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An evaluation of the guidelines for coal development, British Columbia Gibson, Margaret Linda 1984

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AN- EVALUATION OF THE GUIDELINES FOR COAL DEVELOPMENT, BRITISH COLUMBIA By MARGARET LINDA GIBSON B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary, 1971 B . S c , The U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary, 1977 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT i THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Program Resource Management Science We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d ^standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1984 © Margaret Linda Gibson, .1984 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Resource Management Science The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT In 1976, the B r i t i s h Columbia government e s t a b l i s h e d a Coal Development G u i d e l i n e s (CDG) program w i t h the g o a l of d i r e c t i n g c o a l - m i n i n g development i n a r a t i o n a l and compre-h e n s i v e l y planned manner through procedures e s t a b l i s h e d to ap p r a i s e impacts. An e v a l u a t i o n of the program, d e a l t with i n t h i s t h e s i s , showed t h a t , d u r i n g seven years of r a p i d economic growth, 20 B.C. c o a l mines were a p p r a i s e d , y e t the CDG program remained f o r m a l l y unchanged. The r e s e a r c h e r designed an e v a l u a t i o n study model which i n c l u d e d p r o f i l e s of the program's p o l i c y , h i s t o r i c a l , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t e x t s . Three mine p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l s — L i n e Creek, G r e e n h i l l s , and Sukunka—were used as case s t u d i e s t o provide evidence of program a c t i o n s . Seven c r i -t i q u e s assembled by v a r i o u s authors were reviewed and com-pared f o r common elements, c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , and a m b i g u i t i e s , A sample of 23 government and c o r p o r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n v o l v e d i n the program was i n t e r v i e w e d and t h e i r responses to a q u e s t i o n n a i r e were analysed t o determine program out-comes. The adequacy of the CDG program was to be determined from the c r i t e r i a developed w i t h i n the study model. The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d a range of concerns over the adequacy of the CDG program i n meeting i t s g o a l . O v e r a l l program adequacy was not determined, however, because of i i changes i n the economic and s o c i a l c l i m a t e and the d i v e r s i t y of i n t e r e s t s which precluded a c l e a r c o n c l u s i o n . A l i m i t a -t i o n t o program adequacy was i d e n t i f i e d which came from two p l a n n i n g processes t h a t operated f o r c o a l development a p p r a i s a l — t h e o f f i c i a l , m u l t i - p a r t i c i p a n t g u i d e l i n e s and and u n o f f i c i a l , i n t e r n a l , p u b l i c - s e c t o r p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I t was observed t h a t o f t e n the g u i d e l i n e s were not f o l l o w e d i n a c t u a l decision-making. Program a c t i o n s were f r e q u e n t l y adequate, however, i n terms of the s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g docu-mentation . The unexpected outcome of v a r i e d i n d i v i d u a l a t t i -tudes toward program c r e d i b i l i t y suggested t h a t major program r e v i s i o n s may be necessary. P o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r program change, with t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s , were i d e n t i f i e d . An u t i l i z a t i o n - b a s e d e v a l u a t i o n was recommended f o r w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l government. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES i x LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . X GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS . x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i v Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION , 1 Research Theory and Techniques . 1 1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1.2 P r o j e c t A p p r a i s a l 1 1.3 E v a l u a t i o n Research 6 1.4 Study R a t i o n a l e 11 1.5 Study Model 14 1.5.1 Program p r o f i l e 16 1.5.2 Program a c t i o n s : Document e v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g y 19 1.5.3 Program outcomes and impacts . . . 29. 1.6 Data E v a l u a t i o n 34 2. COAL DEVELOPMENT 37 P o l i c i e s , Goals, and O b j e c t i v e s 37 2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 3 7 2.2 Ideology and Demand f o r P o l i c y i n Coa l and Rel a t e d Developments 38 2.3 Canadian P o l i c y f o r Coal Development . 44 2.3.1 F e d e r a l p o l i c i e s 45 2.3.2 P r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s 50 2.4 I n t e r - M i n i s t e r i a l Goals and C o n f l i c t 51 i v Chapter Page 2.5 O b j e c t i v e s of the Coal Develop-ment G u i d e l i n e s 55 3. HISTORY OF COAL DEVELOPMENT 5 9 The G u i d e l i n e s Program 59 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 5 9 3.2 The P r e - E s c a l a t i o n P e r i o d : 1871-1969 62 3.3 E s c a l a t i n g Regional Impacts: 1969-1976 71 3.3.1 I n s t i t u t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . . . . 79 3.3.2 I n t r o d u c t i o n of c o a l d e v e l -opment g u i d e l i n e s 84 3.4 Implementation Phase: 1976-1981 89 3.4.1 A c c e l e r a t i n g r e g i o n a l impacts 90 3.4.2 I n s t i t u t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , . . . 95 3.5 E f f e c t s o f Recession A f t e r 1981 105 3.5.1 Regional consequences of r e c e s s i o n . . . . . . . . . . 108 4. COAL DEVELOPMENT 113 I n s t i t u t i o n a l Arrangements 113 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n , 113 4.2 L e g i s l a t i o n , R e g u l a t i o n s , and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r Coal Development 114 4.2.1 M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources 116 4.2.2 M i n i s t r y of Environment 124 4.2.3 M i n i s t r y of Industry and Small Business Development . 129 4.2.4 M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing 132 4.2.5 M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s 133 4.2.6 M i n i s t r y o f P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y and Government S e r v i c e s 134 4.2.7 M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Highways 13 5 v Chapter Page 4.2.8 M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s 136 4.2.9 M i n i s t r y of Labour 138 4.2.10 M i n i s t r i e s of Education and Health 139 4.2.11 F e d e r a l Department of Energy, Mines and Resources 141 4.2.12 Environment Canada, and Department of F i s h e r i e s and Oceans 141 4.3 Operating Procedures of the CDG Program 14 2 4.3.1 Assessment procedures 142 4.3.2 Review procedures 14 5 5. PROGRAM ACTIONS 149 Line Creek, G r e e n h i l l s , and Sukunka 149 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 14 9 5.2 Case S t u d i e s : P r o j e c t E v a l u a t i o n . . . . 152 5.2.1 Li n e Creek 154 5.2.2 G r e e n h i l l s 159 5.2.3 Sukunka 166 5.3 Document E v a l u a t i o n 16 9 5.3.1 Authorship 16 9 5.3.2 Timing 174 5.3.3 Purpose 175 5.3.4 Format 180 5.3.5 Methodology 187 5.3.6 Content 196 6. PROGRAM OUTCOMES 200 An Environment of V a r i e d Concern 200 6.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 200 6.2 E x i s t i n g C r i t i q u e s 202 6.2.1 P r e s e n t a t i o n o f f i n d i n g s 203 6.2.2 CDG program d e s c r i p t i o n 205 6.2.3 D e s c r i p t i o n of program context 210 6.2.4 F i n d i n g s 217 6.2.5 Recommendations 224 v i Chapter Page 6.3 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 230 6.3.1 General program aspects 230 6.3.2 A P a t t e r n o f Opinion 232 6.4 I n t e r v i e w s : L e v e l s o f Concern 235 6.4.1 S e l f concerns 237 6.4.2 Task concerns 239 6.4.3 Impact concerns 240 7. EVALUATION, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND SUMMARY . . 2 43 Adequacy and U t i l i z a t i o n 243 7.1 C o n c l u s i o n s : Program Adequacy 243 7.1.1 Program p r o f i l e : p o l i c y d e s i g n and d e c i s i o n s 244 7.1.2 Program a c t i o n s : adequacy of the assessment and review . ... . ... . . . , . . . 247 7.1.3 Program outcomes: expected and unexpected r e s u l t s 259 7.2 Recommendations: A U t i l i z a t i o n - b a s e d E v a l u a t i o n Study 263 7.3 F u r t h e r Academic Research . , 265 7.4 Summary 266 REFERENCES CITED 269 APPENDICES 285 A COAL DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES DOCUMENT EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE 286 B APPRAISAL DOCUMENTS: LINE CREEK, GREENHILLS, AND SUKUNKA 296 C CONTENT ANALYSIS CODE FOR WRITTEN CRITIQUES OF THE CDG . 300 D QUESTIONNAIRE: EVALUATION OF THE COAL DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES 302 E RESPONDENTS TO INTERVIEW AND/OR QUESTIONNAIRE , 317 v i i Appendices Page F PRINCIPAL COAL POLICY COMPONENTS 320 G PROVINCIAL RESOURCE MANAGE-MENT GOALS 323 H PROVINCIAL INSTITUTIONAL AGENCIES INVOLVED IN ASSESSING COAL MINE DEVELOPMENTS 327 I FEDERAL INSTITUTIONAL AGENCIES INVOLVED IN B.C. COAL MINE DEVELOPMENTS 334 J INTER-AGENCY COMMITTEES WITH COAL-DEVELOPMENT RESPONSIBILITIES 33 6 v i i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. CANADIAN COAL EXPORT PROJECTIONS 91 2. B.C. COAL INDUSTRY EMPLOY-MENT PROJECTIONS 91 3. CDG OUTPUT SUMMARY; 1970-1983 201 i x LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1. T h e o r e t i c a l CDG A p p r a i s a l Process 12 2. CDG Program E v a l u a t i o n Model . 17 3. C o a l P r o d u c t i o n and Value i n B.C. , 1890-2000 61 4. Major C o a l - b e a r i n g Areas of B r i t i s h Columbia 73 5. B.C. M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources 117 6. B.C. North East C o a l Develop-ment O r g a n i z a t i o n S t r u c t u r e 123 7. B.C. M i n i s t r y of Environment 125 8. B.C. M i n i s t r y of I n d u s t r y and Small Business Development 130 9. C o a l G u i d e l i n e s Review Process 143 10. B.C. Government Review Process 146 11. L i n e Creek, G r e e n h i l l s , and Sukunka: A Chronology ', . 153 12. L o c a t i o n of Proposed L i n e Creek Mine Development 155 13. L o c a t i o n of G r e e n h i l l s Study Area 160 14. L o c a t i o n of C o a l i t i o n Coal Lease Area 16 7 15. C l u s t e r P a t t e r n of Opinion 233 x GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS F e d e r a l Government and Rel a t e d  Agencies o r O r g a n i z a t i o n s Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Department of F i s h e r i e s and Oceans Department of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s Department of the Environment Department of Regiona l Economic E x p a n s i o n — Industry, Trade and Commerce Environmental Assessment and Review Process F e d e r a l Environment, Assessment Review O f f i c e F o r e i g n Investment Review Agency I n t e r n a t i o n a l Energy Agency O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Economic Co-operation and Development P r o v i n c i a l Government Agencies or Committees ACR A d v i s o r y Committee on Reclamation ALC A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission CCCD Cabinet Committee on Co a l Development CCED Cabinet Committee on Economic Development CGSC C o a l G u i d e l i n e s S t e e r i n g Committee EEC Economic E v a l u a t i o n Committee ELUC Environment and Land Use Committee ELUS Environment and Land Use S e c r e t a r i a t ELUTC Environment and Land Use T e c h n i c a l Committee F&W F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, MOE MAC M i n e s i t e A d v i s o r y Committee MAG M i n i s t r y of A t t o r n e y General MAg M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food EMR DFO DIANA DOE DREE-ITC EARP FEARO FIRA IEA OECD x i MEd M i n i s t r y o f Educati o n MEMPR M i n i s t r y o f Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources MoF M i n i s t r y o f Finance MHR M i n i s t r y of Human Resources MISBD M i n i s t r y o f Indus t r y and Small Business Development MLPH M i n i s t r y o f Lands, Parks and Housing MMA M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s MOE M i n i s t r y of Environment MOF M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t r y MOH M i n i s t r y o f He a l t h MOL M i n i s t r y o f Labour MPS & GS M i n i s t r y of P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y and Government S e r v i c e s MTH M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Highways NECCC Northeast C o a l C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee NECDO Northeast C o a l Development O f f i c e NEC IMC Northeast Coal Impact Management Committee RAU Resource A n a l y s i s U n i t RPU Resource Pl a n n i n g U n i t SECC Socio-Economic C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee SPU S p e c i a l P r o j e c t U n i t Program G u i d e l i n e s , S t u d i e s , and Processes ALR A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve CDG Coal Development G u i d e l i n e s C0ALM0D Coal Model EARP Environmental Assessment and Review Process EIA Environmental Impact Assessment LDG L i n e a r Development G u i d e l i n e s MMG Metal Mine G u i d e l i n e s NECS North East Coal Study x i i SIA S o c i a l Impact Assessment TA Technology Assessment I n d u s t r i e s , C o n s u l t a n t s , and  Crown C o r p o r a t i o n s BCDC B r i t i s h Columbia Development C o r p o r a t i o n BC Hydro B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro BC R a i l B r i t i s h Columbia Railway BCRC B r i t i s h Columbia Research C o u n c i l BCRIC B r i t i s h Columbia Resources Investment C o r p o r a t i o n BCUC B r i t i s h Columbia U t i l i t i e s Commission CNI Crows Nest I n d u s t r i e s L t d . CNRC Crows Nest Resources C a l g a r y L t d . KRL K a i s e r Resources L t d . ( G r e e n h i l l s ) NHB N a t i o n a l Harbours Board x i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish t o express, my g r a t i t u d e to the f o l l o w i n g i n d i v i d u a l s f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g the v a r i o u s stages of my r e s e a r c h program and t h e s i s w r i t i n g : Dr. L. L a v k u l i c h , D i r e c t o r , Resource Management Science, I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Program, UBC, and Dr. I. V e r t i n s k y , F a c u l t y of Commerce and I n s t i t u t e of Animal Resource Ecology, UBC, f o r f u n d i n g they arranged to a i d my study. T h e i r support and b e l i e f t h a t many d i s c i p l i n e s can be brought t o g e t h e r t o shed l i g h t on complex i s s u e s has s u s t a i n e d me d u r i n g t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; Dr. Clyde Weaver and Dr. B i l l Rees, both of the School of Community and Regional Planning, who arranged f u n d i n g from the Donner Foundation; Mr. Raymond Crook, S e c r e t a r y , Coal G u i d e l i n e s S t e e r -i n g Committee, f o r p r o v i d i n g me w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n and v a l u -able i n s i g h t i n t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the c o a l development g u i d e l i n e s ; John Dick and Norm Ringstad, M i n i s t r y of the Environment, who a i d e d me i n c o l l e c t i n g documentation and showed u n f a i l i n g enthusiasm f o r my work; Joyce Hollands, f o r her p a t i e n c e and kindness; Vinay Kanetkar, f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e with the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s ; and E l i s e L. W i t t i g , f o r her expert e d i t o r i a l guidance i n s t y l e and format of t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n copy of my t h e s i s . x i v F i n a l l y , I wish a l s o to remember my f r i e n d s and f a m i l y who have p r o v i d e d emotional support and f a i t h d u r i n g my work on t h i s study, e s p e c i a l l y my f a t h e r , who gave me the b e l i e f t h a t (except perhaps i n c o a l development) i t i s b e t t e r t o have t r i e d and f a i l e d than never t o have t r i e d at a l l . - Margaret Gibson, 1984 xv Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Research Theory and Techniques It's nice to be the drafter of a well-constructed plan For spending lots of money for the betterment of Man But audits are a threat, for it's neither games nor fun To look at pleas of yesteryear and ask, "What have we done?" And learning is unpleasant when we have to do it fast So its pleasanter to contemplate the future than the past. - K. E. Boulding (1972) 1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n P r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l was a technique i n t r o d u c e d i n a B r i t i s h Columbia program intended t o a p p r a i s e the s o c i a l and environmental impacts of c o a l development. T h i s study a p p l i e s e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h t o examine t h i s p r o j e c t a p p r a i -s a l program. A r a t i o n a l e f o r b r i n g i n g these two i n v e s t i g a -t i v e approaches together i s suggested here, and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the r a t i o n a l e on t h i s study design are d i s c u s s e d . A model based on the p r i n c i p l e s i d e n t i f i e d , and the methods and techniques used t o conduct the study, are d e s c r i b e d , and l i m i t s t o u t i l i z a t i o n of the c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations are d i s c u s s e d . 1.2 P r o j e c t A p p r a i s a l The i n t e l l e c t u a l atmosphere, i n which i s s u e s 2 surrounding l a r g e - s c a l e p r o j e c t development were i d e n t i f i e d , has many r o o t s . I n t r o d u c t i o n of the N a t i o n a l Environmental P o l i c y Act i n 1969 has been c i t e d (Bankes and Thompson, 1980) as marking the beginning of p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l i n the U.S.A., but t h i s l e g i s l a t i v e precedent, based on environmen-t a l concerns, does not completely i n d i c a t e the genesis of p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l . The t h e o r e t i c a l i n f l u e n c e s are much more ex t e n s i v e and v a r i e d . From r i s i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n awareness came the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t excesses from l a r g e , complex p r o j e c t s were s e r i o u s l y e r o d i n g the n a t u r a l environment. From economic theory came the concept t h a t c o s t s to common pro p e r t y were e x t e r n a l i t i e s not v a l u e d by the market, but i f i n t e r n a l i z e d through p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l techniques, the p r o j e c t may become more e q u i t a b l e . Emerging t r a d i t i o n s i n a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e have had t h e i r i n f l u e n c e . Through the German Bauhaus School, e p i t o m i z e d by Frank L l o y d Wright, came the i d e a t h a t p r o j e c t s should be f u n c t i o n a l y e t r e l a t e d to and r e s p e c t f u l of n a t u r e . T h i s premise gave r i s e t o the i d e a t h a t p r o j e c t s should be e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y designed. Observations of systems t h i n k e r s - - t h e i d e a s of c y b e r n e t i c i s t s — d r a w i n g from areas i n c l u d i n g ecology and p h y s i o l o g y , noted the s y s t e m a t i c nature of b i o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . From these o b s e r v a t i o n s , the need to i n c l u d e feedback f o r m o n i t o r i n g p r o j e c t implementation was i d e n t i f i e d . L i b e r a l democratic i d e o l o g y a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d to the p u b l i c ' s ideas of p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l . The b e l i e f t h a t 3 the p u b l i c had a r i g h t to p r o t e c t i o n meant t h a t p r o j e c t s should be reviewed by government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to address the range of p u b l i c s a f e t y concerns. Furthermore, t h i s b e l i e f meant t h a t the p u b l i c had a r i g h t t o be informed of the r i s k s , and the c o l l e c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n t o a s c e r t a i n these r i s k s became the i m p l i e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a l a r g e p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n empowered to assess p u b l i c c h o i c e . From these v a r i e d c onceptual t r a d i t i o n s came the c u r r e n t ideas about the d e s i g n of p r o j e c t s . Accompanying t h i s conceptual growth f o r p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l , development of new methods and techniques gave r i s e to d i f f e r e n t approaches and c r i t e r i a f o r measurement and p r e d i c t i o n . From b i o l o g y — f o r some the most c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c approach t o p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l - - t h e methods of e n v i r o n -mental impact assessment arose. At the same time, and l i n k e d much more c l o s e l y to the economic i n d i c a t o r s c o n s i -dered u s e f u l to the making of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e d e c i s i o n s , measurement techniques of c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s were developed. In a d d i t i o n , numerous other methodological approaches evolved t o account f o r impacts of p r o j e c t d e v e l -opment which these two p r e v a i l i n g methodologies d i d not address. S o c i a l impact assessment was one technique con-cerned w i t h i d e n t i f y i n g and measuring s o c i a l r e p e r c u s s i o n s ; technology r i s k assessment focussed on the impact of s p e c i f i c t e c h n o l o g i e s ; and r i s k assessment was developed to measure the hazardous elements i n p r o j e c t development. 4 Techniques f o r p u b l i c p l a n n i n g and policy-making were a l s o e v o l v i n g . In the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia ( h e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as B.C.), with i t s heavy dependence on resource e x t r a c t i o n , a more i n t e g r a t e d approach to resource manage-ment and p l a n n i n g was espoused. Into t h i s atmosphere was born the Guidelines for Coal Development (B.C. ELUC, 1976) which i n t r o d u c e d a program known as the "Coal Development G u i d e l i n e s " (CDG) f o r p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l . With the d r a f t i n g of t h i s g u i d e l i n e s document, the framework f o r p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l i n B.C. moved from an emphasis on environmental measurement techniques t o one which d e s c r i b e d an o v e r a l l r a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . U n l i k e i t s predecessors, the g u i d e l i n e s were t o be an on-going process, comprehensive i n assessment and review, i n c l u d i n g a l l of the impacted concern dimensions r e s u l t i n g from l a r g e - s c a l e c o a l development. The process was to be r a t i o n a l , o c c u r r i n g p r i o r to decision-making, and was to f o l l o w the rational-comprehensive approach to p l a n n i n g and the s c i e n t i f i c method to p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . Major resource developments such as c o a l mining and p r o c e s s i n g w i l l change environmental, s o c i a l , and eco-nomic c o n d i t i o n s i n the r e g i o n of development. C a r e f u l p l a n n i n g of l a r g e - s c a l e c o a l developments i s t h e r e f o r e necessary to ensure t h a t a r a t i o n a l approach t o mana-ging land use, environmental, and community impacts i s undertaken p r i o r t o f i n a l d e c i s i o n s on c o a l and r e l a t e d developments being made. (B.C. ELUC, 1976, p. 3) Attempts to i n t e g r a t e the i n t e l l i g e n c e of p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l s i n t o p u b l i c decision-making, p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g , 5 and then i n t o management procedures, provided experience which allowed the p i t f a l l s of t h i s approach to become w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d . The major problem f a c i n g p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l was t h a t programs which attempted to administer and c o o r d i n a t e the assessment and review of new p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l s underwent a development phase and had not reached "climax [ s i c ] " where the program p a r t s worked w e l l together (Barp and G a l l i m o r e , 1979) when they came under severe c r i t i c i s m ; hence, program change became a key i s s u e f o r c r i t i c s . Other c r i t i c s of p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l focussed on the a p p r a i s a l methodology. The misuse of c o s t - b e n e f i t i n f o r m a t i o n i n making p r o j e c t d e c i s i o n s was f r e q u e n t l y c r i t i c i z e d , and a l t e r n a t i v e s to p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l f o r management were suggested. One c r i t i c of the p r e v a i l i n g environmental assessment technique was C. S. H o l l i n g (1978), who o f f e r e d another a p p r o a c h — t h e adaptive assessment and management proc e s s . A c r i t i c o f r a t i o n a l and comprehensive p l a n n i n g , John Friedmann (1973a) made observ a t i o n s s i m i l a r to H o l l i n g 1 s . He suggested a f u r t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e , t r a n s a c t i v e p l a n n i n g . Both of these a l t e r n a t i v e approaches to p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l and p l a n n i n g were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p r o v i s i o n s f o r group l e a r n i n g e x p e r i -ences, i n c l u d i n g those where the f a l l a c i e s of assuming t o t a l a p r i o r i knowledge were recognized and u n c e r t a i n t y was to be b u i l t i n t o p l a n n i n g . Dunn (1971), Hampton-Turner (1971) , and Schon (1971) were t h e o r i s t s who p r o v i d e d s i m i l a r recom-mendations. Advantages to these a l t e r n a t i v e approaches to 6 p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l s were c i t e d as the m u l t i - p a r t i c i p a n t l e a r n i n g t h a t takes p l a c e , and where more c o n s e r v a t i v e , l o w e r - r i s k d e c i s i o n s were being taken. More r e c e n t l y , the p a r t i c i p a n t l e a r n i n g processes, mutual l e a r n i n g , and h o r i z o n t a l communication approaches are b e i n g questioned. The main c r i t i c i s m i s t h a t they do not address the p o l i t i c a l elements of power and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e i r p r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l . Today, p o l i -t i c a l debate appears t o be p o l a r i z i n g around two i d e o l o g i c a l t r e n d s . In the view of v o l u n t a r i s t s , a u t h o r i t y f o r p r o j e c t decision-making should be c e n t r a l i z e d where economic o b j e c -t i v e s are paramount. T h i s view i s opposed by self-manage-ment proponents who b e l i e v e t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and author-i t y f o r decision-making should be d e c e n t r a l i z e d , and commu-n i t y and environmental o b j e c t i v e s should become s i g n i f i c a n t p r i o r i t i e s . From t h i s debate comes i n t e r e s t i n a new d i r e c t i o n , with i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l , one " . . . which recognizes the m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l nature of s o c i a l knowledge" and s u c c e s s f u l l y j o i n s together " . . . the requirements of s c i e n c e and s o c i a l j u s t i c e , r a t i o n a l i t y and the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " (Weaver, Jessop, and Das, 1983, p. 32) . 1.3 E v a l u a t i o n Research E v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h and p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l have evolved i n the same m i l i e u , but the former arose w i t h i n a 7 somewhat d i f f e r e n t set o f academic t r a d i t i o n s — t h o s e of e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h , and s o c i a l w e l f a r e . These a p p l i e d huma-n i s t i c d i s c i p l i n e s drew t h e i r concepts from such pragmatic p h i l o s o p h e r s as John Dewey, who was an e a r l y proponent of l e a r n i n g from i n t e r a c t i v e experiences, and from emerging i n q u i r i e s i n psychology where attempts were made to d e s c r i b e and e x p l a i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s i n terms acceptable to the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s . T h i s t r a d i t i o n was combined with those of Marx and Engels, whose t h e o r i e s of s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e suggested t h a t h i s t o r i c a l changes i n s o c i e t y pro-duced changes i n i n d i v i d u a l human consciousness and beha-v i o u r . The impacts of the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n and the r e s u l t a n t s o c i a l i n e q u i t y , combined with the m a t e r i a l abun-dance of the Western world at the t u r n of the century, c r e a t e d a need and at the same time an o p p o r t u n i t y to develop new, l a r g e - s c a l e p u b l i c w e l f a r e and education programs. Because these programs i n v o l v e d l a r g e numbers of personnel, and t h e i r p r o v i s i o n was c o s t l y , i n f o r m a t i o n was r e q u i r e d to determine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s or success of these programs. Furthermore, a s p i r a t i o n s developed among p r a c t i t i o n e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to c r e a t e a s c i e n c e which would produce a k i n d of knowledge t h a t would allow systematic p r e d i c t i o n and an a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l the process and outcomes of t h e i r programs. To produce t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and achieve these g o a l s , 8 s e v e r a l approaches were u t i l i z e d . Measurement techniques, developed i n t r a i n i n g programs i n World War I I , gave r i s e t o the a p p l i c a t i o n of s t a t i s t i c s i n d e s i g n i n g t e s t i n g instruments where the i n d i c a t o r s used were changes i n i n d i -v i d u a l c o g n i t i v e or b e h a v i o u r a l a b i l i t i e s as evidenced by the widespread use of IQ t e s t s , b e g i n n i n g i n the 1950s. Years o f a p p l i c a t i o n r e f i n e d the use of and i d e n t i f i e d the c o n s t r a i n t s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g program e f f e c t i v e n e s s through t e s t i n g t e c hniques. More r e c e n t l y , another s e t of t o o l s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g program e f f e c t i v e n e s s has come from accoun-t i n g where techniques f o r p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , designed to a i d i n d e t e r m i n i n g p r i o r i t i e s and budgets f o r competing program needs, were based on c o s t measures and o b j e c t i v e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . From t h i s background, e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h arose as a r e c o g n i z e d e n t i t y i n the 1970s i n t o an atmosphere domina-te d by two a d d i t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s . The t h e o r i e s of P i a g e t i n f l u e n c e d humanistic p h i l o s o p h y such t h a t programs were redesigned w i t h i n n o v a t i v e approaches to group a c t i v i t i e s , emphasizing v a r y i n g i n d i v i d u a l c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s . C o n c u r r e n t l y , an awareness of i n d i v i d u a l . d i f f e r e n c e s — problems of the handicapped and v i c t i m s of drug and a l c o h o l abuse, s o c i a l d i s e a s e , and penal i n j u s t i c e — b e c a m e s u b j e c t s of i s s u e s f o r an emerging p u b l i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s . P u b l i c e x p e c t a t i o n s were c r e a t e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l problems i n a j u s t s o c i e t y c o u l d be r e s o l v e d by p r o v i d i n g a wide range of 9 a l t e r n a t i v e s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l programs. Observations of the attempts which f o l l o w e d t o i n t e -g r a t e the new s o c i a l consciousness i n t o e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l h e a l t h and welfare programs pr o v i d e d suggestions t h a t the programs were not meeting t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s . To many obse r v e r s , the q u a l i t y of education appeared t o d e c l i n e and s o c i a l h e a l t h and welfar e programs were judged t o be too c o s t l y ; thus, c o s t s to government f o r p r o v i s i o n of a l t e r n a -t i v e s to meet v a r y i n g i n d i v i d u a l needs became the focus of p u b l i c debate. The problem i n many cases was t h a t i n attempting t o address the concerns of i n d i v i d u a l s and app l y -i n g new t h e o r i e s t o program design, the programs underwent a development phase where frequent change was a common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Counter p u b l i c pressure c a l l e d f o r c e r -t a i n t y , c o n s i s t e n c y , s t a b i l i t y , and improved a c c o u n t a b i l i t y and c r e a t e d an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e move toward improved manage-ment p r a c t i c e s and c o n t r o l s based on the f i n d i n g s of program e v a l u a t i o n s . Among p r a c t i t i o n e r s of e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h , methods were i n debate surrounding the ex p e c t a t i o n s f o r v a l i d and r e l i a b l e e v a l u a t i o n r e s u l t s and the instruments r e q u i r e d t o measure changes i n program outputs. Attempts at s c i e n t i f i c r i g o u r p l a c e d c o n s t r a i n t s on the e v a l u a t i o n d e s i g n , thereby denying competing p e r s p e c t i v e s . In response, an a l t e r n a t i v e , h o l i s t i c , i n d u c t i v e approach was c o u n s e l l e d with an emphasis on q u a l i t a t i v e designs to overcome t r a d i t i o n a l d e s i g n 10 c o n s t r a i n t s (Patton, 1980). An a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s approach was made i n the f e d e r a l p u b l i c a t i o n f o r e v a l u a t i o n approa-ches, Guide on the Program Evaluation Function (Canada, 1981), which was designed to improve government p o l i c y -making and p r i o r i t y - s e t t i n g through program change. The recent r e c e s s i o n a r y t r e n d has r e s u l t e d i n cuts to programs without the b e n e f i t of e v a l u a t i v e processes or e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h . The d e c i s i o n s f o r program changes are being made i n many cases based on program c o s t s alone, sup-po r t e d by the id e o l o g y t h a t because i n d i v i d u a l s should be pr o d u c t i v e c o n t r i b u t o r s to s o c i e t y and not dependent on the s t a t e , many education and s o c i a l h e a l t h and we l f a r e programs should be e l i m i n a t e d . These p r e v a l e n t ideas of government v o l u n t a r i s t s have r e s u l t e d i n programs being e l i m i n a t e d on the b a s i s of ide o l o g y , r a t h e r than on e v a l u a t i v e f i n d i n g s . These moves may pro v i d e the necessary r e d u c t i o n s i n govern-ment budgets but t h e i r e l i m i n a t i o n leaves undefined the ap p r o p r i a t e goals f o r p u b l i c p o l i c y . In an e f f o r t t o reduce economic a n x i e t y by lowering c o s t s and re d u c i n g government spending through the f u n c t i o n a l imperative of re d u c i n g or e l i m i n a t i n g programs, g u i d e l i n e s f o r e t h i c a l c h o ice have not been a p p l i e d . Examination of human a s p i r a t i o n s and va l u e s i s absent from these program-change d e c i s i o n s . I f e v a l u a -t i o n r e s e a r c h i s t o o f f e r a i d i n t h i s dilemma, i t must address moral q u e s t i o n s . 11 1.4 Study R a t i o n a l e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the u s e f u l n e s s of e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h to judge p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l programs has e x i s t e d f o r some time ( M i t c h e l l , 1979). Numerous other authors have suggested t h a t a rational-comprehensive p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l process should i n c l u d e e v a l u a t i o n as an i n t r i n s i c element i n the process (see F i g u r e 1). Friedmann's (1973a) t r a n s a c t i v e p l a n n i n g assumed e v a l u a t i o n occurs as i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i -pants change, as does the program, through l e a r n i n g . In seven years of o p e r a t i o n the CDG i n c l u d e d no e v a l u a t i o n f u n c t i o n i n i t s program design, and i t was not o f f i c i a l l y r e v i s e d from i t s o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n . An e x i s t i n g body of e v a l u a t i o n theory and p r a c t i c e c o u l d be a p p l i e d t h a t would add to the a b i l i t y t o determine how i t operates, and the purpose of the program, i n c l u d i n g i t s impacts and e f f e c t s on s o c i e t y . There are b e l i e f s and assumptions u n d e r l y i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n of e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h to p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l processes such as the g u i d e l i n e s , which should be understood b e f o r e an e v a l u a t i o n of the process can be undertaken. One i s the b e l i e f i n i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y . J a n t s c h (1971) has d e s c r i b e d i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y as a t e l e o l o g i c a l and norma-t i v e concept, where cooperation and c o o r d i n a t i o n are r e q u i r e d among d i s c i p l i n e s t o l i n k s o c i a l , environmental, and economic assessments with development p l a n n i n g , imple-mentation, and management. A problem f a c i n g any process I-Tl C l-S i-9 j r (D O n-o CD n a 0) M 0 O (D V) w 0 H O H) rt m H D C Hi Hi i! 0 0 •o Cr rr (w. 0 «J a Oi r r ^ 0 h 0 «: 0 3 0 3 0 c a g C 0 a Co t~. r r r> 0i 0 r r 0 -a 3 h 0 •o 0 • l <t> O w 0 tn m w w Goals policy programs (CDG) Action New coal mine prospectus Preliminary assessment and review Stage I Decision Detailed assessment and review Stage II Recommendation terms and conditions Decision approval-in-principle Implementation Stage III Monitoring and evaluation Stage IV Zl 13 which r e q u i r e s the c o o p e r a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n of many d i s c i p l i n e s , as w i t h the g u i d e l i n e s , i s the r i g i d i t y of d i s c i p l i n e s and of d i s c i p l i n a r y concepts or b e l i e f s as to what i s good or bad f o r s o c i e t y , with a d i v i s i o n between the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s (or the t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i -p l i n e s ) and the humanities, such as s o c i o l o g y , psychology, the a r t s , or r e l i g i o n . Of these two b a s i c systems of b e l i e f , one comprises a p o s i t i v e s c i e n t i f i c view, where phenomena are b e l i e v e d to be s u b j e c t to d e t e r m i n i s t i c laws and are t h e r e f o r e amenable to o b j e c t i v e s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s i s , w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t a p a s s i v e i m p a r t i a l observer; the other a humanistic imperative view, sees phenomena as p r o b a b i l i s -t i c and s u b j e c t to d e l i b e r a t e a l t e r a t i o n , with the r o l e of the p a r t i c i p a n t i n p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l becoming more a c t i v e i n the d e s i g n and p l a n n i n g of the f u t u r e . The b e l i e f s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n p r o j e c t a p p r a i -s a l s such as the CDG may not be as p o l a r i z e d as the above d i s t i n c t i o n s may i n d i c a t e . However, i t i s u s e f u l to present these d i f f e r e n t views because they pervade both the e v alua-t i o n and a p p r a i s a l processes. The r o l e s , a c t i o n s , and concerns of v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l depend upon t h e i r p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l systems of b e l i e f s . A c o n f l i c t may emerge because d i f f e r e n t b i o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l t h e o r i e s u n d e r l i e the b e l i e f s of those who review p r o j e c t assessments, but i d e o l o g i c a l and p r a c t i c a l assumptions o f t e n guide the b e l i e f s of those who support c o a l development. 14 T h i s assumption i m p l i e s t h a t f o r an e v a l u a t i o n of the CDG program, the source of p a r t i c i p a n t concerns and t h e i r involvement w i t h the process must be understood. An i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y b e l i e f i n the j o i n t a p p l i c a t i o n of v a r i e d p e r s p e c t i v e s and t h e i r accompanying d e c i s i o n c r i -t e r i a to s o c i a l , environmental, and economic decision-making a l s o has a r o l e i n d e s i g n of the g u i d e l i n e s d e c i s i o n model. C o n s i s t e n t procedures f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n of assessment i n f o r m a t i o n and of p o t e n t i a l development i n f o r m a t i o n are necessary to ensure c o m p a t i b i l i t y between the t h e o r e t i c a l assumptions g u i d i n g the approach and those t h a t guide d e v e l -opment p l a n n e r s . A l s o necessary i s the e x p l i c i t i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n of the procedures f o r decision-making, and the render-i n g of t h e i r assumptions. With the decision-making process c l a r i f i e d , the CDG, as the program f o r p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l , can be e v a l u a t e d i n terms of i t s s t r u c t u r e and i t s s p e c i f i c r e s u l t s , and recommendations may then be o f f e r e d . 1.5 Study Model An i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach to the p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l process suggests a s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t r o l e f o r e v a l u a t i o n of the CDG program than t h a t of the t r a d i -t i o n a l approach t o government program e v a l u a t i o n . T r a d i -t i o n a l l y , the emphasis of program e v a l u a t i o n has been on economic r a t i o n a l i t y , where the v a r i a b l e s measured have been c o s t s and numbers of people employed. Often, e v a l u a t i o n was 15 viewed as a s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y and the t r a d i t i o n a l l o g i c o f program e v a l u a t i o n r e q u i r e d t h a t the impact of the program be determined i n comparison w i t h what would have happened i n the absence of the program. T h i s approach i s d e f i c i e n t as a study design f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of the CDG f o r s e v e r a l reasons, i n c l u d i n g the nature of mining a c t i -v i t y , t h e i r f r o n t i e r l o c a t i o n s , and the sm a l l number of p o t e n t i a l c o a l mines. There are a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t s i t e -s p e c i f i c v a r i a t i o n s which make each c o a l development s u f f i -c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t t h a t i t would be d i f f i c u l t i n a t r a d i t i o n -a l l y designed experiment to account f o r a l t e r a t i o n s among developments? t h e r e f o r e , a c l a s s i c a l approach to e v a l u a t i o n has not been used i n t h i s study. Instead, another approach has been u t i l i z e d wherein e v a l u a t i o n of how a government program operates, the purpose of the program, and i t s impacts and e f f e c t s on those con-cerned, i s conducted. T h i s approach i s more q u a l i t a t i v e and f o l l o w s , i n p a r t , g u i d e l i n e s i d e n t i f i e d by the Treasury Board of Canada (Canada, 1981) f o r program e v a l u a t i o n . T h i s methodology a l s o combines e f f e c t s or impacts e v a l u a t i o n with a program o p e r a t i o n e v a l u a t i o n , f o l l o w i n g P o i s t e r (1978), and an h o l i s t i c , i n d u c t i v e , n a t u r a l i s t i c i n q u i r y adopted from Patton (1980), To r e a l i z e t h i s g o a l , more than one technique was used to c o l l e c t e v a l u a t i o n f i n d i n g s , and a workable s t r a t e g y was r e q u i r e d to f i n d a balance among r i g o r o u s d e s i g n methods and s i t u a t i o n a l r e a l i t i e s . Thus, 16 o b s e r v a t i o n s and data on the program were obtained i n a v a r i e t y of ways and then aggregated. The study model as d e s c r i b e d by Day ( i n Day, Brady, B r i d g e r , F r e i s e n , and Peet, 1977) i s shown i n F i g u r e 2. The context or program p r o f i l e of the CDG was prepared by d e l i n e a t i n g three a s p e c t s : (1) the p o l i c y environment, (2) the h i s t o r i c a l context, and (3) the i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrange-ments. The a c t i o n s of the CDG were i d e n t i f i e d by examining three cases: (1) L i n e Creek, (2) G r e e n h i l l s , and (3) Sukunka, through a systematic e v a l u a t i o n of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e documents. The outcomes of the program, i n c l u d i n g expected and unexpected impacts, were i d e n t i f i e d by reviewing the e x i s t i n g w r i t t e n c r i t i q u e s o f B.C. government p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l s , and by a d m i n i s t e r i n g a standard q u e s t i o n n a i r e and open-ended i n t e r v i e w of twenty-three p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the CDG process. From these o b s e r v a t i o n s , the adequacy of the CDG program was assessed and p o t e n t i a l changes wi t h t h e i r attendant i m p l i c a t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d . Recommendations and suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h were made. 1.5.1 Program p r o f i l e Programs are sets of o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s conducted by government i n s t i t u t i o n s i n p u r s u i t of e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s : they can be thought of as v e h i c l e s f o r c a r r y i n g out p o l i c y . ( P o i s t e r , 1978, p. 5) Within t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , the f i r s t e v a l u a t i v e e f f o r t was to i d e n t i f y the p o l i c i e s which s e t the CDG o b j e c t i v e s i n con-t e x t . T h i s e f f o r t i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 2, and draws upon P o l i c i e s , Goals, Objectives for Coal Development History of Coal Development Guidelines Institutional Arrangements for Coal Development Actions of CDG-document analysis Line Creek Greenhills Sukunka Impacts of CDG Written c r i t i q u e s , questionnaire/ 'Interviews U t i l i z a t i o n of Findings Adequacy of CDG and Recommendations F i g u r e 2 CDG Program E v a l u a t i o n Model 18 f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l government statements of p o l i c y and p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a n t s ' o b s e r v a t i o n s of c o a l development pro-gram o b j e c t i v e s . An understanding of the s o c i a l environment which c o n d i t i o n s the CDG i s needed to d e s c r i b e the program p r o f i l e . E v a l u a t i o n s which f a i l to take i n t o account the previous and p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s may have d i f f i c u l t y p r o v i d i n g u s e f u l recommendations. The experimental philosophy i d e n t i -f i e d e a r l i e r , where the approach to e v a l u a t i o n i s h o l i s t i c , i n d u c t i v e , and n a t u r a l i s t i c , assumes t h a t the program's h i s t o r i c a l context i s e s s e n t i a l f o r understanding the pro-gram. The h o l i s t i c aspect of the r e s e a r c h design allowed g a t h e r i n g of data on a number of aspects of c o a l development i n the e f f o r t to s y n t h e s i z e a complete p i c t u r e of the s o c i a l dynamics surrounding the CDG program; thus, the element of time has been t r e a t e d as an important f a c t o r with i t s own p a r t i c u l a r meaning. D e t a i l s of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements p r o v i d e the f i n a l f a c t o r i n the program p r o f i l e , i n c l u d i n g the v a r i o u s m i n i s t r i e s , both p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l , and t h e i r l e g i s l a t i v e and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s with the v a r i o u s i n t e r - a g e n c y committees. An understanding of the program a c t i v i t y and outcomes becomes c l e a r only a f t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n i s developed f o r the CDG program i n l i g h t of i t s surrounding p o l i c y , h i s t o r y , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements. T h i s type of r e s e a r c h d e s i g n r e p l a c e s the emphasis on c o n t r o l l e d 19 experiments w i t h a dynamic process o r i e n t a t i o n , and r e s e a r c h i s a b l e t o focus on the a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n s and impacts of programs over time. 1.5.2 Program a c t i o n s : Document e v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g y  E v a l u a t i o n of the CDG program was a l s o made by exa-mining the documents which represented a r e c o r d of the a c t i o n s of p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l . A s t r a t e g y was developed t o a s s i s t i n r e v i e w i n g the prepared documents which combined s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t approaches. Boothroyd (1979) suggested a format and a s e r i e s of i s s u e s t h a t should be i n c l u d e d when e v a l u a t i n g s o c i a l impact assessments. Heffernan and Corwin (1975) suggested a s e r i e s of ques t i o n s as an a i d to ev a l u a -t i n g the environmental impact statement. Cope and H i l l s (1979) i d e n t i f i e d the need f o r a c e n t r a l i z i n g a n a l y s i s which would b r i n g the v a r i o u s impacted d i m e n s i o n s - — s o c i a l , b i o -p h y s i c a l , and e c o n o m i c — t o g e t h e r . They saw a c r i t i c a l need to address the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the v a r i o u s a s s e s s -ment dimensions and suggested t h a t a u n i t a r y comparison procedure was needed, one which aimed f o r a n a l y t i c coher-ency. An o v e r a l l approach to document e v a l u a t i o n appears i n Baron's (1981) working paper on "meta-evaluation." A combi-n a t i o n of the above has been developed and a document e v a l u -a t i o n s t r a t e g y (shown i n Appendix A) was devi s e d , s p e c i f i c to the CDG program. T h i s s t r a t e g y was a p p l i e d to 22 docu-ments produced by the three companies