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An evaluation of the guidelines for coal development, British Columbia Gibson, Margaret Linda 1984

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AN- EVALUATION OF THE GUIDELINES FOR COAL DEVELOPMENT, BRITISH COLUMBIA By MARGARET LINDA GIBSON B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , 1971 B.Sc, The U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , 1977 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT i THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Program R e s o u r c e Management S c i e n c e  We a c c e p t  this  thesis  as  conforming  t o t h e r e q u i r e d ^standard  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1984  ©  Margaret  Linda Gibson,  .1984  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements of B r i t i s h it  this thesis f o r an  agree t h a t for  understood that for  Library  shall  for reference  and  study.  I  f o r extensive copying of  h i s or  her  copying or  f i n a n c i a l gain  be  g r a n t e d by  the  s h a l l not  be  of  Department of  R e s o u r c e Management  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (3/81)  further this  Columbia  Science  thesis  this  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  make  head o f  representatives. publication  the  University  the  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may by  the  I agree that  permission  department o r  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree a t  Columbia,  freely available  in partial  written  ABSTRACT  I n 1976,  the B r i t i s h  a C o a l Development directing  C o l u m b i a government  Guidelines  (CDG)  c o a l - m i n i n g development  established  program w i t h t h e g o a l o f  in a rational  and  compre-  h e n s i v e l y p l a n n e d manner t h r o u g h p r o c e d u r e s e s t a b l i s h e d appraise in this economic CDG  impacts. thesis,  An e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e program,  showed t h a t ,  growth,  20 B.C.  during  L i n e Creek, G r e e n h i l l s ,  an e v a l u a t i o n  o f the program's  contexts.  with  rapid y e t the  unchanged.  The r e s e a r c h e r d e s i g n e d  and i n s t i t u t i o n a l  seven y e a r s o f  c o a l mines were a p p r a i s e d ,  program remained f o r m a l l y  which i n c l u d e d p r o f i l e s  dealt  to  study  policy,  T h r e e mine p r o j e c t  model  historical, proposals—  and S u k u n k a — w e r e u s e d as c a s e  s t u d i e s t o p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e o f program  actions.  Seven  cri-  t i q u e s a s s e m b l e d by v a r i o u s a u t h o r s were r e v i e w e d and compared  f o r common e l e m e n t s , c o n t r a d i c t i o n s ,  A sample o f 23 government involved  and c o r p o r a t e  i n t h e p r o g r a m was  interviewed  t o a q u e s t i o n n a i r e were a n a l y s e d comes.  The adequacy o f t h e CDG  from the c r i t e r i a The  a d e q u a c y o f t h e CDG p r o g r a m a d e q u a c y was  indicated program  ambiguities,  representatives and t h e i r r e s p o n s e s  t o determine program p r o g r a m was  developed within  findings  and  t o be d e t e r m i n e d  the study  model.  a range o f concerns over the  i n meeting i t s g o a l .  n o t d e t e r m i n e d , however, ii  out-  Overall  because of  changes of  i n t h e e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l  i n t e r e s t s which precluded  tion  t o p r o g r a m a d e q u a c y was  planning  processes  appraisal—the and u n o f f i c i a l ,  that  identified  A  limita-  w h i c h came f r o m  for coal  It  was  often  in  a c t u a l decision-making.  public-sector planning  actions  a d e q u a t e , however, i n t e r m s o f t h e s p e c i f i c  were  and  process.  t h e g u i d e l i n e s were n o t Program  two  development  multi-participant guidelines  internal,  observed that  and t h e d i v e r s i t y  a clear conclusion.  operated  official,  climate  followed  frequently  planning  docu-  mentation . The u n e x p e c t e d outcome o f v a r i e d t u d e s toward program c r e d i b i l i t y p r o g r a m r e v i s i o n s may  p r o v i n c i a l government.  was  atti-  major  Possibilities for  i m p l i c a t i o n s , were  An u t i l i z a t i o n - b a s e d e v a l u a t i o n the  suggested that  be n e c e s s a r y .  p r o g r a m change, w i t h t h e i r  individual  identified.  recommended  for within  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  L I S T OF TABLES  ix  L I S T OF FIGURES GLOSSARY  X  . . . . . . .  OF ABBREVIATIONS  .  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  xiv  Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION  ,  R e s e a r c h T h e o r y and T e c h n i q u e s 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5  1 .  1  Introduction Project Appraisal E v a l u a t i o n Research Study R a t i o n a l e Study Model  1 1 6 11 14  1.5.1 Program p r o f i l e 1.5.2 Program a c t i o n s : Document evaluation strategy 1.5.3 Program o u t c o m e s and i m p a c t s  16 . . .  1.6 D a t a E v a l u a t i o n  19 29. 34  2. COAL DEVELOPMENT  37  Policies,  37  G o a l s , and O b j e c t i v e s  2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 2.2 I d e o l o g y and Demand f o r P o l i c y i n C o a l and R e l a t e d D e v e l o p m e n t s 2.3 C a n a d i a n P o l i c y f o r C o a l Development 2.3.1 F e d e r a l p o l i c i e s 2.3.2 P r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s 2.4 I n t e r - M i n i s t e r i a l and C o n f l i c t  37 38 .  44 45 50  Goals 51  iv  Chapter  Page 2.5 O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e C o a l ment G u i d e l i n e s  Develop55  3. HISTORY OF COAL DEVELOPMENT The  Guidelines  59  Program  59  3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 3.2 The P r e - E s c a l a t i o n P e r i o d : 1871-1969 3.3 E s c a l a t i n g R e g i o n a l I m p a c t s : 1969-1976  59 62 71  3.3.1 I n s t i t u t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . . . . 3.3.2 I n t r o d u c t i o n o f c o a l d e v e l opment g u i d e l i n e s 3.4 I m p l e m e n t a t i o n 1976-1981  79 84  Phase: 89  3.4.1  Accelerating regional impacts 3.4.2 I n s t i t u t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s  , . . .  3.5 E f f e c t s o f R e c e s s i o n A f t e r 1981 3.5.1  Regional  90 95 105  consequences  of r e c e s s i o n  . . . . . . . . . .  108  4. COAL DEVELOPMENT  113  I n s t i t u t i o n a l Arrangements 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 4.2 L e g i s l a t i o n , R e g u l a t i o n s , and Administration f o r Coal Development 4.2.1 M i n i s t r y o f E n e r g y , M i n e s and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s 4.2.2 M i n i s t r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t 4.2.3 M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r y and S m a l l B u s i n e s s Development . 4.2.4 M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s and H o u s i n g 4.2.5 M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s 4.2.6 M i n i s t r y o f P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y and Government S e r v i c e s 4.2.7 M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Highways v  113 ,  113  114 116 124 129 132 133 134 13 5  Chapter  Page 4.2.8 M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l Affairs 4.2.9 M i n i s t r y o f L a b o u r 4.2.10 M i n i s t r i e s o f E d u c a t i o n and H e a l t h 4.2.11 F e d e r a l Department o f E n e r g y , M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s 4.2.12 E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, and Department o f F i s h e r i e s and Oceans 4.3 O p e r a t i n g P r o c e d u r e s o f t h e CDG Program  141  149  C r e e k , G r e e n h i l l s , and Sukunka  Project Evaluation  5.2.1 L i n e C r e e k 5.2.2 G r e e n h i l l s 5.2.3 Sukunka  149  . . . .  14 9 152 154 159 166  5.3 Document E v a l u a t i o n 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.5 5.3.6  141  142 14 5  5. PROGRAM ACTIONS  5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 5.2 Case S t u d i e s :  139  14 2  4.3.1 A s s e s s m e n t p r o c e d u r e s 4.3.2 Review p r o c e d u r e s  Line  136 138  16 9  Authorship Timing Purpose Format Methodology Content  16 9 174 175 180 187 196  6. PROGRAM OUTCOMES  200  An E n v i r o n m e n t o f V a r i e d  Concern  6.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 6.2 E x i s t i n g C r i t i q u e s 6.2.1 P r e s e n t a t i o n o f f i n d i n g s 6.2.2 CDG p r o g r a m d e s c r i p t i o n 6.2.3 D e s c r i p t i o n o f p r o g r a m context 6.2.4 F i n d i n g s 6.2.5 Recommendations vi  200 200 202 203 205 210 217 224  Chapter  Page  6.3 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  6.4  7.  230  6.3.1 G e n e r a l p r o g r a m a s p e c t s  230  6.3.2 A P a t t e r n o f O p i n i o n  232  Interviews:  235  L e v e l s o f Concern  6.4.1 S e l f c o n c e r n s 6.4.2 T a s k c o n c e r n s  237 239  6.4.3  240  Impact c o n c e r n s  EVALUATION, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND Adequacy  SUMMARY  . .  and U t i l i z a t i o n  243  7.1 C o n c l u s i o n s : Program Adequacy 7.1.1 P r o g r a m p r o f i l e : policy d e s i g n and d e c i s i o n s 7.1.2 P r o g r a m a c t i o n s : adequacy of the assessment and r e v i e w . ... . ... . . . , . . . 7.1.3 P r o g r a m o u t c o m e s : expected and u n e x p e c t e d r e s u l t s 7.2 Recommendations: A U t i l i z a t i o n - b a s e d Evaluation  Study  7.3 F u r t h e r A c a d e m i c  Research  2 43  243 244 247 259 263  . ,  7.4 Summary  265 266  REFERENCES CITED  269  APPENDICES  285  A B C D E  COAL DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES DOCUMENT EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE  286  APPRAISAL DOCUMENTS: L I N E CREEK, GREENHILLS, AND SUKUNKA  296  CONTENT ANALYSIS CODE FOR WRITTEN CRITIQUES OF THE CDG .  300  QUESTIONNAIRE: EVALUATION OF THE COAL DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES  302  RESPONDENTS TO INTERVIEW AND/OR QUESTIONNAIRE  vii  ,  317  Appendices  F G  H  I  J  Page  PRINCIPAL COAL POLICY COMPONENTS  320  PROVINCIAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT GOALS  323  PROVINCIAL INSTITUTIONAL AGENCIES INVOLVED IN ASSESSING COAL MINE DEVELOPMENTS  327  FEDERAL INSTITUTIONAL AGENCIES INVOLVED IN B.C. COAL MINE DEVELOPMENTS  334  INTER-AGENCY COMMITTEES WITH COALDEVELOPMENT RESPONSIBILITIES  33 6  viii  L I S T OF TABLES Table  1. 2. 3.  Page  CANADIAN COAL EXPORT PROJECTIONS  91  B.C. COAL INDUSTRY EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS  91  CDG OUTPUT SUMMARY; 1970-1983  201  ix  L I S T OF  FIGURES  Figure  Page  1.  T h e o r e t i c a l CDG  2.  CDG  3.  Coal in  4.  5. 6.  A p p r a i s a l Process  Program E v a l u a t i o n Model  .  17  P r o d u c t i o n and V a l u e B.C. , 1890-2000  61  Major C o a l - b e a r i n g Areas of B r i t i s h Columbia  73  B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E n e r g y , M i n e s and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s B.C.  North East  Coal  ment O r g a n i z a t i o n  Structure  B.C.  M i n i s t r y of Environment  8.  B.C.  M i n i s t r y of  Small  Business  117  Develop-  7.  9.  12  Industry  123 125  and  Development  130  Coal  Guidelines  Review P r o c e s s  143  10.  B.C.  Government Review P r o c e s s  146  11.  L i n e C r e e k , G r e e n h i l l s , and Sukunka: A Chronology L o c a t i o n of Proposed L i n e C r e e k Mine D e v e l o p m e n t Location of G r e e n h i l l s Study Area  12. 13. 14. 15.  Location of C o a l i t i o n Lease Area Cluster Pattern  ',  .  153 155 160  Coal 16 7  of Opinion  x  233  GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS F e d e r a l Government and R e l a t e d Agencies or Organizations  EMR  D e p a r t m e n t o f E n e r g y , M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s  DFO  Department o f F i s h e r i e s  DIANA  D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n and N o r t h e r n  DOE  Department o f t h e Environment  DREE-ITC  Department o f R e g i o n a l Economic I n d u s t r y , T r a d e and Commerce  EARP  E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t and Review  FEARO  F e d e r a l E n v i r o n m e n t , A s s e s s m e n t Review  FIRA  Foreign  IEA  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Energy Agency  OECD  O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Economic and D e v e l o p m e n t  and Oceans  I n v e s t m e n t Review  Affairs  Expansion— Process Office  Agency Co-operation  P r o v i n c i a l Government A g e n c i e s o r Committees ACR  A d v i s o r y Committee  ALC  Agricultural  CCCD  C a b i n e t Committee  on C o a l  CCED  C a b i n e t Committee  on E c o n o m i c  CGSC  Coal Guidelines  EEC  Economic E v a l u a t i o n  ELUC  E n v i r o n m e n t and L a n d Use  ELUS  E n v i r o n m e n t and L a n d Use S e c r e t a r i a t  ELUTC  E n v i r o n m e n t and L a n d Use T e c h n i c a l  F&W  Fish  MAC  Minesite Advisory  MAG  Ministry  of Attorney  MAg  Ministry  of Agriculture  Land  on R e c l a m a t i o n Commission  Steering  and W i l d l i f e  Development Development  Committee  Committee Committee  Branch,  MOE  Committee  xi  General and F o o d  Committee  MEd  Ministry of  MEMPR  M i n i s t r y o f Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources  MoF  M i n i s t r y o f Finance  MHR  M i n i s t r y o f Human R e s o u r c e s  MISBD  M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r y and S m a l l B u s i n e s s Development  MLPH  M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s and H o u s i n g  MMA  Ministry of Municipal  MOE  M i n i s t r y o f Environment  MOF  Ministry of Forestry  MOH  M i n i s t r y of Health  MOL  M i n i s t r y o f Labour  MPS & GS  M i n i s t r y o f P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y and Government S e r v i c e s  MTH  Ministry of Transportation  NECCC  Northeast Coal  Coordinating  NECDO  Northeast Coal  Development O f f i c e  NEC  Northeast Coal  Impact Management  IMC  Education  Affairs  RAU  Resource A n a l y s i s  Unit  RPU  Resource Planning  Unit  SECC  Socio-Economic Coordinating  SPU  Special Project  and Highways Committee  Committee  Unit  Program G u i d e l i n e s , S t u d i e s , and P r o c e s s e s ALR  A g r i c u l t u r a l Land  CDG  Coal  C0ALM0D  C o a l Model  EARP  E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t and Review P r o c e s s  EIA  Environmental  LDG  Linear  MMG  M e t a l Mine  NECS  North East  Development  Reserve Guidelines  Impact  Development  Coal  Assessment  Guidelines  Guidelines Study xii  Committee  SIA  Social  Impact  TA  Technology  Assessment  Assessment  I n d u s t r i e s , C o n s u l t a n t s , and Crown C o r p o r a t i o n s BCDC  British  Columbia  Development  BC  Hydro  British  Columbia  Hydro  BC  Rail  British  Columbia  Railway  BCRC  British  Columbia  Research  BCRIC  B r i t i s h Columbia Corporation  Resources  Investment  BCUC  British  Utilities  Commission  CNI  Crows N e s t  CNRC  Crows N e s t R e s o u r c e s C a l g a r y L t d .  KRL  K a i s e r Resources L t d . ( G r e e n h i l l s )  NHB  N a t i o n a l Harbours  Columbia  Corporation  Council  IndustriesLtd.  Board  xiii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o e x p r e s s , my individuals o f my  for their  Science,  L.  together  s u s t a i n e d me Dr.  during Clyde  and  from the Mr.  t o shed this  they  stages  Dr. of  I. Animal  arranged  to aid  t h a t many d i s c i p l i n e s  light  on  complex i s s u e s  my can  has  investigation;  Weaver and  Dr.  Bill  Regional  Donner  Rees, b o t h  Planning,  who  of  the  arranged  Foundation;  Raymond C r o o k , S e c r e t a r y ,  i n g Committee, insight  belief  and  Institute  for funding  o f Community and  funding  able  UBC,  T h e i r support  School  Program, UBC,  F a c u l t y o f Commerce and  brought  various  L a v k u l i c h , D i r e c t o r , R e s o u r c e Management  Resource Ecology, study.  the  following  thesis writing:  Interdisciplinary  Vertinsky,  be  assistance during  r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m and Dr.  g r a t i t u d e to the  f o r p r o v i d i n g me  with  Coal  Guidelines  i n f o r m a t i o n and  into  the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the  John Dick  and  Norm R i n g s t a d ,  Steervalu-  c o a l development  guidelines;  E n v i r o n m e n t , who  a i d e d me  showed u n f a i l i n g  e n t h u s i a s m f o r my  Joyce Hollands,  in collecting  f o r her  f o r h i s assistance with  and  L. W i t t i g , f o r h e r  style  and  format of t h i s  the  expert  documentation  and  kindness;  statistical  editorial  and  Vinay  analyses;  guidance  p r e s e n t a t i o n c o p y o f my xiv  the  work;  patience  Kanetkar, Elise  M i n i s t r y of  in  thesis.  Finally, family  who  I wish  also  t o remember my  have p r o v i d e d e m o t i o n a l  s u p p o r t and f a i t h  my work on t h i s  s t u d y , e s p e c i a l l y my  the b e l i e f  (except perhaps  better  that  t o have t r i e d  and f a i l e d  f r i e n d s and  father,  i n coal  who  gave  development)  than never  t o have  xv  Gibson,  me i t is  tried  at a l l . - Margaret  during  1984  Chapter  1  INTRODUCTION R e s e a r c h T h e o r y and T e c h n i q u e s  It's  nice  to be the drafter  of a well-constructed  plan  For spending lots of money for the betterment of Man But audits are a threat, for it's neither games nor fun To look at pleas of yesteryear and ask, "What have we done?" And learning is unpleasant when we have to do it fast So its pleasanter to contemplate the future than the past. - K. E. B o u l d i n g  (1972)  1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Project British  Columbia program i n t e n d e d  environmental applies sal tive  a p p r a i s a l was a t e c h n i q u e  impacts  introduced i n a  t o a p p r a i s e t h e s o c i a l and  o f c o a l development.  This  e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h t o examine t h i s  program.  A rationale  approaches together  implications discussed.  of the rationale  on t h i s  and l i m i t s  and t h e  study  design are  used t o conduct  to utilization  two i n v e s t i g a -  here,  A m o d e l b a s e d on t h e p r i n c i p l e s  t h e methods a n d t e c h n i q u e s described,  project apprai-  f o r b r i n g i n g these i s suggested  study  i d e n t i f i e d , and the study, are  o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n s and  recommendations a r e d i s c u s s e d .  1.2 P r o j e c t A p p r a i s a l The  intellectual  atmosphere,  i n which  issues  2  surrounding has  large-scale  many r o o t s .  P o l i c y Act 1980)  tal  Introduction  i n 1969  has  as m a r k i n g t h e  U.S.A., b u t  extensive  and  of  varied.  were s e r i o u s l y e r o d i n g  p r o j e c t may art  and  that  excesses  t h e o r y came t h e  the  through p r o j e c t  v a l u e d by  appraisal  become more e q u i t a b l e .  architecture  have had  idea  and  r e s p e c t f u l of  idea  that  that  projects  s h o u l d be  nature.  projects  s h o u l d be  Observations of cyberneticists—drawing physiology, social include  noted the  organization. feedback  This  awareness  costs  the  to  common  market, but  techniques,  the  Through  the  Frank L l o y d  Wright,  came  f u n c t i o n a l yet  related  to  p r e m i s e gave r i s e  to  the  designed. ideas  of  from areas i n c l u d i n g e c o l o g y nature of  for monitoring project  the  ideas  of p r o j e c t  ideology  appraisal.  and  biological  From t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s ,  L i b e r a l democratic  if  Emerging t r a d i t i o n s i n  systems t h i n k e r s - - t h e  identified. public's  much more  environment.  environmentally  systematic  of  complex  their influence.  German Bauhaus S c h o o l , e p i t o m i z e d by the  the  environmen-  are  from l a r g e , natural  in  genesis  conservation  concept that  were e x t e r n a l i t i e s n o t  internalized  appraisal  i n d i c a t e the  From r i s i n g  projects  property  project  Thompson,  theoretical influences  observation  economic  Environmental  (Bankes and  completely  The  National  identified,  p r e c e d e n t , b a s e d on  came t h e  From  the  beginning of  this legislative  appraisal.  d e v e l o p m e n t were  been c i t e d  c o n c e r n s , does not  project  project  the  and  need  implementation  to was  also contributed The  belief  that  to  3 the  public  s h o u l d be the  had  a r i g h t t o p r o t e c t i o n meant t h a t  r e v i e w e d by  range of  public  b e l i e f meant t h a t the  risks,  and  the  administration  From t h e s e v a r i e d ideas  about the  concerns.  p u b l i c had  c o l l e c t i o n of  t h e s e r i s k s became t h e public  government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  safety  the  projects  implied  Furthermore,  a r i g h t t o be information  rise and  to  current  projects.  new  methods and  l i n k e d much more c l o s e l y t o t h e to the  making of  measurement t e c h n i q u e s o f In  addition,  At  the  most  character-  methods o f same t i m e ,  environand  economic i n d i c a t o r s  public  and  cost-benefit  private  analysis  numerous o t h e r  address.  were  methodological  cerned with technology specific  p r e v a i l i n g methodologies d i d  S o c i a l i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t was i d e n t i f y i n g and risk  assessment focussed  technologies;  measure t h e  measuring  and  risk  on  consi-  decisions,  approaches e v o l v e d t o account f o r impacts of p r o j e c t opment w h i c h t h e s e two  gave  f o r measurement  some t h e  appraisal--the  project  techniques  criteria  From b i o l o g y — f o r  mental impact assessment a r o s e .  developed.  large  c o n c e p t u a l t r a d i t i o n s came t h e  approach to p r o j e c t  dered u s e f u l  a  choice.  design of  of  ascertain  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  t o d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s and  istic  this  empowered t o a s s e s s p u b l i c  development of  prediction.  address  informed  A c c o m p a n y i n g t h i s c o n c e p t u a l growth f o r appraisal,  to  one  technique  social the  hazardous elements i n p r o j e c t  not con-  repercussions;  impact  a s s e s s m e n t was  devel-  of  developed  development.  to  4 Techniques  for public  evolving.  In the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h  referred  p l a n n i n g and  t o as B . C . ) , w i t h  extraction,  Columbia  p l a n n i n g was  born  Guidelines  espoused.  for  Coal  Into t h i s  Development  (CDG)  for project  framework f o r p r o j e c t  appraisal  environmental  i t s predecessors,  (B.C.  from  f o l l o w the  i n B.C.  moved f r o m  impacted  concern  to  one  an  on-  review,  dimensions  The  the  process.  i n a s s e s s m e n t and  rational-comprehensive method t o  1976)  an  t h e g u i d e l i n e s were t o be  process  o c c u r r i n g p r i o r to d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ,  scientific  ELUC,  g u i d e l i n e s document,  l a r g e - s c a l e c o a l development.  rational,  the  a l l of the  was  "Coal Development  r a t i o n a l planning  going p r o c e s s , comprehensive including  atmosphere  measurement t e c h n i q u e s  w h i c h d e s c r i b e d an o v e r a l l Unlike  resource  appraisal.  With the d r a f t i n g of t h i s  emphasis on  also  (hereinafter  i t s h e a v y dependence on  w h i c h i n t r o d u c e d a p r o g r a m known as t h e Guidelines"  were  a more i n t e g r a t e d a p p r o a c h t o r e s o u r c e manage-  ment and the  policy-making  resulting was  and  was  to  be  to  approach t o p l a n n i n g  and  problem-solving.  M a j o r r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t s s u c h as c o a l m i n i n g and p r o c e s s i n g w i l l change e n v i r o n m e n t a l , s o c i a l , and e c o nomic c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e r e g i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t . Careful p l a n n i n g of l a r g e - s c a l e c o a l developments i s t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y t o e n s u r e t h a t a r a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h t o manag i n g l a n d u s e , e n v i r o n m e n t a l , and community i m p a c t s i s u n d e r t a k e n p r i o r t o f i n a l d e c i s i o n s on c o a l and r e l a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t s b e i n g made. (B.C. ELUC, 1976, p. 3) Attempts to i n t e g r a t e the appraisals  into public  intelligence  decision-making,  project  of  project  planning,  5 and  then  i n t o management p r o c e d u r e s , p r o v i d e d  which allowed recognized. that  the  pitfalls  The  a s s e s s m e n t and  program p a r t s  1979)  had  not  worked w e l l  project reached  project  appraisal  misuse of  decisions project of  the  C.  S.  was  issue  together  cost-benefit frequently  appraisal  proposals  (Barp and  hence,  program  methodology.  i n making  and  of  project  alternatives  to  One  critic  p r e v a i l i n g environmental assessment t e c h n i q u e Holling  rational  (1978), who  and  further  offered  s i m i l a r to H o l l i n g s . 1  were c h a r a c t e r i z e d including  a priori  by  provisions  t h o s e where t h e  Dunn  critic  fallacies and  of  (1973a)  suggested Both of and  of  planning experi-  assuming  uncertainty  (1971), Hampton-Turner provided  a  these  f o r group l e a r n i n g  (1971) were t h e o r i s t s who  mendations.  He  appraisal  knowledge were r e c o g n i z e d  into planning.  Schon  A  planning.  approaches to p r o j e c t  was  approach—the  management p r o c e s s .  alternative, transactive  alternative  another  comprehensive p l a n n i n g , John Friedmann  made o b s e r v a t i o n s  built  criticized,  where  Gallimore,  Other c r i t i c s  appraisal  information  underwent  [sic]"  f o r management were s u g g e s t e d .  a d a p t i v e a s s e s s m e n t and  ences,  the  was  coordinate  "climax  for c r i t i c s .  f o c u s s e d on  appraisal  and  when t h e y came under s e v e r e c r i t i c i s m ;  change became a key  and  a p p r o a c h t o become w i d e l y  to administer  r e v i e w o f new  a d e v e l o p m e n t p h a s e and the  this  major problem f a c i n g p r o j e c t  programs w h i c h a t t e m p t e d  the  The  of  experience  was  total to  be  (1971) ,  similar  recom-  Advantages t o these a l t e r n a t i v e approaches  to  6 project  appraisals  learning  that  lower-risk  were c i t e d as  takes place,  decisions  and  being questioned. address the in  political  In  the  decision-making tives  are  and  with  appraisal.  v i e w i s o p p o s e d by  believe  that  Today,  . . . which r e c o g n i z e s the  requirements of  for  and  the  public  interest"  project objec-  self-manage-  decentralized,  author-  and  commu-  s h o u l d become s i g n i f i c a n t  for project  new  appraisal,  one  multi-dimensional nature  successfully  science  poli-  ideological  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  s h o u l d be  implications  knowledge" and  not  c e n t r a l i z e d where e c o n o m i c  This  and  are  responsibility  From t h i s d e b a t e comes i n t e r e s t i n a  the  1.3  t h e y do  p o l a r i z i n g a r o u n d two  environmental objectives  direction,  i s that  power and  for project  s h o u l d be  paramount.  priorities.  social  communication approaches  elements of  for decision-making  nity  processes,  view of v o l u n t a r i s t s , a u t h o r i t y  ment p r o p o n e n t s who ity  taken.  main c r i t i c i s m  d e b a t e a p p e a r s t o be  trends.  p.  The  conservative,  participant learning  horizontal  their prescriptions  tical  "  the  multi-participant  where more  were b e i n g  More r e c e n t l y , mutual l e a r n i n g ,  and  the  joins  together  of  " . . .  social justice, rationality  (Weaver, J e s s o p ,  and  Das,  1983,  32) .  Evaluation  Research  Evaluation evolved  i n the  research  and  project  same m i l i e u ,  but  the  appraisal  have  former arose w i t h i n  a  7 somewhat d i f f e r e n t s e t o f a c a d e m i c t r a d i t i o n s — t h o s e education, nistic  health,  disciplines  philosophers learning  as  and  s o c i a l welfare.  drew t h e i r  was  from such  an  pragmatic  and  from  explain  psychological  the  natural  sciences.  t h o s e o f Marx and  functions  This  Engels,  suggested that  describe  i n terms a c c e p t a b l e  t r a d i t i o n was  whose t h e o r i e s  historical  of  emerging  i n p s y c h o l o g y where a t t e m p t s were made t o  and  huma-  e a r l y proponent  from i n t e r a c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s ,  inquiries  culture  These a p p l i e d  concepts  J o h n Dewey, who  of  combined of  to  with  society  and  changes i n s o c i e t y  d u c e d c h a n g e s i n i n d i v i d u a l human c o n s c i o u s n e s s and  probeha-  viour . The resultant dance o f  impacts of the  social the  new,  i n e q u i t y , combined w i t h t h e  Western world  c r e a t e d a n e e d and  I n d u s t r i a l Revolution  at the  at the  Because t h e s e programs i n v o l v e d their  p r o v i s i o n was  determine the Furthermore,  an  abun-  century,  education  large  to  develop  programs.  numbers o f was  success of these  personnel, required  to create  a science  t o c o n t r o l the  and  which would produce systematic  p r o c e s s and  to  programs.  a s p i r a t i o n s d e v e l o p e d among p r a c t i t i o n e r s  o f knowledge t h a t would a l l o w  ability  the  costly, information  e f f e c t i v e n e s s or  administrators kind  and  the  material  same t i m e an o p p o r t u n i t y  large-scale public welfare  and  turn of  and  a  prediction  outcomes o f  and  their  programs. To  produce t h i s  information  and  achieve these  goals,  8 several  a p p r o a c h e s were u t i l i z e d .  developed t o the  i n t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s i n W o r l d War  a p p l i c a t i o n of  i n s t r u m e n t s where t h e vidual the  cognitive  testing for  statistics  IQ  abilities  use  More r e c e n t l y ,  where t e c h n i q u e s  aid  as  tests, beginning of  and  for public  in determining p r i o r i t i e s  p r o g r a m n e e d s , were b a s e d on  cost  has  indi-  evidenced  i n the  by  1950s.  identified  another  d e t e r m i n i n g program e f f e c t i v e n e s s  ting  testing  f o r d e t e r m i n i n g program e f f e c t i v e n e s s  techniques.  rise  i n d i c a t o r s u s e d were c h a n g e s i n  behavioural of  techniques,  I I , gave  in designing  a p p l i c a t i o n r e f i n e d the  constraints  to  or  w i d e s p r e a d use  Years of  Measurement  the  through  set of  tools  come f r o m  accoun-  administration,  designed  and  competing  budgets f o r  m e a s u r e s and  objectives  identification. From t h i s b a c k g r o u n d , e v a l u a t i o n a recognized ted  by  two  influenced  e n t i t y i n the  1970s i n t o an  additional influences. humanistic philosophy  redesigned with  innovative  emphasizing varying Concurrently, problems of  an the  such t h a t  of  as  dominaPiaget  p r o g r a m s were activities,  abilities.  awareness o f i n d i v i d u a l . d i f f e r e n c e s — h a n d i c a p p e d and  d i s e a s e , and p e n a l  issues  emerging p u b l i c  expectations  were c r e a t e d  just  could  society  theories  individual cognitive  arose  atmosphere  approaches t o group  abuse, s o c i a l f o r an  The  research  be  that  resolved  victims  of  d r u g and  injustice—became  consciousness.  alcohol  subjects  Public  i n d i v i d u a l problems i n a by  providing  a wide r a n g e  of  of  9 alternative  social  and e d u c a t i o n a l  Observations grate and  t h e new s o c i a l  social  that  o f t h e attempts which f o l l o w e d t o i n t e consciousness  h e a l t h and w e l f a r e  social  costly; tives  the quality  education  programs p r o v i d e d  thus,  suggestions  appeared t o d e c l i n e  programs were j u d g e d t o be t o o  individual  The p r o b l e m  t o address  needs became t h e f o c u s o f  i n many c a s e s  a d e v e l o p m e n t p h a s e where f r e q u e n t characteristic.  stability,  and a p p l y -  t h e programs underwent change was a common  Counter p u b l i c pressure  consistency,  was t h a t i n  the concerns of i n d i v i d u a l s  i n g new t h e o r i e s t o p r o g r a m d e s i g n ,  tainty,  To  c o s t s t o government f o r p r o v i s i o n o f a l t e r n a -  debate.  attempting  of education  h e a l t h and w e l f a r e  t o meet v a r y i n g  public  and  into existing  t h e p r o g r a m s were n o t m e e t i n g t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s .  many o b s e r v e r s , and  programs.  called  f o r cer-  and i m p r o v e d a c c o u n t a b i l i t y  c r e a t e d an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e move t o w a r d i m p r o v e d manage-  ment p r a c t i c e s a n d c o n t r o l s b a s e d on t h e f i n d i n g s o f p r o g r a m evaluations. Among p r a c t i t i o n e r s were i n d e b a t e s u r r o u n d i n g reliable  evaluation results  of evaluation research, the expectations  rigour placed  on  Attempts  required to  at s c i e n t i f i c  c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e e v a l u a t i o n d e s i g n ,  denying competing p e r s p e c t i v e s . holistic,  f o r v a l i d and  and t h e i n s t r u m e n t s  measure c h a n g e s i n p r o g r a m o u t p u t s .  In response,  designs  thereby  an a l t e r n a t i v e ,  i n d u c t i v e a p p r o a c h was c o u n s e l l e d w i t h  qualitative  methods  t o overcome t r a d i t i o n a l  an e m p h a s i s  design  10 constraints was  (Patton,  1980).  An a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s  made i n t h e f e d e r a l p u b l i c a t i o n f o r e v a l u a t i o n  ches,  Guide  on the Program  1 9 8 1 ) , w h i c h was d e s i g n e d  Evaluation  recent  The d e c i s i o n s f o r p r o g r a m c h a n g e s a r e  b e i n g made i n many c a s e s  b a s e d on p r o g r a m c o s t s a l o n e ,  by t h e i d e o l o g y t h a t b e c a u s e i n d i v i d u a l s  productive  many e d u c a t i o n  should  be e l i m i n a t e d .  voluntarists  and s o c i a l  These p r e v a l e n t  r a t h e r than  T h e s e moves may p r o v i d e ment b u d g e t s b u t t h e i r appropriate  goals  i d e a s o f government  address  f o r public policy.  I n an e f f o r t  c o s t s and r e d u c i n g  t o reduce  government  of reducing or choice  have n o t  E x a m i n a t i o n o f human a s p i r a t i o n s and v a l u e s  from these  moral  i n govern-  e l i m i n a t i o n leaves undefined the  e l i m i n a t i n g programs, g u i d e l i n e s f o r e t h i c a l  research  e l i m i n a t e d on  reductions  through the f u n c t i o n a l imperative  been a p p l i e d .  programs  on e v a l u a t i v e f i n d i n g s .  the necessary  e c o n o m i c a n x i e t y by l o w e r i n g  absent  s h o u l d be  h e a l t h and w e l f a r e  have r e s u l t e d i n programs b e i n g  the b a s i s o f i d e o l o g y ,  spending  sup-  c o n t r i b u t o r s t o s o c i e t y and n o t d e p e n d e n t on t h e  state,  tion  change.  the b e n e f i t of evaluative processes or  evaluation research.  is  policy-  r e c e s s i o n a r y t r e n d has r e s u l t e d i n c u t s  t o programs w i t h o u t  ported  t h r o u g h program  approa-  (Canada,  t o improve government  making and p r i o r i t y - s e t t i n g The  Function  approach  program-change d e c i s i o n s .  i s to offer questions.  a i d i n t h i s dilemma,  I f evaluai t must  11 1.4  Study  Rationale  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the u s e f u l n e s s o f e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h t o judge  project  a p p r a i s a l programs has  some t i m e  (Mitchell,  suggested  that a rational-comprehensive  process  should  the p r o c e s s  1979).  Numerous o t h e r a u t h o r s project  i n c l u d e e v a l u a t i o n as an  (see F i g u r e 1 ) .  transactive  as i n d i v i d u a l  seven  y e a r s o f o p e r a t i o n t h e CDG  evaluation  t h e o r y and  add  ability  t o the  t o determine  application processes  how  not  In  officially  existing  body  of  a p p l i e d t h a t would  i t operates,  i t s impacts  and  and  and  the  effects  assumptions u n d e r l y i n g the  of e v a l u a t i o n research to p r o j e c t  such  the b e l i e f  described tive  required  c a n be  in interdisciplinarity.  interdisciplinarity  concept,  appraisal  as t h e g u i d e l i n e s , w h i c h s h o u l d be  b e f o r e an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s  and  learning.  society. There are b e l i e f s  is  An  c o u l d be  p u r p o s e o f t h e program, i n c l u d i n g on  i t was  description.  practice  partici-  i n c l u d e d no e v a l u a t i o n  i n i t s p r o g r a m d e s i g n , and i t s original  appraisal  (1973a)  c h a n g e , as does t h e program, t h r o u g h  from  have  element i n  pants  revised  for  intrinsic  Friedmann's  p l a n n i n g assumed e v a l u a t i o n o c c u r s  function  existed  among d i s c i p l i n e s  undertaken.  Jantsch  (1971)  as a t e l e o l o g i c a l  where c o o p e r a t i o n and to l i n k  understood  and  and  management.  has  norma-  c o o r d i n a t i o n are social,  environmental,  economic assessments w i t h development p l a n n i n g ,  mentation,  One  A problem  facing  any  imple-  process  0 H O  H) rt  m H  Goals policy programs (CDG)  D C Hi Hi I-Tl  C  Action New coal mine prospectus  l-S  Preliminary assessment and review Stage I  i-9  jr (D O  no CD  n a  i!  •o  0  0 Cr  0  «J  rr  a  ^ 0 0 3 3  0)  c a 0 Co rr  (w. Oi rr 0  h «: 0 0  g a  t~.  r>  M 0 O (D  0  -a  0 3  w  w  V)  tn  Detailed assessment and review Stage II  C  0i rr  h 0 0 <t>  Decision  Recommendation terms and conditions  •o •l O 0  m w w  Decision approvalin-principle  Implementation Stage I I I  Monitoring and evaluation Stage IV  Zl  13 which r e q u i r e s disciplines, disciplines  the  as w i t h t h e and  of  what i s good o r the  physical  plines) the  and  one  are  comprises  and  subject  the  participant  the  d e s i g n and  sals  s u c h as  distinctions  i s the  o f many  rigidity  s u c h as  to  sociology,  t h e s e two  a positive be  basic  in project p l a n n i n g of  b e l i e f s of  the  the  CDG  may  may  indicate.  a l t e r a t i o n , with  and  appraisal  the  concerns of various  probabilisthe  role  conflict  may  theories  underlie  be  as  in project  assessments, but guide the  polarized  as  the  However, i t i s u s e f u l  The  in project  b e l i e f s of  t h o s e who  present evalua-  and  appraisal  systems of  t h o s e who  above  to  roles, actions,  professional  i d e o l o g i c a l and  b e l i e f s of  in  apprai-  depend  beliefs.  emerge b e c a u s e d i f f e r e n t b i o l o g i c a l and the  of  future.  participants  upon t h e i r p e r s o n a l and  other  b e c o m i n g more a c t i v e  participants  processes.  laws  analysis,  observer;  s e e s phenomena as  the  not  v i e w , where  scientific  impartial  appraisal  of  to d e t e r m i n i s t i c  amenable t o o b j e c t i v e  to d e l i b e r a t e  disci-  psychology,  systems  scientific  subject  a passive  to  w i t h a d i v i s i o n between  t h e s e d i f f e r e n t views because they pervade both the tion  of  traditional scientific  i m p e r a t i v e view,  tic  The  Of  believed  participant  a humanistic  (or t h e  humanities,  therefore  w i t h the  guidelines,  for society,  religion.  phenomena a r e and  bad  the  coordination  d i s c i p l i n a r y c o n c e p t s o r b e l i e f s as  sciences  a r t s , or  belief,  c o o p e r a t i o n and  review  social  project  p r a c t i c a l assumptions  support c o a l  A  often  development.  14 This  assumption  implies  that  f o r an e v a l u a t i o n  program, the s o u r c e of p a r t i c i p a n t concerns involvement An of v a r i e d teria also  w i t h t h e p r o c e s s must be  perspectives  and  and  assumptions  the approach  opment p l a n n e r s .  Also  of the procedures  t h e CDG,  and  Study An  appraisal  f o r decision-making, With  and  and  devel-  identificathe  render-  the decision-making  process  t h e n be  i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach  and  appraisal, i t s specific  offered.  process suggests o f t h e CDG  to the  project  a substantially different role program than t h a t  of the  t o government p r o g r a m e v a l u a t i o n .  the emphasis of program e v a l u a t i o n  e c o n o m i c r a t i o n a l i t y , where t h e v a r i a b l e s costs  guide  Model  approach  tionally,  are  theoretical  as t h e p r o g r a m f o r p r o j e c t  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s may  for evaluation tional  model.  assessment  those that  e v a l u a t e d i n terms o f i t s s t r u c t u r e  results,  decision  between t h e and  cri-  decision-making  n e c e s s a r y i s the e x p l i c i t  i n g of t h e i r assumptions.  1.5  economic  f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n of  compatibility  c a n be  application  t h e i r accompanying d e c i s i o n  necessary t o ensure  clarified,  their  o f p o t e n t i a l development i n f o r m a t i o n  guiding  CDG  understood.  i n d e s i g n of the g u i d e l i n e s  procedures  information  and  environmental,  a role  Consistent  tion  and  i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y b e l i e f i n the j o i n t  to s o c i a l , has  of the  numbers o f p e o p l e  employed.  has  tradiTradi-  been  on  measured have been  Often, evaluation  was  15 viewed logic  as a s c i e n t i f i c o f program  program  research a c t i v i t y  evaluation  be d e t e r m i n e d  i n comparison  happened i n t h e a b s e n c e deficient for  potential  ciently ally  frontier  c o a l mines.  different  There  that  and  This approach i s CDG  acti-  t h e s m a l l number o f  are also  i t would  therefore,  has n o t b e e n u s e d Instead,  significant  in this  site-  i n part,  B o a r d o f Canada methodology a program  a classical  approach  tradition-  to  among  evaluation  has been u t i l i z e d  guidelines  o p e r a t e s , the  purpose con-  i s more q u a l i t a t i v e  identified  1981)  wherein  and e f f e c t s on t h o s e  This approach  (Canada,  suffi-  study.  i t s impacts  i s conducted.  in a  to account f o r a l t e r a t i o n s  a government p r o g r a m  o f t h e program, and  follows,  be d i f f i c u l t  another approach  e v a l u a t i o n o f how  f o r program  operation evaluation,  from P a t t o n t e c h n i q u e was  inductive,  (1980),  used t o c o l l e c t  s t r a t e g y was  required  r i g o r o u s d e s i g n methods and  following  naturalistic  To r e a l i z e  this  evaluation.  Poister  This  inquiry  evaluation  situational  with  (1978), adopted  g o a l , more t h a n  to f i n d  and  by t h e T r e a s u r y  a l s o combines e f f e c t s o r i m p a c t s e v a l u a t i o n  an h o l i s t i c ,  workable  have  v a r i a t i o n s w h i c h make e a c h c o a l d e v e l o p m e n t  developments?  and  the impact o f the  the nature of mining  locations,  designed experiment  cerned,  traditional  w i t h what w o u l d  o f the program.  reasons, i n c l u d i n g  their  specific  that  the  as a s t u d y d e s i g n f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e  several  vity,  required  and  findings,  one  and  a  a b a l a n c e among realities.  Thus,  16 observations  and d a t a  on t h e p r o g r a m were o b t a i n e d  v a r i e t y o f ways and t h e n  aggregated.  The s t u d y model as d e s c r i b e d by Day Bridger,  Freisen,  and  Peet,  1977)  The c o n t e x t  o r program p r o f i l e  delineating  three  the  historical  ments. three  aspects:  context,  (1) t h e p o l i c y  and  ( i n Day,  was  2.  prepared  environment,  (3) t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l were  Brady,  i s shown i n F i g u r e  o f t h e CDG  The a c t i o n s o f t h e CDG cases:  in a  identified  by (2)  arrange-  by  examining  (1) L i n e C r e e k ,  (2) G r e e n h i l l s , and  (3)  Sukunka, t h r o u g h a s y s t e m a t i c  evaluation of t h e i r  respective  documents. and  The outcomes  unexpected impacts,  o f the program, i n c l u d i n g were  existing written critiques appraisals,  open-ended  CDG  process.  CDG  p r o g r a m was  1.5.1  by r e v i e w i n g  From t h e s e assessed  the  government p r o j e c t  a standard  i n t e r v i e w o f twenty-three  questionnaire  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the  observations,  the adequacy o f t h e  and p o t e n t i a l  changes w i t h  i m p l i c a t i o n s were  suggestions  o f B.C.  and by a d m i n i s t e r i n g  and  attendant  identified  expected  identified.  their  Recommendations  and  f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h were made.  Program  profile  Programs a r e s e t s o f o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s c o n d u c t e d by government i n s t i t u t i o n s i n p u r s u i t o f e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s : t h e y c a n be t h o u g h t o f as v e h i c l e s f o r c a r r y i n g out p o l i c y . ( P o i s t e r , 1978, p. 5) Within  this  identify text.  definition,  the f i r s t  e v a l u a t i v e e f f o r t was  t h e p o l i c i e s w h i c h s e t t h e CDG  This e f f o r t  i s discussed  to  o b j e c t i v e s i n con-  i n C h a p t e r 2, and draws  upon  Policies, Goals, Objectives for Coal Development  Institutional Arrangements for Coal Development  History of Coal Development Guidelines  Actions of CDGdocument analysis Line Creek Greenhills Sukunka  Impacts of CDG Written critiques, questionnaire/ 'Interviews  Utilization of Findings  Figure  2  CDG  Program E v a l u a t i o n  Model  Adequacy of CDG and Recommendations  18 federal  and p r o v i n c i a l  private  c o n s u l t a n t s ' o b s e r v a t i o n s o f c o a l development  gram  government  statements  of p o l i c y  conditions  t h e CDG  prevailing useful fied  social  to take  the p r e v i o u s  historical  context  philosophy  assumes t h a t t h e  i s essential  The h o l i s t i c  f o r understanding  t h e CDG  program;  factor  of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  legislative  both  social  the element of  factor with  i t s own  and outcomes  developed  arrangements p r o v i d e  provincial  including  and f e d e r a l ,  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s w i t h  i n t e r - a g e n c y committees.  policy,  thus,  i n the program p r o f i l e ,  various ministries,  is  development  meaning.  Details  activity  allowed  t o s y n t h e s i z e a complete p i c t u r e of the  has been t r e a t e d a s an i m p o r t a n t  final  the pro-  aspect of the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n  surrounding  particular  identi-  program's  g a t h e r i n g o f d a t a on a number o f a s p e c t s o f c o a l  dynamics  and  where t h e a p p r o a c h t o e v a l u a t i o n i s h o l i s t i c ,  and n a t u r a l i s t i c ,  i n the e f f o r t  profile.  have d i f f i c u l t y p r o v i d i n g  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  inductive,  gram.  i n t o account  s i t u a t i o n s may  recommendations.  earlier,  o f the s o c i a l environment which  i s needed t o d e s c r i b e t h e program  E v a l u a t i o n s which f a i l  the  pro-  objectives. An u n d e r s t a n d i n g  time  and  becomes c l e a r  f o r t h e CDG  history,  An u n d e r s t a n d i n g  program  and  their  the v a r i o u s  o f the program  only after appreciation  in light  and i n s t i t u t i o n a l  the  of i t s surrounding  arrangements.  o f r e s e a r c h d e s i g n r e p l a c e s t h e emphasis on  This  controlled  type  19 experiments is  w i t h a dynamic p r o c e s s o r i e n t a t i o n ,  and r e s e a r c h  a b l e t o f o c u s on t h e a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n s and i m p a c t s o f  programs o v e r 1.5.2  time.  Program a c t i o n s : Document evaluation strategy  E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e CDG p r o g r a m was a l s o made by e x a m i n i n g t h e documents w h i c h actions assist  of project  represented a record  appraisal.  of the  A s t r a t e g y was d e v e l o p e d t o  i n r e v i e w i n g t h e p r e p a r e d documents w h i c h  several  different  approaches.  f o r m a t and a s e r i e s evaluating  social  of issues  impact  Boothroyd that  combined  (1979) s u g g e s t e d a  s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d  assessments.  when  H e f f e r n a n and C o r w i n  (1975) s u g g e s t e d a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s a s an a i d t o e v a l u a ting  t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact  (1979) i d e n t i f i e d would b r i n g physical, to address  t h e need  statement.  