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Vegetational composition and regeneration in three forest associations after logging in the coastal Western.. 1976

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VEGETATIONAL COMPOSITION AND REGENERATION IN THREE FOREST ASSOCIATIONS AFTER LOGGING IN THE COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE by STEPHAN J . HOUSEKNECHT B . S c , P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n t h e F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF Jun e , COLUMBIA BRITISH 1976 (cP) Stephan J . Houseknecht, 1976 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D epartment o f F o r e s t r y The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Canada Date June 7, 1976 i ABSTRACT The study was i n i t i a t e d to determine the composition and structure of vegetation and natural tree regeneration invading logged areas within three major forest associations that were subjected to d i f f e r e n t s i t e treatments in coastal B r i t i s h Columbia. To accomplish the above objectives, 50 one-fortieth acre plots were established in logged areas ranging in age from 2 to 14 years following logging and the accompanying s i t e treatment. The number of trees per acre by height class, rooting substratum of the coniferous trees, and q u a l i t a t i v e coverage estimates of the trees, shrubs, herbs and mosses encountered on each plot were sampled. These data were grouped into associations and analyzed using the releve' method for the vegetation arid analysis of variance to assess the role of natural regeneration i n each associa- tion and treatment class. Distance to the seed source and the type of seed source were measured to provide adjacent stand information. Environmental parameters such as slope, aspect, topographic position, seedbed type, parent material and depth, and a l t i t u d e were measured to determine th e i r significance in forming each association and their effect i i on natural regeneration. The results of the study indicate that the three forest associations are i d e n t i f i a b l e in the early stages of secondary succession. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the sword- fern - western redcedar and s a l a l - Douglas-fir associations was possible from vegetation c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s alone. Identi- f i c a t i o n of the moss - western hemlock association necessi- tated the use of physiographic position, s o i l depth, and vegetation. St r u c t u r a l l y , a l l associations contained the same average t o t a l cover, but d i f f e r e d considerably in species composition and layer dominance. The s a l a l - Douglas-fir association had a very well developed shrub layer dominated by a low cover of Gaultheria shallons a well developed moss layer,dominated by Hylocomium splendens3 and a poorly developed herb layer. The moss - western hemlock association followed a similar trend. The swordfern - western redcedar association was characterized by a well developed shrub layer dominated by Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s 3 a herb layer that was well- developed both i n species composition and cover, and a poorly developed moss layer. It was found that factors such as the degree of disturbance, spacing of the planted trees, age, and parent material caused changes in structure and species composition within each association and between associations. In addition, s i t e treatment, especially slashhurning, affected the species composition by eliminating many of the low grow- i i i ing indicator species normally found i n an association that had had no treatment. Slashburning decreased the number of species i n the s a l a l - Douglas-fir association the greatest, while in the swordfern - western redcedar association, this reduction was of a lesser extent. The results of the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis indicate that associations coupled with s i t e treatment are more import- ant in determining the number and species of coniferous trees invading a logged s i t e than the association type. Coniferous trees preferred the s a l a l - Douglas-fir and moss - western hemlock associations that had no treatment or were p i l e d and burned. Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and western redcedar were a l l decreased i n numbers by slashburning. The regeneration of deciduous trees was found to be more strongly controlled by the association type. The swordfern - western redcedar association was the favoured association. A l l coniferous species preferred a mineral s o i l seedbed for germination, however, survival was low except for Douglas-fir. Western hemlock preferred a decaying wood substratum and western redcedar was found most often on rapidly decomposing organic matter in moist pockets. The study indicated that an adequate number of coniferous trees existed in a l l associations and s i t e treat- ments according to normal restocking standards. Western iv hemlock was the dominant tree species and generally occurred in an uneven clumped pattern. Douglas-fir and western red- cedar were r e l a t i v e l y poorly stocked in a l l associations and s i t e treatment classes. Indications are that supplemental planting of Douglas-fir would be needed to reach a desirable le v e l of stocking of Douglas-fir in a l l associations studied. V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i L I S T OF TABLES v i i LI S T OF FIGURES v i i i L I S T OF APPENDICES x i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS x i i i I. INTRODUCTION 1 I I . LITERATURE REVIEW 4 I I I . DESCRIPTION OF AREA STUDIED 7 1. C o a s t a l W e s t e r n Hemlock Zone 7 S o i l s 11 V e g e t a t i o n 13 2. G e o l o g i c a l H i s t o r y o f t h e Stu d y A r e a . . . 15 IV. METHODS 17 1. A p p r o a c h 17 2. S e l e c t i o n o f P l o t s 17 3. P l o t S i z e 18 4. F o r e s t A s s o c i a t i o n 19 5. A s s o c i a t i o n s Examined 19 6. A n a l y t i c a l P r o c e d u r e 20 G e n e r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l d a t a 20 V e g e t a t i o n d a t a a n l a y s i s 21 T r e e d a t a a n a l y s i s 25 S y n t h e s i s o f v e g e t a t i o n . 25 v i Page 7. L e s s e r V e g e t a t i o n . . . . . . . 28 V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 29 PART I - ASSOCIATION AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS . . 31 1. F l o r i s t i c F e a t u r e s o f t h e T h r e e S e r a i A s s o c i a t i o n s 31 S a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n . . . . 31 Moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n . . . 41 S w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n 50 2. Causes o f V a r i a t i o n i n V e g e t a t i o n a l C o m p o s i t i o n and S t r u c t u r e w i t h i n t h e T h r e e S e r a i A s s o c i a t i o n s 60 V a r i a t i o n i n v e g e t a t i o n and s t r u c t u r e between and w i t h i n a s s o c i a t i o n s . . . . 60 V a r i a t i o n c a u s e d by t r e a t m e n t on t h e s t r u c t u r e and g e n e r a l s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e t h r e e a s s o c i a t i o n s . 68 V a r i a t i o n c a u s e d by t r e a t m e n t and a s s o c i a t i o n t y p e on t h e i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t s p e c i e s 70 Summary 76 PART I I - SEEDLING ESTABLISHMENT WITHIN THE THREE SERAL ASSOCIATIONS 7 7 1. S e e d l i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f C o n i f e r o u s and D e c i d u o u s T r e e s 77 2. Seedbed C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f C o n i f e r o u s T r e e s . 105 V I . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 12 0 V I I . LITERATURE CITED 127 APPENDICES 133 v i i TABLES Page TABLE 1 S p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e s c a l e 23 TABLE 2 S o c i a b i l i t y s c a l e 24 TABLE 3 R e g e n e r a t i o n h e i g h t c l a s s e s 26 TABLE 4 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t r e e s i n numbers o f t r e e s p e r a c r e by a s s o c i a t i o n and t r e a t m e n t . . 78 TABLE 5 Number o f d e c i d u o u s t r e e s p e r a c r e by age c l a s s 80 TABLE 6 Number o f c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s p e r a c r e by age c l a s s 81 TABLE 7 F a c t o r s w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f .30 o r g r e a t e r 106 TABLE 8 Number o f D o u g l a s - f i r s e e d l i n g s g r o w i n g on t h r e e t y p e s o f s e e d b e d s 115 v i i i FIGURES Page FIGURE 1 Map showing t h e l o c a t i o n o f the U.B.C. R e s e a r c h F o r e s t and t h e M i s s i o n T r e e Farm where t h e s t u d y was c a r r i e d o u t 8 FIGURE 2 P h o t o - m o s a i c map o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e s e a r c h F o r e s t , Haney, B.C. D o t s i n d i c a t e l o c a t i o n o f s t u d y p l o t s . A p p r o x i m a t e s c a l e - 1:24,000. . . 9 FIGURE 3 Map o f M i s s i o n T r e e Farm. D o t s i n d i c a t e l o c a t i o n o f s t u d y p l o t s . S.cale - 1: 125, 000 10 FIGURE 4 P l o t 48 i n t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n was s e v e r e l y s l a s h b u r n e d 2 y e a r s p r i o r t o e x a m i n a t i o n . N o t e c o v e r o f Pteridium aquilinum and E-pilohium angustifolium and a b s e n c e o f any v i s i b l e t r e e r e g e n e r a t i o n 32 FIGURE 5 P l o t 47, 7 y e a r s a f t e r p i l i n g and b u r n i n g . Note p o o r r e g e n e r a t i o n and s u r v i v a l o f p l a n t e d D o u g l a s - f i r 32 FIGURE 6 P l o t 11 i n t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s t h e v e g e t a t i o n i n an a r e a t h a t had no t r e a t m e n t a f t e r . l o g g i n g 35 FIGURE 7 Heavy Gaultheria shallon c o v e r f o r m i n g on d e c a y i n g wood a f t e r l o g g i n g and no f u r t h e r t r e a t m e n t i n t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n 35 FIGURE 8 M o i s t p o c k e t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f l o g g e d a r e a s . Polystiahum munition, Bleohnum spicantj Dryopteris austviaca and Eylooomium splendens a r e p r o m i n e n t h e r e 38 i x Page FIGURE 9 P l o t 32 i n t h e moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n , 8 y e a r s a f t e r l o g g i n g and no t r e a t m e n t . Tsuga heterophillla p r i m a r y t r e e s p e c i e s , 42 FIGURE 10 P l o t 33 i n t h e moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n 8 y e a r s a f t e r l o g g i n g , p i l i n g and b u r n i n g , and p l a n t i n g o f D o u g l a s - f i r a t a 6x6 f o o t s p a c i n g 42 FIGURE 11 Moss - w e s t e r n h e m l o c k a s s o c i a t i o n ( P l o t 45) on a n o r t h e x p o s u r e . N o t e amount o f Tsuga hetevophylla 45 FIGURE 12 S a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n ( P l o t 41) 7 y e a r s a f t e r s l a s h b u r n i n g on a s o u t h w e s t e x p o s u r e . N o t e amount o f Gaulthevia shallow. and l a c k o f any r e g e n e r a t i o n e x c e p t f o r p l a n t e d D o u g l a s - f i r 45 FIGURE 13 P l o t 2 e x h i b i t s t h e t h i c k u n d e r g r o w t h o f t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n . 51 FIGURE 14 A s u c c e s s f u l p l a n t a t i o n o f D o u g l a s - f i r i n t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n { P l o t 27) 51 FIGURE 15 P l o t 8 i n t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n 5 y e a r s a f t e r l o g g i n g and no t r e a t m e n t . N o t e t h e amount o f d e c i d u o u s t r e e r e g e n e r a t i o n and l a c k o f any v i s i b l e c o n i f e r o u s r e g e n e r a t i o n 53 FIGURE 16 T h i c k d e c i d u o u s u n d e r g r o w t h i n s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n . N o t e t h e p o o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p l a n t e d D o u g l a s - f i r ( P l o t 28); ' 53 FIGURE 17 A v e r a g e c o v e r i n p e r c e n t o f e a c h l a y e r by a s s o c i a t i o n and t r e a t m e n t 61 FIGURE 18 P l o t 4 i n t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n shows t h e t h i c k d e v e l o p m e n t o f Rubus spectabilis 14 y e a r s a f t e r l o g g i n g and s l a s h b u r n i n g 63 X FIGURE 19 P l o t 5 i n t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n on p o o r l y - d r a i n e d g l a c i o - m a r i n e p a r e n t m a t e r i a l . N o t e amount o f Juncus effusus and Alnus rubra and l a c k o f c o n i f e r o u s r e g e n e r a t i o n 4 y e a r s a f t e r l o g g i n g and p i l i n g and b u r n i n g FIGURE 20 L a c k o f g r o u n d c o v e r u n d e r 6x6 f o o t s p a c i n g o f D o u g l a s - f i r i n P l o t 37. Upper p h o t o g r a p h shows s e v e r a l s m a l l w e s t e r n h emlock s e e d l i n g s and c o n i f e r o u s l i t t e r . Lower p h o t o g r a p h shows d e c a y i n g stems o f Eubus s p e c t a b i l i s 66 FIGURE 21 Mean s i g n i f i c a n c e and p r e s e n c e o f f i f t e e n s e l e c t e d s p e c i e s i n t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n 71 FIGURE 22 Mean s i g n i f i c a n c e and p r e s e n c e o f f i f t e e n s e l e c t e d s p e c i e s i n t h e moss - w e s t e r n h emlock a s s o c i a t i o n 72 FIGURE 23 Mean s i g n i f i c a n c e and p r e s e n c e o f f i f t e e n s e l e c t e d s p e c i e s i n t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n 73 FIGURE 24 Number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e o f t h r e e t r e e s p e c i e s and two g r o u p s o f s p e c i e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l a s s o c i a t i o n s 96 FIGURE 25 The number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e by h e i g h t c l a s s o f c o n i f e r o u s and d e c i d u o u s t r e e s f o r t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n , age c l a s s 8 - 10, and no t r e a t m e n t . 97 FIGURE 26 The number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e by h e i g h t c l a s s o f c o n i f e r o u s and d e c i d u o u s t r e e s f o r t h e moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n , age c l a s s 8 - 10, and no t r e a t m e n t 98 FIGURE 27 The number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e by h e i g h t c l a s s o f c o n i f e r o u s and d e c i d u o u s t r e e s f o r t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n , age c l a s s 5 - 7 , and p i l e d and b u r n e d . . 99 FIGURE 28 W e s t e r n r e d c e d a r and w e s t e r n hemlock s e e d l i n g s g e r m i n a t i n g on m i n e r a l s o i l s e e d b e d 108 Page 63 x i Page FIGURE 29 D o u g l a s - f i r s e e d l i n g g e r m i n a t i n g on t y p i c a l m i n e r a l s o i l s e e d b e d 108 FIGURE 30 E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f Ptevidium aquilinum [ b r a c k e n f e r n ) f r o n d s i n r e s t r i c t i n g t r e e r e g e n e r a t i o n I l l FIGURE 31 Tsuga heterophylla g r o w i n g on a b u r i e d s o u r c e o f d e c a y i n g wood. . . I l l FIGURE 32 A d v e n t i t i o u s r o o t s f o r m i n g on a w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r b r a n c h 113 FIGURE 33 T y p i c a l clumped h a b i t o f w e s t e r n hemlock r e g e n e r a t i o n f o l l o w i n g l o g g i n g 113 FIGURE 34 D o u g l a s - f i r g r o w i n g w e l l on d e c a y i n g wood o f f a l l e n w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r t r e e 117 x i i APPENDICES Page APPENDIX 1 133 PART I . G e n e r a l E n v i r o n m e n t T a b l e s . 141 PART I I . V e g e t a t i o n S y n t h e s i s T a b l e s 145 PART I I I . T r e e and S t a n d D e s c r i p t i o n . . . . \ . 156 APPENDIX I I 207 C h e c k l i s t o f S p e c i e s f o u n d i n t h e S e r a i A s s o c i a t i o n s 209 APPENDIX I I I 218 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e T a b l e s 219 APPENDIX IV 222 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l F e a t u r e s 223 x i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to the members of my committee: to Dr. J.V. Thirgood of the Faculty of Forestry, my advisor, who provided f i n a n c i a l support and encouragement; to Dr. T. Ballard to the Department of S o i l Science and Mr. J. Walters, Director of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Research Forest, for t h e i r constructive reviews and c r i t i c i s m s of the manuscript. I wish to express my thanks to Mr. I. Rockwell of the Mission Tree Farm who f a m i l i a r i z e d me with the area and allowed me to carry out my study there. I am indebted to Dr. A. Kozak, Faculty of Forestry, who provided invaluable aid in the s t a t i s t i c a l analyses and to Mrs. L i l l i a n Kerr for assistance i n computer programming. I wish also to thank Dr. V.C. Brink, Department of Plant Science, for assistance in i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the d i f f i c u l t grasses. Special thanks also go to Janet Lee Urhahn, TERA Environmental Resource Analyst Limited, for help i n the drafting of the figures and use of the f a c i l i t i e s . Most p a r t i c u l a r l y I wish to extend special thank to Mr. K. Klinka, Ph.D. candidate, Department of Botany, who guided me in the i n i t i a l stages of the study and helped in the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of vascular plants. x i v A l a r g e p a r t of the success of t h i s s t u d y goes to my w i f e , Donna, w i t h o u t whose s p i r i t u a l h e l p and a s s i s t a n c e i n the f i e l d work t h i s t h e s i s would not be p o s s i b l e . To her. I am f o r e v e r g r a t e f u l . I was s u p p o r t e d d u r i n g the s t u d y by the Canadian F o r e s t r y S e r v i c e and the Department of F o r e s t r y of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1 I . INTRODUCTION The C o a s t a l W e s t e r n Hemlock Zone, i d e n t i f i e d by K r a j i n a ( 1 9 6 5 ) , o c c u p i e s a l a r g e a r e a o f c o a s t a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . In t h i s zone, t h e t h r e e m a j o r t i m b e r t r e e s , namely D o u g l a s - f i r (Pseudotsuga menziesii) w e s t e r n hemlock (Tsuga heterophy l l a ) , and w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r (Thuja plicata) a t t a i n t h e i r h i g h e s t l e v e l o f wood p r o d u c t i o n . E m p i r i c a l y i e l d t a b l e s f o r n a t u r a l s t a n d s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a show t h a t t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the c o a s t a l r e g i o n may be two t o t h r e e t i m e s t h a t o f good s i t e s i n t h e i n t e r i o r ( F l i g g 1 9 6 0 ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h i s zone i s e x c e e d i n g l y v a l u a b l e t o t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . T h e r e f o r e , any p r a c t i c e t h a t w i l l p romote f a s t e r r e g e n e r a t i o n and g r o w t h o f t h e p r e f e r r e d s p e c i e s i s o f t h e utmost i m p o r t a n c e . B o t h t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e s e a r c h F o r e s t and t h e M i s s i o n T r e e Farm, where t h i s s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d , l i e w i t h i n t h e C o a s t a l W e s t e r n Hemlock Zone. T h i s f a c t o r p l a c e s a g r e a t e r v a l u e on t h e r e s u l t s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e s t u d y . However, b e c a u s e o f t h e t i m e i n v o l v e d i n f i e l d a n a l y s i s , o n l y t h e d r y subzone was s t u d i e d . But many o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n s and p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e d r y subzone c a n be a p p l i e d t o t h e wet s u b z o n e . S c i e n t i f i c , common names and a u t h o r s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n A p p e n d i x I I . 2 F o r e s t s a f f e c t e d by human a c t i v i t y , t h a t c o n t a i n a number o f age c l a s s e s and s u c c e s s i o n a l s t a g e s , a r e f r e q u e n t - l y q u i t e h e t e r o g e n e o u s and u n s t a b l e . T h e r e f o r e , h a v i n g some knowledge o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p a t t e r n s o f v e g e t a t i o n a f t e r a d i s t u r b a n c e g r e a t l y enhances t h e amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n e d . B e c a u s e o f t h e i r l o n g e v i t y and d i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t u r e and w i t h i n t i m e , f o r e s t s u c c e s s i o n a l p a t t e r n s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e . Y e t t h e dynamic p r o c e s s e s d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f s u c c e s s i o n must be r e c o g n i z e d i f an e f f e c t i v e s y s t e m o f f o r e s t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s t o be d e v e l o p e d t h a t i s a c c u r a t e and u s e f u l i n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e g e n e r a t i o n c h a r a c t e r - i s t i c s o f t h e t r e e s p e c i e s f o u n d i n e a c h f o r e s t a s s o c i a t i o n . In r e c o g n i t i o n o f a need f o r a more e c o l o g i c a l l y sound programme o f s i l v i c u l t u r e and t h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e l a n d - s c a p e i n t o homogeneous u n i t s t o p r o v i d e f o r a b e t t e r u n d e r - s t a n d i n g as w e l l as a more a c c u r a t e one, r e g a r d i n g r e g e n e r a - t i o n o f t r e e s and v e g e t a t i o n p a t t e r n s a f t e r l o g g i n g , t h e f o l l o w i n g s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s t u d y were t w o - f o l d : t o d e s c r i b e and i n t e r p r e t t h e v e g e t a t i o n a l c o m p o s i t i o n and s t r u c t u r e o f l o g g e d o p e n i n g s i n t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f s e c o n d a r y s u c c e s s i o n , i a n d t o e v a l u a t e t h e r o l e o f n a t u r a l t r e e r e g e n e r a t i o n i n t h r e e f o r e s t a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e d r y subzone o f t h e C o a s t a l W e s t e r n Hemlock Zone. I t i s hoped t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n v e g e t a t i o n p a t t e r n s and t r e e r e - g e n e r a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l be e v i d e n t between t h e t h r e e f o r e s t a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t w i l l p r o v i d e added i n f o r m a t i o n f o r 3 t h e management o f l o g g e d o v e r a r e a s . To meet t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s i t was f o u n d a d v a n t a g e o u s t o d i v i d e t h e t h e s i s i n t o two p a r t s . P a r t I d e a l s w i t h t h e v e g e t a t i o n a n a l y s i s and v a r i a t i o n s due t o man's a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e t h r e e a s s o c i a t i o n s s t u d i e d , and P a r t I I a n a l y z e s t h e s e e d l i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t w i t h i n e a c h a s s o c i a t i o n . In t h i s way t h e o b j e c t i v e s c a n be met i n a more c l e a r and e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d manner. 4 I I . LITERATURE REVIEW In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t and com- p l e t e e c o s y s t e m a t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was d e v e l o p e d by K r a j i n a (1959, 1965, 1969). T h i s a p p r o a c h was a d o p t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . K r a j i n a d i v i d e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t o e l e v e n b i o g e o c l i m a t i c z o n e s , w h i c h were f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d i n t o s u b z o n e s . B a s i c a l l y h i s a p p r o a c h i s f o u n d e d on t h e c o n c e p t d e v i s e d by J e n n y (1941, 1961) and M a j o r (1951) w h i c h i s t h a t v e g e t a t i o n as w e l l as s o i l s i s a p r o d u c t o f c l i m a t e , p a r e n t m a t e r i a l , t o p o g r a p h y , o r g a n i s m s and t i m e . I t i s t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f i d e a s i n t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n ( K r a j i n a 1960) t h a t makes t h i s a p p r o a c h e c o s y s t e m a t i c o r h o l o c o e n o t i c . E a c h b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zone i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by t h e c l i m a t e , t h e z o n a l s o i l , and t h e c l i m a t i c c l i m a x p l a n t community e x i s t i n g on a m e s i c h a b i t a t . The r e c o g n i t i o n o f e a c h subzone i s b a s e d m a i n l y on t h e amount o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n r e c e i v e d and t h e a s s o c i a t e d v e g e t a t i o n c h a n g e s . The name o f t h e zone i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e name o f t h e d o m i n a n t s e l f - r e g e n e r a t i n g p l a n t s i n t h e o v e r s t o r y and i n t h e u n d e r s t o r y . A l t h o u g h K r a j i n a r e c o g n i z e s t h e m e s i c a s s o c i a t i o n as b e i n g t h e c l i m a t i c c l i m a x community, he does d i s t i n g u i s h between e d a p h i c and t o p o g r a p h i c c l i m a x e s , i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e p o l y c l i m a x . 5 P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s o f s e c o n d a r y s u c c e s s i o n f o l l o w i n g c l e a r c u t t i n g have been aimed a t o b t a i n i n g a g e n e r a l knowledge o f s u c c e s s i o n f o l l o w i n g l o g g i n g ( I s a a c 1940, M o r r i s 1958, Y e r k e s 1 9 6 0 ) . T h e r e has been l i t t l e a t t e m p t t o s t r a t i f y t h e e a r l y s u c c e s s i o n a l s t a g e s i n t o c o m m u n i t i e s , b a s e d on e x i s t i n g v e g e t a t i o n and n e a r b y m a t u r e c o m m u n i t i e s . As a r e s u l t o n l y b r o a d s u c c e s s i o n a l s t a g e s have been d i s t i n g u i s h e d b e c a u s e o f t h e v a r i a t i o n due t o age, f i r e i n t e n s i t y , s i t e t y p e and v a r i a b l e s s u c h as s o i l , e l e v a t i o n , and a s p e c t . D y r n e s s (1973) o u t l i n e d t h e t y p i c a l s u c c e s s i o n a l s t a g e s a f t e r l o g g i n g : (1) m o s s - l i v e r w o r t , (2) a n n u a l weeds and s h o r t - l i v e d p e r e n n i a l s , and (3) s h r u b s and t r e e s e e d l i n g s . McMinn (1951) d e s c r i b e d t h e v e g e t a t i o n on a 2 0 - y e a r - o l d b u r n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e s e a r c h F o r e s t and d i s t i n g u i s h e d a number o f s e c o n d a r y v e g e t a t i o n t y p e s b a s e d on s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n and h a b i t a t . No e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p r e v i o u s s t a n d was made. A l s o i n t h i s same a r e a , K e l l m a n (1969) s t u d i e d t h e p l a n t i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s d u r i n g s e c o n d a r y s u c c e s s i o n . He n o t e d t h a t t h e p r e l o g g i n g s p e c i e s m a i n t a i n t h e m s e l v e s a f t e r l o g g i n g and g r a d u a l l y r e - e s t a b l i s h dominance d u r i n g s u c c e s s i o n whereas i n v a d e r ( p i o n e e r ) s p e c i e s r e s p o n d i n i t i a l l y t o canopy r e m o v a l and c o n c e n t r a t e i n t h e more s e v e r e l y d i s t u r b e d s i t e s . M u e l l e r - D o m b o i s (1960) s t u d i e d t h e e a r l y s u c c e s s i o n - a l s t a g e s i n e i g h t a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t were d e s c r i b e d i n t h e i r 6 mature state by Krajina and Spilsbury (1953). Information on their environmental and vegetational aspects in early secondary succession was described and evaluated. He found that even after clearcutting and slashburning the o r i g i n a l plant association was s t i l l evident. Bailey C1966), using a s i m i l a r method, investigated plant succession i n the southern Oregon Coast Range. Bailey and Poulton (1968) c l a s s i f i e d 23-, 29- and 35-year-old secondary communities in northwest Oregon and related them to s i t e type. The results revealed that serai vegetation developing af t e r f i r e i s c l a s s i f i a b l e and that communities exhibit consistent relationships to environmental factors. Dyrness (1965, 1973) followed the early stages of plant succession after logging and burning i n the western Cascades in Oregon. He documented vegetative changes for seven years on permanent milacre p l o t s . The prelogging plant communities were described before logging. Differences in disturbance from logging and burning highly affected the successional trends. Areas disturbed by logging, but unburned, supported a d i v e r s i t y of residual and invader species; whereas burned areas were occupied mostly by invader species. He also found that the postlogging and the prelogging communities were distinguishable. 7 I I I . DESCRIPTION OF AREA STUDIED The s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d on two a r e a s : The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e s e a r c h F o r e s t , Haney, B.C. and t h e M i s s i o n T r e e Farm l o c a t e d n e a r M i s s i o n , B.C. B o t h a r e a s a r e l o c a t e d on t h e s o u t h e r n f r i n g e o f t h e c o a s t m o u n t a i n r a n g e between P i t t and H a r r i s o n L a k e s ( F i g . 1 ) . F i g u r e s 2 and 3 i n d i c a t e t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y p l o t s on t h e two f o r e s t s . Both:.lie -: w i t h i n t h e C o a s t a l W e s t e r n Hemlock Zone and a r e g e n e r a l l y s i m i l a r i n c l i m a t e , v e g e t a t i o n , and s o i l d e v e l o p m e n t . The t o p o g r a p h y i s r u g g e d w i t h numerous r o c k o u t c r o p p i n g s . The s o i l i s m a i n l y o f g l a c i a l t i l l o r i g i n and v a r i e s i n d e p t h f r o m a few i n c h e s t o t h r e e o r more f e e t . The c l i m a t e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by m i l d wet w i n t e r s and c o m p a r a t i v e l y warm d r y summers (Kendrew and K e r r 1955). F i r e and l o g g i n g h i s t o r y c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two a r e a s . 1. The C o a s t a l W e s t e r n Hemlock Zone The C o a s t a l W e s t e r n Hemlock Zone was i d e n t i f i e d by K r a j i n a (1959, 1965, 1969) and has been s t u d i e d by s e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s : K r a j i n a and S p i l s b u r y ( 1 9 5 3 ) , O r l o c i (1961, 1 9 6 4 ) , M u e l l e r - D o m b o i s (1960, 1 9 6 5 ) , L e s k o ( 1 9 6 1 ) , E i s ( 1 9 6 2 ) , Kuramoto (.196 5) , and Wade (1965) . T h i s zone i s t h e most t y p i c a l FIGURE 1 Map showing the l o c a t i o n of the U.B.C. Research F o r e s t and the M i s s i o n Tree Farm where the study was c a r r i e d out. FIGURE 2 Photormosaic map of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Research Forest, Haney, B.C. Dots indicate location of study p l o t s . Approximate scale - 1:24,000. FIGURE 3 Map o f M i s s i o n Tree Farm. Dots i n d i c a t e l o c a t i o n o f s t u d y p l o t s . S c a l e - 1:125,000. 11 o f c o a s t a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , b e g i n n i n g d i r e c t l y a t t h e c o a s t and e x t e n d i n g i n l a n d on t h e s l o p e s o f t h e C o a s t and C a s c a d e M o u n t a i n s . The C o a s t a l W e s t e r n Hemlock Zone i s t h e w e t t e s t zone i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The c l i m a t e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an e q u a b l e m e s o t h e r m a l c l i m a t e ( C f b ) and t o some e x t e n t a m i l d e r D fb c l i m a t e , a f t e r Koppen ( 1 9 3 6 ) . K r a j i n a (1969) summarized i t s a t t r i b u t e s as f o l l o w s : mean a n n u a l t e m p e r a t u r e : 5 - 9° C; a n n u a l r a n g e o f t e m p e r a t u r e : 9 - 21° C; a b s o l u t e maximum t e m p e r a t u r e : 26 - 40° C; a b s o l u t e minimum t e m p e r a t u r e : -30 t o -7° C; number o f f r o s t - f r e e d a y s : 120 - 250 d a y s ; a n n u a l t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n : 65 - 262 i n c h e s ; a n n u a l s n o w f a l l : 5 - 295 i n c h e s ; s e a s o n a l o c c u r r e n c e i n p e r c e n t o f t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n : 30 - 45%*- i n , w i n t e r - and 7 - 15% i n summer; e l e v a ' t i b n : 0: - 3000 f e e t . The zone i s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o two s u b z o n e s b a s e d on p r e c i p i t a t i o n . The a n n u a l t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n t h e d r y subzone r a n g e s f r o m 65 t o 110 i n c h e s . The wet subzone i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an a n n u a l t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n o f 110 t o 262 i n c h e s . S i n c e t h e s t u d y i s o n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e d r i e r s ubzone o f t h e C o a s t a l W e s t e r n Hemlock Zone, o n l y t h i s sub- zone w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r c o n c e r n i n g s o i l s and v e g e t a t i o n . S o i l s The z o n a l s o i l s o f t h e d r i e r s u bzone were i d e n t i f i e d by K r a j i n a (1969) as H u m o - F e r r i c o r F e r r o - H u m i c P o d z o l s . Z o n a l 12 s o i l s a r e t h o s e h a v i n g w e l l d e v e l o p e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t t h e c l i m a t e , w i t h o u t b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d by ex t r e m e s o f p a r e n t m a t e r i a l and d r a i n a g e . Pod- z o l s g e n e r a l l y have t h i c k raw humus a c c u m u l a t i o n s on t h e m i n e r a l s o i l s u r f a c e . The t h i c k a c c u m u l a t i o n o f raw humus i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e c o o l t e m p e r a t u r e s o f t h i s zone and a p r e d o m i n a n c e o f f u n g a l a c t i v i t y , w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e a c t i v i t y by b a c t e r i a and b u r r o w i n g f a u n a . F u n g i a r e p r o m o t e d i n an a c i d e n v i r o n - ment ( L u t z and C h a n d l e r 1946; B u o l , H o l e and M c C r a c k e n 1973), w h i c h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c o n i f e r o u s l i t t e r ( O v i n g t o n 1956). The h e a v y p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n t h i s zone c a u s e s a s t r o n g l e a c h i n g o f t h e s o i l t o t a k e p l a c e , t h u s r e m o v i n g many o f t h e m i n e r a l s f r o m t h e u p p e r s o i l h o r i z o n s t o f o r m an e l u v i a t e d h o r i z o n u n d e r t h e o r g a n i c l a y e r s and an i l l u v i a t e d h o r i z o n i n t h e l o w e r p r o f i l e . T h r o u g h f a l l and s t e m f l o w p r e c i p i t a t i o n a l s o c o n t r i - b u t e t o t h e l e a c h i n g p r o c e s s and t h e c y c l i n g o f n u t r i e n t s i n t h e f o r e s t e n v i r o n m e n t (Madgewick and O v i n g t o n 1959; T a r r a n t et al. 1 9 6 8 ) . L e s k o (1961) f o u n d t h e s o i l s t o be v e r y a c i d w i t h pH r a n g i n g f r o m 2.9 t o 4.9 i n t h e 0 h o r i z o n s , 3.5 t o 4.6 i n t h e Ae h o r i z o n , 3.7 t o 5.4 i n t h e Ah h o r i z o n and 4.0 t o 6.0 i n t h e B h o r i z o n . He a l s o n o t e d t h e ab s e n c e o f an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f c a l c i u m , magnesium, and p o t a s s i u m i n t h e B h o r i z o n c a u s e d by t h e h i g h p r e c i p i t a t i o n p r o m o t i n g l e a c h i n g . The s o i l s g e n e r a l l y e x h i b i t a c o a r s e t e x t u r e r a n g i n g from sandy loam t o g r a v e l l y loamy s a n d . The s o i l s a r e s t o n y 13 w i t h t h e s t o n e s v a r y i n g i n s i z e f r o m g r a v e l t o l a r g e b o u l d e r s . S o i l mapping o f t h e s t u d y a r e a s has been done by s e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s . K o w a l l (1967) mapped compartment 1 o f t h e M i s s i o n T r e e Farm and d e t e r m i n e d t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f t h e s o i l s f o r f o r e s t r y p u r p o s e s . S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e e n t i r e M i s s i o n T r e e Farm, as w e l l as t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a , was mapped by L u t t - m e r d i n g and S p r o u t (1968) f o r t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D epartment o f A g r i c u l t u r e . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e s e a r c h F o r e s t has been p r e l i m i n a r i l y mapped by t h e s o i l s d i v i s i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h Rowles and L a v k u l i c h o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f S o i l S c i e n c e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n a l l c a s e s t h e b a s i c mapping u n i t was the s o i l s e r i e s . V e g e t a t i o n The s t u d y o f t h e m a t u r e f o r e s t a s s o c i a t i o n s i n t h e d r i e r subzone o f t h e C o a s t a l W e s t e r n Hemlock Zone has been done by O r l o c i (1961, 1964), E i s (1962) and K o j i m a ( 1 9 7 2 ) . The m a t u r e a s s o c i a t i o n s must be a n a l y z e d b e f o r e t h e more u n s t a b l e and e c o l o g i c a l l y d i v e r s e s e r a i s t a g e s c a n be f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d . In t h i s zone Tsuga hetevophylla3 Pseudotsuga menziesii3 and Thuja plioata r e a c h t h e most p r o d u c t i v e s t a t e . Pseudotsuga menziesii a t t a i n i t s b e s t g r o w t h , some- t i m e s r e a c h i n g 300 f e e t i n h e i g h t and 12 f e e t i n d i a m e t e r ( K r a j i n a 1959). Pseudotsuga menziesii o c c u r s as a p i o n e e r 14 tree (moderately shade intolerant) on a l l s i t e s except the driest hygrotope. Consequently, i t usually becomes established after f i r e or logging as secondary succession progresses. As the growth of the stand continues under the humid conditions, coniferous l i t t e r and dead trees begin to decay, advancing the process of podzolization and promoting raw humus formation causing the habitat to become more favorable to the establish- ment of Tsuga hetevophylla. According to Krajina (1965), an abundance of acid mor humus greatly enhances the establish- ment of Tsuga hetevophylla. Tsuga hetevophylla i s the climatic climax species on mesic habitats but i s commonly found in a l l habitats throughout the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone. Thuja p l i o a t a grows best on sit e s where seepage water i s abundant. Because of the ample supply of nutrients and moisture on these s i t e s , s o i l organisms are abundant, forming a mull humus which i s favourable to the species. Thuja p l i o a t a usually becomes dominant in depressional re- ceiving areas or a l l u v i a l habitats along streams. Several deciduous trees are commonly found: Aoev macvophyllum, Pvunus emavginata3 Covnus n u t t a l l i i 3 Alnus rubva3 Aoev oivoinatum3 Populus tviohoeavpa, Betula papyvi- feva, and Bhamnus puvshiana. A l l of these deciduous trees require a f a i r l y moist and r i c h habitat to atta i n t h e i r peak productivity. Pinus oontovta and Pinus montieola occur infrequent- l y , Pinus montieola ±s better adapted to montane areas but i t i s usually eliminated by the white pine b l i s t e r rust before 15 i t achieves dominance. Pinus contorta is very shade i n t o l - erant and therefore acts primarily as an invader of open areas i f a seed source i s available. 2 . Geological'.History of the ..Study Areas: The study areas were subjected to four gl a c i a t i o n s : Seymour, Semiamu, Vashon, and a minor one that only glaciated the v a l l e y s , the Sumas (Armstrong 1957). The Vashon was the most important g l a c i a t i o n as far as the s o i l s and present land features of the study area are concerned. During each g l a c i a - tion the land was depressed r e l a t i v e to the sea. As the ice wasted, the ice previously resting on the sea f l o o r thinned and floated, leaving glaciomarine stoney clay deposits below 500 feet elevation. Succeeding the ice melt, the land surface rose above the sea. Meltwater, produced from wasting g l a c i a l i c e , created l o c a l i z e d areas of g l a c i a l outwash deposits above 500 feet elevation. The ice moved i n a generally southerly d i r e c t i o n forming a v a l l e y trend running north to south. The valleys are usually broad and U-shaped with steep sides. The mountains are composed mainly of quartz d i o r i t e , granodiorite, or d i o r i t e . Volcanic or sedimentary rocks are found only l o c a l l y and considered of minor importance (Geological Map of B.C., 1948). Within the study area, g l a c i a l d r i f t i s by far the most abundant material and underlies most of the t e r r a i n . The depth of the t i l l varies from a thin veneer on the top of the slopes to deep p l a i n deposits on the 16 lower s l o p e s . The t i l l i s d e r i v e d from the m e c h a n i c a l a b r a s i o n o f the i c e a g a i n s t the r o c k s t r a t a and c o n s i s t s o f two t y p e s , a b l a t i o n t i l l and b a s a l t i l l . A b l a t i o n t i l l i s m a t e r i a l on and w i t h i n the i c e , and as the g l a c i e r m e l t s i t f a l l s t o the s u r f a c e . B a s a l t i l l i s compacted under the weight o f the g l a c i e r . T h i s compacted m a t e r i a l i s r e l a t i v e l y impermeable to r o o t s and w a t e r . The b a s a l t i l l g e n e r a l l y does not t r a v e l a g r e a t d i s t a n c e and t h e r e f o r e tends to r e f l e c t the c r y s t a l s i z e and c o m p o s i t i o n o f the u n d e r l y i n g bedrock. 17 IV. METHODS 1. A p p r o a c h The b a s i c a p p r o a c h and methods i n i t i a l l y d e v e l o p e d by t h e p h y t o s o c i o l o g i s t s o f t h e Z i i r i c h - M o n t p e l l i e r s c h o o l were f o l l o w e d i n c o n d u c t i n g t h i s s t u d y . These have been d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l by B r a u n - B l a n q u e t C1932, 195.1), B i l l i n g s ( 1 9 5 2 ) , P o o r e (1955, 1956), B e c k i n g ( 1 9 5 7 ) , and K r a j i n a (1933, 1959, 1960, 1965). O n l y a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n i s n e c e s s a r y h e r e t o c l a r i f y t h e methods a d o p t e d . 2. S e l e c t i o n o f P l o t s The sample p l o t s were s u b j e c t i v e l y c h o s e n so t h a t e a c h r e p r e s e n t e d a u n i f o r m s t a n d f l o r i s t i c a l l y as w e l l as p h y s i o g r a p h i c a l l y . E a c h p l o t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a s a m p l i n g u n i t , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s a c o m p l e t e sample o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r e c o s y s t e m and c a n be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c e r t a i n s e t o f p r o p - e r t i e s . A l t h o u g h i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t no two p l o t s a r e g o i n g t o be i d e n t i c a l i n e v e r y d e t a i l , c o m p a r i s o n o f f l o r i s t i c and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d a t a has d i s c l o s e d a n a l o g o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v e g e t a t i o n p a t t e r n and s t r u c t u r e . A t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e s e a r c h F o r e s t sample p l o t s were t e n t a t i v e l y s e l e c t e d u s i n g K l i n k a ' s p r e l i m i n a r y e c o s y s t e m map o f t h e F o r e s t ( 1 9 7 2 ) . F i n a l i d e n t i - 18 f i x a t i o n o f t h e s i t e t y p e was made i n t h e f i e l d u t i l i z i n g p o s i t i o n on s l o p e , d e p t h and t y p e o f p a r e n t m a t e r i a l , r e s i d u a l v e g e t a t i o n and e x i s t i n g v e g e t a t i o n i n t h e a d j a c e n t s t a n d s . In t h e a b s e n c e o f a d e t a i l e d e c o l o g i c a l s t u d y a t t h e M i s s i o n T r e e Farm, a map c o u l d n o t be u s e d t o t e n t a t i v e l y c h o o s e t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e p l o t s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e . The e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d f r o m the f i e l d work a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e s e a r c h F o r e s t , as w e l l as t h e p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d i n d i c a t o r s , were u s e d t o l o c a t e e a c h p l o t a t t h i s f o r e s t . When s a m p l i n g was c a r r i e d o u t i n a c u t - o v e r a r e a , more t h a n one p l o t was u s u a l l y l a i d o u t i n one s i t e t y p e i n an e f f o r t t o sample v a r i a t i o n s i n s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n , b u r n - i n g i n t e n s i t y , and t o p o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n . Such v a r i a t i o n s w i l l c a u s e l e s s e r v e g e t a t i o n a l d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s as w e l l as a f f e c t i n g t r e e g r o w t h and r e g e n e r a t i o n . 3. P l o t S i z e E a c h s i t e t y p e was d e s c r i b e d on a o n e - f o r t i e t h (1/40) a c r e s q u a r e p l o t . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i e l d work i n t h e summer o f 1973, o n e - t e n t h (1/10) a c r e p l o t s were u s e d . But i t was f o u n d t h a t even t h o u g h th e l a r g e r p l o t s i z e c o u l d p r o v i d e more i n f o r m a t i o n ( O r l o c i 1 9 6 4 ) , i t was v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o h a n d l e and t i m e - c o n s u m i n g b e c a u s e o f t h e complex n a t u r e o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n i n c u t - o v e r a r e a s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , o n e - f o r t i e t h (1/40) a c r e p l o t s were c h o s e n . 