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Reclamation in the Highland Valley : the classification of disturbed areas for evaluation and planning Lloyd, Cecilia Jane 1983

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RECLAMATION IN THE HIGHLAND VALLEY : THE CLASSIFICATION OF DISTURBED AREAS FOR EVALUATION AND PLANNING by C e c i l i a J a n e ( J i g g y ) L l o y d B.Sc. (Hons) E d i n b u r g h U n i v e r s i t y , 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA © C e c i l i a J a ne ( J i g g y ) L l o y d I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r h i s / h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f F o r e s t r y The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a . V6T 1W5 i ABSTRACT The H i g h l a n d V a l l e y has t h e g r e a t e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f o p e n -p i t h a r d r o c k m i n e s i n W e s t e r n Canada. I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e r e c l a m a t i o n o f 8,000ha o f d i s t u r b e d l a n d w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be n e c e s s a r y . T h i s s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n t o e v a l u a t e e x i s t i n g r e c l a m a t i o n methods and o b j e c t i v e s and t o p r e d i c t t h e e f f e c t s o f r e c l a m a t i o n upon l a n d - u s e i n t h e a r e a . P h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s and t h e e f f e c t o f a s p e c t on m o i s t u r e c o n d i t i o n s i n d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s were i n v e s t i g a t e d . N a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n , n a t u r a l r e v e g e t a t i o n and l a n d - u s e were s u r v e y e d . R e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s were a s s e s s e d . D i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t e x t u r e . A s p e c t d i d n o t a f f e c t m o i s t u r e c o n d i t i o n s i n d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s b u t s i t e s e x p o s e d t o wind were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d r i e r t h a n s h e l t e r e d s i t e s . The f a c t o r s t e x t u r e , e x p o s u r e , t o p o g r a p h y and e l e v a t i o n were u s e d t o c l a s s i f y d i s t u r b e d a r e a s i n t o 13 r e c l a m a t i o n s i t e -t y p e s . E a c h r e c l a m a t i o n s i t e - t y p e had c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e c l a m a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s . E x i s t i n g and a n t i c i p a t e d r e c l a m a t i o n s i t e - t y p e s were d e l i n e a t e d on maps. I n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i r e d from s u r v e y s and f r o m a s s e s s m e n t o f r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s and r e s u l t s o f r e c l a m a t i o n r e s e a r c h i n o t h e r r e g i o n s were u s e d t o p r o p o s e s u i t a b l e r e c l a m a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s and l a n d - u s e o b j e c t i v e s f o r e a c h r e c l a m a t i o n s i t e - t y p e . A p l a n o f t h e p r e d i c t e d l a n d - u s e o f t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y r e s u l t i n g f r o m a d o p t i o n o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s and o b j e c t i v e s was c o m p i l e d . M ethods o f r e c l a i m i n g two o f t h e r e c l a m a t i o n s i t e - t y p e s have been d e v e l o p e d i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y b u t r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s have n o t been l o c a t e d i n t h e d i s t u r b e d a r e a s w h i c h p r e s e n t more d i f f i c u l t c o n d i t i o n s f o r p l a n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d g r o w t h . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s s o l v i n g t h e p r o b l e m s c a u s e d by s t e e p s l o p e s , e x p o s u r e a n d t h e p e c u l i a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t a i l i n g s . The p o t e n t i a l i m p a c t o f r e c l a m a t i o n on l a n d - u s e i s l a r g e . The amount o f r a n g e l a n d i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y c o u l d be i n c r e a s e d by 4400ha. An o v e r - a b u n d a n c e of w i l d l i f e may r e s u l t f r o m t e m p o r a r y i n c r e a s e s i n t h e amount o f h a b i t a t a v a i l a b l e . i i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s i i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i L i s t o f P l a n s ( a c c o m p a n y i n g t e x t ) v i L i s t o f T a b l e s v i i Acknowledgements v i i i 1.. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1 .1 B a c k g r o u n d 1 1.2 Aims And O b j e c t i v e s 2 2.. D e s c r i p t i o n Of M i n i n g O p e r a t i o n s 4 2.1 B e t h l e h e m C o p p e r C o r p o r a t i o n 4 2.2 L o r n e x M i n i n g C o r p o r a t i o n 5 2.3 Highmont O p e r a t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n 6 2.4 V a l l e y C opper M i n e s 6 3. D e s c r i p t i o n Of S t u d y A r e a 9 3.1 L o c a t i o n 9 3.2 T o p o g r a p h y And D r a i n a g e 9 3.3 G e o l o g y 11 3.4 S u r f i c i a l G e o l o g y And S o i l s 12 3.5 C l i m a t e 13 3.6 V e g e t a t i o n 15 3.7 P r e - m i n i n g L a n d - u s e 15 3.8 L a n d T e n u r e 17 4.. S t u d y P r o c e d u r e s 18 4.1 S e l e c t i o n Of P o s s i b l e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n F a c t o r s 18 iv 4.2 Co l l e c t i o n Of Information In The F i e l d 20 5. Results 35 5.1 Natural Vegetation 35 5.2 Investigation Of Physical Characteristics Of Disturbed Materials And Natural S o i l s 41 5.3 Effect Of Aspect On Moisture Conditions 42 5.4 Assessment Of Reclamation T r i a l s 56 5.5 Natural Revegetation Survey 60 5.6 Present Land-use 61 6.. Discussion 66 6.1 Selection Of Factors For C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Scheme 66 6.2 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Of Reclamation Site-types 73 6.3 Land-use Options 76 6.4 Summary Of Post-mining Land-use Objectives Proposed By Mining Companies 84 6.5 Reclamation Research, Objectives And Techniques For Each Reclamation Site-type 86 7.. Conclusions 108 7.1 Evaluation Of Reclamation Programme 108 7.2 Recommendations For Further Research 109 7.3 Land-use Changes Resulting From Mining And Reclamation 112 7.4 Summary Conclusions 116 Literature Cited 117 123 Appendix I Climatic data • Appendix II Theory and operation of psychrometers 128 Appendix III Species composition and s o i l p r o f i l e diagrams for 131 plots surveyed within each community-type Appendix IV Analysis of variance tables for physical V c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t y p e s o f m a t e r i a l ...160 A p p e n d i x V P h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f m a t e r i a l s a t e a c h s i t e ..163 A p p e n d i x VI R e s u l t s o f a s s e s s m e n t o f r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s 165 A p p e n d i x V I I S p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n o f p l o t s s u r v e y e d w i t h i n n a t u r a l r e v e g e t a t i o n a r e a 168 A p p e n d i x V I I I A l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t i n g o f s p e c i e s names and common names 171 vi L I S T OF FIGURES 1. The l o c a t i o n o f t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 10 2. S t u d y a r e a and l o c a t i o n o f p l o t s 23 3. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f p a r t i c l e s i z e s i n n a t u r a l s o i l s a nd d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s 46 4. Mean s o i l w a t e r p o t e n t i a l s a t n a t u r a l s o i l s i t e s 47 5. Mean s o i l w a t e r p o t e n t i a l s a t s h e l t e r e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k s i t e s . 49 6. Mean s o i l water p o t e n t i a l s a t s h e l t e r e d and e x p o s e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k s i t e s 50 7. Mean s o i l w a t e r p o t e n t i a l s a t o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k and raw t i l l s i t e s .51 8 a ) . D a i l y p r e c i p i t a t i o n a t B e t h l e h e m , June 11th - A u g u s t 3 0 t h , 1981 8 b ) . D a i l y p r e c i p i t a t i o n a t L o r n e x , June 11th - A u g u s t 3 0 t h , 1981 L I S T OF PLANS ( a c c o m p a n y i n g t e x t ) P l a n 1. R e c l a m a t i o n s i t e - t y p e s a n d n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s o f t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . P l a n 2. F i n a l l a n d - u s e p l a n f o r t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . L I S T OF TABLES I. M i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y 8 2 a ) . Mean m o n t h l y t e m p e r a t u r e s and mean m o n t h l y t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n a t B e t h l e h e m 14 2 b ) . Mean m o n t h l y t e m p e r a t u r e s and mean m o n t h l y t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n a t L o r n e x 14 3. S i t e s s e l e c t e d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 28 4. P h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f n a t u r a l s o i l s a n d d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s 43 5. R e s u l t s o f F - t e s t s on p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 44 6. R e s u l t s o f New Duncan's M u l t i p l e Range T e s t s on p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 45 7. T e m p e r a t u r e and m o i s t u r e c o n d i t i o n s i n n a t u r a l s o i l s and d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s 52 8. R e s u l t s o f a s s e s s m e n t o f r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s 58 9 a ) . Mammals i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y J u ne - September 1981 ... 64 9 b ) . B i r d s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y J u ne - Setember 1981 65 10. Some recommended g r a s s and legume s p e c i e s f o r t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y 104 I I . Some recommended s h r u b and t r e e s p e c i e s f o r t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y 105 12. P r e - and p o s t - m i n i n g l a n d - u s e s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y ...114 13. Amounts o f p o t e n t i a l new l a n d on e a c h mine p r o p e r t y 115 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h i s s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n on b e h a l f o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f E n e r g y , M i n e s and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s ( R e c l a m a t i o n S e c t i o n ) who g e n e r o u s l y p r o v i d e d b o t h a s s i s t a n c e w i t h t h e f i e l d work and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . I am g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d t o t h e e m p l o y e e s o f t h e m i n i n g c o m p a n i e s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y w i t h o u t whose c o o p e r a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e I would n o t have been a b l e t o u n d e r t a k e t h i s s t u d y . Many t h a n k s a r e due t o Mr. C l i n t Smythe f o r a l l h i s h e l p t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d o f f i e l d work. I w i s h t o e x t e n d my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o my s u p e r v i s o r , D r . J a c k T h i r g o o d , and t h e members of my c o m m i t t e e f o r t h e i r e n c o u r a g e m e n t and a d v i c e d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y . I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l t o D r . John E r r i n g t o n f o r h i s comments on t h e f i r s t d r a f t o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t . The a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d by D r . D a v i d S p i t t l e h o u s e , Mr. J o h n Emmanuel, Mr. Simeon C h i y e n d a and Ms. Rosemary W i l s o n a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s d u r i n g t h e s t u d y i s g r a t e f u l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d . 1 1 .. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1.1. B a c k g r o u n d The H i g h l a n d V a l l e y has t h e g r e a t e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f open-p i t h a r d r o c k mines i n W e s t e r n Canada. T h r e e mines a r e c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t i n g i n t h e a r e a and a f o u r t h i s e x p e c t e d t o come i n t o p r o d u c t i o n s o o n . M i n i n g a c t i v i t y s t a r t e d i n 1962 and i s e x p e c t e d t o c o n t i n u e u n t i l a t l e a s t t h e end o f t h i s c e n t u r y . M i n i n g and r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s o c c u r w i t h i n an a r e a o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25,000ha and i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e t o t a l s u r f a c e d i s t u r b a n c e w i l l c o v e r a l m o s t o n e - t h i r d o f t h i s . As r e q u i r e d by law, e a c h m i n i n g company has i n s t i t u t e d and i s c a r r y i n g o u t "a p r o g r a m f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n and r e c l a m a t i o n o f t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e l a n d and w a t e r c o u r s e s a f f e c t e d by i t " ( M i n i n g R e g u l a t i o n A c t , 1979). R e c l a m a t i o n r e p o r t s , d e s c r i b i n g t h e r e c l a m a t i o n programme and l a n d - u s e o b j e c t i v e s , a r e s u b m i t t e d a n n u a l l y by e a c h company t o t h e M i n i s t r y o f E n e r g y , M i n e s and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s . B e c a u s e o f t h e n a t u r e o f o p e n - p i t m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s , c o n t i n u a l and p r o g r e s s i v e r e c l a m a t i o n o f a l l t h e l a n d a f f e c t e d by m i n i n g i s n o t a l w a y s p o s s i b l e . W a s t e - r o c k i s p l a c e d on t o p o f p r e v i o u s l y dumped m a t e r i a l t h r o u g h o u t t h e l i f e o f e a c h mine and dumps w i l l n o t a c h i e v e f i n a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n u n t i l m i n i n g c e a s e s . O p e r a t i o n a l r e c l a m a t i o n i s c a r r i e d o u t o n l y on s m a l l a r e a s o f 2 d i s t u r b a n c e and r e c l a m a t i o n programmes have been l a r g e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e s e a r c h i n t o r e c l a m a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . 1.2. Aims and o b j e c t i v e s The aims o f t h e s t u d y were t o e v a l u a t e e x i s t i n g r e c l a m a t i o n methods and o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y and t o p r e d i c t t h e e f f e c t s o f r e c l a m a t i o n upon l a n d - u s e i n t h e a r e a . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h i s s t u d y , r e c l a m a t i o n i s d e f i n e d a s " t h e r e t u r n o f d i s t u r b e d l a n d t o a p r o d u c t i v e s t a t e o r t o a s t a t e i n w h i c h i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r p r o d u c t i v e use i s m a i n t a i n e d " . The r e c l a m a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n o f w a t e r b o d i e s , t h o u g h i m p o r t a n t i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y , i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The f i r s t o b j e c t i v e was t o c l a s s i f y a l l d i s t u r b e d a r e a s i n t o " r e c l a m a t i o n s i t e - t y p e s " . E a c h r e c l a m a t i o n s i t e - t y p e would i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e d i s t u r b e d a r e a s h a v i n g s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s f o r p l a n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t and g r o w t h and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e c l a m a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s . The s e c o n d o b j e c t i v e was t o use t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme:-1) t o i d e n t i f y t h o s e r e c l a m a t i o n s i t e - t y p e s f o r w h i c h s u i t a b l e l a n d - u s e o b j e c t i v e s a n d r e c l a m a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s had been d e v e l o p e d by t h e m i n i n g c o m p a n i e s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y ; 2) t o p r o p o s e l a n d - u s e o b j e c t i v e s f o r e a c h s i t e - t y p e . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n on p a s t and p r e s e n t l a n d - u s e s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y w o u l d be u s e d t o d e v e l o p t h e s e p r o p o s a l s ; 3) t o p r o p o s e r e c l a m a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s t o a c h i e v e t h e 3 l a n d - u s e o b j e c t i v e s f o r e a c h s i t e - t y p e . P r o p o s a l s would i n c o r p o r a t e knowledge of n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n i n t h e a r e a , as w e l l as r e s u l t s o f r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y and o f o t h e r r e l e v a n t r e c l a m a t i o n r e s e a r c h ; 4) t o i d e n t i f y t h o s e s i t e - t y p e s r e q u i r i n g more r e c l a m a t i o n r e s e a r c h ; 5) t o c o m p i l e a " f i n a l l a n d use p l a n " o f t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y and use i t t o p r e d i c t t h e e f f e c t s o f r e c l a m a t i o n on l a n d -use i n t h e a r e a . 4 2.. D e s c r i p t i o n o f M i n i n g O p e r a t i o n s 2.1. B e t h l e h e m Copper C o r p o r a t i o n B e t h l e h e m Copper C o r p o r a t i o n ("Bethlehem") o p e r a t e d a c o p p e r - m i n i n g complex oh t h e n o r t h s i d e o f t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y . Molybenum was p r o d u c e d a s a b y - p r o d u c t . B e t h l e h e m i s now owned by Cominco L t d . and, a s p a r t o f Cominco Copper D i v i s i o n , i s m i n i n g t h e " V a l l e y o r e z o n e " a t a r a t e of 20,OOOtonnes/day. ( I n t h i s s t u d y t h e o l d names w i l l be u s e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e o l d B e t h l e h e m p r o p e r t y from Cominco's p r o p e r t y i n t h e v a l l e y b o t t o m ( s e e s e c t i o n 2 . 4 ) ) . The B e t h l e h e m p i t s and c o n c e n t r a t o r a r e l o c a t e d a t an e l e v a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1470m t o 1600m. 1 T a i l i n g s a r e d e p o s i t e d i n a d i s p o s a l a r e a n e a r b y . T h i s d i s p o s a l a r e a i s bounded by t h e main dam t o t h e west and by t h e Bose L a k e S a d d l e Dam t o t h e n o r t h e a s t . The e l e v a t i o n o f t h e t a i l i n g s s u r f a c e i s a t p r e s e n t 1440m and t h e dams have r e c e n t l y been r a i s e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e s t o r a g e c a p a c i t y . W a s t e - r o c k dumps a r e l o c a t e d a t an e l e v a t i o n o f 1230m t o 1560m on t h e B e t h l e h e m p r o p e r t y . T h e r e a r e 3 p i t s i n t h e co m p l e x ; t h e Iona; p i t , t h e H u e s t i s p i t and t h e J e r s e y and E a s t J e r s e y e x p a n s i o n p i t . M i n i n g began i n t h e E a s t J e r s e y p i t i n 1962 and c o n t i n u e d w i t h 1A11 h e i g h t s a r e g i v e n i n m e t e r s above s e a l e v e l . 5 e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e J e r s e y , H u e s t i s and Iona p i t s . The J e r s e y p i t was d e p l e t e d i n 1973 and t h e H u e s t i s p i t i n 1976. The I o n a p i t was r e a c t i v a t e d i n 1975 a n d was m i n e d - o u t i n 1979. D e v elopment o f a J e r s e y p i t e x t e n s i o n began i n 1974, was c u r t a i l e d i n 1975 f o r e conomic r e a s o n s b u t resumed i n 1977. Waste from t h e J e r s e y mine e x t e n s i o n was p l a c e d i n t h e m i n e d - o u t H u e s t i s p i t . T h i s p r a c t i c e has been d i s c o n t i n u e d and t h e m i n e d -ou t volume o f t h e H u e s t i s p i t i s now b e i n g u s e d f o r t a i l i n g s s t o r a g e . A s e c o n d dam ( t h e T r o j a n dam) i s b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d t o p r o v i d e an a d d i t i o n a l t a i l i n g s d i s p o s a l a r e a ( B e l l a m y , 1979; B e t h l e h e m C o p p e r C o r o p o r a t i o n , 1979, 1981). 2.2. L o r n e x M i n i n g C o r p o r a t i o n L o r n e x M i n i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , ( " L o r n e x " ) , a member of t h e R i o A l g o m - R i o T i n t o g r o u p o f c o m p a n i e s , o p e r a t e s a c o p p e r mine on t h e s o u t h s i d e of t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y . The c o n c e n t r a t o r and p l a n t a r e a s a r e a t an e l e v a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1350m; t h e p e r i m e t e r o f t h e p i t i s a t a b o u t 1600m. M i n i n g began i n 1972; and c u r r e n t m i l l t h r o u g h p u t i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80,OOOtonnes/day. C o p p e r and molybdenum a r e p r o d u c e d . W a s t e - r o c k dumps a r e f o u n d i n t h e e l e v a t i o n a l r a n g e 1350-1600m. G l a c i a l t i l l and o v e r b u r d e n have been s t o c k p i l e d on t h e h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n waste dumps. T a i l i n g s a r e d e p o s i t e d i n t h e v a l l e y b o t t o m t a i l i n g s a r e a 3.6km fr o m t h e p l a n t s i t e . T h i s i s a c o n v e n t i o n a l t a i l i n g s impoundment a r e a bounded by an u p s t r e a m and a downstream dam, 1203m and 1163m h i g h r e s p e c t i v e l y . An emergency t a i l i n g s pond ( t h e 7-day pond) i s l o c a t e d below t h e c o n c e n t r a t o r . Water i s pumped f r o m t h e Thompson r i v e r , s t o r e d i n t h e r e s e r v o i r a n d u s e d i n t h e 6 p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n and i n t a i l i n g s d i s p o s a l . Water i s r e c y c l e d t h r o u g h t h e s y s t e m and o n l y l o s s e s c a u s e d by e v a p o r a t i o n need be r e p l a c e d by water from t h e Thompson ( L o r n e x M i n i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1981) 2.3. Highmont O p e r a t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n Highmont O p e r a t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , ("Highmont"), owned by Te c k C o r p o r a t i o n , began o p e r a t i n g a c o p p e r mine on t h e s o u t h s i d e o f t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y i n 1980. The p r o p e r t y i s l o c a t e d on t h e n o r t h w e s t s l o p e of Gnawed M o u n t a i n ; t h e mine and c o n c e n t r a t o r a r e a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1620m e l e v a t i o n . Two p i t s a r e mined; c o p p e r and molybdenum a r e p r o d u c e d and t h e e s t i m a t e d m i l l t h r o u g h p u t i s 23,OOOtonnes/day. W a s t e - r o c k i s c u r r e n t l y u s e d f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n p u r p o s e s b u t e v e n t u a l l y w i l l be dumped a t an e l e v a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1570m. F i n a l e l e v a t i o n o f t h e waste dumps i s e x p e c t e d t o be 1676m. O v e r b u r d e n has been s t o c k p i l e d n e a r t h e p r o p o s e d waste dump. T a i l i n g s a r e d e p o s i t e d i n a d i s p o s a l a r e a 7km from t h e c o n c e n t r a t o r . T e mporary and s t a r t e r dams have been b u i l t f o r w a t e r impoundment and t a i l i n g s d i s p o s a l r e s p e c t i v e l y . M a i n dams and seepag e r e c o v e r y dams a r e b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d (Highmont O p e r a t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1980, 1981). 2.4. V a l l e y Copper M i n e s V a l l e y Copper M i n e s , ( " V a l l e y C o p p e r " ) , owned by Cominco L t d . , (and now p a r t o f Cominco C o p p e r D i v i s i o n ) i s c o n s i d e r i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a c o p p e r mine i n t h e b o t t o m o f t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y between L o r n e x ' s and B e t h l e h e m ' s o p e r a t i o n s . The p i t w i l l 7 be d e v e l o p e d a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1200m e l e v a t i o n . W a s t e - r o c k w i l l be s t o r e d a t 1200m ( t h e o r i g i n a l v a l l e y f l o o r ) t o 1370m e l e v a t i o n . A t p r e s e n t , however, o r e f r o m t h e V a l l e y o r e zone i s m i l l e d i n t h e B e t h l e h e m c o n c e n t r a t o r . A summary of t h e m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e H i g h l a n d v a l l e y i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1. F i g u r e 2 shows t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s . T a b l e 1. M i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y NAME OPERATING b e g . PERIOD end VOLUME OF MILL THR'-PUT t o n n e s / d a y AREA DISTURBED TO DATE (ha ) AREA TOTAL RECLAIMED ANTICIPATED TO DATE DISTURBANCE (ha) (ha ) ELEVATION OF DISTURBED AREAS m.a . s . 1 . Be th l ehem 1962 198? 2 0 , 5 0 0 8 7 8 . 9 22 932 1200 - 1550 Highmont 1981 ? 2 5 , 0 0 0 976 14 1160 1450 - 1700 L o r n e x 1972 1993? 8 5 , 0 0 0 1341 221 5100 1200 - 1550 V a l l e y Copper 1983 2024? 100 ,000 384 ( e x p l o r a t i o n ) 750 1160 - 1370 SOURCES: R e c l a m a t i o n R e p o r t s ( v a r i o u s d a t e s ) CO 9 3. D e s c r i p t i o n o f S t u d y A r e a 3.1. L o c a t i o n The H i g h l a n d V a l l e y i s l o c a t e d i n s o u t h c e n t r a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30km s o u t h e a s t o f Cache C r e e k and 20km n o r t h w e s t of M e r r i t t . The l o c a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y a r e a i s shown on t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g map ( F i g u r e 1 ) . 3.2. T o p o g r a p h y and D r a i n a g e The H i g h l a n d V a l l e y i s s i t u a t e d w i t h i n t h e Thompson P l a t e a u ( H o l l a n d , 1964), w h i c h i s p a r t o f t h e I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u l a n d f o r m . The Thompson P l a t e a u i s a g e n t l y r o l l i n g u p l a n d of low r e l i e f l y i n g between 1300 and 1660m e l e v a t i o n w i t h some p e a k s r i s i n g t o o v e r 3200m. F o u r l a k e s a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e v a l l e y b o t t o m a t an e l e v a t i o n o f 1200m. Over most o f t h e s t u d y a r e a t h e v a l l e y s i d e s r i s e t o a b o u t 1870m i n t h e n o r t h and 1700m i n t h e s o u t h . S o u t h F o r g e M o u n t a i n , on t h e n o r t h s i d e , and Gnawed M o u n t a i n , on t h e s o u t h s i d e , a r e 1870m and 1890m h i g h r e s p e c t i v e l y . The H i g h l a n d V a l l e y t r e n d s n o r t h w e s t - s o u t h e a s t . P r i o r t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e v a l l e y b o t t o m t a i l i n g s a r e a , P u k a i s t C r e e k d r a i n e d t h e v a l l e y t o t h e n o r t h w e s t . W i t c h e s Brook d r a i n s i t t o t h e s o u t h e a s t . The v a l l e y s i d e s a r e d r a i n e d by c r e e k s F i g . 1. The l o c a t i o n o f t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 11 w h i c h f l o w i n t o t h e l a k e s o r i n t o W i t c h e s Brook, o r w h i c h have been i n t e r c e p t e d and d i v e r t e d by m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s . 3.3. G e o l o g y The g e o l o g y o f t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y has been documented by W h i t e e t a l . (1957) and C a r r ( 1 9 6 0 ) , and mapped by M a c m i l l a n (1971 ) . The a r e a i s u n d e r l a i n by t h e G u i c h o n C r e e k b a t h o l i t h w h i c h i s composed o f q u a r t z d i o r i t e , g r a n o d i o r i t e and l o c a l g a b b r o i c p h a s e s . The b a t h o l i t h was s u c c e s s i v e l y i n t r u d e d by g r a n i t e , -3 g r a n o d i o r i t e , y o u n g e r q u a r t z d i o r i t e and p o r p h y r y . P o r p h y r y i n t r u s i o n was a c c o m p a n i e d by e x p l o s i v e b r e c c i a t i o n , f a u l t i n g a n d r o c k a l t e r a t i o n . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n c o p p e r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n l o c a l i z e d z o n e s o f r e p e a t e d f r a c t u r i n g and b r e c c i a t i o n . ( Q u a r t z d i o r i t e g r a d e s t o q u a r t z m o n z o n i t e and t o g r a n o d i o r i t e w i t h v a r y i n g q u a r t z and p o t a s s i u m f e l d s p a r c o n t e n t ) . On t h e n o r t h s i d e o f t h e v a l l e y , t h e p r e v a i l i n g r o c k t y p e s a r e G u i c h o n q u a r t z d i o r i t e , g r a n i t e , B e t h l e h e m q u a r t z d i o r i t e / g r a n o d i o r i t e , two v a r i e t i e s o f p o r p h y r y , and b r e c c i a . The h o s t r o c k s f o r t h e c o p p e r m i n e r a l s a r e t h e G u i c h o n q u a r t z d i o r i t e , B e t h l e h e m q u a r t z d i o r i t e , d a c i t e p o r p h y r y and b r e c c i a ( B e l l a m y , 1979; B e t h l e h e m Copper C o r p o r a t i o n , 1981). On t h e s o u t h s i d e , G u i c h o n q u a r t z d i o r i t e , B e t h s a i d a q u a r t z d i o r i t e / g r a n o d i o r i t e and Skeena q u a r t z d i o r i t e / g r a n o d i o r i t e a r e p r e s e n t . ( S k e e n a q u a r t z d i o r i t e / g r a n o d i o r i t e i s i n t e r m e d i a t e i n t e x t u r e and c o m p o s i t i o n between t h e B e t h l e h e m and B e t h s a i d a p h a s e s ) . On t h e L o r n e x and Highmont p r o p e r t y t h e o r e z o n e s a r e 12 s i t u a t e d w i t h i n t h e Skeena q u a r t z d i o r i t e / g r a n o d i o r i t e and a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h q u a r t z p o r p h y r y d y k e s . The Highmont dyke c o n t a i n s z o n e s o f b r e c c i a t i o n (Highmont O p e r a t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1981). On t h e L o r n e x p r o p e r t y , 20% o f t h e Skeena q u a r t z d i o r i t e i s composed o f a h e t e r o g e n e o u s m a t e r i a l known a s f a u l t gouge ( L o r n e x M i n i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1981). The V a l l e y Copper o r e b o d y o c c u r s e n t i r e l y w i t h i n t h e B e t h s a i d a q u a r t z d i o r i t e / g r a n o d i o r i t e ( V a l l e y C o p p e r M i n e s , 1980). A l l m ined d e p o s i t s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y a r e t h e c o p p e r p o r p h y r y t y p e . B o r n i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e a r e t h e d o m i n a n t c o p p e r -b e a r i n g m i n e r a l s ; o t h e r m i n e r a l s , i n c l u d i n g p y r i t e , a r e f o u n d i n m i n o r amounts e s p e c i a l l y on t h e p e r i p h e r i e s o f t h e d e p o s i t s . M o l y b d e n i t e i s a l s o f o u n d , commonly as a c o a t i n g on f a u l t p l a n e s . 3.4. S u r f i c i a l G e o l o g y and S o i l s The H i g h l a n d V a l l e y has been s u b j e c t e d t o r e p e a t e d g l a c i a t i o n . The d i r e c t i o n o f ice-movement d u r i n g t h e l a s t p e r i o d o f g l a c i a t i o n was s o u t h w e s t (B.C. N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s C o n f e r e n c e , 1956). N i n e t y p e r c e n t o f t h e u p l a n d s u r f a c e e x h i b i t s d r u m l i n and s w e l l - a n d - s w a l e t o p o g r a p h y and b e d r o c k i s c o v e r e d by up t o 16m o f g r o u n d m o r a i n e (White e_t a l . , 1957). S o i l s o f t h e a r e a have been s u r v e y e d a n d mapped by t h e D e p t . o f S o i l S c i e n c e (1975) and t h e R e s o u r c e A n a l y s i s B r a n c h ( 1 9 7 8 ) . S o i l s have d e v e l o p e d i n c o l l u v i u m and i n m o r a i n a l , f l u v i o g l a c i a l a n d f l u v i a l m a t e r i a l . Dominant an d s i g n i f i c a n t s o i l s a r e :-13 o r t h i c h u m o - f e r r i c p o d z o l s o r t h i c d y s t r i c b r u n i s o l s d e g r a d e d d y s t r i c b r u n i s o l s d e g r a d e d e u t r i c b r u n i s o l s o r t h i c g r a y l u v i s o l s p o d z o l i c g r a y l u v i s o l s o r t h i c d a r k g r a y c h e r n o z e m s g l e y e d c u m u l i c r e g o s o l s . r e g o s o l s ( D e p t . o f S o i l S c i e n c e , 1975) 3.5. C l i m a t e The H i g h l a n d V a l l e y i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e I n t e r i o r D r y B e l t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s S o u t h w e s t I n t e r i o r C l i m a t i c R e g i o n (B.C. N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s C o n f e r e n c e , 1956). T y p i c a l l y , i n t h e I n t e r i o r D r y B e l t , t h e " r a i n shadow e f f e c t " of t h e c o a s t m o u n t a i n s , c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e l e v a t i o n , c r e a t e s a c l i m a t e o f f a i r l y e xtreme t e m p e r a t u r e r a n g e s and p r e c i p i t a t i o n between 30 and 63mm a n n u a l l y , most o f w h i c h i s i n t h e f o r m o f snow. In a d d i t i o n , e a r l y and l a t e f r o s t s a r e p r o b a b l e ( P i n k e r t o n , 1972). The e s t i m a t e d r a n g e o f t h e l e n g t h o f t h e f r e e z e - f r e e p e r i o d i s 20 - 100 d a y s ( A g r i c u l t u r e Canada, 1976). Weather r e c o r d i n g s t a t i o n s a r e l o c a t e d a t t h e B e t h l e h e m and L o r n e x mine s i t e s . D a t a f rom t h e s e s t a t i o n s f o r t h e p e r i o d 1977-80 a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x 1. Summarized v a l u e s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e s 2a a n d 2b. T e m p e r a t u r e s a r e s l i g h t l y l o w e r a t t h e L o r n e x s t a t i o n b u t t h e r e i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n p r e c i p i t a t i o n . No r e c o r d s of wind s p e e d o r d i r e c t i o n a r e k e p t . A t h i g h e l e v a t i o n s , winds f o l l o w t h e p r e v a i l i n g wind p a t t e r n w h i c h i s w e s t e r l y ; i n t h e v a l l e y w i n ds a r e d i r e c t e d by t h e t o p o g r a p h y T a b l e 2 . a ) Mean m o n t h l y t e m p e r a t u r e s and mean m o n t h l y t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n , 1 9 7 7 - 7 9 , a t B e t h l e h e m . mean l o n g e s t p e r i o d w i t h minimum above 0 C : 64*days II " » " " - 2 " C : 7 6 * " -4 °C : 98 " MEAN T . - 9 .6 - 3 .6 1.0 4 . 0 5.0 RANGE -13/4 -6/-1 -2/1 3/6 5/8 PRECIP . 1 2 . 4 5 8 . 6 9 . 5 1 9 . 0 8 . 0 1 1 . 7 3 5 . 2 5 4 . 0 5/-3 -14/-9 "C 7 .3 1 2 9 . 8 mm 79 3 6 1 . 8 mean l o n g e s t p e r i o d w i t h minimum above 0 C : 74 days •I I. " " » " -2 C : 124 * ' 77 d a t a m i s s i n g + ' 7 8 d a t a m i s s i n g - 4 U C : 145 " ' 79 d a t a m i s s i n g m d a t a m i s s i n g 15 from e i t h e r t h e n o r t h w e s t o r s o u t h e a s t ( P i n k e r t o n , 1972). Walmsley (1977) r e p o r t s t h a t s t r o n g s o u t h w e s t e r l y w i nds a r e p r e v a l e n t i n A p r i l and J u n e . 3.6. V e g e t a t i o n The H i g h l a n d V a l l e y i s w i t h i n t h e Montane f o r e s t r e g i o n (Rowe, 1972). A c c o r d i n g t o K r a j i n a (1976) i t i s w i t h i n t h e I n t e r i o r D o u g l a s - f i r and t h e Engelmann S p r u c e - S u b a l p i n e F i r B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Z o n e s . The v e g e t a t i o n was s u r v e y e d i n 1970 by B . C . R e s e a r c h ( B . C . R e s e a r c h , 1971a). S i x m a j o r p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s were i d e n t i f i e d : -1) b u r n e d a r e a s c a r r y i n g v a r i o u s a g e s o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e , 2) b u r n e d a r e a s c a r r y i n g v a r i o u s a g e s o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e w i t h an o v e r s t o r e y o f D o u g l a s - f i r , 3) g r a s s l a n d o r open f o r e s t and g r a s s l a n d , 4) v a l l e y b o t t o m meadows, 5) v a l l e y b o t t o m g r a s s l a n d and w i l l o w c o m m u n i t i e s , 6) v a l l e y s i d e c r e e k c o m m u n i t i e s . 