which had s u c c e s s f u l l y 20 completed the CDG process by December 1981; t h a t i s , L i n e Creek, G r e e n h i l l s , and Sukunka mines. The documents i n c l u -ded: formal submissions as the staged r e p o r t s ; a s e r i e s of i n f o r m a t i o n or meeting b r i e f s prepared by the proponent; and the review documents produced by the c o o r d i n a t i n g government agencies ( l i s t e d i n Appendix B). The purpose of t h i s document e v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g y was to generate a more g e n e r a l understanding of the nature of the c o a l assessment process. The i n t e n t was to understand the submissions by l o o k i n g a t the important f e a t u r e s i n order to judge the adequacy or inadequacy of the CDG process on the grounds t h a t the understanding which r e s u l t e d could be l a t e r used i n a p p r a i s a l s and enhance the u s e f u l n e s s of p r o j e c t proponents' r e p o r t s and government responses. Fea-t u r e s of the documents t h a t were examined were aut h o r s h i p , t i m i n g , purpose, format, methodology, and content. The c r i t e r i a employed to e v a l u a t e each f e a t u r e arose from the f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s and assumptions. The CDG process r e q u i r e d the g e n e r a t i o n of a great d e a l of i n f o r m a t i o n which i n v o l v e d numerous i n d i v i d u a l s with a v a r i e t y of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s . In t h i s document e v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g y , the o r g a n i z a t i o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r e p o r t and i t s c o n c l u s i o n s was d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the authors of the r e p o r t because, a c c o r d i n g to J . O'Riordan ( i n a l e t t e r to Crows Nest I n d u s t r i e s , August, 1977): In g e n e r a l , [the CGSC] p r e f e r s that the company 21 submit i t s r e p o r t under i t s own name r a t h e r than the c o n s u l t a n t ' s name . . . . T h i s c l a r i f i e s t h a t the company i s committed to c a r r y i n g out the d e s i g n d e t a i l s and the f u r t h e r study recommendations i n the r e p o r t . S w i t z e r (1983) i d e n t i f i e d three options f o r compa-n i e s when p r e p a r i n g impact s t u d i e s and documentation; (1) the company may use e n t i r e l y in-house s t a f f and present documents as the s o l e authors; (2) they may p r o v i d e c o o r d i -n a t i o n in-house and h i r e c o n s u l t a n t s f o r s p e c i f i c t a s k s ; or (3) they may c o n t r a c t out-of-house c o n s u l t a n t s f o r the e n t i r e g u i d e l i n e s p r o c e s s . Authorship was assessed with the b e l i e f t h a t the formal r e p o r t s should r e f l e c t a corpo-r a t e commitment t o i n t e g r a t e environmental and socio-econo-mic i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o i t s decision-making and p l a n n i n g f o r coal-mine development. The CDG process assumed t h a t a comprehensive e v a l u -a t i o n of the proponent's documentation was conducted and t h a t t h i s was t o be r e f l e c t e d i n a l l of the review documents. The assumption was t h a t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the review documentation depended on the a b i l i t y of the CDG c o o r d i n a t o r (CGSC chairman) to r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n from the v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s . Thus, the c o o r d i n a t o r of the v a r i o u s review documents was noted as author and the l e a d agency i n which the c o o r d i n a t o r operated was i d e n t i f i e d u s i n g the hypothesis t h a t the agency's p o l i c i e s , would i n f l u e n c e the nature of the CDG c o o r d i n a t i o n . Many c r i t i c s of the CDG program have i d e n t i f i e d 22 t i m i n g as a s i g n i f i c a n t problem. Heffernan (1975, p. 256) noted t h a t up to a year or more i s g e n e r a l l y necessary f o r "major p r o j e c t s a f f e c t i n g l i t t l e - s t u d i e d resources having broad impacts over an area, or e s t a b l i s h i n g precedents f o r new technology." Boothroyd (197 9, p. 5) concluded t h a t a " s e r i e s of impact r e p o r t s i s p r e f e r a b l e to one statement." The CDG program, i n o p e r a t i n g with procedures to account f o r the above c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , r e q u i r e d s t u d i e s which took a minimum of e i g h t e e n months and were r e p o r t e d on i n s e v e r a l phases. The CDG process was designed so t h a t r e p o r t s would be produced e a r l y enough i n the p l a n n i n g process to a f f e c t d e s ign and l a t e enough i n the r e s e a r c h process to g i v e more than b a s e l i n e data from secondary sources. T h i s l a t e r i n f o r m a t i o n was to be used f o r management a c t i v i t i e s such as monitoring d e s i g n . I f the CDG program was a " d e c i s i o n -making pro c e s s , " then the t i m i n g of a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e became s i g n i f i c a n t . E a r l y government approval reduced corporate u n c e r t a i n t y , whereas w i t h h e l d d e c i s i o n s i n c r e a s e d the p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t r o l by government agencies. To examine these i s s u e s , t i m i n g was e v a l u a t e d i n each case study by a d d r e s s i n g three q u e s t i o n s . The time of each r e p o r t was noted r e l a t i v e to the a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e , with the p e r i o d c a l c u l a t e d from submission of prospectus to the p o i n t of a formal government d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g the p r o j e c t , and the r e p o r t ' s temporal r e l a t i o n s h i p t o other r e s e a r c h was c o n s i d e r e d . F i n a l l y , the c r i t i c a l - p a t h 23 p l a n n i n g f o r each p r o j e c t was examined to note how each company planned i t s CDG s t u d i e s r e l a t i v e to other c o r p o r a t e p l a n n i n g . The t h i r d f e a t u r e , purpose of the document, r e l a t e s to the use f o r the document i n f o r m a t i o n and i n d i r e c t l y i d e n -t i f i e s p o t e n t i a l users of the i n f o r m a t i o n . I t was assumed t h a t many i n d i v i d u a l s would read at l e a s t one p o r t i o n of the document. Users of assessment documents may be c i t i z e n groups, t e c h n i c a l a s s e s s o r s of design a l t e r n a t i v e s , agency pla n n e r s , government decision-makers., p o l i c y a n a l y s t s , or resource managers. The users of the review documents may be c o n s u l t a n t s , p r o j e c t managers, or corporate decision-makers. User e x p e c t a t i o n s a f f e c t t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n of how w e l l the document meets i t s purpose, Therefore, documents were eval u a t e d f o r e x p l i c i t statements of purpose or terms of r e f e r e n c e . The document author's statement of purpose was c o n t r a s t e d with the r e q u i r e d purpose to determine i f the CDG program e x p e c t a t i o n s were addressed. Document purpose was a l s o evaluated assuming t h a t many readers would examine only s p e c i f i c s e c t i o n s of the document, those i n which they had s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t or e x p e r t i s e , and i n f o r m a t i o n f i l t e r i n g would occur as readers scanned f o r a mental c h e c k l i s t of su b j e c t s and f a c t s which they f e l t the r e p o r t should i n c l u d e . Assessment r e p o r t s which tended not to meet these e x p e c t a t i o n s were o f t e n r e j e c t e d on t e c h n i c a l grounds with requests f o r resubmission, 24 while review comments which were r e p e t i t i v e , redundant, or i n a c c u r a t e , were not u t i l i z e d by the proponent. There was a l s o a need to evaluate the form of the message, and a number of questions were examined concerning the o v e r a l l format to determine the adequacy of the docu-ments i n f a c i l i t a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a c c e s s i b i l i t y . The body of the document was e v a l u a t e d f o r c l a r i t y of message and format of the r e p o r t . The documents were evaluated f o r summation techniques, form of assumption and c o n s t r a i n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , form of i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t a t i o n and the format f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n of m i t i g a t i o n and implementing p l a n s . E v a l u a t i o n of the format a l s o considered the r e a d a b i l i t y of the r e p o r t , because terminology, e s p e c i a l l y f o r n o n - t e c h n i c a l readers of t e c h n i c a l r e p o r t s , may be a problem. T h e r e f o r e , p r o v i s i o n of g l o s s a r i e s to i d e n t i f y acronyms and t e c h n i c a l terms, and use of graphics were examined. F i n a l l y , t o f a c i l i t a t e c o n f i r m a t i o n of r e p o r t accuracy or a u t h e n t i c i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n , i t was assumed r e f e r e n c e s would be provided, and these were examined. A r a t i o n a l , comprehensive, CDG program design d e f i n e d an o v e r a l l methodology or model. In t h i s e v a l u a -t i o n , a d i s t i n c t i o n was made between c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c techniques or d i s c i p l i n a r y methods which were conducted to i d e n t i f y the environmental, s o c i a l , or economic c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s of the development l o c a t i o n and t h i s l a r g e r , r a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g framework. Each proponent document was i n i t i a l l y 25 e v a l u a t e d to i d e n t i f y i t s o v e r a l l f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the pro-j e c t a p p r a i s a l p r o c e s s . I t was assumed t h a t the proponents' s t u d i e s were d e f i n e d by the o v e r a l l program model, and the documents were examined to determine i f they met the model's s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s , thereby r e f l e c t i n g the r a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . T h i s was v e r i f i e d by examining the documents' me t h o d o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s . The documents were also, examined to determine i f t h e r e were s p e c i f i c methods i d e n t i f i e d to r e l a t e s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to the f e a t u r e s of the development p r o p o s a l and i t s a l t e r n a t i v e s . A more d e t a i l e d set of e v a l u a t i v e q u e s t i o n s was a p p l i e d to three m e t h o d o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s of the CDG propo-nent documents: i n p u t s or data i n t o the assessment; a n a l y -t i c a l assessment approaches, as w e l l as government methods f o r review of proponent i n p u t s and a n a l y s i s . A l l the i n p u t s i n t o the assessments or the data used were e v a l u a t e d as to type and source. I t was assumed t h a t both primary s i t e - s p e c i f i c d ata as w e l l as secondary data should be u t i l i z e d i n a comprehensive p r o c e s s . A comprehensive pro-cess should a l s o c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n from as wide a number of sources as p o s s i b l e to determine the e x i s t i n g , data base. A second element of the a p p r a i s a l methodology, the a n a l y s i s , was e v a l u a t e d by examining p r e d i c t i o n and f o r e -c a s t i n g t e chniques. A p r o b a b i l i s t i c element c o n s t i t u t e d one important dimension of the impact assessment. The s i z e of the impact was a second dimension which i n v o l v e d an estimate 26 of v a lue by the expert conducting the study. Both c o n s t i -t u t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s common to an assessment methodology and were i m p l i e d i n g u i d e l i n e s . Thus, the documents were questioned f o r evidence of these assessment dimensions. F o r e c a s t i n g techniques were examined f o r a n a l y t i c a l compre-hensiveness, i n c l u d i n g w i t h and without the p r o j e c t specu-l a t i o n s , e f f e c t s of the development on a l l p o p u l a t i o n s , and the range of p o s s i b l e f o r e c a s t i n g t e c h n i q u e s . The review documents were e v a l u a t e d f o r s i m i l a r c r i t e r i a . I t was assumed t h a t the review methods were s i m i l a r to those d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 4 of t h i s study. I t was d i f f i c u l t t o examine a review technique which would i n t e r r e l a t e or aggregate the b i o p h y s i c a l e v a l u a t i o n with the separate t e c h n i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l e v a l u a t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , as i n the proponents' assessment documents, the review documents were examined f o r comprehensiveness. I t was assumed t h a t a comprehensive review document should have r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from as many impacted dimensions as c o u l d p o s s i b l y be a f f e c t e d by the p r o j e c t . Each agency, t h e r e f o r e , should review the p r o p o s a l from t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l and expert p e r s p e c t i v e s . T h i s assumption was based on the f a c t t h a t agencies asked to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the review would have s t a f f with a p p r o p r i a t e e x p e r t i s e capable of e v a l u a t i n g the proponent documents and have a budget and time f o r the review a c t i v i t y , because such reviews should not be added to s t a f f ' s e x i s t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . F i n a l l y , the review 27 documents were examined f o r evidence of a v a i l a b l e opportu-n i t i e s f o r p u b l i c non-governmental examination. The f i n a l f e a t u r e , content of the proponent docu-ments, should p r o v i d e the main evidence f o r r a t i o n a l p r e -p l a n n i n g . Because they are used by governments to e v a l u a t e the p r o p o s a l , some elements of the development p l a n would be i n c l u d e d i n each document. Since they are s p e c i f i c to c o a l mining, the proponents' documents are normally t e c h n i c a l i n nature, w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n changing as development p l a n n i n g proceeded and new i n f o r m a t i o n was forthcoming. In t h i s e v a l u a t i o n , changes i n development p l a n content over e a r l i e r documents were i d e n t i f i e d . The content of the development p l a n was a l s o e v a l u a t e d f o r comprehensiveness i n p l a n n i n g f o r a l l phases of the p r o j e c t : e x p l o r a t i o n , c o n s t r u c t i o n , o p e r a t i o n , and decommissioning. I n c l u s i o n of f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s f o r new c o a l mines or o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r expansion were a l s o e v a l u a t e d as a p a r t of an expected long-term, r a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g approach. Elements of the p r o j e c t t h a t should be i n c l u d e d i n each document's content were the mine s i t e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , storage, l o a d i n g , power f a c i l i -t i e s , and p l a n t p r e p a r a t i o n p l a n s . Because the p r o j e c t would a l t e r e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , an e v a l u a t i o n of content i n c l u d e d a review of the e n v i r o n -mental s e t t i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s which i d e n t i f i e d i n d i c a t o r c a t e g o r i e s t h a t would be most u s e f u l f o r m o n i t o r i n g as the p r o j e c t proceeded. These c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e d f e a t u r e s of the 28 b i o p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , and economic environment. Because a l t e r a t i o n of the environment would reach beyond the boun-d a r i e s of the mine development pro p e r t y , a d d i t i o n a l extended i n d i c a t o r s should be c o n s i d e r e d i n a comprehensive a s s e s s -ment. The environmental and s o c i a l s e t t i n g s are not impac-ted u n t i l the p r o j e c t begins and a c t u a l l y changes t h e i r s t a t e ; however, the methodology of assessment r e q u i r e s p r e d i c t i o n of impacts p r i o r t o development. T h e r e f o r e , impact p r e d i c t i o n should be a d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the assessment document content. Assuming a l l impacts do not have the same value , and as an a i d to determining which i n d i c a t o r s should be monitored, the content was evaluated f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f impacts. The content of economic p l a n n i n g and assessment was i n c l u d e d i n the e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a . There i s an i s s u e of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y surrounding i n f o r m a t i o n on c o a l marketing and f i n a n c i a l arrangements, as w e l l as f o r c o s t s of produc-t i o n . These data are necessary f o r the government's inde-pendent e v a l u a t i o n of the v i a b i l i t y of the p r o j e c t because of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as owners of the resource; t h e r e -f o r e , t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was sought. The content of c o r p o r a t e environmental and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g was e v a l u a t e d . I t was expected t h a t t h i s would change over time i n c o n c e r t with the changing development p l a n , and i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t changes i n environmental and s o c i a l plans would be presented i n assessment documents as a c o n t i n u i n g r e f l e c t i o n of the proponent's d e c i s i o n s and commitments. Options and f u t u r e planning were a l s o e v a l u -ated . The content of a review document should provide a development p l a n c r i t i q u e , with a response to each aspect of the development impact i n d i c a t o r category. E v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a assumed the documents would i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : advice on o p t i o n s not c o n s i d e r e d by the proponent, r e l e v a n t government p l a n n i n g concerns, i s s u e s i d e n t i f i e d which should be examined i n more d e t a i l , a d d i t i o n a l r e g u l a t o r y r e q u i r e -ments, and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of sources of a d d i t i o n a l informa-t i o n . The document e v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g y concluded by sum-ma r i z i n g the o b s e r v a t i o n s of each document f e a t u r e and a s s i g n i n g a judgement of adequacy based upon the above c r i t e r i a . 1.5.3 Program outcomes and impacts  CDGs were ev a l u a t e d on the b a s i s of the program's outcomes and impacts. The outcomes and impacts of the g u i d e l i n e s may be viewed as both planned or primary changes i n c o a l development and secondary or unexpected changes coming from or induced by the a c t i o n s of the CDG program. The intended outcome i s a c o a l mine t h a t has proceeded through the g u i d e l i n e s and t h a t hasyhas not gone i n t o p ro-d u c t i o n . The unexpected outcomes i n c l u d e the i n f o r m a t i o n on environmental, s o c i a l , and economic systems produced by t h i s 30 program and t h e i r attendant e f f e c t s on the p e r c e p t i o n s of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d . The g u i d e l i n e s process may have i n f l u e n c e d p a r t i c i p a n t s perhaps i n o p p o s i t i o n to the o b j e c t i v e s of the program, and i n t h a t sense i s unexpected. Three e v a l u a t i v e methodologies were designed to provide evidence about the i n f l u e n c e of the CDG on the i n d i -v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d . F i r s t , o b s e r v a t i o n s were c o l l e c t e d from a range of sources t o give a broad view of the program's e f f e c t s . A review was conducted of previous c r i t i q u e s of the program and r e l a t e d p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l , A code f o r a n a l y s i s was used to c l a r i f y the f i n d i n g s of these c r i -t i q u e s (see Appendix C) and c r i t i c s ' comments were grouped a c c o r d i n g to t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The comments were exa-mined f o r s i m i l a r i t y of i d e a s , d i f f e r e n c e s , or c o n f l i c t s i n o p i n i o n , and f o r i s s u e s which were absent. These group-ings were then summarized to see i f a p a t t e r n of o p i n i o n as to program impacts emerged. L i m i t a t i o n s to the use of secondary c r i t i q u e s were t h e i r l a c k of s t r u c t u r e i n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y examining the p r o -gram c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the small range of p a r t i c i p a n t s the c r i t i c s c o n s i d e r e d , and t h e i r c r i t i c a l frameworks t h a t may have missed comment on u s e f u l program a s p e c t s . Therefore, a second methodology u t i l i z e d primary o b s e r v a t i o n s o btained through 23 of the i n t e r v i e w s , employ-i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e (shown i n Appendix D) which was administered independently to a l l i n d i v i d u a l s , each of whom 31 was experie n c e d i n the assessment and review of new c o a l development i n B.C. (see Appendix E f o r l i s t of respon-dents) . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was an attempt t o c o l l e c t both an o v e r a l l view of the program and data t h a t may suggest u s e f u l a l t e r n a t i v e s or improvements to the program, A secondary o b j e c t i v e of t h i s methodology was to begin t o de v i s e program s p e c i f i c i n d i c a t o r s of a t t i t u d e because there i s no e x i s t i n g v a l i d or r e l i a b l e method f o r measuring achievement of the CDG g o a l s . To t h i s end, the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e was designed to r e f l e c t the CDG program's major o b j e c t i v e s as w e l l as to i d e n t i f y i s s u e s o u t s i d e of the program which may have some bearing on the program's out-come . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n v o l v e d a dual s t r a t e g y approach, as suggested by P o i s t e r (1978, p. 346). The qu e s t i o n s l e n t themselves to quick respondent answers amenable to s t a t i s t i c a l a n alyses, while encourage-ment of open-ended e l a b o r a t i o n allowed f o r s p o n t a n e i t y and e x p r e s s i v e n e s s . Both were used i n combination t o s t r u c t u r e most i n t e r v i e w s . A l l o w i n g f o r f l e x i b l e responses meant t h a t some respondents omitted q u e s t i o n s f o r v a r i o u s reasons; f o r example, when they f e l t t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r aspect of the program was not w i t h i n t h e i r realm of e x p e r t i s e o r, i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , the q u e s t i o n was not r e l e v a n t to an e v a l u a t i o n of the CDG program, or a q u e s t i o n was not germane t o the o v e r a l l i s s u e . While three respondents d e c l i n e d t o complete 32 the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , they d i d o f f e r v e r b a l o b s e r v a t i o n s . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s p e c i f i c items o c c a s i o n a l l y r e q u i r e d mutual c l a r i f i c a t i o n of terms and/or events because the background of the respondents v a r i e d with the program, and the i n t e r v i e w e r l a c k e d s p e c i f i c experience with the program. Throughout the i n t e r v i e w , c l a r i f i c a t i o n o c c u r r e d which p r o v i d e d a h i s t o r y of events and background t o govern-ment c o n s t r a i n t s or corpor a t e procedures i n c i d e n t a l , but r e l e v a n t , t o the way i n which a response was phrased. To encourage communication, the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was administered i n a manner t h a t allowed f o r v a r i a t i o n yet was expected t o l i m i t the v a l i d i t y of the survey. P o t e n t i a l respondents were s e l e c t e d from l i s t s of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the process, and i n c l u d e d i n d i v i d u a l s who i n d i c a t e d w i l l i n g n e s s to cooperate, A sample of program a d m i n i s t r a t o r s (past and p r e s e n t ) , review agents from both b i o p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies, c o n s u l t a n t s , and c o a l i n d u s t r y personnel, were chosen. The sample was not random, but may be c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . Once i d e n t i -f i e d , the respondent was telephoned to o b t a i n an agreement to be in t e r v i e w e d , appointments were arranged, and a copy of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e mailed. Most i n t e r v i e w s were conducted i n V i c t o r i a , B.C., i n the respondents' o f f i c e s , and ranged i n time from twenty minutes t o four hours, with an average of two hours' d u r a t i o n . Other i n t e r v i e w s were conducted i n Sparwood, B.C., Vancouver, B.C., and Calgary, A l b e r t a . 33 Attempts t o i n c l u d e r e g i o n a l personnel were not s u c c e s s f u l . From t h i s open-ended i n t e r v i e w , i n f o r m a t i o n a d d i t i o n a l to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e format was recorded (by the i n t e r v i e w e r i n note form) and l a t e r analyzed i n a p a r t i c i p a n t p r o f i l e . The a n a l y s i s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e / i n t e r v i e w was tw o f o l d . F i r s t , the r e s u l t s o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were su b j e c t e d t o f a c t o r a n a l y s i s where the responses were c o n s o l i d a t e d i n t o e i g h t program a s p e c t s . From t h i s c o n s o l i -d a t i o n , the aspects were analyzed i n an i t e r a t i v e process of c l u s t e r and d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s e s . A s c a t t e r p l o t of two s i g n i f i c a n t aspects was produced, A second a n a l y s i s a p p l i e d the t h e o r i e s of human m o t i v a t i o n and of i n d i v i d u a l growth and development to d e v i s e a p r o f i l e of types of concern, which enabled c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the notes a r i s i n g from the i n t e r v i e w s to produce a p a r t i c i p a n t p r o f i l e of concerns. The q u a l i t a t i v e r e s u l t s o f the i n t e r v i e w s p r o v i d e d the t h i r d source of i n f o r m a t i o n on the a t t i t u d e s of p a r t i c i -pants i n the CDG program, g i v i n g a range of p e r c e p t i o n s . When q u e s t i o n s arose throughout the study, a d d i t i o n a l data were sought from the respondents. At the c o n c l u s i o n of the r e s e a r c h process, i n f o r m a t i o n supplemented the i n t e r v i e w s , i n c l u d i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n s with approximately 40 i n d i v i d u a l s , many of whom were not connected with the s p e c i f i c program but d i d have a t h e o r e t i c a l background or e x t e n s i v e experience with assessment and/or review procedures i n 34 o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s . 1.6 Data E v a l u a t i o n Use of t h i s study design l i m i t s the u t i l i z a t i o n o f the f i n d i n g s to some degree. One o v e r a l l l i m i t a t i o n d e r i v e s from the f a c t t h a t there was no o v e r t commitment from s e n i o r B.C. government program a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to p a r t i c i p a t e and employ the f i n d i n g s . The l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h has suggested t h a t , to ensure t h a t e v a l u a t i o n r e s u l t s are u t i l i z e d , s e n i o r management must be committed to implementing the f i n d i n g s from the o u t s e t (Patton, 1978). There are a l s o l i m i t a t i o n s to the r e s u l t s w i t h i n the methodologies. For example, study cases were s e l e c t e d f o r d e t a i l e d e v a l u a t i o n at a time when the CDG program had a p p r a i s e d 22 mine p r o p o s a l s , with f i v e having completed the process and two of the l a t t e r having proceeded to c o n s t r u c -t i o n . Thus, two of the cases chosen were c l e a r l y b i a s e d toward s u c c e s s f u l p r o j e c t s . However, of the other 20 c h o i c e s , most were terminated by company d e c i s i o n or were s t i l l w i t h i n the study process. I t i s conceded t h a t , because the CDG operates i n a c a s e - s p e c i f i c manner, an a l y -ses of other p r o j e c t s would y i e l d somewhat d i f f e r e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y with r e f e r e n c e to the q u e s t i o n of f e d e r a l (in the case of Quinsam Coal) and i n t e r n a t i o n a l (i n the case of Sage Creek Coal) involvement. 35 The document e v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g y was r e v i s e d i t e r a -t i v e l y as experience was gained with i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to the case study documents. The o r i g i n a l format was much wider, a l l o w i n g f o r the a d d i t i o n of e x t e n s i v e comments. I d e n t i f i -c a t i o n of the d e t a i l e d s t r u c t u r e of the assessment and review documents through the document e v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g y was a l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e a c t i v i t y . Case study documents were reviewed twice to ensure c o n s i s t e n t a p p l i c a t i o n of c r i t e r i a . In r e t r o s p e c t , the l e v e l o f d e t a i l produced was higher than necessary f o r the purposes of t h i s study. T h i s l e v e l of d e t a i l might be a p p r o p r i a t e , however, f o r an i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t review. T h e r e f o r e , a recommended use f o r t h i s method would be i n the p l a n n i n g of review agency evalua-t i o n s , as c r i t e r i a have been i d e n t i f i e d through which c o a l p r o j e c t documents c o u l d be assessed, A f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s a r i s e s from the c h o i c e of i n d i v i d u a l s asked to complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and to be i n t e r v i e w e d , which was b i a s e d toward working-l e v e l government agencies i n V i c t o r i a . Thus, the concerns of government p l a n n i n g and the problems of conducting reviews tended to dominate over the concerns of the propo-nent. Because of the nature of the CDG program, i n p a r t i -c u l a r i t s complex i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the concerns and o b s e r v a t i o n s from a v a r i e t y of government agents was f e l t to p r o v i d e a more u s e f u l i n d i c a t i o n of the range of problems faced by the comprehensive CDG program. As w e l l , t h e i r wealth of p e r s o n a l experience through review of numerous p r o j e c t s gave a r i c h source of o b s e r v a t i o n s . The CDG a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o cooperate and p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n wherever p o s s i b l e g r e a t l y f a c i l i -t a t e d c l a r i f i c a t i o n and c o r r e c t i o n of e r r o r s not i d e n t i -f i e d by an e x t e r n a l e v a l u a t i o n alone. The net r e s u l t of these data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y t i c a c t i v i t i e s i s an i n f o r m a t i o n s e t t h a t supports the a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e d i n the f i n a l chapter of t h i s study. Chapter 2 COAL DEVELOPMENT P o l i c i e s , Goals, and O b j e c t i v e s The complexity of the energy issues requires that a policy be a living process and that policy-makers be prepared to respond quickly to changing situations, - R. H. McClelland, Minister of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, B.C., (1980) 2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of contemporary p u b l i c p o l i c y regar d i n g Canadian c o a l and r e l a t e d developments, e s p e c i a l l y i n B.C., r e f l e c t c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n s o c i a l values u n d e r l y i n g contemporary governments and, s p e c i f i c a l l y , e x p e c t a t i o n s fo government involvement i n c o a l mining and development. The s t a t e d p o l i c i e s of governments f o r the c o a l i n d u s t r y i n Canada have o f t e n been fragmented and i n c o n s i s t e n t ; t h e r e -f o r e , d i s c u s s i o n here w i l l be p r i m a r i l y r e l a t e d t o the rec e n t p e r i o d of B.C.'s s t a t e d c o a l p o l i c y . A summary of some of the c o n f l i c t i n g p o l i c i e s and goals which d i r e c t the agencies i n v o l v e d i n a s s e s s i n g new c o a l p r o j e c t s i n B.C. f o l l o w s . The mining of c o a l , while c o n t r i b u t i n g to the economy of Canada, has t r a d i t i o n a l l y d i s r u p t e d both human 38 and n a t u r a l environments. The i n d u s t r y h i s t o r i c a l l y has undergone f l u c t u a t i n g p r o d u c t i o n , with demand d e c r e a s i n g when a l t e r n a t i v e s t o c o a l have been found. There has o f t e n been c o n f l i c t among the supporters o f f r e e e n t e r p r i s e who c i t e economic advantages of e x p l o i t i n g the resource and those who p r e f e r government p r o t e c t i o n from the negative e f f e c t s of c o a l mining, w i t h i t s h i s t o r i c v o l a t i l i t y . For both s i d e s , p u b l i c p o l i c y i s s t a t e d i n terms of mine s a f e t y , r o y a l t i e s and t a x a t i o n , environment, community s t a b i l i t y , r e c l a m a t i o n , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and a l t e r n a t i v e energy sources. Evidence f o r t h i s group of p u b l i c p o l i c i e s i s c o l l e c t e d by i n t e r p r e t i n g statements of p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s and r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s o f government agencies with r e s p e c t to c o a l and the c o a l i n d u s t r y , and i s embedded i n the g e n e r a l b e l i e f s and val u e s of p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s and p u b l i c s e r v i c e employees. 2.2 Ideology and Demand f o r P o l i c y i n Coal and Related Developments Contemporary p u b l i c p o l i c y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by many c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n the nature of l i b e r a l democracy or i n the g e n e r a l b e l i e f s about the r o l e o f government and the r i g h t s of p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s . Marchak (1981) i d e n t i -f i e d three f e a t u r e s by which Canadian s o c i e t y b e l i e v e s i t i s o r g a n i z e d : the f i r s t i s t h a t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government i s supported by p e r i o d i c e l e c t i o n s ; the second, t h a t econo-mies are not d i r e c t e d e x c l u s i v e l y or even mainly by govern-ments; and t h i r d l y , t h a t j u d i c i a l c o u r t s e v a l u a t e the me r i t s 39 of i n d i v i d u a l , c o r p o r a t e , and government a c t i o n s with r e f e r -ence to the l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d e d by governments. W i t h i n t h i s framework a range of values and b e l i e f s i s h e l d . One assumption i s t h a t m a j o r i t y r u l e i s achieved, and another t h a t there e x i s t s an e q u a l i t y of c o n d i t i o n among people. Both of these b e l i e f s imply t h a t there i s a homogeneous Canadian p o p u l a t i o n and t h a t governments do not r e p r e s e n t the i n t e r e s t s of any one s e c t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n over another. The assumption t h a t Canadian governments are sub-j e c t to the wishes of i t s c i t i z e n s i s a l s o fundamental to the system. Another fundamental b e l i e f i s t h a t f o r a democratic system of p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e , p r i v a t e ownership of economic resources i s necessary, i n c l u d i n g the ownership of the means of p r o d u c t i o n , the p r o p e r t y , and the p r o f i t s d e r i v e d from these ownerships. Marchak (1981) has a l s o noted s e v e r a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s at the core of t h i s view of government. Governments are managers of the system, s u b j e c t to the wishes of the major-i t y yet with an o b l i g a t i o n to p r o t e c t m i n o r i t i e s ; but the economy i s not d i r e c t e d or managed by governments. Produc-t i o n i s assumed to operate w i t h i n a f r e e market, although i n the case of c o a l , ownership to the r i g h t s of the r e source i n the ground i s o f t e n h e l d by the Crown. A mixed economy e x i s t s , e s s e n t i a l l y w i t h p r i v a t e and p u b l i c managers both having r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the d e c i s i o n s i n v o l -v i n g e x t r a c t i o n of c o a l . A f u r t h e r dimension of 40 c o n t r a d i c t i o n l i e s w i t h i n t h i s problem. The b e l i e f i n governments' management r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i m p l i e s independent but i n t e r a c t i n g p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s , one b a l a n c i n g another and responding to a c t i o n s taken i n other s e c t o r s . Petak (1981) i l l u s t r a t e d t h i s problem when he r e f e r r e d t o the complex process of managing human a f f a i r s w i t h i n the con-s t r a i n i n g elements of s o c i a l , t e c h n i c a l - s c i e n t i f i c , admini-s t r a t i v e , p o l i t i c a l , l e g a l , and economic f a c t o r s . The problem i s t h a t only p a r t of one of these complex sub-systems, t h a t of exogenous and s o c i e t a l c o n s t r a i n t s , i s s u b j e c t t o e l e c t o r a l vote. I n d i v i d u a l s who adm i n i s t e r both the sub-systems of environmental management and the resource-use a l l o c a t i o n undertake decision-making r e s p o n s i -b i l i t i e s without any d i r e c t e l e c t o r a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . The b e l i e f i n the r i g h t of the p u b l i c t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n p u b l i c p o l i c y and government management has encouraged i n d i v i d u a l s and groups t o express t h e i r concerns. Expecta-t i o n s e x i s t t h a t the government w i l l respond t o these concerns with some a c t i o n . Brooks (1974) i d e n t i f i e d the c r e a t i o n of new formal i n s t i t u t i o n s , new laws, and r e i n -f o r c e d o l d e r laws as a response t o the i n c r e a s e d concerns over the use of mineral r e s o u r c e s . While there have been economic concerns, most of the c o n f l i c t with c o a l mining i n Canada has come from the p e r c e p t i o n of unaccounted e x t e r -n a l i t i e s , as when w i l d l i f e , f i s h e r i e s , and water or a i r q u a l i t y are a f f e c t e d . As a r e s u l t , environmental p r o t e c t i o n 41 has become a major p u b l i c preoccupation with r e s p e c t to c o a l (Gibbons, 1980), and these concerns have been expressed by many i n d i v i d u a l s and groups. The s c i e n t i f i c community has noted with i n c r e a s i n g concern the changes i n environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s due to s u r f a c e mining (Dick and Thirgood, 1975). S i m i l a r concerns were expressed by i n t e r e s t groups such as the F i s h and W i l d -l i f e F e d e r a t i o n (Warden, 1976) who encourage c o n t r o l l e d c o a l development, p r o v i d e d i t takes i n t o account a l l of the c o s t s and problems accompanying c o a l mining. Wilson (1980), a management systems a n a l y s t , i d e n t i f i e d h e a l t h , environmen-t a l , and s a f e t y problems a s s o c i a t e d with c o a l development which r e q u i r e d p u b l i c p o l i c y and government c o n t r o l . He a l s o noted concerns about emissions r e l e a s e , n o i s e , e r o s i o n , s o l i d and l i q u i d waste d i s p o s a l , and water consumption. Cameron (1980, p. 4) saw c o a l , more than any other source, as "the f u e l t h a t feeds the c o n f l i c t between the e n v i r o n -m e n t a l i s t and energy developer." As a spokesman f o r academic e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , he argued t h a t a l l phases of the i n d u s t r y must be c o n s i d e r e d i n f o r m u l a t i n g p o l i c y to address the environmental problems. T h i s b e l i e f i n the t o t a l comp-rehensiveness of impact e v a l u a t i o n extended to the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , with a trend i n the l a t e 1970s which p l a c e d i n c r e a s i n g emphasis on the socio-economic and community problems c r e a t e d by c o a l development. P o l i c i e s to a l l e v i a t e these concerns were c a l l e d f o r , and techniques of both 42 environmental and s o c i a l impact assessments, i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the CDG, became the t o o l s of p u b l i c p o l i c y designed to e v a l u a t e these concerns. C o s t - b e n e f i t analyses were added to ensure a more r a t i o n a l approach, but problems arose i n a d d r e s s i n g most of these i s s u e s because they were i n t a n g i b l e and not amenable to q u a n t i f i c a t i o n i n monetary terms. Another s e t of problems arose when the above con-cerns were addressed, p a r t i c u l a r l y when a p p r a i s a l techniques were a p p l i e d o u t s i d e the l e g i s l a t i v e framework. The c o u r t system had d i f f i c u l t y e v a l u a t i n g the m e r i t s of a s i t u a t i o n because most of the processes, i n order to r e t a i n manage-ment f l e x i b i l i t y , were d e s c r i b e d i n g u i d e l i n e form and not i n l e g i s l a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r government to operate w i t h a c o n s i s t e n t c o a l p o l i c y came from the c o a l i n d u s t r y , l a b o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , and l o c a l communities. Co a l producers looked f o r reduced f r e i g h t r a t e s , tax conces-s i o n s , s u b s i d i e s , and government a s s i s t a n c e f o r r e s e a r c h and development, as w e l l as f o r reduced u n c e r t a i n t y , con-s i s t e n c y , and c l a r i t y . Trade unions expected they would have mining r e g u l a t i o n s which would ensure s a f e r working c o n d i t i o n s — a c o n t i n u i n g i s s u e i n the h i s t o r y of the c o a l i n d u s t r y . Communities, a l r e a d y dependent upon c o a l mining f o r employment, hence t h e i r e x i s t e n c e , advocated government p r o t e c t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e f o r l o c a l mines, as w e l l as sup-support f o r attendant l o c a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e such as schools and h o s p i t a l s . 43 Other communities appealed to government f o r p o l i -c i e s which opposed c o a l development because i t threatened e x i s t i n g community res o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g tourism, f i s h e r i e s , and r e c r e a t i o n . In the i n t e r n a t i o n a l sphere, where there was p r e s s u r e to produce a r a t i o n a l , long-term n a t i o n a l s t r a t e g y f o r c o a l to meet f o r e c a s t e d p o t e n t i a l demand (Ezra, 1978), governments were asked to develop c l e a r l y d e f i n e d energy and environmental o b j e c t i v e s , and to adopt a c o n s i s -t e n t and e f f i c i e n t s e t of p u b l i c p o l i c i e s to achieve these o b j e c t i v e s (Berkowitz, 1982; Wilson, 1980), F i n a l l y , there was p ressure from f o r e i g n markets to f o l l o w a p u b l i c p o l i c y which encouraged c o a l export by e n s u r i n g the p r o v i s i o n of the necessary i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and a p o s i t i v e f i n a n c i a l e n v i r -onment (Hay, H i l l , and Rahman, 1982). The p r e s s u r e s p l a c e d on government by t h i s range of i n t e r e s t s were o f t e n a r t i c u l a t e and w e l l organized and, although f r e q u e n t l y c o n f l i c t i n g , each expected a government p o s i t i o n which r e f l e c t e d i t s concerns. Governments, how-ever, have i n t e r n a l concerns t h a t they wish to see r e f l e c -t e d i n p u b l i c p o l i c y . While the term "government" i m p l i e s a u n i t a r y body, there e x i s t d i v e r s e u n i t s or groups w i t h i n the complex s t r u c t u r e of government. E l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s and appointed bureaucrats of d i f f e r e n t m i n i s t r i e s and agencies have d i f f e r e n t views of the nature and substance of c o a l p o l i c y . Opinions, based on i n d i v i d u a l values and e x p e r i -ence, are s t a t e d l a r g e l y with r e s p e c t to the f u t u r e r o l e of 44 c o a l i n world energy r e s o u r c e s , the economic growth of the country o r p r o v i n c e , f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s , or p r o t e c t i o n of the environment. The p o l i c y which emerges as a r e s u l t of the complex nature of e x p e c t a t i o n s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , i s a product of a l l p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s . As p e r c e p t i o n s of the nature of these i n t e r e s t s change, so changes the emphasis of p u b l i c p o l i c y , r e f l e c t e d i n a l t e r e d l e g i s l a t i o n , s h i f t i n g emphases on the a p p l i c a t i o n of r e g u l a t i o n s and g u i d e l i n e s , changing a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s , and appar-e n t l y f l e x i b l e , w h i le f r e q u e n t l y c o n f l i c t i n g , p u b l i c s t a t e -ments as to the substance and emphasis of Canadian c o a l p o l i c y . 2.3 Canadian P o l i c y f o r C oal Development The major j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r government involvement i n managing c o a l development, and i n p r o v i d i n g p u b l i c p o l i c y toward c o a l , comes from p u b l i c ownership of m i n e r a l r i g h t s (Gibbons, 1980; Thompson and Eddy, 1973). S e c t i o n 109 of Canada's B r i t i s h North America Act i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l l p u b l i c lands, mines and m i n e r a l s , and r o y a l t i e s belong to the pro-v i n c e s . There i s one e x c e p t i o n to p r o v i n c i a l ownership of c o a l - b e a r i n g land i n B . C . — t h e Dominion Coal Blocks of the Crowsnest Pass. The r i g h t s to the s u r f a c e and m i n e r als of t h i s l a n d belong t o the f e d e r a l government through an 1897 Crowsnest Pass r a i l agreement. In 1983, the f e d e r a l govern-ment announced plans to s e l l t h i s p r o p e r t y , and B.C. Coal 45 L t d . , a s u b s i d i a r y of B.C. Resources Investment C o r p o r a t i o n (BCRIC), n e g o t i a t e d f o r l e a s e s . However, B.C. claimed t h a t the l a n d should be r e t u r n e d to the p rovince and b e n e f i t s from any development should belong to the p r o v i n c e because of p r o v i n c i a l ownership of n a t u r a l resources w i t h i n t h e i r boundaries (Sopow, 1983). The p r o v i n c i a l p o s i t i o n has become one of l a n d l o r d and p r o p r i e t o r i n terms of the c o a l r e s o u r c e , which g i v e s B.C. the one requirement f o r j u r i s -d i c t i o n , ownership and, hence, the r i g h t i n law to develop p u b l i c p o l i c y over use of the c o a l r e s o u r c e . A second aspect of j u r i s d i c t i o n , the l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y f o r c o a l development, i s claimed by both f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments. The f e d e r a l government, while having l i t t l e c o l o u r of r i g h t to ownership, has l e g i s l a t i v e c a p a b i l i t y f o r i n f l u e n c i n g the c o a l i n d u s t r y i n a v a r i e t y of important ways. Many i n t e r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e s have oc c u r r e d between the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments over the development of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , but i n the case of c o a l t h i s has been s m a l l . In the 1970s, wi t h growth i n the c o a l i n d u s t r y i n the western p r o v i n c e s , the f e d e r a l r o l e was p r i m a r i l y support f o r r e s e a r c h and development (Patching, 1980). 