for a centralizing  the v a r i o u s impacted  the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s u g g e s t e d t h a t  p r o c e d u r e was needed, one w h i c h ency.  An o v e r a l l  Baron's  approach  (1981) w o r k i n g  strategy  a unitary  t o t h e CDG p r o g r a m . ments p r o d u c e d  This  need  comparison  aimed f o r a n a l y t i c  on " m e t a - e v a l u a t i o n . "  (shown i n A p p e n d i x  bio-  among t h e v a r i o u s a s s e s s -  t o document e v a l u a t i o n  paper  which  They saw a c r i t i c a l  n a t i o n o f t h e above h a s been d e v e l o p e d ation  analysis  dimensions-—social,  and e c o n o m i c — t o g e t h e r .  ment d i m e n s i o n s  Cope and H i l l s  coherappears i n A  combi-  and a document  evalu-  A) was d e v i s e d ,  s t r a t e g y was a p p l i e d  by t h e t h r e e companies w h i c h  specific  t o 22  docu-  had s u c c e s s f u l l y  20 completed  the  CDG  process  C r e e k , G r e e n h i l l s , and ded:  formal  information the  by  Sukunka m i n e s .  s u b m i s s i o n s as  the  or meeting b r i e f s  (listed The  i n Appendix  purpose of t h i s  t o g e n e r a t e a more g e n e r a l  the  s u b m i s s i o n s by to  on  the  be  later  judge the  project  used  timing,  the  The of  CDG  a v a r i e t y of the  process  each f e a t u r e  to  was  of  understand  features the  in  CDG  process could  usefulness  of Fea-  authorship,  content. arose  The  from  the  the  generation  of  a  great  w h i c h i n v o l v e d numerous i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h In t h i s  responsible  document f o r the  d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the to J . O'Riordan  I n d u s t r i e s , August,  In g e n e r a l ,  nature  government r e s p o n s e s .  required  organization was  strategy  assumptions.  r e p o r t because, a c c o r d i n g Nest  enhance t h e  and  specializations.  conclusions  Crows  important  f o r m a t , m e t h o d o l o g y , and  information  strategy,  i n t e n t was  documents t h a t were examined were  i s s u e s and  and  government  u n d e r s t a n d i n g which r e s u l t e d  employed t o e v a l u a t e  following  proponent;  coordinating  inadequacy of  i n a p p r a i s a l s and  purpose,  criteria  The  adequacy or the  inclu-  B).  a t the  proponents' reports  tures of  deal  looking  grounds t h a t  the  understanding of the  c o a l assessment process.  order  documents  document e v a l u a t i o n  the  i s , Line  r e p o r t s ; a s e r i e s of  p r e p a r e d by the  that  The  staged  r e v i e w documents p r o d u c e d by  agencies  its  December 1981;  evaluation report  and  authors of  the  (in a l e t t e r  1977):  [the CGSC] p r e f e r s t h a t t h e  company  to  21 s u b m i t i t s r e p o r t u n d e r i t s own name r a t h e r t h a n t h e c o n s u l t a n t ' s name . . . . T h i s c l a r i f i e s t h a t the company i s c o m m i t t e d t o c a r r y i n g o u t t h e d e s i g n d e t a i l s and t h e f u r t h e r s t u d y recommendations i n t h e r e p o r t . Switzer  (1983) i d e n t i f i e d  n i e s when p r e p a r i n g  impact  (1)  use  the  company may  documents as nation (3)  the rate mic  may  belief  hire  documentation;  in-house s t a f f  (2)  they  consultants  reports  was  should  information  into  i t s decision-making  present  provide  coordi-  CDG  t h i s was  process  for  reflect  t o be  participants. documents was  with  a  corpo-  socio-econo-  planning  assumed t h a t a c o m p r e h e n s i v e  reflected t h a t the  Thus, the n o t e d as  coordinator  CDG  and  or  the  assessed  p r o p o n e n t ' s d o c u m e n t a t i o n was  a s s u m p t i o n was  the  tasks;  for  development.  ability  coordinator  a u t h o r and  operated  was  review  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the  the  the  of the  and  documents.  review  CDG  from the  coordinator various  of the v a r i o u s  review  l e a d agency i n which  identified  agency's p o l i c i e s , would  evalu-  conducted  i n a l l of the  (CGSC c h a i r m a n ) t o r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n  the  may  and  for specific  Authorship  formal  d o c u m e n t a t i o n d e p e n d e d on  that  f o r compa-  commitment t o i n t e g r a t e e n v i r o n m e n t a l and  a t i o n of the  the  options  c o n t r a c t out-of-house consultants  t h a t the  The  The  entirely  guidelines process.  coal-mine  that  s t u d i e s and  sole authors;  i n - h o u s e and  they  entire  the  three  using  the  i n f l u e n c e the  hypothesis  nature  of  coordination. Many c r i t i c s  of the  CDG  p r o g r a m have  identified  22 t i m i n g as a s i g n i f i c a n t noted  that  up  new  impacts  Heffernan  (1975, p.  affecting  over  technology."  an  little-studied  resources  Boothroyd  (197 9, p.  5)  having  concluded  of impact  The  program, i n o p e r a t i n g w i t h p r o c e d u r e s  r e p o r t s i s p r e f e r a b l e t o one  be p r o d u c e d  CDG  p r o c e s s was  early  d e s i g n and  late  to account  so t h a t  t o be  as m o n i t o r i n g d e s i g n .  secondary  used  sources.  Early  affect  t o g i v e more  This  p r o g r a m was  making p r o c e s s , " t h e n the t i m i n g o f became s i g n i f i c a n t .  to  later  f o r management a c t i v i t i e s  I f t h e CDG  a  r e p o r t s would  enough i n t h e r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s from  for  in several  enough i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s  than b a s e l i n e data i n f o r m a t i o n was  designed  a  statement."  minimum o f e i g h t e e n months and were r e p o r t e d on The  for  that  t h e above c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , r e q u i r e d s t u d i e s w h i c h t o o k  phases.  for  area, or e s t a b l i s h i n g precedents  "series CDG  256)  t o a y e a r o r more i s g e n e r a l l y n e c e s s a r y  "major p r o j e c t s broad  problem.  a  such  "decision-  approval-in-principle  government a p p r o v a l  reduced  c o r p o r a t e u n c e r t a i n t y , whereas w i t h h e l d d e c i s i o n s i n c r e a s e d the p e r c e p t i o n o f c o n t r o l examine t h e s e s t u d y by  government a g e n c i e s .  t i m i n g was  e v a l u a t e d i n each  addressing three questions.  r e p o r t was with  issues,  by  noted  relative  the p e r i o d c a l c u l a t e d  to the from  The  and  r e s e a r c h was  of  case each  approval-in-principle, submission  t h e p o i n t o f a f o r m a l government d e c i s i o n project,  time  To  of prospectus r e g a r d i n g the  the r e p o r t ' s temporal  relationship  considered.  the  Finally,  to other  critical-path  to  23 planning  f o r e a c h p r o j e c t was examined t o n o t e how e a c h  company p l a n n e d  i t s CDG s t u d i e s r e l a t i v e  to other  corporate  planning. The to  third  f e a t u r e , p u r p o s e o f t h e document,  relates  t h e u s e f o r t h e document i n f o r m a t i o n and i n d i r e c t l y  tifies  potential  users  of the information.  t h a t many i n d i v i d u a l s w o u l d r e a d document.  I t was assumed one p o r t i o n o f t h e  U s e r s o f a s s e s s m e n t documents may be c i t i z e n  groups, t e c h n i c a l a s s e s s o r s planners, resource  at least  iden-  of design  government d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . , managers.  policy  agency  analysts, or  o f the review  documents may be  c o n s u l t a n t s , p r o j e c t managers, o r c o r p o r a t e  decision-makers.  User e x p e c t a t i o n s document  meets  evaluated  The u s e r s  alternatives,  affect  i t s purpose,  forexplicit  reference.  t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n o f how w e l l t h e Therefore,  statements o f purpose o r terms o f  The document a u t h o r ' s  contrasted with  documents were  s t a t e m e n t o f p u r p o s e was  the r e q u i r e d purpose t o determine  program e x p e c t a t i o n s  were  addressed.  Document p u r p o s e was a l s o e v a l u a t e d many r e a d e r s  w o u l d examine o n l y  document, t h o s e expertise, scanned they  i n which they  and i n f o r m a t i o n  the report should  assuming  interest or  would o c c u r  as r e a d e r s  o f s u b j e c t s and f a c t s Assessment  expectations  on t e c h n i c a l g r o u n d s w i t h  that  sections of the  had s p e c i f i c  include.  w h i c h t e n d e d n o t t o meet t h e s e rejected  specific  filtering  f o r a mental c h e c k l i s t  felt  i f t h e CDG  requests  which  reports  were o f t e n f o r resubmission,  24 while  r e v i e w comments w h i c h were r e p e t i t i v e ,  i n a c c u r a t e , were n o t T h e r e was message, and the  overall  utilized  a number o f q u e s t i o n s  format of the  information  evaluated  report.  The  summation t e c h n i q u e s , identification,  for presentation  plans.  for  of the  non-technical  problem.  examined. accuracy  w o u l d be  A rational, defined tion,  an  techniques identify istics  especially  provided,  and  these  comprehensive,  CDG  was  be  the  of  i t was  were report  assumed  were e x a m i n e d . program  design  In t h i s  evalua-  made between c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c  environmental, development  framework.  a  identify  o r d i s c i p l i n a r y methods w h i c h were c o n d u c t e d  of the  planning  confirmation  o v e r a l l m e t h o d o l o g y o r model.  a distinction  the  of g r a p h i c s  information,  the  implementing  p r o v i s i o n of g l o s s a r i e s to  or a u t h e n t i c i t y of  for  and  o f t e c h n i c a l r e p o r t s , may  to f a c i l i t a t e  and  constraint  presentation  use  body  o f message  format a l s o c o n s i d e r e d  t e c h n i c a l t e r m s , and  docu-  The  documents were e v a l u a t e d  o f m i t i g a t i o n and  readers  Finally,  references  for clarity  the  concerning  adequacy o f t h e  r e p o r t , because terminology,  Therefore,  acronyms and  form o f  accessibility.  information  E v a l u a t i o n o f the  readability  the  f o r m o f a s s u m p t i o n and  form of  or  proponent.  were examined  format to determine the  document was  format  the  a l s o a need t o e v a l u a t e  ments i n f a c i l i t a t i n g of the  by  redundant,  social,  o r economic  l o c a t i o n and  this  character-  larger,  E a c h p r o p o n e n t document was  to  rational  initially  25 evaluated ject  to i d e n t i f y  i t s overall  appraisal process.  I t was  s t u d i e s were d e f i n e d by  f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the  assumed t h a t t h e  the o v e r a l l  objectives,  T h i s was  verified  descriptions. if  thereby by  The  and  nent  to the  model's  process.  methodological determine  to r e l a t e  f e a t u r e s of the development  site proposal  for  to three methodological  assessment  review  inputs  into  the and  site-specific utilized  f e a t u r e s o f t h e CDG into  the  sources  i n p u t s and  analysis.  assessments or the d a t a used source.  I t was  d a t a as w e l l as  also collect  was  secondary  element of the  techniques.  important impact  dimension was  of the  analy-  were  evaluated primary  should  be  A comprehensive  pro-  as wide a number  the e x i s t i n g , data  base.  a p p r a i s a l methodology,  examining  A probabilistic  a second  data  i n f o r m a t i o n from  e v a l u a t e d by  propo-  A l l the  assumed t h a t b o t h  as p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e  A second analysis,  assessment;  was  as w e l l as government methods  i n a comprehensive p r o c e s s .  should  casting  approaches,  of proponent  to type  cess  set of e v a l u a t i v e questions  documents: i n p u t s o r d a t a  tical  the  t h e documents'  the  i t s alternatives.  applied  of  the r a t i o n a l  methods i d e n t i f i e d  A more d e t a i l e d  as  the  documents were a l s o , e x a m i n e d t o  t h e r e were s p e c i f i c  characteristics  i f t h e y met  reflecting  examining  proponents'  p r o g r a m m o d e l , and  documents were e x a m i n e d t o d e t e r m i n e stated  pro-  impact  dimension  prediction  and  fore-  element c o n s t i t u t e d  assessment.  The  w h i c h i n v o l v e d an  the  size  one of  estimate  26 of  v a l u e by t h e e x p e r t c o n d u c t i n g t h e s t u d y .  tuted  characteristics  and were i m p l i e d questioned  the  criteria.  t o those d e s c r i b e d  o r aggregate  specu-  t h e r e v i e w methods were  i n Chapter  4 of this  the b i o p h y s i c a l  economic,  study.  It  would  evaluation  and s o c i a l  as i n t h e p r o p o n e n t s '  with  evaluations.  assessment  documents,  r e v i e w documents were e x a m i n e d f o r c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s . was assumed t h a t  have r e p r e s e n t a t i o n possibly should  be a f f e c t e d  that staff  a comprehensive  agencies asked  by t h e p r o j e c t .  This  to participate  because  existing  dimensions  Each  agency,  as c o u l d therefore,  j u r i s d i c t i o n a l and was b a s e d  on t h e f a c t  i n t h e r e v i e w would  have  capable of evaluating the  documents and have a b u d g e t  review a c t i v i t y , staff's  their  assumption  with appropriate expertise  proponent  r e v i e w document s h o u l d  f r o m a s many i m p a c t e d  r e v i e w t h e p r o p o s a l from  expert perspectives.  to  compre-  on a l l p o p u l a t i o n s , and  t o examine a r e v i e w t e c h n i q u e w h i c h  Nevertheless,  It  foranalytical  forecasting techniques.  separate t e c h n i c a l ,  the  dimensions.  r e v i e w documents were e v a l u a t e d f o r s i m i l a r  was d i f f i c u l t  the  methodology  w i t h and w i t h o u t t h e p r o j e c t  I t was assumed t h a t  interrelate  consti-  T h u s , t h e documents were  o f t h e development  of possible  The  similar  including  effects  range  i n guidelines.  t e c h n i q u e s were e x a m i n e d  hensiveness, lations,  common t o an a s s e s s m e n t  f o r evidence o f these assessment  Forecasting  Both  such reviews  responsibilities.  and t i m e  f o r the  s h o u l d n o t be added Finally,  the review  27 documents were e x a m i n e d f o r e v i d e n c e o f a v a i l a b l e nities  f o r p u b l i c non-governmental The  final  ments, s h o u l d planning. the  provide  the  included  proceeded  some e l e m e n t s o f  information  and  evaluation,  for  new  studies  and  the  f o r new  should  planning  be  mine s i t e , ties,  and  included  plant  mental s e t t i n g  project  a part  preparation  of  storage,  the  proceeded.  this earlier  in  planning  feasibility expansion  long-term, project  power  that  the facili-  plans.  included  existing  a review of  d e s c r i p t i o n s which i d e n t i f i e d  t h a t w o u l d be  coal  development  for  loading,  p r o j e c t would a l t e r  content  be  construction,  expected  Elements of  In  the  I n c l u s i o n of  an  to  content over  exploration,  of  would  planning  i n e a c h document's c o n t e n t were  transportation,  evaluation  categories  as  approach.  Because the an  forthcoming.  c o a l mines o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s  were a l s o e v a l u a t e d rational  development  content of  decommissioning.  evaluate  specific  f o r comprehensiveness  project:  pre-  normally t e c h n i c a l i n  changes i n development p l a n  a l l phases of  for rational  they are  was  The  docu-  development p l a n  Since  information  also evaluated  operation,  the  proponent  governments t o  c h a n g i n g as  documents were i d e n t i f i e d . p l a n was  u s e d by  p r o p o n e n t s ' documents a r e  nature, with  the  main e v i d e n c e  i n e a c h document. the  examination.  content of  Because they are  proposal,  mining,  feature,  opportu-  most u s e f u l  These c a t e g o r i e s  the  conditions, environ-  indicator  f o r m o n i t o r i n g as included  features  the of  the  28 biophysical, alteration  social,  and e c o n o m i c e n v i r o n m e n t .  o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t w o u l d r e a c h beyond  d a r i e s o f t h e mine d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p e r t y , indicators ment.  state;  s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  the p r o j e c t  prediction  of impacts p r i o r  impact p r e d i c t i o n of  s h o u l d be a d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e  t h e same v a l u e ,  indicators for  t o development.  Assuming  of  impac-  their  requires Therefore, characteristic a l l i m p a c t s do  and as an a i d t o d e t e r m i n i n g  s h o u l d be m o n i t o r e d , t h e c o n t e n t was  classification  assess-  are not  changes  of assessment  t h e a s s e s s m e n t document c o n t e n t .  n o t have  a d d i t i o n a l extended  settings  b e g i n s and a c t u a l l y  however, t h e m e t h o d o l o g y  t h e boun-  i n a comprehensive  The e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i a l  ted u n t i l  Because  which  evaluated  impacts.  The c o n t e n t o f e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g and a s s e s s m e n t included  i n the e v a l u a t i o n  confidentiality and f i n a n c i a l tion.  surrounding  These d a t a a r e n e c e s s a r y  their  fore,  this  as f o r c o s t s o f p r o d u c -  f o r t h e government's  of the v i a b i l i t y  responsibility  T h e r e i s an i s s u e o f  i n f o r m a t i o n on c o a l m a r k e t i n g  a r r a n g e m e n t s , as w e l l  pendent e v a l u a t i o n of  criteria.  of the p r o j e c t  as owners o f t h e r e s o u r c e ;  i n f o r m a t i o n was  evaluated.  I t was  expected that  change o v e r t i m e i n c o n c e r t w i t h plan,  and i t was  and s o c i a l  inde-  because there-  sought.  The c o n t e n t o f c o r p o r a t e e n v i r o n m e n t a l and p l a n n i n g was  was  anticipated  that  this  social would  the changing development changes i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l  p l a n s w o u l d be p r e s e n t e d  i n a s s e s s m e n t documents  as  a continuing  commitments.  reflection  of the  O p t i o n s and  proponent's d e c i s i o n s  future planning  were a l s o  and  evalu-  ated . The  content  development p l a n the  development  criteria advice  impact  assumed t h e  on  a r e v i e w document s h o u l d  critique,  options  with  considered  concerns,  tion.  document e v a l u a t i o n  the  assigning  of  observations  a judgement o f  by  the  following:  proponent,  relevant  i d e n t i f i e d which  informa-  c o n c l u d e d by  o f e a c h document f e a t u r e a d e q u a c y b a s e d upon t h e  should  require-  sources of a d d i t i o n a l strategy  of  Evaluative  additional regulatory  identification  marizing  category.  issues  ments, and  a  a response to each aspect  indicator  e x a m i n e d i n more d e t a i l ,  The  provide  documents would i n c l u d e t h e  not  government p l a n n i n g be  of  sum-  and  above  criteria. 1.5.3  P r o g r a m outcomes and i m p a c t s CDGs were e v a l u a t e d  outcomes and  impacts.  g u i d e l i n e s may in  intended  through the duction.  induced  the  b a s i s of  outcomes and  v i e w e d as  c o a l d e v e l o p m e n t and  coming from o r The  be  The  on  the  impacts of  both planned or primary  secondary or unexpected by  the  a c t i o n s of the  CDG  outcome i s a c o a l mine t h a t has g u i d e l i n e s and  The  environmental,  t h a t hasyhas not  u n e x p e c t e d outcomes i n c l u d e social,  and  program's the changes  changes program.  proceeded gone i n t o  the  pro-  information  e c o n o m i c s y s t e m s p r o d u c e d by  on  this  30 program the  and t h e i r  individuals  a t t e n d a n t e f f e c t s on t h e p e r c e p t i o n s  involved.  The  g u i d e l i n e s p r o c e s s may  i n f l u e n c e d p a r t i c i p a n t s perhaps o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e program,  of  and  i n opposition i n that  sense  have  to the i s unexpected.  T h r e e e v a l u a t i v e m e t h o d o l o g i e s were d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e a b o u t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e CDG viduals  involved.  First,  A r e v i e w was  the program  and  a n a l y s i s was tiques  mined  C)  and  and  comments were  The  grouped  comments were or  conflicts These  group-  t o see i f a p a t t e r n o f o p i n i o n  considered,  i n systematically  as  and t h e i r  Therefore,  critical program  frameworks  that  utilized  may  primary  o b s e r v a t i o n s o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h 23 o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s ,  administered  the  aspects.  a second methodology  questionnaire  were  examining the p r o -  the s m a l l range o f p a r t i c i p a n t s  have m i s s e d comment on u s e f u l  the  exa-  t o t h e use o f s e c o n d a r y c r i t i q u e s  gram c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  ing  cri-  i m p a c t s emerged.  lack of structure  critics  critics'  of  A code f o r  f o r i s s u e s w h i c h were a b s e n t .  Limitations their  material,  of ideas, differences,  i n g s were t h e n summarized t o program  program's  the f i n d i n g s of these  classification.  for similarity  in opinion,  published  used t o c l a r i f y  according to t h i s  from a  conducted of previous c r i t i q u e s  related  (see A p p e n d i x  indi-  o b s e r v a t i o n s were c o l l e c t e d  range o f sources t o g i v e a broad view o f the effects.  on t h e  (shown i n A p p e n d i x  D)  which  independently to a l l individuals,  employwas  e a c h o f whom  31 was e x p e r i e n c e d  i n t h e a s s e s s m e n t and r e v i e w  d e v e l o p m e n t i n B.C. dents) . an  (see Appendix E f o r l i s t  of  respon-  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was an a t t e m p t t o c o l l e c t  o v e r a l l v i e w o f t h e p r o g r a m and d a t a  useful  o f new c o a l  t h a t may  both  suggest  a l t e r n a t i v e s o r improvements t o t h e p r o g r a m ,  A  s e c o n d a r y o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s m e t h o d o l o g y was t o b e g i n t o devise there  program  specific  i s no e x i s t i n g  i n d i c a t o r s o f a t t i t u d e because  valid  o r r e l i a b l e method f o r m e a s u r i n g  a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e CDG g o a l s . n a i r e was d e s i g n e d objectives  to reflect  To t h i s  end, t h e q u e s t i o n -  t h e CDG p r o g r a m ' s m a j o r  as w e l l as t o i d e n t i f y  issues outside of the  p r o g r a m w h i c h may have some b e a r i n g  on t h e p r o g r a m ' s  out-  come . The dual  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the questionnaire  s t r a t e g y approach,  346).  The q u e s t i o n s  as s u g g e s t e d  lent  by P o i s t e r  themselves t o quick  a n s w e r s amenable t o s t a t i s t i c a l  analyses,  ment o f o p e n - e n d e d e l a b o r a t i o n a l l o w e d expressiveness.  B o t h were u s e d  most i n t e r v i e w s .  Allowing  some r e s p o n d e n t s o m i t t e d example, when t h e y  felt  for flexible  opinion, the  realm  respondent encourage-  f o r s p o n t a n e i t y and to structure  r e s p o n s e s meant  f o r various  that a particular  p r o g r a m was n o t w i t h i n t h e i r  (1978, p .  while  i n combination  questions  involved a  that  reasons; f o r  aspect  of the  of expertise or, i n their  t h e q u e s t i o n was n o t r e l e v a n t t o an e v a l u a t i o n o f  CDG p r o g r a m , o r a q u e s t i o n was n o t germane t o t h e  overall  issue.  While three  respondents d e c l i n e d t o complete  32 the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  they d i d o f f e r v e r b a l o b s e r v a t i o n s .  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s p e c i f i c r e q u i r e d mutual the background and  clarification  which  lacked  Throughout  encourage  communication,  a manner  that  the v a l i d i t y  participants  i n which  to cooperate,  y e t was  expected t o  ( p a s t and p r e s e n t ) , service  from  individuals  review agents  was  of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e mailed. B.C.,  from twenty  Once  o f two h o u r s ' d u r a t i o n .  Sparwood, B.C., V a n c o u v e r ,  and  identi-  were a r r a n g e d , and a  M o s t i n t e r v i e w s were and  t o f o u r h o u r s , w i t h an  Other  both  an a g r e e m e n t  i n the respondents' o f f i c e s , minutes  from  The sample was n o t  telephoned to obtain  t o be i n t e r v i e w e d , a p p o i n t m e n t s  of who  agencies, consultants,  be c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  the respondent  lists  A sample o f p r o g r a m  i n d u s t r y p e r s o n n e l , were c h o s e n .  i n time  To  t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a d m i n i s t e r e d  r e s p o n d e n t s were s e l e c t e d  b i o p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l  in Victoria,  i n c i d e n t a l , but  o f the survey.  indicated willingness  random, b u t may  t o govern-  a r e s p o n s e was p h r a s e d .  i n t h e p r o c e s s , and i n c l u d e d  administrators  because  c l a r i f i c a t i o n occurred  allowed f o r v a r i a t i o n  Potential  fied,  events  experience with the  or corporate procedures  t o t h e way  coal  specific  the interview,  relevant,  limit  and/or  p r o v i d e d a h i s t o r y o f e v e n t s and b a c k g r o u n d  ment c o n s t r a i n t s  in  occasionally  o f the respondents v a r i e d w i t h t h e program,  the interviewer  program.  o f terms  items  copy  conducted ranged average  i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d i n  B.C.,  and C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a .  33 Attempts t o i n c l u d e r e g i o n a l personnel From t h i s the in  open-ended  questionnaire  interview,  The twofold.  analyzed  (by t h e i n t e r v i e w e r  i n a participant  the r e s u l t s  to factor  consolidated  o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  i n t o e i g h t program a s p e c t s .  cluster  and d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s e s .  applied  were a n a l y z e d  From t h i s  the aspects  two s i g n i f i c a n t  aspects  i n an i t e r a t i v e  was p r o d u c e d ,  t h e t h e o r i e s o f human m o t i v a t i o n  g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t t o d e v i s e concern,  were  a n a l y s i s where t h e r e s p o n s e s were  dation,  of  profile.  a n a l y s i s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e / i n t e r v i e w was First,  subjected  information additional to  f o r m a t was r e c o r d e d  n o t e form) and l a t e r  were n o t s u c c e s s f u l .  which enabled  process of  A scatter plot  A second a n a l y s i s and o f i n d i v i d u a l  a profile  classification  consoli-  o f types o f  o f the notes  arising  from t h e i n t e r v i e w s t o produce a p a r t i c i p a n t p r o f i l e o f concerns. The the  third  pants  qualitative  source  results  o f the interviews  o f i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e a t t i t u d e s o f p a r t i c i -  i n t h e CDG p r o g r a m , g i v i n g a r a n g e o f p e r c e p t i o n s .  When q u e s t i o n s were s o u g h t research  arose  throughout the study,  from t h e r e s p o n d e n t s .  process,  including  information  conversations  with  d i d have a t h e o r e t i c a l  experience  with  a d d i t i o n a l data  At the conclusion of the  supplemented approximately  many o f whom were n o t c o n n e c t e d w i t h but  provided  the interviews, 40  individuals,  the s p e c i f i c  program  background o r e x t e n s i v e  assessment and/or review  procedures  in  34 other  1.6  jurisdictions.  Data  Evaluation Use  the  of t h i s  f i n d i n g s to  derives from  some d e g r e e .  from the  senior  fact  B.C.  participate  and  study design  employ t h e research  that  evaluation  r e s u l t s are  committed (Patton,  to  process tion.  and  findings.  has  T h u s , two  still  For  because the ses  of  the CDG  other  observations, of (in  federal the  to  literature to  dealing  ensure  s e n i o r management f i n d i n g s from  the  of the  latter  of the  with  operates  five  having  CDG  having  selected  program  proceeded to  However, o f by  the  biased  other  I t i s conceded  20  with  reference  analy-  different to the  c a s e o f Quinsam C o a l ) and  Sage C r e e k C o a l )  were  that,  i n a c a s e - s p e c i f i c manner,  particularly  the  construc-  company d e c i s i o n o r  somewhat  had  completed  c a s e s c h o s e n were c l e a r l y  study process.  ( i n the  results within  a t a t i m e when t h e  p r o j e c t s would y i e l d  case of  commitment  example, s t u d y c a s e s were  most were t e r m i n a t e d  within  The  utilized,  toward s u c c e s s f u l p r o j e c t s . choices,  overt  suggested that,  mine p r o p o s a l s , two  no  of  limitation  l i m i t a t i o n s t o the  for detailed evaluation 22  was  i m p l e m e n t i n g the  also  methodologies.  appraised  overall  utilization  1978).  There are the  the  government program a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  evaluation  outset  One  that there  with  must be  limits  question  international  involvement.  35 The tively case  document e v a l u a t i o n  as e x p e r i e n c e was  s t u d y documents.  allowing  revised  itera-  gained with i t s a p p l i c a t i o n  to the  The  f o r the a d d i t i o n  c a t i o n of the d e t a i l e d  s t r a t e g y was  original  f o r m a t was  much w i d e r ,  o f e x t e n s i v e comments.  Identifi-  s t r u c t u r e o f the assessment  r e v i e w documents t h r o u g h t h e document e v a l u a t i o n was  a labour-intensive  reviewed  twice to ensure  In r e t r o s p e c t , necessary detail  be  method w o u l d be tions,  the l e v e l o f d e t a i l  have b e e n i d e n t i f i e d  documents c o u l d be  level  asked  cular  was  the problems  i t s complex i n s t i t u t i o n a l and o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m  a g e n t s was the range  felt  evalua-  through which  arises  coal  from  f a c e d by  the  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e working-  Thus, t h e  concerns  of conducting  program,  characteristics,  propo-  in partithe  a v a r i e t y o f government  t o p r o v i d e a more u s e f u l  o f problems  of  for this  t o dominate over the concerns of the  B e c a u s e o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e CDG  concerns  level  individual  b i a s e d toward  government a g e n c i e s i n V i c t o r i a .  o f g o v e r n m e n t p l a n n i n g and  nent.  higher than  This  o f the r e s u l t s t o complete  i n t e r v i e w e d , which  reviews tended  was  criteria.  assessed,  limitation  choice of i n d i v i d u a l s t o be  study.  of  i n t h e p l a n n i n g o f r e v i e w agency  A further  and  produced  T h e r e f o r e , a recommended use  as c r i t e r i a  project  of t h i s  application  a p p r o p r i a t e , however, f o r an  review.  strategy  Case s t u d y documents were  consistent  f o r the purposes  might  project  activity.  and  indication  the comprehensive  CDG  of  program.  As w e l l ,  through review of  t h e i r wealth  o f numerous p r o j e c t s  experience  gave a r i c h  source  observations. The CDG  and  fied  administration's willingness  p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n wherever p o s s i b l e  tated  by an e x t e r n a l e v a l u a t i o n a l o n e .  information final  set that  and a n a l y t i c supports  chapter of t h i s  to  cooperate  greatly  c l a r i f i c a t i o n and c o r r e c t i o n o f e r r o r s  these data c o l l e c t i o n  the  of personal  not  faciliidenti-  The n e t r e s u l t  a c t i v i t i e s i s an  the a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e d i n  study.  of  Chapter 2  COAL  Policies,  DEVELOPMENT  Goals,  and  Objectives  The complexity of the energy issues requires that a policy be a living process and that policy-makers be prepared to respond quickly to changing situations, - R. H. M c C l e l l a n d , M i n i s t e r o f Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, B.C., (1980)  2.1  Introduction Characteristics  ding  Canadian c o a l  B.C.,  reflect  contemporary government stated  recent  i n s o c i a l values  g o v e r n m e n t s and, s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  involvement  i n c o a l mining  period  here w i l l  be p r i m a r i l y  o f B.C.'s s t a t e d  involved  expectations  The  there-  r e l a t e d t o the  coal policy.  p o l i c i e s and g o a l s  i n assessing  fo  industry i n  been f r a g m e n t e d and i n c o n s i s t e n t ;  some o f t h e c o n f l i c t i n g agencies  underlying  and d e v e l o p m e n t .  p o l i c i e s o f governments f o r t h e c o a l  discussion  regar  and r e l a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n  contradictions  Canada have o f t e n fore,  o f contemporary p u b l i c p o l i c y  A summary o f which d i r e c t the  new c o a l p r o j e c t s  i n B.C.  follows. The  mining of c o a l , while c o n t r i b u t i n g  economy o f Canada, has t r a d i t i o n a l l y  disrupted  to the both  human  38  and  natural  environments.  The i n d u s t r y  h i s t o r i c a l l y has  u n d e r g o n e f l u c t u a t i n g p r o d u c t i o n , w i t h demand d e c r e a s i n g when a l t e r n a t i v e s been c o n f l i c t cite  have been f o u n d .  There has o f t e n  among t h e s u p p o r t e r s o f f r e e  enterprise  who  e c o n o m i c a d v a n t a g e s o f e x p l o i t i n g t h e r e s o u r c e and  t h o s e who p r e f e r effects  royalties  public  from t h e n e g a t i v e  its historic  i s stated  transportation,  i n t e r m s o f mine  For safety,  stability,  and a l t e r n a t i v e e n e r g y  sources.  p o l i c i e s i s c o l l e c t e d by  statements o f p u b l i c  officials  o f government a g e n c i e s w i t h r e s p e c t industry,  volatility.  e n v i r o n m e n t , community  f o r t h i s group o f p u b l i c  interpreting tives  policy  and t a x a t i o n ,  reclamation, Evidence  government p r o t e c t i o n  of c o a l mining, with  both sides,  coal  to coal  and r e p r e s e n t a -  to coal  and t h e  and i s embedded i n t h e g e n e r a l b e l i e f s and  values of public  officials  and p u b l i c  service  employees.  2.2 I d e o l o g y and Demand f o r P o l i c y i n C o a l and R e l a t e d D e v e l o p m e n t s Contemporary p u b l i c contradictions or  inherent  policy  i s characterized  i n the nature of l i b e r a l  by many  democracy  i n t h e g e n e r a l b e l i e f s a b o u t t h e r o l e o f g o v e r n m e n t and  the  rights of private  fied  three  features  individuals.  by w h i c h C a n a d i a n  is  organized:  the f i r s t  is  s u p p o r t e d by p e r i o d i c  mies a r e n o t d i r e c t e d ments; and t h i r d l y ,  Marchak  i s that  that  judicial  society  identi-  believes i t  a representative  elections;  exclusively  (1981)  government  the second, t h a t  econo-  o r e v e n m a i n l y by g o v e r n courts  evaluate  the merits  39 of  i n d i v i d u a l , corporate,  ence t o this  the  i s that  Both of  i n t e r e s t s of  another. ject the  equality  The  and  any  assumption  to the  wishes of  system.  Another  democratic  system of  the  derived  means o f  Marchak at  the  core of  managers o f ity  yet  w i t h an  economy i s n o t tion  private  the  case of  in  the  ground  exists,  ving  system,  the  fundamental for  private  including  property,  also  noted  and  subto  a  ownership  the  ownership  the  profits  coal,  to  the  to protect  o r managed by  held  by  the  the  e s s e n t i a l l y with private  Governments wishes of  Crown.  and  A  further  Produc-  the  resource economy  managers  decisions  dimension  of  the  although  A mixed  public  major-  but  governments.  r i g h t s of  are  the  minorities;  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the coal.  contradictions  a f r e e market,  ownership to  i s often  several  government.  subject  obligation  of  over  ownerships.  directed  extraction  represent  population  enterprise,  i s necessary,  (1981) has  h a v i n g r i g h t s and  another  Canadian governments are  i s assumed t o o p e r a t e w i t h i n  in  the  not  fundamental b e l i e f i s t h a t  t h i s view of  the  of  and  One  i s a homogeneous  g o v e r n m e n t s do  that  production,  from t h e s e  there  section  Within  among p e o p l e .  i t s c i t i z e n s i s also  of economic r e s o u r c e s of  that  one  condition  that  refer-  b e l i e f s i s held.  i s achieved,  of  with  governments.  and  rule  these b e l i e f s imply  Canadian p o p u l a t i o n the  values  majority  t h e r e e x i s t s an  government a c t i o n s  p r o v i d e d by  framework a r a n g e o f  assumption that  legislation  and  both invol-  40 contradiction  lies within  this  problem.  g o v e r n m e n t s ' management r e s p o n s i b i l i t y but  interacting  public  and  responding to actions  (1981) i l l u s t r a t e d  institutions,  this  The b e l i e f i n implies  independent  one b a l a n c i n g a n o t h e r  taken i n other s e c t o r s .  problem  when he r e f e r r e d  complex p r o c e s s o f managing human a f f a i r s w i t h i n s t r a i n i n g elements strative, problem  subject  political,  i s that  systems,  of s o c i a l , legal,  Petak t o the the con-  technical-scientific,  admini-  and e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s .  The  o n l y p a r t o f one o f t h e s e complex  sub-  t h a t o f exogenous and s o c i e t a l to e l e c t o r a l vote.  constraints, i s  I n d i v i d u a l s who a d m i n i s t e r  b o t h t h e s u b - s y s t e m s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l management and t h e resource-use a l l o c a t i o n bilities  without The  in public  any d i r e c t  belief  policy  undertake  decision-making  electoral  i n the r i g h t  and g r o u p s  tions exist  that  of the p u b l i c  t o express t h e i r  t h e government w i l l  concerns  w i t h some a c t i o n .  creation  o f new f o r m a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  forced older over  laws  accountability. to participate  and government management has  individuals  Brooks  as a r e s p o n s e  responsi-  encouraged  concerns.  respond  Expecta-  t o these  (1974) i d e n t i f i e d t h e new l a w s ,  and r e i n -  t o the increased concerns  the use o f m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s .  While  t h e r e have b e e n  e c o n o m i c c o n c e r n s , most o f t h e c o n f l i c t w i t h c o a l m i n i n g i n Canada h a s come from nalities, quality  the p e r c e p t i o n o f unaccounted  as when w i l d l i f e ,  are affected.  fisheries,  As a r e s u l t ,  exter-  and w a t e r o r a i r  environmental  protection  41 has  become a m a j o r p u b l i c p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t  (Gibbons,  to  1980),  and  t h e s e c o n c e r n s have been e x p r e s s e d  many i n d i v i d u a l s  and  groups.  The  scientific  community has  noted w i t h  ( D i c k and T h i r g o o d , 1975).  were e x p r e s s e d by life  interest  groups  F e d e r a t i o n (Warden, 1976)  encourage  development,  provided i t takes i n t o  and  accompanying c o a l mining.  problems  management s y s t e m s tal, which  and  s a f e t y problems  required  a l s o noted solid  and  Cameron as  analyst,  concerns liquid  (1980,  "the f u e l  mentalist academic  public  and  p.  that  about  and  r e h e n s i v e n e s s o f impact sciences,  with a trend  increasing problems  he a r g u e d  erosion,  consumption. other source,  t h a t a l l phases  This belief  to  of  t o the  the  address  i n the t o t a l  extended  comp-  social  1970s w h i c h p l a c e d  c r e a t e d by c o a l d e v e l o p m e n t . f o r , and  He  a spokesman f o r  e m p h a s i s on t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  t h e s e c o n c e r n s were c a l l e d  a  between t h e e n v i r o n -  As  i n the l a t e  costs  development  noise,  more t h a n any  evaluation  coal  environmen-  i n d u s t r y must be c o n s i d e r e d i n f o r m u l a t i n g p o l i c y the environmental problems.  Wild-  (1980),  health,  and water  developer."  environmentalists,  and  government c o n t r o l .  feeds the c o n f l i c t  energy  Wilson  to  concerns  a l l of the  emissions release,  coal,  due  controlled  associated with coal  policy  saw  account  identified  waste d i s p o s a l , 4)  Similar  s u c h as t h e F i s h  who  by  increasing  c o n c e r n t h e changes i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s surface mining  coal  and  community  Policies  to  techniques of  alleviate both  42 e n v i r o n m e n t a l and into  the  CDG,  evaluate  social  impact assessments,  became t h e  t o o l s of  these concerns.  p u b l i c p o l i c y designed  Cost-benefit  analyses  t o e n s u r e a more r a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h , b u t addressing and  not  most o f  these  terms.  Another  above  s y s t e m had  outside  the  difficulty  b e c a u s e most o f  the  ment f l e x i b i l i t y , legislation.  evaluating  processes,  Nevertheless,  producers  sions, and  labour  and  d e v e l o p m e n t , as  sistency,  and  industry. for  well  clarity.  support and  as  hospitals.  The  expectations  f o r m and  and  local  for  tax  research  h i s t o r y of  advocated  would  the  d e p e n d e n t upon c o a l  existence,  con-  working coal mining  government  f o r l o c a l m i n e s , as w e l l  local  conces-  f o r reduced u n c e r t a i n t y ,  already  coal  communities.  freight rates,  i n the  not  f o r government  c o a l p o l i c y came f r o m t h e  issue  assistance  court  a situation  which would ensure s a f e r  continuing  f o r attendant  techniques  Trade unions expected they  Communities,  and  of  con-  t o r e t a i n manage-  government a s s i s t a n c e  employment, hence t h e i r  protection  merits  in guideline  f o r reduced  have m i n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s conditions—a  framework.  i n order  representatives,  looked  subsidies,  the  were d e s c r i b e d  to operate with a consistent industry,  when a p p r a i s a l  legislative  in  intangible  amenable t o q u a n t i f i c a t i o n i n m o n e t a r y  were a p p l i e d  Coal  problems arose  s e t o f p r o b l e m s a r o s e when t h e  to  were added  i s s u e s b e c a u s e t h e y were  c e r n s were a d d r e s s e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y  in  incorporated  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s u c h as  as  sup-  schools  43 Other communities  a p p e a l e d t o government f o r  poli-  c i e s which opposed c o a l development because i t t h r e a t e n e d existing  community r e s o u r c e s ,  and  recreation.  was  pressure  strategy  In  the  i n c l u d i n g tourism,  i n t e r n a t i o n a l s p h e r e , where  to produce a r a t i o n a l , long-term  for coal  fisheries,  t o meet f o r e c a s t e d  national  p o t e n t i a l demand  1 9 7 8 ) , g o v e r n m e n t s were a s k e d t o d e v e l o p c l e a r l y e n e r g y and tent  and  environmental objectives,  efficient  objectives was  s e t of  (Berkowitz,  pressure  necessary  onment  (Hay, The  and  1982;  1980),  from f o r e i g n markets t o  follow  ensuring  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and Hill,  and  although frequently  on  a unitary  a r t i c u l a t e and conflicting,  the  policy.  body, t h e r e  complex  structure  While the  of  have d i f f e r e n t v i e w s o f  ence, are  well  the  there policy  provision  of envir-  t h i s range  organized  term  "government"  implies  Elected  groups  to the  within  officials  and  and  agencies  substance of  i n d i v i d u a l values  l a r g e l y with respect  government  reflec-  u n i t s or  n a t u r e and  and,  see  d i f f e r e n t m i n i s t r i e s and the  of  Governments, how-  they wish to  government.  O p i n i o n s , b a s e d on stated  a public  each expected a  exist diverse  appointed bureaucrats of  policy.  Finally,  government by  have i n t e r n a l c o n c e r n s t h a t  in public  these  a positive financial  p o s i t i o n which r e f l e c t e d i t s concerns.  ted  consis-  Rahman, 1 9 8 2 ) .  pressures placed  i n t e r e s t s were o f t e n  ever,  to adopt a  Wilson,  (Ezra,  defined  p u b l i c p o l i c i e s to achieve  w h i c h e n c o u r a g e d c o a l e x p o r t by the  there  coal  experi-  future  role  of  44 coal  i n world  country or  energy r e s o u r c e s ,  province,  environment.  The  of  the  emphasis of shifting  ently  public  to  the  protection  private  interests.  i n t e r e s t s change, so  As  a p p l i c a t i o n of  while  frequently  s u b s t a n c e and  of  the  legislation,  regulations  conflicting,  emphasis o f  the  is a  changes  structures,  the  perceptions  policy, reflected in altered the  the  a r e s u l t of  contradictions,  changing administrative  flexible,  ments as  and  these  emphases on  guidelines,  r e l a t i o n s , or  e x p e c t a t i o n s and  a l l public  nature of  economic growth o f  p o l i c y w h i c h emerges as  complex n a t u r e o f product of  foreign  the  and  and  appar-  public  Canadian  state-  coal  policy.  2.3  Canadian P o l i c y f o r C o a l Development The  in  major  managing c o a l  toward c o a l , (Gibbons,  justification  d e v e l o p m e n t , and  comes f r o m p u b l i c  1980;  Thompson and  Canada's B r i t i s h  North  lands,  minerals,  m i n e s and  vinces.  T h e r e i s one  coal-bearing  land  Crowsnest Pass. this  land  f o r government in providing  Act  and  public  ownership of m i n e r a l  Eddy, 1 9 7 3 ) .  America  involvement  Section  indicates  that  policy  rights 109  a l l public  r o y a l t i e s belong to  the  e x c e p t i o n to p r o v i n c i a l ownership  i n B . C . — t h e Dominion C o a l B l o c k s of The  r i g h t s to  b e l o n g t o the  Crowsnest Pass r a i l  surface  and  minerals  f e d e r a l government t h r o u g h an  agreement.  ment a n n o u n c e d p l a n s t o  the  sell  In  1983,  the  t h i s property,  federal and  of  B.C.  proof the of 1897  governCoal  45 Ltd.,  a subsidiary  of  (BCRIC), n e g o t i a t e d the  land  s h o u l d be  f r o m any of  B.C.  for  Resources Investment  leases.  returned  to  However, B.C. the  natural  (Sopow, 1983).  The  become one  of  proprietor  resource, which gives diction, public  p o l i c y o v e r use  for coal  the  little  capability  of  development of  federal  the  natural  coal  t h i s has  been s m a l l .  the  federal  juris-  to  develop  legislative both  federal  government,  industry  coal  industry  i n the  the  legislative  in a variety  for research  Federal  policies  and  but  i n the  the  case  federal  development  The limited  f e d e r a l government has  influence  the  role  (Patching,  been v i e w e d as  i n d i r e c t i n g Canadian c o a l  over  of  1980). 2.3.1  of  have  1970s, w i t h g r o w t h i n  western provinces,  support  while  p r o v i n c i a l governments  resources, In  coal  resource.  coal  and  their has  Many i n t e r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e s  o c c u r r e d between t h e  primarily  r i g h t i n law  i s c l a i m e d by  The  the  because  for  r i g h t t o o w n e r s h i p , has  for influencing  i m p o r t a n t ways.  requirement  coal  development,  colour  i n terms of  jurisdiction,  p r o v i n c i a l governments.  having  one  hence, the of  province  provincial position  the  second aspect of  authority  the  B.C.  o w n e r s h i p and,  A  and  and  the  that  benefits  resources within  boundaries  landlord  claimed  p r o v i n c e and  development should belong to  p r o v i n c i a l ownership of  Corporation  having  development  was  46 (Gibbons,  1980).  However, f e d e r a l p o l i c i e s r e l a t i n g  energy s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , foreign  investment,  research the  and  regional  national  d e v e l o p m e n t , have been i m p o r t a n t  1974,  E n e r g y Agency  (IEA)  i n 1976,  Canada.  As  conference  to  initiated  objective  of obtaining  increased  document was  $10  resource  A  come  into  and  to  i n an and  and  l i q u e f a c t i o n as  well  as  new  technology  the  The  encouraged Canadian u t i l i t i e s  gas,  depen-  identified  to achieve t h i s Resources B.C.  coal  which  included  development.  e f f o r t to  and  develop-  substitute  coal  t o examine g a s i f i c a t i o n  methods o f b u r n i n g  fluidized-bed  the  initiative  fund r e s e a r c h  studies  and  establishment of  federal  the  (EMR)  manpower, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,  n o r t h e a s t B.C.  natural  policy.  