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Art knowledge and the social role of the university art department in the aftermath of postmodernism Cline Abrahams, Cheryl L. 1988

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ART KNOWLEDGE AND THE SOCIAL ROLE OF THE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT IN THE AFTERMATH OF POSTMODERNISM by CHERYL L. CLINE B.F.A., University of B.Ed., Queen's  Western Ontario, University,  M.A., Simon Fraser A THESIS SUBMITTED  ABRAHAMS  1982  University,  IN PARTIAL  1981  1985  FULFILMENT  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF ' DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in THE FACULTY OF G R A D U A T E  STUDIES  Interdisciplinary Studies We accept this thesis as conforming to  the  required standard  THE UNIVERSITY  OF BRITISH  27 March © Cheryl L. Cline  COLUMBIA  1988 Abrahams,  1988  OF  ART  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at The University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Interdisciplinary  Studies  The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date: 29 September  1988  ABSTRACT  This study between  presents a s o c i o l o g y of  art  knowledge  existing  essential  situation  universities and  to  in  the  nature  which  the  the  most  examines why  this  cultural  relationships  structures, making visible  how  of art  all  art.  It  renders  on  defining,  and  traditionally  part, insular  and  singularity  problematic  taught  culturally  persists  in  in  legitimating,  and  singular  a society  perpetuating  the  schools in  this  and basis,  which  pluralistic. The thesis is that the university art department  monopoly culturally  explores  art are hierarchized and generalized so as to be  is, for  culturally  knowledge. It  and institutional  why certain conceptions of considered  art  is  has the  insular  and  singular art knowledge for transmission through the school' system  to all cultural and social groups.  The  ways  in which  the  university  effects  terms  of ' the  university's  social  role  patron, producer, definer,  arts;  and  as in  terms  including  the  "sacred"  culture.  its  postmodernist  sociology  of  reviewing  public  postsecondary  of  curricular  The  documents  education, and  on  of  and  legitimator,  to  incursion  knowledge, and the  knowledge  structuring  ability  theoretical  art  neutralize popular  are  discussed in  disciplinary and  socializer  "avant-garde"  culture  into  of  this  materials  for  analysis were  programs,  critical  the  framework  art  policy  ii  history.  the  attacks, realm is  obtained the  of  its  in  analysis  on  a c r o s s - d i s c i p l i n a r y selection  social theory, educational theory, aesthetics, and art  ties;  arts  literature  of a by in in  The  institutional  present  structures  significant  parameters  broadening  of  to  embrace move for  the  seriously the  consider  this  activities vital  artists'  exclusively "lofts")  department  as  a  of  on the  to  hierarchies base  artistic  into a more  and  cultural  s o c i o l o g i c a l study  almost  norms  described  resistance to the postmodernist  conceptual  need  and  take  primary  of  art.  art  The  resistance of  a  systems  role  of  into  account  educational  in the  hinder  imperative systems  and  if  art  makes  past  study  to challenge  that  makes  population  the  has  a the  are  to  is  to  imperative  concentrated  museums, galleries, critics, dealers, and  institutional  definer of cultural knowledge about  study  in society. It  (which  role  commitment knowledge  if  diverse  and relevant art  of  throughout  art.  iii  the  basis  role of  art  of  the  university  knowledge,  and  art as  a  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract  ii  Acknowledgments  vi  Dedication  vii  Chapter Art the  1  k n o w l e d g e and the s o c i a l r o l e aftermath of p o s t m o d e r n i s m Notes  of  the  university  art  department  in 1 10  Chapter 2 A r t in the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e T h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k : T h e s o c i o l o g y of k n o w l e d g e The s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of reality F i n e art k n o w l e d g e as a f i n i t e p r o v i n c e o f m e a n i n g in the m a c r o s t r u c t u r e of k n o w l e d g e K n o w l e d g e b o u n d a r i e s and u n i v e r s i t y d e p a r t m e n t a l i s m S p e c i a l i z a t i o n , s u b j e c t l o y a l t y , and the s o c i a l o r d e r S u m m a r y o f art k n o w l e d g e p r i n c i p l e s , and l a y o u t of the s t u d y Notes Chapter 3 T h e u n i v e r s i t y as l e g i t i m a t o r of art k n o w l e d g e H o w art k n o w l e d g e i n h e r i t s s t a t u s A r t k n o w l e d g e as high s t a t u s k n o w l e d g e A r t k n o w l e d g e as c u l t u r a l c a p i t a l A n ambiguous inheritance The u n i v e r s i t y as " l e g i t i m a t e l e g i t i m a t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n " T h e u n i v e r s i t y ' s pursuit of l e g i t i m a t i o n f r o m the 68 The d i f f i c u l t t r a d e - o f f Notes  12 12 14 18 23 29 35 38  42 43 43 49 53 60 fine  art  world 73 77  Chapter 4 F o r g i n g the a l l e g i a n c e to art: T h e art d e p a r t m e n t as e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l i z e r The c o n c e p t o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n i P r o f i l e o f an o u t c a s t p o p u l a t i o n The s o c i a l p a r a p h e r n a l i a f o r r e c r u i t m e n t . A r t i s t i c i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n in c h i l d h o o d and a d o l e s c e n c e M o t i v a t i o n t o s t u d y art The f u n c t i o n o f the art d e p a r t m e n t in p r e v e n t i n g "reality s l i p p i n g " Notes Chapter 5 L e g a c i e s that  legitimate:  Social  origins iv  of  the  a c a d e m i c i z a t i o n of  85 87 90 99 99 106 110 116  art  .  117  The  l e g a c y o f the art a c a d e m y 119 E m a n c i p a t i o n f r o m the s t a t u s of l a b o r e r 119 A r t m e e t s a c a d e m i c : The a c a d e m i e s o f art 121 The i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e p a r a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n in the f i n e arts f r o m e d u c a t i o n in the a p p l i e d arts 127 " A r t e s l i b e r a l e s " or the art o f p r o d u c i n g r e f i n e d and b r o a d l y educated citizens 130 L i b e r a l arts v a l u e s as o f f i c i a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the s t u d y of art in u n i v e r s i t i e s 132 The l i b e r a l arts as the c l a s s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a l ideal 138 The l i b e r a l arts ideal as an i r o n i c p r o c l a m a t i o n o f democracy 141 P h i l o s o p h i c a l a e s t h e t i c t h e o r y as an i n t e l l e c t u a l b a s i s o f art e d u c a t i o n 145 Summary 152 Notes 153  Chapter 6 C h a l l e n g e s t o the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r i n g ' o f art k n o w l e d g e b o u n d a r i e s C h a l l e n g e s to the a c a d e m y t r a d i t i o n The B a u h a u s S c h o o l M o d e r n i s m and the p o s t m o d e r n c h a l l e n g e "Avant-gardism" The e a r l y a v a n t - g a r d e M a r x i s t a e s t h e t i c s , w i t h M a r c u s e as prophet of avant-garde A r t s t u d e n t s as c o n t e m p o r a r y i n h e r i t o r s of the The o f f i c i a l d o m o f the a v a n t - g a r d e Notes  160 161 165 171 178 179 the  art  school  avant-garde  Chapter 7 Conclusion: Is a p o s t m o d e r n m o d e l of art s t u d y in u n i v e r s i t i e s p o s s i b l e ? S o c i a l f u n c t i o n s of the art d e p a r t m e n t : A s u m m a r y o f w h a t p o s t m o d e r n i s m is up a g a i n s t T o w a r d a p o s t m o d e r n i s t m o d e l o f art s t u d y Notes References  181 186 190 204  215 216 225 232 234  v  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I am  especially  indebted  patience as a mentor committee.  The  to  Professor  Ron MacGregor for  and as chairperson of  masterful  strokes  of  my his  his  support  interdisciplinary editorial  and  dissertation  pencil  are  also  appreciated.  Thanks Graeme  also  to  Chalmers  the of  members the  of  my  Department  dissertation of  Visual  Education, Serge Guilbaut and Debra Pincus of and Elvi Whittaker expertise  in their  of  the  Department  respective  of  disciplines  the  committee,  and  provided  Performing  Department  Anthropology  Professors  of  Arts  in  Fine A r t s ,  and S o c i o l o g y . Their  a most  vital  and  valuable  forum.  And for his companionship, understanding, and assistance throughout my of writing, I am, as always, grateful  to Mark Abrahams.  vi  fits  DEDICATION  To my new son Max, who's life began upon completion of this endeavor.  And to my parents, who offered encouragement and love  vii  throughout.  CHAPTER 1 ART KNOWLEDGE AND THE SOCIAL ROLE OF THE UNIVERSITY ART DEPARTMENT  Art,  as traditionally  most  taught  part, a singular  western  European  (exemplified  IN THE AFTERMATH OF  in  schools  cultural  in the writing  and universities,  basis rooted  Renaissance of  and such  POSTMODERNISM  in  in the "Great Tradition" western  influential  and Smith, 1982, 1985). Recent writings  has had, for  philosophical  educators  tradition of has  detrimental is currently  to  pluralistic  given sense,  (as evidenced in Foster's  education. The notion  foundations  conceptual  the  term  holds  postmodernist.  that  there  postmodernism,  hierarchies  relationships university  of  between  of  are  art  Its  more  world  cultural  in  study  renders  education.  It  this  Its theoretical  a condition  framework  knowledge.  The  study  1  than  those  from  presents  exploring particularly  together, to  make  experienced as  general a  traditional  interpretive/critical  that is too often  developed  1  loose  by  structures,  found  a facticity.  of  which  its  problematic  does  and institutional  method  in  view  aesthetic.  on a range of sources not normally  of  a singular  views  is an  and make visible  sociology  is limited and  Postmodernism,  inquiry  connections  the  this  art. knowledge  art departments.  one, drawing  of  anthology  of art education, embodied in work  embodied in western fine art and its modernist  In the spirit  aesthetics  being replaced in some circles with a pluralistic  social and cultural been  art  of the  as Broudy, 1972,  on postmodern culture, 1983) have indicated that such a view ultimately  the  principles  sociology  of  of art  Art knowledge—a art,  as  sociology  well  as  schools  and  obtained  by  public  the  assumptions  cause of  art  the  transmission  western  is  function  with  the  art  subtly  Behind basis  that  disguised  of  in than  assertion art  and  of  nowhere  western in  the  that  art  the  have  been  of  arts  in  literature  in  into  the  of  art  defines  traditional once  the  account  society.  It  up  serious  university  basis  takes  and  postmodernists  at  were  values  The  to  in  hidden  to  the  university  are  by  concern  the  that  art  knowledge.  taught  history.  perpetuating  cultural  about  art  knowledge  for  university  art  knowledge artistic when  conceptual  more  department  in  reality. combined  hierarchies  powerful  and  more  university.  knowledge.  maintained  that  system  society  the  knowledge  and  is  2  development,  on  approach  take  cultural  critical  any  /  analysis  their  selection  art,  and  and  art  myths  typically  critical  disengaging  and  and  policy  fine  thesis  school  defines  its  artists  or  and  of  institutional  thesis:  exist  the  It  for  aesthetics, and  establishing  the  becomes  second  universities framed  the  society.  This  of  on  concepts  programs,  knowledge,  The  beliefs,  cross-disciplinary  exposing  department?  art  of  art  categories  through  department  studies  a  art  and  materials  theory,  of  older  monopoly  The  and  of  practices,  methods  individual  sociology  postmodernist  has  on  educational  a  university  art  cultural  research  education,  theory,  must  formal  reviewing  postsecondary  Why  the  universities.  documents  social  of  knowledge  several One  the  is  art  department  institutional that  is  institutional  relationships  compartments  departmentalism  the  of  of  . between  knowledge  universities.  are  Second,  Art university in  art  departments  s c h o o l s . That  concepts, they  i s , art  skills  aquired  and  are  ideologies  through  their  art  department  forms  s o c i a l i z a t i o n into  art  knowledge  it  is  in  is  requirements  directly  school  curriculum  relative  priority  that  large.  given  situated  ideas  about  values  they  artists,  or  aesthetic  to  to  arts  art  university is  bring styles  values  turn, affect careers  in  within  ultimately become  their  they  bear  North  for.  1970s, universities  exert  influence  galleries, aristocratic  on  art  museums, partons,'  European A c a d e m i e s .  or  rites  have  artist,  in  greater and  s c h o o l s . The  areas  in  universities  processes  or  reputations students'  the  systems in  in  the  same  of  patron way  and  The  art  works,  or  support the the  as  These and,  produce  of  commissions  eighteenth  structures.  of  during  of  and  world.  economic  role  scholars  theory  art  images they  and  (Apple,  individual  knowledge  vast  of  art  of  and  the  especially  much  other  researching  visual  nature  development  than  graduation  curriculum  their  certain  extent  the  and  The  effective  in w h i c h  secondary  historians  which  programs.  of  a s s u m e d the  exhibiting  an  terms  universities,  earlier  a  3  teachers  in  the  in  to  /  the s p e c i a l i z e d  admission  offerings  art  passage, those  valued  university  of  of  university  affect  knowlege  the  degree  Fifth, because of  American  early  art  and  actions, including what  strive  similar  assessing  part  school system being  departments,  in  most  with  c r i t i c s , art  with  for  along  organized  art  base  specialized subculture  course  differing  up  the  those  Third,  be  art  bound to  or  small  influence  seems  go  differently  1979). F o u r t h , b e c a u s e m a n y are  that  organizes  at  into  B.F.A.  perceived  society  occupational  teachers take  university of  the  knowledge  of  1960s arts.  have  from  nineteenth  in  what the and They  dealers, individual century  Art Universities ability  significantly  to  absorb  subversive  culture.  now  of  in  part  schools  classic  or  another the  the  the in  vested  at of  art  interest  "Philistinism  of  p..  the  to  is  study  base  into  that  of  lost  that  its  and  the  ever  likely  Picasso  are  be  in  of  on  or  art  art.  knowledge  Can a  culture  strip, of  l a n d s c a p e of  the  paraliterature  late with  and  the  the  science fiction  "texts"  show its  Joyce  and  and G r a d e - B H o l l y w o o d  f i l m , of  paperback  categories  popular  biography,  the  or  fantasy  novel. They  might  have  d o n e , or  a  no  the  of  the  ( J a m e s o n , 1983,  Las Vegas so-called the  gothic  murder  mystery  and  longer  "quote"  such  Mahler; they  a  against  postmodernisms  m o t e l s , of  airport  r o m a n c e , the  as  advertising  be  had  " s c h l o c k " , and  culture"  at  ever  traditionally  is  lose  include  that w h o l e  Put  and  will  curriculum?  "sacred"  accept  as  schools  demands  have  Digest to  regarded  subversiveness  university  high  Reader's  the  postmodernism  categories  which  of  their of  and" w r i t e r s  " k i t s c h " ( G r e e n b e r g , 1961)  series  institution  realm  of  part  by  to  postmodernism  institutions a  now  institutionalized  older  4  predictable  styles  is  comes  artists  follow  incorporated  environment  art  it  art  paintings  modernism  became  within  TV  when  of  their  /  universities. Once established  aesthetic  s h a k e up  preserving  . . .  or  Does  cultural  in  surrounding  Is  it  the  it  1983).  modernist  generation  time  when  potential  which  in  112)?  in  (Jameson,  broadening  the  time  style  in  modernism  in s c h o o l s and  a new  point  emancipatory point  scandalous  also  oppositional  oppositional,  universities, a  academic by  point  possible  Originally once  knowledge  originally  c a n o n s taught  and  way,  art  empty  The  2  the  universities its  and  qualities.  accepted  affect  knowledge  incorporate  that  Art them,  to  the  commercial 1983, p.  Not  Even  between punk  self-appointed frontiers  of  it  fifteen 1983,  has  by  singular the  forms  of  to  be  forms  might  the  and  high  to  have  art  and  draw. (Jameson,  so  cultural  fine  have  into  look  has  of  been  are  been  of  less  art and  now  as  taught  within  than  instruction.  boundaries  absorbed  developments  far  base  the  arts  more  recent  educators  subject  and  matter  for and  Social  the  a  more  university  like, another out  been  history,  art  if  the  blur  the  "classics". universities'  perceived  as  on  the  extensive  incorporation  of  of  universities.  coming  film  being  Theory  Cross-Cultural  Increasingly  "contemporary  the  been  dominance  schools  instruction, and Issues  the  Art in  as  of  serious  modern  challenge  traditional in  and  last  sociology,  the  Education.  the  (Jameson,  of  uncritical  Education Art  within  and  witnessed  and,  postmodernist  theory"  s t u d i e s , and  has  effected  the  s t u d i e s , literary  against  art  of  be  departments  additions  out  will  of  secondary of  curriculum  manifestation  discourse, a new  art  elementary  Multi-Cultural  difficult  broaden  seen  operating  113),  Caucus  the  to  supporting  years, a type  several  within  art  currently  p.  of  changing  commercial  yet  it  anthropology, One  between  5  knowledge.  s o , what is  line  challenges  attempts  art  role  postmodernist  shift  the  increasingly  postmodernist  significantly  many  While  seems  high-profile  distinction  where  /  112)  in  Warhol's  if  forms  surprisingly,  effective  point  knowledge  history. mounted  acceptance culturally  the  founding  of  the  Journal  of  Educators  of  this  Art persuasion  describe  and ethnic  arts, mass media, the  that  lie  outside  art  or  education  on the  quilts, weaving, television have  a  valid  place  "masterpieces"  in  have  the  stressed  proliferation culture.  Rather  fringe  dialogue  penetration  assume  proliferation  of  role  visual  of  of  on the  part  subjects  of  traditions. a model color that  of  children  study  of  dominant  social  society  and the  study, they  which  But neither  can it  depend on the  is not  texture  relationships  uses  sexual  imagery  identification the  implications  of  the  value of  this  social system value  to  and  in  a  luxury  context,  the  underlying system,  the  seen  (1983)  increasing  and  popular  culture  social is  sanctioned  cultural  by  to  television is  values  work, language  the  social  of  limit  its elite  aesthetic as identify  the  advertisement  required of  The  understanding  western  modernist  cars. What  in art  militaristic,  longer  be able  or  and  reform.  often  no  to  Renaissance  the  and critical  simply  the  all  popular  and  existing  magazine  sell  films,  media  within  message  been  enough to  Popular  Nadaner  of  public. Education must have  forms  and  mass  inquiry  which  visual  advocate that education  the  those  criticism. It  the  criticism  to  of  painting  forms  demands critical  3  folk  design, are  implications  by  visual  in  popular,  of  tradition.  Bersson (1982)  social  and  audience,  art.  all  forms  classist, racist, or sexist  the  and  accepting  a  study  / 6  environment, and other  expressionist  mass media as equally valid for should  of  the  advertising, and housing  educational  than  including  built  alongside  the  and  as  knowledge  the  is  targetted  and  delivery  the  cultural and  its  relationships to the meaning of work, and so on.  Other  art  educators  within  the  postmodernist  discourse  (Andrews,  1984;  Art knowledge / 7 Chalmers,  1984; Stanley, 1985, for  them, pluralism of  not  example) take  a different  necessitates broadening the boundaries to culture  include the  only  the  popular  culture,  but  the  visual  society  in which several ethnic groups exist, a multicultural  forms  and mass media that reflect of  many  cultures.  They  study helps d i s s o l v e ethnic stereotypes and cultural  Such  sociologically  knowledge  in  schools  postsecondary base of has  art  been  no  well  be  British  study it  in of  is  its  with  modelled  as the  change  artist;  it  art  several fine  in  that  in  approach to  parameters insight  of  into  a art  existing  art  study  in  art  change  university  is that  against,  is  master  the does  wealthy instruction. local arts  occurs  form,  on of  the  what  original  professions—those well  in  "legitimated"  believe  dominant  misunderstandings.  perceptible  been  than  of  elementary  Compatible  model,  of  of  model  Canada  Columbia  1985).  some  though  has  rather  States  "discipline-based" in  the  in  the  cultural  works  of  primarily the  traditional  art  historian, the adequately  highly Paul  change  of  the  organized Getty  guides guide  promotion  resource  have  book,  curriculum  sequenced, academic  "Great Tradition".  Furthermore,  university-based aesthetician, the incorporate  could  example, the  education, this on  is  existing  models  (for and  4  Foundation's  Discipline-based  general  the  not  J.  curriculum  based  studios. What  intensification  curriculum  in  art  contemporary  basis. An example is the recent  United  used  it  a lack  toward,  singular cultural  offer  even  than  than  to  the  study  in school classrooms (Chapman, 1981; Muth, 1985)  greater  very  been  may  instruction  disturbing  the  challenges  institutions,  more  in  based  emphasis. For  the  fine art  arts  critic, as  sociological  or  the  anthropological  for  looking  As  academic  content  art  educators  continue  at  mainstream, social  art  and  universities,  becomes  art  the  It  public.  contingently,  universities. major  But  subject  sporadic.  5  of  art  and  Weinberger, or,  in  there or  art little  (Barron,  instruction there  education  as  level  of  art  knowledge  in  at  the  the  Jacob,  of  we  parameters,  promulgated  art  accept  the  in  in  in  paints  system  is  &  their  painting  instruction  in  of  place  of  fine  change  is  sparse  a psychometric  1970; G r i s w o l d  art et  any  concerning  level  styles  and, to  about,  Kowalski,  to  likely  1980;  a l . , 1965;  in  the and  career  Madge  (Montalto,  courses  in  portrait  & C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , 1976), their (Adams  and  schools  art  information  postsecondary  that  thesis  literature  discussion  and  the  defining  art  the  these and  school  toward  change  of  in  knowledge  on  education  public  either  the  Consideration  indication  the  of  knowledge  art  research  1980), or  &  and  through  concentrated  is, most  endorses  study  monopoly  in  little  development  (Dennis  if  the.  of  1972; Getzels  1973; W h i t e s e l , decades,  fact,  tools  art  art  simultaneous is  8  in  interrelationship  change  even In  professional  earlier  university  of  what  students  attitudes  yet  instruction.  general  Of  as  the  transmission  of  critical  /  role  concern.  attitude  kind  the  imperative,  that  carries  consideration  of  has  for  the  towards,  art  more  unlikely  some  efforts  university  even  in  raise  basis  knowledge  exclusively.  critical  the  which  prominent  to  the  department  change  without  more  increasing  knowledge is  example,  than  efforts  especially  art  perpetuating  a  society,  of  factors,  occur  their  for  rather  assumes  becomes  university  art,  institutional  sociological  the  of  inclusively  pluralistic  functions  education  study  Art  &  1983); general  Mahoney,  Art 1970).  There  does,  the  is  distinct  premises  instruction  in  perspective  or  which  a  most  institutions  the  in  light  directly found  accounts  of  within  sociology  of  the  art  social  almost  galleries,  as is  about  unwarranted.  study  upon  art.  role  how  of  of  art  attempts  to  add  the  systems for  and  art  study  committed there  embraces  and  "respect,  revere, &  art  to is  and  search  ethical  celebrate  C o n g d o n , 1987, p.  educational  systems  honor  for  of  ideals  2). S u c h  a  neglect play  knowledge,  to  a this  account  suggest  future  postmodernism.  to  our  embodied of  individual  education  sociological  ultimately,  adding  position  and  incomplete  and,  aftermath  political  defends  to  knowledge  in the  the a  piece  ultimately,  a r t s , this  art  proper dealers,  departments  and t r a n s m i t t i n g  a key  superficial  critics,  in the  have  Manfredi,  their  and,  and  who  postsecondary  educator  university  in  art  defining, legitimating,  systems,  (Blandy  showing  merely  of  in  art  While  By  influence  art  knowledge  institutions  definitions  G i v e n the  give  study  Research  1968; B e c k e r , 1982; or  9  sociological  However, those  art  the  art  /  of  postmodernism.  6  neglect  on  this  critical  role  directions  its  in  art.  postsecondary  "lofts"  education  of  1981b) e i t h e r of  a  as  structures  between  (Albrecht,  concentration  and  from  p a t r o n , p r o t e c t o r , . d e f i n e r , p r o d u c e r , and  significant  of  exclusive  museums,  attitudes  role  knowledge  relationship  systems  questions,  surrounding  the  mention but  education issues  that  and  addresses  1981; W o l f f ,  the  literature  institutional  the  1982; S i m p s o n , to  of  postsecondary  is  developed  of  lack  knowledge  a  in  society  differences society  provide  understanding  for  of and  cannot the  this  of  study  which  individuals cultural be  artistic  art  who  diversity"  realized  unless  activities  and  Art contributions make  visible  traditions,  which  that  to  recognition dominates  a diverse  and  a genuine of  is they  this the are  p o p u l a t i o n . The  which  norms  resistance  of  of  impedes institutional broadening  resistance  first  this  step  agenda of ideal.  The  structures of  and  toward  the the  ways  study  study of  cultural  reform.  this  is  argues  universities  base in  knowledge  of  which  Individuals  art. A it  cannot  /  10  clear:  to  that  the  present thorough  impedes change  or that  unaware.  NOTES 1  The t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k r e m a i n e d m a l l e a b l e t h r o u g h o u t the p r o c e s s o f c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s . It w a s r e w o r k e d as the c o m p l e x i t y of the i s s u e s i n c r e a s e d w i t h the gradual c o l l e c t i o n of information and w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n of i d e a s . A l t h o u g h a f o c u s d e v e l o p e d as m a t e r i a l s w e r e c o l l e c t e d , the r e s e a r c h w a s not a p p r o a c h e d to a c c e p t or reject a h y p o t h e s i s . Rather, the r e s e a r c h w a s c o n d u c t e d i n d u c t i v e l y . T o use B o g d a n and B i k l e n ' s (1982) a n a l o g y of q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h , the p r o c e s s of i n d u c t i v e a n a l y s i s is like a f u n n e l . T h i n g s are m o r e o p e n at the b e g i n n i n g or t o p , and m o r e d i r e c t e d and s p e c i f i c at the b o t t o m . The r e s u l t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k of the s t u d y and of c h a p t e r s is s u m m a r i z e d at the end o f chapter 2.  the  organization  2  U n l e s s i n d i c a t e d o t h e r w i s e , the t e r m " c u l t u r e " is not u s e d in t h i s study as it is o f t e n u s e d in o r d i n a r y language. A n individual of culture is p o p u l a r l y d e s c r i b e d a s o n e w h o , in the w o r d s of the American anthropologist C l y d e K l u c k h o h n (1949, p. 29) "can s p e a k l a n g u a g e s o t h e r than his o w n , w h o is f a m i l i a r w i t h h i s t o r y , l i t e r a t u r e , p h i l o s o p h y , or the f i n e a r t s . " That N o r t h A m e r i c a n s s p e a k of g o i n g to u n i v e r s i t y to b e c o m e " c u l t u r e d " or that t h e y r e f e r t o the f i n e arts as " h i g h " culture as o p p o s e d to " l o w " c u l t u r e , p r o m o t e s a c o n c e p t i o n of f i n e art as the d o m a i n o f a p r i v i l e g e d s o c i a l c l a s s . It is a c o n c e p t i o n that c o n s t r a i n s p e o p l e s ' p e r c e p t i o n s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and b e h a v i o r , and a f f e c t s the s t r u c t u r e s and f u n c t i o n i n g of o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g the i n s t i t u t i o n of art i n s t r u c t i o n in p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . T h i s i s s u e is dealt w i t h further in c h a p t e r 3 in d i s c u s s i o n s of "cultural c a p i t a l " and "high s t a t u s k n o w l e d g e " .  3  J o h n B e r g e r (1972) w o u l d c o n v e y i n g such m e s s a g e s .  4  One  reason  why  change  say  overall  that  in  the  art  fine  arts  instruction  lead  in  the  way  classrooms  in  has  Art knowledge  /  11  been almost imperceptible is that for classroom teachers, teaching art has consisted of picking up examples of formula "school art" or free s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n activity from their own teacher education in art, rather than, for example, the critical discussion of art in society. A second reason has to do with the institutional structure of schooling being such that it is difficult to move away from the conventional model in which the production aspects of art have functioned for students, teachers, principals and parents as a desired and expected relief from the academic school routine (Efland, 1976). This lack of research has been ascertained by surveying literature within the general areas of art education, visual arts, and s o c i o l o g y . This survey included a c o m p u t e r - a c c e s s e d ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) search. The s o c i o l o g y of art as a scholarly tradition dates only from the m i d - s i x t i e s , with Arnold the social history of art. Yet, its inquiry into social entity is rooted in Marx's systematic theory of ideology.  and body of knowledge Hauser's (1959) study of the nature of art as a analysis of society and  CHAPTER 2 ART IN THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF KNOWLEDGE  THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK: THE SOCIOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE  Formal  education  management some  in  art, or  Other  what  a  knowledge  knowledge, a term  society is  a set of  considers of than  it  is  significant of  curriculum  arrangements  important  knowledge  considers  considered  overlooked. The formal of  any endeavor,  deals  with  the selection,  and transmission of knowledge. Knowledge is structured  is "intentioned"  describe  in  of  is less  a process  knowledge  knowledge,  is selected  and why it  intentioned  from  is considered  or  peripheral,  knowledge.  or  knowledge,  manipulation based  important  totally  is made up a  society  of this  minds  by  is taken  stock  educators  to  be the  at art as a specialized discipline  can consider  an almost  of  on what  is  or what  knowledge. The selection  By looking  we  and purposeful  of schools and universities  selection  past, the tradition.  curriculum  important  an intentional of  used by Esland (1971b, p. 84) to  spurious,  and purposeful  so that  how that  unlimited  enough  one collection  number  of  to be transmitted  of  combinations, through the  school system to society.  Some  broad  especially chapter  theoretical  knowledge  groundwork  appropriated  in order to facilitate  we have the highly  for  the more  in  the  education, particular  specialized and insular forms  12  sociology  of  is sketched task  knowledge, out  in  this  of understanding why  of art study  that we do.  Art The  intent  is  to  facilitate  knowledge,  the  socially  mechanisms  that  make  and others  in the social organization of knowledge / 13  relatively  an  understanding  accepted  certain  rules,  traditions  unimportant.  art  knowledge  mechanics and  conceptions  The s o c i o l o g y of  hierarchical. This study  an unquestioned virtue  the  assumptions,  and  questioning knowledge that may otherwise and statically  of  of  of  art  institutional art  knowledge  important  puts  up  for  be taken as fixed, predetermined,  does not  treat fine  art  knowledge as  sanctioned by tradition. Nor does it question whether  is socially produced, but  rather  in what  ways  and to  what  extent.  This chapter sketches out the general nature and organization of first,  in  broad  relationships the  between  everyday  educational schools  world,  and  to  art  terms  formal and  knowledge  next,  in  the  of  the  curricula  basic  theoretical  in particular  are derived particular  the boundaries of  be argued, determines  not  status and legitimation ability  to  only  of  what  perpetuate  of  social circumstances and postmodern challenges.  of  as  American  they  as a basis for is the  of  formal  organization  principles  counts  and  knowledge  North  the  knowledge  itself  the  most  interest  art knowledge  distinctions  organization  of  and  maintenance of  and, subsequently, its  and  framework  extent  also the  knowledge  this  in subsequent chapters. Of  it will  the  terms  arguments of  describe  From  concepts  knowledge  that  educational  constituting  universities.  knowledge, some apply  theoretical  knowledge,  the  strength  of  might basic and  categories, for, this,  as art  knowledge, but  in education and s o c i e t y , in  the  face  of  changing  Art  in the social organization of knowledge  / 14  The social construction of reality  The term art  "art knowledge"  methods  but  all  myths,  is used in this  and art concepts which  forms  of  thought  values, norms,  involving  study  to represent  are formally  taught  art. The kinds  resources, s y m b o l s ,  beliefs  of  as art knowledge.  attempt to chart and  introduce,  Such  a framework  in the most  broad  general  terms,  class  time,  practices,  and attitudes  that are  art departments  can be  is consistent  with an  coverage  of the nature  during cultural  selected and organized within schools and university considered  not only the  and organization the position  of  of  knowledge  art  knowledge  within it.  In the s o c i o l o g y of knowledge broadly  conceived  that  it  literature, the term  has often  come  to  "knowledge" has been so  be equated  with  the  term  "culture". A s Robert Merton (1957) notes, Not  only  the  epistemological judgements, eschatological observations  exact  sciences  postulates,  political  of  empirical  held to be "existentially  material  beliefs,  doxies, moral  but  the  ethical predications,  categories  norms, ontological  fact  are more  for  in  a  thought,  indiscriminately  conditioned." (p. 467)  with such a broad array; it must "knowledge"  of  synthetic  assumptions, and  or less  For Berger and Luckmann (1966), the s o c i o l o g y itself  convictions,  society,  of knowledge  concern itself  regardless  of  its  must  with whatever ultimate  concern passes  validity  or  Art invalidity  by  understand  whatever  the  transmitted  analysis  of  the  understanding since in  the  1924 w i t h  the  for  the  einer  Luckmann,  1966).  theoretical  thought  what  is  Theoretical mythical, It  is  for  fabric  of  only for  formulations  or  "the  focus  field  the  of  sociology  meanings  Alfred  Schutz. Schutz's  the  Luckmann  natural  part  attitude  or,  he  did  not  situations, the  and of  street"  "reality". what of  the of  sum a  exhaust  society  of  they  reality"  this  in  of  a  1964)  everyday in  other  their  field life.  society  inquiry  His  focus  words,  the  and s i g n i f i c a t i o n  elaborate  a  sociology  first  coined  of  for  the  be  Berger  &  "ideas"  or  knowledge lives.  "know".  the  central  constitutes  of  was was  discovery of  in  the  acts.  redefinition  of  their meant  society  is w h a t  owe  the  scientific, philosophical,  k n o w l e d g e , b e c a u s e this that  with  everyday  instead  by which  The  been  study,  their  be  the  Scheler's essay  passes  members  that  Max  1960, c i t e d  what  to  where  knowledge" was  of  what  is  generally  for  seek  understood.  This  had  15  that  Luckmann, concerned  German philosopher  of  is  /  developed,  such  must  presuppositions, structures  Although  is  s o c i e t y , whether  (1962, of  knowledge  L u c k m a n n , and  admittedly  commonsense world the  and  not  of  human  W i s s e n s " (Scheler,  in a s o c i e t y  and  of  des  must  sociology  the  construction  Berger  the  of  knowledge  knowledge  in  from  members  a e s t h e t i c , do social  "man  Berger  "the  Berger  is  "real"  the  of  of  social  differs  Soziologie For  all  construction  field  the  sociology  in  for  publication  "Probleme  or  is,  social organization  which  of  social  of  term  by  "reality"  knowledge  of  The  1  maintained  taken-for-granted sociology  criteria .  processes  and  in the  knowledge  to  structure  of  the a  phenomenology  in  full  depth  common-sense  knowledge  per  se,  of  world. he  did  Art state  that  the  sociology  all typifications  of  of  in the social organization of knowledge  is  misnamed  " c o m m o n - s e n s e thinking".  knowledge / 16  and should focus  2  C o m m o n - s e n s e thinking occurs, as Schutz (1964) writes, in this We  rely  upon  anticipate  if  may  as  function,  and  fellow-men we  act  such  will  religious  fact  we  institutions utilities  the  political  that  our  toward  fellow-men  them  governments, that  an  in  a  beliefs, will  of  govern  the  with  Scheler  that  any  as  way,  courts,  laws  way:  react  specific  as it governs our own. In terms  say  will  schools,  order  on  or  and  in-group  that public  mores,  behaviour  of  we  of  of our  the social group has  a  relatively  natural concept of the world which its members take for  granted.  (P. 121)  There is a zone of things taken-for-granted  that, at a given time, does not  seem  we  to  distinct  need  inquiry,  understanding of  The their  fact  that  working  does  not  things,  we  do  us  persons.  by  a  of  work  recipes  though  do  not  have  a clear  structure. not  from We  understand do not  use  the  know  dealing  very, advanced  contrivances  knowledge  its  even  and that we  hinder  and  prepared the  further  Why  and  anything  of  undisturbed  the  most  technology  the  How  their  with  . . . The  man  in the  indicating  how  to  gadgets  knowing  how  has a  . . .  street  bring  origin  situations,  complicated without  of  forth  in  typical  and  Art  in the social organization of  situations typical results by typical  Schutz  contrasts,  working  knowledge  knowledge, which distinct.  the  of  the  taken-for-granted  The term  "art  definition  of  Luckmann.  distinction  existence things.  arises  street"  other  field  and  is used in this addressed  by  sociology  of  knowledge  but  hand, the  therein  questioning only  who  is  of  within  has a experts'  clear  the  and  unknown  a  world  of  this  of  study  Schutz  reason that  for  in the spirit  and  looking  is critical  make between the formal  knowledge  of  former  everyday  detailed  to  first the  broad  by  Berger  and  to  Berger  and  thesis: With  reality  there  is  sense, the sense normally  a  distinction  conceived of  do with  "truth", scholarship or w i s d o m  in academic institutions,  signifies  thought  such knowledge  experiences  authority of  figures;  others.  For  who  they  possess  define  the  nature  of  and  example, members  church have long maintained the right to what  to  forms  which  represent  are of  a desirable  an individual, one which is distinguishable from  ignorance. Furthermore, those  considered  is thought  sin  and  knowledge  of  legitimate  the  of  the  define what  salvation  is  the  "experts' knowledge" and  as having to  privileged status for  and  the  the  possible  another  terms  on  our  is  status. Possessing  of  a limited  of  in status. Knowledge in the  pursued  to  there  taken-for-granted  in everyday  with,  in  3  knowledge"  these authors  "man  fields  Schutz, all  / 17  means (Schutz, 1964, p. 120).  hand, the  many  knowledge  But  Luckmann's  one  is restricted  According to  presupposes  the  on  knowledge  upper a "state  (Berger,  this  as high and  a state sort  are  behavior  and  ranks  the  of  of  grace" is  1969).  Likewise,  Art professionals  who  schools  involved  are  experiences  to  assess  art  in matters  impart  confers  extent  to  wisdom  for to  their  such  them.  and truth,  untutored  upon  art  institutions  students Art  to  the  and in  range  teachers  define  students. The conceptual  legitimacy  which  postsecondary  / 18  of  are  art  socially  of art knowledge. They assume a professional  and the layperson  culture  in  defining  appropriate  and categorize  professional  fine  in  thought  designated experts mandate  teach  in the social organization of knowledge  defended,  disjunction  in the fine  art teaching  is  artistic  arts  ability,  and to  between  the art  of western  high  and learning, and affects  insulated,  and maintained  the  by  its  exponents in education.  Fine art knowledge as a finite province of meaning in the macrostructure of knowledge  Given  the distinction  Schutz  termed  what  way  related art  by  the  compared  provinces  provinces  attention shifts  from  in the everyday  knowledge, in what  stock"  to  Berger  to  art of  ways  meanings of  are the two related? In  typical  of  knowledge  outside  the specialized  reality,  the reality  in attention  and modes  meaning" of  are  all  (1966),  art  of  realities  experience"  life,  life.  by  While  "the shift  departments fine  the relationship  other  characterized  everyday  within everyday  and what  knowledge  and Luckmann  everyday  world  of meaning, enclaves within the paramount  circumscribed  "finite  knowledge  specialized  According  When  "finite  "expert"  to the "common  world?  this:  is  between  appear  reality  there  turning  such  away  are, of  to a finite  as  marked  (p. 24). A l l  a  is  of  course,  province  of  Art meaning  is of  a much more  in the social organization of radical kind  . . .  In the  knowledge / 19  context  of  religious  experience this is called 'leaping'" (p.25).  Art,  in  the  meaning  western  in  which  high  culture  "leaping" is  sense,  of  is  one  a radical  such  finite  kind. The  place between aesthetic experience and the world of  province  leaping that  of  takes  everyday experience is  illustrated well with the case of the theater.  The  transition  falling  of  between  As  to  another  world,"  appears  or  life. that  comparison  curtain  curtain.  order that may  reality,"  is  the  "transported  everyday  realities  may not  As  the  is, to with  tenuous  with  paramount  which  the  its  falls,  the  rising  and  spectator  meanings  is  and  an  do with the order  of  spectator  to  of  presented  ephemeral, however  the the  own  reality  reality  by  rises,  have much to  curtain  the  and  the  marked  "returns  everyday on  vivid  the the  life  stage  by now  presentation  may have been a few moments previously, (p.25)  Berger  and Luckmann's notion  paramount p.  may  we  the  reality  of  everyday  status even as such leaps take place f o l l o w s  124), who  which  that  wrote,  have  involve  to  "It find  leaping from  is our  the  zone  of  things  taken  bearings." S o , although  life  from for  some  retains  its  Schutz (1964, granted  within  art experiences  everyday reality, they remain an "enclave" within  everyday life rather than of their own discrete reality.  4  Berger and Luckmann's treatise about the paramount status of the reality  of  Art everyday  experience  tradition and  of  claim  other  are  the  public  to  intrinsic  life.  formed  Ideas  in  a  about  is  in  defines  her  or  himself  artistic  "creation"  autonomous  impervious  in  Sociological  Marxist  and  what of  we  the  that  the  past  that  now  as  of  the  defined.  Art  knowledge  and  something  reality  rather  impermeable. external  commodity-like. experience  of  to  Rather,  everyday  knowledge through  the  frames  of  is  and  the  as  as  the  is  than  from  Tradition"  sort  is  discovering is  In t h i s  not,  by  is  which  its all  a  no  the  and  it  was  it  was  art  in  its  and  the  has  basic  which common  is  members, individuals  and  as  a  their  and  or  even  individual's  society  providing  organize  tenet  assumption,  an  of  in  somehow  view,  'fabric'  been  Individuals  5  fixed, predetermined,  entire  this  art  produced  exception.  to  art  assumptions  socially  to  if  of  artist  if  derives,  arts. A  reality  contrary  as  situate  it  fine is  as  knowledge  fundamental  broader  permeating  of  the  on  art  "sacred"  knowledge  any  of  which and  that  or  to  of  exclusive  writing  world  sociology  hidden  that  of  c o n s c i o u s n e s s of reference  the  attempt  individual, something  life.  of  social  its  the  knowledge  seen  Much  reality  as w o r k s  defined  and  Knowledge  the  as w e l l  is  "Great  knowledge  their  in the  the  approaches  of  construct  live  how  analysis  many  identify  obligations  matter  artist  the  recognize  no  1971).  a n a l y s i s , such  exposing  activity  in  20  intentions  definition,  transcends  phenomenological in  to  who,  /  artistic  has, h o w e v e r , addressed fine  sociology  socially  fixed  public  wishing  knowledge  those  "purest"  production,  artistic  of  even  the  not  artistic  and  terms  sociological  context.  successful  art  of  artists,  hold  by  (Bourdieu,  realm  to  public  of  these  that  movement, the  context  social organization  reminder  demands  i s . It  an  a  Romantic  indifference  than  everyday  the  is  in the  the lives.  Art All  action  the  basis of  in the social organization of knowledge / 21  is, therefore, what  they  grounded take  in  knowledge—people  account  of—that  is, what  that  forward  act and  on how  they interpret. (Esland, 1971, p.41)  The  broader  definition  Luckmann,  reminds  theoretical  knowledge  for  only  a  even  smaller of  remains  external  especially  that  thought  part art  knowledge, like  also  of  to  the  "in  expropriated and  provinces  domain  knowledge  Practical  put  finite  be the  the  knowledge  amount.  majority  knowledge  us  small  society. And the  of  found given  contrast  to  schools  and  the  their  in  education  the  cultural  artist.  For  students  own  of  that  fine  Their  specialized  art art  This  art  reality  but  knowledge  will  will  knowledge  part  of  culture  that  it  their  everyday actions and beliefs  the  becomes  often  an  problems  constitute  of  their  other  of  integrated  daily  most, the  frames with  art  is  for  them  an  lives,  taught  in in  never  be  teacher  or  much  more  of  reference.  their  everyday  meaning becomes such an  creates  the  backgrounds  hand, it  their  knowledge  typically  for  the  between  own  cultural  will,  art  exists  knowledge  constitute  the  education accounts for  remain that  art, on  meaning,  in  and  knowledge  knowledge. This specialized province of their  social art  among  relation  reality  their  specializing in fine  likely  the  and  "expert", accounts  students, this  Little  exclusiveness of  universities.  actualized as their the  diversity  and  of  Berger  individuals  immediate  experience.  the  use"  for  our everyday knowledge. For most to  of  by  identity  important in  are based. Helen Muth (1985) writes  which that  Art art  educators  others  (or  for  specializing  everyday  reality  in  of  discipline  the  identity  Though world tool  rooted view  and  that  the  province  of  criterion  for  describe  a  knowledge cultural  the  thus (Muth  well  with  overriding outside  an  address  or  domain  that  d i s c i p l i n e , the thinking:  which  fall  is  a  general  studies  feeling  that  society"  (Ridgeway,  a  notion  descriptive is  "Its  of  "art  is  1975).  by  life"  Muth  mode  discipline  art.  becomes within  and  others  than  an  an  The  knowledge that  (chapter "art  is  a  to  and  effect is  not  discipline  environment" shaping  fits 4)  6  a  individual  thinking  itself.  the  discipline  organizing of  a the  becomes  psychological  explanation  that  in  developed  Once  distinctive  or  gives  systems, artifacts,  world.  students  she  whether  diverse  discipline  art  the  knowledge  symbol  person's  of  fine  issues  has  the  within  has  knowledge  discipline  theoretical  of  of  everyday  within  part  The  sorts  more  a of  professional  is  of  the  training  used  individual's  within  one  formal  22 and  one  and  /  students,  through  term  an  art  term  art  in v a r i o u s  knowledge  k n o w l e d g e " , the  28). D i s c i p l i n e  of  33).  identity  (p. a  integrated  p.  not"  alliance,  "Discipline  all  knowledge",  way  identities":  c u l t u r e , the  is e m b e d d e d  problems  1985,  individual's  to  "dual  acquired  discipline-oriented.  member  becomes  is  is  [sic]  historians,  "Discipline  everyday  "cultural  to  art.  of  art  cultural  an  and w h i c h  restricted  fine  discipline  individual's  have  respective  knowledge  a  social organization  artists,  art)  component,  criteria the  fine  of  institutions  becomes on  in  matter  their  specialized latter  that  in the  an  particularly wherein  way  of  the being  Art  in the social organization of knowledge / 23  Knowledge boundaries and university departmentalism  The extent of  an individual's  routine of  to which a discipline of knowledge  knowledge  structure  other  and affects  that  individual's  of  knowledge  discipline. One useful  a discipline domains  way to think  of knowledge is  to  and social status about  and its status  describe  part  beliefs, values and  actions in everyday life is related to the structure  that  the  identity  becomes an integrated  knowledge  and discuss  and relation  in  terms  of  to its  boundaries, their nature, and the way in which they are maintained.  Knowledge, especially that which is  bounded,  correspond  differentiated, to  boundaries  is appropriated  and structured of  social  for educational  within.  Often  frameworks,  these  such  knowledge, boundaries  as  university  departments, research specialities, or professions (Holzner, 1983). Such social frameworks knowledge distrusted  and .' their domains or  attendant  are  rejected.  social  considered  values  relevant  Understanding  the  shape  and  nature  and  which of  limit  are  art  peripheral,  knowledge  education and society requires recognition of this basic relationship knowledge  boundaries  will  be reviewed  that  the nature  and institutions.  as a theoretical  of  basis for arguing  boundaries  in subsequent  commitment  and the  discipline  mechanisms for acquiring and maintaining following  of recruits  in art are important  of  relates  chapters  and status of art knowledge (chapter 3) and to the strength of identity  boundaries  between  legitimation  the artistic  of  knowledge  in  to the  to  and maintenance  Principles  what  fine  legitimation  art  (chapter  4). The  and for developing a  to the art department's  capacity  Art to  maintain  traditional  in the  insular  social organization  conceptions  of  art  of  knowledge  knowledge  in  a  /  24  pluralistic  environment.  A  set  Basil  of  principles  Bernstein  developed  his  we  a  framework  in  go  into  organization  of  and  whether  the  each  other.  I am  to  status  of  maintenance  knowledge  categories To  classification  is  are  pure  relatively  other.  A  in  or  strong,  a  about  which  boundaries  between  the  suggestion  relative  status  that  examine of  very  nothing is  abstract  intrinsic  the  contents,  nothing  to  language  to  by  Bernstein  o p e n / c l o s e d relationship  this  there  education.  and  an  developed  the  in  relative  intrinsic  to  the  c o n t e n t s , (p. 4 8 - 4 9 )  analysis is  of  the  nature  "crassif ication". it  refers  to  and the  Bernstein's  principle  of  are  Strong may  relationship bits  contents  of are  strong  boundaries  to  other  or  way  in w h i c h  and  of  of  fit  blurred,  in  which the  are  Where  from  of  box. other  each  conceptual  areas. There  in  a  knowledge  contents  as a s o r t  is  they  simply:  contents  of  between  classification  content  knowledge weak  relationship  insulate  be t h o u g h t  differentiation  "Classification"  the  contents  boundaries  of  7  curriculum  area, which  confusion  is  contents,  (unmixed).  