3.7. P r e - m i n i n g L a n d - u s e R a n c h i n g was t h e major l a n d - u s e i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y b e f o r e m i n i n g began. The r a n c h e s were p u r c h a s e d by L o r n e x , 16 B e t h l e h e m and Cominco. I n d i a n r e s e r v a t i o n s i n t h e v a l l e y had been u s e d p r i m a r i l y f o r g r a z i n g and v e r y l i m i t e d r a n c h i n g ( L o r n e x M i n i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1981). The a r e a h as been l o g g e d c o m m e r c i a l l y a t i n t e r v a l s s i n c e t h e end o f t h e l a s t c e n t u r y . More w i d e s p r e a d c l e a r i n g o f f o r e s t c o v e r h as s i n c e o c c u r r e d as a r e s u l t o f m i n i n g a c t i v i t y (B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , A s h c r o f t F i e l d O f f i c e , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) . F i s h and w i l d l i f e i n t h e a r e a were s u r v e y e d and d e s c r i b e d by B . C . R e s e a r c h i n 1970 (B.C. R e s e a r c h , 1971b). ( A t t h i s t i m e t h e B e t h l e h e m mine had been i n o p e r a t i o n f o r 8 y e a r s ) The maximum w i n t e r i n g p o p u l a t i o n o f d e e r and moose was 10 a n d 12 p e r s q u a r e m i l e r e s p e c t i v e l y (4 and 4.5 p e r s q u a r e k i l o m e t r e ) . C o m p e t i t i o n w i t h c a t t l e f o r f o r a g e may have l i m i t e d b i g game u s e . A c c o r d i n g t o B . C . F i s h and W i l d l i f e ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) d e e r and e l k u s e d t h e a r e a f o r s p r i n g and f a l l r a n g e b e f o r e m i n i n g began b u t w i n t e r e d f u r t h e r west i n t h e l o w e r P u k a i s t C r e e k a r e a . L i m i t e d p o p u l a t i o n s o f r u f f e d and b l u e g r o u s e e x i s t e d i n t h e a r e a . A s i n g l e common l o o n was t h e o n l y w a t e r f o w l o b s e r v e d on Q u i l t a n t o n L a k e i n 1970. Rainbow t r o u t were f o u n d i n P u k a i s t C r e e k , W i t c h e s B r o o k , G u i c h o n C r e e k and Q u i l t a n t o n L a k e . The p r o d u c t i v i t y o f t h e l a k e was d e s c r i b e d a s low ( B . C . R e s e a r c h , 1971b). O t h e r a n i m a l s o b s e r v e d i n t h e a r e a were r a b b i t s , y e l l o w -b e l l i e d marmots, s k u n k s and p o r c u p i n e . B e a v e r , mink, s q u i r r e l , m u s k r a t and c o y o t e were t r a p p e d i n t h e a r e a u n t i l 1968. T r a p p i n g p r o b a b l y c e a s e d due t o p o o r economic r e t u r n s ( B . C . R e s e a r c h , 1971b) 17 L i t t l e r e c r e a t i o n a l h u n t i n g o r f i s h i n g t o o k p l a c e p r i o r t o m i n i n g and a c c e s s t o t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y was r e s t r i c t e d (B.C.C., 1979, 1981). 3.8. L a n d T e n u r e Most o f t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y i s Crown L a n d . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e d e p o s i t s h e l d under l e a s e by t h e m i n i n g c o m p a n i e s d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n 2, v a r i o u s m i n e r a l c l a i m s a r e h e l d by them and by o t h e r c o m p a n i e s . 18 4.. S t u d y P r o c e d u r e s 4.1. S e l e c t i o n o f p o s s i b l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f a c t o r s Numerous methods of c l a s s i f y i n g l a n d a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( e . g . H i l l s , 1961; K r a j i n a , 1 9 6 5 ; E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, 19 7 0 a ) . To meet t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s t u d y t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme had t o f u l f i l l t h r e e r e q u i r e m e n t s : -1) i t had t o be a t a s c a l e s u i t a b l e f o r management p u r p o s e s ; 2) i t h a d t o be b a s e d on i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t c o u l d be a c q u i r e d f r o m t h e a v a i l a b l e maps and a i r p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e a r e a ; 3) i t c o u l d not i n c o r p o r a t e n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n as a f a c t o r ( s i n c e i t was t o be a p p l i e d t o a r e a s denuded o f n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n ) . Review o f H i l l s ' c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method and o f r e c l a m a t i o n r e s e a r c h done p r e v i o u s l y i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y (Walmsley, 1977) and e l s e w h e r e , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s m i g h t be u s e d t o c l a s s i f y d i s t u r b e d a r e a s : -- e l e v a t i o n - t o p o g r a p h y - a s p e c t - e x p o s u r e - d e p t h o f d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s , - p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( b u l k d e n s i t y and t e x t u r e ) of d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s . 19 T h e s e f a c t o r s were s e l e c t e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e l o c a l c l i m a t e and t h e r e t e n t i o n of m o i s t u r e and n u t r i e n t s i n t h e s o i l w o uld be t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g r e c l a m a t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e i r e f f e c t on p l a n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t and g r o w t h . T o p o g r a p h y and p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a l s o a f f e c t t h e s t a b i l i t y o f d i s t u r b e d a r e a s ; r e c l a m a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s may t h e r e f o r e be m o d i f i e d by t h e need t o c o n t r o l e r o s i o n and by c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e o p e r a t i o n o f m a c h i n e r y . The e f f e c t s o f a s p e c t and e x p o s u r e on r e c l a m a t i o n i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s s t u d y . A s p e c t i s commonly assumed t o a f f e c t s o i l t e m p e r a t u r e and s o i l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t . However, i n s e m i - a r i d a r e a s , d i f f e r e n c e s due t o a s p e c t may not be s i g n i f i c a n t . A s p e c t had no a p p a r e n t e f f e c t on g e r m i n a t i o n o r s u r v i v a l o f c o n i f e r s e e d l i n g s p l a n t e d i n m i n e r a l s o i l where l o n g p e r i o d s o f d r o u g h t were common i n J u l y and A u g u s t , b u t t o p o g r a p h y , e x p o s u r e , v e g e t a t i o n and shade were i m p o r t a n t ( C l a r k , 1969). A t B e t h l e h e m , e x p o s u r e t o p r e v a i l i n g w inds a f f e c t s t h e s u c c e s s o f r e c l a m a t i o n ( W a l m s l e y , 1977). H a r r i s o n (1977) f o u n d t h a t s o u t h w e s t e x p o s u r e s o f c o a l w a s t e s s u p p o r t e d f e w e r t r e e s t h a n s o u t h e a s t e x p o s u r e s a l t h o u g h b o t h a t t a i n e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same t e m p e r a t u r e . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e c a u s e was w i n d . N i c h o l s o n and B e l l (1981) f o u n d t h a t on a t a i l i n g s p o nd w i t h r i d g e - a n d - f u r r o w m i c r o t o p o g r a p h y , a v e r a g e t o t a l g r a s s a n d h e r b c o v e r i n h o l l o w s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t on r i d g e s and west e x p o s u r e s . N o r t h , s o u t h and e a s t e x p o s u r e s were i n t e r m e d i a t e a l t h o u g h h i g h e s t t e m p e r a t u r e s were r e c o r d e d on s o u t h e x p o s u r e s . They s u g g e s t e d t h a t w i n d and warmer a f t e r n o o n a i r t e m p e r a t u r e s c a u s e d t h e d e c r e a s e d v e g e t a t i o n c o v e r 20 on west e x p o s u r e s and t h a t s o u t h e x p o s u r e s had r e l a t i v e l y h i g h c o v e r b e c a u s e t h e h o t t e s t summer d a y s d i d n o t o c c u r u n t i l a f t e r t h e v e g e t a t i o n was d e v e l o p e d . I n f o r m a t i o n on a l l f a c t o r s e x c e p t p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and d e p t h o f m a t e r i a l c o u l d be a c q u i r e d d i r e c t l y from e x i s t i n g maps and a i r p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e a r e a . A l t h o u g h p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o u l d n o t be d e t e r m i n e d from a i r p h o t o g r a p h s , d i s t i n c t k i n d s o f d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s were v i s i b l e . Once t h e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e were known, i t w o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o i n f e r p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f r o m a i r p h o t o g r a p h s . C h e m i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f m a t e r i a l s (pH, a v a i l a b l e n u t r i e n t s e t c . ) were n o t i n c l u d e d b e c a u s e : -1) r e s e a r c h by L o r n e x ( L o r n e x M i n i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1973 & u n d a t e d ) , D e p t . o f S o i l S c i e n c e (1975;1976-77) and V a l l e y C o p per ( V a l l e y Copper M i n e s , 1980) on d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y has shown t h a t l e v e l s o f a v a i l a b l e n u t r i e n t s a r e g e n e r a l l y l i m i t i n g t o p l a n t g r o w t h . F e r t i l i z a t i o n has t h e r f o r e been r e q u i r e d w h e r e v e r s e e d i n g has t a k e n p l a c e . T o p o g r a p h y and p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a f f e c t t h e r e t e n t i o n o f f e r t i l i z e r i n d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e i r a r t i f i c i a l l y - c r e a t e d c h e m i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; 2) c h e m i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e n o t r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d o r i n f e r r e d from maps o r a i r p h o t o g r a p h s . 4.2. C o l l e c t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e f i e l d The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e f i e l d work and a s s o c i a t e d l a b o r a t o r y work were:-21 1) t o s u r v e y t h e n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . The i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d w o u l d be u s e d t o p r o p o s e l a n d - u s e o b j e c t i v e s and r e c l a m a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s f o r d i s t u r b e d a r e a s a n d t o c o m p i l e a f i n a l l a n d - u s e p l a n f o r t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y . 2) t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s (and a l s o o f a few n a t u r a l s o i l s f o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s ) . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w o u l d be u s e d i n c l a s s i f y i n g d i s t u r b e d a r e a s ; 3) t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t o f a s p e c t on m o i s t u r e and t e m p e r a t u r e c o n d i t i o n s i n d i s t u r b e d a r e a s i n o r d e r t o s e l e c t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f a c t o r ( s ) f o r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme; 4) t o a s s e s s t h e r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s c a r r i e d o u t by t h e m i n i n g c o m p a n i e s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h have a f f e c t e d t h e i r s u c c e s s and t o e v a l u a t e t h e t e c h n i q u e s and s p e c i e s u s e d . 5) t o s u r v e y t h e e x t e n t and n a t u r e o f n a t u r a l r e v e g e t a t i o n o f d i s t u r b e d a r e a s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y ; 6) t o a c q u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n on c u r r e n t l a n d - u s e s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y t h a t would be u s e d t o p r o p o s e l a n d - u s e o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e r e c l a i m e d a r e a s . A l l f i e l d work was c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e p e r i o d J une 1st -September 1 s t 1980. The methods u s e d t o a c h e i v e t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s a r e d e s c r i b e d below. 4.2.1 N a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n s u r v e y Many methods o f v e g e t a t i o n s u r v e y a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( Daubenmire, 1968). F o r t h i s s t u d y a method was d e v i s e d w h i c h w o u l d : -22 a) p r o d u c e an e a s y - t o - v i s u a l i z e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n and l a n d - u s e s ; b) d e s c r i b e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p l a n t s p e c i e s i n d i f f e r e n t t o p o g r a p h i c and s o i l c o n d i t i o n s and c) be s i m p l e and q u i c k t o a p p l y o v e r a l a r g e a r e a . PREFIELD: A i r p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a were examined s t e r e o s c o p i c a l l y . T h i r t e e n v e g e t a t i o n " t y p e s " ( v i s u a l l y s i m i l a r a r e a s o f v e g e t a t i o n ) were d i s t i n g u i s h e d and t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s were marked on o v e r l a y s . P r e l i m i n a r y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s r e p r e s e n t e d by some o f t h e s e t y p e s was p o s s i b l e u s i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f a v e g e t a t i o n s u r v e y o f t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y done p r e v i o u s l y ( B . C . R e s e a r c h , 1971). F I E L D : F o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e s d e s c r i b e d by t h e R e s o u r c e A n a l y s i s B r a n c h ( 1 9 8 0 ) , a 20m 2 p l o t was p o s i t i o n e d i n s e l e c t e d a r e a s o f e a c h v e g e t a t i o n t y p e ( F i g u r e 2 ) . L o c a t i o n , macro-p o s i t i o n , s l o p e and a s p e c t o f e a c h p l o t were r e c o r d e d . To d e s c r i b e t h e p l a n t community, t h e v e g e t a t i o n i n e a c h p l o t was s t r a t i f i e d a s f o l l o w s : -- u p p e r t r e e l a y e r ; c o n t a i n i n g t a l l t r e e s , u s u a l l y m a ture o r o v e r - m a t u r e , - l o w e r t r e e l a y e r ; c o n t a i n i n g young, o f t e n s e c o n d -g r o w t h t r e e s , - u p p e r s h r u b l a y e r ; c o n t a i n i n g t a l l s h r u b s and some young t r e e s e e d l i n g s , - l o w e r s h r u b l a y e r ; c o n t a i n i n g s m a l l s h r u b s and t r e e s e e d l i n g s , - h e r b l a y e r ; c o n t a i n i n g young s h r u b s , h e r b s , g r a s s e s , mosses, and a l s o r o c k s , stumps a n d b a r e g r o u n d . APPROX. NORTH 2 Sketch map of study area, showing location of mine properties, -natural vegetation survey plots, sites selected for investigation of physical characteristics and effect of aspect and reclamation trials selected for assessment. — highway ere <s O lakes mine propertie • natural soils & disturbed mater als sites assessment sites SCALE: approx 1:33300 24 Many methods o f d e s c r i b i n g p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s e n t a i l t h e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of t h e v e g e t a t i o n ( R i c h a r d s , 1952; C h r i s t i a n and P e r r y , 1953; P o u l t o n and T i s d a l e , 1961; R e s o u r c e A n a l y s i s B r a n c h , 1980). F o r t h i s s t u d y , l a y e r s w h i c h would be i d e n t i f i a b l e i n a v a r i e t y o f v e g e t a t i o n t y p e s under d i f f e r e n t t o p o g r a p h i c c o n d i t i o n s were d e f i n e d . No a b s o l u t e h e i g h t l i m i t s were s e t f o r e a c h l a y e r s i n c e c o m m u n i t i e s i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a l i t i e s may be q u i t e s i m i l a r i n s t r u c t u r e t h o u g h o f d i f f e r i n g h e i g h t s ( C h r i s t i a n and P e r r y , 1953). W i t h i n e a c h l a y e r , p e r c e n t c o v e r ( t h e p e r c e n t o f t h e p l o t a r e a c o v e r e d by a v e r t i c a l p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e f o l i a g e ) o f e a c h s p e c i e s was e s t i m a t e d v i s u a l l y and r e c o r d e d . V i s u a l e s t i m a t i o n o f p l a n t c o v e r i s a q u i c k method o f v e g e t a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n but i t i s s u b j e c t t o b i a s (Kershaw, 1964). O b s e r v e r b i a s was m i n i m i z e d by r e c o r d i n g t h e mean of two i n d e p e n d e n t e s t i m a t e s made by t h e a u t h o r and a s s i s t a n t . V i s u a l e s t i m a t e s c a n be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s i z e , b r a n c h i n g h a b i t and d e g r e e o f c l u m p i n g o f d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s . By e s t i m a t i n g t h e p e r c e n t c o v e r w i t h i n e a c h l a y e r , b i a s due t o , f o r example, o v e r - e s t i m a t i o n o f t r e e c o v e r and u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n o f h e r b c o v e r was r e d u c e d . A s o i l p i t was dug i n e a c h p l o t t o 100cm d e p t h o r t o b e d r o c k . The f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s were r e c o r d e d , u s i n g t h e methods d e s c r i b e d by R e s o u r c e A n a l y s i s B r a n c h (1980) :-- p o s i t i o n and d e p t h o f m a j o r s o i l h o r i z o n s - s o i l t e x t u r e - s o i l s t r u c t u r e - s o l s t r u c t u r e g r a d e - s o i l m o i s t u r e and d r a i n a g e 25 - s o i l c o l o u r - d e p t h o f r o o t p e n e t r a t i o n . S o i l d e s c r i p t i o n s were b a s e d on t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h c o u l d be u s e d t o compare n a t u r a l s o i l s w i t h d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s when p r o p o s i n g r e c l a m a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a n d l a n d - u s e o b j e c t i v e s f o r d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s . D e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s i n e a c h p l o t were compared. The 13 v e g e t a t i o n t y p e s were r e g r o u p e d and 10 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c " v e g e t a t i o n c o m m u n i t y - t y p e s " t h a t c o m p r i s e d t h e n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n o f t h e a r e a were d e f i n e d . P r e v i o u s l y d e l i n e a t e d b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n t y p e s were a d j u s t e d t o become b o u n d a r i e s o f v e g e t a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s . The p o s i t i o n s o f t h e s e b o u n d a r i e s were g r o u n d - t r u t h e d i n a l l a c c e s s i b l e a r e a s , u s i n g f i e l d g l a s s e s where n e c e s s a r y . 4.2.2 I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f d i s t u r b e d  m a t e r i a l s PREFIELD: D i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s were i n i t i a l l y g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n a p p e a r a n c e on a i r p h o t o g r a p h s . E i g h t k i n d s o f d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l c o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d -1) g l a c i a l t i l l l a c k i n g a n a t u r a l s o i l c o v e r i n g , 2) free-dumped w a s t e - r o c k p i l e s , 3) c o m p a c t e d w a s t e - r o c k dumps, 4) a r e a s o f end-dumped w a s t e - r o c k , 5) t a i l i n g s d i s p o s a l a r e a s , 6) a c c e s s r o a d s , 7) p l a n t s i t e s and m a c h i n e r y dumps, 8) s t o c k - p i l e d o v e r b u r d e n . 26 End-dumped w a s t e - r o c k w i l l p r o b a b l y n o t r e m a i n a f t e r m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s end (Munroe, p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) . A c c e s s r o a d s w i l l n o t be r e c l a i m e d (Highmont O p e r a t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1980) o r w i l l be r i p p e d ( V a l l e y Copper M i n e s , 1980). They and t h e p l a n t s i t e s , once c l e a r e d , w i l l p r o b a b l y r e v e r t t o a c o n d i t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h e c o m p a c t e d w a s t e - r o c k dumps o r t o t h e g l a c i a l t i l l . F r e e dumped w a s t e - r o c k p i l e s may be c o v e r e d w i t h a t h i n l a y e r o f o v e r b u r d e n a s p a r t o f t h e r e c l a m a t i o n o p e r a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , f o u r k i n d s o f d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s were s e l e c t e d f o r f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n : -1) g l a c i a l t i l l ( r e f e r r e d t o h e r e a f t e r a s "raw t i l l " ) , 2) w a s t e - r o c k p i l e s c o v e r e d w i t h o v e r b u r d e n ( " o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k " ) , 3) c o m p a c t e d w a s t e - r o c k ("compacted r o c k " ) , 4) t a i l i n g s . F I E L D : S i t e s sampled f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r e shown i n F i g u r e 2. S i t e s a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 3. The s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e i s d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n 4.2.3. LABORATORY: The t e x t u r e s o f t h e m a t e r i a l s ( d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s and n a t u r a l s o i l s ) s a m p l e d were a n a l y s e d u s i n g t h e h y d r o m e t e r method of p a r t i c l e s i z e a n a l y s i s (Day, 1950; D e p t . o f S o i l S c i e n c e , 1978). P a r t i c l e d e n s i t i e s were d e t e r m i n e d by t h e p y c n o m e t e r method ( B l a k e , 1965). P e r c e n t c o m p o s i t i o n o f p a r t i c l e s a n d b u l k d e n s i t y were c a l c u l a t e d and mean v a l u e s f o r e a c h s i t e a n d e a c h t y p e d e r i v e d . P e r c e n t c o m p o s i t i o n d a t a were t r a n s f o r m e d t o c r e a t e a n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v a l u e s w i t h s t a n d a r d i z e d sample v a r i a n c e s . N e s t e d a n a l y s e s - o f - v a r i a n c e ( s i t e s b e i n g n e s t e d 27 w i t h i n t y p e s ) were c a r r i e d o u t on t r a n s f o r m e d p e r c e n t c o m p o s i t i o n and b u l k d e n s i t y d a t a . A n a l y s i s - o f - v a r i a n c e u s i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c a l p a c k a g e ANOVAR ( A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e and C o v a r i a n c e ) showed t h a t f o r some v a r i a b l e s d i f f e r e n c e s between s i t e s - n e s t e d - w i t h i n - t y p e s were s i g n i f i c a n t . A s e c o n d a n a l y s i s u s i n g GENLIN ( G e n e r a l L e a s t S q u a r e s A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e P r o g r a m ) , w h i c h a l l o w s s e l e c t i o n o f t h e c o r r e c t d i v i s o r u s e d t o c a l c u l a t e t h e F - r a t i o s when t h e n e s t e d t e r m i s s i g n i f i c a n t , was t h e r e f o r e c a r r i e d o u t . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e s between mean v a l u e s o f e a c h v a r i a b l e was t e s t e d u s i n g t h e New Duncan's M u l t i p l e Range T e s t . The p a c k a g e GENLIN c a r r i e s o u t t h e m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t when t h e numbers o f s a m p l e s i n e a c h t r e a t m e n t a r e u n e q u a l . 4.2.3 I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t o f a s p e c t on m o i s t u r e  c o n d i t i o n s i n d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s PREFIELD: One h u n d r e d p s y c h r o m e t e r s were t e s t e d i n d i s t i l l e d w a t e r . O n l y t h o s e r e c o r d i n g a water p o t e n t i a l o f 0.5 b a r s o r l e s s were u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The r e m a i n d e r were d i s c a r d e d . F I E L D : The s i t e s s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t o f a s p e c t a r e d e s c r i b e d i n T a b l e 3. C o m p a r a b l e s i t e s ( i n d i c a t e d by b r a c k e t s ) a r e t h o s e where p s y c h r o m e t e r s were i n s t a l l e d . C o mparable s i t e s had t o have d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s b u t had t o be a t s i m i l a r e l e v a t i o n s and a p p a r e n t l y u n a f f e c t e d by a n o m a l i e s i n l o c a l d r a i n a g e p a t t e r n s , shade by t r e e s o r n e a r b y s l o p e s , o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f u n u s u a l l y h i g h o r " p e r c h e d " w a t e r t a b l e s . S i n c e d a i l y p r e c i p i t a t i o n r e c o r d s were t o be u s e d i n 28 T a b l e 3. S i t e s s e l e c t e d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and e f f e c t o f a s p e c t S ITE NO. MATERIAL LOCAL ELEVATION VALLEY EXPOSURE ASPECT m a . s . l SIDE P I n a t u r a l s o i l 190 1320 n o r t h s h e l t e r e d 1 P2 n a t u r a l s o i l 020 1320 s o u t h s h e l t e r e d j P3 n a t u r a l s o i l 010 1320 s o u t h s h e l t e r e d J P4 raw t i l l 000 1320 s o u t h s h e l t e r e d 1 P5 raw t i l l 022 1230 s o u t h s h e l t e r e d f P6 raw t i l l 180 1320 n o r t h s h e l t e r e d j P7 compac ted r o c k f l a t 1570 s o u t h * exposed P8 o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k 200 1440 n o r t h s h e l t e r e d 7 P9 o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k 044 1440 n o r t h s h e l t e r e d } P10 o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k 180 1570 n o r t h exposed ] P l l o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k 000 1570 s o u t h s h e l t e r e d J P12 t a i l i n g s f l a t 1140 - exposed P13 t a i l i n g s f l a t 1500 n o r t h e x p o s e d + * c o m p a r a b l e s i t e was t o o compac ted t o be samp led + no p s y c h r o m e t e r s i n s t a l l e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from t h e p s y c h r o m e t e r s , t h e p r o x i m i t y o f s i t e s t o r a i n g auges was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d . On most s i t e s , a 20m t r a n s e c t was p o s i t i o n e d r a n d o m l y . On t h e o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k s l o p e s , a 20 m t r a n s e c t was p l a c e d p a r a l l e l t o and 2m below t h e t o p o f t h e s l o p e . T h i s m i n i m i z e d t h e r i s k o f p s y c h r o m e t e r s b e i n g damaged by movement of m a t e r i a l d o w n s l o p e . I n s t a l l a t i o n o f p s y c h r o m e t e r s t o t a k e a c c o u n t o f v a r i a t i o n due t o s l o p e p o s i t i o n was n o t p o s s i b l e . E i g h t s o i l p i t s were dug t o 20cm d e p t h a t r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d p o s i t i o n s a l o n g e a c h t r a n s e c t . B u l k d e n s i t y was measured u s i n g a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e f i e l d 29 method d e s c r i b e d by t h e D e p t . o f S o i l S c i e n c e , r e p l a c i n g water w i t h s a n d . One g r a v i m e t r i c sample was t a k e n p e r t r a n s e c t . (More i n t e n s i v e g r a v i m e t r i c s a m p l i n g was l i m i t e d by l a c k o f o v e n -d r y i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e f i e l d and of w a t e r t i g h t c o n t a i n e r s ) . M a t e r i a l f r o m e a c h p i t was w e i g h e d and p a s s e d t h r o u g h a 25mm s i e v e . Weight o f t h e g r e a t e r - t h a n - 2 5 m m f r a c t i o n was r e c o r d e d . A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample o f t h e less-than-25mm f r a c t i o n was t a k e n f o r t e x t u r a l a n a l y s i s . S a m p l i n g o f s p e c i f i c h o r i z o n s a n d / o r a t g r e a t e r d e p t h s was i m p o s s i b l e b e c a u s e o f t h e p o o r l y - c o n s o l i d a t e d n a t u r e o f t h e m a t e r i a l s . One p s y c h r o m e t e r was i n s t a l l e d i n e a c h o f f o u r of t h e s o i l p i t s . ( G r e a t e r s a m p l i n g i n t e n s i t y was l i m i t e d by a v a i l a b i l i t y o f u s a b l e p s y c h r o m e t e r s ) . I n s t a l l a t i o n f o l l o w e d p r o c e d u r e s o u t l i n e d by Nmyamah and B l a c k (1977) w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g m o d i f i c a t i o n s : -1) E a c h p s y c h r o m e t e r was i n s t a l l e d 15cm below t h e s u r f a c e t o r e d u c e t h e e f f e c t o f a i r t e m p e r a t u r e f l u c t u a t i o n s on s o i l t e m p e r a t u r e measurements a n d hence on c a l c u l a t e d s o i l water p o t e n t i a l . A t 15cm d e p t h , d i u r n a l s o i l t e m p e r a t u r e f l u c t u a t i o n s a r e m i n i m i z e d ( B r a d y , 1974). 2) P a r t i c u l a r c a r e was t a k e n d u r i n g i n s t a l l a t i o n t o a v o i d t h e c r e a t i o n o f a c h a n n e l i n which m o i s t u r e would c o l l e c t and s u r r o u n d t h e t h e r m o c o u p l e . 3) E a c h p s y c h r o m e t e r was i n s e r t e d 15cm i n t o t h e w a l l o f t h e p i t . P s y c h r o m e t e r r e a d i n g s were t a k e n from c o m p a r a b l e s i t e s on t h e same day t o m i n i m i z e v a r i a t i o n c a u s e d by d a y - t o - d a y f l u c t u a t i o n s i n m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t . V a r i a t i o n c a u s e d by d i u r n a l f l u c t u a t i o n s was m i n i m i z e d by t a k i n g r e a d i n g s i n random o r d e r 30 between c o m p a r a b l e s i t e s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1200-1500 h o u r s . The t i m i n g and f r e q u e n c y o f r e a d i n g s was s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d by l a c k of t r a n s p o r t t o s i t e s , b l o c k e d a c c e s s and t h u n d e r s t o r m s . C l i m a t i c d a t a f o r t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y i n d i c a t e d t h a t d r o u g h t c o n d i t i o n s w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o d e v e l o p i n m i d - l a t e summer. T h e r e f o r e , d u r i n g J une and J u l y r e a d i n g s were t a k e n a t 10-14 day i n t e r v a l s b u t t h e f r e q u e n c y was r e d u c e d a f t e r A u g u s t 1st when o t h e r f i e l d work had been c o m p l e t e d . LABORATORY: P s y c h r o m e t e r s were r e t e s t e d f i r s t i n d i s t i l l e d w a t e r and t h e n i n a s a l t s o l u t i o n o f known o s m o t i c p o t e n t i a l . F i e l d measurements made w i t h p s y c h r o m e t e r s t h a t s u b s e q u e n t l y m e a s u r e d t h e o s m o t i c p o t e n t i a l o f t h e t e s t s o l u t i o n s w i t h an e r r o r o f 0 .5bars o r more were n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e s u l t s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n s o i l w a ter p o t e n t i a l between c o m p a r a b l e s i t e s were t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e u s i n g t h e t - s t a t i s t i c a t a p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l o f 0.1. C o m p o s i t i o n of p a r t i c l e s and b u l k d e n s i t y o f m a t e r i a l s a t e a c h s i t e were a n a l y s e d u s i n g ANOVAR. D i f f e r e n c e s between c o m p a r a b l e s i t e s were t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e u s i n g t h e New Duncan's M u l t i p l e Range T e s t . 4.2.4 A s s e s s m e n t o f r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s PREFIELD: Numerous r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s have been s t a r t e d i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y . T h e r e a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200 t e s t p l o t s on t h e L o r n e x p r o p e r t y a l o n e . T r i a l s were s e l e c t e d f o r a s s e s s m e n t u s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : - -1) age: newly r e c l a i m e d s i t e s g i v e l i t t l e e v i d e n c e o f t h e l o n g - t e r m s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s e m p l o y e d . 2) n a t u r e o f m a t e r i a l : s i t e s were s e l e c t e d on as many 31 o f t h e k i n d s o f d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l a s p o s s i b l e . 3) s i z e : where p o s s i b l e , l a r g e a r e a s were a s s e s s e d t o e l i m i n a t e e r r o r s due t o edge e f f e c t s . 4) t o p o g r a p h y : s i t e s were s e l e c t e d on s l o p e s and on f l a t g r o u n d . 5) a c c e s s i b i l i t y . The 11 s i t e s s e l e c t e d a r e shown i n F i g u r e 2. A l l s i t e s were w i t h i n t h e e l e v a t i o n range 1300-1400m. A t e a c h s i t e , t h e a s s e s s m e n t was c a r r i e d o u t i n p l o t s p o s i t i o n e d a l o n g a t r a n s e c t . The l e n g t h o f t r a n s e c t and s i z e o f p l o t c h o s e n d e p e n d e d on t h e s i z e o f t h e s i t e . On s l o p i n g s i t e s , t h e t r a n s e c t was p o s i t i o n e d d i a g o n a l l y a c r o s s t h e s l o p e t o t a k e a c c o u n t o f v a r i a t i o n due t o p o s i t i o n on t h e s l o p e . A t s i t e A3, permanent p l o t s s e t up i n 1977 by t h e M i n i s t r y were a s s e s s e d . A s s e s s m e n t a t a l l s i t e s f o l l o w e d t h e p r o c e d u r e d e v e l o p e d by t h e M i n i s t r y ( M i n i s t r y o f E n e r g y , M i n e s and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s , 1980) b u t o n l y t h e f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s were r e c o r d e d : p l o t s i z e (m) s o i l v a l u e s l o p e (°) s o i l chroma a s p e c t (°) humus c o v e r (%) e l e v a t i o n (m) t o t a l c o v e r (%) t e x t u r e moss c o v e r (%) pH i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i e s c o v e r (%) p e l l e t s (no.) i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i e s s e e d heads (%) c a l c a r e o u s n e s s i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i e s h e i g h t (cm) s o i l hue i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i e s v i g o u r The p r e s c e n c e o f o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s on t h e s i t e but n o t 32 w i t h i n t h e p l o t s was a l s o n o t e d . Such f e a t u r e s were s h r u b i n v a s i o n , s o i l e r o s i o n and mass-movement. One t r e e p l a n t i n g t r i a l was a s s e s s e d a t a p p r o x i m a t l e y 1500m on t h e L o r n e x p r o p e r t y . S p e c i e s age, h e i g h t a n d v i g o u r were r e c o r d e d . T r e a t m e n t r e c o r d s f o r e a c h t r i a l were o b t a i n e d where p o s s i b l e f r o m t h e m i n i n g c o m p a n i e s . 4.2.5 N a t u r a l r e v e q e t a t i o n s u r v e y PREFIELD: A number o f c l e a r e d a r e a s ( i . e . s t i l l c o v e r e d by s o i l but l a c k i n g n o rmal v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r ) where n a t u r a l r e v e g e t a t i o n was o c c u r r i n g were i d e n t i f i e d on t h e a i r p h o t o g r a p h s . A c l e a r e d a r e a o f 384ha and r a n g i n g f r o m 1380m t o 1530m i n e l e v a t i o n was s e l e c t e d f o r d e t a i l e d s u r v e y . ( F i g u r e 2 ) . F I E L D : The c l e a r e d a r e a was s u r v e y e d a l o n g a 2000m t r a n s e c t p o s i t i o n e d so a s t o i n c l u d e a s much of t h e v a r i a t i o n i n a l t i t u d e a n d t o p o g r a p h y a s p o s s i b l e . The t r a n s e c t was f o l l o w e d u s i n g a compass and 16m 2 p l o t s were c e n t r e d on i t a t 100m i n t e r v a l s . A t e a c h p l o t e a c h s p e c i e s p r e s e n t was i d e n t i f i e d a nd i t s p e r c e n t a g e c o v e r e s t i m a t e d . O t h e r d i s t u r b e d a r e a s were s u r v e y e d and a s s e s s e d v i s u a l l y . 4.2.6 A d d i t i o n a l l a n d - u s e i n f o r m a t i o n R e c o r d s o f w i l d l i f e o b s e r v e d and r e p o r t e d were k e p t . O b s e r v a t i o n s on o t h e r l a n d - u s e s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a were made. 4.3 C o m p i l a t i o n o f t o p o g r a p h i c b a s e map A t o p o g r a p h i c base map was c o m p i l e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s 33 s t u d y t o r e n d e r a more a c c u r a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e r e c l a m a t i o n s i t e - t y p e s t h a n would have been a c h i e v e d by u s i n g e x i s t i n g , b u t o u t - o f - d a t e , N.T.S. maps w h i c h c o u l d n o t be a l i g n e d w i t h a i r p h o t o g r a p h s . The t o p o g r a p h i c b a s e map was c o n s t r u c t e d a t a s c a l e of 1:15000 from t h e f o l l o w i n g maps and p l a n s : -1) H i g h l a n d V a l l e y P r o j e c t t o p o g r a p h i c maps ( N a t i o n a l T o p o g r a p h i c System (N.T.S.) s h e e t 92/1, numbers 6h, 7 f , I0d, 11a and 11b) c o m p i l e d a t 1" t o 1 3 2 0 f t . by t h e T o p o g r a p h i c D i v i s i o n , S u r v e y s and Mapping B r a n c h , D e p t . o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s f r o m 1965 a i r p h o t o g r a p h s a n d u p d a t e d i n 1969. 2) H i g h l a n d V a l l e y t o p o g r a p h i c map p u b l i s h e d i n r e v i s e d f o r m by B e t h l e h e m i n 1980 a t a s c a l e o f 1" t o 4 0 0 f t . 3) T o p o g r a p h i c map c o m p i l e d by P a c i f i c S u r v e y C o r p o r a t i o n f o r B e t h l e h e m i n 1979 a t a s c a l e o f 1" t o 2 0 0 f t . 4) Dumps and p i t c o m p o s i t e t o p o g r a p h i c map ( w i t h s p o t h e i g h t s ) p r e p a r e d by t h e S u r v e y D e p t . a t L o r n e x i n 1981 a t a s c a l e o f 1" t o 4 0 0 f t . . ( C o n t o u r s were drawn on t h i s map u s i n g s p o t h e i g h t measurements and i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m 1980 B.C. government a i r p h o t o g r a p h s a t 1:10000). 