19 4. Forest Association The d e f i n i t i o n of a forest association adopted for this study i s as follows: "A forest association has a d e f i n i t e uniform vegetation composition and physiognomy, and i s associated with a certain set of environmental and physical factors. It i s in a climax state and at equilibrium with the climate of the area." Because of past f i r e s and logging, numerous successional stages exist before the f i n a l climatic climax stage i s reached. Although i t is emphasized that these successional stages w i l l eventually reach the f i n a l climax association, the reason for centering a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n on the more stable climax association i s that i t draws together several successional stages that w i l l a l l develop into the same climax association. This reduces the size of the c l a s s i - f i c a t i o n and increases i t s usefulness. For these reasons, the serai associations of this study have been i d e n t i f i e d and named according to the climax association to which they r e l a t e , since i n t r i n s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as s o i l , climate, parent material, and topography remain r e l a t i v e l y unaltered, as does the independent b i o t i c factor discussed by Jenny (1941). 5. Associations Examined Three associations were selected to be sampled: Salal - Douglas-fir (xeric) type 20 Moss - w e s t e r n h emlock ( m e s i c ) t y p e S w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r ( s u b h y g r i c - h y g r i c ) t y p e The n o n - f o r e s t e d e c o s y s t e m on r o c k , skunk cabbage - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r and D e v i l ' s c l u b - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a - t i o n s were d i s r e g a r d e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e a r e a c o v e r e d by t h e s e i s s m a l l compared t o t h e o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s and i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms o f management p o t e n t i a l . 6. A n a l y t i c a l P r o c e d u r e G e n e r a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l D a t a On a l l t h e p l o t s examined, t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a m e t e r s were t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and p l o t h i s t o r y : Phy_si_og_raphy2_ 1. A l t i t u d e 2. A s p e c t 3. T o p o g r a p h y 4. M i c r o - r e l i e f w i t h i n p l o t 5. S l o p e g r a d i e n t 6. P o s i t i o n on s l o p e 7. L a n d f o r m 8. T e x t u r e o f p a r e n t m a t e r i a l 21 S t a n d descri£t:ion: 9. L o c a t i o n 10. , S e t t i n g s i z e 11. Date l o g g e d 12 . D a t e s i n c e l a s t d i s t u r b a n c e 13. Age o f s t a n d 14. D a t e p l a n t e d 15. Type o f t r e a t m e n t 16. B u r n i n g i n t e n s i t y 17. D i s t a n c e t o s e e d s o u r c e 18. D i s t a n c e t o s o u t h edge 19. Type o f s e e d s o u r c e S o i . l _ a n d _ o r g a n i x _ _ l a y e _ r s : 20. S o i l o r d e r 21. D e p t h o f o r g a n i c l a y e r s 22. H y g r o t o p e 23. P e r c e n t a g e o f p l o t c o v e r e d by r o c k , s l a s h , m i n e r a l s o i l , o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l , and d e c a y i n g wood 24. P e r c e n t a g e o f b r u s h s p e c i e s o v e r t o p p i n g o r non- o v e r t o p p i n g t r e e s . The s c a l e s u s e d f o r e a c h p a r a m e t e r a r e c o n t a i n e d i n A p p e n d i x I. V e g e t a t i o n D a t a A n a l y s i s V e g e t a t i o n i n e a c h p l o t was a s s e s s e d w i t h - r e f e r e n c e t o .the. f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t s : 1. E s t i m a t e o f p e r c e n t a g e s u r f a c e c o v e r o f e a c h v e g e t a t i o n 22 l a y e r d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o l i f e f o r m and h e i g h t : L a y e r A: T r e e l a y e r - t r e e s o v e r 30 f e e t i n h e i g h t L a y e r B: Shrub l a y e r - B^ - woody p l a n t s o v e r 6 f e e t b u t l e s s t h a n 30 f e e t B^ - woody p l a n t s l e s s t h a n 6 f e e t i n h e i g h t L a y e r C: Herb l a y e r - a l l h e r b a c e o u s p l a n t s i n c l u d i n g c r e e p i n g s h r u b s and c o m m e r c i a l t r e e s s p e c i e s l e s s t h a n 1 f o o t t a l l L a y e r D: Moss l a y e r - DH - B r y o p h y t e s g r o w i n g on humus DW - B r y o p h y t e s g r o w i n g on d e c a y - i n g wood DM - B r y o p h y t e s g r o w i n g on m i n e r a l s o i l DR - B r y o p h y t e s g r o w i n g on r o c k . E a c h s p e c i e s i s r a t e d i n terms o f s p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e and s o c i a b i l i t y i n e a c h r e s p e c t i v e v e g e t a t i o n l a y e r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e D o m i n - K r a j i n a s c a l e ( 1 9 3 3 ) . The s c a l e s employed a r e shown i n T a b l e s , 1 and 2. S p e c i e s s i g n i f i - c a n c e was u s e d t o a s s e s s t h e abundance o r dominance o f a s p e c i e s i n e a c h p l o t , and s o c i a b i l i t y a l l o w s f o r an a p p r o x i m a t e e s t i m a t e o f a s p e c i e s t e n d e n c y t o grow i n g r o u p s o r s i n g l y . The s i g n i f i c a n c e and s o c i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s were done v i s u a l l y . The v i s u a l e s t i m a t i o n a p p r o a c h has been a d o p t e d by most p h y t o s o c i o l o g i s t s ( B r a u n - B l a n q u e t 1932, 1951; K r a j i n a and S p i l s b u r y 1953, Brayshaw 1955, B e c k i n g 1957, O r l o c i 1964, B e l l 1964, K o j i m i 1972) b e c a u s e o f i t s e f f i c i e n c y and s p e e d f o r most c o m p a r i s o n p u r p o s e s . 23 T a b l e 1 S p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e s c a l e (Domin - K r a j i n a , 1933) C l a s s D e s c r i p t i o n + S o l i t a r y , v e r y low dominance (0 - 11) 1 Seldom, v e r y low dominance (1 - 2%) 2 V e r y s c a t t e r e d , low dominance (2 - 3%) 3 S c a t t e r e d , low dominance (3 - 5%) 4 C o v e r i n g 5 - 101 o f t h e p l o t 5 C o v e r i n g 10 - 20% o f t h e p l o t 6 C o v e r i n g 20 - 33% o f the p l o t 7 C o v e r i n g 33 - 50% o f t h e p l o t 8 C o v e r i n g 50 - 75% o f t h e p l o t 9 C o v e r i n g more t h a n 75% b u t l e s s t h a n 100% o f t h e p l o t 10 C o v e r i n g 100% o f t h e p l o t 24 T a b l e 2 S o c i a b i l i t y s c a l e ( K r a j i n a , 1933) C l a s s D e s c r i p t i o n + S o c i a b i l i t y 0, i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t s 1 G r o u p s , up to 2 4 x 4 cm 2 G r o u p s , up to 2 2 5 x 2 5 cm 3 G r o u p s , up to 2 50 x 50 cm 4 G r o u p s , up to 1/3 - 3/4 m 2 5 G r o u p s , up to 1 - 2 m 6 G r o u p s , up to c 2 5 m 7 G r o u p s , up to 25 - 50 m 2 8 G r o u p s , up t o 100 m 2 9 G r o u p s , up to 200 - 250 m 2 10 G r o u p s , a t l e a s t 500 m 2 25 Tree Data Analysis Tree information was handled in a somewhat more detailed manner than the vegetational component. The tree analysis consisted of a t a l l y of a l l tree species present in one foot height classes (Table 3 ) . De- pending on the density of the stocking on a p l o t , i t was divided into quarters or thirds and regeneration recorded in each section and then t o t a l l e d for a l l sections in that p l o t . The number of trees recorded on each plot were then converted to a per acre basis for purpose of comparison. On cut-over areas that had been planted, an attempt was made to separate and t a l l y the planted trees from those of natural o r i g i n . This *ras done by comparing the height of the planted vs. naturally regenerated trees, by whorl counts, and by observing i f the trees were in rows. This method work- ed well in a l l areas except those that were older and extreme- ly dense in which the row effect of the planted trees was obscured. Synthesis of Vegetation The vegetation synthesis consists of a summation and analysis of the vegetation data co l l e c t e d . The data were then abstracted to form associations. When the plots were sampled they were grouped into tentative associations. A l l plots of the same tenta- t i v e associations were grouped and species s t r a t i f i e d by 26 T a b l e 3 R e g e n e r a t i o n h e i g h t c l a s s e s R e g e n e r a t i o n C l a s s H e i g h t ( f t . ) 0 u n d e r 1 f o o t i n 1 1-2 2 2-3 3 3-4 4 4-5 5 5-6 6 6^7 7 7-8 8 8-9 9 9-10 10 10-11 e t c . e t c . 27 l a y e r . F o r e a c h s p e c i e s w i t h i n an a s s o c i a t i o n , a p r e s e n c e , mean s i g n i f i c a n c e , and r a n g e o f s i g n i f i c a n c e v a l u e were d e t e r m i n e d . The s p e c i e s were a r r a n g e d w i t h i n e a c h v e g e t a t i o n l a y e r i n d e c r e a s i n g o r d e r , f i r s t l y by p r e s e n c e . I f two o r more s p e c i e s were a l i k e i n p r e s e n c e v a l u e , t h e y were a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o h i g h e s t mean s i g n i f i c a n c e v a l u e s , and f i n a l l y i f two o r more s p e c i e s were a l i k e i n b o t h p r e s e n c e and mean s i g n i f i c a n c e , t h e y were a r r a n g e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y . T h i s p r o - c e d u r e was c a r r i e d o u t u s i n g a computer method d e v e l o p e d by. K I i n k a (19 7 4 ) . Once t h e s y n t h e s i s t a b l e s were f o r m e d , t h e y were m a n i p u l a t e d u n t i l t h e f i n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s were a b s t r a c t e d . The " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o m b i n a t i o n o f s p e c i e s " ( B r a u n - B l a n q u e t 1932, K r a j i n a 1933, O r l o c i 1961) was employed t o t y p i f y an a s s o c i a t i o n . O n l y s p e c i e s t h a t f e l l i n t o one o f t h e f o l l o w - i n g c l a s s e s were c o n s i d e r e d as h a v i n g some d i a g n o s t i c v a l u e f o r i d e n t i f y i n g t h e a s s o c i a t i o n : 1. C o n s t a n t dominant s p e c i e s : a s p e c i e s w h i c h has h i g h p r e s e n c e (80 - 1001) and h i g h s i g n i f i c a n c e (mean s p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e more t h a n 5 . 0 ) . 2. C o n s t a n t s p e c i e s : a s p e c i e s w h i c h has h i g h p r e s e n c e (70 - 80%) b u t low s i g n i f i c a n c e (mean s p e c i e s s i g n i f i - c a n c e l e s s t h a n 5.0). 3. I m p o r t a n t companion s p e c i e s : a s p e c i e s w h i c h does n o t b e l o n g t o any o f t h e above, b u t t e n d s t o a s s o c i a t e more or l e s s e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h a c e r t a i n a s s o c i a t i o n . 28 L e s s e r V e g e t a t i o n The use o f t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p l a c e s h e a v y emphasis on t h e r o l e o f l e s s e r u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n . L e s s e r v e g e t a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y more s e n s i t i v e t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s and v a r i a t i o n ( B e c k i n g 1957, Daubenmire 1968, D y r n e s s and Y o u n g b e r g 1958) t h a n o v e r s t o r y s p e c i e s . F i r s t , t h e f e e d i n g r o o t s o f t r e e s , s h r u b s , and v a r i o u s h e r b s a r e u s u a l l y a l l l o c a t e d i n t h e most f e r t i l e p a r t o f t h e s o i l p r o f i l e ( K a l e l a 1950, C o i l e 1 9 5 2 ) . S e c o n d , l e s s e r v e g e t a t i o n o r d i n a r i l y has a n a r r o w e r e c o l o g i - c a l a m p l i t u d e t h a n o v e r s t o r y s p e c i e s , s u c h as Tsuga hetevo- •phylla o r Pseudotsuga menziesii. T h i r d , a f t e r a m a j o r d i s - t u r b a n c e s u c h as f i r e , l e s s e r v e g e t a t i o n t e n d s t o s p r o u t f r o m r h i z o m e s and c o n t i n u e t h e o r i g i n a l v e g e t a t i o n p a t t e r n , a l t h o u g h a change i n s t r u c t u r e may o c c u r ( M u e l l e r - D o m b o i s 1 960). However, t h i s may be masked by i n v a d i n g weed v e g e t a - t i o n . F o u r t h , i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t i v e t r e e s p e c i e s t e n d t o be p r e c e d e d by s h o r t - l i v e d s e r a i s p e c i e s t h a t do n o t t r u l y i n d i - c a t e t h e e f f e c t o f e n v i r o n m e n t , b u t r a t h e r t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s e e d and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o c a p i t a l i z e on d i s t u r b e d s i t u a - t i o n s . T h i s r e s u l t s i n an u n s t a b l e c o n d i t i o n p e r s i s t i n g f o r a number o f y e a r s . One p r o b l e m i n t h e u s e o f l e s s e r v e g e t a t i o n i s t h e l a c k o f knowledge a b o u t i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n , h a b i t s , and t o l e r - ance i n r e s p o n s e t o d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t s - or. d i s t u r b a n c e s (Rowe 1956). 29 V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The v e g e t a t i o n has been a n a l y z e d as d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I I I , and t h e r e s u l t s r e c o r d e d i n A p p e n d i x I . The d a t a a r e o r g a n i z e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s : g e n e r a l . p l o t i n f o r m a t i o n , v e g e t a t i o n s y n t h e s i s t a b l e s , and s t a n d d e s c r i p t i o n . W i t h i n e a c h a s s o c i a t i o n , t h e p l o t s a r e o r d e r e d f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t by t r e a t m e n t and age. The s p e c i e s i n the v e g e t a t i o n s y n - t h e s i s t a b l e s a r e a r r a n g e d v e r t i c a l l y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g o r d e r : a) by s t r a t a b) by d e c r e a s i n g p r e s e n c e w i t h i n a s t r a t u m c) by d e c r e a s i n g mean s i g n i f i c a n c e , where p r e s e n c e w i t h i n a s t r a t u m i s i d e n t i c a l and d) a l p h a b e t i c a l l y , i f p r e s e n c e and mean s i g n i f i c a n c e a r e i d e n t i c a l . The s t a n d d e s c r i p t i o n s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s t h e number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e f o u n d on e a c h p l o t by s p e c i e s and h e i g h t c l a s s . I t s h o u l d be r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e r e l a t i v e l y b r o a d i n v e g e t a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c o u l d p o s s i b l y be d i v i d e d i n t o a number o f s m a l l e r u n i t s i f ma t u r e a s s o c i a t i o n s were b e i n g d e a l t w i t h r a t h e r t h a n e a r l y s u c c e s s - i o n a l o n e s . However, b e c a u s e o f t h e h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n a t t h i s s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t , b r o u g h t a b o u t by t h e s e v e r e a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a f t e r c l e a r c u t t i n g , t h e permanent v e g e t a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have n o t had t i m e t o s t a b i l i z e . T h e r e f o r e e x t e n s i v e v a r i a b i l i t y o c c u r s .: 30 w i t h i n and b e t w e e n p l o t s g r o u p e d i n t h e same a s s o c i a t i o n , r e g a r d l e s s o f how f a r t h e d i v i s i v e p r o c e s s i s c a r r i e d . T h i s v a r i a b i l i t y i n v e g e t a t i v e f e a t u r e s i n t h e e a r l y s u c c e s s i o n a l s t a g e s c a u s e s d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e a r l y s u c c e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h i s d i f f i c u l t y i s a g g r a v a t e d by t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f many s h o r t - l i v e d a n n u a l p l a n t s and s h a d e i n t o l e r a n t s h r u b s , t r e e s a n d h e r b a c e o u s p l a n t s t h a t a r e n o t f o u n d i n t h e m a t u r e a s s o c i a t i o n s a n d t e n d t o c o v e r up t h e more i m p o r t a n t p l a n t s p e c i e s i n d i c a t i v e o f a p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n . T h i s r e s u l t s i n a g r e a t e r u s e o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l f e a t u r e s t o c h a r a c t e r i z e e a c h i n d i v i d u a l a s s o c i a t i o n . W a t e r s t a t u s a n d s o i l d e p t h become two o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t p a r a m e t e r s f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . 31 PART I - ASSOCIATION AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 1. F l o r i s t i c Features of the Three Serai Associations Salal - Douglas-fir association This association develops on r e l a t i v e l y shallow s o i l s over bedrock usually possessing a convex topography. It generally occupies ridgetops and upper slope positions. The slope gradient varies from 0 - 5 percent on ridges to 45 p.ercent on neutral slopes CFigs. 4, 5, and 6). Appendix I, Parts I and II contains the data discussed in this section. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c combination of species for this association i s : Constant dominant species: Gaulthevia shallon Tsuga hetevophylla Ptevidium aquilinum Polytviohum junipevinum Constant species: Betula papyvif eva Vacoinium parvifolium Rubus s p e o t a b i l i s Epilobium angustifolium Bleohnum spicant Rubus uvsinus Pseudotsuga menziesii 32 FIGURE 4 Plot 48 in the s a l a l - Douglas-fir association was severely slashburned 2 years p r i o r to examination. Note cover of Pteridium aquilinum and Epilobium angusti folium, and lack of any v i s i b l e tree regeneration. FIGURE 5 Plot 47, 7 years after p i l i n g and burning. Note poor regeneration and survival of planted Douglas-fir. 33 34 The A and layers are largely a function of the age of the stand. Early successional tree species reach these layers f i r s t as well as Tsuga heterophylla on unburned plots where i t occurs as advanced regeneration. Betula papyrifera3 S a l i x s i t c h e n s i s 3 and Tsuga heterophylla are dominant species with Pvunus emarginata3 Alnus rubra, Populus trichocarpa3 Acer civcinatum 3 and Thuja p l i o a t a occurring sporadically. The B 2 layer i s consistently dominated by Gaultheria shallon3 accompanied by Vaccinium parvifolium3 Tsuga heterophylla3 Rubus s p e o t a b i l i s 3 and Betula papyrifera. As in the mature association, Gaultheria shallon i s dominant but to a greater extent, forming a continuous carpet (Fig. 7] one to two feet t a l l . The extensive layer of Gaultheria shallon l a r g e l y eliminates low growing herbs and tree regeneration or r e s t r i c t s their occurrence to moist pockets and exposed areas. Slash- burning did not seem to reduce Gaultheria shallon in s i g n i f i - cance but did cause a more pronounced patchy occurrence rather than a continuous layer. Vaccinium parvifolium i s strongly associated with the amount of decayed wood present and de- creases noticeably as the amount of decayed wood is decreased. Rubus s p e o t a b i l i s also had a r e l a t i v e l y high dominance which is quite d i f f e r e n t from the mature association where i t occurs only sporadically. This i s due to the increased l i g h t and the mineralization of the organic layers brought about by clear- cutting. Other common shrubs in the B ? layer are Menziesia 35 Plot 11 in the s a l a l - Douglas-fir association i l l u s t r a t e s the vegetation i n an area that had no treatment after logging. Heavy Gaulthevia. shallon cover forming on decaying wood after logging and no further treatment in the s a l a l - Douglas-fir association. 36 37 ferruginea, Spiraea douglasii, Vaecinium o v a l i f o l i u m , Rubus p a r v i f l o r u s , Vacoinium alaskaense, and Rubus leuoodermis. A l l the tree species p r e v a i l i n g i n the B̂ : layer also occur in the B^ layer, but usually with a higher constancy and s i g n i f i - cance . The C layer i s largely composed of t a l l weed vegeta- tion present because of clearcutting, and numerous ferns, some of which are residual from the period before cutting. Pteridium aquilinum, Epilobium angustifolium, Bleohnum spioant, Anaphalis margaritacea, and Rubus ursinus compose the major proportion of this layer. Bleohnum spioant, Polystiohum munitum, Dryop- t e v i s austriaoa, and Athyrium f i l i x - f e m i n a occur mostly i n moist pockets that o f f e r a most favorable habitat (Fig. 8 ) . The development of these moist pockets i s quite common after logging. They result from the logging operation and usually contain a high proportion of organic matter and are shaded by adjacent logging slash. Slashburning removes much of the adjacent slash and organic matter from the moist pockets, and destroys pre-existing plants, reducing t h e i r f a v o u r a b i l i t y to shade-loving species. Consequently, after slashburning the fern species are greatly reduced in sig n i f i c a n c e . Athyrium f i l i x - f e m i n a i s completely eliminated. However, Pteridium aquilinum exhibits a di f f e r e n t trend. It seems to be enhanced by any disturbance that takes place. On areas that were untreated, but=where the logging operation exposed mineral s o i l , Pteridium aquilinum was present in high proportions also. 38 FIGURE 8 Moist pockets c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of logged areas. Polystiahum munition, Blechnum spiaant, Dryopteris dustriaca and Eylocomium splendens are prominent here. 3 9 40 M a i n i and H o r t o n (,1966) f o u n d r e g e n e r a t i o n o f Pteridium aquilinum c o n s i d e r a b l y s t i m u l a t e d by e i t h e r s c a r i f i c a t i o n o r b u r n i n g , and t h e d e n s i t y s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n on u n t r e a t e d s o i l . Linnaea borealis c o v e r s s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a s o f t h e g r o u n d i n t h e u n b u r n e d p l o t s and c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a c o n s t a n t dominant s p e c i e s on t h e s e a r e a s . S l a s h b u r n i n g , however, e f f e c t i v e l y e x c l u d e s Linnaea borealis. The moss l a y e r (D) i s e x t e n s i v e (57%) a f t e r c l e a r - c u t t i n g . Hylocomium splendens and Rhytidiadelphus loreus a r e t h e domi n a n t mosses on humus. Eurhynehium oreganum, w h i c h i s i m p o r t a n t i n t h e mat u r e a s s o c i a t i o n , assumes a v e r y m i n o r r o l e a f t e r c l e a r c u t t i n g . On m i n e r a l s o i l Polytrichum juniperinum i s c o n s i s t e n t l y t h e most common. Pogonatum contortum and Pohlia nutans a r e l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d t o u n b u r n - ed a r e a s . T h e s e mosses a r e c o n t r o l l e d by t h e d e g r e e i n w h i c h t h e m i n e r a l s o i l i s e x p o s e d i n l o g g i n g . The moss f l o r a on d e c a y i n g wood i s r e s t r i c t e d t o u n b u r n e d a r e a s and c o n s i s t s o f Plagiotheeium undulatum3 Hylocomium splendens and Rhytidia- delphus loreus as t h e most common, b u t t h e y p o s s e s s a r e l a t i v e - l y low s i g n i f i c a n c e v a l u e . The mosses on r o c k depend on t h e amount o f r o c k e x p o s e d . T h i s l a y e r i s n o r m a l l y n o t as w e l l - d e v e l o p e d as i n t h e mature a s s o c i a t i o n , b e c a u s e t h e r o c k a r e a s a r e sometimes c o v e r e d w i t h s l a s h , m i n e r a l s o i l , and o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l d u r i n g t h e l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n , o r i f s l a s h b u r n i n g i s c a r r i e d o u t , t h e e x i s t i n g f l o r a i s p a r t i a l l y d e s t r o y e d . 41 The two most common mosses are Rhacomitrium oanescens and Rhacomitrium heterostichum. Tsuga heterophylla occurs most frequently and has a higher cover than either Pseudotsuga menziesii or Thuja p l i c a t a in a l l layers. Tsuga heterophylla i s associated with decaying wood on which i t reaches i t s best growth. It can also be found germinating on mineral s o i l . However the survival rate i s exceedingly low and most germinants are eliminated in the f i r s t two seasons. Slashburning greatly decreases Tsuga heterophylla i n sign i f i c a n c e . Pseudotsuga menziesii is less abundant than Tsuga heterophylla and i s found almost exclusively growing on mineral s o i l . Thuja p l i c a t a i s a common seedling but seldom reached the B^ layer, unless i t occurs as advanced regeneration on the unburned plot s . The structure of this association i s comprised of a very well-developed shrub layer that r e s t r i c t s the develop- ment of a low growing herbaceous layer. T a l l herbs and ferns are the only s i g n i f i c a n t dominants. The moss layer is well- developed on humus and mineral s o i l , but r e l a t i v e l y less- developed on decaying wood and rock. Moss - Western Hemlock Association This association occurs on lower mountain slopes with moderate slope gradients (Figs. 9 and 10). It can also occupy r e l a t i v e l y f l a t areas with deep s o i l s that are well- 42 FIGURE 9 P l o t 32 i n t h e moss - w e s t e r n h emlock a s s o c i a - t i o n , 8 y e a r s a f t e r l o g g i n g and no t r e a t m e n t . Tsuga heterophylla i s p r i m a r y s p e c i e s . FIGURE 10 P l o t 33 i n t h e moss - w e s t e r n h emlock a s s o c i a - t i o n 8 y e a r s a f t e r l o g g i n g , p i l i n g and b u r n i n g , and p l a n t i n g o f D o u g l a s - f i r a t a 6x6 f o o t s p a c i n g . 43 44 d r a i n e d . T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i l l o r d i n a r i l y o c c u p y an e q u i v a - l e n t p h y s i o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n on n o r t h e x p o s u r e s as t h a t w h i c h t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n does on s o u t h e x p o s u r e s ( F i g s . 11 and 12). R e f e r t o A p p e n d i x I , P a r t I and I I f o r t h e d a t a d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o m b i n a t i o n o f s p e c i e s f o r t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s : C o n s t a n t dominant s p e c i e s : Gaultheria shallon Tsuga heterophylla Rubus s p e o t a b i l i s Pteridium aquilinum Hylooomium splendens C o n s t a n t s p e c i e s : Vaccinium parvifolium Vaccinium alaskaense Thuja p l i c a t a Polystichum munitum Bleohnum spicant Dryopteris austriaca Rubus ursinus Rhytidiadelphus loreus Polytrichum juniperinum Plagiothecium undulatum The l a y e r i s d o m i n a t e d by Tsuga heterophylla and Betula papyrifera. Acer circinatum, S a l i x s i t c h e n s i s , 45 FIGURE 11 Moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n ( P l o t 45) on a n o r t h e x p o s u r e . Note amount o f Tsuga heterophil I l a . FIGURE 12. S a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n ( P l o t 41) 7 y e a r s a f t e r s l a s h b u r n i n g on a s o u t h w e s t e x p o s u r e . Note amount o f Gaultheria shallon a n d ' l a c k o f any r e g e n e r a t i o n - e x c e p t ' f o r p l a n t e d D o u g l a s - f i r .  47 and Rhamnus purshiana a l l f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r a l s o . The l a y e r i s w e l l d e v e l o p e d and i s d o m i n a t e d by a number o f s p e c i e s , Gaultheria shallon, Vaooinium parvifolium, Vaocinium alaskaense, Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s , Tsuga heterophylla, and Thuja p l i o a t a . Vaooinium o v a l i f o l i u m 3 Sambucus racemosa, Spiraea douglasii3 Menziesia ferruginea, and Rubus p a r v i f l o r u s a r e commonly o c c u r r i n g s h r u b s . . As i n t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n , t h e C l a y e r i s h i g h l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e t h i c k s h r u b l a y e r and i s composed m a i n l y o f t a l l h e r b s , f e r n s , and shade t o l e r a n t t r e e s s u c h as Tsuga heterophylla and Thuja plioata. Bleohnum spicant, Tsuga heterophylla, Pteridium aquilinum, Polystiohum munitum, Dryopteris austriaca, Thuja p l i o a t a , and Rubus uvsinus a r e t h e d o m i n a n t p l a n t s . M o i s t p o c k e t s a c c o u n t f o r a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e f e r n d e v e l o p m e n t . Luzula p a r v i f l o r a , Tiar- e l l a t r i f o l i a t a , and T r i l l i u m ovatum b e g i n t o o c c u r s p o r a d i - c a l l y i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n as an i n c r e a s e i n m o i s t u r e and n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y t a k e s p l a c e . The moss l a y e r i s w e l l d e v e l o p e d . The dominant mosses on humus a r e Hylocomium splendens, Rhytidiadelphus loreus, and Plagiotheoium undulatum. A l l o f them a r e c h a r a c t - e r i s t i c - o'f th'rs a s s o c i a t i o n . Eurhynohium oreganum o c c u r s f r e q u e n t l y . The mosses on m i n e r a l s o i l c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y o f Polytrichum juniperinum, Pogonatum eontortum, and Pogonatum alpinum. As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , t h i s l a y e r depends on t h e e x t e n t o f m i c r o s i t e s ( e x p o s e d m i n e r a l s o i l ) a v a i l a b l e a f t e r l o g g i n g . 48 Plagiothecium undulatum, Hylooomium splendens3 and Rhytidia- delphus loreus a r e t h e p r o m i n e n t mosses on d e c a y i n g wood, a l t h o u g h t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e i s q u i t e low. They u s u a l l y f o r m p a t c h e s on l o g s , d e c a y i n g wood, and l e s s commonly on humus r a t h e r t h a n a c o n t i n u o u s l a y e r . The p a t c h e s a r e u s u a l l y f o u r t o s i x f e e t i n d i a m e t e r and c o n f i n e d t o m i c r o - d e p r e s s i o n s , where t h e y show t h e most v i g o r . E l s e w h e r e , t h e y a r e q u i t e y e l l o w i s h and l e s s v i g o r o u s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r Hylooomium splendens. On r o c k s , t h e moss l a y e r was non- e x i s t e n t e x c e p t f o r a s o l i t a r y o c c u r r e n c e o f Rhacomitrium oanesoens. As i n t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n , t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h th e r o c k a r e a s a r e d i s t u r b e d i s a d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r . In a l l l a y e r s , Tsuga heterophylla had t h e h i g h e s t s t o c k i n g o f t h e t h r e e m a j o r c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s . I t was f o u n d g r o w i n g on d e c a y e d wood and o r g a n i c m a t t e r as w e l l as on m i n e r a l s o i l . As i n t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n , Tsuga heterophylla was g e r m i n a t i n g r e a d i l y on m i n e r a l s o i l w h i c h p r o v i d e d a f a v o u r a b l e s u b s t r a t u m f o r s e e d g e r m i n a t i o n . However, i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n where p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s t h e m a j o r s o u r c e o f w a t e r , d r o u g h t s a r e common, and e l i m i n a t i o n o f Tsuga heterophylla o c c u r s b e f o r e i t r e a c h e s a dominant p o s i t i o n . Thuja plicata a l s o r e g e n e r a t e s a b u n d a n t l y i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n , b u t v e r y few s e e d l i n g s become e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s i s p r o b a b l y due t o t h e h i g h n u t r i e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h i s s p e c i e s as w e l l as t h e f r e q u e n c y o f d r o u g h t . The b e s t s u r v i v a l , 49 as d i s t i n c t f r o m maximum g e r m i n a t i o n , e x i s t e d i n m o i s t m i c r o - d e p r e s s i o n s w here v e r y r a p i d l y d e c o m p o s i n g o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l f o r m e d a two t o t h r e e i n c h deep l a y e r . Thuja p l i o a t a o c c u r s i n a l l l a y e r s b u t d e c r e a s e s s h a r p l y i n a b u n d a n c e t o w a r d t h e l a y e r . I n t h e B^ and t a l l e r h e i g h t c l a s s e s o f t h e B£ l a y e r i t p e r s i s t s p r i m a r i l y as a d v a n c e d r e g e n e r a t i o n . Pseudotsuga menziesii was a b s e n t i n m i c r o - d e p r e s s i o n s and p r e v a i l e d on m i n e r a l s o i l w i t h s p o r a d i c o c c u r r e n c e s on s h a l l o w o r g a n i c m a t t e r a n d d e c a y i n g wood. I t was p r e s e n t i n a l l l a y e r s . H o wever, i t was n o t i c e a b l y a b s e n t f r o m a number o f t h e M i s s i o n T r e e Farm p l o t s . T h i s i s a p p a r e n t l y t h e r e s u l t o f a g e , s e e d s o u r c e , and t h e p l a n t i n g d e n s i t y t h a t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . I n o r d e r o f a b u n d a n c e , Tsuga hetevophylla was most p r o l i f i c f o l l o w e d by Thuja p l i o a t a and Pseudotsuga menziesii. The m a t u r e moss - w e s t e r n h e m l o c k a s s o c i a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l a c k o f any s h r u b o r h e r b s p e c i e s and a moss l a y e r t h a t f o r m s a c o m p l e t e c a r p e t o v e r t h e g r o u n d . The m a j o r mosses a r e Hylooomium splendens, Rhytidiadelphus loveus, and Plagiotheoium undulatum. T h e s e mosses a r e s t i l l p r e s e n t a f t e r l o g g i n g . H o w e v e r , t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e i s g r e a t l y r e d u c e d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a r e a number o f s a p r o p h y t e s t h a t o c c u r i n t h e m a t u r e a s s o c i a t i o n , n a m e l y , fi.emitomes. oongestum, Covallov- hiza maculata, and Monotvopa lanuginosa. T h e s e a r e c o m p l e t e l y a b s e n t a f t e r l o g g i n g . P r o b a b l y t h e most o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e moss - 50 w e s t e r n h e m l o c k a s s o c i a t i o n a f t e r l o g g i n g i s t h e p r e d o m i n a n c e o f t h e s h r u b l a y e r as w e l l as numerous h e r b a c e o u s p l a n t s . A f t e r l o g g i n g , Gaulthevia shallow., Vaooinium pavvifolium, Vaccinium alaskaense, and Rubus spectabilis f o r m a v e r y w e l l d e v e l o p e d s h r u b l a y e r . The a v e r a g e c o v e r p e r c e n t i n t h e l a y e r i s 651. Gaulthevia shallow, d o m i n a t e s t h e l a y e r a f t e r l o g g i n g . A g g r e s s i v e weed s p e c i e s s u c h as Epilobium angustifolium, Anaphalis mavgavitaoea, and Ptevidium aquilinum r a p i d l y i n v a d e t h e s i t e and mask many o f t h e more u s e f u l i d e n t i f y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p l a n t s . A l t h o u g h t h e s h r u b and t a l l h e r b s p e c i e s t e n d t o c o n c e a l t h e moss l a y e r , i t s t i l l f orms a dominant p a r t o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n . S w o r d f e r n - W e s t e r n R e d c e d a r A s s o c i a t i o n T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s f o u n d a t t h e b a s e o f s l o p e s and i n d e p r e s s i o n s where an a d e q u a t e s u p p l y o f s e e p a g e w a t e r i s p r e s e n t . The p a r e n t m a t e r i a l i s m o s t l y g l a c i a l t i l l , m a r i n e d e p o s i t s , and outwash. The p a r e n t m a t e r i a l i s u s u a l l y deep and r e c e i v e s a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f i t s w a t e r s u p p l y f r o m s e e p a g e w a t e r ( F i g s . 13, 14, 15, and 1 6 ) . A p p e n d i x I , P a r t I and I I c o n t a i n s t h e d a t a d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o m b i n a t i o n o f s p e c i e s f o r t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s : C o n s t a n t dominant s p e c i e s : Alnus vubva Rubus spectabilis 51 FIGURE 13 Plot 2 exhibits the thick undergrowth of the swordfern - western redcedar association. FIGURE 14 A successful plantation of Douglas-fir i n the swordfern - western redcedar association (Plot 27). 52 53 FIGURE 15 P l o t 8 i n t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n 5 y e a r s a f t e r l o g g i n g and no t r e a t - ment. N o t e t h e amount o f d e c i d u o u s t r e e r e g e n e r a t i o n and l a c k o f any v i s i b l e c o n i f e r o u s r e g e n e r a t i o n . FIGURE 16 T h i c k d e c i d u o u s u n d e r g r o w t h i n s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n . N ote t h e p o o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p l a n t e d D o u g l a s - f i r ( P l o t 2 8 ) . 54 55 Ptevidium aquilinum Polytviohum junipevinum C o n s t a n t s p e c i e s : Spiraea douglasii Rubus pawiflovus Tsuga hetevophylla S a l i x sitohensis Polystiohum munitum Epilobium angustifolium Anaphalis mavgavitacea Bleahnum spioant Luzula pavviflovus. Laotuoa biennis Dvyoptevis austviaoa Thuja p l i o a t a Athyvium f i l i x - f e m i n a I m p o r t a n t companion s p e c i e s : Plagiomnium insigne Mnium lyoopodiodes Viola sempervivens Euvhynohium pvaelongum T v i e n t a l i s l a t i f o l i a Galium, tviflovum The B^ l a y e r i s d o m i n a t e d by Alnus vubva, S a l i x sitohensis3 and Populus tviohooavpa. On t h e a r e a s t h a t were p l a n t e d , Pseudotsuga menziesii becomes an i m p o r t a n t d o m i n a n t . 56 Tsuga hetevophylla and n a t u r a l Pseudotsuga menziesii o c c u r f r e q u e n t l y , b u t n o t i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n r e c o r d e d i n t h e p r e - v i o u s two a s s o c i a t i o n s . On t h e o l d e r p l o t s C004, 029, 0 0 7 ) , Rubus speetabilis and Rubus pawiflovus may r e a c h a h e i g h t o f n i n e f e e t . O t h e r companions i n t h i s l a y e r a r e Pvunus emavgin- ata3 Aoev oivoinatums Salix s oouleviana 3 and Betula papyri- fera. The B^ l a y e r i s v e r y w e l l d e v e l o p e d . Rubus speeta- b i l i s . Spiraea douglasii3 Rubus pawiflovus3 Tsuga hetevo- phylla and Salix sitohensis a r e t h e p r e v a l e n t s p e c i e s . T h i s l a y e r i s n o t d e f i n e d by a few dominant s p e c i e s . I t c o n t a i n s a l a r g e number o f s p e c i e s t h a t f o r m a dom i n a n t p o r t i o n o f t h e l a y e r . O t h e r common a s s o c i a t e s a r e Ribes sanguineum3 Rubus leuoodevmis3 Sambuous vacemosa, and Rubus laoiniatus. Oplopanax hovvidum may o c c u r i n m o i s t , s h a d e d p o c k e t s . Gaulthevia shallon3 a l t h o u g h q u i t e common i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n , i s l o c a l i z e d on d e c a y i n g wood, w h i c h composes v e r y l i t t l e o f t h e t o t a l g r o u n d c o v e r . Vacoinium pawifolium i s a l s o r e d u c e d i n s i g n i f i c a n c e due t o t h e l a c k o f d e c a y i n g wood. The C l a y e r i s v e r y w e l l d e v e l o p e d , even t h o u g h the s h r u b l a y e r s were d e n s e . The i n c r e a s e d m o i s t u r e and r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y u n d o u b t e d l y a c c o u n t s f o r t h e r i c h d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e C l a y e r . Polystiohum munitum i s c o n s t a n t l y p r e s e n t , as w o u l d be e x p e c t e d f o r t h i s a s s o c i a - t i o n and was l i t t l e a f f e c t e d by l o g g i n g . In f a c t , l o g g i n g seemed t o i n c r e a s e i t s o c c u r r e n c e i n a l l o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s s t u d i e d . M u e l l e r - D o m b o i s P-960) a l s o n o t e d t h i s o c c u r r e n c e . 57 Epilobium angustifolium and Anaphalis margaritacea are both highly dominant and reach t h e i r optimum in this association. As in the previous two associations, Pteridium aquilinum i s also extremely prevalent. Other frequent companions in the C layer are Bleohnum spioant3 Luzula p a r v i f l o r a , Lactuoa biennis, Dryopteris austriaca, Athyrium f i l i x - f e m i n a , Galium t r i f l o r u m , T r i e n t a l i s l a t i f o l i a , T i a r e l l a t r i f o l i a t a , Viola sempervirens and Rubus ursinus. Agrostis scabra, Holous lanatus, Hypochaeris radioata, and Festuoa oooidentalis are a l l strongly i n d i c a t i v e of the degree of disturbance. Juncus effusus and Soirpus miorooarpus usually indicate moist depres- sions or high moisture status of the parent material. For example, plots 005, 030, and 031 are a l l located on glacio- marine deposits and are poorly drained. These plots contain large amounts of Juncus effusus and Soirpus microcarpus as well as a very r i c h f l o r a of other species. The moss layer i s not well developed (average cover of 37%). Eurhynchium oreganum and Eurhynohium prae- longum are the dominant mosses on humus; however, t h e i r presence and mean significance values are low. On moist habitats, Plagiomnium insigne and Leucolepis menziesii are commonly found. On mineral s o i l in exposed sunny habitats, Polytrichum junipevinum and Ceratodon purpureus occur as the dominant mosses. Mnium lyoopodiodes i s established on mineral s o i l in moist habitats shaded by slash or deciduous cover. In the plots examined, the moss f l o r a on decaying wood i s not well represented. This results from the lack of decaying 58 wood or slash, because of p r i o r treatment either by slash- burning or p i l i n g and burning. Hylooomium splendens i s the most common but has a low presence and mean signi f i c a n c e . Plot 008, the only untreated plot , showed a d e f i n i t e increase in the decaying wood mosses. Tsuga heterophylla, as i n the previous two associa- tions, germinates well in this association and surpasses both Thuja p l i c a t a and Pseudotsuga menziesii. However very few seedlings ever constitute a s i g n i f i c a n t portion of the upper shrub layer. Its r e l a t i v e l y slow growth rate and the intense competition from the dense shrub and herb layers could account for t h i s . Thuja p l i c a t a obtains i t s best growth in this association. It was found in a l l layers except the layer. Organic matter, in a state of rapid decomposition, provided the best survival rate. Maximum germination appeared to be on exposed mineral s o i l , but as in the other associations survival was low. Pseudotsuga menziesii was the least abund- ant of the three. It did occur i n a l l layers, including the B^, but very sporadically. Although t h i s association provides the best s i t e s for Pseudotsuga menziesii3 competition from herbaceous and woody brush species is an important l i m i t i n g factor here. Its shade intolerance destroys many new seed- l i n g s . Exposed mineral s o i l or a fine covering of organic matter provide the best habitat for germination. The swordfern - western redcedar association d i f f e r s considerably from the previous two associations. The shrub 59 layer i s highly developed and composed mainly of Rubus parvi- ftorus, Rubus s p e o t a b i l i s , and Spiraea douglasii. In the previous associations, Gaultheria shallon and Vacoinium parvi- folium were dominant shrubs. The r i c h development of the herb layer i s the most outstanding c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the swordfern - western redcedar association. This i s caused by seepage water which largely controls the development of this association. The seepage water also permits a greater d i v e r s i t y of deciduous trees and shrubs to e x i s t . In the mature state both the shrub stratum and herb layer are greatly reduced by the canopy coverage. However this association s t i l l supports a greater d i v e r s i t y of species and a better developed C layer than the other associations. The type of treatment seemed to have l i t t l e e f f e c t on the vegetation in t h i s association. The habitat i s rapidly invaded by a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species found in the mature association. Slashburning may even enhance the development of the C layer by rapidly releasing nutrients stored in the organic matter. The abundance of seepage water also reduces the recovery time needed after treatment. In addition to the previous mosses mentioned, Eypnum o i r o i n a l e , Dioranum fusoesoens, and Dioranum h o w e l l i i were present on decaying wood in a l l associations. However the significance was very low and r e s t r i c t e d to small patches on decaying wood. Slashburning usually eliminated these mosses by reducing the amount of decaying wood. 60 2. Causes of Variation in Vegetational Composition and Structure Within the Three Serai Association Variation in vegetation and structure between and within associations A l l associations are s t r u c t u r a l l y similar i n average percent cover (Fig- 17). However v a r i a t i o n did occur in species composition and layer dominance. Consequently, i t is d i f f i c u l t to assess the cover values and t h e i r s i g n i f i - cance in each association without having an understanding of the species composition. For example, the shrub layer of the s a l a l - Douglas-fir association i s as equally well developed as in the r i c h e r swordfern - western redcedar association but possesses a completely d i f f e r e n t species composition. There- fore i t s ecological significance i s d i f f e r e n t . This also applies to s t r a t i f i c a t i o n within one layer. For instance, tall-growing invader herbs can mask those low growing herbs which are more in d i c a t i v e of the forest association. Varia- tion caused by age and treatment i s also evident and w i l l be discussed l a t e r . The s a l a l - Douglas-fir and moss - western hemlock associations are both characterized by a well developed shrub layer composed of Gaultheria shallon and Vaooinium parvifolium and a herb layer consisting of t a l l herbs and Pteridium aquilinum. The swordfern - western redcedar association has an equally well developed shrub layer but i s composed of Rubus s p e o t a b i l i s 3 Rubus p a r v i f l o r u s 3 and Spiraea douglasii. 61 FIGURE. 17 Average cover i n percent of each layer by association and treatment. 