closed  in  was  institution  the  using  there  concept:  state  knowledge  box, stands  that  knowledge  boundary  differentiated.  stand  Bernstein's  educational  of  deliberately  between  in  terms  of  way, with  educational  concepts  boundaries  sociologist  an a b s t r a c t  in  various  concept  formal  time  knowledge  British  any  emphasize  relationships  key  educational  (1971),  can  order  A  of  is  little Where  extreme,  Art insulation  is  mixing  the  The  of  reduced  strength  might  traditional  contents  and  occur  between  commonsense  case or  art  lack  life  schools fine  the  artist  evidence is  acts  as  is  or  to  so  the  strong  allegiance  to  the  A  Operating  on  types  educational code  which  the  contents  stand  in  a  tends  to  relate  art  closed only  c o d e , on  are  clearly to  other  strong  to  either  25 a  the  fine  art  the  areas  and  "pure" 1971).  to  (Griff,  students  and  In  the  the  autonomy  of  everyday taught  identity is  they  of  typically  allegiance  researcher  as  case  world  knowledge  wherein one  the  expected. This  in  of  the  confirmed the  fine  1964,  by arts  1970),  from  it  switching  4).  Bernstein codes"  organization bounded  to  the  (Bernstein,  between  "collection  each  in  only  surprising, given  be  boundaries,  any  minimally the  to  (chapter  of  relation  to  as  not  between  allegiance is  of  Insulation  seem  preventing  arts  to  /  open, permitting  knowledge  be  students  curricula;  refers  knowledge  specialized  discipline  artist  art  strength  is  thought  areas,  perceived  strong  block  applied  collection  of  to  not  that, a c c o r d i n g  mental  the  does  typically  of  be  between  likely  applied  studies  a  integrated  most  universities.  can  knowledge.  province  contents  knowledge  but  everyday  finite  from  of  specialized  relatedness  and  ideal  or  of  of  boxes.  boundaries  k n o w l e d g e , this  of  and  the  of  social organization  relationship  curriculum,  knowledge  of  the  of  nature  school  "applied"  and  in the  and  other.  everyday  h a n d , the  of  identifies  and  "integrated  educational  insulated  Knowledge  of  structural codes."  knowledge  from  each  in  collection  a  experience. With  strength  two  other  curricula  boundaries  is  A in and  code of  an  reduced  and  the  contents  common-sense  Attempts the  to  can  be  to  school for  in  type.  Subjects,  made  up  and  in  it.  known  (As  time  on  Halloween  The  are of  so  sense  research to  curricula  are  sometimes  where,  with  only  subjects, thematic  than  Such  of  knowledge other  of  the  /  26  and  to  found  at  time.  In  curriculum  are  typically  secondary is  taught  day  as  is  divided time  this  indicates  the  educational  often  art  to  be  code  are  is  exist, of  of  replaced  teaching  the of  into  collection a  worth a  by  package  units  schedule.  allotted  tend  postsecondary  parts  to  schools  they  and  generally  teacher  approaches  practice  according  many  afternoon,  classroom  cross-disiplinary  common  the  usually in  or  one  approaches, where  does  blocks  art,  well,  areas of  "experts"  works  organization  of  time,  The  time  attributed small  field  unit  trips  to of and  parties.)  and the  the  code  society,  subject  departmentalism  in  integrated  organized  Friday  subject  base  social  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s . The  is.  the  a  each  distinct  including  knowledge to  to  more  distinct  allotted  relation  implemented.  western  of  open  all  readily  subjects  education  an  level  almost  boundaries  distinct  in  stand  implement  more  blur  in the  knowledge.  primary  responsible  Art  of  the  collection  universities.  occupational that  and  base  teachers  in, a  maintain  of  have  particular  teaching  The  discipline  university teachers  been  discipline  activities  defined  of  in  trained  department both  knowlege  a  university is  that  maintained is  schools  i n , and  of  boundaries  and  the  by  the  knowledge  and  universities  university  professors  defined  by  department. administration  a  tradition  What  also  processes  such  as the  The  structure  in  which  p.106)  allocation  it  in the  funds  and  of  knowledge  is  organized  which  order  arises  relationships, knowledge  staffing  is  within  affect  occur  presented  educational  to  on  of  knowledge  /  a departmental  students  is  institutions.  toward  teaching  the  27  basis.  structure  Bernstein  (1971,  on  Hunt,  the  with  Educational  knowledge  that  Knowledge advertised available  becomes as  to  general  to  a  in  far  hand,  describe  or  the  is code  the  the  to  of  an  authority  differentiated  explicit,  system  which  the  greater  usually  the  within  than  teacher/student  make  decisions  educational  department  extent  distanced  from  tends  be  like  to  an  head  students. power  about  can With  structure  knowledge  object  everyday  and  knowledge  experienced or  as  commodity  individual, fixed, predetermined, motivation  which  apprehension with  and t i m e .  only  objective  classified,  the  students.  w i t h the  property  sense,  categorized  to  somewhat  external  anyone  private  Luckmann  collection  of  power  1985)  other  conjunction  a  of  ordering  out  a  c o o p e r a t i o n , as t e a c h e r s  in  nature  procedure.  in  packaged  space,  generates &  hierarchal  systematic  and  organization  codes,  the  the  time  (Blackledge  integration  of  of  code  knowledge  shifts  out  examination  collection  institutions  out in  predictable  like  social organization  states:  Social  The  of  Art  a  few  quality  of  all  human  of the  term  In  actual  have  in  fact,  and,  phenomena  facticity. that  it  value-free,  access.  knowledge  "reif i c a t i o n " .  a  and  that  it  is  and more  Berger in  is  and  a  more  have  been  Reification  is  an  Art extreme  step  in  the  its  in the social organization of  process  of  objectivation  world  loses  comprehensibility  as  fixated  as a non-humanizable, inert  a  "whereby  human  facticity"  knowledge / 28 the  enterprise  (Berger  objectivated and  becomes  & Luckmann, 1966, p.  83).  Reification were  is  the  things,  terms.  apprehension  that  Another  is,  way  in of  saying  the  products  something  than  human  results  of  cosmic implies  that  authorship  of  human  between  the  man,  the  of  this  phenomena  or  possibly  is  that  or  man  as  manifestations is  capable  world,, and  producer,  and  of  of  sociology art  of  knowledge, or, in the  knowledge, makes k n o w l e d g e - a s - f a c t i c i t y  questions  be  asked  and  answers  sought  knowledge  knowledge must  make  for  education  experienced problematic  reinforce traditional  as if  and  a facticity their  fine arts values.  of  were nature,  divine  the is  the  will.  his  own .  dialectic lost  to  8  this  study, the  sociology  problematic. Only then can the  parameters  and ultimately  society.  It  which  art  artistic  facts  that  regarding  knowledge, the social meanings and functions this  of  is  they  products  case  they human  as if  forgetting  consciousness. (Berger & Luckman, 1966. p. 83).  The  if  supra  of  further, his  as  reification  human activity  products—such  laws,  Reification  human  non-human  apprehension of else  of  is  this  programs  activities  are  to  of  art  the validity  of  phenomenon  of  and do  individuals more  than  Art S p e c i a l i z a t i o n , subject  loyalty, and  Both  integrated  collection  and  each varying  in the  maintenance  of  relative  these  specialized  collection  c o d e , to  which  With  each  step  developed as  in  some  in in  turn  Berger  Luckmann's  deep  by  Bernstein, the  of  the  "strong  formation  "pure"  in  of  the  sense  it  knowledge,  giving  significance  to  or  early  him  realities.  in  into For  specific  is  it  those  insulated  knowledge  life  possess  the  frames  majority  of  of  /  29  and  A  9  loyalty  is  finite  provinces  modes  of  experience"  creating (p.  56).  The  esoteric  them  to  from  an use  of  meaning,  (p.  24).  is, according  is  "applied"  by  is,  within  educational  knowledge  from an  control  the  quickly  which  code  in  systematically  creates or  collection  code,  loyalty".  transmitted  bounded,  of  specialized  "subject  of  of  strength  specialists  by  then  sub-types,  collection  types.  Specialization  educational  something  a child's  the  identities"  that  who  type  the  indicated  of  and the  subject  a n d , is  and  maintenance  highly  is  description  meanings  knowledge  series  of  as  subject  clear-cut  specialized  a  boundaries  belong  specialize  (1966)  to  non-specialized  teachers.  is  boundary  knowledge;  Very  which  rise  curricula  society,  they  circumscribed  structure  Within  life,  of  order  their  students  western  organization  give of  and  become  identity  "marked  art  as  educational and  codes  educational  students  in  social  boundaries.  identifies  system  the  social  strength  Bernstein  educational  in the  The to  through  identity  is  uncommonsense  and quality  commonsense with  special  it.  frames which students  of  the  collection  discourage schooled  code  connections in  the  socialize with  western  her  everyday world,  the  Art framing into  of  the  world's  educational existing  usually  meant  It  time,  time.  fixed  within  certain  Bernstein relaxed,  makes it  deviance relevant  is  questions  for  purposes  students. When  usually  educating"  "with  (p.  students  58). in  the  Or,  the  here, students  selection,  organization,  pedagogical  The  frame"  ultimate  educational its this  potential is  for  important,  coherence,  but  when  transmitting  this  weakening 'able' a  not  the  of  the  Education  has  c a n be  put  of  into  at  any  knowledge a  particular  this  is  occasionally  social  control  of  knowledge  that  might  of  the  boundaries  whom  frame  is  advanced  n e c e s s a r i l y be timing  frame  of  we  forms  is  more  given  to  (graduate)  level  given  accept  knowledge  the  subject  ultimate  the  new  realities.  not  revealed  mystery  ultimate  incoherence;  is  of It  order,  the  is  mystery  very  a of  of  but  also the  late  the  I  formal given in  the  mean  case,  subject  disorder;  in  is  not  up  select  "a  realized  subject,  of  introduced,  have  available  or  be  Bernstein explains:  creating that  of  relaxed  and  of  30  frame.  enter  children  academically  mystery By  that  of  (p. 57). A s  life.  not  /  socialization  boundaries  ordering  may  purposes  pacing  means  the  questions  for  may  knowledge  impermeable.  hierarchical  point  ironically,  education;  of  57)  less  most  that  and  what  the  interesting often  Education  a received  raised  1971, p.  more  than to  the  of  tight.  assuming  are  work  Because  frame. {Bernstein,  few  is  into  knowledge  social organization  m e a n s , in p a r t i c u l a r , learning  in  is  and  l e a r n i n g to  particular  it  knowledge  order  educational  in the  and not the  the  Art known is  but  the  revealed  select  unknown.  very  few  late  who  To  that  that  o p e n e s s . (p.  57)  up  boundary,  2) the  to  is  3) the  maintain  affect  it  boundaries,  knowledge,  hierarchically North  characteristic  of  into  of  a  set  the  insulated  into  view  that  that  unrelated  knowledge  in d i f f e r e n t  what  is  ways  to  between  sense  and  less  they  certain  and  includes  subject  power  more  as  exists is  relatively  Students, learn  in  formal  and g i v e n , but of  by  strong is  subject  areas  education  is  students  is c a p a b l e  of life.  and  works  have areas in  to are  most  boundaries  sharply  i n c l u d e d , are  everyday  turn,  curricula  knowledge  and  teachers  students  by  Most  the  knowledge,  knowledge  the  marked  students  knowledge.  knowledge  in  stronger  differentiated  and  rigidly  unmixed  art  and  w h i c h , in  teachers  5) the it  closure  "applied"  loyalty  the are  be  and  a  orderings  unquestioned  code. Educational  everyday  not  "pure"  to  bones  is  to  31  successful  b o u n d a r i e s : the  tends  left  universities,  and life.  and of  its  /  codes,  only  their  knowledge  knowledge  knowledge  of  in  that  knowledge  the  the  of  of  granted  collection  everyday  and  dialectic  then  signs  permeable,  for  4)  schools  from  fixed,  is  Knowledge,  divorced the  experience  and, importantly,  arranged.  American  few  of  collection  life—and the  insulation  stronger  under  shown  educational  taken  mystery,  educational  principles  strong  social organization  this  the  the  more  with  more  students,  only  Bernstein's  1) the  specialized  in  knowledge  provisional,  sum  As  have  socialization—then notion  in the  drawn  that  are  socialized  predetermined, never  being  realize  understood  Art As  Bernstein's  "framing", (Apple  & Wexler,  patterns  of  and  such  does  the  curriculum their  characterized  by  rather  of  than  Bernstein's students with  concept  what  nature general  education  is  in  as  belongs following  into  by  or  origins  the  exercise  in  back  or,  to  as  on  that  strongly  of  to  provoke  knowledge  their  collection  a  any  how  knowing  code  mean  the  of  the  contemplation, it  is  organized.  tells  that in  as  However,  structure  example)  a  curriculum  theory  critical  and  code  education—seems  1984, f o r does  shifting  framed.  knowledge  formal  what  with  Pring,  example,  t e a c h e r s , turns is  of  variables,  a collection  another  the  social  1977;  may  (Goodlad,  the  for  students  code—the  But  search  of  code  static  p r o c e s s of  1985; G i b s o n ,  p r i n c i p l e s , as  through  general.  existence  and  account  ability  nature  research in  its  a  32  most to  fit  about  the  education terms  of  in art  particular?  part  to  in  abstract  little  one  of  collection  characterized  knowledge  art,  socialized  descriptive  of  of  into  of  Hunt,  restrictions  set  as g i v e n , the  &  itself;  framing  Bernstein's  part  /  "classification",  takes  integrated  imposing  are  knowledge  1985). H i s n a m i n g  continued  that  asserts  by  concepts code"  is  analysis  as an  k n o w l e d g e , lies  are  of  his  (Blackledge  influence  weak of  take  out,  "integrated  the  Bernstein's  competitiveness  sociology  of  knowledge  society  characterized  usefulness  and  explain  potential  who,  If  not in  administrator  the  code",  educational  Furthermore, as  pointed  social organization  1 9 7 8 ; B l a c k l e d g e & Hunt,  arrangements  1975).  have  "collection  organization  such  critics  in the  a  of  the  formal  collection  statements  would  curriculum  code apply:  as The  of  schools  Bernstein boundaries  and  characterizes of  art  of  universities, it,  knowledge  then as  the it  is  Art taught  in  universities  sense  that  there  texture  or  Cubist  is  specialized  curriculum  to  and  an  dance  world.  specialization perpetuate  Like  any  into  a  students socialized  knowledge. boundaries Attempts within and  the  They as to  differentiated, arts,  fine  from  applied  knowledge  is  from  on  in  exists  that  school  as  art  and  given  years to  are  within  and  are  w i t h i n . any  subject  domains,  including  is  part  protect  and  art,  is  realm  a of  allegiance This  maintain  and  Art  fact  a  their  and  found  of  lesser  specialty  integrate  knowledge,  that risk  like been  structure  its  hierarchal.  boundaries art  in  code  running  of  within the  occupational (Adler,  subject  from  universities  collection  status  of  disciplinary  subjects. Even  new  blocked  have  statically  that  larger  be  is  students,  code  knowledge  the  art  knowledge,  and  p e r c e i v e d to  everyday  the  a physics,  an  to  priority).  arranged  to  in  knowledge.  institutions,  fixed,  of  hierarchically  and  function  knowledge  by  in fine  of  33  line  knowledge  a. c o l l e c t i o n  disciplinary  impeded  or  /  hierarchies.  into  take  of  creates  educational  predetermined, the  the  pure  study  discipline  little  of  is  class  quickly  turn  knowledge  sub-type  educational  discipline  through  artists, who  in  come  art  in  boundaries  usually  any  insulate  fine  specialized  specialty  i n s u l a t e d , and  artists  in  allegiance  their  of  insulated  the  art  that  given,  break  an  subject  have  discipline  schools  Attempts  a  in  its  (although  throughout  whether  found  of  content  specifically  knowledge  specializing  about  Its  Art,  subject  timetable  be  strong.  class.  subject  existing  other  will  based  and  are  Specialization  identity  social organization  confusion  paintings  or  everyday  schools  little  geography,  the  and  in the  with into  status 1979).  other strong  Art boundaries function  maintained  as  a  you  do  not  of  us  the  of  are  own  interested  want who  else  puts  else's  carve  his  the  knowledge  Discipline  organization  have a personal  higher  phenomenon. We  anybody  affecting  in p r o p a g a t i n g  in  allegiances.  of  interest  /  34  allegiances  of  educational  in the  maintenance  discipline.  somebody work  in  groups  their  social organization  subject  agent  subject  and p r o p a g a t i o n  If  through  powerful  knowledge. Many  in the  to  for  on  own  d i s c i p l i n e , then  encroach too  education out  foot  your  it,  are  much  on  perfectly  it.  you  Those  familiar  with  ourselves  a little  then  betide  him!  (Fowler,  post-war  era  towards  woe  a r e a , and  if  1977, p.123)  Despite  everything  integration  of  curriculum  politics  was.  interdisciplinary  1970. have social in its  The been  as  has  of  That  society's basic of  is  so  in  schools or  education  long  and  classifications  and  and p r i n c i p l e s  in  even  become  North  the  (1971)  stronger  power  than  increasingly for  it  of ever  rigid,  and  scarce resources  America  boundaries  the  of  generally, experience  since that  educational  systems  constitute  states  if  is  frames" of  u n i v e r s i t i e s , the  competition  in w e s t e r n  Bernstein  and  perhaps  remote, when in  the  membership  knowledge  why  power  in  strong  and  more  happened  in p l a c e f o r  structures  as  boundaries studies  happened  subjects  remains  structures  order.  has  curriculum  Disciplinary  increases,  that  there  control"  that is  there  "therefore  (p. 67).  "a  a  crisis  a crisis  in  Art  in the  social organization  of  knowledge  /  35  SUMMARY OF ART KNOWLEDGE PRINCIPLES, AND LAYOUT OF THE STUDY  In  this  chapter,  developed  from  summarized 1.  Art  as  province  everyday  insulation.  The  is  meaning, insulated The  schools  this  permits  3. W i t h i n the  the fine  Specialization subject  and  very the  art  knowledge  framework.  other  less  domain  are  fine  These  were  can  These  principles  which  subsequent  which  principles  arts  supply  status  of  functions  art  and  a  contributes  to  to  of  be  of  art  art  from  the  a  knowledge  are  subjects)  Chapter  builds  3  insulation  knowledge more  status  disciplines is  the  in  ambiguous. occurs  such  applied  arts.  strong  sense  of  differentiation,  categories.  are  the  (or  existing  of  that  formal and  specialization  framework  argues  from  differentiation  in e d u c a t i o n  theoretical based.  and  everyday  identity,  maintain  a  highly  the  significantly  insulated an  is  in  knowledge  knowledge,  of  this  from  other  and  subject  is  universities.  maintain  than  that  disciplines  knowledge  insulation  quickly  arrangement  chapters  art  legitimation  creates  a  is  to  universities,  discipline,  curriculum  and  and  specialized  that  differentiated art  schools  departmentalism  fine  w o r d s , the  arts  loyalty,  or  but  general  in  the  differentiation  art,  other  fact  of  in  specialized  universities  by  "pure"  taught  a  very  i n s u l a t i o n , and h i e r a r c h i c a l  second  regarding  knowledge  from  compartments  "applied"  e d u c a t i o n . In  principles  of  traditionally  and m a i n t a i n e d  It  that  of  knowledge. of  than  sociology  as  and  curriculum  framed  theoretical  follows:  differentiated  that  a  knowledge,  finite  2.  some  art  knowledge on  of  the certain  upon  first  and  narrow  Art conceptions everyday the  of  art  reality  same  knowledge  in  time  itself  incorporated  workshop  by role  its to  loss  social  defining  of  that  strengthened the  t i m e , the  Chapter  of  knowledge  less  the  effective  department challenges commitment  is  inherited  in an  is  as  It  of  to  keep  in art's cultures  demonstrates  effective its  status,  those  that  established,  the  art  social  rather that  may  is  by  at  and  in  left  is  in to  Legitimation  is  to  achieved  maintain  than  risk  its  further  to  maintain  the  socially-accepted  traditions  and  those  providing  boundaries  students  that  the  by as  postmodern  that  the  develop art  fine  which  same  empirical  toward  their  department  is  subculture.  university  be,  world  protected,  and  art  the  may art  the  groups.  the  it  have  discipline  k e e p s o u t , at  university  into  is  While  descriptive  art  discipline  from  able  ability  and s o c i a l  ambiguous  it  be.  likely  s t a t u s , it  mechanism  36  while  than  legitimation  knowledge.  students  the  it  protects  status  fine  colleges  of  its  high  socializing  universities  as  and  society  k n o w l e d g e . Rather  from  principle  in  /  has b e e n a c a d e m i c i z e d  institution's  as  third  art  knowledge  knowledge,  position  of  extent  discipline  commitment  preserves such  its  art  high  ambiguous  legitimated  the  discipline.  Socialization  the  such  technical  a c a d e m i c i z a t i o n . It  4 supports  evidence  very  of  or  art  boundaries  arts  curricula  perpetuating  it  to  or  that  defined  these  formal  educational  peripheral  s u r v i v a l . The  has  through  past  protects  it  subjects  helps determine  legitimation,  legitimation  in  and  other  because fine  legitimacy,  institution  of  status  art's  training  a discipline's  an art in  the  apprenticeship  maintain crucial  into  is  social organization  from  confers  maintaining  e d u c a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , it and  in the  from  art  outside  present. maintained,  Once and  Art transmitted  to  others  "cultural  reproduction".  Chapter  5  outlines  legitimating, dominant  and  in  outlined liberal  through  traditions  in  turn,  education.  in  this  arts  the  association with  maintain  the  hardships  endemic  academies,  a  the  gradually  replaced  was  notion  production  of  to  philosophical  privileged  to  laws  the  of by  of  art  was  As  for  further  some  the  art  support  perpetuate  certain  within  schools  art  fine  arts  artist  as  accompany  face  of  the  era  been  knowlege  The  traditions  the  university's  arts-for-arts-sake  This  of  ideal  that  understanding effective  traditions is  able  knowledge  art  students  conflicts  concern  educational  an  its  bestowed  intellectual the  art  university  and  the upon with of  early  European artist  divine  to was  intellectual. permitted  of  the  in  the  economic  the  art  base.  and  the  the  to  with  eventually  and  as  well-used  It the  university legitimating  knowledge.  for  insular to  the  as  artists  capacity  arts  art,  of  g r o u p s , the  universe.  liberal  tradition  During  the  (high)  37  establishing,  of  traditions.  /  known  in  type  social  in  pursuit.  in of  process  socially-sanctioned western  provided  art  God's the  to  have  c u r r i c u l u m . A c a d e m i c i z a t o n has strategy  these  pursue  motivation  discover  the  the  of  academies  knowledge  authority  insular  lives  the  traditions  required  the  of  social  exerted  are  Renaissance-derived  Furthermore, these motivation  have  knowledge  authority  and their  education—a  that  Art  and  social organization  perpetuating  chapter  ideal,  aesthetics. With  in the  the art  argument  traditions,  traditional  art  that  chapter  knowledge  universities 6 presents boundaries,  maintain some and  and  challenges posits  that  Art these  c h a l l e n g e s have been  structure  of  universities  including  more  recent  include  popular  effect  significant  in the  largely  is  social organization  ineffective  s u c h that, o n c e  postmodernist  and c o m m e r c i a l change  in  in  knowledge  broadening  to  expand  been emptied  broadening  the  art  of  cultural  /  38  boundaries. The  absorbed, avant-garde  attempts  art, have  of  challenges,  boundaries  their  potential  basis  of  to to  art  in  university  art  education.  Finally,  chapter  departments university's how  in  7  briefly  effecting  propensity  postmodernist art's  cultural  in  but  a  boundaries between tools  for  of  the  critical  maintain  base.  may  the  knowledge,  might  best  Postmodernism  be  department  and  a n a l y s i s and e f f e c t i n g  of  speculates,  be  in  is  not A  simply  in a  of  on  attempting  to  of  as  the  art,  style  traditional  increased  identified  of  particular  broadening  through  disciplines  light  conceptions  incorporated  effected  the  functions  western  discourse.  best and  social  traditional  multi-disciplinary art  art  to  art  approaches  broaden art  summarizes  discourse  carrying  the  change.  NOTES 1  B e r g e r and L u c k m a n n (1966) s u s p e n d the i s s u e of the u l t i m a t e v a l i d i t y o f k n o w l e d g e in their s o c i o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of k n o w l e d g e . A l t h o u g h not t a k e n up in this s t u d y , there h a v e b e e n s e v e r a l c r i t i c i s m s m a d e of using a broad and, for s o m e , indiscriminate definition of knowledge ( H o l z n e r , 1983, f o r e x a m p l e ) . For d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s s e e M e r t o n (1957, p . 4 6 7 - 4 8 4 ) . M e r t o n t a k e s up in d e t a i l the q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r all the d i v e r s e k i n d s of " k n o w l e d g e " s t a n d in the s a m e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o their e x i s t e n t i a l or s o c i a l b a s i s , or w h e t h e r it is n e c e s s a r y to d i s c r i m i n a t e between spheres of knowledge precisely b e c a u s e this relationship differs for the various types. In reference to the "systematic a m b i g u i t y " that he c l a i m s e x i s t s , he c o n s u l t s the w r i t i n g s of M a r x and E n g e l s , S c h e l e r , W e b e r , D u r k h e i m , G r a n e t , and S o r o k i n .  2  Berger  and  Luckmann  (1966, p . 1 5 - 1 6 )  quote  two  passages  from  Schutz  Art (1962, 1964) knowledge:  in  which  he  in the deals  social organization most  directly  with  of  knowledge  the  /  39  sociology  of  A l l t y p i f i c a t i o n s of c o m m o n - s e n s e t h i n k i n g are t h e m s e l v e s integral elements of the concrete historical socio-cultural Lebenswelt w i t h i n w h i c h t h e y p r e v a i l as t a k e n f o r granted and as s o c i a l l y a p p r o v e d . T h e i r s t r u c t u r e d e t e r m i n e s among other t h i n g s the s o c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of knowledge and its r e l a t i v i t y and r e l e v a n c e to the c o n c r e t e s o c i a l environment o f a c o n c r e t e group in a c o n c r e t e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . Here are the l e g i t i m a t e p r o b l e m s o f r e l a t i v i s m , h i s t o r i c i s m , and of the s o - c a l l e d s o c i o l o g y of k n o w l e d g e ( S c h u t z , 1962, p. 149). K n o w l e d g e is s o c i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d and the m e c h a n i s m o f this distribution can be made the subject matter of a s o c i o l o g i c a l d i s c i p l i n e . T r u e , w e have a s o - c a l l e d s o c i o l o g y o f k n o w l e d g e . Y e t , w i t h v e r y f e w e x c e p t i o n s , the d i s c i p l i n e thus m i s n a m e d has a p p r o a c h e d the p r o b l e m of the s o c i a l distribution of knowledge merely f r o m the angle o f the i d e o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n of truth in its d e p e n d e n c e u p o n s o c i a l a n d , e s p e c i a l l y , e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s , or f o r m that o f the s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of e d u c a t i o n , or that o f the s o c i a l r o l e o f the m a n o f k n o w l e d g e . N o t s o c i o l o g i s t s but e c o n o m i s t s and p h i l o s o p h e r s have s t u d i e d s o m e of the many other t h e o r e t i c a s p e c t s of the p r o b l e m ( S c h u t z , 1964, p.121).  A l s o c e n t r a l t o S c h u t z ' (1962) t h i n k i n g is the p r o p o s i t i o n that there are " m u l t i p l e r e a l i t i e s " . There are as m a n y r e a l i t i e s or s o c i a l w o r l d s of experience as there are individuals. This suggests that social interactions and s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t s are t o be a p p r o a c h e d subjectively, f r o m the the p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s . W h i l e r e c o g n i z i n g this notion of multiple r e a l i t i e s and the d i f f i c u l t i e s the a s s o c i a t e d s u b j e c t i v e n e s s c o u l d e n t a i l f o r i n q u i r y , this s t u d y d e l i b e r a t e l y b r a c k e t s and f o r m a l i z e s one " p a r a m o u n t r e a l i t y " ( S c h u t z , 1962, p. 341), a r e a l i t y that is p a r a m o u n t to, although o f t e n t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d by, fine art s t u d e n t s , and is e m b o d i e d in their s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . W h e n s i n g l e d out f r o m the f l o w o f e x p e r i e n c e , as this s t u d y i n t e n d s , the r e a l i t y o f this social group becomes an object of a w a r e n e s s , it becomes p r o b l e m a t i c and u l t i m a t e l y in a p o s i t i o n w h e r e it c a n be c o n t e m p l a t e d in t e r m s o f s o c i a l c h a n g e . Language is one factor in t h i s . E v e r y d a y r e a l i t y is g r o u n d e d in l a n g u a g e . L a n g u a g e p r o v i d e s the m a c h i n e r y b y w h i c h k n o w l e d g e , no matter how tenuous or ephemeral, can be organized in our c o n s c i o u s n e s s and c o n v e y e d back into the o r d e r o f e v e r y d a y l i f e . T h e "meaning" of a visual work of art or a dream c a n be made a c c e s s i b l e to e v e r y d a y e x p e r i e n c e b y i n t e g r a t i n g it l i n g u i s t i c a l l y , back  Art  in the  social organization  of  knowledge  /  40  into the order of everyday life. Language is capable also of c o n s t r u c t i n g s y m b o l s in art that are h i g h l y a b s t r a c t e d f r o m everyday e x p e r i e n c e . L a n g u a g e " s o a r s into r e g i o n s that are not o n l y de facto but a priori unavailable to everyday experience," hence constructing " i m m e n s e e d i f i c e s o f s y m b o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s that appear to tower o v e r the r e a l i t y o f e v e r y d a y l i f e like g i g a n t i c p r e s e n c e s f r o m a n o t h e r w o r l d " (Berger & L u c k m a n , 1966 p. 38). A r t b e l o n g s to an h i s t o r i c a l l y important s y m b o l s y s t e m o f t h i s k i n d , as d o e s r e l i g i o n , s c i e n c e , and p h i l o s o p h y . But e v e n t h i s is brought back t o e v e r y d a y r e a l i t y as m a n y o f t h e s e h i g h l y a b s t r a c t e d s y m b o l s are r e t a i n e d and a c c u m u l a t e d in "a s o c i a l s t o c k of k n o w l e d g e " w h i c h is t r a n s m i t t e d from generation to g e n e r a t i o n and w h i c h is a v a i l a b l e to the i n d i v i d u a l as real e l e m e n t s in everyday life. A n i s s u e that is a d d r e s s e d in s o m e s o c i o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g on art ( B i r d , 1 9 7 9 ; H a u s e r , 1 9 8 3 ; W o l f f , 1983) c o n c e r n s the r e d u c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y b y some orthodox Marxist analysis, of matters of aesthetic value to e n t i r e l y s o c i a l or i d e o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s . The p r o b l e m is t h i s : O n the o n e h a n d , the M a r x i s t d o c t r i n e s of historical materialism and c l a s s s t r u g g l e are v i e w e d as a v a l i d m e t h o d of a n a l y s i s of s o c i e t y and of e x p o s i n g m a n y of the e x t r a - a e s t h e t i c e l e m e n t s s u c h as the v a l u e s h e l d b y v a r i o u s c l a s s e s or the i n f l u e n c e s o f p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c , or m o r a l i d e a l s . O n the other h a n d , a n e e d is p e r c e i v e d to r e s c u e the c o n c e p t o f the a e s t h e t i c and the c o n c e p t o f i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t i v i t y from the " d e s a c r a l i z i n g " s o c i o l o g i c a l r e d u c t i o n of p o l i t i c a l w o r t h . Y e t w h e n t h i s rescue is a t t e m p t e d it is d i f f i c u l t to defend without resorting to r e l a t i v i t y , n o s t a g l i a , or u n i v e r s a l , t i m e l e s s a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y . T h i s s t u d y d o e s not set out to r e s o l v e t h i s i s s u e , nor s i m p l y d i s p o s e o f it. R a t h e r , it t a k e s a s t a n c e s i m i l a r to that o f H o w a r d B e c k e r ' s (1983 P.36):  B y o b s e r v i n g h o w an art w o r l d makes those distinctions rather than trying to make them ourselves, we can u n d e r s t a n d m u c h o f w h a t g o e s o n in that w o r l d .  B e c k e r a p p r o a c h e s his r e s e a r c h o n "art w o r l d s " as he w o u l d w i t h a n y o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n . T o v i e w art and the art c o m m u n i t y t h r o u g h the lens of the s o c i o l o g y pf o c c u p a t i o n s or o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s , as L a C h a p e l l e (1984, p.36) w r i t e s , "a u s e f u l w a y t o a v o i d a s t r o n g p r o p e n s i t y that e x i s t s t o rank a r t i s t s , t y p e s of art, art p e r i o d s , and a l m o s t everything that has to do w i t h art h i e r a r c h i c a l l y and then t o w r i t e o n l y a b o u t the top of that h i e r a r c h y . " L i k e w i s e , this sociology of art knowledge a d d r e s s e s art as a k n o w l e d g e c a t e g o r y in the s a m e s e n s e that o n e w o u l d a d d r e s s m a t h e m a t i c s , g e o g r a p h y , or e v e n l i f e s k i l l s . M u t h b o r r o w s the t e r m f r o m D. H. F e l d m a n ' s w o r k in the f i e l d of c u l t u r a l g e o g r a p h y (1980), Beyond universals in cognitive development. C l i f f o r d G e e r t z ' (1973, 1983) w r i t i n g s in i n t e r p r e t i v e anthropology are  Art notable  e x a m p l e s of  the  in the notion  social organization of  cultural  of  knowledge  /  41  knowledge.  In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the c o n c e p t of " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " , B e r n s t e i n u s e s the c o n c e p t o f " f r a m i n g " t o r e f e r t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t , in p a r t i c u l a r , t o the d e g r e e of c o n t r o l a v a i l a b l e t o the t e a c h e r and the s t u d e n t . B e r g e r and L u c k m a n n (1966) use the e x a m p l e of m a r r i a g e t o i l l u s t r a t e that b o t h c o m p l e x t h e o r e t i c a l s y s t e m s and m e n t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s c a n be d e s c r i b e d as r e i f i c a t i o n s ;  M a r r i a g e , f o r i n s t a n c e , m a y be r e i f i e d as an i m i t a t i o n of d i v i n e a c t s of c r e a t i v i t y , as a u n i v e r s a l m a n d a t e o f natural law, as the necessary consequence of biological or p s y c h o l o g i c a l f o r c e s , or, for that m a t t e r , a s a f u n c t i o n a l i m p e r a t i v e o f the s o c i a l s y s t e m . W h a t all t h e s e r e i f i c a t i o n s have in c o m m o n is their o b f u s c a t i o n of m a r r i a g e as an o n g o i n g h u m a n p r o d u c t i o n . A s c a n be r e a d i l y s e e n in t h i s e x a m p l e , the r e i f i c a t i o n may occur both theoretically and p r e t h e o r e t i c a l l y . Thus the m y s t a g o g u e c a n c o n c o c t a h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d t h e o r y r e a c h i n g out f r o m the c o n c r e t e h u m a n e v e n t to the f a r t h e s t c o r n e r s of the d i v i n e c o s m o s , but an i l l i t e r a t e p e a s a n t c o u p l e b e i n g m a r r i e d . m a y a p p r e h e n d the event with a similarly reifying shudder of metaphysical d r e a d . T h r o u g h r e i f i c a t i o n , the w o r l d o f i n s t i t u t i o n s a p p e a r s to m e r g e w i t h the w o r l d o f nature. It b e c o m e s n e c e s s i t y and f a t e , and is l i v e d t h r o u g h as s u c h , h a p p i l y or u n h a p p i l y as the c a s e m a y b e . ( p , 8 4 )  N o r t h A m e r i c a n p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n is l e s s s p e c i a l i z e d , m e a n i n g that a range of s u b j e c t s and a v a r i e t y of c o m b i n a t i o n s c a n be t a k e n and " s t r e a m i n g " into an e d u c a t i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n d e l a y e d l o n g e r , than in E n g l a n d , f o r e x a m p l e ( B e r n s t e i n , 1971). But e v e n s t u d e n t s w h o h a v e not s p e c i a l i z e d into a d i s c i p l i n e s e e m to k n o w w h e r e they are t e n d i n g t o w a r d s in t e r m s o f the s c i e n c e s or the a r t s , or b e t w e e n the pure or the a p p l i e d , or even between having or not having a specific e d u c a t i o n a l s u b j e c t e m p h a s i s or o c c u p a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y . T h e y m a y harbor s o m e u n d e r l y i n g c o n c e p t or v i s i o n of t h e m s e l v e s a s the " w e l l - r o u n d e d ' and ' c u l t u r e d ' l i b e r a l arts t y p e , or the s k i l l e d , e m p l o y m e n t oriented type.  CHAPTER  3  THE UNIVERSITY AS LEGITIMATOR OF ART KNOWLEDGE  The  very  chapter and  insulation  between  art  everyday  knowledge same  or  and  ironically,  and  Ambiguous  as  it  may  due  in  large  the  cloistered meaning and  everyday  art  force have  enough  to  in  to than  cause  status  in  knowledge  relevant  to  arts.  communities  If  were  the  fact  art  can  in  limited  incorporated  art  not  describes how  not  politics  subjects.  Art's  the  such  art  society.  knowledge taught  institution.  to  be  why  a  in  Once  province  knowledge  traditional  c o n f e r r e d , and but  art  specialized  taken  at  in  a subject  status" applied  education  of  areas  vital  or  conceptions  this  status  enough  to  permit  with  academic  it  is to and  stiff  competition  with  r e s o u r c e s in e d u c a t i o n  unfortunately  tends  strengthen,  rather  and  disciplinary  legitimated of  a  But  and  such  now  sense,  "high-status"  isolate  education that  preceding  culture  of  to  is  remain  "lower  curriculum  arts  in  the  curriculum.  functions  legitimation  less  realm  formal  that  chapter  boundaries  include  high  is a r g u e d , is a l e g i t i m a t i n g  educational  areas for  the  subsequently,  place  western  legitimation  from  and,  and  art's  compete  loosen  it  society. This  their  knowledge  the  university,  technologically-related other  to  in  the  status  social  and e l e v a t e d  maintain  seriously  b e , the  knowledge,  in  peripheral  university, the  insulated  relevant of  within  to  disjunction  its  part  art  place  this  maintain  u n i v e r s i t y . The  its  described  traditional  consigns  maintains  knowledge  is  disjunction  k n o w l e d g e , in the  knowledge  time,  enjoys  conceptual  popular  within  the  42  but  ties  more culture,  educational  to  socially industry, context,  and  culturally  and as  has  ethnic been  The happening an  within  informed,  ambiguous  HOW  Art  the  postmodern  critical  way,  art  perhaps  legitimator  world,  art  both  would  of  on  be  in  art  knowledge  a wider a  scale  more  vital  /  43  and  in  and  less  INHERITS STATUS  knowledge as high status knowledge  possession  education,  is  of  fine  thought  which  is  in the  previous  the  taken-for-granted that  the  common  "expert",  to  be  sustains secondary  fine  This  of  (1971)  quality  reality  uses  applicability  the  to of  of  are  two  describe these  and  closely what  criteria  to  the  systems  in  applied  abstractness  thought  of  knowledge, and  beliefs  is  implicit  education: schools,  who in  of of  described  contributed  by  and  of  The are  have  over  universities  values  assumption superior not  formal  teacher  in  status—one as  ideas  knowledge those  knowledge  privileged  cultural  educational  elementary  over  and  of  "person-in-the-street".  assumption  implicit  over  arts  the  thought  discipline  Discipline  from  of  any  desirable  theoretical  distinct  This  hierarchies  c o l l e g e s , of  everyday  and  schools  implies as  a  or  ignorance.  systems  educated.  the  represent  reality  thought  sense  knowledge,  from  chapter,  so-called  art  to  distinguishable  the  are  as  position.  ART KNOWLEDGE  The  is  university  to  been  or  education.  It  student, over  of  applied  arts.  the  unrelatedness  related  of  a  characteristics  he  calls  "high  art  knowledge  which  status seems  knowledge  area  Michael  knowledge". clear,  given  to  Young 1  The  Berger  The and  Luckmann's  (1966)  Bernstein's  (1971)  than  other  most  frequently There  describe that  in  much  in  mechanisms able to  The  of  that  of  the  and  the  dimension  dimension  in  the  being  a  are  knowledge  is  what  of  extent  we  are  the  led  of  to  in of  what  of  and  schools  status  everyday  which  Young  in  the  by  uses  to  argues  curriculum  as  characteristics".  u s e d here t o  been  which  is  reality.  Young  knowledge  has  of  art.  It  describe  in  particular  established,  such  art  of  knowledge.  social  of  is  the art  the  knowledge  is  about  crucial  a  crucial of  versus  pluralist  or  to  conceive  differentiated the  of  the  without  stratification  education  knowledge  of  is  a  structures  education.  base  It  is  power  difficult  what  formal  different  knowledge  which  Assumptions ideas  of  about  knowledge  the  from  "consistent  art  knowledge,  art  our  universities,  "individualism".  "stratification"  constituting  consider  more  status.  about  criteria  perhaps,  of  thinking  of  Art,  a r e a s are  organization of  boundaries.  identified  this  ,arranged.  worthy  and b y  be  thinking  implicit  this  44 and  calls)  knowledge  the  curriculum  hierarchically  knowledge  or  organization  ways  of  may  ways  he  /  meaning  established  conceptions  legitimate  of  singular  postmodernist  of  (what  knowledge  of  and  is  art  provinces  characteristics  which  four  of  removed  "literacy"  Once  status  finite  and  other  status  processes  structural  possibility  these  legitimates  curriculum  abstract  two  education.  and  traditional,  as  of  the  traditional  secure  issue  in  as  knowledge  knowledge  displays  status  of  knowledge:  the  criteria  maintains  is  subjects  addition,  of  "high-status"  the  principles  high-status  Young's  concept  characterized  are,  university  By  is,  what  considering  a r e a s are  different  and  of  stratified,  kinds  of  to  The knowledge between and  can  structures  between  two  art  knowledge. work  creativity  or  and  characterized production education this  is  an  in  private  art  should  art"  illustrative.  schools  so  (Gray  incorporated study  of  visiting "enviable their  trajectories  and  of  solitary or  act  of  initiate,  not  postsecondary  the  reflected  light  up  fame."  the  fine  in  w h o , as the  considers  The  experience  art  phenomenon  1987). history in  an  art  critic  article  the  education  the  campus  for  of  equated  world  with in  in Rosier  art  with  is  the  where of  often artistic  art art,  of  making  of  has and  ( 1 9 8 1 , p.31) then  inhibit,  as  put  streak  the  and  teaching it  that  Journal  1972)  biographies  a w h i l e , and  or  instructor  (Barron,  philosophy  Martha  avoidance  a l o n e n e s s and the of  interest  of  argue that  interfere  Furthermore, and  thought  s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , and  (1982) of  high-status  generally  century.  the  as  is  commonly  process. Newick's  of  the kinds  of  characteristic  is  artists,  meteors,  a  what  Young  So  study  artists  what  "The  the  and  different  individualists. Many writers  MacGregor,  45  knowledge  "superior" in  /  relations  to  description  with  entitled  familiar &  Young's  this  facilitate  individualized  Education  curriculum,  or  in  m e c c a of  individual  Aesthetic is  in  c o o p e r a t i v e n e s s , is  as the  as  knowledge  about  access  functions  literacy—fit  activity  art  35-36.)  Individualism,  artistic  it  its  of  questions  c u r r i c u l a , the  and  characteristics and  raise  legitimize  s o c i e t y . ( Y o u n g , 1 9 7 1 , p.  latter  group  to  as l e g i t i m a t o r  to  and  knowledge  knowledge—individualism as  begin  opportunities  relation  The  we  power  the  of  and  university  in has  been also it, off  a in  like on  The Art  teaching  world.  has  It  has  institutions  of  the  production  art  is  focus  frequently  neglected  neglected  to  production  of  work  any  in the  the  Renaissance  individual  as  capitalism  in  as  is  that  ideological  presupposition  even  can,  affiliation  more  in  difficult  for  the  developed  to  art  knowledge  various other  has  Howard  relation  of  individual  numerous  borrow  in  the the  individualist,  in  people  neglected  Becker's  as  individual  the  bourgeois  concommitantly  that  Apple's keeps  those to  identity  who  of  (1979, us  from  produce  overcome  10)  the  social and  that  make  show  that  1982  term).  The  creator,  emerged  ideology  with  the  act  2  any  thus  atrophication  the  rise  of  is m e r e l y  words,  comforts,  of  1981b). It  establishing  our  46  to  "individualist" p.  the  /  structures  1977; H a d j i n i c o l a o u , 1 9 7 8 ; W o l f f ,  Michael  with  situate  p o s s i b l e . It  m i s l e a d i n g . The  abstraction  of  5)  Europe . (Barthes, that  art (to  which  legitimator  to  and  supreme  (chapter  genius  a social type  sense  of  produced"  artist  as  account  artistic  "collectively on  university  as  is an "an  genuine making  of  it  collective  commitment."  The  final  characteristic  an  emphasis  on  that  written  presentation—"literacy" examinations  place  more  legitimated  highly  exams  are  seldom  class  critiques  citing  Weber  can  be  of  as  as  terms  on  than  uses  to  opposed  he  emphasis  it.  literacy  courses  in  the  only  student  work  or  grading  assessed.  to  high  oral  rather  and  what  typify  Subjects  given  (1952), that  objectively  Young  formal of  or  oral  work,  forms  formal  evaluation  formal may  be  written are  written verbal  Young mentions,  counts  as  knowledge  depends  Implicit  in  education  is  the  on idea  is of  e x p r e s s i o n and  where  portfolios.  knowledge  other  requiring  than  studio  status  in  whether  it  that  it  if  The u n i v e r s i t y cannot  be  evaluated,  it's  conviction  maintained  "objective"  evaluation  In  fact  of  there  has  analytic  However,  this  departments 1973;  by of  been  or  not  great  be  conceptual  art  Montalto,  1983), and  with  "creativity"  and  free may  context  and  characteristics  claims  typifies  this  taken  shift into  the  high-status  toward  account,  made  clear  any  meaningful  because  "they  are  the  values  38).  They  can  are  specific  highly  valued  medieval  be  model  made  beliefs  viewed  priests,  in  art  a  many  and  impossible. verbal  (Naylor,  (Madge  &  form 1981).  in  with  evaluation,  art  Weinberger,  schools  activity.  closely  47  the  postsecondary  education  more  that  any  artists  /  long-standing  even  toward  procedures  literacy  art  and  as  to  Art  its  from as  a  academic  which  persist  of  dominant  "bookish  not  Young  groups  of  to  an  literacy.  to  of  a  lawyers  It  these  is  criteria, which  particular  system  of  should  in  accord  value. based  doctors,  be  but  time"  1 9 7 1 , p.38), f i r s t and  four  is  identifies:  educational  education  (Young,  all  knowledge  choices  at  education  Young  because  cultural  definitions  learning"  extended  that  according  unconscious  art  degrees  i n d i v i d u a l i s m , and  or  social  based  varying  knowledge  available  consequences  later  discipline  sustains  reality,  conscious  of  shift  is  or  "discipline-based"  of  characteristics  historical  in  high-status  best  and  the  knowledge  knowledge.  from  these  by  art  instructors  unsuitable  practiced  aligning  knowledge  of  way  with  for  art  insulation that  be  art  suspicion  shift  to  conceptual  characteristics  abstractness,  now  is  of  There  and  verbal  the  expression  specialty  If  with  and  subject  its  of  activity  to  knowing.  activity deal  changing  legitimator  artists  artistic  intellectual  may  worth  many  a  as  (p. They  on  a  intended  and  since  The increasingly industrial  The  replacing  societies—the  academic  provide  a  with  academically  ablest  areas  according  to  not  surprising  the  popular  those to  who  that  Madge  demonstrated  and  student  stereotypes" is  math.  a  characterization more  priority  to  potential  and  students  courses  the  "Few  art art  any 271).  conclusion of  in the  art  as  that  status  knowledge  it  of  taught  in  of  these  those  who  48  vocations  in  has  has  come  universities  in  have Even  great  efforts  (1973)  of  in  study, fields  them  That  than  were  art to  it  in  academic  other the  than  attract  provide  further  currently  of  to  It  is  dispel of  According  art  of  3  students as  English,  the  anti-art  academically support  for  knowledge, worthy  receives.  a  "low  largely  art, s u c h  programs  discipline  up  fine  'drop-outs'  in  failure.  subjects.  many  4  that  failed  make  grade"  the  already  departments  the  to  success  made  be  status"  as  is  and  "low  terms  population  to  to  standards  these  student  come  knowledge  defined. Courses  knowledge.  high-status  curriculum  for  /  in  designed a  knowledge  example.  forms  defined  careers  if  (p.  of  an  other  is  with  is  "make  for  being  terms  failure  definitions  Weinberger's  science  in  associated  that  unable  institutionalized all  art  training  so  is  or  of  of  artists  traditionally It  university  belief are  is  success  area  model  c o m p a r e d . High  students.  academic  legitimator  of  which  which  are  knowledge  become  are  educational  knowledge  preparation  against  that  as  apprenticeship  has  acquisition  associated  student's  model  standard  knowledge  status"  the  university  able the of  The university  as legitimator  of  art knowledge  / 49  Art knowledge as cultural capital  The status  of  traditional  conceptions  of  art  knowledge  in education and in  society can be described another w a y : We can say that this art is a form includes  of  what some s o c i o l o g i s t s call  a familiarity  part of  an elite  with  those  "cultural  aspects  of  knowledge  capital". Cultural  culture  which  are  considered  life style.  The French s o c i o l o g i s t , Pierre Bourdieu (1968, 1973) describes cultural as  the  advantage  language,  skills  provided  in  is  tacitly  that  and  preserved  would  economic  throughout division  mannerisms Cultural  in  gift. Bourdieu  it.  upper  and  middle-upper  that  are  capital  classes  rewarded  includes  but  an  society labor  s c h o o l s , which  asks  his  readers  capital. Cultural  Cultural  of  and this and  have:  not  the  generally  awareness  demonstrate,  the  system  is predisposed to  in  apparently favor  to  it  as  a natural  think  of  cultural  affords  economic  distribution  power  take  capital  capital, like  studies  of  that  is  open  dependent  those who  and  capital  advantages  capital, is  society.  