5) O u t l i n e p l a n of t a i l i n g s l a k e drawn from 1980 B.C. government a i r p h o t o g r a p h s a t 1:10000. 6) N.T.S. map s h e e t 92/1, numbers 7,6,10 and 11, p r o d u c e d a t 1:50000 i n 1975 by S u r v e y s and M a p p i n g B r a n c h , D e p t . o f M i n e s and T e c h n i c a l S u r v e y s , f r o m a i r p h o t o g r a p h s t a k e n i n 1971 . The H i g h l a n d V a l l e y P r o j e c t map was u s e d as a r e f e r e n c e b a s e map. O t h e r maps and p l a n s were a l i g n e d on t h i s u s i n g 3 4 f e a t u r e s s u c h as l a k e s and s t r e a m s a s r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s . Some a d j u s t m e n t s were n e c e s s a r y t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e d i s t o r t i o n i n h e r e n t i n a i r p h o t o g r a p h s . 35 5. R e s u l t s 5.1. N a t u r a l V e g e t a t i o n The n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n o f t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y i s composed of many v e g e t a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h have been g r o u p e d i n t o 10 c o m m u n i t y - t y p e s : -1 : L o d g e p o l e p i n e / s p r u c e 2: D o u g l a s - f i r 3: L o d g e p o l e p i n e 4: S p r u c e / a l d e r 5: Aspen meadow 6: Open f o r e s t / g r a s s l a n d 7: V a l l e y b o t t o m meadow 8: W i l l o w / b i r c h 9: W i l l o w 10: Sedge marsh C o m m u n i t i e s o f t h e same com m u n i t y - t y p e a r e d e f i n e d a s t h o s e w h i c h have s i m i l a r v e g e t a t i o n s t r u c t u r e , s i m i l a r s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n and w h i c h a r e l o c a t e d i n s i t e s o f s i m i l a r t o p o g r a p h y . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of v e g e t a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y i s shown i n P l a n 1. D e t a i l s o f t h e s p e c i e s f o u n d i n t h e p l o t s l o c a t e d i n examples o f e a c h community a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x 111. The v e g e t a t i o n s t r u c t u r e , s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n and l o c a t i o n o f e a c h community-type a r e summarized i n t h e f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s . S p e c i e s d e s c r i b e d a s "common and t y p i c a l " o c c u p i e d 5% o r more o f t h e c o v e r ( i n t h e l a y e r i n w h i c h t h e y were f o u n d ) 36 i n a l l t h e p l o t s i n t h a t c o m m u n i t y - t y p e . " T y p i c a l " s p e c i e s were p r e s e n t i n a l l p l o t s . S p e c i e s d e s c r i b e d as " a b u n dant" o c c u p i e d 40% o r more o f t h e c o v e r i n any one l a y e r . A l l taxonomy f o l l o w s H i t c h c o c k and C r o n q u i s t ( 1 9 7 3 ) . 1: L o d g e p o l e p i n e / s p r u c e c o m m u n i t i e s a r e f o u n d a t h i g h e l e v a t i o n s . Below 1500m t h e abundance of s p r u c e d e c r e a s e s and t h e r e i s a g r a d u a l t r a n s i t i o n t o D o u g l a s - f i r a n d l o d g e p o l e p i n e c o m m u n i t i e s . ( B e c a u s e o f t h i s t r a n s i t i o n , no b o u n d a r y between l o d g e p o l e p i n e / s p r u c e and D o u g l a s - f i r c o m m u n i t i e s i s shown pn P l a n 1 ) . T r e e l a y e r s t y p i c a l l y c o n t a i n s p r u c e ( P i c e a s p p . A. D i e t r . ) , ( w h i t e s p r u c e ( P_;_ g l a u c a (Moench.) V o s s ) , Engelmann s p r u c e ( P_^  e n g e l m a n n i i P a r r y and t h e i r h y b r i d s ) , l o d g e p o l e p i n e ( P i n u s c o n t o r t a v a r . l a t i f o l i a Engelm.) and m i n o r amounts o f D o u g l a s - f i r ( P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i v a r . g l a u c a ( B e i s s n . ) F r a n c o ) a r e a l s o p r e s e n t . A v a r i e t y of s h r u b s i s f o u n d i n t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s but c o v e r i s g e n e r a l l y low. Much o f t h e h e r b l a y e r i s t y p i c a l l y b a r e o r moss- and l i c h e n - c o v e r e d . G r a s s e s and h e r b s a r e s c a r c e . S o i l s a r e c o a r s e - o r m o d e r a t e l y c o a r s e - t e x t u r e d , d r y t o m o i s t a n d c o n t a i n many c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s . D e p t h s o f m i n e r a l s o i l and o f f i n e r o o t p e n e t r a t i o n a r e s h a l l o w b u t o r g a n i c m a t t e r , much of i t p a r t l y decomposed, has a c c u m u l a t e d on t h e s u r f a c e . In some c o m m u n i t i e s ( p l o t s 9 and 10) f i n e l y comminuted c h a r c o a l i s v i s i b l e b o t h as a d i s t i n c t l a y e r and i n t e r m i n g l e d w i t h t h e A h o r i z o n w h i c h i s c o n s e q u e n t l y l i g h t e r i n c o l o u r . 2: D o u g l a s - f i r c o m m u n i t i e s a r e l o c a t e d on t h e m i d d l e s l o p e s of t h e v a l l e y . T h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n has been a f f e c t e d by f i r e , 37 l o g g i n g and m i n i n g a c t i v i t y but t h e y a r e f o u n d i n t h e e l e v a t i o n a l r a n g e 1300-1500m. D o u g l a s - f i r i s common and t y p i c a l i n t h e upper t r e e l a y e r s ; l o w e r t r e e l a y e r s c o n t a i n D o u g l a s - f i r and l o d g e p o l e p i n e . Young D o u g l a s - f i r g r o w t h i s e v i d e n t i n t h e s h r u b l a y e r s ; a v a r i e t y o f s h r u b s p e c i e s i s f o u n d but s o a p b e r r y ( S h e p h e r d i a c a n a d e n s i s L. N u t t . ) , r o s e ( Rosa s p p . L.) and b e a r b e r r y ( A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i ( L . ) S p r e n g . ) a r e t y p i c a l . P i n e g r a s s ( C a l a m a g r o s t i s r u b e s c e n s B u c k l . ) i s a b u n d a n t , many h e r b s a r e p r e s e n t and h e a r t l e a f a r n i c a ( A r n i c a c o r d i f o l i a Hook. ) i s t y p i c a l . S o i l t e x t u r e s v a r y f r o m c o a r s e t o f i n e ( a p p a r e n t l y c a u s i n g v a r i a t i o n i n s t r u c t u r e a l s o ) but a l l c o n t a i n v e r y many c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s . O r g a n i c h o r i z o n s , when u n d i s t u r b e d , a r e t h i c k w h i l e A h o r i z o n s a r e 8cm d eep o r l e s s . However, t h e brown t o v e r y d a r k g r a y i s h brown A h o r i z o n s and g r a y t o g r a y i s h brown B h o r i z o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t o r g a n i c m a t t e r i s a c c u m u l a t i n g i n t h e m i n e r a l s o i l . F i n e r o o t s have p e n e t r a t e d t o a maximum d e p t h o f 24cm. S o i l s i n t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s a r e w e l l - d r a i n e d . 3: L o d g e p o l e p i n e c o m m u n i t i e s a r e f o u n d w i t h i n t h e same e l e v a t i o n a l r a n g e a s D o u g l a s - f i r c o m m u n i t i e s . They have d e v e l o p e d as a r e s u l t o f f i r e . L o d g e p o l e p i n e i s t y p i c a l and common i n t h e t r e e l a y e r s . Common j u n i p e r ( J u n i p e r u s communis L . ) , s o a p b e r r y and g r o u s e b e r r y ( V a c c i n i u m s c o p a r i u m L e i b e r g ) a r e t y p i c a l i n t h e s h r u b l a y e r s . H e r b s a r e l e s s w i d e s p r e a d t h a n i n t h e D o u g l a s - f i r c o m m u n i t i e s ; p i n e g r a s s i s a b u n d a n t . Mosses, l i c h e n s and b a r e - g r o u n d a r e t y p i c a l and common. S o i l s s u p p o r t i n g t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s a r e v a r i a b l e . They have g r a n u l a r s t r u c t u r e w i t h many c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s but r a n g e i n 38 t e x t u r e from c o a r s e t o m o d e r a t e l y f i n e . T h e r e i s wide v a r i a t i o n i n t h i c k n e s s o f s o i l h o r i z o n s and d e p t h o f f i n e r o o t p e n e t r a t i o n . T h i s v a r i a t i o n i s p r o b a b l y due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t a n d h i s t o r y ( d a t e and f r e q u e n c y o f f i r e s , p r e v i o u s v e g e t a t i o n c o v e r e t c . ) a s w e l l a s d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e x t u r e and d r a i n a g e . O r g a n i c h o r i z o n s a r e l e s s t h i c k t h a n t h o s e i n t h e D o u g l a s -f i r / l o d g e p o l e p i n e c o m m u n i t i e s w h i l e t h e c o l o u r s o f t h e A and B h o r i z o n s s u g g e s t t h a t l i t t l e o r g a n i c m a t t e r has a c c u m u l a t e d i n t h e m i n e r a l h o r i z o n s . F i r e may be t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s . 4: S p r u c e / a l d e r c o m m u n i t i e s a r e l o c a t e d on t h e edges o f c r e e k s d r a i n i n g t h e v a l l e y s i d e s . S p r u c e i s t y p i c a l and common i n t h e s h r u b l a y e r s and m o u n t a i n a l d e r ( A l n u s i n c a n a ( L . ) Moench) i s t y p i c a l and common i n t h e t r e e o r s h r u b l a y e r s . Many h e r b s a r e f o u n d i n t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s . P i n e g r a s s i s t y p i c a l . They a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o o r l y - d r a i n e d , m e d i u m - t e x t u r e d s o i l s . A h o r i z o n s a r e b l a c k and c a n be v e r y deep, i n d i c a t i n g much o r g a n i c m a t t e r a c c u m u l a t i o n . 5: Aspen meadow c o m m u n i t i e s a r e f o u n d i n s m a l l , f l a t a r e a s t h a t have a p p a r e n t l y o r i g i n a t e d f r o m n a t u r a l i n f i l l i n g o f bogs a n d / o r s m a l l ponds t h a t d e v e l o p e d i n d e p r e s s i o n s on t h e v a l l e y s i d e s . T h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r l o c a t i o n and t o p o g r a p h y . T r e m b l i n g a s p e n ( P o p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s M i c h x . ) i s t y p i c a l of t h e t r e e and s h r u b l a y e r s ; t h e h e r b c o v e r i s d i v e r s e and f o w l b l u e g r a s s ( Poa p a l u s t r i s L.) i s a b u n d a n t . S o i l s a r e deep and m e d i u m - t e x t u r e d b u t c o n t a i n no c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s . A h o r i z o n s a r e t h i c k and f i n e r o o t s have p e n e t r a t e d t o a t l e a s t 28cm d e p t h . The c o l o u r o f t h e A h o r i z o n s ( v e r y d a r k 39 g r a y o r v e r y d a r k brown) i n d i c a t e s much o r g a n i c m a t t e r a c c u m u l a t i o n . S o i l s a r e m o i s t , have g r a n u l a r s t r u c t u r e and may be compact. 6: Open f o r e s t / g r a s s l a n d c o m m u n i t i e s a r e f o u n d on t h e l o w e r s l o p e s of t h e v a l l e y i n t h e a p p r o x i m a t e e l e v a t i o n r a n g e 1200-1300m. Some o f t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s a r e o l d l o g g i n g a r e a s where o n l y s p a r s e r e g e n e r a t i o n o f f o r e s t c o v e r has o c c u r r e d . D o u g l a s -f i r and t r e m b l i n g a s p e n a r e t y p i c a l and common i n t h e t r e e l a y e r s w h i c h a l s o c o n t a i n some l o d g e p o l e p i n e . Many s h r u b s a r e p r e s e n t ; b e a r b e r r y i s t y p i c a l and common. The h e r b l a y e r s c o n t a i n a b u n d a n t p i n e g r a s s and a wide v a r i e t y o f h e r b s . W i l d s t r a w b e r r y ( F r a g a r i a V i r g i n i a D u c h e s n e ) , h e a r t - l e a f a r n i c a and d a n d e l i o n ( T a r a x a c u m o f f i c i n a l e Weber) a r e t y p i c a l . S o i l s s u p p o r t i n g t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s show c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n d e p t h and t e x t u r e . They c o n t a i n some c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s and a r e w e l l - d r a i n e d . F i n e r o o t s have n o t p e n e t r a t e d d e e p e r t h a n 20cm. B o u n d a r i e s between A and B h o r i z o n s a r e i n d i s t i n c t b u t t h e f o r m e r a r e s h a l l o w and d a r k g r a y i s h brown o r d a r k brown w h i l e B h o r i z o n s a r e s l i g h t l y l i g h t e r i n c o l o u r . A h o r i z o n s a r e t h i c k e r and d a r k e r b u t o r g a n i c h o r i z o n s a r e s h a l l o w e r t h a n t h o s e o f D o u g l a s - f i r / l o d g e p o l e c o m m u n i t i e s . B e f o r e l o g g i n g , some of t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s were p r o b a b l y t h e more p r o d u c t i v e D o u g l a s - f i r / l o d g e p o l e p i n e c o m m u n i t i e s . 7: V a l l e y b o t t o m meadows a r e l o c a t e d on t h e l e v e l a r e a s i n t h e v a l l e y b o t t o m . They have been ( o r s t i l l a r e ) u s e d f o r g r a z i n g c a t t l e . K e n t u c k y b l u e g r a s s ( Poa p r a t e n s i s L.) i s ab u n d a n t and some h e r b s a r e a l s o f o u n d . 40 S o i l s a r e c o a r s e - t e x t u r e d ( s a n d y loams) b u t c o n t a i n few c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s . They c o n t a i n l i t t l e undecomposed o r p a r t l y decomposed o r g a n i c m a t t e r b u t b o t h A and B h o r i z o n s a r e e n r i c h e d w i t h o r g a n i c m a t t e r . M i n e r a l h o r i z o n s c an be t h i c k w i t h d eep f i n e r o o t p e n e t r a t i o n b u t t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s a r e a l s o f o u n d on s h a l l o w , c o m p a c t e d s o i l s w i t h impeded d r a i n a g e . The w i l l o w / b i r c h , w i l l o w , and sedge marsh c o m m u n i t i e s r e p r e s e n t s t a g e s i n t h e h y g r i c s u c c e s s i o n of t h e v a l l e y b o t t o m . 8: W i l l o w / b i r c h c o m u n i t i e s have d e v e l o p e d f u r t h e s t f r o m w a t e r b o d i e s , i n t h e hummock-and-hollow t o p o g r a p h y formed by t h e i n f i l l i n g a nd r a i s i n g o f p e a t b o g s . S o i l s a r e m o d e r a t e l y f i n e and have deep, b l a c k A h o r i z o n s . O r g a n i c h o r i z o n s , e s p e c i a l l y H h o r i z o n s , a r e nar r o w . W i l l o w ( S a l i x s p . L.) i s common and t y p i c a l ; swamp b i r c h ( B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a M i c h x . ) i s abu n d a n t i n t h e s h r u b l a y e r s . K e n t u c k y b l u e g r a s s i s t h e t y p i c a l g r a s s f o u n d i n t h e h e r b l a y e r w h i c h t y p i c a l l y c o n t a i n s s e d g e s ( C a r e x s p . L.) and a wide v a r i e t y o f h e r b s . 9: W i l l o w c o m m u n i t i e s b o r d e r t h e l a k e s and m a r s h e s . The w a t e r - t a b l e i s w i t h i n l8-20cm o f t h e g r o u n d s u r f a c e and undecomposed p l a n t r e m a i n s c an be se e n s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e upper 20cm o f t h e p r o f i l e . W i l l o w i s a b u n d a n t and swamp g o o s e b e r r y ( R i b e s l a c u s t r e ( P e r s . ) P o i r ) i s t y p i c a l i n t h e s h r u b l a y e r . The h e r b l a y e r t y p i c a l l y c o n t a i n s a wide v a r i e t y o f h e r b s ; b l u e j o i n t r e e d g r a s s ( C a l a m a g r o s t i s c a n a d e n s i s ( M i c h x . ) Beauv.) i s abu n d a n t and s e d g e s a r e t y p i c a l . 10: Sedge marshes a r e f o u n d where c h a n g e s i n t h e d r a i n a g e 41 p a t t e r n have p a r t i a l l y e m p t i e d l a k e s o r on t h e ed g e s o f e x i s t i n g l a k e s and p o n d s . Sedges grow i n 10-30 cm o f w a t e r . 5.2. I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f d i s t u r b e d  m a t e r i a l s and n a t u r a l s o i l s The v a r i a t i o n i n p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n a l l t y p e s of d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l was h i g h ( T a b l e 4) and s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between s i t e s - w i t h i n - t y p e s were shown by 8 o f t h e 11 v a r i a b l e s m e a s u r e d ( T a b l e 5 ) . When w i t h i n - t y p e d i f f e r e n c e s were t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n t h e a n a l y s i s , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t y p e s were shown by 10 o f t h e 11 v a r i a b l e s m e a s u r e d . ( A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e t a b l e s a r e shown i n A p p e n d i x I V ) . The s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s were u s e d t o i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n c e s between e a c h t y p e o f m a t e r i a l ( T a b l e 6 ) . Compacted r o c k and o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n any c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . T a i l i n g s c o n t a i n e d no p a r t i c l e s g r e a t e r t h a n 2mm d i a m e t e r and c o n t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f i n e s a n d and l e s s c o a r s e s a n d t h a n any o t h e r m a t e r i a l . T h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e n t c o m p o s i t i o n o f p a r t i c l e s g r e a t e r t h a n 25mm, 4.76-lOmm o r 2-4.76mm d i a m e t e r between n a t u r a l s o i l , c o m p a c t e d r o c k and o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k b u t n a t u r a l s o i l c o n t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s p a r t i c l e s l0-25mm d i a m e t e r . H a n d l i n g o f compact e d r o c k and o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k m a t e r i a l s may be t h e c a u s e of t h e more u n i f o r m d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p a r t i c l e s i n s i z e c l a s s e s g r e a t e r t h a n 2mm d i a m e t e r . Raw t i l l and n a t u r a l s o i l d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n p e r c e n t c o m p o s i t i o n o f p a r t i c l e s g r e a t e r t h a n 25mm o r 2-4.76mm d i a m e t e r , n o r i n p e r c e n t c o m p o s i t i o n o f f i n e s a n d , s i l t o r c l a y w h i l e amounts o f a l l o t h e r p a r t i c l e 42 s i z e s e x c e p t 4.76-lOmm d i a m e t e r d i d n o t d i f f e r w i d e l y . N a t u r a l s o i l , c o m p a c t e d r o c k and t a i l i n g s were sandy loams, raw t i l l a loamy san d and o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k a loam ( m a r g i n a l l y ) . The U.S. D epartment o f A g r i c u l t u r e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n S y s t e m c o n s i d e r s o n l y p a r t i c l e s o f 2mm d i a m e t e r o r l e s s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a l l p a r t i c l e s i z e s i s shown i n F i g u r e 3. B u l k d e n s i t y d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y between t y p e s o f m a t e r i a l . The b u l k d e n s i t y measurements do n o t r e f l e c t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e n e t r a b i l i t y o b s e r v e d i n t h e f i e l d between t y p e s of m a t e r i a l s . The measurement t e c h n i q u e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y g i v e s v a l u e s t h a t a r e a f f e c t e d by t h e p r e s c e n c e o f c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s . Use o f a t e c h n i q u e t h a t d e t e r m i n e s o n l y t h e b u l k d e n s i t y o f t h e s o i l - s i z e d f r a c t i o n m i g h t have g i v e n a b e t t e r i n d i c a t i o n of d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p o r o s i t y of t h e s o i l volume o c c u p i e d by r o o t s . 5.3. E f f e c t o f a s p e c t on m o i s t u r e c o n d i t i o n s T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n d i d n o t p r o v i d e a s much i n f o r m a t i o n a s a n t i c i p a t e d b e c a u s e 15 p s y c h r o m e t e r s m a l f u n c t i o n e d o r were a c c i d e n t a l l y b u r i e d u n d e r t a i l i n g s and b e c a u s e r e a d i n g s c o u l d n o t be t a k e n on e a c h o c c a s i o n as p l a n n e d . A t e a c h of t h e s i t e s P5, P6 and P7, o n l y 1 p s y c h r o m e t e r f u n c t i o n e d c o r r e c t l y so t h e s e s i t e s c o u l d n o t be compared w i t h any o t h e r s . Mean s o i l w a ter p o t e n t i a l s (SWPs) i n t h e s o u t h - f a c i n g n a t u r a l a r e a (P1) were n o t c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r o r l o w e r t h a n t h o s e r e c o r d e d i n s i t e s P2 o r P3, w h i c h were n o r t h - f a c i n g l i a b l e 4 . P h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f m a t e r i a l s MATERIAL % COMPOSITION OF PARTICLES BULK DE NSITY 25mm d i a m . 10-25mm d i a m . 4.7-10mm diam 2-4.7mm d i a m . O r g a n i c m a t t e r g / m 3 mean S . E . mean S . E . mean S . E . mean S . E . mean S . E . mean S . E . N a t u r a l s o i l 2 9 . 6 2 4 . 0 7 6 .4 5 .54 7 .7 4 . 3 2 1 5 . 0 7 .30 2 .2 0 . 8 2 1.9 0 .81 Raw T i l l 2 6 . 1 1 8 . 3 4 1 4 . 2 6 . 9 3 13 .1 4 . 6 2 1 4 . 4 4 . 7 9 1.5 2 .21 2 .4 0 .81 Compacted Rock 2 2 . 2 1 6 . 9 3 2 5 . 4 8 .00 1 0 . 2 8'. 02 1 0 . 8 7 .69 1.2 0 . 1 8 2 .2 0 . 2 6 O v e r b u r d e n / r o c k 2 5 . 0 1 4 . 1 3 2 0 . 3 8 .73 1 0 . 0 3 .70 1 0 . 0 3 .00 2 .4 1.26 2 .4 1.45 T a i l i n g s 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 .0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 , 1.6 0 . 0 9 MATERIAL % COMPOSITION OF .PART ICLES . ( s o i l - s i z e d ) TEXTURAL i t-c o a r s e sand f i n e sand t o t a l sand s i l t c l a y CLASS mean S . E . mean S . E . mean S . E . mean S . E . mean S . E . N a t u r a l s o i l 4 7 . 5 8 .26 14 .6 3 .24 6 2 . 2 - 2 6 . 9 13 .56 4 . 8 5.31 sandy loam Raw T i l l 6 7 . 8 12 .94 1 6 . 0 10 .72 8 3 . 7 - 1 1 . 5 5.47 4 . 8 1.84 loamy sand Compacted Rock 4 0 . 9 3 .48 2 0 . 0 1.18 6 0 . 9 - 2 8 . 5 2 .41 1 0 . 6 1.7 sandy loam O v e r b u r d e n / r o c k 3 2 . 0 8 .49 2 0 . 5 4 . 8 3 5 2 . 5 - 3 4 . 1 6 . 4 8 1 3 . 4 4 . 7 3 loam T a i l i n g s 1 5 . 6 9 .22 4 9 . 1 16 .70 6 4 . 8 - 3 1 . 3 19 .64 3 .9 4 . 2 9 sandy loam * a c c o r d i n g t o t h e U .S . Depar tment o f A g r i c u l t u r e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Sys tem 44 Table 5. Results of F-tests on var i ab les f o r phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTIC DIFFERENCES PROB- . DIFFERENCES PROB-BETWEEN SITES-ABILITY BETWEEN ABILITY WITHIN-TYPES TYPES Percent composit ion of pa r t -i c l e s greater than 25mm diam. Percent composit ion o f pa r t -i c l e s 10-25mm :diarneter Percent composition of pa r t -i c l e s 4.74-10mm diameter Percent composit ion o f pa r t -i c l e s 2-4.76mm diameter Percent composition of soil-sized particles Percent composit ion o f coarse sand Percent composit ion o f f i n e sand Percent composit ion o f s i l t Percent composit ion of c lay Percent composit ion of org-anic matter Bulk dens i ty N.S. SIG. SIG. SIG. SIG. SIG. N.S. SIG. SIG. SIG. 0.31098 0.00152 0.00263 0.00396 0.00018 0.00289 0.18406 0.00587 0.00002 0.00000 0.34041 SIG. SIG. SIG. SIG. SIG. SIG. SIG. SIG. SIG. SIG. N.S. 0.00000 0.00101 0.00113 0.00090 0.00000 0.00019 0.00000 0.01747 0.02858 0.04706 0.19521 N.S.=not significant at 95% probability level SIG.=significant at 95% probability level 45 Table 6. Results of Duncan's New Multiple Range Tests on materials (Each line indicates a homogeneous subset, no pair of which differs by more than the shortest significant range (a=0.05) for a subset of that size). Mean values (percent) are given for each material. Composition of particles greater than 25mm diameter: tailings compacted rock overburden/rock raw t i l l natural soil 0.0 22.200 24.961 26.138 29.617 Composition of particles 10-25mm diameter: tailings natural soil raw t i l l overburden/rockcompacted rock 0.0 . 6.431 14.204 20.305 25.440 Composition of particles 4.76-10mm diameter: tailings natural soil compacted rock overburden/rock raw t i l l 0.0 7.734 9.984 10.155 13.085 Composition of particles 2-4.76mm diameter: tailings compacted rock overburden/rock natural soil raw t i l l 0 = 0 9.969 10.753 14.377 14.592 Composition of soil-sized particles: compacted rock raw t i l l overburden/rock natural soil tailings 31.452 32.029 35.182 41.958 100.00 Composition of coarse sand: tailings overburden/rock compacted rock natural soil raw t i l l 15.640 32.037 40.862 47.536 67.755 Composition of fine sand: natural soil raw t i l l compacted rock overburden/rock tailings 14.635 15.963 20.023 20.462 49.144 Composition of s i l t : raw t i l l natural soil compacted rock tailings overburden/rock 11.477 26.898 28.544 31.288 34.087 Composition of clay: tailings natural soil raw t i l l compacted rock overburden/rock 3.928 4.746 4.805 10.570 13.414 Composition of organic matter: tailings compacted rock raw t i l l natural soil overburden/rock 0.0 1.196 1.468 2.152 2.431 PARTICLE SIZE (mm, log scale) Fig. 3. Distribution of particle sizes in natural soils and disturbed materials, (x natural so i l , n=24; A raw t i l l , n=24; A compacted rock, n=8; o overburden/rock, n=32; •tail ings, n=8). o June o o July c» <J August DAY Fig. 4- Mean soil water potentials at site PI (natural area, south-facing) (•,n=4), site P2 (natural area, north -facing) (o,n=4) and site P3 (natural area, north-facing) (A,n=3). 48 ( F i g u r e 4 ) . Mean SWPs a t s i t e P2 were lower t h a n t h o s e a t s i t e s P1 and P3 i n 7 o u t o f 8 c o m p a r i s o n s . The n o r t h e a s t - f a c i n g and s o u t h w e s t - f a c i n g s h e l t e r e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k s l o p e s (P9 and P8) showed no c o n s i s t e n t d i f f e r e n c e i n mean SWPs and no d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t ( F i g u r e 5 ) . The s o u t h - f a c i n g e x p o s e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k s l o p e (P10) showed c o n s i s t e n t l y l o w e r mean SWPs t h a n t h e s h e l t e r e d , n o r t h - f a c i n g o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k s l o p e (P11) ( F i g u r e 6 ) . When t h e SWPs o f o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k s i t e s P8, P9 and P11 were compared w i t h t h e SWPs o f raw t i l l s i t e s P5 and P6 t h e mean SWP of t h e raw t i l l s i t e s was l o w e r i n e a c h of t h e 9 c o m p a r i s o n s b u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t i n o n l y 4 o f t h e 7 c o m p a r i s o n s ( F i g u r e 7 ) . (Th e s e c o m p a r i s o n s were made u s i n g means o f measurements a l l t a k e n w i t h i n any 3-day r a i n l e s s p e r i o d . SWPs o f raw t i l l s i t e s c o u l d n o t be compared w i t h t h o s e o f s i t e P10, t h e s o u t h - f a c i n g e x p o s e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k s l o p e , b e c a u s e measurements were n o t made a t c o m p a r a b l e t i m e s ) . Water h e l d a t t e n s i o n s of - 1 5 b a r s o r l e s s i s s a i d t o u n a v a i l a b l e t o p l a n t s ( B r a d y , 1974). D r o u g h t c o n d i t i o n s d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g t h e s t u d y p e r i o d i n a l l d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s b u t no t i n n a t u r a l s o i l . D r o u g h t c o n d i t i o n s d e v e l o p e d e a r l i e s t and were most p r e v a l e n t on t h e s o u t h - f a c i n g e x p o s e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k s i t e (P10) ( T a b l e 7 ) . D i f f e r e n c e s i n s o i l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t a t c o m p a r a b l e s i t e s c o u l d have been c a u s e d by d i f f e r e n c e s i n l o c a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n , t e x t u r e , a s p e c t o r e x p o s u r e . L o c a l d r a i n a g e , t h o u g h v e r y u n i f o r m i n d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s a t 15cm d e p t h , c o u l d have a f f e c t e d s i t e s 3 • fD CU ~i fD O r+ QJ r r i. O 3 -[-standard . e r ro r of •'-the mean DAY 5.Mean so i l water potent ia ls at s i t e P9 (northeast-fac ing, she l t e red , overburden/rock) (o, n-3) and s i t e P8 (southwest-facing, she l te red , overburden/rock) (A, n=4). vo -50 --40 $-jQ -30 o Q. or LU t— o -20 co •10 —i j standard error of 1 the mean I • ' 1 • • • » ' | i i i i i i i i i | i i i i i i i i i | i i i i i i i i i | i i i i i i i i i | i i i i i i r i i i | i i i i i * • ' ' | i i i i i i T v i f II 20 30 10 20 31 10 20 30 June- • July DAY •o cD- August cn o Fig. 6. Mean soil water potentials at site Pll(north-facing,sheltered, overburden/rock) (A, n=3) and site P10(south-facing, exposed, overburden/rock) (o, n=3). i o • • P9 Me CU Cu 3 3 Q . in -o o —J. t—' 1 .—^ s O cu r t fD 3 -% II t - * X J o O - -r t • fD 3 r t —J* Cu — i in CU r t -J CU S r t ^ * — i — ' in _ j . r t ro in -o O l CU 3 Q L -o CTl —. O » 3 II 0 0 — CU 3 CL CU r t O < fD ~i CP £= -5 Q . fD 3 -J O O 7T in — i . r t fD in TJ CO SOIL WATER POTENTIAL (bars) r t fD 3 " -5 fD -5 O 3 -5 fD Cu O 3 -h in r t Cu 3 ' C L Cu Q . (uiiu) uoLieiLdLDaud ueaiu Table 7. Moisture and temperature conditions in materials NO..MATERIAL ASPECT . EXPOSURE .NO. OF OCCASIONS .NO. OF OCCASIONS MIN.DATE SWP OF -15bars. MEAN TEMPS. 15UC OR SWP OF -15bars OR OR LESS RECORDED GREATER (TOTAL NO.) LESS RECORDED DAY/MONTH PI natural soil P2 natural soil P3 natural soil south sheltered north sheltered north sheltered 0 (9) 0 (8) 0 (9) 0 (9) 0 (8) 0 (9) P4 raw t i l l north sheltered 1 (9) 4 (9) 8/7 P8 overburden/rock s-west sheltered P9 overburden/rock n-east sheltered 3 (8) 1 (10) 1 (8) 3 (10) 28/8 30/7 P10 overburden/rock south exposed Pll overburden/rock north sheltered P12 tailings flat exposed 2 (7) 1 (8) 0 ( 5 ) * 6 (7) 2 (8) 19/6 2/7 during the period June 11th - July 30th; psychrometers not tested after u se 53 l o c a t e d i n n a t u r a l s o i l s . D a i l y p r e c i p i t a t i o n f a l l i n g a t t h e B e t h l e h e m and L o r n e x s t a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d J une 11th - September 1st i s shown i n F i g u r e s 8a and 8b. D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e t i m e o f o c c u r r e n c e and q u a n t i t y o f r a i n were v e r y s m a l l and do n o t a c c o u n t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o i l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t a t c o m p a r a b l e s i t e s l o c a t e d on o p p o s i t e s i d e s on t h e v a l l e y . D a i l y p r e c i p i t a t i o n a v e r a g e d between t h e two s t a t i o n s i s shown i n F i g u r e s 4,5,6 and 7. M a t e r i a l s a t s i t e P3 c o n t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s c l a y and l e s s p a r t i c l e s 4.76-1Omm d i a m e t e r t h a n t h o s e a t s i t e s P2 and P1. L e s s s t o n i n e s s c o u l d be a r e a s o n f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n s o i l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t between s i t e s P2 a n d P3 but s i n c e P2 was d r i e r t h a n s i t e s P3 and P1, t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s more l i k e l y due t o t h e l o c a t i o n o f P2 on a s m a l l r i d g e . D i f f e r e n c e s i n t e x t u r e between m a t e r i a l s a t s i t e s P8 and P9 were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . A d i f f e r e n c e i n a s p e c t d i d n o t c a u s e d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o i l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t between t h e s e two s h e l t e r e d s i t e s a l t h o u g h s o i l t e m p e r a t u r e s were h i g h e r a t s i t e P8. A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t a i r t e m p e r a t u r e s a t b o t h s i t e s were s i m i l a r t h r o u g h o u t much o f t h e day and so h i g h e r s o i l t e m p e r a t u r e s a t 1200-1500 h o u r s d i d n o t c a u s e s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r d r y i n g o f t h e s i t e e x p o s e d t o t h e s o u t h w e s t . A l s o , i f h i g h s o i l t e m p e r a t u r e s were a t t a i n e d f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s , s o i l m o i s t u r e l o s s may have been l i m i t e d by some o t h e r f a c t o r s u c h a s t h e r a t e o f water movement t o t h e s u r f a c e . M a t e r i a l s a t s i t e P10 c o n t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s i l t and c l a y and l e s s c o a r s e s a n d and g r a v e l t h a n s i t e P11. D e s p i t e t h i s , s i t e P10 was d r i e r t h a n s i t e P11. I t a p p e a r s t h a t e x p o s u r e 20 15 to s_ g 10 s 5 n i i 11 I i i i • i 20 June all -t><5-10 20 J u l y T-rr- i I i i i i II i i i i i i i i i i 31 -O <J- IF 2d n 1 1 n 4 DAY •August 31 F i g . 8 a ) . D a i l y p r e c i p i t a t i o n a t B e t h l e h e m , June 11 th - A u g u s t 3 0 t h , 1981 20 4 15 -4 to s-< U I 10 -I e 5 J • 1 1 1 1 1 1 n 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2T0 June p-r - r -30 -r><3— t l 10 , 20 J u l y TT 3 l I I I I I I 10 20 n i 1 1 1 1 DAY •August 30 - o F i g . 8 b ) . D a i l y p r e c i p i t a t i o n a t L o r n e x , June 11th - A u g u s t 3 0 t h , 1 9 8 1 . 55. t o wind ( p o s s i b l y combined w i t h s o u t h w e s t a s p e c t ) was t h e c a u s e of g r e a t e r l o s s o f m o i s t u r e from s i t e P10. A l t h o u g h d i f f e r e n c e s i n p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s do n o t a c c o u n t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o i l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t a t c o m p a r a b l e s i t e s , t h e y do a c c o u n t f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n SWPs between raw t i l l a nd o v e r b u r d e n r o c k s i t e s . P h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s i t e s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n A p p e n d i x V. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s i s c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e u n u s u a l l y wet and c o l d w e a t h e r e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y d u r i n g t h e s t u d y p e r i o d . M o n t h l y p r e c i p i t a t i o n t o t a l s i n J u n e , J u l y and A u g u s t were 20, 109 and 24mm r e s p e c t i v e l y a t t h e L o r n e x c l i m a t o l o g i c a l s t a t i o n . Mean t o t a l s f o r t h e same months i n t h e p e r i o d 1977-79 were 11,15 and 11mm. A t B e t h l e h e m , mean p r e c i p i t a t i o n t o t a l s f o r J u n e , J u l y a nd Au g u s t d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1977-79 were 18, 18 and 20mm r e s p e c t i v e l y . In 1981, 23mm o f r a i n f e l l i n J u n e and 110mm i n J u l y a l t h o u g h o n l y 4mm o f r a i n were r e c e i v e d i n A u g u s t . In J u n e , J u l y and A u g u s t a t t h e B e t h l e h e m s t a t i o n a nd i n June a t t h e L o r n e x s t a t i o n , mean m o n t h l y t e m p e r a t u r e s i n 1981 were l o w e r t h a n p r e v i o u s l y r e c o r d e d mean m o n t h l y minimum t e m p e r a t u r e s . I n J u l y and A u g u s t 1981 mean m o n t h l y t e m p e r a t u r e s a t t h e L o r n e x s t a t i o n were g r e a t e r t h a n t h e mean o f t h o s e p r e v i o u s l y r e c o r d e d b u t mean m o n t h l y minima f o r t h e s e months were l o w e r i n 1981 t h a n i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s . When l o n g e r p e r i o d s o f h o t , d r y weather a r e e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o i l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t c a u s e d by a s p e c t a l o n e may become e v i d e n t a l t h o u g h t h e y were n o t o b s e r v e d i n t h i s s t u d y . 56 S o i l t e m p e r a t u r e measurements were made a t 15cm d e p t h f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c a l c u l a t i n g s o i l w a ter p o t e n t i a l s . The d a t a a l s o g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n o f s o i l t e m p e r a t u r e c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l s . At 1200-1500 h o u r s i n summer i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t s o i l t e m p e r a t u r e s w i l l d e c r e a s e w i t h d e p t h t o a b o u t 15 cm ( B r a d y , 1974). I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t e m p e r a t u r e s o f 15°C o r g r e a t e r a t 15cm d e p t h would i n h i b i t r o o t g r o w t h and would be a c c o m p a n i e d by s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e s l e t h a l t o g e r m i n a t i n g s e e d l i n g s . The number o f o c c a s i o n s on w h i c h mean t e m p e r a t u r e s were 15°C o r g r e a t e r i n e a c h m a t e r i a l i s shown i n T a b l e 7. The d a t e on w h i c h mean t e m p e r a t u r e s o f 15° C o r g r e a t e r were r e c o r d e d i n e a c h m a t e r i a l i s a l s o shown. ( B e c a u s e p s y c h r o m e t e r s i n s t a l l e d i n t a i l i n g s were n o t r e c o v e r e d , t h e measurements o f s o i l w a ter p o t e n t i a l and t e m p e r a t u r e c o u l d n o t be v a l i d a t e d by t e s t i n g p s y c h r o m e t e r s a f t e r use i n t h e f i e l d . However, s i n c e no e r r o r s i n t e m p e r a t u r e measurement were d e t e c t e d i n t h e p s y c h r o m e t e r s t h a t were t e s t e d , t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h e measurements made i n t a i l i n g s b e i n g i n c o r r e c t i s l o w ) . 