62 In t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n t h e h e r b l a y e r c o n s i s t e d o f a l a r g e number o f low g r o w i n g h e r b s as w e l l as t a l l h e r b s s u c h as Epilobium angustifolium and Anaphalis margavitaoea. A l t h o u g h a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s had a v e r y w e l l de- v e l o p e d s h r u b l a y e r , t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a - t i o n o f f e r e d a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f c o m p e t i t i o n t o c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s p e c i e s b e c a u s e i t was t a l l e r , d e n s e r , and more h i g h l y s t r a t i f i e d . A t o t a l o f 148 s p e c i e s were e n c o u n t e r e d on t h e p l o t s . The c h e c k l i s t i s c o n t a i n e d i n A p p e n d i x I I . Of t h e s e 148 s p e c i e s , 93 and 77 were i d e n t i f i e d on t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r and moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n , 119 were i d e n t i - f i e d . The g r e a t e r number o f s p e c i e s f o u n d i n t h e l a t t e r a s s o c i a t i o n i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e r i c h h a b i t a t . The C l a y e r i s th e m a j o r c o n t r i b u t o r . The l a r g e number o f s p e c i e s e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n as compared t o t h e moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n was u n d o u b t e d l y c a u s e d by a l a r g e number o f p l o t s b e i n g d i s t u r b e d , t h u s a l l o w i n g v a r i o u s g r a s s e s and mosses t h a t a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m i n e r a l s o i l t o become e s t a b l i s h e d . Age i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e and s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n . P l o t s 004 and 029 i n t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n were 12 and 13 y e a r s o l d r e - s p e c t i v e l y . A t t h i s age i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n t h e s h r u b c a n o p y i s e x t r e m e l y dense ( F i g - 1 8 ) . T h i s l a r g e l y e l i m i n a t e s t h e w e l l 63 FIGURE 18 P l o t 4 i n the swordfern - western redcedar a s s o c i a t i o n shows the t h i c k development of Rubus s p e o t a b i l i s 14 years a f t e r l o g g i n g and s l a s h b u r n i n g . FIGURE 19 P l o t 5 i n the swordfern - western redcedar a s s o c i a t i o n on p o o r l y - d r a i n e d g l a c i o - m a r i n e parent m a t e r i a l . Note amount of Junous effusus and Alnus rubra and l a c k of c o n i f e r o u s r e g e n e r a t i o n 4 years a f t e r l o g g i n g and p i l i n g and burning.  65 d e v e l o p e d C l a y e r f o u n d on t h e y o u n g e r p l o t s . The moss l a y e r i s a l s o a f f e c t e d . The m i n e r a l s o i l mosses a r e r e d u c e d i n c o v e r as a r e s u l t o f a b u i l d up o f humus and a l a c k o f l i g h t . Mosses s u c h as Plagiomnium insigne and Leuoolepis menziesii b e g i n t o o c c u r as t h e canopy c l o s e s and a r a p i d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e m i x e d c o n i f e r o u s - d e c i d u o u s l i t t e r t a k e s p l a c e . U n l i k e t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e s e a r c h F o r e s t w h i c h u s e s an 8 x 8 o r 10 x 10 f o o t s p a c i n g , t h e M i s s i o n T r e e Farm has an e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c y t o p l a n t a t a 6 x 6 f o o t s p a c i n g . T h i s d e c r e a s e d s p a c i n g h as a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on t h e u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n . P l o t s 037 and 038 a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n a t t h e M i s s i o n T r e e Farm and were p l a n t e d a t a 6 x 6 f o o t s p a c i n g i n 1959 o r 1960. F i g u r e 20 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e r e s u l t a n t g r o u n d c o v e r . The t h i c k canopy has e l i m i n a t e d t h e s h r u b and t h e h e r b l a y e r s and t h e moss l a y e r has been r e d u c e d t o s m a l l p a t c h e s . Age was a l s o an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r . A t an e a r l i e r s t a n d age t h e r e s u l t a n t e f f e c t w o u l d n o t have been as e v i d e n t . The e f f e c t o f c l o s e s p a c i n g i s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 17. A l l t h e p l o t s i n t h e moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t were p i l e d and b u r n e d have b e e n p l a n t e d a t a 6 x 6 f o o t s p a c i n g . The r e d u c t i o n i n t o t a l c o v e r and c o v e r o f e a c h l a y e r i s w e l l e x e m p l i f i e d . A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l c o v e r c o n s i s t s o f p l a n t e d D o u g l a s - f i r i n t h e l a y e r . 66 FIGURE 20 L a c k o f g r o u n d c o v e r u n d e r 6 x 6 f o o t s p a c i n g o f D o u g l a s - f i r i n P l o t 37. Upper p h o t o g r a p h shows s e v e r a l s m a l l w e s t e r n hemlock s e e d l i n g s and c o n i f e r o u s l i t t e r . Lower p h o t o g r a p h shows d e c a y i n g stems o f Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s .  68 V a r i a t i o n caused by t r e a t m e n t on the s t r u c t u r e and g e n e r a l s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n of the t h r e e a s s o c i a t i o n s Logging and the accompanying t r e a t m e n t o f the a r e a has a n o t a b l e i n f l u e n c e on the g e n e r a l s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n and s t r u c t u r e . In the s t u d y i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s the e f f e c t s o f t r e a t m e n t on the s t r u c t u r e because of the m i x t u r e of age c l a s s e s w i t h i n each t r e a t m e n t . F i g u r e 17 shows the s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s t h a t take p l a c e between t r e a t m e n t s . These v a r i a t i o n s are p r o b a b l y caused by age d i f f e r e n c e s . The s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n e x h i b i t e d the o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f - f e r e n c e s between no treatment and s l a s h b u r n i n g . Dyrness (1965, 1973) n o t e d , however, a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n between t r e a t - ments w i t h r e g a r d to s t r u c t u r e . He found t h a t the cover on u n d i s t u r b e d p l o t s was two to f i v e times t h a t found on the d i s t u r b e d - u n b u r n e d and l i g h t l y burned p l o t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T o t a l c o v e r on the s e v e r e l y burned p l o t s c o n s i s t e n t l y l a g g e d b e h i n d the o t h e r p l o t s . He a l s o o b s e r v e d a . s u b s t a n t i a l l y lower number of t r e e s on the s e v e r e l y burned p l o t s . The type o f t r e a t m e n t and the accompanying d i s t u r b - ance e x e r t a more obvi o u s i n f l u e n c e on s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n . In a l l the a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t were u n t r e a t e d , the r e s i d u a l component s p e c i e s s t i l l e x i s t and are supplemented by an i n f l u x of i n v a d e r s p e c i e s depending on the amount of d i s t u r b a n c e t h a t has t a k e n p l a c e . On h a b i t a t s t h a t have been burned, the r e s i d u a l component i s l a r g e l y d e s t r o y e d . 69 I n o t h e r words, s p e c i e s t h a t were p r e s e n t i n t h e m ature s t a n d a r e a l s o p r e s e n t i n the u n t r e a t e d c u t o v e r s t a n d . A t the same t i m e , p i l i n g and b u r n i n g does n o t a f f e c t t h e r e s i d u a l component as much as s l a s h b u r n i n g . P i l i n g and b u r n i n g a l l o w s s p e c i e s t o be p a r t i a l l y d e s t r o y e d o r u n t o u c h e d a l t o g e t h e r . The r e s i d u a l component i s , t h e r e f o r e , a l l o w e d t o expand; whereas, s l a s h b u r n i n g u s u a l l y d e s t r o y s a l l t h e v e g e t a t i o n and a c o m p l e t e r e - i n v a s i o n o f t h e s i t e must t a k e p l a c e . In most c a s e s , t h e u n t r e a t e d h a b i t a t s c o n t a i n e d more s p e c i e s t h a n t r e a t e d a r e a s . The l o g g e d s e t t i n g p r e s e n t s a h e t e r o g e n e o u s h a b i t a t f o r s p e c i e s i n v a s i o n , w i t h a v a r i e t y o f i n d i v i d u a l m i c r o s i t e s . The d e g r e e o f d i s t u r b a n c e and t h e a s s o c i a t e d e x t e n t o f m i c r o - s i t e s c r e a t e d s t r o n g l y c o n t r o l t h e number and t h e q u a n t i t y o f s p e c i e s e n t e r i n g a p a r t i c u l a r h a b i t a t . P l o t s O i l and 012 ( A p p e n d i x I) i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , h a v i n g a l a r g e number o f s p o r a d i c s p e c i e s c o l o n i z i n g on f a v o r a b l e m i c r o s i t e s . In most c a s e s , t h e s e s p e c i e s p o s s e s s l i t t l e d i a g n o s t i c v a l u e . S l a s h b u r n i n g r e d u c e s t h e number o f s p e c i e s o c c u r r i n g on a s i t e by d i m i n i s h i n g t h e number o f m o i s t p o c k e t s , d e c a y i n g wood, and r e s i d u a l component s p e c i e s . E x p o s e d m i n e r a l s o i l i s t h e m a j o r m i c r o s i t e a v a i l a b l e f o r c o l o n i z a t i o n . P i l i n g and b u r n i n g does n o t have as a d v e r s e an e f f e c t on s p e c i e s c o m p o s i - t i o n as s l a s h b u r n i n g . T h i s i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e t a b l e s i n A p p e n d i x I , P a r t s I and I I . 70 The p r e c e d i n g f a c t o r s a r e j u s t a few o f t h e m a j o r c a u s e s f o r v a r i a t i o n between a s s o c i a t i o n s and w i t h i n e a c h a s s o c i a t i o n . S l o p e , a s p e c t , e l e v a t i o n , and p a r e n t m a t e r i a l a l l p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n i n f l u e n c i n g v e g e t a t i o n a l v a r i a - t i o n . The e f f e c t o f p a r e n t m a t e r i a l i s e s p e c i a l l y n o t e w o r t h y i n p l o t s 005, 029, 030 l o c a t e d i n t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n on g l a c i o - m a r i n e p a r e n t m a t e r i a l . The s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n i s e x c e e d i n g l y r i c h , c o n t a i n i n g a l a r g e number o f s p e c i e s n o t f o u n d on o t h e r p a r e n t , m a t e r i a l s , as w e l l as an i n f l u x o f S a l i x spp. and Alnus rubra ( F i g . 1 9 ) . T h i s i s c a u s e d by t h e p o o r l y d r a i n e d c o n d i t i o n s . Juncus effusus and Soirpus microcarpus a r e common a s s o c i a t e s . V a r i a t i o n c a u s e d by t r e a t m e n t and a s s o c i a t i o n t y p e on t h e i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i e s ' F i g u r e s 21, 22, and 23 compare t h e e f f e c t o f t r e a t - ment on a number o f s e l e c t e d s p e c i e s w i t h i n e a c h a s s o c i a t i o n a l o n g w i t h t h e mean f o r t h e a s s o c i a t i o n . The number a t t h e to p o f e a c h b a r i s a p r e s e n c e v a l u e . I t a p p e a r s f r o m t h e f i g u r e s t h a t most s p e c i e s o c c u r i n a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s b u t i n c r e a s e t o w a r d a h i g h e r mean s i g n i f i - c a n c e and p r e s e n c e i n c e r t a i n a s s o c i a t i o n s . M o i s t u r e r e g i m e and l a c k o f d e c a y i n g wood as a g r o w i n g medium seemed t o be th e i m p o r t a n t c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r s . In a d d i t i o n , a l a r g e number o f shade i n t o l e r a n t p l a n t s o c c u r u n d e r a l l s i t e c o n d i t i o n s a f t e r l o g g i n g , e x h i b i t i n g no p r e f e r e n t i a l t r e n d s . T h e s e F i g u r e 21 Mean s i g n i f i c a n c e and p r e s e n c e o f f i f t e e n s e l e c t e d s p e c i e s i n t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n F i g u r e 22 Mean s i g n i f i c a n c e and presence of f i f t e e n s e l e c t e d s p e c i e s i n the moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n 73 O I ; ; «, _ Mean (or A s s o c i a t i o n 8 - 7 ~ G - 100. I S l a s h b u r n c d 8 - 7 ~ G - 100. F i g u r e 23 Mean s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d p r e s e n c e o f f i f t e e n s e l e c t e d s p e c i e s i n t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n 74 species are responding to increased l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s due to the lack of the f o r e s t canopy. Very few species showed a d e f i n i t e s i t e s p e c i f i c i t y . These species mostly occurred i n the r i c h swordfern - western redcedar a s s o c i a t i o n . For example, species e x h i b i t i n g an i n c r e a s i n g mean s i g n i f i c a n c e toward the swordfern - western redcedar a s s o c i a t i o n are: S a l i x sitohensis Rubus s p e o t a b i l i s Polystiohum munitum Species showing an opposite trend are: Tsuga hetevophylla Gaulthevia shallon Vacoinium pavvifolium Linnaea bovealis T r u l y ubiquitous species: Epilobium angustifolium Betula papyvifeva Spivaea douglasii The expansion i n the normal h a b i t a t of a species appears to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of cutover areas. I t r e s u l t s from the increase i n l i g h t , moisture, m i n e r a l i z a t i o n of organic l a y e r s , and the c r e a t i o n of m i c r o - h a b i t a t s . A l l , these features allow the p l a n t s to expand t h e i r normal range as other favor- able h a b i t a t s are created, as w e l l as i n h i b i t i n g p l a n t s that do not respond to these f a c t o r s . 75 F i g u r e 21 o f t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n shows t h a t s l a s h b u r n i n g i n f l u e n c e s t h e s e l e c t e d s p e c i e s t h e g r e a t e s t . Salix sitohensis, Thuja p l i o a t a , Linnaea borealis, and Luzula parviflora were c o m p l e t e l y e l i m i n a t e d , w h i l e Bleohnum spicant, Polystiohum munitum, and Tsuga heterophylla were g r e a t l y r e d u c e d i n b o t h p r e s e n c e and mean s i g n i f i c a n c e . Gaultheria shallon e x h i b i t e d no i d e n t i f i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e be- tween t r e a t m e n t s . Betula papyrifera showed the o n l y n o t a b l e i n c r e a s e w i t h s l a s h b u r n i n g . A l t h o u g h n o t shown i n F i g u r e 21, Ceratodon purpureus and Polytrichum guniperinum a l s o e x h i b i t an i n c r e a s e w i t h s l a s h b u r n i n g . The i n f l u e n c e o f f i r e on t h e moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n CFig- 22) i s more d i f f i c u l t t o e v a l u a t e s i n c e no p l o t s were s l a s h b u r n e d . The d i f f e r e n c e s between no t r e a t m e n t and p i l e d and b u r n e d a r e m i n i m a l . A l l s p e c i e s a p p e a r t o de- c r e a s e s l i g h t l y i n b o t h p r e s e n c e and mean s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h i s i s p r o b a b l y due t o t h e c l o s e s p a c i n g o f the p l a n t e d t r e e s r a t h e r t h a n t r e a t m e n t d i f f e r e n c e s . The s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n ( F i g . 23) r e f l e c t s a s i m i l a r t r e n d w i t h r e s p e c t t o treatment,, as d i d t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n . However t h e e f f e c t i s n o t as g r e a t and t h e number o f s p e c i e s a f f e c t e d i s l e s s . T h i s un- d o u b t e d l y r e f l e c t s t h e r i c h n e s s o f t h e h a b i t a t and t h e r e s u l t - i n g i n c r e a s e d r e s p o n s e r a t e i n v e g e t a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t . The mean p r e s e n c e f o r e a c h a s s o c i a t i o n i s g i v e n a t t h e top o f e a c h f i g u r e . T hese v a l u e s can be compared w i t h e a c h o t h e r as a v i s u a l t e c h n i q u e i n i d e n t i f y i n g e a c h s p e c i e s r e s p o n s e 76 to p a r t i c u l a r h a b i t a t s o f f i f t e e n s p e c i e s g i v e n . Summary V e g e t a t i o n a l v a r i a t i o n a f t e r l o g g i n g i s i n f l u e n c e d m a i n l y by the accompanying human a l t e r a t i o n s t o the s i t e . The v a r i a t i o n i n v e g e t a t i o n i s i n f l u e n c e d most d i r e c t l y by the degree o f s i t e d i s t u r b a n c e t o the h a b i t a t , type o f t r e a t m e n t , s p a c i n g o f p l a n t e d t r e e s , amount o f l i g h t exposure due t o c l e a r c u t t i n g , age o f s t a n d as w e l l as the a b i o t i c f a c t o r o f m o i s t u r e regime between a s s o c i a t i o n s . Of l e s s e r importance are s l o p e , a s p e c t , and p a r e n t m a t e r i a l . However, the r e l a t i o n - s h i p s o f the s e and o t h e r a b i o t i c f a c t o r s may be masked by the impact o f the human-related d i s t u r b a n c e s a f t e r c l e a r c u t t i n g . 77 PART I I - SEEDLING ESTABLISHMENT WITHIN THE THREE SERAL ASSOCIATIONS 1. S e e d l i n g E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f C o n i C e r o u s and D e c i d u o u s T r e e s The number o f s e e d l i n g s p e r a c r e was e v a l u a t e d on t h e l / 4 0 t h a c r e p l o t s . The r e s u l t s f o r e a c h p l o t a r e r e c o r d e d i n A p p e n d i x I , P a r t I I I . The s u b j e c t i v e l y c h o s e n p l o t s were s e l e c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t g e n e r a l s t o c k i n g and s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u - t i o n o f t h e s e e d l i n g s f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s i t e as w e l l as b e i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n f o r t h e a s s o c i a t i o n . B e c a u s e o f t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n r e g e n e r a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h e e x a c t q u a n t i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s c a n n o t be o b s e r v e d by use o f a s u b j e c t i v e s a m p l i n g s y s t e m . However, t r e n d s and q u a l i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h r e g a r d t o a s s o c i a t i o n s and t r e a t m e n t s . The r e s u l t s a r e compared by e x a m i n i n g t h e a c t u a l number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e i n e a c h a s s o c i a t i o n and t r e a t - ment . T a b l e 4 p r e s e n t s t h e a v e r a g e number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e t h a t o c c u r i n t h e t h r e e a s s o c i a t i o n s by t r e a t m e n t f o r a l l t h e t r e e s p e c i e s e n c o u n t e r e d on t h e p l o t s . The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n i s a l s o i n c l u d e d where i t i s c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t . The c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e t r e e s p e r a c r e i s a summation o f a l l age c l a s s e s . T a b l e s 5 and 6 r e p r e s e n t t h e number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e by age c l a s s f o r c o n i f e r o u s and d e c i d u o u s t r e e s . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t n o t enough o b s e r v a t i o n s were a v a i l a b l e t o make any c o m p a r i s o n s between age c l a s s e s . T h e r e f o r e , a T a b l e 4 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t r e e s i n numbers o f t r e e s p e r a c r e by a s s o c i a t i o n and t r e a t m e n t ASSOCIATION SALAL - D.F. MOSS - W. H. SWORDFERN -• W.R.C • TREATMENT NONE P$B SL MEAN NONE P$B MEAN NONE Pt}B SL MEAN NO. OF PLOTS 10 3 6 19 9 6 15 1 7 8 16 WESTERN HEMLOCK * 3849 ±2327 6667 ±5286 448 ±479 3220 ±3262 5110 ±1717 3701 ±2928 4547 ±2291 900 889 ±820 636 ±797 763 ±764 WESTERN REDCEDAR 957 ±1350 907 ±845 33 ±53 657 ±1087 889 ±549 860 ±798 877 ±632 1030 267 ±237 303 ±329 333 ±329 . NATURAL DOUGLAS - FIR 505 ±345 160 ±160 53 ±65 308 ±330 244 ±342 127 ±178 197 ±286 - 167 ±111 95 ±77 121 ' ±100 PAPER BIRCH 121 467 620 333 78 333 180 2300 1027 630 908 VINE MAPLE 79 213 33 86 576 693 623 430 244 350 309 CASCARA 35 27 13 27 209 127 176 90 3 11 13 BITTER CHERRY 94 - 53 66 87 7 55 740 366 185 299 BLACK COTTONWOOD 30 13 13 22 42 47 44 60 1581 65 728 RED ALDER 14 - 7 10 28 7 20 120 910 269 540 WILLOW SPP. 473 120 73 291 634 193 458 60 4204 770 2228 BIG-LEAF MAPLE - - - - - - - 30 - 35 19 PACIFIC DOGWOOD 5 - - 3 - 13 5 80 - 20 15 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n a b o u t t h e mean T a b l e 4 c o n t i n u e d ASSOCIATION SALAL - D.F. MOSS - W. H. SWORDFERN - W.R. C. TREATMENT NONE P§B SL MEAN NONE P$B MEAN NONE P$B SL MEAN NO. OF PLOTS 10 3 6 19 9 6 15 1 7 8 16 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR - 1147 1060 516 - 1160 464 - 540 382 379 LODGEPOLE PINE - - 13 4 - - - - - - PACIFIC SILVER FIR - - - - - 7 3 - - - - SITKA SPRUCE - - - - 4 - 3 - - - _ <r> CONIFEROUS TREES 5311 7733 547 4189 6248 4695 5626 1930 1323 1035 1217 + 3495 ±6085 ±558 ±4186. ±1995 ±3824 ±2847 - •±1059±1111 ±1040 DECIDUOUS TREES 851 840 813 837 1655 1420 1561 3910 8335 2335 5059 ±695 ±349 ±878 ±685 ±851 ±639 ±758 - ±5981± 1417 ±4930 T a b l e 5 Number o f d e c i d u o u s t r e e s p e r a c r e AGE CLASS ( y r s . ) ASSOCIATION 0-2 3-4 5-7 8-10 11-12 13-15 SALAL - D.F. No T r e a t m e n t S l a s h b u r n e d 120.0 P i l e d § B u r n e d T o t a l 120.0 MOSS - W.H. No T r e a t m e n t S l a s h b u r n e d P i l e d § B u r n e d T o t a l SWORDFERN - W.R.C. No T r e a t m e n t S l a s h b u r n e d P i l e d § B u r n e d T o t a l 952.0 840.0 1792.0 1410.0 1410.0 3910.0 4160.0 13900.0 4593.0 13900.0 12663.0 910.0 910. 0 1460.0 1090.0 2550.0 1680.0 2870.0 4550.0 792. 0 792.0 2360.0 1920.0 4280. 0 1820 . 0 1820.0 T a b l e 6 Number o f c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s p e r a c r e AGE CLASS ( y r s . ) ASSOCIATION 0-2 3-4 5-7 8-10. 11-12 13-15 SALAL - D.F. No T r e a t m e n t S l a s h b u r n e d 280.0 P i l e d § Bu r n e d T o t a l 280.0 MOSS - W.H. No T r e a t m e n t S l a s h b u r n e d P i l e d § B u r n e d T o t a l C ' SWORDFERN - W.R.C. No T r e a t m e n t S l a s h b u r n e d P i l e d § B u r n e d T o t a l 4840.0 4840.0 1073.0 1073. 0 600.0 7733.0 8333.0 1930.0 2180 . 0 1933.0 6043.0 4618. 0 4618.0 6378.0 4220.0 10598.0 883. 0 240.0 1123.0 6004.0 6004.0 6560. 0 5644. 0 12204.0 195. 0 195.0 82 summation o f a l l age c l a s s e s was t h e o n l y v a l i d means o f c o m p a r i s o n . The f i r s t and most a p p a r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s t h e h i g h d e g r e e o f v a r i a t i o n i n t r e e s p e r a c r e f o r w e s t e r n hemlock, w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r , and D o u g l a s - f i r . T h i s i s l a r g e l y t h e r e s u l t o f the s a m p l i n g method and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t t h e summation o f age c l a s s e s . S i n c e th e s a m p l i n g was c a r r i e d o u t on l a r g e , s e l e c t i v e l y l o c a t e d p l o t s , e r r o r s due t o c l u m p i n g o f w e s t e r n hemlock r e g e n e r a t i o n and u n e v e n d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o t h e r c o n i f e r o u s s p e c i e s a r e l i k e l y . In t h e c a s e o f w e s t e r n hemlock, t h e clumped p a t t e r n i s v e r y n o t i c e a b l e i n t h e f i e l d and f o l l o w s a n e g a t i v e b i n o m i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n ( S m i t h and Ker 1957). MacBean (1941) f o u n d dense b o d i e s o f s l a s h and t h i c k g r o u n d - c o v e r im- p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n r e s t r i c t i n g s e e d l i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t . A c c o r d i n g l y , any s a m p l i n g method t h a t u s e s a s m a l l number o f l a r g e p l o t s w i l l n o t sample enough o f t h e v a r i a t i o n t o a c c u r a t e - l y e s t i m a t e t h e number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e o r t h e i r s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , a l a r g e w i t h i n - p l o t s t a n d a r d d e v i a - t i o n i s i n c u r r e d , as t h e p l o t encompasses v a r y i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f s e e d b e d s and t y p e s o f s e e dbeds w i t h i n a l a r g e p l o t a r e a . A l t h o u g h s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i s d i f f i c u l t due t o t h e l a r g e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , t r e n d s a r e n o t i c e a b l e between a s s o c i a t i o n and t r e a t m e n t and d e s e r v e f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . In o r d e r t o a n a l y z e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e was i n i t i a l l y employed, b u t a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was c h o s e n f o r t h e f i n a l 83 a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a (Wine j_964) . The a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e was i n i t i a l l y u s e d r a t h e r t h a n an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e b e c a u s e o f p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s age c o u l d have on t h e r e s u l t s s i n c e the age o f e a c h s t a n d was n o t h e l d c o n s t a n t . By means o f an a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e , t h e e f f e c t o f age was removed from t h e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s and t h e means a d j u s t e d a c c o r d i n g l y . However upon e x a m i n i n g t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e , i t was f o u n d t h a t age c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e t o the v a r i a t i o n i n number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e . T h e r e f o r e , a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w o u l d p r o - duce as a d e q u a t e r e s u l t s as a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e . C o n s e q u e n t - l y , a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was u s e d i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a . The f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e t a b l e was con- s t r u c t e d t o a n a l y z e t h e r e s u l t s : S o u r c e o f V a r i a t i o n D e g r e e s o f Freedom A s s o c i a t i o n s 2 T r e a t m e n t s w i t h i n a s s o c i a t i o n s 5 E r r o r 42 TOTAL 49 T h i s t a b l e c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e n e s t e d d e s i g n ( H i c k s 1 9 6 4 ) . A n e s t e d d e s i g n was u s e d r a t h e r t h a n a two-way c l a s s i f i - c a t i o n b e c a u s e a n e s t e d d e s i g n a l l o w s an u n e q u a l number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s t o o c c u r w i t h i n t h e s o u r c e s o f v a r i a t i o n . A two-way c l a s s i f i c a t i o n l o s e s o r t h o g o n a l i t y i f an u n e q u a l 84 number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s i s p r e s e n t Quicks 1 9 6 4 ) . A l s o i n t h e n e s t e d d e s i g n , t h e number o f l e v e l s o f t h e n e s t e d f a c t o r i . e . t r e a t m e n t , need n o t be t h e same f o r a l l l e v e l s o f t h e o t h e r f a c t o r i . e . a s s o c i a t i o n . T h i s i s t h e c a s e i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t , s i n c e no s l a s h b u r n e d p l o t s e x i s t f o r t h e moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n . A B a r l e t t ' s t e s t o f h o m o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e was c a r r i e d o ut on t h e raw d a t a t o see i f t h e v a r i a n c e s were homogeneous, a b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n o f a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . I t was f o u n d t h a t t h e v a r i a n c e s were n o t homogeneous. T h e r e - f o r e , a l o g a r i t h m i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was done and t h e t r a n s f o r m e d d a t a t e s t e d f o r h o m o g e n i t y o f t h e v a r i a n c e . The v a r i a n c e s were t h e n f o u n d t o be homogeneous. Duncan's m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t was employed t o r a n k the means i f t h e y were f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . The mean v a l u e i s t h e number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n and t r e a t m e n t . A f t e r a l l a s s o c i a t i o n and t r e a t m e n t means were r a n k e d , t h e means were a r r a n g e d d i a g r a m a t i c a l l y i n d e c l i n i n g o r d e r o f t h e i r mean v a l u e s f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t . The g r o u p i n g o f mean v a l u e s t h a t a r e s i m i l a r a t t h e 5 p e r c e n t l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i s shown by an u n d e r l i n e . The f o l l o w i n g symbols were u s e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e a s s o c i a t i o n and t r e a t m e n t f o r t h e Duncan's m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t s : S-NT S a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n - no t r e a t m e n t 85 M-NT M - P £ B Sw-NT S-P§B S - S Sw-S Sw-P^B S a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n - p i l e d § b u r n e d S a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n - s l a s h - b u r n e d Moss - w e s t e r n h emlock a s s o c i a t i o n - no t r e a t m e n t Moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n - p i l e d § b u r n e d S w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n - no t r e a t m e n t S w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n - p i l e d § b u r n e d S w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n - s l a s h b u r n e d 1) W e s t e r n hemlock: The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n mean number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e e x i s t s f o r t r e a t m e n t s w i t h i n an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h an F - v a l u e o f 6.43 ( T a b l e I I I - 1 i n A p p e n d i x I I I ) . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d t o e x i s t between i n d i v i d u a l a s s o c i a t i o n s ; . In o t h e r words, t h e e f f e c t Of t r e a t m e n t c o u p l e d w i t h a s s o c i a - t i o n was more i m p o r t a n t i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e t h a n were a s s o c i a t i o n s a l o n e . Duncan's m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t shows t h e f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s among t r e a t m e n t s w i t h i n an a s s o c i a t i o n f o r w e s t e r n hemlock: S-S Sw-S Sw-P§B Sw-NT M-P§B S-NT S-P§B M-NT 306.1 343.2 577.2 900.5 2624.2 3257.6 3832.6 4864.1 The s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n - s l a s h b u r n e d and s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n - s l a s h b u r n e d 86 and p i l e d and b u r n e d were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e o t h e r g r o u p s , e x c e p t f o r t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n - no t r e a t m e n t , w h i c h was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r - ent f r o m e i t h e r g r o u p . The S-S, Sw-S, and Sw-P§B a l s o c o n t a i n t h e l e a s t number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t b o t h s l a s h b u r n i n g and t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d - c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n have a n o t i c e a b l e e f f e c t on w e s t e r n hemlock. S l a s h b u r n i n g u n d o u b t e d l y removes the much-needed o r g a n i c m a t t e r and d e c a y i n g wood t h a t i s i m p o r t a n t t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f w e s t e r n hemlock. The r e m o v a l o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r and de- c a y i n g wood a l s o a l t e r s t h e m o i s t u r e and n u t r i e n t s t a t u s o f th e u p p e r s o i l l a y e r s . The same i s t r u e f o r t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n , where r a p i d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n r e d u c e s t h e o r g a n i c m a t t e r q u i c k l y . The o t h e r g r o u p c o n s i s t s o f t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r and moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a - t i o n s where the s l a s h was e i t h e r p i l e d and b u r n e d o r had no t r e a t m e n t . T h i s group c o n t a i n e d the h i g h e s t number o f w e s t e r n hemlock t r e e s p e r a c r e . Here t h e abundance o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r and d e c a y i n g wood a c c o u n t e d f o r the l a r g e amount o f w e s t e r n h e m lock. T h i s same t r e n d i s i l l u s t r a t e d f o r t h e number o f e s t a b l i s h e d J w e s t e r n hemlock p e r a c r e . T a b l e I I I - 8 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t r e a t m e n t s w i t h i n a s s o c i a t i o n s i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i - c a n t a g a i n . The f o l l o w i n g , Duncan's m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t , i l l u s t r a t e t h i s a n a l o g o u s t r e n d : One f o o t o r g r e a t e r i n h e i g h t 87 Sw-P$B S-S Sw-S Sw-NT M-Pc]B S-NT S-P§B M-NT 98.8 140.1 175.1 380.5 1809.7 2340.5 3038.1 3429.3 2) W e s t e r n r e d c e d a r : The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t r e a t m e n t s w i t h i n a s s o c i a t i o n s i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h a v a l u e o f F = 5.34 ( T a b l e I I I - 2 ) . A s s o c i a t i o n s a l o n e were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . Duncan's m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t e x h i b i t s t h e r e l a t i o n among t r e a t m e n t s w i t h i n a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r : S-S Sw-S Sw-P§B M-NT S-NT S-P§B M - P § B Sw-NT 2.9 98.9 101.2 399.2 530.2 557.9 586.4 1030.6 W e s t e r n r e d c e d a r , as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , t h r i v e s w e l l on h a b i t a t s t h a t a r e m o i s t and s u p p l y an abu n d a n t s o u r c e o f n u t r i e n t s . A f t e r c l e a r c u t t i n g , t h e s e h a b i t a t s a r e u s u a l l y f o u n d i n m o i s t m i c r o d e p r e s s i o n s c r e a t e d d u r i n g t h e l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n i n t h e s a l a l - D o u g a l s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n and moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n . However, b e c a u s e o f the h i g h e r m o i s t u r e s t a t u s o f t h e s o i l s i n t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d - c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n , t h e s e h a b i t a t s a r e more u n i v e r s a l and a r e n o t a l w a y s c o n f i n e d t o m i c r o d e p r e s s i o n s . S t a t i s t i c a l l y , 88 w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r does n o t a p p e a r t o have a p r e f e r e n c e as f a r as g e r m i n a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d . The Duncan's m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t shows t h a t t h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between a l l t r e a t m e n t and a s s o c i a t i o n c o m b i n a t i o n s e x c e p t f o r t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n - s l a s h b u r n e d w h i c h had t h e l o w e s t number o f w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r t r e e s p e r a c r e . A l t h o u g h the mean number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e f o r w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , t h e t r e n d i s an i n c r e a s i n g number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e on t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r and moss - w e s t e r n h e mlock a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t h a v e n o t b e e n e x p o s e d t o s l a s h b u r n - i n g . T h i s i s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d when e x a m i n i n g t h e number o f e s t a b l i s h e d w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r t r e e s p e r a c r e . The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i n T a b l e I I I - 9 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e means f o r t r e a t - ments w i t h i n a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 1 p e r c e n t l e v e l . The f o l l o w i n g Duncan's m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among means: S-S Sw-P$B Sw-S Sw-NT M-NT S-NT M-P§B S-P$B 0.0 5.8 14.2 110.5 220.2 255.8 403.4 422.6 E s t a b l i s h e d w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r e x h i b i t s two d e f i n i t e g r o u p s , t h o s e w i t h i n t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a - t i o n e x c e p t f o r no t r e a t m e n t . a n d the s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n - s l a s h b u r n e d , and t h e r e m a i n i n g s a l a l - D o u g l a s - 89 f i r and moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t have e i t h e r been p i l e d and b u r n e d o r had no t r e a t m e n t . I t i s f e l t t h a t t h i s i s due p a r t i a l l y t o the o c c u r r e n c e o f a d v a n c e d r e g e n e r a - t i o n o f w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r on a r e a s t h a t have n o t been h e a v i l y d i s t u r b e d . But more l i k e l y an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i s t h e l a c k o f c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m d e c i d u o u s t r e e s and h e r b a c e o u s p l a n t s i n t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r and moss - w e s t e r n h e m l o c k a s s o c i a t i o n s . In t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n , t h e c o m p e t i - t i o n i s i n t e n s e . 3) D o u g l a s - f i r : The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e T a b l e I I I - 3 d e n o t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between means a t t h e 1 p e r c e n t l e v e l f o r t r e a t m e n t s w i t h i n a s s o c i a t i o n s . The F - v a l u e i s 3.58. The Duncan's m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t shows t h e f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s among means: Sw-NT S-S M-P^B M-NT Sw-S Sw-P^B S-P§B S-NT 0.0 7.1 18.7 30.4 47.2 137.2 139.6 367.8 The s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n - no t r e a t m e n t was f o u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t " f r o m " . t h e ' s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n - no t r e a t m e n t , s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n - s l a s h b u r n e d , moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n - p i l e d and b u r n e d , and moss - w e s t e r n hemlock 90 a s s o c i a t i o n - no t r e a t m e n t . The same i s t r u e f o r t h e number o f e s t a b l i s h e d D o u g l a s - f i r t r e e s p e r a c r e as t h e f o l l o w i n g Duncan's m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t i n d i c a t e s : Sw-NT S-S M - P § B Sw-S M-NT Sw-P$B S-P§B S-NT 0.0 4.5 16.9 26.7 28.5 42.3 115.9 300.5 The d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t D o u g l a s - f i r has no p r e f e r - ence w i t h r e p e c t t o a s s o c i a t i o n o r t r e a t m e n t , e x c e p t f o r s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n - no t r e a t m e n t w h i c h t o t a l e d t h e h i g h e s t number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e . T h i s c o u l d be c a u s e d by a c o i n c i d e n c e w i t h an e x c e l l e n t s e e d y e a r , d i s t a n c e t o s e e d s o u r c e o r some o t h e r t y p e o f e x t r a n e o u s f a c t o r . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s c o n t r a r y t o t h a t o f B e v e r (1954) who o b s e r v e d an i n c r e a s e d number o f D o u g l a s - f i r s e e d l i n g s on a r e a s t h a t had b e en s l a s h b u r n e d . However, V o g l and R y d e r (1969) f o u n d a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e i n D o u g l a s - f i r s t o c k i n g on b u r n e d s i t e s , w h i l e L a v e n d e r et al. (1956) f o u n d s t o c k i n g o f D o u g l a s - f i r on u n b u r n e d p l o t s e x c e e d e d t h a t on b u r n e d p l o t s . Con- s e q u e n t l y , many o p i n i o n s e x i s t . U n d o u b t e d l y t h i s i s c a u s e d by t h e many v a r i a t i o n s i n s i t e s , d e g r e e s o f d i s t u r b a n c e , and o t h e r i m p o r t a n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t r o l s t h a t d i f f e r among v a r i o u s s t u d i e s . I n any c a s e , t h e d a t a i n t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t s u p p l e m e n t a l p l a n t i n g o f D o u g l a s - f i r i s n e e d e d i n a l l 91 a s s o c i a t i o n s and t r e a t m e n t s t o "achieve an a d e q u a t e s t o c k i n g l e v e l o f D o u g l a s - f i r . 4) C o n i f e r o u s t r e e s : T h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s m a i n l y w e s t e r n hemlock, w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r , and D o u g l a s - f i r . The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e T a b l e I I I - 4 shows a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t v a l u e o f F = 7.42. Duncan's m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t shows the r e l a t i o n s among means: S-S Sw-S Sw-P$B Sw-NT M-P^B S-NT S-P^B M-NT 373.1 627.9 942.5 1930.6 3336.6 4423.8 4701.1 5993.8 I t i s e v i d e n t f r o m t h e Duncan's m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t s t h a t c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s (as a c a t e g o r y ) f o l l o w a p a t t e r n i d e n t i - c a l t o t h a t o f w e s t e r n hemlock. T h i s r e s u l t s f r o m w e s t e r n hemlock making up t h e m a j o r p o r t i o n o f t h e c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s , w h i l e o t h e r t r e e s p e c i e s o n l y add a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n . Con- s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e s p o n s e o f c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t o f w e s t e r n hemlock and t h e e f f e c t o f t h e o t h e r t r e e s p e c i e s i s n o t shown.. 5) T o t a l number o f n a t u r a l l y r e g e n e r a t e d t r e e s : T h i s g r o u p c o n t a i n s a l l d e c i d u o u s and c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s minus t h e p l a n t e d s t o c k C D o u g l a s - f i r ) . The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e T a b l e I I I - 5 92 e x p r e s s e s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r t r e a t m e n t s w i t h i n a s s o c i a t i o n s a t th.e 1 p e r c e n t l e v e l . A s s o c i a t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s d e m o n s t r a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . The f o l l o w i n g Duncan's m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t e x p r e s s e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p among t r e a t m e n t s w i t h i n a s s o c i a t i o n s : S-S Sw-S M-Pt>B S-NT Sw-NT S-P§B M-NT Sw-P§B 941.7 2867.5 4846.2 5228.8 5841.2 6050.6 7571.8 8081.6 T h r e e d i s t i n c t g r o u p s a r e v i s i b l e . S a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n - s l a s h b u r n e d , w h i c h had t h e l o w e s t number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e , s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n - s l a s h b u r n e d , and t o g e t h e r moss - w e s t e r n h emlock a s s o c i a t i o n - no t r e a t m e n t and s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n - p i l e d and b u r n e d . I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e s l a s h b u r n i n g had a d e f i n i t e e f f e c t on r e g e n e r a t i o n o f b o t h c o n i f e r o u s and d e c i d u o u s t r e e s i n t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n . T h i s i s n o t t r u e f o r t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t was s l a s h b u r n e d . The e f f e c t o f s l a s h b u r n i n g was n o t as g r e a t i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e r a p i d c o l o n i z a - t i o n by d e c i d u o u s t r e e s l a r g e l y c o n c e a l i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f s l a s h b u r n i n g on c o n i f e r o u s r e g e n e r a t i o n . The p r e c e d i n g t e s t s i n d i c a t e t h a t s l a s h b u r n i n g r e d u c e s t h e number o f t r e e s p e r 93 a c r e i n a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h , i t i s n o t a l w a y s a s t a t i s t i - c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n . The e f f e c t o f s l a s h b u r n i n g was n o t as s e v e r e i n t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n as i n t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e s u p e r i o r m o i s t u r e c o n d i t i o n s and p o s s i b l e i n c r e a s e i n t h e n u t r i e n t s u p p l y f r o m l a t e r a l s e e p a g e . In a g r e e n h o u s e s t u d y , J a b l a n c z y (1964) f o u n d t h a t t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n c o u l d b e n e f i t f r o m s l a s h b u r n i n g by a c c e l e r a t i n g m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . S l a s h b u r n i n g i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n c a u s e d the l e a s t damage. The s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n s u f f e r e d t h e most b e c a u s e t h e r e i s no s u p p l e m e n t a l n u t r i e n t s u p p l y f r o m seepage w a t e r and much o f t h e n u t r i e n t s u p p l y must n o r m a l l y be d e r i v e d f r o m t h e humus, and t h e l a t t e r may be p a r t i a l l y o r c o m p l e t e l y d e s t r o y e d by b u r n i n g . The r e a s o n f o r t h e moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n - no t r e a t m e n t and s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n - p i l e d and b u r n e d c o n t a i n i n g t h e h i g h e s t number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e i s d i r e c t l y o p p o s i t e . The m a j o r p o r t i o n o f t h e moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n - no t r e a t m e n t i s made up o f c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s , w h i c h was shown p r e v i o u s l y , w h i l e th e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n - p i l e d and b u r n e d i s composed l a r g e l y o f d e c i d u o u s t r e e s , and c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s o n l y make up a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f the t o t a l number. T h i s w i l l be f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . 94 6) D e c i d u o u s t r e e s : The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e T a b l e 111-6 i n d i c a t e s t h a t a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t the 1 p e r c e n t l e v e l w i t h an F - v a l u e o f 12.52. T r e a t m e n t s w i t h i n a s s o c i a t i o n s e x h i b i t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , un- l i k e t h a t o f t h e o t h e r t r e e s p e c i e s . Duncan's m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t e x p r e s s e s t h e f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s among a s s o c i a t i o n s : S M Sw 566.8 1392.8 3503.5 The s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n and s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m e a c h o t h e r . The moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n f e l l i n between t h e s e two a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s what w o u l d be e x p e c t e d , s i n c e t h e d e c i d u o u s t r e e s seem t o r e s p o n d t o c h a n g e s i n m o i s t u r e s t a t u s o f the s o i l . T h e r e f o r e , be- c a u s e o f t h e h i g h m o i s t u r e s t a t u s o f the s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n , i t c o n t a i n s a h i g h e r number o f d e c i d u o u s t r e e s p e r a c r e t h a n t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s f i r a s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h has a low m o i s t u r e s t a t u s most o f t h e y e a r . The moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n i s i n t e r m e d i a t e i n m o i s t u r e s t a t u s between t h e o t h e r two a s s o c i a t i o n s . I n g e n e r a l , t h e Duncan's m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t s i n d i c a t e t h a t a l l c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s p e c i e s p r e f e r a r e a s t h a t 95 have been e i t h e r p i l e d and b u r n e d o r had no t r e a t m e n t i n t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r and moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n s . S l a s h b u r n i n g r e d u c e s t h e number o f t r e e s p r e s e n t . The sword- f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n p r o b a b l y p r e s e n t s j u s t as good an e n v i r o n m e n t f o r r e g e n e r a t i o n , b u t e a r l y i n v a s i o n o f t h e s i t e by d e c i d u o u s t r e e s , as w e l l as h e r b a c e o u s p l a n t s , l i m i t s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s . F i g u r e 2 4 i l l u s t r a t e s d i a g r a m a t i c a l l y t h e r o l e o f w e s t e r n hemlock, w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r , D o u g l a s - f i r , c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s , and d e c i d u o u s t r e e s i n e a c h o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s s t u d i e d . The b e h a v i o r o f c o n i f e r o u s and d e c i d u o u s t r e e s i n e a c h i n d i v i d u a l a s s o c i a t i o n i s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e s 25, 26, and 27. The number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e f o r c o n i f e r o u s and d e c i d u o u s t r e e s by one- f o o t h e i g h t c l a s s e s i s g i v e n . An a t t e m p t was made t o s t r a t i f y t h e t h r e e a s s o c i a t i o n s by age c l a s s and t r e a t m e n t t o add more c o m p a r a b i l i t y t o t h e g r a p h s . T h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d f o r s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r and moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n s . However, s i n c e no c o m p a r a b l e age c l a s s o r t r e a t m e n t e x i s t e d f o r t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n , t h e c l o s e s t combina- t i o n was c h o s e n . T h i s was age c l a s s 5 - 7 and t r e a t m e n t p i l e d and b u r n e d . I t i s f e l t t h a t t h i s s h o u l d p r o v i d e an a c c e p t a b l e c o m p a r i s o n s i n c e Duncan's m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t s showed t h a t t h e number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e d i d n o t v a r y s i g n i f i - c a n t l y between no t r e a t m e n t and p i l e d and b u r n e d . The c o m p a r i s o n between g r a p h s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e number o f d e c i d u o u s t r e e s i n c r e a s e s r a p i d l y f r o m t h e s a l a l - 96 F i g u r e 24 Number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e o f t h r e e t r e e s p e c i e s and two g r o u p s o f s p e c i e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l a s s o c i a t i o n s 97 FIGURE 25 The. number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e by h e i g h t c l a s s o f c o n i f e r o u s and d e c i d u o u s t r e e s f o r t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n , age c l a s s 8 - 1 0 , and no t r e a t m e n t . 98 \ C O N IF E R O U S A D.E C I D U 0 U S ^ —A , , , , _, , , f — .0 l.D 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 B.O 9.0 HEIGHT CLASS FIGURE 26 The number of trees per acre by height class of coniferous and deciduous trees for the moss - western hemlock association, age class 8 - 10, and no treatment. 99 X cc UI ce 9H \ \ V \ \ V I \ \ \ \ \ \ V \ \ / x v • • / \ / ^ ^ D E C I D U O U S / . \ \ / x C O N I F E R O U S \ \ , , 1 r 1 1 ~ r — f ™ 0 0 1 0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 HEIGHT CLASS FIGURE 27 The number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e by h e i g h t c l a s s o f c o n i f e r o u s and d e c i d u o u s t r e e s f o r t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n , age c l a s s 5 - 7 , and p i l e d and burned. 100 D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n t o t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n . The number o f c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s p e r a c r e i s h i g h e s t f o r t h e moss - w e s t e r n h e m l o c k a s s o c i a t i o n and de- c r e a s e s t o w a r d e a c h o f o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n . W i t h i n e a c h a s s o c i a t i o n t h e r e i s a s i m i l a r t r e n d , as t h e h e i g h t o f t h e t r e e s i n c r e a s e d , t h e number o f c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s p e r a c r e d e c r e a s e d , w h i l e t h e number o f d e c i d u o u s t r e e s p e r a c r e i n c r e a s e d . I f h e i g h t i s c o n s i d e r e d an a p p r o x i m a t e i n d e x o f t r e e age, t h e n as h e i g h t i n c r e a s e s so does age. W i t h t h i s a n a l o g y i n m i n d , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e number o f c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s p e r a c r e r a p i d l y d e c r e a s e s w i t h a g e . The r a p i d m o r t a l i t y i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t i s m a i n l y due t o m o r t a l i t y o f t h e y o u n g s e e d l i n g s r e s u l t i n g f r o m f a c t o r s s u c h as d r o u g h t , e x p o s u r e , r o d e n t s , and o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . I n t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n ( F i g . 2 7 ) , t h i s p r o c e s s i s a c c e l e r a t e d b e c a u s e o f c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m a h e a v y c o v e r o f d e c i d u o u s t r e e s . The s t e e p n e s s o f t h e c u r v e f o r c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s and t h e l o w c o n s t a n t l e v e l r e a c h e d f o r t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n e x h i b i t s t h e c o m p e t i t i o n e f f e c t . The number o f d e c i d u o u s t r e e s p e r a c r e i n c r e a s e s t o a p e a k w i t h h e i g h t (age) i n e a c h a s s o c i a t i o n t h e n b e g i n s t o d r o p o f f . The r e g e n e r a t i o n o f d e c i d u o u s t r e e s i s c o n t r o l l e d by t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e c a n o p y and i n i t i a l r e g e n e r a t i o n o f d e c i d u o u s t r e e s o c c u r s d i r e c t l y a f t e r t h e c a n o p y i s r e m o v e d , 101 t h e n d e c r e a s e s t o a v e r y s l o w r a t e . On t h e g r a p h s , t h i s i s shown by t h e peak i n t h e d e c i d u o u s t r e e s c u r v e w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r e d c l o s e t o t h e i n i t i a l d a t e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t . On the l e f t t h e more r e c e n t r e g e n e r a t i o n i s e n c o u n t e r e d . The p r e f e r e n c e o f c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s f o r a r e a s t h a t have been e i t h e r p i l e d and b u r n e d o r had no t r e a t m e n t i s b e l i e v e d t o be c a u s e d p r i m a r i l y by s e e d b e d c o n d i t o n s . I s a a c (1943) f e l t t h i s was due t o more a v a i l a b l e s e e d i n t h e d u f f t h a t was n o t d e s t r o y e d by b u r n i n g r a t h e r t h a n t h e s u p e r i o r s e e d b e d c o n d i t i o n s on u n b u r n e d a r e a s . M u e l l e r - D o m b o i s (1960) a l s o f o u n d t h i s t o be t r u e . The m o i s t u r e - h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y o f a compact o r g a n i c l a y e r i s a l s o much g r e a t e r t h a n t h e m i n e r a l s o i l , t h e r e b y p r e v e n t i n g d r y i n g o u t o f t h e s e e d ( I s a a c and H o p k i n s 1 9 3 7 ) . H a t c h and L o t a n (1969) o b s e r v e d b e t t e r D o u g l a s - f i r r e g e n e r a t i o n on u n d i s t u r b e d s e e d b e d s and a t t r i b u t e d i t t o t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n o f s o i l m o i s t u r e , :the r e d u c t i o n i n h e r b a - ceous v e g e t a t i o n , and t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f s e e d f r o m r o d e n t s and b i r d s . Shade i s a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e e a r l y e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s . S l a s h l e f t a f t e r t h e l o g g - i n g o p e r a t i o n p r o v i d e s b e n e f i c i a l shade f o r s e e d l i n g e s t a b l i s h - ment and s u r v i v a l . The d i f f u s e l i g h t and s h a d i n g f r o m d i r e c t s u n l i g h t r e d u c e s s e e d l i n g m o r t a l i t y c a u s e d by m o i s t u r e l o s s f r o m t h e s u r f a c e l a y e r s , and p r e v e n t s d i r e c t h e a t i n j u r y t o t h e s e e d l i n g s . M i n o r e (1971) and S t r o t h m a n :(1972) b o t h f o u n d 102 that dead shade derived from slash, benefited Douglas-fir seedlings. Shade derived from l i v i n g brush species complicates the shading e f f e c t , with competition to the regeneration for available moisture and nutrients. Slashburning may affect a s i t e in many ways. The main factors affecting the regeneration of coniferous trees which may be modified by slashburning are s o i l , temperature, a i r temperature at the s o i l surface, s o i l moisture-holding capa- c i t y , nutrient a v a i l a b i l i t y , amount of mycorrhizae present in the s o i l , and s o i l p'H. There is much controversy and con- f l i c t i n g information as to whether these factors are b e n e f i c i a l or not to the regeneration of coniferous trees. In any case, the results of t h i s study indicate that in a l l associations, slashburning decreased the number of trees per acre present for a l l tree species. Although the areas that were p i l e d and burned or had no treatment contained an adequate number of coniferous trees per acre, western hemlock made up the major portion of the regeneration. Furthermore, most of the regenera- t i o n was spotty and not well di s t r i b u t e d . Since western hemlock was the most abundant conifer in a l l associations and treatments, environmental factors had the least effect on i t . Western hemlock's p r o l i f i c seed- bearing habits, wind disseminated seed, a b i l i t y to withstand a wide variety of seedbed conditions, and i t s c a p a b i l i t y to exist under a forest canopy for long periods of time and grow as advanced regeneration after the canopy is-opened, accounted 103 f o r i t s abundance i n a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s . D o u g l a s - f i r , -on t h e o t h e r hand, b e a r s s e e d c r o p s a t v e r y s p o r a d i c i n t e r v a l s , u s u a l l y 5 t o 7 y e a r s between h e a v y c r o p s ( F o w e l l s 1 9 6 5 ) . The s e e d i s a l s o r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e and i s f r e e l y e a t e n by r o d e n t s and b i r d s . T hese f a c t o r s l i m i t t h e amount o f s e e d a v a i l a b l e f o r g e r m i n a t i o n and e s t a b l i s h m e n t . The r e l a t i v e shade i n t o l e r a n c e o f t h i s s p e c i e s a l s o p r e v e n t s i t f r o m be- coming e s t a b l i s h e d as a d v a n c e d r e g e n e r a t i o n . W e s t e r n r e d - c e d a r , even t h o u g h i t i s a p r o l i f i c s e e d p r o d u c e r and r o d e n t d e p r e d a t i o n s a r e m i n o r , has a v e r y low r e g e n e r a t i o n s u c c e s s r a t e . A d v a n c e d r e g e n e r a t i o n o f w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a p p e a r e d t o be an i m p o r t a n t means o f r e g e n e r a t i o n i n a r e a s r e c e i v i n g no t r e a t m e n t . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x i n A p p e n d i x IV i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s i z e o f t h e s e t t i n g and d i s t a n c e t o s e e d s o u r c e had c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o f -0.23305 and -0.28355, r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r . These a r e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h compared t o t h e r e m a i n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l p a r a - m e t e r s s a m p l e d f o r w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r . I s a a c (1930) i n h i s s e e d r e l e a s e s t u d i e s n o t e d a d i s p e r s i o n d i s t a n c e o f 400 f e e t when w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r s e e d was r e l e a s e d f r o m an e l e v a t i o n o f 150 f e e t . T h e r e f o r e i n l a r g e c l e a r c u t s , d i s t a n c e f r o m s e e d s o u r c e i s a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r as i t i s f o r w e s t e r n hemlock and D o u g l a s - f i r . However, t h e s e e d f l i g h t o f t h e s e two s p e c i e s i s much g r e a t e r as compared w i t h t h a t o f w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r . In a d d i t i o n , t h e amount o f a d j a c e n t w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r s e e d 104 source was l i m i t e d i n most cases to approximately 5 - 10 percent of the t o t a l . Consequently, although western redcedar i s a p r o l i f i c seed producer, not many seed t r e e s were present to produce seed. Western redcedar's r i c h edaphic requirements are probably the g r e a t e s t l i m i t i n g f a c t o r to i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t . U n l i k e western hemlock i t cannot w i t h s t a n d a wide v a r i e t y of n u t r i e n t and moisture c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the seedbed environment. Many other environmental f a c t o r s such as s l o p e , as- pect, p o s i t i o n on s l o p e , and a l t i t u d e can cause l o c a l i z e d v a r i a t i o n s i n the number of s e e d l i n g s per acre and v a r i a t i o n s i n the r e s u l t s obtained from d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s . Most observa- t i o n s and attempts at t r y i n g to d e f i n e the complex n a t u r a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g r e g e n e r a t i o n have had only l i m i t e d success. The wide sources of v a r i a t i o n and complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s cause problems i n a n a l y s i s of the i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s . I f the f a c t o r s are s u b j e c t e d to a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , the amount of v a r i a t i o n accounted f o r can change with d i f f e r - ent combinations of v a r i a b l e s and c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s that cannot be q u a n t i f i e d or measured e a s i l y are l e f t out, although they could c o n t r i b u t e to a major p o r t i o n of the v a r i a t i o n . The r e s u l t s of one study may not be d i r e c t l y e x t r a p o l a t e d to other areas, s i n c e the degree i n which one f a c t o r i s import- ant can change from area to area. T h e r e f o r e , because of the problems and i n a c c u r a c i e s 105 involved in interpreting a complex analysis of the natural factors a f f e c t i n g regeneration, only a simple c o r r e l a t i o n matrix i s presented in Appendix IV for the correlations ob- served in this study between the number of trees per acre for the individual tree species and the environmental factors measured i n the f i e l d . No attempt w i l l be made to analyze each factor. A Summary Table 7 of the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s C r ) with a value greater than .30 for the coniferous tree species and deciduous tree groups w i l l be presented. These factors are considered r e l a t i v e l y important in determining the regeneration pot e n t i a l of a logged opening. One environmental parameter, namely, distance to the south edge, exhibited a r e l a t i v e l y high negative correla- tion with western redcedar 34609) , western hemlock (•• .41 738) and Douglas-fir (-. 29726).- The distance to the south edge represents a r e l a t i v e measurement of the time a s i t e i s exposed to bright sunlight. In other words, the smaller the setting or more northernly the exposure, the less time direct sunlight w i l l be on the s i t e . The negative correla- tion coefficients'.-seemed, to. indicate that, tree regeneration prefers to be shaded during some part of day. 2. Seedbed Characteristics of Coniferous Trees In a l l associations the three coniferous species investigated, Tsuga. heterophlla Qvestern hemlock), Thuja T a b l e 7 F a c t o r s w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f ± . 3 0 - o r : g r e a t e r WESTERN HEMLOCK WESTERN REDCEDAR DOUGLAS-FIR DECIDUOUS A l t i t u d e (-3396) Age o f s t a n d (.4140) D i s t a n c e t o s o u t h edge (-.3461) D i s t a n c e t o s e e d s o u r c e (-.3982) D i s t a n c e t o s o u t h edge (-.4174) % o f p l o t - s l a s h (.. 3698) A l t i t u d e (.6533) P o s i t i o n on s l o p e (.4712) P o s i t i o n on s l o p e Age o f s t a n d (-.3916) (- .4281) S e t t i n g s i z e (-.4015) D e p t h o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r (-.3565) % o f d o u g l a s - f i r s e e d % o f p l o t - r o c k (-.3018) s o u r c e (.5033) % o f w e s t e r n hemlock % o f p l o t - s l a s h (-.4378) s e e d s o u r c e (-.4601) o % o f p l o t m i n e r a l s o i l (.6381) C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t 107 p l i c a t a ( w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r ) , and Pseudotsuga menziesii ( D o u g l a s - f i r ) , a l l p r e f e r r e d m i n e r a l s o i l o v e r o t h e r t y p e s o f s e e d b e d s f o r g e r m i n a t i o n ( F i g s . 28 and 2 9 ) . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f D o u g l a s - f i r , s u r v i v a l was e x t r e m e l y p o o r . W e s t e r n hemlock s u r v i v e d b e s t on d e c a y i n g wood. The d e c a y i n g wood s u b s t r a t u m met w e s t e r n h e m l o c k ' s low n u t r i - t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t and f u r n i s h e d an ammonium s o u r c e o f n i t r o - gen ( K r a j i n a 1 9 6 9 ) . The a b i l i t y o f d e c a y i n g wood t o c o n s e r v e m o i s t u r e i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o w e s t e r n h e m l o c k ' s s u r v i v a l . O s b o r n (1968) m a i n t a i n e d t h a t m i n e r a l s o i l p r o v i d e s an ade- q u a t e s e e d b e d i f t h e r e i s no c o m p e t i t i o n and s o i l m o i s t u r e i s good. Under d e c a y i n g wood c o n d i t i o n s , w e s t e r n h emlock grows b e s t b e c a u s e i t s c o m p e t i t o r s w i l l n o t grow on t h i s s u b s t r a t u m . I f t h i s s u b s t r a t u m i s n o t a v a i l a b l e , s u c h as a f t e r s l a s h b u r n i n g , w e s t e r n h emlock i s g r e a t l y d e c r e a s e d i n numbers. In some c a s e s , w e s t e r n hemlock a p p e a r e d t o be grow- i n g v e r y w e l l on m i n e r a l s o i l , b u t f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n i n - d i c a t e d a b u r i e d d e c a y i n g wood s o u r c e was p r e s e n t and t h u s s u s t a i n i n g t h e hemlock s e e d l i n g ( F i g . 3 1 ) . I n most c a s e s , w e s t e r n hemlock o c c u r r e d i n clumps r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g r a n d o m l y d i s t r i b u t e d ( F i g . 3 3 ) . T h i s g r o w t h p a t t e r n f o l l o w s t h e n e g a t i v e b i n o m i a l o r clumped d i s t r i b u t i o n t h a t S m i t h and Ker (1957) n o t e d f o r t h i s s p e c i e s . A l t h o u g h t h e p l o t s i n - d i c a t e d t h e a r e a had an ample s u p p l y t o w e s t e r n h emlock r e g e n e r a t i o n , t h e amount o f a r e a o c c u p i e d by t r e e s was low due t o t h e clumpy n a t u r e o f t h e r e g e n e r a t i o n . The clumpy 108 FIGURE 28 Western redcedar and western hemlock seedlings germinating on mineral s o i l seedbed. FIGURE 29 Douglas-fir seedling germinating on t y p i c a l mineral s o i l seedbed. 109 110 b e h a v i o r i s b r o u g h t about by u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s e e d b e d c o n d i t i o n s and c o n d i t i o n i n g o f t h e m i c r o s i t e u n d e r an e s t a b l i s h e d hem- l o c k t o f a v o r i t s f u r t h e r r e g e n e r a t i o n ( O s b o r n 1 9 6 8 ) . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r r e s t r i c t i n g r e g e n e r a t i o n , n o t o n l y o f w e s t e r n hemlock b u t o f a l l s p e c i e s , was t h e e f f e c t o f c o m p e t i n g v e g e t a t i o n . In t h e s t u d y a r e a , Pteridium a q u i l i - num ( b r a c k e n f e r n ) was t h e m a j o r c o m p e t i t o r . B e s i d e s h e a v y canopy and r o o t c o m p e t i t i o n , t h e m a t t i n g o f t h e f r o n d s on t h e g r o u n d i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d e s t r u c t i v e t o r e g e n e r a t i n g t r e e s ( F i g - 3 0 ) . W e s t e r n r e d c e d a r s u r v i v e d b e s t on r a p i d l y decompos- i n g o r g a n i c m a t t e r i n sh a d e d m o i s t p o c k e t s . W e s t e r n r e d c e d a r was n o t f o u n d on d e c a y i n g wood o r t h i c k o r g a n i c m a t t e r a t a l l . I t s r i c h e d a p h i c r e q u i r e m e n t s r e s t r i c t e d i t t o h a b i t a t s r i c h i n n u t r i e n t s and where n i t r i f i c a t i o n p r o v i d e d a r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e s o u r c e o f n i t r a t e s ( K r a j i n a 1 9 6 9 ) . On a r e a s t h a t were n o t s l a s h b u r n e d , a d v a n c e d r e g e n e r a t i o n was a p r e v a l e n t means o f w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r e s t a - b l i s h m e n t . A f t e r l o g g i n g , a d v e n t i t i o u s r o o t s c an d e v e l o p on l i m b s t h a t have been b u r i e d o r c o v e r e d w i t h s o i l d u r i n g t h e l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n ( F i g . 3 2 ) . These l i m b s t h e n have t h e a b i l i t y t o become e r e c t s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g t r e e s . S c h m i d t (1955) o b s e r v e d t h i s t y p e o f c e d a r r e g e n e r a t i o n i n o l d g r o w t h c o a s t a l f o r e s t s . W e s t e r n r e d c e d a r c o n s t i t u t e d a v e r y s m a l l p o r t i o n o f t h e r e g e n e r a t i n g s t a n d and v e r y few made i t t o t h e f o u r f o o t h e i g h t c l a s s i n any o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s , as can I l l FIGURE 30 Effectiveness of Ptevidium aquilinum (bracken fern) fronds i n r e s t r i c t i n g tree regeneration. FIGURE 31 Tsuga hetevophylla growing on a buried source of decaying wood. 112 113 FIGURE 32 Adventitious roots forming on a western redcedar branch following logging. FIGURE 33 Typical clumped habit of western regeneration following logging. hemlock 114 115 be s e e n f r o m t h e p l o t d a t a i n A p p e n d i x I, P a r t I I I . T h i s c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o a h i g h m o r t a l i t y r a t e and a s l o w g r o w t h r a t e . W e s t e r n r e d c e d a r d i d n o t assume a clumped p a t t e r n as d i d w e s t e r n hemlock, b u t grew as w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l s . In t h e summer o f 1974, 181 n a t u r a l l y r e g e n e r a t i n g D o u g l a s - f i r t r e e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n terms o f t h e t y p e o f s u b s t r a t u m t h e y were g r o w i n g on. The r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d below: T a b l e 8 Number o f D o u g l a s - f i r s e e d l i n g s on t h r e e t y p e s o f s e e dbeds ASSOCIATION MINERAL SOIL DECAYING WOOD ORGANIC MATTER TOTAL S a l a l - D.F. 65 15 1 81 % o f t o t a l 80 19 1 45 Moss - W.H. 54 14 3 71 % o f t o t a l 76 20 4 39 S w o r d f e r n - W.R.C. 2 7 1 1 29 % o f t o t a l 93 3 3 16 TOTAL 146 30 5 181 % o f t o t a l 81 17 3 G e r m i n a t i o n on m i n e r a l s o i l was t h e h i g h e s t , f o l l o w e d by d e c a y i n g wood and o r g a n i c .matter, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The f a c t 116 t h a t D o u g l a s - f i r g e r m i n a t e s b e s t on m i n e r a l s o i l i s w i d e l y a c c e p t e d ( I s a a c 1939, Garman 1955, F o w e l l s 1965). N e v e r t h e l e s s , many young D o u g l a s - f i r s e e d l i n g s were f o u n d g r o w i n g v i g o r o u s l y on d e c a y i n g wood ( F i g . 3 4 ) . In many c a s e s , i t was o b s e r v e d t h a t due t o t h e l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n m i n e r a l s o i l may have been thrown on top o f l o g s p r o v i d i n g a s u i t a b l e s e e d b e d f o r D o u g l a s - f i r g e r m i n a t i o n . The d e c a y - i n g wood below a l s o p r o v i d e d a v a i l a b l e m o i s t u r e . F u r t h e r - more, i f t h e s e e d l i n g s were a b l e t o e x t e n d t h e i r r o o t i n g s y s t ems e i t h e r t h r o u g h th e d e c a y i n g wood o r a r o u n d i t i n o r d e r t o r e a c h m i n e r a l s o i l , t h e y were t h e n c a p a b l e o f s u s - t a i n i n g t h e m s e l v e s and g r o w i n g as w e l l as s e e d l i n g s e s t a b - l i s h e d on m i n e r a l s o i l . The m a j o r f a c t o r s c o n t r o l l i n g g e r m i n a t i o n a p p e a r e d t o be w i t h i n - s i t e v a r i a t i o n s ( m i c r o s i t e ) r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n . The number o f m i c r o s i t e s c r e a t e d t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r g e r m i n a t i o n depends on t h e l o g g i n g method and t r e a t m e n t t h e r e a f t e r . I m p o r t a n t m i c r o - e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s were t h e amount o f s h a d e , s o i l s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e s , a v a i l a b l e s o i l s u r f a c e m o i s t u r e , t y p e o f s e e d b e d , and s p e e d i n w h i c h t h e o r g a n i c l a y e r s decomposed. M a c r o - e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t r o l s s u c h as l o c a l c l i m a t e , e l e v a t i o n , l a n d f o r m , and d e p t h o f p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l e s s c l o s e l y c o n t r o l t h e g e r m i n a t i o n p r o c e s s . I n o t h e r words, u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s e e d b e d c o n d i t i o n s s u c h as dense shade, h e a v y a c c u m u l a t i o n s o f u n d e c a y i n g s l a s h , 117 FIGURE 34 Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) growing well on decaying wood of downed western redcedar tree. 118 119 t h i c k l a y e r s o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r and a d e s i c c a t e d s o i l s u r f a c e c o n d i t i o n w e r e t h e p r i m a r y f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g s e e d g e r m i n a - t i o n . W h i l e t h e a b o v e f a c t o r s a r e i m p o r t a n t i n c o n t r o l l i n g s e e d g e r m i n a t i o n , t h e t y p e o f s e e d s o u r c e a nd d i s t a n c e t o t h e s e e d s o u r c e a r e i m p o r t a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e amount o f s e e d a v a i l a b l e . L o s s o f s e e d due t o r o d e n t s a n d b i r d s c o u l d be i m p o r t a n t b u t were n o t i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s s t u d y . 120 V I . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y have shown t h a t t h e f o r - e s t a s s o c i a t i o n s i n t h e i r i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f s e c o n d a r y s u c - c e s s i o n a r e i d e n t i f i a b l e i n t h e f i e l d a l t h o u g h v e g e t a t i o n i n d i c a t o r s a l o n e a r e n o t enough and must be c o u p l e d w i t h p h y s i o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n . The knowledge o f t h e v e g e t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t e x i s t s i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l f o r e s t a s s o c i a - t i o n s i s i m p o r t a n t t o the p r o p e r " e c o l o g i c a l " management o f a s i t e . S i l v i c u l t u r a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d f o r e a c h a s s o c i a t i o n . I n f o r m a t i o n on t h e e c o l o g y o f t h e d i f f e r e n t t r e e s p e c i e s and the e f f e c t o f d i f f e r e n t t r e a t - ments on e a c h a s s o c i a t i o n s h o u l d be t h e b a s i s f o r t h e s i l v i - c u l t u r a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s and c h o i c e o f t h e most e c o l o g i c a l l y s u i t a b l e s p e c i e s f o r p l a n t i n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , c e r t a i n a s s o c i a - t i o n s may n o t r e q u i r e p l a n t i n g and n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n may be s a f e l y r e l i e d on t o ..stock t h e : s i t e , p r o v i d i n g e n v i r o n - m e n t a l f a c t o r s s u c h as s e e d y e a r s , d i s t a n c e t o s e e d s o u r c e , and t y p e o f s e e d s o u r c e a r e f a v o r a b l e . In o t h e r words, t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f s i l v i c u l t u r a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s r e q u i r e s n o t m e r e l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e f o r e s t a s s o c i a t i o n , b u t r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e complex i n t e r a c t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s on p l a n t e d and n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n . T hese s h o u l d be e v a l u a t e d b e f o r e 121 l o g g i n g as w e l l as a f t e r , so a s u i t a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t c a n be c r e a t e d f o r e a c h a s s o c i a t i o n . S i n c e man i s an a c t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r , h i s a c t i v i t i e s a r e c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r s and a f f e c t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e f o r e s t . T h e r e f o r e , h i s a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be g u i d e d by t h e n a t u r a l c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r s o f t h e s i t e as much as p o s s i b l e . The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between a s s o c i a t i o n s i s d i s - t i n c t between t h e e x t r e m e s , namely t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n and s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n . The d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e s e two a s s o c i a t i o n s c o u l d be made by v e g e t a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a l o n e . The s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n p o s s e s s e s a h i g h l y d i v e r s e group o f s p e c i e s i n d i c a t i n g i t s h i g h m o i s t u r e and n u t r i e n t r e g i m e s . S t r u c t u r a l l y , b o t h t h e s h r u b and e s p e c i a l l y t h e h e r b s t r a t a a r e v e r y w e l l d e v e l o p e d . The moss l a y e r i s r e l a t i v e l y p o o r l y d e v e l o p e d . The s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n , on t h e o t h e r hand, has v e r y few s p e c i e s . The s h r u b and moss s t r a t a a r e w e l l - d e v e l o p e d , b u t t h e h e r b s t r a t u m i s a l m o s t l a c k i n g . P h y s i o g r a p h i c a l l y , t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a - t i o n o c c u p i e s l o w e r s l o p e s and d e p r e s s i o n s , whereas t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u p i e s u p p e r s l o p e s and r i d g e t o p s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n and t h e moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n i s n o t c l e a r . V e g e t a t i v e l y , no d i f f e r e n c e s a r i s e i n s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n . However, t h e s h r u b s t r a t u m o f t h e s a l a l - 122 D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n c o n t a i n s more Gaulthevia shallon, w h i l e t h e moss s t r a t u m o f t h e moss - w e s t e r n h e m l o c k a s s o c i - a t i o n i s b e t t e r d e v e l o p e d a n d t h e B^ l a y e r h a s a h i g h e r p r e s e n c e and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f Vaaainium alaskaense. Un- f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s e c h a n g e s a r e s l i g h t t o an u n t r a i n e d o b s e r v e r . The m a j o r means by w h i c h t h e s e two a s s o c i a t i o n s c a n be d i v i d e d i s by p h y s i o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n a n d d e p t h t o an i m p e r v i o u s l a y e r . The s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u p i e s t h e t o p o f r i d g e s o r t h e u p p e r s l o p e s . The p a r e n t m a t e r i a l u s u a l l y i s s h a l l o w a b l a t i o n t i l l o v e r b e d r o c k . The moss - w e s t e r n h e m l o c k a s s o c i a t i o n i n v a r i a b l y o c c u r s on u p p e r s l o p e s on n o r t h - f a c i n g a s p e c t s and moves g r a d u a l l y down i n s l o p e p o s i t i o n t o t h e m i d - s l o p e p o s i t i o n on s o u t h - f a c i n g a s p e c t s . However, on a r e a s n e a r t h e t r a n s i t i o n zone i n t o t h e C o a s t a l W e s t e r n H e m l o c k w e t t e r s u b z o n e , t h e i n c r e a s e d r a i n f a l l c a u s e s t h e moss - w e s t e r n h e m l o c k a s s o c i a t i o n t o o c c u p y f l a t a r e a s on r i d g e t o p s where s l i g h t d e p r e s s i o n s e x i s t . The m o i s t u r e r e g i m e i s s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r and t h e p a r e n t m a t e r i a l i s d e e p e r i n t h e s e d e p r e s s i o n s . H e r e , t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n i s f o u n d on a d j a c e n t r o c k y r i d g e s o r s t e e p s l o p e s w i t h a s h a l l o w s o i l . On t h e c u t o v e r a s s o c i a t i o n s , a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t h a t t a k e s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n o n l y t h e p r e s e n c e o r t h e a b s e n c e o f s p e c i e s i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o c l a s s i f y t h e v a r i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s a f t e r l o g g i n g . M u e l l e r - D o m b o i s (1960) a l s o n o t e d t h i s f o r 123 t h e C o a s t a l D o u g l a s - f i r Zone. T h i s i s b r o u g h t a b o u t by an i n c r e a s e i n f a v o r a b l e h a b i t a t s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i e s and i n v a s i o n o f t h e s i t e by s h o r t - l i v e d p i o n e e r v e g e t a t i o n r e s p o n d i n g o n l y t o i n c r e a s e d l i g h t . T h e s e t a l l p i o n e e r h e r b s have no i n d i c a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e . V e r y few o f t h e t r u l y i n d i c a t i v e f o r e s t s p e c i e s a r e d e s t r o y e d by l o g g i n g . O n l y a f t e r a s e v e r e s l a s h b u r n a r e t h e y r e d u c e d t o a n e g l i g i b l e amount and f u r t h e r c o v e r e d by weed v e g e t a t i o n . The c r e a t i o n o f m i c r o s i t e s o r m i c r o d e p r e s s i o n s i s a common phenomenon a f t e r l o g g i n g and a c c o u n t s f o r much o f t h e v a r i a t i o n between homogeneous a s s o c i a t i o n s . S t r u c t u r a l l y , a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s c o n t a i n e d t h e same t o t a l a v e r a g e c o v e r . A l l a s s o c i a t i o n s were q u i c k l y i n v a d e d by t a l l h e r b s s u c h as Epilobium angustifolium and Anaphalis margaritacea, a l t h o u g h t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r and moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n s were i n v a d e d t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t . The s h r u b l a y e r s were a l l w e l l - d e v e l o p e d . The s h r u b l a y e r o f t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f m a i n l y Rubus s p e o t a b i l i s , whereas t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r and moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n ' s s h r u b l a y e r s were d o m i n a t e d by Gaultheria shallon. The h e r b l a y e r r e a c t e d d i f - f e r e n t l y . In t h e r i c h s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a - t i o n , t h e h e r b l a y e r was w e l l d e v e l o p e d . But i n t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r and moss - w e s t e r n hemlock a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e low t h i c k c o v e r o f Gaultheria shallon l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d t h e h e r b 124 l a y e r t o t a l l weedy i n v a d i n g h e r b s r a t h e r t h a n low g r o w i n g h e r b s . The moss l a y e r was j u s t t h e o p p o s i t e . In t h e sword- f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n i t was p o o r l y d e v e l o p e d , w h i l e t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r and moss - w e s t e r n h emlock a s s o c i a t i o n s had w e l l - d e v e l o p e d moss l a y e r s . I t was f o u n d t h a t t h e d e g r e e and t y p e o f d i s t u r b a n c e , e x t e n t o f m i c r o - s i t e s c r e a t e d , s p a c i n g o f p l a n t e d t r e e s , age, and p a r e n t m a t e r i a l b r o u g h t about changes i n b o t h s t r u c t u r e and s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n i n e a c h a s s o c i a t i o n . D o u g l a s - f i r , w e s t e r n hemlock, and w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a l l g e r m i n a t e d b e s t on m i n e r a l s o i l s e e d b e d s , b u t s u r v i v a l was v e r y p o o r , e x c e p t f o r D o u g l a s - f i r . W e s t e r n hemlock grew b e s t on d e c a y i n g wood, w h i l e w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r p r e f e r r e d r a p i d l y d e c a y i n g o r g a n i c m a t t e r i n m o i s t p o c k e t s . A d v a n c e d r e g e n e r a t i o n was an i m p o r t a n t means o f r e g e n e r a t i o n o f w e s t e r n h e m l o c k and w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r . D o u g l a s - f i r s u r v i v e d w e l l on m i n e r a l s o i l and was n o t l a f f e c t e d by d r o u g h t as much as t h e o t h e r two s p e c i e s . D o u g l a s - f i r was a l s o f o u n d g r o w i n g w e l l on d e c a y i n g wood. The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e t h a t t r e a t m e n t s w i t h i n a s s o c i a t i o n s had a d e f i n i t e e f f e c t on t h e number and t y p e o f c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s p e r a c r e . A s s o c i a t i o n s a l o n e were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . The number o f d e c i d u o u s t r e e s p e r a c r e , on t h e o t h e r hand, were l e s s a f f e c t e d by t h e t y p e o f t r e a t m e n t and r e s p o n d e d more t o t h e a s s o c i a t i o n t y p e , w i t h 125 t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n b e i n g t h e p r e f e r r e d t y p e . The s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n - s l a s h - b u r n e d and t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n - s l a s h b u r n e d o r p i l e d and b u r n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e d t h e number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e o f D o u g l a s - f i r , w e s t e r n h e m l o c k , and w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r i n most c a s e s . A l t h o u g h n o t s t a t i s t i - c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , s l a s h b u r n i n g d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n as much as t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n . The p r e f e r e n c e o f c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s f o r a r e a s t h a t h a v e h a d no t r e a t m e n t i s p r e s u m e d t o be c a u s e d m a i n l y by a h i g h e r amount o f a v a i l a b l e s e e d p r e s e n t t h a t was n o t d e s t r o y e d by b u r n i n g , a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f s e e d b e d t y p e s f a v o r a b l e t o a l l s p e c i e s , and s h a d i n g o f s l a s h . A l l c o n i f e r - ous t r e e s p e c i e s p r e f e r r e d a r e a s t h a t w e r e e i t h e r p i l e d and b u r n e d o r h a d no t r e a t m e n t i n t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r and moss - w e s t e r n h e m l o c k a s s o c i a t i o n s . The s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n u n d o u b t e d l y p r o v i d e d an e q u a l l y s u i t a b l e h a b i t a t t o r e g e n e r a t i o n , b u t e a r l y i n v a s i o n o f t h i s r i c h h a b i t a t by d e c i d u o u s t r e e s and h e r b a c e o u s p l a n t s , l i m i t s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e s t e r n h e m l o c k f o l l o w e d a n e g a t i v e b i n o m i a l o r c l u m p e d d i s t r i b u t i o n and i n most c a s e s t h e r e g e n e r a t i o n was n o t w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r t h e l o g g e d a r e a s . The i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e t h a t s u p p l e m e n t a l p l a n t i n g o f D o u g l a s - f i r w o u l d be n e e d e d t o o b t a i n a 126 s a t i s f a c t o r y number o f D o u g l a s - f i r t r e e s and an e v e n d i s - t r i b u t i o n o f them on a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h t h e s a l a l - D o u g l a s - f i r a s s o c i a t i o n p r o v i d e d t h e b e s t h a b i t a t . G r a p h s , c o m p a r i n g t h e number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e v e r s u s h e i g h t c l a s s ( a g e ) , i n d i c a t e t h a t as h e i g h t c l a s s i n c r e a s e s t h e number o f c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s p e r a c r e r a p i d l y d e c r e a s e s , w h i l e t h e number o f d e c i d u o u s t r e e s p e r a c r e i n c r e a s e s . The r e d u c t i o n i n t h e number o f c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s p e r a c r e was t h e g r e a t e s t i n t h e s w o r d f e r n - w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a s s o c i a t i o n , w h ere i n t e n s e c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m d e c i d u o u s t r e e s and h e r b a c e o u s p l a n t s r e s t r i c t e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t . The many c o m p l e x i n t e r r e l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s a r e h a r d t o a n a l y z e by s t a t i s t i c a l means b e c a u s e o f a m u l - t i t u d e o f l o c a l i z e d v a r i a t i o n s and t h e number o f a v a i l a b l e o b s e r v a t i o n s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , o n l y t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e more i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g e a c h t r e e s p e c i e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 7, w h e r e a s a c o m p l e t e l i s t i s c o n t a i n e d i n A p p e n d i x I V . 127 V I I . 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F o r e s t S e r v i c e , P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t F o r e s t and Range E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n . Res. P a p e r No. 34. 