federal  minimizing  province of  C o a l A s s e s s m e n t Group i n EMR.  conversion  the  A need was  E n e r g y , M i n e s and  f o r the  s u c h as  completed,  information,  s e c o n d more g e n e r a l a c t i o n was  f o r o i l and  Inter-  of  a Canadian c o a l  emphasized.  million for geological,  ment i n t o c o a l  the  a Canadian m i n i s t e r i a l energy  not  agreement w i t h t h e  townsite studies  of  (OECD), t o  s e l f - r e l i a n c e by  o i l was  f e d e r a l Department of s i g n e d an  industry.  Organization  Development  development of  pilot  for  creation  under the  a r e s u l t , i n 1977,  foreign  setting  address energy s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y f o r  While the  d e n c e on  in  and  Canadian c o a l  Canada s u p p o r t e d t h e  E c o n o m i c C o - o p e r a t i o n and effect  environment,  development, t a x a t i o n ,  g e n e r a l p o l i c y framework f o r t h e In  to  coal  combustion.  using  Funding  47 was  provided  the  development of  In  1979,  the  use  of  the of  for studies  IEA  on  the  availability  Canadian energy s u p p l i e s  a r r i v e d at p o l i c i e s for a c t i o n  c o a l , with proposed  T h e r e were few  studies  e n c o u r a g e m e n t was  industry coal  g i v e n to the  resources.  (Berkowitz,  industry  ment t r e a t e d  b a s e d on  the  sector  the  Substitution  ket,  (Canada, 1981),  While the  that  new  belief  directed  and  arose  f r o m a number o f  affected  coal  to  the  successful  93).  This  govern-  higher the  Federal  were  re-empha-  E n e r g y and  Oil  committee's  development,  combustion,  toward the  inclu-  and  export  a mar-  safeguards.  o v e r a l l emphasis o f  lead  some  federal  Alternative  research  environmental  would  a  the  Atlantic  enlarging  p.  c o a l d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e r e was  activity  indirectly  and  into fluidized-bed  projects  the  initiatives  i n 1981  with stringent  aged f u t u r e  subsequent  Committee on  number o f  that  way  e t a l . , 1982,  f o c u s s e d on  the  industry-—imposing  Special  investigations  limited  (Hay  although  concern w i t h i n  for Canadianization,  role"  recommendations ding  gas  "the  expectations  coal.  development of  treated  o i l and  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s and s i z e d by  i n 1980,  T h e r e was  regarding  p o l i c y measures i n  1982), w i t h f e a r s  would be  taxes, pressing public  coal-related  E n e r g y Program r e l e a s e d  region's coal  capital in  (Canada, 197 8) .  r a p i d g r o w t h i n w o r l d demand f o r t h e r m a l  National  of  federal policy  encour-  some a n t i c i p a t i o n  increased  regulation.  This  f e d e r a l p o l i c i e s which  development.  The  Department  of  48 the Environment  (DOE), w i t h i t s mandate t o m a i n t a i n q u a l i t y  of the environment,  expressed concerns over the a c i d - p r o d u -  c i n g p o t e n t i a l o f c o a l combustion. for  a dramatic increase  As a c o u n t e r t o hopes  i n the use o f c o a l  as a d o m e s t i c  i n t e r n a t i o n a l thermal energy source, b e l i e f constraints acute  on c o a l  combustion which  i n a few d e c a d e s were v o i c e d  t h e DOE  supported p o l i c i e s  of F i s h e r i e s  (Lovins,  to control  and Oceans  regarding the e x t r a c t i o n salmon  s u l p h u r and  and  could was  affect  (DFO)  While nitrogen  federal  a l s o had  o f c o a l where i t c o u l d  e n e r g y dependency,  concerns  affect  i n major  Canadian development Investment benefits  projects, was  Review Agency  perspective,  An  industrial-benefits  t h e use o f C a n a d i a n and  foreign  parts  investment i n  t o be r e v i e w e d by t h e  Foreign  (FIRA)  significant  from t h e s e p r o j e c t s  industry's  directions  took o t h e r a c t i o n s  c o a l development.  adopted t o encourage  services  tainty  dust, the  f e d e r a l government, i n s e e k i n g p o l i c y  to reduce f o r e i g n  policy  1976).  fisheries. The  which  in climatic  t h r e a t e n e d t o become  o x i d e e m i s s i o n s and t o r e d u c e f u g i t i v e Department  and  t o ensure that  a c c r u e d t o Canada.  these p o l i c i e s  a b o u t government i n t e n t i o n s  added  From t h e  to the uncer-  regarding coal develop-  ment. A stabilizing R e g i o n a l Economic  a p p r o a c h came f r o m t h e Department  Expansion  ment o f R e g i o n a l Economic  (DREE) l a t e r  called  of  the Depart-  E x p a n s i o n — I n d u s t r y , Trade  and  49 Commerce  (DREE-ITC), w i t h p o l i c i e s  r e g i o n a l economic d i s p a r i t y , ally  directed  i n c l u d i n g promotion  b a l a n c e d p o p u l a t i o n growth.  t o the philosophy o f improving  community  infrastructure, 197 3) .  tional,  e a s t e r n Canadian target,  aims  and  u s i n g government  particularly  interna-  DREE p r o g r a m s were d e s i g n e d w i t h t h e  manufacturing  i n other regions.  important  projects  investment,  but they d i d support  industry  also  i n d u s t r i a l and  S e v e r a l DREE programs e n c o u r a g e d  to attract  i n Canada.  of region-  as a means o f a c h i e v i n g t h e i r  advanced e c o n o m i c a l l y marginal compensation  reducing  T h i s d e p a r t m e n t was  committed  (Springate,  toward  industries  as t h e main  the development o f primary C o a l was s e e n  source o f long-term  by DREE as an  employment and g r o w t h , and t h e  f e d e r a l government wanted t o c o n t i n u e t o " c r e a t e t h e k i n d o f climate  i n which t h e p r o f i t a b l e ,  development o f the c o a l 1977,  p. 1 1 ) .  orderly  resource could occur"  o f view, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  the c o s t disadvantages attractive  location.  a s s o c i a t i o n with Industry the  funds  effort  that,  from  This action  resulted  i t s B.C. p r o v i n c i a l  i n a less  i n DREE, i n  counterpart, Ministry of  Development  f o r the northeast c o a l  by t h e two a g e n c i e s  a competitive  s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d t o o f f s e t  a s s o c i a t e d with mining  and S m a l l B u s i n e s s  study program  (Lessard,  T h i s v i e w became l i n k e d w i t h a p o l i c y  which o p e r a t e d under the p r i n c i p l e point  and v i g o r o u s  (MISBD), p r o v i d i n g  studies.  A joint  planning  r e s u l t e d i n a "$13 m i l l i o n ,  . . . one o f t h e most a m b i t i o u s  ever  5-year  50  undertaken and  i n Canada"  coordinate this  (Canada,  process,  1982,  earlier ties  struck, although statements  by  the  DREE t h a t p r i m a r y  which i n f l u e n c e the c o a l  Related  i n d u s t r y are  in practice,  the  limited  jurisdiction  over  direct  the h i s t o r y of  and  service  activi-  the  federal-provincial  coal  policy  may  nued d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o a l . concerns  policies  supportive of  develop-  g o v e r n m e n t has  coal  resource.  conflict  over  For  be  expected  the  government p o l i c i e s and  i t was  left  Given  reserves,  to favour  the energy  have o f f e r e d  little  t o the p r o v i n c i a l  as t h e CDG  policonti-  inherently incompatible  c o u l d address  developer, direction  government  c o a l p o l i c i e s which would p r o v i d e the  which programs such  only  exploitation  abundance o f c o a l  o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t and  solution,  context these  Provincial I n B.C.,  coal  in  difficult  policies i s t h e most v a l u a b l e s i n g l e  or  to  issues. 2.3.2  to  problems  f e d e r a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h o i l i n i t s energy  federal  develop  to  departmental  federal  of o t h e r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , the  federal  Develop-  of s u f f i c i e n t magnitude  federal  ment a l t h o u g h ,  the  facilitate  1973).  In g e n e r a l , the v a r i e d  cies,  C o a l and  r e g i o n a l unemployment o r under-employment  (Springate,  and  To  approach ran counter  were i n c a p a b l e o f e x p a n s i o n  solve  1).  the C a n a d a - B r i t i s h Columbia  S u b s i d i a r y Agreement on N o r t h e a s t ment was  p.  mineral  51 commodity and a v e r a g e s o v e r 20 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l m i n e r a l production  (B.C. MEMPR, 1 9 8 2 ) .  ments, r e l e a s e d  B.C. c o a l p o l i c y  i n 1977, 1979, a n d 1980, s t r e s s e d  f o r c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e c o a l development all  provincial  development, "investment encouraged  energy, economic,  and s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s . i nviable coal  Crook  t h e need  objective with over-  environmental, regional The a p p r o a c h was t h a t  r e s o u r c e developments  w i l l be  . . . t o e n s u r e t h a t maximum n e t b e n e f i t s  to t h e people o f B r i t i s h Columbia VII-2).  state-  The p r i n c i p a l  policy  (1982b) and G i b b o n s Statements  a n d Canada"  accrue  ( C r o o k , 1982a,  components, a s summarized  (1980), a r e l i s t e d  of coal policy  by  i n A p p e n d i x F.  found i n p u b l i c a t i o n s o f  the M i n i s t r y o f Energy, Mines  a n d P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s (MEMPR)  (B.C.  (B.C. MISBD, 1981a, p . 9)  MEMPR, 1980) a n d MISBD  identified  coal policy objectives  m i z i n g t h e economic  and s o c i a l  from c o a l development, and p r o v i d i n g tive  to coal  benefits  promoting energy  a healthy  t o B.C. a n d Canada security  investment c l i m a t e which  f o r B.C., i s attrac-  development.  2.4 I n t e r - M i n i s t e r i a l and C o n f l i c t With a c l e a r opment, c o n f l i c t Gilbert  f o r t h e p r o v i n c e as maxi-  Goals government p o l i c y  favouring coal  devel-  arose with the goals o f various agencies.  (1976, p . 7) n o t e d t h a t  "the wide v a r i e t y  o f goals  a d o p t e d by government a g e n c i e s may p r o v e c o n t r a d i c t o r y a n d will  c e r t a i n l y make an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r  efforts  highly  52 complex."  A t a b u l a t e d a n a l y s i s appears i n Appendix G  illustrate  the  i n t e r a c t i o n o f v a r i o u s agency g o a l s w i t h  g o a l s which f a v o u r c o a l development. areas  f o r those  ment r e v i e w  o f new  areas  had  operated  participated  agencies i n the  c o a l development p r o p o s a l s  g u i d e l i n e s p r o c e s s ; i t was  the  T h e s e management  were s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s b e c a u s e t h e  responsible  the  to  assumed t h a t  govern-  as a p a r t  of  individuals  w i t h i n t h e mandate o r g o a l s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e  agencies. The illustrate  c o m p a r i s o n shown i n A p p e n d i x G was g o a l s o f management a r e a s  t o complement o r t o c o n f l i c t The  conflicting  i n d i c a t e d by caused The  by  assessment of the probable  impact  t h a t would  development, t h a t may  the  r e s o u r c e management  stated goals. as  The  reclamation,  j o i n t management p r a c t i c e s ,  m i t i g a t e the  some c a s e s ,  the goals are  independent of each other  duction, and  agricultural  wildlife  and  heritage resources  direct. land,  fisheries,  or  impacts.  i n Appendix G i n d i c a t e  i s f u n d a m e n t a l and  do  environmental  data provided  water q u a l i t y ,  be  area.  judgements  The  conflict  was  a n a l y s i s were b a s e d o n l y upon c o n s i -  c o n s i d e r measures s u c h  compensation  developers. goals  c o a l e x t r a c t i o n on  site  goals of c o a l  either  of the  decisions in this  design,  likely  to  o r complementary n a t u r e  d e r a t i o n o f the a g e n c i e s ' not  with  that are  designed  that, i n and  the  P r e s e r v i n g a i r and  forests  f o r timber  pro-  recreation, aesthetics,  are examples o f r e s o u r c e  management  53 areas most  with  goals that c o n f l i c t with  cases,  roles  individuals  r e p r e s e n t i n g these  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  activities.  goals c o n f l i c t F o r example,  g o a l s have  or agriculture.  viduals  goals  with  (MOE).  conflict  may  or c l e a r ;  managing  p u b l i c health, settlements,  be  less direct  conflict  with  t h e need  these  education,  f o r resource  and t h e s o c i a l - a g e n c y g o a l s may  complementary,  situations,  f o r example,  goals  due t o p o s s i b l e p o s i t i v e  Indi-  g o a l s come f r o m  In o t h e r  t o house c o a l - m i n e w o r k e r s ; however, extraction  i f resource  and d i s c h a r g e o f r e s i d u a l s d i d n o t o c c u r .  the M i n i s t r y o f Environment  may  Other  f o r waste management and f o r  r e p r e s e n t i n g the agencies  affairs  their  only a t the time of e x t r a c t i v e  e n v i r o n m e n t a l p l a n n i n g w o u l d n o t be n e c e s s a r y extraction  In  d e f i n e d by b i o p h y s i c a l m i n i s t r i e s  s u c h as e n v i r o n m e n t , f o r e s t r y , resource-area  coal extraction.  the  goals f o r  and  Indian  communities  favouring coal be  considered  r e g i o n a l economic  benefits. Some a g e n c y g o a l s  f o c u s on p l a n n i n g  r a t h e r than the p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e i r resource cases,  areas  o f l a n d and c o r r i d o r s  t h e a g e n c y g o a l s may  f o r t h e use  resource.  The  are examples.  complement  to f a v o u r p r e s e r v a t i o n , c o n f l i c t s might a r i s e .  as  also directly  i n t h a t o f economic  MISBD has g o a l s  complement  Coal  changed devel-  t h e g o a l s o f an a g e n c y ,  and i n d u s t r i a l  i n common w i t h  these  coal extraction.  However, i f l a n d and c o r r i d o r management g o a l s were  opment may  In  d e v e l o p m e n t , where t h e  coal developers.  Sometimes,  54 goals  f o r a resource  unclear, the  o r they  resource.  metal that  a r e a may n o t be s t a t e d , a r e complex o r  are provided  simply  Forelectricity,  minerals,  t o r e g u l a t e t h e use o f  petroleum,  a n d sand and g r a v e l r e s o u r c e s ,  an assumed g o a l f a v o u r i n g t h e i r  complement g o a l s lap o f resource production  i ti s likely  d e v e l o p m e n t would  f a v o u r i n g c o a l e x t r a c t i o n , u n l e s s an o v e r use t h r e a t e n s , o r there  o f s e r v i c e needs.  represent this  n a t u r a l gas,  assumed g o a l  i s competition f o r  I n d i v i d u a l s f r o m t h e MEMPR f a v o u r i n g development.  S e v e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s may be drawn f r o m t h e above summary. value use  The s t a t e m e n t  or interest  of goals v a r i e s according t o the  an a g e n c y p l a c e s on t h e need f o r r e s o u r c e  and d e v e l o p m e n t , v e r s u s  such  as t h e MOE f a v o u r  particularly development.  social  preservation.  Some m i n i s t r i e s  preservation, but other  services,  Some a g e n c i e s  a r e ambivalent  s t r o n g l y support  agencies,  regarding coal coal  develop-  ment, a s do r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h e MISBD o r t h e MEMPR. Because c o a l i s a v e r y  important  p a r t o f B.C.'s economy, t h e  tendency has been t o modify c o n f l i c t i n g development. the  concerns  The p r o v i n c i a l  c r e a t e d by c o n f l i c t i n g  appraisal process. ning  f o r optimal  include soil, p.  response  The p h i l o s o p h y  use through  goals  h a s been t o r e l e g a t e  goals t o the project h a s become one o f p l a n -  p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l s which  "appropriate considerations f o rf i s h ,  a q u a t i c s , w a t e r and a i r q u a l i t y "  18), leaving p r o v i n c i a l  i n favour o f  wildlife,  (B.C. MISBD, 1981a,  e c o n o m i c o b j e c t i v e s paramount.  55 Using nates,  this  approach, the p r o v i n c i a l  and  i t p l a c e s the  goals contingent  dissatisfaction agency g o a l s  and  achievement of s e v e r a l agencies'  upon t h e  whereby t h e p o t e n t i a l  economic s t r a t e g y domi-  a p p r a i s a l process  exists  among t h o s e y e t are not  for  realization,  f o r l a r g e - s c a l e cumulative who  are working toward  satisfied  with  their  the g u i d e l i n e  process. T h i s a n a l y s i s p o i n t s to the c o m p l e x i t i e s of p u b l i c policy  w i t h i n the Canadian c o a l m i l i e u .  source  f o r understanding  the  nature  I t serves  as  o f the problems  a  facing  government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w o r k i n g w i t h i n a g e n c y c o n s t r a i n t s , and  for illustrating  conflicts  that are  the  source  and  nature  so o f t e n o b s e r v e d  by  of  inter-agency  industry  (Crouse,  1978). 2.5  O b j e c t i v e s of the C o a l Development G u i d e l i n e s Although  ELUC, 1976) t i v e s may the  CDG  be  have no  Guidelines clearly  inferred  for  Coal  specified  from t h r e e  as o b j e c t i v e s ; (2)  Development  (B.C.  program g o a l s ,  objec-  sources:  document, w h i c h c o n t a i n s  interpreted who  the  statements  individuals  have assumed p r o g r a m o b j e c t i v e s ; and  w h i c h has  identified  objectives.  A s y n t h e s i s of these  . . [to] e s t a b l i s h  i n the  text of  t h a t may i n the  be  program  (3) a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  what i t b e l i e v e s t o be  o b j e c t i v e s which i s used .  (1) t h e  provides  the the  program statement  of  remainder of t h i s e v a l u a t i o n :  a procedure  f o r the  developer,  56 Government, and t h e p u b l i c t o a s s e s s and manage a l l major impacts . . . p r o v i d i n g p r o c e d u r a l d i r e c t i o n f o r i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t and management, . . . s p e c i f y t h e types of i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d . . . f o r the review of p e r m i t and l i c e n c e a p p l i c a t i o n s . . . . (B.C. ELUC, 1976, p. 3) The  g u i d e l i n e s are designed  environmental  and  social  impacts"  (Crouse,  1978,  6),  cations  a r e r e q u i r e d f o r government a p p r o v a l s , " t h e CDG  supported  can be  and  "to f o r m a l i z e a mining  by  government and  Gadsby, 1982,  pp.  identified  the o b j e c t i v e  o f t h e CDG  management t o o l  i n d u s t r y , and  1-3).  Dick  review and  management o b j e c t i v e s .  O'Riordan  are  public"  process"  Ringstad  (1981)  as b e i n g a m a j o r e n v i r o n -  f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g government  f o r implementing  appli-  acceptable  the g e n e r a l  environmental  (Hawes and  and  permit  that p r o j e c t s are t e c h n i c a l l y  and  mental  and  p.  "environmental  t o ensure  assessments  negative  Because  "designed  impact  "to minimize  regional  agencies  environmental  (1979, p.  207)  saw  . . . t h e g u i d e l i n e s as a method o f e n s u r i n g o r d e r l y p l a n n i n g so t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e s o u r c e s c o u l d be p r o t e c t e d a t a r e a s o n a b l e c o s t and p u b l i c s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d t o s u p p o r t t h e m i n e s c o u l d be p r o v i d e d when n e e d e d .  t h e CDG  The  C o a l Task F o r c e  was  "a p l a n n i n g t o o l  ment p r o g r a m f r o m economic, s o c i a l development." lines  that  i t s inception and  McDonald  was  (1982),  ELUCS, 1976,  said  developthe  goals o f the r e g i o n  chairman  coal  120)  responsive to  of the Coal  (CGSC), c o n c l u d e d  to a s s i s t  p.  s h a p e s t h e whole  t o be  environmental  S t e e r i n g Committee  t i v e o f t h e CDG  (B.C.  that  companies  the  i n the  Guideobjecprovince  57 in  the p r e p a r a t i o n of environmental  their  developments, w h i l e Crook  t i o n ) , who important  was  assessments  (1981, P e r s o n a l  for  communica-  s e c r e t a r y o f t h e CGSC, i d e n t i f i e d  t h e most  o b j e c t i v e s of the c o a l g u i d e l i n e s review  as b e i n g t h e (i)  impact  process  following:  t o p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r a P r o v i n c i a l Government d e c i s i o n on t h e o v e r a l l p u b l i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f a c o a l m i n i n g p r o j e c t t h r o u g h an a p p r o p r i a t e l y d e s i g n e d assessment o f the scope and.magnitude o f p o t e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l , s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c impacts;  (ii)  t o a d d r e s s p r o b l e m s and c o n c e r n s where t h e s e c a n n o t be d i r e c t l y r e g u l a t e d by l i c e n c e s , p e r m i t s and approvals pursuant to l e g i s l a t i o n ;  (iii)  t o p r o v i d e m i n i n g companies w i t h a s i n g l e , o v e r a l l p o i n t o f c o n t a c t w i t h t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government f o r c o a l mine d e v e l o p m e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (i.e., the C o a l G u i d e l i n e s S t e e r i n g Committee);  (iv)  t h r o u g h e f f e c t i v e c o o r d i n a t i o n by t h e C o a l G u i d e l i n e s S t e e r i n g Committee, t o e n s u r e t h a t a l l i n t e r e s t e d government m i n i s t r i e s and a g e n c i e s a r e aware o f , and i n v o l v e d i n , d e c i s i o n s on m i n i n g p r o p o s a l s ; and  (v) t o e n s u r e t h a t m i n i n g companies a r e aware o f t h o s e m i n i s t r i e s and a g e n c i e s o f government w i t h w h i c h t h e y s h o u l d be d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r m i n i n g p r o p o s a l s d u r i n g the p l a n n i n g stages. The may  be  essence  classified  of these v a r i e d  statements  i n t o three groups:  the task i s t o c o o r d i n a t e the p r o c e s s ; the t a s k s i n c l u d e both carried  out  a s s e s s m e n t and  i n advance o f t h e p r o j e c t ;  where t h e t a s k s i n v o l v e o n g o i n g the p r o j e c t  has  The  objectives  (1) p r o c e d u r a l , where (2) a p p r a i s a l , review, and  activities  been i m p l e m e n t e d .  of  and  where  are to  be  (3) management, which occur  objectives  after  f o r the  58 g u i d e l i n e s p r o g r a m may in  as  (1) t o  assist  t h e p l a n n i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y  for  g o v e r n m e n t and i n d u s t r y t o a p p r a i s e p r o j e c t s by  identification to  t h u s be summarized  and m i t i g a t i o n  c o o r d i n a t e a government  through p r o j e c t  interministerial  impact  design;  (2)  review of the  a s s e s s m e n t t h r o u g h a r e s o u r c e c o n s u l t a t i v e p r o c e s s ; and (3) t o g u i d e t h e d e v e l o p e r t h r o u g h r e q u i r e m e n t s p e r m i t s and l i c e n c e s , industry-government coal  extraction.  by p r o v i d i n g a s s i s t a n c e  for various  in joint  a c t i v i t i e s t o manage t h e i m p a c t s o f  Chapter 3 HISTORY OF COAL  The  DEVELOPMENT  Guidelines  History cannot be erased ourselves by speculating  Program  although we can about it, - M. Atwood  3.1  (1982)  Introduction To  examine t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s  which motivated  implementation of the c o a l g u i d e l i n e s with economic, p o l i t i c a l , the  soothe  and s o c i a l  reference  1977).  In s p i r i t  g u i d e l i n e s process analytical ment w i t h planning.  forcrisis,  must be n o t e d  of planning, (Day e t a l . ,  and i n t e n t , t h e a r c h i t e c t s o f t h e attempted  to integrate the p r e d i c t i v e ,  i n s i g h t s of t h e emerging  fields  o f impact  the a c t i o n o r i e n t a t i o n of corporate The g u i d e l i n e s were d e s i g n e d  program t o c o l l e c t  t o the  s i t u a t i o n s a t the time o f  d e c i s i o n t o b r i n g i n g u i d e l i n e s , the nature  including preparation  the  and c o o r d i n a t e  assess-  development  a s an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  information  on new c o a l  d e v e l o p m e n t , e v e n t u a l l y t o be f e d i n t o a l a r g e r government decision-making  process  (Crook and S t a c k e l r o d t - C r o o k ,  T h i s government i n i t i a t i v e public  and p o l i t i c a l  1976),  came i n r e s p o n s e t o g r o w i n g  concern that unrestrained  resource  60 d e v e l o p m e n t had quences.  The  detrimental  i n t r o d u c t i o n of the  response r e f l e c t i n g times.  The  the  with  with  traditional  and  labour  the  rise  unrest,  and  social  p r o g r a m was  collective  environmental  together the  environmental  a  provincial  consciousness  of  movements between 1969  of the p l a n n i n g  process,  concerns of coal-mining  conse-  the  and  1976,  combined  health, safety,  t o p r o d u c e more a c t i v e B.C.  government  involvement. The with the  history  r e s p e c t to the province,  in  the  the  e v o l u t i o n of p u b l i c  CDG  four parts:  (1)  the e a r l y p e r i o d  ting  years  historical  relative  homeostatis  (see F i g u r e  3) ,- (2)  w h i c h now  f o r the  or expansion  production  marked a s h i f t  i n the  system, u n t i l  accompanied  perceived  crises  and  tion  may  t o be  represent  fluctuaa time long  and  (3)  the  entire  reached, institutional  a phase o f  c o a l p r o j e c t s were p l a n n e d ,  develop-  implementa-  (1976-1981) w h i c h f o l l o w e d when i n s t i t u t i o n s many new  an  growth i n c o a l  s t r u c t u r e of  environmental  of  term  (1969-1976) w h i c h saw  a t h r e s h o l d was  g u i d e l i n e s program;  larger  (1871-1969) w h i c h  c o r r e c t i v e government a c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g  ment o f t h e  within  i s also described  i n which e x p o n e n t i a l  coal-producing  the  c o a l i n d u s t r y i n the  a second phase  escalation  by  context  o f what a p p e a r e d t h e n  coal production—but  chapter  planning,  n a t i o n a l f e d e r a t i o n , and  The  100  in this  f o u r major r e g i o n s  economy.  encompassed  and  i s discussed  development of  vis-a-vis  relationships with world  o f t h e CDG  each of  developed which  61  I 1  i  1  Production  —  i  |  4— f  i  1  Value  V  f i  /  . i—  t  i  1 i i 1 0  0 0  /  / —i »  i  PROJECTED PRODUCTION  i f t. \\U  0  9  1  0 0  \ \  iI f  —  i  i  —  ._ —  -—  —  J  (  —  i  t 11  1 1  0 !  — t — '  0  o 1  i  j  7 / /  1/ if i/  1  \  ' f —V  i  1  <  >  \|  / i  $  V  X  \  ,  \ V V  1  V  /  _  0  t  \  i  1  /  \  /  i  /  —I—•  i  /  Key i  A.  -  i  1  v a l u e $(000,000)  _  i 1  1  »  o o o o c r i O ' H f s o o o > c ^ ^ i—t  Source:  —  P r o d u c t i o n (000) tonnes  T 1  rH  i—t  H  1  o o P I T O N O >  i - l i - H  o m iH  v  i 1 o o o o o r ~ o o o > a\ o\ a\ i-l  i-l  i-l  u\ iH  B.C. MEMPR, 1979, 1982; Worobec, 1982  Figure  3  C o a l P r o d u c t i o n and V a l u e i n B.C., 1890-2000  o o o <N  62 required  extensive  administratively proposals. in  part  and  to  (4)  studies.  The  i t was  applied  as  Public  sector  guidelines to  phase  planning processes also  by  coal  developed  in northeastern  (post-1981), perhaps  which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d  evolved  t h e s e many new  study c o a l - r e l a t e d p r o j e c t s  a fourth  program  B.C.:  incomplete,  r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , examination,  and  accountability.  3.2  The Pre-Escalation P e r i o d : 1871-1969 Originally  economically trial  i m p o r t a n t by  Revolution.  growth p a t t e r n s , followed  by  and  declines,  as  Company  t h e r e was  coal  extraction  and,  second, t h a t  light bility to  of  r i g h t to  would s e r v e t h e t h e r e was from t h e  i n Oregon, and  joined  activities trade  dictated.  of  the  i n c o a l was two  for B r i t i s h  The in  Hudson's granted  claims;  first,  interests  growing steamship  and  activity  a s t r a t e g i c need f o r d e f e n c e  in  U.S.A., w i t h p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a -  from R u s s i a ;  Pacific fleet  when B.C.  alternative  Vancouver I s l a n d  i n response to  potential profit  threats  f u e l the  1871,  The  trading  Parliament  that  Indus-  i n p r o d u c t i o n have been  were opened on  Bay  British  f o r the  s h i f t i n g market c o n d i t i o n s  mid-1840s t h r o u g h t h e  the  became  changing technology,  c o a l mines i n B.C.  (HBC).  energy  coal  world-wide c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  increases  the  by  providing  There are  energy sources, or first  used f o r domestic heating,  (see  t h u s , c o a l was  needed  footnote next page).*  Canadian Confederation,  the  By  influence  63 o f HBC  was  powerful,  fading, local  This respects, eastern  a new  structure emerged—that  f a m i l y ownership of  experience  follows  U.S.A.  t i o n was  and  the  United  In a l l c a s e s ,  l i n k e d t o the  the  (Scott,  a c c o m p a n i e d by  titles.  and  I n B.C.,  the  Esquimalt  s o u t h e r n C r o w s n e s t CPR The  railways  to l o c a l  and  production export  the  to  1915  and  e c o n o m i c c h a n g e s due  (B.C.  BLUCS, 1976;  Scott,  Nanaimo l i n e two  and  specific  land  the  examples. contributed  of o i l i n s t e a d of  coal,  c l o s u r e of r e g i o n a l  t o worldwide, pre-war 1981;  T a y l o r , 1978).  I brought a second i n c r e a s e  stability  t o the  industry u n t i l with  of  r e s u l t e d from c u t b a c k s i n  W o r l d War  decade, c o i n c i d e n t again  grants  A worldwide d e c l i n e i n c o a l  d o m e s t i c use  p r o b l e m s o f mine s a f e t y , t h e  construc-  government  mine o p e n i n g s and  r e g i o n a l booms.  f r o m 1910  trade,  new  the  the  extrac-  widespread granting  line offer  facilitated  by  of  in coal  b u i l d i n g of railways,  heavily financed  i n many  Kingdom and  increase  t i o n o f w h i c h was 1981)  i n d i v i d u a l mines.  o f c o a l e x p a n s i o n i n B.C.,  those of  of  smelters,  depression The  i n production  a decline  i n 1929,  w o r l d economic  onset and  of  some  for a  depression.  *An a c c o u n t o f B r i t i s h n a v a l i n t e r e s t i n c o a l m i n i n g , a c t i o n s o f t h e Dunsmuir f a m i l y i n b u i l d i n g t h e i r " e m p i r e , and t h e s o u r c e s o f l a b o u r c o n f l i c t and s t r u g g l e may be f o u n d i n J . S c o t t , " C o a l M i n i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Then and Now: 1835 t o P r e s e n t . " U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , c/o C, Weaver, SCARP, U.B.C., 1981. A more t h o r o u g h a c c o u n t o f t h i s p e r i o d a p p e a r s i n C. G. T a y l o r , Mining: The History of Mining in B r i t i s h Columbia ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Hancock House, 1 9 7 8 ) . 11  64 W o r l d War  II increases  i n production  1950,  the  declined  but  industry  d e v e l o p m e n t o f p e t r o l e u m and resulted  i n the  closure  Michel  Collieries  nuous  production.  the  A parallel superficial  only  of a r e g i o n a l nature are eastern ver  U.K.,  Island,  Alberta.  the  B.C.  and  was  by  (B.C.  and  f r o m 20  p.  a boom f o r n o r t h e a s t e r n due  and  competition  and  shifting  investments  i n the  here a l s o r e s u l t e d Features of recession  cycles.  environmental  the  the  drawn, as  concerns.  Problems  of the  Coal  north-  of  to  500  local  million  reduction the  U.K.,  period  but  was  the  U.S.A.  t o n s by  1910,  i n demand  for  1900  to  followed  1914 by  technological  upgrading  Uncertainties  as  prevented  I s l a n d mines and  to o i l  new  a  recession  t y p i c a l of  boom-and-  1978).  declines  are  Scrapping of p h y s i c a l capacity,  s c a r r i n g , and  Vancou-  experienced periods In  a there  of  sales patterns  (Taylor,  conti-  Branch  Hudson, 1 9 7 7 ) ,  Vancouver  in  to a l e s s e r extent  to a lack of  (Carney, Lewis,  be  of d e c l i n e .  17);  This  U.S.A., more t h a n  associated  and  the  I s l a n d mines w i t h  a common f e a t u r e  i n response to  reduced production  reserves.  e v e n t s , may  periods  ELUCS, 1976,  once more w i t h  gas  and  C r o w s n e s t , and  increased  declined  steel  U.K.  these regions  expansion followed  f r o m 194 3 t o  l a r g e mine r e m a i n i n g  West V i r g i n i a ,  Each of  production  natural  of world  similar  sharply  a l l Vancouver  w i t h the  sharing  were a number o f  of  held  changes i n  population  local  65 d i s t r i b u t i o n were some r e g i o n a l p r o b l e m s . term,  surplus regional population occurred.  term, p e o p l e and  migrated  moved i n t o  other  towns.  In England,  in  was  1914  from t h e s e areas  a c c o m p a n i e d by industries  southeastern  West V i r g i n i a  i n t h e r e g i o n and  I n B.C.  and  of the  social  i n the the  regions  lem  and  p r o d u c t i v i t y was  times  wage c u t s , and  associations  increase output 1977).  the By  rise  kinds  (Garreau,  industries,  o f c o a l has  to face  1981) . absorbed leaving  s o l u t i o n s t o the  the r e g i o n s .  Worker  M i n e s were some-  t o damage o r p u r p o s e f u l  reserves  inaccessible.  s u b s i d i e s to producers. quotas,  and  T h e r e was price  were o f t e n t h e  t h e U.S.A.  inherited  flood-  Coal tariffs an  fixing,  labour c o n f l i c t s B.C.  prob-  i n c r e a s e s i n work-  mass l a y o f f s . due  also varied,  r e s t r i c t i o n s were commonly p r a c t i c e d (Carney  i n England  to  overproduction  f o l l o w e d by  i n a m a l g a m a t i o n s , and  Bitter  of  contrast, in  l o b b i e d f o r p r o t e c t i o n i s m , demanding  and  region  s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n tended  across  criticized,  closed prematurely  imports  southeast.  Attempted  similar  i n g , w h i c h made p o t e n t i a l  on  u n r e s t and  forestry  regions  to time.  have b e e n v e r y  i n g hours,  ghost  f o r i n c r e a s i n g urban o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  c a u s i n g most p r o d u c i n g from time  longer  communities  A l b e r t a , t h e m i g r a t i n g p o p u l a t i o n was  Demand f o r d i f f e r e n t  crises  In the  economy, l e a v i n g  "bemoan i t s f a t e "  i n t o expanding petroleum the mining  coal-mining  short  the d e c l i n e of the n o r t h e a s t e r n  manufacturing  stay  In the  and et a l , ,  result,  a working  both  class  66 f a m i l i a r with  labour  organization  f r o m E n g l a n d were r e c r u i t e d t o shortage problem. has  s u g g e s t e d , by  ment i n v o l v e m e n t . B.C.  T h e r e was design,  an  when e x p e r i e n c e d  solve  of  the  necessity  attendent  Labour c o n f l i c t  was  local  miners  manpower  and,  Scott  increase  in  (1981)  govern-  c e r t a i n l y a part  of  c o a l development's h i s t o r y : I t was a d i f f i c u l t t i m e f o r l a b o u r b e c a u s e , f o r t h e most p a r t , f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s favoured employers r a t h e r than organized labour i n conflict situations. (Wejr and S m i t h , 1978) Then,  B.C.  i n 1912,  the  longest  strike  i n the  history  occurred  i n the  c o a l mines o f Vancouver I s l a n d , *  of u n d e r l y i n g  social  problems accompanied c o a l  Generally,  insufficient  profits  equipment, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , facilities. provisions This field  was  f o r the  manifest  h o u s i n g and  sanitation typical  of  set  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , and  in  new  terminal  money i m p r o v i n g  health  s e m i - s k i l l e d , s e m i - l i t e r a t e workforce. i n the  poor p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s  associated  facilities.  feature  A  extraction.  were r e i n v e s t e d  Companies s p e n t l i t t l e  of  the  community  services  of  such  coalas  D e p r e s s e d c o m m u n i t i e s were a l s o U.K.  Coleman-Crowsnest r e g i o n  of  and  U.S.A. c o a l a r e a s ,  southeastern  B.C.  while  a the  demonstrated  *The s t r i k e , w h i c h began w i t h a l o c k o u t by t h e mine owners, l a s t e d f o r two y e a r s . I n 28 y e a r s , 373 men were k i l l e d i n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d m i n e s due t o gas explosions. A f t e r t h e l o c k o u t , w o r k e r s were f o r c e d o u t o f t h e i r homes. S t r i k e b r e a k e r s were i m p o r t e d f r o m E n g l a n d . The c o m p a n i e s h i r e d t h e i r own p o l i c e , and p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c e were i n v o l v e d i n l o c a l r i o t s and s h o o t i n g s . Mass a r r e s t s and detentions followed. The s t r i k e e f f e c t i v e l y d e s t r o y e d t h e u n i o n (Wejr and S m i t h , 1 9 7 8 ) .  67  these  same p r o b l e m s  up t o t h e  Loss of p o t e n t i a l social  unrest  combined  1950s.  reserves,  major  reaction  problem w i t h i n and an a t t i t u d e  ment c h a r a c t e r i z e d industry, oriented  the c o a l  Canadian p o l i t i c a l  political  (CCF)  polarization.  industry.  interests  yet coal-mine labour  [NDP]) and w h i c h ,  i n v o l v e m e n t was  parties  together,  England  of r e g i o n a l  t h e New  produced  I n t h e 1920s and  policies  i n t h e 1930s, t h e r e was  zation of s t r a t e g i c coordinating  coal  a  power o f government was  Canadian  classical,  1930s t h e r e was r e f o r m , and  a move t o w a r d and  i n labour  Democratic  for coal-field  industries,  the  struct  a faltering  expenditures  industry.  focussed  In both c o u n t r i e s fixed  Loans  systems  and p r o v i d e h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n a l  cial ted  were t a k e n t o r e c o n s t r u c t  capital  ments .  a r e a s were r e c o n s t r u c t e d , i n new  town c o n s t r u c t i o n  U.S.A. and U.K.,  the  In t h e U.S.A.,  i n v e s t m e n t needed  on p r o v i d i n g  In  nationali-  increasingly  used.  an  f o r the  areas.  a n t i - p o v e r t y m e a s u r e s were u n d e r t a k e n , b u t p r i v a t e c o u l d not undertake the massive  senti-  of the mining  s u c h as t h e  (later  as  Anti-socialist  l e a d e r s were a c t i v e  i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r h o u s i n g and h e a l t h development  seen  of intense anti-government  the p r i v a t e  Cooperative Federation Party  and  t o s e t the scene f o r deepening  government c o n c e r n , y e t government the  regional v o l a t i l i t y ,  interests to recon-  government for settle-  transportation services,  and e x p e r i m e n t s were  (Carney e t a l . /  g o v e r n m e n t e x p e n d i t u r e was  1977).  commerconducIn the  expected to  68  solve  the  problem of  manufacturing grated after  i n d u s t r i e s were p r o m o t e d as  and  secondary  part  of  s o l u t i o n t o uneven r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . 1937,  regions for  regional disparities,  recovery  occurred  in British,  w i t h the  arms p r o d u c t i o n ,  and  American,  stimulus  and  Canadian  o f W o r l d War  again  b r o u g h t back t o c a p a c i t y .  In the  with the  trend  to  o i l and  gas,  industry  on  a global  meant t h a t , ment c o u l d increase  natural  extinction funding  despite  i t s large  govern-  prevent  financial  industry  powers, t h e  c o l l a p s e , w i t h an  decade p r i o r t o the  i n B.C.  coal  i n 1969  the  industry  family  firms  the  attendent  operations  owned by  Dunsmuirs of  powerful  of  local  Vancouver  in  c o m m o d i t i e s became i n c r e a s i n g l y  coal  et  first  number  capital-intensive, multinational  through a c q u i s i t i o n of  concentrated  several  structure  From a l a r g e  i n Canadian c o a l (Hay  coal of  the  O i l companies w i t h backgrounds  mineral  leases  the  evolution  s y s t e m , and  changed.  ( f o r example, t h e  emerged l a r g e ,  e n e r g y and  witnessed  itself  labour-intensive  organizations.  resurgence of  coal-producing  small,  the  1940s,  Numerous demands f o r g o v e r n m e n t  components o f  Island)  late  in inter-regional disparities.  industry  the  facing virtual  produc-  scale.  not  The  of  a p p e a r e d t o be  c o a l by  coal  I I demands  w i t h government a i d , c o a l  s u b s t i t u t i o n of  inte-  Later,  t i o n was  the  an  a l . , 1982).  large  was  Concurrently,  signed  involved  numbers  a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h J a p a n and,  long-term c o n t r a c t  other  between  trade in  of became  1968,  Japanese  interests  and  Resources  Ltd.  in  1930,  Coleman C o l l i e r i e s ,  producing  14,000 w o r k e r s , tonnes the  The  of t h i s  The  change i n w e s t e r n 7.9  million  employing  decrease  changes i n mining  a year  producing  ( S h a f f e r and  Early  employing  6.5  surface processes  stantially gave r i s e less  o f an  obvious. ceived  due  coal mining  i n part to used  to a different issue, Although  a process  systems  change o f method Worker s a f e t y  increasingly  t h e mid-1960s i n B.C.  that  t h e r e was  t o l a n d use.  were i n t r o d u c e d i n 1965  t o manage  Regional unorganized  i n t h e p r o v i n c e , b u t many government a g e n c i e s  cised  land-use  the  of regional, 1960s was  district  w h i c h were e n t i r e l y  control.*  also characterized  by  I n B.C., growing  i t was  a coalescing  areas  dent  was  per-  i n need o f r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l ,  jurisdictions  sub-  l a n d d i s t u r b a n c e became more  l a n d a l l o c a t i o n was  of planning processes r e l a t e d Districts  The  set of concerns.  but massive  labour-  or o p e n - p i t ) , which are  more c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e .  t o be  not u n t i l  (strip  million  illustrates  i n t e n s i v e u n d e r g r o u n d methods, w h i l e t h e e m e r g i n g used  mines  A s s o c i a t e s , 1980),  i n t h e work f o r c e was  methods.  100  and  o n l y 2,800 w o r k e r s ,  evolution  by K a i s e r  Canada from  tonnes  t o 89 m i n e s i n 1960,  a y e a r and  impact  f o l l o w e d i n 1969  indepen-  the decade o f  conflict  resource agencies with respect to overlapping  exer-  among  jurisdictions,  *For a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the h i s t o r i c a l development o f l a n d - u s e p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s t o 1975 i n B.C., see C. K. S t a c k e l r o d t - C r o o k (1975),  70 and  there  ests.  was  considerable  effort  to preserve vested  I t a l s o became i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t  problems at the to the  working l e v e l ,  and  deputy m i n i s t e r i a l l e v e l difficult  m a t i o n b a s e and  problem-solving  1976).  Then,  i n 1968,  regional resource basis  to discuss Public  within  forum  Inter-Section  administrators  established  groups of  senior,  s u c h as  the  b u i l d i n g of  Difficulties tiveness  i n the  t o promote and  1960s i n c l u d e d  projected,  t h e n a c t i o n must be  without considering  Pacific high  increase  new  developments.  i n demand  addressing  Rim  buyers r e q u i r e d  ash,  b l e n d e d and  q u a l i t y m e t a l l u r g i c a l coal, while  d e v e l o p m e n t i n B.C.  of Vancouver  demand,  The  I s l a n d or of  new  washed,  demand  assumed, t h e r e f o r e ,  for future  thermal deposits  the  was  impacts.  c h a n g e d as w e l l .  coals  to  "superport."  m a r k e t f o r c o a l had  appropriate  crown  Resources  t a k e n t o meet t h a t  a l t e r n a t i v e s or  I t was  through  facilitate  The  thermal c o a l f e l l .  the  i f an  low  both  a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c secre-  o f p u b l i c d e v e l o p e r s when p l a n n i n g t h e y assumed t h a t  regular  time,  Harbours Board, a  R o b e r t ' s Bank, a c o a l  Basically,  a  h i g h w a y s , and  harbour development, which they d i d w i t h K a i s e r plan  infor-  problems.  B.C.  i n 1967  solu-  (Crook e t a l . ,  d e v e l o p m e n t became a c t i v e a t t h i s  The  referred  to a poor  began m e e t i n g on  wholly regional  crown a g e n c i e s .  a g e n c y , was  t h e s e were o f t e n  t o a c h i e v e due  government departments,  special  resolve  f o r r e s o l u t i o n , where  t i o n s were j u s t as no  to  inter-  for  that  the  were the  most  not  interior,  71 but  the m e t a l l u r g i c a l d e p o s i t s  parts  of the  province.  these regions  Further  the  exploration  Then, i n 1966,  conducted  i n the  southeast  o l d communities of N a t a l  and  efficient CPR  and  a rail  line  "unit trains"  Kaiser The  as  the  were  incorporated  and  T h e r e was value  continued  production  in  used  with between  and  focus,  issues  action  accumulated.  i n a transformation a 30  per  cent  o f c o a l i n B.C.  and  yet  What d i d r e s u l t  was  and  until  total  a new  i n the  increase  i n 196 9,  seen over h a l f the  i n B.C.,  emerged. flux,  was  of contracts  geographic  to e s c a l a t e e x p o n e n t i a l l y  1969-1982 had  not  result  government i n i t i a t i v e  Together they ushered  tion  i n place  redevelopment  changes i n c o a l - i n d u s t r y s t r u c t u r e , m i n i n g  and  industry.  B.C.  Resources.  methods, s c a l e o f a c t i v i t y , concern,  exploration  region's i n f r a s t r u c t u r e .  Michel  already  on  marketably  Kootenays of  i n t o t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o f Sparwood as p a r t o f a scheme, and  northeastern  focussed  a massive c o a l  w h i c h c a u s e d a m a j o r change i n t h e The  s o u t h and  b e c a u s e t h e y were known t o c o n t a i n  desirable coal. p r o g r a m was  of  coal  i n the these  1982.  of  The  of  period  coal  stability  a coal-producing  u n d e r g o i n g c o n t i n u a l change, but  produchave  historical  pattern  of  had  system  a magnitude  p r e v i o u s l y unknown.  3.3  E s c a l a t i n g Regional Impacts: 1969-1976 The  1969-1976 p h a s e saw  significant  change t o  four  72 regions  of the province.  Two  r e g i o n s were d i r e c t l y  ted p h y s i c a l l y — t h e northeast southeast was  Kootenay r e g i o n s .  Peace R i v e r The  a f f e c t e d i n a more m o d e r a t e way  planning effect  and  environment. Figure  i n the  l o c a t i o n o f the  southeastern  r e g i o n most d i r e c t l y production.  The  1969  o f c o a l s a l e s t o the  subsidiary, operation  a f f e c t e d by  Japanese s t e e l  significant  (Victoria)  not  in  the p h y s i c a l , i s shown i n  and  n a t u r a l and  social  e s c a l a t i n g output  by  the  i n d u s t r y by  The  illustrative  p o t e n t i a l new  and  the  open-pit  then  of the  mining  new  industry's  were  conduc-  sites within  serious c o n f l i c t .  impacts o c c u r r e d  as  of  Whereas  o v e r 1800  the  K a i s e r Mine d e v e l o p m e n t , w h i c h was  1000  the  only  were  i n w e s t e r n Canada.  for disturbing nearly  new  Signifi-  been d i s t u r b e d by  surface-mine operation  that  a result  exploration. 1975,  owned  Balmer  had  also responsible  outcome  accompanying changes t h e r e ,  increased  the  r a p i d growth i n c o a l  massive e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s  Because o f the  hectares  K o o t e n a y s was  of Oakland through a wholly  p r o b l e m s emerged w h i c h c r e a t e d  was  most  i n c r e a s e was  K a i s e r Resources L t d .  ted a t seven other  largest  and  of the  the  production  a t Sparwood was  operations,  affected  the  four regions  coal block  Kaiser Steel Corporation  cant  region  4. The  region.  Crowsnest-  northwest  lower mainland r e g i o n  political-institutional, The  the  through i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  some c o a l e x p l o r a t i o n , b u t  occurred  terms o f the  75  Pacific  and  affec-  then  the  Kaiser  hectares  Figure  4  Major C o a l - b e a r i n g  Areas of B r i t i s h  Columbia —i OJ  74 more t h r o u g h e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s same t i m e , Crows e x p l o r i n g the  Nest  Industries with  L i n e Creek property,  C r e e k were e s t a b l i s h i n g new access,  and  digging  a d i t s and  ties  c o a l were r e q u i r e d  of  (Dick,  many o t h e r  1979a).  M i t s u i Co.  Fording  Coal  roads f o r t h e i r  long-term,  effects  on  drilling  quanti-  studies.  i n the  and  large  l a r g e - s c a l e land disturbance  w a t e r q u a l i t y became i s s u e s  Byron  exploration  programs o f c o r e - h o l e  for feasibility  the  was  and  t e s t p i t s were c o n d u c t e d , as  result,  At  As  and  a  the  southeast  Kootenays. In a d d i t i o n t o l a n d d i s t u r b a n c e s , the  Crowsnest r e g i o n  6500 i n 1966 one  to nearly  important  strong  leisure  s i v e use  almost doubled  increased  accessibility  c o a l e x p l o r a t i o n and  life 1981)  this  region  region,  created has  population  i n p a r t by  was  (Dick,  some o f i t was  and  was  a  an  exten-  As  greatly  facilitated  1979b),  The  by  new  Elk  t h e most p r o d u c t i v e suggested  a possibility.  