2.3.1 F e d e r a l p o l i c i e s The f e d e r a l government has been viewed as having l i m i t e d i n f l u e n c e i n d i r e c t i n g Canadian c o a l development 46 (Gibbons, 1980). However, f e d e r a l p o l i c i e s r e l a t i n g to energy s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , environment, f o r e i g n investment, r e g i o n a l development, t a x a t i o n , and r e s e a r c h and development, have been important i n s e t t i n g the g e n e r a l p o l i c y framework f o r the Canadian c o a l i n d u s t r y . In 1974, Canada supported the c r e a t i o n of the I n t e r -n a t i o n a l Energy Agency (IEA) under the O r g a n i z a t i o n of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), to come i n t o e f f e c t i n 1976, to address energy s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y f o r Canada. As a r e s u l t , i n 1977, a Canadian m i n i s t e r i a l energy conference i n i t i a t e d development of a Canadian c o a l p o l i c y . While the p i l o t document was not completed, the f e d e r a l o b j e c t i v e of o b t a i n i n g s e l f - r e l i a n c e by m i n i m i z i n g depen-dence on f o r e i g n o i l was emphasized. A need was i d e n t i f i e d f o r i n c r e a s e d resource i n f o r m a t i o n , and t o achieve t h i s the f e d e r a l Department of Energy, Mines and Resources (EMR) signed an agreement with the p r o v i n c e of B.C. which i n c l u d e d $10 m i l l i o n f o r g e o l o g i c a l , manpower, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and townsite s t u d i e s f o r the n o r t h e a s t B.C. c o a l development. A second more general a c t i o n was the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the Coal Assessment Group i n EMR. The f e d e r a l i n i t i a t i v e encouraged Canadian u t i l i t i e s t o fund r e s e a r c h and develop-ment i n t o c o a l c o n v e r s i o n i n an e f f o r t to s u b s t i t u t e c o a l f o r o i l and n a t u r a l gas, and s t u d i e s to examine g a s i f i c a t i o n and l i q u e f a c t i o n as w e l l as methods of burning c o a l u s i n g new technology such as f l u i d i z e d - b e d combustion. Funding 47 was p r o v i d e d f o r s t u d i e s on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of c a p i t a l i n the development of Canadian energy s u p p l i e s (Canada, 197 8) . In 1979, the IEA a r r i v e d at p o l i c i e s f o r a c t i o n r e g a r d i n g the use of c o a l , with proposed s t u d i e s based on e x p e c t a t i o n s of r a p i d growth i n world demand f o r thermal c o a l . There were few c o a l - r e l a t e d p o l i c y measures i n the N a t i o n a l Energy Program r e l e a s e d i n 1980, although some encouragement was given to the development of the A t l a n t i c r e g i o n ' s c o a l r e s o u r c e s . There was concern w i t h i n the i n d u s t r y (Berkowitz, 1982), with f e a r s t h a t a s u c c e s s f u l c o a l i n d u s t r y would be t r e a t e d "the way the f e d e r a l govern-ment t r e a t e d the o i l and gas i n d ustry-—imposing higher taxes, p r e s s i n g f o r C a n a d i a n i z a t i o n , and e n l a r g i n g the p u b l i c s e c t o r r o l e " (Hay et a l . , 1982, p. 93). F e d e r a l recommendations and subsequent i n i t i a t i v e s were re-empha-s i z e d by the S p e c i a l Committee on A l t e r n a t i v e Energy and O i l S u b s t i t u t i o n i n 1981 (Canada, 1981), T h i s committee's recommendations focussed on r e s e a r c h and development, i n c l u -ding i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o f l u i d i z e d - b e d combustion, and a l i m i t e d number of p r o j e c t s d i r e c t e d toward the export mar-ket, w i t h s t r i n g e n t environmental safeguards. While the o v e r a l l emphasis of f e d e r a l p o l i c y encour-aged f u t u r e c o a l development, there was some a n t i c i p a t i o n t h a t new a c t i v i t y would lead to i n c r e a s e d r e g u l a t i o n . T h i s b e l i e f arose from a number of f e d e r a l p o l i c i e s which i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d c o a l development. The Department of 48 the Environment (DOE), with i t s mandate to maintain q u a l i t y of the environment, expressed concerns over the acid-produ-c i n g p o t e n t i a l of c o a l combustion. As a counter to hopes f o r a dramatic i n c r e a s e i n the use of c o a l as a domestic and i n t e r n a t i o n a l thermal energy source, b e l i e f i n c l i m a t i c c o n s t r a i n t s on c o a l combustion which threatened to become acute i n a few decades were v o i c e d (Lovins, 1976). While the DOE supported p o l i c i e s t o c o n t r o l sulphur and n i t r o g e n oxide emissions and to reduce f u g i t i v e dust, the f e d e r a l Department of F i s h e r i e s and Oceans (DFO) a l s o had concerns r e g a r d i n g the e x t r a c t i o n of c o a l where i t c o u l d a f f e c t salmon f i s h e r i e s . The f e d e r a l government, i n seeking p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n s to reduce f o r e i g n energy dependency, took other a c t i o n s which c o u l d a f f e c t c o a l development. An i n d u s t r i a l - b e n e f i t s p o l i c y was adopted to encourage the use of Canadian p a r t s and s e r v i c e s i n major p r o j e c t s , and f o r e i g n investment i n Canadian development was to be reviewed by the F o r e i g n Investment Review Agency (FIRA) to ensure that s i g n i f i c a n t b e n e f i t s from these p r o j e c t s accrued to Canada. From the i n d u s t r y ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , these p o l i c i e s added to the uncer-t a i n t y about government i n t e n t i o n s r e g a r d i n g c o a l develop-ment. A s t a b i l i z i n g approach came from the Department of Regional Economic Expansion (DREE) l a t e r c a l l e d the Depart-ment of Regional Economic E x p a n s i o n — I n d u s t r y , Trade and 49 Commerce (DREE-ITC), with p o l i c i e s d i r e c t e d toward reducing r e g i o n a l economic d i s p a r i t y , i n c l u d i n g promotion of r e g i o n -a l l y balanced p o p u l a t i o n growth. T h i s department was a l s o committed to the philosophy of improving i n d u s t r i a l and community i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , as a means of a c h i e v i n g t h e i r aims (Springate, 197 3) . S e v e r a l DREE programs encouraged and advanced e c o n o m i c a l l y marginal p r o j e c t s u s i n g government compensation to a t t r a c t investment, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r n a -t i o n a l , i n Canada. DREE programs were designed with the e a s t e r n Canadian manufacturing i n d u s t r i e s as the main t a r g e t , but they d i d support the development of primary i n d u s t r y i n other r e g i o n s . Coal was seen by DREE as an important source o f long-term employment and growth, and the f e d e r a l government wanted t o continue to "create the kind of c l i m a t e i n which the p r o f i t a b l e , o r d e r l y and vig o r o u s development of the c o a l resource c o u l d occur" (Lessard, 1977, p. 11). T h i s view became l i n k e d with a p o l i c y which operated under the p r i n c i p l e t h a t , from a competitive p o i n t of view, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n should be provided to o f f s e t the c o s t disadvantages a s s o c i a t e d with mining i n a l e s s a t t r a c t i v e l o c a t i o n . T h i s a c t i o n r e s u l t e d i n DREE, i n a s s o c i a t i o n with i t s B.C. p r o v i n c i a l c o u n t e r p a r t , M i n i s t r y of Indus t r y and Small Business Development (MISBD), p r o v i d i n g the funds f o r the no r t h e a s t c o a l s t u d i e s . A j o i n t p lanning e f f o r t by the two agencies r e s u l t e d i n a "$13 m i l l i o n , 5-year study program . . . one of the most ambitious ever 50 undertaken i n Canada" (Canada, 1982, p. 1). To f a c i l i t a t e and c o o r d i n a t e t h i s p r o c e s s , the C a n a d a - B r i t i s h Columbia S u b s i d i a r y Agreement on Northeast Coal and Related Develop-ment was s t r u c k , although the approach ran counter to e a r l i e r statements by DREE t h a t primary and s e r v i c e a c t i v i -t i e s were i n c a p a b l e of expansion of s u f f i c i e n t magnitude to s o l v e r e g i o n a l unemployment or under-employment problems (Springate, 1973). In g e n e r a l , the v a r i e d f e d e r a l departmental p o l i c i e s which i n f l u e n c e the c o a l i n d u s t r y are s u p p o r t i v e of develop-ment although, i n p r a c t i c e , the f e d e r a l government has o n l y l i m i t e d d i r e c t j u r i s d i c t i o n over the c o a l r e s o u r c e . Given the h i s t o r y of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l c o n f l i c t over e x p l o i t a t i o n of o t h e r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , the abundance of c o a l r e s e r v e s , and the f e d e r a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n with o i l i n i t s energy p o l i -c i e s , f e d e r a l c o a l p o l i c y may be expected to favour c o n t i -nued development of c o a l . For the i n h e r e n t l y incompatible concerns of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t and the energy developer, f e d e r a l government p o l i c i e s have o f f e r e d l i t t l e d i r e c t i o n or s o l u t i o n , and i t was l e f t t o the p r o v i n c i a l government to develop c o a l p o l i c i e s which would p r o v i d e the context i n which programs such as the CDG c o u l d address these d i f f i c u l t i s s u e s . 2.3.2 P r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s In B.C., c o a l i s the most v a l u a b l e s i n g l e m i n e r a l 51 commodity and averages over 20 per cent of t o t a l m i n e r a l p r o d u c t i o n (B.C. MEMPR, 1982). B.C. c o a l p o l i c y s t a t e -ments, r e l e a s e d i n 1977, 1979, and 1980, s t r e s s e d the need f o r c o n s i s t e n c y of the c o a l development o b j e c t i v e with over-a l l p r o v i n c i a l energy, economic, environmental, r e g i o n a l development, and s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s . The approach was t h a t "investment i n v i a b l e c o a l resource developments w i l l be encouraged . . . t o ensure t h a t maximum net b e n e f i t s accrue to the people of B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada" (Crook, 1982a, V I I - 2 ) . The p r i n c i p a l p o l i c y components, as summarized by Crook (1982b) and Gibbons (1980), are l i s t e d i n Appendix F. Statements of c o a l p o l i c y found i n p u b l i c a t i o n s of the M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources (MEMPR) (B.C. MEMPR, 1980) and MISBD (B.C. MISBD, 1981a, p. 9) i d e n t i f i e d c o a l p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s f o r the pr o v i n c e as maxi-m i z i n g the economic and s o c i a l b e n e f i t s to B.C. and Canada from c o a l development, promoting energy s e c u r i t y f o r B.C., and p r o v i d i n g a h e a l t h y investment c l i m a t e which i s a t t r a c -t i v e to c o a l development. 2.4 I n t e r - M i n i s t e r i a l Goals and C o n f l i c t  With a c l e a r government p o l i c y f a v o u r i n g c o a l d e v e l -opment, c o n f l i c t arose w i t h the goals o f v a r i o u s agencies. G i l b e r t (1976, p. 7) noted t h a t "the wide v a r i e t y o f goals adopted by government agencies may prove c o n t r a d i c t o r y and w i l l c e r t a i n l y make an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r e f f o r t s h i g h l y 52 complex." A t a b u l a t e d a n a l y s i s appears i n Appendix G t o i l l u s t r a t e the i n t e r a c t i o n of v a r i o u s agency goals with the g o a l s which favour c o a l development. These management areas were s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s because the agencies r e s p o n s i b l e f o r those areas had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the govern-ment review of new c o a l development proposals as a p a r t of the g u i d e l i n e s process; i t was assumed t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s operated w i t h i n the mandate or goals of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e agencies. The comparison shown i n Appendix G was designed to i l l u s t r a t e goals of management areas t h a t are l i k e l y e i t h e r to complement or to c o n f l i c t with goals of c o a l d e v e l o p e r s . The c o n f l i c t i n g or complementary nature of the goals was i n d i c a t e d by assessment of the probable impact t h a t would be caused by c o a l e x t r a c t i o n on the resource management area. The d e c i s i o n s i n t h i s a n a l y s i s were based o n l y upon c o n s i -d e r a t i o n of the agencies' s t a t e d g o a l s . The judgements do not c o n s i d e r measures such as r e c l a m a t i o n , environmental design, s i t e development, j o i n t management p r a c t i c e s , or compensation that may m i t i g a t e the impacts. The data provided i n Appendix G i n d i c a t e t h a t , i n some cases, the goals are independent of each other and the c o n f l i c t i s fundamental and d i r e c t . P r e s e r v i n g a i r and water q u a l i t y , a g r i c u l t u r a l land, f o r e s t s f o r timber p r o -d u c t i o n , w i l d l i f e and f i s h e r i e s , r e c r e a t i o n , a e s t h e t i c s , and h e r i t a g e resources are examples of resource management 53 areas with goals t h a t c o n f l i c t with c o a l e x t r a c t i o n . In most cases, i n d i v i d u a l s r e p r e s e n t i n g these goals have t h e i r r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s d e f i n e d by b i o p h y s i c a l m i n i s t r i e s such as environment, f o r e s t r y , or a g r i c u l t u r e . Other r e s o u r c e - a r e a goals c o n f l i c t only at the time of e x t r a c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . For example, goals f o r waste management and f o r environmental p l a n n i n g would not be necessary i f resource e x t r a c t i o n and discharge of r e s i d u a l s d i d not occur. I n d i -v i d u a l s r e p r e s e n t i n g the agencies with these goals come from the M i n i s t r y of Environment (MOE). In other s i t u a t i o n s , the c o n f l i c t may be l e s s d i r e c t or c l e a r ; f o r example, goals f o r managing p u b l i c h e a l t h , settlements, education, and Indian a f f a i r s may c o n f l i c t with the need f o r resource communities to house coal-mine workers; however, goals f a v o u r i n g c o a l e x t r a c t i o n and the s o c i a l - a g e n c y goals may be considered complementary, due to p o s s i b l e p o s i t i v e r e g i o n a l economic b e n e f i t s . Some agency goals focus on p l a n n i n g f o r the use r a t h e r than the p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e i r resource. The resource areas of land and c o r r i d o r s are examples. In these cases, the agency goals may complement c o a l e x t r a c t i o n . However, i f land and c o r r i d o r management goals were changed to favour p r e s e r v a t i o n , c o n f l i c t s might a r i s e . Coal d e v e l -opment may a l s o d i r e c t l y complement the goals of an agency, as i n t h a t of economic and i n d u s t r i a l development, where the MISBD has goals i n common with c o a l developers. Sometimes, 54 goals f o r a resource area may not be s t a t e d , are complex or un c l e a r , or they are provided simply to r e g u l a t e the use of the r e s o u r c e . For e l e c t r i c i t y , petroleum, n a t u r a l gas, metal m i n e r a l s , and sand and g r a v e l r e s o u r c e s , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t an assumed g o a l f a v o u r i n g t h e i r development would complement goals f a v o u r i n g c o a l e x t r a c t i o n , u n l e s s an over-l a p of resource use th r e a t e n s , or there i s competition f o r pr o d u c t i o n of s e r v i c e needs. I n d i v i d u a l s from the MEMPR re p r e s e n t t h i s assumed goal f a v o u r i n g development. S e v e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s may be drawn from the above summary. The statement of goals v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g to the value or i n t e r e s t an agency p l a c e s on the need f o r resource use and development, versus p r e s e r v a t i o n . Some m i n i s t r i e s such as the MOE favour p r e s e r v a t i o n , but other agencies, p a r t i c u l a r l y s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , are ambivalent r e g a r d i n g c o a l development. Some agencies s t r o n g l y support c o a l develop-ment, as do r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n the MISBD or the MEMPR. Because c o a l i s a very important p a r t of B.C.'s economy, the tendency has been to modify c o n f l i c t i n g goals i n favour of development. The p r o v i n c i a l response has been to r e l e g a t e the concerns c r e a t e d by c o n f l i c t i n g goals to the p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l process. The phil o s o p h y has become one of p l a n -n i n g f o r optimal use through p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l s which i n c l u d e " a p p r o p r i a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r f i s h , w i l d l i f e , s o i l , a q u a t i c s , water and a i r q u a l i t y " (B.C. MISBD, 1981a, p. 18), l e a v i n g p r o v i n c i a l economic o b j e c t i v e s paramount. 55 Using t h i s approach, the p r o v i n c i a l economic s t r a t e g y domi-nates, and i t p l a c e s the achievement of s e v e r a l agencies' g o a l s c o n t i n g e n t upon the a p p r a i s a l process f o r r e a l i z a t i o n , whereby the p o t e n t i a l e x i s t s f o r l a r g e - s c a l e cumulative d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among those who are working toward t h e i r agency goals and y e t are not s a t i s f i e d with the g u i d e l i n e p r o c e s s . T h i s a n a l y s i s p o i n t s to the c o m p l e x i t i e s of p u b l i c p o l i c y w i t h i n the Canadian c o a l m i l i e u . I t serves as a source f o r understanding the nature of the problems f a c i n g government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s working w i t h i n agency c o n s t r a i n t s , and f o r i l l u s t r a t i n g the source and nature of i n t e r - a g e n c y c o n f l i c t s t h a t are so o f t e n observed by i n d u s t r y (Crouse, 1978). 2.5 O b j e c t i v e s of the Coal Development G u i d e l i n e s Although the Guidelines for Coal Development (B.C. ELUC, 1976) have no c l e a r l y s p e c i f i e d program g o a l s , o b j e c -t i v e s may be i n f e r r e d from three sources: (1) the t e x t of the CDG document, which c o n t a i n s statements t h a t may be i n t e r p r e t e d as o b j e c t i v e s ; (2) i n d i v i d u a l s i n the program who have assumed program o b j e c t i v e s ; and (3) a d m i n i s t r a t i o n which has i d e n t i f i e d what i t b e l i e v e s to be the program o b j e c t i v e s . A s y n t h e s i s of these p r o v i d e s the statement of o b j e c t i v e s which i s used i n the remainder of t h i s e v a l u a t i o n : . . . [to] e s t a b l i s h a procedure f o r the developer, 56 Government, and the p u b l i c t o assess and manage a l l major impacts . . . p r o v i d i n g p r o c e d u r a l d i r e c t i o n f o r impact assessment and management, . . . s p e c i f y the types of i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d . . . f o r the review of permit and l i c e n c e a p p l i c a t i o n s . . . . (B.C. ELUC, 1976, p. 3) The g u i d e l i n e s are designed "to minimize negative environmental and s o c i a l impacts" (Crouse, 1978, p. 6), Because "environmental impact assessments and permit a p p l i -c a t i o n s are r e q u i r e d f o r government approvals," the CDG are "designed to ensure t h a t p r o j e c t s are t e c h n i c a l l y a cceptable and can be supported by government and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c " and "to f o r m a l i z e a mining environmental review p r o c e s s " (Hawes and Gadsby, 1982, pp. 1-3). Dick and Ringstad (1981) i d e n t i f i e d the o b j e c t i v e of the CDG as being a major environ-mental management t o o l f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g government agencies and i n d u s t r y , and f o r implementing r e g i o n a l environmental management o b j e c t i v e s . O'Riordan (1979, p. 207) saw . . . the g u i d e l i n e s as a method of e n s u r i n g o r d e r l y p l a n n i n g so t h a t environmental resources c o u l d be pro-t e c t e d a t a reasonable c o s t and p u b l i c s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d to support the mines c o u l d be p r o v i d e d when needed. The Coal Task Force (B.C. ELUCS, 1976, p. 120) s a i d the CDG was "a p l a n n i n g t o o l t h a t shapes the whole develop-ment program from i t s i n c e p t i o n t o be r e s p o n s i v e to the economic, s o c i a l and environmental goals o f the r e g i o n development." McDonald (1982), chairman of the C o a l Guide-l i n e s S t e e r i n g Committee (CGSC), concluded t h a t the o b j e c -t i v e of the CDG was to a s s i s t c o a l companies i n the p r o v i n c e 57 i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of environmental impact assessments f o r t h e i r developments, while Crook (1981, P e r s o n a l communica-t i o n ) , who was s e c r e t a r y of the CGSC, i d e n t i f i e d the most important o b j e c t i v e s of the c o a l g u i d e l i n e s review process as being the f o l l o w i n g : (i) t o provide the b a s i s f o r a P r o v i n c i a l Government d e c i s i o n on the o v e r a l l p u b l i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y of a c o a l mining p r o j e c t through an a p p r o p r i a t e l y designed assessment of the scope and.magnitude of p o t e n t i a l environmental, s o c i a l and economic impacts; ( i i ) t o address problems and concerns where these cannot be d i r e c t l y r e g u l a t e d by l i c e n c e s , permits and approvals pursuant to l e g i s l a t i o n ; ( i i i ) to provide mining companies with a s i n g l e , o v e r a l l p o i n t of c o n t a c t with the P r o v i n c i a l Government f o r c o a l mine development i n B r i t i s h Columbia ( i . e . , the Coal G u i d e l i n e s S t e e r i n g Committee); (iv) through e f f e c t i v e c o o r d i n a t i o n by the Coal Guide-l i n e s S t e e r i n g Committee, to ensure t h a t a l l i n t e r -e s t ed government m i n i s t r i e s and agencies are aware of, and i n v o l v e d i n , d e c i s i o n s on mining p r o p o s a l s ; and (v) to ensure t h a t mining companies are aware of those m i n i s t r i e s and agencies of government with which they should be d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r mining p r o p o s a l s dur i n g the p l a n n i n g stages. The essence of these v a r i e d statements of o b j e c t i v e s may be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o three groups: (1) p r o c e d u r a l , where the task i s to coordinate the process; (2) a p p r a i s a l , where the tasks i n c l u d e both assessment and review, and are to be c a r r i e d out i n advance of the p r o j e c t ; and (3) management, where the tasks i n v o l v e ongoing a c t i v i t i e s which occur a f t e r the p r o j e c t has been implemented. The o b j e c t i v e s f o r the 58 g u i d e l i n e s program may thus be summarized as (1) to a s s i s t i n the p l a n n i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n necessary f o r government and i n d u s t r y t o a p p r a i s e p r o j e c t s by impact i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and m i t i g a t i o n through p r o j e c t design; (2) to c o o r d i n a t e a government i n t e r m i n i s t e r i a l review of the assessment through a resource c o n s u l t a t i v e p r o c e s s ; and (3) t o guide the developer through requirements f o r v a r i o u s permits and l i c e n c e s , by p r o v i d i n g a s s i s t a n c e i n j o i n t industry-government a c t i v i t i e s to manage the impacts of c o a l e x t r a c t i o n . Chapter 3 HISTORY OF COAL DEVELOPMENT The G u i d e l i n e s Program History cannot be erased although we can soothe ourselves by speculating about it, - M. Atwood (1982) 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n To examine the circumstances which motivated the implementation of the c o a l g u i d e l i n e s with r e f e r e n c e t o the economic, p o l i t i c a l , and s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s a t the time of the d e c i s i o n t o b r i n g i n g u i d e l i n e s , the nature of planni n g , i n c l u d i n g p r e p a r a t i o n f o r c r i s i s , must be noted (Day e t a l . , 1977). In s p i r i t and i n t e n t , the a r c h i t e c t s of the g u i d e l i n e s process attempted to i n t e g r a t e the p r e d i c t i v e , a n a l y t i c a l i n s i g h t s of the emerging f i e l d s of impact a s s e s s -ment with the a c t i o n o r i e n t a t i o n of corpora t e development p l a n n i n g . The g u i d e l i n e s were designed as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e program t o c o l l e c t and c o o r d i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n on new c o a l development, e v e n t u a l l y to be f e d i n t o a l a r g e r government decision-making process (Crook and Stackelrodt-Crook, 1976), T h i s government i n i t i a t i v e came i n response t o growing p u b l i c and p o l i t i c a l concern t h a t u n r e s t r a i n e d resource 60 development had d e t r i m e n t a l environmental and s o c i a l conse-quences. The i n t r o d u c t i o n of the program was a p r o v i n c i a l response r e f l e c t i n g the c o l l e c t i v e consciousness of the times. The environmental movements between 1969 and 1976, t o g e t h e r with the r i s e of the p l a n n i n g process, combined with the t r a d i t i o n a l concerns of c o a l - m i n i n g h e a l t h , s a f e t y , and labour u n r e s t , to produce more a c t i v e B.C. government involvement. The h i s t o r y of the CDG i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s chapter with r e s p e c t to the development of four major regions w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e , v i s - a - v i s the e v o l u t i o n of p u b l i c p l a n n i n g , r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the n a t i o n a l f e d e r a t i o n , and the l a r g e r world economy. The CDG h i s t o r i c a l context i s a l s o d e s c r i b e d i n f o u r p a r t s : (1) the e a r l y p e r i o d (1871-1969) which encompassed 100 years of what appeared then t o be f l u c t u a -t i n g c o a l p r o d u c t i o n — b u t which now may r e p r e s e n t a time of r e l a t i v e homeostatis f o r the c o a l i n d u s t r y i n the long term (see F i g u r e 3) ,- (2) a second phase (1969-1976) which saw an e s c a l a t i o n or expansion i n which e x p o n e n t i a l growth i n c o a l p r o d u c t i o n marked a s h i f t i n the s t r u c t u r e of the e n t i r e c o a l - p r o d u c i n g system, u n t i l a t h r e s h o l d was reached, accompanied by p e r c e i v e d environmental and i n s t i t u t i o n a l c r i s e s and c o r r e c t i v e government a c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g develop-ment of the g u i d e l i n e s program; (3) a phase of implementa-t i o n (1976-1981) which f o l l o w e d when i n s t i t u t i o n s developed and many new c o a l p r o j e c t s were planned, each of which 61 I 1 1 i Production i 4— V Value | 1 f — i f / i . i— / i t 1 / PROJECTED —i PRODUCTION i i » i 1 0 0 0 0 i t. f 9 1 0 0 \\U \ \ — i I i f — i ._ -— — — J 1/ if — ( i i/ t 1 1 1 > 1 0 o 0 1 j \ / \| $ 1 0 ! 7 ' f i —V < i V \ / — t — ' 1 / 1 X \ t i / i \ , \ V V 1 V _ / / i / — I — • / i Key i Production (000) tonnes - A. — T 1 1 i value $(000,000) _ i 1 1 » 1 1 i o o o o o o o o o o o o c r i O ' H f s P I T m v o r ~ o o o > o o o o > c ^ ^ O N O > a\ o\ a\ u\ o i—t r H i—t H i - l i - H i H i - l i - l i - l i H <N Source: B.C. MEMPR, 1979, 1982; Worobec, 1982 F i g u r e 3 Co a l P r o d u c t i o n and Value i n B.C., 1890-2000 62 r e q u i r e d e x t e n s i v e s t u d i e s . The g u i d e l i n e s program evolved a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y as i t was a p p l i e d to these many new c o a l p r o p o s a l s . P u b l i c s e c t o r p l a n n i n g processes a l s o developed i n p a r t to study c o a l - r e l a t e d p r o j e c t s i n n o r t h e a s t e r n B.C.: and (4) a f o u r t h phase (post-1981), perhaps incomplete, which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , examination, and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . 3.2 The P r e - E s c a l a t i o n P e r i o d : 1871-1969 O r i g i n a l l y used f o r domestic he a t i n g , c o a l became economically important by p r o v i d i n g energy f o r the Indus-t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . There are world-wide c h a r a c t e r i s t i c growth p a t t e r n s , and i n c r e a s e s i n p r o d u c t i o n have been fo l l o w e d by d e c l i n e s , as changing technology, a l t e r n a t i v e energy sources, or s h i f t i n g market c o n d i t i o n s d i c t a t e d . The f i r s t c o a l mines i n B.C. were opened on Vancouver I s l a n d i n the mid-1840s through the t r a d i n g a c t i v i t i e s of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC). The r i g h t to trade i n c o a l was granted by the B r i t i s h Parliament i n response to two c l a i m s ; f i r s t , t h a t there was p o t e n t i a l p r o f i t f o r B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t s and c o a l e x t r a c t i o n would serve the growing steamship a c t i v i t y and, second, that there was a s t r a t e g i c need f o r defence i n l i g h t of t h r e a t s from the U.S.A., with p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a -b i l i t y i n Oregon, and from Russia; thus, c o a l was needed to f u e l the P a c i f i c f l e e t (see footnote next page).* By 1871, when B.C. j o i n e d Canadian Co n f e d e r a t i o n , the i n f l u e n c e 63 of HBC was f a d i n g , and a new s t r u c t u r e emerged—that of powerful, l o c a l f a m i l y ownership of i n d i v i d u a l mines. T h i s experience of c o a l expansion i n B.C., i n many r e s p e c t s , f o l l o w s those of the United Kingdom and of the e a s t e r n U.S.A. In a l l cases, the i n c r e a s e i n c o a l e x t r a c -t i o n was l i n k e d to the b u i l d i n g of r a i l w a y s , the c o n s t r u c -t i o n of which was h e a v i l y f i n a n c e d by government grants (Scott, 1981) and accompanied by widespread g r a n t i n g of land t i t l e s . In B.C., the Esquimalt Nanaimo l i n e and the southern Crowsnest CPR l i n e o f f e r two s p e c i f i c examples. The r a i l w a y s f a c i l i t a t e d new mine openings and c o n t r i b u t e d to l o c a l and r e g i o n a l booms. A worldwide d e c l i n e i n c o a l p r o d u c t i o n from 1910 to 1915 r e s u l t e d from cutbacks i n export t r a d e , the domestic use of o i l i n s t e a d of c o a l , problems of mine s a f e t y , the c l o s u r e of r e g i o n a l smelters, and economic changes due to worldwide, pre-war de p r e s s i o n (B.C. BLUCS, 1976; S c o t t , 1981; T a y l o r , 1978). The onset of World War I brought a second i n c r e a s e i n p r o d u c t i o n and some s t a b i l i t y t o the i n d u s t r y u n t i l a d e c l i n e i n 1929, f o r a decade, c o i n c i d e n t again with world economic d e p r e s s i o n . *An account of B r i t i s h naval i n t e r e s t i n c o a l mining, a c t i o n s of the Dunsmuir f a m i l y i n b u i l d i n g t h e i r "empire, 1 1 and the sources of labour c o n f l i c t and s t r u g g l e may be found i n J . S c o t t , "Coal Mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia Then and Now: 1835 to Present." Unpublished manuscript, c/o C, Weaver, SCARP, U.B.C., 1981. A more thorough account of t h i s p e r i o d appears i n C. G. T a y l o r , Mining: The History of Mining in B r i t i s h Columbia ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Hancock House, 1978). 64 World War I I i n c r e a s e s i n p r o d u c t i o n h e l d from 194 3 to 1950, but the i n d u s t r y d e c l i n e d s h a r p l y once more with the development of petroleum and n a t u r a l gas r e s e r v e s . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n the c l o s u r e of a l l Vancouver I s l a n d mines with M i c h e l C o l l i e r i e s the o n l y l a r g e mine remaining i n c o n t i -nuous p r o d u c t i o n . A p a r a l l e l w i t h the U.K. and U.S.A., more than a s u p e r f i c i a l s h a r i n g of world events, may be drawn, as there were a number of s i m i l a r and a s s o c i a t e d concerns. Problems of a r e g i o n a l nature are a common f e a t u r e of the n o r t h -e a s t e r n U.K., West V i r g i n i a , and to a l e s s e r extent Vancou-ver I s l a n d , the B.C. Crowsnest, and the Coal Branch of A l b e r t a . Each of these r e g i o n s experienced p e r i o d s of expansion f o l l o w e d by p e r i o d s of d e c l i n e . In the U.S.A. pr o d u c t i o n i n c r e a s e d from 20 to 500 m i l l i o n tons by 1910, and d e c l i n e d i n response to l o c a l r e d u c t i o n i n demand f o r s t e e l (B.C. ELUCS, 1976, p. 17); the p e r i o d 1900 to 1914 was a boom f o r n o r t h e a s t e r n U.K., but was followed by reduced p r o d u c t i o n due to a l a c k of t e c h n o l o g i c a l upgrading (Carney, Lewis, and Hudson, 1977), U n c e r t a i n t i e s as to o i l c o m p e t i t i o n and s h i f t i n g s a l e s p a t t e r n s prevented new investments i n the Vancouver I s l a n d mines and a r e c e s s i o n here a l s o r e s u l t e d (Taylor, 1978). Features of the d e c l i n e s are t y p i c a l of boom-and-r e c e s s i o n c y c l e s . Scrapping of p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t y , l o c a l environmental s c a r r i n g , and changes i n p o p u l a t i o n 65 d i s t r i b u t i o n were some r e g i o n a l problems. In the s h o r t term, s u r p l u s r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n o c c u r r e d . In the longer term, people migrated from these coal-mining communities and moved i n t o other areas of the economy, l e a v i n g ghost towns. In England, the d e c l i n e of the n o r t h e a s t e r n r e g i o n i n 1914 was accompanied by s o c i a l u nrest and the r i s e of manufacturing i n d u s t r i e s i n the southeast. By c o n t r a s t , i n s o u t h e a s t e r n West V i r g i n i a the s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n tended to stay i n the r e g i o n and "bemoan i t s f a t e " (Garreau, 1981) . In B.C. and A l b e r t a , the m i g r a t i n g p o p u l a t i o n was absorbed i n t o expanding petroleum and f o r e s t r y i n d u s t r i e s , l e a v i n g the mining r e g i o n s f o r i n c r e a s i n g urban o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Demand f o r d i f f e r e n t kinds of c o a l has a l s o v a r i e d , c a u s i n g most producing r e g i o n s to face o v e r p r o d u c t i o n c r i s e s from time to time. Attempted s o l u t i o n s to the prob-lem have been very s i m i l a r a c r o s s the r e g i o n s . Worker p r o d u c t i v i t y was c r i t i c i z e d , f o l l o w e d by i n c r e a s e s i n work-i n g hours, wage cu t s , and mass l a y o f f s . Mines were some-times c l o s e d prematurely due to damage or p u r p o s e f u l f l o o d -i n g , which made p o t e n t i a l r e s e r v e s i n a c c e s s i b l e . Coal a s s o c i a t i o n s l o b b i e d f o r p r o t e c t i o n i s m , demanding t a r i f f s on imports and s u b s i d i e s to producers. There was an i n c r e a s e i n amalgamations, and quotas, p r i c e f i x i n g , and output r e s t r i c t i o n s were commonly p r a c t i c e d (Carney e t a l , , 1977). B i t t e r labour c o n f l i c t s were o f t e n the r e s u l t , both i n England and the U.S.A. B.C. i n h e r i t e d a working c l a s s 66 f a m i l i a r with labour o r g a n i z a t i o n when experienced miners from England were r e c r u i t e d to s o l v e the l o c a l manpower shortage problem. There was of n e c e s s i t y and, S c o t t (1981) has suggested, by design, an attendent i n c r e a s e i n govern-ment involvement. Labour c o n f l i c t was c e r t a i n l y a p a r t of B.C. c o a l development's h i s t o r y : I t was a d i f f i c u l t time f o r labour because, f o r the most p a r t , f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l governments favoured employers r a t h e r than organized labour i n c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s . (Wejr and Smith, 1978) Then, i n 1912, the l o n g e s t s t r i k e i n the h i s t o r y of B.C. o c c u r r e d i n the c o a l mines of Vancouver I s l a n d , * A set of u n d e r l y i n g s o c i a l problems accompanied c o a l e x t r a c t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , i n s u f f i c i e n t p r o f i t s were r e i n v e s t e d i n new equipment, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , and t e r m i n a l f a c i l i t i e s . Companies spent l i t t l e money improving h e a l t h p r o v i s i o n s f o r the s e m i - s k i l l e d , s e m i - l i t e r a t e workforce. This was manifest i n the poor p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of c o a l -f i e l d housing and a s s o c i a t e d community s e r v i c e s such as s a n i t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . Depressed communities were a l s o a t y p i c a l f e a t u r e of the U.K. and U.S.A. c o a l areas, while the Coleman-Crowsnest r e g i o n of southeastern B.C. demonstrated *The s t r i k e , which began wi t h a l o c k o u t by the mine owners, l a s t e d f o r two years. In 28 years, 373 men were k i l l e d i n Vancouver I s l a n d mines due to gas e x p l o s i o n s . A f t e r the lockout, workers were f o r c e d out of t h e i r homes. S t r i k e b r e a k e r s were imported from England. The companies h i r e d t h e i r own p o l i c e , and p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c e were i n v o l v e d i n l o c a l r i o t s and s h o o t i n g s . Mass a r r e s t s and d e t e n t i o n s f o l l o w e d . The s t r i k e e f f e c t i v e l y destroyed the union (Wejr and Smith, 1978). 67 these same problems up to the 1950s. Loss of p o t e n t i a l r e s e r v e s , r e g i o n a l v o l a t i l i t y , and s o c i a l u nrest combined t o s e t the scene f o r deepening government concern, yet government involvement was seen as the major problem w i t h i n the c o a l i n d u s t r y . A n t i - s o c i a l i s t r e a c t i o n and an a t t i t u d e of i n t e n s e anti-government s e n t i -ment c h a r a c t e r i z e d the p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s of the mining i n d u s t r y , y e t coal-mine labour l e a d e r s were a c t i v e i n labour o r i e n t e d Canadian p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s such as the Canadian Cooperative F e d e r a t i o n (CCF) ( l a t e r the New Democratic P a r t y [NDP]) and which, together, produced a c l a s s i c a l , p o l i t i c a l p o l a r i z a t i o n . In the 1920s and 1930s there was an i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r housing and h e a l t h reform, and f o r the development of r e g i o n a l p o l i c i e s f o r c o a l - f i e l d a reas. In England i n the 1930s, there was a move toward the n a t i o n a l i -z a t i o n of s t r a t e g i c c o a l i n d u s t r i e s , and i n c r e a s i n g l y the c o o r d i n a t i n g power of government was used. In the U.S.A., a n t i - p o v e r t y measures were undertaken, but p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s c o u l d not undertake the massive investment needed to recon-s t r u c t a f a l t e r i n g i n d u s t r y . In both c o u n t r i e s government expenditures focussed on p r o v i d i n g f i x e d c a p i t a l f o r s e t t l e -ments . Loans were taken to r e c o n s t r u c t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems and p r o v i d e h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , commer-c i a l areas were r e c o n s t r u c t e d , and experiments were conduc-ted i n new town c o n s t r u c t i o n (Carney e t a l . / 1977). In the U.S.A. and U.K., government expenditure was expected to 68 s o l v e the problem of r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s , and secondary manufacturing i n d u s t r i e s were promoted as p a r t of an i n t e -g r a t e d s o l u t i o n to uneven r e g i o n a l development. L a t e r , a f t e r 1937, r e c o v e r y i n B r i t i s h , American, and Canadian c o a l r e g i o n s o c c u r r e d w i t h the s t i m u l u s of World War I I demands f o r arms p r o d u c t i o n , and w i t h government a i d , c o a l produc-t i o n was again brought back to c a p a c i t y . In the l a t e 1940s, with the t r e n d to s u b s t i t u t i o n of c o a l by o i l and n a t u r a l gas, the i n d u s t r y appeared t o be f a c i n g v i r t u a l e x t i n c t i o n on a g l o b a l s c a l e . Numerous demands f o r government funding meant t h a t , d e s p i t e i t s l a r g e f i n a n c i a l powers, the govern-ment c o u l d not prevent i n d u s t r y c o l l a p s e , with an attendent i n c r e a s e i n i n t e r - r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s . The decade p r i o r to the resurgence of the c o a l i n d u s t r y i n B.C. i n 1969 witnessed the e v o l u t i o n of s e v e r a l components of the c o a l - p r o d u c i n g system, and the s t r u c t u r e of the c o a l i n d u s t r y i t s e l f changed. From a l a r g e number of s m a l l , l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e o p e r a t i o n s owned by powerful l o c a l f a m i l y f i r m s ( f o r example, the Dunsmuirs of Vancouver Island) emerged l a r g e , c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e , m u l t i n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . O i l companies wi t h backgrounds i n o t h e r energy and m i n e r a l commodities became i n c r e a s i n g l y i n v o l v e d i n Canadian c o a l through a c q u i s i t i o n of l a r g e numbers of c o a l l e a s e s (Hay e t a l . , 1982). C o n c u r r e n t l y , trade became con c e n t r a t e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y with Japan and, i n 1968, the f i r s t long-term c o n t r a c t was signed between Japanese i n t e r e s t s and Coleman C o l l i e r i e s , f o l l o w e d i n 1969 by K a i s e r Resources L t d . The change i n western Canada from 100 mines i n 1930, producing 7.9 m i l l i o n tonnes a year and employing 14,000 workers, to 89 mines i n 1960, producing 6.5 m i l l i o n tonnes a year and employing o n l y 2,800 workers, i l l u s t r a t e s the impact of t h i s e v o l u t i o n ( S h a f f e r and A s s o c i a t e s , 1980), The decrease i n the work f o r c e was due i n p a r t to changes i n mining methods. E a r l y c o a l mining used l a b o u r -i n t e n s i v e underground methods, w h i l e the emerging systems used s u r f a c e processes ( s t r i p or o p e n - p i t ) , which are sub-s t a n t i a l l y more c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e . The change of method gave r i s e t o a d i f f e r e n t s e t of concerns. Worker s a f e t y was l e s s of an i s s u e , but massive land d i s t u r b a n c e became more obvious. Although land a l l o c a t i o n was i n c r e a s i n g l y per-c e i v e d t o be a process i n need of r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l , i t was not u n t i l the mid-1960s i n B.C. t h a t there was a c o a l e s c i n g of p l a n n i n g processes r e l a t e d to l a n d use. Regional D i s t r i c t s were i n t r o d u c e d i n 1965 to manage unorganized areas i n the p r o v i n c e , but many government agencies exer-c i s e d land-use j u r i s d i c t i o n s which were e n t i r e l y indepen-dent of r e g i o n a l , d i s t r i c t c o n t r o l . * In B.C., the decade of the 1960s was a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d by growing c o n f l i c t among resource agencies with r e s p e c t to o v e r l a p p i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s , *For a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the h i s t o r i c a l develop-ment of land-use p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s to 1975 i n B.C., see C. K. S t a c k e l r o d t - C r o o k (1975), 70 and there was c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t to preserve v e s t e d i n t e r -e s t s . I t a l s o became i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t to r e s o l v e problems at the working l e v e l , and these were o f t e n r e f e r r e d to the deputy m i n i s t e r i a l l e v e l f o r r e s o l u t i o n , where s o l u -t i o n s were j u s t as d i f f i c u l t t o achieve due to a poor i n f o r -mation base and no problem-solving forum (Crook e t a l . , 1976). Then, i n 1968, I n t e r - S e c t i o n groups of s e n i o r , r e g i o n a l resource a d m i n i s t r a t o r s began meeting on a r e g u l a r b a s i s to d i s c u s s wholly r e g i o n a l problems. P u b l i c development became a c t i v e at t h i s time, both w i t h i n government departments, such as highways, and through s p e c i a l crown agencies. The B.C. Harbours Board, a crown agency, was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1967 to promote and f a c i l i t a t e harbour development, which they d i d with K a i s e r Resources to p l a n the b u i l d i n g of Robert's Bank, a c o a l "superport." D i f f i c u l t i e s i n the 1960s i n c l u d e d a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e c r e -t i v e n e s s of p u b l i c developers when p l a n n i n g new developments. B a s i c a l l y , they assumed t h a t i f an i n c r e a s e i n demand was p r o j e c t e d , then a c t i o n must be taken to meet t h a t demand, without c o n s i d e r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s or addressing impacts. The market f o r c o a l had changed as w e l l . The new P a c i f i c Rim buyers r e q u i r e d low ash, blended and washed, high q u a l i t y m e t a l l u r g i c a l c o a l , while the demand f o r thermal c o a l f e l l . I t was assumed, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the most a p p r o p r i a t e c o a l s f o r f u t u r e development i n B.C. were not the thermal d e p o s i t s of Vancouver I s l a n d or of the i n t e r i o r , 71 but the m e t a l l u r g i c a l d e p o s i t s of the south and n o r t h e a s t e r n p a r t s of the p r o v i n c e . F u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n focussed on these r e g i o n s because they were known t o c o n t a i n marketably d e s i r a b l e c o a l . Then, i n 1966, a massive c o a l e x p l o r a t i o n program was conducted i n the southeast Kootenays of B.C. which caused a major change i n the r e g i o n ' s i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . The o l d communities of N a t a l and M i c h e l were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y of Sparwood as p a r t of a redevelopment scheme, and a r a i l l i n e a l r e a d y i n p l a c e was used wi t h e f f i c i e n t " u n i t t r a i n s " as the r e s u l t of c o n t r a c t s between CPR and K a i s e r Resources. The changes i n c o a l - i n d u s t r y s t r u c t u r e , mining methods, s c a l e of a c t i v i t y , geographic focus, i s s u e s of concern, and government i n i t i a t i v e and a c t i o n accumulated. Together they ushered i n a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n the c o a l i n d u s t r y . There was a 30 per cent i n c r e a s e i n the produc-t i o n and value of c o a l i n B.C. i n 196 9, and these have continued to e s c a l a t e e x p o n e n t i a l l y u n t i l 1982. The p e r i o d 1969-1982 had seen over h a l f the t o t a l h i s t o r i c a l c o a l p r o d u c t i o n i n B.C., and y e t a new p a t t e r n of s t a b i l i t y had not emerged. What d i d r e s u l t was a c o a l - p r o d u c i n g system i n f l u x , undergoing c o n t i n u a l change, but of a magnitude p r e v i o u s l y unknown. 3.3 E s c a l a t i n g Regional Impacts: 1969-1976 The 1969-1976 phase saw s i g n i f i c a n t change to four 72 r e g i o n s of the p r o v i n c e . Two regions were d i r e c t l y a f f e c -t e d p h y s i c a l l y — t h e northeast Peace R i v e r and the Crowsnest-southeast Kootenay r e g i o n s . The P a c i f i c northwest r e g i o n was a f f e c t e d i n a more moderate way through i n f r a s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g and some c o a l e x p l o r a t i o n , but the most s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o c c u r r e d i n the lower mainland r e g i o n ( V i c t o r i a ) i n terms of the p o l i t i c a l - i n s t i t u t i o n a l , and not the p h y s i c a l , environment. The l o c a t i o n of the f o u r r e g i o n s i s shown i n F i g u r e 4. The southeastern c o a l block of the Kootenays was the r e g i o n most d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by the r a p i d growth i n c o a l p r o d u c t i o n . The 1969 p r o d u c t i o n i n c r e a s e was the outcome of c o a l s a l e s to the Japanese s t e e l i n d u s t r y by the then K a i s e r S t e e l C o r p o r a t i o n of Oakland through a wholly owned s u b s i d i a r y , K a i s e r Resources L t d . The open-pit Balmer o p e r a t i o n at Sparwood was i l l u s t r a t i v e of the new i n d u s t r y ' s o p e r a t i o n s , and massive e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s were conduc-ted a t seven other p o t e n t i a l new mining s i t e s w i t h i n t h a t r e g i o n . Because of the accompanying changes t h e r e , new problems emerged which c r e a t e d s e r i o u s c o n f l i c t . S i g n i f i -cant n a t u r a l and s o c i a l impacts occ u r r e d as a r e s u l t of the e s c a l a t i n g output and i n c r e a s e d e x p l o r a t i o n . Whereas onl y 75 hectares had been d i s t u r b e d by 1975, over 1800 were a f f e c t e d by the K a i s e r Mine development, which was then the l a r g e s t surface-mine o p e r a t i o n i n western Canada. K a i s e r was a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d i s t u r b i n g n e a r l y 1000 h e c t a r e s F i g u r e 4 Major Coa l - b e a r i n g Areas of B r i t i s h Columbia — i OJ 74 more through e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s (Dick, 1979a). At the same time, Crows Nest I n d u s t r i e s with M i t s u i Co. was e x p l o r i n g the L i n e Creek pro p e r t y , Fording Coal and Byron Creek were e s t a b l i s h i n g new roads f o r t h e i r e x p l o r a t i o n access, and many other programs of core-hole d r i l l i n g and d i g g i n g a d i t s and t e s t p i t s were conducted, as l a r g e q u a n t i -t i e s of c o a l were r e q u i r e d f o r f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s . As a r e s u l t , long-term, l a r g e - s c a l e land d i s t u r b a n c e and the e f f e c t s on water q u a l i t y became i s s u e s i n the southeast Kootenays. In a d d i t i o n t o land d i s t u r b a n c e s , the p o p u l a t i o n of the Crowsnest r e g i o n almost doubled i n f i v e years, from 6500 i n 1966 to n e a r l y 11,000 i n 1971 (Dick, 1979b), and one important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the new p o p u l a t i o n was a s t r o n g l e i s u r e o r i e n t a t i o n , r e f l e c t e d i n p a r t by an exten-s i v e use o f r e c r e a t i o n a l and o f f - r o a d v e h i c l e s . As g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o w i l d l a n d s was f a c i l i t a t e d by new c o a l e x p l o r a t i o n and f o r e s t r y roads, a high demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n was c r e a t e d (Dick, 1979b), The E l k V a l l e y of t h i s r e g i o n has some of the most p r o d u c t i v e w i l d -l i f e areas i n Canada, but i t was suggested (O'Riordan, 1981) t h a t i f heavy c o a l development were to occur i n the r e g i o n , d e s t r u c t i o n of c r i t i c a l f i s h e r i e s and w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t was a p o s s i b i l i t y . Hence, the r e g i o n became the focus of concern f o r government agencies managing r e c r e a -t i o n , f i s h e r i e s , and w i l d l i f e , who were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r 75 c o n s e r v i n g these values i n the face of a r a p i d l y e s c a l a t i n g p o t e n t i a l l o s s . With l o c a l i n t e r e s t groups e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r concern f o r the i n c r e a s i n g l o s s and damage (Warden, 1976), a c l i m a t e of c o n f r o n t a t i o n began developing between i n d u s t r y and c o n s e r v a t i o n i n t e r e s t s , the v e s t i g e s of which remained f o r the next decade (Dick, 1979a). T h i s new p o p u l a t i o n a l s o c r e a t e d demands f o r commu-n i t y s e r v i c e s , housing, and r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , a demand which l o c a l government c o u l d not meet. Some a n a l y s t s (Halvorson, 1980) suggested t h a t i n f r a s t r u c t u r e investment by the p r o v i n c i a l government d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was s u f f i -c i e n t l y minimal t h a t i t c o u l d be ignored. P r o v i n c i a l investment, however, d i d come i n the form of d i r e c t i n v e s t -ment and s u b s i d i e s amounting to $180 m i l l i o n by 1979. The l o c a l c o a l companies a l s o p r o v i d e d some development funds. I t was i n t h i s r e g i o n of the p r o v i n c e t h a t the i s s u e s brought on by the newly expanding c o a l a c t i v i t y were most c l e a r l y f e l t and expressed. The need f o r g u i d e l i n e s f o r s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g , to i n c l u d e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of environmental and s o c i a l impacts, was becoming more apparent. During t h i s same time e x t e n s i v e e x p l o r a t i o n was a l s o under way, i t too with l i t t l e guidance i n terms of e n v i r o n -mental c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i n the n o r t h e a s t e r n r e g i o n of B.C. (the Peace River c o a l b l o c k ) . In 1969, the Q u i n t e t t e p r o p e r t y at Babcock Mountain and Wolverine R i v e r was explored by Denison Mines, and the B e l c o u r t and Saxon areas 76 were expl o r e d d u r i n g the mid-1970s. The Sukunka/Bullmoose p r o p e r t i e s were f i e l d mapped and d r i l l i n g commenced by Brameda i n 196 9, but the impacts of t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n were somewhat d i f f e r e n t from those f e l t i n the southeast c o a l b l o c k . There was no e s t a b l i s h e d settlement w i t h i n 100 km of the e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s (Chetwynd was the ne a r e s t town), e x i s t i n g i n f r a s t r u c t u r e was minimal i n terms of r a i l -ways and roads, and the impacts were l i m i t e d t o those caused by e x p l o r a t i o n , mainly s u r f a c e d i s t u r b a n c e s with attendent e f f e c t s on f i s h e r i e s and w i l d l i f e and the l o s s of f o r e s t r y v a l u e s . There was l i t t l e or no concern expressed about t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n because of the l a c k of a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e t t l e -ment, and there were no l o c a l i n t e r e s t s to form an o r g a n i z e d r e g i o n a l lobby. Resource agencies were concerned but had i n s u f f i c i e n t s t a f f t o observe or monitor and r e p o r t on the i n c r e a s i n g impacts. While some c o a l was being e x t r a c t e d i n an e x p l o r a t o r y underground o p e r a t i o n at Sukunka through the No. 1 and Sukunka Main Test mines, there were no s u r f a c e mines i n a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n and the magnitude of d i s t u r b a n c e was much l e s s v i s i b l e than i n the Kootenays, The t h i r d r e g i o n — n o r t h w e s t e r n B.C.