rather  As  unequally in  large  so  many  meritocratic  have this  to  the  cultural  example, the papers published in Brown's, 1973, anthology.)  A  major  component at  art  of  galleries  cultural  capital,  as  and theatres, where  Bourdieu the  cultural  than  a  as  they  those  who  distributed part  on  the  sociological  North  for  attendance  capital  the education system and its value as a means to an end. It  social  possess  the  education.  mechanics of  capital  American  capital. (See,  describes basis is  it,  is  usually  The singular. or  DiMaggio  "high"  arts  classes. They top  of  culture to  the  are  class a  that  in a c o m p l e x and  preferences lifestyle  the  provides  for  groups  the  styles  & a  and  setting and  preferred  performances  figures  high  including  one  yardstick  (DiMaggio  Useem,  society where  arts,  music, by  from  other  d e s c e n d s the  role  of  visual  for  arts,  white-collar hierarchy  the the  ascent  "Involvement to  affirm  for  1982, p.  individuals  fine  into  the  in  high  claims  the  merit  182). T h e y  of  different  are c o n s i d e r e d part  of  50  upper  their  assessing  participation  indentification  and  Ross  they  with  (1984) for  in  write  enacting  can  "adopt  and  ballet  Data  from  North  a  America  opera, most  are  note  classes in  and  an  elite  high  arts  an  and  modern  frequently  (DiMaggio  and &  by  arts  institutionally themselves  openings, cinema representations  of  surveys a  dance,  1982).  5  and  pattern;  the  theatre  and  p r o f e s s i o n a l s , next  m a n a g e r s , and  Useem,  classes  these  wrap  "ritualistic variety  upper  that  demonstrate  ballet,  employees  the  the  (p. 249). G a l l e r y and m u s e u m  consumed  class  classes,  where  across  for  /  status.  transfer",  opera  crucial  demarcated, involvement  which  class  positions".  are  solidly  arts  Fine  how  power.  individuals  &  knowledge  capital, especially  sustaining  not  art  just  "a c o n v e n i e n t  "identity  identities"  class  for  of  are a p r e r e q u i s i t e  symbolic  1978).  for  symbolic  arts  the  for  demonstrate  high-status  are of  legitimator  cultural  upper-middle  Useem,  attendance  frequency  for  mobile  opportunity  preferred  classical  and  offers  and  of  high  persons"  status  an  previews, of  of  middle  sanctioned in t h e s e  form the  as  (1982)  b e c o m e an i n s i g n i a of  (DiMaggio provide  a  means  p o s i t i o n " . It  cultivation  For  as  hierarchy  and  interact  Useem  argue that  provides  class  and  university  so  on  Attendance  in as at  The these  events  sought  by  has  activities. annual  rate  of  arts  courses  of  satirical  "recipe  knowledge"  enough  of  a  Cubists:  language  of  (to  be  How  the  is  You  may  to  is  fact  were  of  over  facts  for to  Research  and  are  the  popular  of  of  (p.  198).  in  the  are  1971), a  of  quote  Schiller, who  vague  . . . .  one w i l l  like  this  s a i d , 'Life  evening  In  questions:  Never  use  is e a r n e s t , art  a two-syllable  course  ridiculing  'Yes,  is  word  but  gay.' where  works:  .  .  .  there  is  a  with  (Sangria  a  do. usually  brief  "bluffer"  offered:  terrifying  any  reading—enough  the  social  all  phenomenon  an e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r  they'" is  (Lampitt,  of  abundance  bookstores,  provide  kind  end  1.3  widespread. This to art  average contrast,  one-fifth  with  time  of  universities  popular  is  advice  most  that  data, along  "the  square  that  an  (Canada C o u n c i l  American  art  the  with  at  rate  mark  e l i t e , this  grew  in  leisure  average  served) to in  other  annual  an  guide  at  participation  •  multisyllabled Something  by  all  is  at  Schutz' term)  get  than  capital  By  shelves  and  Canada,  51  percent.  these  bluffer's  cultural  /  2.1  knowledge  borrow  art?  . . . be  art  that  knowledge  at  by  If  the  The  "cultured"  confronted  what  on  anecdotes  vocabulary  cheese will  1986).  art  theatre  statistic  offered  high  of  galleries  1.4 p e r c e n t  related  in  art  live  by  In  faster  and  at  viewing  reflected  however.  increased  (Hillman-Chartrand,  collection  Or  events  in  elite,  and  Another  tinkering  legitimator  increasing, suggesting  museums  books  as  significantly  percent  appreciation  If  at  television  humorously  The  grew  education  indication,  and  a  sports  1985).  continuing  is  small  2.6  at  Evaluation,  art  than  Attendance  p e r c e n t , and  of  been  activities  attendance  fine  recently  more  arts-related  university  modular  on the  The rationale  which  sense  inner  an  of  ethnic  As are  1971, f r o m  reality  been is  working  classes  Art  cultural  the  1979, p. brings  197). in  cultural  of  Just  with  faculties  or  on  and  members  and  it as of  manipulate  fringe  of,  the  1971, p.  where be.  "The  to  vanish" high  continued  today.  198)  250).  exclusion  high  art  to  to of  be, they on  The  one's  point the  the  tradition,  c a p i t a l . Cultural  for  the  called  Old  knowledge affords  has  middle  poor  and  and  7  of  high  is the  goods an  (Gouldner,  and r e s o u r c e s  accumulation  to  Artists,  social other status  the as of  group. visual  is  currency  of  c o m p e t e n c i e s , including  manipulators  a p p l i e d , p o p u l a r , or  summary,  intelligentsia  advantages 1985).  in  capital  Class,  and  privileged  sphere  the  1982).  (Hamblen,  this  52  by  into  culture  accumulated tangible  producers  for  constraints  (p.  /  certain  people want  of  arts,  a  manifested  sometimes  cultural  high  it's  is  advantages  possess  are  the  what  knowledge  extrapolate  as  of  art  compensated  to  singular  cultural  as a s t o c k  the  university  of,  or  the  & Useem,  valued  who  produce  upon  be  Lampitt,  attractiveness  culturally  and  members  who  temporarily  the  want  of  sublimates  will  indicating  made  the  that  to  they  (DiMaggio  income  knowledge,  foreword  contingent  c a p i t a l , of  familiarity  only  can  what  Class" 6  which  abstractionism  k n o w l e d g e , or  "New  appeal  solidarity  of  the  that  partly  knowledge  valued of  are  made  classes  of  as l e g i t i m a t o r  volumetric  (1984) w r i t e , b y  indicating  mundane also  violence  bigotry  Fine and R o s s also  its  explosion  subconscious (Frost,  in  university  New  Class  members valued  knowledge  or  of  cultural  However, forms  a  those  not  part  cultural  The university capital the  are  less  power  have  the  exert  likely  to  belong  advantages  it  affords.  means  influence  which  their  crucial turn,  improve  in  in  is  Even  and  in  for  though  in  the  actual is  the  to  limited  by  Social of  group  artists  ability  society.  in  social  these  organization  change  of art knowledge / 53  privileged  society  legitimated  understanding  possibilities  this  s o c i e t y , their  education  specialty  factor the  to  to  as legitimator  art  or  wield  believe  they  compete  and  the  extent  legitimation  is  to a  knowledge, and, in  hierarchial  structure  of  art  knowledge.  AN AMBIGUOUS INHERITANCE  Given  the  art-as-capital  described  above,  how  accounted  for? One way  and  the  can is  art's in  Hamblen (1985a) has shown. Art put  it  s i m p l y , ambiguous  as valuable  precarious  terms  legitimation.  as society  of  of  it  or  extent  to  which  measured  by  its  withhold  its  services;  absence  would  cultural well  capital  aware of  any  enforceable  create  capital a  has potent their  of  claims is  social  capital when  it  is  problem  and  has  legitimacy  is  a threat  to  extent  its  is  economic  position, art  or is the  Hamblen (1985a, p. 2):  void.  art  economic  the  to  for  that has, to  good  there  This  be  as Karen  cultural  legitimated  implications  marginal  theory,  other  is. "Herein lies  type  scenarios  education  capital  Capital, whether  primary source of the art educator's problem", writes  The  in  capital  cultural  s k i l l , knowledge  says  knowledge  position  cultural  is a form  cultural, is socially defined. A n y only  art-as-high-status  the  law  of  education. A l l  too  educators  have  wisely  not  tempted  aesthetic  capital  fates  threatening  characterized  legitimation  At  of  the art  conducted  provides  a by  of  parents, by  and  (p.  reduced  the  Over  of  of  of  percent  greater  emphasis  Parents  are  students  for  of  on  of  educational speak  also  "applied" with  workforce  the  the  believe or  75  feel  to  surveyed  that  91  recent  Council  (1986)  the  and  fine  in  education of  art  and  71  "that  fine  arts  arts  should  essential  like the  for  reported  same time,  would  courses  percent  to  chairpersons the  of  believed  deemed  parents  the  a  importance  c a s e . Y e t , at that  ambiguous  legitimation  curriculum  well  (according  to  superintendents  high'  "science"  how  has  of  Education  province 'very  the  results  ambiguous  parents  be  54  characteristic  l e v e l , the  The  in  superintendents  to  education  is a m o d a l  school  Arts  of  the  of  both  this  groups  concerned the  aspects  believe  both  percent  most  /  their  accommodations  fronts.  the  ' s o m e ' or  in  favour  many  in  knowledge  withdraw  art  and  secondary  of  districts  art  (Hamblen, 1985a, p.3-4)  Columbia  50  large, attach  not  on  demonstration  school  59  and  British  a s k e d if  did  percent  trustees  by  16). W h e n  employment,  87 p e r c e n t  worth.  apparent  parents.  chairpersons  they  of  adjustments  elementary is  local  maintained  courses"  by  field  of to  ( 1 9 8 5 a , p.3) s t a t e s , " d i s e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t  field."  survey  by  s e r v i c e s . R a t h e r , the  social validations  the  In  social  fickle  of  70  as l e g i t i m a t o r  been  Hamblen  that  university  often  As  be  the  The  to  over  see  a  curriculum.  system  prepares  superintendents  and  chairpersons).  administration, highly  of  the  not value  surprisingly, of  arts  school  education  board in  officials  promoting  and  creative  The thinking and  and  s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , while  instead  putting  limited  a p p l i c a t i o n s , s c i e n c e , and  the  university  manifested in  the  New art  in  York "is  raised  often  referred  to  The  the  artist  understand culture  that is  artists  scholarly  have  at  does  not  art,  on  in  in  the  criteria  requirements  and  even  is e x p r e s s e d  in the  /  the  55 arts  technology  there  and  to  he  is  a on  have  course  university  debate  or  about  (at  a  faculty of  Similarly,  an  of  clubs,  opprobrium"  "Comparable questions  95).  is  place  University  and  terms  art  have  the  rooms  other  is  doing,  produced  have  more  programs  of  art  are  not  historian  that:  he  treated  legitimation  art  common  (p.  what  how  to  on  arts  knowledge  underfunding  president  lobby'  indicators  struggle  one  computer  studio  in  campus  struggle as  that  (Brandstadter,  not  based  into  1973, p. 95).  know  faculty,  the  least  his  nor  is  art  time  university  historians"  in h i s t o r y .  publications  expressed  art  on  his  of  same  ambiguous  that  'hobby  in R o s e n b e r g ,  activity  expressed  as  view  and  artistic  include  One  observed  encountered  the  doubt  Buffalo)  mediocre  the  resources  at  about  Among  of  curriculum.  (Meyerson, quoted  at  community,  expressions  university  as l e g i t i m a t o r  mathematics.  8  Within  university  it,  count  nor  he  its  does  place  not  in  the  1969, p.45).  recurring  expression  par  research  with  of  and  the  exhibitions  considered  of  excellence  within  criteria  numerical toward  and  college  the  terminal  for  academic secondary  concern  scholarship.  art  admission  than  that  in  place  academia. B.F.A.  and  in  studio  is  to  graduation  admission requirements. A n d degree  of  programs  grades', school  It  It  practice;  it for  The students  pursuing  M.F.A., while the  the  P h . D . or  Much  of  a career mark  an e q u i v a l e n t  the  doubt  involves  perceptions  western  European  could  therefore  postmodern attendant it  all!). The "art"  is  to  worth  s u c h , as  long  those  anti-art  that  " p h i l o s o p h y " , or  of of one  p.3)  nondiscursive  of  university  i s , or  that  a  p.  art  is  68) more  make  education? from  artist  say  that  discursive  is  find  on no  publicly or  art  is  than  is  case  for  critical  declaring  "unwholesome knowledge  involved. then  artistic  a  art  modalities  impulses  the of  as  world artistic  (Arnheim, that  to  "libidinal  activity  inclusion  is  pursuits  opposed  than  split"  rubric  oneself  what  as  at  standards  influencing the  its  (if  the  emotional  n o t i o n s : of or  how  politically  more or  present with  under  dead,  and  does, makes  and  "technique"  as l i t t l e  the  or  d i s c i p l i n e ? O r , if  complex  The  an  medieval  styles,  artist  goes  unconscious  solid  art  an  by  understanding a  is  defined  fashion,  in  as  can  viewed  of  56  curriculum to  better  an a r t i s t  who  more  perceiving, to  what  "dead"  little  if  the  in  /  educator  contrast  was  is e m o t i o n a l l y  who  and art  In  changes  that  an  degree  university  systematic  much  Those  knowledge  terminal  the  itself.  educated  individual  yet,  recognition  in  art  can be  with  without  activity  rapid  be  in  production  and  to  people  worse  is  a  proponents  1970,  us, how  more  for.  as that  dealing  ways  is  in  the  art  10  art  art  of  historian  art  which  persists  (Ackerman,  around  of  what  release"  illuminating  production  anyone  educating as  of  in  who  degree.  role  educating  be  viewed  the  the  also  to  are  doctoral  about  decide  think  of  art  pluralism  may  point  professional  of  art  the  the  imparted  in  Or " f o r  artist,  be  perception not  a practicing  practice  era  as l e g i t i m a t o r  as  about of  confusion  difficult  of  university  1969,  underlies  The these  doubts  is  western  society  thought,  and  and  even  function  in  of  which  or  the  Creativity  curriculum,  the  of  1970s was  in in  others  at  on in  the  the  North  values  that  these  youths  that  the  "space  arts  was  at  to  seemed were  youth contrary  the  an  all  of  the  A m e r i c a . One  visible  an  legitimation  brought  culture; to  spending  the  arts  in  education.  high  during  great  bodies  arts  establishment more  and  artist.  1962,  by  time  the  New  They  in  and  for youth  to art  resources  1960s  for  and  looked  Artists  p.  Soviet  psychologists,  values. Increasing more  "Let's  Herstand,  support  a  inventive  of  the  represented  for  University  material  of  to  activity  and  creative.  resulting  naivete  necessity  Sparked  and  time  the  in  creative  artistic  creativity.  individual  in  equipped  the  State  philosophers, of  inherent  education—the  of  the  quoted  57  with  not  even  watchword.  concept  makes  art  creative and  of  race",  the  of  to  scientist,  the  links  place  spoken  (Hamilton,  time  what  the  /  imaginative,  knowledge—is  president  address  is  postsecondary  about  have  genius  that  the  creativity  a highly  taught  conducive  investigated  clues  basked  Interest  be  imparting  is  ensuing  avidly  educators  be  that  was  the  for  ethos  something  expressed reservations  commencement  sociologists  cannot  knowledge  but  intuitive,  ( R o s e n b e r g , 1 9 7 3 , p.101).  philosopher,  and  that  honor  165).  arts  is  s c r e w b a l l " stated  a  attitude  art  programs  even to  at  the  It  art  to  York  Sputnik  This  production,  environment  cherish  of  of  taken  have  thinkers—the  function  legitimator  is  university  campus  art  as  a  generally.  hence  many  the  just  ignorance.  deal with  While  not  university  that  and  early  the  artist  a set  of  numbers  of  postsecondary  The education.  Governments,  administrators, enrollments and  nature  great  glamor  in  the  of  boom  the  Arts  centers  p h e n o m e n o n , and  the  support  of  toward  world  art  education  segregation  Ackerman  (1970, p. 68).  general  heritage the  public  and t h e y  same  time  they  knowledge  is  the  they  want  to  maximize  and  its  5),  the  benefits  serve of  lush  be  fields  is  funding  the  education more  humanist scientific  art's  rhetoric and  of  in  the  buildings centers  of  art-as-capital  in  enshrine  arts  are  but  also  removed  luxury  applied  liberal  technical  lies  artistic  art, y e t  sciences and  important  prestige  wrote  the in  in  at and  technical knowledge its  education  knowledge  "The  commodity  opposition",  Scientific  most  from  ignored.  preserving  the  important.  1979). W h i l e  Arts,  them  to  of. education  as the  (The  a  tends  of  in  also  of  outspoken  value  role  acts  isolatable  value  s c h o o l s take  (Apple, the  the  recognize that  as  the  arts  the  and  a m b i g u o u s n e s s . In  the  and  58  student  up  metropolitan  revered,  expendable  for  accords with  attendant  may  caught  funds  arts, society  recognize  knowledge  to  the  effectively  believe  technological  ability  an  even  associated  buildings  high  they  as  may  of  campuses  were  of  enshrined, however,  as  may  raising  copies  well  the  where  promotes  The  were  handsome  Pantheons. Once  everyday  the  on  Donors  in  There w a s  1 1  /  trustees  r e s e a r c h about  colleges.  centers  knowledge  increase  for  and  art  college  the  funding  art  of  and  to  1977).  making  demonstrates  sentimentality  expensive  for  fine  Panel,  arts,  enthusiasm  response  universities  new  fine  art.  pious  in  as  providing  in  Americans  easy.  The  university  in  programs  relatively 12  well  as  arts, were  art  and  of  as l e g i t i m a t o r  presumably  building  Education,  university  history (chapter  are  more  The visible  and  knowledge but  the  more  more more  corporate in  selecting is  educational  the  structure  technical  and f r o m  and  be  nominally  only  is  of  a  corporate  knowledge for  agents  less  capital, even though  is  of  parents  preparing  seen to  legitimator  of  art  the  knowledge  content  i d e n t i f i a b l e , t e a c h a b l e , and t e s t a b l e  Maximizing  structures  knowledge  sense,  to  as  accountable. Not  readily  connection  direct.  role  easily  university  value  art  member  educational  for  the  in  respect  family  seen  the than  to  to  be from  fulfill  workforce. other  traditional  of  arts,  both  institutions  k n o w l e d g e , in the  of  is  59  technical  in the  pressures  positions  in t h i s  than  economies  satisfies  of  /  high-status  Art  forms  high  a  of  culture  knowledge  areas.  In  the  political  number  of  knowledge  curriculum believe  of  society.  out  and  what and  believes  The  on  by  representatives  limited  is  these  evaluated, the  limited is  a  with of  and  ability by  of  this  whose  to  and  educators  are just  essential  compete extent in  any  knowledge  is  one  is  another. will  decisions  are t o  made, how  and  on,  so  knowledge  (Eggleston,  it  1977).  "a  contains  Legitimation  the is  art  is  the  the  they  exists fairness  within  the  group  who  betterment  exercise  of  power  in  legitimated  in  analysis  how  end,  prevail, who  curriculum and  the  t h i n g , but In  increasing  one  sociological  definitions be  an  priority  to  and  that  factor  order  of  resources  skills  the  critical  organization  lives  level  distributed"  on  for  educator's  matters  in  areas  knowledge  Legitimation  accepts  at  art  politics  knowledge.  settled  provide  The  curriculum  carried  s c h o o l s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , art  they  society.  struggle  a  society  after  having  makes are  of  be  carried  because  a  society  with  which  justification  to  decisions,  and  it  is  defense  The university as legitimator of  group  action  and patterns  it under the dominion of 1969). Not  and  clergy—as latest  marked  it  has  attempt  creativity emphases  free  for  legitimation, academic  at  for  art  in  study  in schools and emphasis—not  contemporary  to  it  appropriate  in  the  current  propensity of  visual  to  and  caught  up  less  has  been  army  or  the  legitimation.  In  the  focus  on  from  verbal  in  educational  with  the  a  procedures.  Both  resources  and  provided  loosen art  forms  unlike  shifted  times,  When  universities  social  has  academic  education.  "bringing  right principles" (McClure & Fischer,  legitimation  the  particularly  the  in  expression  " b a s i c s " , the  incorporate  shifts  secure  have,  legitimation  education  searched  to  and  by  art knowledge / 60  belief. Existence is sanctified by  the ultimately  surprisingly, art  redefined  of  of  the  struggle  climate  knowledge social  that  favors  boundaries  status  for  (but  and often  more cultural relevance) weakens.  THE UNIVERSITY AS "LEGITIMATE LEGITIMATING INSTITUTION"  There  is  society's  a  hierarchy  educational  institutionalized  of  of  s y s t e m s , just  in  art-as-cultural-capital  types  art as  education. refer  to  in the other  the  institutionalized  there  is  a  within  hierarchy  of  western subjects  Art-as-high-status-knowledge consecrated arts:  art  painting  (and  so-called  " l e s s e r " arts are not included: the popular, commercial, ethnic, and  the  arbitrary  may vary  as  in the  and classical  and  sculpture  applied arts—those  arts, theatre, literature  fine  and  areas, within 'what Bourdieu (1971) terms the  regards  legitimacy".  course of  13  The  hierarchies  time. Examples of  are  not  music). The  "sphere of static,  but  those arts which are in the  The university process  of  being  cinema, jazz, the  legitimated,  and  everyday  photography.  reality  what  counts  have  d e v e l o p e d abstract  from  as  of  everyday  indifference has  to  have  in  being  moved  schools crafts  and and  crafts  art  a  sake  from  ideal  of  from  their  head  of  (Hubbard,  with  everyday  postsecondary  placed  pragmatics.  The  academic  degrees  of  1971).  that  i s , as  There  is  an  norms  which  should  replaced with  have  the  various  cultural  legitimation,  high  art/low  a general  among be  obligation  when  judgement  of  the  least to  in  status  other  hand,  the case  work,  artisans,  in  the  many in  a  of  in  teacher  of  all  for  their  hierarchy individual is  adopt  the  association  institutionalized to  art  art  (1971), b e c a u s e  ideas  stratification  public  as  working  of  an  s a k e . Fine  working  of  independent  the  from  own  Hubbard  according  viewing  to  most  artistic  prestige  forms  to  of  artists  Artists  the  closer  declared  structure  life.  exists  past  its  because  "pious, ceremonial  members  adopted  individual  art  for  exploration  organized  the  demands  while  artistic  are  Bourdieu writes,  attitude  on  the  value  prestige  systems  The  the  education, according  traditionally  in  medieval  1971),  arts  departments  who  knowledge  applied  institutionalized  be  intellectual's  on  61  and an i n c r e a s e d r e m o t e n e s s  intrinsic  and  above  which  arts,  less  (Bourdieu,  art  fine  have  value  society's  The  arts  in  the  differ  applied  personnel of  regard  the  or  were  time,  this  the  faculties  the  in  than  the  at  and  other  at  /  remained  artist,  place  knowledge  have  fine  departments  education  Bourdieu  art  arts  knowledge.  removed  of  "lesser"  The  farther  into  The  14  to  and a c a d e m i c q u a l i t i e s  obligations the  legitimator  according  public,  status  knowledge.  maintained  artists,  of  high  the  as  so  own in  a  derived opinion  thoroughly  an a t t i t u d e  to  fine 175).  and  ritualistic"  (p.  that  there  objective  fine of  are  a r t s , but  these  " l e s s e r " arts  that  may are  The outside  The  the  s p h e r e of  legitimation  educational  and  some  sculpture  of  are  in  legitimacy  in t e r m s  surround popular  in  curricula. They  In  the  of  in  and  in  subjects,  literature,  advertising  art  knowledge  criteria  is  as  in  classical  for  billboard dealt  /  62  of  terms  the  painting  e x a m p l e , are  taught  little  visual  and  cultural  forms  that  advertising, television,  devoted  entirely  the  schools  if  at  all,  "non-legitimate  of  by  music,  which  with,  say, a  parts  an  Bourdieu  c l a i m e d . Other  institution  consitutent  them  conferred  design, for  methodologically, thereby  as  is  curricula  institutions  such  an  others  academic  to  in  them  legitimate different  them  the  culture,  way.  academic  authority".  teaching  giving  and  seal most  (Bourdieu,  175)  of  that the  has  resulted  university,  as  and  legitimating  the  education. Ambiguous the  legitimation  knowledge, enjoys  comes  in  as  the  while  in v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s , p o i n t s  defining  place  the  occasionally  of  experience  tower  "behind"  over  h a v e , as B o u r d i e u w o u l d  stratification  ivory  life,  only  respectability  1971, p.  in  aesthetic  absence  people  The  of  are  systematically  of  universities—what  vocational  everyday  movies,  the  d e s i g n , and  specialist  us  forms  legitimacy". While  taught  universities, furniture primarily  art  especially  granters  as l e g i t i m a t o r  "consecrated culture".  of  system,  "legitimate  university  leaving to  status it  fine  may  arts  moved  other  art  the  important  of  certain  be  in  that  art  knowledge,  large  part  from  its  in  being  to  other  particular taught  the  areas  universities  knowledge  relation  into  knowledge  role  art  "up"  and  play its  curriculum fine  art  in u n i v e r s i t i e s ,  The where  knowledge  primary  the  concern.  perception  departments is  not  public  well  suited  The  are  an  universities  are  well  of  art  knowledge  typically  association  as  A  in  to  the  of  intellectual  university between  viewed  art  with  concern  and  program  effectively  has b e e n the  /  as  63 the  universities a valid  field  practical  attention course  to  standardizing  content,  completion  designating  domains  of  offices  of of  hierarchically (Adler,  1979).  of  other  a  and  a course of authority  In  of  of  the  Canada,  it  for  15  and  inquiry Queen's  creative  and  studio  there  rate  of by  is  enquiry of  a  balance and  the  that has  have been  attempted a  shift  to of  requirements,  standardizing  matriculation,  marking  an a w a r d e d  degree,  and r e c o g n i z i n g t h i s  a n d , of  used to  research  studies.  and e x p e r t i s e titles,  of  environment  endeavor  study  and  climate  graduation  uniform  context.  catalogs  form  brochure  of  The  proper  academic  fields  entrance  significant 16  art.  a  a  forms  academicization,  establishing  successful  fine  program  scholarship  concerns  requirement  through  in  distinctive  of  in  legitimating  (undated),  of  supports  case with  legitimacy  program  the  their  as an i n t e l l e c t u a l  stated  traditions  a  complementary  secure  its  of  statements  As  Fine A r t s  embrace  the  aware  e m p h a s i z e art  to  in  official  university.  with  suited  pursued  find  that  B a c h e l o r of  university  well  to  documents  University's  use  procedures  art  uncommon  other  As  of  as l e g i t i m a t o r  study.  Art It  academic  institutional  increases of  and  university  course, moving  be that  most  formally with  artists  students  the  the into  wishing  The to  be  the  artists  Emily  Ontario Art  went  Carr  These  of  L'Ecole  system  (now  Scotia  to  of  of  Art  institution.  in  ultimate  have  college in  a  no  that  awards  society  in  important  for  programs. Art to  compete  resources,  with  the  access  of  in  scholars  literary  studies,  "University happening Fine  Arts  Whether became  is  the  fine  anthropology, to  the  cultural  a way  of  life,  an  around  you  and  to  brochure  (1985-1986)  universities  formed  degree-granting  and in  include  political  and  social  studio  institutions,  as  art the  York  fact  of  the  Nova  now  that  a  degrees  universities increasingly  other  professional colleges  support,  have library  transmission  and  access  community  to  science, life  or  a  a  of  things  large  is  art that  and  campus. constantly  advertised  whether  matter  other  philosophy  of  University  programs  the  become  for  atmosphere, a feeling you",  the  of  is  the  vocational  audio-video  sociology,  and  with  have  of  competence, a  degrees, scholarship  benefits  1950s  p r o g r a m . The  artistic  the  Design).  part  recognized of  labels 1 7  of  became  compete  departments  lure  Other  to  and  the  64  (renamed  School  autonomous,  be  studies ,  generators,  in art.  may  able and  art  still  /  School,  Art In  granting  assessment  graduate  laser  advances  although  better  university's  technological  a degree  Art  of  School  Art  Victoria  degrees.  Art  it  the  College  grant  though  in  is  for and  to  Scotia  not  credentials  teaching, colleges  or  Design,  degrees  which  Beaux  Winnipeg  value  of  des  Arts,  knowledge  School Winnipeg  Nova  Even  art  D e s i g n ) , the  developed  and  Vancouver  of  and  did  The  and  degree-granting art  the  and  change.  Manitoba  College  Art  called  autonomous  began  University  Art,  as l e g i t i m a t o r  schools—the  of  Design  were  art  College  College  and  to  university  in  its  colleges education  The in  art  is  now  structures. typical with  university  is  Ridgeway,  1965  Harold  one  the  shown  "Young  highly is  part  (internalized) teaching M.F.A.  in  of  students  employment, "utmost  Attempts as  to  for  of  The  awarding  (1972)  made  of  art  of  thirty  an  need  education.  writes,  automatically  they  and r e l a t i v e l y  reformulate in  low  the  knowledge.  The  the  degrees  education, arts  to  to  this  of  Pollock  under  Whitney  critic,  led  (Adler, 1970;  artists  is  early  as  as  and  thirty-five  Museum,  the  the  conceptual  a  surplus  acquire  to art  these  (p. an  foothold  for  art  propagation  of  the  credentialed  art  education  for  of  positions  art  a  as  firm  and  of  universities"  cultivate  postsecondary  wages"  role  a  "development and  to  invention to  will  artist's  colleges  secured  to  the  this  capitalism  has  look  fact  of  artists  within  The  has  its  1983; M i c h a e l ,  generation  art  within that  of  postsecondary in  65  39)  American  control"  in  at  apparatus  "felt  Rosier  1965"  B . A . s . (p.  many  /  exhibition:  while  or  knowledge  adopted  reference  degree  America  art  instruction  the  art-teaching  embodied  centres  18  (1981),  although luck  major  has  institution  of  postsecondary  who  an  artists  ideological  degree,  in  of  basis  leading  a  the  and  institutional  1982) .  had B . F . A . S  ramified  the  "Young A m e r i c a "  ten  Rosier  legitimator  academia  Rosenberg  had  Martha  as  1968; Freundlich, 1980; M o n t a l t o ,  DeKooning  majority  man",  of  in  is  Villenes,  in d i s c u s s i n g a  Only  the  being  1975;  in  educated  & Jacob,  commonplace.  27)  now  universities  1979; Dennis  For  entrenched  The  artist  university  only  with  (p. 29).  one  of  philosopher  movement  of  the  and  "ideas  1960s  and  The 1970s,  and  the  understood for  the  as  (Adler,  its  Although the  art  adapted  the  classic  even  to  of  education  in  art.  productive,  creative  institutional  resources  Success  in  the  kind  acceptance  the  The  mission  type  of  sixties  freedom  the  large  the  of  is  as  activities  of  art  in  the  first  go  to  the  office  place  an  is  quo  is  held  Artists  like  support  rather  than (Adler,  (1979, p.  of  and  has  been  one  suspicion  seen  be  instead  frequently rationalistic  academic  the  even  have  Duchamp, they  the  individualism  methods  production been  did  to  social  opinions  educational art  certain  contrary  with  expressed  may  merit.  of  jars  to  by  a  eccentricity,  detrimental who  supported  a  require  or  art  as  individual  to  and work  academia  on  1986)  thorough,  artistic  freedom  solely  of  of  of  different  qualities  of  center ideal  of  art  habitat".  adaptive  the  17),  academic  been  based  Marcel  Adler  66  partly  academia  "a genre  relative  and  be  economic  to  /  have  of  to  also  patrons  university  individuals. People  because,  be  (Hamblen,  have and  the  suited  academicization  treasured  in  appropriate  rewards  structures  creative  role  knowledge  may  "needs  to  with  status  art  elements, wrote  suspicion  oppressive, stultifying  the  a  new  academia  art  its  lifestyle.  bureaucratic are  of  art  departments  with  of  changes  may  center  and  with  the  art  s c h o l a r s h i p . The  artist,  and  work  of  is  of  universities  appeared  of  art  There  mission  of  the  universities  8). T h i s  academia  system  into  speculative  within  legitimator  structural  pressures of  toward  as  Conceptual  academicization attitude  institution.  and the  art  to  1973, p.  the  opposition  of  fine  1979).  critical  conceptual  finely  of  adaption  (Lippard,  1979). W i t h  and  an  arts  collectors"  the  move  university  not  that of and  drawn  to  want  to  The now  squirm  gypsies of  in  the  a  slightly  in  pristine  new  despised  "paper  pushing" was  new  comfort  security  while  sterile  both  With  the  alliance  searching  for  financial  and  access other  to  of  artistic  structures  of  world.  What  secure  legitimation an  secures  is  Adler  (1979, p.  a closet  to  subjects  in  exams  order  to  English,  very  for  the  the  new  do  some  to  which  enjoy  of  67  their  milieu  to  s o c i a l i z a t i o n of  production  /  resettled  to  defined, they  s u s p e c t i n g the  ways the  be new  significant  fine  i d e a l , not  for  legitimating  art  general world.  "might four  well years  e n h a n c e d . " The level  graduation  history,  or  less  caught  necessarily  minimum  meet  are  found  on  the  new  studio  of  education, The an  artist's  prefer  his  if  chances  his  of  philosophy  with  has  legitimating  to  fine  not  An  always  as  locked  emerging  a  an  an  who  variety  balance  spending  human  be  student  in  art  artist,  to  of  art  acheivement  requirements  art  educated  student  undergraduate  organized  the  ideal.  and the  does  broadly  the  w i t h , on  the  structures  side,  facilities  formally  balancing  themselves  one  can p r o v i d e , a l o n g  bohemian,  in  have  well-equipped  a  the  artists retaining,  and  the  violin  of  university  legitimation  a  opposition  the  with  thereby  maintain  in  for  that  from  his  like  the  universities,  15) c o n j e c t u r e s ,  with  offices  knowledge  Forced  formerly  departments  educator's  genius' were  required  art  academia  being  with  freedom  Accordingly,  art  complex.  a setting  advantages,  artists  of  1979. p.17).  art  status  in  and f o r  compromise,  leading  side,  scene.  a  as  generations  achievement. (Adler,  for  housing  identity  occupational  'idiot  university  occupational and  as l e g i t i m a t o r  their  their  incorrigibly  in  university  is of  studying  eight  hour  The university day in a painting  as legitimator  of art knowledge / 68  studio.  The university's pursuit of legitimation from the fine art world  If  adopting  from  academic  the fine  loosely  art w o r l d , what  integrated  seek  legitimation.  soon  after  when  structures  institutional  the inception  peak. These structures toward  w o r l d , toward  of  and channels through  structures  were  creativity  of  the  fine  legitimate  art  institutional  structures  They  Presumably,  and  institutionalized  here  these  ethos  of  postmodernism.  type  structures  (1976) which of  in art programs, but one that  to  legitimate  (chapter 4) and in the eyes function  ideals of artistic  Csikszentmihalyi  as another  their  the "basics", and, in the fine art  and channels through  are mentioned  at  of the changed climates in  historical/social/political  and reinforce the traditional Getzels  were  incorporated within art programs, work  world.  represent.  in universities, at a time  and individualism  in spite  artists  adapted by art programs  art programs  these programs in the eyes of the art student of  legitimation  which  "disciplined" study  These structures, when  secure  structures  have remained  the more  necessarily  informal and  of studio  ideals  not  does? There is a set of highly  Many of these  the traditional  education  does  activity  have artists  also  which  outlined seek  potential  they those  legitimation.  legitimacy-seeking carries  to  strategy  conflict  in  that it does not always fit with the previously described characteristics of high status knowledge.  One such significant  legitimating  institution  is the "loft" . The loft 19  is much  The more  than  has  just  become  are  A  a r e , the  loft  known (p.  known  in  a  vacated  &  of  factory  institution to  art  for  knowledge  /  69  or  warehouse.  It  art  students  to  b e c o m i n g an a r t i s t , and  Csikszentmihalyi,  1976).  In  to  lofts,  as  public  identity  exhibition  to  legitimate  secures,  at  selected  for  descendents Europe  it  is  a  that  week; the  the  more  young  memorable  artist's  name  will  . . . and  without  c i r c l e s , is  biennials  that  an  not  visitors,  a loft  one of  of  legitimating  artist.  determines  artist.  least  of  the  the  The  in  a  this  the  extent a  one's  annual  status  painting  Venice Biennale which  the  young  artists  Whitney make  99).  significant  The  to  loft  that  is  institutional  work  is  fact  as  not  sense,  an  by  by  the  an work  setting  that  exhibition  a  reputable  artist.  juried,  salons  in e s t a b l i s h i n g  institutional  with  large  attractive  seen that  the  b e g a n in the  selected  more  important  which  Biennial, "credibility,  them  is the  of  contract  "biennials", those  large  the  institution  prestige  Acquiring  temporarily,  might  1981, p. more  for  an  benefit  a curator  is a n o t h e r  usually  and the  kudo  likely  once  187)  exhibition  "even  legitimator  commitment  least  parties  artistic  art  Gluek,  their  at  more  without  the  a  in  symbolic  (Getzels  parties  be w i d e l y  of  as  and C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i w r i t e ,  they  a  important  "following"  There  The  workspace  a m e s s a g e of  a  Getzels  large  an  communicate develop  a  university  of  So  is  of able  gallery  does  being  invitational  shows,  nineteenth  century  1890s ( G l u e k , 1981). T h e  giving  them,  a stamp to  a  of  into  the  words  approval.  dealer"  international is put  in  (Haskell,  audience the  It's  context  in  and, of  The American  art"  may  also  fine  art  (p.  lead  99).  to  a  university  Exhibiting review  m a g a z i n e . In  this  by  as  in  a  an  art  s e n s e , the  legitimator  reputable critic  art  of  art  knowledge  gallery  or  juried  for  critic  a  performs  70  exhibition  newspaper  also  /  or  a  national  legitimating  function.  Another New  step  York.  fields  of  in the  In  the  legitimation  western  endeavor,  the  centralized—Florence this is  century, New that  unless  status  fine  power  in the  artist  "remains  at  is  best  the  contemporary  art  w o r l d , perhaps  to  confer  early  Y o r k . The  an  of  more  legitimation  R e n a i s s a n c e , then  belief  of  many  recognized  in  marginal"  artist  &  the in  of  move  to  most  other  historically  been  R o m e , then  York  (Getzels  than has  members  New  is  the  P a r i s , and fine  C i t y , his  or  art her  Csikszentmihalyi,  in  world artistic  1976,  p.  191) . 20  Knowing of  art  that  how  to  knowledge  being  criterion  of  art  consider  appropriate  success—who  you  know  art  program  and  visible  students  the  the  Some  of  this  some  attempts  and  symbolizes  the  recognition  of  launching  that  through  by  know.  critiques  legitimation  legitimated  you  make  gain  informal "loft" the  students  art  provide  and  its  the  of  fine  they  learn  studio  space  with  visiting milieu  the  exhibition  art  world  is  They  (Montalto  sort  major  than  what  outside  1983).  in In  to  hold effect,  addition,  legitimacy  through  the  generally  and  which,  conferring  fostered  a  departments  some  aspect  recognize  is  informally  artists  in  an  important  Art of  is  institutions  more  program.  social  channels  important.  social  art  seminars  importance into  the  very  often  knowledge  through to  is  above  the  and  required  The graduating  exhibitions  m a j o r s , and  by  or  the  to  recognize  educational in  his  major the  of  their  to  art  of  teachers  exhibiting  program,  even  of  beginning  validation  as  an  students'  disdain  by  the  undergraduate  fine  art  work  in  art  As  fine  in N e w  York  quickly  comes  Hawke  come  from  (1980)  teacher  in  a junior  by  principal,  71 art  establishing  legitimation world.  /  the the  wrote  secondary  art  his  and  efforts  sought  the  extension  of  that  d i s p l a y s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , as  an  artist,  opinion  of  the  actual  art  of  his  validation  works  he  held  completed  s t u d e n t s , (p. 249)  status  as  an  mainstream  in  and  Y o r k , the  "routinization  of  aspect  artist art,  its  problematic.  is  a  set  New  Rosier  training"  of  regionalism  in  answers  the  purposes  of  professional  global  on  high  art".  (p.  It  28),  training  i s , she  in  capitalism"  market (p.  28).  it  all  and  on  art  furthers  part  areas.  reinforces  the  effect of  It  have  a  Getzels  and  to  those  by  found "gospel of  the  general  furthers  is w e l l - a d v a n c e d  ultimately  that  represented  a d d s , an is  belief  York,  ideals  that  which  the  New  writers  art, a p r o c e s s that the  in  art  Several  one, writes  of  particularly  success  western  for  center  "eradication  of  knowledge,  "scene".  (1981),  of  to  art  of  York  empire art  of  dependent  rationalization  ideology  of  artist,  the. staff's  "entrepreneurial"  New  knowledge  teacher  appreciate  in  art  in s c h o o l s a l s o  this  study  art  and  student  if  ethnographic  a  of  g a l l e r i e s and m u s e u m s  the  modernism  of  trips  legitimator M.F.A.  than  through  this  of  centers. Art  importance  performance  one's  work  rather  did  a  art  as  system  s c h o o l , the  This  the  organizing field  nearest  legitimacy  of  university  the  and  that  of  the  Csikszentmihalyi  The university as legitimator recognize  its  contribution  with the cultural They  to  of  use  a  New York. If certain  to  their  trends, they their in  three  competitiveness they  of  a  processes that  becoming  circumstance  conflict  crowded  in it, they  qualities  S e c o n d , by "trendy"  they  already  survive  one-upmanship—all  personality.  risk  the  aggressiveness,  presence in New York, they art,  social  in  want to  amount  entrepreneurship, and foreign  least  art knowledge / 72  mores of the artist as individualistic and s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g .  exacerbate the  world  at  of  paying  the  personally  have  to  shrewdness,  that  . . . are  attention  themselves. A n d  confirm  art  city's  to  the  finally,  by  preeminence  deplore.  (Getzels  &  Csikszentmihalyi, 1976, p. 195)  This  entrepreneurial  with  the  the  activity.  does  it  modernist If  knowledge  art in  forfeiting  "high-status" and of  of fit  programs their  their  beyond  the  very formal,  for  for  and  art  as  its these  knowledge  to  the  disengage to  aspects  fine  of a  art  as  discipline  21  programs of  an  the  fit  high-status  restrictions  entrepreneurial  not  art  art  artistic of  art  world  as  " p r o f e s s i o n a l s " , they face a risk  "renowned" art  attempts  from  does  considered  resulting  line with postmodernist three  knowledge  normally  legitimation  status  experiences art  of  postmodernist  preparing  suitable  Montalto's (1983) study of these  is  incorporate  acquired  moving out of  States,  with  search  knowledge  aspect  what  mainstream  indispensible institutions of  "hustling"  characteristics  knowledge. Nor from  and  both  intellectual  concern, as  study  universities,  of  in  sentiments. Yet, according to M.F.A. programs provide  intended  in the  "beyond curriculum,  the are  United easel", most  The university as legitimator important in  in helping graduates develop attitudes  their  only  socially  a  committed  knowledge  knowledge  of  of  the  role  the  as  legitimating  and  structures  be  an  methods  of  of  formal so  legitimacy  must  alternatives  more  an artist detail  students, and prevent  An  at  be  presented  argues that  "reality  the  and  legitimating  slipping" and legitimate  knowledge embodied in most art  their  not  change in art  art  of  the  must  the  instruction, but  following  chapter  develop  art  a  world  changed regarding  identity  the  not  but  only  structures  for  of  art,  is that  society. The  commitment  their  conferral  and perceptions  in contemporary how  art  requires  required for  implication  intended concepts and methods of  legitimates in  as an artist.  artist  and processes  and the concomitant behavior and commitment seal  art knowledge / 73  and beliefs to sustain them  artists. To  concepts  of  in  in the  fine  student  the  what looks  fine art  art world  insular  art  terms  of  departments.  THE DIFFICULT TRADE-OFF  To  consider  cultural that  the  legitimation  strategies  of  art  capital theory, as Hamblen (1985) has for  artists  are  aesthetic capital 9). One very university  "seeking and to  important  various  cultural  knowledge,  skills,  and  allies  in  alliance  is with  capital, styles.  in  order  legitimate  products"  (p.  universities. By being  members  of  as members of  and reinforces the  However,  for  to  note  its  are legitimated extends  in  educators, is to  a professional market  or. New C l a s s . The alliance in  sundry  art  provide  faculties, artists  specialists  and  departments  their  manipulation in  the  intelligentsia  historical  of  conforming  valued to  role  as  cultural  admission  The requirements, academic  as  of the  the  obviously is  classroom  for  at  becoming  to  been  technocratic following  ills prided  held  to  Goodlad,  an  routinized, outcomes  are  presented art  of  members  of  the the  technocratic in  of  being  emphasis that  are  intelligentsia, humanist  on  (Hamblen,  1985, p.  9). The  programs  in  mechanistic that  speaks  to  levels  of  this  the  "a  with  model  1987, by that  content 1987).  the  that  Artists  technocratic  see  moral  superiority  solutions  dominant  behaviors  they  to  have  characterized  and  themselves  be  as  educators  the  (Hamblen,  imputed  seen  Hamblen  decisions  though  been  is  art  many  students,  for  1966;  not  of  for  art  means,  alliance  claiming  have  of  fact  of  self-evident  even  22  segment, who  (Black,  rationalism  this  model  which for  have  perhaps  were  surrendered  p r e d e f i n e d , and and  and  74  receiving  They  that  provided  efficiency  developed  application  educators  education  Technocratic  their  Art  rationality  /  educational  alternative  experiences  be  of  rational  intelligentsia.  respected  having  risk  the  grades,  a discipline-based  educational  at  knowledge  education, although  on  have  education  and  art  numeric  the  themselves  intelligentsia,  1985b; B e y e r ,  viable  nonproblematic  educators  segment  scruples  as  of  general  technocratic  1985).  content,  of  for  of  adopted  level, where  model  are  and  of  have  segment  unique  rationalist  standardized  a  The  the  decades  recurrently  school  legitimator  assignments  language  the  teachers.  antidote  have  as  as  like, artists  technocratic  legitimating  instruction  an  required  d e g r e e s , and the  structures adopted  completing  university  over  without  as the  moral  to  human  has  been  taken  of  that  system  (Hamblen  involved  in  difficult  dominance  problems." up  for  art  1984).  at  all  education  are  a  The trade-off: it  may  When gain  position  in  art  is  legitimation  and  the  relevant  experiences  to  bring  both  and  more  supports long  as  the  loss  of  in  into  basic  as  the  time  schools  ethnographic a  with  social  the  under  one  found  this  disciplinary  roof  of  both  the  knowledge the  heatedly  segregation to  be  this  and  knowledge  occupational by  had  there  that Adler  behind  18). A d l e r  of  the  art.  to  in  that  frequently calling of  their  integrative with  an  castes.  changes  in  (fashion vocational  insistence  her  a  concern  favored  bringing  and  the  artists  collapse  fertilization",  of  upon  aesthetic  artistic  in  "pure" specialization.  impulses  Since the  "cross  at  trustees  announcing for  has  the  society, Trustees  as  define,  while  observed  Arts  is  (1979)  relations'  (p.  to  broader  there  worthwhile,  left  way  realistically  inclination  'poor  been  of  and  of  culturally  a credible  what  i s , an  charges  a culturally  unlikely  75  mainstream  and  not  with  the  service  boundaries  patrons)  unique  /  matter,  " c o m m e r c i a l " a r t s . H o w e v e r , the  and  the  to  equally  Institute  and  boundaries  spurred  and  usefulness  "fine"  open  entertain  university"  and  time,  it  18), that  which  alien". While  (their of  the  a  seems to  subject  secure  responsibly  "'family'  California  opposed  It  related  patriotism  "disagreeably  industrialists  likely  the  integration  maintained  They  of  that  knowledge  to  Is  and e q u i p  base  art  testable  provide  society.  continue  from  'up' to  same to  of  and  able  ability  education?  essentially  move  rhetoric  the  and  art, h a n d i c r a f t s )  study  exhibited  its  artists  excluding  w i t h the  at  s e p a r a t i s m " (p.  as  design, advertising  better  knowledge, of  legitimator  structured  be is,  as  mainstream  aims  arts  as  education  "aesthetic  the  same  artists  it  university-based  theory,  the  art  and  but  meaningful  identified in  presented  education,  reductionism  university  culture's the  strict  innovation  division  of  is  labor,  of the  The such  concern  of  to  unseemly  developments as  it  does  These  artists  equal  in  protect  their  which  could  were  interested  status,  as  New  Class  popular  causes"  the  of  popular,  folk,  of  broadening  principles  of  legitimating support  the  democracy.  power  for  their  base  an  have  commercial  "The  working  and  the  the  the  the  /  76  threat artistic  Institute—just  art  can  of  an  art  as with  viable populist  formed  claim  cultural  a  to  often  then  class,  alliance been  of  has  were  working  have  study  which  themselves  and  might the  who  the  seen  10),  class  expansion  disciplines  with  p.  linking  intellectuals  programs  from  often  1985,  b a s e and  of  only alliance  (Hamblen,  capital  at  knowledge  p.123)  integrating  and  art  upon  countenanced 1979,  of  status  limits  humanists  of  way  be  though  champions study  placed  in  even  as l e g i t i m a t o r  occupational  association  elsewhere. (Adler,  social  "inasmuch  university  the  widespread  capital"  (Hamblen,  1985, p. 10).  The  art  account the  school of  the  previous  provinces  nature  of  knowledge discipline  by  to  that  Adler  knowledge  describes and  Specializations (to  strong  disciplines  status  that  meaning"  knowledge  boundaries,  of  chapter.  characterized  confers  scenario  boundaries  and from  from the  discipline.  especially  in  resources. Competition  for  &  which  life.  Luckmann's  of  resources  It  of  status  is  stiff  the  knowledge  differentiate  knowledge This  out  boundaries  discipline  Berger  everday  situations scarce  knowledge  of  use  plays  is  them  the  the  everyday by  competition the  developed  in  are  "finite  term,  1966)  from  other  differentiation  maintained  encourages  theoretical  world  of that  disciplinary for  limited  development  of  The university  as legitimator  of art knowledge / 77  political groups with unambiguous boundaries. Disciplinary ties become more rigidly  claimed, keeping out  may  be  recognized  collaboration individuals that  carry  and  in  disciplinary  base  maintenance  of  having  influence  other  the  for  arts  critical in  "lowbrow"  brought  between  and  other  tools  university's  different  artists fields  needed  education, are  the  relations. So although the fields  working of  to  impeded  together,  in the  visual  study, including  effect by  disciplinary  a  the  rigid  mutual arts  those  broadening  of  demarcation  boundaries.  