fisheries  Hence, t h e  and  region  became  of concern  f o r government a g e n c i e s managing  tion,  fisheries,  and  who  in  the  wildlife  focus  wildlife,  wild-  (O'Riordan,  i f heavy c o a l d e v e l o p m e n t were t o o c c u r  d e s t r u c t i o n of c r i t i c a l  h a b i t a t was  from  1979b),  off-road vehicles.  to wildlands  a r e a s i n Canada, b u t that  new  of  f o r e s t r y r o a d s , a h i g h demand f o r  o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n was V a l l e y of  of the  (Dick,  orientation, reflected  o f r e c r e a t i o n a l and  population  i n f i v e years,  11,000 i n 1971  characteristic  the  the  recrea-  were r e s p o n s i b l e  for  75 conserving potential  these values loss.  With l o c a l  concern f o r the climate  of c o n f r o n t a t i o n  conservation  for  the  damage  began d e v e l o p i n g  (Dick,  population  (Warden, 1 9 7 6 ) , between  industry  v e s t i g e s of which  remained  also created  government c o u l d  (Halvorson,  1980)  suggested  not  meet.  that  analysts  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e investment  p r o v i n c i a l government d u r i n g i t could  Some  a demand  be  this  p e r i o d was  ignored.  form of d i r e c t  ment and  million  It  s u b s i d i e s amounting t o  $180  c o a l companies a l s o p r o v i d e d  was  in this  b r o u g h t on clearly  by  felt  specific  region the  and  o f the  project planning,  e n v i r o n m e n t a l and  social  During t h i s u n d e r way,  province  The to  need  include  i m p a c t s , was  that  a t Babcock M o u n t a i n and D e n i s o n M i n e s , and  i n terms o f region  the  Belcourt  also  environof  B.C.  Quintette  Wolverine River the  for  e x p l o r a t i o n was  northeastern 1969,  were most  apparent.  i n the  by  issues  b e c o m i n g more  mental c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ,  In  funds.  of  guidance  explored  the  The  consideration  little  property  1979.  for guidelines  same t i m e e x t e n s i v e  coal block).  invest-  some d e v e l o p m e n t  i t too with  (the Peace R i v e r  by  newly e x p a n d i n g c o a l a c t i v i t y expressed.  suffi-  Provincial  i n v e s t m e n t , however, d i d come i n t h e  local  a  demands f o r commu-  recreation f a c i l i t i e s ,  which l o c a l  c i e n t l y minimal that  their  1979a).  s e r v i c e s , h o u s i n g , and  the  of a r a p i d l y e s c a l a t i n g  i n t e r e s t groups e x p r e s s i n g  i n t e r e s t s , the  next decade T h i s new  by  face  i n c r e a s i n g l o s s and  and  nity  i n the  and  was Saxon  areas  76 were e x p l o r e d d u r i n g t h e mid-1970s. p r o p e r t i e s were f i e l d Brameda i n 196 9, somewhat block. of  mapped  and d r i l l i n g  but the impacts  different  from those  The S u k u n k a / B u l l m o o s e  of this  felt  commenced  by  e x p l o r a t i o n were  i n the southeast  coal  T h e r e was no e s t a b l i s h e d s e t t l e m e n t w i t h i n 100  the e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s  (Chetwynd was  the nearest  town), e x i s t i n g  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e was m i n i m a l i n t e r m s o f  ways and r o a d s ,  and t h e i m p a c t s  by  e x p l o r a t i o n , mainly  effects  on f i s h e r i e s  values.  T h e r e was  were l i m i t e d  t o those  surface disturbances with  and w i l d l i f e  little  and t h e l o s s  o r no c o n c e r n  of  expressed  regional  lobby.  insufficient increasing  interests  Resource agencies  staff  t o observe  impacts.  While  caused  forestry about  t o f o r m an  were c o n c e r n e d  or monitor  rail-  attendent  e x p l o r a t i o n because o f the l a c k o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ment, and t h e r e were no l o c a l  km  settleorganized  b u t had  and r e p o r t on t h e  some c o a l was b e i n g e x t r a c t e d i n  an e x p l o r a t o r y u n d e r g r o u n d o p e r a t i o n a t Sukunka t h r o u g h No.  this  the  1 and Sukunka M a i n T e s t m i n e s , t h e r e were no s u r f a c e  mines i n a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n and t h e m a g n i t u d e o f d i s t u r b a n c e was much l e s s v i s i b l e The  third  affected  by new  unlikely  area  mines s i t e s . B.C. t o become structure  than  i n the Kootenays,  region—northwestern  c o a l d e v e l o p m e n t may  B.C.—which seem, a t f i r s t ,  i n terms o f e x p l o r a t i o n o r p r o p o s a l s However, t o a l l o w t h e c o a l f r o m available  to P a c i f i c  i n terms o f r a i l  access  was an  f o r new  northeastern  Rim m a r k e t s , t h e i n f r a -  and power s u p p l y ,  loading  77 and  handling,  sidered.  and  The  bulk  region,  terminal  long envisioned  "Mid-Canada" c o r r i d o r , was ( C a r n e y and s e e n as 1969,  Carney,  a l t e r n a t i v e s had  the  1971).  as  The  Port  of P r i n c e  As  Rupert.  need and  feasibility  the  subsequent p l a n n i n g  and  identified  a set of c o n s t r u c t i o n , f i n a n c i a l ,  and  f a c t o r s w h i c h had  social  exportation  of bulk  be  (Malkinson  achieved  s e l e c t i o n process  t o be  commodities  This  and  Wakbayashi,  occurred  between 1972  early bulk  perceived  studies  before  northeast  1982). and  A  the  could  site  1974,  including  e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t u d i e s w h i c h examined e l e m e n t s o f r i s k fisheries  o f the  Skeena R i v e r  o f F i s h e r i e s , 1983, granted  jurisdiction  Harbours Board the  Personal  (NHB)  (G. E n n i s ,  had  for northeast  1976,  B.C.  c o a l were t o be  f o r the  and  Canadian N a t i o n a l  access  f o r shipments of n o r t h e a s t  realized.  CNR,  Railways  coal. the  to  time i f the  for  i n P r i n c e Rupert at  Island  u n c e r t a i n t y to the  National  need f o r p u b l i c  government announced i t s s u p p o r t  development of a c o a l t e r m i n a l  reduced the  The  the  had  f e d e r a l commitment  become a p p a r e n t a t t h i s  prospects the  port.  to  Department  B.C.  over R i d l e y I s l a n d to the  development o f a n o r t h e r n  sector planning  Federal  communication).  because of the  as  environmental  dealt with  from the  was  for handling  commodities at R i d l e y I s l a n d , P r i n c e  the  B.C.  Rupert  Pacific,  s t u d i e s were c o n d u c t e d  con-  terminus of  northwest r e g i o n of  Canada's s e c o n d gateway t o t h e  feasibility  the  t o be  "This  (CNR)  In  August  the Ridley to  have  announcement  c o a l companies,  the  78 Japanese  b u y e r s , and p o t e n t i a l  ( M a l k i n s o n and W a k b a y a s h i ,  1982,  earlier  studies  choice"  i n terms o f f i s h e r i e s  Personal  was  Because  concerns  developed,  activity  by t h e  First,  was  Westshore  clear  the l o c a l  felt  to  responses to  lower  i n place  so t h e i m p a c t o f  increased  i n the area, which and  unit  o f about trains  increased  9 million  was  ferry  tonnes a year.  o f 88 c a r s c a r r i e d and by  shipping  tonnes a year.  was  system.  1972  activity  in  sub1970  In  1970  8000 t o n n e s o f  expansion to Robert's and h a n d l i n g  capacity  Neptune T e r m i n a l s o f N o r t h  a l s o w e l l developed t o handle the l o a d i n g of  bulk commodities, more government environment  6 million  well  increased  R e s o u r c e s , had begun o p e r a t i o n s  ( H a l v o r s o n , 1980),  Vancouver  The  T e r m i n a l s a t R o b e r t ' s Bank, a w h o l l y owned  a capacity  Bank had  which  industrially  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e was  and t r a n s p o r t ,  not n o t i c e a b l y  of Kaiser  first  coal  1983,  i t i s " h e a r t l a n d , " w h i l e the  a l r e a d y a c t i v e w i t h the P o r t o f Vancouver  the  reactive  escalation  t o i t (Bradbury, 1982).  and t h e r e were two  coal handling  with  of the  (G. E n n i s ,  a l r e a d y h i g h l y p o p u l a t e d and  sales.  sidiary  . . . ."  t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d o f B.C.,  "hinterland"  m a i n l a n d was  for  (NHB)  s e e n as a " p r o a c t i v e n o t a  from the o t h e r s i n t h a t  others are  coal  p. 1 8 ) .  f o u r t h r e g i o n t o be a f f e c t e d  c o a l development  differs  investors  communication), The  of  i t was  port  especially  coal.  involvement, f e l t  primarily,  The  second response  i n the  institutional  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f which  was  resides  79 in  the  lower mainland, p a r t i c u l a r l y V i c t o r i a .  increased new  c o a l d e v e l o p m e n t on V i c t o r i a was  infrastructure,  strative  Bennett,  had  they  taken  had  the  however, t h e  what may  called  conflicts.  to counter  the  Coal  was  Mines  l e d by W. Up  informal  five  land-use  s e e n as  i n 1969,  Act  was  land  response  1979a).  developed  livestock,  generally to  j u d g e d t o be  inadequate  doing  The  terms o f r e f e r e n c e  put  with  nature  had  through Kaiser  and  for  pres-  p r e d i c t i o n s of  wildlife,  legislation  unsuccessful  There  to the  i n t h e mine v i c i n i t y ,  a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e mine s i t e .  This  This act provided  uses of the  farms, i n h a b i t e d p l a c e s  mini-  reclamation  finally  ent  on  cabinet  1976).  p r e p a r a t i o n of a r e p o r t d e s c r i b i n g the  developmental e f f e c t s  approach  conflicts.  the  l a n d t o be  time  development-oriented  in direct (Dick,  to that  C.  somewhat p a s s i v e ,  d e a l i n g with  Regulation  A.  Responding to p u b l i c o p i n i o n ,  Stackelrodt-Crook,  requirements  legislature  an  entrenched  (Crook and  formal  the  (LUC)  R e s o u r c e s s u r f a c e mine  due  the  political-admini-  years.  formed a c o m m i t t e e o f  Committee  bureaucracy  the  party  be  f o r 17  to consider multi-resource  L a n d Use  until  i n terms o f  S o c i a l C r e d i t Party,  been i n o f f i c e  toward resource-use  been no  g r e a t e r than  of  Institutional implications I n 1969,  little  impact  relations.  3.3.1  sters  especially  The  water and  the  was  later  i n reducing f o r the  courses,  the  impacts,  reclamation  80 reports  and  the l a c k of a comprehensive  ning process. tive  assessment  T h e r e had been no a t t e m p t i n t h e s e  requirements t o a s s e s s the e f f e c t s  social  environment  (Dick,  1979a).  o f m i n i n g on t h e  Thus,  partly  i n response  c o n c e r n about the Kootenays, the  ment  Act  Land  Use  the Environment lished  (B.C.,  as a f o r m a l c a b i n e t  development I n 1972,  which c a l l e d  an NDP  group t o p r o v i d e  government  1982;  created  interventionist  a g e n c i e s as o p p o s e d  and  policy  elected  land-use  issues.  traditional  i n 1973  the Environment  t o d e v e l o p new  a  and L a n d  established.  This  Use  group,  innovative  included  coordina-  and a n a l y s i s n e c e s s a r y f o r  t o manage i m p a c t s  of the S e c r e t a r i a t ' s  climate,  t h e n t a k e n by  frame o f r e f e r e n c e  industry  1975).  r a n g e o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l and  tion of information c o l l e c t i o n and  struc-  unrestrained  political  1 9 8 2 ) , and  (ELUCS), was  t o d e a l w i t h a wide The  regulatory  Stackelrodt-Crook, a new  (Payne,  programs  on a p l a t f o r m  t o the p r e v i o u s  under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f ELUC, was  Most  was  r o l e was  i n f o r m a t i o n body,  Committee S e c r e t a r i a t  government  estab-  a broader  o f damage c a u s e d by  (Payne,  o f government  approach to p u b l i c technical  (ELUC) was  and  projects.  r e s o u r c e development  government  p a s s e d i n 1971,  f o r , among o t h e r o b j e c t i v e s ,  A more a c t i v e ,  Environ-  the i n d i v i d u a l m i n i s t r i e s ' a p p r o v a l s  tures t o reduce the r i s k s  T h i s change  was  and Land Use Committee  approach t o i n t e g r a t i n g o f new  1971)  plan-  legisla-  to further public and  and  work i n v o l v e d  (Dick,  1979a).  inter-agency  task  81 f o r c e s which p r o v i d e d flict  discussions.  a government forum f o r r e s o u r c e  T h r e e u n i t s were c r e a t e d :  Analysis  Unit  (RAU), t o h a n d l e t h e  resource  i n v e n t o r i e s ; the  Resource P l a n n i n g  prepare  region-specific plans,  issues;  and  guidelines  the  provide  Special Projects Unit  to assess  the  environmental  v a r i o u s d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s and agency groups 1976).  (Crook and  Unit  Stackelrodt-Crook,  (RPU),  and  (SPU), t o  passing  mechanism was  information  from the  impacts  1976;  t h e mid-1970s was  frustrated  by  t h e r e was  r e c o g n i t i o n of the  r e s p o n s e due  imposed r a d i c a l  involved  the  fact  to  innovativeness  in  that,  and  although a lag in  criticized  on  the  g r o u n d s t h a t i t had  decision-making  process  1975).  problems a t the  t i m e were numerous and  R e s o u r c e management p o l i c i e s were t h o u g h t t o have  conflicts  Techthen  p r o b l e m s , t h e r e was  changes t o the  (Stackelrodt-Crook,  because they  formal  t o b u r e a u c r a t i c r e s i s t a n c e t o r a p i d change.  S e c r e t a r i a t was  The  a  recommendations,  T h i s phase o f  MOE,  was  S e c r e t a r i a t through the  decision.  of  interB.C.  (ELUTC) and  ELUC f o r a f o r m a l  Mining  examine  the  d e s c r i b e d , which  Committee f o r comment and  to  prepare  social  to coordinate  as a t e c h n i c a l committee  decision-making  The  f a c e t s of  advice,  and  Resource  A n o t h e r ELUC c o m m i t t e e o f d e p u t y m i n i s t e r s  established  nical  various  the  con-  l a c k e d comprehensive  were r e c o g n i z e d  permits  and  complex. failed  i n v e n t o r i e s , but  some l e g i s l a t i o n  was  were r e q u i r e d t o i n c l u d e r e c l a m a t i o n  some changed. plans,  82  but on  where l e g i s l a t i o n the  good w i l l  T h e r e was  no  national  of  was  both the  framework o f  planning  and  particularly and  NDP  conservation  history  of  coal  ted  activity,  i n the  Department o f planning  indicated regional  the  the  1973  was  i n the  ELUCS t o  i n the  the  enforce-  point  in  p r i c e of o i l  encouraged  coal  coal  E c o n o m i c Development  development  growth  metallurgical  stimulaproposals  fields,  (DED)  government o f  Peace R i v e r  a d v i s e them on  the  and  province. undertook  Canada w h i c h  for a s i g n i f i c a n t opportunity  e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t and  ted  a turning  and  1979a).  thermal s i t e s throughout the  potential  development of  f u n d s and (Dick,  for  d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n based coal  the  relations  mining i n d u s t r y ;  Peace R i v e r  study w i t h the  the  permits,  in  P o t e n t i a l export  r e s u l t i n g i n four  The  joint  of  1981).  i n various  the  substance to  led to a c r i s i s  energy p o l i c y that  interest  a  This  t o media p u b l i c i t y  Crowsnest, nine  B.C.  government t o g i v e  i n Canada, i n c r e a s e s  (Robertson,  to  federal  o i l crisis  brought a n a t i o n a l  or  p o l i c y , came from b o t h t h e  agencies, with shortage of  and,  provincial,  policy,  government and  ment power, r e s o r t e d The  regional,  developers.  Changes i n m i n i n g  (Payne, 1982).  between t h e  public  depend  a l l o f w h i c h gave r i s e  capricious.  taxation  to  g o v e r n i n g m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s were  p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s of  concern  local,  and  government r e g u l a t i o n s ,  controls  b o t h numerous and  a g e n c i e s had  private  objectives,  corporate b e l i e f that licences,  weak t h e  fields.  magnitude o f  the  on  ELUC d i r e c anticipated  83 impact  but,  processes, fic  b e c a u s e t h e r e had i n f o r m a t i o n was  to t h i s  strategies s t e p and, creating  region. for joint  by  1975,  problem-solving  Dick  form o f p o l i c i e s  ecology"  design  energy  and  Thirgood,  a necessary  first  and  conflicting  and  this  (Brooks  Whatever  for provinces  agreement t h a t jointly  with  the  or  "engineering  i n new  project  p e r i o d t h e r e was  a  feel-  c o n s e r v a t i o n would s o l v e most  problems. the r u l i n g  (Payne, 1 9 8 2 ) . party,  victory  The l e d by  t o take  (Payne, 1 9 8 2 ) . to exist,  losing  Bill  p o p u l a r i t y and  t h a t the problems o f the  l o s s of the  1975  Bennett,  of the  election  was  i n d u s t r y , and  a different Yet  was  sole responsibility  f o r the mining  expected  NDP  been s u g g e s t i n g  i n d u s t r y were t h e  t h e new  on.  Social  political  government  approach to resource  ELUCS, t h e  i n n o v a t i v e agency, and,  the p l a n n i n g o f the w o r k i n g - l e v e l  min-  government  t o the  s e e n as a  awareness of the problems c o n t i n u e d  significantly, carried  and  1975).  procedures  During  technology  t h e m e d i a had  Credit  speci-  of approaches  was  effects  needed t o p a r t i c i p a t e  I n 1975,  ing  impacts  being well a r t i c u l a t e d  and  ( D u f f y , 1975) .  i n g t h a t new  assessment  the problem of l a r g e development p r o j e c t s  f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t , t h e r e was and  likely  identification  s e c t o r s was  Andrews, 1974;  final  l a c k i n g on  extended environmental  other resource and  The  been no p r e v i o u s  was  management continued most bureaucracy  84 3.3.2  Introduction of c o a l opment g u i d e l i n e s In  deciding  should proceed, identified specific  the  w h e t h e r and  need  c o a l p o l i c y and  procedures,  development  SPU  mation p r i o r to t o be  what t e r m s d e v e l o p m e n t  was  the  i n the  i n the  f o r more d e t a i l e d and  issues.  instructed  c e s s which would ensure the  and  on  government p l a n n e r s  evaluation  Secretariat's  devel-  by  form of  of  guidelines  Secretariat  information,  for  for investigation In  l a t e 1975,  into  the  ELUCS t o d e v e l o p a  c o l l e c t i o n of  construction  B.C.  pro-  assessment i n f o r -  future only,  coal not  developments  legislation.  C o a l d e v e l o p m e n t has assumed a h i g h e c o n o m i c s i g n i f i cance i n response t o r i s i n g world p r i c e s . In o r d e r t h a t t h e many d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l s i n n o r t h e a s t e r n and s o u t h e a s t e r n B.C. c o u l d be s u b j e c t t o a s y s t e m a t i c , c o n s i s t e n t and c o m p r e h e n s i v e a p p r a i s a l , ELUC i s s u e d t h e Guidelines for Coal Development i n M a r c h , 1976, which o u t l i n e s an e n v i r o n m e n t and community i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t process . . . . (B.C. MOE, 1976, p. U121)  This the  e s s e n t i a l l y technical perspective  contributions  s i o n making. was  The  of  scientific  CDG  process,  analysis as  i t was  acknowledged  to r a t i o n a l d e c i initially  described,  a four-stage procedure beginning with a prospectus  identify ject. report,  the  proponent's d e s i r e  A preliminary was  particular  to  assessment, contained  i d e n t i f y the  site  and  to  g o v e r n m e n t r e v i e w was c e r n s and  aid  i n the  t o d e v e l o p a new  to  i n a Stage  e x i s t i n g information  i d e n t i f y the  at  proI  the  p o t e n t i a l problems.  identify further  d e s i g n of  coal  to  additional  problems or studies  A  con-  w h i c h were  85 to address those concerns.  The r e s u l t s  of the s i t e - s p e c i f i c  s t u d i e s were t o be p r e s e n t e d  i n a second assessment  docu-  ment,  These were e s s e n t i a l l y  Environ-  the  Stage I I r e p o r t .  m e n t a l Impact be  (EIA) and S o c i a l  Impact  r e v i e w e d by g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s .  completing licences grant  this  review,  and p e r m i t s  could  (SIA) s t a t e m e n t s , t o The p r o p o n e n t ,  proceed to o b t a i n i n g  i n Stage I I I .  The ELUC was  a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e and t h e company  construction  o f the' new mine.  A fourth  following project  s t a g e was  t o be  construction.  ted  "Only p r e l i m i n a r y  and m o n i t o r i n g  In a d d i t i o n a s e t of "Guide-  f o r B e n e f i t C o s t A n a l y s i s " was d r a f t e d  1977).  (B.C. ELUCS,  b e n e f i t - c o s t analyses  i n S t a g e I ; more d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s  then t o begin  t o a c k n o w l e d g i n g E I A and S I A i n f o r m a t i o n , lines  specific  could  developed which would address implementation processes  after  should  were  expec-  be i n c l u d e d i n  S t a g e I I " (B.C. ELUC, 1976, p. 7 ) . The planning engaged  sub-units  efforts.  of the S e c r e t a r i a t continued  To c o o r d i n a t e  i n two a c t i v i t i e s ;  t h e CDG,  the f i r s t  n a t u r e where t h e y were t o e x p l a i n tants  the g u i d e l i n e s  five  Guidelines  Stage I r e p o r t s  t o d e v e l o p e r s and  reports.  Steering  became  was e d u c a t i o n a l i n  p r o c e d u r e s ; t h e s e c o n d was  review the incoming staged formed C o a l  t h e SPU  extensive  I n 197 6,  Committee  (Sage C r e e k , L i n e  a process to  t h e newly  (CGSC)  Creek,  consul-  reviewed  Quintette,  C a r b o n C r e e k , and Hosmer-Wheeler) and one S t a g e I I r e p o r t (Hosmer-Wheeler).  I t was  i n this  capacity  that  t h e SPU  86 worked w i t h i n CDG  a political  perspective that  as a mechanism f o r p u b l i c  f o c u s s e d on  participation,  i n the  that  a l l m i n i s t r i e s w i t h c o n c e r n s were t o have an  nity  to review  p e c t i v e was which,  incoming  s u p p o r t e d by t h e R e s o u r c e  s t a n d a r d s and  w o r k s h o p s , and T e c h n i c a l and private  seminars  providing  The  t o encourage  i n v e n t o r y methods and Essentially,  and  significant  nomic s t a b i l i t y ,  (RAU) and  involvement.  o r new  making and  guidelines  throughout  by (B.C.  a l l of  mine d e v e l o p e r had  f o r g e n e r a t i n g the  environmental  g o v e r n m e n t ' s r o l e was  effects  public  consultants' reports,  p r o c e s s , the proponent  that  Analysis Unit  e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s i n government  agency and  s u r v e y and  on t h e s o c i a l  ensure  education pers-  to develop methodologies  b e a r most o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y tion  opportu-  s e c t o r s were s u p p o r t e d by r e v i e w i n g and  1976, p. U129).  t h e CDG  was  The  sense  education, using publications,  scientific  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s on  MOE,  proposal.  among o t h e r d u t i e s ,  coordinate  and  the  the  to  informa-  a s p e c t s of the  project.  t o e v a l u a t e the i n f o r m a t i o n t o  long-range  long-term  of negative s o c i a l  risks—in  environmental  terms o f  effects,  c h a n g e s on q u a l i t y  of  and  ecothe  life—were  considered. Other  new  approaches  t o p l a n n i n g were  One  attempt  a t a new  and  e x p e r i m e n t a l approach  was  the i n t r o d u c t i o n  and  definition  Units  (IMU).  T h i s was  t o be  developed. to planning  o f I n t e g r a t e d Management  a r e g i o n a l l y based  effort  j o i n t - p l a n r e s o u r c e management f o r a d e s i g n a t e d a r e a i n  in  87 terms of m u l t i p l e use. regional  Another approach used  s t u d i e s with the  example o f s u c h objectives:  first  was  ment, a t what l o c a t i o n , impacts  The  presented  t o ELUC and  District  first  Here, t h e r e were  t o examine how  t i m i n g , and  would o r s h o u l d o c c u r  valleys.  environmental  i n t h e E l k and  objective resulted  local  impacts. MOE  and  MOE,  The  "North  g o v e r n m e n t s and  T h i s q u e s t i o n was regional district  Annual  Report,  and  second  financial).  The  was  framework.  team a p p r o a c h ,  charged  The  by  the  (B.C. the  a number o f  community  develop-  example,  the  (later  Industry  and  made r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o v e r a l l  to p l a n independent  to investigate p o l i c y  decision  these  In t h i s  C a b i n e t Committee on C o a l Development  lished  ted  Development) was  c o o r d i n a t i o n and  reg-  land-use, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,  then M i n i s t r y o f Economic Development  study  to  and  s t u d y program,  conducted  was  Regional  o b j e c t i v e was  ( t o w n s i t e and  ment, manpower, e n v i r o n m e n t and  Small Business  river  i n a r e p o r t which  municipal o f f i c i a l s  (NECS) was  and  social  Flathead  b o a r d s c o u l d manage  A second  sub-committees  economic m a r k e t i n g ,  and  d i s c u s s e d at meetings with  1976).  E a s t C o a l Study"  inter-agency  develop-  t o t h e C o a l Committee o f t h e  o f E a s t Kootenay.  and  two  much c o a l  d e f i n e a method whereby t h e p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t r i e s ional  of  " S o u t h E a s t C o a l P r o j e c t " an  a study program.  the  a series  (CCCD) was  i s s u e s o u t s i d e the  NECS d e s i g n was  of the  t o use  ELUCS. estab-  ELUC a coordina-  composed o f government a n a l y s t s who  w i t h e v a l u a t i n g r e s o u r c e development problems,  were and  88 who  proceeded with  the  assumption t h a t the p r o v i n c e  ted  the North East Coal T h i s marked t h e  planning these  process"  political  gence o f two related  Development beginning  (Malkinson  and  (NECD).  of the  different  overall  t o c o a l development.  "public sector  W a k b a y a s h i , 1982),  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e events  very  First  for generating  planning was  the  monitoring Project  schemes and  i n the  first  was  gained  with  planning" involved  the  the  years  power l i n e s ,  agencies  and  ministries. generated  by  The  s e c o n d was planning  study  communicated  had  for  identifying  s u c h as new  second process  key  experience  "public sector which as  towns, h i g h w a y s , related services.  generated  nor  decisions  by  an  government  for various the  t o the p u b l i c u n t i l  been t a k e n .  onmental p r o v i s i o n s i n the  as  p r o g r a m s c o n d u c t e d by  and  communica-  process,  p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a n t s working  s t u d i e s were c o m p l e t e d  infrastructure  environmen-  in i t s role  i n f o r m a t i o n was  Neither this  was  responsi-  clearly  r a i l w a y s , c o a l t e r m i n a l s , and  s e r i e s of  pro-  the  implementation  a developer  facilities  second process,  extensive  of  program.  g o v e r n m e n t as support  take  and  relatively  or a r e g i o n a l resource  provider of  the  five  processes  p r o v i d i n g m i t i g a t i v e measures.  a s s e s s m e n t came t o be  ted  In t h i s  the p r o p o s a l ,  emer-  guidelines  information regarding  t a l - e n g i n e e r i n g design of  and  r e s u l t e d i n the  gram r e q u i r i n g t h a t t h e p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r bility  suppor-  information  well  after  regarding  When a s k e d a b o u t t h e  envir-  t e n t a t i v e agreement between  the  89 B.C.  government  Sukunka  d e p o s i t s , Don  Development, couver  and B.P.  Sun,  Phillips,  replied: 17 J u l y  Canada L t d . f o r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e then M i n i s t e r f o r Economic  "We've s t u d i e d i t t o d e a t h "  1978), b u t a t t h a t t i m e  (Van-  little  informa-  t i o n had been r e l e a s e d . The  1969-1976 p h a s e o f e x p a n s i o n  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e CDG. process, as  i t had c l e a r l y  implementation  other had  Described  began.  P u b l i c s e c t o r p l a n n i n g , on t h e  public-sector planning  procedure.  studies created  c o a l development would proceed  I t was  inferred  t h a t the b u i l d i n g  occur,  and t h a t  (Malkinson  c o a l mines  i n the r e g i o n .  o f new  stood p u b l i c planning process,  this  1982)  B.C. would  there  were  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of  second l i t t l e  and t h e i m p l i e d  created, that eventually l e d to a c r i s i s  l i n e s process  of  expectations  c o a l mines  and W a k b a y a s h i ,  I t was  The c o n d u c t  i n northeastern  no m a j o r c o n s t r a i n t s w h i c h w o u l d p r e v e n t  3.4  procedures  hand, c o n s i s t e d o f a s e r i e s o f r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s and  these  it  the  as a p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l  described decision-making  no f o r m a l i z e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  that  ended w i t h  under-  expectations  f o r the  guide-  i n 1981,  Implementation Phase: 1976-1981 The  boom due  1976-1981 p h a s e was  chiefly  to rapidly  most  notably the quadrupling  tion  of Petroleum  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an e c o n o m i c  i n c r e a s i n g commodity o f o i l p r i c e s by t h e  Exporting Countries  prices, Organiza-  (OPEC) and i n c r e a s i n g  90 concern over the supplies. not  The  issue  national,  c o a l as time  an  s e c u r i t y f o r domestic  b e l i e f that  meet n a t i o n a l  cial,  of  or  and  n o n - r e n e w a b l e o i l and  Simeons, 1978; importance of  international studies  g r o w t h , and  Ezra,  Wilson, coal  1978;  1980)  Page, 1978;  numerous p r o j e c t i o n s be  the  and  In the s i x new  the  northeast  By  During t h i s period,  1978,  in  source The  Peace  parti-  for implicain  River to  agencies  activities  CDG the  had  10  need f o r s e v e r a l  been  applied  Greenhills  approval-in-principle  there  area producing nearly i n the  2,  regional  Creek mines r e c e i v e d  construction.  ting  1 and  and  understood.  s o u t h e a s t Kootenays, the  mines.  economic  c o a l d e v e l o p m e n t were i m p o r t a n t  became more c l e a r l y  Accelerating impacts  and  production  P r o v i n c i a l l y , numerous c h a n g e s o c c u r r e d  3.4.1  the  1980;  Japan  a fuel  t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n resource planning  Line  Patching,  long-term  and  of that  seen i n T a b l e s  identified,  use  authors at  cement-plant k i l n s .  s o u t h e a s t K o o t e n a y s and  increased  to  and  t h i s increased  region. as  generation  the  would provin-  urgency  for future  c u l a r p l a n n e d c o n v e r s i o n s t o c o a l as  t i o n s of  the  f o r b o t h i m m e d i a t e and  t o t h e r m a l c o a l was  electrical  on  The  wrote of  employment were made, as may A trend  gas  g l o b a l demand l e d t o numerous  a l t e r n a t i v e energy source.  ( A n t o n , 1981;  energy  and  began  were f i v e m i n e s o p e r a t i n g m i l l i o n tonnes a new  types of  and  in  year,,resul-  planning.  91 Table 1 CANADIAN COAL EXPORT PROJECTIONS ( i n m i l l i o n s o f tonnes)  Source  1980  1985  1990  2000  Wocol  11  17  19-25  27-47  C o a l Assn. o f Canada  14,1  39.9  53.3  no e s t .  B.C. MISBD (Western Canada-metallurgical)  12,46  23  32  no e s t .  Sources  B.C.MISBD, 1981a, p. 72; Hay e t a l . , 1982, p. 75; W i l s o n , 1980, p. 224.  Table 2 B.C. COAL INDUSTRY EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS  Source  B.C. MISBD  Southeast  (Crowsnest) C o a l f i e l d  5655  Northeast  (Peace R i v e r )  9040+  Central The Coast Major P r o j e c t s Task Force*  Source:.  *N0TE:  No, o f Workers  Region  Coalfield  Coalfields (Vancouver I s l a n d )  L i n e Creek C o a l  1760+ 210  1500  B.C.MISBD, 1981a, pp. 25-58; C a r r and B l a i r , 1981, p. 94.  No o t h e r e s t i m a t e s were p r o v i d e d t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s r e p o r t ' s c l a i m t h a t " d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t labour demands from major p r o j e c t s can reduce unemployment, p r o v i d e more s a t i s f y i n g jobs and i n c r e a s e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by Canadians" (Carr and B l a i r , 1981, p. 10) .  92 Intensified caused the an  coal-mining  activity  a r o u n d Coleman,  r e g i o n a l Crowsnest p o p u l a t i o n  expansion of  a community o f ment p l a n n i n g  Sparwood was  to increase,  The  identified  concerns:  of p r o b a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the  new  need f o r  first,  the  population  northeast region.  n a t u r e o r e f f e c t new  region The  would have on  need f o r r e c l a m a t i o n f o r examples o f  and  planning,  and  j e c t s was  i n c r e a s i n g l y e x p r e s s e d by  community wildlife sity  (Dick,  i n concert  w i t h the  1983), and  became p e r c e i v e d  northeast  region,  two  Government-sponsored  a  s c a l e , w i t h major impacts d i r e c t l y  and  by  the  Fort  exploring tive  the  academic  regional  as  a  neces-  field  esca-  s t u d i e s were under way or  on  indirectly  e x i s t i n g c o m m u n i t i e s o f Chetwynd, Dawson C r e e k ,  S t . John;  second,  their properties.  t o the  of  types of a c t i v i t y  lated.  felt  pro-  1979b).  In the  large  the  f o r more  administrators  Lavkulich,  management p l a n n i n g  and,  successful reclamation  region,  ( C h e r e n e , 1979;  their  e x i s t i n g southeast  research,  p r o d u c i n g mines i n t h e  settle-  mine d e v e l o p m e n t s i n  the  to  question  h o u s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s as more mines were p r o p o s e d second, the  and  p l a n n e d w h i l e E l k f o r d grew  3000 p e o p l e . came f r o m two  Alberta  14  coal One  licence leaseholders  important  issue arose  c o n d u c t o f e x p l o r a t i o n when l a r g e a r e a s o f  were c l e a r e d  and  t e s t a d i t s f o r b u l k s a m p l i n g were  making i t d i f f i c u l t m i n i n g began.  The  to  i d e n t i f y where e x p l o r a t i o n  p r o b l e m was  such t h a t  the  MEMPR  were relaland  dug, ended  and  issued  93  Guidelines 1977).  for  Coal  and  Mineral  In a d d i t i o n , through the  field  crews, a permanent  so as  to ensure that  definition refined  of  c o m p a n i e s employed  Business  work  northern (NHB)  of  one  had  the  access  (CDG)  nor f e d e r a l  road  t o the  access  a g e n c y , was project  The  or not  and  status  b a c k e r s were i n t e r e s -  CBA  of  30  and  million  Rupert; thus,  capacity  National  tonnes,  terminal  site,  at  Harbours  Board  Engineering  (1978)  a c a p a c i t y of  nearly  a two-phase c o a l  tonnes a year.  but  engineering terminal  planning  sites,  required  t o use  The.design a new  the  the  termi-  In  1980,  provide  neither provincial  (EARP) p r o j e c t a s s e s s m e n t g u i d e l i n e s  a p p r a i s a l procedures  nication). 1981,  to the  was  (B.C.  p r o v i n c i a l governments agreed t o  road  The  the  reported  at Prince  p r e p a r e d by  a million  f e d e r a l and  applied  i t was  grain—handling  studied.  a capacity  activities.  of monitoring  for a grain elevator with of  identified  responsibilities  that p r a i r i e  a Master Plan  quarter  nal with  increased  p o r t was  which c a l l e d  in  1978)  in building grain elevators  viability  ministry  ( G a l b r a i t h , 1979).  northwest region,  Magazine,  of  MEMPR,  environmentally  exploration  through improved techniques  In the  ted  activities  company r e c l a m a t i o n  reclamation  (B.C.  i n s p e c t i o n f u n c t i o n was  p r o t e c t i v e measures i n t h e i r  of  Exploration  and  construction  because the  NHB,  as  were for  a federal  e i t h e r f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l  ( S c o t t , 1982,  Personal  f o r the  grain terminal  consortium,  i n c l u d i n g Esso  was  commu-  completed  Minerals  94 Canada, G u l f Canada, and construct  and  contracts  resulted  and nals  operate  Manalta  C o a l , was  the c o a l t e r m i n a l .  Disputes  i n the r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the  a j o i n t - v e n t u r e agreement c r e a t i n g I n c . was  selected  drawn up  ( M a l k i n s o n and  Infrastructure  for coal  over  consortium,  Ridley Island Wakbayashi,  t r a n s p o r t and  handling i n  t h i s p e r i o d was  further  commission s t u d i e d  B.C.Rail,  and  suggested  that  northeast coal development. w h i c h was get,  I n 1977,  a royal  among o t h e r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , t h e t h e r e s h o u l d be  time,  approximately  the e x i s t i n g  a l t h o u g h B . C . R a i l had  g o v e r n m e n t p o s i t i o n was  that  followed.  Large  required  f o r C.N.R. t o be  coal  and  prairie  ting  close  grain.  public  because of the geographic because of the  large  new  construction.  I n 1978,  f o r expansion,  because,  although  was  to expansion  investment  in this  case,  (EARP) were a p p l i e d . t o undergo a f u l l  the r i s k s  of handling  opera-  existed lines,  required for  the Port of Robert's  and,  be  northeast  s o u t h t h e C.P.R. was  capital  bud-  going to  l o c a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g  and  p r o p o s a l had  debt  recommendations  investment  to capacity, yet l i m i t s  onmental procedures  a  r a i l w a y s were  able to s e r v i c e both In the  in  necessary  15 p e r c e n t o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l  were n o t  expansion  commission  no B . C . R a i l i n v o l v e m e n t  s e r v i n g r e g i o n a l development;, t h u s , t h e s e  considered  undergoing  u n l e s s the c o n t r a c t s p a i d f o r the At t h i s  Termi-  1982).  the r e s t of the p r o v i n c e through study.  to  Bank  federal  Therefore,  was envirthis  set of hearings, bulk  commodities  95 m i g h t have a p p e a r e d Robert's tant  similar  Bank, t h e l o w e r  specific  f o r both  mainland  differences.  l o c a t i o n had some  Massive  was r e q u i r e d t o change t h e d e p t h  R i d l e y I s l a n d and  dredging,  from  l a n d base f o r t h e l o a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s through  landfill,  i n the process  w o u l d be d i s t u r b e d ! t h u s ,  o f which e e l - g r a s s beds  t h e NHB d e c i d e d  (Ennis,  communication).  expressed;  provincial  and a  had t o be c r e a t e d  basis,  Academic i n t e r e s t  f o r example,  4 m t o 20 m,  EARP on a s i t e - b y - s i t e 1983, P e r s o n a l  impor-  based  t o apply the  on p e r c e i v e d needs  i n t h e c o a l boom needs was  support  f o r e d u c a t i o n and r e s e a r c h  and  d e v e l o p m e n t i n c o a l was p r o v i d e d  i n 1980 by p r o p o s a l s  and  funding to b u i l d  Centre  sity  of B r i t i s h  facility  Columbia  was t o c o n d u c t  government-industry research,  industry  (UBC).  as they  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s  "use o f c o a l s "  research, to foster  contacts regarding interests  i n coal  The  research  i n v o l v e d government, t h e u n i v e r s i t y , and  (UBC Reports,  3.4.2  1980).  Institutional  implications  c o o r d i n a t i o n and management o f i n t e r - m i n i s t e r i a l  r e q u i r e d by t h e CDG was t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  ELUCS, y e t t h i s  next  p h a s e saw t h e d e m i s e o f t h i s  t h e S e c r e t a r i a t was d i s b a n d e d ever,  a t the Univer-  and t o s u p e r v i s e t h e programming o f c o a l  facilities  reviews  a Coal Research  the implementation  i n 1980,  Prior  of the n e e d , and  t o t h a t , how-  o f t h e CDG was c o n c u r r e n t  with  96  three years of innovative a c t i v i t y I n 1977, t h e RAU as t h e R e s o u r c e  had b e e n moved  from  A n a l y s i s Branch,  several years of research into  by t h e ELUC and ELUCS. t h e ELUCS t o t h e MOE  T h i s branch  the projected northeast  r e g i o n a l development a r e a , i n c l u d i n g life,  visual,  c e s , as w e l l  conducted  inventories  of wild-  v e g e t a t i o n , a q u a t i c and m i g r a t o r y b i r d as b a s e l i n e a i r and w a t e r q u a l i t y  as t h e y r e l a t e d  to projected coal  resour-  inventories,  and t o w n s i t e  development  a r e a s ; however, t h e o r i g i n a l  objectives  coordination,  a n d e d u c a t i o n were  communication,  coal  o f t h e RAU f o r largely  a b a n d o n e d u n d e r t h e new m i n i s t e r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . W i t h i n t h e ELUCS, two u n i t s ducted  integrated  provided  remained—the  con-  p l a n n i n g i n t h e s o u t h e a s t c o a l b l o c k and  a d v i c e on s e t t l e m e n t p l a n n i n g i n Sparwood, w h i l e  t h e SPU had two m a j o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : environmental and  RPU  land-use  sub-committee  i t chaired the  reporting  t o t h e CCCD,  c o o r d i n a t e d t h e CDG w i t h r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s g o i n g t o ELUC.  I n 1977, t h e SPU a l s o p r e p a r e d  t h e Guidelines  Development  1977a), s i m i l a r  (LDG)  (B.C. ELUCS,  format.  M e a n w h i l e , ELUCS was  issues.  Generally, the S e c r e t a r i a t  emphasized  specific  resource-use  R e g i o n a l Resource  (RRMC), t h e S e c r e t a r i a t of regional  with broader  endorsed  F o r example,  policies  policy which  to avoid  i n 1977, w i t h t h e Management  continued to a r t i c u l a t e  inter-ministry  Linear  t o CDGs i n  planning processes designed  conflicts.  ELUTC a n d t h e s e v e n  concerned  for  consultation  Committees the process  i n resource  97 planning.  Guidelines  tified  structure, role,  the  general  operating  f o r RRMC were p r e p a r e d  and  iden-  f u n c t i o n s , membership,  procedures,  regional d i s t r i c t ,  which  in relation  to  and  community,  headquarters planning  (B.C.  MOE,  1977). The  CCCD, on  the  other  hand, was  emphasizing  economic i m p l i c a t i o n s of p o t e n t i a l developments. o b j e c t i v e was the  t o p r e p a r e an  coal resource  of  the  I t s major  optimum s t r a t e g y f o r  r e g i o n by  the  developing  maximizing net  revenues  f r o m c o a l d e v e l o p m e n t — r e v e n u e s minus i n f r a s t r u c t u r e c o s t s . E n v i r o n m e n t a l and and  from the  designed only  social  perspective  m o d e l was  o f CCCD, s t u d i e s were  and  1981;  prepared  f o r the  O'Riordan,  t o measure the  1981). by  Considerations  of  d a n g e r and  or to t r a v e l and  as  lower c o s t s  centre,  costs  various Monier, be design  i m p l i c a t i o n s of s e e n as  the  significant  Tumbler Ridge  t o commute t o t h e mine  t o Dawson C r e e k , u s e f u l n e s s  tourism  using  l o c a t i o n and  the  were n o t  reasons f o r choosing  were i d e n t i f i e d  econo-  t o r e d u c e e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage.  damage t o w i l d l i f e m i g r a t i o n The  An  (Basham and  a d j u s t i n g the  facilities flood  coal  looking  E n v i r o n m e n t a l c o s t s were t o  of the v a r i o u s  tion  therefore  b e n e f i t s and  coal production  market p r i c e of  "measured" i n d i r e c t l y  concerns.  managed,  economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  of a l t e r n a t i v e sequences of estimates  t o be  t o e x a m i n e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e s by  at engineering  metric  i m p a c t s were o n l y  proximity  as  a  site sites  transporta-  to a possible  airport  98 location, supply ashi, social  and  and  lower c a p i t a l  Generally,  cost  of  were c o n d u c t e d  As under the  the CDG  CGSC and  the  the  agencies.  outside  coal-related (B.C.  MOE,  northeast had  planning,  activities;  1979)  i t was  and  helped  Several  a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the  CGSC i n r e v i e w o f new operational  studies  process block,  from  that  design  of the  region,  coal proposals.  f o r Stage I I I c o a l  f o r M a j o r D e v e l o p m e n t s , and  P u b l i c Works Canada e c o n o m i c s t u d y  afforded and  be  evaluation Annual  the  completing  department  resource  and  of Report  i n a d d i t i o n to reports,  northeast  design  upon t o  force  manage-  assisted  They a l s o  to  the  reviewed  submissions, helped  an  provi-  consultants,  i n the  i n v o l v e d i n R o b e r t ' s Bank EARP h e a r i n g s , Guidelines  project  NEC  i n the  a s s e s s m e n t , and  noted  the  agencies  their  f o r example,  c o a l r e g i o n a l task  ment framework f o r t h e  stated  These a g e n c i e s a l s o  some f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s i n c r e a s i n g l y c a l l e d w i t h the  and  project appraisal  s e r v i c e s t o d e v e l o p e r s and  involved  than  the  These s t u d i e s  review assistance  reports,  r e l a t e d Stage I I s t u d i e s ,  direct  rather  were u s e d t o d e c i d e  for projects  p r o v i n c i a l d a t a and  Wakbay-  processes.  ELUCS r e c e i v e d  i n c r e a s i n g number o f  f o r water-  effectiveness  i n d e p e n d e n t l y of the  a p p l i c a t i o n of continued  costs  ( M a l k i n s o n and  coal-related facilities.  appraisal decision-making  of  and  or environmental c r i t e r i a  decisions  ded  operating  s e w a g e - d i s p o s a l systems  1982).  location  the  and  and  were  prepare  were i n v o l v e d w i t h  for Ridley  Island.  a  This  99 resulted  i n t h e MOE i d e n t i f y i n g a need f o r a c o o r d i n a t o r t o  handle c o a l - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . their ject  staff  Other m i n i s t r i e s  r e q u i r e m e n t s had i n c r e a s e d  appraisals.  coal-related  because o f c o a l  Most o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d  a s s e s s m e n t s and r e v i e w s b e l i e v e d  that  process  (1982) d e s c r i b e d  i n the northeast,  clearly the  this  sector  planning  was n o t t h e c a s e .  reorganization  election victory  occurred  which  i n h e r i t e d t h e S e c r e t a r i a t , whose r o l e h a d been  defined  (B.C. MOE, Annual  Report,  ELUC mandate i n t h e Environment  Cabinet  level,  addressing  1979) b a s e d on  and Land  Use Act,  ELUC was t o d i r e c t p o l i c y and p r o j e c t  necessary t o provide for  the public  a s M a l k i n s o n and  the S o c i a l Credit Party's  1979, an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  nevertheless  i n these  p r o j e c t s were t o be made a f t e r CDG p r o j e c t  Following in  pro-  the decisions f o r  a p p r a i s a l a n d an ELUC d e c i s i o n ; however, Wakbayashi  found  land  the information use, resource  they f e l t  studies  was needed  d e v e l o p m e n t , and e n v i r o n -  mental  issues.  They were t o make t h e d e c i s i o n s  issues  advising  a l l of Cabinet  rence o r d i r e c t i o n .  At  and o b t a i n i n g  on s u c h  their  concur-  ELUC was t o make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o  C a b i n e t u n d e r t h e ELU Act f o r l a n d - u s e p r o g r a m s a n d p r o j e c t specific provide  e n v i r o n m e n t a l management d i r e c t i o n f o r changes.  information resource,  on g o v e r n m e n t  functions  Finally,  decisions  and l a n d - u s e m a t t e r s .  was t o a i d t h e s e  regulations  as w e l l as  ELUC was t o r e l e a s e  regarding  environmental,  The r o l e o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t  a n d , a s s u c h , t h e ELUCS  worked  100 to evaluate a l t e r n a t i v e s using Biophysical  information  t o r s were t o be  as  w e l l as  considered  program a s p e c i f i c  sophy.  1979  m e t a l mines  to the  benefit-cost  guidelines  (B.C.  social  developments. t o the  While the  w h e t h e r ELUC i n t e n d e d  that  i n c o a l mine a p p r a i s a l s . h a z a r d s p o l i c y was  considered  important  processes within conducted  MOE,  intensive  was  and  a number o f attempt  1979).  innovative  within  the  dissolved  (B.C.  MOE,  envir-  project  not  clear  should  apply  ELUCS, and  review of  In  current  a was  devel-  addition, planning  r e s o u r c e m i n i s t r i e s were  or  phase of  Secretariat  These  mitigation  w h i c h were t o be  to ensure that  Despite,  appendix  a l l inclusive  guidelines  a l s o c o n d u c t e d by  p r o c e s s e s were c o m p a t i b l e  (B.C.  ning  i n an  for  i t was  t o p h y s i c a l damage.  programs f o r d e r e g u l a t i o n  an  i n t e r - m i n i s t e r i a l review of  for projects  oped i n a r e a s v u l n e r a b l e  ning  t h e s e new  for  guidelines  w i t h major  Secretariat,  An  philo-  to o f f s e t adverse  p r i n c i p l e s appeared the  fac-  the  ELUCS, 1 9 8 0 ) .  