5.4. A s s e s s m e n t o f r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e r e s u l t s i s l i m i t e d b e c a u s e many t r e a t m e n t r e c o r d s were i n c o m p l e t e . 5.4.1 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s u c c e s s f u l s p e c i e s E i g h t e e n c o m m e r c i a l g r a s s and legume s p e c i e s were o b s e r v e d i n t h e r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s . Ten n a t u r a l l y i n v a d i n g s p e c i e s were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d . Mean v a l u e s o f p e r c e n t c o v e r , p e r c e n t s e e d h e a d s , h e i g h t and v i g o u r f o r e a c h s p e c i e s a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x 57 V1. B e c a use e a c h t r i a l had been t r e a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y , and some s p e c i e s h a d o n l y been u s e d i n one t r i a l , t h e s e r e s u l t s c a n n o t be u s e d t o d e t e c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s u i t a b i l i t y between s p e c i e s . However, t h e r e s u l t s show t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g s p e c i e s have been s u c c e s s f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d : -y e l l o w sweet c l o v e r ( M e l i l o t u s o f f i c i n a l e s ) c r e s t e d w h e a t g r a s s ( A g r o p y r o n c r i s t a t u m ) r e d f e s c u e ( F e s t u c a r u b r a ) t a l l f e s c u e ( F e s t u c a a r u n d i n a c e a ) smooth brome ( Bromus i n e r m i s ) A l s o , a l s i k e c l o v e r ( T r i f o l i u m h y b r i d u m ) and a l f a l f a ( M e d i c a g o s p . ) have been e s t a b l i s h e d on a g r a z e d a n d i r r i g a t e d a r e a . 5.4.2 E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c o v e r on d i f f e r e n t a r e a s The l o w e s t mean, maximum and minimum p e r c e n t g r o u n d c o v e r o c c u r r e d on t h e e x p o s e d s i t e s A3 a n d A4. Mean a n d maximum c o v e r were h i g h e s t on s i t e A10, w h i c h was i r r i g a t e d , b u t minimum c o v e r was v e r y low. T h i s was p r o b a b l y a r e s u l t o f t r a m p l i n g and o v e r g r a z i n g . V a r i a t i o n i n c o v e r was h i g h a t a l l s i t e s and was not r e l a t e d t o d a t e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t ( T a b l e 8 ) . pH was t h e same a t a l l s i t e s and s o i l t e x t u r e s were n o t m a r k e d l y d i f f e r e n t . V a r i a t i o n i n c a l c a r e o u s n e s s was h i g h a t a l l s i t e s and was n o t r e l a t e d t o humus c o v e r , g r o u n d c o v e r o r age. T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h e p r e s e n c e o f o n l y s m a l l , p o o r l y d i s t r i b u t e d amounts o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a i n T a b l e 8 i s l i m i t e d b e c a u s e no two s i t e s were g i v e n t h e same t r e a t m e n t . D i f f e r e n c e s i n r a t e s o f 58 T a b l e 8 . R e s u l t s o f a s s e s s m e n t o f r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s S ITE NO. MATERIAL ASPECT EXPOSURE DATE OF ESTABL-MENT PERCENT GROUND COVER m i n . max. mean S . E . A l o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k n o r t h s h e l t e r e d 1972 15 35 22 7 .5 A2 o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k f l a t s h e l t e r e d 1979 25 40 31 5.4 A3 o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k wes t exposed 1 9 7 2 - 6 35 19 1 1 . 7 77? A4 o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k s o u t h exposed 1970 7 30 21 10 .1 A5 raw t i l l n o r t h m m m m m m A6 o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k f l a t s h e l t e r e d 1977 25 65 38 1 6 . 4 A7 o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k w e s t s h e l t e r e d 1977 30 50 38 7 .5 A8 o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k n o r t h s h e l t e r e d 1972 7 60 34 2 7 . 1 A9 o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k n o r t h s h e l t e r e d 1972 20 40 32 8 . 3 A10 *+ raw t i l l f l a t s h e l t e r e d ? 8 80 59 1 7 . 4 A l l * raw t i l l n o r t h s h e l t e r e d ? 35 40 24 1 1 . 5 * g r a z e d + i r r i g a t e d 59 f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n c o u l d have a f f e c t e d t h e d e n s i t y o f t h e c o v e r e s t a b l i s h e d . However, i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s were s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o c a u s e t h e low c o v e r a t s i t e s A3 and A4. E x p o s u r e i s t h e l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e s e r e s u l t s . In s e m i - a r i d z o n e s many g r a s s ( e s p e c i a l l y b u n c h g r a s s ) c o m m u n i t i e s e x h i b i t p a t c h y c o v e r even when m a t u r e . Mean and maximum c o v e r a r e p r o b a b l y b e t t e r i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e s u c c e s s o f c o v e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t t h a n minimum c o v e r . 5.4.3 S h r u b i n v a s i o n N a t i v e s h r u b s were n a t u r a l l y i n v a d i n g s i t e s where r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s had been s e t up. On s i t e A1 t h e f o l l o w i n g s h r u b s and t r e e s were o b s e r v e d : -m o u n t a i n a l d e r ( A l n u s i n c a n a ) w i l l o w ( S a l i x s p p . ) s o a p b e r r y ( S h e p h e r d i a c a n a d e n s i s ) t r e m b l i n g a s p e n ( P o p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s ) On s i t e A2:-m o u n t a i n a l d e r w i l l o w C o v e r was v e r y low on b o t h s i t e s , a p p r o x i m a t i n g 1 s h r u b / 1 0 0 m 2 . 5.4.4 E r o s i o n and mass movement G u l l y e r o s i o n and r a v e l ( g r a v i t y - i n d u c e d movement o f s m a l l , d r y s o i l p a r t i c l e s ) were o b s e r v e d on a l l s t e e p - s l o p i n g s i t e s and on many o t h e r s l o p e s . D u r i n g t h e e x t e n d e d d r y p e r i o d i n A u g u s t r a v e l a p p e a r e d t o be most s e v e r e on t h e d r i e s t c o a r s e - t e x t u r e d s l o p e s . A f t e r h e a v y r a i n s t o r m s , however, mass movement o f 60 m a t e r i a l was o b s e r v e d on t h e o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k s l o p e s . 5.4.5 T r e e p l a n t i n g t r i a l s T r e a t m e n t r e c o r d s f o r t h e r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s u s i n g c o n i f e r s e e d l i n g s were n o t a v a i l a b l e . Twenty l o d g e p o l e p i n e and 3 s p r u c e s e e d l i n g s w i t h a v e r a g e h e i g h t s o f 20 and 15cm r e s p e c t i v e l y were o b s e r v e d . T r e e s were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 y e a r s old, stems were b e n t and n e e d l e s showed symptoms o f n i t r o g e n and p h o s p h o r u s d e f i c i e n c y . W i l d l i n g l o d g e p o l e p i n e , a g e d 6-8 y e a r s , were o b s e r v e d g r o w i n g on o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k a t an e l e v a t i o n o f 1600m on t h e L o r n e x p r o p e r t y . 5.5. N a t u r a l r e v e g e t a t i o n s u r v e y The s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n o f e a c h p l o t s u r v e y e d i s g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x V I I . Many o f t h e s p e c i e s a r e members of t h e v e g e t a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s o f t h e u n d i s t u r b e d a r e a s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e denuded a r e a ( A p p e n d i x 111). T h e s e s p e c i e s were p r o b a b l y p r e s e n t i n t h e a r e a b e f o r e i t was c l e a r e d and have r e e s t a b l i s h e d f r o m s e e d o r v e g e t a t i v e p a r t s l e f t i n t h e g r o u n d . Weedy s p e c i e s w h i c h may have i n v a d e d t h e a r e a s i n c e i t was denude d a r e :-g o l d e n r o d ( S o l i d a g o o c c i d e n t a l i s ) d a i s y ( E r i g e r o n spp ) f o x t a i l b a r l e y ( Hordeum ju b a t u m ) downy o a t - g r a s s ( T r i s e t u m s p i c a t u m ) Some l o d g e p o l e p i n e s e e d l i n g s were o b s e r v e d a s w e l l a s o l d e r c o n e - b e a r i n g t r e e s . Many o f t h e s e e d l i n g s were c l u s t e r e d a r o u n d t h e o l d e r t r e e s . In s e m i - a r i d a r e a s l o d g e p o l e p i n e c o n e s 61 c a n open and r e l e a s e s e e d when s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e s on m i n e r a l s o i l become h i g h enough t o m e l t t h e r e s i n o u s c o a t i n g (U.S.D.A., 1965). Hence t h e s e e d l i n g s c o u l d have o r i g i n a t e d from s e e d l e f t i n t h e g r o u n d a f t e r c l e a r i n g o r f r o m t h e c o n e - b e a r i n g t r e e s . In o t h e r r e v e g e t a t e d ( p r e v i o u s l y c l e a r e d ) a r e a s , i n v a s i o n by g r a s s e s , h e r b s , s h r u b s and t r e e s , a p p a r e n t l y f r o m a d j o i n i n g u n d i s t u r b e d a r e a s , had o c c u r r e d . R e v e g e t a t i o n was s p a r s e i n t h e c e n t r e s o f p i p e l i n e c l e a r i n g s , h y d r o r i g h t - o f - w a y s and borrow p i t s b ut t h e number o f i n v a d e r s i n c r e a s e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g p r o x i m i t y t o u n d i s t u r b e d v e g e t a t i o n . 5.6. P r e s e n t l a n d - u s e 5.6.1 Range About 20 head o f c a t t l e , owned by a l o c a l r a n c h e r , g r a z e d a r e c l a i m e d and i r r i g a t e d a r e a a r o u n d t h e L o r n e x a c c e s s r o a d . T h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d o f f i e l d work c a t t l e were h e r d e d between t h i s a r e a and a d j o i n i n g f o r e s t g r a z i n g l a n d a t two- t o t h r e e -week i n t e r v a l s . 5.6.2 F o r e s t r y The o n l y f o r e s t r y o p e r a t i o n s c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f f i e l d work were t h e c l e a r i n g o f h y d r o r i g h t - o f - w a y s and o f a r e a s where c o n s t r u c t i o n o f dams was t a k i n g p l a c e . 5.6.3 W i l d l i f e 62 W i l d l i f e i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y o b s e r v e d by o r r e p o r t e d t o t h e a u t h o r d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d J u n e 1st - September 1st i s l i s t e d i n T a b l e s 9a and 9b. 5.6.4 R e c r e a t i o n a n d t o u r i s m On a v e r a g e , 20 g r o u p s were camped by Q u i l t a n t o n Lake t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d June 1 s t - September 1 s t . Of t h e s e , 10 were c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e m i n e s ; t h e r e m a i n d e r c h o s e t o s t a y i n t h e a r e a b e c a u s e o f t h e f i s h i n g . F i s h i n g a t Q u i l t a n t o n L a k e was d e s c r i b e d as " e x c e l l e n t " . No r e p o r t s o f f i s h i n g on Bose Lake were o b t a i n e d b u t B e t h l e h e m C o p p e r C o r p o r a t i o n (1981) d e s c r i b e i t a s " a c t i v e " . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f f i e l d work v e h i c l e s were f r e q u e n t l y s e e n t r a v e l l i n g t h e r o a d t o P i m a i n u s L a k e w i t h f i s h i n g e q u i p m e n t . H u n t i n g i s p r o h i b i t e d on t h e mine p r o p e r t i e s b u t i s " a c t i v e " i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y i n s e a s o n ( B e t h l e h e m C o p p e r C o r p o r a t i o n , 1981). Ducks and g e e s e w h i c h b r e e d i n r e e d y l a k e s i n t h e Kamloops a r e a a r e h u n t e d i n s e a s o n (B.C. L a n d s S e r v i c e , 1971). A s u r v e y o f t r a f f i c on t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y r o a d between B e t h l e h e m and L ogan L a k e was c o n d u c t e d i n O c t o b e r , 1980. A t o t a l o f 2300 v e h i c l e s was r e c o r d e d i n a 10-hour p e r i o d . I t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t 5% o f t h i s t r a f f i c was h o l i d a y t r a f f i c , t h e r e m a i n d e r was c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e mines ( D e p t . of Highways, M e r r i t t D i s t r i c t , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d June 1 s t - September 1st a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f o f t h e v e h i c l e s o b s e r v e d on t h e r o a d , o u t s i d e p e r i o d s when mine s h i f t s were c h a n g i n g , were r e c r e a t i o n a l v e h i c l e s . D u r i n g o t h e summer b o t h B e t h l e h e m a n d L o r n e x r a n t o u r s o f t h e i r m i l l s t w i c e a week f o r t o u r i s t s . *1 -6-3-T a b l e 9 a ) . Mammals i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y , J une - S e p t e m b e r , 1981 COMMON NAME SPEC IF IC NAME FREQUENCY OF SOURCE - OBSERVATIONS M u l e d e e r O d o c o i l e u s hemionus hemionus o c c a s i o n a l E l k Ce r vus c a n a d e n s i s n e l s o n i o c c a s i o n a l Moose A l c e s a l c e s a n d e r s o n i o c c a s i o n a l 1 C o y o t e Cam's l a t r a n s o c c a s i o n a l Y e l l o w - b e l l i e d marmot Marmota f l a v i v e n t r i s v e r y f r e q u e n t Chipmunk Eu t am ia s spp f r e q u e n t G r o u n d s q u i r r e l S p e r m o p h i l u s s p p . v e r y f r e q u e n t F i e l d m o u s e M i c r o t u s s p p . o c c a s i o n a l S q u i r r e l T a m i a s c i u r u s s p p . f r e q u e n t R a b b i t Lepus s p p . r e p o r t e d 2 Couga r F e l i s c o n c o l o r r e p o r t e d 2 Lynx Lynx s p p . r e p o r t e d 2 M u s k r a t O n d a t r a z i b e t h i c a r e p o r t e d 3 P o r c u p i n e E r e t h i z o n d o r s a t u m r e p o r t e d 3 B e a v e r C a s t o r c a n a d e n s i s r e p o r t e d 3 B l a c k b e a r U r s u s a m e r i c a n u s r e p o r t e d 3 T a b l e 9 b ) . B i r d s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y , J une - S e p t e m b e r , 1981 COMMON NAME SPEC IF IC NAME * FREQUENCY OF OBSERVATIONS Commom l o o n Wes t e rn g r e b e M a l l a r d G r e e n - w i n g e d t e a l B l u e - w i n g e d t e a l A m e r i c a n w i d g e o n A m e r i c a n c o o t S p a r r o w hawk R e d - t a i l e d hawk S p r u c e g r o u s e K i l l d e e r S p o t t e d s a n d p i p e r B a i r d ' s s a n d p i p e r D u n l i n W e s t e r n s a n d p i p e r G a v i a immer n e s t i n g Aechmophorus o c c i d e n t a l i s n e s t i n g Anas p l a t y r h y n c h e s n e s t i n g Anas c a r o l i n e n s i s n e s t i n g Anas d i s c o r s n e s t i n g Ma reca a m e r i c a n a n e s t i n g F u l i c a a m e r i c a n a n e s t i n g F a l c o s p e r v e r i u s f r e q u e n t Bu t eo j a m a i c e n s i s o c c a s i o n a l C a n a c h i t e s c a n a d e n s i s o c c a s i o n a l C h a r a d r i u s v o c i f e r u s v e r y f r e q u e n t A c t i t i s m a c u l a r i a f r e q u e n t E r o l i a b a i r d i i f r e q u e n t E r o l i a a l p i n a f r e q u e n t E r e u n e t e s m a u r i f r e q u e n t ^64-T a b l e 9 b ) . c o n t i n u e d Horned owl Bubo v i r g i n i a n u s r e p o r t e d F l i c k e r C o l a p t e s s p p . v e r y f r e q u e n t R e d - b r e a s t e d s a p s u c k e r S p h y r a p i c u s v a r i u s f r e q u e n t W e s t e r n k i n g b i r d Ty r annus v e r t i c u l i s f r e q u e n t Bank s w a l l o w R i p a r i a r i p a r i a f r e q u e n t C l i f f s w a l l o w P e t r o c h e l i d o n p y r r h o n o t a f r e q u e n t S k y l a r k A l a u d a a r v e n s i s f r e q u e n t G r a y j a y P e r i s o r e u s c a n a d e n s i s f r e q u e n t B l a c k - b i l l e d magp ie P i c a p i c a f r e q u e n t Common r a v e n C o r v u s c o r a x f r e q u e n t Common crow Co r vus b r a c h y r h y n c h o s f r e q u e n t R o b i n Tu rdus m i g r a t o r i u s o c c a s i o n a l M o u n t a i n b l u e b i r d S i a l i a c u r r u c o i d e s o c c a s i o n a l Y e l l o w w a r b l e r D e n d r o i c a p e t e c h i a o c c a s i o n a l Wes t e rn meadowla rk S t u r n e l l a n e g l e c t a o c c a s i o n a l Red-winged b l a c k b i r d A g e l a i u s p h o e n i c e n s o c c a s i o n a l Savannah s p a r r o w P a s s e r c u l u s s a n d w i c h e n s i s o c c a s i o n a l * a c c o r d i n g t o Cowan and G i g u e t (1978) and P e t e r s o n (1961) 1 t h r e e k i l l e d on h ighway i n J une 2 r e p o r t e d by H ighmont O p e r a t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , ( 1 9 8 0 ) 3 r e p o r t e d by h u n t e r s 4 r e p o r t e d by Be th !eham Coppe r C o r p o r a t i o n , (1981) 66 6.. D i s c u s s i o n 6.1. S e l e c t i o n o f f a c t o r s f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme The f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s were u s e d t o c l a s s i f y d i s t u r b e d a r e a s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y i n t o r e c l a m a t i o n s i t e - t y p e s : -- t o p o g r a p h y - e x p o s u r e - t y p e o f d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l - e l e v a t i o n 6.1.1 T o p o g r a p h y The t o p o g r a p h y o f many d i s t u r b e d a r e a s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y i s b o t h more u n i f o r m and more ex t r e m e t h a n n a t u r a l a r e a s . T o p o g r a p h y c a n t h e r e f o r e a f f e c t t h e r e c l a m a t i o n and u l t i m a t e use of d i s t u r b e d a r e a s . T h r e e t o p o g r a p h i c c l a s s e s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d . F l a t a r e a s a r e t h o s e w i t h a 0-4° s l o p e . Examples a r e rockdump t e r r a c e s , abandoned p l a n t s i t e s , and t a i l i n g s p o n d s . D r a i n a g e may be impeded, c a u s i n g p e r i o d i c f l o o d i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e r e a r e impermeable c o m p a c t e d h o r i z o n s i n t h e s o i l p r o f i l e . ( S m a l l p o o l s o f w a t e r were o b s e r v e d on f l a t , d i s t u r b e d a r e a s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y up t o 6 d a y s a f t e r t h e l a s t r e c o r d e d r a i n e v e n t ) . C u l t i v a t i o n w i t h m a c h i n e r y i s p o s s i b l e . S l o p i n g a r e a s a r e t h o s e w i t h l o n g s l o p e s o f 25° o r g r e a t e r , e . g . r o c k dump f a c e s , dams. In t h e s e a r e a s d r a i n a g e o f water and 67 n u t r i e n t s t h r o u g h t h e d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l w i l l be more r a p i d . The p o t e n t i a l f o r s u r f a c e e r o s i o n and r a v e l , c a u s i n g l o s s o f s i l t -a nd c l a y - s i z e d p a r t i c l e s , s e e d and f e r t i l i z e r , i s i n c r e a s e d . On s l o p e s o f 18° o r g r e a t e r machine d r i l l i n g i s n o t p o s s i b l e (U.S. D e p t . o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 1979). D ry b r o a d c a s t s e e d i n g i s ' p o s s i b l e on s l o p e s o f 145° ( C a r r , 1980). M a c h i n e b r o a d c a s t i n g i s o f t e n l i m i t e d when s l o p e s a r e l o n g . U n d u l a t i n g a r e a s a r e t h o s e whose t o p o g r a p h y i s s i m i l a r t o or t h e same a s t h e o r i g i n a l n a t u r a l t o p o g r a p h y . Examples a r e r o a d s and s m a l l c l e a r i n g s . The t o p o g r a p h y i s v a r i e d ; t h o u g h i t may i n c l u d e some s t e e p s l o p e s and some f l a t a r e a s , none a r e e x t e n s i v e enough t o w a r r a n t m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e r e c l a m a t i o n t e c h n i q u e . 6.1.2 E x p o s u r e In t h i s s t u d y , two e x p o s u r e c l a s s e s w h i c h s e p a r a t e d i s t u r b e d a r e a s w i t h d i f f e r e n t r e c l a m a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e i d e n t i f i e d . E x p o s e d a r e a s a r e d i s t u r b e d a r e a s w i t h a s p e c t i n t h e r a n g e 160-260° ( o r w h i c h a r e f l a t ) and w h i c h a r e n o t s h e l t e r e d by t e r r a i n o f g r e a t e r e l e v a t i o n w i t h i n 1/2 m i l e (800m) i n t h e d i r e c t i o n 1 6 0 - 2 6 0 ° . D r o u g h t d e v e l o p s r a p i d l y and i s v e r y s e v e r e . I n t h i s s t u d y t h e d r o u g h t p e r i o d l a s t e d f o r 8-9 weeks a t an e x p o s e d s i t e . Wind e r o s i o n of s i l t - and c l a y - s i z e d p a r t i c l e s , s e e d and f e r t i l i z e r may o c c u r . G e r m i n a t i n g s e e d l i n g s may be a b r a d e d by w i n d - b o r n e m a t e r i a l . A b o v e g r o u n d p l a n t p a r t s may be s t u n t e d . 68 S h e l t e r e d a r e a s a r e t h o s e d i s t u r b e d a r e a s n o t c l a s s i f i e d a s e x p o s e d . A l t h o u g h d r o u g h t may d e v e l o p i n t h e s e a r e a s , t h e p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h m o i s t u r e i s a v a i l a b l e t o p l a n t s i s l o n g e r . Wind e r o s i o n and wind damage a r e n o t l i k e l y t o o c c u r . A l t h o u g h P i n k e r t o n (1972) r e p o r t s t h a t w i n d s i n t h e v a l l e y b o t t o m a r e d i r e c t e d f r o m t h e n o r t h w e s t o r s o u t h e a s t , w i n ds d e t e c t e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f f i e l d work were from t h e s o u t h and w e st. A d d i t i o n a l " e x p o s e d " a r e a s may be i d e n t i f i e d o v e r a p e r i o d o f y e a r s . A l t h o u g h r e s u l t s showed a s p e c t t o have no d i r e c t a f f e c t on m o i s t u r e c o n d i t i o n s i n d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s , i t c a n a f f e c t e x p o s u r e i n d i r e c t l y b e c a u s e many s l o p e s w i t h s o u t h o r west a s p e c t s a r e e x p o s e d t o t h e p r e v a i l i n g w i n d s . A d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e d e n s i t y o f n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n between t h e n o r t h and s o u t h s i d e s o f t h e v a l l e y i s v i s i b l e on t h e a i r p h o t o g r a p h s . D e l a y i n snow-melt p r o b a b l y i n c r e a s e s t h e amount o f m o i s t u r e a v a i l a b l e t o p l a n t s on t h e s o u t h s i d e o f t h e v a l l e y . A s p e c t may t h e r e f o r e a f f e c t t h e d e n s i t y o f c o v e r w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y d e v e l o p s on r e c l a i m e d d i s t u r b e d a r e a s . 6.1.4. Type o f d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l T y p e s of d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l d i f f e r f r o m e a c h o t h e r i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t a f f e c t w a t e r r e t e n t i o n , a e r a t i o n and r o o t p e n e t r a t i o n . The d e p t h of most d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e i r t y p e . T h r e e c l a s s e s o f d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l a r e i d e n t i f i e d . 69 T a i l i n g s d i f f e r more m a r k e d l y f r o m n a t u r a l s o i l t h a n do o t h e r t y p e s o f d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l . T a i l i n g s p r o d u c e d by t h e L o r n e x and B e t h l e h e m mines have been a n a l y s e d and d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l by D e p t . of S o i l S c i e n c e ( 1 9 7 6 / 7 7 ) . L o r n e x t a i l i n g s a t 0-10cm d e p t h c o n t a i n e d 8.07, 43.89 and 48.04% and f r e s h B e t h l e h e m t a i l i n g s 4.28, 27.32 and 68.42% c l a y - , s i l t - and s a n d - s i z e d p a r t i c l e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . B u l k d e n s i t i e s o f L o r n e x t a i l i n g s from 0-95.5cm d e p t h r a n g e d from 1.09-1.30gm/cc. ( T h e s e v a l u e s a r e a l l s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y ) . The e f f e c t s o f t h e s e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on v e g e t a t i o n e s t a b l i s h m e n t have been d e s c r i b e d by D e p t . o f S o i l S c i e n c e (1976/77)' and M o r t o n ( 1976). Water s t r e s s i s a m a j o r p r o b l e m , e s p e c i a l l y i n summer. A e r a t i o n a t f i e l d c a p a c i t y o f L o r n e x t a i l i n g s i s low a l t h o u g h t o t a l p o r o s i t y i s s u f f i c i e n t f o r p l a n t g r o w t h . The l a y e r e d s t r u c t u r e of t a i l i n g s m a t e r i a l ( c a u s e d by v a r i a t i o n i n b u l k d e n s i t y and p a r t i c l e s i z e w i t h d e p t h ) c a n i n h i b i t d r a i n a g e and e f f e c t c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . Sand- and s i l t - s i z e d p a r t i c l e s a r e s u s c e p t i b l e t o wind e r o s i o n ( D e p t . o f S o i l S c i e n c e , 1976-77). A v a i l a b l e w ater s t o r a g e c a p a c i t i e s a r e 14-25% by volume ( M o r t o n , 1976). The t o t a l d e p t h o f t a i l i n g s i s f a r g r e a t e r t h a n t h e maximum p o s s i b l e p e n e t r a t i o n o f g r a s s and h e r b r o o t s . However, r o o t p e n e t r a t i o n may be r e s t r i c t e d by t h e l a y e r e d s t r u c t u r e o f t a i l i n g s m a t e r i a l . The d e p t h s a t w h i c h t h e s e l a y e r s o c c u r a r e v e r y v a r i a b l e , d e p e n d i n g on t h e method and t i m e of t a i l i n g s d i s p o s a l . A t 0 t o 15cm d e p t h , t a i l i n g s m a t e r i a l s were n o t i c e a b l y c o l d e r t h a n o t h e r m a t e r i a l s when sampled i n J u n e and were c o o l e r t h a n o t h e r m a t e r i a l s a t 15cm d e p t h d u r i n g J u n e and J u l y . Low 70 t e m p e r a t u r e s c o u l d d e l a y t h e s t a r t o f r o o t g r o w t h i n s p r i n g . Raw t i l l m a t e r i a l s a r e c o a r s e - t e x t u r e d and c o n t a i n many s t o n e s and c o b b l e s . Water s t r e s s d e v e l o p s v e r y r a p i d l y ; a v a i l a b l e water s t o r a g e c a p a c i t y may be v e r y low. D r a i n a g e o f w a t e r and n u t r i e n t s t h r o u g h t h e p r o f i l e may be r a p i d but a e r a t i o n would n o t be a p r o b l e m . ( I n t h i s s t u d y a v e r a g e m o i s t u r e c o n d i t i o n s i n raw t i l l s i t e s r e p r e s e n t e d two p e r i o d s o f d r o u g h t , 13 a n d 19 d a y s l o n g ) . Wind e r o s i o n o f t h e s m a l l amounts o f f i n e p a r t i c l e s e x p o s e d a t t h e s u r f a c e may o c c u r i n i t i a l l y , b u t w o u l d no t be a p e r s i s t e n t p r o b l e m . S t o n e s and c o b b l e s may c r e a t e s h e l t e r e d m i c r o s i t e s where s e e d a n d f e r t i l i z e r w o u l d c o l l e c t b ut r a v e l e r o s i o n may o c c u r on s t e e p s l o p e s . H i g h s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e s may o c c u r on t h e d r y s u r f a c e s o f m i n e r a l p a r t i c l e s . The d e p t h o f raw t i l l m a t e r i a l s i s v e r y v a r i a b l e and v e r t i c a l r o o t p e n e t r a t i o n may t h e r e f o r e be r e s t r i c t e d by an u n d e r l y i n g C h o r i z o n . However, t h e zone above t h e C h o r i z o n may be s u p p l i e d w i t h s u b - s u r f a c e d r a i n a g e f r o m s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s and t h e r e f o r e p e r m i t b e t t e r p l a n t g r o w t h once r o o t s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d . O v e r b u r d e n / r o c k m a t e r i a l s c o n t a i n more s i l t - and c l a y -s i z e d p a r t i c l e s t h a n raw t i l l m a t e r i a l s . R o o t i n g volumes w i l l be l a r g e r and m o i s t u r e and n u t r i e n t s s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d l o n g e r i n t h e p r o f i l e . The f i n e p a r t i c l e s , and a p p l i e d s e e d and f e r t i l i z e r , may be s u b j e c t t o e r o s i o n by w i n d . S u r f a c e r u n - o f f may a l s o o c c u r i f t h e i n f i l t r a t i o n c a p a c i t y o f t h e m a t e r i a l s i s e x c e e d e d d u r i n g h e a v y s t o r m s . The o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k m a t e r i a l s s a m p l e d f o r t h i s s t u d y were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30cm deep. O b s e r v a t i o n o f o t h e r a r e a s o f 71 o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k m a t e r i a l s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s was t y p i c a l . On s l o p e s , t h e s e m a t e r i a l s a r e u n d e r l a i n by l a r g e f r a g m e n t s o f l o o s e l y - p a c k e d r o c k . P e n e t r a t i o n by r o o t s may improve a n c h o r a g e but w o u l d n o t i n c r e a s e w ater s u p p l y . On f l a t a r e a s , o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k m a t e r i a l s o v e r l i e r o c k f r a g m e n t s t h a t have been c r u s h e d and h e a v i l y c o m p a c t e d by t h e t r a f f i c o f dump t r u c k s and s p r e a d e r s . T h e s e m a t e r i a l s may be i m p e n e t r a t a b l e by p l a n t r o o t s , but may i n c r e a s e w a t e r r e t e n t i o n i n t h e o v e r l y i n g m a t e r i a l s . I n t h i s s t u d y , o n l y one a r e a o f t h e compacted r o c k t y p e o f m a t e r i a l s c o u l d be s a m p l e d . T h i s was o x i d i s e d g r a n o d i o r i t e . I t had p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k t y p e s , and i s t h e r e f o r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e c l a s s d e s c r i b e d as " o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k " . However, o t h e r c o m p a c t e d / r o c k a r e a s ( w h i c h were n o t sampled) a r e composed o f d i f f e r e n t r o c k t y p e s . Some o f t h e s e r o c k t y p e s have been c h a r a c t e r i z e d p r e v i o u s l y by L o r n e x . Rock t y p e s v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n r a t e a n d d e g r e e o f breakdown due t o b l a s t i n g , t r a f f i c a n d w e a t h e r i n g . They were r a n k e d a s f o l l o w s i n o r d e r o f most t o l e a s t r a p i d breakdown t o s o i l - s i z e d p a r t i c l e s : - f a u l t gouge; o x i d i s e d q u a r t z d i o r i t e a nd g r a n o d i o r i t e ; q u a r t z d i o r i t e and g r a n o d i o r i t e i n v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f a l t e r a t i o n ; q u a r t z p o r p h y r y ( L o r n e x M i n i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , u n d a t e d ) . B e t h l e h e m g r a n o d i o r i t e / q u a r t z d i o r i t e h a s n o t been c h a r a c t e r i z e d b u t i s c o n s i d e r a b l y h a r d e r t h a n t h e Skeena and B e t h s a i d a p h a s e s f o u n d on t h e L o r n e x p r o p e r t y . The m i n i n g c o m p a n i e s have a l l s t o c k p i l e d o v e r b u r d e n f o r f u t u r e u s e , i f n e c e s s a r y , i n r e c l a m a t i o n . In d e f i n i n g c l a s s e s o f d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme i t i s assumed 72 t h a t o t h e r a r e a s of c o m p a c t e d r o c k w i l l be s i m i l a r t o t h e a r e a s a m p l e d o r t h a t t h e y w i l l be c o v e r e d w i t h o v e r b u r d e n . In b o t h c a s e s , t h e y a r e c l a s s e d a s " o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k " m a t e r i a l s . S a m p l i n g of o t h e r a r e a s o f c o m p a c t e d r o c k w o u l d i d e n t i f y t h e a r e a s r e q u i r i n g t r e a t m e n t w i t h o v e r b u r d e n and m i g h t i d e n t i f y a d d i t i o n a l c l a s s e s of d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s . 6.1.4 E l e v a t i o n The maximum e l e v a t i o n o f d i s t u r b e d a r e a s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y w i l l be a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1700m ( 5 5 0 0 f t . ) . N a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y e x h i b i t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n , many o f w h i c h a r e c a u s e d by d i f f e r e n c e s i n e l e v a t i o n . The most n o t a b l e example i s t h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m g r a s s l a n d t o f o r e s t t h a t o c c u r s w i t h e l e v a t i o n , p r e s u m a b l y as a r e s u l t of c h a n g e s i n t h e p r e c i p i t a t i o n r e v a p o r a t i o n r a t i o . Many c o m m e r c i a l g r a s s and legume s p e c i e s have low g e r m i n a t i o n p e r c e n t a g e s , p o o r v i g o u r a n d r e d u c e d a b i l i t y t o p e r s i s t a t e l e v a t i o n s o f g r e a t e r t h a n 1530m ( 5 0 0 0 f t . ) (Hubbard and B e l l , 1 9 77). S i n c e a l l r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s were e s t a b l i s h e d below 1500m, no d a t a on t h e e f f e c t o f e l e v a t i o n on t h e s u c c e s s of r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y i s a v a i l a b l e . Many s p e c i e s e . g . p i n e g r a s s , m o u n t a i n a l d e r , j u n i p e r , r o s e , b e a r b e r r y and l o d g e p o l e p i n e , grow a t a l l e l e v a t i o n s i n n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s . I n s o u t h e r n B.C. t h e s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f e l e v a t i o n c h ange o c c u r s a t a b o u t 2100m ( 7 0 0 0 f t . ) ( E r r i n g t o n , 73 p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) . I t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t an i n c r e a s e i n e l e v a t i o n from 1500m t o 1700m wou l d c a u s e s u f f i c i e n t c h a n g e s i n p l a n t g r o w t h c o n d i t i o n s t o j u s t i f y s i g n i f i c a n t m o d i f i c a t i o n of t h e r e c l a m a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s employed i n t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f a r e c l a m a t i o n programme. However, i n many i n s t a n c e s e l e v a t i o n w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e c h o i c e o f a l a n d - u s e o b j e c t i v e f o r a d i s t u r b e d a r e a . The f a c t o r e l e v a t i o n i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme b e c a u s e o f i t s i n f l u e n c e on t h e c h o i c e o f a l a n d - u s e o b j e c t i v e and i t s p o s s i b l e e f f e c t on r e c l a m a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . 6.2. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f r e c l a m a t i o n s i t e - t y p e s The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme was a p p l i e d t o t h e s t u d y a r e a u s i n g t h e t o p o g r a p h i c b a s e map and s t a n d a r d B.C. government s t e r e o c o l o r p h o t o g r a p h s , t a k e n i n J u n e 1980 a t a s c a l e o f 1:20000. The f o l l o w i n g r e c l a m a t i o n s i t e - t y p e s were i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y : -low e l e v a t i o n , f l a t e x p o s e d t a i l i n g s low e l e v a t i o n , f l a t , s h e l t e r e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k h i g h e l e v a t i o n , f l a t , s h e l t e r e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k low e l e v a t i o n , s l o p i n g , s h e l t e r e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k h i g h e l e v a t i o n , s l o p i n g , s h e l t e r e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k low e l e v a t i o n , f l a t , e x p o s e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k h i g h e l e v a t i o n , f l a t , e x p o s e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k low e l e v a t i o n , s l o p i n g , e x p o s e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k h i g h e l e v a t i o n , s l o p i n g , e x p o s e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k low e l e v a t i o n , u n d u l a t i n g , s h e l t e r e d raw t i l l 74 h i g h e l e v a t i o n , u n d u l a t i n g , s h e l t e r e d raw t i l l low e l e v a t i o n , u n d u l a t i n g , e x p o s e d raw t i l l C l e a r e d and r e v e g e t a t e d a r e a s In a d d i t i o n t o t h e d i s t u r b e d a r e a s c l a s s i f i e d i n t o r e c l a m a t i o n s i t e - t y p e s , m i n i n g and r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s have c r e a t e d o t h e r d i s t u r b e d a r e a s , t h a t do not r e q u i r e r e c l a m a t i o n , but w h i c h a r e shown on P l a n 1. C l e a r e d a r e a s a r e t h o s e w h i c h have been c l e a r e d o f a l l n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n b u t w h i c h a r e s t i l l c o v e r e d w i t h n a t u r a l t o p s o i l . T h e s e , i f n o t b u r i e d by waste r o c k , w i l l become r e v e g e t a t e d n a t u r a l l y ( a s d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 5 . 