—which was a f f e c t e d by new c o a l development may seem, a t f i r s t , an u n l i k e l y area i n terms of e x p l o r a t i o n or p r o p o s a l s f o r new mines s i t e s . However, to a l l o w the c o a l from n o r t h e a s t e r n B.C. to become a v a i l a b l e to P a c i f i c Rim markets, the i n f r a -s t r u c t u r e i n terms of r a i l access and power supply, l o a d i n g 77 and h a n d l i n g , and bulk t e r m i n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s had to be con-s i d e r e d . The r e g i o n , long e n v i s i o n e d as the terminus of the "Mid-Canada" c o r r i d o r , was the northwest r e g i o n of B.C. (Carney and Carney, 1971). The Port of P r i n c e Rupert was seen as Canada's second gateway to the P a c i f i c , As e a r l y as 1969, f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s were conducted f o r h a n d l i n g bulk commodities at R i d l e y I s l a n d , P r i n c e Rupert. T h i s p e r c e i v e d need and the subsequent p l a n n i n g and f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s i d e n t i f i e d a s e t of c o n s t r u c t i o n , f i n a n c i a l , environmental and s o c i a l f a c t o r s which had to be d e a l t with b e f o r e the e x p o r t a t i o n of bulk commodities from the n o r t h e a s t c o u l d be achieved (Malkinson and Wakbayashi, 1982). A s i t e s e l e c t i o n process o c c u r r e d between 1972 and 1974, i n c l u d i n g environmental s t u d i e s which examined elements of r i s k t o the f i s h e r i e s of the Skeena River (G. Ennis, F e d e r a l Department of F i s h e r i e s , 1983, Personal communication). B.C. had granted j u r i s d i c t i o n over R i d l e y I s l a n d to the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board (NHB) because of the f e d e r a l commitment to the development of a northern p o r t . The need f o r p u b l i c s e c t o r p l a n n i n g had become apparent at t h i s time i f the p r o s p e c t s f o r northeast c o a l were to be r e a l i z e d . In August 1976, the B.C. government announced i t s support f o r the development of a c o a l t e r m i n a l i n P r i n c e Rupert a t R i d l e y I s l a n d and f o r the Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways (CNR) to have access f o r shipments of n o r t h e a s t c o a l . "This announcement reduced the u n c e r t a i n t y to the CNR, the c o a l companies, the 78 Japanese buyers, and p o t e n t i a l port i n v e s t o r s (NHB) . . . ." (Malkinson and Wakbayashi, 1982, p. 18). Because of the e a r l i e r s t u d i e s i t was seen as a " p r o a c t i v e not a r e a c t i v e c h o i c e " i n terms of f i s h e r i e s concerns (G. Ennis, 1983, P e r s o n a l communication), The f o u r t h r e g i o n t o be a f f e c t e d by the e s c a l a t i o n of c o a l development was the lower mainland of B.C., which d i f f e r s from the o t h e r s i n t h a t i t i s " h e a r t l a n d , " while the o t h e r s are " h i n t e r l a n d " t o i t (Bradbury, 1982). The lower mainland was a l r e a d y h i g h l y populated and i n d u s t r i a l l y w e l l developed, and there were two c l e a r responses to i n c r e a s e d c o a l s a l e s . F i r s t , the l o c a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e was i n p l a c e f o r c o a l h a n d l i n g and t r a n s p o r t , so the impact of i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y was not n o t i c e a b l y f e l t i n the area, which was a l r e a d y a c t i v e w i t h the Port of Vancouver and f e r r y system. Westshore Terminals at Robert's Bank, a wholly owned sub-s i d i a r y o f K a i s e r Resources, had begun o p e r a t i o n s i n 1970 with a c a p a c i t y of about 6 m i l l i o n tonnes a year. In 1970 the f i r s t u n i t t r a i n s of 88 c a r s c a r r i e d 8000 tonnes of c o a l (Halvorson, 1980), and by 1972 expansion to Robert's Bank had i n c r e a s e d s h i p p i n g a c t i v i t y and h a n d l i n g c a p a c i t y to 9 m i l l i o n tonnes a year. Neptune Terminals of North Vancouver was a l s o w e l l developed to handle the l o a d i n g of bulk commodities, e s p e c i a l l y c o a l . The second response was more government involvement, f e l t i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l environment p r i m a r i l y , the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of which r e s i d e s 79 i n the lower mainland, p a r t i c u l a r l y V i c t o r i a . The impact of i n c r e a s e d c o a l development on V i c t o r i a was g r e a t e r than the new i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y i n terms of p o l i t i c a l - a d m i n i -s t r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s . 3.3.1 I n s t i t u t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s In 1969, the S o c i a l C r e d i t Party, l e d by W. A. C. Bennett, had been i n o f f i c e f o r 17 years. Up to t h a t time they had taken what may be c a l l e d an i n f o r m a l approach toward resource-use c o n f l i c t s . Responding to p u b l i c o p i n i o n , however, the p a r t y formed a committee of f i v e c a b i n e t m i n i -s t e r s to c o n s i d e r m u l t i - r e s o u r c e land-use c o n f l i c t s . T h i s Land Use Committee (LUC) was seen as somewhat p a s s i v e , doing l i t t l e t o counter the entrenched development-oriented bureaucracy (Crook and S t a c k e l r o d t - C r o o k , 1976). There had been no formal requirements d e a l i n g with land r e c l a m a t i o n u n t i l the Coal Mines Regulation Act was f i n a l l y put through the l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1969, i n d i r e c t response to the K a i s e r Resources s u r f a c e mine (Dick, 1979a). T h i s a c t provided f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of a r e p o r t d e s c r i b i n g the nature and p r e s -ent uses of the land to be developed with p r e d i c t i o n s of developmental e f f e c t s on l i v e s t o c k , w i l d l i f e , water courses, farms, i n h a b i t e d p l a c e s i n the mine v i c i n i t y , and the appearance of the mine s i t e . The l e g i s l a t i o n was l a t e r g e n e r a l l y judged to be u n s u c c e s s f u l i n reducing the impacts, due to inadequate terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r the r e c l a m a t i o n 80 r e p o r t s and the l a c k of a comprehensive assessment and p l a n -ning process. There had been no attempt i n these l e g i s l a -t i v e requirements to assess the e f f e c t s of mining on the s o c i a l environment (Dick, 1979a). Thus, p a r t l y i n response to f u r t h e r p u b l i c concern about the Kootenays, the Environ-ment and Land Use Act (B.C., 1971) was passed i n 1971, and the Environment and Land Use Committee (ELUC) was est a b -l i s h e d as a formal c a b i n e t group to provide a broader approach t o i n t e g r a t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l m i n i s t r i e s ' approvals of new development p r o j e c t s . In 1972, an NDP government was e l e c t e d on a p l a t f o r m which c a l l e d f o r , among other o b j e c t i v e s , r e g u l a t o r y s t r u c -t u r e s t o reduce the r i s k s of damage caused by u n r e s t r a i n e d resource development (Payne, 1982; S t a c k e l r o d t - C r o o k , 1975). T h i s change of government c r e a t e d a new p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e , A more a c t i v e , i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t r o l e was then taken by government agencies as opposed t o the p r e v i o u s t r a d i t i o n a l approach to p u b l i c p o l i c y (Payne, 1982), and i n 1973 a t e c h n i c a l and i n f o r m a t i o n body, the Environment and Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t (ELUCS), was e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s group, under the d i r e c t i o n of ELUC, was to develop new i n n o v a t i v e programs to d e a l with a wide range of environmental and land-use i s s u e s . The frame of r e f e r e n c e i n c l u d e d c o o r d i n a -t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s necessary f o r government and i n d u s t r y t o manage impacts (Dick, 1979a). Most of the S e c r e t a r i a t ' s work i n v o l v e d i n t e r - a g e n c y task 81 f o r c e s which pr o v i d e d a government forum f o r resource con-f l i c t d i s c u s s i o n s . Three u n i t s were c r e a t e d : the Resource A n a l y s i s U n i t (RAU), to handle the v a r i o u s f a c e t s of resource i n v e n t o r i e s ; the Resource Planning U n i t (RPU), t o prepare r e g i o n - s p e c i f i c p l a n s , provide a d v i c e , and examine i s s u e s ; and the S p e c i a l P r o j e c t s U n i t (SPU), to prepare g u i d e l i n e s t o assess the environmental and s o c i a l impacts of v a r i o u s development p r o j e c t s and to c o o r d i n a t e the i n t e r -agency groups (Crook and Stackelrodt-Crook, 1976; B.C. MOE, 1976). Another ELUC committee of deputy m i n i s t e r s was e s t a b l i s h e d as a t e c h n i c a l committee (ELUTC) and a formal decision-making mechanism was d e s c r i b e d , which i n v o l v e d p a s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from the S e c r e t a r i a t through the Tech-n i c a l Committee f o r comment and recommendations, and then to ELUC f o r a formal d e c i s i o n . T h i s phase of i n n o v a t i v e n e s s i n the mid-1970s was f r u s t r a t e d by the f a c t t h a t , although there was r e c o g n i t i o n of the problems, there was a l a g i n response due to b u r e a u c r a t i c r e s i s t a n c e to r a p i d change. The S e c r e t a r i a t was c r i t i c i z e d on the grounds t h a t i t had imposed r a d i c a l changes to the decision-making process (Stackelrodt-Crook, 1975). The problems at the time were numerous and complex. Resource management p o l i c i e s were thought to have f a i l e d because they lacked comprehensive i n v e n t o r i e s , but some c o n f l i c t s were recog n i z e d and some l e g i s l a t i o n was changed. Mining permits were r e q u i r e d to i n c l u d e r e c l a m a t i o n p l a n s , 82 but where l e g i s l a t i o n was weak the agencies had to depend on the good w i l l of both the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c d evelopers. There was no framework of l o c a l , r e g i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l , or n a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s , a l l of which gave r i s e to the c o r p o r a t e b e l i e f t h a t government r e g u l a t i o n s , permits, l i c e n c e s , and c o n t r o l s governing mining o p e r a t i o n s were both numerous and c a p r i c i o u s . Changes i n mining p o l i c y , p a r t i c u l a r l y t a x a t i o n p o l i c y , came from both the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s of government to give substance to the concern (Payne, 1982). T h i s l e d to a c r i s i s i n r e l a t i o n s between the NDP government and the mining i n d u s t r y ; and c o n s e r v a t i o n agencies, with shortage of funds and e n f o r c e -ment power, r e s o r t e d to media p u b l i c i t y (Dick, 1979a). The o i l c r i s i s of 1973 was a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n h i s t o r y and, i n Canada, i n c r e a s e s i n the p r i c e of o i l brought a n a t i o n a l energy p o l i c y that encouraged development of c o a l (Robertson, 1981). P o t e n t i a l export growth s t i m u l a -ted a c t i v i t y , r e s u l t i n g i n four m e t a l l u r g i c a l c o a l p r o p o s a l s i n the Crowsnest, nine i n the Peace River c o a l f i e l d s , and i n t e r e s t i n v a r i o u s thermal s i t e s throughout the p r o v i n c e . The B.C. Department of Economic Development (DED) undertook a j o i n t p l a n n i n g study with the government of Canada which i n d i c a t e d the p o t e n t i a l f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e g i o n a l economic development and d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n based on the development of the Peace River c o a l f i e l d s . ELUC d i r e c -ted ELUCS to advise them on the magnitude of the a n t i c i p a t e d 83 impact but, because there had been no previous assessment processes, i n f o r m a t i o n was l a c k i n g on l i k e l y impacts s p e c i -f i c t o t h i s r e g i o n . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of approaches and s t r a t e g i e s f o r j o i n t p roblem-solving was a necessary f i r s t step and, by 1975, the problem of l a r g e development p r o j e c t s c r e a t i n g extended environmental e f f e c t s and c o n f l i c t i n g with o t h e r resource s e c t o r s was being w e l l a r t i c u l a t e d (Brooks and Andrews, 1974; Dick and Thirgood, 1975). Whatever the f i n a l form of p o l i c i e s and procedures f o r p r o v i n c e s or f e d e r a l government, there was agreement t h a t "engineering and ecology" needed to p a r t i c i p a t e j o i n t l y i n new p r o j e c t design (Duffy, 1975) . During t h i s p e r i o d there was a f e e l -i n g t h a t new technology and c o n s e r v a t i o n would s o l v e most energy problems. In 1975, the r u l i n g NDP was l o s i n g p o p u l a r i t y and the media had been suggesting t h a t the problems of the min-i n g i n d u s t r y were the s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the government (Payne, 1982). The l o s s of the 1975 e l e c t i o n t o the S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y , l e d by B i l l Bennett, was seen as a p o l i t i c a l v i c t o r y f o r the mining i n d u s t r y , and the new government was expected t o take a d i f f e r e n t approach to resource management (Payne, 1982). Yet ELUCS, the i n n o v a t i v e agency, continued t o e x i s t , awareness of the problems continued and, most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , the p l a n n i n g of the w o r k i n g - l e v e l bureaucracy c a r r i e d on. 84 3.3.2 I n t r o d u c t i o n of c o a l d e v e l -opment g u i d e l i n e s  In d e c i d i n g whether and on what terms development should proceed, government planners i n the B.C. S e c r e t a r i a t i d e n t i f i e d the need f o r more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n , f o r s p e c i f i c e v a l u a t i o n procedures, and f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o c o a l p o l i c y and development i s s u e s . In l a t e 1975, the S e c r e t a r i a t ' s SPU was i n s t r u c t e d by ELUCS to develop a p r o-cess which would ensure the c o l l e c t i o n of assessment i n f o r -mation p r i o r to the c o n s t r u c t i o n of f u t u r e c o a l developments and to be i n the form of g u i d e l i n e s only, not l e g i s l a t i o n . C oal development has assumed a high economic s i g n i f i -cance i n response t o r i s i n g world p r i c e s . In order t h a t the many development proposals i n n o r t h e a s t e r n and s o utheastern B.C. c o u l d be s u b j e c t to a s y s t e m a t i c , c o n s i s t e n t and comprehensive a p p r a i s a l , ELUC i s s u e d the Guidelines for Coal Development i n March, 1976, which o u t l i n e s an environment and community impact assessment process . . . . (B.C. MOE, 1976, p. U121) T h i s e s s e n t i a l l y t e c h n i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e acknowledged the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s i s to r a t i o n a l d e c i -s i o n making. The CDG process, as i t was i n i t i a l l y d e scribed, was a f o u r - s t a g e procedure beginning with a prospectus to i d e n t i f y the proponent's d e s i r e to develop a new c o a l p r o-j e c t . A p r e l i m i n a r y assessment, contained i n a Stage I r e p o r t , was t o i d e n t i f y the e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n at the p a r t i c u l a r s i t e and to i d e n t i f y the p o t e n t i a l problems. A government review was to i d e n t i f y f u r t h e r problems or con-cerns and a i d i n the d e s i g n of a d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s which were 85 t o address those concerns. The r e s u l t s of the s i t e - s p e c i f i c s t u d i e s were to be presented i n a second assessment docu-ment, the Stage I I r e p o r t . These were e s s e n t i a l l y E n v i r o n -mental Impact (EIA) and S o c i a l Impact (SIA) statements, t o be reviewed by government agencies. The proponent, a f t e r completing t h i s review, c o u l d proceed to o b t a i n i n g s p e c i f i c l i c e n c e s and permits i n Stage I I I . The ELUC was then to gra n t a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e and the company c o u l d begin c o n s t r u c t i o n of the' new mine. A f o u r t h stage was to be developed which would address implementation and monitoring processes f o l l o w i n g p r o j e c t c o n s t r u c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n to acknowledging EIA and SIA i n f o r m a t i o n , a s e t of "Guide-l i n e s f o r B e n e f i t Cost A n a l y s i s " was d r a f t e d (B.C. ELUCS, 1977). "Only p r e l i m i n a r y b e n e f i t - c o s t analyses were expec-ted i n Stage I; more d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s should be i n c l u d e d i n Stage I I " (B.C. ELUC, 1976, p. 7). The s u b - u n i t s o f the S e c r e t a r i a t continued e x t e n s i v e p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s . To c o o r d i n a t e the CDG, the SPU became engaged i n two a c t i v i t i e s ; the f i r s t was e d u c a t i o n a l i n nature where they were to e x p l a i n t o developers and c o n s u l -t a n t s the g u i d e l i n e s procedures; the second was a process to review the incoming staged r e p o r t s . In 197 6, the newly formed C o a l G u i d e l i n e s S t e e r i n g Committee (CGSC) reviewed f i v e Stage I r e p o r t s (Sage Creek, L i n e Creek, Q u i n t e t t e , Carbon Creek, and Hosmer-Wheeler) and one Stage I I r e p o r t (Hosmer-Wheeler). I t was i n t h i s c a p a c i t y t h a t the SPU 86 worked w i t h i n a p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t focussed on the CDG as a mechanism f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n the sense t h a t a l l m i n i s t r i e s with concerns were to have an opportu-n i t y to review the incoming p r o p o s a l . The education p e r s -p e c t i v e was supported by the Resource A n a l y s i s U n i t (RAU) which, among oth e r d u t i e s , was to develop methodologies and c o o r d i n a t e standards and education, u s i n g p u b l i c a t i o n s , workshops, and seminars to encourage p u b l i c involvement. T e c h n i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c e d u c a t i o n a l processes i n government and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s were supported by reviewing and making recommendations on agency and c o n s u l t a n t s ' r e p o r t s , and by p r o v i d i n g survey and i n v e n t o r y methods and g u i d e l i n e s (B.C. MOE, 1976, p. U129). E s s e n t i a l l y , throughout a l l of the CDG process, the proponent or new mine developer had to bear most of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r g e n e r a t i n g the informa-t i o n on the s o c i a l and environmental aspects of the p r o j e c t . The government's r o l e was to e v a l u a t e the i n f o r m a t i o n to ensure t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t long-range r i s k s — i n terms of eco-nomic s t a b i l i t y , long-term environmental e f f e c t s , and the e f f e c t s of negative s o c i a l changes on q u a l i t y of l i f e — w e r e c o n s i d e r e d . Other new approaches to p l a n n i n g were developed. One attempt at a new and experimental approach to p l a n n i n g was the i n t r o d u c t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n of I n t e g r a t e d Management Uni t s (IMU). T h i s was to be a r e g i o n a l l y based e f f o r t i n j o i n t - p l a n resource management f o r a designated area i n 87 terms of m u l t i p l e use. Another approach used a s e r i e s of r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s with the "South East Coal P r o j e c t " an example of such a study program. Here, there were two o b j e c t i v e s : the f i r s t was to examine how much c o a l develop-ment, at what l o c a t i o n , t i m i n g , and environmental and s o c i a l impacts would or should occur i n the E l k and F l a t h e a d r i v e r v a l l e y s . The f i r s t o b j e c t i v e r e s u l t e d i n a r e p o r t which was presented to ELUC and to the Coal Committee of the Regional D i s t r i c t of East Kootenay. The second o b j e c t i v e was to d e f i n e a method whereby the p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t r i e s and r e g -i o n a l and l o c a l governments and boards could manage these impacts. T h i s q u e s t i o n was d i s c u s s e d at meetings with the MOE and r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t and m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s (B.C. MOE, Annual Report, 1976). A second study program, the "North East Coal Study" (NECS) was conducted by a number of i n t e r - a g e n c y sub-committees (townsite and community develop-ment, manpower, environment and land-use, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , economic marketing, and f i n a n c i a l ) . In t h i s example, the then M i n i s t r y of Economic Development ( l a t e r Industry and Small Business Development) was made r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o v e r a l l study c o o r d i n a t i o n and was to p l a n independent of the ELUCS. The Cabinet Committee on Coal Development (CCCD) was e s t a b -l i s h e d to i n v e s t i g a t e p o l i c y i s s u e s o u t s i d e the ELUC d e c i s i o n framework. The NECS design was to use a c o o r d i n a -ted team approach, composed of government a n a l y s t s who were charged with e v a l u a t i n g resource development problems, and 88 who proceeded w i t h the assumption t h a t the province suppor-ted the North East Coal Development (NECD). T h i s marked the beginning of the " p u b l i c s e c t o r p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s " (Malkinson and Wakbayashi, 1982), and these p o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e events r e s u l t e d i n the emer-gence of two very d i f f e r e n t o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g processes r e l a t e d t o c o a l development. F i r s t was the g u i d e l i n e s pro-gram r e q u i r i n g t h a t the p r i v a t e developer take r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y f o r g e n e r a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the environmen-t a l - e n g i n e e r i n g d e s i g n of the p r o p o s a l , and f o r i d e n t i f y i n g m o n i t o r i n g schemes and p r o v i d i n g m i t i g a t i v e measures. P r o j e c t assessment came to be r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r l y communica-ted i n the f i r s t f i v e years of implementation as experience was gained with the program. The second was " p u b l i c s e c t o r p l a n n i n g " or a r e g i o n a l resource p l a n n i n g process, which i n v o l v e d the government as a developer i n i t s r o l e as p r o v i d e r of support f a c i l i t i e s such as new towns, highways, power l i n e s , r a i l w a y s , c o a l t e r m i n a l s , and r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s . In t h i s second process, i n f o r m a t i o n was generated by an e x t e n s i v e s e r i e s of study programs conducted by government agencies and by p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a n t s working f o r v a r i o u s m i n i s t r i e s . N e i t h e r t h i s second process nor the i n f o r m a t i o n generated was communicated to the p u b l i c u n t i l w e l l a f t e r the s t u d i e s were completed and key d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g i n f r a s t r u c t u r e had been taken. When asked about the e n v i r -onmental p r o v i s i o n s i n the t e n t a t i v e agreement between the 89 B.C. government and B.P. Canada L t d . f o r development of the Sukunka d e p o s i t s , Don P h i l l i p s , then M i n i s t e r f o r Economic Development, r e p l i e d : "We've s t u d i e d i t to death" (Van-couver Sun, 17 J u l y 1978), but at t h a t time l i t t l e informa-t i o n had been r e l e a s e d . The 1969-1976 phase of expansion ended with the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the CDG. Described as a p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l process, i t had c l e a r l y d e s c r i b e d decision-making procedures as implementation began. P u b l i c s e c t o r p l a n n i n g , on the other hand, c o n s i s t e d of a s e r i e s of r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s and had no f o r m a l i z e d decision-making procedure. The conduct of these p u b l i c - s e c t o r p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s c r e a t e d e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t c o a l development would proceed i n n o r t h e a s t e r n B.C. I t was i n f e r r e d t h a t the b u i l d i n g of new c o a l mines would occur, and t h a t (Malkinson and Wakbayashi, 1982) there were no major c o n s t r a i n t s which would prevent the c o n s t r u c t i o n of c o a l mines i n the r e g i o n . I t was t h i s second l i t t l e under-stood p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o cess, and the i m p l i e d e x p e c t a t i o n s i t c r e a t e d , t h a t e v e n t u a l l y l e d to a c r i s i s f o r the guide-l i n e s process i n 1981, 3.4 Implementation Phase: 1976-1981  The 1976-1981 phase was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an economic boom due c h i e f l y to r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g commodity p r i c e s , most n o t a b l y the q u a d r u p l i n g of o i l p r i c e s by the Organiza-t i o n of Petroleum E x p o r t i n g C o u n t r i e s (OPEC) and i n c r e a s i n g 90 concern over the i s s u e of s e c u r i t y f o r domestic energy s u p p l i e s . The b e l i e f t h a t non-renewable o i l and gas would not meet n a t i o n a l or g l o b a l demand l e d to numerous p r o v i n -c i a l , n a t i o n a l , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d i e s on the use of c o a l as an a l t e r n a t i v e energy source. The authors at t h a t time (Anton, 1981; E z r a , 1978; Page, 1978; Patching, 1980; Simeons, 1978; Wilson, 1980) wrote of the urgency and importance of c o a l f o r both immediate and long-term economic growth, and numerous p r o j e c t i o n s f o r f u t u r e p r o d u c t i o n and employment were made, as may be seen i n Tables 1 and 2, A t r e n d to thermal c o a l was i d e n t i f i e d , and Japan i n p a r t i -c u l a r planned con v e r s i o n s to c o a l as a f u e l source f o r e l e c t r i c a l g e n e r a t i o n and cement-plant k i l n s . The i m p l i c a -t i o n s of t h i s i n c r e a s e d c o a l development were important i n the southeast Kootenays and the n o r t h e a s t Peace R i v e r r e g i o n . P r o v i n c i a l l y , numerous changes o c c u r r e d to agencies as t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n resource p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n c r e a s e d and became more c l e a r l y understood. 3.4.1 A c c e l e r a t i n g r e g i o n a l impacts  In the southeast Kootenays, the CDG had been a p p l i e d to s i x new mines. During t h i s p e r i o d , the G r e e n h i l l s and L i n e Creek mines r e c e i v e d a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e and began c o n s t r u c t i o n . By 1978, there were f i v e mines o p e r a t i n g i n the area producing n e a r l y 10 m i l l i o n tonnes a y e a r , , r e s u l -t i n g i n the need f o r s e v e r a l new types of p l a n n i n g . 91 Table 1 CANADIAN COAL EXPORT PROJECTIONS (in m i l l i o n s of tonnes) Source 1980 1985 1990 2000 Wocol 11 17 19-25 27-47 Coal Assn. of Canada 14,1 39.9 53.3 no est. B.C. MISBD (Western Canada-metallurgical) 12,46 23 32 no est. Sources B.C.MISBD, 1981a, p. 72; Hay et a l . , 1982, p. 75; 1980, p. 224. Wilson, Table 2 B.C. COAL INDUSTRY EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS Source Region No, of Workers B.C. MISBD Southeast (Crowsnest) C o a l f i e l d 5655 Northeast (Peace River) C o a l f i e l d 9040+ Central C o a l f i e l d s 1760+ The Coast (Vancouver Island) 210 Major Projects Task Force* Line Creek Coal 1500 Source:. B.C.MISBD, 1981a, pp. 25-58; Carr and B l a i r , 1981, p. 94. *N0TE: No other estimates were provided to substantiate t h i s report's claim that " d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t labour demands from major projects can reduce unemployment, provide more s a t i s f y i n g jobs and increase p a r t i c i p a t i o n by Canadians" (Carr and B l a i r , 1981, p. 10) . 92 I n t e n s i f i e d coal-mining a c t i v i t y around Coleman, A l b e r t a caused the r e g i o n a l Crowsnest p o p u l a t i o n to i n c r e a s e , and an expansion of Sparwood was planned while E l k f o r d grew to a community of 3000 people. The i d e n t i f i e d need f o r s e t t l e -ment p l a n n i n g came from two concerns: f i r s t , the q u e s t i o n of probable d i s t r i b u t i o n of the new p o p u l a t i o n and t h e i r housing requirements as more mines were proposed and, second, the nature or e f f e c t new mine developments i n the n o r t h e a s t r e g i o n would have on the e x i s t i n g southeast r e g i o n . The need f o r r e c l a m a t i o n planning, f o r more re s e a r c h , and f o r examples of s u c c e s s f u l r e c l a m a t i o n pro-j e c t s was i n c r e a s i n g l y expressed by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of the producing mines i n the r e g i o n , i n concert with the academic community (Cherene, 1979; L a v k u l i c h , 1983), and r e g i o n a l w i l d l i f e management pl a n n i n g became p e r c e i v e d as a neces-s i t y (Dick, 1979b). In the n o r t h e a s t r e g i o n , two types of a c t i v i t y e s c a -l a t e d . Government-sponsored f i e l d s t u d i e s were under way on a l a r g e s c a l e , with major impacts d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y f e l t by the e x i s t i n g communities of Chetwynd, Dawson Creek, and F o r t St. John; second, 14 c o a l l i c e n c e l e a s e h o l d e r s were e x p l o r i n g t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s . One important i s s u e arose r e l a -t i v e t o the conduct of e x p l o r a t i o n when l a r g e areas of land were c l e a r e d and t e s t a d i t s f o r bulk sampling were dug, making i t d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y where e x p l o r a t i o n ended and mining began. The problem was such t h a t the MEMPR i s s u e d 93 Guidelines for Coal and Mineral Exploration (B.C. MEMPR, 1977). In a d d i t i o n , through the a c t i v i t i e s of m i n i s t r y f i e l d crews, a permanent i n s p e c t i o n f u n c t i o n was i d e n t i f i e d so as to ensure t h a t companies employed e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y p r o t e c t i v e measures i n t h e i r e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . The d e f i n i t i o n of company r e c l a m a t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s was r e f i n e d through improved techniques of m o n i t o r i n g the s t a t u s of r e c l a m a t i o n work ( G a l b r a i t h , 1979). In the northwest r e g i o n , i t was r e p o r t e d (B.C. Business Magazine, 1978) t h a t p r a i r i e backers were i n t e r e s -t e d i n b u i l d i n g g r a i n e l e v a t o r s a t P r i n c e Rupert; thus, the v i a b i l i t y of i n c r e a s e d g r a i n — h a n d l i n g c a p a c i t y a t the n o r t h e r n p o r t was s t u d i e d . The N a t i o n a l Harbours Board (NHB) had a Master Plan prepared by CBA E n g i n e e r i n g (1978) which c a l l e d f o r a g r a i n e l e v a t o r w i t h a c a p a c i t y of n e a r l y one q u a r t e r of a m i l l i o n tonnes, and a two-phase c o a l t e r m i -n a l w i t h a c a p a c i t y of 30 m i l l i o n tonnes a year. In 1980, the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments agreed to p r o v i d e road access to the t e r m i n a l s i t e , but n e i t h e r p r o v i n c i a l (CDG) nor f e d e r a l (EARP) p r o j e c t assessment g u i d e l i n e s were a p p l i e d to the e n g i n e e r i n g p l a n n i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r road access or t e r m i n a l s i t e s , because the NHB, as a f e d e r a l agency, was not r e q u i r e d to use e i t h e r f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l procedures (S c o t t , 1982, P e r s o n a l commu-n i c a t i o n ) . The.design f o r the g r a i n t e r m i n a l was completed i n 1981, and a new consortium, i n c l u d i n g Esso M i n e r a l s 94 Canada, G u l f Canada, and Manalta Coal, was s e l e c t e d t o c o n s t r u c t and operate the c o a l t e r m i n a l . Disputes over c o n t r a c t s r e s u l t e d i n the r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the consortium, and a j o i n t - v e n t u r e agreement c r e a t i n g R i d l e y I s l a n d Termi-n a l s Inc. was drawn up (Malkinson and Wakbayashi, 1982). I n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r c o a l t r a n s p o r t and h a n d l i n g i n the r e s t of the p r o v i n c e through t h i s p e r i o d was undergoing f u r t h e r study. In 1977, a r o y a l commission s t u d i e d B . C . R a i l , and among other recommendations, the commission suggested t h a t there should be no B.C.Rail involvement i n n o r t h e a s t c o a l u n l e s s the c o n t r a c t s p a i d f o r the necessary development. At t h i s time, although B.C.Rail had a debt which was approximately 15 per cent of the p r o v i n c i a l bud-get, the e x i s t i n g government p o s i t i o n was t h a t r a i l w a y s were s e r v i n g r e g i o n a l development;, thus, these recommendations were not f o l l o w e d . Large p u b l i c investment was going to be r e q u i r e d f o r C.N.R. to be able to s e r v i c e both n o r t h e a s t c o a l and p r a i r i e g r a i n . In the south the C.P.R. was opera-t i n g c l o s e t o c a p a c i t y , y e t l i m i t s to expansion e x i s t e d because of the geographic l o c a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g l i n e s , and because of the l a r g e c a p i t a l investment r e q u i r e d f o r new c o n s t r u c t i o n . In 1978, the Port of Robert's Bank was c o n s i d e r e d f o r expansion, and, i n t h i s case, f e d e r a l e n v i r -onmental procedures (EARP) were a p p l i e d . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s expansion p r o p o s a l had t o undergo a f u l l s et of h e a r i n g s , because, although the r i s k s of h a n d l i n g bulk commodities 95 might have appeared s i m i l a r f o r both R i d l e y I s l a n d and Robert's Bank, the lower mainland l o c a t i o n had some impor-t a n t s p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e s . Massive dredging, f o r example, was r e q u i r e d t o change the depth from 4 m to 20 m, and a land base f o r the l o a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s had to be c r e a t e d through l a n d f i l l , i n the process of which e e l - g r a s s beds would be d i s t u r b e d ! thus, the NHB decided t o apply the EARP on a s i t e - b y - s i t e b a s i s , based on p e r c e i v e d needs (Ennis, 1983, Personal communication). Academic i n t e r e s t i n the c o a l boom needs was expressed; p r o v i n c i a l support f o r education and r e s e a r c h and development i n c o a l was pro v i d e d i n 1980 by p r o p o s a l s and funding to b u i l d a Coal Research Centre a t the U n i v e r -s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (UBC). The purpose of t h i s f a c i l i t y was t o conduct "use of c o a l s " r e s e a r c h , t o f o s t e r government-industry c o n t a c t s r e g a r d i n g i n t e r e s t s i n c o a l r e s e a r c h , and to sup e r v i s e the programming of c o a l r e s e a r c h f a c i l i t i e s as they i n v o l v e d government, the u n i v e r s i t y , and i n d u s t r y (UBC Reports, 1980). 3.4.2 I n s t i t u t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s The c o o r d i n a t i o n and management of i n t e r - m i n i s t e r i a l reviews r e q u i r e d by the CDG was the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the ELUCS, yet t h i s next phase saw the demise of t h i s need, and the S e c r e t a r i a t was disbanded i n 1980, P r i o r t o t h a t , how-ever, the implementation of the CDG was concurrent w i t h 96 thr e e years of i n n o v a t i v e a c t i v i t y by the ELUC and ELUCS. In 1977, the RAU had been moved from the ELUCS to the MOE as the Resource A n a l y s i s Branch, T h i s branch conducted s e v e r a l years of r e s e a r c h i n t o the p r o j e c t e d n o r t h e a s t c o a l r e g i o n a l development area, i n c l u d i n g i n v e n t o r i e s of w i l d -l i f e , v i s u a l , v e g e t a t i o n , a q u a t i c and m i g r a t o r y b i r d r e s o u r -ces, as w e l l as b a s e l i n e a i r and water q u a l i t y i n v e n t o r i e s , as they r e l a t e d t o p r o j e c t e d c o a l and townsite development areas; however, the o r i g i n a l o b j e c t i v e s of the RAU f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n , communication, and e d u c a t i o n were l a r g e l y abandoned under the new m i n i s t e r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . W i t h i n the ELUCS, two u n i t s r e m a i n e d — t h e RPU con-ducted i n t e g r a t e d p l a n n i n g i n the southeast c o a l b l o c k and p r o v i d e d a d v i c e on set t l e m e n t p l a n n i n g i n Sparwood, w h i l e the SPU had two major r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : i t c h a i r e d the environmental land-use sub-committee r e p o r t i n g t o the CCCD, and c o o r d i n a t e d the CDG wi t h recommendations going t o ELUC. In 1977, the SPU a l s o prepared the Guidelines for Linear Development (LDG) (B.C. ELUCS, 1977a), s i m i l a r t o CDGs i n format. Meanwhile, ELUCS was concerned w i t h broader p o l i c y i s s u e s . G e n e r a l l y , the S e c r e t a r i a t endorsed p o l i c i e s which emphasized s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g processes designed to a v o i d resource-use c o n f l i c t s . For example, i n 1977, w i t h the ELUTC and the seven R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committees (RRMC), the S e c r e t a r i a t c o n t i n u e d t o a r t i c u l a t e the process of r e g i o n a l i n t e r - m i n i s t r y c o n s u l t a t i o n i n re s o u r c e 97 p l a n n i n g . G u i d e l i n e s f o r RRMC were prepared which i d e n -t i f i e d the s t r u c t u r e , r o l e , f u n c t i o n s , membership, and g e n e r a l o p e r a t i n g procedures, i n r e l a t i o n t o community, r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , and headquarters p l a n n i n g (B.C. MOE, 1977). The CCCD, on the o t h e r hand, was emphasizing the economic i m p l i c a t i o n s of p o t e n t i a l developments. I t s major o b j e c t i v e was to prepare an optimum s t r a t e g y f o r d e v e l o p i n g the c o a l r e s o u r c e of the r e g i o n by maximizing net revenues from c o a l development—revenues minus i n f r a s t r u c t u r e c o s t s . Environmental and s o c i a l impacts were o n l y to be managed, and from the p e r s p e c t i v e of CCCD, s t u d i e s were t h e r e f o r e designed to examine t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e s by l o o k i n g o n l y a t e n g i n e e r i n g and economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . An econo-m e t r i c model was prepared to measure the b e n e f i t s and c o s t s of a l t e r n a t i v e sequences of c o a l p r o d u c t i o n u s i n g v a r i o u s e s t i m a t e s f o r the market p r i c e of c o a l (Basham and Monier, 1981; O'Riordan, 1981). Environmental c o s t s were to be "measured" i n d i r e c t l y by a d j u s t i n g the l o c a t i o n and d e s i g n of the v a r i o u s f a c i l i t i e s t o reduce environmental damage. C o n s i d e r a t i o n s of f l o o d danger and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of damage to w i l d l i f e m i g r a t i o n were not seen as s i g n i f i c a n t concerns. The reasons f o r choosing the Tumbler Ridge s i t e were i d e n t i f i e d as lower c o s t s to commute t o the mine s i t e s or t o t r a v e l t o Dawson Creek, u s e f u l n e s s as a t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n and t o u r i s m c e n t r e , p r o x i m i t y t o a p o s s i b l e a i r p o r t 98 l o c a t i o n , and lower c a p i t a l and o p e r a t i n g c o s t s f o r water-supply and sewage-disposal systems (Malkinson and Wakbay-a s h i , 1982). G e n e r a l l y , c o s t and e f f e c t i v e n e s s r a t h e r than s o c i a l or environmental c r i t e r i a were used to decide the l o c a t i o n of c o a l - r e l a t e d f a c i l i t i e s . These s t u d i e s and d e c i s i o n s were conducted independently of the s t a t e d p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l decision-making processes. As the a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l process under the CDG continued f o r p r o j e c t s o u t s i d e the NEC b l o c k , the CGSC and the ELUCS r e c e i v e d review a s s i s t a n c e from an i n c r e a s i n g number of agencies. These agencies a l s o p r o v i -ded p r o v i n c i a l data and r e p o r t s , and helped i n the design of r e l a t e d Stage I I s t u d i e s , S e v e r a l agencies a f f o r d e d d i r e c t s e r v i c e s to developers and t h e i r c o n s u l t a n t s , and some found themselves i n c r e a s i n g l y c a l l e d upon to be i n v o l v e d w i t h the p l a n n i n g , assessment, and e v a l u a t i o n of c o a l - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s ; f o r example, i n the Annual Report (B.C. MOE, 1979) i t was noted t h a t i n a d d i t i o n to completing n o r t h e a s t c o a l r e g i o n a l task f o r c e r e p o r t s , the department had a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the design of the resource manage-ment framework f o r the n o r t h e a s t r e g i o n , and a s s i s t e d the CGSC i n review of new c o a l p r o p o s a l s . They a l s o reviewed o p e r a t i o n a l s t u d i e s f o r Stage I I I c o a l submissions, and were i n v o l v e d i n Robert's Bank EARP hearings, helped to prepare G u i d e l i n e s f o r Major Developments, and were i n v o l v e d with a P u b l i c Works Canada economic study f o r R i d l e y I s l a n d . T h i s 99 r e s u l t e d i n the MOE i d e n t i f y i n g a need f o r a c o o r d i n a t o r t o handle c o a l - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . Other m i n i s t r i e s found t h e i r s t a f f requirements had i n c r e a s e d because of c o a l p r o -j e c t a p p r a i s a l s . Most of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n these assessments and reviews b e l i e v e d t h a t the d e c i s i o n s f o r c o a l - r e l a t e d p r o j e c t s were to be made a f t e r CDG p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l and an ELUC d e c i s i o n ; however, as Malkinson and Wakbayashi (1982) d e s c r i b e d the p u b l i c s e c t o r p l a n n i n g process i n the nor t h e a s t , t h i s was not the case. F o l l o w i n g the S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y ' s e l e c t i o n v i c t o r y i n 1979, an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o c c u r r e d which n e v e r t h e l e s s i n h e r i t e d the S e c r e t a r i a t , whose r o l e had been c l e a r l y d e f i n e d (B.C. MOE, Annual Report, 1979) based on the ELUC mandate i n the Environment and Land Use Act, At Cabinet l e v e l , ELUC was to d i r e c t p o l i c y and p r o j e c t s t u d i e s necessary t o pro v i d e the i n f o r m a t i o n they f e l t was needed f o r a d d r e s s i n g land use, resource development, and e n v i r o n -mental i s s u e s . They were to make the d e c i s i o n s on such i s s u e s a d v i s i n g a l l of Cabinet and o b t a i n i n g t h e i r concur-rence o r d i r e c t i o n . ELUC was to make recommendations t o Cabinet under the ELU Act f o r land-use programs and p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c environmental management r e g u l a t i o n s as w e l l as provide d i r e c t i o n f o r changes. F i n a l l y , ELUC was to r e l e a s e i n f o r m a t i o n on government d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g environmental, resour c e , and land-use matters. The r o l e of the S e c r e t a r i a t was t o a i d these f u n c t i o n s and, as such, the ELUCS worked 100 t o e v a l u a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s u s i n g a comprehensive approach. B i o p h y s i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as s o c i a l and economic f a c -t o r s were to be c o n s i d e r e d i n each e v a l u a t i o n , with the g u i d e l i n e s program a s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n of t h a t p h i l o -sophy. In 1979 ELUCS helped w r i t e program g u i d e l i n e s f o r metal mines (B.C. MEMPR, 1979a); the same year, g u i d e l i n e s f o r m i t i g a t i o n and compensation were prepared as an appendix to the b e n e f i t - c o s t g u i d e l i n e s (B.C. ELUCS, 1980). These documents o u t l i n e d p r i n c i p l e s and procedures f o r m i t i g a t i o n and compensation measures designed to o f f s e t adverse e n v i r -onmental and s o c i a l impacts a s s o c i a t e d with major p r o j e c t developments. While the p r i n c i p l e s appeared a l l i n c l u s i v e to the a r c h i t e c t s w i t h i n the S e c r e t a r i a t , i t was not c l e a r whether ELUC intended t h a t these new g u i d e l i n e s should apply i n c o a l mine a p p r a i s a l s . An i n t e r - m i n i s t e r i a l review o f a n a t u r a l hazards p o l i c y was a l s o conducted by ELUCS, and was c o n s i d e r e d important f o r p r o j e c t s which were to be d e v e l -oped i n areas v u l n e r a b l e to p h y s i c a l damage. In a d d i t i o n , programs f o r d e r e g u l a t i o n and review of c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g processes w i t h i n a number of resource m i n i s t r i e s were conducted i n an attempt to ensure t h a t a l l government p l a n -ning processes were compatible i n t h e i r implementation (B.C. MOE, 1979). De s p i t e , or perhaps because o f , t h i s i n t e n s i v e i n n o v a t i v e phase of government b u r e a u c r a t i c p l a n -ning w i t h i n the S e c r e t a r i a t i n 1980, the ELUCS S e c r e t a r i a t was d i s s o l v e d (B.C. MOE, 1980a). The assessment d i v i s i o n i n 101 the MOE became r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g the l i n e a r development g u i d e l i n e s , while the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the metal mine g u i d e l i n e s and l a t e r the c o a l development guide-l i n e s became the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the MEMPR. Notwithstanding the d i s b a n d i n g of the S e c r e t a r i a t , g i v e n the wide context i n which p r o j e c t s were planned, a new model f o r d e s c r i b i n g the p l a n n i n g of developments was c r e a t e d and a new type of p h i l o s o p h y e v o l v e d . D e s c r i b e d as "planning by i n v i t a t i o n " by Paget and Rabnet (1982) , or the "resource c o n s u l t a t i v e p r o c e s s " by Crook (1982), t h i s process i d e n t i f i e d the need f o r involvement and p a r t i c i p a -t i o n . Due to the s i z e of new c o a l mine and r e l a t e d develop-ment p r o j e c t s , a wide range of i n p u t s was necessary i f t r u e involvement and p a r t i c i p a t i o n were to occur. E x t e n s i v e p l a n n i n g by i n v i t a t i o n or c o n s u l t a t i o n r e q u i r e d p a r t i c i p a -t i o n by many i n d i v i d u a l s working w i t h i n government, both i n V i c t o r i a and i n the r e g i o n s , a l l of which meant e x t e n s i v e time was needed t o a l l o w the process to e v o l v e . T h i s type of p l a n n i n g , d e s c r i b e d as fundamentally undemocratic (Paget and Rabnet, 1982) was based on the r e a l i t y t h a t i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s needed to g a i n experience w i t h the p r o c e s s , i t s techniques, and i t s methodologies. Much r e s e a r c h was done by those a d m i n i s t e r i n g the p r o c e s s , not o n l y on how to des-c r i b e the b a s e l i n e s i t u a t i o n i n each p r o j e c t , but a l s o on how to r e s o l v e . t h e problems of conducting p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l s and a g r e a t d e a l of i n f o r m a t i o n was generated from a v a r i e t y 102 of p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s (B.C. MMA, 1982; Malkinson and Wak-bayashi, 1982). During t h i s p e r i o d of process development, numerous p r i v a t e c o n s u l t i n g firms emerged to conduct p r o j e c t assessments. E n g i n e e r i n g f i r m s conducted s o c i a l impact s t u d i e s ; b i o l o g i s t s and s o i l s c i e n t i s t s became environmen-t a l a s s e s s o r s ; accounting firms c a r r i e d out housing s t u d i e s ; yet each p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the m u l t i - p a r t i c i p a n t l e a r n i n g process and, as experience was gained, the p r e p a r a t i o n o f p r o j e c t assessments improved. Meanwhile, t o meet and com-municate with c o n s u l t i n g f i r m s , government p l a n n i n g agencies formed b i o p h y s i c a l and socio-economic c o o r d i n a t i n g or sub-committees, such as the EEC and SECC, to conduct the review of c o a l p r o j e c t assessments. The r e s u l t of t h i s process was th a t through group d e l i b e r a t i o n the time needed t o complete the a p p r a i s a l a c t i v i t i e s i n c r e a s e d . A f t e r the S e c r e t a r i a t was disbanded i n mid-1980, the s t a f f of the MISBD alone conducted an i n t e r n a l process c a l l e d p u b l i c - s e c t o r p l a n n i n g and p r o j e c t analyses, d e s c r i b e d by Malkinson and S i v e r t s o n (1978), which r e s t r i c t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s ' access t o the p r o -c e s s . These MISBD analyses i n d i c a t e d t h a t the v i a b i l i t y of northe a s t c o a l development hinged on the f o l l o w i n g c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s ; market c o n d i t i o n s , where p o s i t i v e net b e n e f i t s were b e l i e v e d p o s s i b l e i f c o n t r a c t s were secured a t i n d i c a -ted p r i c e s ; the a v a i l a b i l i t y of underground miners; and the s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n of the most modern t e c h n i c a l under-ground mining methods (Malkinson and Wakbayashi, 1982). 