impacts a s s o c i a t e d  architects within  natural  that  same y e a r ,  procedures  compensation measures d e s i g n e d  o n m e n t a l and  with  c o m p e n s a t i o n were p r e p a r e d as  documents o u t l i n e d p r i n c i p l e s and and  economic  program g u i d e l i n e s  MEMPR, 1 9 7 9 a ) ; t h e  and  and  a p p l i c a t i o n of  ELUCS h e l p e d w r i t e  (B.C.  for mitigation  social  approach.  i n each e v a l u a t i o n ,  guidelines In  a comprehensive  a l l government  in their  implementation  perhaps because o f ,  this  government b u r e a u c r a t i c  i n 1980,  1980a).  The  the  plan-  plan-  ELUCS S e c r e t a r i a t  assessment d i v i s i o n i n  101 t h e MOE  became r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e  development g u i d e l i n e s , while metal  mine g u i d e l i n e s and  lines  became t h e  g i v e n the wide c o n t e x t  and  a new  " p l a n n i n g by  the  "resource  process tion.  type  the  c o a l development  guide-  o f t h e MEMPR. of the  Secretariat,  i n w h i c h p r o j e c t s were p l a n n e d ,  by  to the  the size  and  p l a n n i n g by  invitation  tion  evolved.  P a g e t and  consultative process"  identified Due  of philosophy  invitation"  involvement  a  by  Rabnet  Crook  (1982) , o r  (1982), and  o f new  related  c o a l mine and i n p u t s was  this  participa-  necessary  p a r t i c i p a t i o n were t o o c c u r .  was  Described  need f o r i n v o l v e m e n t  developi f true  Extensive  or c o n s u l t a t i o n r e q u i r e d  participa-  by many i n d i v i d u a l s w o r k i n g w i t h i n g o v e r n m e n t , b o t h  Victoria  and  time  needed t o a l l o w  was  of planning, Rabnet,  participants techniques, by  the  the disbanding  ment p r o j e c t s , a wide r a n g e o f  and  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  model f o r d e s c r i b i n g t h e p l a n n i n g o f d e v e l o p m e n t s  created as  later  responsibility  Notwithstanding  new  the  linear  those  cribe  the  i n t h e r e g i o n s , a l l o f w h i c h meant the  d e s c r i b e d as 1982)  was  process  b a s e d on  the  i t s methodologies.  a d m i n i s t e r i n g the  process,  baseline situation  This  that  with  (Paget  individual  the p r o c e s s , i t s  Much r e s e a r c h was not  o n l y on  how  i n each p r o j e c t , but  how  to r e s o l v e . t h e problems of conducting  and  a great deal of  i n f o r m a t i o n was  type  undemocratic  reality  needed t o g a i n e x p e r i e n c e and  extensive  to evolve.  fundamentally  in  done  to  also  deson  project appraisals  generated  from a  variety  102 of planning bayashi,  activities  1982).  studies;  1982; M a l k i n s o n a n d Wak-  During t h i s period  numerous p r i v a t e assessments.  (B.C. MMA,  consulting  Engineering  firms  firms  b i o l o g i s t s and s o i l accounting  of process  emerged t o c o n d u c t  conducted  social  assessors;  yet  each p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the m u l t i - p a r t i c i p a n t  firms  impact  c a r r i e d out housing  p r o c e s s a n d , a s e x p e r i e n c e was g a i n e d , assessments improved.  municate w i t h c o n s u l t i n g  of  the preparation  the  M e a n w h i l e , t o meet a n d com-  firms,  government p l a n n i n g  agencies o r sub-  assessments.  The r e s u l t o f t h i s p r o c e s s was  t h r o u g h group d e l i b e r a t i o n t h e time needed t o complete appraisal activities  was d i s b a n d e d  increased.  After the S e c r e t a r i a t  i n mid-1980, t h e s t a f f  o f t h e MISBD a l o n e  c o n d u c t e d an i n t e r n a l p r o c e s s c a l l e d p u b l i c - s e c t o r and  of  s u c h a s t h e EEC and SECC, t o c o n d u c t t h e r e v i e w  coal project  that  studies;  learning  formed b i o p h y s i c a l and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o o r d i n a t i n g committees,  project  s c i e n t i s t s became e n v i r o n m e n -  tal  project  development,  project  analyses,  described  planning  by M a l k i n s o n a n d S i v e r t s o n  (1978), w h i c h r e s t r i c t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a c c e s s t o t h e p r o cess.  T h e s e MISBD a n a l y s e s  indicated  that  the v i a b i l i t y of  northeast  c o a l d e v e l o p m e n t h i n g e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g  factors;  market c o n d i t i o n s ,  were b e l i e v e d ted  possible  successful  where p o s i t i v e n e t b e n e f i t s  i f contracts  p r i c e s ; the a v a i l a b i l i t y  were s e c u r e d a t i n d i c a -  o f underground m i n e r s ; and t h e  a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e most modern t e c h n i c a l  g r o u n d m i n i n g methods  critical  (Malkinson and Wakbayashi,  under-  1982).  103 They a l s o  stated  that  l e g a l agreements were  necessary  between t h e p r o v i n c e and t h e c o a l companies v i s - a - v i s t h e financing  of support  cial  c o m p e t i t i o n was n o t s e e n a s a f a c t o r w h i c h was  coal  critical  facilities.  Intra- or inter-provin-  t o the success of the northeast project,  e c o n o m i c d e p r e s s i o n was n o t f o r e c a s t . decisions the  s o c i a l o r community planning,  impacts.  i n 1981 t o d e a l  tracts  the f a l l  likely  public  l i m i t a t i o n s were  o f 1980, a s t h e p r o s p e c t s o f c o a l  f o r T e c k and Q u i n t e t t e  order to prepare  might o c c u r , " h i r e d  itself  appeared  a firm of consulting  ( M a l k i n s o n and W a k b a y a s h i , special project to a cabinet project  nating  implementation.  Ultimately,  which reported  a  directly  This  North East Coal  Coordiplanning  and, b e c a u s e o f i t s l i m i t e d membership,  The s t r u c t u r e  effective,  this  e n g i n e e r s and  (NECC) was t o c o o r d i n a t e p r o j e c t  move e f f e c t i v e l y t o a c h i e v e tives.  t h e MISBD,  f o r p r o j e c t management  1982, p . 4 4 ) .  g r o u p was c r e a t e d  con-  committee charged w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  Committee  activities  likely,  f o r the p o t e n t i a l that  e c o n o m i s t s t o a d v i s e on a l t e r n a t i v e s  for  with  T h r o u g h o u t t h e MISBD  s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  Consul-  seen as c r i t i c a l . In  "in  after  h a d been made when t h e R e g i o n a l Impact  t a t i o n Committee was e s t a b l i s h e d  not  The i m p a c t s o f t h e s e  on o t h e r a g e n c i e s were n o t a d d r e s s e d u n t i l  decisions  sector  and w o r l d  i n that  s p e c i f i c implementation  was s e e n t o be e f f i c i e n t  functions  could objec-  and c o s t -  c a r r i e d o u t by e x i s t i n g  104 a g e n c i e s , m i n i s t r i e s , and crown c o r p o r a t i o n s duplicated.  This  existing project evaluative  appraisal  s e r v e d , however, t o b y p a s s t h e program i n terms o f b o t h i t s  and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  At 1981,  structure  functions.  the time the contracts  organizational  a p p r o v e d by C a b i n e t designating  were s i g n e d  included  re-establishing  a Deputy M i n i s t e r ' s  The  Cabinet  the  northeast project:  tially,  process,  to three goals i n  and t o c o n c l u d e  debate.  w i t h the development.  Essen-  i n private, not  The c o m p r e h e n s i v e a g r e e m e n t s  with  d e t a i l s o f t h e p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  the c o s t - b e n e f i t  Consultation  for certain  l e g a l agreements  t h i s was a p r o c e s s w h i c h p r o c e e d e d  producers,  office.  t o provide the financing  groups i n v o l v e d  open t o p u b l i c coal  coordination  Develop-  t o implement c r i t i c a l - p a t h p l a n n i n g f o r  completion of services, with various  t h e CCCD,  Committee on C o a l  a t t h i s t i m e was c o m m i t t e d  facilities,  i n January  c h a n g e s a d v a n c e d by t h e MISBD and  ment, and s e t t i n g up a new p r o j e c t  support  w o u l d n o t be  analysis,  Committee r e p o r t  and t h e R e g i o n a l  were n o t t a b l e d  until  Impact July  1982. On 10 F e b r u a r y 1981, an agreement f o r t h e s a l e o f 7.7 m i l l i o n t o n n e s o f n o r t h e a s t c o a l p e r y e a r was with  the Japanese S t e e l  Co., b u t a t t h a t  companies p l a n n i n g t o produce t h e f i r s t had  not completed  the  CDG.  signed  time t h e major coal  from the r e g i o n  t h e i r Stage I I assessments as r e q u i r e d  by  As a r e s u l t , t h e r o l e o f t h e CDG was d e b a t e d , and  105 there  was  pressure  (Dick  and  Ringstad,  who  argued t h a t  seriously the  1981;  the  that  completed  and  of  the  CDG  was  never  in retrospect,  proceeded w i t h development  their  Those  s t a g e d a s s e s s m e n t s and  because  i n the  north-  received  Questions of  the  r o l e of  i n decision-making regarding  new  coal  an  the  CDG  projects  r e l a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t s r e m a i n e d , however, b e c a u s e i f t h e  tool  p r i o r t o a d e c i s i o n on  not  c l e a r i n the  3.5  E f f e c t s of A f t e r 1981 The  trialized  case of  by  the  decisions  i n northeastern  that  2 and  f o r the trade  increased  use  first  in coal of  3.  was  supply,  I t was  (Hay  In to  and  the  expand  were b a s e d on  initial  employment, as  also  s u p p o r t e d by  e t a l . , 1982).  thermal c o a l  and  trend.  shown the  t i m e , Canada e n j o y e d a p o s i t i v e  1982), Japan's s t r a t e g y of  role  transition,  made i n 1981  B.C.  f o r e c a s t s of production  i n Tables  balance of  evaluation  projects.  a long-term recessionary  c o a l mining,  that,  security  mine a p p r o v a l ,  s o c i e t i e s were u n d e r g o i n g a m a j o r  optimistic  fact  a comprehensive  Recession  coal production  earlier  northeast  as  p o s t - 1 9 8 1 p h a s e came a t a t i m e when a l l i n d u s -  characterized  ary  process  Gadsby, 1 9 8 2 ) .  supported  CDGs' f u n c t i o n were t o a c t  to  change t h e  Hawes and  are  approval-in-principle. program  and  credibility  i n question  companies  east  to evaluate  (Globe  and  The Mail,  of multiple-sourcing  participation in  trend 25 to  Januachieve  joint-venture  106 projects  (Hay  et  a l . , 1982;  p r o d u c e r s t o change t h e i r emphasize t h e i r  Maund, 1983), s p u r r e d production  thermal reserves.  M i n e , f o r example, p l a n n e d production was,  of  September  1982,  b a s e d on  the  (Globe  and  d e v e l o p m e n t - o r i e n t e d B.C. t o s u p p o r t and  1986  demand was  (Sigurdson,  1982);  province  was  neck had  been i d e n t i f i e d  already  upgraded  p l a n n e d and  t o accommodate t h e w e s t e r n Canada. be  i n place  increased reliable in  by  developing  and  and  by  an  1986  the  remaining d i f f i c u l t y  shift  The  incentive  transportation by  the  Japanese  ways.  $127  and  the  million,  was  an  handling  the  CPR  sales  capacity  I t was  necessary  expansion,  from  believed key  already  at  be  that  elements  long-term  main l i n e would  to  would  (Waters, 1 9 8 2 ) , and  b e c a u s e i t was  order  were p l a n n e d  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were t h e the  the  A bottle-  begun i n  in coal  facilities  tonnes a year.  and  infrastructure in  a t R o b e r t ' s Bank, and  t i o n s h i p s with Japanese customers forecast that  in  1982).  provided  i n response,  maintaining  was  and  f o r e c a s t t o d o u b l e between 1980  shiploading 1983,  for  a Japanese  for coal-related transport.  million  production  of  January  anticipated increase  New  Greenhills  exporting  improvements t o  in several  to  processing  government t h e n had  costing  July  t o 30  25  opportunities  They r e s p o n d e d Rail  expectation  encourage the  needed t o c a p t u r e the  start  as  capacity  needed no  Mail,  so  Coal's  t o expand t h e i r  cheaper to m i n e — a n d  from o i l to c o a l  market.  B.C.  thermal c o a l — w h i c h  therefore,  planning  existing  relai t  present 85  per  107 cent of i t s capacity. reduce the grade, in  the region,  might  L i n e improvements were n e e d e d t o  and p r o d u c e r s h o p i n g t o d e v e l o p new m i n e s  s u c h as Sage C r e e k ,  n o t be a b l e t o h a n d l e t h e i r  turing  o f Crowsnest  as a p r o b l e m  Pass  freight  were warned t h a t new p r o d u c t i o n .  r a t e s was a l s o  t h e CPR Restruc-  identified  t o be r e s o l v e d .  P r e s s u r e r o s e t o meet d e a d l i n e s i n a g r e e m e n t s w i t h Japanese  c o m p a n i e s t o expand e x i s t i n g  operations,  As r e p o r -  t e d by N u t t (1982a), many s e c o n d - g e n e r a t i o n m i n e s were on  stream,  ship  coming  a l l p r o d u c i n g t h e r m a l c o a l - — L i n e C r e e k was t o  its first  train-load  i n March 1982, G r e e n h i l l s was t o  f o l l o w i n September 1982, F o r d i n g C o a l was p l a n n i n g a new open p i t , and B y r o n  Creek  planned  t o expand.  In a  partial  r e s p o n s e , t h e ELUC, t h r o u g h t h e CGSC, added an i n t e r i m ing policy  t o t h e CDG t o d e a l w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  of large  environmental e f f e c t s  t h a t c o u l d be c r e a t e d by t h e s e  ned  i n t e r i m procedure  expansions.  1981)  This  response  predicted  marketplace which ing e f f i c i e n t B.C.Coal  Report,  a new s t r a t e g y ,  strategy  i t s IER b r a n c h  coal  that of developI n 1982,  arm f o r t h e r m a l c o a l ,  a t r a d e development  Rim w i t h i n  revised.  a competitive international  company m a r k e t i n g o p e r a t i o n s .  s e t up a m a r k e t i n g  established Pacific  required  plan-  (B.C. MEMPR,  was t o be f o r m a l i z e d when t h e g u i d e l i n e s were  Another  work-  and MISBD  f o r exports t o the  (B.C. MISBD,  Annual  1981b). These  a c t i o n s were f o l l o w e d by a s e r i e s  of factors  108 which combined by Donham created  t o c r e a t e a slump i n c o a l m a r k e t s ,  (1982) as b e i n g :  a decrease  declining  industrial  listed production  i n m e t a l l u r g i c a l c o a l demand;  energy  c o n s e r v a t i o n m e a s u r e s were s u c c e s s f u l w h i c h c a u s e d in  the planned  generating sened  c o n s t r u c t i o n of c o a l - f i r e d  s t a t i o n s ; world  the p r i c e  delays  electricity-  o i l p r i c e s dropped which  a d v a n t a g e o f c o a l as an e n e r g y  les-  source;  and  P o l a n d c u t i t s c o a l p r i c e s w h i c h made them more c o m p e t i t i v e than  f o r e c a s t e r s had  these  factors  3.5.1  resulted  layoffs.  The  capacity,  and  for  1983;  a t o n n e and  when d e p r e s s e d  and  1982  and  1983  coal  of  o t h e r mines i n  (Murray,  instability  and western  Fording Coal l a i d  to operate  a t 60  per  L i n e Creek Coal delayed p r o d u c t i o n B . C . C o a l and  1981  markets  i n shut-downs  s i m i l a r problems.  s h i p m e n t s by  contracts and  1982  r e c e s s i o n spread,  workers i n l a t e  early  by  Kootenays, the optimism  overproduction resulted  Canada e x p e r i e n c e d  tainty  producers,  i n serious overproduction.  southeast  become a c r i s i s  which caused  coal  For Canadian  R e g i o n a l consequences of r e c e s s i o n In the  had  expected.  cent  planned  F o r d i n g C o a l c u t p r i c e s by  30 p e r c e n t , 1983) .  in their  T h i s gave r i s e  off  $13  Japanese to  uncer-  i n the Crowsnest r e g i o n :  The town o f Sparwood i s u n i t e d i n f r u s t r a t i o n , , . , the southeast c o a l f i e l d s are l a n g u i s h i n g w h i l e the government pours m i l l i o n s i n t o the n o r t h e a s t c o a l p r o j e c t , d e s p i t e d w i n d l i n g markets. ( C o m p a r e l l i , 1983)  109 Despite  these  indicators,  n o r t h w e s t , c o n s t r u c t i o n on t h e new  infrastructure  c o a l developments continued  1982), w h i l e to the  the  i n the n o r t h e a s t  unexpected d i f f i c u l t i e s  construction  environment.  construction  i n d u s t r y caused  Ridge,  and  increase  as p o t e n t i a l l y  capital losing  delays  T e c k and  Dennison  t i m i n g of the build  B.P.  a line  new  $56  million  (Richardson,  spur  over  15  Minerals  took  contract  and  over  obtained quick  In the  (Nutt,  with optimistic  Tumbler caused  noted  (Price and  competition  from  halted  Pacific  Region," t h i s  the  the Willow  to  the  C r e e k Mine  Sukunka's s m a l l K o r e a n c o a l Stage I I a p p r o v a l  because  they  1983).  by  Cited  c o n s t r u c t i o n proceeded Ridley Terminals as p o s s i b l y b e i n g  Inc., "the  c a t a l y s t w h i c h makes P r i n c e R u p e r t a d o m i n a n t p o r t o f North  an  e l i m i n a t i o n of the p l a n  i n 1983,  built  promises.  B.C.  1982), u n c e r t a i n t y over  n o r t h w e s t o f B.C.,  coal terminal being  line  years  f r o m Sukunka t o Chetwynd, t h e y  of David  the  i n developing  feeling  t e r m i n a l , and  a sales contract  problematic  Because o f t h i s ,  Canada was  Instead,  the  (1982),  costs for a project already  Sukunka p r o j e c t .  had  already  o f t h e B.C.  W a t e r h o u s e A s s o c i a t e s , 1981). b e c a u s e i n 1981  climate of  Labour c o n t r o v e r s i e s i n the  electrification  i n the  (Farrow,  Sightlines t o an  support,  A major o b s t a c l e  the harsh  r e g i o n s as r e p o r t e d i n Construction adding  i n t o 1982  problem a f t e r problem arose.  t i m i n g o f t h e p r o j e c t s was  to  and  facility  was  expected  to  the load  on  110 7 million  tonnes  Reports,  1982),  of coal and  site  with completion planned initially phased  a y e a r by  was  f o r December 1983. 12 m i l l i o n  sediments. being the tunities  The  increasing  "very s i g n i f i c a n t created" (ibid.) i t was  The  investment  total  million,  raised  was  and,  Being a c a p i t a l  was  procurement  capacity.  t o accommodate  depth  and  stabilizing cited  economic  r e p o r t e d t o be  full  The  by M a l k i n s o n and  which  was  benefits  time. $80  their  (Nutt,  because timing  w i t h a planned  Wakbayashi  capital  pro-  Industries  (coal-load-  the  Japanese  better,  of the northeast c o a l  p l a n n i n g and  and  and  their  1982b). project  was  (1982) as t h e c o o p e r a t i o n  a c h i e v e d between t h e p r i v a t e  i t s development  project,  of federal  a s M i t s u b i s h i Heavy  firm,  250  created, with  for a stacker-reclaimer  significance  cited  low-labour  the v i a b i l i t y  lower,  as  oppor-  f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n was  intensive  policies  a  as a " h i g h - t e c h n o l o g y "  the q u e s t i o n of the r e a l  t e c h n o l o g y more a d v a n c e d  ject,  o u t i n 1982  employment and  i n g equipment) over a Canadian  in  the  f r o m t h i s p r o j e c t was  required  awarded a c o n t r a c t  b i d was  1982  a year, but  e x p e c t e d t o employ 75 p e o p l e  the c o n t r o v e r s y i n c l u d i n g vincial  in  w i t h a peak c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k f o r c e o f a b o u t  employees. it  tonnes  the water  major b e n e f i t  terminal,  Terminal  Capacity  e v e n t u a l l y to double  D r e d g i n g o p e r a t i o n s were c a r r i e d l a r g e r v e s s e l s by  (Ridley  p r e p a r a t i o n began e a r l y  e x p e c t e d t o be  expansion  1984  and p u b l i c  implementation.  c o s t o f $2.5  sectors The  billion,  pro-  has  Ill continued the  with  construction  recessionary  period,  without c r i t i c i s m . suggested that  providing  that  Gunton  (1983, P e r s o n a l  the cost-benefit  P e r h a p s more i m p o r t a n t l y ,  occurs wholly outside  away f r o m p u b l i c d e b a t e .  implement t h e n o r t h e a s t  and  effective  industry;  using  the c r i t e r i a  summary,  project,  the northeast  concerns,  events r e s u l t e d i n a  and w h i c h c o n t i n u e t o  exemplifies  coal project,  onmental concerns o f p o s s i b l e t o l o c a l water q u a l i t y  proposal,  the controversy  In t h i s  from t h e  case,  envir-  damage t o t h e s a l m o n f i s h e r y  (Rose, 1983) s p a r k e d a p r e c e d e n t  s e t t i n g d e c i s i o n by ELUC when Quinsam r e c e i v e d II a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e subject In another case,  a  because,  i t , too, deviates  stated procedures i n the g u i d e l i n e s .  hearings.  for a  decisions.  The a p p r a i s a l o f t h e Quinsam C o a l  more r e c e n t  by p r i v a t e  inappropriate  investment  efficient  t h e CDG p r o g r a m i n an e n v i r o n m e n t  plagued with unresolved surface.  which  p r o c e s s and, t h e r e -  highly desired  these h i s t o r i c a l  which p l a c e d  coal  The a p p r o a c h u s e d t o p l a n  however, i t may be q u i t e  In  the northeast  c o a l p r o j e c t may be  government when making p u b l i c  and  of costs,  of decision-making  the l e g i s l a t i v e  and  like  s t u d y w h i c h recommended t h e  i n i t s accounting  development has s e t a p a t t e r n  context  communication)  t h e p r o j e c t would n o t p r o d u c e t h e e x p e c t e d n e t  benefits.  fore,  during  b u t the p r o j e c t has n o t proceeded  p r o j e c t was n o t c o m p r e h e n s i v e and  some a c t i v i t y  their  Stage  t o the conduct o f p u b l i c  concerns of  environmentalists  112 both  i n t h e K o o t e n a y s and  i n neighbouring  t h e Sage C r e e k p r o p o s a l , w i l l decision will  be  as t o w h i c h p l a n n i n g and a p p l i e d to these  consultative cess—will coal  not e a s i l y  process  be  CDG  A  process  multi-participant  secretive public  planning  d e t e r m i n e the c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e o f t h e  g u i d e l i n e s as a p r o g r a m .  over  eliminated.  project appraisal  cases—the  or the  Montana,  pro-  present  Chapter  4  COAL DEVELOPMENT  Institutional  The measure of legislation contained, but the logic to be exercised.  by  Arrangements  is not simply the powers which these powers are  - S.  4.1  numerous. and  instruments to  implement p u b l i c  Some measures a r e  direct,  accompanying r e g u l a t i o n s  less  direct  and  for  Canada, t h e policy  levels  at  the  from the  there  divisions  stries,  mining; others  coal  the  are  and  less  branches of  v a r i o u s committees or  representatives.  Two  Constitution—federal  several  cabinet-minister  levels.  In  are  are  formal  and  provinincluding  v a r i o u s departments or  l e v e l , and  Implementation of  113  some w i t h  mini-  membership  working-level public  and  various  formal l e v e l s ,  panels,  are  guidelines  development. the  are  legislation  c o n d u c t government p l a n n i n g  several different  arising  cial—but  coal  policies  i n the  i n s t i t u t i o n s which administer  i n s t r u m e n t s and  structured  as  more f l e x i b l e , i n c l u d i n g  p l a n n i n g processes which a f f e c t  at  of  Introduction The  the  Rogers, B.C. M i n i s t e r the Environment (1981)  policy  agency for  coal  114 d e v e l o p m e n t has all  these  as  f o r , and  planning  and  the  the  new  addressed,  describes  4.2  outcome o f  and  This  i n t e r a c t i o n s among  chapter deals  administration  of,  ensuing problems t h a t  development of  coal  an  l e v e l s through time.  instruments and  evolved  c o a l mines and the  development g u i d e l i n e s  with  the  public policy a r o s e when  the  r e l a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t s were  operating  procedures of  the  program.  L e g i s l a t i o n , Regulations, and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r C o a l Development Legislation  which comprises tions,  on  t h e y may  the  i s a d i r e c t instrument of p u b l i c p o l i c y  statutes  other  include  hand, a r e  the  of  that  i n d i v i d u a l s and  because the  of  i n the  scattered,  and  and  i n B.C.  and  include  approvals.  Regulaand  to modify the private  Canada, 197 9 ) .  by beha-  sector This  broad  regulation i s necessary p u b l i c p o l i c y and  licences, leases, The  imple-  permits,  procedures are  varied,  extensive.  A review of tion,  of  law.  c o n s t r a i n t s backed  firms  f o r c a r r y i n g out  menting p u b l i c plans certificates,  of  intended  legislation  tools  force of  are  (Canada, E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l definition  the  more l o o s e l y d e f i n e d ,  imposition  government a u t h o r i t y viour  holding  regulations,  the and  indicated that  incomplete because of  existing literature administration the  field  continual  was  on  the  legisla-  p e r t a i n i n g to coal largely inaccurate  changes.  McGee's  (1973)  use and  115 review  was  compendia issues  found  t o be  focussed  s u b s t a n t i a l l y out  o n l y on  i n c o a l mining.  legislation  legislation  reviewed mining e x p l o r a t i o n c o n t r o l s . t h a t he  accurately present Environment The  and  Guidelines  now  no  ELUCS, 1976)  Thirgood  Hogg  Gibbons  (1972)  (1980),  while  not  the  situation--for  the  B.C.  Use  Act  was  not  instance,  included i n his  S t a t u t o r y R e q u i r e m e n t s " and  for  longer  and  certain  a complete overview, d i d  Government A g e n c y C o n t r a c t s , " the  and  other  provided  Land  "Summary o f  and  p e r t i n e n t to  F o r example, D i c k  (1975) e x a m i n e d r e c l a m a t i o n  suggesting  of date,  Coal  and  i s out  Appendices  Development  a p p l i c a b l e , and of date.  the  (B.C.  survey.  "Provincial  I and  III in  ELUC, 1976)  the  legislative  The  brochure  was  summary  (B.C.  (B.C.  MISBD,  1981c) c l a i m i n g t o f a m i l i a r i z e members o f t h e b u s i n e s s munity w i t h  government  i n s t i t u t i o n s and p o l i c i e s on e n v i r o n -  m e n t a l management, c i t e d Pesticides  Control  t h e Health  Act  tal in  management.  Act,  as  northeast tional east  Environment  and  coal,  and  this  A more c o m p l e t e  failed survey  and  f o r environmenbeen  the  provided  Framework  document  i t lacked  was  in  the  organiza-  i n planning  to mention s e v e r a l f e d e r a l i s presented  Act, Act,  planning  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s used and  Use  "Institutional  Although  province,  Control  summary has  a supplement to a i d r e s o u r c e r e g i o n of the  Land  legislation  appendix,  Resource Development."  w r i t t e n as  the P o l l u t i o n  most c o m p l e t e  C r o o k ' s (1982a) d r a f t  for  only  r e l e v a n t B.C. The  com-  i n Appendix H  north-  agencies. which  116 shows t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n Appendix  I which contains  regulations  the relevant  and g u i d e l i n e s ,  ments r e q u i r e d  4.2.1  o f key p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t r i e s , and  of coal  federal  legislation,  and t h e type o f c o n t r o l  agree-  companies.  M i n i s t r y o f Energy, Mines and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s  The mandate o f t h e m i n i s t r y i s t o d e v e l o p a n d manage t h e e n e r g y p o l i c y o f t h e p r o v i n c e , t o manage p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s f o r m i n e r a l and p e t r o l e u m r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p ment, a n d t o implement sound c o n s e r v a t i o n a n d e n v i r o n mental measures f o r t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s . (B.C. MEMPR, 1979b, p . 39) Within  t h e MEMPR, t h e M i n e r a l  administrative  body r e s p o n s i b l e  compliance with mining and  administering  Coal  for obtaining  legislation,  t h e Mines  Act p r o v i d e d  appraisals,  R e s o u r c e s D i v i s i o n was t h e  as i t r e q u i r e d  a s shown i n F i g u r e  Act a n d t h e Coal  the l e g i s l a t i v e  industry  foundation  c o m p a n i e s t o make  Act. for  5,  The project  submissions  according t o : . . . a p l a n o f o p e r a t i o n s showing t h e e x p l o r a t i o n , d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d p r o d u c t i o n i n t e n d e d t o be c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e l o c a t i o n d u r i n g t h e term o f t h e l e a s e , support e d by s u c h d a t a , f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s , a n d o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n a s t h e M i n i s t e r may, i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the r e g u l a t i o n s , r e q u i r e f o r t h e purpose o f e v a l u a t i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n . (B.C., 1974, p . 9) It  then provided  ding  d i r e c t i o n f o r government d e c i s i o n s  regar-  the proposal; . . . where t h e M i n i s t e r i s s a t i s f i e d operation f i l e d . . . provides for (i)  that  the plan o f  t h e s a f e and e f f i c i e n t e x p l o r a t i o n , development, and p r o d u c t i o n o f c o a l on t h e l o c a t i o n ; a n d  CABINET R-Bcnner  R.C HYDRO a POWER AUTHORITY  Chairmo*  Hon R. H McCitllood Chairman 0. Rowlyk Generof Monooer M.Toylor Choirmon  B.C. P E T R O L E U M CORPORATION B.C UTILITIES COMMISSION  MINISTER DEPUTY MINISTER  ENERGY DEVELOPMENT A a a a R. IlMno,  Hon. R. H. McCltlland  OIRECTOff OF COMMUNICATIONS  P Hruihowy  MINERAL RESOURCES DIVISION  ENERGY RESOURCES DIVISION  PETROLEUM RESOURCES DIVISION  FINANCE 8 ADMINISTRATION DIVISION  ASSISTANT DEPUTY MINISTER  ASSISTANT DEPUTY MINISTER  ASSISTANT DEPUTY MINISTER  ASSISTANT DEPUTY MINISTER  A. Fftymon  E. R. Mocgrtgor  R.Dvirif  J. A. Lewis  Branch  Branch  Branch  Branch  GEOUDGICAL  A. Sutherland Brown  POLICY DEVELOPMENT  D.Hora»lll  ENGINEERING  A.G.T.Wtovtr  INSPECTION 9 ENGINEERING  W. C. Robinion  FORECASTS 8 SPECIAL PROJECTS  R.A.Prtec«  GEOLOGICAL  J. Cloncy(Acling)  CONSERVATION 8 RENEWABLE ENERGY  J.OHill  MINERAL ECONOMICS  TITLES  R_ Rulhtrfort  PROJECT ANALYSIS  TECHNOLOGY  Figure  5  B.C.  OiOGormon  MINERAL REVENUE  W W. R«t  W. M.Young  COMPTROLLER  R. R Oovy  TITLES  W.J.Quinn  PERSONNEL  MEDIATION R ARBITRATION BOARO  E. Smith  DATA PROCESSING  OFFSHORE RESOURCES  P FinKIt (Acting)  ADMINISTRATION 8 SYSTEMS  N.K.Cilltip*  T. Choi'on  M i n i s t r y o f E n e r g y , Mines' and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s r—  1  118 (ii)  t h e optimum r e c o v e r y o f c o a l r e s u l t i n g from> p r o d u c t i o n on t h e l o c a t i o n , w i t h minimum o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t , t h e L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l . . . s h a l l i s s u e a l e a s e . (B.C., 1974, p . 9 ) For  coal resources,  t h i s D i v i s i o n maintained  tenure  records  f o r c o a l l i c e n c e s and l e a s e s .  bility  f o r r e g u l a t i o n s governing  f o r lands  field  operations work.  data  Branch.  a s w e l l as f o r t h e c o m p l e t i o n  s t u d i e s , and c o m p i l a t i o n s ,  s y s t e m on c o a l r e s e r v e s .  f o r t h e government  and  taxation factors relating  branch a l s o provided  fiscal  out g e o s c i e n t i f i c maintaining  a provincial  The M i n e r a l E c o n o m i c  Branch analy-  f o r economic c o n d i t i o n s , l a n d use, t o the c o a l i n d u s t r y .  This  e c o n o m i c e x p e r t i s e f o r c o a l p o l i c y and  economic a n a l y s e s  f o r c o a l marketing,  financial  e v a l u a t i o n s o f c o a l p r o j e c t s , government  grams, and s t a t i s t i c s The  of reclamation  and E v a l u a t i o n B r a n c h ) c o n d u c t e d  ses  planning,  conducted  i n s p e c t i o n s t o c h e c k mines f o r s a f e t y o f  (renamed t h e P o l i c y  and  T h i s branch  The G e o l o g i c a l B r a n c h c a r r i e d  surveys,  and f o r r e c l a m a t i o n  d i s t u r b e d by c o a l m i n i n g , was h e l d by t h e  I n s p e c t i o n and E n g i n e e r i n g regional  The r e s p o n s i -  extraction of coal, f o r  w o r k e r and p u b l i c s a f e t y a t t h e s i t e , approval  the  on c o a l p r o d u c t i o n ,  pro-  s a l e s , and v a l u e .  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e c o a l d e v e l o p m e n t g u i d e l i n e s moved  f r o m t h e I n s p e c t i o n and E n g i n e e r i n g E v a l u a t i o n Branch  B r a n c h t o t h e P o l i c y and  i n M a r c h 1983.  Because c o a l developments c r e a t e cerns  among many g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s ,  i m p a c t s and c o n -  inter-agency  119 consultative  procedures  from d i f f e r e n t  ministries  l e v e l o f government. organizational organization examined. jects  is  or duplication  working  i n some  s t r u c t u r e s and f u n c t i o n s a p p e a r e d  A formal procedure  operated  when t h e  that  of the senior, i n effect  the t e c h n i c a l  f o r most c o a l  yet parallel,  and s t r u c t u r e s o p e r a t e d  of the North  thus,  A parallel  at a different  and f u n c t i o n o f t h e s e v a r i o u s c o m m i t t e e s was  noteworthy  any  and e a c h  i n the provincei s p e c i a l ,  cedures tion  e v o l v e d , each w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  pro-  sets of pro-  i n t h e p l a n n i n g and e v a l u a -  E a s t C o a l Development the Minister of t h i s decision-making,  (NECD) p r o j e c t .  It  agency d i d n o t c h a i r  c o a l committees, and,  the m i n i s t r y ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  l a y only with  a p p r a i s a l o f c o a l mine d e v e l o p m e n t and  reclamation planning, MEMPR had c a b i n e t - l e v e l nificant  inter-agency decision-making  legislatively functioned after sal  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on two committees.  to grant approval i n p r i n c i p l e  procedures,  Stage  to coal  mines  I I o f t h e CDG p r o j e c t a p p r a i -  when t h e y w o u l d be g r a n t e d p e r m i s s i o n t o  begin construction.  This formal decision-making  was a l s o t o be f o l l o w e d f o r o t h e r c o a l - r e l a t e d t o w n s i t e s , power l i n e s ,  without  formal l e g i s l a t i v e  chaired  by MISBD, was a p a r a l l e l  nate  The ELUC  mandated by t h e ELU Act and c h a i r e d by MOE,  t h e y had c o m p l e t e d  —railways,  sig-  and r o a d s .  procedure  developments The CCCD,  o r r e g u l a t o r y mandate, and g r o u p t h a t met t o c o o r d i -  and d e c i d e upon d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e NECD p r o j e c t ,  The  120 MEMPR d e p u t y m i n i s t e r a l s o s a t o n two i n t e r - a g e n c y tees responsible ments.  f o r reviewing coal  The ELUTC was f o r m a l l y  commit-  and r e l a t e d d e v e l o p -  structured  t o review the  comments, t e r m s , a n d c o n d i t i o n s n e g o t i a t e d b y t h e CGSC and the c o a l companies,  a n d make s u b m i s s i o n s t o ELUC.  a n d t h e NEC D e p u t y M i n i s t e r ' s Committee structure  yet functioned d i f f e r e n t l y .  had a p a r a l l e l These committees  c h a i r e d by t h e MOE a n d MISBD d e p u t y m i n i s t e r s , At  t h e working l e v e l ,  agency committee lines  respectively. inter-  f o r c o a l d e v e l o p m e n t was t h e C o a l  Guide-  guidelines process. contact  (CGSC), w h i c h c o o r d i n a t e d t h e  I t was e x p e c t e d t o be t h e " p r i m a r y for a coal  sonal communication). ding overall  were  t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t  S t e e r i n g Committee  government  The ELUTC  company"  (Crook, 1981, P e r -  The CGSC was r e s p o n s i b l e  technical-level direction  to coal  a p p r o v i n g S t a g e I s u b m i s s i o n s , and making  for provicompanies,  recommendations t o  ELUC o n t e r m s and c o n d i t i o n s  f o r approval a f t e r submission  of Stage I I .  was f o r m e r l y  T h i s committee  a member o f t h e ELU S e c r e t a r i a t MEMPR, b u t a f t e r  jointly  c h a i r e d by  and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f  1980 t h e c h a i r was o c c u p i e d by t h e S e n i o r  I n s p e c t o r o f Mines a l o n e , "Manager, P r o j e c t  and t h e p o s i t i o n  Evaluation"  took the t i t l e  i n 1983.  A p p e n d i x J shows t h e i n t e r - a g e n c y c o m m i t t e e s responsibilities agency was  standing  related  t o c o a l development.  sub-committees  reported  Two i n t e r -  t o t h e CGSC.  t h e S o c i o - E c o n o m i c C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee  with  One  (SECC), w h i c h  121 provided and II  t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e t o t h e CGSC and c o a l  coordinated reports.  rized  its  companies,  t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r e v i e w s o f Stage I and  The SECC was c h a i r e d  by MMA,  and C r o o k summa-  functions:  s o l i c i t , c o l l e c t , summarize and i n t e g r a t e t h e r e v i e w comments o f t h o s e p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s w h i c h a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s o f c o a l mines,* consider the socio-economic aspects of mining prop o s a l s , i n c l u d i n g p r o j e c t - r e l a t e d i m p a c t s and i m p a c t management; a d v i s e t h e CGSC on s o c i o - e c o n o m i c related to projects;  considerations  recommend t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e f o r s t u d i e s t o t h e CGSC; and i n t e r p r e t p r o v i n c i a l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c p o l i c i e s t o companies. (1982, P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) The  second,  also provided nies,  t h e Economic E v a l u a t i o n  technical  advice  t o t h e CGSC and c o a l  and c o n d u c t e d c o s t - b e n e f i t  government  investment could  functions,  a c c o r d i n g t o Crook:  Committee  (EEC),  compa-  a n a l y s e s where m a j o r  occur,  and as p a r t  of i t s  a d v i s e s c o m p a n i e s o f t h e c o s t and r e v e n u e d a t a which a r e r e q u i r e d t o undertake i t s b e n e f i t / c o s t evalua t i o n s ; and of The  a d v i s e s t h e CGSC o f t h e o v e r a l l b e n e f i t / c o s t projects. (ibid.)  EEC was c h a i r e d  status  by a member o f t h e P o l i c y and E v a l u a -  t i o n B r a n c h o f t h e MEMPR, whose a n a l y s e s were h a n d l e d confidential public  in a  manner and were n o t n o r m a l l y a v a i l a b l e f o r  scrutiny. The  NECD h a d a n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  structure  parallel  t o t h e CGSC and i t s s u b - c o m m i t t e e s , where t h e NECD was administered  by t h e NECCC.  Unlike  t h e CGSC, where  122 membership was agencies, public  drawn f r o m t h e w o r k i n g - l e v e l b i o p h y s i c a l  t h e NECCC c o n s i s t e d o f m a j o r d e v e l o p e r s ,  and  private,  sub-committee,  t h e NEC  tee,  paralleled  with  socio-economic  level  the  6).  The  economic p o l i c y  Another was  impact  and  parallel  (B.C.  c o o r d i n a t e d by MMA  Committee on  S e c t i o n 9 o f t h e Mines  the M i n e s i t e A d v i s o r y Committee on  o f S e c t i o n 8 o f t h e Mines  Reclamation  Act, The  c h a i r e d by  ACR  reviewed  Committee  Reclamation, Act,  had  t o r e c l a m a t i o n and  impacts,  subject to r e f e r r a l  regional  level  practice, direct  a p p r o a c h was  southeast  however, t h e  interaction with  and  t o t h e ACR thought  coal  (ACR),  and  the  and  A regional (MAC)  or  under the  the auth-  responsibility  recommending a p p r o v a l o f c o a l e x p l o r a t i o n and programs i n r e l a t i o n  of  MISBD, 1 9 8 2 c ) .  i n t e r - a g e n c y committee a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  Regional Advisory  mines i n t h e  a team  c o s t - b e n e f i t analyses  recommended a p p r o v a l o f r e c l a m a t i o n p r o g r a m s ,  ority  (see  g u i d e l i n e s was  conducted  I n s p e c t o r o f M i n e s o f MEMPR,  counterpart,  concerned  management a t t h e r e g i o n a l  t o t h e EEC  a d v i s o r s who  One  Impact C o n s u l t a t i o n Commit-  T h i s committee was  the A d v i s o r y  mandated by Chief  Regional  SECC.  t h e NECD p r o j e c t  mining  were i n v o l v e d i n NECD p r o j e c t s .  i n a working-group format  Figure  for  who  both  for  development  environmental in Victoria,  to apply  This  equally to  the  the Peace R i v e r c o a l b l o c k s .  In  d e c e n t r a l i z e d a t t e m p t s o f MAC  for  c o a l companies d i d not f u n c t i o n .  CABINET COMMITTEE O N COM. N O R T H EAST COM.  HM. D M . P W K p i  COORDINATING COMMITTEE C f c w m a n HM. S.R. B n l o r d M E M B E R S : B r i t n f c C o t w n W i h>dt« DEPUTY MINISTERS'  B t i t K h C o t u m b l * Rartwaf  COMMITTtt  CMudis* Nilioatl Rtihttf  O t t k m t n A.L f N l  O i s t i i d o l T w n b t e f Rid(C M m r t l n t tl I i i m p o r t i l i M mi  Higliwiyl  Nittwol Hjfbowi Bond Quintette Coal I m i l e d  leek Cwpofilxx*  rata Mm so*  ECONOMIC  Dfrurr DIRECTOR  I DEVELOPMENT H  WibtNpsM  ADMINISTRATOR  MANAGER REGULATORY  I  MANAGER  MANACER  MANPOWR DfVlinPUfNI  COMMUNICATIONS  PROIECT  ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS 8  REGIONAL  nuns  CONTROt  DEYE10PMFNT  PORIATION  STSIEMS  Ckcani  P. S i f t f l  A Hewett  H  PrilciM*  & SERVICES  6. loKeti  N  Ptftl  I  McCotwchr DAWSON  CHETWYND  CRT FA  COORDINAIOR  COORDINATOR  0  Figure  6  B.C. N o r t h E a s t C o a l D e v e l o p m e n t O r g a n i z a t i o n  Structure  McCwtMf  M.  HifwMd  ounvf comnntt  WCM  IIMD ii m a *  a o a n i msi c o m  COMMimt Ommm Nat I t l i M  COOftXMIMC  t c n m MtMsirnr  DOfCTM  tail  t»M  Mf MMtS: BriMi dtaflAb Mpfre dHKh ( M i l CmadiM IMiml OHM •< laaMa t r i p  tt**i Utmtf  9<natf<tf Call I M M IKI COPVIUM  umsm W.I  wrtm micro* t UUMCH  MWIWSTUTM  I tkm*  ncioiHt  nun.  •MUCH  HAJUUI  MCUUIOtV I  Mvunrwin  WMCtl  rionci CSMWOtlOIIIOIR  MUKS r.  ctMim  m i l *s t turners I MCTJMC%  (MWttM C«fl«  ammiNiiM  cwnrrim  cnomiuiM  0 HcCvlMT  Figure  6  B.C. N o r t h E a s t C o a l  Development  Organization  Structure  t—•  124 4.2.2 M i n i s t r y  o f Environment  The M i n i s t r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t p r o v i d e s t h e p r o v i n c e w i t h t o o l s f o r c a r r y i n g o u t t h e commitment t o p r e s e r v e B r i t i s h Columbia's unique n a t u r a l h e r i t a g e . The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e m i n i s t r y r e f l e c t s b o t h t h e d i v e r s i t y and t h e i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s o f a l l e l e m e n t s t h a t make up t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , a s w e l l a s t h e need f o r c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g , management and e n v i r o n m e n t a l s e r v i c e s t o meet v a r i e d r e g i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s t h a t extend from t h e P a c i f i c t o the A r c t i c watershed. (B.C. MOE, 1980b, p . 2) This  passage r e f l e c t s t h e problem as w e l l  p r o m i s e o f t h e MOE. its  biophysical  sive  divisional lized  to describe.  decisions  regarding  staff  i t had l i t t l e  legislative  and d e p u t y - m i n i s t e r e f f o r t was t h e r e f o r e  environmental values. extensive  level.  and  directed  as  toward  shown i n F i g u r e  techniques t o preserve  To a d d r e s s t h e many e n v i r o n m e n t a l  be a d d r e s s e d o n l y  process. 7.  except  non-legisla-  Most MOE  c o a l development, both i n the r e g i o n a l  appraisal  to affect  working-level  and t i m e - c o n s u m i n g i n v o l v e m e n t  i n V i c t o r i a , could  project  legislation  authority  Most  r e v i e w o f d e v e l o p e r p l a n s was c o n d u c t e d . regarding  centra-  c o a l d e v e l o p m e n t and o p e r a t i o n s ,  ad h o c , p l a n n i n g and a s s e s s m e n t  concerns,  between  e n v i r o n m e n t a s s e s s m e n t and management  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e m i n i s t r y ' s that  at cabinet  T h e r e a p p e a r e d t o be d u p l i c a t i o n o f  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and an o v e r l a p  indicates  ted,  i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h c o a l development a r e  and r e g i o n a l i z e d  functions.  MOE  Because o f t h e s i z e o f the p r o v i n c e ,  d i v e r s i t y a n d t h e a t t e m p t s a t a comprehen-  r a t i o n a l e , MOE  difficult  as t h e  i n the concerns  districts  t h r o u g h t h e CDG  The MOE h a d f i v e main d i v i s i o n s  B r a n c h e s o f t h e A s s e s s m e n t and  125 MINISTER C.S. Rogers  DEPUTY MINISTER B.E.Marr  Information Servlcea Dr. Dtr: R.L. Cameron  ADMINISTRATION DIVISION Executive Director: J.R. Marshall  REGIONAL OPERATIONS Dry. Assistant Deputy Minister: E.D. Anthony  ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OtV Assistant Deputy Minister: A. Murray  ASSESSMENTS PLANNING DP/. Assistant Deputy Minister: W.N. Venables  PERSONNEL SERVICES BR. Dir: R.C Webber  FISH a WILDLIFE BR. Dir: D.J. Robinson  CONSERVATION OFFICER SERVICE Chid Conservation Or): R.L. AkJrich  VANCOUVER ISLAND REGION Reg. Dir: J.C. Lyons  PLANNING BR. Dir: Dr. J. O'Rkxdan  FINANCIAL SERVICES BR. Dir: K.R. MacKay  MARINE RESOURCES BR. Dir: T.G Halsey  PROVINCIAL EMERGENCY | PROGRAM Dir: RE Neale  LOWER MAINLANO REGION Reg. Dir. D.R Hehn  ASSESSMENT BR. Dir: Dr. AN. Boydell  COMPUTING SERVICES BR. Dir. MF Rose  WASTE MANAGEMENT BR. Dir: R.H. Ferguson  THOMPSON4«COLA REG. 1 CARIBOO REG. Rag. Dir: W A Kasteten  TERRESTRIAL STUDIES BR. Dir: W A Benson  WATER MANAGEMENT BR. Dir: P.M. Brady  KOOTENAY REGION Rag. Dir D.G McDonald  AQUATIC STUDIES BR. Dir: Dr. R.J. Buchanan  PESTICIDE CONTROL BR. Dir: Dr. R.W. Kobylnyk  SKEENA REGION Reg. Dir: D.E.Smuin  AIR STUDIES BR. Dir: Dr. R. Wilson  OMINECA-PEACE REGION Reg. Dir: A B Mitchell  ENVIRONMENTAL LAB Dir: Dr. R. Swingle  OKANAGAN REGION Rag. Dir: T.H. Oxland  SURVEYS S MAPPING BR. Dir: E.R. McMmn  to safeguard the quality of an, water, land, flora and fauna and the social and economic needs of people  Province of British Columbia Ministry of Environment The mam objective of the Ministry ot Environment is to make sure that people, fish and wildlife have a good environment m which to live, work and play m (tie province ot British Columbia In carrying out this mandate the Mimslry must maintain a balance between the need  To Defter meet this resportSrb'iify the Ministry ol Environment is presently undergoing a major reorganization thai <s designed to introduce a common planning and management base tor all ministry programs I Mis will reguue rewriting legislation realigning programs and regionalizing much Ot trie decision making process I his organization chart reflects the Ministry s structure as of July t y f l l . Dir. Reg. Oiv. Br.  Figure  (Jirecioi Regional Division lirancn  7  B.C. M i n i s t r y  o f Environment  125  Figure  7  B.C. M i n i s t r y o f  Environment  126  Planning and  Division,  the Regional  regarding  t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l Management  Operations  responsibilities  c o a l and r e l a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t s t h r o u g h t h e CDG  r e v i e w o f new  proposals.  Coal operations Management D i v i s i o n , Control  D i v i s i o n had  Act,  t h e Water  were m o n i t o r e d by t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l  which a d m i n i s t e r e d Act,  the former  and t h e W i l d l i f e  f o r the d a i l y  t i o n o f p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l permits  and a p p r o v a l s ,  Water Management B r a n c h was r e s p o n s i b l e management  o f water r e s o u r c e s  Pollution  Act.  Management B r a n c h was r e s p o n s i b l e  and  Division,  The Waste  administraand t h e  f o r the a l l o c a t i o n  by i s s u i n g l i c e n c e s f o r  w a t e r u s e and p r o v i d i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n on f l o o d i n g , e r o s i o n , and  protection-design  strategies,  Bankes and Thompson  (1980) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r m o n i t o r i n g scientific  e v a l u a t i v e technique  t o support  o f p r o j e c t a s s e s s m e n t c o u l d be f o u n d tools.  as a  the o b j e c t i v e s  i n these  statutory  T h i s p o t e n t i a l has n o t been r e a l i z e d , however,  "because implementations o f m o n i t o r i n g w e l l understood, monitoring  provisions are not  does n o t c o n t i n u e  shutdown, and p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n  after  project  i s non-existent"  (ibid.,  p. 1 2 ) . P r o p o s e d new l e g i s l a t i o n was e x p e c t e d t o h e l p improve e f f i c i e n c y Act  and  the W i l d l i f e  grate with This  and c o n s i s t e n c y .  latter  Management  The Waste  Management  Act were p l a n n e d t o i n t e -  t h e a p p r o a c h o f t h e Environment a c t c o n s o l i d a t e d MOE  MOE  management  Management  Act.  responsibilities  127 by  allowing  f o rthe "creation of coordinated  systems f o r  e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t u d y and d e c i s i o n s , s o t h a t b o t h t h e p u b l i c and  other  m i n i s t r i e s o f government c o u l d  and  consistent consideration of their  expect  efficient  concerns"  (B.C., MOE,  1981a, p . 