chapter deals with a social mechanism that is very effective existing boundaries and hierarchies of art  university  The in  and fields art's and  following maintaining  knowledge.  NOTES 1  For his characterization of the stratification of knowledge, Young draws on Bernstein's (1971) "integrated" and " c o l l e c t i o n " codes of curricula and particularly their sub types in which knowledge is highly specialized or not.  2  Apple bases this notion work.  3  Note that curriculum reform is more likely to come about in low status knowledge areas than in the high-status areas associated with the academic curricula of universities. Curricular reform for the young and the less academically "able" does not undermine or affect the interest of those in positions of power in the social structure. This may suggest why we see more changes in art education at elementary levels than at the secondary and university levels.  4  In Madge and Weinberger's (1973) study, fine arts students "showed the widest range of achievement in other f i e l d s " (p. 59) in comparison to graphic arts students. Thirty one percent of the fine art students interviewed answered " y e s " to the question "Was art your best subject?" Approximately this number had considered careers in fields other than art, most of which required university academic preparation. Details of which subjects art students had excelled in are not given specifically for fine art students. According  to  the  of  artists  "individualist" on Raymond W i l l i a m s ' (1961)  interviewed  in  studies  by  Getzels  and  The  university  as l e g i t i m a t o r  of  art  knowledge  /  78  C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i (1976) and G r i f f (1970), h o w e v e r , o n e of the r e a s o n s w h y art s t u d e n t s , b o t h f i n e a r t i s t s and g r a p h i c a r t i s t s a l i k e , w e r e in art s c h o o l w a s b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e unable or u n w i l l i n g t o ' m a k e the g r a d e ' in a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s . D e t a i l s are s k e t c h y , m a k i n g g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a b o u t the a c a d e m i c a b i l i t y of art s t u d e n t s d i f f i c u l t . A t t e n d a n c e data a l s o i n d i c a t e , a c c o r d i n g t o D i M a g g i o and U s e e m (1982) and H i l l m a n - C h a r t r a n d (1986) that l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t is the b e s t p r e d i c t o r of arts a t t e n d a n c e . W i t h the i n c r e a s i n g d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of postsecondary education, institutions with narrowly technical curricula c a n n o t be e x p e c t e d t o i n c u l c a t e i n v o l v e m e n t in the high arts to near the extent that t r a d i t i o n a l l i b e r a l arts i n s t i t u t i o n s d o . P r e s t i g i o u s l i b e r a l arts c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e m a i n the e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w h e r e a familiarity with the arts c a n be c u l t i v a t e d and hence are an a f f i r m a t i o n o f , or in a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h , an e l i t e c l a s s p o s i t i o n . G o u l d n e r (1979) u s e s the t e r m " N e w C l a s s " to e n c o m p a s s w h a t he s e e s as t w o d i s t i n c t g r o u p s : " i n t e l l e c t u a l s " ( h u m a n i s t s ) and " t e c h n i c a l i n t e l l i g e n t s i a " ( t e c h n i c i a n s , e n g i n e e r s , and s o o n ) . G e l l a (1976), h o w e v e r , s t a t e s that "almost every author has a d i f f e r e n t concept of the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , t h o u g h m o s t o f t h e m use the t e r m s intelligentsia and i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y " (p. 8). C u l t u r a l c a p i t a l can be i n c o m e - p r o d u c i n g , e v e n t h o u g h its b a s i s is e d u c a t i o n , not e c o n o m i c s . B o u r d i e u (1973), in e x a m i n i n g the c l o s e but c o m p l e x r e l a t i o n s h i p of the p o s s e s s i o n o f cultural c a p i t a l w i t h the p o s s e s s i o n o f s o c i a l / e c o n o m i c c a p i t a l in the upper c l a s s in F r a n c e , argues that cultural capital is most e f f e c t i v e , that is, brings in o p p o r t u n i t i e s and i n c o m e n o r m a l l y i n a c c e s s i b l e t o t h o s e w h o d o not p o s s e s s it, w h e n c o m b i n e d w i t h e c o n o m i c c a p i t a l and p o l i t i c a l p o w e r . T h o s e w i t h e c o n o m i c c a p i t a l h a v e m o r e c h a n c e s o f p o s s e s s i n g cultural c a p i t a l , but, i n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e y are a l s o m o r e a b l e to do w i t h o u t it. By w a y of i l l u s t r a t i o n , the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n ' s a d d i t i o n a l f u n d i n g p r o g r a m , "Fund f o r E x c e l l e n c e " , e f f e c t e d in 1986, is q u i e t l y n i c k n a m e d b y s o m e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f as the " f u n d f o r c o m p u t e r s " . A l m o s t all of the p r o j e c t s a c c e p t e d f o r this f u n d i n g i n v o l v e large p u r c h a s e s of c o m p u t e r e q u i p m e n t and t e r m i n a l s . L i t t l e of the f u n d w a s left f o r other than c o m p u t e r p u r c h a s e s or c o m p u t e r a p p l i c a t i o n s . N o p r o g r a m s in the arts r e c e i v e d f u n d i n g . A l s o , in r e g a r d to (under)funding of the arts in e d u c a t i o n : in a s u r v e y of school district superintendents and board chairpersons (British C o l u m b i a A r t s in E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l , 1986), 50 p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d that the p r o p o r t i o n of the s c h o o l budget a l l o c a t e d to f i n e arts i n s t r u c t i o n at b o t h the e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y l e v e l , had d e c l i n e d f r o m 1981 to 1985. W h e n a s k e d if f i n e arts p r o g r a m s w e r e a b l e to w i t h s t a n d c u t s in their m a t e r i a l s b u d g e t s than w e r e other c o u r s e s in the c u r r i c u l u m , "56 p e r c e n t o f the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s and 59 p e r c e n t o f the c h a i r p e r s o n s i n d i c a t e d that f i n e arts p r o g r a m s are l e s s a b l e to endure c u t s as t h e y  The  university  as  legitimator  of  art  knowledge  /  79  are m o r e m a t e r i a l s - d e p e n d e n t than m a n y other c o u r s e s " (p. 15). A n d " a s k e d if f i n e arts c o u r s e s are m o r e s u s c e p t i b l e to r e d u c t i o n in t i m e s o f f i s c a l s t r e s s than are o t h e r p a r t s o f the c u r r i c u l u m , 75 p e r c e n t of s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s and 62 p e r c e n t of c h a i r p e r s o n s i n d i c a t e d a g r e e m e n t " (p. 15). T h i s s t u d y a l s o i n d i c a t e d that f u l l t i m e arts t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n s d e c l i n e d m a r k e d l y f r o m 1976 t o 1985. That the three p r o g r a m s w h i c h u s u a l l y c o m p r i s e the t e a c h i n g o f f i n e arts in s c h o o l s — v i s u a l art, m u s i c , d r a m a — t o g e t h e r a c c o u n t e d f o r o n l y a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x p e r c e n t o f all t e a c h i n g (in 1982), a l s o a t t e s t s to the m a r g i n a l i t y of the f i n e arts w i t h i n the t o t a l c u r r i c u l u m . W h a t art i n s t r u c t o r s l o o k f o r in p o t e n t i a l s t u d i o art s t u d e n t s is not n e c e s s a r i l y the s a m e as w h a t p h i l o s o p h y or b i o l o g y p r o f e s s o r s l o o k f o r in their a p p l i c a n t s . O n e i n s t r u c t o r i d e n t i f i e d the c r i t e r i a u s e d in her art department (University of Alberta) for reviewing an a p p l i c a n t ' s p o r t f o l i o as f o l l o w s : a) b r e a d t h o f e x p o s u r e or v a r i e t y of e x p e r i e n c e ; b) t e c h n i c a l or m a n u a l d e x t e r i t y ; c) o b s e r v a t i o n a l s k i l l s best exhibited through o b s e r v a t i o n a l s t u d i e s ; d) e v i d e n c e of e n e r g y , c u r i o s i t y and i m a g i n a t i v e or i n v e n t i v e t h i n k i n g . ( I n g r a m , 1986) The d e b a t e o v e r w h e t h e r the P h . D . s h o u l d be the t e r m i n a l d e g r e e in s t u d i o p r a c t i c e a p p e a r e d f r e q u e n t l y in A m e r i c a n j o u r n a l s in the 1960s. Quinn (1962), for one, pointed to both the extensiveness and s e r i o u s n e s s o f w o r k i n v o l v e d in a s t u d i o graduate d e g r e e and the a d v a n t a g e s that P h . D . r e c i p i e n t s h a v e o v e r s t u d i o g r a d u a t e s in the m a t t e r o f h i r i n g p r e f e r e n c e s f o r f a c u l t y p o s i t i o n s . H u b b a r d (1971) n o t e d that a d m i n i s t r a t o r s d i s c r i m i n a t e in f a v o r o f t h o s e in p o s s e s s i o n of the d o c t o r a l d e g r e e , s o m e t i m e s , in the U n i t e d S t a t e s , w i t h the s u p p o r t o f state laws concerning p r o m o t i o n . Such f a v o r i t i s m in the p a s t , a l o n g w i t h the " p u b l i s h or p e r i s h " p r o m o t i o n s y s t e m , has r e i n f o r c e d the p r i o r i t y o f d e g r e e s , s c h o l a r s h i p and p u b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h o v e r artistic p u r s u i t s as an i n d i c a t o r of e x c e l l e n c e w i t h i n a c a d e m i a . Y e t the o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n r e m a i n s that a d o p t e d b y the C o l l e g e A r t A s s o c i a t i o n at the M i d w e s t C o l l e g e A r t C o n f e r e n c e in 1960 and r e s o l v e d a g a i n in 1970 ( M o n t a l t o , 1983) The M.F . A . is the t e r m i n a l degree in the f i e l d b e c a u s e the "Ph.D. or other doctoral d e g r e e s are not appropriate w a y s of m e a s u r i n g s u c c e s s in c r e a t i v e f i e l d s " ( q u o t e d in M o n t a l t o , 1983, p. 43). A P h . D . w o u l d m e r e l y p l a c e an a c a d e m i c s y m b o l o n an art p r o g r a m in order to make that program more acceptable to the academic environment in w h i c h it is s i t u a t e d . A l t h o u g h the awarding of a doctorate for s t u d i o art e d u c a t i o n d i d not g a i n m u c h g r o u n d , the a r t i s t s ' v e r y a t t e m p t t o s e c u r e s u c h a s y m b o l w h i c h is in m a n y w a y s c o n t r a r y t o the v a l u e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y h e l d b y a r t i s t s s u g g e s t s that art p r o d u c t i o n , b y b e i n g s i t u a t e d in a c a d e m i a , has a d a p t e d to and a s s u m e d s o m e of a c a d e m i a ' s v a l u e s . The  majority  of  r e s e a r c h and  information  that  exists  on  the  subject  of  The  university  as  legitimator  of  art  knowledge  /  80  art in higher e d u c a t i o n c o m e s in large part from this period in A m e r i c a n h i s t o r y (for e x a m p l e : B a r r o n , 1972; D e n n i s & J a c o b s , 1 9 6 8 ; F e l d m a n , 1 9 7 0 ; G r i s w o l d et a l . , 1 9 6 5 ; M a h o n e y , 1 9 7 0 ; R i s e n h o o v e r and B l a c k b u r n , 1 9 7 6 ; R i t c h i e , 1966). P r e v i o u s t o this p e r i o d , s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g the s u b j e c t o f the v i s u a l arts in p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n w e r e f e w and far b e t w e e n . (These w e r e S m i t h , 1 9 1 2 ; H i s s & F a n s l e r , 1934; G o l d w a t e r , 1943) In C a n a d a , c o m p r e h e n s i v e d o c u m e n t s o n art in p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n are r a r e . T h e r e is the C a n a d i a n C u l t u r a l I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e ' s (1965) reference handbook on facilities for the study of the arts. This d o c u m e n t w a s l i t t l e m o r e than a l i s t i n g of the n a m e s and a d d r e s s e s o f the 52 i n s t i t u t i o n s that at the t i m e o f f e r e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o s t u d y the a r t s . In 1972 a s i m i l a r r e f e r e n c e h a n d b o o k w a s p u b l i s h e d by Statistics Canada, this time listing 121 institutions that offer o p p o r t u n i t i e s to s t u d y the a r t s . T h e s e d i r e c t o r i e s a r e , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , the extent o f C a n a d i a n m a t e r i a l that t a k e s an o v e r v i e w o f the s u b j e c t o f art in p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . H o w e v e r , t h e y d o e s t a b l i s h that the number of institutions w i t h f a c i l i t i e s f o r the s t u d y of the arts in Canada doubled from 52 in 1965 to 121 in 1972, i n d i c a t i n g that C a n a d a , l i k e the U n i t e d S t a t e s , e x p e r i e n c e d an i n c r e a s e in the late 1960s and e a r l y 1970s in p r o g r a m s of art s t u d y , p r e s u m a b l y t o m e e t the d e m a n d of a dramatic i n c r e a s e in e n r o l l m e n t s . M o s t of this i n c r e a s e w a s in s t u d i o p r o g r a m s rather than art h i s t o r y . The r e s u l t is that the p r o d u c t i o n of c a n d i d a t e s f o r s t u d i o t e a c h i n g in p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n far e x c e e d s the d e m a n d . N o t e that at a m o r e l o c a l l e v e l , t w o l i s t i n g s o f p r o g r a m s in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w e r e p r e p a r e d . C o l t o n (1964) a s s e m b l e d a r e p o r t t o a s s i s t the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A r t T e a c h e r ' s A s s o c i a t i o n . It is not s p e c i f i c t o art in p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n but i n s t e a d c o m p r i s e s a b r o a d l i s t i n g o f v a r i o u s c h a n n e l s t h r o u g h w h i c h the v i s u a l arts m a y be d e v e l o p e d in the c o m m u n i t y under the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s ; art s c h o o l s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , and v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s ; s e a s o n a l p r o g r a m s , adult e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s ; r e c r e a t i o n p r o g r a m s ; art a s s o c i a t i o n s ; p u b l i c art g a l l e r i e s . The other l o c a l d o c u m e n t is a d i r e c t o r y p r e p a r e d b y K a v a (1979) f o r the D i r e c t o r of C o l l e g e and Institute P r o g r a m s f o r the Province of British Columbia. This merely lists art programs in postsecondary educational institutions in the province along with abbreviated program objectives reported from p r o g r a m c a t a l o g s , and s o m e d e t a i l s s u c h as a p p r o x i m a t e e n r o l l m e n t in p r o g r a m s . The heavy dollar investment might have been better used for i m p r o v i n g e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s or f o r b a s i c c u r r i c u l u m c o n c e r n s ( M a h o n e y 1970). A r c h i t e c t s w e r e c a l l e d in b e f o r e f u n d s w e r e p r o v i d e d f o r a t h o r o u g h r e v i e w of w h a t the b u i l d i n g w a s f o r . Interest in the b u i l d i n g i t s e l f w a s e a s i e r t o get than m o n e y f o r curriculum c o n c e r n s . The outward image too often o v e r r o d e interest in p r o v i d i n g s p a c e that c o u l d adapt to p o t e n t i a l n e w f o r m s of art, or that had w a l l s and  The floors  that  could take  university  as  legitimator  of  art  knowledge  /  81  hard u s e .  The e x a m p l e s B o u r d i e u g i v e s o f t h i s are and f u r n i s h i n g , c o s m e t i c s , and c o o k e r y .  dress  d e s i g n , interior  design  In understanding the legitimation process and, ultimately, the acceptance of certain artistic forms as appropriate educational k n o w l e d g e , it is u s e f u l t o c o n s i d e r the c a s e of an art f o r m that has recently acquired increased legitimation as a fine art; namely, photography. Note that photography is now incorporated within a c a d e m i a , but not (yet) to the extent that p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e a r e . P h o t o g r a p h y is c u r r e n t l y a d v e r t i s e d as a s p e c i a l i z a t i o n in m a n y , but not a l l , f i n e art d e p a r t m e n t s . A s e x p e c t e d , it is o f f e r e d in most d e p a r t m e n t s o f a p p l i e d a r t s . It has a l s o b e e n the s u b j e c t of much aesthetic theorizing (by R o s e n b l u m , 1978, and Sontag, 1977, for example), which h e l p s to support and legitimate it. R o s i e r (1981) p r o v i d e s a b r i e f a c c o u n t of the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of p h o t o g r a p h y into the f i n e art m a r k e t in the late s i x t i e s and e a r l y s e v e n t i e s :  Conceptual and Pop artists who wanted to avoid the d e a d e n i n g p r e c i o u s n e s s and f i n i s h of high art and w h o w e r e m o v i n g t o w a r d a n a r r a t i v e l i t e r a l i s m brought p h o t o g r a p h y and v i d e o into the g a l l e r i e s ; f o r P o p a r t i s t s , p h o t o g r a p h y w a s a f o r m of q u o t a t i o n f r o m m a s s c u l t u r e , no m o r e intrinsically respectable than comic b o o k s . Conceptual artists, moving away from "object making", also were attracted by the a n o n y m i t y and n e g a t i v e v a l u a t i o n a t t a c h e d to t h e s e m e d i a . N e v e r far b e h i n d , t h o u g h , d e a l e r s w e r e l e a r n i n g to c a p i t a l i z e on the seemingly unsaleable by s e i z i n g on the category "documentation", which relies most heavily on written material and p h o t o g r a p h y . T h i s g a v e t h e s e m e d i a an art gallery " r i g h t n e s s " that s t i l l r e t a i n e d a l o o k of newness. Meanwhile, of course, the photography that was s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y art w a s d r e n c h e d in M o d e r n i s t sentiment, seeing its mission as the exploration of the special p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the m e d i u m . ( R o s i e r , 1 9 8 1 , p. 4 8 )  Photography d e m o n s t r a t e s , a c c o r d i n g to R o s i e r , the restructuring of culture in the e a r l y 1970s into a " m o r e h o m o g e n o u s v e r s i o n of 'the society as spectacle', a process accelerated by the increasing i m p o r t a n c e of e l e c t r o n i c m e d i a . . . and the c o n s e q u e n t d e v a l u a t i o n of craft skills." With this c o m e s the "increasing ability of dominant cultural f o r m s to a b s o r b all i n s t a n c e s of o p p o s i t i o n a l culture after a b r i e f m o m e n t and c o n v e r t t h e m into m e r e s t y l i s t i c m a n n e r i s m s " (p. 48). But the l e g i t i m a t i o n o f B e c k e r (1982) e x p l a i n s  p h o t o g r a p h y as high culture b e g a n m u c h e a r l i e r . h o w A l f r e d Stieglitz, a pioneer of American  The  university  as l e g i t i m a t o r  of  art  knowledge  /  82  photography, made the decisive organizational moves that shifted photography f r o m the s t a t u s o f amateur camera clubs w i t h "craft" s t a n d a r d s t o a f i n e art. S t i e g l i t z p r o d u c e d , o n a s m a l l s c a l e of c o u r s e , much of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l paraphernalia which justified photography's c l a i m t o be a f i n e art: a g a l l e r y in w h i c h w o r k c o u l d be e x h i b i t e d and w h e r e p a i n t e r s , s c u l p t o r s and p h o t o g r a p h e r s c o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d t o one another (Stieglitz' marriage to the painter Georgia O'Keefe furthered this painting-photography c o n n e c t i o n ) ; a journal containing f i n e r e p r o d u c t i o n s and c r i t i c a l c o m m e n t a r y w h i c h p r o v i d e d a m e d i u m of c o m m u n i c a t i o n and p u b l i c i t y ; and s u b j e c t matter and s t y l e that d e p a r t e d f r o m the i m i t a t i o n of p a i n t i n g f a v o r e d at the t i m e . B e c k e r n o t e s E d w a r d W e s t o n as a l s o i n f l u e n t i a l in s h i f t i n g the s t a t u s of p h o t o g r a p h y t o a f i n e art. W e s t o n w a s the f i r s t A m e r i c a n p h o t o g r a p h e r t o r e c e i v e a G u g g e n h e i m F e l l o w s h i p . He a l s o d e v e l o p e d a s t y l e that c o m b i n e d s t e r n r e a l i s m and s t a n d a r d s m o r e c o m m o n in the w o r l d o f high art w i t h the s y m b o l i c e f f e c t o f p h o t o g r a p h i c t o n a l i t i e s . B r o c h u r e s and c a t a l o g s are p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l b e c a u s e t h e y t e n d to present a symbolic language, a formalized picture of how the o r g a n i z a t i o n f u n c t i o n s t o s e r v e the n e e d of art s t u d e n t s , and of the b e l i e f - s y s t e m s of the art c u l t u r e . W h e n u s i n g c a t a l o g s and b r o c h u r e s f o r e v i d e n c e of c e r t a i n v a l u e s and o b j e c t i v e s , it m u s t be r e m e m b e r e d that t h e s e m a t e r i a l s r e p r e s e n t an o f f i c i a l v i e w , a s i d e put f o r w a r d b y the a u t h o r s — l i k e l y , in this c a s e , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and e d u c a t o r s — a s an attractive m e a n s to r e p r e s e n t or " s e l l " a p a r t i c u l a r p r o g r a m to the p u b l i c , t o f u n d i n g s o u r c e s , and to the m a r k e t of p o t e n t i a l art s t u d e n t s . T h e r e are t w o a p p r o a c h e s to r e s e a r c h i n g any p h e n o m e n o n : One is t o i n v e s t i g a t e w h a t a c t u a l l y e x i s t s ; the o t h e r , as a b o v e , is to i n v e s t i g a t e h o w a p h e n o n e n o m is p r e s e n t e d t o and p e r c e i v e d b y its p u b l i c . H o w a c c u r a t e l y d o c u m e n t s p r e p a r e d f o r p u b l i c c o n s u m p t i o n r e f l e c t , if the latter is the c a s e , the actual d a y - t o - d a y p r a c t i c e o f the programs t h e y a d v e r t i s e , w o u l d not be the i s s u e . R a t h e r , the i n t e n t i o n w o u l d be t o l o o k at i d e a l s , p r o g r a m g o a l s , s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s , or e v e n the lack t h e r e o f , as a w a y of g e t t i n g an i d e a of the d o m i n a n t cultural n o r m s and r e c u r r i n g t h e m e s that are f o r m a l i z e d in the o b j e c t i v e s . W i t h the v i s u a l a r t s , t h e s e a c a d e m i c s t r u c t u r e s h a v e b e e n a r o u n d s i n c e at least 1950 in the United S t a t e s , at w h i c h t i m e a survey of A m e r i c a n art s c h o o l s f o u n d that all of the e i g h t y s c h o o l s s a m p l e d had established formal entrance requirements. These included high school graduation certification as well as the usual portfolio submissions and interviews, and a credit system for measuring students' advancement. With only a few e x c e p t i o n s , they granted d e g r e e s ( M c C a u s l a n d , Harnum & V a u g h n , 1950). A s u n i v e r s i t i e s f o r m e d s t u d i o f i n e art p r o g r a m s and as art s c h o o l s became degree-granting, M.F.A. programs were eventually developed so that C a n a d i a n s c o u l d be as q u a l i f i e d a s A m e r i c a n a r t i s t s and thus c o u l d t e a c h in C a n a d i a n p r o g r a m s . It w a s the e a r l i e r s i t u a t i o n , w h e n  The  university  as  legitimator  of  art  knowledge  graduate d e g r e e s w e r e a t t a i n a b l e in the U . S . but not y e t w h i c h m a y be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n in art w h i c h A m e r i c a n s t e n d to d o m i n a t e art f a c u l t i e s .  /  83  in C a n a d a s c h o o l s in  S u r v e y s o f a r t i s t s p r o v i d e d c o n s i s t e n t e v i d e n c e that the e d u c a t i o n o f a r t i s t s is w e l l e n t r e n c h e d in i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher e d u c a t i o n , a l t h o u g h m o s t do not d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n and c o l l e g e or art s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . The E m p i r e S t a t e C o l l e g e V i s u a l A r t s S u r v e y ( V i l l e n e s , 1982) r e p o r t e d that o f m o r e than 200 p r a c t i c i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t s o f " i n t e r n a t i o n a l , n a t i o n a l , and r e g i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n s " (p. 30), at l e a s t 90 p e r c e n t had had a f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n in w h i c h t h e y had s t u d i e d d r a w i n g , p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e , p r i n t m a k i n g d e s i g n , and art h i s t o r y , and if their f i e l d of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n r e q u i r e d it, c o m m e r c i a l or i n d u s t r i a l d e s i g n , or c r a f t s . The o n l y a r t i s t s i n t e r v i e w e d in the s t u d y w h o had not had s u c h t r a i n i n g w e r e b o r n b e f o r e 1920. In M i c h a e l ' s (1970) s t u d y , o n l y t w o p a i n t e r s , three p r i n t m a k e r s , and t w o w e a v e r s o f o v e r 200 a r t i s t s s u r v e y e d d i d not h a v e a n y f o r m a l t r a i n i n g . R i d g e w a y ' s (1975) s t u d y r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s . O f the 28 p r a c t i c i n g A m e r i c a n a r t i s t s she i n t e r v i e w e d , all but three a t t e n d e d u n i v e r s i t i e s or c o l l e g e s . M o s t of the 79 f i n e art s t u d e n t s that G e t z e l s and C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i (1976) s t u d i e d w h o o b t a i n e d the h i g h e s t " s u c c e s s s c o r e s " as a r t i s t s ( b a s e d o n a m e a s u r e o f a c h i e v e m e n t i n d i c a t e d in s t u d e n t s ' p e r m a n e n t r e c o r d s o n f i l e in art s c h o o l s ) s t a r t e d their c a r e e r s in a l o f t , e v e n if this m e a n t r e n t i n g j o i n t l y w i t h their c o l l e a g u e s . In f a c t , the s i x art s t u d e n t s w i t h the h i g h e s t s c o r e s had all r e n t e d l o f t s w h i l e s t i l l in school. As far as the authors could determine, none of the " u n s u c c e s s f u l " f o r m e r s t u d e n t s did t h i s . In G e t z e l s and C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i ' s s a m p l e of art s t u d e n t s s t u d i e d , f o u r out o f the s i x m o s t s u c c e s s f u l as a r t i s t s e v e n t u a l l y m o v e d to N e w Y o r k . The r e m a i n i n g t w o , b e l i e v i n g that their s u c c e s s as p r o f e s s i o n a l artists depended on it, w e r e p l a n n i n g the m o v e . One former art student, who spent two years teaching art at the University of M i n n e s o t a b e f o r e m o v i n g to N e w Y o r k , e x p l a i n s :  T h e n e w is w h a t p e o p l e are o n l y just t a l k i n g a b o u t ; it's i d e a s that c o u n t , not p r o d u c t s . O n e can s e e w h e r e it's at f r o m m a g a z i n e s , but it's not the s a m e t h i n g as l i v i n g it. (p. 191)  M o n t a l t o ' s (1983) s e l e c t i o n of " r e n o w n e d " art p r o g r a m s w a s b a s e d o n a ranking of the greatest number of artists from each school r e p r e s e n t e d in the W h i t n e y M u s e u m o f A m e r i c a n A r t B i e n n i a l E x h i b i t i o n C a t a l o g u e s . M o n t a l t o ' s s t a t e d r e a s o n f o r this s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i o n is that the W h i t n e y M u s e u m i s — a n d he q u o t e s f r o m the c a t a l o g u e i t s e l f — " a n individual survey of s o m e of the m o s t i m p o r t a n t and provocative  The  university  as l e g i t i m a t o r  of  art  knowledge  /  84  A m e r i c a n p a i n t i n g , d r a w i n g , s c u l p t u r e , f i l m , and v i d e o p r o d u c e d . . . b y l i v i n g a r t i s t s . " A s t r o n g c r i t i c i s m c o u l d be m a d e c o n c e r n i n g the b i a s e s and e x c l u s i v e n e s s o f the M u s e u m ' s e x h i b i t i o n c r i t e r i a (a c o n c e r n not a d d r e s s e d in his s t u d y ) , and the p o s s i b l e c o n s e q u e n t i m p l i c a t i o n that the s t u d y m a y be n e g l e c t i n g art p r o g r a m s that r e p r e s e n t art f o r m and q u a l i t i e s not a c k n o w l e d g e d b y the W h i t n e y M u s e u m . W h a t d i d r e s u l t , however, from Montalto's s y s t e m of ranking art programs was a c o n v e n i e n t and i n t e r e s t i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of three e x t r e m e l y diverse p e r s p e c t i v e s t o w a r d art s t u d y : T h e S a n F r a n c i s c o A r t Institute has a rather unstructured educational environment; Rutgers' Mason Gross S c h o o l o f the A r t s s t r e s s e s the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l , e n v i r o n m e n t a l , and historical nature of art; and the Yale School of Art and A r c h i t e c t u r e has a v e r y s t r u c t u r e d and p r e s c r i p t i v e p r o g r a m in w h i c h s t u d e n t s are e n c o u r a g e d t o s t u d y m a n y art m o v e m e n t s and s t y l e s r a t i o n a l l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y b e f o r e a r r i v i n g at their o w n . The a l l i a n c e w i t h the t e c h n o c r a t i c s e g m e n t has b e e n f o r m e d a l s o in the s e n s e that a r t i s t s l o o k to c o m p u t e r s , h o l o g r a m s and other new t e c h n o l o g i e s as p o t e n t i a l n e w m e d i a in art p r o d u c t i o n . A n d in s c h o o l s , the technology of the computer is explored for its possible c o n t r i b u t i o n in art c l a s s r o o m s ( H a m b l e n , 1985)  CHAPTER 4 FORGING THE ALLEGIANCE TO THE ART  The  model  Luckmann  of (1966),  maintained, reality  the  and  attains  one  can  the  individuals  make  Knowledge  becomes  knowledge  which  Socialization between through  is  an  social  of  an  reality,  important  are  situations. membership internalize knowledge, found  affiliated.  In  in  in at  of  turn, the  least  which art  attains  for  essential  but  not an  fine  art  core only  of the  is  or  that  of  object. including  relationship process  internalize  and  subcultures  into  their  and  they  the to  actions  professional  and  "experts'" the  an  and  subculture's  formal  which  complex  everyday  the  scholarship,  the  in turn, g o v e r n  subculture,  by  socialization.  of  culture  this,  by  reality,  truth  the  of  away  of  and  socially  spite  status  identity  initiated  understanding  85  It  Berger  knowledge,  produced  the  both be  in  willed  analysis  of  of  in to  be  with  the  sense  But  a p r o c e s s of  internalizations,  individuals  includes  curricula,  a  actions  specialized the  in  motivation  These  these  through  from  constructed,  the  Socially  knowledge.  develop  which  cannot  Likewise,  component art  socially  associated  reality  and  individuals  or  derived  activity.  that  their  individual's  structure  conceptions  object  "legitimate"  is  human  1985).  s k i l l s , v a l u e s , and  and  by  Hunt,  knowledge, they  reality  knowledge-as-fact.  an  is  which  &  knowledge,  which  of  sense  of  of  changed  quality  (Blackledge  part  in  be  individual  becomes  DEPARTMENT AS EFFECTIVE SOCIALIZER  organization  is  ART:  assume  full  learn  and  must shared  basis  knowledge  subtleties  of  of as  dress,  F o r g i n g the speech  A  and m a n n e r i s m s w h i c h  complex  publicly  paraphernalia  demonstrate  established  have  gone  be  department role  of  the  highly  "artist".  recruits and  plays  through  i s , as  specialized  the  and  this  the  support  art  as a c a r e e r  will  lead  to  art  and the  of  art  the  The  artist  strength  of  reviewing  students  lends  further  significant  role  knowledge vital  Endowment  is  so  in  The  art  to  the  "socializer"  into  effective  ambiguous  schools  equally  ill-defined unclear  the  Arts  its  of  art  art  is  that of  parental  an e d u c a t i o n and  elusive  objectives  and  that  legitimation  that  and  Certain  committed  effective  unlikelihood  for  86  procedures  competence.  a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s ; a lack  c a r e e r ; the  entry  educational  individuals  It  gain  subculture.  of  attitude  c h o i c e ; the  commitment  by  art  the  the  and other  secure  art  a r g u e s , an  of  in s o c i e t y ; and the (National  getting  subculture.  spite  /  and  National  in  art  role  of  content  Council  on  1 9 7 8 ; R i t c h i e , 1966).  demonstrates  a  a financially  programs  Arts,  sciences  fine  provided  in  involves:  to  for  arts  individuals  acknowledged  chapter  in  second-rate  the  proof  art  members.  which  to  role  this  committed  conflicts  through  and  fine  the  publicly  a significant It  become  exists  commitment  institutionally to  identify  allegiance to  in  and r e l e v a n t  role  empirical support  preserving  that, i m p e d e  a  to  to  the  broadening  in a c u l t u r a l l y  artistic  identities  and  descriptive  the  argument  traditional of  art's  pluralistic  that  this  research of  that  art  conceptual cultural society.  chapter  artists  departments hierarchies  base  toward  of a  and play art more  Forging the allegiance to art / 87  THE CONCEPT OF SOCIALIZATION  Socialization  has  been  (Homans,  1961;  approach,  Freud's  interactionist  given  Skinner,  attention  1953),  Piaget's  psychoanalytic  views  (Becker  et  within  behavioristic  (1928)  theory  cognitive  (Mackie,  al., 1961; Mead,  been studied  identity,  the  in terms  learning  of  standards and appropriate of  later  learning,  occupations, There  sexual  is, then,  extent  and  complexity  in  the  development  attitudes  it  and  symbolic  1934; Olesen &  Whittaker,  the  of  not  language  socialization may completely  "secondary"  of  this  division of  and  later labor  or  other  socialization and the  individual  is  of  moral  understanding  lay the  prepare  any  further  childhood  internalization  and  society  years of  and motivations, and some  type  does  skills,  of  relationships, parenthood  character of  the  cognitive  social roles. Although this  for  of  of  theory  developmental  1980),  1968). Socialization that takes place during the formative has  learning  foundation  individuals  roles  in  adulthood.  socialization. determined  concomitant  social  for  1  by  is  possible  socialization society  All  place  of  course, be knowledge  is useful  known  to  a  after  society primary  one would  individuals varying only  conception society  conceive  takes  w o u l d , of  knowledge. different  to  in positing  be  which  no  socialization. a very  simple  generally  in their  Such stock  a of  with  perspectives on it. This  have some  social distribution  further  relevant,  a limiting case, but  us that does not  and, concomitantly, some  with  in  of  there  division  of  the  distribution  knowledge in society.  It  The  is no labor  knowledge; and as  F o r g i n g the soon  as  this  is  the  n e c e s s a r y . (Berger  Later  socialization  requires  the that  Internalized  in  finite  more well  less  result  of  the  depends  (Berger  also upon  specialized  division  of  of  subcultures  partial  1966)  knowledge.  realities  in  contrast  "Yet  they  normative  cart of  or  is to  fight  horses  this  necessary  that  social  to  the  activity  to  whom  the  role  are,  are  great  likely  deal  involved 128-129)  in  of  in  battle. of  elaborate  task  any  it  learn  pulling  with  this in  on  to  has  and  the  profound to  be  of  to  the  too,  are  affective  secondary  of  knowledge  the  body  make  a  horse  pull  secondary  But  a society carts  or  assigned  manner;  the  is  that  is  unlikely  variability  s o c i a l i z a t i o n . (Berger  kind. in &  its  use  embellish  the  personnel  identify such  Thus  the  manure  to  to  legitimations,  a  limits  unlikely  f e t i s h i s m , and  compensatory  socio-historical  as  of  of  to  rituals  a  or  character  status  manure  been  It  knowledge;  labor. The  represent  by  subcultures.  concerned.  Training  88  & L u c k m a n n , 1966, p.127).  suggest the  or  Luckmann,  stock  /  becomes  institution-based  generally &  art  127)  realities, characterized  components"  socialization  specific  of  (Berger  common  Luckmann  socialization  a  role  socialization  its  cohesive  and  of  meaning  and  as c o g n i t i v e  Berger  internalization  as  later  of  world  or  the  arises  provinces  everyday  is  this  secondary  & L u c k m a n n , 1966, p.  acquisition  knowledge  case,  allegiance to  as  there  with they is  a  representations  Luckmann,  1966,  p.  Forging If,  as  on  the  that  Berger status  the  art  is  the  body  into  fine  whether  students  Madge  of  art  is  the  nature  this  (Barron,  of  activity  identities  In  for  perceive  define which the in  s t a t u s . The cultivates  discipline which  an  childhood world the fine  of  and  be  be  discipline.  that  are  s o c i a l i z a t i o n to as h a v i n g  based  identity  may  adolescence. Despite it,  identities  with  its  from  knowledge.  This  the  university  conceptions  of  art  are  art  have  strong  been  ambiguous  strengthened of  the  as  in  been  knowledge  or a  art  those  students  likely  they agent  the  boundaries  in  outside within of  everyday,  school with  to  cases  cultivated  interactions  from  of  commitment  gradually  through  are  sense  is  legitimation  d i s c i p l i n e s . and  department  chapter,  solidifies  even  already  knowledge  students  s u c c e s s f u l , art  this  and  artist,  the  insulation other  in  of  1964;  the  of  have  studies Griff,  art  is  society,  argued  students  identity  in  way  in  the  a  into  there  s o c i a l s t a t u s , in w h a t e v e r  perceptions and  1976;  that  on  think  Although  in w h i c h  students  be this  these art  case.  descriptive  Art  89  depends  would  activity  Csikszentmihalyi,  /  socialization the  artistic  taught,  is  common-sense  traditional  of  it  discipline  implicates  their  one  that  to  art  socialization  a discipline  department,  to  mean not  art  department, art  to  discipline  artistic  attributes  art  order  their  &  of  1 9 7 3 ; S t r a u s s , 1970) d e m o n s t r a t e  specific  must  even  Getzels  socialized  loyalty.  appears  can  committed  into  would  and p u r p o s e  iwambiguously  subject  art  a l l e g i a n c e to  c o n c e r n e d , then  s o c i a l i z a t i o n into  1972;  & Weinberger,  character  knowledge  legitimation  c o n s e n s u s about  indeed  art  of  s u g g e s t , the  a m b i g u o u s . H o w e v e r , this  socialization  or  Luckmann  ambiguous  also  little  and  the  the or  perpetuating  specialized discipline  sharing  F o r g i n g the a l l e g i a n c e t o art / 90 many as  of  the  characteristics  abstractness  and  knowledge  from  knowledge  of  boundaries  through  of  an  insular  will  bulk  of  knowledge  below  document  the  plays  in a p l u r a l i s t i c  be r e v i e w e d  specifically  promotion  of  and  of  By  specialized  a major which  role  on  this  of  art  knowledge  identities  in the cultural  o f the s t u d i e s  in  of  position  art  students  nor do  they  do, however, constitute  They  represent  its  reproduction  postmodernist  recent, unfortunately,  topic.  certain  existing  subject  i s , a s the  society. Most  1971) s u c h  a n d " a p p l i e d " , a n d the  maintaining  are not v e r y  done  (Young,  insulation  "pure"  the C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t . T h e y  research  methodological  knowledge"  areas, both  experience.  department  h o l d s , untenable that  the  status  differentiation  knowledge  everyday  body  "high  relative  other  s t u d e n t s , the art  of  a  range  a p p r o a c h e s — i n t e r v i e w s , s u r v e y s , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  tests  the of and  measures.  PROFILE  Madge  OF AN OUTCAST  and W e i n b e r g e r ' s  portrays It  the f i n e  demonstrates  fine  art  how  they  world  values  and  more  of  a  is a  vague,  sense  may  to this  institution, like  the  of  of  being  perception  vary.  "wanted years  study  art  as e x t r e m e l y  dominant  it  school the  (1973)  student  that  write,  In the  the  art  express  Weinberger 273).  POPULATION  different  values  of  fine  with  been  this  school  society.  the it  As  Britain  effectively  the r o l e others  art  of  outside  students,  feeling"  artist. the  although  Madge  and  from  something"  (p.  school  authorities  and  themselves  have  in art  to  from  among  dissociate  but  in  committed  "Individuals  might  students  became one  fine  something art  larger  student  in  F o r g i n g the Madge  I  and W e i n b e r g e r ' s  study  take  in  no  interest  w o r l d , (p.  Often their  the  outside  things.  being  more  analytical  often  e x p r e s s e d as a s e n s e  is  values of  I  felt  art  I am the  of  the  difference  larger  I was  at  aware  deeper  of  so  is  and  I am  described  bound  the  I  had  a  outward  many  implications  more of  the  in  terms  of  outside  their  art  up  in  my  than  students  others  privileged  in  different  way  learning  to  bound  to  more  ability  questioning my  system  I  of  the  to  own  see  validity  from  within of  others,  university  attitude.  d i f f e r e n c e , (p.  things. Non-artists  m o r e , s u c h as the  kind  of  s i g n of  things  a  by  open-minded  question  different  91  through  society.  different,  school was  think  /  111)  feeling  It  art  stated,  the  world.  allegiance to  and  do  which  110)  not  perceive  we  live.  m o t i v e s , (p.  more  Doing  111)  deeply;  training  I  it's  college,  a (p.  111)  One's different of  In  this  jobs  outlook ideas most  is  about  life  and  p e o p l e d o . (p.  self-perception  of  being  be  different.  society. They  Art  students  couldn't  do  have  the  kind  112)  more  analytic  and  open-minded  than  others  F o r g i n g the lies  not  I  only  can't  level  sense  expressed  was  directed  arts.  The  their  between art  from  art  as  students  "take  things  more  interested  making  graphic  art  students  it.  This  speak  [Department  in  outlook  stated:  of  talk  them  to  lacking  money"  (p.  Art  was  "pure" strong  in  between  how  /  92  superiority.  on  "lack  at  technical  a  Design]  the  applied fine  art are  boundaries  its  proponents see  graphic  individualistic," "are  of  but  boundaries  students  "less  they  not  their  very  subject  are  or  "primarily  on.  hand, felt  that  the  design students  your  areas?"  school,  in the  satisfaction,"  responses in  art  students  between  consideration  other  those  work  commitment,"  any  art  art  separate  Fine  world,"  115), and s o  in  the  strongly  to  arts.  the  fine  " a p p l i e d " a r t s . The  as  in  the  outside  school who  and  an a c t , and the  strongly  and  art  that  self-perceptions  value,"  aim  of  those  applied  "only  across  of  to  a sense  superiority  illustrates  others  face  totally it,"  the  like  the  so  design students, on  came  difference  in  at  in  are  of  and  so-called  "more  involvement  The  but  have  toward  students  those  "are  in  only  values  art the  interesting,"  student  in  knowledge  ideologically  I  sense  colleagues within  and a p p l i e d  fine  difference  others,  and the not  difference  maintained  with  of  art  111).  difference  toward  of  (p.  of  even  students  students' sense  communicate  lower  The  the  allegiance to  (p.  to  the  area  tended  question  and  112).  difference  those  As  one  to  "Is in  fine  resent  there  a  other  DAD  graphic  arts  F o r g i n g the  And  Fine  Art  students  work  in their  Art  upon  The  way  fine  art  seem  difficulties,  as  they  most  graphic  students  is  Art  students  vice  versa"  design  one  in  cult.  They  e n d s . (p.  113)  about  things,  tend (p.  to  115).  between  points  to  part  given  students  terms  students  group  in  Madge  however,  feelings  program,  such  members  of  a and  of  as  fact  tend  93  to  time  and  to  enlarge  think  .  about  those  played  the  by  and  of  that  a  art  group.  the  are  on  Graphic  Design  students  so  your  many yes/no  area  each  of  these  question  and  faction  not  a  as  study  those  in  stated, more  kinds "Is  in  defining  the  only  and  94  case  comments  group,  themselves percent  saw  declined  year  made  define  many  In  final  group. They "We  student  students  membership  in  design  the  of  there  other  a  DAD  the  norms  other.  Weinberger's  of  to  graphic  straight in  relationship  one  that  the  membership. A s  members  individual,"  much  e x p e r i e n c e d their  down  amplify  and g r a p h i c  of  as  to  the  and s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s  art  so  students  The  outlook  2  have  look  in  areas?"  intense  which,  difference  year,  a  /  114)  were  in  as  personal  more  responses  Fine  introversion  void with  students  t h e m . (p.  than  own  up  art  another:  Fine  "Fine  set  allegiance to  of  the the  is  as  fine three  percent  such this  of  themselves,  over 16  differently  saw "I  see  g o o d , as  graphic in  also  design  their  art  final  students,  years  of  themselves myself it  as  proves  the as an we  F o r g i n g the are  not  influencing  Weinberger  summarize  Having the  outside in  world their  other  a  great  the  themselves  fine  from  extent." art  c o l l e g e , they  from  the  other  (p.  pupils  at  students  eventually  students  116).  art  /  94  Madge  and  students,  other  as a w h o l e , and f r o m  own  dissociated  to  in r e g a r d t o  dissociated  course be  each  allegiance to  on  school,  taking  felt  their  from  a parallel  themselves own  to  c o u r s e , (p.  274)  Madge  and  Weinberger's  hyper-developed of  artist.  Fine  art  individualities, entering a  62  Fine A r t  the  percent  secondary  as  an  defined  and  proportion  school  increased to  83  students  moved  into  the  type  of  came &  to  social view  themselves  "typically  end  in  itself  elusive  of  fine  art  percent  in of  the as  role  and  of  as  artist"  they  the  final  artist,  artist,  such  having  the  as  "individually to  the  role  cultivated  their  presumed  means  of  (p. 269). W h a t  started  as  the  final  different  year  they  who  a  in  were  an  committed  individuals  students  claiming  role  portrays  (p. 277), e x t r e m e l y  are  education  students  traditional  effectively  student"  students  both  ill  study  of  took  from  art  school.  on  identities  supreme  characteristics  year  of  their  non As  art these  of  "individualist". of  the  role  the They  (Reitzes  B u r k e , 1983).  Getzels  and  Csikszentmihalyi  students  and  Chicago,  administered  education  a  recent  set  of  (1976),  graduates to  of  students  tests  in  the in  designed  their School  fine to  art,  longitudinal of  the  Art  the  applied  measure  values  study  of  Institute arts,  and  art of art  ("theoretical",  Forging "economic",  "aesthetic",  personality  ("sociability",  "shrewdness", with  and  expectations  Advertising each  In  a  art  total  group  value  pattern  (Getzels  earlier  1970) and  support  also  different Anselm students most fine  studies the  arts  artists,  of  (1970)  recent  in  are  who  social  "artistic"  reflect art  to  art,  conducted  two  of,  the  interviews  with  vaguely  then  underwent  95  measure  is  congruent  than  do  will  be  Finally,  the  task  it  value.  aesthetic  exteme from  sociologists role  value  within  the  degree  the  college  norms.  found. of  commercial or  three  five  male notions  "conversion  1964;  Both  and  Madge  these  earlier  majoring  art  interviews Institute  students of  Strauss,  that  students  art,  hour Art  (Griff,  internalization  experiences  formulated a  more  they  50)  a g a i n , the with  from  roles,  subgoup  an  students  regarding  differential  graduates  sociability  Csikszentmihalyi  fields—fine  /  imaginativeness",  future  economic-high  American  and  to  indistinguishable  their  and  most  results  Getzels  art  program and  the  They  two  demonstrate  Strauss  interest  by  and  emerged  students, whose  low  differentiates  kinds  and  visual  and  with  groups  the  them  that  almost  & C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , 1976, p.  Weinberger  studies  are  gains  other  artists.  that  pattern  consistent  have  makes of  "religious")  art  each specialization;  education  the  students  for  material  groups... A r t  pattern, which  Two  of  The  artists  manner  teach, outscore  fine  held  industrial  value  other  to  "self-sentiment").  and  the  " p o l i t i c a l " , and  allegiance to  "conscientiousness", "sensitivity",  generally  other.  accept the  "social",  the  in  education.  with  seventy  of  Chicago.  Of  who  entered  the  becoming  experience"  commercial  into  the  fine  Forging the allegiance to art arts.  Strauss  describes the  conversion  experience  and what  they  / 96  were  up  against:  They  develop  learn that is  a  negative  art  is something  twenty-four  students  attitudes  fills  in  hour the  toward  more  than  matter...  meaning  commercial  techniques  art  as  with  we/tanschaung,  associated art  such as ballet  troubles  since  they  art—one him to  are  breaking  boy's father heel, but  formal  cut off  the boy  agreements  to  other  teach of  experience:  techniques  with parents,  enter  commercial  his allowance in an effort to  moved away and got  self-expression;  facing  the  support.  future  For  world  and  steps  in  successful their  Mason students courses  or  artistic  Griff's  breaking  fine  no  the  the  with  the  same  to  a job  artists,  fall  -  to  it. Whether are  of  the  instructors  to  with  upon  school  has them or  for  problems friends; economic  opened to  not  deeply  bring  support  industrial-art  back  allowed  they  of  compared  former  [art]  time  a place within  creditable  attempts  mundane  skill  students  a  take they  rich initial  become  committed  to  identities, (p.174)  (1964) study  enter to  at  finding  appear  with  these has  ...fighting  which  hot  forms,  himself. These students have other strains also arising out conversion  Art  with  discussions and sometimes the discovery of and drama.... They have their  and  and a job.  Acquaintanceship  of  work  the art  art  of  school  art  students  they  in Chicago indicates  sometimes  courses, however, the  reverse  switch rarely  from takes  that applied  once art  place. The  F o r g i n g the ideological students from The  commitment,  cannot  one  field  fine  art  art—fine within on  have  no  fine  arts  it  is  them  The  at fine  student  other  to  hand, have  not  forms,  been  the  lines  but  impractical  art  bridge  is  an  had  first  artists  that  we  to  commercial  old  vivacious  Their  for  to and  art's  her  women  that  writes,  contact  boundaries  are  sex  one  not  art  applied  orientation. made  the  which  like  just  view.  the  draw  It's to  drawing they  were  They to  ' g o o d ' , or This  with  to  the  s e e the her.  permits  a art  fine  students  art  fine  transform  personified.  They  commercial  artist's.  to  them  of  They  from the  the  public  and  the  into  would  art  separate  model  Most  that  the  model  appeal  the  allegiance to  many fine  arts,  art.  held  of  art  is  arts.  s a k e . Y o u ought  but  the  commercial  telling  wasn't  when  Griff  97  switching  are  standpoint."  with  fine  there  art,  "something  interview  drawing. There  of  similar  /  self-esteem.  a r t s . R e f e r e n c e is  particularly the  that  to  c o m m e r c i a l and fine  model. They  with  notion  a commercial  into  figure  bags;  damage  a  art  contemplate  commercial  to  fine  an  applied  features  ugly  from  is  point  to  the  as  exposed the  technique  the  with  is, Griff  come  the  artist's  than do  of  see  it  strong  learned  there...  