103 They a l s o s t a t e d t h a t l e g a l agreements were necessary between the p r o v i n c e and the c o a l companies v i s - a - v i s the f i n a n c i n g of support f a c i l i t i e s . I n t r a - or i n t e r - p r o v i n -c i a l c o a l c o m p e t i t i o n was not seen as a f a c t o r which was c r i t i c a l t o the success of the northeast p r o j e c t , and world economic d e p r e s s i o n was not f o r e c a s t . The impacts o f these d e c i s i o n s on oth e r agencies were not addressed u n t i l a f t e r the d e c i s i o n s had been made when the Regional Impact Consul-t a t i o n Committee was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1981 t o d e a l w i t h l i k e l y s o c i a l or community impacts. Throughout the MISBD p u b l i c s e c t o r p l a n n i n g , s o c i a l and environmental l i m i t a t i o n s were not seen as c r i t i c a l . In the f a l l of 1980, as the prospects of c o a l con-t r a c t s f o r Teck and Q u i n t e t t e appeared l i k e l y , the MISBD, " i n o r d e r to prepare i t s e l f f o r the p o t e n t i a l t h a t t h i s might occur," h i r e d a f i r m of c o n s u l t i n g engineers and economists t o advise on a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r p r o j e c t management (Malkinson and Wakbayashi, 1982, p. 44). U l t i m a t e l y , a s p e c i a l p r o j e c t group was c r e a t e d which r e p o r t e d d i r e c t l y t o a c a b i n e t committee charged with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o j e c t implementation. T h i s North East C o a l C o o r d i -n a t i n g Committee (NECC) was to coor d i n a t e p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and, because of i t s l i m i t e d membership, c o u l d move e f f e c t i v e l y t o achieve s p e c i f i c implementation o b j e c -t i v e s . The s t r u c t u r e was seen to be e f f i c i e n t and c o s t -e f f e c t i v e , i n t h a t f u n c t i o n s c a r r i e d out by e x i s t i n g 104 agencies, m i n i s t r i e s , and crown c o r p o r a t i o n s would not be d u p l i c a t e d . T h i s s t r u c t u r e served, however, t o bypass the e x i s t i n g p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l program i n terms of both i t s e v a l u a t i v e and decision-making f u n c t i o n s . At the time the c o n t r a c t s were signed i n January 1981, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l changes advanced by the MISBD and approved by Cabinet i n c l u d e d r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g the CCCD, d e s i g n a t i n g a Deputy M i n i s t e r ' s Committee on Co a l Develop-ment, and s e t t i n g up a new p r o j e c t c o o r d i n a t i o n o f f i c e . The Cabinet a t t h i s time was committed to three goals i n the n o r t h e a s t p r o j e c t : t o provide the f i n a n c i n g f o r c e r t a i n support f a c i l i t i e s , to implement c r i t i c a l - p a t h p l a n n i n g f o r completion of s e r v i c e s , and to conclude l e g a l agreements wit h v a r i o u s groups i n v o l v e d with the development. Essen-t i a l l y , t h i s was a process which proceeded i n p r i v a t e , not open t o p u b l i c debate. The comprehensive agreements with c o a l producers, d e t a i l s of the p l a n n i n g and implementation process, the c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s , and the Regional Impact C o n s u l t a t i o n Committee r e p o r t were not t a b l e d u n t i l J u l y 1982. On 10 February 1981, an agreement f o r the s a l e of 7.7 m i l l i o n tonnes of nort h e a s t c o a l per year was signed with the Japanese S t e e l Co., but a t th a t time the major companies p l a n n i n g to produce the f i r s t c o a l from the r e g i o n had not completed t h e i r Stage I I assessments as r e q u i r e d by the CDG. As a r e s u l t , the r o l e o f the CDG was debated, and 105 there was p r e s s u r e to evaluate and change the process (Dick and Ringstad, 1981; Hawes and Gadsby, 1982). Those who argued t h a t the c r e d i b i l i t y of the CDG was never s e r i o u s l y i n q u e s t i o n are supported i n r e t r o s p e c t , because the companies t h a t proceeded with development i n the n o r t h -e a s t completed t h e i r staged assessments and r e c e i v e d an a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e . Questions of the r o l e of the CDG program i n decision-making r e g a r d i n g new c o a l p r o j e c t s and r e l a t e d developments remained, however, because i f the CDGs' f u n c t i o n were to a c t as a comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n t o o l p r i o r to a d e c i s i o n on mine app r o v a l , t h a t r o l e was not c l e a r i n the n o r t h e a s t p r o j e c t s . 3.5 E f f e c t s of Recession A f t e r 1981  The post-1981 phase came at a time when a l l i n d u s -t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t i e s were undergoing a major t r a n s i t i o n , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a long-term r e c e s s i o n a r y t r e n d . In the case o f c o a l mining, the d e c i s i o n s made i n 1981 to expand c o a l p r o d u c t i o n i n n o r t h e a s t e r n B.C. were based on i n i t i a l o p t i m i s t i c f o r e c a s t s of p r o d u c t i o n and employment, as shown e a r l i e r i n T ables 2 and 3. I t was a l s o supported by the f a c t t h a t , f o r the f i r s t time, Canada enjoyed a p o s i t i v e balance of t r a d e i n c o a l (Hay e t a l . , 1982). The t r e n d t o i n c r e a s e d use of thermal c o a l (Globe and Mail, 25 Janu-ary 1982), Japan's s t r a t e g y of m u l t i p l e - s o u r c i n g to achieve s e c u r i t y of supply, and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n j o i n t - v e n t u r e 106 p r o j e c t s (Hay e t a l . , 1982; Maund, 1983), spurred e x i s t i n g producers to change t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n p l a n n i n g so as to emphasize t h e i r thermal r e s e r v e s . B.C. Coal's G r e e n h i l l s Mine, f o r example, planned to expand t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r p r o d u c t i o n of thermal c o a l — w h i c h needed no p r o c e s s i n g and was, t h e r e f o r e , cheaper to m i n e — a n d s t a r t e x p o r t i n g i n September 1982, based on the e x p e c t a t i o n of a Japanese s h i f t from o i l to c o a l (Globe and Mail, 25 January 1982). The development-oriented B.C. government then had an i n c e n t i v e t o support and encourage the improvements to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n needed to capture the o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r o v i d e d by the Japanese market. They responded i n s e v e r a l ways. R a i l demand was f o r e c a s t to double between 1980 and 1986 (Sigurdson, 1982); i n response, i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i n the p r o v i n c e was upgraded f o r c o a l - r e l a t e d t r a n s p o r t . A b o t t l e -neck had been i d e n t i f i e d at Robert's Bank, and an expansion, a l r e a d y planned and c o s t i n g $127 m i l l i o n , was begun i n order t o accommodate the a n t i c i p a t e d i n c r e a s e i n c o a l s a l e s from western Canada. New s h i p l o a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s were planned to be i n p l a c e by J u l y 1983, and the h a n d l i n g c a p a c i t y would be i n c r e a s e d to 30 m i l l i o n tonnes a year. I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t r e l i a b l e p r o d u c t i o n and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were the key elements i n d e v e l o p i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g the necessary long-term r e l a -t i o n s h i p s with Japanese customers (Waters, 1982), and i t was f o r e c a s t t h a t by 1986 the CPR main l i n e would prese n t the remaining d i f f i c u l t y because i t was a l r e a d y a t 85 per 107 cent of i t s c a p a c i t y . L i n e improvements were needed t o reduce the grade, and producers hoping to develop new mines i n the r e g i o n , such as Sage Creek, were warned t h a t the CPR might not be able t o handle t h e i r new p r o d u c t i o n . R e s t r u c -t u r i n g o f Crowsnest Pass f r e i g h t r a t e s was a l s o i d e n t i f i e d as a problem t o be r e s o l v e d . Pressure rose to meet de a d l i n e s i n agreements w i t h Japanese companies to expand e x i s t i n g o p e r a t i o n s , As r e p o r -ted by Nutt (1982a), many second-generation mines were coming on stream, a l l producing thermal c o a l - — L i n e Creek was t o sh i p i t s f i r s t t r a i n - l o a d i n March 1982, G r e e n h i l l s was to f o l l o w i n September 1982, Fo r d i n g Coal was p l a n n i n g a new open p i t , and Byron Creek planned to expand. In a p a r t i a l response, the ELUC, through the CGSC, added an i n t e r i m work-i n g p o l i c y t o the CDG to de a l w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y of l a r g e environmental e f f e c t s t h a t c o u l d be c r e a t e d by these p l a n -ned expansions. T h i s i n t e r i m procedure (B.C. MEMPR, 1981) was to be f o r m a l i z e d when the g u i d e l i n e s were r e v i s e d . Another response p r e d i c t e d a competitive i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o a l marketplace which r e q u i r e d a new s t r a t e g y , t h a t of de v e l o p -i n g e f f i c i e n t company marketing o p e r a t i o n s . In 1982, B.C.Coal s e t up a marketing arm f o r thermal c o a l , and MISBD e s t a b l i s h e d a trade development s t r a t e g y f o r ex p o r t s t o the P a c i f i c Rim w i t h i n i t s IER branch (B.C. MISBD, Annual Report, 1981b). These a c t i o n s were f o l l o w e d by a s e r i e s o f f a c t o r s 108 which combined t o c r e a t e a slump i n c o a l markets, l i s t e d by Donham (1982) as being: d e c l i n i n g i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n c r e a t e d a decrease i n m e t a l l u r g i c a l c o a l demand; energy c o n s e r v a t i o n measures were s u c c e s s f u l which caused d e l a y s i n the planned c o n s t r u c t i o n of c o a l - f i r e d e l e c t r i c i t y -g e n e r a t i n g s t a t i o n s ; world o i l p r i c e s dropped which l e s -sened the p r i c e advantage of c o a l as an energy source; and Poland c u t i t s c o a l p r i c e s which made them more c o m p e t i t i v e than f o r e c a s t e r s had expected. For Canadian producers, these f a c t o r s r e s u l t e d i n s e r i o u s o v e r p r o d u c t i o n . 3.5.1 Regional consequences of r e c e s s i o n  In the southeast Kootenays, the optimism of 1981 had become a c r i s i s by 1982 when depressed c o a l markets which caused o v e r p r o d u c t i o n r e s u l t e d i n shut-downs and l a y o f f s . The r e c e s s i o n spread, and other mines i n western Canada experienced s i m i l a r problems. F o r d i n g Coal l a i d o f f workers i n l a t e 1982 and 1983 to operate a t 60 per cent c a p a c i t y , and L i n e Creek Coal delayed p r o d u c t i o n planned f o r e a r l y 1983; B.C.Coal and F o r d i n g Coal cut p r i c e s by $13 a tonne and shipments by 30 per cent, i n t h e i r Japanese c o a l c o n t r a c t s (Murray, 1983) . T h i s gave r i s e t o uncer-t a i n t y and i n s t a b i l i t y i n the Crowsnest r e g i o n : The town of Sparwood i s u n i t e d i n f r u s t r a t i o n , , . , the southeast c o a l f i e l d s are l a n g u i s h i n g while the government pours m i l l i o n s i n t o the n o r t h e a s t c o a l p r o j e c t , d e s p i t e dwindling markets. (Com p a r e l l i , 1983) 109 D e s p i t e these i n d i c a t o r s , i n the n o r t h e a s t and northwest, c o n s t r u c t i o n on the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e t o support, the new c o a l developments continued i n t o 1982 (Farrow, 1982), while problem a f t e r problem arose. A major o b s t a c l e t o the t i m i n g o f the p r o j e c t s was the harsh c l i m a t e of the r e g i o n s as r e p o r t e d i n Construction S i g h t l i n e s (1982), adding unexpected d i f f i c u l t i e s to an a l r e a d y problematic c o n s t r u c t i o n environment. Labour c o n t r o v e r s i e s i n the B.C. c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y caused delays i n developing Tumbler Ridge, and e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n of the B.C. spur l i n e caused an i n c r e a s e i n the c a p i t a l c o s t s f o r a p r o j e c t a l r e a d y noted as p o t e n t i a l l y l o s i n g $56 m i l l i o n over 15 years ( P r i c e Waterhouse A s s o c i a t e s , 1981). Because of t h i s , and because i n 1981 B.P. Canada was f e e l i n g competition from Teck and Dennison (Richardson, 1982), u n c e r t a i n t y over the t i m i n g of the new t e r m i n a l , and e l i m i n a t i o n of the p l a n to b u i l d a l i n e from Sukunka to Chetwynd, they h a l t e d the Sukunka p r o j e c t . Instead, i n 1983, the Willow Creek Mine of David M i n e r a l s took over Sukunka's small Korean c o a l c o n t r a c t and o b t a i n e d quick Stage I I approval because they had a s a l e s c o n t r a c t (Nutt, 1983). In the northwest of B.C., c o n s t r u c t i o n proceeded on the c o a l t e r m i n a l being b u i l t by R i d l e y Terminals Inc., w i t h o p t i m i s t i c promises. C i t e d as p o s s i b l y being "the c a t a l y s t which makes P r i n c e Rupert a dominant p o r t of the North P a c i f i c Region," t h i s f a c i l i t y was expected to load 110 7 m i l l i o n tonnes of c o a l a year by 1984 (Ridley Terminal Reports, 1982), and s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n began e a r l y i n 1982 w i t h completion planned f o r December 1983. C a p a c i t y was i n i t i a l l y expected to be 12 m i l l i o n tonnes a year, but a phased expansion was e v e n t u a l l y to double the c a p a c i t y . Dredging o p e r a t i o n s were c a r r i e d out i n 1982 t o accommodate l a r g e r v e s s e l s by i n c r e a s i n g the water depth and s t a b i l i z i n g sediments. The major b e n e f i t from t h i s p r o j e c t was c i t e d as being the "very s i g n i f i c a n t employment and economic oppor-t u n i t i e s c r e a t e d " ( i b i d . ) and, as a "high-technology" t e r m i n a l , i t was expected to employ 75 people f u l l time. The t o t a l investment r e q u i r e d f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n was $80 m i l l i o n , w i t h a peak c o n s t r u c t i o n workforce of about 250 employees. Being a c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e low-labour p r o j e c t , i t r a i s e d the q u e s t i o n of the r e a l b e n e f i t s c r e a t e d , w i t h the c o n t r o v e r s y i n c l u d i n g the v i a b i l i t y of f e d e r a l and pro-v i n c i a l procurement p o l i c i e s as M i t s u b i s h i Heavy I n d u s t r i e s was awarded a c o n t r a c t f o r a s t a c k e r - r e c l a i m e r ( c o a l - l o a d -i n g equipment) over a Canadian f i r m , because the Japanese b i d was r e p o r t e d t o be lower, t h e i r t i m i n g b e t t e r , and t h e i r technology more advanced (Nutt, 1982b). The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the n o r t h e a s t c o a l p r o j e c t was c i t e d by Malkinson and Wakbayashi (1982) as the c o o p e r a t i o n which was achieved between the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r s i n i t s development p l a n n i n g and implementation. The p r o -j e c t , w i t h a planned c a p i t a l c o s t of $2.5 b i l l i o n , has I l l c ontinued with c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o v i d i n g some a c t i v i t y d u r i n g the r e c e s s i o n a r y p e r i o d , but the p r o j e c t has not proceeded without c r i t i c i s m . Gunton (1983, Personal communication) suggested t h a t the c o s t - b e n e f i t study which recommended the p r o j e c t was not comprehensive i n i t s accounting of c o s t s , and t h a t the p r o j e c t would not produce the expected net b e n e f i t s . Perhaps more imp o r t a n t l y , the n o r t h e a s t c o a l development has s e t a p a t t e r n of decision-making which occurs wholly o u t s i d e the l e g i s l a t i v e process and, t h e r e -f o r e , away from p u b l i c debate. The approach used t o p l a n and implement the nort h e a s t c o a l p r o j e c t may be e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e u s i n g the c r i t e r i a h i g h l y d e s i r e d by p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y ; however, i t may be q u i t e i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a government when making p u b l i c investment d e c i s i o n s . In summary, these h i s t o r i c a l events r e s u l t e d i n a context which p l a c e d the CDG program i n an environment plagued with unresolved concerns, and which continue t o s u r f a c e . The a p p r a i s a l of the Quinsam Coal p r o p o s a l , a more r e c e n t p r o j e c t , e x e m p l i f i e s the c o n t r o v e r s y because, l i k e the no r t h e a s t c o a l p r o j e c t , i t , too, d e v i a t e s from the s t a t e d procedures i n the g u i d e l i n e s . In t h i s case, e n v i r -onmental concerns of p o s s i b l e damage to the salmon f i s h e r y and to l o c a l water q u a l i t y (Rose, 1983) sparked a precedent s e t t i n g d e c i s i o n by ELUC when Quinsam r e c e i v e d t h e i r Stage II a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e s u b j e c t t o the conduct of p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . In another case, concerns of e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s 112 both i n the Kootenays and i n neighbouring Montana, over the Sage Creek p r o p o s a l , w i l l not e a s i l y be e l i m i n a t e d . A d e c i s i o n as to which pla n n i n g and p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l p r o c e s s w i l l be a p p l i e d to these c a s e s — t h e CDG m u l t i - p a r t i c i p a n t c o n s u l t a t i v e process or the s e c r e t i v e p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o -c e s s — w i l l determine the continued e x i s t e n c e of the p r e s e n t c o a l g u i d e l i n e s as a program. Chapter 4 COAL DEVELOPMENT I n s t i t u t i o n a l Arrangements The measure of legislation is not simply the powers contained, but the logic by which these powers are to be exercised. - S. Rogers, B.C. Minister of the Environment (1981) 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The instruments to implement p u b l i c p o l i c i e s are numerous. Some measures are d i r e c t , as i n the l e g i s l a t i o n and accompanying r e g u l a t i o n s f o r c o a l mining; others are l e s s d i r e c t and more f l e x i b l e , i n c l u d i n g the g u i d e l i n e s and p l a n n i n g processes which a f f e c t c o a l development. In Canada, the i n s t i t u t i o n s which administer the v a r i o u s p o l i c y instruments and conduct government p l a n n i n g are s t r u c t u r e d a t s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . Two are formal l e v e l s a r i s i n g from the C o n s t i t u t i o n — f e d e r a l and p r o v i n -c i a l — b u t t here are s e v e r a l l e s s formal l e v e l s , i n c l u d i n g the d i v i s i o n s and branches of v a r i o u s departments or m i n i -s t r i e s , v a r i o u s committees or panels, some with membership at the c a b i n e t - m i n i s t e r l e v e l , and w o r k i n g - l e v e l agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Implementation of p u b l i c p o l i c y f o r c o a l 113 114 development has evolved as an outcome of i n t e r a c t i o n s among a l l these l e v e l s through time. T h i s chapter dea l s with the instruments f o r , and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of, p u b l i c p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g and the ensuing problems t h a t arose when the development of new c o a l mines and r e l a t e d developments were addressed, and d e s c r i b e s the o p e r a t i n g procedures of the c o a l development g u i d e l i n e s program. 4.2 L e g i s l a t i o n , R e g u l a t i o n s , and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r Coal Development  L e g i s l a t i o n i s a d i r e c t instrument of p u b l i c p o l i c y which comprises s t a t u t e s h o l d i n g the f o r c e of law. Regula-t i o n s , on the other hand, are more l o o s e l y d e f i n e d , and they may i n c l u d e the i m p o s i t i o n of c o n s t r a i n t s backed by government a u t h o r i t y t h a t are intended to modify the beha-v i o u r of i n d i v i d u a l s and f i r m s i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r (Canada, Economic C o u n c i l of Canada, 197 9). T h i s broad d e f i n i t i o n of l e g i s l a t i o n and r e g u l a t i o n i s necessary because the t o o l s f o r c a r r y i n g out p u b l i c p o l i c y and imple-menting p u b l i c plans i n c l u d e l i c e n c e s , l e a s e s , permits, c e r t i f i c a t e s , and a p p r o v a l s . The procedures are v a r i e d , s c a t t e r e d , and e x t e n s i v e . A review of the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e on the l e g i s l a -t i o n , r e g u l a t i o n s , and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to c o a l use i n B.C. i n d i c a t e d t h a t the f i e l d was l a r g e l y i n a c c u r a t e and incomplete because of c o n t i n u a l changes. McGee's (1973) 115 review was found to be s u b s t a n t i a l l y out of date, and other compendia foc u s s e d o n l y on l e g i s l a t i o n p e r t i n e n t to c e r t a i n i s s u e s i n c o a l mining. For example, Dick and Thirgood (1975) examined r e c l a m a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n and Hogg (1972) reviewed mining e x p l o r a t i o n c o n t r o l s . Gibbons (1980), while s u g g e s t i n g t h a t he p r o v i d e d a complete overview, d i d not a c c u r a t e l y p r e s e n t the B.C. s i t u a t i o n - - f o r i n s t a n c e , the Environment and Land Use Act was not i n c l u d e d i n h i s survey. The "Summary of S t a t u t o r y Requirements" and the " P r o v i n c i a l Government Agency C o n t r a c t s , " and Appendices I and I I I i n the Guidelines for Coal Development (B.C. ELUC, 1976) was now no longer a p p l i c a b l e , and the l e g i s l a t i v e summary (B.C. ELUCS, 1976) i s out of date. The brochure (B.C. MISBD, 1981c) c l a i m i n g to f a m i l i a r i z e members of the business com-munity wi t h government i n s t i t u t i o n s and p o l i c i e s on e n v i r o n -mental management, c i t e d o n l y the P o l l u t i o n Control Act, Pesticides Control Act, Environment and Land Use Act, and the Health Act as r e l e v a n t B.C. l e g i s l a t i o n f o r environmen-t a l management. The most complete summary has been p r o v i d e d i n Crook's (1982a) d r a f t appendix, " I n s t i t u t i o n a l Framework f o r Resource Development." Although t h i s document was w r i t t e n as a supplement to a i d resource p l a n n i n g i n the n o r t h e a s t r e g i o n of the p r o v i n c e , i t l a c k e d the o r g a n i z a -t i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s used i n p l a n n i n g n o r t h -e a s t c o a l , and f a i l e d to mention s e v e r a l f e d e r a l agencies. A more complete survey i s presented i n Appendix H which 116 shows the o r g a n i z a t i o n of key p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t r i e s , and Appendix I which c o n t a i n s the r e l e v a n t f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n , r e g u l a t i o n s and g u i d e l i n e s , and the type of c o n t r o l agree-ments r e q u i r e d of c o a l companies. 4.2.1 M i n i s t r y o f Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources The mandate of the m i n i s t r y i s t o develop and manage the energy p o l i c y of the pr o v i n c e , to manage p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s f o r m i n e r a l and petroleum resource develop-ment, and to implement sound c o n s e r v a t i o n and e n v i r o n -mental measures f o r these i n d u s t r i e s . (B.C. MEMPR, 1979b, p. 39) With i n the MEMPR, the M i n e r a l Resources D i v i s i o n was the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o b t a i n i n g i n d u s t r y compliance w i t h mining l e g i s l a t i o n , as shown i n F i g u r e 5, and a d m i n i s t e r i n g the Mines Act and the Coal Act. The Coal Act p r o v i d e d the l e g i s l a t i v e foundation f o r p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l s , as i t r e q u i r e d companies to make submissions a c c o r d i n g t o : . . . a p l a n of o p e r a t i o n s showing the e x p l o r a t i o n , development, and p r o d u c t i o n intended t o be c a r r i e d out i n the l o c a t i o n d u r i n g the term o f the l e a s e , suppor-ted by such data, f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s , and other i n f o r m a t i o n as the M i n i s t e r may, i n accordance w i t h the r e g u l a t i o n s , r e q u i r e f o r the purpose of e v a l u a t i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n . (B.C., 1974, p. 9) I t then p r o v i d e d d i r e c t i o n f o r government d e c i s i o n s r e g a r -d i n g the p r o p o s a l ; . . . where the M i n i s t e r i s s a t i s f i e d t h a t the p l a n o f o p e r a t i o n f i l e d . . . pr o v i d e s f o r (i) the safe and e f f i c i e n t e x p l o r a t i o n , development, and p r o d u c t i o n o f c o a l on the l o c a t i o n ; and CABINET R-Bcnner Chairmo* Hon R. H McCitllood Chairman 0. Rowlyk Generof Monooer M.Toylor Choirmon R.C HYDRO a POWER AUTHORITY B.C. PETROLEUM CORPORATION B.C UTILITIES COMMISSION MINISTER DEPUTY MINISTER MINERAL RESOURCES DIVISION ENERGY RESOURCES DIVISION ASSISTANT DEPUTY MINISTER A. Fftymon Branch GEOUDGICAL INSPECTION 9 ENGINEERING MINERAL ECONOMICS TITLES A. Sutherland Brown W. C. Robinion J. Cloncy(Acling) R_ Rulhtrfort ENERGY DEVELOPMENT A a a a Hon. R. H. McCltlland R. IlMno, OIRECTOff OF COMMUNICATIONS PETROLEUM RESOURCES DIVISION P Hruihowy FINANCE 8 ADMINISTRATION DIVISION ASSISTANT DEPUTY MINISTER E. R. Mocgrtgor Branch POLICY DEVELOPMENT FORECASTS 8 SPECIAL PROJECTS CONSERVATION 8 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECT ANALYSIS D.Hora»lll R.A.Prtec« J.OHill OiOGormon TECHNOLOGY ASSISTANT DEPUTY MINISTER R.Dvirif Branch ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL TITLES MEDIATION R ARBITRATION BOARO OFFSHORE RESOURCES A.G.T.Wtovtr W. M.Young W.J.Quinn E. Smith P FinKIt (Acting) ASSISTANT DEPUTY MINISTER J. A. Lewis Branch MINERAL REVENUE COMPTROLLER PERSONNEL DATA PROCESSING ADMINISTRATION 8 SYSTEMS W W. R«t R. R Oovy N.K.Cilltip* T. Choi'on Figure 5 B.C. M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines' and Petroleum Resources r— 1 118 ( i i ) the optimum recovery of c o a l r e s u l t i n g from> p r o d u c t i o n on the l o c a t i o n , w i t h minimum of environmental e f f e c t , the L i e u t e n a n t -Governor i n C o u n c i l . . . s h a l l i s s u e a l e a s e . (B.C., 1974, p. 9 ) For c o a l r e s o u r c e s , t h i s D i v i s i o n maintained the tenure r e c o r d s f o r c o a l l i c e n c e s and l e a s e s . The r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y f o r r e g u l a t i o n s governing e x t r a c t i o n of c o a l , f o r worker and p u b l i c s a f e t y at the s i t e , and f o r r e c l a m a t i o n a p p r o v a l f o r lands d i s t u r b e d by c o a l mining, was h e l d by the I n s p e c t i o n and E n g i n e e r i n g Branch. T h i s branch conducted r e g i o n a l f i e l d i n s p e c t i o n s to check mines f o r s a f e t y of o p e r a t i o n s as w e l l as f o r the completion of r e c l a m a t i o n work. The G e o l o g i c a l Branch c a r r i e d out g e o s c i e n t i f i c surveys, s t u d i e s , and c o m p i l a t i o n s , m a i n t a i n i n g a p r o v i n c i a l data system on c o a l r e s e r v e s . The M i n e r a l Economic Branch (renamed the P o l i c y and E v a l u a t i o n Branch) conducted a n a l y -ses f o r the government f o r economic c o n d i t i o n s , land use, and t a x a t i o n f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o the c o a l i n d u s t r y . T h i s branch a l s o p r o v i d e d economic e x p e r t i s e f o r c o a l p o l i c y and pl a n n i n g , economic analyses f o r c o a l marketing, f i n a n c i a l and f i s c a l e v a l u a t i o n s of c o a l p r o j e c t s , government pro-grams, and s t a t i s t i c s on c o a l p r o d u c t i o n , s a l e s , and v a l u e . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the c o a l development g u i d e l i n e s moved from the I n s p e c t i o n and E n g i n e e r i n g Branch to the P o l i c y and E v a l u a t i o n Branch i n March 1983. Because c o a l developments c r e a t e impacts and con-cerns among many government agencies, inter-agency 119 c o n s u l t a t i v e procedures evolved, each with r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from d i f f e r e n t m i n i s t r i e s and each at a d i f f e r e n t working l e v e l o f government. A p a r a l l e l or d u p l i c a t i o n i n some o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s and f u n c t i o n s appeared when the o r g a n i z a t i o n and f u n c t i o n of these v a r i o u s committees was examined. A formal procedure operated f o r most c o a l p r o -j e c t s i n the p r o v i n c e i s p e c i a l , yet p a r a l l e l , s e t s of pro-cedures and s t r u c t u r e s operated i n the pl a n n i n g and e v a l u a -t i o n of the North East C o a l Development (NECD) p r o j e c t . I t i s noteworthy t h a t the M i n i s t e r of t h i s agency d i d not c h a i r any of the s e n i o r , decision-making, c o a l committees, and, thus, i n e f f e c t the m i n i s t r y ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y l a y o n l y w i t h the t e c h n i c a l a p p r a i s a l of c o a l mine development and r e c l a m a t i o n p l a n n i n g , MEMPR had c a b i n e t - l e v e l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on two s i g -n i f i c a n t i n t e r - a g e n c y decision-making committees. The ELUC l e g i s l a t i v e l y mandated by the ELU Act and c h a i r e d by MOE, f u n c t i o n e d t o grant approval i n p r i n c i p l e t o c o a l mines a f t e r they had completed Stage I I of the CDG p r o j e c t a p p r a i -s a l procedures, when they would be granted p e r m i s s i o n t o begin c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s formal decision-making procedure was a l s o to be f o l l o w e d f o r other c o a l - r e l a t e d developments — r a i l w a y s , t o wnsites, power l i n e s , and roads. The CCCD, without formal l e g i s l a t i v e or r e g u l a t o r y mandate, and c h a i r e d by MISBD, was a p a r a l l e l group t h a t met to c o o r d i -nate and decide upon developments i n the NECD p r o j e c t , The 120 MEMPR deputy m i n i s t e r a l s o s a t on two inter - a g e n c y commit-tee s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r reviewing c o a l and r e l a t e d develop-ments. The ELUTC was f o r m a l l y s t r u c t u r e d t o review the comments, terms, and c o n d i t i o n s n e g o t i a t e d by the CGSC and the c o a l companies, and make submissions to ELUC. The ELUTC and the NEC Deputy M i n i s t e r ' s Committee had a p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e yet f u n c t i o n e d d i f f e r e n t l y . These committees were c h a i r e d by the MOE and MISBD deputy m i n i s t e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . At the working l e v e l , the most s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r -agency committee f o r c o a l development was the Coal Guide-l i n e s S t e e r i n g Committee (CGSC), which co o r d i n a t e d the g u i d e l i n e s p r o c e s s . I t was expected to be the "primary government c o n t a c t f o r a c o a l company" (Crook, 1981, Per-s o n a l communication). The CGSC was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i -d i n g o v e r a l l t e c h n i c a l - l e v e l d i r e c t i o n to c o a l companies, approving Stage I submissions, and making recommendations t o ELUC on terms and c o n d i t i o n s f o r approval a f t e r submission of Stage I I . T h i s committee was form e r l y j o i n t l y c h a i r e d by a member of the ELU S e c r e t a r i a t and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of MEMPR, but a f t e r 1980 the c h a i r was occupied by the Senior I n s p e c t o r o f Mines alone, and the p o s i t i o n took the t i t l e "Manager, P r o j e c t E v a l u a t i o n " i n 1983. Appendix J shows the int e r - a g e n c y committees with r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e l a t e d t o c o a l development. Two i n t e r -agency s t a n d i n g sub-committees r e p o r t e d to the CGSC. One was the Socio-Economic C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee (SECC), which 121 pr o v i d e d t e c h n i c a l advice t o the CGSC and c o a l companies, and c o o r d i n a t e d the socio-economic reviews of Stage I and I I r e p o r t s . The SECC was c h a i r e d by MMA, and Crook summa-r i z e d i t s f u n c t i o n s : s o l i c i t , c o l l e c t , summarize and i n t e g r a t e the review comments of those p r o v i n c i a l agencies which are con-cerned w i t h the socio-economic impacts of c o a l mines,* c o n s i d e r the socio-economic aspects of mining p r o -p o s a l s , i n c l u d i n g p r o j e c t - r e l a t e d impacts and impact management; advise the CGSC on socio-economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o p r o j e c t s ; recommend terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r s t u d i e s t o the CGSC; and i n t e r p r e t p r o v i n c i a l socio-economic p o l i c i e s t o companies. (1982, P e r s o n a l communication) The second, the Economic E v a l u a t i o n Committee (EEC), a l s o p r o v i d e d t e c h n i c a l advice t o the CGSC and c o a l compa-n i e s , and conducted c o s t - b e n e f i t analyses where major government investment c o u l d occur, and as p a r t o f i t s f u n c t i o n s , a c c o r d i n g to Crook: adv i s e s companies of the c o s t and revenue data which are r e q u i r e d t o undertake i t s b e n e f i t / c o s t e v a l u -a t i o n s ; and ad v i s e s the CGSC of the o v e r a l l b e n e f i t / c o s t s t a t u s of p r o j e c t s . ( i b i d . ) The EEC was c h a i r e d by a member of the P o l i c y and E v a l u a -t i o n Branch of the MEMPR, whose analyses were handled i n a c o n f i d e n t i a l manner and were not normally a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c s c r u t i n y . The NECD had an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e p a r a l l e l t o the CGSC and i t s sub-committees, where the NECD was admin i s t e r e d by the NECCC. U n l i k e the CGSC, where 122 membership was drawn from the w o r k i n g - l e v e l b i o p h y s i c a l agencies, the NECCC c o n s i s t e d of major developers, both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , who were i n v o l v e d i n NECD p r o j e c t s . One sub-committee, the NEC Regional Impact C o n s u l t a t i o n Commit-tee, p a r a l l e l e d the SECC. T h i s committee was concerned with socio-economic impact and management at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l i n a working-group format c o o r d i n a t e d by MMA (see F i g u r e 6). The p a r a l l e l to the EEC g u i d e l i n e s was a team of economic p o l i c y a d v i s o r s who conducted c o s t - b e n e f i t analyses f o r the NECD p r o j e c t (B.C. MISBD, 1982c). Another i n t e r - a g e n c y committee a s s o c i a t e d with c o a l mining was the A d v i s o r y Committee on Reclamation (ACR), mandated by S e c t i o n 9 of the Mines Act, and c h a i r e d by the C h i e f Inspector of Mines of MEMPR, The ACR reviewed and recommended approval of r e c l a m a t i o n programs, A r e g i o n a l c o u n t e r p a r t , the M i n e s i t e A d v i s o r y Committee (MAC) or the Regional A d v i s o r y Committee on Reclamation, under the auth-o r i t y of S e c t i o n 8 of the Mines Act, had r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r recommending approval of c o a l e x p l o r a t i o n and development programs i n r e l a t i o n to r e c l a m a t i o n and environmental impacts, s u b j e c t to r e f e r r a l to the ACR i n V i c t o r i a , T h i s r e g i o n a l l e v e l approach was thought to apply e q u a l l y t o the mines i n the southeast and the Peace R i v e r c o a l b l o c k s . In p r a c t i c e , however, the d e c e n t r a l i z e d attempts of MAC f o r d i r e c t i n t e r a c t i o n with c o a l companies d i d not f u n c t i o n . CABINET COMMITTEE O N COM. H M . D M . P W K p i DEPUTY MINISTERS' C O M M I T T t t O t t k m t n A.L f N l ECONOMIC rata Mm so* NORTH EAST COM. COORDINATING COMMITTEE C f c w m a n HM. S.R. B n l o r d M EMBERS: Br i t n f c C o t w n W i h>dt« B t i t K h C o t u m b l * Rartwaf C M u d i s * N i l i o a t l R t i h t t f O i s t i i d o l Twnbtef Rid(C M m r t l n t tl I i i m p o r t i l i M mi H i g l i w i y l N i t t w o l H j f b o w i B o n d Quintette Coal I m i l e d leek Cwpofilxx* Dfrurr DIRECTOR I DEVELOPMENT H W i b t N p s M REGIONAL DEYE10PMFNT 6. loKeti nuns PORIATION N P t f t l C ONTROt S T S I E M S & SERVICES I M c C o t w c h r ADMINISTRATOR 8 C k c a n i MANAGER REGULATORY I ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS P. S i f t f l MANAGER MANPOWR DfVlinPUfNI A Hewett MANACER PROIECT COMMUNICATIONS H P r i l c i M * DAWSON CRT FA COORDINATOR 0 M c C w t M f CHETWYND COORDINAIOR M . H i f w M d F i g u r e 6 B.C. North East C o a l Development O r g a n i z a t i o n S t r u c t u r e t c n m MtMsirnr umsm W.I o u n v f c o m n n t t WCM IIMD i i m a * DOfCTM tail t»M aoani msi com COOftXMIMC COMMimt Ommm Nat I t l i M Mf MMtS: BriMi dtaflAb Mpfre dHKh ( M i l tt**i CmadiM IMiml Utmtf OHM •< laaMa t r i p 9<natf<tf Call I M M IKI COPVIUM wrtm micro* t UUMCH MWIWSTUTM I tkm* •MUCH MCUUIOtV I MUKS r. HAJUUI Mvunrwin WMCtl rionci CSMWOtlOIIIOIR ncioiHt n u n . c t M i m m i l *s t turners I MCTJMC% (MWttM cwnrrim C«fl« cnomiuiM ammiNiiM 0 HcCvlMT Figure 6 B.C. North East Coal Development O r g a n i z a t i o n S t r u c t u r e t—• 124 4.2.2 M i n i s t r y of Environment The M i n i s t r y of Environment pro v i d e s the province with t o o l s f o r c a r r y i n g out the commitment to preserve B r i t i s h Columbia's unique n a t u r a l h e r i t a g e . The s t r u c -t u r e o f the m i n i s t r y r e f l e c t s both the d i v e r s i t y and the i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s o f a l l elements t h a t make up the environment, as w e l l as the need f o r c a r e f u l planning, management and environmental s e r v i c e s t o meet v a r i e d r e g i o n a l requirements t h a t extend from the P a c i f i c to the A r c t i c watershed. (B.C. MOE, 1980b, p. 2) Th i s passage r e f l e c t s the problem as w e l l as the promise of the MOE. Because of the s i z e of the province , i t s b i o p h y s i c a l d i v e r s i t y and the attempts at a comprehen-s i v e r a t i o n a l e , MOE i n t e r a c t i o n s with c o a l development are d i f f i c u l t t o d e s c r i b e . There appeared t o be d u p l i c a t i o n of d i v i s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and an o v e r l a p between c e n t r a -l i z e d and r e g i o n a l i z e d environment assessment and management f u n c t i o n s . An examination of the m i n i s t r y ' s l e g i s l a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t had l i t t l e l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y to a f f e c t d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g c o a l development and o p e r a t i o n s , except at c a b i n e t and dep u t y - m i n i s t e r l e v e l . Most w o r k i n g - l e v e l MOE s t a f f e f f o r t was t h e r e f o r e d i r e c t e d toward n o n - l e g i s l a -ted, ad hoc, p l a n n i n g and assessment techniques t o preserve environmental v a l u e s . To address the many environmental concerns, e x t e n s i v e and time-consuming involvement i n the review o f developer plans was conducted. Most MOE concerns r e g a r d i n g c o a l development, both i n the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s and i n V i c t o r i a , c o u l d be addressed on l y through the CDG p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l process. The MOE had f i v e main d i v i s i o n s as shown i n F i g u r e 7. Branches of the Assessment and 125 MINISTER C.S. Rogers DEPUTY MINISTER B.E.Marr Information Servlcea Dr. Dtr: R.L. Cameron ADMINISTRATION DIVISION Executive Director: J.R. Marshall ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OtV Assistant Deputy Minister: A. Murray REGIONAL OPERATIONS Dry. Assistant Deputy Minister: E.D. Anthony ASSESSMENTS PLANNING DP/. Assistant Deputy Minister: W.N. Venables PERSONNEL SERVICES BR. Dir: R.C Webber FISH a WILDLIFE BR. Dir: D.J. Robinson CONSERVATION OFFICER SERVICE Chid Conservation Or): R.L. AkJrich VANCOUVER ISLAND REGION Reg. Dir: J.C. Lyons PLANNING BR. Dir: Dr. J. O'Rkxdan FINANCIAL SERVICES BR. Dir: K.R. MacKay MARINE RESOURCES BR. Dir: T.G Halsey PROVINCIAL EMERGENCY | PROGRAM Dir: RE Neale LOWER MAINLANO REGION Reg. Dir. D.R Hehn ASSESSMENT BR. Dir: Dr. AN. Boydell COMPUTING SERVICES BR. Dir. MF Rose WASTE MANAGEMENT BR. Dir: R.H. Ferguson THOMPSON4«COLA REG. 1 CARIBOO REG. Rag. Dir: W A Kasteten TERRESTRIAL STUDIES BR. Dir: W A Benson WATER MANAGEMENT BR. Dir: P.M. Brady KOOTENAY REGION Rag. Dir D.G McDonald AQUATIC STUDIES BR. Dir: Dr. R.J. Buchanan PESTICIDE CONTROL BR. Dir: Dr. R.W. Kobylnyk SKEENA REGION Reg. Dir: D.E.Smuin AIR STUDIES BR. Dir: Dr. R. Wilson OMINECA-PEACE REGION Reg. Dir: A B Mitchell ENVIRONMENTAL LAB Dir: Dr. R. Swingle OKANAGAN REGION Rag. Dir: T.H. Oxland SURVEYS S MAPPING BR. Dir: E.R. McMmn Province of British Columbia Ministry of Environment The mam objective of the Ministry ot Environment is to make sure that people, fish and wildlife have a good environment m which to live, work and play m (tie province ot British Columbia In carrying out this mandate the Mimslry must maintain a balance between the need to safeguard the quality of an, water, land, flora and fauna and the social and economic needs of people To Defter meet this resportSrb'iify the Ministry ol Environment is presently undergoing a major reorganization thai <s designed to introduce a common planning and management base tor all ministry programs I Mis will reguue rewriting legislation realigning programs and regionalizing much Ot trie decision making process I his organization chart reflects the Ministry s structure as of July t y f l l . Dir. (Jirecioi Reg. Regional Oiv. Division Br. lirancn F i g u r e 7 B.C. M i n i s t r y of Environment 125 F i g u r e 7 B.C. M i n i s t r y of Environment 126 Plan n i n g D i v i s i o n , the Environmental Management D i v i s i o n , and the Regional Operations D i v i s i o n had r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e g a r d i n g c o a l and r e l a t e d developments through the CDG review of new p r o p o s a l s . C o a l o p e r a t i o n s were monitored by the Environmental Management D i v i s i o n , which administered the former P o l l u t i o n Control Act, the Water Act, and the W i l d l i f e Act. The Waste Management Branch was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d a i l y a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n o f p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l permits and approvals, and the Water Management Branch was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a l l o c a t i o n and management of water resources by i s s u i n g l i c e n c e s f o r water use and p r o v i d i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n on f l o o d i n g , e r o s i o n , and p r o t e c t i o n - d e s i g n s t r a t e g i e s , Bankes and Thompson (1980) suggested t h a t the p o t e n t i a l f o r monitoring as a s c i e n t i f i c e v a l u a t i v e technique t o support the o b j e c t i v e s of p r o j e c t assessment c o u l d be found i n these s t a t u t o r y t o o l s . T h i s p o t e n t i a l has not been r e a l i z e d , however, "because implementations of m o n i t o r i n g p r o v i s i o n s are not w e l l understood, m o n i t o r i n g does not continue a f t e r p r o j e c t shutdown, and p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s n o n - e x i s t e n t " ( i b i d . , p. 12). Proposed new l e g i s l a t i o n was expected t o h e l p MOE improve e f f i c i e n c y and c o n s i s t e n c y . The Waste Management Act and the W i l d l i f e Management Act were planned to i n t e -grate w i t h the approach o f the Environment Management Act. T h i s l a t t e r a c t c o n s o l i d a t e d MOE management r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 127 by a l l o w i n g f o r the " c r e a t i o n of co o r d i n a t e d systems f o r environmental study and d e c i s i o n s , so th a t both the p u b l i c and other m i n i s t r i e s of government co u l d expect e f f i c i e n t and c o n s i s t e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e i r concerns" (B.C., MOE, 1981a, p. 2). Wider powers were sought so t h a t assessment a c t i v i t i e s would be seen as onl y one p a r t o f an o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g process. When t h i s approach was co n s i d e r e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o c o a l development, the MOE e f f o r t s a t c o n s o l i -d a t i o n and pl a n n i n g met with l i t t l e success. The system f o r environmental s t u d i e s and decision-making, l a t e r a d m i n i -s t e r e d i n p a r t by both MEMPR and MISBD, was not r a t i o n a l i z e d or w i t h i n MOE 1s c o n t r o l . In c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e , the c o o r d i n a -t i o n r e q u i r e d to assess environmental impacts occurs through in t e r - a g e n c y committees. The ELUC and ELUTC, c h a i r e d , r e s p e c t i v e l y , by the c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r and deputy m i n i s t e r o f MOE, were o f f i c i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e s o l v i n g resource c o n f l i c t s through t h e i r mandate i n the Environment and Land Use Act, T h i s a c t pro v i d e d broad powers under S e c t i o n 3(b) f o r ELUC t o : Ensure t h a t a l l aspects o f p r e s e r v a t i o n and maintenance of the n a t u r a l environment are f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of land use and resource development commensurate with a maximum b e n e f i c i a l l a n d use, and minimize and prevent waste of res o u r c e s , and d e s p o l i a -t i o n of the environment occasioned thereby. (B.C., 1971) . and f u r t h e r , under S e c t i o n 6: . . . notwithstanding any oth e r Act or r e g u l a t i o n , . . no M i n i s t e r , department o f Government, or agent of the Crown s p e c i f i e d i n . . . [an] order s h a l l e x e r c i s e any 128 power granted under any other Act or r e g u l a t i o n except i n accordance w i t h the o r d e r . (B.C., 1971) L a t e r d e c i s i o n s of ELUC were l i m i t e d to r e j e c t i o n o r a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e of coal-proponent staged documents based on recommendations from the CGSC and the ELUTC. These d e c i s i o n s were s i t e - and p r o j e c t - s p e c i f i c . They d i d not attempt to r e s o l v e land-use c o n f l i c t s or the cumulative impacts t h a t might be caused by s e v e r a l mines o p e r a t i n g i n one r e g i o n ; thus, these concerns were l e f t t o be assessed and planned f o r by the Assessment and Planning D i v i s i o n o f the MOE, although t h i s d i v i s i o n had no c l e a r access to decision-making procedures. To address cumulative impacts, the Planning Branch prepared s t r a t e g i c plans t o provide c o n s i s t e n t r e g i o n a l environmental p o l i c i e s i n t o which new developments should f i t . The E l k 7 F l a t h e a d Planning U n i t i n the southeast c o a l b l o c k was the group and r e g i o n f o r which the f i r s t s t r a t e -g i c p lans were developed. The s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g program "arose d i r e c t l y from the CDG process" (B.C. MOE, 1981b, p. 22) with an o b j e c t i v e t o develop a comprehensive e n v i r o n -mental management p l a n and program to measure impacts asso-c i a t e d w i t h the f i v e e x i s t i n g and proposed c o a l p r o j e c t s i n the r e g i o n . The p l a n would address f i s h , w i l d l i f e , r e c r e a -t i o n , water a l l o c a t i o n , and water and a i r q u a l i t y through the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of management o b j e c t i v e s f o r each aspect. S t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g was not c o o r d i n a t e d through 129 i n t e r - a g e n c y committees, and c o a l companies and other government agencies had no d i r e c t i n put i n t o the s e t t i n g of the r e g i o n a l management o b j e c t i v e s . A s i m i l a r process was i n i t i a t e d t o develop a comprehensive impact management pro-gram f o r the Peace River Planning U n i t . The i n v e n t o r y on which these plans were based came from the A q u a t i c , T e r r e s -t r i a l , and A i r S t u d i e s Branches of t h i s d i v i s i o n , MOE was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n t e r - a g e n c y A g r i c u l -t u r a l Land Commission (ALC), which had the task of a c t i n g as a l a n d zoning a u t h o r i t y . With r e f e r e n c e to new c o a l developments, ALC r e g u l a t e d non-farming use of land i n A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves (ALR), and c o n d i t i o n a l - u s e per-mits were arranged through the ALC f o r mine s i t e s w i t h i n ALR. ALC p e r m i s s i o n was a l s o necessary to c r o s s land r e s e r v e s w i t h r i g h t s - o f - w a y . Through the Soil Conservation Act, ALC had the a u t h o r i t y to r e g u l a t e the c o n t r o l of sedimentation from mining a c t i v i t i e s . 