2 ) . W i d e r powers were s o u g h t s o t h a t activities planning  would be s e e n a s o n l y  process.  reference  When t h i s  one p a r t o f an o v e r a l l  a p p r o a c h was c o n s i d e r e d  t o c o a l d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e MOE e f f o r t s  d a t i o n and p l a n n i n g  met w i t h  little  success.  e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t u d i e s and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , stered  with  at consoliThe s y s t e m f o r  later  admini-  i n p a r t b y b o t h MEMPR and MISBD, was n o t r a t i o n a l i z e d  o r w i t h i n MOE s c o n t r o l .  In current  1  tion  assessment  required  inter-agency The cabinet  t o assess  environmental  impacts occurs  through  committees. ELUC and ELUTC, c h a i r e d ,  r e s p e c t i v e l y , by t h e  m i n i s t e r and d e p u t y m i n i s t e r o f MOE, were  responsible  f o r r e s o l v i n g resource  mandate i n t h e Environment provided  practice, the coordina-  and Land  b r o a d powers u n d e r S e c t i o n  conflicts Use Act,  officially  through  their  This act  3(b) f o r ELUC t o :  Ensure t h a t a l l a s p e c t s o f p r e s e r v a t i o n and maintenance of t h e n a t u r a l environment a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f l a n d u s e and r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t commensurate w i t h a maximum b e n e f i c i a l l a n d u s e , a n d m i n i m i z e and p r e v e n t waste o f r e s o u r c e s , a n d d e s p o l i a t i o n o f the environment occasioned thereby. (B.C., 1971) . and  f u r t h e r , under S e c t i o n  6:  . . . n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g any o t h e r A c t o r r e g u l a t i o n , . . no M i n i s t e r , d e p a r t m e n t o f Government, o r a g e n t o f t h e Crown s p e c i f i e d i n . . . [an] o r d e r s h a l l e x e r c i s e any  128 power g r a n t e d u n d e r any o t h e r A c t o r r e g u l a t i o n i n accordance w i t h the o r d e r . (B.C., 1971) L a t e r d e c i s i o n s o f ELUC were l i m i t e d  to  except  rejection  or a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e of coal-proponent  staged  based  t h e ELUTC.  on  recommendations from  T h e s e d e c i s i o n s were s i t e not  attempt  impacts  t h e CGSC and  and  project-specific.  to r e s o l v e land-use  t h a t m i g h t be  caused  conflicts  by  r e g i o n ; thus, these concerns  and  planned  t h e MOE,  decision-making To prepared  fit.  The  b l o c k was gic  strategic  cumulative  t h e g r o u p and  from  The  t h e CDG  clear  access  The  of  to  the Planning  Branch  regional  developments  strategic  process"  should  and  identification Strategic  strate-  (B.C.  MOE,  1981b,  a comprehensive e n v i r o n -  fish,  w a t e r and  asso-  coal projects wildlife,  a i r quality  o f management o b j e c t i v e s p l a n n i n g was  coal  p l a n n i n g program  proposed  p l a n would address and  first  p r o g r a m t o measure i m p a c t s  existing  water a l l o c a t i o n ,  aspect.  Planning D i v i s i o n  r e g i o n f o r which the  management p l a n and  the r e g i o n .  the  assessed  E l k 7 F l a t h e a d P l a n n i n g U n i t i n the southeast  c i a t e d with the f i v e  tion,  impacts,  w i t h an o b j e c t i v e t o d e v e l o p  mental  no  i n t o w h i c h new  p l a n s were d e v e l o p e d .  22)  had  t o be  plans to provide consistent  policies  "arose d i r e c t l y p.  cumulative  procedures.  address  environmental  division  or the  were l e f t  t h e A s s e s s m e n t and  although this  They d i d  s e v e r a l mines o p e r a t i n g i n  one  f o r by  documents  for  not c o o r d i n a t e d  in  recrea-  through  each through  129 inter-agency  committees,  government a g e n c i e s the  to develop  gram f o r t h e which these trial,  direct  input  and  tural  A i r Studies was  zoning  Agricultural  ALR.  had  inventory  the  t h r o u g h t h e ALC was  t o new of  coal  land i n  f o r mine s i t e s to cross  Through the  Soil  the a u t h o r i t y to r e g u l a t e the from mining  Agricul-  conditional-use  a l s o necessary  rights-of-way.  Terres-  task of a c t i n g  With r e f e r e n c e  (ALR), and  on  division,  inter-agency  w h i c h had  pro-  per-  within land Conservation  c o n t r o l of  activities.  M i n i s t r y of Industry and S m a l l B u s i n e s s Development The  m i n i s t r y had related  The  of  was  i m p a c t management  r e g u l a t e d n o n - f a r m i n g use  permission  sedimentation 4.2.3  (ALC),  Land R e s e r v e s  reserves with ALC  setting  s i m i l a r process  Branches of t h i s  authority.  were a r r a n g e d ALC  i n t o the  Unit.  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  d e v e l o p m e n t s , ALC  mits  a comprehensive  Peace R i v e r P l a n n i n g  Land Commission  a land  A  other  p l a n s were b a s e d came f r o m t h e A q u a t i c ,  MOE  Act,  no  c o a l c o m p a n i e s and  r e g i o n a l management o b j e c t i v e s .  initiated  as  had  and  E c o n o m i c A n a l y s i s and t h e most e x t e n s i v e  d e v e l o p m e n t s i n B.C.,  Research Bureau of  involvement  as may  be  with  this  coal  seen i n F i g u r e  and 8.  The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e E c o n o m i c A n a l y s i s and R e s e a r c h B u r e a u i s t o p r o v i d e t h e D e p u t y M i n i s t e r , M i n i s t e r and C a b i n e t w i t h f a c t u a l economic d a t a r e q u i r e d t o develop government p o l i c y . The b u r e a u a l s o p r o v i d e s p o l i c y a s s e s s m e n t s and d e v e l o p m e n t a l t e r n a t i v e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e i n d u s t r i a l , t r a d e and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c activities in  MINISTER B.C.D.C. B.C. RAIL B.C. HARBOURS BOARD  EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT DEPUTY MINISTER  PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION & COORDINATION DIVISION  COMMUNITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTl  PROGRAM COORDINATION  TRADE AND INDUSTRY DIVISION  PROGRAM DESIGN & PROJECT APPRAISAL  ECONOMIC & BUSINESS STATISTICS  INDUSTRY  ADMINISTRATION AND INFORMATION SERVICES  CENTRAL STATISTICS BUREAU  POPULATION AND SOCIAL STATISTICS  SMALL BUSINESS SERVICES  STATISTICAL SERVICES & INTEGRATION  Figure  TRADE AND CAPITAL PROJECTS  BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT  ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT -EUROPE  ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND RESEARCH BUREAU  REGIONAL AND RESOURCE ANALYSIS  SECTORAL ANALYSIS  8 B.C. M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r y and Small B u s i n e s s Development  INTERNATNL ECONOMIC RELATIONS  SPECIAL PROJECTS  to o  131 the p r o v i n c e . The b u r e a u e v a l u a t e s m a j o r p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l s , and p r o v i d e s t h e p l a n n i n g and coordinating f u n c t i o n s n e c e s s a r y t o t h e i r r e a l i z a t i o n . The b u r e a u has t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e v e l o p i n g and coordinating t h e p r o v i n c e s i n d u s t r i a l p o l i c y and t r a d e d e v e l o p m e n t strategies. (B.C. MISBD, 1981b, p. 27) 1  The  Regional Resource A n a l y s i s  concentrated also in  its activities  on  Branch of the  s o u t h e a s t and  included:  (1)  NECD p r o j e c t , simulation  Hat  Creek.  coordination (2)  of  The the  development o f  models,  (3)  investments,  s p e c i f i c a t i o n of  ments f o r NECD, and  evaluation  (6)  of  carried joint  path of  the  computer social  d e t a i l e d manpower of  and  require-  negotiations  private  between  companies.  On-going c o a l market a n a l y s i s  and  out  i t participated in a  by  t h i s bureau.  In  f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l world  I n f o r m a t i o n and  educational  a n a l y s e s were c a r r i e d o u t p a p e r s and  publications,  for a coal-studies  1980,  g r a i n - and  functions  with regard  through b r i e f i n g s , and  also  study. to  these  research  P o l i c y and  project  for transportation  development—Ridley no  was  a g r a n t t o Canada West F o u n d a ^  conference.  coal-port  research  t h e r m a l c o a l demand  e c o n o m i c a n a l y s e s were c o n d u c t e d and  activities  provincial infrastructure  facilitation  g o v e r n m e n t s , Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s ,  had  developments  branch's  critical  had  but  T u m b l e r R i d g e t o w n s i t e and  (4)  (5)  to coal  rail-costing  impact analyses,  tion  NECD p r o j e c t ,  undertaken analyses with respect  the  t h i s bureau  R o b e r t ' s Bank.  T h e r e was  legislation  mandate f o r t h e  bureau's.activities  or  Island  issues, and  regulatory  except the  act  which  132 designated  the ministry.  responsibility,  T h i s bureau r e p l a c e d , i n a n a l y t i c  t h e ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t ,  many r e s p e c t s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  and o v e r l a p p e d i n  of the Policy  and E v a l u -  a t i o n B r a n c h o f MEMPR. 4.2.4  M i n i s t r y o f Lands, P a r k s and H o u s i n g  The  M i n i s t r y o f Lands, Parks  administered The  and H o u s i n g  (MLPH)  a p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m f o r u n a l i e n a t e d Crown  MLPH s t r a t e g y h a d been t o e s t a b l i s h  a logical  lands.  framework  w i t h i n w h i c h t h e m i n i s t r y c o u l d e x e r c i s e i t s p l a n n i n g mandate.  Planning  activities  and  Housing Regional  and  Management  were c a r r i e d  Operations  o u t by t h e L a n d s  Division,  Services Division with  and t h e P r o g r a m  support  from t h e Land  Programs B r a n c h o f t h e Lands D i v i s i o n ,  The p l a n n i n g  t i o n s a p p l i e d t o l a n d where no s p e c i f i c  tenure  e x i s t e d on  Crown l a n d , o r where t h e l a n d was u n d e r t e n u r e pursuant tory  t o t h e Land  procedures  rights  Act.  f o r a c q u i r i n g p u b l i c l a n d s , and d e f i n e d t h e  accompanying t h e t r a n s f e r .  activities,  ministry, had  When s u r f a c e r i g h t s i n connection  due t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y  o f Crown l a n d  occupation  were  explo-  This  jurisdiction,  o t h e r government  C o a l c o m p a n i e s were r e q u i r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e processes  with  MLPH management d i d n o t a p p l y .  many p r o t o c o l a g r e e m e n t s w i t h  referral  granted  The l e g i s l a t i o n d e f i n e d r e g u l a -  given t o holders of coal licences ration  func-  agencies.  i n t h e MLPH  i f they wished t o o b t a i n l i c e n c e s o f  o r rights-of-way,  o r easements on Crown  land.  133  The  M i n i s t r y o f MLPH was  t a t i o n on coal  the  represented  on  ELUC, w i t h  CGSC t o b r i n g c o n c e r n s t o t h e  developer,  until  i n 1983  when i t was  represen-  n o t i c e of  combined  the  with  MOE.  4.2.5  M i n i s t r y of  Forests  The g o v e r n m e n t , t h r o u g h t h e M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s , s e t s g o a l s , d e t e r m i n e s p o l i c y , d e v e l o p s p r o g r a m s and measures performance. The p r i v a t e s e c t o r , w h i c h i n c l u d e s f i r m s i n t h e f o r e s t and f o r e s t r y i n d u s t r i e s and f i r m s w h i c h p e r f o r m s e r v i c e s and s u p p l y goods f o r the M i n i s t r y , c a r r i e s out c o n t r a c t e d o p e r a t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s f i n a n c e d by t h e g o v e r n m e n t . (B.C. MOF, 1982, p. 7) The  M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s  representation program  on  the  ELUC, and  functions—timber  recreation  management, as  Regulations  f o r c o a l and  stered  by  use  land  of  the  Forest  (MOF)  had  operated  cabinet with  the  specified  by  the  Forest  Service.  MLPH and  To  coordinate  the  Forest  the  Service,  level.  planned with  (1)  to d i v i d e land  and  (2)  The  felling  to  on  of t r e e s  timber  was  according  facilitate  were a l s o c o v e r e d able  zoning  and  i n the  use  of  Forest  a v a i l a b l e where t h e  t i m b e r was  decisions  district objectives: sensitivity  management g u i d e l i n e s .  timber Act,  l i c e n c e s , although  admini-  non-forest  and  two  to environmental  appropriate  and  agreements  handled a t the  system of  main  'Act,  r e l a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t s were  were l a r g e l y d e c e n t r a l i z e d and A  three  management, r a n g e management,  in provincial forests, protocol  existed with  level  i n mining  and  stumpage was  free-use  used  operations pay-  p e r m i t s were  i n mining  operations,  134 with  special  approval  f o r s u r f a c e u s e where a p r o v i n c i a l  f o r e s t was d e s i g n a t e d .  A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from ministry-  headquarters,  S t u d i e s Branch, p a r t i c i p a t e d  Strategic  CGSC d e l i b e r a t i o n s , particularly  those  b u t many d i s t r i c t related  forest  i n the  concerns,  t o c o a l e x p l o r a t i o n , were  handled  o u t s i d e CGSC c o o r d i n a t i o n .  4.2.6 M i n i s t r y o f P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y and G o v e r n ment S e r v i c e s Within and  the diverse M i n i s t r y of P r o v i n c i a l  Government S e r v i c e s  Branch  (MPS&GS), t h e H e r i t a g e  Secretary  Conservation  (HCB) a n d t h e C a p i t a l A s s i s t a n c e Program were  cerned  with  related  and p a r t i c i p a t e d  developments.  administered Process  i n a review  con-  o f new c o a l and  The R e s o u r c e Management D i v i s i o n  the Heritage  R e s o u r c e A s s e s s m e n t and Review  (HRARP) w h i c h was m o d e l l e d  t w o - s t a g e d r e p o r t and r e v i e w  after  t h e CDG i n i t s  format,  . . . [ t h e r e i s ] growing r e c o g n i t i o n by b o t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t and p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o consider heritage resource values i n l a n d - u s e p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t , a l o n g w i t h t e c h n i c a l , e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . . . . (B.C. The  MPS  & GS, 1981, p. 1)  g u i d e l i n e s , mandated by t h e Heritage  were c o o r d i n a t e d  by HCB r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e CGSC.  HRARP was d e s i g n e d  t o stage  steps  with  synchronized  t h e CDG.  to identify  Act, The  d e c i s i o n - and d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n Developers  t o submit a H e r i t a g e Assessment Report, responsibility  Conservation  sites,  survey  were r e q u i r e d  and i t was  their  the h i s t o r i c a l  135 records,  and,  i n some c a s e s ,  was  r e q u i r e d t o c o n d u c t an  for  any  subsurface  cipated  field  Recreation  e x p l o r a t i o n , and  Capital Assistance and  ing  program.  CDG  staged  Sport  the  the  program--it  MPS&GS p a r t i -  through  the  program r e v i e w e d  t h e r e was  operated  fund-  no  the  legislative  by m o r a l s u a s i o n  and  Companies were a s k e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n  capital  community.  permit  Branch, a r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s  r e c r e a t i o n a l development i n r e s o u r c e t i n g with  HCB  Program was,  assessment r e p o r t s , but  pressure.  A  activities.  A representative of t h i s  mandate f o r t h e  work.  archaeological investigation  i n t h e NECS t h r o u g h i n v e n t o r y The  public  conduct  c o s t s , but  c o m m u n i t i e s by  operating  Company p a r t i c i p a t i o n  assis-  c o s t s were b o r n e was  g r o u n d s t h a t good r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s  by  e n c o u r a g e d on  improved  the  employee  relations. 4.2.7  M i n i s t r y of Transport a t i o n and H i g h ways The  administered and  the  the  Pipeline  regulated for  M i n i s t r y of Transportation  access  definitions  Highway Act.  Act, The  of the  pipelines.  MTH  first  to designated of  industrial  r e g u l a t i o n of o p e r a t i o n s . aspects  the  The  c o n s t r u c t i o n and  and  Highways  Highway two  (Industrial)  acts provided  controlled-access (non-forestry) Pipeline  Act  operation  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the  (MTH) Act,  for  highways,  roads,  and  for  governed a l l  of  CGSC, and  provincial reviewed  new  136  coal  development p r o p o s a l s f o r m i n i s t e r i a l  ciated  w i t h t h e NECD were numerous p r o j e c t s  ministry for  a c t e d as d e v e l o p e r .  t h e highway  internally sponsored complex  on by  B.C.  and  environmental  w i t h an Use  d e v e l o p m e n t was the primary  iterative  handled  review  sub-committee.  access roads  permit-  t o the  were s u b j e c t t o a s s e s s m e n t  and  A  for coal  subject to routine  and  the  coal  review  f o r m a l Stage  II submissions  f o r each  d e v e l o p m e n t was  by  line  2 3 0 - k i l o w a t t power l i n e o f B.C.  t h e L i n e a r D e v e l o p m e n t G u i d e l i n e s (LDG),  4.2.8  was  Anzac-Table-Wolverine-Quintette branch  were a s s e s s e d by  principle  this  assessment  network o f minor r e s o u r c e roads  sites  The Rail  basis,  the Environment-Land  mine p r o j e c t  of  an ad hoc  p r o c e s s e s , and  t h e CDG.  The  Asso-  i n which  f r o m Chetwynd t o T u m b l e r R i d g e  secondary  exploration ting  concerns.  Hydro'  pursuant  to  and a p p r o v a l - i n -  obtained.  M i n i s t r y o f Municipal Affairs  The mandate o f t h i s m i n i s t r y i s t o manage and d i r e c t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of.human s e t t l e m e n t s i n t h e p r o v i n c e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p r o v i n c i a l o b j e c t i v e s . . . w i t h t h e f o c u s on l a n d use and t h e p l a n n i n g f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s e t t l e ments i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l , r e g i o n a l and l o c a l s c a l e s i n the c o n t e x t of l a r g e r p r o v i n c i a l , s o c i a l , economic, r e s o u r c e management and e n v i r o n m e n t a l o b j e c t i v e s . (B.C. 1981, p. 1) The (MMA)  came f r o m  jurisdiction and  mandate f o r t h e M i n i s t r y  civil  the B r i t i s h  over  rights,  local and  North  America  government  a l l local  of Municipal A f f a i r s  and  Act  (BNA)  institutions, private  for  property  matters.  The  137 Municipal  Act  districts,  provided  and  for municipalities  established their  were two  types  of plans  Regional  Plans  and  to represent  jointly  regional districts  mandate and  administered  Official  the  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t , c o n s e r v a t i o n , and physical Process  resources (OSPP).  through  P l a n n i n g B r a n c h w h i c h was MMA  p r o j e c t review  r e g i o n a l and  T h e s e were  between  Settlement  to coordinate  a responsibility  staff,  the  management o f an  directed  headquarters  Official  with  for  area's Planning  organization included  activities,  There  regarding p o l i c i e s  the O f f i c i a l  Ministerial  roles.  Plans.  statements  province  regional  by MMAr  Settlement  coordinated  and  and  the  the shared  with  increasing regional  involvement. The review  c o a l and  financial, tives. in  Policy  and  order  in  related local  To  return,  fully  c a r r y out  structure policy  management w i t h  P r o j e c t Committee.  f o r companies the developer  information;  the  one  was  in  the  had  reviews  been i n v o l v e d  settlement  planning  f o r Tumbler Ridge,  local MMA  in a technical was  perspec-  information into i t s  f o r example, plan  to  corporate,  involved in project  i t s mandate, MMA  1  the E l k f o r d source  government  o f NECD s p r o v i n c i a l  impact  organized  development p r o j e c t s from  t o i n t e g r a t e development  s e v e r a l programs,  aspects  R e s e a r c h B r a n c h was  T h i s m i n i s t r y was  operations. in  and  governments a c t e d as an and  through information  advisory role.  r e q u i r e d to provide developer's  and  policies  two on  types  In of  settlement  138 choices, factual land  housing,  and community  i n f o r m a t i o n on l a b o u r  consumption, m u n i c i p a l a list  involvement,  and t h e s e c o n d ,  force, population,  housing  s e r v i c e s , and m u n i c i p a l  MMA  provided  of information required of  for  use i n p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l s .  This  finance.  developers  i n f o r m a t i o n was u s e d  by MMA  a s t h e b a s i s o f s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y d e c i s i o n s f o r most  social  s e r v i c e agencies  to establish  labour  force planning  e n c e t o t h e SECC, MMA communicated  social  to the developer. to  and manpower f i g u r e s were r e q u i r e d  coordinated  projections. this  With  s u b - c o m m i t t e e and  a g e n c y i n f o r m a t i o n and p l a n n i n g MMA  was a l s o c o n c e r n e d w i t h  needs  i m p a c t s due  i n c r e a s e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m m u n i t i e s on t h e l o c a l  onment.  In the case  o f t h e NECD, MMA  envir-  c h a i r e d the Townsite  Community D e v e l o p m e n t Sub-committee and t h e NEC Impact C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee  refer-  Regional  (NECRICC).  4.2.9 M i n i s t r y o f L a b o u r With r e f e r e n c e  t o c o a l and r e l a t e d  developments, the  Program S e r v i c e s Branch o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f Labour ducted 1980,  an i n v e n t o r y o f m a j o r p r o j e c t s i n B.C. i n 1979 and and d e v e l o p e d  estimates  This branch a l s o provided ministerial pation  (MOL) c o n -  reviews  i n t h e SECC.  vided advice indirect  research  requirements.  assistance f o r the i n t e r -  o f major c o a l p r o j e c t s through Within  and i n f o r m a t i o n  support  o f manpower  to other  t h e MOL,  partici-  program s e r v i c e s  pro-  t o s e n i o r MOL o f f i c i a l s and  m i n i s t r y programs.  Through the  139 former  Mining  Regulation  Act, w o r k e r s a f e t y p r o v i s i o n s a t  t h e mine s i t e were i m p l e m e n t e d and t h e m i n i s t r y ' s Manpower Advisory  Services operated  manpower e x p a n s i o n casts,  this  and c o n t r a c t i o n .  group cooperated  Consultative to  of a region.  training,  advance p l a n n i n g f o r To make manpower  with the federal  fore-  Manpower  S e r v i c e s o f Employment and I m m i g r a t i o n  examine and a n a l y s e  tial  to assist  t h e employment and e c o n o m i c  Canada, poten-  MOL worked t o w a r d manpower p l a n n i n g ,  and u p g r a d i n g  o f worker s k i l l s ,  and c o o r d i n a t e d  t h e Manpower P l a n n i n g Sub-committee f o r t h e NECS.  4.2.10 M i n i s t r i e s o f E d u c a t i o n and H e a l t h The  Ministry  i z e d because School The  school boards l e v i e d  c o l l e g e boards,  authorities.  southeast was m a i n l y  but  Kootenays,  for initiating  W i t h new c o a l  personnel  of coal  Most  regionally,  developments—in  Headquarters  t h e CGSC o r t h e SECC r e v i e w  Act,  activities  f o r e x a m p l e — t h e MED  consultative.  i n t h e NECD, MED  and p r o g r a m s .  and I n s t i t u t i o n s  t h e r e f o r e , were a d m i n i s t e r e d  with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  in  t a x e s u n d e r t h e B.C.  on t h e o t h e r hand, had no t a x - l e v y i n g  i n t h e B.C. College  activities,  local  (MED) was h i g h l y r e g i o n a l -  Act t o p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s  authority MED  local  of Education  given to the  headquarters'  d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e and r e l a t e d  d i d p a r t i c i p a t e with  projects,  senior regional  i n t h e NEC RICC t o d e a l w i t h t h e p e r c e i v e d  lems o f an e x p a n d i n g  community  role  i n a p r o a c t i v e manner,  probMED  140 i n v o l v e m e n t i n NEC  was  p r e c i p i t a t e d by  o f w h i c h were p l a n n i n g senior  s e c o n d a r y and  college  opportunity  for local  ment i n t h e  area.  facilities as  sites  i n the  regarding  costs  The the  ding Act  e x i s t i n g c o m m u n i t i e s and  sewage and  existed  t o the  the  services  conditions  specific  cost  of  s p e c i a l education  frustration  provisions  as  MMA.  for social  in  or  the  increased  Overlaps  (MOH)  expanHealth  systems, for  onsite  sewage  dis-  jurisdiction  f o r these increased  services  I n t e r - j u r i s d i c t i o n a l concerns and  MED  over p r o v i s i o n s  MOH  to a l l e v i a t e the agency  for  Because c o a l development  a community, t h e  attempt  of  sewage d i s p o s a l  as w e l l  spending.  i m p a c t s on  schools.  M i n i s t r y of H e a l t h  concern to t h i s m i n i s t r y  of p r o v i d i n g and  new  i n r e s p o n s e t o new  In a d d i t i o n ,  between MOH  RICC i n an  inter-  services  a l s o d e v e l o p e d between MOH  multiple  were a l s o  Ridge  f o r r o a d s and  waste d i s p o s a l ,  the  school  between m i n i s t r i e s  i n mining communities.  regarding  of  resolved  the  an  develop-  i n Tumbler  there  two  the  p r o b l e m s t o be  p r o v i s i o n of  regulated  from  needed f o r use  and  at  needed t o p r o v i d e  i n d i v i d u a l s to benefit  o v e r a l l concern of  w h i c h were o f  NEC  l e v e l was  P l a n n i n g was  communities.  posal  Program p l a n n i n g  for cultural activities;  jurisdictional  was  oriented.  s e v e r a l problems,  caused  participated in uncertainty  administrators,  and  the  141  4.2.11 F e d e r a l D e p a r t m e n t o f E n e r g y , M i n e s and Resources The ces  f e d e r a l D e p a r t m e n t o f E n e r g y , M i n e s and R e s o u r -  (EMR) was n o t d i r e c t l y  assessment  i n B.C.  The G e o l o g i c a l  general  mapping r o l e ,  office,  located  information  involved  or active  S u r v e y o f Canada had a  and t h e m i n i s t r y ' s  i n Calgary,  f o r Western  i n coal  Alberta,  Coal  Division  handled c o a l - r e l a t e d  Canada.  4.2.12 E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, and Department o f F i s h e r i e s and The involved  Oceans  f e d e r a l Department o f Environment  i n B.C. c o a l d e v e l o p m e n t as a d v i s e r  B e c a u s e o f t h e many a g e n c i e s w i t h i n pheric  Environment  Service,  Environmental Protection Waters D i r e c t o r a t e , internal Screening  projects lines  the department—Atmos-  loosely  d e p a r t m e n t a l committee o p e r a t e d . Committee  The R e g i o n a l all  p r o v i n c i a l guide-  T h e s e documents u s u a l l y e n t e r e d  when t h e i s s u e s were s u b s t a n t i v e  t h e RSCC  S e r v i c e , and  as i d e n t i f i e d  and t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  f o r c e was s t r u c k  organized  f o r t h e DOE and r e v i e w e d any  review through the Environmental P r o t e c t i o n  analysis,  Inland  (RSCC) c o o r d i n a t e d  r e f e r r e d t o i t by t h e v a r i o u s  procedures.  Service,  Lands D i r e c t o r a t e ,  and P a r k s C a n a d a — a  document r e v i e w a c t i v i t i e s  t o t h e CGSC.  Canadian W i l d l i f e  Service,  and C o o r d i n a t i n g  (DOE) was  by an  were f e d e r a l , a  t o examine t h e t e c h n i c a l i s s u e s  initial  task  i n depth.  142 The  documents f o r t h e Quinsam and  jects,  (Q & SC)  f o r example, were a n a l y s e d i n t h i s manner.  concerns  were e x t r a - d e p a r t m e n t a l  Fisheries s i s was  and  Oceans  conducted  (DFO)  and  prepared with that  4.3  Sage C r e e k  from  Where  t h e Department  or Indian A f f a i r s ,  a coordinated federal  pro-  of  further  analy-  response  was  department.  Operating Procedures o f t h e CDG Program A number o f p r o c e d u r a l c h a n g e s have o c c u r r e d s i n c e  t h e g u i d e l i n e s were d r a f t e d procedures  evolved over  c e s , b u t w i t h no variation  i n 1976,  and,  time w i t h c a s e - s p e c i f i c  standard procedures,  among c a s e s .  appraisal  and  identifies  as p r a c t i s e d  and  operating experien-  substantial  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the f o l l o w i n g  mary p r o v i d e s a g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g procedures  later,  two  distinct  sum-  o f the sequence o f aspects to  project  i n B . C . - - t h e a s s e s s m e n t and  the  review.  4.3.1  Assessment  procedures  A c o a l company e n t e r e d t h e CDG Figure fied  9,  w i t h the submission  program, as shown i n  of a prospectus which  t h e company's e x p l o r a t i o n p r o g r a m , and  initial  contained  c o n c e p t u a l mine p l a n , p l a n n i n g s c h e d u l e ,  of p o t e n t i a l  environmental  and  socio-economic  ( E x i s t i n g m i n e s p l a n n i n g an e x p a n s i o n w i t h an e x p a n s i o n  proposal.)  no  and  an a  list  issues.  entered the  I f t h e r e was  identi-  program  feedback  from  STAGE I  PROSPECTUS (Identification  of  jfldenllflcotlon  project)  • I  the  STftilUTION TO  COUMiTTtti  FilLO^ ' 1TUOIES ' f S T M T CO l £ 1  ran  ITASC a  truoiis  • DETAILEO PLAN  MINE r-movAL w  • OETAILED IMPACT ASSESSMENT  T  r-noiCCX-  JToOC I J c O » * t f Tt_0*TJ _^ HOT ACCCPTCO G * V t torn i T M c t 1 E L U T C on* ELUC x v i l • T  Vcfsttt. t  sr*oc a W T ACCCTTCD  r>BOJCCT  rxojcct  I  I  MONTH  |  13  MONTHS  __J  3 - 6  Source: N o r c a l Environmental C o n s u l t a n t s L t d . , March 1982  Figure  9  C o a l G u i d e l i n e s Review  PERMITS  • FWAU2C IMPACT MANAGEMENT PL*V« • IMPLEMENT MCXlT-l OflING P R O G A A U  • IMPACT M A N A G E M E N T MITIGATION PROPOSALS  ALTERNATIVES  of  Bcence  • COMPLETE *wr 0*TA O E r c C M C i E S FITOM STAGC 11  • rtuuzE  • OR A F T P E R M I T APPLICATIONS  • PROPOSED OCTAL". CO S T U O T TO F I L L DATA G A P S  8  conditions)  m  suicoMMiTrccs i  • SCOPE OF P O T E N TIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT •  [(Designation permit  MCMTf  • R E V I E W OF 8 » S E L I N E DATA  SOCKJ-ECCNCMIC ISSUES  S T A G E rn  of  problems)  tr [RATION WITH mt*mO  problems) • P R E L I M I N A R Y CON-j CEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT P L A N  • P O T E N T I A L £NVIR-| j ONMENTAI. ISSUES  2  (Resolution  environmental  • C O N C E P T U A L MINE PLAN  3  STAGE T I of  Process  MONTHS  j  144 government t h r o u g h t h e CGSC, f i e l d if  t h e company The  felt  field  studies  the p r o j e c t appeared  s t u d i e s conducted  a s s e s s m e n t were r e p o r t e d  spirit  This  region  not  the p r e l i m i n a r y  i t was  accepted  letters,  between a g e n c i e s d i r e c t l y  o f p o t e n t i a l development.  Documents  r e j e c t e d proceeded t o f u l l  to the  with  and  personal  involved  i n the  iterative  f o r projects that  and  agencies o u t l i n i n g appropriate  t h e company,  CGSC,  sub-committees,  Stage I I study  The S t a g e I I s t u d i e s were c o n d u c t e d w i t h  Separate  were  r e v i e w , and a p e r i o d o f  followed,  ment a g e n c y a d v i c e  often  f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the  iteration  programs.  concep-  for full  Through t h i s  gaps were i d e n t i f i e d  S t a g e I document.  other  inventories.  d e v e l o p m e n t o f a S t a g e I document was  procedure, data final  preliminary  i n d r a f t form, and i f t h e document met t h e  a c c o m p a n i e d by numerous m e e t i n g s , conversations  for a  and t h e r e p o r t was p r e s e n t e d  and i n t e n t o f t h e CDG  review.  feasible.  baseline  A l t e r n a t i v e s were s u g g e s t e d , u s i n g  CGSC, most o f t e n  be s t a r t e d  i n t h e S t a g e I document, as were  a number o f r e c o n n a i s s a n c e - l e v e l  t u a l i z e d mine p l a n ,  could  govern-  and i n t e r a c t i o n , w h i c h was e n c o u r a g e d by  the  CGSC.  financial  information  was  submitted t o  the  CGSC f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y ,  and i n  some c a s e s a c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s was p r e p a r e d by a government a g e n c y a s r e q u i r e d . sented  a record  The S t a g e I I document  o f t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f p r o b l e m s and  a d e t a i l e d mine p l a n w i t h  impact  assessments,  pre-  contained  possible  145 draft  permit  applications,  If  the Stage  in  principle,  and  I I document was more s t u d y was  g a p s , o r t h e company may  impact  management p r o p o s a l s .  not accepted or g i v e n l i k e l y conducted  usually  mean c o m p l e t i o n  Stage  o f t h e CDG  designation of permit  and  any  from  mits  and  impact  directly  Review The  in  I I , and  procedures:  p r o s p e c t u s was  circulated  IV  finalizing  and  Different some t o o k  not  agencies  for  was  of  of  of  per-  the  discussed  project,  l a p s e between p r o s p e c t u s and  i t was  interaction.  The  have i n v o l v e d t h e r e v i e w t h e r e was  left  through  may  to  i n the r e g i o n . and  Stage to  I  i n project  appraisal  t h e documenti  first when  alterna-  have had many c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e  his i n i t i a l  project  p l a n n i n g and  sub-  initiate  I r e v i e w p r o c e s s may  a CGSC r e q u e s t t o r e v i e w  the agent  with varying  t o the proponent  Stage agent  receipt  shown  formally noting i t s  The  mission varied  as  note, while others proceeded  i n t e r a c t i o n with other a c t i v i t i e s  time  f o r m a l l y reviewed  responded  possible  nent  to  completion  among t h e a g e n c i e s  the r e g i o n of the proposed  tively,  I I I allowed  Implementation  p a r t o f Stage  proponent's  F i g u r e 10.  further  understood  licence conditions, Stage  A  procedures  t h e document was  flag  the  w i t h the p e r m i t t i n g agency,  4.3.2  but  program.  management p l a n s .  m o n i t o r i n g p r o g r a m was  to f i l l  have d e c i d e d n o t t o p r o c e e d .  s u c c e s s f u l a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e was  data d e f i c i e n c i e s  approval  propo-  assessment  146  MMA  Financial^  -> [EEC"|—>MEMPR R (C0al-  Information  Review  Compendia  Staged Reports (Environmental and Social Impact Studies) MTH  B/C  MISBD analysis)  Federal Agencies RSCC MAC (regional) Other branches  ACR BSC CGSC EEC F&W MAC MAG MEd MEMPR  A d v i s o r y Comm. on Reclamation B i o p h y s i c a l Sub-Committee C o a l G u i d e l i n e s S t e e r i n g Comm. Economic E v a l u a t i o n Comm. Fish & Wildlife M i n e s i t e A d v i s o r y Committee M i n i s t r y o f Attorney General M i n i s t r y o f Education M i n i s t r y o f Energy, Mines & Petroleum Resources MOH M i n i s t r y o f Health MHR M i n i s t r y o f Human Resources MISBD M i n i s t r y o f Industry & Small B u s i n e s s Development Key:  public  M i n i s t r y o f Labour Ministry of Municipal Affairs MOE M i n i s t r y o f Environment MPS&GS M i n i s t r y o f P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y & Government Services MTH Ministry of Transportation & Highways RSCC Resource Coordinating.Comm. SECC Socio-Economic C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee WaMB Water Management Branch WMB Waste Management Branch  documents, available  confidential  Figure  MOL MMA  10  after  mine  approval  documents  B.C. Government Review  Process  147 activities.  The r e v i e w a g e n t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a sub-commit-  t e e m e e t i n g o r p a s s e d h i s comments nator  on t o an a g e n c y  where t h e y were b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r  position.  The r e q u e s t  i n t o a common a g e n c y  f o r r e v i e w and t h e p r o p o n e n t  ments were d e l i v e r e d t o t h e r e v i e w a g e n t w i t h letter ing  comments and  a  f o r comment s u b m i s s i o n s .  were r e c e i v e d  written  docu-  covering  f r o m t h e c h a i r m a n o r s e c r e t a r y o f t h e CGSC  the deadline  coordi-  identify-  The r e v i e w  by t h e CGSC a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  f o r m whereupon t h e y were c o o r d i n a t e d  i n verbal by t h e  s e c r e t a r y o f t h e CGSC, a t w h i c h t i m e a d r a f t compendium o f comments  was p r e p a r e d and c i r c u l a t e d t o r e v i e w a g e n t s f o r  a d d i t i o n a l comments The was  period  before prior  i t was  returned  t o t h e company.  t o r e c e i p t o f t h e S t a g e I I document  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by complex i n t e r a c t i o n s and  specific  t o the case.  ensured that "spirit number  Pre-screening  negotiations  o f t h e d r a f t document  any g l a r i n g o m i s s i o n s o r v i o l a t i o n s o f t h e  a n d i n t e n t " o f t h e CDG were e l i m i n a t e d . of copies  o f the formal  A  document were r e q u i r e d  b e c a u s e r e v i e w a g e n t s f o u n d an a p p r a i s a l document added t o t h e i r other  reviewed or  e x i s t i n g work r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ,  competing p r i o r i t i e s ,  t h e documents were  i n an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d manner  technical criteria.  were  review with  often  received  and t h e n by t h e s e c r e -  t a r y o f t h e CGSC, and a compendium o f comments c i r c u l a t e d , and r e t u r n e d  and  and,  for agency-specific  S t a g e I I comments  through sub-committee c o o r d i n a t i o n  edited,  large  was  t o t h e company.  drafted, Results  of  148 the  separate  financial  CGSC i n t h e f o r m ject  viability,  e v a l u a t i o n were communicated t o t h e  o f a statement  o f t h e EEC f i n d i n g s o f p r o -  w i t h t h e company  a d v i s e d by t e l e p h o n e  any  o u t s t a n d i n g problems.  and  c o n d i t i o n s f o r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o ELUTC and ELUC.  The CGSC t h e n met t o d e f i n e t e r m s  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g a p p r o v a l were p r e p a r e d CGSC, t h e y were s u b m i t t e d  of  When  by t h e  t o t h e ELUTC where t h e p r o j e c t  was c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f o t h e r p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s . T h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s were p a s s e d a decision, principle company,  and t h e n  on t o ELUC f o r r e v i e w  t h e ELUC d e c i s i o n  and  on a p p r o v a l - i n -  was communicated by t h e c h a i r m a n o f ELUC t o t h e with  any t e r m s o r c o n d i t i o n s a p p e n d e d .  Chapter  5  PROGRAM ACTIONS Line  C r e e k , G r e e n h i l l s , and  Informed discussion will pave the approaches to technology.  way  Sukunka  to more  judicious  - I n d i r a Ghandi, New (1982)  5.1  Introduction I n an  in  effort  to  adequately meeting  ject  a p p r a i s a l , three  judge the  basis of  cases of  having completed  a c h i e v e m e n t was  marked by  approval-in-principle line for Line  was  c h o s e n so  analysis.  i n the had  project having  One  of  a  Sukunka. by  1983,  chosen i n order  planning  Of  tenets 149  the  This  The  time  the  southeast,  Greenhills? these f i v e , Line  Creek  to provide  of a s o c i e t y  dead-  available  and only and  a more  element.  accepted  pro-  received  criteria—in  Hosmer-Wheeler, and  geographic the  1981.  c a s e documents w o u l d be  Sukunka was  representative  p r o g r a m by  Stage I I review.  the  program  c a s e s were c h o s e n on  the  coal block,  CDG  coordinating  CDG  proceeded to c o n s t r u c t i o n  Greenhills.  the  c o a l mine d e v e l o p m e n t The  F i v e m i n e s met  Peace R i v e r  of  of  the  after  that  Creek, E l k R i v e r ,  actions  i t s objectives  were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y e x a m i n e d .  two  Delhi  which  150 believes should right made.  i t i s a pluralistic  g e n e r a l l y be a v a i l a b l e t o a l l . t o be i n f o r m e d b e f o r e , The f o r m a l  program acted  during,  i n part  information  T h e r e i s an assumed and a f t e r d e c i s i o n s a r e  documentation r e q u i r e d  f o r and o f t h e CDG  as a v e h i c l e t o f a c i l i t a t e  e x c h a n g e , and t o f o r m a l i z e and  democracy i s t h a t  dialogue  government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  information  between t h e p r o p o n e n t  of the varied public  inter-  ests . The  formal  d o c u m e n t a t i o n was c h a r a c t e r i z e d  o v e r a l l problems a s s o c i a t e d ations  w i t h program  i n review a n a l y s i s , inherent  appraisals  and c u r r e n t  Although the purpose, required  was a p p l i e d w i t h r e g a r d  e x p e c t e d , and t h e r e the  and t y p e o f  o f t h e p r o p o n e n t was s t a t e d  flexibility  extent  were no r i g i d  assessment. information  t o the  information  standards.  Variation i n  o f t h e r e v i e w a n a l y s i s and commentary  development, p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  project  i n the g u i d e l i n e s ,  among t h e r e v i e w e r s who had d i f f e r e n t  specific  within the  between c o a l  p r a c t i c e s o f impact timing,  three  expectations—vari-  conflicts  p r o g r a m d e s c r i p t i o n , and a c o n f l i c t  by  appeared  experiences with  and t h e r a n g e o f s i t e -  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i s s u e s w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d  proposal.  coal  each  W h i l e t h i s made t h e p r o g r a m more a d a p t a b l e ,  conflicting  expectations  a c c o u n t when e v a l u a t i n g The doxes w i t h i n  f o r c o n t e n t had t o be t a k e n  into  t h e documents,  second problem  i n expectations  t h e CDG d e s c r i p t i o n .  The CDG,  came f r o m para--i n an e f f o r t t o  151  engender  total  assessment,  attempted t o include a l l i s s u e s  i n a proponent's documentation: Stage I s h o u l d i d e n t i f y t h e major economic, environment a l and s o c i a l i m p a c t o f t h e p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t on the region i n general . . . . E x i s t i n g natural, s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e zone o f i n f l u e n c e s h o u l d be d e s c r i b e d . (B.C. ELUC, 1976, p. 6) The  g u i d e l i n e s were c l e a r l y d e s i g n e d t o be b r o a d i n s c o p e  and were t o employ s e v e r a l t e c h n i q u e s t o a s s e s s t h e c o n s e quences  o f change.  To c o n s t r a i n  p r e h e n s i v e n e s s o f t h e program, p r o v i d e d which  suggested that  d e r e d w i t h i n a monetary  somewhat t h e i m p l i e d  com-  t h e f o l l o w i n g a d v i c e was assessment  s h o u l d be c o n s i -  context:  As a g e n e r a l r u l e t h e P r o v i n c e i s s e e k i n g a p r o p o s a l f r o m d e v e l o p e r s w h e r e i n e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s a r e a s s e s s e d , p l a n n e d f o r and " t r a d e d o f f , " t o produce a b a l a n c e t h a t maximizes n e t s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g i n t h e r e g i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t and t o t h e Province. Thus, e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s a t a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e m i g h t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be m i n i m i z e d i f c o s t s o f such a c t i o n s f a r outweigh the value o f foregone r e s o u r ces. (B.C. ELUC, 1976, p. 8) T h i s a c t i o n would  r e d u c e t h e CDG's a t t e m p t a t t o t a l  ment t o "myth n o t r e a l i t y " not c l e a r  how r e g i o n a l  provincial measures  interests,  or regional  was a c h i e v e d . mitigation  (Cope and H i l l s ,  1979),  a s t h e r e were no r e g i o n a l jurisdictions  In a d d i t i o n ,  of a t o t a l l y  a balance  that costs of  should not exceed t h e v a l u e o f  acted  comprehensive  economic  t o ensure t h a t  the p r i n c i p l e  and c o m p e n s a t i o n  Both p r i n c i p l e s  It i s  i n t e r e s t s were t o be b a l a n c e d a g a i n s t  the resource denied the concept o f i n t e r n a l i z i n g ties.  assess-  as l i m i t a t i o n s  assessment.  externali-  to the concept  One outcome, a  152 conflict  i n document e x p e c t a t i o n ,  identify  which  a r o s e from t r y i n g t o  i m p a c t s s h o u l d be a s s e s s e d and i n what man-  n e r t h e y s h o u l d be r e p o r t e d . For guidance t o resolve theoretical chell,  literature  Listokin,  Kefalas  some o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s , t h e  (Burchell  and L i s t o k i n ,  S i n h a , and Rosen,  and P i t t e n g e r ,  that  1975) o f p r o j e c t  s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  development.  For coal-related  jurisdictions  had a s s e s s m e n t  review.  Alberta's  sci  (1980)  specific  have  appraisal  i n p l a n n i n g a proposed  development  projects,  t o c o a l mines.  other  and g u i d e l i n e s f o r  Energy Resources C o n s e r v a t i o n  supplied  identified  and methods o f i m p a c t  check-lists  (1978), M o u n t a i n West R e s e a r c h  Bur-  1978; G r e e n h a l l , 1977;  t h e r a n g e o f i m p a c t s and t h e t i m i n g prediction  1975;  Board  (1979), and Wayman and Gena-  detailed  information requirements  Other p u b l i c a t i o n s  are also  avail-  able concerned with the e v a l u a t i o n of the review process (Butz a n d Senew, 1974; F r i e d m a n n , together they create the t h i r d tion,  where p a r t i c i p a n t s  1973b; S o p e r ,  problem  i n document e x p e c t a -  f a m i l i a r w i t h another  o r w i t h o t h e r a p p r a i s a l o p t i o n s , may have tations 5.2  f o rthe appraisal  Case S t u d i e s : Evaluation  1974), and  jurisdiction,  differing  expec-  documentation.  Project  A summary o f t h e o v e r a l l s i o n s and o f t h e government  t i m i n g o f proponent  submis-  r e s p o n s e i s shown i n F i g u r e 11  153  fi B  Jfl  h Si  i si  01  -G CP C  i St . s. s  • « 5 .— a  1  • in u i  !S  3  aw  OJ  ~ « ? Q5 •  « i  0) V-l  • i *  O  S  -  -s Is J  X 2.  -.1  Jo i  3 5?  s  Q) <  S-l  U  j — » o  £si "| "|f  311 5  P.J  O 0 • a. u a.  Mi  i . 8 si 3  "  i  c ^ C to  .  - 8  S-l  •H CM  * 9  Is  S  1  3 S  S3  1r .1%  3'.  '.'it  • •  2 SI.I SS  '.1 o 6 «  S-i £|  ^ u  I  4|  > •  O G O  5 5  a v  is  i,  « ii  - a »  ? is  I ti-B, aI g £: s si  G  154 w i t h documents summarized and sources f o r the  Crook, the July  histories  served  p r o g r a m as  evolved.  and  informal  secretary  M a r c h and  the  1982.  E v e n so,  as the  (Crook, 1982,  5.2.1  Line The  Industries  Line  the  on  a p p l i c a t i o n of  Line  Greenhills  coal  C r e e k and  t o be  a t y p i c a l of  Personal  the  guidelines  communication).  C r e e k mine, f o r m e r l y  32  (CNRC), was  coal  o p e r a t e d by  in a joint  l i c e n c e s i n the  on  owned by  duct p r e l i m i n a r y  studies  the  study  site,  12).  in  the  Company  because o f  plan-  appraisal,  consultant  biophysical  but  with  e a r l y i n 1975,  employed as  the  venture  for project  (BCRC) was on  S h e l l Canada  Elk Valley  (see F i g u r e  the"new CDG  Crows N e s t  Crows N e s t  a s u b s i d i a r y of  began i n 1968  information  of  case  have  Research C o u n c i l  conditions  projects'  by  in  procedures  aware o f p e n d i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s  requested  checks  i n d i c a t i n g how  s o u t h e a s t K o o t e n a y s o f B.C. ners,  the  flexible  (CNI), t h e n owned and  Exploration  M i t s u i Co.  information  Creek  Resources Calgary Ltd.  The  communications p r o v i d e d  Examination of  to reveal  well  included  o f CGSC, t h r o u g h f i l e  p r o j e c t s were c o n s i d e r e d process  i n A p p e n d i x B,*  following discussion  about both formal R.  coded  B.C. to  con-  baseline early  company  * T h i s u n o r t h o d o x method o f d o c u m e n t a t i o n was a d o p t e d f o r t h i s s e c t i o n o n l y so as t o a v o i d e x c e s s i t e m i z a t i o n i n the References C i t e d .  156 and  consultant pre-planning  process,  the  i n August  "L.C.  1976,  t h a t month, 50  i n an  Prospectus"  was  together with c o p i e s of the  effort  t o condense  submitted  the  "L.C.  review.  At  the p l a n t s i t e Two was  filed.  