s h ierarchy and for sus ta in ing power . " Invo lvement in high cul ture p r o v i d e s a means fo r h i gh - s ta tus ind iv idua ls to a f f i rm their c l a i m s to c l a s s p o s i t i o n " . It o f f e r s "a conven ien t ya rds t i ck for a s s e s s i n g the meri t and cu l t i va t i on of p e r s o n s " (D iMagg io & U s e e m , 1982, p. 182). They note that in a c o m p l e x and mob i l e s o c i e t y where ind iv idua ls of d i f fe ren t c l a s s e s interact and s ta tus groups are not s o l i d l y d e m a r c a t e d , i nvo l vemen t in and p re fe rences fo r the s t y l e s of the arts wh i ch are c o n s i d e r e d part of an e l i te l i f e s t y l e b e c o m e an ins ign ia of c l a s s s ta tus . For the m idd le and u p p e r - m i d d l e c l a s s e s , pa r t i c ipa t i on in the high arts p r o v i d e s an oppor tun i t y fo r s y m b o l i c i nden t i f i ca t i on w i th the upper c l a s s e s (D iMagg io & U s e e m , 1978). Fine and R o s s (1984) wr i te that these arts p rov ide a se t t ing fo r " ident i ty t r ans fe r " , fo r enac t ing an ins t i tu t iona l l y sanc t i oned and pre fe r red ro le where they can "adopt and wrap t h e m s e l v e s in these s y m b o l i c i den t i t i es " (p. 249). Ga l l e r y and m u s e u m o p e n i n g s , c i nema p r e v i e w s , p e r f o r m a n c e s of opera and bal le t are " r i tua l is t i c rep resen ta t ions of p re fe r red c l a s s p o s i t i o n s " . Data f r o m a va r ie ty of su rveys and a t tendance f i gu res f r o m a c r o s s North A m e r i c a demons t ra te a pa t te rn ; the high ar ts , inc lud ing v isua l ar ts , o p e r a , ba l le t , mode rn d a n c e , theatre and c l a s s i c a l m u s i c , are c o n s u m e d m o s t f requen t l y by p r o f e s s i o n a l s , next in f r equency by other w h i t e - c o l l a r e m p l o y e e s and manage rs , and so on as one d e s c e n d s the c l a s s h ierarchy (D iMagg io & U s e e m , 1982). 5 A t t endance at The un ive rs i t y as leg i t imato r of art k n o w l e d g e / 51 these even ts has recent ly been i nc reas i ng , sugges t i ng that cul tura l cap i ta l is sought by mo re than a s m a l l e l i t e , h o w e v e r . In Canada , pa r t i c ipa t i on in a r t s - r e l a t e d ac t i v i t i e s g rew s i g n i f i c a n t l y fas te r than all other le isure t ime ac t i v i t i e s . A t t e n d a n c e at m u s e u m s and art ga l le r ies g rew at an average annual rate of 2.6 percent and at l ive theatre at 2.1 percent . By con t ras t , a t tendance at spo r t s even ts i nc reased at an annual average rate of 1.3 percent , and t e l e v i s i o n v i e w i n g by 1.4 percent (Canada Counc i l Research and Eva lua t i on , 1985). Ano the r re la ted s ta t i s t i c is that over o n e - f i f t h of all con t inu ing educa t i on cou rses o f f e r e d by A m e r i c a n un ive rs i t i es are in the f ine arts (H i l lman -Cha r t r and , 1986). If these da ta , a long w i th the abundance of art app rec ia t i on b o o k s on the s h e l v e s of popular b o o k s t o r e s , are any i nd i ca t i on , t i nker ing in high art k n o w l e d g e is w i d e s p r e a d . Th is p h e n o m e n o n is h u m o r o u s l y r e f l ec ted in The bluffer's guide to art (Lampi t t , 1971), a br ief c o l l e c t i o n o f sa t i r i ca l anecdo tes and art f ac t s for popular r e a d i n g — e n o u g h " rec ipe k n o w l e d g e " (to b o r r o w S c h u t z ' te rm) to p rov ide the "b lu f f e r " w i th enough of a vocabu la r y to get by at "the k ind of s o c i a l even ing (Sangr ia and cheese w i l l be se rved ) to mark the end of an ext racurr icu lar course on T h e C u b i s t s : H o w square in fact were t hey ' " (p. 198). In r id i cu l ing the language of the "cu l tu red" e l i t e , th is adv i ce is o f f e r e d : If c o n f r o n t e d w i th that mos t te r r i f y ing of q u e s t i o n s : ' Y e s , but what is art? • Y o u m a y quote Sch i l l e r , w h o s a i d , 'L i fe is earnes t , art is gay . ' Or . . . be vague . . . . Never use a t w o - s y l l a b l e w o r d where a m u l t i s y l l a b l e d one w i l l d o . S o m e t h i n g l ike this usua l l y w o r k s : . . . there is a modu la r The un ive rs i t y as leg i t ima to r of art k n o w l e d g e / 52 ra t iona le wh ich in i ts vo lume t r i c appea l sub l ima tes a cer ta in sense of inner v i o l e n c e wh ich can on l y be c o m p e n s a t e d for by an ethnic e x p l o s i o n of so l i da r i t y that w i l l ex t rapo la te into the s u b c o n s c i o u s b igo t ry of a b s t r a c t i o n i s m as it 's m a n i f e s t e d t oday . (Frost , 1971, f r o m the f o r e w o r d to Lamp i t t , 1971, p. 198) A s Fine and R o s s (1984) w r i t e , by ind ica t ing where peop le want to be , they are a l so ind ica t ing what they want to be . "The cons t ra in t s on one 's mundane rea l i t y are made t empo ra r i l y to v a n i s h " (p. 250). The point has a l so been made that the a t t rac t i veness of high cul ture to the m idd le c l a s s e s is par t l y con t ingent upon the con t inued e x c l u s i o n of the poor and w o r k i n g c l a s s e s (D iMagg io & U s e e m , 1982). A r t k n o w l e d g e of the cu l tu ra l l y s ingu lar high art t r ad i t i on , in s u m m a r y , is va lued cul tural k n o w l e d g e , or cul tural cap i t a l . Cul tural cap i ta l is the cur rency of the " N e w C l a s s " or what is s o m e t i m e s ca l l ed in te l l i gen ts ia (Gou ldner , 1979, p. 197). 6 Jus t as a s tock of accumu la ted tang ib le g o o d s and resou rces br ings in i n c o m e and advan tages fo r the O ld C l a s s , an accumu la t i on of cul tural c a p i t a l , of va lued cul tural k n o w l e d g e and c o m p e t e n c i e s , inc lud ing a f am i l i a r i t y w i t h the high ar ts , a f f o r d s advan tages to the N e w C l a s s m e m b e r s w h o p o s s e s s it (Hamblen , 1985). 7 A r t i s t s , as m e m b e r s of un ive rs i t y f acu l t i es and as p roducers and man ipu la to rs of va lued cul tural k n o w l e d g e , are m e m b e r s of th is p r i v i l eged s o c i a l g roup. H o w e v e r , those w h o produce and manipu la te app l i ed , popu la r , or other v i sua l f o r m s not part o f , or on the f r inge o f , the sphere of high status k n o w l e d g e or cul tura l The university as legitimator of art knowledge / 53 capital are less likely to belong to this privileged social group or wield the power advantages it af fords. Even though these artists believe they have the means to improve society, their actual abil i ty to compete and exert influence in education and in society is limited by the extent to which their specialty is legitimated in society. Social legitimation is a crucial factor in understanding the organization of art knowledge, and, in turn, the possibi l i t ies for change in the hierarchial structure of art knowledge. AN AMBIGUOUS INHERITANCE Given the ar t -as-capi ta l and the ar t -as-high-status knowledge scenarios described above, how can art's precarious posit ion in education be accounted for? One way is in terms of cultural capital theory, as Karen Hamblen (1985a) has shown. Art is a form of cultural capital that has, to put it s imply , ambiguous legit imation. Capital, whether it is economic or cultural, is social ly defined. Any sk i l l , knowledge or other cultural good is only as valuable as society says it is. "Herein lies the problem and the primary source of the art educator's problem", writes Hamblen (1985a, p. 2): The extent to which any type of capital has legit imacy is measured by its enforceable claims when there is a threat to withhold its serv ices; capital is legitimated to the extent its absence would create a social vo id . This economic law of cultural capital has potent implications for art education. A l l too well aware of their marginal posi t ion, art educators have wise ly The un ive rs i t y as leg i t ima to r of art k n o w l e d g e / 54 not t emp ted the s o c i a l fa tes by threatening to w i t hd raw their aes the t i c cap i ta l s e r v i c e s . Rather, the f i e l d of art educa t ion has o f ten been charac te r i zed by ad jus tmen ts and a c c o m m o d a t i o n s to f i c k l e s o c i a l va l i da t i ons of w o r t h . (Hamblen , 1985a, p .3-4) A s Hamblen (1985a, p.3) s t a t e s , "d i sen f ranch i semen t is a moda l charac te r i s t i c of the f i e l d . " A t the e lementa ry and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l , the amb iguous leg i t ima t ion of art is apparent on many f ron ts . The resu l ts of a recent su rvey conduc ted by the Br i t i sh C o l u m b i a A r t s in Educa t i on Counc i l (1986) p rov i des a loca l demons t ra t i on of the amb iguous leg i t ima t ion of art ma in ta ined by paren ts . Over 50 percent of the 75 super in tendents and 71 cha i rpe rsons of s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s in the p rov ince s u r v e y e d be l i eved "that paren ts , by and la rge, at tach ' s o m e ' or 'very h igh ' impor tance to f ine arts c o u r s e s " (p. 16). When asked if mos t parents fee l that the f ine arts shou ld be reduced in favour of aspec t s of the cur r icu lum d e e m e d essen t ia l fo r e m p l o y m e n t , 59 percent of both super in tendents and cha i rpe rsons repor ted that they d id not be l i eve th is to be the c a s e . Y e t , at the same t i m e , over 70 percent of both groups a l so be l i eve that parents w o u l d l ike to see a greater e m p h a s i s on " a p p l i e d " or " s c i e n c e " c o u r s e s in the cu r r i cu lum. Parents are c o n c e r n e d w i th how w e l l the educa t ion s y s t e m prepares s tudents fo r the w o r k f o r c e (accord ing to 91 percent of super in tendents and 87 percent o f cha i rpe rsons ) . In educa t iona l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , not su rp r i s i ng l y , s c h o o l board o f f i c i a l s and t rus tees speak h igh ly of the value of arts educa t ion in p romo t i ng c rea t i ve The un ive rs i t y as l eg i t ima to r of art k n o w l e d g e / 55 th ink ing and s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , wh i le at the s a m e t ime under fund ing the arts and ins tead putt ing l im i ted resou rces into compu te r t e c h n o l o g y and a p p l i c a t i o n s 8 , s c i e n c e , and m a t h e m a t i c s . W i th i n the un ive rs i t y c o m m u n i t y , the amb iguous l eg i t ima t i on of art is m a n i f e s t e d in e x p r e s s i o n s of doubt that s tud io art p rog rams have a p lace in the un i ve rs i t y cu r r i cu lum. One un ive rs i t y p res ident (at the U n i v e r s i t y of N e w York at B u f f a l o ) o b s e r v e d that in c o m m o n r o o m s and facu l t y c l ubs , art " is o f ten re fer red to as 'hobby l o b b y ' or other te rms of o p p r o b r i u m " ( M e y e r s o n , quo ted in R o s e n b e r g , 1973, p. 95). " C o m p a r a b l e ques t i ons are not ra i sed about med ioc re art h i s t o r i a n s " (p. 95). S i m i l a r l y , an art h is to r ian encoun te red the v i e w on his campus that : The art is t d o e s not k n o w what he is d o i n g , that he does not unders tand his art, nor h o w he p roduced it, nor i ts p lace in the culture and in h i s to r y . (Brandstadter , 1969, p.45). A m o n g ar t i s ts on f a c u l t y , there is a recurr ing e x p r e s s i o n of the conce rn that ar t is t ic ac t i v i t y is not t reated on par w i t h research and s c h o l a r s h i p . It is e x p r e s s e d in the s t rugg le to have art exh ib i t i ons c o n s i d e r e d in p lace of s c h o l a r l y pub l i ca t i ons as ind ica to rs of exce l l ence w i th in a c a d e m i a . It is e x p r e s s e d in the s t ruggle to have a d m i s s i o n cr i te r ia fo r B.F.A. p rog rams inc lude c r i te r ia based on more than numer ica l a c a d e m i c g r a d e s ' , and to have at least one arts cou rse count t owa rd s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l g raduat ion requ i rements and even un ive rs i t y and co l l ege a d m i s s i o n requ i remen ts . A n d it is e x p r e s s e d in the debate about the te rmina l degree in s tud io p r a c t i c e ; fo r The un ive rs i t y as leg i t imato r of art k n o w l e d g e / 56 s tudents pursu ing a career as a p rac t i c ing ar t is t , the te rmina l degree is an M.F.A. , wh i l e the mark of the p r o f e s s i o n a l art h i s to r ian and art educa to r is the Ph.D. or an equ iva lent doc to ra l deg ree . 1 0 M u c h of the doubt about the ro le of art in the un ive rs i t y cur r i cu lum i n v o l v e s pe rcep t i ons of the p roduc t i on of art i t se l f . In cont ras t to m e d i e v a l w e s t e r n European p rac t i ce in w h i c h art p roduc t i on w a s better de f i ned and cou ld there fo re be impar ted in a more s y s t e m a t i c f a s h i o n , the present p o s t m o d e r n era of p lu ra l i sm and rap id changes in art s t y l e s , w i th i ts at tendant c o n f u s i o n about what art i s , or what an ar t is t is or d o e s , makes it d i f f i cu l t to dec ide w h o is to be educa ted as an art is t and how (if at a l l ! ) . The pe rcep t i on a l so pe rs i s t s that much that g o e s on under the rubr ic "art" is not wo r th educat ing fo r . T h o s e w h o can f ind no c r i t i ca l s tandards in art may think that anyone can be an art ist by pub l i c l y dec la r ing o n e s e l f to be s u c h , as long as that ind iv idua l is e m o t i o n a l l y or p o l i t i c a l l y i n v o l v e d . Or " fo r those an t i -a r t p roponen ts w h o say that art is dead , what then is the point of educat ing peop le in a " d e a d " d i sc i p l i ne? Or , if a r t i s t ic pursu i ts are v i e w e d as dea l ing w i th l i t t le more than " techn ique" as o p p o s e d to " p h i l o s o p h y " , or w o r s e ye t , if art is v i e w e d as l i t t le more than a " l ib id ina l r e l e a s e " ( A c k e r m a n , 1970, p. 68) of u n c o n s c i o u s or emo t i ona l i m p u l s e s w i thou t r ecogn i t i on of the more c o m p l e x no t i ons : of art ac t i v i t y as i l l umina t ing w a y s of p e r c e i v i n g , unders tand ing or in f luenc ing the w o r l d around us , h o w is one to make a s o l i d case for the i nc lus ion of a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y in un ive rs i t y educat ion? The " u n w h o l e s o m e s p l i t " (A rnhe im , 1969, p.3) of n o n d i s c u r s i v e f r o m d i s c u r s i v e k n o w l e d g e m o d a l i t i e s that under l ies The un ive rs i t y as leg i t imato r of art k n o w l e d g e / 57 these doub ts is not just a func t ion of art p rog rams but is inherent in w e s t e r n s o c i e t y gene ra l l y . Th is at t i tude that in tu i t i ve , imag ina t i ve , c rea t i ve thought , and hence art p r o d u c t i o n , cannot be taught l inks art w i th na ivete and even igno rance . It is s o m e t h i n g that p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n — t h e func t i on of w h i c h is taken to be impar t ing k n o w l e d g e — i s not equ ipped to deal w i th or even to honor (Rosenberg , 1973, p.101). Wh i l e many have e x p r e s s e d rese rva t i ons about the p lace of a r t i s t i c ac t i v i t y in the un i ve rs i t y cu r r i cu lum, others have s p o k e n of the n e c e s s i t y fo r a campus env i ronmen t that is c o n d u c i v e to c rea t i ve and invent ive t h i n k e r s — t h e p h i l o s o p h e r , the gen ius s c i e n t i s t , and even the ar t is t . "Let 's cher i sh the s c r e w b a l l " s ta ted the pres ident of the Sta te U n i v e r s i t y of New York at a c o m m e n c e m e n t add ress (Hami l ton , quo ted in Hers tand , 1962, p. 165). C rea t i v i t y w a s at that t ime the w a t c h w o r d . Spa rked by the S o v i e t Sputn ik and the ensu ing "space r a c e " , p h i l o s o p h e r s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , and s o c i o l o g i s t s a v i d l y i nves t i ga ted the concep t of c rea t i v i t y . They l o o k e d to the arts f o r c lues on what makes an ind iv idua l c rea t i ve . A r t i s t s and art educa to rs b a s k e d in the l eg i t ima t i on and resu l t ing mater ia l r esou rces that the e thos of c rea t i v i t y brought to the arts in educa t i on . Interest in the arts w a s at an all t ime high during the 1960s and ear ly 1970s in Nor th A m e r i c a . One of the great b o d i e s of suppor t fo r the art ist w a s a h igh ly v i s i b l e youth cu l tu re ; the arts represented for you th a set of va lues that s e e m e d cont ra ry to es tab l i shmen t va lues . Increas ing numbers of these you ths we re spend ing more and more t ime in p o s t s e c o n d a r y The un ive rs i t y as leg i t ima to r of art k n o w l e d g e / 58 educa t i on . G o v e r n m e n t s , as we l l as un ive rs i t y and c o l l e g e t rus tees and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , p resumab l y in r e s p o n s e to the increase in student en ro l lmen ts in the ar ts , w e r e p rov id i ng fund ing fo r research about the ro le and nature o f art p rog rams in un ive rs i t i es and c o l l e g e s . 1 1 There w a s a l so a great bu i ld ing b o o m in n e w f ine art cen ters on c a m p u s e s (The A r t s , E d u c a t i o n , and A m e r i c a n s P a n e l , 1977). Dono rs were caught up in the g lamor of the f ine ar ts , mak ing the ra is ing of funds fo r arts bu i ld ings re la t i ve l y e a s y . A r t s centers were c o p i e s of lush me t ropo l i t an centers of art . 1 2 The en thus iasm for handsome bu i ld ings a c c o r d s w i th the a r t - a s - c a p i t a l p h e n o m e n o n , and demons t ra tes we l l the attendant a m b i g u o u s n e s s . In acts of p ious sen t imen ta l i t y t oward the high ar ts , s o c i e t y tends to enshr ine them in expens i ve Pan theons . Once ensh r ined , h o w e v e r , the arts are r e m o v e d f r o m the e v e r y d a y w o r l d where they may be reve red , but a l so i gno red . "The suppor t o f art educa t ion as an expendab le and i so la tab le luxury c o m m o d i t y p r o m o t e s seg rega t i on as e f f e c t i v e l y as ou t spoken o p p o s i t i o n " , w r o t e A c k e r m a n (1970, p. 68). The general pub l i c may recogn ize the va lue of p rese rv ing the ar t is t ic her i tage and they may even recogn ize the va lue o f . educa t i on in art, yet at the same t ime they be l i eve that educa t ion in the app l ied s c i e n c e s and a s s o c i a t e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l f i e l d s is more impor tan t . S c i e n t i f i c and techn ica l k n o w l e d g e i s the k n o w l e d g e s c h o o l s take as the m o s t impor tant k n o w l e d g e they want to m a x i m i z e ( A p p l e , 1979). Wh i le art 's p res t ige l ies in i ts h i s to ry and its ab i l i t y to serve the humanis t rhetor ic of l ibera l educa t ion (chapter 5), the bene f i t s of fund ing s c i e n t i f i c and techn ica l k n o w l e d g e are more The un ive rs i t y as leg i t imato r of art k n o w l e d g e / 59 v i s i b l e and more e a s i l y accoun tab le . Not on l y is the conten t of techn ica l k n o w l e d g e more read i l y i den t i f i ab le , t eachab le , and tes tab le than in the ar ts , but the c o n n e c t i o n to the structure of co rpo ra te e c o n o m i e s is seen to be more d i rec t . M a x i m i z i n g techn ica l k n o w l e d g e s a t i s f i e s p ressu res both f r o m co rpora te s t ruc tures and f r o m parents fo r educat iona l ins t i tu t ions to fu l f i l l a ro le in se l ec t i ng and prepar ing agents fo r p o s i t i o n s in the w o r k f o r c e . A r t k n o w l e d g e is seen to be of less va lue in th is respec t than other f o r m s of educa t iona l cap i t a l , even though art k n o w l e d g e , in the t rad i t iona l high culture s e n s e , is n o m i n a l l y a m e m b e r of the f a m i l y of h i g h - s t a t u s k n o w l e d g e a reas . In the po l i t i ca l s t ruggle car r ied on by rep resen ta t i ves of an inc reas ing number of k n o w l e d g e areas for l im i ted resou rces and p r io r i t y w i th in the cur r i cu lum of s c h o o l s and un i ve rs i t i e s , art educa to rs are just one group w h o be l i eve they p rov ide k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s essen t ia l to the bet terment of s o c i e t y . The art educa to r ' s ab i l i t y to c o m p e t e and exe rc i se p o w e r in cur r i cu lum po l i t i c s is l im i ted by the extent that art is l eg i t ima ted in s o c i e t y . L e g i t i m a t i o n is a c r i t i ca l fac to r in any s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of k n o w l e d g e . The o rgan iza t i on of k n o w l e d g e is one th ing , but h o w a s o c i e t y a c c e p t s and l i ves w i th th is order is another . In the e n d , af ter hav ing se t t l ed on mat ters of w h o s e de f i n i t i ons w i l l p reva i l , w h o m a k e s d e c i s i o n s , at what leve l these d e c i s i o n s are to be m a d e , how they are to be car r ied out and eva lua ted , and s o o n , "a cur r i cu lum ex is ts because a s o c i e t y b e l i e v e s in the k n o w l e d g e it con ta ins and the fa i rness w i t h wh i ch it is d i s t r i b u t e d " (Egg les ton , 1977). Leg i t ima t i on is the j us t i f i ca t i on and de fense The university as legitimator of art knowledge / 60 of group action and patterns of belief. Existence is sanctif ied by "bringing it under the dominion of the ultimately right pr inciples" (McClure & Fischer, 1969). Not surprisingly, art education in schools and universities has been redefined and marked by shifts in emphasis—not unlike the army or the c lergy—as it has searched for contemporary social legit imation. In the latest attempt to secure legitimation it has shifted from a focus on creativity and free expression to academic and verbal procedures. Both emphases have, at the appropriate t imes, provided resources and legitimation for art in education. When caught up in the struggle for legit imation, particularly in the current educational climate that favors academic "bas ics" , the propensity to loosen art knowledge boundaries and incorporate the study of visual forms with less social status (but often more cultural relevance) weakens. THE UNIVERSITY AS "LEGITIMATE LEGITIMATING INSTITUTION" There is a hierarchy of types of art institutionalized within western society 's educational systems, just as there is a hierarchy of subjects institutionalized in education. Ar t -as-h igh-s ta tus-knowledge and art -as-cul tural -capi ta l refer to the consecrated arts: fine art painting and sculpture (and in the other arts, theatre, literature and classical music). The so-ca l led " lesser" arts are not included: the popular, commercial , ethnic, and applied arts—those areas, within 'what Bourdieu (1971) terms the "sphere of the arbitrary as regards legit imacy". 1 3 The hierarchies are not static, but may vary in the course of t ime. Examples of those arts which are in the The un ive rs i t y as leg i t imato r of art k n o w l e d g e / 61 p r o c e s s of be ing l eg i t ima ted , acco rd i ng to Bourd ieu at the t i m e , were c i n e m a , j azz , and pho tog raphy . 1 4 The " l e s s e r " arts have rema ined c l o s e r to the e v e r y d a y rea l i t y of the pub l i c , and in this regard d i f f e r mos t f r o m what counts as high s ta tus k n o w l e d g e . The f ine ar ts , on the other hand, have d e v e l o p e d abst ract and a c a d e m i c qua l i t ies and an i nc reased r e m o t e n e s s f r o m e v e r y d a y k n o w l e d g e . The f ine ar t is t , who in the past dec la red an i nd i f f e rence to ob l i ga t i ons other than the in t r ins ic d e m a n d s of a r t is t ic w o r k , has ma in ta ined the in te l lec tua l ' s ideal o f k n o w l e d g e fo r i ts o w n s a k e . Fine a r t i s t s , in be ing farther r e m o v e d f r o m their med ieva l s ta tus as a r t i sans , have m o v e d into a p lace at the head of the va lue s t ructure in many art s c h o o l s and art depar tments (Hubbard, 1971), wh i le a r t i s t s w o r k i n g in the c ra f ts and the app l ied arts have less p res t ige because of the a s s o c i a t i o n of c ra f ts and app l ied arts w i th e v e r y d a y l i fe . A r t i s t s w o r k i n g in teacher educa t ion f acu l t i es or depar tments have the least p res t i ge of al l art pe rsonne l in p o s t s e c o n d a r y educa t i on , acco rd i ng to Hubbard (1971), because of the va lue t rad i t i ona l l y p l aced on the exp lo ra t i on of ideas for their o w n sake above p ragma t i cs . The var ious ar t i s t i c f o r m s ins t i t u t i ona l i zed in a s o c i e t y ' s a c a d e m i c s y s t e m s are o rgan ized acco rd ing to a h ierarchy de r i ved f r o m degrees of cul tural l e g i t i m a t i o n , independent of ind iv idua l op in ion (Bourd ieu, 1971). The high a r t / l o w art s t ra t i f i ca t i on is so thorough ly i ns t i t u t i ona l i zed that a general ob l i ga t i on ex i s t s to adopt an at t i tude to f ine art wh i ch i s , as Bourd ieu w r i t e s , " p i o u s , ce remon ia l and r i t ua l i s t i c " (p. 175). There is an at t i tude among m e m b e r s of the publ ic that there are ob jec t i ve no rms wh ich shou ld be adop ted when v i e w i n g the f ine a r ts , but these may be rep laced w i th ind iv idua l judgement in the case of " l e s s e r " arts that are The un i ve rs i t y as leg i t ima to r of art k n o w l e d g e / 62 ou ts ide the sphere of " consec ra ted cu l tu re" . The l eg i t ima t i on of s o m e art f o r m s over o thers is con fe r r ed by the educa t iona l s y s t e m , e s p e c i a l l y the u n i v e r s i t i e s — w h a t Bourd ieu t e rms the " leg i t ima te granters of l e g i t i m a c y " . Wh i l e l i terature, c l a s s i c a l m u s i c , pa in t ing and scu lp ture are taught in the a c a d e m i c cur r icu la of s c h o o l s and un i ve r s i t i e s , furni ture d e s i g n , and adve r t i s i ng d e s i g n , fo r e x a m p l e , are taught p r imar i l y in spec ia l i s t v o c a t i o n a l ins t i tu t ions for wh i ch l i t t le cul tural l e g i t i m a c y in te rms of aes the t i c c r i te r ia is c l a i m e d . Other v i sua l f o r m s that sur round us in eve ryday l i f e , such as b i l l boa rd a d v e r t i s i n g , t e l e v i s i o n , and popular m o v i e s , are on l y o c c a s i o n a l l y deal t w i t h , if at a l l , in a c a d e m i c cur r i cu la . They have , as Bourd ieu w o u l d s a y , a " n o n - l e g i t i m a t e au thor i t y " . In the absence of an ins t i tu t ion d e v o t e d to teach ing them s y s t e m a t i c a l l y and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y , thereby g i v ing them the sea l o f r espec tab i l i t y as cons i tu ten t parts o f leg i t imate cu l ture, m o s t peop le exper ience them in an ent i re ly d i f fe ren t w a y . (Bourd ieu , 1971, p. 175) The s t ra t i f i ca t i on that has resu l ted as the f ine arts m o v e d "up" into the i vo ry t ower of the un i ve rs i t y , wh i l e leav ing other art k n o w l e d g e areas "beh ind " in v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s , po in t s to the impor tant ro le un i ve rs i t i es p lay in de f i n i ng and leg i t imat ing the s ta tus of cer ta in art k n o w l e d g e and its p lace in educa t i on . A m b i g u o u s as it may be in re la t ion to other cur r icu lum sub jec t s , the l eg i t ima t i on that art k n o w l e d g e , in par t icu lar f ine art k n o w l e d g e , en joys c o m e s in large part f r o m its be ing taught in un i ve r s i t i e s , The un ive rs i t y as leg i t ima to r of art k n o w l e d g e / 63 where k n o w l e d g e and a c a d e m i c p rocedures are t y p i c a l l y v i e w e d as the p r imary ins t i tu t iona l c o n c e r n . The a s s o c i a t i o n of art w i th un i ve rs i t i es i nc reases the pe rcep t i on of art as an in te l lec tua l conce rn and a va l i d f i e l d o f s tudy . A r t depar tments in un i ve rs i t i es are w e l l aware of their l eg i t ima t ing con tex t . It is not u n c o m m o n to f ind o f f i c i a l s ta temen ts in p rogram ca ta l ogs and other publ ic d o c u m e n t s that emphas i ze art as an in te l lec tua l f o r m of inquiry w e l l su i ted to the un i ve rs i t y . A s s ta ted in a b rochu re 1 5 fo r Queen 's U n i v e r s i t y ' s Bache lo r of Fine A r t s p rogram (undated), A un ive rs i t y w i th its t rad i t i ons of scho la rsh ip and research is we l l su i ted to embrace the d i s t i nc t i ve f o r m s of c rea t i ve enqui ry pursued in a p rogram of f ine art. The env i ronmen t of a un ive rs i t y e f f e c t i v e l y suppor ts a proper c l ima te and ba lance be tween the prac t ica l c o n c e r n s of the s tud io and the c o m p l e m e n t a r y requ i rement of a c a d e m i c s tud ies . A s has been the c a s e w i th other f i e l ds of endeavor that have a t tempted to secure l e g i t i m a c y through a c a d e m i c i z a t i o n , there has been a sh i f t o f a t ten t ion to s tandard iz ing entrance and graduat ion requ i remen ts , s tandard iz ing cou rse con ten t , es tab l i sh ing a un i f o rm rate of ma t r i cu la t i on , mark ing the s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n of a cou rse of s tudy by an awarded degree , f o r m a l l y des igna t ing d o m a i n s of author i ty and exper t i se and recogn i z i ng th is w i t h the use of h ie ra rch ica l l y s ign i f i can t t i t l es , and , of c o u r s e , m o v i n g ar t is ts into o f f i c e s (Ad le r , 1979). 1 6 In Canada , it used to be that m o s t s tudents w i s h i n g The un ive rs i t y as l eg i t ima to r of art k n o w l e d g e / 64 to be ar t i s ts went to art s c h o o l s — t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l o f A r t ( renamed the E m i l y Carr C o l l e g e of A r t and Des ign ) , the W i n n i p e g Ar t S c h o o l , the Ontar io C o l l e g e of A r t , L 'Eco le des Beaux A r t s , or the V i c t o r i a S c h o o l of A r t and D e s i g n (now ca l l ed the N o v a S c o t i a C o l l e g e of A r t and Des ign) . These we re au tonomous and did not grant deg rees . In the 1950s the s y s t e m began to change. The W i n n i p e g A r t S c h o o l b e c a m e part of the U n i v e r s i t y of M a n i t o b a and d e v e l o p e d a degree grant ing p r o g r a m . The N o v a S c o t i a C o l l e g e of A r t and D e s i g n , a l though s t i l l a u t o n o m o u s , is n o w a d e g r e e - g r a n t i n g ins t i tu t ion . E v e n though it may be recogn i zed that degrees in art have no u l t imate va lue in the a s s e s s m e n t of a r t i s t i c c o m p e t e n c e , a c o l l e g e that awards degrees is better able to c o m p e t e w i th the un i ve rs i t i es in a s o c i e t y in wh ich c reden t ia l s and labe ls have b e c o m e inc reas ing ly impor tant fo r t each ing , fo r graduate s t u d i e s 1 7 , and fo r other p r o f e s s i o n a l p r o g r a m s . A r t c o l l e g e s and f ine art depar tments in v o c a t i o n a l c o l l e g e s have to c o m p e t e w i th the un i ve rs i t y ' s lure of deg rees , scho la rsh ip suppor t , l ibrary r e s o u r c e s , a c c e s s to laser genera to rs , a u d i o - v i d e o t r a n s m i s s i o n and other t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances in art. Other bene f i t s inc lude a c c e s s to a c o m m u n i t y of s cho la r s in an th ropo logy , s o c i o l o g y , po l i t i ca l s c i e n c e , p h i l o s o p h y and l i terary s t u d i e s , and to the cul tural and s o c i a l l i fe of a large campus . "Un i ve rs i t y is a w a y of l i f e , an a t m o s p h e r e , a f ee l i ng of th ings cons tan t l y happen ing around you and to y o u " , as York U n i v e r s i t y adve r t i sed in its Fine A r t s brochure (1985-1986) Whether un i ve rs i t i es f o r m e d s tud io art p rog rams or whether art c o l l e g e s became deg ree -g ran t i ng ins t i t u t i ons , the fac t o f the matter is that educa t ion The un ive rs i t y as leg i t ima to r of art k n o w l e d g e / 65 in art is n o w ent renched in a c a d e m i a and has adop ted many of i ts s t ruc tu res . The un ive rs i t y is the ins t i tu t iona l bas is of art k n o w l e d g e . The t yp i ca l ar t is t is n o w educa ted in an ins t i tu t ion of p o s t s e c o n d a r y educa t i on , w i th un i ve rs i t i es be ing the major cen t res for ins t ruc t ion in the arts (Ad le r , 1979; Denn is & J a c o b , 1968; F reund l i ch , 1980; M o n t a l t o , 1983; M i c h a e l , 1970; R i d g e w a y , 1975; V i l l e n e s , 1982) 1 8 . The award ing of degrees to ar t is ts is c o m m o n p l a c e . Haro ld Rosenbe rg (1972) made re fe rence to th is as ear ly as 1965 in d i s c u s s i n g a "Young A m e r i c a " exh ib i t i on : On ly one of ten lead ing ar t is ts of the genera t ion of P o l l o c k and D e K o o n i n g had a degree wh i le of th i r ty ar t is ts under t h i r t y - f i v e s h o w n in "Young A m e r i c a 1965" at the Wh i t ney M u s e u m , the ma jo r i t y had B.F.A .S or B .A .s . (p. 39) For Mar tha Ros ie r (1981), an A m e r i c a n art c r i t i c , th is "deve lopmen t of a h igh ly r a m i f i e d a r t - t each ing apparatus w i th in c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s " (p. 27) is part o f the "fel t need w i th in c a p i t a l i s m to cu l t i va te art as an ( in terna l ized) i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l " that has secured a f i rm f o o t h o l d for art teach ing in p o s t s e c o n d a r y educa t i on . The inven t ion and p ropaga t ion of the M.F .A . deg ree , Ros ie r w r i t e s , has led to a surp lus of c reden t ia led art s tudents w h o au toma t i ca l l y look to p o s t s e c o n d a r y educa t ion fo r e m p l o y m e n t , a l though in fac t they w i l l acqui re these p o s i t i o n s on l y w i th the "u tmost luck and re la t i ve ly l o w w a g e s " (p. 29). A t t e m p t s to re fo rmu la te the ar t is t 's ro le to one of ph i l osophe r and " ideas m a n " , as e m b o d i e d in the concep tua l art m o v e m e n t of the 1960s and The un ive rs i t y as l eg i t ima to r of art k n o w l e d g e / 66 1970s, and the m o v e of f ine art into un i ve rs i t i es may a l so be par t ly unde rs tood as an adap t ion to st ructura l changes in the e c o n o m i c suppor t fo r the arts (Ad le r , 1979). Concep tua l art "needs pat rons rather than c o l l e c t o r s " (L ippard , 1973, p. 8). Th is is a ro le su i ted to academ ia (Ad le r , 1979). W i th its c r i t i ca l and specu la t i ve e l e m e n t s , w ro te A d l e r (1979, p. 17), the concep tua l art o f the s i x t i es appeared to be "a genre of a c a d e m i c art f i ne l y adapted to the p ressu res of the new un ive rs i t y hab i ta t " . A l t hough the a c a d e m i c i z a t i o n of art may have been adapt ive and tho rough , the c l a s s i c at t i tude w i th in art depar tmen ts has been one of s u s p i c i o n and even o p p o s i t i o n t owa rd a c a d e m i a as an appropr ia te center of a r t i s t i c wo rk and educa t ion in art. There is s u s p i c i o n of the ideal of a c a d e m i a as a p r o d u c t i v e , c rea t i ve work center w i th re la t i ve f r e e d o m suppor ted by ins t i tu t iona l r esou rces and w i th rewards based s o l e l y on ind iv idua l mer i t . S u c c e s s in the s y s t e m o f academ ia is seen ins tead to require a cer ta in k ind of accep tance of the s tatus quo (Hamblen , 1986) of the a c a d e m i c ins t i t u t i on . The m i s s i o n of art is held to be d i f fe ren t or even con t ra ry to the m i s s i o n of s c h o l a r s h i p . The a c a d e m i c i z a t i o n of art jars w i th the s o c i a l t ype of the ar t is t , w i th its t reasured qua l i t ies of e c c e n t r i c i t y , i nd i v i dua l i sm and f r e e d o m of l i f e s t y l e . A r t i s t s have f requen t l y e x p r e s s e d op in i ons that the large bureaucrat ic s t ruc tures and ra t i ona l i s t i c educat iona l me thods of un i ve rs i t i es are o p p r e s s i v e , s tu l t i f y i ng and de t r imenta l to art p roduc t i on and the ac t i v i t i es of c rea t i ve i nd i v idua ls . P e o p l e w h o may have been drawn to art in the f i rs t p lace b