133 APPENDIX I PART I . G e n e r a l Environment T a b l e s PART IT. V e g e t a t i o n S y n t h e s i s T a b l e s PART I I I . Tree and Stand D e s c r i p t i o n 134 EXPLANATION AND LEGEND FOR THE SYNTHESIS TABLES (.1) ASPECT i n d i c a t e s compass readings from n o r t h i n degrees. (2) TOPOGRAPHY r e f e r s to the shape of the land p r o f i l e on a mesoscale and i s d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : Topography Cl a s s D e s c r i p t i o n N N e u t r a l (uniform slope) CC Concave cv Convex F F l a t (3) MICRORELIEF p e r t a i n s to the land s u r f a c e shape w i t h i n the sample p l o t (microscale) and i s evaluated by a d e s c r i p t i v e s c a l e as f o l l o w s : M i c r o r e l i e f D e s c r i p t i o n N N e u t r a l (smooth) H Hummocky, i r r e g u l a r - very i r r e g u l a r microtopography wit h a number of s h a r p l y r i s i n g r i d g e s or mounds running through the p l o t . U U n d u l a t i n g - a s l i g h t l y wavy microtopography, l e s s severe than hummocky. F F l a t 0 Outcrop 135 SLOPE GRADIENT i s the average i n c l i n a t i o n of the sample pl o t . POSITION ON SLOPE i s the location of the sample plot i n re l a t i o n to the land surface and is described as follows: Position on Slope Description 0 Peak, ridge sloping in several directions 1 Just below the peak or ridge sloping in one di r e c t i o n 2 Further from peak or edge of terrace 3 Upper slope 4 Upper part of mid-slope 5 Lower part of mid-slope 6 Lower slope 7 8 Slopes near bottom of depression F l a t bottom of the va l l e y or depression i t s e l f LANDFORM describes the type and the or i g i n of the parent material and i s evaluated as follows: 136 ft L a n d Form Symbol D e s c r i p t i o n MP Deep m o r a i n a l d e p o s i t [ l o o s e t i l l o v e r compacted b a s a l t i l l ) : m a t e r i a l s t h i c k enough t o c o v e r i r r e g u l a r i t i e s o f u n d e r l y i n g bed- r o c k ; r e l a t i v e l y f l a t t o g e n t l y s l o p i n g ; s l o p e s l e s s t h a n 30%. MB M o r a i n a l b l a n k e t ( l o o s e t i l l o v e r compacted b a s a l t i l l b e d r o c k c o n t r o l l e d ) : a t h i c k t i l l c o v e r , more t h a n 3 f e e t , u s u a l l y c o v e r - i n g i r r e g u l a r i t i e s o f u n d e r l y - i n g b e d r o c k ; s l o p e s r a n g e f r o m 0 t o 50%. MV M o r a i n a l v e n e e r ( l o o s e t i l l o v e r b e d r o c k ) ; t i l l l e s s t h a n 3 f e e t o v e r l y i n g b e d r o c k ; m a t e r i a l s t o o t h i n to mask u n d e r l y i n g b e d r o c k i r r e g u l a r i t i e s ; s l o p e s r a n g e f r o m 0 t o 50%. GF G l a c i o - f l u v i a l d e p o s i t s : s a n d , s i l t , g r a v e l , and m i n o r c o a r s e r m a t e r i a l d e p o s i t e d by m e l t w a t e r f r o m t h e w a s t i n g g l a c i e r ; r e l a t - i v e l y f l a t and u s u a l l y d e p o s i t e d i n t h i c k s t r a t i f i e d l a y e r s ; mat- e r i a l masks a l l f e a t u r e s o f u n d e r l y i n g b e d r o c k o r m a t e r i a l o f a n o t h e r g e n e t i c c a t e g o r y ; s l o p e s l e s s t h a n 10%. GW G l a c i o - m a r i n e d e p o s i t s : s a n d , s i l t , c l a y and m i n o r c o a r s e r f r a g m e n t s d e p o s i t e d u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a m a r i n e e n v i r o n - ment; u s u a l l y p o o r l y d r a i n e d and r e l a t i v e l y f l a t i n t o p o g r a p h y . •55 —' F u l t o n , R.J. 1972. L a n d f o r m C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . B. C. D e p a r t - ment o f A g r i c u l t u r e . 8 p., A p p e n d i x 6 p., (Mimeo). 137 Lan d Form Symbol D e s c r i p t i o n CV C o l l u v i a l v e n e e r : a t h i n , . l e s s t h a n 3 f e e t h e t e r o g e n e o u s mix- t u r e o f m a t e r i a l s , d e p o s i t e d by mass w a s t i n g p r o c e s s e s ; m a t e r i a l s t o o t h i n t o c o v e r i r r e g u l a r i t i e s o f u n d e r l y i n g b e d r o c k ; s l o p e s r a n g e f r o m 30 t o 50%. (7) TEXTURE OF PARENT MATERIAL - see t a b l e below: A T e x t u r e o f P a r e n t D e s c r i p t i o n M a t e r i a l (Symbol) B B o u l d e r y - abundance o f m a t e r i - a l c l a s s e d as b o u l d e r i n s i z e (.greater t h a n 10 in..):; n o t e n c o u n t e r e d ' in', .'study, a r e a . G G r a v e l l y - d o m i n a n t l y g r a v e l and c o a r s e s a n d s i z e d m a t e r i a l (.4 - 10 i n . ) . S Sandy - d o m i n a n t l y g r a n u l e and sand s i z e d m a t e r i a l (.4 - .05 mm.) . S i S i l t y - d o m i n a n t l y f i n e s a n d and s i l t s i z e d (.25 - .005 mm.) . LOCATION - UBCF - U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Re- s e a r c h F o r e s t MTF - M i s s i o n T r e e Farm F u l t o n , R . J . 1972. L a n d f o r m C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . B.C. D e p a r t - ment o f A g r i c u l t u r e . 8 p . , A p p e n d i x 6 p . , (Mimeo). 138 (9) TYPE OF TREATMENT - NONE - No treatment . ^ SL - Slashburned P$B - P i l e d and burned (10) BURNING INTENSITY - L - bark on stumps l i g h t l y blackened. N - bark on stump blackened as well as the wood being scorched or blackened. S - wood on stumps hollowed out by f i r e , (11) HYGROTOPE - pertains to the moisutre regime classes of the s o i l s and i s approximately equal to the s o i l drain- age classes proposed by Leskiw (1973) . The symbols employed for the hygrotope classes are as follows (after Krajina, 1969): X Xeric SX Subxeric M Mesic SHG HG Subhygric (with temporary seepage) Hygric (with permanent seepage, mostly 30 cm to 60 cm below the s o i l surface) (,12)R0CK, SLASH, MINERAL SOIL, AND ORGANIC MATERIAL refers to the area i n percent of each item on the sample plo t . (13)% OF BRUSH SPECIES, OVERTOPPING TREES OR NOT OVERTOPPING TREES refers to the percentage of herbaceous and non- commercial tree species overtopping or not overtopping 139 the commercial tree species, i . e . D o u g l a s - f i r , western hemlock, and western redcedar. (14) STRATUM COVERAGE i n d i c a t e s the t o t a l area covered by each veget a t i v e stratum. The s t r a t a .are denoted as A(tre e l a y e r ) , B (shrub l a y e r ) , C(herb l a y e r ) , and D (moss l a y e r ) . The B lay e r i s separated i n t o B^ (woody vege t a t i o n 6' - 3 0 ' ) and B^ (woody vegetation 1' - 6 ' ) . The C l a y e r also contains commercial tree species under 1 foot i n height and creeping shrubs. The D l a y e r i s separated i n t o mosses on humus (DH), mosses on decaying wood (DW), mosses on rock (DR), and mosses on mineral soil(DM). (15) SOIL ORDER was extr a c t e d from e x i s t i n g s o i l a s s o c i a t i o n maps and may be prone to e r r o r s . I t was included merely to give an idea of the type of s o i l to be expected and not to provide p o s i t i v e proof of the s o i l order or subgroup. The f i r s t four l e t t e r s of each s o i l order were used on the synthesis t a b l e s . (16) PRESENCE (P) was c a l c u l a t e d using the f o l l o w i n g formula: p _ number of occurrences of a species, ^ t o t a l number of releve's i n that p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t ion (17) MEAN SIGNIFICANCE (MS) was c a l c u l a t e d by ta k i n g the mean of each s i g n i f i c a n c e c l a s s , then transforming i t back to the o r i g i n a l s cale of species s i g n i f i c a n c e . The number 140 t o t h e l e f t o f t h e d e c i m a l i n the mean s i g n i f i c a n c e column r e f e r s t o t h e s p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e c l a s s , w h i l e t h e number t o t h e r i g h t o f t h e d e c i m a l r e f e r s t o t h e t e n t h o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e c l a s s t h e s p e c i e s f a l l s i n . (18)RANGE OF SIGNIFICANCE(RS) i s s i m p l y t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t - ween t h e l o w e s t and h i g h e s t s i g n i f i c a n c e e n c o u n t e r e d f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i e s . 141 PART I. General Environment Tables V E G E T A T I O N - E N V I R O N M E N T T A B L E - P A R T I - G E N E R A L P L O T I N F O R M A T I O N C O A S T A L W E S T E R N H E M L O C K Z O N E - D R Y S U U Z O N E F O R E S T A S S O C I A T I O N : S A L A L - D O U G L A S - F I R P A G E 1 I P L O T NO. | 0 4 8 1 0 4 0 1 0 4 1 I 0 * 2 1 0 4 3 1 0 4 4 1 0 4 6 | 0 4 7 1 0 5 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 5 1 0 1 6 1 0 1 7 1 0 2 0 1 O U l 0 1 2 1 0 1 3 1 0 1 4 | 0 2 1 1 P H Y S 1 O C R A P H Y A L T I T U D E I F T . I 5 6 0 6 1 0 6 0 0 6 4 5 6 3 0 6 5 0 4 2 0 5 0 0 5 8 0 1 2 4 3 5 5 3 5 4 0 5 4 5 1 2 1 0 1 3 0 8 1 3 0 0 1 0 2 3 1 0 8 5 1 0 6 0 1 A S P E C T 3 5 3 0 1 0 0 2 5 1 2 0 1 F L A T 2 9 0 1 0 1 2 5 0 1 3 5 9 0 1 1 0 F L A T 1 4 0 1 6 0 1 8 0 1 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 6 0 1 T O P O G R A P H Y C V C V C V C V C V lev C V lev N C V C V l ev C V C V C V C V C V C V C V 1 M I C R O R E L 1 E F ( W I T H I N P L O T ) U F F U F F F H IU 0 0 . 0 H F 0 H 0 ' F- U 1 S L O P E G R A D I E N T il) 3 5 1 5 4 5 3 0 2 0 0 - 5 2 0 4 0 4 5 1 5 1 5 2 5 1-5 2 0 5 1 5 1 0 5 1 0 1 P O S I T I O N O N S L O P E I 1 I I 1 1 0 1 1 3 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 L A N O F U K M M V M V | M V M V M V M V M V M V M B M V M V / M V K V M V M V M V M V M V M V 1 T E X T U R E O F P A R E N T M A T E R I A L G C . G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G 1 S T A N O D E S C R I P T I O N L O C A T I O N M T F M T F M T F M T F M T F M T F M T F M T F M T F U B C F U B C F U B C F U B C F U B C F U B C F U B C F U B C F U B C F U D C F 1 S E T T I N G S I Z E ( A . ) 3 5 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 . 0 7 . 0 7 . 0 7 . 0 1 0 . 0 5 . 0 5 . 0 4 . 0 2 . 5 2 . 5 1 O A T E L O G G E D 1 9 7 0 1 9 6 8 1 9 6 8 1 9 6 8 1 9 6 B 1 9 6 B 1 9 6 4 1 9 6 4 1 9 6 4 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 2 1 D A T E S I N C E L A S T D I S T U R B A N C E 1 9 7 0 1 9 6 8 1 9 6 8 1 9 6 8 1 9 6 B 1 9 6 8 1 9 6 4 1 9 6 4 L 9 6 4 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 2 1 A G E O F S T A N O ( Y R S . ) 2 6 6 6 6 6 1 0 1 0 1 0 8 8 9 9 9 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 12 1 D A T E P L A N T E D 1 9 7 1 1 9 6 9 1 9 6 9 1 9 6 9 1 9 6 9 1 9 6 9 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 5 T Y P E O F T R E A T M E N T S L S L S L S L S L S L P C B P C B P C B N O N E N O N E N O N E N O N E N O N E N O N E N O N E N O N E N O N E N O N E 1 B U R N I N G I N T E N S I T Y N S S L L N • D I S T A N C E T O S E E D S O U R C E ( F T . ) 1 0 0 0 1 5 0 0 1 6 0 0 9 0 0 1 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 5 0 1 0 0 1 7 0 0 1 5 0 5 0 0 5 0 0 8 0 0 1 2 0 5 0 5 0 7 0 5 0 7 5 1 D I S T A N C E T O S O U T H E D G E ( F T . ) 1 5 0 0 5 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 5 C 0 0 3 5 0 1 0 0 5 0 0 0 2 5 0 5 0 0 5 0 0 8 0 0 1 2 0 2 0 0 2 5 0 7 0 6 0 7 5 1 T Y P E O F S E E D S O U R C E ! * ) O O U G L A S - F I R 3 0 3 0 . 3 0 3 0 3 Q 3 0 2 0 3 0 3 0 8 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 8 0 8 0 7 0 7 0 7 0 1 W E S T E R N H E M L O C K 6 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 1 5 3 0 3 0 3 0 3 5 1 5 1 5 2 0 2 0 2 5 I R E D C E D A R 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 5 1 0 1 0 1 0 5 5 5 1 0 1 0 5 1 S O I L C O R G A N I C L A Y E R S S O I L O R D E R ( C S S C 1 9 7 0 ) P O O Z P O D Z P O D Z P O O Z P O D Z P O D Z P O O Z P O O Z P O D Z F O L S P O O Z P O D Z P O D Z P O O Z P O D Z P O O Z P O D Z P O D Z P O O Z 1 D E P T H O F O R G A N I C L A Y E R S ( I N . ) < 1 . 0 < 1 . 0 <1 . 0 1 . 5 < 1 . 0 < 1 . 0 <l . O 2 . 0 1 . 5 2 . 0 2 . 5 5 . 0 3 . 0 2 . 0 1 . 0 2 . 0 1 . 5 I . 5 3 . 0 1 H Y G R O T O P E X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 1 t O F P L O T C O V E R E D BYl R O C K 0 10 1 0 1 0 5 2 0 3 0 0 5 1 0 2 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 5 1 5 1 0 2 0 5 1 S L A S H 3 0 3 0 3 0 3 0 3 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 7 0 7 0 7 5 6 5 4 0 6 0 7 0 4 0 4 0 5 0 1 M I N E R A L S O I L 5 5 4 0 4 0 3 0 3 0 4 5 2 0 5 0 < 1 0 0 < 5 3 0 1 5 < 1 1 0 1 0 1 5 1 O R G A N I C M A T E R I A L 1 5 2 0 2 0 3 0 2 5 2 5 3 0 6 5 5 5 2 0 1 0 5 3 0 2 0 1 0 4 0 4 0 3 0 3 0 1 V E G E T A T I O N t O F E R U S H S P E C I E S : . ( A ) O V E R T O P P I N G T R E E S 10 2 0 1 0 4 0 3 0 1 0 3 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 4 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 5 0 4 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 1 I B ) N O T U V C R T O P P I N G T R E E S 9 0 8 0 9 0 6 0 7 0 9 0 7 0 9 0 8 0 8 0 6 0 8 0 B O 8 0 5 0 6 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 1 S T R A T A C O V E R A G E I X) A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 5 1 Bl 5 6 0 7 5 3 0 2 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 9 0 4 0 5 5 2 0 5 0 2 0 2 0 4 0 3 0 3 0 6 0 1 b2 5 0 3 0 9 0 8 5 7 5 8 0 B 5 9 5 9 0 9 0 8 0 9 5 9 5 7 0 9 0 9 0 ] 7 5 8 5 5 0 1 C 3 5 7 0 2 0 6 0 8 5 2 0 . 1 0 5 0 8 5 7 0 7 0 4 5 7 0 6 0 8 0 6 5 8 0 8 0 5 0 1 U B O 5 0 4 0 7 0 7 5 7 0 B 5 3 5 3 5 6 0 6 0 8 0 4 0 7 0 4 0 4 5 4 0 8 0 3 0 1 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PARI I - GENERAL PLOT INFORMATION PAGE COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - ORY SUBZONE FOREST ASSOCIATION! MOSS - WESTERN HEMLOCK IPLOT NO. I 0031 0091 018 I 0191 0221 0321 039| 0351 0361 033! 03*1 0371 0381 0451 049! I I I I PHYSIOGRAPHY 1 1 1 1 1 1 ALT ITUDE (FT.) I 850 1238 1200 1190 1190 480 500 700 650 540 500 675 690 450 400 I 1 I I 1 ASPECT 1 260 40 30 340 150 90 145 FLAT FLAT FLAT 150 FLAT 295 10 0 1 1 1 1 1 TOPOGRAPHY 1 N CV CV CV CV CC CC CC CC CC CC CC CC N CC 1 1 1 1 1 MICROKELIEF (WITHIN PLOT) 1 N H' H U U U U F U F U F F H U 1 1 I 1 1 SLOPE GRADIENT (X) 1 30 8 20 10 15 5 15 0-5 0-5 0-5 30 0-5 10 35 30 1 1 1 1 1 POSITIOS ON SLOPE 1 5 ' 3 2 3 3 6 6 7 7 6 6 8 7 5 7 1 1 1 1 1 LANOFURM 1 MVCV MV MV MV MV MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MB MB 1 . 1 1 1 1 TEXTURE OF PARENT MATERIAL 1 G G G c G G G G G C G G G G G 1 1 1 1 1 STAND DESCRIPTION 1 .' ! ! ! ! LOCATION 1 UBCF UBCF UBCF UBCF UBCF MTF MTF MTF MTF MTF MTF MTF MTF MTF MTF 1 1 1 1 1 SETTING SIZE (A.I 14.5 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 110 110 80 80 110 110 80 80 100 100 1 1 1 I I DATE LOGGED 1 1970 1965 1965 1965 1965 1966 1966 1959 1959 1966 1966 1959 1959 1964 19641 1 1 1 1 DATE SINCE LAST DISTURBANCE 1 1970 1965 1965 1965 1965 1966 1966 1960 1960 1966 1966 1960 I960 1964 19641 1 1 1 1 AGE OF STAND (YRS.) 1 3 8 9 9 9 8 6 14 14 8 8 14 14 10 10 1 1 1 1 1 DATE PLANTED , I 1967 1967 1960 1960 1965 19651 1 1 1 1 TYPE OF TREATMENT 1 NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE PCB PCB PCB PCB PCB PCB 1 1 I 1 1 BURNING INTENSITY | 1 1 1 1 1 DISTANCE TO SEED SOURCE (FT.) 1 150 100 200 150 150 50 25 125 100 150 200 250 300 300 500 I I I 1 1 DISTANCE.TO SOUTH EOGE 1 FT. 1 1 200 200 300 150 200 1000 50 200 200 600 550 900 900 300 500 1 I I I 1 TYPE OF SEED SOURCEII) j | | j | | DOUGLAS-FIR 125 80 55 55 60 10 10 5 5 10 10 5 5 20 30 1 1 1 1 1 WESTERN HEMLOCK 1 50 15 35 35 35 70 70 90 90 70 70 90 90 60 60 1 1 I 1 1 REOCEOAR 1 25 5 10 10 5 20 20 5 5 20 20 5 5 20 10 I I I I I SOIL.1 ORGANIC LAYERS ! ' ! ! ! ! ! SOIL ORDER (CSSC 1970) 1 PODZ PODZ POOZ POOZ PODZ POOZ PODZ POOZ PODZ PODZ POOZ POOZ PODZ POOZ PODZI ! 1 . 1 1 DEPTH OF ORGANIC LAYERS ( IN . ) 12.5 1.0 4.0. 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.5 2.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 2.0 2.0 1.5 1 1 | ' | I HYGRO TOP E IM M M M M M H M M M M M M M M 1 1 1 1 1 X OF PLOT COVERED BY: | 1 I I 1 1 ROCK 1 0 <5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 SLASH 1 60 60 ao 60 35 60 65 60 60 20 35 45 40 60 30 1 1 1 1 1 MINERAL SOIL 1 2 <1 5 10 20 5 0 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 15 I I | I I ORGANIC MATERIAL 1 38 30 10 25 45 35 35 35 35 80 65 55 60 40 55 1 1 I I ! VEGETATION | I I I ! i t OF tJRUSH SPECIESl | ! ! ! ! IA) OVERTOPPING TREES 15 40 30 50 40 70 60 70 90 10 10 20 20 20 30 l I I i y (B) NOT OVERTOPPING TREES 195 60 70 50 60 30 40 30 10 90 90 80 80 80 70 I I I I I STRATA COVERAGES) | 1 1 1 1 1 A I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 50 10 40 30 0 O i l 1 1 I BI 1 40 30 60 30 40 25 25 80 90 90 95 90 95 95 95 1 1 1 1 1 B2 1 80 05 85 90 65 95 95 65 70 25 25 20 35 85 60 I 1 I I I C 1 90 30 65 t>5 90 40 90 40 40 30 20 10 10 25 60 I 1 | | | D 1 5 10 50 65 80 60 45 30 50 40 20 20 20 90 70 I I | | | VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART I - GENERAL PLOT INFORMATION COASTAL, WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - ORY SUBZONE FOREST ASSOCIATION! SWORDFERN - WESTERN REDCEDAR PAGE IPLOT NO. | 0051 0301 0311 OOtl 0061 0231 007 1 0081 0271 0281 0021 0241 0251 026 1 004| 0291 I, , n 1 PHYSIOGRAPHY I I 1 1 1 ALT ITUDE (FT . ) 397 405 410 758 580 730 WO 198 147 2 :o 505 535 580 500 360 400 1 1 1 1 IASPECT 45 0 FLAT 220 270 2C0 FLAT 230 IFLAT 1270 200 1220 1B0 310 280 270 I 1 I 1 1 TOPOGRAPHY F CC CC N N CC F N ICC CC CC ICC CC CC CC CC 1 1 1 1 1MICRORELIEF (WITHIN PLOT) N F U . N N F U U F F N H U F N F i l l ! 1 SLOPE GRADIENT (X) <5 10 0-5 12 15 0-5 FLAT 20 10-5 lie 5 15 10 10 10 10 1 I I 1 1 POSIT ION ON SLOPE 8 8 8 6 6 8 9 7 9 7 8 7 7 9 8 8 1 1 1 1 1LANOFORM GW CW UW MP HP MP GF CF GF GF MB 1MB MB GF HP MP | | 1 1 1 TEXTURE OF PARENT HATER IAL SI SI SI G G G S G C G G G G S . G G 1 1 1 1 j 1 STAND DESCRIPTION. 1 1 1 1 I — 1 1 1 1 ice* r i UBCF UUCF UBCF UBCF UBCF UBCF UBCF UBCF UBCF UBCF UBCF UBCF UBCF UBCF UBCF UBCFI I 1 1 1 SETTING SIZE IA.) 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0 32.0 4.5 4.5 4.5 16.7 18.7 18.7 18.7 64.0 64.01 1 1 1 1 DATE LOGGED 1970 1970 1970 1967 1967 1967 1965 1968 1968 1968 1964 1964 1964 1964 1959 19591 I 1 1 IOATE SINCE LAST DISTURBANCE 1970 1970 1970 1967 1967 1967 1965 1968 1968 1968 1965 1965 1965 1965 1960 19601 1 1 1 1 AGE OF STAND (YRS. ) 3 4 4 6 6 7 8 5 6 6 8 9 9 9 13 14 I | I I IDATE PLANTEO 1971 1971 1971 1967 1967 1967 1967 1965 1965 1965 1965 1960 19601 1 I 1 1 TYPE UF TREATMENT PCB PCB PCB PCB PCB PCB PCB NONE SL SL SL SL SL SL SL SL 1 1 1 1 1 BURNING INTENSITY N S N N N N N N 1 1 1 1 [DISTANCE TU SEED SOURCE (FT.) 225 250 100 150 100 200 550 400 100 300 200 250 150 400 300 300 1 I I 1DISTANCE TO SOUTH EDGE (FT. 1 450 500 400 250 1200 1C00 1000 450 600 700 900 1000 1200 1000 600 20001 1 1 1 1 TYPE OF SEEO SOURCEIXI 1 UOUGLAS-FIR 60 60 60 70 70 70 60 10 10 10 30 30 30 30 65 60 1 I 1 I 1 WESTERN HEMLOCK 25 25 25 20 20 20 30 50 50 50 60 60 60 60 25 25 I | | | I REDCEDAR 15 15 15 10 10 10 10 40 40 40 10 10 10 10 10 15 1 I 1 I 1 SOIL C ORGANIC LAYERS ! ! ' i ' ! 1 SOIL ORDER (CSSC 1970) GLEY GLEY GLEY POOZ POOZ PODZ POOZ POOZ POOZ PODZ POOZ PODZ PODZ PODZ POOZ PODZI 1 I 1 IDEPTh OF ORGANIC LAYERS ( IN . ) <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 1.0 1.5' 1.0 <1.0 1.0 1.0 2.5 1.0 1.5 1.5 1 I I | 1HYGROTOPE HG HG HG SHG SHG SHG HG SHG SHG SHG SHG SHG SHG HG HG HG 1 1 I I 1X OF PLOT COVEREO BY! 1 ROCK 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 I 1 SLASH 10 5 20 10 20 5 30 60 30 30 30 40 30 30 10 20 1 I I I 1 MINERAL SOIL 85- 75 60 30 <5 50 <5 <5 10 10 <5 10 5 20 <5 5 1 1 1 1 1 ORGANIC MATERIAL 5 20 20 60 95 45 65 40 60 60 55 50 65 50 85 75 1 I I I 1 VEGETATION ! ! ! 1 IX OF bRUSH SPECIES: I ! I I 1 Ul OVERTOPPING TREES 10 50 80 5 5 20 5 95 60 60 15 30 70 10 30 20 1 I I I 1 IBI NOT OVERTOPPING TREES 90 50 20 95 95 80 95 5 20 40 85 70 30 90 70 60 1 1 I | 1 STRATA COVERAGEIXI 1 A 0 0 0 0 0 0 35 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 35 50 1 I I I 1 BI 15 25 40 85 80 50 90 55 30 50 80 80 50 90 95 95 | I | | 1 62 65 40 70 50 75 60 60 85 60 ' 70 70 80 40 70 15 80 I | | | 1 . C 90 85 95 60 80 95 95 90 95 90 70 90 100 30 10 10 I 1 | | 1 0 30 20 20 15 15 30 40 45 70 80 10 60 20 60 25 50 I I | | 145 PART I I . V e g e t a t i o n S y n t h e s i s T a b l e s VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT .TABLE - PART U - RELEVE TABLES COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE, DRY SUBZONE SALAL - DOUGLAS-FIR ASSOCIATION . PAGE 1 PLOT NUMBER 10481 0401 0 4 11 0421 0 * 3 104410461 0 4 7 105010101 0 1 510 1 610 1 71 0201 O i l I 0 1 2 I 0131 014I 0 2 11 ST NO. SPECIES SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE AND SOCIABILITY P MS RS B2 1 ALNUS RUBRA . 1 . . . 1 • . . 1 . . 1 . . .. 5 . * l • . • 1 1 0 . 5 1 - 9 • - 5 2 BETULA PAPYRIFERA 2 . • 3. 4.+ 3.+ 2.* 2.+ 3.+ 4 . * 2.* • 3 . 1 1 . + 3 . * • .• 3 . * 2.+ 7 8 . 9 3 . 0 « - 4 3 TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA | . • 3.* 4.+ 4.1] 6.1 5 . 1 6 . 1 6. 1 3.1 4.1 6. 1 7. 1 5.1 5.' 11 68.4 5.1 3-7 4 SALIX SITCHENSIS j . •-. • . + .• 1.+ • 1.1 2.+ 4.5 . 2.* 52.6 1.5 +-4 5 PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (ART.) j +, • 7 . • 7 . • 3 . + 4.* 5.+ 5.+ 5 . + 8.+ . . • . . . . . 47.4 5.0 +-8 6 PSEUDOTSUGA.MENZIESII (NAT.) « + .+ 2.+ • 5.+ 3 . + 2.* 3.+ 42.1 2.3 • -5 7 THUJA PL ICATA | . • 4.1 + .+ 4 . 1 2.+ 4.+ 3.+ 31.6 2.3 +-4 ALNUS RUBRA j . •f • . • . 2.+ + .• + .• 4.+ 2. • I 31.6 1.4 +-4 e PRUNUS EMARGINATA | . • 3.* • 2.+ 2.+ 2.+ . . 26.3 1.1 + -3 9 ACER CIRCINATUM | . 2. I • • • 3.+ • 3.1 • . 3 . 1 21.1 1.4 2-3 10 POPULUS TRICHOCARPA ,1 « • • • • . • .+ • 3.+ 10.5 + .4 • -3 11 CORNUS NUTTALL11 ' ' ' 1 • • • • a • 3.+ .5.3 • .4 3-3 12 RHAMNUS PURSHI ANA 1 • • • 3 . + • • • . 5.3 + .4 3-3 13 SALIX SCOULERI ANA 1 . 3 . + • • • • • • 5.3 + .4 3-3 14 ACER MACROPHYLLUM • • • • . • • • • . • • • • • • • 5.3 + .0 +-+ 1 5 GAULTHERIA SHALLON 16. 5 5. 4 9. 7 6 . 4 5 . 3 8 . 5 7 . 3 8 . 6 8 . 6 8.7 4 . 5 9 . 6 9 . 5 6.4 7 . 6 7 . 7 8 . 7 7.7 6. 51 100.0 7.8 4-9 16 VACCINIUM PARVIFOLIUM . '• .13. + 2. 2. 2.+ 3.+ 3.+ 3.+ 3.+ 3.+ 3.+ 5.+ 5.1 5.1 3.1 3.+ 4. 1 5.+ 5.+ 3. 11 100.0 4.4 2-5 TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA | . 2. 1 2. + 3.+ 2.+ 2.+ 6.+ 6.1 3.+ 5.1 5.+ 5.1 4.1 4. 1 5.1 5.1 5. 1 6.1 5 11 94.7 5.1 2-6 1 7 RUBUS SPECTABILIS 1 . 2. 1 3.4 2.1 2.+ 3.1 2.+ 3.1 4.1 5.1 4.1 3.1 3.1 4.1 4.1 3.+ 3. • 2. 11 89.5 3.7 2-5 BETULA PAPYRIFERA : 1 1 . + l ! 3. t 5.* 4.+ + . + 3.+ 2.+ . 2.+ 3.+ • 2.* 2.+ 2.* 2.+ 3.+ 2.+ +, • | 89. 5 3.1 +-5 PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (NAT.) 1 . + ..• + + .+ 2.+ 1.+ 2.+ 3.+ 2.+ 1.+ • 3.+ 3.* 3.+ 4.+ 4. + 4 +1 78.9 3.0 • -4 IB MENZIESIA FERRUGINEA 12. + 1.* 2.* • 3.1 3.1 3.+ 3.+ 3.+ 5.1 4.1 2.1 . . 3.+ 3.+ 2. 11 73.7 3.2 1-5 19 SPIRAEA D0UGLASI1. 1 . I . I . 3.4 3.1 3.1 2.1 . 3.1 4.1 • 2.1 2.1 4.1 3.+ 3. + 3.+ 2. 11 73.7 3.0 1-4 THUJA PLICATA 1 • . 3.+ 3.+ 2.+ 2.+ 4.1 3.1 2.+ 4.1 2.+ 4.+ 3.+ 2.+ + . +1 68.4 3.0 +-4 2 0 VACCINIUM OVALIFOLIUM 1 • 2.+ . 2.+ 3.+ 2.1 4.1 4. 1 4.1 3.1 . 3.1 2.+ 3.1 2. 11 63.2 3.0 2-4 SALIX SITCHENSIS I - . • . 1 . * 2.+ 2.+ 3.1 . + .+ • 4.1 4.1 4.5 3.+ 3.+ +, +1 63.2 2.8 • -4 2 1 RUBUS PARVIFLORUS j . 1. • 3.4 3.1 3.5 2.1 2.+ . 3.1 . 1.+ 2.1 . 2.1 . 2.+ 2 11 63.2 2.2 1-3 PRUNUS EMARGINATA 1 . * • 1. • 2.+ « + . • .' • 4.+ 1.+ 2.+ 3.+ 52.6 1.7 +-4 PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (ART.) 15. 3 . • 4. • 5.+ 5.+ 2.+ . 5 . * 4.+ 2.* . « . . . 47.4 3.9 .2-5 2 2 RUBUS LEUC0DERM1S 1 . 4.1 3.1 2.1 . • 2.* 2 . 1 2 . 1 • 2.1 1 1.+ 42. 1 2.0 1-4 2 3 VACCINIUM ALASKAENSE 1 . 2.+ • . 2.* 3 . + 2 . 1 • • * 2.* 2.+ 2 . + 12.1 .42.1 1.6 2-3 ACER,CIRCINATUM '. 1 '< 2. I . 1 . 1 3.4 . 3 . 1 • 4 . 5 . 2.1 36.8 1.9 • -4 2 4 RIBES SANGUJNEUM j , • 1 . + 1.1 3.+ . . 2 . 1 . 3 . 1 3 . 1 . 36.8 1.5 +-3 RHAMNUS PURSHI ANA j , 1.+ • • • .+ 2 . + 3 . * - . 2.* • • 36.8 1.1 •-3 POPULUS TRICHOCARPA 1 < . • . 1 . + 3.* 26.3 + .8 • -3 2 5 SAMBUCUS RACEMOSA \ j . • • 2.* 2.* 2.+ • • 15.8 + .6 2-2 2 6 RUBUS LACINIATUS | , • 2.+ 2.1 - « • • I . * 15.8 + .4 1-2 CORNUS NUTTALLII j , • * . - . 2.+ • 1.+ 15.8 + .1 •-2 SALIX SC OULERI ANA 1 1 1 • . 1 . + . • 1 ' • 15.8 + .0 +-1 2 7 RIBES LACUSTRE 1 + .+ • 1 . + • 1 • 10.5 + .0 •-1 28 HOLODISCUS DISCOLOR | • • • + .• • 1 a 10.5 + .0 +- + 29 TAXUS BREVIFOLIA | • . - • I • 10.5 + .0 • -• 3 0 BERBER IS NERVOSA j • • 3 . * • • 1 a 5.3 + .4 3-3 31 LEDUM GROENLAND.ICUM I • • • • 2 . 1 • • • 1 • 5.3 + .0 2-2 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART II - RELEVE TABLES COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE, DRY SUBZONE . S A L A L - DOUGLAS-F IR ASSOCIATION PLOT NUMBER : ST NO. SPECIES I 0481 0401 0411 04210431 0441 0461 047 SPECIES SIGNIF 32 SALIX LASIANDRA • 33 BERBER IS AQUIFOLIUM 34 PYRUS FUSCA ALNUS RUBRA 35 ROSA GYMNOCARPA 36 SORBUS AUCUPARIA ' 37 PTERIOIUM AQUILINUH 38 - EPILOB IUM AUGUST!FOLIUM • TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA 39 BLECHNUM SPICANT 40 RUBUS URSINUS 41 ANAPHALIS MARGARITACEA 42 POLYSTICHUM MUNITUM 43 URYOPTERIS AUSTRIACA THUJA PLICATA PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (NAT.) 44 LINNAEA BOREALIS 45 ATHYRIUM FILIX-FEMINA 46 LYCOPODIUM CLAVATUM 47 CORNUS CANADENSIS 48 HOLCUS LANATUS 49 JUNCUS EFFUSUS 50 HYPOCHAERIS RAD [CAT A 51 LACTUCA BIENNIS 52 LUZULA PARVI FLORA 53 SOL I DAGO CANADENSIS . 54 AGROSTIS SCAORA 55 CALAMAGROSTIS CANADENSIS 56 SCIRPUS MICRUCARPUS 57 HIERACIUM ALB IFLORUH 58 SENECIO SYLVATICUS 59 TRILLIUM OVATUM 60 CAR EX AQUATILIS 61 EPILOBIUM WATSONII ' 62 SCIRPUS CYPERINUS 63 CAREX HENDERSON11 64 TIARELLA TRIFOLIATA 65 TRISETUM CERNUUM 66 CAREX INTERIOR 67 CIRSIUM ARVENSE 68 FESTUCA OCCIDENTALIS 69 GOODYERA OBLONG IF OLIA PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (ART.) 70 URTICA DIOICA 71 HYLOCOMIUM SPLENDENS 72 RHYTIDIADELPHUS LOREUS OH 05010101 0151016101710201 Oil I 0121013 I 01410211 CANCE AND SOCIABILITY P MS RS 1 , • a • • 2.1 • . 1 * 1 5.3 + .0 2-2 1 | • # • | • • l.+ . 1 . 1 5.3 + .0 l-l 1 a a j • • • 1.11 . 1 5.3 + .0 l-l 1 , j , • a | • • 1 • 1 5.3 + .0 +- + 1 | • • | • • . 1 • 1 5.3 + .0 +- + 1 1 < • • • • • • • • .• • 1 • 1 5.3 + .0 I 5 5 7 512 1 5. 1 8.6 5, 1 4, 1 5. 1 6 4 5.6 5.5 17.6 5.1 8.7 7.7 7.6 7.616. 51 94.7 6.3 2-8 13 I 3. 113. 1 4 3.+ 5 5 1. 1 2. • 5.5 3.+ 3. 113.1 3.+ 3.1 3.1 3.1 2.111. +1 94.7 3.8 1-5 1 1 • • +1 . 2 2.+ 1. + 3. + 3. • 3.+ 3.1 2 • 11.+ 3.1 5.1 4.1 4. 1 4.113. +1 89.5 3.4 + -5 12 + j 2 • 3.+ 1 • 4 1 2. + 2 • 2.+ 3.+ 3 + 12.+ 4.1 3.+ 3.+ 2.+ 3.+14. •1 89.5 3.2 1-4 j 2. 114. 4 3.1 3. 1 1 1 4. 5 3.1 4.1 3. 112.+ 1.1 3.1 4.4 4.1 4.512. ll 84.2 3.4 1-4 13 1 3 314. 4 3 1 2.1 2 1 1. 1 3.4 3.4 2 11 5.4 3.4 4.5 2.1 2.11 . 1 78.9 3.3 1-5 | | , 2. • 2.+ 3. + 2. + 2 1 3.+ 2.+ 3 + 13.+ 2.+ 2.+ 3.+ 2.+ 3.+I3. +1 78.9 2.7 2-3 | 1 1.+ 1. 1 2 + 1. 1 3.+ 2.+ 2. 112.+ 2.+ 2.1 3.+ 3.+ 3.+12. +1 78.9 2.3 1-3 1 1 • | , 1 + . 2. + 1 + 2.1 2.+ 2 +1 3.1 3.+ 3.+ 3.+ 3. + I 1. + 68.4 2.3 1-3 j + ,+ 1.+ • + 1. + 2.+ + .+ j 1.+ 3.+ 1.+ 2.+ 3.+|2. +1 63.2 1.6 •-3 | j , 6. 5 7.6 7.7 5. 418.5 5.4 5.6 . 5.5 5.51 . 1 47.4 5.2 5-8 j , • 1.+ 2.+ 11.+ 1.+ 2.+ 3.+ 1.+ 2.+I1. +1 47.4 1.4 1-3 j , j 1. 1 1.1 4. 4 2. 2 • 2.1 |. 2.1 2.2 2.1 • 1 • 1 42. 1 1.8 1-4 j . 3. 31 3. 3 • 4. 4 3.3 | . 2.3 . 4.4 1 . 1 31.6 2.3 2-4 | 1 < • • 2.t j 1.1 . . 2.1 2.+ 3.+ I , 1 26.3 1.2 1-3 j , j , • • • | 1.+ 1.2 2.3 2.+ 2.11 . 1 26.3 1.0 1-2 | , 1 . 2.+ • 1. + | . 2.+ 1.11 . 1 21.1 + .6 1-2 j , 1.+ j 2.+ 2.+ * 1 • 1 21.1 + .5 +-2 j , • 2.3 2.2 j . * . 11. •1 15.8 + .4 1-2 | , • a. • | 1.+ 2.+ 2.+ . 1 . 1 15.8 + .4 1-2 | a , • j 3.2 2.1 * 1 • 1 10.5 + .8 2-3 j , • • | 1.+ 3.4 « • 1 . 1 10.5 + .6 1-3 | 3. 11 . • a | • . . 1.+ . 1 . 1 10.5 + .6 1-3 | , • • . # j a 2.+ 2.+ . 1 . 1 10.5 + .2 2-2 j , j . a a j • I.* l. + l . 1 10.5 + .0 1-1 j , a # a | + .• « • 1 • 1 10.5 + .0 +- + | , j , • a • j • • 3. + I . ! 5.3 + .4 3-3 j , j , • a • j • 3.+ • a • 1 • 1 5.3 + .4 3-3 | j , a 3. • a • | . a • • 1 • 1 5.3 + .4 3-3 | | , • • • j • 2.2 t • • 1 • 1 5.3 + .0 2-2 j , a a • j • 2.+ • • 1 5.3 + .0 2-2 | j , a # a | • • 2.+ • 1 • 1 5.3 + .0 2-2 | | , 1.+ a • j • • 1 -1 5.3 + .0 1-1 j j , • • | • « 1.+ • • 1 • 1 5.3 + .0 l-l | j • I.* • | a • • 1 • 1 5.3 + .0 l-l | 1.+ I • • • • 1 • 1 5.3 + .0 l- l I + + | . • | a a • • 1 • 1 5.3 + .0 +-• 1 1 • • • 1 • • + .• • • • 1 . 1 5.3 + .0 +-• | 2 21 . 3 3 5.4 2. 2 4. 3 4 3 3 3 4.3 5.3 5 414.4 • 4.3 - » 2.11 . 1 68.4 4.0 2-5 I 1 21 2 2 3.3 3 3 4. 3 3. 3 2.2 3.3 2 212.2 • • 1.11 . 1 57.9 2.4 1-4 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART II - RELEVE TABLES COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONEt DRY SUBZONE SALAL - 'DOUGLAS-F IR ASSOCIATION PAGE 3 PLOT NUMBER S.T NO. SPECIES ICHBI 0<VO| 0411 0421 0431 0441 0461 047 I 05010101 015 1016 101710201 Oil 101210131 014102 l l DM OW OR 73 PLAGIOTHECIUM UUDULATUM 74 EURHYNCHIUH OREGANUM 75 ISOTHECIUM STOLON IFERUM 76 RHYTIOIAOELPHUS TRIQUETRUS 77 SPHAGNUM PALUSTRE 78 AULACOMNIUM ANDRUGYNUM . 79 POLYTRICHUH JUNIPERINUM 80 POGONATUM CONTORTUM 81 POHLIA NUTANS 82 CERATOOON PURPUREUS 83 POGONATUM ALP INUM 84 EURHYNCHIUM PRAELONGUM 85 OLIGOTRICHUM ALIGERUM 86 DITR1CHUM HETEROMALLUM 87 DICRANELLA HE TEROMALLA 88 POLYT RIC HUM COMMUNE ' AULACOMNIUM ANOROGYNUM 89 DICRANUM TAURICUM î PLAG I OTHEC I UM UNDULATUM HYLOCOMIUM SPLENDENS RHYTIDIADELPHUS LOREUS. EURHYNCHIUM OREGANUM 90 RHIZOMNIUM GLABRESCENS ' . 91 RHACOMITRIUM CANESCENS 92 RHACOMITRIUM HETEROSTICHUK POHLIA NUTANS 93 BARBULA SP. OITRICHUM HETEROMALLUM SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE ANO SOCIABILITY 11 11 314 31 11 21 11 I I 112 212 I I 111 13 412 111 11 211 21 21 1.11 1 21.1 213.21' 12.21 13.31 I 2.21 I2!2l 213.213 13.312 14.312 212.21 I • I l l . I 12.31 I . I I . Ii I . I 111 I 12 I 13 I 412 212 21 212 21 21 13 31 1 I . I 212 212 213 11 113 212 312 I 11 I . I 12.31 I . I 12.21 I . I I . I I . I . I I . I . I |4.4|4.3|3 212.314.312 212.212.21 12.21 . I I . 14.31 I . 12 13.31 I . 12.21 I 1.21 . I I . I . 13 I . I I 313. 213. 12, I 3. I 4. 31 . 12. 12. 31 . I . I I . I 316 313 313 21 314 I 21 11 I I 312.112.211.111.11 1 212.211.11 . 11.11 1 211.113.311.11 . II 12.11 . 1 . 1 . 1 I . I . I . I . I 13.212.213.21 . 13 12.11 . 14.314.41 14.41 . 1 . 1 . 1 I . I . I . I . I I . I . I . 12.21 13 I 31 312 31 312 I 3 21 112 111 11 I 11 31 P MS RS 26.3 + .4 l - l 21.1 1.7 2-4 10.5 + .2 2-2 10.5 + .0 1-1 5.3 + .4 3-3 5.3 + .0 2-2 89.5 5.7 2-9 47.4 2.3 2-4 36. 8 1.4 1-3 31.6 2.7 2-5 31.6 2.4 2-4 15.8 1.0 2-3 10.5 + .8 2-3 10.5 + .2 2-2 10.5 + .0 1-2 5.3 + .4 3-3 5.3 + .0 1-1 5.3 + .0 l - l 63.2 2.0 1-3 52.6 1.7 1-3 47.4 2.0 1-4 15.a + .4 1-2 5.3 + .0 l - l 36.8 1.6 1-3 31.6 2.0 2-4 5.3 1.1 4-4 5.3 + .0 2-2 5.3 + .0 2-2 00 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART II - RELEVE TABLES COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE, DRY SUBZONE MOSS - WESTERN HEMLOCK ASSOCIATION PAGE 1 PLOT NUMBER ST NO. SPECIES I 0031 0091 0181 019 1022 1032 I 0391 0351 03610331 03410371 0381 OAS I 0491 SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE AND SOCIABILITY I I I I HS RS B l B2 1 PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (ART.) 1 . a a * . 16. • 14.+ 7.+ 6.+ « . 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 26.7 4.4 4-7 2 ALNUS RUBRA | . a 4.1 • 1 +•  1 . . • . 1 . 1 I . I . I 13.3 1.3 + -4 3 SALIX SCOUL ERI ANA a ' . 13. + 1 . 2.+ • a . | . | , I . I . I 13.3 1.0 2-3 4 TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA 1 • • • • • . 1 . 1 • 4.+ • . 1 . 1 I . I . I 6.7 1.2 4-4 TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA 17.5 6.1 7.1 5.1 5.1 6. 1 5 1 7.1 7.114. • 13.• 6.+ •'..1 7.118.+| . | . I . I . 1100.0 6.6 3-8 5 BETULA PAPYRIFERA 12.+ • .+ + .+ 4.+ 3.+I5. + 1 4.+ 3.+ 4.+ 5.*! . 1 I . I . I 66.7 3.7 • -5 6 ACER CIRCINATUM 15.6 • , . + . + 3 3 4.5 6.51 . 14.4 4.5 4.5 a 6.6| . I I . I . I 60.0 4.4 +-6 7 SALIX SITCHENSIS 1 1.+ 3.1 4.1 4.1 a 2.+ . 1 . 12.1 . 4.+ 3.+ +.•1 . 1 . I . I . I 60.0 3.0 • -4 8 RHAMNUS PURSHI ANA | . # « 3 + 4.+ 5.+I+. + 1 2.+ 5.+ 3.+ a +.•1 . 1 I . I . I 53.3 3.4 • -5 PSEUOOTSUGA MENZIESII (ART.) | . a • . . 18. + 1 8.+ 8.+ 9.+ 8.* 8.+ I . I I . I . I 40.0 6.2 8-9 9 THUJA PLICATA 13.1 a a 3.+ 3. + I . 1 + • + 3.+ 5.1 a . 1 . 1 . I . I . I 40.0 2.9 +-5 SALIX SCOULERI ANA | . a 3.+ . • 3.* . 1 + . + 1 2.1 3.1 . » . I.I I . I . I 33.3 1.7 • -3 10 PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (NAT.) | . + .• 2.+ . + .• 1 . | . . + .+ • J . 1 < I . I . I 33.3 1.4 • -4 ALNUS RUBRA 12. 1 3.1 • .• a a- 2.+ • .+ 1 . | . . a . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1.33.3 1.2 +-3 11 RUBUS SPECTABILIS | . a a . . 18. 61 7.6 4. 1 4.1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . I 26.7 4.5 4-8 12 POPULUS TRICHOCARPA 1 . • . a 2.+ . 1 . 1 •.+ 3.+ « •.•1 . 1 I . I . I 26.7 1.0 +-3 13 VACCINIUM PARVIFOLIUM T . . _ • 4.+ . 14. + 1 5.1 . a I . I . I 20.0 2.9 4-5 14 SPIRAEA OOUGLASII | . a a 4.1 . 13. 41 . 2.1 , . 1 . 1 . I . I . I 20.0 1.7 2-4 15 PRJNUS EMARGINATA 12.+ • .a a . • 1 • | . •.•1 . 1 < I . I . I 13.3 + .0 +-2 16 CORNUS NUTTALLI I 1 • • • * . • . . 13. + 1 . . • . 1 . 1 . I . I . I 6.7 + .6 3-3 17 GAULTHERIA SHALLON 14.6 6.5 7.4 4.4 5.4 6.5 6. 4 6.5 5.513. 114.4 2.1 3.1 4.3 5.31 . 1 . 1100.0 5.4 2-7 VACCINIUM PARVIFOLIUM 13.+ 4.+ 4.1 4.1 3.1 3.+ 3. t 3.+ 3.113. 11 . 1.1 3.* 5.1 4.+I . I . I . I . I 93.3 4.0 1-5 18 VACCINIUM ALASKAENSE I . 2.+ 3.* 2.+ 2.+ 2.* 4. 1 3.1 4.11 3. + 1 2.+ 2.+ 2.* 2.+ 2.* 1 . I . I . I . I 93.3 3.1 2-4 TSJGA HETEROPHYLLA 16.5 5.1 5. 1 6. 1 4.1 5.1 4. 1 4.1 4.11 . I . 3.+ 5.1 6.1 4.11 . 1 . 1 . 1 .1 86.7 5.2 3-6 RUBUS SPECTABILIS 13.5 4.4 6.1 5.4 4.1 7.6 6. 5 4.4 5.4| . 1 3.3 . 2.+ 4.1 4.51 . I . I . I . I 66.7 5.1 2-7 THUJA PLICATA ; 12.1 3.+ 3.+ 3.+ 3.1 2.+ 3.+ 3. + I . i . 2.+ 3.* 4.+ 3.+ I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 80.0 3.1 2-4 19 VACCINIUM OVAL IFOLIUM 1 • 3.+ 4.1 3. 1 2.1 2.+ 2.+ 2. + I . 1 2.+ 2.+ 2.+ 2. + I . I . I . I . I 73.3 2.6 2-4 20 SAMBUCUS RACEMOSA 1 I. + 1.+ • .+ 1.+ . 2.+ 1. • . . 13. 113.1 3.1 a 1.+ l.+ l . 1 . I . I . I 73.3 2.0 +-3 SPIRAEA DOUGLASII. 1 3.+ 3. 1 3.1 3.1 4.1 . 2.1 4. 11 . I . 2.1 3.1 3.1 I . 1 . I . I . I 66.7 3. 1 2-4 21 HENZIESIA FERRUGINEA !•.+ . 3. 1 2.+ 3.+ 4 + 3.1 3. + I . | , a 5.1 4. + I . I . I . I . I 60.0 3.3 +-5 22 RUBUS PARVIFLORUS ' 12.1 1.+ . 3.1 2.+ 2. 1 . 1.11 . 1 • . 3.1 3.4| . 1 . I . I . I 53.3 2.0 1-3 PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (NAT.) 13.+ 3.+ 3. • 4.+ 2.1 a . . 1 . 1 . a 3.+ 3.+I . I . I . I . I 46.7 2.6 2-4 SALIX SITCHENSIS 12.1 4.1 4. 1 5. 1 3.1 • . + # . 1 . 1 • a a . . I . I . 1 .1 . 1 40.0 3.1 +-5 ACER CIRCINATUM 15.6 a . . ' + .+ 4.4 3, 3 2. + I . 1 . 2.1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 40.0 2.9 +-5 PRUNUS EMARGINATA 1 4.+ 2.+ •. 1.+ 3.+ 1.+ . 1 • f . • « . 1 . 1 . I . I . I 33.3 1.8 1-4 POPULUS TRICHOCARPA 14.+ • .• +.+ • 1 * 1 . • . 1 . 1 . I . I . I 33.3 1.3 +-4 23 RUBUS LEUCODERMIS ' I • 2.+ 2.t 2.+ 2.1  1 •1 - * . 1 .1 . I . I . I 26.7 1. 1 2-2 SALIX SCOULERI ANA I • • 2.+ . 1.+ • 1 . « • • . 1 . 1 . I . I . I 26.7 • .3 +-2 BETULA PAPYRIFERA 12.+ 2.+ . a a 2.+ • . 1 • a a . 1 . ) . I . I . I 20.0 1.0 2-2 RHAMNUS PURSHI ANA . 1 • + .+ a • . • 2! • # • I • j . • a .1 . 1 . I . I . I 20.0 + .1 +-2 24 KIBES SANGUINEUS. 1 3.+ 1.+ a » a . 1 • 1 . • . 1 . 1 . I . I . I 13.3 • .9 1-3 25 PICEA SITCHENSIS • 1 • + .• a a # • 1 . 1 . a . 1 . 1 . I . I . I 13.3 + .0 + PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (ART.) | . . . a a • 1 " • 1 . • • .• •.•1 . 1 . I . I . I 13.3 • .0 •- + 26 BERBER1S AQUIFOLIUM . 1 2.+ • • • * . 1 . 1 . • . . 1 . 1 . I . I . I 6.7 • .0 2-2 -p=. VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART II - RELEVE TABLES COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE, ORY SUBZONE. MOSS - WESTERN HEMLOCK ASSOCIATION PAGE 2 PLOT NUMBER ST NO. . SPECIES I 00310091018|019|0221032t 039|035 I 03610331034103710381 0451 049 I I I I I SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE AND SOCIABILITY MS RS OH DM 27 RUBUS LACINIATUS • 1. 1 | , • > 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 6.7 + .0 1-1 28 TAXUS BREVIFOLIA 1 • • .• • . • • • • I . I . I . 1 . 1 6.7 + .0 +-• 29 BLECHNUM SPICANT 1 3.+ 3.* 3.+ 3.1 3.+ 4.+ 4 1 4.1 3.114 1 3 .1 2 1 2 ,+ 4.1 6 .41 . I . . 1 . 1100.0 4.2 2-6 TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA 13.+ 3.1 3.1 3. 1 3.+ 3.* 3 + 3.+ 2.+ 12 + 2 ,+ 2 + 3 • 3.+ 2 • +l .1 . 1 . 1 . 1100.0 3.2 2-3 30 PTERIOIUM AUUILINUM 18.7 5.6 4.+ 4.+ 5.5 2.+ 6 5 4.1 4. 11 2 • 2 + 1 + 2.+ 2 1 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 93.3 5.0 1-8 31 POLYSTICHUM MUNITUM 1 3.+ 2.+ 2.+ 2.+ 2.+ 2.+ 4. + 3.+ 2. + I 3 1 4 1 3 1 •a • 3 ll . 1 . . 1 . 1 93.3 3.2 2-4 32 ORYOPTERIS AUSTRI ACA 12.+ 2.+ 2.+ 2.+ 2.+ 3.+ 4 + 2.1 3.113 + 2 1 2 1 2 +' • 2 1 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 93.3 3.0 2-4 THUJA PL ICA TA 1 3.+ 3.+ 1.+ 2.+ 2.1 2.+ 2.+ l. + l . 1. + + + 2 • 2.+ 1 + 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 86.7 2.2 • -3 33 RUBUS URSINUS 1 3.4 4.4 3.+ 2.+ 3.1 5.4 4. 1 3.1 5.4| . 2 + 2.1 3 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 80.0 3.9 2-5 34 EPILOBIUM AUGUSTIFOLIUM 12.1 4.5 4.+ . 2.+ 2.+ 2 + 3.1 3.11 1 • 2.+ 2 .11 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 73.3 2.9 1-4 35 ATHYR1UM FILIX-FE MlNA 1 1.+ 2.+ 2.+ 2.+ 1.+ 1.+ I + . | , . 1 1 1 . 1 . 1 . . 1 53.3 1.3 1-2 36 LUZULA PARV IFLOKA 1 • 2.3 2.* 3.+ 2.+ 4.+ 1. Ll . 2 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 46.7 2.1 1-4 37 ANAHHALIS MARGARITACEA 12.1 3.4 3.+ 3.3 . 2.+ | , 3 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 40.0 2. 1 2-3 38 TIARELLA TR IFOLI ATA | . „ 4. 1 3.1 . # 1 3 1 2. 1 . 3 3 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 33.3 2.2 2-4 39 LYCOPODIUM CLAVATUM | . 1. 1 3.3 3. 1 3.3 | , 3.1 j . | . | . 1 . 1 33.3 1.9 1-3 PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (NAT.) • 1 . 2.+ 2.+ + .+ • | 1.* • + 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 33.3 + .8 •-2 40 TRI LLIUM OVATUM 1 •.+ . + , • • , • I . I . I . 1 . 1 26.7 + .0 • - + 41 LINNAEA BOREALIS | . 5.6 5.4 3.3 . a | • . 1 . 1 - 1 . 1 . 1 20.0 3.1 3-5 42 TRISETUM CERNUUM 1 . • 1.+ 3. 1 • 1 1 • * , | . | . . 1 . 1 20.0 1.0 1-3 43 CAREX DEWEYANA 1 2.21 • 2.1 2.1 | , i . 1 . . 1 . 1 20.0 1.0 2-2 44 CORNUS CANADENSIS | . # * 3.3 3. 1 • j a > 1 • 1 . I . 1 . 1 13.3 1.2 3-3 45 GALIUM TRIFLORUM 12.2 • • 1.+ • j , • j . l . . 1 . 1 13.3 + .2 1-2 46 LACTUCA BIENNIS | . i.+ • 1.+ • | , # I . I . . 1 . 1 13.3 + .0 1-1 47 POA PRATENS1S 1 • 3.1 • • • j , • I . I . . 1 . 1 6.7 + .6 3-3 48 VIOLA SEMPERVIRENS 13.3 • * j , 1 . 1 • I . 1 . 1 6.7 + .6 3-3 49 CALAMAGROSTIS CANADENSIS | . 2.3 • a « j , I . I . . 1 . 1 6.7 + .0 2-2 50 CAR EX INTERIOR 2.2 m * j , • | . | . . 1 . 1 6.7 + .0 2-2 51 HYPERICUM PERFORATUM | . • 2.1 | , • I . I . I . 1 . 1 6.7 + .0 2-2 52 POA PALUSTRIS j . 2.1 j , I . I . I . 1 . 1 6.7 + .0 2-2 53 TRIENTALIS LATIFOLIA 12.1 • j , 1 . 1 . . 1 . 1 6.7 + .0 2-2 54 DICENTRA FORMOSA 1 1.+ « | , j . l . j . 1 . 1 6.7 + .0 1.-1 55 GYMNOCARPIUM DRYDPTERIS j . 1.1 j , I . I . . 1 . 1 6.7 + .0 1-1 56 EOUISETUM ARVENSE I+.+ • • • • • • 1 • • I . I . I . 1 . 1 6.7 + .0 + -+ 57 RHYTIDIADELPHUS LOREUS 13.3 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 3.2 3 2 2.2 2.21 2. 2 2 2 3. 2 2. 2 4.3 4 3 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1100.0 3.2 2-4 58 HYLOCOMIUM SPLENDENS 13.3 5.5 5.4 3.3 4. 3 4. 4 4.4 5.416 4 3 3 3. 2 3 2 5.A 5 31 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 93.3 5.0 3-6 59 PLAGIOTHECIUM UNUULATUM 12.2 . . . 1. 1 * 1 2  1 1 2 2 3.3 3 21 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 46.7 1.8 1-3 60 EURHYNCHIUM OREGANUM 1 1.1 2. 2 1.2 2.21 . 1. 1 2. 2 I . I . I . 1 . 1 40.0 1.2 1-2 61 EURHYNCH1UM PRACLONGUM | . • # | , 2. 2 j . l . l . 1 . 1 6.7 + .0 2-2 62 ISOPTERYGIUM ELEGANS * j , 1 1 I . I . I . 1 . 1 6.7 + .0 1-1 63 ISOTHECIUM STOLONIFERUM J • • • • • • • 1 1. 1 • I . I . I . 1 . 1 6.7 + .0 1-1 64 POLYTRICHUM JUNIPERINUM ' 12.2 5.3 5.5 3.3 4.4 3.4 2. 2 3.4 12. 3 2 2 2 2 5.3 4 31 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 86.7 4.1 2-5 65 POGONATUM CONTORTUM 1 . 3.3 3.3 3.3 2.2 | . 2 2 2. 2 2. 2 5.3 3 3 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 60.0 3.1 2-5 66 POGONATUM ALP INUM ••I • .» 2.2 4.4 2.3 2. 2 3.3 2.212. 2 2.2 I . I . . 1 . 1 53.3 2.2 2-4 67 POHLIA NUTANS 1 . * • 3.3 1.1 1 . 2.2 I . I . . 1 . 1 20.0 1.1 1-3 On O VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT .TABLE - PART II - RELEVE TABLES COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE, ORY SUBZONE MOSS - WESTERN HEMLOCK ASSOCIATION PAGE 3 PLOT NUMBER ST NO. SPECIES 10031 009101 SI 0191 022 I 032 I 0391 035 10361 033 I 03410371 038 I 04510491 SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE AND SOCIABILITY HS RS DW 68' DICRANELLA HETEROMALLA 69 POLYTRICHUM COMMUNE 70 CERATODON PURPUREUS EURHYNCHIUM PRAELONGUH 71 AULACOMNIUM ANDROGYNUM 72 DIT RI CHUM HETERUMALLUM i ISOTHECIUM STOLON IFERUK 73 POGONATUM URNIGERUM PLAGIOTHECIUM UNOULATUH HYLOCOMIUM SPLENOENS RHYTIDIADELPHUS LOREUS EURHYNCHIUM OREGANUM 74 RHIZOMNIUM GLABRESCENS PLAGIOMNIUM INSIGNE OR 75 76 RHY TIDIADELPHUS TRIOUETRUS 77 RHACOMITRIUM CANE SCENS I 11 I 11 3 112 212 I 11.111 31 . I I . I I 1.11 I . I I . I 312.212 213.212 11 3.212 I I.II I . I I . I 11 11 I 213 312 211 I 11 312 112 112 212 311 112 I I 211 212 21 I 11 212 312 11 I . I I . I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . . 1 • 1 13.3 • .0 l - l . 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . • 1 • 1 6.7 + .6 3-3 • 1 • 1 . 1 . 12. 21 . 1 . . 1 > 1 6.7 • .0 2-2 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . . 1 . 1 6.7 • .0 2-2 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . • 1 • 1 6.7 + .0 1-1 . 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . . 1 • 1 6.7 + .0 1-L . 1 . 1 . 1* « .11. 11 . 1 . . 1 . 1 6.7 • .0 l - l • 1 • 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . • 1 . 1 6.7 + .0 1-1 2.212. 112. 211. 211. 11 . 1 . . 1 . 1 93.3 2.3 1-3 . 1 • 1 . 12. 212. 21 . 1 . . 1 • 73.3 2.1 1-3 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 12. 21 . I . . 1 . 53.3 1.8 1-3 3.21 2. 111. 111. 11 . 12.21 . • 1 • 40.0 1.3 1-3 . 1 . 12. 212. 21 . I . I . . 1 • 13.3 + .5 2-2 . 11. 11 . 1 . 1 . I . I . • 1 • 6.7 + .0 l - l . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . I . I . • 1 . 6.7 + .0 1-1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 11.11 . . 1 . 6.7 + .0 l - l VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART I I - RELEVE TABLES COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE, DRY SUBZONE SWORDFERN - WESTERN REDCEDAR ASSOCIATION \ PAGE 1 PLOT NUMBER ST NO. SPECIES I 0051 0301031100110061 0231 007 10081 0271 0281 0021 0241 0251 0261004 I 029 I I SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE ANO SOCIABILITY I I HS RS Bl 1 ALNUS RUBRA; 2 PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (ART.) 3 SALIX SITCHENSIS 4 SALIX SCOULERIANA 5 PRUNUS EMARGINATA .6 POPULUS TRICHOCARPA ALNUS RUBRA •:• SALIX SITCHENSIS PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (ART.) POPULUS TRICHOCARPA 7 TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA PRUNUS EMARGINATA 8 PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (NAT.) 9 ACER CIRCINATUM SALIX SCOULERI ANA 10 BETULA PAPYRIFERA 11 RUBUS SPECTABILIS 12 RHAMNUS PURSHI ANA 13 RUBUS PARV1FL0RUS. 14 CORNUS NUTTALLI I 15 PICEA SITCHENSIS 16 SAMBUCUS RACEMOSA 17 RUBUS DISCOLOR B2 RUBUS SPECTABILIS . IB SPIRAEA DOUGLASII RUBUS PARVIFLORUS TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA SALIX SITCHENSIS ACER CIRCINATUM 19 GAULTHERIA SHALLON PRUNUS EMARGINATA POPULUS TRICHOCARPA . 20 RIBES SANGUINEUM 21 RUBUS LEUC00ERM1S 22 THUJA PLICATA BETULA PAPYRIFERA . SAMBUCUS RACEMOSA 23 VACCINIUM PARVIFOLIUM • • PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (NAT.) ALNUS RUBRA 24 RUBUS LACINIATUS PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (ART.) SALIX SCOULERI ANA 25 SALIX LAS IANDRA - 1— — — — — — — 1 1 • 1 . I . I . 1 . 15.1 I . I . I . 1 ft i • I . I . 12. • 1 4 . I I . 1 . 1 . 1 1 • 1 . 1 • I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 ft i • I . I . 1 6 .+ 1 5 . + | . 1 . 1 . 1 1 • 1. • 1 • I . I . I . I . I . I . I . f • I • I . I . 1 3 .+ 1 6 . 1 1 . | . | . | 1 ft • • 1 • I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 * ' i » I . I . 12.+ 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 1 • 1 " I . I . I . I . I . I . I . 1 • i • I . I . 1 1.+ 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 I • I . ' • I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I • i • 1 • 1 . I ft +.+I . 1 . 1 . 1 15.1 16.1 16.1 1 6 . 1 1 3 . 1 1 5 . + 1 4 . 1 13 .+|4 .1|+.+ 1 3.1 6.1 1 6 . 1 1 4.1 1 4 . 1 l+.+l . 1 . 1 . 1 I • 1 . . 1 + .• 1 3 . 1 1 5 . 5 1 2 . 1 1 6 . 1 1 2 . + | . I . 1 6 . 6 13.1 I 4 . U 4 . 1 1 6.1 5 .11 . | . | . | I • 1 . 1 + .+ 18. + I 7 . + I 6 . + I 7 . + I . I . I . 1 7.+ 1 7 . • I 5 . + I 9 . + 15 .+ 6 . + I . l . | . | 1 ft 1 . 1 2 . • 1 . 1 3 . • I 4 . + I 4 . + 12.+1 . I+.+ 1 2 .+ E • 1 . 12.1 14.+ +.+I . 1 . 1 . 1 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 3 . 1 1 . 1 3 . 1 1 . 1 2 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 • . + | • 1 3 . 1 1 . 1 2 .+ +.+I . 1 . 1 . 1 1 • 1 • 1 • I . I . 1 l. + l 3.+ I 3 . + I + . + I . ' • 1 • l+.+l . 1 1.+ 3.11 . 1 . 1 . 1 I • . 1 * 1 . 1 +.• . 13 .+ 1 . 12.+1 . • .+ l + . + 1 . 11 .+ „ +.+I . 1 . 1 . 1 1 • 1 • 1 . 1 . I+.+ 1 . 1 5 . 5 1 5 . 7 1 . | 5 . 5 4 . 5 I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 • 1 . 1 . I . I . 1 2 . 1 1 3.1 I . I . I . • 1 . 12.1 12.1 3 .11 . 1 . 1 . 1 I • • \ • I . I . . | 6 . + 1 4 . 1 1 4 . 1 1 6 . 5 # I . I . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 I • 1 • 1 • I . I . 1 . 1 5 . 5 I . I . I . • | • . 1 . 9.8 S . 6 | . | . | . | 1 • 1 . . . 1 . . 1 2 . • 2 . + I . 1 . • 1 • I . I . • .+ . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 , • • . 1 . . 1 3 . 1 . 1 . 1 . • 1 • I . I . 5.1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 f • • • . 1 . . 1 . 2 . 11 . 1 . • 1 • -I . I . ft . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 • • . 1 . . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 2 .+ • . 1 . ft . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 ft • • . 1 . . 1 . . 1 . 1 . • • . 1 . 2.+ . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 • • . . 1 . . 1 1.+ . 1 . 1 . . • • . 1 . • . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 13.1 5 . 3 4 . 4 4 . 6 1 3 . 1 4 . 1 1 4 . 5 5 . 1 1 4 . 1 1 4 . 1 5.6 4 . 3 5 . 5 1 7 . 5 4 . 6 3.41 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 3 . 1 3 . 3 3 . 3 I . + 1 3 . 1 3 . 1 1 3 . 1 3 . 1 1 3 . 1 1 2 . 1 2.+ 3.+ 3 . I I 5 . 4 3 . 1 1 2 . 1 1 . l . | . | 1 4 . 1 4 . 1 5.4 1 . 1 1 4 . 1 3 . 1 1 3.1 4 . 1 1 3 . 1 1 3 . 1 3.1 3.1 4.1| . 3.11 4 . 1 1 . | . | . | 1 • 3.+ 2 .1 4 . 1 1 1.+ 3 . + I 2 . + 3.1 1 3 . 1 1 2 . + 1.+ 3.+ 2 . + I 3.1 + .+ +.+I . 1 . 1 . 1 1 4 . 4 4 . 1 3 .1 4 . 1 | 6 . 6 3 . 1 I 2 . + 2.+ | l. + | 2 . 1 3 .4 4 . 1 . 12 .+ 1 3 . 3 1- 1 3 . 4 l.+l3.3 . 1 4 . 5 5 . 6 1 3 . 1 1 4 . 3 2 .1 6 . 6 . 1 . l . + l ' 1 '. 1 '. 1 . 1 1 . . . 3 . 5 1 1.1 3 . 1 1 3 . 3 3 . 3 1 4 . 1 1 4 . 3 2 . 3 6 . 6 4 . 4 1 1.1 # 1 .11 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 3 . • 3.1 2 . + 2 . + I 3.1 2 . + I 2 .+ 5 . + I 2 . + I 3 . + 2.+ 3.+ . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 5 . 1 4.1 4 . 11 2 . + 1 3 . 1 5 . 1 I 2 . + 2.+ 1 2 . 1 1 . # ft . 1 +.• + . + I 1 3.+ 3.+ 2 . 11 l.+l3.+ . 1 . 4.1 | 4 . 1 | 3 . 11 1.+ 3 .11 . • i • i • i ! i 1 3 .1 2.1 3 . 3 . 1 2 . I I 2 . 1 1 2 . 1 1 3 . 1 1 2 . 1 1 3 . 1 | 2 .1 2 . 1 1 . M 1 . i . i '. i ." i 1 • + • + • 1 1. + I 2 . + + . + I l. + l 2.+ 1 2 . 1 1 . | * + .+ l.+l3.1 2 . + I . I . I . I . I 1 . 1 4.+ 4 . + I • l + .+ l +.+I3.+I 5 . 1 1 4 . 1 1 5 . + | + .+ + . + I . ^ 1 . I . I . I . I 1 2 . + 4 .1 2 . 1 . 12 .+ 1 . 12.+1 3 . 1 1 . | 2 . + | - • 1 . 2.+Il.+l 1 1 3 .11 . | . | . | 1 l. + l . 1 . 1 1.+ 1 1.+ 1 2.+I4.+I 3.+ 1 2 . 1 1 . | 3.+ I 3 . + I . 1 . 1 l . + l . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 2 . + ! . l. + l 3.+I2.+I 3. + I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 3.+ : 3.+ 3 . * l + . + l ^ 1 15.1 4.1 1 . ! 4 . 1 1 4 . 1 1 4 . + I . 1 2.+I . 1 . 1 • i 3 . + I 2 . 1 1 . I # j . 1 , 1 * 1 * 1 1 • 1 l.+ l . 1 . 12.+ | 1 . + I 2 . + I 2 . + I . 12.11 . I + . +1 l.+l . 1 ^ 1 • I . I . I . I 1 4 . + | 4. + I 3 . + I 2 .+ I . I +.+I . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 # i ^ +.+I . 1 ^ 1 • I . I . I . I 13.11 2 . 1 1 3 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 2 . 1 1 . I . 1 2 . 1 1 . 1 • i l . + l • I . I # | • 1 . 1 . 1 * 1 1 2 . 11 2 . 1 1 2 . + I 3.11 . 1 2 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . i . i • l . l • | '. i ! i .' i ', i 18.8 12.5 12.5 6.3 2.5 3.2 2.8 + .0 6.3 +.0 I 6.3 +.0 • 2- 5 5-6 3- 6 2-2 1 100.0 75.0 68.8 •-6 +-6 +-9 5.2 4.8 6.0 62.5 2.8 +-4 43.8 1.8 +-3 1.6 1.1 3.5 1.5 3 43.8 43.8 31.3 31.3 25.0 18.8 18.8 12.5 2.2 6.3 +.0 6.3 +.0 6.3 +.0 4 . 5 + . 5 On ,(N> 6.3 100.0 100.0 93.8 93.8 81.3 75.0 75.0 75.0 68.8 68.8 68.8 68.8 62. 