resources  and  months l a t e r , I t was  i n the  noted  o f the  the  "L.C.  was  draft  acceptability  of t h e i r  S t a g e I I s t u d i e s and (1) p l a n t l o c a t i o n ,  Stage  and  "L.C.  Stage  Comments by  considerations missing  Assessment" heritage  The  four areas  (4) community  and  by  "L.C.  of  access  expansion. t h e CDG  completed  c h a i r m a n o f t h e MAC and  provided  i n f o r m a t i o n and  and  unresolved  concerns,  the  CGSC i n J u n e 1977.  CNI  the  CGSC  Stage  and  I,  the  road  design,  T h i s was  the  program. two  reviews CNI  of  and  the  BCRC.  technical  requirements  for  a summary o f r e s o l v e d  were t r a n s m i t t e d t o CNI was  After  concern:  emphasized  a d v i c e on  planning, and  circula-  toward the d e s i g n of  (2) mine s i t e  t h e MAC  report  notified  report.  emphasized  1977,  through  I" r e p o r t f o l l o w i n g meetings with the  were  conflict.  Heritage  was  I r e p o r t a p p r o v e d by  In e a r l y  identified  summary c i r c u l a t i o n .  CNI  Review" comments were d i r e c t e d  third  requested  government  s t a t e of the  coordinated  i n November 1976,  (3) e s t i m a t e s ,  the  p o s s i b l e ALR  t h a t the  comment r e t u r n , and  completion  Later  a r e a would r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l e m i t i g a t i o n .  A government r e v i e w tion,  the major concerns  location  CGSC  S t a g e I document were  s t e e r i n g committee t o f a c i l i t a t e t h a t time  to the  Stage I . "  from the  the  advised  t o submit a  through draft  157 Stage  II report  circulated At  this  to ensure  f o r review  a n a l y s i s was  5 August  for f u l l  concerns  r e g a r d i n g the  values,  available  and  r e v i e w on  A draft  i n the  Agencies  on w i l d l i f e ,  and II and  identified  recreational  pre-screened, Meetings  and  At t h i s  time,  and  a r o s e as one  issues.  completed covering  of the  and  "L.C.  I I " was  circulated  w i t h t h e MAC,  Stage  submitted  technical  CNI  suggested  agen-  were h e l d i n  I n December 1977  I I Review" was  to  this  be  the review  s e n t t o CNI  the b i o p h y s i c a l ,  as b a s i c a l l y  but noted  that  i n October  issues pertaining  community a g e n c y c o n c e r n s .  gram r e q u i r e m e n t s ,  jobs  management o f t h e e l k p o p u l a t i o n  Stage  I I " report  types of  to a l l provincial  BCRC, and  l e t t e r w h i c h summarized  e c o n o m i c , and  and  workforce.  Stage  p e r m i t s were n o t e d ,  fulfilling  carried  out  17 months e l a p s e d f r o m  a  socio-  t h e CDG  a d d i t i o n a l work was  was  with  CGSC a c c e p t e d  the pro-  required.  in a joint  n i n g e x e r c i s e w i t h g o v e r n m e n t r e s o u r c e managers. of  Stage  then pre-screened  25 A u g u s t .  impact  f o r m a l "L.C.  mid-November.  was  i t was  for labour force training,  f o r females  The  It  sub-  l a n d - u s e p l a n n i n g , community h o u s i n g o p t i o n s ,  assumptions  "L.C.  r e q u e s t e d , t o be  t o the M i n i s t e r of Mines.  accepted  cies.  acceptance.  i n a c o n f i d e n t i a l manner as a s e p a r a t e document  s u b m i t t e d on  1977,  was  t i m e e c o n o m i c i n f o r m a t i o n deemed n e c e s s a r y f o r a  sent d i r e c t l y was  report  i t would r e c e i v e g e n e r a l  government c o s t - b e n e f i t mitted  t h a t when t h e f i n a l  A  the time of submission of  planperiod the  158 prospectus to acceptance In January  1978  of Stage  II project  appraisal.  a memorandum from t h e CSGC t o  noted a concern over a p i c t o g r a p h i n a limestone possibly issue,  requiring excavation.  f o r 11 months p r o j e c t  government's p e r s p e c t i v e . fied  by CGSC t h a t CNI  from t h e S t a g e  had  tion  and  I n November 1979 not r e s o l v e d  f o r the p r o j e c t .  The  new  and  and  were t o be r e s o l v e d . on a c o n f i d e n t i a l  mine d e s i g n . address  basis,  CNRC, and  but  considered  i n October  ELUCS met  CNRC p r e p a r e d  the  concerns  and  r e q u e s t e d and  and  the  inadequate,  had  1979  the  Meeting  submitted Pollution  Brief"  joint  to  position  CGSC n o t i f i e d  CNRC  company and e n v i r o n B e c a u s e many commu-  n o t been r e s o l v e d ,  a housing  "L.C, P o p u l a t i o n " s t u d y was  including  impli-  problems  present t h e i r  ment management commitments were made. agency concerns  government  r e g a r d i n g a change i n  "L.C.  and  an  notifica-  Company e c o n o m i c d a t a were  the i d e n t i f i e d  i n M a r c h 1980,  arising  of  r e c r e a t i o n management  that p e r m i t t i n g could proceed  was  noti-  197 9 w i t h s e v e r a l c o n d i -  t o CGSC i n November; i n December 1979  nity  the i s s u e s  p r o g r a m s , community d e v e l o p m e n t  wildlife  C o n t r o l Board,  the  ELUCS was  CNRC r e c e i v e d  t h e e c o n o m i c i n f o r m a t i o n was  employee t r a i n i n g  cations,  from  from ELUC as a s t a t e m e n t  o f ELUC a p p r o v a l i n F e b r u a r y  tions:  slowed  this  I I r e v i e w ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , CGSC r e q u e s t e d  approval-in-principle support  overhang,  Although unrelated to  initiative  CNI  study  submitted  t h e CNRC p o l i c y on company  housing  a f o r e c a s t o f p r o b a b l e employee p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n .  159 In  light  construction  o f t h e f o r e c a s t heavy demand f o r c o a l ,  began i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1980 and CNRC announced  a planned expansion of the p r o j e c t  from 1.7 t o 2.6  t o n n e s a y e a r t o be p r o d u c e d by 1981, this  required  significant  t e d more s p e c i f i c was f i l e d  The CGSC n o t e d  changes i n d e s i g n  information.  plan  and r e q u e s -  Committee  tember 1981, and i n December 1981 CGSC n o t i f i e d  expansion plans.  a s s e s s m e n t was r e q u i r e d  As a r e s u l t o f t h i s  to assess  experience,  continued  their  a CGSC mine  on t h e expanded  Creek design.  By 1983 some t h e r m a l c o a l had been  but  production  full-scale  i n Sep-  CNRC t h a t a  w o r k i n g p r o c e d u r e was a d o p t e d t o d e a l w i t h o t h e r expansions while c o n s t r u c t i o n  that  The "L.C. E x p a n s i o n B r i e f "  a t a meeting with the S t e e r i n g  new, d e t a i l e d i m p a c t  million  Line  shipped,  had n o t commenced.  5.2.2 G r e e n h i l l s The  Greenhills  owned by K a i s e r  surface  Resource L t d .  mining p r o j e c t s ,  formerly  (KRL), had been a c q u i r e d  B . C . C o a l , a s u b s i d i a r y o f B.C. R e s o u r c e s I n v e s t m e n t tion the  (BCRIC),  Exploration  in  their  (see F i g u r e 1 3 ) ,  between KRL and CGSC began i n A p r i l  company p l a n n i n g  information  BCRC t o p r e s e n t  i n August  1979 when  was r e q u e s t e d by MMA  Upper E l k V a l l e y S e t t l e m e n t  M e e t i n g s were h e l d  Corpora-  began i n 1969 on c o a l h o l d i n g s i n  E l k V a l l e y o f t h e s o u t h e a s t Kootenays  Discussions  by  Planning  f o r use  Program.  1979 between KRL, CGSC, and  a d r a f t p r o s p e c t u s o f a two-phase  proposal.  t  \  *  GREENHILLS STUDY AREA-  •  \ V .  < Elkford  S  )  \  O  i  I I  \ i  Elkview Cool Plont  Sporwood  \  e •  4  ^Michel  Crowsnest}  r  Figure  13  Location of Greenhills Study Area  < \ )  161 KRL r e q u e s t e d of  their  proposal,  construction available. the  early consideration so t h e y c o u l d  CGSC r e q u e s t e d  that  conduct  Lybrand  to notify  development  plans.  t h e t w e l f t h t o be r e c e i v e d  by t h e  i n m i d - A u g u s t , w i t h BCRC  biophysical studies,  commissioned  and C u r r i e , C o o p e r s and  To a c h i e v e e a r l y a p p r o v a l ,  considerable report.  detail  Certain  circumvented  KRL was a d v i s e d  w o u l d have t o be i n c l u d e d  review agents noted that  that  i n t h e Stage I  this  request  t h e p u r p o s e and i n t e n t o f t h e CDG, w h i l e  concerns a r i s i n g  f r o m an i n f o r m a l  ded  observations  that  the  total  land  area  investigations.  or include In a d d i t i o n ,  adequate lead-time  activities,  m a t i o n w o u l d be a c c e p t a b l e advised  CGSC t o t a k e  request  because  information  the e a r l y  only  a cautionary  i t threatened  surface  request field  prior to i n i t i a -  Stage I I - l e v e l  f o r heritage  on  methods  g r o u n d w a t e r and  that  other  inclu-  for archaeological  Reviewers a l s o noted  of construction  lacked  a f f e c t e d , and d i d n o t i d e n t i f y  water m o n i t o r i n g p l a n s . would c o n s t r a i n  prospectus review  the prospectus  to c o n t r o l road drainage,  the  already  (CCL) engaged t o c o n d u c t t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  studies.  tion  d a t a were  KRL t a k e s t e p s  p u b l i c i n the Kootenays o f t h e i r  CGSC, was s u b m i t t e d  o f Phase I  t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e 1980  season f o r which b a s e l i n e  A prospectus,  to  f o r approval  infor-  a s s e s s m e n t s , and  a p p r o a c h t o t h e company  t o i n v a l i d a t e the purpose o f  CDG. CGSC e m p h a s i z e d  t o KRL i n l a t e A u g u s t  1979 t h a t ,  162 prior  to approval, e f f o r t s  l e v e l of d e t a i l  in their  request,  suggested  i t was  r e f e r e n c e and  table  economic study proposed  s h o u l d be made t o r e a c h  reports.  To  t h a t t h e CGSC r e v i e w  of contents  s t u d i e s to review  agents  KRL  manpower r e q u i r e m e n t s , grams.  s t u d i e s and impacts  i n g w i t h KRL without  assessed.  p r i n c i p l e w o u l d be  tion.  KRL  their  tion  at the  a m e e t i n g was  r e q u e s t o f KRL  organized  p e r m i t t i n g was  w h i c h was  requested  by  mine p l a n were b a s e d appeared  a further  meet-  details,  h e l d among CGSC,  f o r exchange o f  the p r o j e c t  and  some  t h e CGSC.  with  manage  the  pre-produc-  plant f a c i l i t i e s Subsequent changes  on p r o m i s i n g m a r k e t p r o s p e c t s  t o make f e a s i b l e  KRL,  informa-  f o r l o g g i n g o f the main  c l e a r i n g o f t h e mine and approved  the  Stage I a p p r o v a l - i n -  Instead of a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e ,  r o a d and  and  a c o r p o r a t e t a s k f o r c e t o work  consultants to f a c i l i t a t e  plans.  the g e o t e c h n i c a l  requested  an e x p e d i t e d  the  unlikely.  In December 1979 CCL  pro-  recommendation t h a t  until  MAC  the  scenarios,  training  to deal with t e c h n i c a l mine-planning felt  their  meeting.  land-use  l a b o u r s o u r c i n g , and  be p o s t p o n e d  w h i c h i t was  BCRC, and  presented  c o n c e p t u a l mine p l a n were c o m p l e t e d  more f u l l y  socio-  r e g a r d i n g spoil-dump d e s i g n ,  From t h e m e e t i n g came t h e  Stage I submission  terms o f  and  i n a September  need f o r g e o t e c h n i c a l s t u d i e s , p o t e n t i a l  II  this  the  for biophysical  program r e q u i r e m e n t s .  C o n c e r n s were i d e n t i f i e d  facilitate  Stage  a p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t a t the  haul  area, i n the which site  in  163  1983, was  s u p p o r t e d by noted that  to date,  but  reclamation  the  the  p o t e n t i a l reserves  e x p l o r a t i o n p e r m i t had  because o f the p e r m i t and  reports  "Gh  government r e q u i r e d by  agencies  East  to the the  in Victoria  K o o t e n a y and  wood, and  F i s h and  Stage I  The  The examined  regional d i s t r i c t  c o u n c i l s of F e r n i e ,  Coal  of  Spar-  r e p o r t were d i s t r i b u t e d  "Gh  the  Branch,  District  Pre-Production"  work  d i s t r i b u t e d i n May  initially  included  on  aspects Mines  an of  and  informal the  basis  by  development Act,  surface-water  g r o u n d w a t e r and  1980.  completed  Regulation  work camp and  pre-construction,  to  Socio."  Branch, P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l  t o KRL  the  work  sociocontrols  pit-dewatering,  q u a l i t y c o n t r o l , w a t e r q u a l i t y s e d i m e n t c o n t r o l mea-  sures,  regulations  erosion,  and  arose w i t h i n for  the  t h e s e documents was  to the  economic m a t t e r s ,  air  "Gh  f o r r e v i e w , t o be  s u b m i t t e d and  Concerns  program r e l a t i v e  during  and  as w e l l as  in Fernie.  comments were s e n t 1980.  copies  Wildlife  r e p o r t was  It  a  p l a n were r e q u i r e d  CGSC i n March 1980.  C o p i e s of the  Government r e v i e w o f  July  request,  L a n d Manager i n C r a n b r o o k , and  Mines I n s p e c t o r permit  the  the m u n i c i p a l  Elkford.  District  by  150  years.  disturbances.  Stage I E n v i r o n . "  were r e c e i v e d  50  accommodated  pre-production  reclamation  address pre-development The  of  g o v e r n i n g temporary water use,  heritage the  summarizing  assessment design  government r e v i e w e r s r e v i e w comments, w i t h  surface  problems.  regarding  An  the  some r e v i e w  issue  format  agents  164 feeling  that  their  to the  proponent.  either  neglected  intent  and  An  dations study  A the  summarizing reviewers'  be  technique,  study proposal  informal  was  as  a strategy  A d r a f t Stage  a one-volume  CGSC and  be  one  and  approved  screening  i n t e n t of  completed, the  d e t e r m i n e d and  were communicated  quality, climate,  the  cost-benefit analysis.  In t h i s  approval.  I t was  should  felt  r e s o l u t i o n of  the  issues prior  a favourable The  "Gh  by  should  Once  pre-  overall  concerns  issues  timing  included  of  c e r t a i n review be  resolved  CGSC and  agents. to  s u p p o r t e d by  ELUC  to  of p r o v i n c i a l  S t a g e I I recommendation c o u l d  S t a g e I I Review" was  and  the  prior  t o make a commitment to granting  "Gh  submission  recreation sites, of  by  preliminary  therefore,  instance,  r a i s e d by  i f B . C . C o a l were p r e p a r e d  given.  draft  Stage I I  A question  Some i s s u e s , t h e y b e l i e v e d ,  permits,  and,  1980  Socio."  a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the  hydrogeology,  a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e was  that  CDG  outstanding  t o KRL.  air  project  the  Stage I I  the  the  three-volume  conducted a  not  May  received  f o r wider p r o v i n c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n .  was  r e p o r t was  and  the  in  recommen-  to expedite  "Gh  SECC r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  t o determine whether or  spirit  reviewed  I I s u b m i s s i o n was  Stage I I E n v i r o n . "  the  their  agency Stage I I study  which i n c l u d e d  met  felt,  lost  f o r S t a g e I I was  r e l a y of  communicated  season.  screening  verbatim  i t was  concerns or  CGSC i n December 1980,  The  communicated  meaning.  The 1980.  comments s h o u l d  compiled  in a  be different  165 format  to address  responsible  specific  separately.  t o B.C.Coal i n August  for permits.  T h e r e was  and  socio-community  1981,  and  specific  information.  impact  Milligan  and  t h a t the  advantages the G r e e n h i l l s  company  four outstanding  analysis, hydrogeological  management, and Mickelson  m a r i z i n g B.C.Coal's experience  company  t e r m s and c o n d i t i o n s  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  Stage I I c o n c e r n s — a i r q u a l i t y recreation  concerns  a u t h o r i z e d the  o b l i g a t e d t o n e g o t i a t e , i n good f a i t h ,  analysis,  t h e agency-  ELUC g r a n t e d a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n -  t o c o m p l e t e n e g o t i a t i o n s on  was  concerns  f o r t h e comments, w h i l e  were c o m p i l e d ciple  the  with  project  cost-benefit  (1983, p. t h e CDG,  enjoyed  19),  noted  i n sumthe  o v e r many  new  mines: The m a j o r a d v a n t a g e was t h a t B.C. C o a l had an e x i s t i n g o p e r a t i o n n e a r Sparwood, and t h u s had a v a s t r a n g e o f e x p e r i e n c e d p e r s o n n e l to c o n t r i b u t e to the p r o j e c t . The framework was a l r e a d y i n p l a c e f o r a r e a s s u c h as f i n a n c e , m a r k e t i n g , p u r c h a s i n g , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a c c o u n t i n g , comp u t e r s e r v i c e s , g e o l o g y , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , h o u s i n g and environmental s e r v i c e s . F o r t h e EIA, t h e m o n i t o r i n g p r o g r a m s drew h e a v i l y on t h e o n g o i n g work o f F o r d i n g C o a l i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e n o r t h , as w e l l as on t h e p r o grams o f t h e B a l m e r g r o u p t o t h e s o u t h . The  project  appeared  approval-in-principle. that,  from  y e a r s had  first  up  Milligan  and  23 months t o Mickelson  achieve  (1983)  noted  e x p l o r a t i o n t o o p e r a t i o n a l s t a r t - u p , 15  elapsed.  slowed, w i t h  t o take  layoffs  I n 1983, and  B.C.  Coal's  Sparwood o p e r a t i o n ,  a r e d u c t i o n i n the planned  of G r e e n h i l l s a l s o • o c c u r r i n g .  start-  166  5.2.3  Sukunka  The then  by  Sukunka mine was  Coalition  owned f i r s t  M i n i n g Company, and  Some e x p l o r a t i o n was  begun i n 196 9,  tion  until  are in  d i d not proceed located  1975  Prior  environmental  and  early  1976,  t o the study  c o m p a n i e s and  prepared bined  although  The  and  P r e l i m . " was  study  t h e p r o v i n c e f o r NECDS.  presented  a prospectus  t o Neptune T e r m i n a l s ,  A revision Prospectus"  t o be  This  one  second  proposed  t o complete  consent,  by B.P.  that  two  environmental  of  accordance  I I was  rejected  submitted, because  phase c o n c e p t , proposals.  the  but  the  of  impact  submitted.  coal  a new  one-half years achieve  "S/B  1977. be ELUC  a draft  of Stage t o B.P.  I,  and  a revised  impact  Phases  two-  management  addendum  months l a t e r ,  In  Canada i t  i n a d e q u a t e l y w i t h the  Three  a  t o commence i n 1980.  analysis,  1978,  com-  with  Canada i n A u g u s t  in a letter  i t dealt  In F e b r u a r y  Phase I " was  tonnes  s t u d i e s and  w i t h CGSC p r o c e d u r e s ,  the  Vancouver.  and  with c o n s t r u c t i o n planned  In  Teck C o r p o r a t i o n  t o the development p l a n caused submitted  preli-  determine  S u k u n k a / B u l l m o o s e p r o p e r t i e s i n December 1976  B.C.  shown  conducted.  t o t h e CGSC on  Rail  I,  licences  a  responsibilities  via  was  Canada.  formal explora-  n e g o t i a t i o n s were begun t o  f o r shipment o f o n e - h a l f m i l l i o n  I and  B.P.  o f t h e CDG,  proposal  taken  by  Sukunka c o a l  initiation "S/B  the r e s p e c t i v e f e a s i b i l i t y coal  later  Bremeda M i n e s ,  i n t h e Peace R i v e r C o a l b l o c k i n the a r e a  F i g u r e 14.  minary  1971.  by  "S/B "S/B  Stage Stage  CHETWYND j (97 nr.  WAKTlNlt  'N  NUNKt MILL •33 A ROBERT MT. A PUOtlNI  \ T  0  MINE LEASE AREA \V»ULLMOOSr.  GWILLAM LAKE  7  . -  Figure  14 L o c a t i o n o f C o a l i t i o n C o a l Lease Area  2  4  6  8  168 I , Review" was for  further  regarding  r e t u r n e d t o t h e company w i t h  Stage  I I study;  the access road d e t a i l s ,  b a s e l i n e m o n i t o r i n g , and The from The  as w e l l ,  the  Sukunka p r o j e c t  studies  "S/B  had  July  1978,  Stage  L a n d Use  Canada met  1979.  company c a u s e d I I " was  document and  revisions submitted  typical  period of d e t a i l e d  by  y e a r s , and  s t u d i e s was  referred  I I document  t o t h e document, and i n December 1979.  this  process  further  them  on to  submitted  1982,  submissions  a  company d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h  spirit  In March  granted  was  ELUC  conditions.  o f c o o p e r a t i o n " was  i n the n o t i f y i n g  Phase I I c o n c e p t  "S  Per-  f o l l o w e d by  s u b j e c t t o a number o f  "excellent  the  the formal  (Crook,  s u b m i s s i o n was  a g e n c y and  S t e p h e n R o g e r s i n 1981 The  In  N o t e d as a model  Phase I o f t h e Sukunka c o a l p r o j e c t was  company.  t o when  Canada.  t o t h e two-phase d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l .  company's  an  t h e company c o n t i n u e d Stage  o f t h e CDG  approval-in-principle, The  prepared  I n f o r m a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n between CGSC and  s o n a l communication),  reference  prepared.  w i t h t h e CGSC t o b r i e f  I I p l a n n i n g p r o g r e s s , and  i n August  1981,  inventory resource  r e t u r n e d t o B.P,  study the p r o j e c t with a d r a f t  Stage  a large  Sub-committee had  I , Review" was  B.P.  expressed  loadout,  I I documents were  b i b l i o g r a p h y of these Stage  were  t h e Chetwynd  i n t h e r e g i o n f o r t h e p r e v i o u s two  annotated the  concerns  SIA.  w h i c h t o draw when S t a g e E n v i r o n m e n t and  recommendations  letter  to  noted the  g e n e r a l l y supported,  f o r Phase I I were r e q u e s t e d  before  but the  169 second phase c o u l d planning  ceased  finally  in late  be  1981,  approved.  Sukunka p r o j e c t  the  of external project  result  problems. 5.3  Document E v a l u a t i o n The  document e v a l u a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  i n A p p e n d i x A,  was  i n A p p e n d i x B. purpose,  section  document e l e m e n t s o f a u t h o r s h i p ,  criteria  were  described e a r l i e r  on  ration. Co.  L i n e Creek case  may  timing,  evaluated  i n Chapter  i n d i c a t e t h a t the  weak, i n t h a t a s s e s s m e n t the o v e r a l l  planning.  CNI First,  used the  two  approaches  "L.C.  exploration authors  and  of the  initial  1,  document.  prospectus  For by  example,  Birtley  yet not  environmental  presented  provided  or  social  results  C o a l , were  cited.  1  few  document  Engineering,  statement of C N I s development p l a n n i n g included  development  position,  who  pro-  little  e v a l u a t i o n s , were n o t  s t u d i e s from C o n s o l i d a t e d  i n t o the  was  1 1  c o n t r i b u t i n g agencies,  p l a n t assessments prepared assessment  in their  Prospectus  feasibility  CDG  i n f o r m a t i o n had  company d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g  as a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e i r  c o n s u l t a n t and  ted  content  coded  Authorship  gram was  as  and  5.2.  The  and  provided  documents l i s t e d  m e t h o d o l o g y , and  t o the  5.3.1  effect  The  format,  according  a p p l i e d to the  as  prepaby  Mitsui  although primary identified of  pilot  and  coal  incorpora-  T h i s document was to that date,  issues.  The  and  "L.C.  a  170 Expansion"  was  also presented  the c o n c l u s i o n the document, CNI have l i m i t e d  as a u t h o r e d  responsibility  concluded  that their  i n c r e m e n t a l impact  approved.  T h i s c o n c l u s i o n was  a proposed  set of a d d i t i o n a l  that  question.  CNI  when t h e y were s e e n The  second  d o c u m e n t a t i o n was s t u d i e s and  "L.C.  The  s u p e r v i s i o n and  In  "L.C.  I I " was  ject  conduct  Stage I , " BCRC s 1  clearly  identified  They o r g a n i z e d t h e  as  the  r e s e a r c h by  pro-  group l e a d e r s h i p s e r v i c e s , e n v i r o n m e n t , and  by o t h e r prepared  author  prepared  by  socio-  specialists. by  a four-man  The con-  u n d e r c o n t r a c t t o BCRC. BCRC, w i t h  project  management p r o v i d e d by v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h "L.C,  Pop.  Study"  Underwood M c C l e l l a n L t d . , w i t h a  team o f t h r e e a n a l y s t s . i t s p l a n s as  whereas i n t h e  criteria  in presenting  reports.  of  examine  CNI  s u p e r v i s i o n and  c o o r d i n a t e d by  presented  to  a p p r o a c h employed by  s e c t i o n s u s i n g t e n BCRC c o n t r i b u t o r s . was  to completion  reports.  team, w i t h a s i n g l e Stage  would  own  s e c t i o n s were p r e p a r e d  "L.C.  expansion  of t h e i r  H e r i t a g e A s s e s s m e n t " was  sulting  this  t o emphasize t e c h n i c a l  while e n g i n e e r i n g , water q u a l i t y , economic  In  with  that previously  drawn p r i o r  as a u t h o r s  studies.  viding project  only.  studies designed  appeared  alone  t o employ e x t e r n a l c o n s u l t a n t s t o  prepare  of the  CNI  proposed  over  D i v i s i o n o f A p p l i e d B i o l o g y was author  o f CNI  by  second  In the  first  the product approach,  one  approach,  o f i t s own  the  company  research,  might conclude  a p p r a i s a l documents were p r e p a r e d  study  primarily  the  pro-  t o meet  171 government The  requirements. Greenhills coal project utilized  organizational KRL  developed  in-house jects. was  s t r u c t u r e to prepare  their  a project feasibility  manager o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l Much o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l  coordinated  in-house,  with  study  h y d r o l o g i c a l , and  o u t by B . C . C o a l p e r s o n n e l .  result  reclamation The  formal  and  and  soils,  n e l and other the  BCRC a l s o c o o r d i n a t e d  sub-consultants;  "Gh  nated  vegetation, w i l d l i f e ,  by  this  joint  not  reflect  tal  and  clearly When t h e  and  "Gh  earlier  with  those  of  two  and  coordi-  team a p p r o a c h .  The  technical  assessment,  this  i n f o r m a t i o n but f o r the  social  was  more  did  environmenrequest.  r e p o r t s most  i n t e g r a t e d team-authorship u s e d , KRL  and person-  pre-production  S t a g e I I E n v i r o n . " and  team a p p r o a c h was  res-  studies—appended.  government-requested  the  use,  as c l e a r l y  engineering  consequences of t h e i r  reflected  carried  Stage I S o c i o . "  i n t e g r a t e d company p l a n n i n g  social The  "Gh  presentation with  addendum t o t h e  document p r o v i d e d  efforts  company/consultant  reports—geotechnical as an  their  geo-  surficial  resource  r e p o r t were n o t  a KRL  mine  general  a s s i s t a n c e f r o m KRL  however, t h e  Pre-Production"  l a t t e r document was  Designed  with  planning  c o n s u l t a n t , BCRC, was  geology,  an  S p e c i a l Pro-  s t u d i e s were  f o r a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s , water q u a l i t y ,  a i r quality,  with  t h a t the  ponsible  c l i m a t e and  documents.  work and  development p l a n , e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , logical,  different  team c o n c e p t  Affairs  the  a  concept.  concerned  172 with  the s p e c i f i c  impacts  c r e a t e d by t h e i r  proposed  develop-  ment and t h e r e a p p e a r e d t o be a s t r o n g e r commitment t o c o r porate  policies The  bilities Prelim.  Sukunka c a s e  Study" t h e product  with  later  tion  t h e study  t h e "S/B  s u p e r v i s i o n , study  Again, design,  and p r o c e s s i n g , and r e p o r t i n g s e r v i c e s .  i t d i d not provide  agreement w i t h t h e c o n t e n t  assurance  or conclusions.  assessment f o r  o f company I f integrated  c o r p o r a t e m i n e - d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g and e v a l u a may have been u s e f u l ,  u s e was f o u n d .  b u t no e v i d e n c e  of i t s  One p l a c e t h e p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y  have been u s e d was i n t h e "S/B P r o s p e c t u s , " B.P.  range o f p o s s i -  document s e r v e d w e l l a s an i n i t i a l  proponent,  later  a full  documents.  of consultant research.  assessment study  collection  While t h i s the  illustrated  i n these  f o r p r o p o n e n t document p r e p a r a t i o n , w i t h  BCRC p r o v i d e d data  and m i t i g a t i o n p l a n s  may  a statement  Canada's e x p l o r a t i o n r e s e a r c h and i n t e n t .  of  In the pre-  paration  and a u t h o r s h i p o f "S/B S t a g e I , " B.P. Canada  utilized  a complex s y s t e m o f c o n s u l t a n t s , w i t h BCRC i n j o i n t  venture  with  consulting project  firm  Each major  had a p r o j e c t manager w i t h BCRC p r o v i d i n g  c o o r d i n a t i o n , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  coordinating utilize  IEC and f o u r s u b - c o n s u l t a n t s .  f o r assembling  t h e r e p o r t ; t h e r e was no o b v i o u s  t h e f i n d i n g s i n t h e document.  and  commitment t o  Nevertheless, i n  a p p e a r a n c e , p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e "S S t a g e I I " r e p o r t was clearly  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  o f B.P, E x p l o r a t i o n C a n a d a .  In summary i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e most common  corporate  173 approach  t o p r e p a r i n g CDG  f o r m a l assessment  s t u d i e s was  s e p a r a t e t h e company f r o m  the c o n c l u s i o n s ; hence,  commitment  of r e s u l t s .  to u t i l i z a t i o n  CGSC r e q u i r e d nent's ting  that  a l l documents be  name, t h e most d e s i r a b l e  environmental,  achieve t h i s effective  social,  result,  and  from  To be a c c e p t a b l e ,  submitted  i n the  documents c l e a r l y technical  from w i t h i n  the  propo-  integra-  information.  s t u d y c o o r d i n a t i o n may  i f developed  to  To  have been most  company.  C h o i c e s o f t h e r e v i e w document f o r m a t ,  distribution,  m e t h o d o l o g y , and,  i n some measure, c o n t e n t , a r e a  of the  a u t h o r , o r t h e CGSC c o o r d i n a t o r s ' a b i l i t y  individual  t o manage i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n responsibilities.  the context of t h e i r  and,  mitment o f government d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s  Stage man  "Gh  Stage  sen, a c t i n g All  "L.C.  Stage  to support the  I and  Later,  L i n e Creek  chairman  o f CGSC, and  as  chairmanship  as  reviews  lead  McDonald, w i t h R,  B o t h worked w i t h i n  Karl-  secretary.  "Gh  t h e Sukunka r e v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d  o f J . D.  well  a g e n c y , had The  "Gh  chairas  Eric  D i c k , CGSC  r e s o u r c e management o r i e n t a t i o n .  Review" and  dinator.  project  John  review  I I , Review" and  I , Review" were c o o r d i n a t e d by  t h r e e worked w i t h i n ELUCS w h i c h ,  integrated II,  The  the  w i t h them, t h e com-  I , Review" were c o o r d i n a t e d by J . O ' R i o r d a n  o f t h e CGSC.  as t h e  agency  F o r t h e c a s e s examined, a u t h o r s o f  r e v i e w documents c h a n g e d o v e r t i m e  document c o n t e n t .  reflection  an  Stage  under  the  C r o o k as CGSC c o o r -  t h e I n s p e c t i o n and E n g i n e e r i n g  D i v i s i o n o f MEMPR, t h e m i n i s t r y w i t h a mandate t o  support  174 m i n i n g and British  i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the  Timing Figure  11  (on p.  153)  summarized  project  and  ciple.  Company c o n s t r u c t i o n and  trasted.  i t s documents r e l a t i v e  Most o f t h e  reviewed  tion,  but  i n 30  preparation  design,  production  with  of  increased  social  local  assessments,  community p o l i c i e s ,  and  information  and  expectations  restrict  val,  was  raised of  not  by  to cause In t h e  critical  the  CNI,  the  CDG  after  from c o n t i n u i n g  development p l a n n i n g ,  i n t e r v e n i n g f a c t o r s , not  arose  its  been g i v e n .  released  their  more  As  the  CDG  program  administration months  r e c e i v i n g appro-  to address  issues  and  a number  i t was  g u i d e l i n e s program,  G r e e n h i l l s p r o j e c t , KRL plans  a  f o r CNI's  which  delays.  path  of  experience  t o examine i s s u e s f o r a f u r t h e r 34 had  and  s h i f t i n g market c o n d i t i o n s a l t e r e d  d i d not  approval  produc-  impacts  changed  was  after  con-  prepared  approval-in-principle.  Thus, a l t h o u g h  from c o n t i n u i n g  are  a s i t u a t i o n where f u r t h e r  plans.  this  each  including alteration  company p r o d u c t i o n followed,  plans  t o c o n s t r u c t i o n and  created  after  of  approval-in-prin-  a s s e s s m e n t o f community  s t u d i e s were r e q u e s t e d result  timing  L i n e C r e e k documents were  months p r i o r  incomplete  the  to the  changes to major development p l a n s , plant  of  Columbia.  5.3.2  and  economic growth  by  attempted  a l l o w i n g a four-month  t o meet float  175 period  and  obtaining  an  early  set of  months' t i m e , a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e the  had  strictly  has  following  contrast,  left the  required  appraisal period  itself  examined.  In  this  structure  f o r r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t , and  approval, ding  their  of  any  planning infracompany  studies  and  d e t a i l e d government d i s c u s s i o n  planning  was  due  was  not  appraisal  case,  project  a l t h o u g h the  regar-  anticipated.  more t o numerous  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e completion deadline,  project  not  existing  appraisal  two-phased development p l a n  pro-  and  than to  an the  program.  Purpose Not  change as  only  the  purpose of flexibility  the  no  CDG  by  d e s i g n u n c e r t a i n t i e s , w o r l d market c o n d i t i o n s ,  5.3.3  that  of  of p r o j e c t  uncertain CDG  months f o r p r o j e c t  a period  Cessation ject  30  was  with  Sukunka  case p r o j e c t  i n an  allowed  i n which there  The  longest  proceeded  had  area  design.  months, t h e  in 24  However, t h e  open t o c r i t i c i s m  guidelines 44  thus,  been o b t a i n e d ,  a i d of pre-production permitting.  administration  by  permits;  phases of  purpose of project  each phase d i f f e r e d allowed  enlightened public,  d i d the  and  by  the  specific  CDG  formal  planning  documentation  proceeded, but  f o r each p r o j e c t . program r e s u l t e d  government a g e n c i e s ,  readers outside  directly  concerned w i t h the  with the  resultant  government o r  mines may  inconsistency.  have had  None o f  the  the  This i n documents  rather those  than  not  difficulty prospectus  176 documents i n c l u d e d  a statement o f purpose, although the  description  that  notify  stated  t h e p r o s p e c t u s would  be u s e d  nent  i n Stage  I studies"  expected that the  to  government t o e n a b l e them t o " c o m p i l e e x i s t i n g  s o u r c e s and p r e p a r e an i n f o r m a t i o n b a s e t o a s s i s t  t h e p r o p o n e n t would  government  implied  (B.C. ELUC, 1976,  data  the  p. 6 ) .  propo-  It  was  receive cooperation  from  i n c o l l e c t i n g data f o r i t s assessments,  government a g e n c i e s would  resources to a s s i s t  CDG  which  have t h e manpower and  a company when r e q u e s t e d .  Furthermore,  . . . as a r e s u l t o f t h e p r o s p e c t u s , Government a g e n c i e s [would] be a b l e t o a s s i s t d e v e l o p e r s i n a s s e s s i n g t h e e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n base q u i c k l y t o i d e n t i f y major gaps. (B.C. ELUC, 1976, p. 6) This  implied  would  that,  b e f o r e Stage I submission,  have a c c e s s t o r e g i o n a l The  within  purpose of Stage  t h e CDG  program  companies  information. I became a s o u r c e o f  because  developers pursued  a p p r o v a l , w h i l e government a g e n t s s o u g h t p r o b l e m cation.  The  statement o f purpose  guidance because  i t was  contained multiple designed ning, was  as i l l u s t r a t e d  partly  resolved  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s Stage  I" stated  criteria  i n t h e CDG  general rather  objectives.  t o mark a phase  The  of j o i n t  identifi-  offered  Stage  I report  little  This  proceeded.  f o r Stage I e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t u d i e s .  plan-  confusion proponents  F o r example,  p u r p o s e was  and  was  industry-government  t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d by  that i t s o v e r a l l  project  than s p e c i f i c ,  by t h e c a s e s t u d i e s .  as t h e CDG  confusion  to f u l f i l l This  "L.C. the  document  177 identified overview  t h r e e more s p e c i f i c  purposes:  t o p r o v i d e an  o f b a s e l i n e c o n d i t i o n s ; t o document m a j o r  inter-  a c t i o n s between t h e development and t h e environment; and, by  identifying  recommendations interpretation  deficiencies f o r further  i n existing  d a t a , t o make  environmental  favoured b i o p h y s i c a l  studies.  impacts,  as community  d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e r e g i o n a l economy were n o t seen t o be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e document.  related the  a n d i t was n o t made c l e a r to monitoring;  responsibility In  Here,  i s s u e s became  studies, analyse  the statement rational  and c o n d u c t  o f p u r p o s e was sequence.  The  t o use  p r e l i m i n a r y f i e l d and the b a s e l i n e data,  on e n v i r o n m e n t a l  development a l t e r n a t i v e s ,  the requested  p l a n as f o l l o w s :  and i n t e r p r e t  significance  document, t h e p u r -  matching c l o s e l y  i n a more m e t h o d i c a l ,  e x i s t i n g b a s e l i n e data  and recommend  Impact management was t o be a d d r e s s e d objectives  these  "Gh S t a g e I E n v i r o n . " , a l a t e r  r e p o r t d e s c r i b e d the proposed  potential  solu-  o f government.  Stage I o b j e c t i v e s .  lab  intent  t h a t d a t a gaps were t o be  s o , by o m i s s i o n ,  p o s e was s t a t e d more f u l l y ,  presented  as i s s u e s  T h e r e was no s t a t e d  to d i s c u s s development o p t i o n s o r a l t e r n a t e d e s i g n tions,  Literal  components,  assess  assess  further studies.  through  reclamation  t o r e - e s t a b l i s h w a t e r s h e d v a l u e s on a l l d i s t u r b e d  l a n d s as soon as p o s s i b l e , a manner c o m p a t i b l e of the land p r i o r  with  and t o a c c o m p l i s h  the p o t e n t i a l  to disturbance.  restoration i n  primary  surface-use  T h e r e was, however,  still  178 no p r o p o s a l t o c o n d u c t public KRL  consultation.  o b j e c t i v e was  "S/B  In the  t o the  Prelim."  vities  may  w h i l e the purpose  a qualified,  proposed  development,  economic  states,  t h r o u g h mine  "S/B  Stage  describe  identify  and  left  In the absence  and  cribe  development and  report  analyse,  interpret,  specific  impacts, determine  z i n g n e g a t i v e i m p a c t s , and  t h e MMA  and  The  their  "L.C.  indicated plan,  of purpose  that  statement i t would  in des-  assess the a l t e r n a t i v e s ,  further  s t u d y was  siteminimi-  studies for  i n t e n d e d - f o r use  were t o e s t a b l i s h  annual geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n  was  direction,  the environmental  determine  con-  purpose.  contained alternatives with a concisely  set o f o b j e c t i v e s which  and  impacts  methods f o r a v o i d i n g o r  Pop."  the  social,  study  I I statement  describe  sensiti-  program d i r e c t i o n i t  p r e s e n t e d as a s i n g l e  Each  monitoring.  CDG  to define  methodical order. the proposed  statement  identify  c o n c e i v e d , d e s p i t e b r o a d CDG  e a c h o b j e c t i v e was  workforce  to o u t l i n e  i m p a c t s , and  In a l l c a s e s , the Stage much more c l e a r l y  stated  examine a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r  of c l e a r  to the proponents  I " was  document s p e c i f i c  m i t i g a t i o n o r avoidance o f such  was  include  development,"  the b i o p h y s i c a l ,  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the development,  straints.  stable  the major e n v i r o n m e n t a l  affected  of the  I Socio.", a  s t u d y gave a v e r y s i m p l e  "to determine be  Stage  or to  company.  of purpose: which  "Gh  to a t t r a c t  at the lowest c o s t The  an e c o n o m i c e v a l u a t i o n ,  by  defined  the probable  o f CNI's e m p l o y e e s  f o r the  179 v a r i o u s communities, L.C.  employees  identified  and  to predict  i n 1982.  i t s purpose  The  "Gh  and  to proceed  on  T h i s document had  difficult  s c h e d u l e and w i t h i n  purpose  alternatives protection 1976).  from  direction  are l i k e l y  This directive  o t h e r government  p r e s e n t e d one  t h e r e were no  c o u l d be measured, a r o u n d  stated  which they  o b j e c t i v e s w h i c h t h e d e v e l o p e r was had  t h e EEC  necessary t o conduct review c r i t e r i a developers  found  drafted had  were n o t  The  guide-  the  environmental  interests"  facing  (B.C.,  problems f o r  standards  had  had  obliged  f o r conheld parti-  standards  which  reviews;  pollution  t o meet. for  other  identified  focussed t h e i r  Others,  socio-economic  information requirements  evaluations.  indicated  themselves  more  Some a g e n c i e s ,  requirements  specific  their  was  government a g e n c i e s  f o r example, t h e Waste Management B r a n c h  and  d i d not  the  o f t h e key  those with p e r m i t t i n g f u n c t i o n s ,  analysis,  and  r e g a r d i n g the review,  e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r the r e p o r t s .  s u c h as t h e MMA,  limits,"  description.  of success that  therefore,  phases  issues.  t o have i n m e e t i n g  s t a n d a r d s and  d u c t i n g the review;  cularly  t h e CDG  the degree  the program because  varied  economic  f o r the review documentation  to i d e n t i f y  "indicate  approval for pre-  a single-purpose objective  lines provided l i t t l e than to  interim  t o major c o n s t r u c t i o n  deal with environmental or s o c i a l The  of  Pre-Production" report  as t o "seek  c o n s t r u c t i o n work p e r m i t s p r i o r  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  i n the  However,  because  guidelines,  a continually  expanding  180 set  of information  5.3.4  Format  The ent  requirements.  prospectus  i n format  f o r each  l e n g t h v a r y i n g from  documents were s u b s t a n t i a l l y stage  and f o r e a c h  13 t o 32 p a g e s .  document was one volume w i t h e i t h e r abstract  at the beginning.  provided  information exactly  their  case, the  a separate  summary o r an  B e c a u s e t h e "L.C. P r o s p e c t u s " as r e q u e s t e d  i t was v e r y t e c h n i c a l  t h e r e was l i t t l e  analysis  summary and maps  case, with  In each  CDG d e s c r i p t i o n ,  the  differ-  i n the o r i g i n a l  i n nature,  and y e t  of options or a l t e r n a t i v e s .  identified  the s i t e  of the mining  properties,  the p r e s e n t a t i o n of l a b o u r - f o r c e estimates  illustrated  a problem  wherein size  later  evidence  and c o m p o s i t i o n In  straints  typically  f a c e d by c o r p o r a t e p l a n n e r s ,  r e v e a l e d an u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e  of the workforce.  the format  identified  o f "S/B P r o s p e c t u s , "  the only  facilities.  Assumptions  were t h e a s s u r e d b u i l d i n g  "S/B  o f Tumbler Ridge,  i n d i c a t i o n of environmental P r e l i m . " study  impacts  explicit  d i d not include  despite the e a r l i e r  and, as i n t h e o t h e r p r o s p e c t u s  e x t e n t were c l e a r l y  f o r the  and t h e e x p e c t e d  The f o r m a t  ments, t h e a r e a maps, g e o l o g i c s t r u c t u r e s , deposit  date  t h a t were n o t made  a p p r o v a l o f a new p o r t f a c i l i t y . any  con-  were t h e l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e  c h o i c e o f r a i l w a y r o u t e and on t h e c o m p l e t i o n port  While  docu-  r e s e r v e s , and  presented but lacked a l i s t of  181 references. I n a l l c a s e s t h e S t a g e I documents c o m p r i s e d volumes, o f t e n w i t h  Volume 1 c o n t a i n i n g  Volume 2 t h e t a b l e s , I Environ." Socio."  was  This  facilitated strative  distribution  created  With t h i s  Stage  admini-  format the t o t a l  the  never  range o f impacts Although i n a l l  a summary, t h e "S/B S t a g e I " p r o -  t h e f o r m a t w h i c h most c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y d e a l t w i t h t h e  as w e l l  environmental data,  as r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s .  socio-economic presented  as a s e p a r a t e  "L.C.  S t a g e I " summarized  the  phrasing  for  consideration  attributes  quarter  of the references  were o f s p e c i f i c  were g e n e r a l  within  was  In t h i s  and  little  room  example, t h e of biophysical  were b i o p h y s i c a l i n n a t u r e . were l o c a l  i n v e n t o r i e s , one  b i o p h y s i c a l methods, and t h e r e s t  i n v e n t o r i e s o r k e y s and a n a l y t i c i t e m s ,  regulations.  no  the r e p o r t .  only,  description left  largely a detailed l i s t  and a l l 22 r e f e r e n c e s  O v e r one t h i r d  there  the development p l a n  of a l t e r n a t i v e s . was  and m i t i g a -  summary, t h e l a t t e r  sub-section  o f t h e mine d e s i g n  table of contents  impacts,  However,  s e c t i o n i n the o v e r a l l  being  few  The  a t the cost of separating  by one p r o j e c t was n o t c u m u l a t e d .  development p l a n , tion,  "Gh  o f t h e CGSC,  i n t o two e n t i t i e s w h i c h were  c a s e s documents i n c l u d e d vided  at the request  among r e v i e w a g e n c i e s .  advantage o c c u r r e d  integrated.  The  document from t h e "Gh S t a g e I  format, evolved  impacted dimensions  t h e r e p o r t and  f i g u r e s , and a p p e n d i c e s .  a separate  two  with  a  Of t h e 27 a p p e n d i c e s , a l l b u t one d e t a i l e d  182 biophysical "L.C. the  information.  Prospectus"  location  these for  Development c o n s t r a i n t s i n t h e  were i d e n t i f i e d  of the c o a l reserves.  organized.  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  documents.  appendix.  data  provided  volume,  a useful  t h e summary  appendices.  a technical  assessment.  The "S S t a g e  one  I I " had f o u r  and S e c t i o n B t h e b i o the  these  socio-economic  reports  appeared  e v a l u a t i v e requirements,  f o r improvement were made.  was a r e p e a t  t h e "Gh  t h e summary; Volume 2, S e c t i o n  although  a d e q u a t e t o meet t h e f o r m a l  were  i n Volume 1, and two v o l u m e s  description,  In a l l cases,  over  and a  associated with  p h y s i c a l a s s e s s m e n t ; Volume 3 p r o v i d e d  obser-  Much o f t h e c o n t e n t s  o f p r e v i o u s documents, and a summary o f t h e  changes from p r e v i o u s  Format t e c h n i q u e s ful  larger  For the G r e e n h i l l s p r o j e c t there  Volume I c o n t a i n e d  A contained  project's  format.  The "Gh S t a g e I I S o c i o . " c o m p r i s e d  including  sections:  vations  plan  t h e S t a g e I I r e p o r t s were much  Stage I I volumes, t h r e e b e i n g  appendices.  site  and w e l l  a v o l u m e o f t a b l e s and f i g u r e s ,  Stage I I E n v i r o n . " ; of  read,  The 3-volume L i n e C r e e k r e p o r t c o m p r i s e d  pages o f t e x t ,  separate  easily  The s e p a r a t i o n o f methods, d e v e l o p m e n t  In a l l cases  four  The c o n c l u s i o n , b a s e d on  The "Gh S t a g e I " r e p o r t s , by  c o m p a r i s o n , were g e n e r a l l y c l e a r ,  300  r a i l w a y and  c o n s t r a i n t s , was t h a t t h e r e was no a l t e r n a t i v e  development f a c i l i t i e s .  data,  as an e x i s t i n g  a s s e s s m e n t s was n o t g i v e n .  t o a i d communication  where i d e n t i f i e d  impacts  may have been  were c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e d  use-  with  183 intended Socio." and  monitoring provided  conclusions  outline.  The  and m i t i g a t i o n p l a n s .  another  format v a r i a t i o n ,  included within  "L.C. S t a g e  references  being  I I " continued  "Gh S t a g e I I S o c i o . " made e x p l i c i t l y ,  with  comments  with  three  quarters  of  A glossary of  b u t some t e r m s were d e f i n e d  text.  or  t o show a h e a v y  b i o p h y s i c a l i n nature.  t e r m s was n o t p r o v i d e d ,  "Gh S t a g e I  the t a b l e of contents  e m p h a s i s on b i o p h y s i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , the  The  i n the  A s s u m p t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y n o t  and g r a p h i c s  were u s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d  i n the  v o l u m e s o f t a b l e s , f i g u r e s , and a p p e n d i c e s . I t was provided did  the non-formal proponent documentation  extreme examples o f f o r m a t .  not i d e n t i f y  assumptions,  ments o f c o r p o r a t e principles  belief.  