e c a u s e , l ike Ma rce l Duchamp , they did not want to go to the o f f i c e The un i ve rs i t y as leg i t imator of art k n o w l e d g e / 67 n o w squ i rm s l i gh t l y in their un i ve rs i t y o f f i c e s l ike rese t t led g y p s i e s in a pr is t ine new hous ing c o m p l e x . Fo rced to do s o m e of the d e s p i s e d "paper p u s h i n g " in the very o p p o s i t i o n to wh i ch their occupa t i ona l ident i ty w a s f o r m e r l y d e f i n e d , they en joy their new c o m f o r t and secur i t y wh i l e suspec t i ng the new m i l i eu to be i nco r r i g ib l y s te r i le both as a se t t ing fo r the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of new occupa t i ona l genera t ions and fo r the p roduc t i on of s i gn i f i can t new a c h i e v e m e n t . (Ad le r , 1979. p.17). W i th the a l l i ance of art w i th u n i v e r s i t i e s , ar t is ts have found t h e m s e l v e s search ing fo r a c o m p r o m i s e , fo r w a y s of re ta in ing , on the one s i d e , the f i nanc ia l and s ta tus advan tages , the w e l l - e q u i p p e d s tud io f ac i l i t i e s and a c c e s s to lead ing ar t is ts that the un i ve rs i t y can p r o v i d e , a long w i t h , on the other s i d e , a r t i s t i c f r e e d o m and a b o h e m i a n , l ess f o r m a l l y o rgan ized art s c e n e . A c c o r d i n g l y , art depar tments are caught ba lanc ing the leg i t ima t ing s t ructures of academ ia w i th the leg i t ima t ing s t ruc tu res of the f ine art w o r l d . What secu res l eg i t ima t ion in genera l educa t i on , d o e s not a l w a y s secure l eg i t ima t i on f r o m the f ine art w o r l d . The b road l y educated human be ing is an educa to r ' s i dea l , not n e c e s s a r i l y an ar t is t ' s i dea l . A n ar t is t , as A d l e r (1979, p. 15) con jec tu res , "might w e l l prefer his s tudent to be l ocked in a c l ose t w i t h his v i o l i n fo r four yea rs if his chances of emerg ing an ' id iot gen ius ' were thereby enhanced . " The undergraduate art student w h o is requi red to ma in ta in a m i n i m u m leve l o f ache i vemen t in a va r ie ty of sub jec ts in order to meet g raduat ion requ i rements has to ba lance s tudy ing for exams in E n g l i s h , h i s t o r y , or p h i l o s o p h y w i th spend ing an eight hour The university as legitimator of art knowledge / 68 day in a painting studio. The university's pursuit of legitimation from the fine art world If adopting academic structures does not necessarily secure legitimation from the fine art wor ld, what does? There is a set of highly informal and loosely integrated institutional structures and channels through which artists seek legit imation. Many of these structures were adapted by art programs soon after the inception of studio art programs in universit ies, at a time when the traditional ideals of creativity and individualism were at their peak. These structures have remained in spite of the changed climates in education toward "discipl ined" study of the "basics", and, in the fine art wor ld, toward the more histor ical /socia l /pol i t ical ethos of postmodernism. These structures, when incorporated within art programs, work to legitimate these programs in the eyes of the art student (chapter 4) and in the eyes of the fine art wor ld. Presumably, these structures function also to legitimate and reinforce the traditional ideals of artistic activity which they represent. Getzels and Csikszentmihalyi (1976) have outlined those institutional structures and channels through which artists seek legit imation. They are mentioned here as another type of legi t imacy-seeking strategy institutionalized in art programs, but one that carries potential confl ict in that it does not always fit with the previously described characteristics of high status knowledge. One such significant legitimating institution is the "loft" 1 9 . The loft is much The un i ve rs i t y as leg i t imator of art k n o w l e d g e / 69 more than just a large w o r k s p a c e in a vaca ted f a c t o r y or w a r e h o u s e . It has b e c o m e an impor tant s y m b o l i c ins t i tu t ion fo r art s tudents to c o m m u n i c a t e a m e s s a g e of their c o m m i t m e n t to b e c o m i n g an ar t is t , and to d e v e l o p a " f o l l o w i n g " (Getze ls & C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , 1976). In l o f t s , as G e t z e l s and C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i w r i t e , There are par t ies at least once a w e e k ; the more m e m o r a b l e they are, the more l i ke ly it is that the young ar t i s t ' s name w i l l be w i d e l y k n o w n . . . A lo f t w i thou t par t ies and w i thout v i s i t o r s , a lo f t that is not known in a r t i s t i c c i r c l e s , is not a loft in th is ins t i tu t iona l s e n s e , (p. 187) The art exh ib i t i on is another leg i t ima t ing ins t i tu t ion impor tant in es tab l i sh i ng a publ ic ident i ty fo r an ar t is t . The p res t ige of the ins t i tu t iona l se t t i ng of the exh ib i t ion usua l l y de te rm ines the extent to w h i c h that exh ib i t ion is able to leg i t imate an ar t is t . A c q u i r i n g a cont rac t w i t h a reputable ga l le ry s e c u r e s , at least t e m p o r a r i l y , one 's s ta tus as an ar t is t . S o d o e s be ing s e l e c t e d for one of the "b i enn ia l s " , those large ju r ied , inv i ta t iona l s h o w s , descenden ts of the large annual pa in t ing s a l o n s of n ineteenth century Europe and the V e n i c e B ienna le wh i ch began in the 1890s (Gluek, 1981). The b ienn ia ls benef i t the young ar t is ts s e l e c t e d by g i v i ng t h e m , in the w o r d s of a curator of the Wh i t ney B i e n n i a l , " c red ib i l i t y , a s tamp of a p p r o v a l . It's a kudo that might make them more a t t rac t ive to a dea le r " (Haske l l , in G luek , 1981, p. 99). The work is seen by an in ternat iona l aud ience and , "even more s i gn i f i can t is the fac t that the work is put into the con tex t o f The un ive rs i t y as leg i t imator of art k n o w l e d g e / 70 A m e r i c a n ar t " (p. 99). Exh ib i t ing in a reputable ga l le ry or jur ied exh ib i t ion may a l so lead to a r e v i e w by an art c r i t i c fo r a newspape r or na t iona l f ine art magaz ine . In th is s e n s e , the art c r i t i c a l so p e r f o r m s a leg i t imat ing f u n c t i o n . A n o t h e r s tep in the l eg i t ima t i on of the c o n t e m p o r a r y art is t is the m o v e to N e w Yo rk . In the wes te rn f ine art w o r l d , perhaps more than in mos t other f i e l d s of endeavo r , the p o w e r to con fe r l eg i t ima t ion has h i s t o r i ca l l y been c e n t r a l i z e d — F l o r e n c e in the ear ly R e n a i s s a n c e , then R o m e , then P a r i s , and in th is cen tu ry , N e w Yo rk . The be l ie f o f many m e m b e r s of the f ine art w o r l d is that un less an art is t is r ecogn i zed in N e w York C i t y , his or her a r t i s t i c s ta tus " rema ins at best m a r g i n a l " (Getze ls & C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , 1976, p. 191) 2 0. K n o w i n g how to gain l eg i t ima t i on through the above channe ls is an aspect of art k n o w l e d g e that art s tudents cons ide r ve ry impor tan t . They recogn ize that be ing leg i t ima ted by the appropr ia te s o c i a l ins t i tu t ions is a major c r i te r ion of s u c c e s s — w h o you k n o w is o f ten more impor tant than what y o u k n o w . S o m e of th is art k n o w l e d g e they learn i n f o r m a l l y ou ts ide the art p rog ram and s o m e through the art p r o g r a m . Ar t depar tmen ts genera l l y make v i s i b l e a t tempts to p rov ide s tud io space of s o m e sor t and to ho ld c r i t i ques and in fo rma l sem ina rs w i th v i s i t i ng ar t is ts w h i c h , in e f f e c t , s y m b o l i z e s the " l o f t " and i ts s o c i a l m i l i eu (Mon ta l to 1983). In add i t i on , r e c o g n i t i o n of the impor tance of the exh ib i t i on in con fe r r i ng l e g i t i m a c y and launching s tudents into the f ine art w o r l d is f o s t e r e d through the requi red The un ive rs i t y as leg i t ima to r of art k n o w l e d g e / 71 graduat ing exh ib i t i ons of the wo rk of M.F .A . and undergraduate f ine art ma jo r s , and by o rgan iz ing f i e ld t r ips to ga l le r ies and m u s e u m s in N e w York or the neares t major art cen te rs . A r t teachers in s c h o o l s a l so qu ick l y c o m e to recogn i ze the impor tance of exh ib i t ing student work in es tab l i sh ing the l e g i t i m a c y of their art p r o g r a m , even if th is l eg i t ima t i on c o m e s f r o m the educa t iona l s y s t e m rather than the f ine art w o r l d . A s Hawke (1980) w r o t e in his e thnograph ic s tudy of a beg inn ing art teacher in a junior s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l , the art teacher d id apprec ia te va l i da t ion of his e f f o r t s by the p r i nc i pa l , of his p e r f o r m a n c e as an ar t is t , and sought ex tens ion of that va l i da t i on through s tuden ts ' art d i s p l a y s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , as an ar t is t , he held in d i sda in the. s ta f f ' s op in i on of the actual art w o r k s c o m p l e t e d by the s tuden ts , (p. 249) Th is "en t rep reneur ia l " aspec t of art k n o w l e d g e , par t i cu la r ly the be l ie f that one 's s ta tus as an art ist is dependent on s u c c e s s in N e w Y o r k , r e i n f o r ces a ma ins t ream in art, a set of w e s t e r n high art idea ls represented by m o d e r n i s m and its New York " s c e n e " . S e v e r a l wr i te rs on art have found th is p r o b l e m a t i c . Ros ie r (1981), fo r one , w r i t es that it fur thers the "gospe l o f N e w Y o r k , the empi re center of ar t" . It i s , she adds , an e f fec t of the " rou t in iza t ion of art t r a in ing " (p. 28), wh i ch is part o f a general ra t i ona l i za t i on of p r o f e s s i o n a l t ra in ing in al l a reas . It fur thers the "e rad ica t ion of r eg i ona l i sm in art, a p r o c e s s that is w e l l - a d v a n c e d and that answers to the pu rposes of the market and u l t ima te ly to those of the i d e o l o g y of g loba l c a p i t a l i s m " (p. 28). G e t z e l s and C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i The university as legitimator of art knowledge / 72 recognize its contribution to at least three social processes that confl ict with the cultural mores of the artist as individualistic and se l f -sacr i f i c ing . They exacerbate the competit iveness in the already crowded art world of New York. If they want to survive in it, they have to use a certain amount of aggressiveness, shrewdness, entrepreneurship, and one-upmanship—al l qualities that . . . are foreign to their personality. Second, by paying attention to the trends, they risk becoming "trendy" themselves. And f inal ly, by their presence in New York, they confirm the city's preeminence in art, a circumstance they personally deplore. (Getzels & Csikszentmihalyi , 1976, p. 195) This entrepreneurial and "hustling" aspect of art knowledge does not fit with the characteristics of what is normally considered high-status knowledge. Nor does it fit with postmodernist attempts to disengage art from the modernist mainstream and its resulting restrictions to artistic activity. If art programs incorporate these entrepreneurial aspects of art knowledge in their search for legitimation from the fine art world as indispensible institutions for preparing "professionals" , they face a risk both of forfeit ing their acquired status of art as an intellectual concern, as "high-status" knowledge suitable as a discipline of study in universit ies, and of moving out of line with postmodernist sentiments. Yet, according to Montalto's (1983) study of three "renowned" 2 1 M.F.A. programs in the United States, these very experiences art programs provide "beyond the easel " , beyond the formal, art knowledge of the intended curriculum, are most The university as legitimator of art knowledge / 73 important in helping graduates develop attitudes and bel iefs to sustain them in their socia l ly committed role as artists. To be an artist requires not only a knowledge of the concepts and methods of their art, but a knowledge of the legitimating structures and processes of their art world and the concomitant behavior and commitment required for conferral of the seal of legit imacy as an artist. An implication is that not only must the formal intended concepts and methods of art change in art instruction, but so must alternatives be presented and perceptions changed regarding what legitimates an artist in contemporary society. The fo l lowing chapter looks in more detail at how commitment and identity develop in fine art students, and argues that the legitimating structures in the fine art world prevent "reality sl ipping" and legitimate for the art student the insular art knowledge embodied in most art departments. THE DIFFICULT TRADE-OFF To consider the legitimation strategies of art departments in terms of cultural capital theory, as Hamblen (1985) has for art educators, is to note that artists are "seeking various and sundry allies in order to legitimate aesthetic capital and to provide a professional market for its products" (p. 9). One very important alliance is with universit ies. By being members of university facult ies, artists are legitimated as members of the intelligentsia or. New Class. The alliance extends and reinforces their historical role as special ists in cultural capital, in the manipulation of valued cultural knowledge, sk i l ls , and sty les. However, in conforming to admission The un ive rs i t y as leg i t ima to r of art k n o w l e d g e / 74 requ i remen ts , c o m p l e t i n g requi red a s s i g n m e n t s for numer ic g rades , r ece i v i ng a c a d e m i c deg rees , and the l i ke , a r t i s ts have adop ted the ra t ional educa t iona l s t ructures of the technocra t i c segment o f the i n te l l i gen ts ia . They have adop ted the leg i t ima t ing language of genera l educa t i on , a l though perhaps not as o b v i o u s l y as at the s c h o o l l e v e l , where a d i s c i p l i n e - b a s e d mode l of art ins t ruc t ion is b e c o m i n g a v iab le and respec ted a l te rnat ive fo r many c l a s s r o o m teache rs . The unique educa t iona l exper iences that were seen as an ant idote to the i l ls of technocra t i c ra t iona l i t y and wh i ch art educa to rs have fo r decades pr ided t h e m s e l v e s on hav ing p rov i ded fo r s tuden ts , have recurrent ly been held to be at r isk of be ing sur rendered fo r the dominan t technocra t i c ra t iona l i s t mode l o f educa t i on (Black, 1966; Hamblen 1987, f o l l o w i n g G o o d l a d , 1985). Technoc ra t i c ra t i ona l i sm is charac te r i zed by s tandard ized con ten t , an emphas i s on e f f i c i e n c y of m e a n s , behav io rs that are rou t i n i zed , o u t c o m e s that are p r e d e f i n e d , and d e c i s i o n s and content that are p resen ted as nonp rob lema t i c and s e l f - e v i d e n t (Hamblen , 1987). A r t i s t s and art educa to rs have d e v e l o p e d th is a l l iance w i th the technocra t i c segment of the i n te l l i gen ts ia , 2 2 even though they see t h e m s e l v e s as m e m b e r s of the humanis t s e g m e n t , c l a i m i n g "a mora l super io r i t y ove r the technoc ra t i c i n te l l i gen ts ia , w h o have been imputed to be w i thout mora l sc rup les in their app l i ca t i on of mechan i s t i c so l u t i ons to human p r o b l e m s . " (Hamblen , 1985, p. 9). The fact that th is mode l has been taken up fo r art p rog rams in educa t ion speaks to the d o m i n a n c e of that s y s t e m (Hamblen 1985b; B e y e r , 1984). A r t educa to rs at all l eve ls of educa t i on are i n v o l v e d in a d i f f i cu l t The un ive rs i t y as l eg i t ima to r of art k n o w l e d g e / 75 t r a d e - o f f : When art is p resen ted as s t ruc tured and tes tab le subject mat ter , it may gain l eg i t ima t ion and be bet ter able to secure a ma ins t ream p o s i t i o n in educa t i on , but it i s , at the s a m e t i m e , open to charges of r educ t i on i sm and the l oss of its ab i l i t y to p rov ide unique and cu l tu ra l l y re levant expe r iences in educa t i on and s o c i e t y . Is there not a c red ib le w a y to both br ing art into the ma ins t ream and equip it w i th a cu l tu ra l ly broader and more mean ing fu l k n o w l e d g e , base that r e s p o n s i b l y and r e a l i s t i c a l l y suppor t s the bas i c a ims of educa t ion? It s e e m s un l i ke ly that there is as long as u n i v e r s i t y - b a s e d ar t i s ts cont inue to enter ta in what A d l e r (1979) has iden t i f i ed as "aesthet ic s e p a r a t i s m " (p. 18), that i s , an inc l ina t ion to d e f i n e , in t heo ry , the arts as e s s e n t i a l l y re la ted and equa l ly w o r t h w h i l e , wh i l e at the same t ime exc lud ing f r o m this " ' f a m i l y ' the 'poor r e l a t i ons ' ( fash ion d e s i g n , adve r t i s i ng art, hand ic ra f t s ) wh i ch had been left behind in v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s w i th the m o v e 'up ' to the u n i v e r s i t y " (p. 18). A d l e r o b s e r v e d in her e thnograph ic s tudy of the C a l i f o r n i a Inst i tute of the A r t s that the t rus tees exh ib i ted a rhetor ic of pa t r i o t i sm and s e r v i c e to s o c i e t y , and a conce rn w i th the s o c i a l in tegrat ion and u s e f u l n e s s of art. T rus tees f a v o r e d br ing ing under one roo f both the " f i n e " and " c o m m e r c i a l " ar ts . H o w e v e r , the ar t is ts found th is "d i sag reeab ly a l i e n " . Wh i l e f requen t l y announc ing the c o l l a p s e of d i s c i p l i na r y k n o w l e d g e boundar ies and ca l l i ng fo r " c r o s s f e r t i l i z a t i o n " , the ar t is ts ma in ta ined the k n o w l e d g e boundar ies of their "pure" s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . They hea ted ly o p p o s e d the in tegrat ive i m p u l s e s o f cu l ture 's i ndus t r i a l i s t s (their pa t rons ) w i th an i ns i s tence upon the s t r ic t seg rega t i on of occupa t i ona l c a s t e s . S i n c e aes the t i c i nnova t ion is l i ke ly to be spurred by changes in the ar t i s t i c d i v i s i o n of labor , The un ive rs i t y as leg i t imato r of art k n o w l e d g e / 76 such conce rn to pro tec t their occupa t i ona l s ta tus f r o m the threat of u n s e e m l y a s s o c i a t i o n p l aced l im i ts upon the ar t i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t s wh ich cou ld be coun tenanced at the Ins t i tu te—just as it d o e s e l s e w h e r e . (Ad le r , 1979, p.123) These ar t i s ts we re in te res ted in in tegrat ing on ly the d i s c i p l i n e s wh i ch we re equal in s o c i a l s ta tus , even though an a l l i ance w i th the w o r k i n g c l a s s , " i nasmuch as N e w C l a s s human is ts have o f ten seen t h e m s e l v e s as c h a m p i o n s of popular c a u s e s " (Hamblen , 1985, p. 10), and an a l l i ance w i th the s tudy of popu la r , f o l k , and c o m m e r c i a l art might have been a v iab le w a y of b roaden ing the cap i ta l base and l ink ing the s tudy of art to popu l i s t p r inc ip les of d e m o c r a c y . "The w o r k i n g c l a s s has o f ten f o r m e d the leg i t ima t ing p o w e r base of in te l lec tua ls w h o can then c l a im w i d e s p r e a d suppor t fo r their p rog rams and expans ion of cul tural c a p i t a l " (Hamblen , 1985, p. 10). The art s c h o o l scena r i o that A d l e r desc r i bes p lays out the theore t i ca l account of the nature of k n o w l e d g e and k n o w l e d g e boundar ies d e v e l o p e d in the p rev ious chapter . S p e c i a l i z a t i o n s of d i sc i p l i ne k n o w l e d g e are " f in i te p r o v i n c e s of m e a n i n g " (to use Berger & Luckmann 's t e r m , 1966) charac te r i zed by s t rong boundar ies wh i ch d i f fe ren t ia te them f r o m other k n o w l e d g e d i s c i p l i n e s and f r o m eve rday l i f e . It is the d i f f e ren t i a t i on of d i s c i p l i ne k n o w l e d g e f r o m the k n o w l e d g e of the e v e r y d a y w o r l d that c o n f e r s s ta tus to that d i s c i p l i n e . Th is s tatus is ma in ta ined by d i s c i p l i na r y bounda r i es , e s p e c i a l l y in s i t ua t ions of s t i f f c o m p e t i t i o n for l im i ted r e s o u r c e s . C o m p e t i t i o n for sca rce resou rces encourages the d e v e l o p m e n t of The university as legitimator of art knowledge / 77 polit ical groups with unambiguous boundaries. Disciplinary ties become more rigidly c laimed, keeping out " lowbrow" relations. So although the university may be recognized for having brought different f ields together, mutual col laboration and influence between artists working in the visual arts and individuals in other arts and other f ields of study, including those f ields that carry the critical tools needed to effect a broadening of art's discipl inary base in education, are impeded by the rigid demarcation and maintenance of the university's disciplinary boundaries. The fo l lowing chapter deals with a social mechanism that is very effect ive in maintaining existing boundaries and hierarchies of art knowledge. NOTES 1 For his characterization of the stratif ication of knowledge, Young draws on Bernstein's (1971) "integrated" and "col lect ion" codes of curricula and particularly their sub types in which knowledge is highly special ized or not. 2 Apple bases this notion of "individualist" on Raymond Wi l l iams' (1961) work. 3 Note that curriculum reform is more likely to come about in low status knowledge areas than in the high-status areas associated with the academic curricula of universit ies. Curricular reform for the young and the less academically "able" does not undermine or affect the interest of those in posit ions of power in the social structure. This may suggest why we see more changes in art education at elementary levels than at the secondary and university levels. 4 In Madge and Weinberger's (1973) study, fine arts students "showed the widest range of achievement in other f ie lds" (p. 59) in comparison to graphic arts students. Thirty one percent of the fine art students interviewed answered "yes" to the question "Was art your best subject?" Approximately this number had considered careers in f ields other than art, most of which required university academic preparation. Details of which subjects art students had excelled in are not given speci f ical ly for fine art students. According to the artists interviewed in studies by Getzels and The un i ve rs i t y as leg i t imato r of art k n o w l e d g e / 78 C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i (1976) and Gr i f f (1970), h o w e v e r , one of the reasons w h y art s tuden ts , both f ine ar t is ts and graphic a r t i s ts a l i ke , we re in art s c h o o l w a s because they w e r e unable or unw i l l i ng to 'make the g rade ' in a c a d e m i c sub jec t s . De ta i l s are s k e t c h y , mak ing genera l i za t ions about the a c a d e m i c ab i l i t y of art s tudents d i f f i cu l t . A t t endance data a l so ind ica te , acco rd i ng to D i M a g g i o and U s e e m (1982) and H i l l m a n - C h a r t r a n d (1986) that leve l of educa t iona l a t ta inment is the best p red ic to r of arts a t tendance . W i th the inc reas ing d i f f e ren t i a t i on of p o s t s e c o n d a r y educa t i on , ins t i tu t ions w i th na r row l y techn ica l cur r icu la cannot be expec ted to incu lca te i nvo l vemen t in the high arts to near the extent that t rad i t iona l l ibera l arts ins t i tu t ions d o . P res t i g i ous l ibera l arts c o l l e g e s and un i ve rs i t i es rema in the educa t iona l ins t i tu t ions where a f am i l i a r i t y w i th the arts can be cu l t i va ted and hence are an a f f i r m a t i o n o f , or in a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h , an e l i te c l a s s p o s i t i o n . Gou ldner (1979) uses the te rm " N e w C l a s s " to e n c o m p a s s what he s e e s as t w o d is t inc t g r o u p s : " i n te l l ec tua l s " (humanis ts ) and " techn ica l i n t e l l i g e n t s i a " ( techn ic ians , eng inee rs , and so on). G e l l a (1976), h o w e v e r , s ta tes that "a lmos t eve ry author has a d i f fe ren t concep t of the i n te l l i gen ts i a , though m o s t of them use the te rms in te l l i gen ts ia and in te l lec tua ls i n te rchangeab ly " (p. 8). Cul tura l cap i ta l can be i n c o m e - p r o d u c i n g , even though its bas i s is educa t i on , not e c o n o m i c s . Bourd ieu (1973), in examin ing the c l o s e but c o m p l e x re la t ionsh ip of the p o s s e s s i o n of cul tural cap i ta l w i th the p o s s e s s i o n of s o c i a l / e c o n o m i c cap i ta l in the upper c l ass in F rance , argues that cul tural cap i ta l is m o s t e f f e c t i v e , that i s , br ings in oppor tun i t i es and i ncome n o r m a l l y i n a c c e s s i b l e to those w h o do not p o s s e s s it, when c o m b i n e d w i th e c o n o m i c cap i ta l and po l i t i ca l p o w e r . T h o s e w i th e c o n o m i c cap i ta l have more chances of p o s s e s s i n g cul tural c a p i t a l , but, i n te res t ing ly , they are a l so more able to do wi thout it. By w a y of i l l us t ra t ion , the Br i t i sh C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y of Educa t ion ' s add i t iona l fund ing p r o g r a m , "Fund fo r E x c e l l e n c e " , e f f e c t e d in 1986, is qu ie t ly n i cknamed by s o m e s c h o o l d is t r ic t adm in i s t ra t i ve s ta f f as the " fund for c o m p u t e r s " . A l m o s t all of the p ro jec ts accep ted for this fund ing i n v o l v e large purchases of compu te r equ ipment and t e r m i n a l s . L i t t le of the fund w a s left fo r other than compu te r purchases or compu te r a p p l i c a t i o n s . No p rog rams in the arts r ece i ved fund ing . A l s o , in regard to (under)funding of the arts in e d u c a t i o n : in a s u r v e y of s c h o o l d is t r ic t super in tendents and board cha i rpe rsons (Br i t ish C o l u m b i a A r t s in Educa t ion C o u n c i l , 1986), 50 percent repor ted that the p ropo r t i on of the s c h o o l budget a l l oca ted to f ine arts ins t ruc t ion at both the e lemen ta ry and s e c o n d a r y l e v e l , had dec l i ned f r o m 1981 to 1985. When asked if f ine arts p rog rams were able to w i ths tand cuts in their mate r ia l s budgets than we re other c o u r s e s in the cu r r i cu lum, "56 percent of the super in tendents and 59 percent of the cha i rpe rsons ind ica ted that f ine arts p rog rams are less able to endure cuts as they The un ive rs i t y as leg i t imato r of art k n o w l e d g e / 79 are more m a t e r i a l s - d e p e n d e n t than many other c o u r s e s " (p. 15). A n d "asked if f i ne arts c o u r s e s are more suscep t i b l e to reduc t ion in t imes of f i s c a l s t r ess than are other parts of the cu r r i cu lum, 75 percent of super in tenden ts and 62 percent of cha i rpe rsons ind ica ted ag reemen t " (p. 15). Th is s tudy a l so ind ica ted that fu l l t ime arts teach ing p o s i t i o n s dec l i ned marked l y f r o m 1976 to 1985. That the three p rog rams wh ich usua l l y c o m p r i s e the teach ing of f ine arts in s c h o o l s — v i s u a l art, m u s i c , d r a m a — t o g e t h e r accoun ted for on l y a p p r o x i m a t e l y s ix percent o f al l teach ing (in 1982), a l so a t tes ts to the marg ina l i t y of the f ine arts w i th in the to ta l cu r r i cu lum. What art ins t ruc to rs look fo r in po ten t ia l s tud io art s tuden ts is not n e c e s s a r i l y the same as what p h i l o s o p h y or b i o l o g y p r o f e s s o r s look for in their app l i can t s . One inst ructor i den t i f i ed the c r i te r ia used in her art depar tment (Un ivers i t y of A l b e r t a ) fo r r ev i ew ing an app l i can t ' s p o r t f o l i o as f o l l o w s : a) breadth of exposure or va r ie ty of expe r i ence ; b) techn ica l or manual dex te r i t y ; c ) o b s e r v a t i o n a l s k i l l s best exh ib i ted through obse rva t i ona l s t u d i e s ; d) e v i d e n c e of energy , cu r i os i t y and imag ina t i ve or inven t i ve th ink ing . ( Ingram, 1986) The debate over whether the Ph.D. shou ld be the te rmina l degree in s tud io p rac t i ce appeared f requent l y in A m e r i c a n journa ls in the 1960s. Qu inn (1962), fo r one , po in ted to both the e x t e n s i v e n e s s and s e r i o u s n e s s of work i n v o l v e d in a s tud io graduate degree and the advan tages that Ph.D. rec ip ien ts have over s tud io graduates in the mat ter of h i r ing p re fe rences for f acu l t y p o s i t i o n s . Hubbard (1971) noted that admin i s t ra to rs d i sc r im ina te in f avo r of those in p o s s e s s i o n of the doc to ra l deg ree , s o m e t i m e s , in the Un i ted S t a t e s , w i th the suppor t o f s ta te l aws conce rn ing p r o m o t i o n . Such f a v o r i t i s m in the pas t , a long w i th the "pub l ish or p e r i s h " p r o m o t i o n s y s t e m , has re in fo rced the p r io r i t y of deg rees , scho la rsh ip and pub l i shed research over ar t is t ic pursu i ts as an ind ica tor of exce l l ence w i th in a c a d e m i a . Yet the o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n rema ins that adop ted by the C o l l e g e Ar t A s s o c i a t i o n at the M i d w e s t C o l l e g e Ar t C o n f e r e n c e in 1960 and r e s o l v e d again in 1970 (Mon ta l t o , 1983) The M.F .A. is the te rmina l degree in the f i e l d because the "Ph.D. or other doc to ra l degrees are not appropr ia te w a y s of measur ing s u c c e s s in c rea t i ve f i e l d s " (quoted in M o n t a l t o , 1983, p. 43). A Ph.D. w o u l d mere l y p lace an a c a d e m i c s y m b o l on an art p rogram in order to make that p rog ram more accep tab le to the a c a d e m i c env i ronment in wh i ch it is s i t ua ted . A l t hough the award ing of a doc to ra te for s tud io art educa t ion d id not gain much g round , the a r t i s t s ' ve r y at tempt to secure such a s y m b o l wh i ch is in many w a y s con t ra ry to the va lues t rad i t i ona l l y he ld by ar t is ts sugges t s that art p r o d u c t i o n , by be ing s i tua ted in a c a d e m i a , has adapted to and a s s u m e d s o m e of a c a d e m i a ' s va l ues . The ma jo r i t y of research and i n fo rma t i on that ex is ts on the subject of The un ive rs i t y as leg i t imato r of art k n o w l e d g e / 80 art in higher educa t ion c o m e s in large part f r o m this pe r iod in A m e r i c a n h i s to ry (for e x a m p l e : Ba r ron , 1972; Denn is & J a c o b s , 1968; F e l d m a n , 1970; G r i s w o l d et a l . , 1965; M a h o n e y , 1970; R i s e n h o o v e r and B lackbu rn , 1976; R i t ch ie , 1966). P r e v i o u s to this p e r i o d , s tud ies re la t ing the subject o f the v i sua l ar ts in p o s t s e c o n d a r y educa t ion were f e w and far b e t w e e n . (These w e r e S m i t h , 1912; H iss & Fans le r , 1934; G o l d w a t e r , 1943) In C a n a d a , c o m p r e h e n s i v e documen ts on art in p o s t s e c o n d a r y educa t ion are rare. There is the Canad ian Cul tura l In fo rmat ion Cent re ' s (1965) re fe rence handbook on f ac i l i t i e s fo r the s tudy of the ar ts . Th is documen t w a s l i t t le more than a l i s t ing of the names and a d d r e s s e s of the 52 ins t i tu t ions that at the t ime o f f e r e d oppor tun i t i es to s tudy the ar ts . In 1972 a s im i l a r re fe rence handbook w a s pub l i shed by S t a t i s t i c s Canada , this t ime l i s t ing 121 ins t i tu t ions that o f f e r oppor tun i t i es to s tudy the ar ts . These d i rec to r ies are, un fo r tuna te ly , the extent of Canad ian mater ia l that takes an o v e r v i e w of the subject o f art in p o s t s e c o n d a r y educa t i on . H o w e v e r , they do es tab l i sh that the number o f ins t i tu t ions w i th f ac i l i t i e s for the s tudy of the arts in Canada doub led f r o m 52 in 1965 to 121 in 1972, ind ica t ing that C a n a d a , l ike the Un i ted S t a t e s , exper ienced an inc rease in the late 1960s and ear ly 1970s in p rog rams of art s tudy , p resumab l y to meet the demand of a d ramat ic increase in e n r o l l m e n t s . M o s t of th is inc rease w a s in s tud io p rog rams rather than art h i s t o r y . The resul t is that the p roduc t i on of cand ida tes fo r s tud io teach ing in p o s t s e c o n d a r y educa t ion far exceeds the demand . Note that at a more loca l l e v e l , two l i s t ings of p rog rams in Br i t i sh C o l u m b i a we re p repared . C o l t o n (1964) a s s e m b l e d a report to a s s i s t the Br i t i sh C o l u m b i a Ar t Teacher ' s A s s o c i a t i o n . It is not s p e c i f i c to art in p o s t s e c o n d a r y educa t ion but ins tead c o m p r i s e s a b road l i s t ing of va r i ous channels through wh ich the v i sua l arts may be d e v e l o p e d in the c o m m u n i t y under the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s ; art s c h o o l s , un i ve rs i t i e s , and v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s ; s e a s o n a l p r o g r a m s , adult educa t i on p r o g r a m s ; rec rea t ion p r o g r a m s ; art a s s o c i a t i o n s ; pub l ic art ga l l e r i es . The other loca l documen t is a d i rec to ry prepared by Kava (1979) f o r the D i rec to r of C o l l e g e and Inst i tute P r o g r a m s for the P r o v i n c e of Br i t i sh C o l u m b i a . Th is mere l y l i s ts art p rog rams in p o s t s e c o n d a r y educat iona l ins t i tu t ions in the p rov ince a long w i th abbrev ia ted p rogram o b j e c t i v e s repor ted f r o m p rog ram c a t a l o g s , and s o m e de ta i l s such as approx ima te enro l lmen t in p r o g r a m s . The heavy do l la r i nves tmen t might have been bet ter used fo r imp rov i ng ex is t ing f a c i l i t i e s or fo r bas i c cur r icu lum c o n c e r n s (Mahoney 1970). A r c h i t e c t s we re ca l l ed in be fo re funds we re p r o v i d e d for a thorough r e v i e w of what the bu i ld ing w a s fo r . Interest in the bu i ld ing i tse l f w a s eas ier to get than m o n e y for cur r icu lum c o n c e r n s . The ou tward image too o f ten ove r rode interest in p rov id i ng space that cou ld adapt to po ten t ia l new f o r m s of art, or that had w a l l s and The un ive rs i t y as leg i t imator of art k n o w l e d g e / 81 f l o o r s that cou ld take hard use . The examp les Bourd ieu g i ves of th is are d ress d e s i g n , inter ior des ign and fu rn i sh ing , c o s m e t i c s , and c o o k e r y . In unders tand ing the l eg i t ima t i on p r o c e s s and , u l t ima te l y , the accep tance of cer ta in ar t is t ic f o r m s as appropr ia te educat iona l k n o w l e d g e , it is use fu l to cons ide r the case of an art f o r m that has recen t l y acqu i red i nc reased l eg i t ima t i on as a f ine art ; n a m e l y , pho tog raphy . No te that pho tog raphy is n o w inco rpo ra ted w i th in a c a d e m i a , but not (yet) to the extent that pa in t ing and scu lp ture are. Pho tog raphy is cur rent ly adve r t i sed as a s p e c i a l i z a t i o n in many , but not a l l , f ine art depa r tmen ts . A s e x p e c t e d , it is o f f e r e d in m o s t depar tmen ts of app l ied ar ts . It has a l so been the subject of much aes the t i c theor i z ing (by R o s e n b l u m , 1978, and S o n t a g , 1977, fo r examp le ) , wh i ch he lps to suppor t and leg i t imate it. Ros ie r (1981) p r o v i d e s a br ief account of the i nco rpo ra t i on of pho tog raphy into the f ine art market in the late s i x t ies and ear ly s e v e n t i e s : Concep tua l and Pop ar t is ts w h o wan ted to a v o i d the deaden ing p r e c i o u s n e s s and f i n i sh of high art and w h o were m o v i n g t oward a narrat ive l i t e ra l i sm brought pho tog raphy and v i deo into the g a l l e r i e s ; fo r P o p a r t i s t s , pho tog raphy w a s a f o r m of quo ta t ion f r o m m a s s cu l ture, no more in t r i ns i ca l l y respec tab le than c o m i c b o o k s . Concep tua l a r t i s t s , m o v i n g away f r o m "object m a k i n g " , a l