5 ) . R e v e g e t a t e d a r e a s a r e t h o s e w h i c h were p r o b a b l y c l e a r e d s e v e r a l y e a r s ago but on w h i c h some n a t u r a l r e v e g e t a t i o n has a l r e a d y o c c u r r e d . C l e a r e d and r e v e g e t a t e d a r e a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h y d r o r i g h t s -of-way a r e m a i n t a i n e d so a s t o p r e v e n t t h e r e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f f o r e s t c o v e r . They w i l l be u s e d by c a t t l e a n d / o r w i l d l i f e , d e p e n d i n g on a c c e s s i b i l i t y . O t h e r denuded and r e v e g e t a t e d a r e a s w i l l p r o v i d e c a t t l e and w i l d l i f e f o r a g e i n i t i a l l y b u t w i l l e v e n t u a l l y become r e f o r e s t e d . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n , r e c l a m a t i o n s i t e -t y p e s , c l e a r e d and r e v e g e t a t e d a r e a s i n 1981 i s shown i n P l a n 1. The p l a n a l s o shows t h e a p p r o x i m a t e p r e d i c t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e c l a m a t i o n s i t e - t y p e s when m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s c e a s e . P r e d i c t i o n s were made u s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d by t h e m i n i n g c o m p a n i e s and some a s s u m p t i o n s b a s e d on o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e m i n i n g t e c h n i q u e s 75 u s e d i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y . The i n f o r m a t i o n and a s s u m p t i o n s were as f o l l o w s . B e t h l e h e m have d e s c r i b e d a p r o j e c t e d d e v e l o p m e n t s c h e d u l e f o r t h e p e r i o d 1982-1987. The main t a i l i n g s a n d Bose Lake dams a r e b e i n g r a i s e d by 3m ( 1 0 f t . ) and 6m ( 2 0 f t . ) . r e s p e c t i v e l y . The H u e s t i s p i t w i l l be u s e d f o r t a i l i n g s d i s p o s a l and waste r o c k w i l l go t o e x i s t i n g waste dumps. P r o j e c t e d a d d i t i o n a l d i s t u r b e d a r e a s w i l l be p r i m a r i l y i n t h e T r o j a n Pond a r e a ( B e t h l e h e m Copper C o r p o r a t i o n , 1981). I n P l a n 1 i t i s assumed t h a t t h e H u e s t i s p i t w i l l be f i l l e d w i t h t a i l i n g s t o t h e maximum p o s s i b l e h e i g h t and t h a t t a i l i n g s i n t h e T r o j a n Pond w i l l c o v e r t h e p r e v i o u s l y c l e a r e d a r e a u p s t r e a m o f t h e T r o j a n Dam. The s u r f a c e a r e a o f t h e main t a i l i n g s pond w i l l i n c r e a s e s l i g h t l y . S u r f a c e s o f a l l t a i l i n g s d i s p o s a l a r e a s w i l l be f l a t . L o r n e x e s t i m a t e t h a t s u r f a c e d i s t u r b a n c e by waste dumps and l o w - g r a d e s t o c k - p i l e s w i l l t o t a l 141ha by 1986; a l l waste d i s p o s a l a r e a s a r e c u r r e n t l y a c t i v e ( L o r n e x M i n i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1981). No p r e d i c t i o n s have been made beyond 1986. At p r e s e n t , f u r t h e r dumping on t h e n o r t h w e s t dumps i s n o t a n t i c i p a t e d ; t h e l a c k o f s p a c e f o r waste r o c k d i s p o s a l w i t h i n t h e p r o p e r t y b o u n d a r y i s a p r o b l e m a t L o r n e x ( L o r n e x r e c l a m a t i o n s t a f f , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) . In P l a n 1 i t i s assumed t h a t L o r n e x waste dumps w i l l be expanded t o t h e l i m i t s imposed by t h e p r o p e r t y b o u n d a r y and t h a t f i n a l dump c o n f i g u r a t i o n w i l l be s i m i l a r t o t h a t a t p r e s e n t . The f i n a l e l e v a t i o n o f t h e waste dumps a t L o r n e x and B e t h l e h e m may be g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t shown i n P l a n 1, d e p e n d i n g on mine d e v e l o p m e n t s . The h i g h e l e v a t i o n s i t e - t y p e s may t h e r e f o r e 76 be u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d . P l a n 1 shows t h e f i n a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n and e l e v a t i o n o f t h e Highmont waste dumps and p i t a n t i c i p a t e d by Highmont. When t h e mine i s c o m p l e t e d , t h e t a i l i n g s d i s p o s a l a r e a w i l l c o n s i s t of a b e a c h e d a r e a and a pond (Highmont O p e r a t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n P r o p e r t y E n g i n e e r i n g , 1981), bounded by dams. The p r e d i c t e d s i z e o f t h e t a i l i n g s d i s p o s a l a r e a shown i n P l a n 1 i s an e s t i m a t e b a s e d on t h e p l a n n e d h e i g h t o f t h e dam a n d t h e u n d e r l y i n g r e l i e f . On b o t h t h e Highmont and V a l l e y Copper p r o p e r t i e s , i t i s assumed t h a t a s m a l l a r e a a r o u n d t h e p e r i m e t e r o f t h e p i t w i l l be d i s t u r b e d a s has happened a t L o r n e x . I t i s a l s o assumed t h a t s m a l l a r e a s between waste dumps, a r o u n d p l a n t s i t e s e t c . w i l l be d i s t u r b e d . The f i n a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n , s i z e and e l e v a t i o n o f t h e v a l l e y b o t t o m t a i l i n g s d i s p o s a l a r e a shown i n P l a n 1 i s an e s t i m a t e b a s e d on V a l l e y C o p p e r ' s p r e d i c t i o n t h a t t h e f i n a l t a i l i n g s s u r f a c e w i l l be 1820 ha and t h a t t h e J J dam w i l l be 1292m ( 4 2 0 0 f t . ) h i g h . I t i s assumed t h a t t a i l i n g s d i s p o s a l w i l l n o t n e c e s s i t a t e r e l o c a t i o n o f t h a t p o r t i o n o f t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y r o a d t h a t was r e l o c a t e d a few y e a r s ago. A l t h o u g h t h e shape of t h e t a i l i n g s a r e a p r e d i c t e d i n P l a n 1 i s somewhat c o n j e c t u r a l , t h e s u r f a c e a r e a i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y I820ha and any i n a c c u r a c i e s i n p r e d i c t i n g t h e shape w i l l n o t g r e a t l y a f f e c t t h e e l e v a t i o n o f t h e t a i l i n g s . 6.3. L a n d - u s e O p t i o n s When m i n i n g c e a s e s , t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y c o u l d be u s e d f o r a number o f p u r p o s e s , d e p e n d i n g upon p o l i t i c a l , e c onomic and 77 s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an i n d u s t r i a l p a r k has been p r o p o s e d ( M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s and H o u s i n g , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) . However, c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a l l p o s s i b l e l a n d - u s e o p t i o n s i s beyond t h e s c o p e o f t h i s s t u d y . C o n s i d e r i n g o n l y p r e - m i n i n g and c u r r e n t l a n d - u s e s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y and t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a , t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e p o s s i b l e o b j e c t i v e s f o r r e c l a i m e d l a n d i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y . 6.3.1 Range The p r o v i n c i a l s u p p l y o f r a n g e l a n d i s d e p l e t e d by f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g l a n d a l i e n a t i o n f o r c o m p e t i n g u s e s . T h e r e i s a c o n t i n o u s d e c r e a s e i n a r e a s u s e d f o r r a n g e i n t h e s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r . I n t h i s r e g i o n , t h e p a r k - l i k e open t i m b e r zone ( e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e open f o r e s t / g r a s s l a n d c o m m u n i t y - t y p e ) i s t h e most p r o d u c t i v e but t h e l o w e r e l e v a t i o n open g r a s s l a n d s ( v a l l e y b o t t o m meadows) a r e t h e most v a l u a b l e b e c a u s e t h e y a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r g r a z i n g e a r l i e r i n s p r i n g and l a t e r i n f a l l . Meadow o p e n i n g s on o r g a n i c w e t l a n d s o i l s ( a s p e n meadows) a r e h i g h l y p r o d u c t i v e and, i f a c c e s s i b l e , v a l u a b l e b e c a u s e a n i m a l s a r e more e a s i l y c o n t r o l l e d . Bunch g r a s s e s , w h i c h a r e d o m i n a n t on most good-c o n d i t i o n g r a s s l a n d s , s u p p l y good q u a l i t y f e e d l a t e i n t h e s e a s o n but ' s o f t ' g r a s s e s , s u c h a s p i n e g r a s s , a r e o f r e l a t i v e l y low v a l u e i n a l l s e a s o n s e x c e p t e a r l y and mid-summer. In t h e A s h c r o f t - L i l l o e t s u b r e g i o n o f t h e Thompson r e g i o n , t h e open r a n g e i s i n p o o r - f a i r c o n d i t i o n and o v e r s t o c k e d ; t h e open f o r e s t i s i n f a i r c o n d i t i o n . M i n i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e H i g h l a n d v a l l e y have removed some m i n o r p r o d u c t i v e v a l l e y s . Temporary i n c r e a s e s i n t h e s u p p l y o f r a n g e l a n d a r e a v a i l a b l e on l o g g e d a r e a s b e f o r e 78 r e g e n e r a t i o n g r o w t h becomes t o o dense ( S e l e c t S t a n d i n g Committee on A g r i c u l t u r e , 1979). G r a s s l a n d r a n g e s a r e o f t e n o f c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e t o a r a n c h i n g o p e r a t i o n i n B.C. b e c a u s e t h e i r u se i n t h e l a t e f a l l and e a r l y s p r i n g s h o r t e n s t h e e x p e n s i v e w i n t e r f e e d i n g p e r i o d . R a n g e l a n d s i n B.C. a r e , i n g e n e r a l , p r o d u c i n g much l e s s t h a n maximum (van Ryswyk e t a l . , 1966). In t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y , r e m a i n i n g open f o r e s t / g r a s s l a n d and v a l l e y b o t t o m meadow c o m m u n i t i e s a r e c u r r e n t l y u s a b l e f o r r a n g e , O n l y a few a r e a s o f t h e a s p e n meadow c o m m u n i t y - t y p e a r e u s a b l e b e c a u s e a c c e s s t o t h e meadows i s l i m i t e d . Sedge marshes c a n be g r a z e d by c a t t l e i n w i n t e r . New r a n g e l a n d s c o u l d be c r e a t e d on r e c l a i m e d l a n d by e s t a b l i s h i n g f o r a g e p l a n t s i n a r e a s where c a t t l e a c c e s s i s p o s s i b l e . A t h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s , a d d i t i o n s t o t h e f o r a g e s u p p l y may be o f l i t t l e v a l u e b e c a u s e t h e l i m i t i n g f e e d s o u r c e i s g e n e r a l l y i n s p r i n g , f a l l o r w i n t e r . S l o p e s o f 26° o r more would be l i t t l e u s e d by c a t t l e u n l e s s f o r a g e were i n v e r y s h o r t s u p p l y ( P i t t , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) . N a t u r a l b a r r i e r s , s u c h a s s t e e p h i l l s i d e s , c a n s i m p l i f y s t o c k c o n t r o l b u t may c a u s e a c c e s s and management p r o b l e m s ( S e l e c t S t a n d i n g Committe on A g r i c u l t u r e , 1 979). 6.3.2 A g r i c u l t u r e B e c a u s e o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r a n c h i n g i n t h e A s h c r o f t -N i c o l a a r e a , c u l t i v a t i o n o f f o r a g e c r o p s i s t h e p r i n c i p a l a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y i n t h e low e l e v a t i o n v a l l e y b o t t o m s . F o r r a n c h e s u s i n g t h e u p l a n d p l a t e a u x f o r summer g r a z i n g , t h e w i n t e r 79 f e e d i n g p e r i o d may be as l o n g as 4-5 months (B. C. L a n d s S e r v i c e , 1971). S h o r t a g e o f w i n t e r f e e d adds t o t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s on r a n g e use imposed by poor s p r i n g / f a l l r a n g e s b u t w a t e r s u p p l y p r o b l e m s r e s t r i c t t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f f o r a g e c r o p s ( S e l e c t S t a n d n g Committee on A g r i c u l t u r e , 1979) To d a t e , e x i s t i n g n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s o f t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y have n o t been u s e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . Removal o f t h e n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n , s e e d i n g and i r r i g a t i n g o f f o r a g e c r o p s w o u l d r e q u i r e huge c a p i t a l o u t l a y . In 1970, t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f l a n d i n t h e v a l l e y b o t t o m (now m o s t l y c o v e r e d by t a i l i n g s ) was c l a s s 6, ( " c a p a b l e o f p r o d u c i n g o n l y p e r e n n i a l f o r a g e c r o p s and improvement p r a c t i c e s a r e n o t f e a s i b l e " ) ( E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, 1976). However, t h e c l i m a t e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e a t t h e west end o f t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y i s c l a s s 3 , w i t h d r o u g h t o r a r i d i t y between May 1 s t a n d September 3 0 t h b e i n g t h e m a j o r l i m i t a t i o n t o g r o w t h . I f i r r i g a t e d i t w o u l d be c l a s s 2, t h e l i m i t a t i o n b e i n g minimum t e m p e r a t u r e s n e a r f r e e z i n g a d v e r s e l y e f f e c t i n g p l a n t g r o w t h d u r i n g t h e g r o w i n g s e a s o n . A t t h e e a s t end o f t h e v a l l e y t h e c l i m a t e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e i s c l a s s 3, w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t a c c u m u l a t i o n o f h e a t u n i t s above 5°C d u r i n g t h e g r o w i n g s e a s o n b e i n g t h e l i m i t a t i o n t o g r o w t h ( E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, 1966). I f t h e r e were s u f f i c i e n t demand ( f o r i n s t a n c e g e n e r a t e d by e x p a n s i o n o f t h e l o c a l r a n c h i n g i n d u s t r y ) , d r y l a n d o r i r r i g a t e d f o r a g e c r o p s c o u l d be grown on f l a t o r g e n t l y s l o p i n g r e c l a i m e d a r e a s a t low e l e v a t i o n s . I r r i g a t i o n m i g h t be f e a s i b l e f o r a r e a s c l o s e t o s o u r c e s o f w a t e r , where s o i l s and s u r r o u n d i n g t o p o g r a p h y w o u l d m a x i m i s e w a t e r r e t e n t i o n . 80 6.3.3 F o r e s t r y I t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t 5% o f t h e t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l Crown f o r e s t l a n d base w i l l be a l i e n a t e d o v e r t h e n e x t 20 y e a r s . F o r e s t d e v e l o p m e n t i s b e i n g f o r c e d i n t o m a r g i n a l a r e a s t o o f f s e t l o s s e s c a u s e d by a l i e n a t i o n o f g o o d - s i t e f o r e s t l a n d . A c c e s s t o t h e s e m a r g i n a l a r e a s c a n be c o s t l y . A f a l l d o w n i n t i m b e r s u p p l y by t h e Kamloops F o r e s t R e g i o n i s f o r e c a s t f o r 20-60 y e a r s f r o m now even i f t r e n d s t o w a r d u s i n g s m a l l e r t r e e s and l e s s d e s i r a b l e s p e c i e s c o n t i n u e (B.C. M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s , 1980). E x i s t i n g f o r e s t s i t e s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y a r e c l a s s e d a s " p o o r " o r "medium" (B.C F o r e s t S e r v i c e , 1970). The a r e a i s c l a s s e d by t h e Canada L a n d I n v e n t o r y a s " h a v i n g v e r y s e v e r e o r s e v e r e l i m i t a t i o n s f o r f o r e s t r y " . L i m i t a t i o n s a r e c h i e f l y l a c k o f m o i s t u r e ( E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, 1970b). However, r e c o r d s o f p r e - m i n i n g l o g g i n g a c t i v i t y s u g g e s t t h a t t h e a r e a has g r e a t e r f o r e s t r y p o t e n t i a l t h a n t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s u g g e s t s ( B . C . F o r e s t S e r v i c e , A s h c r o f t F i e l d O f f i c e , u n d a t e d ) . S p r u c e / l o d g e p o l e p i n e , D o u g l a s - f i r and l o d g e p o l e p i n e c o m m u n i t i e s c o u l d a l l be u s e d f o r t i m b e r p r o d u c t i o n t o o f f s e t p r e d i c t e d f a l l d o w n s . M a t u r e s t a n d s , once l o g g e d , c o u l d be r e p l a c e d by more p r o d u c t i v e immature s t a n d s . Dense, s t a g n a n t l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d s may be made m e r c h a n t a b l e by s i l v i c u l t u r a l t r e a t m e n t and c h a n g e s i n u t i l i z a t i o n s t a n d a r d s . Roads c o n s t r u c t e d f o r m i n i n g w i l l r e d u c e t h e c o s t o f a c c e s s f o r h a r v e s t i n g and s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n ( M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s , 1980) I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t what t h e e v e n t u a l e c o n o m i c b e n e f i t s o f p l a n t i n g t r e e s on d i s t u r b e d a r e a s i n t h e H i g h l a n d 81 V a l l e y w i l l be. B u t , f a c e d w i t h a d e c r e a s i n g f o r e s t l a n d b a s e and t r e n d s t o w a r d s use o f l e s s p r o d u c t i v e f o r e s t l a n d , t h e need t o e s t a b l i s h c o m m e r c i a l s p e c i e s on t h o s e d i s t u r b e d a r e a s w h i c h show t h e g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r t i m b e r p r o d u c t i o n and t h e l e a s t p o t e n t i a l f o r any o t h e r l a n d - u s e i s g r o w i n g . The i n t a n g i b l e a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s r e s u l t i n g f r o m a f f o r e s t a t i o n o f l a r g e t r a c t s o f d i s t u r b e d l a n d w i l l a d d t o t h e e v e n t u a l v a l u e o f t i m b e r p r o d u c e d . Some o f t h e m i n i n g c o m p a n i e s have e x p r e s s e d i n t e n t i o n s t o r e t u r n t h e l a n d t o a s t a t e s i m i l a r t o t h a t w h i c h e x i s t e d p r i o r t o m i n i n g ( s e e s e c t i o n 6.4). Where no b e t t e r l a n d - u s e c a n r e a l i s t i c a l l y be a c h i e v e d , a r e t u r n t o t h e " n a t u r a l l a n d - u s e " ( i n t h i s c a s e l a r g e l y f o r e s t r y ) i s a d e s i r a b l e r e c l a m a t i o n o b j e c t i v e . 6.3.4 W i l d l i f e The v a l u e o f w i l d l i f e i s becoming an i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n making d e c i s i o n s f o r Crown r a n g e s . B e n e f i t s f r o m w i l d l i f e i n c l u d e h u n t i n g and r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e s , a e s t h e t i c b e n e f i t s a n d " e x i s t e n c e v a l u e s " ( S e l e c t S t a n d i n g Committee on A g r i c u l t u r e , 1979). Deer h a b i t a t i n B.C. has d e c l i n e d i n q u a n t i t y a s a r e s u l t o f l a n d - u s e p r a c t i c e s ( i n c l u d i n g m i n i n g ) and i n q u a l i t y b e c a u s e o f p l a n t m a t u r a t i o n and i m p r o v e d f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l . D e e r - h u n t i n g i s a t r a d i t i o n a l s p o r t i n B.C. and t h e r e i s a l s o p u b l i c demand f o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o v i e w d e e r i n t h e i r n a t u r a l h a b i t a t (B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e , 1980). In w i n t e r , moose f e e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y on browse (Van Drimmelen, 1979). L o s s o f t r e e a n d s h r u b c o v e r i s t h e r e f o r e c r i t i c a l . A l l e x i s t i n g n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e H i g h l a n d 82 V a l l e y have some v a l u e f o r w i l d l i f e , b e c a u s e t h e y p r o v i d e f o o d a n d / o r h a b i t a t . C o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h have t h e g r e a t e s t v a l u e , and l i t t l e v a l u e f o r o t h e r l a n d - u s e s , a r e w i l l o w c o m m u n i t i e s (moose browse) a n d w i l l o w / b i r c h c o m m u n i t i e s ( e l k , d e e r and moose browse, e l k g r a z i n g ) . Sedge marsh c o m m u n i t i e s may p r o v i d e w i l d f o w l n e s t i n g g r o u n d s and f e e d f o r moose i f n o t u s e d by c a t t l e . As t h e volume o f t r a f f i c on t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y r o a d w i l l be g r e a t e r when m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s c e a s e t h a n i t was i n t h e p r e - m i n i n g p e r i o d , use o f t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s may be l i m i t e d o r may c r e a t e t r a f f i c h a z a r d s . A l s o , n a t u r a l s u c c e s s i o n on t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s may r e d u c e t h e i r v a l u e f o r w i l d l i f e . I n t h e r e m a i n i n g v a l l e y b o t t o m meadow c o m m u n i t i e s and open f o r e s t / g r a s s l a n d c o m m u n i t i e s , c o m p e t i t i o n between w i l d and d o m e s t i c u n g u l a t e s may d e v e l o p ( S e l e c t S t a n d i n g Committee on A g r i c u l t u r e , 1979). S i n c e v e g e t a t i o n p r o d u c e d i n t h e f i r s t 20 y e a r s of s e r a i s u c c e s s i o n p r o v i d e s f o o d most v a l u a b l e f o r w i l d u n g u l a t e s (Van Drimmelen, 1979), r e c l a i m e d d i s t u r b e d a r e a s have o b v i o u s p o t e n t i a l f o r w i l d l i f e u s e . P r o x i m i t y t o c o v e r i s i m p o r t a n t , e s p e c i a l l y f o r mule d e e r and e l k . D i s t u r b e d a r e a s have l i t t l e o b v i o u s p o t e n t i a l f o r w i l d f o w l h a b i t a t . O l s o n (1981) has r e v i e w e d t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e t h e w e t l a n d p l a n t community c o m p o s i t i o n and r e s u l t i n g w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t q u a l i t y o f N o r t h e r n G r e a t P l a i n s t r i p - m i n e p o n d s . He c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e e c o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e and o n l y l i m i t e d f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t i n t h e s e e c o s y s t e m s . C r e a t i o n o f w e t l a n d p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s and w i l d f o w l h a b i t a t i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y would r e q u i r e e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h , and 83 p r o b a b l y t h e i m p o r t a t i o n of o r g a n i c s o i l s and v e g e t a t i o n . Such an a p p r o a c h i s n o t p r a c t i c a l f o r t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y ; p r o t e c t i o n o f e x i s t i n g ponds and w e t l a n d s f r o m u n n e c e s s a r y o r a c c i d e n t a l d e s t r u c t i o n i s a more r e a l i s t i c and c o s t - e f f e c t i v e a p p r o a c h . 6.3.5 R e c r e a t i o n The Canada L a n d I n v e n t o r y d e s c r i b e s t h e a r e a as " l a c k i n g t h e n a t u r a l q u a l i t y and s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s t o r a t e a h i g h e r c a p a b i l i t y f o r r e c r e a t i o n but h a v i n g t h e n a t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y t o e n g e n d e r and s u s t a i n low a n n u a l use b a s e d on d i s p e r s e d a c t i v i t i e s " ( E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, 1 9 7 0 c ) . In t h e f u t u r e , however, t h e c h a n g e s i n l a n d s c a p e and e a s e o f a c c e s s may s i g n i f i c a n t l y change t h e r a t i n g o f t h i s a r e a f o r r e c r e a t i o n . A more r e a l i s t i c a s s e s s m e n t p e r h a p s i s t h a t o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s w h i c h d e s c r i b e s t h e Kamloops R e g i o n a s a whole as " h a v i n g t h e g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l o f any R e g i o n f o r p r o v i d i n g a f u l l complement o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s " . H o r s e b a c k r i d i n g , t r a i l b i k e r i d i n g , c a m p i n g , f i s h i n g and h u n t i n g a r e some o f t h e p o t e n t i a l f a c i l i t i e s . I t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h i s r e g i o n w i l l be t h e f i r s t t o see t h e demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n a p p r o x i m a t e t h e p h y s i c a l s u p p l y . Management of l a n d s c a p e v a l u e s i s e x p e c t e d t o r e q u i r e p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n (B.C. M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s , 1980). E x i s t i n g n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s t h a t have p o t e n t i a l f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use a r e t h e v a l l e y b o t t o m meadow c o m m u n i t i e s a d j a c e n t t o l a k e s w h i c h a r e s u i t a b l e f o r c a m p i n g . The p o t e n t i a l o f t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y a r e a f o r h u n t i n g w i l l i n c r e a s e , when m i n i n g c e a s e s , a s a r e s u l t o f i m p r o v e d a c c e s s . The open and v a r i e d c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e v a l l e y b o t t o m would be s u i t a b l e f o r 84 h o r s e b a c k - r i d i n g i f f a c i l i t i e s were d e v e l o p e d . The g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r d e v e l o p i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s on d i s t u r b e d a r e a s l i e s i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f a r t i f i c i a l ponds and l a k e s and camping f a c i l i t i e s a d j a c e n t t o t h e s e . The p r a c t i c e o f f l o o d i n g d i s t u r b e d l a n d c r e a t e d by s u r f a c e m i n i n g and u s i n g t h e l a k e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n i s common i n t h e U.S. ( S c h u l t z , 1971; U.S D e p t . o f t h e I n t e r i o r / B u r e a u o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n , 1974; I l l i n o i s D e p t . o f C o n s e r v a t i o n , 1977; Shaw, 1980). However, t h e r e a r e no c a s e s , known t o t h e a u t h o r , o f o p e n - p i t mines b e i n g u s e d f o r r e c r e a t i o n . A c c e s s f o r h u n t i n g p u r p o s e s s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d . C u r r e n t i n t e r e s t i n t h e m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s c o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d by p r e s e r v i n g s e l e c t e d a r e a s o f m i n e d - o u t l a n d , c o n s t r u c t i n g l o o k - o u t p o i n t s , e x h i b i t i n g r e l i c s o f t h e m i n i n g i n d u s t r y and p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on p a s t , p r e s e n t and f u t u r e l a n d - u s e s o f t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y . 6.4. Summary o f p o s t - m i n i n g l a n d - u s e o b j e c t i v e s p r o p o s e d by  m i n i n g c o m p a n i e s 6.4.1 B e t h l e h e m Copper C o r p o r a t i o n B e t h l e h e m aims t o p r o v i d e a f o o d s o u r c e f o r d o m e s t i c o r w i l d u n g u l a t e s by d e v e l o p i n g "a s e l f - p r o p a g a t i n g s t r a i n o f g r a s s e s " . Some d e c i d u o u s t r e e s o r s h r u b s w i l l be p l a n t e d t o s p e e d up n a t u r a l i n v a s i o n o f d i s t u r b e d a r e a s by l o d g e p o l e p i n e and o t h e r c o n i f e r s . Bose L a k e w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be r e s t o c k e d ( B e t h l e h e m Copper C o r p o r a t i o n , 1979, 1981). 85 6.4.2 L o r n e x M i n i n g C o r p o r a t i o n L a n d - u s e o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e abandoned L o r n e x p r o p e r t y , 20-30 y e a r s i n t h e f u t u r e , w i l l be d e v e l o p e d a s r e c l a m a t i o n r e s e a r c h c o n t i n u e s . The r e c l a i m e d l a n d must be p r a c t i c a l l y a nd v i s u a l l y c o m p l e m e n t a r y w i t h t h e s u r r o u n d i n g t e r r a i n . U l t i m a t e use w i l l depend upon f i n a l t o p o g r a p h y , s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l s and v e g e t a t i o n . P o s s i b l e u s e s a r e w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t , g r a z i n g l a n d and low y i e l d f o r e s t r y . The o p e n - p i t w i l l be f l o o d e d t o c r e a t e a l a k e . The v a l l e y b o t t o m t a i l i n g s a r e a w i l l be r e c l a i m e d f o r a use t o be a g r e e d upon w i t h t h e M i n i s t r y ( B u r g e , 1971; L o r n e x M i n i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1979 and 1981). 6.4.3 Highmont O p e r a t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n Highmont aims t o r e t u r n t h e a r e a t o a c l o s e a p p r o x i m a t i o n of i t s p r e - m i n i n g u s e , t h a t i s , a wooded a r e a , b u t w i t h i m p r o v e d a c c e s s f o r p o s s i b l e r e c r e a t i o n u t i l i z a t i o n . No l o n g - t e r m o b j e c t i v e s a r e g i v e n f o r t h e a r e a s where t h i s w i l l n o t be p o s s i b l e , e . g . t h e o p e n - p i t , waste dumps and t a i l i n g s d i s p o s a l a r e a . I n t h e n e a r - t e r m t h e o b j e c t i v e s a r e t o r e c l a i m a s much o f t h e d i s t u r b e d a r e a as p o s s i b l e by r e - p l a n t i n g w i t h a s u i t a b l e s e e d m i x t u r e , o r t r a n s p l a n t i n g n a t i v e - t y p e t r e e s o n t o t h e l a r g e d i s t u r b e d a r e a s (Highmont O p e r a t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1980, 1981). 6.4.4 V a l l e y C o p p e r M i n e s The r e c l a m a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s f o r d i s t u r b e d a r e a s a t t h e V a l l e y Copper mine i n c l u d e e s t a b l i s h i n g s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h w i l l s u p p o r t a t y p e and l e v e l o f use s i m i l a r 86 t o t h a t w h i c h e x i s t e d p r i o r t o m i n i n g . P l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h p r o v i d e f o r a g e f o r w i l d l i f e and m e r c h a n t a b l e t i m b e r w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d . The f e a s i b i l i t y o f f l o o d i n g t h e p i t t o c r e a t e a l a k e w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d . Water l e v e l s a r e e x p e c t e d t o r e t u r n t o t h e f o r m e r e l e v a t i o n o f Q u i l t a n t o n L a k e ( V a l l e y Copper M i n e s , 1980). 6.5. R e c l a m a t i o n r e s e a r c h , o b j e c t i v e s and t e c h n i q u e s f o r e a c h  r e c l a m a t i o n s i t e - t y p e T h i s s e c t i o n t r e a t s e a c h r e c l a m a t i o n s i t e - t y p e i n d i v i d u a l l y a n d d i s c u s s e s : -a) p r e v i o u s and c u r r e n t r e c l a m a t i o n r e s e a r c h u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y i n a r e a s o f t h e s i t e - t y p e under c o n s i d e r a t i o n ; b) p r e v i o u s r e c l a m a t i o n r e s e a r c h , n o t u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y but r e l e v a n t t o t h e s i t e - t y p e under c o n s i d e r a t i o n ; c) s u i t a b l e r e c l a m a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s and r e c l a m a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s f o r t h e s i t e - t y p e u nder c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 6.5.1 F l a t , e x p o s e d t a i l i n g s a) S i n g l e s p e c i e s t e s t - p l o t s were e s t a b l i s h e d on low e l e v a t i o n t a i l i n g s by L o r n e x i n 1978. G r a s s - l e g u m e m i x e s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1979. No r e s u l t s o r c o n c l u s i o n s have been p r e s e n t e d y e t . A 1ha p l o t was e s t a b l i s h e d on low e l e v a t i o n t a i l i n g s i n J u l y 1981. Windrows and f u r r o w s were c r e a t e d on t h e p l o t t o i m prove t h e m i c r o c l i m a t e , . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s p l o t was 87 f l o o d e d by an a c c i d e n t a l d i s c h a r g e o f t a i l i n g s b u t i n i t i a l g r o w t h a p p e a r e d t o be good ( L o r n e x M i n i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1981). The p l o t i s t o be r e - e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1982. I r r i g a t i o n and w i n d b r e a k s ( c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h snow f e n c i n g ) were u s e d by B e t h l e h e m t o h e l p e s t a b l i s h v e g e t a t i o n on t a i l i n g s . P l a n t s grew w e l l f o r two s e a s o n s b u t a r e now b u r i e d by t a i l i n g s ( B e t h l e h e m Copper C o r p o r a t i o n , 1979). C h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t a i l i n g s from a number o f m i n e s i n c l u d i n g L o r n e x and B e t h l e h e m has been u n d e r t a k e n by D e p t . o f S o i l S c i e n c e ( 1 9 7 6 - 7 7 ) . A v a i l a b l e n u t r i e n t s i n L o r n e x and B e t h l e h e m t a i l i n g s were v a r i a b l e . I t was n o t e d t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n between p l a n t r e s p o n s e and r e s u l t s o f s o i l t e s t s on t a i l i n g s i s o f t e n p o o r . A v a i l a b l e p h o s p h o r u s (P) was low, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e B e t h l e h e m t a i l i n g s ; i t was s l i g h t l y h i g h e r i n some o f t h e L o r n e x t a i l i n g s s a m p l e d but t a i l i n g s f r o m b o t h mines gave p o o r p l a n t r e s p o n s e u n l e s s f e r t i l i z e r p o t a s s i u m (K) was a d d e d . Magnesium (Mg) d i d n o t a p p e a r t o be a s e v e r e l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n t h e L o r n e x o r B e t h l e h e m t a i l i n g s b u t n i t r o g e n (N) was c o n s i s t e n t l y v e r y low. O r g a n i c m a t t e r i s t h o u g h t t o be t h e s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t amendment f o r t a i l i n g s f r o m a number o f mines i n c l u d i n g L o r n e x and B e t h l e h e m b e c a u s e o f i t s e f f e c t on c h e m i c a l and p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t a i l i n g s ( D e p t . o f S o i l S c i e n c e ( 1 9 7 6 - 7 7 ) . Copper:molybdenum r a t i o s i n p l a n t s o f l e s s t h a n 2.0 have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h symptoms o f molybdenum-induced c o p p e r d e f i c i e n c y ; t h i s f i n d i n g i s s u p p o r t e d by some, but n o t a l l , o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( M i l t m o r e and Mason, 1971). No immediate p r o b l e m was i d e n t i f i e d i n a s i t u a t i o n where r u m i n a n t s were e x p e c t e d t o browse o n l y f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d on v e g e t a t i o n grown on t a i l i n g s 88 b u t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e u l t i m a t e p o t e n t i a l o f t a i l i n g s f o r f o r a g e p r o d u c t i o n was recommended ( D e p t . o f S o i l S c i e n c e , 1976-7 7 ) . b) A l f a l f a has been s u c c e s s f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d on t a i l i n g s a t t h e P r i n c e t o n mine ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 120km s o u t h e a s t o f t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y ) u s i n g f a l l r y e as a c o v e r c r o p and sewage w a t e r f o r i r r i g a t i o n (Lane and M cDonald, 1.979). A t t h e C r a i g m o n t mine ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25km s o u t h e a s t o f t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y ) r e s e a r c h on t a i l i n g s has shown t h a t a g r a s s - l e g u m e c o v e r c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d u n d e r d r y l a n d c o n d i t i o n s b u t a s t r o n g e r g r o w t h was e s t a b l i s h e d u s i n g i r r i g a t i o n . On a n o t h e r t e s t p l o t a t C r a i g m o n t , a g r a s s - l e g u m e c o v e r has been e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r an i n t e n s i v e s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n programme w h i c h i n c l u d e d f e r t i l i z i n g , i r r i g a t i n g , g r e e n m a n u r i n g and c o m p a c t i n g . B o t h r e c l a i m w a t e r and c o o l i n g w a t e r from t h e c o m p r e s s o r s have been u s e d . The a d d i t i o n o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r , i n t h e form of p o u l t r y manure, cow manure and sewage s l u d g e , t o t a i l i n g s f r o m t h e S u l l i v a n mine g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d y i e l d s of o r c h a r d g r a s s ( D a c t y l i s g l o m e r a t a ) i n a g r e e n h o u s e s t u d y ( D e p t . o f S o i l S c i e n c e , 1976-77 ). c) A r e a s o f low e l e v a t i o n t a i l i n g s c o u l d be u s e d f o r r a n g e . The i n t e n s i t y o f use w i l l depend on t h e demand f o r r a n g e l a n d by l o c a l r a n c h e r s ; t h e Highmont t a i l i n g s pond may be t o o i n a c c e s s i b l e t o be u s e f u l . The i n t e n s i t y o f g r a z i n g t h a t w i l l be s u i t a b l e w i l l d epend on r e s u l t s o f r e s e a r c h i n t o p o s s i b l e t o x i c i t y p r o b l e m s . I f t o x i c i t y i s p r o v e n n o t t o be a p r o b l e m , a r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e c o u l d be u s e d f o r f a l l and s p r i n g 89 g r a z i n g o f c a t t l e a n d / o r hay p r o d u c t i o n under i r r i g a t i o n . R e c l a m a t i o n f o r r a n g e would r e q u i r e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f g r a s s -legume c o v e r . Use o f a c o v e r c r o p o r a g r e e n manure would i n c r e a s e w a t e r r e t e n t i o n and n a t u r a l s o i l f e r t i l i t y ; i t m i g h t a l s o r e d u c e wind e r o s i o n and h e l p m a i n t a i n t h e windrows and f u r r o w s c r e a t e d by s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n . A d d i t i o n o f o r g a n i c amendments, i f a v a i l a b l e , would a l s o be b e n e f i c i a l . G r a s s e s w o u l d p r o v i d e e a r l y c o v e r f o r legumes w h i c h a r e s l o w e r t o e s t a b l i s h . P l o u g h i n g w o u l d i m p r o v e a e r a t i o n and d r a i n a g e by d e s t r o y i n g l a y e r s ; s e e d s h o u l d be p a c k e d t o i m p r o v e c o n t a c t and f e r t i l i z e r s h o u l d be a p p l i e d . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e f e r t i l i z e r r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t a i l i n g s u s e d f o r r a n g e (and hay) i s r e q u i r e d . Hay p r o d u c t i o n on r e c l a i m e d low e l e v a t i o n t a i l i n g s w ould r e q u i r e i r r i g a t i o n . The a v a i l a b l e w a t e r s t o r a g e c a p a c i t y o f t a i l i n g s i s c o m p a r a b l e t o t h a t o f i r r i g a t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s ( C a l v e r , 1965 IN: M o r t o n , 1976). The s u r r o u n d i n g t o p o g r a p h y o f t h e v a l l e y b o t t o m t a i l i n g s d i s p o s a l a r e a w o u l d h e l p r e t a i n w a t e r . P o s s i b l e s o u r c e s o f water a r e t h e Thompson ( v i a t h e L o r n e x p i p e l i n e ) and l o c a l c r e e k s . Water f r o m B i g D i v i d e L a k e ( w h i c h w i l l be d r a i n e d when V a l l e y C o p p e r comes i n t o p r o d u c t i o n ) , i f n o t u s e d i n mine p r o c e s s i n g , c o u l d be u s e d f o r a p e r i o d o f t i m e t o e s t a b l i s h g r o u n d c o v e r . However, e n h a n c i n g t h e g r o w t h o f w a t e r - d e m a n d i n g s p e c i e s a t t h e e x p e n s e o f d r o u g h t -r e s i s t a n t o nes s h o u l d be a v o i d e d . I f i r r i g a t i o n c a n n o t be m a i n t a i n e d p e r m a n e n t l y , g r o u n d c o v e r e s t a b l i s h e d under i r r i g a t e d c o n d i t i o n s c o u l d be u s e d a s a g r e e n manure and more d r o u g h t -r e s i s t a n t s p e c i e s s e e d e d s u b s e q u e n t l y . 90 6.5.2 Low e l e v a t i o n , f l a t , s h e l t e r e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k a) R e s u l t s of t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f s i t e s A2 and A6 ( s e e t a b l e 8) and A p p e n d i x V I ) i n d i c a t e t h a t g r a s s o r g r a s s - l e g u m e c o v e r c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d and m a i n t a i n e d on t h e s e s i t e s when f e r t i l i z e r i s a p p l i e d a n n u a l l y . O t h e r r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s ( n o t a s s e s s e d ) have been c a r r i e d o u t by L o r n e x and B e t h l e h e m on a r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e , b u t t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t a s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g c o v e r has been e s t a b l i s h e d . b) G r a s s e s and legumes have been e s t a b l i s h e d on o v e r b u r d e n -c o v e r e d w a s t e - r o c k t e r r a c e s i n many a r e a s o f B.C.. A t C r a i g m o n t mine s u c h an a r e a w i l l be u s e d f o r c a t t l e g r a z i n g i n 1982 ( G a v e l i n , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) . L i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been done on t h e p e r s i s t e n c e o f g r a s s e s and legumes e s t a b l i s h e d on r e c l a i m e d a r e a s . S e l f - s u s t a i n i n g r e c l a m a t i o n p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d . In some r e c l a i m e d a r e a s , c o m m u n i t i e s become "matu r e " . The mature p h a s e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r e c l a m a t i o n community i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a l a r g e r o o t -s o i l - r o o t exchange s y s t e m w h i c h o b v i a t e s t h e need f o r m a i n t e n a n c e f e r t i l i z a t i o n ( Z i e m k i e w i c z , 1 9 7 9 ) . c) A r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e s h o u l d e v e n t u a l l y be u s e d f o r r a n g e . E x i s t i n g r a n g e l a n d i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y i s f o u n d on many d i f f e r e n t s o i l s , some o f w h i c h , t h o u g h r i c h e r i n o r g a n i c m a t t e r , a r e i n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r t o o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k . S e e d i n g o f d e s i r a b l e f o r a g e s p e c i e s and f e r t i l i z a t i o n c o u l d p r o v i d e r a n g e l a n d o f e q u a l , i f n o t g r e a t e r , p r o d u c t i v i t y t h a n e x i s t i n g r a n g e l a n d w h i c h s u p p o r t s o n l y p i n e g r a s s o r i s c o l o n i z e d 91 by weeds. (Use f o r hay p r o d u c t i o n would be r e s t r i c t e d by p r o b l e m s o f s u p p l y i n g i r r i g a t i o n w a ter t o t h e s e a r e a s ) . Legumes s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d b e c a u s e o f t h e i r e f f e c t on n u t r i e n t r e s e r v e s o f t h e m a t e r i a l and b e c a u s e t h e y p r o v i d e n u t r i t i o u s f o r a g e . G r a s s e s may be e s t a b l i s h e d a s w e l l t o p r e v e n t t h e s u p p l y of t o o r i c h a f o r a g e . P o t a s s i u m i s needed f o r legume e s t a b l i s h m e n t but heavy a p p l i c a t i o n s o f n i t r o g e n c a n r e d u c e legume g r o w t h by i n h i b i t i n g n o d u l a t i o n and f a v o u r i n g v i g o r o u s g r o w t h o f c o m p e t i n g g r a s s e s . To e t a b l i s h g r a s s - l e g u m e c o v e r , i n i t i a l f e r t i l i z a t i o n w i t h 13-16-10 a t 400kg/'ha w o u l d be s u i t a b l e . M a i n t e n a n c e f e r t i l i z e r , f o r i n s t a n c e , 10-20-0, s h o u l d be a p p l i e d s u b s e q u e n t l y a t 200kg/ha. A s u i t a b l e s e e d i n g r a t e i s 40kg/ha. Seed s h o u l d be a p p l i e d i n s p r i n g and t h e s u r f a c e h a r r o w e d and p a c k e d i f p o s s i b l e . T h i s programme o f s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n , s e e d i n g and f e r t i l i z i n g i s s i u t a b l e f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f g r a s s - l e g u m e c o v e r on o t h e r o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k s i t e - t y p e s where r e q u i r e d . 6.5.3 H i g h e l e v a t i o n , f l a t , s h e l t e r e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k a) Of t h e r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s t h a t were a s s e s s e d , none were above 1500m e x c e p t f o r t h e c o n i f e r t r i a l s . E l e v a t i o n s o f o t h e r t e s t p l o t s on t h e L o r n e x p r o p e r t y a r e n o t known. T h e r e i s no c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t methods f o r t h e r e c l a m a t i o n o f h i g h e l e v a t i o n s i t e - t y p e s have been o r a r e b e i n g d e v e l o p e d . The c h o i c e o f s p e c i e s f o r use a t h i g h e l e v a t i o n s may be i m p o r t a n t . R e s u l t s o f a n o t h e r c o n i f e r p l a n t i n g t r i a l h ave been r e p o r t e d . The p e r c e n t s u r v i v a l o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e p l a n t e d on a r e v e g e t a t e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k s i t e a v e r a g e d 94% a f t e r 11 g r o w i n g 92 s e a s o n s . H e i g h t r a n g e d f r o m 15 t o 105cm and a v e r a g e d 48cm. The c o n i f e r s were a p p a r e n t l y n i t r o g e n d e f i c i e n t ( L o r n e x M i n i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1981). B e t h l e h e m have n o t e d t h a t l o d g e p o l e p i n e i s s u f f i c i e n t l y h a r d y t o grow on waste dumps i n t h e H i g h l a n d v a l l e y , b ut no t r i a l s a t e l e v a t i o n s of g r e a t e r t h a n 1500m a r e r e p o r t e d . b) T h e r e a r e many r e p o r t s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f r e s e a r c h i n t o r e c l a m a t i o n o f w a s t e - r o c k a r e a s a t h i g h e l e v a t i o n s . Some s p e c i e s o f c o m m e r c i a l l y - a v a i l a b l e g r a s s e s a n d legumes w h i c h a r e known t o e s t a b l i s h and p e r s i s t i n t h e e l e v a t i o n r a n g e 1500-I850m i n d r y c o n d i t i o n s a r e g i v e n i n t a b l e 10. R e s e a r c h i n t o t r e e e s t a b l i s h m e n t has been l e s s e x t e n s i v e a n d a p p a r e n t l y l e s s s u c c e s s f u l ( D i c k , 1972). Many s t u d i e s have shown t h a t s e e d l i n g s o r i g i n a t i n g f r o m l o c a l s t o c k e s t a b l i s h b e t t e r t h a n n u r s e r y s t o c k f r o m a d i f f e r e n t p r o v e n a n c e . Engelmann s p r u c e and l o d g e p o l e p i n e were s u c c e s s f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d on c o a l mine s p o i l s a t 1530m and 1076-1530m r e s p e c t i v e l y i n t h e S . E . K o o t e n a y s . L o d g e p o l e p i n e was p a r t i c u l a r l y d e s i r a b l e b e c a u s e i t r e a c t e d w e l l t o b r o w s i n g ( L o w e n b e r g e r , 1967). W h i t e s p r u c e was s u c c e s s f u l i n t r i a l s a t 1500m i n t h e G r e e n Zone o f A l b e r t a ( S e i n e r , 1974). P e r c e n t s u r v i v a l o f D o u g l a s - f i r , Engelmann s p r u c e and l o d g e p o l e p i n e a f t e r 2 s e a s o n s on h i g h e l e v a t i o n w aste r o c k i n t h e S . E . K o o t e n a y s was 99% ( F o r d i n g C o a l L t d . , 1981). R e s e a r c h i n t o t h e u s e o f n a t i v e s h r u b s f o r r e c l a m a t i o n i s c u r r e n t l y v e r y a c t i v e . c ) A r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e c o u l d be r e c l a i m e d f o r w i l d l i f e o r f o r f o r e s t r y . ( P r o d u c t i v i t y would n o t be h i g h enough t o j u s t i f y use o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e f o r range and a c c e s s w o u l d be 93 d i f f i c u l t ) . R e c l a m a t i o n f o r w i l d l i f e u se s h o u l d be t h e o b j e c t i v e f o r s m a l l a r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e w h i c h a r e s u r r o u n d e d by mature f o r e s t c o v e r . W i l d l i f e use o f e x t e n s i v e a r e a s would be r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e p e r i p h e r i e s ; f o r e s t r y i s a more d e s i r a b l e r e c l a m a t i o n o b j e c t i v e f o r t h e s e a r e a s . T r e e s and s h r u b s grow n a t u r a l l y i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y on c o a r s e - t e x t u r e d s o i l s w h i c h c o n t a i n some humus. O v e r b u r d e n / r o c k m a t e r i a l s would d i f f e r f r o m n a t u r a l s o i l s o n l y i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n a s u p p l y o f t h e n u t r i e n t s r e q u i r e d f o r t r e e g r o w t h . By a d d i n g f e r t i l i z e r and e s t a b l i s h i n g g r a s s - l e g u m e c o v e r , s u p p l i e s o f b o t h r e a d i l y - and s l o w l y - a v a i l a b l e n u t r i e n t s would be c r e a t e d . R e s e a r c h i n t o t h e c h o i c e o f g r a s s and legume s p e c i e s f o r h i g h e l e v a t i o n a r e a s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y may be r e q u i r e d . S p e c i e s w h i c h c o u l d be t e s t e d a r e l i s t e d i n t a b l e 10. Ground c o v e r w o u l d a l s o r e d u c e t h e h i g h s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e s i n summer t h a t c o u l d damage t r e e s e e d l i n g s and s h r u b c u t t i n g s o r s e e d l i n g s . C o m p e t i t i o n between g r o u n d c o v e r and t r e e s a n d / o r s h r u b s may be a p r o b l e m . Some c o n t r o l methods w h i c h c o u l d be t e s t e d a r e t h e use o f l o w - g r o w i n g g r a s s e s , r e d u c t i o n i n f e r t i l i z a t i o n and c l e a r i n g o f p l a n t i n g s i t e s . R e c l a m a t i o n f o r f o r e s t r y w o u l d r e q u i r e p l a n t i n g o f s e e d l i n g s o f l o c a l o r i g i n . L o d g e p o l e p i n e and s p r u c e s h o u l d be u s e d . W i t h o u t p l a n t i n g , i n v a s i o n o f e x t e n s i v e a r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e w o u l d be s l o w . H i g h q u a l i t y p l a n t i n g o f 2+3 ( o r o l d e r ) s t o c k w i t h wide s p a c i n g would be more c o s t - e f f e c t i v e t h a n p l a n t i n g many y o u n g e r s e e d l i n g s . L a r g e r s e e d l i n g s w o u l d a l s o compete more e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h g r o u n d c o v e r . S i n c e l o d g e p o l e p i n e 94 c a n b e a r v i a b l e s e e d when o n l y 5-10 y e a r s o l d and i t s s e e d d i s p e r s e s up t o 70m f r o m s o u r c e (U.S. Dep. o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 1965), e x t e n s i v e a r e a s c o u l d become w e l l s t o c k e d w i t h i n a s h o r t t i m e . G r a s s - l e g u m e c o v e r w o u l d p r o v i d e some f o r a g e f o r w i l d l i f e . To c r e a t e good w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t , however, s h r u b s s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d . L o c a l s h r u b s s h o u l d be p r o p a g a t e d ; s u i t a b l e s p e c i e s a r e g i v e n i n t a b l e 11. I t may p r o v e t o be e a s i e r t o e s t a b l i s h In -f i x i n g s h r u b s t h a n legumes i n h i g h e l e v a t i o n a r e a s , i n w h i c h c a s e t h e y s h o u l d a l s o be e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e a r e a s w h i c h a r e t o be r e c l a i m e d f o r f o r e s t r y . 6.5.4 Low e l e v a t i o n , f l a t , e x p o s e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k a) No r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s have been e s t a b l i s h e d on a r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e . b) Methods of c o n t r o l l i n g w i n d e r o s i o n of f i n e s o i l p a r t i c l e s have been r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . C r e a t i o n o f r i d g e s i n t h e s e e d b e d r e d u c e d wind e r o s i o n f r o m g r a s s s e e d b e d s ( M a r l a t t and H y d e r , 1970). C h e m i c a l s o i l b i n d e r s have been u s e d t o h o l d s e e d and s u r f a c e p a r t i c l e s i n p l a c e . They a r e b e s t f o r t e m p o r a r y s t a b i l i z a t i o n and u s u a l l y d i s i n t e g r a t e w i t h i n 6-8 months ( M u r r a y , 1971; C a r r , 1980). M u l c h e s s u c h a s s t r a w , b a r k r e s i d u e s , wood c h i p s , j u t e n e t t i n g s e t c . have been u s e d i n a number of r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s ( S c h i e t l , 1964; Brown e t a l . ,1971; A l d o n and S p r i n g f i e l d , 1973). B o t h b e n e f i c i a l and d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s a r e r e p o r t e d . E x c e s s i v e m u l c h i n g i s d e t r i m e n t a l t o s e e d l i n g g e r m i n a t i o n ( M u r r a y , 1971). T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be l i t t l e p r o m i s e w i t h h y d r o s e e d i n g and m u l c h i n g i n low p r e c i p i t a t i o n 95 a r e a s ( T r e s l e r , 1974). c) S u i t a b l e l a n d - u s e o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h i s s i t e - t y p e a r e t h e same as f o r t h e low e l e v a t i o n , f l a t , s h e l t e r e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k s i t e - t y p e ( s e e s e c t i o n 6.5.2). The r e c l a m a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s h o u l d be m o d i f i e d t o r e d u c e t h e p r o b l e m s c a u s e d by e x p o s u r e . A r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e s h o u l d be c u l t i v a t e d t o c r e a t e s o i l r i d g e s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e p r e v a i l i n g w i n d . S e e d s h o u l d be p a c k e d a f t e r a p p l i c a t i o n . Where p o s s i b l e , s m a l l b a n k s of r o c k s h o u l d be l e f t on t h e e d g e s o f t e r r a c e s and berms t o p r o v i d e some s h e l t e r . D e c o m p o s i t i o n o f m u l c h e s w o u l d be slow i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y c l i m a t e ; t h e i r u s e s h o u l d be a v o i d e d a s much as p o s s i b l e . 6.5.5 H i g h e l e v a t i o n , f l a t , e x p o s e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k a) No r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s have a p p a r e n t l y been e s t a b l i s h e d on a r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e . b) A f t e r a h i g h m o r t a l i t y ( c a u s e d by wind, s o u t h a s p e c t , d a r k s p o i l a n d l a c k o f p r o t e c t i o n by snow) of s e e d l i n g s p l a n t e d w i t h r e g u l a r s p a c i n g a t 1530m i n t h e S.E. K o o t e n a y s was o b s e r v e d , s e e d l i n g s were p l a n t e d i n s h e l t e r e d m i c r o s i t e s w i t h i r r e g u l a r s p a c i n g . A g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f s e e d l i n g s p l a n t e d s u r v i v e d , b u t t h e t o t a l n u m b e r / u n i t a r e a was t h e same b e c a u s e t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f m i c r o s i t e s was l i m i t e d ( D i c k , 1972). c) L a n d - u s e o b j e c t i v e s ( w i l d l i f e and f o r e s t r y ) and r e c l a m a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a r e t h e same a s t h o s e p r o p o s e d f o r t h e h i g h e l e v a t i o n f l a t , s h e l t e r e d , o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k s i t e - t y p e ( s e c t i o n 6.5.3) but e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t r e e s and s h r u b s w o u l d 96 r e q u i r e s h e l t e r e d p l a n t i n g s i t e s . I f s m a l l d e p r e s s i o n s a r e n o t a l r e a d y p r e s e n t i n t h e o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k m a t e r i a l s , t h e y s h o u l d be c r e a t e d m e c h a n i c a l l y . The a b i l i t y o f g r o u n d c o v e r t o p r o v i d e s h e l t e r ( a s w e l l as t o improve n u t r i e n t s t a t u s ) f o r t h e t r e e s e e d l i n g s w i t h o u t a d v e r s e c o m p e t i t i v e e f f e c t s s h o u l d be e v a l u a t e d i n t r i a l s . 6.5.6 Low e l e v a t i o n , s l o p i n g , s h e l t e r e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k a) S e v e r a l a r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e have been r e c l a i m e d . R e s u l t s o f t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f s i t e s A7, A8 and A9 i n d i c a t e t h a t methods f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f g r o u n d c o v e r on t h i s s i t e - t y p e have been d e v e l o p e d . B o t h d r y and h y d r a u l i c s e e d i n g methods have been u s e d ( B e t h l e h e m Copper C o r p o r a t i o n , 1 9 8 1 ; L o r n e x M i n i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1 9 7 9 ; 1981). C o v e r i s s t i l l s p a r s e , however, and p e r s i s t e n c e o f s p e c i e s when f e r t i l i z a t i o n i s d i s c o n t i n u e d h as not been t e s t e d . P l a n t i n g of l o d g e p o l e p i n e , s p r u c e and D o u g l a s -f i r on mine waste dumps ( l o c a t i o n n o t s p e c i f i e d ) where no v e g e t a t i o n was p r e s e n t r e s u l t e d i n " p o o r " s u r v i v a l o f s e e d l i n g s . P l a n t i n g o f D o u g l a s - f i r , w h i t e s p r u c e , M a n i t o b a maple and b i r c h s p e c i e s on t h e Bose L a k e S a d d l e dam (an a r e a o f t h e low e l e v a t i o n , s l o p i n g , s h e l t e r e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k s i t e - t y p e ) a f t e r g r o u n d c o v e r had been e s t a b l i s h e d p r o d u c e d " e x c e l l e n t " s u r v i v a l ( B e t h l e h a m Copper C o r p o r a t i o n , 1 9 79). b) Many r e p o r t s d e s c r i b e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f m i c r o s i t e s , where s e e d , f e r t i l i z e r a nd m o i t u r e c a n c o l l e c t , f o r d e v e l o p i n g a d e q u a t e g r o u n d c o v e r ( E t t e r , 1971; B e r g , 1974). c) A r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e w o u l d be o f l i t t l e v a l u e f o r 97 r a n g e , b e c a u s e o f t h e i r s l o p e . I f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s were u s e d by c a t t l e i n s p r i n g and f a l l ( a s p r o p o s e d i n s e c t i o n 6.5.2), use by w i l d l i f e w ould be r e s t r i c t e d t o a r e a s n o t c o v e r e d by snow i n w i n t e r . The r e c l a m a t i o n o b j e c t i v e f o r t h i s s i t e - t y p e s h o u l d be t o p r e v e n t e r o s i o n and t o improve a p p e a r a n c e . G r a s s - l e g u m e c o v e r would p r o v i d e some f o r a g e f o r w i l d l i f e b ut t h e s e a r e a s would be o f g r e a t e r a e s t h e t i c and w i l d l i f e v a l u e i f s h r u b s were e s t a b l i s h e d . S h r u b s a r e a l s o more e f f e c t i v e i n p r e v e n t i n g s l o u g h i n g . The use o f s h r u b s f o r r e c l a m a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 6.5.8. On a r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e g r a s s e s and legumes s h o u l d be e t a b l i s h e d i n i t i a l l y ; i f s h r u b s a r e t o be p l a n t e d s u b s e q u e n t l y and t h e d e n s i t y o f m i c r o s i t e s i s h i g h , s e e d i n g r a t e s s h o u l d be l e s s t h a n t h o s e recommended f o r s i t e - t y p e s where permanent g r a s s - l e g u m e c o v e r i s t o be e s t a b l i s h e d ( s e c t i o n 6 . 5.2). 6.5.7 H i g h e l e v a t i o n , s l o p i n g , s h e l t e r e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k a) A g a i n , no r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s e s t a b l i s h e d above 1500m a r e r e p o r t e d f r o m t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y . b) R e s e a r c h on s p e c i e s s e l e c t i o n o f h i g h e l e v a t i o n a r e a s i s d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 6.5.3. c) The r e c l a m a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s and p o s s i b l e t e c h n i q u e s f o r t h i s s i t e - t y p e a r e t h e same as t h o s e f o r t h e low e l e v a t i o n , s l o p i n g , s h e l t e r e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k s i t e - t y p e , b u t i t may be n e c e s s a r y t o use some o f t h e g r a s s and legume s p e c i e s 98 recommended f o r h i g h e l e v a t i o n a r e a s i n T a b l e 10. 6.5.8 Low e l e v a t i o n , s l o p i n g , e x p o s e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k a) R e s u l t s o f a s s e s s m e n t o f t r i a l s A3 and A4 i l l u s t r a t e t h e p r o b l e m s o f r e c l a i m i n g a r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e . I t i s n o t known i f t h e s p a r s e c o v e r e s t a b l i s h e d so f a r i s a b l e t o p e r s i s t w i t h o u t m a i n t e n a n c e f e r t i l i z a t i o n . B e t h l e h e m have d e s c r i b e d t h e p r o b l e m s c a u s e d by wind e r o s i o n o f s e e d . They a c h i e v e d " s a t i s f a c t o r y " r e s u l t s on an a r e a o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e when a h y d r o s e e d e r and a p e a t moss m u l c h were u s e d ( B e t h l e h e m Copper C o r p o r a t i o n , 1979). The p l o t h a s a p p a r e n t l y been b u r i e d . b) G r a s s and legume c o v e r has been e s t a b l i s h e d on s t e e p s l o p e s s u b j e c t t o s t r o n g w i nds u s i n g a h y d r o s e e d s l u r r y c o n t a i n i n g s e e d , f e r t i l i z e r a n d a s o i l b i n d e r i n a r e a s o f heavy r a i n f a l l ( C a r r and M a r c h a n t , u n d a t e d ) . R e s e a r c h on t h e use of m u l c h e s , and s o i l s t a b i l i z e r s was d i s c u s s e d above ( s e e s e c t i o n 6 . 5.4). L i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been done on t h e p r o b l e m s o f r e c l a i m i n g s t e e p , e x p o s e d s l o p e s i n s e m i - a r i d a r e a s . c ) The r e c l a m a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h i s s i t e - t y p e i s t o e s t a b l i s h c o v e r ( t h e same a s t h a t f o r low e l e v a t i o n , s l o p i n g , s h e l t e r e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k ( s e c t i o n 6 . 5 . 6 ) ) . B e c a u s e o f t h e e x p o s u r e , (and c o n s e q u e n t l y l e s s snow c o v e r ) t h e s e a r e a s might be v a l u a b l e f o r w i l d l i f e i n w i n t e r . G r a s s e s p r e v e n t s u r f a c e e r o s i o n b u t d e e p - r o o t e d p l a n t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o p r e v e n t s l o u g h i n g . The f e a s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g s h r u b s f o r t h i s s i t e - t y p e s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d . By p l a n t i n g r o o t e d s h r u b c u t t i n g s , t h e p r o b l e m s o f w i n d e r o s i o n , g e r m i n a t i o n f a i l u r e a nd m o r t a l t y o f 99 v e r y young s e e d l i n g s ( c a u s e d by r a p i d d r y i n g o f s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l s ) would be a v o i d e d . Woody c u t t i n g s would be b e t t e r a b l e t o w i t h s t a n d t h e h i g h s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e s w h i c h d e v e l o p on a r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e . S h r u b s w i t h a p r o s t r a t e g r o w t h - h a b i t , s u c h a s b e a r b e r r y , w i l l r e d u c e e v a p o r a t i o n o f m o i s t u r e f r o m t h e d i s t u r b e d m a t e r i a l s ; t h i s s h o u l d promote d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e d e t r i t u s t h e y p r o d u c e . Many r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s i n v o l v i n g s h r u b p r o p a g a t i o n and use a r e c u r r e n t l y i n p r o g r e s s . T a b l e 11 g i v e s some o f t h e s p e c i e s w o r t h y o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; many o t h e r s , f o r example f r o m s e m i - a r i d r e g i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , c o u l d a l s o be t e s t e d . I t may p r o v e n e c e s s a r y t o use s h r u b s p r o p a g a t e d f r o m l o c a l s t o c k t o e n s u r e p e r s i t e n c e ; t h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t f o r t h o s e a r e a s f a r from s o u r c e s o f i n v a d i n g t r e e and s h r u b s p e c i e s . ( T h o s e a d j a c e n t t o e x i s t i n g f o r e s t w i l l e v e n t u a l l y become f o r e s t e d ) . The d e s i r a b i l i t y and f e a s i b i l t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g g r a s s -legume c o v e r b e f o r e , c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h , o r a f t e r t h e s h r u b s s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d . The c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f m u l c h e s and s h e l t e r f e n c e s s h o u l d a l s o be e v a l u a t e d . 6.5.9 H i g h e l e v a t i o n , s l o p i n g , e x p o s e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k a) No r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s have been e s t a b l i s h e d on a r e a s of t h i s s i t e - t y p e . b) R e s e a r c h on s p e c i e s s e l e c t i o n f o r h i g h e l e v a t i o n a r e a s i s d i c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 6.5.3. c) A g a i n t h e r e c l a m a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s h o u l d be e r o s i o n c o n t r o l and i m p r o v e d a p p e a r a n c e (and p o s s i b l y w i l d l i f e u s e ) . The 100 n e e d f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o s p e c i e s s e l e c t i o n and r e c l a m a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s was d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n s 6.5.3 and 6.5.8. 6.5.10 Low e l e v a t i o n , u n d u l a t i n g , s h e l t e r e d raw t i l l e by L o r n e x and, i n 1981, by Highmont. ( L o r n e x M i n i n g C o r p o r One example o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e was a s s e s s e d ( A 1 1 ) ; under g r a z i n g c o n d i t i o n s a g r a s s - l e g u m e c o v e r has been e s t a b l i s h e d . F e r t i l i z e r r e c o r d s f o r t h i s t r i a l were n o t a v a i l a b l e . I t i s n o t known i f t h i s c o v e r w o u l d be a b l e t o p e r s i s t w i t h o u t m a i n t e n a n c e f e r t i l i z a t i o n . b) Z i e m k i e w i c z ' s (1979) s t u d y o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s e l f -s u s t a i n i n g r e c l a m a t i o n p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e p r o b l e m s of t h i s s i t e - t y p e ( s e c t i o n 6.5.2). c ) Most a r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e a r e s m a l l and i s o l a t e d . T hey w o u l d be v a l u a b l e f o r w i l d l i f e g r a z i n g and b r o w s i n g . G r a s s e s and legumes s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d ; p l a n t i n g o f s h r u b s f a v o u r e d by w i l d l i f e ( T a b l e 11) wo u l d c r e a t e a b e t t e r h a b i t a t t h a n one w h i c h r e s u l t e d f r o m n a t u r a l i n v a s i o n o f s h r u b s g r o w i n g c l o s e t o t h e d i s t u r b e d a r e a . The p e r s i s t e n c e o f g r a s s - l e g u m e c o v e r on a r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e w i l l be l e s s i m p o r t a n t i f g r a s s e s and h e r b s i n v a d e f r o m t h e a d j a c e n t f o r e s t c o m m u n i t i e s . (Some a r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d a s a c c e s s r o u t e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n and f i r e c o n t r o l ) . E x t e n s i v e a r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e a r e s u i t a b l e f o r use as r a n g e . A g a i n , g r a s s e s a n d legumes s h o u l d be s e e d e d ; h a r r o w i n g and p a c k i n g , where p o s s i b l e , w o u l d be a d v a n t a g e o u s . B e c a u s e of t h e c o a r s e t e x t u r e , e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a d e q u a t e g r o u n d c o v e r on 101 raw t i l l w i l l be more d i f f i c u l t and t a k e l o n g e r t h a n on o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k and c o m p a c t e d r o c k . On a l l raw t i l l a r e a s i t may be n e c e s s a r y t o a p p l y f e r t i l i z e r i n t h e f a l l a s w e l l as i n t h e s p r i n g t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e l o s s e s t h a t a r e l i k e l y t o o c c u r as a r e s u l t of c o a r s e t e x t u r e and low c o l l o i d a l c o n t e n t . However, f e r t i l i z e r s h o u l d o n l y be a p p l i e d i f f a l l r a i n s a c c u r . S e l f -s u s t a i n i n g r e c l a m a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s must be d e v e l o p e d on e x t e n s i v e a r e a s . G r a s s e s t h a t d e v e l o p a dense t u r f , e . g . t h e f e s c u e s and b l u e g r a s s e s , s h o u l d be f a v o u r e d i n t h e mix. 6.5.11 H i g h e l e v a t i o n , u n d u l a t i n g , s h e l t e r e d raw t i l l a) Some r e c l a m a t i o n work has been done r e c e n t l y on a r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e ( L o r n e x M i n i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1971; Highmont O p e r a t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1981) but t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t a method o f e s t a b l i s h i n g permanent v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r has been d e v e l o p e d . b) T r i a l s o f g r a s s and legume s p e c i e s a t h i g h e l e v a t i o n s a r e r e l e v a n t ( s e e t a b l e 1 0 ) . c ) A r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e a r e g e n e r a l l y s m a l l , e . g . p i p e l i n e s , e x p l o r a t i o n a r e a s and borrow p i t s . They would be s u i t a b l e , a t l e a s t i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f r e c l a m a t i o n , f o r w i l d l i f e g r a z i n g ( i n summer) and b r o w s i n g . A g r a s s - l e g u m e mix s h o u l d be s e e d e d i n i t i a l l y ; a p a t c h y c o v e r would l i k e l y d e v e l o p b e c a u s e o f t h e t e m p e r a t u r e and m o i s t u r e c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s would p e r m i t t h e i n v a s i o n o f n a t i v e t r e e s and s h r u b s f r o m s u r r o u n d i n g n a t u r a l a r e a s . E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t o o d e n s e a g r o u n d c o v e r ( f o r i n s t a n c e i n s h a d e d a r e a s ) s h o u l d be p r e v e n t e d by m o d i f y i n g t h e 102 s e e d i n g and f e r t i l i z i n g r a t e s . Some a r e a s may be k e p t c l e a r f o r a c c e s s . 6.5.12 Low e l e v a t i o n , u n d u l a t i n g , e x p o s e d raw t i l l a) No r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s have been e s t a b l i s h e d on a r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e . Some o p e r a t i o n a l r e c l a m a t i o n work was c a r r i e d o u t i n 1981 ( L o r n e x M i n i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1 9 8 1 ; Highmont O p e r a t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1981). b) Methods f o r t h e r e d u c t i o n o f e r o s i o n a r e d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 6.5.3. c) Range i s t h e most s u i t a b l e l a n d - u s e o b j e c t i v e f o r a r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e . B e c a u s e t h e y a r e g e n e r a l l y e x t e n s i v e , w i l d l i f e use wou l d be r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e p e r i p h e r i e s . G r a s s -legume c o v e r s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d ( s e e s e c t i o n 6.5.10); m e c h a n i c a l s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n , i f n o t p r e v e n t e d by t h e h i g h c o n t e n t o f c o a r s e p a r t i c l e s , would a i d e s t a b l i s h m e n t . 6.5.13 H i g h e l e v a t i o n , u n d u l a t i n g , e x p o s e d raw t i l l a) No r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s have been e s t a b l i s h e d i n a r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e . b) A g a i n , t r i a l s o f g r a s s and legume s p e c i e s a t h i g h e l e v a t i o n a r e r e l e v a n t ( T a b l e 10) c) A r e a s o f t h i s s i t e - t y p e , w h i c h a r e g e n e r a l l y e x t e n s i v e , a r e s u i t a b l e f o r r e t u r n t o f o r e s t c o v e r . T e c h n i q u e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e recommended f o r t h e h i g h e l e v a t i o n , f l a t , e x p o s e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k s i t e - t y p e s h o u l d be u s e d ( s e c t i o n 6.5.5). Table 10. Some recommended grass and legume species for the Highland Valley GRASSES FOR LOW GRASSES FOR HIGH LEGUMES FOR LOW LEGUMES FOR HIGH ELEVATION AREAS ELEVATION AREAS ELEVATION AREAS ELEVATION AREAS TESTED AND PROVEN SUCCESSFUL IN HIGHLAND VALLEY crested wheatgrass red fescue tall fescue smooth brome yellow sweet clover alfalfa RECOMMENDED FOR MORE TESTING AND EVALUATION Canada bluegrass meadow foxtail timothy sainfoin RECOMMENDED FOR TESTING. PROVEN SUCC-ESSFUL UNDER CONDITIONS SIMILAR TO THOSE IN THE HIGHLAND VALLEY "Manchar" smoothbrome red fescue timothy Canada bluegrass * perennial ryegrass , bluebunch wheatgrass meadow foxtail + native species alfalfa* red clover sainfoin + native species * winter hardy species Sources: Hubbard and Bell, 1977 1 may not be readily available in Canada Watson et al . 1980 and others. Table 11. Some recommended shrub and tree species for the Highland Valley. SHRUBS/TREES VALUABLE SHRUBS/TREES VALUABLE OTHER SHRUBS WITH BECAUSE OF N-FIXING ABILITY FOR WILDLIFE BROWSE POTENTIAL FOR RECLAMATION NATIVE TO HIGHLAND VALLEY Alnus spp. Shepherdia canadensis Populus tremuloides  Betula spp. Salix spp. Rosa spp. Vaccinium spp. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi  Amelanchier spp. Cornus stolonifera  Juniperus communis  Picea spp. Pinus contorta Spiraea spp. Lonicera involucrata NON-NATIVE BUT PROVEN SUCC-ESSFUL UNDER . CONDITIONS SIMILAR TO THOSE IN THE HIGHLAND VALLEY Ceanothus spp. Symphoricarpus alba * may not tolerate high pH Sources: Watson et a l . , 1980 Van Drimmelen, 1979 Carr and Marchant, undated. 