4.2.3 M i n i s t r y of I n d u s t r y and Small Business Development  The Economic A n a l y s i s and Research Bureau of t h i s m i n i s t r y had the most e x t e n s i v e involvement with c o a l and r e l a t e d developments i n B.C., as may be seen i n F i g u r e 8. The o b j e c t i v e of the Economic A n a l y s i s and Research Bureau i s to p r o v i d e the Deputy M i n i s t e r , M i n i s t e r and Cabinet with f a c t u a l economic data r e q u i r e d to develop government p o l i c y . The bureau a l s o p r o v i d e s p o l i c y assessments and development a l t e r n a t i v e s r e l a t i n g to the i n d u s t r i a l , t r a de and socio-economic a c t i v i t i e s i n MINISTER EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT B.C.D.C. B.C. RAIL B.C. HARBOURS BOARD DEPUTY MINISTER PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION & COORDINATION DIVISION COMMUNITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTl PROGRAM COORDINATION PROGRAM DESIGN & PROJECT APPRAISAL TRADE AND INDUSTRY DIVISION SMALL BUSINESS SERVICES INDUSTRY TRADE AND CAPITAL PROJECTS BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT -EUROPE CENTRAL STATISTICS BUREAU ADMINISTRATION AND INFORMATION SERVICES ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND RESEARCH BUREAU POPULATION AND SOCIAL STATISTICS ECONOMIC & BUSINESS STATISTICS STATISTICAL SERVICES & INTEGRATION REGIONAL AND RESOURCE ANALYSIS SECTORAL ANALYSIS INTERNATNL ECONOMIC RELATIONS SPECIAL PROJECTS F i g u r e 8 B.C. M i n i s t r y of Indu s t r y and Small Business Development to o 131 the p r o v i n c e . The bureau e v a l u a t e s major p r o j e c t pro-p o s a l s , and p r o v i d e s the p l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i n g f u n c t i o n s necessary to t h e i r r e a l i z a t i o n . The bureau has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e v e l o p i n g and c o o r d i n a t i n g the p r o v i n c e 1 s i n d u s t r i a l p o l i c y and trade development s t r a t e g i e s . (B.C. MISBD, 1981b, p. 27) The Regional Resource A n a l y s i s Branch of t h i s bureau had c o n c e n t r a t e d i t s a c t i v i t i e s on the NECD p r o j e c t , but had a l s o undertaken analyses with r e s p e c t to c o a l developments i n the southeast and Hat Creek. The branch's a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d : (1) c o o r d i n a t i o n o f the c r i t i c a l path of the NECD p r o j e c t , (2) development of r a i l - c o s t i n g computer s i m u l a t i o n models, (3) Tumbler Ridge townsite and s o c i a l impact an a l y s e s , (4) e v a l u a t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e investments, (5) s p e c i f i c a t i o n of d e t a i l e d manpower r e q u i r e -ments f o r NECD, and (6) f a c i l i t a t i o n of n e g o t i a t i o n s between governments, Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s , and p r i v a t e companies. On-going c o a l market a n a l y s i s and r e s e a r c h was a l s o c a r r i e d out by t h i s bureau. In 1980, i t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a j o i n t f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l world thermal c o a l demand study. Information and e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s with regard to these analyses were c a r r i e d out through b r i e f i n g s , r e s e a r c h papers and p u b l i c a t i o n s , and a grant to Canada West Founda^ t i o n f o r a c o a l - s t u d i e s conference. P o l i c y and p r o j e c t economic analyses were conducted f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s s u e s , and g r a i n - and c o a l - p o r t d e v e l o p m e n t — R i d l e y I s l a n d and Robert's Bank. There was no l e g i s l a t i o n or r e g u l a t o r y mandate f o r the b u r e a u ' s . a c t i v i t i e s except the a c t which 132 des i g n a t e d the m i n i s t r y . T h i s bureau r e p l a c e d , i n a n a l y t i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t , and overlapped i n many r e s p e c t s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the P o l i c y and E v a l u -a t i o n Branch of MEMPR. 4.2.4 M i n i s t r y o f Lands, Parks and Housing The M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing (MLPH) adm i n i s t e r e d a p l a n n i n g program f o r u n a l i e n a t e d Crown la n d s . The MLPH s t r a t e g y had been t o e s t a b l i s h a l o g i c a l framework w i t h i n which the m i n i s t r y c o u l d e x e r c i s e i t s p l a n n i n g man-date. P l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s were c a r r i e d out by the Lands and Housing Regional Operations D i v i s i o n , and the Program and Management S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n w i t h support from the Land Programs Branch of the Lands D i v i s i o n , The p l a n n i n g f u n c -t i o n s a p p l i e d t o land where no s p e c i f i c tenure e x i s t e d on Crown l a n d , o r where the land was under tenure granted pursuant to the Land Act. The l e g i s l a t i o n d e f i n e d r e g u l a -t o r y procedures f o r a c q u i r i n g p u b l i c lands, and d e f i n e d the r i g h t s accompanying the t r a n s f e r . When su r f a c e r i g h t s were gi v e n t o h o l d e r s of c o a l l i c e n c e s i n connection with e x p l o -r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , MLPH management d i d not apply. T h i s m i n i s t r y , due to the complexity of Crown land j u r i s d i c t i o n , had many p r o t o c o l agreements with other government agencies. Coal companies were r e q u i r e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the MLPH r e f e r r a l processes i f they wished to o b t a i n l i c e n c e s o f occ u p a t i o n o r rights-of-way, or easements on Crown l a n d . 133 The M i n i s t r y of MLPH was r e p r e s e n t e d on ELUC, with r e p r e s e n -t a t i o n on the CGSC to b r i n g concerns to the n o t i c e of the c o a l developer, u n t i l i n 1983 when i t was combined w i t h MOE. 4.2.5 M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s The government, through the M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s , s e t s g o a l s , determines p o l i c y , develops programs and measures performance. The p r i v a t e s e c t o r , which i n c l u d e s f i r m s i n the f o r e s t and f o r e s t r y i n d u s t r i e s and f i r m s which perform s e r v i c e s and supply goods f o r the M i n i s t r y , c a r r i e s out c o n t r a c t e d o p e r a t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s f i n a n c e d by the government. (B.C. MOF, 1982, p. 7) The M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s (MOF) had c a b i n e t l e v e l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the ELUC, and operated w i t h t h r e e main program f u n c t i o n s — t i m b e r management, range management, and r e c r e a t i o n management, as s p e c i f i e d by the Forest 'Act, R e g u l a t i o n s f o r c o a l and r e l a t e d developments were admini-s t e r e d by the F o r e s t S e r v i c e . To c o o r d i n a t e the n o n - f o r e s t use of l a n d i n p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t s , p r o t o c o l agreements e x i s t e d w i t h the MLPH and the F o r e s t S e r v i c e , and d e c i s i o n s were l a r g e l y d e c e n t r a l i z e d and handled a t the d i s t r i c t l e v e l . A system of zoning was planned w i t h two o b j e c t i v e s : (1) to d i v i d e land a c c o r d i n g to environmental s e n s i t i v i t y and (2) to f a c i l i t a t e a p p r o p r i a t e management g u i d e l i n e s . The f e l l i n g of t r e e s and use of timber i n mining o p e r a t i o n s were a l s o covered i n the Forest Act, and stumpage was pay-a b l e on timber l i c e n c e s , although f r e e - u s e permits were a v a i l a b l e where the timber was used i n mining o p e r a t i o n s , 134 with s p e c i a l a p p r o v a l f o r s u r f a c e use where a p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t was de s i g n a t e d . A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from ministry-headquarters, S t r a t e g i c S t u d i e s Branch, p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the CGSC d e l i b e r a t i o n s , but many d i s t r i c t f o r e s t concerns, p a r t i c u l a r l y those r e l a t e d to c o a l e x p l o r a t i o n , were handled o u t s i d e CGSC c o o r d i n a t i o n . 4.2.6 M i n i s t r y o f P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y and Govern-ment S e r v i c e s  Within the d i v e r s e M i n i s t r y of P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y and Government S e r v i c e s (MPS&GS), the Heritage C o n s e r v a t i o n Branch (HCB) and the C a p i t a l A s s i s t a n c e Program were con-cerned w i t h and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a review o f new c o a l and r e l a t e d developments. The Resource Management D i v i s i o n a dministered the He r i t a g e Resource Assessment and Review Process (HRARP) which was modelled a f t e r the CDG i n i t s two-staged r e p o r t and review format, . . . [there i s ] growing r e c o g n i t i o n by both the pro-v i n c i a l government and p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o c o n s i d e r h e r i t a g e resource v a l u e s i n land-use p l a n n i n g and development, along with t e c h n i c a l , environmental and socio-economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . . . . (B.C. MPS & GS, 1981, p. 1) The g u i d e l i n e s , mandated by the Heritage Conservation Act, were c o o r d i n a t e d by HCB r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the CGSC. The HRARP was designed t o stage d e c i s i o n - and d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n steps synchronized w i t h the CDG. Developers were r e q u i r e d t o submit a He r i t a g e Assessment Report, and i t was t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y s i t e s , survey the h i s t o r i c a l 135 r e c o r d s , and, i n some cases, conduct f i e l d work. A permit was r e q u i r e d to conduct an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o r any subsurface e x p l o r a t i o n , and the HCB MPS&GS p a r t i -c i p a t e d i n the NECS through i n v e n t o r y a c t i v i t i e s . The C a p i t a l A s s i s t a n c e Program was, through the R e c r e a t i o n and Sport Branch, a r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s fund-i n g program. A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s program reviewed the CDG staged assessment r e p o r t s , but there was no l e g i s l a t i v e mandate f o r the program--it operated by moral s u a s i o n and p u b l i c p r e s s u r e . Companies were asked to p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e c r e a t i o n a l development i n resource communities by a s s i s -t i n g with c a p i t a l c o s t s , but o p e r a t i n g c o s t s were borne by the community. Company p a r t i c i p a t i o n was encouraged on the grounds t h a t good r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s improved employee r e l a t i o n s . 4.2.7 M i n i s t r y of Transpor-t a t i o n and High-ways  The M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Highways (MTH) administered the Highway Act, the Highway ( I n d u s t r i a l ) Act, and the P i p e l i n e Act. The f i r s t two a c t s p r o v i d e d f o r r e g u l a t e d access to designated c o n t r o l l e d - a c c e s s highways, f o r d e f i n i t i o n s of i n d u s t r i a l (non-forestry) roads, and f o r r e g u l a t i o n of o p e r a t i o n s . The P i p e l i n e Act governed a l l aspects of the c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l p i p e l i n e s . MTH p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the CGSC, and reviewed new 136 c o a l development p r o p o s a l s f o r m i n i s t e r i a l concerns. Asso-c i a t e d w i t h the NECD were numerous p r o j e c t s i n which t h i s m i n i s t r y a c ted as developer. The environmental assessment f o r the highway from Chetwynd to Tumbler Ridge was handled i n t e r n a l l y on an ad hoc b a s i s , with an i t e r a t i v e review sponsored by the Environment-Land Use sub-committee. A complex secondary network of minor resource roads f o r c o a l e x p l o r a t i o n and development was s u b j e c t to r o u t i n e permit-t i n g p r o cesses, and the primary access roads to the c o a l mine p r o j e c t s i t e s were s u b j e c t to assessment and review by the CDG. The Anzac-Table-Wolverine-Quintette branch l i n e of B.C. R a i l and the 230-kilowatt power l i n e of B.C. Hydro' were assessed by formal Stage I I submissions pursuant to the L i n e a r Development G u i d e l i n e s (LDG), and a p p r o v a l - i n -p r i n c i p l e f o r each development was o b t a i n e d . 4.2.8 M i n i s t r y of Muni-c i p a l A f f a i r s  The mandate of t h i s m i n i s t r y i s t o manage and d i r e c t the development of.human s e t t l e m e n t s i n the p r o v i n c e i n the context of p r o v i n c i a l o b j e c t i v e s . . . w i t h the focus on lan d use and the p l a n n i n g f o r the development of s e t t l e -ments i n the p r o v i n c i a l , r e g i o n a l and l o c a l s c a l e s i n the context of l a r g e r p r o v i n c i a l , s o c i a l , economic, re s o u r c e management and environmental o b j e c t i v e s . (B.C. 1981, p. 1) The mandate f o r the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s (MMA) came from the B r i t i s h North America Act (BNA) f o r j u r i s d i c t i o n over l o c a l government i n s t i t u t i o n s , p r o p e r t y and c i v i l r i g h t s , and a l l l o c a l and p r i v a t e matters. The 137 Municipal Act p r o v i d e d f o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s , and e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r mandate and r o l e s . There were two types of plans a d m i n i s t e r e d by MMAr O f f i c i a l R e gional Plans and O f f i c i a l Settlement P l a n s . These were t o r e p r e s e n t j o i n t l y c o o r d i n a t e d statements between the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s and the p r o v i n c e r e g a r d i n g p o l i c i e s f o r the development, c o n s e r v a t i o n , and management of an area's p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s through the O f f i c i a l Settlement P l a n n i n g Process (OSPP). M i n i s t e r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n c l u d e d the P l a n n i n g Branch which was d i r e c t e d t o c o o r d i n a t e the MMA p r o j e c t review a c t i v i t i e s , a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y shared w i t h r e g i o n a l and headquarters s t a f f , w i t h i n c r e a s i n g r e g i o n a l involvement. The P o l i c y and Research Branch was o r g a n i z e d to review c o a l and r e l a t e d development p r o j e c t s from c o r p o r a t e , f i n a n c i a l , and l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e p o l i c y perspec-t i v e s . T h i s m i n i s t r y was f u l l y i n v o l v e d i n p r o j e c t reviews i n order to i n t e g r a t e development i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o i t s o p e r a t i o n s . To c a r r y out i t s mandate, MMA had been i n v o l v e d i n s e v e r a l programs, f o r example, i n settlement p l a n n i n g aspects of NECD 1s p r o v i n c i a l p l a n f o r Tumbler Ridge, and i n impact management w i t h the l o c a l governments through the E l k f o r d P r o j e c t Committee. MMA acted as an i n f o r m a t i o n source f o r companies i n a t e c h n i c a l and a d v i s o r y r o l e . In r e t u r n , the developer was r e q u i r e d to p r o v i d e two types of i n f o r m a t i o n ; one was the developer's p o l i c i e s on settlement 138 c h o i c e s , housing, and community involvement, and the second, f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n on labour f o r c e , p o p u l a t i o n , housing la n d consumption, m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , and m u n i c i p a l f i n a n c e . MMA p r o v i d e d a l i s t of i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d of developers f o r use i n p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was used by MMA as the b a s i s of s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y d e c i s i o n s f o r most s o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies and manpower f i g u r e s were r e q u i r e d t o e s t a b l i s h labour f o r c e p l a n n i n g p r o j e c t i o n s . With r e f e r -ence t o the SECC, MMA c o o r d i n a t e d t h i s sub-committee and communicated s o c i a l agency i n f o r m a t i o n and p l a n n i n g needs t o the developer. MMA was a l s o concerned with impacts due to i n c r e a s e d development of communities on the l o c a l e n v i r -onment. In the case of the NECD, MMA c h a i r e d the Townsite Community Development Sub-committee and the NEC Regional Impact C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee (NECRICC). 4.2.9 M i n i s t r y o f Labour With r e f e r e n c e t o c o a l and r e l a t e d developments, the Program S e r v i c e s Branch of the M i n i s t r y of Labour (MOL) con-ducted an i n v e n t o r y o f major p r o j e c t s i n B.C. i n 1979 and 1980, and developed estimates of manpower requirements. T h i s branch a l s o p r o v i d e d r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n c e f o r the i n t e r -m i n i s t e r i a l reviews of major c o a l p r o j e c t s through p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n the SECC. Wi t h i n the MOL, program s e r v i c e s pro-v i d e d a d v i c e and i n f o r m a t i o n t o s e n i o r MOL o f f i c i a l s and i n d i r e c t support t o oth e r m i n i s t r y programs. Through the 139 former Mining Regulation Act, worker s a f e t y p r o v i s i o n s a t the mine s i t e were implemented and the m i n i s t r y ' s Manpower Adv i s o r y S e r v i c e s operated to a s s i s t advance p l a n n i n g f o r manpower expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n . To make manpower f o r e -c a s t s , t h i s group cooperated with the f e d e r a l Manpower C o n s u l t a t i v e S e r v i c e s of Employment and Immigration Canada, to examine and analyse the employment and economic poten-t i a l of a r e g i o n . MOL worked toward manpower p l a n n i n g , t r a i n i n g , and upgrading of worker s k i l l s , and c o o r d i n a t e d the Manpower Pla n n i n g Sub-committee f o r the NECS. 4.2.10 M i n i s t r i e s of Educa-t i o n and Hea l t h  The M i n i s t r y of Education (MED) was h i g h l y r e g i o n a l -i z e d because l o c a l s c h o o l boards l e v i e d taxes under the B.C. School Act to provide e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and programs. The c o l l e g e boards, on the other hand, had no t a x - l e v y i n g a u t h o r i t y i n the B.C. College and I n s t i t u t i o n s Act, Most MED a c t i v i t i e s , t h e r e f o r e , were admi n i s t e r e d r e g i o n a l l y , w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n i t i a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s g i v e n to l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . With new c o a l d e v e l o p m e n t s — i n the southeast Kootenays, f o r ex a m p l e — t h e MED headquarters' r o l e was mainly c o n s u l t a t i v e . Headquarters d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the CGSC or the SECC review of c o a l and r e l a t e d p r o j e c t s , but i n the NECD, MED d i d p a r t i c i p a t e with s e n i o r r e g i o n a l personnel i n the NEC RICC t o d e a l w i t h the p e r c e i v e d prob-lems of an expanding community i n a p r o a c t i v e manner, MED 140 involvement i n NEC was p r e c i p i t a t e d by s e v e r a l problems, two of which were p l a n n i n g o r i e n t e d . Program p l a n n i n g at the s e n i o r secondary and c o l l e g e l e v e l was needed to p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r l o c a l i n d i v i d u a l s to b e n e f i t from develop-ment i n the area. Planning was needed f o r use of s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s i n the e x i s t i n g communities and i n Tumbler Ridge as s i t e s f o r c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s ; and there were a l s o i n t e r -j u r i s d i c t i o n a l problems to be r e s o l v e d between m i n i s t r i e s r e g a r d i n g c o s t s f o r roads and s e r v i c e s t o the new s c h o o l s . The o v e r a l l concern of the M i n i s t r y of H e a l t h (MOH) was the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s i n response to new or expan-d i n g communities. In a d d i t i o n , p r o v i s i o n s of the Health Act r e g u l a t e d the c o n d i t i o n s of sewage d i s p o s a l systems, which were of s p e c i f i c concern to t h i s m i n i s t r y f o r o n s i t e sewage and waste d i s p o s a l , as w e l l as i n c r e a s e d sewage d i s -p o s a l i n mining communities. Overlaps i n j u r i s d i c t i o n r e g a r d i n g the c o s t of p r o v i d i n g f o r these i n c r e a s e d s e r v i c e s e x i s t e d between MOH and MMA. I n t e r - j u r i s d i c t i o n a l concerns a l s o developed between MOH and MED over p r o v i s i o n s f o r s p e c i a l education spending. Because c o a l development caused m u l t i p l e impacts on a community, the MOH p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the NEC RICC i n an attempt to a l l e v i a t e the u n c e r t a i n t y and f r u s t r a t i o n f o r s o c i a l agency a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , 141 4.2.11 F e d e r a l Department of Energy, Mines and Resources  The f e d e r a l Department of Energy, Mines and Resour-ces (EMR) was not d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d or a c t i v e i n c o a l assessment i n B.C. The G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada had a ge n e r a l mapping r o l e , and the m i n i s t r y ' s Coal D i v i s i o n o f f i c e , l o c a t e d i n Cal g a r y , A l b e r t a , handled c o a l - r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r Western Canada. 4.2.12 Environment Canada, and Department of F i s h e r i e s and Oceans  The f e d e r a l Department of Environment (DOE) was i n v o l v e d i n B.C. c o a l development as a d v i s e r to the CGSC. Because of the many agencies w i t h i n the department—Atmos-p h e r i c Environment S e r v i c e , Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e , Environmental P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e , Lands D i r e c t o r a t e , Inland Waters D i r e c t o r a t e , and Parks C a n a d a — a l o o s e l y o r g a n i z e d i n t e r n a l departmental committee operated. The Regional Screening and C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee (RSCC) c o o r d i n a t e d a l l document review a c t i v i t i e s f o r the DOE and reviewed any p r o j e c t s r e f e r r e d t o i t by the v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l guide-l i n e s procedures. These documents u s u a l l y entered the RSCC review through the Environmental P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e , and when the i s s u e s were s u b s t a n t i v e as i d e n t i f i e d by an i n i t i a l a n a l y s i s , and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were f e d e r a l , a task f o r c e was s t r u c k to examine the t e c h n i c a l i s s u e s i n depth. 142 The documents f o r the Quinsam and Sage Creek (Q & SC) pro-j e c t s , f o r example, were analysed i n t h i s manner. Where concerns were extra-departmental from the Department of F i s h e r i e s and Oceans (DFO) or Indian A f f a i r s , f u r t h e r a n a l y -s i s was conducted and a c o o r d i n a t e d f e d e r a l response was prepared w i t h t h a t department. 4.3 Operating Procedures of the CDG Program A number of p r o c e d u r a l changes have occurred s i n c e the g u i d e l i n e s were d r a f t e d i n 1976, and, l a t e r , o p e r a t i n g procedures evolved over time w i t h c a s e - s p e c i f i c e x p e r i e n -ces, but w i t h no standard procedures, and s u b s t a n t i a l v a r i a t i o n among cases. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the f o l l o w i n g sum-mary p r o v i d e s a g e n e r a l understanding of the sequence of procedures and i d e n t i f i e s two d i s t i n c t aspects to p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l as p r a c t i s e d i n B.C.--the assessment and the review. 4.3.1 Assessment procedures A c o a l company entered the CDG program, as shown i n F i g u r e 9, w i t h the submission of a prospectus which i d e n t i -f i e d the company's e x p l o r a t i o n program, and contained an i n i t i a l c o n c e p t u a l mine p l a n , p l a n n i n g schedule, and a l i s t o f p o t e n t i a l environmental and socio-economic i s s u e s . ( E x i s t i n g mines p l a n n i n g an expansion entered the program with an expansion proposal.) I f there was no feedback from PROSPECTUS ( I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p r o j e c t ) • C O N C E P T U A L MINE P L A N • P O T E N T I A L £ N V I R - | 3 j O N M E N T A I . I S S U E S 2 • S O C K J - E C C N C M I C I I S S U E S STftilUTION TO F i l L O ^ ' 1 T U O I E S ' f S T M T CO l £ 1 r - n o i C C X -V c f s t t t . t STAGE I j f l d e n l l f l c o t l o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o b l e m s ) • P R E L I M I N A R Y CON- j C E P T U A L D E V E L O P -M E N T P L A N • R E V I E W OF 8 » S E -L I N E DATA • S C O P E OF P O T E N -T I A L E N V I R O N M E N -T A L I M P A C T • A L T E R N A T I V E S • P R O P O S E D O C T A L " . CO S T U O T TO F I L L DATA G A P S tr [RATION WITH mt*mO C O U M i T T t t i m suicoMMiTrccs i MCMTf ran ITASC a t r u o i i s J c O » * t f Tt_0*TJ _^  G * V t torn i T M c t JToOC I HOT ACCCPTCO 1 E L U T C o n * E L U C x v i l • T  rxojcct STAGE T I ( R e s o l u t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m s ) • D E T A I L E O MINE P L A N • O E T A I L E D I M P A C T A S S E S S M E N T • OR A F T P E R M I T A P P L I C A T I O N S • I M P A C T M A N A G E -M E N T M I T I G A T I O N P R O P O S A L S r - m o v A L w T s r * o c a W T ACCCTTCD r>BOJCCT STAGE rn [ ( D e s i g n a t i o n o f p e r m i t 8 B c e n c e c o n d i t i o n s ) • C O M P L E T E * w r 0 * T A O E r c C M C i E S FITOM STAGC 11 • rtuuzE PERMITS j • F W A U 2 C I M P A C T M A N A G E M E N T P L * V « • I M P L E M E N T M C X l T - l Of l ING P R O G A A U I I M O N T H | 13 M O N T H S __J 3 - 6 M O N T H S Source: Norcal Environmental Consultants Ltd., March 1982 F i g u r e 9 Coal G u i d e l i n e s Review Process 144 government through the CGSC, f i e l d s t u d i e s c o u l d be s t a r t e d i f the company f e l t the p r o j e c t appeared f e a s i b l e . The f i e l d s t u d i e s conducted f o r a p r e l i m i n a r y assessment were r e p o r t e d i n the Stage I document, as were a number of r e c o n n a i s s a n c e - l e v e l b a s e l i n e i n v e n t o r i e s . A l t e r n a t i v e s were suggested, u s i n g the p r e l i m i n a r y concep-t u a l i z e d mine p l a n , and the r e p o r t was presented to the CGSC, most o f t e n i n d r a f t form, and i f the document met the s p i r i t and i n t e n t of the CDG i t was accepted f o r f u l l review. T h i s development of a Stage I document was o f t e n accompanied by numerous meetings, l e t t e r s , and p e r s o n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s between agencies d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the r e g i o n of p o t e n t i a l development. Through t h i s i t e r a t i v e procedure, data gaps were i d e n t i f i e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the f i n a l Stage I document. Documents f o r p r o j e c t s t h a t were not r e j e c t e d proceeded to f u l l review, and a p e r i o d of i t e r a t i o n f o l l o w e d , with the company, CGSC, sub-committees, and other agencies o u t l i n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e Stage I I study programs. The Stage I I s t u d i e s were conducted wi t h govern-ment agency advice and i n t e r a c t i o n , which was encouraged by the CGSC. Separate f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n was submitted t o the CGSC f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of economic v i a b i l i t y , and i n some cases a c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s was prepared by a government agency as r e q u i r e d . The Stage I I document pre -sented a r e c o r d of the r e s o l u t i o n of problems and contained a d e t a i l e d mine p l a n with impact assessments, p o s s i b l e 145 d r a f t permit a p p l i c a t i o n s , and impact management p r o p o s a l s . I f the Stage I I document was not accepted or given a p p r o v a l i n p r i n c i p l e , more study was l i k e l y conducted to f i l l the gaps, or the company may have decided not to proceed. A s u c c e s s f u l a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e was u s u a l l y understood to mean completion of the CDG program. Stage I I I allowed f o r d e s i g n a t i o n of permit and l i c e n c e c o n d i t i o n s , completion of any data d e f i c i e n c i e s from Stage I I , and f i n a l i z i n g o f per-mits and impact management p l a n s . Implementation of the monitoring program was p a r t of Stage IV and was d i s c u s s e d d i r e c t l y with the p e r m i t t i n g agency, 4.3.2 Review procedures The proponent's prospectus was not f o r m a l l y reviewed but the document was c i r c u l a t e d among the agencies as shown i n F i g u r e 10. D i f f e r e n t agencies responded with v a r y i n g procedures: some took note, while others proceeded to f l a g the r e g i o n of the proposed p r o j e c t , f o r m a l l y n o t i n g i t s p o s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i o n with other a c t i v i t i e s i n the r e g i o n . The time lapse between prospectus r e c e i p t and Stage I sub-mi s s i o n v a r i e d and i t was l e f t t o the proponent to i n i t i a t e f u r t h e r i n t e r a c t i o n . The Stage I review process may f i r s t have i n v o l v e d the review agent i n p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l when there was a CGSC request to review the documenti a l t e r n a -t i v e l y , the agent may have had many c o n t a c t s with the propo-nent through h i s i n i t i a l p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g and assessment 146 MMA Financial^ Information Review Compendia Staged Reports (Environmental and Social Impact Studies) MTH -> [EEC"|—>MEMPR R (C0al-MISBD B/C analysis) Federal Agencies RSCC MAC (regional) Other branches ACR Advisory Comm. on Reclamation BSC Biophysical Sub-Committee CGSC Coal Guidelines Steering Comm. EEC Economic Evaluation Comm. F&W Fish & W i l d l i f e MAC Minesite Advisory Committee MAG Ministry of Attorney General MEd Ministry of Education MEMPR Ministry of Energy, Mines & Petroleum Resources MOH Ministry of Health MHR Ministry of Human Resources MISBD Ministry of Industry & Small Business Development Key: MOL Ministry of Labour MMA Minist r y of Municipal A f f a i r s MOE Ministry of Environment MPS&GS Ministry of P r o v i n c i a l Secretary & Government Services MTH Ministry of Transportation & Highways RSCC Resource Coordinating.Comm. SECC Socio-Economic Coordinating Committee WaMB Water Management Branch WMB Waste Management Branch public documents, available after mine approval confidential documents F i g u r e 10 B.C. Government Review Process 147 a c t i v i t i e s . The review agent p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a sub-commit-tee meeting or passed h i s comments on to an agency c o o r d i -n a t o r where they were brought together i n t o a common agency p o s i t i o n . The request f o r review and the proponent docu-ments were d e l i v e r e d to the review agent with a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r from the chairman or s e c r e t a r y of the CGSC i d e n t i f y -i n g the d e a d l i n e f o r comment submissions. The review comments were r e c e i v e d by the CGSC a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n v e r b a l and w r i t t e n form whereupon they were coor d i n a t e d by the s e c r e t a r y of the CGSC, at which time a d r a f t compendium of comments was prepared and c i r c u l a t e d to review agents f o r a d d i t i o n a l comments before i t was returned to the company. The p e r i o d p r i o r to r e c e i p t of the Stage I I document was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by complex i n t e r a c t i o n s and n e g o t i a t i o n s s p e c i f i c t o the case. P r e - s c r e e n i n g of the d r a f t document ensured t h a t any g l a r i n g omissions or v i o l a t i o n s of the " s p i r i t and i n t e n t " o f the CDG were e l i m i n a t e d . A l a r g e number of c o p i e s o f the formal document were r e q u i r e d and, because review agents found an a p p r a i s a l document review added to t h e i r e x i s t i n g work r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and with other competing p r i o r i t i e s , the documents were o f t e n reviewed i n an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d manner f o r a g e n c y - s p e c i f i c or t e c h n i c a l c r i t e r i a . Stage I I comments were r e c e i v e d through sub-committee c o o r d i n a t i o n and then by the s e c r e -t a r y o f the CGSC, and a compendium of comments was d r a f t e d , e d i t e d , c i r c u l a t e d , and ret u r n e d to the company. R e s u l t s of 148 the separate f i n a n c i a l e v a l u a t i o n were communicated to the CGSC i n the form of a statement of the EEC f i n d i n g s of pro-j e c t v i a b i l i t y , w i t h the company advised by telephone of any o u t s t a n d i n g problems. The CGSC then met to d e f i n e terms and c o n d i t i o n s f o r recommendations to ELUTC and ELUC. When recommendations r e g a r d i n g approval were prepared by the CGSC, they were submitted to the ELUTC where the p r o j e c t was c o n s i d e r e d i n the context of other p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s . These recommendations were passed on to ELUC f o r review and a d e c i s i o n , and then the ELUC d e c i s i o n on a p p r o v a l - i n -p r i n c i p l e was communicated by the chairman of ELUC to the company, with any terms or c o n d i t i o n s appended. Chapter 5 PROGRAM ACTIONS Li n e Creek, G r e e n h i l l s , and Sukunka Informed discussion will pave the way to more judicious approaches to technology. - Indira Ghandi, New Delhi (1982) 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n In an e f f o r t to judge the a c t i o n s of the CDG program i n adequately meeting i t s o b j e c t i v e s of c o o r d i n a t i n g a pro-j e c t a p p r a i s a l , three cases of c o a l mine development p l a n n i n g were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y examined. The cases were chosen on the b a s i s of having completed the CDG program by 1981. T h i s achievement was marked by the p r o j e c t having r e c e i v e d a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e a f t e r Stage I I review. The time dead-l i n e was chosen so t h a t case documents would be a v a i l a b l e f o r a n a l y s i s . F i v e mines met the c r i t e r i a — i n the southeast, Line Creek, E l k R i v e r , Hosmer-Wheeler, and G r e e n h i l l s ? and i n the Peace R i v e r c o a l b l o c k , Sukunka. Of these f i v e , o n l y two had proceeded to c o n s t r u c t i o n by 1983, L i n e Creek and G r e e n h i l l s . Sukunka was chosen i n order to p r o v i d e a more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e geographic element. One of the accepted t e n e t s of a s o c i e t y which 149 150 b e l i e v e s i t i s a p l u r a l i s t i c democracy i s t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n should g e n e r a l l y be a v a i l a b l e t o a l l . There i s an assumed r i g h t to be informed before, d u r i n g , and a f t e r d e c i s i o n s are made. The formal documentation r e q u i r e d f o r and of the CDG program acted i n p a r t as a v e h i c l e to f a c i l i t a t e i n f o r m a t i o n exchange, and to f o r m a l i z e d i a l o g u e between the proponent and government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the v a r i e d p u b l i c i n t e r -e s t s . The formal documentation was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by three o v e r a l l problems a s s o c i a t e d with program e x p e c t a t i o n s — v a r i -a t i o n s i n review a n a l y s i s , i n h e r e n t c o n f l i c t s w i t h i n the program d e s c r i p t i o n , and a c o n f l i c t between c o a l p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l s and c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s of impact assessment. Although the purpose, t i m i n g , and type o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d of the proponent was s t a t e d i n the g u i d e l i n e s , f l e x i b i l i t y was a p p l i e d with regard t o the i n f o r m a t i o n expected, and there were no r i g i d standards. V a r i a t i o n i n the extent of the review a n a l y s i s and commentary appeared among the reviewers who had d i f f e r e n t experiences with c o a l development, p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and the range of s i t e -s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i s s u e s which accompanied each p r o p o s a l . While t h i s made the program more adaptable, c o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r content had to be taken i n t o account when e v a l u a t i n g the documents, The second problem i n ex p e c t a t i o n s came from para---doxes w i t h i n the CDG d e s c r i p t i o n . The CDG, i n an e f f o r t to 151 engender t o t a l assessment, attempted to i n c l u d e a l l i s s u e s i n a proponent's documentation: Stage I should i d e n t i f y the major economic, environmen-t a l and s o c i a l impact of the proposed development on the r e g i o n i n general . . . . E x i s t i n g n a t u r a l , s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the zone of i n f l u e n c e should be d e s c r i b e d . (B.C. ELUC, 1976, p. 6) The g u i d e l i n e s were c l e a r l y designed to be broad i n scope and were to employ s e v e r a l techniques t o assess the conse-quences o f change. To c o n s t r a i n somewhat the i m p l i e d com-prehensiveness of the program, the f o l l o w i n g advice was prov i d e d which suggested t h a t assessment should be c o n s i -dered w i t h i n a monetary c o n t e x t : As a g e n e r a l r u l e the Province i s seeking a pr o p o s a l from developers wherein economic, s o c i a l and e n v i r o n -mental concerns are assessed, planned f o r and "traded-o f f , " to produce a balance t h a t maximizes net s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g i n the r e g i o n of development and to the Pro v i n c e . Thus, environmental impacts at a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e might not n e c e s s a r i l y be minimized i f c o s t s of such a c t i o n s f a r outweigh the value of foregone r e s o u r -ces. (B.C. ELUC, 1976, p. 8) T h i s a c t i o n would reduce the CDG's attempt at t o t a l a s s e s s -ment to "myth not r e a l i t y " (Cope and H i l l s , 1979), I t i s not c l e a r how r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s were to be balanced a g a i n s t p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s , as th e r e were no r e g i o n a l economic measures or r e g i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s to ensure t h a t a balance was achieved. In a d d i t i o n , the p r i n c i p l e t h at c o s t s of m i t i g a t i o n and compensation should not exceed the value of the resource denied the concept of i n t e r n a l i z i n g e x t e r n a l i -t i e s . Both p r i n c i p l e s acted as l i m i t a t i o n s to the concept of a t o t a l l y comprehensive assessment. One outcome, a 152 c o n f l i c t i n document e x p e c t a t i o n , arose from t r y i n g to i d e n t i f y which impacts should be assessed and i n what man-ner they should be re p o r t e d . For guidance to r e s o l v e some of these problems, the t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e ( B u r c h e l l and L i s t o k i n , 1975; Bur-c h e l l , L i s t o k i n , Sinha, and Rosen, 1978; G r e e n h a l l , 1977; K e f a l a s and P i t t e n g e r , 1975) of p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l i d e n t i f i e d the range of impacts and the t i m i n g and methods of impact p r e d i c t i o n t h a t should be co n s i d e r e d i n p l a n n i n g a proposed development. For c o a l - r e l a t e d development p r o j e c t s , other j u r i s d i c t i o n s had assessment c h e c k - l i s t s and g u i d e l i n e s f o r review. A l b e r t a ' s Energy Resources Conservation Board (1978), Mountain West Research (1979), and Wayman and Gena-s c i (1980) have s u p p l i e d d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n requirements s p e c i f i c t o c o a l mines. Other p u b l i c a t i o n s are a l s o a v a i l -a b l e concerned w i t h the e v a l u a t i o n of the review process (Butz and Senew, 1974; Friedmann, 1973b; Soper, 1974), and toge t h e r they c r e a t e the t h i r d problem i n document expecta-t i o n , where p a r t i c i p a n t s f a m i l i a r w i t h another j u r i s d i c t i o n , or w i t h other a p p r a i s a l o p t i o n s , may have d i f f e r i n g expec-t a t i o n s f o r the a p p r a i s a l documentation. 5.2 Case S t u d i e s : P r o j e c t E v a l u a t i o n  A summary of the o v e r a l l t i m i n g of proponent submis-s i o n s and of the government response i s shown i n F i g u r e 11 153 i s i h Si J o i - . 1 311 5 O 0 • a. u a. > • - j * 9 1 1 r .1% '.'it 2 SI.I SS '.1 5 5 o 6 « a v Is S 3 S 3 ' . i , • • - a » Jfl f i B isSt . s. • « 5 . — a1 ~ « ? Q 5 • • in u i aw « i • i * ! S 3 S 3 5? s £si "| "|f P.J i . 8 si I ti-B, g £: s si a I I 4 | X 2. - s Is J — » o Mi 3 i . " - 8 S3 is « i i ? is 01 -G CP C OJ 0) V-l O O G O S-i - £ | ^ u Q) < S-l U c ^ S-l •H CM C to G 154 with documents summarized and coded i n Appendix B,* The sources f o r the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i n c l u d e d i n f o r m a t i o n about both formal and i n f o r m a l communications p r o v i d e d by R. Crook, the s e c r e t a r y of CGSC, through f i l e checks i n March and J u l y 1982. Examination of the p r o j e c t s ' case h i s t o r i e s served to r e v e a l the f l e x i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n of the program as w e l l as i n d i c a t i n g how procedures have evol v e d . Even so, the L i n e Creek and G r e e n h i l l s c o a l p r o j e c t s were considered to be a t y p i c a l of the g u i d e l i n e s process (Crook, 1982, Personal communication). 5.2.1 L i n e Creek The L i n e Creek mine, formerly owned by Crows Nest I n d u s t r i e s (CNI), then owned and operated by Crows Nest Resources Calgary (CNRC), was a s u b s i d i a r y of S h e l l Canada Lt d . E x p l o r a t i o n began i n 1968 i n a j o i n t venture w i t h M i t s u i Co. on 32 c o a l l i c e n c e s i n the E l k V a l l e y i n the southeast Kootenays of B.C. (see F i g u r e 12). Company p l a n -ners, aware of pending requirements f o r p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l , requested i n f o r m a t i o n on the"new CDG e a r l y i n 1975, B.C. Research C o u n c i l (BCRC) was employed as c o n s u l t a n t to con-duct p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d i e s on the b i o p h y s i c a l b a s e l i n e c o n d i t i o n s of the study s i t e , but because of e a r l y company *This unorthodox method of documentation was adopted f o r t h i s s e c t i o n only so as to a v o i d excess i t e m i z a t i o n i n the References C i t e d . 156 and c o n s u l t a n t p r e - p l a n n i n g i n an e f f o r t t o condense the process, the "L.C. Prospectus" was submitted to the CGSC i n August 1976, t o g e t h e r w i t h the "L.C. Stage I . " L a t e r t h a t month, 50 c o p i e s of the Stage I document were requested from the s t e e r i n g committee t o f a c i l i t a t e the government review. At t h a t time the major concerns i d e n t i f i e d were the p l a n t s i t e l o c a t i o n and p o s s i b l e ALR c o n f l i c t . Two months l a t e r , the "L.C. H e r i t a g e Assessment" was f i l e d . I t was noted t h a t the s t a t e of the h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s i n the area would r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l e m i t i g a t i o n . A government review was c o o r d i n a t e d through r e p o r t c i r c u l a -t i o n , comment r e t u r n , and d r a f t summary c i r c u l a t i o n . A f t e r completion i n November 1976, CNI was n o t i f i e d by the CGSC of the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of t h e i r r e p o r t . The "L.C. Stage I, Review" comments were d i r e c t e d toward the d e s i g n of the Stage I I s t u d i e s and emphasized f o u r areas of concern: (1) p l a n t l o c a t i o n , (2) mine s i t e and access road design, (3) e s t i m a t e s , and (4) community expansion. T h i s was the t h i r d Stage I r e p o r t approved by the CDG program. In e a r l y 1977, the MAC completed two reviews o f the "L.C. Stage I" r e p o r t f o l l o w i n g meetings with CNI and BCRC. Comments by the chairman of the MAC emphasized t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and p r o v i d e d a d v i c e on requirements f o r m i s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and p l a n n i n g , and a summary of r e s o l v e d and u n r e s o l v e d concerns, and were t r a n s m i t t e d to CNI through the CGSC i n June 1977. CNI was advised to submit a d r a f t 157 Stage I I r e p o r t to ensure t h a t when the f i n a l r e p o r t was c i r c u l a t e d f o r review i t would r e c e i v e g e n e r a l acceptance. At t h i s time economic i n f o r m a t i o n deemed necessary f o r a government c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s was requested, to be sub-m i t t e d i n a c o n f i d e n t i a l manner as a separate document and sent d i r e c t l y to the M i n i s t e r of Mines. A d r a f t Stage I I was submitted on 5 August and i t was then pre-screened and accepted f o r f u l l review on 25 August. Agencies i d e n t i f i e d concerns r e g a r d i n g the impact on w i l d l i f e , r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e s , land-use p l a n n i n g , community housing o p t i o n s , assumptions f o r l a b o u r f o r c e t r a i n i n g , and types of jobs a v a i l a b l e f o r females i n the workforce. The formal "L.C. Stage I I " was submitted i n October 1977, pre-screened, and c i r c u l a t e d t o a l l p r o v i n c i a l agen-c i e s . Meetings w i t h the MAC, BCRC, and CNI were h e l d i n mid-November. At t h i s time, t e c h n i c a l i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g t o permits were noted, and management of the e l k p o p u l a t i o n arose as one of the i s s u e s . In December 1977 the review was completed and "L.C. Stage I I Review" was sent to CNI with a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r which summarized the b i o p h y s i c a l , s o c i o -economic, and community agency concerns. CGSC accepted the "L.C. Stage I I " r e p o r t as b a s i c a l l y f u l f i l l i n g the CDG pro-gram requirements, but noted a d d i t i o n a l work was r e q u i r e d . I t was suggested t h a t t h i s be c a r r i e d out i n a j o i n t p l a n -n i n g e x e r c i s e with government resource managers. A p e r i o d of 17 months elapsed from the time of submission of the 158 prospectus to acceptance of Stage I I p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l . In January 1978 a memorandum from the CSGC to CNI noted a concern over a p i c t o g r a p h i n a limestone overhang, p o s s i b l y r e q u i r i n g e x c a v a t i o n . Although u n r e l a t e d to t h i s i s s u e , f o r 11 months p r o j e c t i n i t i a t i v e slowed from the government's p e r s p e c t i v e . In November 1979 ELUCS was n o t i -f i e d by CGSC t h a t CNI had not r e s o l v e d the i s s u e s a r i s i n g from the Stage I I review; n e v e r t h e l e s s , CGSC requested an a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e from ELUC as a statement of government support f o r the p r o j e c t . The new CNRC r e c e i v e d n o t i f i c a -t i o n of ELUC approval i n February 197 9 with s e v e r a l c o n d i -t i o n s : the economic i n f o r m a t i o n was considered inadequate, and employee t r a i n i n g programs, community development i m p l i -c a t i o n s , and w i l d l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n management problems were to be r e s o l v e d . Company economic data were submitted on a c o n f i d e n t i a l b a s i s , but i n October 1979 the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board, CNRC, and ELUCS met r e g a r d i n g a change i n mine design. CNRC prepared the "L.C. Meeting B r i e f " t o address the i d e n t i f i e d concerns and present t h e i r p o s i t i o n to CGSC i n November; i n December 1979 CGSC n o t i f i e d CNRC tha t p e r m i t t i n g c o u l d proceed and j o i n t company and e n v i r o n -ment management commitments were made. Because many commu-n i t y agency concerns had not been r e s o l v e d , a housing study was requested and the "L.C, P o p u l a t i o n " study was submitted i n March 1980, i n c l u d i n g the CNRC p o l i c y on company housing and a f o r e c a s t of probable employee p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n . 