5 62.5 62.5 56.3 50.0 50.0 37.5 37. 5 31.3 •-3 • - 3 • -5 2- 3 ^ 8 4 - 6 5-9 1 +-2 3- 5 2-2 2-2 2-2 +.0 1-1 5.0 3.5 4.0 1 3.0 • 3-7 1-5 5 4 3.9 1-6 3.9.1-6 3.7 3.1 3.5 3.0 2.4 1- 6 2- 5 +-5 1- 4 2- 3 1.6 +-3 3.5 +-5 2.4 1-4 2.4 1-4 2.2 +-3 3.4 1.3 2 . 2 1.6 2-5 +-2 +-4 1-3 1.4 2-3 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT- TABLE - PART II - RELEVE TABLES COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE, DRY SUBZONE SWORDFERN - WESTERN REDCEDAR ASSOCIATION PAGE 2 PLOT NUMBER ST NO. SPECIES 10051030103110011 006 I 0231 0071 008 SPECIES SIGNIF 26 ACER MACROPHYLLUM I.I m m 2.+ 2. + I 2.+ I + .+ l . l . 1 . 1 25.0 + .9 •-2 RHAMNUS PURSHI ANA | . « • i.+ 2.+ 2.+ . • • » l . l . 1 . 1 18.8 + .6 1-2 CORNUS NUTTALLI I 1 • 2.1 • 2.* • l . l . 1 . 1 12.5 + .4 2-2 27 OPLOPANAX HORRIDUM | . « • . . - 1.+ • 2. 1 l . l . 1 . 1 12.5 + .1 1-2 28 LONICERA INVOLUCRATA 1 * • • 1.1 » • l . l * 1 . 1 12.5 + .0 •-1 29 PYRUS FUSCA | . +.• • l . l . 1 . 1 12.5 + .0 30 MENZIESIA FERRUGINEA . • 2.+ • l . l . 1 . 1 6.3 + .0 2-2 31 ACTAEA RUBRA | . 1.+ • • l . l . l . l 6.3 + .0 1-1 32 ROSA GYMNOCARPA | . . 1.+ • « « l . l . l . l 6.3 + .0 1-1 33 HOLODISCUS DISCOLOR I • + .• * • l . l . 1 . 1 6.3 + .0 +-+. 34 POPULUS TREMULOIOES 1 • • .• • • 1 . • • • • • • • l . l . l . l 6.3 + .0 +- + 35 POLYSTICHUM MUNITUM 13.1 3.* 3.1 4.* 3.+ 2.+ 4.+ 4.+ 5.4 2.+ 3.+ 3.+ 5. • 3 + 3.+ 4 + 1 . 1 . 1 . 1100.0 4.2 2-5 36 EPILOBIUM AUGUSTIFOLIUM 13.1 2.* 2.+ 1.+ 1.+ 2.+ 2.1 2.+ 3.1 3.+ 3.1 4.1 3. 1 I • l . l . 1 . 1 93.8 3.0 1-4 37 ANAPHALIS MARGAR1TACEA |4.4 4.4 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.+ 2.1 3.1 3.1 3.4 2.1 2. 1 1 l . l . 1 . 1 87.5 3.2 1-4 TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA 13.1 2.+ 2.+ 3.+ 2.+ 2.+ 1.+ 3.+ 2.1 2.+ 2.1 . 3 1 2.+ • . + 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 87.5 2.5 +-3 | ' 3B PTERIOIUM AQUILINUM 12.1 3.1 3. 1 6.6 4.5 8.6 5.5 6.6 8.6 6.5 2.1 5.4 9. 7 . l . l . 1 . 1 81.3 5.8 39 BLECHNUM SPICANT 1 2.+ 2.+ 2.+ . 3.+ 2.+ 6.1 2.+ 1.+ . 2.+ 3.1 4 • 2.+ 2 + 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 81.3 3.4 40 LUZULA PARVI FLORA 13.+ 3.+ 2.+ . 3.+ 2. 1 3.+ 2.2 2.+ 2.+ • 1. 1 4 1 1.+ 2 • l . l . 1 . 1 81.3 2.8 1-4 41 LACTUCA BIENNIS 12.+ 3.1 2.1 3.1 2.+ 2.+ . 3.+ 3.1 3.1 1.+ 1.+ 2.+ 1. + 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 81.3 2.5 1-3 42 ORYOPTERIS AUSTRIACA . 13.+ . 2.+ 1.+ 2.* 1.+ 1.+ 3.+ . . 2.+ 2.+ 3 + 2 • 1.+ 2 + 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 81.3 2.3 1-3 THUJA PLICATA j . 2.+ 2.* 2.+ 2.1 2.+ 2.+ 3.+ 3.+ 2.+ . 1.+ 1. + 2 ,+ 1.+ l . l . 1 . 1 81.3 2.2 1-3 43 ATHYRIUM FI LIX-FEMINA. 12.• 2.1 2.+ 1.+ 1.+ 1.+ 2.* . . 2.+ 1.+ 1.+ 2 ,+ 1.+ 2 + 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 81.3 1.8 1-2 44 RUBUS URSINUS j . • . 1.+ 5.5 2.1 3.1 5.6 5.1 5.5 5.4 3.4 5.1 4. 4 2 1 . l . l . 1 . 1 75.0 4.5 1-5 45 GALIUM TRIFLORUM . 17.7 4.2 5.4 3.3 3.3 3.3 2.1 . 1.+ • 3. 1 2 + « I + 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 68.8 4.0 1-7 46 HOLCUS LANATUS 12. 1 3.3 1.+ . • 3.1 2.2 4.3 4.3 2.3 2.* 1 + I l . l . 1 . I 68.8 2.7 1-4 47 TRIENTALIS LATIFOLIA | . 3.1 3.1 2.+ 2.1 2.+ 3.3 3.1 4.1 . 2.+ 2 1 1 + 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 68.8 2.7 1-4 48 TIARELLA TRIFOLIATA 13.2 . 3.1 1.1 2.1 4. 3 3.3 2.+ . • 1.1 2.+ 1 + 2.1 l . l . 1 . I 68.8 2.5 1-4 49 HYPOCHAERIS RADICATA 12.+ 4.+ 3.1 3.+ 4.1 2.+ • 2.+ 2.+ 4. 1 • * l . l . 1 . 1 56.3 3.0 2-4 50 EPILOBIUM WATSONII 12.+ 2.+ 2.* . 2.+ . • 2.+ 2.1 1.1 1.+ « I.* l . l . 1 . 1 56.3 1.5 1-2 51 VIOLA SEMPERVIRENS I • 3.3 • 1.1 • 2.2 2.2 3. 1 2.2 2.1 • 2 .2 • l . l . l . l 50.0 1.9 1-3 PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (NAT.) 12.+ 1.+ 3.+ 2.+ + .• . . + .• • • l . l . 1 . 1 50.0 1.2 +-3 52 CIRSIUM ARVENSE 13.• 4.1 2.+ 1.+ • • 1.+ 2.+ 1.+ • • • l . l . 1 . 1 43.8 2.0. 1-4 53 SOLIDAGO CANADENSIS 1 » 3.4 . 2.1 1.+ • 1.1 1.+ 3.3 1.1 l . l . 1 . 1 43.8 1.5 1-3 54 JUNCUS EFFUSUS 16.1 4.+ 6.4 4.1 4.3 • . 1.+ * • • l . l . 1 . 1 37.5 4.0 1-6 55 AGROSTIS SCA8RA 13.5 4.1 2.* * . • 2.* 2.1 • • 2.1 • • l . l . 1 . 1 37.5 2.0 2-4 56 EOUISETUM ARVENSE 15.5 . 7.6 • • 2.1 • • • • 1.* > 1 .1 . 1 . 1 31.3 3.5 1-7 57 CIRSIUM VULGARE 14.1 + .• 4.+ • • • • • « + • 1 • 1 1 . 1 25.0 1.9 • -4 5B FESTUCA OCCIDENTALIS | . 3.+ 1.1 • • • 3.3 2 .1 • • 1 * 1 1 . 1 25.0 1.3 1-3 59 LINNAEA BOREAL IS 1 . • l.l * 1.+ • 3.3 3.4 • • • > 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 25.0 1.3 1-3 60 CIRCAEA ALP INA . 11.1 • • 2.2 2.1 * • • + 1.1 1 . 1 25.0 + .7 +-2 61 GALIUM TRIFIDIUM 1 • • • • 1.1 • l.l « • 2.1 1 .11 . 1 1 . I 25.0 + .6 1-2 62 SCIRPUS MICROCARPUS 15.4 2.+ 4.3 • * • • • • • • • l . l 1 . 1 18.8 2.5 2-5 63 DICENTRA FORMOSA 1 . « 1.+ • * • 2.* 4 .31 . 1 1 . 1 18.8 1.4 1-4 64 CAREX ROSSII 1 . 2.+ • 3.3 3.1 * • • l . l 1 . 1 18.8 1.3 2-3 65 CORNUS CANADENSIS 1 * . • 3-1 • • 3.3 • 2.3 * • • l . l 1 . 1 18.8 1.3 2-3 66 CALAMAGROSTIS CANADENSIS I . 2.1 • • 3.1 2.3 • • • • l . l 1 . 1 18.8 1.1 2-3 67 TRISETUM CERNUUM 1 * 2.+ 2.* • 2.+ • • • l . l • l . l 18.6 + .9 2-2 6B CAREX DEWEYANA I . . 1.+ • • • 1 . +1 . 1 I . 1 18.8 + .1 l-l 271 0281C021024102510261 004 I 0291 I I CANCE AND SOCIABILITY MS RS PAGE 3 PLOT NUMBER ST NO. SPECIES 69.SENECI0 SYLVATICUS 70 CAREX hENOERSON11 71 VERONICA AMERICANA 72 DIGITALIS PURPUREA 73 AGROSTIS EXARATA 74 CAREX INTERIOR 75 EOUISETUH PALUSTRE 76 PHALARIS ARUNDINACEA 77 RUMEX ACETOSELLA 7B TRILLIUM OVATUM 79 LYCOPODIUM CLAVATUM 80 CAREX AQUATILIS 81 GEUM MACROPHYLLUM 82 ACHLYS TRIPHYLLA 83 CREPIS CAPILLARIS 84 DANTHONIA SPICATA 85 JUNCUS ENSIFOLIUS 86 JUNCUS TENUIS 87 OENANTHE SARMENTOSA 88 POA PALUSTR1S .89 SCIRPUS CYPER1NUS 90 VIOLA TRICOLOR 91 CAREX MERTENS11 92 ERIGERON ANNUUS 93 LUZULA CAMPESTRIS 94 VERONICA SERPYLLI FOLIA 95 LYSICHITUM AMER IC ANUM 96 MONTIA SIBIRICA I 0051 03010311 001|C0610231 00710081 0271 0281 0021024102510261 00410291 I I I SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE AND SOCIABILITY 108 POLYTRI CHUM JUNIPERINUM .13. 3 4 3 7. 4 4. 4 4 3 5. 4 3.414 414. 3 109 CERATODON PURPUREUS 13 3 2. 2 2 2 2 1 3. 2 . 12 21 . UO MNIUM LYCOPODIOIDES 1 . 2 2 3 .2 4. 3 . 12 212 2 111 POGONATUM CONTORT UM 14. 3 2 2 2 2 3.31 13. 3 EURHYNCHIUM PRAELONGUM 12 1 3 3 2. 2 1, 1 . 1 1. 11. 1 112 POGONATUM ALP INUM | , . 1 3 1 1 . 113 DITRICHUM HETEROMALLUM 1 . 2. 2 . 1 . OH 97 EURHYNCHIUM OREGANUM 1 . 1 . 1 1.2| . 2.112 2 1.2 13. 213.3 . 12.112.113.31 4 .31 . 1 . 1 . 1 98 EURHYNCHIUM PRAELONGUM 1 . 11.11 . 1 2 .2 . 1 3.  . 11. 11 . 1.21 . 1 . 12.213 2 I . I . I . I 99 PLAGIOMNIUM INSIGNE I . I . I . I 2 2 « 1 . . 1 . 1.21 . 1 . 1 . 12 .3 6 51 . 1 . 1 . 1 100 RHYTIDIADELPHUS LOREUS I . I . I . I 1.111. 1 1.11 . • I . I . I . I I . i . i . i 101 LEUCOLEPIS MENZIESII I . I . I . I • 1 . . 1 . j . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 2 2 2 21 . 1- . 1 . 1 102 CLAOPODIUM CRISPIFOLIUM I . I . I . I 1 2 . 1 . . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 12. 2 I . I . I . I 103 HYLOCOMIUM SPL END ENS. I . I . I . I . . l i . 1 . 1 . . 1 . 11.11 . 1 I . I . I . I 104 ISOTHECIUM STOLON IFERUH I . I . I . I 1 2 • I . . 11. 11 . • I . I . I . I i . i . i . i 105 RHIZOMNIUM GL ABRE SCENS 1 . 1 . 1 . 13 3 • 1 < . 1 . j . • I . I . I . I . i . i . i . i 106 ISOPTERYGIUM ELEGANS ' ' . 1 • 1 . 1 • 12. 2 • I . . 1 . . i . i . i . i i . i . i . i 107 MNIUM SPINULOSUM I . I . I . I 1 2 • 1 . . 1 . • i . i . i . i i . i . i . i DM 12 I 31 21 I 1 + P MS RS 18.8 • .1 1-1 12.5 + .8 1-3 12.5 + .8 1-3 12.5 + .4 2-2 12.5 + .1 1-2 12.5 + .1 1-2 12.5 + .1 1-2 • 12.5 + . 1 1-2 12.5 + .1 1-2 12.5 + .0 +-2 12.5 + .0 1-1 6.3 + .5 3-3 6.3 + .5 3-3 6.3 + .0 2-2 6.3 + .0 2-2 6.3 + .0 2-2 6.3 + .0 2-2 6.3 • .0 2-2 6.3 • .0 2-2 6.3 + .0 2-2 6.3 + .0 2-2 6.3 + .0 2-2 6.3 + .0 l-l 6.3 + .0 l-l 6.3 + .0 l-l 6.3 + .0 1-1 6.3 + .0 6.3 + .0 62.5 2.4 1-4 43.8 1.6 1-3 25.0 2.8 1-6 18.8 + .1 l-l 12.5 + .4 2-2 12.5 + .1 1-2 12.5 + .0 1-1 12.5 + .0 l-l 6.3 + .5 3-3 6.3 + .0 2-2 6.3 + .0 1-1 87.5 5.3 3-8 50.0 2.0 2-3 43.8 2.5 2-4 43.8 2.2 2-4 43.8 1.4 1-3 18.8 1.1 2-3 6.3 + .0 2-2 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT-TABLE - PART I I - RELEVE TABLES COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE, DRY SUBZONE SWORDFERN - WESTERN REDCEDAR ASSOCIATION PAGE 4 PLOT NUMBER I 0051 03010311 0011C06I 0231 0071 008 102710281 002102410251 0261 0041 0291 I I I ST NO. SPECIES SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE AND SOCIABILITY P MS RS ! . 114 OLIGOTRICHUM ALIGERUM 12.31 m 1 . 1 I . I . I . I . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 6.3 • .0 2-2 PLAGI OMNIUM INSIGNE 1 . 1 1 . 1 I . I . I . I . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 12.11 . 1 . 1 . 1 .1 . 6.3 • .0 2-2 115 POL YTRI CHUM COMMUNE 1 . 1 12.21 I . I . I . I . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 6.3 + .0 2-2 116 DICRANELLA HETEROMALLA j . j 1 I.11 I . I . I . I . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 6.3 • .0 l - l 117 LEPTOBRYUM PYRI FORME 1 . 1 1 . 1 11.21 . 1 . 1 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 6.3 + .0 1-1 LEUCOLEPIS MENZIESI I j . j 1 . 1 I . I . I . I . 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 11.11 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 6.3 + .0 l - l 118 OW POHLIA NUTANS •- 1 . 1 I . I . I . I . 1 . . 11.11 . ! .. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 6.3 + .0 1-1 HYLOCOMIUM SPLENDENS l - l # 1 . 1 I . I . 12.213. 313.2 2.21 . 1 . j 3.31 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 31.3 1.7 2-3 119 PLAGIOTHECIUM' UNDULATUM • 1 . 1 1 . 1 I . I . 11.211 l l . . 1 . 1 . 11.11 . 1 . II.11 . 1 . 1 . 25.0 + .3 l - l EURHYNCHIUM OREGANUM l . l 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 . 12 31 . .1 . 1 • 1 * 1 • 1 • 1 • I • 1 . 1 . 6.3 + .0 2-2 RHYTIDIADELPHUS LOREUS 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 • 12 11 . . 1 . 1 • I « | « | » | > | « l . 1 . 6.3 + .0 2-2 EXECUTION TERMINATED SSIGNOFF 156 PART III. Tree and Stand Description VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT.TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION: SWORDFERN - WESTERN REDCEDAR PLOT NO.: 1 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 I •7 1 8 1 9 1 10 1 11 1 12 1 13 I 14 ! 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I 1 WESTERN HEMLOCK 1 1260 I 8101 2001 401 | 101 10| 101 | | 501 1 1 | | | | 1 1 1 1 WESTERN REDCEDAR . 1 2101 501 j | | I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INATURAL DCUGLAS-FIR 1 nol 1201 801 201 j 201 j I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPAPER BIRCH 1 . 1 1 | | | | | I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 IVINE MAPLE 1 501 401 | j 201 I j 101 j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ICASCARA 1 1 1 j | | | | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 BITTER CHERRY 1 701 201 2301 1301 . | | I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 1 901 1001 1001 301 | | 1 I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IRED ALOER 1 301 50| 901 401 701 60! 201 201 301 101 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IWILLOW SPP. 1 1 201 1601 2901 1601 2901 100| 9C| 201 101 101 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 BIG-LEAF MAPLE 1 1 . 1 j j j | j I I I I 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC DOGWOOD 1 1 1 | | | | | | I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PLANT ED DOUGLAS-FIR 1 1 1 1 1 10 I 101 401 701 501 401 401 2CI 1301 301 801 501 201 101 501 . 1 ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE I INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASS I 1730 112001 8601 6201 290| 3901 1701 2001 1001 601 1001 201 1301 301 801 501 201 101 501 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS 24 I 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I On ISPECIES I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I WESTERN HEMLOCK I WEST ERN REOCEDAR I NATURAL DUUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH I VINE MAPLE ICASCARA IDITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWCOD I RED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANT ED DOUGLAS-FIR ILOOGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 20 10 23901 2601 3501 I 1201 I 4501 3201 4201 11501 I I 6801 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 201 101 I 61401 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART I I I - STANO AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - ORY SUBZONE - U . O . C . R . F . FOREST ASSOCIATION: SWORDFERN -•WESTERN REDCEDAR PLOT NO.: ISPECIES NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS I 0 I I I 2 1 3 1 A I 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 | 9 | 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I WESTERN HEMLOCK (WESTERN REDCEDAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD I RED ALDER I WILLOW SPP . I B IG-LEAF MAPLE IPAC IF IC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPAC IF IC SILVER FIR IS ITKA SPRUCE 1 601 401 301 401 401 201 301 401 10| 10| 501 101 101 301 101 101 101 I ! ] j j | j 301 301 801 101 601 901 1401 1401 1601 101 120 1 201 201 1601 | 501 101 . 501 101 201 101 10 1 | j . J j | 301 301 . 3CI 701 101 601 401 101 101 201 101 1 601 1101 901 1801 901 140| 1601 1701 1601 1701 2501 301 1201 201 1101 701 201 101 30 1 101 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 60 On OO NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 | 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 | 36 I 37 | 38 I 39 I TOTAL I 1 WESTERN HEMLOCK I 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | 1 1 1101 (WESTERN REDCEDAR I 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 j I I j I I 1 I 1 1 1 1 NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1201 IPAPER BIRCH 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 IVINE MAPLE 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 j 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 2201 ICASCARA I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 I I IBITTER CHERRY 1 I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I 1 1 401 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 | I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 401 1 RED ALDER I 301 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 | | 1 1 901 1 WILLOW SPP . I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 . 1 1 10901 1 B IG-LEAF MAPLE I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I PAC IF IC DOGWOOD | j I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 ' 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3501 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR 1 301 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 •1 1 ILCDGEPOLE PINE 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 IPACIF IC SILVER FIR I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 IS ITKA SPRUCE I 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 601 I | | I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20601 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT- TABLE - PART II! - STANO AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE — DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION: MOSS - WESTERN HEMLOCK PLOT NO.: NC. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 1 10 1 11 1 12 1 13 1 14 1 15 1 16 1 17 1 18 1 19 1 1 WESTERN HEMLOCK 1 B10I 7901 3901 4201 2801 4001 1801 1401 401 401 201 1 1 I I I I I 1 1 1 WESTERN REDCEDAR 1 6901 280) 801 101 101 I I 1 201 201 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 101 1301 501 201 101 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I I I IPAPER BIRCH 1 1 1 1 201 1 I I 101 1 101 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 VINE MAPLE 1 901 1 1 1001 401 501 701 301 20| 401 101 1 1 401 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 ICASCARA 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 101 1 1 1 1 1 1 BITTER CHERRY 1 201 301 100 t 601 401 401 101 101 1 10| 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 1 501 401 101 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IRED ALDER 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 101 1 1 1 l . l I I 1 1 1 1 IWILLOW SPP. 1 401 501 1201 901 601 50| 1 1 201 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IBIG-LEAF MAPLE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I I I 1 1 1 IPACIFIC DOGWOOD 1 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PLANT ED DOUGLAS-FIR 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I ILODGEPOLE PINE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 ISITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASS 11660 114301 8201 6801 4701 5201 2101 2001 1001 801 201 4C| 1 1 101 1 1 1 1 1 On ISPECIES NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 | 26 I 27 | 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I I WESTERN HEMLOCK I WESTERN REDCEDAR I NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH I VINE MAPLE ICASCARA I BITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD IRED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. I BIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANT ED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 10 35101 11101 2201 401 4901 I 3301 1001 201 4301 I I INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASS I 101 62501 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART III - STANO ANO TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATIONS SWORDFERN - WESTERN REDCEDAR PLOT NO.:' 4 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HE IGHT CLASS ISPECIES I 0 | I I 21 31 41 51 6 I 7 I 81 9 | 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I 1 WESTERN HEMLOCK 1 1001 1 101 1 1 , | 1 101 1 1 1 | | | 1 WESTERN REDCEDAR 1 50 1 201 1 j | j | | | I | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR j | | | 1 1 j j I I I j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PAPER BIRCH | | 1 1 1 1 | | | | I | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IVINE HAPLE j | | j 1 201 | | 1 | 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ICASCARA 1 1 | j 1 1 j j I j 1 I 1 101 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 BITTER CHERRY | | | | | | 1 1 1 1 1 I | 1 1 1 1 101 1 1 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD j j j j | j 1 101 j j 1 101 1 1 1 1 1 201 101. 1 1 RED ALDER | | j | j j | j 1 10| 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IWILLOW SPP. 1 1 | | 1 1 j | 1 201 1 1 1 401 101 101 301 901 301 60 1 301 1 BIG-LEAF MAPLE j j 1 1 I I 1 1 ' 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC DOGWOOD | | j | | | j | I | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR | | | | | | | | I I 1 1 1 101 1 1 1 1 301 201 1 LODGE POLE PINE | j 1 | I I 1 j I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR | | | | | | 1 | I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ISITKA SPRUCE I | 1 I 1 j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 1501 201 I 301 101 I 301 101 I 70| 101 101 401 1101 701 801 30 1 O ISPECIES NC. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 j 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I I WEST E RN HEMLOCK I WESTERN REDCEDAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA I BITTER CHERRY IBLACK COTTONWOOD IRED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANT ED DCUGL AS-FIR I LODGE POLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE i j | j | i | | | | | | | | | 1 101 1 101 101 101 | i j i | 201 101 1C| | I I I I 1 | 1 801 10 1 | i 201 j 101 | i j | 101 1CI | I | 101 I I I 1 1201 1 | i | 10| 201 201 i 301 301 101 | 30 1 101 I I 401 1 101 1 2201 701 301 401 501 301 101 301 501 301 10| 201 4C| 301 301 201 201 | | ! 1 8301 1 1 301 301 j ! 101 201 201 ICI 201 401 201 I ! 1 1 1 2601 1 1 1 1 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 1101 401 801 80| 4C| 401 5C| 601 601 801 701 7C| 801 401 60| 301 601 I 101 I 17301 V E G E T A T I O N - E N V I R O N H E N T . T A B L E - P A R T I I I - S T A N D ANO T R E E D E S C R I P T I O N C O A S T A L W E S T E R N H E M L O C K ZONE - DRY S U B Z O N E - U . B . C . R . F . F O R E S T A S S O C I A T I O N : S W O R D F E R N - WESTERN R E D C E C A R P L O T NO.: NO. OF T R E E S / A C R E / H E I G H T C L A S S _ " o ' " " " " ~ Y ~ \ ~ ' V ~ \ ~ ~ ~ " ~ V " ' l I 7 1 B I 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 1 9 I IWESTERN HEMLOCK 1 3501 1 I I | | | | 1. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 < 1 WEST ERN REDCEDAR 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ! I I I I 1 NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 501 201 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' ' , ! , ! j ! i I IPAPER BIRCH 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' i 1 V I NE MAPLE 1 201 701 101 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' ' ' ! ICASCARA 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' ' I I ! I ! I IBITTER CHERRY 1 201 901 101 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I i j I 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 220 1 7701 4101 301 1 1 1 1 1 1 201 1 I I 1 1 1 1 i j IRED ALDER 1 390 1 7901 4601 401 501 601 501 601 501 IWILLOW SPP. 1 1460 123301 20801 10501 30| 101 1 1 1 ' ' ' ' 1 BIG-LEAF MAPLE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i IPACIFIC DOGWOOD 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I ' ] ] 1 PLANT ED DCUGLAS-FIR 1 1 901 1901 901 101 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ILODGEPOLE PINE 1 1 l . l 1 1 1 1 1 1 l l j ] IPACIFIC SILVER F I R 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I i ISITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 , 1 1 1 I NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASS 1 251014 16013160112101 901 701 501 601 501 1 201 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I—>. O N NO. OF T R E E S / A C R E / H E I G H T C L A S S TSPECIEI " Y o ' V T l ' T T f T T i " ^ '\ 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 | 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I T O T A L I IWESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEDAR I NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD IRED ALOER IWILLOW SPP. I BIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANT ED DOUGLAS-FIR I LODGE POLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER F I R ISITKA SPRUCE 3501 I 701 I 1001 I 1201 14301 19701 69601 3801 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI I I I I I I I I I I I I I ' I 1113801 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART III - STANO AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION! SWORDFERN - WESTERN REDCEDAR PLOT NO.: NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 1 10 1 11 1 2 1 13 I 14 1 15 1 1 WESTERN HEMLOCK 1 2201 101 1 1 101 | | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 WESTERN REDCEDAR 1 1B0I 1 1 1 1 1 1 101 1 1 1 1 • INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 80 1 201 301 101 1 301 1 1 1 c' 1 PAPER BIRCH 1 I 1 101 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IVINE MAPLE 1 1 101 601 601 1 101 101 101 1 1 1 j ICASCARA 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 101 1 1 1 1 IBITTER CHERRY . 1 | 201 1001 901 301 1 1 1 201 1 1 101 101 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 101 501 401 901 1301 701 101 101 201 201 1CI 1 1 I RED ALDER 1 1 401 501 401 501 30| 401 201 1 201 601 301 201 401 IWILLOW SPP. 1 1 2101 1601 2601 2601 3901 4501 2201 2801 200 1 2101 301 IEIG-LEAF MAPLE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ] [ IPACIFIC DOGWOOD 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 401 5CI 301 701 701 601 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 101 1 ILODGEPOLE PINE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' ISITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 L ^ . - .-fTT — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 1 NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI V) 0 1 3faC I 4501 5501 480| 53 C1 5 2 C | 2701 3101 2401 2/01 s c 100 [ 1101 901 1001 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 1 10 70 50 50 10 80| 701 501 101 ISPECIES NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS _ T2o"~21~T~22~"23~7 24 I 25 126 I 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 |TOTALI ON t-o I WESTERN HEMLOCK I WEST ERN REOCEDAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD IRED ALDER I WILLOW SPP. I BIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 20 40 20 10 10 2401 1801 ISOI 101 1601 I 2501 4701 3501 28401 I I 5901 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 601 201 101 101 I 52701 VEGETATION-ENVIRONHENT TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION: SWORDFERN - WESTERN REDCEDAR PLOT NC.: 7 NC. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES I 0 I 1 I 2 1 3 1 4 I 5| 6 1 7 I 6 I 9 | 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I IB I 19 | IWESTERN HEMLOCK 1 401 501 201 10| | IWESTERN REDCEDAR 1 50| 101 | 101 j 1 NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR | | | | 1 | IPAPER BIRCH | | | 201 201 601 60 IVINE *APLE | | 101 301 101 20| 70 ICASCARA | | | | | 101 1 B ITT E R CHERRY 1 1 | 101 | 101 10 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD | | j 10| | | IRED ALDER | j | 1 | j IWILLOW SPP. | | | 301 101 101 20 1 BIG-LEAF MAPLE 1 1 j | | 1 IPACIFIC DOGWOOD j j j j | 1 1 PL ANT tD DOUGLAS-FIR | | | | j 1 ILCOGEPOLE PINE | | j j | 1 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR | j j j j 1 ISITKA SPRUCE 1 j 1 I I I 120 140 10 80 180 30 101 101 | 2CI 10 1 | 601 601 1801 901 1201 201 101 40 401 701 50 1 2CI 101 | | I 1 | 1CI 1 | | | 201 101 101 101 | 201 101 101 10 I 2C| 201 101 10| 10 101 1 301 1 101 301 301 20 201 401 1 70| 2CI 1 901 1 701 701 80 ! 1 1 j 1 1 1 1 101 401 30 I 30 10 50 20 10 30 40 10 30 10 20 30 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 901 701 1201 60| 1101 1601 2701 2901 1501 2101 3501 19CI 2701 1401 1801 1801 1101 80 1 401 601 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I IWESTERN HEMLOCK (WESTERN REOCEOAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR I PAPER BIRCH I VINE MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD IRED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOO I PL AN T ED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 10 70 40 10 30 20 20 10 10 20 20 20 10 30 30 10 10 10 10 1201 701 501 9801 6501 201 100! 1701 1901 7601 ' I I 4101 I NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 1201 401 401 101 30| 40| 40| 301 101 101 I 1CI 101 | | | | | | | 35201 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT- TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION: SWORDFERN - WESTERN REDCEDAR PLOT NO.: 8 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES 1 0 I 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 1 10 I 11 1 12 1 13 1 14 1 15 1 16 1 17 18 1 19 I 1 WESTERN HEMLOCK 1 5201 2601 601 301 | | 1 | | | | | | | 1 201 io r i IWESTERN REDCEDAR 1 920 1 1101 1 1 j j . 1 j . | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 1 1 | | 1 | | I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPAPER BIRCH 1 501 801 2701 3801 4101 2401 4101 19CI 1201 701 601 1CI 101 I I 1 1 1 1 1 VINE MAPLE 401 1201 701 801 301 201 101 401 10 1 101 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ICASCARA 1 101 101 101 101 10| | 201 101 | I 101 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IBITTER CHERRY 1 901 1701 1301 1201 601 4CI 701 301 101 | 1C I 1 101 I I I 1 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 101 20| 101 j 101 1 10| I j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IREO ALDER 1 201 1 101 j 101 | 101 | 1 101 201 101 201 1 101 1 IWILLOW SPP. 1 101 1 | | 201 I 1 I 1 201 101 I 1 1 1 1 IEIG-LEAF MAPLE 201 101 1 j j 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC DOGWOOD 101 101 201 1 1 1 1 10 1 1 101 201 1 1 1 1 1 1 I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR I SITKA SPRUCE I I INC. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI1590I 7101 6601 6401 5701 3201 550| 2501 190| 801 701 4C| 601 401 101 . 20| 201 I 201 O N NC. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 | 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 ITOTALI I WESTERN HEMLOCK (WESTERN REDCEDAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY' I BLACK COTTONWOOD IRED ALDER I WILLOW SPP. I BIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 9001 10301' I 23001 4 301 901 7401 601 1201 601 '301 801 I INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 58401 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT. TABLE - PART 111 - STANO AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION: MOSS - WESTERN HEMLOCK , PLOT NO.: ISPECIES NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS 1 0 1 11 2 1 3 1 110501 7001 5501 4501 1 3901 1901 901 201 1 301 201 101 401 1 1 | 1 101 1 101 •; i 1 • ! i j I 101 1 1 1 . 1 I 1 601  2101 1 1301 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 I 60 8 I ioo 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 | 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I I WESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEDAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA I BITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD I RED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE. PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR I SITKA SPRUCE 60 200 10 50 230 10 30 10 10 40 20 10 60 30 40 10 50 10 10 10 10 10 10 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 14801 9701 8701 6501 6201 2601 2701 701 1501 301 901 501 701 101 I 101 101 I 101 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 | 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 | 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I 201 101 10| CT on ISPECIES IWESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEDAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD I RED ALOER IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF MAPLE I PACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANT£D DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 10 39601 6901 1801 201 101 I 101 I 401 76QI INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 301 101 101 56701 VEGETATION-ENVIRONHENT TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FORESTiASSOCIATION: SALAL - DOUGLAS-FIR PLOT NO.: 10 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS 1 SPEC!ES 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 1 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I IWESTERN HEMLOCK 1 4301 2801 1801 1101 1701 1901 401 501 40| 201 301 5CI 301 201 201 301 101 401 201 1 IWESTERN REDCEDAR 1 BOI 401 201 | j 101 301 301 10| 1 1201 1 10 1 1 1 1 I I 1 NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 40 1 20| 301 10| 301 j 101 | | j 1 1 101 1 1 1 1 I 1 PAPER BIRCH 1 1 j | 101 j 101 101 j j | | | 1 1 1 1 1 1 VINE MAPLE 1 1 j j 1 j | | | | j j | | | | 1 I I 1 1 ICASCARA 1 | | 401 101 1 1 | | | | | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IBITTER CHERRY ! | | | | 1 | | | j | I I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD | | | j 1 | j | | j | 1 I I | | 1 1 1 1 1 IRED ALDER I I | | 1 j j j j j j 1 I I | | 1 1 1 1 1 IWILLOW SPP. | | 101 601 501 201 101 | j 101 | I 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 BIG-LEAF MAPLE | | | | | . | 1 | | 1 | I I 1 | | 1 1 1 I I IPACIFIC DOGWOOD | | | | 1 | | | | 1 I I | | 1 1 1 1 1 (PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR | j | j | | 1 j | j | 1 1 1 | | 1 1 1 1 1 ILODGEPOLE PINE 1 1 | j j ': j 1 j | j j 1 1 1 | 1 1 1 1 I I IPACIFIC SILVER FIR | | j j j . j j j j | | | | | 1 1 I I 1 1 1 ISITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 5501 3901 3001 1801 2201 2101 7C| 801 801 301 30 1 501 601 201 301 301 101 401 20 1 I NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS 'S!fCIfL I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 | 27 |. 28 I 29 | 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I I WESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEDAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD IRED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. I BIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR I LODGE POLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI I | I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 24001 1760 250 150 30 50 160 VEGETATION-ENVIRONHENT TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - ORY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION: SALAL - DOUGLAS-FIR PLOT NC.: 11 ISPECIES NG. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS 0 1 11 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 1 14 1 15 I 4820117601 59CI 2301 1101 40) 301 101 101 1 1 201 1 201 301 101 4801 1501 201 | 101 101 1 1 1 101 1 1 1 2801 2101 101 301 20| 101 I I 1 10 1 1 1 1 1 21 1 201 101 101 I I I I ! 1 i I I 10| 801 501 201 101 1 ! i l l ! 1 I 19 I IWESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEDAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR I PAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA I BITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD I RED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. I BIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANT ED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 2701 3101 110 I I 10 10 10 10 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASS I 5870 125301 880| 3101 130| 601 501 30| 301 I 101 2C| 20| 201 301 101 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 | 25 | 26 I 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I .38 I 39 | TOTAL I 10 1 101 as ISPECIES. IWESTERN HEMLOCK I WESTERN REOCEOAR INATURAL DCUGLAS-FIR I PAPER BIRCH I VINE MAPLE . ICASCARA I BITTER CHERRY. I BLACK COTTONWOOD IRED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. I B IG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 77001 6801 6701 701 I I 1701 I 201 7101 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 101 101 | I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1100201 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT. TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATIONS SALAL - DOUGLAS-FIR PLOT NO.s 12 ISPECIES NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS 3 1 « ! 5 1 6 1 7 1 B 1 2201 1401 501 1301 401 501 1101 301 201 301 301 101 60| 5CI 1 101 101 201 101 1 101 1 101 1 1 1 1CI 1 1 201 1 101 1 101 1 101 1 101 201 | 201 i 1 1 30| 1 101 | ' I 1001 1 1 1001  12CI i  1801 50) I 201 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 101 1 1 1 1 1 i i i i i | 201 1 1 ': 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 201 5401 3701 2101 4101 1601 120| I WESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEOAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH I VINE MAPLE ICASCARA I BITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOO I RED ALDER . IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANT ED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 750 370 30 50 4601 1601 501 I I I 301 101 I 1101 501 401 20 30 10 20 10 10 IC 10 30 60 10 50 10 30 2C 40 20 601 101 601 301 201 401 201 00 NC. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 | 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I 1 WESTERN HEMLOCK 1 101 1 1 101 I I I I 1 I I | 1 I I 1 . 1 1 1 1 24101 IWESTERN REDCEDAR 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8901 1 NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 2901 IPAPER BIRCH 1 1 . 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 I I 1 1 401 IVINE MAPLE 1 1 1 | | j j j I I I I I 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1CASCAKA j I I j I I I j I I 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 I I 1 BITTER CHERRY I I 1 1 . 1 j j | j | j I I I I I 1 I I I I 1301 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 1 . 1 1 j I I | | | | j j 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1001 IRED ALDER 1 I I I I I 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 IWILLOW SPP. 1 y i I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8401 IBIG-LEAF MAPLE 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 I . I 1 1 I I IPACIFIC DOGWOOD 1 I I 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 . 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 501 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR I 1 1 I I j j j j | j | | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 LODGE POL E PINE 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 . 1 . 1 I I 1 1 1 1' 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 1 I I I I 1 ISITKA SPRUCE 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 101 I . I 101 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 47501 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT.TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION: SALAL - DOUGLAS-FIR PLOT NO.: 13 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 1 10 1 a i 12 1 13 1520 10801 4201 2601 2101 2201 4801 1901 1401 100| 2801 601 2101 130 4 30 1301 301 101 101 401 20| 501 501 201 101 2CI 101 10 130 3001 1401 1001 801 601 30 1 101 1 1 . 101 701 401 501 301 201 20 1 101 201 101 1 1CI 1 i 1 i 1 1 10| [ j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | | 101 . j ! 190 1 3901 1 1 901 1 401 20| • • ; ! 10| ! i 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I IWESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEDAR I NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR I PAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD IRED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANT ED DCUGLAS-FIR ILOOGEPOLE PINE I PACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE I 1301 170 80 40 20 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASS 122701 19701 7201 4601 3501 3601 560| 2601 2101 1301 290| 90| 2301 1401 1301 1701 801 401 I 201 0\ VO NC. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 1 TOTAL I IWESTERN HEMLOCK I WESTERN REDCEDAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR I PAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD I RED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. I BIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANT ED DOUGLAS-FIR ILOOGEPOLE PINE I PACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 57401 8401 8601 2801 101 I 101 7401 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 84801 VEGETATION-ENVIRONHENT TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION: SALAL- DOUGLAS-FIR PLOT NO. 14 ISPECIES 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 IWESTERN HEMLOCK 1 7801 4101 5101 3601 260 IWESTERN REDCEDAR 1 270 1 401 j 10 1 NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 200 1 1601 3101 1401 30 IPAPER BIRCH 1 1 401 | | IVINE MAPLE 1 1 201 301 101 20 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS | 5 | 61 71 81 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 20 I 16 I 17 | 18 I 19 I ICASCARA • IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD •' IRED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. I BIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIF IC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE . IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE I 1601 130 I I 20 30 160 10 310 10 70 10 10 50 20 20 20 30 10 20 10 5C 2C 70 20 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI1250I 830| 9801 5301 3501 1701 3201 90! 701 40| 701 701 701 201 201 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 | 26 | 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I 10 O ISPECIES IWESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEDAR •. INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA I BITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOO I RED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. I BIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR . I SITKA SPRUCE 3130 320 850 . 60 140 390 I NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 101 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I *890| VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART III - STANO AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK' ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION: S A L A L - D O U G L A S - F I R PLOT NO.: 15 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 1 10 1 11 1 12 I 13 1 14 I 15 1 16 1 17 I 18 1 19 I 1 WESTERN HEMLOCK 1 2501 3701 2401 2501 2501 601 ICO I 4CI 301 201 50| 501 701 301 101 101 1 101 301 101 IWESTERN REDCEDAR 1 120 1 1901 1001 1101 501 101 1 10| I I I I 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 101 101 201 101 | j 1 I 101 201 j I 10 1 101 1 101 I I 1 1 IPAPER BIRCH | | 1 301 101 201 | 401 | I | I 101 1 101 1 1 101 . 1 1 1 IVINE MAPLE | j 101 201 1 201 101 201 j j | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ICASCARA 1 201 101 301 301 | 20| 201 | 101 j 101 1CI 101 1CI 1 1 1 1 1 1 IBITTER CHERRY 1 101 401 ' 901 701 40| 1 401 1 101 401 ' 101 1 1 1 1 1 . 1 1 I I I BLACK COTTONWOOD IREO ALDER IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE I 101 I I 20 I 10 10 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 4101 6301 540| 4801 4C0| 1001 2201 501 601 801 701 8C| 1001 601 101 201 101 101301 101 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 |TOTAL| ISPECIES IWESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEDAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR I PAPER 8IRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA I BITTER CHERRY - I BLACK COTTONWOOD IRED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. IEIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR I LODGE POL E PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 20 101 20 10| 10 19501 5901 1101 1301 801 180 I 3501 I I 501 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 201 101 201 • I I. 10) 101 I I 1 1 1 I I I I I I I I 34401 VEGETATION-ENVIRONHENT TABLE - PART III - STAND-!AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U,>.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION: SALAL'- DOUGLAS-FIR PLOT. NO.: 16 :NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES I OI 11 21 3 1 4 1 51 61 71 I 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 IWESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEDAR I NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA I BITTER CHERRY . IRLACK COTTONWOOD I RED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF HAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR I SITKA SPRUCE 440 400 160 160 280 40 40 240 40 160 160 80 40 16C 80 80 40 80 80 40 120 120 120 120 80 40 40 40 40 80 80 |N0. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 8401 3201 3601 2801 1601 2801 2401 1201 200| 2401 1201 I 1201 801 40| 801 I 401 801 eel NC. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 | 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I IWESTERN HEMLOCK | 1 801 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I I I 1 1 25601 (WESTERN REDCEDAR I | I | - I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 1 loaol INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 j | I I I I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 801 IPAPER BIRCH 1 1 1 . 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I IVINE MAPLE 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 I I I I ICASCARA I 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 IBITTER CHERRY 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 RED ALDER 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 401 IWILLOW SPP. I 1 I I i l l 1 1 1 1 1 IBIG-LEAF MAPLE 1 . I I I I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 IPACIFIC DOGWCOD 1 | | I I I 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 PLANT EO OOUGLAS-FIR ,1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I 1 I I 1 1 I I ILOOGEPOLE PINE 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 l . l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ISITKA SPRUCE 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' INC. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 1 SO I I I I I I I ' l I I I I I I I I I I 137601 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION: S A L A L -DOUGLAS-FIR PLOT NO.: 17 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES I 0 I 11 2 1 3 1 4 1 5| 6 I 7 1 8 I 9 I IC I 11 I 12 I 13 | 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I IWESTERN HEMLOCK 1 1201 2401 801 801 2401 1201 401 2001 801 | 1 1201 1 1 | | 1 401 1 IWESTERN REDCEDAR 1 1 801 401 | | | | | j | j 1 1 | | I I 1 1 1 1 NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 1 1 | | j j j 1 401 1201 401 1 80 1 1 401 I I 1 1 1 IPAPER BIRCH j j | j 401 j 401 j 1 401 j I I j 1 I 401 1 1 1 1 IVINE MAPLE 1 1 801 j 401 2801 801 401 1 1 I 401 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 ICASCARA I I 1 | | | | 801 j | | | | | | | I I I I 1 IEITTER CHERRY 1 1 1 401 | | j j 1 1 j j 1 801 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 1 1 j j j j | | j | | 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 IRED ALDER i j | | | j | | j | | | | | 1 1 1 1 I I 1 IWILLOW SPP. 1 I I j 401 | j j j | 401 j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IBIG-LEAF MAPLE j j | j j | j | 1 I | | | | I j 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC DOGWOOD 1 1 1 | | j | j j | j | | | I | I I 1 I 1 1 PLANT ED DOUGLAS-FIR 1 I 1 | | | j | 1 1 | | j j I I I | 1 I I ILODGEPOLE PINE 1 1 1 j | | j j | j j I I I j | 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR 1 1 1 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 1 1 1 ISITKA SPRUCE I I 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 1201 4001 16012001 5201 1201 24C| 401 2801 2401 801 I 2801 I 401 401 I I 40 1 OJ NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 138 I 39 I TOTALI 1 WESTERN HEMLOCK I I I I 1 1 1 l . l 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 13601 1 WESTERN REDCEOAR I 1 I 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1201 INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 1 3201 1 PAPER BIRCH | | I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I 1 I 1 1601 IVINE MAPLE 1 1 1 I I 1 I I I 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 I I 1 1 5601 ICASCARA I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 I I I I 1 I I 1 1 1 801 1 BITTER CHERRY I | | | I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I 1 I I 1 1 1201 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 l . l 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 IRED ALDER 1 I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 WILLOW SPP. I I 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 I 1 1 801 1 BIG-LEAF MAPLE 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 l . l 1 1 PACIFIC DOGWOOO 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PLANT ED DCUGLAS-FIR 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 ILODGEPOLE PINE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR I I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 SITKA SPRUCE 1 I I I I I I I 1 1 1 I I I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I 28001 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION: MOSS - WESTERN HEMLOCK PLOT NO.: 18 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES 1 0 I 1 I 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 a l 9 1 10 I 11 1 12 I 13 I 14 15 I 16 17 18 19 I 1 WESTERN HEMLOCK 1 9601 6401 6801 5201 2401 2001 2C0I 2001 801 1201 1201 8C| 1201 401 | IWESTERN REDCEDAR 1 1601 4401 j | 1 j | | | INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 1 1 401 401 40| 40| 401 | 1 | | | | | | | 1 PAPER BIRCH 1 1 1 | | | | | | 401 | | | | | | | 1 VINE MAPL€ 1 1 1 j j j | | | | | | | | | ICASCARA 1 1 1 j | j j j | | j | j | IBITTER CHERRY 1 1 1 | j | | | | | | | | | | | | 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 1 1 j j 40| j j | | j j | j | | j IRED ALDER I I 1 | j | j | | | | | | | 401 1 | IWILLOW SPP. | | | 801 1601 801 2801 801 801 | 401 | 1 | | 401 1 | IBIG-LEAF MAPLE 1 1 1 | | | | | | | | | | j j | | IPACIFIC DOGWOOD j | 1 | | | | | | | | | | | • 1 1 | 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR 1 1 1 | j j • j. | | j | | | -1 | | ILODGEPOLE RINE | I I | | | | | | | | | | | 1 | 1 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR 1 I I | | j j j | | | | | | | 1 ISITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 401 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASS 11120110801 8401 7201 40O| 5201 320| 2801 1201 1601 1201 8 C | 1201 401 I 801 | 1 1 1 ISPECIES NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 | 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 | 38 I 39 I TOTAL I 401 •P* IWESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEDAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD IRED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANT EO DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 42401 6C0| 2001 40| 401 401 8401 I 401 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 401 I. I I. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I6C40I VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PARTIII - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION: MOSS - WESTERN HEiiLOCK PLOT NO.: 19 ISPECIES i NG. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS | 0 I 11 jM 3 1 4 I 5 1 6 1 7 1 8| 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I H I 15 I 16 I 17 18 19 IWESTERN HEMLOCK 1256011520 IWESTERN REDCEDAR I 9601 200 I NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR I 2401 80 I PAPER, BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA . I BITTER CHERRY I I 40 I BLACK COTTONWOOD IRED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. I BIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 10401 8001 400 801 . I 160 1 2001 I I 80 401 401 401 401 4001 6C0 I I I 280 200 560 320 80 520 80 240 360 160 120 40 40 40| 40 |N0. OF. TREES/HT. CLASSI376011840113601148011080110401 920| 3201 3601 2801 401 I 401 I .401 401 ISPECIES NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I IWESTERN HEMLOCK I WESTERN REDCEDAR I NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR I PAPER BIRCH IVINE WAPLE ICASCARA IBITTEK CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD I RED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANT ED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 7280 1240 1040 120 40 2880 I NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 126001 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART III - STAND ANO TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION! S A L A L - DOUGLAS-FIR PLOT NO.V 20 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HE IGHT CLASS I SPEC IES I 0 1 I I 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 I 7 I 8 1 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I IWESTERN HEMLOCK 1240011440113601 640| 6001 3201 2001 801 801 401 1 1 401 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IWESTERN REDCEDAR I2600 t 1200) 6001 2401 40| j | I I I I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I I INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 1601 2401 1601 401 401 | 1201 801 I 401 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 IPAPER BIRCH 1 1 1 1201 801 | 801 401 401 401 1 I 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 IVINE MAPLE 1 1 1 1 1 | | I .1 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1CASCARA 1 1 1 1 401 | | I I I 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 BITTER CHERRY 1 1 801 401 401 I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 1 801 401 1 I 401 401 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IRED ALDER 1 1 I I 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IWILLOW SPP. 1 1601 2401 3601 4001 1601 20CI 80| 1 801 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 IBIG-LEAF MAPLE 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC DOGWOOD 1 1 I I 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR 1 1 1 1 1 | I I I I 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 LODGE POL E PINE 1 1 I I 1 I 1 j I 1 1 1 1 1 - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 ISITKA SPRUCE 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASS 153201328012680 I 1480 I 8401 6401 4801 2001 2001 801 1 1 401 1 I I 1 1 1 1 O N NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 1 25 I 26 | 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 i TCTALI IWESTERN HEMLOCK | I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 72001 1 WESTERN REDCEDAR 1 1 I I I I I 1 I I 1 I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 46801 INATURAL DCUGLAS-FIR 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8801 IPAPER BIRCH | I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 I I I I I 1 1 I I 4C0| 1 VINE MAPLE 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1CASCARA 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | | | I I I I 1 1 1 1 401 1 BITTER CHERRY I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1601 1 BLACK COTTONWOUD I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1- I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 2001 1 RED ALDER 1 1 1 1 '1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 IWILLOW SPP. 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 16801 IBIG-LEAF MAPLE 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC DOGWOOD 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 I I ILODGEPOLE PINE 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ISITKA SPRUCE I I 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASS I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1152401 VEGETATION-ENVIRONHENT TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U . B . C . R . F . FOREST ASSOCIATION: SALAL - DOUGLAS-FIR PLOT NO.: 21 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES I 0 I 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 | 5 1 6 I 7 I 8 1 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I IWESTERN HEMLOCK . 1 1040 12001 5601 4001 2401 24CI 2401 2001 2001 1201 1 12C| 401 1 801 1 | 1 I I IWESTERN REDCEDAR 1 80 401 | j j j j j | i i i i i i i i i i 1 NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 240 2401 2801 401 401 I I 1 1 1 i i i i i i I I i i IPAPER BIRCH j 401 j 1 1 1 I I 1 i j i i I I i i i i IVINE MAPLE j 1 | I I I 1 1 1 i j i i i i i i i i ICASCARA | 1 | I I 1 1 1 1 i i i i i i i i i i IBITTER CHERRY | 1 j 1 I I 1 1 1 i i j i i i I I i i 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD | 1 | I I i 1 1 1 j j j i i i i I I i IRED ALDER | 401 j j | I I I 1 40| I j i i i i i i i IWILLOW SPP. j 401 j i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i IBIG-LEAF MAPLE j 1 | i i i i I I i i i I . I i i i i i IPACIFIC DOGWOOD | 1 j i j i i i i i i i i i i i i i i 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR j 1 | j i i i i i i j j i i i i i I I ILODGEPOLE PINE | 1 | i i i i i i i i j i i . i i i i i IPACIFIC SILVER FIR | 1 j i i i i i i i i i i i i I I i i ISITKA SPRUCE 1 I I i i i i i i 1 i I I i I I i I NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASS I 1360116001 8401 440| 280| 2401 2401 2001 2001 1201 401 1201 401 I 801 I I I NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 | 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I 4680 120 840 40 120 40 |No'. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 401 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 58401 I WESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEDAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE HAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD IREO ALDER I 401 IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART III - StAND ANO TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. . FOREST ASSOCIATION: MOSS - WESTERN HEMLOCK PLOT NO.: 22 ISPECIES I 0 I 1 1 2| 3 1 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS 4 I 5 1 6 1 7 1 8| 9 | 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I I WESTERN HEHLOCK IWESTERN REDCEDAR (NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR I PAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD IRED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE " IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 1320 320 40 680 440 40 80 280 240 40 80 40 200 80 40 40 1201 120 40| 40| I I I 401 401 I 401 120 160 80 80 80 80 40 40 40 40 80 40 4C 120 40 40 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASS I 1680112401 6801 3601 3201 2401 2401 2401 801 801 120 I 401 2001 I I NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 | 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 | 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 | 38 I 39 I TOTAL I 00 I SPECIES IWESTERN HEMLOCK . IWESTERN REDCEDAR I NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR I PAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD I RED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE. 40 40 40 401 401 40 33201 11201 5201 I 401 I 2401 401 I 4601 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 401 I 401 401 I 401 401 401 I I I I I I I I | I I | 57601 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART III - STANO ANO TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - ORY SUBZONE - U . B . C . R . F . FOREST ASSOCIATION: SWORDFERN - WESTERN REDCEDAR PLOT N C . : 23 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 1 10 1 11 1 12 1 13 14 1 15 1 16 1 17 1 18 1 19 1 IWESTERN HEMLOCK 1 8601 2001 1 1 40| 401 401 401 | | I 1 1 1 1 1 IWESTERN REDCEDAR . 1 640 1 1 401 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INATURAL DUUGLAS-FIR 1 401 401 401 1601 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I IPAPER BIRCH | | 1 1 1 1 401 1 1 1 1 40 I . 1 1 1 IVINE MAPLE | | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I ' ' ICASCARA I j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 B ITTER CHERRY | j 801 601 401 • | 1 801 1 1 1 1 I- 1 1 1 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD | j 801 2001 2001 4401 1201 4401 1201 1201 1 4CI 801 401 1 1 I I IRED ALDER 1 40 I 80| 1201 1201 2001 801 2001 801 801 1201 2401 4CI 401 401 IWILLOW S P P . 1 440| 6001 6801 5201 2001 1601 4401 401 40| 401 120 1 1 1 1 1 1 IB IG -LEAF MAPLE j I 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' ' ' I IPAC IF IC DOGWOOD | | 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 401 401 401 1 I I 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR | j 1 1 1 I 401 401 801 801 401 401 8CI 200 1 ILCDGEPOLE PINE I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' • ' ' ! ! IPAC IF IC S ILVER FIR 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ISITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ___! 1 1 __' 1 INO. OF T R E E S / H T . CLASS 120401 12801 1160110401 880| 480|1240| 3601 3201 1601 3201 1601 4801 I 801 801 401 I . I I NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I .24 I 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I IWESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEDAR I NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA I B ITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD IRED ALDER IWILLOW SPP . IB IG -LEAF MAPLE IPACIF IC DOGWOOD I PLANT ED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIF IC SILVER FIR IS ITKA SPRUCE 40 12401 6801 2601 801 I I 2801 18401 15601 34801 I I 7201 I NO. OF T R E E S / H T . CLASSI I I I I I 401 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1101601 VEGETATION-ENVIRONHENT TABLE - PART III - STANO AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION: SWORDFERN - WESTERN REDCEDAR • PLOT NO.: 24 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES I 0 I I I 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 I 7 I 8 1 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I IWESTERN HEMLOCK I 401 401 40| 401 1 40| , 40| | 401 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 I I 1 WESTERN REDCEDAR 1 1601 401 I 1 1 1 1 1 401 1 1 1 1 1 1 . I I 1 1 1 ' 1 NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 401 40| 401 1 801 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 • i IPAPER BIRCH I | | | I I 1 401 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 j I VINE MAPLE 1 I 401 801 801 1601 110801 1 401 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' J ICASCARA I | | I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' 1 BITTER CHERRY 1 j j I 801 1201 1 401 1 1 401 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 | | | | I 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1201 1 1 1 RED ALDER 1 | | . | j | 1 6CI I 1 401 2C0I 1 1 1 1201 601 1 IWILLOW SPP. 1 | | j I 801 1201 401 401 801 801 1 1 I I 1 1 1 ' ' ' IBIG-LEAF MAPLE 1 I 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC DOGWOOD 1 | | I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 401 401 1 1 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 401 1 1 40| 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' ILODGEPOLE PINE 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 ' IPACIFIC SILVER FIR 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 ISITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 • 1 ' I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 2001 1601 .1601 2001 4801 120113601 801 1601 1601 2801 I 1 1 12CI 2C0I 401 12CI 1 1 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES. I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 | 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 ITCTALI IWESTERN HEMLOCK l " 1 | | 1 1 1 1 1 1 l . l 1 I I 1 1 1 1 2801 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 2001 I I I 1 I I I 2401 I I I I I I 1 401 IWESTERN REDCEDAR | j I | 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR j j | | I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I IPAPER BIRCH 1 1 j | | | I I 1 1 I I 1 1 IVINE MAPLE j | 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I 1 I I I 1 14601 1CASCARA 1 I 1 .1 I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 2801 1 BITTER CHERRY | | I j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 BLACK COTTONWOOO | | | | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I 1 7601 1 1 1 1 1 I I 4401 1 RED ALDER | | 1 401 I 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I 1 WILLOW SPP. j | I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IBIG-LEAF MAPLE | | I | I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 j 1 I 1PAC!F IC DOGWOOD | | 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 3201 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR 1 40 I I j 401 401 401 1 1 1 1 I I 1 ILOOGEPOLE PINE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 l . l t 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR | | | | 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ISITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 401 I .401 401 401 401 l . l I I I I I I I I I I I I 40401 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION: SWORDFERN - WESTERN REDCEOAR PLOT NO.: 25 ISPECIES NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS 0 I 1 I 2 1 3| 4 1 5| 6 | 7 1 8 1 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I I WESTERN HEMLOCK I WESTERN REDCEDAR I NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR I PAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD IRED ALDER I WILLOW SPP. IEIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC OOGWOOO I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR I LODGE POL E PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 80 40 40 40 80 40 40 40 40 40 40 401 40 120 80 80 40 80 4C 80 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 801 1201 801 60| 1201 I 401 I 401 3201 1601 1601 801 401 801 401 I 401 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS. ISPECIES I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 | 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I IWESTERN HEMLOCK I 20 IWESTERN REDCEDAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWCOD I RED ALDER I 40 IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF MAPLE I PACIFIC DOGWOOD IP LANT ED DOUGLAS-FIR I 40 ILODGEPOLE PINE I PACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 1001 40 2601 1201 1601 801 I I 801 I 4801 2001 2401 I 401 16201 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION: SWORDFERN - WESTERN REDCEDAR PLOT NO.: | 26 ISPECIES NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS 3| 4| 5 1 6 I 7 | 8| 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I IB I 19 | I 0| 11 2 1 1 WESTERN HEMLOCK 110401 1601 1 801 401 I 4CI | | , | | | . | | | | 1 1 | IWESTERN REDCEOAR 1 5601 401 j | | | I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 40| 1 1 1 401 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPAPER BIRCH 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 •I 1 1 IVINE MAPLE I I 1 1 1 I I I I | 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ICASCARA : I I 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IBITTER CHERRY i I I 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 ' 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD . 1 I I 1 1 1 401 | 401 1 1 401 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 RED ALDER I I 1 j | j | j | | j | 1 401 401 401 401 1 1 1 1 IWILLOW SPP. 1 40 1 1 1 1 1 401 j 801 1201 801 2C0I 4CI 1201 401 1 1201 401 1 401 1 1 BIG-LEAF, MAPLE I I 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC DOGWOOD 1 I I 1 1 1 1 | I | I I 1 1 1 1 . ' 1 1 1 1 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR j I I 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 I | 1 1 401 1 1 601 1 1201 401 1LODGEPOLE PINE I I 1 1 1 1 1 | | | I | I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ISITKA SPRUCE j 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI16401 2001 I 80| 401 801 801 1201 1201 801 2801 4C| 1601 1201 401 1601 1201 I 1601 401 ISPECIES NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 | 35 | 36 I 37 | 38 I 39 I TOTALI IWESTERN HEHLOCK I WESTERN REDCEDAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR I PAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD- IRED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 40 80 200 40 40 40 40 80 40 13601 600| 801 I 1201 2401 104OI I I 7201 CO INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 3201 401 401 401 401 80| 401 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 41601 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION: SWORDFERN - WESTERN RECCEDAR PLOT NC.: 27 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 ISPECIES 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 . 5 I .61 71 81 91 IWESTERN HEMLOCK 1 4401 7201 6801 4001 401 401 1 1 1 1 IWESTERN REDCEDAR 1 8001 1201 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR | | 1 1 1 1 BOI 1 l . l IPAPER BIRCH 1 401 BOI 4401 3601 240| 2001 2801 401 BOI 401 IVINE MAPLE | | 1 1201 1201 1 1 1 1 1 ICASCARA j j 401 1 1 401 I I 1 1 1 BITTER CHERRY ; 1 .1 401 401 401 1 1 1 1 401 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD, 1 1 1 1201 401 1 1 1 1 1 IRED ALDER | | 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 IWILLOW SPP. | | 401 2401 801 401 1 1 1 1 1 IBIG-LEAF MAPLE I I 401 801 401 1 1 1 I ' I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I IPACIF IC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILOOGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR I SITKA SPRUCE 40 80 40 I NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASS I 1280 110801 1720 110801 320| 2801 3601 401 801 80 I 401 801 I I 401 CO ISPECIES NO'. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 | 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 | 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I I WESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEDAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD IRED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. I BIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS—FIR ILOOGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 23201 9201 801 18001 2401 801 1601 1601 1601 4001 1601 I I INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I. I I 64801 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION: S W O R D F E R N - WESTERN REDCEDAR PLOT NO.J 28 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 A I S I 6 I 7 1 B I 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I 1 WESTERN HEMLOCK 1 2B0I 2401 | | , , 1 1 , , 1 1 1 1 1 , 1 1 1 1 IWESTERN REDCEOAR 1 4801 1 j j j | j 1 1 | j j j | 1 1 I I 1 1 1 NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 401 1 | j j j j j | j j 1 1 1 j | j | j | IPAPER BIRCH 1 2801 4401 5201 4401 4801 2001 80 I 1 401 401 1 1 2001 I 1 4001 1 1 1 1 1 VINE MAPLE 1 1 1 | 801 120| 1201 5201 | | 1 1 1 1 1 | j | | j j ICASCARA 1 1 1 | j | j j | | j | 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 BITTER CHERRY 1 401 2001 2801 1601 j 401 j | | | | I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 1 1 | | | | 40| j j | j { | j I I I 1 1 1 IRED ALOER 1 1 1 | | | j j 1 . 40 I | | 1 I I | j | | j j IWILLOW SPP. 1 1 801 401 | j j j j | | | j | | 1 1 1 1 I I IBIG-LEAF HAPLE 1 120 1 1 | | j j j j | j | I I 1 | | j | | | IPACIFIC DOGWOOD 1 1 801 801 j j | j | | | j 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 PLANTED OOUGLAS-FIR 1 1 1 | j | j | j | | | 1 I I 1 I I 1 I I ILODGEPOLE PINE 1 1 1 j j j j | | j | j 1 I I | j | j j | IPACIFIC.SILVER FIR 1 1 1 j j j j j j j | | j 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 ISITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 I 1 • 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASS 11240 110401 9201 6801 6001 3601 6401 1 801 401 I 1 2001 1 1 4001 1 1 1 1 OO NC. OF THEES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS I SPEC IES . I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 | 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I IWESTERN HEMLOCK | | I | 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I I 5201 IWESTERN REDCEDAR .1 I I I I I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 4801 INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 401 IPAPER BIRCH I I I 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 I I 1 31201 IVINE MAPLE | I I 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 8401 1CASCARA I I I I I I I | I I 1 I I I I I 1 1 I I 1 1 IBITTER CHERRY I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7201 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 1 401 1 RED ALDER I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 401 IWILLOW SPP. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1201 1 BIG-LEAF MAPLE I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1201 1 PACIFIC DOGWOOO 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 . 1 I I 1601 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 ILODGEPOLE PINE I I I I 1 I . I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR I I I I I I I 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ISITKA SPRUCE - | I I I 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI I I I I I I | I I I I | I I | | | | | | 62001 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION: SWORDFERN - WESTERN REDCEDAR PLOT NO.: 29 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES I 0 I 11 2 1 3 1 4| 5 1 6 I 7 I 8 I 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 | 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I IWESTERN HEMLOCK 1 401 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 401 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 | | 1 WESTERN REDCEDAR' 1 • 1 401 1 1 1 1 1 1- 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR | | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 401 1 . 1 I I 1 I I I I 1 . 1 IPAPER BIRCH 1 '" 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IVINE MAPLE | | 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 ICASCARA j j | j | j 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 " ' 1 IBITTER CHERRY | | 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .1 1 I I 401 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 1 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IRED ALDER 1 1 j j | | | 1 1 1 I j I I I I I 1 1 1 I 1 IWILLOW SPP. | j | | | j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 401 1601 1201 2001 160 1 1 1 BIG-LEAF MAPLE | j 1 1 1 1 j | | j | | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1PACIFIC OOGWOOD j | 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 [PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR | | I I I ! 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 40| 1 401 I ILODGEPOLE PINE | j 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I IPACIFIC SILVER FIR | | j j | j 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ISITKA SPRUCE 1 1. 1 I . I 1 I . I . I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 I NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 401 401 I I I I I I 801 I I I I I 401 1601 1601 20C| 2401 . I CO NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 j 26 I 27 | 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 | 38 I 39 |TOTAL I 1 WESTERN HEMLOCK | | | | 1 1 1 401 | | I I 1 | | | 1 | 1 1201 IWESTERN REDCEDAR j j | | 1 1 1 j | | 1 1 I I 1 j | | I I 1 401 INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR. j | j j 1 1 1 | j | j | 1 1 1 I j 1 1 1 1 401 IPAPER BIRCH | | | | I I 1 j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I | I I 1 1 1 IVINE MAPLE 1 1 | | 1 1 1 j | | 1 1 1 1 1 | | | | | 1 1 ICASCARA 1 1 j j 1 1 1 | | | | j 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 IBITTER CHERRY 1 801 | | 1 1 1 | | | I | I I 1 | | I 1 1 1 1201 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD j | 401 j I I I | | | j | | | | j | I I | 1 401 IRED ALDER | | | | 1 1 401 | j | | | 1 1 1 j j 401 801 I 1 1601 1 WILLOW SPP. 1 2001 1201 2001 1601 1601 2801 j 801 I 1 1201 1 401 1 | | I j 1 1 20401 IBIG-LEAF MAPLE | | | | j | | | | | | j 1 1 1 | | I I I 1 1 IPACIFIC DOGWOOD j | j | I I 1 j | | 1 1 1 1 1 | j I j 1 1 1 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR | | 401 401 1 1 401 401 1 1 | | 1 401 1 1 401 I I 80 1 1 4001 ILODGEPOLE PINE | j | j .1 1 1 j 1 1 | | 1 1 1 j I 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR | | | j 1 1 1 j | | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 ISITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 2801 200) 2401 1601 1601 36CI 8C| 801 I I 1201 I 801 I I 4CI 401 801 80 1 I 29601 VEGETATION-ENVIRONHENT TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION: SWORDFERN. - WESTERN REDCEDAR PLOT NC.1 30 ISPECIES NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS I 0 1 I I 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 | 7 1 8 1 9 | 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I IWESTERN HEMLOCK 1 3601 7601 2401 1 | 1 | | | I I I I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 WESTERN REDCEDAR 1 4401 401 I I I 1 1 I | 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 1201 I I I | j | I | 1 1 1 1 1 1 l . l 1 I I 1 PAPER BIRCH 1 40011800119201 2001 j 1 j j j I I I I I 1 1 I I I 1 IVINE MAPLE 1 1 801 I I j I i I j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ICASCARA 1 I I I I I 1 1 j I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 BITTER CHERRY 1 1601 5601 5201 401 | 1 i I | I | 1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 64011960121601 4401 80| 401 I I | 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 IRED ALDER 1 1 401 80| 1201 80| 401 80| 801 1201 1 1201 1 801 1601 I 1 1 I I 1 IWILLOW SPP. 1 280I2440I2680I1040I 3201 801 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 IBIG-LEAF MAPLE '• 1 1 1 1 1 | | I | | I I I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 IPACIFIC DOGWOOO 1 1 1 I 1 | | j I | I | 1 1 1 1 l . l 1 1 1 (PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR 1 1 1 1201 2601 2eol 801 1 I | | | 1 1 1 1 1 I I l . l ILODGEPOLE PINE . 1 1 1 1 1 I j j j | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR 1 1 1 I 1 I I | I | 1 | I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ISITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASS I 2400 I 76801 77201 21201 7601 2401 801 8C| 1201 1201 I 801 1601 00 as NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS I SPECIES I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 i 26 I 27 I 28 | 29 | 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 | 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I IWESTERN HEMLOCK I WESTERN REDCEDAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR I PAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD I RED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 13601 4801 1201 43201 - 801 I 12801 53201 10001 68401 7601 I NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASS I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1215601 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION: SWORDFERN - WESTERN REDCEDAR PLOT NO.: ISPECIES 31 NC. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS I 0 | 11 21 31 A l 51 61 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 1A I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 IWESTERN HEMLOCK 1 2A0I 2801 1 1 1 | | . | | 1 1 1 1 I, 1 1 1 l . l IWESTERN REDCEDAR . 1 200 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I ; 1 . 1 I I 1 INATURAL DCUGLAS-FIR 1 AO) AOI 1 401 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I I IPAPER BIRCH 1 160| 1201 7601 6801 801 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . IVINE MAPLE 1 1 1 1 1 6001 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I ICASCARA 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 j 1 BITTER CHERRY 1 1 1 801 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 I . J 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 1 801 5201 4801 2401 801 1201 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 801 1601 1601 1601 1 I I I 1 1 IRED ALDER 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 16CI 1 801 801 IWILLOW SPP. 1 1601 840116401 18401 15601 72CI 4801 1201 1 1 401 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I IBIG-LEAF MAPLE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I IPACIFIC DOGWOOD 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR 1 1 1 1 401 401 1201 401 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 LODGE POL E PINE 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR 1 1 ~\ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 ISITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 |NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 8001 136013C001 30801 25201 9201 800| 1201 801 801 1201 16CI-160I 1601 I I CO ISPECIES NC. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS 7~20~7~2l I 22 | 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 I 3C I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 ITCTALI IWESTERN HEMLOCK I T" " I I I I I i i I I i I I i i i i 1 1 1 5201 1 1 1 2001 1 1 1 1201 I 1 1 1B00I I I 1 6001 1 WESTERN REDCEDAR 1 i I I I i i i i i i i I I i i t INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 i I I i I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 ! 1 IPAPER BIRCH ' I i i i i I . I i 1 1 1 I I I ' IVINE MAPLE 1 I I i i i i i 1 l 1 1 1 I I 1 , 1CASCARA ' 1 i i i i i t i I 1 1 1 1 j I I 1 801 1 I I 15201 1 1 1 880! 1 I I 74001 I 1 1 1 IBITTER CHERRY 1 i i i i i i i 1 I . ' ' ' ' ' ' 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 I I i i i i i 1 l 1 I I . 1 1 I l 1 RED ALDER 1 IWILLOW SPP. 1 I ! ! ! ! ! ! I ! ! ! ! ! I 1 I' i IBIG-LEAF MAPLE 1 i I I i i i i 1 I ! i 1 I I I ! i 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC DOGWOOD 1 i i I I i i i I I I 1 1 I I 2401 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR 1 i i i i i i i i i I I I I i. i i ILODGEPOLE PINE 1 i i i i i i i I . I I I I I i i i ! ! ! I IPACIFIC SILVER FIR 1 i I I i i i i 1 1 I I I 1 1: 1 1 1 I i ISITKA SPRUCE 1 i I I i i i i 1 I I I I I 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI i i i I I I i 1 1 I I 1 1 t . 1 1 1 1 1 1133601 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLdCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION: MOSS - WESTERN HEMLOCK PLOT NO.: 32 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 t 10 1 11 1 12 1 13 14 . 15 1 16 I 17 18 1 19 1 IWESTERN HEMLOCK 12040 16801 12801 9201 5201 2801 240 I 1201 801 401 801 801 401 401 80 1 1 IWESTERN REDCEDAR- 1 360 120 1201 401 1 1 1 1 1 1 I NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 - I 1 1 1 1 1 4CI 1 ' IPAPER BIRCH j I 1 1 401 801 1 1 1 1 IVINE MAPLE I 2801 4401 8401 1601 40 I 1 1 1 ICASCARA 1 1 1 1 1 401 1 1 J IBITTER CHERRY. | 1 1 80| 1 1 1 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IRED ALDER | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IWILLOW SPP. | 1 1 401 1 1 1 1 j 1 BIG-LEAF MAPLE | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ! ' J 1PACIFIC DOGWOOO | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 J ' 1 PLANT ED OOUGLAS-FIR | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ILODGEPOLE PINE . j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PACIFIC SILVER FIR I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I SITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 |NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASS 124001 180011680114C0I14801 4801 3601 160| 801 401 801 401 801 I I 401 401 NG. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES | 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 ITOTALI IWESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEDAR I NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA . IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWCOO IRED ALDER I WILLOW SPP. I BIG-LEAF MAPLE I PACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANT tO DOUGLAS-FIR I LODGE POLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 75201 6401 I 1601 17601 401 801 I 401 I NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI I I I I I I I I . I I I I I I I I ' I ' 1 l C " ° l VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT .TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - U.B.C.R.F. FOREST ASSOCIATION: MOSS - WESTERN HEMLOCK PLOT NO.I 33 ISPECIES IWESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEOAR I NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH I VINE MAPLE ICASCARA I BITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD IRED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILOOGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 0 I 400 11 2 1 3 1 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS 4| 5| 6| 7| B I 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 16 160 ao 80 80 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 I NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 4001 I 2401 2001 1201 801 401 I 19 I 4CI 401 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEICHT CLASS I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 | 38 I 39 I TOTAL I OO VO ISPECIES IWESTERN HEMLOCK | | 1 1 1 1 | I I 1 1 | | ' 401 1 1 1 1 1 1 8001 IWESTERN REDCEDAR j | j j j | I | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1601 INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR | j 1 1 | j j I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 401 IPAPER BIRCH 1 801 401 1 1 401 j 40 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I .1 .1 1 1 1 1 2B0I IVINE MAPLE | | 1 1 | j | I I I 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ICASCARA | | 1 1 j | j | 1 1 1 1 | | I 1 1 1 1 . 1 1 401 1 BITTER CHERRY | | 1 1 | I j j 1 1 1 1 1 1 j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD . 1 1 1 1 | | | | 1 1 I I 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IRED ALDER 1 1 j j 1 1 j | 1 1 1 1 1 1 | 1 1 1 1 1 401 401 IWILLOW SPP. j j | j 1 1 j I 1 1 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 401 1 1 401 1 1201 IBIG-LEAF MAPLE | j | . | | | | | 1 1 1 1 | | I I I 1 1 I 1 1 IPACIFIC DOGWOOD 1 801 j | | | | | I 1 1 1 | | I 1 1 1 I I • 1 aoi 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR 1 1601 2001 1201 1201 1601 401 401 1 801 1201 1601 4CI 1601 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14001 ILGDCEPOLE PINE | j | j | | | | 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR j | j | | j | I 1 1 . 1 I I j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ISITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 3201 240| 120| 1201 2001 40| 601 | 801 1201 1601 4C| 1601 401 I 401 I I 401 401 29601 VEGETATION-ENVIRONHENT TABLE - PART III - STAND ANO TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - ORY SUBZONE - MISSION TREE FARM FOREST ASSOCIATION: MOSS - WESTERN HEMLOCK PLOT NO.: 34 ISPECIES NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS I 0 1 - 1 1 . 2 1 3 1 4 I 5 1 6 | 7 1 8 1 9 I 10 I l l I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 IWESTERN HEMLOCK I WESTERN REDCEDAR I NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR I PAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE . ICASCARA I BITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD IRED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. I BIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 240 120 120 120 40 80 40 40 80 40 40 120 160 1 801 1 1 801 | 1 1 | | | . | 1 1 j 1 40 1 • 1 j J [ j j . 1 j J 1 i ! 1 801 | 1 601 401 1 401 .. | 1 801 401 1 401 1 B0| | I j j 1 I 1 j 1 401 1 40| j 1 [ 1 1 1 1 ! 1 1 401 1 ! i 1 1 1 1 1 1 j j | 1 401 1 1201 401 j J j 1 801 ! ! ! i " 1 1 2401 1 1601 401 I NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 3601 240| 1201 801 801 801 2801 1601 40| I 2C0I I 4001 401 I 3201 401 I 2801 401 V O O NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 | 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I ISPECIES IWESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEDAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR I PAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD I RED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 40 200 80 80 80 40 80 120 80 80 80 4C 80 8401 4001 I 2801 4401 80 I I 401 I 2801 I I 14801 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 240| 801 801 801 401 801 1201 601 801 I 801 4CI 801 I I I I I I I 38401 V E G E T A T I O N - E N V I R O N H E N T T A B L E .- PART I I I - STAND AND T R E E D E S C R I P T I O N C O A S T A L WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - MISSION T R E E FARM F O R E S T A S S O C I A T I O N : MOSS - WESTERN HEMLOCK PLOT NO.: 35 I S P E C I E S NO. OF T R E E S / A C R E / H E I G H T C L A S S 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 | A I 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 | IC I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I IWESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEDAR INATURAL D O U G L A S - F I R I P A P E R B I R C H I V I N E MAPLE ICASCARA I B I T T E R CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOO I RED ALDER IWILLOW S P P . I B I G - L E A F MAPLE I P A C I F I C OOGWCOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR I LODGE POLE P I N E I P A C I F I C S I L V E R F I R I S I T K A SPRUCE 2280 720 1240 560 6 4 0 320 4 0 0 160 4 4 0 80 4 0 160 4 0 120 40 40 240 40 4 0 80 40 40 4 0 0 40 80 160 40 eo 40 20C 80 80 360 4 0 200 40 80 40 80 40 80 4 0 40 401 40 40 40 4 0 40 40 4 0 80 40 |N0. OF T R E E S / H T . C L A S S 1 3 0 0 0 1 1 8 0 0 1 9601 5601 5601 2001 2001 3201 6801 2001 1201 36 C I 6401 2 4 0 ! 1601 1201 1601 401 1201 vo NC. OF T R E E S / A C R E / H E I G H T C L A S S I 2 0 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 | 27 I 28 I 29 | 30 I 31 I 32 I S P E C I E S 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 ITCTALI 1 WESTERN HEMLOCK 1 401 1 401 1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 68001 IWESTERN REDCEDAR 1 1 | j 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 1 I 1 1 1 I I 19601 INATURAL D O U G L A S - F I R j j | | | | I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 IPAPER B I R C H | | 1 1 1 40| 401 1 | . I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2801 1 V I N E MAPLE j j | | | | | | j | 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4401 ICASCARA . 1 1 j I j j 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I , 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6001 I B I T T E R CHERRY 1 1 1 1 | | I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I I I I 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD j j | | 1 1 | j | j I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1601 IRED- ALDER | | j | | | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 401 1 1 401 1 1 1 1 1601 IWILLOW S P P . | | j j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2801 1 B I G - L E A F MAPLE .. | j j | | | 1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I P A C I F I C DOGWOOD 1 1 | | j | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 P L A N T E D DOUGLAS-FIR j j j j 1 1 1 I 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I L O D G E P O L E P I N E j j | j | 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 I P A C I F I C S I L V E R F I R | j | | j | t i l l 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 S I T K A SPRUCE 1 I 1 I 1 j 1 1 I I 1 1 I I I 1 1 I I I I 1 I NO. OF T R E E S / H T . C L A S S I ' 401 I 401 I 401 401 I I I I I I 401 I I 401 I I I 1106801 VEGETATION-ENVIRONHENT TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - MISSION TREE FARM FOREST ASSOCIATION: MOSS - WESTERN HEHLOCK PLOT NO.: 36 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES O I 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 I WESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEDAR I NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD IRED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANT ED DOUGLAS-FIR I LODGE POLE PINE I PACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 760 80 600 160 160 360 40 120 2C0 40 80 40 80 40 80 6 | 7 1 8 | 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 2001 80 40 120 EO 40 200 40 80 40 80 160 40 240 520 40 80 120 280 160 160 120 40 80 16C 40 40 40 160 40 60 120 80 80 80 80 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 8401 9201 5201 3201 1601 BOI 2401 3201 3201 3201 8001 2001 6001 2401 4401 2401 801 8C| 1601 NO. CF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS I 20 I 21 1.22 I 23 I 24 I 25 126 I 27 I 28 I 29 | 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I ISPECIES I WESTERN HEMLOCK I WESTEKN REDCEDAR I NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD I RED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANT ED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 401 40 40 40 40 40 40 3680 640 40 160 1720 920 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 401 401 801 40| 40| I 401 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 71601 VEGETATION-ENVIRONHENT TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - MISSION TREE FARM FOREST ASSOCIATION: MOSS - WESTERN HEMLOCK PLOT NO.: 37 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 4 1 5 1 6 I 7 I 8 1 9 1 10 1 11 1 12 1 13 1 14 I 15 1 16 I 17 I 18 1 19 I 1 WESTERN HEMLOCK 1 4801 3201 1601 1201 401 1201 1 401 401 1601 1 1201 1 401 1601 801 1 801 1 1 1201 401 IWESTERN REDCEDAR . 1 401 1 1 80| 40 401 1 40 1 1 1 1 INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPAPER BIRCH 1 1 1 | I 1 1 1 1 801 1 8C0| 801 801 1 1 1201 1 1 IVINE MAPLE •ICASCARA 1 1 1  | 801 1 i 1201 401 IBITTER CHERRY 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IRED ALOER 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 IWILLOW SPP. 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IBIG-LEAF MAPLE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC DOGWOOD 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' i 401 1 1 401 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1LCDGEPOLE PINE 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i IPACIFIC SILVER FIR I I I 1 1 ' ' 1 ' ! ISITKA SPRUCE 1 I I < | 1 1 1 1 ' ' ' 1 1 1 . _- — — — — — ————————— ———— INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 5201 3201 1601 2001 80| 2401 1 401 401 2001 2001 9201 4801 801 280 1 801 - NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES 1 20 1 21 1 22 1 23 24 1 25 I 26 I 27 1 28 I 29 | 30 I 31 32 1 33 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 38 1 39 I TOTAL 1 IWESTERN HEMLOCK I IWESTERN REDCEDAR 1 801 401 801 40| 801 401 1 1 1 801 ! 1 81 ! 1 24881 1 3201 INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 1 1 t i l l IPAPER BIRCH 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 10401 1 4801 IVINE MAPLE 1 ICASCARA 1 401 ' j 40| 401 1 1 1 1 i i 1 1 1 i IBITTER CHERRY 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 i i ~ i IRED ALDER 1 IWILLOW SPP. 1 I | 401 I i i ! 401 801 1 1 i 1 1601 IBIG-LEAF MAPLE 1 i 1 i i i i 1 1 1 IPACIFIC DOGWOOD 1 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR 1 1601 401 401 80 801 401 401 401 40 1601 1 1201 1 1 401 401 1 1C00I ILODGEPOLE PINE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 J IPACIFIC SILVER FIR 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 J ISITKA SPRUCE 1 VO INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 2801 BO I 120 I 2001 2001 80| 40| 401 401 2801 I 2C0I I I 481 401 I I I 54881 VEGETATION-ENVIRONHENT TABLE - PART I I I - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - MISSION TREE FARM FOREST ASSOCIATION: MOSS - WESTERN HEMLOCK PLOT NO. ! 38 , I SPECIES NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS OI 11 21 31 41 51 7 1 8 1 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 18 I 19 IWESTERN HEMLOCK 12960 14001 6401 4001 2401 1601 3201 401 801 1 1201 1 1201 401 80 J 801 401 1 1601 1 IWESTERN REDCEDAR 1 600 1201 401 80| 1 1 200 I 1 801 1 1201 1 2001 1 1 1 1 1 1 INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR j ••• 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 401 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PAPER BIRCH | | | 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 IVINE MAPLE | j j 1 1 1 801 1 240| 1 4401 1 3201 2601 1 1 1201 1 ICASCARA I 1 1 I I 1 1 1 401 1 1 1 1 1 401 1 1 1 1 BITTER CHERRY | 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 80 1 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IRED ALDER | I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IWILLOW S P P . | 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 401 401 1 401 1201 1 1 401 1 I B IG -LEAF MAPLE j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PAC IF IC DOGWOOO | 1 " 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR j j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1601 40| 1 40 1 1 ILODGEPOLE PINE I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPAC IF IC S ILVER FIR I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IS ITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1. 