only  rather  how  to  from  c o u r s e . It  and  from  excerpt  block"  such  gap b e t w e e n  recently  school  ideal  that  the  significant  m e a n i n g " (p. 7 7 ) S t u d e n t s of  along  knowledge  are  of  so  considerable  "imbued  other  attachment  a night  they  that  ideological  who  go  been  is  "mental  without  true  following  At  has  explains,  this  other  its  better  art  Griff  through  the  context  great  student  to  arts—and  the  the  break  as  allegiance to  what  models beautiful  completely  F o r g i n g the exaggerate what  I  what to  One  the  mean...  they  me.  last  too  they  study  of  lends  art  study  support their  to  Montalto  c o n c l u d e s , that  painting.  may  and  These  with during  In  as  the  fact,  of  highly  it he  as  art  as  how  individuals  and w h o  anatomy—you  /  98  know  themselves  by  distorting  p l a c e ; but  it's  disgusting  takes  of  up  three  the  art  any  one  it  is  Montalto's  M.F.A. painting  strong  fine  arrive the  single  together  as  is  the  the  art  pervasive,  or  stong  despite  fine  so  method  (1983)  programs.  c o m m i t m e n t , of  ideology  functions  a similar type  students'  identities  programs  that  methods of  at  historical  knowledge, with  their  recruited its  of  faculty  all to  art  its  that  The  mentioning  art  style  socializing  diversity  that  styles.  students  art  including  are  notion  keeps  postsecondary  well  styles  argues,  R e n a i s s a n c e . Fine art  their  art  transcends  committed  domains,  to  the  that  art  specialization--their codes  the  as  a m o n g their  studies  student  the  h a v e their  worth  specialization.  motivator  exist  of  cheapening  students of  to  force  were  rest  art  (p.78)  students  in  and the  saw.... I g u e s s t h e y  phenomenological It  eyebrows  a l l e g i a n c e to  to  all  and  fine  its  of are  in arts  specialized knowledge?  of  artist so  that  insulate  and  values, beliefs  the  the  fine  applied  and  arts.  subculture? W h o  formed  defend  other  art  originated  completely  concepts—from  colleagues the  they  picture  their  behavior  knowledge Given has  this,  access  F o r g i n g the THE SOCIAL  Art,  PARAPHERNALIA  unlike  medicine  possibilities.  does  school  law  into  of  an  art  applicants  are  number  just  drift  persons Entry to for  is  almost  anyone  formal  art  into  art.  There  tightly  who  their  a  the  time  "whole  first  artist,  yet  the  process is  99  not  social  a  of  can  Griff  identity  that  expelled. in  individuals for  getting  (1970,  p.147).  full  commitment  formation  seems  a  Few  enroll  s a y that  paraphernalia  artistic  process  money  toward  that  limited. are  states  art  Recruitment  few  to  step  the  sense  status.  and  career  more  begins  fortuituous  engineered.  is  a  "talent" born  cultural in  with  (1976), any  is  major  the  tightly  and  identities",  the  It  this  in  nor  has  Artistic identity formation in childhood  It  /  unclear artists,  medical  schools  be  childhood.  or  art  may  early  status  to  artistic  with for  controlled  programs. Yet is  field  institution  legal  school  of  in  to  open  artistic  certifies  admittance  of  role  an  bestow  neither  refused  art  many  than  medicine  committed  into  the  or  is  legitimating  directly  art  RECRUITMENT  law,  a  not  world  Theoretically, any  or  Although  department  FOR  allegiance to  of  served  art  at  and  however, the as  art an  assumption an  early  some were  that  or  unmistakable  to  art sign  find  marked talent  1980). in  graduates of  are  artistic  (Chapman,  unable  adolescence  artists  a g e ; that  not  students  and  the they  exceptional  is  Getzels history studied talent  by  signs  a gift and of  or  that  unusual  some  are  Csikszentmihalyi  the  any  of  early  one an  lives  incident  affinity  of that  toward  F o r g i n g the a  future  of  vocation  these  artists  formative  Getzels or  built  to  impress  remember lend  are  in  greater by  form one  of  another  peers  having  was  art.  community  art  in  are  similar  not  their  a childhood first  (and  toward  art  for  and  complex that the  of  the  artists  able  to  amuse  drawings;  and t h e y  all  to  posters  and  design  all  insisted  art  classes  community as artist  most, with  record  school,  particular  the  100  events  any  identity  or  were  they  much  by  highly  All  /  Getzels  elementary  they  morning or  a  art the  insignificant  teachers  so  gallery  children's  dispositions  their  Saturday  establishing  many  how  in  artist."  factors.  c l a s s r o o m . Yet  to  factor  classes  the  an  In  crucial  with  message  histories  identity.  recall  by  be  seemingly  teachers  asked  clear  these  more  and  identity  dedication  in  artistic  studied  no will  and  the  decorating  artistic  the  see  to  an  was  child  to  innumerable  schoolmates  their  These  an  began  increasingly  help  sponsored  "this  Csikszentmihalyi  being  established  said  There  of  was  their  extra  simply  up  draw  and  artist.  instead  process  gradually  an  that  Csikszentmihalyi  ability  as  a l l e g i a n c e to  only)  an  that  what  "gift"  but  the  sort  of arts  council  (Griff,  1970).  contact  instructor  with  who  is  artist.  Presumably,  those  abilities  their  take  art  teachers  by  courses may  education 1976). |t have  and is  given  children peers in  or  had  teachers  secondary  offer  conceivable to  even that art  as  been are  school.  encouragement  possibly  thought  who  a this  to  career is  the  a career  singled  those It  is  take in  most in  first  for  likely  courses (Getzels  time  many  p o s s i b i l i t y , rather  their to  secondary  art art  out  continue  school in  &  artistic  that  to art  postsecondary  Csikszentmihalyi, of  these  than  as  students  simply  an  F o r g i n g the enjoyable one's  pastime  artistic  professional in  from  a very  art  as  not  a  for  the for  have  a fun  In  in  art  as  one  to  are  /  101  recognition  identify  of  with  the  d e c i d e r s " in  art  determined  to  be  doctors  a vocation the to  decision  in  role  artistically  in  school  may a  have  identified (Griff,  (Madge  up  &  out  school  art  student's  1970), art  decision  take  singling  secondary  to  testimonies to  in  in  study  by art  art in  notion  of  school  is  art  at  the  students  and  spite  Weinberger,  of  their  1973; W o o d s ,  in B r i t a i n r e c a l l s :  remember  school,  self  "youthful  teacher the  according  their  classes  student  cannot  in  or  factor  fact,  fewer  school  the  art  contributing  are  and  trigger  recruits  abilities  into  Public  art  1957).  in c o n v e r t i n g  persisted  1987). O n e art  I  artistic  level.  most  experiences  example, where  pastime  significant  good.  1970). There  an e l e m e n t a r y  their  may  are  automatically  age ( R o g o f f ,  role  postsecondary artists,  (Griff,  early  they  d o e s not  medicine, for  students teacher  which  ability artist  than  Except  at  a l l e g i a n c e to  of  at  except  in  potato-patterning  any on was  of one  my  ideas  or  attitudes  occasion when  warmly  my  being high  r e c e i v e d . (Madge  &  approved  productivity Weinberger,  1973, p.129)  Several  artists  that  instruction  art  The art  whom  fortunate is that  what  I  Woods  (1987)  interviewed  in s c h o o l w a s  uninspiring.  thing  in  for  me  terms  I never a s s o c i a t e d what  later  began  to  think  of  as  of  they art.  also  my  e x p r e s s e d the  later  c a l l e d art What  they  thinking in s c h o o l call  art  opinion  about with was  Forging stupid.  It  teacher  would  I found  In  many  science  was  it  rewarding  and  counsellor,  rigors  other  of  students  subjects  who is  1980).  students  in  the  total  174 art  art  regarded  at  regarded  drop-outs"  and  Upon  hearing  often  reverse  great  with  places  for  sees  poor  hand  out  as  Weinberger's  view  is  of  useful  a vocational art  was  (1973)  interviewed the  prevailing  it.  /  102  The  materials.  pressure  responded  lines  of:  "it  subject  or  as  an  outlet  to  than  the  was  from  by  the  art  thirds  of  two  taken  recreational  the  students  question  not  career  for  reported  More  to  school  and  opportunity  also  study.  Canadian  program as  towards  and u l t i m a t e l y  one  students'  it,  toward  along  and  about  in u n i v e r s i t i e s  careers. The  second-rate  artistic  effort  their  their  to  1964,  offspring's  attitude  particularly that  than  results  Griff,  abiltities  see  in other  often  1976;  of  parents,  careers  and  Csikszentmihalyi,  Some  faced  exciting  art  "How  was  seriously  or  suitable  or for  (p.58).  parents,  childhood  but  school?" a  begin  to  he  attitude  The p r e s s u r e t o w a r d from  as  students  as  to  responsibility  subjects  Madge  nothing  a l l e g i a n c e to  69)  are  secure  Art,  This  is  how  leading  holds  typical:  (Hawke,  There  b o r i n g , (p.  financially  guidance,  was  totally  other  rote.  demonstrate  schools  or  all  the  to  their  in 1970;  one of  one of  fine  arts  serious  of  to  offspring  in  and  and  upper  exposed  to  large  part  (Getzels Strauss,  an  encouragement  middle are  1975;  become  disappointment  the  comes  conflicts  Ridgeway,  intention  from  those  the  artist, and  even  1970). parents  pride  in  dissuasion.  classes, fine  &  art  go for  to its  F o r g i n g the "cultural"  v a l u e s , but  not  attractive  vocational  choice.  elementary  school  arts-oriented a r t s , and  was  consistently  in  the  values  of  studies  were  children studies  very  the  the  seen  from that  lead  the  who  the  stressing  to  were  importance, to  another  professional  case  an  of  an  was  an  legitimated  school's  enrolment  dropped  keen  the  103  in the  to  humanist,  at  /  become  the  active  but  to  art  school  this. The  grades  But  school  directly  for  is  The  3  visibly  cultural,  do.  permitted  situation  parents  increased  arts-oriented most  was  the  is  area.  primary  schools of  this  community  in  it  urban  g r a d e s . The  be  that  of  affluent  in  that to  the  Typical  high  arts,  arts  extent  a principal  elementary  to  the  an  respected  upper  offspring  in  one with  fine  to  a l l e g i a n c e to  introduce  and  point  other  where  parents  their related  academic  transferred  school  programs  significantly  where  in  their  academic  university  were  emphasized.  If the  parental above  concern  has not  situation,  it  been  may  e x p r e s s e d in  occur  during  the  the  elementary  students'  g r a d e s , as  secondary  school  years.  High  school  worrying Ed's  that  in  Catholics, sent 212)  me  the  their  parents, who  elementary was  was...  time  sons were thought  his  school, became earnest they  to  when  about thought  convent  not  some turning  paintings  "uptight"  art.  Ed  painters  out  s c h o o l . " (Getzels  the  when  did &  parents  as t h e y  "pretty"  reports, only  of  they  when  naked  hoped.  he  realized  "Because  began  had  was that  they  ladies,  so  in  in he  were they  C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , 1976, p.  F o r g i n g the In  the  population  and W e i n b e r g e r of  of  also  "it  most  hope  will  violates  the  artist  may,  order  to  There have  become  artist, "a  be  forfeited.  have  fear  on  the  t h i s , is the some  in  childhood  artistic  signifies  for  contemporary  parents  attitude flair  Griff  that  something  to  It  is  may  r e c o g n i z e , although  does  not  cultural  not  disapproval  fit  art  the  the  the  and  Madge  up  did  to  their  d e s c r i b e s , is home"  symbols  of  bohemian "pure"  that  solely  cherished  stereotype  of  these  career  make,  a nice  the  one  the  by  artist  that  an  lifestyle  in  artistic  as f e m i n i n e ;  activity. a son  as  discredit.  later  encouragement  and  of  a  fine of  5  ambiguous face  however,  a  104  (p. 52).  to  (1970)  pursuits  of  n e c e s s a r i l y at  as  A m e r i c a n ideal. Note  rewards  alienation  students  capital;  with  take  a source of  signifies  which  salary  artistic  one  likely  bohemian  but  art  "lay-abouts"  Griff  traditional  of  to  traditional  The  financial  from  (1964)  culture.  as  scant  as  good  the  perception  and  arts  no  opposition  are  the  that  d e c i d e " (p. 53). H o w e v e r ,  parents an  earn  students  to  as  choice  shift  artist  to  non-art  child  students  is  to  fact,  Parents'  of  art  in  is f o r  fine  on  and  /  g e n e r a l expressed a t t i t u d e w a s  overt  of  an artist  the  some  art  art  most  the  professed mores  subsist  add to  both  objection  cannot  painting.  to  looked  to  families  To  that  intention  painter  from  up  strenuous  offspring's the  is  noticed  exist. S o m e parents  The  of  (1973) s t u d i e d , " the  t o l e r a n c e , that  authors  parents  allegiance to  early a at  expectations  art the  artist  status  of  in  their  conscious the of  as  same  reward  career and art  in  careers.  l e v e l , the time,  occupational  the  of  choice art  in  society, Parents value  of  vocation  prestige  they  F o r g i n g the hold it  is  with or  for  their  far  children. This  more  art's  noble  institutional  become  contradictions This  are  in  support  from  more an  for  somewhat mediated  student  affluent  education in  neighborhood Bohemian  go  economic  was  that,  the  because  the  there  are  strangeness Nor  is  in art  believe  in  does The  from 'proper'. the  expected  concern for  is  viewed to it  then,  it  is  from  the  members  of  the  fine  art  be  as the  pure  art  prevalent result  voiced  by  upper  institute that  a  class has  not  students  Griff  has and  generally  relatively  many  art  institutions.  most  not  immediate  this  study  tensions  place, so  that  toward  colleges  be  The  that  vocational  attitude  a  105  ethos  acceptable to  /  However,  Social  expected  about  oriented  comprehend  Presumably,  secure.  p r o g r a m s , a c c o r d i n g to  are  thought  it  than  art  them.  d e c i s i o n to  school.  "people  historical  practice  rather  career  came  part, art is  artistic  private  is a s i g n i f i c a n t  Art  is  who  a  the  to  placement  study  classes  most  classes... they  enroll  than  to  attitude An  of  offspring's  easier  elite  (p. 80).  lower  income  For  and  there"  standing  in  become  (1964)  reputation  students  an  arts  an  through  classes. at  Griff's  the  universities  patronize-but-don't-practice  the  goals  a manifestation  patronize  basis  w o r k s h o p s , parental  presumably  in  to  is  a l l e g i a n c e to  a  many of  low  (1964), b e c a u s e gratification  and  group.  nonsense by  domain  of  classes  that  the  the  wealthy  lower who  (p. 85).  middle  subculture  are to  those  emerge.  6  most  likely  to  Forging the allegiance to art  / 106  Motivation to study art  Given  the  pressures  from  parents  fine art as a career, what entering greater  into art skill  lifestyle  in  art  or  a way  freedom use of  which  of  anti-establishment  from  art  Weinberger's  merely  avoid  the  against  an opportunity  lack  nine  to  antithesis  of  the  come. The  associated ' with  study, but interest  five  of  choosing  work  acquiring  an  attractive  in  money  routine,  in  artist  is  the  and  and  m i d d l e - c l a s s values  glamor  the  for  a  from  lifestyle  and  reason  for  the  extensively and consistently documented. In Madge  (1973)  study,  for  my  non-art  friends  are only  materialistic  things.  My  student  school  academic  a general  students  values  entering art school most and  to  labor—the  these  the  makes one decide to enter art school? For many,  individuality,  nonutilitarian most  from  school represents not  based on  respectability,  and  example,  the  following  are  typical  comments:  Lots  of  parents  concerned with clothes and  are  only  concerned  with  their  Other friends' lives revolve around jobs, drinking, women—I  have  own life and achieving security, (p. 111) And:  nothing These friends  kinds  in common with them. (p. 111) of  values  may  develop  in  reaction  feel trapped, defeated, or unfulfilled  opportunities  for  personal  expression  and  to  watching  in jobs with few freedom.  From  parents  and  challenges or psychometric  F o r g i n g the studies,  Frank  "independent vocational reflects  Barron  way  of  choice.  (1972)  life"  He  suggests  (p. 4 9 ) s o  developed  that  strongly  a  art  students  value  the  has d e t e r m i n e d  their  these that  portrait  allegiance to  of  this the  fine  art  /  107  student  that  these values:  In  personality,  unconventional,  the  students  vivid  psychodynamically spontaneity,  in  gesture  but  with  and  are  notably  and  e x p r e s s i o n , rather  an  independent  and  complex  emphasis  upon  openness,  rather  than  neurotic  whimsicality  complicatedness... In  brief, they  sets  them  are  But of  it  c h o o s e to  apart  doing what  may  artist  be  are  from they  do  many would  what  they  value  m o s t , and this  apparently  better  adjusted people  rather  an o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n simply  expressing  not  to  a  student  may  the  artist's  outlook  may  seek  intellectual highly toward  to  legitimated  his  such  s a y that  divergence  in either  stereotypical  or as  her  role  that  of  art,  either  c a s e , the  may  with  there  as an artist  aspects  from with  artistic  created  opt  a l s o be  more  role  values  cases  others  activity  the  and the  in  where idea  and  highly  Emphasis  sufficient  for  dominant  lifestyle  scientist. of  the  may  different  the  have  those who  bohemian  necessarily being  intellectual  conceptual of  the  as  equate  roles,  satisfaction  But  reject  who  (p. 49).  s o c i e t y . M a d g e and W e i n b e r g e r s u g g e s t that the  itself  of  instead regarded  on  the  more  and  the  trend  lattitude  for  the  motivation.  expectation  of  the  art  program  is that  it  is  free  of  F o r g i n g the restrictive  organizational  programs.  It  situtation As  is  expected  that  one  define  where  Getzels  and  "complete  control  movement,  the  and  all  controls,  can  over  to  the  and  postsecondary  second motives and or  gave or  higher  furthering  One  years  included personal  capacity  former  art  the  ideas  of  idealism  in art  When  I  reasons knack  for  schools,  one  that  being  vaguely  (1976)  state,  to  both  the  at your  motive.  art  s c h o o l , equally  for  above.  to  thought  of  When  secondary  those  (p.  216),  Madge  doing  level  in  art  student  group  gave  art  seemed  photograph-like  In  a  art  school  letter  could for  make my  intrinsic  a  program to  as  me.  drawings  to  of  need, career  art.  entering  clear  73  their  release, compulsive  fine  and  art?",  students a  it.  each  school  was  a  having  rewards"  for  do  of  results  motive  in  about  summarizes the  fate  recalls:  there  an  one  for  how  prominent  doing  reasons  do  and  108  educational work  artist.  For  /  to  powerful an  Not  other  the  become  art  freedom  to  are  their  7  to  immediate  as  b e l i e v e d , thanks  of  the  is  university's  praised  aware  what  products  development.  making I  offers  "What  discussed  being  school  self-expression, emotional  the  compositions.  liked  level  student's  entered  relative  oneself  students  of  s c h o o l , he  for  the  as a m o t i v a t i o n  fine  several  of  art  "enjoyment"  which  earning  asked  least  action,  decision  (1973)  percent  for  each  concreteness  contribute  the  art  Csikszentmihalyi  Weinberger at  the  at  allegiance to  reading  secure  drawings satisfaction  a I  and  freshman,  had  "talent":  nicely  and that  with  such  cartoons, did  not  a  balanced  advertisements  living  my  to  art  skills. I and  depend  was on  of  Forging the allegiance to art hearing  applause. A n d  vividly  aware of  after  twelve  a desire to  years  stay as far  of  schooling  away from  I  term  / 109  was  papers  and libraries as p o s s i b l e . My  outlook  not,  was characteristic  I think, hopeless. The  confusedly, later—to society  Upon the  could his  put  art  that  not  energies  he  only  that  individual  art  in  enters  structured and The  for  course, at  sequence, an individual  genius".  art  joy was  art  students. It  of- creation was ready—as  activities  that  I  was  already,  discovered  promised  way,  instruction  insignificant  structured or  became  dropped  out  any  anything  point  increasingly  with,  urban  he  to  make  student  intellectuals the  and forms,  programs.  faced  romantic  also  success  an  emphasis rather  than  regrets. He  something  initiation  of  with belief  and  learning if  about  loosely  structured  in  "untutored  the  occur  the  talk  out, especially  recognition  in  to  being taught  conceivably  for  to  a technical e x e r c i s e — i n  had gained artistic  criterion  media art  could  a  is  disillusioned  c l a i m s , no  but  along  instead  reflecting  curriculum  new  common realities of  giving  and  disillusionment  place—is  an  student  school with an expectation  which the  performance  new  may become disillusioned and opt  drawing—upon  loosely  I  as being good for  (p.16). Of  curriculum  into  eventually  see art  a  intrinsic  And  s c h o o l , this  w o r d s , , "useful  about"  me.  many  more livable. (Winter, 1970, p . 1 5 - 1 6 )  entering point  within  of  if  skill  in the  program.  on  abstract,  on  drawing  in first  Both  a  conceptual, skills,  are  F o r g i n g the The  most  skills, the  crucial  test  expectations,  realities  w o r d s , the role  of  has  been  of  artist.  knowledge  of  the  mannerisms,  as  art as  legitimated  this  legitimated  for  art  academic within  commitment  to  If  these  conceptions  modernist it  likely  way that  of  these  are  art  subculture. formal  one  of  step  in  art  Even  art  knowledge  as  a  career  a  poor  art  based about  conceptions  almost  art,  as  become  other  or  hand, other  new  choice  most  often  the  norm  for  of  the  art  values, has  department  has  recruits.  has  is  It  viewed  alternative.  within  is  artist  concepts  that  exclusively  the  Weinberger,  set  develop  valued  to  an  internalized  art  its  110  In  as &  and  vocational  knowledge  /  student's  school.  this  skills  students  the  Madge  though  for  a  identity  have  school  department, of  and  art  a commitment  program,  in  hand,  a n d , on  year  curriculum  the  art  art  thinking  their  students  conceptions  first  immersed  counsellors  the  first  crucial  legitimation,  many  the  C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , 1976;  fine  effectively  interactions  &  on  pressures  the  of  become  cultural  and  year  have  ambiguous  parents  is  most  third  well  between,  external  school  (Getzels  students  fit  and  is the  the  affirmed  1973). A r t  art  year By  the  motives  the  first  of  allegiance to  on the  by  Through  and  solidify  the  department.  a  mainstream  case, so too  is  students.  THE FUNCTION OF THE ART DEPARTMENT IN PREVENTING "REALITY SLIPPING"  Berger  and  presuppose  Luckmann's the  childhood. This  same is  high  (1966)  concept  degree  b e c a u s e the  of  contents  of  adult  identification of  later  socialization as  does  socialization  does  socialization have  a  not in  "brittle  F o r g i n g the and  unreliable  internalizes  the  Luckmann, vary.  subjective  in the  subject  extent  not  ways  in  with  works  It  between  those  Berger  well  may  of  has  and  be  intensity  because from  training  need  "artificial"  that  it  "natural" is  not  of  immersing  be  as  with of  the  oneself  the the  a  commit  in  the  what  the  practically in  sharp  much  socialization  will  a  dominated  to  become  in  America.  a  in  the  of  world  situation  of  reality-accentuation by  Catholic  a religious priest  Consequently,  in  there  is  as  the  "rat  situation  race".  posits  the  that  are  monopoly.  Rome  American  an  century  appear the  in  with  nineteenth  in  a  art the  Catholic  making  music  subjectively  pluralistic of  the to  American  culture" in  in  himself  unnecessary  techniques  a situation  musician  for  "between  of  and  an  the  are  case  musician  to  from  are  area  & can  engineer,  comes  knowledge  knowledge  of  an  k n o w l e d g e , and of  child  (Berger  acclaimed artists to  111  identification  difference  intensification  was  religious  still  a  society,  must  Similarly,  is  of  that  "mass  in  bodies  world  /  this:  and  unnecessary  two  example  that  competition  for  of  an  assumed  "materialistic"  fields  larger  illustrate  precisely  powerful  the  learning  two  only  involves with  this  values  the  degree  identifying  person  socialization  the  artist  say  the  the  America  as  would  these  to  to  contemporary  Vienna,  the  Luckmann's  be  emotional  and  Luckmann  Where  there  art  art  early  parents  professional  for.  which  (p.133)  knowledge,  priest  and  her  in  s o c i a l i z a t i o n , the  a of  whereas  or  later  necessary  life  contrast  in  become  differences  applied."  his  and w a y s  as  of  artist.  to  Berger  intrinsic  of  1966). Y e t  Learning  example.  world  reality",  allegiance to  It  way  theological  F o r g i n g the seminaries devise  must  cope  techniques  surprisingly, they their  most  Likewise, of  art  we  for  students  to  say  that  New  York  In  and  example  intensify make  the  the  the  socialization.  Almost  importance  art  identity  as  courses  in  and  artist art  the  conversations  with  loft  environment  artists;  the  galleries; institutions prevent  and  solidify  (p.  art  other  53)  Columbia,  specifically,  the  of  the  the  to  art In  of  or  as  to  that  programs  the  the  centrality fellow  themselves  one's  work;  described  in  the  (1987) visual of  the  atmosphere  and  all  133),  in  a  the  the  student's  human  life  and  the  simulating  the  program  of  visiting  emphasis  on  visiting  3  as  legitimating  d e v i c e s that with  community  learning  to  discipline:  to  artists;  to  primary  the  students  interviews arts  (p.  art  art  chapter  w o r l d . T h e s e are Woods'  and  fine  of  art  studios  Berger  reinforces  to  in  preventing  found  commitment  are  loads  with  process"  strengthen  the  bus  "techniques...designed  closer art  sending  for  to  exhibit  in  artists,  are  Not  sending  adapted  socialization  among  importance  studio-loft  education  of  112  134)  functions  who  practices  participants the  also  demonstrate  activity  a w h i l e , (p.  device  there  and  the  teachers  fine  a  of  /  and  reality.  expedient  practice  within  artist,  same  obvious  the  camaraderie  "reality-slipping".  full-time" British  the  through  within  is  of  the  school  complete  and  encouragement and  art  art  "reality-slipping"  Rome for  priests,,  more  that  the  City  of  of  stick"  to  everything  history  history;  the  charge  identification  problem  upon  case  affective  of  hit  students  "reality-slipping." Luckmann's  the  "making  have  promising  could  with  a l l e g i a n c e to  function  30 in  "eminent, Vancouver,  environment,  discussions  with  to  peers,  more was  F o r g i n g the alluded  to  several  Montalto's  (1983)  regarded  by  We area  And  in  was  the  out  It  was  "direct  of  was  We  were  part  of  Berger  and  reality"  is  always the  It  discussing  art  was  classes.  a way  Luckmann  of  art  (p.  of  113  resembles  artists  was  still  empathy"  (p.  122).  studios. People  lived  as  New  exciting  school  and  as the  in  an  York's  creative  life  100).  legitimated  "socializing socializing  personnel" personnel  individual the  setting  art  the  teacher  (rather  traditional art  being  than  in the  was  work.  more  making  explain  defined  on  that  as  arts,  becomes  as the  others'  That  valid  was  than  a  big  everything  s e n s e . There w e r e  visitors,  102).  socialized"  classroom) student.  This  fine  take  each  things  (1966)  institutionally  ambiguously  for  and  development  just  a g o . The  interwoven  art  this  /  illustrative:  probably  p a i n t e r s , and writers...(p.  of  the  to  and  art  another;  (else).  the  to  each other's  years all  summarized,  exposure  r e s p o n s e s are  a few  city  Woods  significant  and  together.  SoHo of  as  interview  were  As  summary,  most  The f o l l o w i n g  times.  allegianc e to  functions  the  as  relationship  "charged  the  character  (p.  133). W e  with  "charge"  of  new  case  of  the  person  to  the  is,  the  the the  significant  could  master  in  the  'significance'.  of  teacher/student to  "commitment  necessary,  curriculum, as rigid  where  say  artist  that in  hierarchical that  teacher  to  That  others the  vis-a-vis  phenomenon  a studio  workshop  structures with  of  the  significance  Forging The  individual  the  new  to  the  reality. faith,  whole  of  course,  his  face  life.  final  3).  many  From  alienation  the  from  peripheral  and  having  of  Getzels  words  other  school  to  the  critical  ability  themselves effective. to  identify  of  with  of  is  this  of  artist  from  the  revolution,  oneself  type  of  is  without  114  to  subjectively  sacrifice  of  role  an  to  do  an  a  take  up  with  not  ambiguous  art  as  a  career  enterprise  have  the  is,  of  socialization.  problems  its  sacrifices  legitimation  career, many  possibilities  that  preschool  the  is  seen  in the  art  students  and  by  "real  of  earning  many  w o r l d " . But  as in  to  alive  occupation, fade  link  in  the  experiments  effectiveness to  kept  away.  long  with  because  art  The  art  sequence  of  crayons  to  final  artist.  play  1968), then  role  been  unlikely  crucial  interactions the  to  parents, uncertain to  what  the  way  /  133)  which  individuals  Through  the  independent  (Inkeles,  with  readiness  to  such  from  test  m u s i c , to  decision  plans  as an  to  but  comprehensive  art  and C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i (1976, p. 2 1 8 ) :  becomes  success  himself"  arise  little  be  experiences  a  which  dedication  career  appeared  to  their  and  in  partially The  a l l e g i a n c e to  himself  consequence  of  capacity,  the  just  & L u c k m a n n , 1966, p.  conflicts,  (chapter  If  "gives  summary, commitment  and  the  commits  He  not  the  (Berger  In  then  the  the  of  the  roles  socialization within  the  the  extent  art that  socialization  in  which  they  into  the  artist's  process may role  later is  department,  art  students  they  to  have  appear  lies  in find  indeed come  taken  on  Forging characteristics  of  the  Weinberger,  1973;  limited  of  set  province  of  social  Montalto,  western  meaning,  differentiated  type  and  1983).  romantic  a  insulated  specialized  sanctioned  by  the  of  institutional  collection process  code of  discipline.  m a i n t a i n , and  perpetuate  hand  fine  elevates  scholarship, other  hand,  disciplines Through  to  significant  postmodernist move  art  art's of  in  so of  effective art  reform  education  into  the  and  culturally a  finite  is  highly  specialized  major  player  functions which  realm  value  of  the  the  insular  to  defend, the  one  "truth"  and  but,  to  in  and  on  world;  in  framed  university's  specialized  the  is a  on  the  technocratic "real  world".  academic  legitimation,  the  art  cultural  reproduction  of  its  the  knowledge  and  that  the  peripheral  immediate  in  a  everyday as  Madge  s h a p e d and  insulation in  115  on  other  and  recruits  place  of  socialization  been  is  and  /  a  based  and  art  a r t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , it  this  its  on  knowledge  has  to  position  more  is  department  committed  knowledge  of  become  art  its  It  applied  department  maintaining  be  conceptions  to  art  based  of  that  1972;  is  knowledge  differentiation  fine  processes  the  cultivates  to  traditional  needs  it  by  maintains  has  of  The  the  opposed  thought  the  department  as  art  everyday  knowledge  individuals  allegiance  ideals.  discipline  allegiance to  (Barron,  identity  c o u s i n " , the  structures  curriculum.  getting The  "poor  artist  artistic  from  its  the  Their  specialized  disciplines, including body  of  the  that  it  is  able  toward  the  broader  a more  vital  and r e l e v a n t  to  knowledge role  in  impede base  it  society.  Forging the allegiance to art  /  116  NOTES 1  "Secondary" socialization is the term Berger & Luckmann and others use to refer to the socialization that takes place in adulthood, in contrast to "primary" socialization which takes place in childhood.  2  Only eight percent of the graphic design students and 26 percent the fine art students answered "no" to this question.  of  3  This case is based that school district.  of  4  Madge and Weinberger (1973) found that the number of parents with an "actual artistic interest or activity" in art was higher, but not significantly s o , for art students than for non-art students. In 14 out of 50 families of non-art students, one or both of the parents had an interest in the arts, as compared with 14 out of 42 families of art students.  5  The words "alienation" and "artist" appear so frequently together that their conjunction has almost become a cultural cliche, explains Barbara Rosenblum (1985):  on  personal  discussion with  an  administrator  This fact, alone, compels sociological attention precisely because cliches are shorthand forms of discourse which simultaneously conceal and congeal social processes, (p. 35). Following from Marx's treatment of alienation, s o c i o l o g i s t s see it as a function of a lack of control over the work processes and separation from the final products. Rosenblum argues, however, that artists have a very high degree of control over the work process in terms of choice of materials and technologies, work pace, and control over the aesthetic judgements that determine the form of the work itself. It is the marketplace relations over which individual artists have little control. 6  Of the 174 art students in Madge and Weinberger's study, 142 came from schools generally attended by the middle c l a s s : 92 from grammar schools, 25 from comprehensive s c h o o l s , and 25 from secondary modern schools. Only 15 came from private s c h o o l s . , Eleven came from technical s c h o o l s , and six from special art s c h o o l s .  7  N i n e t y - t w o percent agreed with the statement "The value of an art education is in furthering personal development in whatever direction this may lead" and 89 percent agreed with the statement "The freedom given to each student to f o l l o w his own development here is very valuable" (p. 70).  CHAPTER 5 LEGACIES THAT LEGITIMATE: SOCIAL ORIGINS OF THE ACADEMICIZATION  OF  ART  As  with  any discipline, art  of  respected  knowledge  organization  of it  the  in  "noble"  or  subject  philosophical traditions place  matter,  of  long  art  in  as  a  past  liberal  sake set  of  the  authorities  and  and their  art department base,  despite  determine  knowledge. students  with  economic chapter  motivation  hardships  it  6, namely, the  the above  objections  these to  to  traditions pursue  brings. A  fourth  art  of  the  117  these  legitimate and  a  the  concepts  these s o c i a l l y - a c c e p t e d university knowledge  exclusivity  provided  artists  career  in  tradition  more recent avant-garde tradition  traditions.  and  Together  activities  cultural  significant  three  painting  tradition,  to  art  systems  and  fine arts as its  a  by  of  as  social groups, the  have as  and  chapter  drawing  purport  of  is able to maintain the traditional  Furthermore,  in this  the  association with privileged  postmodernist  meanings  aesthetics.  that  and  process  conceptions  educational of  selection  past—the tradition. This  presented  arts  which a body  conscious  core  acceptable to education in art. With the authority traditions  a  traditional  tradition  of  education  less  of  through  w o r d s , the  academy tradition  the  art-for-art's  function  is  practices are  legacies: the  other  a significant  determinants  socially sanctioned art  traditions  education  significant  historical  has a history  developed. In  is a consequence of  outlines  knowledge. Key of  has  knowledge  educators than chapter  knowledge  of  of and  art  of  the  spite is  such  discussed in  rejecting  all  of  Legacies The  claim  was  practices are  not  made  currently  earlier  that  embodied  representative  of,  or  claim  demands  consideration  is  In  kinds  it?  and in  what  other a  art  provide  and  some  demonstrates  The  claim  been  crucial  the  scholarly  the  last  few  graduate  and  elevating  with  began the  the as  in  artist's early art  of  art  in role  as  the  move  a new  a of  art  skilled  1  Whose is  so  respected  its  chapter,  exclusivity  in  reviewing  attempts  doing, at  a  knowledge it  knowledge,  it  reform  to also  are  up  legacies.  alliance social  alliance,  of  fine  status with  demonstrates  with  position  associated  been  that  has  art  and  its  p r o c e d u r e s , has  a source  emphasizing  occurred  within  into  universities  and  eventually  for  legitimating  that  discipline  Attempts—not  Renaissance  movement.  Such  retain  d i s c i p l i n e , as  strategy  society. from  the  chapter of  clients.  attempts  art's  academic  This  base  the  not  though  and  their  In  institutional  maintaining  knowledge  society  long? This to  118  western  been able to so  /  in  originate? W h y  questions.  the  of  legitimate  art  questions:  legitimating  and  theoretical  status  conceptual  that  artists.  s t u d i e s , is its  it  it  for  these  ties  decades with  into  reformulate  many  and  has  3), e v e n  disciplinary for  many  following does  of  institutions  to,  background  set  has  complaint  man"  a formidable  of  forms  obstacles postmodernist  made  constraints of  the  (chapter  the  into  also  education  of  persist  was  universities in  and  insight  against, namely  relevant  historical  further  educational  not? H o w  society  social  dominant  institutions  knowledge  pluralistic  some  of  in  the  that  artisan and  to  always  successful—to  philospher  culminated  in  and this  "ideas century  Legacies THE LEGACY OF THE ART  Emancipation from the  Before  art  attention being the  to  part  a  of  concept  medieval manual  The  formal  of  art  society.  the  aspects  of  (Kelly,  aims  of  and  chivalric  the  tastes  and  the  and  The and  of of  at  time  the  was  the  119  the  time  the  could  priority  was  higher  clergy  1983).  Because  this  ruling  classes,  questions  artist artists  were  classes  to  of  came  considered  of  too  consider  the  to  little  from  the  trade  one  of  in the  society  the  practical  to  workshop  pressure  of  devote  to  teaching  satisfy  the  interests  Church activity  and  the  was  directed  of  artistic  nobility  peasant for  a serious  or  working  members vocational  to  freedom  consequence. Almost  degrading as  knowledge,  western  master  that  with  status.  contributing  case  master  as  as  medieval a  goes  a manual  special  in  significant  that  counts"  being  from  same  status  of  regarded  had no  artists  the  matter  "what  was  learned  master's  the  Florentine  upper-middle  artist  a  from  times  frequently  (Hauser,  profession  1970).  was  clients—the  status  of  away  preparing  while  the  norms  century  develop  for  become  conferred  medieval  1974). The  classes  social  fourteenth  (Antal,  his  be  apprentice  it  limited  and  ruling  An  However,  apprentices  first  could  k n o w l e d g e , of  profession  profession  commissions  and  during  responsible  the  production.  circles.  had to  workshop.  sort  educational  Art  /  laborer  any  elite  c r a f t s , and the  institution  was  of  cultural  legitimate  ACADEMY  status of  knowledge  that  all  class of  the  choice  Legacies As  with  most  for  the  and  architects  occupations  purpose  of  were  of  the  fourteenth  to  the  large  guild  was  dealers  silk  apothecaries,  sculptor,  Donatello  social  Some  were  individual first linking  the  concerning Kurtz,  the  stigma  who  often for  in  1979).  3  for  Cathedral  of  with a  to an  artist's Through  became  their their be artist  patrons.  mentioned to  life, career travel  to  a and  and  in  work  a  is  of  the  the  status with  or  the  wool  and  doctors  and  (Antal,  and  Oriental economic  from  1970).  the  Unlike  2  enterprises, the  as  painter  had  of  a more  elevated  prince  or  prince's  clients and  case  to  came  to  paint  (Antal,  1970).  stood  with  out-  Giotto,  chronicle.  an into  patrons,  a  Italy  Florentine  art  to  valuable  about  more  any  social  contact  to  achievements  This  drugs  themselves  travelled  professional  upon  social  client  prior,  known  relied  Florence,  identifiable  painters  who  communal  in  a  larger  with  labor  large  merchant,  This  imported  separate  manual  1970).  and  enough  works  an  Some  doing,  artist  eventually  worked  banker,  to  gain  to  contact  for  to  who  beginning joined  and  association  formed  was  crafts  painters  the  attached  the  so  name  to  1972).  the  120  sculptors  the  organization  chemicals  merchants  painters  them  to  at  (Antal,  /  guilds  Painters,  g u i l d s . But  painter's  as  legitimate to  artists.  numerous  was  with  the  personalities  the  such  It  admired  individual  wares  on.  personal  and  of  and  (Baxandall,  frescoes,  members  especially  and  apothecaries  waxes  standing—a  officer  and  belonged  separate  F l o r e n c e , the  various  so  artists  trade  in  and  worked and  in  of  enable  and  art  organized  doctors  permitted  to  frequent  of  time,  pigments,  and  that  tradesmen the  the  century  supply  dyes,  standing  protecting each  guild  industry,  wares,  that  comprised  to  doctors,  at  that  event, being some  as the  From  records (Kris  &  painters  Legacies gradually  assumed  pushed  for  Artistic  freedom  greater  extent  time "in  to  artistic  A  own  the  Duke  1972).  F e r r a r a , the  Baxandall  (1972, p. 3)  still of,  the  some  painter  combination  liberty like  that  of  came  that  possible the  sense painting  with  to  important  among  painter  other  to  was  paid  by  be  things,  the  the  not  to  reproduce  c a s e s , as w i t h  client  square  to  for  some  a  writes,  left  a  a  and  to  the  commercial  painting  after  Borso  foot  d'Este,  (Baxandall,  of  term.  as c r a f t .  It  This also  within  this  the  artistic  social  abilities.  artists  to  practical  in  and  A  a  training  of  closest  event signalled  to  signalled  a  of  the  change of  of  artistic  status,  led  artists  art  Medici  the  raised  sense  they  instruction status  workshops. At  "school"  a separation  artist's  a system  prominent  de  a  a  from  concept  more  the  5  economic  break  Florence, Lorenzo  comes  guilds,  s t r i c t n e s s , and  M i c h a e l a n g e l o to  purely  that  see  improved  and  century  workshop the  an  art  discipline to  elevate  the  fifteenth  him  their  would  through  teaching  strict  Da V i n c i  restricting  sought  the  enabling  Leonardo  was  too  compositions  even  4  consciousness  of  but  was  121  chance.  materials,  deposit  in  a  of  subjects. A s  contracted  was  their  of  the  there  /  have  in  choice  painting  may  evident handling  was  client  whenever  or  s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , and of  themselves  meets a c a d e m i c ; The academies of  Art  A  The  for  style,  century,  painting  relationship. his  their  legitimate  c l a s s - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and  increasingly  in their  fifteenth  painter."  elevated  liberty  was  in  come  the  an  that  opened  than the the  in  the  present  from  the  tradition  teaching  of  art  felt was was end first day of from  Legacies the  practice  sculptor  and  students' Rather,  the  director  training  in the  was  could and  art.  not  until  in  improve wider  the  Giorgio  color  Vasari,  it  of  to  The  a  artist  universe.  art  be on  taught painting,  sense was In  his  but of seen  not  the  genius, as  treatise  first  This  the  1974).  and  the  Its in  was  the  a  a  having  that  the  antique  a his  work.  and  was  for  modern  all  studies  the  was  by  (Hauser, in  del  subsequent  intention  workshops  step  that  Accademia  which  original  guild  founded  theoretical  the  from  decisive  for  to  including  1983).  This  formation  of  evening  and  first  time  of  proposed  courses, insofar  architecture  was  worldly gift  the  physics, perspective, anatomy,  of  artist  divine the  122  elevated.  form  pursuit  require  commissioned  regulation  founder,  the  not  /  Bertoldo,  on  a venue  founder's  academic  sculpture, of  did  institution,  mathematics, in  workshops,  institution  prototype  instruction  as  of  sense of  academy's  such  study  the  courses.  instruction  master  legitimate  1974).  that  considered  e s s e n t i a l quality  tradesman, was  of  (Kelly,  the  6  bearing  V a s a r i , the the  (Kelly,  guild  workshop,  the  in the  knowledge  subjects  theory a  on  of  the  c o n s c i o u s n e s s as s o c i a l l y  theoretical  had  assisting  practical  theoretical  artist's  Medici  1563, h o w e v e r ,  derived  academicization  the  collection  F l o r e n c e , is  upon  masters  based  routine  academies  the  of  be c a l l e d an a c a d e m y  Disegno  the  was  Medici  scholarly  art  Unlike  include  instruction  works  It  of  that  something honors  bestowed  capacity  to  (Pevsner, more  and  by  discover  than  that  (Gaunt, laws  they  1973).  fortunes.  God the  as  of  and  For of  Rather, 1963). God's  Lives of the painters, sculptors, and architects (1963),  Vasari  is  possess The  translated such  artists'  gifts  for  keeps  ability  art  of  despite  parents  and p e e r s that inquiry  inquiry  into  beginning  of  modern  art.  Through  a  spread  qualities  the  autonomy  process  until  it  system  was  Peinture such  also  et  that  Academie's  de all were  the  that  men  laws  profiled  but  of  in  rather  God's  that of  divine  4,  this  from  to  held by  craft.  an  motivation  d i s c i p l i n e , and other  art  was  committed  attitudes  who gods."  universe  of  123  those  mortal  c a n a l s o be v i e w e d  distinguish art  chapter  h a r d s h i p s , the  and the  the  schools,  difficulties.  as a k i n d It  marks  a n d , as Hauser (1983) n o t e s , the  only  for  to  block &  the  opposition  selecting  conception  France,  (Kelly,  In in  of the  crisis  that  paintings  thrust  the  of  next  White  artists for  &  were  exhibit  a  in  three  the  of  its  Royale  de  monopoly  schools  painters  attain.  annual  the  for  1965). The to  this  centuries,  virtual  Private  expected  of  provided  "free"  White,  in F r a n c e ,  role  Academie  aside.  artists  core  social  have  the  all  the  the  might  crown, forcing  1974;  At  8  preparing  education  1648, e s t a b l i s h e d  officially the  of  art  of  throughout  1965).  by  of  England.  that  founded  standards  and  a  system  system  adaptation  was  prohibited  the  states  dominate  White,  Sculpture,  academic the  academies was  not to  the  dominated German  organization  dictated  responsible  as  diffusion,  the  of  (White  workshops  Royale  later,  was  expansion  of  eventually  growing  that  say  /  7  and  but  nature  indeed  mere  is a s e c o n d - r a t e  the  Holland,  artist  into  legitimate  Renaissance period. S o m e  economic  art  that  may  not  discover  the  the  "We  are  students,  pursuit  Vasari's  to  of  art  effect:  Raphael  artists  many  this  as  special  inspiration still  to  Legacies  into  and the  Academie Its  spring  jury, salon,  Legacies acted who  as  gate  had  an  keeper ability  powerful  alliance  for  to  The  them  work  to  1965).  1.  of  a  and  exhibiting  a  morality,  were  not  A c a d e m i e . It  of  of  a  in  also  hierarchy  "correct" program  the  basis  with  its  of  of  favour made  artists  Only  and  the  portray 3.  the  the  White  and  Christian  are  most  perfect  painting such  Only  as  epitomized to  Academic of  subject  only  in  inculcate  system  and W h i t e  the  matter  certain  (again  appropriate 4.  The  5.  (1965, p p .  and 6-7):  subject  Pictorial  set  of  be  "nobly"  or  high  representation  figure  is  the  of  highest  composition unity:  there  should s h o u l d be  or e x p r e s s i o n .  6. D r a w i n g  found  in  classical  selected  from  sculpture nature  to  expressive Renaissance  the  human  form  and  positions in  origin)  and are  figure. expresses  perfect,  beauty.  h a r m o n y , and form  (as  Raphael) should  classical  in the  human  "absolute"  forms  is the  probity  of  art.  preserve  classical  no  elements  jarring  balance, either  the  (White  matter  proper  by  those  subjects.  a  gestures  of  this  difficult  matter. 2.  124  of  it  subject  training  hierarchy  themes  of  style  is s u m m a r i z e d b y  Classical  /  1974).  doctrine  as  legitimate  ( F a r r e l l , 1982), p r e v e n t i n g  who  the  (Kelly,  routinized  doctrine,  or  in  definition  persist  The  world  innovation  Royale's rigid  was  undertone  artistic  elsewhere  Poussin,  precepts White,  from  importance,  of  the  for  exhibit  Academie  cultural  to  that  of  & its  Legacies By  1800  the  art  style  academy. Quentin Bell  The  style  from  of  the  a  of  was,  frantic  distortions  of  the  of  core  part  perspective,  the  Western  (1971),  written  who  mid-ninteenth  has  century  was  masters  "control were  so  attempt  to  metier,  was  the  to  on  s a m p l e s , the  these  his  the  live  of  paint in  master, w a s student  of  those It  of  /  125  of  the  the  was  and  of  to  the  words:  also  It the  in  life  poses,  drawing,  ornamental  control  students'  young  speed of  one  of  ability to  gain  of  student,  s a m p l e s of four  the  style"  technical  art  Boime  system  evoked by  will  Mastery  show  in  academy  students  placed  fine  the  and h i s t o r y . A l b e r t  their  a c a d e m i e s . The required  for  was  m o d e l ) t h a t , as a w a y  technique.  whereby  "restraint".  of  principle  you  their  gaudy  art  instruction  set  the  with  striking  the  an  free  status".  was  and  be,  artifices  Racine, which  about  that  in  was  from  "chastity",  detail  develop  emphasis  presented  in  that  to  e x p r e s s e d in  defined  preoccupied  they  mastery  aptly  legacy  well  of  crowd.  "regime  instruction  from  and  the  age  France, states  (drawing  would  a  intended  Greco-Roman mythology  an academie  drawing  that  c o m p o s i t i o n , and from  Several  the  was  any  being  artistic  m o t i f s , and t h e m e s  academies  of  was  Caravaggio, from  "regularity",  P o u s s i n , and o f  of  of  of  program  "decorum",  a coherent  or  fact, from  favor  society  mannerism,  followers  gain  e d u c a t e d , its  forms  The  of  European  legitimate  comments:  academies  might  "nobility",  age  (1970, p.690)  V e n i c e o r , in  painter  highly  upper-class  the  verisimilitude colors  of  that  his  French (p.  to  in  4).  make  prestige,  execution  in  procedures, upon  being  work.  Based  hierarchal  levels.  Legacies that legitimate The  most  the  elementary  second was  level  drawing  was  copying  drawings  live  students  of  this  last  painter  category  were  academies of  instruction  of  more  that  the also  like  designated  area  of  s y s t e m , control jurisdiction,  and  Hauser wrote  (1959, p.  another  of  form  the  over quality  129), art  old strait  give the artist  more  strictly  is,  of  number  control  of of  upon the  practical  a professional status  craftsmen, instruction than  privileges—control  the  advanced  "journeymen", that  improve  than  their  most  work.  literati  organized even guarded  as  established to  philosophers or  had tenaciously  of  were  the guild system and to  academies was  apprentice  art  was  David's atelier, the  artists who aided the master in his own  Although  third  engravings,  live model, and finally, the most advanced level was painting from the in the  casts, the  and  the  that  classical  of  drawing  m o d e l . Boime notes  from  the  / 126  in the over  painters materials  academies turned  out  laced, anti-progressive  guilds, which  training  practicing used. to  in  the  in each  As  9  be  by  Arnold  "nothing  institution  they  but were  supposed to be replacing."  