s o we re a t t rac ted by the a n o n y m i t y and negat ive va lua t i on at tached to these m e d i a . Never far beh ind , though, dea le rs were learn ing to cap i ta l i ze on the s e e m i n g l y unsa leab le by se i z i ng on the ca tego ry " d o c u m e n t a t i o n " , wh i ch re l ies mos t heav i l y on wr i t ten mater ia l and pho tog raphy . Th is gave these med ia an art ga l le ry " r i gh tness " that s t i l l re ta ined a look of n e w n e s s . M e a n w h i l e , of c o u r s e , the pho tography that w a s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y art w a s d renched in M o d e r n i s t sen t imen t , see ing its m i s s i o n as the exp lo ra t ion of the spec ia l po ten t ia l i t i es of the m e d i u m . (Ros ie r , 1981, p. 48) Pho tog raphy d e m o n s t r a t e s , acco rd i ng to Ros ie r , the rest ructur ing of cul ture in the ear ly 1970s into a "more h o m o g e n o u s v e r s i o n of 'the s o c i e t y as s p e c t a c l e ' , a p r o c e s s acce le ra ted by the inc reas ing impor tance of e lec t ron i c med ia . . . and the consequen t deva lua t ion of craf t s k i l l s . " W i th th is c o m e s the " inc reas ing ab i l i t y o f dominant cul tural f o r m s to absorb al l i ns tances of o p p o s i t i o n a l cul ture af ter a br ief momen t and conver t them into mere s t y l i s t i c m a n n e r i s m s " (p. 48). But the l eg i t ima t ion of pho tog raphy as high culture began much ear l ier . Becker (1982) exp la ins h o w A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z , a p ioneer of A m e r i c a n The un ive rs i t y as leg i t ima to r of art k n o w l e d g e / 82 p h o t o g r a p h y , made the d e c i s i v e o rgan iza t iona l m o v e s that sh i f t ed pho tog raphy f r o m the s tatus of amateur camera c lubs w i t h "c ra f t " s tandards to a f ine art. S t i eg l i t z p r o d u c e d , on a s m a l l sca le of c o u r s e , much of the ins t i tu t iona l parapherna l ia wh i ch j us t i f i ed pho tog raphy ' s c l a i m to be a f ine art : a ga l le ry in wh i ch work cou ld be exh ib i ted and where pa in ters , scu lp to rs and pho tographers cou ld be in t roduced to one another (S t ieg l i t z ' marr iage to the painter G e o r g i a O 'Kee fe fur thered th is pa in t i ng -pho tog raphy c o n n e c t i o n ) ; a journal con ta in ing f ine rep roduc t i ons and c r i t i ca l c o m m e n t a r y wh i ch p rov i ded a m e d i u m of c o m m u n i c a t i o n and pub l i c i t y ; and sub jec t mat ter and s t y l e that depar ted f r o m the im i ta t ion of pa in t ing f a v o r e d at the t i m e . Becke r no tes Edward W e s t o n as a l so in f luent ia l in sh i f t i ng the s ta tus of pho tog raphy to a f ine art. W e s t o n w a s the f i rs t A m e r i c a n photographer to rece i ve a Guggenhe im F e l l o w s h i p . He a l so d e v e l o p e d a s t y l e that c o m b i n e d s tern rea l i sm and s tandards more c o m m o n in the w o r l d of high art w i t h the s y m b o l i c e f f ec t o f pho tograph ic t ona l i t i es . B rochures and ca ta logs are par t i cu la r ly use fu l because they tend to present a s y m b o l i c language, a f o r m a l i z e d p ic ture of h o w the o rgan i za t i on func t i ons to se rve the need of art s tuden ts , and of the b e l i e f - s y s t e m s of the art cu l ture. When us ing ca ta l ogs and b rochures for e v i d e n c e of cer ta in va lues and o b j e c t i v e s , it must be r e m e m b e r e d that these mater ia ls represent an o f f i c i a l v i e w , a s ide put f o r w a r d by the a u t h o r s — l i k e l y , in this c a s e , admin i s t ra to rs and e d u c a t o r s — a s an a t t rac t i ve means to represent or " s e l l " a par t icu lar p rogram to the pub l i c , to fund ing s o u r c e s , and to the market of po ten t ia l art s tuden ts . There are t w o approaches to research ing any p h e n o m e n o n : One is to i nves t iga te what ac tua l l y e x i s t s ; the o ther , as a b o v e , is to i nves t iga te h o w a phenonenom is p resen ted to and pe rce i ved by its pub l i c . H o w accura te ly documen ts prepared fo r pub l ic c o n s u m p t i o n re f l ec t , if the latter is the c a s e , the actual d a y - t o - d a y p rac t i ce of the p rog rams they a d v e r t i s e , w o u l d not be the i s sue . Rather , the in tent ion w o u l d be to look at i dea l s , p rog ram g o a l s , s ta ted o b j e c t i v e s , or even the lack thereo f , as a w a y of get t ing an idea of the dominan t cul tural n o r m s and recurr ing themes that are f o r m a l i z e d in the o b j e c t i v e s . W i t h the v i sua l ar ts , these a c a d e m i c s t ruc tures have been around s i nce at least 1950 in the Un i ted S t a t e s , at wh i ch t ime a su rvey of A m e r i c a n art s c h o o l s found that all of the e ighty s c h o o l s s a m p l e d had es tab l i shed f o r m a l ent rance requ i rements . These inc luded high s c h o o l graduat ion ce r t i f i ca t i on as we l l as the usual p o r t f o l i o s u b m i s s i o n s and i n t e r v i e w s , and a cred i t s y s t e m for measu r ing s tuden ts ' advancemen t . W i th on l y a f e w e x c e p t i o n s , they granted degrees ( M c C a u s l a n d , Harnum & Vaughn , 1950). A s un i ve rs i t i es f o r m e d s tud io f ine art p rog rams and as art s c h o o l s b e c a m e d e g r e e - g r a n t i n g , M.F .A . p rog rams w e r e even tua l l y d e v e l o p e d s o that Canad ians cou ld be as qua l i f i ed as A m e r i c a n ar t is ts and thus cou ld teach in Canad ian p rog rams . It w a s the ear l ier s i t ua t i on , when The un ive rs i t y as leg i t imato r of art k n o w l e d g e / 83 graduate degrees w e r e at ta inable in the U.S. but not yet in Canada wh i ch may be r e s p o n s i b l e for the present s i tua t ion in art s c h o o l s in wh i ch A m e r i c a n s tend to domina te art f acu l t i e s . S u r v e y s of ar t is ts p rov ided c o n s i s t e n t ev i dence that the educat ion of a r t i s ts is w e l l en t renched in ins t i tu t ions of higher educa t i on , a l though m o s t do not d i s t i ngu ish be tween un i ve rs i t y educa t i on and co l l ege or art s c h o o l educa t i on . The Emp i re S ta te C o l l e g e V i sua l A r t s S u r v e y (V i l l enes , 1982) repor ted that of more than 200 p rac t i c i ng p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s ts of " in te rna t iona l , na t i ona l , and reg iona l r e p u t a t i o n s " (p. 30), at least 90 percent had had a f o r m a l educa t i on in w h i c h they had s tud ied d raw ing , pa in t ing , scu lp tu re , p r in tmak ing d e s i g n , and art h i s to r y , and if their f i e l d of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n requi red it, c o m m e r c i a l or industr ia l d e s i g n , or c ra f t s . The on ly a r t i s ts i n te r v i ewed in the s tudy w h o had not had such t ra in ing were born be fo re 1920. In M i c h a e l ' s (1970) s tudy , on l y two pa in te rs , three p r i n tmakers , and t w o w e a v e r s of ove r 200 ar t i s ts su r veyed d id not have any f o r m a l t ra in ing . R i d g e w a y ' s (1975) s tudy repor ted s im i l a r f i nd i ngs . Of the 28 p rac t i c ing A m e r i c a n ar t is ts she i n t e r v i ewed , all but three at tended un i ve rs i t i es or c o l l e g e s . M o s t of the 79 f ine art s tudents that G e t z e l s and C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i (1976) s tud ied w h o ob ta ined the h ighest " s u c c e s s s c o r e s " as ar t i s ts (based on a measure of ach ievemen t ind ica ted in s t uden ts ' permanent reco rds on f i le in art s c h o o l s ) s ta r ted their ca reers in a lo f t , even if th is meant rent ing jo in t l y w i th their c o l l e a g u e s . In fac t , the s ix art s tudents w i th the h ighest s c o r e s had all rented lo f t s wh i le s t i l l in s c h o o l . A s far as the authors cou ld de te rm ine , none of the " u n s u c c e s s f u l " f o rme r s tudents did th is . In G e t z e l s and C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i ' s s a m p l e of art s tudents s tud ied , four out o f the s ix m o s t s u c c e s s f u l as ar t is ts even tua l l y m o v e d to N e w Yo rk . The rema in ing t w o , be l i ev i ng that their s u c c e s s as p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s ts depended on it, were p lann ing the m o v e . One fo rmer art s tudent , w h o spent two years teach ing art at the Un i ve rs i t y of M i n n e s o t a be fo re m o v i n g to N e w Y o r k , exp la i ns : The new is what peop le are on l y just ta lk ing about ; it 's ideas that count , not p roduc ts . One can see where it 's at f r o m m a g a z i n e s , but it 's not the same thing as l i v ing it. (p. 191) M o n t a l t o ' s (1983) s e l e c t i o n of " r e n o w n e d " art p rog rams w a s based on a ranking of the greatest number of ar t is ts f r o m each s c h o o l rep resen ted in the Wh i t ney M u s e u m of A m e r i c a n A r t B ienn ia l Exh ib i t i on C a t a l o g u e s . M o n t a l t o ' s s ta ted reason for this s e l e c t i o n c r i te r ion is that the Wh i t ney M u s e u m i s — a n d he quo tes f r o m the ca ta logue i t s e l f — " a n ind iv idua l su rvey of s o m e of the m o s t impor tant and p r o v o c a t i v e The un ive rs i t y as leg i t ima to r of art k n o w l e d g e / 84 A m e r i c a n pa in t ing , d r a w i n g , scu lp tu re , f i l m , and v i d e o p roduced . . . by l i v ing a r t i s t s . " A s t rong c r i t i c i s m cou ld be made conce rn ing the b i a s e s and e x c l u s i v e n e s s of the M u s e u m ' s exh ib i t i on c r i te r ia (a conce rn not a d d r e s s e d in his s tudy ) , and the p o s s i b l e consequen t imp l i ca t i on that the s tudy may be neg lec t i ng art p rog rams that represent art f o r m and qua l i t ies not a c k n o w l e d g e d by the Wh i t ney M u s e u m . What d id resu l t , h o w e v e r , f r o m M o n t a l t o ' s s y s t e m of ranking art p rog rams w a s a conven ien t and in te res t ing rep resen ta t ion of three ex t reme ly d i ve r se p e r s p e c t i v e s t oward art s t u d y : The San F r a n c i s c o Ar t Inst i tute has a rather unstructured educa t iona l e n v i r o n m e n t ; Ru tge rs ' M a s o n G r o s s S c h o o l o f the A r t s s t r e s s e s the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l , cu l tu ra l , e n v i r o n m e n t a l , and h i s to r i ca l nature of art ; and the Ya le S c h o o l o f A r t and A rch i t ec tu re has a ve ry s t ruc tured and p resc r i p t i ve p rogram in w h i c h s tudents are encouraged to s tudy many art m o v e m e n t s and s t y l e s ra t iona l l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y be fo re ar r iv ing at their o w n . The a l l i ance w i th the technoc ra t i c segment has been f o r m e d a l so in the sense that a r t i s ts look to c o m p u t e r s , h o l o g r a m s and other new t e c h n o l o g i e s as po ten t ia l n e w med ia in art p r o d u c t i o n . A n d in s c h o o l s , the t e c h n o l o g y of the compu te r is exp lo red fo r i ts p o s s i b l e con t r i bu t i on in art c l a s s r o o m s (Hamblen , 1985) CHAPTER 4 FORGING THE ALLEGIANCE TO ART: THE ART DEPARTMENT AS EFFECTIVE SOCIALIZER The mode l of the o rgan iza t ion of k n o w l e d g e , de r i ved f r o m Berger and Luckmann (1966), is one in wh i ch rea l i t y is s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d , s o c i a l l y ma in ta ined , and can be changed by human ac t i v i t y . But in sp i te of th is , rea l i ty at ta ins the qual i ty of an ob ject that cannot be w i l l e d away by the ind iv idua l (B lack ledge & Hunt, 1985). L i k e w i s e , k n o w l e d g e , by w h i c h ind iv idua ls make sense of their rea l i t y , at ta ins the s tatus of an ob jec t . K n o w l e d g e b e c o m e s k n o w l e d g e - a s - f a c t . S o c i a l l y p roduced rea l i t y , inc lud ing k n o w l e d g e w h i c h is " l eg i t ima te " or a s s o c i a t e d w i th truth or s c h o l a r s h i p , b e c o m e s part of an ind iv idua l ' s rea l i ty through a p r o c e s s of s o c i a l i z a t i o n . S o c i a l i z a t i o n is an impor tant c o m p o n e n t in the ana l ys i s of the re la t ionsh ip be tween s o c i a l s t ructure and art k n o w l e d g e . It is the c o m p l e x p r o c e s s through wh ich ind iv idua ls d e v e l o p a sense of ident i ty and in terna l ize the k n o w l e d g e , s k i l l s , va l ues , and m o t i v a t i o n of the culture and subcu l tu res to wh ich they are a f f i l i a t e d . These in te rna l i za t i ons , in turn, gove rn their ac t i ons and c o n c e p t i o n s of these ac t i ons in both eve ryday and p r o f e s s i o n a l s i t ua t i ons . In turn, fo r ind iv idua ls to be in i t ia ted into and a s s u m e fu l l membersh ip in the s p e c i a l i z e d f ine art subcu l tu re , they must learn and in terna l ize at least the essen t ia l core of that subcu l tu re 's shared bas i s of k n o w l e d g e , wh i ch inc ludes not on l y the f o r m a l "exper t s ' " k n o w l e d g e as found in art cu r r i cu la , but an unders tand ing of the sub t le t i es of d r e s s , 85 Forg ing the a l leg iance to art / 86 speech and m a n n e r i s m s w h i c h iden t i f y the m e m b e r s . A c o m p l e x paraphernal ia ex i s t s through w h i c h ind iv idua ls gain entry and pub l i c l y demons t ra te c o m m i t m e n t to the f ine art subcu l tu re . Cer ta in ins t i tu t iona l l y es tab l i shed and pub l i c l y a c k n o w l e d g e d educa t iona l p rocedures have to be gone through and p roo f p r o v i d e d of c o m p e t e n c e . The art depar tment p l a y s a s ign i f i can t ro le in get t ing ind iv idua ls c o m m i t t e d to the ro le of "ar t is t " . It i s , as th is chapter a rgues , an e f f e c t i v e " s o c i a l i z e r " into the h igh ly s p e c i a l i z e d f ine arts subcu l tu re . It is so e f f e c t i v e that i ts recru i ts b e c o m e c o m m i t t e d in sp i te of the amb iguous l eg i t ima t i on of art and the c o n f l i c t s this i n v o l v e s : the at t i tude in s c h o o l s that art is s e c o n d - r a t e to the s c i e n c e s and other a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s ; a lack of parental suppor t fo r art as a career c h o i c e ; the un l i ke l i hood that an educa t ion in art w i l l lead to a f i nanc ia l l y secure ca ree r ; the i l l - d e f i n e d and e lus i ve ro le of art and the art is t in s o c i e t y ; and the equa l l y unclear o b j e c t i v e s and content of art p rog rams (Nat ional E n d o w m e n t fo r the A r t s and Nat iona l Counc i l on the A r t s , 1978; R i t ch ie , 1966). The s t rength of c o m m i t m e n t to ar t is t ic ident i t ies that th is chapter demons t ra tes by r e v i e w i n g emp i r i ca l and desc r i p t i ve research of a r t i s ts and art s tudents lends further suppor t to the argument that art depar tmen ts p lay a s ign i f i can t ro le in p rese rv ing the t rad i t iona l concep tua l h ie rarch ies of art k n o w l e d g e that, impede a b roaden ing of art 's cul tural base t o w a r d a more v i ta l and re levant ro le in a cu l tu ra l l y p lu ra l i s t i c s o c i e t y . Forging the allegiance to art / 87 THE CONCEPT OF SOCIALIZATION Social izat ion has been given attention within behavioristic learning theory (Homans , 1961; Skinner, 1953), Piaget's (1928) cognitive developmental approach, Freud's psychoanalyt ic theory (Mackie, 1980), and symbol ic interactionist v iews (Becker et al., 1961; Mead, 1934; Olesen & Whittaker, 1968). Social izat ion that takes place during the formative years of childhood has been studied in terms of the development of language and individual identity, the learning of cognitive sk i l ls , the internalization of moral standards and appropriate attitudes and motivations, and some understanding of social roles. Although this type of social ization may lay the foundation for later learning, it does not completely prepare individuals for occupations, sexual relationships, parenthood and other roles in adulthood. There is, then, in any society further or "secondary" social izat ion. 1 The extent and character of this later social izat ion is determined by the complexity of the division of labor and the concomitant social distribution of knowledge in society. It is possible to conceive of a society in which no further social izat ion takes place after primary social izat ion. Such a society would, of course, be one with a very simple stock of knowledge. A l l knowledge would be generally relevant, with different individuals varying only in their perspectives on it. This conception is useful in posit ing a limiting case, but there is no society known to us that does not have some d iv is ion of labor and, concomitant ly, some social distribution of knowledge; and as Forg ing the a l l eg iance to art / 88 s o o n as th is is the c a s e , s e c o n d a r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n b e c o m e s n e c e s s a r y . (Berger & L u c k m a n n , 1966, p. 127) Later s o c i a l i z a t i o n is the in terna l iza t ion of i n s t i t u t i o n - b a s e d subcu l tu res . It requi res the acqu i s i t i on of ro le s p e c i f i c or s p e c i a l i z e d k n o w l e d g e ; k n o w l e d g e that a r i ses as a resul t of the d i v i s i o n of labor . The subcu l tu res Internal ized in this later s o c i a l i z a t i o n genera l l y represent part ia l rea l i t i es or f in i te p r o v i n c e s of mean ing (Berger & L u c k m a n n , 1966) in con t ras t to the e v e r y d a y w o r l d and its c o m m o n s tock of k n o w l e d g e . "Yet they t o o , are more or l ess c o h e s i v e rea l i t i es , charac te r i zed by no rma t i ve and a f f e c t i v e as we l l as c o g n i t i v e c o m p o n e n t s " (Berger & L u c k m a n n , 1966, p.127). Berger and Luckmann a l so sugges t that the character of s e c o n d a r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n depends upon the soc ia l s ta tus of the body of k n o w l e d g e c o n c e r n e d . T ra in ing is n e c e s s a r y to learn to make a horse pul l a manure cart or to f ight on it in bat t le . But a s o c i e t y that l im i t s i ts use of ho rses to the pu l l ing of manure car ts is un l i ke ly to e m b e l l i s h this a c t i v i t y w i th e labora te r i tuals or f e t i s h i s m , and the pe rsonne l to w h o m th is task has been a s s i g n e d is un l i ke ly to iden t i f y w i th the ro le in any p ro found manner ; the l eg i t ima t i ons , such as they are, are l i ke ly to be of a c o m p e n s a t o r y k ind . Thus there is a great deal of s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l va r i ab i l i t y in the rep resen ta t i ons i n v o l v e d in s e c o n d a r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n . (Berger & Luckmann , 1966, p. 128 -129 ) Forg ing the a l l eg iance to art / 89 If, as Berger and Luckmann sugges t , the character of s o c i a l i z a t i o n depends on the s ta tus of the b o d y o f k n o w l e d g e c o n c e r n e d , then one w o u l d think that the amb iguous l eg i t ima t i on of art w o u l d mean that s o c i a l i z a t i o n into art is a l so a m b i g u o u s . H o w e v e r , th is appears not to be the c a s e . A l t h o u g h s o c i a l i z a t i o n into f ine art is s o c i a l i z a t i o n into a d i sc i p l i ne in wh ich there is l i t t le c o n s e n s u s about the nature and purpose of a r t i s t i c ac t i v i t y in s o c i e t y , or indeed whether th is ac t i v i t y can even be taught, d e s c r i p t i v e s tud ies of art s tudents (Barron, 1972; G e t z e l s & C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , 1976; G r i f f , 1964; Madge & We inbe rge r , 1973; S t r a u s s , 1970) demons t ra te that art s tudents are i w a m b i g u o u s l y c o m m i t t e d to their d i s c i p l i n e . A r t s tudents have been s o c i a l i z e d into s p e c i f i c iden t i t ies that are based on a s t rong sense of subject l o y a l t y . In order fo r s o c i a l i z a t i o n to be this s u c c e s s f u l , art s tudents must perceive their d i s c i p l i ne as hav ing s o c i a l s ta tus , in wha teve r w a y they de f ine s ta tus . The art depar tmen t , it is argued in this chapter , is the agent wh ich cu l t i va tes these pe rcep t i ons in s tudents and s o l i d i f i e s c o m m i t m e n t to the d i sc i p l i ne of art and the ident i ty of ar t is t , even in those l i ke ly c a s e s in wh ich an ar t i s t i c ident i ty may have a l ready been gradua l ly cu l t i va ted in ch i l dhood and a d o l e s c e n c e . Desp i te the amb iguous l eg i t ima t i on the ou ts ide w o r l d at t r ibutes to it, i den t i t ies are s t rengthened through in te rac t ions w i th in the art depar tment , w i th its insu la t ion of the k n o w l e d g e boundar ies of the f ine art d i sc i p l i ne f r o m other d i s c i p l i n e s . and f r o m e v e r y d a y , or c o m m o n - s e n s e k n o w l e d g e . Th is imp l i ca tes the un ive rs i t y art depar tment or art s c h o o l w i th perpetuat ing t rad i t iona l c o n c e p t i o n s of art k n o w l e d g e as a s p e c i a l i z e d d i sc ip l i ne shar ing Forg ing the a l l eg iance to art / 90 many of the charac te r i s t i cs of "high s ta tus k n o w l e d g e " (Young , 1971) such as abs t rac tness and re la t i ve d i f f e ren t i a t i on and insu la t ion of cer ta in art k n o w l e d g e f r o m other k n o w l e d g e a reas , both "pure" and " a p p l i e d " , and the k n o w l e d g e o f e v e r y d a y exper ience . By main ta in ing ex i s t i ng k n o w l e d g e boundar ies through the p r o m o t i o n of s p e c i a l i z e d subject iden t i t i es in i ts s tuden ts , the art depar tment p lays a major ro le in the cul tural rep roduc t ion of an insular body of k n o w l e d g e wh i ch i s , as the p o s t m o d e r n i s t p o s i t i o n h o l d s , untenable in a p lu ra l i s t i c s o c i e t y . M o s t of the s tud ies of art s tudents that w i l l be r e v i e w e d b e l o w are not ve ry recent , un fo r tuna te ly , nor do they s p e c i f i c a l l y documen t the Canad ian con tex t . They do , h o w e v e r , cons t i t u te the bulk o f the research done on this t o p i c . They represent a range of m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h e s — i n t e r v i e w s , s u r v e y s , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l tes ts and m e a s u r e s . PROFILE OF AN OUTCAST POPULATION M a d g e and We inbe rge r ' s (1973) s tudy of art s tudents in Br i ta in e f f e c t i v e l y po r t rays the f ine art student as ex t reme ly c o m m i t t e d to the ro le of ar t is t . It d e m o n s t r a t e s that a sense of be ing d i f fe ren t f r o m others ou ts ide the f ine art w o r l d is a dominant pe rcep t i on a m o n g f ine art s tuden ts , a l though h o w they exp ress it may va ry . " Ind iv idua ls w i th this f e e l i n g " Madge and We inbe rge r w r i t e , "wanted to d i s s o c i a t e t h e m s e l v e s f r o m something" (p. 273). In the s c h o o l yea rs this might have been the s c h o o l author i t ies and the va lues of the ins t i t u t i on , but in art s c h o o l it became s o m e t h i n g larger and more vague , l ike the va lues of s o c i e t y . A s one f ine art student in Forg ing the a l l eg iance to art / 91 M a d g e and We inbe rge r ' s s tudy s ta ted , I take no interest in ou ts ide th ings . I am bound up in m y o w n w o r l d , (p. 111) O f ten the f ee l i ng of d i f f e rence is d e s c r i b e d by the s tudents in te rms of their be ing more ana ly t i ca l and o p e n - m i n d e d than o thers ou ts ide their art w o r l d . It is o f ten e x p r e s s e d as a sense of p r i v i l eged ab i l i t y to see through the va lues o f the larger s o c i e t y . I fe l t I w a s d i f fe ren t , I had a more ques t i on ing at t i tude. Do ing art at s c h o o l w a s the ou tward s ign of my d i f f e r e n c e , (p. 110) I am aware of so many more th ings . N o n - a r t i s t s do not pe rce i ve the deeper i m p l i c a t i o n s of the s y s t e m w i th in wh i ch we l i ve . I ques t i on th ings m o r e , such as the va l i d i t y of m o t i v e s , (p. 111) I think in a d i f fe ren t w a y f r o m o thers , more d e e p l y ; it 's a d i f fe ren t k ind of learning to un i ve rs i t y and t ra in ing c o l l e g e , (p. 111) One 's ou t look is bound to be d i f fe ren t . A r t s tudents have d i f fe ren t ideas about l i fe and s o c i e t y . They cou ldn ' t do the k ind of j obs m o s t peop le d o . (p. 112) In this s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n of be ing more ana ly t i c and o p e n - m i n d e d than o thers Forg ing the a l l eg iance to art / 92 l ies not on ly the s tuden ts ' s e n s e of d i f f e rence but a sense of super io r i t y . I can't c o m m u n i c a t e w i th o the rs , I have to talk to them on a l ower leve l (p. 111). The sense of d i f f e rence and the sense of super io r i t y that f ine art s tudents e x p r e s s e d w a s d i rec ted not on l y t owa rd those ou ts ide the art s c h o o l , but even t o w a r d their c o l l e a g u e s w i th in the art s c h o o l w h o w o r k in the app l ied ar ts . The d i f f e rence in va lues and s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s be tween f ine art s tudents and app l ied art s tuden ts i l lus t ra tes h o w s t rong l y the boundar ies are ma in ta ined be tween the s o - c a l l e d "pure" and " a p p l i e d " a r ts . The boundar ies of f i ne art k n o w l e d g e are s o s t rong as to separa te its p roponen ts i d e o l o g i c a l l y f r o m those in the app l ied ar ts . Fine art s tudents see graphic art s tudents as "more l ike o thers in the w o r l d , " " less i nd i v i dua l i s t i c , " they "take th ings more at f ace va lue , " " lack c o m m i t m e n t , " "are not ve ry in te res t ing , " "are to ta l l y lack ing in any c o n s i d e r a t i o n of their subject or i n v o l v e m e n t in it," "on ly a im at techn ica l s a t i s f a c t i o n , " are "pr imar i l y in te res ted in mak ing m o n e y " (p. 115), and s o o n . The graphic des ign s tuden ts , on the other hand, fe l t that the d i f f e rence f ine art s tudents speak of w a s an ac t , and the des ign s tudents tended to resent it. Th is came a c r o s s s t r ong l y in r e s p o n s e s to the ques t i on "Is there a d i f f e rence in ou t look be tween those in your area and those in other D A D [Department of A r t and Des ign ] a reas?" (p. 112). A s one graphic arts s tudent s t a t e d : Forg ing the a l l eg iance to art / 93 Fine A r t s tudents set up i n t rove rs i on as a cul t . They tend to wo rk in their o w n v o i d w i th pe rsona l ends . (p. 113) A n d another : Fine A r t s tudents s e e m more in tense about th ings , and enlarge . upon d i f f i c u l t i e s , as they have s o much t ime to think about t hem. (p. 114) The w a y m o s t graphic des ign s tudents exper ienced their re la t i onsh ip to the f ine art s tudents is one in w h i c h , as one graphic des ign student s t a t e d , "Fine Ar t s tudents tend to look d o w n on Graph ic Des ign s tudents more than v i ce v e r s a " (p. 115). The fac t that s o many of these k inds of r e s p o n s e s we re g iven to a m p l i f y the straight y e s / n o ques t i on "Is there a d i f f e rence in ou t look be tween those in your area and those in other D A D a r e a s ? " 2 po in ts to the part p l a y e d by each f ac t i on in de f i n ing the no rms and s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of the other. Fine art s tuden ts and graphic art s tudents de f ine t h e m s e l v e s d i f f e ren t l y a l so in te rms of group m e m b e r s h i p . A s many as 94 percent of graphic des ign s tudents in M a d g e and We inbe rge r ' s s tudy s a w t h e m s e l v e s , in their f ina l yea r , as m e m b e r s of a g roup. In the case of the f ine art s tuden ts , h o w e v e r , f e e l i n g s of membersh ip dec l i ned ove r the three yea rs of the p r o g r a m , such that in the f ina l year on ly 16 percent s a w t h e m s e l v e s as m e m b e r s of a group. They made c o m m e n t s such as "I see m y s e l f as an ind iv idua l , " and "We are not a g roup , and th is is g o o d , as it p r o v e s w e Forg ing the a l leg iance to art / 94 are not in f luenc ing each other to a great extent . " (p. 116). Madge and We inbe rge r s u m m a r i z e in regard to the f ine art s tuden ts , Hav ing d i s s o c i a t e d t h e m s e l v e s f r o m other pup i ls at s c h o o l , f r o m the ou ts ide w o r l d as a w h o l e , and f r o m s tudents tak ing a para l le l course in their o w n c o l l e g e , they even tua l l y fe l t t h e m s e l v e s to be d i s s o c i a t e d f r o m the other s tudents on their o w n c o u r s e , (p. 274) M a d g e and We inbe rge r ' s s tudy e f f e c t i v e l y po r t rays an " ind iv idua l l y h y p e r - d e v e l o p e d Fine A r t s tuden t " (p. 277), ex t reme ly c o m m i t t e d to the ro le of ar t is t . Fine art s tudents are " t yp i ca l l y ind iv idua ls w h o cu l t i va ted their i nd i v i dua l i t i es , both as an end in i tse l f and as a p resumed means of enter ing the i l l de f i ned and e lus i ve ro le of a r t i s t " (p. 269). What s tar ted as a 62 percent p ropo r t i on of f ine art s tudents in the f ina l year of their seconda ry s c h o o l educa t ion c l a im ing they were d i f fe ren t f r o m non art s tudents i nc reased to 83 percent in the f ina l year of art s c h o o l . A s these s tudents m o v e d into the ro le of ar t is t , they took on iden t i t ies of the t rad i t iona l s o c i a l t ype of the ar t is t , such as supreme " i nd i v idua l i s t " . They came to v i e w t h e m s e l v e s as having the cha rac te r i s t i cs of the ro le (Rei tzes & Burke, 1983). G e t z e l s and C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i (1976), in their long i tud ina l s tudy of art s tudents and recent graduates of the S c h o o l o f the Ar t Insti tute of C h i c a g o , adm in i s t e red to s tudents in f ine art, the app l ied ar ts , and art educa t ion a set o f tes ts des igned to measure va lues ( " theore t i ca l " , Forg ing the a l l eg iance to art / 95 " e c o n o m i c " , " aes the t i c " , " s o c i a l " , " p o l i t i c a l " , and " re l i g i ous " ) and to measure pe rsona l i t y ( " soc i ab i l i t y " , " c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s " , " s e n s i t i v i t y " , i m a g i n a t i v e n e s s " , " s h r e w d n e s s " , and " s e l f - s e n t i m e n t " ) . The pat tern that emerged is congruent w i th expec ta t i ons genera l l y he ld fo r each s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ; A d v e r t i s i n g and indust r ia l a r t is ts are a l m o s t i nd is t ingu ishab le f r o m each other . In a manner cons i s ten t w i th their future r o l e s , they accep t the value of mater ia l ga ins and s o c i a b i l i t y more than do the other groups.. . A r t educa t ion s tuden ts , w h o s e task it w i l l be to t e a c h , ou t sco re the other groups in s o c i a l va lue . F i na l l y , the f ine art s tudents have the l o w e c o n o m i c - h i g h aes the t i c va lue pat te rn , wh i ch makes them the m o s t "a r t i s t i c " subgoup w i th in the to ta l group of a r t i s ts . They re f lec t to an ex teme degree the va lue pat tern that d i f f e ren t i a tes art s tudents f r o m c o l l e g e n o r m s . (Getze ls & C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , 1976, p. 50) T w o ear l ier s tud ies by t w o A m e r i c a n s o c i o l o g i s t s (Gr i f f , 1964; S t r a u s s , 1970) suppor t the k inds of resu l ts regard ing ro le in te rna l i za t ion that M a d g e and We inbe rge r and G e t z e l s and C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i f o u n d . Bo th these ear l ier s tud ies a l so demons t ra te d i f f e ren t ia l expe r iences of s tudents ma jo r ing in d i f fe ren t v i sua l art f i e l d s — f i n e art, c o m m e r c i a l art, and art educa t i on . A n s e l m S t rauss (1970) conduc ted t w o or three hour i n te rv iews w i th s e v e n t y s tudents and recent graduates o f , aga in , the Ar t Inst i tute of C h i c a g o . Of m o s t in terest are the i n te r v i ews w i th f i ve male s tudents w h o entered the f ine arts p rog ram w i th vague l y f o rmu la ted no t i ons of b e c o m i n g c o m m e r c i a l a r t i s t s , and w h o then underwent a " c o n v e r s i o n e x p e r i e n c e " into the f ine Forging the allegiance to art / 96 arts. Strauss describes the conversion experience and what they were up against: They develop negative attitudes toward commercial work and learn that art is something more than techniques and a job. Art is a twenty-four hour matter... Acquaintanceship with other students f i l ls in the meaning of art as we/tanschaung, with hot discussions and sometimes the discovery of associated art forms, such as ballet and drama.... They have their troubles with parents, since they are breaking formal agreements to enter commercial art—one boy's father cut off his allowance in an effort to bring him to heel, but the boy moved away and got a job to support himself. These students have other strains also arising out of the conversion experience: ...fighting the attempts of instructors to teach techniques which appear mundane compared with problems of se l f -express ion; breaking with former industrial-art fr iends; facing the future with no skil l to fa l l - back upon for economic support. For these students the [art] school has opened a rich world and has at the same time allowed them to take initial steps in finding a place within it. Whether or not they become successful or creditable artists, they are deeply committed to their artistic identities, (p.174) Mason Gri f f 's (1964) study of art students in Chicago indicates that once students enter the art school they sometimes switch from applied art courses to fine art courses, however, the reverse rarely takes place. The Forg ing the a l leg iance to art / 97 i d e o l o g i c a l c o m m i t m e n t , as Gr i f f exp la i ns , is so s ign i f i can t that f ine art s tudents cannot break through this "menta l b l o c k " to con temp la te s w i t c h i n g f r o m one f i e l d to the other w i thou t cons ide rab le damage to s e l f - e s t e e m . The f ine art s tudent has been " imbued w i th the no t i on that there is one a r t — f i n e a r t s — a n d that other f o r m s , such as c o m m e r c i a l art, are not art w i th in the contex t of its true m e a n i n g " (p. 77) S tuden ts of the app l ied ar ts , on the other hand, have not been e x p o s e d to a s im i l a r o r i en ta t i on . They have no i d e o l o g i c a l a t tachment to the f ine ar ts . Re fe rence is made to the f ine arts a long the l ines that it i s , Gr i f f w r i t e s , " some th ing ' g o o d ' , or that it is great art but imprac t i ca l f r o m a c o m m e r c i a l s tandpo in t . " Th is pe rm i t s them to bet ter br idge the gap be tween c o m m e r c i a l and f ine art. The f o l l o w i n g is an excerpt f r o m an i n te rv iew Gr i f f held w i th a f ine art student w h o had recen t l y c o m e into contac t w i th c o m m e r c i a l art s tudents at a night s c h o o l cou rse . It is par t icu lar ly te l l i ng of the a l l eg iance to the f ine art ideal and how s t rong the boundar ies are wh i ch separa te f ine art k n o w l e d g e f r o m that of the app l ied ar ts . A t f i r s t w e learned f igure d raw ing . There were many c o m m e r c i a l ar t is ts there... Their techn ique wasn ' t l ike the f ine a r t i s t ' s . They go on l y to see the m o d e l . They just d raw the mode l f r o m the c o m m e r c i a l ar t is t 's po int of v i e w . It's to appeal to the pub l ic rather than fo r art 's s a k e . Y o u ought to see the mode l and what they do to her fea tures when d raw ing her. M o s t of the m o d e l s are o ld and ug ly b a g s ; but they t r a n s f o r m them into beaut i fu l v i v a c i o u s w o m e n w i th sex p e r s o n i f i e d . They w o u l d c o m p l e t e l y Forg ing the a l l eg iance to art / 98 exaggerate the e y e b r o w s and the rest of the a n a t o m y — y o u k n o w what I mean.. . they we re cheapen ing t h e m s e l v e s by d is to r t i ng what they saw... . I guess they have their p l a c e ; but i t 's d i sgus t i ng to me. (p.78) One last s tudy of art s tudents wo r th men t ion ing is M o n t a l t o ' s (1983) p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l s tudy of the art s t y l e s of three M.F .A . pa in t ing p rog rams . It t oo lends suppor t to the no t ion of the s t rong c o m m i t m e n t , of f ine art s tudents to their s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . The f ine art i d e o l o g y is so p e r v a s i v e , M o n t a l t o c o n c l u d e s , that it t r anscends any one s ing le me thod or art s t y l e in pa in t ing . In fac t , as he argues , it f unc t ions as the s t o n g s o c i a l i z i n g f o r c e and m o t i v a t o r that keeps facu l t y together desp i te the d i ve r s i t y that may ex is t a m o n g their art s t y l e s . These s tud ies of art s tudents al l ar r ive at a s im i la r p ic ture of the f ine art s tudent as h igh ly c o m m i t t e d to the h i s to r i ca l type of art ist that o r ig ina ted w i t h the R e n a i s s a n c e . Fine art s t uden ts ' ident i t ies are so c o m p l e t e l y f o r m e d dur ing their p o s t s e c o n d a r y art p rog rams that they insu la te and de fend their s p e c i a l i z a t i o n - - t h e i r art k n o w l e d g e , w i th al l i ts v a l u e s , b e l i e f s and behav io r c o d e s as w e l l as its me thods and c o n c e p t s — f r o m other k n o w l e d g e d o m a i n s , inc lud ing that of their c o l l e a g u e s in the app l i ed ar ts . G i v e n th is , h o w are ind iv idua ls recru i ted to the f ine arts subcu l ture? W h o has a c c e s s to and w h o takes up its s p e c i a l i z e d know ledge? Forg ing the a l l eg iance to art / 99 THE SOCIAL PARAPHERNALIA FOR RECRUITMENT A r t , un l ike med ic ine or l aw , is an open f i e l d w i th unc lear career p o s s i b i l i t i e s . A l t hough a leg i t ima t ing ins t i tu t ion for a r t i s t s , the art depar tment d o e s not d i rec t l y b e s t o w ar t i s t i c s tatus in the sense that a s c h o o l o f law or med ic ine ce r t i f i es legal or med i ca l s ta tus . Recru i tment into an art w o r l d is nei ther t igh t ly con t ro l l ed nor t igh t ly l i m i t e d . Few app l i can ts are re fused admi t tance to art s c h o o l s and f e w are e x p e l l e d . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , a l m o s t anyone w h o has the t ime and m o n e y can enro l l in any number of f o r m a l art p r o g r a m s . Ye t this is not to say that ind iv idua ls just dr i f t into art. There is a "who le s o c i a l parapherna l ia fo r get t ing pe rsons c o m m i t t e d to their a r t i s t ic i den t i t i e s " , s ta tes Gr i f f (1970, p.147). Entry into art s c h o o l may be the f i rs t major s tep t owa rd fu l l c o m m i t m e n t to the ro le of ar t is t , yet the p r o c e s s of a r t i s t i c ident i ty f o r m a t i o n beg ins for many in ear ly c h i l d h o o d . It is a p r o c e s s that s e e m s more fo r tu i tuous than eng inee red . Artistic identity formation in childhood and adolescence It is a cul tural a s s u m p t i o n that a r t i s ts are marked by s igns of unusual " ta lent " in art at an ear ly age ; that ar t is t ic ta lent is a g i f t that s o m e are born w i th and s o m e not (Chapman, 1980). G e t z e l s and C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i (1976), h o w e v e r , we re unable to f i nd in the h i s to ry of the ear ly l i ves of any of the art s tudents or art graduates they s tud ied any one inc ident that se r ved as an unmis takab le s ign of excep t i ona l talent or an a f f i n i t y t o w a r d Forg ing the a l l eg iance to art / 100 a future v o c a t i o n as an ar t is t . There w a s no c lear m e s s a g e in the record of these a r t i s ts that sa id " this ch i ld w i l l be an ar t is t . " G e t z e l s and C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i ins tead began to see in these h i s to r i es a h ighly c o m p l e x f o r m a t i v e p r o c e s s of innumerab le and s e e m i n g l y i ns ign i f i can t even ts that gradua l ly bui l t up to f o r m an a r t i s t i c ident i t y . In e lemen ta ry s c h o o l , the ab i l i t y to d raw w a s one of the more cruc ia l f a c t o r s . A l l of the ar t is ts G e t z e l s and C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i s tud ied recal l h o w they we re able to amuse or impress their s c h o o l m a t e s and teachers w i th their d r a w i n g s ; and they all r emember be ing i nc reas ing ly aske d by their teachers to des ign pos te r s and lend extra help in decora t ing the c l a s s r o o m . Yet they al l i ns i s ted that what es tab l i shed their a r t i s t ic ident i ty w a s not so much any par t icu lar "g i f t " but s i m p l y greater ded i ca t i on to art. Sa tu rday morn ing art c l a s s e s of the sor t s p o n s o r e d by the c o m m u n i t y art ga l le ry or by the c o m m u n i t y arts counc i l are another f ac to r in es tab l i sh ing a ch i l dhood ident i ty as art ist (Gr i f f , 1970). These c l a s s e s are many ch i ld ren 's f i rs t (and fo r m o s t , on l y ) contac t w i th peers hav ing s i m i l a r d i s p o s i t i o n s t owa rd art or w i th an inst ructor w h o is an ar t is t . P r e s u m a b l y , t hose ch i ld ren w h o had been s ing led out fo r their a r t i s t i c ab i l i t i es by their peers or teachers are those mos t l i ke ly to cont inue to take art c o u r s e s in s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l . It is in s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l that art teachers may o f f e r encouragement to take art c o u r s e s in p o s t s e c o n d a r y educa t ion and p o s s i b l y even a career in art (Getze ls & C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , 1976). |t is c o n c e i v a b l e that th is is the f i rs t t ime many of these s tudents have g iven thought to art as a career p o s s i b i l i t y , rather than as s i m p l y an Forg ing the a l l eg iance to art / 101 en joyab le pas t ime at wh ich they are g o o d . Pub l i c and se l f r ecogn i t i on of one ' s ar t is t ic ab i l i t y d o e s not au toma t i ca l l y t r igger one to i den t i f y w i th the p r o f e s s i o n a l ar t is t (Gr i f f , 1970). There are f e w e r "youth fu l d e c i d e r s " in art than in m e d i c i n e , fo r e x a m p l e , where recru i ts are de te rm ined to be d o c t o r s f r o m a very ear ly age (Rogo f f , 1957). Except fo r the ro le an e lemen ta ry s c h o o l teacher may have in s ing l ing out s tudents f o r their a r t i s t ic ab i l i t i es or the ro le a s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l art teacher may have in conve r t i ng the a r t i s t i ca l l y iden t i f i ed s tuden t ' s no t i on of art as a fun pas t ime into art as a v o c a t i o n (Gr i f f , 1970), art in s c h o o l is not a s ign i f i can t cont r ibu t ing fac to r in the d e c i s i o n to s tudy art at the p o s t s e c o n d a r y l eve l . In fac t , a c c o r d i n g to t e s t i m o n i e s by art s tudents and a r t i s t s , mos t pe rs i s t ed in their d e c i s i o n to take up art in spite of their expe r iences in art c l a s s e s in s c h o o l (Madge & We inbe rge r , 1973; W o o d s , 1987). One art student in Br i ta in r e c a l l s : I cannot remember any of my ideas or at t i tudes be ing app roved of at s c h o o l , except on one o c c a s i o n when my high p roduc t i v i t y in p o t a t o - p a t t e r n i n g w a s w a r m l y r e c e i v e d . (Madge & W e i n b e r g e r , 1973, p.129) S e v e r a l a r t i s ts w h o m W o o d s (1987) i n te r v i ewed a lso e x p r e s s e d the op in ion that art i ns t ruc t ion in s c h o o l w a s un insp i r i ng . The for tunate th ing fo r me in te rms of my later th ink ing about art is that I never a s s o c i a t e d what they ca l l ed art in s c h o o l w i th what I later began to think of as art. What they ca l l art w a s Forg ing the a l l eg iance to art / 102 s tup id . It w a s all ro te . There is noth ing exc i t i ng about it. The teacher w o u l d demons t ra te how to beg in and hand out ma te r i a l s . I f ound it t o ta l l y bo r ing , (p. 69) In many s c h o o l s s tudents are f a c e d w i th p reva i l i ng p ressure t o w a r d s s c i e n c e or other sub jec ts lead ing to p l aces in un i ve rs i t i es and u l t ima te l y to reward ing and f i nanc ia l l y secure ca ree rs . The v i e w of one Canad ian s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r , w h o ho lds r e s p o n s i b i l i t y fo r s tuden ts ' p rog ram and career gu idance , is t y p i c a l : A r t , as he sees it, is use fu l as an out let f r o m the r igors of other sub jec ts but poo r as a v o c a t i o n a l oppor tun i t y fo r s tuden ts (Hawke, 1980). Th is at t i tude t owa rd art w a s a l so repor ted by the art s tudents in M a d g e and We inbe rge r ' s (1973) s tudy . M o r e than two th i rds of the tota l 174 art s tudents i n te rv iewed responded to the ques t i on "How w a s art regarded at s c h o o l ? " a long the l ines o f : "it w a s not taken s e r i o u s l y or w a s regarded as a s e c o n d - r a t e subject or as rec rea t iona l or su i tab le fo r d r o p - o u t s " (p.58). The pressure t o w a r d careers in other than the f ine arts c o m e s in large part f r o m paren ts , and o f ten resu l ts in se r ious c o n f l i c t s (Getze ls & C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , 1976; G r i f f , 1964, 1970; R i d g e w a y , 1975; S t r a u s s , 1970). Upon hear ing of their o f f s p r i n g ' s in tent ion to b e c o m e an ar t is t , parents o f ten reverse their at t i tude f r o m one of encouragement and pr ide in ch i l dhood a r t i s t i c ab i l t i t ies to one of d i sappo in tmen t and even d i s s u a s i o n . S o m e paren ts , par t icu lar ly those of the m idd le and upper c l a s s e s , go to great e f fo r t to see that their o f f s p r i n g are e x p o s e d to f ine art fo r its Forg ing the a l l eg iance to art / 103 "cu l tu ra l " v a l u e s , but not to the extent that it is pe rm i t ted to b e c o m e an a t t rac t ive v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . T y p i c a l of th is s i tua t ion is the case of an e lemen ta ry s c h o o l in an a f f luent urban area. 3 The s c h o o l w a s an a r t s - o r i e n t e d one w i th a p r inc ipa l w h o w a s v i s i b l y ac t i ve in the leg i t ima ted f ine ar ts , and respec ted in the c o m m u n i t y fo r th is . The s c h o o l ' s enro lment w a s c o n s i s t e n t l y ve ry high in the p r imary grades but d ropped s i gn i f i can t l y in the upper e lemen ta ry g rades . The parents were keen to in t roduce their o f f s p r i n g to the ar ts , s t r e s s i n g the cu l tu ra l , human is t , and other re la ted va lues of the arts that s c h o o l s d o . But at the point where a c a d e m i c s tud ies we re seen to be of i nc reased impo r tance , parents t rans fe r red their ch i ld ren f r o m the a r t s - o r i e n t e d s c h o o l to another s c h o o l where a c a d e m i c s tud ies that lead mos t d i rec t l y to p r o f e s s i o n a l p rog rams in un ive rs i t y were e m p h a s i z e d . If parental conce rn has not been e x p r e s s e d in the e lemen ta ry g rades , as in the above s i t ua t i on , it m a y occur dur ing the s tuden ts ' s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l y e a r s . High s c h o o l was. . . the t ime when s o m e of the parents began w o r r y i n g that their s o n s were not turning out as they had hoped . Ed 's paren ts , w h o thought his pa in t ings "p re t ty " when he w a s in e lemen ta ry s c h o o l , b e c a m e "upt ight" when they rea l i zed that he w a s in earnest about art. Ed repo r t s , "Because they we re C a t h o l i c s , they thought pa in ters on l y d id naked l ad ies , so they sent me to conven t s c h o o l . " (Getze ls & C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , 1976, p. 212) Forg ing the a l l eg iance to art / 104 In the popu la t i on of parents of both art and non -a r t s tudents that M a d g e and We inbe rge r (1973) s tud ied , " the m o s t general expressed at t i tude w a s one of t o l e r a n c e , that "it is up to the ch i ld to d e c i d e " (p. 53). H o w e v e r , these authors a l so no t i ced that s o m e over t o p p o s i t i o n to art as a career d id ex is t . S o m e parents l o o k e d on art s tudents as " l a y - a b o u t s " (p. 52). The mos t s t renuous ob jec t i on parents are l i ke ly to m a k e , to their o f f s p r i n g ' s in tent ion to b e c o m e an ar t is t , as Gr i f f (1970) d e s c r i b e s , is that the painter cannot hope to earn "a g o o d sa la ry and a n ice h o m e " s o l e l y f r o m pa in t ing . There is the fear that t rad i t iona l s y m b o l s che r i shed by f a m i l i e s w i l l have to be f o r f e i t e d . The bohemian s t e reo t ype of the art ist v i o l a t e s the p r o f e s s e d mores of the t rad i t iona l A m e r i c a n idea l . No te that an art ist m a y , in fac t , have no cho i ce but take up the bohemian l i f e s t y l e in order to subs i s t on the scant f i nanc ia l rewards of "pure" a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y . To add to t h i s , is the pe rcep t i on of a r t i s t i c pursu i ts as f e m i n i n e ; a s o n as an art ist is f o r s o m e parents a source of d i sc red i t . Pa ren t s ' sh i f t in att i tude f r o m one of encouragement and reward of ch i l dhood a r t i s t i c f la i r to d i s a p p r o v a l later o f f ine art as a career cho i ce s i g n i f i e s f o r Gr i f f (1964) the a l i e n a t i o n 5 o f the art ist and art in c o n t e m p o r a r y cu l ture. It s i g n i f i e s the amb iguous s ta tus of art in s o c i e t y , and is s o m e t h i n g wh ich art s tudents f ace ear ly in their ca ree rs . Parents may r e c o g n i z e , a l though not n e c e s s a r i l y at a c o n s c i o u s l e v e l , the va lue of the f ine arts as cul tural c a p i t a l ; h o w e v e r , at the s a m e t i m e , the v o c a t i o n of art ist d o e s not f i t w i th the expec ta t i ons of occupa t i ona l p res t ige they Forg ing the a l l eg iance to art / 105 ho ld fo r their ch i l d ren . Th is is a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the h i s to r i ca l e thos that it is far more nob le to pa t ron ize the arts than to p rac t i ce t hem. H o w e v e r , w i th art 's ins t i tu t iona l bas i s in un i ve rs i t i es rather than v o c a t i o n a l c o l l e g e s or w o r k s h o p s , parenta l suppor t fo r an o f f s p r i n g ' s d e c i s i o n to s tudy art has p r e s u m a b l y b e c o m e s o m e w h a t eas ie r to secu re . S o c i a l t ens ions and con t r ad i c t i ons are med ia ted through p lacemen t in accep tab le ins t i t u t i ons . Th is p a t r o n i z e - b u t - d o n ' t - p r a c t i c e at t i tude is expec ted to be m o s t preva lent in the more a f f luent c l a s s e s . A n a r t i s t i c career d o e s not genera l l y resul t f r o m an educa t ion at an el i te p r iva te s c h o o l . The at t i tude v o i c e d by a student in G r i f f ' s (1964) s tudy w h o c a m e f r o m a re la t i ve l y upper c l a s s ne ighbo rhood w a s that , "peop le there are 'proper ' . The art inst i tute has a B o h e m i a n reputa t ion and a s t rangeness about the p l a c e , s o that not many s tudents go there" (p. 80). Nor is it expec ted that many s tudents of l o w e c o n o m i c s tand ing enro l l in art p r o g r a m s , acco rd ing to Gr i f f (1964), because g o a l s in the lower c l a s s e s are o r ien ted t owa rd immed ia te g ra t i f i ca t i on and because i ncome is a s ign i f i can t conce rn fo r this g roup . For the mos t part , art is v i e w e d as pure nonsense by the l ower c l asses . . . A r t is thought to be the doma in of the wea l t hy w h o they be l i eve comprehend it (p. 85). P r e s u m a b l y , then, it is f r o m the m idd le c l a s s e s that those m o s t l i ke ly to b e c o m e m e m b e r s of the f ine art subcu l ture are to emerge . 6 Forging the allegiance to art / 106 Motivation to study art Given the pressures from parents and from the school against choosing fine art as a career, what makes one decide to enter art school? For many, entering into art school represents not merely an opportunity for acquiring greater skil l in art or a way to avoid academic study, but an attractive l i festyle based on individuality, a general lack of interest in money and respectabil i ty, freedom from the nine to f ive work routine, and a nonutilitarian use of labor—the antithesis of the middle-c lass values from which most of these art students come. The glamor in the l i festyle and anti-establishment values associated ' with the artist is the reason for entering art school most extensively and consistently documented. In Madge and Weinberger's (1973) study, for example, the fo l lowing are typical student comments: Lots of my non-art friends are only concerned with clothes and materialistic things. My parents are only concerned with their own life and achieving security, (p. 111) And : Other fr iends' lives revolve around jobs, drinking, women—I have nothing in common with them. (p. 111) These kinds of values may develop in reaction to watching parents and friends feel trapped, defeated, or unfulfi l led in jobs with few challenges or opportunities for personal expression and freedom. From psychometric Forg ing the a l leg iance to art / 107 s tud ies , Frank Bar ron (1972) s u g g e s t s that these s tudents value the " independent w a y of l i f e " (p. 49) s o s t rong l y that th is has de te rm ined their v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . He d e v e l o p e d a port ra i t of the f ine art student that r e f l ec t s these v a l u e s : In p e r s o n a l i t y , the s tudents are no tab ly independent and u n c o n v e n t i o n a l , v i v i d in gesture and e x p r e s s i o n , rather c o m p l e x p s y c h o d y n a m i c a l l y but w i th an emphas i s upon o p e n n e s s , s p o n t a n e i t y , and w h i m s i c a l i t y rather than neurot ic c o m p l i c a t e d n e s s . . . In b r ie f , they c h o o s e to do what they va lue m o s t , and this i tse l f se ts them apart f r o m many apparen t ly bet ter ad jus ted peop le w h o are do ing what they w o u l d rather not (p. 49). But it may be an o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n to s a y that those w h o opt fo r the ro le of ar t is t are s i m p l y exp ress i ng a d i ve rgence w i th the dominant va lues in s o c i e t y . M a d g e and We inbe rge r sugges t that there may a l so be c a s e s where the s tudent may reject the s t e r e o t y p i c a l bohemian l i f e s t y l e and the idea of the ar t i s t ' s ou t look as n e c e s s a r i l y be ing d i f fe ren t f r o m others and ins tead may seek to equate his or her ro le as an art ist w i th more h ighly regarded in te l lec tua l r o l e s , such as that of the sc i en t i s t . E m p h a s i s on the more h ighly l eg i t ima ted in te l lec tua l a s p e c t s of a r t i s t i c ac t i v i t y and the t rend t owa rd concep tua l art, may have created su f f i c i en t lat t i tude fo r the s a t i s f a c t i o n of ei ther m o t i v a t i o n . But in ei ther c a s e , the expec ta t i on of the art p rogram is that it is f ree of Forg ing the a l l eg iance to art / 108 res t r i c t i ve o rgan iza t iona l c o n t r o l s , at least re la t ive to other educa t iona l p r o g r a m s . It is expec ted that the art s c h o o l o f f e r s f r e e d o m to wo rk in a s i tu ta t i on where one can de f ine fo r o n e s e l f what to do and h o w to do it. A s G e t z e l s and C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i (1976) s ta te , the thought of hav ing " c o m p l e t e con t ro l ove r each a c t i o n , the immed ia te resu l ts of each m o v e m e n t , the c o n c r e t e n e s s of the p roduc ts are p o w e r f u l r e w a r d s " (p. 216), and al l cont r ibute to the d e c i s i o n to b e c o m e an ar t is t . When M a d g e and We inbe rge r (1973) asked art s tudents both at the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l leve l and at the p o s t s e c o n d a r y leve l "What is your m o t i v e for do ing art?", 73 percent gave " e n j o y m e n t " as their m o t i v e . For those s tudents in their s e c o n d or higher yea rs of art s c h o o l , equa l l y p rominent w a s a group of m o t i v e s wh ich inc luded s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , e m o t i o n a l r e l ease , c o m p u l s i v e n e e d , and fur ther ing pe rsona l deve lopmen t . 7 Not one f ine art s tudent gave career or earn ing capac i t y as a mo t i va t i on fo r do ing art. One f o rme r f ine art s tudent 's r easons fo r enter ing art s c h o o l s u m m a r i z e s seve ra l o f the ideas d i s c u s s e d a b o v e . In a letter about the fate of i d e a l i s m in art s c h o o l , he r e c a l l s : W h e n I entered the un i ve rs i t y ' s art p rogram as a f r e s h m a n , my reasons for be ing there s e e m e d c lear to me. I had " ta len t " : a knack fo r mak ing p h o t o g r a p h - l i k e d raw ings and n i c e l y ba lanced c o m p o s i t i o n s . I b e l i e v e d , thanks to read ing a d v e r t i s e m e n t s to art s c h o o l s , that one cou ld make a secure l i v ing w i th such s k i l l s . I l i ked be ing p ra i sed for my d raw ings and c a r t o o n s , and w a s vague ly aware of an in t r ins ic s a t i s f a c t i o n that d id not depend on Forging the allegiance to art / 109 hearing applause. And after twelve years of schooling I was viv idly aware of a desire to stay as far away from term papers and libraries as possib le. My outlook was characteristic of many new art students. It was not, I think, hopeless. The intrinsic joy of- creation was already, confusedly, within me. And I was ready—as I discovered later—to put energies into activit ies that promised to make society more l ivable. (Winter, 1970, p.15-16) Upon entering art schoo l , this student became increasingly disi l lusioned to the point that he eventually dropped out with, he claims, no regrets. He could not see art as being good for anything but a technical exerc ise—in his words, , "useful only for giving urban intellectuals something to talk about" (p.16). Of course, at any point along the initiation and learning sequence, an individual may become disi l lusioned and opt out, especial ly if that individual enters art school with an expectation of being taught about art in a structured way, and instead is faced with loosely structured curriculum and instruction reflecting a romantic belief in the "untutored genius". The disil lusionment could also conceivably occur if skil l in drawing—upon which the student had gained artistic recognition in the first p lace—is an insignificant criterion for success in the program. Both a loosely structured curriculum and an emphasis on abstract, conceptual, performance or new media forms, rather than on drawing sk i l ls , are common realities of art programs. Forg ing the a l l eg iance to art / 110 The m o s t c ruc ia l test o f the f i t b e t w e e n , on the one hand , a s tudent 's s k i l l s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , m o t i v e s and external p ressu res and , on the other hand, the rea l i t ies of the art s c h o o l is the f i rs t year of art s c h o o l . In other w o r d s , the f i rs t year is the m o s t c ruc ia l f i rs t s tep in a c o m m i t m e n t to the ro le of ar t is t . By the third year of their art p r o g r a m , ident i ty as an art is t has been a f f i r m e d (Getze ls & C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , 1976; M a d g e & We inbe rge r , 1973). A r t s tudents have b e c o m e i m m e r s e d in and have in te rna l i zed the art k n o w l e d g e of the f ine art subcu l tu re . Even though this set of v a l u e s , m a n n e r i s m s , as w e l l as f o r m a l cur r icu lum s k i l l s and concep t s has amb iguous cul tural l eg i t ima t i on , the art s c h o o l or art depar tment has e f f e c t i v e l y l eg i t ima ted this art k n o w l e d g e for i ts new recru i ts . It has leg i t ima ted fo r many art s tudents a career cho i ce that is v i e w e d by parents and a c a d e m i c c o u n s e l l o r s as a poor voca t i ona l a l te rna t i ve . Through in te rac t ions w i th in the art depar tmen t , s tudents d e v e l o p and s o l i d i f y c o m m i t m e n t to c o n c e p t i o n s of art k n o w l e d g e va lued w i th in the depar tment . If these c o n c e p t i o n s are based a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y on a ma ins t ream modern is t w a y of th ink ing about art, as is m o s t o f ten the c a s e , so t oo is it l i ke ly that these c o n c e p t i o n s b e c o m e the norm for s tuden ts . THE FUNCTION OF THE ART DEPARTMENT IN PREVENTING "REALITY SLIPPING" Berger and Luckmann ' s (1966) concep t of adult s o c i a l i z a t i o n does not p r e s u p p o s e the same high degree of i den t i f i ca t i on as d o e s s o c i a l i z a t i o n in c h i l d h o o d . Th is is because the con ten ts of later s o c i a l i z a t i o n have a "br i t t le Forg ing the a l leg iance to art / 111 and unre l iab le sub jec t i ve rea l i t y " , whereas in ear ly s o c i a l i z a t i o n the ch i ld in te rna l izes the w o r l d of his or her parents as the on l y w o r l d (Berger & L u c k m a n n , 1966). Yet in later s o c i a l i z a t i o n , the degree of i den t i f i ca t i on can va ry . Learn ing to b e c o m e a p r o f e s s i o n a l ar t is t i n v o l v e s i m m e r s i n g o n e s e l f in the subject and w a y s of art and i den t i f y i ng w i th a c c l a i m e d ar t i s ts to an extent not as n e c e s s a r y for. the pe rson learn ing to be an eng ineer , fo r examp le . Berger and Luckmann w o u l d say th is d i f f e rence c o m e s f r o m the in t r ins ic d i f f e r e n c e s be tween the two f i e l d s of k n o w l e d g e , and "be tween the w a y s of l i fe in wh ich these two b o d i e s of know ledge are p rac t i ca l l y app l i ed . " (p.133) Where the va lues of a k n o w l e d g e area are in sharp cont ras t w i th those of the larger s o c i e t y , as w i th the case of much art k n o w l e d g e , there has to be an i n tens i f i ca t i on of the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the ar t is t . Berger and Luckmann 's examp le of the mus i c i an and the Ca tho l i c pr iest w o r k s w e l l to i l lus t rate t h i s : It may be a s s u m e d that a m u s i c i a n in the mak ing in c o n t e m p o r a r y A m e r i c a must c o m m i t h imse l f to mus i c w i th an e m o t i o n a l in tens i ty that w a s unnecessa ry in n ineteenth century V i e n n a , p r e c i s e l y because in the A m e r i c a n s i tua t ion there is p o w e r f u l c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m what w i l l sub jec t i ve l y appear as the " m a t e r i a l i s t i c " and " m a s s cu l tu re" w o r l d of the "rat r a c e " . S i m i l a r l y , re l i g ious t ra in ing in a p lu ra l i s t i c s i tua t ion p o s i t s the need for " a r t i f i c i a l " techn iques of r e a l i t y - a c c e n t u a t i o n that are unnecessa ry in a s i tua t ion dom ina ted by a re l i g ious m o n o p o l y . It is s t i l l "na tura l " to b e c o m e a Ca tho l i c pr ies t in R o m e in a w a y that it is not in A m e r i c a . C o n s e q u e n t l y , A m e r i c a n t heo log i ca l Forg ing the a l l eg iance to art / 112 s e m i n a r i e s must cope w i th the p rob lem of " r e a l i t y - s l i p p i n g " and d e v i s e techn iques for "mak ing s t i c k " the s a m e rea l i t y . Not su rp r i s i ng l y , they have hit upon the o b v i o u s exped ient of send ing their m o s t p r o m i s i n g s tudents to R o m e fo r a w h i l e , (p. 134) L i k e w i s e , we cou ld say that the art s c h o o l p rac t ice of send ing bus loads of art s tudents to N e w York C i t y is a dev i ce a l so adap ted fo r p reven t ing " r e a l i t y - s l i p p i n g . " In the case of the educa t ion of a r t i s t s , as w i th Berger and Luckmann 's examp le of pr ies ts , , there are " techn iques. . .des igned to i n tens i f y the a f f e c t i v e charge of the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s " (p. 133), to make the i den t i f i ca t i on more c o m p l e t e or c l o s e r to that found in p r imary s o c i a l i z a t i o n . A l m o s t eve ry th ing w i th in art p rog rams re i n fo r ces the impor tance o f art and the ar t is t , and func t i ons to s t rengthen the s tudent 's ident i ty as ar t is t and s o l i d i f y the c o m m i t m e n t to the f ine art d i s c i p l i n e : c o u r s e s in art h i s to ry that demons t ra te the cent ra l i t y o f art to human l i fe and h i s t o r y ; the camarader ie a m o n g f e l l o w art s tudents and the c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i th art teachers w h o are t h e m s e l v e s a r t i s t s ; s imu la t ing the lof t env i ronment through ac t i v i t y in the s tud ios and a p rogram of v i s i t i ng a r t i s t s ; the encou ragemen t to exhib i t one 's w o r k ; the e m p h a s i s on v i s i t i ng g a l l e r i e s ; and other p rac t i ces d e s c r i b e d in chapter 3 as leg i t imat ing ins t i tu t ions w i th in the f ine art w o r l d . These are al l d e v i c e s that func t ion to prevent " r e a l i t y - s l i p p i n g " . In W o o d s ' (1987) i n te rv iews w i th 30 "eminen t , f u l l - t i m e " (p. 53) par t i c ipan ts in the v i sua l arts c o m m u n i t y in V a n c o u v e r , Br i t i sh C o l u m b i a , the impor tance of the learn ing env i r onmen t , more s p e c i f i c a l l y , the s t u d i o - l o f t a tmosphe re and d i s c u s s i o n s w i th pee rs , w a s Forg ing the a l l eg iance to art / 113 a l luded to seve ra l t i m e s . A s W o o d s s u m m a r i z e d , and th is r e s e m b l e s M o n t a l t o ' s (1983) s u m m a r y , "d i rect exposure to art and ar t i s ts w a s s t i l l regarded by mos t as s ign i f i can t to the d e v e l o p m e n t of e m p a t h y " (p. 122). The f o l l o w i n g in te rv iew r e s p o n s e s are i l l us t ra t i ve : W e were in and out of each o ther 's s t u d i o s . P e o p l e l i ved in an area together . It w a s p robab ly just as exc i t ing as N e w Y o r k ' s S o H o w a s a f e w years a g o . The art s c h o o l and the c rea t i ve l i fe of the c i t y w a s al l i n te rwoven (p. 100). A n d another ; W e were a l w a y s d i s c u s s i n g each o the rs ' wo rk . That w a s a big part o f the art c l a s s e s . Th is w a s more va l i d than eve ry th ing (e lse) . It w a s a w a y of th ings mak ing s e n s e . There w e r e v i s i t o r s , pa in te rs , and wri ters.. .(p. 102). Berger and Luckmann (1966) exp la in that where " c o m m i t m e n t to the new rea l i t y " is i ns t i tu t iona l l y de f i ned as n e c e s s a r y , as in the case of the a m b i g u o u s l y l eg i t ima ted f ine ar ts , the re la t i onsh ip of the pe rson to the " s o c i a l i z i n g p e r s o n n e l " b e c o m e s "charged w i th ' s i gn i f i cance ' . That i s , the s o c i a l i z i n g pe rsonne l take on the character of s i gn i f i can t o thers vis-a-vis the ind iv idua l be ing s o c i a l i z e d " (p. 133). W e cou ld say that the phenomenon of the art teacher as the cu r r i cu lum, as mas te r art ist in a s tud io w o r k s h o p se t t ing (rather than in the r ig id teacher / s tuden t h ierarch ica l s t ruc tures of the t rad i t iona l c l a s s r o o m ) f unc t i ons to " cha rge " that teacher w i th s i g n i f i c a n c e for the art s tudent . Forg ing the a l l eg iance to art / 114 The ind iv idua l then c o m m i t s h i m s e l f in a c o m p r e h e n s i v e w a y to the new rea l i t y . He "g i ves h i m s e l f " to m u s i c , to the r e v o l u t i o n , to the fa i t h , not just par t ia l l y but w i th what is sub jec t i ve l y the w h o l e of his l i fe . The read iness to s a c r i f i c e onese l f i s , o f c o u r s e , the f ina l c o n s e q u e n c e of th is t ype of s o c i a l i z a t i o n . (Berger & L u c k m a n n , 1966, p. 133) In s u m m a r y , c o m m i t m e n t to the ro le of art ist is not w i thou t its s a c r i f i c e s and c o n f l i c t s , many of wh i ch ar ise f r o m the amb iguous leg i t ima t ion of art (chapter 3). F rom the d e c i s i o n to take up art as a career , many s tudents face a l iena t ion f r o m their pa ren ts , uncer ta in career p o s s i b i l i t i e s and earn ing c a p a c i t y , and ded i ca t i on to an en terpr ise that is seen by many as per ipheral and hav ing l i t t le to do w i th p r o b l e m s in the "real w o r l d " . But in the w o r d s of G e t z e l s and C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i (1976, p. 218) : other career p lans wh i ch have been kept a l i ve because art appeared to be such an un l i ke ly o c c u p a t i o n , fade a w a y . The art s c h o o l b e c o m e s a cruc ia l l ink in the long sequence of expe r iences f r o m p r e s c h o o l expe r imen ts w i th c r a y o n s to f ina l s u c c e s s as an independent ar t is t . If the c r i t i ca l test o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s l ies in the ab i l i t y o f i nd iv idua ls to p lay the ro les in wh ich they may later f ind t h e m s e l v e s ( Inkeles, 1968), then s o c i a l i z a t i o n into the ar t is t ' s ro le is indeed e f f e c t i v e . Through in te rac t ions w i th in the art depar tment , art s tudents c o m e to iden t i f y w i th the ro le to the extent that they appear to have taken on Forg ing the a l leg iance to art / 115 cha rac te r i s t i c s of the s o c i a l t ype of the art ist (Barron, 1972; M a d g e and We inbe rge r , 1973; M o n t a l t o , 1983). Thei r ident i ty is based on a cu l tu ra l ly l im i ted set o f w e s t e r n roman t i c a r t i s t i c i dea ls . It is based on a f in i te p rov i nce of m e a n i n g , a s p e c i a l i z e d d i s c i p l i n e of k n o w l e d g e that is h igh ly d i f f e ren t i a ted and insu la ted f r o m e v e r y d a y k n o w l e d g e and other s p e c i a l i z e d d i s c i p l i n e s , inc lud ing its "poor c o u s i n " , the app l ied ar ts . Fur thermore , it is a s p e c i a l i z e d b o d y of sanc t i oned k n o w l e d g e that has been shaped and f r amed by the ins t i tu t iona l s t ruc tures of the art depar tment and the un i ve rs i t y ' s c o l l e c t i o n code cu r r i cu lum. The art depar tment is a major p layer in the p r o c e s s of get t ing ind iv idua ls c o m m i t t e d to this s p e c i a l i z e d and insular d i s c i p l i n e . The a l l eg iance it cu l t i va tes in its recru i ts f unc t i ons to d e f e n d , ma in ta in , and perpetuate the d i f f e ren t i a t i on and insu la t ion wh i ch on the one hand e leva tes f ine art by ma in ta in ing its p lace in the rea lm of " t ruth" and s c h o l a r s h i p , as o p p o s e d to k n o w l e d g e of the e v e r y d a y w o r l d ; but, on the other hand, ma in ta ins f ine art 's p o s i t i o n as per iphera l to technocra t i c d i s c i p l i n e s thought to be of more immed ia te va lue in the "real w o r l d " . Through the p r o c e s s e s of s o c i a l i z a t i o n and a c a d e m i c l e g i t i m a t i o n , the art depar tment has b e c o m e s o e f f e c t i v e in the cul tural rep roduc t i on of i ts t rad i t iona l c o n c e p t i o n s of art k n o w l e d g e that it is able to impede s ign i f i can t p o s t m o d e r n i s t r e f o rm t o w a r d the broader k n o w l e d g e base it needs to m o v e art educa t i on into a more v i ta l and re levant ro le in s o c i e t y . Forging the allegiance to art / 116 NOTES 1 "Secondary" social ization is the term Berger & Luckmann and others use to refer to the social izat ion that takes place in adulthood, in contrast to "primary" social izat ion which takes place in childhood. 2 Only eight percent of the graphic design students and 26 percent of the fine art students answered "no" to this question. 