were i d e n t i f i e d  that  The "L.C. E x p a n s i o n "  but, rather, provided  state-  F o r example, CNRC e x p a n s i o n as  being:  . . . [to] f u l l y u t i l i z e the p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y o f the two p r e p a r a t i o n p l a n t s , t o i n c r e a s e s c h e d u l i n g t o meet c u r r e n t c o n t r a c t s and t o p r o d u c e i n c r e a s e d t o n n a g e t h r o u g h an e x p a n s i o n o f m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s . The o b j e c t i v e was t o e n s u r e t h e o p t i m i z e d p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r m a l and m e t a l l u r g i c a l c o a l s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o n t r a c t ' s q u a l i t y of parameters. ("L.C. E x p a n s i o n " ) T h e r e were no s t u d i e s c i t e d  i n support  of the  CNRC a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h e e x p a n s i o n w o u l d have o n l y incremental negotiated  environmental marketing  b a s e d were, i n f a c t , h e a v i l y weighted sing  impact,  limited •  or that the c u r r e n t l y  c o n t r a c t s on w h i c h t h e e x p a n s i o n secure.  With the previous  to b i o p h y s i c a l concerns,  analysis  i t was  t h a t t h e SECC, t h r o u g h t h e CSGC, r e q u i r e d  was  not s u r p r i -  further  184 studies  and  adopted  sions.  The  "L.C.  over  a working  Pop."  lack of s o c i a l  s t u d y was  impact  the e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a useful  impact  contained clearly  a separate,  identified.  and  The  ment and  secondary and  The  this  useful by  recession.  were  assumed t h a t  and  and  the  the Green-  Sage C r e e k  Constraints to data as t h e  the t a b l e s  and,  and  In a l l c a s e s , the  g r a p h i c s were  the c o n c l u s i o n s i n  constraints. documents became more  e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e p r o c e s s was agents  and  CDG  gained  program a d m i n i s t r a t o r s .  f o r m a l documents r e q u i r e d by  p r o g r a m were r e s p o n d e d ment, g e n e r a l l y 30  and  analysis.  by p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n  of the review  government r e v i e w  time-  t h e use o f e x t e n s i v e  a l l o w e d the r e a d e r t o judge  as o n g o i n g  limited  w i t h i n the methodology o f the  illustrative  format  procure-  I n t a n g i b l e v a l u e s were d e s c r i b e d as  of the assumptions The  report  assumptions  that Elco  study, which j u s t i f i e d  addressed  format,  light  This single-volume  document a u t h o r s  and  concerns  an example o f a more  Fording Coal's expansion,  information.  and  of the  i s , with respect to  10-page summary and  r e f e r e n c e s were c l e a r ,  useful  study,  i n v e s t i g a t i o n were i d e n t i f i e d  frame f o r t h e  The  of t h i s  expan-  r e p o r t assumed a c o n t i n u e d demand f o r c o a l  no m a j o r w o r l d  such  a n a l y s i s and  p r o j e c t would proceed,  would not.  to deal with  the r e s u l t  assessment format.  L i n e Creek p r o j e c t , hills  policy  the  CDG  t o by means o f a f o r m a l r e v i e w  t o 40 pages i n l e n g t h .  The  docu-  proponent's  185  i n f o r m a l p r e s e n t a t i o n d i d not r e c e i v e formal documentary response,  with  Three review evolved,  t h e e x c e p t i o n o f "Gh P r e - P r o d u c t i o n  formats  of concerns.  index,  clarifii n the  S t a g e I , Review" and t h e "L.C. S t a g e I I , Review"  comments  t h a t may  were p l a c e d b e s i d e provided  but  p r a c t i c e was  this  comments  and c o n f l i c t i n g  have b e e n r e l a t i v e l y  important  comments  references to other  i n a format  r e p o r t s were i d e n t i f i e d ,  the r e p l i e s  specific company  sources  different  The a g e n c i e s  ments were o r g a n i z e d  Some o f t h e  i n c o n s i s t e n t , and t h e  were o r g a n i z e d  who  advice,  insignificant  observations.  the b i o p h y s i c a l review.  of information socio-economic from those o f  r e c e i v e d the  were l i s t e d ,  by s u b j e c t , and w i t h i n t h e  government a g e n t s were shown as s o u r c e s  t h e comcomments for further  contact. A different  was t a k e n  a p p r o a c h t o t h e government r e v i e w  format  i n t h e G r e e n h i l l s p r o j e c t , where t h e comments  transmitted  t o t h e company  a g e n t and a g e n c y c l e a r l y taken  process  Because o f the format  t h e r e was an o v e r l a p o f comments and  as t h e r e v i e w  b u t none had a t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s ,  cation or order "L.C.  were u t i l i z e d  Review."  with  a s r e c e i v e d by t h e CGSC, w i t h t h e  the author.  t h e "Gh P r e - P r o d u c t i o n  responsible  a l s o had h i s comments  company.  T h i s format  comments  t o be a l t e r e d  KRL a b a s i s f o r t h e i r  were  precluded  This approach  was  Review," where t h e a g e n t sent d i r e c t l y  any o p p o r t u n i t y  from t h e w r i t e r ' s i n t e n t ,  t o the f o r the and i t gave  o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e r e was much  186 government  overlap.  The  "Gh S t a g e I I , Review" i l l u s t r a t e s  approach, with lights,  fic  an i n t r o d u c t o r y s t a t e m e n t o f r e v i e w  a d i s c u s s i o n o f the o v e r a l l  project,  and f o u r i s s u e s i d e n t i f i e d  compendium o f comments  then  by m i n i s t r y .  positions  the t h i r d  followed,  a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the as p r i o r i t i e s . organized  t h e comments,  and t h e n  1  overall  specific  c o n c e r n s were g i v e n , w h i c h were f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d or regulatory, with  the region of concern,  Victoria  or r e g i o n a l noted.  The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f  a  in a similar  format,  l a r g e amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n was  with  either  comments  c o n s i s t e n t , and e d i t e d , and t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  were p r e s e n t e d  agency as b e i n g  advisory  was  A speci-  by s u b j e c t and  A summary o f t h e m i n i s t r i e s  initiated  high-  comments  the advantage  that  t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e compa-  nies . The the  best  that  review  document f o r t h e Sukunka p r o j e c t  example o f a u s e f u l f o r m a t ,  the communication  should  given  items  were c l a s s i f i e d addressed  priorities. first,  In t h i s  according  review  permits  comments  or high-  of occurrence,  t h e comments  t o the expectations  development p r o p o s a l , specific  as t o f r e q u e n c y  comments  i n t h e S t a g e I I s t u d i e s were  t o meet r e g a r d i n g  with  the c r i t e r i o n  be u s e f u l t o t h e r e c i p i e n t .  I n t h e "S/B S t a g e I , Review," t h e g e n e r a l lights  provided  were  and  considered classified,  t h a t the proponent  was  and r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e s p e c i f i c  and, s e c o n d , t o t h e p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , provided  regarding  corporate  187 mitigation  planning.  n a t u r e were e x c l u d e d n i n g and  presented  classification to  the  formats  i n separate appendices.  and  priority,  "S  Stage  I I , Review" was  f o r government r e v i e w  unique  this  more  useful  socio-economic  were p h r a s e d  the  i n the  first,  aspects.  as r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , o p p o r t u n i t i e s ,  t o be met  prior  to approval.  comments f o l l o w e d , b o t h  The  comments  and  condi-  significant  A complete  socio-economic  a t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s and  eight-  t h e n g e n e r a l com-  f o r a p p r o v a l , w i t h b i o p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s and  concerns  evolution  i n f o r m a t i o n , w i t h an  ments, f o l l o w e d by  and  With  t h e document was  appearing  of  in  from the a d v i c e f o r development p l a n -  page summary s t a t e m e n t  tions  technical  proponent. The  of  Comments deemed t o be  and  compendium  biophysical,  l i s t o f a b b r e v i a t i o n s were  included, 5,3.5  Methodology  The proponent level mal full had  first  was  to i d e n t i f y  of d e t a i l  but  no  and  t h e r e had  range  phase i n r a t i o n a l  conducted obtained  o f i s s u e s was  coal-core  considered.  and  and  The and  mentioned.  "L.C,  minithat  the types o f Primary  drill-hole  the  Prospectus"  data  seam o u t c r o p t r a c i n g s ,  reverse c i r c u l a t i o n  The  c o u l d be  i n the p r o s p e c t u s  methods s e c t i o n ,  a i r photos  p l a n n i n g f o r the  of the problem.  of a n a l y s i s  evidence  were o n l y b r i e f l y from  scope  the degree  t o be  identifiable  the  project  tests were  and  samples.  188 Information and  i n c l u d e d i n b l u e p r i n t s o f t h e mine d e p o s i t  three-dimensional  design  the  estimate only.  conceptual  the  the  considered  estimated  n o t be  but  r e p o r t a l s o assumed r e a d e r  cal  methods w h i c h g e n e r a t e d indication  by  with  The  unrealistic  with  "S/B  critical  tified,  however, and  predictability  was  an  path  with  f o r e c a s t i n g technique  the t e c h n i there  was  to the p r e d i c t i o n s .  in a highly  This  selective reflected  plan.  provided  similar  observations,  from p r i m a r y Some d a t a  sources  gaps were  o f the c o n f i d e n c e  for coal quality  f o r production values  referenced,  c o n c l u s i o n s , and  mainly  provided  The  predict  validity  incompletely  familiarity  indication  not  but  could  studies.  but  implied  explicit,  limits  Prospectus"  company f i e l d  value  not  proponent e x p e c t a t i o n s  information generated  b a s e d on  p r e d i c t e d the  the  the  of confidence  an u n r e a l i s t i c  dollars  o f the b e n e f i t s of  approach t o methodology r e s u l t e d report,  then  multi-  one  With the data  the  no  to  s u b s t a n t i a t e d the i m p l i c a t i o n s  t h e method was  ascertained.  f o r 1974  p r o j e c t , a l l o f w h i c h was  This value  as  method employed  the o p e r a t i o n a l phase  man-shifts  i n c r e a s e d employment was  project  and  t h e number o f w o r k e r s needed and  f o r the  detailed.  that  The  KRL-UMWA c o n t r a c t , and  employment  not  mine p l a n .  estimated  t h a t by  b a s e d on  models were u s e d t o d e s c r i b e  the workforce  CNI  plied  of  was  idenof  characteristics  o r employment p r o j e c t i o n s .  u s e d was  a g e o l o g i c a l model  the e x t e n t o f the d e p o s i t , which e n a b l e d  the  to  189 c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of  t h e mine p l a n .  ments were m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y vehicles or  because they  identify  resulted  The  failed  next  mine p l a n s  Interim of  assessment  a l l o f the  alternatives,  the  profile  options.  Corporate  water, hydrology, and  possible  be  corporate  viability  surficial  Reclamation  should  and  be  design  should to  geology,  fish  and  groundand  water-quality  f o r and  examined t o  f o r housing,  costed.  o f t h e p r o j e c t may  labour issues,  planning  should  the  be  This reflec-  potential  be  determined  by  P r e l i m . " study  identified  t h e methods  for  i t s a n a l y s i s but  did  n o t meet t h e  they  were s c i e n t i f i c  above c r i t e r i a .  For  The  formulate  generalized cost-benefit.  government p r o s p e c t u s  "S/B  and  relating  Stage I r e p o r t , a t which time  The  planning,  incorporated  planning  assumptions  policies  gained.  during exploration  closely  c o n c e p t u a l l y planned  community d e v e l o p m e n t ,  i n the  be  occurred  s t u d i e s were done  cost calculations,  waste r o c k ,  requirements  preliminary  both  ensure r a t i o n a l  conceptual  vegetation.  should  regulatory  To  analysis,  investigations into  planning  problems  project planning  feasibility  information should  locational  wildlife,  and  c h a n g e d as more i n f o r m a t i o n was  considerations.  ted  to address  phase of r a t i o n a l  marketing  environmental  include  as  f i n a n c i n g o p t i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d  initial  into  prospectus.docu-  mistiming.  where e x p l o r a t i o n and and  inadequate  possible corporate  in  Both  the. company. used  i n nature  only  example, d a t a  were  and  190 collected  f r o m a i r p h o t o s and f i e l d  measurements o f t h e i m p a c t e d charge,  water sampling,  assays,  while  analysis Despite report  the f a c t  soils,  bioassay  feasibility  was d e t e r m i n e d  d a t a were n o t c o l l e c t e d , t h e  the high e r o s i o n a l p o t e n t i a l  r e s u l t s were n o t r e p l i c a b l e ,  p r o v i d e d w h i c h d i d n o t make a s p e c i f i c inadequacies,  have b e e n u s e f u l h a d a l a t e r design  a matrix  and d a t a  point.  specific collected Analysis  "L.C. S t a g e  demonstrating  information.  may  t h e mine  I " was t h e o n l y document t o i n c l u d e the extent  o f impacts.  Branch provided  and v e g e t a t i o n .  and s e c o n d a r y  of sources.  Canada L a n d  phase.  The l e v e l  Again,  only t o c o l l e c t  Both primary  f r o m a wide v a r i e t y  site-specific  this  were  the reclamation advice  Inventory  of detail  most  contentdata  The MOE  house maps on r e c r e a t i o n , c l i m a t e , w i l d l i f e ,  for  topsoil.  Despite  i n t e g r a t i o n with  t h e methods u s e d were d e s i g n e d  soils,  of the f i n e -  occurred. The  of  by  experiments.  and i t s u s e f u l n e s s a s r e c l a m a t i o n  the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  dis-  and b i o -  s a m p l e s and p l a n t g r o w t h  that s o i l s  identified  textured The  core  such as  i n terms o f stream  invertebrate analysis,  reclamation  of d r i l l  river  observations,  Resource  maps and i n -  aquatics, was  insufficient  a n a l y s i s b u t was g e n e r a l l y a d e q u a t e f o r  The Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s B r a n c h p r o v i d e d  plain  analysis;  data;  CNFP a f f o r d e d c l i m a t e and f o r e s t  hunter-sampling  were  Fording Coal  data  added w e a t h e r and w a t e r  came f r o m  MOE.  cover  floodquality  maps; and  191 In t h e r e f e r e n c e s cent  primary data  sources. the  secondary  may be e r r o n e o u s , however, a s  o r a v a i l a b l e a s BCRC i n - h o u s e s t u d i e s .  was some e v i d e n c e collected  of  from  32 p e r  f o r most o f t h e i n v e n t o r i e s were c o l l e c t e d  referenced  cal  report contained  and 68 p e r c e n t  This observation  data  secured  sources  this  of current,  from l o c a l  sources,  f r o m t h e Canada L a n d  resource-use with  data  secondary  Inventory  but not There  having  been  information  and t h e A r c h a e o l o g i -  S i t e s B o a r d b u t , as o b s e r v e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e a s s e s s m e n t social  cal  issues received  l e s s a t t e n t i o n than the b i o p h y s i -  impacts. Many m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  "L.C.  Stage  w e a k n e s s e s were o b s e r v e d  I " document; f o r i n s t a n c e ,  show, c o n s i s t e n t l y , t h e s o u r c e s generated data, references. earlier  other  the tables f a i l e d t o  of their  consultants'  data,  t h e CNI-  r e p o r t s , o r academic  Some o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n was r e p e a t e d  documents; f o r example, c o a l r e s e r v e s  estimates,  hence, r e t a i n i n g t h e i r  l e v e l of confidence  i nthe  original  from  and w o r k f o r c e  problems.  The  f o r p r e d i c t i o n s was g i v e n o c c a s i o n a l l y  but  e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s i z e o f t h e i m p a c t was n o t c o n s i d e r e d .  The  majority  baseline  information  populations, thoroughly for that  local  of the techniques  while  emphasized  on w i l d l i f e ,  fish,  collection of  and v e g e t a t i v e  non-biological characteristics  inventoried.  One a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e d  human p o p u l a t i o n  forecast unclear;  distribution,  and, a l t h o u g h  were  a forecast  but data  gaps made  the information  was  192 cited not  i n t h e summaries and t h e m a t r i x ,  made e x p l i c i t .  dence l i m i t s ties  This  on r e s e r v e  by c o n s i d e r i n g The  t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s were  document d i d , however, s e t c o n f i estimates  and a d d r e s s e d  a number o f l o c a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s .  "L.C. S o c . - E c o n . " a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e d  c a s e where t h e f o r e c a s t s ' assumed v a l u e s fied. and,  F o r example, t h e need  their  increase.  This  consultants,  or  was  f o r increased  coal  scenarios  forecast i n three  t h e MMA.  steadily  stages  thresholds  1984.  t o the year  formulated.  therefore,  t h a t b e c a u s e o f new  t h e Upper E l k V a l l e y w o u l d  grow  f o r t h e E l k f o r d a n d Sparwood a base-case,  and a w o r k f o r c e  method a p p e a r e d  t o be e x e m p l a r y ,  to c l a r i f y  a l l of their  first  exclu-  A KRL p o l i c y  l o c a t i o n a l n e u t r a l i t y was  Development assumptions  that  Likely  and t h e d e g r e e o f u n c e r t a i n t y  and KRL t h e n p r o v i d e d  followed  possible  2000.  then i n c l u d i n g the G r e e n h i l l s p r o j e c t .  decision  made  As w e l l , community i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  were p r o j e c t e d  communities, ding  i n the area,  until  This determination,  where t h e f u t u r e o f t h e E l k V a l l e y  I t was c o n c l u d e d ,  mine p r o j e c t s  continued  strategies, included  d e v e l o p m e n t s were p r e d i c t e d given.  production  a s s u m p t i o n was n o t u n i q u e t o KRL,  through r e g i o n a l planning development  another  were n o t i d e n t i -  h e n c e , employment was b a s e d on an assumed  market  uncertain-  identified  b u t b o t h MMA  conclusions  by t h i s  a n d KRL  and p o l i c i e s  failed were  b a s e d on a c o n t i n u a l l y e x p a n d i n g c o a l m a r k e t .  Consequently,  their  down-side  techniques  d i d not consider  a c y c l e with  193 economic p l a n n i n g . or p a r t i a l  P o l i c i e s were n o t d e v i s e d  shutdowns b u t ,  tradespeople.  recruitment  B.C.  layoffs  rather, predictions included  e x p a n d i n g employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and of  for  C o a l went on  a chronic  t o p l a n an  s t r a t e g y , d e s p i t e the warning  shortage  extensive  that:  . . . the pace o f c o a l development i s h i g h l y u n c e r t a i n and d e p e n d e n t upon a wide r a n g e o f f a c t o r s s u c h as m a r k e t s , p r i c e s , and t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s . Forecasts c o n c e r n i n g f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t s must t a k e a c c o u n t o f these u n c e r t a i n t i e s . (B.C. MMA, 1979 , p. 6) The tion  next  p h a s e o f r a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g was  p h a s e , where d e t a i l e d  e x p l o r a t i o n and  s t u d i e s were examined by  the  mization.  concomitantly  research  This occurred and  collected  i n the  early profile Aspects  design,  detailed  reclamation  designs  f o r environmental  c o m p e n s a t i o n and housing,  phy.  These p o l i c i e s  t o community and  p h a s e was  and  shutdowns.  extensions  again,  a view to  the  information  used i n  planning  w a t e r management,  involvement,  policies  and  for  recreational f a c i l i -  for project operating philosothe p r o j e c t ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n  designing contingency  The  opti-  identifiable  plans  document f o r  for this  Stage I I r e p o r t .  Most o f t h e be  feasibility  phase i n c l u d e d m i t i g a t i v e  planning,  dealt with by  was  p r o t e c t i o n , with  education  stability  the  of t h i s  community  ties,  stage  evalua-  w i t h ongoing market  f i n a n c i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , and  f o r management.  layoffs  proponent with  an  o f the  S t a g e I I documents examined a p p e a r e d profiling  much more d e t a i l e d  phase.  Information  r e g a r d i n g b i o p h y s i c a l than  was, for  to  194 social sive,  community d a t a .  The  "L.C.  Stage  a v a r i e t y o f d a t a s o u r c e s was  more p r i m a r y d a t a c o l l e c t e d including a site-specific Investigations  also  from  I I " was  used,  and  included botanical  ments i n r e c l a m a t i o n p l a n n i n g , and  limitations  t e c h n i q u e , were i d e n t i f i e d . and  a statement  r e v e a l e d was impacts  how  impact  was  The  II Environ." also  appeared  "Gh  Stage  from primary t o be  was  t y p e was  given.  little  s y n t h e s i s f o r the  and  secondary  appeared  i n t h e methods s e c t i o n ,  the type of f o r e c a s t i n g appeared  those  sources, although there sources. of  was  made t o e a r l i e r  included According  proponent  meet i t s o b j e c t i v e s ,  t h e r e was Again,  studies.  perhaps  this  from used  variation  in  the i n f o r m a t i o n than a r e p o r t  of  Minimal reference  documents, b u t a s e c t i o n  purpose,  except  that  and  which d e a l t w i t h development p l a n to the o r i g i n a l  MOE,  a l l o f t h e methods  in-depth p r o f i l e  t h e company's e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e  Infor-  Not  technique.  t o be more o f an  clearly  included information  from v a r i o u s branches  Balmer o p e r a t i o n s .  separated  Less  a l t h o u g h a l l s o u r c e s were n o t g i v e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y the B.C.Coal  impacts,  reader.  use o f l o c a l - r e s i d e n t  derived mainly  constraints  predictive  management p l a n s w o u l d a d d r e s s the  experi-  Probable  as a  impact  to f a c i l i t a t e  collected  mation  of expected  Each  seeding  biophysical  of e x t r a p o l a t i o n  studies,  model.  and  t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l t e r n a t i v e s were l i s t e d . g i v e n the  t h e r e were  site-specific  flood-prediction  comprehen-  was  alternatives.  document a p p e a r e d  those of  alternatives  to  195 f o r management p l a n n i n g . As  t h e r e was  prospectus, agencies, was  left  t h e r e was  and  no  government r e v i e w o f a  no  Had  a g e n c i e s w o u l d have had early  conflicted region. raise  Without  t h e p r o s p e c t u s been  an o p p o r t u n i t y and  jurisdiction  evaluation  t h e r e was  The  water-sampling  were s e t up.  recommendations  and  data  r e v i e w s was  standardized  The  a c r o s s the case  for resolf o r review  and  guide-  compensation studies  Comprehensiveness of  a simple count  of  studies  as  to the  o c c u r r e d even w i t h i n  seen  or f o r the  agencies  r e v i e w m e t h o d o l o g y was  mats o f t h e r e v i e w comments due changes t h a t  c o u l d have  were c o s t - b e n e f i t  or environmental  assessment.  comments,.  particu-  terrestrial  guidance  for mitigation  achieved through  submitted  without  collection  although guidelines There  b u t none f o r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c or technology  for that  opportunity to  i n a q u a t i c and  r e v i e w p r o c e s s p r o v i d e d no  methodologies  or  network d e s i g n s .  inter-agency c o n f l i c t s ,  and  supported  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h government d a t a bases  s t u d i e s and  that  responsibility  expression of  Given prospectus review,  b e e n s t a n d a r d i z e d ; f o r example,  risk  no  phase  reviewed,  or o b j e c t i v e s  r e v i e w o f t h e p r o s p e c t u s , no  procedures  lines  identification  i n the p l a n n i n g , i f the p r o j e c t  with t h e i r  concerns.  ving  f o r government  o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e o v e r a l l mine c o n c e p t ,  public lar  role  the c o r p o r a t e problem  unevaluated.  to note,  evaluative  proponent's  not  i n varied  for-  organizational  the p l a n n i n g  time-frame  196 o f one p r o j e c t . reviewed by  by b i o p h y s i c a l a g e n c i e s , w i t h  the s o c i a l  a g e n c i e s , perhaps  to the review 5.3.6  agencies'  content  given  due more t o t h e method  i n t h e "L.C. P r o s p e c t u s " was  than  charac-  o f t h e mine d e v e l o p m e n t  potential  employment b e n e f i t s presumed t o o c c u r  e v e n t u a l mine p r o d u c t i o n . impact  approach  There  identification,  t o c o n t e n t was  potential  that  was  from  a minimum o f e n v i r o n -  and t h e e f f e c t the promotional  b e n e f i t s o f the proposed  the expense o f the p o s s i b l e  of t h i s aspects or  mine were e m p h a s i z e d a t  negative consequences.  "S.B. P r o s p e c t u s " p r o v i d e d a s i m i l a r content.  less attention  i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e x p l o r a t i o n p r o g r a m and  the p o t e n t i a l  mental  fully  interests.  by i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  outlined  were more  Content  The terized  G e n e r a l l y , t h e comments  The  example o f a p p r o a c h  to  The p o t e n t i a l o f t h e d e p o s i t and i t s employment-  g e n e r a t i n g c a p a c i t i e s were e m p h a s i z e d , b u t c o n t e n t to biophysical The  impacts  was  not provided.  c o n t e n t o f t h e "L.C. S t a g e  more c o m p r e h e n s i v e t h a n  related  the prospectus,  I " document was although  much  i t tended  t o emphasize the p r o d u c t i o n phase, w i t h t h e p l a n n i n g o f site  facilities  and mine p i t l o c a t i o n s  p o r t i o n of the content.  The e n v i r o n m e n t a l  described, with indicator tified,  but the a c t u a l  forming  a major  setting  was  c a t e g o r i e s comprehensively  impact  c o n t e n t was g e n e r a l l y  iden-  197 speculative positive  and  impacts  s u b j e c t i v e , w i t h a tendency t o emphasize s u c h as  underestimate negative effects  on  the  Stage  "Gh  planning  I" provided  f o r the  identified, the  i m p a c t s s u c h as  r e c r e a t i o n , hunting,  operations.  in  f o r w a r d employment  The and  a strategy The  offering  little  insight  f o r managing impacts.  did  not  issues  this  an  this  l a c k was  addendum  "S.B.  Stage  like  the  other  of  the  "Gh  with a pre-construction  c a s e document t o d e t a i l  In  crossings  and  pits,  with  addition, wildlife  information was  set-  vague,  contained I."  insuffi-  noted  in  I , Phase I "  i n terms o f  plan.  the was  develop-  route on  identified.  proposal. report  This  planning  information  transportation  given  S t a g e I documents, i t  construction  planning,  was  Stage  but  adequate  also  often  "S.B.  Pre-Production"  content  designs.  the  goal  t h e s e documents the  of  responsibility  The  gravel  for  d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n was  addendum was but,  of  impacts of the  from o p e r a t i o n a l  content  environmental  t h o r o u g h l y address the  exclusively  tion,  i n t o the  proposal  document r e v i e w , and  ment i n f o r m a t i o n  as  i m p a c t a n a l y s i s was  Both of  of  to assess the  The  The  this  the  f o r Stage I, u n l i k e  Phase I p o r t i o n  submitted.  for achieving  to  i t included  phase as w e l l  d e s c r i p t i o n of  comprehensive but  cient  since  and  population  need f o r government a p p r o v a l s was  t i n g was  The  increased  fishing.  a contrast,  construction  document.  adequate content  and  linkages,  the  on  was  the  only  separately site  details,  impacts to The  dealt  and  excavalogging  stream  document  198 included mitigation ing,  through  planning f o r continuous  a protection  the r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d t h e r e was  no  and  monitor-  maintenance program.  intentions  evidence  site  t o c a r r y out  of a planned  this  increase i n  While program,  environmental  staff. The than  c o n t e n t of Stage  adequate w i t h  ding evidence satisfy  some i m p o r t a n t  which f u r t h e r instance,  analysis  regional  on  community  to  cover  "L.C. of and  the  services  s t u d y was  simultaneous  housing  region,  but  by  range, The  plan-  general  f o r expansions,  and  and  areas i n  cumulative  issues,  impacts  t h e c o n t e n t was  a i r - and o f t h e mine  considered,  an a d d i t i o n a l  submitted.  regional  management,  cumulative  h o u s i n g were n o t  taking into  of f a c t o r s not  they  m i s s i n g ' — f o r example,  were some c o n t e n t  but  document,  I t c o n t a i n e d an  analysis  demand f o r community  services  account  other projects  limited  development i n f o r m a t i o n , although range  technical  market arrangements,  There  and  some o f t h e s e  Pop."  and  i s s u e s s u c h as u n g u l a t e  impacts.  II" provi-  c o u l d have b e e n i n c l u d e d , f o r  a l i e n a t i o n of elk winter water-quality  Stage  However, even t h o u g h  i n f o r m a t i o n was  information.  g e n e r a l l y more  t o mine d e s i g n were made t o  p l a n n i n g , the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  procurement  "Gh  i n environmental  for port f a c i l i t i e s ,  financial  I I " and  concerns.  comprehensive  planning  Stage  alterations  environmental  appeared ning,  that  "L.C.  I I documents was  i n the  b e c a u s e t h e r e was  no  t h e document d i d c o v e r  r e c o g n i z e d i n the other case  a  documents.  199 The inadequate  "L.C.  Expansion"  i n terms of c o n t e n t .  report  of s p e c i f i c  social  impact  The  technical  t h e o n l y document  clearly  T h i s was  detailed  l a r g e l y on p r e v i o u s  to take expansion  effects  into  c o n t e n t s o f t h e government r e v i e w  were g e n e r a l l y  adequate,  content d e t a i l .  with substantial  When p r o p o n e n t  account. documents  attention  s u b m i s s i o n s were  p e r s p e c t i v e with the review  f o l l o w i n g c l o s e l y the proponent s 1  to  reviewed  limiting  f e a t u r e of the a p p r a i s a l ,  the review procedures  t h a n by  their  In  content.  by  summary,  generally  particularly  revealed missing information.  documents were o f t e n more l i m i t e d format  was  the  document  presentation.  the content aspect of the documentation  and  studies  t h e b a s i s o f c o n t e n t , t h e r e v i e w comments r e f l e c t e d  content-oriented  the  a highly  content, with biophysical  i n f o r m a t i o n based  but not r e v i s e d  on  was  not  because The  t h e i r methodology  and  Chapter 6 PROGRAM OUTCOMES An  Environment o f V a r i e d  Concern  Where the need to plan is greatest because changes have accelerated beyond the levels of past experience, plan* ning tends to be least effectiver where the amount of perceptible change is small, so that planning can be carried out on the basis of nearly perfect knowledge, it is not needed, - Friedmann  6.1  (1978)  Introduction Since  properties  t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c o a l boom i n 1969, 31  h a d been e x p l o r e d  implementation  f o r c o a l i n B.C.  o f t h e CDG, 2 0 c o a l p r o s p e c t u s documents h a d  b e e n s u b m i t t e d , and n i n e c o a l mine p r o p o s a l s the  program,  ting the  s i x o f w h i c h had p r o c e e d e d  and c o n s t r u c t i o n . guidelines  or  A complete  limited  had completed  to further  production  3.  One mine,  environmental,  i n t o account  new m i n e s social,  t e c h n i c a l , and e c o n o m i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  number o f mines p r o c e e d i n g t o s u c c e s s f u l p r o d u c t i o n be  an i n d i c a t o r o f a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h a t  200  Line  i n 1983. The  outcome o f t h e CDG p r o g r a m was t o p l a n  t o expand e x i s t i n g o n e s , t a k i n g  permit-  summary o f t h e o u t p u t o f  p r o g r a m i s shown i n T a b l e  C r e e k , h a d begun o n l y intended  With t h e  goal.  As  The  may n o t  illustrated  201  earlier,  a number o f  affected  this  than  factors  the program i t s e l f .  A closer  submitted  principle  i n d i c a t e s t h a t 45  Of  the  continued  prospectuses per  examination  and  achieved  cent  this writing;  project, with  had  halted progress  sions to proceed;  two  were u n d e r r e v i e w ;  CDG  of the o r i g i n a l observation  program.  proposals  had  success-  seven mines  pending and  company two  had  b e e n r e j e c t e d by  decibeen  8 per  the  at  CDG,  cent an  that i s subject to v a r i a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  CDG  3  OUTPUT SUMMARY:  Description explored  Prospectus  approval-in-  Thus, a p p r o x i m a t e l y  Table  Property  o f mines  studies i n progress  two  the  have  significant  o f t h e s e were  apparently unsuccessful cases,  to plan t h e i r  r e j e c t e d by  program  outcome, some o f w h i c h were more  w h i c h had  ful.  o u t s i d e t h e CDG  submitted  1970-1983  Southeast  Northeast  Other  8  15  8  31  9  , 7  4  20  Total  Stage I  submitted  7  9  3  19  Stage I  approved  5  8  2  15  Stage I I submitted •  5  5  2  12  Stage I I a p p r o v a l - i n principle  4  4  1  9  Stage I I t o c o n s t r u c t i o n  2  3  1  6  Stage I I t o  1  0  0  1  3  0  1*  4  production  Operational *limited  production  Source:  Crook  (July  1982, P e r s o n a l  communication)  202 I t may be a r g u e d t h a t t h e CDG p r o g r a m h a s impeded the progress being  o f mine p l a n n i n g ,  t o o time  gested  t h e assessment  requirements  c o n s u m i n g o r s t r i n g e n t , o r i t c o u l d be s u g -  t h a t t h e CDG i s i n e f f e c t i v e  because a c t u a l  rejection  o f c o a l mine d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l s  have b e e n few.  I t also  appears,  however, t h a t e a c h c a s e  to r e s t r i c t  seriously  about t h e , s u c c e s s  i s sufficiently  the opportunity  alone.  observations obtained  from e x i s t i n g  and tion  To s t r e n g t h e n  and, t o g e t h e r w i t h chapters,  presented  the analysis,  critiques  the observations  a broad  i n this  evalua-  described i n  below i n i t s c o n t e x t ,  Existing  (Crouse,  o f t h e program  e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e CDG p r o g r a m i s  Critiques  S e v e n o f t h e CDG p r o g r a m r e v i e w s 1978; D i c k  and R i n g s t a d ,  were  Keevil,  1983)  u s i n g a c o n t e n t - a n a l y s i s methodology.  1983; M c D o n a l d , 1982; O ' R i o r d a n ,  ship o f the authors a broad  evaluated  1981; Hawes a n d Gadsby,  1982;  ding  i t s objectives  a q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w have been u s e d  earlier  6.2  for generalization  o f t h e program i n meeting  f r o m t h e outcome d a t a  diverse  1979; Payne,  The r e l a t i o n -  t o t h e CDG p r o g r a m was v a r i e d , p r o v i -  range o f o p i n i o n s .  Four o f the c r i t i q u e s  were w r i t t e n by i n d i v i d u a l s e x t e r n a l t o t h e CDG p r o g r a m and to the p r o v i n c i a l  government.  Two e x t e r n a l r e v i e w s  w r i t t e n by c o a l development p r o p o n e n t s — C r o u s e Keevil  f o r T e c k C o r p o r a t i o n ; one was a u t h o r e d  were  f o r CNRC and by  203 environmental  mining  Gadsby f o r T h u r b e r ; yst,  Payne a t UBC;  government.  The  t o r s o f t h e CDG  consultants-—Hawes and  one  program—O Riordan 1  for  Fish  6.2.1  Wildlife.  one  was  anal-  to  D i c k o f ELUCS/M0E  Ringstad, a review  None o f t h e a u t h o r s was  f  agent  a program  profession.  based  6) c h a r a c t e r i z e d stated,  on  like  p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e was  the  i s s u e s were d i s c u s s e d , and c h a n g e s t o t h e CDG  economic i n d i c a t o r s  purpose  Crouse  p.  F o r most o f t h e s e source  (1978,  to  reviews,  of i n f o r m a t i o n which  the c o n t e x t i n which  One  reviewer,  the  Payne, drew  framework u s i n g  to conduct  his  of the reviews of d e s c r i b i n g  the  p r o g r a m and  " s t r e n g t h s and  and  were meant t o " p r o v i d e c o n s t r u c t i v e ( D i c k and  political  were w r i t t e n w i t h  t h e CDG  weaknesses"  con-  analysis.  its  program improvements"  when  d e f i n e d the recommendations f o r  program.  a theoretical  two  was  t o make some comments r e l a t i v e  framed the problem, determined  Only  these authors  the t y p i c a l m e t h o d o l o g i c a l approach  "I would  from  by  personal experience.  o u r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e CDG."  express  and  e v a l u a t i o n methodology used  l a r g e l y one  clusions  an a c a d e m i c p o l i c y  Presentation of findings  The  he  and  t h r e e government a u t h o r s were a d m i n i s t r a -  McDonald o f MEMPR, and  e v a l u a t o r by  by  f o u r o t h e r a u t h o r s were i n t e r n a l  and  and  was  for Norecol,  (O'Riordan,  1979,  assessing p.  207)  suggestions f o r  Ringstad,  1981,  p.  3) .  204 A n o t h e r p u r p o s e was amendments  (Hawes and  communicate t h e environmental t i o n was  non-evaluative yet addressed  to  "key  Gadsby, 1982,  policy  s t u d y program."  c o a l mine."  h i s p u r p o s e as t h e  problems  "generated  by  although  the  of f i v e  directly  t o e v a l u a t e t h e CDG  and,  mining  effective  the mining  reviews  Ron  Dalby  source.  Payne u s e d  not  directly  on  a  adminis-  f o r the present  program, study.  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e i r  but  to t h e i r  58 c i t a t i o n  of another  notes  the o t h e r authors personal  mine  had  w r i t t e n documents t o s u p p o r t  analysis,  developer,  to substantiate h i s  d i d not p r o v i d e  references  first  oral  been p r e s e n t e d  addresses.  Crouse,  Gadsby gave p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o t h e Mine R e c l a m a t i o n  p o s i u m , an a n n u a l t h e B.C.  other  experiences.  F i v e o f the reviews  and  was  o f G r e g g R i v e r M i n e , A l b e r t a , as a s u p p o r t i n g  discussion, t o add  Generally,  o r t h e m e t h o d o l o g y o f t h e CDG  the experience  2)  the  program, e a c h c o n t a i n e d  c o n s u l t a n t s as h a v i n g  Keevil cited  to deal with  industry."  of these  Gadsby a c k n o w l e d g e d CDG  and  of issues i n v o l v e d  "formation of  t h u s , were c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l  Hawes and  to  inten-  (1983, p,  number o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w h i c h b o r e legislation,  4)  Payne  concrete a l t e r n a t i v e s "  intent  attempt  K e e v i l ' s (1983, p.  "provide a general overview  . . . and  tration,  3 ) , i n an  components i n p l a n n i n g a s u c c e s f u l  i n d e v e l o p m e n t o f a new identified  p.  program  Mining  meeting sponsored  Association,  jointly  by  Payne a d d r e s s e d  as Hawes, sym-  t h e MEMPR a meeting  and of  205 the Canadian R e g i o n a l  S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , and  NECD C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee. s p e e c h t o a w o r k s h o p on  K e e v i l d e l i v e r e d the  i n a book on  Ringstad f o r use as an  compiled  Ecology  their  Cana-  O ' R i o r d a n ' s p a p e r formed a and  Coal Mining,  critique  w i t h i n t h e MOE.  the  inaugural  " P r o j e c t Assessment, Western  d i a n C o a l Development," w h i l e chapter  McDonald  I n no  evaluation s p e c i f i c a l l y  and  as a document  case  was  f o r CDG  the  Dick  specifically  review  program  and  prepared  administra-  tion .  6.2.2  CDG p r o g r a m description The  CDG  p r o g r a m v a r i e d as e a c h a u t h o r ' s  changed, because i n a l l cases r e f l e c t i o n of personal concentrated  on  the  expectations.  2)  d e s c r i b e d the  "from a g e n e r a l overview fic  impact  internal  agreed  that should  comprehensive.  O'Riordan  stages  o f the  are c o n s i d e r e d , "  as  "are broad  social  environmental  o f t h e CDG  be  i n scope,  reviewers  McDonald  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y moving  assessment  systematic  total  a  program  site-speci-  management p r o p o s a l s . "  McDonald  guidelines and  CDG  (1979, p.  process, and  internal  o r k i n d o f program.  t h a t the  form a p r o c e s s  all  d e s c r i b e d as  o f t h e p r o j e c t t o more  a s s e s s m e n t s and  reviewers  The  assessment aspects  when d i s c u s s i n g t h e n a t u r e (1982, p.  t h e p r o g r a m was  expectations  208)  impacts  (1982, p.  Other  activities  or r a t i o n a l expected o f mine  and  that  "at  development  1) b e l i e v e d t h a t  c o v e r i n g the major  the  economic,  i m p l i c a t i o n s of c o a l development.  11  206 To  illustrate  p r o g r a m , two (Hawes and expected  s e q u e n t i a l and  papers  systematic aspects of  p r o v i d e d updated models o f the  Gadsby, and  the process  specific; t h e CDG  the  McDonald).  Three o f the  Ringstad  thought  o f as a p l a n n i n g t o o l  t h e w h o l e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m , " and expected ponsive  (1981, p.  as d e s c r i b i n g a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s where t h e  ment " s h o u l d be  t h a t "from t o the  that  0 Riordan  . . , goals of the r e g i o n of  project2)  assessshapes  s h o u l d be  and  to  large quantities  gather  lytic  ability  assumed t h a t a t e c h n i c a l  existed  had  more r e s t r i c t i v e  for  the  and  less  2 ) , f o r example,  technical  i n nature."  The those  review  process  (1978, p.  6)  "designed  p o i n t out  saw  saw  bureaucrats  He  observed  t o pass  t h a t the  ana-  expectations  Hawes and  Gadsby "primarily  were h i g h l i g h t e d by proponents.  analytic  and  critical  i s s u e w i t h a development p l a n  i t s inadequacies."  t h e CDG.  was  e x t e r n a l reviewers  developments—the as an  res-  existed  t h e a s s e s s m e n t s as  t h e CDG  to take  a p p r o v a l a s p e c t s of the of  The  comprehensive  a s p e c t s o f t h e CDG  a u t h o r s who i n i t i a t e d  Crouse  i t .  a s s e s s m e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e CDG.  (1982, p.  capability  o f i n f o r m a t i o n and  to handle  212)  development."  These e x p e c t a t i o n s i m p l i e d t h a t a consensus of g o a l s possible,  saw  (1979, p.  1  i t s i n c e p t i o n [ t h e CDG]  process  reviewers  o f a s s e s s m e n t t o be more t h a n  f o r example, D i c k and  the  review  Keevil as  (1983, p.  the p r i m a r y  t h a t governments  judgement on  new  6)  saw  and  the  characteristic  "employ a r m i e s  projects,"  His  of  207 o b s e r v a t i o n s may  have a r i s e n b e c a u s e  were, as n o t e d by O ' R i o r d a n "reviewed  f o r major  was  or data which  (1983,  p.  that  the c r i t e r i a  used  accounted  as  themselves  on  on  and  not  i n some way  get  Internal  Payne either  (1983)  by t h e a s s e s s -  p r o g r a m ; he  undertaken  by  had  the  described  companies  the b a s i s of closed-door c o n s u l t a t i o n s (p. 3 1 ) .  problem,  a c c e s s t o t h e p r o g r a m and  that of public  t a t i o n t h a t d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s had c e s t o implement o p t i m a l varied  This  identified  with  another the  t h e power, t i m e , and  expecresour-  solutions.  e x p e c t a t i o n s gave r i s e  definitions  f o r the elements  Thus, Stage  I and  Stage  their  expediency  government departments"  These  This  intangible values should  fulfilled  studies  could  and  f o r the review.  f o r i n the assessments.  "based  he  the  reviewers expected  ment o r t h e r e v i e w a s p e c t s o f t h e CDG t h e CDG  be  review  as  coal project."  of e f f i c i e n c y  equity  e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t were n o t  that  does n o t  external  v a l u e assumptions  reviewers expected that be  Because the  6) o b s e r v e d  department  a concern because  s h o u l d be  to  could delay i t s f i n a l  i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f a new  prevailing  expected  a s s y s t e m a t i c ..and c o m p r e h e n s i v e  Keevil  "think of a single  created  209),  the government a g e n c i e s , "  e x p e c t e d t o be  assessment,  p.  documents  i n f o r m a t i o n gaps o r m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  o f government p o l i c y a c c e p t a n c e by  (1979,  proponent  different  o f the v a r i o u s program a s p e c t s .  II descriptions  w i t h the a u t h o r s ' assumptions  to  varied  influencing  their  i n purpose, descriptions  208  o f how  t h e p r o g r a m s h o u l d be  cipate,  and  what t h e e x t e n t o f t h e  descriptions procedures these  reviewers.  project  p.  process  the  1. mic  through 1979,  described  "one-window a p p r o a c h "  expected  t h e MOE  to  (Dick  to the c o a l  the  and  developers  (McDonald, 1 9 8 2 ) .  Identi-  following:  r e c l a m a t i o n , and  o f c o a l e x p l o r a t i o n programs a r e  A number o f government a g e n c i e s  m o n i t o r i n g programs  are c a r r i e d out  principle  other review  t o ensure  econo-  undertaken (O'Riordan,  1979,  ELUC  p.  have  specific  that design  (conditions to various  the developer  A confidential  t h e CGSC and  4.  by  (O'Riordan,  3. o n l y by  by  approach i n c l u d e d the  continuing responsibilities  t u r e s and ces)  decision-making  209). 2.  and  The  decision-making  s e p a r a t e programs a d m i n i s t e r e d by MEMPR  p.  parti-  r a n g e o f o b s e r v a t i o n among  Management o f l a n d u s e ,  impacts  should  i n p u t s h o u l d be.  3) o r s u g g e s t e d  exceptions to t h i s  who  program  the  the program's a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  fied  for  authors  w h i c h were n o t  1981,  CDG  illustrate The  appraisal  Ringstad, by  of the expected  further  procedures  conducted,  fealicen-  after approval-in-  211).  economic a n a l y s i s (O'Riordan,  is  197 9) and  reviewed not  by  agencies, Ministerial  discretion  approval of reclamation r e p o r t s  i s the d e c i d i n g f a c t o r ( D i c k and  Ringstad,  1981). 5.  R e g i o n a l and  municipal  l e v e l s of  government  209 have r e g i o n a l p l a n s a n d m u n i c i p a l z o n i n g p o l i c i e s coal  development p r o j e c t s should conform  (O'Riordan,  Because o f t h e problems i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g sion-making several  process, considerable e f f o r t  reviewers  to clarify  Despite these but  important  tered  attempts  conflict  decisions,  reviewers  adminis-  body r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making  to this  expectation.  with t h e i r  p e r c e p t i o n o f slow i n s t i t u t i o n a l  They  "spent  over  time  o f [prospectus]  T h i s approach, so easy  $50 m i l l i o n  u  (1983,  cope"  decision-making.  i n c o n s t r u c t i o n between t h e  submission  Keevil  these  cases  Keevil  7) d e s c r i b e d how T e c k C o r p o r a t i o n and p a r t n e r s  mine  identified  y e t reviewers' observations of s p e c i f i c  have p r o v i d e d e x c e p t i o n s  and t h e f i n a l  agreement."  (1983, p. 7) a c k n o w l e d g e d , may " n o t  or appropriate with public  sector regulatory  b o d i e s , " b u t he hoped t h a t " a p p l i c a t i o n s fully  a subtle  t o e x i s t o v e r who  Most o f t h e i n t e r n a l  t h e ELUC a s t h e p o l i t i c a l  be  1979).  t h e CDG and who d e c i d e d w h e t h e r o r n o t a new c o a l  may be d e v e l o p e d .  p.  the d e c i -  (Hawes and  at clarification,  continued  1979).  was expended by-  the procedures  Gadsby, 1982; McDonald, 1982; O ' R i o r d a n ,  t o which  b u t w i t h a sense  o f urgency-—indeed  are processed with  care-  common  sense." In u s i n g the approach o f p r o c e e d i n g w i t h tion prior  to o f f i c i a l  where K e e v i l  a p p r o v a l , a d i s t i n c t i o n was made,  (1983) assumed t h a t t h e c o n c e p t  mine was p o l i t i c a l l y  construc-  acceptable p r i o r  of their  t o CDG p r o g r a m  new  210 evaluation decisions of t h i s  and  that  permitting  w h i c h were n o t  corporate  time-dependent.  coping  strategy,  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e d u r e as had  any  commitment t h e y m i g h t g i v e "  and  further observations,  the  the  independent  the  r e g i o n a l and  MAC  and  municipal  conflict  the  ACR,  and  governments.  i n expectation made.  whether t h e s e u n c l a r i f i e d  decisions  mined o t h e r  their  agencies,  and  The  the to  Given  these  (1981) q u e s -  Inspector  of  the  authorit