159 In l i g h t of the f o r e c a s t heavy demand f o r c o a l , c o n s t r u c t i o n began i n the s p r i n g o f 1980 and CNRC announced a planned expansion of the p r o j e c t from 1.7 to 2.6 m i l l i o n tonnes a year t o be produced by 1981, The CGSC noted t h a t t h i s r e q u i r e d s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n design p l a n and reques-t e d more s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n . The "L.C. Expansion B r i e f " was f i l e d a t a meeting w i t h the S t e e r i n g Committee i n Sep-tember 1981, and i n December 1981 CGSC n o t i f i e d CNRC t h a t a new, d e t a i l e d impact assessment was r e q u i r e d to assess t h e i r expansion p l a n s . As a r e s u l t of t h i s experience, a CGSC working procedure was adopted to de a l with other mine expansions while c o n s t r u c t i o n continued on the expanded L i n e Creek d e s i g n . By 1983 some thermal c o a l had been shipped, but f u l l - s c a l e p r o d u c t i o n had not commenced. 5.2.2 G r e e n h i l l s The G r e e n h i l l s s u r f a c e mining p r o j e c t s , formerly owned by K a i s e r Resource L t d . (KRL), had been ac q u i r e d by B.C.Coal, a s u b s i d i a r y of B.C. Resources Investment Corpora-t i o n (BCRIC), E x p l o r a t i o n began i n 1969 on c o a l h o l d i n g s i n the E l k V a l l e y o f the southeast Kootenays (see F i g u r e 13), D i s c u s s i o n s between KRL and CGSC began i n A p r i l 1979 when company p l a n n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was requested by MMA f o r use i n t h e i r Upper E l k V a l l e y Settlement Planning Program. Meetings were h e l d i n August 1979 between KRL, CGSC, and BCRC to present a d r a f t prospectus of a two-phase p r o p o s a l . t GREENHILLS STUDY AREA-Elkford S \ * • \ V . < Sporwood \ Elkview Cool Plont ^Michel e • ) i O I I \ i \ 4 < \ ) Crowsnest} r F i g u r e 13 L o c a t i o n of G r e e n h i l l s Study Area 161 KRL requested e a r l y c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r approval of Phase I of t h e i r p r o p o s a l , so they c o u l d take advantage of the 1980 c o n s t r u c t i o n season f o r which b a s e l i n e data were a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e . CGSC requested t h a t KRL take steps to n o t i f y the p u b l i c i n the Kootenays of t h e i r development p l a n s . A prospectus, the t w e l f t h to be r e c e i v e d by the CGSC, was submitted i n mid-August, with BCRC commissioned to conduct b i o p h y s i c a l s t u d i e s , and C u r r i e , Coopers and Lybrand (CCL) engaged to conduct the socio-economic s t u d i e s . To achieve e a r l y a p p r o v a l , KRL was advised t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l would have to be i n c l u d e d i n the Stage I r e p o r t . C e r t a i n review agents noted t h a t t h i s request circumvented the purpose and i n t e n t of the CDG, while other concerns a r i s i n g from an i n f o r m a l prospectus review i n c l u -ded o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t the prospectus l a c k e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the t o t a l l a n d area a f f e c t e d , and d i d not i d e n t i f y methods to c o n t r o l road drainage, or i n c l u d e groundwater and s u r f a c e water m o n i t o r i n g p l a n s . In a d d i t i o n , the e a r l y request would c o n s t r a i n adequate lead-time f o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . Reviewers a l s o noted t h a t p r i o r to i n i t i a -t i o n of c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , o n l y Stage I I - l e v e l i n f o r -mation would be ac c e p t a b l e f o r h e r i t a g e assessments, and advised CGSC to take a c a u t i o n a r y approach to the company request because i t threatened t o i n v a l i d a t e the purpose of the CDG. CGSC emphasized to KRL i n l a t e August 1979 t h a t , 162 p r i o r t o a p p r o v a l , e f f o r t s should be made to reach Stage I I l e v e l of d e t a i l i n t h e i r r e p o r t s . To f a c i l i t a t e t h i s request, i t was suggested t h a t the CGSC review the terms of r e f e r e n c e and t a b l e of contents f o r b i o p h y s i c a l and s o c i o -economic study program requirements. KRL presented t h e i r proposed s t u d i e s to review agents i n a September meeting. Concerns were i d e n t i f i e d r e g a r d i n g spoil-dump d e s i g n , the need f o r g e o t e c h n i c a l s t u d i e s , p o t e n t i a l land-use s c e n a r i o s , manpower requirements, labour s o u r c i n g , and t r a i n i n g p r o -grams. From the meeting came the recommendation t h a t the Stage I submission be postponed u n t i l the g e o t e c h n i c a l s t u d i e s and conceptual mine p l a n were completed and the impacts more f u l l y assessed. MAC requested a f u r t h e r meet-i n g with KRL to d e a l with t e c h n i c a l mine-planning d e t a i l s , without which i t was f e l t an expedited Stage I a p p r o v a l - i n -p r i n c i p l e would be u n l i k e l y . In December 1979 a meeting was h e l d among CGSC, KRL, BCRC, and CCL at the request of KRL f o r exchange of informa-t i o n . KRL organized a c o r p o r a t e task f o r c e to work w i t h t h e i r c o n s u l t a n t s to f a c i l i t a t e the p r o j e c t and manage the p l a n s . Instead of a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e , some pre-produc-t i o n p e r m i t t i n g was requested f o r l o g g i n g of the main haul road and c l e a r i n g of the mine and p l a n t f a c i l i t i e s area, which was approved by the CGSC. Subsequent changes i n the mine plan were based on promising market p r o s p e c t s which appeared to make f e a s i b l e a p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t a t the s i t e i n 163 1983, supported by the p o t e n t i a l reserves of 50 years. I t was noted t h a t the e x p l o r a t i o n permit had accommodated work to date, but because of the pre-production request, a r e c l a m a t i o n permit and r e c l a m a t i o n plan were r e q u i r e d to address pre-development d i s t u r b a n c e s . The "Gh Stage I E n v i r o n . " and "Gh Stage I S o c i o . " r e p o r t s were r e c e i v e d by the CGSC i n March 1980. The government r e q u i r e d 150 copies f o r review, to be examined by agencies i n V i c t o r i a as w e l l as the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t of East Kootenay and the m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s of F e r n i e , Spar-wood, and E l k f o r d . Copies of the r e p o r t were d i s t r i b u t e d to the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch, the D i s t r i c t Land Manager i n Cranbrook, and the D i s t r i c t Mines In s p e c t o r i n F e r n i e . The "Gh Pre-Production" work permit r e p o r t was submitted and d i s t r i b u t e d i n May 1980. Government review of these documents was completed and comments were sent to KRL i n i t i a l l y on an i n f o r m a l b a s i s by J u l y 1980. Concerns i n c l u d e d aspects of the development program r e l a t i v e to the Coal Mines Regulation Act, s o c i o -economic matters, the work camp and surface-water c o n t r o l s d u r i n g p r e - c o n s t r u c t i o n , groundwater and p i t - d e w a t e r i n g , a i r q u a l i t y c o n t r o l , water q u a l i t y sediment c o n t r o l mea-sures, r e g u l a t i o n s governing temporary water use, s u r f a c e e r o s i o n , and h e r i t a g e assessment design problems. An i s s u e arose w i t h i n the government reviewers r e g a r d i n g the format f o r summarizing review comments, with some review agents 164 f e e l i n g t h a t t h e i r comments should be communicated verbatim to the proponent. A summarizing technique, i t was f e l t , e i t h e r n e g l e c t e d the reviewers' concerns or l o s t t h e i r i n t e n t and meaning. The study p r o p o s a l f o r Stage I I was reviewed i n May 1980. An i n f o r m a l r e l a y of agency Stage I I study recommen-d a t i o n s was communicated as a s t r a t e g y to expedite the 1980 study season. A d r a f t Stage II submission was r e c e i v e d by CGSC i n December 1980, which i n c l u d e d the three-volume "Gh Stage I I E n v i r o n . " and a one-volume "Gh Stage I I S o c i o . " The CGSC and one SECC r e p r e s e n t a t i v e conducted a p r e l i m i n a r y s c r e e n i n g to determine whether or not the d r a f t submission met the s p i r i t and i n t e n t of the CDG and, t h e r e f o r e , should be approved f o r wider p r o v i n c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . Once pre-s c r e e n i n g was completed, the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the o v e r a l l r e p o r t was determined and o u t s t a n d i n g Stage I I concerns were communicated to KRL. In t h i s i n s t a n c e , i s s u e s i n c l u d e d a i r q u a l i t y , c l i m a t e , hydrogeology, r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s , and the c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s . A q u e s t i o n of t i m i n g of the a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e was r a i s e d by c e r t a i n review agents. Some i s s u e s , they b e l i e v e d , should be r e s o l v e d p r i o r to p r o j e c t a p p r o v a l . I t was f e l t by CGSC and supported by ELUC t h a t i f B.C.Coal were prepared to make a commitment to r e s o l u t i o n of the i s s u e s p r i o r t o g r a n t i n g of p r o v i n c i a l permits, a f a v o u r a b l e Stage I I recommendation c o u l d be g i v e n . The "Gh Stage I I Review" was compiled i n a d i f f e r e n t 165 format t o address the s p e c i f i c concerns and the agency-r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the comments, while socio-community concerns were compiled s e p a r a t e l y . ELUC granted a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n -c i p l e t o B.C.Coal i n August 1981, and a u t h o r i z e d the company to complete n e g o t i a t i o n s on s p e c i f i c terms and c o n d i t i o n s f o r permits. There was an understanding t h a t the company was o b l i g a t e d to n e g o t i a t e , i n good f a i t h , four o u t s t a n d i n g Stage I I c o n c e r n s — a i r q u a l i t y a n a l y s i s , h y d r o g e o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , r e c r e a t i o n impact management, and c o s t - b e n e f i t i n f o r m a t i o n . M i l l i g a n and Mickelson (1983, p. 19), i n sum-m a r i z i n g B.C.Coal's experience with the CDG, noted the advantages the G r e e n h i l l s p r o j e c t enjoyed over many new mines: The major advantage was t h a t B.C. Coal had an e x i s t i n g o p e r a t i o n near Sparwood, and thus had a v a s t range of experienced personnel to c o n t r i b u t e to the p r o j e c t . The framework was a l r e a d y i n p l a c e f o r areas such as f i n a n c e , marketing, purchasing, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , accounting, com-puter s e r v i c e s , geology, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , housing and environmental s e r v i c e s . For the EIA, the monitoring programs drew h e a v i l y on the ongoing work of F o r d i n g Coal immediately to the north, as w e l l as on the pro-grams of the Balmer group to the south. The p r o j e c t appeared to take 23 months to achieve a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e . M i l l i g a n and Mickelson (1983) noted t h a t , from f i r s t e x p l o r a t i o n to o p e r a t i o n a l s t a r t - u p , 15 years had e l a p s e d . In 1983, B.C. Coal's Sparwood o p e r a t i o n , slowed, with l a y o f f s and a r e d u c t i o n i n the planned s t a r t -up of G r e e n h i l l s a l s o • o c c u r r i n g . 166 5.2.3 Sukunka The Sukunka mine was owned f i r s t by Bremeda Mines, then by C o a l i t i o n Mining Company, and l a t e r by B.P. Canada. Some e x p l o r a t i o n was begun i n 196 9, although formal e x p l o r a -t i o n d i d not proceed u n t i l 1971. The Sukunka c o a l l i c e n c e s are l o c a t e d i n the Peace R i v e r C o a l b l o c k i n the area shown i n F i g u r e 14. P r i o r t o the i n i t i a t i o n o f the CDG, a p r e l i -minary environmental study "S/B P r e l i m . " was conducted. In 1975 and e a r l y 1976, n e g o t i a t i o n s were begun to determine the r e s p e c t i v e f e a s i b i l i t y study r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the c o a l companies and the p r o v i n c e f o r NECDS. Teck C o r p o r a t i o n prepared and presented a prospectus to the CGSC on the com-bined Sukunka/Bullmoose p r o p e r t i e s i n December 1976 w i t h a p r o p o s a l f o r shipment of o n e - h a l f m i l l i o n tonnes of c o a l v i a B.C. R a i l to Neptune Termi n a l s , Vancouver. A r e v i s i o n t o the development p l a n caused a new "S/B Prospectus" to be submitted by B.P. Canada i n August 1977. T h i s second one proposed t h a t two and one-half years be taken to complete environmental s t u d i e s and achieve ELUC consent, w i t h c o n s t r u c t i o n planned to commence i n 1980. In accordance w i t h CGSC procedures, a d r a f t of Stage I, Phases I and I I was submitted, but i n a l e t t e r to B.P. Canada i t was r e j e c t e d because i t d e a l t i n a d e q u a t e l y w i t h the two-phase concept, the impact a n a l y s i s , and impact management p r o p o s a l s . In February 1978, a r e v i s e d addendum "S/B Stage I, Phase I" was submitted. Three months l a t e r , "S/B Stage CHETWYND j (97 'N nr. WAKTlNlt A ROBERT •33 NUNKt MILL MT. A PUOtlNI MINE LEASE \ AREA T \ V » U L L M O O S r . 0 GWILLAM LAKE 7 . - 2 4 6 8 F i g u r e 14 L o c a t i o n of C o a l i t i o n Coal Lease Area 168 I, Review" was r e t u r n e d to the company with recommendations f o r f u r t h e r Stage I I study; as w e l l , concerns were expressed r e g a r d i n g the access road d e t a i l s , the Chetwynd loadout, b a s e l i n e m o n i t o r i n g , and the SIA. The Sukunka p r o j e c t had a l a r g e i n v e n t o r y resource from which to draw when Stage I I documents were prepared. The Environment and Land Use Sub-committee had prepared s t u d i e s i n the r e g i o n f o r the p r e v i o u s two years, and an annotated b i b l i o g r a p h y of these s t u d i e s was r e f e r r e d to when the "S/B Stage I, Review" was r e t u r n e d to B.P, Canada. In J u l y 1978, B.P. Canada met w i t h the CGSC to b r i e f them on Stage II p l a n n i n g progress, and the company continued to study the p r o j e c t with a d r a f t Stage I I document submitted i n August 1979. Informal communication between CGSC and the company caused r e v i s i o n s t o the document, and the formal "S Stage I I " was submitted i n December 1979. Noted as a model document and t y p i c a l of the CDG process (Crook, 1982, Per-s o n a l communication), t h i s submission was followed by a p e r i o d of d e t a i l e d agency and company d i s c u s s i o n s with r e f e r e n c e t o the two-phase development p r o p o s a l . In March 1981, Phase I of the Sukunka c o a l p r o j e c t was granted ELUC a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e , s u b j e c t to a number of c o n d i t i o n s . The company's " e x c e l l e n t s p i r i t of c o o p e r a t i o n " was noted by Stephen Rogers i n 1981 i n the n o t i f y i n g l e t t e r to the company. The Phase I I concept was g e n e r a l l y supported, but f u r t h e r submissions f o r Phase I I were requested before the 169 second phase c o u l d f i n a l l y be approved. Sukunka p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g ceased i n l a t e 1981, the r e s u l t of e x t e r n a l p r o j e c t problems. 5.3 Document E v a l u a t i o n The document e v a l u a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e , as provided i n Appendix A, was a p p l i e d to the documents l i s t e d and coded i n Appendix B. The document elements of a u t h o r s h i p , t i m i n g , purpose, format, methodology, and content were eva l u a t e d a c c o r d i n g to the c r i t e r i a d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r i n Chapter 1, s e c t i o n 5.2. 5.3.1 A u t h o r s h i p The L i n e Creek case may i n d i c a t e t h a t the CDG pro-gram was weak, i n t h a t assessment i n f o r m a t i o n had l i t t l e e f f e c t on the o v e r a l l company d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g development p l a n n i n g . CNI used two approaches i n t h e i r document prepa-r a t i o n . F i r s t , the "L.C. Prospectus 1 1 was presented by M i t s u i and Co. as a statement of t h e i r i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n , although c o n s u l t a n t and c o n t r i b u t i n g agencies, who p r o v i d e d primary e x p l o r a t i o n and f e a s i b i l i t y e v a l u a t i o n s , were not i d e n t i f i e d as authors of the document. For example, r e s u l t s of p i l o t p l a n t assessments prepared by B i r t l e y E n g i n e e r i n g , and c o a l assessment s t u d i e s from C o n s o l i d a t e d C o a l , were i n c o r p o r a -ted i n t o the prospectus y e t not c i t e d . T h i s document was a statement of CNI 1s development p l a n n i n g to t h a t date, and i n c l u d e d few environmental or s o c i a l i s s u e s . The "L.C. 170 Expansion" was a l s o presented as authored by CNI alone with the c o n c l u s i o n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of CNI o n l y . In t h i s document, CNI concluded t h a t t h e i r proposed expansion would have l i m i t e d incremental impact over t h a t p r e v i o u s l y approved. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n was drawn p r i o r to completion of a proposed s e t of a d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s designed to examine t h a t q u e s t i o n . CNI appeared to emphasize t e c h n i c a l c r i t e r i a when they were seen as authors of t h e i r own r e p o r t s . The second approach employed by CNI i n p r e s e n t i n g documentation was to employ e x t e r n a l c o n s u l t a n t s to conduct s t u d i e s and prepare r e p o r t s . In "L.C. Stage I , " BCRC 1s D i v i s i o n of A p p l i e d B i o l o g y was c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d as the author of the s t u d i e s . They or g a n i z e d the r e s e a r c h by pro-v i d i n g p r o j e c t s u p e r v i s i o n and group l e a d e r s h i p s e r v i c e s , while e n g i n e e r i n g , water q u a l i t y , environment, and s o c i o -economic s e c t i o n s were prepared by other s p e c i a l i s t s . The "L.C. Heritage Assessment" was prepared by a four-man con-s u l t i n g team, with a s i n g l e author under c o n t r a c t to BCRC. The "L.C. Stage I I " was prepared by BCRC, wit h p r o j e c t s u p e r v i s i o n and management p r o v i d e d by v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h s e c t i o n s u s i n g ten BCRC c o n t r i b u t o r s . "L.C, Pop. Study" was c o o r d i n a t e d by Underwood M c C l e l l a n L t d . , w i t h a study team of three a n a l y s t s . In the f i r s t approach, the company presented i t s plans as the product of i t s own r e s e a r c h , whereas i n the second approach, one might conclude the pro-j e c t a p p r a i s a l documents were prepared p r i m a r i l y t o meet 171 government requirements. The G r e e n h i l l s c o a l p r o j e c t u t i l i z e d a d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e to prepare t h e i r formal documents. KRL developed a p r o j e c t f e a s i b i l i t y team concept with an in-house manager of Environmental A f f a i r s and S p e c i a l Pro-j e c t s . Much of the environmental study work and p l a n n i n g was c o o r d i n a t e d in-house, with the r e s u l t t h a t the mine development p l a n , e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , and g e n e r a l geo-l o g i c a l , h y d r o l o g i c a l , and r e c l a m a t i o n s t u d i e s were c a r r i e d out by B.C.Coal pe r s o n n e l . The c o n s u l t a n t , BCRC, was r e s -p o n s i b l e f o r a q u a t i c resources, water q u a l i t y , s u r f i c i a l geology, s o i l s , v e g e t a t i o n , w i l d l i f e , resource use, and c l i m a t e and a i r q u a l i t y , with a s s i s t a n c e from KRL person-n e l and BCRC a l s o c o o r d i n a t e d t h e i r e f f o r t s with those of other s u b - c o n s u l t a n t s ; however, the "Gh Stage I S o c i o . " and the "Gh Pre-Production" r e p o r t were not as c l e a r l y c o o r d i -nated by t h i s j o i n t company/consultant team approach. The l a t t e r document was a KRL p r e s e n t a t i o n with two t e c h n i c a l r e p o r t s — g e o t e c h n i c a l and e n g i n e e r i n g s t u d i e s — a p p e n d e d . Designed as an addendum to the e a r l i e r assessment, t h i s document provided government-requested i n f o r m a t i o n but d i d not r e f l e c t i n t e g r a t e d company p l a n n i n g f o r the environmen-t a l and s o c i a l consequences of t h e i r p r e - p r o d u c t i o n request. The "Gh Stage I I E n v i r o n . " and s o c i a l r e p o r t s most c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d the i n t e g r a t e d team-authorship concept. When the team approach was used, KRL was more concerned 172 w i t h the s p e c i f i c impacts c r e a t e d by t h e i r proposed develop-ment and there appeared t o be a stronger commitment t o c o r -porate p o l i c i e s and m i t i g a t i o n plans i n these documents. The Sukunka case i l l u s t r a t e d a f u l l range of p o s s i -b i l i t i e s f o r proponent document p r e p a r a t i o n , with the "S/B P r e l i m . Study" the product of c o n s u l t a n t r e s e a r c h . Again, BCRC pr o v i d e d assessment study s u p e r v i s i o n , study d e s i g n , data c o l l e c t i o n and p r o c e s s i n g , and r e p o r t i n g s e r v i c e s . While t h i s document served w e l l as an i n i t i a l assessment f o r the proponent, i t d i d not provide assurance of company agreement wi t h the content or c o n c l u s i o n s . I f i n t e g r a t e d with l a t e r c o r p o r a t e mine-development p l a n n i n g and e v a l u a -t i o n the study may have been u s e f u l , but no evidence of i t s l a t e r use was found. One place the p r e l i m i n a r y study may have been used was i n the "S/B Prospectus," a statement of B.P. Canada's e x p l o r a t i o n r e s e a r c h and i n t e n t . In the p r e -p a r a t i o n and aut h o r s h i p of "S/B Stage I , " B.P. Canada u t i l i z e d a complex system of c o n s u l t a n t s , with BCRC i n j o i n t venture with IEC and four s u b - c o n s u l t a n t s . Each major c o n s u l t i n g f i r m had a p r o j e c t manager with BCRC p r o v i d i n g p r o j e c t c o o r d i n a t i o n , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r assembling and c o o r d i n a t i n g the r e p o r t ; there was no obvious commitment t o u t i l i z e the f i n d i n g s i n the document. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n appearance, p r e s e n t a t i o n of the "S Stage I I " r e p o r t was c l e a r l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of B.P, E x p l o r a t i o n Canada. In summary i t appears t h a t the most common co r p o r a t e 173 approach to p r e p a r i n g CDG formal assessment s t u d i e s was to separate the company from the c o n c l u s i o n s ; hence, from commitment to u t i l i z a t i o n of r e s u l t s . To be a c c e p t a b l e , CGSC r e q u i r e d t h a t a l l documents be submitted i n the propo-nent's name, the most d e s i r a b l e documents c l e a r l y i n t e g r a -t i n g environmental, s o c i a l , and t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . To achieve t h i s r e s u l t , study c o o r d i n a t i o n may have been most e f f e c t i v e i f developed from w i t h i n the company. Choices of the review document format, d i s t r i b u t i o n , methodology, and, i n some measure, content, are a r e f l e c t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l author, or the CGSC c o o r d i n a t o r s ' a b i l i t y to manage i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n the context of t h e i r agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . For the cases examined, authors of the review documents changed over time and, with them, the com-mitment of government decision-makers to support the review document content. The "L.C. Stage I and I I , Review" and "Gh Stage I, Review" were c o o r d i n a t e d by J . O'Riordan as c h a i r -man of the CGSC. L a t e r , L i n e Creek p r o j e c t reviews as w e l l as the "Gh Stage I, Review" were c o o r d i n a t e d by E r i c K a r l -sen, a c t i n g chairman of CGSC, and John Dick, CGSC s e c r e t a r y . A l l three worked w i t h i n ELUCS which, as lead agency, had an i n t e g r a t e d resource management o r i e n t a t i o n . The "Gh Stage I I , Review" and the Sukunka reviews were conducted under the chairmanship of J . D. McDonald, with R, Crook as CGSC coor-d i n a t o r . Both worked w i t h i n the I n s p e c t i o n and E n g i n e e r i n g D i v i s i o n of MEMPR, the m i n i s t r y with a mandate t o support 174 mining and i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the economic growth of B r i t i s h Columbia. 5.3.2 Timing F i g u r e 11 (on p. 153) summarized the t i m i n g of each p r o j e c t and i t s documents r e l a t i v e to the a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n -c i p l e . Company c o n s t r u c t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n plans are con-t r a s t e d . Most of the L i n e Creek documents were prepared and reviewed i n 30 months p r i o r to c o n s t r u c t i o n and produc-t i o n , but incomplete assessment of community impacts and changes to major development plans, i n c l u d i n g a l t e r a t i o n of p l a n t p r e p a r a t i o n design, c r e a t e d a s i t u a t i o n where f u r t h e r s t u d i e s were requested a f t e r a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e . As a r e s u l t of i n c r e a s e d l o c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and more experience with s o c i a l assessments, e x p e c t a t i o n s changed f o r CNI's community p o l i c i e s , and s h i f t i n g market c o n d i t i o n s a l t e r e d company p r o d u c t i o n p l a n s . Thus, although the CDG program was f o l l o w e d , t h i s d i d not r e s t r i c t the CDG a d m i n i s t r a t i o n from c o n t i n u i n g to examine i s s u e s f o r a f u r t h e r 34 months a f t e r a p p r o v a l had been given. CNI, a f t e r r e c e i v i n g appro-v a l , was not r e l e a s e d from c o n t i n u i n g to address i s s u e s r a i s e d by t h e i r development plann i n g , and i t was a number of i n t e r v e n i n g f a c t o r s , not the g u i d e l i n e s program, which arose to cause d e l a y s . In the G r e e n h i l l s p r o j e c t , KRL attempted to meet i t s c r i t i c a l path plans by a l l o w i n g a four-month f l o a t 175 p e r i o d and o b t a i n i n g an e a r l y set of permits; thus, i n 2 4 months' time, a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e had been obt a i n e d , with the a i d of p r e - p r o d u c t i o n p e r m i t t i n g . However, the CDG a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has l e f t i t s e l f open to c r i t i c i s m by not s t r i c t l y f o l l o w i n g the g u i d e l i n e s design. The Sukunka case, by c o n t r a s t , r e q u i r e d 44 months, the longest of any p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l p e r i o d examined. In t h i s case p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g proceeded i n an area i n which there was no e x i s t i n g i n f r a -s t r u c t u r e f o r resource development, and although the company had allowed 30 months f o r p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l s t u d i e s and approval, a p e r i o d of d e t a i l e d government d i s c u s s i o n r e g a r -d i n g t h e i r two-phased development p l a n was not a n t i c i p a t e d . C e s s a t i o n of p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g was due more to numerous pro-j e c t design u n c e r t a i n t i e s , world market c o n d i t i o n s , and an u n c e r t a i n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e completion d e a d l i n e , than to the CDG p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l program. 5.3.3 Purpose Not o n l y d i d the purpose of formal documentation change as the phases of p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g proceeded, but the purpose of each phase d i f f e r e d f o r each p r o j e c t . T h i s f l e x i b i l i t y allowed by the CDG program r e s u l t e d i n documents that e n l i g h t e n e d s p e c i f i c government agencies, r a t h e r than the p u b l i c , and readers o u t s i d e government or those not d i r e c t l y concerned with the mines may have had d i f f i c u l t y with the r e s u l t a n t i n c o n s i s t e n c y . None of the prospectus 176 documents i n c l u d e d a statement of purpose, although the CDG d e s c r i p t i o n s t a t e d t h a t the prospectus would be used to n o t i f y government to enable them to "compile e x i s t i n g data sources and prepare an i n f o r m a t i o n base to a s s i s t the propo-nent i n Stage I s t u d i e s " (B.C. ELUC, 1976, p. 6). I t was expected t h a t the proponent would r e c e i v e c o o p e r a t i o n from the government i n c o l l e c t i n g data f o r i t s assessments, which i m p l i e d government agencies would have the manpower and resources to a s s i s t a company when requested. Furthermore, . . . as a r e s u l t of the prospectus, Government agencies [would] be a b l e to a s s i s t developers i n a s s e s s i n g the e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n base q u i c k l y to i d e n t i f y major gaps. (B.C. ELUC, 1976, p. 6) T h i s i m p l i e d t h a t , before Stage I submission, companies would have access to r e g i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . The purpose of Stage I became a source of c o n f u s i o n w i t h i n the CDG program because developers pursued p r o j e c t a p proval, while government agents sought problem i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n . The statement of purpose i n the CDG o f f e r e d l i t t l e guidance because i t was general r a t h e r than s p e c i f i c , and contained m u l t i p l e o b j e c t i v e s . The Stage I r e p o r t was designed t o mark a phase of j o i n t industry-government p l a n -ning, as i l l u s t r a t e d by the case s t u d i e s . T h i s c o n f u s i o n was p a r t l y r e s o l v e d through experience gained by proponents and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s as the CDG proceeded. For example, "L.C. Stage I" s t a t e d t h a t i t s o v e r a l l purpose was to f u l f i l l the c r i t e r i a f o r Stage I environmental s t u d i e s . T h i s document 177 i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e more s p e c i f i c purposes: to provide an overview of b a s e l i n e c o n d i t i o n s ; to document major i n t e r -a c t i o n s between the development and the environment; and, by i d e n t i f y i n g d e f i c i e n c i e s i n e x i s t i n g data, to make recommendations f o r f u r t h e r environmental s t u d i e s . L i t e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n favoured b i o p h y s i c a l impacts, as community development and the r e g i o n a l economy were not seen as i s s u e s t o be d i s c u s s e d i n the document. There was no s t a t e d i n t e n t to d i s c u s s development o p t i o n s or a l t e r n a t e design s o l u -t i o n s , and i t was not made c l e a r t h a t data gaps were to be r e l a t e d t o monitoring; so, by omission, these i s s u e s became the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of government. In "Gh Stage I En v i r o n . " , a l a t e r document, the pur-pose was s t a t e d more f u l l y , matching c l o s e l y the requested Stage I o b j e c t i v e s . Here, the statement of purpose was presented i n a more methodical, r a t i o n a l sequence. The r e p o r t d e s c r i b e d the proposed p l a n as f o l l o w s : to use e x i s t i n g b a s e l i n e data and conduct p r e l i m i n a r y f i e l d and la b s t u d i e s , analyse and i n t e r p r e t the b a s e l i n e data, assess p o t e n t i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e on environmental components, assess development a l t e r n a t i v e s , and recommend f u r t h e r s t u d i e s . Impact management was to be addressed through r e c l a m a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s t o r e - e s t a b l i s h watershed values on a l l d i s t u r b e d lands as soon as p o s s i b l e , and to accomplish r e s t o r a t i o n i n a manner compatible with the p o t e n t i a l primary surface-use of the land p r i o r t o d i s t u r b a n c e . There was, however, s t i l l 178 no p r o p o s a l t o conduct an economic e v a l u a t i o n , or to i n c l u d e p u b l i c c o n s u l t a t i o n . In the "Gh Stage I S o c i o . " , a s t a t e d KRL o b j e c t i v e was to a t t r a c t a q u a l i f i e d , s t a b l e workforce at the lowest c o s t t o the company. The "S/B P r e l i m . " study gave a very simple statement of purpose: "to determine the major environmental s e n s i t i -v i t i e s which may be a f f e c t e d through mine development," while the purpose of the "S/B Stage I" was to o u t l i n e the proposed development, d e s c r i b e the b i o p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , and economic s t a t e s , i d e n t i f y and document s p e c i f i c impacts a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the development, examine a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r m i t i g a t i o n or avoidance of such impacts, and i d e n t i f y con-s t r a i n t s . In the absence of c l e a r CDG program d i r e c t i o n i t was l e f t to the proponents to d e f i n e t h e i r study purpose. In a l l cases, the Stage I I statement of purpose was much more c l e a r l y conceived, d e s p i t e broad CDG d i r e c t i o n , and each o b j e c t i v e was presented as a s i n g l e statement i n methodical o r d e r . Each r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t would des-c r i b e the proposed development p l a n , assess the a l t e r n a t i v e s , analyse, i n t e r p r e t , and d e s c r i b e the environmental s i t e -s p e c i f i c impacts, determine methods f o r a v o i d i n g or minimi-z i n g n e g a t i v e impacts, and determine f u r t h e r s t u d i e s f o r m o n i t o r i n g . The "L.C. Pop." study was i n t e n d e d - f o r use by the MMA and c o n t a i n e d a l t e r n a t i v e s with a c o n c i s e l y d e f i n e d s e t of o b j e c t i v e s which were to e s t a b l i s h the probable annual geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n of CNI's employees f o r the 179 v a r i o u s communities, and to p r e d i c t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of L.C. employees i n 1982. The "Gh P r e - P r o d u c t i o n " r e p o r t i d e n t i f i e d i t s purpose as to "seek i n t e r i m approval f o r p r e -c o n s t r u c t i o n work permits p r i o r t o major c o n s t r u c t i o n phases and to proceed on schedule and w i t h i n economic l i m i t s , " T h i s document had a single-purpose o b j e c t i v e and d i d not d e a l with environmental or s o c i a l i s s u e s . The purpose f o r the review documentation was more d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y from the CDG d e s c r i p t i o n . The guide-l i n e s p r o v i d e d l i t t l e d i r e c t i o n r e g a r d i n g the review, o t h e r than to " i n d i c a t e the degree of success t h a t the i d e n t i f i e d a l t e r n a t i v e s are l i k e l y t o have i n meeting the environmental p r o t e c t i o n standards and other government i n t e r e s t s " (B.C., 1976). T h i s d i r e c t i v e presented one of the key problems f o r the program because there were no s t a t e d standards f o r con-d u c t i n g the review; t h e r e f o r e , government agencies h e l d v a r i e d e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r the r e p o r t s . Some agencies, p a r t i -c u l a r l y those with p e r m i t t i n g f u n c t i o n s , had standards which c o u l d be measured, around which they focussed t h e i r reviews; f o r example, the Waste Management Branch had p o l l u t i o n o b j e c t i v e s which the developer was o b l i g e d t o meet. Others, such as the MMA, had d r a f t e d requirements f o r socio-economic a n a l y s i s , and the EEC had s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n requirements necessary to conduct t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s . However, because review c r i t e r i a were not i n d i c a t e d i n the g u i d e l i n e s , developers found themselves f a c i n g a c o n t i n u a l l y expanding 180 set of i n f o r m a t i o n requirements. 5.3.4 Format The prospectus documents were s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r -ent i n format f o r each stage and f o r each case, w i t h t h e i r l e n g t h v a r y i n g from 13 to 32 pages. In each case, the document was one volume with e i t h e r a separate summary or an a b s t r a c t at the beginning. Because the "L.C. Prospectus" p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n e x a c t l y as requested i n the o r i g i n a l CDG d e s c r i p t i o n , i t was very t e c h n i c a l i n nature, and y e t there was l i t t l e a n a l y s i s of o p t i o n s or a l t e r n a t i v e s . While the summary and maps i d e n t i f i e d the s i t e of the mining p r o p e r t i e s , the p r e s e n t a t i o n of l a b o u r - f o r c e estimates i l l u s t r a t e d a problem t y p i c a l l y f a ced by c o r p o r a t e p l a n n e r s , wherein l a t e r evidence r e v e a l e d an und e r e s t i m a t i o n o f the s i z e and composition of the workforce. In the format of "S/B Prospectus," the o n l y con-s t r a i n t s i d e n t i f i e d were the l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n on the c h o i c e of r a i l w a y route and on the completion date f o r the po r t f a c i l i t i e s . Assumptions t h a t were not made e x p l i c i t were the assured b u i l d i n g of Tumbler Ridge, and the expected a p p r o v a l of a new p o r t f a c i l i t y . The format d i d not i n c l u d e any i n d i c a t i o n o f environmental impacts d e s p i t e the e a r l i e r "S/B P r e l i m . " study and, as i n the other prospectus docu-ments, the area maps, g e o l o g i c s t r u c t u r e s , r e s e r v e s , and d e p o s i t extent were c l e a r l y presented but l a c k e d a l i s t of 181 r e f e r e n c e s . In a l l cases the Stage I documents comprised two volumes, o f t e n with Volume 1 c o n t a i n i n g the r e p o r t and Volume 2 the t a b l e s , f i g u r e s , and appendices. The "Gh Stage I E n v i r o n . " was a separate document from the "Gh Stage I S o c i o . " T h i s format, evolved at the request of the CGSC, f a c i l i t a t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n among review agencies. The admini-s t r a t i v e advantage occ u r r e d a t the c o s t of s e p a r a t i n g the impacted dimensions i n t o two e n t i t i e s which were never i n t e g r a t e d . With t h i s format the t o t a l range of impacts c r e a t e d by one p r o j e c t was not cumulated. Although i n a l l cases documents i n c l u d e d a summary, the "S/B Stage I" pro-v i d e d the format which most comprehensively d e a l t with the development p l a n , environmental data, impacts, and m i t i g a -t i o n , as w e l l as recommendations. However, there was no socio-economic s e c t i o n i n the o v e r a l l summary, the l a t t e r b e i n g presented as a separate s u b - s e c t i o n w i t h i n the r e p o r t . "L.C. Stage I" summarized the development p l a n only, and the p h r a s i n g o f the mine de s i g n d e s c r i p t i o n l e f t l i t t l e room f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s . In t h i s example, the t a b l e of contents was l a r g e l y a d e t a i l e d l i s t of b i o p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s and a l l 22 r e f e r e n c e s were b i o p h y s i c a l i n nature. Over one t h i r d o f the r e f e r e n c e s were l o c a l i n v e n t o r i e s , one qu a r t e r were of s p e c i f i c b i o p h y s i c a l methods, and the r e s t were g e n e r a l i n v e n t o r i e s or keys and a n a l y t i c items, with a few r e g u l a t i o n s . Of the 27 appendices, a l l but one d e t a i l e d 182 b i o p h y s i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Development c o n s t r a i n t s i n the "L.C. Prospectus" were i d e n t i f i e d as an e x i s t i n g r a i l w a y and the l o c a t i o n of the c o a l r e s e r v e s . The c o n c l u s i o n , based on these c o n s t r a i n t s , was t h a t there was no a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e f o r development f a c i l i t i e s . The "Gh Stage I" r e p o r t s , by comparison, were g e n e r a l l y c l e a r , e a s i l y read, and w e l l o r g a n i z e d . The s e p a r a t i o n of methods, development p l a n data, and environmental data p r o v i d e d a u s e f u l format. In a l l cases the Stage I I r e p o r t s were much l a r g e r documents. The 3-volume L i n e Creek r e p o r t comprised over 300 pages of t e x t , a volume of t a b l e s and f i g u r e s , and a separate appendix. For the G r e e n h i l l s p r o j e c t t h e r e were f o u r Stage I I volumes, three being a s s o c i a t e d with the "Gh Stage I I E n v i r o n . " ; the summary i n Volume 1, and two volumes of appendices. The "Gh Stage I I S o c i o . " comprised one volume, i n c l u d i n g appendices. The "S Stage I I " had fo u r s e c t i o n s : Volume I c o n t a i n e d the summary; Volume 2, S e c t i o n A c o n t a i n e d a t e c h n i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n , and S e c t i o n B the b i o -p h y s i c a l assessment; Volume 3 p r o v i d e d the socio-economic assessment. In a l l cases, although these r e p o r t s appeared adequate t o meet the formal e v a l u a t i v e requirements, obser-v a t i o n s f o r improvement were made. Much of the contents was a repeat of p r e v i o u s documents, and a summary of the p r o j e c t ' s changes from p r e v i o u s assessments was not gi v e n . Format techniques to a i d communication may have been use-f u l where i d e n t i f i e d impacts were c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e d with 183 intended m o n i t o r i n g and m i t i g a t i o n p l a n s . The "Gh Stage I S o c i o . " p r o v i d e d another format v a r i a t i o n , w i t h comments and c o n c l u s i o n s i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the t a b l e of contents or o u t l i n e . The "L.C. Stage I I " continued to show a heavy emphasis on b i o p h y s i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , w i t h t h r e e q u a r t e r s of the r e f e r e n c e s being b i o p h y s i c a l i n nature. A g l o s s a r y of terms was not pr o v i d e d , but some terms were d e f i n e d i n the "Gh Stage I I S o c i o . " t e x t . Assumptions were g e n e r a l l y not made e x p l i c i t l y , and g r a p h i c s were u s u a l l y presented i n the volumes of t a b l e s , f i g u r e s , and appendices. I t was the non-formal proponent documentation t h a t p r o v i d e d extreme examples of format. The "L.C. Expansion" d i d not i d e n t i f y assumptions, but, r a t h e r , p r o v i d e d s t a t e -ments of c o r p o r a t e b e l i e f . For example, CNRC expansion p r i n c i p l e s were i d e n t i f i e d as being: . . . [to] f u l l y u t i l i z e the p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y of the two p r e p a r a t i o n p l a n t s , t o i n c r e a s e s c h e d u l i n g to meet c u r r e n t c o n t r a c t s and t o produce i n c r e a s e d tonnage through an expansion of mining o p e r a t i o n s . The o b j e c -t i v e was to ensure the o p t i m i z e d p r o d u c t i o n o f thermal and m e t a l l u r g i c a l c o a l s a c c o r d i n g to the c o n t r a c t ' s q u a l i t y of parameters. ("L.C. Expansion") There were no s t u d i e s c i t e d i n support of the CNRC a s s e r t i o n t h a t the expansion would have onl y l i m i t e d • inc r e m e n t a l environmental impact, or t h a t the c u r r e n t l y n e g o t i a t e d marketing c o n t r a c t s on which the expansion was based were, i n f a c t , secure. With the p r e v i o u s a n a l y s i s h e a v i l y weighted to b i o p h y s i c a l concerns, i t was not s u r p r i -s i n g t h a t the SECC, through the CSGC, r e q u i r e d f u r t h e r 184 s t u d i e s and adopted a working p o l i c y to d e a l with expan-s i o n s . The "L.C. Pop." study was the r e s u l t of the concerns over l a c k of s o c i a l impact a n a l y s i s and i s , with r e s p e c t to the e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a of t h i s study, an example of a more u s e f u l impact assessment format. T h i s single-volume r e p o r t c o n t a i n e d a separate, 10-page summary and assumptions were c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d . The document authors assumed t h a t the L i n e Creek p r o j e c t , F o r d i n g Coal's expansion, and the Green-h i l l s p r o j e c t would proceed, and t h a t E l c o and Sage Creek would not. The r e p o r t assumed a continued demand f o r c o a l and no major world r e c e s s i o n . C o n s t r a i n t s to data p r o c u r e -ment and i n v e s t i g a t i o n were i d e n t i f i e d as the l i m i t e d time-frame f o r the study, which j u s t i f i e d the use of e x t e n s i v e secondary i n f o r m a t i o n . I n t a n g i b l e values were d e s c r i b e d as such and addressed w i t h i n the methodology of the a n a l y s i s . The r e f e r e n c e s were c l e a r , the t a b l e s and graphics were u s e f u l and i l l u s t r a t i v e and, by p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s format, allowed the reader to judge the c o n c l u s i o n s i n l i g h t of the assumptions and c o n s t r a i n t s . The format of the review documents became more u s e f u l as ongoing experience with the process was gained by government review agents and CDG program a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . In a l l cases, the formal documents r e q u i r e d by the CDG program were responded to by means of a formal review docu-ment, g e n e r a l l y 30 to 40 pages i n l e n g t h . The proponent's 185 i n f o r m a l p r e s e n t a t i o n d i d not r e c e i v e formal documentary response, w i t h the exception of "Gh Pre-Production Review." Three review formats were u t i l i z e d as the review process evolved, but none had a t a b l e of contents, index, c l a r i f i -c a t i o n or order of concerns. Because of the format i n the "L.C. Stage I, Review" and the "L.C. Stage I I , Review" the r e was an o v e r l a p of comments and c o n f l i c t i n g a d v i c e , and comments t h a t may have been r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t were p l a c e d beside important o b s e r v a t i o n s . Some of the comments provided r e f e r e n c e s to other sources of i n f o r m a t i o n but t h i s p r a c t i c e was i n c o n s i s t e n t , and the socio-economic comments were organized i n a format d i f f e r e n t from those of the b i o p h y s i c a l review. The agencies who r e c e i v e d the r e p o r t s were i d e n t i f i e d , the r e p l i e s were l i s t e d , the com-ments were org a n i z e d by s u b j e c t , and w i t h i n the comments s p e c i f i c government agents were shown as sources f o r f u r t h e r company c o n t a c t . A d i f f e r e n t approach to the government review format was taken i n the G r e e n h i l l s p r o j e c t , where the comments were t r a n s m i t t e d t o the company as r e c e i v e d by the CGSC, wit h the agent and agency c l e a r l y the author. T h i s approach was taken w i t h the "Gh Pre-Production Review," where the agent r e s p o n s i b l e a l s o had h i s comments sent d i r e c t l y t o the company. T h i s format precluded any o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the comments to be a l t e r e d from the w r i t e r ' s i n t e n t , and i t gave KRL a b a s i s f o r t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t there was much 186 government o v e r l a p . The "Gh Stage I I , Review" i l l u s t r a t e s the t h i r d approach, w i t h an i n t r o d u c t o r y statement of review h i g h -l i g h t s , a d i s c u s s i o n of the o v e r a l l a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the p r o j e c t , and f o u r i s s u e s i d e n t i f i e d as p r i o r i t i e s . A s p e c i -f i c compendium of comments fo l l o w e d , organized by s u b j e c t and then by m i n i s t r y . A summary of the m i n i s t r i e s 1 o v e r a l l p o s i t i o n s i n i t i a t e d the comments, and then s p e c i f i c agency concerns were given, which were f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d as being a d v i s o r y or r e g u l a t o r y , w i t h the r e g i o n of concern, e i t h e r V i c t o r i a or r e g i o n a l noted. The o r g a n i z a t i o n of comments was c o n s i s t e n t , and e d i t e d , and the socio-economic comments were presented i n a s i m i l a r format, with the advantage t h a t a l a r g e amount of i n f o r m a t i o n was t r a n s m i t t e d to the compa-n i e s . The review document f o r the Sukunka p r o j e c t provided the b e s t example of a u s e f u l format, given the c r i t e r i o n t h a t the communication should be u s e f u l to the r e c i p i e n t . In the "S/B Stage I, Review," the g e n e r a l comments or h i g h -l i g h t s were c l a s s i f i e d as t o frequency of occurrence, and items addressed i n the Stage I I s t u d i e s were considered p r i o r i t i e s . In t h i s review the comments were c l a s s i f i e d , f i r s t , a c c o r d i n g t o the e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t the proponent was to meet r e g a r d i n g permits and r e g u l a t i o n s f o r the s p e c i f i c development p r o p o s a l , and, second, t o the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , w i t h s p e c i f i c comments p r o v i d e d r e g a r d i n g c o r p o r a t e 187 m i t i g a t i o n p l a n n i n g . Comments deemed to be t e c h n i c a l i n nature were excluded from the advice f o r development p l a n -n i n g and presented i n separate appendices. With t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and p r i o r i t y , the document was more u s e f u l to the proponent. The "S Stage I I , Review" was unique i n the e v o l u t i o n of formats f o r government review i n f o r m a t i o n , with an e i g h t -page summary statement appearing f i r s t , then g e n e r a l com-ments, f o l l o w e d by the socio-economic a s p e c t s . The comments were phrased as recommendations, o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and c o n d i -t i o n s f o r a p p r o v a l , with b i o p h y s i c a l aspects and s i g n i f i c a n t concerns to be met p r i o r to a p p r o v a l . A complete compendium of comments f o l l o w e d , both socio-economic and b i o p h y s i c a l , and a t a b l e o f contents and l i s t o f a b b r e v i a t i o n s were i n c l u d e d , 5,3.5 Methodology The f i r s t phase i n r a t i o n a l p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g f o r the proponent was to i d e n t i f y the scope of the problem. The l e v e l of d e t a i l and the degree of a n a l y s i s c o u l d be m i n i -mal but there had to be evidence i n the prospectus t h a t the f u l l range of i s s u e s was c o n s i d e r e d . The "L.C, Prospectus" had no i d e n t i f i a b l e methods s e c t i o n , and the types of t e s t s conducted were on l y b r i e f l y mentioned. Primary data were obt a i n e d from a i r photos and seam outcrop t r a c i n g s , and c o a l - c o r e and r e v e r s e c i r c u l a t i o n d r i l l - h o l e samples. 