In  the  German  Academie political control  academies  Royale  in  absolutism style  was  the of  at  of  art,  eighteenth the  French  odds with the  patterned  after  the  century,  the  spirit  doctrine  of  idealism  appearing  curriculum of  of  the  rationalism  and  controlling  in the  of  portrayed  of the beautiful, as a unique individual of  genius. Genius was considered an  talent,  a  process  of  the  mind's  self-activity,  artist  writings  to  Kant, Schiller, and Goethe. These authors  inherent  the  instruction  not  as a creator  a  product  of  Legacies rules in  i m p r e s s e d on  art,  left  according  as  show  The  much  their  the  by  genius as  with  a  principle,  possible  separation  of  conception  moral  obligation  pronounced  of to  during  the  development  of  photography  that  so  long  had f o r  1979).  Furthermore,  the  late  with  of  the  academies.  avoided  uniform  beginning  artists  the  fine  as  a  arts  127  Instruction  mechanisms  and  to  and  from  cultivate,  education  b e e n the the  tradition  s i n c e the  Middle Ages  To  industrial  production  make  series of workers training  surrender (Efland, servants  in for  r e q u i r e d . But just  repetitive  begun their  and  workers  neither to new  in  an  theory  craft  production  was  being  replaced by  efficient,  the  were  students  nurture freedom  industrial  decorative  the  to  nor  the  take the  the  work  a calling  status to  by  were  these  the  high  Industrial  for art art,  had  art  in  in  system.  segmented  developing. A  of  art  been  person. New  positions  notion  of  (Benjamin,  factory  was  of  1981b). The  artist  that  one  became  theory"  the  genius  growth  (Wolff,  t e a c h e r s in t h o s e  Romantic  and  system.  arts  the  "imitation guiding  of  ideals  with  of  more  the  who  1983). T h e i r s w a s of  the  operations, each p e r f o r m e d  design  aesthetic  Revolution  weakened  dominant  individual  century  Industrial  had  unique  transcendental nineteenth  the  existence  had  in  artist  pursue  concomitant  of  for  education  individualism,  for  authority  /  arts  Romantic  a  the  legitimate  talents.  This  most  to  mind  freedom  institutional  applied  the  that  into roles  program  industry  was  academies which were  to  roles  in  for  noble  p u r p o s e s , not  as  then  construed, was  a  as  factory  about  production  Legacies "lesser  The  distinction  was of  c a l l i n g " ( E f l a n d , 1983, p.  a dual  track  intensified system  (gewerbeschulen) f o r other  track  curriculum applied  was of  both  arts  drawings  the  fine  of  the  copying  other  drawings  separate  artist  the  certain  "high  In for  France, other pure  of  geometric  factors  drawing  principal  royal  examples  essential France  of  of  the  the of  past, the  most  geometric  /  128  applied  arts  of  and  further and  Arthur student  (1965,  the  lesser  began  with  the  live  insulated  the  fine  with  to  replicate  upper  156) class  class."  and  accepted  in  from  of  legitimation.  widespread  that  The  copying  an e x c l u s i v e n e s s  p.16-17):  revolutionary  power.  and  E f l a n d (1983, p.  explain  of  industry.  Although  1 0  served  cultivation  symbols  in  painting  in the  was  schools  considered a  the w o r k i n g  art  trade  drawing  for  was  England  drawing, drawing  drawing  world  art  the  and  jobs  This w a s  schools  the  the  governments  exposition  exhibited  and W h i t e  concern  nineteenth-century  involved  was  academy.  drawing  was  Germany  essentially  sequence  for  in  and the  design  the  structure. A s  was  were  fill  practical  social class  p a i n t i n g , as W h i t e  The  the  to  of  trade  arts  O n e track  motifs.  arts  for  fine  was  ended with  art  or  of  mostly  decorative  and  academic  aspirations while  development  education  curriculum  the  the  education  fine  concerns  aspects of  writes,  and  high  artistans  consisted  established  model. This from  of  the  instruction.  arts  types  ornaments  version  art  preparing  programs  of  with  of  legitimate  151).  perceived between  significantly  that  succeeding  Following as  being  Nineteenth  comprehensive  the an  century  government  Legacies involvement  with  international Napoleon  In  return f o r  p r o v i d e , the sustain  The  the  of  artist  was  and  with  legitimation  state  provided  series  long,  for  for  more  a  for  parents  a  which  French  high  structural  129  the Louis  art.  a c a d e m i c art support  in  could  required  highly  to  the  the  Dedication  discernible  record  art  applied  artists  an  appealed  to,  bourgeois  o f f i c i a T painting sense.  was  and  of  arts,  the  middle-class of  competitive  preparation  fine  s o n s through  preparation  "weeding-out".  the  because  than  s e n d their  by  B e c a u s e the  and  class  the  publicly  and  artists.  profession  competition,  in  Beginning essence a  perseverance  would  of  advancement  (White  social  structure  the  &  1965).  has  of  been  academies profound.  system  was  responsible  critics,  once  subsidiaries  independence recruiting was  to  at  certain  furthered  competitive, social  1867  was  /  painting.  was  educating  willing  became  pure  art  and  that  legitimate  culmination  Europe with  economic of  The  and  power  the  higher  contests  influence  world  a  state.  1855  of  fine  strict,  entrance  of  White,  of  system  Painting  produce  in  academic ideology  the  the  any  s o v e r e i g n s of  the  became  system.  The  d a z z l e d the  represented  fathers  of  exhibitions  exclusiveness  nature  art  that  in  painters  generated  by  the  in  art  upon  According  the  to  White  for  our  present  to  the  academic  response and  of  to  the  response  publicity  deaier-critic  success to  and  the  and a t t e n t i o n  system, of  the  White,  of  the  system. grew  in  academic  Dealers  and  numbers  and  official  system  increased  public  interest,  given to  art  the  by  art  of  which  state.  Legacies Although in  art  the  programs  1950s  responsibility, present  1960s  many  1 1  system  knowledge fully  and  in  drawing  generally  considered  media.  "intermedia" categories;  "ARTES  to  be  are  inserted  as  into  categories.  LIBERALES"  One  most  such  art  of  especially  technical or  specializations added  they  in  otherwise  levels  to  changed  our basic  n u d e , are and  work  outlines, of  still with  conventional  format  and  academies,  "experimental"  these program  in  the  the  the  as  university  sculpture,  painting  such  many  little  for  130  structured—the  of  from  a  is  are  /  declined  remain  painting,  drawing  sometimes  an  departments  preparation  appear  tradition inheritance  skill  art  increasingly  drawing, of  legitimate  a c a d e m i e s of  academy  hierarchy  technique,  however,  knowledge  the  the  became  the  practices  Departments arts  of  which  art  after  training  instruction.  Resembling  12  art  around  fine  exercises  add-ons,  art  categories  printmaking.  as  directly  elements  of  legitimated  other  modelled  that  or core  these  are  conventional  1 3  OR  THE  ART  OF  PRODUCING  REFINED  AND  BROADLY  the  institution  EDUCATED CITIZENS  The  shift  from  governing painter  the  and  a valued practice remained practice  sculptor.  art  too of  art  guild  preparation  citizen of  the  workshop  of  artists  H o w e v e r , it  that  permitted  into  the  much  of  eventually  was  the  stigma  slipped  the  helped not  of of  into  academy  elevate any  eventual  curriculum a  to  the  social  belief  universities.  the  social  acceptance  technique  of  status  in  the  craft  of  art for  because of  of  artist  instruction  Much  and  university  as  in  the as the  practice that.  The  a need  for  Legacies public  school  influences  came  architecture, color  teacher  from  home  theory  painters  expertise  in  at  and  these  kept  a  it  considered a permissible  influential  greater  belief  direction  artists,  values  of  the  accommodated by  contrast, had  feelings. technical  been  "artist-in-residence"  example  was  working  exploring  the  1930s,  the  University  important  and c a l l i n g  some  soon widely  become  production to  were a  because  the  heritage  of  tended  towards  a  of  with  the  defined  world  likely  a  university.  commonly  the  art,  of  inner  studio  painter,  to  readily  be  milieu.  progressiveness With  had  controversial of  1966).  c o u r s e s , and  dealing  the  craftsperson, were  and  offered  frame  approach  drawing  increasingly  had for  as  provide  art  within  more  Secondary  to  thanks  academic  the  located a few  1970).  the  of  early  before  131  such  lists  history  systems  approach  the  Larabee,  analytic  not  Art  /  (Ritchie,  faculty  historians  subjectivist  Yet,  universities'  Art  tools  history  subject  the  in an a c a d e m i c  University  long  academic  within  if  level.  Neither  endorsed  in  curriculum  and  required  were  art  1966).  programs  on  courses  supplement  universities.  objectivity  "craft",  subjective nor  in  easily  Studio  university  German  art  enlightening"  part  the  the  utilitarian  accepted  legitimate  (Ritchie,  communicative  were  to  formal was  of  "cultural  art  engineering, which  Studio  framework  in  more  and  sculptors  matters.  arts  at  existing,  descriptive  a liberal  first  courses  e c o n o m i c s , and  as  Gradually,  within  preparation  that  in  artists  attention  imitated  Wisconsin  w i t h i n their to  supporting  incentive  of  both artistic  from  a c r o s s the  the  the  and  setting, entitling artists' merits  production Carnegie  United  Darmouth  States  them  and  (Chipp,  Foundation, (Larabee,  the  1968; this 1970)  Legacies that legitimate and eventually usurp  in Canada. The role  the function  of  World War II shift engaged to teach were  of universities  professional  was not to  specialized art s c h o o l s . With  in art capitals from in universities  at the time  the post  Europe to New York, artists  on a part-time  being accepted as permanent  / 132  faculty  basis. S o o n , many  were artists  members regardless of the fact  that many of them had never attended universities themselves (Chipp, 1968). The hiring of artists as f u l l - t i m e faculty procuring  for art practice  suitable for the university  a certain  members was a significant step in  legitimacy  as an intellectual  discipline  curriculum.  Liberal arts values as official justification for the study of art in universities  The  study  of  very different a  art as it from  1895 lecture,  w a s first  taught  in universities  meant  something  the study of art in art academies at the same time. In  Charles  Waldstein,  a professor  of  fine  arts,  made  distinction very clear to his Cambridge University audience: Art  production  is  taught  in  masters, the conservatories studied  and to  be  the  art  academy,  the  studios  . . . Art understanding ought  thoroughly  represented  in  our  of  to be  universities.  (Waldstein, 1896, pp. 4 - 5 ) "One thing, which I hardly need impress," Waldstein continued, is that I  consider  the  task  which  before him as quite distinct to, that of the artist  the  university  student  of  art has  f r o m , though it need not be opposed  or that of the amateur. We cannot, we need  the  Legacies not,  and  we  will  conservatories, a r c h i t e c t s , or  R a t h e r , the was  to  a  to  to  way,  legislator  are  our  the  of  affect  an  or  our  art  in  education.  and  growth  life of  educated age,  of  academies  painters,  or  133  and  sculptors,  or  u n i v e r s i t i e s , as W a l d s t e i n  A  general  and  of  education,  after  saw all,  it,  was  from  North  1970). N o r t o n Frederick  and  science,  h a b i t , an our  regards  all  to  the  who  (1955,  the  height this  of  in  statesman  our  his and  felt  1896,  of  like  a need  colleges to  P.65),  and  b e , to "no  must  think,  transfuse  conduct,  p.  art an  we  character—before  practical  A m e r i c a , supplied  there  thought  intellectual  seemed  American  believed  Logan  of  e t h o s ; they  connoisseurs  have  professor Europe  the  representative  knowledge,  English must  on  101)  new  as  stands  creativeness. (Waldstein,  America  in  is  character—even  fellow  art  man, who  letters  efficient  moral  North  and  education,  of  "emotional"  N o r t o n , a Harvard  Mahoney,  art  /  7)  in t h e i r s , (p.  become  Waldstein  art  second-rate  study  his  acquisition  mental  Eliot  and  man  become  they  tradition,  the  general  refined  the  and  of  a  as  must  To  of  civilization  All  produce  with  legitimate  make  truly  the  compete  m u s i c i a n s , (p.  purpose  add  thought  to  not  that  or  our  102)  in  the  "belles-lettres"  aesthetic  desert. Charles  to  import  the  original  universities quote  beauty,  no  an  the  standards  impulse (Logan,  historian subtlety,  for 1955;  of no  art real  Legacies craftmanship, refined  nature  that, b y past,  for  only  enriched,  but  at  no  the  educating  not  exist  literally  might  there  taught  art  time  survey-of-history-of-art  last  become in  a  France and  classical  Belief  truly  in  the  and  ethos  the  Norton  an  imitation  great  be  of  a  not  so  potential  of  permitted  art  1964,  universities  as  art  contained and  was  attempting the  art  in  in  study  to  from at  art  in W a l d s t e i n ' s  educated official  Alvin  Toffler  art  production—to  man"  rationales described  colleges were  of  to  art  history,  the  and again  that  study  period  spending more  of  art  that  had  to  this  new  lead in  as  one  time  and  of  gradually extent  field  to the  from  art in  he  of  in  in  the  known!  the  "a  most  universities.  which  money  university  makes for  as o n e  14  "cultural  later  had  study  fine  end  ( P a n o f s k y , 1965).  horror, art  of  history  some  and, much  Waldstein's  the  many  to  101) has p e r s i s t e d  for  the  lectures were  established  1895 l e c t u r e  (p.  a  history.  H a r v a r d at the  history  recruits  become  and  might  cultural  G e r m a n y , and  understanding  appreciation  used  and  an  "art"  course  different  of  of  broadened  and h i s t o r i c a l . H i s  influx  of  in A m e r i c a .  form  of  134  intention  European works  that  /  nothing  Norton's  backgrounds  discipline an  was  possibility  literary  type,  established  1 9 6 0 s , as  refined  frequently In  arts  it  legitimate  hence  a r c h a e o l o g y , t h e o l o g y , l i t e r a t u r e , and a r c h i t e c t u r e  curriculum, first  The  the  remote  in  Italy, f o l l o w i n g  enlightenment"  1950s  was  separate  a  essentially  t o d a y . What  century  America,  and p e r h a p s e v e n  the  taught  appreciate liberal  Harvard  was  in  express." Perhaps  be  view  the  art  to  their  might  at  society  to  His  courses  of  arts  students  s o m e future  Norton  true  that  in  American culturizing  Legacies its  population  that  universities  scientists, of  ever  are  culture."  turning  the  at  fine  York  large  if  are  viewed  arts  fine  and  properly  directly  associated with  we  accept  freed  there  the  of  is  subject  performing  exercise relevance  but  of  Canfield  difficulty the  bonds  and  Zen  arts  Every  our  civilization  a general  suggested  that  the  and  liberal  arts  disciplined  opening  and  culture, they  objectives"  the  make  the in  and  interests,  are and  (p. 38).  creation  of  art  and  l e a r n i n g , and I  it  once  for  objective  we  have  the  nurture  my  mind activity  imagination  responsibility  innocent  we  have  prejudice, s u b j e c t i v i s m , eastern  human  and our  are  humanizing  university's  accepting  b e c o m e s , to  inevitable.  primary  intellect  links  (that  university  intellect  to  of  studious  Yale, used  and the  be  that  impossible), once the  of  complaints  program. Canfield explained  education  about  who  135  that  of  that  may  /  of  the  purview  but  refining  i n t e l l i g e n c e , culture  the  C a n f i e l d , the to  of  the  of  that  to  D r a m a at  celebration  and  product  with  almost  S c h o o l of  in  legitimate  response  [sic]  culturally  facility  equation  it  no  responsibility the  the  legitimate  wood-lice,  acceptable  contribute  of  ourselves from  mysticism,  the  its  this  performance  believe  For  within  in  barbarians' whizs  somehow  arts  partly  "'skilled  computer  as the  "rightly  Once  as  was  University, Toronto,  new  of  out  and  arts  university's  the  This  D e a n C a n f i e l d (1965), of  of  lecture  the  before.  mathematicians,  rationale a  than  that  has  done  at  this  and  then  defence  l e a s t , not  that a  discussions  only  involves  bearing  the  on  and  c u l t u r e , (p. 30)  of  the  arts  in  universities  education. To  ensure  this  instruction  studio  aspects  in  was  was  to  preserved, be  delayed  Legacies until  the  student  production seventy  of  was  enrolled  professionals  no  repertory Green  more  want  company  Bay  the  Robert  the  Glee  Shaw  artists  through  of  broad the  Club  .  is  that  brochure)  University  of  and  Canfield,  as  in  for  liberal  the  considered The  students  be  The  in  in  stock  are  now  have  the  (Nova  for  preparation  "B.F.A.  B.F.A. wish  "particularly  the  step  of  program  is  to  a  Scotia  Columbia  final  the  that  British  via  undertake  The  for  to  Waldstein  or  have  the  athletics,  take  the  or  place  education  a mandate  Acquiring- skills  and  program.  of  first  and  15  often  Visual Arts  136  company  Yale  to  /  university.  intercollegiate  purposes  programs  is  was  the  want  brought  art  education  who  it  of  legitimate  M.F.A. it  resident  I would  resources  brings.  a program  career  to  background  considered sufficient  although  than  represent  .  discipline"  studio  artist.  .  knowledge  university  a  level  for  s p e c i a l i z e d B.F.A. p r o g r a m s , continue  intellectual  not  Yale  s e c o n d , (p. 4 5 )  legitimation  1985-1986  at  Chorale  Universities, even those  an  for  graduate  a professional  Packers to  entertainment  given  was,  a  years earlier, a secondary responsibility  I would  a  in  that  for  an  preparation intended further  to  "the  as  in  Art  art  "form  career a  in the  sound fine  Design, methods for the  (undated),  that  contemplate  who  as  as  of  who  program  art  rationales  example  students  a  of  and in  Rationale"  the  surprising  study  the  students  art,"  activity  of  importance  not  artist. Program  other  for  is  techniques  Programme  of  of  College and  professional  s t r e s s the  This  view  designed for  practice  to  artist.  explain,  occasionally  preparing  simply  should a  not  a  wish be  professional  foundation a r t s , the  for  applied  Legacies arts, museum work, students and  are  (for  academic than  required  faculties.  years  What  courses fine  many  of  these  ideal  of  the  art  intention,  art  might them  to  tradition  that  goes  degrees  professional essays  adopt  and  bureaucracy  explaining artists exams of  takes  recognize  to  get  seek  1981), And  of  may  and  universities  for  those  a  practical,  to the  a  in  especially  the  as  attend  to  to  students  and  universities, that  "creative"  an in  the  artists.  in  fact  what  liberal  arts  who  persevere.  unannounced,  to  articulate  the  work  to  the  Fine  art  background  ground  their  own  performance acquire  this  legitimating  to  or broad  liberal  art-as-cultural-capital  a factor with  six  employment in  arts  u n i v e r s i t y ? The  refinement  complaints  stultify  which  Hence,  that  funding.  liberal  a place  significant  many  to  one's  and  137  and e x a m s  but  able of  is  The  conceptual,  better  cultural  be  so  of  stance  " i d e a s " than  choose  art".  exhibitions  enough  where  closer  "make  "hardship"  intellectual  why  to  significance  ethos it  was  /  departments  student  endured, when  cultural  forms.  with  be  no  the  an  and  them  must  other  and e s s a y s  rationale. Being  (Rosier, art  fees  art  arts  or it  lead  this to  university  legitimate  history, etc."  and  liberal  advantage  and the  along  in  the  to  intended  come  history  tuition  alone)  justifies  art  the  likely  really  what  knowledge  arts  are  also for  for  j o u r n a l i s m , art  in  M . F . A . ) of  courses  with  interdisciplinary of  an  meaning, is  courses  means  students  production  basis  art  basis  people  enable  this  intellectual  the  students  take  (which  students  legitimating  right  to  a B.F.A. plus  would  Many  f i l m , a r c h i t e c t u r e , art  that  as the interest  spite norms,  of  awarding in the  of  becoming required  structures  and  Legacies that legitimate  / 138  The liberal arts as the classical educational ideal  The  tradition  requiring  of  art  students  art—labeled  "general  education"—is The  notion  education  term  historically  of  "cultural  itself,  predominantly  a the  linked  refinement"  "liberal  free  with  independent  man  distinguished from  lower  academic  class. The term  courses arts  of  outside  encouraging  or  discipline  of  the  education", . or social  associated with  came  simply  class  private  "liberal  distinction. liberal  arts  into  the  English  language  ultimate traceable word was the Latin 1983). The  liberal  arts  (artes  "mechanical" skills and pursuits  mechanical was  arts, crafts, trades, and  practice  a privileged  is  (Williams, the  the  means and assured social positions. Even  arts",  a class term. Its  liber, meaning were  take  supports  education", "liberal  colleges for those of the  to  which  non  used in  agricultural  a class  work—"most  as word  liberates)  appropriate sense  to  to  spurn  mechanicall  and  durty hand" (Williams, 1983, p.201), as Henry IV allegedly said.  The liberal arts is the classical of  education  philosophical  in grounds  the by  western  or  for  a specialist  Aristotle Greeks logic,  despite  and the  description of  strong  pragmatists  education  (Hirst,  and Romans came to geometry,  1971, 1973). The  are not list  entirely  music,  opposition (Hirst,  a vocational  subjects  clear, but  seven liberal  arithmetic,  the basis on  1973).  It  liberal studies as those studies  free men, and in no sense refers to  regarded as liberal  rhetoric,  world,  John Dewey  may be traced to Aristotle's appropriate  educational ideal that has formed  studies  and  or  education  "arts"  which  somewhat  later  or  grammar,  "arts":  astronomy  (Hirst,  the  .1971).  Legacies Painting the  and s c u l p t u r e  features  summarized are  not  of  were  not i n c l u d e d  Aristotle's  by Hirst  notion  (1971)  from  " m e c h a n i c a l " , but  is  intrinsic,  them of  studies  pursue or  not  which  equal  must  extrinsic.  value  its  the m i n d  exercise  intrinsic  must  of of  u  These  the value  it  good  are  F i r s t , the l i b e r a l  arts  the  individual's  "good  life".  of  narrow  higher Second,  their  pursuit  specialization  m i s s e s out o n other life.  F o u r t h , the  o n l y , not  with  features  the  be n o  s o that  in  did not c o m p l y  study.  Po//t/cs-.  / 139  merely  to  in  matters  student  must  impress  others  t o earn a l i v i n g .  From  this  Greek  concerned  doctrine  simply  education  based  came  and directly o n what  is t a k e n  is the c a s e " ,  as H i r s t  mind  in  w a s thought  reason  this  way  from  error,  conduct  wrote  and m u s i c  plays  centuries  However, years, because  this  since  intellectual of  from  ideal  the  notion  the pursuit to  to  lead  and  wrong.  the i m p o r t a n c e  of  the  Intellectuals  as  knowledge, i s , "man's  and  greatest  values,  a  process  a notion  of  knowledge  of  w a s regarded especially  science for  of  in  to  the  to  o f the rescue  free  the  heavens  and  and s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n .  as the f i n e s t the  inquiry  industry  good,  and  observed  illumination  and techniques of  to  temporary  education  Renaissance  interests  education  be t r u e , that  f o r the s a k e o f  of  of  (1973, p. 8 8 ) e x p l a i n s . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t  illusion  individual's  the  with  what  For  liberal  legitimate  u s e f u l n e s s , the v a l u e  T h i r d , there  occupy  for  the  practical  and importance  the s t u d y  a  is a n e c e s s a r y part  not have  would  because they  Aristotle's  demand  a b i l i t i e s , an e x e r c i s e w h i c h these  of  that  past  have  possible."  one been  and m i l i t a r y  hundred changing  reasons. A s  Legacies highly  specialized  culture of  lost  liberal  The  regard  arts  greatest  private  training for  arts  intellectual  standards  of  colleges  higher  process became  "refining"  The  private  after  the  (Potts,  the  influence  liberal  arts  residential  institutions,  only  the they  envision,  selectivity: education mass 1971 ).  of  an  occurs  to  make  postsecondary 18  colleges through  minds  140  business  the  tradition  the  inherited  an  transmission  of the  b a s e d on  should  to  the  American  are  liberal  emphasis  on from to  can  arts  democracy  public  of  the  aim  cultural  of  as the  intellect.  institution of  and these  capital,  with  modelled  Oxford  and  fee-collecting  gain  access  values. Yet,  being  that  fragmented  private,  the  professional  cultural  curriculum  population  contributions  of  are  colleges  chief  as w e l l  them  emerge  these  the  now  and  increasingly  classical  see  ideals  transmission  manners  of  art  among  a distinctly  an  outstanding education  and  most  portion  fear  and  and  the  education  these  superior  and  liberal  Consequently,  is  Since  a select  such  defenders  college  the  becoming  morals  life  universities.  from  was 1971).  on  to  /  middle-class  technical, vocational  caused  preservation  Cambridge  benefit  of  diminishing  society  the  legitimate  ( S h i l s , 1972).  preservers  were  and  ideals, attachment  education  western  its  and  priority  c o l l e g e s . Increasing  in  superficial  dwindled  defenders  directions  heritage  classical  values  liberal  assumed  that  served.  to  and  ironically,  Democracy,  intellectual  quality  and  a  liberal  arts  rigorous  American  universities  and  society, colleges  leaving (Potts,  Legacies that legitimate  / 141  The liberal arts ideal as an ironic proclamation of democracy  In spite of the historical  association of liberal arts tradition  with  social class distinctions, North American society is committed of  a general or liberal  promote arts  democratic  education  principles,  arts  education  because it  principles. What  that  suggests  is there  that  and, contingently,  that  it it  might is  to the ideals  is thought  about work  worthy  to  to reflect and  the idea to  privileged  of  fulfill  form  a  liberal  democratic  the  basis  of  in the pre-eminent  worth  of  education in North A m e r i c a , including the education of artists?  Basic the  to  democratic  principles  individual, the freedom  individual's University  unique  of a student's whole  as the ability  make relevant  abilities  "which  that  of a liberal  defined  general  looks first of  to think  a liberal  education  effectively,  1958) and creative  (1973) argues for the importance logistical ly  leads  distinct  to  competence  education  judgments, and to discriminate  (Nowell-Smith,  into several  education which  looks to the student's  (p.51). The objectives  report  suggested  of the Harvard  as a responsible human being and as a c i t i z e n " as opposed  specialized education  occupation"  to  report  Committee, General education in a free society,  all to his life  Harvard  of the individual, and the full realization of the  capacities. In 1946, the influential  education as "that part  to  is the belief  are defined  to communicate  of  in the thought,  among values. Others have  the development  imagination  (Broudy,  of  knowledge  or modes  practical  1964). Hirst  of liberal education conceived as forms  in some  of  initiation thought.  Legacies A  liberal  education  knowledge  itself,  level"  87).  (p.  equated with  for  a  consistent  mere  collections  will  principally  on  concerned  directly  k n o w l e d g e , (p.  This  parallels  liberal good  the  education by  the  in  man  nature  This  educational  used  as  university of  this  conclude  an  the  the  final  222  patriotism, freedom  it  of  (p.  must  at  of any  not  be  Rather  of  of  knowledge  education  particular  99)  142  nature  education  education  forms  their  . . .  development  101)  limits  court  will  which  now  conceptual, It  of  is  the  an  mind  be  logical  education in  rational  of  the  the  essay  for  mind  In  to  achieve freeing  in all  human  and  the  published  in  arts  is  itself  has  study  most 1953  education  by  of  human of  imposed  developing 101)  frequently fine  idealistic Ernest into  own  a form  a f f a i r s , (p.  freedom  including  it  its  of  necessarily  and t h e r e b y  and  democracy:  the  those  lengthiest  weaves  to  each case  than  democracy  Ziegfeld and  other  that  basic  . . .  appeal  justification  page  of  knowledge  of  of  in  remains  rational  notion  work,  liberal  scheme  freeing  (p.  no  of  official  a  the  . . .  c u r r i c u l u m . One was  of  Greek concept  wrong"  knowing  the  d i s c u s s i o n of  o n the  /  101)  original  from  the  various  the  with  knowledge  conduct  the  legitimate  and s q u a r e l y  information.  features  education was in  of  analyses  methodological  to  concept  between govern  entirely  "based fairly  central  A  distinctions  and  is  concept  the  based  Hirst  that  the  art  been in  the  articulations Ziegfeld.  To  rhetoric  of  Legacies that legitimate The  free  and  democratic  aspire  is being threatened  which  would  individual  to  maintain  our  enslave  rights  fellow  deep and  of  from  the  to  his  and  men. A n d we must  which  and without  anonymity we  in  build  in A m e r i c a  by  and  have  the  a  ideologies reduce  . . .  must  faith to  we  personality  freedom  ability  to  within  and ' abiding  in  life  human  subservience  freedom—a individual  way  order  to  a  spirit  of  of  the  with  his  freedom—a  true  worthy  life  comprehension of the spontaneous and creative way of is the mark of the free man . . . .  Without neither  the  aesthetic  live  a full  relationships arts  can  to  himself the  as  the  it  provides and  it  of  in  experience, the  which  insights  he  and  individual  the  him  life  in  lives. Experience in  the  in their  is  to  he  say,  his  which  will  wholeness and  means whereby  through  can full  understandings  spontaneously—-that  is given to  which  its  and the world him  life  (p. 220)  can he see his own  see himself  freely  world  nor  world  him  enable him to fullness, and  life  the  give  factor  the  In  integrity  have a knowledge of  / 143  can  relate  creatively—to  esthetic  v i s i o n , (p.  221)  There  is, of  importance arts  course, a pragmatic for  education.  Museum  at  democratic In  societies  1965, John  Harvard  aspect that supports of  studying  C o o l i d g e , then  University,  stated  that  art  the as  director an  argument part of  "intense  of the  a  of  the  liberal  Fogg  concern"  Art of  Legacies that legitimate  / 144  universities should be the production of  a "cultivated body of amateurs" (p.  17) necessary for  of  and  preservation  minority The of  of  pragmatic  wide  the  benefits  production  art  students  in most  ranging  enrolling  of  courses of  art  "All  and the  but  a tiny  learn about  departments  pertinent  art  which  in the  the  understanding  and  fine  arts"  "cultivate"  current  diminishing (p. 17).  a large  situtation  of  body  financial  art departments. Fine art majors are too f e w to sustain a  and art  great  past;  Having  a  large  body  courses means that art  increasing  students  the  have much to  for  program.  in art  function of  of  the  "amateurs" is particularly  restraint  art  our  both  in  turn  secure  departments the  of  departments  legitimation  and  on c a m p u s e s — a l l of  number  of  non-specialized  full-time  faculty.  can offer make  this It  in art can obtain financial support and work  more  without also  students  a variety  of  visible  the  the expense  means  graduate  experience when there  is an undergraduate student body to teach.  In  summary, with  education  universities,  art  norms  structures  and  tradition  teaching  with  permitted art  art to  Liberal  acquisition of art  fine  art  art  now  knowledge  universities, underlying  institutionally is  ultimately  including social  the  entrenched shaped  dominant  class  by  liberal  and  art  history,  and  arts  proclamations  of  eventually academic  democratic values persist as strong  in our educational s y s t e m , in spite of  in the first and  the  and which  place, first as  reluctantly  competence  legitimating  in  arts  distinctions  values. It w a s , in fact, the liberal arts tradition  be established in the university  connoisseurship  production.  of  its  art-as-cultural-capital  and  in  as and  art the  rationales  for  the underlying association of  the  Legacies that legitimate liberal  arts  with  distinctions  of  committed fulfilling  to  idea  the  arts  college  and  that  democratic of  liberal  private  economic the  the  development the  the  full  cultural  a broad  values  of  and  capital.  liberal  arts  ideal  all  of  human  the  the  North  social  as  works  an  pursuing  art  disadvantages  as a career. It  that  commitment  to  art  art  helps  students that  conceptions of  art  PHILOSOPHICAL  AESTHETIC  are  works  to  justify  faced  to  with,  insulate  the and  and  toward  has  students,  replaced  sixteenth century emphasis on G o d , nature, and the divine as the for  are  individual, and  beings. For art  intellectual  class  Americans  education  freedom, respect  capacities of  educational  tradition  / 145  the  motivation  financial  and  helps  solidify  perpetuate  status the  traditional  knowledge.  THEORY  AS  AN  INTELLECTUAL  BASIS  OF  ART  EDUCATION  Aesthetic  theory  is  a codification  production and understanding of the  intellectual  the  prevailing  members of sanctioned  basis of  the the  ideas, fine  art  insulation  and  is  part  of  a  principles  that support  even  in the high culture sense. It  practices  subculture. It and  basic  of  art  that  are  transcendence  of  art  social  is  reflects  shared  has served as an authority  by  that has  knowledge  over  its own social base.  functions as much more than an inert body of complex  the  art and, subsequently, education in art. It  other knowledge domains and from  Aesthetic theory  the  knowledge  values^ art  of  network  and  historical  doctrine. It  process. Aesthetic  Legacies principles,  definitions,  activity  make  various  participants  demands  for  production  the  and  for  for  and  that  to  adopt  development  of  new  creates entire  make  traditions  regard  to  fine  forms,  at  works art  such  as  more  even  the  fine  Philosophers  art  and  effect  or art  art  that  the  development  philosophers  and  critics  works the what  of  art,  processes counts  of  as art  structures  artists  art.  or  applied  education  in  arts,  are  not  19  of  cases  the  principles in  Aesthetic  theory,  by  and  art  practices,  s t y l e s , but  the to  art.  resulting  art  occurs  the  century,  works  it  their  development many  selection  approximate  crucially,  theory—are of to  who  often  aesthetic bear  a r t i s t s , s t y l e s , and  and  in  which  justify  Aesthetic  this  individual  critics—those  aesthetic  bring  in  by  for  in  practice.  o t h e r s . The  less  but  artistic  available  the  146  also  process  standard the  occurs  practice  extent  even  for  that  given  in of  some serious  world.  shaping  means  on  of  more  art  consideration by  or  and  as  with  art,  styles  certain of  together  /  of  conventions  such  especially  legitimate nature  previously  precedes  and  the  of  act  of  for  expense  folk  works  evaluate  the  body  is c o i n c i d e n t  or  only  and  activities  or  defy,  not  which  world;  of  the  worlds  theory  or  art  advantages  forms  sense  reputations  and  individual  artists  to  of  art  follows  so  about  associated  only  reversed  attempting  the  art  not  part  various  resources  theory  is  important of  techniques,  equation serve  an  judgments  the  of  Aesthetic styles,  up  and  that  of  k n o w l e d g e ; this  in even  art  in  situated  theory  assessing  universities. art  deal  and in  and or  the  values  researching  cannot  a  universities.  p r o g r a m s , are This  have  This these  individual  bound help  major  but  up  with affect  k n o w l e d g e , in t u r n , b e c o m e s part  of  Legacies an art  student's  Artistic good art  activity  art. and  valid  artistic  of as  style"  theory  is  code in  a discipline  in  the  philosophical  of of  in  art  nature  German  tradition  has  given  practices  that  are  universities.  and  society  "fine"  rise  level.  of  what  147  to  calls  and  of  the  some  the  liberal  the  in  and  the  good  meet  resulting  elementary  Because  constitutes  constitutes  students  often  (1962)  activity,  of what  art  the  Lowry  very or  has  aesthetic  originates  such  secondary  "new  academic  interdependence arts  values  understanding  to  the  term  the  the that  dominant  and  of  aesthetic  theory  grounded  art,  engaged  most  in the  works  the  modernist  20  which  of  This  philosophical  aesthetic  deeply  divided  consciousness between  has  in  art  its  this and  attention  had  in  art  and  culture  division  of  insulating  in  nature, of  its  schools  certain  s p e c i a l i z e d r e f e r e n c e s to  divided  is  eighteenth  official  reflects or  of  or  "aesthetic", with  "beautiful" in  particularly  accepted  effect  experience,  of  (Baumgarten, Kant, Schiller).  illustrates  the  "beautiful" and  and  now  It  and  k n o w l e d g e . The  Socrates  by  at  education,  and  philosophers  and  the  notions  style"  artistic of  conception  forces,  what  /  actions.  s t u d y , a e s t h e t i c s has a l o n g t r a d i t i o n  century  with  some  adopted  postsecondary theory,  his  social  art  structures  nature  is  or  legitimate  order.  As  which  and  school  the  of  are  ( E f l a n d , 1976) and at  her  contexts, certain activity  "the  aesthetic  collection  light  institutional  level  between  in  educational  phenomena school  occurs  In  demands  art  knowledge, affecting  that  art art that  consciousness. Concern began  philosophers  at  least ever  with since.  Legacies However,  the  Alexander  Baumgarten  use  before  father  the  of  meaning  term  art  emphasized  isolated  according  art  to  observation  and  rather  "facts".  utilitarian Williams  (1983,  cultural  aesthetic  The  in  Walter  critic ridicule  and  the  judgment,  p.  32)  in  a  and  "aesthetician"  sense Pater, central  as  aesthetic  of  actual  German  was  not  Greek  term  aisthesis  things  perceptable  word  kind  1983). The  nineteenth of  the  Eventually  (a  w h i c h , in  is  fine  term  contemporary  beautiful  or  "neutral"  and  feelings  impressions with  damaging",  Such  Raymond  development  a  or  division  of  makes  unreliable.  to  refer  study,  English  movement", "aesthete" has  to  a  although  especially  times  result  practical  writes  historical  formal  century  or  on  "impartial"  for  term,  emphasis  a  the  "aesthetic the  of  to  as  used  of  reference  by  exists  language.  a discipline  in  the  currently  but  widely  common as  d i s p l a c e d , m a r g i n a l , and  once  scholar  acknowledged  considerations  of  in  148  "Subjective",  personal  on  the  /  interpretations.  based  attack. term  that  exploration  late  figure  cultural  legitimate  which  desire  (Williams, the  that  associated  his  was  aesthetics  the  This  "understandable  appear  of  2 1  of  the  material  use  framework  is  is  all  activity.  or  century,  from  to  basis  Constrasting  "aesthete"  derogatory  with  and  transformation  noun  the  social  considerations  specializing a  as  considerations  word  sense  by  Baumgarten,  Baumgarten's  philosophical  science  than  the  reference  1983).  from  the  positivist  in  activity  introduced  century.  derived  subjective  sense  as  mid-eighteenth  mid-nineteenth  (Williams,  subjective  the  the  sense perception  senses  of  in  aesthetics,  the  has  "aesthetic",  that  when  literary was was  person often  in  associated and  a  social  source  replaced  acquired  much  of by of  Legacies this he  same came  into art  in  for  for  art's to  of  serving  no  was  with  his  sake,  the  point  It  contact  support  refers a  stigma).  aesthetic  ulterior  which  s t a n d a r d s . It  one  of  aestheticist titled  Art  transcends (p.  160)  Bell  (p.  on  is  particularly  the  work's  all  matters  "consists in  its  of  views  particular  motive  in  its  of  the  when  "primitives a  "The  taking  as  the to  149  matter  of  pure  the  value  of  on  Bell,  of  and  of  form  social  somehow  produce  art  desire  because to  2 3  which to  historical  primitive  art, they  express  wrote  common  Bell must;  their  form"  and  social  independent  applicability  According and  of  political  art  rapture"  art,"  part  the  high  "Significant  of  hypothesis art.  that  greatest a  of  simply  "aesthetic  it."  world  physical  and  expounded  attitude  the  is  imagination  aesthetics,  becoming out  c o n c e r n s . It  creative  a d e q u a c y , m e a n i n g , or  works  of  m o r a l , p o l i t i c a l , or  since  the For  mundane  theme  an o v e r d e v e l o p m e n t  have  of  the  self-sufficient,  by  treatise  us  contemplating  passionate  of  world.  physical object of  judged  represent  power  meanings, purposes  than  be  Bell's  social  art.  refers  properties  Hence, that  of  it  autonomous,  illustrative  representational  is a v a r i a n t  related  not  form  as  autonomy  Clive  in  power  Bell  Significant  announced other  that  what  disregarded.  but  subject  /  "Aestheticism". Aestheticism  aesthetics  practical, everyday  but  It  on  (1958),  questions  itself.  writers  the  s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  seen  the  view,  175),  affairs.  :  2 2  all  world, championed  Epicurean  should  of  the  transcends  of  Many  the  from  is  point  is  existence  art  art  channelling  has b e e n h e l d t o  romanticism  1973).  of an  p u r p o s e ; nor  nonaesthetic  (Graff,  in  of  by  legitimate  religion, philosophy, Renaissance studies)  view  culminating  in  who,  (including  disengagement  view  aspect  Pater  that  outside  focuses this  only  view,  the  coordinates  are  (1958, they  sense  p. have  of  39) no  form."  Legacies Furthermore,  those  wish  knowledge  of  and c o l o u r  and a k n o w l e d g e  The  its  who  modern  ideas, purpose  emphasis  transformed  so  that  "visible"  art  forms,  an  as  American  and  as  world  responsible for  "art  context,  "nothing  three-dimensional  form  d a n c e , and  rather  than  as  attributes  detached for  any  aesthetic  artifacts,  identity  appreciate or  of  on  sociologist,  self-sufficient  to  the  this  from  treasures"  to  of  specific  take  of  a  sense  need  no  of  cultures  form  and  became  of  cultures  (1968),  art  cultural  protect  were  Albrecht  interpretation  to  150  perceptions  Milton  other  home  art  various  social  of  of  /  (p. 27).  that  forms.  kind  ransacking  but  space"  music  legitimate  work  meant  cultural  that  as  meanings  throughout  in  pantheons  "Culture".  The  masks, kachinas, sculptures, totems,  from  Australian  and  elsewhere  museums, (  have  hung  on  . . . strikingly  jaguars  have  a b o r i g i n e s , the been  our  wrenched  examples  totems  and  not  Alaska  to  be  of  found  museums,  in  elsewhere.  Thus  that  is  tradition  Canada,  being of  in  art  from  has  and  as  '67).  in  York,  become  round America.  the The  on  and our  and  the to  U n i o n , in Seattle,  from  process  and finest  Alaska  the  are  European  Denver  "universal" with world  in  stone  temples,  of  native  Soviet  placed  Mools  Most  Africa,  mantelpieces.  Mayan  Portland,  products  Guinea, West  Chac  objects the  cultural  ART  ancient  "art"  but  now  new  cathedrals.  other  New  other  displayed  Expo  from  projected  Europe  at  removed  "gargoyles"  of  collected  w a l l s , and  illustrated  been  tribes  or  a  and  meaning fine  represents  a  not  art a  the of  Legacies military  or  political  invasion  of  the  w o r l d , but  that  legitimate  an a r t i s t i c  /  151  o n e . (p.  393)  In  other  cultures  cultural the  contexts.  close  and  cultural  writers  aesthetic  a separate  aesthetics  values  in  the  counter-posed  factors  spite  critiques  to  one  (Wolff,  of  or  is  though  up-dated  center  their  as  as  current to  contexts  notes  Albrecht,  of  a  art  as  Few  24  view  still  on  the  analysis example,  (Collingwood),  the  transcendental  formalist  positions  if  discipline.)  are, for  as  of  insist  precondition  separate  of  Western  a  they  variously  known  social  cultures.  a  and  supported  extreme  beauty  various  f o r m s , tend  other  imaginative  analysis,  social  form  course,  works  the  the  B e l l ' s , yet  of  (Goodman),  these  by  as  exist  of  (Langer),  design  another  to that  of  maintain  is,  and  takes  artifacts  (This  from  emphasize,  that  cosmos  properties  cognitive  or  Even  traditional  of  the  formal  Fry).  on  viewpoints  aspects  practical  They  aesthetics  sense  physical  aesthetic  and  (Beardsley,  their  and  (Elliott),  (Maritain)  on  paramount.  aesthetic  aesthetic  emotive  projected  separate  a e s t h e t i c i a n s , have  with  absolutism  self-contained  as  been  many  culture.  the  traditional  influential  expressive  In  and  always  unlike  to  than  recent  on  in  rather  more  as  not  aesthetic  culture  form  art  the  from  the  aesthetic  the  the  of  of  of  of  have  Anthropologists,  relativity  concepts  arts  relationship  variations  Some  the  are  criticism frequently  p r o p o n e n t s , they  do,  isolate  from  aesthetic  whether social  1983).  the art  increase and  within  a e s t h e t i c s , the  the  last  discipline  two of  decades aesthetics  of  sociological  still  continues  Legacies on  the  these  whole  to  critiques.  sources edited  as  be  without  For evidence, Janet  the  British  by Osborne  Mainstream  of  Anglo-American  the  nature  in  any  way  aesthetics  Journal  of  beauty  being  itself  ideologically  to  (1983)  directs  Aesthetics  philosophy  and of  disturbed  the  the  of  art  / 152  intervention  attention  familiar  pursues  the a e s t h e t i c  by  the  to  of such  anthologies  its  experience  sociological  specific  as c l a s s - b a s e d ,  produced. (Wolff,  or  legitimate  (1969).  as a h i s t o r i c a l l y  judgments  reference  Wolff  (1972) or H o s p e r s  for  aesthetic  conducted  that  search without  critique  of  d e v e l o p m e n t , and o f all  gender-linked  a n d in  general  1 9 8 3 , p. 2 7 )  SUMMARY  Knowledge  lives  education,  is the  arts  notion  art  tradition  education  of  change  status  rooted  product  of  philosophical  in  in t r a d i t i o n s  artists  that  of  a manual  The  history  of  trade art  in  that  dominates  the c h a n g e s  to  a r e , as  in s t a t u s noble  education  one of  base of  art, f o r m i n g  the  more  powerful  and a f f l u e n t  art  into  and e v e n t u a l l y  to  refining",  theory.  and  of  the a r t i s t ' s  status  of  schools  the l i t e r a t i  of  this  this  and  the  the  in the resultant chapter,  profession  an " i n t e l l e c t u a l  emphasizing  a n d , in  in  the  in  liberal  The changes  demonstrated  alliances with classes,  universities'  universities,  to the m o r e is  the  "culturally  aesthetic  knowledge,  k n o w l e d g e , as f o u n d  tradition,  and  workshops  theoretical  universities  academy  humanizing  art of  the  as  from  of  in a h i s t o r y  of  ( B e r g e n d a l , 1983). A r t  from  calling".  intellectual  or  (Hauser, 1959) a n d  century,  graduate  moving  studies.  It  fine is a  Legacies history  of  society  through  with  the  legitimating  liberal  academic  official  the  this  reinforce  knowledge  art  art  the  of  challenges  the  and e d u c a t i o n a l  traditions.  But  has  so  far  task  been  is  largely  art  as  these  the  not  cultural  a  to  By  roles  world,  for  relevance  Postmodernism  in s o c i e t y , the  work  industrial  and  democratic  society.  the  elevating  capital  role  i n d e p e n d e n c e , the  notion little  cultural  from  and  legitimate its  a c a d e m i c i z a t i o n , through  ironically,  authority  for  of  of  from  and  claim  of  of  everyday  justification  supporting to  of  discipline  process  and,  separation  of  art  arts' preservation  independence  conditions  fine  gradual  competence  aestheticism's an  a  the  that  its  practical  traditions  art  specialized,  b e c a u s e of  social the  authority  an e a s y o n e , a n d , as argued  claim  these  education. functioned realm  these  next  By also of  society. aesthetic  traditions  in the  for  provided  pluralistic of  of  knowledge  privileged  bases  in  through  have  in  have  mainstream and  the  traditions  153  association  and  supporting  of  status  connotations  values,  and  /  hold  chapter,  ineffective.  NOTES 1  The brief histories presented in this chapter may not be fully representative. They are examples that highlight certain w i d e l y - r e c o g n i z e d h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s and are l i m i t e d , as is any history of art and its i n s t i t u t i o n s , in the s e n s e that art and the i n s t i t u t i o n s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of art k n o w l e d g e e x i s t e d at m o m e n t s and in p l a c e s o t h e r than t h o s e w h i c h are t y p i c a l l y given attention.  3  Because sculptors were m e m b e r s of what w a s c o n s i d e r e d a "lesser g u i l d " o f b r i c k l a y e r s and c a r p e n t e r s , their s e p a r a t i o n s o c i a l l y f r o m the t r a d e s m a n w a s m u c h later in c o m i n g .  3  I n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t s and their w o r k s h o p t r a i n i n g are d i s c u s s e d in B o o k III of L e o n B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i ' s t r e a t i s e On painting w r i t t e n in 1435, in C e n n i n o C e n n i n i ' s e a r l y f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y t r e a t i s e , Book of the artist (cited in B a x a n d a l l , 1972, p.117, 121), and in V a s a r i ' s Lives of the  Legacies painters,  sculptors  and  architects  that  legitimate  /  154  (1963)  B a x a n d a l l e x p l a i n s that the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the c l i e n t and p a i n t e r was an important part of the lasting c i a s s i c i z a t i o n of European Renaissance culture. Categories of a system of literary criticism became the subject of study of humanist scholars. Although the language o f c r i t i c i z i n g art w a s a s k i l l of the l e a r n e d , b a n k e r s and m e r c h a n t s t o o k to u s i n g m a n y o f the t e r m s and c o n c e p t s s u c h as " p u r e " or " o r n a t e " or " c o m p o s i t i o n " . The training of a painter within the guild system followed the customary c o u r s e of medieval craft rules that all g u i l d s h e l d . T h e master of a bottegha, as the a r t i s t s ' guild w o r k s h o p s of fifteeth century Italy were called, had full disciplinary power over his a p p r e n t i c e s . The a p p r e n t i c e had t o learn his t r a d e f r o m the bottom u p w a r d s , b e g i n n i n g w i t h the g r i n d i n g of c o l o r s and the preliminary t r e a t m e n t of the p a i n t i n g s u r f a c e . A c q u i r i n g all the t e c h n i c a l k n o w l e d g e and t r i c k s of the trade that w o u l d e n a b l e the a p p r e n t i c e t o paint j u s t like the m a s t e r t o o k several years. A n important part o f the later s t a g e s o f the a p p r e n t i c e s h i p w a s c o p y i n g m a s t e r p i e c e s o f the m a s t e r artist as w e l l as other a c k n o w l e d g e d m a s t e r p i e c e s . A s A n t a l (1970, p.291) s u g g e s t s , it is in light of t h i s t r a i n i n g "that w e c a n u n d e r s t a n d the tenacious preservation of the traditional heritage in fourteenth-century painting". As an a r t i s t , V a s a r i w a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the age of Mannerism, producing work characterized by a t e n s i o n b e t w e e n artistic freedom and o b l i g a t i o n . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f M a n n e r i s t art w a s r e f l e c t e d in the artists' workshops in the increasing contradiction between the p r i n c i p l e s of labor and e d u c a t i o n , w i t h art instruction striving ever m o r e c o n c e r t e d l y f o r a c a n o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n (Hauser, 1983). F o r t y y e a r s later a s e c o n d a c a d e m y w a s o p e n e d — t h e A c c a d e m i a di S . Luca in R o m e . D r a w i n g and p a i n t i n g f r o m p l a s t e r c a s t s and f r o m life was accompanied by theoretical discussion. What is particularly significant about this institution is that its evening lectures were opened to art connoisseurs from the p u b l i c , thus broadening the institution's m e m b e r s h i p and f u r t h e r i n g its a s p i r a t i o n to " l e a d e r s h i p in cultural a f f a i r s as w e l l as t a s t e and f a s h i o n " ( K e l l y , 1974, p.99). T h i s p r a c t i c e o f o p e n i n g s o m e a s p e c t s t o a larger p u b l i c r e s e m b l e s the current p r a c t i c e o f u n i v e r s i t y d e p a r t m e n t s to c a t e r t o a b r o a d e r l i b e r a l arts p o p u l a t i o n , w h i l e at the same time supporting those students s e e k i n g c a r e e r s as p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t s . A n a c a d e m y w a s e s t a b l i s h e d e v e n in C a n a d a as e a r l y as 1668—the E c o l e d e s A r t s et M e t i e r s at S t . J o a c h i m , Q u e b e c ( M c C a r t h y , 1973). Although the school was discontinued in 1705, its courses in a r c h i t e c t u r e , s c u l p t u r e and p a i n t i n g had a c h i e v e d the m o s t remarkable s u c c e s s in e s t a b l i s h i n g the v i s u a l arts in C a n a d a . P e v s n e r ' s Academies of art, past and present m i s s e s t h i s a c a d e m y o f art e v e n t h o u g h it  Legacies antedates  the  establishment  of  similar  that  legitimate  /  155  a c a d e m i e s in E u r o p e a n c i t i e s .  For e x a m p l e , p a r t i c u l a r g r a d e s of u l t r a m a r i n e blue (the m o s t e x p e n s i v e o f the blue p i g m e n t s ) w e r e s p e c i f i e d in t e r m s of f l o r i n s t o the o u n c e . " G e r m a n blue w a s just c a r b o n a t e o f c o p p e r ; it w a s l e s s s p l e n d i d in its c o l o u r and m u c h m o r e s e r i o u s l y u n s t a b l e in use ( p a r t i c u l a r l y in f r e s c o ) " ( B a x a n d a l l , 1972, p. 11). W h i t e and W h i t e (1965) d o not i n d i c a t e that b o t h a p p l i e d and f i n e art were i n s t r u c t e d w i t h i n the s a m e i n s t i t u t i o n s , a l t h o u g h Efland (1983) clearly does. T h e r e are e x c e p t i o n s . O n e art s c h o o l that s t r i v e s t o p e r p e t u a t e the a c a d e m y t r a d i t i o n is the N a t i o n a l A c a d e m y Fine A r t s S c h o o l in N e w Y o r k . To quote f r o m its recent c a t a l o g , " T h r o u g h o u t all the y e a r s s i n c e the S c h o o l ' s f o u n d i n g (1825), and t h r o u g h o u t all the s h i f t s in taste and f a s h i o n , the S c h o o l of Fine A r t s r e m a i n e d true to the s t a n d a r d s o f e x c e l l e n c e as e s t a b l i s h e d b y the f o u n d e r s . " (p. 3). " A t the heart o f the S c h o o l p r o g r a m " is s t u d i o w o r k "most often from the m o d e l but a l s o f r o m a n t i q u e c a s t s and s t i l l l i f e " (p. 5). These and other data regarding the structure and c o n t e n t of art programs in higher education were obtained by r e v i e w i n g program catalogs and brochures of over 100 fine art programs of both c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s in C a n a d a and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . S e v e r a l other c o n v e n t i o n s of our p r e s e n t art i n s t r u c t i o n m o d e l c a m e about in rebellion t o the o f f i c i a l d o m of academies of art. T h e s e , h o w e v e r , are a d d r e s s e d in the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r (chapter 6). Art h i s t o r y , as w e know it t o d a y in N o r t h A m e r i c a as s c h o l a r l y h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a r t i f a c t s , o n l y s u r f a c e d f r o m its entanglement with art connoisseurship in 1923 w h e n the Art Bulletin, founded in 1913 and now recognized as a leading art h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d i c a l , c a r r i e d ten art h i s t o r i c a l a r t i c l e s and o n l y one o n art a p p r e c i a t i o n . Of related significance was the formation of a c o m p e t i n g p e r i o d i c a l , the s h o r t - l i v e d Art Studies. O n e o f C a n f i e l d ' s art h i s t o r i a n c o l l e a g u e s at Y a l e , V i n c e n t S c u l l y , in the s a m e line of a r g u m e n t , d e f e n d s the arts in u n i v e r s i t i e s e n t i r e l y o n g r o u n d s that the arts are a w a y of k n o w l e d g e  The v i s u a l arts are t o o l s t o w a r d s k n o w l e d g e , w h i c h is after a l l , I think, the o n l y w a y in w h i c h any s u b j e c t c a n be d e f e n d e d in a u n i v e r s i t y . The u n i v e r s i t y ' s r o l e is the pursuit of k n o w l e d g e and f u n d a m e n t a l l y n o t h i n g e l s e . (p. 5 1 ) The p o i n t of art is the i l l u m i n a t i o n d o e s not c o m e out o f l i f e ; m o s t art  of l i f e , but m o s t art c o m e s out o f art. T h i s  Legacies  that  legitimate  /  156  is o n e of the great things that m a k e s art so civilized, b e c a u s e m o s t o f c i v i l i z a t i o n as a w h o l e is s o m e t h i n g that c o m e s out o f other c i v i l i z a t i o n , (p. 67)  For S c u l l y , L e o n a r d o Da V i n c i w a s the p e r f e c t e x p r e s s i o n of the i d e a of art as a path to knowledge: "Leonardo was interested in e v e r y t h i n g , e s p e c i a l l y in the t r u t h " (p. 67). In  Book  8 of  Politics  Aristotle  wrote  (Hirst,  1971, p.505):  A l l u s e f u l k n o w l e d g e is not s u i t a b l e f o r e d u c a t i o n . T h e r e is a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n liberal and i l l i b e r a l s u b j e c t s , and it is clear that only such knowledge as d o e s not make the l e a r n e r m e c h a n i c a l s h o u l d enter into e d u c a t i o n . B y m e c h a n i c a l s u b j e c t s w e m u s t u n d e r s t a n d all arts and s t u d i e s that m a k e the b o d y , s o u l , or i n t e l l e c t o f f r e e m e n u n s e r v i c e a b l e f o r the e x t e r n a l e x e r c i s e o f g o o d n e s s . That is w h y w e c a l l s u c h pursuits as produce an inferior condition of body m e c h a n i c a l , and all w a g e - e a r n i n g o c c u p a t i o n s . T h e y a l l o w the m i n d no l e i s u r e , and t h e y drag it d o w n to a l o w e r level. T h e r e are e v e n s o m e l i b e r a l a r t s , the a c q u i s i t i o n of w h i c h up t o a certain point is not unworthy of f r e e m e n , but w h i c h , if s t u d i e d w i t h e x c e s s i v e d e v o t i o n or m i n u t e n e s s are open to the charge of being injurious in the manner d e s c r i b e d . The o b j e c t w i t h w h i c h w e e n g a g e in or study t h e m , a l s o m a k e s a great d i f f e r e n c e ; if it is f o r our o w n s a k e s or that of our f r i e n d s , or t o p r o d u c e g o o d n e s s , they are not i l l i b e r a l , w h i l e a m a n e n g a g i n g in the v e r y s a m e pursuits to please strangers would in many cases be r e g a r d e d as f o l l o w i n g the o c c u p a t i o n of a s l a v e or a s e r f . T h e r e are s u b j e c t s w h i c h Ought t o f o r m part o f education s o l e l y w i t h a v i e w to the right e m p l o y m e n t o f l e i s u r e , and that this e d u c a t i o n and t h e s e s t u d i e s exist f o r their own s a k e , w h i l e t h o s e that have b u s i n e s s in v i e w are s t u d i e d as b e i n g n e c e s s a r y and f o r the s a k e o f s o m e t h i n g e l s e .  It w a s not until the m e d i e v a l s p r e a d o f C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e that l i b e r a l arts studies were challenged at all. With Christian doctrine the s i g n i f i c a n c e of r e a s o n w a s s u b o r d i n a t e d t o r e v e l a t i o n , s o that the l i b e r a l arts b e c a m e a f o r m a l and r e s t r i c t e d c o u r s e o f s t u d y , s e c o n d a r y to theology. With Renaissance humanism and the rediscovery of classical literature, "the full significance of Artistotelian liberal education was temporarily r e a f f i r m e d " (Hirst, 1971. p. 507). But w h a t r e s u l t e d t h i s t i m e w a s a d i s t o r t i o n of the c o n c e p t o f liberal e d u c a t i o n s o that the s t u d y of c l a s s i c a l literature i t s e l f c a m e to r e p r e s e n t the  Legacies essence  of  a liberal  that  legitimate  /  157  education.  One of our most significant thinkers on western society and education, the eighteenth century French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, was a fervent critic of liberal arts ideals. Rousseau, a stormy romantic, inconsistent in many things, with little formal e d u c a t i o n , and c r e d i t e d w i t h h a v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y h e l p e d t o shape the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n , w r o t e A discourse on the arts and sciences (1973) (—the w o r d "discourse" meaning in its c o n t e x t " p r i z e - e s s a y " ) . The e s s a y w o n the c o n t e s t of the A c a d e m y of D i j o n in 1749, w i n n i n g h i m instant f a m e . The q u e s t i o n p o s e d b y the A c a d e m y , w h i c h the e s s a y a d d r e s s e d , w a s "Has the r e s t o r a t i o n o f the arts and s c i e n c e s had a p u r i f y i n g e f f e c t u p o n m o r a l s ? " R o u s s e a u b e g a n his Discourse w i t h the p o i n t that m e n are not at birth e q u a l , but as s o c i e t i e s d e v e l o p t h e s e natural inequalities are aggravated by artificial politically enforced i n e q u a l i t i e s w h i c h have n o t h i n g t o d o w i t h the natural i n e q u a l i t i e s . The s o - c a l l e d a d v a n c e o f the arts and s c i e n c e s p a r a l l e l s an i n c r e a s e in i n e q u a l i t i e s and c o r r u p t i o n . For R o u s s e a u , to l i v e m o r a l l y o n e d o e s not require k n o w l e d g e o f art and s c i e n c e . "The m i n d , as w e l l as the b o d y , has its n e e d s : t h o s e of the b o d y are the b a s i s o f s o c i e t y , t h o s e o f the m i n d its o r n a m e n t s " (p. 4). But in a d v a n c e d c i v i l i z a t i o n it is t h e s e t h i n g s that c o m m a n d r e w a r d s . M o r a l i t y , o n the other h a n d , c o m m a n d s no r e w a r d s , it is o b s c u r e , g u i d e d o n l y b y i n s t i n c t c o n s c i e n c e and " h e a r t " . H e n c e w e f i n d . m a n y s c a t h i n g p a s s a g e s in the Discourse that c o n d e m n the s t u d y of the arts and s c i e n c e s as s o p h i s t i c , l e a d i n g t o p o l i t e m a n n e r s and h e n c e to h y p o c r i s y :  A s t r o n o m y w a s born h a t r e d , f a l s e h o o d , and of an idle c u r i o s i t y ; p r i d e . Thus the arts v i c e s ; w e s h o u l d be t h e y had s p r u n g f r o m  of s u p e r s t i t i o n , e l o q u e n c e of a m b i t i o n s , f l a t t e r y ; g e o m e t r y of a v a r i c e ; p h y s i c s a l l , e v e n m o r a l p h i l o s o p h y , of human and s c i e n c e s o w e their birth to our l e s s d o u b t f u l of their a d v a n t a g e s , if our v i r t u e s , (p. 14)  S i n c e the l a b o u r s o f the m o s t e n l i g h t e n e d o f our l e a r n e d m e n and the b e s t o f our c i t i z e n s are of s o l i t t l e u t i l i t y , t e l l us w h a t w e ought to think of the n u m e r o u s herd of o b s c u r e w r i t e r s and idle litterateurs, w h o d e v o u r w i t h o u t a n y return the s u b s t a n c e o f the S t a t e . ( p . 15) We have physicists, geometricians, chemists, astronomers, p o e t s , m u s i c i a n s , and p a i n t e r s in p l e n t y ; but w e h a v e no l o n g e r a c i t i z e n a m o n g u s ; or if there be f o u n d a f e w s c a t t e r e d o v e r our a b a n d o n e d c o u n t r y s i d e , t h e y are left t o p e r i s h there u n n o t i c e d and n e g l e c t e d . S u c h is the c o n d i t i o n s to which those who give us our daily b r e a d , and our c h i l d r e n m i l k , are r e d u c e d , and s u c h are our f e e l i n g s t o w a r d s t h e m . (p. 22)  Legacies  that  legitimate  /  158  The w a y in w h i c h an a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e d e v e l o p s v a r i e s : A n a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e m a y be i n f o r m a l l y d e v e l o p e d by an a r t i s t through d a y to day choices of m a t e r i a l s , f o r m s , or s u b j e c t matter. Or, more formally o r g a n i z e d p h i l o s o p h i c a l d e f e n s i b l e a e s t h e t i c s y s t e m s m a y be d e v e l o p e d and j u s t i f i e d b y a e s t h e t i c i a n s and c r i t i c s , and s t u d i e d by p h i l o s o p h e r s , h i s t o r i a n s , a n d , m o r e r e c e n t l y , s o c i o l o g i s t s and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s . H o w e v e r , a broader sense of aesthetics can include not only the p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n a l y s i s o f art, but a s e c o n d m o r e recent p a r a d i g m of critical writing about art that a d d r e s s e s the social and historical c o o r d i n a t e s o f art and the s t u d y o f art. It c r i t i q u e s and d e m y s t i f i e s the former philosophical p o s i t i o n . This latter s o c i o l o g i c a l paradigm brings into focus and makes problematic the categories of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l p a r a d i g m , c a l l i n g it t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l and m y t h i c a l . It is the s o c i o l o g i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d w r i t i n g o n a e s t h e t i c s w h i c h a l l o w s one to ask or even to . think of asking the kinds of questions of this s t u d y — q u e s t i o n s about the o r i g i n s and s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s o f higher art education. It is a tradition which, since the early 1970s, has i n c r e a s i n g l y i n f o r m e d r e s e a r c h and t h e o r y in art, p a r t i c u l a r l y art h i s t o r y and art e d u c a t i o n . H o w e v e r , its e f f e c t at the l e v e l of p r a c t i c e in art e d u c a t i o n at any l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a p p e a r s m i n i m a l ( C h a p m a n , 1981). T h i s s o c i o l o g i c a l p a r a d i g m of a e s t h e t i c t h e o r y is d i s c u s s e d in further d e t a i l in c h a p t e r 6. In B a u m g a r t e n ' s m a s s i v e t w o v o l u m e w o r k s i m p l y t i t l e d Aesthetics, a s p e c i f i c t h e o r y o f b e a u t y m a k e s up o n l y a s m a l l p a r t : it w a s Kant who saw beauty as an essentially and exclusively sensuous p h e n o m e n o n , in s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h art. The c o n t i n u i n g uncertainty b e t w e e n r e f e r e n c e to art and the m o r e g e n e r a l r e f e r e n c e to b e a u t y is i m p l i c i t in the h i s t o r y of a e s t h e t i c s . For e x a m p l e , P l a t o b e l i e v e d art to be an i m i t a t i o n of an i m i t a t i o n . B e a u t y , u n l i k e art, r e f e r r e d to the s y m m e t r y and p r o p o r t i o n o f f o r m , and w a s f o u n d to be p r i m a r i l y in the a b s t r a c t i d e a s after w h i c h he s a w the w o r l d p a t t e r n e d . A r i s t o t l e , Thomas A q u i n a s , and in t h i s century, DeWitt P a r k e r and Jacques M a r i t a i n , m o d i f i e d t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s but r e t a i n e d the d i s t i n c t i o n between art and b e a u t y . E q u a t i n g a e s t h e t i c i s m w i t h r o m a n t i c i s m , or u n d e r s t a n d i n g b o t h as an i m p u l s e to e s c a p e f r o m the m o d e r n w o r l d , o v e r s i m p l i f i e s romanticism. R o m a n t i c a e s t h e t i c s g l o r i f i e d the idea o f art as an i s o l a t e d u n i v e r s e of i m a g i n a t i v e truth that f a r t r a n s c e n d s o r d i n a r y r e a l i t y . But it a l s o saw this autonomous aesthetic world as profoundly valuable in p r o v i d i n g the v a l u e s and r e g u l a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s by w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s and s o c i e t i e s are g u i d e d — i t d e l i b e r a t e l y e m p h a s i z e d the s o c i a l , m o r a l , and p h i l o s o p h i c a l m e a n i n g s o f art ( G r a f f , 1973). The term "physical object hypothesis" is u s e d by the philosopher R i c h a r d W o l l h e i m (1968) and later b y J a n e t W o l f f (1983). T h e a t t e m p t to i d e n t i f y the a e s t h e t i c in t e r m s o f p r o p e r t i e s of p a r t i c u l a r objects  Legacies  that  legitimate  /  159  as a s t r a t e g y t o d i s c o v e r the nature of art and the a e s t h e t i c has l o n g b e e n p r o b l e m a t i c t o p h i l o s o p h e r s o f art. W o l l h e i m s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r a i s e s m a n y o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u c h an a n a l y s i s that i n v o l v e s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the v a r i e t y o f t h i n g s w e c a l l "art" in o r d e r t o i s o l a t e their c o m m o n " a e s t h e t i c " f e a t u r e s . One s u c h p r o b l e m is that not all works of art are physical o b j e c t s , as in the case of p e r f o r m a n c e art and m u s i c . B e l l ' s w o r k i n v o l v i n g " s i g n i f i c a n t f o r m " is a t h e o r y o f v i s u a l art w h i c h w a s not i n t e n d e d t o be t r a n s f e r r e d t o m u s i c , literature or p e r f o r m a n c e art f o r m s a n d , if it is t r a n s f e r r e d , has several limitations. A l b r e c h t n o t e s that the G r e e k s d i d not d e t a c h a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y from the i n t e l l e c t u a l , m o r a l , r e l i g i o u s , and p r a c t i c a l f u n c t i o n or c o n t e n t of w o r k s of art. T h e y d i d not c o n c e i v e o f the " f i n e a r t s " in the m o d e r n sense, for they d i d not use a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y as a s t a n d a r d for g r o u p i n g the f i n e arts t o g e t h e r . T h e i r c o n c e p t of art w a s r e t a i n e d in the M i d d l e A g e s . E v e n t o d a y in w e s t e r n c u l t u r e , art c o n t i n u e s to s e r v e extra-aesthetic functions b y e x p r e s s i n g and s u p p o r t i n g r e l i g i o u s and o t h e r g e n e r a l v a l u e s o f s o c i e t y . A l b r e c h t c o n j e c t u r e s that if art is t o be c l a i m e d as u n i v e r s a l it is in t h e s e r e s p e c t s o n l y that it m a y be r e g a r d e d as s u c h . A l b r e c h t m a k e s r e f e r e n c e in the f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e to m o r e i n c l i n e d t o e m p h a s i z e cultural r e l a t i v i t y :  those  who  E.R. L e a c h (1961) f o r e x a m p l e , p o i n t s out that " e a c h l o c a l group has its o w n a e s t h e t i c t r a d i t i o n s w h i c h are p e c u l i a r t o that group and t o that group alone." Similarly, Redfield (1959) s h o w s that a " c o m p l e x w o r l d of t r a d i t i o n a l m e a n i n g s " is r e p r e s e n t e d b y the art o f a p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e , w h i c h has its o w n t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e p e r p e t u a t e d and c o n f i r m e d b y s o c i a l u s a g e . . . A m o n g A u s t r a l i a n a b o r i g i n e s , as M o u n t f o r d (1961) s t a t e s , the " p r i m i t i v e e x p r e s s i o n s of art, m u s i c and d r a m a " are r i g i d l y c o n t r o l l e d b y the a g e - o l d c u s t o m s o f the t r i b e , and "they p l a y the m o s t v i t a l part in a b o r i g i n e s ' l i v e s , f o r it is by the e m p l o y m e n t o f t h e s e art f o r m s , s o n g s and r i t u a l s , that the a b o r i g i n e s k e e p a l i v e the p h i l o s o p h i e s , the c r e a t i o n m y t h s and the e x p l o i t s of the t o t e m i c a n c e s t o r s " .  are  CHAPTER 6 CHALLENGES TO THE INSTITUTIONAL OF ART KNOWLEDGE  Although the  institutional  workshops to of  an  shift  of  intellectual  discipline  and  academicization process has not as  a centre  for  frequent.  This  occurred  in  discussed,  artistic chapter  relation  these  boundaries  and or  reform. The  do  the  structures  compartments maintenance  of and  have  of  their  promotion  aesthetic autonomy  traditional  highly  of  conceptions  structures and norms of the  university  art  knowledge.  has the  of  of  of  these  in  and  the  status  education,  of  artists  challenges  art  largely  of  schools.  ineffective to  which  this  these  these  arts  have  that  have  in  will  with  be  broadening  further the set  their  very  out  to  much  to  insulated  compartments,  allegiances through  knowledge  been  challenges has  universities,  liberal  have  As  they  their  mechanisms  tradition,  and a r t - a s - c a p i t a l . That  universities monopoly  these  allegiances to  sanctioned  art  place  knowledge  norms  knowledge, their perpetuation  gave art  even have functioned art  socialization, of  been  ineffectiveness and  its  preparation  departments  end, may  challenge with  some  hierarchies  universities  from  gone unchallenged. Challenges to academia  describes art  in painting and sculpture  secured  and the  challenges  boundaries, and, in the  to  activity  to  BOUNDARIES  instruction  academies and eventually  STRUCTURING  and  of  their  the challenges to  been . impeded  by  the  lends further support to the thesis that  on defining, legitimating, and  160  perpetuating  Challenges /  161  CHALLENGES TO THE ACADEMY TRADITION  The o f f i c i a l d o m  of  academies of  art, with their  rigid  standards of  western  high art, has become a symbol that incites rebelliousness, even when is  little  of  justified  the  or  not,  reprehensible "academic" and  art  have  Lowry's style  This  art,  is  the  art of  of  to  American  come  intellectual artist  in  the  for  sustain  represent  The  title  the  "new  colleges  and technical  known  an indictment  in  to  his  of  one  it.  that  words  oppressiveness, rigidity,  evident  prevalent  left  to  instruction.  "The academy of  painting  academy  have  (1962, p. 236) term, the  lends itself  fuels  and  a stigma  moribundity.  of  academies  1  in  contemporary  an  officialdom  which  of  article  that  academic s t y l e " , that  sculpture  against the establishment  and  surveys  in  McNeil  describes  which  "particularly  fluorescent  art  practice  light  in  tubes,  universities  with several references to the practices of earlier European academies: nothing of  more than a precious, obvious  subject  matter  convenient  and  Often, all endless  depictions  century  could  not  evangelizing,  of  survive  egg  a of  on  the  brushed  fruit out  art  fabric  seemingly fit  folds  the on  own  history.  "dry  elders,  fundamentalists  their  preferably  intellectual  "humanistic"  tempera-izing  of  can produce are  daubed  contemporary  manhandling  media, from  misapplications  decadently garbage  and repetitive  sanctioned  "superior" types  French  certain  set  sanctimonious  that these  19th  Among  within  the  Dan Flavin (1968, p. 30),  with of  is  inspiration,  bad" (Plaguen, 1981) or  imitation."  Whether  "academy"  lack  and universities  there  the  for that  cleaning". decrepit faculty,  Challenges those  all  invoked  time from  Cennino  figure  as t o  so  Indictments  of  1960s  early  and  academies but  bread  for  of  student  training White,  of  that  what  of  the  students.  instruction which  1965).  the  produced  at  best  were  seen  as  that  had  become  the the  the  enemies canon  "facile  p.  in  of the  and  the  away  forms in  in  and  nineteenth  the  and  that  had of  no  of  effort  in  the  the  individual  century,  classified  the moral  academy superficial (White  their  the  liberal  and  artists"  outlived  one  use  academy,  undisciplined, and  training  was  instruction  claimed  copyists guilds,  of  of  acceptable.  drawing)  the  social  on  of  the  heydey  were  creativity  an  the  "a s i g n i f i c a n t  Within  factions  during  only  prohibition  3).  into  not  lines  stifled  genius  of  politicized  during  methods  earlier  hard  remains  highly  resulted  degenerated  A c a d e m i e s , like  and  in  academies  of  futiiely  frequently  monopoly  styles  copying  Conservative  had  a  erasing  1970,  rote  expressed  frequently  in turn  likes  perception.  the  resulting  (Creedy,  fractured  professing  for  the  162  still  e r a s e d and k n e a d e d  were  artistic  (used  at  his  maintained  of  are  structuralists  faint  expressed  revolt,  line"  supervision  of  those  were  bread  not  masters  memoirs  thoroughly  tradition  old  e x e r c i s e in c o n s t r a i n e d  The  if  erasing charcoal, which  independence style  they  academies  claimed  "official"  so  the  pedantic  an e x t r e m e  are  by  of  musty  old  orthodoxy.  1970s  of  searching  factions  as  determining  throwing  expression  the  on  odd  academy  And  when  and  anyone's eyes  the  consciousness.  The  drawing  rendered  strain  secrets  tracts  Other  observational  sketches  artists  ancient  Cennini.  impose line  s t a n d a r d s , the  /  &  purpose  expression under  such  Challenges headings  as  romanticism,  academy-bashing art  of  realism,  the t i m e  academies  servility, rules  as  be  it  is  1859, F.G. Stephens  usual  of  mediocrity  body." "the  worst  has  yet  collection  was of  academy  Pevsner  (SiechenstalI),  was  which  a in  Pevsner,  a  Germany  means  Craft  Movement  were  attempts  p.  to  But  . There  are n o  f o r all to  great  Koch,  regain  He  the  most of  "an  world spirited  the  compared  and more  which  ruthless  heroic an  art  infirmary  for  inebriated  'an i n n u m e r a b l e  by  host  of  maggots'."  academies  incentive  the  that  leader  patron  a c a d e m i e s as  the  describes,  and, more  the  brainless,  a n d their for  "Salon-art"  drawing  f o r the d e v e l o p m e n t  in E n g l a n d a n d , later, the Bauhaus S c h o o l to  study  been  described  perhaps  painting.  200)  picture-painting  provided  slavish  and s e l f - s e e k e r s  cheese' from  of  all  "has a l w a y s  Morris  Anton  house,  a 'rotting  opposition  xii).  landscape  poor  general  1973) that  colorful  f o r the y o u n g . ( p . v i )  . . . this  flunkeys  (1973,  a myriad  obstacle  Joseph  Romantic  as  creeps—like  by  . .  or o b l i g a t i o n  genius  1 9 7 3 , p.  banishing  schools  A n d William  snobs,  pronounced  o w n words, with  artists  of  (Pevsner,  German with,  incurables his  infants'  by  the a c a d e m y  of  1 9 7 3 , p. v i i i ) .  seen."  criticism  that  a n d the e n e m y  (Pevsner,  school  in  . . .  is a great  said  Some  P e v s n e r ' s Academies of  in N i k o l a u s  in p a i n t i n g , a n d the c o n s t r a i n t  In  impressionism.  w a s G o y a ' s plea of 1872:  unrestrictive  in the s a m e w a y . . .  It  is q u o t e d  (1973). F o r e x a m p l e , there  Let  and  / 163  social  and artistic  virtues  rooms, of  (a  mentions  the A r t s a n d  in G e r m a n y . of  term  the  Both  so-called  Challenges "lesser"  a r t s , the  arts  They  were  attempts  artist  into  society.  of  guilds  this  and  Middle joy  Ages  for  the  alone  secures  every  object and  s t i l l , and the  1973,  p.  260).  social  conditions  liked  both  medieval  As  a  the  municipal  in art  Handicrafts and  or  artist's  of  School  certain  amount  of  amalgamated But  perhaps  education  and  taken  in  not  in  the  Ages.  the  was  for  the  "the  of  best  system  art.  that  In  people artist  (quoted  the  the as  a  was  a  in P e v s n e r  interdependence  fundamental  to  the  for the  an a r t i s t "  education  reintegrate  maintained  position  difference  design. Accordingly,  craftsman's  art.  of  was  Morris  people  discovery no  and  ideal  M o r r i s , and  recognized  the  i d e a s , the 1880s.  developed, craftsmen  same  Central  1973).  "by  workman  Morris'  of  London  was  made  user", wrote  and  England  the  E n g l a n d , the  social  high  boundaries  boundaries  Middle  164  Morris  be  like  of  between  would that  have  of  the  apprenticeships.  society  at  the  wallpaper  schools  (a  in  wholesome  was  beauty  maintained  insulative  revolutionary  and  outcome  established  other  Morris'  workshop  of  a  the  tightly  Morris  humblest  weaving  direct  down  companies  maker  and  break  For W a l t e r  workman  painting  the  to  trade  system  outside  /  time of  craft with the  Arts  what  evolution  E n g l a n d but  of  in  new  Guild  close  into as  steps  and  and and  later,  some trade  School with  in a  School.  of  each the  result,  schools  reform  style  of  1896,  courses  toward  Bauhaus  art  was  progressive  1973). A s  broader-based  in G e r m a n y , w i t h the  Movement  cooperation  (Pevsner,  existed  new,  Crafts  some the  penetrated  significant a  and  apprentices) Crafts  already  most  it as  working  and  instruction  With  such  training  Arts  a  and  (Pevsner, of art  art were  Challenges  /  165  The Bauhaus School  In  Wiemar, Germany, Walter  an art  school  and  building,  called  Germany  was  designers  in  The  articulated and  industry,  intended painter outside  get  that  (1965)  matters  of  matter,  technique,  architect, master of  of  and  of  with  the  For  alike  did  was was a  activities.  social  the  one  could  link  art,  already  advantages  the  of  "pure" to  and  combined  to  commonly day-to-day realities for  apprenticeship  the  the  (Whitford,  training  segregated  that  the  as  from  ideal  practical  Bauhaus  world  with  the  reunite  "apprentice"  working  estranged  meet.  "professor"  and  in  to  of  for  a i m , as  proclaimed  terms  when  need  The  type  proudly  real,  system  within  by. Morris, was  not  a  both  a c a d e m i e s . Its  "master" a  a  1919  period,  education  the  The  Gropius,  artist  of  It  artists  developed some  to  art  instruction  education  craftsman  of  art-related  terms  that  economy.  Gropius  instruction  apprenticeships.  their  G i v e n that  kind  was  romantic  part  arts  growing  heroic.  self-complacent  and  work,  the  the  believed  design  there  I,  all  and  a  and  in  that  anti-academic.  was  reopened  formulated  of  under  and  1973). D u r i n g  alternative  previously  with  because  craftsman.  practical  school of  artist,  an  was  school  War  a new  privileged it  produced life  only  from  replaced  Gropius  practiced,  as  the  World  as  industrial  (Pevsner,  hierarchy  out  that  were  announce  but  social  sculptor  world  "student"  1984).  Gropius  to  or  which  reorganized  crafts,  after  presented  the  to  of  Bauhaus  rebuilding  by  flatten  a school  Staatliches  Bauhaus w a s  Gropius  from  of the  to a  a life  the  modern  medieval  practice  Challenges This  new  divisions to  the  school  arts  demands  of  was to  were  wrote from  ridiculed  schools  art  then  time,  including  of  in of  the  academies,  and  and t i g h t l y  defined:  the  fully  the  were  drawing a  at  the  and  or  with  large,  with  standing  a  were  bold  and  charcoal figure  art  about  there  requiring  Scotland  were  the on  about  had  still  illustrates  the  this those  knowledge  were  still  two-thirds some  the  about  medium  weeks' work  United  States  all  French Michallet  one-third  the  size  life  size  of the  conventional 1924  study  G. A .  Reid,  of  the  very  drawings of  half  earlier  from  the  life,  this were  charcoal,  day  poses.  Schools  were  paper, which  gives  of  life.  The  traditional  size. They being  art  design,  difference.  much  the  different  of  by  very  Schools  exercises,"  1924). A  Europe  as time  American  alongside  in  the  very  North  the  self,  "At  2  departments  (Reid,  and  t e c h n i q u e , the  several  and  of  methods  spiritual  Bauhaus w e r e  architecture  Art,  creativity  concentration  European  States  C o l l e g e of  of  the  engraving  United  time  and  of  teaching  and  166  academic  notoriety  craftsmanship:  which  art,  Amsterdam  r e g u l a r , but  finished  Paris,  Ontario  very  and, apparently, In  western  parameters  Antwerp  Antique  other  those  decorative  the  training  the  most  of  and  physical  breathing  p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e , and  principal of  or  in  fame  and  and  notions  avant-garde  the  concerns  the  schools  was  11). The on  commercial  In  did  going  at  standards  we  The  accuity  political  traditional  as  being, for  was  departments of  concern  the  relate  appeared  whole  because  to  production.  what  the  (1964, p.  what  crafts,  on  traditional  challenging  attempting  industrial  develop  Itten  Utopian,  by  based  as the  we  was  in the  intended well  school  /  This  has  Challenges always work  been  the  in t h i s  practice  section  in  has  Schools from  which  .  drawings  of  the  to  be  Schools about  I  found  one-sixth  drawings  are  attempt  at  movement,  the  for  medium. the  Some  and  tone  in  the  almost  universal  use  of  form  Others of  as  most  and  c a s e s , that  that  seem  to  charcoal  think  Education  a medium  not  kind  painting  and  also  modelling  colours  from  still  carefully  The  Bauhaus  was  better  most  of  of  is  the  variations  suited  than  they  made Schools  contrast  lead  pencil  of  of  the  a  of  English  but  Schools as it  without for  a  was  the  medium,  and  requiring  little  surer  tricky  of  proportion,  treated  pencil  size,  classes  for  pencil  . . .  small  making  found  might  . . . .  in  our  167  in  slovenly  because  it,  the  and  of that  condemned.  g r a d e d . ( R e i d , 1924, p.  curriculum,  lead  was  and  the  three  English  use  in  generally  Examinations  was  life  the  work  search  v a l u e s , and  enquiries  the  and  All  keen  made  b e i n g , in  pencil  character,  a  Art,  made  . . .  in  to  of  measure, derived  being  lead  life  academic  same  in  in  of  the  work  of  mostly  contour I  resemblance  class  showing  Board  charcoal  truly  the  of  same  size  College  i s , in a large  and  answer  search  it  style  backgrounds. reason  the  Ontario  a close  French The  the  /  a  be c i t e d  Painting very  and  in  oil  important  the  classes  in  regard and  part are  to  water of  the  usually  7)  to for  such life  concerns drawing,  as  whether  consisted  of  charcoal practical,  Challenges broadly-based  workshop  instruction  clay,  pigments,  and  the  textiles, study  of  the  model-making,  nature  and  1973). The  The  was  which  a  student This  whole  last  have  range  of  according  volume,  to  progressed  Course",  a  the  practical  course  even  educational  and  finally  that  art  to  the  educational schools  included  composition  stages of  glass,  construction,  and  introduced.  quasi-scientific  theories  color  course  was  studies  geometry,  three  preparatory  teaching  Formal  of  through  Bauhaus  and  tools. study  of  a systematic coherent  use  stone, w o o d , metal,  or  "courses".  six  months  After  this  formal  art  in the  course.  theory—one  and  168  of  departments  witnessed.  The  Basic  theories  Course, developed that  universities or  "Basic  the  u s e of  m a t e r i a l s , the  student  p r o c e e d e d to  was  the  the  of  design  (Pevsner, first  in  in the  /  and  light/dark,  shared what  by  are  also  in  composition,  color  through  outlined  form  many and  every  program  J o h a n n e s Itten, c o n s i s t e d o f  standard  volumes,  almost  most  now  by  school  so  art  on.  in  and Itten's  art  curricula  c u r r i c u l a ; the  In  refer the  in  art  program  outlines  theory  fare  fact, in  one  postsecondary  to  other  the  as  a  elements  in  color  the  systematic  colleges star,  curricular  contrasts convention  education  today  foundation  contrast. color  Light  theory,  of  my  course  of  expression  form  and  course.  and rhythm  design teaching  dark, and  material  and  expressive  was  the  texture forms  is  "foundation"  Itten (1964) d e s c r i b e s his c o u r s e ;  The  and  general studies,  were  theory  of  form  and  discussed  and  in  Challenges presented  in their  various  possibilities  exciting  lessons  world  was  "objective  of  dependence  upon  on  the  other,"  wrote  of  the  i d e a l s and  The  design  art  theory,  of  intensified.  perceivable  confinement  Greenberg that  factors  counts  once is  of work  art  called  realized  that  a  whole  new  the  of  one  the  it  the  "aesthetic  a  visual  be  art, carried  whole; the  not  "scientific consistency"  of  the  in  is  method",  account  Bauhaus.  thrust  in  art,  broadening art, end,  as  the  was  the  an  cultural  art  education  according  to  principles  to  as be  dependent  economic  concerns  what  formalism,  the  on  the  interrelationships  social,  and  taste  and  and t h e i r on  of  the  known  original  experience  years  theory,  thought  materials,  detailed  out  later is  a  industrial  that,  dangers  personal  in  instead  art  twin  a dominant  and  seems  ideas  among  to  the  merely  171)  founding  crafts  of  obviate  hand and  ironically,  include  and  to  ( 1 9 7 1 , p.  Yet,  and  as  to  12)  thought  activity  form  that w e r e  of  students  composition,  feelings  the  most  aestheticism  and  to  the  on  169"  the  of  was  Bauhaus,  design  elements  relationships  The  the  to  enumerating  one  Bauhaus came  art  and  always  Francisco  the  Finding  was  t h e m . (p.  education.  In  of  for  theories  of  the  color  communication  contextual  artistic  and  the  styles  legitimate  exclusiveness  contrast  Marcel  of  effects.  design  past  art  intention  governing  up  of  curriculum  boundaries original  grammar  and  of  because  opening  An  were  contrasting  /  of  the  the  the  art  kind  ( C l a h a s s e y , 1986). W i t h  and  other  Bauhaus.  critic of  and  Clement  consistency the  existence  Challenges of  evidence  can  be  referenced  toward down  obtainable in  objectivity into  within the  and  3  component  objectives  to  principles  and  work's  work  the  parts  broaden  the  itself.  be  definitions  techniques  conduciveness  doubt  a  factor  curriculum  in  formalist  its  pervasiveness  formalist  mode  in  with  1972)  as  derived  predominance prompted  meaning to  To  seem  formalism concerns  students  be  able to  to  of  who  all  the  to  concerns of knew  definition,  structures  been  Art at  America.  color  no Art  4  in  (see,  a for  Education A s s o c i a t i o n ,  the  its  is  structured  s h a p e , and  about  Bauhaus. in  schools  lack  of  It  is  this  that  has  relevance  and  backgrounds:  and  negative  either that  design  educational  curriculum  positive  Bauhaus  education.  courses  educators  broken  general  line,  art  be  from  North  work  gravitates  a c c o r d i n g to  in  170  the  systematic  predominantly on  can  detached  longevity  s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l  intuitively  of  1976; National  the  art  objects  the  to  and  design  in  by  art  structures  units  manipulate  speak to  students  Itten's  that  about  formalism  instruction  has  & Winters,  from  of  several  schools  way  art,  principles  suggested  example, Cornis, Stubbs  notion  itself  of  knowledge  this  When  of  lends  judgments  defined.  s e q u e n c i n g , s c h e d u l i n g , and e v a l u a t i o n  The  In  positivist to  form,  /  space  s e c o n d a r y or art  had  did  not  elementary  to  be  about  s o m e t h i n g . ( C l a h a s s e y , 1986, p. 4 7 )  A  study  artists treated  a  number  demonstrated in  an  of that  essentially  years art  ago in  formalist  by  John  colleges manner.  Michael  and  (1970)  universities  E v i d e n c e , albeit  of has  practicing also  indirect,  been of  a  Challenges / formalist the to  approach can be found today  official  stated  present  student, offers  program  an image of  but  in  course  introductory  required high  every  degree  of  student  conventional  have  around  Because  of  Clement  Greenberg  the  physical  visibility  formalism in  phenomenon  as  North in  and  which  emerged  conceptions of  art.  a  in  in their  or  drawing, the  formal  art  the  program  composition,  color  of  them  program, suggests in  formalist  the  principles.  courses according to painting,  early  is usually  printmaking,  academies  properties  of  the  of  art  art,  and is  a  as opposed  to  properties.  given by  CHALLENGE  to  the  genre  America  Movement  modernism  on  attempt  now open to every  in  design. That these courses are  instruction  of  since  MODERNISM AND THE POSTMODERN  Crafts  almost  and sequencing of  prevailed  the  to  typically  options  based  advancing  categories  the ideational or contextual  equated  that  courses  attached  structuring  knowledge  that  structuring  1930s,  finds  and elements of  before  importance  continued  sculpture  one  multiple  which  "foundational" and that successful completion  by  Even the  and goals  the  "foundation"  theory, and other principles considered  of  listings,  or  in fine art program catalogs. Not  philosophies  an array  171  formalist  Museum of  with  art  is  England  and  with  a  of  social  Modern  activity  modernism.  formalism  principles  just the  has  Yet  one  by Art  the  especially  often  Bauhaus  imperative  of  in  mistakenly  modernism aspect.  Bauhaus, by  is  a  the been  complex  Like  the  Arts  and  School  in  Germany,  changing  dominant  Challenges [Modernism] age  as  ugly,  emerged  scandalous  within and  the  business  offensive  dissonant, bohemian, sexually  make  fun  books  or  of  close  common  sense  overstuffed with  (when  the  the  the  was  not  called  in  to  offense  to  good  . . . Modernism  in  general  did  not  conventions  of  with  polite  Victorian  society.  public—  taste  moral  to  seize  go  the  and  well  to  with  taboos,  or  1983,  pp.  (Jameson,  172  gilded  something  an  furniture,  the  middle-class  s h o c k i n g . It  were  of  exhibitions):  Victorian  the  police  to  society  /  123-24)  In  Greenberg's  form  of  the  formalist  work  of  Meanings, particularly with  the  work,  Authentic of  the  (Crow,  elements  such  which  as  used  to  it  was  equally  the  valid  modernism  its  regarded  as  "literary"  to  The  visual  paint  gave  with  N e w m a n , and the  boosted valid  styles  and in  to the  particular  the  pure  work  of  Rothko. Formalist period  and art  (Kuspit,  be  a  or  (Kuspit, with  painting two  associated  "modernist"  were  "Modernism"  art  but  the  what  "propaganda  rest  of  the  also  by  of  fifties  and  artists  -frequently  expressionism.  course,  the  dimensionality  American criteria  1981).  was  of  Of  a  might  and  meaning.  formalism  1981).  of  words,  as  and  interchange  of  abstract  bolstered  theories  Kuspit's  of  medium  extraneous  forego  surface  the  identity  that  and  5  experience  quality,  rise  however,  meanings  Greenberg, must  associate  became,  work social  color,  only  the  modernism,  and  ideas  was  of  cultural  understand  expressionism if  of  we  Stella,  give  1983).  canvas. These  sixties  art  art, a c c o r d i n g  culture  formal  are  sense  Abstract  Greenberg  there resulted  position,  were was a  as  other that  partisan  Challenges position heroic  pushing period  seemed  to  especially War  of  in  way  the  light  of  through  art  there  be  can  idiom,  Barnett  Newman  important  formalist  art  world,  but  in  shaped  to  being  challenged  view,  as  writers  being  "modernism on  Rothko  is  through  (Kuspit,  of  many  abstract  art  high  the  so-called  art  in  America  art  in  general,  production  was  and  with  a mainstream  1986; sides,  dominant  but  that  can  there  Cubism, not  World  to  art, a  as  presenting  Cubist  part  the  Clyfford  Still,  first  that  yet  art  nonetheless  mainstream  not  in  large  because  part  structures. dominant  of  the  including  only  in  the  of  its  in  the  which  has  Modernism, aesthetic  canon  taught  in  1983;  Muth,  1985).  Now  from  an  1983).  In  dead". Habermas who  that  the  or  Jameson,  culture .  no  15-16)  well,  (Foster,  be  through  the  idiom,  Manet  arguing  go  acknowledging  became  is  from  does  "official" It  movement  through  educational  the art.  neat  that  the  as  problematic  contemporary  there  1981, pp.  modernism  (Clahassey,  deeply  art  Mark  become  became  preserving  arguing  go  finally  instruction  from  not  education  conceptions  universities  words,  art  s e n s e , has our  of  It  when  European  Cubism,  then  go  art.  version  conduciveness formalist  doesn't  of  of  a nice  significant  and  a time  mission  does  and  14).  173  art:  through  no  (p.  a s s u m e d that  about  that  art"  was  example, makes  Cubist  The  It  collapse  was  Cezanne  significant  is an  the  thinking  presumably  and  of  for  art.  imperialist  K u s p i t . It  Greenberg  abstract  American  have  II, n o t e s  unitary  American  /  educational  schools it  point  H a b e r m a s ' (1983, p. is just  consider  one  of  modernism  is of 6)  several passe,  Challenges authoritarian,  and  postmodernist  culturally  writing  c r i t i c i s m , literary provided the  a  to  autonomy  in  mass  (not  abandonment  far  from  art  of  a  "privileged  moment  be  longer  x-xi).  the  the  to It  the  of  history,  vested  R e n a i s s a n c e high  of  calls  and  the  pure for  boundaries forms  of  art  authority  realm  to)  body  e d u c a t i o n , has  knowledge  instead  reference  its  Italian art  key  out  r e c e n t l y , art and  the  lead  Serge  subjects in  believe  Although  buried  away  There  the  from  of  for  of  is,  because very  functions  pluralistic  high  from  art  formalism  a  of  in  claim  art  popular  7  by  culture  Guilbaut  the  of a  s u c c e s s o r , p o s t m o d e r n i s m , has (1983) and  moment  equilibrium new  era  "dead"  by  e x p l a i n e d , in  modernity,  of  tension  already many,  introducing  that  we  passage from  and  modernism  are  fact, it of an  block?—essential  something  continues wishing anchorage to  to the  yet  living  provide  a basis  concept  point—or  contemporary  within  dead  shall  we  of  a  with  phase  distrust"  cannot  modernism,  simply  call  not  reference. Even  shows it  that a  it  still  stumbling  c o n s c i o u s n e s s . (Guilbaut,  at  modernism  between  considered  been  forgotten.  fact as  and  considered  and  in  in  its  modernism  history,  P o s t - M o d e r n i s m , a moment  least  coming  categories  making  complete, however. on  no  years  and m o r e  others.  modernism  conference  (pp.  and  cross-disciplinary  modernism  effaces  merely  a  we  which  This  174  media.  An  to  of  older  6  fifteen  deriving  Greenberg  which  incorporating and  institutions  with  situation  critique  c h a l l e n g e s the  aesthetic  past  theory, social theory,  and  It  associated  the  provocative  culture  tradition.  of  imperialistic.  /  1983,  Challenges  /  175  implies  that  P. x)  The  use  change  of of  new,  labels  And  to  a  the  and  poses  that  little  periods ideas  notorious late Henri  programs  continue  a  modernism  Lefebvre  sets of  and  way in  has  from  denotes  this  the  change  modernist  of  thinking  about  art  teaching  in  to  be b a s e d on the  a  continuation  in  that  the  and  up  of  to  of art"  of  including  Ancients  and  early  the  same  core  of  t i m e , but  their  part  of  and  is  the  Moderns  eighteenth  and  and  the the  in  century,  inflated  Of  course  century continuity  revision latest  no  end  of  controversies  between  the  and  obsolescence  1981, p.11).  impede  (1981)  modernism  dividing  gradual  as  and  form  into of  change. of  the  France  during  notes  sociologist  (1983),  has b e e n  art?  schools.  Alloway  boundaries  (Alloway,  may  and  terms  breakthrough  postmodernism  the  of  Lawrence  premature  postmodernism  with  century  aspect  course  periods,  between  belongs.  theories  remains  two  modernism battle  sloganistic  appeal  change  as  modernism  possibly  concept  the  "post"  a  boundaries.  is  the  prefix  breakthrough  such a change  there  seventeenth  There  of  The  m o d e r n i s m . But  a art  which  between  Comparing  relevant  to  always of  effect  system  "Despite  is  to  beyond  postmodernism  containing  there  or  "postmodernism"  occurred.  at  that  and  fact  after  evidence  art  look  postmodernism values.  in  enough  knowledge  writers  larger  has  culturally  postsecondary  Some  the  sort  large  has b e e n  courses  "modernism"  something  been  mainstream There  labels  some  something in  the  partisans  of  the  Challenges progress  and  regression. and  modernity  In  the  "modernity"  and  course take  of  Rousseau,  paradoxes: Nietzche  presides  view  to  trial  forward  film  ["Modern  Times"]  critique  of  modernity;  absolute a  divine  and  the  consolidated the then  Frederic  with  another  postmodernism in  aesthetic  such  and as  point  .  that  and not  .  or  even  this  long  "Les  contradictory  and  in  there  are while  modern  barbarity, the  terms,  but  a  certain  Temps  with  superhuman.  d e b a t e : the  popularises  journal,  "modern"  modernity,  toward  of  (cf. d i s c u s s i o n s  ).  praises  human  of  modernism  classical the  and  city,  famous kind  of  Modernes"  that  is u s h e r e d in a r o u n d  1910  War  I:  That  reign  the  in t i m e  when  modernism  vocabulary:  paternity.  c u b i s m , abstract  marks  universities  traditional  history,  is u s h e r e d i n . (pp.  (1983)  as the  schools  . . . .  reign  Jameson  the  World  B a u h a u s , etc  .  terms  or  176  s t a n c e , etc..  human,  after  the  modernity  stages of  the  sovereignty  rupture  of  the  Chaplin  an a m b i g u o u s  etc  decadence  the  by  an  the  tradition,  meanings  post-romantic,  e p i s o d e s mark  The  taught  a  Certain  maintains  of  quarrels  various  with  pushing  these  romantics,  over  modernity  partisans  favorable, sometimes  the  Baudelaire,  identifying a  of  of  on  connotations, sometimes  the  /  on loses  lasts  until  reign  is  rise  of  art, the  the  60s  and  70s;  1-2)  break  between  the  modernist  a wide  scale. By  its  The  the  subversive  modernism aesthetic this  powers  he  was  means  and  and first that  becomes  Challenges the  "official"  hence  loses  Jameson was  some  some  periods.  complete  secondary describes  and  in  arts.  features  of  the  fundamental  of  labels  for  Matei  were  and  actual  fact,  modern  now  in  this the  are  not  pessimism  with  regard  than  of  tentatively, to  has  earlier  periods  become  our  retained  the  not  many  of  the  culture  has  of  imply  change the  the  neutral  seen  is  of  the  from  the  to  say,  not  entertained  or  judgments. or  the  within  i n d i c a t e s , the  historical  labels as  more  term  value  in  furniture,  insulated  been  a  cultural Whether  fundamental  latest  salvation.  modernism, elaborates;  and fate  not of  without  culture  in  He  experimentation  generally. This  merely  is  dominant.  within  with  are  become  arts  semantics  a  features  features  tied  two  involve  formal  has  they  not  the  closely  shift  do  in p a r t i c u l a r , c l o t h i n g ,  culture  of  more  rather  fine  issue  between  of  now  of  the  number  and has r e m a i n e d rather  (1977), a h i s t o r i a n  first  the  universities  pluralism, postmodernism  at  distinguish  in  Although  postmodernism about  periods  177  a c a d e m i c , and  artists.  