1 1 INO. OF T R E E S / H T . CLASS 13560115201 6801 4801 2401 160| 5201 401 2401 I 5201 4C| 8401 401 4401 6401 1201 440 I VO N O . OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 1 2 6 I 27 I 28 I 29 | 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37. I 38 I 39 ITCTALI 401 I I l . l 401 I 40 I SPEC IES I WESTERN HEMLOCK I WESTERN REDCEDAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR I PAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA I B ITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD I RED ALDER IWILLOW SPP . I B IG -LEAF MAPLE . I PAC IF IC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPAC IF IC S ILVER FIR IS ITKA SPRUCE 40 40 40 80 80 40 120 40 80 40 40 40 80 40 40 80 160 69201 15201 401 801 14801 1201 I 2001 I 2801 I I 10801 I N O . OF T R E E S / H T . CLASSI 1201 1201 80| I 1601 1601 801 1601 401 401 eOl I I I I 1601 I I I 1117201 VEGETATION-ENVIRONHENT TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - MISSION TREE FARH FOREST ASSOCIATION: MOSS - WESTERN HEMLOCK PLOT NO.: 39 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES I 0 I 1 I 2 3 I 4 5 1 6 1 7 8 1 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 16 401 I 401 I 401 I 40| 801 401 I 40 19 . IWESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEOAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA I BITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOO IRED ALOER IWILLOW SPP. IdG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PL ANT EO DCUGL AS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 196011320110401 6401 1201 20C 40 40 80 240 160 80 60 2C0 40 80 60 I NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASS I I960 I 1360 I 1080 I 720 I 36C| 4401 3201 I 401 I 1201 I 1201 I 401 601 401 I 401 ISPECIES . NC. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 \ 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 | 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 ITCTALI LO Ln IWESTERN HEMLOCK | I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I 1 56801 1 WESTERN REDCEDAR 1 1 1 I I I I 1 I I 1 I 1 . 1 1 I 1 1 1 I I 1 INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 PAPER BlRCH I j I | I I I I 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IVINE MAPLE 1 I I I I I I I I I 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7201 ICASCARA 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 3201 IBITTER CHERRY 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I IRED ALDER 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 WILLOW SPP. | I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 BIG-LEAF MAPLE 1 I I I I I I I 1 1 I I 1 I I I I 1 1 1 I I IPACIFIC DOGWOOD 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR | I I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I ILODGEPOLE PINE 1 I I I I 1 1 I I 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ISITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . I I I I. I I 67201 VEGETATION-ENVIRONHENT TABLE - PART III - STAND ANO TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - MISSION TREE FARM FOREST ASSOCIATION: SALAL- DOUGLAS-FIR PLOT NO.: AO NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES I 0 I 11-21 31 4 i 51 6 I 7 I 8 I 9 I IC I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I IWESTERN HEMLOCK 1 401 401 2401 401 | | | | | | | | I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 WESTERN REDCEDAR I j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR | | 1 1 I 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 PAPER BIRCH | | I 1 801 I 1 401 1 801 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I I IVINE MAPLE 1 I 1 401 1 1 1 e o l 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1CASCARA I | 1 1 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 BITTER CHERRY | | 1 I 401 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I BLACK COTTONWOOD I | l . l 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I IRED ALDER | | 1 1 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IWILLOW SPP. | | ' 1 1 1 1 1 40| 1 801 1 401 I I I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 B IG-LEAF MAPLE j I . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I PAC IF IC DOGWOOD | | 1 1 I 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I I I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR | | I j 1201 40| I 1 801 BOI 3601 1201 24CI 801 1 I 1 I I I I ILODGEPOLE PINE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 I PAC IF IC S ILVER FIR j | 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IS ITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 401 40| 280| 2801 40| I 1601 801 240| 3601 1601 2401 801 I I I I I I NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS °^ ISPECIES .-' I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I IWESTERN HEMLOCK 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I I I 3601 IWESTERN REDCEDAR 1 I I I I 1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I 1 NATURAL DOUGLAS-RR I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2001 IPAPER BIRCH 1 1 I I 1 I I I 1 1 1 IVINE MAPLE 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I ' l l 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1201 ICASCARA 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 401 IBITTER CHERRY I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 401 IRED ALDER i 401 i r i i I I I I i IWILLOn SPP. i i i i i t i i I I i 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 1601 IBIG-LEAF MAPLE i i i i i I I I i i i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I I i i i i i I I i i I I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11201 IPLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR I I i i i i i i i I I ILODGEPOLE PINE I I i i i i i i i i i 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I IPACIFIC SILVER FIR i i i i I I i i i i i 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I I 1 ISITKA SPRUCE i i i i i i i I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 401 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 20401 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - MISSION TREE FARM FOREST ASSOCIATION: SALAL- DOUGLAS-FIR PLOT NO.: 41 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS TsPECIES I 0 I 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 I 7 1 B I 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I 1 WESTERN HEMLOCK 1 1 1 401 401 | 1 1 1 1 | I I I I I 1 1 1 1 IWESTERN REDCEDAR ; 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 PAPER BIRCH 1 I I 1 1 801 801 1201 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 IVINE MAPLE 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I I I I I 1 j ICASCARA 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 IBITTER CHERRY 1 1 1 1 401 401 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD .1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 j IRED ALDER 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 IWILLOW SPP. 1 1 1 1 1 1 401 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IBIG-LEAF MAPLE 1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC DOGWOOD 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR I 1 1 1 1201 201 1201 2801 2401 4401 2401 401 801 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 1 ILODGEPOLE PINE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 I I 1 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ISITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI I I 401 2001 2401 2001 4401 2401 4401 2401 401 8C| LO NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I I WESTERN HEMLOCK I WESTERN REDCEOAR I NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE I CASCARA. IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOO IRED ALDER IWILLOW- SPP. I BIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILOOGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 80 280 80 40 1680 INO. OF. TREES/HT. CLASSI I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ' I I 2 1 6 ° l VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT .TABLE - PART I I I - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - MISSICN TREE FARM FOREST ASSOCIATION: S A L A L - D O U G L A S - F I R PLOT NO.: 42 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES 1 0 1 I I 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 I 7 I 8 I 9 | 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I IWESTERN HEMLOCK 1 8401 801 1201 2401 e e l 401 • | 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I IWESTERN REDCEOAR 1 1201 | 1 1 | | I I | 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 401 401 1 1 j j 1 I | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I IPAPER BIRCH 1 801 801 1201 1201 4401 4001 460 I 801 1601 1201 401 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 IVINE MAPLE j | | 1 1 | j | I | I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 ICASCARA 1 1 401 401 1 j j I | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 BITTER CHERRY | | | 401 401 40| | 401 | | | 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD | | j 1 1 I . j | I | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IRED ALDER | | j 1 1 | | | | | 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 IWILLOW SPP. | j | 1 401 401 I I j 1' 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 IB IG-LEAF MAPLE | | | 1 1 | | | | | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPAC IF IC DOGWOOD | j | 1 1 | | | | | 1 1 . 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 PLANT LD DOUGLAS-FIR | | | 401 2001 1201 2401 1201 801 401 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I I ILODGEPOLE PINE | | j 1 401 | | I I | 1 1 I ' l l I I 1 1 1 IPAC IF IC SILVER FIR | | j 1 1 j | | I | 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IS ITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASS I1080 I 2401 3601 6801 68C| 7201 6401 1601 2001 120| 401 I I I I I I I I • VO 0 0 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS- ISPECIES I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 T 26 | 27 I 28 I 29 | 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 | TOTAL I IWESTERN HEMLOCK I I I I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I I I 1 I I 1 I I 1 14001 IWESTERN REDCEDAR 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1201 1 NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 601 IPAPER BIRCH | | I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 21201 IVINE MAPLE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 I I 1 ICASCARA 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 601 IBITTER CHERRY 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1601 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD I I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IRED ALDER 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IWILLOW SPP . j j 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 801 1 B IG-LEAF MAPLE I I I 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I PAC IF IC DOGWOOD I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR I I t i l l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8401 ILODGEPOLE PINE 1 1 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 401 I PAC IF IC SILVER FIR 1 1 I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IS ITKA SPRUCE 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI I I I I I I I I I I I . I I I I I I I I I A920I VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - MISSION TREE FARM FOREST ASSOCIATION: SALAL - DOUGLAS-FIR PLOT NO.: 43 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS 3 1 4 I 5 I 6 | 7 1 8 1 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 ISPECIES 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 IWESTERN HEMLOCK 1 2801 | 40| IWESTERN REDCEDAR j | | 1 INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 1201 401 1 IPAPER BIRCH | | 1601 401 1 VINE MAPLE | | | 1 ICASCARA j | | 1 1 BITTER CHERRY | | | 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD | | | 401 IRED ALDER j | | 1 IWILLOW SPP. | | | 401 IBIG-LEAF MAPLE j | j 1 IPACIFIC DOGWOOD j | j 1 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR j j j 80| ILODGEPOLE PINE | | | 401 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR j | | 1 ISITKA SPRUCE I | I 1 120 80 240 120 40 40 240 160 120 40 80 40 40 120! 401 I NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 4001 2001 2801 1601 4401 4401 28CI 401 801 401 401 401 1201 I VO VD NC. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 | 30 | 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 ITCTALI IWESTERN HEMLOCK I I I I I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3601 IWESTERN REDCEDAR I I I I I I I I I ! 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR I 1 I I 1 1 1 I I I I I I 1 1 l . l 1 1 1 1 1601 IPAPER BIRCH I I 1 l . l I I I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 1 8801 IVINE MAPLE 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 801 ICASCARA | | | 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 IBITTER CHERRY I I I I j I I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 I I I l . l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 801 IRED ALDER 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 IWILLOW SPP. I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1201 IBIG-LEAF MAPLE 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 " 1 IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR I I I I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8401 ILODGEPOLE PINE 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 401 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR 1 I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ISITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI I I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 25601 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - MISSION TREE FARM FOREST ASSOCIATIONS SALAL - DOUGLAS-FIR PLOT NO.s 4 4 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS I SPEC IES I 0 I 11 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 I 6 I 7 I 8 I 9 | 1 0 I 11 I 1 2 I 1 3 I 14 I 1 5 I 1 6 I 1 7 I 1 8 I 1 9 I 1 WEST ERN HEMLOCK 1 1201 1201 | 401 1 | | | | | 1 1 1 I I , 1 1 1 ! IWESTERN REDCEDAR | | | j 1 1 j j | j | I I 1 1 1 I I 1 I I INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR 1 401 401 | j j | | | | | 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPAPER BIRCH 1 1 | | 401 1 1 801 | j | 1 1 I I 1 j I I I I IVINE MAPLE " j j | 1 1 1 j | | | | 1 1 I I 1 1 I I I I 1CASCARA | j | j | j | j j | | | | j | j 1 1 I I 1 1 BITTER CHERRY j | | j 40| I | | | j j j j | j | 1 1 1 1 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOO j | | | I I j | | j | | j | | j 1 1 1 1 1 1 RED ALDER j | | j | | j j | | j I I 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 IWILLOW SPP; 1 1 | 401 | j j | | j j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I IBIG-LEAF MAPLE | | | | | | | | | | j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 IPACIFIC OOGWOOD j j | j | 1 j | 1 1 | | | j I I 1 1 I I 1 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR | j 401 401 1 1 1 1601 801 1201 801 801 1 I I I j | | | | ILODGEPOLE PINE | | | . | j j j j | | | 1 1 I I 1 j | | | i 1 PACIFIC SILVER FIR | | | j | j | j | | j j | | | | j | j | j ISITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 .' 1 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 1601 2001 601 1201 I I 2401 8C| 1201 801 80| . | I | I I I 1 1 I — — • — • • I S ) o o NC. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS I S P E C I E S I 2 0 I 2 1 . I 2 2 I 2 3 I 2 4 I 2 5 I 2 6 I 2 7 I 2 8 I 2 9 | 3 0 I 3 1 | 3 2 I 3 3 I 3 4 I 3 5 I 3.6 I 3 7 I 3 8 I 3 9 I T O T A L I I W E S T E R N H E M L O C K I I I | | | | | | I I 1 1 1 I I I I I I 1 2801 1 W E S T E R N R E D C E D A R | | I | I I | | I I I I N A T U R A L D O U G L A S - F I R I I I I I I I 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I 801 I P A P E R B I R C H 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1201 1 V I N E M A P L E I I I I I I 1 1 I I 1 1CASCARA I I I I 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 G I T T E R C H E R R Y I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 I I I 1 1 401 I B L A C K C O T T 0 N W C 0 D 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I ' l l 1 1 1 I R E D A L D E R 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | j | | | | | | | | | 1WILLOM S P P . I I 1 I I I 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I ' l l 1 1 1 1 401 1 B I G - L E A F M A P L E . 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 1 P A C I F I C DOGWOOD I I I I I I I 1 1 I I | | | j | | | | | | | 1 P L A N T E D D O U G L A S - F I R I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 '1 1 1 I I 1 6001 I L O D G E P O L E P I N E 1 1 1 I I I 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I P A C I F I C S I L V E R F I R I I I I I 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I S I T K A S P R U C E I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | N 0 . O F T R E E S / H T . C L A S S I I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I 11601 VEGETATION-ENVIRONHENT TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - MISSION TREE FARM FOREST ASSOCIATION: MOSS - WESTERN HEMLOCK PLOT NO.l 45 ISPECIES NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS I WESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEDAR I NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD IRED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. . IBIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 0 I 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 I 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 1 10 1 11 1 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 1 16 1 17 1 18 I 19 I 1320 10801 9601 6001 5601 5601 8801 3601 2801 3201 2C0I 1601 1601 | 401 1 401 1 1 8 401 7201 2401 2001 1201 401 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 160 1601 401 40| 401 | | I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 401 1 1 1 i ! 401 801 i 1601 801 1201 1201 j j 1 1 401 1 1 1 1 401 1 ! ! 801 ! ! 4CI 801 j 401 j i i i ! 1 1 t I 401 1601 801 1201 40 1 801 4CI 360 I 401 401 401 401 1 I I 1 40| 1 | { j j j j ! j j i i i ! INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASS 12320120001 1320 I 8401 8001 600|1200| 4401 5601 4401 400| 8C| 7201 2001 801 801 401 401 401 I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Ix) • ' O .. ' NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 | 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I 1 WESTERN HEMLOCK 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 I I I I 1 I I 1 1 75201 IWESTERN REDCEDAR I 1 I I 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 21601 INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR I 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 4401 1 PAPER BIRCH 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I 1 1 1 1 6801 IVINE MAPLE . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 ICASCARA 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 BITTER CHERRY 1 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD I I l . l I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 IRED ALDER 1 I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 2801 IWILLOW SPP. 1 1 1 1 ; — 1 l . l 1 1 1 1 BIG-LEAF MAPLE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC DOGWOOD 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10801 1 PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 ILODGEPOLE PINE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 l . l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 401 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR I I I I I I I 1 1 1 ISITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1122001 VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART III - STANO AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - MISSICN TREE FARM FOREST ASSOCIATION: SALAL- DOUGLAS-FIR PLOT NO.: 46 I SPECIES NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGUT CLASS 1 6 I 7 1 8 ! 9 | 10 I 11 I 12 1 13 1 14 1 15 1 16 1 17 18 1 19 I 1 3601 80| 401 1 401 I 1 I I 1 1 ! | 1 401 1 1 401 I I I I I 1 1 1 I 1 401 I I I I I--' / I I I ' l l i I 1 2801 401 401 401 401 1 401 1 1 1 1 i ! IWESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEOAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH I VINE MAPLE • ICASCARA . I BITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOO IRED ALOER IWILLOW SPP. I BIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANT ED DOUGLAS-FIR ILOOGEPOLE PINE •• IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE I 28601 880 120 2240 760 40 40| 2400112001 401 801 801 401 I I I 401 I I 801 8001 240 401 401 1601 40 I I 80 I 1201 2401 2001 360 INO. OF 7REES/HT. CLASS I 3880 I 30401 2720 I 1640 112401 720| 7201 1201 801 801 801 I 40 1 ISPECIES NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 I 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I ts) O K) I WESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEOAR I NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR I PAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA I BITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD IRED ALOER IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANT ED DOUGLAS-FIR I LODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 102801 18001 2801 3601 I I I . 401 I 2001 14001 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1143601 V E G E T A T I O N - E N V I R O N H E N T T A B L E - PART I I I - STAND AND T R E E D E S C R I P T I O N C O A S T A L WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - MIS S I O N TREE FARM F O R E S T A S S O C I A T I O N : S A L A L - D O U G L A S - F I R PLOT NO.: 47 NO. OF T R E E S / A C R E / H E I G H T C L A S S I S P E C I E S I 0 I 1 1 2 1 3 1 A I 5 1 . 6 I 7 1 8 I 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I 1 WESTERN HEMLOCK 1 18A0 1 8 8 0 1 1 0 A 0 I 8001 9201 8ACI BOOl 2801 AAOl 120| 801 1 AOI AOI 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 WESTERN REDCEOAR 1 120 3201 2 A0| 80| j A O i 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INATURAL D O U G L A S - F I R | 801 1 | | | | I I I I 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 PAPER BIRCH | 1 1 j 601 801 601 1201 801 801 I 1 801 AO I 1 1 1 I I 1 IVI N E MAPLE j 1 1 | 2801 1601 1 . | I 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ICASCARA | 1 1 AOI | . 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I B I T T E R CHERRY | 1 • 1 . j | 1 1 I I I I 1 I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD | 1 1 j j 1 j I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 RED ALDER j 1 1 j | | | I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I IWILLOW S P P . j 1 BOI | A 0 | 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I B I G - L E A F MAPLE | 1 1 I I I | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I P A C I F I C DOGWOOD | 1 1 I j 1 ' 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ( P L A N T E D DCUGL A S - F I R | BOI 1201 1601 1601 1 1601 2001 AOI 801 AOI 1 AOI 1 1 1 1 1 l . l I L O D G E P O L E P I N E j 1 1 j 1 I 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I P A C I F I C S I L V E R F I R | r i I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I S I T K A SPRUCE 1 i i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASS I 1960 I 2360 I1A80I 1080 I1A80I 1120110A0I 6001 5601 2801 1201 I 1601 801 I I I I I I t-o o NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 2A I 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 | 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 3A I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I IWESTERN HEMLOCK | I I I 1 1 I I I 1 1 I I 1 1 l . l 1 1 1 1 91201 IWESTERN REDCEDAR I I I 1 l . l 1 I I 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8001 INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 801 IPAPER BIRCH | | | I I I I I I 1 1 1 I I 1 I I I I 1 1 6401 IVINE MAPLE 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A40I ICASCARA 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 401 1 BITTER CHERRY I 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 RED ALDER 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 1 IWILLOW SPP. 1 1 I I l . l 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1201 IBIG-LEAF MAPLE 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I I IPACIF IC DOGWOOD I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 10801 1 PLANT ED DOUGLAS-FIR I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 LODGE POLE PINE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR . I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 SITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1123201 VEGETATION-ENVIRONHENT TABLE - PART III - STAND AND TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - HISSION TREE FARM FOREST ASSOCIATION: SALAL - DOUGLAS-FIR PLOT NO.: 48 ISPECIES NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS 0 I 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 1 9 I IC I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I 1 WESTERN HEMLOCK 1 1601 401 I 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 .1 1 1 1 1 1 IWESTERN REDCEDAR 1 801 I j I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 INATURAL DCUGLAS-FIR j I j j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPAPER BIRCH 1 401 1 1 1 801 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IVINE MAPLE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1CASCARA | | | | 1 I I I I 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 BITTER CHERRY | | | | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 . 1 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 .1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 . 1 I I 1 IRED ALDER | | | | 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 IWILLOW SPP. | I I j I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IBIG-LEAF MAPLE j j I | 1 ' 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 IPACIFIC DOGWOOD 1 1 | | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PLANTED OOUGLAS-FIR 1 401 601 1201 1601 5201 2801 801 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ILODGEPOLE PINE j | I | 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR | | | | 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 ISITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 , 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 3201 1201 1201 1601 6001 2801 801 o NG. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 f 24 I 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 | 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 I TOTAL I ISPECIES I WESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEDAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA I BITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD IRED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. IEIG-LEAF KAPLE I PACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANT ED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE I PACIFIC SRVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 200 80 120 1280 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI I I I I I I I I 1 1 . 1 1 I I I I I I I I 1«>80| VEGETATION-ENVIRONMENT TABLE - PART III - STANO AND TREE DESCRIPTION. COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - MISSION TREE FARM FOREST ASSOCIATION; MOSS - WESTERN HEMLOCK :. PLOT NO.J 49 ISPECIES NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS | O l 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 | 5 1 6 1 7 | 8 1 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I I WESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN REDCEDAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD I RED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF HAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 1 6801 52 01 560 I 2401 20O| 1601 4CC 1 401 160 I I 1 1601 1 1201 801 401 1 1 1 1 3201 2001 401 401 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 401 401 401 40| 1 801 | | I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | | j 4C| 1201 80 401 801 1 160 1 1 801 1 401 : 1 40 1 1 | 1 1 | | 12001 | . 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 | 1 1 j j 401 | 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 | j j j | | j 1 401 1 I 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 j 401 j j j { 1 | ] j . 1 1 1 j j J j j j j 1 401 1 | j | i ! I j 401 40 1601 1 2401 1201 1201 401 401 1 801 1 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI1040I 7601 6401 3201 2001 2801 4401 2001 280114401 801 I 6401 1201 3201 1201 1201 I 1201 o on ISPECIES I 20 160 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 r 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 | 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 | 36 I 37 | 38 I 39 I TOTAL I I WESTERN HEMLOCK IWESTERN .REDCEDAR INATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH. I VINE. MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY IBLACK COTTONWOOD (RED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF MAPLE IPAC IF IC DOGWOOD (PLANTED DOUGLAS-FIR ILODGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 80 40 40 36401 6001 2401 6801 12001 401 401 401 I 401 9201 INO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 1601 80| I I 801 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 7440| VEGETATION-ENVIRONHENT TABLE - PART III - STAND ANO TREE DESCRIPTION COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK ZONE - DRY SUBZONE - MISSION TREE FARH FOREST ASSOCIATION: SALAL - DOUGLAS-FIR , PLOT NC.: 50 NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS ISPECIES I 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 | 6 1 7 I 8 1 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 I IWESTERN HEMLOCK I 80 I WESTERN REDCEDAR I NATURAL DOUGLAS-FIR IPAPER BIRCH IVINE MAPLE ICASCARA IBITTER CHERRY I BLACK COTTONWOOD IRED ALDER IWILLOW SPP. IBIG-LEAF MAPLE IPACIFIC DOGWOOD I PL ANT ED DOUGLAS-FIR ILCDGEPOLE PINE IPACIFIC SILVER FIR ISITKA SPRUCE 40 60 1 801 401 40| 401 40 1 | 401 801 801 1 801 1 1 | | 1 1 1 1 401 | 40| | j j I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | | | 40| j | | I I I | I I 1 1 1 1 1 | | | | | | | 801 | 1 1201 1 1601 | 401 1 1 1 j | j | | | | j 2001 j | I I 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 ! 1 401 ! ! ! 1 ! ! i ! ! 1 | ! | i i | J ! | 1 | 401 1 I j | j 401 401 401 401 401 1201 601 401 1201 401 1201 801 401 1 1201 1 I NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 801 1201 1201 40| 1601 1201 BO I 401 1601 2001 4001 4CI 3201 401 2801 801 801 I 1201 I o NO. OF TREES/ACRE/HEIGHT CLASS I 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 I 27 | 28 I 29 | 30 I 31 I 32 I 33 I 34 I 35 I 36 I 37 I 38 I 39 |TOTAL I I SPECIES IWESTERN HEMLOCK 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6001 IWESTERN REDCEDAR I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1201 INATURAL OCUGLAS-FIR I I I I I 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1201 1 PAPER BIRCH I 1 j I j I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 I 1 4001 IVINE MAPLE I I 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 2001 ICASCARA I I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 l . l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 401 1 BITTER CHERRY I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 BLACK COTTONWOOD 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 RED ALDER 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 401 IWILLOW SPP. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IBIG-LEAF MAPLE 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1PACIFIC DOGWOOD 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9601 1 PLANTED OCUGLAS-FIR 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ILODGEPOLE PINE I I I I I 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IPACIFIC SILVER FIR 1 1 I I 1 1 I I I 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 SITKA SPRUCE 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 NO. OF TREES/HT. CLASSI 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 24801 207 APPENDIX II Checklist of Species found in the Serai Associations 208 T h i s c h e c k l i s t c o n t a i n s t h e s p e c i e s d i s c u s s e d i n th e t e x t and v e g e t a t i o n s y n t h e s i s t a b l e s . The n o m e n c l a t u r e and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s p e c i e s i s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o l l o w i n g m a n u a l s . H i t c h c o c k , C.L., A. C r o n q u i s t , M. Owenby and J . W. Thompson. 1955-1969. V a s c u l a r p l a n t s o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t . P a r t 5, C o m p o s i t a e , 343 p.; P a r t 4, E r i c a c e a e t o Campanulaceae, 510 p.; P a r t 3, S a x i f r a g a c e a e t o E r i c a c e a e , 614 p.; P a r t 2, S a l i c a c e a e t o S a x i f r a g a c e a e , 579 p.; P a r t 1, V a s c u l a r c r y p t o g r a m s , Gymnosperms and M o n o c o t y l e d o n s , 914 p. H i t c h c o c k , C L . and A. C r o n q u i s t . 1973. F l o r a o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t - an i l l u s t r a t e d m a n u a l . U n i v e r s i t y o f Washing- t o n P r e s s , S e a t t l e and London. 730 p. Hubbard, W.A. 1969. The g r a s s e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l Museum. De p t . o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r - v a t i o n , V i c t o r i a . Handbook No. 9 205 p. Lawton, E. 1971. Moss f l o r a o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t . The H a t t o r i B o t . Lab., N i c h i n a n , M i y a z a k i , J a p a n . 362 p. + 195 p l . S c h o f i e l d , W. B. 1969. A s e l e c t i v e l y a n n o t a t e d c h e c k l i s t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a mosses. S y e s i s 1:156-162. . 1969. Some common mosses o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l Museum. Dept. o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , V i c t o r i a . Handbook No. 28. 262 p. S z c z a w i n s k i , A. F. 1970. The H e a t h e r f a m i l y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S e c o n d e d i t i o n . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l Museum. Dept. o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , V i c t o r i a . Handbook No. 19. 205 p. T a y l o r , T.M.C. 1966. V a s c u l a r f l o r a o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a p r e l i m i n a r y c h e c k l i s t . B o t a n y D e p t . , U n i v . o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 31 p. . 1971. The f e r n s and f e r n - a l l i e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l Museum. Dept. o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , V i c t o r i a . Handbook No. 12. 172 p. 2 0 9 S c i e n t i f i c and Common Names to the Tree Species S c i e n t i f i c Name Common Name Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes P a c i f i c s i l v e r f i r Acer oircinatum Pursh Vine maple Aoev macrophyHum Pursh Big-leaf maple Alnus rubra Bong. Red alder Betula papyrifera Marsh. Paper birch Cornus n u t t a l l i i Aud. P a c i f i c dogwood Picea sitohensis (Bong.) Carr. Sitka spruce Pinus oontorta Dougl. Lodgepole pine Populus tremuloides Michx. Quaking aspen Populus trichocarpa T. § G. Black cottonwood Prunus emarginata (Dougl.) Walp. B i t t e r cherry Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco Douglas-fir Rhamnus purshiana DC. Cascara S a l i x lasiandra Benth. P a c i f i c willow S a l i x soouleriana Barratt Scouler willow S a l i x sitohensis Sanson Sitka wiliow Taxus b r e v i f o l i a Nutt. Western yew Thuja p l i o a t a Donn Western redcedar Tsuga. heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. Western hemlock 210 Vascular Plants Aceraceae Acer circinatum Pursh Acer macrophy Hum Pursh Araceae Ly sichitum amerioanum Hulten § St. John Araliaceae Oplopanax horridum (Smith) Miq. Berberidaceae Achlys t r i p h y I l a (Smith) DC. Berberis aquifolium Pursh Berber-is nervosa Pursh Betulaceae Alnus rubra Bong. Betula papyrifera Marsh. Caprifoliaceae Linnaea borealis L. Lonicera involuorata (Rich.) Banks Sambucus racemosa L. Compositae Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) B. § H. Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore Crepis c a p i l l a r i s (L.) Wallr. Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. Hieracium albiflorum Hook. Hypochaeris radioata L. Laotuca biennis (Moench) Fern. 211 Senecio s y l v a t i c u s L. Solidago canadensis L. Cornaceae Cornus canadensis L. Cornus n u t t a l l i i Aud. Cupressaceae Thuja p l i o a t a Donn Cyperaceae Carex a q u a t i l i s Wahl. Car ex deweyana Schw. Carex hendersonii Bailey Carex i n t e r i o r Bailey Carex mertensii Prescott Carex r o s s i i Boott Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth Scirpus microcarpus Presl Equisetaceae Equiset'um^ arvense L. Equisetum palustre L. Ericaceae Gaultheria shallon Pursh. Ledum groenlandicum Oeder Menziesia ferruginea Smith Vaccinium alaskaense Howell Vaccinium o v a l i f o l i u m Smith Vaccinium parvifolium Smith Fumariaceae Dicentra formosa (Andr.) Walp. 212 Gramineae Agrostis exarata Trin. Agrostis soabra Willd. Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv. Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv. Festuca o c c i d e n t a l i s Hook. Holcus lanatus L. Phalaris arundinacea L. Poa p a l u s t r i s L. Poa pratensis L. Trisetum cevnuum T r i n . Grossulariaceae Ribes lacustre (Pres.) Poir. Ribes sanguineum Pursh Hypericaceae Eypevicum perforatum L. Juncaceae Juncus effusus L. Juncus e n s i f o l i u s Wikst. Juncus tenuis Willd. Luzula campestris (L.) DC. Luzula p a r v i f l o r a (Ehrh.) Desv. Liliac e a e T r i l l i u m ovatum Pursh Lycopodiaceae Lycopodium clavatum L. Onagraceae Circaea alpina L. Epilobium angustifolium L. Epilobium watsonii Barbey 213 Orchidaceae Goody era o b l o n g i f o l i a Raf. Pinaceae Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes Picea s i t c h e n s i s (Bong.) Garr. Pinus contorta Dougl. Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. Polygonaceae Rumex acetosella L. Polypodiaceae Athyrium f i l i x - f e m i n a (L.) Roth. Bleohnum spicant (L.) Roth. Dryopteris austriaca (Jacq.) Woynar Gymnocarpium dryopteris (L.) Newm. Polystichum munitum (Kaulf.) Presl Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn Portulacaceae Montia s i b i r i c a (L.) Howell Primulaceae T r i e n t a l i s l a t i f o l i a Hook. Ranunculaceae Actaea rubra (Ait.) Willd. Rhamnaceae Rhamnus purshiana DC. Rosaceae Geum macrophyllum Willd. 214 Eolodiscus d i s c o l o r (Pursh) Maxim. Prunus emarginata (Dougl.) Walp. Pyrus fusca Raf. Rosa gymnocarpa Nutt. Rubus d i s c o l o r Weihe § Nees Rubus l a c i n i a t u s Willd. Rubus leucodermis Dougl. Rubus p a r v i f l o r u s Nutt. Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s Pursh Rubus ursinus Cham. § Schlecht. Sorbus aucuparia L. Spiraea douglasii Hook. Rubiaceae Galium t r i f i d u m L. Galium t r i f l o r u m Michx. Salicaceae Populus tremuloides Michx. Populus trichocarpa T. § G. S a l i x lasiandra Benth. S a l i x scouleriana Barratt S a l i x sitohensis Sanson Saxifragaceae T i a r e l l a t r i f o l i a t a L. Scrophulariaceae Veronica amerioana Schwein. Veronica serpy Hi f o l i a L. Taxaceae Taxus b r e v i f o l i a Nutt. Umbelliferae Oenanthe sarmentosa Presl Urticaceae Uvtioa dioioa L. Violaceae Viola s empervirens Greene 216 Bryophytes Aulacomniaceae Aulacomnium andvogynum (Hedw.) Schwaegr. Brachytheeiaceae Eurhynchium oveganum (Sull.) Jaeg. Eurhynohium praelongum (Turn.) Dix. Isotheoium stoloniferum Brid. Bryaceae Leptobryum pyriforme (Hedw.) Wils. ~Poh.Ha nutans (Hedw.) Lindb. Dicranaceae Dicvanella heteromalla (Hedw.) Schimp. Dicranoweisia civvata (Hedw.) Lindb. Dicranum fusoeseens Turn. Dicranum h o w e l l i i Ren. § Card. Diavanum tauvicum Sapehin Ditrichaceae Cevatodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. Ditvichum heteromallum (Hedw.) B r i t t . Grimmiaceae Rhacomitrium caneseens (Hedw.) Brid. Rhacomitrium heterostichum (Hedw.) Brid. Hylocomiaceae Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. Mniaceae Leucolepis menziesii (Hook.) Steer Mnium lycopodioides Schwaegr. 217 Mnium spinulosum B.S.G. Plagiomnium insigne (Mitt.) Koponen Rhizomnium gldbrescens (Kindb.) Koponen Plagiotheciaceae Isoptevygium elegans (Brid.) Lindb. Plagiothecium undulatum (Hedw.) B.S.G. Polytrichaceae Oligotvichum aligevum Mitt. Pogonatum alpinum (Hedw.) Roehl. Pogonatum aontovtum (Menz. ex Brid.) Lesq. Pogonatum uvnigevum (Hedw.) P. Beauv. Polytvichum commune Hedw. Polytrichum junipevinum Hedw. Pottiaceae Bavbula sp. (Hedw.) Rhytidiaceae Rhytidiadelphus loreus (Hedw.) Warnst. Rhytidiadelphus t r i q u e t r u s (Hedw.) Warnst. Sphagnaceae Sphagnum palustre L. Thuidiaceae Claopodium c r i s p i f o l i u m (Hook.) Ren. § Card. 218 APPENDIX III Analysis of Variance Tables 219 T a b l e I I I - l . W e s t e r n hemlock. S o u r c e o f V a r i a t i o n d . f . S.S. M.S. F A s s o c i a t i o n s T r e a t m e n t s / a s s o c i a t i o n s E r r o r TOTAL 2 5 42 49 6.6474 5.0200 6.5544 18.222 3.3237 1. 0040 0.15606 3 6 .31 .43 N. ftft S. T a b l e I I I - 2 . W e s t e r n r e d c e d a r • S o u r c e o f V a r i a t i o n d . f . S.S. M.S. F A s s o c i a t i o n T r e a t m e n t s / a s s o c i a t i o n s E r r o r TOTAL 2 5 42 49 4.2059 22.146 34.832 61.184 2.1030 4.4291 0.82934 0 5 .47 .34 N. * * S. T a b l e I I I - 3 . D o u g l a s -- f i r . S o u r c e o f V a r i a t i o n d . f . S.S. M.S. F A s s o c i a t i o n T r e a t m e n t s / a s s o c i a t i o n s E r r o r TOTAL 2 5 42 49 2.6443 16.593 38.931 58.168 1.3222 3. 3185 0.92694 0 3 .40 . 58 N. ft ft s. T a b l e 111 - 4. C o n i f e r o u s t r e e s S o u r c e o f V a r i a t i o n d . f . S.S, M.S. F A s s o c i a t i o n T r e a t m e n t s / a s s o c i a t i o n s E r r o r TOTAL 2 5 42 49 4.6070 5.2935 5.59920 15.893 2.3035 1.0587 0.14267 2 7 .18 .42 N. ft* s. 220 T a b l e I I I - 5 . T o t a l number o f n a t u r a l l y r e g e n e r a t e d t r e e s . S o u r c e o f V a r i a t i o n d . f . S.S . M.S. F A s s o c i a t i o n 2 0.81854 0.40927 0 .62 N.S. T r e a t m e n t / a s s o c i a t i o n s 5 3.2757 0. 65514 7 . 63 * * E r r o r 42 3.6046 0.085824 TOTAL 49 7.6988 T a b l e 111-6. D e c i d u o u s t r e e s • S o u r c e o f V a r i a t i o n d . f . S.S. M.S. F A s s o c i a t i o n 2 5.4443 2.7221 12 . 52 * * T r e a t m e n t / a s s o c i a t i o n s 5 1.0874 0.21748 1 .70 N.S. E r r o r 42 5.3853 0.12822 TOTAL 49 11.917 T a b l e 111- 7. E s t a b l i s h e d W e s t e r n hemlock. S o u r c e o f V a r i a t i o n d . f . S.S. M.S. F A s s o c i a t i o n 2 13.091 6.5454 4 . 59 N.S. T r e a t m e n t / a s s o c i a t i o n s 5 7.1340 1.4268 4 .19 * ft E r r o r 42 14.299 0.34045 TOTAL 49 34.524 T a b l e 111 - 8 . E s t a b l i s h e d W e s t e r n r e d c e d a r . S o u r c e o f V a r i a t i o n d . f . S.S. M.S. F A s s o c i a t i o n 2 15.623 7.8116 1 .17 N.S. T r e a t m e n t / a s s o c i a t i o n s 5 33.266 6.6532 11 .75 * ft E r r o r 42 23.777 0.56611 TOTAL 49 72.666 221 Table I I I - 9 . Established Douglas-fir, Source of Variation d.f. s .S. M .S. F Association 2 2 .4094 1. 2047 0.37 N.S. Treatment/associations 5 16. 112 3. 2224 3.17 ** Error 42 42. 682 1. 0162 TOTAL 49 61. 203 Explanation of symbols used: d.f. - degrees of freedom S.S. - sum of squares M.S. - mean square F - F-ration N.S. - not s i g n i f i c a n t ** - s i g n i f i c a n t at the * - s i g n i f i c a n t at the lev e l l e v e l 22 2 APPENDIX IV Correlation Coefficients for Environmental Features DATA SUMMARY OF TREE SPECIES AND ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES- CORRELATION MATRIX i ': ROW X 1 1.00000 ROW X 2 0.63350 ROW X 3 .. 0.44256 • ROW X 4 0.97.999 ROW X 5 0.63027 ROW X 6 -0.19872 ROW X 7 0.33959 ROW X 8' -0.00295 ROW X 9 0.06086 ROW X10 -0.26362 ROW Xll... ' -0.13555 ROW X12 0.41400 ROW X13 -0.39824 ROW X14 -0.41738 l.OOCOO ROW X15 -0.08914 -0.19847 ROW X16 0.13831 0.25651 ROW X17 -0.10210 -0.09261 ROW X18 0.28091 -0.31842 ROW X19 0.24024 0.18530 ROW X20 0.36982 -0.27629 ROW X21 -0.23860 0.24060 ROW X22 -0.18175 -0.07541 ROW X23 0.20233 -0.24074 HEMLOCK r CEDAR 1.00000. DOUG-FIR • 0.40542 CONIFERS 0.76565 TOTAL 0.57609 DECIDUOS -0.04542 ALT.ITUDE 0.26374 ASPECT 0.05552 SLOPE 0.10729 POSTONSL -0.10893 SETTSIZE -0.23305 AGE 0.21768 DISTOSS -0.28355 DISTOSOU -0.34609 SSOF -0.05623 I.00000 SSWH 0.06283 -0.94042 SSWRC -0.00045 -0.45518 DEPOFOM 0.19110 0.15347 XROCK 0. 16451 0.26430 SSLASH 0.24480 -0.05918 SMS -0. 10235 0.25647 -0.16559 -0.25113 JOVERBR 0.08 099 -0.14579 1.00000 0.52362 0.33846 -0.10395 0.65327 0.22696 -0.11386 -0.42812 -0.40147 0.20612 -0.29059 -D.29726 0.50333 -0.46005 I.00000 -0.26392 0.12532 0.13682 -0.08947 0.29123 -0.22372 0.12052 0.08679 0.01814 -0.25341 -0.22013 0.20231 0.13900 0.04760 1.00000 0.66198 -0.17805 0.38251 0.02688 0.06527 -0.26970 -0.19147 0.39710 -0.40536 -0.43488 -0.04590 0.09022 -0.10233 1.00000 0.27956 -0.21350 0.25243 -0. 18536 0.36180 -0.05460 -0.21314 -0.08472 -0.20078 0.20296 0.19122 0.30077 1.00000 0.61968 0.08238 -0.09346 -0.14516 0.14376 -0.29579 0.01847 -0.46455 -0.45355 0.06898 -0.10445 0.07225 -0.04860 1.00000 -0.02853 0.13362 -0.04488 0.72398 0.31607 -0.46381 -0.23592 -0.24237 0.30600 0.06748 1.00000 -0.29239 -0. 15084 -0.25893 0.47116 -0.18785 -0.39157 -0.18542 -0.14006 0.13863 -0.23160 0.20201 -0.35655 -0.30178 1.00000 -0.43778 0.14409 0.63815 0.04537 rO.09948 -0.51011 0.20150 -0.02743 1.00000 0.06257 -0.08796 -0.56336 -0.26815 0.24602 -0.22671 -0. 17372 . 0.56335. -0. 39988 -0.59662 0.37582 0.30881 0.34575 1.00000 -0.02508 -0.56695 -0.38484 -0.38955 -0.02490 0.28846 1.00000 0.05488 0.06249 -0.22219 0.11346 0.00526 0.00922 0.07191 -0.11941 0.10287 -0.16052 0.09114 -0.13645 -0.16680 1.00000 0.26718 -0.47412 -0.08825 -0.08371 1.00000 -0.35154 0.43949 -0.19100 0.50318 0.34179 -0.19446 0.19963 0.04463 0.07918 6.08057 0.10528 -0.05089 -0.06455 1.00000 -0.34203 -0.16561 1.00000 -0.20760 0.00288 -0.34388 -0.27136 -0.34002 0.24615 0.34754 -0.28901 -0.70100 -0.33002 -0.02109 0.55192 0.12194 1.00000 1.00000 -0.23567 0.64013 0.55537 -0.42967 0.50859 -0.07814 -0.34296 0.04050 -0.25808 0.28363 -0.07811 -0.26927 1.00000 -0.25777 -0,23741 -0.02984 0. 19286 -0.41800 0.33578 0.07264 0.27179 -0.56578 0.25754 0.15040 :ts) 1.00000 . 0.86343 -0.17013 0.22257 -0.08645 -0.22629 0.20784 , -0.13348 0.22645 -0.19465 -0.32078 ROW X24 SNOTOVER -0.20233 -0.08099 -0.13900 -0.19122 -0.30600 -0.20150 0.02490 0.08825 0.34203-0.12194 0.26927 -0.15040 0.32078 . 0.24074- 0.14579 -0.04760 -0.30077 -0.06748 0.02743 -0.28846 0.08371 0.16561 -1.00000 1.00000

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