3 This case is based on personal discussion with an administrator of that school district. 4 Madge and Weinberger (1973) found that the number of parents with an "actual artistic interest or act iv i ty" in art was higher, but not signif icantly so, for art students than for non-art students. In 14 out of 50 famil ies of non-art students, one or both of the parents had an interest in the arts, as compared with 14 out of 42 famil ies of art students. 5 The words "alienation" and "artist" appear so frequently together that their conjunction has almost become a cultural cl iche, explains Barbara Rosenblum (1985): This fact, alone, compels sociological attention precisely because cliches are shorthand forms of discourse which simultaneously conceal and congeal social processes, (p. 35). Fol lowing from Marx's treatment of alienation, socio logists see it as a function of a lack of control over the work processes and separation from the final products. Rosenblum argues, however, that artists have a very high degree of control over the work process in terms of choice of materials and technologies, work pace, and control over the aesthetic judgements that determine the form of the work itself. It is the marketplace relations over which individual artists have little control. 6 Of the 174 art students in Madge and Weinberger's study, 142 came from schools generally attended by the middle c lass: 92 from grammar schools, 25 from comprehensive schools, and 25 from secondary modern schools. Only 15 came from private schoo ls . , Eleven came from technical schools, and six from special art schools. 7 Ninety- two percent agreed with the statement "The value of an art education is in furthering personal development in whatever direction this may lead" and 89 percent agreed with the statement "The freedom given to each student to fo l low his own development here is very valuable" (p. 70). CHAPTER 5 LEGACIES THAT LEGITIMATE: SOCIAL ORIGINS OF THE ACADEMICIZATION OF ART As with any discipl ine, art knowledge has a history through which a body of respected knowledge has developed. In other words, the selection and organization of knowledge in education is less a conscious process by educators than it is a consequence of a significant past— the tradition. This chapter outlines the significant past of traditional conceptions of art knowledge. Key historical determinants of the core meanings and systems of social ly sanctioned art practices are presented in this chapter as three traditions or legacies: the long academy tradition of drawing and painting "noble" subject matter, the liberal arts educational tradition, and a philosophical ar t - for-ar t 's sake tradition of aesthetics. Together these traditions function as a set of authorities that purport to legitimate the place of art in education and determine the activit ies and concepts acceptable to education in art. With the authority of these socia l ly-accepted traditions and their associat ion with privi leged social groups, the university art department is able to maintain the traditional fine arts as its knowledge base, despite postmodernist objections to the cultural exclusivity of such knowledge. Furthermore, these traditions have provided artists and art students with motivation to pursue art as a career in spite of the economic hardships it brings. A fourth significant tradition is discussed in chapter 6, namely, the more recent avant-garde tradition of rejecting all of the above traditions. 117 Legac ies that leg i t imate / 118 The c l a i m w a s made ear l ier that the dominant f o r m s of art k n o w l e d g e and p rac t i ces cur rent ly e m b o d i e d in educa t iona l ins t i tu t ions in w e s t e r n s o c i e t y are not rep resen ta t i ve o f , or re levant t o , many of their c l i en t s . Such a c l a i m demands c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : W h o s e k n o w l e d g e is it? In what k inds of ins t i tu t ions d o e s it o r ig ina te? W h y is it r espec ted and other art k n o w l e d g e not? H o w has it been able to reta in its e x c l u s i v i t y in a p lu ra l i s t i c s o c i e t y and pers is t fo r so long? Th is chapter , in r e v i e w i n g s o m e s o c i a l and h i s to r i ca l backg round to art k n o w l e d g e , a t tempts to p rov ide s o m e insight into these q u e s t i o n s . In s o d o i n g , it a l so dem ons t ra tes further the o b s t a c l e s p o s t m o d e r n i s t a t tempts at r e f o rm are up aga ins t , n a m e l y a f o r m i d a b l e set of l eg i t ima t ing l egac ies . The c l a i m w a s a l so made that the ins t i tu t iona l a l l iance of f ine art w i th un i ve rs i t i es has been cruc ia l in ma in ta in ing art 's s o c i a l s ta tus and p o s i t i o n in educa t ion (chapter 3), even though the a l l i ance , w i th its a s s o c i a t e d cons t ra in t s of d i sc ip l i na ry t i es and academic p rocedu res , has been a source of comp la in t fo r many a r t i s t s . Th is chapter demons t ra tes that emphas i z i ng the scho la r l y and theore t i ca l base of a d i s c i p l i n e , as has occur red w i th in the last f e w decades w i th the m o v e of art into un i ve rs i t i es and even tua l l y into graduate s t u d i e s , is not a new s t ra tegy fo r l eg i t ima t ing that d i sc i p l i ne and e leva t ing its s ta tus in s o c i e t y . A t t e m p t s — n o t a l w a y s s u c c e s s f u l — t o re fo rmu la te the ar t is t ' s ro le f r o m s k i l l e d ar t isan to ph i lospher and " ideas m a n " began as ear ly as the Rena i ssance and cu lm ina ted in th is century w i th the concep tua l art m o v e m e n t . 1 THE LEGACY OF THE ART ACADEMY Legac ies that leg i t imate / 119 Emancipation from the status of laborer B e f o r e art k n o w l e d g e of any sor t cou ld b e c o m e a mat ter of s i gn i f i can t a t ten t ion to a cul tural e l i te and be con fe r r ed the s ta tus that goes w i th be ing part o f f o r m a l educa t iona l k n o w l e d g e , of "what c o u n t s " as k n o w l e d g e , the concep t of art had to f i rs t d e v e l o p a w a y f r o m be ing a manual t rade in med ieva l s o c i e t y . Ar t dur ing m e d i e v a l t i m e s w a s regarded as one of the manual c r a f t s , and the p r o f e s s i o n of ar t is t had no spec ia l s ta tus . The ins t i tu t ion r e s p o n s i b l e fo r prepar ing ar t i s ts in med ieva l w e s t e r n s o c i e t y w a s the w o r k s h o p . A n apprent ice learned f r o m a mas te r the p rac t i ca l aspec t s of the p r o f e s s i o n wh i l e at the s a m e t ime con t r ibu t ing to w o r k s h o p p roduc t i on . H o w e v e r , it w a s f requent l y the case that the p ressure of c o m m i s s i o n s l im i ted the t ime the mas te r cou ld devo te to teach ing appren t i ces (Ke l l y , 1974). The mas te r ' s p r io r i t y w a s to s a t i s f y the in te res ts and a ims of his c l i e n t s — t h e higher c l e rgy of the Church and the nob i l i t y and ch iva l r i c c l a s s e s (Hauser, 1983). Because this ac t i v i t y w a s d i rec ted to the tas tes and no rms of the rul ing c l a s s e s , ques t ions of a r t i s t i c f r e e d o m and the s o c i a l s ta tus of the art is t we re of l i t t le c o n s e q u e n c e . A l m o s t al l four teenth century F lo ren t ine ar t i s ts came f r o m peasant or w o r k i n g c l a s s c i r c l e s . The p r o f e s s i o n w a s c o n s i d e r e d t oo degrad ing fo r m e m b e r s of the rul ing and u p p e r - m i d d l e c l a s s e s to c o n s i d e r as a se r ious v o c a t i o n a l cho i ce (An ta l , 1970). Legac ies that leg i t imate / 120 A s w i th m o s t o c c u p a t i o n s at that t i m e , a r t i s ts be longed to gu i lds f o r m e d for the pu rpose of p ro tec t ing the art t rade and a r t i s t s . Pa in te rs , scu lp to r s and a rch i tec ts were each o rgan ized in separa te gu i lds . But at the beg inn ing of the four teenth century in F l o rence , the pa in ter 's o rgan iza t i on w a s jo ined to the large gui ld of d o c t o r s and apo theca r ies (An ta l , 1970). This larger gu i ld w a s c o m p r i s e d of m e m b e r s of numerous c ra f ts w h o re l ied upon dea le rs to supp ly va r ious w a r e s such as c h e m i c a l s and drugs to the d o c t o r s , d y e s , p i g m e n t s , and w a x e s to the pa in ters and to the w o o l and s i lk indus t ry , and so on . It w a s the a s s o c i a t i o n w i th doc to r s and apo theca r i es , and e s p e c i a l l y w i th merchants w h o impor ted va luab le Or ien ta l w a r e s , that pe rm i t ted the pa in ters to ga in enough s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c s tand ing to enable them to even tua l l y separa te t h e m s e l v e s f r o m the t r adesmen and the s t i gma a t tached to manual labor (An ta l , 1970). 2 Un l i ke the scu lp to r , w h o o f ten w o r k e d fo r large c o m m u n a l en te rp r i ses , as Dona te l l o w o r k e d fo r the Cathedra l w o r k s in F l o r e n c e , the painter had f requent and persona l con tac t w i th an iden t i f i ab le c l ient of a more e leva ted s o c i a l s t a n d i n g — a banker , a merchant , a p r io r , a pr ince or a p r ince 's o f f i c e r (Baxanda l l , 1972). S o m e painters t rave l led about Italy to paint f r e s c o e s , and in so d o i n g , b e c a m e k n o w n to more c l ien ts (An ta l , 1970). S o m e were admi red fo r their p r o f e s s i o n a l ach ievemen ts and s t o o d out- as ind iv idua l pe rsona l i t i e s to their pa t rons . Th is is the case w i th G i o t t o , the f i rs t ind iv idua l art ist to be men t i oned in any F lo ren t ine ch ron i c l e . F r o m l ink ing the name of an ar t is t to a wo rk o f art or to an even t , r e c o r d s conce rn ing the ar t is t 's l i f e , career and s o c i a l s ta tus came into be ing (Kris & Kurtz , 1979). 3 Through t rave l and con tac t w i th pa t rons , s o m e pa in ters Legac ies that leg i t imate / 121 gradua l ly a s s u m e d an e leva ted c l a s s - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and may have even pushed for a r t i s t i c l iber ty fo r t h e m s e l v e s wheneve r there w a s a chance . A r t i s t i c f r e e d o m w a s inc reas ing ly ev ident in their c o m p o s i t i o n s and to a greater extent in their s t y l e , or hand l ing of ma te r i a l s , but not fo r s o m e t ime to c o m e in their cho i ce of sub jec t s . A s Baxandal l (1972, p. 3) w r i t e s , "in the f i f teen th century , pa in t ing w a s s t i l l t oo impor tant to be left to the painter . " A pa in t ing w a s the depos i t o f , among other t h ings , a c o m m e r c i a l re la t i onsh ip . The c l ient con t rac ted the painter to reproduce a pa in t ing af ter his o w n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , and in s o m e c a s e s , as w i th the c l ient B o r s o d 'Es te , the Duke of Fer ra ra , the painter w a s pa id by the square f oo t (Baxanda l l , 1972). 4 Art meets academic; The academies of art A c o m b i n a t i o n of the str ic t d i s c i p l i ne w i th in the gu i lds , 5 the ar t is t 's ra i sed c o n s c i o u s n e s s enab l ing him to see th is s t r i c t n e s s , and a sense of a r t i s t i c l iber ty that came w i th an i m p r o v e d s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c s ta tus , led ar t is ts l ike Leonardo Da V inc i and M i c h a e l a n g e l o to break f r o m a s y s t e m they fe l t w a s res t r i c t i ng to their a r t i s t ic ab i l i t i e s . A concep t of art ins t ruc t ion w a s sought that w o u l d e levate ar t i s ts to a more p rominen t s ta tus than w a s p o s s i b l e through the purely p rac t i ca l t ra in ing of the w o r k s h o p s . A t the end of the f i f t een th century in F l o r e n c e , Lo renzo de M e d i c i opened the f i rs t teach ing w o r k s h o p that c o m e s c l o s e s t to a " s c h o o l " in the present day sense of the t e rm . Th is event s i gna l l ed a change f r o m the t rad i t ion of pa in t ing as c ra f t . It a l so s i gna l l ed a separa t i on of the teach ing of art f r o m L e g a c i e s that leg i t imate / 122 the p rac t i ce of art. Un l i ke the mas te rs of gu i ld w o r k s h o p s , B e r t o l d o , a scu lp to r and the d i rec tor of the M e d i c i w o r k s h o p , d id not require that his s t uden ts ' t ra in ing inc lude a s s i s t i n g the mas te r on c o m m i s s i o n e d wo rk . Rather, ins t ruc t ion w a s based on the s tudy o f the ant ique and modern w o r k s in the M e d i c i c o l l e c t i o n (Ke l ly , 1974). It w a s not unti l 1563, h o w e v e r , that the f i r s t ins t i tu t ion w a s f ounded that cou ld be ca l l ed an a c a d e m y in the sense of a venue for theore t i ca l s tud ies and s c h o l a r l y rout ine of c o u r s e s . Th is i ns t i t u t i on , the A c c a d e m i a del D i s e g n o in F l o r e n c e , is c o n s i d e r e d the p ro to t ype f r o m wh ich al l subsequent art a c a d e m i e s der i ved (Ke l l y , 1974). Its f ounde r ' s o r ig ina l in tent ion w a s to imp rove upon the prac t ica l ins t ruc t ion in the gui ld w o r k s h o p s by inc lud ing w ider theore t i ca l k n o w l e d g e and a c a d e m i c regu la t ion (Hauser, 1983). Th is a c a d e m i c i z a t i o n of art ins t ruc t ion w a s a d e c i s i v e s tep in the f o r m a t i o n of the ar t is t ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s as s o c i a l l y e l e v a t e d . G i o r g i o V a s a r i , 6 the a c a d e m y ' s founder , fo r the f i rs t t ime p r o p o s e d theore t i ca l sub jec ts such as m a t h e m a t i c s , p h y s i c s , p e r s p e c t i v e , a n a t o m y , and co lo r theory to be taught in the f o r m of even ing c o u r s e s , i nso fa r as they had a bear ing on pa in t i ng , scu lp tu re , and arch i tecture (Pevsner , 1973). For V a s a r i , the e s s e n t i a l qua l i ty of the art is t w a s s o m e t h i n g more than that of the t r a d e s m a n , but not the pursui t o f w o r l d l y honors and f o r t unes . Rather, it w a s a sense of gen ius , a d iv ine gi f t b e s t o w e d by G o d (Gaunt, 1963). The art is t w a s seen as hav ing the capac i t y to d i s c o v e r the laws of G o d ' s un i ve rse . In his t reat ise Lives of the painters, sculptors, and architects (1963), L e g a c i e s that leg i t imate / 123 Vasa r i is t rans la ted to th is e f f e c t : "We may indeed say that those w h o p o s s e s s such g i f t s as Raphael are not mere men but rather mor ta l g o d s . " The a r t i s t s ' s p e c i a l ab i l i t y to d i s c o v e r the laws of G o d ' s un iverse w a s an insp i ra t ion fo r a r t i s ts of the Rena i ssance pe r i od . S o m e of th is m o t i v a t i o n s t i l l keeps many art s tuden ts , as p r o f i l e d in chapter 4 , c o m m i t t e d to the pursui t of art desp i te the e c o n o m i c ha rdsh ips , the a t t i tudes held by s c h o o l s , parents and peers that art is a s e c o n d - r a t e d i s c i p l i n e , and other d i f f i c u l t i e s . V a s a r i ' s inqui ry into nature and the d iv ine can a l so be v i e w e d as a k ind o f inquiry into the qua l i t ies that d i s t i ngu ish art f r o m cra f t . It marks the beg inn ing of the a u t o n o m y of art and , as Hauser (1983) no tes , the c r i s i s of mode rn art. 7 Through a p r o c e s s of d i f f u s i o n , the a c a d e m i c s y s t e m of prepar ing ar t i s ts sp read unti l it even tua l l y dom ina ted the s y s t e m of art educa t ion in F rance , H o l l a n d , and later , the Ge rman s ta tes and Eng land . 8 A t the core of th is g row ing s y s t e m of a c a d e m i e s w a s a c o n c e p t i o n of the s o c i a l ro le of the art is t that w a s not on l y to domina te throughout the next three cen tu r ies , but w a s a l so to b lock the adapta t ion that might have p rov i ded for i ts expans ion (White & W h i t e , 1965). In F rance , the A c a d e m i e Roya le de Peinture et de Scu lp tu re , f ounded in 1648, es tab l i shed a v i r tual m o n o p o l y such that al l o p p o s i t i o n w a s o f f i c i a l l y thrust a s i d e . Pr i va te s c h o o l s and w o r k s h o p s we re p roh ib i ted by the c r o w n , f o r c i ng al l " f r e e " pa in ters into the A c a d e m i e ' s o rgan iza t i on (Ke l ly , 1974; Wh i te & W h i t e , 1965). The A c a d e m i e R o y a l e d i c ta ted the s tandards that a r t i s ts were expec ted to a t ta in . Its jury , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r se l ec t i ng pa in t ings fo r exhib i t in the annual spr ing s a l o n , Legac ies that leg i t imate / 124 ac ted as gate keeper to the ar t i s t i c w o r l d (Farre l l , 1982), p reven t ing ar t is ts w h o had an ab i l i t y for i nnova t i on or w h o we re not in favour of th is p o w e r f u l a l l i ance f r o m exh ib i t ing in the A c a d e m i e . It a l so made it d i f f i cu l t fo r them to exhib i t e l sewhere (Ke l ly , 1974). The A c a d e m i e R o y a l e ' s r ig id doc t r ine of a h ierarchy of sub jec t matter by cul tural i m p o r t a n c e , a de f i n i t i on of " c o r r e c t " s t y l e as e p i t o m i z e d in the wo rk of P o u s s i n , and a rou t in i zed p rog ram of t ra in ing to incu lcate those p recep ts w a s to pers is t as the bas i s of the A c a d e m i c s y s t e m (White & W h i t e , 1965). The doc t r i ne , w i th its h ierarchy of subject mat ter and its under tone of m o r a l i t y , is s u m m a r i z e d by Wh i te and Whi te (1965, pp. 6 - 7 ) : 1. C l a s s i c a l and Chr i s t i an themes are the on l y proper subject mat ter . 2. O n l y the mos t pe r fec t f o r m s (as found in c l a s s i c a l scu lp ture and the pa in t ing of Raphael ) shou ld be s e l e c t e d f r o m nature to por t ray such sub jec ts . 3. On ly a cer ta in set o f " n o b l y " e x p r e s s i v e p o s i t i o n s and ges tures (again c l a s s i c a l or high Rena i ssance in o r ig in ) are appropr ia te in the rep resen ta t ion of the human f igure . 4. The human f igure is the h ighest f o r m and e x p r e s s e s pe r f ec t , " a b s o l u t e " beauty . 5. P i c to r i a l c o m p o s i t i o n shou ld p reserve c l a s s i c a l ba l ance , ha rmony , and un i ty : there shou ld be no jarr ing e lemen ts ei ther o f f o r m or e x p r e s s i o n . 6. D raw ing is the p rob i t y of art. L e g a c i e s that leg i t imate / 125 By 1800 the art s t y l e of u p p e r - c l a s s European s o c i e t y w a s that of the a c a d e m y . Quen t in Be l l (1970, p.690) c o m m e n t s : The s t y l e of the a c a d e m i e s w a s , or w a s in tended to be , f ree f r o m the f rant ic d i s t o r t i ons of m a n n e r i s m , f r o m the s t r i k ing v e r i s i m i l i t u d e of the f o l l o w e r s of C a r a v a g g i o , f r o m the gaudy c o l o r s of V e n i c e or , in f ac t , f r o m any of those a r t i f i ces w h e r e b y a painter might gain f avo r of the c r o w d . It w a s an art fo r the h igh ly educa ted , its p rog ram be ing apt ly e x p r e s s e d in f ine w o r d s : " n o b i l i t y " , " d e c o r u m " , " regu la r i t y " , " chas t i t y " , and " res t ra in t " . It f o r m s a coherent part o f the age of Rac ine , wh i ch w a s a l so the age of P o u s s i n , and of that " reg ime of s t a tus " . The core of the Wes te rn ar t i s t i c l egacy w a s ins t ruc t ion in l i fe d r a w i n g , p e r s p e c t i v e , c o m p o s i t i o n , and a w e l l de f i ned set of o f p o s e s , o rnamenta l m o t i f s , and t hemes f r om G r e c o - R o m a n m y t h o l o g y and h i s to r y . A lbe r t B o i m e (1971), w h o has wr i t ten in deta i l about the a c a d e m y s y s t e m in m i d - n i n t e e n t h century France , s ta tes that the pr inc ip le e v o k e d by the French a c a d e m i e s w a s "cont ro l ins t ruc t ion and y o u w i l l con t ro l s t y l e " (p. 4). Seve ra l mas te r s were so p r e o c c u p i e d w i th their s tuden ts ' ab i l i t y to make an academie (drawing f r o m the l ive m o d e l ) that , as a w a y to gain p res t i ge , they w o u l d a t tempt to d e v e l o p in their s tudents speed of execu t ion in d rawing and mas te r y of paint techn ique . M a s t e r y of techn ica l p rocedu res , metier, w a s the emphas i s in a c a d e m i e s . The young art s tudent , upon be ing p resen ted to h is mas te r , w a s requi red to s h o w s a m p l e s of his wo rk . Based on these s a m p l e s , the student w a s p laced in one of four h ierarchal l e v e l s . Legacies that legitimate / 126 The most elementary level was the copying of drawings and engravings, the second was drawing from classical casts, the third was drawing the live model, and f inal ly, the most advanced level was painting from the live model . Boime notes that in the painter David's atelier, the most advanced students of this last category were designated as "journeymen", that is, artists who aided the master in his own work. Although academies of art were established to improve upon the practical instruction of the guild system and to give the artist a professional status more like that of philosophers or literati than of craftsmen, instruction in the academies was organized even more strictly than in the guilds, which also had tenaciously guarded their pr iv i leges—control over training by the apprentice sys tem, control over the number of painters practicing in each area of jurisdiction, and quality control of materials used. 9 As Arnold Hauser wrote (1959, p. 129), art academies turned out to be "nothing but another form of the old strait laced, ant i-progressive institution they were supposed to be replacing." In the German academies of art, patterned after the curriculum of the Academie Royale in the eighteenth century, the spirit of rationalism and poli t ical absolutism of the French doctrine of controll ing instruction to control style was at odds with the idealism appearing in the writings of Kant, Schi l ler, and Goethe. These authors portrayed the artist as a creator of the beautiful, as a unique individual of genius. Genius was considered an inherent talent, a process of the mind's se l f -ac t iv i ty , not a product of L e g a c i e s that leg i t imate / 127 ru les i m p r e s s e d on the mind by the author i ty of the a c a d e m i e s . Inst ruct ion in art, a c c o r d i n g to the gen ius p r i nc ip le , a v o i d e d un i fo rm m e c h a n i s m s and lef t as much f r e e d o m as p o s s i b l e fo r beg inn ing ar t i s ts to cu l t i va te , and s h o w their t a len ts . The institutional separation of education in the fine arts from education in the applied arts This R o m a n t i c c o n c e p t i o n of the art is t as a unique ind iv idua l o f gen ius w i th a mora l ob l i ga t i on to pursue t ranscendenta l aes the t i c idea ls b e c a m e m o s t p ronounced during the late n ineteenth century w i th the g rowth of i n d i v i d u a l i s m , concom i t an t w i th the Industr ia l Revo lu t i on (Wo l f f , 1981b). The d e v e l o p m e n t of pho tography had w e a k e n e d the " im i ta t ion t h e o r y " of art that had fo r so long been the dominant theory gu id ing the art ist (Ben jamin , 1979). Fur the rmore , the t rad i t ion of craf t p roduc t i on that had been in ex i s tence s i nce the M idd le A g e s w a s be ing rep laced by the f ac to r y s y s t e m . To make indust r ia l p roduc t ion more e f f i c i e n t , the wo rk w a s s e g m e n t e d into a se r ies o f repe t i t i ve o p e r a t i o n s , each p e r f o r m e d by one p e r s o n . N e w ro les fo r w o r k e r s in des ign and the deco ra t i ve arts were d e v e l o p i n g . A p rogram of t ra in ing fo r w o r k e r s w h o we re to take these p o s i t i o n s in indust ry w a s requ i red . But neither the s tuden ts nor the teachers in those a c a d e m i e s wh i ch had just begun to nurture the Roman t i c no t ion of art were about to surrender their new f r e e d o m and status fo r ro les in f a c t o r y p roduc t i on (E f land , 1983). The i rs w a s a ca l l i ng to high art fo r nob le p u r p o s e s , not as se rvan ts of an industr ia l s y s t e m . Industr ial art, as then c o n s t r u e d , w a s a Legac ies that leg i t imate / 128 " l esse r c a l l i n g " (E f land , 1983, p. 151). The d i s t i nc t i on pe r ce i ved be tween the high or f ine arts and the app l ied arts w a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n tens i f i ed w i th the d e v e l o p m e n t in G e r m a n y and Eng land of a dual t rack s y s t e m of art i ns t ruc t ion . One track w a s the trade s c h o o l s (gewerbeschulen) fo r prepar ing ar t i s tans to f i l l des ign jobs in indust ry . The other track w a s the f ine arts educa t ion of the a c a d e m y . 1 0 A l t hough the cur r icu lum of both t ypes of educa t ion w a s essen t i a l l y d r a w i n g , d raw ing in app l ied arts p rog rams c o n s i s t e d m o s t l y of geome t r i c d raw ing and c o p y i n g d raw ings of o rnamen ts and deco ra t i ve m o t i f s . This w a s c o n s i d e r e d a lesse r v e r s i o n of the es tab l i shed f ine arts sequence of d raw ing that began w i th c o p y i n g other d raw ings and ended w i t h d raw ing and pa in t ing f r o m the l ive m o d e l . Th is separa te cur r icu lum for t rade s c h o o l s further insu la ted the f ine art ist f r o m the conce rns of the p rac t i ca l w o r l d and se r ved to rep l ica te cer ta in aspec t s of the s o c i a l c l a s s s t ruc ture . A s Ar thur E f l and (1983, p. 156) w r i t e s , "high a c a d e m i c art w a s fo r the art student w i th upper c l a s s asp i ra t i ons wh i l e geome t r i c d raw ing w a s for the w o r k i n g c l a s s . " In F rance , other f a c t o r s were i nvo l ved in the cu l t i va t i on of an e x c l u s i v e n e s s fo r pure pa in t ing , as Whi te and Wh i te exp la in (1965, p .16-17) : The p r inc ipa l conce rn of the revo lu t i ona ry and s u c c e e d i n g n ine teen th -cen tu ry gove rnmen ts w a s l eg i t ima t i on . F o l l o w i n g the roya l e x a m p l e s of the past , art w a s accep ted as be ing an essen t i a l e x p o s i t i o n of the s y m b o l s of powe r . N ineteenth century France exh ib i ted the m o s t w i d e s p r e a d c o m p r e h e n s i v e government Legac ies that leg i t imate / 129 i n v o l v e m e n t w i th art o f any s ta te . The cu lm ina t i on w a s the in ternat iona l exh ib i t i ons in 1855 and 1867 at wh i ch Lou is N a p o l e o n dazz led the s o v e r e i g n s of Europe w i th French art. In return fo r the l eg i t ima t i on of p o w e r that cer ta in high a c a d e m i c art cou ld p r o v i d e , the state p rov i ded the e c o n o m i c and st ructura l suppor t requi red to sus ta in the a c a d e m i c i d e o l o g y of pure pa in t ing . The e x c l u s i v e n e s s of f ine art w a s fur thered by the h igh ly c o m p e t i t i v e nature of the s y s t e m for educat ing a r t i s t s . Because the prepara t ion of an ar t is t w a s l ong , s t r i c t , and c o m p e t i t i v e , and because f ine art appea led t o , and rep resen ted a higher s o c i a l c l a s s than the app l i ed ar ts , bou rgeo i s fa thers b e c a m e more w i l l i n g to send their s o n s through the o f f i c i a T pa in t ing s y s t e m . Pa in t ing became a p r o f e s s i o n in the m i d d l e - c l a s s s e n s e . Beg inn ing w i t h the ent rance c o m p e t i t i o n , the p repara t ion of ar t is ts w a s in e s s e n c e a se r i es of con tes t s for " w e e d i n g - o u t " . Ded i ca t i on and pe rseve rance w o u l d p roduce fo r parents a pub l i c l y d i sce rn ib le reco rd of advancement (White & W h i t e , 1965). The in f luence of a c a d e m i e s of art upon the s o c i a l s t ructure of the art w o r l d has been p r o f o u n d . A c c o r d i n g to Wh i te and W h i t e , the a c a d e m i c s y s t e m w a s respons ib l e f o r our present d e a i e r - c r i t i c s y s t e m . Dea lers and c r i t i c s , once subs id ia r i es to the a c a d e m i c s y s t e m , g rew in numbers and independence in r esponse to the s u c c e s s of the o f f i c i a l s y s t e m of recru i t ing pa in ters and in r e s p o n s e to the inc reased publ ic in terest , wh i ch w a s genera ted by the pub l i c i t y and a t ten t ion g iven to art by the s ta te . Legac ies that leg i t imate / 130 A l t h o u g h art p rog rams m o d e l l e d d i rec t l y a f ter the a c a d e m i e s of art dec l i ned in the 1950s and 1960s as art t ra in ing became i nc reas ing l y a un i ve rs i t y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , 1 1 many e lemen ts of the a c a d e m y t rad i t ion remain in our present s y s t e m of art i ns t ruc t ion . One such inher i tance is the bas i c k n o w l e d g e ca tego r i es around wh i ch m o s t art depar tmen ts are s t ruc tu red—the f u l l y l eg i t ima ted f ine art p rac t i ces of d raw ing , pa in t i ng , scu lp tu re , and p r i n tmak ing . 1 2 R e s e m b l i n g the h ierarchy of sk i l l l e ve l s of the a c a d e m i e s , e x e r c i s e s in d raw ing techn ique, e s p e c i a l l y d raw ing f r o m the nude, are s t i l l genera l l y c o n s i d e r e d to be techn ica l p repara t ion for pa in t ing and wo rk w i th other m e d i a . Depar tmen ts or s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s such as " e x p e r i m e n t a l " or " i n t e r m e d i a " arts are s o m e t i m e s added to these conven t i ona l core c a t e g o r i e s ; h o w e v e r , as they appear in many p rogram ou t l i nes , these are a d d - o n s , inser ted into an o the rw ise l i t t le changed fo rma t of conven t i ona l k n o w l e d g e c a t e g o r i e s . 1 3 "ARTES LIBERALES" OR THE ART OF PRODUCING REFINED AND BROADLY EDUCATED CITIZENS The shi f t f r o m the gui ld w o r k s h o p to the a c a d e m y as the ins t i tu t ion gove rn ing the prepara t ion of a r t i s ts he lped e levate the s o c i a l s ta tus of the painter and scu lp to r . H o w e v e r , it w a s not any s o c i a l be l ie f in the art is t as a va lued c i t i zen that pe rm i t ted the eventua l accep tance of ins t ruc t ion in the practice o f art into the cur r icu lum of un i ve rs i t i es . Much of art p rac t i ce rema ined t o o much of a s t i g m a of techn ique and craft fo r that. The p rac t i ce of art even tua l l y s l i pped into the un ive rs i t y because of a need fo r L e g a c i e s that leg i t imate / 131 pub l ic s c h o o l teacher p repara t ion cou rses in art (Ri tch ie, 1966). S e c o n d a r y i n f l uences came f r o m e x i s t i n g , more ut i l i ta r ian p rog rams such as a rch i tec tu re , home e c o n o m i c s , and eng inee r ing , wh i ch requi red d raw ing and c o l o r theory as desc r i p t i ve and c o m m u n i c a t i v e t o o l s (Ri tch ie, 1966). G radua l l y , pa in ters and scu lp to r s were accep ted on facu l t y l i s ts to p rov ide exper t i se in these mat te rs . S tud io art c o u r s e s we re i nc reas ing l y o f f e r e d w i th in a l ibera l arts f r a m e w o r k to supp lemen t art h is to ry c o u r s e s , and were at f i rs t kept at a "cul tural en l i gh ten ing " l e v e l . A r t h is to ry had b e c o m e a f o r m a l part o f the un ive rs i t y cur r icu lum long be fo re art p roduc t i on because it w a s c o n s i d e r e d a p e r m i s s i b l e a c a d e m i c subject thanks to the her i tage of the in f luent ia l Ge rman un i ve rs i t i es . A r t h is to r ians had tended t owa rds a greater be l ie f in ob j ec t i v i t y and ana ly t i c s y s t e m s fo r dea l ing w i th art, a d i rec t i on e a s i l y a c c o m m o d a t e d w i th in the a c a d e m i c f rame of the un i ve rs i t y . S tud io a r t i s t s , by con t ras t , if not w o r k i n g w i th in the c o m m o n l y de f i ned va lues of "c ra f t " , had been exp lo r ing the more con t rove rs i a l w o r l d of inner sub jec t i ve f e e l i n g s . Nei ther the sub jec t i v i s t approach of the s tud io pa inter , nor the techn ica l approach of the c r a f t s p e r s o n , we re l i ke ly to be read i ly endo rsed in an a c a d e m i c m i l i e u . Y e t , in the ear ly 1930s, the U n i v e r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n and Darmouth U n i v e r s i t y l oca ted a f e w impor tant ar t is ts w i th in their se t t i ng , en t i t l ing them " a r t i s t - i n - r e s i d e n c e " and ca l l i ng a t ten t ion to both the a r t i s t s ' mer i t s and the u n i v e r s i t i e s ' p r o g r e s s i v e n e s s in suppor t ing ar t is t ic p roduc t i on (Chipp, 1968; La rabee , 1970). W i th s o m e incent ive f r o m the Carneg ie F o u n d a t i o n , this examp le w a s s o o n w i d e l y im i ta ted a c r o s s the Un i ted S ta tes (Larabee, 1970) Legacies that legitimate / 132 and eventually in Canada. The role of universities at the time was not to usurp the function of professional special ized art schools. With the post World War II shift in art capitals from Europe to New York, artists were engaged to teach in universities on a part-t ime basis. Soon , many artists were being accepted as permanent faculty members regardless of the fact that many of them had never attended universities themselves (Chipp, 1968). The hiring of artists as fu l l - t ime faculty members was a significant step in procuring for art practice a certain legitimacy as an intellectual discipline suitable for the university curriculum. Liberal arts values as official justification for the study of art in universities The study of art as it was first taught in universities meant something very different from the study of art in art academies at the same time. In a 1895 lecture, Charles Waldstein, a professor of fine arts, made the distinction very clear to his Cambridge University audience: Art production is taught in the art academy, the studios of masters, the conservatories . . . Art understanding ought to be studied and to be thoroughly represented in our universit ies. (Waldstein, 1896, pp. 4-5) "One thing, which I hardly need impress," Waldstein continued, is that I consider the task which the university student of art has before him as quite distinct f rom, though it need not be opposed to, that of the artist or that of the amateur. We cannot, we need Legac ies that leg i t ima te / 133 not , and we w i l l not c o m p e t e w i th art a c a d e m i e s and c o n s e r v a t o r i e s , to p roduce s e c o n d - r a t e pa in te rs , or s c u l p t o r s , or a rch i t ec t s , or m u s i c i a n s , (p. 7) Rather , the pu rpose of the s tudy of art in un i ve rs i t i e s , as W a l d s t e i n s a w it, w a s to add to a general educa t i on . A genera l educa t i on , af ter a l l , w a s thought to make a t ru ly re f ined and educa ted m a n , w h o s tands on the height of the c i v i l i z a t i o n of his age, and is rep resen ta t i ve of th is in his w a y , as the man of le t ters and s c i e n c e , the s t a t e s m a n and leg is la to r are in the i rs , (p. 101) A l l our acqu i s i t i on of new k n o w l e d g e , al l the thought w e think, must b e c o m e an " e m o t i o n a l " habi t , an e t h o s ; they must t rans fuse and a f f ec t our c h a r a c t e r — e v e n our in te l lec tua l c h a r a c t e r — b e f o r e they b e c o m e e f f i c i en t as regards our p rac t i ca l conduc t , or our menta l or mora l c r e a t i v e n e s s . (Wa lds te i n , 1896, p. 102) To W a l d s t e i n and f e l l o w Eng l i sh c o n n o i s s e u r s of art in the " b e l l e s - l e t t r e s " t rad i t i on , Nor th A m e r i c a must have s e e m e d l ike an aes the t ic deser t . Char les E l io t N o r t o n , a Harvard p r o f e s s o r w h o fe l t a need to impor t the s tandards of art and l i fe f r o m Europe to A m e r i c a , supp l i ed the or ig ina l impu lse fo r the g rowth of art in North A m e r i c a n c o l l e g e s and un ive rs i t i es (Logan, 1955; M a h o n e y , 1970). Nor ton b e l i e v e d there to be , to quote an h is to r ian of art educa t i on , Freder ick Logan (1955, P.65), "no beauty , no sub t l e t y , no real L e g a c i e s that leg i t imate / 134 c ra f tmansh ip , l i te ra l l y no true s o c i e t y in A m e r i c a , hence noth ing of a re f ined nature for the arts to e x p r e s s . " Perhaps it w a s Nor ton ' s in ten t ion that, by educa t ing s tudents to apprec ia te the great European w o r k s of the pas t , not on l y might their l iberal arts backgrounds be b roadened and en r i ched , but there might be a remote p o s s i b i l i t y that "ar t " might aga in ex is t at s o m e future t ime and perhaps even in A m e r i c a . Nor ton taught art at Harvard in the f o r m of a cou rse in cul tural h i s t o r y . His v i e w of art w a s e s s e n t i a l l y l i terary and h i s t o r i c a l . His lectures w e r e of the s u r v e y - o f - h i s t o r y - o f - a r t t y p e , not so d i f fe rent f r o m many art h i s to ry cou rses taught t o d a y . What No r ton w a s a t tempt ing at Harvard at the end o f the last century w a s an im i ta t i on of the art h i s to ry that had g radua l l y b e c o m e a separa te es tab l i shed d i sc i p l i ne in G e r m a n y , and to s o m e extent in France and I taly, f o l l o w i n g an inf lux of recru i ts to th is new f i e l d f r o m c l a s s i c a l a r c h a e o l o g y , t h e o l o g y , l i terature, and arch i tec ture ( P a n o f s k y , 1965). 