cautious  certain  more  p u r p o s e s ; rather little  is  to  production,  make  history  too  many  of  occurred  to  and  subordinate  retains  in  modernism  between  a  or  of  dominant  position  has  the  classifying  Calinescu  Used  that  modernism  desire  postmodern  toward  were  study  that  terms  i s , in  rather  as c l a s s i c  generation  ought  breaks  Commodity  older  departments. A s  shift  that  Art  the  s i x t i e s , he  content,  the  new  between  that  a d v e r t i s i n g , is  shift  h o w e v e r , that  it  writes  a  historians  postmodernism  architecture, fine  early  He  established  to  break  how  fundamentally.  the  the  features  how  appeal  in the  m o d e r n i s m , but  shifted  art  its  Features  and  becomes  and  changes  restructured.  older  8  it  that  point  periodization  distinct  as of  suggests  at  of  culture  /  a  touch  of  a  consumer  Challenges society  in  which  older  intellectual  standards  was  soon  to  become  was  adopted  "postmodernism" Interestingly, new  "postmodernism"  optimism,  populist  irresponsible, which  is  a  The  "counterculture".  magically  .  prejudices  and  extremely  .  .  perhaps  to  free  exciting  best  as  the  away  imagination  e x p e r i e n c e s , (p.  old  for  of  sentimental the  prefix  with  word.  battlecry  in  a and  notion  "post"  of  .  .  restrictions  new,  178  threatened,  honorific  synthesized  innocuous  do  the  an  apocalyptic,  apparent  seemed to  and  appeared  /  .  and  undefined,  but  136)  "AVANT-GARDISM"  This  mission  of  the  imagination  any  other  been  for  is  a  battlecry"  of  behind  outlook  life  on  establishment  as  a form  established the  represents  for  go  is  values—a  with of  beyond  few  of  of  of  them and  freeing  p o s t m o d e r n i s m , or, for  that  matter,  avant-garde. the  on  the  modernist  idea  to  or  (Henry,  much  of  of  change  on  the  It in  the  1984). It  students  avant-garde.  the  "apocalyptic  rather  represents  than for  It  represents  fringe  of  corporate  could that  to  that  even  be  of  be  them  art.  close  same way  commonly  art  the  adopt  paradigm.  boundaries  For  9  to  wings  rebelliousness  risks in  b o u n d a r i e s , has  an o p p o r t u n i t y  fly  political  social climbing  and  in  oppostion  the  prejudices  the  established  in  and  knowledge  glamor  out-moded  that  restrictions  art  mission of  an  old  experiences  deal  in to  but  with  with  postmodernism  innovation,  culture  to  great  Avant-gardism  away  new  challenge  associated  there  left  doing  an and punk  described  T. J . Clark  (1973,  Challenges / 179 p. 14) described the nineteenth In  such  being  a world  into  [the artistic was  avant-garde  everyone's  gambit.  the bush  within  of  an  late  nineteenth  institutionalized of  then  initiation  a return  y o u had left.  It  variant  rite—a  to  a  myth  It is promoted  version,  avant-garde,  of  trek out  privileged  status  was a f i n i s h i n g - s c h o o l , an  essential  to  being  an artist  an  rather  emptied  than  of  broadening of art's cultural  a  in the  in art schools and art departments.  proposed here, however, that this art school avant-gardism aesthetic  century],  of social climbing.  has been  twentieth century.  world  just  for a while,  unabashed form  avant-garde:  It w a s a kind  the world  Avant-gardism  century  romantic sort  version  that  of  It is  is an essentially  an  early  about  a  significant  constituted  the early  can bring  political  and social base.  The early avant-garde  Very  generally,  avant-garde a  view  are two traditions  art roots  used  represented art's  avant-garde, emerged with  as an end in  itself,  of this  gave rise to modernism  sense. Considering that was  in art that  situation. One tradition, the aesthetic  of  intellectual  there  for religion  tradition  art in most  as an autonomous  earlier  societies  or politics, the concept  a revolutionary  development. This  sake merged with and began to outweigh  activity. The  in the formalist  in previous  of pure avant-garde  centuries  art for art's view  sake  of art for  the second tradition,  which  Challenges had  emerged  in  the  political  and  social  merged  can  be  patron The the  system  practical issues  mid-nineteenth g o a l s . The  described to  the  realities  and  complex  in  open of  terms  as  emphasizing  process  of  market  market  dilemmas  century  the the  in  which  gradual major  competition  inherent  by  making  shift  in  commitment  to  two  from  earlier  selling  artists  fine  streams  the  for  made  living  180  the  institution  soon a  a  /  art.  aware  to  bourgeoisie decry  this  opposite for it  to  their  that  for  a  to  only the  tb  that  who  were  others  and  by  avant-gardes  sake",  bourgeoisie  to  former and  create  for  art  had  "elites."  their  u s e d their latter,  works  o p p o s e d to to  be  The  more artists  to  as  a as  were  than  was  bound this  of  to  yet by  class, thought  art,  they  values.  criticism  by  and  the  aesthetic  means  of  attacking  a direct to  propaganda  "art  unattractive  values. To a  quest  bourgeois  vulnerable  their  that  artists  works  committed  which  into  When  and  art  began  integrity—and  born  political  art  all  inextricably  attractive  the  for  of  disdain.  thus  artists  p o s s e s s i o n s , the  were  styles  Both  the  stood  were  artists  be  view  and t h e r e b y  requirements, produced  to  animus;  v a l u e s , lack  some  themselves.  class,  tried  material  successful were  began  this  for  their  to  their  minds  artists  to  had  of  their  Usually  liked art  b o u r g e o i s i e : the  against  the  fervor  the  Artists  the  work.  added  to  desire  which  sell  object  phi I i s t i n e  bourgeoisie  concluded  the  which  itself,  class  need  which  class  art—greed,  power was  became  mere  resurrected  the  for to  satisfy luxury  of  Ridgeway  10  (1975) e x p l a i n s :  The  art.  art's the these  product  tradition  of  Challenges creating  work  that  bourgeoisie  while  of  art's  What  "art  for  resulted  commentary,  was but  relayed  (Ridgeway,  1975, p.  for  undertaking,  task  of  traditions of  merged  aesthetic  that  would  (Ridgeway,  Marxist  Since with about  not  keep  it  the  from  being  a  time  of  the  social  or  political  the  social  base  in  terms  much  of  for  exposes we  understood  to  the  the  aesthetic  and  merely  in  the  themselves  as  both;  sense  art  a decorative  item  responsible  historical  the  autonomy  a  dimension  have for  ethical  Both  that  could  of  message"  m e a n s , an  bourgeoisie. the  political  message  was  aesthetic  the  approach  radical  political style  saw  of  of  direct,  "The  spiritual  intention  a  implicit  artists  a e s t h e t i c s , w i t h M a r c u s e as prophet  the  against  the  bourgeoisie  1975).  specifically  what  a  aesthetic.  values  a common  was  relating  and  of  market  into  goals  new  kind  with  with  97). A v a n t - g a r d e  the  commitment  avant-garde  a  and  181  96)  avant-garde  a  ideological  primary  (p.  an  through  systematically  basis  sake."  through  attacking  purposively  retaining  an  subversion  was  /  many  now as  early  of  an  message  art  all  ideology study  of  the  of  hidden as  ideological  and  has u s e d of  the  identify  the art  a v a n t - g a r d e s , . much  ideas of  of  "the  a Marxist  sorts and  the  much  to  class  of  avant-garde  development  the  theoretical  conceptual  social  and  structure,  relation  between  and  Great  Tradition"  A  the  of  values  product.  school  economic  is  1 1  provides  the  and  in  (Wolff, a product  By  structures,  Marxism arts  art  debate  framework.  assumptions  painting  of  the  the  society, study  of  Art  is  1981). which  forms  Challenges part to  of  an  which  There  i d e o l o g y , and that  it  corresponds  are,  writing  of  course,  reduces  explanation,  such  Werckmeister's aesthetics very  in  little  aesthetic  that  to  and  set  the  narrow  an  over-exaggerated art  development  idealist  core  of  certain  art  existing  aesthetic  The  the  reality  revolution, repressed  Marxist  of  and  dimension  liberation, authentic  of  an  everyday  function resides  or  representation  true of  social  which  class  appeals,  through  sensibility.  of in  not  art, the  by  social  its  14  of  •  conditions),  nor  .  to A  content by  its  and  even  question it  of  form, work,  struggle of  (i.e., the "pure"  why  possibilities,  recent  work  the  transforms  .  the  it  extreme,  aesthetic  more  within  represents  that  of  giving  other  concrete its  a  form. its  is  of  contribution  aesthetic virtue  In  by  to  set  enclosed  work  Marx's  enjoyment that  accorded  emancipatory  to  Marxist  universal  the  later  dimension;  of  art.  According  be  in  of  is  experience  the  answer  ideological  pole  a  is t o  1 3  Marcuse's  this  art,  Marxist  essence  society.  of  Marcuse,  and  education)  distorts  in  orthodox  no  art  reality,  function  Art  human  be  represents  essence  provides  another  to  (1978) M a r c u s e e x p l a i n s :  critical  the  historical  follow,  a e s t h e t i c s . His  liberation.  qualities  from  Some  contemporary  society.  still  to  Marx  Herbert  12  of  past  into  is  highest  revolutionary  of  ideology  value.  Marxism.  thought  in  from  an  of  would  there  of  the  it  status  apart  concepts  to  is  (and,  believe  qualities  attributes  there  art  function  inseparable  completely  interpretation  which  Werckmeister,  versions  almost  (1973)  is  182  ( H a d j i n i c o l a o u , 1978).  many  art  ideology  /  art  for is  "correct" form,  but  to The  Challenges by  the  Marcuse  notes  become class  content  that  a material  .  intelligence  it  questions  distorted  the  schema—a  rather  true  which  a  r a d i c a l i s m . His  source  culture  on  programs Marcuse century  of  of  for  its  merging  less  art  which  two  the  is  reduced  minimized.  to The  and  in  and their  goals  for  role  this  . of  Marxists  h a v e , in  and  notion  E n g e l s into  of  particularly their  his  the of  view, a  rigid  material the  political  base  individual  function,  are  15  for  a  an i n t e r n a t i o n a l  interpretation  social  a freely  time  when  of  the  California  strands,  the  of  of  world,  social  life  and  the  fine  art  of  fine  art  number School  symbol  social  influenced  Studies. . Reminiscent  avant-garde  the  structured  revolution  influential  Critical  themselves,  m a t e r i a l i s m , (p. 3)  Marx  normative  systematic  the  of  of  forces,  campuses. At  of  vulgar  1960s, M a r c u s e w a s  for  School  account  of  formulations a  drives  orthodox  as a m o d e l  increasing,  can  is  individuals  not  coloring  Marxism.  inspiration  American was  in  the  of  does  Nonmaterial  of  emancipatory,  individuals  revolution  p a s s i o n s , their  subconsciousness  counterculture  his p r o m o t i o n  subjectivity  implies  orthodox  of  of  or  Marcuse  dialectical  and  neglected within  political  prerequisite  on the  way  reality.  consciousness  as  takes  regressive  subjectivity  materialism  the  schema  the  183  (p. 8)  whether  the  and their  historical  Marcuse  the  major  in  rooted  subjectivity,  and  force. When  be  If  the  function,  change, writes  their .  become form.  radical  must  To  this  consciousness, a  need for  as  having  /  of  Art  the  nineteenth  strategy  behind  hired  this  Challenges action  w a s t o further  radicalism  a s part  institution.  the  of the overall  Marcuse  aesthetic d e f i n e r  o f a n e w kind  of  reached the  similar  other  society  John  Battcock  Cage.  (1977)  effective  art  before  many  features  "Marcuse  o f t h e earth  fine  artists  "the m a j o r  many  function,  artists o f o f art  rather  pointed  and capitalism  of  avant-garde  For Cage, the validity  than  in  out the basic  before  c o n c l u s i o n s " (p. 3 7 ) . M a r c u s e r e j e c t e d  organizational  and social  wrote,  inspired  disruptive  writes,  aesthetic  the u l t i m a t e  o f art." H i s ideas  A s Battcock  between  to combine  t o create  and psychologically  it's f o r m .  antagonisms  effort  the c o m p o s e r  in i t s s o c i a l l y  terms  project  b e c a m e , as Gregory  period, notably,  lies  the s c h o o l ' s  / 184  many  artists  art a s c o m m o d i t y a n d  art that  serve  and conceptual  the established  political  artists d i d .  16  Marcuse's "The  originated  Frankfurt  diverse to  work  fields.  N e w York  European Critical  School". Its m a j o r with  Marxism Theory  material School rather  than,  substructure.  of  t h e Frankfurt  impact, especially rise  to power,  and the development was  to which  and economic after  the Institut fur Socialforschung, k n o w n a s  The work  Hitler's  superstructure/substructure superstructure,  within  t h e 1930s  the  formula—the art b e l o n g s , conditions.  members  America  of  Critical  for idea  the that  after  The prime  Theory analysis  of  o f the c u l t u r a l  o f the F r a n k f u r t  moved  of Western  of  Marx's  a n d cultural  b y the substructure  interest  orthodox  it  many  ( J a y , 1973).  the s p i r i t u a l  is d e t e r m i n e d  o f earlier  covers  w a s the revitalization  l a y in an a n a l y s i s  a s w a s the f o c u s F o r many  vehicle  in N o r t h  School  the  of  Frankfurt  superstructure,  M a r x i s m , the e c o n o m i c School  this  signalled  a  Challenges need  to  attend  culture,  which  authority  about  mass  include  to  believed  in  broaden  forms  of  mass  be  the  painting. tell  the  the  of  the  commercials  for  war  able  to  as  being  Modernist  that  a  inadequate  commercial to  The  can  to  of  be  knowledge  this  ethical  would the  into in  a  potent  and  would  have  to  important  color  relationships  of  or  for  set  to  Being  example,  a  a  part  Matisse  self-expression  balanced  violence  other  forms.  of  to  have  of,  aesthetics  Their  education  these  as  to  penetration  meanings  dynamically  images  and  study  be  mass  injustice.  arts, television  of  185  conformity  translated  c o n s e q u e n c e s of  and  American  social  proliferation  art  formalist a  of  enforced  advertising  identify  has  relate  of  and  toys  of  the  emphasis  social  examples  ways  of  arts,  coordinates  knowledgable  of  persistence  boundaries  popular  proliferation form  society  culture.  sociological  education  a  the  western  visual  of  be  consequences  social  of  television  the  the  study  critically  to  of  with  the  on  problem  connected  culture  imperative  the  they  and  concern of  to  /  that  design  accompanied  are  by  the  narrative:  He'll  fight  G . I. J o e  Marcuse, trend On  for  freedom, wherever  is t h e r e . G . I. J o e ! ( c i t e d  as  one  of  within  the  fields  the  one  hand,  Marxist  doctrine  of  cultural  form,  the  rather  than  there's  in as  the  principal that  Marcuse  the  art  recognizes  historical context product  in N a d a n e r ,  architects  study  to  the  prevailing of  of  n.d.)  Critical  follow  materialism of  trouble,  an  appealing  important that  views  social  subjective,  Theory, represents  and  middle  implications art,  like  economic  ahistorical  of  any  a  path. the other  conditions  impulses,  and,  Challenges consequently, messages arts  that  of  On  For  to  direct  the  of  aesthetic same  other  racist,  and a l s o c e r t a i n he  attempts  determinism  and  autonomy  Marcuse  transcend  these  principle  dimension  views  as  social  of  art  to the  as  loss  of  as  a  able  autonomy  possible  from  and  to  of  other  the  fine  doctrine's  the  "aesthetic  higher  both  186  the  a p p e a l s to  conditions. With  aesthetic  far  avoid  operates  as  sexist  derivatives  and s o c i a l w o r l d . B e c a u s e he  autonomy,  time  materialistic,  hand,  economic  political  aesthetic  the  Marcuse, aesthetic  c o m p a r i s o n , the  the  by  m a s s culture  the  one-sided  dimension".  the  disturbed  pervade  tradition.  dangers  of  is  /  the  protest  law  fit  principle and  a e s t h e t i c i s m , by  at way  is  intended  to  withdraw  the  social  and  political  art  students.  world.  Art students  A  position  It  as contemporary  like  suggests  negation  Marcuse's contains  a  reconciliation  and  artist  into  Few  of  believe to  role of  the that  question  during  they  were  art  school.  current the and  with  order  much  that  would  glamorous  protest  with  given the  socialized  of  of  will  society mass  to  more  inheritors  challenge  the avant-garde  the  traditionally  protest  which  commitment  of  political/social  transcendental reconciliation  inheritors of  the  the  supreme  western  art.  to  early  change  culture  to  avant-garde  traditional and  appeal  and It  romantic  which  they  avant-garde  through  and  sentiment  its  art, y e t dominant  of  almost  suggests view  of  solidified  still they  a the  their  seriously continue  ideology.  In  Challenges interviewing  "modern  suggested  that, w h i l e  also  very  felt  political: This of  "My  didactic the  extreme and  the  by  the  their  be  to  viewed  following  sort  were  the  of  the  to  get  those need  for  or  the  the  split  between  (p.  which  make  art  non-elitist  most  98). is  the  stressed  that  artist  is  a  strong  did  some  pieces  has  done  pieces  that  seems  kind  of  Beuys  very  much  the piece  street of  dreamer  in  to  were  very  inexpensive  to  are  very  cheap  the  that  trivial,  really felt  force  naive,  other  t h a n , the  gives their  I t h i n k , (p.  because  a  damn  house  100)  with  elite if  for  their  Justifications aesthetic  nobody  and  the  art  they his  make  Beuys  structure. can  afford  signature  and  on  But  cares  to it.  on  have He  it  about  Nobody  is  art the  Andre  really  in  of  . . . like  layman.  or  expressing  political:  There  Yet  highly  wealthy  in  the  artists  positions,  articulate  politics.  and  "The  anarchist  to  most  attitudes  contradiction, every  change,  their  all 98).  art  most  respondent.  radically"  most  social  (p.  187  didactic  one  Nearly  available  were  was  c h a l l e n g e the  make  this  that  aesthetic,  stated  change  to  around  from  work  Marxist  should  who  their  object.  primarily  for  separate  provided  around  thus  were  positions"  continued  and  art  desire to art  found  their  system,"  the  society  artists  as  of  left-radical  that  including  commitment  should  form  an a t t e m p t  study,  down  or  expensive,  e d u c a t e d . In  nature  centered  belief same  and  Ridgeway's  very  Ridgeway  concerns of  e x p r e s s e d in the  attitudes  these  artists",  the  break  "left-liberal  political  intellectual  that  purpose was  to  of  primary  helps  e x p r e s s e d the  most  the  strongly art  public  subscribed  avant-garde  /  a a  Challenges For  Poggioli  aesthetic two  (1968) the  boundaries  separate  the  and  since  avant-garde illustrates  the  with  That  attitude  of  political  priority  of  made  by  the  artist, who  any  other  to  described does  been  is  in  but (to  the use  to  carry  a  a  myth  of  the  an  one  time  but  an  an  artists  an the  Comments  internalization For  example,  d e c l a r e d that  political  has  aesthetic  maintain  artist.  who  that  maintain  term).  indicate  and  occupational  must  Marcuse's  being  political  s t u d y . of  same  study  a Marxist  necessarily  conventional  i n e s c a p a b l e . The  into  artist  at  is  Ridgeway's  associated with as  due  translated  Ridgeway's  himself  art  alignment  avant-garde  dimension"  not  this  century  rebelliousness  interviewed  artist  and  destroy  movement—the  avant-garde.  an  to  "non-elitist"  avant-garde  has  be  attempts  188  obligation  he  into  or his  wrote:  The  reason  exist  in  I became  the  society  and  I almost  just  did  people  it  These the  artists  comments early express  an a r t i s t  was  that  I was  to  become  decided  mainly  were  s o c i e t y , (p.  of  myth  political' rebelliousness  one  work,  an  overlap,  "aesthetic  artists  make  political  is,  the  in  late-nineteenth  this  requirement.  in  to  the  that  inherent  instead  communities  aesthetic—continue  persisted  of  irony  /  because  expected  to  a way  expected an  I really live.  artist  couldn't  So  it's  a  of to  rebellion. I be  out  in  of  stand way  at  thin to  of  couldn't  that air  live being  time, . . .  the  I  way  outside  102)  by  artists  avant-garde beliefs  suggest  has  that  that  become  conform  in with  maintaining itself the  a  the  subversive  convention,  values  of  the  such  values that  if  establishment  Challenges they  violate  convention less  the  avant-garde has  case  student's  in  itself  become  art  s c h o o l s and  editorial  program  and the  comment  to  on  growing  familiar work  take  to  is  this  an  kind  artists  politics. A s  of  school,  and  only (need  I say to  with  one  political it  is  owing more),  I  parallel political  O.C.A.  regard,  "awakening"  the  many on  and a n g e r s that  going  I  their  is  the  and  of  speak is  for  a  the  certain the  community.  Not  included  here are  involve  at  OCA  finding  it  themselves  several.  element  characterizes  Arts  in  climate  they  it  disscussing  art  as  Art]  in Ex  the  a n o t h e r . Or  me  groups  up  there  is are  on  work,  art  Artists  everywhere  students, myself  his  of  on  political  art  proportion  going  current  fine  thoughts  galleries  this  of  peer  growing  pressure concern  to no  all  class  I cannot  in  in  189  is  are  College  end  think  art  you  action  not  one  my  sure  development  but  of  statement.  [Ontario  This  artist:  alternate  political  myself,  to  1975).  heavy  and  Ex A r t s  this  am  I mean. A  and  O C A d e b a c l e or  browbeating  artists.  department] of  challenge  political  express some  concept  certainly  concentrate  scares  outright  in  to  of  at  the  (Ridgeway,  a politicized  various  any  Arts  a student  t h a t , but  hard  What  go t o  departments  amount  become  into  words,  p e r v a s i v e n e s s of  overt  u n i o n . Here  Experimental  other  the  Toronto's of  other  d e p a r t m e n t s , a c c o r d i n g to  w i t h what  themselves  i m p o s s i b l e to  [the  art  politicization  in  In  convention  opportunity  shown  some  organising even  on  s o m e extent  being  making  a  peer p r e s s u r e t o  I want the  sentiments.  /  and with  Challenges / 190 the world's problems, (OCA excluded for reasons which should be self-evident.) relevance  Work  to the  is  now  being  "issues". Some  that if our work  discussed  of  in  terms  us are being  of  made to  its feel  is not addressing some social issue or other  is anachronistic, misguided, even  it  irrelevant.  W e l l , kids, I resent this. I resent being expected to be a political artist  like  blissfully  everybody unaware  urgently  need  obsession with means.  It's  else.  and uncaring  solving. being  almost  It's  I  am  not  that  about  the  simply  politically  I  prefer  many  to  questioning  do work  remain  problems  "correct," whatever  a temptation  to  the  current  the hell  that's  that  that  deliberately  offensive and "incorrect." (Cruickshank, 1986, p. 4) In the same issue of the college student in  a  cartoon  (Figure  1)  the  art  newspaper, this  student's  student  struggle  satirizes  between  the  p o l i t i c a l / s o c i a l and the aesthetic.  The officialdom of the avant-garde  It was stated that a critical  position  becomes  education  institutionalized  avant-garde sense) apparent  rhetoric  has become  of  in  loses its subversive powers when  experimentation  "officialdom"  in, for example, a current  goal for its "Experimental A r t s "  or  any other  (in either  and is Ontario  department:  institution.  a political  institutionalized  in  or  That  it  the  aesthetic  education  College of Art catalog's  is  stated  190a  190b  HI ^^^^^  5? *<.  K-Cj- CI?UiCKSH\yi\<c  Challenges This  department's  contact visual  with arts  College  Like  many  this  art  the  schools  school  includes  roots  Added  to  "perception  in  concepts",  study  programme".  (sometimes  called  "interdisciplinary",  and  Design,  "intermedia", are  added  which  in  to  to  York  the  an  nurture  avant-garde, transcends resembles  current  institutions.  An  about  w i t h the  The  Art  in  This  will  the  aid  an  (Adler,  aims  involve  art  of  world  institution  activity  students them  in  Art  in the  of  knowledge  that  in  gained  the  as  and  notoriety  1 7  more  of  activities insight  of  and  in the  closely  up-to-date  of  for  the  its  courses  their  San  concern  1983):  forefront  or  educational  and  advanced  of  Design,)  a forum  tradition  catalog  more  the  and  outside  Institute's  acquiring  Art  informed  York  College  University,  the  and  which  "New  Carr  of  of  specializations  advertised in  Arts", a  or  boundaries  keeping  appears  sculpture,  and  Fraser  art-making for  organization  Emily  College  that,  1979; M o n t a l t o ,  the  studies",  and  art  (Ontario  painting,  Simon  format  a rationale  the  departments  Scotia  in  Modernist  "Experimental  case  and  unchanged  of  the  Nova  conventional  the  Institute,  curricular to  in  developments  avant-garde  seek  newer  the  55)  drawing, is  191  into  in  avant-garde.  "intermedia  These  innovative  example  innovation  Francisco  of  otherwise  better  in  student  Post  departments,  format  University,  case  and  the  art  traditional  off-campus  Art  of  the  developments  Modernist  specializations  and  bring  experimental  university  this  to  1 9 8 5 - 1 9 8 7 c a t a l o g , p.  and  includes  is  tradition  Art, Toronto,  art  printmaking.  their  short,  of  concern  contemporary  and  history—in  primary  /  field.  perspective  Challenges necessary realizing years  for their  at  original  Art  Institute  flexibility  time,  they  will  implementing  their  best  society.  It  is  successful evolving  and  Francisco  Art  rationale  with  an  more  is  professional  The  notion  also  in  efficient  and  that  in  this  the  context  approach  in  a world  with  the  is  imaginatively,  craftsmanship  and  depth  and  of  ideas,  art. A t  the  effective  in  contemporary  best  skills  latest  their  of  of  which  adaptive  during  origin  become  familiarity  for  is  producing  fundamentally  from  all.  (San  14).  innovations, when  becomes skill  in  as  important  achieving  combined and  success  government  experimentation funded  evidence  task  of  the  Endowment  Task force on  and  for  innovation  forces  on  institutionalization the  Arts  and the  is  a  establishing  "experimentation regard  for  the  as  recurring  a  and  of  avant-garde  the  National  the education, training and  "professional" should  mark  fundamental,  standards, all  aspects  makes of  post-secondary  the  the  theme  artists  their  Council on  development  professional artists and arts educators (1978), in its c o m m i t m e n t and  often  18  a e s t h e t i c . The N a t i o n a l Arts  the  forms  of  artistic  preparation—further  the  with  192  effectively  substance,  m e d i a or  demanding  think  to  particular  art  than  artist.  of  develop  I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 8 1 - 1 9 8 3 c a t a l o g , p.  to  important  appropriate  dealing  of  that  ability  will  ideas  believed  practitioners  truly  ideas. Hopefully, students  in  predisposition to  same  The  skills  most  the  improvisional without  pursuing  /  to  recommendation  training  institutions  years. With are  places  of  defining that due for  Challenges change."  (p.  continue  to  19).  The  explore  using  the  example  laser  b e a m s , and  representative, originator  of  departments  Whole  of  must  intermedia.  are  The  There  is  of  the  the  of  survive  for  this  formal  in  in  visual  the  arts  going  near  home—in Arts  report, to  the  visual  arts  as  the  that  art  known  suggestion  had  that favor  capacity  on  as  within  of  the  classroom. Council  in  on  traditional  art,  broader  he  "life  dance, poetry,  academic  firms,  transportation  challenged  a  of might  ad  National  education  more  "campus"  halls, to  and  modes  plants,  the  music, architecture,  a marginal  force's  performance  future, a  and  extent in  electronics,  changing  addition  Kaprow  programs  with  insular.  manufacturing  the  painting,  Latin" (Kaprow,  the  the  should  advocates,  artist  report's  mines, farms, forests, city  institutions its  In  laboratories,  to  the  accommodate  investigation.  streets,  prior  up  in  and  193  report  done task  "experimental"  development  to  1 9 7 8 ; p. 88).  of  contribution  little  the  rhetoric  have  opening  Endowment  of  art  more  (National  on, may  f i e l d s , the  other  far-sighted  and v i s u a l  becoming  the  conventions  in  avoid  and  abandon  be  visible  research  and  should  " H a p p e n i n g " , is  systems,  should  study  Kaprow,  stations,  activities  so  music  television  years  "The  what  programs  expression  For  developments  areas  established  Arts,  curricula  c o m p u t e r s . The  the  include  new  Allan  new  arts  /  art  proposed, education".  theater,  and  r e s e a r c h e s , like  the  1 9 7 3 , p. 86).  importance  of  artistic  experimentation  and  challenges  to  Challenges conventional in  knowledge  another  "official"  UNESCO  (1975).  considers  to  the  education  based  on  produce within of  composite  the  media  the  limits  l a t t e r , the  more  more  report  foremost  art's  differs  institutional  and the  to  of what  of  the  of  the  of  they  stressed discarded";  wish, more "self  in  into  than  any  the  of  of  2).  and  of  vocational universities.  than  In  of  a  variety  document  becoming  is  in  rather  document  reflects  they  are  freedom  from  free  teach  wish"; itself";  freedom  of  to  "the "old the  artist's  to  from  with the  skill earlier  the  liberal  restrictions  their  students  involvement  repressive individual  its than  schools  shift  abounds  is  (p. 2). W h e r e  artists  a  like  areas  is  specialized  reflects  to  document,  "art  in t h i s  among  possible  document  practicing  It  use  life"  force  was  attempt  intermedia  everyday  and  for  was  this  and  Europe  trend  an  and  it  p r o c e s s and s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n of  object  "total  in  what  programs  "notable  because  "education" used  that  art  (p.  1978 U . S . task  "teachers  way  of  the  media  artists  s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and  actualizing";  a  interdisciplinary  creative  five  of  expressiveness  e d u c a t i o n . The  the  organization,  reflects  environment  hierarchies: in  international  selection  experience"  term  to  predominates  selected  visual  194  artists  media. "Experimentation  from  individual  teacher/student  greater  of  A m e r i c a and W e s t e r n  merge  "education"  curriculum  an  report  North  education  on  movements  rhetoric  of  from  move  the  by  program  to  our  academy tradition  progressive arts  2)  the  most  sense  in  each  expand  to  a part  time this  creative  to  emphasis  academia,  (p.  the  crucial  " t r a i n i n g " . The  that  traditional  need  as  and  of  preparation  and s c u l p t o r s . The  works  heightens  perceived  this  painters  artists"  of  programs  criterion  contemporary  in the  this  authors  "ideal"  of  the  document,  The  be  categories  /  is  is  methods the  order  Challenges / 195 of  the d a y " ; and the notion of  and student. new  "The learning situation  situations  with  exploration itself  These  words  eighteenth control the  convey  a  very  French  thinking  discontented  all  of  enough to  training  art  in  students  avant-garde amount  of  because  they  they  place  three did  claimed  neither  did the to  have  other  structure their  joint  and  exploration  where  identities  of  Ridgeway  the  at  least  into  field  of  motto  of  art  their  art  Of  study.  entirely  already  to  avoided  be taught  knew  what  25 perceive their artistic the  the  from  have been  programs  may  art, however, not  education  in  art.  promotes  a  The  certain  restrictions, including  formal  art  programs  did  so  or  techniques  of  art;  formal  abilities. Their of the  styles wanted  to  education initial art  Ridgeway  their  artists  they  summarized, expressed  in art  28  the  limitations  will  s u s p i c i o n , their  art  to  programs  and their  you  students  regard with  about art  and  instruction  and a commitment  in their  the  instruction  fine  institutions  want  and methods of  from  emancipation of  complacent  who  advance their  sentiment  socialization mechanisms of  outweighed by the sense of majority,  the  embodied  not  they  different  academy, today's  been  programs  those  end-products,  challenge, or  scepticism of  studied,  of  art. The  sentiment  formal  be one of  academies—"control  the  established artistic  own  known  must  has no limit imposed upon it." (p. 2)  century  official  have  no  s t y l e " . But in spite  formal  a "partnership" relationship between teacher  (1975)  a c c o m p l i s h . But in  art  to  excitement  be  was  the soon  school experiences. The  opinion  that  instruction were confining, limiting  the  program  and stifling  imagination and creativity. In the words of one respondent:  to  Challenges When must  you  are  admitted  continue. You  not  go  from  are  two  printmaker.  can't  being  different It  to  what  came  in.  It  school  move  out  painter  to  the  stay  slides  could  ludicrous—it  a  a  to  be  just  of  being  were  you  years  everybody  a  it.  specific  I  a  mean  purpose  like  sculptor.  you  and  it  sent  old.  had  them  or  to  could  In  terms  of  up  tight  and  very  felt  by  they  being  be  when  196  you  Because  a photographer  channelled  three  keeps  for  being  d i s c i p l i n e s . Or  had  close  to  /  a  pretty  you  first  growth—it's limited,  (p.  174)  In  another  eventually he w r o t e  context, dropped about  All  that  that  the  was of  a  or  fate  "I  needs  no  offered  a series so  teacher  of  away one  would  (Winters, pp.  were to  our  he  d o i n g , that be  an  artist."  assigned  technical  semesters  in  a  who letter  in  c o u r s e . In room  and art  school  a  deadline  by  another  each with  between  the  deadlines,  occasionally such  as  even  and  make  "Hmmmmm.  16-17)  admitted,  This  student,  obvious  immediately  work—comments  they  art  instruction  projects,  the  fine  c l a i m s ) , is  followed of  one  school:  three  w a n d e r . into  Interesting."  docile,"  My  graded  (he  in art  was  and  on  kept  regrets  idealism  comments  was  they  of  faculty  a s s i g n m e n t . Each the  with  lackadaisical.  consisted week  out  the  the  disillusionment  would meant  "by  a  faith  certainly not  only  that  make the  the  sure  faculty I  got  techniques  knew  whatever of  art, but  what one the  Challenges "key  to  good  satisfaction  student  introduced  and  and  to  the  purpose  everything "infant  as w e l l . F o r  would  new  left"  fall  (p.  my  into  part,  place"  I had o n l y (p.  17), he s a w that  16).  Neither  seeing  showed  seemed  branch  the  entertainment  of  fine end  art of  student, four  of  biased  the  1979, p.  idea of  in  an  the  (pp.  but  its  place  "institutionally  done  I now  unchecked to  was  problems. an  all  an  esoteric  to  assumptions, the  his  college  essay  defined  believe  embrace  I  17-18)  disillusioned, disowned in  being  about  world  these  end, nothing  industry,  attempt  avant-garde  subculture  avant-gardism,  is  caught  heralded under  significant  sentiment  of  structures  and  culture,  remains  it  and  the  to  be a  there  artists'  relations  displayed  I have  the  197  art  expounding  status":  be  based  accepted  role  of  part  of  the  notions  of  pluralism  upon  by  artist.  me  (Cork,  70)  rebelliousness  effect  work  b e , in  and  nor  any  an a r t i s t ' s  conventions  temporarily  school  be  to  similarly  years  he b e l i e v e d t o  Most  The  school  fantasies  art  the  what  art  private  "Serious"  Another at  in  my  to  Upon  were p r o b l e m s in s o c i e t y and that there were t h i n g s t o d o them.  /  what  latest in  older they  just  those  postmodernism.  change  defying  has b e c o m e  up w i t h  by the  that  rubric art  why  programs?  is  has  of there,  that, a s e n t i m e n t .  The  art  part  school  highly  the  knowledge  once  and  failed  Although  art  department/art  this  "postmodernism",  categories  represent  But  art  of  and the  so  political touted far  to  avant-garde educational art  school  avant-garde  carries  Challenges little  of  One  the  r e a s o n is that  negation  and  Marcuse short  of  too  insular  A  be  inheritors,  intent:  art,  academicized  by  experimental  or  unencumbered programs  are,  the  more punk  is  familiar  string  of  art,  by  timetables  political  arts, of  very and  for  to  incorporate,  broader,  conventional  formats  specializations  to  limited  of are  ties  the  sculpture  for  an  appearance of  many  printmaking. fine  in  those  bounded  a  art  bounded  especially  are  of  knowledge,  programs, even  into  and  intermedia,  education,  forms,  of  art,  absorbed  separate,  organized  their  bereft  termed  and  its  environmental  been  within that  familiar  through  b o u n d a r i e s . But  postmodernist  frequently  more  constructivism,  frontiers  resources. Art  painting,  element  "isms"  provide  knowledge  departmental  aesthetic  get  of  variously  on  existing  futurism,  have  stopping  of  to  they  waves  which  avant-garde  aesthetic  institutionalization  competition  departmental  order  being  determined  stiff  attempting  in  permits  The  what  Marxist  upon  disruption  historical  art  courses,  path  retreat  symbolism,  into  and  historically their  and  198  avant-garde.  between  culture,  for  avant-garde  and  path the  unfair.  the  today,  interdisciplinary  by  morally  students  recent  options  school  of  historical  like  critique  remains  universities  multiple  or  expressionism,  the  performance  providing  art  art  the  a middle  as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n  what  courses—that  Even  of  that  of  aesthetic,  the  socially  principles.  is  the  continued  aestheticist  dadaism.  existing  to  the  interpreted  subversive  times  upon  based on  among  be  history  within  of  popularity  perceived  recent  imperative  an a v a n t - g a r d e  insisting  easily  political/social  reverence  second reason  most art  a  gained  elements can  genuine  /  by  These arts  Challenges department of  that  students  is  into  competitiveness much  the  Apart  and  from  institutions, effecting problem to  one  or  the  way  as  applied  the  to  art  maintain the  of  reason  significant  change or  the  boundary  into  resulting  that  separates  non-degree  and has  programs  postmodernism  them, art  educational  with  loose  in into  unsuccessful  do  of  institutions.  of  been  the  sense  fine  granting  has t o in  of  norms  199  socialization  the  separation  postmodernism art  d e s i g n . The  and  structures  in f i n e  what  and  institutional  the  why  arts  category,  and d e s i g n  effects  pluralism,  applied  other  does  another  of  an  in  inherent  sense  is  taken  mean.  Pluralism  undercuts  any  motivation  and  avant-garde  implies  no  from  functions  same  universities  distinct  /  single  that  contradiction  avant-garde. or  which  the  When notion  For  the  early  existence  1977;  and  society  a  spiritual,  example,  artworld  rather  aestheticism's aesthetic  the  of  experience  of  that  The  pluralistic  avant-garde  an  It  is  imposed  loses  the  art its  from  was own  aesthetic  became  that  by  status  pronounced,  the  of  an  there  is  situation its  of  the  system  motivates  the  to  of the  radical  extent  (Burger,  and the it  like  polemical  aestheticism  autonomy  was  perception  determined social  When  consistent  consciousness point  once  existence  scattered  1982).  turning  intensification  vision  enemy.  the  moral  recognize  moral  identifiable a  with  conceptions  could  an  Schechner,  a  or  avant-garde.  of  postmodernists,  "avant-garde"  of  Utopian  e n e m y , but  between  values  social  the  by  (Calinescu,  corporate  of  identifiable  advocated  vitality  task  specific  to  1983).  associated  permitted  the  Challenges recognition logical  the  and to  modernist  the  secular,  modernist  of  sees  in  our  mid-1970s world. of  In  the  and  In  fact,  high  there  is  no  it real  separates  of  War  their  of  larger  the the  1984, p.  are  artist. points break  The  to  turn  attempt which  autonomy  and  culture  pernicious  critic,  served  anti-toxin  With  center"  artist  as  generated spread  of  postmodernism,  (p. 7 4 ) ; t h i s  is o n e  postmodernist/pluralist  by  of  thinking  the from  I  as  a  that  burning  . . . had art  would  involvement subsided never  and high  of  by  the  change  the  art  out  are  74)  not  This to  only the  55).  societies  out  of  does  between  is  part  of  the  same  belongs.  is  still  postmodernist  s t y l e . There  not,  Alloway's  postmodernism There  (1984),  postmodernism, heroism  art  art.  19  World of  moral  acknowledgement  era  postmodern  cause.  that  future  into  "art's  thinking.  s t y l e . (Gablik,  heroism  of  200  world.  counteract (p.  in  Gablik  civilization, to  autonomous  avant-garde  social  Suzi  consciousness"  before  the  to  of  structure  subversion  society  elements  the  and  the  social  into the  according  a lack  began  artists  back  marginality was  the  bourgeois  avant-garde  What  But  of  bureaucratic  important  and  dissidence  body  c o n t r a s t , she most  art  and  recognition  art  culture,  consciousness  within  irrelevance  this  bring  avant-garde's  "the  of  social  institutionalized  functions  the  the  c o n s e q u e n c e of  against  In  of  /  however,  (1981)  claim  modernism social high  and  system art  is  a renewed  help  heroism  postmodernism's  presented  earlier  that  postmodernism; to  which  accessible  that  modernism  primarily  to  a  Challenges social high  class art  decidedly  economic  status  investment  the  artist  hero  of  said  "being  56).  While  talk,  like  direction art  what  a  about  culturally should  is to  are  art, t o  of  serve  of  concern  the  university  as cultural  displacement  bureaucracy,  may  from  of  that  one  socially  education art  to  and  department  far  "making  of  acquired  Warhol,  the  of  art.  art"  money  anymore.  have 56).  the  sort  critical  way  society,  is  drifted  For  art".  of  than  That  art  way  of  especially  in d e t e r m i n i n g  to  thinking  what  a  more  about in  art  their heroes  modernist  rather  (p.  ambiguous  flinching  p.  having Making  best  artists  of as  post-modernist  this  to  the  culture  morally  1984,  such  conformity,  conformity and  how  and  a r t s , as  the  nobody  (Gablik,  looking  our  kind  amusing,  the  archetypes  Andy  is  of  have  popular  business  just  art  quotes  leave  whole  "Those  fascinating  d i d , they of  a  201  modernist  demonstration  high  and  just  the  straddled  She  good be  sign  of  fine  most  and  doubt  another  to  56).  as  as  previously  the  statements  drifting  her  society  conformity"  no  with  of  art  Warhol  cultural  in  imagining."  (p.  the  these  inclusive, political  be  role  be  is  disconcerting  of  this  anybody's  is  like  privileged  "alienated" works  blurring  working  students  may  thinking  The  are  to  between  hands"  business  Warhol, complete  students  the  in  of  in  as  joined  comments  they  models,  Once  "beyond  now  and  much  points  businessman, which  good art  educationally  alliance  postmodernist  "Rather the  art.  the  have  the  is  of  and  herself  open,  value  and  adversaries,  money  economically  audience. Gablik  current,  an  as  /  light  art of  knowledge  knowledge.  radical  consciousness  c o m m e r c i a l i s m , and  the  uncritical  by  forces  of  recuperation  professionalism, of  mass  culture  Challenges has  crippled  the  impact  resulted  in  a  presents  a  significant  modernism. for  and  It  to  of  1977, p.  situation  to  be  the  of  a new  136)? Has the  in  to  popular  and  which  the  demands  establishment  "battlecry  avant-garde,  alternative  s e e m s that  respond  its  the  postmodernist  manifestation with  of  of  values.  the  What  been  popular  c u l t u r e , is not  as e l i t i s t  The  notions  of  elitism  and  it  the  point  they  represent  the  Pynchon"  (Calinescu,  accessible  to  intellectual  of  renounces that  spirit  1977,  p.  44),  culture  they than  were  image,  realized  and  one  students  rebellious, their  gadget  that  still but  can  the be  artists be  our  obligation  personality marketed  thought  necessarily  Because moral  and  as  artists  Beckett  avant-garde  or  even  matching  or  to  who  values  society  students as n o n  and  artist  herself  corporate  art of  or  is  continue  conformist their  to that  conceptual  technocratic,  to  without  between  from  our  which  desire  rhetoric.  split  detached  to  in  great  most  him  its  overworked  the  dedicate  be  (Calinescu,  "popular"  in  easily  direct  more  ambitions  to  most  no  worldly  order  create  postmodernism,  been  instance,  are  high  modernism?  truly  a r t i s t s . The  unacknowledged  skilled  the  avant-garde  to  often  for  have  modernist  politically  so  "As  postmodernism—for  mainstream  subscribe. Art  actions  of  meaning.  as w a s  seems,  of  postmodernism, with  the  cannot  nostalgic  lose  to  longer  is to  apocalyptic"  that  of  age  202  notes,  no  values  that  happened  deflated  popularity,  singular  and  Gablik  general  market,  o p t i m i s m , populist  argument  in  as  postmodern  incorporation  that  art  reigning  in the  has,  /  a to  and  lives  and this  present  system  has  and  aesthetic,  "talent  is  u s e d as  a kind  of  a whole  the and  s u c c e s s f u l l y " (Gablik,  1984, p.81).  What  Challenges now  has  become  this  depends  and, above  In  The  all, a knowledge  earlier  of  the  in  that  honoring  may  nature,  e l e m e n t s . The  good  of  difficult  to  education,  and  despite  and  the  University redefined  the  and very  was  been  the  of  art  is  task  structures  of  new  little  an  than  Bauhaus S c h o o l to  into its  the  media  to  norms  categories  are the  social  impetus  of  knowledge  of  very  subversive  conceptions techniques.  by  political  their  any  high of  It  is  knowledge from  such  challenges  can  live  art  style,  boundaries that  and  intentions.  traditional  university  for  institutionalized  by  discipline  its  of  individual  the  legitimated  challenges  lack  advancing  to  insular  formalist  imperatives  However,  threat  a  original  the  categories  emancipatory  and  conventional  and  successful.  challenges  historically  remains  less  the  original  these  relations,  boundaries  a b s o r b e d and  avant-garde.  there  public  Marxist-derived  its  and  knowledge  aesthetic, with  including  neutralize  the  artist,  institutions.  systematized  s o c i e t y , that  lost  art  an  203  Renaissance-based  the  frequent  into  by  options,  that  fine  and  as  good  effect,  multiple  mastery  see why  world.  adapted  is  in  exclusive  with  e x c e l l e n c e b a s e d on  design,  Morris  has  with they  result  but,  c h a l l e n g e , has  invested  associated  institutional  criteria  be  and  frequent  absorbed  such,  promotion,  insular  industrial  as  reputation  sacred  Avant-gardism,  and,  a  c h a n n e l s and  culturally  experimentalism,  freedoms  making  legitimating  William  postmodernist/pluralist education  is  furthered  everyday  challenges.  Universities  art  been  became  theory in  the  dominant,  academy  relevance these  have  challenges by  educational  of  challenges to  of  the  importance  "hustling"—advertising,  universities  validity  the  on  summary,  within  of  /  the  with,  not in fine are or  Challenges / 204 the  older  arouse  categories of  in the  doubts. The confronted  are defended against  public, and, especially in the resistance  if  knowledge  that  a broadening  these of  the  New Class, new  institutional cultural  attackers who  structures  demands  present  and disciplinary  must  base of  art  can and be in  schools and universities is to be effected.  NOTES 1  One author  who  feels that this  is unfair  is Albert  Bourne.' In his The he attempts to give a "fair appraisal" of the historical role of the Academie de B e a u x - A r t s . "The facile manner in which critics have disposed of Academic and official art—on the basis of an aesthetic frame of reference developed in the twentieth century—is historically unjustified" (p. vii).  academy and French painting in the nineteenth century (1971),  2  This concern to build into teaching design the mysteries of creativity and the development of the whole being, spiritual and physical self included, tends to be forgotten as a result of the institutionalization of the Bauhaus teaching . Although the Bauhaus was intended as a school of design and architecture, it employed "fine" artists to meet the purely practical need for extensive theoretical instruction thought to counter the design inadequacies among the students. Itten (1964) spoke often of the need to build into teaching design scope for "individuality". In teaching the means of design it seemed important to me to appeal to diverse individual temperaments and talents. This alone makes for a creative atmosphere which encourages original work. The work should be "genuine" . . . . People of various talents react quite differently to the elements of design and accordingly develop in different ways . . . I accomplish the unlocking of individual power through a definite way of teaching the means of. design. First, imagination and creative ability must be freed and strengthened. When this is accomplished, technical practical requirements can be brought in and finally also economic considerations of the market . . . If new ideas are to take the shape of art, it is necessary to prepare and coordinate physical, sensual, spiritual, and intellectual forces and abilities. This insight largely  Challenges  / 205  d e t e r m i n e d the s u b j e c t a n d m e t h o d o f m y B a u h a u s t e a c h i n g . The task w a s t o b u i l d the w h o l e m a n as a c r e a t i v e b e i n g , a p r o g r a m w h i c h I a l s o c h a m p i o n e d again a n d a g a i n in the f a c u l t y c o u n c i l , (p. 10)  Itten a l s o s p o k e creative b e i n g " :  of  the  need  to  consider  the  "whole  man  as  a  It is n o t o n l y a r e l i g i o u s c u s t o m t o start i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h a p r a y e r or a s o n g , but it a l s o s e r v e s t o c o n c e n t r a t e the s t u d e n t s ' w a n d e r i n g t h o u g h t s . A t the start o f the m o r n i n g I brought m y c l a s s e s to mental and physical readiness for intensive work through relaxing, breathing, and concentrating e x c e r c i s e s . The t r a i n i n g o f the b o d y as an i n s t r u m e n t o f the m i n d is o f the g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e f o r c r e a t i v e m a n . (p. 11)  The t e r m " o b j e c t i v e " is u s e d here in the m o s t g e n e r a l s e n s e as that w h i c h e x i s t s o u t s i d e the m i n d as an actual o b j e c t , as o p p o s e d t o i d e a s , t h o u g h t s , a n d f e e l i n g s in the m i n d . T h i s is d i f f e r e n t f r o m the positivist sense in w h i c h scientists must be objective in their e x p e r i m e n t s , that i s , w i t h o u t b i a s . It is a l s o d i f f e r e n t f r o m the s e n s e in w h i c h a w o r k o f art m a y be d e s c r i b e d a s either " a b s t r a c t " or " o b j e c t i v e " in its r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f or r e s e m b l a n c e t o natural o b j e c t s . The a t t e m p t t o c o n f i n e a n a l y s i s t o o n l y the " p h y s i c a l o b j e c t " at the neglect o f s o c i a l , p e r c e p t u a l , s y m b o l i c , and o t h e r factors is m o s t o b v i o u s in the w o r k o f f o r m a l i s t t h e o r i s t s w h o s e e m t o m a k e an effort to appear philosophically sound, even q u a s i - s c i e