188 Information was i n c l u d e d i n b l u e p r i n t s of the mine d e p o s i t and t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l models were used to d e s c r i b e and design the conceptual mine p l a n . The method employed to estimate the workforce considered the o p e r a t i o n a l phase o n l y . CNI estimated the number of workers needed and m u l t i -p l i e d t h a t by the estimated man-shifts f o r 1974 d o l l a r s based on the KRL-UMWA c o n t r a c t , and then p r e d i c t e d the value of employment f o r the p r o j e c t , a l l of which was i m p l i e d but not d e t a i l e d . T h i s value s u b s t a n t i a t e d the i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t i n c r e a s e d employment was one of the b e n e f i t s of the p r o j e c t but as the method was not e x p l i c i t , v a l i d i t y c o u l d not be a s c e r t a i n e d . With the data i n c o m p l e t e l y r e f e r e n c e d , the r e p o r t a l s o assumed reader f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the t e c h n i -c a l methods which generated the c o n c l u s i o n s , and t h e r e was no i n d i c a t i o n of confidence l i m i t s to the p r e d i c t i o n s . T h i s approach t o methodology r e s u l t e d i n a h i g h l y s e l e c t i v e r e p o r t , with u n r e a l i s t i c proponent e x p e c t a t i o n s r e f l e c t e d by an u n r e a l i s t i c c r i t i c a l path p l a n . The "S/B Prospectus" p r o v i d e d s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n s , with i n f o r m a t i o n generated mainly from primary sources based on company f i e l d s t u d i e s . Some data gaps were i d e n -t i f i e d , however, and an i n d i c a t i o n of the c o n f i d e n c e of p r e d i c t a b i l i t y was provided f o r c o a l q u a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s but not f o r p r o d u c t i o n values or employment p r o j e c t i o n s . The f o r e c a s t i n g technique used was a g e o l o g i c a l model to p r e d i c t the extent of the d e p o s i t , which enabled the 189 c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the mine p l a n . Both prospectus.docu-ments were m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y inadequate as assessment v e h i c l e s because they f a i l e d to address a l l of the problems or i d e n t i f y p o s s i b l e c o r p o r a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s , and both r e s u l t e d i n m i s t i m i n g . The next phase of r a t i o n a l p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g o c c u r r e d where e x p l o r a t i o n and p r o f i l e f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s were done and mine pl a n s changed as more i n f o r m a t i o n was gained. I n t e r i m f i n a n c i n g o p t i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d d u r i n g e x p l o r a t i o n of i n i t i a l marketing o p t i o n s . To ensure r a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g , environmental i n f o r m a t i o n should be c l o s e l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the l o c a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , c o s t c a l c u l a t i o n s , and d e s i g n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Corporate c o n c e p t u a l p l a n n i n g should i n c l u d e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o assumptions r e l a t i n g to ground-water, hydrology, waste rock, s u r f i c i a l geology, f i s h and w i l d l i f e , and v e g e t a t i o n . Reclamation and w a t e r - q u a l i t y p l a n n i n g should be c o n c e p t u a l l y planned f o r and c o s t e d . The r e g u l a t o r y requirements should be examined to formulate p o s s i b l e c o r p o r a t e p o l i c i e s f o r housing, labour i s s u e s , community development, and g e n e r a l i z e d c o s t - b e n e f i t . T h i s p r e l i m i n a r y government prospectus p l a n n i n g should be r e f l e c -t e d i n the Stage I r e p o r t , a t which time the p o t e n t i a l v i a b i l i t y o f the p r o j e c t may be determined by the. company. The "S/B P r e l i m . " study i d e n t i f i e d the methods used f o r i t s a n a l y s i s but they were s c i e n t i f i c i n nature o n l y and d i d not meet the above c r i t e r i a . For example, data were 190 c o l l e c t e d from a i r photos and f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s , such as measurements of the impacted r i v e r i n terms of stream d i s -charge, water sampling, i n v e r t e b r a t e a n a l y s i s , and b i o -assays, while r e c l a m a t i o n f e a s i b i l i t y was determined by a n a l y s i s o f d r i l l core samples and p l a n t growth experiments. D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t s o i l s data were not c o l l e c t e d , the r e p o r t i d e n t i f i e d the h i g h e r o s i o n a l p o t e n t i a l of the f i n e -t e x t u r e d s o i l s , and i t s u s e f u l n e s s as r e c l a m a t i o n t o p s o i l . The b i o a s s a y r e s u l t s were not r e p l i c a b l e , and data were pro v i d e d which d i d not make a s p e c i f i c p o i n t . D e s p i t e the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l inadequacies, the r e c l a m a t i o n a d v i c e may have been u s e f u l had a l a t e r i n t e g r a t i o n with the mine des i g n o c c u r r e d . The "L.C. Stage I" was the onl y document to i n c l u d e a matrix demonstrating the extent o f impacts. Again, most of the methods used were designed o n l y t o c o l l e c t c ontent-s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n . Both primary and secondary data were c o l l e c t e d from a wide v a r i e t y of sources. The MOE Resource A n a l y s i s Branch p r o v i d e d Canada Land Inventory maps and i n -house maps on r e c r e a t i o n , c l i m a t e , w i l d l i f e , a q u a t i c s , s o i l s , and v e g e t a t i o n . The l e v e l o f d e t a i l was i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r s i t e - s p e c i f i c a n a l y s i s but was g e n e r a l l y adequate f o r t h i s phase. The Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch p r o v i d e d f l o o d -p l a i n a n a l y s i s ; F o r d i n g Coal added weather and water q u a l i t y data; CNFP a f f o r d e d c l i m a t e and f o r e s t cover maps; and hunter-sampling data came from MOE. 191 In the r e f e r e n c e s t h i s r e p o r t contained 32 per cent primary data sources and 68 per cent from secondary sources. T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n may be erroneous, however, as the data f o r most of the i n v e n t o r i e s were c o l l e c t e d but not r e f e r e n c e d o r a v a i l a b l e as BCRC in-house s t u d i e s . There was some evidence of c u r r e n t , resource-use data having been c o l l e c t e d from l o c a l sources, with secondary i n f o r m a t i o n secured from the Canada Land Inventory and the A r c h a e o l o g i -c a l S i t e s Board but, as observed p r e v i o u s l y , the assessment of s o c i a l i s s u e s r e c e i v e d l e s s a t t e n t i o n than the b i o p h y s i -c a l impacts. Many methodological weaknesses were observed i n the "L.C. Stage I" document; f o r i n s t a n c e , the t a b l e s f a i l e d t o show, c o n s i s t e n t l y , the sources o f t h e i r data, the CNI-generated data, o t h e r c o n s u l t a n t s ' r e p o r t s , or academic r e f e r e n c e s . Some of the i n f o r m a t i o n was repeated from e a r l i e r documents; f o r example, c o a l r e s e r v e s and workforce estimates, hence, r e t a i n i n g t h e i r o r i g i n a l problems. The l e v e l of conf i d e n c e f o r p r e d i c t i o n s was given o c c a s i o n a l l y but e v a l u a t i o n of the s i z e o f the impact was not c o n s i d e r e d . The m a j o r i t y of the techniques emphasized c o l l e c t i o n o f b a s e l i n e i n f o r m a t i o n on w i l d l i f e , f i s h , and v e g e t a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s , while n o n - b i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were thoroughly i n v e n t o r i e d . One a n a l y s i s provided a f o r e c a s t f o r l o c a l human p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n , but data gaps made t h a t f o r e c a s t u n c l e a r ; and, although the i n f o r m a t i o n was 192 c i t e d i n the summaries and the matrix, the i m p l i c a t i o n s were not made e x p l i c i t . T h i s document d i d , however, set c o n f i -dence l i m i t s on r e s e r v e estimates and addressed u n c e r t a i n -t i e s by c o n s i d e r i n g a number of l o c a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s . The "L.C. Soc.-Econ." a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e d another case where the f o r e c a s t s ' assumed valu e s were not i d e n t i -f i e d . For example, the need f o r i n c r e a s e d c o a l p r o d u c t i o n and, hence, employment was based on an assumed continued market i n c r e a s e . T h i s assumption was not unique t o KRL, t h e i r c o n s u l t a n t s , or the MMA. T h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n , made through r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s , i n c l u d e d p o s s i b l e development s c e n a r i o s where the f u t u r e of the E l k V a l l e y was f o r e c a s t i n three stages t o the year 2000. L i k e l y developments were p r e d i c t e d and the degree of u n c e r t a i n t y g i v e n . I t was concluded, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t because of new mine p r o j e c t s i n the area, the Upper E l k V a l l e y would grow s t e a d i l y u n t i l 1984. As w e l l , community i n f r a s t r u c t u r e t h r e s h o l d s were p r o j e c t e d f o r the E l k f o r d and Sparwood communities, and KRL then p r o v i d e d a base-case, f i r s t e x c l u -d i n g then i n c l u d i n g the G r e e n h i l l s p r o j e c t . A KRL p o l i c y d e c i s i o n f o l l o w e d and a workforce l o c a t i o n a l n e u t r a l i t y was formulated. Development assumptions i d e n t i f i e d by t h i s method appeared to be exemplary, but both MMA and KRL f a i l e d to c l a r i f y t h a t a l l of t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s and p o l i c i e s were based on a c o n t i n u a l l y expanding c o a l market. Consequently, t h e i r techniques d i d not c o n s i d e r a c y c l e with down-side 193 economic p l a n n i n g . P o l i c i e s were not devised f o r l a y o f f s or p a r t i a l shutdowns but, r a t h e r , p r e d i c t i o n s i n c l u d e d expanding employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and a c h r o n i c shortage of t r a d e s p e o p l e . B.C. Coal went on to p l a n an e x t e n s i v e r e c r u i t m e n t s t r a t e g y , d e s p i t e the warning t h a t : . . . the pace o f c o a l development i s h i g h l y u n c e r t a i n and dependent upon a wide range of f a c t o r s such as markets, p r i c e s , and t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes. F o r e c a s t s concerning f u t u r e developments must take account of these u n c e r t a i n t i e s . (B.C. MMA, 1979 , p. 6) The next phase of r a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g was an e v a l u a -t i o n phase, where d e t a i l e d e x p l o r a t i o n and f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s were examined by the proponent with a view to o p t i -m i z a t i o n . T h i s occurred concomitantly with ongoing market r e s e a r c h and f i n a n c i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , and the i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d i n the e a r l y p r o f i l e stage was used i n p l a n n i n g f o r management. Aspects of t h i s phase i n c l u d e d m i t i g a t i v e design, d e t a i l e d r e c l a m a t i o n planning, water management, and designs f o r environmental p r o t e c t i o n , with p o l i c i e s f o r compensation and community involvement, r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i -t i e s , housing, and education f o r p r o j e c t o p e r a t i n g p h i l o s o -phy. These p o l i c i e s d e a l t with the p r o j e c t ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n to community s t a b i l i t y by d e s i g n i n g contingency plans f o r l a y o f f s and shutdowns. The i d e n t i f i a b l e document f o r t h i s phase was the Stage I I r e p o r t . Most of the Stage I I documents examined appeared to be extensions of the p r o f i l i n g phase. Information was, again, much more d e t a i l e d r e g a r d i n g b i o p h y s i c a l than f o r 194 s o c i a l community data. The "L.C. Stage I I " was comprehen-s i v e , a v a r i e t y of data sources was used, and there were more primary data c o l l e c t e d from s i t e - s p e c i f i c s t u d i e s , i n c l u d i n g a s i t e - s p e c i f i c f l o o d - p r e d i c t i o n model. I n v e s t i g a t i o n s a l s o i n c l u d e d b o t a n i c a l and seeding e x p e r i -ments i n r e c l a m a t i o n p l a n n i n g , and b i o p h y s i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s to development a l t e r n a t i v e s were l i s t e d . Probable impacts, g i v e n the l i m i t a t i o n s of e x t r a p o l a t i o n as a p r e d i c t i v e technique, were i d e n t i f i e d . Each impact type was separated and a statement of expected impact was given. Less c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d was how management plans would address those impacts to f a c i l i t a t e the s y n t h e s i s f o r the reader. The "Gh Stage I I E n v i r o n . " a l s o i n c l u d e d i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d from primary and secondary sources, although there appeared t o be l i t t l e use of l o c a l - r e s i d e n t sources. I n f o r -mation was d e r i v e d mainly from v a r i o u s branches of MOE, although a l l sources were not given, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t from the B.C.Coal Balmer o p e r a t i o n s . Not a l l of the methods used appeared i n the methods s e c t i o n , and there was v a r i a t i o n i n the type of f o r e c a s t i n g technique. Again, the i n f o r m a t i o n appeared to be more of an in-depth p r o f i l e than a r e p o r t of the company's e v a l u a t i o n of the s t u d i e s . Minimal r e f e r e n c e was made to e a r l i e r proponent documents, but a s e c t i o n was i n c l u d e d which d e a l t with development p l a n a l t e r n a t i v e s . A c c o r d i n g to the o r i g i n a l purpose, t h i s document appeared to meet i t s o b j e c t i v e s , except perhaps those of a l t e r n a t i v e s 195 f o r management p l a n n i n g . As t h e r e was no government review of a proponent's prospectus, there was no e v a l u a t i v e r o l e f o r government agencies, and the c o r p o r a t e problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n phase was l e f t unevaluated. Had the prospectus been reviewed, agencies would have had an o p p o r t u n i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o note, e a r l y i n the p l a n n i n g , i f the p r o j e c t supported or c o n f l i c t e d w i t h t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n or o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h a t r e g i o n . Without e v a l u a t i o n t h e r e was no o p p o r t u n i t y to r a i s e o b j e c t i o n s to the o v e r a l l mine concept, and without p u b l i c review of the prospectus, no e x p r e s s i o n of p a r t i c u -l a r concerns. Given prospectus review, data c o l l e c t i o n procedures c o n s i s t e n t w i t h government data bases c o u l d have been s t a n d a r d i z e d ; f o r example, i n a q u a t i c and t e r r e s t r i a l s t u d i e s and water-sampling network d e s i g n s . The review process p r o v i d e d no guidance f o r r e s o l -v i n g i n t e r - a g e n c y c o n f l i c t s , although g u i d e l i n e s f o r review methodologies were s e t up. There were c o s t - b e n e f i t guide-l i n e s and recommendations f o r m i t i g a t i o n and compensation but none f o r socio-economic or environmental s t u d i e s or f o r r i s k or technology assessment. Comprehensiveness of the reviews was achieved through a simple count of agencies t h a t submitted comments,. The review methodology was not s t a n d a r d i z e d a c r o s s the case s t u d i e s as seen i n v a r i e d f o r -mats of the review comments due to the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l changes t h a t o c c u r r e d even w i t h i n the p l a n n i n g time-frame 196 of one p r o j e c t . G e n e r a l l y , the comments were more f u l l y reviewed by b i o p h y s i c a l agencies, with l e s s a t t e n t i o n g i v e n by the s o c i a l agencies, perhaps due more to the method than to the review agencies' i n t e r e s t s . 5.3.6 Content The content i n the "L.C. Prospectus" was charac-t e r i z e d by i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the mine development p o t e n t i a l o u t l i n e d i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of the e x p l o r a t i o n program and the p o t e n t i a l employment b e n e f i t s presumed to occur from e v e n t u a l mine p r o d u c t i o n . There was a minimum of e n v i r o n -mental impact i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and the e f f e c t of t h i s approach t o content was t h a t the promotional aspects or p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s of the proposed mine were emphasized a t the expense of the p o s s i b l e negative consequences. The "S.B. Prospectus" provided a s i m i l a r example of approach to content. The p o t e n t i a l of the d e p o s i t and i t s employment-gen e r a t i n g c a p a c i t i e s were emphasized, but content r e l a t e d t o b i o p h y s i c a l impacts was not provided. The content of the "L.C. Stage I" document was much more comprehensive than the prospectus, although i t tended to emphasize the p r o d u c t i o n phase, with the p l a n n i n g of s i t e f a c i l i t i e s and mine p i t l o c a t i o n s forming a major p o r t i o n of the content. The environmental s e t t i n g was d e s c r i b e d , with i n d i c a t o r c a t e g o r i e s comprehensively i d e n -t i f i e d , but the a c t u a l impact content was g e n e r a l l y 197 s p e c u l a t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e , with a tendency to emphasize the p o s i t i v e impacts such as forward employment l i n k a g e s , and to underestimate negative impacts such as i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n e f f e c t s on r e c r e a t i o n , hunting, and f i s h i n g . The content of the "Gh Stage I" provided a c o n t r a s t , s i n c e i t i n c l u d e d p l a n n i n g f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n phase as w e l l as f o r the o p e r a t i o n s . The need f o r government approvals was a l s o i d e n t i f i e d , and a s t r a t e g y f o r a c h i e v i n g t h i s goal was given i n the document. The d e s c r i p t i o n of the environmental s e t -t i n g was comprehensive but impact a n a l y s i s was o f t e n vague, o f f e r i n g l i t t l e i n s i g h t i n t o the i s s u e s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r managing impacts. Both of these documents contained adequate content f o r Stage I, u n l i k e the "S.B. Stage I . " The Phase I p o r t i o n of t h i s development p l a n was i n s u f f i -c i e n t t o assess the p r o p o s a l but t h i s l a c k was noted i n the document review, and an addendum "S.B. Stage I, Phase I" was submitted. The addendum was adequate i n terms of develop-ment i n f o r m a t i o n but, l i k e the other Stage I documents, i t d i d not thoroughly address the impacts of the p r o p o s a l . The content of the "Gh Pre-Production" r e p o r t d e a l t e x c l u s i v e l y with a p r e - c o n s t r u c t i o n p l a n . T h i s was the o n l y case document to d e t a i l c o n s t r u c t i o n p l a n n i n g s e p a r a t e l y from o p e r a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g , with i n f o r m a t i o n on s i t e excava-t i o n , g r a v e l p i t s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n route d e t a i l s , and l o g g i n g d e s i g n s . In a d d i t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n on impacts to stream c r o s s i n g s and w i l d l i f e was i d e n t i f i e d . The document 198 i n c l u d e d m i t i g a t i o n p l a n n i n g f o r continuous s i t e monitor-i n g , through a p r o t e c t i o n and maintenance program. While the r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d i n t e n t i o n s t o c a r r y out t h i s program, there was no evidence of a planned i n c r e a s e i n environmental s t a f f . The content of Stage II documents was g e n e r a l l y more than adequate with "L.C. Stage I I " and "Gh Stage I I " p r o v i -d i n g evidence t h a t a l t e r a t i o n s to mine design were made to s a t i s f y environmental concerns. However, even though they appeared comprehensive i n environmental and t e c h n i c a l p l a n -ning, some important i n f o r m a t i o n was m i s s i n g ' — f o r example, p l a n n i n g f o r p o r t f a c i l i t i e s , market arrangements, general f i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g , the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r expansions, and procurement i n f o r m a t i o n . There were some content areas i n which f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s c o u l d have been i n c l u d e d , f o r i n s t a n c e , r e g i o n a l i s s u e s such as ungulate management, a l i e n a t i o n of e l k winter range, and cumulative a i r - and w a t e r - q u a l i t y impacts. The cumulative impacts of the mine on community s e r v i c e s and housing were not considered, but to cover some of these i s s u e s , an a d d i t i o n a l document, "L.C. Pop." study was submitted. I t contained an a n a l y s i s of the simultaneous r e g i o n a l demand f o r community s e r v i c e s and housing by t a k i n g i n t o account other p r o j e c t s i n the r e g i o n , but the content was l i m i t e d because there was no development i n f o r m a t i o n , although the document d i d cover a range of f a c t o r s not r e c o g n i z e d i n the other case documents. 199 The "L.C. Expansion" was the o n l y document c l e a r l y inadequate i n terms of content. T h i s was a h i g h l y d e t a i l e d r e p o r t of s p e c i f i c t e c h n i c a l content, with b i o p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l impact i n f o r m a t i o n based l a r g e l y on previous s t u d i e s but not r e v i s e d to take expansion e f f e c t s i n t o account. The contents of the government review documents were g e n e r a l l y adequate, with s u b s t a n t i a l a t t e n t i o n to content d e t a i l . When proponent submissions were reviewed on the b a s i s of content, the review comments r e f l e c t e d the c o n t e n t - o r i e n t e d p e r s p e c t i v e with the review document f o l l o w i n g c l o s e l y the proponent 1s p r e s e n t a t i o n . In summary, the content aspect of the documentation was g e n e r a l l y not the l i m i t i n g f e a t u r e of the a p p r a i s a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y because the review procedures r e v e a l e d m i s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . The documents were o f t e n more l i m i t e d by t h e i r methodology and format than by t h e i r content. Chapter 6 PROGRAM OUTCOMES An Environment of V a r i e d Concern Where the need to plan is greatest because changes have accelerated beyond the levels of past experience, plan* ning tends to be least effectiver where the amount of perceptible change is small, so that planning can be carried out on the basis of nearly perfect knowledge, it is not needed, - Friedmann (1978) 6.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Since the beginning of the c o a l boom i n 1969, 31 p r o p e r t i e s had been explored f o r c o a l i n B.C. With the implementation of the CDG, 2 0 c o a l prospectus documents had been submitted, and nine c o a l mine proposals had completed the program, s i x of which had proceeded to f u r t h e r p e r m i t -t i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n . A complete summary of the output o f the g u i d e l i n e s program i s shown i n Table 3. One mine, L i n e Creek, had begun only l i m i t e d p r o d u c t i o n i n 1983. The intended outcome of the CDG program was to p l a n new mines or t o expand e x i s t i n g ones, t a k i n g i n t o account s o c i a l , environmental, t e c h n i c a l , and economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The number of mines proceeding to s u c c e s s f u l p r o d u c t i o n may not be an i n d i c a t o r of achievement of th a t g o a l . As i l l u s t r a t e d 200 201 e a r l i e r , a number of f a c t o r s o u t s i d e the CDG program have a f f e c t e d t h i s outcome, some o f which were more s i g n i f i c a n t than the program i t s e l f . A c l o s e r examination of mines which had submitted prospectuses and achieved a p p r o v a l - i n -p r i n c i p l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t 45 per cent of these were su c c e s s -f u l . Of the a p p a r e n t l y u n s u c c e s s f u l cases, seven mines continued to p l a n t h e i r p r o j e c t , w i t h s t u d i e s i n progress a t t h i s w r i t i n g ; two had h a l t e d progress pending company d e c i -s i o n s t o proceed; two were under review; and two had been r e j e c t e d by the CDG program. Thus, approximately 8 per cent of the o r i g i n a l p r o p o s a l s had been r e j e c t e d by the CDG, an o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t i s s u b j e c t to v a r i a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Table 3 CDG OUTPUT SUMMARY: 1970-1983 D e s c r i p t i o n Southeast Northeast Other T o t a l P r o p e r t y e x p l o r e d 8 15 8 31 Prospectus submitted 9 , 7 4 20 Stage I submitted 7 9 3 19 Stage I approved 5 8 2 15 Stage I I submitted • 5 5 2 12 Stage I I a p p r o v a l - i n -p r i n c i p l e 4 4 1 9 Stage I I t o c o n s t r u c t i o n 2 3 1 6 Stage I I t o p r o d u c t i o n 1 0 0 1 O p e r a t i o n a l 3 0 1* 4 * l i m i t e d p r o d u c t i o n Source: Crook ( J u l y 1982, P e r s o n a l communication) 202 I t may be argued t h a t the CDG program has impeded the progress o f mine p l a n n i n g , the assessment requirements being too time consuming or s t r i n g e n t , or i t c o u l d be sug-gested t h a t the CDG i s i n e f f e c t i v e because a c t u a l r e j e c t i o n of c o a l mine development p r o p o s a l s have been few. I t a l s o appears, however, t h a t each case i s s u f f i c i e n t l y d i v e r s e to r e s t r i c t s e r i o u s l y the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n about the,success o f the program i n meeting i t s o b j e c t i v e s from the outcome data alone. To strengthen the a n a l y s i s , o b s e r v a t i o n s o b t a i n e d from e x i s t i n g c r i t i q u e s of the program and a q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w have been used i n t h i s e v a l u a -t i o n and, tog e t h e r w i t h the o b s e r v a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d i n e a r l i e r c h a p t e r s , a broad e v a l u a t i o n o f the CDG program i s presented below i n i t s c o n t e x t , 6.2 E x i s t i n g C r i t i q u e s Seven of the CDG program reviews were e v a l u a t e d (Crouse, 1978; Dick and Ringstad, 1981; Hawes and Gadsby, 1982; K e e v i l , 1983; McDonald, 1982; O'Riordan, 1979; Payne, 1983) u s i n g a c o n t e n t - a n a l y s i s methodology. The r e l a t i o n -s h i p of the authors t o the CDG program was v a r i e d , p r o v i -d i n g a broad range o f o p i n i o n s . Four of the c r i t i q u e s were w r i t t e n by i n d i v i d u a l s e x t e r n a l to the CDG program and to the p r o v i n c i a l government. Two e x t e r n a l reviews were w r i t t e n by c o a l development p r o p o n e n t s — C r o u s e f o r CNRC and K e e v i l f o r Teck C o r p o r a t i o n ; one was authored by 203 environmental mining consultants-—Hawes f o r N o r e c o l , and Gadsby f o r Thurber; and one was by an academic p o l i c y a n a l -y s t , Payne at UBC; f o u r other authors were i n t e r n a l to government. The three government authors were a d m i n i s t r a -t o r s of the CDG program—O 1Riordan and Dick of ELUCS/M0E f and McDonald of MEMPR, and one was Ringstad, a review agent f o r F i s h and W i l d l i f e . None of the authors was a program e v a l u a t o r by p r o f e s s i o n . 6.2.1 P r e s e n t a t i o n of f i n d i n g s  The e v a l u a t i o n methodology used by these authors was l a r g e l y one based on p e r s o n a l experience. Crouse (1978, p. 6) c h a r a c t e r i z e d the t y p i c a l m e thodological approach when he s t a t e d , "I would l i k e t o make some comments r e l a t i v e t o our experience with the CDG." For most of these reviews, p e r s o n a l experience was the source of i n f o r m a t i o n which framed the problem, determined the context i n which the i s s u e s were d i s c u s s e d , and d e f i n e d the recommendations f o r changes to the CDG program. One reviewer, Payne, drew con-c l u s i o n s from a t h e o r e t i c a l framework u s i n g p o l i t i c a l economic i n d i c a t o r s to conduct h i s a n a l y s i s . Only two of the reviews were w r i t t e n with the express purpose of d e s c r i b i n g the CDG program and a s s e s s i n g i t s " strengths and weaknesses" (O'Riordan, 1979, p. 207) and were meant to "provide c o n s t r u c t i v e suggestions f o r program improvements" (Dick and Ringstad, 1981, p. 3) . 204 Another purpose was non-evaluative yet addressed program amendments (Hawes and Gadsby, 1982, p. 3), i n an attempt to communicate the "key components i n p l a n n i n g a s u c c e s f u l environmental study program." K e e v i l ' s (1983, p. 4) i n t e n -t i o n was to "provide a general overview of i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n development of a new c o a l mine." Payne (1983, p, 2) i d e n t i f i e d h i s purpose as the "formation of e f f e c t i v e p o l i c y . . . and concrete a l t e r n a t i v e s " to d e a l with the problems "generated by the mining i n d u s t r y . " G e n e r a l l y , although the i n t e n t of f i v e of these reviews was not d i r e c t l y to evaluate the CDG program, each contained a number of recommendations which bore d i r e c t l y on adminis-t r a t i o n , l e g i s l a t i o n , or the methodology of the CDG program, and, thus, were considered u s e f u l f o r the present study. Hawes and Gadsby acknowledged CDG a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and o t h e r mining c o n s u l t a n t s as having c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e i r a n a l y s i s , and K e e v i l c i t e d the experience of another mine developer, Ron Dalby of Gregg River Mine, A l b e r t a , as a s u p p o r t i n g source. Payne used 58 c i t a t i o n notes to s u b s t a n t i a t e h i s d i s c u s s i o n , but the other authors d i d not provide r e f e r e n c e s to add to t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . F i v e of the reviews had f i r s t been presented as w r i t t e n documents to support o r a l addresses. Crouse, Hawes, and Gadsby gave p r e s e n t a t i o n s to the Mine Reclamation sym-posium, an annual meeting sponsored j o i n t l y by the MEMPR and the B.C. Mining A s s o c i a t i o n , Payne addressed a meeting of 205 the Canadian Regional Science A s s o c i a t i o n , and McDonald the NECD C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee. K e e v i l d e l i v e r e d the i n a u g u r a l speech to a workshop on " P r o j e c t Assessment, Western Cana-d i a n Coal Development," while O'Riordan's paper formed a chapter i n a book on Ecology and C o a l Mining, and Dick and Ringstad compiled t h e i r c r i t i q u e as a document s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r use w i t h i n the MOE. In no case was the review prepared as an e v a l u a t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r CDG program a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n . 6.2.2 CDG program d e s c r i p t i o n The CDG program v a r i e d as each author's e x p e c t a t i o n s changed, because i n a l l cases the program was d e s c r i b e d as a r e f l e c t i o n of p e r s o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . The i n t e r n a l reviewers concentrated on the assessment aspects of the CDG program when d i s c u s s i n g the nature or k i n d of program. McDonald (1982, p. 2) d e s c r i b e d the CDG as s y s t e m a t i c a l l y moving "from a g e n e r a l overview of the p r o j e c t to more s i t e - s p e c i -f i c impact assessments and management p r o p o s a l s . " Other i n t e r n a l reviewers agreed t h a t the assessment a c t i v i t i e s form a process t h a t should be systematic or r a t i o n a l and comprehensive. O'Riordan (1979, p. 208) expected t h a t "at a l l stages of the process, t o t a l impacts of mine development are c o n s i d e r e d , " and McDonald (1982, p. 1) b e l i e v e d t h a t the g u i d e l i n e s "are broad i n scope, c o v e r i n g the major economic, s o c i a l and environmental i m p l i c a t i o n s of c o a l development. 1 1 206 To i l l u s t r a t e the s e q u e n t i a l and systematic aspects of the program, two papers p r o v i d e d updated models of the process (Hawes and Gadsby, and McDonald). Three of the reviewers expected the process of assessment to be more than p r o j e c t -s p e c i f i c ; f o r example, Dick and Ringstad (1981, p. 2) saw the CDG as d e s c r i b i n g a p l a n n i n g process where the a s s e s s -ment "should be thought of as a p l a n n i n g t o o l t h a t shapes the whole development program," and 0 1 R i o r d a n (1979, p. 212) expected t h a t "from i t s i n c e p t i o n [the CDG] should be r e s -ponsive t o the . . , goals of the r e g i o n of development." These e x p e c t a t i o n s i m p l i e d t h a t a consensus of goals was p o s s i b l e , and assumed t h a t a t e c h n i c a l c a p a b i l i t y e x i s t e d to gather l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of i n f o r m a t i o n and t h a t the ana-l y t i c a b i l i t y e x i s t e d t o handle i t . The e x t e r n a l reviewers had more r e s t r i c t i v e and l e s s comprehensive e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r the assessment aspects of the CDG. Hawes and Gadsby (1982, p. 2), f o r example, saw the assessments as " p r i m a r i l y t e c h n i c a l i n nature." The review aspects of the CDG were h i g h l i g h t e d by those authors who i n i t i a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t s — t h e proponents. Crouse (1978, p. 6) saw the CDG as an a n a l y t i c and c r i t i c a l p rocess "designed to take i s s u e w i t h a development p l a n and p o i n t out i t s inadequacies." K e e v i l (1983, p. 6) saw the a p p r o v a l aspects of the review as the primary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the CDG. He observed t h a t governments "employ armies of bureaucrats to pass judgement on new p r o j e c t s , " His 207 o b s e r v a t i o n s may have a r i s e n because proponent documents were, as noted by O'Riordan (1979, p. 209), expected to be "reviewed f o r major i n f o r m a t i o n gaps or m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of government p o l i c y or data which c o u l d d e l a y i t s f i n a l acceptance by the government agen c i e s , " Because the review was expected to be as s y s t e m a t i c ..and comprehensive as the assessment, K e e v i l (1983, p. 6) observed t h a t he c o u l d not "t h i n k of a s i n g l e department t h a t does not i n some way get i n v o l v e d w i t h the a p p r o v a l of a new c o a l p r o j e c t . " T h i s c r e a t e d a concern because e x t e r n a l reviewers expected t h e i r p r e v a i l i n g v alue assumptions of e f f i c i e n c y and expediency should be the c r i t e r i a used f o r the review. I n t e r n a l reviewers expected t h a t e q u i t y and i n t a n g i b l e v a l u e s should be accounted f o r i n the assessments. Payne (1983) had e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t were not f u l f i l l e d e i t h e r by the a s s e s s -ment or the review aspects of the CDG program; he d e s c r i b e d the CDG as "based on s t u d i e s undertaken by the companies themselves on the b a s i s of c l o s e d - d o o r c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h government departments" (p. 31). T h i s i d e n t i f i e d another problem, t h a t of p u b l i c access to the program and the expec-t a t i o n t h a t decision-makers had the power, time, and r e s o u r -ces t o implement o p t i m a l s o l u t i o n s . These v a r i e d e x p e c t a t i o n s gave r i s e to d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s f o r the elements of the v a r i o u s program a s p e c t s . Thus, Stage I and Stage I I d e s c r i p t i o n s v a r i e d i n purpose, w i t h the authors' assumptions i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s 208 of how the program should be conducted, who should p a r t i -c i p a t e , and what the extent of the input should be. The d e s c r i p t i o n s of the expected CDG program decision-making procedures f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e the range of o b s e r v a t i o n among these r e v i e w e r s . The authors d e s c r i b e d decision-making procedures which were not the "one-window approach" to the p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l process expected by the MOE (Dick and Ringstad, 1981, p. 3) o r suggested to the c o a l developers by the program's a d m i n i s t r a t o r s (McDonald, 1982). I d e n t i -f i e d e x c e p t i o n s to t h i s approach i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g : 1. Management of land use, r e c l a m a t i o n , and econo-mic impacts of c o a l e x p l o r a t i o n programs are undertaken through separate programs administered by MEMPR (O'Riordan, 1979, p. 209). 2. A number of government agencies have s p e c i f i c and c o n t i n u i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o ensure t h a t design f e a -t u r e s and monitoring programs ( c o n d i t i o n s to v a r i o u s l i c e n -ces) are c a r r i e d out by the developer a f t e r a p p r o v a l - i n -p r i n c i p l e (O'Riordan, 1979, p. 211). 3. A c o n f i d e n t i a l economic a n a l y s i s i s reviewed o n l y by the CGSC and ELUC (O'Riordan, 197 9) and not by o t h e r review agencies, 4. M i n i s t e r i a l d i s c r e t i o n i s the d e c i d i n g f a c t o r f o r a p p r o v a l of reclamation r e p o r t s (Dick and Ringstad, 1981). 5. Regional and m u n i c i p a l l e v e l s of government 209 have r e g i o n a l plans and m u n i c i p a l zoning p o l i c i e s to which c o a l development p r o j e c t s should conform (O'Riordan, 1979). Because of the problems i n understanding the d e c i -sion-making process, c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t was expended by-s e v e r a l reviewers t o c l a r i f y the procedures (Hawes and Gadsby, 1982; McDonald, 1982; O'Riordan, 1979). Des p i t e these attempts a t c l a r i f i c a t i o n , a s u b t l e but important c o n f l i c t continued t o e x i s t over who adminis-t e r e d the CDG and who decided whether or not a new c o a l mine may be developed. Most of the i n t e r n a l reviewers i d e n t i f i e d the ELUC as the p o l i t i c a l body r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making these d e c i s i o n s , y e t reviewers' o b s e r v a t i o n s o f s p e c i f i c cases have p r o v i d e d exceptions t o t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n . K e e v i l (1983, p. 7) d e s c r i b e d how Teck C o r p o r a t i o n and p a r t n e r s ucope" w i t h t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of slow i n s t i t u t i o n a l decision-making. They "spent over $50 m i l l i o n i n c o n s t r u c t i o n between the time of [prospectus] submission and the f i n a l agreement." T h i s approach, K e e v i l (1983, p. 7) acknowledged, may "not be so easy or a p p r o p r i a t e w i t h p u b l i c s e c t o r r e g u l a t o r y b o d i e s , " but he hoped t h a t " a p p l i c a t i o n s are processed c a r e -f u l l y but wit h a sense o f urgency-—indeed with common sense." In u s i n g the approach of proceeding w i t h c o n s t r u c -t i o n p r i o r to o f f i c i a l a p p r o v a l , a d i s t i n c t i o n was made, where K e e v i l (1983) assumed t h a t the concept of t h e i r new mine was p o l i t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e p r i o r to CDG program 210 e v a l u a t i o n and t h a t p e r m i t t i n g approvals were subordinate d e c i s i o n s which were not time-dependent. Perhaps because of t h i s c o r p o r a t e coping s t r a t e g y , Payne saw the CDG decision-making procedure as flawed. He argued t h a t the CDG had "no independent l e g a l f o r c e to b i n d companies to any commitment they might g i v e " (1983, p. 31). Given these and f u r t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s , Dick and Ringstad (1981) ques-t i o n e d the a c t u a l a u t h o r i t y of the C h i e f Inspector of Mines, the r o l e of the MAC and the ACR, and the a u t h o r i t y of r e g i o n a l and m u n i c i p a l governments. The i s s u e was more than the c o n f l i c t i n e x p e c t a t i o n of when, by whom, and how a d e c i s i o n to proceed was made. The i s s u e had become whether these u n c l a r i f i e d d e c i s i o n s had f e t t e r e d or under-mined other agencies, and t h e i r a b i l i t y to a c t w i t h i n t h e i r mandate. 6.2.3 D e s c r i p t i o n of program context A l l authors presented an h i s t o r i c a l background or context which framed t h e i r comments r e l a t i v e to the CDG. These r e f l e c t e d both the pragmatic concerns o f c o s t s , and the d i f f i c u l t i e s c r e a t e d by p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , economic, t e c h n i c a l , and c o r p o r a t e components as w e l l as f o r normative concerns which arose i n terms of e q u i t y . In t o t a l , a f a i r l y l a r g e number of c o n t e x t u a l components emerged and, hence, an aggregate of e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s of c o n t e x t u a l c o n s t r a i n t s were i d e n t i f i e d , a l l of which bore upon the e f f e c t i v e n e s s 211 of the CDG program, as f o l l o w s ; 1. The i n t e r n a t i o n a l economic c o n t e x t . The a c t i o n s of the buyers and s e l l e r s i n the c o a l market p r o v i d e d one s e t of c o n s t r a i n t s . For example, Payne (1983, p. 1) i d e n t i -f i e d Japan's M i n i s t r y of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Trade and I n d u s t r y (MITI) working i n c o n c e r t w i t h Japanese mining and manufac-t u r i n g conglomerates i n the 1950-1960s a c t i v e l y e x p l o r i n g B.C. f o r secure s u p p l i e s o f c o a l . The s i g n i n g of long-term c o n t r a c t s , Payne (1983, p. 3) i n d i c a t e d , allowed f o r an e x p o n e n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n c o a l p r o d u c t i o n i n the next ten y e a r s . Payne noted t h a t the western Canadian c o a l produ-c e r s , m u l t i n a t i o n a l companies, o f t e n s u b s i d i a r i e s of i n t e r n a t i o n a l o i l companies, were d i r e c t i n g c a p i t a l - i n t e n -s i v e o p e r a t i o n s where much of the r e v e n u e — r e t u r n s to c a p i t a l and excess economic r e n t — l e f t the p r o v i n c e . In a d i f f e r e n t v e i n , y e t r e l a t e d to i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s , K e e v i l (1983, pp. 2, 3).noted t h a t r e c e n t l y Japanese s t e e l p r o d u c t i o n was reduced, c o k i n g c o a l needs d e c l i n e d , and the p r o s p e c t s f o r new m e t a l l u r g i c a l c o a l c o n t r a c t s were l e s s l i k e l y . Although the r e c e n t o i l - s u r p l u s reduced the demand f o r thermal c o a l , K e e v i l (1983) p r e d i c t e d t h a t the longer term world t r e n d would be to r e p l a c e o i l w i t h c o a l , and w h i le the p o t e n t i a l f o r a decade of worldwide d e p r e s s i o n e x i s t e d , he f e l t t h a t an upturn i n the economic c y c l e was i n e v i t a b l e . K e e v i l supported Payne i n o b s e r v i n g t h a t marketing s t r a t e g i e s f o r western Canadian c o a l r e v o l v e d 212 around the P a c i f i c Rim and that the continued e x i s t e n c e or expansion of t h i s market was dependent on a number of f a c -t o r s . For example, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c o a l v o l a t i l i t y meant t h a t t o be u t i l i z e d , Canadian c o a l must be blended, and Japanese f a c i l i t i e s were not designed f o r Canadian thermal c o a l . Because c o a l e x i s t s i n almost every country of the world, and com p e t i t i o n i s f i e r c e from A u s t r a l i a , South A f r i c a , and the U.S.A., Payne and K e e v i l agreed t h a t continued demand f o r more new mines i s u n c e r t a i n , p a r t i c u -l a r l y i n a pro v i n c e where excess c a p a c i t y e x i s t s . Thus, a s i t u a t i o n r e s u l t e d where there were r e l a t i v e l y few c u s t o -mers and l o t s o f p o t e n t i a l c o a l s u p p l i e r s . 2. The p r o v i n c i a l economic c o n t e x t . C o n s t r a i n t s to the capture of b e n e f i t s from the c o a l i n d u s t r y f o r the B.C. economy were i d e n t i f i e d by Payne (1983, p. 2), He b e l i e v e d r e t u r n s to o u t s i d e e q u i t y investment represented a l o s s of value to the p r o v i n c e . In c o n t r a s t , K e e v i l (1983) d i s c u s s e d the i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t e problems of de s i g n i n g a f i n a n c i n g package which c r e a t e d the p r o v i n c i a l s i t u a t i o n Payne observed. K e e v i l e l a b o r a t e d t h a t f o r e i g n governments o f f e r e d i n c e n t i v e s f o r c o a l buyers t o take e q u i t y p o s i t i o n s i n new mines and even to become i n v o l v e d i n the debt, i n c l u d i n g a s s i s t a n c e i n appr o v a l of purchase c o n t r a c t s or the p r o v i s i o n o f low i n t e r e s t loans, but the loans were t o be made on the b a s i s of equipment purchased 213 from the c o a l - b u y i n g country. K e e v i l (1983, p. 11) suggested t h i s was done by the Japanese "with the b e l i e f t h a t a s p i r i t of coop e r a t i o n w i l l be generated, one which i s necessary t o s u s t a i n long-term c o n t r a c t s . " To o b t a i n coal-mine debt f i n a n c i n g , s y n d i c a t i o n with a l a r g e number of i n t e r n a t i o n a l banks was o f t e n arranged, sometimes wi t h a n e g o t i a b l e p r i c e f o r the debt package, which i n v o l v e d foreign-exchange c o n s t r a i n t s . Payne (1983, p. 10) p o i n t e d t o the p r o v i n c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s approach to c o r p o r -ate f i n a n c i n g . C r e a t i o n of b a r r i e r s t o p r o v i n c i a l forward and backward l i n k a g e s was the r e s u l t , Payne b e l i e v e d procurement p o l i c i e s and f o r e i g n investment p o l i c i e s by the f e d e r a l F o r e i g n Investment Review Agency (FIRA) were more o f t e n than not compromised i n the face of the c o r p o r -ate f i n a n c i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , 3. The environmental context. Numerous e n v i r o n -mental c o n s t r a i n t s were i d e n t i f i e d . Hawes and Gadsby (1982, p. 1) noted "mine p r o j e c t s . . . may impose s i g n i -f i c a n t e f f e c t s on the environment over a long p e r i o d of time . . .," and O'Riordan (197 9, p. 212) p o i n t e d out t h a t "the value of c o a l production w i l l always outweigh the l o s s t o [ f i s h and w i l d l i f e ] resources at any p a r t i c u l a r s i t e . " O'Riordan (1979, p. 212) f u r t h e r suggested t h a t a problema-t i c s i t u a t i o n was c r e a t e d whereby: . . . c r i t i c a l h a b i t a t f o r sup p o r t i n g animal popula-t i o n s i s decreased [yet] the t o t a l human p o p u l a t i o n 214 i s i n c r e a s e d due to c o a l development and [ r e s u l t i n g in] an expansion i n the demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l hunting. 4. The s o c i a l c ontext. K e e v i l (1983, p, 2) saw an " h i a t u s i n c o a l development as a r e s u l t of the deep g l o b a l r e c e s s i o n , " and Payne (1983, p. 1), i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n , p o i n t e d to " c y c l i c i n s t a b i l i t y , " thereby implying s o c i a l impacts would r e s u l t f o r resource communities and would a c t as c o n s t r a i n t s to c o a l development. Payne (1983, p. 15) i d e n t i f i e d the " r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n of c a p i t a l -i n t e n s i v e mining t o employment, the l a y o f f s , pay-cuts and reduced work-weeks d u r i n g r e c e s s i o n " as r e s u l t i n g i n a l l the c o s t s of the r e c e s s i o n b e i n g borne "most d i r e c t l y by the workers and communities dependent on mining." 5, P u b l i c involvement. As a r e s u l t of these s o c i a l and environmental concerns, Dick and Ringstad (1981, p. 5) noted t h a t "the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h i n the i n f l u e n c e of c o a l developments, are i n t e r e s t e d and do have l e g i t i m a t e concerns," Hawes and Gadsby (1982, p. 2) warned t h a t " p u b l i c support or o p p o s i t i o n may be a s i g n i f i c a n t or even a major component i n o b t a i n i n g p r o j e c t approval at the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l . " And McDonald (1982, p, 2) argued t h a t " c i t i z e n groups formed to r e p r e s e n t r e c r e a t i o n c o n s e r v a t i o n or s o c i o - c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s should have a forum to d i s c u s s and debate the p r o p o s a l s . " 215 6. Regional government p l a n n i n g . Independent government programs c o u l d a c t as c o n s t r a i n i n g f a c t o r s . For example, Dick and Ringstad (1981, p. 2) pro v i d e d background on the MOE 1s attempts to e s t a b l i s h "17 f i s h e r i e s management and 15 w i l d l i f e management o b j e c t i v e s which would give over-a l l g e n e r a l p r o v i n c i a l d i r e c t i o n f o r meeting o v e r a l l g o a l s . " In a d d i t i o n , they found t h a t f i s h and w i l d l i f e management was " d e c e n t r a l i z i n g i n t o e i g h t regions [which were] c u r -r e n t l y p r e p a r i n g r e g i o n a l management plans which w i l l q u a n t i f y r