1 4 Bel ie f in the po ten t ia l of an unders tand ing of art to lead to "cul tural en l i gh tenmen t " pe rm i t ted art s tudy to b e c o m e es tab l i shed in the un i ve rs i t y cu r r i cu lum, f i r s t as art app rec ia t i on and art h i s t o r y , and , much later in the 1950s and 1960s, as art p r o d u c t i o n — t o W a l d s t e i n ' s hor ror , had he k n o w n ! The e thos con ta ined in W a l d s t e i n ' s 1895 lecture that art s tudy makes fo r "a t ru ly re f ined and educa ted m a n " (p. 101) has pe rs i s t ed as one of the m o s t f requent ly used o f f i c i a l ra t iona les for the s tudy of f ine art in un i ve r s i t i e s . In 1964, A l v i n T o f f l e r d e s c r i b e d the pe r i od as one in wh ich A m e r i c a n un ive rs i t i es and c o l l e g e s we re spend ing more t ime and m o n e y in cu l tu r iz ing Legac ies that leg i t imate / 135 its popu la t i on than ever b e f o r e . Th is w a s par t ly in r e s p o n s e to c o m p l a i n t s that un i ve rs i t i es are turning out " ' s k i l l ed barbar ians ' that m a y be s tud ious s c i e n t i s t s , m a t h e m a t i c i a n s , and compute r w h i z s [sic] but w h o are innocent of cu l ture . " Dean C a n f i e l d (1965), of the S c h o o l of Drama at Y a l e , used the ra t iona le of the f ine arts as s o m e h o w cu l tu ra l l y re f in ing and human iz ing in a lecture at York U n i v e r s i t y , T o r o n t o , in ce leb ra t i on of the open ing of that un i ve rs i t y ' s new large f ine arts f ac i l i t y and p rog ram. C a n f i e l d exp la ined that if the arts are v i e w e d as the product of the in te l lect and cu l ture, they are " r ight ly and p roper l y w i th in the pu rv i ew of the un i ve rs i t y ' s i n te res ts , and d i rec t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i th its leg i t imate educa t ion o b j e c t i v e s " (p. 38). Once w e accept this equat ion that l inks the c rea t ion of art and the pe r f o rmance of it w i th i n te l l i gence , cul ture and learn ing , and I be l i eve there is no d i f f i cu l t y about accep t ing it once we have f reed o u r s e l v e s f r o m the bonds of p re jud ice , s u b j e c t i v i s m , eastern m y s t i c i s m , w o o d - l i c e , and Zen (that make ob jec t i ve d i s c u s s i o n s of the subject a lmos t i m p o s s i b l e ) , once we have done this then the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the un i ve rs i t y fo r the nurture and de fence of the pe r f o rm ing arts b e c o m e s , to m y mind at l eas t , not on l y accep tab le but inev i tab le . Eve ry human ac t i v i t y that i n v o l v e s the exe rc i se of the in te l lec t and imag ina t i on has a bear ing on and re levance to our c i v i l i z a t i o n and our cu l ture, (p. 30) For C a n f i e l d , the p r imary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the arts in un i ve rs i t i es w a s to cont r ibu te to a general l ibera l arts e d u c a t i o n . To ensure th is w a s p r e s e r v e d , C a n f i e l d sugges ted that d i s c i p l i n e d ins t ruc t ion in s tud io a s p e c t s be d e l a y e d L e g a c i e s that leg i t imate / 136 unti l the s tudent w a s en ro l l ed in a graduate leve l M.F .A. p r o g r a m . The p roduc t i on of p r o f e s s i o n a l s w a s , fo r C a n f i e l d , as it w a s for W a l d s t e i n s e v e n t y yea rs ear l ie r , a s e c o n d a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the un ive rs i t y . I w o u l d no more want a p r o f e s s i o n a l res ident s tock c o m p a n y or reper to ry c o m p a n y at Ya le than I w o u l d want Ya le to have the Green Bay Packe rs to represent it in i n te rco l leg ia te a th le t i cs , or the Rober t S h a w Chora le to be brought in to take the p lace of the G lee Club . . . The pu rposes are educa t ion f i rs t and enter ta inment s e c o n d , (p. 45) 1 5 U n i v e r s i t i e s , even those that n o w have a mandate fo r prepar ing p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s ts through s p e c i a l i z e d B.F.A. p r o g r a m s , cont inue to s t ress the impor tance of a b road k n o w l e d g e background for the ar t is t . Th is is not su rp r i s ing g i ven the l eg i t ima t i on and resou rces that a v i e w of "the s tudy of art as an in te l lec tua l d i s c i p l i n e " (Nova S c o t i a C o l l e g e of Ar t and D e s i g n , 1985-1986 brochure) b r ings . A c q u i r i n g - sk i l l s and techn iques in art me thods is not c o n s i d e r e d su f f i c ien t p repara t ion fo r an ar t is t . P rog ram ra t iona les for un ive rs i t y s tud io art p rog rams o f ten exp la in , as in the example of the Un i ve rs i t y of B r i t i sh C o l u m b i a "B .F .A . P r o g r a m m e R a t i o n a l e " (undated), that a l though a p rog ram is "par t icu lar ly des igned for s tudents who con temp la te a career in the V i sua l A r t s and o c c a s i o n a l l y other s tudents w h o s i m p l y w i s h for a l ibera l educa t ion v ia the p rac t i ce of art," the p rogram shou ld not be c o n s i d e r e d the f ina l s tep of p repara t ion fo r a career as a p r o f e s s i o n a l ar t is t . The B.F.A. p rogram is in tended to " fo rm a sound f ounda t i on for s tudents w h o w i s h to undertake further ac t i v i t y in the f ine ar ts , the app l i ed Legac ies that leg i t imate / 137 a r ts , museum w o r k , f i l m , a rch i tec ture , art j o u r n a l i s m , art h i s to r y , e tc . " Hence , s tuden ts are requ i red to take cou rses in art h i s to ry and other depar tmen ts and f acu l t i e s . What th is means for the un ive rs i t y art student is that s ix yea rs (for a B.F.A. p lus an M.F.A.) of tu i t ion fees and e s s a y s and exams in a c a d e m i c c o u r s e s (which are l i ke ly to lead them no c l o s e r to e m p l o y m e n t than w o u l d f ine art cou rses a lone) must be endured , when in fac t what many of these s tudents rea l ly in tended w a s to "make art" . The l ibera l arts ideal of the in te l lec tua l j us t i f i es th is "ha rdsh ip " f o r those w h o p e r s e v e r e . M a n y art s tuden ts a l so c o m e to recogn ize a p r a c t i c a l , but unannounced , l eg i t ima t ing bas i s for the l iberal arts r a t i ona le . Be ing able to ar t icu late the in ten t ion , the m e a n i n g , or the cul tural s i g n i f i c a n c e of one 's wo rk to the right peop le is what it takes to get exh ib i t i ons and fund ing . Fine art s tudents might w i th advantage seek enough of a l ibera l arts background to enable them to adopt an in te l lec tua l s tance in wh ich to ground their o w n art p roduc t ion (Ros ie r , 1981), e s p e c i a l l y c o n c e p t u a l , pe r f o rmance or i n te rd i sc ip l i na ry art f o r m s . A n d where bet ter a p lace to acqui re this b road b a s i s of k n o w l e d g e and " i d e a s " than the un i ve rs i t y? The leg i t ima t ing l iberal arts t rad i t ion and the e thos of cul tural re f inement and a r t - a s - c u l t u r a l - c a p i t a l that goes a long w i th it may be as s ign i f i can t a f ac to r as the award ing of degrees in exp la in ing w h y so many s tudents w i th an interest in b e c o m i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s ts c h o o s e to at tend un i ve rs i t i e s , in sp i te of the requi red e s s a y s and e x a m s and the c o m p l a i n t s that the n o r m s , s t ruc tures and bureaucracy of un i ve rs i t i es s tu l t i f y " c r e a t i v e " a r t i s ts . Legacies that legitimate / 138 The liberal arts as the classical educational ideal The tradition of education which supports the practice of encouraging or requiring art students to take academic courses outside the discipline of art—labeled "general education", "liberal arts education", . or simply "liberal educat ion"—is historically linked with a privileged social class dist inct ion. The notion of "cultural refinement" is associated with private liberal arts col leges for those of independent means and assured social posi t ions. Even the term itself, "liberal arts", came into the English language as predominantly a class term. Its ultimate traceable word was the Latin word liber, meaning free man (Wil l iams, 1983). The liberal arts (artes liberates) were distinguished from the "mechanical" ski l ls and pursuits appropriate to a lower c lass. The term mechanical was used in a class sense to spurn the arts, crafts, trades, and non agricultural work—"most mechanicall and durty hand" (Wil l iams, 1983, p.201), as Henry IV allegedly said. The liberal arts is the classical educational ideal that has formed the basis of education in the western wor ld , despite strong opposit ion on philosophical grounds by John Dewey and the pragmatists (Hirst, 1973). It may be traced to Ar istot le 's description of liberal studies as those studies appropriate for free men, and in no sense refers to a vocational education or a special ist education (Hirst, 1971, 1973). The subjects or "arts" which Aristot le regarded as liberal are not entirely clear, but somewhat later the Greeks and Romans came to list seven liberal studies or "arts": grammar, logic, rhetoric, geometry, arithmetic, music, and astronomy (Hirst, .1971). L e g a c i e s that leg i t imate / 139 Pa in t ing and scu lp ture we re not inc luded because they did not c o m p l y w i th the features of A r i s t o t l e ' s no t i on of a l ibera l s tudy . These features are s u m m a r i z e d by Hirst (1971) f r o m A r i s t o t l e ' s Po//t/cs-.u F i rs t , the l iberal arts are not " m e c h a n i c a l " , but demand the exe rc i se of the ind iv idua l ' s higher ab i l i t i e s , an exe rc i se wh i ch is a n e c e s s a r y part of the " g o o d l i f e " . S e c o n d , these s tud ies must not have p rac t i ca l u s e f u l n e s s , the value of their pursuit is in t r ins ic , not ex t r i ns i c . Th i rd , there must be no nar row s p e c i a l i z a t i o n in them wh i ch w o u l d o c c u p y the mind so that it m i s s e s out on other mat te rs of equal va lue and impor tance in the g o o d l i f e . Four th , the student must pursue the s tudy for its in t r ins ic va lue o n l y , not mere ly to impress o thers or to earn a l i v i ng . F rom this Greek doc t r ine came the no t ion of educa t ion as a p r o c e s s conce rned s i m p l y and d i rec t l y w i th the pursui t of k n o w l e d g e , a no t ion of educa t ion based on what is taken to be t rue, that i s , "man 's know ledge of what is the c a s e " , as Hirst (1973, p. 88) exp la ins . The d e v e l o p m e n t of the m ind in this w a y w a s thought to lead to the greatest g o o d , to rescue reason f r o m er ror , i l l us ion and t empo ra ry v a l u e s , and to f ree the ind iv idua l ' s conduc t f r o m w r o n g . In te l lec tua ls o b s e r v e d the heavens and w r o t e p lays and m u s i c fo r the sake of i l l um ina t ion and s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . For centur ies th is ideal of educa t ion w a s regarded as the f ines t p o s s i b l e . " H o w e v e r , s i nce the Rena issance and e s p e c i a l l y in the past one hundred y e a r s , in te l lec tua l in teres ts and techn iques of inquiry have been changing because of the impor tance of s c i e n c e fo r indust ry and mi l i t a ry r e a s o n s . A s L e g a c i e s that leg i t imate / 140 h igh ly s p e c i a l i z e d t ra in ing a s s u m e d pr io r i t y and the m i d d l e - c l a s s bus iness cul ture los t regard for c l a s s i c a l i dea l s , a t tachment to the inher i ted t rad i t ion of l iberal ar ts va lues d w i n d l e d (Sh i l s , 1972). The greatest de fenders and p rese rve rs of the l iberal art idea ls n o w are the pr ivate l ibera l arts c o l l e g e s . Increas ing t e c h n i c a l , v o c a t i o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l d i rec t i ons in higher educa t ion caused fear a m o n g these c o l l e g e s that in te l lec tua l s tandards were d im in i sh ing and the t r a n s m i s s i o n of the cul tura l her i tage of w e s t e r n s o c i e t y w a s b e c o m i n g an inc reas ing ly f ragmen ted and super f i c i a l p r o c e s s (Po t ts , 1971). C o n s e q u e n t l y , the ch ie f a im of these c o l l e g e s b e c a m e the p rese rva t i on and t r a n s m i s s i o n of cul tural c a p i t a l , w i th its " r e f i n i ng " in f luence on mora l s and manners as w e l l as the in te l lec t . The pr ivate l ibera l arts c o l l e g e is a d i s t i nc t l y A m e r i c a n ins t i tu t ion m o d e l l e d af ter the res iden t ia l l i fe and the c l a s s i c a l cur r icu lum of O x f o r d and Cambr idge un i ve rs i t i es . S i n c e mos t of them are p r i va te , f e e - c o l l e c t i n g i ns t i t u t i ons , on l y a se lec t po r t i on of the popu la t i on can gain a c c e s s to and benef i t f r o m such an educa t ion based on l ibera l arts va l ues . Y e t , i r on i ca l l y , the de fenders of these c o l l e g e s see d e m o c r a c y be ing s e r v e d . D e m o c r a c y , they e n v i s i o n , occu rs through an e m p h a s i s on in te l lec tua l qua l i ty and s e l e c t i v i t y : super io r m inds shou ld emerge f r o m a r igo rous l ibera l arts educa t ion to make ou ts tand ing con t r ibu t ions to A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y , leav ing m a s s p o s t s e c o n d a r y educa t ion to the pub l ic un i ve rs i t i es and c o l l e g e s (Po t ts , 1971 ).18 Legacies that legitimate / 141 The liberal arts ideal as an ironic proclamation of democracy In spite of the historical associat ion of liberal arts tradition with privi leged social class dist inct ions, North American society is committed to the ideals of a general or liberal arts education because it is thought to reflect and promote democratic principles. What is there about the idea of a liberal arts education that suggests that it might work to ful f i l l democratic principles, and, contingently, that it is worthy to form the basis of education in North Amer ica, including the education of artists? Basic to democratic principles is the belief in the pre-eminent worth of the individual, the freedom of the individual, and the full realization of the individual's unique capacit ies. In 1946, the influential report of the Harvard University Committee, General education in a free society, defined general education as "that part of a student's whole education which looks first of all to his life as a responsible human being and as a c i t izen" as opposed to special ized education "which looks to the student's competence in some occupation" (p.51). The objectives of a liberal education are defined in the Harvard report as the ability to think ef fect ively, to communicate thought, to make relevant judgments, and to discriminate among values. Others have suggested that a liberal education leads to the development of practical abilit ies (Nowel l -Smi th, 1958) and creative imagination (Broudy, 1964). Hirst (1973) argues for the importance of liberal education conceived as initiation into several logistical ly distinct forms of knowledge or modes of thought. Legac ies that leg i t imate / 142 A l ibera l educa t i on for Hirst is "based fa i r l y and square ly on the nature of k n o w l e d g e i t se l f , a concep t centra l to the d i s c u s s i o n of educa t ion at any l e v e l " (p. 87). A cons i s t en t concep t of l iberal educa t ion must not be equated w i th mere c o l l e c t i o n s of i n f o r m a t i o n . Rather the d i s t i n c t i o n s be tween the va r ious f o r m s of k n o w l e d g e w h i c h w i l l p r i nc ipa l l y gove rn the s c h e m e of educa t ion w i l l n o w be based en t i re ly on a n a l y s e s of their par t icu lar c o n c e p t u a l , l og i ca l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l fea tures (p. 99) . . . It is an educa t ion c o n c e r n e d d i rec t l y w i th the d e v e l o p m e n t of the mind in ra t iona l k n o w l e d g e , (p. 101) Th is para l le l s the or ig ina l Greek concep t in that l ibera l educa t ion w a s the f ree ing of the mind to ach ieve its o w n g o o d in k n o w l e d g e . . . it rema ins bas i c to the f ree ing of human conduc t f r o m w r o n g " (p. 101) . . . In each case it is a f o r m of educa t i on k n o w i n g no l im i t s other than those n e c e s s a r i l y i m p o s e d by the nature of ra t iona l k n o w l e d g e and thereby i tse l f d e v e l o p i n g in man the f ina l court o f appeal in all human a f f a i r s , (p. 101) Th is educa t iona l no t ion of d e m o c r a c y and f r e e d o m has f requen t l y been used as an o f f i c i a l j u s t i f i ca t i on fo r inc lud ing the s tudy of f ine art in the un i ve rs i t y cu r r i cu lum. One of the length iest and mos t i dea l i s t i c a r t i cu la t ions of th is w a s a 222 page e s s a y pub l i shed in 1953 by Ernest Z i e g f e l d . To conc lude the w o r k , Z i e g f e l d w e a v e s arts educa t ion into the rhetor ic of p a t r i o t i s m , f r e e d o m and d e m o c r a c y : Legacies that legitimate / 143 The free and democratic way of life to which we in America aspire is being threatened from within and without by ideologies which would enslave the human personality and reduce the individual to subservience and anonymity . . . In order to maintain our rights to freedom we must have a spirit of f reedom—a deep and ' abiding faith in the integrity of the individual and in his ability to build a worthy life with his fe l low men. And we must have a knowledge of f reedom—a true comprehension of the spontaneous and creative way of life which is the mark of the free man . . . . (p. 220) Without the aesthetic factor of experience, the individual can neither live a full life nor can he see his own life in its full relationships to the world in which he l ives. Experience in the arts can give him the insights and understandings which wi l l enable him to see himself and the world in their wholeness and ful lness, and it provides him the means whereby he can relate himself freely and spontaneously—-that is to say, creat ively—to the world as it is given to him through his esthetic v is ion, (p. 221) There is, of course, a pragmatic aspect that supports the argument of the importance for democratic societ ies of studying art as part of a liberal arts education. In 1965, John Cool idge, then director of the Fogg Art Museum at Harvard University, stated that an "intense concern" of Legacies that legitimate / 144 universities should be the production of a "cultivated body of amateurs" (p. 17) necessary for both the production of great art and the understanding and preservation of the art of the past; "Al l but a tiny and diminishing minority of our students have much to learn about the fine arts" (p. 17). The pragmatic benefits for art departments which "cult ivate" a large body of "amateurs" is particularly pertinent in the current situtation of financial restraint in most art departments. Fine art majors are too few to sustain a wide ranging program. Having a large body of non-special ized students enrolling in art courses means that art departments can offer a variety of art courses and in turn secure legitimation and make more visible the function of art departments on campuses—al l of this without the expense of increasing the number of fu l l - t ime faculty. It also means graduate students in art can obtain financial support and work experience when there is an undergraduate student body to teach. In summary, with education in fine art now institutionally entrenched in universit ies, art teaching and art knowledge is ultimately shaped by the norms and structures of universit ies, including the dominant liberal arts tradition with its underlying social class distinctions and art -as-cul tural -capi ta l values. It was, in fact, the liberal arts tradition which permitted art to be established in the university in the first place, first as art connoisseurship and art history, and eventually and reluctantly as art production. Liberal arts proclamations of academic competence and the acquisit ion of democratic values persist as strong legitimating rationales for art in our educational sys tem, in spite of the underlying associat ion of the Legacies that legitimate / 145 liberal arts with the private college tradition and the social class distinctions of economic and cultural capital. North Americans are committed to the idea that a broad liberal arts education works toward fulf i l l ing the democratic values of f reedom, respect as an individual, and development of the full capacities of all human beings. For art students, the liberal arts educational ideal of the intellectual has replaced the sixteenth century emphasis on God, nature, and the divine as the motivation for pursuing art as a career. It helps to justify the financial and status disadvantages that art students are faced with, and helps sol id i fy the commitment to art that works to insulate and perpetuate traditional conceptions of art knowledge. PHILOSOPHICAL AESTHETIC THEORY AS AN INTELLECTUAL BASIS OF ART EDUCATION Aesthetic theory is a codif icat ion of the basic principles that support the production and understanding of art and, subsequently, education in art. It is the intellectual basis of art knowledge in the high culture sense. It reflects the prevailing ideas, values^ and practices of art that are shared by members of the fine art subculture. It has served as an authority that has sanctioned the insulation and even transcendence of art knowledge over other knowledge domains and from its own social base. Aesthetic theory functions as much more than an inert body of doctrine. It is part of a complex social network and historical process. Aesthetic L e g a c i e s that leg i t imate / 146 p r i n c i p l e s , d e f i n i t i o n s , and judgments about art and the nature of ar t is t ic a c t i v i t y make up an impor tant part o f the b o d y of c o n v e n t i o n s by wh ich va r i ous par t i c ipan ts of va r ious art w o r l d s act together and j us t i f y their demands for the resou rces and advan tages p r e v i o u s l y ava i lab le fo r the p roduc t i on of art and fo r a s s o c i a t e d ac t i v i t i es such as educa t ion in ar t . 1 9 A e s t h e t i c theory not on l y f o l l o w s or is co inc iden t w i th the d e v e l o p m e n t of s t y l e s , t echn iques , and ind iv idua l w o r k s of art, but in many c a s e s the equat ion is r eve rsed s o that theory p recedes p rac t i ce . A e s t h e t i c p r inc ip les se rve fo r a r t i s ts to adopt or d e f y , e s p e c i a l l y in this cen tu ry , resu l t ing in the d e v e l o p m e n t of new f o r m s and s t y l e s in art. A e s t h e t i c theory , by a t tempt ing to make sense of or eva luate ind iv idua l w o r k s and art p r a c t i c e s , c rea tes reputa t ions not on l y for cer ta in ar t is ts or art s t y l e s , but a l so fo r ent i re t rad i t ions at the expense of o the rs . The s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s occurs in regard to w o r k s wh ich more or less approx ima te the s tandard prac t ice of the f ine art w o r l d ; even more c ruc ia l l y , it occu rs to the extent that s o m e f o r m s , such as fo lk art or app l ied ar ts , are not even g iven se r ious c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the f ine art w o r l d . P h i l o s o p h e r s of art and art c r i t i c s — t h o s e w h o deal in and have a major e f f ec t on shap ing aes the t ic t h e o r y — a r e o f ten s i tua ted in un i ve r s i t i e s . Th is means that the deve lopmen t o f aes the t ic theory and the va lues these p h i l o s o p h e r s and c r i t i cs br ing to bear in a s s e s s i n g or research ing ind iv idua l w o r k s of art, o f a r t i s t s , s t y l e s , and even art p r o g r a m s , are bound up w i th the p r o c e s s e s and s t ructures of un i ve r s i t i e s . Th is cannot help but a f fec t what counts as art k n o w l e d g e ; th is art k n o w l e d g e , in turn, b e c o m e s part of L e g a c i e s that leg i t imate / 147 an art s tudent ' s k n o w l e d g e , a f f ec t i ng her or his a c t i o n s . A r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y occu rs in light of s o m e c o n c e p t i o n of what cons t i t u tes g o o d art. In educa t iona l c o n t e x t s , cer ta in no t i ons of what cons t i t u tes g o o d art and va l i d ar t is t ic ac t i v i t y are adop ted by art s tudents to meet the demands of ins t i tu t iona l and s o c i a l f o r c e s , o f ten resu l t ing in such phenomena as "the s c h o o l art s t y l e " at the e lemen ta ry and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l leve l (E f land , 1976) and what L o w r y (1962) ca l l s the "new a c a d e m i c art s t y l e " at the p o s t s e c o n d a r y l eve l . Because of the in te rdependence be tween aes the t i c t heo ry , a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y , and the l iberal arts va lues and c o l l e c t i o n c o d e s t ructures of educa t i on , s o m e unders tand ing of aes the t ic theory is in order . A s a d i s c i p l i n e of s tudy , aes the t i cs has a long t rad i t ion of theory g rounded in the nature of art and aes the t i c expe r i ence , m o s t of wh i ch is p h i l o s o p h i c a l in nature and o r ig ina tes par t i cu la r l y in the w o r k s of e ighteenth century G e r m a n ph i l osophe rs (Baumgar ten , Kant , Sch i l l e r ) . 2 0 Th is p h i l o s o p h i c a l t rad i t ion has g i ven r ise to the dominan t modern is t aes the t i c and its p rac t i ces that are n o w the accep ted or o f f i c i a l cul ture of art in s c h o o l s and un i ve r s i t i e s . It i l lus t ra tes the deep ly d i v i ded c o n s c i o u s n e s s be tween art and s o c i e t y and the e f fec t that d i v i s i o n has had in insu la t ing cer ta in art k n o w l e d g e . The very te rm "aes the t i c " , w i t h its s p e c i a l i z e d re fe rences to that wh ich is " f i n e " or "beau t i f u l " r e f l ec t s th is d i v i ded c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Conce rn w i t h the "beau t i f u l " in art, or in art and nature, began at least w i th S o c r a t e s and has engaged the a t ten t ion of ph i l osophe rs ever s i n c e . Legac ies that leg i t imate / 148 H o w e v e r , the te rm "aes the t i c " , as in t roduced by the German scho la r A l e x a n d e r Baumgar ten in the m i d - e i g h t e e n t h cen tury , w a s not in c o m m o n use be fo re the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h century . Baumgar ten , a c k n o w l e d g e d as the fa ther of a e s t h e t i c s , de r i ved the w o r d f r o m the Greek term aisthesis mean ing sense pe rcep t i on in re fe rence to all mater ia l th ings perceptab le by the s e n s e s ( W i l l i a m s , 1983). Baumgar ten 's use of the w o r d in re fe rence to art e m p h a s i z e d sub jec t i ve sense a c t i v i t y . 2 1 Th is k ind of emphas i s on sub jec t i ve sense ac t i v i t y as the bas i s of that wh ich is f ine or beaut i fu l has i so la ted art f r o m s o c i a l or cul tura l i n te rp re ta t ions . " S u b j e c t i v e " , acco rd ing to the p h i l o s o p h i c a l f r a m e w o r k that cur rent ly ex i s t s as a resul t o f p o s i t i v i s t s c i e n c e and the a s s o c i a t e d des i re for " i m p a r t i a l " or "neu t ra l " o b s e r v a t i o n and judgment , is based on persona l i m p r e s s i o n s and f ee l i ngs rather than " f a c t s " . C o n s t r a s t i n g aes the t i c cons ide ra t i ons w i t h prac t ica l or u t i l i tar ian c o n s i d e r a t i o n s is "unders tandab le but d a m a g i n g " , w r i t es R a y m o n d W i l l i a m s (1983, p. 32) in his exp lo ra t i on of the h i s to r i ca l deve lopmen t of the cul tural t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of actual language. Such a d i v i s i o n makes aes the t ic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s appear d i s p l a c e d , marg ina l , and unre l iab le . The noun "aes the te " w a s once w i d e l y used to re fer to a pe rson s p e c i a l i z i n g in aes the t i cs as a d i sc i p l i ne o f f o rma l s tudy , a l though o f ten in a de roga to ry sense ( W i l l i a m s , 1983). The te rm, e s p e c i a l l y when a s s o c i a t e d w i th Wa l te r Pa ter , the late n ineteenth century Eng l i sh l i te rary and s o c i a l c r i t i c and a centra l f igure of the "aes the t i c m o v e m e n t " , w a s a source of r id icu le and at tack. Even tua l l y the te rm "aes the te " w a s rep laced by " a e s t h e t i c i a n " (a te rm w h i c h , in c o n t e m p o r a r y t imes has acqu i red much of L e g a c i e s that leg i t imate / 149 this s a m e s t i gma) . It w a s Pater w h o , by channe l l ing al l the subject matter he came in con tac t w i th ( inc lud ing r e l i g i o n , p h i l o s o p h y , Rena i ssance s tud ies ) into suppor t fo r his aes the t i c v i e w of the w o r l d , c h a m p i o n e d the theme of art fo r ar t 's s a k e , cu lm ina t ing in an Ep icurean " A e s t h e t i c i s m " . A e s t h e t i c i s m re fe rs to the d i sengagement o f art f r o m s o c i a l and po l i t i ca l c o n c e r n s . It is a point o f v i e w in wh i ch art is seen as a u t o n o m o u s , s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , and se rv ing no u l ter ior p u r p o s e ; nor shou ld it be judged by m o r a l , p o l i t i c a l , or nonaes the t i c s tandards . It has been held to represent an o v e r d e v e l o p m e n t of one aspec t of r o m a n t i c i s m 2 2 : the au tonomy of the c rea t i ve imag ina t ion (Graf f , 1973). M a n y wr i t e rs on aes the t i cs have s ince expounded the aes the t i c i s t po in t of v i e w , but C l i v e Be l l ' s t rea t ise on aes the t i c s , s i m p l y t i t led Art (1958), is par t i cu la r ly i l lus t ra t ive of the at t i tude that high art t ranscends the p rac t i ca l , e v e r y d a y s o c i a l w o r l d . For B e l l , "aes the t ic rap ture" (p. 160) is al l that mat ters in art. "The va lue of the greatest art," w ro te Be l l (p. 175), " c o n s i s t s not in i ts power of b e c o m i n g a part o f c o m m o n ex is tence but in its p o w e r of tak ing us out of it." "S ign i f i can t f o r m " t ranscends what Bel l v i e w s as the mundane w o r l d of po l i t i ca l and s o c i a l a f f a i r s . S i g n i f i c a n t f o rm re fe rs to pure p h y s i c a l f o r m s o m e h o w independent of ques t i ons of representa t iona l adequacy , mean ing , or app l i cab i l i t y ou ts ide i t se l f . It is a var iant of the p h y s i c a l ob ject h y p o t h e s i s 2 3 wh i ch f o c u s e s on l y on the par t icu lar p roper t ies o f w o r k s of art. A c c o r d i n g to this v i e w , the w o r k ' s re la ted mean ings , pu rposes and s o c i a l and h i s to r i ca l c o o r d i n a t e s are d i s rega rded . Hence , when c o n t e m p l a t i n g p r im i t i ve art, Be l l (1958, p. 39) announced that "p r im i t i ves p roduce art because they m u s t ; they have no other m o t i v e than a p a s s i o n a t e des i re to exp ress their sense of f o r m . " Legac ies that leg i t imate / 150 Fur thermore , t hose w h o w i s h to apprec ia te any wo rk of art need no k n o w l e d g e of i ts i deas , purpose or con tex t , "noth ing but a sense of f o r m and co lou r and a k n o w l e d g e of t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l s p a c e " (p. 27). The modern e m p h a s i s on aes the t i c f o r m meant that pe rcep t i ons we re t r a n s f o r m e d s o that a r t i f ac t s , dance , and mus i c of va r ious cu l tures became " v i s i b l e " as art f o r m s , rather than as cul tura l f o r m s . M i l t o n A lb rech t (1968), an A m e r i c a n s o c i o l o g i s t , a t t r ibutes th is k ind of in terpre ta t ion of art as a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t ident i ty de tached f r o m s p e c i f i c s o c i a l and cul tural mean ings and as r e s p o n s i b l e fo r the ransack ing of other cu l tures throughout the w o r l d fo r "art t r e a s u r e s " to take home to pro tect in pantheons of "Cu l tu re " . The m a s k s , kach inas , scu lp tu res , t o t e m s , or other cul tural p roduc ts f r o m A u s t r a l i a n abo r i g i nes , the t r ibes of new G u i n e a , W e s t A f r i c a , and e l sewhere have been c o l l e c t e d as A R T and p laced in m u s e u m s , hung on our w a l l s , and d i s p l a y e d on our m a n t e l p i e c e s . ( . . . s t r i k i ng l y i l lus t ra ted at Expo '67). Chac M o o l s and s tone jaguars have been r e m o v e d f r o m ancient M a y a n t e m p l e s , and " g a r g o y l e s " w renched f r o m ca thedra l s . M o s t of the f ines t examp les of t o t e m s and other "art" ob jec ts nat ive to A l a s k a are to be found not in A l a s k a but in the S o v i e t U n i o n , in European m u s e u m s , in C a n a d a , N e w Yo rk , P o r t l a n d , S e a t t l e , Denver and e l s e w h e r e . Thus art has n o w b e c o m e " u n i v e r s a l " w i th a mean ing that is be ing p ro jec ted round the w o r l d f r o m the f ine art t rad i t ion of Europe and A m e r i c a . The p r o c e s s rep resen ts not a L e g a c i e s that leg i t imate / 151 m i l i t a ry or po l i t i ca l i nvas ion of the w o r l d , but an ar t is t ic one . (p. 393) In other cu l tures the arts have not a l w a y s been separate f r o m s o c i a l and cul tural c o n t e x t s . A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , unl ike many aes the t i c i ans , have suppor ted the c l o s e re la t ionsh ip of the aes the t ic w i th p rac t i ca l and s o c i a l con tex t s and va r i a t i ons f r o m culture to cu l ture. They e m p h a s i z e , no tes A l b r e c h t , cul tural re la t i v i t y rather than the a b s o l u t i s m that takes the f o r m of W e s t e r n c o n c e p t s of aes the t ic f o r m pro jec ted on a r t i fac ts of other cu l tu res . 