105 6.6 C o m p i l a t i o n o f l a n d - u s e p l a n P r o p o s e d l a n d - u s e s f o r t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y a r e shown i n P l a n 2. The p l a n i s b a s e d upon t h e p r e d i c t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e c l a m a t i o n s i t e - t y p e s shown i n P l a n 1. F o r i n d i v i d u a l a r e a s of e a c h r e c l a m a t i o n s i t e - t y p e , one o r two l a n d - u s e s have been s e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r a t i o n a l e d e c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n 6.5, and so a s t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e l a n d - u s e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e m i n i n g c o m p a n i e s ( s e c t i o n 6 . 4 ) . L a n d - u s e s f o r n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s ( d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 6.3) a r e a l s o shown. Where two l a n d - u s e s a r e e q u a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r an a r e a , e . g . r a n g e o r hay p r o d u c t i o n , t h e y a r e shown as a l t e r n a t i v e s . S e l e c t i o n o f one o f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s w i l l depend on c o s t and demand f a c t o r s n ot c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y . I n some a r e a s , two o r more l a n d - u s e s may be p o s s i b l e a t t h e same t i m e o r a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s i n e a c h y e a r e . g . ran g e and w i l d l i f e . T h e s e a r e shown on t h e p l a n as m u t u a l l y c o m p a t i b l e l a n d - u s e s . A r e a s w h i c h have p o t e n t i a l f o r r e c r e a t i o n (as o p p o s e d t o t h o s e w i t h known r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e , s u c h a s Bose L a k e ) have n o t been i n d i c a t e d on t h e p l a n . H u n t i n g i s a r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y w h i c h c a n n o t be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h any p a r t i c u l a r r e c l a m a t i o n s i t e -t y p e o r n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n community. H u n t i n g w i l l p r o b a b l y be i m p o r t a n t w i t h i n t h o s e w i l d l i f e a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o f o r e s t c o v e r , remote f r o m t h e highway and y e t a c c e s s i b l e by v e h i c l e s . However, much w i l l d epend on t h e p a t t e r n o f w i l d l i f e use t h a t d e v e l o p s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y when m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s c e a s e . A r e a s w h i c h a r e t o be u s e d f o r camping s h o u l d be s e l e c t e d a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n between t h e m i n i n g c o m p a n i e s , r a n c h e r s , a n d , p o s s i b l y , members 106 o f t h e M i n i s t r i e s o f F o r e s t s , E n v i r o n m e n t and L a n d s , P a r k s and H o u s i n g . The s u c c e s s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g f i s h i n g a n d / o r b o a t i n g f a c i l i t i e s on t h e l a k e s w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e s e l e c t i o n . R e c r e a t i o n a l use o f n e w l y - c o n s t r u c t e d l a k e s has n o t been i n d i c a t e d on t h e p l a n b e c a u s e t h e r e i s so l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s s u b j e c t . H o r s e b a c k - r i d i n g i s a r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y w h i c h c a n n o t be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h any p a r t i c u l a r r e c l a m a t i o n s i t e - t y p e o r n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n community. I t w i l l p r o b a b l y be m u t u a l l y c o m p a t i b l e w i t h r a n g e , w i l d l i f e and s m a l l f o r e s t a r e a s i n t h e v a l l e y b o t t o m and on t h e l o w e r v a l l e y s l o p e s . The p l a n shows t h e p r o p o s e d use o f d i s t u r b e d a r e a s 20 y e a r s a f t e r o p e r a t i o n a l r e c l a m a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e . B e c a u s e t h e t i m i n g of m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s i s v e r y u n p r e d i c t a b l e , d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e n a t u r e and d e g r e e o f use o f a r e a s u n d e r g o i n g t r a n s i t i o n f r o m one l a n d - u s e t o a n o t h e r a r e n o t shown. Such d i f f e r e n c e s , w h i c h would be c a u s e d by d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e t i m i n g o f t h e r e c l a m a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s , s h o u l d be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t when i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e p l a n . S i t e p r e p a r a t i o n a s s o c a t e d w i t h t h e p l a n n e d V a l l e y Copper mine began i n s p r i n g 1982. The mine has an a n t i c i p a t e d l i f e o f 20 y e a r s ( V a l l e y C o p p e r M i n e s , 1 9 8 0 ) . I f i t i s assumed t h a t s t a r t - u p t a k e s p l a c e i n 1984 and t h a t t h e o t h e r 3 m ines w i l l be m i n e d - o u t i n l e s s t h a n 20 y e a r s , a l l t h e l a n d - u s e s f o r t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y p r o p o s e d i n P l a n 2 c o u l d be a c h i e v e d by t h e y e a r 2024. However, any c h a n g e s i n t h e economy c o u l d s h o r t e n o r l e n g t h e n t h e d u r a t i o n o f m i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . In making t h e l a n d - u s e p l a n , i t i s assumed t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a l l n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s e x c e p t t h e 107 open f o r e s t / g r a s s l a n d c o m m u n i t i e s w i l l n o t change between now and 20 y e a r s a f t e r o p e r a t i o n a l r e c l a m a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n may n o t be v a l i d b u t no i n f o r m a t i o n on s u c c e s s i o n a l t r e n d s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y i s a v a i l a b l e . I t i s assumed t h a t t h e open f o r e s t / g r a s s l a n d c o m m u n i t i e s c r e a t e d by l o g g i n g w i l l be f u l l y r e s t o c k e d and r e g a i n t h e i r v a l u e f o r f o r e s t r y u s e . I t i s assumed t h a t t h e L o r n e x open p i t w i l l be f i l l e d w i t h w a ter t o t h e maximum l e v e l p o s s i b l e g i v e n t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f t h e p i t w a l l s , and t h a t f l o o d i n g o f b o t h t h e L o r n e x and V a l l e y C opper p i t s w i l l be c o m p l e t e d 20 y e a r s a f t e r o p e r a t i o n a l r e c l a m a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e . S i n c e knowledge o f t h e p o t e n t i a l o f open p i t s t o become l a k e s i s l a c k i n g t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s a r e q u e s t i o n a b l e . No p r e d i c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e f u t u r e use o f t h e Highmont p i t have been made i n P l a n 2. A c c e s s r o a d s w h i c h s h o u l d n o t be r e c l a i m e d i n o r d e r t o e n a b l e c e r t a i n l a n d - u s e s a r e shown i n t h e p l a n . 108 7.. C o n c l u s i o n s 7.1. E v a l u a t i o n o f r e c l a m a t i o n programme So f a r , o p e r a t i o n a l r e c l a m a t i o n i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y has been c a r r i e d o u t i n s m a l l a r e a s o n l y . T h i s i s , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , a r e s u l t o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s . R e c l a m a t i o n r e s e a r c h u n d e r t a k e n by B e t h l e h e m and L o r n e x has been i n t h e f o r m o f s p e c i e s t r i a l s and t e s t p l o t s . T h e s e have n o t been l o c a t e d i n s i t e s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t t h e f u l l r a n g e o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t w i l l be e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e c o u r s e of o p e r a t i o n a l r e c l a m a t i o n . A s s e s s m e n t o f t r i a l s and t e s t p l o t s has t e n d e d t o be s h o r t - t e r m i n n a t u r e ; t h i s i s p r o b a b l y a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e h i g h t u r n o v e r r a t e o f r e c l a m a t i o n p e r s o n n e l , t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f r e s e a r c h s i t e s by m i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and, most n o t i c e a b l y , a f a i l u r e t o d e f i n e and document c l e a r l y t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f e a c h s e r i e s o f s p e c i e s t r i a l s o r t e s t p l o t s . Hence, t h e r e s e a r c h programmes a r e n o t p r o d u c i n g as much i n f o r m a t i o n a s t h e y c o u l d . C o n s i d e r a b l e p r o g r e s s has been made by B e t h l e h e m and L o r n e x i n d e v e l o p i n g t e c h n i q u e s f o r t h e r e c l a m a t i o n o f a r e a s o f t h e low e l e v a t i o n f l a t and s l o p i n g s h e l t e r e d s i t e - t y p e s . T h e s e a r e a s c o u l d now be u s e d t o e x t e n d r e c l a m a t i o n r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e t o p i c s recommended below; L o r n e x ' s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h methods o f s e e d i n g s l o p e s w i l l be p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e . The s e e d i n g o f h i g h e l e v a t i o n a r e a s u n d e r t a k e n r e c e n t l y by L o r n e x and Highmont w i l l , i f a d e q u a t e l y a s s e s s e d , c o n t r i b u t e t o 109 t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m s p o s e d by t h e s e a r e a s . A c c i d e n t a l d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e t a i l i n g s r e c l a m a t i o n t e s t p l o t was v e r y u n f o r t u n a t e ; t h e t e c h n i q u e was w e l l s u i t e d t o t h e p r o b l e m . E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e l o n g - t e r m s u c c e s s of t h e s h r u b and t r e e p l a n t i n g programme i n i t i a t e d by B e t h l e h e m has been p r e v e n t e d by d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s i t e , b u t t h e p r e l i m i n a r y r e s u l t s have been i n f o r m a t i v e . O p p o r t u n i t i e s t o r e c l a i m l a n d f o r w i l d l i f e , g r a z i n g and r e c r e a t i o n a l use a r e a c k n o w l e d g e d by t h e m i n i n g c o m p a n i e s b u t , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of B e t h l e h e m , l a n d - u s e o b j e c t i v e s a r e n o t e x p l i c i t . By c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f d i f f e r e n t a r e a s o f d i s t u r b a n c e f o r d i f f e r e n t l a n d - u s e s , t h e r e c l a m a t i o n programmes c o u l d be made more s u c c e s s f u l , l e s s c o s t l y and more v a l u a b l e t o o t h e r l a n d - u s e r s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f d i s t u r b e d l a n d t o a s t a t e s i m i l a r t o t h a t w h i c h e x i s t e d p r i o r t o m i n i n g i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y a p p e a l i n g , s u c h an o b j e c t i v e i s n o t a l w a y s f e a s i b l e , c a n be v e r y c o s t l y and s h o u l d not e x c l u d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o i m p r o v e l a n d - u s e i n t h e a r e a . 7.2. Recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h 1) The s u r f a c e a r e a o f t a i l i n g s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y w i l l be a l m o s t 2000ha when m i n i n g c e a s e s . An i n t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h programme s h o u l d s t a r t i m m e d i a t e l y t o e n s u r e t h a t 2000ha o f u n p r o d u c t i v e o r t o x i c l a n d w i l l n o t be c r e a t e d . T h i s programme s h o u l d i n c o r p o r a t e w e a t h e r i n g s t u d i e s , f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l s and v e g e t a t i o n a n a l y s i s . ( W e a t h e r i n g s t u d i e s and v e g e t a t i o n a n a l y s i s h a v e been recommended p r e v i o u s l y by D e p t . o f S o i l S c i e n c e (1976-110 7 7 ) ) . Methods o f s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n and s o u r c e s o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r s h o u l d a l s o be i n v e s t i g a t e d . The c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r amendments and g r e e n manures s h o u l d be compared ( s e c t i o n 6 .5.1). 2) The a b i l i t y o f a l r e a d y - e s t a b l i s h e d g r a s s and legume c o v e r t o p e r s i s t w i t h o u t m a i n t e n a n c e f e r t i l i z a t i o n w i l l be c r u c i a l t o t h e l o n g - t e r m s u c c e s s o f r e c l a m a t i o n i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y . R e s e a r c h i n t o t h i s t o p i c c o u l d span 10 o r more y e a r s , b u t once t h e optimum l e n g t h o f t h e f e r t i l i z a t i o n programme i s known, t h e programme w i l l be a p p l i c a b l e t o a r e a s o f many d i f f e r e n t s i t e - t y p e s . I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t t o know when g r a s s - l e g u m e c o m m u n i t i e s become s u i t a b l e f o r g r a z i n g u s e . An a l r e a d y p r o v e n method o f d e v e l o p i n g s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g c o v e r w i l l s e r v e t o s h o r t e n t h e i n t e r v a l between c e s s a t i o n o f m i n i n g a c t i v i t y a n d repayment o f t h e r e c l a m a t i o n bond. 3) The use o f s h r u b s f o r r e c l a m a t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t t o p i c f o r r e s e a r c h i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e y w i l l a i d t h e r e c l a m a t i o n o f a r e a s o f t h e low and h i g h e l e v a t i o n , s l o p i n g , e x p o s e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k s i t e - t y p e s . They w i l l p r o v i d e f o r a g e f o r w i l d l i f e , improve s l o p e s t a b i l i t y and i m prove t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e l a n d s c a p e . They c o u l d a l s o improve t h e r e c l a m a t i o n of low and h i g h e l e v a t i o n , s l o p i n g , s h e l t e r e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k , h i g h e l e v a t i o n , f l a t s h e l t e r e d o v e r b u r d e n / r o c k and low e l e v a t i o n , u n d u l a t i n g , s h e l t e r e d raw t i l l a r e a s . C o m p e t i t i o n between g r o u n d c o v e r and s h r u b s may be a p r o b l e m ; t h i s and methods f o r i t s r e d u c t i o n , s h o u l d a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d ( s e c t i o n s 6.5.3, 5, 6, 7, 8 a n d 10 and T a b l e 1 1 ) . S i t e p r e p a r a t i o n w i l l be an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e r e c l a m a t i o n o f 111 a l l e x p o s e d a r e a s ( s e c t i o n 6.5.4, 5, 8 and 9 ) . Methods o f c r e a t i n g m i c r o s i t e s t o a i d g r a s s , legume, s h r u b and t r e e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d . O n l y i f s u c h methods a r e u n s u c c e s s f u l s h o u l d t h e use of e x p e n s i v e m u l c h e s be c o n s i d e r e d . 4) I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h e v a l u a t i o n o f s e e d i n g a l r e a d y u n d e r t a k e n by L o r n e x and Highmont, a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t t o i d e n t i f y g r a s s and legume s p e c i e s s u i t a b l e f o r use i n a l l h i g h e l e v a t i o n a r e a s s h o u l d be s t a r t e d ( T a b l e 10). 5) D i f f e r e n t r o c k t y p e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y s h o u l d be s a m p l e d and, i f n e c e s s a r y , mapped t o i d e n t i f y a r e a s where o v e r b u r d e n w i l l be most n e e d e d . S e l e c t i v e dumping may r e d u c e t h e demand f o r t h e l i m i t e d q u a n t i t i e s o f o v e r b u r d e n a v a i l a b l e . 6) The m i n i n g c o m p a n i e s s h a r e many o f t h e r e c l a m a t i o n p r o b l e m s i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y . A c o o r d i n a t e d , c o o p e r a t i v e a p p r o a c h t o r e c l a m a t i o n r e s e a r c h w o u l d p r e v e n t u n n e c e s s a r y and c o s t l y d u p l i c a t i o n o f r e c l a m a t i o n p r o j e c t s . A few, w e l l - p l a n n e d , c a r e f u l l y - l o c a t e d c o o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s would p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s needed by a l l t h e c o m p a n i e s . To e n s u r e t h a t c o m p a t i b l e l a n d - u s e s a r e p r o p o s e d f o r d i f f e r e n t a r e a s , e a c h company s h o u l d c o n s u l t w i t h t h e o t h e r s b e f o r e d e v e l o p i n g i t s r e c l a m a t i o n p l a n . 7) The demand f o r r a n g e a n d / o r i r r i g a t e d hay p r o d u c t i o n , a c c e s s f o r f i r e c o n t r o l , t e m p o r a r y i n c r e a s e s i n w i l d l i f e f o r a g e , h u n t i n g a c c e s s r o u t e s , camping s i t e s and f i s h i n g f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g l a n d - u s e o b j e c t i v e s f o r r e c l a m a t i o n . C o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h l o c a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , a s r e q u i r e d by t h e M i n i n g R e g u l a t i o n A c t ( 1 9 7 9 ) , must accompany a l l r e s e a r c h and o p e r a t i o n a l r e c l a m a t i o n . 1 12 7.3. L a n d - u s e c h a n g e s r e s u l t i n g f r o m m i n i n g and r e c l a m a t i o n I f t h e r e c l a m a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s and l a n d - u s e o b j e c t i v e s recommended i n s e c t i o n 6.5. a r e a d o p t e d , s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s i n l a n d - u s e i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y w i l l r e s u l t . T a b l e 12 shows t h e amount o f l a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r e a c h l a n d - u s e i n 1970 and t h e amount o f new l a n d t h a t w i l l be made a v a i l a b l e a f t e r r e c l a m a t i o n . ( R e c r e a t i o n and m u t u a l l y c o m p a t i b l e w i l d l i f e use a r e n o t shown f o r t h e r e a s o n s d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 6.6.) T a b l e 13 shows t h e amount o c c u r r i n g on e a c h mine p r o p e r t y . In T a b l e 12, c o m p a r i s o n i s made w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n i n 1970 u s i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n s u r v e y o f t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y by B.C. R e s e a r c h ( 1 9 7 1 a ) . The n o r t h w e s t - s o u t h e a s t b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e s u r v e y c o i n c i d e a l m o s t e x a c t l y w i t h t h o s e o f t h i s s t u d y . S i n c e t h e p o r t i o n o f t h e a r e a o f t h i s s t u d y n o t c o v e r e d by B.C. R e s e a r c h i s l a r g e l y f o r e s t e d , w i t h some l a k e s and a s p e n meadows, o n l y m i n o r i n a c c u r a c i e s r e s u l t f r o m a d j u s t i n g t h e f i g u r e s t o make t h e s u r v e y a r e a and s t u d y a r e a c o m p a r a b l e . D e s c r i p t i o n s by B . C . R e s e a r c h s u g g e s t t h a t t h e i r "open f o r e s t and g r a s s l a n d , and g r a s s l a n d c o m m u n i t i e s " were u s a b l e f o r r a n g e and t h a t t h e i r " v a l l e y b o t t o m meadows and g r a s s l a n d and w i l l o w c o m m u n i t i e s " were u s e f u l o n l y f o r w i l d l i f e . The r e s t o f t h e s u r v e y a r e a was a p p a r e n t l y f o r e s t e d . No m e n t i o n i s made o f c o m m u n i t i e s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e a s p e n meadow com m u n i t y - t y p e d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The g r e a t e s t change c o u l d be i n t h e amount o f l a n d made a v a i l a b l e f o r r a n g e . I f t o x i c i t y i s n o t a p r o b l e m , 2507ha o f new ra n g e l a n d c o u l d be p r o v i d e d by r e c l a m a t i o n . A f u r t h e r 1794ha 1 13 c o u l d be u s e d f o r r a n g e o r hay p r o d u c t i o n and an a d d i t i o n a l 251ha c o u l d be u s e d f o r range o r w i l d l i f e , d e p e n d i n g on demand. In 1970, 202ha o f r a n g e l a n d was a v a i l a b l e ; o n l y 93ha o f t h i s w i l l r e m a i n a f t e r m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s c e a s e . In 1971 f o r e s t , w i t h some l a k e s and a s p e n meadows, c o v e r e d 24830ha o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . M i n i n g has removed 6737ha o f t h i s . R e c l a m a t i o n c o u l d p r o v i d e 495ha o f newly p l a n t e d f o r e s t l a n d and a f u r t h e r 2 9 l h a w o u l d be c r e a t e d by t h e g r a d u a l i n v a s i o n o f a r e a s i n i t i a l l y more v a l u a b l e f o r w i l d l i f e . N a t u r a l i n v a s i o n of a r e a s r e c l a i m e d t o p r o v i d e c o v e r c o u l d e v e n t u a l l y add a maximum of 449ha o f s t e e p - s l o p i n g s i t e s t o t h e t o t a l f o r e s t a r e a . A r e a s p r o v i d i n g c o v e r , w i t h l i t t l e p o t e n t i a l f o r any o t h e r use ( e x c e p t p o s s i b l y w i l d l i f e g r a z i n g ) w i l l a c c o u n t f o r 486ha o f t h e r e c l a i m e d a r e a . No a r e a s s i m i l a r t o t h i s e x i s t e d b e f o r e m i n i n g . F o r t y - s i x h e c t a r e s o f l a n d o f l o n g - t e r m v a l u e f o r w i l d l i f e c o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e a s a r e s u l t o f r e c l a m a t i o n . A p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f o f t h i s w i l l r e s u l t f r o m t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f f o r e s t i n v a s i o n on h y d r o r i g h t s - o f - w a y . A f u r t h e r 2 9 l h a w i l l be a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f s u c c e s s i o n on r e c l a i m e d a r e a s ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 y e a r s ) and 251ha c o u l d be u s e d f o r r a n g e o r w i l d l i f e . E s t i m a t i o n of t h e t o t a l a r e a a v a i l a b l e f o r w i l d l i f e i n 1971 i s d i f f i c u l t . F o u r h u n d r e d and f o u r h e c t a r e s were a v a i l a b l e i n t h e v a l l e y b o ttom; 266ha o f t h i s w i l l r e m a i n a f t e r m i n i n g c e a s e s b ut may n e v e r be f u l l y u s e d b e c a u s e o f d i s t u r b a n c e by t h e highway. The 24830ha o f f o r e s t , i n c l u d i n g l a k e s and a s p e n meadows, must have i n c l u d e d a r e a s v a l u a b l e t o w i l d l i f e f o r f o o d o r c o v e r . S i n c e 6737ha have been removed, r e c l a m a t i o n w i l l l l f Table 12. Pre- and post-mining land-uses in the Highland Valley 1 9 7 0 F I N A L LAND - USE area (ha) % of tot-al area remaining area (ha) new area (ha) total % (ha) al of tot-area net change (ha) Range 201.9 0.8 93.0 2507.2 2600.2 10.2 +2398.3 Range/Wildlife - - - 251.0 251.0 1.0 + 251.0 Range/Hay - - - 1794.0 1794.0 7.0 +1794.0 Total Range 201.9 0.8 93.0 4552.2 4645.2 18.2 +4443.3 Forestry 24830.2 96.9 18191.7 494.6* 291.0 449.4' 1235.0 19426.7 75.8 -5403.5 Wildlife 404.3 +? 1.6 266.4 usable? 46.4 312.8 1.2 - 91.5? Cover - - - 486.0 486.0 1.9 + 486.0 Lakes 162.8 0.6 64.5 403.6 468.1 1.8 + 305.3 Pits 0 ? ? 261.2 ? ? + 261.2 Total 25600.0 25600.0 * immediate reforestation 1 natural reforestation of wildlife areas ' natural reforestation of cover areas @ Bethlehem pits Table 13. Amounts of potential new land on each mine property LAND-USE Bethlehem Lornex Highmont Valley Lornex Copper & Valley B.C. HYDRO TOTAL Range 570.4 616.4 1217.6 102.8 - 2507.2 Range/Wildlife 14.6 213.4 23.0 251.0 Range/Hay 11.0 1783.0 - 1794.0 Forestry 107.4 387.2 _ - 494.6 Wildlife Forestry 266.6 24.4 • - 291.0 Cover Forestry 84.2 125.0 177.8 36.0 26.4 - 449.4 Wildlife 21.2 - 25.2 46.4 Cover 196.4 236.8 1.4 21.8 9.0 20.6 486.0 Lake 52.0 351.6 - 403.6 Pit 122.6 - 138.6 - 261.2 Total 1081.0 1730.8 555.6 1627.0 1921.2 68.8 6984.4 116 p r o b a b l y n o t r e s u l t i n a n e t l o n g - t e r m i n c r e a s e i n l a n d o f v a l u e t o w i l d l i f e . T h e r e i s t h e r e f o r e a d a n g e r t h a t d u r i n g t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f s u c c e s s i o n o f r e c l a i m e d a r e a s , an abundance of f o r a g e w i l l i n c r e a s e w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s t o l e v e l s t h a t w i l l n o t be s u s t a i n a b l e on a l o n g - t e r m b a s i s . I t may t h e r e f o r e become n e c e s s a r y t o r e d u c e numbers o f w i l d l i f e i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y o r t o a l l o w g r e a t e r w i l d l i f e use o f r a n g e a r e a s . New l a k e s and p i t s w i l l a c c o u n t f o r 404ha and 261ha o f r e c l a i m e d a r e a s r e s p e c t i v e l y . 7.4. Summary c o n c l u s i o n s W h i l e some p r o g r e s s i n d e v e l o p i n g r e c l a m a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s has been made, many p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m s have n o t y e t been a p p r o a c h e d . T h i s s t u d y , u s i n g a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme, f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s and a r e v i e w o f r e c l a m a t i o n r e s e a r c h , h as i d e n t i f i e d s t e e p t o p o g r a p h y , e x p o s u r e and t h e p e c u l i a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t a i l i n g s a s t h e p r i n c i p a l b a r r i e r s t o r e c l a m a t i o n . R e s e a r c h s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s t h e p r o b l e m s c a u s e d by t h e s e f a c t o r s . The p o t e n t i a l i m p a c t o f r e c l a m a t i o n on l a n d - u s e i n t h e H i g h l a n d V a l l e y i s l a r g e . S t e p s s h o u l d be t a k e n now t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e i m p a c t w i l l be b e n e f i c i a l , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n b e i n g g i v e n t o ra n g e and w i l d l i f e u s e o f t h e a r e a . 117 LITERATURE CITED A g r i c u l t u r e Canada. 1976. A g r o c l i m a t i c a t l a s , Canada. A g r o m e t e o r o l o g y R e s e a r c h and S e r v i c e S e c t i o n . C h e m i s t r y and B i o l o g y R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e . R e s e a r c h B r a n c h . A g r i c u l t u r e Canada, Ottawa, O n t a r i o . A l d o n , E . F . and H.W. S p r i n g f i e l d . 1973. R e v e g e t a t i n g c o a l mine s p o i l s i n New v i s u a l 116Mexico: a l a b o r a t o r y s t u d y . U.S. Dep. A g r . F o r e s t S e r v i c e Res. N o t e RM-245. B e l l a m y , A.F. 1979. B e t h l e h e m C o p p e r C o r p o r a t i o n H i g h l a n d V a l l e y O p e r a t i o n s A s h c r o f t , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B e r g , W.A. 1974. G r a s s e s and legumes f o r r e v e g e t a t i o n o f d i s t u r b e d s u b a l p i n e a r e a s . P r o c . Workshop on R e v e g e t a t i o n o f H i g h A l t i t u d e L a n d s . C o l o r a d o S t a t e U n i v . F o r t C o l l i n s , C o l o r a d o , U.S.A. B e t h l e h e m Copper C o r p o r a t i o n . 1979. R e c l a m a t i o n programme and r e n e w a l o f p e r m i t . S u b m i t t e d t o t h e M i n i s t r y o f E n e r g y and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s , V i c t o r i a , B.C. B e t h l e h e m Copper C o r p o r a t i o n 1 9 8 1 . 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B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 123 APPENDIX I C l i m a t i c d a t a Hl&HHNU VALLEY B C L L 1 1 2 J 4 b U MONTHLY TOTAL PRECIPITATION (MM) Y MO 77 01 77 U2 77 OJ 77 04 77 05 77-06" 77 07 77 08 - W A N U » L " OBSERV 6AUGE 25. * -vrtr "PAYSWi PRECIP 6 « ACCUMULATED PRECIPITATION <MM» —INTERVAL ST0RAGE—GAV6H--I 2 MONTHLY SN0*F ALL <CM» SN04 PACK 39.6 6.2 32.4 -2 4.6~ 21 5 8 —-3" 26.5 M M-16.7 63.6 M 9 M —M-8 12 M 0 31 -r*-0 0 31 22.6 9 .0-39.6 5.4 2.S . 0 .0 M rO-• 0 59.0 M - D E P T H — c o v e n — D A T E -(CMI l«) 0 M 0 -0-0 M -«-0 M M JAN31 •FEHga MAR3I APR30 MAV31 -JUN 30" JUL31 AUG31 SEP30• OCT31 NOV30 0EC31 T7 09-77 10 77 II 77 12 ANNUAL 78 nt •.TM n»" 78 0.1 78 04 78 0* _7B Oh 78 07 78 08 78 09 78 in 78 I I 78 19 ANNIJAI 79 01 79 02 79 03 •79 04 79 05 79 06 —79 07-79 08 79 09 79 10 — 7 9 — 79 12 ANNUAL 81 48.0 10.0— 14.5 42.0* 19.8 -rr;o-r-8 -5— 5 94 6 -3*-M 20.7 •aa.s— 4.3 2.6 14.04 M 4 -6— 2 2 74 18.6 13.0 5.0 -15.2-4.9 14.0 6 4 2 -3-0 0 0 9.5 M 15.0 16.5* M—• 24.0 -4— M 3 34 -M— 6 0 0 -30-0 36 48.0 1T.0 I I .0 8.04 1.5 .tr . 0 . 0 srO-T 2.6 14.04 102.14 16.6 13.0 5.0 -15.-2-4.9 .0 .0 .0 T »0-24.0 80.7 M M M tr 0 0 M M M -M-M 0 JANS I MAR3I APR30 MAY 3 1 J JN30 JUL31 AJG31 •StPJO 0CT31 NOV 30 DEC3I JAN31 FE82S MAM31 -APR30-MAV3I JUN30 i<UL 31 • AUG31 SE.P30 0CT31 -N0V30-DEC31 -i=> «H/N1 HICHLANO VALLfc1 BLCL I 123468 DAYS B t L O * MINIMUM DEGREE DAYS ANNUAL V MO MEAN MAX MEAN MIN MONTHLY MEAN EXTREME MAX MIN MISSING MAX MIN 0 -9 -10 -20 -30 ABOVE 9 BELO* 18 E F F E C T I V E ABOVE 5 77 77 77 0 I 02 03 -1 4 0 •a -3 • 7 • A 0 -3 7.8 8.3 4.4 • 18.9 -7.8 -12.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 25 31 • „ ^  20 9 25 10 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 692 496 661 «l> T * 0 0 0 t T A rr 77 77 0« O S 06 ro 9 17 cr* 1 7 9* 5 12 23.9* 16.7 25.0 »6 . t * -3.3 1.7 3 0 0 9 0 0 1 10 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 38 217 JC f * 396 176 • t — 6 a * 7 7 77 77 77 07" 08 09 10 IB M M M - " 7 M M • 2 I J M M M 27 .8 M 10.6* 12.5* 2.2 M -1. 1 * -9.5 0 31 20 13 0 31 21 0 0 M M 21 o 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 M M M 1 r u M M M 1 uc M M M • . . . . . . f t • - ••• 7T-77 - n — 12 3 0 "T2 -17 •S • 9 11.9 6.0 •26.9 -33.0 0 0 0 0 30 31 2 9 31 1 D 26 6 11 V 1 V 0 woe 822 u 0 27.8* -33.0* 67 57 LONGEST 1977 PERIOD •ITH MINIMUM ABOVEI 0 -2 «r*-PERI09 BETMEEN FIRST AND LAST OCCURENCES OF F I V E CONSECUTIVE UAYS ALL ft ITH TAW—TEWPERATURe—ABOVE—S~tN—1-9T-' DEGREE OAVS ABOVE 9 FOR SAME PER 1001 M DAYS M DAYS M UAYS -OAYS-V MO Mf AN MAX MEAN MIN M O N T H L Y M E A N EXTRE't MAX MIN M l S S I N G MAX MIN 7* 01 78 0? 7* 7« r>*> 78 f»6 -3* 0 A 10 18 M .7* • 5 - 3 — M -4 -1 i « 13 *. 5 * 1.5 9.5 l i i O — 20.0 27.0 »?9.5« -19.0* • 15.0 • 1 O j f l — .10.0 -3.0 A 9 O 0 0 0 -ft o-78 08 78 0« 78 10 — T H I t-78 19 17 1 1 10 -6 9 4 I - 9 --T6-13 7 5 -«5--2Trtr 28.0 21.5 17.5 • 1 2 • 0-ANNUAI • 16 -2 -II 3 3.0 28.0* A . O -5.0 -9.5 '35.0 -35.0* -5 -10 -20 • 30 ABOVE 9 BELOW IB E F F E C T I V E ABOVE S M M 2ft* 19* 26 16 M M 9* 0* 4 0 -*5-20 4 — 8 -12 0 M 0* 0 - 6 — 0 0 M 0 0 21 43 228 M 607 577 424 170 M 0 0 *-I 1 106 0 3 13 —©-0 0 0 •+4-31 31 30 6 198*133* 70* 12* -o— 0 0 0 - 0 — 3 3* — 3 5 1 — 255 80 69 9 — 0 1092* 169 319 393 679 901 53*1* 201 130 16 19 1-484* LONGEST * « B I 0 ° " , ™ " l N " , U ' A 8 0 V E ' -2 . • „ M E . Q S T A N O I A S ! O C C U R E N C E S pEtimn B f T ! " ™ "iNSECUTivi u»vs A L L aiTH QEGRE8 DAYS ABOVE rOB SAME PIR100I 66 DAYS 66 DAYS IBB PAYS J U L 12 J U L 12 MAY 31 SEP IS SEP 15 •se» 19 79 01 79 02 79 03 79 O S 79 06 "79 07-79 08 79 09 79 10 - a i 5 — 6 -13 16 -21-20 16 1 1 —e-• 19 • 1 1 -7 — 7 -• 2 3 8 9 4 -2 •13 -5 - I —B— 6 10 15 IS 10 4 1 .5 3.5 14.0 I 6 i 0 25.0 24.0 — I B S PAYS 1017 • 28.0 • 23.0 • 15.0 •15.0 -8.0 -5.0 30.0 -3.0 25.0 4.0 2A.0 -4.0 21.0 -8.0 — 9 T 6 -1 f> , « 5.0* -3a.n» 0 0 O -o-0 0 O O 0 0 -»-MAY IT J l 31 28 23 30 21 e « 3 — a 5 22 8 3 0 1 19 _^9-13 2 1 0 0 1 1 -26-29 17 13 0 O O O 0 0 -n»-9 2 0 -e-o o o o o o -8-0 0 2 60 146 -304-299 159 71 O -964 650 601 -55+-387 254 131 107 234 421 -6**-0 0 0 -3-15 48 ro -t64-131 SO 15 O->R* 28* 19* 2* 2* 0* 678* O* rjTS* HIGHLAND VALLEY LORNEX 1123«b9 — — DAYS BELOW MINIMUM DEGREE DAYS T MO Mt AN - MEAN MONTHLY EXTREME MISSING EFFECTIVE MAX MIN ME*N MAX MIN MAX MIN 0 -5 -1 0 j-20 -30 ABOVE 5 BELOW 16 ABOVE S 77 01 -1 -12 -7 8.9 -21.7 0 0 31 30 21 1 0 0 762 0 77 02 5 -6 -1 10.b -13.9 0 0 28 1 7 8 0 0 0 529 0 77 03 3 -7 -2 6.1 -14.4 0 0 30 24 9 0 0 0 634 0 II u* 1 < • i o 2b . 1 *»9.« U u 1 B 1 0 0 0 0 88 • — —3ym 2* 77 05 1 1 -1 5 l b . 1 -5.0 0 0 16 2 0 0 0 32 401 3 77 Ob ia 5 12 27.2 .0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 203 189 67 77 07 1 9 b 12 28 . 3 -.6 0 o " " ~ 1 ' 0 o 0 " 0 232 1 7 8 - 91 77 oa 22 8 15 30. b 1 . 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 318 103 166 77 09 13 0 7 21.1 -5.0 0 0 11 1 0 0 0 57 343 8 77 10 10 -3 3 16.1 -7.2 0 0 29 10 0 0 0 14 461 2 7 7 11 u • 8 — 4 9.0 •20,0 0 0 28 1 9 8 0 0 0 6*2 0 77 12 •6 -1* -10 5.0 -29.0 0 0 31 27 23 5 0 0 867 0 ANNUAL 9 -3 3 30.b -29.0 0 0 223 140 69 6 0 944 5503 363 LONGEST 1977 PERIOD WITH MINIMUM ABOVE! 0 50 DAYS JUL 20 - SEP 07 -2 l ib OAYS MAY 29 - S*P 21 -* 117 UAYS MAT 28 » SEP 21 PERIOD BETWEEN FIRST AND LAST OCCURENCES OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE DAYS ALL KITH MCAN TEMPERA TURg—ABOVE S 1W 19771 IT T DATS A PR" tJ3 SEP 2T DEGREE DAYS ABOVE 5 FOR SAME PERIODI 929 78 01 -4 - I I -8 4.5 -28.0 0 0 31 24 13 6 0 0 793 0 78 (I? 1 -10 -4 10.5 -20.0 0 0 28 21 16 0 0 0 625 0 78 03 5 -5 O 12.5 -16.0 0 0 24 15 4 0 0 I 548 0 78 0« 8 -2 3 1 T.5 -5~r5 0 0 M 3 0 0 0 rT •** *• 78 0* 12 O b 22.0 -5.0 0 0 10 I 0 0 0 62 364 10 78 OA 20 7 13 28.5 -1.0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 247 145 94 78 U> ?3 9 16 28.3 5.0 O 0 1> 0 0 0 0 340 72 T6* 78 08 19 8 13 29.0 1.5 0 0 O O O O O 260 154 113 78 09 14 2 8 22.5 -1.5 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 90 30 1 13 78 10 12 -2 5 19.0 -7.5 0 0 19 4 0 0 0 46 404 5 »f»—M S -+6 -5 14.5 -2 7 . O O 0 *4 M tT 4 0 5 682 1" 78 12 -5 -14 -9 4.5 -33.0 0 0 31 30 21 5 4 0 849 0 ANNUAL 9 - 2 3 29.0 -33.0 O 0 196 119 71 15 4 1068 5379 406 lONGEST 1976 PERIOO •ITH MINIMUM ABOVEI 0 -2 84 OAYS 129 OAYS 141 PAYS JUN 15 MAY 25 MAY 24 SEP Ob SEP 30 OCT I I PEBII10 BETWEEN FIRST AND LAST OCCURENCES OF FIVE CONSECUTIVE DAYS ALL WITH »EMATUBE ABOVE 5 IN 1~91 DEGREE OAYS ABOVE 5 FOR SAME PERIODS 1057 3CT SO— 79 01 79 02 79 03 79 04 79 05 79 06 •74-OT-79 08 79 09 79 10 79 I I 79 12 ANNUAL -9 0 7 —»-I 4 18 22 18 12 — 3 -•20 • 12 -5 1 4 10 8 4 0 —a -9 -3 •14 -b 1 —3 -a 11 16 15 11 6 -4 4.0 5.5 lb.5 22.0 2b.5 31.0 27.0 25. O 22.0 11.5 7.0 31.0 '31.0 •24.0 •15.5 '11 .O -3.0 -1 .5 3.3 b . 0 .0 -6.0 •15*0 •28.5 '31.0 31 28 28 -*5-13 1 0 0 0 1 0 31 31 27 16 17 3 28 0 0 0 0 0 1 -27--»-0 0 o 0 0 0 f 20 14 13 3 0 —o-0 0 o-0 0 0 —e-1 0 0 4 89 190 997 678 540 -4b3--331-315 1 7b 67 6-I9« 131 72 17 1200 322 200 — 88-89 214 379 —6-Hr-6b9 5255 18 61 -160-135 44 12 B-434 921/SW HlGHLANP VA\|.E> , 10RNJEX 1123469 — MONTHLY TOTAL PWECIPIT AT ION fMM) MANUAL RECORDING DAYS WITH DAYS V MO OBSERV GAUGE PRECIP MISSED 79 01 73.2 8 0 79 02 10.8 5 0 79 03 15.2 3 0 -79 04 46.3 10 0 79 05 36.8 10 0 79 06 11.6 2 0 79 07 24^5 6 79 08 45.4 12 0 79 09 35.5 10 0 79 10 62.7 7 0 —7 9—11 6 .9 4 0 79 12 24.2 6 0 ANNUAL 392.6 83 0 -ACCUMUL-A TEP-PK ec-JP-1 T AT-tON-H STORAGE GAUGE INTERVAL 1 2 •ONTHtY-SN04FALL (CM! -*NO#-P*€H-73.2 10.8 15.2 13.9-1 1.4 .0 rO— .0 .0 60.74 - 6 . 9 -24.2 DEPTH (CM) COVER («1 DATE M M M -M-M 0 0 0 M JAN31 FEB28 MAR3I -APR30" MAY31 JUN30 JUL a I AUG3I SEP30 0CT31 N0V3O-DEC3I 216.34 128 APPENDIX 1 1 T h e o r y and o p e r a t i o n of p s y c h r o m e t e r s 129 T h e r m o c o u p l e p s y c h r o m e t e r s measure t h e r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h t h e y a r e p l a c e d . R e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y i s l i n e a r l y r e l a t e d t o water p o t e n t i a l i n t h e r a n g e o f 0 t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y - 5 0 b a r s (Wescor, u n d a t e d ) . Water p o t e n t i a l i n s o i l s i s t h e measure o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e f r e e e n e r g y of p u r e w a t e r a n d t h e f r e e e n e r g y o f s o i l w a t e r . I t has two components; m a t r i c p o t e n t i a l and o s m o t i c p o t e n t i a l . O s m o t i c p o t e n t i a l has l i t t l e e f f e c t on s o i l m o i s t u r e r e t e n t i o n o r on mass s o i l w a t e r movement. The r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i s t h e r e f o r e r e l a t e d t o t h e s o i l m a t r i c p o t e n t i a l . T h i s p o t e n t i a l i s r e c o r d e d a s a n e g a t i v e v a l u e b e c a u s e i t r e p r e s e n t s a d i f f e r e n c e between two water p o t e n t i a l s and may be r e g a r d e d as a t e n s i o n f o r c e . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , t h e s o i l m a t r i c p o t e n t i a l , e x p r e s s e d as a p o s i t i v e v a l u e , may be r e g a r d e d a s t h e e n e r g y r e q u i r e d t o e x t r a c t w a t e r from t h e s o i l m a t r i x ( B r a d y , 1974). T h e r m o c o u p l e p s y c h r o m e t e r s may be o p e r a t e d u s i n g t h e t h e p s y c h r o m e t r i c m e t h o d o r t h e d e w p o i n t method. In t h i s s t u d y a Wescor HR33T d e w p o i n t m i c r o v o l t m e t e r was u s e d ; t h i s i n s t r u m e n t a l l o w e d r e a d i n g s t o be t a k e n u s i n g b o t h methods. In a d d i t i o n , s o i l t e m p e r a t u r e s c o u l d be m e a s u r e d a l s o u s i n g t h e t h e r m o c o u p l e . W i t h t h e p s y c h r o m e t r i c method, t h e j u n c t i o n i s c o o l e d t o below t h e dew p o i n t so t h a t w a t e r c o n d e n s e s on t h e j u n c t i o n . Upon d i s c o n t i n u i n g t h e c u r r e n t , t h e c o n d e n s e d water e v a p o r a t e s back i n t o t h e a t m o s p h e r e a n d t h i s e v a p o r a t i o n c o o l s t h e j u n c t i o n . The t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e j u n c t i o n i s measured e l e c t r i c a l l y b e f o r e c o o l i n g and d u r i n g e v a p o r a t i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e i n t e m p e r a t u r e i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y 130 of t h e a t m o s p h e r e ; t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t y p i c a l l y 0 . 4 7 u v o l t s / b a r a t 25° C. T h i s v a l u e may c o r r e c t e d f o r ambient t e m p e r a t u r e w h i c h i s m e a s u r e d a t t h e same t i m e . W i t h t h e dew p o i n t method, t h e j u n c t i o n i s c o o l e d so t h a t i t becomes wet. I t s t e m p e r a t u r e i s t h e n below t h a t o f i t s s u r r o u n d i n g s and h e a t f l o w s i n t o i t . A c o u n t e r - c u r r e n t c a n be c r e a t e d t o b a l a n c e t h i s low e x a c t l y and t o m a i n t a i n t h e dew p o i n t t e m p e r a t u r e . However, o t h e r h e a t t r a n s f e r mechanisms a s w e l l a s e v a p o r a t i o n and c o n d e n s a t i o n a r e a l s o i n v o l v e d h e r e . I f , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e measurement, a b a l a n c e d c o n d i t i o n i s s e t up on a d r y t h e r m o c o u p l e , t h e c u r r e n t r e q u i r e d t o c r e a t e a b a l a n c e d c o n d i t i o n on a wet t h e r m o c o u p l e w i l l be a f u n c t i o n o n l y of t h e amount of w a t e r on t h e j u n c t i o n . E a c h t h e r m o c o u p l e t h e r e f o r e has a c o o l i n g c o e f f i c i e n t w h i c h i s s e t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e measurement. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e c u r r e n t r e q u i r e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e dew p o i n t t e m p e r a t u r e and t h e w a t e r p o t e n t i a l i s t y p i c a l l y 0 . 7 5 u v o l t s / b a r a t 25° C. A g a i n , c o r r e c t i o n due t o ambient t e m p e r a t u r e i s r e q u i r e d . The dew p o i n t method i s r e g a r d e d as t h e more a c c u r a t e o f t h e two. In t h i s s t u d y , measurements were made u s i n g b o t h methods as a p r e c a u t i o n a g a i n s t e r r o n e o u s r e a d i n g s . APPENDIX I I I S p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n and s o i l p r o f i l e d i a g r a m s f o r p l o t s s u r v e y e d w i t h i n e a c h c o m m u n i t y - t y p e . ( S p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n r e p o r t e d as p e r c e n t c o v e r i n e a c h l a y e r ; + = l e s s t h a n 5 p e r c e n t ) 132 KEY TO SOIL PROFILE DIAGRAMS depth of horizon boundaries (cm) (drawn to scale) Prganic horizons^ plot no, & mineral horizons< soil -structure * soil structure grade % content.(by volume) of coarse fragments colour 7\ soil structure * soil structure grade % content (by volume) of coarse fragments colour I soil texture * sdil moisture additional features distinct horizon boundary - — indistinct " +++'+ maximum depth of root penetration - feature not recorded W.T. water table * Classes according to Resource Analysis Branch (1980) f.=very fine m=medium f.=fine c.=coarse 133 LODGEPOLE PINE/SPRUCE COMMUNITIES LAYER SPECIES PLOT NUMBER 09 10 19 uppe r t r e e l o w e r t r e e 10 05 25 20 P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i v a r . g l a u c a 05 + P i c e a s p . P i n u s c o n t o r t a P i c e a spp 05 05 P i n u s c o n t o r t a + 05 P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i v a r . g l a u c a 05 up p e r s h r u b A l n u s i n c a n a 15 P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i v a r . g l a u c a + + Rosa n u t k a n a v a r . n u t k a n a S a l i x s p . + l o w e r s h r u b A l n u s i n c a n a h e r b A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i  J u n i p e r u s communis  Ledum s p . L i n n a e a b o r e a l i s  Rosa s p . S p i r a e a b e t u l i f o l i a  V a c c i n i u m s c o p a r i u m S p i r a e a b e t u l i f o l i a  V a c c i n i u m s c o p a r i u m A r n i c a c o r d i f o l i a  C a l y p s o b l u b o s a  G o o d y e r a o b l o n g i f o l i a  L u p i n u s b i c o l o r  P r y o l a m i n o r  P y r o l a s e c u n d a C a l a m a g r o s t i s r u b e s c e n s mosses l i c h e n s g r o u n d stumps 05 + + + + + + + 05 10 + + 10 05 05 + 10 40 30 30 30 15 15 10 + 10 + 05 + 05 + + + 35 15 20 05 9' 10 19 6 4 2 0 Ash 23H-+++++++++++ 8 6 f.granular2 weak 10 10YR 7/3 f.granular weak 20 10YR 6/2 15i*+++++++++++ 2l§ j sandy loam moist 3S Ash 10 8 3 0 m.granular moderate 5 H 10YR 4/3 m.granular moderate 5 10YR 4/3 18f*-++++++++++4J B 25^  f .granular moderate 20 10YR 4/2 moist m.granular moderate 30 10YR 5/2 ' dry/moist 135 DOUGLAS-FIR/LODGEPOLE PINE COMMUNITIES LAYER SPECIES PLOT NUMBER 05 17 24 20 upper 10 upper 05 t r e e P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i v a r . g l a u c a 25 08 s h r u b P i n u s c o n t o r t a 10 05 upper 05 P o p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s 05 P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i v a r . g l a u c a 02 05 S a l i x s p . s h r u b P i n u s c o n t o r t a P o p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s + P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i v a r . g l a u c a 30 25 20 07 07 + + l o w e r 10 h e r b J u n i p e r u s communis + Rosa n u t k a n a v a r . n u t k a n a  S a l i x s p . S h e p h e r d i a c a n a d e n s i s s h r u b A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i J u n i p e r u s communis L i n n a e a b o r e a l i s Rosa n u t k a n a v a r . n u t k a n a S p i r a e a b e t u l i f o l i a 05 V a c c i n i u m s c o p a r i u m  V a c c i n i u m s p . A c h i l l i a m i l l e f o l i u m 15 + + + 10 + + A n a p h a l i s m a r g a r i t a c e a + + A n t e n n a r i a a l p i n a v a r . media 07 A n t e n n a r i a n e g l e c t a v a r . a t t e n u a t a + A r a b i d o p s i s t h a l i a n a + A r n i c a c o r d i f o l i a 10 05 A s t e r r a d u l i n u s A s t r a g u l u s m i s e r v a r . decumbens C a s t i l l e j a s p . C h i m a p h i l a s p . E p i l o b i u m s p . F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a G a l i u m b o r e a l e G e n t i a n a a m a r e l l a 10 + 10 05 + + + + + + + + 10 + + 05 10 + + + + + 136 G e n t i a n a p r o p i n q u a + G o o d y e r a o b l o n g i f o l i a  L i 1 i u m columbianum  O x y t r o p i s c a m p e s t r i s  P l a n t a g o s p . P y r o l a s p . Sedum l a n c e o l a t u m + S t e l l a r i a T araxacum s p . o f f i c i n a l e + + + + + + 30 mosses A g r o s t i s s p . + C a l a m a g r o s t i s r u b e s c e n s F e s t u c a s c a b r e l l a 70 80 + 07 05 30 30 l i c h e n s r o c k s / g r o u n d 35 stumps 05 + + 05 10 05 15 05 05 5 17 20 24 1 * H =A= lq+++++++++++-ij B 2 i a I f . g r a n u l a r n, Iweak 0 10YR 5/3 L T v . f .granular] none 20 10YR 5/2 I sand 'dry 40 B 24 +++++++++++ 10 8 -m.granularO moderate 5 10YR 3/2 8, B 18|++++++++++++j . f.granular imoderate 5 10YR 5/3 2&| m. granular 'strong 10 10YR 4/3 8 c.granula strong 30 10YR 5/2 sandy clay moist m.g r a m i Tar moderate 10 10YR 3/2 f .granular moderate 20 10YR 6/1 1 sandy loam dry/moist L/F/H boundaries absent j .'s-andy loam I dry 138 LODGEPOLE PINE COMMUNITIES LAYER 23 SPECIES PLOT NUMBER 01 04 08 upper t r e e P i n u s c o n t o r t a 20 45 lowe r t r e e P i c e a s p . + P i n u s c o n t o r t a 35 P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i v a r . g l a u c a upper s h r u b P i n u s c o n t o r t a + P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i v a r . g l a u c a + A l n u s s p . A m e l a n c h i e r s p . Rosa n u t k a n a v a r . n u t k a n a 30 20 Rosa s p . + S a l i x s p . + S h e p h e r d i a c a n a d e n s i s S p i r a e a b e t u l i f o l i a l o w e r s h r u b A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i  C o r n u s s t o l o n i f e r a  J u n i p e r u s communis + L i n n a e a b o r e a l i s Rosa n u t k a n a v a r . n u t k a n a Rosa s p . 10 Rosa w o o d s i i S p i r a e a b e t u l i f o l i a V a c c i n i u m s c o p a r i u m + 05 + + + + + + 25 40 10 05 05 + 05 10 10 30 05 15 + 05 15 + 05 h e r b A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m A r n i c a c o r d i f o l i a A s t r a g a l u s m i s e r v a r . decumbens C a l y p s o b u l b o s a C o p t i s s p . Daucus s p . E p i l o b i u m s p . F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a G o o d y e r a o b l o n g i f o l i a Ledum s p . L i 1 i u m s p . L u p i n u s s p . P y r o l a c h l o r a n t h a + P y r o l a s e c u n d a + P y r o l a s p . 10 05 + + + + + + + + + + 05 20 S t e l l a r i a s p . C a l a m a q r o s t i s r u b e s c e n s 40 C a r e x s p . mosses + l i c h e n s 05 r o c k s / g r o u n d stumps 10 unknown h e a t h e r -F-H 14 40 +++++++++++ 6 4 0 m. granular moderate 5 10YR 5/3 14 f .granular moderate 10 10YR 6/2 50+| r/ 50 17 +++++++++++4 3.5 2.5 °-6 m.granular weak 10 10YR 4/2 m.granular weak 10 10YR 5/3 35 clay loam wet lloamy sand moi st 8 6 3 f .granularO weak 2 10YR 3/3 10 v . f .granular} moderate 10 l'OYR 6/2 24 23 +H-++++++H-++ 3 c.granular moderate 20 10YR 5/3 rc .granular moderate 30 10YR 4/2 f .sandy roam moist .saijidy oam moist SPRUCE/ALDER COMMUNITIES LAYER SPECIES PLOT NUMBER 02 1 2 up p e r t r e e P i c e a s p . P i n u s c o n t o r t a  P o p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s 15 20 l o w e r t r e e A l n u s i n c a n a P i c e a s p . P o p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i v a r . g l a u c a S a l i x s p . upper s h r u b A l n u s i n c a n a J u n i p e r u s communis  J u n i p e r u s s c o p u l o r u m  L o n i c e r a i n v o l u c r a t a  Rosa n u t k a n a v a r . i n u t k a n a  S a l i x s p . S h e p h e r d i a c a n a d e n s i s l o w e r s h r u b A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i  J u n i p e r u s communis  J u n i p e r u s s c o p u l o r u m  L i n n a e a b o r e a l i s  L o n i c e r a i n v o l u c r a t a  R i b e s hudsonianum  R i b e s l a c u s t r e  Rosa n u t k a n a v a r . n u t k a n a  V a c c i n i u m s p . h e r b A c t e a r u b r a A q u i l e q i a f o r m o s a  A r n i c a c o r d i f o l i a  A s t r a g u l u s c a n a d e n s i s v a r . C a s t i l l e j a r h e x i f o l i a  C o r n u s c a n a d e n s i s  E p i l o b i u m s p . F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a  G a l i u m a p a r i n e  Ga1ium b o r e a l e  G o o d y e r a s p . L u p i n u s b i c o l o r  M i t e l l a p e n t a n d r a  P a s t i n a c a s a t i v a  P y r o l a m i n o r  P y r o l a u n i f l o r a  R a n u n c u l u s s p . S e n e c i o a m p l e c t r e n s  S e n e c i o p s e u d a u r e u s S m i l a c i n a s t e l l a t a 20 1 5 20 10 05 + + + + + 10 + + 05 + 10 + + + 05 + 05 + + m o r t o n i i 05 + 05 05 + + 10 + + + + + 10 + 05 05 + + + + + + 05 + + + 15 142 S t e l l a r i a s p . + S r e p t o p u s a m p l e x i f o l i u s + T h a l i c t r u m o c c i d e n t a l e 08 + C a l a m a g r o s t i s r u b e s c e n s 25 10 E q u i s e t u m a r v e n s e 10 E q u i s e t u m p r a t e n s e + J u n c u s g e r a r d i i + C a r e x a t h e r o d e s + C a r e x s p . + mosses + l i c h e n s + + g r o u n d 08 35 stumps 05 unknown G r a m i n i d s p . 10 + Spruce/alder communities 143 s_ r o r — cu t—i =5 +-> C r o C M fO S -S_ CU C i cn-o >- , — + J • O o • i— cu O E Ln , - 4 i/> 2 + + + + t + S_ S - C M rO I - H rO CVJ E e r— —^  i — r o t o o Z3 LO 3 O •r— N •(-> C • C • r — O •r— C r d C M r o C M E i- CU S - S - 4-> o LO C D r o OL CJ) r o ca r— +-> X I . CU • CU O >- •t— O l r o E 3 O L D E 3 C M Ln 1 c o 2 Z C o C M m co C M ASPEN MEADOW COMMUNITIES LAYER SPECIES PLOT NUMBER 16 22 u p p e r t r e e P o p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s + l o w e r t r e e P o p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s + upper s h r u b P o p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s + l o w e r s h r u b P o p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s + h e r b A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m 05 + A g o s e r i s g l a u c a + + A r a b i d o p s i s t h a i i a n a + D e l p h i n i u m o c c i d e n t a l e + F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a + Ga1ium b o r e a l e + P o t e n t i l l a g r a c i l i s + R a n u n c u l u s s p . + Sonchus a r v e n s i s + Sonchus s p . + S t e l l a r i a a q u a t i c a + S t e l l a r T a l o n g i f o l i a + + Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e + 12 T r i f o l i u m h y b r i d u m + T r i f o l i u m m a c r o c e p h a l u m + T r i f o l i u m r e p e n s 1 5 A l o p e c u r u s p r a t e n s i s + + Bromus i n e r m i s 35 F e s t u c a s p . 25 Poa p a l u s t r i s 90 10 C a r e x s p . + + 16 10 41 3. 28 +++++++++++ f.granular moderate 0 10YR 2/2 f .granular i moderate i0 110YR 3/3 si l t loam moist 38 46 22 +++'++++++++ m.granular moderate 0 10YR 3/1 m.granular moderate 0 10YR 5/1 I s i l t 1oam J moi st compact 146 OPEN FOREST/GRASSLAND COMMUNITIES LAYER SPECIES PLOT NUMBER 03 06 18 u p p e r t r e e P i n u s c o n t o r t a + 02 P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i v a r . g l a u c a 15 08 l o w e r t r e e P i n u s c o n t o r t a P o p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i v a r . g l a u c a u p p e r s h r u b P o p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s  J u n i p e r u s communis  S h e p h e r d i a c a n a d e n s i s l o w e r s h r u b A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i  J u n i p e r u s communis  J u n i p e r u s s c o p u l o r u m  L i n n a e a b o r e a l i s n u t k a n a h e r b w o o d s i i ?) Rosa n u t k a n a v a r , Rosa w o o d s i i ( v a r . S a l i x s p . S p i r a e a b e t u l i f o l i a  V a c c i n i u m s p . A c h i l l i a m i l l e f o l i u m A g o s e r i s g l a u c a A l l i u m cernum A n t e n n a r i a m i c r o p h y l l a A n t e n n a r i a s p . A r a b i d o p s i s t h a l i a n a A r n i c a c o r d i f o l i a A s t r a g a l u s m i s e r v a r . decumbens C a s t i l l e j a s p . E p i l o b i u m ( a n g u s t i f o l i u m ?) F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a  Ga1ium b o r e a l e Penstemon p r o c e r u s v a r . p r o c e r u s  P l a n t a g o s p . Sonchus s p . S t a n l e y a s p . Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e  T h e l y p o d i u m f l e x u o s u m  T h e l y p o d i u m h o w e l l i  T r a g o p o g o n d u b i u s  T r i f o l i u m h y b r i d u m  T r i f o l i u m r e p e n s A g r o s t i s s p . C a l a m a g r o s t i s r u b e s c e n s  Poa p r a t e n s i s  Poa s p . 10 + 05 08 + + 10 + 15 15 + + 10 10 + + 10 10 + + + + + + + + + + 75 40 + + 05 10 05 10 07 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 10 35 10 C a r e x s p . mosses l i c h e n s r o c k s / g r o u n d stumps unknown c o m p o s i t e unknown legume unknown m i n t 3 6 18 10H-++++++++++>H L T f .granular moderate 5. 10YR 3/2 30+ f .granular moderate 3 5 10YR 3/2 clay loam moist T -F-12H-+++++++++++ 0 f .granular moderate 10 10YR 4/3 13 v.f.granular weak 10 10YR 4/3 B 20fr++++++++++4 25 m. granular moderate 5 10YR 3/3 f.granular moderate 20 10YR 5/3 I I i loamy sand ' mojst sandy loam dry/moist VALLEY BOTTOM MEADOW COMMUNITIES LAYER SPECIES PLOT NUMBER 07 14 upper t r e e lower t r e e upper shrub lower shrub herb F r a g a r i a v i r q i n i a n a + O x y t r o p i s s e r i c e a v a r . s p i c a t a + Plantago sp. + Ranunculus sp. 05 + Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e + 10 T r i f o l i u m p a r r y i + T r i f o l i u m repens 05 Alopecurus sp. + Festuca sp. + Poa compressa + Poa p r a t e n s i s 80 35 Poa t r i v i a l i s 45 Equisetum hyemale + Juncus sp. + Carex sp. 05 bare ground 05 10 3 6 18 L T" 10H-+++++++++++ 30+ 5 I 0 4 f .granular moderate 5 !10YR 3/2 12H-+++++++++++ f .granular I moderate .5 10YR 3/2 clay loam moist -F-f .granular moderate 10 10YR 4/3 13 v.f.granular weak 10 10YR 4/3 B 20H-++++++++++-H 25 m. granular moderate 5 10YR 3/3 f .granular moderate 20 10YR 5/3 I I i loamy sand sandy loam dry/moist m o i s t VALLEY BOTTOM MEADOW COMMUNITIES LAYER SPECIES PLOT NUMBER 07 14 upper t r e e l o w e r t r e e u p p e r s h r u b l o w e r s h r u b h e r b F r a q a r i a v i r g i n i a n a O x y t r o p i s s e r i c e a v a r . s p i c a t a P l a n t a q o s p . R a n u n c u l u s s p . Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e T r i f o l i u m p a r r y i T r i f o l i u m r e p e n s A l o p e c u r u s s p . F e s t u c a s p . Poa c o m p r e s s a  Poa p r a t e n s i s Poa t r i v i a l i s E q u i s e t u m hyemale + J u n c u s s p . + C a r e x s p . 05 b a r e g r o u n d 05 10 + + 05 + + + 10 + 05 + + + 80 35 45 7 14 : 1 tj 40+++++++++++ 3.4 1.5 0 2.5 v .f .granular) none 0 7.5YR 3/2 F TT +++++++++++•« v .f .granular| none , 0 30+ 10YR 3/3 f.granular moderate 0 10YR: 2/2 c.granular moderate 10 10YR 4/3 j sandy loam moist highly com-pacted mottled 50+ |f.sandy loam dry WILLOW COMMUNITIES LAYER SPECIES PLOT NUMBER 15 25 upper tree lower tree Salix sp. 60 60 upper shrub Betula glandulosum + Lonicera involucrata 05 Ribes hudsonianum 05 Ribes lacustre + Salix sp. 05 lower shrub Picea sp. + Ribes lacustre 20 Rosa nutkana var. nutkana 05 Rubus acaulis + Rubus parv i f l o r u s + Rubus spectabalis 05 Salix sp. + herb Epilobium anqustifolium 05 + Fraqaria virginiana + Galium aparine + Geum aleppicum + Plantago sp. + P o t e n t i l l a f l a b e l l i f o l i a + Pyrola minor + Ranunculus sp. + + Senecio pseudaureus + Senecio sylvaticus + Smilacina s t e l l a t a + S t e l l a r i a aquatica + S t e l l a r i a l o n q i f o l i a 05 Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e + Thalictrum sp. + + Tri f o l i u m repens 05 Urti c a d i o i c a 05 Vi o l a sp. + Alopecurus pratensis + Calamagrostis canadensis 60 40 Catabrosa aquatica 20 Equisetum arvense + Equisetum f l u v i a t i l e + Juncus sp. + Carex sp. 15 + mosses 05 water 10 unknown c o m p o s i t e 08 11 8 2 1 4 2.5 20H-++++++++++4-25 c.granular strong 0 10YR 2/1 agranular 'Strong 50 ' 10YR 4/2 I 35+J 40 siIty clay wet 48 F -H-30W-+++++++-M-J c granular strong 0 10YR 2/1 si ime l loamy s i l t moist 20 18 15 25 25 18 12 H 0 = waterlogged, gasses 41 given off I blocky weak 0 10YR 6/6 waterlogged gasses given off WILLOW/BIRCH COMMUNITIES LAYER SPECIES PLOT NUMBER 11 21 upper t r e e l o w e r t r e e u p p e r s h r u b B e t u l a q l a n d u l o s a  S a l i x s p . l o w e r s h r u b A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i  B e t u l a q l a n d u l o s a  S a l i x p e d i c e l l a r i s  S a l i x s p . h e r b 40 40 08 + 05 20 15 + 10 05 + 05 A c h i l l i a m i l l e f o l i u m  A n a p h a l i s m a r q a r i t a c e a  A n t e n n a r i a media  A r n i c a s p . E p i l o b i u m s p . F r a q a r i a v i r q i n i a n a  G a l i u m b o r e a l e  O x y t r o p i s c a m p e s t r i s  P l a n t a q o s p . P o t e n t i l l a s p . R a n u n c u l u s s p . S e n e c i o a m p l e c t e n s  S i s y r i n c h i u m a n q u s t i f o l i u m  S t e l l a r i a l o n q i f o l i a  T a r a xacum o f f i c i n a l e  T r i f o l i u m r e p e n s  V i o l a s p . B o t r y c h i u m l u n a r i a v a r . l u n a r i a A q r o p y r o n c a n i n u m s p . c a n i n u m v a r . l a t i q l u m e A g r o s t i s s p . Poa p r a t e n s i s Poa s p . J u n c u s g e r a r d i i  J u n c u s s p . C a r e x a t h e r o d e s  C a r e x s p . + + + 05 + + 05 05 + + + + + + + + + + + + 15 10 15 10 20 + + 05 mosses g r o u n d + + + + 11 4 2.5 25 20H-+++++++++++ c.granular strong 0 10YR 2/1 35+1 <e a g r a n u l a r 'Strong 50 i10YR 4/2 I I 40 silty clay wet 21 F -H-30tft+-fc++H-++++r+^  c. granular strong 0 10YR 2/1 481 )UL si ime j loamy si l t moist SEDGE MARSH COMMUNITIES LAYER SPECIES upper t r e e l o w e r t r e e u p p e r s h r u b l o w e r s h r u b h e r b C a t a b r o s a a q u a t i c a E q u i s e t u m f l u v i a t i l e  C a r e x s p . ( o e d e r i ?) PLOT NUMBER 13 26 10 + 60 60 APPENDIX IV A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e t a b l e s f o r p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t y p e s of m a t e r i a l Source TYPE SITE Residual Tota1 C o m p o s i t i o n o f p a r t i c l e s 10-25mm d i a m e t e r Sum of Mean squares DF square 7.9231 4 . 1.9808 1.7513 8. O.21892 15.181 83 . 0.18290 24.855 95. TYPE SITE Residual Total 7 .8134 1 .0897 3.2167 12.120 4 . 8. 83. 95. 1 .9534 O. 13621 0.38756E-01 C o m p o s i t i o n o f p a r t i c l e s 4.76-10mm d i a m e t e r TYPE SITE Res 1dual Total 3.3529 0.48354 1 .5262 5.3626 C o m p o s i t i o n o f p a r t i c l e s 2-4.76mm d i a m e t e r 4 . 8. 83 . 95. 0.83822 0.60443E-01 0. 18388E-01 TYPE SITE Res 1dual Total 4.0192 0.54152 1 .8019 6.3626 4 . 8. 83. 95. 1 .0048 0.67690E-01 0.21710E-01 C o m p o s i t i o n o f s o i l - s i z e d p a r t i c l e s TYPE SITE Residual Total 9728.7 31 .368 73.799 9833.9 4. 8. 83. 95. 2432.2 3.9210 0.88915 C o m p o s i t i o n o f c o a r s e sand TYPE SITE Residual Total 11.408 0.99078 3. 1644 15.563 4 . 8 . 83. 95. * 2 .8520 0. 12385 0.38125E-01 F-ratlo P r o b a b i l i t y Test term 10.830 1.1969 O. OOOOO 0. 31098 RESIDUAL RESIDUAL 14.340 3.5147 0.O0101 0.00152 SITE RESIDUAL 13 .868 3.2871 0.00113 0.00263 SITE RESIDUAL 14.844 3.1179 0.00O90 0.00396 SITE RESIDUAL 620.30 4.4098 O. OOOOO 0.00018 SITE RESIDUAL 23.028 0.00019 SITE 3.2485 0.0O289 RESIDUAL C o m p o s i t i o n o f f i n e sand TYPE 3.8812 SITE 0.38966 Residual 2.6016 Total 6.8725 C o m p o s i t i o n o f s i l t TYPE SITE Res 1dual Total 4.7962 1 .6640 5.8427 12.303 C o m p o s i t i o n o f c l a y TYPE SITE Residual 2 .5885 1 .0781 2. 1288 C o m p o s i t i o n o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r TYPE SITE Res 1dual Total 0.65886 0.33477 0.25093 1 .2446 B u l k d e n s i t y TYPE 6.6009 SITE 9.7767 Residual 88.327 Total 104.70 4. 0.97030 30.956 0.00000 RESIDUAL 8. 0.48708E-01 1.5540 0.15147 RESIDUAL 83. 0.31344E-01 95. 4. 1.1990 5.7646 0.01747 SITE 8. 0.20800 2.9548 0.00587 RESIDUAL 83. 0.70394E-01 95. 4. 0.64712 4.8018 0.02858 SITE 8. 0.13477 5.2543 0.00002 RESIDUAL 83. 0.25648E-01 4. 0.16472 3.9362 0.04706 SITE 8. 0.41647E-01 13.842 0.00000 RESIDUAL 83. 0.30232E-02 95. 4. 1.6502 1.5507 0.19521 RESIDUAL 8. 1.2221 1.1484 0.34041 RESIDUAL 83. 1.0642 95. CT) ro APPENDIX V P h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f m a t e r i a l s a t e a c h s i t e NUMBER 1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 i n SAMPLE PG25MM PG10MM PG476MM PG2MM PCTOM PG500MU MEAN STD OEV MEAN STD DEV MEAN STD DEV MEAN STD DEV MEAN STD DEV MEAN STD DEV 8 32 . 422 18. 372 6 .773 2 .546 8 .227 2 .039 15 . 181 3 .478 2 .018 0 .599 50 .327 7 .667 8 19. .234 26. 226 5 .042 6 .878 10 .728 5 .38 1 19 .475 9 .214 2 .025 0 .689 47 . 122 11 041 8 37. , 196 26. .079 7 .479 6 .6(2 1 4 .246 1 .922 9. . 12 1 4 .036 2 .414 1 . 139 45 . 159 5 .299 8 22. .651 20. 239 15 . 398 6 .375 14 , 332 5 . 165 16. 235 5 .482 0 .641 0 157 65 .512 20 .653 8 34. .865 , 23, , 167 1 1 .098 5 .557 1 1 339 5 .235 1 1 . .668 4 .930 0 841 0 . 159 73. .231 7 . 190 8 20. 897 5. 192 16 . 1 16 8 . 330 13 582 3 . 262 15 227 2 . 775 2 923 3 506 64 .522 4 .496 7 22 .200 16. 934 25 .440 8 001 10. 155 8 .019 10 753 7 . 689 1. . 196 0 , 179 40 .862 3 .488 8 23. ,567 12. 342 17 .828 4 447 12. 484 2 . 269 12. 251 2 082 3. 699 0 600 37 .469 7 600 8 23. .771 1 1 . 108 21 .541 7 .095 9. ,706 4 . 324 9. 800 2 .927 3. 519 0. ,406 30 . 185 5 732 8 27. .818 20. , 133 11 .888 6 154 6. 474 1 .923 7 . 638 2 403 1. .782 0. .279 23. .691 3 .376 9 24 .718 13. 821 28 .890 7 ,013 1 1 128 3 .240 10. 162 2. .980 0. 913 0. , 139 36 .274 8 .732 4 0 .000 0. .000 0 .000 0 000 0. 000 0 .000 0 . ooo 0. 000 0 . OOO 0. .000 9. 071 6 .620 4 0 .000 0. 000 0 .OOO 0 ,000 0. 000 0 .000 0 . OOO o 000 0 . OOO 0. 000 22. .210 6 .266 NUMBER i n PG50MU PG2MU PL2MU BD SAMPLE MEAN STD DEV MEAN STD DEV MEAN STD DEV MEAN STD DEV 8 12 . 325 2 . 786 26 .339 12 . 126 7. .644 6 .286 1 .774 0. 1 19 2 8 14 .665 3 . 156 32 . 169 7 .576 6. 044 4. .525 1 .839 0 874 3 8 16 .915 2 .216 22 . 186 18 .496 0. 551 1 . 039 2 . 180 1 . 131 4 8 19 .740 17 .982 8 .763 3 .414 5. ,985 2 716 2 .549 1 1 18 5 8 14 .878 4 981 7 .933 2 .655 3. 959 0 939 2 . 250 0. 659 6 8 13. .271 1 911 17 .735 . 3 .450 4. 472 < 0 6 13 2 . 334 0. 663 7 7 20 .023 1 . 188 28 544 2 ,414 10. 570 1 . , 700 2 227 0. 263 8 8 18 .660 3. 538 31 .391 4 160 12. 480 2 138 2 . 121 0 511 9 8 19. ,715 2 . 780 37 .028 6 791 13. 072 6 .000 2 . 150 0. 449 10 8 17. 331 1 . 896 40 461 1 801 18. ,517 3 .094 1 .896 0 386 11 9 25. 511 5. 493 28. .203 3. 790 10 012 2. .381 3 . 183 2 . 606 12 4 45. 847 24. 137 39. ,650 24. 599 5. .432 6 .056 1 587 0. 1 18 13 4 52. 442 6. 370 22. .925 10. 434 2 423 0 .462 1 .537 0 . 072 cn APPENDIX VI R e s u l t s o f a s s e s s m e n t o f r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s ( P e r c e n t c o v e r , p e r c e n t s e e d h e ads and h e i g h t of s p e c i e s r e c l a m a t i o n t r i a l s a s s e s s e d ) L e a f 167 m i s s e d i n n u m b e r i n g . 168 APPENDIX V I I S p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n o f p l o t s s u r v e y e d w i t h i n n a t u r a l r e v e g e t a t i o n a r e a ( S p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n r e p o r t e d as p e r c e n t c o v e r ) 169 SPECIES A l n u s i n c a n a  A l n u s s i n u a t a  A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a  J u n i p e r u s communis  L i n n a e a b o r e a l i s P i n u s c o n t o r t a v a r . c o n t o r t a  P o p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s  P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i v a r . g l a u c a  R i b e s s p . Rosa n u t k a n a v a r . h i s p i d a  Rosa n u t k a n a v a r . n u t k a n a  Rubus i d a e u s  Rubus s p . S a l i x p e d i c e l l a r i s  S a l i x s p . S h e p h e r d i a c a n a d e n s i s  S p i r a e a b e t u l i f o l i a A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m  A q r o p y r o n c a n i n u m  A g r o s t i s a l b a v a r . a l b a  A n a p h a l i s m a r g a r i t a c e a  A n t e n n a r i a a l p i n a v a r . media  A n t e n n a r i a m i c r o p h y l l a  A r n i c a c o r d i f o l i a  A s t e r c o n s p i c u u s  B r a s s i c a s p . C a l a m a g r o s t i s  r u b e s c e n s  C a s t i l l e j a s p . E p i l o b i u m s p . E r i g e r o n s p . F e s t u c a o v i n a v a r . r y d b e r g i i  F e s t u c a s p . G a l i u m a p a r i n e  Ga1ium b o r e a l e  G r a m i n i d s p . Hordeum s p . L i 1 i u m columbianum  O x y t r o p i s s e r i c e a v a r . s p i c a t a  Penstemon s p . P l a n t a g o s p . Poa p r a t e n s i s PLOT NUMBER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011121314151617181920 + 05 0520102505050525253035300560 + + 20 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 05 +05 + + + + + 1005 + + 1005 05 + 05 + + + + 1005 +05 + + 05 05 + + + + 10 05 20 05 + + +25 + + + +10 +050510 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +0550 5025 + +10 25 +08358550 + + + + + + + + + + + + 25 + 08 + + + 0505 05 +05 + +15150505 + + + + +. + + + + + + 1 0 + + 10 + + +10 + + + +0505 + + + 08 + + + + 170 Poa s p . 10 + Poa t r i v i a l i s + + Polemonium h u m i l e 05 + 05 Sedum s p . + + + + + + S e n e c i o ( c r a s s u l u s ? ) + + S o l i d a q o o c c i d e n t a l i s + +05 05 + +05 + + + + + + + + + + + S t e l l a r i a l o n q i f o l i a + + Tar a x a c u m o f f i c i n a l e + + + + + + + + T h e l y p o d i u m h o w e l l i i + + + + + + + + T r i f o l i u m h y b r i d u m + T r i f o l i u m r e p e n s + PLOT NUMBER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011121314151617181920 APPENDIX V I I I A l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t i n g o f s p e c i e s names and common names ( H i t c h c o c k and C r o n q u i s t , 1973) 172 A c h i l l i a mi l i e f o l i u m A c t e a r u b r a A g r o p y r o n c a n i n u m A q r o p y r o n c a n i n u m s p . c a n i n u m v a r . l a t i q l u m e  A q r o p y r o n c r i s t a t u m  A q r o s e r i s g l a u c a  A g r o s t i s a l b a v a r . a l b a  A g r o s t i s s p . A l l i u m cernum  A l n u s i n c a n a  A l n u s s i n u a t a  A l n u s s p . A l o p e c u r u s p r a t e n s i s  A l o p e c u r u s s p . A m e l a n c h i e r s p . A n a p h a l i s m a r g a r i t a c e a  A n t e n n a r i a a l p i n a v a r . media  A n t e n n a r i a m i c r o p h y l l a  A n t e n n a r i a n e g l e c t a v a r . a t t e n u a t a  A n t e n n a r i a s p . A q u i l e g i a f o r m o s a  A r a b i d o p s i s t h a l i a n a  A r n i c a c o r d i f o l i a  A r n i c a s p . A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i  A s t e r c o n s p i c u u s  A s t e r r a d u l i n u s  A s t r a g u l u s c a n a d e n s i s v a r . m o r t o n i i  A s t r a g a l u s m i s e r v a r . decumbens  B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s u m  B o t r y c h i u m l u n a r i a v a r . l u n a r i a  B r a s s i c a s p . Bromus i n e r m i s  C a l a m a g r o s t i s c a n a d e n s i s  C a l a m a g r o s t i s r u b e s c e n s  C a l y p o s b u l b o s a  C a l y p s o s p . C a r e x a t h e r o d e s  C a r e x o e d e r i  C a r e x C a s t i l l e j a r h e x i f o l i a  C a s t i l l e j a  C a t a b r o s a a q u a t i c a  C h i m a p h i l a s p . C o p t i s s p . C o r n u s c a n a d e n s i s  C o r n u s s t o l o n i f e r a  D a c t y l i s g l o m e r a t a Common yarrow B a n e b e r r y Awned w h e a t g r a s s B r o a d g l u m e d w h e a t g r a s s C r e s t e d w h e a t g r a s s S h o r t - b e a k e d f a l s e d a n d e l i o n R e d t o p B e n t g r a s s W i l d o n i o n M o u n t a i n a l d e r W i n g - l e a v e d a l d e r A l d e r Meadow f o x t a i l F o x t a i l S e r v i c e b e r r y P e a r l y - e v e r l a s t i n g A l p i n e p u s s y - t o e s Rosy p u s s y - t o e s F i e l d p u s s y - t o e s P u s s y - t o e s Red c o l u m b i n e Common w a l l - c r e s s H e a r t - l e a f a r n i c a A r n i c a K i n n i k i n n i c k Showy a s t e r R o u g h - l e a v e d a s t e r Canada m i l k - v e t c h Weedy m i l k - v e t c h S c r u b b i r c h Moonwort M u s t a r d Smooth brome B l u e j o i n t r e e d g r a s s P i n e g r a s s F a i r y - s l i p p e r F a i r y - s l i p p e r Awned sedge G r e e n sedge Sedge R h e x i a - l e a v e d p a i n t b r u s h I n d i a n - p a i n t b r u s h B r o o k g r a s s P r i n c e ' s - p i n e G o l d t h r e a d B u n c h b e r r y C r e e k dogwood O r c h a r d g r a s s Daucus s p . D e l p h i n i u m o c c i d e n t a l e  E p i l o b i u m a n g u s t i f o l i u m  E p i l o b i u m s p . E q u i s e t u m a r v e n s e  E q u i s e t e m f l u v i a t i l e  E q u i s e t u m hyemale  E q u i s e t u m p r a t e n s e  E q u i s e t u m s p . E r i g e r o n s p . F e s t u c a a r u n d i n a c e a  F e s t u c a r u b r a  F e s t u c a s c a b r e l l a  F e s t u c a s p . F e s t u c a o v i n a v a r . r y d b e r g i i  F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a G a l i u m - a p a r i f l e  Ga1ium b o r e a l e  G e n t i a n a a m a r e l l a  G e n t i a n a p r o p i n q u a  Geum a l e p p i c u m  G o o d y e r a o b l o n g i f o l i a G o o d y e r a s p . Hordeum j u b a t u m  Hordeum s p . Ju n e u s g e r a r d i i  J u n c u s spp J u n i p e r u s communis  J u n i p e r u s s c o p u l o r u m  Ledum s p . L i 1 i u m columbianum L i 1 i u m s p . L i n n a e a b o r e a l i s L o n i c e r a i n v o l u c r a t a L u p i n u s b i c o l o r L u p i n u s s p . M e l i l o t u s o f f i c i n a l e s M i t e l l a p e n t a n d r a O x y t r o p i s c a m p e s t r i s O x y t r o p i s s e r i c e a v a r . s p i c a t a P a s t i n a c a s a t i v a Penstemon p r o c e r u s v a r . p r o c e r u s  Penstemon s p .  P i c e a s p . P i n u s c o n t o r t a . P l a n t a g o s p . Poa c o m p r e s s a  Poa p a l u s t r i s  Poa p r a t e n s i s  Poa s p . Poa t r i v i a l i s C a r r o t W e s t e r n l a r k s p u r F i r e w e e d W i l l o w - h e r b Common h o r s e t a i l Water h o r s e t a i l Common s c o u r i n g - r u s h Shady h o r s e t a i l H o r s e t a i l D a i s y T a l l f e s c u e Red f e s c u e B u f f a l o g r a s s F e s c u e Sheep f e s c u e W i l d s t r a w b e r r y C l e a v e r s N o r t h e r n b e d s t r a w N o r t h e r n g e n t a i n F o u r - p a r t e d g e n t i a n Y e l l o w a v e n s W e s t e r n r a t t l e s n a k e -p l a n t a i n R a t t l e s n a k e - p l a n t a i n F o x t a i l b a r l e y F o x t a i l b a r l e y Mud r u s h Rush Common j u n i p e r Rocky m o u n t a i n j u n i p e r L a b r a d o r t e a T i g e r l i l y L i l y T w i n f l o w e r B e a r b e r r y h o n e y s u c k l e T w o - c o l o r l u p i n e L u p i n e Y e l l o w sweet c l o v e r A l p i n e m i t r e w o r t F i e l d c r a z y w e e d S i l k y c r a z y w e e d Common p a r s n i p T i n y - b l o o m penstemon Penstemon S p r u c e L o d g e p o l e p i n e P l a n t a i n Canada b l u e g r a s s F o w l b l u e g r a s s K e n t u c k y b l u e g r a s s B l u e g r a s s R o u g h s t a l k b l u e g r a s s 174 Polemonium s p . P o p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s  P o t e n t i l l a f l a b e l l i f o l i a  P o t e n t i l l a g r a c i l i s  P o t e n t i l l a s p . P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i v a r . g l a u c a  P y r o l a c h l o r a n t h a  P y r o l a m i n o r  P y r o l a s e c u n d a  P y r o l a s p . P y r o l a u n i f l o r a  R a n u n c u l u s s p . R i b e s h u d s o nianum  R i b e s l a c u s t r e  R i b e s s p . Rosa n u t k a n a v a r . h i s p i d a  Rosa n u t k a n a v a r . n u t k a n a  Rosa s p . Rosa w o o d s i i  R u b u s ~ a c a u l i s  Rubus i d a e u s  Rubus p a r v i f l o r u s  Rubus s p e c t a b a l i s  Rubus s p . S a l i x p e d i c e l l a r i s  S a l i x s p . Sedum l a n c e o l a t u m  Sedum s p . S e n e c i o a m p l e c t e n s  S e n e c i o c r a s s u l u s  S e n e c i o p s e u d o a u r e u s  Senec i o s y l v a t i c u s  S h e p h e r d i a c a n a d e n s i s  S i s y r i n c h i a a n g u s t i f o l i u m  S m i l a c i n a s t e l l a t a  S o l i d a q o o c c i d e n t a l i s  Sonchus a r v e n s i s  Sonchus s p . S p i r a e a b e t u l i f o l i a  S t a n l e y a s p . S t e l l a r i a a q u a t i c a  S t e l l a r i a l o n g i f o l i a  S t e l l a r i a s p . S t r e p t o p u s a m p l e x i f o l i u s  T a r axacum o f f i c i n a l e  T h a l i c t r u m o c c i d e n t a l e  T h a l i c t r u m s p . T h e l y p o d i u m f l e x u o s u m  T h e l y p o d i u m h o w e l l i i  T r a g o p o g o n d u b i u s  T r i f o l i u m h y b r i d u m  T r i f o l i u m m a c r o c e p h a l u m  T r i f o l i u m p a r r y i J a c o b ' s l a d d e r T r e m b l i n g a s p e n F a n - l e a f c i n q u e f o i l G r a c e f u l c i n q u e f o i l C i n q u e f o i l D o u g l a s - f i r G r e e n i s h w i n t e r g r e e n L e s s e r w i n t e r g r e e n O n e - s i d e d w i n t e r g r e e n W i n t e r g r e e n Woodnymph B u t t e r c u p S t i n k i n g c u r r a n t Swamp g o o s e b e r r y C u r r a n t B r i s t l y N o o t k a r o s e N o o t k a r o s e Rose Wood's r o s e N a g o o n b e r r y Red r a s p b e r r y T h i m b l e b e r r y S a l m o n b e r r y Bramble Bog w i l l o w W i l l o w L a n c e l e a v e d sedum S t o n e c r o p C l a s p i n g g r o u n d s e l T h i c k - l e a v e d g r o u n d s e l Streambank b u t t e r w e e d Wood g r o u n d s e l S o a p b e r r y E y e - b r i g h t S t a r r y Solomon-plume W e s t e r n g o l d e n r o d F i e l d m i l k - t h i s t l e S o w - t h i s t l e S h i n y - l e a f s p i r e a S t a n l e y a S t a r w o r t L o n g l e a v e d s t a r w o r t S t a r w o r t C l a s p i n g - l e a v e d t w i s t e d - s t a l k Common d a n d e l i o n W e s t e r n meadowrue Meadowrue T h e l y p o d y H o w e l l ' s t h e l y p o d y Y e l l o w s a l s i f y A l s i k e c l o v e r B i g - h e a d c l o v e r P a r r y ' s c l o v e r T r i f o l i u m r e p e n s  T r i s e t u m s p i c a t u m  U r t i c a d i o i c a  V a c c i n i u m s c o p a r i u m  V a c c i n i u m s p . V i o l a s p . W h i t e c l o v e r Downy o a t - g r a s s S t i n g i n g n e t t l e G r o u s e b e r r y B l u b e r r y V i o l e t 

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