2 4 F e w of the more recent wr i te rs on aes the t i cs main ta in as ex t reme a v i e w of art as a separa te and s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c o s m o s as B e l l ' s , yet they s t i l l i ns is t on aes the t ic va lues as paramount . (This i s , of c o u r s e , a p recond i t i on if aes the t i cs in the t rad i t iona l sense is to ex is t as a separate d i sc ip l i ne . ) S o m e in f luent ia l aes the t ic v i e w p o i n t s that center v a r i o u s l y on the a n a l y s i s of the aes the t i c and phys i ca l p roper t i es of w o r k s of art are, fo r e x a m p l e , the e m o t i v e aes the t ic aspec t s (Langer), the imag ina t i ve ( C o l l i n g w o o d ) , the exp ress i ve (El l io t t ) , the cogn i t i ve (Goodman) , beauty as t ranscenden ta l (Mar i ta in) and f o r m a l or des ign a n a l y s i s , k n o w n as f o rma l i s t c r i t i c i s m (Beards ley , Fry) . Even though these va r ious p o s i t i o n s are f requen t l y c o u n t e r - p o s e d to one another by their current p r o p o n e n t s , they d o , whether in their t rad i t iona l or u p - d a t e d f o r m s , tend to i so la te aes the t ic f r o m s o c i a l f a c t o r s (Wo l f f , 1983). In sp i te of the inc rease w i th in the last two decades of s o c i o l o g i c a l c r i t i ques of art and aes the t i c s , the d i sc i p l i ne of aes the t i cs s t i l l con t i nues Legac ies that leg i t imate / 152 on the w h o l e to be conduc ted w i thou t re fe rence to the in te rvent ion of these c r i t i ques . For e v i d e n c e , Jane t W o l f f (1983) d i rec ts a t ten t ion to such s o u r c e s as the British Journal of Aesthetics or the fam i l i a r an tho log ies ed i ted by O s b o r n e (1972) or H o s p e r s (1969). M a i n s t r e a m A n g l o - A m e r i c a n p h i l o s o p h y of art pursues its search for the nature of beauty and of the aesthet ic exper ience w i thou t in any w a y being d is tu rbed by the s o c i o l o g i c a l c r i t ique of aes the t i cs i tse l f as a h i s t o r i ca l l y s p e c i f i c d e v e l o p m e n t , and of al l aes the t ic j udgmen ts as c l a s s - b a s e d , g e n d e r - l i n k e d and in general i d e o l o g i c a l l y p roduced . (Wo l f f , 1983, p. 27) SUMMARY K n o w l e d g e l i ves in t rad i t ions (Bergenda l , 1983). A r t k n o w l e d g e , as found in educa t i on , is the product o f the a c a d e m y t rad i t i on , the u n i v e r s i t i e s ' l iberal arts no t i on of art as human iz ing and "cu l tura l ly r e f i n i n g " , and the p h i l o s o p h i c a l t rad i t ion that d o m i n a t e s aes the t i c theory . The changes in the educa t ion of a r t i s ts f r o m w o r k s h o p s to un i ve r s i t i e s , and the resul tant change in s tatus of art k n o w l e d g e , are , as d e m o n s t r a t e d in th is chapter , r oo ted in a h i s to ry of the changes in s ta tus of the ar t is t ' s p r o f e s s i o n f r o m that of a manual t rade to the more nob le status of an " in te l lec tua l c a l l i n g " . The h is to ry of art in educa t ion is one of emphas i z i ng the in te l lec tua l or theore t i ca l base of art, f o r m i n g a l l i ances w i th the l i terat i (Hauser, 1959) and the more p o w e r f u l and af f luent c l a s s e s , and , in this cen tu ry , m o v i n g f ine art into un i ve rs i t i es and even tua l l y to s c h o o l s of graduate s tud ies . It is a L e g a c i e s that leg i t ima te / 153 h i s to ry of l eg i t ima t ing the f ine art d i sc i p l i ne and e leva t ing its s ta tus in s o c i e t y through a gradual p r o c e s s of a c a d e m i c i z a t i o n , through a s s o c i a t i o n w i th the l ibera l a r t s ' p rese rva t i on of cul tural cap i ta l and its c o n n o t a t i o n s of a c a d e m i c c o m p e t e n c e and , i r on i ca l l y , democ ra t i c v a l u e s , and through a e s t h e t i c i s m ' s separa t i on of art f r o m s o c i e t y . By suppor t ing the c l a im for an independence of art f r o m the wo rk ro l es and prac t i ca l k n o w l e d g e c o n d i t i o n s of the e v e r y d a y industr ia l w o r l d , these t rad i t i ons have p rov i ded o f f i c i a l j u s t i f i ca t i on and author i ty fo r the ro le of art in educa t i on . By suppor t ing th is c l a i m for i ndependence , the t rad i t ions have func t i oned a l so to re in fo rce the no t ion of art as a s p e c i a l i z e d , p r i v i l eged rea lm of k n o w l e d g e of l i t t le re levance to ma ins t ream p lu ra l i s t i c s o c i e t y . P o s t m o d e r n i s m cha l lenges the cul tural and s o c i a l bases of these aes the t ic and educa t iona l t rad i t i ons . But because of the author i ty these t rad i t i ons ho ld in s o c i e t y , the task is not an e a s y one , and , as argued in the next chapter , has so far been large ly i n e f f e c t i v e . NOTES 1 The br ief h i s to r ies p resen ted in th is chapter may not be fu l l y rep resen ta t i ve . They are examp les that highl ight cer ta in w i d e l y - r e c o g n i z e d h i s to r i ca l d e v e l o p m e n t s and are l i m i t e d , as is any h i s to ry of art and its i ns t i t u t i ons , in the sense that art and the ins t i tu t ions respons ib l e for the acqu i s i t i on of art k n o w l e d g e ex i s ted at m o m e n t s and in p laces other than those wh i ch are t y p i c a l l y g i ven a t ten t ion . 3 Because scu lp to r s we re m e m b e r s of what w a s c o n s i d e r e d a " l esse r g u i l d " o f b r i ck laye rs and ca rpen te rs , their separa t ion s o c i a l l y f r o m the t r adesman w a s much later in c o m i n g . 3 Indiv idual ar t is ts and their w o r k s h o p t ra in ing are d i s c u s s e d in Book III o f Leon Ba t t i s ta A l b e r t i ' s t rea t ise On painting wr i t ten in 1435, in Cenn ino Cenn in i ' s ear ly f i f t een th century t rea t i se , Book of the artist (c i ted in Baxanda l l , 1972, p.117, 121), and in Vasa r i ' s Lives of the Legac ies that leg i t imate / 154 painters, sculptors and architects (1963) Baxandal l exp la ins that the re la t ionsh ip be tween the c l ient and painter w a s an impor tant part o f the las t ing c i a s s i c i z a t i o n of European Rena i ssance cul ture. C a t e g o r i e s o f a s y s t e m of l i terary c r i t i c i s m became the subject o f s tudy of humanist s c h o l a r s . A l t hough the language of c r i t i c i z ing art w a s a sk i l l of the learned , bankers and merchants took to us ing many o f the te rms and c o n c e p t s such as "pure" or "o rna te " or " c o m p o s i t i o n " . The t ra in ing of a painter w i th in the gui ld s y s t e m f o l l o w e d the c u s t o m a r y course of med ieva l craf t rules that al l gu i lds he ld . The master of a bottegha, as the a r t i s t s ' gui ld w o r k s h o p s of f i f t ee th century Italy we re c a l l e d , had fu l l d i sc ip l i na ry p o w e r over his app ren t i ces . The apprent ice had to learn his t rade f r o m the b o t t o m upwards , beg inn ing w i th the gr ind ing of c o l o r s and the p re l im ina ry t reatment of the pa in t ing su r f ace . A c q u i r i n g all the techn ica l k n o w l e d g e and t r i cks of the trade that w o u l d enable the appren t i ce to paint just l ike the mas te r took seve ra l y e a r s . A n impor tant part o f the later s tages of the appren t i cesh ip w a s c o p y i n g m a s t e r p i e c e s of the mas te r art ist as we l l as other a c k n o w l e d g e d m a s t e r p i e c e s . A s An ta l (1970, p.291) s u g g e s t s , it is in l ight of th is t ra in ing "that w e can unders tand the tenac ious p rese rva t i on of the t rad i t iona l her i tage in f ou r teen th -cen tu ry pa in t i ng " . A s an ar t i s t , Vasa r i w a s represen ta t i ve of the age of M a n n e r i s m , p roduc ing work charac te r i zed by a t ens ion be tween ar t is t ic f r e e d o m and o b l i g a t i o n . Th is charac te r i s t i c o f Manner is t art w a s re f l ec ted in the a r t i s t s ' w o r k s h o p s in the inc reas ing con t rad i c t i on be tween the p r inc ip les of labor and e d u c a t i o n , w i th art i ns t ruc t ion s t r i v ing ever more c o n c e r t e d l y for a canon of ins t ruc t ion (Hauser, 1983). For ty yea rs later a s e c o n d a c a d e m y w a s o p e n e d — t h e A c c a d e m i a di S . Luca in R o m e . Draw ing and pa in t ing f r o m p las ter cas t s and f r o m l i fe w a s a c c o m p a n i e d by theore t i ca l d i s c u s s i o n . What is par t i cu la r ly s ign i f i can t about this ins t i tu t ion is that its even ing lectures we re opened to art c o n n o i s s e u r s f r o m the pub l i c , thus b roaden ing the ins t i tu t ion 's membersh ip and fur ther ing its asp i ra t i on to " leadersh ip in cul tural a f f a i r s as we l l as tas te and f a s h i o n " (Ke l l y , 1974, p.99). Th is p rac t ice of open ing s o m e aspec t s to a larger pub l ic r e s e m b l e s the current p rac t i ce of un ive rs i t y depar tmen ts to cater to a broader l ibera l arts p o p u l a t i o n , wh i le at the s a m e t ime suppor t i ng those s tudents seek ing careers as p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t s . A n a c a d e m y w a s es tab l i shed even in Canada as ear l y as 1668—the Eco le des A r t s et Me t i e r s at S t . J o a c h i m , Q u e b e c ( M c C a r t h y , 1973). A l t hough the s c h o o l w a s d i scon t i nued in 1705, its cou rses in a rch i tec tu re , scu lpture and pa in t ing had ach ieved the m o s t remarkab le s u c c e s s in es tab l i sh ing the v isua l arts in Canada . P e v s n e r ' s Academies of art, past and present m i s s e s th is a c a d e m y o f art even though it Legac ies that leg i t imate / 155 an tedates the es tab l i shmen t of s im i l a r a c a d e m i e s in European c i t i e s . For e x a m p l e , par t icu lar grades of u l t ramar ine blue (the m o s t expens i ve of the blue p i gmen ts ) w e r e s p e c i f i e d in te rms of f l o r i n s to the ounce . " G e r m a n blue w a s just carbonate of c o p p e r ; it w a s less sp lend id in i ts co lou r and much more s e r i o u s l y unstab le in use (par t icu lar ly in f r e s c o ) " (Baxanda l l , 1972, p. 11). Wh i te and Whi te (1965) do not ind icate that both app l i ed and f ine art were ins t ruc ted w i th in the same ins t i t u t i ons , a l though E f land (1983) c lea r l y d o e s . There are e x c e p t i o n s . One art s c h o o l that s t r i ves to perpetuate the a c a d e m y t rad i t ion is the Nat iona l A c a d e m y Fine A r t s S c h o o l in N e w Y o r k . To quote f r o m its recent c a t a l o g , "Throughout al l the years s ince the S c h o o l ' s f ound ing (1825), and throughout al l the sh i f t s in tas te and f a s h i o n , the S c h o o l of Fine A r t s rema ined true to the s tandards of exce l l ence as es tab l i shed by the founde rs . " (p. 3). "At the heart o f the S c h o o l p r o g r a m " is s tud io work "mos t o f ten f r o m the m o d e l but a l so f r o m ant ique cas ts and s t i l l l i f e " (p. 5). These and other data regard ing the structure and content of art p rog rams in higher educa t ion we re ob ta ined by r e v i e w i n g p rogram c a t a l o g s and brochures of over 100 f ine art p rog rams of both c o l l e g e s and un ive rs i t i es in Canada and the Un i ted S t a t e s . S e v e r a l other c o n v e n t i o n s of our present art ins t ruc t ion mode l came about in rebellion to the o f f i c i a l d o m of academ ies of art. T h e s e , h o w e v e r , are add ressed in the f o l l o w i n g chapter (chapter 6). A r t h i s t o r y , as w e k n o w it t oday in Nor th A m e r i c a as scho la r l y h i s to r i ca l ana l ys i s and in terpre ta t ion of a r t i f ac t s , on l y su r f aced f r o m its en tang lement w i th art c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p in 1923 when the Art Bulletin, f ounded in 1913 and n o w recogn i zed as a leading art h i s to r i ca l p e r i o d i c a l , car r ied ten art h i s to r i ca l a r t i c les and on ly one on art app rec ia t i on . Of re la ted s i g n i f i c a n c e w a s the f o r m a t i o n of a c o m p e t i n g p e r i o d i c a l , the s h o r t - l i v e d Art Studies. One of C a n f i e l d ' s art h is to r ian c o l l e a g u e s at Y a l e , V incen t S c u l l y , in the s a m e l ine of a rgument , de fends the arts in un i ve rs i t i es ent i re ly on grounds that the arts are a w a y of k n o w l e d g e The v isua l arts are t o o l s t o w a r d s k n o w l e d g e , w h i c h is af ter a l l , I think, the o n l y w a y in wh i ch any sub jec t can be de fended in a un i ve rs i t y . The un i ve rs i t y ' s ro le is the pursui t of k n o w l e d g e and fundamen ta l l y noth ing e l s e . (p. 51) The point of art is the i l l um ina t ion of l i f e , but m o s t art d o e s not c o m e out o f l i f e ; m o s t art c o m e s out of art. Th is Legac ies that leg i t imate / 156 is one of the great th ings that makes art so c i v i l i z e d , because mos t of c i v i l i z a t i o n as a w h o l e is some th i ng that c o m e s out of other c i v i l i z a t i o n , (p. 67) For S c u l l y , Leonardo Da V inc i w a s the per fec t e x p r e s s i o n of the idea of art as a path to k n o w l e d g e : "Leonardo w a s in teres ted in e v e r y t h i n g , e s p e c i a l l y in the t ru th" (p. 67). In Book 8 of Politics A r i s t o t l e w r o t e (Hirst , 1971, p.505): A l l use fu l k n o w l e d g e is not su i tab le for educa t i on . There is a d i s t i nc t i on be tween l iberal and i l l ibera l s u b j e c t s , and it is c lear that on l y such k n o w l e d g e as does not make the learner mechan ica l shou ld enter into educa t i on . By mechan ica l sub jec ts we must unders tand al l arts and s tud ies that make the b o d y , s o u l , or in te l lect o f f ree men unse rv i ceab le fo r the external exe rc i se of g o o d n e s s . That is w h y we cal l such pursu i ts as produce an in fe r io r cond i t i on of body m e c h a n i c a l , and all w a g e - e a r n i n g o c c u p a t i o n s . They a l l o w the mind no le isure , and they drag it d o w n to a lower l e v e l . There are even s o m e l iberal a r ts , the acqu i s i t i on of wh i ch up to a cer ta in point is not unwor thy of f r e e m e n , but w h i c h , if s tud ied w i th e x c e s s i v e d e v o t i o n or m inu teness are open to the charge of be ing in jur ious in the manner d e s c r i b e d . The ob jec t w i th wh i ch w e engage in or s tudy t h e m , a l so makes a great d i f f e r e n c e ; if it is fo r our o w n sakes or that of our f r i ends , or to p roduce g o o d n e s s , they are not i l l i be ra l , wh i l e a man engag ing in the very same pursu i ts to p lease s t rangers w o u l d in many cases be regarded as f o l l o w i n g the o c c u p a t i o n of a s l ave or a ser f . There are sub jec ts wh i ch Ought to f o r m part o f educat ion s o l e l y w i th a v i e w to the right e m p l o y m e n t of le isure , and that this educa t ion and these s tud ies exist fo r their o w n s a k e , wh i le those that have bus iness in v i e w are s tud ied as be ing n e c e s s a r y and for the sake of some th i ng e l s e . It w a s not unti l the med ieva l sp read of Chr i s t ian doc t r ine that l ibera l arts s tud ies we re cha l lenged at a l l . W i th Chr i s t i an doc t r ine the s i g n i f i c a n c e of reason w a s subord ina ted to r e v e l a t i o n , so that the l ibera l arts b e c a m e a f o r m a l and res t r i c ted course of s tudy , s e c o n d a r y to t h e o l o g y . Wi th Rena i ssance human ism and the r e d i s c o v e r y of c l a s s i c a l l i terature, "the ful l s i g n i f i c a n c e of A r t i s t o t e l i a n l ibera l educa t i on w a s t empora r i l y r e a f f i r m e d " (Hirst , 1971. p. 507). But what resu l ted th is t ime w a s a d i s t o r t i on of the concep t of l iberal educa t ion s o that the s tudy of c l a s s i c a l l i terature i tse l f c a m e to represent the Legac ies that leg i t imate / 157 e s s e n c e of a l iberal educa t i on . One of our m o s t s ign i f i can t th inkers on w e s t e r n s o c i e t y and e d u c a t i o n , the e ighteenth century French ph i l osophe r J e a n - J a c q u e s R o u s s e a u , w a s a fe rvent c r i t i c of l iberal arts i dea l s . R o u s s e a u , a s t o r m y roman t i c , i ncons is ten t in many th ings , w i t h l i t t le f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , and c red i ted w i th hav ing s i gn i f i can t l y he lped to shape the French R e v o l u t i o n , w ro te A discourse on the arts and sciences (1973) (—the w o r d " d i s c o u r s e " mean ing in i ts contex t " p r i z e - e s s a y " ) . The e s s a y w o n the con tes t of the A c a d e m y of D i jon in 1749, w inn ing h im instant f a m e . The ques t i on p o s e d by the A c a d e m y , wh i ch the e s s a y a d d r e s s e d , w a s "Has the res to ra t i on of the arts and s c i e n c e s had a pu r i f y ing e f fec t upon m o r a l s ? " R o u s s e a u began his Discourse w i th the point that men are not at birth equa l , but as s o c i e t i e s d e v e l o p these natural inequa l i t ies are aggravated by a r t i f i c ia l p o l i t i c a l l y en fo r ced inequa l i t i es wh i ch have noth ing to do w i th the natural i nequa l i t i es . The s o - c a l l e d advance of the arts and s c i e n c e s para l le l s an increase in inequa l i t ies and co r rup t i on . For R o u s s e a u , to l ive m o r a l l y one does not require k n o w l e d g e of art and s c i e n c e . "The m i n d , as w e l l as the b o d y , has its n e e d s : those of the b o d y are the bas i s of s o c i e t y , those of the mind its o r n a m e n t s " (p. 4). But in advanced c i v i l i z a t i o n it is these th ings that c o m m a n d rewards . M o r a l i t y , on the other hand, c o m m a n d s no r e w a r d s , it is o b s c u r e , gu ided on ly by ins t inc t c o n s c i e n c e and "heart" . Hence w e f ind . many sca th ing passages in the Discourse that c o n d e m n the s tudy of the arts and s c i e n c e s as s o p h i s t i c , leading to po l i te manners and hence to h y p o c r i s y : A s t r o n o m y w a s born of s u p e r s t i t i o n , e loquence of a m b i t i o n s , ha t red, f a l s e h o o d , and f l a t t e r y ; g e o m e t r y of a v a r i c e ; p h y s i c s of an idle c u r i o s i t y ; a l l , even mora l p h i l o s o p h y , of human pr ide . Thus the arts and s c i e n c e s o w e their birth to our v i c e s ; we shou ld be less doub t fu l of their advan tages , if they had sprung f r o m our v i r t ues , (p. 14) S i n c e the labours of the m o s t en l igh tened of our learned men and the best o f our c i t i zens are of so l i t t le u t i l i t y , te l l us what we ought to think of the numerous herd of obscu re wr i te rs and idle litterateurs, w h o devour w i thou t any return the subs tance of the State.(p. 15) W e have p h y s i c i s t s , g e o m e t r i c i a n s , c h e m i s t s , a s t r o n o m e r s , p o e t s , m u s i c i a n s , and pa in ters in p l en t y ; but w e have no longer a c i t i zen a m o n g us ; or if there be found a f e w sca t te red over our abandoned c o u n t r y s i d e , they are left to per ish there unno t i ced and n e g l e c t e d . Such is the cond i t i ons to wh ich those w h o g ive us our da i ly b read , and our ch i ld ren m i l k , are reduced , and such are our f ee l i ngs t owards them. (p. 22) L e g a c i e s that leg i t imate / 158 The w a y in wh ich an aes the t i c p r inc ip le d e v e l o p s v a r i e s : A n aes the t i c p r inc ip le may be i n f o r m a l l y d e v e l o p e d by an art is t through day to day c h o i c e s of ma te r ia l s , f o r m s , or sub ject mat ter . Or , more f o r m a l l y o rgan i zed ph i l osoph i ca l d e f e n s i b l e aes the t i c s y s t e m s may be d e v e l o p e d and j us t i f i ed by aes the t i c ians and c r i t i c s , and s tud ied by p h i l o s o p h e r s , h i s t o r i ans , and , more recen t l y , s o c i o l o g i s t s and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s . H o w e v e r , a broader sense of aes the t i cs can inc lude not on l y the p h i l o s o p h i c a l ana l ys i s of art, but a s e c o n d more recent pa rad igm of c r i t i ca l w r i t i ng about art that a d d r e s s e s the s o c i a l and h i s to r i ca l c o o r d i n a t e s of art and the s tudy of art. It c r i t i ques and d e m y s t i f i e s the f o r m e r ph i l osoph i ca l p o s i t i o n . Th is latter s o c i o l o g i c a l pa rad igm br ings into f o c u s and makes p rob lema t i c the ca tego r i es of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l pa rad igm, ca l l i ng it t ransh is to r i ca l and m y t h i c a l . It is the s o c i o l o g i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d w r i t i ng on aes the t i cs wh i ch a l l o w s one to ask or even to . think of ask ing the k inds of ques t i ons of th is s t u d y — q u e s t i o n s about the o r ig ins and s o c i a l f unc t i ons of higher art educa t i on . It is a t rad i t ion w h i c h , s i nce the ear ly 1970s, has i nc reas ing l y i n f o rmed research and theory in art, par t i cu la r ly art h i s to ry and art educa t i on . H o w e v e r , i ts e f f ec t at the leve l of p rac t i ce in art educa t i on at any leve l o f educa t i on appears m in ima l (Chapman, 1981). Th is s o c i o l o g i c a l pa rad igm of aes the t i c theory is d i s c u s s e d in further deta i l in chapter 6. In Baumgar ten ' s m a s s i v e t w o v o l u m e work s i m p l y t i t led Aesthetics, a s p e c i f i c theory of beauty makes up on l y a s m a l l par t : it w a s Kant w h o s a w beauty as an e s s e n t i a l l y and e x c l u s i v e l y sensuous p h e n o m e n o n , in s t rong a s s o c i a t i o n w i th art. The con t inu ing uncer ta in ty b e t w e e n re fe rence to art and the more general re fe rence to beauty is imp l i c i t in the h is to ry of a e s t h e t i c s . For e x a m p l e , P la to b e l i e v e d art to be an im i ta t i on of an im i t a t i on . Beau ty , unl ike art, re fe r red to the s y m m e t r y and p ropor t i on of f o r m , and w a s found to be p r imar i l y in the abs t rac t ideas af ter w h i c h he s a w the w o r l d pa t te rned. A r i s t o t l e , T h o m a s A q u i n a s , and in th is cen tury , DeWi t t Parker and J a c q u e s M a r i t a i n , m o d i f i e d these p r i nc ip les but re ta ined the d i s t i nc t i on be tween art and beau ty . Equat ing a e s t h e t i c i s m w i th r o m a n t i c i s m , or unders tand ing both as an impu lse to escape f r o m the modern w o r l d , o v e r s i m p l i f i e s r o m a n t i c i s m . R o m a n t i c aes the t i cs g l o r i f i e d the idea of art as an i so la ted un ive rse of imag ina t i ve truth that far t ranscends ord inary rea l i t y . But it a l so s a w th is au tonomous aes the t i c w o r l d as p ro found l y va luab le in p r o v i d i n g the va lues and regu la t ive p r inc ip les by wh ich ind iv idua ls and s o c i e t i e s are g u i d e d — i t de l i be ra te l y e m p h a s i z e d the s o c i a l , m o r a l , and p h i l o s o p h i c a l mean ings of art (Graf f , 1973). The te rm "phys i ca l ob jec t h y p o t h e s i s " is used by the ph i l osophe r R ichard W o l l h e i m (1968) and later by Janet W o l f f (1983). The a t tempt to i den t i f y the aes the t ic in te rms of p roper t i es of par t icular ob jec t s L e g a c i e s that leg i t imate / 159 as a s t ra tegy to d i s c o v e r the nature of art and the aes the t i c has long been p rob lema t i c to ph i l osophe rs of art. W o l l h e i m s y s t e m a t i c a l l y ra ises many of the d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i th such an a n a l y s i s that i n v o l v e s an i nves t i ga t i on of the var ie ty of th ings we ca l l "art" in order to i so la te their c o m m o n "aes the t i c " f ea tu res . One such p rob lem is that not al l w o r k s of art are p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s , as in the case of pe r f o rmance art and m u s i c . Be l l ' s work i nvo l v i ng "s ign i f i can t f o r m " is a theory of v i sua l art wh i ch w a s not in tended to be t rans fe r red to m u s i c , l i terature or pe r f o rmance art f o r m s and , if it is t r ans fe r red , has seve ra l l im i t a t i ons . A lb rech t no tes that the Greeks d id not detach aes the t i c qua l i ty f r o m the i n te l l ec tua l , m o r a l , r e l i g i ous , and p rac t i ca l f unc t i on or content of w o r k s of art. They d id not c o n c e i v e of the " f ine a r t s " in the modern s e n s e , fo r they d id not use aes the t i c qua l i ty as a s tandard for g roup ing the f ine arts together . Their concep t of art w a s reta ined in the M i d d l e A g e s . Even today in w e s t e r n cu l ture, art con t inues to se rve ex t r a -aes the t i c f unc t i ons by exp ress ing and suppor t ing re l ig ious and other general va lues of s o c i e t y . A l b rech t con jec tu res that if art is to be c l a i m e d as un iversa l it is in these respec ts on l y that it may be regarded as such . A lb rech t makes re fe rence in the f o l l o w i n g passage to those w h o are more inc l ined to emphas i ze cul tural r e l a t i v i t y : E.R. Leach (1961) for e x a m p l e , po in ts out that "each loca l group has its o w n aesthet ic t rad i t i ons wh ich are pecu l ia r to that group and to that group a l one . " S i m i l a r l y , Red f i e l d (1959) s h o w s that a " c o m p l e x w o r l d of t rad i t iona l m e a n i n g s " is rep resen ted by the art o f a par t icu lar cu l ture , wh i ch has its o w n t rad i t iona l s t y l e perpe tua ted and c o n f i r m e d by s o c i a l usage . . . A m o n g A u s t r a l i a n abo r i g i nes , as M o u n t f o r d (1961) s t a t e s , the "p r im i t i ve e x p r e s s i o n s of art, mus i c and d r a m a " are r ig id l y con t ro l l ed by the a g e - o l d c u s t o m s of the t r ibe , and "they p lay the mos t v i ta l part in a b o r i g i n e s ' l i v e s , fo r it is by the e m p l o y m e n t of these art f o r m s , s o n g s and r i tua ls , that the abor ig ines keep a l i ve the p h i l o s o p h i e s , the c rea t ion my ths and the exp lo i t s of the t o tem ic a n c e s t o r s " . CHAPTER 6 CHALLENGES TO THE INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURING OF ART KNOWLEDGE BOUNDARIES Although the institutional shift of instruction in painting and sculpture from workshops to academies and eventually to universities gave art the status of an intellectual discipline and secured its place in education, this academicization process has not gone unchallenged. Challenges to academia as a centre for artistic activity and the preparation of artists have been frequent. This chapter describes some of these challenges that have occurred in relation to art departments and art schools. As wil l be discussed, these challenges have been largely ineffective in broadening boundaries, and, in the end, may even have functioned to further the very boundaries and hierarchies of art knowledge which they set out to challenge or reform. The ineffectiveness of these challenges has much to do with the structures and norms of universit ies, with their insulated compartments of knowledge, their allegiances to these compartments, their maintenance and perpetuation of these allegiances through mechanisms of social izat ion, their highly sanctioned liberal arts tradition, and their promotion of aesthetic autonomy and ar t -as-capi ta l . That the challenges to traditional conceptions of art knowledge have been . impeded by the structures and norms of universities lends further support to the thesis that the university has the monopoly on defining, legitimating, and perpetuating art knowledge. 160 Challenges / 161 CHALLENGES TO THE ACADEMY TRADITION The of f ic ia ldom of academies of art, with their rigid standards of western high art, has become a symbol that incites rebell iousness, even when there is little of the of f ic ia ldom of the academy left to sustain it. Whether justif ied or not, 1 academies have come to represent that which is reprehensible in art and art instruction. The words "academy" and "academic" have a stigma of oppressiveness, rigidity, lack of inspiration, and moribundity. This is evident in the title of one article that surveys contemporary art, "The academy of the bad" (Plaguen, 1981) or in McNei l Lowry's (1962, p. 236) term, the "new academic sty le" , that describes the style of painting prevalent in col leges and universities which "particularly lends itself to intellectual and technical imitation." Dan Flavin (1968, p. 30), an American artist known for his sculpture with fluorescent light tubes, fuels an indictment against the establishment of art practice in universities with several references to the practices of earlier European academies: nothing more than a precious, obvious and repetitive manhandling of subject matter within set sanctioned media, from their own convenient and sanctimonious misapplications of art history. Often, all that these "superior" types can produce are seemingly endless depictions of decadently daubed fruit preferably fit for 19th century French garbage on brushed out fabric fo lds that could not survive a contemporary intellectual "dry cleaning". Among certain of the "humanistic" elders, the decrepit evangelizing, egg tempera-izing fundamentalists on the faculty, Cha l lenges / 162 those al l t ime s tanda rds , the sec re ts of the o ld mas te rs are s t i l l i nvoked f r o m ancient t rac ts and mus ty m e m o i r s of the l ikes of Cenn ino Cenn in i . Other odd o ld pedant ic s t ruc tu ra l i s ts fu t i i e l y i m p o s e f igure d raw ing as an ex t reme exe rc i se in cons t ra ined hard l ine obse rva t i ona l o r t h o d o x y . The fa int f rac tured rema ins of s k e t c h e s so rendered are so thorough ly e rased and kneaded away as to s t ra in anyone ' s e y e s if not his pe r cep t i on . Ind ic tments of the a c a d e m y t rad i t ion were e x p r e s s e d f requent l y dur ing the 1960s and ear ly 1970s by those p r o f e s s i n g a h igh ly p o l i t i c i z e d s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . A n d they we re exp ressed f requent l y dur ing the heydey of a c a d e m i e s when a c a d e m i e s ma in ta ined the m o n o p o l y not on l y on t ra in ing ar t is ts but on de te rm in ing what ar t is t ic s t y l e s and f o r m s were accep tab le . The th row ing of bread (used for e ras ing l ines in d raw ing) w a s one e x p r e s s i o n of student revo l t , resu l t ing in the p roh ib i t i on of the use of bread fo r e ras ing c h a r c o a l , w h i c h in turn resu l ted in "a s ign i f i can t e f fo r t in the search ing of l i ne " (Creedy , 1970, p. 3). W i th in the a c a d e m y , l ibera l f a c t i o n s c l a i m e d that the rote c o p y i n g me thods of ins t ruc t ion and the " o f f i c i a l " s u p e r v i s i o n at the a c a d e m i e s s t i f l e d c rea t i v i t y and the mora l independence of s tuden ts . C o n s e r v a t i v e f a c t i o n s c l a i m e d that the a c a d e m y s t y l e of ins t ruc t ion had degenera ted into an u n d i s c i p l i n e d , supe r f i c i a l t ra in ing wh i ch p roduced at best " fac i le c o p y i s t s and no a r t i s t s " (White & W h i t e , 1965). A c a d e m i e s , l ike the ear l ier gu i l ds , had ou t l i ved their pu rpose and were seen as the e n e m i e s of gen ius and of the ind iv idua l e x p r e s s i o n that had b e c o m e the canon in the n ineteenth cen tury , c l a s s i f i e d under such Cha l lenges / 163 head ings as r o m a n t i c i s m , r e a l i s m , and i m p r e s s i o n i s m . S o m e c o l o r f u l a c a d e m y - b a s h i n g of the t ime is quo ted in N iko laus P e v s n e r ' s Academies of art (1973). For e x a m p l e , there w a s G o y a ' s p lea of 1872: Let a c a d e m i e s be unres t r i c t i ve . . . by ban ish ing al l s l a v i s h s e r v i l i t y , as it is usual in i n fan ts ' s c h o o l s . . . There are no rules in pa in t ing , and the cons t ra in t or ob l i ga t i on fo r al l to s tudy in the s a m e w a y . . . is a great o b s t a c l e fo r the young.(p . v i ) In 1859, F.G. S tephens sa id that the a c a d e m y "has a l w a y s been the pat ron of m e d i o c r i t y and the enemy of gen ius . . . th is great b ra i n l ess , ru th less b o d y . " (Pevsner , 1973, p. v i i i ) . A n d W i l l i a m M o r r i s d e s c r i b e d a c a d e m i e s as "the w o r s t c o l l e c t i o n of s n o b s , f l u n k e y s and s e l f - s e e k e r s that the w o r l d has yet s e e n . " (Pevsner , 1973, p. x i i ) . But perhaps the mos t sp i r i t ed c r i t i c i s m w a s p ronounced by J o s e p h A n t o n K o c h , leader of the hero ic s c h o o l of G e r m a n Roman t i c landscape pa in t ing . He c o m p a r e d an art a c a d e m y w i t h , as Pevsne r (1973, p. 200) d e s c r i b e s , "an in f i rmary fo r incurab les (SiechenstalI), a poor h o u s e , and , more and more inebr ia ted by his o w n w o r d s , w i th a ' rot t ing c h e e s e ' f r o m wh ich 'an innumerab le host o f a r t i s ts c r e e p s — l i k e a my r i ad of m a g g o t s ' . " It w a s a general o p p o s i t i o n to a c a d e m i e s and their " S a l o n - a r t " (a te rm wh i ch in G e r m a n y means p i c t u r e - p a i n t i n g fo r d raw ing r o o m s , men t i ons P e v s n e r , 1973) that p rov ided incen t i ve fo r the d e v e l o p m e n t o f the A r t s and Craf t M o v e m e n t in England and , later , the Bauhaus S c h o o l in G e r m a n y . Both we re a t tempts to regain the s o c i a l and ar t is t ic v i r tues of the s o - c a l l e d Cha l l enges / 164 " l e s s e r " a r t s , the arts ou ts ide the t igh t ly ma in ta ined boundar ies of high art. They we re a t tempts to break d o w n insu la t i ve boundar ies and re in tegrate the art is t into s o c i e t y . For Wa l t e r M o r r i s in Eng land , the ideal w a s the s y s t e m of gu i lds and trade c o m p a n i e s of the M i d d l e A g e s . M o r r i s ma in ta ined that this s y s t e m a lone secures a w h o l e s o m e s o c i a l p o s i t i o n for art. In the M i d d l e A g e s eve ry ob jec t w a s made "by the peop le for the peop le as a j oy for the maker and the use r " , w ro te M o r r i s , and "the best ar t is t w a s a w o r k m a n s t i l l , and the humbles t w o r k m a n w a s an a r t i s t " (quoted in Pevsne r 1973, p. 260). M o r r i s ' r evo lu t i ona ry d i s c o v e r y of the in te rdependence of s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s and beauty recogn i zed no fundamenta l d i f f e rence be tween pa in t ing and w e a v i n g or wa l l pape r d e s i g n . A c c o r d i n g l y , M o r r i s w o u l d have l i ked both the ar t is t 's and c ra f t sman ' s educa t ion to be l ike that of the med ieva l w o r k s h o p app ren t i cesh ips . A s a d i rect o u t c o m e of M o r r i s ' i deas , the A r t s and Cra f ts M o v e m e n t w a s es tab l i shed in England in the 1880s. W i th it s o m e new and p r o g r e s s i v e mun ic ipa l art s c h o o l s d e v e l o p e d , such as the Gu i l d and S c h o o l o f Hand ic ra f t s (a s o c i e t y of c r a f t s m e n w o r k i n g in c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n w i th each other and at the s a m e t ime t ra in ing app ren t i ces ) and later, in 1896, the London Cent ra l S c h o o l o f A r t s and Cra f t s (Pevsner , 1973). A s a resu l t , a cer ta in amount of craft ins t ruc t ion penet ra ted into s o m e art s c h o o l s and w a s a m a l g a m a t e d w i th what a l ready ex i s ted as trade cou rses (Pevsner , 1973). But perhaps the m o s t s ign i f i can t s teps t owa rd r e fo rm of art educa t ion and the evo lu t i on of a n e w , b r o a d e r - b a s e d s t y le of art were taken not in England but in G e r m a n y , w i th the Bauhaus S c h o o l . Cha l l enges / 165 The Bauhaus School In W i e m a r , G e r m a n y , Wa l te r G rop ius reo rgan ized and reopened in 1919 both an art s c h o o l and a s c h o o l o f c r a f t s , industr ia l and des ign arts w i th in one bu i l d ing , ca l l ed Staatliches Bauhaus (Pevsner , 1973). Dur ing that p e r i o d , when Ge rmany w a s rebu i ld ing af ter W o r l d War I, there w a s a g row ing need for des igners in indus t ry , wh i ch on l y a new k ind of art educa t i on cou ld meet . The Bauhaus w a s p resen ted as an a l te rnat ive to the a c a d e m i e s . Its a i m , as ar t icu la ted by Grop ius but p r e v i o u s l y f o rmu la ted b y . M o r r i s , w a s to reunite and f la t ten the s o c i a l h ierarchy of al l a r t - r e l a ted ac t i v i t i e s . The Bauhaus in tended to to get out f r o m under the roman t i c s o c i a l t ype of the "pure" painter or scu lp to r as p r i v i l eged and he ro i c . It p roud ly p r o c l a i m e d to the ou ts ide w o r l d that it w a s a n t i - a c a d e m i c . The te rms " p r o f e s s o r " and "s tudent " were rep laced w i th the te rms " m a s t e r " and "app ren t i ce " to announce that the s c h o o l w a s a part o f a rea l , w o r k i n g w o r l d (Wh i t f o rd , 1984). G rop ius (1965) b e l i e v e d that ins t ruc t ion in art, as c o m m o n l y p rac t i ced , p roduced s e l f - c o m p l a c e n t a r t i s ts es t ranged f r o m d a y - t o - d a y mat ters of l i fe because their educa t ion d id not link w i th the rea l i t ies of mat ter , techn ique , and e c o n o m y . For G r o p i u s , the ideal t ra in ing fo r the arch i tec t , ar t is t , and c r a f t s m a n al ike w a s a p rac t i ca l appren t i cesh ip to a mas te r c r a f t s m a n . G i v e n that the art is t w a s a l ready seg rega ted f r o m a l i fe of p rac t ica l w o r k , G rop ius d e v e l o p e d a s y s t e m that c o m b i n e d the mode rn s c h o o l of ins t ruc t ion w i th s o m e of the advan tages of the med ieva l p rac t i ce of app ren t i cesh ips . Cha l l enges / 166 Th is new s c h o o l w a s U t o p i a n , cha l leng ing the po l i t i ca l and a c a d e m i c d i v i s i o n s in the arts by a t tempt ing to re late t rad i t iona l no t i ons of c rea t i v i t y to the demands o f indust r ia l p roduc t i on . The fame and no to r i e t y o f the s c h o o l w a s based on what appeared as a v a n t - g a r d e teach ing me thods in tended to deve lop the w h o l e be ing , the phys i ca l and sp i r i tua l s e l f , as we l l as the t rad i t iona l conce rn fo r accu i t y and c r a f t s m a n s h i p : 2 "A t the t ime we were r id i cu led because w e d id breath ing and concen t ra t i on e x e r c i s e s , " w r o t e Itten (1964, p. 11). The conce rns of the Bauhaus we re ve ry d i f fe ren t f r o m what w a s go ing on in mos t other European and Nor th A m e r i c a n art s c h o o l s at the t i m e , inc lud ing those wh i ch had depar tmen ts of d e s i g n , c r a f t s , c o m m e r c i a l or deco ra t i ve art, or arch i tec ture a l ongs ide conven t i ona l depar tmen ts of pa in t i ng , scu lp tu re , and engrav ing (Reid , 1924). A 1924 s tudy of art s c h o o l s in the w e s t e r n Un i ted S ta tes and in Europe by G . A . R e i d , then p r inc ipa l o f the Ontar io C o l l e g e of A r t , i l lus t ra tes this d i f f e r e n c e . The s tandards of t ra in ing at the t ime were s t i l l ve ry much those of the ear l ier a c a d e m i e s , and the parameters of art k n o w l e d g e were s t i l l ve ry t rad i t iona l and t igh t ly d e f i n e d : In the A n t w e r p and A m s t e r d a m S c h o o l s the d raw ings f r o m the An t i que we re very large, about t w o - t h i r d s the s i ze of l i f e , th is w a s the regular , but there were s o m e about l i fe s i z e . They w e r e fu l l y f i n i shed w i th a bo ld techn ique , the med ium be ing c h a r c o a l , and , apparen t l y , requi r ing severa l w e e k s ' wo rk of half day p o s e s . In P a r i s , S c o t l a n d and the Un i ted S ta tes all the S c h o o l s we re d raw ing w i th charcoa l on the French M icha l l e t paper , wh i ch g i ves a s tand ing f igure about o n e - t h i r d the s i ze of l i f e . Th is has Cha l l enges / 167 a l w a y s been the prac t ice in the Ontar io C o l l e g e of A r t , and our work in th is s e c t i o n has a c l o s e r e s e m b l a n c e to the work of the French S c h o o l s f r o m wh i ch it i s , in a large measu re , de r i ved . . . . The d raw ings of the same c l a s s be ing made in the Eng l i sh S c h o o l s I f ound to be m o s t l y in lead penc i l and of s m a l l s i z e , about o n e - s i x t h the s ize of l i fe . . . A l l three c l a s s e s of d raw ings are t ru ly a c a d e m i c in charac ter , mak ing but l i t t le a t tempt at s t y l e and s h o w i n g a keen search for p r o p o r t i o n , m o v e m e n t , contour and tone v a l u e s , and genera l l y t reated w i thou t backg rounds . I made enqu i r ies in the Eng l i sh S c h o o l s for the reason fo r the a lmos t un iversa l use of lead penc i l as a m e d i u m , the answer b e i n g , in mos t c a s e s , that they found it surer in the search o f f o r m and that charcoa l w a s a t r i cky and s l o v e n l y m e d i u m . Others seem to think the use of penc i l w a s because of the Boa rd of Educa t ion Examina t i ons requi r ing it, and that charcoa l as a med ium w a s not c o n d e m n e d . S o m e of the same kind of va r ia t i ons might be c i t ed in regard to pa in t ing and a l so m o d e l l i n g . . . . Pa in t ing in o i l and wa te r co lou rs f r o m st i l l l i fe is made a ve ry impor tant part of the work in m o s t of the S c h o o l s and the c l a s s e s are usua l l y ca re fu l l y g raded . (Reid, 1924, p. 7) The Bauhaus cu r r i cu lum, in con t ras t to such conce rns as whether charcoa l w a s better su i ted than lead penc i l fo r l i fe d r a w i n g , c o n s i s t e d of p r a c t i c a l , Cha l l enges / 168 b r o a d l y - b a s e d w o r k s h o p ins t ruc t ion in the use of s t o n e , w o o d , m e t a l , g l a s s , c l a y , t ex t i l es , p i g m e n t s , and in the use of t o o l s . Fo rma l s tud ies inc luded the s tudy of the nature of ma te r i a l s , the s tudy of g e o m e t r y , c o n s t r u c t i o n , m o d e l - m a k i n g , and des ign acco rd ing to v o l u m e , c o l o r and c o m p o s i t i o n (Pevsner , 1973). The student p r o g r e s s e d through three s tages or " c o u r s e s " . The f i rs t w a s the "Bas i c C o u r s e " , a p repara tory cou rse of s i x months in w h i c h a w h o l e range of Bauhaus teach ing w a s i n t roduced . A f t e r this the s tudent p r o c e e d e d to the p rac t i ca l cou rse and f i na l l y to the f o r m a l cou rse . Th is w a s a s y s t e m a t i c and even q u a s i - s c i e n t i f i c educa t iona l t h e o r y — o n e of the last coherent educat iona l theor ies that art s c h o o l s and art depar tments have w i t n e s s e d . The Bas ic C o u r s e , d e v e l o p e d by Johannes I t ten, c o n s i s t e d of the s y s t e m a t i c theor ies that are n o w s tandard fare in art cur r icu la in c o l l e g e s and un i ve rs i t i es and a l so in many s c h o o l art cu r r i cu la ; the co lo r s tar , con t ras ts or l igh t /dark , v o l u m e s , and so on . In f ac t , the one curr icu lar c o n v e n t i o n shared by a lmos t eve ry art p rogram in p o s t s e c o n d a r y educa t ion today is what mos t p rogram ou t l i nes refer to as a " f o u n d a t i o n " course in c o m p o s i t i o n , c o l o r theory and the other e l emen ts of f o r m and e x p r e s s i o n through f o r m out l ined in Itten's cou rse . Itten (1964) d e s c r i b e s his c o u r s e ; The f ounda t i on of my des ign teach ing w a s the general theory of con t ras t . Light and dark, mater ia l and texture s tud ies , f o r m and co lo r t heo ry , rhy thm and exp ress i ve f o r m s were d i s c u s s e d and Cha l lenges / 169" p resen ted in their con t ras t i ng e f f e c t s . F ind ing and enumera t ing the va r ious p o s s i b i l i t i e s of cont ras t w a s a l w a y s one of the mos t exc i t i ng l e s s o n s because the s tudents rea l i zed that a w h o l e new w o r l d w a s open ing up fo r t hem. (p. 12) A n "ob jec t i ve g rammar of d e s i g n w a s thought to obv ia te the tw in dangers of dependence upon past s t y l e s on the one hand and mere l y pe rsona l taste on the other , " w r o t e Marce l F r a n c i s c o (1971, p. 171) in a de ta i led account of the idea ls and ar t is t ic t heo r ies of the found ing years of the Bauhaus. The des ign cur r icu lum of the Bauhaus came to be a dominan t thrust in art, art t heo ry , and art educa t i on . Y e t , i r on i ca l l y , ins tead of b roaden ing the boundar ies of leg i t imate art to inc lude c ra f t s and industr ia l art, as w a s an or ig ina l in ten t ion of the Bauhaus, it s e e m s that, in the end , the cul tura l e x c l u s i v e n e s s and the a e s t h e t i c i s m of art, art theory , and art educa t i on were i n t e n s i f i e d . In des ign ac t i v i t y car r ied out acco rd i ng to p r i nc ip les govern ing c o l o r and c o m p o s i t i o n , later known as f o r m a l i s m , the c o m m u n i c a t i o n of f ee l i ngs and ideas is thought to be dependent on the pe rce i vab le e l emen ts of f o r m and ma te r i a l s , and their i n te r re la t ionsh ips and re la t i onsh ips to the work as a w h o l e ; not on s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c and other contex tua l f a c t o r s that were among the or ig ina l conce rns of the Bauhaus. The c o n f i n e m e n t of art to v i sua l exper ience is what the art c r i t i c C lemen t Greenberg once ca l l ed the " sc i en t i f i c m e t h o d " , and the k ind of c o n s i s t e n c y that coun ts is "aesthet ic c o n s i s t e n c y " (C lahassey , 1986). W i th the ex i s tence Cha l lenges / 170 of ev idence ob ta inab le w i th in the w o r k ' s f o r m , judgments about the wo rk can be re fe renced in the work i t se l f . In this w a y f o r m a l i s m grav i ta tes t owa rd o b j e c t i v i t y 3 and the p o s i t i v i s t no t i on that ob jec t s can be b roken d o w n into c o m p o n e n t parts to be d e f i n e d . When de tached f r o m Bauhaus o b j e c t i v e s to b roaden de f i n i t i ons of art, art ins t ruc t ion a c c o r d i n g to des ign p r i nc ip les and techn iques lends i tse l f to the s y s t e m a t i c d e f i n i t i o n , s e q u e n c i n g , s c h e d u l i n g , and eva lua t ion s t ruc tures of genera l educa t i on . The c o n d u c i v e n e s s of f o rma l i s t p r i nc ip les to educa t iona l s t ructures is no doubt a f ac to r in i ts p e r v a s i v e n e s s and l ongev i t y in Nor th A m e r i c a . 4 A r t cur r icu lum k n o w l e d g e in s c h o o l s has p redominan t l y been s t ruc tured in a f o r m a l i s t m o d e w i th sugges ted uni ts on l ine , shape , and c o l o r (see, fo r e x a m p l e , C o r n i s , S tubbs & W i n t e r s , 1976; Na t iona l Ar t Educa t i on A s s o c i a t i o n , 1972) as de r i ved f r o m Itten's des ign c o u r s e s at the Bauhaus. It is th is p redominance of f o r m a l i s m in the art cur r icu lum in s c h o o l s that has p romp ted seve ra l conce rns by art educa to rs about its lack of re levance and mean ing to s tudents of al l s o c i a l and cul tura l backg rounds : To be able to manipu la te p o s i t i v e and negat ive s p a c e d id not seem to speak to the conce rns of ei ther seconda ry or e lemen ta ry s tudents w h o in tu i t i ve ly knew that art had to be about s o m e t h i n g . ( C l a h a s s e y , 1986, p. 47) A s tudy a number of yea rs ago by J o h n M ichae l (1970) of p rac t i c ing ar t i s ts demons t ra ted that art in c o l l e g e s and un ive rs i t i es has a l so been t reated in an e s s e n t i a l l y f o rma l i s t manner . E v i d e n c e , a lbe i t ind i rec t , o f a Challenges / 171 formalist approach can be found today in fine art program catalogs. Not in the of f ic ia l stated program philosophies and goals which typical ly attempt to present an image of an array of the multiple options now open to the student, but in course l ist ings, one finds that almost every art program offers introductory or "foundation" courses based on composi t ion, color theory, and other principles and elements of design. That these courses are considered "foundational" and that successful completion of them is usually required by every student before advancing in their program, suggests the high degree of importance attached to instruction in formalist principles. Even the continued structuring and sequencing of courses according to the conventional knowledge categories of drawing, painting, printmaking, and sculpture that have prevailed since the early academies of art, is a structuring around the physical or formal properties of art as opposed to the ideational or contextual properties. MODERNISM AND THE POSTMODERN CHALLENGE Because of the visibi l i ty given to formalist principles by the Bauhaus, by Clement Greenberg and by the Museum of Modern Art especial ly in the 1930s, formal ism as a genre of art activity has often mistakenly been equated in North America with modernism. Yet modernism is a complex phenomenon in which formal ism is just one aspect. Like the Arts and Crafts Movement in England and the Bauhaus School in Germany, modernism emerged with a social imperative of changing dominant conceptions of art. Cha l l enges / 172 [Mode rn i sm] emerged w i th in the bus iness s o c i e t y of the g i l ded age as scanda lous and o f f e n s i v e to the m i d d l e - c l a s s p u b l i c — ug ly , d i s s o n a n t , b o h e m i a n , sexua l l y s h o c k i n g . It w a s s o m e t h i n g to make fun of (when the p o l i c e w e r e not ca l l ed in to se i ze the b o o k s or c l o s e the exh ib i t i ons ) : an o f f e n s e to g o o d tas te and to c o m m o n sense . . . M o d e r n i s m in general d id not go w e l l w i th o v e r s t u f f e d V i c to r i an furn i ture, w i t h V i c to r i an mora l t a b o o s , or w i th the c o n v e n t i o n s of po l i te s o c i e t y . ( J a m e s o n , 1983, pp. 123 -24 ) In Greenberg ' s f o r m a l i s t sense of m o d e r n i s m , h o w e v e r , the med ium and f o r m of the work of art g ive the wo rk its par t icu lar ident i ty and mean ing . M e a n i n g s , par t i cu la r ly cul tural and s o c i a l mean ings that might be a s s o c i a t e d w i th the w o r k , are regarded as " l i t e ra ry " 5 and ex t raneous (Kuspi t , 1981). Au then t i c art, acco rd i ng to G reenbe rg , must f o rego in terchange w i th the rest o f cul ture (C row , 1983). The v isua l exper ience of a pa in t ing w a s of the f o r m a l e l emen ts of c o l o r , paint qua l i t y , su r face or t w o d i m e n s i o n a l i t y of the c a n v a s . These ideas gave r ise to the pure f o r m a l i s m of the f i f t i e s and s i x t i es wh i ch we a s s o c i a t e w i th the w o r k of A m e r i c a n " m o d e r n i s t " ar t is ts such as S t e l l a , N e w m a n , and Ro thko . Fo rma l i s t c r i ter ia were a l so - f requent ly used to unders tand the per iod of abst ract e x p r e s s i o n i s m . A b s t r a c t e x p r e s s i o n i s m w a s b o o s t e d and b o l s t e r e d as " M o d e r n i s m " by Greenberg as if it w a s the on l y va l i d art (Kuspi t , 1981). Of c o u r s e , there we re other equa l l y va l i d s t y l e s and theor ies o f art but what resu l ted w a s that m o d e r n i s m b e c a m e , in Kusp i t ' s w o r d s , a "propaganda p o s i t i o n , a par t i san Cha l lenges / 173 p o s i t i o n push ing A m e r i c a n abst ract ar t " (p. 14). It b e c a m e the s o - c a l l e d hero ic pe r iod of A m e r i c a n art. It w a s a t ime when abst rac t art in A m e r i c a s e e m e d to have the imper ia l i s t m i s s i o n of p rese rv ing high art in genera l , e s p e c i a l l y in l ight of the c o l l a p s e of European art p roduc t i on w i th W o r l d War II, no tes Kusp i t . It w a s a s s u m e d that there w a s a ma ins t ream to art, a uni tary w a y of th ink ing about art: Greenberg fo r e x a m p l e , makes a n ice neat m o v e m e n t f r o m Manet through Cezanne through C u b i s m , arguing that there can be no s ign i f i can t art that d o e s not go through C u b i s m , arguing that there can be no s ign i f i can t art that d o e s not go through the Cub is t i d i o m , and then f i na l l y a c k n o w l e d g i n g C l y f f o r d S t i l l , Barnett N e w m a n and Mark Rothko as p resen t ing the f i rs t art that p resumab l y doesn ' t go through the Cub is t i d i o m , yet none the less is an impor tant art. (Kuspi t , 1981, pp. 15 -16 ) The f o r m a l i s t v e r s i o n of m o d e r n i s m became the ma ins t ream not on l y in the art w o r l d , but in art educa t i on as w e l l , in large part because of its c o n d u c i v e n e s s to ins t ruc t ion and educa t iona l s t ruc tu res . M o d e r n i s m , in the f o r m a l i s t s e n s e , has b e c o m e the " o f f i c i a l " or dominan t aes the t ic w h i c h has shaped our c o n c e p t i o n s of art. It is part of the canon taught in s c h o o l s and un i ve rs i t i es ( C l a h a s s e y , 1986; J a m e s o n , 1983; Mu th , 1985). N o w it is be ing cha l lenged f r o m many s i d e s , inc lud ing f r o m an educa t iona l po in t of v i e w , as be ing deep l y p rob lema t i c (Foster , 1983). In H a b e r m a s ' (1983, p. 6) w o r d s , " m o d e r n i s m is dominan t but d e a d " . Habermas is just one of severa l w r i t e r s on c o n t e m p o r a r y cul ture . w h o cons ide r m o d e r n i s m p a s s e , Cha l l enges / 174 author i ta r ian , and cu l tura l ly i m p e r i a l i s t i c . 6 Th is c r o s s - d i s c i p l i n a r y body of p o s t m o d e r n i s t w r i t i ng of the past f i f t een years c o m i n g out of art h i s t o r y , c r i t i c i s m , l i te rary t heo ry , s o c i a l t heo ry , and more recen t l y , art e d u c a t i o n , has p r o v i d e d a p r o v o c a t i v e cr i t ique of m o d e r n i s m and i ts author i ty v e s t e d in the culture and ins t i tu t ions de r i v ing f r o m the Italian Rena i ssance high art t r ad i t i on . It cha l l enges the o lder ca tego r i es of art k n o w l e d g e and the c l a im to aes the t i c a u t o n o m y wh i ch lead to the rea lm of pure f o r m a l i s m a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Greenberg and o the rs . It ins tead ca l l s fo r a p l u ra l i s t i c 7 s i tua t ion in wh i ch art e f f a c e s the key boundar ies of high art by incorpora t ing (not mere l y mak ing re fe rence to ) f o r m s f r o m popular cul ture and m a s s m e d i a . A n abandonment of m o d e r n i s m fo r i ts s u c c e s s o r , p o s t m o d e r n i s m , has been far f r o m c o m p l e t e , howeve r . Se rge Gui lbaut (1983) e x p l a i n e d , in in t roduc ing a con fe rence on the sub jec ts of m o d e r n i s m and m o d e r n i t y , that w e are at a "p r i v i l eged m o m e n t in h i s t o r y , the m o m e n t of p a s s a g e f r o m m o d e r n i s m to P o s t - M o d e r n i s m , a momen t of equ i l i b r ium and t e n s i o n be tween a phase w e no longer be l i eve in and a new era a l ready c o n s i d e r e d w i th d i s t rus t " (pp. x - x i ) . A l t h o u g h c o n s i d e r e d " d e a d " by m a n y , m o d e r n i s m cannot s i m p l y be bur ied a w a y and f o rgo t t en . There i s , in fac t , s o m e t h i n g yet l i v ing w i th in m o d e r n i s m , not least because it con t inues to p rov ide a bas i s of r e fe rence . Even the ve ry fac t of w i s h i n g the concep t dead s h o w s that it s t i l l f unc t i ons as an anchorage p o i n t — o r shal l we ca l l it a s tumb l i ng b l o c k ? — e s s e n t i a l to c o n t e m p o r a r y c o n s c i o u s n e s s . (Gui lbaut , 1983, Cha l l enges / 175 P. x) The use o f the labe ls " m o d e r n i s m " and " p o s t m o d e r n i s m " imp l i es that a change of s o m e sor t has in fac t o c c u r r e d . The pre f ix " p o s t " deno tes s o m e t h i n g n e w , s o m e t h i n g af ter or b e y o n d m o d e r n i s m . But has this change in labe ls been large enough to e f fec t a breakthrough f r o m the modern is t ma ins t ream to a cu l tu ra l ly re levant art and w a y of th ink ing about art? There has been l i t t le ev idence of such a change in art teach ing in s c h o o l s . A n d p o s t s e c o n d a r y art p rog rams cont inue to be based on the s a m e core of c o u r s e s and k n o w l e d g e boundar ies . S o m e wr i t e rs look at p o s t m o d e r n i s m as a con t inua t ion of and as part of the larger s y s t e m to wh i ch m o d e r n i s m b e l o n g s . Lawrence A l l o w a y (1981) p o s e s that there is a s l o g a n i s t i c aspec t to the te rms m o d e r n i s m and p o s t m o d e r n i s m that p o s s i b l y se ts up premature boundar ies and in f la ted v a l u e s . "Desp i te the appeal o f theor ies of breakthrough and o b s o l e s c e n c e the con ta in ing concep t rema ins that of ar t " ( A l l o w a y , 1981, p.11). Of course there is a l w a y s change in the course of t i m e , but d i v i d ing the century into pe r i ods of m o d e r n i s m and p o s t m o d e r n i s m may impede the con t inu i t y of ideas be tween the t w o p e r i o d s , inc lud ing their gradual r e v i s i o n and change. C o m p a r i n g m o d e r n i s m w i th p o s t m o d e r n i s m is the latest f o r m of the no to r i ous bat t le be tween the A n c i e n t s and M o d e r n s in France dur ing the late seven teen th century and ear ly e ighteenth century , no tes s o c i o l o g i s t Henri L e f e b v r e (1983), There has been no end of c o n t r o v e r s i e s be tween the par t i sans of Cha l l enges / 176 p rog ress and modern i t y and the par t i sans of t rad i t i on , or of r e g r e s s i o n . In the cou rse of these quarre ls the te rms " m o d e r n " and " m o d e r n i t y " take on va r ious mean ings and con t rad i c to r y c o n n o t a t i o n s , s o m e t i m e s f a v o r a b l e , s o m e t i m e s not (cf. d i s c u s s i o n s of R o u s s e a u , of the r o m a n t i c s , etc . . . ). and there are pa radoxes : Baude la i re , a p o s t - r o m a n t i c , p ra ises m o d e r n i t y , wh i l e N ie tzche p res ides ove r the tr ial of modern i t y in mode rn t e r m s , i den t i f y i ng modern i t y w i th decadence or even barbar i t y , but w i th a v i e w to push ing f o r w a r d the human t owa rd the superhuman. Cer ta in e p i s o d e s mark the s tages of th is long deba te : the f a m o u s Chap l in f i l m [ "Modern T i m e s " ] that popu la r i ses a cer ta in k ind of cr i t ique of m o d e r n i t y ; the jou rna l , "Les T e m p s M o d e r n e s " that ma in ta ins an amb iguous s tance , etc.. The abso lu te s o v e r e i g n t y of m o d e r n i s m is ushered in around 1910 by a rupture w i th the c l a s s i c a l and t rad i t iona l v o c a b u l a r y : the d iv ine and the human, the c i t y , h i s t o r y , pa tern i ty . The re ign is c o n s o l i d a t e d af ter W o r l d War I: c u b i s m , abst ract art, the r ise of the Bauhaus , etc . . . . That re ign las ts unti l the 60s and 7 0 s ; then another re ign is ushered in . (pp. 1-2) Freder ic J a m e s o n (1983) marks the break be tween m o d e r n i s m and p o s t m o d e r n i s m as the point in t ime when the modern i s t aes the t ic w a s f i rs t taught in s c h o o l s and un i ve rs i t i es on a w i d e s c a l e . By th is he means that an aes the t ic such as m o d e r n i s m l o s e s its s u b v e r s i v e p o w e r s and b e c o m e s Cha l l enges / 177 the " o f f i c i a l " cul ture as it b e c o m e s es tab l i shed as c l a s s i c or a c a d e m i c , and hence l o s e s s o m e of i ts appea l to a n e w genera t ion of a r t i s t s . A l t hough J a m e s o n s u g g e s t s that the break be tween m o d e r n i s m and p o s t m o d e r n i s m w a s at s o m e point in the ear ly s i x t i e s , he t oo is cau t ious about the issue of pe r i od i za t i on and h o w h is to r ians ought to d i s t i ngu ish be tween t w o d is t inc t pe r i ods . 8 He w r i t es that breaks be tween pe r i ods do not i nvo l ve c o m p l e t e changes of con ten t , rather a cer ta in number of fea tures are res t ruc tu red . Features that we re dominan t in ear l ier pe r i ods b e c o m e s e c o n d a r y and features that we re subord ina te n o w b e c o m e dominan t . He d e s c r i b e s h o w p o s t m o d e r n i s m reta ins many o f the f o r m a l fea tures of the o lder m o d e r n i s m , but the p o s i t i o n of the f ine arts w i th in our cul ture has sh i f t ed f undamen ta l l y . C o m m o d i t y p r o d u c t i o n , in par t icu lar , c l o t h i n g , furn i ture, a rch i tec tu re , and adve r t i s i ng , is n o w more c l o s e l y t ied w i t h expe r imen ta t i on in the f ine ar ts . A r t s tudy in un ive rs i t i es has reta ined many more of the fea tures of the o lder m o d e r n i s m and has rema ined rather insu la ted f r o m the fundamenta l sh i f t that has occu r red in cul ture genera l l y . Th is is not to s a y , h o w e v e r , that the des i re to make this shi f t has not been enter ta ined w i th in art depa r tmen ts . A s the h i s to r y of the s e m a n t i c s of the te rm ind i ca tes , the te rms p o s t m o d e r n and mode rn are not me re l y neutral h i s to r i ca l or cul tural labe ls fo r c l a s s i f y i n g p u r p o s e s ; rather they imp ly value j udgmen ts . Whether it i s , in actual fac t , l i t t le more than a change in labe ls or a fundamenta l sh i f t t owa rd p l u r a l i s m , p o s t m o d e r n i s m is the seen as the latest s a l v a t i o n . Ma te i C a l i n e s c u (1977), a h is to r ian of m o d e r n i s m , e l abo ra tes ; U s e d at f i rs t rather t en ta t i ve l y , and not w i thout a touch of p e s s i m i s m w i th regard to the fate of cul ture in a consumer Cha l l enges / 178 s o c i e t y in wh i ch o lder in te l lec tua l s tandards appeared th rea tened, " p o s t m o d e r n i s m " w a s s o o n to b e c o m e an hono r i f i c w o r d . In te res t ing ly , " p o s t m o d e r n i s m " w a s adop ted as the ba t t l ec ry of a new o p t i m i s m , popu l i s t and a p o c a l y p t i c , sen t imen ta l and i r r e s p o n s i b l e , wh i ch is perhaps best s y n t h e s i z e d in the no t ion of a "coun te rcu l tu re " . The apparent i nnocuous p re f i x " p o s t " . . . m a g i c a l l y . . . s e e m e d to do a w a y w i th o ld res t r i c t i ons and p re jud ices and to f ree the imag ina t i on for n e w , unde f i ned , but ex t reme ly exc i t ing expe r i ences , (p. 136) "AVANT-GARDISM" This m i s s i o n of do ing away w i th o ld res t r i c t i ons and pre jud ices and f ree ing the imag ina t i on for new expe r iences of p o s t m o d e r n i s m , or , fo r that mat te r , any other cha l lenge to es tab l i shed art k n o w l e d g e bounda r i es , has c o m m o n l y been a s s o c i a t e d w i th the m i s s i o n of the a v a n t - g a r d e . 9 For art s tudents there is a great deal of g l amor in the idea of the a v a n t - g a r d e . A v a n t - g a r d i s m represen ts for them an oppor tun i t y to adopt the " a p o c a l y p t i c b a t t l e c r y " of p o s t m o d e r n i s m and f l y on the w ings of change rather than be left behind in an o u t - m o d e d modern i s t pa rad igm. It represents f o r them i n n o v a t i o n , to go b e y o n d es tab l i shed boundar ies in art. It rep resen ts an ou t look on l i fe that is in o p p o s t i o n to or on the f r inge of co rpo ra te and es tab l i shmen t v a l u e s — a po l i t i ca l r e b e l l i o u s n e s s c l o s e to that of punk cul ture but w i t h f e w of the r i sks (Henry, 1984). It cou ld even be d e s c r i b e d as a f o r m of s o c i a l c l imb ing in much the same w a y that T. J . Clark (1973, Challenges / 179 p. 14) described the nineteenth century avant-garde: In such a world [the artistic world of late nineteenth century], being avant-garde was just an institutionalized variant of everyone's gambit. It was a kind of initiation r i te—a trek out into the bush for a while, then a return to privileged status within the world you had left. It was a f in ish ing-school , an unabashed form of social cl imbing. Avant-gard ism has been a myth essential to being an artist in the twentieth century. It is promoted in art schools and art departments. It is proposed here, however, that this art school avant-gardism is an essential ly aesthetic version, an emptied romantic version of an early polit ical avant-garde, rather than of a sort that can bring about a significant broadening of art's cultural and social base. The early avant-garde Very generally, there are two traditions in art that constituted the early avant-garde situation. One tradition, the aesthetic avant-garde, emerged with a view of art as an end in itself, as an autonomous activity. The intellectual roots of this tradition gave rise to modernism in the formalist sense. Considering that art in most earlier societ ies in previous centuries was used for religion or pol i t ics, the concept of pure art for art's sake represented a revolutionary development. This avant-garde view of art for art's sake merged with and began to outweigh the second tradition, which Cha l l enges / 180 had e m e r g e d in the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h century emphas i z i ng a c o m m i t m e n t to po l i t i ca l and s o c i a l goa l s . The c o m p l e x p r o c e s s by wh ich the t w o s t reams merged can be desc r i bed in te rms of the gradual sh i f t f r o m the ear l ier pat ron s y s t e m to the open market as the major ins t i tu t ion fo r se l l i ng art. The p rac t i ca l rea l i t ies of market c o m p e t i t i o n s o o n made ar t is ts aware of the i ssues and d i l e m m a s inherent in mak ing a l i v ing in f ine ar t . 1 0 R i d g e w a y (1975) e x p l a i n s : The b o u r g e o i s i e became the ob jec t of their an imus ; ar t is ts began to dec ry th is c l ass wh i ch to their m inds s t o o d for all that w a s o p p o s i t e to a r t — g r e e d , des i re fo r mater ia l p o s s e s s i o n s , the quest fo r p o w e r fo r i t se l f , phi I is t ine va l ues , lack of i n t e g r i t y — a n d yet it w a s a c l a s s tb w h i c h the ar t is ts were inex t r i cab ly bound by their need to se l l w o r k . U s u a l l y ar t is ts were born into this c l a s s , w h i c h on l y added fe rvo r to their d i sda in . When ar t i s ts thought that the bou rgeo i s i e l i ked s o m e s t y l e s and w o r k s of art, they c o n c l u d e d that the art had to be a t t rac t ive to bou rgeo i s v a l u e s . A r t i s t s w h o were s u c c e s s f u l were thus vu lnerab le to c r i t i c i s m by o thers and by t h e m s e l v e s . Both the po l i t i ca l and the aes the t i c a v a n t - g a r d e s began to v i e w their art as a means of a t tack ing the b o u r g e o i s i e : the f o rme r used their art as a d i rect p ropaganda against th is c l a s s , and the lat ter, c o m m i t t e d to "art fo r ar t 's s a k e " , t r ied to create w o r k s wh ich we re unat t rac t ive to the b o u r g e o i s i e and thereby o p p o s e d to their va l ues . To s a t i s f y these requ i remen ts , art had to be more than a mere luxury product p roduced fo r "e l i t es . " The ar t is ts resur rec ted the t rad i t ion of Cha l l enges / 181 c reat ing wo rk that w a s p u r p o s i v e l y i d e o l o g i c a l and against the bou rgeo i s i e wh i l e re ta in ing p r imary c o m m i t m e n t to the aes the t i c of "art fo r art 's sake . " (p. 96) What resu l ted w a s not an a v a n t - g a r d e w i th a d i rec t , rad ica l po l i t i ca l c o m m e n t a r y , but an avan t -ga rde w i th a imp l i c i t po l i t i ca l m e s s a g e of s u b v e r s i o n re l ayed through a new aes the t i c . "The s t y le w a s the m e s s a g e " (R idgeway , 1975, p. 97). A v a n t - g a r d e a r t i s ts s a w t h e m s e l v e s as r e s p o n s i b l e fo r under tak ing , through a k ind of sp i r i tua l and aes the t i c m e a n s , an eth ica l task of a t tack ing the market va lues of the b o u r g e o i s i e . Both h i s to r i ca l t rad i t i ons merged into a c o m m o n approach in the sense that the a u t o n o m y of aes the t ic goa l s w a s the in tent ion of b o t h ; art cou ld have a d i m e n s i o n that w o u l d keep it f r o m be ing mere l y a deco ra t i ve i tem fo r the b o u r g e o i s i e (R idgeway , 1975). Marx is t aesthet ics , wi th Marcuse as prophet of the art schoo l avant -garde S i n c e the t ime of the ear ly a v a n t - g a r d e s , . much of the d e v e l o p m e n t of art w i t h a s o c i a l or po l i t i ca l m e s s a g e and much of the theore t i ca l debate about the s o c i a l base of art has used a Marx i s t concep tua l f r a m e w o r k . 1 1 By s y s t e m a t i c a l l y re la t ing ideas of all so r t s to s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c s t ruc tu res , s p e c i f i c a l l y in t e rms of i d e o l o g y and c l a s s s t ructure, M a r x i s m p r o v i d e s the b a s i s fo r much of the s tudy of the re la t ion be tween the arts and s o c i e t y , and e x p o s e s many of the h idden va lues and a s s u m p t i o n s in the s tudy of what we n o w iden t i f y as "the Great T r a d i t i o n " (Wo l f f , 1981). A r t is unde rs tood as an i d e o l o g i c a l p roduct . A pa in t ing is a product wh i ch f o r m s Cha l l enges / 182 part of an i d e o l o g y , and that i d e o l o g y is inseparab le f r o m the s o c i a l c l a s s to wh ich it c o r r e s p o n d s (Had j i n i co laou , 1978). There are, o f c o u r s e , many v e r s i o n s of M a r x i s m . S o m e o r thodox Marx i s t w r i t i ng reduces art a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y to h i s to r i ca l and i d e o l o g i c a l exp lana t i on , such that there is thought to be no essence o f art. W e r c k m e i s t e r ' s (1973) in terpre ta t ion of Marx rep resen ts this po le of Marx is t aes the t i cs in wh i ch art (and, it w o u l d f o l l o w , art educa t ion ) is a c c o r d e d ve ry l i t t le func t i on and s ta tus in c o n t e m p o r a r y s o c i e t y . A c c o r d i n g to W e r c k m e i s t e r , to be l i eve there is an e s s e n c e of art, a un iversa l set of aes the t ic qua l i t ies set apart f r o m e v e r y d a y rea l i t y , is to be e n c l o s e d w i th in the nar row c o n c e p t s of an i d e o l o g y wh i ch d i s to r t s exper ience by g i v ing it an o v e r - e x a g g e r a t e d va lue . 1 2 Herbert M a r c u s e , 1 3 in the other ex t reme , at t r ibutes to art the h ighest func t ion in the e m a n c i p a t o r y and even revo lu t i ona ry deve lopmen t of s o c i e t y . M a r c u s e ' s later work represents the idea l is t co re of Marx is t a e s t h e t i c s . His answer to Marx ' s ques t i on of why cer ta in art of the past s t i l l p r o v i d e s en joymen t is that it t r a n s f o r m s ex is t i ng rea l i t y into another d i m e n s i o n ; that of conc re te p o s s i b i l i t i e s , r e v o l u t i o n , and l i be ra t ion . A r t a p p e a l s , through its aes the t ic f o r m , to rep ressed qua l i t ies of human s e n s i b i l i t y . In a more recent w o r k , The aesthetic dimension (1978) M a r c u s e exp la i ns : 1 4 • . . The c r i t i ca l func t ion of art, its con t r i bu t i on to the s t rugg le fo r l i be ra t ion , res ides in the aes the t i c f o r m . A work of art is authent ic or true not by v ir tue of i ts content (i.e., the " co r rec t " rep resen ta t ion of s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s ) , nor by its "pure" f o r m , but Cha l l enges / 183 by the con ten t hav ing b e c o m e f o r m . (p. 8) M a r c u s e no tes that this f unc t i on , whether r eg ress i ve or e m a n c i p a t o r y , can b e c o m e a mater ia l f o r c e . When the sub jec t i v i t y of i nd iv idua ls is reduced to c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a major p re requ is i te of revo lu t i on is m i n i m i z e d . The need for rad ica l change , w r i t es M a r c u s e must be roo ted in the sub jec t i v i t y of i nd iv idua ls t h e m s e l v e s , in their i n te l l i gence and their p a s s i o n s , their d r i ves and their goa ls . . . If h i s to r i ca l ma te r i a l i sm does not account fo r th is ro le of sub jec t i v i t y , it takes on the c o l o r i n g of vu lgar m a t e r i a l i s m , (p. 3) M a r c u s e ques t i ons the w a y in wh i ch o r thodox Marx i s t s have , in his v i e w , d i s to r ted the rather d ia lec t i ca l f o r m u l a t i o n s of Marx and Enge ls into a r ig id s c h e m a — a s c h e m a wh ich imp l i es a no rma t i ve no t ion of the mater ia l base as the true rea l i t y . Nonmate r ia l f o r c e s , par t icu lar ly of the ind iv idua l c o n s c i o u s n e s s and s u b c o n s c i o u s n e s s and their po l i t i ca l f unc t i on , are neg lec ted w i th in o r thodox M a r x i s m . 1 5 To the countercu l tu re of the 1960s, M a r c u s e w a s an in ternat iona l s y m b o l of po l i t i ca l r a d i c a l i s m . His l ess s y s t e m a t i c in terpre ta t ion of the s o c i a l w o r l d , and his p r o m o t i o n of art as a mode l fo r a f ree ly s t ruc tured s o c i a l l i fe and as a source o f insp i ra t ion for s o c i a l r evo lu t i on i n f l uenced the f ine art cul ture on A m e r i c a n c a m p u s e s . A t a t ime when the number of f ine art p rog rams w a s i nc reas ing , the in f luent ia l C a l i f o r n i a S c h o o l of A r t h i red M a r c u s e for i ts S c h o o l o f Cr i t i ca l S t u d i e s . . Remin i scen t of the n ineteenth century mer